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62.2.06 
Xi3 




Branner Earth Sciences Library 




[Frontispiece ) Vol. xxtv.) 




SIR LINDSAY WOOD, BART., 



PRESIDENT OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS 1896*1897 AND 1902-100*. 




I 9 2* I QO J, 



[Frmtispuc*, 



JW. «».] 




^S v ^ v. ^ 



v ^o -CCC- **^ 



1 




transactions of 

Constitution 
ofTTltnin^ 
engineers 

Ed i ted by the Sec retary 



VOL. XXIV. 



JQ02HQ03. 



[Frontispiece^ Vol. xxiv.] 




SIR LINDSAY WOOD, BART., 



PRESIDENT OF THE INSTITUTION OF MININO ENGINEERS 1896-1897 AND 1902-190S. 




Crans action© of 

Constitution 
ofTTTintncj 
engineer* 

Edited by the Secretary 



VOL. XXIV. 



i 902*1 go 3. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE INSTITUTION 



OF 



MINING ENGINEERS. 



VOL. XXIV-1902-1903. 



Edited by M. WALTON BROWN, Secretary. 



Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Published by the Institution. 



Printed by Andrew Reid & Co., Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

1904. 

[All rights of publication or translation are reserved.] 



ADVERTIZEMKNT. 



• • 



V*** The Institution, as a body, is not responsible for the statements and opinions 

..I. Minced in the papers which may be read or in the discussions which may take 

• • • 

* * 'plane* at the meetings of the Institution or of the Federated Institutes. 



• •• •• 



• •» • • • • • * * * 
- » • ••, 

••■•a • •••• 



• •••• 
•• •• • • 

• 2 • 



• • •••• 



• •- 



• •• •• 9- ~m • • « 

• • • • • • • 

• • •« *••* • *• 

•« ••••• 



• ••• • 



••••• •• 

• • • 

• • • •• 

• ••• 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XXIV. 





PAOE. 




ADTEBTIZBMBNr 


ii 


Associate Members 


Contents 


iii 


Associates 


Officers ... 


XV 


Students 


List of Members 


... xvi 


Subscribers 


Honorary Members 


. . . xvi 


Non -Federated 


Members 


... xviii 


Subjects for Papers 



PAOK. 

Hi 

lv 

lxi 

lxiv 

lxv 

lxvi 



Coronation of H.M. King Edward VII. and H.M. Queen Alexandra, of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the 

Dominions thereto belonging, August 9th, 1902 

The Humble and Dutiful Address of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers 
The Humble and Dutiful Address of The North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



The Institution of Mining Engineers. 
1902. 
Sept. 17- — Thirteenth Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... 

Election of Officers, 1902-1903 

Thirteenth Annual Report of the Council 

Accounts 

Books, etc., added to the Library 

Exchanges 

"The Marl-slate and Yellow Sands of Northumberland and 

Durham." By Prof. G. A. Lebour 

Discussion 

« ' The Alston Mines. " By the Rev. W. Nail 

Discussion 

" Notes on the Gold Coast of West Africa." By Louis P. Bowler 

Discussion 

Discussion on Mr. A. R. Sawyer's paper on 4< The Tarkwa 

Gold-field, West Africa" 

Discussion of Mr. F. W. Payne's paper on "Gold-dredging 

in Otago, New Zealand " 

Discussion of Mr. Fred C. Keighley's paper on " Coke-making 

at the Oliver Coke- works " 

44 Undersea Coal of the Northumberland Coast." By T. E. 

Forster 

Discussion 

" Steam-generation by the Gases from Beehive Coke-ovens." 

ByM. R. Kirby 

• Corliss-engined Fan at Seghill Colliery." By C. C. Leach ... 
Discussion 



ilteri 



1 

2 
67 



PAOK. 

352 
352 
354 
361 
368 
369 

370 
389 
392 
404 
413 
414 

416 

417 

418 

421 
429 

441 
445 
447 



IV CONTENTS. 

The Institution or Mining Engineers.— Continued. 

1902. PAOK. 
Sept. 17. -Thirteenth Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne). — 
Continued. 

" The Fernie Explosion." By W. Blakemore 460 

Discussion 461 

" Improved Railway -rail Fastener." By Philip Kirkup 478 

Discussion 480 

" Underground Stables." By W. C. Blackett 482 

Discussion 486 

Discussion of Mr. Sydney F. Walker's paper on " Alternating 

Currents, etc." 489 

Discussion of Mr. A. Bateau's paper on " A Regenerative Steam- 
accumulator, etc." 491 

Discussion of Mr. G. R. Thompson's paper on " The Connection 

of Underground and Surface-surveys " 493 

Discussion of Mr. H. D. Hoskold's paper on " A New Civil and 

Mining Engineer's Transit-theodolite, etc." 498 

Discussion of Mr. Dunbar D. Scott's paper on " Mine-surveying 

Instruments" 604 

Discussion of Mr. H. Lipson Hancocks paper on the " Mining 

and Treatment of Copper-ore, e tc. ' ' 624 

Discussion of Mr. J. J. Muir's paper on the " Treatment of Low- 
grade Copper-ores in Australia " 626 

Discussion of Mr. F. J. Norman's paper on " Boring in Japan '* 626 
' ' Use of Ratchet and other Hand-machine Drills in the Cleveland 

Mines." By William Charlton 626 

Discussion 636 

44 Superheated Steam at Seghill Colliery. 7 ' By C. C. Leach ... 638 

Discussion ... 643 

44 The Probability of Finding Workable Seams of Coal in the 
Carboniferous Limestone or Bernician Formation, beneath 
the Regular Coal-measures of Northumberland and Durham, 
with an Account of a recent Deep Boring made, in Chopwell 

Woods, below the Brockwell Seam." By J. B. Simpson ... 649 

Discussion 663 

44 Garesfield Railway and Incline." By J. R. Gilchrist 672 

Discussion - .. 678 

Visits to Works, etc. :— 

" Newcastle Chronicle '' 683 

West Sleekburn Colliery 583 

Cambois Colliery 586 

The Improvement of Blyth Harbour 688 

SeghUi Colliery 590 

Messrs. Locke Blackett and Company, Limited : Lead-works 592 

Consett Iron- works, Consett 592 

Dawdon Colliery 598 

Seaham Harbour Works 601 

Hylton Colliery 602 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Corporation . Tramways : Manors 

Power-house ... 604 



CONTENTS. V 

The Institution of Mining Engineers.— Continued. 
1902. PAGE 

Sept. 17.— Thirteenth Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne).— 
Continued. 

Visit* to Works, etc. : — Continued, 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whit worth & Company, Limited : 

Blswick Works 605 

Northern Wood-haskinizing Company, Limited ... ... 606 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Electric Supply Company, Limited: 

Neptune-bank Works 607 



The Midland Counties Institution of Engineers. 
1902. 

Aug. 30. — Annual General Meeting (Matlock Bath) 81 

Annual Report of the Council, 1901-1902 81 

Accounts ... 84 

Election of Officers, 1902-1903 87 

Representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers, 1902-1903 87 

Dec 6.— General Meeting (Nottingham) ... 255 

Discussion of Mr. G. A. Longden's paper on "Changing Head- 
gears at Pleasley Colliery " 255 

Discussion of Mr. W. E. Garforth's paper on "The Application 

of Coal-cutting Machines to Deep Mining " 260 

Discussion of Mr. M. H. Habershon's paper on " A Joint Colliery 
Rescue-station ; " and Mr. W. E. Garforth's paper on an 
" Experimental Gallery for Testing Life-saving Apparatus " 265 



Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Emgineebs. 
1902. 

July 25.— Annual General Meeting (Leeds) 88 

The Council's Annual Report 89 

Accounts 91 

Election of Officers, 1902-1903 93 

Representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers, 1902-1903 94 

" Notes on Systematic Timbering." By W. H. Pickering ... 95 

Discussion 100 

Discussion of Mr. W. Scott's paper on " The Craig Coal-wusher " 105 

Nov. 8.— General Meeting (Sheffield) 186 

"Presidential Address." By H. B. Nash 187 

Discussion of Mr. Thomas Moodie's paper on "The Working 

of Contiguous, or nearly Contiguous, Seams of Coal " ... 199 
Discussion of Mr. W. E. Garforth's paper on " The Application 

of Coal-cutting Machines to Deep Mining " 20 1 

Sept. 8 to 13,— Excursion Meeting (Dilsseidorf and in the Rhenish West- 

phalian Coal-field) 612 

Dortmund Mining-district 612 

Dusseldorf Exhibition 613 

Shamrock Collieries, Heme 623 

Shamrock I. Colliery 625 

Coke-works of the Gustav-Schultz Company 627 



ri contents. 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers. — Continued. 

1902* PAOE. 
Sept. 8 to 13.— Excursion Meeting (Dusseldorf and in the Rhenish- West- 
phalian Coal-field). — Continued. 

Rhein-Preussen Colliery, Rnhrort 628 

Neumuhl Colliery 631 

Prosper Collieries 631 

Rhein- Elbe Colliery, Gelsenkirchen 632 

Holland Colliery 633 

Ship-lift at Henrichenburg 633 

Bochum Mining School 634 



The Mi nino Institute of Scotland. 

1902. 

Aug. 16.— Annual Excursion (Douglas Colliery) 108 

"Douglas Colliery." By Douglas Jackson 108 

Aug. 16.— General Meeting (Douglas Colliery) 113 

Oct. 11.— General Meeting (Edinburgh) 114 

Discussion of Mr. James Barrowman's paper on " What is the 

Least Possible Waste in Working Coal " 114 

Discussion of Mr. James Baird's " Description of Underground 

Haulage at Mossblown Colliery, Ayrshire " 115 

Discussion of Messrs. John Hogg's, Thomas Hoodie's and 
Thomas Arnott's papers on *' The Working of Contiguous, 

or nearly Contiguous, Seams of Coal " 116 

Discussion of Mr. Richard Kirk by 's paper on "The Dysart, 

Wemyss and Leven Coal-field, Fif eshire " 118 

"Apparatus for Controlling Railway -wagons while Loading at 

Colliery-screens." By J. D. Miller 122 

Discussion 124 

" Sinking on the Seashore at Musselburgh." By Robert Martin 126 

Discussion 130 

Dec. 11.— General Meeting (Hamilton) 203 

Discussion of Mr. James Baird's "Description of Underground 

Haulage at Mossblown Colliery , Ay rehire " 203 

Discussion of Messrs. John Hogg's, Thomas Moodie's and Thomas 
Arnott's papers on " The Working of Contiguous, or nearly 

Contiguous, Seams of Coal " 205 

Discussion of Mr. Richard Kirkby's paper on "The Dysart, 

Wemyss and Leven Coal-field, Fifeshire " 205 

Discussion of Mr. John D. Miller's paper on an "Apparatus 
for Controlling Railway-wagons while Loading at Colliery- 
screens" 207 

Discussion of Mr. Robert Martin's paper on "Sinking on the 

Seashore at Musselburgh " 209 

"Four Old Labour-saving Ideas." By Henry Aitken 211 

Discussion ... 213 



CONTENTS. TO 
Tux North or England Institute of Miming and Mechanical Engineers. 

1902. FAOC. 

Aug. 2. — Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 3 

Election of Officers, 1902-1903 3 

Annual Report of the Council, 1901-1902 5 

Report of the Finance Committee 10 

Accounts ... 11 

Representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers, 1902-1903 16 

4 ' The Gases enclosed in Coal. " By Dr. Broockmann 18 

"The Gases enclosed in Coal and Coal-dust." By P. Phillips 

Bedson 27 

Discussion 40 

44 Some Silver-bearing Veins of Mexico." By Edward Halse ... 41 
*• Improved Offtake-socket for Coupling and Uncoupling Hauling- 

ropes.' By W. C. Blackett 61 

Sept. 3. — Excursion Meeting of Associates and Students (Newbottle 

Collieries) 63 

Newbottle Collieries 63 

Sept. 16.— General Meeting to Celebrate the Jubilee of the Formation of 

the Institute (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 68 

44 Address." By Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart 68 

Discussion 78 

The Museum of the Natural History Society of Northumberland 

and Durham 79 

Oct. 11.— General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 157 

Discussion of Mr. Fred C. Keighley's paper on " Coke-making 

at the Oliver Coke-works" 158 

Discussion of Mr. E. Beumaux's paper on the " Use of Waste- 
gases from Bye-product Coke-ovens in Explosion-motors "... 164 
Discussion of Mr. G. P. Irishman's paper on "The Analytical 

Valuation of Gas-coals " 166 

Discussion of Mr. H. Bigg-Wither's "Notes on Detonators" ... 172 
Discussion of Mr. W. E. Garforth's paper on an " Experimental 

• Gallery for Testing Life-saving Apparatus " 175 

Discussion of Sir Howard Grubb's and Mr. Henry Davis' paper 

on 4 4 The Grubb Sight for Surveying-instruments " 1 80 

Discussion of Mr. W. R. Cooper's paper on 44 Electric Traction 

on Roads and Mineral Railways " ' 185 

Dec 13.- General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 269 

The late Mr. G. F. Bell 269 

" Report of the Delegate to the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies of the British Association for the 

Advancement of Science, Belfast, 1902." By J. H. Merivale 271 

Discussion 273 

Discussion of Prof. H. Louis' paper on the "Standardization 

of Surveyors' Chains " 273 

44 The Crumlin Meteorite." By Principal H. Palin Gurney ... 274 

Discussion 275 

"Some of the Considerations affecting the Choice of Pumping 

Machinery." By A. H. Meysey-Thompson and H. Lupton 276 

Discussion 287 



Vlii CONTENTS. 

The North of England Institute op Mining and Mechanical Engineers. — 
Continued. 

1902. «*<,«. 
Dec. 13.— General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne).— Continued. 

"Sinking by the Freezing Method at Washington. County 

Durham." By Mark Ford 293 

Discussion ... ... ... ... • • • • • • • • • 304 

1 « The Valuation of Gas-coals." By James Stewart 307 

Discussion 310 

Discussion of Mr. G. P. Irishman's paper on "The Analytical 

Valuation of Gas-coals " 311 

" Treatment of Low-grade Copper-ores." By Dr. Edward Dyer 

Peters 315 

Discussion 321 

*' The Utilization of Exhaust-steam by the Combined Application 
of Steam-accumulators and Condensing Turbines." By 

Prof. A. Rateau 322 

Discussion 348 



North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical. Engineers. 
1902. 

Oct. 6.— Excursion Meeting (Keele) 133 

The Keele Boring in Staffordshire 133 

Oct. 20. —Annual General Meeting (Hanley ) 1 36 

Annual Report of the Council, 1901-1902 135 

Annual Report of the Finance Committee 138 

Award for a Paper 138 

Election of Officers, 1902-1903 139 

The Treasurer 139 

" Presidential Address." By A. M. Henshaw 140 

Discussion 156 



South Staffordshire and East Worcestershire Institute of Mining 

Engineers. 
1902. 

Oct. 6. — Annual General Meeting (Birmingham) 214 

Annual Report of the Council, 1901-1902 214 

Accounts 215 

Discussion 216 

Election of Officers for the Year 1902-1903 217 

"Presidential Address." By T. J. Davies 218 

Discussion 232 

Discussion of Mr. J. H. Whittaker's paper on (< Sparkless 

Electric Plant for Use in Mines and Ironworks" 233 

Dec. 8.— General Meeting (Birmingham) 238 

Discussion of Mr. Daniel Jones' paper on "Legislation and 

the Ownership of Properties containing Coal " 238 

" The Training of a Mining-engineer." By R. A. S. Redmayne 243 



APPENDICES. 

PAOK. 

I. — Notes of Papers on the Working of Mines, Metallurgy, etc., from 
the Transactions of Colonial and Foreign Societies and Colonial 

and Foreign Publications 636 

"Safety-appliance for Winding-engines." By A. Schluter ... 636 
" Saf ety-apparatus for Winding-engines." By Prof. K. 

Habermann 636 

"The Formation of Coal." By L. Lemiere 637 

"Coal-forming Bacteriaceae." By B. Renault 638 

" Humic and other Coals." By C. E. Bertrand 639 

"Boghead Coals formed from Algae." By B. Renault ... 640 

" Fissure- veins." By Waldemar Lindgren 641 

"Ore-deposits." By Charles R. Key es 642 

"The Part played by Titanium in Mineral-deposits." By 

L. de Launay 642 

" Experiments on the Permeability of Clay." By W. Spring 643 
" Saline Waters in the Franco-Belgian Coal-measures." By 

Jules Goeselet 644 

" The Earthquake in Northern Bakony, Hungary, 1901." By 

Dr. Franz Schafarzik 645 

" Earthquake in Southern Hungary, 1901." By Franz Lajos 645 
" Seismic Disturbances in Belgium in May, 1902." By Eug. 

Lagrange 646 

"Earthquakes in Bavaria." By Dr. Joseph Reindl 647 

" ' Earthquake-swarms ' in Saxony and Bohemia, 1900-1902." 

By Hermann Credner 648 

"The Earthquake at Said, Northern Italy, 1901." By L. 

Baldacci and A. Stella 649 

"The Earthquakes of Greiz and the Bohmerwald, 1902." By 

H. Credner 649 

"Seismic Disturbances in Greece during 1899." By D. 

Eginitis 650 

"The Earthquake at Mignano, Italy, 1902." By V. Sabatini 661 

"Earthquake in Finland, 1898." By K. A. Moberg 652 

"The Swedish Earthquake of November, 1901." By E. 

Svedmark 653 

"Earth-tremors, etc., at Zi-Ka-Wei, China." By — de 

Moidrey 653 

"The Propagation of Earthquakes." By Giulio Grablovitz... 654 
" Folding of Rocks in Relation to Earthquakes." By F. de 

Monteseus de Ballore 655 

"The Fold-theory of Earthquakes." By F. de Montessus de 

Ballore 655 

"The Relationship of Sound-phenomena to Earthquakes." 

By J. Knett 656 

"The Causes of Earth-tremors." By G. B. Cacciamali ... 658 
"The Diurnal Oscillations of the Soil." By Eduard Mazelle 659 
"The Seismological Observatory at Budapest, Hungary." 

By Dr. Franz Schafarzik 659 

"Underground Seismological Observatory at Przibram, 

Bohemia." Anon 660 



1 CONTENTS. 

APPENDICES.— Continued. 

L— Notes of Papers, etc. — Continued. page. 

" Seismological Observatories in the German Empire." By 

G. Gerland 660 

" A Seismograph for Violent Earthquakes." By G. 

Agamennone 661 

" Coal-outcrops." By Charles Catlett 662 

" The Theory of Erosion in Relation to Metalliferous De- 
posits." By L. de Launay 663 

"The Origin of Kaolin-depoeits." By H. Rosier 664 

" Theory of Formation of Petroleum." By P. Sabatier and 

J. B. Senderens 665 

" The Origin of Petroleum." By Julius Ohly 666 

"Petroleum in the last Century." By Josef Muck 667 

"The Geology of Graphite." By L. de Launay 668 

" The Auriferous Deposits of Roudny, Bohemia." By P. 

Krusch 669 

" The Correlation of the Bohemian Coal-measures." By 

Dr. K. Anton Weithofer 670 

" Geology of the Kladno-Rakonitz Coal-basin, Bohemia." By 

Dr. K. A. Weithofer 670 

"The Stratigraphy of the Central Bohemian Coal-basins." 

By Cyrill Ritter von Purkyne 671 

"Coal in Diabase at Radotin, Bohemia": — 

(1) By Dr. W. Petrascheck 671 

(2) By F. Slavik 672 

" The Brown-coal Deposits of Northern Bohemia." By J. 

E. Hibsch 672 

" Nickel-ore Deposits on the Saxon-Bohemian Frontier." 

By Dr. R. Beck 673 

"Alluvial Gold in Bosnia." By Dr. Friedrich Katzer ... 674 
"Coal in the Trias of Bosnia." By Dr. Friedrich Katzer ... 675 
" The Iron-ore Deposits of Hiittenberg, Carinthia." By 

Bruno Baumgartel 675 

" Lead- and Zinc-ore Deposits in Upper Carinthia." By 

Otto Sussmann 676 

" The Coal-bearing Trias of tipper Lai bach, Carniola." By 

Dr. Franz Kossmat 677 

" Borings for Petroleum in Hungary " : — 

(1) By Dr. Stanislaus Olszewski 678 

(2) By Koloman von Adda 678 

(3) By A. Walther 679 

"The Jasztrabje Pyrites-deposit, Hungary." By J. Knett... 680 
" Poly halite in the Austrian Salt-district." By August 

Aigner 680 

" Metamorphi8m of the Graphite-beds in Upper Styria." By 

Dr. K. A. Redlich 681 

"Coal in the Trias of Southern Tyrol." By Count H. 

Keyserling 681 

" The Schneeberg Ore-deposits, Tyrol." By E. Weinschenk 682 
" The Origin of the Marbles of the Tyrol." By E. Wein- 
schenk 682 



CONTENTS. XI 



APPENDICES. -Continued. 



L — Notes of Papers, etc.— Continued. paob 

" The Campine Coal-field of Northern Belgium ": — 

(1) By Baron Oct. van Ertborn 683 

(2) By X. Stainier 683 

(3) By M. Loheet 684 

(4) By A. Habets 684 

(5)ByH. Forir 684 

(6) By fanile Harze* 685 

" The Pyrites-deposits of Vezin, Belgium." By X. Stainier... 686 
"The Coal-fields of the Plateau Central, France." By A. 

de Grosaouvre 686 

" The Loire Coal-field, Central France." By C. Grand'Eury. . . 687 
" The Pisolitic Iron-ores of Briey, Lorraine, France ": — 

(1) By Georges Holland 689 

(2) By Francois Villain 689 

"Minerals of Central France." By L. de Launay 691 

"The Kaolin of St. Yricix, Franco." By L. de Launay ... 694 
" Brown Coals in the Province of Posen, Prussia." By — 

Krug 694 

" The Main Eastern Faults in the Aix-la-Chapelle Coal-field, 

Germany." By — Jacob 696 

" The Search for Coal in Saxony." By K. Dalmer 695 

" Marine Fossils in the Coal-measures of Upper Silesia, 

Prussia." By R. Michael 696 

" The Permian and Trias of the Ruhr Coal-field." By Gott- 
fried Miiller 696 

" The Newer Strata overlying the Ruhr Coal-field, Germany, 

and the Waters which they contain." By Dr. A. Middel- 

schulte 697 

" Iron and Manganese-ores of Niedertiefenbach, Germany." 

By J. Bellinger 699 

" The Iron-ores, etc., of Amberg, Bavaria, Germany." By 

Ernst Kohler 699 

" The Origin of certain Devonian Haematites in Germany." 

By E. Harbort 700 

" The Manganese Ore-deposits of Hesse and Nassau, Ger- 
many." By Rudolf Delkeskamp 701 

"The Mineral Resources of the Taunus District, Nassau, 

Germany." By Rudolf Delkeskamp 702 

" The Magnetite-deposit of the Schwarzer Krux, Thuringia." 

By Karl Schlegel 703 

"The Ore-deposits of the Miisen District, Germany." By 

Max Briicher 704 

"The Iron-ore Deposits in the Weser Hills, Westphalia." 

By Dr. Th. Wiese 705 

"The Barytes-deposits of the Rosteberg, Northern Germany." 

By H. Everding 706 

" Origin of the Pyrites-deposits of Rammelsberg, Germany." 

By Alfred Bergeat ... 707 

"Precious Opal of Dillenburg, Germany." By — Locke ... 707 
"The Nickel-ores of Sohland, Saxony." By Dr. R. Beck ... 708 



XU CONTENTS. 

APPENDICES.— Continued. 
I. -Notes of Papers, etc.— Continued. paok. 

"Phosphorite-deposits of the Vogtland, Saxony." By L. 

Kruft 708 

" Genesis of the Ore-deposits of Upper Silesia." By G. 

Giirich 709 

"Cobalt-ores in the Thiiringerwald, Germany." By P. Krusch 709 
" The Potassium Salts of Germany." By E. Mackay-Heriot. . . 710 
" Borings for Salt in Baden, Germany." By Dr. Otto M. Reis 710 
"Borings for Bock-salt in Brunswick and Hanover"; — 

(1) By J. Kloos 711 

(2) By J. Kloos 711 

"The Mineral Wealth of the German Colonies." By A. 

Macco 712 

" Brown Coal in Greece " : — 

(1) By C. Zengelis 713 

(2) By C. Zengelis 713 

" The Coal-field of Dutch Limburg." By A. Habets 714 

" Antimony-ores of Cetine di Cotorniano, Tuscany." By G. 

D'Achiardi 715 

" Antimony-ores of Campiglia Soana, Piedmont." By V. 

Novarese 716 

" The Asphalt-deposits of Ragusa, Sicily." By Dr. H. Lots... 716 

"Bauxite in Italy." By Vittorio Novarese 718 

"Cinnabar-deposits of Monte Amiata, Tuscany": — 

(1) By B. Lotti 718 

(2) By Vincenz Spirek 719 

(3) By A. Verri 720 

" The Boghead of Resiutta, Italy." Anon 720 

"Lignites of the Vicentino, Northern Italy." By T. 

Taramelli 721 

"The Ore-deposits of Brosso and Traversella, Piedmont." 

By V. Novarese 721 

" The Cupriferous Deposits of Bena de Padru, Sardinia." By 

Domenico Lovisato 722 

"Manganese-ores in Sardinia." By C. Rimatori 723 

" Petroleum-deposits of Tramutola, Italy." By C. Crema ... 724 

" Iron-oreB in Southern Portugal." By — Werneke ... 724 
"Petroleum in Rumania": — 

(1) By G. de Angelis d'Ossat 725 

(2) By P. Poni 726 

"Diamonds in the Urals, Russia." By W. Mamontow ... 726 
"The Manganese-ores of Yekaterinoslav, Southern Russia." 

By N. Sokolov 726 

" The Haematite-deposits of the Pokrovskaia Estate, Southern 

Russia." By N. Sokolov 727 

"The Iron-ores of Mount Magnitnaia, Russia." By J. 

Morozewicz ... 728 

"The Iron-ores of Troitsk, Northern Urals." By L. Duparc 

and L. Mrazec 729 

"The Turgite-ores of Russia." By Prof. J. Samojloff ... 730 
"Glauber's Salt-deposit in Transcaspia. By Dr. Carl 

Ochsenius 730 



CONTENTS. XXU 

APPENDICES.— Ccmtinutd. 

I. —Notes on Papers, etc. —Continued. paoe. 

"Platinum in the Nickel-ores of Norway." By Prof. J. H. 

L. Vogt 730 

" Copper-ore deposits in Servia." By R. Beck and W. 

von Fircks 731 

" The Coal-field of Belmez, Spain." By L. Mallada 732 

"The Valverde Boring, Ciudad Real, Spain." By Casiroiro 

Coello 733 

" The Origin of the Pyrites-deposits of Southern Spain." By 

Dr. F. Klockmann 734 

"Copper-oreB in the Trias of Minorca and Granada, Spain." 

By R. S. Lozano * 735 

"Iron-ores of Rio Ibor (Caceres), Spain." By R. S. Lozano... 736 
" Rock-salt and other Useful Minerals in the Mesozoic Rocks 

of Spain." By L. Mallada 737 

"Asbestos-deposits in Switzerland." By Dr. Chr. Tarnuzzer 738 
"The Age of the Tongking Coal-deposite." By R. Zeiller ... 739 
"The Mineral Wealth of Bukhara and Turkestan, Central 

Asia." By E. D. Levat 739 

" The Mineral Resources of the North-eastern Altai (Siberia)." 

By B. K. Polienov 740 

"Copper-bearing Veins in Transbaikalia, Siberia." By R. 

Beck 741 

" The Auriferous Region of Siberia." Official 742 

" Magnetite-deposits in Western Siberia." By Th. von 

06recki 743 

" Phosphatic, Asphaltic, and Petroleum-deposits in Pales- 
tine and Egypt." By Dr. M. Blanckenhorn 745 

"The Coal-field of Heraklea, Asia Minor." By Bruno 

Simmersbach 746 

"Metalliferous Ore- and Coal-occurrences in South-eastern 

Asia Minor." By Dr. Franz Schaffer 748 

" The Mineral Resources of the Portuguese Colonies." By 

Jose" de Macedo 749 

"The Boracic Deposits of the Salinas Grandee, Argentina." 

By H. Buttgenbach s 749 



II. — Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee of the British 

Association for the Advancement of Science, Belfast, 1902 751 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Belfast 

Meeting in September , 1902 751 

The Corresponding Societies of the British Association for 1902- 

1903 753 

Catalogue of the more important Papers, and especially those 
referring to Local Scientific Investigations, published by the 
Corresponding Societies during the Year ending May 3Ut, 
1902 757 

Isvkx 765 





XIV 


CONTENTS. 










List of Plates: 










PACK. 








PAGB. 




Portrait of Sir Lindsay Wood, 


XI. 






444 




Bart Frbntivpitce 


XII. 






460 




I-.II 


60 


XIII. 


... 




486 




HI 


100 


XIV. 






498 




IV 


130 


XV. 






534 




V 


212 


XVI. 




... ... 


542 




VI 


286 


XVII., 


XVIII. 


, XIX. ... 


562 




VII. 


304 


XX. 






566 




VIII., IX. 


348 


XXL 


... 




578 


.. 


X. 


428 


XXII. 






628 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XV 



THE INSTITUTION OP MINING ENGINEERS. 



OFFICERS, 1902-1903. 



pa*t*pre*freiit* (ic-offick). 

"Mr. William Nicholas Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Barlaston, Stoke- 

upon-Trent. 
Mr. .Iambs Stedman Dixon, Fairleigh, Bothwell, N.B. 
Mr. Georob Lewis, Albert Street, Derby. 
Sir William Thomas Lewis, Bart., Mardy, Aberdare. 
Mr. John Alfred Lonoden, Stanton-by-Dale, near Nottingham. 
Mr. George Arthur Mitchell, 5, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Mr. H. C. Pbake, Walsall Wcod Colliery, Walsall. 
Mr. Arthur Sopwith, Cannock Chase Collieries, near Walsall. 
Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street. 

prestDent. 

SIR LIND3AY WOOD, Bart., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street. 

1Pice«pre6tftent0. 

* DeetaMd. 

*Mr. Henry Aitken, Darroch, near Falkirk. N.B. 
Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., Rounton Grange, Northallerton. 
Mr. G. Elmsley Coke, 65, Station Street, Nottingham. 
Mr. John Daglish, Rothley Lake, Cambo, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Mr. Maurice Deacon, Whittinirton House, near Chesterfield. 
Mr. Jambs T. Foroie, Bothwell Collieries, Bothwell, Glasgow. 
Mr. John Gbrrard, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Worsley, Manchester. 
Mr. A. Mayon Henshaw, Talk-o'-th'-Hill Colliery, Talke, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Mr. George May, The Harton Collieries, South Shields. 
Mr. Horace Broughton Nash, 23, Victoria Road, Barnsley. 
Mr. John Bell Simpson, Bradley Hall, Wylam-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. John Gborge Weeks, Bedlington, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Mr. Robert Summerside Williamson, Cannock Wood House, Hednesford, 
Staffordshire. 

Councillors. 

* DeotMed. 

Mr. William Abmstronu, Wingate, Co. Durham. 
Mr. Frederick Robert Atkinson, Shot tie Hall, near Derby. 
Mr. James Barrowman, Staneacre, Hamilton, N.B. 
Mr. John Batey, St. Edmunds, Coleford, Bath. 
Mr. Thomas W. Benson, 24, Grey Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. George Jonathan Binns, Duffield House, Duffield, Derby. 
Mr. Bennett Hooper Brough, Cranleigh House, near Addlestone, Surrey. 
Mr. Martin Walton Brown, 10, Lambton Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. James Cope C a dm an, Madelev, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Mr. William Henry Chambers, Conisborough, Rotherham. 
Mr. Arthur George Charleton, 5, Avonmore Road, Kensington, London, W. 
Sir David Dale, Bart., West Lodge, Darlington. 
Mr. Robert Wilson Dron, 55, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Mr. Thomas Emerson Forstbr, 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. William Galloway, Cardiff. 
Mr. W. E. Garforth, Snydale Hall, near Pontefract. 
Mr. Reginald Guthrie, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. James Hamilton, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Mr. Jambs Hastie, 4, Athole Gardens, Uddingston, N.B. 
•Mr. W. J. Hayward, West Bromwich. 

VOL, XXIV.-lWi-lfiOa. ft 



XVI LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Mr. Henry Richardson* Hewitt, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Breedon Hill Road,- 

Derby. 
Mr. James A. Hood, Roeewell, Mid Lothian, N.B. 
Mr. W. B. M. Jackson, Clay CrosB Hall, Chesterfield. 
Mr. Philip Kirkup, Leafield House, Birtley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Mr. Charles Catterall Leach, Seghill Colliery, Northumberland. 
Mr. George Alfred Lewis, Albert Street, Derby. 
Mr. Edward Lindley, Eastwood, Nottingham. 
Mr. Henry Louis, 11, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. Robert McLaren, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 19, Morningside Park,- 

Edinburgh. 
Mr. T. W. H. Mitchell, Mining Offices, Regent Street, Barnsley. 
Mr. Robert Thomas Moore, 142, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Mr. John Morison, Cramlington House, Northumberland. 
Mr. David M. Mowat, Summerlee Iron Works, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Mr. R. D. Munro, 111, Union Street, Glasgow. 
Mr. John Nevin, Littlemoor House, Mirfield. 

Mr. Matthew William Parringtox. Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland. 
Mr. William Henry Pickering, H,M. Inspector of Mines, Lawn House,- 

Doncaster. 
Mr. Richard Augustine Studdert Rkdmayne, The University, Birmingham. 
Mr. Arthur Robert Sawyer, P.O. Box 5456, Johannesburg, Transvaal ; and* 

26, Budge Row, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
Mr. Alexander Smith, 3. Newhali Street, Birmingham. 
•Mr. John Strick, Bar Hill, Madeley, Staffordshire. 
Mr. Edward B. Wain, Whitfield Collieries, Norton-in-the-Moors, Stoke-upon- 

Trent. 
Mr. George Blake Walker, Wharncliffe Silkstone Colliery, Barnsley. 
Mr. William Outterson Wood, South Hetton, Sunderland*. 

auditors. 

Messrs. John G. Benson and Sons, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

{Treasurers. 

Messrs. Lambton and Company, The Bank, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Secretary. 

Mr. Martin Walton Brown, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



1)onorar£ ASembers. 

T/w Institution of Mining Engineer*. 

Hon.M.Inst.M.E. 

Each Honorary Member shall be a person who has distinguished himself by his* 
literary or scientific attainments, or who may have made important 
communications to any of the Federated Institutes. 

John Boland Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 2, Devonshire Terrace r 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
William Nicholas Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Barlaston, Stoke- 

upon -Trent. 
Richard Donald Bain, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Durham. 
Joseph Dickinson, 3, South Bank, Sandy Lane, Pendleton, Manchester. 
Sir Archibald Geikib, Director-Greneral of the Geological Survey of the United 

Kingdom, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. Transactions to be sent to the 

Geological Department, University, Edinburgh. 
John Gerrard, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Worsley, Manchester. 
Haton de la Goupilliere, 56, Rue de Vaugirard, Paris, France. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XVU 

Frederick Augustus Gray, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 7, Victoria Square,. 

Penarth, near Cardiff. 
Henry Hall, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Rainhill, Lancashire. 
Smile Harze, Rue de la Loi, 213, Brussels, Belgium. 

Robert McLaren, H. M. Inspector of Mines, 19, Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 
Joseph S. Martin, H.M. Inspector of Mines, The Vikings, 16, Durdham Park,. 

Bristol. 
William Henry Pickering, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Lawn House, Doncaster. 
Joseph T. Robson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 80, Walter Road, Swansea. 
John M. Ronaldson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 44, Athole Gardens, Glasgow. 
Arthur H. Stokes, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Greenhill, Derby. 
Jethro Justiman Harris Teall, Director of the Geological Survey of the 

United Kingdom, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S. W. 

The Midland Counties Institution of Engineer*. 
Prof. Frank Clowes, c o The Registrar, Institute of Chemistry, 30, Bloomsbury 

Square, London, W.C. 
Edward Eastwood, Railway Wagon Works, Chesterfield. 
Rev. J. M. Mello, Cliff Hill, Warwick. 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers. 

Prof. J. Goodman, Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Prof. L. C. Miall, Yorkshire College, Leeds. Transaction* to be sent to the City- 
Librarian, Central Free Public Library, Leeds. 

Prof. William Ripper, University College, Sheffield. 

Prof. A. W. Rucker, 19, Gledhow Gardens, South Kensington, London, S. W. 

Prof. T. E. Thorpe, The Government Laboratory, Somerset House,. 
London, W.C. 

The Mining Institute of Scotland. 
James Hastie, 4, Athole Gardens, Uddingston, N. B. 

The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedsom, Durham College of Science. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Transactions to be sent to c/o B. Anderton, Public Library, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Thomas Bell, 15, The Valley, Scarborough. 

Prof. G. S. Brady, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Transac- 
tions to be sent to Mowbray Villa, Sunderland. 

Prof. William Garnett, 116, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 

Rev. Henry Paun Gurney, Principal of the Durham College of Science, Rose- 
worth, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Prof. Alexander Stewart Herschel, Observatory House, Slough, Bucks. 

Prof. George Alexander Lebour, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. Transactions to be sent to Radcliffe House, Corbridge-upon-Tyne. 

Prof. Henry Louis, 11, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Transactions 
to be sent to the Librarian, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Sir Charles Mark Palmer, Bart., 37, Curzon Street, London, W. Transactions 
to be sent to The Mechanics' Institute, Jarrow-upon-Tyne. 

Prof. Henry Stroud, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. 

William Nicholas Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Barlaston, Stoke-upon- 
Trent. 

J. Richard Haines, Adderley Green Collieries, Longton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Hugh R. Makepeace, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 12, Compton Road, Wolver- 
hampton. 

Henry Skeffinoton Poole, 162, Pleasant Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Arthur Robert Sawyer, P.O. Box 5456, Johannesburg, Transvaal; and 26,. 
Budge Row, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

C. M. Stuart, St. Dunstan's College, Lewisham. 

John Ward, Stafford Street, Longton, Staffordshire. 



XV1U LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Members. 

M.Inst.M.E. 

Each Ordinary Member shall be more than twenty-three years of age, have been 
regularly educated as a mining, metallurgical, or mechanical engineer, or in 
some other branch of engineering, according to the usual routine of pupilage, 
and have had subsequent employment for at least two years in some respon- 
sible situation as an engineer ; or if he has not undergone the usual routine 
of pupilage, he must have been employed or have practised as an engineer for 
at least five years. 

*DeoeaMd. 

Abbott, H. A., 1, Highbury, West Jesmond, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Abell, W. Prick, Castle Hill, Duffield, Derby. 

Aburrow, Charles, P.O. Box 534, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Ackboyd, A., Ellerslie, Windsor Road, Doncaster. 

Adams, Henry Hopper, Takapuna, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Adams, Phillip Francis Burnet, Surveyor. General for the Orange River Colony, 

Government Office. Bloemfontein, Orange River Colony, South Africa. 
Adamson, Robert, c/o Rhodesia, Limited, P.O. Box 98, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 

South Africa. 
Adamson, Thomas, Kurhurbaree Colliery, Giridih, Bengal, India. 
Addib, Robert, c/o Kennedy and Addie, Norfolk House, Laurence Pountney 

Hill, London, E.C. 
Aoassiz, Alexander, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 

U.S.A. 
Aonew, Samuel, Blackhill Colliery, Mary hill, Glasgow. 
Ahern, John, Charters Towers, Queensland, Australia. 
Ainsworth, Herbert, P.O. Box 1553, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Ainsworth, John W., Bridgewater Trustees Collieries, Walkden, near Bolton, 

Lancashire. 
*Aitken, Henry, Darroch, near Falkirk, N.B. 
Akerman, Ernest, Mo i Ranen, Helgeland, Norway. 
Alison, Robert, Greymouth Point Elizabeth Railway and Coal Company, 

Limited, Brunnerton, New Zealand. 
Allan, Alexander B., 36, Dalziel Drive, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
Allan, John F., Apartado, No. 990, Mexico, D.F. 
Allen, Richard John, Murtega Minerals Company, Limited, Barrancos, 

Alemtejo, Portugal. 
Allison, John, 116, Woodlands Road, Glasgow. 

Allison, J. J. C, Woodland Collieries, Butterknowle, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Allott, J. R. L., Dilhorne, near Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Allsbbrook, G. C, Manners Colliery, Ilkeston. 
Allsop, Samuel, Marehay Collieries, Derby. 
Alsop, A. M., Lead Mines, Darley Dale, Matlock. 
Alsop, Samuel, Codnor, Derby. 
Altenhein, C. R., c/o W. E. Koch and Company, Foster's Buildings, High 

Street, Sheffield. 
Anderson, Alexander, Farme Cottage, Rutherelen, Glasgow. 
Anderson, Alexander, Leafield, Ayr Koad, Larkhall, N.B. 
Anderson, C. W., Cleadon Park, Sunderland. 
Anderson, George, Martin Place, Sydney, Australia. 
Anderson, James, Farme Colliery, Kutherglen, Glasgow. 
Anderson, John, 26, Granville Street, Glasgow. 
Anderson, J. Everard, c/o The Transvaal Gold Mining Estate, Limited, 

Pilgrim's Rest, Transvaal. 
Anderson, Robert Hay, Apartado Postal, 866, Mexico, D.F. 
Anderson, Robert Simpson, Ben well View, Bentinck Road, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 
Anderson, Walter G., The Duff Development Company, Limited, c/o Paterson, 

Simons and Company, Singapore. 
Andrew, Robert, c/o John Munro, 30, George Square, Glasgow. 
Andrews, Arthur, 20, Carlyon Street, Sunderland. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XIX 

Andrews, Thomas, Wortley Iron Works, near Sheffield. 
•Angus, James, Ochiltree House, Ochiltree, Ayrshire, N.B. 
An'gwix, Benjamin, 7, Dean Terrace, Liskeard, Cornwall. 
Appleby, Harry Walton, The Robinson Randfontein Gold Mining Company,. 

Limited, Mine Office, Randfontein, Transvaal. 
Appleby, W. R., Minnesota School of Mines, The University of Minnesota, 

Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 
Arbuckxe, Daniel M., Northfield Colliery, Prestonans, N.B. 
Archer, Joseph, Royal Insurance Buildings, Church Street, Sheffield. 
Archer, T., 11, Resent Terrace, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Archer, William, victoria Garesfield, Lintz Green. 
Archibald, David, Lassodie Colliery, by Dunfermline, N. B. 
Argall, J., The B. C. Exploring Syndicate, Limited, Kamloops, British Columbia* 
Armitage, William, Field House, Huddersfield. 

Armour, James, Mayshade House, Loanhead, N.B. , 

Armson, Jesse, Donisthorpe Colliery, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

Armstrong, Henry, ColHngwood Buildings, Collingwood Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 
Armstrong, William, Wingate, Co. Durham. 

Arnot, Thomas, United Collieries, Limited, 109, Hope Street, Glasgow. 
Arnott, Thomas, Fernbank, Newton, Glasgow. 
Ashmore, G. Percy, 59, Lansdowne Street, Hove, Sussex. 
Ashton, J. H., Waleswood Colliery, near Rotherham. 
Ash win, G. H., 13, Endcliffe Avenue, Sheffield. 
Ashworth, John, 8, King Street, Manchester. 

Ashworth, Thomas, 25, Regent Road, Fenton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Ashworth, Thomas, Jun. , Ashworth Terrace, Fenton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Askew, George H., Brayton Domain Collieries, Aspatria, Cumberland. 

Aston, J., Blowers Green, Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Atherton, James, 13, Mawdsley Street, Bolton, Lancashire. 

Athebton, Samuel, Hanwood and Shorthill Collieries, near Shrewsbury. 

Atherton, Thomas William Turner, Rosslyn, Elmers End Road, Anerley r 
London, S.E. 

Atkinson, A. A., Department of Mines, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Atkinson, Frederick Robert, Shottle Hall, near Derby. 

Atkinson, John Boland, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 2, Devonshire Terrace, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Atkinson, J. W., Sterndale Road, Millhouses, Sheffield. 

Atkinson, T. D., Hearn House, Chesterfield. 

Atkinson, William Nicholas. H.M. Inspector of Mines, Barlastoti, Stoke-upon- 
Trent. 

Aubrey, R. C, Belgrave, Trent Valley Road, Lichfield. 

Austin, Tom Wilson, The Grove, Pelsall, near Walsall. 

Auton, Robert, Birtley, Co. Durham. 

Baddiley, Hiram, Emley Moor Collieries, Clayton West, Wakefield. 

Bagshaw, James, Brampton Iron Works, Chesterfield. 

Bailes, E. T., Wingate, Ferry hill. 

Bailes, George Mitcheson, Hinckley Road, Nuneaton. 

Bailes, T., Jesmond Gardens, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bailey, Archibald Duncan, c/o The Tharsis Sulphur and Copper Company Y 

Limited, 136, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Bailey, Edward Trenholm, Padang-Sidempoean, Sumatra. 
Bailey, Thomas Henry, Temple Courts, Temple Row, Birmingham. 
Bailie, J. D., 23, Park Row, Leeds. 

Bain, Harry Foster, c/o U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
Bain, James, The Whins, Alloa, N.B. 
Bain bridge, Emerson, 4, Whitehall Court, London, S.W. 
Bainbridgk, Emerson Musghamp, Ashfield House, Sutton Road, Hucknall 

Huthwaite, Nottingham. 
Baird, Dugald, Lugarlron Works, Cumnock, N.B. 
Baird, James, Auchincruive Coal Company, Prestwick, R.S.O., Ayrshire;. 
Baird, Matthew B., West House, Bothwell, N.B. 
Baker, Walter J., Byron Chambers, Market Place, Nottingham. 
Baldwin, Ivo William, Oakleigh, Ruardean, Gloucestershire. 



XX LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Balfour, John F., 114, High Street, Portobello, N.B. 

Ball, William Henry, Flimby and Broughton Moor Collieries, Maryport, 

Cumberland. 
Ballard, Robert, 35, Wood Lane, Shepherds Bosh, London, W. 
Ballingal, Neil, Swoet Bank, Markinch, N.B. 
Bancroft, Robert E., 8, St. James' Square, Manchester. 
Banhah, E. G., Barrow Collieries, Barnsley. 
Barber, George Marriott, 51a, Waldeck Avenue, Bedford. 
Barber, T. P., Lamb Close House, Eastwood, near Nottingham. 
Barber, William, Apedale Collieries, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Bardill, W., co Heenan and Froude, Worcester. 
Barker, Timon, Bassilow Cottage, Fenton. Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Barman, Harry Drummond Dawson, 21, University Gardens, Glasgow. 
Barnard, Robert, Bhalgora, JhariaP.O., E. I. Railway, Bengal, India. 
Barnes, A. G., Tupton Hall, Chesterfield. 
Barnes, A. T. H. , Grassmoor Collieries, Chesterfield. 
Barnes, J. S. , 427, Warrington Road, Abram, Wigan. 
Barr, David, Lota, Chile. 

Barr, James, Co-operative Colliery, Wallsend, Newcastle, New South Wales. 
Barr, Peter G., Maohanhill House, Larkhall, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 
Barr, Thomas H., 10, Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 
Barraclough, E., Croft House, Featherstone, Pontefract. 
Barraclough, Samurl, Union Foundry, Barnsley. 

Barrass, Matthew, Wheatley Hill Colliery Office, Thornley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Barrett, Charles Rollo, Whitehill Hall, Chester-le-Street. 
Barrie, Archibald, Blair House, Oakley, by Dunfermline, N.B. 
Barrow, William, Seaton Burn Colliery, Dudley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Barrowman, Jamks, Staneacre, Hamilton, N.B. 
Bartholomew, C. W., Blakesley Hall, near Towcester, Northants. 
Barton, Henby, Central Bank Chambers, Leeds. 
Bar well, W. H., The Woodlands, Treeton, Rotherham. 
Bates, Sidney, The Grange, Prudhoe-upon-Tyne. 

Bates, Thomas L., Cranbrook, Corrimal Street, Wollongong, New South Wales. 
Bates, W. J., Littleton Colliery, Huntington, near Stafford. 
Batey, John, St. Edmunds, Coleford, Bath. 

Batey, John Wright, 8, The Terrace, Ovingham-upon-Tyne, Northumberland. 
Batey, W. J. S. , Ibstock Colliery, Leicestershire. 
Batty, W. . Darley Grove, Worsbro' Dale, Barnsley. 
Bawden, James Barnet, 142, Vickery's Chambers, 82, Pitt Street, Sydney, 

New South Wales. 
Baxter, Walter, Silverwood Colliery, Thrybergh, near Rotherham. 
Bayldon, Daniel Henry, 13, Austin Friars, London, E.C. 
Baylibs, Ernest J., No. 12, Castello, Madrid, Spain. 
Beach, Thomas, Hillfield, Castleford, Yorkshire. 
Beaton, S., Litley Farm, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 
Beaumont, P., Church Gresley Colliery, Burton- upon -Trent. 
Bedford, A., East Bierley, near Bradford. 

Behrens, Herr Bergrath, Hibernia Company, Herne, Westphalia. 
Beith, Robert, Lassodie Mill Colliery, Blairadam, Fifeshire. 
Bell, Alan D., Bonne Terre, St. Francois County, Missouri, U.S.A. 
Bell, Sir Lowthian, Bart., Rounton Grange, Northallerton. 
Bell, Joseph Fenwick, Harraton, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 
Bell, Reginald, The Equitable Coal Company, Limited, Barakar, E.I.R., 

Bengal, India. 
Bell, VValter, c/o Pyman, Bell and Company, Hull. 
Bennett, Alfred H. , Dean Lane Collieries, Bedminster, Bristol. 
Bennett, Henry, No. 5, Calle Sauz, La Minas de Rio Tinto, Provincia de 

Huelva, Spain. 
♦Benson, J. G., 12, Grey Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Benson, James R., Rowanlea, Newmains, >.B. 
Benson, Thomas W., 24, Grey Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Benson, W. A., Silverdale, Staffordshire. 
Berkley, C, Highfield House, Durham. 

Berkley, Frederick, Hamsterley Colliery, Ebchester, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Berkley, R. W., Marley Hill, Swalwell, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. Xxi 

Berry, Richard 73, Nasmyth Place, Kelty, Fife, N.B. 

Beyer, Augustus, Dewsbury Foundry, Dewsbury. 

Beveridge, James, Linlithgow Oil Company, Linlithgow, N.B. 

Bigg- Wither, fl., Th3 Mount, Gathurst, near Wigan. 

Bigland, Hubert Hallam, The Stones, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Bigland, J., Henknowle, Bishop Auckland. 

Binks, John Charles, Desford Coal Company, Limited, Bagworth, near Leicester. 

Binnie, R. B. Jardine, Greenfield Foundry, Hamilton, N.B. 

Binns, George Jonathan, Duffield House, Duffield, Derby. 

Birrell, William, Donibristle Colliery, Crossgates, R.S.O., Fifeshire. 

Bishop, George A., Gartveme Fireclay Works, Glenboig, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Bishop, Hubert 0., Tinsley Park Collieries, Tinsley Park, Sheffield. 

Black, Donald, Hillside Cottage, Bathgate, N. B. 

Black, W., Lovaine House, Lovaine Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Blackburn, S., Woolley Moor Colliery Company, Limited, Crigglestone, near 

Wakefield. 
Blackburn, W. Stevenson, Aire Villas, Astley, Woodlesford, near Leeds. 
. Blackburn e, F. A., North Wingfield, Chesterfield. 
Blackett, William Cuthbert, Acorn Close, Sacriston, Durham. 
Blackwood, James, Scott Street, Hamilton, N.B. 

Blaiklock, Thomas Henderson, Newton Cap Colliery, near Bishop Auckland. 
Blakemore, William, 10, St. Luke Street, Montreal, Canada. 
Blank, James, P.O. Box 435, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Blank, W., P.O. Box 2863, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Bledsoe, John Frank, P.O. Box 996, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. 
Blyth, Archibald, Lochside, Hamilton, N.B. 
Boam, S. T., Snibston Colliery, Coalville, near Leicester. 
Bolam, Philip, Seaton Burn Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Bolton, Edgar Ormerod, Executor of Colonel Hargreaves, Colliery Offices, 
Burnley. 

Bolton, H. H., Newchurch Collieries, near Manchester. 

Bonar, James, Canonbie Colliery, Canonbie, N.B. 

Bonser, Harold, 14, Park Row, Leeds. 

Bonthrone, Barclay, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Booker, E. E., Rock House, Warsop Vale, Mansfield. 

Borlase, William Henry, Greenside Lodge, Glen ridding, near Penrith. 

Borrowman, James, Armadale Station, Linlithgowshire. 

Bott, Samuel J., Greenbank, Lawton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Boucher, Arthur S. , Sharpcliffe Hall, Ipstones, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Boulden, Frederick, Technical Department, University College, Sheffield. 

Boulton, W. Gerard, Heoldon, Whitchurch, Cardiff. 

Bousfield, G. W., Fairfield, Sandal, near Wakefield. 

Bousfield, Thomas, Wallsend Colliery, Wallsend, New South Wales. 

Bo wen, Jonathan, Cleveland House, Wellington Road, Bilston. 

Bowie, Hunter, Lugar Iron Works, Old Cumnock, N.B. 

Bowie, Kenneth McK., Woodbank, Canonbie, N.B. 

Bowie, W. T., Barrowfield Wire Rope Works, 200, Glenpark Road, Glasgow. 

Bowler, Louis P., 41, Linden Gardens, Bays water, London. 

Bowles, Joseph George,, Lyle Street, Ladysmith, Natal, South Africa. 

Bowman, Archibald, Jun., Percival Cottage, Buckhaven, Fife. 

Boyd, Adam A., Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Broken Hill, via South 
Australia. 

Bracken, Thomas Wilson, 5, North Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bradbury, John, Engineer's Office, North Staffordshire Railway Company, 
Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Bradford, George, Newton House, Darlington. 

Bradford, George William, Birley Collieries, Sheffield. 

Bragge, G. S., Granville Colliery, Swadlincote, Burton-upon-Trent. 

Braidford, William, Jun., South Garesfield Colliery, Lintz Green, R.S.O., 
Co. Durham. 

Brain, F. W., Trafalgar House, Dry brook, Gloucester. 

Bramley, George, Clay Cross Works, Chesterfield. 

B&amwell, Hugh, Great Western Colliery, near Pontypridd, Glamorganshire. 

Brakckkr, Richard, The Pearson and Knowles Coal and Iron Company, Limited, 
11, Old Hall Street, Liverpool. 



XXU LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Brand, Mark, Barrhill Cottage, Twechar, Kilsyth, Glasgow. 

Braschi, Victor Manuel, Cadena, No. 2, Apartado 830, Citv of Mexico, Mexico* 

Brennan, P. J. , The Stafford Coal and Iron Company, Limited, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Brewer, William Morten, P.O. Box 571, Victoria, British Columbia. 

Brewis, George, 2b, Pancras Road, London. 

Brierley, T. H., Mona Villa, York Road, Leeds. 

Briggs, Herbert, P.O. Box 1976, Johannesburg, TransvaaL 

Brinell, Johan August, Jernkontoret, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Britten, T. Johnson, P.O. Box 494, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Broad, Wallace, Department of Mines, Imperial Chinese Railway and Minea 
Administration, 111, Bubbling Well Road, Shanghai, China. 

Broadbent, S., North field House, Ossett, R.S.O., Yorkshire. 

Broja, Geheimer Bergrath Richard, 77, Kaiser- Wilhelmstrasse, Breslau r 
Germany. 

Bromly, Alfred Hammond, Oakley, Snakes Lane, Woodford Green, Essex. 

Broom, Robert, Bathville Colliery, Armadale Station, N. K. 

Broome, George Herbert, Adstock, Adelaide Road, Brockley, London, S.fi. 

Brough, Bennett Hoofer, Cranleigh House, near Addlestone, Surrey. 

Brough, Thomas, New Seaham Colliery, Sunderland. 

Brown, Adam, Allanton Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 

Brown, A. Knox, Sharia, Kasr-el-Nil, Cairo, Egypt. 

Brown, Douglas Philip. 

Brown, E., St. John's Colliery, Normanton. 

Brown, Fred., 57, Bridge Street, Walsall. 

Brown, F. M., Stanley, Derby. 

Brown, George, Longriggend Colliery, Airdrie, N.B. 

Brown, G. D., Bank House, Queen Street, Horncastle. 

Brown, John, 78, Hill Street, Kilmarnock, N.B. 

Brown, Jethro Longridgb, Murton Colliery, Sunderland. 

Brown, Myles, Shampore Colliery, Nirshachatti P.O., via Barakar, E.I.R., 
Bengal, India. 

Brown, Martin Walton, 10, Lambton Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Brown, Robert Oughton, Elswick Collieries. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Brown, Thomas Forster, Springfort, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Brown, Thomas M., Lanemark Colliery, New Cumnock, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 

Brown, William, Polmaise Colliery, Millhall, near Stirling N.B. 

Brown, W. Forster. Cefn Coed, Malpas, near Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Browne, James T., Roseleigh, Nuneaton. 

Bruce, John, Port Mulgrave, Hinderwell, R.S.O., Yorkshire. 

Brunton, Frederick Septimus, 13, Charieville Road, London, W. 

Bryham, William, Bank House, Wigan. 

Bryson, D. R., 45, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

Buchanan, John, Palacecraig Colliery, Airdrie, N.B. 

Buchanan, James M., Woodnall Colliery, Calderbank, N.B. 

Buckle, Christopher Ernest, Egerton Place, 71, Rouge Bouillon, St. Heliers, 
Jersey. 

Buckley, Frank Ernest, Shelton Steel, Iron and Coal Company, Limited,. 
Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Buglass, John, Stobswood, via Acklington, Northumberland. 

Bulman, Harrison Francis, Barcus Close, Burnopfield, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Bunkell, Henry B., P.O. Box 1463, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Bunning, Charles Ziethen, c/o The British Consular Agent, Pandemia, Con- 
stantinople. 

Buntine, Hugh P. 

Burgin, Henry, Ash Cottage, Eckington, near Sheffield. 

Burls, Herbert T., Co H. S. King and Company, 65, Cornhill,London, E.C^ 

Burn, Frank H., West Stanley Colliery, Stanley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Bukne, Cecil Alfred, Ranelagh Cottage, High Wycombe. 

Burnett, Cuthbert, Grange Iron Works, Durham. 

Burns, Daniel, Flowerbank, Carluke, N.B. 

Burns, David, Vallum View, Burgh Road, Carlisle. 

Burns, James, 10, Balmoral Crescent, Queen's Park, Glasgow. 

Burrows, J. S., Green Hall, Atherton, near Manchester. 

Burt, Andrew, Sea Braes, Leven, Fife. 

Burt, Hutchison, Devon Colliery, Alloa, N.B. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XX111 

Burt, William, Dunedin Cottage, Newarthill, by Motherwell, N.B. 

Burton*, Joseph James, Rosecroft, Nunthorpe, K.S.O., Yorkshire. 

Bush, James, P.O. Box 10, Middelburg, Transvaal. 

Bun, Thomas Philip Edward, P.O. Sox 538, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

BrTTERLEV, Wilfred, Fountain and Burnley's Thorp's Gawber Collieries, Darton, 

Barnsley. 
Butters, Charles, 20, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, E.C. 
Buxton, W., Altofts, Norman ton. 
Byrne, Jno. Walter, 19, Emberton Street, Wolstanton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Cadell, H. M., Grange, Bo'ness, R.S.O., Linlithgowshire. 

C adman, John, H,M. Inspector of Mines, Madeley, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

C adm an, James Cope, Madeley, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Cairncross, John M. f Balmoral Drive, Cambuslang, Glasgow. 

Caldwell, Hugh, Oak House, Blackwood, near Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Caldwell, James, Pumpherston, Mid Cakler, N. B. 

Cameron, Ian, The TharsU Sulphur and Copper Comp.my, Limited, 136, West 

George Street, Glasgow. 
Campbell, Colin, Carron Works, Falkirk, N.B. 
Campbell, Duncan, Greenfield Foundry, Hamilton, N.B. 
Campbell, H. H., Sutton Hall, St. Helen's, Lancashire. 
Campbell-Johnston, R. C, Nelson, British Columbia. 
Carbw, George, Westfalite Explosive Factory, Denabv, Rotherham. 
Carlow, Charles, The Fife Coal Company, Leven, Fife. 
Carnegie, Alfred Quintin, 21, Eldon Place, Newcastle upon-Tyne. 
Carnes, Charles Spearman, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland. 
Cabr, Thomas, 3, South Street, South Hetton, near Sunderland. 
Carr, Wilson Story, Collingwood Buildings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Carrington, Arthur, Langdale House, Clapham Road, Bed ord. 
Carroll, James, Brilliant and St. George Gold Mine, Charters Towers, 

Queensland, Australia. 
Carruthers, James, Lowell Flat, Otago, New Zealand. 
Carter, W. H., Bolsover Colliery, Chesterfield. 
Causton, Henry, Clive Street, Tunstall, Staffordshire. 
Chad wick, S. R., Robin Hood Collieries, Wakefield. 

Chalmers, George, Morro Velho, Villa Nova de Lima, Estado de Minas, Brazil. 
Chalmers, John A., c/o J. S. Sheldrick, 96, Gresham House, Old Broad Street, 

London, E.C. 
Chambers, Alfred, Eastwood, Notts. 

Chambers, Arthur Leo, P.O. Box 83, Gwelo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Chambers, Fred., Hard wick Collieries, Heath, Chesterfield. 
Chambers, Granville, Pilsley, Derbyshire. 
Chambers, Isaac, Wat nail Colliery, Nottingham. 
Chambers, J. E., Swaithe Hall, near Barnsley. 
Chambers, J. S., 5, Jorkovskaja, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Chambers, R. E., The Nova Scotia Steel Company, Limited, Bell Island, 

Newfoundland. 
Chambers, William Henry, Conisborough, Rotherham. 
Champneys, Arthur Thornton, Tananarive, Madagascar. 
Chandler, Noel, Hednesford, Staffordshire. 

Chandley, Charles, 120, Musters Road, West Bridgford, Nottingham. 
Channing, J. Parke, 11, Broadway, New York City, U.S.A. 
Chapman, Herbert Wright, Tower Hill, Middleton St. (Jeorge, R. S. 0. ,Co. Durham. 
Chapman, W. H., Alma House, Colley Gate, Cradley, Staffordshire. 
Chappel, Walter Richard Haighton, Batu Gajah, Perak, Straits Settlements. 
Charleton, Arthur George, 5, Avonmore Road, Kensington, London, W. 
Charlton, William, Guisborough, Yorkshire. 
Charlton, William, 10, Tynedale Terrace, Hexham. 
Charlton, William, Alpine Villas, Bloxwich Road, Walsall. 
Charlton, William John, Ashington Colliery, Morpeth, Northumberland. 
Chkesman, E. T., Clara vale Colliery, Ryton-upon-Tyne. , 

Cheesman, Herbert, Hartlepool. """! 

Cheesman, I. T., Throckley Colliery, Newburn, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Cheesman, Nicholas, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Chessman, William Talbot, 4, Bridgford Road, Nottingham. 



XXIV LIST OF MEMBERS. 

. Chester, Edward Descou, 120, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, E.C. 
Chester, P. M., Oak well Colliery, Ilkeston. 
Childe, Henry S. , 59, Weatgate, Wakefield. 
Christie, Haldane Thomas, Umzinto, Natal, South Africa. 
Christie, Thomas Train, 3, Gloucester Place, Edinburgh. 
Churton, T. H., 36, Great Wilson Street, Leeds. 

Claghorn, Clarence R., Wehrum, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Clark, George, Newton-in-the-Willows, Lancashire. 
Clark, Henry, Inglenook, Norton, Stockton -upon-Teea. 
Clark, James, Westbourne, Eskbank, Mid Lothian, N.B. 
Clark, Robert, The Hyderabad (Deccan) Company, Limited, Secunderabad, 

India. 
Clark, R. B., Springwell Colliery, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Clark, William, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Clark, William, C ran bury Lodge, Purk Lane, Wigan. 
Clark, William Frederick, The Poplars, Aldridge, near Walsall. 
Clark, William Henry, 10S, Cantonment, Kampthee, Central Provinces, 

India. 
Clarke, E. B., 131, Norfolk Street, Sheffield. 
Clarke, James A., Ayr Colliery, Annbank, R.S.O.. Ayrshire. 
Clarke, W. W., Lidgett Colliery, Tankersley, Barnsley. 
Claudet, Arthur C, 6 and 7.. Coleman Street, London, E.C. 
Clay, Stanley, Wassau (Gold Coast) Mining Company, 10 and 11, Austin Friars, 

London, E.C. 
Clayton, C. D., Doncaster. 

Cleland, James, Oxwellmains Lime Works, Dunbar. 
Cliffs, Albert, Olivet, Sutton Leech, St. Helen's, Lancashire. 
Clifford, William, Jeanette, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Clough, James, Bomarsund House, Bomarsund, Bedlington, R.S.O. 
Clouoh, Raijh, Kilton Mines, Brotton, R.S.O., Yorkshire. 
Clough, S., Micklefield Colliery, Leeds. 

Coats, William A., Skelinorlie Castle, Skelmorlie, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 
Cobbold, C. H., Needle Wood, Barnsley. 

Cochrane, Brodie, Low Gosforth House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
•Cochrane, William, Oakfield House, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Cockin, George M., Heron Street, Rugeley, Staffordshire. 
Cockin, Thomas Hanson, 16, Rangeley Road, Sheffield. 
Cohen, E. H. A. , Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Coke, G. Elmsley, «5, Station Street, Nottingham. 
Coke-Ross, J., 103, Gresham House, London, E.C. 
Cole, C. E., Hamstead Colliery, Great Barr, Birmingham. 
Cole, John H., Knypersley, Biddulph, near Congleton. 
Cole, Robert Heath, Endon, S.O., Staffordshire. 
Colley, John, Indue Railway, Collieries and Land Company, Limited, P.O. 

Box 4, Indwe, Cape Colony, South Africa. 
•Collins, Arthur Launcelot. 702, Salisbury House, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 
Collins, Horatio, Paarl Central Gold Mining Company, Limited, P.O. Box 24."s 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Collins, Huoh Brown, Auchinbothie. Kilmalcolm, R.S.O., Renfrewshire. 
Collis, W. B., Swinford House, Stourbridge, Worcestershire. 
Colquhoun, T. Grant, Beal Bank House, Acklington, Northumberland. 
Com mans, Robert Edden, 6, Queen Street Place, London, E.C. 
Comstock, Theo. B., Prescott Development Syndicate, Limited, 535, Stimson 

Block, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. 
Cook, Joseph, Washington Iron Works, Washington, Co Durham. 
Cook, Joseph, Jun., Washington Iron Works, Washington, Co. Durham. 
Cook, James Falshaw, Washington Iron Works, Washington, Co. Durham. 
- Cook, J. W., Binchester Hall, Bishop Auckland. 
Cook, Thomas, Glasgow Steel Works, Washford Road, Sheffield. 
Cooke, Henry Moore Annesley, The Ooregum Gold Mining Company of India, 

Limited, Oorgaum, Province of Mysore, India. 
Corbett, Vincent Charles Stuart Wortley, Chilton Moor, Fence Houses. 
' Cork, F. L., Hanley Borough Colliery, Hanley, Staffordshire. 
Cork, John, Midland Coal, Coke and Iron Company, Limited, Apedale, New- 
castle, Staffordshire. 
• Corlett, G. S. , Wigan. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXV 

•Corning, Christopher Robert, 36, Wall Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

Coote, Eugene, 34, Madison Avenue. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Cotterell, O. J., 16, Bank Street, Sheffield. 

♦Coulson, Frank, Sherburn, Durham. 

Coultas, Fred., Deepcar, near Sheffield. 

Coulthard, Frangis, co Pure Salt, Limited, Remolinoa, Por Pedrola, Zaragozi, 

Espana. 
•Coulthard, John, Brunnerton, Greymouth, New Zealand. 
Cowan, Renwick, Seafield, Bathgate, N.B. 
Cowie, John, Alexandria Cottage, Galston, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 
Cowushaw, W. G., Etruria, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Cowper-Coles, Sherard Osborn, 26 and 27, Grosvenor Mansions, Victoria 

Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
-Cox, J. H. , 10, St. George's Square, Sunderland. 
Cox, S. Herbert, 13, St. Helen's Place, London, E.C. 
Cradock, George, Rope Works, Wakefield 
Craig, W. Y., Milton House, Alsager, Cheshire. 

Craster, Walter Spencer, P.O. Box 326, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Craven, John, Westgate Common Foundry, Wakefield. 

•Cbawjord, James, West Longrigg Cottage, Longriggsnd, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 
Crawford, James Mill, Fairlawn, Lsasingthorne, Bishop Auckland. 
Ceawshaw, C. B., The Collieries, Dcwsbuiy. 
Cremer, Richard, 1, De Grey Terrace, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 
Ores wick, A. J., Gatefield, Sheffield. 

Creswktc, Claude, 67, Hastings Road, Millhouses, Sheffield. 
Creswick, W., Sharlestone Colliery, Norman ton. 
Crichton, A. H., Castlepark, Linlithgow, N.B. 

Brighton, G. E., Damaraland, Guano County, Cape Cross, S.W. Africa. 
Crighton. Hugh, Bute House, Airdrie, N.B. 

Crofton, Charles, 17, Albany Gardens, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Croxe, Charles Herbert, Killingworth Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Crone, J. R., Tudhoe House, via Spennymoor. 
Cbookston, A. W., 188, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Crosbie-Dawson, G. J., May Place, Newcas tie-under- Lyme, Staffordshire. 
Crosby, Arthur, Douglas Colliery, Limited, Balmoral, Transvaal. 
Crosby, George, Lofthouse Colliery, Wakefield. 
Cross, William Haslam, 77, King Street, Manchester. 
Crossland, A., Middleton, Leeds. 

Croudace, Thomas, Lambton Lodge, Lambton, Newcastle. New South Wales. 
Crowther, A., Superintendent of Works, Asylum, Menston, near Leeds. 
Cruz y Diaz, Emiliano de la, Ribas, Provincia de Gerona, Spain. 
Currte, D., Norfolk House, 7, Laurence Pountney Hill, London, E.C. 
Curbjk, Walter, P.O. Box 220, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
•Curry, John, The Lyons, Hetton-le-Hole, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Curry, Michael, Cornsay Colliery, Durham. 
Cuthbertson, John, Thomson Street, Kilmarnock, N.B. 
Cuthbbrtson, William, 10, Kay Park Terrace, Kilmarnock, N.B. 
Cutten, William Henry, Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Outts, J. W., Black well Colliery, Alfreton. 

Dagcar, Henry James. 

Daglish, John, Rothley Lake, Cambo, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Dagush, William Charlton, Littleburn Colliery, near Durham. 

Bakers, W. R., Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor. 

Dale, Sir David, Bart., West Lodge, Darlington. 

Dalzell, John B., Larkhall, N.B. 

Dalziel, John. Glespin Collieries, Douglas, N.B. 

Ban, Takuma, Mitsui Mining Company, 1, Suruga-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokio, 

Japan. 
Daniel, P. F., Greymouth, New Zealand. 
Daniels, Amos, Bunkers Hill Colliery, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Danes, Andrew, P.O. Box 83, Newcastle, Natal, South Africa. 
Darby, John Henry, Brymbo, near VVrexham. 

Darbybhire, Jno. Henry, Duxbury Park Collieries, Chorley, Lancashire. 
Darling, Fen wick, Eldon Colliery, Eldon, Bishop Auckland. 
Darlington, James, Black Park Colliery, Ruabon, North Wales. 



XXVI LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Darlington, P., Featherstone Main Colliery, Featherstone, Pontefract. 

Davey, George, c/o The Mount Boppy Gold Mining Company, Limited, Boppy 

Mount, New South Wales, Australia. 
Davey, Henry, 3, Princes Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Da vies, Alfred, c'o Tbornewill and Warham, Burton-upon- Trent. 
Davies, David, Cowell House, Llanelly, South Wales. 
Davies, T. J., Balls Hill, West Bromwich. 

Davies, Thomas William, P.O. Box 5207, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Davies, William, Llanhilleth House, Llanhilleth, R.S.O., Monmouthshire. 
Davies, W. H., Shelton Iron, Steel and Coal Company, Limited, Stoke-upon- Trent. 
Davies, W. J., Bradley, Bilston. 

Davies, William Stephen. The Poplars, Mountain Ash. 
Davis, Charles Henry, 99, Cedar Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
Davis, Henry, All Saints Works, Derby. 
Davis, Kenneth, Bebside Colliery, Northumberland. 
Daw, Albert William, 11, Queen Victoria Street. London, E.C. 
Daw, John, Jun., 4, Gunnersbury Avenue, Ealing, London, W. 
Dawbarn, A. G., 60, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 
Dawes, J. T., The Lilacs, Prestatyn, North Wales. 

Dayson, Jno. Arthur, Thorncliife Ironworks and Collieries, near Sheffield. 
Deacon, Maurice, Whittington House, near Chesterfield. 
Dees, J. Gibson, Floraville, Whitehaven. 
Dees, R. R., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Delprat, Guillaume Daniel, The Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Limited, 

Broken Hill, New South Wales. 
Denny, George A., General Mining and Finance Corporation, Limited, Marshall 

Square, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Devonshire, His Grace the Duke op, K.G., Chatsworth, Baslow, Derbyshire. 
Dewar, Thomas, Hatting Spruit, Natal, South Africa. 
Dickenson, George W., Eckington Collieries, Sheffield. 
Dickinson, Arthur, Warham Road, South Croydon, Surrey. 
Dickson, Hamilton C, c/o The Boris Ffrench Madagascar Syndicate, Limited,. 

Tananarive, Madagascar. 
Didham, Chambers, The Hurst, Alfreton. 
Didham, C. J., Hasland House, Chesterfield. 

Dietzsch, Ferdinand, 652-655, Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Dingwall, William Burliston-Abigail, Negoeiacion Santa Maria de la Paz,. 

Apartado, 116, Matehuala, Estado de San Lais Potosi, Mexico. 
Ditmas, Francis Ivan Leslie, Rosedale Abbey, near Pickering, Yorkshire. 
Dives, Robert, Industrie* Offices, Acutts Arcade, Durban, Natal, South Africa. 
Dixon, David Watson, Lumpsey Mines, Brotton, R.S.O., Saltburn-by-the- 

Sea. 
Dixon, Jonathan, Westport Coal Company, Limited, Denniston, New Zealand. 
Dixon, Joseph Armstrong, Shilbottie Colliery, Lesbury, R.S.O., North- 
umberland. 
Dixon, James Stedman* Fairleigh, Both well, N.B. 
Dixon, James T., Girton, McLaren Street, North Sydney, Australia. 
Dixon, R., Sankey Wire Milk and Rope Works, \\ arrington. 
Dixon, Walter, 59, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
Dixon, William, Cleator, Cumberland. 

Dobb, Thomas Gilbert, Brick House, West Leigh, near Manchester. 
Dobbs, Joseph, J arrow Colliery, Castlecomer, Co. Kilkenny. 
Dobinson, Lancelot, Victoria Coal Company, Park Hills Colliery, Wakefield. 
Dodd, Benjamin, Bearpark Colliery, near Durham. 
Dodd, Michael, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Dodds, John, c/o General Manager, Glencoe Collieries, Hatting Spruit, Natal r 

South Africa. 
Doise, Sosthenes, Chaton (Seine et Oise), France. 
Donaldson, Robert, Clyde Iron Works, Tollcross, Glasgow. 
Donkin, W., Vereeniging Estates, Vereeniging, Transvaal. 
Dormand, Ralph Brown, Cambois House, Cambois, Blyth, Northumberland. 
Douglas, Arthur Stanley, Tudhoe House, Tudhoe, near Spennymoor. 
Douglas, Charles Prattman, Thornbeck Hill, Carinel Koad, Darlington. 
Douglas, E. , Pemberton Colliery, Wigan. 
Douglas, James, 99, John Street, New York City, U.S.A. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXVii 

Douglas, Matthsw Hecke'ls, Usworth Colliery, Washington, R.S. 0. , Co. Durham. 

Douglas, Thomas, The Garth, Darlington. 

DoriiE, Patrick, Indian Engineering, 7* Government Place, Calcutta, India. 

Transaction* to be sent to c'o F. E. Robertson, 8, Great George Street, 

Westminster, London, S.W. 
Drew, Walter Newton, Raincliffe, Ecclesfield, near Sheffield. 
Drinnan, Walter, Waverley Coal Company, Darnall, Sheffield. 
Dron, Robert Wilson, 55, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Drtsdale, William, Ayr Colliery, Annbank, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 
Dunbar-Anderson, Kinoslet, The Bungalow, Pretoria Street, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal. 
Dunn, David G., Ashfield, Cambuslang. N.B. 
Dunn, James, 21, Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 
Dcn.v, Roberta., 168. Kenmure Street, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
Dunsire, Peter, Welisgreen Colliery, Windy gates, R.S.O., Fiieshire. 
Dunston, Okorge, Clifton Lodge, Thorne. 

DuRNfORD, H. St. .Iobn, Standard Buildings, City Square, Leeds. 
Dctson, John, Rotherwood. Hands worth, Sheffield. 
Dyson, John S., Kirkburton, Huddersfield. 
Dyson, W. H., Vyvers Mines, Liber tad, Chon tales, Nicaragua, Central America. 

Eagle, George, Westminster Buildings, 37, Brown Street. Manchester. 

Eambs, William, South Leicestershire Colliery, Coalville, Leicester. 

Eardley, J. W., The Grove, Aifreton. 

Eastlake, A. W., Caenwood House, Grove Road, Clapham Park, London, S.W. 

Eastwood, G. A., Tapton Villa, Chesterfield. 

Echlin, Edward, Alliance Jute Mills, Samnugger, Bengal, India. 

Eckersley, Frank, Queen's Villas, Crofton, near Wakefield. 

Ede, Henry Edward, c/o C. A. Gibbes, English Club, Iquique, Chile, South 

America. 
Eden, C. H., Penallt, Sketty, R.S.O., Glamorganshire. 

Edwards, Edward, Maindy Pit, Ocean Collieries, Ton Pentre, Glamorganshire. 
Edwards, George W., Pendennis, Northanger Road, Streatham Common, 

London, S.W. 
Edwards, Herbert Francis, 104, Stan well Road, Penarth, Glamorganshire. 
Eissler, Manuel, 46, Rue Vital, Passy, Paris, France. 
Elce, George, Clayton-le- Moors. Accrington, Lancashire. 
Elcb, James, Hoyland Silks tone Colliery, Hoy land, near Barnsley. 
Eley, J. J., Whitwood Collieries, Normanton. 
Eliet, Francis Constant Andre Benoni Elte du, Controleur des Mines, 

Ambolaroa, Province de Fiaranantsoa, Madagascar. 
Eluott, C. H., Wombwell Main Colliery, Barnsley. 
Elliott, William, Langwith Colliery, near Mansfield. 
Ellis, W. R., Wigan. 

Ellison, C. C, Monckton Main Colliery, Barnsley. 
Elsdon, Robert William Barrow, c/o Henry S. King and Company, 05, 

Comhill, London, E.C. 
Eltringham, Gborge, Eltringham Colliery, Prudhoe-npon-Tyne, R.8.O. 
Elwen, Thomas Lee, Brandon Colliery, Durham. 
Embletox, H. C, Central Bank Chambers, Leeds. 
Embleton, T. W. , The Cedars, Methley , Leeds. 
Emmerson, A. B. , Ellistown Collieries, Leicester. 

Engel, Ronrad Ernst Richard. Friedrichfctrasse, *2, Essen (Ruhr), Germany. 
English, John, Garesfield Colliery, Lintz Green, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Epton, W. Martin, Government Inspector of Machinery, Mines Department, 

Winchester House, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Esuman-Gwira, John Buckman, Cape Coast Castle, West Africa. 
Etherington, J., 39a, King William Street, London Bridge, London, EC. 
Evans, D. L., 120, Bute Street, Cardiff. 

Evans, George Henry, Bohemian Club, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. 
Evans. Lewis, New Modderfontein Gold Mining Company, Limited, Mine Office, 

Benoni, Transvaal. 
EvsRARD, J. B., 6, Millstone Lane, Leicester. 
Everett, Sidney Albert, Gedling, Nottingham. 
Everson, Charles, Sheepbridge Colliery Offices, Chesterfield. 



XXVlil LIST OF MEMBERS. 

F airbridge, Rhys S., Umtali, Rhodesia, South Africa. 

Fairley, James, Craghcad and Holmside Collieries, Chester-le-Street. 

Farmer, George, Yew Cottage, Conisborough, Rotherham. 

Faulds, Alexander, Wellington Colliery Company, Limited, Alexandria- 
Mines, South Wellington, British Columbia. 

Favell, Thomas Milnes, Fairwood. Pine Grove, Weybridge. 

Fellows, Alfred, The Bede Metal and Chemical Company, Limited, Hebburn,- 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Fenn, Abraham, Tame Valley Colliery, Wilnecote, Tarn worth. 

Fennell, Charles W., 82, Westgate, Wakefield. 

Fenwick, Barnabas, 37, Osborne Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Fenwick, Featherstone, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Fenwick, P. J. , Skegby House, near Mansfield. 

Fenwick, T. E., Mayfield, Wolsingham. R.S.O., Durham. 

Fergie, Charles, Drummond Colliery, Westville, Nova Scotia. 

Ferguson, C, Walbottle Collier}', Scotswood-upon-Tyne. 

Ferguson, D., c/o James Ferguson, 140, Hyndland Drive, Kelvinsidc, Glasgow. 

Ferguson, James, P.O. Box 253, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Ferguson, Peter, 19, Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow. 

Fernau, J. J. C, 59, Osborne Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Field, Edwin Richard, Prell's Buildings, Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria;. 
Australia. 

Field, J., Hill Top, West Bromwich. 

Fieuzet, Eugene, 4, Rue Saint Blaise, Bagueres de Bigorre, Haute Pyrenees, 

France. 
Figari, Alberto, Apartado, No. 405, Lima, Peru. 
Findlay, G. J., Glamyrafon, near Wrexham. 
Fishback, Martin, Hotel 8 held an, El Paso, Texas, U.S.A. 
Fisher, A., Poplars, Greenfields, Holywell, near Chester. 
Fisher, Edward Robert, Blaina Lodge, Llandebie, R.S.O., Carmarthenshire. 
Fisher, Henry, Clifton Colliery, Nottingham. 
JFisher, Thomas T., Lichfield Chambers, Walsall. 
Fletcher, Lancelot, Brigham Hill, Cockermouth. 
Fletcher, Leonard Ralph, The Hindles, Atherton, Manchester. 
Fletcher, Walter, The Hollins, Bolton, Lancashire. 
Flint, John, Radcliffe House, Acklington, Northumberland. 
Foggo, M. J., South Wingfield Colliery, Alfreton. 

Foote, Arthur de Wint, North Star Mines, Grass Valley, California, U.S. A.- 
Forbes, Alexander, Orbiston Colliery, Bellshill, N.B. 
Forbes, Alexander, St. Leonard's Road, Ayr, N.B. 
Ford, C. F. V. , Marehay Main Colliery, Ripley, Derby. 
Ford, James, Hotel Street, Coalville, near Leicester. 
Ford, Mark, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, Co. Durham. 
Ford, Stanley H., P.O. Box 2056, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Forgie, James T., Bothwell Collieries, Bothwell, Glasgow. 
Forrest, J. C, Holly Bank Colliery, Essington, Wolverhampton. 
Forrester, Hugh C, Tullibody House, Cambus, Stirling, N.B. 
Forrester, Robert, 142, West Nile Street, Glasgow. 
Forster, Alfred Llewellyn, 5, Haldane Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Forster, John Henry Bacon, Cramlington Colliery, Northumberland. 
Forster, Richard Percival, Mount Pleasant, Spennymoor, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Forster, Thomas Emerson, 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Forsyth, Francis Foster, 138, Regent Road, Mount Pleasant, Fenton, Stoke- 

upon-Trent. 
Forsyth, James, Park Terrace, Falkirk, N.B. 
Forsyth, William, Dykehead, Airdrie, N.B. 
Foster, Sir Clement Le Neve, Royal College of Science, South Kensington,. 

London, S.W. 
Foster, George, Lyme Villa, Rotherham. 
Foster, George, Castlestead, Boston Spa, Yorkshire. 
Foster, John Sutherland, Blaenau Festiniog, North Wales. 
Foulstone, W., Coach and Horses Hotel, Barnsley. 
Fowler, George, Basford Hall, Nottingham. 
Fowler, George Carrington, The Cliff, Cinder Hill, Nottingham. 
Fowler, W. C, Beeston, Notts. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XX1XT 

Fox, Georke Charles, P.O. Box 1961, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Frecheyille, William, North Breach Manor, Ewhurst, Surrey. 

Freeland, Francis Theodore, P.O. Box 1016, Aspen, Colorado, U.S.A. 

Freeman, William, Florence Colliery, Lone ton, Staffordshire. 

Frew, James, 5, Greenhill, Dunaskin, Ayr, N.B. 

Frew, James C, 180, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

Frew, William, Parkfoot Colliery, Shotts, K.S.O., Lanarkshire. 

Frost, William, Sneyd Colliery, Burslem, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Fryar, John William, Sherwood Colliery, Mansfield. 

Fryar, Mark, Denby Colliery, Derby. 

Fryar, William, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 

Fryer, George Kkllett, Newtield Colliery, Willington, Durham. 

FrLTON, Bryce, The Knowe, Bonnybridge, N.B. 

Galletly, Wm. Haldane, Park Hill Colliery, Wakefield. 

Galloway, Robert L., 175, West George Street, Glasgow. 

Galloway, T. Lindsay, 175, West George Street, Glasgow. 

Galloway, William, Cardiff. 

Gallwey, Arthur Payne, c/o Edward Chester and Company, Limited, 120,? 

Bishopsgate Street Within, London, E.C. 
Garcia, Telesforo, Jun., Apartado, 463, City of Mexico, Mexico. 
Gardiner, Edgar Tom, Hoppyland House, Albert Hill, Bishop Auckland. 
Gardner, Hugh, Minas Sch wager, Coronel, Chile. 
Gardner, J. M. , Park View, Little Houghton, near Barnsley. 
Garforth, W. E. , Snydale Hall, near Pontefract. 
Garten, William, 25, Derby Crescent, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
Gascon y Miramon, Antonio, 36, Serrano, Madrid, Spain. 
Gascoyne, Rowland, The Oceana Consolidated Company, P.O. Box 1542, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Gater, Enoch, Oak Tree Cottage, Talke, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Gatis, T. G., 32, Merridale Road, Wolverhampton. 
Gavin, James, Jun., Townhead Colliery, Cleland, N.B. 
Geddes, Charles D., 21, Young Street, Edinburgh. 
Geddes, George H., 21, Young Street, Edinburgh. 
Gemmell, John, 10, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh. 
Gemmill, Arthur William, c'o Anglo French Nickel Company, Limited, Hafod - 

Isha Works, Swansea. 
German, G. J., Reservoir Colliery, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 
Gerrand, John, Robinson Gold Mining Company, Limited, P.O. Box 1024, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Gerrard, John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Worsley, Manchester. 
Gibb, George, Carmyle Avenue, Carmyle, N. B. 
Gibb, Robert, Briton Ferry, South Wales. 
Gifford, Henry J., Minas de Passagem, Ouro Preto, Brazil. 
Gilchrist, James, Clifton Lodge, Workington. 

Gilchrist, J. R., Garesfield Colliery, Lintz Green, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Gilchrist, Robert, Daldowie Colliery, Broomhouse, N.B. 
Gill, John, St. John's Colliery, Norman ton. 
Gill, Thomas, Strafford Collieries, near Barnsley. 
Gillespie, George H., Ecum Secum Bridge P.O., Halifax County, Nova 

Scotia. 
Gillman, Fritz, Plattenstrasse, 68, Zurich (V.), Switzerland. 
Gillman, Gustave, Aguilas, Provincia de Murcia, Spain. 
Gillott, J. W., Lancaster Works, Barnsley. 
Gilmour, Allan, Portland Colliery, Kilmarnock, N.B. 
Glen, John, Connell Terrace, Airdrie, N. B. 
Glennie, W. H., Hun ton Road. Gravelly Hill, Birmingham. 
Goldsworthy, Arthur, Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain. 
Goldsworthy, Christopher, Grampound Road, Cornwal . 
Gomxbsall, James Edward, St. Andrew's Terrace, Batley. 
Goodwin, E. M., Cassel Coal Company, Limited, Landau Mine, Brugspruit,- 

Tnnsvaal. 
Goodwin, G. A., Ashford, Bakewell. 

Goodwin, Robert Harvey, Reculvers, Claremont Road, Seaford, Sussex. 
Goodwin, William H., Chesterton Hall, near Newcastle, Staffordshire. 



XXX LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Goodwin, William Lawton, Director of the School of Mining, Kingston, 
Ontario, Canada. 

Gordon, Gavin C., The Cottage, Motherwell, N.B. 

Gore, Henry, Victorian Gold Estates, Limited, National Mutual Buildings, 
395, Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia. 

Gough, George Henry, Umaria, Central Prdvinces, India. Bengal Nagpur 
Railway. 

Gouldie, Joseph, The Gill, Bromfield, Brayton, S.O., Cumberland. 

Graham, Edward, Jun., Bedlington Colliery, Bedlington, R.S.O., North- 
umberland. 

Graham, Maurice, c/o Graham, Morton and Company, Limited, Black Bull 
Street, Leeds. 

Grant, John, Gledhill, Larkhall, R S.O., Lanarkshire. 

Gratton, R. T., Knifesmith Gate, Chesterfield. 

Grave, L. W. de, Bromley Street, Derby. 

Grave, Percy, Conception del Oro, Estado de Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Graves, H. G., 5, Robert Street, Adelphi, London, W.C. 

Gray, Archibald, Middleton House, Dairy, Ayrshire. 

Gray, James, Riverside, Old Cumnock, N.B. 

Gray, John, Lumphinnans Colliery, Cowdenbeath, N.B. 
•Gray, William, Belle vue, Old Cumnock, N.B. 

Grayston, F. A., Glascote House, Tarn worth 

Grazkbrook, A. W., Himley House, near Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Greatbach, Geohge H., Berry Hill Collieries, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Greaves, J. 0., Westgate, Wakefield. 

Greaves, Percy C, Westgate, Wakefield. 

Green, Edwin R., H.M. Inspector of Mines, Dunedin. New Zealand. 

Green, Hugo G. H., 82, Westgate, Wakefield. 

-Green, Joseph, Crag House, ferryhill, Co. Durham. 

Green, John Dam pier, P.O. Box 340, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Greener, George Alfred, Sock-ti Miniere des lies Feroe, Trangisvaag, Faroe 
Isles. 

Grfener, Thomas Young, West Lodge, Crook, Darlington. 

Greensmith, J., Monckton Main Colliery, Barnsley. 

Greknsmith, Johnson, Newstead Colliery, Nottingham. 

Green well, Allan, 30 and 31, Furnival Street, Hoiborn, London, k.C. 

Green w eli., George Clementson, Poynton, near Stockport. 

Gregorie, Charles, 19, Pembroke Terrace, Cardiff. 

Gregory, H. E., Cortonwood Collieries, West Melton, near Rotherham. 

Gregory, James, Jun., Lowood Villas, Deepcar, Sheffield. 

Gregory, John, Sneyd Colliery. Burslem, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Gregson, George Ernest, 11, Chapel Street, Preston, Lancashire. 

-Gresley, W. S., 115, R ad bourne Street, Derby. 

Grey, C. G., Ballycourcy, Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford. 

Grey, Frederick William, Daahwood House, 9, New Broad Street, London, E.C. 

Griffith, Nathaniel Maurice, Westminster Chambers, Wrexham. 
•Griffith, N. R., Westminster Chambers, Wrexham. 

Griffiths, F., Pensnett, Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Grimshaw, E. J., Bispham, Huyton, Liverpool. 

Grundy, James, Roseville, Hastings, Calcutta, India. 

Guthrie, James K., 73, Cleveland Koad, North Shields. 

Habershon, M. H., Thorncliffe Iron Works and Collieries, Sheffield. 
Hadfield, Robert Abbott, Hecla Steel Foundry, Sheffield. 
Haggie, D. H., Wearmouth Patent Rope Works, Sunderland. 
Haggie, Peter Sinclair, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Haggie, R. Hood, 69, Rose Hill Street, Derby. 
"•Hague, Ernest, Castle Dyke, Sheffield 
Haines, J. Richard, Adderley Green Collieries, Longton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Hair, Thomas Chicken, Bede House, Hebburn-upon-Tyne. 
Halbaum, Henry Wallace Gregory, 19, Bute Terrace, Low Fell, Gateshead- 
upon-Tyne. 
Haldane, George, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Hall, Fred., Fernleigh, Highfield, Workington. 
Hall, George William, Coolgardie, Western Australia. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXI 

Hall, John, 21, Gladstone Road, Chesterfield. 

Hall, John, Swadlincote and Cadley Hill Collieries, Burton-upon-Trent. 

Hall, John Chables, The Schuller Diamond Mines, Limited, Van der Merwe, 

near Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Hall, L. J. , Morland House, Birch Vale, near Stockport. 
Hall, M., 32, Louis Street, Leeds. 
Hall, M. S. , 8, Victoria Street, Bishop Auckland. 
Hall, William Fairbairn, Haswell Colliery, Has well, ria Sunderland. 
Hallas, G. H., Huyton, near Liverpool. 
Halliday, John, Morrisonshaven, Prestonspans, N.B. 
Hallimond, William Tasker, Jumpers Deep, Limited, P.O., Cleveland, near 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Halmshaw, John W. , Kelvin Grove, Wombwell, Barnsley. 
Halsk, Edward, c/o J. M. and E. Montoya, Puerto Berrio, Republic of Colombia, 

South America. 
Hamilton, E., Rig Wood, Saltburn-by-the-Sea. 
Hamilton, James, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Hamilton, J. P., Bull Bridge Lime Works, Derby. 
Hamilton, William, Boghead and Mosside Collieries, Bathgate, N.B. 
Hancock, Henry Lipson, Moonta Mines, South Australia. 
Hancock, H. R., Ivymeade, Burnside, South Australia. 
Hancock, J. G., Village Main Reef Gold Mining Company, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal. 
Hans, Robert, Jun., Upper Thorpe House, Black Boy Colliery, near Bishop 

Auckland. 
Haxxay, Harry, c/o The Anglo-French Quicksilver and Concessions, Kwei 

Chan, c/o Arnhold Karberg and Company, Hankow, China. 
Hardie, James, The Haugh, East Wemyss, Fifeshire. 

Hardib, W. D. L., Alberta Railway and Coal Company, Lethbridge, Alta, Canada. 
Hardwick, Francis W., University College, Sheffield. 
Hark, Samuel, Murton Colliery, via Sunderland. 
Hargrkaves, James, Newton Villa, Chapel Allerton, Leeds. 
Hart.reaves, Thomas, Newton Villa, Chapel Allerton, Leeds. 
Hargrgaves, Walter, Newmarket and Haigh Moor Collieries, Rothwell, Leerls. 
Hart.reaves, William, Rothwell Haigh Colliery, Leeds. 
Hargrxaves, W. A., Micklefield Colliery, Micklefield, near Leeds. 
Harker, William, Cannon Street House, London, E.C. 
Harle, Peter, Pagebank Colliery, Co. Durham. 
Harle, Richard, Browney Colliery, Durham. 
Harper, J. Povev, All Saints Chambers, Derby. 
Harris, David, Elands Laagte Colliery, Limited, Elands Laagte, Natal, South 

Africa. 
Hahris, G. E., Margherita, Debrugarh, Upper Assam. 
Harris, Howard, P.O. Box 311, Durban, Natal, South Africa. 
Ha»bis, VV. Scorer, Kibblesworth, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Harrison, Charles Augustus, North Eastern Railway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Harrison, G. B. , H. M. Inspector of Mines, Swinton, near .Manchester. 
Harrison, G. D., Waterworks, Hanley, Staffordshire. 
Harrison. W. B., Brownhills Collieries, near Walsall. 
Harrof, J. A., Westminster Collieries, Wrexham. 
Hartley, J. W., Drysdale House, Stone, Staffordshire. 
Haselden, Arthur, Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain. 
Haselden, Eugene Kinnaird, Jardines No. 3, La Carolina, Provincia de Jaen, 

8pain. 
*Has3all, Joseph, Abbey Villa, Kenil worth, near Cape Town, South Africa. 
Hassam, Arthur, Leycett Collieries, Newcastle, Staffotdshire. 
Hawker, Edward William, 8, Alma Chambers, Adelaide, South Australia. 
Hay, John, Pentrich Colliery, Derby. 

Hay, J., Jun., Widdrington Colliery, Acklington, Northumberland. 
Hay, Robert, Stanton Colliery, Burton-upon-Trent. 
{Jay.T. Y., Whitwick Colliery, Coalville, Leicester. 
Hay, William, Shirebrook Colliery, near Mansfield. 
Hayward, W. J., West Bromwich. 
Heads, Robert William, Greenbushes Tin Smelting Company, Oreenbushes, 

Western Australia. 

VOL, XXXY.-l90a.JS0B. C 



XXXI 1 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Heath, Allen S., 8, Grosvenor Road, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Heath, James, 54, Cadogan Square, London, S.W. 

Heath, John, Sneyd Colliery, Burslem, Stoke -upon -Trent. 

Heath, J. R., The British Gas Light Company, Limited, Etruria, Stoke-upon- 

Trent. 
Heath, Robert, Biddulph Valley Iron Works, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
*Heath, William, Edgenelds House, Stockton Brook, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Heathoote, C. H., 65, Leeming Street, Mansfield. 
Hedlby, Robert Bertram, c/o W. Zimpel, Hay Street, Perth, Western 

Australia. 
Hedlky, Septimus H., Langholme, Roker, near Sunderland. 
Hedley, William, Eton ton Lodge, Low Fell, Gateshead- upon-Tyne. 
Hedlby, W. E. f Woodlesford, Leeds. 
Heinze, P. Auo., Trail, British Columbia. 
Henderson, Andrew, Gartsherrie Colliery, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Henderson, Charles, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth, Northumberland. 
Henderson, James, Philpstoun Oil Works, Linlithgow, N.B. 
Henderson, John, Dunnikeir Colliery, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 
Hendekson, J. J. 

Henderson, W., Crigglestone Coal Company, Crigglestone, Wakefield. 
Hendekson, William, Levenstat, Fauldhouse, Linlithgowshire. 
Henderson, William Hope, 4, Sun Court, Cornhill, London, E.C. 
Hendy, J. C. B., Etherley, via Darlington. 

Henshaw, A. May«»n, Talk-o'-th'-Hill Colliery, Talke, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Henwood, James, Dudley Colliery, Dudley, Newcastle, New South Wales. 
Henzbll, Chirles George, Catcleueh, Otter burn, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Hepburn, Wheldox, Littletown Colliery, near Durham. 
Hepplbwhite, R. FT. P., Tibshelf, near Alfreton. 
Hepplewhite. W. Hutton, H. M. Inspector of Mines, Blenheim Mount, St. Ann's 

Hill, Nottingham. 
Herd, Thomas, Dunnikeir Colliery, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 
Hernan, W. J. 

Herrmann, Henry J. A., 37, Walbrook, London, EC. 
Heslop, C, Woodside, Marskc Mill Lane. Saltburn-by-thc-Sea. 
Heslop, Grainger, North Moor House, Sunderland. 
Heslop, Michael, Rough Lea Colliery, Willhuton, Co. Durham. 
Heslop. Septimus, New Beerbhoom Coal Company, Limited. Asansol, Bengal, India. 
Heslop, Thomas, Randolph Colliery, Even wood, Bishop Auckland. 
Heslop, William Taylor, St. George's Coal and Estate Company, Limited, 

Manager's Office, Hatting Spruit, Natal, South Africa. 
Hewitson, Thomas, Ivanhoe Gold Corporation, Limited, Boulder, Western 

Australia. 
Hewitt, C. R.. London Road, Derby. 

Hewitt, George C, Scrridge House, Coalpit Heath, near Bristol. 
Hewitt. Henry Richardson, H. M. Inspector of Mines, Breedon Hill Road, 

Derby. 
Hewlett, Alfred, Haaeley Manor, Warwick. 
Hewlett, Erne, Ammanford Colliery Company, Limited, Ammanford, R.S.O., 

Carmarthenshire. 
Hicks, W. M. , University College, Sheffield. 
Higson, Jacob, Crown Buildings, 18, Booth Street, Manchester. 
Higson, John, Crown Buildings, 1 8, Booth Street, Manchester. 
Hill, Albert J., New Westminster, British Columbia. 
Hill, C. W., 25, Queensdown Road, Clapton, London, N.E. 
Hill, H. Walker, Church Gate, Nottingham. 
Hill, James, Welsh Cottage, Dalmellington, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 
Hill, Thomas, Burnfoothill, Dunaskin, Ayr, N.B. 
Hill, William, 40, Wellington Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Hill, William, Midland Coal, Coke and Iron Company, Apedale, Newcastle, 

Staffordshire. 
Hill William. 

Hills, Raleigh, Hill Top Farm, Tup ton, Chesterfield. 
Hilton, James, Woodcock Hall, Newburgh, near Southport. 
Hilton, Robert Stuart, c/o The Clay Cross Company, Clay Cross, near 

Chesterfield. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXX111 

Hilton, T. W., Wigan Coal and Iron Company, Limited, Wigan. 

Hinchuffe, Herbert, Bullhouse Colliery, Penistone, near Sheffield. 

Hinchuffe, I., Bullhouse Colliery, Penistone, near Sheffield. 

Hobbs, William L., St. Edmund's Avenue, Longport, Stoke- upon -Trent. 

Hobson, Moses, Hartley House, Coundon, near Bishop Auckland. 

Hodge, Francis, c/o John Whit worth, Camborne, Cornwall. 

Hodges, Isaac, Whitwood Collieries, Normanton. 

Hodgkix, Jonathan Edward, Shelleys, Darlington. 

Hodgson, Jacob, Corasav Colliery, Co. Durham. 

Hodgson, L. H. , Great Fenton Collieries, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Hogg, Charles Edward, 34 and 36, Greaham Street, London, E.C. 

Hogg, James, Minas de Aznalcollar, Provincia de Seville, Spain. 

Hogg, John, Ardoch Grove, Cambuslang, Glasgow. 

Hogg, John, Victoria Engine Works, Airdrie, N.B. 

Holberton, Walter Twining, Copiapo Mining Company, Limited, Casilla, 48, 
Copiapo, Chile. 

Holbrook, John, iAngley Colliery, Heanor, Derbyphire. 

Holding, William, Cossall Colliery, Nottingham . 

Holford, W. D., Hill House, Old Whittington, Chesterfield. 

Holiday, Roslyn, Ackton Hall Colliery, Featherstone, near Pontefract. 

Holland, Lawrence, The Coppice, Brownhills, Wallsall. 

Holliday, Martin F., Langley Grove, Durham. 

Holliday, T., Kippax Colliery, Allerton Bywater, Castleford. 

Holling worth, G. H., 37, Cross Street, Manchester. 

Holliss, G., Bank House, 26, Bridge Street, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Holman, Frederick J., P.O. Box 4575, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Holt, Henry, Bentinck Colliery, Sutton - in -Ashfield, Notts. 

Homan, William McLean, 13, Mutual Buildings, Durban, Natal, South Africa. 

Homersham, Edwin Collett, 19, Broad Street Avenue, Blomfield Street, 
London, E.C. 

Homersham, Thomas H. C, Vulcan Iron Works, Thornton Road, Bradford. 

Hood, James A., Rosewell, Mid Lothian, N.B. 

Hooper, Edward, Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E.C. 

Hoofer, Reginald Thomas, Derwent Villa, St. Agnes, Cornwall. 

Hope, Edmund Louis, Dandot, Ihelum, Punjaub, India. 

Hopkins, Edward, 13, Harrington Gardens, London, S.W. 

Hopkinson, Henry, Station Street, Nottingham. 

Hopwood, William, Labuan Coal-fields, Limited, Labuan, fut Singapore. 

Horne, Thomas L., Woodlands, Twechar, Kilsyth. N.B. 

Horswill, Frederick J., 1218, Chesnut Street, Oakland, California, U.S.A. 

Hosking, James, P.O. Box 1617, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Hoskold, Carlos A. Lynes, First Engineer, Inspector of the National Depart- 
ment of Mines and Geology, Calle Charcas, 1222, Buenos Aires, Argentine 
Republic. 

Hoskold, H. <>., Inspector General of Mines of the Argentine Republic, and 
Director of the National Department of Mines and Geology, Buenos Aires, 
Argentine Republic. 

Hocftok, J. P., Bolsover Colliery, Chesterfield. 

Hough, B., Birmingham House, Ruabon, North Wales. 

House, John, Rosebridge and Douglas Bank Collieries Company, Limited, Wigan. 

How at, John T., Stobbs House, Kilwinning, N.B. 

Howat, Robert M., Luhrig Appliances, Limited, 32, Victoria Street, West- 
minster, London, S.W. 

Howat, William, North Motherwell Colliery, Motherwell, N.B. 

Howe, William, 104, Saltergate, Chesterfield. 

Howes, Frank T., Hyderabad (Deccan) Company, Limited, Secunderabad, India. 

Howl, E., The Quarries, Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Hubbersty, H. A., Burbage, Buxton. 

Hudson, James O., Malcolm, Mount Margaret Gold-field, Western Australia. 

Hugh, James, Thornhill, Blantyre, by Glasgow. 

Hughes, H. W., 188, Wolverhampton Street, Dudley, Worcestershire. 
Hughes, J., Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Humble, John, West Pel ton House, Beamish, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Hcwblf., Joseph, Markham Collieries, Duckmanton, Chesterfield. 

Hrnm/E, William, Lawson Street, Hamilton, Newcastle, New South Wales. 



XXXIV LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Humble, W. H., Oxcroft Colliery, Bolsover, Chesterfield* 
Humphris, Hkkky, Blaenau Festiniog, North Wales. 
*Hunt, Walford, Cinder Hill, Nottingham. 
Hunter, Andrew, Alloa Colliery, Alloa, N.B. 
Hunter, David, 101, St Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Hunter. Robert, Gympie, Queensland, Australia. 
Hurd, Frederick Wilson, Raith View, Bothwell, N.B. 
Hurll, Mark, 144, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Hurst, Geo roe. Park Hall, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. 
Hurst, G. A., Cliffe, Tam worth. 

Hutchinson, George, Shotts Colliery, Shotts, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 
Hutchinson, J. W., Llwyncelyn, Forth, near Pontypridd, South Wales. 
Hutton-Williams. W. f Homefield, 127, The Grove, Ealing, London. 
Hyslop, George P., The Shelton Iron, Steel and Coal Company, Limited, 
Stoke -upon -Trent. 

Ingham, E. T., Blake Hall, Mirfield. 
Ingleby, J., 20, Mount Street, Manchester. 
Inglis, Peter, Plean Colliery, B&unockburn, N.B. 
Ingram, Arthur Eduar, Gwanda, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Irvine, John, 17, Quality Street, Dysart, N.B. 

Jackson, C. F., The Measham Collieries, Limited, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

Jackson, David, Rankinston Works, by Ayr, Ayrshire. 

Jackson, Douglas, Coltness Iron Works, Newmains, N.B. 

Jacksov, J. H., Lower Hagley, Stourbridge, Worcestershire. 

Jackson. W. B. M , Clay Cross Hall, Chesterfield. 

Jackson, W. G. t Prestwick, Witley, Surrey. 

J affrey, William, Westminster Chambers, 3, Victoria Street, London, S. W. 

James, John, c/o The Bank of Egypt, Assouan, Upper Egypt. 

.'ame.s, Thomas, Cae Duke Colliery, Loughor, near Swansea. 

James, William Henrv Trewartha, 38, Aberdare Gardens, West Hampstcad, 

London, N.W. 
Jameson, J. R., c/o Mrs. Prescott, 5, Nicholl Street, Swansea. 
Jamikson, Alexander, Balgonie Colliery, Markinch, N.B. 
Jamieson, James Auldjo, 66, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 
Jamieson, John William, Medomsley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Jamieson, T. J., Motherwell Colliery, Motherwell, N.B. 
Jarratt, J., Houghton Main Colliery, Barnsley. 
Jarvis, Evan, Apedale House, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Jeffcock, C. E., Birley Collieries, Sheffield. 
Jefferson, F., Whitburn Colliery, South Shields. 
Jeffrey John, Woodend Colliery, Armdale, N.B. 
Jenkins, Charles Warren Bowen, The White Feather Main Reefs, Limited, 

Kanowna, Western Australia. 
Jenkins, William, Ocean Collieries, Treorchy, R.S.O., Glamorganshire. 
Jepson, H., 39, North Bailey, Durham. 

Jobling, John William, Clifton Cottage, Burnley, Lancashire. 
Jobling, Thomas Edgar, Bebside, Northumberland. 
Johns, J. Harry, P.O. Box 231, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Johnson, Henry, Trindle Road, Dudley, Worcestershire. 
Johnson, J., York Terrace, Doncaster Road, Stairfoot, near Barnsley; and 

Charbonnages de Rodez, Limited, Gages, Aveyron, France. 
Johnson, William, Hall Garth, Carnforth, Lancashire. 
Johnston, Andrew, 5, Westminster Palace Gardens, Artillery Row, Victoria 

Street, London, S. W. 
Johnston, J. Howard, c/o Backus and Johnston, Lima, Peru, South America. 
Johnstone, Hugh, 77, Montgomery Street, Kelvinside North, Glasgow. 
Johnstone, James, Belhaven Road, Wishaw, N.B. 
Johnstone, Ronald H., 190, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Joicey, W. J., Sunningdale Park, Berks. 
Jones, F. J., Rother Vale Collieries, Treeton, Rotherham. 
Jones, Isaac, Wynnstay Collieries, Ruabon. 
Jones, J. A., Gijon, Asturias, Spain. 
Jones, Jacob Carlos, Wollongong, New South Wales. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXV 

Jones, John Elias, 1, Holmes and Dun Chambers, Durban, Natal, South Africa. 
Jones, Percy Howabd, Snatchwood Park, Pontypool, Monmouthshire. 
Jones, R. Enos, Whitwell Colliery, Whitwell, Chesterfield. 
Jones, Thomas, 1, Princes Street, Great George Street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 
Judd, Henry A. , The Lake View South Gold Mine, Limited, Hannan's Find, 

Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. 

Kay, Robert, South Tanfield, Stanley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Kay, S. R., 1, Albion Place, Leeds. 

Kayll, Alfred Charles, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Kayser, Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand, Launceston, Tasmania. 
'Kebler, Julian A., The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, Boston Building, 

Denver, Colorado, U.S. A. 
Keiohley, Frederick Charles, Union town, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A. 
Kell, George P., Warren House, Sheffield Road, Barnsley. 
Kellett, Matthew Henry, St. Helen's Colliery, Bishop Auckland. 
*Kellett, William, Portland Bank, Southport. 

Kennedy, George Thomas, King's College, Windsor, Hants County, Nova Scotia. 
Kenrick, John P., 8, St. James' Square, Manchester. 
Kerr, Archibald, Bellside Cottage, Cleland, Lanarkshire, N.B. 
Kerr, David Gillespie, The Belmont Gold Mine, Limited, Cordova, Ontario, 

Canada. 
Kerr, George L. , 100, Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 
Kesteven, Frank, Monckton Main Colliery, Barnsley. 
Kidd, Thomas, Jun., Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain. 
Kjlpatrick, John B., Foulshiels Colliery, West Calder, N.B. 
King, Henry, Fernbank, New Cumnock, N.B. 
King, John, Darngavil Colliery, Airdrie, N.B. 
King, Peter, 2, Regent Square, Lenzie, Glasgow. 
Kirkby, Richard, The File Coal Company's Office, Leven, Fifeshire. 
Krkigaard, Peter, Canadian Gold-tields, Limited, Deloro, Ontario, Canada. 
Kirkpatrick, Jambs, Wood bank, Park Street, Wishaw, N.B. 
Kirkup, Austin, Newbottlo Colliery, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses. 
Kirktjp, Frederic Octavius, Langley Park, Durham. 
Kirkup, J. P. , Burnhope, near Lanchester. 
Kirkup, Philip, Leafield House, Birtley, R.S.O.. Co. Durham. 
Kirsopf, John, Jun., Lamesley, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Kirton, Hugh, Kimblesworth Colliery, Chester-le-Street. 
Klepetko, Frank, 1011, Maritime Building, New York City, U.S.A. 
Ksowlbs, John, Brynn Mount, Westwood, Ince, Wigan. 
Knowles, Robert, Ednaston Lodge, near Derby. 
Kochs, A. Victor, Fosters Buildings, High Street, Sheffield. 
Kondo, R., 7, Setomoncho, Nihonbashi, Tokio, Japan. 
Krickhaus, Karl, Lebong Soelit Mining Company, Limited, near Benkoelen, 

Sumatra. 
Kwang, Kwong Yung, c/o M. T. Liang, Director, Imperial Chinese Railways, 
Head Office, Tientsin, North China. 

{*aird, Andrew, 95, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
}*nu>, Joseph, Hattonrigg Colliery, Bellshill, N.B. 
J^mb, George, Butterley Park, Butterley, Derby. 
J^b, Robert Ormston, Hayton, How Mill, Carlisle. 
Lancaster, John, Auchenheath, R.S.O., N.B. 
. Uncastbr, John, Aahlawn, Rugby. 

^dkro, Carlos F. de, co Real del Monte Company, P.O. Box 1, Pachuca, 

Mexico. 
{^dlkss, John, Bank Hall Colliery, Burnley. 
J 4 ***, William, 30, Florence Road, Wortley, LeedB. 
J^^Rte, Henry, 55, Rue de la Concorde, Brussels, Belgium. 
{^"fHAM, Charles, The University, Glasgow. 
bATHBURY, Graham Campbell, East Indian Railway Collieries, Giridih, E.I.R*, 

Bengal, India. 
^Rr*, John, Green Street, Bothwell, N.B. 



XXXVI LIST OF MfcMBEfcS. 

Laverick, J. H. W., Pye Hill, near Nottingham. 

Lavebick, John Walks, Thornley House, Thornley, R.S.O.. Co. Durham. 

Laverick, Robert, The Wollaton Collieries Company, Limited, Nottingham. 

Lawlvy, J., Cradley Road, Cradley Heath, Staffordshire. 

Lawn, James* Gunson, P.O. Box 231, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Lawrence, Henry, 7 and 8, Post Office Chambers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Lawrence, H. L., Southern Rand Proprietary, Limited, P.O., Vredefort, Orange 

River Colony, South Africa. 
Laws, W. G., Town Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Lawther, Thomas D., Minas Pefia del Hierro, por Rio Tinto, Huelva, Spain. 
Lawton, George Enoch, Lawton Estate Office, Harecastle, Staffordshire. 
Lea, Charles, Ashbryn, Gwersyeet, near Wrexham. 
Leach, Charles Catterall, Seghill Colliery, Northumberland. 
Leach, R. Pemberton, Nethermoor, Tibshelf, Alfreton. 
Leck, William, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Cleator Moor, Cumberland. 
Ledoux, E. , 20, Mount Street, Manchester. 
Lee, A. Hampshire, Covenham House, St. John's, Wakefield. 
Lee, John F., Glapwell Colliery, Chesterfield. 

Lee, J. W. R., 70, St. Helen's Gardens, North Kensington, London, W. 
Leech, Arthur Henry, 11, King Street, Wigan, Lancashire. 
Lees, Thomas George, Newstead Colliery, Nottingham. 
Lewin, Henry W., 164, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Lewis, George, Albert Street, Derby. 

Lewis, George Alfred, Penshurst, Charnwood Street, Derby. 
Lewis, J. Dyer, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 183, Richmond Road, Roath, 

Cardiff. 
Lewis, P. W., Greenhill, perby. 

Lewis, Sir William Thomas, Bart., Mardy, Aberdaru. 
Liddell, J. M., 3, Victoria Villas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Liddell, J. W., Wyken Colliery, Coventry. 
Lidster, Ralph, Langley Park Colliery, Durham. 
* Lin day, George. 

Linda y, James, Fen ton Hall, Great Fen ton, Stoke-upon -Trent. 
Lin day, Robert, Netherton Coal Company, Limited, Netherton Collieries, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Lindley, Edward, Eastwood, Nottingham. 
Lindop, Alfred B., New Zealand Government State Coal-mines, Greymouth, 

.New Zealand. 
Linneker, James George, Creswell, near Mansfield. 
Lishman, Robert Richardson, Bretby Colliery, Burton-upon-Trent. 
Lishman, T., Hetton Colliery, Hetton-le-Hole, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Lishman, Tom Alfred, Harton Colliery, Tyne Dock, South Shields. 
•Lishman, William, Holly House, Witton-le-Wear. 
Lishman, W. E., Leasingthorne Colliery, Bishop Auckland. 
Lisle, J., El Bote Mine, Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Little, Gilbert, Transport Appliance Works, Smethwick, Birmingham. 
Little john, Albert, c/o Scott, Henderson and Company, Lof tus Street, Sydney, 

New South Wales. 
Livking, E. H., Langford, near Biggleswade, Bedfordshire. 
Livesey, John, Rose Hill Colliery, Bolton, Lancashire. 
Livingstone, Archibald, Kinneil Collieries, Bo'ness, N.B. 
Livingstone, David, Loganlea Colliery, West Calder, N.B. 
Livingstone, Duncan, Merryton Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 
Llewellin, David Morgan, Glanwern Offices, Pontypool. 
Llewelyn, F. W., Alsacer, Cheshire. 
Lloyd, W. D., Altofts, Nor man ton. 
Loch head, John A.. Melita Cottage, Denny, N.B. 
Lockett, James, Mill Hayes House, Brindley Ford, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Lockwood, Alfred Andrew, 46, Marmora Road, Honor Oak, London, S.E. 
Lodge, J. C, Ryhill Main Colliery, ria Wakefield. 
Logan, William, Langley Park, Durham. 
Longbotham, Jonathan, Sharrow House, Sheffield. 
Eongbotham, Robert Hall, Ings Foundry, Wakefield. 
Longden, G. A., Pleasley, Mansfield. 
Longden, John Alfred, Stanton-by-Dale, near Nottingham. 



LIS* OF MEMBE&S. xxxvn 

Longridge, Cecil Clement, Swan House, Great Swan Alley, Copt hall Avenue, 

London, E.C. 
Longbidgs, Jethbo, Burradon and Hazelrigg Collieries, South Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 
Lonsdale, Talbot Richard, 53. Low Fell Crescent, Durham Road, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne. 
Louis, D. A., 77, Shiriand (hardens, London, W. 
Louis, Henry, 11, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Love, Isaac, The Shotts Iron Company, Castlehill Collieries, by Carluke, N.B. 
Love, John, Lynedoch Cottage, Loanhead, N.B. 
Lowden, T., Hamsteels, near Durham. 
Lowrancb, T. B., Peel Square, Barnsley. 
Lucas, Samuel, Dronfield Foundry, Dronfield, Sheffield. 
Lupton, Arnold, 6, De Grey Road, Leeds. 
Lyon, James, The Poplars, Mostyn Road, near Holywell, North Wales. 

Macalpine, G. W., Althain and Great Harwood Collieries, Accrington. 

MacArthur, John Stewart, 45, Renfield Street, Glasgow. 

McBroom, Archibald, Tin to View, Netherburn, N.B. 

McCarthy, Edward Thomas, c/o Colonel Pigott, Archer Lodge. Charles' Road, 

S£, Leonards-on-Sea. 
McColk, C. H., Bengal Nagpur Coal Company, Limited, Gaugootiya Collieries, 

Deshergarh P.O., Barakar, E.I. Railway, Bengal, India. 
McConnell, James I., Burnfoot, Sanquhar, R.S.O., Dumfriesshire 
McCreath, George W., 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
McCreath, Jambs, 208. St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
McCreath, William, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
McCulloch, John, Linkieburn House, Muirkirk, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 
•McCulloch, William, Linkieburn House, Muirkirk. R.S.O., Ayrshire. 
McDonald, John Alexander, c/o James E. McDonald, 4, Chapel Street, 

Cripplegate, London, E.C. 
Macdonald, Symington, 18, Belmont Gardens, Glasgow, W. 
McFarlane, James Alexander, 5, Warkworth Avenue, Whitley, R.S.O., 

Northumberland. 
McFarlane, Nigel, Corona, Balmoral Drive, Cambuslang, Glasgow. 
McGeachie, Duncan, West Wallsend, New South Wales. 
McGowan, John, Engineers* Department, Corporation Waterworks, Nottingham. 
McGregor, Arthur, Limerigg Cottage, Slamannan, N.B. 
Mackay, Alexander, c/o Don Victor de Larrea, H.B.M. Vice-Consul, Bilbao, 

Spain. 
Mackay, Andrew, Grangemouth Coal Company, Grangemouth, N.B. 
McKay, James, Avonview Cottage, Avonbridge, Stirlingshire. 
Mackay, Mungo, Newbattle Collieries, Dalkeith, N.B. 
Mackenzie, George L., Craigweil, Ayr, N.B. 
Mackey, Wm. McD., Victoria Chambers, Leeds. 
Mackintosh, James. 

Mackintosh, Kenneth P., 51, Carr Street, Ipswich. 
McLaren, Benjamin, Portland House, Kirk by. in -Ash Held, Nottingham. 
Maclarkn, J. Malcolm, Office of the Geological Survey, Calcutta, India. 
McLaren, Robert, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 19, Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 
McLaren, William, Cordoba Villa, Bothwell, N.B. 
McLauchlan, J. I)., 21, Young Street, Edinburgh. 
McLbllan, Neil, Idsley House, Spennymoor, Co. Durham. 
McMillan, James, Jun.,Langloan, Coatbridge, N.B. 
McMurtrie, G. E. J., Radstock, near Bath. 
McMubtbie, James, 5, Belvedere Road, Durdham Park, Bristol. 
McMurtrie, S., Halesowen, Birmingham. 
McNacghton, James, 52, St. Enoch Square, Glasgow. 
McNeill, Bedfobd, 25a, Old Broad Street, London, E.C. 
McPhail, James, Grange, Larkhall, by Hamilton, N.B. 
McPhke, Hugh, Clutha Gold Mines, Limited. Barberton, Transvaal. 
McQueen, D. T. H., Glenburn, Wishaw, N.B. 
Macbone, Habry Wilson, 16, Bank Street, Sheffield. 
MacTaggart, John Pettie, c/o Siemens Brothers and Company, 21, Grainger 

Street West, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



XXXV111 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

McVie, James, Cadzow Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 
Maddison, Thomas Robert, Durkar House, near Wakefield. 
Maddison, W. H. F., The Lindens, Darlington. 
Maddock, James, Maddock Brook Villa, Alsager, Cheshire. 
Madew, BENJAMiN,*Hillside, Pinxton, Alfreton. 

Makepeace, Hugh R., H.M. Inspector of Mines, 12, Compton Road, Wolver- 
hampton. 
Makepeace, Robson Ridley, Talke Cottage. Talk-o'-th'-Hill, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Mammatt, J. E., 1, Albion Place, Leeds. 
Mann, Wing ate R.. Bathville, Armadale Station, N.B. 
Manning, Arthur Hope, P.O. Box 88, Heidelberg, Transvaal. 
Man vers, The Right Honourable The Karl, Thoresby Park, Ollerton, 

Nottingham. 
Markham, Arthur B. , Stuffynwood Hall, Mansfield. 
Markham, C. P., Broad Oaks Iron Works, Chesterfield. 
Markham, G. E., Gloucester Villa, Darlington. 

Marks, Herbkrt T., 8, Union Court, Old Broad Street, London. E.C. 
Marriott, Hugh Frederick, c/o H. Eckstein and Company, P.O. Box 149, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Marsh, T. G. , 20b 1 , Wolverhampton Street, Dudley, Worcestershire. 
Marshall, John, West Road, Irvine, N.B. 
Marshall, J. L., Monk Bretton Colliery, Barnsley. 
Marshall, William, Eddie wood Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 
Marten, E. B., Pedmore, near Stourbridge. 
* Martin. C. W., Newbottle Colliery Offices, Fence Houses. 
Martin, Henry W., Trewern, Dowlais, Glamorganshire. 
Martin, J., Walsall Wood, Walsall. 
Martin, Robert, Niddrie Collieries, Portobello, N.B. 
Martin, R. F., Mountsorrel, Loughborough. 
Martin, Tom Pattinson, 22, Station Road, Workington. 
Mathieson, Alexander, Hetton Colliery, Carrington, near Newcastle, New 

South Wales. 
Matthews, D. H. F. f H.M. Inspector of Mines, Hoole, Chester. 
Matthews, John, c/o R. and W. Hawthorn, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Matthews, R. F., Lartington Hall, Darlington. 
Maurice, William, The Collieries, Hucknall Torkard, Nottingham. 
Mavok, Samuel, 37, Burnbank Gardens, Glasgow. 
Mawson, R. Bryiiam, Bickershaw House, Bickershaw, near Wigan. 
May, George, The Harton Collieries, South Shields. 
Mayes, G. R., Wyunstay Collieries, Limited, Ruabon, North Wales. 
Meachkm, Frederick George, The Poplars, Sand Bank, Bloxwich, Walsall. 
M each km, Isaac, Jun., Perry Park House, Black heath, near Birmingham. 
Mein, Henry Johnson, Carterthorne Colliery, Toft Hill, Bishop Auckland. 
Mein, James, South Norman ton Colliery, Alfreton. 
Meldrum, James Jones, Atlantic Works, City Road, Manchester. 
Mellon, Henry, Brook Lea, Askam-in-Furness. 
Mellors, James, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Out wood, Wakefield. 
*Mellors, Paul, Locksley House, Sherwood Rise, Nottingham. 
Melly, E. F., Griff Colliery, Nuneaton. 
Menzies, John, Auchinraith Colliery, Blantyre, Glasgow. 
Merivale, John Herman, Togston Hall, Acklington, Northumberland. 
Mktcalf, A. T., United Reefs (Sheba), Limited, Eureka City, De Kaap, South 

Africa. 
Meyer, Herr Director, Zeche Shamrock, Heme, Westphalia. 
Meysey-Thompson, A. H., Sun Foundry, Leeds. 
Micklethwaite, J. L., 1, Driffield Terrace, York. 
Middleton, George, Harestanes Cottage, Kirkintilloch, N.B. 
Middleton, Robert, Sheep Scar Foundry, Leeds. 
Midgley, John, 108a, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Miller, George, Jheria P.O., District Manbhoom, Bengal, India. 
Miller, George Appleby Bartram, Black well Colliery, near Alfreton, 

Derbyshire. 
Miller, James, Minas de Sao Bento, Santa Barbara de Matto Dentro, Minas 

Geraes, Brazil. 
Miller, John D. , Rosehall Colliery, Coatbridge, N. B. 



LIST OF MKMBBRS. XXXIX 

Miller, John Henry, South Hetton, Sunderland. 

Miller, J. P. K., H. C. Frick Coke Company, Scottdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Miller, Robert, 4, Griqua Terrace, Both well, N.B. 

Miller, William, Equitable Coal Company, Barakar, E.I.R., Bengal, India. 
Miller, W. M. , 12, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh. 

Miluoan, Alexander R., Ravenshaugh Cottage, Prestongrange, Preston- 
pans, N.B. 
Milligan, Peter, The Arniston Coal Company, Limited, Gorebridge, N.B. 
Millington, VV. W., Hardman House, Hollinwood, Oldham. 
Mills, Mansfeldt Henry, Sherwood Hall, Mansfield. 
Millward, George Anthony, Sidmouth Road, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Minkis. J. T., Oughtibridge, Sheffield. 

Mitchell, Georoe Arthur, 5, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Mitchell, J. E., Mining Offices, Regent Street, Barnsley. 
Mitchell, T. W. H., Mining Offices, Regent Street, Barnsley. 
MrrcHESON, George A., Market Place, Long ton, Staffordshire. 
Mitchixson, R., Pontop Colliery, Annfield Plain, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Mitton, A Dury, Victoria Buildings, Manchester. 
MrrroN, H. E., c/o The Tredegar Coal and Iron Company, Tredegar, South 

Wales. 
Molesgraaff, Gustaaf Adolf Frederik, P.O. Box 149, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal. 
Mollke, Warden Appleby, Chinese Eastern Railway Company, Mining 

Department, Newchwang, China. 
Montgomery, A. , State Mining Engineer, Department of Mines, Perth, Western 

Australia. 
Moodie, Thomas, Daldowie Colliery, Broomhouse, N.B. 
Moore, Robert Thomas, 142, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Moore, R. W. , Somerset House, Whitehaven. 
Moore, William, Loftus Mines, Loftus-in-Cleveland, R.S.O. 
Mordy, William, 182, Waterloo Road, Cobridge, Staffordshire. 
Moreno, Charl.es Algernon, 20, Copthall Avenue, London, E.C. 
Morgan, Dan., The Rockerv, Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Bath. 
Morgan, G. R., 72, Manself Terrace, Verandah Street, Swansea. 
Morison, John, Cramlington House, Northumberland. 
Morland- John son, Edward Thomas, c/o H. T. Johnson, Railway Road, 

Urmston, near Manchester. 
Morris, W., Waldridge Colliery, Chester-le-Street. 
Morris, W. J., Sheepbridge Compauy, Chesterfield. 

Morrlson, Gilbert, East Grange Cottage, East Grange, Dunfermline, N.B. 
Morrison, Joseph, Siddick Villa, Workington. 
Morse, Willard S., Apartado A., Aguascalientes, Mexico. 
Mort, Arthur, North Western State Railways Collieries, Sharigh, Baluchistan, 

India. 
Morton, Charles Pkrcy, Indwe Collieries, Hill Top, Cape Colony, South Africa. 
Morton, H. J., 2, Westbourne Villas, Scarborough. 

Morton, James, 31, Melville Street, Pollokshields, Glasgow. j 

Morton, John, 8, Garden Street, Galston, R.S.O., Ayrshire. i 

Morton, R. M., Ansonhill House, Crossgates, R.S.O., Fifeshire. i 

Mosby, E. F. D.. 13, Cliffe Road, Darfield, Barnsley. i 

MoTTRAM, A. H., c/o The Aranco Company, Limited, Coronel, Chile. ! 

Mottram, Thomas Harry, 6, Kelv inside Gardens, Glasgow. , 

Mountain, William Charles, Forth Banks, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. I 

Movat, David M., Sumraerlee Iron Works, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Mu ir, John James, Mount Lyell Comstock Mine, North Lyell P.O., Tasmania. ' 

MriR, Robert, Dechmont Colliery, Newton, N.B. ; 

Muir, Robert A., The Bowhill Coal Company, Fife, Limited, Cardenden, N.B. 
Mcxdle, Arthur, Murton Chambers, 8, Grainger Street, 1 Newcastle- upon- j 



Tyn. 



ie. 



Mcn'dle, Harrt Arthur, Marley Hill House, Swalwell, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Muxoall, Henry, 20, Royal Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Mcngall, Walter H., Croftweit, Crieff, N.B. 

Mcxro, James, Morningside House, by Newmains, Lanarkshire. 

Mcnro, Neil, Gavell Cottage, Twechar, N.B. 

Munro, R. D., Ill, Union Street, Glasgow. 



1 



xi LiSf OF MEMBERS. 

Munroe, H. S., Columbia College, 41, East Forty ninth Street, New York 

City, U.S.A. 
Mubray, Matthew, Ferndeue, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Murray, Robkkt, Benvue, Bo'ness, R.S.O., Linlithgowshire. 
Murray, Wilijam Cuthbert, Clifton House, Sherburn Colliery Station, near 

Durham. 
Musorave, Henry, 1, Rutland Gate, Claremont Park, Blackpool. 

Nambu, K. , c/o The Mitsu Bishi Company, Tokio, Japan. 

Nash, Horace Brouohton, 23, Victoria Road, Barnsley. 

Nasmyth, A. H., Donibristle Colliery, Crossgates, R.S.O., Fifeshire. 

Nasmyth, G. B., 22, Lomond Road, Trinity, Edinburgh. 

Neal, John, Jun., Middleton, Leeds. 

Neate, Charles E., Black Park Colliery, Ruabon, North Wales. 

Neilson, George, Crossbasket, High Blantyre, Glasgow. 

Neilson, J. A., Teralba, New South Wales. 

Ness, George, Scottish Boiler Insurance and Engine Inspection Company, 

Limited, 111, Union Street, Glasgow. 
Ness, Henry, Townhill, Dunfermline, N.B. 
Ness, William Waters van, 622-623, Salisbury House, London Wall, London, 

E.C. 
Neville, P., Walsall Wood, Walsall. 
Nevin, John, Littlemoor House, Mirfield. 

Newbigin, Henry Thornton, 2, Lovaine Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Newbould, Thomas, Low Stubbin Colliery, Rawmarsh, Rotherham. 
Newton, Frank, Longport, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Newton, John, Longport, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Nicholson, Arthur Darling, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 2, Graingerville, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Nicholson, J. Cook, City Road Tool Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Nicholson, J. H., Cowpen Colliery Office. Blyth, Northumberland. 
Nicholson, Marshall, Middleton Colliery, Leeds. 
Nightingalk, C. F., Endellion, Westbourne Road, Walsall. 
Nimmo, James, 19, Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
* Nisbet, Andrew, Lochgelly Colliery, Lochgelly, R.8.O., Fifeshire. 
Nisbet, Henry, Adelaide Villa, Carmyle Avenue, Carmyle, N.B. 
Nisbet, James, Summerlee Iron Works, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Nivison, John, Dykehead Colliery, Larkhall, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 
Noble, Thomas George, Sacriston Colliery, Durham. 
Nomi, Aitaro, Namazuta Colliery, Province of Chikuzen, Japan. 
Northev, Arthur Ernest, Esgair Hir Mines, Talybont, RS.O., Cardiganshire. 
Nowell, Arthur Berry, Wise House, Dacca, E. 'Bengal, India. 
Nowbll, William, Haunchwood Colliery, Nuneaton. 

Oakes, C. H., Newlands, Alfreton. 

Oakes, Francis James, Jun., 58, Pearl Street, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. A. 

Oates, Robert Joseph William, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, C. India, 

Bengal Nagpur Railway. 
O 'Donahue, T. A., 113, Dicconson Street, Wigan. 
Ogilvik, William, 2, B. Row, Foulford Row, Cowdenbeath, N.B. 
Oldham, George, 25, Western Hill, Durham. 

Olds, Francis, Butterfly Mine, Hartley, Salisbury, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Onions, J. T., 3, Clark Street, Tettenhall Road, Wolverhampton. 
Orchard, Albert John Alfred, The White House, Nailstone, near Leicester. 
Ormiston, A. R., 203, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Ormiston, James, 203, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Ornsby, Edward Thomas, Benwell Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Ornsby, Robert Embleton, Seaton Delaval Colliery, Northumberland. 
O'Shea, L. T., University College, Sheffield. 

Osborne, Francis Douglas, Gopeng, Perak, Federated Malay States. 
Oshima, Rokuro, Hokkaido Colliery and Railway Company, Sapporo, Japan. 
Oughton, William, 33, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Paley. Georue, De Beers Mines, Kimberley, South Africa. 
Palmer, Claude Bowes, Wardley Hall, Pelaw-upon-Tyne. 



ttST OF MEMBERS. xll 

Palmer, Henry, Medomsley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Pamely, C, York House, Chepstow. 

Panton, F. S., Sitio de Cullen, Puerto Orotava, Tenerife. 

Parish, Charles Edward, 4, Park Road, Harlesden, London, N.W. 

Park, Alexander, Kirkwood Collieries, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Parker, Joseph, Beechview, Venturefair, Dunfermline, N.B. 

Parker, Thomas, Wellington Pit, Whitehaven. 

Parkin, E. , 2, Highfield, Kotherham. » 

Parkin, J., Glass Houghton Collieries, Castleford. 

Parkin, L. C, Ings House, Heckmondwike, Yorkshire. 

Parrinoton, Matthew William, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland. 

Parry, D. E. , Norton Cannock Colliery, Bloxwich, Walsall. 

Parry, Evan, Whamcliffe Woodnioor Colliery, Bamsley. 

Parsons, Hon. Charles Alokrnon, Heaton Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Parsons, Cyril Edward, The Rhodesia Exploration and Development Company, 

P.O. Box 213, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Pasooe, Thomas, New Options, Limited, Harrietville, Victoria, Australia. 
Patebson, George Alexander, Ooregum Gold Mine, Oorgaum, Province of 

Mysore, India. 
Patterson, J. G., 216, Lower Hroughton Road, Manchester. 
*Pattison, J. J., Lofthouse Colliery, Limited, near Wakefield. 
Pattison, William, The Sutton Colliery Company, Limited, Sutton-in- Ash field, 

Nottingham. 
Paxton, John, 19, Berners Street, Wakefield. 
Payne, W. J. F., Ackton Hall Colliery, Featherstone, Pontefraet. 
Payton, Edmund, Yew Tree House, Morleston Street, Derby. 
Peacock, F. W., Dixon House, Tipton, Staffordshire. 
Pbake, H. C, Walsall Wood Colliery, Walsall. 
Peake, R. C, Cumberland House, Redbourn, Herts. 
Pear.se, John Walter, 47 bis, Avenue de Clichy, Paris, France. 
Pearson, Alexander, Parkhouse Colliery, Chesterton, Staffordshire. 
Pearson, Andrew, The Grove, Rutherglen, Glasgow. 
Pearson, Hugh, Rock End Terrace, Mungavie, Glasgow. 
Pearson, James, Brampton Manor, Chesterfield. 
Pearson, Johnson, The Red House. Whittington, Chesterfield. 
Pearson, Samuel Garforth, Free State Mine, Leydsdorp, Transvaal. 
Peel, Robert, New Brancepeth Colliery, Durham. 
Peele, Robert, 36, Wall Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
Peet, William, 8, Park Terrace, Worsborongh, Barnslev. 
Peile, William, Southampton Lodge, Oakleigh Park, Whetstone, London, N. 
Pendleton, W. B., Killingworth Colliery, near West Wallsend, New South 

Wales. 
•Percy, C. M., Kins Street, Wigan. Ttvnmctwtt* to be sent to the Librarian, 

Wigan Free Library, Wigan. 
Percy, R. F., 31, Colwick Road, Nottingham. 
Percy, W. R., Hamilton Lodge, Sherwood Rise, Nottingham. 
Perkins, F. M., c/o Perkins and Company, Preston Building, 179, Summer 

Street, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. A. 
Petbrkin, John Alexander, c/o E. Doming and Sons, 41. John Dal ton Street, 

Manchester. 
Phillips, W. G., Anslev Hall Colliery, Atherstone, Warwickshire. 
Piocford, Jonathan, Teversal, Mansfield. 
Pile, William, Cambrian Collieries, Limited, Castle Buildings, Durban, Natal, 

South Africa. 
Pilkington, Herbert, Sheepbridge, Chesterfield. 

Pingstonk, Gbort.e A., P.O. Box 445, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Plummer, John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Bishop Auckland. 
Pollard, John, Central Chambers, King Street, Wakefield. 
Pomjtzkr, Samuel Joseph, Temple Court, 146, King Street, Sydney, New 

South Wales. 
Pollock, John, 83, Woodside Street, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Poors, George Bentley, c/o H. Eckstein and Company, P.O. Box 149, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
•Popham, John Leybourne, P.O. Box 50, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South 

Africa. 



Xlii LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Porter, John Bonsall, Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, MoGill University 
Montreal, Canada. 

Portland, His Grace the Duke of, Welbeck Abbey, Worksop. 

Potter, C. J., Heaton Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Potts, Samuel, Santa Cruz, Burn bank Road, Hamilton, N.B. 

Powell, Charles Henry, c o Walter Lupton and Company, Limited, Albert 
Street, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
„ Poxon, John, The Laurels, Church Street, Basford, Nottingham. 

Prentice, Thomas, Brisdanehill, West Calder, N.B. 

Prest, J. J., Hardwick Hall, Castle Eden, Durham. 

Prestwich, J., Elm Bank, 72. Eccles Old Road, Eccles, Manchester. 

Price, Francis Holborrow Glynn, Longlands Place, Swansea. 

Price, J. A., Rowley Regis, Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Price, S. R., c/o A. W. Price, Drury Lane Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

Price, Samuel Warren, The Wern, Peters ton -super- Ely, near Cardiff. 

Priestley, J. G., Peninsular House, Monument Street, London. E.C. 

Pringle, J. A., P.O. Box 155, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Prior, Hon. Edward G. , Victoria, British Columbia. 

Prcktor, C. P. , Salterwood Colliery, Denby, near Derby. 

Provan, John, Baleonie Colliery, Thornton, Fife. 

Purcbll, S., The Mount, Pontefract. 

Quinton, Francis John, West Rand Central Gold Mining Company, Limited, 
29, Goodmans Buildings, P.O. Box 662, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Raber, Anton, The Haskew Walton Company, Limited, Victoria Square, 

Birmingham. 
Raby, G. E., Lota, Chile. 
Rae, J. L. C, Sydney Harbour Collieries, Balmain, Sydney, New South 

Wales. 
Ramsay, John Alsop, Harperley Hall, Tantobie, RS.O., Co. Durham. 
Ramsay, W., Tursdale, Co. Durham. 
Randolph, Beverley S., Frostburg, Maryland, U.S.A. 
Rankine, Alexander B., Rose Cottage, West Calder, N.B. 
Rankine, David, 238, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Rasp ass, J. C. T., Tweedale, Madeley, Shropshire. 
Rateau, Auouste, 105, Quai d'Orsay, Paris, France. 
Ravenshaw, Henry William, Kutland House, Hanwcll, London, W. 
Rawlin.^J., Tankersley Farm, Hoyland Common, Barnsley. 
Rawsthokne, J. H., Brackley Villa, Middle Hulton, Bolton, Lancashire. 
Redkern, Alfred, Natal Victoria Navigation Collieries, Limited, Weasels Nek, 

Natal, South Africa. 
Redmayne, Richard Augustine Studdert, The University, Birmingham. 
Redwood. Boverton, Wad ham Lodge, Wadham Gardens, London, NTW. 
Rees, D. J. Arthur, c/o F. Napier White, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 9, Mirador 

Crescent, Swansea. 
Rees, Ithel Treharne, Guildhall Chambers, Cardiff. 
Rees, Robert Thomas, Glandare, Aberdare. 
Rees, William Thomas, Maesyffynon, Aberdare, South Wales. 
Reid, Alexander, Pekin Syndicate, Limited, Shanghai, China. Transaction* to 

be sent to Arosfa, Fairy Road, Wrexham. 
Reid, Arthur H., 20, South African Chambers, St. George's Street, Cape Town, 

South Africa. 
Reid, Francis, Riverside, Black Boys, Sussex. 
Rkid, William, 41, Garthland Drive, Glasgow. 

Rknshaw, W. R., Phcenix Foundry and Boiler Works, Stoke- upon-Trent. 
Renwiok, T. C, Lumley Thicks, Fence Houses. 
Reynolds, Henry Baker, c/o F. A. Mattievich and Company, Batouin, South 

Russia. 
Reynolds, William Mackenzie, The Park Collieries, Garswood, near Wigan. 
Rhodes, A., The Laurels, 185, Chippinghouse Road, Sheffield. 
Rhodes, Ben Albert, Hallas, Kirk burton, near Hudderstield. 
Rhodes, Charles Edward, Aldwarke Main and Car House Collieries, Rother- 

ham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xlili 

Rhodes, F. B. F., National Smelting and Refining Company, South Chicago, 

Illinois, U.S.A. 
Rhodes, Harry, Rotherham Main Colliery, Rotherham. 
Rhodes, Jeremiah, Shirland Colliery, Alfreton. 
Rhodes, Samuel Hulme, 50, Zimmerstrasse, Berlin, Germany. 
Rich, Frank A., Karangahake, Auckland, New- Zealand. 
Rich, William, Trevu, Camborne, Cornwall. 
Richards, Thomas, Barnsley Main Colliery, Barnaley. 
Richards, T. J. , Rock House, Pontrhydfendigaid, Cardiganshire. 
Richardson, A. M., 44, Victoria Road, Holbeck, Leeds. 
Richardson, H., 89, Ashley Gardens, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Richardson, M. D. R., Charnwood House, London Road, Coalville, near 

Leicester. 
Richardson, Nicholas, Holywell House, Back worth, Northumberland. 
Richardson, Ralph, Barrow Collieries, Barnsley. 
Richardson, Robert, Blaydon Main Colliery, Blaydon-upon-Tyne. 
Ridley, Norman Backhouse, 2, Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Ridtard, J., Hilton Bank, Little Hulton, Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire. 
Riobt, Frank, Alsager, Cheshire. 

RrreoN, J., Jun., Aber House, Tynewdd, Ogmore Vale, South W.«les. 
Ritson, John Ridley, Burnhope Colliery, Lan cheater. 
RnsoK, Utrick Alexander, 15, Queen Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Ritson, W. A., 44, Woodlands Street, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 
Robbiks, Percy Arthur, De Beers Consolidated Mines, Limited, Kimberley, 

South Africa. 
Robert, Philip Rhiselander, 618, Orchard Lake Avenue, Pontiac, Michigan, 

U.S.A. 
Roberton, Edward Heton, The University, Birmingham. 
Roberts, James, Arniaton Collieries, Gorebridge, N.B. 
Roberts, James, Jun., Perran House, Perranporth. R.S.O., Cornwall. 
Roberts, Robert, Oakley Slate Quarries Company, Limited, Blaenau Festiniog, 

North Wales. 
Roberts, Stephen, Luipaards Vlei Estate and Gold Mining Company, P.O. Box 

53, Krugersdorp, Transvaal. 
Roberts, Thomas, Brownhills Colliery, Tunstall, Staffordshire. 
Robertson, Andrew, 49, Mining Exchange, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. 
Robertson, Daniel Alexander Wilberporce, Metropolitan Coal Company, 

Helensburgh, Illawarra Line, New South Wales. 
Robertson, James Robert Miller, Linton, Milson's Point, Sydney/ New South 

Wales. 
Robertson, Richard, Carronhall Colliery, Falkirk, N.B. 
Robeson, Anthony Maurice, c/o H. Eckstein and Company, P.O. Box 149, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Robins, Samuel M., Nanaimo, British Columbia. 
Robinson, George, Boldon Colliery, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Robinson, G. C, Brereton and Hayes Colliery, Rugeley, Staffordshire. 
Robinson, John, The Grange, Haydock, near St. Helen's, Lancashire. 
Robinson, John, High Hedgefield, Blaydon-upon-Tyne. 
Robinson, J. B., Colliery Offices, Tow Law, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Robinson, John Thomas, South Medomsley Colliery, Dipton, R.S.O. 
Robinson, Robert Dobson, Tamworth Colliery Company, Tamworth, Warwick- 

shire. 
Robinson, R. H., Heatherdene, Heanor, Nottingham. 
Robinson, Timothy, Ryhope Colliery, ma Sunderland. 
Robsox, J. S., Butterkuowle Colliery, via Darlington. 
'Robson, T. 0., Bellevue, Marske by the Sea, R.S.O., Yorkshire. 
Rodger, John, Portland Iron Works, Hurlford, N.B. 
Rogers. D., 71, Dudley Road, Tipton, Staffordshire. 
Rogers, Daniel, Jun., Lyttleton Collieries, Huntington, Staffordshire. 
Rome, J. E., 6, Roseburn Place, Edinburgh. 
Rosaldson, J. H., c/o British African Gold Dredging Company, Limited, P.O. 

Box 5224, .Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Roxaldsok, John M., H.M. Inspector of Mines, 44, Athole Gardens, Glasgow. 
Ross, Hugh, Croxdale Colliery Office, Durham. 
Ross, J. A. G., 11, Royal Arcade, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



xllV LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Ross, William. 

Roth well, Samuel, 21, Chorley New Road, Bolton, Lancashire. 

Routledoe, A. J., Rykneld Cottage, Denby Station, near Derby. 

Routledoe, A. N., Tyneholme, Osmondthorpe, Leeds. 

Routledoe, R., Garforth Colliery, Leeds. 

Routledoe, W., Glass Houghton Colliery, Castleford, Yorkshire. 

Routledoe, W. H., Woodfield Park, Blackwood, Monmouthshire. 

Rowan, Donald, Wallyford Colliery, Musselburgh, N.B. 

Rowan, Henry, Foulford House, Cowdenbeath, Fifeshire. 

Rowan d, Robert, 59, Westgate, Wakefield. 

Rowbotham, Thomas, Shaw Villa, Stockport. 

Rowe, William Henry, 4, Howard Drive, Grassendale, Liverpool. 

Rowlands, William Kdward, 16, Penmaier-Glas Road, Aberystwyth, South 

Wales. 
Rowley, Walter, 20, Park Row, Leeds. 
Roy, Henry, Carmyle Avenue, Carmyle, N.B. 
*Rumbold, William Richard, Mill House, Holmwood, Surrey. 
Rushworth, D. , Clay Cross Company, Clay Cross, Chesterfield. 
Russell, Archibald, The Cottages, Newmains, N.B. 
Russell, Charles, Milnwood Colliery, Bellshill, N.B. 
Russell, D., Thorncliffe Collieries, Sheffield. 
Russell, George, 13, Park Circus, Ayr, N.B. 
Russell, James, Westoraigs Farm, Blackridge, West Lothian. 
Russell, James, Greenview, Tollcross, Glasgow. 
Russell, Robert, Coltness Iron Works, Newmains, N.B. 
Rutherford, Robert, Ax well Park Colliery, Swalwell, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Rutherford, William, Lindum House, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Rutherford, William, Jun., South Derwent Colliery, Annfield Plain, Co. 

Durham. 
Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, Belvoir Castle, Grantham. 

Saint, William, H.M. Iuspector of Mines, Kersal Bank, Higher Broughton, 

Manchester. 
Saise, Walter, Guiiadih, Giridih, E.I.R., Bengal, India. 
Salmond, James, Woodside Villa, Hamilton, N.B. 
Salmond, Walter, Pin x ton Collieries, Alfreton. 
Sam, Thomas Birch Freeman, c/o F. and A. Swanzy, Cape Coast Castle, West 

Africa. 
Samborne, John Stukkly Palmrr, Timsbury House, Bath. 
Sams, C. R., Shipley Collieries, Derby. 
Sam well, Nicholas, c/'o Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Salisbury House, 

London Wall, London, K.C. 
Saner, E. J., Fenton Engineering Works, Fen ton, Staffordshire. 
Sankky, W. H., Morley Hall, Derby. 
San key, W. H., Jun., Morley, Derby. 

Saunders, David William Alban, Worcester Chambers, Swansea. 
Saunders, W. A., Chipping Norton, Oxon. 
Saunders, William Thomas, The Athemeum Club, Collins Street, Melbourne, 

Victoria, Australia. 
Savage, Arthur Thomas Chambers, Shipley, Derby. 
Sawyer, Arthur Robert, P.O. Box 5456, Johannesburg, Transvaal ; and 

26, Budge Row, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
Saxton, Isaac, Hasland, Chesterfield. 

Schreck, Henrique, Minas Peiias del Hierro, por Rio Tinto, Huelva, Spain. 
S00TT, C. F., Newbeii, Leadcate, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Scott, Elgin, Ropienka Oil Wells, Ropienka, Galicia, Austria. 
Scott, Ernest, Close Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Scott, E. Charlton, Woodside Cottage, Totley Rise, near Sheffield. 
Scott, Frederick Bowes, Broadway Chambers, Westminster, London, S. W. 
* Scott, F. W., Atlas Wire Rope Works, Reddish, Stockport. 
Scott, Herbert Kilburn, Royal Societies Club, St. James" Street, London, W.C. 
Scott, Joseph Samuel, Trimdon Hall, Trimdon Grange, R.S.O., Co. Durham, 
Scott, William, Westminster Chambers, East Parade, Leeds. 
Scoular, G., St. Bees, Cumberland, 
Scrivener, Edward K, 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xlv 

Seely, Sir Charles, Bart., Sherwood Lodge, Arnold, Nottinghamshire. 

Seely, C. H., Langford Hall, Newark, Nottinghamshire. 

Seely, Frank Evelyn, Calverton Hall, Nottingham. 

Selby, John Baseley, Leigh, Lancashire. , 

Sellers, Alfred Ernest Oswald South Bulli and Bellambi Collieries, Beliambi 
P.O., New South Wales. 

Senior, A., Park House, Barnsley. 

Settle, Joel. The Hill, Alsager, Cheshire. 

Severs, Joseph, North Walbottle Newhurn, R.S.O.. Northumberland. 

Severs, William, Beamish, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Shark, W. E., 16, Westbromwich Street, Walsall. 

Sharp, Jacob, Lambton House, Fence Houses. 

Shaw, F. G., Royal Societies Club, St. James' Street, London, 8. W. 

Shaw, 6., Wath Main Colliery, Rotherham. 

Shaw, Jambs, The Terraces, North Adelaide, South Australia. 

Shaw, John. Welburn Hall, Kirby Moorside, R.S.O., Yorkshire. 

Shaw, J. Leslie, Somerset House, Whitehaven. 

Shaw, Robert J., Ackton Main Colliery, Featherstone, near Pontefract. 

Sheaper, A. W., Pottsville, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

Sheard, Jos., Croft House, Farnley, Leeds. 

SHE4RD, R., Caldervale Boiler Works, Wakefield. 

Shelley, William E., 20, Mount Street, Manchester. 

Shentov, Jambs, Ross Cottages, Edward Street, West Bromwich. 

Shiel, John, Sniperley Hall, near Durham. 

Shipley, Thomas B., 18, Green's Buildings, Johannesburg, Transvaal. Tramar- 
fion* to be sent to c/o Andrew Reid and Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Shore, Thomas, Shag Point Colliery, Otago, New Zealand. 

Short, W., Lambton Colliery, Newcastle, New South Wales. 

Shuts, C. A. , 7, Dixon Terrace, Darlington. 

Simon, Frank. P.O. Box 2986, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Simpkin, Arthur, Pildacre Collieries, Ossett, near Wakefield. 

Simpkin, J. W., Midsomer Norton, Bath. 

Simpson, C L., Engine Works, Grosvenor Road, Pimlico, London. 

Simpson, Dfndas, P.O. Box 1028, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Simpson-, F. L. G., Mohpani Coal Mines, Gadawarra, C.P., India. 

Simpson, Frank Robert, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon-Tyne. 

Simpsos, Gilbert Pttcairn, 3, Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park, London, N. W. 

Simpson, J., Heworth Colliery, Felling, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Simpson, John Bell, Bradley Hall, Wylam-upon-Tyne. 

Simpson, Robert, 175, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

Simpson, Robert, P.O. Box 1028, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Simpson, Robert Rowkll, Office of the Geological Survey, Calcutta, India. 

Simpson, Thomas Vbntrkss, Throckley Colliery, Newhurn, R.S.O., Northumber- 
land. 

Skertchley, Sydney A. R., Burlington Drive, Beltinge, Heme Bay, Kent. 

Skinner, H. R., The Durban Roodeport Gold Mining Company, Limited, 
Roodeport, Witwatersrandt, Transvaal. 

*3kinner, Sam tel, Throapham Manor, Rotherham. 

Sunn, T., 40, Park Avenue, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Smart, A., c/o Frazer and Chalmers, Limited, Erith, Kent. 

Smeluf., Archibald, Bank Colliery, New Cumnock, N.B. 

Smith, Alexander, 3, Newhall Street, Birmingham. 

Smith, C. Sebastian, Shipley Collieries, Derby. 

Smith, Dalziel Gordon, P.O. Box 16, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Smith, Frank B., Calgary, N.W.T., Canada. 

Smith, G. E., 58, Mapperley Road, Nottingham. 

Smith, George W., Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 

Smith, H., North Side, Queen's Dock, Hull. 

Smith, H. S., The Timsbury Collieries, near Bath. 

Smith, John, Bickershaw Collieries, Leigh, Lancashire. 

Smith, J. Baonold, Weatfield House, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. 
Smith, R. Clifford, Ashford Hall, Bakewell. 
Smith, Sydney A., I, Princess Street, Albert Square, Manchester. 
Smith, William, P.O. Box 653, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 



Xlvi LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Smith, William, Dalmellington Iron Works, Ayr, N.B. 

Smith, W. Ivak, Sydney Villa, Blackheath, Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Sneddon, James Balfour, Oakbank Colliery, Mid Calder, N.B. 

Snell, Albion T., Suffolk House, Cannon Street, London, EC. 

Snow, Charles, South Kirkby Colliery, Wakefield. 

Snyder, Frederick T., 400, Monon Building, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 

Soar, Edward, Kiveton Park Colliery, Sheffield. 

Soar, H. G. , Frystone Collieries, Castleford. 

Soar, M., Warren, Chapel town, Sheffield. 

Sopwitu, Arthur, Cannock Chase Collieries, near Walsall. 

Southern, Edmund Octavius, Ashington Colliery, near Morpeth. 

Southern, John, Heworth Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Southern, R. W. A., 33, The Parade, Cardiff. 

Southern, T. A., The Universal Mining School, Cardiff. 

Sfarkes, J. S., 55, Richmond Road, Cardiff. 

Spence, Robert F., Backworth, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Spencer, E. D., Jesmond, Holbrook Road, Leicester. 

Spencer, Francis H., Bonanza Gold Mining Company, P.O. Box 149, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Spencer, George, Stanley Lodge, West Hallam, Derby. 
Spencer, J. , Globe Tube Works, Wednesbury. 
Spencer, John, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Spencer, John Watson, Newburn, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Spencer, Richard, 37, Harehills Lane, Leeds. 
Spencer, William, Southfields, Leicester. 
Spooner, George, Darfield Main Colliery, near Barnsley. 
Squire, John Barret, 20, Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Staley, A. H., Coton Road, Nuneaton. 

Stanley, Georse Hardy, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Stanley, Reginald, Manor Court, Nuneaton. 
Stanners, Robert, Bowershall, Dunfermline. N.B. 

Stansfeld, Harold Sinclair, Rainford Colliery, near St. Helen's, Lancashire. 
Stanton, John, 11 and 13, William Street, New York City, U S.A. 
Statham, William, Field House, Chesterton, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Stear, James, Strafford Colliery, Barnsley. 
Steavenson, A. L., Durham. 

Stbavenson, C. H., Redheugh Colliery, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Steele, Eli, St. Peter's Chambers, Stoke- upon- Trent. 
Steele, Richard, 29, Albion Street, Hanley,. Staffordshire. 
Stevens, Arthur James, Uskside Iron Works, Newport, Monmouthshire. 
Stevens, James, 9, Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. 
Stevenson, A. D. , Shireoaks Colliery, Worksop. 
Stevenson, Henry, Linby Colliery, Nottingham.' 
Stevenson, Hugh, 13, Carlton Place, Glasgow. 
Stevenson, Thomas, Earnock Colliery, Hamilton. N.B. 
Stewart, Alexander, c/o Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Limited, Broken 

Hill, via Adelaide, New South Wales. 
Stewart, John H., Fairhill Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 
Stewart, W., Powells Tillery Steam Coal Company, Limited, Abertillery, 

Monmouthshire. 
Stirling, James, Braehead Colliery, Fauldhouse, Linlithgowshire. 
Stobart, F., Biddick Hall, Fence Houses. 
Stobart, H. T., Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland. 
Stobart, W., Pepper Arden, Northallerton. 
Stobart, William Ryder, Etherley Collieries, Co. Durham. 
Stobbs, John Thomas, Darenth Terrace, Basford Park, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Stoiber, Edward G., c/o Prof. Regis Channenct, President, State School of 

Mines, Golden, Colorado, U.S.A. 
Stoker, Arthur P., Ouston House, near Chester-le-Street. 
Stokes, E. E. V., Trentham, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Stone, Arthur, Heath Villas, Hindley, Wigan. 
Stones, George B., Carlton, near Barnsley. 
Storey, Thomas E., Trentham, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Storey, William, Urpeth Villas, Beamish, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Strain, Hugh, 12, Fitzroy Place, Glasgow. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xlvii 

Strain, James M., 15, Kingsborough Gardens, Hyndland, Glasgow. 
Straker, J. H. , Howden Dene, Corbridge-upon-Tyne. 
Strathirn, Alexander G., Izaville, Stepps, Glasgow. 
Streatfield, Hugh Sidney, Ryhope, near Sunderland. 
'Strick, John, Bar Hill, Madeley, Staffordshire. 
Stuart, Donald M. D., Rediand, Bristol. 
Stubrs, Thomas, Aidwarke Main Colliery, Rotherham. 
Sulman, H. Livingstone, 44, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Sumnall, Henry, Castle Villa, Chesterton, Staffordshire. 
Sutcuppe, Richard, Horbury, near Wakefield, Yorkshire. 
Sutherland, Robert, c/o The Transvaal Gold Mining Estates, Limited, Pilgrims 

Rest, Transvaal. 
Sutton, William, Baltic House, Balham Hill, London, S.W. 
Sutton, William,- 28, Princes Street, Masbro', Rotherham. 
Swallow, Frederick Charles, Glenroy, Nuneaton. 

Swallow, John, East Pontop Colliery, Annfield Plain, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Swallow, J. F., Mosboro' Hill, Sheffield. 

Swallow, Wardle Asqcith, Tanfield Lea, Tantobie, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Swan, H. F., Walker Shipyard, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Swann, Hugh P., Gartcraig, Shettleston, N.B. 
Swift, Robert Mountain, Sim Hill, Cranemoor, near Sheffield. 
Swinburne, Umfreville Percy, Inspector of Mines, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Swindle, Jackson, Swalwell, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Swinney, Alfred John George, Lome Villa, Elm Road, Sidcup, Kent. 
Symons, Francis, Ulverston, Lancashire. 

Tate, Simon, Trimdon Grange Colliery, Co. Durham. 

Tattley, William, Crummer Road, Newton, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Taylor, Alfred Henry, Ngunguru Coal Mines, Kiripaka, \<ia Auckland, New 
Zealand. 

Taylor, John Henry, Borough Surveyor, Barnsley. 

Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark-upon-Tyne. 

Teasdale, T., Midd ridge, via Heighington, R.S.O. 

Telfer, Henry, J un., Clydesdale, Uddingston, N.B. 

Tellwright, William, Sneyd Colliery, Burslem, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Tknnakt, John Murray, 1, Craigie Avenue, Ayr, N.B. 

Thacker, S. L., 39, Union Street, Walsall. 

Thrkell, E. W., Aidwarke Main Colliery, Rotherham. 

Thom, James R., c/o D. Simpson, P.O. Box 1028, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Thomas, A., East Greta Colliery, near West Maitland, New South Wales. 

Thomas, Arthur, c/o A. Capato and Company, Suakin, Egypt. 

Thomas, Ernest Henry, Oakhill, Gadlys, Aberdare, South Wales. 

Thomas, F. H., Yieldfields Hall, Bloxwich, Walsall. 

Thomas, Iltid Edward, Glanymor, Swansea. 

Thomas, J. F , Ferreira Gold Mine, Transvaal, South Africa. 

Thomas, J. J., Hawthorn Villa, Kendal. 

Thomas, Richard, c/o Henry J. Thomas, 100, Marian Street, Clydach Vale, 

Llwynypia. Pontypridd. 
Thomas, S. E., Hall's Collieries, Swadlincote, Burton-upon-Trent. 
Thomas, Trevor F., 9, Mount Stuart Square, Bute Docks, Cardiff. 
Thomlinson, William, Seaton Carew, R.S.O. 
Thompson, Alfred, Talbot House, Birtley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Thompson, Charles Lacy, Farlam Hail, Brampton Junction, Cumberland. 
Thompson, G. R., The Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Thompson, John G., Bank House, Collins Green, Earlestown, Lancashire. 
Thompson, John William, Greenfield House, Crook, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Thompson, W., 1 and 2, Great Winchester Street, London, E.C. 
Thomson, Arthur Thomas, Manvers Main Colliery, Wath-upon-Dearne, 

Rotherham. 
Thomson, George, Bannockburn Colliery, Bannockburn, R.S.O., Stirlingshire. 
Thomson, James, Ross Street, Dunfermline, N.B. 
Thomson, John, Glenarm Lime Works, Lame, Co. Antrim. 
Thomson, John, Eaton Mines, by Middlesbrough. 
Thomson, Joseph F., Manvers Main Colliery, Wath-upon-Dearne, Rother- 



VOL. XX1V.-190S-WQB. 



Xlviil LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Thomson, John Whitfield, c'o Isaac Thomson, Law Junction, Carluke, 

Lanarkshire. 
Thomson, R. D., Ibstock Colliery, Leicester. 
Thomson, Thomas, Eddlewood Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 
Thomson, William S., Victoria Terrace, El Burgo, Corunna, Spain. 
Thornewill, Robert, Engineering Works, Burton-upon-Trent. 
Thorn eycro ft, Wallace, East Plean House, Bannock burn, N.B. 
Thornton, Norman M., South Pelaw Colliery, Chester-le-Street. 
Thornton, Peter, 4, Shandon Road, Edinburgh. 
Tinker, C. S., Meal Hill, Hepworth, Huddersfield. 
Tinsley, John, Perseverance Engine Works, Castle Street, Staly bridge. 
Todd, John T., Blackwell Collieries, Alfreton. 
Todd, W. G., 09, Norfolk Road, Sheffield. 
Tonkin, J. J., Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain. 
Touzeau, E. M., 30 and 31, St. Swithin's Lane, London, E.C. 
Townsend, Henry George, St. John's Colliery, Normanton. 
Townsend, Harry Poyser, The Penhalonga Proprietary Mines, Limited, Umtali, 

Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Treolown, C. H., 3, Soho Avenue, Handsworth, Birmingham. 
Trbolown, W. M., 114a, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Trelease, William Henwood, Ceppomorelli per Macugnaya, Vail' Anzasca, 

Prov. di Novara, Italy. 
Trestrail, N., Claremont Road, Redruth, Cornwall. 

Trevaillk- Williams, T., Johannesburg Consolidated Investment Company, 
• Limited, P.O. Box 590, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Trevor, Earle Wellington Jenks, 78, Palace Chambers, 9, Bridge Street, 

Westminster, London, S.W. 
Trump, Fred. J., Morfa, Stanwell Road, Penarth, South Wales. 
Tulip, Samuel, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses. 
Turnbull, A. W., 130, George Street, Edinburgh. 
Turnbull, J. J., East Indian Coal Company, Limited, Jherriah P.O., District 

Manbhoom, Bengal, India. 
Turnbull, Robert, Usworth Colliery, Washington, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Turner, David Neville, Mansfield Woodhouse, Mansfield. 
Turner, George, Buxton House, Holyhead Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 
Turner, George F., Clyde, Otago, New Zealand. 
Turner, Joseph, Lismore Terrace, Kidsgrove, Stoke-upon -Trent. 
Turner, Samuel, William Pit, Whitehaven Collieries, Whitehaven. 
Turner, Thomas, Caledonia Works, Kilmarnock, N.B. 
Turner, T. N., Langley Mill, Notts. 
Tyas, A. R., Wombwell Main Colliery, Barnsley. 

Tyers, John Emanuel, Lowland Villa, 19, Wellington Street, Swindon, Wilts. 
Tyrrell, Joseph Burr, Dawson, Yukon Territory, Canada. 
Tyzack, David, Bellingham, Northumberland. 

Underhill, R., Aldridge Colliery, Walsall. 

Upton, Presoott, P.O. Box 1026, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Vallbntinb, Edwin J., Eureka City, Barberton, Transvaal. 

Varty, Thomas, Skelton Park Mines, Skelton, R.S.O., Cleveland. 

Vaughan, Cedric, Hodbarrow Iron Ore Mines, Millom, Cumberland. 

Vaughan, John, Balaclava Souse, Dowlais, Glamorganshire. 

Veasby, Harvey C, c/o H. W. Veasey, 1, Bedford Park, Chiswick, London. 

Verny, George, Doubovais, Balka Krivoi, Russia. 

Vbrsghoylb, William Dbnham, P.O. Box 1074, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. 
•Vezin, Henry A., P.O. Box 256, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

Vickers, P. G., Kenwadih Collieries, Kusunda P.O., Manbhoom, E.I. Railway, 
1 Bengal, India. 

! Viggars, Matthew Henry. Knutton Farm, Newcastle, Staffordshire 

Vitanoff, George N., 1, Tynemouth Place, Tynemouth, Northumberland. 

Vivian, John, Vivian's Boring and Exploration Company, Limited, 42, Lowther 
; Street, Whitehaven. 

I Waddle, H., The Waddle Patent Fan and Engineering Company, Llanelly, 

j South Wales. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xlix 

Wade, Robert Armytage, The Glencairn Main Reef Gold Mining Company, 
Germiston, Transvaal. 

Wadjiam, Edward, Millwood, Dalton-in-Furness. 

Wadham, Walter Francis Ainslie, Millwood, Dalton-in-Furness. 

Wadsworth, William Deakin, Jun., New Square, Chesterfield. 

Wain, Edward B., Whitfield Collieries, Nor ton -in -the- Moors, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Wain, Joseph, The Chatter ley- Whitfield Collieries, Bucknall, Stoke-upon- 
Trent. 

Wain, J. R., The Chatterley- Whitfield Collieries, Tnnstall, Staffordshire. 

Wainwrkjht, John, Howden Clough Colliery, Birstaii, Leeds. 

Wales, H. T., Western Mail Chambers, Cardiff. 

Walker, Charles, 180, Eddie wood, Hamilton, N.B. 

Walker, David M., Woodilee Colliery, Lcnzie, Glasgow. 

Walker, George Blake, Wharncliffe Silkstone Colliery, Barnsley. 

Walker, Henry Blair, Cassell Coal Company, Springs, Transvaal. 

Walker. James Howard, Bank Chambers, Wigan. 

Walker, John Scarisbrick, Pagefield Iron Works, Wigan, Lancashire. 

Walker, Stdney Ferris, Bloomfield Crescent, Bath. 

Walker, Thomas A.. Pagefield Iron Works, Wigan, Lancashire. 

Walker, William, Cadzow Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 

Walker, William, Jan., H.M. Inspector of Mines, Durham. 

Walker, VV. E.. Clifton Colliery, Nottingham. 

Walker. William Edward, Lowther Street, Whitehaven. 

Walker, W. H., Cardarroch House, Airdrie, N.B. 

Walker, W. P., Old Corn Exchange, Wakefield. 

Walklate, J. J., The Potteries Electric Traction Company, Limited, Stoke- 
upon-Trent. 

Wall, Henry, Rowbottom Square, Wallgate, Wigan. 

Wall, William Henry, 46, Haliburton Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia. 

Wallace, J., Ashwood Lodge, Headingley, Leeds. 

Wallace, James, Wester Gartshore Colliery, Kirkintilloch, Glasgow. 

Wallwork, Jesse, Bolton Road, Atherton, Lancashire. 

Walsh, George Paton, 564, Heirengracht, Amsterdam, Holland. 

W r alters, Hargrave, Todwick, near Sheffield. 

Walters, Robert G., 28, Western Street, Barnsley. 

Walton, Cecil, c/o Hardy Patent Pick Company, Heeley, Sheffield. 

Walton, J. Coulthard, Writhlington Colliery, Radstock, via Bath. 

Walton, Thomas, Executor of Col. Hargreaves, Colliery Offices, Bank Parade, 
Burnley, Lancashire. 

Walton, W. W., Croft Cottage, Ferryside, near Carmarthen, South Wales. 

Waplington, William, Cwmbran Colliery, near Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Warburton, J. S., 19, Stanwick Road, West Kensington, London, W. 

Ward, A. H. , Raneegunge, Bengal, India. 

Ward, F. L., Bradford Colliery, Bradford, Manchester. 

Ward, H., Rodbaston Hall, near Penkridge, Stafford. 

Ward, Thomas Henry, Giridih, E.I.R., Bengal, East India. 

Wardell, Harry, Rockingham Colliery, near Barnsley. 

Wardell, S. C, Doe Hill House, Alfreton. 

Waring, G. W., 17, Grange Road, Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Warrington, J. C, St. John's Colliery, Normanton. 

Warrington, James Henry, Berry Hill Works, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Washington, W., Hawthorn Cottage, Wombwell, Barnsley. 

W'aterhodse, M. W., The Gables, Bed worth, near Nuneaton. 

Waters, Stephen, Apartado, No. 96, Pachuca, Mexico. 

Watkin, R., Dearne Valley Colliery Company, Limited, Little Houghton, near 
Barnsley. 

Watkyn-Thomas, W., Workington. 

Watson, Andrew, 10, Kew Terrace. Glasgow, W. 

Watson, Claude Leslie, Elliot Colliery, New Tredegar, via Cardiff. 

Watson, Edward, East Cannock Colliery, Hednesford, Staffordshire. 

Watson, H. R., Loscoe Fields, Codnor, Derby. 

Watson, Jambs, Blairhili, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Watson, James, Jun., 91, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh. 

Watson, Michael, 4, St. Nicholas' Buildings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne f 

Watson, Simeon, New Hucknaii Colliery, Mansfield, 



I LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Watson, T., Trimdon Colliery, Trimdon Grange. 

Watts, John, Mossfield Colliery, Longton, Staffordshire. 

Watts, J. Whidbourne, P.O. Box 179, Barberton, Transvaal. 

Watts, Willtam, The Sheffield Corporation Water Department, Little Don 

Valley Works, Engineer's Office, Langsett, near Penistone. 
Wauchope, John A. 

Webster, Alfred Edward, Manton, Worksop, Notts. 

Webster, Francis, Laniley, C ran bourne Road, Dandinong, Victoria, Australia. 
Webster, Thomas, Burdiehouse Lime Works, Loanhead, N.B. 
Weed, Walter Harvey, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.,U.S.A. 
Weeks, John George, Bedlington, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Weeks, Richard Llewellyn, Willington, Co. Durham. 
Weinberg, Ernest Adolph, 20, Copthall Avenue, London, E.C. 
Weir, Alexander, Fireclay Works, Castlecary Station, Glasgow. 
Weir, James C, Camp Colliery, Motherwell, N.B. 
Weir, Walter, Calder Iron Works, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Welsh, Thomas, 69, Primrose Terrace, Llwyncelyn, Porth, near Pontypridd, 

South Wales. 
Welton, William Shakspeare, Elm Road, Wembley, Middlesex. 
Wemyss, R. E., Wemy8s Castle, Fifeshire. 
West, A., Ridings Hall, Birstall, Leeds. 

Western, Charles Robert, Queen Anne's Mansions, Westminster, London, S. W 
Westmacott, Percy Graham Buchanan, Rose Mount, Sunninghill, Berks. 
Wharton, George, Egstowe Terrace, Clay Cross, Chesterfield. 
Wheatley, F. W., 43, Trent Boulevard, Nottingham. 
White, C. E., Wellington Terrace, Sou th. Shields. 
White, Frederick Napier, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 9, Mirador Crescent. 

Swansea. 
White, George, Estate Office, Mexboro', near Rotherham. 
White, H., Walker Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
White, John, Alkusa Colliery, R.C.A., Dhunbaid P.O., E.I. Railway, Bengal, 

India. 
White, J. F., 15, Wentworth Street, Wakefield. 
Whitehead, John James, P.O. Box 6407, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Whitehouse, W. H., Lichfield Road, Walsall. 
♦Whitelaw, John, 46, Albany Street, Edinburgh. 
Whitelaw, Thomas, 112 , Wellington Street, Glasgow. 
Whiteside. John, The Bothwell Coal Company, Limited, Holytown, N.B. 
Whiteside, Robert, Wilsontown Colliery, Wilsontown, by Lanark, N.B. 
W..rrTON, John, Linden Villa, Westfield, Wakefield. 
Whyte, Robert. Clyde Wire Rope Works, Ruthergleu, Glasgow. 
Wickett, F., Clinton Road, Redruth, Cornwall. 
Widdas, C, North Bitchburn Colliery, Howden, Darlington. 
Wight, Edward Septimus, Taupiri Coal Mines, Limited, Mine Manager's Office, 

Huntly, near Auckland, New Zealand. 
Wight, Robert Tennant, Hallbankgate, Milton, Carlisle. 
Wight, W. H., Cowpen Colliery, Blyth. 
Wilbraham, Arthur George Bootle, Mina de San Domingos, Mertola, 

Portugal. 
Wilde, W, . , Hickleton Main Colliery, Thurnscoe, Rotherham. 
Wilde, William, Brockett House, Sharrow, Sheffield. 
Wilkes, John S., Pelsall Foundry, Walsall. 
Wilkie, Neil A., Cloy bank, Hollandbush, by Castlecary, N.B. 
Wilkins, William Glyde, Westinghouse Building, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A. 
Wilkinson, Horace, West Hall am, near Derby. 
Wilkinson, J. R., Spark Lane, Mapplewell, Barnslej*. 
Wilkinson, John T., East Howie Colliery, via Ferry hill, Co. Durham. 
Wilkinson, Thomas, Tinsley, near Sheffield. 
Wilkinson, William Fischer, Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa, Limited, 

8, Old Jewry, London, E.C. 
Williams, Alpheus Fullk.r, De Beers Consolidated Mines, Limited, Rimberley, 

South Africa. 
Williams, Edmund W., The High Carr Ironstone Works, Chesterton, Stafford- 
shire. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



li 



Williams, Gardner F., De Beers Consolidated Mines, Limited, Kimberley, 

South Africa. 
Williams, Griffith John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Bangor, Wales. 
Williams, Herbert Ignatius, The Old Rectory, Scholar Green, Stoke-upon- 

Trent. 
Williams, H. J. Carnegie, The Voel Mines (Merioneth), Limited, Dolgelley, 

North Wales. 
Williams, James Wilson, 15, Valley Drive, Harrogate. 

Williams, Luke, Mount Reid Mining Company, Limited, Mount Read, 
Tasmania. Transactions and all communications to be sent to Parkside, Park 
Street, Hohart, Tasmania. 
Williams, Robert, 30, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, London, E.C. 
Williamson, J., The Hills, Cannock, Staffordshire. 
Williamson, R., The Denaby and Cadeby Main Colliery Offices, Conisborough, 

near Rotherham. 
Williamson, Robert Summerside, Cannock Wood House, Hednesford, Stafford- 
shire. 
Williamson, Thomas, West Hallam Collieries, Ilkeston. 
Williamson, William, Opal Cottage, Burnblea, Hamilton, N B. 
Willis, Edward T., Dosthill, Tamworth. 
Wilson, Anthony, Thornthwaite, Keswick, Cumberland. 
Wilson, Archibald Lawrence, The New Ravens wood Limited, Ravens wood, 

Queensland, Australia. 
Wilson, Arthur P., Mansion House Chambers, Queen Victoria Street, London, 

EC. 
Wilson, David, Wester Gartshore Colliery, Kirkintilloch. 
Wilson, George, Robertson Terrace, Kelty, Fifeshire. 

Wilson, James, Wellington House, Edmondsley, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 
Wilson, John. 

* Wilson, John, Neilston Colliery, Kilsyth, N.B. 
Wilson, John, 75, Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

Wilson, John, c/o Mrs. Aird, 177, South Cumberland Street, Glasgow. 
Wilson, James R. , Preston Links, Prestonpans, N. B. 

Wilson, Joseph R., 705, Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Wilson, John R. Robinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, West Hill, Chapeltown 

Road, Leeds. 
Wilson, Lloyd, Flimby Colliery, Maryport. 
Wilson, P. O., c/o F. F. Wilson, 7, Devonshire Square, Bishopsgate Street, 

London, E.C. 
Wilson, Robert, Glencraig Colliery, Lochgelly, N.B. 
Wilson, Robert, Leaven View, Fauldhouse, N.B. 
Wilson, William. 

Wilson, W. B., Horden Dene, Easington, Castle Eden, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Wilson, William Brumwell, Jim. , Hedley Hill Colliery, near Waterhouses, ria 

Durham. 
Wilson, W. E. C, West Cannock Colliery Company, Hednesford, Staffordshire. 
Wilson, W. N. D., Allanshaw Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 
Wilson-Moore, Aubrey Percy, Sheba Queen Gold and Exploration, Limited, 

Barberton, Transvaal. 
Wilson-Moore, Cuninghame, The Central South African Lands and Mines, 
Limited, African Banking Corporation Buildings, Simmonds Street, 
Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Wincrkll, Horace V., Butte, Montana, U.S.A. 
Winqate, John B., 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Winstanley, Peter, Shaw Cross Colliery, near Dewsbury. 
Winstanley, Robert, 42, Dean agate, Manchester. 
Withibs, Charles, 65, Station Street, Nottingham. 
Witty, H. Sykes, Denaby Main House, near Rotherham. 
Wolstknholmb, M. , Llanfoiat House, near Abergavenny. 
Wood, C. L., Freeland, Forgandenny, Perthshire. 
Wood, E. S., c/o W. O. Wood, South Hetton, Sunderland. 
Wood, James, 28, Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow. 
Wood, John, Coxhoe Hall, Coxhoe, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Wood, Jno., Barley Brook Foundry, Wigan. 
Wood, Sir Lindsay, Bart., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street. 



Ui LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Wood, Richard, P.O. Box 5550, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Wood, Robert Ark a, c/o Harrison, Barber and Company, Limited, 18, Queen 

Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Wood, Thomas, North Hetton Colliery Office, Moorsley, Hetton-lc-Hole, R.S.O. 
Wood, Thomas Outterson, Hunker Hill, Fence Houses. 
Wood, William Henry, Coxhoe Hall, Coxhoe, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Wood, Walter K., 30, Renfieid Street, Glasgow. 
Wood, William Outterson, South Hetton, Sunderland. 
Woodburn, J. Allan, Rezende, Limited, Penhalonga, Umtali, Rhodesia, 

British South Africa. 
Woodburne, T. J., Bultfontein Mine, De Beers Consolidated Mines, Limited, 

Kiraberley, South Africa. 
Woodhead, Alfred, Low Moor Iron Works, Bradford. 
Woodhead, L., Beeston Colliery, Leeds. 
Woods, Richard, Seymour Colliery, Staveley, Chesterfield. 
Woodworth, Benjamin. 

Wooloock, J. H., 40, Lowther Street, Whitehaven. 
Wordsworth, T. H. , New Moss Colliery, Audcnshaw, near Manchester. 
Wormald, Charles Frederick, Mayfield Villa, Saltwell, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Wormald, R., The New Heriot Gold Mining Company, P.O. Box 1610, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
WoRSDKLL, Wilson, North Eastern Railway, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Wright, Joseph, Arboretum Street, Nottingham. 
Wrightson, Sir Thomas, Bart., Stockton-upon-Tees 
Wroe, James, York Terrace, Stairfoot, Barnsley. 
Wrok, Jonathan, Wharncliffe Silkstone Colliery, Barnsley. 
Wypkr, James, Townlands Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 

Yeoman, Thomas P. , Government Collieries, Warora, Central Provinces, India. 
Yonckra, K., Hokkaido Colliery and Railway Company, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 

Japan. 
Youll, Gibson, South Waratah Colliery, Newcastle, New South Wales. 
Young, Henrt William, Greymouth, New Zealand. 
Young, James, 4, Granville Road, Jesmond, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Young, John, Baljaffray Colliery, Bearsden, Glasgow. 
Young, John Andrew, 3, Fountain Avenue, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Young, J. Huntley, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland. 
Young, Robert, 804, South L Street, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A. 
Young, Robert, Bellfield Colliery, Coalburn, N.B. 
Younger, John Wishart, The Poplars, North Biddick, Washington Station, 

Co. Durham. 



associate Aembere. 

Assoc. M. Inst. M. E. 

Each Associate Member shall be a person connected with or interested in 
mining, metallurgy, or engineering, and not practising as a mining, 
metallurgical, or mechanical engineer, or some other branch of engineering. 

♦Deceased. 

Aiiier, Phillipe Davidson, 3, Alder Street, Scaforth, Liverpool. 
Alder, William, 3, Beech Avenue, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Anderson, James Scott, 53, Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
Appleyard, Henry, c/o W. Firth, Water Lane, Leeds. 
Armstrong, John Hobart, St. Nicholas' Chambers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Armstrong, T. J., Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Atkinson, Alfred, 12, Pape Buildings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Atkinson, G. B., Prudential Assurance Buildings, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

Bagshaw, F., 4, Ash Grove, Headingley, Leeds. 

Banks, Charles John, Chelsea Lea, Orrell Lane, Aintree, Liverpool. 

Barrett, William Scott, Abbotsgate, Blundellsands, Lancashire. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. liil 

Bell. Hugh, Middlesbrough- upon-Tees. 

Borland, James, 8, Seaford Street, Kilmarnock, N.B. 

Bowie, W. E. P., Barrowfield Wire Rope Works, 200, Glenpark Road, Glasgow. 

Broadbent, Arthur Cecil, Royal Societies Club, St. James' Street, London, S. W. 

Broadbent, Denis Ripley, Royal Societies Club. St. James* Street, London, S. W. 

Brctton, P. M., 17, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bcrdon, Augustus Edward, Hartford, Bedlington, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Bcrn, Charles William, 28, Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 

Capell, Rev. G. M., Passenham Rectory, Stony Stratford. 

Care, William Cochran, Ben well Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Clbland, E. Davenport, Bayley Street, Coolgardie, Western Australia. 

Cochrane, R. D., Hetton Colliery Offices, Fence Houses. TraiiHactionn to be 

sent to W. Cochrane, Willington Colliery Office, Willington, Co. Durham. 
Collopy, Charles J., P.O. Box 1212, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Cooper, R. W., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Cory, Clifford J., c/o Cory Brothers and Company, Limited, Cardiff. 
Cox, Percy Mottbam, 24, Richmond Terrace, Shelton, Stoke -upon- Trent. 
Craig, Donald, Kilhendre, Gresford, North Wales. 
Crawford, Andrew, 93, Dod worth Koad, Barnsley. 

•Darling, Andrew, Staue House, Shotts, N.B. 
Darling, William, 178, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Davenport, J. E., Black Bull Street, Leeds. 
Davidson, Louis, 8, Burdon Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Douglas, Benjamin, Rhodesia Exploration and Development Company, Limited, 

Main Street, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
Dcignan, W. H., Gorway House. Walsall. 
Dunk, Thomas B., 21. Both well Street, Glasgow. 

Eccles, Edward, King Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Edwards, F. H., Forth House, Bewick Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Edwards, George Maitland, Kuliebinski Mines, Kotchkar, Ourenburg Govern- 
ment, Russia. 
Ellam, Albert Spencer, 1, Bury Street, St. James', London, S.W. 
Elliot, Sir George, Bart. 
Ellis, Oswald William, 31, Grosvenor Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Fairlsss, Joseph, Mineral Traffic Manager, North Eastern Railway, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 
Ferguson, C. A., P.O. Box 1301, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Ferrier, James, 68, Mitchell Street, Glasgow. 
Fwdlay, Matthew F., 19, Cadogan Street, Glasgow. 
Firth, William, Water Lane, Leeds. 

Foster, T. J., Coal Exchange, Scran ton, Pennsylvania, U.S. A. 
Frew, Alexander, 90, Dobbie's Loan, Glasgow. 

Gibson, James, c/o W. E. Robarts, Acutts Arcade, Durban, Natal, South Africa. 

Gibson, Thomas William, Bureau of Mines, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacrist on, Durham. 

Greaves, Edward, Sharrow View, Sheffield. 

Gregsok, Jesse, Australian Agricultural Company, Newcastle, New South Wales. 

Griffin, Noel, 29, Queen Anne's Gate, London, S. W. 

Gumxerson, James M., 35, Birkheck Road, Acton, London, W. 

Gcthrib, Reginald, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Hamilton, Robert, 18, Waterloo Place, Edinburgh. 
{Jakkis-Edge, H. P., Coalport Works, Shifnal, Salop. 

™well, William Spence, 47, Esplanade, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
JjBulxy, John Hunt, John Street, Sunderland. 
{j 111 **. George, East Avenue, Benton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Hekderson, Charles William Chipchase, c/o John George Weeks. Bedlington, 
H-S.0., Northumberland. 



Henderson, John, Ravenacraig, Dumbreck, Glasgow. 
^ttLL, Robert, Northern Oil Works, N< 



Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Hv LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Heppell, W. J., Cwmaman Colliery, Aberdare, South Wales. 

Hickman, Edwin, Millfields Road, Bilston. 

Hildred, Willows, 7, Voltaire Street, Clapham, London, S.W; 

Hodoetts, Arthur, c/o A. H. Thornton, Overdale, Washwood Heath Road, 

Birmingham. 
Holland, Williamson, 36, Orchard Terrace, Rochdale. Road, Hey wood, 

Lancashire. 
Holliday, Cyrus, East Ardsley Collieries, near Wakefield. 
Holliday, Henry, Consett Iron Works, Blackhill, Co. Durham. 
Hopper, John Inglbdew, Wire Rope Works, Thomaby-upon-Tces. 
Humphreys-Da vies, G., 8, Laurence Pountney Hill, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
Hunter, C. E., Selaby Park, Darlington. 

Ingold, Herbert, Arnside House, Tinsley, Sheffield. 

Innes, Thomas Snowball, Crown Chambers, Side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Jack, Frederic Barbie, 32, Grainger Street West, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

James, Henry M., Colliery Office, Whitehaven. 

Jar vis, Horace William, West Dyke, Coat ham, Redcar. 

Jeans, James Stephen, 166, Strand, London, W.C. 

Jeffrey, Joseph Andrew, c'o The Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Columbus, 

Ohio, U.S. A. 
Jeffries, Joshua, The Ocean Colliery, Djdley, New South Wales. 
Joicey, James John, 62, Finchley Road, London, N.W. 
Jones, Edward, c/o Thomas Parry and Company, Mold, North Wales. 

Kent, Harry, 4, St. Dunstan's Alley, St. Dunstan's Hill, London, E.C. 
Kidson, Arthur, c/o Glaholm and Robson, Limited, Rope Manufacturers, 

Sunderland. 
Kirkby, William, co H. C. Embleton, Central Bank Chambers, Leeds. 
Kirkup, A. G., 4, Shandon Terrace, Edinburgh. 
Krohn, H. A., 103, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

Lamb, Edmund George, Borden Wood, Liphook, Hants. 
Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall Buildings, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
Langslow-Cock, Edward Arthur, II. si. Inspector of Mines, Mine Office, Raub, 

Pahang, Federated Malay States. 
Lishman, George Percy, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses. 
Lowes, William, Ballarat and Prince Oscar Gold Mines, Kanowna, Western 

Australia. 
Lucas, A., 26, Albany Road, Sharrow, Sheffield. 
Lumsden, John Alder, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, C.P., India. 

McKean, Francis, 53, Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 

Malson, S. R., Sheffield Road, Chesterfield. 

Malson, W. A., Sheffield Road, Chesterfield. 

Marshall, P. , University School of Mines, Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Mitchell, John, Tunstall Coal and Iron Company, Limited, Tunstall, Staffordshire. 

Morris, Percy Copeland, 79, Elm Park Gardens, London, S.W. 

Newbery, Frederick, 230, Camden Road, London, N.W. 
Nimmo, Adam, 21, Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

O'Connor, Arthur, The Tower, Nevilles Cross, Durham. 

Palmer, Alfred M., Newbrough Lodge, Fourstones, Northumberland. 

Pattinson, Charles Reginald, Burnaby Lodge, Ryton-upon-Tyne. 

Pavitt, Harold Hastings, District Survey Office, Government Life Buildings, 

Wellington, New Zealand. 
Perkins, Charles, Carham Hall, Coldstream, N.B. 
Pickup, P. W. D., Rishton Colliery, Rishton, near Blackburn. 
Price, Arthur F., 4, West Nile Street, Glasgow. 
Pringle, John, c/o Russo-Chinese Bank, Newchwang, Chi na. 
Proctor, John H., 29, Side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. W 

Ramsay, Robert, Chapel Colliery, Newmains, N.B. 

Rankin, W. B., Cleddans, Airdrie, N.B. 

Reid, Sidney, 26, Claremont Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Reynish, £. B., Cleveland Cottage. Shelton, Stoke-upon- Trent. 

Ridley, James Cartmell, 1, Bentinck Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Ridley, Viscount, Blagdon, Northumberland. 

Robson, Henry Naunton. 

RooERSONf, John Edwin, Oswald House, Durham. 

Rosen, John, P.O. Box 1647, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Russell, Jackson, Ardenclutha, Hamilton, N.B. 

Samuel, David, 3, Albert Street, Llanelly, South Wales. 

Sanders, Charles W. H., The Avenue, Durham. 

Saunders, G. B., c/o Saunders, Todd and Company, Maritime Buildings, King 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Scholkr, Peter, 14, Tremadoc Road, Clapham, London, S.W. 
Scott, John Oliver, The Glebe, Riding Mill-upon-Tyne. 
Show an t R. S., Sunnyside, Watlands Park, Wolstanton, Stoke-upon -Trent. 
Smith, Arthur Herbert, Broad Street House, London, E.C. 
Smith. Charles Albert, 23, Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Smith, Clarencb D., Guildhall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Steele, H. B., Albert Road, Trentham, Stoke- upon- Trent. 
Steuart, Douglas Stuart-Spens. 

Stewart, Samuel, 16, Great George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Stokes, Henry Gilbert, Glassford Creek Copper Company, Limited, Glassford 

Creek Copper Mine, via Gladstone, Queensland, Australia. 
Stowell, William, 1 1 , Queen Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Strange, Harold Fairbrother, P. 0. Box 590, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

"Tabker, R. C, Brocco Bank, Sheffield. 

Taylor, Thomas, Rosendale, The Brampton, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Tharp, J. Montagu E. S., 12, Krys Road, Eastbourne. 

Thompson, Edward, 78, Noel Street, Nottingham. 

Thompson, Oswald, Hendon Lodge, Sunderland. 
•Thomson, S. M., 208, West George Street, Glasgow. 

Todd, James, West View House, Durham. 

Tongk, James, Jan., 149, Church Street, Westhoughton, Lancashire. 

Toovey, Alfred Francis, 33, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Tun Kington, Albert, Colonia, Limited, Moodies Creek, near Barberton, Vaal 
River Colony, South Africa. 

Turner, Charles Edward, Minas Herrerias, Puebla de Guerman, Provincia de 
Huelva, Spain. 

Valentine, James, 1, West View, Horwich, Lancashire. 

Waldie, Thomas, 44, Constitution Street, Leith. 

Wall, G. Young, Halmote Court Office, New Exchequer Buildings, Durham. 

Walmesley, Oswald, 2, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, London, VV.C. 

Warren, David D., 72, Waterloo Street. Glasgow. 

Watson, George L., 109, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

Weatherburn, J., Meynell House, Rowlands Gill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Whitehead, Thomas, Brindle Lodge, Preston, Lancashire. 

Wraith, George Henry, Moor House, Spennymoor, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Wrightson, Wilfrid Ingram, Neasham Hall, Darlington. 



associates. 

Assoc. Inst. M.E. 

Associates shall be persons acting as under-viewers, under-inanagers, or in other 
subordinate positions in mines or metallurgical works, or employed in 
analogous positions in other branches of engineering. 

* Deceased. 

Adams, Charles, Whitfield Collieries, Norton-in-the-Moors, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Allport, E. A., Lound House, Haxey, ria Doncaster. 



lvl LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Archer, Matthew William, High Priestfield, Lintz Green, Co. Durham. 

Armour, William, Deanfield, Irvine, N.B. 

Armstrong, William P., Bewicke Main, Birtley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Barker, John Dunn, 23, Cobden Terrace, Brandon Colliery, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Battey, Thomas, Station Road, Shiremoor. Northumberland. 

Bayldon, Harold Cbesswell, c,o Bechuanaland Exploration Company, Limited, 

Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South Africa. 
•Bell, John, Wardley Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Bell, W. R., Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland. 
Bentlky, George, Bradford Colliery, Manchester. 
Berkley, Robert, Durban Colliery, Dannhauser, Natal, South Africa. 
Bewick, George, Johnsons Terrace, West Auckland, Co. Durham. 
Bexton, R., 8, York Terrace, Pinxton, Alfreton. 
Blair, Robert, 6, Hamilton Terrace, Whitehaven, Cumberland. 
Booth, Fred. L., Ashington Colliery, Morpeth. 
Bowes, Thomas, Pontop House, Annfield Plain, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Bowman, Frank, Ouston Colliery Office, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 
Bramley, William, Bagot Villa, West Hallam, Derby. 
Brittain, Samuel, Mitchell Main, Wombwell, near Barnsley. 
Bromley, Oliver J. 
Burdett, J. C, James Street, Swadlincote, Burton-upon-Trent. 

Carroll, John, Newfield House, Newfield, Willington, Co. Durham. 

Chambers, James, 2, Noel Street, Kimberley, Notts. 

Charlton, William John, Jun., 17, First Bow, Ashington, Morpeth, 

Northumberland. 
Chipghase, John, 23, St. Helen's Terrace, Coxhoe, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Clare, Henry, Birchenwood Colliery Company, Limited, Kidsgrove, Stoke-upon- 

Trent. 
Clark, Nathaniel J., 1, Hawthorn Terrace, Pelton Fell, Chester-le-Street, 

Co. Durham. 
Clark, Thomas, Dipton Colliery, Lintz Green Station, Co. Durham. 
Clifford, Edward Herbert, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Clive, Robert, Loftus Mines, Skinninzrove, Carlin How, R.S.O., Cleveland. 
Clough, Edward Stokok, Bomarsund House, Bomarsund, Bedlington, R.S.O., 

Northumberland. 
Clough, John, 1, Melton Terrace, Seaton Delaval, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Coates, G. H., Tenter Hill, Hucknall Torkard, Nottingham. 
Coates, William, 53, Cornhill, Norton-in-the-Moors, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Cockburn, Edmund, 27, Bolckow Street, North Skelton, Skelton in Cleveland, 

Yorkshire. 
Cockburn, Evan, Waldridge Colliery, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 
Collier, W. R., Glebe Farm, A ws worth, Nottinghamshire. 
Collis, G. E., Chapel Road, Grassmoor, Chesterfield. 
Corbett, Vincent, Blackett Colliery, Haltwhistle. 
Cowx, H. F., Thornley Collieries, Thornley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Coxon, 8. G., 13, Station View, Waterhouses, Co. Durham. 
Coxon, William B., South View, Crook, Co. Durham. 
Crawford, Robert, Muirfield, The Loan, Loanhead, N.B. 
Crofton, Charles Arthur, Netherton Collieries, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Crowther, Herbert, Earl Fitzwilliam's Collieries, Elsecar, Barnsley. 
Cummings, Jno., Moor House, Littletown Colliery, near Durham. 
Cummings, R., Park Hail Colliery, Long ton, Staffordshire. 
Cunningham, Robert, Drumley Terrace, Annbank Station, N.B. 

Dakers, John, 32, South Street, Brandon Colliery, Durham. 

Danks, Francis, Salsburgh, Holytown, N.B. 

Danskin, Thomas, Springwell Colliery, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 

Davis, Alfred, Lethbridge Colliery, Alta, Canada. 

Davis, James E., South Medomsley Colliery. Dip: on, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Davison, Francis, 37, Hedley Hill Terrace, Waterhouses, Co. Durham. 

Day, James, Barlborough Colliery, Clowne, Chesterfield. 

Day, Samuel, Jubilee Park, Clowne, Chesterfield. 

Denton, John, Montgomery Chambers, Hartshead, Sheffield. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. lvii 



Jj ,c *inson, Archibald, 199. Brunshaw Road, Burnley, Lancashire. 
J^oy t Thomas H., Foggs House, Little Lever, near Bolton, Lancashire. 
j*BsoN, Thomas, The SUverdale Collieries, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
lyj**** William, Bewicke Main Colliery, Birtley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
D^***, W„ Silksworth Colliery, Sunderland. 

* v « v «tt, Samuel., 20, Hainbledon Street, Blyth, Northumberland. 

^Wb, Hugh M., c'o Robinson Deep Gold-mining Company, P.O. Box 1488, 
Ktw Johannesburg, Transvaal 

Ei>£ a *ds, Paul, Talko'-th'-Hill Colliery, Talke, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
ftoI^Juw, T. H., Knypersley Villas, Biddulph, Congleton, Cheshire, 
g^^r, J. VV., Kirkby Colliery, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Nottingham. 
£w^» Edward, Middridge Colliery, Heighington, R.S.O. 
\&"^rson, George. Brandon Colliery, near Durham. 
^t>ALB, John, Ashington Colliery, Morpeth, Northumberland. 
Evans, William, Cliffe Vale, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Falcon, Michael, 33, Bute Street, Treorchy, South Wales. 

Farnsworth, E., Pye Hill Villas, near Nottingham. 

Fawcett, Edward S., Battle Hill House, Walker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Fewster, John, 4, Belgrave Terrace, Felling, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Fikld, S., 27, Station Street, East Kirkby, Mottingham. 

Finney, Joseph, EUwick Collieries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Ford, Thomas, Blaydon Burn Colliery, Blaydon-upon-Tyne. 

Forstrr, Frank, 22, Gowlaud Terrace, Wheat ley Hill Colliery, Thornley, 

R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Foulstone, H., Borough Foundry, Barnsley. 
Fox, John, Littleton Collieries, Huntington, near Stafford. 
Frost, J. W., Glebe Colliery, Fenton, Staffordshire. 

Gallagher, Patrick, 15, James Street, Newfield, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 

Glass, Robert William, Craigielea, Whickham, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Goodman, John, Cresweil, Mansfield. 

Gordon-, G. S., 24, Louisa Terrace, Stanley, R.S.O., via Chester-le-Street. 

Graham, Cecil, Sunniside, Tow Law, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Grainger, Herbert, Hlabisa Coal Fields, Zululand, South Africa. 

Gray, W. J., Craig Villas, Woodhouses, Sheffield. 

Green, John, 270, High Street, Alsager's Bank, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Greene, Charles C, Eston Mines, near Middlesbrough-upon-Tees. 

Greene, John, Prior's Lee, Shifnal, Shropshire. 

Groves, Henry, Glapwell Colliery, Chesterfield. 

Hadlet, William, Birchen wood Colliery Company, Limited, Kidsgrove, Stoke- 
upon-Trent. 

Hall, George, Broomhill Villa, Old Whittington, Chesterfield. 

Hall, Joseph Percival, Edmondsley Colliery, Chester.le -Street, Co. Durham. 

Hall, Robert William, 1, Railway Street, Murton Colliery, Sunderland. 

Hampton, Alexander, St. Helen's Colliery, Bishop Auckland. 

Handyside, William, Jun., 4, Brandling Terrace, Felling-upon-Tyne. 

Hardy, W. H., Holly Cottage, Shipley, Derby. 

Hare, George, Seghill Colliery, Northumberland. 

Harrison, George, High Park Colliery, Greasley, Nottingham. 

Haywood, Fred., Glapwell Colliery, Chesterfield. 

Hkdley, Arthur Morton, Blaydon Burn, Blaydon-upon-Tyne. 

Hkdlby, George William, Deafhill Colliery, Trimdon Grange, R.S.O., Co. 
Durham. 

JUNDK&SON, William, 12, Success Cottages, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses. 

Henshaw, John, Butterley Park, Butterley, Derby. 

Harriotts, Joseph George, 7, Granville Terrace, Binchester, Co. Durham. 

Hnutos, Edward, 4, Holly Terrace, Stanley, R.S.O. 

Hzslington, Alfred, Danesmoor, Clay Cross, Chesterfield. 

Heslop, William, Hnnwick, Willington, Durham. 

j* 1 ****, Joseph, Blurton Road, Fenton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

jjUAt Robert, Norton Colliery, Smallthorne, Burslem, Staffordshire. 

ttI tL, Woliam, White House, Handford, Stoke-upon-Trent. 



lviil LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Hodgson, Joseph, We3t Thornley Colliery, Tow Law, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Hodson, H. S., Parkhall Colliery, Long ton, Staffordshire. 

Hollinshead, Samuel, 20, Flatts Road, Norton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Hornsby, Dkmster, Chopping ton Colliery, Scotland Gate, R.S.O., Northumber- 
land. 

Horrox, R. E., Birley Collieries, Sheffield. 

Howe, James, Jun. , East Cross Street, Langley Park, Durham. 

Hughes, James Nicholson, Hcdley Hill Colliery, Waterhouses, Co. Durham. 

Hulme, Samuel, Natal Victoria Navigation Collieries, Limited, Weasels Nek, 
Natal, South Africa. 

Hunter, A., 2, Abbotsford Terrace, South Shields. 

Hunter, Christopher, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth, Northumberland. 

Husband, Edwin, 14, New Village, Creswell, Mansfield. 

Hutchinson, W., Acacia House, Barnsley Road, Hems worth, Wakefield. 

Imrie, Henry Marshall, 22, Western Hill, Durham. 

Jaeger, Bernard, 10, Crozier Terrace, Shildon, i*ia Darlington. 

James, Alexander A., Croxdale, near Durham. 

Jeffery, Albert J., 6, Bowlby Street, Houghton-le-Spring, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Johnson, James, Hawthorne Lodge, East Boldon, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Johnson, William, Framwellgate Moor, Durham. 

Kellett, Robert, Sherburn Colliery Station, Durham. 

Ken yon, G. C, Nostell Colliery, Wakefield. 

Kino, Fred., 1, Shankhouse Row, Shaukhouse, near Cramlington, Northumber- 
land. 

Kirby, Matthew Robson, c/o A. L. Steavenson, Holywell Hall, Durham. 

Knight, Francis W., The Mill House, Worsley, near Manchester. 

Knight, John L., 66, Gladstone Street, Adderley Green, near Longton, 
Staffordshire. 

Knight, William James, 2, Front Street, Easington Colliery, Castle Eden, 
.R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Latimer, Hugh, South Durham Colliery, Eldon, Bishop Auckland. 
Lawton, Thomas A., The Firs, Teversall, near Mansfield, Nottingham. 
Lightley, John, 9, Hawthorn Grove, Wallsend-upon-Tyne. 
Limb, T. N., Hard wick Collieries, Heath, Chesterfield. 
Livingstone, Robert, Lethbridge, Alta, Canada. 
Locket r, George, East Cannock Colliery, Hednesford, Staffordshire. 
Lockett, William, Norton Colliery, near Smallthorne, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Logan, Reginald Samuel Moncribff, Royal Grammar School, Newcastle 

upon-Tyne. 
Longdon, Albert, Newthorpe, Notts. 

McCarthy, Michael Dodds, Fourth Street, Urpeth, Ouston, Chestcr-le-Street, 

Co. Durham. 
MacGowan, John, Jun., 10, Woodland Road, Rock Ferry, Cheshire. 
McGregor, John Edward, 2, Murray Street, Stanley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Mackinlay, E., Beaumont Terrace, Dinnington Colliery, Dudley, R.S.O., 

Northumberland. 
Marr, James Hepfell, Mai ton Colliery, near Durham. 
Mason, Benjamin, Burnopfield Colliery, Burnopfield, R.S.O., Durham. 
Meakin, A. H., Lynecroft, Eastwood, Nottingham. 
Mellor, William, Warmwell Lane, Marehay, Derby. 

Melville, John Thomas, 12, Oakfield Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Middleton, Herbert William, Trimdon Colliery, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Milburn, William, Birtley White House, near C heater- le- Street. 
Millers hip, J. H., Watnall Colliery, Watnall, Notts. 

Millington, Sam., Rowhurst House, Sneyd Green, Burslem, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Milner, J. W., Biddulph Valley Ironworks, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Minnikin, John, Ivy Cottages, Hoy land Common, Barnsley. 
Minns, Tuomas Tate, Jun., 13, Balfour Street, Houghton-le-Spring, R.S.O., Co. 

Durham. 
Minto, George W., Perkins Ville, Cheater-le-Street. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. llX 

Mitchell- Withers, William Charles, 4, Ashgate Road, Broomhill, Sheffield. 

MrrcHESON, Harry, Florence Colliery, Longton, Staffordshire. 

Montgomery, John, High Carr Colliery, Chesterton, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Moore, Jabez, New Cottages, TinsleyJPark, near Sheffield. 

Morland, Thomas, New Herrington, Fence Houses. 

Morris, George Bailey, 1, The Lyons, Hetton-le-Hole, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Morris, H. S., Albany House, St. Ives, Cornwall. 

Morris, John, Gwalia House, Qorseinon, (Glamorganshire. 

M orson, F artier William, Glenholm, Crook, R S.O., Co. Durham. 

Moulton, Levi. 

Mcllins, William, 86, Hartley Road, Radfcrd, Nottingham. 

Murray, Frank Douglas, Jumpers Deep, Limited, P.O. Box 1056, Cleveland 

Station, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Musgrove, William. Heddon Colliery, Northumberland. 

Naisbit, John, 48, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor. 
Naylor, Alfred, Shirebrook Colliery, Mansfield. 
Nelson, George Catron, Garesfield Colliery, near Lintz Green, R.S.O., Co. 

Durham. 
Nqbet, Norman, Houghton Colliery Office, Houghton -le- Spring, R.S.O., Co. 

Durham. 
Nixon, John, Baddesley Collieries, Atherstone, Warwickshire. 

Offer, John James, 22, Rushton Road, Cobridge, near Burslem, Staffordshire. 
O'Kbefb, J. E., 10, Newburgh Street, Amble, Acklington, Northumberland. 
Owen, Herbert, New Villas, Cross Heath, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Owen, W. R., 24, Market Street, Millom, Cumberland. 
Oxley, F., Leycett Colliery, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Parkin, Thomas Wakefield, 17, Gowland Terrace, Wheatley Hill Colliery, 
Thornley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Parkinson, Thomas, Sneyd Colliery, Burslem, Staffordshire. 

Parkinson, W., 6, Ivy Terrace, South Moor, Chester-le-Street. 

Parrington, Thomas Elliott, Hill House, Monkwearmouth. 

Patrick, J. A., West Pool Villas, Saltergate, Chesterfield. 

Patterson, Thomas, East Hetton, Coxhoe, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Pattison, William, 18, East Street, High Spen, Lintz Green, R.S.O., Co. 
Durham. 

Pearse, David, The Stafford Coal and Iron Company, Limited, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Pearson, C, Whitfield Colliery, Norton-in-the-Moors, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Pearson, John Charlton, Swiss Cottage, Westerhope, Kenton, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

Peassgood, W. G., Leycett, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Pedelty, Simon, Boldon Colliery, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Peel, George, Jun., 27, Langley Street, Langley Park, Durham. 

Peel, John William, Thornhill Collieries, near Dewsbury, Yorkshire. 

Phelps, Charles, Kimblesworth Colliery, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 

Plant, William, 11, Adelaide Street, Fen ton, near Stoke-upon-Trent 

Platt, Samuel, The Rookery Pit, Bignall End, Staffordshire. 

Potts, Lauranck Wylam, The Learn, Felling, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Pratt, George Ross, Springwell Colliery, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 

Proctor, Thomas, Woodhorn Colliery, Morpeth. 

Ramsay, John, Tursdale Colliery, Ferryhill. 

Ramsay, J. G., Page Bank Colliery, via Spennymoor, Co. Durham. 

Rawson, George, Tibshelf, Alfreton. 

Rees, J. H., Berry Hill Collieries, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Richardson, William, Pleasley Colliery, Mansfield. 

Ridley, G. D., Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor. 

Rivers, John, Bow Street, Thornley Colliery, Durham. 

Robinson, F. H., Black well Collieries, Alfreton. 

Robinson, John William, Callerton, Kenton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Robinson, Richard, 10, Wilson Terrace, Broughton * Moor, near Maryport, 

Cumberland. 
Rqbson, R. ? Mirfield Coal Company, Ravensthorpe, near Dewsbury. 



IX LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Robson, Thomas. 

Kobson, William, Jan., Byera Green House, Byers Green, Spennymoor, Co. 

Durham. 
Rochester, William, Ryton Barmoor, Ryton-upon-Tyne. 
Rontrer, J. H., 61, Heron Street. Fen ton, Stoke- upon -Trent, 
Roscamp, Joseph Cress wall, Ravensworth Colliery, Low Fell, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne. 
Russell, Daniel, Garriongill Colliery, Overtown, Wishaw, N.B. 

Sample, J. Bertram, Harraton Colliery, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 
Saner, Charles B., Nourse Deep, Limited, Mine Office, P.O. Box 1056, 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Scrivens, Charles, Halmerend, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Scrivens, Wilmot, 6, Kinsay Street, Silverdale, Staffordshire. 
Searston, J. f Cotes Park Colliery, Alfreton. 

Seed, Alexander, 1, College Terrace, Brandon Colliery, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Severs, Jonathan, Stanley, R.S.O., Newcastle- upon-Tyne. 
Shaw, Edgar H., Park Lane, Congleton, Cheshire. 
Shaw, J. W., Monk Bretton Colliery, Barnsley. 
Shkrwin, Jas., 58, Leek Road, Smallthorne, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Small wood, Percy Edmund, Chopwell Colliery, Lintz Green, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Snowdon, Thomas, Jun., Oak wood, Cockfield, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Soar, Charles, Granville Colliery, Swadlincote, Burton-upon-Trcnt. 
Southern, Stephen, He worth Colliery, Felling, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Sproson, Albert, Florence Colliery, Longton, Staffordshire. 
Stark, John, Chapel Colliery, Newmains, N.B. 
Stobart, Thomas Carlton, Ushaw Moor Colliery, Durham. 
Stokoe, James, 53, Railway Terrace, New Herrington, Fence Houses, Co. Durham. 
Stokoe, John George, 5, Killowen Terrace, Low Fell, Gateshead-upon-Tyue. 
Sumnall, J. W., 1, West View, Liverpool Road, Newcastle under- Lyme, 

Staffordshire. 
Sutton, Henry, Biddulph Valley Collieries, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Swallow, Ralph Storey, Langfey Park Colliery, Durham. 

Tate, Thomas, Hardwick Collieries, Heath, Chesterfield. 

Tate, Walker Oswald, Office Street, Shotton Colliery, Castle Eden, R.S.O., 

Co. Durham. 
Taylor, Herbert William, c/o George Spittal, 7, Salisbury Street, Hessle, 

R.S.O., Yorkshire. 
Taylor, William, Tibberton Grange, Newport, Salop. 
Thompson, Joseph, North Biddick Colliery, Washington Station. Co. 

Durham. 
Turner, George, Tindale Terrace, Roachburn Colliery, Brampton Junction, 

Carlisle. 
Tweddell, John Smith, Seaton Delaval Colliery, Northumberland. 

Urwin, John, Inkerman House, Usworth Colliery. Co. Durham. 
Urwin, Thomas, Dipton Colliery, Lintz Green, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Varley, John, Walker Street, Eastwood, Notts. 

Wainwrioht, William, Heworth Colliery, Felling, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Walkinshaw, David, 50, Montgomery Place, Newton, Glasgow. 
Wallace, James, c/o Wild's Temperance Hotel, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 
Walton, Arthur John, Sherwood Colliery, Mansfield. 
Watson, J abez, Leycett Collieries, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Weir, Francis D., Kells of Southwick, Prestonmill, by Dumfries, N.B. 
Welsh, Arthur, 16, Charles Street, New Silksworth, Sunderland. 
Westby, F. W., Trinity Terrace, Roth well, near Leeds. 
Whitehurst, Henry, Grange Colliery, Burslem, Staffordshire. 
Widdas, Frank, Orchard House, Escombe, Bishop Auckland. 
Wilbraham, Aaron, Ashwood House, Portland Colliery, Kirkby in Ashfield. 
Wilbraham, G. H., Market Street, Clay Cross, Chesterfield. 
Wilkinson, John William, South Durham Cottages, Kldon Old Pit, Bishop 
Auckland. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. hi 

Williams, William, Pelaw Main Colliery, near West Maitland, New Sooth 

Wales. 
Willis, Henry Stevenson, Medomsley, R.SO., Co. Durham.' 
Wilson, Arthur, Southfield Farm. Norristhorpe, Liversedge, Yorks. 
Wilson, Robebt Gott, Whitehill Terrace, Pelton Colliery, Chester-le-Street. 
Wriobt, William, Poilington Colliery, New Brinsley, Eastwood, Notts. 

Yates, Thomas, Brynkinalt Collieries, Chirk, North Wales. 

Zei^f.r, C. Van, 48, Rua do Ferregiai de Baixo, Lisbon, Portugal. 



Students. 

Stud. Inst. M.E. 

Students shall be persons who are qualifying themselves for the profession of 
mining, metallurgical, or mechanical engineering, or other branch of engineer- 
ing, and such persons may continue Students until they attain the age of 
twenty -five years. 

Angus, R. L., Dalblair Lodge, Old Cumnock, N.B. 
Armstrong, William, Jun., Wingate, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Atkikson, C. A., Barlaston, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Bain-bridge, 0. J.» 

Ban^atynb, Claude, c/o C. D. Bannatyne, 191, West George Street, Glasgow. 

Bell, Harold Percy, Cly vedon, Cleadon, Sunderland. 

Bell, Wiluam, 59, Rothwell Road, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bill, Robert, Trent Vale, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

Blunt, R., Mapperley Collieries, Derby. 

Bowman, John, Bowhill Colliery, Cardenden, N.B. 

Brandon, Gboffry, Eastfield, Earsdon, Northumberland. 

Bbidoett, Harry, J am mage Colliery, Bignall End, Staffordshire. 

Brown, Edward Otto Forster, Springfort, Stoke Bishop, near Bristol. 

Burnett, W., Church Hill, Hednesford, Staffordshire. 

BrRRows, E. 0., 53, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

Bury, Charles, Denaby, near Rotherham. 

Campbell, William, Parkgrove Cottages, Plains, Airdrie, N.B. 
Chaluhm, H. S., Tibshelf Collieries, Alfreton. 
Chambers, F. E., The Terrace, Tinsley, Sheffield. 

Chrrsman, Matthew Forster, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, R.S.O., North- 
umberland. 
Cla*k, C. H., Estate Offices, Newton-le- Willows, Lancashire. 
J^vi, Lawrence, Chell Lodge, Tunstall, Staffordshire. 
^°CR8, John, Ansley Hall Colliery, Atherstone. 
J^L*. John Arthur, Biddulph Valley Ironworks, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
~°°K, Giorob, Binchester Hall, Bishop Auckland. 
£*K, P. L., Jun., Hanley Boro' Colliery Office, Hanley, Staffordshire. 
J;K088lrt, J. H., Ingham Pit, Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury. 
^Rotjdace, Dacre, Talk-o'-th'-Hill Colliery Office, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

{^Us, William, 10, Wharncliffe Road, Broomhall Park, Sheffield. 
!f Ar > P. F., The Hollies, Sutton-in-ABhfield, Mansfield. 
iJJ* ^, George, Dunston Colliery Office, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 
}£*0N f George, Seghill Colliery, Seghill, Northumberland, 
^ar*, Hugh, 1, Broomfield Road, Ayr, N.B. 

Kar &Uy, H. V., Whitfield Colliery Office, Norton-iu-the-Moors, Stoke-upon- 

p Trent. 

SJ^ot, Arthur, 13, Eldon Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

wj *is f Francis Henry, Sherwood Colliery, Mansfield. 



lxii LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Favell, John Milses, Colliery Office, Etherley, via Darlington. 
Felton, John R., West Stanley Colliery, Stanley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Febguson, Duncan, Jun., Lochore House, Lochgelly, N.B. 
Field, Benjamin Starks, 8, Esplanade, Whitley. R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Foggo, John Frederick, Netherton Colliery, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Forrester, R. H., Auchenreoch Mains, Milton of Campsie, Glasgow. 
Foster, Harold T., Housley Villas, Chapel town, Sheffield. 
Fowler, Robert Norman, Usworth Villa, Great Usworth, Washington, R.S.O., 
Co. Durham. 

Galloway, John, Hebburn Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Gidney, William H., 9, Ravensbourne Terrace, South Shields. 
Gilchrist, George Atkinson, 17, Eldon Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Gould, Chalkley Vivian, Florence Colliery, Longton, Staffordshire. 
Greenwell, Alan Leonard Stapylton, South Durham Colliery, Eldon, Bishop 
Auckland. 

Harbit, William Denham, 32, High Street, Wallsend-upon-Tyne. 

Harper, George Octavious, Cardiff Square, High Spen, Lintz Green, R.S.O., 

Co. Durham. 
Hartley, C. J. , Drysdale House, Stone, Staffordshire. 
Hartley, Edward, Berry Hill Colliery Offices, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Hatton, C, Brook House, Wyrley, Walsall. 

Hawkins, John Bridges Bailey, Staganhoe Park, Welwyn, Hertfordshire. 
Heaps, Christopher, 12, Richmond Terrace, Gateshead- upon-Tyne. 
Hedley, Rowland Frank Hutton, Langholme, Roker, Sunderland. 
Herrison, John Edward Ralph, Ottawa, na Durban, Natal, South Africa. 
Hewitt, Arthur Bernard, 28, Thorn Tree Road, Newhall 4 Burton -upon-Trent. 
Hirst, G. F., 21, Heanor Road, Ilkeston. 
Hodges, Leonard Cliff, Babbington Collieries, Nottingham. 
Holliday Norman Stanley, Hope Street, Amble, AcklWton, Northumberland. 
Houghton, S. D., Shurstone Cottage. Brownhilla, Staffordshire. 
Humble, Ernest, Shotton Colliery, Castle Eden, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Humble, John Norman, West Pelton House, Beamish, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Hunter, George, Tinto View, Coalburn, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 

Iliffe, F. N. f Haunchwood Collieries, Nuneaton. 

Jacobs, Lionel Asher, 3. Thornhill Park, Sunderland. 

Jarvib, William, c/o — Kirk, Main Street, Both well, N.B. 

Jenkins, R. S. , Vivian's Hotel, Camborne, Cornwall. 

Johnson, Thomas, Jun., Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Jones, Walter, Thornley Colliery Office, Thornley. R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Junor, Patrick Bruce, Jun., Thornley Colliery, Thornley, R.S.O., Co. Durham 

Leach, G. C, Giridih E.I.R. Collieries, Bengal, India. 
Liddell, Christopher, Woodhorn Colliery, Northumberland. 
Linday, G. M. , Great Fenton Hall, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Locke, Donald, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 

MacGregor, Donald, Seghill Colliery, Seghill, Northumberland. 
MacGregor, James Malcolm, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth, Northumberland. 
Marley, Frederick Thomas, 83, Victoria Road, Hebburn-upon-Tyne. 
Maynard, Francis George, Russel House, Newbottle, Fence Houses, Co. 

Durham. 
Merivale, Charles Herman, Togston Hall, Ack ling ton, Northumberland. 
Milburn, vEdwin Walter, 18, Lindum Terrace, Rotherham. 
Milburne, John Etherington, St. John's Road, New Shildon, Darlington. 

Ne8bit, John Straker, Cramlington Collieries, Northumberland. 

Nevin, Thomas, The Hagg, Mirheld, Normanton. 

Newton, Cecil, Talk-o'-th'-Hill Colliery Office, Talke, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Nicholas, C. Cowell, Glenluce, Avenue Road, Doncaster. 

Noot, William, Haunchwood Collieries, Nuneaton. 

O'Donnell, Thomas, Montgomery Street, Larkhall, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 
Oliver, Ernest Hunter, Cornsay Colliery, Co. Durham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. lxiil 

Oswald, George Robert, c/o Mrs. Curtice, Richmond House, Pontnewydd, near 
Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Palmer, Harry, The Manor House, Medomsley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Palmer, Meyrick, The Manor House, Medomsley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Patos, Theophilus, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

Pattison, Charles Arthur, 16, Stanhope Road North, Darlington, 

Peacock, F. D., Aldridee Colliery, Walsall. 

Peake, A. A., Holywell House, Codnor, Derby. 

Peaks, F. G., Walsall Wood Colliery, Walsall. 

Pebkin, Herbert, Prudential Buildings, Park Row, Leeds. 

Perry, P. J., Mayfield House, Wolverhampton. 

Pilkbigton, L. G., 6, Park Place, Cardiff. 

Raine, Fred J., Wellington House, Birtley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Ramsden, H., Edgemoor, Rutland Road, Harrogate. 

Richardson', Frank, Orchard House, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 

Richardson, Sydney, Charlton VilU, Ovingham-upon-Tyne, Northumberland. 

Ridpath, Tom R., Medomsley, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Robinson, George Henry, Jun , Asturianas Mines, Limited, Covadonga, Asturias, 

Spain. 
Robinson, John William, Boldon Colliery, Boldon, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Robinson, Stanley, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses. 
Rogers, John, 2, Pilgrim Street, Murton Colliery, Sunderland. 
Roose, Hubert F. G., Inglenook, Dormans Park, East Grimstead, Sussex. 
Rctherford,Thomas Easton, South Derwent Colliery, Ann 6eld Plain, Co. Durham. 

Scott, George Henry Hall, c/oT. E. Forster, 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Scott, William R., Rhodesia, Limited, P.O. Box 98, Bulawayo, British South 
Africa. 

Seed, Thomas, Whitwood Collieries, Normanton. 

Sharpley, Harold, Fairholme, Louth, Lincolnshire. 

Shaw, Harold, 34, Coiville Street, Nottingham. 

Shcttleworth, A. A., Hathersage Hall, via Sheffield. 

•Staples, E. H., Brookhill Cottage, Pinxton, Derbyshire. 

Steels, A. H., Albert Road, Trentham, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Stevens, W. H. B., Black well Colliery, Alfreton. 

•Stewart, William, Milnthorpe House, Sandal, Wakefield. 

SrRoy c, George Adamson, 26, Gladstone Terrace, Birtley, Co. Durham. 

Swax„ Joseph Todd, Heddon Colliery, Wylam-upon-Tyne. 

Tate, Robert Simon, Trimdon Grange, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Teasd»ale, George, Jun., Woodlands Farm, Cookridge, Horsforth. 

Thirl-whll, Thomas A., Wallsend Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Thompson, George Heron Dinsdale, Dinsdale Vale, Windsor Avenue, Waterloo, 

Blyth. 
Thomson, D., Apedale Offices, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
Thorsjton, Frank, Cornsay Colliery, Co. Durham. 
Todd, N. D., Blackwell, Alfreton. 
TrENKR, Percy, 4, Ashwood Terrace, Long ton, Staffordshire. 

Wilson, David, Jun. 

Wilson, William, Usworth Colliery, Washington, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

^msTAN-LEY, J. P., 21, Stanley Street, Tunstall, Staffordshire. 

Wpthey, V. F., Florence Colliery Office, Longton, Staffordshire. 

^^aith, Alfred Osborn, Moor House, Spennymoor, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

Wynne, F. H., 6, Brunswick Street, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

YorsG, George Ellis, Kimblesworth Colliery, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 



? OL XXIV.-1W8-1908. 



lxiv ^ LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Subscribers. 

Ashinoton Colliery, Owners of, Newcastle -upon-Tyne. 

Birtley Iron Company, Birtley. 

Bbidoewater Trustees, Bridgewater Offices, Walkden, Bolton-le-Moors, Lan- 
cashire. 

Bute, Marquess of, Bute Estate Office, Aberdare, South Wales. 

Butterknowle Colliery COMPANY, Darlington. 

Butterley Company, The, Derby. Transaction* to be sent to Fitz Herbert 
Wright, The Butterley Company, Derby. 

Commissioner of Mines, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Cowpen Coal Company, Limited, F, rung Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



►rary, D< 
Offices, : 



Durham, Earl of, Lambton Offices, Fence Houses. 

Elswick Coal Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Eyre and Spottiswoode, 5, Middle New Street, London, E.C. 

The Librarian, General Assembly Library, Wellington, New Zealand. 

The Director, Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, India. 

The Gordon and Gotch Proprietary, Limited, Subscription Department, 124 

and 126, Queen Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 
Green, E. H., P.O. Box 1978, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Harton Coal Company, Limited, The Harton Collieries, South Shields. < 

Hetton Coal Company, Fence Houses. 

Hood, William Walker, Glyncornel, Llwynypia, Glamorganshire. 

Joicey, James, and Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Company, Limited, Dryden House, 43, 
Gerrard Street, Soho, London, W. 

Lambton Collieries, Limited, E, Queen Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Lemoke and Buechxer, 812, Broadway, New York City, U.S. A. 
Lobe Grosseche Buchhandlung, ClauBthal, Harz, Germany. 
Londonderry, Marquih or, c/o V. W. Corbett, Londonderry Offices, Seaham 
Harbour. 

Merz, Charles Hesterman, Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
The Librarian, The Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 

New York Public Library, Aston Library Building, New York City, U.S.A. 
North Branoepeth Coal Company, Limited, Crown Street Chambers, Darlington. 
North Hetton Colliery, Owners of, Fence Houses. 

Ryhope Coal Company, Ryhope Colliery, near Sunderland. 

Scientific Library, United States Patent Office, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

Seghill Colliery, Owners of, Seghill, Northumberland 

Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Company, Limited (J. R. Blade), 

4, Stationers Hall Court, London, E.C. 
South Hetton and Murton Collieries, Owners of, 50, John Street, Sunderland. 
Steohert, G. E., 2, Star Yard, Carey Street, London, VV.C. 
Stella Colliery, Owners of, Hedgefield, Blaydon- upon-Tyne. 

Throckley Colliery, Owners of, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Victoria Garesfield Colliery, Owners of, Victoria Garesfield Colliery, Lintc 
Green, Co. Durham. 

Wearmouth Colliery, Owners of, Sunderland 
j Westport Coal Company, Limited, Manager, Dunedin, New Zealand, 

j Wigg, E. 8., and Son, Rundle Street, Adelaide, South Australia. 

f 

\ 



LIST OF MEMBERS. Ixv 

flon*»tfe&erate&. 

♦Deceased. 

Adam, William, Blantyre Saw Mills, High Blantyre, Glasgow. 
*Aitkbn, Henry, Darroch, Falkirk, N.B. 

Baxter, Andrew, Wbifflet Station, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Brown, Martin Walton, 10, Lambton Road, Newcastle-unon-Tyne. 

Buchanan, Sir David Carrick, Drumpellier, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Cameron, William, Finnie Street, Kilmarnock, N.B. 

Carmichael, Robert, Crofthead Collieries, Fauldhouae, Linlithgowshire. 

Ferguson, David, 140, Hyndland Drive, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

Gibb, Walter, Tannochside ColHery, Uddingston, N.B. 

*Hood, Archibald, 0, Bute Crescent, Cardiff. 
Hyslop, William, Bank Colliery, New Cumnock, R.S.O., Ayrshire. 

*Kelso, John, Ferniegair Colliery, Hamilton, N.B. 

Logan, William, 6, Merchiston Place, Edinburgh. 

McCulloch, John, Shieldhill Colliery, Falkirk, N.B. 

McDonald, John, South Lanridge Colliery, Holy town, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 

McGill, James, Bog House, tiollandbush, Bonnybridge, R.S.O., Stirlingshire. 

McKillop, James, Polmont Park, Polmont, Stirlingshire. 

Morrow, Samuel, Palacecraig, Airdrie, N.B. 

Nasmtth, J. A., Donibristle Colliery, Croasgates, Fife. 

Robertson, David, 135, Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 

Robertson, John, Jun., 12, St. Vincent Place, Glasgow. 

Russell, Joseph, Newton Colliery, Newton, N.B. 

Russell, Robert, Coltne&s Iron Works, Newmains, R.S.O., Lanarkshire. 

Weir, Thomas D., c/o Brown, Mair, Gemmell and Hislop, 162, St. Vincent 

Street, Glasgow. 
Wylie, John, Clifton Iron Works, Coatbridge, N.B. 

Young, William, 109, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 



lxvi 



SUBJECTS FOB PAPERS. 



THE INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS. 



SUBJECTS FOR PAPERS. 

The Council of The Institution of Mining Engineers invite original 
communications on the subjects in the following list, together with other 
questions of interest to mining and metallurgical engineers. 

Mechanical ventilation of mines, and' 
efficiency of the various classes of 
ventilators. 



Assaying. 

Automatic coupling of mineral wagons. 

Blowing ont of coal and minerals in 

situ. 
Boiler explosions. 
Bore-holes and prospecting. 
Boring against water and gases. 
Brickmaking by machinery. 
Brine-pumping. 
Canals, inland navigation, and the 

canalization of rivers. 
Coal-getting by machinery. 
Coal-washing machinery. 
Coke manufacture and recovery of bye- 
products. 
Colliery leases, and limited liability 

companies. 
Compound winding-engines. 
Compressed-air as a motive-power. 
Consumption of steam and water in 

engines. 
Corrosive action of mine- water on 

pumpa, etc. 
Descriptions of coal-fields. 
Diamond-mining. 
Distillation of oil-shales. 
Drift and placer-mining. 
Duration of coal-fields of the world. 
Electric mining lamps. 
Electricity and its applications in mines. 
Electro-metallurgy of copper, etc. 
Engine-counters and speed-recorders. 
Explosions in mines. 
Explosives used in mines. 
Faults and veins. 
Fuels and fluxes. 
Gas-producers, and gaseous fuel and 

illuminants. 
Gas, oil and petroleum engines. 
Geology and mineralogy. 
Gold-recovery plant and processes. 
Graphite : its mining and treatment. 
Haulage in mines. 
Industrial assurance, 
inspection of mines. 
Laws of mining and other concessions. 
Lead-smelting. 
Light railways. 

Lubricating value of grease and oils. 
Lubrication of trams and tubs. 
Maintenanceof canals in mining districts. 
Manufacture of fuel-briquettes. 
Mechanical preparation of ores and 

minerals. 



Metallurgy of gold, silver, iron, copper, 
lead, etc. 

Mineral resources of colonies. 

Mining and uses of arsenic, asbestos*, 
bauxite, mercury, etc. 

Natural gas, conveyance and uses. 

Occurrence of mineral ores, etc. 

Ore-sampling machine*. 

Petroleum-deposits. 

Preservation of timber. 

Prevention of over-winding. 

Pumping machinery. 

Pyrometers and their application. 

Quarries and methods of quarrying. 

Rectification of mineral oils. 

Rock-drills. 

Safety-lamps. 

Salt-mining, etc. 

Screening, sorting and cleaning of coal. 

Snipping and discharge of coal-cargoes. 

Sinking, coffering and tubbing of 
shafts. 

Sleepers of cast-iron, steel and wood. 

Smelting. 

Spontaneous ignition of coal and coal- 
seams. 

Stamp-milling. 

Steam -condensation arrangements. 

Steam-power plants. 

Submarine coal-mining. 

Subsidences caused by mining-opera- 
tions. 

Sulphur-mining. 

Surface-arrangements of mines. 

Surveying. 

Tin-miniug. 

Transport on roads. 

Tunnelling, methods and appliances. 

Utilization of dust and refuse coal. 

Utilization of sulphureous gases result- 
ing from metallurgical processes. 

Ventilation of coal-cargoes. 

Ventilation of mines. 

Water as a motive-power in mines. 

Water-tube boilers. 

Watering coal-dust. 

Water-incrustations in boilers, pumps,, 
etc. 

Winding arrangements at mines. 

Winning and working of mines at great 
depths. 



For selected papers, the Council may award prizes. In making 
awards, no distinction is made between communications received frotn- 
members of the Institution or others. 



I 



GOD SAVE THE KING. 



H. M. 

KING EDWARD VII. 

AND H. M. 

QUEEN ALEXANDRA, 

of the United Kingdom of 

Great Britain and Ireland and the 

Dominions thereto belonging. 



CORONATION. AUGUST 9th. 1902. 



'oi. xxiv.-MOa-Mca 



TRANSACTIONS. 



©o fljp King's JlBoxf ^frritorf flfljajrafn. 

Ighc Humble and gtatiful ££ddrc65 of 
|fhe Indtitution of {fining gngineerd 

0odt Gracicud ^Sovereign, 

The Institution of fining Engineers beg leave humbly 
to approach l£our ^fajeottj'^ |£hrone on the Qccaaion of the 
l&uguat (jjrcrcmonu of Your 8 a j c6t 9 4 Coronation, and to tender it6 
JKinccrc and Heartfelt Congratulation o on the s^uapiciouo Svent. 

^|e dedlre to present our ^rdent and Jgincere planed for Your 
Jgajcdtg'o Jfjealth and Ipelfare, and Jferventiu |>rau that Tour 
^ajcdty mau tfear itfith $lonj and gappineod the jjcrotfn tran6mittcd 
to Tour ^fajcdty and long continue to {feign over a |Iappu, 
$Jro6pcrouA and ^Tnited fjeople. 

JSjigncd bu order of the jjjouncil. 

M. WALTON BROWN, Secretary. 

June 2Ut % 1902. 



Home Ofj-ick, Whitehall, i 

4th Septemfter, 1WJ. I 

Sir, 

I am commanded by the King to convey to you hereby His Majesty's 

thanks for the Loyal and Dutiful Address of The Institution of Mining Engineers, 

on the occasion of Their Majesties' Coronation. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

A. AKERS DOUGLAS, 

The Secretary to The Institution of Mining Engineer*) 
Ne ireattt/e - »//, c n - Tynt. 



<-< cr t> 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF 

THE INSTITUTION 

OF 

MINING ENGINEERS. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

August 2nd, 1902. 



Mr. J. O. WEEKS, Retiring President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read the minutes of the last General Meeting, 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
July 19th and that day, and of the Council of The Institution of 
Mining Engineers. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS, 1902-1903. 

The Chairman (Mr. J. G. Weeks) appointed Messrs. L. Austin, 
•J. Kirsopp, jun., Thomas Lowdon, N. B. Ridley, J. Southern and 
W. B. Wilson, jun., as scrutineers of the balloting-papers for the 
election of officers for the year 1902-1903. The scrutineers after- 
wards reported the result of the ballot, as follows : — 

President : 
Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart. 

Vice- Presidents : 
Mr. R. Donald Bain. I Mr. C. Berkley. I Mr. T. E. Forster. 

Mr. T. W. Benson. ' Mr. W. C. Bjackett. I Mr. William Logan. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. G. F. Bell. 
Mr. C. S. Carnes. 
Mr. B. Dodd. 
Mr. M. H. Douglas. 



Councillors : 
Mr. T. Y. Ukeener. 
Mr. J. K. Guthrie. 
Mr. T. E. Jobling. 
Mr. A. C. Kayll. 
Mr. P. Kirkup. 
Mr. H. Lawrence. 



Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Mr. John Shiel. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. E. 0. Southern. 
Mr. R. L. Weeks. 



Mr. John Simpson moved, and the Retiring President 
seconded, a vote of thanks to the scrutineers for their services, and 
it was cordially approved. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas moved a vote of thanks to the Retiring 
President, Vice-Presidents and Councillors, and to the representa- 
tives of the Institute on the Council of The Institution of Mining 
Engineers, for their services during the past year. Their 
President (Mr. J. G. Weeks) had devoted a very large amount of 
time and attention to the affairs of the Institute, which had pro- 
gressed materially during his term of office. 

Mr. W. C. Blackett, in seconding the vote of thanks, remarked 
that the President had carried out his duties to the entire satis- 
faction of the memhers. 

The vote of thanks was cordially approved. 

The Retiring President (Mr. J. G. Weeks), in acknowledging 
the vote of thanks on his own behalf, and also on behalf of the 
members of the Council and of their representatives on the Council 
of the Institution of Mining Engineers, thanked the members 
for the kind manner in which they had appreciated what had been 
done during their term of office. Personally, he was very grate- 
ful for the honour which they had conferred upon him in electing 
him as their President ; and it was interesting to note that four 
Presidents had been connected with the Bedlington collieries : 
namely, the late Mr. Nicholas Wood, Mr. John Daglish, Mr. 
Thomas Douglas and himself. 



The Annual Report of the Council was read as follows : — 



ANNUAL REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1901-1902. 

The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers was initiated on July 3rd, 1852, " at a meeting of 
colliery-owners, viewers and others interested in the coal-trade, 
.... for the purpose of forming a society, to meet at fixed 
periods and discuss the means for the ventilation of mines, for 
the prevention of accidents, and for general purposes connected 
with the winning and working of collieries ; " under the title of 
" The North of England Society, for the Prevention of Accidents, 
and for other Purposes connected with Mining." Of the 44 gentle- 
men attending that meeting, 7 survive, and 4 of them (Messrs. 
Charles William Anderson, Cuthbert Berkley, John Daglish and 
Thomas Douglas) are still members of the Institute. 

The celebration of the Jubilee of the Institute will be held on 
September 16th next, and, at the invitation of the Council, The 
Institution of Mining Engineers will conjointly hold their annual 
meeting. 

The following table shews the progress of the membership 
in successive decades : — 



Year ending August 1st. 


1862. 


1872. 


1882. 


1892. 


1901. 


1902. 


Honorary Members ... 


16 


24 


22 


24 


28 


25 


Members 


295 


618 


669 


545 


880 


893 


Associate Members 


— 


— 


— 


35 


122 


109 


Associates 


— 


— 


— 


34 


116 


122 


Student* 


— 


64 


115 


35 


57 


66 


Subscribers 


15 


14 


13 


18 


23 


23 


Totals 


326 


720 


819 


691 


1^226 


1^238 



Although 93 gentlemen have been elected during the past 
year, there has only been a slight increase in membership, 
due to the exceptional number of members who have died, and 
a '8o to the names of a considerable number of members, etc., 
having been removed from the register by the Council. 

The Library has been maintained in an efficient condition 
during the past year, and the books are now more readily access- 
ible by reference to the card-index. The additions by donation, 
exchange and purchase, include 314 bound volumes, 151 pam- 
phlets, reports, etc., and the Library now contains about 8,943 
flumes and 2,640 pamphlets. 



6 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Members would render valuable service to the profession by 
the donation of books, reports, plans, etc., to the Library, where 
they would be available for reference. 

The Lecture-theatre is being altered and decorated, and will 
be ready for use during the Jubilee meeting. 

The three years' course of lectures for colliery-engineers, 
eiigine-wrights, apprentice mechanics, etc., at the Durham 
College of Science has proved very successful. The lectures are 
delivered on Saturday afternoons, and the next course will com- 
mence in October next. The entire course is as follows : — 

1902-1903. Michaelmas Term, (1) Transmission of Power, and (2) Pump- 
ing and Ventilation. Epiphany Term, (3) Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, and 
(4) Mining Machinery (chiefly used underground). 

1903-1904. Michaelmas Term, (5) Mensuration, and (6) Chemistry of Fuel. 
Epiphany Term, (7) Strength of Materials, and (8) Experimental Mechanics. 

1904-1905. Michaelmas Term, (9) Theoretical Electricity, and (10) Electrical 
Engineering Epiphany Term, (11) Steam-engines and Boilers, and (12) Haulage 
and Winding. 

Several owners of collieries have paid the fees (£1 10s. per 
annum) and railway-expenses of pupils attending the classes 
from their collieries. During the past year, the lectures of 
Michaelmas term on Theoretical Electricity and Electrical 
Engineering were attended by 111 and 110 students respectively : 
77 sat for examination and 67 passed. During Epiphany term, 
the lectures on the Steam-engine and Haulage and Winding were 
attended by 91 students, of whom 68 sat for examination and 
55 passed. Prizes have been awarded to Messrs. James Wray 
and Arthur Hepburn. Certificates have been awarded to the 
following students who have completed a three years' course: — 
Messrs. William Alderson, William Pinkney Armstrong, Alfred 
Clark, John George Crowder, William Cummings, Thomas 
Henderson, Arthur Hepburn, Ernest Horler, George William 
Maddison, James Oswald, William Wainwright and James 
Wray. Mr. James Wray has received the first prize during each 
year of his course. 

General and Subject-matter Indices to volumes i. to xxxviii. of 
the Transactions have been published, and will facilitate refer- 
ences to papers. 

A Subject-matter Index of Mining, Mechanical and Metal- 
lurgical Literature for the Year 1900, has been issued to the 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 7 

members, and will afford access to a large mass of technical 
literature. 

By a mutually advantageous arrangement with the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the members 
of either institution are permitted to refer to the books in the 
Library of the other. The members are also accorded free access 
to the Museum of the Natural History Society of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Mr. John Daglish continues to represent the Institute as a 
governor of the Durham College of Science, which was jointly 
founded in 1871 by the University of Durham and the North of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. Mr. 
T. E. Forster represents the Institute on the Council of the 
Durham College of Science, and the President (Mr. John G. 
Weeks) is also an ex-oflicio member. 

Mr. J. H. Merivale will again represent the Institute at the 
Conference of Corresponding Societies of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, to be held in Belfast in 
September, 1902. Prof. H. Louis is the representative of the 
Institute on the Science & Art and Scholarships Committees 
of the Northumberland County Council. Mr. W. Cochrane re- 
presents the Institute upon the board of directors of The Institute 
and Coal-trade Chambers Company, Limited. 

The representatives of the Institute upon the Council of The 
Institution of Mining Engineers during the past year were as 
follows: — Messrs. Henry Armstrong, It. Donald Bain, John 
Batey, W. C. Blackett, Bennett H. Brough, T. Forster Brown, 
A, G. Charleton, William Cochrane, Thomas Douglas, William 
Galloway, John Gerrard, Reginald Guthrie, John L. Hedley, 
A. C. Kayll, Henry Lawrence, C. C. Leach, Henry Louis, J. H. 
Merivale, John Morison, Henry Palmer, Frank R. Simpson, 
A. L. Steavenson and John G. Weeks. 

The following additional exchanges of Transactions have been 

arranged during the year: — 

Le Mois Scientifique et Industrial, Paris. 
American Philosophical Society. 
Society d'Encouragement pour l'lndustrie Nationale. 
The Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

Prizes of books have been awarded to the writers of the follow- 
ln & papers, communicated to the members during the year 1900- 
1801:— 



8 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

'• The Solvent Action of Pyridine on Certain Coals." By Mr. T. Baker, B.Sc. 
" Endless-rope Haulage at Axwell Park Colliery." By Mr. R. W. Glass,. 

Stud.LM.EL 
" Some Silver-bearing Veins of Mexico." By Mr. Edward Hake, M.I.M.K. 
"Dry and Wet Treatment of Copper ■ores." By Capt. C. C. Longridge, 

M.LM.E. 
" The Employment of Iron Bars at the No. 6 Pit, Lens Colliery." By Mr. E. 

Reumaux. 
" A Method of Boring Deposits out of Rising-main Pipes in Shafts." By Mr. 

Hugh Ross, M.I.M.E. 
" A Flash of Lightning at the Lambton Colliery, D and Lady Ann Pits, on 

October 2nd, 1900." By Mr. Jacob Sharp, M.LM.E. 
" Safety-lamp Cabin at Heworth Colliery." By Mr. Thomas V. Simpson, 

Stud.I.M.E. 
"Sinking through Swamp, Clay and Sand." By Mr. William Tattley, 

M.I.M.E. 
" Endless-rope Haulage at Pelton Colliery." By Mr. Norman M. Thornton, 

Stud.LM.E. 

The papers printed in the Transactions during the year are 
as follows: — 

"A Method of Socketing a Winding-rope, and its Attachment to a Cage 

without' the Use of Ordinary Chains." By Mr. W. C. Blackett, M.LM.E. 
"Mechanical Undercutting in Cape Colony." By Mr. John Colley, M.I.M.E. 
"Electric Pumping-plant at South Durham Collieries." By Mr. Fen wick 

Darling, M.LM.E. 
" Memoir of the late George i Baker Forster." By Mr. R. H. Forster. 
" Memoir of the late George Clemen tson Green well." By Mr. G. C. Green - 

well, M.LM.E. 
" Some Silver-bearing Veins of Mexico." By Mr. Edward Halse, M.I.M.E. 
"Apparatus for closing the Top of the Upcast-shaft at Woodhorn Colliery." 

By Mr. C. Liddell, Stud.I.M.E. 
" Note on a Mineral Vein in Wearmouth Colliery." By Prof. Henry Louis, 

M.LM.E. 
" Standardization of Surveyors' Chains." By Prof. Henry Louis, M.I.M.E. 
" Report of the Delegate to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 

Societies of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,. 

Glasgow, 1901. By Mr. John H. Merivale, M.I.M.E. 
"A Visit to the Simplon Tunnel: the Works and Workmen." By Dr- 

Thomas Oliver. 
" The Carboniferous Limestone Quarries of Weardale." By Mr. A. L» 

Steavenson, M.LM.E. 
"Auriferous Gravels and'. Hydraulic Mining." By Mr. William S. Welton, 

M.LM.E. 
"Tapping Drowned Workings at Wheatley Hill Colliery." By Mr. W. B. 

Wilson, Jun., M.I.M.E. 

Mr. James Stirling, government geologist and mining repre- 
sentative of Victoria, delivered an interesting lecture on " Mines 
and Mining in Victoria," illustrated by lantern-slides. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL & 

The award of the Greenwell medals will be made for approved 
papers communicated during the past year " recording the results 
of experience, and the deductions and practical suggestions of the 
writers for the avoidance of accidents." 

As no papers have been received in competition for the prize 
offered by Mr. Clarence E. Claghorn for an approved essay on 
"The Action, Influence and Control of the Roof in Longwall 
Working," the Council will select another subject for papers in 
competition for this prize. 

Excursions have been made to South Durham, Washington 
and Woodhorn collieries, and to the Parson Byres quarries, and 
the thanks of the members have been accorded to the owners of 
these collieries and works. 

Members are desired to send copies of any unpublished sec- 
tions of strata in the counties of N orthumberland and Durham, 
in order that they may be incorporated in a supplementary 
volume to An Account of the Strata of Northumberland and 
Durham , as proved by Borings and Sinkings. 

A committee has been appointed to investigate and report 
upon labour-saving machines and tools used in cutting and boring 
coal and rock. 

The members are to be congratulated on the success that has 
attended the formation of The Institution of Mining Engineers, 
*hich has now completed its thirteenth year. Meetings have 
heen held during the past year in the Glasgow district in 
September, 1901, and in London in May, 1902. 



The Chairman (Mr. J. G. Weeks), in moving the adoption of 
the report of the Council, remarked that the number of papers 
read during the year was very satisfactory, the attendance at the 
meetings had been good, and altogether the members had got 
through a considerable amount of work. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas seconded the resolution, which was 
unanimously agreed to. 



The Report of the Finance Committee was read as follows : 



10 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The Finance Committee submit herewith a statement of 
accounts for the twelve months ending June 30th, 1902. 

The total receipts during that period were £2,813 2s. 6d. Of 
this amount, £24 18s. Od. was paid as balance of life-composition 
in lieu of annual subscriptions ; £102 8s. represent subscriptions 
paid in advance, and £10 has been received from Mr. Clarence R. 
Claghorn as a prize to be offered for a paper; leaving 
£2,675 16s. 6d. as the ordinary income of the year, as compared 
with £2,582 lis. 7d. in the previous year. 

The expenditure amounted to £2,443 9s. 4d. as compared with 
£2,115 10s. 10d., the ordinary expenditure for last year. This 
increase is principally due to expenditure incurred in connection 
with the publication of the General and Subject-matter Indices 
to the Transactions and the Subject-matter Index of Mining, 
Mechanical and Metallurgical Literature for the Year 1900, and 
the additional sum paid to The Institution of Mining Engineers 
on the increased membership. Deducting the total expenditure 
from the income for the year, leaves a balance of £369 13s. 2d. ; 
and this added to the sum of £637 13s. lOd. brought from the 
previous year, gives a credit-balance of £1,007 7s. Od. 

During the year £180 10s. have been written off the amount of 
subscriptions and arrears. The amount of subscriptions for the 
year 1901-1902 still unpaid is £271 19s. and for previous years 
£47 4s. 

The cost of the alterations to the Lecture-theatre, ordered 
by the Council, will come into the accounts for the year 1902- 
1903. There will also be in that year, considerable expenditure 
in connection with the Jubilee of the Institute, but the Com- 
mittee hope to be able to provide the necessary funds out of the 
balance in hand and the surplus income for the coming year. 

Thomas Douglas. 

August 2nd, 1902. 



ACCOUNTS. 



11 




12 ACCOUNTS. 

Dr. The Treasurer ik Account with The North op England 

tor the tsar ending 



£ a. d. 


£ 8. d 


593 6 10 




44 7 






637 13 10 



June 30th, 1901. 

To Balance at Bankers 

„ „ in Treasurer's hands 

June 30th, 1902. 
To Dividend of 7 J per cent, on 179 Shares of £20 each in 
the Institute and Coal-trade Chambers Company, 
Limited, for the year ending June 30th, 1902 ... 268 10 
,, Interest on Mortgage of £1,400 with the Institute and 

Coal- trade Chambers Company, Limited 49 

317 10 O 

To Sale of Transaction* 77 d 

TO SUB8CBIPTION8 FOR 1901-1902 AS FOLLOWS : — 

706 Members @ £2 2s. 1,482 12 

87 Associate Members <§> £2 2s. 182 14 

93 Associates <§> £1 5s. 116 5 

47 Students @ £1 5s. 58 15 

58 New Members <§> £2 2s. 121 16 

2 New Members (not yet elected) ... @ £2 2s. 4 4 

7 New Associate Members (§> £2 2s. 14 14 0' 

13 New Associates @ £1 5s. 16 5 

20 New Students @ £1 5s. 25 



20 Subscribing Firms 

To Life Composition :— 

1 New Member 

Leas — Subscriptions for current year paid in advance 
at the end of last year 

Add — Arrears received ... 

2,260 4 
Add — Subscriptions paid in advance during the 

current year 102 8 

- 2,362 12 

To Technical Index 46 O 

To Mr. C. R. Claghorn for Prize 10 



2,022 5 





88 4 





2,110 9 





24 18 





2,135 7 





100 14 





2,034 13 
225 11 







£3,450 16 4 



ACCOUNTS. 



13 



Imjrrnm of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. 
Jnri 30th, 1902. 



Cb. 



Jnne 30th, 1902. 








£ 8. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


By Annual Report 








31 17 


6 




„ Banker's Charges 






... 


21 4 







., British Association for the Advancement of Science : 








Expenses of Delegate ... 








9 







.. Circulars, etc. 






... 


50 


1 




„ Cleaning Wood Memorial Hall, Offices, etc. 








29 7 


5 




.. Electric Light and Gas 








31 17 







., Expenses of General Meetings 








6 15 


6 




., Fire Insurance 








12 4 


3 




.. Foel 








16 9 


5 




„ Furniture and Repairs 








62 4 


6 




,. Illustrations 








6 17 


4 




., Incidental Expenses 








8 17 







„ Index to Transactions 








100 







,. Lihrary — Books 


£45 17 


4 








,. ., Binding 


43 


7 


11 


89 5 
8 19 


3 
9 




.. Petty Cash 










.. Postages — Circulars 


£39 


9 


1 








., „ Correspondence 


21 


11 


2 








„ Publications 


45 


6 


10 


106 7 
24 13 


x 




.. Prizes for Papers 


... 






9 




„ Rates and Taxes 








6 4 


7 




.. Rent of Offices 








24 9 


2 




,. Reporting of General Meetings 








13 2 


6 




„ Salaries, Wages, Auditing, etc. ... 








471 13 


7 




,. Stationery, etc 








27 14 11 




« Technical Index 








3 17 


3 




.. Telephone Rent 








2 17 







.. Travelling Expenses 








2 19 







.. Water Rate 


... 






5 15 


8 




.. Wood Memorial Hall : Alterations 








49 13 





1,224 8 6 


By The Institution of Mining Engineers ... 


... 




... 


1,224 7 


4 




£«j— Amounts paid by Authors for Excerpts 




... 


5 4 


(I 
















1,219 2 10 










2,443 9 4 


fy Balance at Bankers 






... 


940 17 


6 




» » in Treasurer's hands 








56 8 


6 




., Outstanding Amounts due for Authors' Ex< 


3erpts 






1 1 


O 





We. having examined the above account with the books and vouchers 
elating thereto, certify that, in our opinion, it is correct. 

JOHN G. BENSON AND SON, 
v Chartered Accountants. 

*«wctttle-upon-Tyne, 

August 2nd, 1902. 



1,007 



£3.450 16 4 



14 



ACCOUNTS. 



Dr. 



The Trkasuhbr in Account 



To 880 Members. 

49 of* whom have paid Life Compositions. 

831 
1 Member paid Life Composition 

830 

4 not included in printed list. 

834 <g> £2 2s. 

To 122 Associate Members, 

8 of whom have paid Life Compositions. 



114 



<®£2 2s. 



To 116 Associates, 

5 of whom have paid as New Members. 



Ill Associates 



@ £1 5s. 



To 57 Students 

2 of whom have paid as New Members. 

55 
1 of whom has paid Life Composition. 

54 Students <a> £1 5s. 

To 23 Subscribing Finns 

To 58 New Members @ £2 2s. 

To 2 New Members, not yet elected, @ £2 2s. 

60 

To 7 New Associate Members <§> £2 2s. 

To 13 New Associates @ £1 5s. 

To 20 New Students (g £1 5s. 



To Arrears, as per Balance Sheet 1900-1901 

Add — Arrears considered irrecoverable, but since paid . 



To Subscriptions paid in advance 



£ s. d. £ s. d. 



24 18 



1,751 8 



239 8 



138 15 





67 10 







96 12 







121 16 







4 4 







14 14 







16 5 







23 







2,500 10 





297 







63 1 









360 1 







2,860 11 







102 8 







£2,962 19 






ACCOUNTS. 



15 



with Subscriptions, 1901-1902. 



By 706 Members, paid 

Bv 96 „ unpaid 

By 8 „ dead <§ £2 2s. 

By 24 „ struck off list @ £2 2s. 

S34 
By 1 Member, paid Life Composition 

By 37 Associate Members, paid (§ £2 2s. 

By 17 ., „ unpaid $ £2 2s. 

By 1 „ „ dead <& £2 2s. 
By 9 ., „ struck off list 

;u 

By 93 Associates, paid @ £1 5s. 

Bj 15 ,. unpaid ... @ £1 5s. 

By 3 „ struck off list @ £1 5s. 

Ill 

By 47 Students, paid @ £1 5s. 

By 6 „ unpaid ... @ £1 5s. 

By 1 „ struck off list @ £1 5s. 

54 

By 20 Subscribing Firms, paid 

By 3 „ „ unpaid 



PAID. 

£ s. d. 
@ £2 2s. 1,482 12 
<«£2 2s 



24 18 
182 14 



116 5 



UNPAID. 

£ s. d. 



Cr. 



8TKUCK OFF 
LIST. 
£ 8. d. 



201 12 



58 15 



88 4 



23 

By 58 New Members, paid ... @ £2 2s. 121 16 
By 2 New Members, not yet elected, 

paid @£2 2s. 4 4 

60 



By 7 New Associate Members, paid 'w £2 2s. 



By 13 New Associates, paid ... 
By 20 New Students, paid 

By Arrears 

By Subscriptions paid in advance 



@ £1 5s. 

(£ £1 5s. 



14 14 

16 5 

25 

2,135 7 

225 11 

2,360 18 

102 8 



35 14 



18 15 



7 10 



8 8 



16 16 
50 8 



271 19 
47 4 



2,463 6 319 3 



2 2 
18 18 



3 15 



15 



93 4 
87 6 



180 10 

319 3 

2.463 6 



£2,962 19 



16 



TKANSACTI0N8. 



The Chairmax (Mr. J. G. Weeks), in moving the adoption of 
the report of the Finance Committee, said it was satisfactory to 
know that there was a considerable credit-balance. The altera- 
tions to the Lecture-theatre would cost about £1,000, and when 
these were completed he thought that the comfort and conveni- 
ence of the members would be materially increased. The 
architect had promised that the alterations should be completed 
in time for the Jubilee Meeting in September next. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas seconded the resolution, which was 
unanimously agreed to. 



REPRESENTATIVES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE 
INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas moved, and Mr. AV. C. Blackett 
seconded a resolution, that the following gentlemen be elected 
as the representatives of the Institute on the Council of The Insti- 
tution of Mining Engineers for the year 1902-1903 : — 



Mr. William Armstrong. 
Mr. John Batey. 
Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart. 
Mr. T. W. Benson. 
Mr. Bennett H. Brouoh. 
Mr. A. G. Charleton. 
Mr. John Daulish. 
Sir David Dale, Bart. 



Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. William Galloway. 
Mr. John Gerrard. 
Mr. Reginald Guthrie. 
Mr. Philip Kirkui\ 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. (tBorcje May. 



Mr. John Morison. 
Mr. M. W. Parrington. 
Prof. R. A. S. Redmayne. 
Mr. A. R. Sawyer, 
Mr. J. B. Simpson. 
Mr. John G. Weeks. 
Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart. 
Mr. W. O. Wood. 



The resolution was agreed to. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 
nominated : — 

Members — 

Mb. Arthur Andrews, Electrical Engineer, 20, Carlyon Street, Sunderland. 
Mr. John Frank Bledsoe, Mining Engineer, 309-310, Washington Block, 

Seattle, Washington, United States of America. 
Mr. Thomas William Davies, Mining Engineer, Vereeniging Estates, 

Vereeniging, Transvaal. 
Mr. George Eltringham, Colliery Manager, Eltringham Colliery, Ovingham- 

upon-Tyne, Northumberland. 
Mr. Antonio Gascon y Miramon, Mining Prospector, etc., 36, Serrano, 

Madrid, Spain. 
Mr. Gtstave Gillman, Civil Engineer, Aguilas, Provincia de Murcia, Spain. 



TRANSACTIONS. 17. 

Mb- «Xo en Dampier Green, Engineer, P.O. Box 340, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Mb- RKtiiXALD Thomas Hoopbb, Mining Engineer, Derwent Villa, St. Agnes, 

Cornwall. 
Mb- John William Jamieson, Mining Engineer, Medomsley, R.S.O., County 

Durham. 
Prof*. -Auoustk Rateau, Ingenieur au Corps des Mines, 105, Quai d'Orsay, 

IParis, France. 
Mb. A^ardle Asquith Swallow, Mining Engineer, Tanfield Lea Colliery, 

Tantobie, R.S.O., County Durham. 
Mb. Eaelk W. Jbnks Trevor, Mining Engineer, 78, Palace Chambers, 9, 

Bridge Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Mb* Robert Turnbull, Mechanical Engineer, Usworth Colliery, Washing- 
ton, R.S.O., County Durham. 
Mh» Michael Watson, Mechanical Engineer, 4, St. Nicholas Buildings, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mb- Griffith John Williams, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Bangor, North 
Wales. 

Associate Members— 

Mr. Frederic Barbie Jack, 32, Grainger Street West, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Mr. Thomas Lambert, Town-hall Buildings, Gates head- upon -Tyne. 

Mr. Edward Arthur Langslow-Cock, 22, Elsham Road, Kensington, 
London, W. 

Associates- 
Mr. Robert Blair, Mining Surveyor, 6, Hamilton Terrace, Whitehaven, 

Cumberland. 
Mr. John Cum Mrs gs, Colliery Under-manager, Rowlands Gill Colliery, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. Thomas Ford, Overman, Washington, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
Mb. Joseph Cresswall Roscamp, Colliery Manager's Assistant, Ravens- 

Worth Colliery, Low Fell, Gateshead -upon -Tyne. 
Mi- Thomas Carlton Stobart, Under-manager, Ushaw Moor Colliery, 

County Durham. 
Mr. Hk hbert William Taylor, Under-manager, Rectory Gates, Washing- 
ton Village, County Durham. 

Students — 
Mb. Habold Percy Bell, Mining Student, Clyvedon, Cleadon, Sunderland. 
Mr George Cook, Mining Student, Binchester Hall, Bishop Auckland. 
Mb. Benjamin Starrs Field. Mining Engineering Apprentice, 8, Esplanade, 

Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Mb. Robert Norman Fowler, Surveyor. Usworth Villa, Great Usworth, 

Washington, R.S.O., County Durham. 
Mr, John Norman Humble, Mining Student, West Pel ton House, Beamish, 

H.S.O., County Durham. 
Mb. GEORGE Adamson Strong, Mining Student, Byron House, Oustou 

Chester-le-Street, County Durham. 
^ William Wilson, Mining Student, Usworth Colliery, Washington, 

R.S.O., County Durham. 



T W*XXIY.-1MJ.U«. 



18 GASES ENCLOSED IN COAX. 



THE GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL.* 



By Da. BROOCKMANN.f 



The first work on this subject was done by Prof. Ernst von 
Meyer* in 1870, his method being as follows : — 

Pieces of coal of the size of a nut were boiled in a flask, filled 
with boiling (air-free) water, and closed with an indiarubber- 
stopper, through which a glass tube led the escaping gases, which 
were collected over boiling water. In order to obtain the gas in 
the pure state, it is necessary to keep the water boiling gently. 
When vigorous ebullition takes place, air diffuses into the flask, 
however good the indiarubber-stopper may be. 

Prof. E. von Meyer obtained from British and Westphalian 
coals, heated to 100° Cent., from 4 to 238 cubit centimetres of 
gas per 100 grammes of coal. The gases were of variable com- 
position : all contained nitrogen, oxygen, carbonic acid and marsh- 
gas ; and coals from Zwickau gave off higher hydrocarbons in 
addition to the above-named gases. 

In 1875, Mr. V. J. Thomas§ extracted the gases by heating 
to 100° Cent, and afterwards exhausting the gases by means of 
a Sprengel air-pump. He thus obtained from 30 to 600 cubic 
centimetres of gas per 100 grammes of dry South Wales coal, the 
gas having the same composition as that given by Prof. E. von 
Meyer. Some cannel coals and jet, however, gave only carbonic 
acid and nitrogen, others carbonic acid, nitrogen, marsh-gas and 
higher hydro-carbons. Mr. Thomas used indiarubber-tubes for 
connecting his apparatus. 

• " Ueber die in Steinkohlen eingeschlossenen Gase," Ghvckaiif, 1899, vol. 
xxxv., pages 269 to 274. 



t Translated and somewhat condensed by Prof. Henry Louis. 

t Journal fur Praktixche Chemie, new series, vol. iv., page 4S 
s 144 and 407. 

§ Journal of the Chemical Society, 1876, vol. xxx., page 144. 



GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL. 19 

Prof. Jeller experimented on coals from Bossitz by the Meyer 
method, and obtained per 100 grammes of coal heated to 100° 
Cent.: — 



L 


On 

Cubic 

centimetres. 

54 


Carbonic 

Acid, CO.. 

Per oent. 

56 


BffardHt&s, 

Per cent. 
3 


Ethane, 

O.H.. 

Per cent. 

16 


Nitrogen, 

Per cent. 
25 


n. 


38 


35 


10 


4 


51 


m. 


60 


36 


25 


7 


32 



The author investigated dust and coal from Bossitz, the coal, 
however, being old. He obtained somewhat different results 
from Prof. Jeller, and he is not quite certain whether higher 
hydrocarbons than ethane (C 2 H 6 ) were not present. With this 
reservation, he found 50 cubic centimetres of gas containing 31 
per cent, of carbonic acid, 30 per cent, of marsh-gas, 19 per cent, of 
ethane, and 20 per cent, of nitrogen. 

Recently Dr. P. P. Bedson, of the Durham College of Science, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, has taken up the same subject.* He used 
about the same method as that employed by Mr. Thomas. The 
coals were heated in a closed vessel to different temperatures, the 
glass vessel being closed by a perforated indiarubber-stopper and 
connected with an air-pump to draw off the escaping gases. In 
addition to other coals, Dr. Bedson investigated the coal of the 
Hutton seam of the Byhope colliery, Durham, the dust of which 
coal is known to be dangerous. He examined the fresh coal, coal 
subsequently pulverized, and also coal-dust. From 100 grammes 
of fresh coal he obtained 818 cubic centimetres of gas, which, 
however, only contained 17 per cent, of combustible gases. From 
the pulverized coal, which he heated to 184° Cent., he obtained 
a gfcs containing 27 per cent, of oxygen. 

Dr. Bedson probably was not aware of the labours of the 
Austrian Commission, or he would have referred to them. He 
lays down as quite new the existence of two types of coals : (1) 
those which contain higher hydrocarbons, and are dangerous, 
Mid (2) those which contain no higher hydrocarbons, and form a 
less dangerous dust. 

As already pointed out, all the chemists in question have used 

mdiarubber. This is an almost indispensable material for the 

chemist, but, unfortunately, it is unsuitable in many cases, 

specially when working with pressures varying from the normal, 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1894, vol. vii., pages 27 to 53 ; and Colliery Manager 
vvlJonmnl of Mining Engineering, 1895, vol. xL, pages 30 to 32. 



. 20 GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL. 

as in the instances above, in which there are marked differences 
of pressure in the different vessels, under which conditions india- 
rubber is as permeable to gases as a sieve is to water. 

The author can refer to a mass of literature in support of this 
statement, which can also readily be proved by experiment. If 
this property of indiarubber be borne in mind, it is easy to under- 
stand how Prof, von Meyer obtained 238 cubic centimetres of gas, 
Mr. Thomas 600, and Dr. Bedson 818, as the maximum from 100 
grammes of coal when heated to 100° Cent. All these three 
chemists have collected and investigated not the pure gases 
occluded in coals, but atmospheric air, from which the heated 
coal has absorbed a greater or lesser quantity of oxygen, and which 
was more or less contaminated with the occluded gases and the 
products of the heating of the coal. The latter point will be 
referred to again. 

The author doubts the accuracy of the results obtained by 
these chemists, more particularly those of Dr. Bedson, so far as 
concerns Westphalian coals : — (1) He had long ago obtained some 
gas by boiling coal under water, but had contented himself with 
proving that such gases were combustible gases, the quantity 
being too small for analysis. (2) He had examined 30 to 40 pure 
blowers in Westphalian collieries, which gave over 99 per cent, 
of marsh-gas, the remainder being carbonic acid, but no trace 
of nitrogen or oxygen. As the occluded gases are indubitably 
the sources of the blowers, the latter would obviously have to con- 
tain nitrogen and oxygen if these were contained in the occluded 
gases. Blowers from other coal-fields have often been found to 
contain almost pure marsh-gas. (3) He had certainly found, now 
and then, traces of hydrocarbons or of hydrogen itself in the 
air of Westphalian collieries ; but he had long ago come to the 
conclusion that both of these gases were not originally contained 
in the gases escaping from the coal, and that they had found their 
way into the return-airways owing to decomposition, heating, or 
accidental admixture. 

In order to obtain gases as pure as possible from coal, he had 
arranged a Sprengel air-pump, on which a glass vessel was blown, 
to act as the receiver for the coals. By this arrangement all 
i possibility of leakage in the apparatus was excluded. In order 

| to remove as far as possible adhering air from the inner surface 

of the glass and from the coal, he had allowed his apparatus to 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL. 21 

stand as long as three days, repeatedly renewing the vacuum ; he 
had then heated the vessel containing the coal to 100° Cent, in 
a water-bath, drawn off the escaping gases, and collected them 
over mercury. 

All who know how difficult it is to remove adhering air from 
solid bodies will understand the necessity for this precaution ; it, 
nevertheless, involves a source of error, inasmuch as each renewal 
of the vacuum removes a certain amount of the gases escaping 
from the coal, namely, such as would escape at ordinary atmo- 
spheric temperature into a vacuum. This error will be greater in 
those coals which give off their enclosed gases readily than in 
others which hold them more firmly. It is impossible, therefore, 
in the Meyer method, or in any other, to determine the total 
quantity of the enclosed gases. For instance, in the author's 
method, only that portion is obtained which is able to escape from 
pieces of the dimensions employed in vacuo at a temperature of 
100° Cent., minus that portion which escapes while the vacuum 
is being produced. The quantities of gas obtained by the author 
must therefore be looked upon as minima. They are, however, 
comparable with each other, because he always used fragments of 
the same size (2 to 4 millimetres in diameter). It is obvious that 
the larger the fragments the more gas will be retained in the coal, 
while it can escape the more readily the smaller the particles are. 
Table I. shows the results of his investigations ; and, for con- 
venience, the coke and gas obtainable in each experiment are. 
given, calculated upon the pure coal. The quantity of coal 
employed was always 100 grammes. It was always heated to 
100° Cent, in the water-bath, and the gases removed until com- 
pletely exhausted, which often took several days. 

The Austrian Commission, and also Dr. Bedson, have 
attempted to draw various conclusions from the gases occluded in 
coal. They have attempted to explain explosions of coal-dust 
as follows : — Owing to the heat of a blown-out shot, the occluded 
gases are supposed to be evolved from the coal-dust thrown up 
by the shot, and this gas should form with air an explosive 
mixture which may be fired by the flame of the shot. This 
explosion would then induce a subsequent true coal-dust explosion. 
The gas is supposed to be especially dangerous when higher hydro- 
carbons are present in the occluded gases. These form an 
explosive mixture with air, and are, moreover, easily inflammable. 



22 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL. 



n 



iftl« N 



3 






111* 



i ill! 



n4 w s4 

g I, 



HI 






n 



«*« 



> 1 



S 



|W 



o 









* is 



ii 



t s 



8 § 8 



S 8 8 



3 S 8 



8 § 8 



CO l» 



9 3 



21 8 8 



8 



8 



3 







5 111 



8 



3 



1 I 



8 



8 8 



3 2 



3 



3 

o ■ 



I I 



I. 2 

s 

6 



w ** fc 



3*111 



i I 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



8 



. 8 



I 



© 



3.2 » 
o 
O > 









W 2 



3 I 



a 8 

a i 

X 

O O Q 






GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL. 23 

It will probably be impossible to prove this explanation experi- 
mentally until we can get an explosive whose temperature of 
detonation is under 650° Cent., the ignition-temperature of marsh- 
gas, so that the temperature would only suffice to ignite the 
higher hydrocarbons. The explanation must, however, fail, for 
all coals the dust of which is known to be explosive, if these con- 
tain none of the higher hydrocarbons, as, for instance, No. 13 
seam at Hibernia colliery, No. 8 seam at Pluto colliery, and 
No. 3 seam at Camphausen colliery. 

In this explanation, the fact is also overlooked that when a 
shot is fired pressure is produced, so that the occluded gases are 
not allowed to escape as into a vacuum, but, on the contrary, are 
driven into the pores of the coal. If the explanation is a correct 
one, the author's results would support it far better, seeing that 
he has found in the occluded gases of the Hutton seam scarcely 
anything but combustible gases, while Dr. Bedson has found 
only 20 per cent, of such gases, so that in the former case an 
explosive mixture would far more readily be formed than in the 
latter. Further, no attention is paid to the fact that when coal 
is heated in the presence of air, which corresponds to the actual 
conditions, quite different products are obtained from those when 
the coal is heated in a vacuum. The question to be solved is : 
What gas is produced when coal is heated in the presence of air 
at low temperatures, up to 650° Cent. ? Messrs. Varrentrapp and 
Richters have already given an answer to the above question, 
which may be read between the lines of their classical works. 
Nitrogen must be produced, because the oxygen is absorbed.* In 
order to get a more accurate idea of the nature of the gases left 
when coal was heated in air, the author had heated about \ 
gramme of coal, in sealed glass-tubes, of a capacity of about GO to 70 
cubic centimetres, in an air-bath to temperatures of 1(>0° to 200° 
Cent., and had then investigated the residual air. He always 
heated the coal to above 160° Cent., because he was certain that 
oxygen would be absorbed at that temperature. At 160° Cent., 
many coals (he cannot say with certainty all coals) absorbed 
oxygen with extreme energy. The results are shown in Table 
II., in which the numbers refer to the same coals as in Table I. 

* Cftem. Centr., 1865, page 953.; and Dingier* Polytechnischea Journal* vol. 178, 
PS* 379; vol. 190, page 398 ; vol. 193, page 51 ; and vol. 195, page 315. 



24 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL. 
Table II. 



Nitrogen, N a 

Carbonic acid, CO, 

defines, CjrHj, 

Oxygen, 0, 

Totals 


IV. 


XI. 


VII: 


VII. 


vn. 


I. 


98 

2 

trace 


96 
2 
2 


■ 95 
2 
3 


94 
3 
3 


94 
4 
2 


93 
6 

1 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 



Cj-Hy represents a higher hydrocarbon, which may be deter- 
mined by calculation from the phenomenon of combustion to be 
either C 2 H 6 or C 3 H e . The author draws, however, definite 
attention to the circumstance that other products of heating are 
obtained (for example an acid [Pacetic acid]), the gases from 
which are mixed with the air, are not absorbed by caustic potash, 
and are combustible. Dr. Bedson has obtained similar products 
by heating his coals to 184° Cent, in vacuum (as he imagines), 
and has obtained a residue of air which he has recorded as 
occluded gas. The composition of this residual gas is as follows : 



Nitrogen 


Per cent. 
62-6 


Carbonic acid 


5*8 


Paraffins. 


4-6 


Oxygen ! 


27-0 



This result absolutely upsets everything known with regard 
to coal. Dr. Bedson does not, however, even once point out that 
he has discovered a new method of producing oxygen! The 
writer has already pointed out sufficiently how air found its way 
into his apparatus. How oxygen may have been obtained by 
heating to 184° Cent, may be explained through the air having 
been drawn off too quickly, so that it had not time to come into 
contact with the heated coal. How, however, he obtained 27 per 
cent, of oxygen is inexplicable. 

With regard to Table II., it may be noted that the results 
refer only to the conditions there given. If a larger quantity of 
coal is heated in a tube of the above size (70 cubic centimetres), 
the oxygen contained therein does not suffice for complete oxida- 
tion, and some marsh-gas remains. In order to prove this experi- 
mentally, the author has heated in a tube of 70 cubic centimetres 
capacity 6, 4, 2, 1 and £ gramme respectively of coal ?fo. XI., and 



GASES ENCLOSED Df COAL. 



25 



has examined the residual air, with the results recorded in 
Table III. 

Table III. 





6 grammes. 


4 grammes. 


2 grammes. 


1 gramme. 


i gramme. 


Nitrogen, N, 
Carbonic acid, CO, . . . 
Marsh-gas, CH 4 ... 
Olefines, CBy 
Oxygen, 0, 

Totals 


85 

1 

14 


90 
1 
9 


91 
2 

7 


95 
2 
3 


96 
2 

2 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 



With reference to Table III., it may be noted that the content 
of carbonic acid is remarkably small, less than might have been 
expected from the quantity of marsh-gas present, the reason 
being the above-mentioned, that when coal is heated in the pres- 
ence of oxygen other products than carbonic acid are formed, 
la the first four analyses, the writer was unable to find these 
products in the gaseous form (the residual gas was pure marsh- 
gas), but he was able to prove the invariable formation of some 
strong acid soluble in water (acetic acid ?). 

In Tables II. and III., the absence of oxygen is especially 
indicated, in order to accentuate the fact that it is impossible 
to find free oxygen in a closed vessel in which coal has been 
heated. Volumetrically this absorption of oxygen is very 
important. One part of coal by volume in the form of powder 
suffices to absorb 50 times its volume of oxygen between 160° and 
200° Cent., and to render 250 times its volume of air incapable 
of explosion. In these results, however, time also plays a part, 
so that further insistence upon them would be unfruitful. 

How then may a coal-dust explosion be explained ? As long 
a« we blast with explosives, whose temperature of detonation is 
above 650° Cent., and which show flame, we have in a blown-out 
shot a source of heat (not only a source of warmth) which can 
generate abundant quantities of gas from coal, and at the same 
time produce a flash, which is capable of firing the explosive 
gaseous mixture thus formed. One part of gas-coal gives about 
300 times its volume of gas when all the latter is evolved. The 
crusts of coke, which cover everything in the pit after a coal- 
dust explosion, may be looked upon as coal from which about 



I'D GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL. 

half of the gas has been set free. There is, therefore, in a coal- 
dust explosion evidently no want of combustible gas, though there 
may be of air. For this reason, the wave of explosion is propa- 
gated in the opposite direction to the intake air-current. On its 
way, it liberates further gas from coal-dust that is thrown up; 
it, therefore, constantly requires fresh air, and thus continues 
its course to the downcast-shaft, which it also frequently 
destroys. In coal-dust explosions, the large volume of air which 
the miner employs for the ventilation of the mine is a source 
not of safety but of destruction. The flash of a blown-out shot 
can cause the ignition of an explosive mixture of gas, but even its 
presence may be dispensed with, for the powerful pressure which 
a blown-out shot produces may cause the ignition-temperature 
of marsh-gas to be attained. Here, however, the conversion of 
mechanical work into heat does not play the principal part, but 
the properties of oxygen, which are affected by compression, inas- 
much as compressed oxygen has a far more violent oxidizing 
action than it has under normal pressure. It is, therefore, not a 
matter of indifference how a shot-hole is placed : whether the shot 
blows out straight along the centre of the road, whether it lies at 
an acute angle to the roof or the floor, or perpendicular to the solid 
mass of coal. 

The main factor in a coal-dust explosion is, and remains, the 
fine state of division of the dust ; the second condition is the heat- 
ing of the dust; while the chemical properties of the coal only 
occupy the third place. All coals can produce dust-explosions, 
even coke, which is perfectly free from gas. Supposing that 
finely-divided coke were flung up by means of a blown-out shot, 
at a sufficiently high temperature, this would burn to carbon 
monoxide in the presence of sufficient coke, and produce an 
explosive mixture with air. 

Some coals give off gas at lower, others at higher tempera- 
tures ; some are dry, others moist ; some produce a very finely 
divided, others a coarse-grained dust, etc. For the production 
of coal-dust explosions the former conditions require a lighter, 
the latter a heavier charge of explosive. 



Prof. P. P. Bedson read the following paper on " The Gases 
enclosed in Coal and Coal-dust": — 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 27 



THE GASES E^sXLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 



By P. PHILLIPS BEDSON. 



In the early part of the year 1899, a paper on the subject of 
the gases enclosed in coal appeared in Gliickauf,* in which Dr. 
Broockinann gave an account of the results of his examination 
for " enclosed gases " of coals of the Westphalian coal-field ; 
and, at the same time, detailed the results of his examination of 
the Hutton-seam coal, which he had obtained from Ryhope 
colliery. This coal was submitted to investigation, because Dr. 
Broockmann had reason to doubt the results obtained by the 
late Mr. McConnell and the author, which were described in a 
paper read before this Institute in February, 1894.1 

After the perusal of this paper in Gliickauf, it appeared 
desirable to re-investigate the question rather than simply reply- 
ing to the strictures of Dr. Broockmann, with the information 
then to hand. For this purpose, in November, 1899, the late 
Mr. McConnell collected samples of coal from the Hutton seam 
at Ryhope colliery, and the investigation, then commenced, has 
been continued until the present time. In the summer of 1900, 
Mr. McConnell was accidentally drowned, while boating off the 
Northumberland coast, consequently the author has not had the 
benefit of his assistance ; and for information on the work which 
formed the basis of the conjoint paper already referred to, he has 
bad to content himself with the laboratory-notes and journals left 
by his friend. This sad event, therefore, made the repetition of a 
portion of the previous enquiry all the more necessary. 

Before describing the results of these recent experiments, it 
*ul be best to deal with some of the points raised by Dr. Broock- 
mann in his criticism. 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 18. 
tlbid., 1894, vol. vii., page 27. 



28 GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 

In the first place, Dr. Broockmann draws attention to the 
unsuitability of indiarubber, either in the form of tubing or 
stoppers, for work of this kind, pointing out that it is "as permeable 
to gases as a sieve is to water." Although the writer readily 
acknowledges the justice of these strictures on the use of india- 
rubber, he is unable to agree in the application made by Dr. 
Broockmann in the description given of the method employed by 
the late Mr. McConnell and himself : for, in the paper published 
in the Transactions of The Institution of Mining Engineers in 
1894, to which Dr. Broockmann gives a reference, it is stated 
that the coal used in the experiments was contained in flasks 
sealed on to an air-pump of the Geissler type. Further, it is 
stated in this paper that "the apparatus used in these and all 
subsequent experiments was made entirely of glass, the several 
parts being fused together to prevent leakage."* The properties 
of indiarubber cannot, therefore, be made responsible, as Dr. 
Broockmann suggests, for the fact that in one instance as much as 
818 cubic centimetres of gas was obtained from 100 grammes of 
freshly-hewn Byhope coal ; nor are the proportion of the gases 
of the atmosphere found in this gas and the relatively small 
amount of combustible gas to be explained in the same manner. . 

Surely, in a case of this kind, it is not unreasonable to expect 
that a critic should show an acquaintance with the details of 
the work under criticism ; but, in the paper printed in Gliickauf, 
no mention is made of another experiment with the same coal, in 
which a much smaller volume of gas was obtained, and a gas which 
contained a relatively large proportion of combustible constitu- 
ents, nor is any note made of the fact that this difference is 
specially emphasised. The writer is of the opinion that the large 
volume of gas obtained in the first instance is explained by the 
difficulties surrounding the removal of the air adhering to the 
glass and to the coal itself, difficulties increased by the close 
packing of the coal in the flask, whereas in the second experiment 
the coal was loosely filled into a tube, 1£ inches in diameter. The 
amount of coal used in the first experiment, namely, 220 grammes, 
as against 90 grammes in the second, must also have contributed 
to the difficulty of removing completely the adherent air. 

Dr. Broockmann, in his experiments, took 100 grammes of 
coal, contained in a vessel sealed direct on to a Sprengel pump. 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1894, vol. vii., page 32. 



GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL AND COAL-DUST. 29 

Tie coal was in a finely divided state, being in grains from 2 to 4 
millimetres in diameter; and, after repeated exhaustions, the 
apparatus was allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days, before the heating 
with a water-bath was commenced. In this way, as Dr. Broock- 
mann states, he obtained a minimum quantity of gas, and he 
claims that the gas so obtained is truly representative of the 
"enclosed gases," and is not contaminated by air adhering to the 
coal, or by those gases produced by the action of the air on the coal 
itself. 

Experimenting with the Kyhope coal, Dr. Broockmann 
obtained 70 cubic centimetres of gas, which consisted of 97 per 
cent, of combustible gas, and 3 per cent, of carbon dioxide ; that is, 
from 100 grammes of coal he obtained 67*9 cubic centimetres of 
combustible gas, and 21 cubic centimetres of carbon dioxide. 
Whereas, as will be seen by reference to the paper by the late Mr. 
McConnell and the author, they obtained from the same weight of 
coal 6107 cubic centimetres of combustible gas, 4*2 cubic centi- 
metres of carbon dioxide, 1*40 cubic centimetres of oxygen and 
&r53 cubic centimetres of nitrogen, making a total of 122*2 cubic 
centimetres. 

As the writer's object in studying the gases enclosed in the 
Byhope coal was to obtain information which would throw some 
h?ht on the nature of the combustible gases that he had previously 
found in the dust from the screening of this coal, the coal was not 
taken in small fragments, but in such fragments as would permit 
to some extent of the partial separation (by reason of the differ- 
ences in rates of effusion) of the denser from the lighter hydro- 
carbons. Thus, a rough fractionation would be effected, and in 
the results of the analysis of the several fractions the presence of 
different paraffin hydrocarbons would be more clearly indicated. 

To return to the use of indiarubber-stoppers in investigations 
of this kind : it is certainly true that in the experiments on the 
gases enclosed in coal-dust,* the author employed indiarubber- 
stoppers, but with the precaution that these stoppers were covered 
by a layer of Faraday cement. In this connection it may be ol 
interest to record the result of a recent experiment on the manner 
in which vessels closed in this way will maintain a vacuum over 
a lengthened period. A flask, of about 300 cubic centimetres 
capacity, was closed by a tightly fitting indiarubber-stopper 
' Tmiu. N.E. Inst., 1888, vol. xxxvii., pages 245 to 256. 



80 GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 

through a hole in which was inserted a glass-tube by which the 
flask was sealed on to a Geissler pump. The cork was carefully- 
covered with Faraday cement, and then the flask was exhausted 
and closed off from the pump. After standing some two months, 
the flask was again exhausted, and the gas obtained collected over 
mercury. A single bubble of gas was thus obtained, the volume 
of which proved to be approximately 0*2 cubic centimetre. As 
this experiment was made under conditions practically similar 
to those described by the author in his earlier papers,* it may be 
concluded that, in these experiments, the disadvantages arising 
from the use of indiarubber-stoppers had been satisfactorily 
overcome. 

A second point in Dr. Broockmann's criticism is the assump- 
tion that the author had overlooked the results obtained by the 
Austrian Fire-damp Commission in the examination of certain 
varieties of coal-dust. This is all the more surprising, since in 
the paper in the Transactions (to which, as had been already 
mentioned, Dr. Broockmann referred), and also in the account of 
the lecture given by the writer to the members of the National 
Association of Colliery Managers at Xottingham,t the work of the 
Austrian Fire-damp Commission is specially mentioned. That 
the writer should have regarded the experiments of the Austrian 
Fire-damp Commission as confirmatory of his own observations 
cannot appear strange or remarkable, as the author's first paper 
on the subject was read before this Institute in August, 1888, 
while the investigation by the Austrian Fire-damp Commission of 
the coal-dust question was made during the years 1889 to 1891. 
Further, the conclusion arrived at by the Commission, and cited 
by Dr. Broockmann, " that the content of dense, easily inflam- 
mable hydrocarbon gases increases both the sensitiveness and the 
dangerous character of a coal-dust," appeared in the Final Report 
of this Commission published in 1891. This will suffice to show 
the independence of the two sets of observations. 

Another observation of the late Mr. McConnell and the author, 
selected for special criticism by Dr. Broockmann, was the com- 
position of the gas obtained by heating the coal at 184° Cent. As 
Dr. Broockmann pointed out, this gas was remarkable for the large 
percentage of oxygen given in the analysis ; but he, unfortunately, 
* Loc. cit, 

t Colliery Manager and Journal of Mining Engineering, 1895, vol. xi., pages 
30 to 32. 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 81 

had not troubled to state exactly the conditions under which the 
gas was produced, nor the volume of gas obtained under these 
conditions from 100 grammes of coal. Had this been done, the 
reader of Dr. Broockmann's paper would, in the first place, have 
been able to appreciate aright the bearing, on the point under dis- 
cussion, of the experiments made by Dr. Broockmann to demon- 
strate the nature of the changes produced in air when it is heated 
in closed tubes with coal to a temperature of 160° Cent. In the 
second place, the reader would have been compelled to admire the 
ingenuity of Dr. Broockmann, who credits the writer with the 
discovery of a new method of preparing oxygen, and this because 
from 100 grammes of coal he had obtained 2*1 cubic centimetres 
of oxygen, or barely 3 parts by weight of oxygen from 100,000 
parts by weight of coal. 

In the paper read before this Institute in February, 1894, 
will be found a description of the experiment from which this 
result had been isolated.* And there it will be noted that a 
definite weight of coal was introduced into a tube, sealed off at 
one end and at the other end sealed on to an air-pump. After 
exhausting the air from the tube, the coal was heated for a certain 
period by passing steam through a jacket surrounding the tube 
which held the coal. The gas so produced was drawn off ; then, 
after the coal had ceased to yield gas at this temperature, it was 
heated by passing the vapour of amyl alcohol through the jacket. 
" hen the coal no longer yielded any gas at this higher tempera- 
ture, it was heated for some hours to a still higher temperature, 
V passing the vapour from boiling aniline through the jacket ; 
a &d thus the further fraction of gas was obtained, which in this 
instance formed from 4 to 5 per cent, of the total volume of gas 
extracted from the coal. 

A repetition of this experiment became necessary, in the light 
of the importance attached to the composition of the gas obtained 
by this extraction at 184° Cent., and the difficulty in finding an 
explanation of the proportion of oxygen which it was found to con- 
tain; a difficulty made the greater by Dr. Broockmann's state- 
m *nt that the gas was obtained in experimenting with fine coal, 
w Weas it was produced from coal in pieces, and pieces certainly 
rouch larger than those he employed in his investigation. It is 
n °t inconceivable that, under the conditions of the experiment, 
the heating of the coal would cause a mechanical breaking-up of 
* Trims. Inst. M.E., 1894, vol. viL, page 35. 



32 GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 

the pieces of coal, and thus favour the release of oxygen and other 
gases not already removed in the previous extractions. As to the 
proportion of oxygen to the other constituents, while the state- 
ment in volume per cent, may appear misleading, it should be 
stated that a careful scrutiny of the actual analytical data, from 
which these percentages were computed, had revealed an error 
in calculation. But, even when this correction is made, the pro- 
portion of oxygen to nitrogen is larger than the relative amount 
of these gases in the air. As to the contention that this observa- 
tion is contradictory of all our knowledge of the mutual behaviour 
of air and coal at such temperatures, and its refutation by the 
experiments recorded by Dr. Broockmann, it will be sufficient to 
point out that the chemical relations of many bodies are altered 
by conditions of pressure, and that conclusions drawn from the 
experiments made under increased pressure are not applicable to 
explain the results of experiments made under greatly reduced 
pressures. The impossibility of explaining the presence of the 
constituent gases of the atmosphere in this gas in the manner 
suggested by Dr. Broockmann has already been referred to, and 
that oxygen and nitrogen are found in the gases extracted from 
coal under these conditions is shown by the results of experiments 
Xos. IV. and V. described below. 

Turning now to the results obtained in the recent investiga- 
tion of the gases enclosed in the Hutton-seam coal, it will be 
sufficient to point out that the method of extracting the gases is 
that employed by Messrs. McConnell and Bedson, described in 
the paper already referred to.* In experiments Nos. I. to IY. the 
pump employed, to which the tube containing the coal was sealed 
on, was one of the Geissler type; whereas in No. Y. the pump 
used was a form devised by Prof. Topler, without taps. After 
establishing a vacuum in the pump and tube containing the coal, 
the apparatus was allowed to stand at the ordinary temperature 
for some days, and then the gas produced in the interval was 
drawn off. The volume of the fraction of gas so obtained was 
measured and afterwards analysed. In order to obtain, if pos- 
sible, a clearer idea of the nature of the combustible constitu- 
ents, and to demonstrate as far as practicable the composition of 
these combustible gases, the coal was submitted to a prolonged 
* Trans. Imt. AT.E., 1894, vol. vii., page 27. 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 88 

extraction at the ordinary temperature, before heating with steam 
was resorted to, and in this way a series of fractions was obtained, 
each being separately analysed. 

The writer's engagements have in many instances determined 
the lengthy duration of some of these operations : but some com- 
pensation for this delay may possibly be found in the information 
supplied by the results of the analyses of the several fractions of 
gases obtained from the coal under these circumstances. 

In experiment Xo. IV., instead of removing the air from the 
tube holding the coal in the ordinary way, the coal was filled into 
a tube, in which it was held in position by plugs of glass-wool ; 
the tube was next drawn out at both ends, and on to these narrow 
glass-tubes were sealed. By one of these narrow tubes, the tube 
was sealed on to the air-pump; while to the other, which was 
over 30 inches in length, a movable vessel containing mercury 
was attached by a stout indiarubber-tube. The wider section 
of the tube was surrounded by a second which formed a jacket 
for the passage of steam, etc. To expel the air from the tube, 
the tap of the pump was opened, and by raising the vessel con- 
taining mercurj% the whole was filled with mercury up to the tap 
of the pump, which was then closed. The movable vessel was 
next lowered, the end of the glass-tube to which this vessel was 
attached stood in a vessel filled with mercury, and on removal 
of the indiarubber-tube there was thus established a rough 
barometric column, with the coal standing in a partial vacuum. 
The height of the mercury was found to be approximately 710 
millimetres. After standing overnight, the exhaustion was 
completed in the ordinary way ; and after remaining in this con- 
dition for 9 days, the gas given off in the interval was drawn oft'. 
Thus it will be seen that the coal was sealed off from the air, not 
by closing the tube by fusion of the glass, but by a barometric 
column of mercury. This method of exhaustion was practised 
in experiment No. V. and afforded a quicker means of removing 
the air from the tube than by the ordinary method of repeated 
pumpings, and one which consequently yielded a larger amount of 
combustible gas per given weight of coal. 

Below are given in tabulated form the results of the measure- 
ments and analyses of the several fractions of the gases extracted 
from the coal in the manner indicated. The results of experi- 
ments Xos. I. and II. are not stated in detail, as the analyses of 

VOL. ZXlV.~lflOi.M0B. 3 



34 



GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL AXD COAL-DUST. 



the several fractions were not completed. In stating the results, 
it has been deemed desirable to give not only the percentage com- 
position of the several fractions, but also the absolute volumes of 
each gas yielded, calculated upon 100 grammes of coal. As 
previous experience has shown the combustible constituents to 
be almost entirely members of the paraffin series of hydrocarbons : 
and as carbon monoxide and olefines have been proved to be 
absent, or present only in minimum quantities, these gases have 
been omitted in the statement given below. 

Table. I. — Weights of Coal taken, and Total Volumes of Gas evolved 

IN VACUO AT ORDINARY TEMPERATURE AND AT 100° CENT. 



In r 


Duration of Extraction. 




. Volume of Gat per 100 gramn.es of Coal. 


No. of 






Weight of 






i Experi- 
l munt. 

i 


Ordinary 
Temperature. 


Steam- 
heating. 


Coal. 
Grammes. 


1 Drawn off at 
Ordinary Temperature 
( and at 100 Cent. 


Drawn off 
at 100- Cent. 


i 






Cubic centimetres.* 


Cubic centimetres. 1 


I. 


5 day s 


10J hours 


117 


148 


130-00 


II. 


27 days 


31 hours 


110-4 


108 


88-80 


III. 


10 months and 












12 days 


30 hours 


129-6 


141 


44-25 


! IV. 


9 days 


15^ hours 


67*0 


, 198 


170-30 


1 V. 


2 days 


494 hours 


70-0 


142 


119-30 



* Volumes of gas giren are in all cases expressed in cubic centimetres at 0° Cent., and a 
pressure of 760 millimetres of mercury. 

Since the results of the estimation of the paraffin hydro- 
carbons do not suffice to allow of a definite statement of the 
nature of the constituents of the mixture, instead of returning 
these in terms of a value for // in the general formula C n H to+i 
it has been thought better to interpret the results in terms of a 
possible mixture of marsh-gas (CH 4 ) and ethane (C a H 6 ) or ethane 
fcnd propane (C 3 H 8 ) according as the analytical data appeared to 
warrant. All that is attempted to indicate by this form of state- 
ment is simply that the combustible gases are not pure marsh - 
gas, but that other gaseous members of this series of hydro- 
carbons are present in the gases. In the majority of cases these 
numbers are based upon the mean of two or more concordant sets 
of determinations. 

The proportion of such hydrocarbon constituents is determined 
by taking a measured volume of gas from which oxygen, etc., have 
been absorbed, mixing it with a measured volume of oxygen and 
exploding, then by a series of operations determining the amount 
of the contraction and of carbon dioxide resulting, also the amount 



GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 



85 



1 




V 


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GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL AND COAL-DUST. 



- 1ft 



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GASES EXCLOSED IX COAL AND COAL-DUST. 37 

ol oxygen which has been used in the combustion. From these 
data, the information desired can be obtained, but owing to the 
difficulties surrounding the exact determination of the oxygen, 
the writer has, in computing the results, neglected the values found 
for the oxygen used. This mode of interpreting the results 
appears to be better than that used in the previous paper, since 
the amount of contraction and the proportion of carbon dioxide 
are data capable of more exact estimation, than is the determina- 
tion of the amount of oxygen used ; so the influence of experi- 
mental errors in making this last estimate is avoided. If this 
mode of calculation be applied to the analytical data obtained in 
the previous investigation, the proportion of combustible gas 
would then appear somewhat higher. 

Table II. contains a statement of the results of the examination 
of the gases obtained in the several experiments, and from these 
a series of averages have been calculated, based upon the result* of 
experiments Xos. III., IV. and V., and are contained in Table 

III. In the first column of figures are given the volumes in 
cubic centimetres of the several gases obtained from 100 grammes 
of coal; in the second column the composition of the gas is ex- 
pressed in volumes per cent. ; while in the third column of figures 
the analyses have been calculated on the assumption that the 
oxygen existed as air. 

These numbers call for one or two remarks. In the first place, 
the total volume of gas per 100 grammes of coal obtained at 100° 
Cent, is not very different from that given in the paper of the late 
Mr. MoConnell and the writer. In experiments Xos. III. and 

IV. (Table II.), it will be noted that the gas expelled by steam- 
heating was free from oxygen, and in one instance consisted 
entirely of combustible gas. In experiment No. IV., whereas the 
last extract at 100° Cent, was free from oxygen, the next 
extract at a higher temperature contained oxygen. The im- 
probability of this being derived from the outside air (which 
would nee essitate the assumption of a leakage from the tap) is 
rendered all the greater in the light of the results in experiment 
Xo. V., in which similar results were observed; and, as has been 
already pointed out, in this experiment a pump was employed 
without taps. 

The composition of the gas obtained in the first extraction of 
experiment Xo. Y. is worthy of special attention, as, in addition 



38 



GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL AND COAL-DUST. 



Table III. — Averaue Results of Experiments Nos. III., IV. and V. 
A. — Gases extracted at Ordinary Temperatures and at 100' Cent. 







Cubic 
Centimetres 


Voluaie. 
Per Cent. 


Volume. 
Per Cent. 


Total volume 


C0 2 ) 


160-90 


4-36 


— 


Carbon dioxide ( 


702 


4-36 


Oxygen (0,) ... 


... 


4-53 


2-81 


— 


Marsh-gas (CH 4 ) 




114-50 


71-17 


71 17 


Ethane (C*H,) 


... 


1065 


6-62 


6-62 


Nitrogen (N,) 




24-21 


1505 


4-42 


Air 




— 


— 


13-44 


B.— Gases extracted 


at 100° Cent. 


, and Included 


IN A. 






Cubic 
Centimetres. 


Volume. 
Percent. 


Volume. 
Per Cent. 


Total volume 


DO,) 


111*53 


4-62 


— 


Carbon dioxide ( 


5-15 


4-62 


Oxygen (0,) ... 




0-46 


041 


— 


Marsh-gas (CH 4 ) 




89-84 


8060 


80-60 


Ethane (CjH,) 




10-34 


927 


9-27 


Nitrogen (N 2 ) 




5-74 


510 


3-55 


Air 


... 


— 


— 


1-96 


C- 


-Gases extracted at 


130° Cent. 








Cubic 
Centimetres. 


Volume. 
Per Cent. 


Volume. 
Per Cent. 


Total volume 


CO,) 


39-09 


1-61 


— 


Carbon dioxide ( 


0-63 


1-61 


Oxygen (0,) ... 


... 


301 


7*70 


— 


Marsh-gas (CHJ 


... 


5-92 


15-14 


15-14 


Ethane (C 2 H,) 




7-51 


19-21 


19-21 


Nitrogen (N„) 


... 


22-02 


56-34 


27-19 


Air 




— 


— 


36-85 


D.- 


-Gases extracted at 


180° Cent. 








Cubic 
Centimetres. 


Volume. 
Per Cent. 


Volume. 
Per Cent. 


Total volume 


0,) 


2201 


5-40 


— 


Carbon dioxide (C 


1-19 


5*40 


Oxygen (0 a ) 




1-22 


5-54 


— 


Marsh-gas (CH 4 ) 




— 


— 


— 


Ethane (CjH.) 


... 


7-65 


34-76 


34-76 


Propane (C.H,,) 




2-91 


13-22 


13-22 


Nitrogen (N,) 


... 


904 


4108 


2012 


Air 




— 


— 


26-41 



to carbon dioxide, it contains a considerable proportion of oxygen, 
and an amount in relation to the nitrogen in excess of that in 
which these gases occur in air. The coal used in this case was 



GASES ENCLOSED IX COAL AND COAL-DUST. 39 

taken from a sample which had been kept in an open tube in the 
laboratory for several months, and this exposure to the air sug- 
gested itself as the explanation of the proportion of oxygen : for the 
coal-substance would not only lose gas, but would absorb gases 
from the air — and preferentially oxygen rather than nitrogen. 
The explanation was submitted to a direct test, and for this pur- 
pose a tube about 1 inch in diameter was sealed on to the Topler 
pump, the open end dipping under mercury. By exhausting the 
air from this, a barometric column was established, and into the 
space above pieces of coal w r ere introduced by immersing them 
under the mercury in the cistern and allowing them to rise 
through the column of mercury. After the coal had remained 
some days in the exhausted space, the gas was drawn off and 
analysed. 

From freshly-hewn coal, the gas obtained in five days (18 
cubic centimetres) was found to have the following percentage 
composition : — 



Carbon dioxide (CO,) 


Volumes. 
163 


Volumes. 
1-65 


Oxygen (O g ) 


8-99 


— 


Marsh-gas (CH 4 ) 


44-60 


44-60 


Nitrogen (N 3 ) 


44-76 


10-73 


Air 


— 


43-02 



From coal of the same origin, which had been exposed to the 
air of the laboratory for several months, a volume equivalent to 
14'5 cubic centimetres was obtained in 17 days, which was found 
to have the following composition : — 

Volumes. 
Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) M8 

Oxygen (OJ 2380 

Marsh-gas (CH 4 1 3-58 

Nitrogen (NJ 71*44 

On standing over mercury for a month a further quantity of 
gas was given off, measuring 16*2 cubic centimetres, and composed 
as follows : — 

Volumes. 
Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) 64 

Oxygen (OJ 2091 

Marsh-gas (CH 4 ) 4-52 

Nitrogen (N 2 ) 73-93 

These results support the explanation given of the proportion 
of oxygen found in the first fraction of gas obtained in experi- 
ment Xo. V., and show, in addition to the readiness with which the 
coal loses marsh-gas, that it absorbs oxygen from the air more 



40 GASES ENCLOSED IN COAL AND COAL-DUST. 

readily than the nitrogen. This suggests that the interpretation 
of the oxygen found in the enclosed gases as representing a corre- 
sponding proportion of air must be accepted with a certain amount 
of reserve. Nevertheless, this assumption has been made in 
stating the results in the foregoing tables, and may be permitted, 
as in almost every case there is sufficient nitrogen to mix with the 
oxygen. 

The proportions of the combustible gases found and their 
nature sufficiently well support the writer s views expressed on a 
former occasion as to the manner in which the denser hydrocar- 
bons are retained by the coal, and support the explanation given of 
their existence in the gases enclosed in the dust formed in screen- 
ing this coal. It should be noted that in experiment Xo. III., the 
combustible gas extracted at the ordinary temperature is not 
entirely marsh -gas. 

As to the application of the existence of these hydrocarbon 
gases enclosed in the coal-dust to explain the part played by coal- 
dust in an explosion, it has never been maintained that they are 
the only factors determining the sensibility to ignition of the dust, 
nor as pre-eminently more important in this regard than the fine- 
ness of sub-division or the dryness of the dust. Still, the practical 
experience with this dust at the colliery, which first suggested the 
investigation, sufficiently demonstrates the ready inflammability 
of this coal-dust ; and these facts, taken together with the results 
of the examination of the enclosed gases of other coal-dusts, justi- 
fy the conclusion advanced in previous publications. 



The Chairman (Mr. J. G. Weeks), in moving a vote of thanks 
to Prof. Bedson, who had dealt with the question most exhaust- 
ively, thought that there would be no doubt that he had refuted 
the arguments of Dr. Broockmann. 

Mr. C. C. Leach, in seconding the vote of thanks, said he had 
noticed that his firemen preferred to use coal taken from the small- 
coal heap : and Prof. Bedson's explanation of the facility with 
which coal exposed for some time to air would absorb oxygen 
probably accounted for their preference. 

The vote of thanks was cordially adopted. 



Mr. Edward Halse's paper on " Some Silver-bearing Veins of 
Mexico " was read as follows : — 



SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 41 



SOME SILVER-BEAKIXtf VEINS OF MEXICO. 
(Continued.)* 



By EDWARD HALSE. 



Zacatecas. 

The classic region of Zacatecas, in the state of the same. name, 
was discovered by Juan de Tolosa, in 1540, since which date it has 
produced immense quantities of the white metal. It has an 
extension from north to south of about 9£ miles, and 7£ miles from 
east to west. The city itself is situated in the southern portion 
of the district on the slopes of the Grillo, Bufa and Bolsa hills, 
at an elevation of 8,178 feet above the sea. 

Zacatecas may be described as a group of mountains separated 
by plains of varying elevations, the whole really forming a portion 
of the central plateau of the republic. The mountains seldom 
rise far above the plains, and their flanks have, as a rule, a com- 
paratively gentle slope. 

The principal country-rock of the district was formerly 
regarded by Mr. Laurt as a grauwacke (vacia gris), although Dr. 
BurkartJ and most Mexican geologists considered it to be a diorite. 
hater researches have shown that the formation is a green rhyo- 
htic tuft', associated with a rock — probably an altered andesite — 
similar to that of the famous La Luz district of Guanajuato.§ 
Besides the above there is a sedimentary rock — a black slate, fre- 
quently siliceous — which passes by insensible degrees into the 
v olcauie tuff and andesite ( ?), and diorite proper, which in places 
18 metamorphosed into chloritic schist. At a depth, varying 
from 800 to 1,000 feet, the favourable country (rhyolitic tuff and 

* Trans. In*t. M.E., 1900, vol. xviii., page 370; 1901, vol. xxi., page 198 ; 
mm 1902, vol. xxiii., page 243. 

t "De la Mftallurgie de l'Argent au Mexique," Annute* (Its Mine*, 1871, 
*nea 6, vol. xx., page 33. 

lKta * Anftnthatt und Reise in Mexico in den Jnhrtn 1825 his 1S34, Stuttgart, 
§ Trans. Intt. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 54. 



42 SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 

aiulesite ([ Y] or diorite) parses insensibly into black argillaceous 
schist* with kidneys *of milky quartz, in which the veins rapidly 
become impoverished. 

Dykes of diorite (feldstein of Dr. Burkart) traverse the region, 
and, among other rocks, mention may be made of trachyte, rhyo- 
lite and quartz-porphyrite (bird's-eye porphyry), limestone of 
Cretaceous age, and conglomerates of two ages, the more recent 
of a red colour containing fragments of the above-mentioned 
rocks in a paste of clay, the older one being purple in colour, t and 
composed, in addition to fragments of the same rocks in a fels- 
pathic cement, of large masses or boulders of decomposed granite, 
abounding in mica and pegmatite, formed of crystals of quartz, 
felspar and very little mica. 

The slates of Catorce are, for the most part, of Jurassic age, 
but the age of the clay-slate or ampelite {hoja de libro) met with 
in depth in Zacatecas and Guanajuato has not yet been deter- 
mined. The red conglomerates of both districts belong to the 
Upper Tertiary (Pliocene), and there is reason to believe that the 
majority of the veins were formed after the consolidation of that 
rock. 

The veins of Zacatecas have a general north-west to south- 
east strike, the prevailing dip being southerly. There are, 
however, many exceptions to this rule. The principal ones, like 
the Veta Madre (mother-lode) of Guanajuato, are apt to be split 
up into branches separated by more or less altered country-rock. 
As in the Veta Madre, three branches are frequently distinguish- 
able, known as the hanging- (cuerpo de alto), centre- (cuerpo del 
enniedio) and foot-branch (cuerpo de bajo). However, Dr. E. 
Tilniann pointed out tliat,J in the case of the Veta Madre, a dis- 
tinct tripartite arrangement of the lode is very improbable, and, as 
a matter of fact, the latter is frequently split up into more than 
three branches, especially on the lying side, and the same 
is probably the case in Zacatecas. 

It has already been showng that the large veins of the Taviches 

* Thia roust not be confounded with the black slate found near the surface, 
in which the veins are frequently profitable (<•.(/., at the Bote mine). 

t At the San Rafael mine, there is purple conglomerate at the surface and 
diorite below. The richer, which go down only about 400 feet, are continuous in 
length while in the conglomerate. 

% Der Btrghau ron Gwinajuato, 1866, page 19. 

§ 7Va««. hint. M.E., 1900, vol. xviii., page 381. 



SILVER-BEARING VEIXS OF MEXICO. 43 

district of Oaxaea are in places split up into several branches, 
and, by referring to Fig. 3 (Plate XVIII.),* it will be seen that 
these are mainly on the lying (or eastern) side of the lode, as in 
Guanajuato. 

Francisco de P. Zarate sayst that the ores of these so-called 
branches vary considerably in structure. Thus, in the veins of 
Malanoche, Veta Grande and La Plata, the ore on the hanging- 
branrh is of a banded structure, being formed of layers or ribs 
of silver ores separated by country. This ore is usually the best. 
The middle-branch also has a ribboned structure — the silver-ores 
are, however, symmetrically arranged in quartz or calcite. The 
footwal I -branch is composed of iron-pyrites, galena and blende 
scattered with native silver,J black sulphide of silver, and com- 
plex sulphides (ruby silver, etc.), so intermingled as to constitute 
a pinta reviielta. These ores are sometimes arranged concentric- 
ally, forming nodules (en boleo), and, no doubt, coating fragments 
of country-rock, forming what Prof. F. PoSepny terms " crusted 
kernels/'^ 

The writer had no opportunity of studying the larger veins 
of this district, but he made a careful examination of a group of 
veins to the south of the city, which bear gold as well as silver.*! 

Pig. 1 (Plate I.) is a sketch-plan of some of these veins. 
The strike varies from north 14 degrees west to north 28 degrees 
west,|| and the dip is easterly from 55 to 80 degrees. 

* Tram. Inrt. M.E., 1900, vol. xviii., page 384. 

t Apuntes sobre la Mimria del Extado de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, 1884, 98 pages. 

+ The writer has suggested in another paper ("On Deep Mining in Mexico,' 
TrnunactionH of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 1895, vol. hi., page 425) 
that where native silver is associated with iron-pyrites " its reduction is probably 
m some way connected with the presence of that mineral." It is well known that 
* •liver salt is readily precipitated by ferrous sulphate, and Mr. S. F. Emmons says, 
with an excess of ferrous sulphate present, as near the outcrop of ore-deposits, 
thia might account for the separation of native silver from silver salts, while on 
the other hand with an excess of ferric oxide the silver might be carried further 
down in solution." ("The Secondary Enrichment of Ore-deposits," Transact iom 
°J '« American Institute of Mining Engineer*, 1900, vol. xxx., page 213). As a 
"totter of fact, native silver in Mexico is found (1) in gossan, with or without 
unaltered pyrites, [2) with iron-pyrites to some distance below the outcrop, and 
i "rJ* 1 * "Stances, as at Batopilas, Chihuahua, immediately below iron-pyrites 
I** Prof. C. B. Dahlgren's Historic Mines of Mexico). 

§ "The Genesis of Ore-deposits," Transactions of the American Institute of 
xmtmj Engineers. 1893, vol. xxiii., page 197. 

T Several years ago, the writer endeavoured to show that a gold-bearing belt 
01 considerable economic importance occurs south of Zacatecas city, Engineering 
*» NUu»g Journal, 1894, vol. lviii., pages 78, 105-107 and 605-606. 

II Magnetic declination about east 8£ degrees. 



44 SJLVER-BEARIXG VEINS OF MEXICO. 

The Xo. 1 vein courses north 14 degrees west and dips east- 
ward 80 degrees. It is small and compact, varying from 7 to 20 
inches in thickness, in a dark-coloured slate-rock which appears 
to be chloritic schist (probably altered diorite) impregnated with 
iron-p3 r rites. The structure of the vein is shown in Figs. 2 and 
3 (Plate I.). In Fig. 2 (Plate I.), the vein consists of quartz 
with ribbony streaks of sulphides, principally argentite (Ag 2 S),* 
and fine native gold on either wall, separated by calcite, exhibit- 
ing rhombohedral structure here and there, which forms the 
centre of the vein. In Fig. 3, the quartz and calcite are in alter- 
nate layers, but in this instance calcite is on the hanging-wall 
and quartz on the foot-wall, while a layer of quartz occupies the 
centre of the vein. The rib of quartz on the foot-wall carries 
some streaks of sulphides and native gold on the side farthest from 
the wall. The colour of the quartz is white, pinkish or bluish 
(when impregnated with silver-sulphide), the calcite being white 
or pale green. In an arroyo, a little north of the hacienda, 
similar country is seen to course north-east to south-west and to 
dip southeastward, 35 degrees. 

The Xo. 3 vein runs about north 30 degrees west and dips 
eastward 00 to 70 degiees. The workings in this vein were, in 
1894, only about 90 feet in vertical depth, and had not reached 
water-level. The vein consists of solid bands of quartz, stained 
and ribboned by black sulphide of silver, etc., separated by bands 
and masses of calcite, the whole coloured a deep red by oxide of 
iron, in a schistose country-rock. The thickness of the vein varies 
from 3 to 5A feet, the average being about 4 feet. Where the vein 
is wide, it is generally split up by horses of country-rock, although 
the average value of the vein-contents remains about the same. 
Figs. 4 and 5 (Plate I.) will give some idea of this structure. On 
the foot-wall side (Fig. 4), there is a selvage of white clay, 1 foot 
thick. The foot-wall joint is well defined and dips GO degrees 
eastward. 

The Xo. 4 vein strikes nearly north -and-south and dips east- 
ward 75 degrees, meeting the Xo. 3 vein on the line of strike. 
The workings here were 1»)0 feet deep, but water-level had not 

* Also called (black) sulphide of silver and silver-glance, in this paper. 



SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 45 

been reached, although oxidation was only traceable to a vertical 
depth of 100 feet. The thickness varies from 3J to 6 feet, the 
average being about 4 J feet. It would appear to be a contact-vein, 
for the hanging- wall consists of greenish diorite impregnated with 
iron-pyrites, while the foot-wall is a greyish schist. Figs. 6, 7 
and 8 (Plate I.) exhibit the structure. The centre of the 
vein is sometimes occupied by country, 4 feet thick (Fig. 6) ; 
elsewhere (Fig. 7) the filling is solid quartz with sulphides of 
silver, etc., in streaks and spots. In the bottom workings, ribbony 
streaks of sulphides carrying finely-scattered native gold are 
distinguishable in the six bands of quartz, which are separated 
from each other by calcite (Fig. 8). 

The Xo. 7 vein strikes north 20 degrees west, uniting with 
a north -and-south vein or branch about 80 feet from the shaft. 
The dip is 70 degrees eastward. The vein consists of bluish quartz 
ribboned with sulphides and some calcite, separated by bauds and 
masses of the latter mineral. The walls are schist, trending east- 
north-east to west-south-west and dipping southward 50 to 70 
degrees. The bedding-planes appear to roll a good deal. The 
width varies from 2 to 3 feet. Fig. 9 (Plate I.) shows the 
structure. Here a thick clay-selvage lines the hanging-wall. 

The San Cristobal, a little north pf the last, is a parallel vein 
running about north-north-west, and dipping 60 degrees eastward. 
The width varies from 4 to 12 feet. In a shallow working in the 
same vein, the structure illustrated in Fig. 10 (Plate I.) was 
wen. The vein in one place had been worked to a depth of 
upwards of 300 feet, and it would seem that the ore-body pitched 
at an angle of 66 degrees in the northerly direction of the strike. 
The hanging- wall, near the surface, has a clay-selvage with slick- 
ensides. When the calcite has an opaque white-and-pink mottled 
(or altered) appearance, and the quartz is flinty and streaked with 
sulphide of silver, the ore is generally of good grsfde. 

The banded structure of these veins is seldom, strictly speak- 
ln g, symmetrical, and the writer believes that it has been produced 
partly by the substitution and partly by the re-opening of the 
original country. 

The calcite appears, generally, to be of more recent date than 



4G SILVER-BEARING VEIXS OF MEXICO. 

the quartz, nevertheless some quartz has been deposited since the 
former, for in the Xo. 7 vein several cavities in the calcite were 
seen to be lined with crystals of quartz, and here and there the 
quartz and calcite are so intermixed that they would appear to 
have been deposited contemporaneously. 

The sulphide of silver has been deposited by preference on 
the quartz, although here and there it is said to occur in calcite, 
or to have crystallized out between the two minerals. 

Another noteworthy fact is that the calcite shows a tendency 
to disappear in depth. This would almost seem to indicate that 
this mineral is the result of surface-decomposition produced by 
water carrying carbonic acid in solution,* but it must be 
remembered that limestone occurs in the district in patches. 
Altered limestone is found in some portions of the Bote mine (some 
of the veins of which are distinctly gold-bearing) and although 
the veins there contain on an average about 80 per cent, of silica, 
a good deal of calcite occurs in some of the lower levels (depth 
of mine about 800 feet in 1894). Hence it would appear more 
probable that the carbonate of lime has been brought into the 
veins, both laterally and from the surface, by direct solution of 
limestone-rock. 

A little to the south of the above-described group of veins 
is a large outcrop of trachytic rock known as La Mesa del Cerillo. 
This rock cuts off all the veins in that direction, t so it is most 
probably of later origin. 

The schistose country has been considerably altered close to 
the contact — the rock has a mottled red-and-purple colour, and 
the schistose structure is more or less obliterated. One of the 
veins, which is traceable almost up to the line of contact, con- 
sists mainly of quartz showing some ribbons of argentite, but 
the vein is considerably bent and ramified, and contains many 
lenticular inclusions of country-rock. 

The veins carry from 6 to 38 ounces of silver, and from 10 
to 60 dwts. of gold to the tou. % The ratio of gold to silver varies 
considerably in the different veins, and in different parts of the 
same vein, but the average may be taken as 1 to 10 in weight, and 

* Tram. Inst. M.E., 1901, vol xxiii., page 253, footnote. 

t In the mining districts of Tatatila and Zomelchuaca (State of Jalisco?) 
silver- veins occur in limestone, and never penetrate trachyte, against which they 
terminate abruptly (Prof. Von Groddeck). 



SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 4? 

98 4 to 1 in value (taking silver at 2s. Id. or 50 cents per ounce 

The caracal structure, already described* is sometimes met 

'* h in these veins. The gold is associated here and there with 

°iobromide of silver or embolite (jdata verdef) and brown 



r ^ous 



iron. 



The following additional notes on this district have been 
gathered from various sources: — 

The Yeta de la Cantera, one of the largest veins of Zacatecas, 
can be traced some miles east-south-east of the city. It has a 
general north-west to south-east strike, but, where it sweeps round 
the northern edge of the hill of grey trachyte, known as La Buf a,J 
it has been bent considerably out of its normal course. 

About 1J miles west of the city, or in the region of the Bote 
mine, the lode is divided up into several more or less parallel 
branches or veins, similarly to the Veta Grande between Panuco 
and Zacatecas, and here it once more assumes a general north- 
west to south-east course. The dip of the main vein is southerly. 

La Cantera vein, where formerly worked in its eastern portion, 
trends north 70 to 75 degrees west and south 70 to 75 degrees 
east, dips southward 48 degrees and is from 16J to 98J feet thick. 
According to Mr. F. Sescosse, the vein itself is almost sterile, but 
here and there it is enriched by transverse veins which are them- 
selves poor. They may be called branches, as they go from the 
body of the vein in a north-easterly direction, but do not pass to 
the south. Nevertheless the foot-wall portion of the vein bears 
traces only of complex ores containing lead and zinc, the rich and 
docile ores being confined to the hanging-wall for a width of 6£ 
to 19i feet. 

At the Bote mine, the ores of this and parallel veins consist of 
argentite, with some ruby silver and other high-grade ores, and 
free gold associated with iron-pyrites (not abundant). In the 
upper levels, silver occurs both native and as chloride and 
bromide. At this mine, a distinction is drawn between silver- 

* Trait*. In*t. M.E., 1901, vol. xxiii., pages 260, 251 and 254. 

t At Catorce, plata verde is bromyrite, a mixture of bromide and iodide of 
silver. 

{ Bufa in Mexico is the name given to a narrow ridge of rock standing above 
uk general surface, the sides being very steep. The bufas a little south of Guana- 
juato city are formed of a greenish porphyritic rock ( ? trachyte). 



48 SILVER-BEARIXG VEINS OF MEXICO. 

tearing veins proper and those carrying gold as well. According 
to Mr. Enrique Wiiist, the former run north 49 degrees west and 
dip southward 75 degrees, and the latter north 58 degrees west, 
the dip being 64 degrees in the same direction — hence they meet 
both horizontally and vertically. 

A few veins in this district course about east and west, and dip 
northward in black slate. The ores are galena, pyrites, blende 
{abundant), and pyrargyrite (rosicler oscuro). To the south of 
Malanoche, the San Clemente vein has a similar trend and dip ; 
the ores, native silver, chloride of silver (plata azvl*) and argenti- 
ferous pyrites, occur in rich bunches or shoots (ojos or tramos). 
To the east of Malanoche is the mineral of San Bernabe, in which, 
according to tradition, the first mines worked by the con- 
qui sta dares are situated. 

The San Miguel and San Luis veins have no well-defined walls 
-or selvages, and in places the silver-ore is disseminated in the 
rock, but following a certain direction (Dr. F. de P. Zarate). 
At the Mina de los Clerigos — ore, sulphide of silver, native silver 
and ruby silver — the walls of the vein (strike north 47 degrees 
west, dip northward 49 degrees) are said to be a kind of con- 
glomerate, and the riches orcur between 328 and 559 feet (Mr. 
E. Wiiist). 

If the country-rock be identical with the red conglomerates, 
it proves that the vein which courses through it was formed, like 
the Veta Ma-dre, after the consolidation of that rock, and fixes 
the age of the vein as later Pliocene or Post-Pliocene. 

Guanajuato. 

The city of Guanajuato, in the state of the same name, is 
situated about midway between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf 
of Mexico, in 24 degrees north latitude and 108 degrees west 
longitude. It lies at an elevation of 6,724 feet above sea-level 
on the south-western slope of a range of mountains, known as 
the Sierra de Guanajuato, which trends north-west and south-east, 
dividing the central plateau of Mexico into two unequal por- 

* At Zacatecas, plata aziU jJoniMoxa is argeutite (the plata azu/ of Tlalpuja- 
hua). Plata azid aceracla is polybasite ; plata mttl de. Catorct is selbite or car- 
bonate of silver. Dr. Del Rio, the geologist, gives the name plata azul to a silver- 
l>earing copper-ore. 



SILVER-BEAHING VEINS OF MEXICO. 49 

tions, the eastern plains, or those nearest the gulf, having less 
lateral extent, and being of somewhat higher altitude than the 
western plains. 

The Sierra itself rises to a maximum height of about 9,500 
feet above sea-level. The hills in the neighbourhood of 
Guanajuato city range from about 6,888 to 7,954 feet (the height 
of the Sirena mountain), while the lowest working on the Veta 
Madre or mother-lode in the deep Valenciana mine is still 4,484 
feet above sea-level. 

The surface-geology of the Guanajuato district, which extends 
about 12 miles from north-west to south-east, and 9 miles from 
north-east to south-west bears some resemblance to that of 
Zacatecas, although it is, if possible, still more complex. An 
older sedimentary formation, consisting of clay-slate, calc-schist, 
running here and there into pure calcareous layers, and grau- 
wacke, with some beds of rather fine conglomerate, of unknown 
thickness and of undetermined age,* extends for some distance 
to the east of the city and for a considerable distance to the north 
of it, striking in a general north-westerly to south-easterly direc- 
tion and dipping south-westward from 40 to 50 degrees, while the 
predominating rock around the city itself, and right away to the 
alluvial (Quaternary) plains to the west, is a red conglomerate, 
or rather breccia, of Pliocene age,t with a similar strike, but 
dipping eastward. The breccia is at least 2,000 feet thick. 

Some distance north-west of the city, the Luz group of veins 
occurs in a greatly altered eruptive, which has been termed 
"diorite," as well as other classes of greenstone (roca verde) — 
probably altered andesites and rhyolites. 

Just south of the city is a large outcrop of recent argillaceous 

* Formerly regarded as Silurian or Devonian, but no rocks of these ages 
We as yet been identified in Mexico. Thin black layers of anthracite occur in 
the clay -slate. The older sedimentary rocks of this area are certainly pre-Cretace- 
otu, and may be Triassic, or possibly Carboniferous (corresponding perhaps to the 
Culm-measures of Great Britain). 

t Of the same age as that occurring at Zacatecas ( Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. 
xs J t m P*ge 42), and in the neighbourhood of Tasco (Trans. Inst. M.E., 1901, 
toL xxi., page 208). The red conglomerate of Guanajuato was formerly regarded 
w Triassic (New Red Sandstone). According to Prof. E. Tilmann, it is made up of 
ujore or less angular fragments of schist, grauwacke, and various greenstones 
(diorite and porphyry predominating) in an argillaceous cement stained by red 
Jjwe of iron. The fragments are often upwards of 2J feet (70 centimetres) 
thick. 

▼0L. XXIV.~1M8.190I. 4 



50 SILVER-BEABING VEINS OF MEXICO. 

sandstone called losero* and, beyond the clay-slate to the east, 
the Villapando and Santa Rosa group of veins is found in so- 
called " porphyry/' an eruptive or prior date to the diorite of La 
Luz. 

According to Prof. Tilmann, the clay-slate and grauwacke 
owe their present inclined position to the breaking-through of 
the porphyry, while the diorite supplied the material of the red 
conglomerate. 

Besides the above rocks, there are numerous dykes and masses 
of hornblende, granites (syenites) of pre-Cretaceous age, more 
especially near the contact between the clay-slate and diorite, 
as well as recent emanations of trachyte, basalt, etc. 

Among the metamorphic rocks of the area may be mentioned 
chloritic schist, hornblende-schist and serpentine. Here and 
there, the two latter, together with syenite, are found in sheets 
overlying the clay-slate. 

A long series of eruptions must have taken place here during 
the Tertiary period. The order of eruption in this particular 
district appears to have been (1) andesite, (2) rhyolite, (3) trachyte 
and (4) basalt. The vein-fractures, especially those of the Veta 
Madre, were probably formed during the ejection of the trachyte. 
After the filling of this lode, there was considerable erosion of the 
eruptive, forming the sedimentary deposit known as losero, which 
covers a large portion of the outcrop south of the city. Finally, 
the hot springs now issuing in the neighbourhood of the basalt 
prove that deep subterranean disturbances are still in progress. 

Fig. 13 (Plate II., after Prof. Tilmann) shows the surface- 
geology and the principal veins of the district. The general 
parallelism of these is much more marked than is the case at 
Zacatecas. They course, with few exceptions, from north-west 
to south-east, and dip south-westward. 

The Yeta Madre has an average strike of north 38 degrees 
west. At the Cardenas mine (depth 600 feet, and now abandoned) 

* This rock also occurs at Tasco (Trans. Iivtt. M.E., 1901, vol. xxi., page 
208). Baron A. von Humboldt (Ennui Politique mrfo Royaume de fa NouwMt-Espagne, 
1811) describes the Guanajuato rock as a felspathic conglomerate composed of 
grains of quartz and small fragments of felspar in a ferruginous cement. Prof. 
St. Clair Duport (De la Production des AUtaux PrScieux an Mexiqtie, 1843) calls 
it a grit containing fragments of felspar. Prof. E. Tilmann describes it as a very 
fine conglomerate lying almost horizontally on the red conglomerate in grey, blue, 
violet, red and yellow stripes. The new dam at Guanajuato (capacity 1 ,600,000 cubic 
metres) is made of this rock, known as cantera by the quarrymen. 



SILVER-BEARING VEIXS OF MEXICO. 51 

to the south, the strike is north 25 J degrees west ; from the Cedro 
mine (depth 500 feet and now abandoned) to Sirena, it is north 
34$ degrees west. Between Sirena and a little north of Yalenciana, 
where the greatest wealth occurs, the lode takes a wide sweep, 
first westward (north 50 degrees west) and then eastward (north 
33 degrees west), the average trend of this portion of the vein 
being north 47i degrees west. From Yalenciana to a little north 
of Santa Gertrudis, the vein courses north 31£ west. North of 
this point, the average strike is north 37 degrees west and the 
dip 45 degrees south-westward. 

The Yeta Madre was somewhat incorrectly termed a bedded 
vein by Prof. Yon Groddeck.* It is true that both strike 
and dip correspond more or less with the schistose rocks, but it 
is undoubtedly a fissure-vein ; and it is worthy of note that the 
richest portion of it corresponds with the line of contact between 
the red conglomerate (hanging-wall) and the clay-slate (foot- 
wall), and that in the latter rock the vein is split up into several 
branches, most of which contain ore in payable quantities. 

Prof. Yon Groddeck pointed out that the Yeta Madre must have 
shifted the beds of conglomerate about 13,120 feet (4,000 metres) 
laterally. Prof. Tilmann makes no mention of any such dis- 
placement as this. If such a shifting took place, it probably 
happened long before the Yeta Madre was formed. This lode, for 
a portion of its course, may occupy an old line of fault, formed, 
perhaps, during the emission of the granitic rocks, for the line of 
least resistance from pre-Cretaceous times has been in a general 
north-westerly to south-easterly direction. When the fracture, 
or series of fractures, occurred in Tertiary times, this fault may, 
therefore, have been re-opened for a considerable portion of its 
length. The new fracture would appear to have been propagated 
from a north-westerly direction (the centre of the disturbance may 
have been in the neighbourhood of the Gigante mountain), for, 
on meeting the dense beds of conglomerate, it was deflected east- 
wards, following the line of contact between that rock and the 
clay-slate, and the forces of rupture, rebounding from the denser 
beds of conglomerate, tore open, as suggested by Prof. Tilmann, 
the fissile beds of clay-slate — hence the numerous branches on the 
lying side of the vein, where the conglomerate forms the hanging- 
wall, and which decrease in number, until they finally disappear 
* Lehre von den Lagerstatten der Erze, 1879. 



52 SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 

farther south. On meeting the solid mass of conglomerate at 
Sirena, the fracture was deflected or refracted in an opposite direc- 
tion, cutting through these beds perpendicularly, or, in other 
words, following the line of least resistance of that rock. 

The principal veins of Villapando, San Nicolas and Santa 
Rosa run strictly parallel to the Veta Madre, as will be seen by 
referring to Fig. 13 (Plate II.). The parallelism of the Luz 
system of veins is not so noticeable. The main vein (Plateros) 
has an average strike of north 56 degrees west. It was probably 
formed contemporaneously with the Veta Madre, but failed to 
penetrate the hard red conglomerate to the south. The direction 
of La Luz (north 15 degrees west) is exceptional — it appears to 
be a caunter* vein to the Plateros. 

The Villapando and Santa Rosa veins are interesting, from 
the fact that they bear gold as well as silver. It is said that the 
old mines here produced ore yielding between 26£ and 68 dwts. of 
gold to the ton. 

One vein, near Villapando, examined by the writer, strikes 
from north-north-west to north-west and dips southward from 
55 to 65 degrees. It is about 3 feet in width, the structure of 
the vein being sometimes brecciated and sometimes banded. The 
ore contains from 10 to 12 ounces of silver, and from £ to 1£ ounces 
of gold per ton — the average gold-contents being about 12£ dwts. 
The beds of country-rock trend north -north -eastward and are 
nearly perpendicular. 

A vein near San Nicolas courses east and west, and dips 52 
degrees southward, the thickness being upwards of 13 feet, with 
good streaks of ore on both walls. The structure is generally 
brecciated ; the country-rock is slate and " porphyry." The 
shoots of ore in this mine have a tendency to pitch westward. 

Near Santa Rosa, one vein, now being worked, runs north- 
and-south and dips westward, while another courses north-west 

* In Cornwall, " a metalliferous vein 30 degrees to 60 degrees from east and 
west " (Mr. J. Came) ; "a lode 40 degrees to 50 degrees from the general strike " 
(Mr. R. W. Fox); and "a lode making a considerable angle, not exceeding 45 
degrees, with the normal lode of the district. If it exceeds 45 degrees it becomes 
a cross-lode" (Mr. Salmon). Gaunter is generally derived from Latin contra 
(English counter), against, but Mr. Salmon thinks that it is allied to caunt or cant 
(to tilt over or incline). 



SILVER-BEARIXG VEIXS OF MEXICO. 58 

to south-east with a similar dip. About 124 feet of soft greenish 
country (" porphyry ") separates the two at the point examined. 
The former vein is from 1 J to 3 feet and the latter from 3£ to 6$ 
feet thick. The north -and -south vein has a good leader (cinta), 
6 inches thick, on the hanging-wall. The best ore from these 
veins contains about 55 ounces of silver, while the gold-content 
only amounts to 12 grains to the ton. 

According to Prof. Tilmann, the Luz vein was denounced a 
short time after the conquest, but was not worked in a formal 
way until 1845 by Mr. Perez Galvez. 

The Luz group of veins* is famous for having yielded several 
very rich bonanzas. Two very rich shoots of ore, about 200 feet 
in length, were followed to a depth of 1,312 feet in the northern 
portion of La Luz, and another, almost equally rich, was proved 
for a length of 164 feet and followed to a like depth, in the 
southern portion of the Plateros vein. 

The two veins cross each other obliquely ; at the junction they 
run together for a length of 656 feet. It is a remarkable fact that 
the north-western portion of the Plateros vein (strike north 60 
degrees west and dip southward 60 degrees), and the southern 
portion of La Luz (strike north 15 degrees west, and dip westward 
60 degrees) had not been wrought when Prof. Tilmann wrote his 
memoir, the riches having been discovered only on the eastern 
limbs of the cross, or those nearest to the Veta Madre. 

All the veins shown in Fig. 13 (Plate II.), with the exception 
of Melladito, dip southward — the latter vein, which is from a 
mere parting up to 49J feet thick, dips north-eastward 45 degrees 
(termed contra natural by the miners), and therefore meets the 
Plateros vein on the dip. At the junction, there is a complete 
splitting up of both veins, as many as seven branches having 
been opened out, which separate farther south and become insig- 
nificant. 

The filling of the La Luz vein (thickness 13*12 to 1640 feet) 
is quartz and calcite with many beautiful druses. When the 
vein is productive, the chief filling consists of a dark green friable 

* In the description of these veins, and of the Veta Madre, which follows 
in the text, the writer is largely indebted to Prof. B. Tilmann's memoir, " Der 
Bergbau und das AmalgamoUtom-mrfahrtn in den Bergwerks-dietrilcte von 
Guanajuato in Mexico" 73 pages, 5 folding plates, Munster, 1806. He is less 
ctay of quoting from this work as it has been out of print for some years, and is 
nowicaroe. 



54 SILVER-BEARIXG VEINS OF MEXJCO 

talcose mass, finely sprinkled with silver-ores, termed jabones* 
The silver-ores consist of stephanite (brittle silver-ore), the whole 
range of silver-bearing blendes, and light and dark raby-silver.t 

In the Plateros vein, the ruby-silver is very finely sprinkled 
in hard quartz, stephanite occurring as well where the gangue 
contains some calcite. The thickness of this vein varies con- 
siderably, from a mere salband to about 19J feet — the average 
being about 9*80 feet. 

The small veins (thickness 2£ to 6i feet) of this group contain 
black threads of silver-ore (ruby and brittle silver) in compact 
quartz. 

The ores known as jabones are found also in the Veta Madre, 
but of a white colour, being more calcareous. They are probably 
the result of the decomposition of the original matrix by solutions 
containing silver-ores, forming here and there distinct shoots or 
columns. The silver-ores may have been brought into the veins 
long after they had been filled with veinstone (quartz and calcite) ; 
but, more probably, they were leached out of the veins them- 
selves, and redeposited as sulphides in certain portions of them, 
forming what has been termed secondary enrichments.! 

The two ore-shoots of the La Luz vein produced silver to the 
value of £6,000,000 in 15 years, the average yield of the ores 
being 137 ounces to the ton — masses of jabon, besprinkled with 
ruby silver and stephanite, being in some places upwards of 39J 
feet thick. The ore-shoot of the Plateros vein produced silver 
worth about £1,000,000. 

Between the ore-shoots of the La Luz vein, the filling is quartz 
and calcite in beautiful crystals, said to be quite sterile. The 
average thickness of the vein is about 9*84 feet (3 metres), the 
country being a highly-altered green eruptive. For this reason 
the rock is extremely difficult to determine. According to Mr. 

* At Villa Nueva, Honduras, jabon (soap) is an extremely friable, 
whitish-grey, talcose, clayey rock, containing small fragments of broken highly 
siliceous rock, and charged with a quantity of gold- and silver-sulphides. Mr. A. J. 
Bourdariat, Trans. Inst. M.E., 1895, vol. viii., page 623. 

t According to Prof. Tilmann, a solid piece of light ruby-silver (proustite), 
25 pounds in weight, was taken out of La Luz mine, and presented to the 
Emperor Maximilian. 

% "The Secondary Enrichment of Ore-deposits," by Mr. S. F. Emmons, 
Transaction* of the American Institute of Mining Engineer*, 1900, vol. xxx., page 
177. Mr. Emmons believes that secondary enrichment is generally produced by 
descending surface-waters, although he has a strong impression "that not 
i frequently the ascending currents have also produced migrations of already 
f rmed deposits and local enrichments under favouring conditions." 



SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 55 

Ezequiel Ordoiiez,* certain specimens from this district, examined 
microscopically, were found to approximate to andesitic por- 
phyrites and hornblende-andesites. 

The ore-bearing in these veins, as in all those of Guanajuato, 
begins at a depth of 262 feet (80 metres). 

The Yeta Madre, where it has conglomerate on the hanging- 
wall and clay-slate on the foot-wall, has an enormous thickness, 
for example : — in Valenciana, 492 feet ; farther south in La Cata, 
426| feet; and in Mellado, 328 feet. The conglomerate is 
impregnated with iron-pyrites and silver-ores, forming pockets 
here and there. The clay-slate is also sprinkled with iron-pyrites, 
and for the width already stated, contains numerous branches, 
leaders, bunches and spots of ore separated by more or less dead 
country-rock. The branches, in number up to 8 or 10, in thick- 
ness from 5 to 26J feet, run sometimes parallel, sometimes unite 
in strike as well as dip and again separate. Here and there solid 
masses of ore occur from 98£ to 131J feet thick. In the Mellado 
mine, one ore-body was as much as 197 feet in thickness. 

Fig. 11 (Plate I., after Prof. Tilmann) will give some idea 
of the ore-occurrence. The section was taken in the Cata mine, 
at a depth of 385 feet. It will be seen that the branches of ore 
are separated from each other by country-rock — as much as 90 
feet in thickness of clay-slate divides the lying-branches from 
those on the hanging-wall. The total thickness here is 165 feet. 

The structure of the separate branches is sometimes banded 
(Fig. 12, Plate I., after Messrs. Aguilera and Ordonez), and some- 
times brecciated, fragments of country-rock of all sizes occurring 
in the vein-filling. The amethyst, quartz and other minerals 
are sometimes aggregated in small particles and fragments ; they 
sometimes occur in leaders or ribs, which are rarely continuous, 
sometimes parallel to the walls, and sometimes in curved or 
circular forms. The ores are seldom in solid masses, but more 
often occur as thin coatings on the veinstone or inclusions of 
country-rock, or are very finely scattered throughout. 

So far as the writer is aware, very little information, other 

than statistical, has ever been published about this master-lode. 

It is to be hoped that the Geological Institute of Mexico will 

soon supply the deficiency, and indeed publish a monograph on 

* "Boaquejo Geol6gico de Mexico," Boletln del Imtituto Qeoldgico dt Mexico, 
1896, nums. 4, 5 y 6, page 266. 



56 SILVEB-BEABItfG VEINS OF MEXICO. 

this district that will compare favourably with the admirable one 
on Pachuca.* 

The number of druses in the vein proves that there were many 
open spaces when the first filling took place — no doubt re-open- 
ing, substitution and local concentrations or enrichments have 
occurred from time to time since, gradually building up the com- 
plex lode as we see it to-day. 

Amethyst and calcite, with larger and smaller irregular pieces 
of country-rock, form the chief filling. The mass of the vein is 
composed, in addition, of ordinary quartz, brownspar, talc, dolo- 
mite and rhodonite, while gypsum, spathic iron-ore, fluorspar, 
apophyllite (in beautiful crystals), asbestos, mountain-leather and 
hyaline quartz are more or less rare. 

The ores include native gold (generally very finely scattered, 
sometimes as a thin coating, and rarely in small solid particles), 
native silver (solid, scattered, as a thin coating, hair-shaped, ar- 
boriform, etc.), silver-glance (solid, crystalline, hair-shaped and 
filiform), among the rarer ores, and nearly always dispersed, are 
stephanite, light and dark ruby-silver, fahlerz, galena and blende. 

Copper-pyrites (bronze malo) and iron-pyrites (bronze bueno) are 
largely disseminated throughout the lode — the latter generally 
silver-bearing. There is a notable absence of hornsilver and 
heavy-spar in this lode. 

At the Providencia mine (depth 71 feet), where the most 
northerly workings are situated, clay-slate forms both walls; 
the vein is from 6£ to 26J feet thick and compact — in other words, 
it is not split up into several branches, as is the case in. the 
Valenciana, Cata, Mellado and Ray as mines farther south. The 
prevailing matrix is amethyst, finely scattered with silver-ores. 
Between Rayas and Sirena, only one branch is known, from 6J 
to 16£ feet thick. At Sirena, where the lode is once more power- 
ful, it is being actively exploited by the Guanajuato Consolidated 
Mining and Milling Company. This mine has a depth of about 
984 feet. South of the losero formation, where both walls are 
composed of conglomerate, the maximum thickness of the vein 
is only about one-half of what it is at Providencia. 

Mr. Obregon, a Spaniard, began to work the Valenciana mine, 

in 1760, on borrowed capital. By 1766, he had reached the critical 

* "El Mineral de Pachuca," Boletln del Imtkiito Qtoldgico de Mtxico, 
1897, numa. 7, 8 y 9, 184 pages and 14 plates. 



SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 57 

depth of 262£ feet (80 metres). The following year lie was joined 
by Mr. Otero, and, during the next forty years, this mine 
was worked 4,264 feet along the strike and 3,116 feet on the 
dip. From 1788 to 1824, Valenciana produced silver worth 
£6,872,663, the net profit during this period being £2,571,242. 
It is a remarkable fact that, during those 37 years, the mine only 
showed a loss in 1810, when the surface-plant was burnt down 
during the war of liberation. 

The total depth of the mine is 1,968 feet. The main shaft is 
36 feet in diameter and 1,771 feet deep. It is octagonal in shape, 
and lined with masonry to a depth of 328 feet. The above depth 
was attained by means of horse-whims only* — and the shaft had 
to be of colossal dimensions in order to employ as many of these 
as possible. The Valenciana mine has upwards of 10 miles of 
underground workings, and is still the deepest and the most 
extensive mine in the republic. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the enormous lode wrought 
was full of rich ores : although rich patches undoubtedly occurred 
here and there, the average grade was not very high, and Baron 
A. von Humboldt is probably correct in stating that it was below 
80 ounces of silver to the short ton. In 1865, the average of all 
ores won from the Yeta Madre, according to Prof. Tilmann, 
amounted to 43*7 ounces of silver per short ton, and 30 grains of 
gold per mark (8 ounces) of silver. The ore in the bottom work- 
ings of Valenciana is said to be rebellious, containing much anti- 
mony and lead. 

The town of Valenciana rapidly came into existence during 
the most flourishing period of this great mine. At times, the 
inhabitants numbered as much as 30,000. A handsome church 
was built, and luxuriously furnished by the owners, at a cost of 
£144,000. 

It is melancholy to record that, after the expulsion of the 
Spaniards, the mine, the greater portion of which had been under 
water for a whole decade, was mismanaged by a British company 
for about 12 years. After 5 years' incessant pumping, the water 
was forked, by means of a badly-constructed steam-engine and 
numerous horse-whims, at the enormous cost of £184,000. 

* The ore was raised from the various plats in sacks made of the fibres of the 
agave or of ox-hide, called manias ; while the water was hoisted in large bags made 
of ox-hide, termed botcu, each holding from 75 to 200 gallons of water. 



58 SILVEB-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 

Various lower levels were opened up, but the undertaking was 
finally abandoned in 1836 with a sum of £160,000 to their debit. 
Since that date, the lower levels have remained under water, 
although, from time to time, the mine has yielded a profit from 
ores obtained from the upper workings. 

The Cata mine was first worked in 1700. In consequence of 
the great profits raised therefrom, the King of Spain made the 
principal owner Marquis of San Clemente. The depth is about 
984 feet. 

The Mellado mine (depth 1,312 feet) was worked as far back 
as the sixteenth century. This and the Rayas mine caused the 
building of the present city. For three centuries, the production 
of this mine was unbroken, but unfortunately the data of the 
former workings were lost in 1810. A British company worked 
the mine on contract from 1825 to 1837, losing about £20,000. 
Afterwards, the owners worked it again at a considerable profit. 
Lead- and antimony-ores predominate in the bottom-workings, as 
at Valenciana. 

The Rayas mine has a main shaft 1,312 feet deep, measured 
vertically, and 39*36 feet (12 metres) in diameter. The gold- and 
silver-contents are unusually high, quartz, very finely scattered 
with gold, termed guijo de oro by the miners, being not 
uncommon. A British company also worked this mine on con- 
tract, and, notwithstanding the glaring incapacity of the officials, 
made a clear profit of £400,000, which was speedily squandered 
away in other undertakings. 

Judging by the longitudinal section of the mines on the Veta 
Madre,* the ore-shoots have a tendency to pitch south-eastward. 



* Prof. E. Tilmann's memoir, plate II., which is a plan and longitudinal 
section of the mine from Providencia to Mellado inclusive. The Engineering and 
Mining Journal, 1901, vol. lxxii., page 534, gives a longitudinal section, including 
a portion of the above, and carrying it farther south, so as to include the Rayas 
and Sirena mines. Several views of the Sirena surface- and underground- works 
are also given. 



silver-beaeing veins of mexico. 59 

Addendum. 

Prof. William P. Blake describes the rocks from La Luz to 
San Bernabe* as " metamoYphic clay-slates, quartzites and con- 
glomerates. In some places the rocks are dioritic, either from 
metamorphism or by reason of the intrusion of dykes. All the 
formations are uplifted, and are flexed and contorted, so that the 
dip is variable. There is abundant evidence of pyritic mineral- 
ization, the rocks being everywhere rusty and red at the surf ace." t 

The east-and-west vein near San Nicholas^ is evidently a cross- 
vein. There are actually many of these veins in the district, and, 
according to Prof. P. Aguilar, they probably follow the cleavage- 
planes of the clay-slate country-rock. 

The country-rock referred to as " porphyry " in the text, is 
principally rhyolitic-porphyry, and all veins occurring in it carry 
high-grade gold-ore, containing, generally, free gold, but in 
exceptional cases selenides and tellurides, or gold contained in the 
iron-pyrites. 

According to Prof. Blake " the chief veinstone or gangue of 
the veins of La Luz§ is a compact white quartz, with some calcite 
carrying argentite, pyrargyrite, stephanite, polybasite, miargyrite, 
and sometimes a little cinnabar. There is a considerable amount 
of disseminated iron-pyrites, and there are small quantities of 
galenite. At Bolenitos, the chief silver-mineral is the simple 
sulphide of silver (argentite). ,, || In addition to the above, apo- 
phyllite may be added, which occurs in beautiful pink and white 
crystals in the Refugio mine. 

Prof. Blake, referring to the Veta Madre,1f says, " the vein is 
described as in three distinct parts, separated by country-rock 
or Update, and named bianco (24 metres) ; verde (15 metres), and 
negros (10 metres). Including the barren intervals, the aggregate 
width of the vein is 125 metres. The white (bianco) ores shown 
me consisted chiefly of quartz with disseminated silver sulphides ; 
the black ores (negros) contained much iron-pyrites, sometimes 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 49. 

t "Notes on the Mines and Minerals of Guanajuato," Transactions of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1901, voL , page 

t Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 52. § Ibid., page 53. 

II Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1901, vol. 

1 Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 55. 



Sorrve/i 



60 SILVER-BEARING VEINS OF MEXICO. 

carrying argentite in small particles, and distinct crystals of 
argentite from the bottom of the shaft."* 



The Chairman (Mr. J. G. Weeks), in moving a vote of thanks, 
said that the members were once more beholden to Mr. Halse for a 
valuable contribution to the Transactions. 

Mr. M. Walton Brown seconded the resolution, which waa \\ 
cordially approved. «\\ 



Inek. 



CU, QUART 
*TR| 

6/ CALCr 



Mr. W. C. Blackett described an " Improved Offtake-socket 
for Coupling and Uncoupling Hauling-ropes ; " as follows : — 



* Transactions qfthe American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1901, vol. , 
page 



Sorrves Silver >-becu*u t& I 



WEST 80° SOUTH 



VolZHV, Plate I. 



EAST SO' NOftTH 



€U, QUARTZ, ffTREAXHD 
•UU»M»C 

h, OALOITI 

€>, OLAY »ILV 



WEST 



£5£*. 



0> QUARTZ WITH 

•TREAKS OF AROENTITE, 1TC. \ \\\ 1 



&, CALCITI 



NORTH EA8 





■ CompTLf V«wc«»ik m>m. 



« INLET* OF WHITE QUARTZ. 



1 AND ¥II«Lrrt OF QUARTZ. 



Vai.U^PiATE L 





t 




SI 



a 



UNLIT* OP WHITE Q 



'« AND VIINLBTt OP « 



»t«U< 



Ik*£m 



7 Veins ofMeoaLGo!* 



VolIW.PlaxbB. 




Z*fim 



G ° • • • - -V v^ 

a i* o e c* a r- *V ;'.' i 



VozJJl PlatkU. 



IMPROVED OFFTAKE SOCKET. 



61 



IMPROVED OFFTAKE-SOCKET FOR COUPLING AND 
UNCOUPLING HAULING-ROPES. 



By W. C. BLACKETT. 



The improved socketing contrivance for haulage purposes, 
which the writer had lately devised, was intended mostly for use 
underground. It was principally intended as an improvement 
upon the appliances now in use for the quick coupling and uncoup- 
ling of ropes at way-ends, but other uses would doubtless suggest 
themselves to the members. 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 1 illustrates both the old arrangement (AB and CDE) 
and a variety of the new contrivance (F, G, H, I and J). In the old 
arrangement, A is the socket, similar in many respects to that 



62 IMPROVED OFFTAKE SOCKET. 

already described by the writer,* in which the rope is held by 
means of a tapered copper plug ; B and C are the offtake-key and 
slotted lock or box, used for ready detachment ; D is a swivel for 
avoiding any " spin " that there may be in the rope ; and E is the 
socket at the other end. 

Instead of this somewhat lengthy arrangement of links, the 
new device substitutes two sockets, both of which may be like F, 
with a connecting-piece, G, joined as shewn at J ; or the connect- 
ing piece, G, instead of being rigid, may be linked. But it is, 
perhaps, preferable that an ordinary socket, H, should be attached 
to a socket, I, which again may be either rigidly joined or 
preferably have an interposed link. 



* Trans. Inst. M.S., 1901, vol. xxiii., page 10. 



NEWBOTTLE COLLIERIES. 6& 



THE XORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



EXCURSION MEETING OF ASSOCIATES AND STUDENTS, 
Held at Newbottle Collieries, September 3rd, 1902. 



NEWBOTTLE COLLIERIES. 
Margaret Pit. 

The Margaret pit is one of a group of nine pits comprising the 
Xewbottle collieries, belonging to the Lambton Collieries, Limited. 
It is situated in the parish of Newbottle, about 1£ miles south- 
east of Penshaw station. 

There are two pits, both of which are downcasts, one being 
12 feet and the other 8 feet in diameter. This latter pit was sunk 
in 1774, and has been drawing coals continuously since that date. 

The ventilation is produced by a Waddle fan situated at a 
ventilating-pit, 1,500 feet from the colliery, and producing 160,000 
cubic feet of air, with a water-gauge of 1£ inches at 54 revolutions 
per minute. 

Four seams are being worked at this colliery, namely : — 

Coal-seams. Depth from Surface. 

Feet. 

Main 474 

Maudlin 564 

Bras* Thill 654 

Hntton — 690 

The system of working in the Brass Thill seam is longwall, 
aud in the other seams, bord-and-wall. The output is 800 tons 
per day. 

There are 7 Lancashire boilers at this pit, each 8 feet in dia- 
meter, 30 feet long, and working at a pressure of SO pounds per 
square inch. The boilers are fitted with Proctor mechanical 
stokers. 

Electrically-driven Coal -cutters. — The genera ting-plant, which 
*as not specially erected for driving the coal-cutting machines, 



€4 NEWBOTTLE COLLIERIES. 

has been in existence for several years for hauling, pumping and 
winding. It was installed in 1891, and except for the renewals 
of certain parts, it remains exactly to-day as it was at that time. 
The engines for driving the generating dynamos are of the Willans 
high-speed type, two in number, each being equal to 140 indicated 
horsepower, at a speed of 380 revolutions per minute. The steam- 
pressure is 80 pounds per square inch. Each engine has two 
cylinders, 17 inches in diameter, with a stroke of 8 inches. There 
are two generating dynamos, driven by means of link-leather 
belts, 18 inches wide, and each capable of giving out 80 amperes 
at a pressure of 780 volts, when running at a speed of 500 revolu- 
tions per minute : this is equal to an output of 84 horsepower. 

The coal-cutters are of the diamond type of disc coal-cutter. 
Each cutter is driven by two series-wound motors at a pressure 
of 500 volts. The revolutions of the cutter-wheel are about 12 per 
minute. The diameter of the cutter-wheel, with cutters and boxes 
fixed, is 6 feet 4 inches. The average depth of the cut is usually 
a little over 5 feet, and the height of the cut is 4£ inches. The 
power required to work each coal-cutter is on an average about 
15 horsepower. Each machine is controlled by a reversing-switch 
fitted with resistances. The machine is drawn along the face, 
and kept up to its work by a rope-hauling arrangement, fixed to 
the end of the machine and worked by ratchet-gear from the 
driving-shaft. 

The Brass Thill seam, in which the coal-cutting machines are 
working, has not previously been worked at these collieries, owing 
to the bands of stone which it contains. An average section of 
the seam is as follows : — 

Coal.. 
Band 
Coal .. 
Band 
Coal .. 

84 

Its inclination is about 1 in 36, dipping eastward. It is over- 
lain by a roof of mild blue metal, and it has a hard fire-clay floor. 
The seam is entirely free from water, and fire-damp has not been 
found. 

The coal-cutter kirves in the upper band, that is, above the 
level of the machine. 





Ft 


In. 


Ft 


... 


104 






.. 


8 






.. 


11 






.. 


3 






.. 1 





3 



NEWBOTTLE COLLIERIES. 65 

There are three coal-cutters at work in the seam, only two of 
which work at any one time, the third machine being kept as a 
spare one in case of breakdown. 

Houghton Pit. 

The chief feature of interest here is a Corliss valve-gear haul- 
ing-engine, situated on the surface, supplied with steam at a 
pressure of 50 pounds per square inch. This type of hauling- 
engine is somewhat of an innovation, and has given capital results. 

The Waddle fan, 21 feet in diameter, produces 280,000 cubic 
feet of air per minute at a water-gauge of 1*5 inches, and 100 
revolutions per minute. 

Philadelphia Engine-works. 

The whole of the scrap-iron from the various collieries is 
collected at the forge, where it is used again for new work. The 
forge is fitted with suitable cranes, and a 15 cwts. hammer (steam 
being supplied froni a boiler placed over the heating-furnace), 
and is capable of turning out forgings up to 3 tons in weight. 

At the brass-foundry, the process of melting and moulding 
was shown, and also the method of preparing moulds from 
patterns. 

The pattern-store contains thousands of patterns of various 
kinds, for castings, weighing from a few ounces to several tons. 

The boiler-shop is fitted with drilling, shearing and punching 
machines, and a cold saw. A jigging-screen and coal-belt was 
seen in course of erection ; and also a new boiler for a tank-loco- 
motive. 

The smiths' shop contains a tool-fettling and case-hardening 
furnace ; and the work in progress included the manufacture of 
springs, pit-cages and chains. 

The general store is the distributing centre of materials to 
all the collieries. At the fitting, erecting and machinery shop, 
locomotives were seen in course of reconstruction, and a loco- 
motive-tender, a steam-hoist, and a mechanical screening-plant 
*ere being erected. 

Herrington Pit, 
Here are two high-speed Waddle fans, each 25 feet in dia- 
meter, and capable of producing 250,000 cubic feet of air per 

VOL. XXIV -MB1M». 5 



66 XEWBOTTLE COLLIERIES. 

minute, with a water-gauge of 2i inches, at 100 revolutions per 
minute. The fans are coupled to a twin-drift, fitted with steel 
butterfly-doors. The special feature of the arrangement of these 
fans is that there are two separate fans and two separate engines 
to drive them, instead of the usual arrangement of a spare engine 
and only one fan. The work of erecting these fans has just been 
completed, and they are now running satisfactorily. 

Lambton Sanitary Pipe-works. 

The process of pipe-making was traced from the dumping- 
ground for fire-clay, to the crushing-rolls, elevators, and pipe- 
machine ; from the machine to the drying-sheds ; thence to the 
kilns ; and, lastly, the finished product was seen stored ready for 
market. 

The show-room contains samples of various specialties, and 
the more highly-finished products are stored therein. 

Chemical Laboratory. 

The apparatus for testing gas coal was inspected, including 
the process of taking the illuminating-power by means of a photo- 
meter. ,The laboratory is used for the testing of gas coal, for 
the analysis of water, oils, steel, etc., and for the investigation of 
all chemical and quasi-chemical matters connected with colliery 
work. Some interesting microscopic specimens were shewn. 



TRANSACTIONS. 67 

So % King's JfTOosf $f rrtfaif JttBBJHrfg. 

||he Humble and |}utiful l|ddre6A of 
The North of England InAtitute of fining and Mechanical TfTnginecrA 

gott $racioa6 f$oVe reign, 

The Jgorth of England Institute cf Hining and 
Mechanical fgngineero (Incorporated by iljoual Charter in 1876) 
beg leave humbltj to approach T£our ^jajcotg'i T^hronc on the 
Occasion of the Xuguot jS?eremonu of the Coronation of Your 'Rf OAt 
<£racioud 3gaje6ty and of our j$|o6t $|raciouo Queen 
Alexandra, and to tender Sincere and Heartfelt Congratulation* on 
the AuApicicuA -Event. 

W-c deAirc to present our Ardent and Sincere "IpiAheA for Your 
>Jajc6tieA' ffealth and Welfare. ¥c ai6o ETcrventiu Pray that 
T^Our MajeotieA may wear with §loru and HappincAA the Crown of 
thi6 Kingdom and Empire, and long continue to ;Reign over a Happy, 
PreAperouA and Ignited People. 

WitncAA our HandA and Seal, the twenty -fir At day of cjunc, iao2. 

JOHN GEORGE WEEKS, President. 

M. WALTON BROWN, Secretary. 




Home Office, Whitehall, 

/fth Svpttmher, I'Jf/J. 

I am commanded by the King to convey to you hereby His Majesty's 

lh *aks for the Loyal and Dutiful Address of The North of England Institute of 

ining Hn( i Mechanical Engineers on the occasion of Their Majesties' Coronation. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

n tf A. AKERS DOUGLAS. 

4nt **-Mary to The North of England 

Institute of Mining and AfvchanicaJ Jftiginttrs, 

Xt wcastJt - upon- Tim*. 



68 ADDRESS. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

To Celebrate the Jubilee of the Formation of the Institute, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

September 16th, 1902. 



Sir LINDSAY WOOD, Bart., President, in the Chair. 



The members and visitors were received by the President* 
Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart., who afterwards delivered the following 
address : — 

ADDRESS. 



By Sir LINDSAY WOOD, Bart. 



I beg to thank you for the honour that you have conferred upon 
me in electing me for the second period your President. It is at all 
times a great honour to preside over so important and influential 
a body of gentlemen as compose the members of the Xorth of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, but it 
is a still greater honour to occupy that post on so memorable an 
occasion as the present one, which is the fiftieth anniversary or 
Jubilee of the formation of this Institute. 

On an occasion such as this, I think it is my duty to review 
shortly the past history of the Institute, and to endeavour to- 
shew whether or not, and to what extent, the objects of the 
founders have been carried out and whether the results they an- 
ticipated have been realized. 

For some time previous to 1851, considerable loss of life had 
been and was taking place in working the coal-mines of Great 
Britain; and it was with an universal desire to stop or reduce 
to a minimum this loss of life, that in 1835, a Committee of the 
House of Commons was appointed to enquire into the causes of 
the accidents which were taking place; and they reported that 



ADDRESS. 69 

they regretted that the result of their enquiry had not enabled them 
to lay before the House any particular plan by which the accidents 
in question might be avoided with certainty ; and consequently 
they made no decisive recommendation. 

In 1839 (resulting from a serious explosion at St. Hilda's 
colliery, South Shields), a Committee of South Shields gentlemen 
was appointed and sat for 3 years. They made a report of great 
value, and came to several conclusions. Among other matters 
they reported that with regard to safety-lamps: "No mere 
safety-lamp, however ingenious in its construction, is able to 
secure fiery mines from explosion." 

In 1845, Sir Henry de la Beche and Dr. Lyon Playf air were 
appointed by the Government to institute enquiry into the causes 
of accidents in mines and particularly as to inflammable gases. 
These gentlemen reported recommending the appointment of 
inspectors of mines, and the compulsory use of safety-lamps in all 
fiery mines. 

In 1849, a Committee of the House of Lords was appointed. 
They reported the evidence that they had taken, and drew attention 
to that part of it regarding the appointment of inspectors of mines, 
and improvements in safety-lamps and of ventilation generally. 
In the same year, Mr. Blackwell and Prof. Phillips were ap- 
pointed to investigate and report on the ventilation of mines. 
Tbey reported that they considered superior practical and scien- 
tific knowledge was required in some districts, and superior skill 
and unsleeping vigilance in the over-looker ; which they thought 
would be promoted by the establishment of provincial mining 
schools, and by systematic inspections under the authority of 
Government. 

In 1850, an Act of Parliament was passed appointing inspec- 
tors of mines. 

In 1851, a Committee of the House of Commons, with Mr. 
Cayley as chairman, was appointed, and made various sugges- 
tions, not generally of a practical character, but they reported 
recommending the use of the steam- jet as being the most power- 
ful and at the same time, the least expensive method of ventilat- 
ing mines. 

Notwithstanding all these investigations and recommenda- 
tions, the loss of life from accidents in mines did not decrease, 



70 ADDRESS. 

and it was under these circumstances that a meeting of mining- 
engineers and gentlemen connected with the working of mines 
in the North of England, was held at the Coal Trade Office, Xew- 
castle-upon-Tyne, on July 3rd, 1852, " for the purpose of forming 
a society, to meet at fixed periods and discuss the means for the 
ventilation of coal-mines, for the prevention of accidents, and for 
general purposes connected with the winning and working of 
collieries." Forty-four gentlemen attended that meeting, and 
it was unanimously resolved that " a society be formed of coal- 
owners, viewers, and others interested in collieries " for these 
purposes ; and such was the commencement of the Institute which 
I now have the honour of addressing ; and I regret to say that out 
of the 44 gentlemen attending that meeting only 7 are now living. 
Your first President, Mr. Nicholas Wood, in his inaugural 
address, set out very fully the reasons for the formation of the 
Institute, and the object for which it was formed, and I trust 
that it may not be considered inappropriate if I quote his own words 
on these subjects, for I firmly believe that the desire and hope of 
the promoters of this Institute, expressed by him in that address, 
have during the long period of 50 years which has elapsed since 
it was read, been carried out, and have met with the accomplish- 
ment of the belief then expressed. He stated, as the reasons for 
the formation of the Institute that : — 

We may hope that ... we are entering upon an undertaking which may I* 
of essential utility to the important interests entrusted to our charge, and which 
may be the means of averting some at least of those dreadful and deplorable 
catastrophes which have too often been felt with such disastrous consequences 
to the district and to the sufferers by their occurrence ; and that it may be 
the means of raising the profession to a higher standard of intelligence in literature 
and science than it has hitherto attained. 

************** 

The object of the Institution is two-fold :- Firstly, by a union or concen- 
tration of professional experience to endeavour, if possible, to devise measures 
which may avert or alleviate those dreadful calamities which have so frequently 
produced such destruction to life and property, and which are always attended 
with such misery and distress to the mining population of the district. Secondly, 
to establish a literary institution more particularly applicable to the theory, art 
and practice of mining than the institutions in the locality at present, or which 
are within the reach of the profession in this locality. 

************** 

We wish the principles of the Institution to be understood. It is an 
Institution of practical miners associated together to endeavour by a combination 
of practical knowledge, by an interchange of practical experience and by united 
and combined effort to improve ourselves in the science of our profession, and by 



ADDRESS. 71 

acting together as a body we may be the instruments of preventing as much as 
practicable the recurrence of those dreadful catastrophes . . . and at the same 
time to raise the art and science of mining to its highest practicable scale of per- 
fection in safety, economy and efficiency.* 

Having given you the reasons for the formation of the In- 
stitute and the objects which the founders had in view, I will 
now endeavour to shew how far during the last 50 years these 
have been carried into effect. 

During the first year of the existence of the Institute, 143 
members joined, and year by year they continued to increase for 
25 years, when the total membership reached 971 (in 1877). For 
a short period after then, the numbers somewhat decreased, but 
after 1891 it rapidly increased, until this year, 1902, it reached 
1,238 members. Therefore, so far as membership is concerned, 
the Institute has undoubtedly prospered, and clearly shews that 
there is a widespread desire to obtain the information contained 
in the papers which have been read and from the discussions which 
mive taken place on them. 

The prosperity of an Institute such as this, does not, however, 
depend upon the number of its members, although financially this 
Is perhaps important : but it is the character of the papers which 
a re contributed by the members, and the discussions which take 
place on tLem, that create the value of the Institute, and I think 
tnat if we refer to the 51 volumes of our Proceedings, 38 of which 
* er * published before The Institution of Mining Engineers was 
fanned, and 1-5 published in their Proceedings, we shall find an 
PUo **iuous mass of the most valuable information on almost every 
object which is of use or interest to the mining profession. 
" e °logy f as might naturally be expected, has been a very fruitful 
sU "*jei.*t on which papers have been contributed, mineralogy, 
°**Ucal and physical investigations, surveying, mining tech- 
m> *°f?y (including as it does so many important subjects con- 
nee tecl with mining), metallurgy, machinery, electric investiga- 
tes, railway and transport, administration, statistics, and many 
flthev subjects have been dealt with. 

Iu addition to these 51 volumes of Proceedings, the Library of 
*" e Institute contains 8,629 volumes and 2,489 pamphlets, all 
°* ^hich are valuable books of reference. 

* Trait*. X.E. /»*/., 1852, vol. i., second edition, pages 13 and 14. 



72 ADDRESS. 

I consider, therefore, that I am justified in claiming for this 
Institute that, in carrying out the objects set forth by its founders, 
the members have by an interchange of practical experience and 
by a united and combined effort to improve ourselves in the 
science of our profession, raised the art and science of mining 
engineering to a greatly higher state of efficiency than it was 50 
years ago ; and this progress of the utility of the Institute and the 
good work that it was doing was recognized by the Government, 
for in the year 1876 Her late Majesty Queen Victoria granted to 
us a Royal Charter. 

Between the years 1869 and 1875, five similar institutions to 
this were formed in the different parts of the mining districts of 
Great Britain and carried on successfully, each reading their own 
papers and circulating them among their members, but many 
valuable papers did not obtain the widespread circulation which 
their value to the mining industry justified. It was, therefore, 
about 1887 that a scheme was devised for a federation of these 
institutes and matured in 1889. There are now six Institu- 
tions federated together under the title of The Institution of 
Mining Engineers. The scheme is undoubtedly a good one, for 
under it each local association still maintains its own individu- 
ality, reading and discussing its own papers, but each member 
of the local associations receives the papers and discussions of 
the other local associations, which form the membership of The 
Institution of Mining Engineers, as well as the papers and discus- 
sions thereon which are read at the meetings of The Institution 
of Mining Engineers, held twice in each year. Thus, the informa- 
tion brought before the local and general Institutions is much 
more widely circulated than it would otherwise be. 

There is one important matter which has been brought to the 
notice of mining-engineers since the formation of the Institute, 
to which I think I shall draw special attention. That is, the dis- 
covery of the very important part that coal-dust, or in fact dust 
of other materials than coal, plays in causing explosions in our 
mines, and in increasing the disastrous effect of them. 

In March, 1876, Mr. William Galloway read a paper before 
the Royal Society giving a set of experiments which he had made 
on the subject. This, I think, was the commencement of investi- 



ADDRESS. 78 

gations into the subject in Great Britain, although it had previous 
to that time been under the consideration of some French 
engineers. The result of Mr. Galloway's experiments went to 
shew that when a small percentage of gas was mixed with air, 
from 1 to 11 per cent., so small as could not readily be detected 
and the air mixed with dust, when exposed to a sufficiently large 
volume of flame such as that from a blown -out shot, an explosion 
of a very violent character took place. After this, many experi- 
ments were made on the matter by members of this Institute, 
notably those made at Elswick colliery by Mr. W. Cochrane, 
forming the basis of a paper read on Xovember 2nd, 1878, by 
Messrs. A. Freire Marreco and 1). P. Morrison recording the 
results of these and other experiments made by them, and point- 
ing out that certain descriptions of dust when mixed with air 
entirely free from gas and exposed to a flash of flame, produced 
an explosion. The discovery of this new source of danger 
explained the cause of many explosions which at the time they 
took place were quite inexplicable, although the greatest ability 
and perseverance had been exercised to discover the cause. Since 
attention had been called to the matter, many stringent rules 
have been put in force, to be observed in dry and dusty mines, and 
it is satisfactory to know that very few explosions are now caused 
from this source of danger. 

In making this short, and, possibly, very imperfect review of 
the objects aimed at and the work done by this Institute during the 
last 50 years, it is incumbent on me to refer to the great part that 
it took in the establishment of the Durham College of Science. 

Although the formation of such a College was not specifically 
referred to as one of the objects of the formation of the Institute 
yet it was laid down that one of the first principles of the Institute 
should be to raise the mining profession to a higher standard of 
intelligence in literature and science, and this could hardly be 
done without the establishment of a College of Science. Conse- 
quently, within a year of the formation of the Institute, namely, 
April 1st, 1853, the President, Mr. Xicholas Wood, referred to 
the subject of the establishment of a School or College of Mines. 
A Committee of the Institute had previously been appointed in 
furtherance of the object, and he stated the result of his interview 
*ith Dr. Lyon Playfair, the Warden of the University of 



i 4 ADDRESS. 

Durham, a Committee of the Corporation of Newcastle, repre- 
sentatives of the coal-trade, lead-mining, and manufacturers of 
the district, and informed the Council that he had the pleasing 
duty to report to them that considerable progress had been made 
in discussing the plans and in arranging the general outline of 
the scheme. 

On December 7th, 1854, the Council of the Institute was 
formed into a Committee to draw up a plan in detail of a Mining 
College giving the scheme or system of education to be pursued. 
This report was widely circulated and gave the matter a practical 
bearing which it had not hitherto attained, and. had the result of 
bringing, on January 11th, 1856, from the then Duke of North- 
umberland, a munificent offer to contribute £5,000 if £15,000 
could be raised for the endowment, or £10,000 if £30,000 could 
be raised. The Council took steps to make this offer generally 
known and used every endeavour to raise the necessary funds, 
but they were not very successful. They, however, did not 
allow the matter to drop, but continued their negotiations chiefly 
with the Warden and Senate of the University of Durham. 
The proceedings of the Institute shew how indefatigable were 
their endeavours year after year to overcome all obstacles and 
prejudices which presented themselves to the formation of tbe 
scheme. It was not, however, until July 5th, 1871, that the 
Council of the Institute were able to report that a scheme had 
been finally agreed upon. This was largely due to the very great 
assistance rendered by the late Dean Lake and by the large grant 
of money given by the Universit3 r of Durham. Thus the present 
Durham College of Science was founded on October 24th, 1871* 
joiutly by the University of Durham and the North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and from that 
day to this it has continued to prosper in a most satisfactory 
manner, and is now one of the finest colleges of physical science 
in the United Kingdom. There are at present 490 students 
attending the regular courses of lectures, and in addition to these 
there are 1,1 TO students attending the evening and special classes. 
Surely this large attendance shews the great need that existed 
for such an Institution, and the great work which it is now 
doing, not only in the education of those connected with mining 
but of those who are employed and likely to be employed in the/ 
manufactories of this great commercial district. 



ADDRESS. i i> 

I think I may now investigate whether since the formation 
of this Institute and the founding of the Durham College of 
Science there has been any reduction in the great loss of life 
which was previously taking place in our mines. I do not for 
a moment wish to infer that the reduction in the loss of life which, 
as I hope to shew, has taken place, is due to the proceedings of this 
Institute ; but I do claim for it that it has most materially 
assisted in the education of its members and the elevation of the 
science and art of mining, and that this has been one, if not the 
chief, agency by which the better and safer working of our mines 
is being carried on. 

On reference to the Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom 
it will be seen how enormously the coal-trade has increased during 
the past 50 years. 

In 1831 f the year immediately preceding that in which this 
Institute was formed, the output of coal for the United Kingdom 
was 53,000,000 tons, whereas in 1900-50 years after the output 
had reached the very large figure of 225,170,1615 tons, or more than 
four-fold. Of course, this enormous increase could not be 
obtained without employing a very much larger number of 
persons than were employed in 1851. The number of persons 
employed underground at that date was 171,893 whereas in 1900 
they amounted to 044,242, or an increase of 3*74 times the number 
employed 50 years ago. 

Consequently, mining-engineers have at the present day to 
provide for the daily safety underground of at least 472,349 more 
men and boys than they had to do in 1851. The men employed 
() n the surface have increased in almost the same proportion. In 
1851, there were 44,324 employed and in 1900 there were 174,275 
01 : »'83 times as many. Such has been the great increase in the 
coal-mining industry since this Institute was formed. 

Tlie chief object, however, in the formation of this Institute 
w a$ the prevention of accidents, and the saving of loss of life. 

In reviewing the results which have takeu place, I think that it 
* r »U show more accurately what has been done in this way if I 
ta ke an average of 5 years at the commencement of the period 
under review and a 5 years' average at the present time, rather 
tna n take the first year and last year only. I will, therefore, take 
toe result of the average of the years 1851 to 1855, and compare 
them with the average of the years 1890 to 1900 inclusive. 



76 ADDRESS. 

To have obtained a correct comparison of 50 years I ought to 
have taken a period of 5 years from 1847 to 1851 inclusive, to 
compare with 1896 to 1900, but previous to 1851 no reliable 
statistics were kept of accidents and deaths. I have, therefore, 
taken the period of 1851 to 1855. 

At this early date, as perhaps at the present time, explosion* 
in mines were always looked upon as being the cause of loss of 
life which should be the first and great object of the mining- 
engineer to prevent, although at that time as at the present, they 
were by no means the source of accidents which caused the greatest 
number of deaths. 

The number oif deaths which were caused by explosions on 
the average of 5 years from 1851 to 1855 was 231 per annum, 
whereas the average for the last 5 years was 64 ; but if we take 
into consideration the difference in the number of persons 
employed underground during the latter period, as compared with 
that employed during the first period, and if the same death- 
rate per person employed which was taking place in the first 
period had continued the same in the latter period from 1896 to 
1900 there would have been 765 lives lost from this cau?e, or 
701 more than actually took place. 

The next class of accidents in mines is that produced from 
falls of roof and sides. In the first period under review, there 
was an average of 368 deaths per annum from this cause, whereas 
the average per annum during the latter period from 1896 to 
1900 was 469, but if the same death-rate had continued during 
the latter period as was taking place in the first period there 
would have been 1,205 lives lost, thus shewing a saving of 736 
lives per annum. 

The next class of accidents are those which occur in and about 
shafts. The average for the five years of 1851 to 1855 was '230 
per annum, whereas in the present period they average 75 ; but 
if the same death-rate per person employed had continued during 
the latter period as in the first there would have been a loss of 
775 lives, thus shewing a saving of 700 lives per annum. The 
death-rate of 75 per annum, although too high (and I should like 
to see it reduced), does not seem excessive when it is taken into 
consideration that some 600,000 persons descend and ascend the 
shafts of our mines some 230 times each year. This, I think, 
shews that great care is exercised by the management and also 
bj r the workmen themselves. 



ADDRESS. 7« 

The other classes of accident such as those termed " miscel- 
laneous," comprising all accidents other than those I have stated 
and also those which take place on the surface, follow much more 
nearly the ratio of persons employed. 

The total loss of life from all sources, on the average of the 
five years from 1851 to 1855, was 985 per annum, whereas the 
average for the five years from 1896 to 1900 was 1,001 per annum 
or 16 more than in the first period, although there were 525,297 
more men and boys employed in and about the mines ; but if 
the same death-rate had continued during the latter period as 
during the first, there would have been a loss of 3,146 lives instead 
of 1,001, thus shewing a reduction of 2,146 deaths. 

I therefore venture to assert that the objects which the 
founders of the Institute had with regard to the preventing of 
accidents and saving of life have been very largely fulfilled, but 
by no means fully accomplished. 

We as an Institute must not, however, rest satisfied with the 
progress which has been made during the last 50 years, but must 
continue to the utmost our exertions to raise still further the 
standard of attainment in literature and science and in the art of 
mining among our mine-managers. There is still a great deal 
to be done towards the reduction of accidents, and the loss of life 
occasioned by them. Although the loss of life from explosions in 
1900 was only 44, caused by 24 accidents, yet if we analyse the 
causes by which they occurred, we find that 20 out of the 24 were 
caused by naked lights, and some of these occurred through officials 
using naked lights instead of safety-lamps while making the 
statutory inspection of the working-places. Surely, there is 
great room for improvement in the discipline and care by which 
these mines are worked, and this, if exercised, would prevent 
many accidents taking place from this cause. 

In the following year, 1901, we find that the proportion of 
accidents from this cause, namely, naked lights, is not so great, 
though it accounts still for a large proportion, namely 12 out of 
21 accidents. 

The number of explosions caused by shot-firing does not seem 
so large; there were only 2 in 1900, and 3 in 1901. Considering 
the vast number of shots fired every day, these must be considered 
small in number. 



78 DISCUSSION — ADDRESS. 

The class of accident which causes the most deaths is* that 
due to falls of roof and sides. Accidents from this cause are not 
nearly so much under the control of the management as those aris- 
ing from many other causes. The nature of the work of mining 
necessarily requires the workmen to be left for several hours of 
the day without supervision, during which time they must exercise 
their own judgment as to the safety of the roof and sides. It is, 
therefore, to the skill and care of the workmen themselves that 
we must look for the reduction in the number of deaths from this 
-cause; yet I am of opinion that, with a sufficient supply of 
material for propping always within easy access of the workmen, 
explicit instructions for its use, strict discipline and better lights, 
the number of deaths from falls of roof and sides would be con- 
siderably reduced. 

I trust, therefore, that the members of the Institute will take 
this matter into their consideration and by united conference be 
able to devise means for the prevention of this class of accidents. 

In a short address such as this, I have not considered it advis- 
able to refer to the many other duties of the mining-engineer, 
although many are very important, yet not so important as that 
of the prevention of accidents. The economical working of our 
mines is, however, a very important matter, and affords ample 
scope for the communication of papers on the very various matters 
which affect the proper working of our collieries, so as to enable us 
to compete with other countries in the sale of the product of our 
mines. 

In conclusion, 1 can only say that I hope that the good work 
which has hitherto been done by this Institution will continue, 
and that the results will in future be even greater than those 
which have been accomplished during the first 50 years of its 
existence. 



Mr. Johx Daulish said that, as the oldest surviving Past- 
President and as one of the original members of fifty years ago, 
he had pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to Sir Lindsay Wood 
for his admirable address. He had had a very long professional 
connection with the President, and also with his father, the late 
Mr. Nicholas Wood, with whom he commenced his professional 



THE MUSEUM OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 79 

career, and with whom he was associated for very many years. He 
congratulated Sir Lindsay Wood on his re-election to so import- 
ant an office, and he was also glad to congratulate the Institute 
upon Sir Lindsay's accepting for the second period a position for 
which he was so highly fitted. 

Mr. J. G. Weeks (Retiring-President), in seconding the vote 
of thanks, said that the members felt highly gratified in having 
Sir Lindsay Wood — a distinguished son of their first president — 
to preside over the Institute. They were equally gratified in 
hearing from him so able and excellent an address, in which 
he had shown how the aims of the founders of the Institute had 
been amply fulfilled. 

The vote of thanks was carried with enthusiasm, and was 
briefly acknowledged by Sir Lindsay Wood. 

A conversazione was afterwards held, at the invitation of the 
President, in the Hancock Museum of the Natural History 
Society of Northumberland and Durham. 



THK MUSEUM OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
OF NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM. 

The following notes indicate the portions of the museum collec- 
tions, which are likely to prove most interesting to geologists and 
mining-engineers. 

The fossil-room, the third large room from the entrance, con- 
tains sets of fossils, which represent the life on the earth from the 
earliest period (Cambrian) of which any such record has been dis- 
covered. The contents of this room have been arranged in their 
prej*ent form comparatively recently, and are not yet finally 
labelled and mounted. Much of the case-room on the ground- 
floor is devoted to the Coal-measures and the Permian formation. 
Kspeeially noteworthy are the fine series of Magnesian Lime- 
stone fossils collected by the late Mr. J. W. Kirkby and others ; 
the Atthey collection of Coal-measure fishes and amphibians frpm 
the shales above the Low Main seam at Newsham ; and the Hutton 
collection of Coal-measure plants. The Hutton collection con- 



80 THE MUSEUM OF THE NATURAL HISTOBY SOCIETY. 

tains many of the original specimens figured in Messrs. Liudley 
and Hutton's Fossil Flora of Great Britain (1831-1837), a 
classical work which forms the basis of the modern knowledge 
and nomenclature of fossil botany. The collection was formerly 
the property of the North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers, and was presented by them to the Xatural 
History Society. 

In the upper and lower western corridors will be found the 
collection of minerals, and in the wall -cases on the upper floor a 
series of rocks, the latter, so far, only roughly arranged. Amongst 
the rocks is a good set of the remarkable concretionary Magnesian 
Limestones of the Sunderland district. 

In the lower eastern corridor, which contains objects too large 
to be placed in their proper systematic position, are some speci- 
mens of interest to practical geologists : for example, a section of 
the Brockwell seam, Coal-measure tree-stems, and some large 
polished slabs of Weardale " marbles '' (Carboniferous Limestone 
crowded with corals). 

Of the remainder of the Museum collections, the sections of 
chief general interest include the well-known Hancock collection 
of British birds occupying the central room, the gallery of wood- 
cuts and original drawings by Thomas Bewick, and the upper 
eastern corridor containing the ethnology collection. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 



81 



THE MIDLAND COUNTIES INSTITUTION OF 
ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 
Held at Matlock Bath, August 30th, 1902. 



Mr. G. E. COKE, Retiring- President, in the Chair. 



The Annual Report of the Council was read as follows : — ■ 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1901-1902. 

The following is a comparative summary of the number of 
members and the state of the finances for the last three years : — 



Honorary Members 
Life Members ... 
Members 

Associate Members 
Associates 
Students 


Year 1899-1900 

14 

8 

... 237 

5 

59 

28 


Year 1900.1901. 

14 

8 

244 

5 

64 

3:4 


Year 1901-1902. 

15 

8 

252 

4 

66 

31 


Totals ... 


... 351 


368 




375 


Cash Receipts ... 
Cash Payments ... 


£ 8. d. 
493 17 6 . 
425 1 7 . 


£ 8. 

. 605 6 
. 474 18 


d. 

7 .. 
4 ... 


£ s. d. 
536 1 

467 4 7 


Bank Balance ... 
Invested Fund 


73 18 2 . 
640 . 


. 104 6 
. 640 


6 ... 
... 


172 2 10 
640 


Totals ... 


£713 18 2 . 


.. £744 6 


5 .. 


£812 2 10 



The following table shows the alteration in membership of 
™ Various classes during the past twelve months. The Council 
re £*et that they have had again to strike off a considerable 
^tt&ber of members, in consequence of the non-payment of sub- 
options for a period of three years, and this accounts to a very 
P**t extent for the resignations shown below. A large number 



*ol xxiy—itos-itoB. 



82 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

of subscriptions still remains unpaid, in spite of repeated 
reminders, and the Council make a special request for their pay- 
ment. 



1900-1901. Dead. Resigned. Transferred. Elected. Transferred. 1901-1902. 



Hon. Members 14 


3 


— 


— 


3 


1 


15 


Life Members 8 












8 


Members ... 243 


1 


4 


1 


10 


5 


252 


Associate Members 5 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


4 


Associates ... 64 


— 


5 


— 


5 


1 


65 


Students ... 33 


— 


1 


6 


5 


— 


31 



Totals ... 367 375 

The Council wish to place upon record their regret at the 
deaths of Messrs. Alfred Barnes and J. E. F. Chambers, the 
former being a Past-President, and both having rendered great 
services to the Institution in former years. 

The working of the Institution from a financial point of view 
may again be considered satisfactory, and the bank-balance has 
been increased from £104 6s. 5d. to £172 2s. lOd. 

The annual meeting of The Institution of Mining Engineers 
was held in Glasgow in September, 1901, when a large number of 
members attended, in view of the Exhibition which was then 
open. The London meeting was held in May, 1902. 

Local meetings were held on August 14th, 1901, when the 
excursion included a visit to Belvoir Castle, and the ironstone- 
mines of the neighbourhood ; on September 19th, 1901, this 
being a joint meeting of the members of this Institution and the 
Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers 
at Altofts colliery ; on December 7th, 1901, at Derby ; on March 
8th, 1902, at Nottingham, when an excursion was organized to 
visit the sinking at Gedling; and on June 14th, 1902, a joint 
meeting of this Institution and the Midland Institute of Mining, 
Civil and Mechanical Engineers at Sheffield. 

The Council wish to take this opportunity of thanking the 
firms and gentlemen who have been good enough to entertain 
hospitably the members of this Institution from time to time, and 
to throw open their works for inspection. 

The following papers have been contributed to the Trans- 
actions by members of the Institution, since the last Report of the 
Council : — 



TRANSACTIONS. 88 

" The Grubb Sigh* for Surveying-instruments." By Sir Howard Grubb 

and Mr. Henry Davis. 
(( Changing Headgears at Pleasley Colliery." By Mr. G. A. Longdeo. 
" The Belvoir Iron-ore." By Mr. R. F. Percy. 

The Library has now been placed in Nottingham University 
College, and the catalogue has been printed and circulated 
among the members. 

An index to the seventeen volumes of the Transactions of the 
Chesterfield and Derbyshire Institution has been printed, and 
can be obtained from the Secretary. 



The Chairman (Mr. G. E. Coke) moved the adoption of the 
report and the statement of accounts. 

Mr. W. B. M. Jackson seconded the motion, which was 

adopted. 



The Secretary announced the election of the following 
gentlemen : — 

HONORARY MEMBERS — 

Mr. F. A. Gray, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 7, Victoria Square, Penarth, 
Cardiff. 

Mr. R. McLaren, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Edinburgh. 

Mr. W. H. Pickering, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Doncaster. 
Members— 

Mr. Frank Arthur Blackburnb, Colliery Manager, North Wingfield, 
Chesterfield. 

Mr. Walter Gerard Boulton, Mining Engineer, Crookhaven, County Cork. 

Mr. Stanley Clay, Mining Engineer, Wassan Gold-mining Company, London. 

Mr. Robert Hood Haggie, Electrical Engineer, 69, Rose Hill Street, Derby. 

Mr. Raleigh Hills, Electrical Engineer, Hill Top Farm, Tupton, Chesterfield. 

Mr. James McGowan, Civil and Mining Engineer, Waterworks Offices, Not- 
tingham. 

Mr. John William Fryar, Mining Engineer, Sherwood Colliery, Mansfield. 
Associate Members — 

His Grace the Duke of Rutland, K.G., Belvoir Castle, Grantham. 

His Grace the Duke op Portland, K.G., Welbeck Abbey, Worksop. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Manvers, Thoresby Park, Ollerton, Notts. 

^*jor Reginald Pemberton Leach (late R.A.), Nethermoor, Tibshelf. 
Associates— 

*fr- Gwyn Harrison Coates, Manager's Assistant, Tenter Hill, Hucknall 
Torkard. 

*k- Samuel Field, Deputy, 27, Station Street, East Kirkby, Notts. 
Student — 

**• Harold SHAW,*Mining Pupil, 34, Colville Street, Nottingham. 



84 
Br. 



ACCOUNTS. 



The Tbeasubeb in Aoooukt 



251 Members as per List, 1901-1902, of whom 
8 are Life Members 



£ s. d. 



£ s. d. 



243 Members at £1 lis. 6d. 

Less 3 paid in advance, 1 transferred, 1 deceased, 
and 5 resigned, of whom 3 should have paid ... 

9 Members paid in advance, 1902-1903 

1 Member rejoined 

5 Associate Members as per List 

1 Ltss resigned 



97 Associates and Students, as per List 

8 Le*s, 7 resigned, of whom 5 should have paid, and 
1 paid in advance 



5 Students to pay difference as Members 
5 Students to pay Transfer Fees 

10 New Members and Entrance Fees ... 

10 New Associates and Students 
4 Associates paid in advance, 1902-1903 
The Butterley Company 



Arrears, as per last Balance-sheet ... 
Add Arrears not in last Balance-sheet 



Deduct irrecoverable , 



382 14 6 



11 6 







371 14 
14 3 



6 






1 11 


6 


7 17 


6 






1 11 


6 










6 6 


o 


97 







3 













94 
2 17 


o 






6 






2 12 


6 






26 5 









10 





... 




4 









5 5 







£538 15 





84 


6 






4 14 


6 







88 15 
29 3 6 



59 11 6 



Examined and found correct, August I lth, 1902. 



John Hall, / 

Johnson Pearson, I 



Auditors. 



£598 6 6 



ACC0UNT8. 



with Subscriptions, 1901-1902. 



85 
Cr. 



196 Members at £1 11b. 6d. ... 
1 Member transferred 
1 Member deceased ... 
3 Members paid in advance 
5 Members resigned, 3 unpaid 

36 Members unpaid 

1 Member part paid 

243 

9 Members paid in advance 

1 Member rejoined 

3 Associate Members 

1 Associate Member, unpaid 



Unpaid. Paid. 

£ f. d. £ s. d. 
308 14 



4 14 6 
56 14 
16 1 10 



14 3 6 
1 11 6 
4 14 6 



1 11 6 



61 Associates and Students 

5 Associates and Students resigned, unpaid 

I Student paid in advance 

4 Students transferred 

24 Students unpaid 



5 



24 



61 



4 



4 Students paid difference as Members ... 
1 Student not paid difference as a Member 

4 Students paid Transfer Fees 

1 Student not paid Transfer Fees 
10 New Members and Entrance Fees ... 
10 New Associates and Students 

4 Associates paid in advance 

The Batterley Company 



Arrears . 



11 6 



10 6 



2 6 



2 2 



Deduct irrecoverable ... 







26 5 









10 









4 









5 5 





93 3 


6 


445 11 


6 


52 14 





36 1 





145 17 


6 




29 3 


6 










116 14 






£598 6 6 



86 



ACC0UNT8. 






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TRANSACTIONS. 



87 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS, 1902-1903. 

The report of the Scrutineers (Messrs. L. W. de Grave and 
C. R. Sams) was read as follows : — 



Mr. G. J. Binns. 
Mr. A. S. Douglas. 



Mr. G. 8. Bragge. 
Mr. J. W. Eardley. 
Mr. G. C. Fowler. 
Mr. W. H. Hepplewhite. 



President : 
Mr. G. Elmsley Coke. 

Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. W. B. M. Jackson. 
Mr. E. Lindley. 

Councillors : 
Mr. C. R. Hewitt. 
Mr. H. R. Hewitt. 
Mr. T. G. Lees. 

Mr. J. PlGGFORD. 



Mr. G. Spencer. 
Mr. J. T. Todd. 



Mr. C. Sebastian Smith. 

Mr. E. D. Spencer. 
! Mr. H. Walters. 
1 Mr. W. Wilde. 



REPRESENTATIVES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE INSTI- 
TUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, 1902-1903. 



Mr. G. J. Binns. 
Mr. G. Elmsley Coke. 



Mr. M. Deacon. 
Mr. H. R. Hewitt. 
Mr. E. Lindley. 



Mr. W. B. M. Jackson. 
Mr. G. A. Lewis. 



A cordial vote of thanks was accorded to the Scrutineers for 
their services. 



The members proceeded in brakes to the Mill Close lead-mine, 
and by permission of Mr. A. M. Alsop, they were allowed to 
view the underground workings of the mine, and also to inspect 
the system of separating the lead from impurities. 



88 TRANSACTIONS. 



MIDLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING, CIVIL AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 
Held at the Queen's Hotel, Leeds, July 25th, 1902. 



Mb. JOHN GERRARD, Retiring-President, in the Chair. 



The minutes of the previous General Meeting were read and 
confirmed. 



Mr. C. C. Ellison and Mr. Thos. Holliday were appointed 
scrutineers of the hallo ting-papers for the election of officers, and 
also for representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining 
Engineers for 1902-1903. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 

nominated : — 

Members— 
Mr. Hubert Obmond Bishop, Assistant Colliery Manager, Tinsley Park 

Collieries, Sheffield. 
Mr. Squire Broadbent, Colliery Manager, Ossett, Wakefield. 
Mr. John Wh. Halhshaw, Assistant Colliery Manager, Kelvin Grove, 

Wombwell, Barnsley. 
Mr. Tom Hargreaves, Colliery Manager, Newton Villa, Chapel Allerton, 

Leeds. 

Student — 
Mr. Harold T. Foster, Mining Pupil, Howsley Villas, Chapel town, Sheffield. 



The Annual Report of the Council, and the statement of 
accounts for the past year were read as follows : — 



1900*1901. 

3 


1901-1902. 
1 


237 

8 


255 
10 


13 


13 


11 


11 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 89 

THE COUNCIL'S ANNUAL REPORT. 

The Council have pleasure in presenting to the members of 
the Institute their report on the work of the past year. 

The numbers of members for the past two years are as follows : 

Yean. 

life Membere 

Members 

Associate Members 

Associates 

Students 

Totals 272 290 

From this table, it will be seen that the membership has 
increased by 18 during the past year, which is very satisfactory. 

The Council regret to have to state again that there has been 
during the year some irregularity in the payment of subscrip- 
tions, the arrears now amounting to £24, due from 16 members. 
Of the £33 arrears of subscriptions due for 1900-1901, £12 have 
been collected during the past year. 

There is a balance in the bank of £180 15s. 2d., against 
£132 4s. 2d. at the end of the previous year, and all debts have 
been paid. 

The following papers have been read during the year : — 

" An Apparatus for Lighting Miners' Safety or other Enclosed Lamps by 

Electric Current." By Mr. Edward Brown. 
"The B.C.B. Instantaneous Either-side Brake for Rail way- wagons or 

Similar Vehicles." By Mr. Edward Brown. 
" Coal-mining in India." By Mr. Robert Clarke. 
"An Instrument for the Automatic Record of Winding-operations." By 

Mr. W. N. Drew. 
" The Application of Coal-cutting Machines to Deep Mining." By Mr. W. 

E. Garforth. 
"The Kitson System of Petroleum Incandescent Light." Ky Mr. Arthur 

Kitson. 
" Chinese Mines and Miners." By Mr. Alexander Reid. 
" The Craig Coal-washer." By Mr. William Scott. 

The Council regret to record the loss, through death, of Mr. 
P. N. Wardell, the late esteemed inspector of mines for Yorkshire. 

The scheme for the proposed Benevolent Fund of the Institu- 
tion of Mining Engineers has fallen through, as there was not 
sufficient support given to enable it to be a success. The Council 
of The Institution of Mining Engineers are dealing with such 



90 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

amounts as have been paid, in a manner which appeared satis- 
factory to the representatives of the Institutes at the meeting 
held in London. 

The Council wish to record their great appreciation of the 
care and skill displayed by Mr. Garforth in providing an experi- 
mental gallery for the purpose of testing apparatus for life-saving 
in collieries, and the opportunity given to members of this 
Institute to test the same. 

The prize for the best paper read before the Institute has been 
awarded to Mr. W. E. Garforth for his admirable paper on " The 
Application of Coal-cutting Machines to Deep Mining.' ' 

With a view to increasing the intercourse between those 
directly interested in the coal-fields of Yorkshire, Nottingham- 
shire and Derbyshire, the Presidents of the Midland Counties 
Institution of Engineers and of this Institute held a Joint Meet- 
ing of the two Councils, when it was resolved that a committee 
should be appointed to arrange for Joint Meetings of the two 
Institutes. 

The Council have appointed a Committee to collect from 
members, and from others, who are willing to give the informa- 
tion, detailed sections of the strata bored and sunk through at 
the various collieries in Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Derby- 
shire, with a view of having them tabulated and printed in a 
suitable volume in the same way as has been done by the North 
of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and 
when completed, of issuing a copy to each member. The Com- 
mittee would be obliged for any assistance that the members can 
give them in this work. 

The Council suggest that an excursion should be arranged to 
visit the Diisseldorf Exhibition and some of the most interesting 
German collieries. The excursion will take place on or about 
September 5th, for a week or ten days, and will also be open to 
the members of the Midland Counties Institution of Engineers. 



The report and accounts were unanimously approved. 



ACCOUNTS. 



91 






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TRANSACTIONS. 98 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR 1902-1903. 
The Scrutineers reported the result of the election, as 

follows: — 

President : 
Mr. H. B. Nash. 

Vice-presidents : 
Mr. J. E. Chambers. | Mr. Walter Hargreaves. | Mr. J. R. Robinson Wilson. 

Councillors. 
Mr. I. Hodges. 
Mr. R. H. Lonobotham. 
Mr. J. L. Marshall. 



Mr. E. Browne. 

Mr. H. St. John Durnford. 

Mr. P. C. Greaves. 

Mr. M. H. Habebshon. 



Mr. R. Routledoe. 
Mr. Charles Snow. 
Mr. W. Washington. 



Mr. W. H. Pickering. : Mr. William Wilde. 



Mr. John Gerhard (retiring President), in vacating the chair, 
regretted that the period, to which he looked forward two years 
ago, was now ended. It had been to him a great honour to be 
elected President, and he appreciated it very highly. He ex- 
pressed his gratilude for the cheerful goodwill shown towards him 
by the members, and to the Secretary (Mr. T. W. H. Mitchell) for 
his valuable assistance. He had pleasure in, introducing Mr. 
Xash, who would, he was sure, receive the same hearty support that 
he had done ; and heartily congratulated Mr. Nash on having 
attained to that distinction, and wished him a successful term 
of office. 

The President (Mr. H. B. Nash) said that he appreciated the 
honour conferred \ipon him by his election as President of the 
Institute. He considered it au honour to have the confidence of the 
members; and he hoped that his health would permit him to 
follow in the footsteps of his predecessors. He hoped that the 
interest which he had always taken in the success of the Institute 
w ould continue to grow, and that the good work done in the past 
w ould not stop through his occupancy of the chair. 



Mr. W. E. Garforth moved a vote of thanks to Mr. John 
Gerrard for the able way in which he had conducted the proceed- 
m 88 of the Institute during his two years of office. The members 
*ould agree that, from the time Mr. Gerrard read his presidential • 
address, he had in every possible way helped the work of the 
Institute, and was entitled to their best thanks. 



94 TRANSACTIONS. 

Mr. J. N evin, in seconding the vote of thanks, said that Mr. 
Gerrard had been one of the most active members of the Institute 
almost from its formation ; and, although he had gone into Lanca- 
shire, he still maintained his interest in their Institute. The 
members would agree that the two years of Mr. Gerrard's presid- 
ency were among the most successful years of the Midland Insti- 
tute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers. 

The vote of thanks was cordially approved. 



REPRESENTATIVES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE 
INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, 1902-1903. 

The Scrutineers reported that the following gentlemen had 
been elected : — 

Mr. W. H. Chambers. I Mr. J. Gerrard. I Mr. J. Nevin. 
Mr. W. £. Garfoeth. I Mr. H. B. Nash. I Mr. W. H. Pickering. 
Mr. G. Blake Walker. 



Mr. W. H. Pickering (H.M. Inspector of Mines) read the 
following " Notes on Systematic Timbering " : — 



NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 95 



NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 



By W. H. PICKERING. 



This paper is not written in a didactic spirit, but with the 
purpose of raising a discussion upon a subject which, in the 
writer's opinion, has never received the attention it deserves. 

Since the year 1868, no less than 1,640 lives have been lost in 
Yorkshire from falls of roof and sides, or an average annual loss 
of 48 lives. The average for the past 10 years has been 45, and 
during the same period the average annual loss in the United 
Kingdom has been 446 ; and, in 1901, 482 lives were lost. It 
must be remembered that the injured who linger more than a 
year and then die, are not included. 

The writer is trying to collect statistics of such accidents in 
this district, and has already gathered enough to show that they 
we surprisingly numerous. 

Satisfactory statistics of the number of non-fatal accidents 
we not available, as the Coal-mines Regulation Act gives no 
definition of a " serious accident," and opinions on the subject 
differ widely ; but, during 1900, 1,682 persons were returned as 
being seriously injured by falls of roof and side, and the number 
for last year was 1,583. Many of these persons are crippled for 
life. 

The 482 lives lost during 1901, from falls of roof and side, are 
classified in Table I. 

During the last decade, the death-rate from falls has remained 
Practically stationary. Such facts and figures should make even 
&e most careless person pause, and reflect as to whether the right 
methods of getting coal are being practised. If the total of 
ac cidents from falls were accumulated by monthly or quarterly 
catastrophes, the public conscience would have been shocked long 
a Ro and probably drastic remedies would have initiated. But 
** the accidents claim one or two victims daily, the attrition of 
life passes almost unnoticed. 



96 



NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 



Safety of life and limb must always be the first consideration, 
but the economic point of view must not be overlooked. Every 
life sacrificed is a direct and serious loss to the country, and every 
fall is an obstruction and an expense in the mine. Such is the 
crying evil : what is the remedy ? 

Table I. —Number of Accidents and Deaths from Falls of Roof 
and Side during 1901 in the United Kingdom. 



' 


At the Working 
face. 


On Road*, while 
repairing or 


On Roads, while 
otherwise work- 


Totals. 


1 


enUrging. i 

3* 1 j 

fig «3 


ing or 


passing. 






Name of Mines- 
inspection District. 


1* 




1* 

fis 


!««' 


1* 


M 


i 


©is 


No.of 
Aocid 

No 
Dea 


6 Si 


1 


%2 


n 


East Scotland 


29 


32 


4 ; 4 ' 


3 


1 4 


36 


40 


West Scotland ... 


26 


26 


2 2 


3 


3 


31 


31 


N'castle-on-Tyne 


28 


32 


4 4 


5 


; 5 


37 


41 


Durham 


30 


30 


6 ! 6 


3 


3 


39 


39 


Yorkshire 


30 


30 ; 


10 


10 


7 


8 


47 


48 


Manchester 


22 


23 I 


9 


10 


6 


i 6 


37 


39 


| Liverpool... 


25 


25 


14 


15 ' 


7 


1 7 


46 


47 


| Midland 


23 


24 


8 9 


7 


7 


38 


40 


Staffordshire 


32 


32 ! 


10 14 


4 


4 


46 


50 


Cardiff ... 


12 


12 


11 . 11 


4 


4 


27 


27 


Swansea 


27 


30 


9 9 : 


13 


' 14 


49 


53 


Southern 


20 


20 


5 


5 


2 


1 2 


27 


27 


Totals 


304 


316 


92 j 99 

i 


64 


1 67 


460 


482 



It would pass the wit of man to prevent some of these accidents, 
but, in the opinion of the writer, the total would be very consider- 
ably reduced, and at the same time the mines could be more 
economically worked and with less loss of coal, if systematic 
methods of work and systematic timbering were the general rule 
instead of the exception. The magic of method will work miracles. 
The difficulties of changing the method of working in any colliery 
are enormous, for the officials and the workmen have absorbed the 
wrong idea, and often work a radically wrong method with 
astonishing success, but with undue risk and an unnecessarily 
high cost per ton. It may take many years for a manager to 
educate his workmen and officials to a necessary change, but it is 
well for one to be a sower even if one does not live to reap the 
harvest. 

A thoughtful paper read before the members by Mr. W. E. 
Garforth, and illustrated by photographs, has brought home to the 
minds of all who were present, the importance of working long- 



NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 97 

wall faces in straight lines and at an angle with the cleat, when 
possible. 

True longwall, that is, longwall in which the face is a straight 
line and is advanced in parallel slices, is the simplest and safest 
method of working coal, and there are few seams that do not 
lend themselves to it. But the direction of the working-face, 
the distances apart at which the gate-roads must be set out, the 
depth of the holing, and the thickness of the ripping, are 
vital points, which must be judiciously combined if the 
seam is to be worked to the best advantage. These points are 
too often settled haphazard, instead of receiving the anxious con- 
sideration that they merit. The object should be to distribute 
the " weight" evenly over a given area, so that the roof settles 
quietly; and the weight instead of being a master becomes a 
servant, helping to get the coal. True longwall work most 
readily lends itself to a thorough system of timbering. 

Special timbering rules have now been established at most 
mines in the United Kingdom. The Special Rules regarding 
" timbering in mines " as first issued by the Home Office were as 
follows : — 

(a.) Propping of Roof.— Where timber or other material is used to support the 
^ the owner, agent or manager shall keep posted up, at the mine, a notice 
specifying for each seam, or district of a seam, the maximum distances apart at 
which props or other roof-supports at the working-faces are to be set ; and the 
penou setting props or other roof-supports shall see that this maximum distance 
i* not exceeded. 

(&.) Supply of TimJ>er. — Where the timbering of the working-places is done 
by the workmen employed therein, the miners shall have a sufficient supply of 
citable timber such as is ordinarily used at or within 30 yards of every working- 
place where mineral is being gotten, and the deputy shall see that such supply is 
80 kept there. 

(M Drawing Timber. — Wherever timber has to be withdrawn from the waste 
or ot ber disused parts of the mine, the prop-drawer shall have with him a ringer- 
and-chain, dog-and-chain, or other suitable appliance ready for use. 

In most of the mines-inspection districts, the rules have been 
amplified and strengthened and have been dove-tailed into the 
c <we of Special Rules. In Yorkshire, they have been taken as 
they were issued, and placed at the end of the Special Rules as an 
addendum. 

The duty of specifying by notice the maximum distances at 
w mch timber shall be set is variably interpreted. One manager 

*>LUiv.-i,M. 19 oe. 7 



98 NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 

will be content with a meagre specification of distance, posted up 
with the Special Rules ; while his neighbour will draw up a 
comprehensive system of rules for timbering, and post the 
notice in every working-place. It is surely desirable that the 
notice should not only comply with the letter of the rule, but 
that it should be so drawn as to give practical effect to the scheme 
of systematic timbering, which the manager should devise so 
as to suit the working of the mine under his charge, and to be a 
means of educating the officials and workmen. It is not easy to 
draft a model code, when we remember that seams worked in this 
country vary from 30 feet to 18 inches in thickness, but the follow- 
ing notice is suggested as embodying most of the vital points : — 

Name of Colliery or Mine 

Name of Seam 

In compliance with Special Rule , the following syBtem of timbering 

has been adopted for the above seam : — 

(1.) The timbering of the working-places shall follow, as far as circumstances 
will admit, the plan of the system, which is posted up at the station. 

(2.) The rowB of props must be set parallel with the face, and the distances 

between the rows shall not exceed feet, and between the props shall not 

exceed feet. 

(3.) The props must be set off and on, as shown on the plan. 

(4.) Every prop, not being under a bar, shall be capped with a lid not less 
than feet long and of sufficient thickness. 

(5. ) As far as possible, all lids must be fixed so that the natural breaks and 
joints of the roof shall be crossed at right angles. 

(6.) Holing sprags shall be set as soon as there is room, and shall not be 

placed more than feet apart; and when the holing exceeds feet deep a 

further row of sprags shall be set. 

(7.) Where the coal is more than feet thick or is overhanging, or lies at 

an angle, cockers or long sprags shall be set. 

(S.) Bars shall be set at the way-ends, as shown on the plan, and shall not 
exceed feet apart. 

(9.) All timber must be fixed as soon as there is room, and, where necessary, 
fore-sets must be set. 

(10.) Additional timber shall be set when and where required. 

(11.) Pack-walls shall be carefully built, and pinned to the roof as soon as 
possible. 

(12.) When drawing timber a workman shall use a ringer-and-chain, and 
other suitable tools. 

(13.) Where necessary, catch-props and other temporary timber shall be set 
to keep the timber-drawer safe. 

It is suggested that a copy of the preceding notice should be 
posted at ti±e stations, and other convenient places in the pit, and 
where possible, in every working-place; and that it should be 



NOTES OX SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 99 

given to each miner with the Special Rules. However good a 
system may have been devised by the manager, it is only by ham- 
mering it into the workmen and subordinate officials that it can 
be successful in practice. Even those who are unwilling to learn 
must be educated, though such a task is a thankless one. What is 
wanted is the formation of public opinion, not only among 
managers and officials, but also among the workmen, in favour of 
effective systems of working and timbering. The suggested plan 
should be on a large scale, and should show graphically the system 
of timbering. 

Xext in importance to systematic setting of timber, is the 
systematic and regular drawing and recovery. Props left 
straggling in the goaf prevent the roof from settling down quietly 
and regularly on the pack-walls, and are often the cause of sudden 
weights and bumps. All timber should be drawn by or under 
the direct personal supervision of skilled men, and a very liberal 
supply of proper timber-drawing appliances, such as ringers-and- 
chains and long-handled " bunters " and prickers should be pro- 
vided in every district of the pit. 

A manager must exercise all the skill and judgment with 
which nature has endowed him and which experience has 
strengthened, to devise a system of work and timbering which 
will best suit the seams that he has to work, and such methods will 
necessarily differ widely. 

The following is not put forward as a model system suitable 
for most seams ; but it is given as an instance of a system of 
timbering which allowed a seam to be economically worked under 
an exceedingly dangerous roof with almost perfect safety (Plate 

m.). 

The seam is worked longwall, and the line of the working-face 
cuts across the cleat at an angle of about 30 degrees. The holing 
is made in a stratum of fire-clay, under the coal, and the bottom 
section of the seam is blocked down far enough to let the miners 
hole 4 feet deep, as the fire-clay is only 8 inches thick. The 
timber is set in ranks parallel with the face. The props are 
spaced 2J feet apart, and the ranks are placed 4 feet from the 
face where the tubs pass, and 2£ feet from the face where the coal 
is being holed. There is a bar, 5 feet long, over each prop and the 



100 DISCUSSION — NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 

ends of the bars are slotted into the coal. Sprags are set under 
the holed coal opposite every other prop and are thus spaced 5 feet 
apart. Where the coal is apt to flake off, cockers are set in 
addition to the sprags, and are also placed opposite each alternate 
prop. The cross-pieces of the cockers nearly meet, as they are 
4£ feet long. As the holed coal is removed, the timber is set so 
as to follow up the work as closely as possible. When all the 
holed coal has been drawn, a fresh rank of timber is set 2£ feet 
from the face, with the bars slotted into the coal ready for another 
holing. The pack-wall is built close to these, and the back timber 
is then drawn. The goaf is closely packed throughout, the entire 
length of the face. 

The section of the seam is as follows : — 



Roof: Shale, with bands of ironstone 


Ft In. 


Ft. In. 


Second Ripping : 






Sandstone, soft 


2 




First Ripping ; 






Shale, with bands of ironstone 


1 6 









3 6 


Stam: COAL, top 


2 6 




COAL, bottom 


1 2 









3 8 


Holing; Fire-clay 


8 


8 



The height of the working-places was 4 feet 4 inches. The 
first ripping was kept close to the way-end, and the second rip- 
ping was 4 or 5 feet behind the first. 

The sketches (Plate III.) were made from an actual working- 
face. 



Mr. J. Gerrard (H.M. Inspector of Mines), in moving a vote 
of thanks to Mr. Pickering for his paper, said that the mention of 
the word " systematic " was a bogey to many mining-engineers. 
In the Yorkshire mines-inspection district, there were many men 
of many minds, and it was a distinct advantage to hear diverse 
views. There were scarcely two seams alike, and the same seams 
were found under different conditions in different parts, even in 
Yorkshire. Mr. Pickering advanced the opinion that the same 
system of timbering should not be applied to every seam, or to the 



Jkt JntutuUen of Mining Engineers 
Trar^aotions 1902-JS03. 



VozZXHTPtateM. 



To JUustrcUe<MZ WH.Pi/Jceriria& "Notes oTvS^tenzcUityTunberiti-p * 







B 





>f HQQW) ■iwima 




Fig. I.— Sketch-plan of Working-face. 



rarr. mmu 






n«-OLAVt MOUftQOMT 




Fig 2.— Cross-section on Line A B of Fig. I. 



HIT. iPtOMt* 







rw-OAVi HOUNaourr 




flq. 3.-cross-section, shewing arrangement of timber, 
where Cockers are used. 

Scale, 6 Feet to 1 Inch. 



I** to&mdJnstaut* ofJ&ninf.Cixd Sc Mechanical Engineers, 
Transactions 2902-1903 



VqlXVJ.PlateXV. 



DISCUSSION — NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBEHING. 101 

same seam throughout the Yorkshire district, and that in every 
seam there should be systematic rather than chance or haphazard 
timbering. The admirable old saying of having a place for every- 
thing and everything in its place was the first step towards system. 
This matter had been under consideration for some time, and the 
first step in the right direction was to prescribe by rule and by 
order a system of timbering in working-places, and the success of 
that first step entirely depended upon ft* enforcement. They 
might indicate the direction, but if they neglected to enforce it, 
then it were better that the step had not been made. Whether coal- 
cutting machinery would help the members to obtain a system of 
timbering would largely depend upon the conditions of the seam, 
and upon the perseverance and patience of those connected with 
its working ; and from his experience, he was absolutely satisfied 
that no coal-cutting machine would work efficiently in every seam. 

Mr. H. B. Nash, in seconding the vote of thanks, said that the 
members were indebted to Mr. Pickering for the admirable sugges- 
tions contained in his paper. In his experience, colliery-officials 
were always willing to carry out any suggestions to enhance safety 
that might be made to them ; but they experienced the greatest 
difficulty in inducing the workmen to do the same. It should be 
impressed upon each man that the rules referred to him as an 
individual, and that by carrying them out he was helping to keep 
himself and his fellow-workmen safe. In nine cases out of ten, 
from their habitual contact with danger the collier never thought 
how an accident happened. 

The resolution was cordially approved. 

Mr. Arnold Lutton said that there could not be any doubt in 
the mind of anyone who had studied the statistics of mining 
accidents in this country, and who had seen how greatly the death- 
rate per ton raised had been reduced in the last 50 years, that the 
number of accidents might be reduced without drastic rules. 
Speaking on the subject of mining explosions, he could remember 
the time when every mining explosion was attributed to gas ; but 
an enormous reduction in deaths from explosion resulted from the 
introduction of explosives, which did not produce so large a flame 
as gunpowder; and it took nearly 30 years to produce a general 
understanding on that great question. Now he found that some 



102 DISCUSSION — NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 

mining-engineers and some of H.M. inspectors of mines were start- 
ing on what was at present the chief branch of our death-rate, the 
timbering of the working-places. He had read the papers and dis- 
cussions on the subject, and he was very much impressed by the 
advantages of system in timbering; and he thought that the 
system introduced by Mr. Fowler at the Babbington collieries 
had many advantages. He was always prepared to consider a sub- 
ject thoroughly, whatever the subject might be that he took in 
hand ; and if managers in other parts of the country had done the 
same thing, they would have an immense body of evidence shew- 
ing the advantages of systematic timbering. When he had the 
honour of giving lectures at the Yorkshire College, he had always 
taught his pupils that "two sound props were much better than 
one broken one ; " and that this was another way of stating " Have 
plenty of timber in your working-places, then you are not likely 
to have so many accidents, nor any increase in your timber-bills, 
because your timber-bills are incurred by having so much broken 
timber. If you can set the same prop twice, it is cheaper than if 
you could only set it once." There were many pits where the 
same system would not apply, but as he (Mr. Lupton) understood, 
the idea was that in every pit, in every seam, and perhaps in every 
district, there should be some carefully thought-out plan of tim- 
bering, and this, reduced to writing, should be the rule in that 
district until those who were responsible thought fit to alter that 
rule. 

Mr. T. W. H. Mitchell said the colliery-manager had to 
consider the workmen's views, and the probability of increased 
cost incurred by asking the colliers to timber as they had hitherto 
been doing, on a system which, being set forth in writing, appeared 
to them to be something novel. At many collieries, he thought 
that practically a system of arranging the timber in rows was in 
force, and although it was not posted in each district, it was posted 
in the minds of the officials and workmen. There would be diffi- 
culty in enforcing hard-and-fast rules, and many of the members 
knew that the adoption of simple rules had caused enormous 
trouble, although they only recorded what had been done in the 
past. Then again they would find, on occasions, after the rules 
had been posted — he would not say very often — that a nightman, 
probably under the supervision of a deputy, would build a pack- 



DISCUSSION — NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 108 

wall; but it would not be properly filled, or filled to the top, and 
when the first bump came, probably the man working next 
morning in the place was buried under the pack, which had simply 
been a thin wall instead of being a proper support. Mr. Pickering 
wished to insist that colliery-managers should always bear the 
timber question in their mind, and try to educate their officials, 
and that the officials should in turn educate the collier. 

Mr. H. Rhodes remarked that the death-rate from falls of roof 
and side had practically remained stationary during the past 10 
years. During that time 9 accidents had occurred at a large col- 
liery from falls of roof, but not one actually at the working-face. 
This was a singular fact, and if the other accidents mentioned by 
Mr. Pickering had occurred in the same way, it would appear that 
systematic timbering could not have prevented any of them. 

Mr. R. Rotttledge, with regard to the suggestion of employing 
specially qualified men to set timber, stated that in longwall work- 
ings it was desirable that the men should set their own timber. 
He wished to point out that mining-engineers were most anxious 
to do what they could to enhance the safety of their workmen, but 
at the same time they did not wish to be crushed by further bur- 
dens. They were overburdened by legislation in England. 

Mr. I. Hodges said that there would be considerable difficulty 
in revising any method of working for which the miner had a fixed 
price-list. It would be a gigantic task to alter the conditions 
under which miners were working at present, and it was im- 
possible to employ other men to draw or set timber, unless the coal- 
owners were prepared to pay the whote of the cost. Mining- 
engineers, who were daily dealing with labour problems, were 
absolutely agreed that it would be impossible to obtain any rebate 
from the workmen if they were relieved of the timbering of their 
working-places. Nevertheless, they ought to look at the enhanced 
safety of the mine, as the cost of ensuring that safety was 
not an actual loss; and it did not always imply that the cost of 
working the coal would be increased. He agreed that the timber- 
ing should be done from the goaf, and that the roof should be 
allowed to settle in a systematic manner. The miner received with 
alarm any suggestion that was made, and he agreed with Mr. 
Mitchell that they objected to the details of their work being re- 
corded in writing unless it was accompanied by an increased price. 



104 DISCUSSION — NOTES ON SYSTEMATIC TIMBERING. 

Mine managers desired practical rules, which, possibly after revi- 
sion, would be acceptable to all concerned. 

Mr. M. H. Habershon stated that there were collieries in this 
district, working coal by machinery, where the method of timber- 
ing was very similar to that shewn in the sketches attached to Mr. 
Pickering's paper. The system was enforced without any special 
rules or notice posted in the pit. 

Mr. J. R. R. Wilson (H.M. Inspector of Mines) remarked that 
it would have been very interesting if the members would read the 
reports of H.M. inspectors of mines respecting the 9 accidents 
referred to by Mr. Rhodes. In the Yorkshire mines-inspection 
district, there were only two or three collieries at which plans of 
the system of timbering were placed in the box-hole. In Lanca- 
shire, he had seen plans on a large scale and on wooden boards, 
giving the workmen explicit instructions as to setting timber. 
The timbering rules should be varied from time to time; and 
further, the deputy or undermanager was allowed a certain amount 
of latitude, and could order alterations if they were necessary. 

Mr. John Gill said that if notices were posted up the workmen 
would not read them, and the special timbering rules would be 
similarly neglected. 

Mr. W. H. Pickering (H.M. Inspector of Mines), replying to 
the discussion, agreed that every manager must adopt a system 
suitable for his own particular pit. The paper was read with the 
object of eliciting the views of Yorkshire managers on the subject 
of systematic timbering. He thought that nowadays there was 
plenty of timber placed in the stalls, but difficulty was experienced 
in getting it set, and he desired that it should be systematically 
set. He could not agree with the statements that the workmen 
did not read the rules, and that they would not take an interest in 
the subject. He thought that perhaps he had not expressed him- 
self clearly as to the employment of skilled men to set timber, 
as he did not mean specially appointed men, but that men who were 
skilled colliers should be allowed to set timber. He was aware 
that in some mining districts special men were appointed to set 
timber; much might be said in favour of such a system, but it 
was not practicable in all mines. In his opinion, lids formed a 
very important part of any system of timbering, and should be 



DISCUSSION— THE CBAIO COAL-WA8HEB. 105 

systematically used. H.M. inspectors of mines often visited 
collieries, working almost identical seams : in one, the system of 
timbering was admirable, and in the other there would be no 
system. H.M. inspectors of mines wanted the worst raised to the 
standard of the best-managed collieries. He was not going to 
defend the Courrieres system, but he thought that the report had 
been misunderstood. 

Mr. John Gerrard (H.M. Inspector of Mines) said that he 
visited the Courrieres collieries, to see the system of timbering, the 
conditions under which the system was applied, and to ascertain 
the practicability of applying the system in this country. The 
report* (which was issued as a supplement to Dr. Foster's reportt) 
was an incidental report, and it was not intended to convey the idea 
that the Courrieres system could be applied to all mines in this 
country. 

The discussion was then adjourned. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. W. SCOTT'S PAPER OX " THE 
CRAIG COAL-WASHER."* 

Mr. C. R. Claghorn (Wehrum, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A.) wrote that there was a great similarity between the Craig 
washer and the Campbell washer ; and many points made by Mr. 
Scott in his description of the operation of the Craig washer applied 
equally well to the Campbell table. 

In view of his (Mr. Claghorn *s) paper on the Campbell table, 
he could only say that he had thought up to the present moment 
that he was the first to apply the filtration-system of washed-coal 
storage in pits or bins; but he found, after reading Mr. Scott's 
paper, that he had been working along the same lines. In the 
light of his experience, he would ask a few questions in the way 
of discussion. Taking the circular bins as illustrated on Plate 
XI§ he asked what arrangement Mr. Scott made for the reloading 
of the drained washed coal. His first experiment made three 

• Report of Four Inspectors of Mines, etc., 1901. 
t Trans. Inst. M.E., 1900, vol. xx., page 164. 
I Ibid., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 179. 
§ Ibid., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 182. 



106 DI8CUS8ION— THE CRAIG COAL-WASHER. 

years ago, in this connection, was with an overhead structure 
(with the coke-oven charging larry tracks beneath) of rectangular 
section. Into this box, the coal was sluiced with the wash-water, 
the water filtering off through the coal-mass by means of suitable 
conduits made in the bottom and sides. He found that the coal 
was packed so hard and fast that it could not be got down 
through any kind of gate or door in the bottom, and he had to 
arrange the bin so as to have a bottom which was completely 
removable in small sections, plank by plank, in order that the 
stored coal could be removed. He had subsequently modified his 
plans, so that the storage and filtration is in pits in the ground, the 
reloading being done by clam-shell buckets operated from 
gantries. This system works very well, and has overcome the 
difficulty referred to. 

He would like to ask what percentage of moisture Mr. Scott 
found in the drained coal, and how far this could be reduced by 
longer drainage. In his experience, the moisture was reduced to 
about (5 per cent in 72 hours. After that time, it remained prac- 
tically the same, apparently being held by capillarity, and even 
stirring up or handling did not reduce this moisture to any appre- 
ciable amount, except so far as exposure to the air might dry the 
coal. 

The beauty of this system, apart from points of economy, was 
in the perfect recovery of the sludge. This was disseminated (as it 
should be) entirely throughout the washed coal-mass, and formed 
a uniform product for coking. By any other system, this sludge 
was recovered by itself ; the oven or ovens which received it must 
be treated somewhat differently, and the resulting coke-product 
would be of a quality unlike the usual product. 

Furthermore, a plant washing small coal, suitable for mechani- 
cal stoker-use for steam-raising, had the advantage of receiving 
the sludge along with the rest of the marketable product ; but, if 
recovered separately, it would have to be remixed by a separate 
operation or thrown away, as by itself it is of no value for steam- 
raising, being too finely divided to permit of its being fired by hand 
or machinery. 

Mr. William Scott (Leeds) wrote that he first turned his 
attention to the necessity of recovering the finer portions of coal, 
which hitherto had been lost in the settlings, in 1895. Then a 



DISCISSION— THB CRAIG COAL- WASHER. 107 

brick hopper, 20 feet high and 15 feet square, was erected, having 
a bottom lined with maltkiln-tiles, which answered admirably so 
far as drainage was concerned. Three hoppers accommodated 
the quantity of coal treated, one hopper being charged, one drain- 
ing, and from the other coal was drawn. He had experienced 
the trouble complained of by Mr. Claghorn, but the greater part 
of the coal could be withdrawn by pottering with a long iron rod 
through the sliding-door at the bottom of the hopper. The Craig 
system seemed to him to be immeasurably superior to the hopper- 
system, as the tank, being circular in form, the process of unload- 
ing the hopper is done mechanically by a series of revolving knives 
taking out a core, about 2 feet in diameter, after which a revolv- 
ing circular vertical scraper is gradually worked downward and 
at the same time sweeps the remainder of the contents of the 
hopper into this central space, whence eventually it falls through 
the door at the bottom into the coke-oven tub. He agreed with 
Mr. Claghorn's remarks as to the period of drainage, and he had 
found that after a certain time no further reductions of moisture 
occurred. He did not think that it would be desirable to reduce 
the amount of moisture remaining in the washed coal below 6 per 
cent.; otherwise owing to the lightness of the product, there 
would be a loss in exposed positions such as the top of a coke- 
oven, where it might be scattered from the top of the tub ; and 
there would be greater waste in charging the oven from the tub, 
where there is often a drop of 4 or 5 feet due to varying gradients 
of the tram-road. 



108 DOUGLA8 COLLIERY. 



THE MINING INSTITUTE OF SCOTLAND. 



ANNUAL EXCURSION, 
Held at Douglas Colliery, August 16th, 1902. 



The members were received by Mr. Robert Russell, managing 
director of the Coltness Iron Company, Limited, Mr. Douglas 
Jackson, his assistant, and the officials of Douglas colliery, and 
shewn over the works. 



DOUGLAS COLLIERY. 



By DOUGLAS JACKSON. 



Douglas colliery is situated in the parish of Douglas and 
county of Lanark, and about 8 miles from the town of Lanark, 
on the Muirkirk branch of the Caledonian railway. 

Two pits are sunk, 75 feet apart, and there is a day-level mine 
at Howgill, which cross-cuts the highly-inclined strata to the 
same coal-seams to which the pits are sunk. The Lord Dunglass 
pit, 16 feet by 10 feet within the barring, is used for winding and 
pumping. The Lady Mary pit, 13 feet by 10 feet, is also used for 
winding and is the upcast shaft for the ventilation of the colliery. 
The pits are sunk to a depth of 786 feet, and pass through the fol- 
lowing seams of the Lower Coal-measures : — * 



Names of Seams. 


Thickness of Seams. 


Depth from Surface. 




Ft. In. 


Pt 


In. 


Newtonfoot Gas Coal-seam 


1 7 


90 





Ellenora Coal-seam 


4 2 


313 


6 


Index Limestone 


— 


455 


3 


Nameless Coal-seam 


2 


509 





Wee Drum Coal-seam ... 


4 5 


561 





Big Drum Coal-seam 


6 8 


569 


4 


Skaterigg Coal-seam 


3 3 


609 





Kirkroad Coal-seam 


4 8 


654 


8 


Stoney Coal-seam 


3 3 


672 


6 


Back Coal-seam 


5 


759 


8 


Kobb Coal-seam 


2 2 


786 






• See also " The Douglas Coal-field, Lanarkshire," by Mr. Robert Weir, 
Tram. Imt. M.E., 1899, vol. xvi., page 436. 



DOUGLAS COLLIBRY. 109 

The combined thickness of the coal-seams, at the pits, is 37 
feet 2 inches, but most of them increase gradually in thickness 
towards the outcrop, where their combined thickness is 55 feet. 

The seams are being worked forward to the boundary by the 
stoop-and-room method. The rooms are driven 10 feet wide, the 
stoops are 200 feet square, and the latter will be worked by the 
longwall method, backwards from the boundary. The workings 
to the rise have a gradient of 1 in 4, and the loaded hutches are 
run down by self-acting inclines to the levels, and are drawn by 
ponies to the pit-bottom. 

Howgill Day-mine. — A small area of the coal-field, severed 
from the pits by the " great dyke," a large downthrow fault to 
the south-east of about 300 feet, is worked by the Howgill day- 
mine on the stoop-and-room method, the stoops being formed 35 
feet long en the level course, by 20 feet to the rise, and the rooms 
are driven 10 feet wide. The seams are inclined at an angle 
varying from 40 to 60 degrees from the horizontal. The loaded 
hutches are lowered to the levels on carriages worked by the back- 
balance system, and afterwards drawn by ponies in rakes of 20 
at a time along the day-level mine a distance of 2,100 feet, the 
declination outwards being 1 in 144. The hutches are then hauled 
to the Lord Dunglass and Lady Mary pits, a distance of about 
4,600 feet on a tramway having gradients varying from level to 
1 in 6, by means of an endless haulage-rope, worked on the bogie 
system, three hutches being attached to each bogie. The 
signalling for the haulage is done by a combined telephone 
arrangement, and can be operated from both ends. The ventila- 
tion of the Howgill workings is produced by a high-speed forcing- 
fan, 4 feet in diameter, driven by an electromotor running at 
700 revolutions per minute, giving a total quantity of 12,000 
cubic feet of air per minute. 

Winding-engines, etc. — The winding-engines, at both pits, 
are of the same dimensions, each consisting of two horizontal 
cylinders of the trunk type, 20 inches in diameter by 4£ feet stroke, 
with drums, 12 feet in diameter by 3 feet wide. Both winding- 
engines are fitted with Frew equilibrated slide-valves, suitable for 
a steam-pressure of 120 pounds per square inch, and with Bertram 
visors for the prevention of over- winding. 



110 DOUGLAS COLLIERY. 

The pithead-frames are of pitchpine, and the pulleys are 12 
feet in diameter. The cages, made of steel, are single-decked 
for two steel hutches placed end to end, and carry about 11 cwts. 
of coal each. 

Ventilation. — The ventilation of 80,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute, at f inch of water-gauge, is produced by a Waddle 
fan, 25 feet in diameter, running at 54 revolutions per minute. 
It is driven by a horizontal engine with a single cylinder, 20 
inches in diameter by 30 inches stroke, and has a large margin 
of power for increasing the ventilation when necessary. No fire- 
damp has been known to exist in the locality, and open lights are 
used in all the workings. 

Pumping Plant. — The compound horizontal differential 
Hathorn-Davey pumping-engine, placed at the surface, was 
erected in 1897. The cylinders are respectively 38 inches and 66 
inches in diameter, by 10 feet stroke. The exhaust-steam from 
the engine is conveyed down the shaft to an ejector-condenser, 
at a depth of 90 feet, where the pump discharges its water into 
a day-level driven from the Douglas water, and a vacuum is pro- 
duced of 13 pounds per square inch. The pumps are actuated 
by a pair of 15 feet bell-cranks, built of steel, attached direct to 
the engine; and each works a pair of single-acting ram-pumps 
in two lifts. The top-lift pumps, 20 inches in diameter by 10 
feet stroke, are placed in the shaft at a depth of 384 feet from 
the surface. The rising-main is 19 inches in diameter. The 
pump-rods are made of pitchpine, 16 inches square, in 40 feet 
lengths, strapped together by four wrought-iron plates, each 22 
feet long, 12 inches wide and 1 inch thick. The lower-lift 
pumps, 12 inches in diameter by 10 feet stroke, are placed at the 
pit-bottom, and discharge their water through a column of pipes, 
11 inches in diameter, into the 384 feet level. The pump-rods, 
made of pitchpine, 12 inches square, and strapped together by 
four wrought-iron plates, are connected to the 16 inches pump- 
rods by forged-iron crossheads: the rods being thus made to 
balance each other. The pumping-engine generally works 
about 16 hours per day, at an average rate of speed of 4£ strokes 
per minute, and discharges about 1,200 gallons of water per 
minute; but it is capable of working at 6 strokes, and would 



DOUGLAS COLLIERY. Ill 

then discharge about 1,600 gallons of water per minute. Four 
catch-beams are placed in the shaft, as a provision against break- 
age of the rods or making too long strokes. A steam crab-winch, 
with a pair of cylinders, 8 inches in diameter by 12 inches stroke, 
geared to lift a weight of 35 tons, is built in readiness for any 
repair to the pumps or pump-rods that may be necessary, but it 
has not as yet been required. 

Boilers. — Steam is generated in 6 Lancashire steel boilers, 30 
feet long by 8 feet in diameter, constructed for a working 
pressure of 120 pounds per square inch, but working at present 
. 80 pounds. The boilers are fitted with mechanical stokers 
(4 Vicars and 1 Bennis) and the sixth boiler is being fitted with 
the Munro perfect-combustion appliance. The draught for the 
boiler-fires is produced by a Chandler single-inlet exhausting fan, 
8£ feet in diameter, running at 250 revolutions per minute, driven 
direct by an engine, with a cylinder 15 inches in diameter, and 
discharging the gases into a chimney, 30 feet high. A Green 
economizer, consisting of 360 tubes, is placed in the main flue, 
between the boilers and the fan. The feed-water is forced 
through the economizer into the boilers by a Pearn pump, with 
two cylinders, 8£ inches in diameter by 8 inches stroke ; and the 
temperature of the water is raised to 260° Fahr. before entering 
the boilers. The temperature of the flue-gases, on leaving the 
boilers, is about 600° Fahr., and, after passing the economizer, 
ft is reduced to about 280° Fahr. 

Pithead. — The pithead -scaffolding and screen-erections are 
built of wrought-iron girders, resting on cast-iron columns. The 
floor of the pithead is laid with cast-iron plates, and the whole 
building is enclosed with galvanized corrugated iron. For each 
of the three screens, there is a revolving tippler, worked by fric- 
tion-gear from the screen-engine, with a backward movement to 
moderate the fall of the coal. In each screen, the coal-feeding or 
spreading plate, the screen proper, and the picking-table, are 
combined in one piece, the longest being 93 feet, and made of 
steel. The feeding-plate is 21 feet long by 5£ feet wide, with 
a fall of 1£ inches per foot ; the screen, with perforations, is 15 feet 
long by 5£ feet wide, with a fall of 3£ inches per foot ; the pick- 
ing-table is 57 feet long by 4 feet wide, with a fall of 1| inches per 



112 DOUGLAS COLLIEBT. 

foot ; and the combination rests and vibrates on rockers. Each 
screen is actuated by a steam-engine, with a cylinder 8 inches in 
diameter by 12 inches stroke. 

The Luhrig coal-washing plant is capable of treating 500 
tons of dross per day. 

The railway-sidings have a gradient of 1 in 80, on one of 
which there has just been fitted a wagon-controller, which permits 
of the coal-wagons, when they are loading at the screens, being 
moved and stopped as the trimmer requires, without the necessity 
of his descending to the railway to take out or put in the trig, 
the controller being operated by the trimmer at the wagon-top.* 

A steam-hoist is used for raising material from the surface 
to the pithead-level, with a cylinder 12 inches in diameter by 8 
feet stroke. 

Electric Machinery. — The electric installation is driven by a 
Tangye girder steam-engine, with Tangye-Johnson automatic 
cut-off gear, with a cylinder, 14£ inches in diameter by 28 inches 
stroke. A belt from the flywheel of the engine drives counter- 
shafting, from which three dynamos are driven by belting. One 
dynamo, with an output of 75 amperes at 400 volte, and 700 revolu- 
tions per minute, supplies current to the electromotor which 
drives the ventilating-fan at the Howgill day-mine, at a distance 
oi 4,600 feet. It also supplies current to a motor which drives 
a three-throw pump, with rams, 6 inches in diameter by 9 inches 
stroke, placed at the side of the Douglas water; and when 
running at a speed of 50 revolutions per minute it discharges 120 
gallons of water per minute to a reservoir, which supplies the 
boilers, etc. Another dynamo, with an output of 80 amperes at 
250 volts, and 750 revolutions per minute, is used for lighting the 
works at the surface, and the pit-bottoms and underground stables. 
The third dynamo, of the same dimensions as the last, is used for 
lighting the workmen's houses at the village of Douglas Water, 
about 1 mile distant. 



Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 122. 



TRANSACTIONS. 113 



THE MINING INSTITUTE OF SCOTLAND. 



GENERAL MEETING, 
Held at, Douglas Colliery, August 16th, 1902. 



Ma. HENRY' AITKEN, President, in the Chair. 



The minutes of the last General Meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 



The following gentlemen were elected : — 

Members— 
Mr. John Brown, Kilmarnock. 
Mr. Adam Chalmers, Cultrigg Colliery, Fauldhouse. 
Mr. James Dunn, Kenmuir Colliery, Mount Vernon. 
Mr. William Hill, Hattonrigg Colliery, Cleland. 
Mr. John F. How at, Stobbs House, Kilwinning. 
Mr. William McCreath, 208, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Mr. John Rodger, Hurlford. 

Mr. William Wilson, Climpy Colliery, Forth, Lanark. 
Mr. Robert Young, Bellfield Colliery, Coalburn. 

Associate Member— 
Mr. Thomas B. Dunn, 21, Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

Associate— 
Mr. Robert Crawford, Muirfleld, Loanhead. 

Student— 
Mr. Robert Lawrence Angus, Lugar Iron -works, Cumnock. 



><»L XXIV -1902-1MS. 



114 DISCUSSION— WASTE IN WORKING COAL. 



THE MIXING INSTITUTE OF SCOTLAND. 



GENERAL MEETING, 
Held in Dowell's Rooms, Edinburgh, October 11th, 1902. 



Mr. DAVID M. MOW AT, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last General Meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 



The following gentlemen were elected : — 

Members — 
Mr. Andrew Barrie, Southrigg Colliery, Armadale. 
Mr. James Carruthers, Lovell Flat, Otago, New Zealand. 
Mr. Robert Fleming, East Roughrigg Colliery, Avonbridge. 
Mr. H. C. Forrester, Tullibody House, Cambus. 
Mr. Andrew Henderson, Gartsherrie Colliery, Coatbridge. 
Mr. Georue M iller, Jherria Post Office, District Manbhum, Bengal, India. 
Mr. Alexander Rankin e, Polbeth, West Calder. 
Mr. Frank B. Smith, Calgary, North- West Territory, Canada. 
Mr. Geor<;e Frederick Turner, Clyde, Otago, New Zealand. 
Mr. James Watson, 91, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh. 

Associate Member 
Mr. Robert Forrester, 142, West Nile Street, Glasgow. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. JAMES BARROWMANS PAPER ON 
"WHAT IS THE LEAST POSSIBLE WASTE IN 
WORKING COAL/'* 
The Chairman (Mr. D. M. Mowat) remarked that Mr. Barrow- 
man had introduced a most important subject, in view of the 
fact that the Royal Commission on Coal-supplies were including 
it in their investigations. 

Mr. James Barrowmax said that the difficulty of getting 
wayleaves, referred to by Mr. R. T. Moore,t was considered ten 

* Tram. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., pages 55 and 149. 
T Ibid., page 152. 



DISCUSSION — UNDERGROUND HAULAGE AT MOSSBLOWN COLLIERY. 115 

years ago by the Royal Commission on Mining Royalties, who 
obtained evidence upon it. The result of that enquiry was 
generally to the effect, that while in a few cases there might be 
difficulty in coal-masters obtaining wayleaves, when they desired 
them : on the whole it was not a public question, and was more 
a matter between proprietors than one affecting the coal-masters 
and the public. The circumstance that any mineral-proprietor 
should hold his minerals and prevent them from being worked 
until they were cut off, or drowned, or otherwise rendered unwork- 
able, must be a very rare occurrence, and the refusal of a proprietor 
to give a wayleave through his lands for coal can, so soon as it 
becomes a question affecting the public prejudicially, be overcome 
by Act of Parliament. The Royal Commission on Mining 
Royalties suggested a simpler tribunal before which unreason- 
able landlords could be brought, and expressed the opinion that 
" if such a remedy were open to persons who conceived them- 
selves to be aggrieved by the unreasonable refusal of facilities 
for the passage of minerals, difficulties would be readily arranged 
by private agreement, and that only in very rare instances, if 
ever, would it be necessary to have recourse to compulsory pro- 
ceedings." 

On the motion of the Chairman, a hearty vote of thanks was 
given to Mr. James Barrowman for his valuable paper, and the 
discussion was closed. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. JAMES BAIRD'S "DESCRIPTION 
OF UNDERGROUND HAULAGE AT MOSSBLOWN 
COLLIERY, AYRSHIRE."* 

The Chairman (Mr. D. M. Mowat) said that the detail of haul- 
age arrangements was one of the most important subjects that 
tould be discussed, because success or failure depended on the 
efficient combination of the details of the haulage. They might 
haTe a grand scheme, and yet everything might go wrongly simply 
because the details had not been properly studied. He asked 
whether Mr. Baird had experienced any difficulty in placing a 
new rope on the horizontal wheels, for he had been told that 
difficulty had been experienced in adjusting the rope on a Clifton 
* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 165. 



116 DI8CU8SI0N— WORKING OF CONTIGUOUS PEAMS OF COAL. 

wheel, as the rope invariably became slack and fell down, while it 
was being put on. 

Mr. James Baird said that he had no difficulty in putting a 
rope on to horizontal wheels, because the adjustment of the rope 
on to the Clifton pulley was the final operation : he took the rope 
round the full length of the haulage-road, and wound the last 
coils of the rope around the Clifton wheel. However, as he had not 
yet renewed the rope, he could not give his actual experience in 
that particular. 

Since reading the paper, he had had indicator-diagrams taken 
of the work done by the engine; and the proposed haulage in 
No. 2 pit, as described under the heading of " Future Develop- 
ments,"* had been put into operation. The length of this new 
haulage roadway was 1,800 feet, but as it w r as found necessary to 
alter the gearing of the engine, as formerly proposed, a Clifton 
wheel (7 feet in diameter) was fitted loose on the engine-shaft, and 
manipulated by a friction-clutch and screw. A perusal of the 
diagrams taken from the hauling-engine gives the following 
results: — With the three haulage-roads working in No. 1 pit, 
and with steam cut off at half-stroke, the indicated horsepower 
was 33'36. In overcoming friction and driving only the No. 1 
pit band-rope, and with steam cut off at half-stroke, the 
indicated horsepower was 5*74; and under the same conditions, 
with steam cut off at quarter-stroke, the indicated horsepower 
was 493. Again, with the three haulage-roads in No. 1 pit 
and the No. 2 pit haulage-road, all working simultaneously under 
load and with steam cut off at half-stroke, the indicated horse- 
power was 46*55 ; while under the same conditions, but with 
steam cut off at quarter-stroke, the indicated horsepower was 3604. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



DISCUSSION OF MESSRS. JOHN HOGG'S, THOMAS 

MOODIE'S AND THOMAS ARNOTT'S PAPERS ON 

"THE WORKING OF CONTIGUOUS, OR NEARLY 

CONTIGUOUS, SEAMS OF COAL/'t 

Mr. Robt. McLaren (Edinburgh) asked whether other 

members, who had worked these seams, had had the same experi- 

• Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 161. 

t Ibid., 1902, vol. xxiii., pages 280, 282 and 288 respectively. 



DISCUSSION— WORKING OF CONTIGUOUS SEAMS OF COAL. 117 

ence,* that in working the Main seam, within 12 feet or so of 
the Pyotshaw seam, the latter was " not found to be affected." 
He was a little sceptical on the matter, because in his experience 
he had found that it mattered not which seam was worked first, 
as the remaining seam was affected by the intervening strata 
being disturbed. 

The Ciiairmax (Mr. D. M. Mowat) said that, in his experience, 
when working the Pyotshaw and Main seams, 12 feet apart, the 
working of the Main coal first, made the Pyotshaw coal very 
tough and more expensive to work; and the additional cost 
to the miner would exceed Id. or 2d. per ton. In his opinion, 
where 10 or 12 feet of strata intervened between the seams, the 
better way was to work the Pyotshaw seam first, and then follow 
in the Main seam. The Main seam would then be a little harder 
to work, but larger coal would be produced. 

Mr. Thomas Arxott (Newton) stated that, in working the Ell 
and Main coal-seams at Hallside colliery, where they are about 
M feet apart, it had been the practice to work the Main seam 
first, as it was a little easier to work ; and on giving precedence 
to the Ell seam, it was found that the cost of working the Main 
seam was increased by about 2d. per ton. Larger coal was got by 
the latter than by the former method, but the improvement was 
not so great as to warrant an increase of 2d. in the cost of working. 

Mr. R. Kirkby remarked that Mr. Moodie said in his paper 
that "sometimes the upper leaf [splint coal] is worked back."t 
He did not think that this had ever been done, and at any rate it 
*as not done now. The panel system, too, was not, and had never 
been, in operation at Leven colliery. It was quite possible that 
this system had been proposed, and drawn out, but it had never 
been adopted in practice. 

Mr. Robert Martin (Portobello) remarked that his experi- 
ence at the Xiddrie collieries had been very similar to that 
described by Mr. Arnott. 

Mr. J. M. Cairxcross (Coatbridge) said that, at Rosehall 
colliery, the Main and Pyotshaw seams had been worked for the 
last -M or 40 years, and various methods of working had been 

* Trans*. ln*t. .V.E., 190?, vol. xxiii., page 280. t Ibid., page 284. 



118 DISCUSSION — THE DYSART, WEMY88 AND LEVEN COAL-FIELD. 

tried. The system which had been found to yield the most satis- 
factory result was to work the Main seam first, by longwall 
inwards, with short, well-built walls. After a period of not less 
than 3 years, sufficient to allow the weight to come on again, the 
Pyotshaw seam was worked also by longwall inwards. The dis- 
tance between the two seams varied from 12 to 18 feet. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. RICHARD KIRKBY'S PAPER ON 
"THE DYSART, WEMTSS AND LEVEN COAL- 
FIELD, FIFESHIRE."* 

Mr. R. Kirkby, referring to Mr. H. Aitken's remarks, said 
that the principal shell found in the marine bed is Lingula, and 
this mollusc is known by geologists as a marine shell. It h ad been 
noticed in the coal-fields of Lanarkshire, Durham and Stafford- 
shire by different observers, and special attention had been drawn 
to it as shewing that marine conditions prevailed at times in the 
\ Coal-measures. It seemed quite certain that there had been 

alternations of what had been called marine and lagoon conditions 
I during the deposition of both the Coal-measures and of the Car- 

i boniferous Limestone series. Sir Archibald Geikie had drawn 

; special attention to a very interesting case at Cults lime-works, 

, near Pitlessie.* Close above the Hurlet Limestone, there is the 

I following section: — 

j No. Description of Strata. 

\ 1 Thick group of dark shales 

I 2 COAL 

\ 3 Fire-clay 

| 4 Limestone, composed of crinoids and numerous 

i other marine organisms 

[ 5 COAL 

I 6 Fire-clay with rootlets 

f 7 Sandstone, with streaks of carbonized plants 

i 8 Fire-clay 

9 Blue shales and fire-clays 8 feel 

' 10 Calcareous shale 

: 11 Blue shale 

12 Calcareous shale 

[ 13 Hurlet Limestone 

! * Trail*. Iwtt. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 291. 

J f Mtmoir* of the Geological Sumy, Scot/and: Geology of Central awl !!></» »tj 

Fife and Kinross- shirt, page 87. 

! 

I 



ThickncK 
Ft. 


l off 
In. 




1 


3 


... 


1 


6 


)U8 


2 


6 







10 




2 





... 





10 







6 


to 


10 







1 


6 




1 


3 




1 






DISCUSSION— THE DYSART, WEMYSS AND LEVEN COAL-FIELD. 119 

The changes from one condition to another appear to have 
taken place very suddenly, as shewn in this section. 

He was indebted to Mr. R. T. Moore for his remarks on the 
correlation of the seams in different districts, and regretted that 
lie had not sufficient knowledge of the different coal-fields to 
enable him to follow up this question. Considerable difficulty 
was experienced in tracing a coal-seam through different districts, 
as even in a stretch of only 2 or 3 miles in one coal-field, a seam 
varied so much as to be hardly recognizable at different points. 

According to Mr. James S. Grant Wilson,* the depth from the 
Seven-feet to the Duddy Davie or Cairncubbie seam of Fifeshire is 
about 2,300 feet. 

He might mention that a diamond bore-hole was being put 
down to the Limestone coal-seams, from a point somewhere near 
the top of the Millstone Grit series. This section would prove 
very interesting to geologists, and one would hope, also to mining- 
engineers. 

Mr. Robt. McLaren (Edinburgh) asked Mr. Kirkby whether 
the fires that had occurred at Balgonie Colliery,t referred to the 
Julian pit or to the Lochty pit of that colliery. 

Mr. It. Kirkby said he believed that the fires of which he had 
spoken had taken place at the Lochty pit. 

Mr. McLaren said it should be noted, in connection with the 
working of the seams at Balgonie colliery, that while the manage- 
ment endeavoured to get all the available coal, they at the same 
time sought to work the coal in such a way as to prevent the occur- 
rence of fires from spontaneous combustion. Unless some system 
could be adopted which would lessen the risk of fire by spon- 
taneous combustion, he thought it was very likely that many tons 
of the Dysart Main coal-seam would be lost. It was quite true 
that of recent years they had managed to keep clear of fires at 
Balgonie colliery, but in previous years these outbreaks were veiy 
numerous in that district. 

Mr. H. M. Cadell (Bo ness), referring to the occurrence of 
Lingula, said that it was very important to notice the fossils in con- 
nection with any particular seam of coal, in order to follow it from 

* GttUogkaf Surrey of Scotland : Vertical Stctiom, sheet 2, 1889. 

t Tram. In*t. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 297. 



120 DISCUSSION— THE DYBART, WEMYS8 AND LEYEN COAL-FIELD. 

one place to another. Lingula was found in the roof of the 
Smithy coal-seam of Bo'ness. It was a fossil belonging to the 
marine series, and appeared to have lived in salt-water. There 
had never been any connexion traced or, at all events, the 
seams had never been identified, between Bo'ness and Fife. He 
hoped at some time to furnish the members with a paper on the 
relation between the Linlithgowshire coal-seams and those in 
Fifeshire. In his paper on " The Carboniferous Limestone Coal- 
fields of West Lothian,"* he had shewn that there was originally 
no connexion between two different sets of seams at Bo'ness and 
Bathgate, and that they had apparently been formed in uncon- 
nected areas during the Carboniferous Period. 

Mr. Johx Cadman (Edinburgh) said that he had read Mr. 
Kirkby's paper with considerable interest. He noted that in the 
Dysart Main seam, at the Frances pit, there was a thickness of 23 
feet 10 inches, which thinned out to 7 feet at the Cameron pit, 
showing a reduction of 70 per cent., over a distance of 5 miles, or 
an attenuation to the north-east of 14 per cent, per mile. In the 
Chemiss seam, a thickness of 10 feet 9 inches was reduced to 4 feet 
10 inches over a distance of 4 miles, indicating also an attenuation 
of about 14 per cent, per mile. He (Mr. Cadman) thought this 
very interesting, and he asked whether Mr. Kirkby could give any 
further information as to the actual attenuation of the total 
thickness of the Coal-measures along this line to the north-east. 
In the Xorth Staffordshire coal-field, the Coal-measures thinned 
from east to west at the rate of about 12 per cent, per mile, but 
the seams of coal were not altered to any extent. An attenuation 
of this kind pointed to two suppositions, either that the coal-field 
was approaching its margin or extremity, or that it was approach- 
ing a fold. Mr. Kirkby referred to 1,440 feet of Lower Coal- 
measures lying below the Red Sandstone beds. Could Mr. 
Kirkby state the datum-line from which this measurement was 
taken, and whether there was a definite index-bed, or whether the 
division of the Upper Red beds from the Coal-measure beds below 
was simply a matter of colour ? 

Could Mr. Kirkby say what were the species of Carbonicola 
forming the so-called " mussel-band " lying above the Barncraig 
seam? Recently, he (Mr. Cadman) had observed a similar 

* Tram. lntt. M.E., 1901, vol. xxii., page 372. 



DISCUSSION— THE DYSART, WEMY8S AND LEVEN COAL-FIELD. 121 

so-called " mussel-band," composed of Carbonicola robusta> 
extremely distorted and crashed, lying a few feet above the 
Splint coal-seam, at a north Lanarkshire colliery, near Longrigg. 
If the species found in the band above the Barncraig seam in 
File were the same as those found in the band occurring above the 
Splint seam at Longrigg, then it would be reasonable to state that 
the Barncraig seam of Fife was the Splint seam of Longrigg. 
Fossil bands, such as this, are of great importance in correlating 
seams in different localities of a coal-field. 

Mr. R. Kirkby said that he did not know the species of 
Anthracosia or Carbonicola occurring above the Barncraig seam, 
hut would ascertain it, if possible. With regard to the thinning- 
out of the strata between the seams, as well as the thinning of the 
seams themselves, he might point out that the vertical sections* 
showed that the thickness of the strata between the Eight- feet and 
Chemiss seams at Durie, was only about one half of the thickness 
at Weiuyss. 

Mr. Robert Martin (Portobello) stated that the Dysart and 
Vemyss coal-seams were the same as those on the Musselburgh 
side of the Firth of Forth, known as the Xewcraighall or the Cow- 
pits seams, as they had been worked at both of these places. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



? Nie following paper by Mr. John 1). Miller on an " Apparatus 
*°r Controlling Railway-wagons while loading at Colliery- 
s <*eeii8 " was then read : — 



* Tram. In*t. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 308, Plate XIX., Fig. 3. 



122 APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAILWAY-WAGONS. 



APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAILWAY-WAGONS 
WHILE LOADING AT COLLIERY-SCREENS. 



By J. D. MILLER. 



The Miller-Yates apparatus described in this paper is used 
for controlling the movement of wagons upon railway-inclines, 
and especially at colliery screens ; and by which wagons in motion 
may be slowed and stopped at points convenient for loading or 
unloading, or for being trimmed in loading operations, without 
the use of a wooden trigg or the constant attendance of a wagon- 
shifter. 

By the use of this apparatus, it is claimed that at many of the 
pits throughout the country, the services of a special man to shift 
the wagons, while in course of loading, can be dispensed with, and 
a very substantial saving in wages thereby effected, while perhaps, 
at the same time by its use, many accidents may be prevented. 
The apparatus is controlled, and the shifting of the wagons done 
by the wagon-trimmer from the level of the scaffold on which he 
stands, without requiring him to come down to the rail-level. 
It is operated by a hand-lever, or by hydraulic or other power- 
appliances, from any point within convenient reach of the trimmer 
in charge of the loading-operations. It operates upon the axle 
of the wagon, and does not interfere with the rails or railway. 
It is very simple, easily fixed and put to work, the whole apparatus 
being placed in the centre of the railway under the screen or 
table, and fixed to the railway-sleepers. 

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal elevation and Fig. 2 a plan of the 
apparatus. The apparatus is composed of a wooden lever-bar, A, 
strapped with iron-plates, placed longitudinally between the rails 
and above their level, and pivoted to a cross-bar, B, carried on 
brackets fixed to two long wooden beams, C, secured to the 
sleepers at a point where an incline is formed so as to facilitate the 
movement of the wagons. To the upper or free end of the brake- 
lever, A, and serving as a longitudinal continuation of it, is hinged 



APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAILWAY-WAGONS. 



lL>3 



or pivoted an iron lever-bar, D, having projecting upwardly from 
it, a number of equidistant pawls or catches, E. A powerful 
spring, F, is attached to the pivoted end, B, of the brake-lever, A, 
to cushion the shock given to the lever by the axle of the moving 
wagon on coming into contact with the catches. The catch-bar 
lever, D, which is guided by slotted links, G and H, pivoted to it, 
and to the two longitudinal beams, C, is raised or lowered vertic- 
ally by means of a quadrant I, and link, K, by a hand-lever, L, 
or like means within reach and under the control of the trimmer. 
In working the apparatus, the wagons are allowed to run 
slowly down the incline (which at most collieries is about 1 in 
75), until the front axle of the wagon reaches the previously 
raised lever-bar, A, which slows and stops the wagons. The 
trimmer, then, by means of the hand-lever, L, lowers the brake- 
lever, A, and frees the axle of the wagons ; and so soon as the 




Fig. l. 



-Side- elevation of the Miller- Yates Wagon -controller. 
Scale, 6 Feet to 1 Inch. 



*xle of the wagon slips over, and passes clear of, the brake-lever, 
it is caught and held by the pawls or catches, E, on the front 
lever, D. The loading of the wagon is then commenced, and as 
it proceeds, the catch-bar, D, is lowered at suitable intervals by 
the trimmer, allowing the wagon to move forward, step by step, 
«ie distance between the catches, in order that, in loading from 
a screen or shoot, the wagon may be properly trimmed. By the 
^ffular and systematic shifting of the wagon, breakage of the 
COft l is considerably reduced. 

The brake-lever, A, acting upon the rear axle of the wagon, 

Ptevents any sudden movement, and ensures that the wagon shall 

^v shift from one catch to the next in succession. The catches 

^V be spaced, so as to ensure the proper trimming of the wagon. 

Instead of the brake-lever, A, and catch-lever, D, requiring 

be raised to engage with the wagon-axle, they arc normally 

Stained in the raised position by a counterweight, and lowered 



124 DISCUSSION— APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAILWAY-WAGON8. 

by moving a lever, under control of the trimmer, so as to dis- 
engage the axle, and permit of the wagon moving forward from 
catch to catch. 

The apparatus is provided with an automatic safety-brake, M, 
acting upon the quadrant, I, and obtaining its power from the 
catch- lever, D. This brake-appliance is not required in the 
ordinary course of handling empty wagons, but it is a safeguard 
for use in the event of, say, the wagons coming down upon the 
brake -lever at considerable speed, or any excessive weight being 
put upon the brake-lever. Under such circumstances, the axle 
of the first wagon would engage with and travel upwards along the 
brake-lever, A, until the front wheels of the wagon got lifted off 
the rails. That being so, the brake-lever, A, would have an 




Fie*. 2.- 



Plan of the Miller- Yates Wagon-controller. 
Scale, 6 Feet to 1 Inch. 



excessive weight thrown upon it, and when the trimmer moved his 
hand-lever to disengage the axle, the apparatus might be lowered 
suddenly with a shock. The brake, M, prevents this, and the 
greater the weight that is applied to the brake-lever, A, the higher 
the catch-lever, D, is inclined to rise, and consequently, the more 
powerful does the brake become. 

The above-described apparatus has now been working at a 
modern colliery, under daily supervision, for the last 8 months, 
and has given satisfaction in every respect. Since the day when 
it was started, the man who was formerly employed as wagon- 
shifter has been dispensed with, and the wages saved during that 
time have more than paid for the apparatus. 



Mr. Robert Martin (Portobello) did not think that the 
apparatus would effect much saving in labour, because some 
person would be required at the top to regulate the movements of 



DI8CU8SION — APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAIL WAY- WAGONB. 125 

the wagon, so that the trimmer might be able properly to attend to 
his own duties. In any case, a wagon-shifter would be required 
to attend to the empty and loaded wagons behind and in front of 
the screens. At a busy colliery, it was impossible that the 
trimmer himself could undertake the combined duties of trimming 
and moving. 

Mr. Roberts (Gorebridge) thought that the services of a 
second man would be required in the controlling, if, say, a load of 
six wagons were in front of another load. 

Mr. Robert McLaren (Edinburgh) said that in frosty weather, 
with an incline of 1 in 70 or 1 in 80, there would be difficulty with 
a load of several wagons in working the apparatus. 

Mr. James Barrowman said that a strong point in favour of 
the apparatus, altogether apart from the question of economy, was 
its safety. It was surely much safer to attend to a lever on the 
platform at the top of a wagon, than to run among the wagon- 
wheels with a trig. 

Mr. J. M. Cairxcross (Coatbridge) pointed out that the break- 
up of coal was considerably reduced by the systematic shifting 
of the wagons secured by the proper working of the apparatus. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



^tr. Robert Martin's paper on " Sinking on the Seashore at 
^selburgh " was read as follows : — 



126 SINKING ON THE 8EA8HORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 



SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 



By ROBERT MARTIN. 



Introduction. — Olive Bank colliery is situated in the burgh of 
Musselburgh on the banks of the Firth of Forth, within 900 feet 
of high-water mark and about 12 or 14 feet above the level of 
high tide. Fig. 1 (Plate IV.) shews a cross-section of the Mid- 
Lothian coal-field, indicating the position of the " edge " seams 
at Niddrie and Newcraighall and across to Wallyford. The 
Niddrie coal-seams occur in the Carboniferous Limestone series, 
and the seams at Olive Bank and Newcraighall are in the Upper 
Coal-measures.* The Olive Bank seams, known in the district as 
the " fiat " seams, have been extensively worked, farther south, 
at Stoneyhill, Millerhill and Smeaton. 

The strata at Olive Bank have been proved by boring to a depth 
of 912 feet. The Splint coal-seam is 5 feet thick, at 600 feet ; 
lower down the Rough and Beetle seams ; and the Jewel coal- 
seam, 4 feet 8 inches thick, to which the pits are to be sunk, is at 
a depth of 912 feet. The section near the surface, so far as this 
paper is concerned, is as follows : — 

No. Description of Strain. 

1 Sand 

2 Gravel 

3 Boulder-clay 

4 Silt or mud 

5 Red sandstone ... 

Sinking the Cylinders. — Two shafts, 70 feet apart, and each 14 
feet in internal diameter, have been sunk through the alluvial 
deposits into the red sandstone. The shaft-lining consists of a 
steel cylinder, 18 feet in diameter, lined internally with brick- 
work and concrete, 2 feet thick. Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (Plate IV.) 
show the cylinder in various aspects. Fig. 2 represents the whale 
length of the cylinder, namely, 81 feet, consisting of the cutting- 
edge ring, 5 feet long and I inch thick, and 19 rings, 4 feet long 
and \ inch thick. The cylinder was supplied by Messrs. Som.er- 
vail and Company. 

* "The Mid-Lf thian Coal-basin," by Mr. Robert Martin, Tram. Inst. Af.E., 
1893, vol. vi, page 388. 



Thicknew 

of Strata. 

Feet. 


Depth from 

Surface. 

Feet. 


5 


5 


5 


10 


22 


32 


75 


107 


40 


147 



SINKING OX THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 127 

Both pits were sunk of square shape, 18J feet inside, through 
the boulder-clay, and lined with white pine, 9 inches by 4 inches. 
In this shaft, over 30 feet of the cylinder was constructed and 
partly lined inside with brickwork and concrete, before any attempt 
was made to lower it. The cutting-edge- ring, a, is widened to 18 
feet 2J inches in diameter at the foot, or bell-mouthed, so as to give 
clearance when lowered. The cone-shaped arrangement of plates, 
J, is intended to stiffen the cutting-edge ring. On the top of the 
cutting-edge ring (Figs. 5 and 6) is a platform, c, supported by 
angle-iron brackets, d, upon which the brickwork-and-concrete 
lining is built. In the first cylinder that was sunk, in order 
further to stiffen the cutting-edge ring and to assist in carrying 
the heavy load of brickwork and concrete, the space between the 
cone, b, and the platform, c, was filled with pitchpine blocks, bolted 
to the cylinder, and these were afterwards removed. In the 
second cylinder, it was found more simple and as efficient to fill 
this space with brickwork, each course projecting over the lower 
one until the full thickness was attained. Fig. 5 shows the 
interior of the cylinder. Above the cutting-edge ring were 
added the 4 feet rings, each consisting of 8 plates 7 feet long, 
attached together by T irons, /", 6 inches by 3 inches and \ inch 
thick. These T irons extended from one ring to another and tied 
them together. Each ring is strengthened with 3 horizontal 
angle-irons, e, 3 inches by 3 inches and \ inch thick (Fig. 5). The 
angle-irons at the ends of the rings form an internal flange, and 
the flanges of adjoining rings were fastened together by 56 bolts. 
Counter-sunk bolts and rivets were used on the outside of the 
cylinder, which presented a perfectly smooth surface, and reduced 
sliding friction to a minimum. 

The internal lining of the ring consisted of 2 rings of 9 inches 
brickwork, the bedding of one ring breaking joint with the other 
so as to blind the joint. Behind the brickwork and next the 
cylinder, the remaining space of 6 inches was filled with cement- 
concrete, run into the interstices of the angle-irons, T irons, nuts 
and rivet-heads. The mortar used for building and concreting 
w a« ordinary lime (1 part of shell-lime to 3 parts of sand) and as 
m ach Portland cement. 

When the square shaft was sunk sufficiently far down, the 
finder was built in it to a height of 8 feet above the surface, and 
a "JU8ted so as to be exactly vertical. About 2 feet of silt was dug 
ou * °f the bottom, and brickwork was built in the cylinder so as to 



128 SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 

force it into the space, if it did not move. This process was re- 
peated until the brickwork reached above the surface, and its 
weight proved insufficient to press down the cylinder. In both 
shafts, this stage was attained when the cylinder had reached a 
depth of about 75 feet. 

The rate of pinking ranged from 3 feet to a few inches per day. 
The estimated weight of the cylinder and brickwork was about 5 
tons per foot. In the sinking of the first shaft, about 200 tons of 
additional weight of pig-iron was required to force down the 
cylinder for the last length of 32 feet. The pig-iron was laid on 
scaffolds supported upon buntons built into the walling. When 
the first shaft reached a depth of 94 feet, the bottom was forced up- 
ward by a water-feeder varying from 300 to 400 gallons per 
minute. At this depth the cylinder sank, amongst the mud, 
about 2 feet per day, until it rested on the rock. The surface or 
skin-friction of the cylinder was about 24 cwts. per square foot of 
rubbing surface. 

The sinking of the first cylinder took from August 21st, 1901, to 
January 14th, 1902, to reach the rock-head, or less than 5 months; 
and the second cylinder took from February 20th, 1902, to July 
13th, 1902, to reach the rock-head, also about 5 months. 

In the second shaft, a weight of 400 tons of pig-iron was 
required to force down the cylinder. This gives a skin-friction of 
3A cwts. per square foot of rubbing surface, due to the absence of 
the large feeder of water, which practically undermined the first 
-cylinder. In both pits, a small feeder of water was encountered 
in the gravel. 

The silt was, at times, so soft as to be difficult to stand upon and 
tough to dig ; but when dry, it was easy to dig with a shovel. In 
the second shaft, it was necessary, latterly in order to induce a 
movement of the cylinder, to dig outside the cylinder and to 
facilitate inrushes of mud and water. As a consequence, the cylin- 
der and silt sank together, and a large surface-subsidence, about 
20 feet in depth, was formed round the pit-mouth, by the time that 
the cylinder had reached the rock. 

Both cylinders were sunk sufficiently deep into the red sand- 
stone, so as to dam back the mud, and when this depth was 
attained, the tops of the cylinders were 20 feet below the surface. 
The upper portion of the shaft was then built up to the surface- 
level with 18 inches of walling. 



SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 129 

Sinking the Shafts. — When these operations were completed, 
the work became that of ordinary sinking, except that it was 
necessary, for some depth below the cylinder, to excavate the sand- 
stone in such a way so as not to undermine and induce an inrush 
of silt into the shaft-bottom. This was done by carefully hewing: 
and dressing the sides of the shaft to a slightly less diameter than 
the cylinder, to a depth of 6 feet. At this point, the diameter 
of the shaft was reduced to 14 feet, thus leaving a ledge or founda- 
tion-bed for a brick-wall. This walling was carried upward till 
the tapered cutting-edge was built in. Below the ledge or 
foundation-bed for the wall, the shafts were widened out and are 
heing sunk to allow of a thickness of fully 9 inches of brickwork, 
with which the shafts are being lined. As the sides of the shafts 
are very irregular, owing to blasting, and as the brickwork is 
extended into these irregularities, the wall is practically self- 
supporting. 

The feeders of water are confined into and carried downward 
in hassons, rings, etc., in the sides of the shaft behind the brick- 
work. This makes a dry shaft, and there is no water on the face 
of the brickwork. Where necessary, the feeders are caught in 
rings and run into insets with lodgments, and are dealt with by 
special stationary pumps. 

Consequently only the lowest feeders require to be raised by 
the sinking pumps. In each shaft, three Evans sinking pumps are 
placed, two with 12 inches, two with 9 inches, and two with 7 
inches buckets by 2 feet stroke. These six pumps, capable of 
raising 2,600 gallons per minute against a head of 300 feet, are 
suspended on chains, with 6 inches links of If inches iron, tested 
to 30 tons, attached to beams either on the pit-mouth or in the 
shaft, and are raised or lowered as required by means of wire- 
ropes on hand-cranes. 

Owing to the limited area of the shaft, the volume of the feeders 
of water, and the number of steam-pipes, water-pipes and air- 
pipes in the shaft, it was found impracticable to sink and wall the 
shafts simultaneously. The method is to sink and wall a length of 
9 to 12 feet, that is, all the work is done below the pumps, which 
almost fill the shaft at the point where they hang. In this 
w ay, no cribbing or timbering is required, unless the strata are 
extremely soft, and the danger of sinking with from 60 to 70 feet 
of shaft secured by temporary timbering is avoided Where a 

TOL. XXIV.-190 -1908, 9 



130 DISCUSSION — SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 

rook seat for the walling is not required or cannot be obtained, a 
few iron pins or cram pets are driven in round the„circumference, 
and when covered with boards they are sufficient to carry the wall- 
ing until a secure foundation is got. As before remarked, if the 
wall is built into the sides with a good lime-and-cenient mixture, 
it is self-supporting in a few days. 

It may be mentioned that the pumps have sometimes been 
drowned to a height of 40 feet above the steam-cylinders, and that 
these continued working, or if stopped, were started until the water 
was lowered. 

To discover the best type of bucket was perhaps the principal 
difficulty experienced with the pumping. The cost for frequent 
renewals was serious, not to speak of the loss of time in the 
sinking operations. Dennatine cups, indiarubber rings, cast-iron 
blocks lapped with Manila rope and gunmetal angular rings were 
used, the latter being preferred. In every case, the pump-barrel 
was lined with gunmetal. As the vibrations of long columns 
of steam-pipes and water-pipes carried by chains on which the 
pump was hanging and working was bad for the joints, bracket- 
pipes have been introduced for each column. Between this 
bracket-pipe and the pump there is an expansion-pipe which 
allows the pump and the pipes immediately attached to the pumps 
to move freely up and down, but above the bracket-pipe the 
column is stationary. 

The shafts are fitted with ordinary pitchpine slides attached 
to buntons for guiding the sinking-kettle. The kettle is kept in 
position by two pieces of wood bolted across the bow, and at each 
end of these beams is a recess, which fits the slides. By this 
device, the kettle can run at a high speed in a shaft filled with 
pipes, air-tubes, chains, etc. The kettle is discharged on the sur- 
face after being disengaged from the slides, which are flexible at 
the top and is swung out by means of a chain suspended from a 
beam at the pit-mouth ; and the kettle is inverted, being hung at 
its centre of gravity, into an iron tub placed underneath a scaffold 
so as to receive the contents. 



Mr. Archibald Blyth (Hamilton) asked how far the cylinder 
varied from the vertical when down. 

Mr. Martin replied that it was 18 inches. 



\m 



Pti JnsUdtdum, ofJfirwhf JE'rvpiru 
Dwuaoaor%s 290JZ J&03 



Vol. JUT Plate 17. 



Seashore/ atMusselbiirg hf, " 



rAL-FIELD. 



Niodrie 
Colliery. 



JDWPIT8 
>LLIERY. 



WALLYFORO 

Colliery. 



REFEREN0E8. 




Seals, 8,600 Feet to 1 Inch, 



1. Splint Coat 

2. /tough Coat 
8. BeeJIo Coal 
4. Jowl Coal 

6. Cregmooham Coal 
8. Salter* Coal 

7. Mine-feet Coal 

8. Fifteen* feet Coal 
P. Four* foot Coal 

10. Seoem-feet Coal 
1U Wood Coal 

12. 8oulh hurot Coal 

13. Croat 8oam Coal 

14. Black Chapol Coal 
18. Corbie Craig Coal 
18. Beat Carleion Coal 

17. Carleion Coal 

18. North Oreont Coal 





I 



DISCUSSION — SINKING ON THE 8EA8TTORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 181 

Mr. H. M. Cadell (Bo'ness) stated that he had been con- 
nected with a similar sinking at Bridgeness,* and they had 
managed to make the cylinders perfectly vertical after having 
been 20 inches off it. He asked Mr. Martin what was the cost 
per foot of sinking down to the rock by the process described, and 
what was the advantage in using steel in preference to cast-iron 
cylinders. In the sinking at Bridgeness, it was found that when 
they applied about 400 tons of weights at a depth of about 80 feet 
below high-water mark, the cylinders would descend no farther. 
The shaft had been sunk full of water, and when the cylinders 
stopped sinking the water had to be removed. The material had 
been excavated by means of a Milroy digger, working in the 
water like a Priestman grab. The total cost of that sinking of 
about 100 feet from the surface was £2,200, and it showed that, 
after all, it was not very expensive when done by means of cast- 
iron cylinders. The cylinder sank of its own accord at varying 
rates, on one occasion 10 feet, but afterwards not more than a few 
inches per day. Whenever the cylinders tended to swing off the 
plumb-line, an adjustment was effected by building an excess of 
weight on one side of the cylinder. 

Mr. Robert Martin said that the cost was mixed up with the 
outlays on drains, chimneys, boilers and other things, and it 
would be difficult to give the cost of the sinking itself. The 
cylinders cost about £1,000 each. The question of cast-iron as 
against steel cylinders had been carefully considered, and steel 
preferred. It was thought also better to put in brick-and-cement 
walling and less iron, for fear of corrosion. He had studied the 
conditions of the sinking at Bo'ness, but Mr. Cadell's troubles 
were all on the surface, caused by the inrush of the tide, and with 
increase in depth the mud became harder, while at Musselburgh 
the farther down they went the worse matters became through a 
big inrush of water, and the control of the cylinders was almost 
taken out of their hands. 

Mr. Roberts (Gorebridge) asked whether Mr. Martin had 
made any test as to the effects of sea-water on steel and cast-iron. 

Mr. Robert Martin said that his experience at Niddrie 
colliery led him to think that cast-iron would in certain cir- 
cumstances last longer than steel ; but both were subject to rapid 
decay. 

• Trait*. Iwt, M.E., 1897, vol xiv., page 237. 



182 DISCUSSION — SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 



-4 



• 



Mr. H. M. Caixkll said that some of the cast-iron cylinders 
of the first Tay Bridge had been left lying on the beach exposed 
1o the action of the tide for about 18 months, and the metal was 
then found to be so rotten in places that the blade of a penknife 
could be easily pushed through it. Cast-iron cylinders lined with 
brick and surrounded by clay, which excluded the air, would no 
doubt resist oxidation much better than if left exposed. The 
durability of cast-iron after being embedded in sand under sea- 
water was a subject well worth further investigation. 

Mr. James Baird (Prestwick) said that about 10 years ago he 
had sunk a pit somewhat similar to those which Mr. Martin and 
Mr. Cadell had just described, only neither cast-iron nor yet steel 
was employed as an outward casing, but simply a brick cylinder, 
built with cement: the inside diameter was 14 feet and the walls 
were 18 inches thick. This cylinder was built on the top of a cast- 
iron leader with a cutting-edge similar to that described by Mr. 
Martin. The bricklayers built the cylinder from the surface; 
and with three shifts of sinkers to one shift of bricklayers, it was 
quite a common occurrence for the brickwork to be left 8 feet 
above the surface-level at night, and in the morning it would be 
found level with the ground or even below it. In five weeks, a 
depth of 70 feet had been reached, and he then found that the 
pylinder would not descend any farther : however, as the rock-head 
was not far distant, an oblong shaft was sunk to it, and after a 
solid foundation was secured the brickwork was built upwards 
until it leached the suspended cylinder. It was interesting to 
note that in each of the cases mentioned, the cylinders had stuck 
when a depth of from 70 to 80 feet was reached. 

The Chairman (Mr. 1). M. Mowat) said that Mr. Martin had 
described a difficult and doubtful operation. The difficulty of 
the operation was evidenced by the fact that an unsuccessful 
attempt had been made to sink such a pit near Kilsyth : at a depth 
of 150 feet the casing collapsed, and the pit was lost. He (Mr. 
Mowat) approved of the use of a steel cylinder, which was only, 
however, intended to be a sort of binding for the brickwork. He 
thought that a steel cylinder would prove more durable than 
one made of cast-iron, which, when cracked, had not much 
strength left. 



The further discussion was adiourned. 



THE KEELE BORING IN STAFFORDSHIRE. 133 



XORTH STAFFORDSHIRE INSTITUTE OF MIXING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



EXCURSION MEETING, 
Held at Kkele, October 6th, 1902. 



THE KEELE BORING IN STAFFORDSHIRE. 

A few months ago it was decided to determine the continuity, 
depth and quality of the Red Mine ironstone on the Keele 
estate, near Stoke, Staffordshire ; and the calyx system of boring 
was selected as most likely to secure the largest and best cores 
in the shortest time.* 

The plant consists of a (>0 feet frame-derrick, powerful wind- 
ing and drilling gear, a 20 horsepower portable boiler with steam- 
pumps, an engine with 2 cylinders, and an outfit of tools, casing, 
and appliances. 

The boring operations started from the grass with a crown 
12 inches in diameter ; and after the first string of casing, 12 
inches in diameter, was put in to a depth of 80 feet, the succeed- 
ing size of crown, lOi inches in diameter, was producing cores 
from the Upper Coal-measures, until at a depth of about 300 feet, 
the whole of the flushing-water escaped into porous and fissured 
sandstone. As only a limited supply of water was available 
at the site, casing was inserted to stop the leakage, and this 
proved successful until another porous layer was encountered. 
The bore-hole was then reamed down, the casing lowered to a 
depth of 350 feet, and boring then proceeded rapidly to a 
depth of nearly GOO feet through Red Marls with occasional hard 
limestone-layers. To avoid further loss of water, the 8£ inches 
casing was inserted, and at present the operations are progressing 
satisfactorily in Red Marls, at a depth of 800 feet with a crown 
1 inches in diameter. 

The main features of the calyx boring-system may be 
briefly described as follows.' — Hollow boring-rods are attached 

* Trutu. In*t. M.E., 1898, vol. xv„ page 363. 

VOL. XX I V.- 1908 1903. 10 



134 



THE KBBLE BORING IN STAFFORDSHIRE. 



to a tube or core-barrel having a crown, with detachable steel- 
cutters of special shape and temper, and the upper end of the 
core-barrel carries the calyx or cup in which the cuttings are 
stored. A steam-pump forces water through the rods and core- 
barrel, and raises the cuttings to be stored in the calyx. The 
boring-rods are driven by gearing, and at such a speed and a 
pressure as the nature of the strata demands, but generally about, 
one-tenth of the speed of diamond drills ; and this evidently has 
much to do with the preservation of the core and maintenance 
of the sizes used to greater depths. When the teethed crown 
does not make rapid progress, it is replaced by another form of 
crown, applied under a specific speed and pressure, and running 
on chilled balls, it cuts downward at a good rate. An improved 
core-tube is used for boring through coal-seams, and ensures the 
preservation of the core, with greater care and certainty than is 
generally the case. 



f 



Mi 



AXXUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 186 



NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE INSTITUTE OF MIXING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 
Held at the Grand Hotel, Hanley, October 20th, 1902. 



Mr. W. N. ATKINSON, President, in the Chair 



The minutes of the last General Meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 



The following gentlemen, having been previously nominated, 
were elected : — 

Members— 
Mr. Samuel Beaton, Colliery Manager, Cheadle. 
Mr. F. Fillingham, Instructor in Engineering and Building-construction, 

17, Hamilton Road, Hanley. 
Mr. E. M. Goodwin, Colliery Manager, Landaus Colliery, Brugspruit 

District, Transvaal, 8outh Africa. 
Mr. Alfred Redfern, Manager, Natal Victoria Navigation Colliery, 

Wessels Nek, Natal. 

Associates— 
Mr. Samuel Hulme, Under-manager, Natal Victoria Navigation Colliery, 

Wessels Nek, Natal. 
Mr. Thomas Yates, Manager, Brynkinalt Colliery, Chirk. 



The Annual Reports of the Council and of the Finance Com- 
mittee were read as follows : — 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1901-1902. 

The Council report that there has been an appreciable addition 
to the membership during the year : 37 new members were elected 
as follows: — 1 honorary member, 14 members, 1 associate 
member, 14 associates and 7 students. 

The following table shows the membership during the past 
seven years: — 



,136 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL- 



Year ending. 


4 


II 

O 9 

as 


1 


is 


1 


3 

a 

9 

s 

3D 


Total 


July 31st, 


1896. 




6 


120 


3 


37 


16 


183 


>» 


1897. 




6 


116 


5 


36 


19 


183 


>» 


1898. 




5 


112 


4 


46 


14 


182 


»» 


1899. 




5 


106 


5 


43 


13 


173 


»» 


1900. 




6 


108 


4 


44 


12 


175 


»» 


1901. 





6 


130 


9 


53 


22 


220 


,, 


1902. 





7 


140 


10 


67 


27 


251 



It may be noted, that although 14 new members have been 
added to the list, there only appears a net increase of 10. This is 
accounted for by the death, in March last, of Mr. John Hopkin- 
son, of Bowden, and by the exclusion of the names of 3 members, 
who neglected to pay their subscriptions. In the case of students, 
7 new elections only show an increase of 5 in the number, 
owing to the transfer of a student to an associate and the 
exclusion of the name of 1 student, who had neglected to pay his 
subscription. 

The names of three gentlemen appear both as honorary 
members and members, leaving the total number of members at 
248, and showing a net increase of 31, equal to about 15 per cent. 

During the year, general meetings were held in October, 
December (2), January, March, May, and a formal meeting in 
July for the nomination of new members and officers for the 
ensuing year. 

The following papers were read during the year : — 

44 The Occurrence, Mode of Working, and Treatment of the Ironstones found 

in the North Staffordshire Coal-field." By Mr. John Cadman. 
44 Coal-cutting by Machinery." By Mr. R. VV. Clarke. 
44 An Account of the Fitting of a New Drum Shaft to a Winding-engine 

at Florence Colliery." By Mr. C. V. Gould. 
44 The Sequence of the Carboniferous Rocks in North Staffordshire." By 

Dr. Wheelton Hind. 
44 T?he Coal-field of New Brunswick, Canada.' By Mr. Henry S. Poole. 
44 Recent Work in the Correlation of the Measures of the Pottery Coal-field, 

with Suggestions for Further Development." By Mr. J. T. Stobbs. 

A discussion on the best method of tightening guide-rods also 
took place, and a committee was appointed to collect information 
on the subject. Various other papers were discussed during the 
year. 

An excursion of the members took place in July to the 
Exhibition at Wolverhampton. 

The scheme for providing a College of Science for North 



AXXFAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 137 

Staffordshire, including accommodation for the Mining Institute 
had made little progress during the year, owing to a combination 
of unfavourable circumstances. The chief of these was the death 
of Mr. A. S. Bolton, the chairman of the Executive Committee of 
the College scheme, and its most powerful and liberal supporter. 
Other unfavourable influences arose through uncertainty concern- 
ing the proposed federation of the Pottery towns and as to the 
effect of the Education Bill now before Parliament. 

The Council hope that more favourable conditions will arise 
shortly, and when that time arrives it will be necessary to make 
a further appeal to the members and to the colliery-owners and 
other friends of the Institute for further money to carry out the 
scheme. The subscriptions received for the Building Fund 
amount to £992 10s. 8d. : and further subscriptions are promised 
amounting to £454 5s. 0d., making the total sum subscribed and 
promised £1,446 15s. 8d. 

A petition in favour of publishing the recent Geological 
Survey on the 6 inches map of the Ordnance Survey had been pre- 
pared and signatures obtained, and it would shortly be presented 
to the President and Council of the Board of Education. 

The County Council Mining Classes, under the charge of Mr. 
J. T. Stobbs, were well attended during the past session, and 59 
students presented themselves for examination on May 10th last. 
The County Mining Scholarship was awarded to Mr. T. Johnson, 
a student of this Institute, at an examination at which there were 
three competitors. 

A prize of £5 5s. has been awarded to Mr. J. T. Stobbs for 
his paper on " Recent Work in the Correlation of the Measures of 
the Pottery Coal-field, with Suggestions for Further Develop- 
ment." A prize of £3 3s., offered by Mr. J. C. Cadman for the 
heat paper on any subject by a student, associate or associate 
member under the age of 25 years, read during the 4 years ending 
July, 1903, is still open for competition. 

During the year, 47 volumes have been bound, and the library 
has received the usual exchangee. It is gratifying to observe the 
^tended use that has been made of the books, particularly by the 
younger members of the Institute. We thank our President 
(Mr. W. N. Atkinson) for gift* of Blue Books issued during the 
year; and it is earnestly hoped that other members having 
duplicates of any technical or scientific works will present them 
to the Library. 



138 



TRANSACTIONS. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The Finance Committee herewith submit their statement of 
accounts for the year ending July 31st, 1902. The total receipts 
from subscriptions and arrears amounted to £323 19s. 7d., of 
which only £274 0s. 6d. was paid for the current year's subscrip- 
tions, leaving £69 19s. 6d. unpaid on July 31st last. Of the 
balance of arrears left over from last year only £23 10s. had 
been paid, leaving £74 7s. unpaid, making a total arrears account 
of £144 6s. 6d. 

Last year the Committee intimated a reduction in the ordinary 
expenses of the Institute ; and this, it would be seen had now been 
carried out. 

The expenditure on the Library account had been £7 12s. 8d. 
making a total for that account of £35 4s. 9d. The Committee 
trust that the members will continue to make the fullest use of the 
library and reading-room. 

The Committee regret exceedingly that the improvement in the 
prompt payment of subscriptions noted in last year's report, had 
not been maintained, the subscriptions for the year remaining 
unpaid amounting to rather more than 20 per cent. It must cer- 
tainly be to the interest of the members to bring the Institute into 
a flourishing financial position, but this can never be attained if 
subscriptions are not all paid promptly. The Committee most 
sincerely trust that the members from whom arrears are now 
owing, will make an effort to pay them during this coming year, 
and avoid the necessity of a similar appeal being made year by 
year. 



The Chairman (Mr. W. N. Atkinson) moved the adoption of 
the reports. 

The resolution was carried. 



AWARD FOR A PAPER. 
The Chairman (Mr. W. ]S T . Atkinson) handed Mr. J. T. Stobbs 
a prize for his paper on " Recent Work in the Correlation of the 
Measures in the Pottery Coal-field, with Suggestions for Further 
Development." 



f 



TRANSACTIONS. 



189 



Mr. (}. P. Hyslop. 



| Mr. F. Rkjby. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS, 1902-1903. 
The Scrutineers reported the following appointments 

President : 
Mr. A. M. Henshaw. 
Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. G. A. MiTCHESON, 
Treasurer : 
Mr. T. Ashworth. 
Secretary : 
Mr. F. R. Atkinson. 
Councillors : 
Mr. J. R. Haines. 
Mr. A. H assam. 
Mr. John Heath. 
Mr. J. Lockett. 



Mr. W. G. Cowlishaw. 
Mr. G. J. Crosbie-Dawson. 
Mr. G. H. Greatbatch. 
Mr. J. Gregory. 



Mr. J. Newton. 
Mr. T. Roberts. 
Mr. J. T. Stobbs. 
Mr. T. E. Storey. 



The Chairman (Mr. "W. N. Atkinson), in introducing Mr. 
Henshaw as the new President, observed that he had always taken 
a great interest in the progress of the Institute, and would work 
for a continuance of that progress. 

The President (Mr. A. M. Henshaw), after thanking the 
members for his own election, proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. 
W. N. Atkinson for his services as President — a position which 
he had occupied for the past two years. 

Mr. R. H. Cole, in seconding the motion, remarked that the 
thanks of the Institute was due to Mr. Atkinson for the urbanity 
and courtesy that he had displayed to members on all occasions. 

The motion was carried very heartily. 



THE TREASURER. 

The President (Mr. Henshaw) in proposing a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Makepeace, the retiring Treasurer, commented on tne 
admirable way in which he had discharged those duties, which 
were always laborious and often annoying. 

Mr. T. E. Storey seconded the motion, which was earned with 
applause. 

Mr. H. R. Makepeace said that he should not have given up the 
work if he had not removed from the district. 



The President (Mr. A. M. Henshaw) delivered the following 
address : — 



uo 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



By Mr. A. M. HENSHAW. 






If I should seem, in my remarks to you to-day, to fall into the 
prevailing fashion, and lecture you on the error of your, or rather 
our, ways, my excuse must be that many of the reproaches of our 
critics are merited. My purpose is to indicate a few of our short- 
comings, so. that we may realize them, and take the first step 
towards reformation. The " decline of Britain's supremacy " has 
become a stereotyped phrase in the world's press, and from all 
sides figures and statements are hurled at us to prove our incom- 
petence and degeneracy. 

Coming to our own profession, never previously in the history 
of the coal- and iron-industry of Great Britain has there been a 
time when those responsible have felt more concern as to its 
position, present and prospective. Members of The Institution of 
Mining Engineers and kindred societies are under a microscopic 
examination by critical eyes, and, distorted and over-magnified as 
we know the image to be, some real defects are being exposed. 

The facts are serious. The United States of America have 
doubled their output of coal in twelve years, and last year they got 
ahead of us by 40,000,000 tons. We are invaded by American 
and German manufactures, iron, steel and machinery. Not only 
is our foreign trade being taken from us, but we are threatened 
at our very doors with raw material. Thirty years ago we were 
producing three times more iron and steel than the United States. 
Germany has since passed us, and now America beats both com- 
bined. We are assailed by enormous outputs, economically pro- 
duced by great combinations, securing cheap transport by control 
of railways, owning their own fleets, mainly bought from us, and 
further assisted by protective tariffs and bounties. Here, we have 
evidence enough of a serious and determined purpose ; and while 
this is going on, we are pictured as contentedly resting upon the 
faded laurels of our forefathers, idly dreaming of former greatness. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 141 

There are strong grounds for some of these strictures, and there 
is undoubted need for increased vitality. Let us hope that this 
treading on the commercial tail of the British lion will have the 
old-time effect, and that we shall see him awaken the better for 
his little nap, and once more worry his way ahead of all com- 
petitors. 

It is still true that great mineral wealth makes a great country, 
but that greatness is not to be measured in tons any more than it 
is in square miles, and if we cannot lead in quality and cheapness 
we must give way. If we fall behind while we have our natural 
resources, then our coal-fields and iron-works may afford good 
speculation to our American rivals. 

Nothing is more certain to demoralize a man, or a nation than 
lack of incentive to work, and nothing is better calculated to call 
up vigorous and healthy effort to excel than straightforward 
competition. Apart from the effect of American protection and 
British free trade upon the present position, we must give credit 
where it is due. It is a mistake to attribute America's progress to 
her natural resources, which are little better than our own, but 
it is to her children's good use of those resources, aptitude to meet 
necessity, energy, hard work, push and ingenuity, pluck in adopt- 
ing new methods, and appreciation of the best plan and the best 
man, that America owes her present proud position. It is due to 
the liberal application by capitalists of money for the equipment 
of works in a thorough manner with modern plant, and to the 
hearty co-operation of the workmen who take pride in their work, 
and are not tied down by prejudice against improvements, or 
stunted by the levelling influence of the " uniform wage." The 
State also, as well as the manufacturers and workmen, recognizes 
the importance of a strenuous commercial policy. 

How have we fared at home whilst America has been making 
tiese giant strides ? Our coal- and iron-trades have been barely 
remunerative. Sir James Joicey has calculated that for 15 years 
prior to 1900, the profits in coal-mining were 4* per cent., without 
taking depreciation into account. This is a miserable return for 
so speculative an industry, but it may be pertinently asked 
whether such results were not the outcome of our indifferent pro- 
gress and lack of enterprise. We have been moving too slowly, 
n *y, often standing still, and many of our works are to-day being 
carried on much as they were 25 years ago, with the same 



142 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



machinery, and by the same methods, even additions and 
extensions have been on the lines of the old, with second-hand 
machinery and obsolete plant. We too frequently ask " how 
much will it cost? " rather than " what will it save? " True we 
have some of the finest collieries in the world, and one of the 
Commissioners of the Iron and Steel Trades on his return from 
America, said that he had seen nothing to compare with a few 
of the engineering-works which he named in this country; but 
the majority, and not the exceptions, rule the case in this matter. 

Perhaps the most striking contrast between British and 
American practice lies in their great use of machinery, while we 
stick to our picks, shovels and wheelbarrows. In many of our 
pits, particularly, amongst our workmen, there is still the old 
prejudice against the " iron-man," and the " bone-engine " holds 
the field. 

America is cutting 25 per cent, of its coal by machinery, while 
Britain does not reach 2 per cent. We have many pits without 
power-machinery underground, and although in some cases com- 
pressed air and electricity are employed to the greatest possible 
extent, we are on the whole a long way behind. The output of 
pig-iron, from a British blast-furnace, is 300 to 400 tons per week ; 
but 400 to 500 tons a day is an ordinary performance in the United 
States and Germany. Costs are even more striking. Foundry 
pig-iron is being produced in the United States at 34s. and in 
Canada at 24s. per ton. For seven years prior to the boom, the 
United States sold its coal at 5s. Id. per ton, and is now producing 
it at 4s. 6d., while Canada can put coal on ship-board for European 
ports at 4s. per ton. 

A few years ago, Great Britain was the industrial university 
of the world, but how are the tables turned ! Xow we go to 
America for experts to remodel some of our largest works, and 
seme of our best posts have been given to Americans. Our iron- 
and steel-trades have sent a Commission to the United States to 
study their methods, and a Labour Commission is following. Our 
learned societies go for object lessons to the Dusseldorf Exhibition. 
Germany gave us coal-washing and coking-plants, and showed 
us how to recover the valuable bye-products ; but we still send 
thither our crude products, and buy back 90 per cent, of our coal- 
tar dyes. France and Belgium lead the way in working deep and 
thin seams. H.M. inspectors of mines find it necessary to hold 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 148 

up as a model the French system of uniform and safe timbering, 
and the Dover shafts are being finished by French engineers with 
French capital, after being practically abandoned by lis. These 
are significant facts and give cause for reflection. We are sink- 
ing our pits to-day generally as we did 50 years ago — although 
some very fine work has been done in this district recently, several 
shafts, 2,400 to 3,000 feet deep being near completion, and our 
friend, Mr. J. J. Prest, had, I believe, made a world's record, in 
pumping up to 8,000 gallons of water a minute, with four 30 inches 
lifts in one shaft, the work of sinking for months never having 
been interrupted. For the first time in this country, freezing 
through water-bearing strata is being carried out in Durham 
county, although the method had been in successful use in 
Germany for many years. Boring of shafts is also now practised 
on the Continent. At the Rheinpreussen colliery, shafts 21 and 
lfi$ feet in diameter have been bored by percussive machines, the 
borings being brought to the surface by water-column and com- 
pressed air, 10£ feet being sunk in one day, and 9 feet a day being 
averaged for some time. 

A large number of pits are being sunk in this country at the 
present time, and extraordinary extensions of existing coal-fields 
and discoveries of new areas are as usual following the recent short 
period of good trade with its attendant panic as to the exhaustion 
of our supply. The question of deep mining is, in consequence, 
receiving a good deal of attention, and the depth of 4,000 feet, 
believed to be the limit by the Coal Commission of 1872, is already 
exceeded by some, and closely approached by other workings. 
The Tamarack mine is 5,000 feet deep, the Calumet and Hecla 
mine 4,900 feet, the workings of several collieries in Belgium 
reach depths between 3,500 and 3,940 feet, and in England 3,500 
feet has been reached in one instance. 

The ventilation of deep pits presents no difficulty. Fans 
giving 500,000 cubic feet with a 6 inches water-gauge are running 
to-day, and a diameter of 26 feet is all that is necessary for that 
current. For deeper and more extensive workings, this initial 
current could be easily exceeded, 30 feet being, according to Mr. 
C M. Percy, a sufficient diameter for a fan to produce 750,000 
cubic feet of air per minute. This current will be better carried 
to extreme workings by auxiliary fans, placed under-ground, 



144 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 






1 

I 

II 






dealing with sections of workings beyond the main intake and 
return airways, than by high water-gauges at the main fan, with 
the loss by leakage and short-circuiting which would result. 

The question of temperature is a more difficult matter ; but it 
will be always less than that due to depth, owing to the cooling 
produced by the air-current. During the driving of the St. 
Gothard tunnel, the temperature at times being 107° Fahr., 600 
men are said to have died in ten years, but that was largely due 
to the moisture of the current and climatic conditions. The 
air-temperature at the Tamarack mine is 87*6° Fahr., at a depth 
of 4,890 feet; at the Produits colliery 87° Fahr., at 3,708 
feet, the rock-temperature being 116'6° Fahr., and in the work- 
ings the air-temperature is 968° Fahr. Here the men work 10 
hours a day in comfort, if the velocity of the air-current be main- 
tained at 5f feet per second, owing to the refreshing effect and 
ready evaporation of the moisture from their bodies. At 100*4° 
Fahr. with an air-velocity of 5 to 6£ feet per second, it is found 
that work is performed with greater ease than at 86° Fahr. with 
a weak current. Means of mechanically cooling the air-current 
may be found practicable, but it is absolutely necessary that the 
air should be kept dry. The deepest bore-hole in the world, at 
Paruschowitz, Upper Silesia, 6,570 feet deep, showed that the 
rock-temperature increased 1° Fahr. for every 62 feet. 

The effect of depth on the degree of hardness of strata is not, I 
think from experience up to the present, likely to give serious 
difficulty, or depreciate very greatly the value of the coal-seams. 

Winding, on the principle of the present engine, will be a 
weighty question with a ponderous machine, and calls for 
improvement. Huge engines, with drums 35 feet in diameter, are 
now in use at some of our deep pits. Consider the waste of fuel in 
starting, stopping and reversing once a minute such a drum, 
weighing upwards of 80 tons, to lift 4 tons of coal. Continental 
practice is no better, if we may take as an example the new shaft 
of the Ronchamp colliery, France, which is being fitted with 
a winding-engine made in Germany. The pit is 3,300 feet deep, 
and for a trifling load of 2 tons 5 cwts. there are two immense 
spiral drums, one for each rope, with maximum diameters of 35 
feet. The twin-tandem compound engine has cylinders 28 and 
40 inches in diameter, and the ropes are tapered from 2J inches 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 145 

to I J inches in diameter. I would suggest that the best method 
is to have high-speed Corliss engines, and to use, in place of the 
drum, a driving-sheave, which need not be of larger diameter 
than the head-gear pulleys, grooved for several half-coils of rope, 
and, in front of it, an idle pulley to take up- the coils and admit 
of length-adjustments of a continuous rope from cage to cage. A 
tail-rope under the cages compensates the weight of the winding- 
rope, and an emergency-brake acts on the rope and driving-sheave 
in case of accident. Several engines of this description have 
recently been sent out from this country to the Band, capable of 
winding 3J tons from a depth of 4,800 feet. The cylinders are 
IT and 28 inches in diameter, at least one-third less than ordinary 
diameters, and the principle is, I submit, in the right direction 
towards economy of fuel in the most wasteful of colliery-engines, 
being equally applicable to shallow as to deep mines. 

This question of deep mining belongs more to the future than 
to the present, but it introduces another subject worthy of a pass- 
ing remark, namely, the exhaustion of our coal. Deeper working, 
extended areas of known fields, and the possibilities with improved 
methods and higher prices, of working thin and hitherto unprofit- 
able seams will, I have no doubt, lead the present Royal Com- 
mission to a figure exceeding that of 30 years ago, and we have 
yet continents to fall back upon whose geological riches are secrets 
that posterity will unravel. One eminent authority, after allow- 
ing for double the present output, placed the final exhaustion 
MO years ahead ; meantime the present progress of science gives 
the comforting hope that long before that time posterity will have 
made itself independent of coal as a source of energy. Our 
immediate concern is more with economy and auxiliary sources. 
TTie question of generating electricity direct from coal is by no 
means a dream of the idealist. Many years ago, Lord Armstrong 
obtained distinct results, and the subject has engaged the serious 
attention of many eminent men, including Nikola, Tesla and 
Edison, the latter succeeding in obtaining a current of 3 horse- 
power; while Du Moncel obtained 109 volts at 15*5 ohms from 
22 pounds of coke consumed per hour by a Clamond thermopile. 
To revert to actualities, we have competitors in the shape of 
natural gas, oil, wood and peat. The use of natural gas in 
America needs no comment ; of more interest to us is our own 



146 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



M 



supply. We have in Sussex, a bore-hole (which, by-the-bye, we 
have allowed an American company to exploit) which is said to 
be giving 1,000,000 cubic feet a day at a pressure of 200 pounds 
per square inch. It is lighting the railway-station and village 
of Heathfield, and the company are taking steps to distribute it 
largely. It is an interesting venture, but I think that the gas- 
field is too limited to give results of great importance. 

The use of oil as a fuel deserves notice. In America, railways 
and fleets of steamers are run entirely by oil, and an Admiral of 
the United States Navy recently said that he expected to see all 
his ships oil-fired. Experiments on board our own men-of-war 
show that in heating value, 2 tons of oil are equal to 3 tons of coal, 
and take only 55 per cent, of the bunker-space, which is an 
important consideration on any class of ship. A line of Dutch 
steamships running between Batavia and Singapore using oil for 
three years, are said to have saved 37 per cent, in cost, as against 
Welsh coal. Oil is being used on our own eastern and southern 
railways for express trains of 300 tons ; on a consumption of 17(> 
pounds of oil per mile, and with coal at 12s. per ton, the former 
is a real competitor. The world's production of 200,000,000 
barrels represents a fuel-valve equivalent to 50,000,000 tons of 
coal. Oil-engines are thoroughly satisfactory and economical 
wheu the cost of coal exceeds £1 per ton, one brake horsepower 
costing from £d. to Jd. per hour for oil. 

In considering the fuel-supply, our immense tracts of peat 
must not be overlooked. By modern machinery, a very good 
briquette is produced, Sweden alone having 300 works in active 
operation. Wood-fuel also presents possibilities. An ingenious 
calculation, and one that is believed to be substantially correct, 
shows that half the present forest-area of the world, if properly 
cultivated, would yield fuel annually equal to 200 times the 
world's present output of coal. 



So much then for one feature of the question of fuel-supply, 
but another and more serious one is its economical production 
and use. The loss underground in working is not now so serious 
as formerly, but the loss of coal for ever left behind in the shape 
of barriers between collieries cannot be too seriously regarded. 
In this district, such barriers are shown to represent no less a loss 
than £9,787,500 in royalty alone. Then short, leases, with 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDEESS. 147 

arbitrary rents and royalties, are only tor common, and result in 
the working of thick and profitable seams, the overthrow of the 
thinner, and premature abandonment and ruin of many otherwise 
unexhausted collieries. Nothing short of s-jme sort of State- 
control can stop this waste. 

A still more serious waste of fuel is found in the bad use that 
we make of it even by the best appliances. Less than 10 per cent. 
of the heat-energy is returned in the shape of work, 20 per cent. 
goes up the chimney, 20 per cent, is lost in steam-pipes and the 
pmrine, and 50 per cent, is still unused when the steam leaves the 
engine. We are sending, therefore, into the atmosphere, some 
hundreds of millions of tons of coal a year, getting it needlessly, 
and using it wrongly. We may certainly hope for wonderful 
improvements in this direction. 

In the coal and iron-industries, steam-power and machinery 
occupy positions of first importance. We have no Niagaras in 
Great Britain, we must depend on coal, and yet our collieries have 
ever been under the reproach of making the least economical use 
of it, the wasteful figure of 7 per cent, of the output being con- 
sumed at our collieries. In first-class steam-practice, we may 
reckon the consumption per hour per indicated horsepower to be 
4 pounds of coal and 35 pounds of steam for an ordinary single- 
cylindered non-condensing engine, 2f pounds of coal and 24 
pounds of steam for a condensing engine, 1^ pounds of coal and 
lo pounds of steam for a compound condensing engine, and 1J 
pounds of coal and 12 pounds of steam for a triple-expansion con- 
densing engine. Really first-class colliery practice approximates 
to 1 pound of coal for 8 pounds of steam, and 20 pounds of steam 
per indicated horsepower, or a consumption of 2\ pounds of coal 
per indicated horsepower-hour, which at 4s. per ton would cost 
( WI535d. per indicated horsepower-hour. We have recently had 
figures from actual tests at collieries, showing a consumption of 
«S'21 pounds of fuel or 53*8 pounds of steam, or at 4s. per ton a 
cost of 0l756d. per indicated horsepower-hour. Here is a differ- 
ence of 01221d. Mr. W. N. Atkinson states that there are at 
North Staffordshire collieries engines aggregating 70,000 horse- 
power, and at 10 hours a day this difference represents £106,800 
a year, which we might save by first-class steam-plant. On the 
same basis, the saving for the United Kingdom would be 
£1,417,000. We may say then that the waste of fuel represents 



148 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



3 per cent. on the capital invested in collieries, to say nothing of 
the unprofitable employment of labour and plant. In Great 
Britain, 80,000,000 tons are used annually for power, and many 
collective tests show a consumption varying from 1£ pounds to 
4, 9 and even 20 pounds of fuel per indicated horsepower-hour. 
On the above basis, with coal and slack at 10s. per ton, I calculate 
that the present wastage exceeds the enormous sum of £27,000,000. 
It may be argued that the standard taken as first-class practice 
is too high for a colliery, I think not : but, on the other hand, the 
figure with which it is compared is certainly below general 
practice. Surely it is as necessary for a colliery to aim at as high 
a degree of efficiency as a works buying its fuel. I need not 
remind you how such waste is incurred. Contrast bad boilers, 
cold feed-water, uncovered steam-pipes, scattered, crippled and 
old-fashioned engines, with a modern colliery having concentrated 
plant, mechanically-fired boilers, 30 feet long by 8 feet in dia- 
meter, carrying steam at a pressure of 120 to 150 pounds per 
square inch, water properly treated and heated, superheated steam, 
compound and condensing-engines, and distant work done elec- 
trically. In one colliery-district, the report of H.M. inspector of 
mines shows that out of 755 boilers no less than 285 are of the old 
egg-ended type ; and how frequently we see badly-designed 
engines that have never seen an indicator ! Probably the highest 
efficiency ever obtained was at one of the German Universities, 
where by utilizing the waste-heat of the exhaust-steam to 
evaporate sulphurous acid and generate pressure in a third 
cylinder, the steam-consumption was reduced to 8*25 pounds per 
indicated horsepower-hour. This plan is now being adopted on 
a practical scale in America. Next in the list, I should place 
steam-turbines with superheated steam and condenser. They 
are ideal machines for driving electric generators, and it is worth 
noting that steam-turbines are being adopted for the electrifica- 
tion of the District Railway in London, several engines of 5,000 
kilowatts capacity being proposed. 



This brings me to the subject of electricity, which I venture to 
say is in the modern colliery an indispensable adjunct to economy 
and efficiency; although the safest of all, compressed air, must 
be given the first place for much of the underground work in 
fiery mines, particularly since recent improvements, by stage 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 149 

compression anil intercooling with higher pressures, give an 
efficiency 40 per cent, better than was obtained a few years ago. 
Electricity (with some reservation in the case of very fiery mines) 
is of marvellous adaptability to every requirement in mining. It 
is economically produced, easily distributed, and its efficiency at 
ordinary loads may be taken as G8 per cent, in actual work given 
out by the motor-shaft, the losses being 12 per cent, in the engine, 
10 per cent, in the dynamo, 5 per cent, in the line, and 10 per cent, 
in the motor. In American mines, electricity is in universal use, 
and latterly, I am pleased to say, has been receiving more atten- 
tion in this country. A saving of 8d. per ton has been recently 
recorded at a large north-country colliery by its adoption in a 
thorough manner. In displacing scattered engines, an economy 
of 25 per cent, to 30 per cent, may be assured, and in workshops 35 
per cent, to 50 per cent, as against belt-and-shaft drives. 
Collieries are generating current at id. per Board of Trade unit, 
but this figure can be reduced, as I hope presently to show. Its 
use underground cannot be too rigorously safeguarded, for 
although with three-phase current, properly insulated and 
armoured cables, gas-tight junction-boxes and switch-boxes, and 
enclosed or sparkless motors, safety may be to a large extent 
assured, there are still grave possibilities of accident. The spark 
of an ordinary signal-bell will ignite fire-damp ; and I feel con- 
strained to say here that the practical study of electricity by those 
responsible for its introduction does not always receive the atten- 
tion that it demands. It would be most unfortunate if any indis- 
cretion in its use should result in disaster, thereby tending to 
check the employment of this most important factor in future 
economy and efficiency. 

Another direction in which we may look for great economy is 
in the employment of coal-cutting machinery. The output per 
man in the United States is 82 per cent, more than in the United 
Kingdom, and this is greatly due to their mining coal by 
machinery : pits so operated showing more than double our output 
per man. They use largely the original British machines, but have 
improved and adapted them to their requirements, and evolved 
other types. While we employ under 400 machines, they have 
3,500 in regular work, and when we see outputs of li, 3 and 3$ 
tons per man increased to 4, 6£ and 8A tons, and savings of 4d. to 

*OL. XXIV -1902 1903. 1 1 



150 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



over la. per ton effected, we cannot afford idly to wait and doubt. 
These are results that we see in our own collieries, and it is surpris- 
ing that so many, with conditions admirably suited to machinery, 
are doing absolutely nothing in this direction. It is unfortunate 
in North Staffordshire that many of us have to struggle on under 
conditions which render the use of any machine, so far produced,, 
impracticable. Seams lying at angles of 30 to 50 degrees with 
as many faults as roadways, present almost insurmountable 
difficulties to the successful introduction of coal-cutting appli- 
ances. 

A most important advantage following the use of such 
machinery is the abolition or minimizing of blasting, and in this 
connection I must refer to the hydraulic wedge shown to the 
members by Mr. James Tonge a few years ago,* for which he has 
received the Society of Arts prize and medal. I have seen a man 
with this machine getting 30 shots a shift with his can of water 
instead of a canister of explosive, and we appear to have, at last, 
a really practicable tool. 

Turning to our iron-industry, let me say a few words regarding 
another serious waste — that of the gases from our blast-furnaces. 
The blast-furnace is a gas-producer of the highest order, its 
inherent heat doing the work of melting the ore, and generating 
at the same time 160,000 to 200,000 cubic feet of combustible gas 
per ton of fuel consumed. The gas has a heat-value of about 100' 
British thermal units per cubic foot, and 100 to 120 cubic feet in 
a gas-engine will give 1 horsepower. The gas-engine is now a 
thoroughly practical, reliable and simple machine. We hare 
70,000 engines working in this country, chiefly with illuminating 
or producer-gases. But on the Continent, extraordinary progress 
is being made, engines of 1,500 horsepower working with blast- 
furnace gas, and others of 2,000 and 4,000 horsepower will soon 
be running, although only two years ago, at the Paris Exhibition, 
a 600 horsepower engine created great surprise. At one iron- and 
steel- works in Germany, the furnace-gases are driving nine gas- 
engines, aggregating 5,400 horsepower; and at another, there 
are several engines of 600 and 1,500 horsepower generating elec- 
tricity at 550 volts, supplying 64 motors at the steel-works for 
rolling-mills, locomotives, cranes, hoists, and mechanics' shops, 
and lighting 240 arc-lamps and 400 incandescent-lamps. In this 
* Tram. Imt. M.E., 1898, vol. xv., page 269. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 151 

country, only two or three works have attempted to employ gas 
in this way, the majority being content to use it under the boilers, 
the bulk going to waste, although 100 feet in a gas-engine will 
give as much power as 400 feet used for raising steam. 

Here is a calculation applied to a furnace producing 300 tons 
of iron per week. The consumption of fuel taken at 1*875 tons 
per hour would give 303,535 cubic feet of gas, of which one-third 
would be required for heating the stoves, leaving 197,357 feet for 
power. Allowing 10 per cent, loss on the total gas, the power* 
quantity would be 167,004 cubic feet. Taking the heat-value 
of the gas at 95 British thermal units, and the engines requiring 
140 cubic feet per indicated horsepower, and 152 horsepower for 
the blowing-engines and hoists, there would remain 1,040 horse- 
power as a continuously available surplus-power. 

I will take, however, a lower figure, given by one of the 
presidents of the Iron and Steel Institute, namely, that for every 
100 tons of pig-iron made per day, the surplus gas represents 1,000 
horsepower. Applying this to North Staffordshire, assuming that 
all our 28 blast-furnaces were at work and producing 600,000 tons 
of iron per annum — certainly not an unreasonable figure — and 
allowing 32 per cent, for loss by conversion and distribution as 
electrical energy, we should have a continuous current of 13,600 
electrical horsepower. Now Mr. W. N. Atkinson states that we have 
at our collieries, engines of 30,000 indicated horsepower doing 
work other than winding coal, this at 10 hours a day at full work 
would be equal to 12,500 horsepower continuously over a cycle of 
24 hours, so that it is evident we should have from our 28 blast- 
furnaces a surplus power, if taken continuously, equal to doing 
all the work at our collieries except winding coal. This current 
if aold at |d. per Board of Trade unit, would be worth at 10 hours 
a day, £65,875 a year, or if for power and lighting for 20 hours 
a day, £131,750 a year ; and to the commercial mind these figures 
hring visions of dividends. Proportionately, the 350 blast- 
furnaces now working in the United Kingdom, would give a con- 
tinuous current of 170,000 electrical horsepower: the whole of 
the collieries requiring for 10 hours 990,000 horsepower, or the 
equivalent of 410,000 horsepower continuously. We must, there- 
fore, look for an additional source of supply. We shall find it in 
our coke-ovens, where there is a similar waste calculated at 
251,600 electrical horsepower. Together then, we should have a 



152 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



surplus of 421,600 electrical horsepower, which if taken continu- 
ously would be equivalent to the power required by all the 
collieries in the United Kingdom, except for winding coal. At 
£d. per Board of Trade unit for 10 hours a day, the current would 
realize £2,039,800, and for 20 hours a day £4,079,600 per annum, 
and this is now being wasted. I have in these figures merely 
brought in the collieries to give point to the case, and it is not 
necessary for me to show how this surplus-power could be utilized. 
On the Continent, its importance is well understood, and the 
savings are realized in the shape of hard cash in pocket. 

Coincident with the development of the gas-engine, producer- 
gas is asserting its claims to a first place in the economics of 
power-generation. Compared with steam -plant, the gas-producer 
returns 75 to 80 per cent, of the thermal value of the coal, or 
practically the same as a steam-boiler ; but the gas-engine returns 
15 to 30 per cent, of thermal efficiency, or twice that of the steam- 
engine with 5 to 15 per cent, of thermal efficiency. As fuel only, 
producer-gas takes a high place. Under steam-boilers, 8 to 10$ 
pounds of water are evaporated per pound of coal in the producer ; 
and in steel-works it may be almost said that modern processes 
owe their existence to producer-gas. We will consider it, how- 
ever, more in connection with the gas-engine. Its thermal value 
varies from 135 to 160 British thermal units per cubic foot, and 
140,000 to 160,000 cubic feet of gas are generated per ton of fuel, 
60 to 80 cubic feet being consumed per indicated horsepower in 
the gas-engine, or we may say 2,000 horsepower per ton of fuel, 
1 pound of fuel being a safe basis to take as the consumption in 
a good plant per indicated horsepower-hour. 

At the Tees-side engineering-works, monthly returns show 
0*89 pound of fuel per brake horsepower. At Leyton electric 
power-station, 0*942 pound per indicated horsepower ; Fxbridge, 
1067 pounds ; Winnington chemical-works, 0*92 pound : Paris, 
with French coal, 0*81 pound ; and Zurich, 1*22 pounds of fuel per 
indicated horsepower. At Winnington, a Premier gaa-engine of 
600 horsepower showed an average over two years of 1*05 pounds, 
but at times attained the low figure of 0*88 pound of fuel per 
indicated horsepower-hour — the same engine running 138 clays 
without stopping. The use of producer-gas is much more 
general on the Continent than in Great Britain, the Anzin 
colliery, France, putting down just now producer-plant for all its 
work except winding. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



153 



The late Mr. Bryan Donkin, whose great experience and 
ability commands our confidence, reduces the subject to the cost 
per horsepower of work done. 



1 Description of Plant. 


PneL 

Gas 

Oil 

Slack 

Coke 

Coal 

Slack 


Coat of Fuel. 


Conk nf Fuel 

per Brake 1 

Horsepower. 


Ilhiminating-gas and engine ... 

Oil-motor 

Steam-engine 

Producer-gas and engine 

i " 


2s. 3d. per 1000 cubic feet 

6d. per gallon 
7s. per ton 
15e. „ 
14«. „ 
7s. „ 


Peooe. 
0-636 
0-502 
0151 
0137 
0-095 
0-047 



The fuel-cost only is taken in the above figures, and if we 
calculate on a consumption of 1 pound of fuel per indicated 
horsepower-hour, and take slack at 5s. per ton, the cost would 
be 0*02Gd. I will take, however, for, say a 500 horsepower plant, 
H pounds of slack per indicated horsepower-hour. The cost 
would be : fuel, 0032d. ; wages, 0024d. ; and stores, 0012d. ; a 
total of 0068d. per indicated horsepower-hour. If we generate 
electricity, and put the mechanical efficiency of the gas-engine at 
85 per cent, and dynamo at 90 per cent., or total combined 
efficiency of 75 per cent., the cost would be 0*09d., or say 0'ld. per 
electrical horsepower-hour, or 0*14d. per Board of Trade unit. If 
we make further allowances, and put the cost at 0*20d. per Board 
of Trade unit, the cost per annum for fuel, wages and stores of a 
500 horsepower plant will be under £2,000, a figure so surpris- 
ingly low as to arrest our attention, and set us considering the 
possibilities of economy by adopting power-gas. There will be 
no economy in taking power from central stations. Any colliery 
may have its own plant, the gas being preferably distributed for 
surface-work, and electricity used for distant and underground 
work. 



I had intended to refer to other possible economies relating to 
work underground ; and, in connection with our difficulties in 
meeting American competition, to compare our respective rail- 
way and transport-facilities, but time will not permit. I trust 
however, that what I have said may suggest to the members 
subjects for papers and profitable discussion during the short time 
that I shall have the honour to occupy the Presidential chair. 



154 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



I have repeatedly referred to America, because there is no dis- 
guising the fact that there lie some of the secrets of our failure, 
and a glance in conclusion at some of their achievements may be 
calculated to spur us ahead. The following figures dwarf British 
practice. Three steam-shovels mine 5,000 tons of ore, and load it 
into 50 tons trucks in 10 hours ; and 2,000 of these shovels will do 
the work of 4,000,000 men. The ore is carried in train-loads of 
4,000 tons at £d. per mik, and a vessel of 6,000 to 7,000 tons is 
loaded in 10 hours. The cargo is discharged, and the steamer is 
bunkered and ballasted in 10 hours, or the ore may be dumped 
from the trucks into huge storage-docks holding 40,000 tons, from 
which a 7,000 tons steamer can be loaded in 3 hours : indeed the 
record is 5,000 tons in \ hour. The cost of loading or dis- 
charging such a vessel is about id. per ton, and the whole 
operation is effected by automatic machinery. The ore is as 
expeditiously stocked on the ground, or in storage-bins at the 
furnaces, by travelling-bridge tramways, 300 to 400 feet long, 
and 70 feet overhead, operated electrically, and one man can 
handle 2,000 tons a day. Two or three men will attend to 
the machinery delivering the ore, coke and limestone to the 
blast-furnace, and 400 to 600 tons of iron per day will be 
run from each blast-furnace. At the Carnegie works, the 
No. 3 Carrie blast-furnace has made in one day 790 tons 
of basic open-hearth iron. From the blast-furnace, the molten 
metal is taken to the steel-plant through the mixer, converter, 
blooming-mills and rolls, and is turned out as finished steel 
in practically one heat. From one works with two mills, 2,914 
tons of finished rails have been made per day. At another, 2,000 
tons of plates, and at another 3,500 tons of girders; while from 
another works, as a small detail, 600 tons of rods were turned out 
for wire-nails ; and if you want nails, the Ensley works with 171 
machines will turn out 1,500 tons a day. In 10 years, the output 
of pig-iron has doubled, and finished products has trebled. The 
output of pig-iron per man has increased in 10 years by 29 per 
cent, and of finished iron and steel by 37 per cent. 

In 1900, and here is the main point, the average output of 
pig-iron per man per annum employed at blast-furnaces in the 
United States was 354 tons, and at the Duquesne works, it was 
no less than 1,300 tons. 

Canada, too, is forging ahead ; she has outgrown her own 



Ire- 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 150 

demand and is producing 20 times the amount of iron that she 
did 5 years ago. Two years ago, the Dominion Steel Company 
laid their first brick ; their blast-furnaces have turned out already 
10,000 tons, and they have now a plant with a capacity of 500,000 
tons a year. Germany has proceeded much on the same lines. 
Blast-furnaces turning out 400 to 500 tons a day are becoming the 
rule; they concentrate their plant, own their own coal-mines, ore- 
mines and coke-works, get their ore and handle it by machinery 
on a great scale, take their iron direct to the steel-plant, the whole 
power being derived from the waste furnace-gases. The result 
of this enterprise is that their output per man has trebled in 
20 years. 

These are some of the conditions that we have to meet in our 
fight for trade. Mr. Schwab says that they must export their 
surplus, and to keep prices up at home they will sell that surplus 
at a loss rather than decrease production. It is calculated that 
Alabama foundry-iron can be delivered, now, as ballast in our 
ootton-ships, at Manchester for 50s. per ton and will shortly be 
delivered at 10s. less, and New Jersey iron at Liverpool at 44s. per 
ton. With their 24,000,000 tons capacity, and the new blast- 
furnaces building for several millions more, we shall need to 
watch vigilantly if times of depression come and demand falls 
off. There may be something in the American argument that 
combinations expand trade and create new revenues by reducing 
the cost of its commodities. This indeed appears to be borne out 
by the fact that the consumption of iron and steel is five times 
greater per head of population in America than the average of 
other countries, but the danger of over-production seems 
ominously threatening. 

If we can compete in raw material, we need not despair of 
finished products and we are nearer to the European, Eastern and 
Southern markets than our Transatlantic competitors. We have 
still large supplies of ore at home, and Spanish and other ore, 
nearer than is the American ore to their furnaces, but we must 
keep up to date if we would still remain ahead. Eeform must be 
initiated quickly and vigorously, for we have scarcely as yet 
realized the rapidity of the progress of our rivals. The crisis 
calls for men of alert mind, abundant energy and scientific train- 
ln &, with a grasp of every aspect of the question. It is true that 



• •■»,• ' ^.'« - '^f -•?£ 

>*u V^rifj' 156 PRESIDENTIAL ADDEESS. 

C^ &*t*i*' m -t many of their works are new while ours are old, but that is the 

•* • 3*£* *t ver y reasoi]L w ^y we 8nou ld scrap our plant and rebuild our works 

^.; :V;^i?tr on modern lines. It will not pay in some instances, and here 

':'^' :: ^.i^.\l again is the need for men of great discrimination and ability, but 

'-. *. :.\ i ''}'ii] !3 in other instances it will pay to do it thoroughly and expeditiously. 

|V^ ''•;i;;,vT:>f The fittest must survive, and the battle must be to the strong. 

.; ^H i,v^ *£ Edison recently said that if Great Britain would wake up to 






vv V:?^}- 1 ^ American competition, the result would be the greatest battle of 

wits that the world had ever seen. Then by all means let us give 
the world the spectacle. Members of this and kindred societies 
■^•-^ will be called upon, and will do a big share of the fighting. We 

'v V "?* * Vi have the sinews of war ; the bed-rock of sterling national qualities 

-Jv£ t'^c -£fl that gave us our world supremacy is still our inheritance, and I 

v^*v«.V^: : i : r*k fully- believe that in the long and tough struggle ahead of us, 

"- '"i ^-f^C Britain once fairly roused will more than hold her own against 



-* -V, 



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Mr. E. B. Wain moved a vote of thanks to the President for 



-i -'i : !- 'm^' • h is address. 



' ^ : % '^! !2^ ^ r ' ^' ^"" Atkinson, in seconding the motion, observed that 

: J(V-^: ^?; ;. -^ * ne acldresB struck the imagination, and should spur the exertions 

^•- . •vi : ^ : !*jj °f a ll w ho had to do with the production of coal and iron in this 

i?-f!'ik' : " v *:*.. ? r country. He was not himself inclined to draw very positive con- 

^i<t*.-^*i'$ elusions from comparisons made of work done in different 

>$y*^ ,: '£>iV-- countries. What was wanted in this country more than any- 

Ui.K^l:v^?£ thing else was that scientific education should be brought to bear 

"J*fj.;; \i& % .-!? upon the management of coal- and iron-works. 

L " >v£ T 3i# ! 7 v ',i The motion was cordially approved. 



TRANSACTION. 157 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING. 
Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

OCTOBEB llTH, 1002. 



Sib LINDSAY WOOD, Babt., President, in the Chaib. 



The Secretary read the Minutes of the last General Meetings 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
August 16th, September 27th and that day. 

The Secretary also reported the proceedings of the Council 
of The Institution of Mining Engineers. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 
nominated : — 

Members — 
Mb. John Bo land Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 2, Devonshire 

Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. Alfred Quintin Carnegie, Engineer, 21, Eldon Place, Newcastle - 

upon-Tyne. 
Mr. Charles Cbofton, Engineer, 17, Albany Gardens, Whitley, R.S.O., 

Northumberland. 
Mr. Percy H. Jones, Colliery Manager, Snatchwood Park, Pontypool, 

Monmouthshire. 
Mr. Robert Ruthkrfobd, Colliery Manager, Ax well Park Colliery, 

Swalwell, R S.O., County Durham. 
Mr. Herbert Kilbubn Scott, Consulting Mining Engineer, Clun House, 

Surrey Street, Strand, London, W.C. ; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
MtL Robert Rowell Simpson, Mining Engineer, The Geological Survey 

of India Offices* Calcutta, India. 
^Ir. William Smith, Mine Manager, The Buffelsdoorn Estate and Gold- 
mining Company, Limited, Klerksdorp, Transvaal. 
Mr. John Whitfield Thomson, Mining Manager, General Manager, 

Ashanti Proprietary Gold-mines, Limited, c/o Messrs. A. Miller 

Brothers, Axim, Gold Coast, West Africa. 






158 DISCUSSION — COKE-MAKING AT OLIVER COKE-WORKS. 



Associate Members — 

^. ^f/'*'';- Mb. George Maitland Edwards, 24, De Vere Gardens, West Kensington, 

*• V: ^V^ * " London. 

' ! ;" i"> ?r' Mr. Oswald W. Ellis, 31, Groevenor Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

: ; ^v* *! Mr. Charles R. Pattinson, Burnaby Lodge, Ryton-upon-Tyne. 

.- v *!* ' -*« ••'•'•' »*, 
• • • £ v ;^; :- 3 y Associates— 

^ ; V />v f Mr. John Eskdale, Assistant Mechanical Engineer, Ashington Colliery, 

~%? 'i^fv J Morpeth, Northumberland. 

r' " { : 1 -^ Mr. William James Knight, Engineer's Draughtsman, 12, Wolmerhausen 

Street, Wheatley Hill Colliery, Thornley, R.S.O., County Durham. 
Mr. George Bailey Morris, Back-overman and Surveyor, 7, Lloyd Street, 
Lemhi g ton -upon -Tyne. 
*,'$+ *4 .&; Mr. Percy Edmund Smallwood, Back-overman, Chopwell Colliery, Lintz 

r j^ Y* Green, R. S. O. , County Durham. 

Mr. James Wallace, Gold-miner, c/o West African Union Mines, Adjah 
Bippo, Tarkwa, via Sekondi, West Africa. 









• ' ' V\-.i r.fc Student— 






•*, 









Mr. John Edward Ralph Herrison, Mechanical Engineering Apprentice, 
Ottawa, via Durban, Natal, South Africa. 



.1 , V > 4 y • DISCUSSION OF MR. FRED C. KEIGHLET'S PAPER OX 

.•;';; •:.;• ■:/>>; "COKE-MAKING AT THE OLIVER COKE-WORKS."* 

?jr.'/-f vy';'-.-;."; Mr. A. L. Steavensox (Durham) said that the coke-ovens 

•^ ;*. C :^ -described were of the old type of bee-hive ovens similar to those 

:• ,.» ,v'< '^ working on the Quayside, Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1765, and 

•iv > y : - '*>'"■ * ; which he himself had described to the members of the Institute 

i\y^ : X : *. ]{ m 1860. Mr. T. Y. Greenert appeared to agree that the 12J feet 

If;.- r >>;/X coke-oven described by Mr. Keighley was an improvement on the 

%^'¥ *?§£:* i{ practice in the North of England of erecting 11 feet ovens. He 

<i. /! M. il *'< (Mr. Steavenson) differed from Mr. Greener on that point, for if 

'•~VC • ^>./!% the ovens were 12£ feet, and the drawers had to work with draw- 

'••.?; .V* ^jV<!--4 ing-rakes sufficient to reach to the back of the oven, they became 

exceedingly heavy and awkward to move, and one of the first 

results would be that the workmen would demand an increase 

•of Id. or 2d. per oven. In his experience, a coke-oven 11 feet in 

diameter was about the best dimension to adopt. In building the 

>; *"*>• j$y& : ovens described by Mr. Keighley, no space appeared to have been 

: ': €i t ' * i* left between them ; and, consequently, there waa no room for the 

i» i » V', -expansion of the ovens, which would eventually mutually 

v > * 4 , -destroy each other. Mr. Greener pointed out that it was wrong 

■v.'":- :v ; . * Tram. Imt. M.E., 1901, vol. xxii., page 493 ; and vol. xxiii., page 485. 

•,*: >*'/•' . + Ibid., vol. xxiii., page 485. 






DISCUSSION COKE-MAKING AT OLIVEE COKE- WORKS. 159' 

to use lime in the building of the ovens, but what was described 
in the paper was loam-mortar, and he (Mr. Steavenson) understood 
this to mean the use of loam instead of lime-mortar. The cost 
of manufacture was a little above that of this district, namely, 
Is. 7Jd. against Is. 5d. to Is. Gd. per ton ; wages, however, were 
high, and he waa aat surprised at the cost being a little more. 
The paper described a seam of good coking coal, and under such 
conditions it was not surprising that the coke was obtained 
cheaply, and it was no fault of the managers of collieries here 
that they could not compete with them in price, 

It was stated in the paper that no attempt had been made to 
utilize the waste-products, and in this respect America is 
very far behind this country. He (Mr. Steavenson) did not go so 
far as Prof. P. P. Bedson, who contended that they were bound 
to extract from the coal every product which it was capable of 
yielding. To put down a plant capable of extracting bye-pro- 
ducts from 700 coke-ovens would involve an outlay of £90,000, 
or more than twice the cost of ordinary bee-hive coke-ovens. 
Before entering upon such a very large outlay, it was necessary 
to consider whether the bye-products would justify the expendi- 
ture, and it would be seen by referring to an article on "Coke- 
oven Residuals "* that some of these bye-products had a very 
limited market, and had recently experienced a very serious fall 
in prices. He had supplied blast-furnaces with coke from bee- 
hive coke-ovens for the last 50 years, and during that time he 
had been at least once a week to the furnaces, and therefore knew 
exactly what kind of coke they wanted. He found that if they 
used coke from retort coke-ovens, 2 cwts. more of such coke 
were required per ton of iron than of coke from beehive coke- 
ovens. Many engineers had experimented with a few retort coke- 
ovens, but they were generally very shy of giving their results ; 
and merely contented themselves with stating that the coke w;is 
just as good. 

With 28 beehive coke-ovens, they could boil, with a Lanca- 
shire boiler, 80 tons of water in 24 hours. Assuming that this 
quantity of water was boiled by coal, it would be found that this 
alone represented something like Is. per ton of coal put into the 
oven, and this he contended was a very useful mode of utilizing 
what might be termed a bye-product. At three large collieries 
* Colliery Guardian, 1902, vol. lxxxiv., page 360. 



160 DISCUSSION* COKE-MAKING AT OLIVER COKE-WORKS. 

raising about 1,000 tons per day, they were using no coal what- 
ever for their boilers, and he would defy anybody to come forward 
and say that retort-ovens were giving better results than this ; 
taking into account, in the case of retort-ovens, the extra cost per 
oven for distilling the bye-products, and the great doubt there 
was as to the value of the material compared with the known 
value of the gases used under the boilers. 

Mr. F. R. Simpson suggested that in all papers of this kind it 
would be an advantage if the unit of weight was the ton of 2,240 
pounds. The special feature in the plant of beehive coke-ovens 
described was the low cost of producing coke, due chiefly, as Mr. 
Steavenson had pointed out, to the low cost of the coal. Reduc- 
ing the figures to the British ton, the total cost amounted to only 
7s. per ton. Taking the yield of coke at 67 per cent., the coal put 
into ovens only cost about 3s. 3d. per ton, a very low figure. The 
cost of labour in converting the coal into coke, was about Is. 9d. 
per ton, or slightly higher than the cost at many coke-yards in 
the North of England, and this was accounted for by the higher 
rate of wages paid to the men. The cost of materials was low, 
being about 0*80d. per ton of coke produced. The average coke- 
production per day from 300 ovens drawn was 675 to 700 short 
tons, or 603 to 625 long tons ; and at the rate of three drawings 
of each oven per week, this gave 12£ tons per oven per week, a 
result which could only be obtained by regular working. Messrs. 
Oliver supplied the coke to their own blast-furnaces, and any 
small variations in the quality would be treated with greater 
leniency than in the open market. Over 9 per cent, of ash, on 
the average of the analyses, appeared high when the whole out- 
put was converted into coke, and many collieries in Durham could 
manufacture coke from small coal with the percentage of ash 
quite as low. 

The statement that the establishment of 700 beehive coke- 
ovens was until recently the second largest in the world, was 
rather sweeping, and might perhaps be modified into an expression 
of opinion. 

Mr. J. C. B. Hendy (Etherley) said that all who had read 
Mr. Keighley's paper would agree that the writer had every 
reason to congratulate himself upon the nature and quality of 
the coal that he had to coke. A coal which could be thrown into 



DISCUSSION COKE-MAKING AT OLIVEE, COKE-WOBKS. 161 

the oveiis as it came out of the mine, without any cleaning, crush- 
ing or any treatment whatever, and yield 67 per cent, of coke 
which only contained about 9 per cent, of ash and 0*7 per cent, of 
sulphur, was very valuable, especially if it could be put into the 
coke-ovens at a cost of 4s. 4d. per ton. The Connellsville seam is 
naturally an excellent coking coal, but when we come to con- 
sider the manner in which it is treated and the construction of 
the coke-ovens described in the paper, there are several points 
which are open to discussion. 

Setting aside the question of the recovery of the bye-products, 
there is apparently at the Oliver coke-works no attempt what- 
ever to utilize in any way the waste-gases from the ovens, either 
for raising steam or any other purpose. The ovens are burnt 
out of the top-eye. There may be some special reason for it, not 
explained in the paper, but it is rather surprising to find, in such 
a large plant and where so much money has been expended, that 
there is no arrangement of flues to the ovens. He (Mr. Hendy) 
thought that if a properly constructed main flue had been made 
between the rows of ovens, with branch flues from each oven into 
the main flue, and dampers so arranged in the branch flues that 
the coke-burner could regulate the proper proportion of air-supply 
to each oven and shut off the oven from the main flue when 
necessary, a much better and more economical result would have 
been obtained. 

The ovens appear to have been built (in the first instance) of 
ordinary fire-bricks, which after about 4 or 5 years have fallen in, 
partly owing, no doubt, to the poor quality of the bricks and partly 
to the construction of the oven. Mr. Keighley also appears to 
hare used a brick made of flint-clay containing about 64 per cent. 
of silica and 26 per cent, of alumina, but he (Mr. Hendy) could 
not make out from the paper where these bricks had been used. 
The latter is evidently a mixed brick, or a brick made of a 
mixture of clays yielding together the above proportions of silica 
and alumina. Mr. Keighley is now, however, using a brick con- 
taining about 97 per cent, of silica. Such a brick, no doubt, is 
eminently suitable for very high temperatures, but he (Mr. Hendy) 
doubted whether it would stand the constant heating and cooling 
to which a coke-oven was subjected, and he believed that if the 
coke was slacked in the oven, the water and steam would have the 
effect of cracking this brick and causing it to splinter and fall 



U2 



DISCUSSION COKE-MAKING AT OLIVER COKE-WORKS. 



into the oven in small pieces. He (Mr. Hendy) was of opinion 
that the best brick for use in building beehive coke-ovens con- 
tained about 70 per cent, of silica and 23 per cent, of alumina, and 
was made from a clay naturally yielding of itself these proportions 
of silica and aluminia. He had known several instances of such 
a brick lasting in beehive coke-ovens for 20 to 25 years : of course 
the back-eyes and door-jambs had been repaired during that time, 
but the body of the coke-ovens had stood for that period. 

He (Mr. Hendy) agreed with Mr. Steavenson that a diameter 
nf 11 feet was the most convenient and useful size for a beehive 
coke-oven. 

In the ovens at the Oliver works, the doors were only 2 feet 
8 inches wide and 2 feet 8 inches high to the spring of the arch : 
he thought that this door was rather narrow for a 12 feet oven, 
and that the drawer might experience some difficulty in drawing 
out the coke from the sides of the ovens. 

Further, it would be noticed that there was only one line of 
fails running along the centre, for loading both rows of ovens — 
an objection to only one line of rails was, of course, that the ovens 
could not be loaded so quickly as with two lines, and that if a 
stoppage or breakdown occurred on the only line, the loading wa& 
stopped on both rows of ovens. He preferred a line of rails 
running over each row of ovens, with a lighter and smaller loco- 
motive and smaller coal-tubs. 

A striking feature in this paper was the low cost of production 
compared with the rate of wages paid for coke-making. He 
noticed that chargers were paid 7s. 8d. per day ; ash-carters, 
tis. 8d. ; track-cleaners, 6s. 3d. ; car-shifters, 9s. 4d. ; masons, 
10s. 5d. ; and labourers, 6s. 3d. The cost of the coal put into the 
ovens was low, but something more than this appeared to be 
necessary to account for the low total cost of coke-production, 
when the above rates of wages were considered ; and it would be 
interesting to know the number of hours and amount of work done 
per day by the above workmen, and compare the same with those 
prevalent in this district. 

Mr. Keighley had told the members that he had sold coke for 
2s. lid. per ton. They were accustomed to hear of startling things 
irom America, and, certainly, the most extraordinary selling- 
price that he had heard of for blast-furnace coke was 2s. lid. 
per ton. 



DISCUSSION COKE-MAKING AT OLIVER COKE-WORKS. 16fr 

Mr. W. C. Blackett (Saeriston) thought that it was remark- 
able that so little account wag taken, in comparing the different 
kinds of coal, of the temperatures at which the coal carbonized. 
One gentleman, who found his coal, carbonizing as it did at 
a high temperature, to be best suited for a beehive coke-oven, 
would condemn another for using retort-ovens, although the latter 
might be better adapted to his particular class of coal, which 
coked at a lower temperature. A colliery-owner might be driven 
at last to work an inferior seam, and from bye-product ovens, he- 
would obtain as good, and sometimes better, coke than he would 
obtain, perhaps, from the same coal burnt in bee-hive ovens. In- 
bee-hive ovens, their fine Durham coal carbonized at a very high 
heat, and when they had a very high heat they got a deposit 
of carbon — similar to that in gas-retorts — upon the coke, giving- 
ifc a fine silvery and hard looking appearance. Some of the in- 
ferior coal did not carbonize at that high heat, and they did not 
get the same fine crystalline appearance and the same hardness,, 
and it was comparable with the black-looking coke, watered out- 
side, produced at bye-product ovens. 

Mr. W. 0. Wood (South Hetton) wrote that, judging from the- 
particulars given in Mr. Keighley's paper, coke-making was 
one of the things that could be done better in England. From 
a coal, containing 5*73 per cent, of ash, the resulting coke ought 
to contain 8*12 per cent of ash, and the 925 per cent, was no- 
doubt due to the fact that " no cleaning or slate-picking is done.'* 
Iron-masters in this country would certainly not be satisfied with 
a coke containing so high a percentage of ash. The yield appeared 
to be fairly good, and the breeze was apparently wasted. 

Without knowing the country, it was difficult to judge, but 
unless the region was very arid, the supply of water necessary for 
cooling the ovens could have been collected in reservoirs at a 
very 9mall proportion of the cost of the pipe-line, 12 miles in 
length, to say nothing of the cost of pumping the water. 

The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.) said that Mr. 
Blackett had raised an important point respecting the tempera- 
tures at which coal was carbonized, and this would make a con- 
siderable difference in the results obtained from the ovens. 



164 DISCUSSION — USB OF WA8TE-GASBS IN EXPLOSION-MOTORS. 




DISCUSSION OF MR. E. REUMAUX'S PAPER OX THE 
"USE OF WASTE-GASES FROM BYE-PRODUCT 
COKE-OVENS IN EXPLOSION-MOTORS."* 

Mr. W. M. Parbington (Wearmouth colliery) wrote that he 
considered Mr. Reumaux's deductions as to the desirability of 
using the waste-gases from coke-ovens for power purposes were 
unanswerable. Mr. Reumaux clearly showed that at a large 
colliery, coking, say, half its output, as much power could be got 
T>y using the waste-gases in explosion-motors as would meet all 
the requirements of such a colliery under average conditions as 
to depth, water to be pumped, etc. 

Mr. B. H. Thwaite (Westminster) wrote that Mr. Reumaux's 
paper was interesting and important, because it brought forward 
a subject that deserved the serious consideration of all owners 
of coke-ovens. If one were asked to provide an expression to 
signify in the briefest possible way the particular element that 
was supremely essential to a manufacturing nation, no better 
reply could be given than is embodied in the sentence " cheap 
and abundant fuel-power." Therefore, the question of utilizing 
the waste effluent gases from coke-ovens for the purpose of secur- 
ing directly or indirectly this supreme essential assumed at once 
a position of first-class importance. 

The production of power for any modern electrical industry 
likely to be of permanent value, should be abundant. The fuel 
should be such as to permit of its being used for the production of 
power in large units, and it should be of such regular composition 
as to permit electric machinery to be driven by it. The effluent 
gases from coke-ovens, however, do not provide either condition 
satisfactorily. The hydrocarbon-constituents of coke-oven *ras 
are extremely variable, and independently of their variability, 
they are too sensitive to combustion influences to permit of a satis- 
factory thermo-dynamic efficiency beinjr obtained. Further, the 
power-potential as given by Mr. Reumaux, is not sufficiently large 
to permit of the laying-down of electric apparatus of sufficient 
magnitude to satisfy the creation of an electrical industry. 

He (Mr. Thwaite) had two distinct methods of securing the 

most profitable use of the coke-oven effluent gas, and by these 

the objections raised were removed. One method was to dilute 

the effluent gas from the coke-ovens, with four times its volume 

* Tram. hint. M.E., 1901, vol. xxi., page 402. 



DISCUSSION — USE OF WASTB-GASBS IN EXPLOSION-MOTORS. 165 

of generator-gas, containing no appreciable proportion of hydro- 
gen, but having as its combustible constituent from 25 to 30 per 
cent, of carbonic oxide, such gas being generated from poor coke 
unsuitable for sale at a fair price. This method at once secured 
such a reduction in the proportion of the hydrocarbons, that the 
composite gas could be used for driving gas-engines of 1,000 
horsepower and with satisfactory cyclical regularity. The 
indicated horsepower of the gaseous effluents issuing from each 
unit coke-oven, would be raised from Mr. Reumaux's factor of 
15 to that of 63f indicated horsepower, so that a batten* of 120 
coke-ovens would have a power-potential of 7,6o0 indicated horse- 
power. This magnificent power-aggregate would only involve 
the putting on one side of 3*4 tons of poor coke, and this residue 
would be used to the best possible advantage. 

Where coke-ovens were associated with blast-furnaces, his 
(Mr. Thwaite's) second method was the best. This included the 
employment of the coke-oven gases as directly as possible for the 
purpose of firing the hot-blast stoves, for the purpose of setting 
free blastfurnace-gas for the production of power in gas-engines. 
He had demonstrated that blastfurnace-gas was, as nearly as 
possible, ideal for power-production purposes, and the use of 
wke-oven gas in hot-blast stoves would enable a higher and more 
equable stove-temperature to be maintained, because no lime or 
other incombustible matter would be introduced into the stove 
with the gas ; and although blastfurnace-gas was so ideal for pro- 
ducing power, it was nevertheless inferior to coke-oven gas for 
heating purposes in which combustion was effected in fire-brick 
stoves or furnaces. 

It would be noticed, on referring to the table of data supplied 
hy Mr. Reumaux* that he gave the electrical horsepower ratio in 
No. 1 experiment as being equal to 16*42 ; this he (Mr. Thwaite) 
thought should be 15*33. In Xo. 2 experiment, Mr. Reumaux 
gives the figure as 17*10, but this he (Mr. Thwaite) also 
thought should be 16'85.t The variation in power would thus be 
(10*85 — 15*33 = ) 1*52 electric horsepower, resulting from the 
variable hydrocarbons present in the gas. This constituted a ^ery 
serious variation, and one that was quite inadmissible where the 
motive power had to be harnessed to electric generating machinery. 



• Ttwm. In*t. M.E., 1901, vol. xxi., page 404. 

t An electrical horsepower is 736 Watts in France, and 746 Watts in Great 
Britain.— Editor. 

VOL.XX1V.-1SM-1M*. 12 



160 DISCUSSION ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 

DISCUSSION OF MR. G. P. LISHMAN'S PAPER OX 
" THE ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS." # 
Mr. W. C. Blackett expressed his appreciation of Mr. Lish- 
man's paper. He thought that analyses of gas-coal were often 
unfair and unreliable, and not unfrequently cargoes would be 
condemned because a few pounds, or it might be grains, of coal 
had given unsatisfactory results in the laboratory. 

Mr. H. Dunford Smith (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) compli- 
mented Mr. Lishman upon the apparatus, which had been adopted 
at the Lambton collieries. He considered the plan of water- 
jacketting the condensers a very good one, and wished that it was 
universally adopted. From 60 to 90 minutes seemed to be rather 
a long time to be occupied in making a test : he thought that 45 
to 50 minutes should be long enough, and he would like to know 
whether the additional time made any difference in the sperm- 
value. 

Dr. H. S. Pattinson (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that this 
paper, dealing as it did with difficulties encountered in the testing 
of coal on a small laboratory scale to determine its value for gas- 
making purposes, was chiefly of interest to those whose business 
it was to make such tests. The value of these tests, of course, 
depended upon how they compared with the results obtained on 
the working scale in gas-works. If it was found by experience 
that the laboratory-test bore a definite ratio, within reasonable 
limits, to the result obtained when the coal was used in the gas- 
works, then the laboratory- test had a high value. Although 
there was some difference of opinion on the subject, yet he 
thought that it might be taken as generally conceded by gas-works 
managers and chemists that tests on a laboratory-scale of a coal 
formed useful guides as to the illuminating-value of the coal. 
It had been found by experience that the results given by a coal 
on a gas-manufacturing scale were inferior to those obtained from 
the coal in a coal-testing apparatus ; but the difference between 
them had been found, within reasonable limits, to be fairly con- 
stant, so that a gas-works manager from his own experience 
might ascertain what deduction from the sperm-value of a coal 
given by the laboratory-test had to be made, to shew him what 
the coal would yield him industrially. Anything that would 
* Tram. Imt. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 567. 



DISCUSSION ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 167 

assist us to obtain regular results in laboratory-trials was of 
interest and value, and the members were indebted to Mr. Lish- 
man for giving them the benefit of his experience. 

The difficulties in the way of obtaining regular results he 
rightly points out to be due : — (1) To variation of the heat of the 
distillation-retort, and (2) to the effects of the changes of 
temperature upon the condensable products of the gas in the tar- 
condensers and purifiers. He (Dr. Pattinson) had not found the 
first of these to offer great difficulty. A fair measure of the heat 
was the time required to expel all the gas, and by allowing a 
certain time for expelling say 10 to 10£ cubic feet from 2\ pounds; 
of coal, and adjusting the heat so as to drive off the gas in that 
time, the temperature of the retort might be taken to be fairly 
constant. With regard to the second point, he was surprised to 
learn that in Mr. Lishman's experience he still obtained very vari- 
able results, when the external heat around the cooling-pipes and 
purifiers and in the gas-holder was maintained constant by 
artificial means. Mr. Lishman offered no explanation of this 
and he could see no obvious one. 

Mr. Lishman's remedy for all irregularities was to make a 
comparative test of each sample with a " standard coal " obtained 
from a " standard seam," and proportionately as the results 
obtained with a standard coal varied from the normal, he made a 
correction upon the results given by the sample. He took no 
objection to the principle of correcting by a standard, but it was 
not every one who had a " standard coal " or a " standard seam " 
always available. And, he might be permitted perhaps to add, 
that knowing how the coal in most seams varied from time to time, 
he would feel very doubtful about his " standard seam " always 
being up to the standard. He feared that most people would 
have to do without their " standard seam " of coal. 

He would point out in conclusion that the time mentioned by 
Mr. Lishman for distillation, namely, 60 to 90 minutes, indicated 
that he used an unusually low temperature in his retort, and, that 
the slow rate at which the gas passed over would tend to increase 
the effects in the cooling-pipes and purifiers due to variations of 
external temperature. The time which was aimed at in his 
firm's laboratory varied from 45 to 50 minutes. 

Mr. James Stewart (Editor of the Gas World, London), wrote 
that if Mr. Lishman had made a cursory enquiry into the litera- 



168 



DISCUSSION ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 



ture of gas-making he would not have introduced his paper with 
the statement that " there is an almost total absence in scientific 
journals of papers on the testing of ga8-coal. ,, * The Transactions 
of the different associations of gas-managers and the volumes of 
the journals specially devoted to gas-matters would have fur- 
nished him with numerous papers on the subject, to say nothing 
of the special treatises on gas-manufacture, from that of Clegg 
{published in 1840) onward. Then, after revealing his lack of 
acquaintance with what has been written on the subject of which 
he treats, Mr. Lishman asserts that " although coal-testing 
plants are attached to most gasworks now, they are usually of 
but limited use to the engineer, who still has to rely mainly on 
his working-scale results." It would be interesting to know 
what, if any, justification Mr. Lishman has for this statement. 
Of course, in a literal sense, the use of every separate apparatus 
is limited to the purpose which it subserves, and the ultimate and 
principal criterion of the value of a coal is found in its working 
results. 

The object of the paper was to describe the apparatus in 
use at Lambton, to point out the difficulties which commonly 
beset the novice in coal -testing, and to explain the means ulti- 
mately employed by the author to remove those difficulties and 
to remedy the irregular results which had hitherto been obtained. 
The apparatus is of the usual type, for the distillation of 0001 
ton. Mr. Lishman is well advised in heating his retort by gas, 
rather than by a coal or coke fire, as it is vastly more convenient 
of manipulation and more under control ; and with a regulated 
gas-supply and occasional experiments with a Siemens pyro- 
meter, the carbonizing temperature may be maintained as 
desired, within very narrow limits. 

The illustration! shows a scrubber with a water-supply, but, 
from the paper itself, it is questionable whether it is employed. 
In fact, with an apparatus on so small a scale it is practically 
impossible (except with very great loss of illuminants) to wash 
the gas with thoroughness, or even to remove all condensable 
matter from it; and consequently Mr. Lishman has to confess 
that, to obtain steadily concordant results, he finds heavy con- 
densation necessary. Without some scrubbing of the gas on 

* Tram. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 567. 
t Ibid., page 574, Plate XXVIII. 



DISCUSSION — ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 16? 

wetted surfaces, it is impossible to get the minute vesicles of liquid 
hydrocarbons, which are carried forward mechanically by the 
gas, to coalesce and fall out of it. Thus, while the temperature 
may be brought down to a fairly low degree, the gas, containing 
these traces of liquid hydrocarbons, which by the rougher treat- 
ment of the gas-works are removed, will possess a high and 
fallacious illuminating power. And this, he (the Editor) imagined r 
will help to explain how colliery-analysts obtain the high results 
that are never borne out in practice. 

An interesting part of the paper is that in which the author 
shows the application of a standard coal as a criterion in 
testing others. The method is as follows : — Having at command 
a coal which can be relied upon to remain fairly constant in 
quality, its sperm-value under certain conditions being well 
established, he makes a test of this coal along with every other 
coal being tested ; and as the sperm-value shown for the standard 
coal, under existing conditions, compares with that hitherto 
determined, so is the value obtained for the new coal corrected, 
up or down. The idea is not, of course, entirely original. Every 
expert in coal-testing has discovered the use of a coal of fairly 
uniform and known quality for checking the reliable working 
of his apparatus before submitting to it some entirely new 
material. The systematic application of the idea, in the way 
recommended by Mr. Lishman, has not, however, been advocated 
before ; and this proposal is distinctly to his credit. 

There will probably always be differences of opinion and 
practice among gas-engineers in regard to coal-testing. The 
fact is, two different objects have to be served by a coal-testing 
plant. It is required, (1) to ascertain the comparative values 
to the gas-maker of different coals ; and Mr. Lishman recognizes, 
with more justice and candour than some experimentalists have 
shown, that the true interest of both buyer and seller of gas- 
coals is served by aiming at results which approximate to what 
may be attained on the large scale in a well-conducted and 
properly equipped gas-works. The non-recognition of this prin- 
ciple by sellers of coal, or their analysts, has led, in the past, 
to much heartburning on the part of gas-managers ; who, having 
hought on the strength of some hopeful analysis, have been justly 
uulignant when corresponding results could not be obtained in 
practice. 



170 



DISCUSSION — ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 



Then, (2) the object of a coal-testing plant in a gas-works 
is to check both the quality of the coals periodically received, 
and the efficiency of the carbonizing plant and its supervision. 
For this latter purpose, the isolation of one or more of the 
ordinary working-retorts (providing, of course, the necessary 
separate condensing and purifying plant) is sometimes practised. 
And this method has its advantages, especially as it approxi- 
mates closely to working-scale practice. On the other hand, the 
retort with its heating arrangements is not entirely under the 
control of the experimentalists ; and the plant, as a whole, does 
not afford the same facilities as a smaller and self-contained one 
does for experimenting on improved methods of working. And 
in addition to furnishing a summary of actual working results, 
the coal -test should serve, at times, as an example of, and as a 
guide to, better working. 

Mr. W. Doig Gibb (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that Mr. 
Lishman's paper dealt with a subject which was of equal interest 
to mining- and to gas-engineers, but the two branches of the pro- 
fession would probably be inclined to judge the subject-matter 
of the paper from distinct sides, although in reality their in- 
terests were identical, in that it was of equal importance to 
both that they should be able quickly, and with a fair amount 
of accuracy, to determine the relative value of coals raised and 
used for gas-making purposes. 

The literature of gas-making did not include many reliable 
and accurate papers on the testing of coals, and, parti}* in conse- 
quence of that deficiency, the methods employed in testing coal 
at various gas-works were at present not uniform, but depended 
almost entirely upon the individual ideas of those in charge. 
Further, in comparatively few gas-works was a coal-testing plant 
used at all, and an apparatus could be very usefully introduced 
into many gas-works where at present they relied solely upon 
the appearance of the coal. In such works, they were apt to 
blame the raw material if good and uniform results were not 
obtained, and did not take into consideration that there was a 
considerable element of doubt introduced, in that the carboniza- 
tion of the different samples might not have been carried on 
under exactly similar conditions. While the use of a testing- 
plant of the size named by Mr. Lishman was, of course, of great 
advantage to gas-works, it could only be regarded as one which 



DISCUSSION ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 171 

would, in the best circumstances, give approximate results to 
those attained on a working scale ; but it had the great advant- 
age that the results were got quickly and economically. It was, 
of course, of no great use to a gas-maker in conducting experi- 
ments with different enriching agents, etc., and, for this latter 
purpose — as well as for obtaining more accurate results as to the 
carbonization of coal in bulk — it was very desirable for larger 
gas-works to possess, in addition to a laboratory-plant, a com- 
plete plant on a working scale. 

As regards laboratory-plant, most gas-engineers would agree 
with almost all Mr. Lishman's conclusions ; and his practice of 
taking a certain seam of Lambton coal as a standard was, from 
his point of view, an excellent one. From a gas-engineer's point 
of view, the writer would prefer to assume a theoretically perfect 
gas-coal, giving it, say, an arbitrary value of 100, and then com- 
pare the tests of the different coals against this and give as their 
value a number which would bear the same proportion to 100 as 
their value did to the theoretically perfect coal. 

He had no doubt that Mr. Lishman would be subject to critic- 
ism as regards his arrangements for condensation, etc., but in the 
present state of coal-testing it was impossible to do otherwise than 
erect condensers, etc., of a size which seemed best to the designer 
and when those were erected (whether large or small) to endeavour 
to keep the whole apparatus in a room where an uniform tempera- 
ture could be maintained. The arrangement might or might not 
give the best possible results (although experiments would tend 
towards getting the best) but at all events it might be counted 
upon to give with considerable accuracy comparative values. This 
(it seemed to the writer) was all that could be done, since he 
wag afraid that no two engineers would, at the present time, agree 
upon what was the theoretically perfect amount of condensation 
required and how this condensation was to be effected. 

Dr. AY. Carrick Anderson (University of Glasgow) wrote that 
he had been much interested in Mr. Lishman's paper. Apart 
from the particular topic with which it dealt, it was valuable in 
helping to direct attention to the need there was for systematic 
examination and testing of coal, generally, in respect of its suit- 
ability for different purposes. In the case of gas-coals, Mr. Lish- 
man stated clearly the difficulties that confronted the chemist 
m testing them for yield and quality of gas. These were of two 



172 



DISCUSSION — NOTES OX DETONATORS. 



kinds : — (1) Those that centre in the retort, and (2) those that are 
associated with the cooling and purifying apparatus. Those 
which he classified as being due to the difference of results found 
in various gas-works were of course in themselves for the most part 
ultimately referable to one or other or both of the above groups. 

Any and every coal would split up differently, according as 
the heat was raised more rapidly or more slowly upon it, and in 
practice no two firings of a retort would be identical in their 
effects upon the coal even with the most careful working. In 
an experimental retort he was afraid that, even with electrical 
heating, which would be more equable and more readily con- 
trolled than firing by combustion, satisfactory results could hardly 
be counted on, although this was a point which seemed to him (Dr. 
Anderson) to be worth investigating. With the condensing part 
of the apparatus, as Mr. Irishman's experiments showed, the same 
was true, and absolute constancy of result was impracticable. 

They were, therefore, driven to refer their results to a standard 
as Mr. Lishman had done. He would suggest, however, that this 
standard should not be one chosen by each experimenter for him- 
self, but that a standard gas-coal should be selected for the whole 
country. Such societies as the Institution of Mining Engineers 
and the Society of Chemical Industry might collaborate with 
advantage in a work of this kind. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. H. BIGG-WITHERS "NOTES 
ON DETONATORS."* 

Mr. F. H. Edwards (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that Mr. 
Bigg- Wither appeared to place the responsibility of miss-fires 
with nitrate-of-ammonium explosives on the detonator, whereas 
it was a wellknown fact that explosives of the nitrate-of- 
ammonium class were difficult to detonate at any time, and more 
especially so if the explosive happened to absorb moisture, which 
it was certain to do if kept for any time in a store or magazine. No 
matter what high explosive is used, consumers could not be too 
careful in selecting the best quality of detonators, as this was a 
very important factor in blasting operations, whether in the mine 
or in the open. 

Mr. A. C. Kayll (Gosforth) wrote that Mr. Bigg- Withers 

* Tram. Imt. M.E., 1901, vol. xxi., page 442. 



DISCUSSION NOTES ON DETONATORS. 173" 

practical and illustrative notes on detonators opened up an inter- 
esting and important discussion on the causes of miss-fires and 
incomplete detonation of explosives. It could readily be assumed 
that detonators would absorb moisture and be rendered useless, 
when packed in damp sawdust or even when the detonator was 
not entirely freed from sawdust before attaching it to the fuse 
or electric cable. In such instances, the onus of a miss-fire could, 
with justice, be put upon the detonator, as no sound would be 
heard, a clear proof that the detonator had not exploded. Miss- 
fires may, however, occur owing to the detonator becoming 
detached from the charge, when placed in position in the shot- 
hole or during the process of stemming, and then the detonator 
or the explosive would unjustly be blamed, as there are no means 
of ascertaining the true facts under actual mining conditions. 

During the extensive series of experiments conducted by the 
Explosives Committee of the North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers there were many instances of 
incomplete detonation of the charge caused by faulty explosives ; 
miss-fires arising from the electric cable becoming short-circuited, 
when running the cannon into position ; * and only two instances 
occurred from the detonator being defective. These detonators 
were subsequently tried with other electric exploders, with non- 
effective results. Damp sawdust could not be assigned as a 
reason in these instances, as the detonators were of the enclosed 
type with attached wires. 

The question, therefore, arose : Are all detonators regular in 
their action when fired? The experiments of the Explosives 
Committee showed that many detonators caused an ignition of an 
explosive mixture of gas and air, but some did not. He thought 
&at Mr. Bigg-Wither's experiments with leaden blocks might 
do much to elucidate this question. 

Mr. Harold Bonsek (Leeds) wrote that the experiments 
*hieh had been carried out and illustrated by Mr. Bigg- Wither 
Te *7 clearly demonstrated the ill-effects created by even the 
•lightest trace of moisture on the fulminate of the detonator, 
greatly reducing its force and impairing its efficiency in blasting 
operations by causing partial detonation of the explosive. To 
tins cause could be attributed many miss-fires, partial detona- 
tions, and ignitions of the charge of explosive without detonation, 

Report of the Proceedings of the Flamelem Exploitive*! Committee, page 102. 



174 



DISCUSSION — NOTES ON DETONATORS. 



too much attention, therefore, could not be paid to this subject, 
as so many of the modern safety-explosives depended on complete 
detonation for their safety. Electric detonator-fuses had of 
late been much improved in quality, and compared favourably 
with the old-time methods of firing shots by means of a length of 
time-fuse, as regards cost and expense. The adoption of elec- 
tricity for the important mining operation of shot-firing, not only 
in fiery and dusty mines, but in all other seams where blasting 
was a necessity, had reduced many of the chances of miss-fire. 
In the process of manufacture of electric fuses, the detonator is 
hermetically sealed on to the terminals of the wires, and this effec- 
tively excludes all moisture from the fulminate. He hoped that 
this paper might meet the eye of members who still pursued the 
ancient methods of shot-firing, and that it would induce them to 
give a trial to modern systems. Not only was moisture excluded 
in electric fuses, but, by their use, safety was assured to the work- 
man who had to proceed to the place after a shot had been fired, 
and greater comfort to every person in the mine from the entire 
absence of fuse-smoke. 

Mr. H. Bigg-Wither (Wigan) wrote that his "Notes on 
Detonators " had reference to detonators only, as an hitherto 
unsuspected cause of missed shots, and presupposed that the 
explosive itself, as well as the electric attachments to the 
detonator, were in proper working order, that the detonator 
did actually explode within the charge, and that, although the 
sound of the explosion was clearly heard, nevertheless, the charge 
was not detonated ; the cause of the failure being that the 
detonator itself had become ineffective through absorbing damp, 
and, therefore, it did not set up a true detonating wave, which was 
essential in order to explode high explosives efficiently. Mr. 
Bonser very rightly pointed out that, in the absence of true detona- 
tion, the charge of explosive failed to perform its work, or even that 
the charge might be ignited and burn in the shot-hole. In this 
connection he had been making further experiments with 
detonators, fired on leaden plates, with a view to observing the 
relative body of flame given off by a good detonator (A, Fig. 5*) 
and a bad one (E, Fig. 6t). With the tester (Fig. 4J) placed 
sideways, but not screened, a good detonator showed a bright 

* Trans. Imt. M.E., 1901, vol. xxi., page 445. 

+ Ibid., page 447. J Ibid., page 443. 



DISCUSSION TESTING LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 175 

flash extending about £ inch beyond the edges of the tester, 
accompanied by sparks, which, doubtless, were incandescent 
particles of the copper tube. The flame was not solid, and in some 
pirts was of a bluish tinge. A bad detonator, on the other hand, 
produced a solid body of bright white flame extending at least 
() inches on either side of the edges of the tester. These experi- 
ments were repeated with the tester screened, 4 inches on either 
side. A good detonator only showed sparks ; whereas, bad ones 
showed the same bright flame, extending at least 2 inches beyond 
the screen. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. W. E. GARFORTH'S PAPER ON 
AN "EXPERIMENTAL GALLERY FOR TESTING 
LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS."* 

Mr. W. H. Picketing (H.M. Inspector of Mines, Doncaster) 
wrote that in cases of colliery-explosions and fires, there was 
never a lack of volunteers, brave to recklessness, and ready to 
lace any danger to save life, but a corps of trained men equipped 
with proper apparatus would have been invaluable in many cases. 
In his opinion, stations should be established in every mining 
district, where men could be trained in rescue-work and where 
all necessary appliances could be stored ready for use ; where also 
explosives and safety-lamps could be tested. Such stations 
should not be initiated and maintained by private enterprise, but 
should be supported by a small annual subscription from every 
colliery-owner, and the management of the stations might be 
entrusted to a representative committee, of a composition similar 
to the Boards for Examinations. 

Mr. H. W. Halbaum (Gateshead) wrote that he was not 
anxious to throw cold water on any scheme the object of which was 
the saving of human life, and, speaking in the abstract, it was 
hardly necessary to say that he was in full sympathy with Mr. Gar- 
forth's work. He thought, however, that Mr. Garforth's method 
attempted to hustle them on to a stage more advanced than they 
w *re at present entitled to approach. Possibly the apparatus 
Scribed by Mr. Garforth might be found useful when seal- 
mg-ofi a gob or other mine fire, especially when putting in the 

• Tram. Inst. M.E., 1901, vol. xxii., page 169. 









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176 DISCUSSION' TESTING LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 



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V *™~'/*\?? I* 8 * stopping. But it could hardly be of any real service to a 

V- sy£\*y;* party exploring after an explosion with the object of rescue. The 

• ; . -^/;^% following reasons for this opinion might be stated in order : — 
;^-->^i>?jS (1) Judging from Mr. Garforth's own description, the 

.; *v^*, ! ' : 3" apparatus appeared to be faulty, whatever degree of excellence it 

' ; '.*'/\' : '^-v might or might not attain in the future. 

••" ' r "'. '?v ri '**■ (2) The difficulty of obtaining pure oxygen, according to Dr. 

>?;£ ?■*£ HaJdane, appeared to be considerable ; and if the impure oxygen, 

* r *' ,* ; ; ^ ordinarily obtainable, were employed, the use of the helmet, inde- 

•^ pendently of the state of the external atmosphere in the mine, 

might easily bring about the very disaster that it was designed to 

• r 'V>'*7^V avoid, namely, the suffocation of the wearer. 

?* "£■!' (3) While scarcely lessening the recognized danger of inhal- 

ing the irrespirable gases contained in the after-damp, the use of 
" : "Vy \ '■* :r y- ~:^, the apparatus accentuated and magnified the (at least equal) 

y V " V -• danger of accident due to the comparative inability of the wearer 

i- ; ;v - t ^.j clearly to perceive his surroundings when creeping over the falls, 

and past the " side-wavers," and under the loosely overhanging 
jf~i] rocks left by the passage of the blast. 

: ? lv;^»^ (4) The benefit of the helmet was more apparent than real„ 

as it deprived the wearer of exactly as much advantage as it gave. 

It might enable a man to penetrate farther into a deadly atmos- 

ai>* ;: •$/*;££' phere, but, on the other hand, the man, being then farther removed 

**' ' * ** | from the fresh air, was put into so much greater peril when distress 

appeared ; and, according to Mr. Garforth's account, distressing 
symptoms were liable to manifest themselves at any moment. 
£. S'fji.rT' '&*% Thus it clearly appeared that the measure of the helmeted 

£*.: \%A : y '! explorer's penetration into the foul atmosphere was also the direct 

. V : ^ ? I |-^j measure of his peril ; and those two entities (the penetration and 

• "••'■'If- *>./. '^ the peril) would remain in constant ratio, until an absolutely 

'••'* '--. '^ \. r -» perfect apparatus was invented and adopted. As yet, however, 

v -r> V**'S ''"■} there were no signs of such a perfect apparatus being put on the 

S>^ i^Vi; w ? market. 

(5) Such an apparatus as that described by Mr. Garforth, or 

even a perfect apparatus of the kind, would appear to be, except 

in the very rarest of rare circumstances, a wholly superfluous and 

unnecessary encumbrance in rescue-work. For, supposing that 

p '^ r T- ' '♦' the appliance enabled the explorer to penetrate with safety to 

•••'^V- ; " ; " V/? himself into the most deadly atmospheres, it would certainly 

* ".\* :.! '*"» "" • > never enable him to find living men in such atmospheres, and 



DISCUSSION TESTING LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 177 

hence he could perform no rescue in the true sense of the word. 
It might be replied that the apparatus would allow the explorer 
to fix the ventilating-pipes more quickly ; but ventilating-tubes 
skald not be fixed too quickly, or further accidents might ensue. 
Large volumes of gas should be removed cautiously and slowly, 
and be diluted with still larger volumes of air, and the pipes could 
be extended quickly enough for this purpose by adhering to 
ordinary methods. 

(6) If such an apparatus was to be of real service, it was the 
entombed person at the face who required it. It was he who, in 
order to escape to the shaft, must of necessity go through the 
noxious atmosphere. But, in that case, he must be in possession 
of it before the explosion occurred. And if that very obvious 
view were admitted, it was the logical inference that the apparatus 
should become an essential part of the daily outfit of every 
individual workman. And did anyone seriously imagine that the 
average workman would continually keep his apparatus in perfect 
working order, in view of a contingency so remote as a future 
explosion ? 

(7) If, however, they reverted to the practical possibilities of 
the case, and said that the apparatus was for the use of the rescue- 
partly only, it was difficult to see what real want it supplied. The 
apparatus obscured their vision, impeded their movements, and 
increased their peril by temporarily concealing the state of the 
atmosphere. But, apart from the merits or demerits of the appli- 
ance, he contended that comparatively safe rescue-work could 
he effected without it. Rescue- work was not always conducted 
as safely as it might be : there was generally a little recklessness 
or impetuosity, which under the circumstances was excusable, 
but it was nevertheless a real element of danger. Imagine a 
string of rescuers traversing a passage of the exploded mine : the 
first man got into the after-damp and fell down ; the second man 
ran to his aid, and was likewise stricken down by the deleterious 
gases, and in such a case possibly both men perished. If so, how- 
ever, they perished through sheer recklessness — not solely their 
°*n, but that of the entire party. Such incidents, as a general 
rule, were not the necessary accompaniments of judicious explor- 
es- He would suggest that many of those lamentable accidents 
Bright have been averted, by merely adopting the simple but time- 
^orn and time-tried methods of the seaman and the mountaineer. 



178 



DISCUSSION — TESTING LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 



A few years ago, at a large colliery in the county of Durham, a 
deputy for some reason or other ventured into a foul place, and was 
overpowered by the gas ; a fellow-workman went to his assistance 
and shared a like fate ; yet another man went to the rescue and he, 
likewise, was stricken down ; and all three men lost their lives. 
Now, had that deputy gone in with one end of a sufficient length 
of rope attached to his waist, and left a man outside in charge of 
the other end, he might, on falling, have been hauled out with 
little difficulty, absolutely without risk to his rescuer, and, the 
delay being reduced to a minimum, he himself might have been 
easily revived by the inducing of artificial respiration. In the 
majority of cases where the leading man of an exploring-party 
was knocked down, approximately, if not precisely, similar con- 
ditions prevailed ; and in every exploring expedition through an 
exploded mine, the leading man, or the first couple of men, should 
be attached to their followers by a light but sufficiently strong 
rope, and at least two of the party behind should be expert at 
the process of inducing artificial respiration. By such means, 
exploring might be made comparatively safe, and in his opinion, 
the use of any helmet or other similar apparatus would tend to 
increased danger rather than increased safety. When the irre- 
spirable atmosphere was found, it was folly to attempt to penetrate 
it, whether helmeted or otherwise. Such attempts to invade the 
undoubted atmosphere of death might be heroic, or they might be 
foolhardy, but they could scarcely have any tangible useful 
result in the way of rescue-work. 

He (Mr. Halbaum) would be glad to see ambulance- instruc- 
tion more widespread before adopting Mr. Garforth's heroic 
scheme. Falls of stone were more numerous than explosions of 
gas ; the former class of accident was always with them, and 
rescue- parties after the latter class of accident needed for their 
own safety and efficiency little more than a capable and cautious 
leader, a good rope, a thorough knowledge of the Sylvester method 
of inducing artificial respiration, and perhaps a stimulating 
drink. Where Mr. Garforth's helmeted explorer was called on 
once, the expert ambulance-man might be called on fifty times. 
They might, moreover, remember the axiom that when common- 
sense measures fail, heroic measures seldom succeed. It was 
much to be feared that, whatever the case might be elsewhere, 
ambulance propaganda was far too much neglected in the mining 



DISCUSSION — TESTING LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 179 

villages of the Xorth of England ; and until such neglect had been 
effectively remedied, it would be premature to adopt in that 
locality any scheme such as that proposed by Mr. Garforth. 
Moreover, the inevitable effect of bestowing undue attention on 
fascinating but impracticable systems of that kind was naturally 
to induce one to relax one's efforts in extending those well-proved 
systems, which might indeed be less showy, but which, on the 
other hand, were infinitely more practicable, reliable and 
beneficent. 

The Pbesident (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.) suggested that Mr. 
Garforth referred not so much to the erection of depots for the 
storing of life-saving apparatus, as to the desirability of erecting 
experimental galleries in which such apparatus could be tested. 

Mr. T. E. Foester (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) referred to an 
accident at Killingworth colliery, in which the difficulty was not 
to rescue the men who were working in the mine at the time, but 
to save those who went down wearing the Fleuss apparatus. 

Captain J. H. Thomson (H.M. Chief Inspector of Explosives, 
Whitehall) wrote that the establishment of an experimental 
gallery was, in his opinion, a very important step towards the 
working out of a thoroughly satisfactory apparatus which would 
enable men to enter places where the atmosphere was irrespirable. 
Mr. Garforth 's paper did not give a detailed description of the 
apparatus used in the experiments, but he gathered that it was 
designed to absorb the expired carbonic acid, and to supply the 
deficiency of oxygen. He did not think that this was the best 
method of attacking the problem, and, as a matter of fact, it 
appeared that men wearing this apparatus could not perform hard 
work for any length of time. The apparatus should be, he 
thought, of so simple a character that it would be unlikely to 
get out of order, even if left unused for a considerable length of 
time. For this reason, indiarubber pipes and any fittings which 
were liable to deteriorate on keeping, should be avoided. He 
thought that the simplest way would be, as Dr. Xicholson and 
Dr. Markham had suggested, to supply air from steel cylinders and 
to exhale into the atmosphere. The average adult exhaled about 
330 cubic feet per 24 hours, but a man when doing hard work 
might exhale as much as 850 cubic feet, or about 35 cubic feet 



180 DISCUSSION GRUBB SIGHT FOR SURVEYING-INSTRUMENTS. 

per hour. If he were to cany on his back, two steel cylinders, 
4 inches in diameter and 2 feet long, these cylinders would hold, 
at a pressure of 100 atmospheres, about 25 cubic feet of air, and 
would weigh, when empty, about 12 pounds each. They would 
hold, therefore, sufficient air to enable a man to perform hard 
work for nearly | hour, and the supply would probably last longer 
than this, as the man would not be exerting himself the whole 
time. The cylinders might be fitted with a main valve, a reduc- 
ing valve, and a regulating cock, by which latter the man could 
govern the supply of air at will. He also suggested that there 
should be a short length of helical-steel piping, passing over 
the man's shoulder and fitted with a wooden mouthpiece, which 
could be held in the mouth by means of the teeth. Air could 
then be exhaled through the lips, and the nostrils could be closed 
with a clip or, better still, with soft wax. Of course, the air 
which was compressed would be previously purified, and a little 
-excess of oxygen might be added. Care should also be taken to 
ascertain that there was no oily or other oxidizable material in 
the cylinder before compression. He imagined that an apparatus 
of this description might be kept at a mine or elsewhere for 
several years, and still be ready for use at any moment. He was 
recently asked to consider the possibility of a man carrying an 
apparatus by means of which the air that he breathed could be 
freed from carbonic oxide gas, and he was impressed by the very 
-considerable difficulties attending any such attempt at purifying 
air as it was breathed. 



DISCUSSION OF SIR HOWARD GRUBB'S AND MR. 
HENRY DAVIS' PAPER ON "THE GRUBB SIGHT 
FOR SURVEYING-INSTRUMENTS.'* 

Mr. H. Jepsox (Durham) said that the purpose of the instru- 
ment seemed to provide a permanent adjustment for parallax. 
The authors did not suggest that it should replace the telescope 
or the theodolite, and he understood that it was only useful as a 
substitute for the old-fashioned sight fitted with horse-hairs. 

Prof. Henry Stroud (Durham College of Science) wrote that 
he agreed with the authors that it was impossible to focus simul- 
taneously two or more objects at different planes. The Grubb 
* Tram. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 118. 



DISCUSSIOX — GRUBB SIGHT FOR STOtVEYING-TXSTRrMENTS. 181 

sight appeared to be an important improvement, as it made the 
process of sighting at once accurate and simple. It should be, 
he thought, of especial service as an attachment to the miners' 
dial. 

Prof. Henry Loins (Durham College of Science) wrote that 
he had had an opportunity of examining the Grubb sight, and 
found that it gave fairly sharp definitions under the conditions of 
illumination prevailing underground, but was less satisfactory for 
surface-work. He found it very difficult to bring the image of the 
cross sharply enough upon a flagstaff standing up against the 
sky-line. He also noticed that the arms of the cross were rather 
too broad for accurate work in the instrument which he had 
examined ; in this, he found that the width of the cross at 
the eye subtended an angle about equivalent to a chord of x^ir 
w) that an error equal to the thickness of a ranging-rod could occur 
in a sight less than 130 feet in length. He would suggest that 
more accurate sighting could be done if the cross had a fine dark 
line along the centre of the luminous arms, or if these cross-arms 
did not quite meet in the centre and each terminated in a point. 

He rather objected to the arrangement of the sights as adapted 
to the ordinary dial, because it was necessary, as now arranged, 
to turn the sights over on the trunnions between each fore-sight 
and back-sight ; and there was always some risk of displacing the 
dial by thus handling it between two consecutive observations at 
the same station. It would probably be better if the sight were 
duplex, so that either end could be used as a fore- or a back-sight, 
as the case might require. 

Sir Howard Grubb seemed to have overlooked the fact that 

in using his method of subtense measurements in plane-table 

work an error was introduced that might easily become serious ; 

tie instrument read off on the level-staff an intercept proportional 

to the hypothenuse of the vertical triangle of which the staff 

formed the perpendicular, the measurement really required being 

*h e base and not the hypothenuse. The distance read off would 

accordingly require correction by calculation, unless the ingenious 

a Ppliance of Ljungstrom were used, as it is in some of the best 

Radish plane-tables. In the Ljungstrom device, the alidade 

c ^rie 8 a telescope by means of which the subtense reading for 

Stance is obtained. The alidade also carries the scale for 

*ol, xxrv.-iws-ww, 13 



182 DISCUSSION — GRUBB SIGHT FOR SURVEYING-INSTRUMENTS. 



plotting, but this scale is engraved on a strip of metal hinged to 
the fiducial edge; a pricker travels along the edge, the position 
of which is set off on the scale according to the subtense reading. 
By a simple mechanical arrangement, the scale is so connected 
with the telescope as to be parallel to the fiducial edge when the 
telescope is horizontal, and to be inclined to it in proportion as 
the telescope is inclined upwards or downwards ; so that, while 
the length of the hypothenuse is set off on the scale, the distance 
traversed by the pricker along the fiducial edge of the alidade 
always gives the correct length corresponding with base, i.e., to 
the true horizontal distance. Such a device for automatically 
correcting the error of the subtense reading could easily be 
applied to the Grubb sight. 

On cursory examination, it would seem that one of the most 
promising applications of the principle of the Grubb sight should 
be to the proposed modification of the prismatic compass, and he 
(Prof. H. Louis^ hoped that this proposal would soon be worked 
out in a practical form. 

Mr. Henry Davis (Derby) wrote that perhaps too much 
modesty was shewn by the inventor as to the capabilities and 
accuracy of the new sight. In his (Mr. Davis') opinion it would 
displace the telescope for colliery-surveys, both for underground 
and surf ace- work ; and readings to 1 minute of arc could be made 
with a finely-marked sight, a degree of accuracy which was 
difficult to plot. A pocket monocular field -glass rendered the 
process easy and accurate. Doubtless, the theodolite and level 
would still be employed for extensive surface-surveys, but for 
underground work and general surface-surveys these instruments 
would be displaced by the Grubb sight. Referring to Prof. 
Henry Louis' statement that he had found a difficulty in observing 
the cross upon a flag-staff standing up against the sky-line : this 
could be overcome, in such positions, by artificially illuminating 
the sight, as a small electric lamp, candle, or even a match, would 
throw a brilliant cross upon the flagstaff. The arms of the cross 
could be made as fine as desired, the lines of the cross need not 
meet in the centre, and any other device to suit the surveyor or 
the conditions could be provided. There would be no difficulty 
in providing a duplex sight, in pla^e of a single sight turning on 
trunnions, but the latter form was convenient, and no unusual 
care need be observed in reversing its position. 



DISCUSSION — GRUBB SIGHT FOE SURVEYING-INSTRUMENTS. 188 

The paper, under consideration, had dealt only with the 
application of the Grubb sight to underground surveying ; but it 
had several and important spheres of usefulness, in addition to its 
original application for sighting ordnance. Many small survey- 
ing instruments are now being fitted with the Grubb sight, such 
as clinometers, levels, prismatic compasses, pocket-sextants, 
optical squares, etc. ; and, in fact, the Grubb sight may with 
advantage be applied to all instruments, by which levels and 
angles were previously measured by the eye-teasing processes of 
dividing the pupil and in endeavouring to focus two or more 
objects simultaneously, a further benefit -being experienced 
therein that the observer need not keep his eye fixed, but may 
take his sight in the easiest position. 

Sir Howard Grubb (Dublin) wrote (with reference to Prof. 
H. Louis' remark, that he had a difficulty in bringing the cross 
upon a flagstaff standing up against the sky-line) that the sight 
to which Prof. Louis refers was probably one made specially for 
mining work, in which, as a rule, the film of sulphide of lead was 
deposited very thinly; as the cross was always abundantly 
brilliant when illuminated even by a very poor artificial light ; but 
for overground work this could be modified and the cross made as 
brilliant as desired. For overground work, however, he would 
recommend that one or two faintly-tinted glasses be supplied, 
which could be placed, if desired, in front of the sight, thus reduc- 
ing the brilliancy of the object aimed at, and making the cross 
appear more brilliant by contrast. It should be remembered that 
the visibility of the cross as seen projected upon an object, 
depended not only upon the relative brilliancy of the cross and the 
object on which it was projected, but also upon the intrinsic 
brilliancy of the object itself ; because, if the object aimed at was 
of a veTy brilliant character, as in the case cited by Prof. Louis, the 
pupil of the eye involuntarily contracted, and consequently the 
orogg appeared less brilliant, not only by contrast with the back- 
ground, but from the fact that the pupil of the eye itself was 
reduced in aperture. It was only in cases where the background 
was brilliant that there was a difficulty in seeing the cross, and 
there was no objection to reducing the brilliancy of that back- 
ground by the introduction of neutral-tinted glass. 

He (Sir Howard Grubb) would not touch upon the matter of 



184 discussion — grttbb sight for surveying -instruments. 






the breadth of the arms of the cross, as Mr. Davis had replied to 
this point, except to state that one of the advantages claimed for 
this sight was that the ghost-image could be made of shapes and 
forms which would not be possible if it were a material object; 
that is to say, the lines may be broken lines, or dotted lines, or 
rings hanging apparently in space, forms which it would be 
hardly possible to produce, except with a virtual image. Person- 
ally, he favoured the cross with a blank centre, which Prof. Louis 
had been kind enough to suggest, and which he had been using 
for some time with gun-sights. 

With regard to the suggestion that an error was introduced in 
the measurements obtained by the plane-table, by reason of the 
instrument reading off " an intercept proportional to the hypo- 
thenuse of the vertical triangle of which the staff forms the per- 
pendicular, the measurement really required being the base and 
not the hypothenu8e, ,, this would be perfectly true and correct 
for many of the instruments which had been used for subtense 
work ; but when Prof. Louis had an opportunity of inspecting one 
of his (Sir Howard Grubb's) instruments he would see that this 
matter had not been overlooked. It was true that a staff, held 
upon an eminence would subtend a smaller angle to the observer 
than if placed vertically under it in the horizontal plane: (1) 
Because it was placed at a greater distance, as the crow flies, and 
(2) because the staff was not at right angles to the direction in 
which it was viewed. But in his graphometer, so long as the plane- 
table was kept level, and the zero of the scale corresponded with 
the horizon (as it should do) that portion of the scale which was 
used to calibrate that staff subtended a less angle to the optical 
centre of the collimating-lens for the very same reasons, namely : 
(1) It was at a greater distance from the optical centre than the 
centre of the scale ; and (2) it was inclined at an angle to the 
direction in which it was viewed, and this was in exactly the same 
proportion as the staff itself, consequently the result obtained was 
correct. 

Of course, he (Sir Howard Grubb) was referring to moderate 
angles. If the angle at which the staff was to be viewed was very 
great, and the scale required to be so long that the end of it was 
sensibly out of focus with the collimating-lens, the above remarks 
would not be strictly true, and correct observations would not be 
possible except at the optical centre of the lens. 



DISCUSSION — ELECTRIC TRACTION. 185 

He (Sir Howard Grubb) would add that in making surveys 
with his graphometer, he did not propose that the subtense method 
should be used for all observations, at least where considerable 
accuracy was required. He would commence by chaining a line 
and laying down his large triangles from each end of that line, 
using the graphometer only as an angle-measurer ; and then he 
would put in his secondary triangles and off-sets by the subtense 
method. By this means, fairly accurate surveys could be made 
and that very rapidly. 

DISCUSSION OF ME. W. E. COOPER'S PAPEE ON 
"ELECTRIC TEACTION ON ROADS AND MINERAL 
RAILWAYS."* 

Mr. John McLaren (Leeds) wrote that the question of 
electric traction at mines was very ably dealt with in the paper, 
but the use of electricity as a propelling agent for vehicles on 
common roads was hedged about with so many practical diffi- 
culties, that he was afraid it would be a long time before electric 
could come into serious competition with steam and petroleum- 
engines. The question of moving heavy loads on common roads 
by mechanical means had been engaging the attention of some of 
the best mechanical engineers in the country, and, although no 
absolutely satisfactory solution had yet been obtained, most of 
the practical difficulties had been overcome, and the matter was 
now in a fairly satisfactory position. Engineers were waiting for 
a good storage-battery ; and as soon as this was discovered, there 
would no doubt be an immense development of electrically-driven 
road-motors, both for light and heavy work. 



* Tram. 7n*f. J7.A\, 190*2, vol. xxiii., i-age 544. 



166 



tfcANSAOtflONS. 



MIDLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING, CIVIL AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held at the Royal Victoria Station Hotel, Sheffield, 

November 8th, 1902. 



Mb. H. B. NASH, President, in the Chair. 



The minutes of the previous General Meeting were read and 
confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 
nominated : — 

Members— 
Mr. Walter Baxter, Colliery Manager, Silverwood Colliery, Thrybergh, 

Rot her ham. 
Mr. Albert Victor Koohs, Colliery Engineer, Forster's Buildings, High 

Street, Sheffield. 
Mr. Alfred Norman Routledge, Mine Surveyor, Cross Green House, 

Knoweathorpe, Leeds. 
Mr. Richard 8ctcliffe, Mining Engineer, Horbury, Wakefield. 

Associate— 
Mr. William Leebetter, Chargeman -deputy, 35, Cliffe View, Denaby Main, 
Rotherham. 



The Pkesident delivered the following Address:-- 



.« : 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 18? 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



By H. B. NASH. 



I have to thank the members for the honour which they have 
conferred upon me in making me their President for the ensuing 
year. I sincerely trust that, during my term of office, the work 
of the Institute will at any rate equal that of my worthy pre- 
decessors, and assisted as I shall be by so able a Council, I feel 
sure that no effort will be spared either on their part or my own 
to attain these results. 

The President's address can of necessity only deal in a general 
way with such subjects as are most to the front at the moment, 
aad I purpose reviewing briefly the great changes that have taken 
place in our own immediate districts of South and West York- 
shire during the past forty years ; and then giving expression to 
my views as to the future development of this valuable coal-field, 
feeling thankful that it is customary for the members to accept 
without criticism the remarks embraced in the President's 
address. 

The Past. 

It was my good fortune to make my first practical acquaint- 
WC w ith the coal-trade when it was at the height of its prosperity, 
in 1&73. Anything black would sell, and 10,000 tons of slack, 
tfhich had been used for ballasting the empty-wagon sidings, was 
filled and sold at about 13s. per ton at the pits with which I was 
™en. connected, and ripping-dirt was sent out of the pit to 
re Plaoe it. 

l^rior to 1865, few pits had been sunk to a depth of 900 feet, 
aa «l outputs of 500 tons per day from one shaft were considered 
lar Re. Egg-ended boilers ranging from 20 to 36 feet in length, 
aUt * from 4£ feet to 6 feet in diameter, working at pressures 
TOr ying from 40 to 50 pounds to the square inch, were in general 




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Presidential add&ess. 



use. Fixed-bar screens, making only two sorts of coal (large 
and slack), were the only screens necessary, and coke-inaking was 
a small industry. The life of the colliery -salesman in those days, 
with only three classes of coal to sell, was one of comparative 
ease. Railway-wagons were generally of 6 tons capacity, fitted 
with dead buffers. Shafts were usually sunk from 9 to 10 feet 
in diameter, single-decked cages were universal, and winding 
from upcast-shafts was practically unknown. Winding-engines, 
with the engineman holding a pair of handles like wheelbarrow- 
shafts, handling every stroke of the engine, were commonly to be 
seen. Puni ping-engines were worked on the lift-principle, 
with heavy columns of pipes in the shafts, and huge spears 
and beams at most of the pits. Cast-iron tubbing, for keeping 
back the water, was only coming into use at new sinkings. 
Ventilation, generally, was effected by large furnaces, and candles 
were used in all but the most fiery pits, but Davy or Clanny 
safety-lamps were used in those parts which were considered most 
dangerous. The system of working was chiefly bord-and-pillar, 
and dip-workings were only practicable where steam could be 
carried to the coal-face to actuate the pumps, often with most 
disastrous results to the roof. Plans were made up when the 
manager could find time to attend to them, with the inevitable 
results that inundations from old disused workings were of fre- 
quent occurrence. A royalty of 500 acres was a large take, and 
the majority were of much smaller area. 

In 1856, the tons of coal raised in Yorkshire were 9,083,265 ; 
and 12 years later, in 1868, the output had only increased by 
700,000 tons, proving that it had been practically stationary. In 
the latter year, the number of working collieries was 441, the 
number of men employed 37,000, and the mineral raised per 
person employed was 262 tons. 

The Pbesent. 

But the prosperous times of 1872 to 1874 gave an immense 
impetus to the development of the coal-field, resulting in the 
sinking of deeper shafts of larger diameter, competent to deal 
with increased daily outputs. This was followed by the intro- 
duction of Lancashire boilers working at pressures of between 60 
and 80 pounds per square inch, thereby enabling the speed of 
winding to be considerably accelerated. 



•*• :-J 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 189 

Host of the shafts put down about this time were from 12 to 
16 feet in diameter, lined with cast-iron tubbing through the 
water-bearing strata ; and thence downward lined with from 9 to 
14 inches of brickwork, to the pit-bottom. The shafts were 
usually fitted with double-decked cages, carrying two corves on 
each deck ; and, where there was plenty of room in the shafts, 
wire-rope guides were used in place of the common wooden con- 
ductors. Most of the headgears, at this time, were built of pitch- 
pine, and some excellent specimens of joiners'-work were shewn 
in the fitting together and erection. 

Owing to the increased demand for coke for iron-smelting, it 
became necessary to take the smudge out of the slack, and this 
had the effect of raising the pit-hills, to enable the number of 
railway-lines to be increased from 2 to 8 for this purpose: it 
being, at that time, the only way of obtaining a sufficient inclina- 
tion for the screens. Since that time, jigging-screens and travel- 
ling belts have altered these arrangements. Balanced tipplers 
were also introduced, with the view of avoiding the large amount 
of breakage which took place with the house-coals. A general 
plan at this time was to erect screening-plant and siding-accom- 
modation for an estimated output of 1,000 tons per day for a 
royalty area of 1,000 acres. 

Fans, chiefly of the Guibal or Waddell types, took the place 
of furnaces, and they were driven direct, producing water-gauges 
ranging up to about 8 inches. 

The Coal-mines Regulation Act, 1873, caused the use of 
safety-lamps to be a necessity in all but the shallow mines, and 
induced the great improvement which took place during this 
period in the different types of safety-lamps then in use. It also 
led to greater care and attention being paid to the cleaning and 
testing of the lamps before they were placed in the hands of the 
workmen, each morning before descending into the mine. And, 
as a natural consequence, there was a greatly decreased death- 
rate from minor explosions. 

Rope-haulage was substituted for horses in the main levels 
and inclined planes. Compressed-air engines enabled dip-work- 
ingB to be freed from water in places where it had been previously 
impracticable to carry steam, on account of the damage caused 
to the roof of the mine ; and in some cases it was used in rise- 
headings to ventilate and keep them free from gas. 



190 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



The system of working was in many cases changed from bord- 
and-pillar to longwall, thereby enabling larger output* to be pro- 
duced with much less pit-room, as soon as the shaft-pillars had 
been headed through. 

Electric signalling took the place of the old-fashioned bell- 
wire, which over long distances often took two strong lads to pull 
it. There was great uncertainty (on the old system) as to whether 
the correct signal had been received or otherwise, and doubtless 
many accidents occurred through mistaken signals. 

Coal-cutting by machinery was practically unknown, indeed 
in the Barnsley seam unnecessary ; and there was little incentive 
to its development and application. Blasting- powder was the 
explosive used, either in the sinking of shafts or in the driving of 
drifts. All hard coal was blown down with blasting-powder, and 
great carelessness in its use led to many accidents. Usually it 
was stemmed with any material near at hand, and it was a 
common practice for missed-shots to be drilled out. All shot- 
holes, either in sinking, in drifting, or in the coal itself, were put 
in by hand. 

The fitting-shops at the new collieries were efficiently equipped 
with lathes, drilling-machines and shearing-machines, and 
labour-saving tools were introduced as much as possible. 

Grinding the smudge for coke-making was found to effect a 
great improvement in the density and mechanical construction oi 
the coke; and the local demand for steel-melting and foundry- 
coke led to crude forms of self-acting washers being erected. At 
some collieries, trough- washers, depending on gravitation for 
their results, and at others, some of the earlier types of mechanical 
washers were erected, and proved efficient for small daily 
quantities. The beehive coke-oven, 11 feet in diameter, was the 
universal type, in most instances burning out of the top ; but in 
a few cases a flue was built between the ovens, and the escaping 
gases were utilized in heating a limited number of boilers, thereby 
reducing the colliery-consumption of small coal required for the 
hand-fired boilers. 

In the ten years which I have just reviewed, the output of coal 
in Yorkshire had nearly doubled itself : the figures for 1808 being 
10,728,837 tons, as compared with 16,188,179 tons in 1878, au 
increase of no less than 5,459,342 tons, which in 1900 had still 
further increased to the record-output of 28,902,509 tons. 






>.* 



PRESIDENTIAL AD&RfeSS. 191 

Without such comparisons it is impossible to estimate the 
rapid advance which mining-engineering has made in Yorkshire 
during the last half-century, and my main object in putting; 
together these notes is to combat the statements so frequently 
made that mining-engineers are not moving with the times, and 
that the foreigner is far ahead of us. Further, to show that as 
circumstances have arisen, the mining-engineers and managers 
of Yorkshire collieries have adapted themselves to them, and 
advanced with the times as required by the altered conditions. 
For this purpose, it is necessary to look at things as we find them 
to-day, and I think that all will be prepared to admit that no 
mean advance has taken place during the last 20 years in the 
equipment and increase of daily outputs from the collieries. 

During this period, many of the older pits have become 
exhausted, and the works closed, few sinkings have been made 
of less than 1,200 feet in depth, and in some cases a depth of nearly 
2,400 feet has been reached. The larger outlays necessary for 
the sinking of the deeper shafts, at once led to greatly increased 
royalties to warrant such an expenditure, and areas of 2,000 acres 
to a pair of pits are now common. The longer time taken in 
winding led to shafts being increased in size so as to accommodate 
larger cages, and pits from 18 to 20 feet in diameter are now 
usually sunk, fitted with cages capable of holding four tubs on 
each deck and 3 and 4 decks high. The loading and unloading 
of these decks simultaneously by mechanical means, at both the 
top and bottom of shafts, has led to large daily outputs being 
drawn from single shafts, and 2,000 tons daily at the newer 
collieries is not at all an uncommon output. 

Fans of much smaller diameter, thereby requiring much less 
costly foundations, running at high speeds with high water- 
gauges, have enabled immense volumes of air to be passed through 
the workings, thereby allowing larger numbers of men to be 
employed in each mine under more favourable conditions than 
heretofore. 

The use of electricity for hauling, pumping, coal-cutting and 
lighting, is making rapid strides, and its adaptability for the 
application of mechanical power in almost any situation is such 
that the time cannot be far distant when it will replace 90 per 
cent of the present steam-engines, at a much less cost than the 
present wasteful system, where the actual percentage of useful 
effect is very small. 



192 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 












Water-tube boilers working at pressures varying from 120 to 
200 pounds to the square inch are being used at the collieries 
now being sunk, and compound engines for fan-driving, air-com- 
pressing or generating electricity are coming into general use. 

Elaborate screening-plants, capable of making a dozen 
varieties and sizes of coal, fitted with revolving-tipplers, picking- 
bands and jifrging-screens, to deal with large daily outputs, are an 
absolute necessity, and as the seams below the Barnsley seam are 
more generally worked, washing- and sizing-plants will become 
necessary. 

Headgears are now nearly all made of latticed girders, and 
all the plant about the surface is so arranged that the risk of fire 
may be reduced to a minimum. 

Long wall, in one form or another, is the rule, and bord-and- 
pillar the exceptional method of working. 

Coal-cutting machines, driven either by compressed air or 
electricity, made to hole to depths varying from 3 to G feet are 
now working very successfully ; none but the improved forms 
of safety-lamps are used ; and shot-firing is confined to one or 
other of the permitted high explosives, used under conditions 
calculated to ensure safety in their use as far as possible. 

Coke-ovens are now in use at nearly every colliery, and usually 
all the small coal is converted into either furnace or foundry- 
coke, chiefly in beehive coke-ovens of standard size and type. 
A few bye-product plants have been erected, but these are mostly 
dealing with small coal from other than the Barnsley seam. 

The tendency of the railway-companies is to require the use 
of wagons which have a carrying capacity of not less than 10 tons, 
and to introduce as early as they conveniently can wagons carry- 
ing 50 tons each. Whether for anything but special traffic 
the use of these larger-capacity wagons will become general or 
not, time alone can prove. 



The Future. 

And now, having briefly sketched out the changes that 50 
years have worked in the development of the coal-field and the 
equipment of the mines, let us turn our attention to the future, 
while I endeavour to put before you my views, as to what will 
have to be dealt with and the best and most economical methods 
(consistent with efficiency) of dealing with it. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. / 198 

So long as the chief coal to be dealt with was the world- 
renowned Barnsley seam, no special methods of working, clean- 
in?, sizing or sorting were necessary. Therefore no incentive was 
present to induce tlie colliery-manager or mechanical engineer to 
leave the beaten track followed by their predecessors in the 
elaboration and application of expensive machinery for improv- 
ing its marketable quality ; but the time is now at hand when the 
question of the active development of the seams lying below the 
Barnsley seam, and possibly some of those above it, must be 
token in hand, and consequently the increased cost of working 
owing to the following causes must be considered. 

The admitted inferiority in quality of these seams to the 
Barnsley seam, the presence in them of thin bands of dirt, the 
thinness of the seams themselves, the greater depths at which the 
bulk of them will have to be worked, the tender nature of both 
coal and roof, and consequently the greatly increased percentage 
of shale and other impurities are facts which cannot be denied. 
I venture to think that those of our members who were fortunate 
enough to take part in the recent visit of the Institute to Rhine- 
land and Westphalia had a splendid opportunity of judging how 
the foregoing natural disadvantages, as applied to their coals, 
and the extraordinary large percentage of small coal, had com- 
pelled German engineers to devote special attention to these 
details, and as they have benefited by our experience in the past, 
we may hope to benefit by theirs in the near future. 

Now it must force itself upon the minds of every member that 
the initial outlay for dealing successfully with these deeper and 
inferior seams must necessarily be greatly in excess of that 
hitherto required for the successful working of the Barnsley 
seam. Therefore, to ensure the recoupment of this extra capital 
much larger royalty-areas will become an absolute necessity : 
say, for example, 3,000 to 4,000 acres from one pair of shafts, 
when an entirely new plant is being put down. I am afraid 
that in our present system of small freehold ownerships in the 
minerals, and minimum rents, will be found the most serious 
drawback to the successful development of these seams ; but this 
is a matter over which we have no control. 

These initial difficulties having been overcome, and the site 
for the shafts having been determined, the most important 
question is the laying out of the surface-arrangements, and, in 



94 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



my opinion, too little attention is paid to this important matter. 
It will bo more than ever necessary as coke-ovens with bye-pro- 
ducts recovery-plants become more general ; and it is worth con- 
sidering whether any benefits accrue from sinking your pits along- 
side a main line of railway, as has been hitherto customary in this 
district. 

Tn my opinion, it will be advisable to have your yard divided 
into two parts with the shafts between them, the screening 
apparatus and coke-manufacturing plant being on one side, and 
the workshops, winding- and fan-engines, storerooms, stables, 
offices, etc., on the other. These should be so arranged and laid 
out as to reduce the cosf of surface-labour as much as possible, 
and by attention to little details in the handling of the timber, 
stores, hay, corn, iron, steel, rails, corfe-repairs, etc., a saving of 
Id. per ton on all the coal produced may readily be effected. It 
is also essential that space should be left for extensions, when lay- 
ing down the general design, so that, when necessary, extensions 
can be made without destroying the general plan of the surface- 
arrangements of the colliery. 

The shafts should be sunk of such a diameter, where their 
depths are likely to be 2,000 feet and over, that they are capable 
of containing two separate sets of cages, running in each shaft at 
the same time with independent winding-engines. The decking 
arrangements, at both the top and bottom, should be performed 
mechanically, and all the decks should be loaded and discharged 
simultaneously, so that while the cages are running in the shafts, 
the banking and screening may be done without hindrance to the 
winding. 

This leads me to the consideration of what may prove a most 
interesting feature in the future. The question as to whether, 
when dealing with these seams of inferior quality and containing 
large admixtures of foreign matter, such as shale and bits of 
roof -stone, it will be more economical to erect elaborate screening- 
arrangements with numerous picking-bands, etc., employing an 
army of lads to sort it by hand ; or whether, although the first cost 
may be higher, it will not be a sounder policy to divide the coal 
into large and small sizes, with simple jigging-screens, cleaning 
the large coal on belts and carrying all the small coal direct 
to large washeries, where the action of the water, etc., will take 
out far more of the impurities than can possibly be done by hand, 



•:«• ■> 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 195 

and where not more than 10 men will comfortably deal with 250 
to 300 tons of coal per hour, attending to the washing, sizing 
and loading into the settling-tanks of both coal and dirt. Person- 
ally, I think that the latter system will be found the cheaper of 
the two. It must also be remembered that the smudge from these 
seams cannot be coked successfully in either beehive or bye- 
product coke-ovens unless it be washed. A washing-plant 
becomes an absolute necessity, and it should be erected large 
enough in the first instance, to wash the whole of the small coal. 

I think it will be admitted that where coal-cutting by 
machinery is necessary, electricity is the most suitable form of 
power; and I am also convinced that no form of mechanical 
energy is so easily adaptable to endless-rope haulage as electrical 
power. With the rapid strides which are being made daily in 
the safer working and handling of electricity, the time is not far 
distant when inclined planes will be actuated by it in preference 
to either steam, compressed air, or band-ropes : the motors in 
all cases being placed in intake airways. Where electricity is 
carried long distances inbye, for actuating dip-pumps, auxiliary 
fans, or coal-cutting machines, the danger of short-circuiting may 
be greatly lessened by carrying the cables along opposite sides of 
the roads, thereby preventing the probabilities of contact from 
Wis of roof, etc. 

Surface-equipment next demands our attention, and as steam 
is our motive power, the method of producing it should claim our 
first consideration. All boilers, whether Lancashire or of the 
water-tube type, will, at new collieries, be put down to work at 
pressures varying from 120 to 200 pounds per square inch whether 
fired by hand, mechanically, or by the waste-gases from coke- 
ovens; and high pressure necessitates the steam being used 
expansively. 

The winding-engine of the future, of the compound type, 
fitted with automatic steam-brakes and steam reveraing-gear, 
will be adopted for economy 's sake. The other engines on the 
surface, except locomotives, will be used for generating elec- 
tricity in bulk, and these engines will be of the triple-expansion 
condensing type, all housed under one roof. At present, engines 
are spread all over the colliery-yards, and more steam is lost by 
condensation in many cases than is actually consumed by the 
engines themselves. I think that all who have seen electric 



196 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



motors working, and the ease with which they can be started, 
stopped and regulated, will admit that fans, coal -disintegrators, 
lathee, machine-tools, circular saws, and all classes of machinery, 
about a colliery, now actuated by a steam-engine, can be 
efficiently and economically driven by a motor of the same 
power, with greater cleanliness, a considerable saving of room 
and expensive foundations, and less noise and confusion. At 
any rate, the experience of those with whom I have conversed, 
who have adopted motors for any of the foregoing uses, was 
expressed in the terms that they would be very sorry to go back 
to the old method of steam-driving. 

Then compare the heavy ranges of ugly, dangerous, wasteful 
steam-pipes (running all over the colliery-yard, requiring in 
winter-time an immense amount of attention to keep them in 
working-order and to prevent joints from being broken, and heavy 
condensation) with a bare copper wire carried overhead on light 
standards, or a cable buried in the ground, being all that is 
necessary in the case of electricity. With proper attention and 
carefully-recorded testing every week for leakages, electricity 
can be maintained at a minimum of cost, with practically no loss 
of power, except the resistance, which is much less than the f ra- 
tional loss due to the flow of steam in pipes. 

The great advantages to be gained from the concentration of 
all power at one central station are secured by electricity generated 
in bulk and produced at a low cost per unit. The generators can 
be all of one size and pattern, so that duplicate parts fit any of 
the machines in case of accidents, and a spare armature and 
machine may be kept available for use at short notice in case of 
a breakdown of any of the generators. A further saving is 
effected by the decreased number of attendants required, being 
much less than if the plant is scattered about in different places: 
and the manager or engineer has much better opportunities of 
supervision when he can see all the men together by walking into 
one engine-house, than when he had to travel round the pit- 
yard to find them. 

Another question which must occupy the serious consideration 
of every manager in laying out a new colliery-plant in this age 
of working with high-pressure steam is, will it pay to work con- 
densing-engines ? And this question can only be answered after 
a. full examination of both sides of the question, On one hand 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 197 

there is : — (1) The economy in coal and water ; (2) reduction of 
interest on capital and depreciation of plant by the lessened cost 
of the smaller boiler-plant required for condensing-engines ; and 
(3) the lessened cost of labour in the boiler-house engaged in fir- 
ing, attention, carting away ashes, etc. On the other hand : — 
(1) The cost of power for driving the condensing-plant must be 
considered ; (2) interest and depreciation on the cost of the plant, 
area occupied, etc. ; (3) extra cost of stores and labour for operat- 
ing same ; and (4) cost of water-supply. In my opinion, there 
are few instances where a condensing-plant will not return ample 
interest on the outlay, and especially is this the case when it is 
applied to a central-power station, similar to the one that I have 
already described. 

The profitable disposal of coal-smudge is a serious matter at 
a large colliery, and I think that its manufacture into coke is 
the only efficient way of accomplishing this object. But as ta 
whether this shall be done in the old-fashioned standard 11 feet 
beehive coke-oven (where, although the gases may be used for 
boiler-firing, the bye-products are allowed to go to waste); ot 
whether it is more economical to put up one or other of the differ- 
ent types of retort-ovens, with their attendant plant* for the 
recovery of the bye-products and utilization of the waste-gases 
is a great question, personally, I am not sufficiently well 
acquainted with the cost of working bye-product ovens over a 
period of years to express an opinion. There seems to be such an 
objection on the part of those who are working retort coke-ovens to 
give this information, that one cannot help being sceptical as to 
the benefits derived from their use. It is one of the questions of 
the near future, so far as the development of the thinner seams 
are concerned, and it will require careful and serious considera- 
tion. The experience of those who have had such coke-ovens 
at work for 10 years would be of value to the members, and it is 
evident that the cost of upkeep, after the ovens have been at 
work for a few years, must necessarily be a serious item, both as 
regards the ovens and the recovery-plants, so that unless the 
profit* are sufficiently large both to pay interest on the capital 
outlay and recoup the capital in a few years, the advantages of 
their adoption are very problematical. 

There can be no doubt that the rapid advancement which 
has taken place during the last two years in the application of 

▼OL. XXIV.-M09 1903. * 4 



198 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 









cycle gas-engines up to 1,000 horsepower to the driving of elec- 
tric generators, without the intervention of steam, may in the 
near future become an important factor in determining the system 
of coke-making. If the surplus-gases from bye-product coke- 
ovens could be satisfactorily used for this purpose, there would 
be an immense saving on the capital-outlay now necessary 
for boiler-plant and the value of the retort-ovens would be 
materially enhanced. 

It must also be borne in mind, in the laying down of new 
sidings and screening-plants that the tendency of the railway- 
companies is to force forward the use, so far as possible, of wagons 
of larger carrying capacities than those at present employed, and 
to increase the height and length of the wagons with extended 
wheel-bases and provision should be made in designing the 
screens, weighing-machines and curves to meet these require- 
ments. 

The question of standardizing as far as possible the various 
engines or motors to be used for the different work about a large 
colliery is one that, I think, is worthy of more than passing com- 
ment, as every moment spent by a workman in waiting for the 
repairs of any machine means enhanced working costs, no matter 
how minute, and if \ hour can be saved in getting any part of the 
machinery to work after a breakdown, by the use of duplicate 
parts common to several machines, they must be a source of con- 
siderable economy. I think that this is a matter which, at the 
present time, does not receive the consideration that the saving 
to be derived from it warrants. Where there are three or four 
hauling-engines, three or four boiler feed-pumps, and a number 
of separate engines for driving the fitting-shop machinery, 
circular saws, screens, slack-grinders, etc., very little difficulty 
should be experienced in standardizing the parts, and the 
standardizing system is applicable to a great number of other 
materials in general use about a colliery. 



There are many other matters in connection with the interest- 
ing subject of the erection of new plants which will be erected 
in the next 20 years, upon which, did time permit, I should have 
liked to have touched ; but I have no wish to weary the members. 
I trust that those matters with which I have been able to deal 
only in general terms may not have been without interest to the 



DISCUSSION— WOBKING CONTIGUOUS SEAMS OF COAL. 199 

members ; that they may be the means of leading to the read- 
ing of papers on some of the subjects to which I have referred ; 
and that interesting and instructive discussions may be thereby 
encouraged and stimulated. I have no hesitation in stating that 
the Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers 
includes among its members as many clever practical engineers 
as can be found in either this or any other country, and that if 
conditions and opportunities are afforded to them for the exercise 
of their practical knowledge they are bound to come out at the 
top of the tree. 

I trust that any members who have any machinery of general 
interest working at their collieries, will bring it before the notice 
of the members in the form of a paper, so that we may be enabled 
to meet together frequently for the interchange of ideas and 
friendly discussion thereon, and that all may thereby mutually 
benefit from each other's experience. 



Mr. John Gerhard proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Nash for 
his address. He had heard it read with great pleasure, and he 
hoped that Mr. Nash would have a very happy and successful 
year of office, coupled with plenty of papers and long and interest- 
ing discussions. 

Mr. H. St. J. Durnford seconded the resolution, which was 
carried unanimously. 

DISCUSSION OF MR. THOMAS MOODIE'S PAPER ON 
"THE WORKING OF CONTIGUOUS, OR NEARLY 
CONTIGUOUS, SEAMS OF COAL."* 

The President (Mr. H. B. Nash) said that when there were 
two nearly contiguous seams of coal, which could not be worked ' 
together, if they worked the top seam first it made a bad roof, 
and if they worked the bottom seam first, they damaged the top 
seam so that it was not worth working, unless it was dealt with 
in a very careful manner in the way of packing. One point to be 
considered in working contiguous seams, where both are worth 
working and are of good quality, was the length of time that 

* Trow. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 283 ; and vol. xxiv., page 116. 



200 



DISCU88ION — WORKING CONTIGUOUS SEAMS OF COAL. 



should elapse between the working of the one and the working of 
the other, because, in taking out the bottom seam, the manner of 
working it would materially affect the top one, in fact the top 
seam might prove unworkable, if it were crushed or broken by the 
working of the lower seam. But if the top seam were worked 
first, a little in advance of the lower seam, it might be wrought 
economically. The angle of inclination was also a factor in 
determining the order of working contiguous seams. 

Mr. Gerrard asked whether there were any cases in York- 
shire where the top part of a seam was worked in advance of the 
lower section. 

The President (Mr. H. B. Nash) stated that at Woolley 
colliery, it was desirable to work the bottom seam first, and that 
the working of the other should follow at not too great a distance. 
The face in the bottom seam should not be driven more than 
150 feet in front of the face in the top seam. 

Mr. G. H. Ashwin said that for twelve years he had worked 
three nearly contiguous seams. The top seam (called the Two- 
yards) was 5i feet thick ; there was about 3 feet of strata between 
that and the Ryder seam, 6 feet thick ; below was about 4 feet of 
good coal, which they did not get, except the bottom part of it: 
and below was the Slate coal, 3£ feet thick. These seams lay at 
angles varying from 12 to 17 degrees. The seams were worked on 
the longwall system. The bottom seam was taken out first ; then 
the Ryder seam, 75 feet behind ; and lastly the Two-yards seam, 
45 feet farther behind. At a neighbouring colliery, an unsuccess- 
ful attempt was made to work the top seam first. There were 
three collieries in Yorkshire working three contiguous seams, one 
working four seams, and two or three collieries were working two 
seams. In every instance, the lower seam was the first one to 
be worked. 

Mr. W. H. Pickering remembered a colliery where two 
seams were worked simultaneously. The bottom seam was 
the first one to be worked, about 36 feet in advance of the work- 
ings in the top seam. 



■ 



DISCUSSION— COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 201 

DISCUSSION OF MR. W. E. GARFORTH'S PAPER ON 
" THE APPLICATION OF COAL-CUTTING MACHINES 
TO DEEP MINING."* 

Mr. G. Blake Walker said that coal-cutting in the Florence 
colliery, North Staffordshire, in a seam about 1,800 feet deep and 
5 or 6 feet thick was successful. The pressure was exceed- 
iagly great, when the coal was worked in the ordinary way. The 
timber snapped frequently, and the coal was very small when 
worked by hand-labour ; whereas, with the rapid movement of the 
machine-face, much larger coal was obtained, and the timber did 
not break to anything like the same extent. At the adjoining 
Fenton colliery, two coal-cutting machines were doing efficient 
work at a great depth. His own experience with regard to 
using coal-cutting machines at great depths had been rather in 
the contrary direction. In the Whinmoor seam, where he was 
working coal-cutters, he now used only one machine, probably 
because it was not worth the trouble and expense of taking in 
another coal-cutting machine. The coal was tender at great 
depths, and very much more likely to break than where the 
weight was less. 

Mr. H. St. J. Durnford stated that his experiments with 
coal-cutting machines in the Silkstone seam had been more or 
less a failure. He commenced with a machine driven by an 
electric motor, and holed to a depth of 4£ feet, but it never 
managed to hole more than 90 feet in u shift. He then tried a 
large wheel, to hole to a depth of b\ feet, driven by a larger motor, 
making the cutting-wheel run about 60 revolutions per minute. 
The holing was made in hard coal, he had seen a continuous flow 
of flame from the rim of the cutting- wheel, eventually there was 
a small explosion, and the use of the machine was forthwith dis- 
continued. He had not the slightest doubt that this explosion 
was caused by coal-dust (as there was no gas) ignited by the 
sparks produced by the great speed of the cutting-wheel. In 
their seam, 1,800 feet deep, the roof was not particularly good, 
and the floor was decidedly bad ; but there was no particular 
reason why he should not try again. He did not think that, 
hi a seam of coal where the getting price was Is. 9d. per ton, there 
was much profit to be gained by getting coal by machinery, but 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1002, vol xxiii., page 312. 










202 



DI8CUSSI0N — COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 



there was undoubtedly a large gain in the percentage of round 
coal. The coal-cutters in the Warrenhouse seam were cutting 
150 to 180 feet in a shift without difficulty. 

Mr. J. Gerrard asked whether the sparks proceeded from the 
cutting-wheel or from the electric motor. 

Mr. St. J. Durnford replied that there was a continuous 
stream of sparks from the rim of the cutting- wheel. 

Mr. C. Snow said that he had only had experience of one 
machine working in a seam 1,620 feet deep, 7 feet thick, with a 
bound roof. When getting the coal by hand, the roof was so 
good thatj excepting for the requirements of the Coal-mines 
Regulation Act, no props would have been set ; there were no 
breaks in the roof. So soon as the machine began to work, the 
roof began to break, and he asked whether that was due to the 
more rapid advance of the working-face. Eventually the coal- 
cutting machine broke down, and they reverted to hand-cutting; 
and they had not been at work a month, before the old conditions 
of roof again prevailed. The machine was repaired, and on 
resuming work, the roof was again broken. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



DISCUSSION— UNDERGROUND HAULAGE AT MOSSBLOWN COLLIERY. 208 



THE MINING INSTITUTE OF SCOTLAND. 



GENERAL MEETING, 
Held in thb Hall of the Institute, Hamilton, December 11th, 1902. 



Mb. HENRY AITKEN, President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last General Meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 



The following gentlemen were elected : — 

Members— 
Mr. Harry D. D. Barman, Airdrie Ironworks, Airdrie. 
Mr. Richard E. M. Bathgate, 20, Charing Cross Mansions, Glasgow. 
Mr. John Cadman, 90, Marchmont Crescent, Edinburgh. 
Mr. Duncan Campbell, Greenfield Foundry, Hamilton. 
Mr. John Gray, Morningside Colliery, Newmains. 
Mr. David Livingstone, Woodmuir Colliery, West Calder. 
Mr. Charles Latham, The University, Glasgow. 

Student — 
Mr. George Hunter, Tinto View Terrace, Coalburn. 



-DISCISSION OF MR. JAMES BAIRD'S " DESCRIPTION 
OF UNDERGROUND HAULAGE AT MOSSBLOWN 
COLLIERY, AYRSHIRE."* 

Mr. James Baird wrote that, since the last meeting of the 

members, he had renewed the rope of No. 1 Pit haulage-level, 

and consequently he was now in a position to answer Mr. Mowat's 

question more fully as to the difficulty of putting a rope on to the 

horizontal Clifton wheel and preventing the rope from becoming 

«lack and falling during the operation. He could at once state 

that he did not experience the difficulty mentioned by Mr. Mowat. 

The modus operandi was as follows : — The new rope, 5,400 feet 

long, was taken along the haulage-road, on a reel, and placed on 

the empty roadway about 50 feet from the central station. The 

• Tram, hist. M.E., 1902, vol xxiii., page 155 ; and vol. xxiv., page 115. 






204 DI8CU88ION— UNDERGROUND HAULAGE AT M088BLOWN COLLIERY. 

back-balance weights were taken off, and the old haulage-rope 
cut. The new rope was then spliced to the ingoing old rope, 
after which operation, the haulage-system was started, and while 
the engine pulled the new rope off the reel, the other end of the 
old rope was pulled by manual power in the same direction, for 
about 600 feet. The engine was then stopped, and the old rope 
cut. The operation of drawing in the old rope, 600 feet at a time, 
and cutting it, was repeated until all the old rope was taken off, 
after which a splice, 25 feet long, was made, with the ends of the 
new rope. During the operation of splicing the new rope, the 
workmen not engaged at the splicing were employed in reeling 
up the pieces of the old haulage-rope, which were lying in 600 
feet lengths, in the middle of the empty-hutches roadway. The 
operations of reeling up the old rope and the splicing of the new 
rope were finished almost simultaneously. The times occupied 
in the unreeling of the new rope, and the splicing, were 60 minutes 
and 80 minutes respectively. The putting on of the new haulage- 
rope was performed without a hitch, and no difficulty was experi- 
enced from the ropes slipping down on the horizontal Clifton 
wheels or otherwise. 

There was an erratum on page 116 of Vol. XXIV. Line 
14 should read as follows : — " but as it was not found necessary 
to alter the gearing " etc. 

Mr. J. M. Roxaldson (Glasgow) said that, during the dis- 
cussion at the last meeting, he noticed that Mr. Baird had made 
an error which ought to be corrected.* Mr. Baird in some 
unexplained way stated that by altering the cut-off from half- 
stroke to quarter-stroke, the indicated horsepower was reduced 
from 46*55 to 3604. Of course a certain amount of power was 
required to perform a certain amount of work, no matter how 
they applied it, but here Mr. Baird had shewn that different 
horsepowers did the same amount of work. 

Mr. John Cuthbertson (Kilmarnock) thought it quite 
possible that there could be some difference in the indicated horse- 
power, and that the reduction might have been effected by cut- 
ting-off the steam at an earlier point in the stroke. It should be 
remembered that the indicated and not the actual horsepower 
was stated. 

♦ Tram. Inxt. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 116. 






DISCUSSION — WORKING CONTIGUOUS 8BAMS OF COAL. 205« 

Mr. J. M. Ronaldson said that, if the amount of work done 
in both cases was the same, then there could not be such a differ- 
ence as 10*51 indicated horsepower. 

A hearty vote of thanks was awarded to Mr. Baird for his 
paper, and the discussion was closed. 



DISCUSSION OF MESSRS. JOHN HOGG'S, THOMAS 
MOODIE'S, AND THOMAS ARNOTT'S PAPERS ON 
"THE WORKING OF CONTIGUOUS, OR NEARLY 
CONTIGUOUS, SEAMS OF COAL."* 

The President (Mr. H. Aitken) said that it was very difficult 
to say how two contiguous seams of coal should be worked. In 
certain circumstances it was better to work the lower seam first 
and then follow with the higher, and in others the reverse. In 
determining how contiguous seams should be wrought, all that 
could be said was this, that a man should apply common sense 
and experience to the situation and act accordingly. The least 
and most trivial matters might mean a great difference in the 
cost, and also in the size of the pieces of coal worked. The vary- 
ing of the strata, so usual in our coal-fields, often rendered one 
way of working at one point the better, while not many feet 
away the other method might be the better plan. 

The discussion was closed, and a hearty vote of thanks was 
awarded to the authors for their papers. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. RICHARD KIRKBY'S PAPER ON 
"THE DYSART, WEMYSS AND LEVEN COAL-FIELD, 
FIFESHIRE."t 

The President (Mr. H. Aitken) said he noticed, in the paper 
and in the subsequent discussion, that reference was made to the 
mussel-shells which were found near a seam of coal in this coal- 
field. In discussing the existence of these mussel-beds, the 
tendency was rather in favour of alternations of salt and 

• Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., pagea 280, 282 and 288 ; and vol. xxiv., 
l»ge 116. 

t Ifnd. t voL xxiii., page 291 ; and vol. xxiv., page 118. 



206 DISCUSSION — THE DYSART, WEMYSS AND LEVEN COAL-FIELD. 



hi 



fresh water, irrespective of the difficulty of being able to account 
for the alternations, as if the whole geological formation were an 
ordinary bath. But they had to consider that these mussel-shells 
were more or less in contact with iron-and-coal-forming materials. 
They had the process of the deposition of iron occurring at the pres- 
ent day in many parts of the world, and always in fresh water ; and 
deposits of iron were not now being laid down in salt water, so far 
as he knew. The various beds of mussel -shells, found in the 
Scotch coal-fields, so far as he knew, were as follows: — (1) The 
mussel-bed found above the seam generally known by the name 
of the " Millar/' usually about 96 feet above the Kiltongue seam. 
Here, there was a considerable quantity of ferruginous matter — 
clay-band, a sort of black-band, and also coaly blaes. (2) There 
was a bed of shells in the blaes overlying the Kiltongue seam, the 
Splint seam of Slamannan and Redding. (3) Mussel-shells were 
sometimes found on the top of the Under Coxrod coal-seam and 
sometimes in it. (4) Another bed of mussel-shells is found a 
short distance above the Collinburn coal-seam, in clay-band and 
sometimes in black-band ironstone. (5) There was another 
mussel-bed not very far from the Calm limestone. The mussels 
in that position were found entirely in the clay-band ironstone. 
And (6), there was the mussel -bed (referred to by Mr. Cadell) lying 
above the Smithy coal-seam at Bo'ness. He (Mr. Aitken) held 
the opinion that all these deposits of shells, with the exception of 
the last-mentioned, which he had not seen, were practically found 
in ironstone and coaly matter. Although to-day mussel -shells 
of like species were found in our seas, he adhered to the opinion, 
he had already expressed, that when these shells were found in 
the Coal-measures they were formed in fresh water. 

Mr. Cadell declared that " he had shown that there was origin- 
ally no connexion between two different sets of seams at Bo'ness 
and Bathgate, and that they had apparently been formed as 
unconnected areas during the Carboniferous Period."* In his 
opinion, however, the Bo'ness and Bathgate coal-fields were 
formed at one time and were one coal-field, the shale and other 
formations under these coal-fields were alike, and further, the 
limestones above these coal-fields were alike, as well as the Moor 
Rock and the upper coal-seams. 

• Tram. Iwtt. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 120. 



ft i 

Is 



DISCUSSION — APPARATUS FOB CONTROLLING RAILWAY-WAGONS. 207 

Mr. Kirkby had communicated a very able and excellent 
paper, which must have cost him a great deal of labour, and he 
(Mr. Aitken) proposed that a very cordial and hearty vote of 
thanks be accorded to him. 

Mr. James Barrowman said that, in 1834, the late Dr. David 
Landale read a paper before the Highland Society upon this 
coal-field, giving detailed sections of the strata. The paper was 
published in Vol. X. of the Transactions of that Society ; and the 
Transactions of the following year contained a very full paper by 
the same author upon the East of Fife coal-field, being the 
northern extension of this coal-field. 

The vote of thanks was cordially approved, and the discussion 
was closed. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. JOHN D. MILLER'S PAPER ON 
AN " APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAIL- 
WAY-WAGONS WHILE LOADING AT COLLIERY- 
SCREENS."* 
Mr. Robert Crawford (Loanhead) wrote that it was stated 
in the paper that " the catch-bar, D, is lowered at suitable 
intervals by the trimmer, allowing the wagon to move forward, 
step by step/'t If at one of these intervals, when the catch-bar, 
D, was lowered, and the wagon then on the move, one of the levers 
refused to work, and the apparatus could not be brought up to 
catch the wagon-axle, the result would be that the wagon would 
move on. With a man at the bottom, with a trig ready, this 
would not happen, and supposing that he did miss his trig, then 
he had the brake of the wagon at his command, although it was 
out of reach of the trimmer at that moment. He endorsed Mr. 
Barrowman's idea of safety, still a man with a trig and beside 
the brake of the wagon had the wagon more under his command 
than a man holding the hand-lever of the apparatus above the 
wagon. 

Mr. T. H. Mottram (Glasgow) wrote that at the last meeting 
some doubt was expressed as to whether or not the Miller- Yates 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 122. 
t Ibid., page 123. 




208 DISCUSSION — APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING RAILWAY WAGONS. 

apparatus would effect much saving in labour. Seeing that the 

apparatus was manipulated by a trimmer from the top instead of 

•£* '•'* •V'.iltft ' &j *>y a w &gon-shifter on the rails, there must be a saving of labour. 

'''• ^v^^ll? Indeed, Mr. Miller pointed out that in practice, at a modern 

,;V^'-^;3^^ colliery during the last 8 months, this amounted to the saving 

i vV '^vil , of one man's time. It would be interesting to know the daily 

'."'■^ ?& ••Tl 1 » *fai quantity passed over the screen where this saving was effected. 

*^':'\'£&~rHii No less than 21 lives were lost and 28 persons injured in 

^ ^ *' " l '^C-^ Scotland last year on the surface-railways or tramways of mines, 

and a large proportion of these were persons engaged in moving 
wagons. From the point of view of safety, therefore, the Miller- 
Yates apparatus was to be commended, for its use meant less 
work among the wagons and consequently less risk to surface- 
v# ; > ^ j workers. 










Mr. J. M. Ronaldson (Glasgow) thought that any appliance 
V? '." ^.'i !.r"*^ whereby life and limb could be saved was to be commended. Mr. 

; « '' .^ ''JJ^T ; Mottram had pointed out that a wagon-shifter occupied a very 

*>^. •!" v-V^tf* dangerous position, and if statistics were compiled of the pro- 

)y~y : 'y£\ | portionate number of fatalities that occurred to such employees, 

many members of the Institute would be surprised. Any appli- 
ance, devised to lessen the dangers of wagon-shifters would 
'•♦:>>' P > ^l 1 > ' : ^i assuredly have the approval of all. How often was it the case 

$' % ^' , '.*?^ ! 3£i that while a shifter was pushing forward a wagon with the 

pinch, another wagon came quietly forward and jammed him 
against the vehicle which he was moving ? Surely, an accident 
of the character that he had described could be prevented by 
some simple appliance which would regulate the wagons behind, 
and keep them completely blocked, while the wagon-shifter was 
'. -j ^ v • l attending to other vehicles in front. 

• ^ ^ i ^'^v : \ The President (Mr. H. Aitken) agreed with Mr. Ronaldson 

* r ;^;, fcVv.^Vjj^ as to the necessity of doing everything possible for safety. He 

.'v?'*> r '(£*)> •/;?■' considered that the Miller- Yates apparatus was undoubtedly a 

•y-T^-V \ c *Vit * 8 t©P in the right direction, and he believed that those who con- 

'*"•• '■ * .•&•>« \".i '. : " 1 tended that it would not save money, were entirely in the wrong. 



:!.-" ... ;» . ■ ..* W:-, 

Tr-^'-v- 1 ''■*■ ! 

.••<? !,•»■• -\& S .-' -f 1 
■:^:f:?:'.1*f^! 



i\ 









i** 



" i 



w 



..,-/ ., • • ;/ } The discussion was closed after a hearty vote of thanks had 

! ?'/, .*0:- :,, '.>'i> 'jsi been awarded to Mr. Miller. 






DIB0U88ION — SINKING ON THE SEASHOBB AT MU88ELBUBGH. 209 

DISCUSSION OF MR. ROBT. MARTIN'S PAPER ON 
"SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH."* 

The President (Mr. H. Aitken) said that a perusal of Mr. 
Martin's paper made his memory go back to the year 1858, when 
he had to do with the sinking of a shaft which was attended with 
as many difficulties as Mr. Martin had encountered : — The 
surface was more than one half deeper than at Olive Bank, and 
while they had a less amount of water than that described at 
Musselburgh, they had on the other hand an extra depth of soft 
mud and running sand. Possibly they would not have been in 
such a bad position, had it not been for the fact that in the sinking 
of their previous pits they had only to sink through about 70 or 80 
feet of soft mud and sand, and then they came to the till or 
boulder-clay — very hard and dry. In the case to which he was 
referring, the till was soft — a most unusual thing — and it was 
not only soft but it contained a quantity of water. 

In his experience in sinking through such strata, which it 
must be understood are clay and sand mixed (where pure sand 
has to be sunk through, different arrangements are required) : — 
(1) The outside shells should be of malleable iron, bolted 
together with a good joint of indiarubber or tarred plaiding. 
The best well burned bricks of equal weights should be used, and 
" grout " should be carefully inserted between the plates and the 
bricks. Plates should be placed inside, all the way round from 
the crib to the top, of at least one half the whole strength of the 
iron in the outside shell, putting bolts through these and through 
the brick-walls and the plate of outside shell so as to bind the 
whole into one rigid mass. The inside plates should be placed at 
intervals and not joined laterally. (2) If no big boulders are 
found, the core should be taken out with the water in the shaft. 
(3) Weights should be added, not only at the bottom, but also 
at intervals up the building, gradually decreasing the quantity 
upwards. (4) At distances of about 15 feet apart, a pipe should 
be placed all the way round the inside, with small holes open to 
the outside, so that, if the building sticks, water can be forced 
out to release the shell, and allow it to sink downward. (5) All 
material coming out of the shaft should be deposited at least 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 126. 



210 DISCUSSION — SINKING ON THE SEASHORE AT MUSSELBURGH. 

450 feet away from it, and the engine and boilers should be placed 
150 feet away from the pit. (6) A guiding-frame should be used 
at the top, through which the building slides ; and kept in place 
with wire ropes and screws attached to poles or solid material at 
least 300 feet from the pit. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 












The President (Mi*. Henry Aitken) read the following paper 
on " Four Old Labour-saving Ideas " : — 



■ 



FOUR OLD LABOUR-SAVING IDEAS. 211 



FOUR OLD LABOUR-SAVING IDEAS. 



By HENRY AITKEN. 



I. Disposal of Rubbish. — Many years ago, at Boghead colliery, 
Bathgate, the amount of rubbish that had to be tipped on the hill 
was from 500 to 750 tons per day. All who have worked at 
emptying hutches, without doors, over a debris-heap, know that 
there are few things more difficult to manage than the emptying, 
on a wet day, of a hutch containing 14 cwts. of wet fire-clay. 

In order to make this work easier, and therefore cheaper, as 
well as to prevent the breakage of hutches going over the hill, 
gangways were erected, with rails on which a movable tumbler 
was placed. Each gangway was fixed to a centre, so that it could 
be moTed round, and "thus commanded a radius of some 35 feet, 
each gangway being stayed by wire-ropes from pillars or from 
the pit-head (Fig. 1, Plate V.). 

II. Another Method of Stocking Rubbish. — The first arrange- 
ment served the purpose very well, but as the height of the dirt- 
hill was limited by the height of the pit-head, frequent changes 
of position were required, and the area of ground covered was 
large. An arrangement was designed to overcome the difficulty, 
consisting simply of a brick-stalk or tower with openings, at 
intervals, up the sides of the tower, and having an archway 
forming an entrance into the bottom of it, through which the 
hutches pass to the stalk or tower, and are raised to whatever 
height desired, and then empty themselves. 

The plan shews fixed iron-plates to' direct the rubbish as it 
comes out, but these might be dispensed with, and a plate placed 
so that the cage would lift it up just before the hutch is turned 
over and emptied (Figs. 2, 3 and 4, Plate V.). 

The advantages of this arrangement are: — (1) Great saving 
in the area of ground covered ; (2) great saving of labour, as the 
hutches might be run by gravitation to the bottom of the tower 
or taken from the pit to the bottom of the tower by means of a 
rope worked by a small engine. One man, in the writer's 



212 



FOUR OLD LAB0UR-8AVIKG IDEA8. 



opinion, could, with this arrangement, raise and empty 150 to 200 
hutches per day, and if two cages were used, two men could readily 
empty 300 hutches per day. 

In place of the hutches being sent up, they might be emptied 
into an iron box, which would be raised when full and made to 
empty itself from the tower. This arrangement would enable 
very large quantities of waste-rock to be cheaply handled. 



! 






III. Filling of Stored Coal. — The third idea is to save labour 
in filling coal. It is not unusual, particularly at collieries which 
ship nearly their entire output, to bing coal one day and fill it 
the next. The writer's idea is to place an endless band in a 
trough, or box, on the floor of the binging-ground. Narrow 
planks are laid on the top of this trough, and the coal binged 
thereon. When the coal has to be lifted, the planks are removed 
one by one, as the coal is carried away to the wagons or screens ; 
and by this arrangement one man could, with a small steam- 
engine, load 500 tons per day. When all the adjacent coal is 
removed in this way, and only one trough used, men are employed 
with rakes or shovels to draw or fill the coal on to the band. This 
arrangement would enable a large quantity of coal to be loaded 
at a colliery at a moment's notice, thus dispensing with a staff 
of labourers that are often engaged for no other purpose, or, at 
all events, are never employed at any other work. Instead of 
placing the trough above the level of the binging-ground (it 
being preferably so situated for hand-shovelling), the trough 
might be placed so that the top is level with the binging-ground, 
aad a steam-shovel or ram could be used to place the coal on 
the band (Fig. 5, Plate V.). 

IV. Moving Wagons. — The fourth idea is to save labour in 
moving wagons, while being filled at a screen or other place, so 
that the man attending to the loading on the top of the wagon does 
not require to go down and move the wagons forward. This saving 
is effected by carrying the wagons on chains or ropes, on which the 
wheels rest The chains or ropes are run in a groove, and moved 
as desired by the attendant on the top of the wagon, by moving 
a handle attached to a clutch, which gets power from a revolving- 
shaft, driven by the engine that works the screening arrange- 
ments. The links of the chain might have a dent or curve in 






r ZUri>our^aVznx] Idr/is! 



Vol IHV Plate V 




m 



8eal4 r 16F9*tto1i 




^C'"'J"^ 







m 



.jfi 



T~t" , 



-4---A- 



•-* <*•- 



DISCUSSION — FOUB OLD LABOUR-SAVING IDEAS. 213 

them on the top side, so as to hold the wagon to its place, where 
the sidings are on an incline. In place of putting the wheels 
carrying the chain vertically, as shown in Figs. (> and 7 (Plate 
V.) t they may be placed horizontally and the return-chains 
carried outside of the rails. If thought advisable, in place of 
making the chain slide along and in the iron bed below, rollers or 
balls might be used ; over which the chain would pass and so 
reduce friction to a minimum. With this arrangement, should 
any wagons run away, they would simply pass over, and no 
damage would ensue. 

Mr. Thomas Thomson (Hamilton) said that he could not see 
the advantage of erecting a brick column, which would be very 
expensive, for the purpose simply of raising the dirt-heap. He 
was afraid that they must lose something, to make up for this 
supposed saving. 

The President (Mr. H. Aitken) said that they lost the bricks, 
but they saved much in labour and in ground covered. 

Mr. T. Thomson asked whether the chain to which Mr. Aitken 
referred in his fourth idea kept the wagons stationary, or did it 
propel and shift them? 

The President replied that the chains carried the wagons, 
and moved them forward as desired. 

Mr. OrTHBERTsox said that he could not understand how the 
endless chain propelled the wagons. He thought that the 
tendency would be for the chain to make the wheels revolve 
instead of moving the wagon. 

The President explained that a recess was formed in each 
link of the chain, in which the wheels of the wagon rested. 

Mr. Morton said that he presumed there would be a block on 
which the wheels of the wagons rested ; and he asked how the 
wagons were transferred from the rails to this chain. 

The President replied that this was done on the same line of 
rails, by the chains carrying the wagon forward and delivering 
the wagon on to the rails. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



▼OL. XXIV.-1MJ.1903. 15 



214 



AXXl'AL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



THE SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE AND EAST WORCESTER- 
SHIRE INSTITUTE OF MINING ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 
Held at the University, Birmingham, October 6th, 1902. 



Prof. CHARLES LAPWORTH in the Chair. 



The minutes of the last General Meeting and of Council Meet- 
ings were read and confirmed. 



The Annual Report of the Council was read as follows : 




ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1901-1902. 

Under the presidency of Prof. Lapworth the Institute has 
accomplished an interesting and useful year's work. The meet- 
ings have been well attended : and 5 General Meetings, 5 Council 
Meetings, and 2 meetings of the University Mining School Com- 
mittee have been held. 

During the year 3 members (Messrs. W. B. Scott, Arthur 
Wilk8 and E. Kidson) have died, 6 have resigned, and 4 have beea 
struck off for non-payment of subscriptions ; but as 8 members 
have been elected, there are now 171 on the register as against 
170 in the previous year. 

The receipts for the year amount to £154 9s. 4d. : the 
expenditure has been £181 Is. Id., including contributions of 
£85 10s. 4d. to The Institution of Mining Engineers ; there is a 
deficiency of £26 lis. 9d. : and the bank-balance has been 
reduced by that amount, and stands at £261 16s. Id. This 
loss is owing to the heavy arrears in subscriptions, amounting to 
£209 lis. 6d., and the Council regret to have again to call atten- 
tion to this matter. Repeated applications have been made, and 
a special letter has been sent by the instructions of the Council, 
but so many members neglect this important duty that more 
drastic measures will shortly be taken with the defaulters. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



215 




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216 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



*: 



The President, Prof. Charles Lapworth, delivered an Inaugural 
Address, mainly devoted to the subject of the education of mining 
engineers ; and the following papers have also been read : — 

" A Method of Working the Thick Coal-seam in two Sections." By 

Mr. W. Charlton. 
44 Legislation and the Ownership of Properties containing Coal." By 

Mr. Daniel Jones. 
44 The Determination of the Calorific Power of Fuel." By Mr. S. L. 

Thacker. 
"Sparkless Electric Plant for Use in Mines and Ironworks." By 

Mr. J. H. Whittaker. 

The President's Address gave rise to an interesting discussion, 
and, as an outcome, a joint committee of the Council of this 
Institute and of representatives of the Xorth Staffordshire 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers was formed, to 
assist the authorities of Birmingham University to formulate the 
course of mining engineering. This Committee had a meeting 
with Profs. Charles Lapworth and R. A. S. Redmayne, and 
afforded assistance in regard to the scheme, now inaugurated at 
the University. 

The members have had the use of rooms for meetings at the 
Birmingham University, and your thanks are due and are hereby 
tendered to the authorities. 

The Institution of Mining Engineers, with which you are 
associated, continues to prosper, and now has a membership of 
2,")04. The Institution had charge of the Mining and Metallurgy 
Section of the International Engineering Congress held at 
Glasgow in September, 1901 ; and the usual London meeting was 
held in May last. The many papers read are printed in the 
T ran suctions, and are of the usual interesting and instructive 
character. 

The Council feels strongly that individual members could ami 
should take greater interest in the working of this Institute, ami 
if the subscriptions were more promptly and regularly paid, the 
work could be more prosperous, considerable expense would be 
saved, and the Transactions could be promptly forwarded with- 
out delay. 



The Chairman (Prof. Charles Lapworth), in moving the adop- 
tion of the Annual Report of the Council and Accounts, con- 
gratulated the Institute on its prosperity. He had enjoyed his 



ANXCAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 217 

presidency, and as a member of the staff of the Birmingham 
University he was grateful for the kindly way in which the 
Council and members of the Institute had assisted them in found- 
ing the mining chair, and in drawing up the curriculum of the 
mining school. He was sure that in the near future, when Mid- 
land young men came in large numbers to the Birmingham Uni- 
versity, the Institute would have a very much larger number of 
members than at the present day, and they would then look back 
with pleasure to the great assistance which they had given to the 
Birmingham University in promoting the education of mining 
engineers of the Midland counties. 

Mr. W. J. Hayward (Treasurer) seconded the resolution. 
The motion was unanimously adopted. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR, 1902-190B. 

The Scrutineers reported that the following officers had been 
elected for the ensuing year : 

President: Mr. T. J. Davies. 

Vice-President: Mr. Isaac Meachem, Junr. 

New Members of Council: 

Mr. W. N. Atkinson j Mr. J. W. Newey, 

Mr. A. W\ Grazkbrook. I Prof. R. A. S. Redmayne. 

Mr. D. Rogers. 



^ r - T. J. Davies, in taking the presidential chair, moved a 
*°te of thanks to Prof. Charles Lapworth for his valuable services 
,is President during the past year. Prof. Lapworth's term of 
"ttloe had been signalized by the establishment of the depart- 
eats of mining, metallurgy and commerce at the Birmingham 
diversity. 

^ r - Henry Johnson, jun., seconded the motion, and it was 
' or,,i % adopted. 



** e President then delivered the following address : — 



mm 










*'*' f $lM\ 










•ft*'"*. V' 









218 PEESIDEXTIAL ADDRESS. 



:^#^l PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



By T. J. DA VIES. 



I thank the members for the favour and dignity which they 
have conferred upon me by electing me-to nil the honourable office 
of President. I must take them into my confidence and confess 
that my pleasure at receiving this mark of their appreciation and 
goodwill is marred by a sense of incompetence and inability, on 
my part, to bring to this important post the experience necessary 
,»v •-■.-I-:- k • *° th e performance of the duties of President. 

^''^ f; | ; ''" This Institute holds a prominent place in the promotion and 

: V v5^t*t diffusion of mining knowledge. It is the province of this 

y * '-"-iVc-jL Jli Institute to take up for study and elucidation, all science, theory 

ti •> -^ "v '"' T J., Qr invention which may affect the progress and welfare of niining- 

C^i-1 ^;>TV; engineering. And, as in the past, c you will, in the future, be 

^v it' rf^.*r,J j initiating and conducting important discussions and investiga- 

,j? yui^.^. 5. tions on the multifarious subjects which appertain to the 

V^^'^VSJJT^Tr efficiency and advancement of the mining industry. Conse- 

"iH •'/v'v \s*t*i I quently, these are some of the thoughts which induce a feeling 

• ^ v' " ' ^ ^\ of diffidence in my powers to fulfil the duties of President. 

^^-j§: If *tt .4 • ^ d° no ^ doubt that you will afford every assistance, and extend 

^ *' ^ iW^ I ^° me vour indulgence for any mistakes. I rely on your support, 

v' '^.^i^ Y] which I feel certain will be as generously bestowed, as the honour 

i' -i?iv£* $ ■'} v' ; y° u tave conferred upon me to-day. 

f>J$' : y'''Jy i- I n truth, the welfare and progress of this Institute do not 

^ "^ ' ^" i depend on individual effort, but on the combined wisdom of the 

Council, Secretary and members. I place great trust in the 
guidance and assistance of our experienced and indefatigable 
••> <j\fo >*\*f :'•:•. Secretary who, for many years, has so diligently and successfully 

■;/.^;''^ w ., I conducted the business of this Institute, and so materially helped 

to disseminate the science of civil and mining-engineering. 

I have also the satisfaction of looking back on a long line of 

distinguished past-Presidents, who have numbered among them 

^V.-tvi;' ,:* ; . scientists, scholars, experts and inventive pioneers in every branch 



of mining. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 219 

For many years, it has been our privilege to listen to the 
addresses of Presidents, and the lectures and discourses of other 
members, on almost every branch of theoretical and practical 
mining. The printed records of these addresses, discourses and 
discussions cannot fail to be of the greatest value and assistance 
to mining-engineers, and to all persons who are engaged in the 
coal-mining industry. Those in search of mining knowledge, 
and the sciences connected with the work of the mining-engineer, 
will find, in the Transactions of The Institution of Mining 
Engineers, treatises on geology, chemistry, electricity, mathe- 
matics, metallurgy, engineering, surveying and many other 
subjects of interest to mining-engineers. 

I purpose in this address to review some of the incidents in 
the past history of the coal -trade, and the altered conditions 
attending the mining industry of the future, brought about by 
the progress of foreign competition in the coal, steel, iron and 
manufacturing trades. We are now entered upon a new century 
in the world's history, with many disturbing conditions, which 
seem to raise doubts as to whether this country is destined to 
maintain its foremost position in power and wealth. 

Up to the commencement of last century, this country 
attained to position and influence principally by its agricultural 
wealth ; and most of the people in those days were employed in 
the cultivation of the land. The produce from the land was 
then sufficient for the support and comfort of the inhabitants, 
numbering at that time about 8,000,000 or 9,000,000. But the 
population continued to increase, until it grew beyond the capacity 
of the land to support it, and hence arose the necessity of 
providing other means of existence. This want was met by the 
development of the mining and manufacturing trades, which 
provided employment for those who were not wanted to cultivate 
the land. The discovery at that time of extensive sranis of coal, 
at easily accessible depths, came most opportunely for the welfare 
and continued progress of this nation. 

We know that coal was discovered and used many centuries 
ago. In the sixteenth century, Dud Dudley smelted iron with 
coal ; but it was only an experimental feat, and was not attended 
*ith commercial success ; and 150 years more passed away before 
coal came into general use for smelting iron. I pass over this 
period prior to the nineteenth century, because there was no great 



220 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



m 



manufacturing demand or use for coal in the sixteenth, seven- 
teenth, and the greater part of the eighteenth centuries. 

The iron-forges erected during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century were built on the banks of rivers, amidst rural 
surroundings, and the motive power was obtained from these 
rivers. Wood-charcoal was used as fuel for the smelting and 
manipulation of the iron. Charred wood was so extensively used 
in the iron-furnaces of those days, that there arose a fear that 
the woods would fail to yield a supply of fuel for the increasing 
number of forges. 

So little was then known, even at that late period, of the 
pyrology and utility of coal, that it was despondingly thoupht 
that the exhaustion of the woods would deprive us of fuel, with 
the consequent loss of our trade to other countries. And right up 
to the beginning of the nineteenth century wood-charcoal was 
the staple fuel of commerce. 

The success of James Watt's improvements of the steam- 
engine, discovered to the world a method of transforming coal 
into mechanical power, and did more than anythiug else to 
emphasize the advantages of using coal as fuel. Its use from 
that time became general in all trades, and for domestic purposes, 
and it soon became a necessity for industry and commerce. 

The great industry of coal-mining may be said to date its rise 
from the beginning of the nineteenth century, and is, therefore, 
of modern growth. 

There are no records of the quantity of coal raised in the 
early periods of the past century ; but probably about 4,000,000 
to 5,000,000 tons would be the quantity annually raised at that 
time. The first authentic records of the output of coal in this 
country commence after the passing of the first Coal-mines Act in 
1850 ; and the output had then increased to about 50,000,000 tons. 

The coal-trade of this country during the past century has 
been a continuous record of marvellous increase and success. 
Side by side with the progress and development of our manu- 
facturing industries, the coal-trade has grown to its present 
colossal extent: and 225,181,800 tons of coal were raised in this 
country in the last year of the past century. 

Coal is now the only practical source of heat and power ; no 
substitute has been discovered possessing the qualities and con- 
stituents of coal ; and there are no commercially successful means 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 221 

of generating heat and power except by the use of coal. I do not 
ignore the use of mineral-oils, or natural sources of power (such 
as winds, tides or rivers) which are sometimes useful to a limited 
extent, but are inconstant of application and of little commercial 
utility in this country. We have no such abundance of water- 
power as exists in Sweden, Germany and other European 
countries or in the mighty river-falls of America. No doubt more 
use might be made in this country of the powers of nature, but 
so long as coal can be obtained on advantageous conditions, these 
sources of power in this country will be neglected. 

The art of mining and winning coal has advanced with the 
necessities and requirements of trade, and up to the present time 
has kept pace with the demand : there has not hitherto been 
any scarcity of workable coal. The known available coal-seams, 
at accessible depths, will afford a supply of coal for many years 
to come ; but it is impossible to foretell how long this supply 
will last. 

The time is approaching when existing collieries will be near- 
injr exhaustion : and the coal of the future will be mined from 
increased depths, and its working, consequently, attended with 
greater difficulties. Notwithstanding that the future difficulties 
of deep mining will be a great obstacle to the cheapening of coal, 
it is becoming evident that a cheap fuel-supply will be a necessity 
of the future. This necessity of cheap fuel for the steel, iron 
and nther manufacturing trades, will arise from foreign competi- 
tion, which is rapidly assuming colossal proportions. 

In reviewing the history of the coal-trade during the last 
century, I directed your attention to the unique and advantageous 
position of this country, namely: — That we were the first 
nation to develop coal-mining and its attendant manufacturing 
industries, and, consequently, we have maintained a leading 
position in the trade of the world up to the present time. You are 
aware that during the whole of last century we had no successful 
rivals to dispute our universal commercial supremacy ; in the 
vastness and variety of our resources we were hitherto unequalled : 
aud we commanded the markets of the world for our exports 
and merchandise. 

It was this monopoly and commercial enterprise that enabled 
this country to become the richest and most successful trading 
nation in the world. This advantage of being the first and the 









■v'--H* &•; t 

•.» . •". >~' !'•■ *; •' ' 

; ; .. : v v ^n^„i. 

*•>• *■•••' *'**..' if 

A.r + '^y-- ->• -■? 

■M'£iS 



-1 ' * 









Av. 









222 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



most prosperous in the markets of the world is fast coming to an 
end, and we are no longer supreme in the art of milling, and in 
manufacturing and foreign trades. We must awaken to the 
altered position which we now occupy with regard to foreign trade 
in steel, iron and other commodities. 

In the future, we shall have to contend with powerful com- 
petition, as other nations have learned lessons in mining and 
manufacturing industries, and they have acquired our business 
methods and have improved upon them. Some foreign countries, 
like ourselves, have a larger population than can be supported by 
the produce of their land; and they, therefore, have to obtain 
from other countries the food-stuffs and necessaries which they 
lack in their own. These countries, also, like us, have discovered 
coal and other minerals: they have developed their mines and 
manufactures ; and, from small beginnings, they have cultivated 
and increased their manufacturing resources. 

One great nation — the United States of America — is boldly 
bidding for commercial supremacy ; and they have, in the last 
few years, surpassed us in the output of coal. The production oi 
Great Britain in 1901 was 219,046,945 tons, and the quantity 
raised in India, Canada, and the various colonies was about 
24,000,000 tons, giving a total of 243,000,000 tons; but the 
quantity raised in the United States of America, was 261,000,000 
tons or 18,000,000 tons more than the total produce of the British 
Empire. 

The world's output of coal at the present time is about 
700,000,000 tons, and the United States of America, therefore, 
stand foremost with over one-third of the world's output, and the 
British Empire next with less than one-third. 

Germany and Belgium are rapidly increasing their output of 
coal, and are formidable rivals in the manufacture of steel and 
iron. There are other competing nations, and, further, our own 
colonies are annually increasing the products of their mines and 
manufactures. Our great dependency, the Dominion of Canada, 
is now embarking in coal-inining and foreign trade, and is likely 
to rival at no distant future the United States. The fact that 
some of our competitors are our colonial fellow-subjects does not 
mitigate the serious burden of rivalry in the competition for 
foreign trade. 

It is, therefore, evident that the coal-trade of the future must 






PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 228 

he conducted so as to produce a cheap supply of fuel, in order 
that our manufacturers may meet and overcome the competition 
of foreign countries and that we may maintain our leading 
position as a trading nation. We have now a population of over 
42,000,000, and more than 70 per cent, depend on foreign trade for 
their means of existence. If we were beaten by other nations in 
the cheap production of merchandise, and their manufactures 
were to oust our goods from the markets of the world, our people 
would be deprived of the means of subsistence, and the results 
would be decadence in population, wealth and power. 

I do not hold alarmist views in regard to our future trade and 
commerce, but it would be unwise to shut our eyes to the fact 
that other nations, and more especially the United States of 
America, are now engaged in determined competition against us 
for the trade of the world. These rivals are not to be despised, 
as they possess resources and advantages which are not at our 
command. The United States are rich in minerals and especially 
in coal ; their population is twice as numerous as our own ; they 
are possessed of enormous capital and manufacturing skill ; they 
have (as I have already stated) beaten us in the extent of their 
coal-production; and they have now entered upon a career of 
exporting steel, iron and coal. (The current coal-miners* strike 
creates but a momentary pause in their progressive trading pro- 
gramme.) We are bound to admit that they have surpassed us 
in the economical working of coal, and proficient manufacture of 
steel, iron and other commodities. 

Americans have given wonderful examples of admirable skill 
in the cheap production of manufactures, and by underselling us 
in the open markets of the world ; this forms the new, unpre- 
cedented, and serious change of conditions, menacing our com- 
mercial existence, with which we start the new century ; for we 
have never in our previous history had to contend with such 
serious competition. 

I am not saying that, as a mining and trading nation, we need 
°e appalled or despondent, but we must become alive to the fact 
°f the coming commercial struggle for the trade of the world. 
^ e must consider and forecast the probabilities and possibilities 
°f the new industrial situation ; and whether we can equip our- 
selves to manufacture and export our steel, iron, machinery and 
other commodities of commerce at such cheap prices as will com- 



• V'-\'U'i.>\ : P* maud an amount of trade sufficient for the maintenance of our 

v . -v- ? 1 -t '^ ft I existence, power and wealth. 

' ' ** r ^ *'- I assume that we can trust with confidence to the skill and 






jf 



\ftv. b 






224 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



. .. , , inventive genius of our scientists, capitalists, engineers and manu- 

'■'■ &ti*\d -:?&?, facturing experts in the steel, iron, engineering and manufacture 

. ^'^:i ;;^r-| * n £ trades, to produce all articles of commerce at such low 

-' ? ; ^t.*Q%* values as will command a market for them: and it will devolve 

".',; ;";ivvi>^?7' upon mining-engineers to provide our manufacturers with a 

"\ \'/$i.. \*)'%i\£-\ plentiful and cheap supply of fuel, in order that they may be able 

;•>•;: <,:^?^ /J: to produce goods for export-sale at competition-price, on sound 

r ' .; o : : ^ * f - commercial principles, giving fair wages to the miner and profit 

v \i **~kp%l t° the capitalist and mine-owner. 

*.*; i\ v >) " v^c; It would seem that, in the future, it will be necessary for this 

•V ' - :\%*Vfi'£& country's continued prosperity that there shall be co-operation 

' **;•/ "■^••-k:-?:" hi ** n d union of interests between the coal-industry and manufactur- 

X .'; : /'•*?./ ;'!•'*.* •^•? ing trades; and there must be alliances of the industries of this 

» ;^;.L?*^ *• nation to combat the invasion of foreign competition. 

r .* '''i^jfi '-■■„ j\ Th p necessity for a cheap supply of coal in face of the increas- 

1; 4 ^y.-'x V T ing cost and difficulties of coal-mining, is a problem which the 

^ .^i 1 ; *v} V r coal-owner and mining-engineer of the future will have to solve. 

:i^';^W^£J The increasing cost and difficulty to which I allude are due to 

V jf^^.'^V the approaching depletion of our existing coal-fields, and the 

^.\^*V'*i: Vi increasing depth from which the coal of the future will have to 

-* V-!V'i' v ^f ' De niined. This task is set before the coal-mining industry of 

. ;^}; r 'j-Vii this country, and will moat likely have to be dealt with during 

N^.jt^'*£ : * 4 -- the lifetime of some of the present members; and it will be the 

£V '£| >.i :*V«f'' ..' work and patriotic duty of the forthcoming generation of mining- 

-0 ' '5$ $itJ\ • engineers to solve the difficulty of working coal from great depths, 

•'■ i ^j ^v*r : an d a * sucn cheap rates, as will enable our manufacturers to meet 

*' : '?\'^- : \*ty ^ an( l overcome the competition of neighbouring nations, and par- 

~ * 'Kllr^ £ ticularly that of the United States of America. 
jx£j ; ; "I^^Vi These are, admittedly, disquieting and grave considerations, 

; ;"> li*\ ,'/$ ;■ but I entertain no pessimistic visions of failure, and whenever 

. /r > >Wvli^ > the necessity for cheaper or increased quantities of coal arises, 

1 c ■*'/■$$.' .%*■'» f - I believe that, notwithstanding all difficulties, the requirements 

; .f : ; m ; *l:' \ • • of our manufacturers will be supplied. The continued progress of 

> <i : : j \:\ i'»i mining science built upon the knowledge which we already 

*; * : " ' Vi> * ? V f 'j possess, the improvement of mechanical agencies, and the increas- 
ing skill acquired by study and experience, will enable the 



V* ^ v £ mining-engineer of the future to achieve triumphs which to us at 

>i r '?- vf f • the present time would seem difficult of realization. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 225 

It is somewhat of a digression, but I will now refer for a 
moment to Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, published in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, in which he explained that 
political economy was the science of producing from the earth 
the necessaries and comforts of mankind in the most economical, 
advantageous and beneficial manner. He shewed that super- 
abundance of produce constitutes wealth : that all wealth comes 
initially from the earth, but is essentially the result of labour; 
and without the application of labour and the science of the 
agriculturist, that the earth would not produce sufficient food, 
necessaries and comforts for its inhabitants. Similarly with 
regard to minerals, they are of no value, until the forces of labour 
are employed to place them at the service of the community, for 
their necessities, comfort and wealth. Under the designation of 
labour, are included,' not only the labour of the workman, but the 
many forms of mechanical labour and force, which the skill and 
genius of the engineer and scientist have invented. Above all and 
by far the most important labourers are the geologist, the 
capitalist, the engineer, the manager and all who have to guide, 
stimulate and control these human and mechanical forces. It is 
the work of the mining-engineer so to regulate and apply human 
labour and mechanical agencies that coal may be produced for 
all classes in the most beneficial and economical manner : and, 
consequently, the art of producing cheap coal or cheap manu- 
factures is brought about by the skilful and beneficial employ- 
ment of labour. 

I have already stated that the output of coal in the first years 
of the nineteenth century was probably under 4,000,000 tons. 
Previous to that time, mining was in the experimental stage, 
practised in a simple and crude manner, and without steam- 
power or other mechanical aids. Coal was then worked only at 
the outcrop and shallow depths by quarrying, or by means of 
bell-shafts, and the workings extended only a few feet from the 
shaft. 

It is a common practice in rhetoric to resort to fable to strike 
a contrast or depict a truth. I will, therefore, for a moment, 
adapt my theme to the role of the prophetic seer of fiction, and 
I will ask the members to carry their minds back to the com- 
mencement of the past century, when coal-raising was of such 
small proportions. I want you to picture to your imagination the 



i 1rV^ : Aj? ! sylvan woodlands, arcadian valleys and verdure-clad district of 

* * '-;Wj V^<i;i Hamstead, near Birmingham, as it existed in all its primeval and 



"*V: -:« 






{V 






"v5 ;;.••••■« 



^•■* = 









226 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



! ^ -^> 5^ £*"' ^ natural beauty, prior to the last century. The rustic inhabitants 

;V/ i^i'^rt7, s f \ of the few scattered hamlets in that neighbourhood would be 

/ ,i: : ^;;1 ;- 5 i.J aware of the new and wonderful discovery of coal-fuel, under 

Ti.ffi*:':^.*'^ lands about Dudley, Wednesbury, Wolverhampton, Pelsall, and 

Cv"' §V '$ >-S£?r other places where outcrops occur; the few acres found in these 

/ ,. ?' '>^^>*^' localities would appear, to them, as surprising and large deposits : 

" ' ^'''' : '' : 5jsi^-l and their ideas of mining operations would be confined to the 



knowledge and practical working of these outcropping coal-seams. 

: , . r v. ..;>. - \ •- They would discuss the advantages which would result from 

' \"i ,?' • V'A^ ' \ the general use of coal compared with the restricted utility of 

iff'C* ii ^ ^ **'$\t .\ wood-charcoal. The sage of those days would be listened to, on 

^V.;'^/ : ^^h*;- the geology and existence of coal and its value to the commerce 

.*"'•* ''-'I y^i -f^-l °f the nation. The seer would predict future possibilities and 

y.'y/.1 r ^!^-f % ^tt tell this rural people that in that hamlet, before the century had 

^ v f VV< ;» t br ;; '* expired, coal would be raised from beneath their feet, from a 

.; : '\-'^rr\%j\i depth of nearly 2,500 feet, at the rate of 1,000 tons a day, out of 

• -» ; L':«^"''*"-V ?i one 8na ft; and that there would be many such wonderful pro- 

]• f rV'" 3 ^ l f ductions of coal out of the earth from great depths even to the 

">^>'^^:^f; extent of 200,000,000 tons in everv year. 

:<••*• ;••►•". >•? * ' * 

f. ! V^-i* *vi '.j The prophet who would make such a forecast in those davs 

'^'v^'^'^VjK'^V'V would not be believed; and it would be beyond the capacity of 

} : $ -£;, ' -ry^ ■/&** I their understanding to credit the existence of coal at such depths, 

''if ''.U^r.^ -'• -♦' i» or the possibility of its being transferred to the surface in such 

*' *^ T <jfc* K* '■'**' immense quantities. The forecast would at that time seem 

V % \'-'i*''$ ' ■■> impossible of realization by any known human agency; and, 



-;w . certainly, not one person in 100,000 would give credence to such 

i*j*^v ';..' an estimate of coal-production. 

'•'■'/ ? ,?? '■']' '"*'?y ':". I have made use of this allegorical prophecy, to emphasize the 

"^ - * ^^?'^ '\V marvellous progress of coal-production during the past century. 

.ri^r, ;;^"Vh ^l 1 ; W© have now in our midst, the examples of Hamstead, Sandwell 

•v, ;V^-j ';J :'. and tlie Cannock Chase collieries raising 1,000 tons per day, and 

• '^'*> ^yTi;T / i in many parts of the kingdom, there are collieries where 2,000 

v ; ; X i*;! ; ; S - .) l ,'■ ft nd even 3,000 tons per day are raised to the surface from a single 

y-{i^::;\y shaft. 

■'•■A j;/<'£r:i: : * i. ; i A year's output of coal has now reached 228,000,000 tons : to 

*' '.: : -;*::-i; ' ,; ;'v 'rf * illustrate the magnitude of this quantity I have calculated that, 

if it were stacked 6 feet high, it would cover 39,000 acres, or if 
stacked 6 feet high and 1 mile wide, it would be 61 miles long ; 



;V£' •: i^T'fH an(1 this is only one year's production of coal in Great Britain. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 227 

Having witnessed this marvellous development of mineral 
production during the past century, may we not expect still 
further expansion in the future. The trend of events indicates 
that increased quantities of fuel will be required, in proportion as 
population continues to multiply, and trade and manufactures* 
increase; but what may be the increased quantity is interesting 
matter for conjecture. 

Shall we double or treble our present output of coal during' 
the present century, or will the total required reach 1,000,000,000 
tons per annum before the century closes ? I do not think that 
even the latter total can be characterized as beyond the limits of 
human science and energy. 

Naturally we ask : — Are our coal-deposits sufficient to supply 
such an increase as I have imagined for any considerable length 
of time? We have been furnished with many and varied expert 
assurances, and geological evidences, that our coal-resources are 
sufficient to supply the increased wants of the United Kingdom 
for the next 200 years, if we are prepared to work coals from 
depths of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. In the address given last year by 
niy predecessor, Prof. Lapworth — a most valuable and instructive 
geological discourse — he pointed to geological evidences of Coal- 
measures in the Midland coal-field below the present workings, 
or oi correlative seams in the surrounding country. The 
report of the Royal Coal Commission in 1871, gives an estimated 
duration of 270 years for our coal-supply, with an increased con- 
sumption of 400,000,000 tons annually. But, as is well known 
to every one who has any connection with the coal-trade, there 
are continual discoveries of coal taking place in various parts 
of the kingdom, all adding to, and increasing our security in 
regard to fuel-resources. There is, therefore, not much cause 
for alarm in regard to any early exhaustion of our coal-deposits. 

What to my mind is of more serious uncertainty, is the 
industrial problem of working the deep mines of the future : — 
How are the geological and natural difficulties of deep mining 
to be surmounted ? How will the natural heat of the mine be 
overcome at depths of 4,000 to 6,000 feet? as the increase of 
heat at this extreme depth would range from 00° to 80° Fahr. 
higher than the surface-temperature. Then as regards ventila- 
tion, and the presence of noxious and dangerous gases : we must 
expect difficulty in dealing with these in the extensive roads and 
workings of deep mines. 



228 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



At present, it would not be possible to work mines -3,000 feet 
deep or more ; but when the necessity arises, who shall say that 
mining science will not have advanced, so that, by chemical and 
mechanical inventions, the atmosphere of deep mines can be 
freed from injurious gases, and the air cooled down by 
refrigerants to the temperature necessary for the safety and health 
of the workers in the mines? If this obstacle to the ventilation 
of deep measures can be overcome, all other difficulties of an 
engineering character — such as gaining access to the deep seams, 
raising to the surface, haulage and draining — present no insur- 
mountable mechanical difficulties. 

What then may the mine of the future be like? What will 
be the possible future development of deep mining, as year after 
year, in progressive stages, natural, geological and atmospheric 
difficulties are overcome in the working of deep mines? Shall 
I venture to pose as a seer for a moment? The mine of the 
future may lie from 5,000 to 10,000 feet below the surface. There 
is of course a limit to the depth from which minerals can be 
vertically raised by wire-ropes, by reason of the weight of the 
rope ; consequently this very deep mine will have to be reached 
by inclined drifts or tunnels, 6 or 8 miles long. There will be 
two, three or four drifts or tunnels (of large dimensions) to this 
mine, securely cased or lined with stone or brick masonry, similar 
to existing railway-tunnels. Double lines of rails will be laid 
in the tunnels set apart for traffic, an inward or down line, and an 
ascending or return line. Electric locomotives will travel up 
and down these tunnels, drawing trains of wagons ; in the inward 
journey with empty wagons or material for the mine, and return- 
ing to the surface with coal-laden wagons. 

There will be separate intake and return air-drifts to the 
workings of this mine, in addition to the tunnels used by the 
locomotives for ingress and egress from the mine. The ventila- 
tion of this vast mine will be accomplished by copious mechanic- 
ally induced and propelled air-currents, aided by scientific 
chemical and electric inventions by which the hydrocarbon gases 
given off in the mine will be rendered innocuous by reduction of 
temperature or liquefaction brought about by chemical agencies. 

The excessive natural heat of the mine will be counteracted 
by the production of artificial cold and the copious air-currents 

This mine will be of vast extent, working several seams at 



•?" ; ; 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 229 

different levels, by many miles of road and airways. In it, 7,000 
or 8,000 men will be continuously employed. It will form a sub- 
terranean town of mine-workers, who will remain underground 
for days together without ascending to the surface. The output 
of this mine will be 30,000 to 40,000 tons per day, or from 
11,000,000 to 12,000,000 tons per year. 

The top of this mine will present the ordinary features of a 
large railway-station and ironworks combined, with the differ- 
ence that the product will be chiefly coal. There will be an 
absence of the now familiar head-gear of pit-frames, pulleys and 
ropes. There will be large steam-engine* at the top of this 
mine, generating electric power for actuating the motors of the 
locomotives, fans, pumps and hauling-gear, and lighting through- 
out the many miles of tunnels, roads and workings in this vast 
mine : together with improved belts, screens, washing apparatus 
and all appliances for sizing, sorting and washing the coal. 

The incidence of the coal-trade will be diverted into new 
channels, as a portion only of the produce of this coal-mine will 
be sold in a concrete form. Large proportions will be converted 
and sold either in gaseous form or as electric current. The mine- 
owner of the future will, therefore, have to erect the necessary 
plant of gas-producers, storage-tanks, and mains for the supply 
and conveyance of gas to consumers for the purposes of light, 
heat and power ; also power-engines and dynamos for generating 
electricity for sale to the various surrounding corporations, 
industries and trades requiring light and power ; and the old 
commercial system of small undertakings w r ill give place to huge 
combinations of capital, united to the progressive skill and 
wisdom of our future mining-engineers. 

Xo doubt this representation has the appearance of a mere 
mining romance, but I do not think that this forecast is an 
extravagant estimate of the capacity and triumph of engineering 
science when we have such a wonderful substructure of past 
experience and achievements, on which to build up future success. 

It is reassuring to see that the uncertainties and difficulties 
in the path of the future commerce of this country are realized 
hy the mining and trading communities. It becomes the duty 
of those engaged in mining, and of all business men, to make 
preparations to meet the forthcoming formidable foreign com- 
petition by adopting the aid of science. It is, therefore, most 

tOL XX IV .-MM MOB. 16 



280 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 



satisfactory that the Government have recently appointed a Royal 
Commission to ascertain our future resources of coal. The 
subjects referred to this Royal Commission are of wide scope, 
including economy and reduction in working costs, the most 
important question, and at the same time, the most difficult of 
solution. Geologists must assist and direct our efforts to dis- 
cover our hidden treasures of coal : and mining-engineers must 
solve the problem of economy and reduced cost of working the 
deep mines. 

It affords great satisfaction to know that two past -Presidents 
of this Institute — Prof. Lapworth and Mr. Arthur Sopwith — are 
members of this Royal Commission ; and the selection is emin- 
ently satisfactory in regard to the geological and engineering: 
branches of the inquiry into our coal-resources. 

The Government have the further duty of protecting and 
encouraging our coal-export trade. I regard the imposition of 
the tax on exported coal as a retrograde policy and detrimental 
to the coal-mining interests of this country: because such a tax 
necessarily tends to restrict both the output and the export of 
coal, with consequent loss to the nation : and it is to be hoped 
that the anomaly of taxing our own exports will soon be remedied. 

Among other gratifying preparations for meeting the near 
commercial struggle are the establishment, by the governors of 
the Birmingham University, of a faculty of commerce and 
accounting; the appointment of Prof. Turner to the chair of 
metallurgy ; and that of Prof. Redmayne to the chair of mining. 
For a long time there has been a department of geology, presided 
over bj r Prof. Lapworth, and other departments of science, useful 
and necessary to the career of the mine-manager and engineer. 
These are some of the facilities for imparting higher, technical, 
and advanced theoretical and practical education in the art of 
mining and its allied trades in this district. 

There is also the valuable work of disseminating mining 
knowledge performed by The Institution of Mining Engineers. 
The association of this and kindred institutions is now more than 
ever a requirement of the times, as a means for the diffusion of 
the knowledge of improvements, inventions, and new methods in 
the working of coal. It would be most gratifying if those who 
ore connected with the working or management of mines would 
join in greater numbers one or other of our mining institutions. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 281 

Increased membership is required to impart tone, vigour and new 
life to our Transactions, and more papers should be read and dis- 
cussed by our members. There can be no lack of matter attending 
an industry beset with so many vicissitudes as mining. There 
are many incidents in the working of mines relating to ventila- 
tion, noxious gases, methods of working under various conditions 
of roof or floor, mechanical appliances, fires and water in the 
mine, all forming interesting subjects for papers. Accounts of 
an endeavour to surmount some difficulty, although the experi- 
ment may have been unsuccessful, are always welcome^ matter 
for discussion. The discussions arising out of the reading of 
papers afford opportunities of obtaining valuable opinions and 
experience from the older members, who are always willing to 
impart their knowledge and to help their juniors. These are some 
of the means by which we shall become prepared and equipped to 
engage in the mining and commercial struggle of the future. 

In the future, as in the past, trouble and difficulty will be 
encountered in mining operations. Our predecessors have met 
and overcome difficulties without the advantages and mechanical 
agencies that we possess ; and whatever problems of mining 
practice have to be faced, future mine-managers will have for 
their guidance, the record of past failures and successes. 

The occupation of a mining-engineer may aptly be compared 
to that of a general engaged in warfare : — Geological and natural 
impediments, constant vicissitudes in the form of obstruction and 
difficulty, and dangers of many kinds, encompass the occupations 
and duties of mine-managers and workers, in the exploration and 
winning of minerals buried deep in the earth. The necessity 
for cheaper coal and manufactures arises, and the skill, capacity, 
resource and energy of our mining-engineers and mine workers 
w iU he exerted to aid our manufacturing corporations in preserv- 
ing our necessary share of the markets of the world. We shall 
not be discouraged by temporary defeats, but, as in the past, we 
shall succeed in maintaining our existence, prosperity and 
wealth. 

I now thank the members for their patient attention, while 
I have treated upon a subject which concerns all of us : and 
I trust that I have touched on points interesting and acceptable 
to you, and such as will help to remind us of the work which lies 
before us. 



282 DISCUSSION -PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

Prof. Charles Lapworth said that he had perfect faith in 
the success of Great Britain in the struggle for the commerce of 
the world. Even if the coal-industry of the United States vn\$ so 
much ahead of our own in 1901, the chances were that Canada 
(our own colony) would ultimately be in front of them. The 
quantity of available coal in Canada was enormous, and the 
availability of that coal with respect to the seashore was excellent. 
He had great pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to the President 
for his interesting: address. 

Mr. H. W. Hughes, in seconding the motion, said that he did 
not. share Prof. Lapworth's roseate views, as mining in this 
country was handicapped by obsolete machinery, and we had to 
go deeper and deeper for the coal. However clever they might be, 
* it scarcely seemed sensible to think it possible to mine coal at 
great depths at the same cost as they could by a level driven into 
the side of a hill. The cheapness of the United States coal arose 
from the fact that from the first blow of the pick the mine began 
to be remunerative. But was cheap coal the philosopher's stone 
that some people considered it to be? Germany was producing 
steel, in competition with Great Britain, and the cost of coke in 
that country was greater than in this. 

Prof. R. A. S. Redmayne, in supporting the motion, remarked 
that the President had drawn a picture of the coal-mine of the 
future, and it might be that the picture was not so much over- 
drawn. A short time ago, he had the pleasure of hearing an 
address by Mr. J. B. Simpson on the possibility of producing a 
new coal-field below the existing coal-field of Northumberland 
and Durham. During a recent visit to the United States he had 
seen ore drawn in Michigan from a copper-mine at a depth of 
5,000 feet, and the temperature was by no means excessive. He 
believed that it was contemplated to draw from a depth of 7,000 
feet, and engines were being erected for drawing from a depth 
of 6,000 feet. 

* 

The motion was cordially approved. 



DI8CU8SION— SPARKLESS BLECTBIC PLANT. 233 

DISCISSION OF MR. J. H. WHITTAKER'S PAPER OX 
"SPARKLKSS ELECTRIC PLANT FOR USE IN 
MINES AND IRONWORKS."* 

Mr. S. L. Thacker said that he had read Mr. Whittaker's 
paper with much interest, and these remarks were made, not 
merely for the sake of criticism, but rather that the subject might 
in some decree receive a discussion commensurate with its 
importance. While there would probably always be special con- 
ditions individually suited to both continuous and polyphase 
systems, he (Mr. Thacker) was in agreement with most of the 
advantages of the latter as set forth in the paper ; but, at the same 
time, it might be of service to members that some of the points 
dealt with should receive further consideration. 

Take for instance capital expenditure : —At the present time, 
a polyphase plant was more costly than a continuous-current 
plant of the same power; the generator required a subsidiary 
dynamo for the excitation of the field ; switches and switchboard 
gear were somewhat more complicated ; and it was his (Mr. 
Thackers) opinion that the cables would also be found to be more 
expensive. Mr. AVhittaker stated in his paper that, although 
three wires were necessary, there would be a considerable saving 
of copper, as the gauge would be smaller owing to the adoption 
of a higher voltage. Now, in the case of alternating currents, 
the voltage followed a wave-curve having a periodicity of 45 to 
80 per second, and the pressure at the peak of the curve would 
reach fully 50 per cent, above the mean or effective pressure, and 
to this was mainly due the fact that shocks from an alternating 
current were more dangerous than from a continuous current. 
Obviously for the same comparative safety, the effective pres- 
sure must be lower than in the case of continuous current, and 
for the same efficiency, the weight of copper would be nearer 
50 per cent, more than 50 per cent. less. With regard to the 
authors remarks as to the use of transformers, the above con- 
siderations would prevent the adoption of any such voltage as 
would necessitate their use. 

Coming to the principal feature, the sparklessness of the 
motors, here undoubtedly was an advantage, not so much from the 
absence of sparking, but because burning of commutators meant 
expensive repairs and renewals of commutators and armatures. 

* Trim*. I»*t. M.S., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 170. 



234 



DISCUSSION— 8PABKLE88 ELBCTRIC PLANT. 



* 



■ 



It was his (Mr. Thacker' s) contention that the danger of ignition 
of gas at the commutator was largely exaggerated and was far 
exceeded by dangers from breakage and short-circuiting of cables 
and switch-gear, which contention was borne out by the reports of 
H.M. inspectors of mines. Motors in mined, usually work some- 
where near the floor, and for ignition to occur at the commutator, 
the motor must be at work practically surrounded by an explosive 
mixture; surely such a condition of things was scarcely likely to 
occur in any well-regulated mine, apart from a very sudden out- 
burst of gas. On the other hand, supposing that cables were 
taken along a dry and dusty main haulage-road, a bar might break 
and a fall occur raising a cloud of dust, breaking the cable and 
causing an arc, not a remote contingency ; the result might 
either be a fire or an explosion. In such a case, polyphase cur- 
rent had no advantages. 

Undoubtedly the system enjoyed greater immunity from break- 
down and a less cost of upkeep, and he (Mr. Thacker) thought 
that these were the considerations which should be urged in 
favour of its adoption. A great desideratum of colliery- 
machinery was that it should keep going, and it did not require 
many stoppages to absorb the increase in first cost. Whatever 
the system adopted, it would be found economical to provide a 
thoroughly reliable installation, under systematic and capable 
supervision. 

Electricity would play no small part in the future in lessening 
the cost of production of the deeper and thinner seams, and while 
it was of the utmost importance that the safety of human life 
should be ensured, it would be a misfortune if its use were re- 
tarded by any arbitrary or unpractical enactments. A Govern- 
ment Departmental Committee was at present engaged in in- 
vestigating the dangers attending the use of electricity in mines, 
and presumably they would make certain recommendations : was 
the time not opportune for some suggestions being made by 
those who were most intimately acquainted with its dangers and 
advantages Y With a view of obtaining an expression of opinion, 
he (Mr. Thacker) suggested that the following rules should be 
adopted where electricity was employed in mines: — 

1. Where electricity is used for power purposes in mines, a competent person, 
appointed by the owner, agent or manager for the purpose, shall once in every 24 
hours, examine the state of the dynamos, motors, cable.**, switches and similar 



DISCUSSION— 8PARKLE8S ELECTRIC PLANT. 235 

Appliances aboveground and belowground ; and a true report stating what defects, 
if any, were observed, and what steps were taken to remedy the same, shall be 
recorded without delay in a book to be kept at the mine for the purpose, and shall 
be signed by the person who made the inspection. 

2. If in any mine at either of the inspections under General Rule 4, 
inflammable gas has been found to be present in any ventilating district where 
electricity is in use, the current shall immediately be completely switched off from 
ill cables and appliances whatsoever between the place where the gas has been 
found and the return-air course ; and the current shall not again be switched on 
until the competent person appointed under General Rule 4 has examined the 
place where the gas has been found, and has certified that the accumulation has 
been cleared away. 

Mr. Isaac Meachem, jun., remarked that the danger of 
ignition of gas had been exaggerated ; and he had found that the 
chief trouble arose from the water in a mine. 

Mr. H. W. Hughes said that the three-phase system would 
eventually supersede every other method of generating elec- 
tricity, and of the large plants, erected within recent years, 90 per 
cent, were working on the three-phase system. He had recently 
visited a large works on the Continent, where the waste-gases 
from the blast-furnaces were working large gas-engines, driving 
three-phase generators producing a current of 10,000 volts which 
vas conveyed 5 miles to the steel-works. 

Mr. Isaac Meachem, jun., said that Mr. Hughes might be 
right in stating that the three-phase system was the best for large 
installations; but he (Mr. Meachem) maintained that the con- 
tinuous-current system was the most suitable for the small plants 
used at collieries. 

Mr. J. H. Whittaker wrote that Mr. Thacker's statement 
that polyphase machinery was more costly to install was not 
correct. There might not always be a great difference, but if 
really representative prices were considered, the difference in cost, 
he it large or small, would be generally in favour of polyphase 
machinery. In some cases, however, the difference was very 
great, and he knew of an instance where about £400 was saved in 
a £1,000 plant. 

The alleged complications of the three-phase system dis- 
appeared when the principle of the system was once grasped. The 
wciter was directly coupled to the alternator, and practically 
required no attention in comparison, say, with a continuous- 



236 



DISCUSSION— 8PARKLESS ELECTRIC PLANT. 




current generator, which was carrying the whole load of the mine, 
instead of the fractional current necessary to energize the fields 
of the alternator. The switch-board might be as simple as the 
older system, and in both it was simply a matter of design. 
Voltage-considerations as to shock-risk did not enter as a limiting 
factor into the saving of copper in the main. The maximum 
pressure in an alternating current was higher than the normal 
working pressure, but it must be remembered that with continuous 
current, at a pressure of 500 volts, the cables must be covered and 
danger notices were necessary, as even cables carrying 500 volts 
must not be touched. Now with a polyphase current of 5,000 
volts, it was just as simple, " You must not touch " ; and it was 
almost as easy to insulate the cables, especially as they would be 
of much smaller diameter. A very important difference between 
the two motors was, that with a three-phase 5,000 volts motor, 
the current was simply carried by the insulated cables and wind- 
ings in the stationary part of the machine, whilst on the rotating 
portion, commonly called the armature, there was no high-pressure 
current This was due to the fact that the motor-currents had 
no connection with the line-voltage or mains, and the current 
carried was only an induced current amounting to from 10 to 300 
volts. With a 5,000 volts three-phase motor, there would be no 
bare metal carrying more than 10 to 300 volts (varying with 
the size, that is, about 100 volts in a motor of 100 horsepower) 
while with a continuous-current motor at 500 volts, the commu- 
tator and brushes, which were parts that had to be handled, 
exposed the full 500 volts for ready shocks ; consequently, in 
practice the 5,000 volts motor was quite as safe as the lower- 
pressure motor. 

He (Mr. Whittaker) stated in his paper that he did " not 
think that there is a case on record of gas having been fired hv 
the sparks from the motor-brush. " He did not think that there 
was great risk in using a continuous current, and for very small 
mines and powers, the mining engineer had better use con- 
tinuous currents than no electricity at all. Mining engineers had 
fought shy of man's great servant too long already, and electricians 
must not attempt to reveal a bogey, where one was not in exist- 
ence ; but the break-downs, burn-outs, and wear-and-tear were 
very real troubles. When engineers remembered that these 
troubles could be overcome, and that whatever continuous currents 



DISCUSSION— SPARKLBBS ELECTRIC PLANT. 237 

could do, in the way of power-transmission, three-phase currents 
could do better as a general rule, they might be willing to study 
the question, and indeed must do so, if only from considerations 
of our future as a commercial nation. 

Polyphase machinery was not best for every purpose, and there 
were many conditions, especially where lighting was a great con- 
sideration, where continuous currents might be most suitable ; but 
for all power- work, where the motors were a long way from the 
surface, where the currents were carried long distances, where 
large powers were developed at the generators, and distributed 
amongst many small motors, where a number of small steam- 
engines could be superseded and one large one operated, or large 
gas-engines, at a central station used to generate electricity and 
transmit it over many miles, in the pit, works, factories, towns and 
even villages, here polyphase electrical distribution might prove 
itself to be the most economical. 

Mr. S. L. Thacker desired to remove a slight misapprehension, 
as he was not a partisan of continuous or of three-phase current. 
He had only desired to point out that the advantages of the three- 
phase system lay rather in less liability to breakdown and lower 
working cost than in immunity from ignition of gas. Of course, 
on the surf ace, there was practically no limit to the voltage which 
might be employed within the possibilities of insulation, but it 
would hardly be economical practice to take high pressures down 
the shaft and transform them at the pit-bottom, and the carrying 
of 3,000 or 4,000 volts along the roadways of a mine would entail 
serious responsibility upon the management. 



238 DISCUSSION LEGISLATION AND PROPERTIES CONTAINING COAL. 



THE SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE AND EAST WORCESTER- 
SHIRE INSTITUTE OF MINING ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 
Held at tub University, Birmingham, December 8th, 1902. 



Mr. T. J. DA VIES, President, in the Chair. 



The minutes of the last General Meeting and of Council Meet- 
ings were read and confirmed. 



The following gentlemen were elected : — 

Members — 
Mr. T. G. Gatis, Mining Engineer, Wolverhampton. 
Mr. Lawrence Holland. 

Mr. G. R. Morgan, Assistant Mining Engineer, Llanelly. 
Mr. J. T. Onions, Colliery Manager, Wolverhampton. 
Mr. E. H. Roberton, Mining Lecturer, The University, Birmingham. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. DANIEL JONES' PAPER ON 
'LEGISLATION AND THE OWNERSHIP OF PRO- 
PERTIES CONTAINING COAL."* 

Mr. W. N. Atkinson (H.M. Inspector of Mines), with reference 
to the proposal that there should be some State authority, similar 
to the Railway Commissioners, to regulate the granting of mineral 
leases, wrote that the first question that suggested itself was 
whether the national interest in the duration of our coal-supplies 
was such as to warrant interference with the private rights of the 
owners of mineral properties ? If that question were answered in 
the affirmative, he (Mr. Atkinson) thought that there would be 
no difficulty in showing that such State-regulation would be of 
national benefit, and need not necessarily be detrimental to the 
financial interests either of lessors or lessees. The scope of the 
proposed authority should be wider, than merely to intervene 

* Tram. In*t. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 272. 



DISCUSSION LEGISLATION AND PROPERTIES CONTAINING COAL. 239 

with reference to small properties in such cases as those men- 
tioned by Mr. Jones in his paper. For the most beneficial work- 
ing of a coal-field and the prevention of waste of minerals, the 
geological and engineering features of the district should be 
taken into consideration, and the areas worked by the different 
mines should not be controlled, as at present, only by surface- 
boundaries. In many cases, there would probably be no reason 
for such an authority as was suggested to interfere with the 
arrangements proposed to them by lessors and lessees, though in 
other cases their interference would be of the greatest importance 
not only to individual mines, but for the beneficial working of 
the coal-iield as a whole. 

The President (Mr. T. J. Davies) thought that the question 
raised by Mr. Jones was of national importance. It often hap- 
pened that in the devising of some beneficial scheme, plans 
and arrangements had to be altered through the proprietor of 
some small intervening area adopting an unreasonable attitude. 
The appointment of such an authority, as was suggested, would 
lead to the proper and economical working of our coal. It would 
facilitate matters if the Royal Commission on Coal-supplies would 
take up the subject, which certainly should not be allowed to 
remain in its present unsatisfactory condition. 

Prof. Charles Lapworth stated that the Royal Commission 
had the subject under their consideration. 

Prof. R. A. S. Rkdmayne referred to the scheme proposed by 
the late Sir George Elliot, by which the question of wayleaves, 
barriers, management, etc., would be much simplified. This 
scheme — which was to be a kind of national coal-trust — was made 
public in September, 1893. Sir George Elliot estimated that an 
average selling price of 7s. 'kl. a ton at the pit-mouth would be 
ample, at the then annual rate of output, to yield returns of 5 per 
cent, on the debentures, which were to form one-third of the capital 
of the trust, and from 10 to 1"> per cent, on the ordinary stock, 
which was to constitute the remaining two-thirds of the capital. 
Independently of this return on capital, there was to be a sinking 
fund for the redemption of capital, so as to ensure the permanency 
of the consolidated property. These remarks were likely to be of 
interest in view of the subject of Mr. Jones' paper, though he was 



240 DISCUSSION LEGISLATION AND PROPERTIES CONTAINING COAL. 



£ 



t 



uot by any means an advocate of such a trust as that which had 
been sketched out by Sir George Elliot. 

Mr. W. B. Collis thought that the subject required further 
careful consideration before it would become ripe for legislative 
enactment. It would be of great advantage if some court were 
established, that could be asked to intervene when necessary 
between the owners of adjacent mineral estates. 

Mr. Isaac Meaciiam, jun., agreed with the proposal that there 
should be an authority with powers to intervene between the 
owners of neighbouring mineral properties. In addition to the 
private rights of the various owners, there were what he would call 
'* shadowy rights,'' which should also be investigated. 

Mr. Alexander Smith said that he was connected with an 
estate where the lease of a large area of ooaLhad been kept in 
abeyance for 3 or 4 years, as they had experienced considerable 
difficulty in acquiring small intervening areas. Although the 
lease had been completed and operations had been commenced, 
there was still an important area unacquired through the " dog- 
in-the-manger " action of the owner, and it might ultimately be 
lost to the nation. The principal intention of Mr. Jones' paper, 
as he took it, was to draw the attention of the Royal Commission 
to the subject, and that had been accomplished, as they had heard 
from Prof. Lapworth that the matter was receiving their atten- 
tion ; and as to two of their prominent members, Prof. Lapworth 
and Mr. Arthur Sopwith, were members of the Commission, they 
might safely leave the matter in their hands. 

Mr. I). Jones, replying to the discussion, said that he was quite 
aware that the suggestions which he had made would take most of 
the owners of property containing coal by surprise. The subject 
had not been much before the public, except as a proposal to 
nationalize all mines. It was a constant subject of discussion at 
the Trades Union Congress. Mr. Pickstone had recently read a 
paper before the Manchester Geological Society, favouring such 
a view, and Mr. Arnold Lupton, whose opinion, would weigh 
heavily with mining-engineers, adopted a similar view. He (Mr. 
J ones) asked the members to bear in mind that his proposal took 
only the form of compulsion in cases where the owner was utterly 
unreasonable, and no attitude was better calculated to force on the 



DISCISSION — LEGISLATION AND PROPERTIES CONTAINING COAL. 241 

idea of the nationalization of mines. He (Mr. Tones) asked merely 
that the owner should be forced by law to submit his case for de- 
cision to a tribunal of suitably chosen, competent, and impartial 
men. The Royal Commission on Mining Royalties touched upon 
the subject, but dealt with it as though no great need for legisla- 
tion had yet arisen. The existence of a Commission on Coal-sup- 
plies, who were now taking evidence, seemed to afford the oppor- 
tunity of an enquiry being made, and if their report did not 
refer to this subject it would be incomplete. For it would be 
an absurdity to make an estimate of the coal contained in this 
country unless it could be worked. If it were true, as he (Mr. 
Jones) had stated, that in a single instance a property of 2,000 
acres containing 100,000,000 tons of coal was locked up, how 
much might lie in properties similarly situated throughout the 
country Y 

The questions might now be asked : Is the case proved ? and, 
if 30, has the time arrived for an enquiry ? and the need or not for 
legislation would follow upon the result of that enquiry. 

The trouble of scarcity of coal would not come all at once as a 
bursting cloud, but it would be felt in district after district, and it 
would crawl up unobserved. In the South Staffordshire coal-field, 
furnace and manufacturing coal was already being imported from 
other coal-fields. The Mines-drainage Commission had a severe 
struggle to keep down the water, and year by year the difficulties 
would become greater as the output became reduced. If from 
any cause that Commission were dissolved, there would be a 
sudden abandonment of the old Staffordshire coal-field. A most 
important group of manufacturers was established in that district, 
which they were accustomed to call " the allied trades," having 
regard to the principal operations of ironmaking. Even if the 
heavy export trade in iron had been displaced by reason of costly 
freights to the sea-ports, these allied trades would continue to 
form a great home market for iron, steel and coal, if a supply of 
the latter could be assured. 

It would be too late to make an enquiry, after these trades had 
left the district. Including the preliminary boring, the sinking 
of shafts, and the equipment of a deep colliery, some seven or 
eight years would be taken up. If no enquiry were made by the 
Royal Commission on Coal-Supplies, they might have to wait 
another :\i) years, unless a Special Commission were appointed to 
make such an enquiry. 



■) : £^$# 

■ +, \s-rtf ^£*-£ 242 DISCUSSION LEGISLATION AND PROPERTIES CONTAINING COAL 

^. r^V^i'".^ Whatever might be said as to large proprietors in other parts 

~*y ; ^V'^JNS? °^ *^ e c °untry being only too willing to subject their properties 

. ....;.>. ► *-.•■ ^ o m j n i n g operations, it had been shown that it was not so in their 

immediate district. 

It had been urged that the question was a very large one, 

involving a large amount of investigation, but this labour should 

,. , ;v .^ . .. not present itself as an obstacle to the enquiry. He was aware 

l. -v,- 4 *\ : + 'f\j*:'& * na ^ t nere would be active opposition from mineral landlords, 

but old ideas must give place to new, and private interests to 
national interests. The authority he would suggest would be a 
group of experts, men whose opinion the land-owners would re- 
spect, and to whom they could refer with confidence ; and a land- 
surveyor would be a useful member. He thought that his sug- 
gestion was not an unreasonable proposition nor a harsh one. 
-« />* ' : >i T ne f ac * * na t there would be areas of coal left unworked under the 

V/: r -,7-;*5 present system would be one of the strongest arguments that the 

working-classes could advance for the nationalization of mines. 

<■? Ji Mr. W. F. Clark said that the subject of Mr. Jones' paper 

C " - t'rK.?£V£ r < was an important one, but he should require much more definite 

•'.' -iVr 1 '': :Vtf r evidence to prove the necessity for the creation of such an 

c ' - * ■■ ' '-»*'* • •» L.' * ~ -i • 

authority as that suggested by Mr. Jones. He had not, in his 



■'V?-'* ■ J, #t&L4 

. ■ r ■ ■ ■ ,..V ' <& 

. . v ^ <• .r- \- '*■•■* 






;y 






^iv : " ' •■" ' -^ -' , \jK* '-vj-' experience, come across, or heard of, any large area of coal that 

;HV v.v *".;-£!»! was likelv to be lost. 



£%£^ 






• >,'- -1 



;.■;';-?• ^^;:^ - '•' 

-> .-.-'. V.J ].*•• ■■ .; i 

*";■■}:.*•*£■'*)■-<.''>> r < Prof. R. A. S. Redmayne read the following paper on ** The 

i ^ ; . ; j ' ' ! V' '- Training of a Mining-engineer " : — 

.v.-iv ■■■■!(;. vij> : 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 24& 



THE TRAIXIXG OF A MINIXG-ENGIXEER. 



By R. A. S. REDMAYNE. 



It is interesting to compare the present status of eolliery- 
inanagers with the position and requirements of those in the early 
history of the coal -trade. 

Retrospective. — In that quaint little volume, perhaps the 
earliest treatise on colliery-management in the English language 
— The Compleat Collier : Or, The Whole Art of Sinking, Getting, 
and Working, Coal -Mines, Sfc. As Is now used in the Northern 
Parts, Especially about Sunderland and New-Castle, hy J. C, and 
printed for G. Conyers, at the Ring in Little-Brittain, 1708 — the 
writer says that a viewer " ought to be well skill'd in this great 
Concern he takes in his Hand, he ought to know Lineing, and 
Levelling well, as also the Method of Coal-Working, together with 
the Knowledge of the Nature of the Coal ; for there is veiy great 
Occasion for all these four Qualifications/'* and adds that " it 
behoves the Viewers and Over-Men to be experiene'd in guiding 
the Air to good Purpose, as also to Order well and Prudently for 
Styth, which I before spoke of, doth Destroy the Ignorant and 
Unwary, "t 

The charge of a colliery-manager in those days was not an 
excessive one, seeing that, though he might have a number of 
mines under his control, in no case would any one of these extend 
beyond a radius of 600 feet from the shaft. His wage was corre- 
spondingly small, he having " evidene'd both his Care and Parts 
in the Respects I have mention'd, and well deserved his 15s. or 
20s. per week, or more, as he has Pits to look after/' J 

Mr. J. B. Simpson, writing of the term "viewer," says: — 
"The first mention I can find of the old name is in 1356, in 
a lease from Bishop Hatfield to one Thomas Gray, Knight. One 
clause states that the lessee had to work the mine as far as it 
could be wrought by five barrowmen according to the view and 
oath of the chief forester and of the Viewer, spelt ' Veiour.' v $ 

• Page 35. f Page 39. J Page 38. 

§ Ri*e and Progrtt* of Coal -mining : A n Addrex* delivered to the Newcastle- upon. 
Tynt A*4ociation of Student* of The Institution of Civil Engineer*, 1896, page 7. 



^44 



THE TRAIXIXG OF A MIXIXG-EXGIXEKR. 






!:» 



And again, in 1699, in a letter in Mr. J. B. Simpson's possession 
from the Hon. Charles Montagu (who was an owner of Benwell 
and other collieries) to his land-agent, he says: — "Viewers' 
opinion, which I look upon to be like a consult of Physicians, 
never used but in desperate cases and to no purpose. However, 
it gives some satisfaction then."* 

To refer again to our friend, The Cam pi eat Collier, he says 
" both the Officers and poor Miners, are in dayly Peril and Hazard 
of their Lives, for a poor Livelyhood, and that they may be easily 
Destroyed by Ignorant and Unskilful Managers, from which 
sudden and sad Misfortunes, I heartily Pray, Libera nos Domine. % \ 

Coming down to a much later date, we find in an " opinion " 
hitherto unpublished, written by Mr. John Buddie, senior, a viewer 
of great note in the latter half of the eighteenth century, the 
following definition of the duties and salaries of an agent and 
viewer respectively. On March 22nd, 1830, Messrs. Donkin and 
Stable write to Mr. Buddie, to the effect that the owners of a 
" Seasale colliery upon the Tyne, of considerable magnitude (the 
basis of its vend for 1828 being between 22,000 and 25,000 tons) " 
are about to make a change in the agency of the colliery, and are 
desirous of having his opinion with regard to the system which 
he deems most advisable to be pursued in the management of such 
a colliery ; and the number of agents he would recommend to be 
employed, their duties, etc. Mr. Buddie answers that he is 
of the opinion *' that the affairs of the colliery would be best con- 
ducted by one principal agent or manager, and one principal 
viewer, with the aid of subordinate assistants in their respective 
•departments. ,, The agent is to have the management of the fittings 
(sales) and all cash transactions of the concern, purchases, etc. 
The viewer or manager " to have the sole management and direc- 
tion of the colliery in all its several departments, embracing the 
machinery, etc., from the hewing of the coals to their delivery into 
the ships." He adds, at a later date (April 5th, 1830), that for au 
agent 4t a salary of £250 or £300 a year, with house and fire, and a 
cow kept, would be fair and ample .... as to the viewer, if 
not resident, I think a clear annual salary of £200 a year fair and 
reasonable, without any perquisites whatever except his flannels." 

* Ru*e and Progress of Coal-mining : An Address delivered to the NeuxaxtU- 
upon 'Tyne Association of Students of The Institution of CM f . Engineer* , 1896, page 7. 

+ Page 39. 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 245 

In 1835, the position of a colliery-manager is thus described in 
The History and Description of Fossil Fuel, the Collieries and Coal 
Trade of Great Britain : — " The general direction of a large 
colliery, as to the scale and description of its workings, and also 
with regard to whatever requires a profound theoretical as well 
as a complete practical knowledge of obtaining the coal economi- 
cally and safely is in the North confined to persons called viewers.' 
Not a bad epitome of what is looked for in a colliery-manager of 
the present day. 

And in the Minutes of the Committee on Education, 1840-1841, 
" latterly the work of a viewer has been regarded as a profession 
requiring regular training, and the grades of society are becoming 
more strongly marked." 

Even so late as the year 1854 we find that the largest collieries 
were comparatively small affairs, the output from the largest 
amounting only to about some 200 to 300 tons daily, although 
they were equal to drawing " from 400 to 500 tons daily at each 
pit''* The number of the workmen and the nature of their 
employment at two large pits at this period are shown in the 
Appendix. It is interesting to compare this statement with the 
establishment of a large modern colliery, and the comparison 
illustrates, as well as anything, the great extension that has 
taken place since the middle of the last century. 

The Present Day. — The object of the writer in thus briefly 
reviewing the past, is to emphasize the developments that have 
taken place ; to show that, parallel with the expansion of mining 
and consequent increase in the responsibilities and obligations of 
those to whom the management of mines is entrusted, there has 
been an ever growing necessity for further scientific education of 
the latter. " The old order changeth, yielding place to new,'' and 
the law of evolution is at work in the domain of mining, as in all 
else; and if there is not progression, there is retrogression. There 
can be no such thing as standing still. 

What are the qualifications demanded of the colliery-manager 
of the present day ? This question cannot be better answered than 
in the words of Mr. T. E. Forster Brown, who, speaking to the 

* " The Extent and Probable Duration of the Northern Coal-field ; with 
Jj*mark« on the Coal Trade in Northumberland and Durham," by Mr. T. Y. Hall, 
'row. N.E. Inst., 1854, second edition, vol. ii., page 196. 

▼OL. XXTV.~U0I.1S08. 17 










246 THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 

members of the National Association of Colliery Managers, said : 
" The colliery-manager of to-day has to grapple with very differ- 
ent problems from those which he had to grapple with in those 
days [I860]. We have to deal with the working of coal at very 
great depths, and we have to deal with labour under very serious 
;H^ S^«T^r% and stringent legislative enactments. Colliery-managers now 

tr --.v, <»->.•! require to be first-rate organizers, not only with regard to labour, 

but in other matters ; and, in fact, the successful colliery-manager 
of the present day is an entirely different person from what he was 
30 or 40 years ago. The ideal colliery-manager . . . ought 
to be a scientific philosopher, with a thoroughly practical know- 
ledge of mining and of men, and of applied mechanics. He ought 
to have great firmness of purpose, great perseverance, and . . 
• v r :"r^^^. ^: he ought to have a good digestion."* 

; ^; ^vty^^Vjl A large modern colliery with its extensive equipment, includ- 

, v:. :.•••:..-. •.; ^^-^ j n g ^ e var i e d appliances for getting coal and bringing it to the 

surface, for the transmission of power over long distances, especi- 
ally underground, for causing vast volumes of air to flow through 
miles of confined passages, for draining large areas of under- 
ground workings and raising the water to the surface, for screen- 
•£:£>'" ing, cleaning and washing the coal, presents, as has been well 

said, " one of the most remarkable specimens of human activity 
and its triumph over matter." 

It will be everywhere acknowledged that more scientific know- 

-,„,... , ledge is now requisite to deal with the larger issues at stake at the 

'^^i^^y^''**^: present time or looming ahead of us. Briefly summarized, the 

|ff£ ^^ ^ i '£ ; necessity for this increased and increasingly higher education of 

our mining managers may be stated as being due to the following 











*•? 






, ; 



.'it ^T. J>TJ ' 

>;'■■;■ *•".';" r /ljf'«..^r.."- T." 

v ; ;^^ : V r ',t"-}.ir> facts: — (1) The mines are deeper, the more easily worked seams 

/>.' t ^^'f ^:" ). iv and shallow mineral deposits are rapidly approaching exhaustion ; 

-ry ^^?ti!i : v an( l (2) deeper and more difficult mining, as well as developments 

?'*£' -fe^i^c?"^ m engineering, has led to the introduction of more elaborate 

machinery, necessitating a wider knowledge of the principles 
underlying its construction, application and management. Especi- 
ally notable under this category is, of late years, the application of 
electricity to many mining operations. (3) Foreign competition, 
J -*. ^ : .- r? j* which growing in keenness, necessitates, wherever possible, the in- 



,... ; ;V1 'v* ;:■.''•' troduction of labour-saving appliances, and of anything that tends 

* A ^^^ to cheapen production. (4) Stringent State regulations imposed 

^' ! - v(^^i^- * Transactions of the National Association of Colliery Managers, 1804, vol. 

:&?*&%W< vi. f page 311. 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 247 

in a great measure far the protection of the persons and interests 
of the miners. (5) The higher educational status of the mine- 
workers, rendering tact, discrimination and higher mental attain- 
ments necessary in those set in authority over them ; and (6) the 
great and increasing development of colonial mining, opening 
out, as it does, a wide field of profitable employment for highly- 
trained mining-engineers. 

And under this final category, it is significant that in respect 
to metal-mining, the leading positions in South Africa, Western 
Australia, and other of the Australian colonies are not held in 
the majority of cases by British or Colonial trained mining- 
engineers, but by men trained in the United States of America. 
Briefly stated, this preference for American rather than British 
trained engineers may be said to be due to the American having a 
more thorough scientific training, leading to the knowledge of the 
principles underlying engineering operations, an intimate acquain- 
tance with mining appliances, gained first at college, and then in 
the mine, and an ability to turn his hand to anything. In this 
adaptability of the American, lies his advantage in a great 
measure over the Briton. It may be due to racial characteristics 
engendered by his having to battle with constantly changing cir- 
cumstances, but in the case of mining-engineers, at any rate, it 
undoubtedly receives further development by the nature of their 
collegiate training. In Great Britain, we still produce the best 
colliery-managers, but then our coal-mines are more difficult to 
manage than are those in the United States, by reason of the 
greater depths and thinner seams. Yet even in this department 
of mining, we would seem to be losing our proud pre-eminence. 
Up to 1899, we held the position of being the largest producers of 
coal of any country in the world ; but in that year the United 
States wrested this position from us with an output of 226,554,000 
against 220,094,781 tons, the production of Great Britain, and this 
position she still holds, with an output for the year 1901 of 
260,929,000 tons, as compared with our output for the same year of 
219,046,945 tons. 

It may be said that this is no criterion of the relative merits 
of American as compared with British mining-engineers, but it is 
a significant fact that whereas coal-cutting by machinery is on the 
wane in Great Britain, it is on the increase in America, as the 
following figures show : — 



248 



THE TRAINING OF A MINTNG-ENGINEEB. 



Years. 


United States. 
No. of 
Machines. Tons of 2,000 lbs. 


Great Britain. 
No. of 
Machines. Tons of 2,240 lbs. 


1899 


3,125 


43,963,935 


1 3,538,408 


1900 


3,907 


52,784,523 


311 3,312,000 


1901 


4,341 


57,843,335 


? 3,044,340 



... 






la ten years, from 1891 to 1901, the number of coal-cutting 
machines in the United States had increased from 545 to 4,341. 

It may be argued that the conditions prevailing in the coal- 
fields of the United States are such as allow of the proportion- 
ately larger introduction of coal-cutting machinery, but, can it 
be maintained to such a relatively greater extent? It would 
seem, therefore, that what we might copy from the Americans in 
matters relating to mining, and indeed in other departments of 
engineering, is their readiness to adopt wherever possible, labour- 
saving machinery. It must not be supposed that the writer is for 
one moment an advocate for the adoption of American methods 
in their entirety, but he takes the position that we should be will- 
ing and anxious to learn what we can from anyone, more especially 
from our chief competitors. 

There is one point in respect to the training of mining-engin- 
eers in which, he believes, we are in advance of Americans, though 
they hold otherwise, and that is, in respect to our apprenticeship 
system. There is no mining apprenticeship in vogue in the 
United States, but, he would ask at the same time, are we not 
possibly erring on the side of excess in this matter? For the five 
years underground practical experience required by the Coal- 
mines Regulation Act of 1887, before a mining student can sit for 
his certificate of competency as a colliery-manager, practically 
precludes the possibility of his obtaining, at a college, the 
scientific training, so necessary at the outset of a mining- 
engineer's career, to fit him for the effective management of 
mines (coal and otherwise) now required. 

In coal-mining, the Americans have, and will for many years 
have, the great advantage over us in that they are possessed of 
vast stores of coal lying close to the surface ; and that their mining- 
engineers are capable of also dealing most effectively with the 
problems introduced by deep mining is proved by the fact that they 
have the deepest metalliferous mines (and deeper than any coal- 
mine) in the world, which are at the same time among the best 
and most economically managed mines throughout the globe. 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 249 

There are in the United States and Canada 37 institutions, 
which are either devoted entirely to mining instruction, or have a 
mining department : — 34 of these are in the United States and 3 
in Canada. The following is a list of the more prominent : — 

United States of America : — 

The University of California : College of Mining. 

Harvard University : Lawrence School of Mining. 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 

University of Missouri. 

Columbia University, New York. 

Ohio State University (specializes in coal). 

Lehigh University, Pennsylvania (specializes in coal). 

Colorado State School of Mines. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. 

Michigan College of Mines. 

Ann Arbor University, Michigan. 
Canada: — 

McGill University, Montreal. 

Kingston School of Mines. 

Toronto School of Mines, Ontario. 

During a recent tour of inspection in America, in company 
with his colleague, Prof. Turner, the writer visited four of the 
more prominent (from a mining point of view) of these schools ; he 
was privileged in being allowed by the authorities to inspect in 
detail, the mining department of each ; and he was afforded every 
possible information and assistance in his inspection. He was 
most struck with the lavishness and completeness of the equip- 
ment, there being nothing comparable to it in Europe ; with the 
very practical nature of the training, based upon a thorough 
scientific groundwork, to which the mining students were sub- 
jected ; and with the number of students who availed themselves 
of the opportunities of instruction thus afforded to them. 

The graduation-course at nearly all these mining colleges ex- 
tends over four years, and practically the whole of the students 
enter on the full course of instruction with a view to graduation. 
The matriculation examination is of a difficult character, similar 
as to nature and severity of the subjects to that of the University 
of Birmingham. 

The training to which students are subjected does not vary 
greatly in the principal colleges nor the nominal age at which 
students enter, which is usually 18 years, though, if well equipped 
physically and mentally, so as to be able to stand the strain, they 
are allowed to enter even younger than this. The average age, 



250 THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 

however, at Columbia University, for instance, where there are 160 
(1901-1902) mining students, is about 19 years. It has been found 
' *;•'> *!i^ffif>V.i? : y Q at these colleges that an earlier age, say 15 years, was too young, 

■C- - 'i ''--^ 3 ''& "2". as ^ e students could not then appreciate the seriousness of the 

' t '^ ;;V '</ ^ r \ •> work they had to do. 

•«^v5it?!-i/ v ^f ^ ^ e fi r8 *» and, in many instances, the first and second year, is 

:'••'**; ':- ''''il ;&£:$*$■ devoted to a thorough grounding in the elements, at any rate, of 




v* ■'!'■& ->'4':l'&ii * ^" pure science (mathematics, geology, chemistry and physics), as 

"''> * > &.\ u f i «%« * #• Tvell as in foreign languages. This is followed by a course of applied 

' ivJVv-f* -^ '$^1* science. Much of the third year is spent in the mining labora- 

' ■> ' ^'-^^v^t- it tories, where the students are divided up into squads, under the 

W* H*'M^ r *£ care °^ ^e P r °f©ssor or his assistant-professors. In this work, the 

■/.i •■"'"' V- :l ^ .T*^:: .^ professors endeavour to reproduce in miniature every typical pro- 

+ **"$ ^^Vv^. * .^'2 cess, etc., possible of reproduction in a mining laboratory. In the 

T' : y : ^s«^«^ V "V H, fourth year, the student selects the subject of his thesis, which he 

v£ ; : ;v '^ 1*]J& ,',.& has to send in in order to obtain his degree. A variety of subjects 

is open to him to choose from, to quote some actual and recent in- 






<* }£ stances: — Two students selected washing of coal; two copper- 

'jlr ~£ • i} r ~~i>£&\i £ smelting; and four ore-dressing. Two men may, if they like, 

^r. '.'•'. ^/''" : -/i*M i* work on a thesis together. At the Columbia College of Mining, 

>!•' V* -v-v-V !• v .'i the student is given an imaginary property to develop; topo- 

graphical and geological details are stated, and from these he has 
to open out and develop the property into a going concern pro- 
ducing so many tons per diem. He has to show the cost, and the 
T .t,j; *■'<•• -•( v time taken in bringing the mine to the producing stage, appor- 

^ri^M' * ** tioning the time and cost to the various stages of development; 

rAv.v. C^4;^ V j^*) and to produce detailed drawings of some of the principal parts of 

• V* V ^ ^j^ ^ *he pl an t- ^ 1U ' besides this thesis work, he has to continue his 

L >Vj.-. *»'?''. r £.tf '.] ;"i'. attendance at lectures. 

•- '[',—'" / ^''Sp'^-^ i ■*"'* In a conversation which the writer had with Prof. H. S. 

- W ?&* K*1v"V ^ v Munroe, chief of the Mining Department at the Columbia Fni- 

-.£*•>£ -feC] '•'*& '*.?• versity, the latter emphasized three special points, placing them 

v.^J[ .f^, v ;^ : in the following order: — (1) Thorough groundwork in the 




-> ■ >->^ : ly 



> i*;* ^. if * sciences allied to mining (mathematics, physics, chemistrv and 



y\:\.[ g e °logy)- (2) Thorough training in the special department of 

• .- vV/ :•. .applied science which the student intends adopting as a career; 

^ * -^ - V. i , * ,; ;!'* an( l (3) competence of the student to commence earning a liveli- 

hood at once on his leaving the University. 
jf' i: ' Besides the indoor work, there are summer schools of survey- 

ing and of mining. For the former, a district is chosen, the topo- 



#v. 









;^^ 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 251 

graphical details of which are at once very varied and contained 
within a limited area, so that much and detailed work may be 
accomplished. This school, in the case of Columbia, extends over 
12 weeks. About 2 weeks' continuous attendance is required of 
each class between the first and second, and the second and third 
years, and 4 weeks between the third and fourth years. The 
latter, or school of practical mining, includes 6 weeks spent in 
detailed study of the plant and methods of working at some im- 
portant mine or mines; in geological work, surface and under- 
ground ; in mine surveying, etc. 

Special courses, consisting of personal instruction, reading and 
research work, are arranged for advanced students according to 
their individual needs and ability — that is, post-graduate work. 

As has been previously mentioned, there is no pupilage-system 
in Canada or the United States. On leaving college, the students 
pass at once into active employment, indeed, during vacation many 
of them are sometimes so engaged, and are encouraged to do prac- 
tical work. The writer was assured that no difficulty was experi- 
enced in obtaining situations for graduates in subordinate posi- 
tions as mine-surveyors, mine-bosses, and the like. Prof. Bovey, 
the Dean of the "Faculty of Applied Science at McGill University, 
said that he had from 20 to 30 more applications for men from the 
heads of engineering undertakings than he could supply. This 
year, one of his graduates accepted a post of a value equivalent to 
£1,000 per annum as a mine-manager, without having been, previ- 
ously, permanently employed at a mine. 

The writer found that in respect to the large mines, although 
the mining-bosses (the equivalent of our undermanagers) were 
frequently men of no college training, but had, in many cases, 
worked their way up from the position of workmen, the chief 
agents, on the other hand (who might be termed the brains of the 
concern) were invariably college-trained men, and were often 
quite young, from 25 to 30 years, and in receipt of large salaries ; 
much larger than those paid in this country to men occupying 
similar positions. 

Prospective. — What is of greater importance to us is the ques- 
tion, what is being done in the way of higher education for the 
Mining-engineers of Great Britain ? For though in pure science 
*e are still pre-eminent, it seems to the writer that there is this 
great difference. The American mining-engineers are subjected 



252 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 



n% 



& 



to greater thoroughness in technical training than are our men. 
Better facilities, in this respect, are placed before them, and realiz- 
ing the paramount importance of such training, they take greater 
advantage of it than seems to be deemed necessary in this country. 
Technical education is held in higher regard by the owners of 
mines and other industrial concerns in America, than is as yet the 
case in Great Britain. Anyone who has read the accounts of what 
is done and provided in the United States and contrasts the mag- 
nificent educational apparatus of their universities with the scanty 
system, or want of system in this respect in this country, will no 
longer be at a loss to understand one reason why the British mining- 
engineer, who seeks employment in our Colonial mining regions, 
is handicapped in the race for supremacy. 

At Birmingham, at any rate, it is hoped that this deficiency 
will be remedied, and the writer believes that it will be so, with 
the assistance of the mining-engineers of the Midlands. Much 
good work has been and is being accomplished by the County 
Council lecturers in mining in the Midlands, and this will un- 
doubtedly be the means of inducing many of the young men who 
benefit by such instruction to proceed to the University with the 
view of further advancement in this department of study. 

The mining department of Birmingham University has been 
founded by the authorities in order to meet the requirements of 
the large mining community of the Midlands, and at the same time 
to afford mining men, from other parts of Great Britain and the 
Colonies, theoretical and practical instruction in the various 
branches of mining — for a complete mining department should in- 
clude instruction in both branches of mining — coal and metal- 
liferous. Coal-mining students will undoubtedly constitute by 
far the largest and most important class, those attending this 
course of instruction being chiefly intending colliery-managers, 
drawn from the surrounding and other coal-fields. The students 
of metalliferous mining will be mainly derived from the Colonies, 
those who intend proceeding to the Colonies and foreign countries, 
and some few from the metalliferous mining-districts of Great 
Britain. There will also be a class of students who intend prac- 
tising as general mining-engineers, who will take up both branches 
of study. 

In an ideal mining school, such as one would wish to see estab- 
lished at Birmingham, the laws of ventilation, the modes of work- 
ing, of timbering, of haulage (underground, etc.), would be demon- 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 25$ 

stated in a model mine, and one would wish that some one would 
present such a sum to the mining department of this University as> 
would allow of its construction. Coal-washing, surface- arrange- 
ments at collieries and metal-mines, mining tools, the construction 
and testing of safety-lamps and blasting materials, would all be 
shown in this ideal mining school, as well as the demonstration of 
the principal modes of dressing, in operation at metalliferous- 
mines (which now constitutes an essential adjunct to every mining 
department in leading American colleges). The working of drills 
and coal-cutting machines, the manner of testing the safety of 
explosives in gaseous mixtures and mixtures of coal-dust, would 
also constitute an integral part of the equipment. Advanced 
students would be encouraged to carry on useful research-work 
dealing with the problems of underground ventilation, colliery- 
explosions, coal-washing, ore-dressing, coal-cutting and the like. 
Much of this, it is hoped, will be carried out at the Birmingham 
University. 

As it is, courses of study have been arranged, and are already 
wing conducted for practising and consultative mining-engineers, 
colliery-managers, managers of metalliferous mines, teachers of 
mining and niine-surveyors. The complete mining course 
includes instruction in the following subjects : — (1) Mathematics, 
including algebra, trigonometry and geometry; (2) inorganic 
chemistry with laboratory practice ; (3) geology and mineralogy ; 
W) physics and laboratory practice ; (5) mechanical and electrical 
engineering ; (6) coal and metal-mining ; and (7) metallurgy and 
as »aying, so far as applied to the treatment of ores, and the 
a naly 8 is of fuels. 

Besides indoor work, there will be frequent visits to the mines 
°f the neighbourhood, and occasional surveying classes will be held 
°ut of doors, in which the students will practise what they have 
learned theoretically, and 4 or 5 weeks will be devoted by the 
students each year in company with the professor, to the inspec- 
tion and study of some group of mines in Great Britain or abroad, 
which will constitute the summer mining school. 

In conclusion, the writer maintains that if only we will take 
nee d of the fact that the day for the rule-of-thumb man has 
passed, that the necessity of a scientific education is an ever 
increasing factor in the training of practical men, and that our 
cliief industrial competitors, Germany and the United States, 



J54 



THE TRAINING OF A MINING-ENGINEER. 



have already realized this fact, and are acting accordingly, there 
need be no cause for despondency, nor any reason why we should 
not continue to hold our proud position as the producers of the 
foremost captains of industry, mining and otherwise, in the world. 






APPENDIX.— Two Underground Establishments in 


THE 


County 


OF 


Durham in 1854. 












Name of Colliery. 


Huwell Colliery. 


Towneley Colliery. 


Output per Annum. 




200 000 Tons 






100,000 Tons. 


] 


Men 


Boys 


Men 


Boys 


Men 


Boys 


Men; Boys 


! 1. Staff (for safety) employed in super- 














] 


intendence, and in properly ventila- 














1 


ting the mine and waste, in keeping 
roads, setting timber, removing 














1 
















obstructions, and doing all things 














' 


necessary for the safety of the mine 














1 


and the workmen : — 














i 


Overmen ... 


2 









o 


o 


1 


Back -overmen 


2 









T 





1 


Deputies 


23 









10 







Inspectors 


2 









1 







Wood-leaders 





3 









2 




Trappers 

Rolleyways 





7 









4 


1 


7 


2 









1 




Furnace-men ... 


2 









1 


1 




Safety-lamp keepers 


2 









1 


o 






Shifters 


12 









2 









Wastemen 


8 


1 


60 


13 


1 





19 


8 






2. Bargain men employed in stone-drift- 


















l ing, cutting through troubles, etc., 


















generally by piece or bargain work 


12 









4 













12 









4 


3. Transit of coal underground : — 
















Putters 





44 









28 


i 


Couplers and loaders 





12 









2 






Switch -keepers 





10 









1 






Horse-drivers and pony-drivers . . . 





38 









10 






Inclines 





12 









2 






Horse-keepers 


2 


2 






1 









Brakesmen, underground 


2 


2 






2 







Firemen at engines 





2 












1 


Onsetters, and greasers ... 


3 


4 


7 


126 


2 


2 


i 
5 45 


4. Employed in cutting coal 


210 









98 













210 









98 


Totals 






289 


139 






126 I 53 



The President (Mr. T. J. Davies) proposed a vote of thanks 
to Prof. Redinayne for his paper. 

Mr. W. B. Collis seconded the proposition, which was cord- 
ially approved. 



DISCUSSION CHANGING HEADGEARS. 255 



THE MIDLAND COUNTIES INSTITUTION OF 
ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held at University College, Nottingham, 

Deckmber 6th, 1902. 



Mr. G. ELMSLEY COKE, President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary announced the election of the following 
frentlemen : — 

Member - 
Mr. Stuart McMurtrie, Halesowen, Birmingham. 

Students — 
Mr. John Dickinson, c/o Mr. A. Hunter, New Tupton, Chesterfield. 
Mr. Albert Alfred Peaks, Holywell House, Codnor. 



WSCCTSSION OF MR. G. A. LONGDEN'S PAPER 
OIST « CHANGING HEADGEARS AT PLEASLET 
C °X.XIERY."* 

Mr - Q\ J. Binns (Duffield) said that he would like to allude 

, s omewhat delicate question of cost. It was a subject 

w rriany engineers did not care to divulge, but it would be 

serai to Inow what was expended in connection with this exceed- 

m £ v ^-^t^resting and extremely well-described operation. 

• "W. E. Walker (Manners Colliery) said that they had had 

done Ve^y similar work. Their headstocks, built of wood, were 

51) fee-b High and weighed fully 50 tons. The new headstocks 

were ^f^oted as doge by the side of the old ones as possible ; and 

taking advantage of the Miners' Demonstration Holiday, on 

Monday, Ju]y 14thj 1902> they started on the previous Friday 

ni *. . dismantle the old headstocks and to push the others into 

posi ion_ The six legs of the new headstocks had been previously 

^ttiw. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 348. 



256 



DISCUSSION CHANGING HEADGEARS. 



fixed on heavy rollers, resting upon old boiler-plates. On the 
Saturday morning, crabs were attached to the old headstocks 
which were then pulled bodily over and out of the way. The old 
headstocks were removed by 12 workmen, and all was cleared 
away by Saturday midnight. Work was resumed at 5 a.m. on 
Sunday ; at 4 p.m. the new headstocks had been " pinched " into 
their proper position; and at 10 a.m. the headstocks had been 
dropped into the shoes placed ready for them — the men only 
worked for 6 hours on the Sunday. All day on Monday was spent 
in suspending the guide-rods, and completing the fittings, in order 
that everything should be ready for winding on Tuesday morning. 
As a matter of fact, the work was completed at 7 p.m. on Monday, 
and the ordinary men were run down at 8*30 p.m. The number 
of men employed never exceeded 12, and 6 of them were engaged 
all night on Sunday. The whole cost was £15 10s. 

Mr. G. Spencer (Mapperley) said that since the Pleasley head- 
gear had been fixed there had been two similar operations in 
the district: — The one described by Mr. Walker at Manners 
colliery ; and the other at Mapperley colliery under his (Mr. 
Spencer's) charge: 

The new headgear, at Mapperley colliery, constructed of 
pitchpine, was erected during the previous year in a field about 
300 feet from the pit-top, where it awaited a favourable oppor- 
tunity to be placed in position, without impeding the work of coal- 
turning. Such an opportunity did not occur until the present 
year, owing to regular trade and other circumstances. Advantage 
was therefore taken of the August Bank Holiday, which is ob- 
served by the miners, and takes place at a time of year when the 
days are long. It was originally intended to erect the headgear 
temporarily, so as to ensure the proper fitting of the parts, and 
to take it to pieces for re-erection close to the pit-top, and in a 
line parallel to the old one, which it was intended to replace, so 
that the operation of moving it into its permanent position would 
be comparatively a simple one. Consequently, no regard was 
paid to building it in the line which it was found that it would 
afterwards have to traverse, if moved as a whole. Considering, 
however, that the headgear was completed in every detail, and 
that the expense of taking it to pieces and of re-erecting it would 
be considerable, it was decided to adopt the bolder plan of moving 



DISCUSSION CHANGING HEADGEARS. 257 

it as it was, and in this decision we were further encouraged by 
learning that the operations at Pleasley colliery had been entirely 

WCCeSsful. 

It was found, before moving the headgear towards the pit- 
top, that it was necessary to turn it round through an angle of 
more than 90 degrees. A temporary underframe, consisting of 
strong longitudinal and transverse timbers, having been secured 
by bolts to the base of the upright and back legs, for the purpose 
of moving it on the rollers, a strong wooden pack to take part 
of the weight was placed under the centre of gravity of the 
structure, as determined from the model, which happened to be 
under the middle transverse timber of the underframe. On this 
centre, the headgear was rotated by means of a hand-winch, 
until the front faced the line of traverse; and planks smeared 
with tub-grease were laid down, upon which the front and back 
timbers of the underframe would slide. The experiment was 
then tried of moving the structure forward on a double line of 
planks, 3 inches thick, by means of rollers, steel tubular pit- 
props, 5 inches in diameter, being employed. The planks proved 
capable of bearing the weight, and were used throughout in 
preference to balks, which had been specially ordered for the 
purpose. A week or two prior to the stoppage, the headgear was 
moved to the pit-top in the manner described (the road, in places, 
being ballasted and packed up owing to its unevenness) and 
finished by making a turn, nearly at right angles, to bring it 
into a position parallel to the old headgear. Two hand-winches, 
attached to two sets of pulley-blocks, were employed in traversing 
the headgear, and the time occupied was between 4 and 5 hours. 
A derrick-pole was then erected between the old and new head- 
Rears, in a position convenient both for raising the new pulleys to 
the new headgear and for lowering the old pulleys to the ground. 
The new pulleys were placed upon their pedestals, temporarily 
secured; and additional transverse timbers were fixed on the 
under side of the frame, so as to enable the headgear to be rolled 
sideways over the pit-top, when the time arrived for this work 
to be done. 

On Friday, August 1st, 1902, the pit ceased work at the usual 
time; and at 6 p.m., when all the men had been drawn out, the 
*ork of taking down the wire-conductors and lowering the old 
pulleys was commenced. By 9 p.m., both winding-ropes had 



258 



DISCUSSION CHANGING HEADGEARS. 



been drawn over the pulleys, the cage-props had been removed, 
a scaffold had been fixed over the pit, and one of the pulleys had 
been lowered to the ground. It may here be mentioned that 
work was only continued during daylight, and with the same 
staff of men throughout. 

On Saturday morning, work was resumed at 4*30 a.m., and 
by 10*30 a.m. all arrangements were in readiness for pulling over 
the old headgear. By means of an old winding-rope attached to 
the top of the headgear, two locomotives were connected to it, 
and at a given signal both pulled together. The front and back 
legs had previously been sawn through, so as to ensure the 
structure falling in the required direction; and, in 10 seconds 
from the time of giving the signal, it fell to the ground across 
the railway exactlv as desired. The rest of the day was spent 
in removing the debris, and in building the foundations (blue 
bricks set in cement) for the new headgear. By 6 p.m. the new 
headgear was traversed to its approximate position over the pit, 
and work ceased for the day. 

Work was commenced at 6 a.m. on Sunday, and continued 
until 8 p.m. The headgear was set in its exact position by plumb- 
ing from the bed of the pulley-wheels to marks made on the 
scaffold. During this day all the conductors had been re-fixed 
to the new headgear, and one winding-rope had been taken over 
the pulley, thus making it possible to use the pit for lowering or 
raising men, if required. 

On Monday, operations recommenced at 6 a.m. ; and during 
the day the work was completed, and the tackle and timbers used 
in moving the structure removed ; and at 8*30 p.m. all appliances 
were made ready for coal-turning on the following day. 

The headgear at Mapperley colliery is not so large as that 
described by Mr. Longden, being only 41 feet high to the sills, 
and the weight moved would not exceed 45 tons, including the 
temporary underframe. But, judging from the facility with 
which the headgear was moved, he (Mr. Spencer) would not 
hesitate to move one of any dimensions or weight, it being simply 
a question of the proper application of the haulage-tackle. 

Mr. S. A. Everett (Gedling) said that it was very desirable 
that operations, which did not come within the range of everyday 
colliery-procedure, should be placed upon record, as the infonna- 



DISCUSSION — CHANGING HEADGEARS. 259 

«on was valuable in guiding others who might have similar work 
to io. Mr. G. A. Longden had given a brief description of the 
headgear which had been removed, but the value of his paper 
would be considerably enhanced if he would supply a few par- 
ticulars of the design of the new headgear. Two very similar 
operations happened to have come within his own experience, 
in both of which a wooden headgear was supplanted by a steel 
structure. In one case, this was erected in the same relative 
position as that described by Mr. Longden, that is to say, in front 
of the old headgear ; and it was then drawn backward into its 
place, after the wooden structure had been demolished by throw- 
ing the two sides outward. In the other case, an account of the 
very limited ground available for the erection of the new head- 
gear, it had been erected at the side of the existing one, and the 
removal of the latter was attempted in a manner similar to that 
described by Mr. Longden. The back legs were secured, near 
their top, to the winding-rope, and the engine-brake was put 
hard down ; 3 men were engaged in sawing through these legs 
at their junction with the main-legs ; when, much to everyone's 
surprise, before the wood was quite severed, the weight of the 
back legs proved too much for the rope (owing to the awkward 
angle at which they were held) and, pressing upon the remainder 
of the structure, caused it to lurch bodily forward and fall upon 
the corrugated-iron roof of the screens, which, collapsing 
gradually, steadied its fall and, fortunately, prevented any of the 
men from being injured during their aerial! flight. This 
incident showed that a few square inches of rotten wood (all that 
remained) was capable of performing the duties of the back legs ; 
that the mere weight of these legs, as usually erected, produced 
in the headgear a forward thrust far greater than the backward 
one due to the pull of the ropes, which they were intended to 
counteract ; and consequently, in most cases, that the conception 
of their function as struts was an exaggerated, if not a mistaken 
one. In both cases, the method of traversing the new headgear 
differed in detail from that referred to by Mr. Longden in his 
Paper, and by the previous speakers. Each leg rested upon a 
strong four-wheeled bogie running on a carefully-prepared road 
of heavy rails, which directed the headgear into position ; and 
this method seemed preferable to the use of rollers, as it was 
wore expeditious and required less power. The whole operation 



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260 DISCUSSION COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 

of changing the headgears, from the cessation to the resumption 
of winding, occupied a period of 80 hours. In illustration of 
the great variation in the designs of headgears, he might mention 
that the headgear at Pleasley colliery weighed 112 tons, while 
that referred to in the second case was 45 feet high and only 
weighed 12 i tons, although its load was probably greater, as it 
had to carry 8 wirerope conductors: it had now been in use for 
many years with satisfactory results. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. W. E. GARFORTH'S PAPER ON 
" THE APPLICATION OF COAL-CUTTING MACHINES 
TO DEEP MINING."* 

The President (Mr. G. Elmsley Coke) remarked that Mr. 
Garforth had gone into the question deeply and thoroughly, and 
he thought they would all agree that in longwall working the face 
should move quickly, and as far as possible in a straight line. 

Mr. J. T. Todd (Blackwell) said that there were two or three 
questions to which he should like to refer, but not in the way of 
adverse criticism, as he fully recognized the good work that Mr. 
Garforth had done; and as he (Mr. Todd) happened to be the 
producer of 5 per cent, of the coal got by machinery in this 
country, the members would recognize that he did not object to 
the use of mechanical appliances. 
•^..W'-VV^' * ! - ♦ ^ e (^ r - Todd) would first refer to the height of the cut or 

t ^ V : jft i T'f *?" holing being 5 inches. If they were working a seam 5 feet or 

'•*&'.- ** Ji *-f^ " -.'• 5£ feet thick, a drop of only 5 inches was not much for a cut 6 feet 

" : "v*!*^ VJ deep; and he should like to hear Mr. Garforth's experience with 

regard to the dropping of the coal in bulk, and as to the break- 
- - L 41 * .) age of that coal when loaded into the trams. In a seam 5i feet 

: ^ ^s.'.Vv s '■: ,J thick, he (Mr. Todd) found that there was considerable difficulty 

* '•-. >V i •' '••• * ■ : \? ' r ' : ^ n ttf^king the coal after it came down. The coal dropped almost 

"' • .' : i*-<U : - '^ ^ in a solid mass, and had to be broken before it could be filled into 

;.**> 'S*\ • ]•' ■' ;•;:;'• " the trams. Mr. Garforth said, although he did not quote any 

.. >X, "i. - '!•' i\'y( figures, that there was a much larger quantity of slack made by 

v: ; :/ ^' V i '. hand-getting than by machine-getting. He (Mr. Todd) would 

^ .?. **>} ♦ ;,' ;•* ,* like to know whether his experience was gained from the coal put 

' : :v ; : -■■■ * Trans. Inst. M.E. t 1902, vol. xxiii., pages 312 and 346; and vol. xxiv., 

■; ■'- "v: /-('' page 201. ^ 

• ». j»'- -^ 'i\\- .V, i 






*»>■ 



DISCUSSION — COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 261 

over the screens, or whether it was gained from the actual pro- 
duction of coal in the mine. Because the coal was loaded by 
hand, or by fork or gripes, and the slack was supposed to be 
cast back into the gob : therefore it ought not to come out of the 
pit, and the true comparison should be made with the coal passed 
over the screens. Then with respect to the quantity of coal got, 
Mr. Garforth stated that he was able to produce from a short 
length of face a large quantity of coal. He (Mr. Todd) found that 
Mr. Garforth with 1,100 feet of coal-face, progressing at 16£ feet 
per week, was producing 2,500 tons per week. This represented 
an output of about 60 tons per stall per day, which was a larger 
quantity than any member present could produce out of any stall. 
He asked whether one or two shifts were worked, and how the 
roads were manipulated so as to obtain that quantity out of each 
stall. 

In Appendix II., a comparison was made of the costs of work- 
ing a seam, 6 feet thick, cut by hand, and another, 3£ feet thick, cut 
by machine ; but he (Mr. Todd) did not find that the cost of work- 
ing the plant was included. Nothing was allowed for main- 
tenance or depreciation, or for cost of steam or engine-power or 
anything in connection with the production of the power neces- 
sary to effect the cutting. 

Mr. Garforth referred the members to his paper on u The 

Comparative Advantages of Electricity, Steam and Compressed 

Air for Mining Purposes ; "* and it would be very interesting if 

they could have some comparison as to the merits of coal-cutting 

machines worked by air and electricity, more especially as at 

the present time, a Departmental Commission was enquiring into 

the use of electricity in mines. He should also like Mr. Garforth 

to tell the members some of the difficulties accompanying coal- 

cntting, the breakdowns of machinery, and the best means of 

having them quickly repaired, the cost of breakages, and the 

weaknesses of coal-cutting by electricity. The members would 

then be able to compare the cost of getting coal by hand, or by 

air-driven machinery, or by machinery worked by electricity. 

Personally, he thought, from an experience based upon an output 

of 230,000 tons a year, that there was an absolute profit in using 

electric power. He was using both electricity and compressed 

* Minute* of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1899, vol. 
txxxriii., page 436. 

V 0L.XXIV.-1*».1JW. 18 



262 



DISCUSSION COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 



air, and for future developments he would erect an electrical 
plant. From figures, carefully taken out, allowing for deprecia- 
tion, interest on plant, etc., coal-cutting by electric power 
undoubtedly left a balance on the right side. Labour-difficulties 
were minimized, and probably also an extra quantity of coal was 
worked, which they otherwise would not be able to produce. 

The President asked whether Mr. Todd had had any experi- 
ence of sparking from the wires near the face; and whether he 
would consider it safe to use electricity in a gassy mine. 

Mr. J. T. Todd replied that he was not using electricity in a 
gassy mine, but he could see no reason why a motor should not 
be used in such a mine. There was great contention as to the 
risk, but there was a risk in working a mine under any condi- 
tions. It was desirable to control the power in the best way 
possible, and to reduce the risk to a minimum. If they were 
not allowed to use an electrical plant in a mine which could 
not be worked profitably without it, the mine would be closed. 

Mr. J. H. W. Laverick (Pye Hill) said he understood that 
sparking could be overcome by the use of polyphase-current 
motors ; and he asked whether any of the members had had 
experience with polyphase-current motors for driving coal-cutting 
machines. 

Mr. Henry Davis (Derby) said that three-phase motors had 
been applied to coal-cutters, and they had done a consider- 
able amount of work with great success. Mr. Roslyn Holliday, of 
Acton Hall colliery, had communicated his experience with 
three-phase electric driving applied to coal-cutters, in a paper read 
before the British Society of Mining Students.* He found no 
difficulty in headings, as in such machines they started without 
load ; but in longwall-cutting he had an arrangement whereby it 
was started light, and after five revolutions of the motor, it took) 
up its load. He asked Mr. Todd whether he considered that 
there was any actual danger of firing gas at the commutator of 
direct- current generators, because this matter would certainly be 
discussed by the Departmental Committee on the use of electricity 
in mines, and there would be considerable opposition on the part 

* Journal of the British Society of Mining Students, 1902, vol. xxiv., page 171. 



DISCUSSION COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 26S 

of coal-owners to any rules by which the use of open commutators 
*ould be excluded. 

The President asked whether the use of polyphase current 
av oided the danger of sparking. 

Mr. Henry Davis replied that there was always danger where 
there were live cables, but, as Mr. Todd remarked, the collieries 
would have to be closed if they were not allowed to work any 
dangerous machines in them. 

Mr. J. T. Todd said that personally he did not think there was 
any danger at the motor. A coal-cutting motor was placed low 
down or on the ground, and a place must be full of gas before any 
risk would be incurred from sparking at the motor ; and if the 
place contained a dangerous quantity of gas it should not be 
worked. He had printed rules, under which the surroundings of 
their machines were examined at intervals of not more than 
30 minutes, and if the machines stopped more frequently, an 
examination took place then. He could not see that there was 
any possible danger, unless there was an outburst of gas and a 
sparking of the machine at the same time ; and under the old 
conditions, they might have a broken lamp and an outburst of 
gas at the same time. 

Mr. M. H. Habershon (Sheffield) said that he had had experi- 
ence of machine-cutting to a depth of 5£ feet, and found that it 
was impossible to make the cut without taking out rather over 
6 inches. He thought that the height of 5 inches, referred to by 
Mr. Todd, would refer possibly to a less depth of holing ; and 
certainly with a depth of 6 feet the height of the holing would 
exceed 5 inches. With regard to the output of coal from the 
face he thought it would be found that, in the case mentioned by 
Mr. Garforth. the gateways were placed nearer together than 
was customary in this district, so that more men worked on a 
certain length of face than was usual in hand-work. He 
thought that it had been pretty well established, from an experi- 
ence of some years, that they must not expect to obtain much 
saving in the actual cost of the holing ; and that the economy 
resulted more from the increased percentage of larjare coal : in 
^toe tender seams, the use of machinery had enabled a much 
wger proportion of large coal to be got by cutting on end, and 



264 



DISCUSSION COAL-CUTTING MACHINES. 



these seams could not be worked on. end without the aid of 
machinery ; in other words, without machinery such seams could 
not be worked at a profit. The next question was as to the use 
of electricity compared with that of compressed air, and cer- 
tainly where the floor was of a heaving nature, the expense of 
placing and maintaining air-pipes would be greater than the 
expense of cables. With the motors on the machines properly 
enclosed, he considered that the question of sparking from the 
commutator could be put entirely on one side. With a poly- 
phase current, three cables were required, while only two were 
required with ordinary continuous current; and he had pre- 
ferred to adopt the latter. 

Mr. Isaac Hodges (Whitwood Collieries) said it was interest- 
ing to hear that Mr. Todd had adopted a set of rules, requiring 
the coal-cutters to be stopped every 30 minutes, in order that an 
examination might be made of the face. Mr. Todd had asked 
as to the difficulties met with in electric coal-cutting, but he 
thought that no one knew more about it than Mr. Todd, and he 
should like him to describe his difficulties. He could then com- 
pare notes with Mr. Garforth, and the information could not 
fail to benefit the members. He (Mr. Hodges) had found, with 
a holing 5 inches high and a depth of 5£ feet, that the coal came 
down in such large blocks that shots had to be fired to break up 
the coal ready for loading. That was not by any means desir- 
able, and the only remedy was to make a higher cut, and in 
that case he was afraid that the cost would then almost equal the 
cost of hand-holing. In seams approaching a thickness of 4 feet, 
the difference in cost between machine and hand-holing did not 
exceed l£d. per ton saving ; but there was a considerable saving 
by the improved quality and character of the coal. He had two 
faces of coal (each 1,300 feet long) in the same seam, one worked 
by machine-holing and the other by hand-holing, so that it was 
quite easy to compare results, and he found that the large sample 
was very much increased and the small sample correspondingly 
decreased by the machine-holing; being worth 5d. to 6d. per 
ton more than hand-got coal. In thin seams the conditions were 
entirely different ; and some seams could not be worked without 
coal-cutters. They were working seams down to 2 feet thick, 
where they had a price list for hand-got coal of 2s. 8d. per ton 






DISCUSSION LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 26& 

'Pfos percentage) and they could not possibly have worked with 
P^fit at the present time without coal-cutters. Mr. Todd had 
8 P°ken of the advantages of electricity over air from the point 
ot Wew of cost. He (Mr. Hodges) was interested in this 
Problem, but he was unable to make up his mind from the data 
Bo far available. Many collieries were fitted with old-fashioned 
air-compressors, and consequently did not obtain results which 
would otherwise be possible. He had recently considered a 
scheme for producing 2,000 horsepower by utilizing the waste- 
gases from coke-ovens, and he found that large gas-engines of 
1,000 horsepower, coupled direct to air-compressors running at 
150 to 160 revolutions per minute, having large clearance- 
spaces, gave results much better than they had been led to expect. 
In making a fair comparison, they must take the conditions of a 
modern polyphase electric plant, and a modern high-speed air- 
compressor. Mr. Garforth had told the members that the coal 
did not require to be broken up in some of his seams, and with 
regard to the difficulty of producing the output he believed that 
the gateways were about 120 feet apart, so that there would not 
be so many tons per gateway to deal with as Mr. Todd had 
calculated. In that part of Yorkshire, all the slack was sent out 
of the pit ; therefore the proportion of slack was a question of 
screen-percentages, and not of pit-percentages. 

The further discussion of the paper was adjourned. 



DISCUSSION OF MB. M. H. HABERSHON'S PAPER ON 
"A JOINT COLLIERY RESCUE-STATION;"* AND 
MR. W. E. GARFORTH'S PAPER ON AN " EXPERI- 
MENTAL GALLERY FOR TESTING LIFE-SAVING 
APPARATUS."! 

Mr. M. H. Habershon said that three adjoining collieries in 
South Yorkshire, having agreed to establish for their own use a 
joint station, they naturally wished to obtain information from 
those who had had experience in connection with the matter. The 
subject had been discussed in several districts, and valuable 

*Tro>w. Inst. M.E., 1901, vol. xxi., page 100; vol. xxii., page 195; and 
*>L xxiii., pages 134 and 164. 

t Ibid., 1901, vol. xxii., pages 169 and 192; vol. xxiii., pages 37 and 164; 
wivol.xxiv., page 175. 



266 



DISCUSSION — LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 



• 



. 






information had been brought forth thereby. The discussion 
had chiefly related to the apparatus itself and the utility of 
Mr. Garforth's experiments in his experimental chamber. The 
members who saw the experiments at Altofts colliery would 
remember that the apparatus used was of the Meyer helmet- 
type. One important result had been achieved, namely, the men 
lent themselves readily to the work of practice, and there was 
no reluctance to try what they could do. Points on which 
improvements were desirable were manifested. At the recent 
visit of members of the Midland Institute to the Shamrock 
Colliery in Westphalia, Mr. Meyer demonstrated the use of 
the Giersberg — a new apparatus, and two men wearing the 
apparatus remained in the practice-chamber for 1| hours, and 
did actual work in an atmosphere which had been made unbreath- 
able. Mr. Meyer had abandoned the use of the helmet, as 
he had found, owing to the difficulties of seeing and hearing, 
that the helmet was objectionable. The Giersberg apparatus 
embodied several important improvements: — (1) Solid alkali 
was used in place of the liquid used in the other apparatus. It 
was found that the liquid in the mixing bag was liable to pass 
up the tubes into the mouth, and produce burning, and the use 
of solid alkali obviated this risk. (2) The oxygen was passed 
through an injector, before it mixed with the inspired air. This 
injector could be regulated to the actual needs of the individual 
wearing the apparatus, so that when put on and adjusted, he 
required to devote no further attention to this point. (3) A 
safety-valve provided for the escape of any excess of oxygen 
in the breathing-bag. (4) Each apparatus was fitted with a 
pressure-gauge, which, however, was not visible to the man 
using the apparatus. Mr. Meyer had laid down the rule that all 
rescue-work must be conducted by not less than five individuals. 
One man must be in charge, and he must do nothing beyond 
looking after the safety of the other four men ; and he could 
see by the pressure-gauges the exact amount of oxygen present 
in each of the cylinders, and when he found any getting short 
he must order the retreat of the whole party. There was 
another matter which he (Mr. Habershon) thought must be 
insisted upon, and that was, that the men must not exceed their 
instructions. There had been on the Continent one or two 
cases where the pneumatophor had failed, not from any failure 



DISCUSSION LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 267 

of the apparatus, but owing to the men exceeding the instruc- 
tions given to them. It was absolutely necessary that a number 
of men should be properly trained, and that a code of rules 
should be established, such as he had attempted to foreshadow 
in his paper. The Hibernia Company owned eight collieries, 
under the direction of Mr. Meyer, and they had no less than 
170 men trained and capable of using the apparatus at a 
moment's notice. A supply of apparatus was stored at the 
various collieries, and if any work were required at a gob-fire, 
the men were encouraged to make use of the apparatus, so that 
they were constantly in training. We were certainly behind 
in this country in this matter, and he thought that mining- 
engineers and colliery-owners should no longer trust to luck 
*s they had done, but ought to be in a position to utilize any 
apparatus of ascertained value in the case of a catastrophe. 
There had been a tendency to condemn the experiments at 
Altofts colliery, because the men suffered from severe head- 
aches. In the case of a calamity such as had too often been 
experienced, there were many men who would come to the 
front and be willing to risk more than a severe headache if it 
were possible to save life. The joint rescue-station was now 
ready for occupation, they proposed to obtain five sets of the 
Giersberg type of apparatus with the view of training some of 
their deputies, or other, suitable men, so that they would soon 
be doing something practical in what he believed to be a very 
important matter. 

Mr. H. K. Hewitt (H.M. Inspector of Mines) said that he 
was present at Altofts colliery when these experiments were 
made, and he did not believe in minimizing the difficulties under 
which the men worked while passing along the gallery. From 
an interview with the men he found that the headache from 
which they suffered was severe, and the action of the pulse was 
greatly increased. He had come to the conclusion that the 
headache was due to a defect in the helmet, which allowed the 
men to inhale some of the dreadful atmosphere through which 
they passed. This being so, the experiments were useful in show- 
ing those defects, and in what direction improvements might 
he made. He was pleased to hear that the Giersberg apparatus 
*as likely to supersede the Meyer helmet in that particular, 
and whatever apparatus and helmet were used, they must be 



268 



DISCUSSION LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. 



self-supporting for respiratory purposes and all outside atmo- 
sphere must be excluded. The atmosphere in the experiments 
at Altofts colliery was certainly an abominable one and well 
calculated to test any form of helmet. He (Mr. Hewitt) was 
in favour of two oxygen-cylinders being carried in preference 
to one only, even should that one be fitted with a sensitive 
gauge to show what volume of oxygen remained. Two com- 
pletely-charged cylinders would give the men more confidence 
in the appliance. The thanks of the members were due to 
Mr. W. E. Garforth and to Mr. M. H. Habershon for the 
trouble that they had taken in this question, and he was glad to 
hear that a group of collieries in South Yorkshire had fitted 
up a station, from which he hoped they would have the benefit 
of their experience from time to time. He was afraid that 
nothing had been done in the Midland mines-inspection district, 
and he would like to see a colliery-owner taking the lead in 
this matter, although he hoped that the time would be far 
distant when its practical application might be required in 
some great calamity. 

Mr. M. H. Habershon said that the pneumatophor of the 
Shamrock type had always been fitted with two oxygen- 
cylinders, so that one might be used in going to a point and 
the other in returning from that point; but he found, in con- 
versation, that Mr. Meyer did not encourage that practice. The 
Giersberg apparatus had two oxygen-cylinders, but that was 
more a matter of convenience, and he would prefer to rely 
entirely on the man in charge, who, when he saw that the 
oxygen was being used, would order the retreat of the entire 
party. With the new apparatus, the rate of consumption 
of oxygen was constant, which had not been the case in the older 
type of apparatus. A man who got excited would use up more 
oxygen, but with the Giersberg apparatus, he could only con- 
sume it as fast as it was passed through the injector and the 
regulating-valve. He therefore thought that the objection as to 
the use of one cylinder lost some of its force. 

The discussion was then closed. 



TRANSACTIONS, 26$ 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING 
AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 
Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
December 13th, 1902. 



Sir LINDSAY WOOD, Bart., President, in the Chair, 



THE LATE MR. G. F. BELL. 

Mr. J. G. Weeks said that, since the last meeting, they had 
lost by death, Mr. G. F. Bell, H.M. inspector of mines. The 
deceased gentleman was a member of the Council, who in his work 
amongst them had been recognized as a friend in every sense 
of the word. It was with very great regret that the members had 
heard of his death, and he moved that a vote of condolence be 
wat to Mrs. Bell expressing their regret at her husband's 
death, and conveying their sympathy with her and her family in 
tbeir bereavement. 

*fc Henry Laweence seconded the vote of condolence. 
*Ae vote of condolence was unanimously adopted. 

^e Secretary read the Minutes of the last General Meeting, 
reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings 
011 X °ve mD er 29th and that day. 



" e following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 
aominated: — 

Honorary Member — 
Robert McLaren, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 19, Morningside Park, 
Edinburgh. 

Members— 

Mr. t> 

**»Sfi€iKALD Bell, Colliery Manager, The Equitable Coal Company, 

Limited, Jamooria Colliery, Raneegunge, Bengal, India. 



270 



TRANSACTIONS. 



Mr. Herbert Wright Chapman, Mining Engineer, Tower Hill, Middleton 

St. George, R.8.O., County Durham. 
Mr. Bourn Russell Chicken, Mechanical Engineer, 17, Kenilworth Road, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. John Curry, Mechanical Engineer, The Lyons, Hetton-le-Hole, R.S.O., 

County Durham. 
Mr. William Da vies, Colliery Manager, Llanhilleth House, Llanhilleth, 

R.S.O., Monmouthshire. 
Mr. Telesforo Garcia, Jun., Engineer, Santa Teresa, 2, and P.O. Box 463, 

City of Mexico, Mexico. 
Mr. Joseph Green, Mining Contractor, Crag House, Ferry hill, County 

Durham. 
Mr. Jonathan Edward Hodokin, Electrical Engineer, Shelleys, Darlington. 
Mr. Robert Hall Longbotham, Engineer, Ings Foundry, Wakefield. 
Mr. Neil McLellan, Mechanical Engineer, Idsley House, Spennymoor, 

County Durham. 
Mr. John Pettie MacTaggart, Electrical Engineer, 21, Grainger Street 

West, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. Thomas Ventress Simpson, Under-manager, Throckley Colliery, 

Newburn, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Mr. Alfred Thompson, Colliery Manager, Talbot House, Birtley, R.S.O., 

County Durham. 
Mr. Anthony Wilson, Mining Engineer, Thornthwaite, Keswick, Cumberland. 
Mr. John Wishart Younger, Mechanical Engineer, Washington, RS.O., 

County Durham. 

Associate Members— 
Mr. Peter Kirk, 13, Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. Sidney Reid, 26, Ciaremont Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. David Samuel, Albert Street, Llanelly, South Wales. 
Mr. Peter Scholer, Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, London, S.W. 
Mr. Alfred Francis Toovey, 33, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Associates — 
Mr. John Chipchase, Foreman, 23, St. Helen's Terrace, Coxhoe, RS.O., 

County Durham. 
Mr. Patrick Gallagher, Master-shifter, 15, James Street, Newfield, Chester- 

le-Street, County Durham. 
Mr. Robert William Hall, Mine-surveyor, 1, Railway Street, Mnrton 

Colliery, Sunderland. 
Mr. George William Hedley, Surveyor, Deafhill Colliery, Trimdon 

Grange, R.S.O., County Durham. 
Mr. Thomas Patterson, Colliery Engineer, East Hetton, Coxhoe, R.S.O., 

County Durham. 
Mr. William Pattison, Deputy-overman, 18, East Street, High Spen, Lintz 

Green, R.S.O., County Durham. 
Mr. John William Robinson, Under-manager, Caller ton, Kenton, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 
Mr. John William Wilkinson, Under-manager, Double Row, South Durham 

Colliery, Bishop Auckland. 
Students— 
Mr. Matthew Forstbr Cheesman, Mining Student, Throckley Colliery, 

Newburn, R.S.O., Northumberland. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 271 

Mb. Arthur Elliot, Mining Apprentice, 28, Burdon Terrace, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

Mr. John Galloway, Mining Student, Hebburn Colliery, Hebburn-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. John Bridges Bailey Hawkins, Student, Murton Colliery, via 
Sunderland. 

Mr. Joseph Todd Swan, Mining Student, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, 
R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Mr. George Teasdale, Jun., Mining Student, Garden House, Pelton, 
Chester-le-Street, County Durham. 

Mr. Thomas A. Thirlwell, Mining Student, Wallsend Colliery, Newcastle 
upon-Tyne. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas (Past-president) referred in. terms of 
satisfaction to the success which had attended the recent cele- 
brations in connection with the Jubilee of the Institute. The 
success of the proceedings on that occasion was very largely 
due to the great interest and trouble which the President had 
taken in the matter, and he begged to propose that a very 
hearty vote of thanks be accorded to him. 

Mr. J. G. Weeks (Past-preaident) seconded the resolution, 
^hich was very cordially adopted. 

The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.), in acknowledging 
the vote of thanks, said that the success of the meeting was 
sufficient recompense to him for any trouble that he had taken. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 
SOCIETIES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, BELFAST, 1902. 

The report of the proceedings of the Corresponding Societies 
Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and also that of Mr. J. H. Merivale, the delegate repre- 
senting the Institute, were read as follows : — 

Bboomhill, 

October 2Mh t 1902. 
To tbi President and Council op the North or England Institute op 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers. 
Gehtlhoqi, 

The meetings of delegates to the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, appointed by local Societies, were held at the Queen's 
College on September 11th and 16th. I was present at both meetings, which 
*»e only moderately attended. 

Erratic Blocks of England, Wales and Ireland. — The Committee, which 
«M this matter in hand, would be very glad of assistance from any members 



272 CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

interested in geology, as the information that they have received in regard 
to erratics in the counties of Northumberland and Durham is very scanty. 
Mr. P. F. Kendall, the honorary secretary to the Committee, states that the 
information required is as follows: — 

" The Committee desire local clubs to undertake the systematic examina- 
tion of the areas covered by their operations. They should observe and record, 
mainly, rocks which by their nature can be seen to have been transported from 
a distance; and workers should not waste their energies in recording the 
occurrence of large blocks of local stones. The field in Northumberland and 
Durham is large, and comprizes almost virgin ground. Messrs. Lebour, Howge, 
Bui man, Dwerryhouse, and others have given some information, but only 
enough to whet our appetites. There are three pieces of evidence which the 
Committee and glacial geologists want to know: — (1) How far to the south 
and to the west the rocks from the Cheviot area descended into Northumber- 
land and Durham; (2) how far south, west and east the Lake-district rocks 
were borne; and (3) how far inland such rocks as flints were borne from 
seawards. Observers should not limit their observations to large boulders, 
as many of the most significant erratic blocks occur solely as small stones, 
some not exceeding what might be called gravel. The attitude of boulders, 
that is to say of large boulders, when obviously in situ, is often of interest 
and importance, that is, the compass-bearing of their long axes." 

Mr. Kendall will be pleased to render every assistance in his power to 
observers. He is willing to help by sending specimens of rocks of known 
origin, and also to identify, as far as he can, specimens submitted to him. 

The subject is interesting, and, unlike many other investigations, it can be 
carried out at a small expense, as the equipment required only costs a few 
shillings. I take this opportunity of inviting the assistance of members, 
and I will be very glad to receive the names of those willing to help, or 
perhaps a committee might be formed to take up the matter. 

The following papers and reports read at the meeting of the sections are 
of special interest to the members: — 

Presidential Address, by Prof. Dewar. 

Report of the Committee on " Earthquake Phenomena." 

Report of the Committee on the " Economic Effects of Factory Acts." 

Report of the Committee on the " Resistance of Road-vehicles to Traction.** 

Report of the Committee on the " Teaching of Elementary Mathematics." 

Report of the Committee on the "Teaching of Science in Elementary 

Schools." 
Report of the Committee on the " Training of Chemists employed in 

English Chemical Industries." 
" Smokeless Combustion of Bituminous Fuels." By Mr. W. H. Booth. 
" Solignac Boiler." By Mr. W. H. Booth. 
"An Universal Language." By Sir Frederick Bramwell. 
"All Stations Express." By Mr. J. Brown. 
"An Elastic Wheel." By Mr. J. Brown. 

" Regulation of Wages in Developed Industries." By Mr. S. J. Chapman. 
"Undulations produced in a Road by the Use of Sledges." By Dr» 

Yaughan Cornish. 
" Water-power in Ireland." By Mr. F. T. Dick. 
" Science in Irish Secondary Schools." By Mr. T. P. Gill. 
"Direct-reducing Levelling-staff." By Mr. George Henderson 



>- 



DI8CTJ88ION— STANDARDIZATION OF SURVEYORS' CHAINS. 273 

'Science Subjects in Schools." By Dr. Kimmins. 
" The Corrosion of Copper by Sea- water." By Prof. Letts. 
"World-shaking Earthquakes." By Prof. J. Milne. 
M Steam-turbines." By Hon. C. A. Parsons. 
" The Prevention of Smoke." By Mr. J. J. Rayworth. 
"The Teaching of Elementary Mathematics." By Mr. A. W. Siddow. 
" The Science of the Workshop." By Mr. William Taylor. 
I am, Gentlemen, 

Yours truly, 

JOHN H. MEMVALE. 



The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.), in moving a vote 
of thanks to Mr. Merivale for his report, said that he hoped 
the proposals with regard to the erratic blocks would be carried 
out by some of the members. 

Mr. W. 0. Wood seconded the vote of thanks, which was 
cordially approved. 

DISCUSSION OF PEOF. H. LOUIS' PAPER ON THE 
"STANDARDIZATION OF SURVEYORS' CHAINS."* 

Mr. S. J. Pollitzee (Sydney, New South Wales) wrote that, 
w ith all due respect to its author, the paper by Prof. Henry 
liouis on the " Standardization of Surveyors' Chains " came aa 
a surprise ; as he did not think that in 1902 there were people 
m Great Britain, one of the most civilized countries of the world, 
w ho still used the antediluvian chain. And it was respectively 
•uggested to the learned professor, to the members, and to all 
other professional engineers that they should exert their influ- 
ence to have the chain abolished entirely as obsolete, and to 
have it replaced by the more modern, steel -tape. 



Principal H. Pali* Gurney read the following note on 
"TheCrumlin Meteorite " : — 



* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., pages 85 and 229. 



274 



THE CRUMLIN METEORITE. 



THE CRTTMLIN METEORITE. 



By Principal H. PALIN GURNEY. 



:•# 



.•' 



The writer is indebted for a cast of the Cruinlin meteorite 
to the kindness of Mr. Lazarus Fletcher, F.R.S., the keeper of 
the Mineralogical Department, at the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington. It represents all that has been found of a 
sky-stone, which fell at 1030 a.m. on September 13th, 1902, 
at Crumlin, about 12 miles west of Belfast. A loud noise was 
heard at the time, which may be attributed to the breaking of 
the meteorite, and the detonation was observed at places 30 miles 
apart. The fragment weighs 9*34 pounds (4,237-5 grammes). 
It is 7i inches long, 6£ inches wide, and 3£ inches thick. The 
edges are rounded, and five of its faces are nearly smooth, and 
show clearly the characteristic pittings. The remaining four or 
five surfaces are apparently due to fracture, and they exhibit 
distinct ridge-and-furrow markings. As Crumlin is only 3J 
miles east of Lough Neagh, a lake extending over 13 miles by 
7 miles, possibly the remaining pieces may be buried beneath its 
waters. The crack, represented on the model, was probably 
caused by impact on a larger stone in the earth, in which it 
buried itself to a depth of about 18 inches. 

The meteorite is covered with the usual peculiar external 
layer. This crust or varnish is thinner on what are probably the 
surfaces produced by the breaking. It is mostly black or brown, 
the latter colour being possibly attributable to its contact with the 
soil, but on one part there is an iridescence, in which we may trace 
purple, pink and blue. On one of these surfaces, a flattish 
bronze-coloured nodule of troilite is distinctly visible. 

The meteorite belongs to the variety known as " aerolites/' 
It consists mainly of stony matter, but it contains sufficient nickel- 
iron to affect a magnetized needle. Its exact composition is at 
the present time the subject of investigation by Mr. L. Fletcher. 

This fragment is larger than any meteorite which has reached 



DISCUSSION — THE ORUMLIN METEOBITB. 275 

British soil since the fall at Wold Cottage, Scarborough, on 
December 13th, 1795, which weighed 4434 pounds (20,111 
grammes). It is the first sky-stone observed to fall in these 
islands since the Middlesborough meteorite, which was found on 
March 14th, 1881, and weighed only 3'52 pounds (1,5944 
grammes). 

Principal H. Palin Gubney exhibited models of the Crum- 
lin meteorite, together with an iron model prepared by Prof* 
A. S. Herschel to test the speed of fall of the original, and 
by which he had ascertained that the Middlesbrough meteorite 
struck the earth with a velocity of 412 feet per second. 

The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.) moved a vote 
of thanks to Principal Gurney for his paper. 

Mr. J. H. Merivale seconded the resolution, which was 
cordially approved. 



Mr. A. H. Meysey-Thompsok read the following paper on 
" Some of the Considerations affecting the Choice of Pumping 
Machinery," by Mr. H. Lupton and himself: — 



276 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



SOME OF THE CONSIDERATIONS AFFECTING THE 
CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



By A. H. MEYSEY-THOMPSON and H. LUPTON. 



Economy of fuel at collieries is a question which is rapidly 
becoming important. The old objection to the introduction 
of economical pumping-plant, that the boilers only burnt unsale- 
able small coal, has been seldom heard of late years. The intro- 
duction of coal-cutting by machinery is tending to reduce the 
quantity of small coal ; the manufacture of producer-gas on a 
large scale has opened out a lucrative market for inferior slack- 
coal ; the growth of the briquette-fuel industry is eloquent testi- 
mony to the use that can be made of what waa once considered 
almost valueless; and the washing of small coal and its con- 
version into coke have also greatly tended to reduce the supply of 
cheap boiler-fuel. It should also be remembered that each 
boiler saved represents a reduction of stokers' wages, of cost of 
insurance and of maintenance of boilers. 

In a presidential address to The Institution of Mining 
Engineers, Mr. James S. Dixon stated that 7*39 per cent, of the 
output of a large group of Lanarkshire collieries was consumed 
at the pits, and he estimated that, at this rate, the consumption 
of the collieries of the United Kingdom was 16,186,852 tons.* 
He also expressed the opinion that a consumption of 10 pounds 
of fuel per indicated horsepower at collieries was very near the 
truth.t 

Recently, Mr. A. M. Henshaw in a presidential address to the 
North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engin- 
eers, stated that in their district they were wasting £106,800 a 

* Trans. Inst. M.S., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 372. 
t Ibid., page 373. 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 277 

year, which might be saved by first-class steam-plant.* He said 
that actual tests at collieries had shown a consumption of 8*21 
pounds of coal per horsepower ; and it is worth noticing that, in 
the North Staffordshire district, the report of H.M. inspector of 
mines shows that out of 755 boilers no less than 285 are of the 
old egg-ended type. 

At many collieries, the weight of coal raised is far less than 
that of water pumped, and as pits become deeper the horse- 
power necessary to raise the water to the surface must be pro- 
portionately increased. 

Speaking generally, it may be said that the heaviest pumping 
in the past has been done by a steam-engine on the surface, work- 
ing pumps placed underground by means of rods. The old 
flingle-cylindered beam-engine, generally of the Cornish type, 
remains to this day one of the most economical of steam-engines, 
when the steam-pressure does not exceed about 40 pounds per 
square inch. For higher pressures, where circumstances admit of 
its use, an excellent type of pumping-engine is the vertical, com- 
pound Cornish-cycle engine. An engine of this kind fitted 
with the Davey differential gear, supplied to the Basset tin-mines, 
Cornwall, has been working for several years, yielding a duty of 
#0,000,000 foot-pounds on 1 cwt. of slack.t This duty is not so high 
as that reached by some of the old single-cylindered Cornish 
engines of the past, but they only obtained it by cutting-off steam 
at a very early period in the stroke, and in order to carry the piston 
to the end it was necessary to give an excessive initial velocity to 
the pump-rods. The strain on the rods was so great that they 
rapidly broke down, and, in practice, the early cut-off was 
abandoned, a*s it proved most economical to work with a duty of 
about 50,000,000 foot-pounds. The second cylinder is introduced 
in order to obtain a large degree of expansion of the steam, 
without the necessity of cutting-off so early in the stroke. The 
excessive* speed of the rods is thus obviated, and the pit-work is 
not subjected to undue strains. 

The large output of a modern colliery demands so much shaft- 
accommodation that room can rarely be found for a beam at the 

• Ttqm. Inrt. M.S., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 147. 
f Ibid., 1900, vol. xix., page 157. 

▼OL. XXIV—WM-1MI. 19 



278 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



pit-top; and as the Cornish engine is only single-acting, its capital 
cost is considerably higher than that of a double-acting engine of 
the same power. The foundations and engine-house are also 
costly. Hence, double-acting horizontal engines, taking steam 
on both sides of the piston, removed some way back from the 
shaft, and connected to quadrants or rockers, have been pre- 
ferred ; and these engines, being either triple-expansion or com- 
pound and condensing, enable high pressures of steam to be fully 
utilized. 

The writers' firm are now building a triple-expansion engine 
for a colliery in Durham, capable of working with a steam- 
pressure of 200 pounds per square inch ; and, as the steam will 
be cut off early in the high-pressure cylinder, the resultant 
economy will no doubt be considerable. An objection is some- 
times raised to the use of horizontal cylinders of large diameter 
on the ground of excessive wear, but this has hardly been borne 
out by facts. 






Through the kindness of Mr. Edmund Howl, engineer and 
general manager to the South Staffordshire Mines Drainage Com- 
missioners, the authors are enabled to quote the results obtained 
during the last 13 years from two large overground engines with 
shaft-pumps. The particulars during this time have been most 
carefully tabulated, and as no other engines (excepting small 
winding-engines used occasionally when examining pit, and 
capstan-engines for shaft-work) took steam from the same boilers, 
the results are more accurate than can be obtained at many 
collieries. 

(1) The larger of the two engines, called the Bradley engine, 
has high- and low-pressure steam-cylinders, 52 and 90 inches 
in diameter respectively, with a stroke of 10 feet ; and it works 
two plunger-pumps, each 27 inches in diameter, also with a stroke 
of 10 feet. This engine was put to work in April, 1885, but 
separate cost-accounts were not kept until the year ending June 
30th, 1890. In the 13 years from that time until June 30th, 
1902, the engine had raised 11,686,000,000 gallons of water from 
a depth of 384 feet, equivalent to an average continuous night- 
and-day horsepower, in the water lifted, of 199, and to an average 
continuous piston-speed of 69 feet per minute. The average 
annual cost of working the Bradley pumping-engine during the 
whole period has been as follows : — 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHIXERY. 279 



Per continuous Pump- 
horsepower per Annum. 

£ s. d. 

7 2 11 

4 7 10 

10 

11 1 

4 10 





Per Annum. 
£ 


Coal* 

Labour 


1,422 
873 


Stores, including oil and packing 
Repairs to engine and pomps 
Repairs to boilers 


99 

no 

47 



Totals ... £2,551 £12 16 8 

t, on an arerage, 

enpomtiTe-caparitj of 4 J pounds of water per 1 pound 



* The small slack coal used oost, on an arerage, 4s. lttd. per ton of S3 owts. deliTered, and had i 
•"'-------"• •■ -- * - 'ofooal. 



(2) The smaller of the two engines, called the Moat engine, 
hag high- and low-pressure cylinders, 44 and 76 inches in dia- 
meter respectively, with a stroke of 10 feet ; and it works two 
ram-pumps, 19 inches in diameter, and below them a pair of 
bucket-pumps, 19$ inches in diameter, having a stroke of 10 feet, 
and with a total joint lift of 620 feet. This engine was put to 
work in 1885, but separate cost-accounts were not kept until the 
year ending June 30th, 1893. In the 10 years from that time up 
to June 30th, 1902, this engine has raised 7,391,525,000 gallons 
of water from a depth of 620 feet, equivalent to a continuous 
night-and-day horsepower of 264 in the water lifted and to an 
average continuous piston-speed of 116 feet per minute. The 
average cost of working the Moat pumping-engine during the 
whole period has been as follows : — 







Per continuous Pump- 




Per Annum. 


horsepower per Annum. 




£ 


£ 8. d. 


Coalt 


1,410 


5 6 10 


Labour 


918 


3 9 6 


Stores, including oil and packing 


98 


7 5 


Repairs to engine and pumps 


150 


11 5 


Repairs to boilers 


23 


1 9 


Totals 


£2,599 


£9 16 11 



t The small slack coal used cost, on an average, 4s. 4id. per ton of 23 cwts. deliTered, and had an 
mporattTe-eapaeity of H pounds of water per 1 pound of coal. 

It may be remarked that the cylinders and other parts of the 
Bradley and Moat pumping-engines are in excellent order, and 
that no important parts of either engines or pumps have at any 
time been replaced, with the exception of the pump clack-boxes 
—seven of which have been renewed. 

As a standard of comparison it will be noted that taking the 
fuel-costs, half of the labour and stores, and the whole of the 
boiler-repairs, as belonging exclusively to the steam-plant ; and, 
farther, supposing that of the total power supplied to the 



280 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



terminals of an electric motor 70 per cent, could be recovered in 
actual water lifted, current would have to be sold at 0"22d. per 
Board-of-Trade unit to be equivalent to the average of the above 
figures, as shewn in the following table : — 



Mean Cost of the 
Bradley and Moat 
Pump! of -engines 

per continuous 
Pump-horsepower 

per Annum. 



Cost of Pumping by Electric- 

current per continuous 
Pump-horsepower per Annum. 
At Id. per * "^~* 



Coal 

Electric-current : Power 

Do* Loss in mains, 

motor and pumps at 70 per cent. 

of combined efficiency ... 

Labour 

Stores, including oil and packing ... 
Repairs to engines and pumps 
Repairs to boilers 



Totals 



.. 3 17 
..0 8 
.. 11 
..0 3 

£11 2 5 



Board-of-frade 

Unit. 

£ s. d. 



27 4 6 



11 13 4 

1 18 8* 

4 3* 

5 7* 



AtO-ffld. per 
Board-of-Tradt 
Unit 
£ a d. 



£41 6 4 



5 19 9 

2 11 4 

1 18 8* 

o 4 r 

5 7* 

£10 19 7 



* One half of the mein cost at the Bradley and Moat pam pi ag -engine* has been taken as belonging 
to the pumps. 

In the case of pumps of large diameter, forcing against a 
heavy pressure, the writers have found that the old-fashioned 
practice of using large single valves is undesirable. When a 
large pump is provided with only one suction- valve and one 
delivery- valve very heavy shocks are often caused by the trigging- 
up of either valve through a wooden gag or other cause. In 
order to avoid this difficulty, multiple valves of small diameter 
have been substituted with beneficial results for one large valve. 
Several small valves in one large valve-box were found, how- 
ever, to present difficulties when pumping a large quantity of 
water against a heavy head. The flanges of the valve-box must 
be made enormously thick, even more so than the rest of the 
casting. Consequently, unequal strains are set up in cooling after 
casting ; and the box is weak, as a structure, from this cause, as 
well as from the fact that in large masses of metal, cavities are 
apt to form under the skin in casting, and are exceedingly hard 
to discover. Another disadvantage of grouping a number of 
small valves in one large box is that it is necessary to break a 
large joint and remove a heavy lid in order to examine or repair 
any of the valves. 

Of late years, the writers' firm have adopted a standard pattern 
of valve-box, 6 inches in diameter — the number being varied 



«r :i 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 281 

according to the size of the pumps. Being comparatively small, 
they are less liable to undue strains in cooling after casting, and 
it is much more likely that each of these small boxes will be 
thoroughly sound than one large one. As these valve-boxes are 
made exactly alike to an accurate standard, a spare box can be 
kept, to be substituted for any one requiring repair. This opera- 
tion can be speedily carried out by one man, and the damaged 
valve sent to the surface for repair in its valve-box. The pumps 
alone stand in the pit ; the valve-boxes are placed in a recess, 
where they are easily attended to without interruption to the 
work in the pit ; and the workman is also free from the risk of 
anything falling down the shaft on to him. 

The engine is placed close to the boilers, so that it receives 
perfectly dry steam and can be kept under the constant super- 
intendence of the management. If desired, the engine may be 
placed just below the surface, leaving the whole of the pit- top 
free for the operations of the mine. 

In heavy pumping with long rods, it is desirable to have as 
few reciprocations as possible. The rods should start slowly from 
rest, accelerating in velocity as the stroke proceeds. The 
momentum, thus obtained, stores up energy, which is expended 
during the latter part of the stroke, and allows steam to be cut-off 
wly, with a resultant economy of fuel. A pause between the 
strokes enables the valves to close quietly before the return stroke, 
and the fewer the reciprocations the less is the wear-and-tear of 
the valves. Bearing these facts in mind, it is evident that the 
longer the stroke, within reasonable limits, the better ; and the 
writers are of opinion that the direct-acting engine without a fly- 
wheel is the most suitable for pumping. It is difficult to run a 
fly-wheel engine satisfactorily, and impossible to work it 
expansively at a slow speed. No pause is possible between the 
strokes ; and in the event of a spear-rod breaking, a pipe burst- 
ing, or of a valve failing to act and suddenly relieving the engine 
of its load, the strain put on the fly-wheel is apt to cause a serious 
accident. Cases have occurred under such circumstances of fly- 
wheels flying into fragments, which were thrown to considerable 
distances. It is also much more costly to build a long stroke fly- 
wheel engine than a direct-acting one. 

Where low first cost is essential, an underground direct- 
acting steam-engine is no doubt the cheapest to instal ; but aa 



U82 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



regards economy in working, it is at a great disadvantage. The 
steam has to be carried down the pit in pipes which can with 
difficulty be kept properly clothed, especially in wet shafts; it 
condenses in the pipes, and even if carefully drained, generally 
arrives at the engine in a more or less wet condition. In a direct- 
acting engine of this class, little or no cut-off is practicable, and 
the ordinary single cylinder or duplex steam-pump is a notori- 
ously extravagant consumer of steam. 

A certain degree of economy can be obtained by adopting com- 
pound or triple-expansion engines, but their best results com- 
pare unfavourably with those of the overground type. The 
engine is often placed in an out-of-the-way corner, seldom 
visited by the management, and the costs of installation and 
repairs are higher than when erected aboveground. Carrying 
steam underground frequently damages the roof, and an inrush 
of water may drown the engine.* A point in favour of under- 
ground engines is the height to which they can force water in 
one lift. 

At the Chamber colliery, Oldham, a compound condensing 
underground engine forces 100 gallons of water a minute a 
vertical height of 1,341 feet in one lift. Mr. W. W. Millington 
records the results of a trial made by him, there being 59 
indicated horsepower and 50 horsepower in the water pumped, 
giving a mechanical efficiency of 84 per cent. The consumption 
of coal was 5*76 pounds per pump horsepower per hour.t 

Where water has to be raised from dip-workings, hydraulic 
engines have been largely used, taking their driving water from 
the main column of the pumps in the shaft, and returning it along 
with the water pumped into the main sump. It is a very con- 
venient system if the hydraulic engine can be placed reasonably 
near to the main sump, and if the main pumping-engine can be 
run a little faster to make up for the driving water supplied to 
the hydraulic engine. Hydraulic engines being of simple con- 
struction, can be left to themselves, are quite safe, and require 
little attention and few repairs, besides being cheap in first cost ; 
* One of the writers had occasion to visit a silver-mine in Mexico, where an 




t The Colliery Manager and Journal of Mining Engineering, 1893, vol. ix., 
page 62. 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHOfEEY. 288 

and even when buried in water, they can be worked. In order to 
avoid shocks, it is important that the flow of power or driving 
water should not be interrupted ; and the duplex is therefore pre- 
ferable to the old single-cylinder type of engine. The great 
uniformity of flow, thus obtained, enables a smaller diameter of 
pipe to be used both for the power- and delivery-water. Where 
the hydraulic engine is placed, say, 2,600 feet from the main 
sump, the cost of power-pipes becomes a formidable item, and the 
friction of the water passing through them reduces the pressure, 
and consequently a larger quantity of water has to be used. In 
such cases, or where there is no main pumping-engine from whose 
rising column power-water can be drawn, the difficulty can be 
overcome by providing a steam-engine on the surface supplying 
water at, say, a pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch and 
delivering it to the hydraulic engine placed in the mine. This 
method gives an efficiency of about 55 per cent. 

In Westphalia, at mines from 1,500 to 2,000 feet below the 
surface, it was decided that rods were impracticable, owing to 
their great length ; electricity was inadmissible, as giving too low 
an efficiency ; and hydraulic pumping, by means of a steam- 
engine on the surface and hydraulic engines belowground, has 
been adopted in many cases. The water at the surface had a 
pressure of nearly 2 tons per square inch, and as much as 1,000 
horsepower was thus transmitted. By adopting such a great 
pressure of the driving or power- water, the diameter of the pipe 
ras kept small, and though practical difficulties due to the high 
pressure of the water were encountered, they were gradually over- 
come, and the system, when inspected by the authors last year, 
was working satisfactorily. A guaranteed efficiency of over 60 
per cent, was obtained, but the first-cost of the plant was con- 
siderably higher per horsepower than that generally in use in 
this country, where the mines, as a rule, are not so deep, and 
cheaper systems can be adopted. 

In the writers' experience, where circumstances allow of it, 
the method of pumping by rods actuated by a compound or triple- 
expansion engine on the surface, and when required to do so, also 
driving hydraulic pumps for draining dip-workings, is the most 
economical for heavy pumping, both as regards consumption of 
tuel and of repairs. 

Electricity, as a means of transmitting power for pumping 






..• ^ :;1 - 



'.'V ■"£• '•;$;• V ! - 

.^ ^ - fJ v> •;- f ^- i - 284 THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 

- ■ : ^ I ^.?""A. '!♦•'.' -!!"•: purposes, has come into use of late years, and seems destined to 

• ^\J*^^ -i P* a y a larger part in the future. The lightness and portability 

of the cable as well as the small loss of power in conveying the 
current to a distance, are important points in its favour. A 
'"/Hi - : * : f i danger attendant on the employment of electricity is the liability 

j^ r l'^v ^ ; r ,: ;r>^ to explosion, not only through the sparking of the dynamo, but 

• '- '; ..!> - rr i »♦: a lso from the fact that an accident to the cable by a fall of roof 
A , ;•«•" ;f;i ;i\^ -^ .» ** * or other cause may produce violent sparking. 

-•■ ^.v ;^' s*:V-- n fi Considering the great number of companies now commencing 

■VfrX 'H?* ']'*■£ k to supply electrical power on a large scale in this country, it seems 

"''•' -A.-i •'■>'•*- '• P* * probable that many collieries, especially the smaller ones, will be 

r ?rf .% ,$H '•£ ' r >:■ a ^ e *° ^ U .Y electric current cheaper than they can generate it for 

^** •*{• r i'. ; } ^ £ themselves. A mine-owner will do well to provide himself with 

_ v ; ;'i^ jj J '*?■>'• kS? a pump, which can do the whole of the work in a portion of the 

: V; • >j * ' ^ ?.jf 24 hours ; and if he can undertake not to use the current during 

••V-'^.,.* i 'i7'*' r v>i^ the few hours that the maximum demand lasts, he will be in a 

■- ••:-. :• v vrlfcr 4 \ "\^ good position to buy it at a low rate. Most of the electrically- 

• • . *■'■'.] :". -; , v - Ai '.'■* '., driven pumps in this country are actuated by a motor running at 

a high speed, geared down to give the pumps a velocity of little 
more than 40 revolutions a minute. But gearing is noisy, takes 
up space, and absorbs a considerable amount of power in friction ; 
and a preferable plan would be to drive the pumps direct by a 

!>!*♦ \, r ■'[*?•£■■ '•• V/; .V'f ; motor, running at, say, 100 revolutions per minute. In order to 

•^'"i\ •'"»•••* ..fj* '•'. *, run pumps at this speed, it is necessary to provide ample water- 

f-IV* -v ;'.''"' V «*. ' * " wav an( ^ a consequent small lift to the valves. 

1 ! : v : ft i *i'V'Vi ! A disadvantage at present attendant on electric pumping- 

'V?V' '^i^ '>' • plant is its low efficiency. At a recent installation in the North 

: -;t • aI% li..^ % v i; j of England, it appears that the consumption of coal per punip- 

' ^jviii-^ : / horsepower per hour was 7*6 pounds, and the equivalent duty 

amounted to 29,000,000 foot-pounds. Mr. James S. Dixon 






>.h; 



- ;^,^: % ;^ v •■:' recently stated that his compound condensing-engine, driving a 

-vp-v i' -1^ .?! 'r* -< dynamo, consumed 3*34 pounds of fuel per indicated horsepower 

* . ;: ^i'j '$. ;-** ••; per hour.* Reckoning the electric efficiency at 50 per cent, 

'* I ■*■:* ■■£%;']* ••""- •; ; i « > ' ••; including the pump-gearing but exclusive of the pumps, and 

T- . '; ^ ^- -; f ' ; .; * the efficiency of the pumps at 90 per cent., to obtain 1 actual or 

v i- '- • ; -/ ; ^ pump-horsepower, there is a combined efficiency of 45 per cent. 

or 7*4 pounds of coal per pump-horsepower per hour consumed 
by Mr. Dixon's engine. 

Another disadvantage attendant on electric pumping is the 
'•^> : ' S \ ; * v * Tram. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 373. 



e 



H ?>; 






•'*'••'*"■ 












THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 285- 

liability to get out of order. In an address to the Engine, Boiler 
and Employers' Liability Insurance Company, Limited, the 
Chairman (Mr. R. B. Longridge) stated that " one out of every 
nine [electrical] machines insured by the company had broken 
down during the past year," and that " even where trained elec- 
tricians were in attendance, numerous breakdowns had occurred 
through lack of attention to cleanliness, which is so essential 
to the safety of electric machines."* If electrically-driven 
machines aboveground give so much trouble, it is hardly to be 
expected that the attention and cleanliness required by Mr. Long- 
ridge will be forthcoming to a greater degree at the bottom of a 
pit. Electrically-driven pumps are also at a disadvantage, com- 
pared with those driven by rods, in being unable to work under 
*ater. At the Yarlside mine, North Lancashire, two ram- 
pumps, 20 inches in diameter and 10 feet stroke, continued work- 
ing at the rate of 8 strokes per minute for a month while sub- 
merged in water to a depth of 90 feet.t They were actuated by 
an overground engine with quadrants, and raised the water from 
a depth of 435 feet to the surface. 

For pumping small quantities of water at points a long dis- 
tance from the source of power, electricity is sometimes the only 
satisfactory way of transmitting the power; but, where great 
depths and large quantities of water have to be pumped, the 
greater efficiency of the hydraulic system, using water at a high 
pressure, will probably cause it to be preferred despite the some- 
what heavy capital outlay. 

As already mentioned, underground steam-engines have little 
to recommend them, except cheapness in first cost ; their founda- 
tions are liable to be disturbed by movements of the floor, while 
the cost of running and of repairs are higher than is the case 
with aboveground engines. When saving of coal becomes 
important, no doubt rotative engines will supplant the use of 
direct-acting engines placed underground. The use of a fly-wheel 
is there a distinct advantage. The momentum of the rods, which 
enables an aboveground engine to cut off early in the stroke, is- 
replaced in an underground engine by the fly-wheel, which stores 
up sufficient energy to allow of an equally high grade of 
expansion, with a resultant economy of fuel. 

* The Engineer, 1902, vol. xciii., page 208. 
t Trans. Inst. M.E., 1899, vol. xvii., page 303. 



286 



THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



The direct-acting underground engine is, however, frequently 
adopted as a stand-by to other and more economical pumping- 
engines. Running as it then does, during a limited period, the 
extra cost of fuel is not an important item, and may be counter- 
balanced by the saving in interest on the capital outlay. A 
rotative engine, of the same power, would cost more, and owing 
to the greater space occupied, would be more expensive to instal ; 
consequently, in order to decide upon the preferable type, it 
becomes necessary to consider the number of hours that each 
will be required to run. 

It is to be regretted that some system of measuring fuel, 
analogous to the old Cornish duty in millions of foot-pounds, is 
not more largely adopted ; but that system had its disadvantages, 
because it involved the efficiency of the boiler in addition to that 
of the steam-engine. A preferable plan would be to compare the 
weight of steam used by the steam-engine with the actual foot- 
pounds of work done in water raised by the pumps, commonly 
expressed as pump-horsepower. The ratio, thus obtained, affords 
a means of comparing different systems and it is in this sense that 
the term " efficiency " might be advantageously employed. 

In conclusion, it may be said that each system has its dis- 
advantages, and that every proposed installation must be studied 
on its merits. In order to facilitate a decision as to the beet type 
of pumping-engine to be adopted, the writers have endeavoured 
to state the chief points relating to each system which have come 
under their notice ; and in submitting them to the members they 
hope that the paper may be productive of an exchange of opinion 
on the comparative merits of different kinds of pumping 
machinery, more especially as regards cost of repairs and main- 
tenance as well as the general convenience of the mine. These 
are matters which can only be thoroughly understood by those 
who are using the machinery, and consequently know " where 
the shoe pinches," an experience compared to which that of the 
maker of the machinery can at best be imperfect and second-hand. 

The North of England has always been a pioneer of progress 
in mechanical invention, and its able practical sons are to be found 
directing mining operations in all parts of the world. Their 
experience gives to a discussion of this kind an importance which 
it is hard to overrate. 






fabutdktm, of Mining £ngute*rs. 
Transaction* SOHSOS 



Vol. JXN Plate VI. 



t-TTiompson, amlMLuptoris Ri per on/ 
Some of the Considerations affectum the Oioice of/ltmjXTw JfacJunGry!' 



DUTIES OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF PUMPING WATER EXPRESSED 
IX MILLIONS OF FOOT-POUNDS OF WORK PER 1 CWT. 
OF COAL BURNT. 



8TE A M SYSTEMS. 



EN4IN 



Cornish. 

Avium of 2 



Le*rt Eneine 

REFOftTflR. 



Davey 

Differential, 
surface -tyfi, 

pumfinq with 

Rods. 



En«ink Underground. 



COMPOUND- 

CON0ENSIN«, 
DlRICT- ACTING 



Duplex. 

Non- 

CONDENSIM 



HYDRAULIC 
SYSTEM. 



ELECTRICAL 
8Y8TEM. 



With Above«rouno 8tbam-bn«ine 
usin« 3*84 Pounds of Coal 
fir Indicated Horsepower 
per Hour. 



Jf 



h®— ® 




eo 



Xj k**fAfBa*dAs*Ui* of Ifai^ & KesJuuucal BnymMrs 



VolUI.Plate in. 



DISCUSSION — THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 287 

Plate VI. shews the duties of different systems of pumping water, expressed 
is millions of foot-pounds of work per 1 hundredweight of coal burnt. The 
light figures are taken from plants under ordinary working conditions, and the 
dark figures are the average duties of the different systems of pumping. 



Mr. Henry Lawrence (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) asked what 
class of boilers were used at the Bradley and Moat engines, 
and whether there was anything to account for the large 
difference between the cost of repairs of the respective boiler- 
plants — the costs at Bradley being stated to be 4s. lOd. and 
at Moat to be only Is. 9d. per continuous pump-horsepower per 
annum. In his opinion the most economical way of pumping 
water from great depths, was to have a series of small pumps 
delivering round the circle of the crank, or what would be the 
crank. He differed from the opinion expressed by the writers 
in the beginning of the paper as to the use of a flywheel, but 
they afterwards stated that under certain conditions a flywheel 
attached to a pumping-engine placed underground was a source 
of economy, enabling them to cut off and to work the engine 
expansively, and he accepted the latter as the correct view. 

Prof. Henky Louis (Durham College of Science) said that 
he did not think that the authors had treated quite fairly the 
application of electric driving to pumping machinery ; he did not 
believe that any great danger could arise from the dynamo or 
leads seeing that it was not customary to place a pumping-engine 
in the return-airway. In the usual position it might be con- 
sidered fairly safe, and there would be little danger from spark- 
ing. He was convinced that much higher efficiencies had been 
repeatedly recorded for electrical machinery than those given 
in the paper, and the writers did not refer to the more modern 
type of pumps driven electrically. The Riedler express pump 
had been introduced lately, with mechanically-governed valves, 
which could be worked at a high speed, against fairly high lifts ; 
and he believed that high efficiencies had been recorded for this 
pump. Several electrical plants claimed an efficiency of 60 per 
cent, or over. It was obvious that at a colliery having a lengthy 
range of coke-ovens, the waste-gases could be utilized for the 
generation of electricity, which could be economically applied 
in driving a pumping-plant, in which case a much lower 



288 



DISCUSSION — THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



efficiency could be admitted than would be the case if they had 
to use coal ; and the convenience of carrying electricity to a con- 
siderable distance was a factor that should not be overlooked. If 
danger from sparking at the commutator did exist, they could 
always fall back upon the triphase system. So far as his (Prof. 
Louis') limited experience went, he was not particularly in favour 
of this system, because if anything happened, and it was necessary 
to stop the pumps, one had to run off the water from the rising 
main before restarting the pumps, although he understood that 
a means had been devised for overcoming this difficulty. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener (Crook) said that, having regard to the 
fact that electricity at the present moment was being largely 
utilized for power-purposes, he did not think that any statement 
should be allowed to go forth uncontradicted that its application 
underground was unsafe. He asked the authors, whether the 
statement that among the dangers arising from the use of elec- 
tricity an explosion might be caused by sparking, was merely 
an opinion or whether it was based upon actual knowledge, as he 
had heard the point frequently denied. 

Mr. J. C. B. Hendy (Etherley) said that he had had some 
experience with hydraulic pumps, and for the particular con- 
ditions which prevailed at the Etherley collieries the hydraulic 
pump had certainly proved successful. He was not able to 
state the efficiency, as the boilers were heated by the waste- 
gases from the coke-ovens. A Hathorn-Davey hydraulic puinp 
had been working for about three years, placed about 1,400 feet 
from the shaft-bottom; it was pumping from various distances, 
from three different points in the dips; and, since it had been 
erected, he did not think that it had cost more than £1 or £2 
per year for repairs. This was a case where the conditions were 
suitable for the use of hydraulic pumps; but if they had to 
place pumps at a considerable distance inbye, he thought that 
nothing could equal the efficiency of electricity. In the case of 
another hydraulic pump, there was a sudden inrush of water, 
which drowned out the workings ; but the hydraulic pump worked 
for seven days under water and eventually it overcame the feeder 
and removed the water. This was one of the especial advantages 
attending the use of an hydraulic pump, which, if kept in order, 
would pump water, even when completely immersed. 



DISCUSSION THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 289 

Mr. F. R. Simpson (Ryton) said that lie had employed an hy- 
draulic pump when working to the dip in a heavily-watered 
colliery: it was situated 1,800 feet from the shaft-bottom, and 
had worked in a very satisfactory manner. 

Mr. J. K. Guthrie (Preston Colliery) said that he had had an 
opportunity of seeing a Riedler pump at the Cramlington 
collieries, and it seemed to work in a highly satisfactory 
manner. It had only two valves of large area (one suction- valve 
and one delivery- valve). Indicator-cards had been taken, which 
showed great efficiency, and there was no " slip " or " hammer." 

Mr. T. E. Forster (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) asked the authors 
to give further particulars of the installation of the electric 
pumping-plant in the North of England which gave the 
results quoted in their paper. Underground pumping could 
be divided into two heads, namely, shaft pumping and inbye 
pumping, and one method might be very good for one case, 
while another was the best for the other case. He thought 
that the use of electricity for underground pumping was very 
handy, and that it was probably as cheap as any other method. 
For pumping heavy feeders he was bound to agree that pumping- 
engines on the surface were generally the most economical, 
with possibly underground engines as a stand-by. In some 
pits, there was not much water, and where they could erect 
an underground electric pump, working in conjunction with 
dynamos and haulage and inbye pumping-plants, it might be, 
even supposing the efficiency to be little less, that it would prove 
the cheaper system. The idea that because a motor would spark 
it would therefore fire gas had not been proved, and the only 
experiments of which he had heard had pointed to the opposite 
conclusion. It was a point not yet satisfactorily settled, and 
it was very desirable that they should receive exact informa- 
tion upon the question. 

Mr. C. W. Martin (Newbottle Collieries) wrote that the 
first note struck by the writers of the paper was a correct one. 
The day had gone by for the question of fuel-economy, even 
at collieries, to be regarded as of small importance. It was 
of ever-increasing importance, and it was this fact which made 
«ven first cost a secondary consideration. The authors had shown 



290 



DISCUSSION THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



wisdom in the choice of a title for their paper. It was one 
thing to lay out pumping-plant for an entirely new colliery, 
but it was quite another thing to instal suitable pumping-plant 
at an old colliery, and one must be content with what seemed 
best, all things being considered. 

He (Mr. Martin) was inclined to disagree with the statement 
that underground direct-acting steam-engines had little to 
recommend them except low first cost. For depths of 1,200 or 
1,400 feet, where the pumping must be done in the coal-drawing 
shaft, and steam was already conveyed down the mine for other 
purposes, perhaps the most satisfactory pump that could be in- 
stalled was of the direct-acting compound type. It had few 
wearing surfaces and consequently cost little for stores, very 
little in the way of repairs, and required a minimum amount of 
attention. Where there was any movement of the floor, the 
direct-acting type had a distinct advantage over the rotative 
engine. 

There were serious objections to placing heavy pumping sets 
in a working-shaft. In laying out a pumping-shaft at a new 
colliery or a central pumping-plant for a group of collieries, 
down to, say, 1,200 feet deep, undoubtedly the wisest plan was 
that of pumping by means of rods driven by a steam-engine 
placed close to the source of heat, and running on a high grade 
of expansion, and always taking the precaution of placing lifting- 
sets in the pit-bottom. A direct-acting condensing engine, with 
a long stroke and steam- jacketted cylinders, would probably give 
the best results. 

The objection raised to the use of single clacks, with multiple 
beats, was not very obvious, as they worked well, and cost 
very little for up-keep. The danger arising from shocks could 
be readily averted by the use of relief -valves. 

For dealing with large quantities of water from depths of 1,500 
to 3,000 feet, the hydraulic system mentioned in the paper had 
much to recommend it. The engine on the surface could be 
made an economical engine, and the hydraulic motor in the mine 
was also highly efficient. But with this system of pumping, 
no fewer than four ranges of pipes were necessary, namely: — 
Rising main, power-pipe, return-pipe and air-pressure pipe, 
but as these were small in diameter, they could be easily fixed 
in a working-shaft. The cost of this plant must of necessity 






«r • ' . 



DISCUSSION THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 291 

be high when the enormous pressures were considered (up to 
3,000 pounds per square inch) and they could only be satisfac- 
torily controlled by a liberal use of cast steel in the manufacture 
of the plant. 

The writers of the paper had done well in calling attention 
to the need of having some uniform method of expressing pump- 
efficiencies. German, engineers, for instance, made statements 
of extraordinary efficiencies in setting forth the merits of their 
pumps, but on enquiry the basis of calculation was found not to be 
the same as that used in this country. 

Mr. J. J. Prest (Castle Eden) wrote that the authors were 
no doubt correct in advocating the more general use of direct- 
acting triple-expansion condensing pumping-engines as a per- 
manent installation for dealing with large volumes of water 
from shafts of a depth of, say, 1,000 feet. The only serious 
objection to the more general adoption of this class of pumping- 
machinery is the amount of room taken up in the shaft by the 
pump-work together with the first cost of the installation. The 
problem to be solved in all cases is, whether the economy capable of 
being effected by the adoption of this class of pumping-engine 
is sufficient to return ample interest on the increased capital- 
expenditure required, as compared with an underground steam 
pumping-engine, all* other things being equal. There can 
be no doubt that at least one-half of the fuel is wasted, by 
condensation, in steam-pipes conveying steam to many large 
underground pumping-engines. If the value of this fuel so 
wasted amounts to, say, £500 per annum in the case of a steam 
underground pump, and the increased cost of a high-class pump- 
ing-engine plant should amount to £3,000 only when com- 
pared with the underground pumping-engine, then there is 
sufficient margin to warrant the increased expenditure being 
incurred. In many cases, however, the economy resulting from 
the increased capital-expenditure necessary to replace existing 
plants would not warrant the conversion. For unwatering 
sinking shafts, the class of pumping-engines advocated by the 
authors was not suitable. 

Mr. A. H. Meysey-Thompson (Leeds), replying to the dis- 
cussion, said that none of the results given in the paper were 
their own figures. Lancashire boilers were used at both the 



292 



DISCUSSION THE CHOICE OF PUMPING MACHINERY. 



Bradley and Moat pumping-engines, and it was purely accidental 
that the cost of repairs at one place had been 4s. lOd. and at the 
other only Is. 9d. per horsepower per annum. Possibly the 
feed-water had something to do with it, as the boilers were 
placed several miles apart. He believed that the Riedler pump, 
with mechanically worked valves, was not largely in use in this 
country, although one had been working at the Powell Duffryn 
collieries for many years. The present electric pump was 
geared, and gearing was noisy and wasted a lot of power as 
friction. If a pump could be run at 100 revolution* per 
minute, with the motor directly connected, it would prove a most 
useful form of machine. He could not give any definite opinion 
with regard to the sparking of electric motors: he was told by 
mining-engineers that violent sparking was dangerous, and 
when a cable broke there was danger of sparking. 

Mr. H. Lupton (Leeds) stated that the electric plant 
referred to in the paper from which the figures were quoted, 
was driven by a compound engine, with cylinders 18 and 30 
inches respectively in diameter by 40 inches stroke, running at 
<S0 revolutions per minute and supplied with steam at a pressure 
of 100 pounds per square inch. It worked two sets of three- 
throw pumps in the shaft; the actual horsepower in water lifted 
by the pumps was 121, and the duty of the whole plant was 
29,000,000 foot-pounds. The average duty of the engines re- 
ferred to in the paper was 51,000,000 foot-pounds for steam and 
30,000,000 for electricity, where both plants were giving their 
ordinary duty. 

Mr. J. G. Weeks (Bedlington) remarked that the use of com- 
pressed air had been totally ignored throughout the discussion, 
but there were circumstances under which its use was highly 
advantageous. He moved that a vote of thanks be accorded 
to the writers for their interesting paper. 

Mr. J. H. Mebivale seconded the resolution, which was 
cordially approved. 

The further discussion was adjourned. 



Mr. Mark Ford read the following paper on " Sinking by 
the Freezing Method at Washington, County Durham " : — 



# " ' . 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 293 



SIXKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD AT WASHING- 
TON, COFNTY DURHAM. 

By MARK FORD. 



1. Introduction. — The great interest shown by the members 
in the operation at Washington, and the novelty of the method, 
probably adopted for the first time in Great Britain, has in- 
duced the wiiter to give the following detailed description of 
sinking through alluvial deposits to the stone-head at the Glebe 
Winning belonging to the Washington Coal Company, Limited. 

The company, having acquired the royalties of the Oxclose 
and Glebe collieries, abandoned forty years ago, decided to 
sink two shafts, 14 feet and 12 feet in diameter respectively, in 
a position such as to secure the most economical arrangement of 
haulage, shaft-bottom and surface-plant in preference to re- 
opening the old shafts. 

2. Nature of Ground, — After trial-borings had been made 
over a certain area, it was found that the shafts would be sunk 
through drift, consisting of sand and boulder-clay. At the site 
adopted for the shafts, the following section was proved : — 



No. Description of Strata. 




Thickness of Strata. 
Ft. In. 


Depth from Surface. 
Fs. In. 


1 8oil 




1 3 


1 3 


2 Yellow sand: dry... 




34 6 


35 9 


3 Grey sand: wet ... 




41 3 


77 


4 Bine clay 




1 


77 1 


5 Grey sand, with a gravel-bed : damp 


2 4 


79 5 


6 Clay, with boulders : 


dry 


12 11 


92 4 


7 Loamy clay : dry ... 





5 2 


97 6 


8 Stiff clay, with boulders : dry . 


9 7 


107 1 


9 Yellow freestone ... 


... 


13 


120 1 



3. Method of Sinking. — The thickness of the sand-bed, the 
treacherous character of the quicksand, and the possibility of 
damaging the foundations of engines, boilers and other erections 
W the vicinity of the shafts, led, after careful consideration, 

20 



VOL. XXTT.-190S-190S. 



294 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 



to negotiations with Messrs. Oebhardt & Koenig, Nordhausen, 
Germany, who undertook to freeze two shafts to the stone-head. 
This method offered almost a certainty of success, a dry shaft 
to sink, and no water or sand to pump to the surface. 

4. Preparatory Work. — The usual headgear and pulley were 
erected, and a permanent hauling-engine was so placed that 
both shafts would be served by it during the sinking (Fig. 5). 
This engine has two cylinders, each 18 inches in diameter by 
36 inches stroke, and is geared as 2 to 1, to two drums, 6 feet 
in diameter. A locked-coil wire-rope is used for winding. 




Fig. ii.— Washington Colliery: Glebe Shafts. 

The first and winding shaft will have a finished diameter of 14 
feet. Its diameter to a depth of 24 feet was 24 feet, the side* 
being secured by ordinary wooden cribs, 6 inches square, placed 
3 feet apart, and short backing deals were placed behind the cribs. 

At 16 feet from the surface, a scaffold was erected, and on 
this scaffold, the holes in which the freezing-tubes, 22 in number, 
had to be placed, were marked off (Figs. 1 and 2, Plate VII.). 
This was done by drawing a circle on the scaffold having a radius 
of 10J feet, and the circumference of this circle was divided into 
22 equal parts, giving the centre of each bore-hole. 

Boring-tubes were forced down to form the holes through 



! 



I 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 



295 



the sand. These tubes were 6 inches in diameter and 6 feet 
long, fitted with screwed flush-joints, the lower length having 
a sharp end. The sand-pump was occasionally put in, and 
by turning the tubes with the grips, they gradually sank until 
the gravel was reached; and then screw-jacks were used to 
force the tubes into the clay. 

When the boring-tubes reached the clay, boring was con- 
tinued by means of a chisel working inside the tubes, making 
holes 5J inches in diameter (Fig. 6). Ordinary bore-rods were 
employed, a wooden rocking-lever being used to counterbalance 




Fig. 6. — Bori.no Holes for Frbezinu-pipes. 

the weight of the rods in the hole. On account of the hardness of 
the boulders, most of which were whin or dark blue Mountain 
Limestone, of large size, with ice-worn smooth sides, exceptional 
difficulty was experienced in boring through this clay, progress 
was extremely slow, and the holes were constantly liable to 
deflection from the vertical by reason of the impact of the 
boring-rods upon the edge of these boulders, which no doubt 
often moved in their bed of soft clay. It was imperative that 
the tubes should be vertical, in order to secure an ice- wall of 
sufficient thickness and of uniform frozen condition. The ver- 



296 



SINKING HY THE PEEEZING METHOD. 



r 






tical direction of the holes was tested by suspending si plummet 
from the surface at a point immediately above the centre of 
the i«»p of the boring-tube, If during its descent the plummet 
came in contact, with the side of the hole a deviation of the 
cord was seen at the top oi the tube. Bui in no ease was the 
deviation rd" any of the tubes found to be more than a lew 
inches, 

As Siiini as a hole had attained the intended depth, the 
freezing-tubes were inserted. These in lies :iro 4 inches in 
outside din meter and 16 feet long, the lowest length having 
a closed end. The joints consist of a sleeve, (i inches long, 




Fit:. 7-— UKFKH;ERATI5<i-PLA>T. 

screwed inside in receive ihe screwed ends of the tubes. As 
the tubes were being placed in the boles they were tested by 
hydraulic pressure: — lo atmospheres for the first pipe, 14 
atmospheres after a pipe had been added, and so on, reducing 
the pressure by one atmosphere for every pipe thai was added. 
As soon as the freezing- tubes were inserted, the boring-tubes 
were removed and used for Other boles, so that six sets of boring- 
tubes were used in putting down 22 holes. 






5. R\ fritft tttfftHj-jrftiftt. The entire plant (Fig. 7) was pro- 
vided by Messrs. Qebharrifc & ELoenig and brought from Germany. 
The motive power was steam, and was provided by the colliery- 
owners from two Lancashire boilers working at a pressure of 75 



, . ..... _. 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 297 

pounds per square inch. The steam-engine, A (Fig. 4, Plate 
VII.), had an horizontal cylinder, 18 inches in diameter by 20 
inches stroke, fitted with ordinary slide and adjustable ex- 
pansion-valves, and was run at a speed of 90 revolutions per 
minute. A flywheel, B, 16 feet in diameter, on the crank-shaft 
was fitted with a belt to drive shafting, C. On this shafting, two 
pulleys, D and E, were placed, and by means of belts they drove 
two flywheels, F and G, which gave motion to the cranks of two 
horizontal compressors, H and I (Fig. 4, Plate VII.). The com- 
pressors are double-acting and fitted with conical valves kept in 
place by springs. 

The refrigerating agent, ammonia, is raised by the com- 
pressors to a pressure of 150 pounds per square inch. And for 
this purpose it is absolutely necessary that the gland in which 
the piston-rod works shall be efficiently packed, or ammonia will 
escape : the packing consisted of alternate rings of whitemetal, 
guttapercha and chalked-hemp, with a total length of 15 inches. 
Provision has also to be made for the continuous injection of 
oil into the gland, and this was effected by a small pump 
driven by belting from the main shaft. The oil passes into 
the cylinder, and, in addition to lubricating, tends to fill up the 
clearance-space of the cylinders. The ammonia, under pressure, 
is delivered into a small receiver, where the oil is separated and 
periodically drained into a lower receiver, whence it is used 
again. When the oil is mixed with the ammonia under pres- 
sure, it loses part of its heat and on being drained into the 
lower receiver at a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch it 
has a tendency to freeze, and this is prevented by passing a 
steam-pipe, \ inch in diameter, through the oil. 

The ammonia leaves the receiver for the condensers, through 
a pipe, 3 inches in diameter, and thence passes into four tubes, 
each 1 inch in diameter. 

The condensers, J and K (Fig. 4, Plate VII.), are vertical 
iron cylinders, 10 feet high and 5£ feet in diameter. These 
condensers contain, in tiers of four rings, 1,600 feet of tubing, 
I inch in diameter, through which the ammonia is circulated. 
About 4,000 gallons of water per hour circulate through the 
condensers, and the water is kept in constant motion by means of 
paddles, ab and cd, driven by belting from the engine flywheel. 
This water cools the ammonia, reducing it from a gas to a liquid, 



.298 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 



-? M&x a K f 9 r m * v ■■/ 't to t t t f s * t t t otti*3*i** f6ffau»&#t?*n*>0Air 




I 

Sf 

6 

3 
2 

5 

a 



z, 
3 



s 



i i^ja^.'.'AJ^f*'." *a #a 



f r s t * " -7 a* a#r a 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 299 

and the latent heat of liquefaction evolved in the process raises 
the temperature of this large quantity of water by about 10° Cent. 
The temperatures of the water on entering and leaving the con- 
densers are recorded in Fig. 8. 

When the four pipes emerge from each condenser, they are 
immediately connected to a pipe, 1 inch in diameter, leading to 
the refrigerators. The refrigerators, three in number, L, M and 
X, are vertical iron cylinders 10 feet high and 7 feet in diameter 
{Fig. 4, Plate Til.). They are jacketed with 3 inches of peat- 
moss and encased with wooden cleading. They are filled with 
brine, and contain 2,000 feet of tubing, 1 inch in diameter, 
through which the ammonia circulates after passing through 
reducing valves, which has the effect of lowering the pres- 
sure from 150 pounds to about 15 pounds per square inch. 
The ammonia immediately changes its state from a liquid 
to a gas ; and this can only be done by absorption of hjeat corre- 
sponding to the latent heat of vaporization. This heat is taken 
from the surrounding bath of brine, which is thereby greatly 
reduced in temperature. Efficient and uniform reduction of the 
temperature of the brine is obtained by rotating a paddle in 
each refrigerator, similar to that in the condensers. 

The ammonia leaves the refrigerators, passing direct to the 
suction-side of the compressors, and it keeps constantly passing 
through the actions already described. 

A duplex pump, O, with rams 6 inches in diameter and steam- 
cylinders 8 inches in diameter by 6 inches stroke, is used to 
circulate the brine through the tubes in the bore-holes, and 
hack to the refrigerators. This pump makes 60 strokes per 
minute, and produces a flow of 144 gallons per minute. 

On a scaffold, 8 feet above the bottom of the pit, there were 
placed two rings of pipes (Fig. 9). One ring was connected to 
the delivery-end of the duplex pump while the return-pipe was 
connected to the refrigerators. The return-ring also, had 
separate connections to all the freezing-tubes; and the inlet- 
ring, conveying the brine, was fitted with tubes, 1 inch in 
diameter, branching off to every bore-hole. These small tubes 
entered, through a gland, into the freezing-tubes in the bore- 
holes, and reached to the bottom. The brine flows down the 
smaller tube and is discharged through perforations near the 
bottom of the tube, returning up the outer tube to the return- 



300 



SINKING 1IY THE FREEZING METHOD. 



ring, and thence to the refrigerators. The connections from 
the rings to each hole, were fitted with cocks so that the supply 
and return side could be closed at will. The pipes, after the 
freezing commenced, were soon coated with ice; and, to ascer- 
tain that each pipe was receiving its proper supply of brine, a 
few square inches of ice was cleared every morning, and the 
rapid formation of ice on the exposed part was proof of satis- 
factory working. Fig. 8 records, for each day, the average tem- 
peratures of the brine as it left the refrigerators and as it 
returned from the shaft. As a rule, the temperature was in- 
creased about 2° Cent. 




Fig. 9.- Rings and Connexions to Freezing -pipes. 

The brine, which is used to freeze the quicksand, circulates 
in tubes sunk at intervals in the sand, and has its temperature 
lowered below that of the freezing-point of water, being robbed of 
its heat in the refrigerators, previous to circulation by the pump, 
owing to the vaporization of the ammonia on its way to the suc- 
tion-side of the compressors. 

6. Agents. — The refrigerating agen/t used was anhydrous 
ammonia (NH 3 ) and while other agents (carbonic acid, sul- 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 301 

phurous acid, etc.), can be used, ammonia is considered to be 
tie most efficient, and certainly the most harmless in case of 
accidental escape. This substance has a molecular weight of 17, 
and as a gas had a density in relation to hydrogen of 8*5 and in 
relation to air of 0'59, and boils at —40° Cent, at atmospheric 
pressure. It has a latent heat of vaporization of 287 calories, 
and a vapour-tension of 108 pounds per square inch at a temperar 
tare of 16° Gent. Gaseous ammonia can be liquefied at a pressure 
of 128 pounds per square inch at a temperature of 21° Cent. ; 
and at a pressure of 150 pounds at a temperature of 25° Cent., the 
pressure required to produce liquefaction rising very rapidly with 
the temperature. The latent heat of ammonia is very great, 
consequently its value as a refrigerating agent is proportionately 
large. It possesses greater heat-absorbing properties than other 
agents, and it liquefies at a comparatively low pressure. It acts 
injuriously on copper and brass. It is combustible, and when 
mixed with twice its volume of air is capable of exploding with 
great violence. The ammonia was brought from Germany in 
steel cylinders, 4 feet long by 8 inches in diameter, at a pressure 
oi 300 pounds per square inch. 

The brine used consisted of a solution of chloride of mag- 
nesium. The salt was dissolved in hot water, the resultant 
trine consisting at first of 21 per cent, and being gradually raised 
to 26 per cent, of the salt. The latter solution freezes at a tem- 
perature of —34° Cent. It will therefore be seen that it is 
capable of circulating in tubes at a temperature that would solidify 
any water in contact with the tubes. A float was used to indicate 
the height of the brine in the refrigerators, so that any abnormal 
leakage would be detected. The quantity of brine was kept 
constant. 

Before commencing the freezing process, the top of the 
shaft was enclosed, and the exposed pipes were covered with straw- 
ropes. A hole was bored, and a pipe 18 feet long inserted, in 
the middle of the shaft, and the height and temperature of the 
water in the hole was noted as the gradual increase of ice-wall 
slowly caused the water to rise. 

7. Difficulties. — No special difficulties or accidents were ex- 
perienced. There were a few cases of the packing being blown 
out of the compressor-glands. A slight shrinkage, owing to the 



S02 SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 

temporary character of the foundations, caused the crank-shaft 
to heat on several occasions. One of the freezing-tubes split 
probably owing to the effect of a shot, the leakage of the brine 
was seen in the side of the shaft, and the connections to the supply 
and discharge-rings were immediately closed. The brine was 
withdrawn, and the pipe thrown out of use. 

Owing to a missed-shot, one of the sinkers working in the 
shaft-bottom struck a gelignite-cartridge with his pick, causing 
it to explode, and he received injuries that resulted in his death, 
4 days later. Eight other workmen were in the shaft-bottom at 
the time, and all received slight injuries. Two similar acci- 
dents, happily, without fatal results, occurred while using the 
same explosive, at a sinking in Northumberland, three and four 
days later respectively, so that the accident could not be alleged 
to be due to special circumstances connected with the freezing 
system. Probably, the quality or condition of the explosive 
may have been such that missed-shots were likely to occur. 

The large quantity of water used for cooling the ammonia, 
in the absence of a reservoir, rendered cooling arrangemeuts 
necessary, and this was accomplished by allowing the water to 
trickle through perforated boxes. 

8. Excavation. — On May 5th, 1902, forty-three days after 
freezing commenced, the excavation of the frozen ground was 
commenced. The shaft was sunk 17 feet 10 inches in diameter, 
and the freezing-tubes extended 16 inches beyond the sides. 
The comparatively dry sand was found in a hard state near 
the sides of the shaft, but it readily yielded to the pick. The 
6 feet core in the centre of the shaft was always soft, *and in 
the quicksand the latter was in its natural wet condition. 
Ordinary cribs and backing-deals were used to secure the sides 
of the shaft to a depth of 18 feet. In passing through the 
quicksand, pointed chisels struck by hammers were a valuable 
aid to the pick, and the working-time occupied in sinking the 
length of 55 feet through the sand was only 11 days. The 
wet sand contained 19' 6 per cent, of water by weight or 37 per 
cent, by volume. 

On entering the clay, the aspect of affairs altered. Prob- 
ably owing to the higher conductivity of the clay, the ice-waJl 
was much thicker, and the soft central core was partly 



SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 308 

frozen, and never more than 2 feet in diameter. The clay was 
full of stones or boulders, varying in size from a pea to 3 feet 
in diameter: coal in small pieces, shale, sandstone, Mountain 
Limestone, red and grey granite, and whin all being represented. 
Some of the larger limestone-boulders were striated, showing 
the effect of glacial action. In the clay, recourse was had to 
blasting, but on account of the brittle condition of the tubes 
carrying the cold brine, the depth of the shot-holes was re- 
stricted to 42 inches in the sump and 30 inches in the canch. A 
shot was not allowed to be placed within 15 inches of the side 
of the shaft, and it was sloped at an angle of not less than 20 
degrees to the centre of the shaft. The quantity of gelignite 
was restricted to £ pound in each hole. Under these conditions, 
the comparative inefficiency of the pick, on account of the clay 
being of a tough leathery nature, and the boulders large and 
numerous, caused progress to be extremely slow, and the freestone 
was not reached until June 10th, 1902. In drilling the holes in 
the clay, brine was used, as water quickly froze and held the 
drills in the holes. Ordinary wooden cribs, 6 inches square, with 
backing-deals, were used in securing the dry sand, and for a 
length of 6 feet in the wet sand iron rings were used to keep 
the backing-deals in position; but, in neither case, was it 
necessary to secure the sides, and the remainder of the sinking 
was finished without supports. 

9. Permanent Lining. — As soon as the freestone was reached, 
water was seen in the bottom of the shaft, and a bed was pre- 
pared for a cast-iron ring made in eight segments, 20 inches on 
the bed, and 2 inches thick. The edge was turned up at the 
front so as to form a water-ring. Oaken sheathing, 1 inch thick, 
was placed between the segments, and bolts were passed through 
the flanges and sheathings. 

A solid wall of bricks and cement-mortar was built on the 
cast-iron crib : the bricks being shaped at the ends so that, al- 
though set back 4 inches from the front at the first course, they 
came gradually into the required size of the pit at a height of 
o feet above the crib. At 18 feet above the crib, the walling 
was altered to two concentric rings of brickwork, each 9 inches 
thick, and the intervening cavity, 2 inches wide, was filled with 
cement. Three stretcher-courses alternated with one header- 



804 DISCUSSION — SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 

course. To prevent the cement-mortar from freezing, the mix- 
ing water contained 7 per cent, of caustic soda. The soda was 
dissolved in hot water. The cement-mortar consisted of 1 part 
of cement to 2\ parts of dry yellow sand taken out of the pit 
The sand was not very sharp. The bricks (9 inches by 4£ inches 
by 3 inches) were obtained from a colliery in the vicinity, made 
from a seggar or coarse fire-clay, and locally termed " plate 
bricks." One side of the brick was curved to suit the circle of the 
shaft. 

10. Extraction of the Tubes. — The removal of the freezing- 
tubes was commenced, as soon as the walling was completed, above 
the water-bearing strata. By means of the inner tube, steam 
was used to thaw the surrounding strata. A pair of hydraulic 
jacks were used to move the tubes, and they were then drawn out 
by the sinking- engine. The outside socket-joints increased the 
labour of removing the tubes, and two weeks expired before the 
work was finished ; and in two cases the bottom length of the tubes 
was left in the holes, as the screw-thread at the joint had stripped 
by the force applied. As the tubes were withdrawn, the holes 
were filled with cement-mortar consisting of 1 part of cement 
to 3 parts of sand, so as to prevent the sand-feeder from passing 
through the clay into the freestone. 

11. Conclusion. — There can be no doubt as to the reliability 
and efficiency of sinking by the freezing system through water- 
bearing strata; and with ordinary care, the possibility of a 
mishap is very remote. In the present case, the slow progress 
of the sinking was due to the boulder-clay, and a large amount of 
time was spent in boring and sinking through it. Opinion 
varied as to the desirability of freezing the boulder-clay, in the 
circumstances of the case under discussion ; but the contracting 
firm held that it was absolutely necessary that the boulder-clay 
should be frozen. 



Mr. T. E. Forster (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) asked whether 
any difficulty had been experienced with the walling, since the 
ground had been thawed ; and whether there had been any 
difficulty in the setting of the cement, while the ground was 
frozen. 



i 



7K+ JnmtUmUcm, ofMin^ 



voz.xnzPLAinvn. 



7h UpthodaL Washinatoru Cbuntv Durham/ 




No. 2 SHAFT 



DISCUSSION — SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 305 

Prof. H. Louis (Durham College of Science) asked whether the 
contractors had changed their opinion with reference to boring* 
the holes through the boulder-clay and into the solid freestone. 
Many engineers who saw the process at Washington, could 
not imagine any valid reason for freezing this clay; but the 
contractors stated they had experienced considerable trouble in 
freezing strata containing boulder-clay in Germany. He 
(Prof. Louis) imagined that these were only lenticles of clay lying 
in the quicksands, and did not compare with the immense beds of 
boulder-clay found in this country. 

Mr. J. E. Guthrie (Preston) said that he had sunk a shaft (14 
feet in diameter) through boulder-clay in the ordinary way, 
putting in cribs, etc., and no trouble whatever had been ex- 
perienced. 

Mr. A. Gobert (Brussels) wrote that he noted with pleasure 
that the Centigrade thermomenter had been adopted for observa- 
tions of the temperature of the brine and coolings-water, and he 
would suggest that British mining engineers should also adopt 
the Continental calorie as the unit of heat, as by so doing it would 
be much easier to compare results obtained on both sides of the 
Channel. The description of the permanent lining uBed at 
Washington was interesting, but he would like to have some in- 
dication as regards prices. The question of cost might also be 
usefully discussed for all parts of the process of walling. He 
might point out that very important sinkings by the freezing pro- 
cess were contemplated in Belgium, and it was expected that 
the soil of Brussels would be frozen for the line of railway to be 
made between the Nord and Midi railway-stations. The govern- 
ment had consulted the writer, and he had given them a complete 
report upon the subject. 

Mr. F. R. Simpson (Byton) said that he had read Mr. Ford's 
paper with interest, not only because he had seen the process in 
operation at Washington, but he had recently made himself 
acquainted with what was being done by this method on the 
Continent. There, it was recognized as one of the regular 
methods of sinking through sands, either at the surface or 
at great depths. At one colliery, a shaft had been sunk by this 
method to a depth of nearly 800 feet. Difficulties had been ex- 



806 DISCUSSION — SINKING BY THE FREEZING METHOD. 

perienced in boring vertical holes, and from the breaking of the 
pipes, but in every case these difficulties had been overcome, 
and he had not heard of any case in which there had been 
failure to complete the shaft in the contracted time. The 
members were indebted to the Washington Coal Company, 
Limited, for showing; what could be accomplished by this 
method of sinking, and there could be no doubt that the sands 
met with in the east of Durham, could be successfully sunk 
through with the assistance of the freezing method. He moved 
that a vote of thanks be accorded to Mr. Ford for his valuable 
paper. 

Mr. J. G. Weeks (Bedlington), in seconding the vote of 
thanks, said that the recent excursion of the members to 
Washington colliery had been most successful. 

The vote of thanks was cordially approved. 

Mr. Mark Ford, in acknowledging the vote of thanks, said 
that a slight feeder of water was coming through the walling. 
The addition of caustic soda to the mixing water prevented the 
cement from freezing, and allowed time for its setting. Before 
sinking the second pit, he wrote to the contractors as to 
whether they still considered it necessary to freeze the boulder- 
clay; they maintained their previous opinion, and stated that 
they absolutely refused to take any responsibility as to the sink- 
ing of the shaft unless the boulder-clay was frozen. 



Mr. James Stewart's paper on " The Valuation of Gas- 
coals" was read as follows: — 



THE VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 807 



THE VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 



By JAMKS STEWART, Editor of the Gas World. 



The valuation of coal for gas-making purposes is peculiar 
in that no ordinary laboratory-method of analysis, such as serves 
to value most technical materials, will suffice. It is not like 
lime, for instance, the value of which, either for gas-purification 
or as a cement, can be inferred from its chemical analysis ; nor 
like a lubricant, the utility of which can be estimated from its 
behaviour when exposed to certain physical and chemical tests. 
An ultimate analysis, revealing the elementary constituents of 
the coal, may perhaps show its fitness or otherwise for gas-making, 
but it is no trustworthy guide as to its value for that purpose. 
And a proximate analysis, showing the respective amounts of 
volatile and fixed products when the coal is subjected to destruc- 
tive distillation, is of little, if any, greater utility. The actual 
value of a gas-coal can only be ascertained by imitating the 
treatment which the coal will receive in the gas-works, and thus 
producing from it the gas and bye-products for which it is 
valued. 

The scale on which the process is carried out may vary con- 
siderably, according to the resources at command and the prefer- 
ences of the operator. The minimum, however, is fixed, in that 
at least sufficient gas must be produced to enable its illuminating 
power to be determined by the Bunsen photometer ; which meafts 
that not less than 1 pound of coal, yielding, say, 5 cubic feet 
of gas, must be carbonized. Ordinarily the laboratory apparatus 
is of little more than twice this minimum, and carbonizes at one 
operation 2\ pounds of coal, which is practically 0*001 ton. The 
experimental plant of a modern gas-works is generally on a much 
larger scale, being arranged to carbonize 1, 2, 3 or 4 cwts. of coal 
at once ; and in a few cases it is on a scale of still greater magni- 
tude, constituting, in fact, a small gas-works in itself. 



309 THE VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 

In skilled hands, the small laboratory-apparatus above- 
mentioned is able to furnish very trustworthy results ; but it has 
the drawback of almost invariably attributing to the coal a 
higher value than is borne out on the working scale. And, 
paradoxical as it may seem, this failing is likely to be the more 
accentuated in the hands of the less experienced operator. The 
reason for this will be seen on a brief review of some of the par- 
ticulars wherein the laboratory-apparatus necessarily differs from 
the actual plant employed in the gas-works : — 

(1) The retort is of iron, which is a better conductor of heat than 
clay, and can always be ascertained to be perfectly sound before 
making a test; whereas the clay-retort in the gas-works is of 
a porous nature, and has to be made tight by rendering with 
cement or by filling up its pores with deposited carbon, and is 
therefore more liable to spring accidental leaks. Then, (2) the 
temperature is under complete control and, if not high enough, a 
test can be delayed until the proper heat is attained ; or experi- 
ments may be made to find the most suitable temperature for 
obtaining the best results from the coal. Again, the coal will 
usually be perfectly dry before it is introduced into the retort, and 
that introduction will be effected with such celerity that no gas is 
lost in the operation; whereas, in practical working, there is 
necessarily a considerable loss of gas ere the lid of the retort can 
be closed and sealed. And there is some slight further advantage 
in the fact that the gas is measured at a pressure little if at all 
above the pressure of the atmosphere ; whereas, in the gas-works, 
there is an additional pressure, generally of 6 or 7 inches of water, 
due to the weight of the gasholder. 

But there is another particular in which the laboratory- 
method differs from the working-scale operation that, perhaps 
more than all those above enumerated, allows of unduly favour- 
able results being obtained ; and that is the different treatment 
in the matter of condensing, washing and scrubbing, which the 
gas receives. With the very best intention to obtain trustworthy 
results, it is impossible to subject the gas to the same rigorous 
treatment in the laboratory as it receives in the gas-works. 
Owing to the smallness of the scale on which the operation is 
conducted, the gas cannot be washed and scrubbed with 
ammoniacal liquor and clean water, as is done in the gas-works, 
without using a proportionately much greater quantity of the 



THE VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 809 

liquids, and so overdoing the cleansing — to the great detriment of 
the gas. Therefore it is usual to dispense with the washing pro- 
cess, and the experimenter is content with cooling the gas to a 
sufficient degree, before purifying. Unfortunately mere cooling, 
except when carried to an extreme, does not suffice to rid the gas 
of the minute vesicles of tarry hydrocarbons (which are carried 
along with the stream in an exceedingly minute state of division, 
and require prolonged contact with wetted surfaces, combined 
with some stagnation of flow, to enable them to coalesce into drops 
of liquid, and so allow of their removal from the gas). If every 
trace of these condensable hydrocarbons be not removed before 
the gas is tested for its illuminating power, its quality will appear 
unduly exalted. For the illuminating power of coal-gas is due to 
its containing from 4 to 6 or 7 per cent, of heavy hydrocarbons, 
which, in their composition and nature, greatly resemble much 
of the liquid constituents of the tar ; but differ from the latter 
in the important property of being, under ordinary conditions, 
uncondensable from the gas. A very slight increase in the per- 
centage of hydrocarbons, which may be caused by inefficient con- 
densation, is therefore calculated to make a considerable differ- 
ence in the result on the photometer. And if such a result may 
obtain with every desire to be fair, what may not be done when the 
gas is purposely coddled with a view to high results ? 

Sufficient has been said to show how a much higher value can 
be attributed to the coal than it may really have for the practical 
gas-maker. By how much the estimate should exceed the reality 
has never been determined, though many opinions have been 
hazarded. It is, in fact, incapable of solution. However care- 
fully and conscientiously the test may have been carried out, 
it is hopeless to attempt to predicate from the result the corre- 
sponding result that will be obtained in the gas-works. It 
must obviously depend upon the skill and intelligence brought to 
bear upon the working, as well as on the degree of perfection 
of the plant employed. While, therefore, it will be the aim of 
the analyst to arrive at the ultimate value of the coal, he must 
ever keep in view the actual conditions of gas-making, and not 
take advantage of his favouring circumstances to obtain results 
which cannot, even with the exercise of great care and skill, be 
realized in practice. 

There is one other matter that requires to be taken into 
▼ol. xxiY.-isoa-ws. 2 1 



810 DISCUSSION VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 

consideration in interpreting the results of a coal-test ; and that 
is the question of the burner with which the illuminating power 
of the gas is determined, including the manner in which it is 
used. Obviously the burner used should be the standard one for 
the particular quality of gas, that is to say, the London argand 
for qualities up to 18 candlepower, and the batswing for qualities 
of 19 candlepower and upwards. But it is neither necessary nor 
desirable that it should always be used under standard conditions. 
Under the absurd regulations which, everywhere but in London, 
govern the testing of coal-gas, the illuminating power has to be 
determined with a fixed consumption of exactly 5 cubic feet per 
hour. When burning different qualities of gas in the argand 
burner, a uniform consumption must be prejudicial to the lower 
qualities; because more air is drawn upon the flame than is 
required, thus cooling and over-oxidizing it, with the result of 
depreciating the illuminating power. The analyst should there- 
fore vary the consumption to suit the quality of the gas, and 
calculate the result to the 5 cubic-feet rate. But, if this be done, 
it is very important that the fact should be stated in the report, 
so that the gas-manager may know that he has to expect a less 
satisfactory result when the gas is consumed at the standard rate. 



Mr. W. Doig Gibb (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that the 
teaching of Mr. James Stewart's paper on " The Valuation of 
Gas-coals " was that what was known as a " laboratory test " would 
not give results comparable to those which could be obtained 
in actual working. This had been known for a long time. The 
paper was, however, of value in that it marshals the arguments 
for and against the " laboratory test " in a terse and lucid manner. 
In larger gas-works, where the capital expenditure required could 
be afforded, there was no doubt that an experimental plant on a 
working scale was of much greater advantage to gas engineers 
generally than a laboratory plant could be, but even then it was 
still a benefit to have a laboratory-plant in addition, since, with the 
latter, tests could be taken quickly and without great cost, and 
though the results might not be comparable to the actual working- 
results they were trustworthy (if proper care were taken in test- 
ing) in comparing the different results got from the various coals 
tested. Mr. Stewart did not seem to believe in the future 



DISCUSSION — VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 811 

possibility of the tests on a laboratory-plant being* made in such 
a manner as would approximate the results got on a working 
scale. It might not be possible, but at all events it would be a 
step in the right direction if standard laboratory apparatus and 
standard methods «£ using the same were adopted. This would 
at all events result in the different published analyses of coal 
being comparable with each other. At present, owing to the 
different methods employed in sampling asd testing, and also 
owing to the absence of any information on the printed analyses 
sheets as to the methods, etc., employed, an interested readme had 
great difficulty in comparing, in any accurate way, the value «t 
one with another. 

The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.) moved a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Stewart for his interesting paper. 

Mr. G. May seconded the vote of thanks, which was cordially 
approved. 

DISCUSSION OF MR. G. P. LISHMAN'S PAPER ON " THE 
ANALYTICAL VALUATION OF GAS-COALS."* 

Mr. G. P. Lishman wrote that the main intention of his paper 
had been to emphasize the advantage derived from the regular in- 
troduction of a coal of known value into the testing of an unknown 
coal. This certainly introduced other difficulties, as Dr. Pattin- 
son had pointed out, but in his (Mr. Lishman's) opinion they 
were considerably less than those which were overcome. A 
colliery-manager knew fairly well that certain of his seams 
varied in quality, and that others were very constant ; and this, 
combined with his (Mr. Lishman's) own knowledge, derived from 
testing, led him to adopt the coal of the Maudlin seam at one 
of the Lambton collieries as his standard, whereby others were 
checked. The method had been in use, with great advantage, at 
the Lambton collieries for over two years ; still it was not claimed 
that perfection had been reached, as the introduction of further 
refinements was desirable and might reasonably be hoped for. 
He (Mr. Lishman) did not entirely understand Mr. W. D. Gibb's 
alternative suggestion from the outline given, but possibly there 
might be some manner of combining it with the standard-coal 
method. 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., page 567 ; and vol. xxiv. page 166. 



312 DISCUSSION — VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 

The difficulty was that in winter the iron of the purifiers and 
pipes (apart from the condensers, which might if necessary be 
kept warm) was very cold, and owing to this the illuminating 
power of the gas made in winter-tests was usually of 14 to 16 
candlepower as against 16 to 18 candlepower obtained in summer. 
The purifiers and all the other pipes, except the condensers, were 
not water-jacketted — it would hardly be practicable to have them 
so — this perhaps best supplied the answer to Dr. Pattinson's 
query on the subject. No doubt, the effect of condensation was 
increased by the slower passage of the gas ; and, if, as mentioned 
by Mr. Gibb, the entire room in which the gas was treated were 
kept at a constant temperature in summer and winter, there 
would be no necessity either for water-jacketted condensers or 
even a standard coal. Probably, a room could be arranged so 
that this might be effected, but in his (Mr. Li sh man's) particular 
case the controlling of the room-temperature was found to be so 
troublesome that the idea was given up. 

The time required for distillation was a question of retort- 
temperature, and when he (Mr. Lishman) stated 60 to 90 
minutes, the latter was an outside limit seldom reached: one 
hour was regarded as the regular time for a test, but if any 
further gas was coming away at the end of that time the distilla- 
tion was allowed to proceed until it ceased, or nearly so. The 
usual time actually taken varied from 60 to 70 minutes. It was 
frequently stated that the results from a laboratory coal-testinjr 
plant were higher than those likely to be obtained in a gas- 
works, but this by no means followed, and it depended entirely 
on the amount of condensation or scrubbing applied. The effect 
of the lower retort-temperature was to increase the illuminating- 
power, the yield being reduced. 

Mr. Stewart took the writer to task on the two statements 
that " there is an almost total absence in scientific journals of 
papers on the testing of gas-coal " and that " although coal- 
testing plants are attached to most gas-works now, they are 
usually of but limited use to the engineer, who still has to rely 
mainly on his working-scale results." He (Mr. Lishman) did 
not wish to appear contentious on minor points such as these, 
more especially as Mr. Stewart agreed with him on the main 
issues of the paper, but considering the enormous number of 
papers published on all gas-matters in these days, the three or 



DISCUSSION — VALUATION OF GAS-COALS. 



31* 



four papers on laboratory-testing of gas-coal which had been 
published in the last ten years could hardly be regarded as 
numerous. Perhaps the best of them was that of Mr. Thomas 
Glover, read before the Midland Association of Gas Managers 
in 1896, but the scale was much larger than that referred to in 
the present paper. If there was any German or other literature 
of which he (Mr. Lishman) was ignorant, he would be very glad if 
Mr. Stewart would point it out. 

Regarding the second statement, he (Mr. Lishman) had 
evidently credited more gas-works with coal-testing plants than 
actually possessed them, but this was not Mr. Stewart's point. 
The idea that coal-testing plants were of limited use to gas- 
engineers was a general impression from his (Mr. Lishman's) 
knowledge of the industry. Since Mr. W. Doig Gibb was evidently 
in agreement with him on this point, he saw no immediate reason 
to alter his opinion on the subject. The underlying assumption 
in the early part of Mr. Stewart's remarks (scarcely carried 
through to the end) that gas-coal testing was, and had been, for 
many years, a sufficiently simple matter to those concerned, would 
hardly meet with wide recognition. 

With reference to the 
use of a standard coal, 
Mr. Stewart said that 
" the idea is not, of course, 
entirely original," but as 
it was stated in his paper 
that " at any rate the 
idea is by no means 
novel " Mr. Stewarts . re- 
mark was apparently un- 
necessary. 

An interesting point 
had been raised, that the 
sperm- value of a coal was 
not always the measure of 
its value to the gasmaker ; 
for with two coals of equal sperm-value one might take longer to 
carhonize than the other and therefore be more costly. This was 
w f and the difference between two such coals would not be 
indicated by any figure in the analysis. Eight or nine years 





















| - W 7 


I 2 




/ 


" 7 


w r 


\t ± 



It • * • t 7 • • 10 11 It Jt 14 It It 
VOLUME OF OA9 IN CUBIC FEET. 

Fin. I.— Pbookess of Carbonization. 



814 DISCUSSION — VALUATION O? GAS-COALS. 

ago, the writer made observations of the volume of gas given off 
every five minutes during a test, and diagrams (similar to Fig. 1) 
were prepared, which indicated the progress of the carbonization. 
As the diagrams obtained from the coals then tested, were mostly 
very similar, the practice was discontinued. Coals from differ- 
ent parts of the country, however, were known to vary greatly in 
this respect, and he (Mr. Lishman) thought that such a diagram 
might with advantage be appended to the analysis of a gas-coal. 
In comparing diagrams made at different times, it should be 
borne in mind that differences of retort-temperature might have 
somewhat altered the general direction of the line, but this need 
not confuse the experienced diagram-reader. 

It would be an advantage to many chemists, besides those 
actually engaged in making tests on gas-coals, if Dr. Anderson's 
suggestion, as to the adoption of a single standard gas-coal for 
the whole country, could be carried out. Perhaps this was too 
much to hope for at present, but the interests involved were con- 
siderable, and many might be found to support such a scheme. 



Dr. Edward Dyer Peters 1 paper on the " Treatment of 
Low-grade Copper-ores " was read as follows : — 



TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 315 



TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 



By Dr. EDWARD DYER PETERS. 



Introduction. — In the introduction to Mr. Muir's paper* 
reference was made to the fact that extremely low-grade ores are 
treated in the Lake Superior district of the United States of 
America, one of the mines actually finding it profitable to work 
an ore that contains only 0*65 per cent, of copper, or 13 pounds of 
the metal to a ton (2,000 pounds) of the ore. 

It seemed to the writer that when making use of Lake 
Superior results, as a standard of comparison, in a paper on the 
treatment of sulphide-ores of copper, reference should be made 
to the fact that the conditions at Lake Superior are extraordinary, 
and unparalleled anywhere else in the world. It is, of course, 
wellknown to all who are interested in copper that this metal, 
in the Lake Superior veins, occurs in minute (and sometimes 
large) particles of pure metal, that only require a cheap washing 
process to be recovered in a nearly pure state ; and that a single 
refining operation yields ingot-copper of the very highest grade 
and value. To the public at large, therefore, should be afforded 
the opportunity of realizing that the metallurgical operations at 
Lake Superior do not furnish a standard that can properly be 
compared with any other mining district in the world. 

Mr. Muir is grappling in Australia with almost exactly the 
same problem as that which confronts many of us in the United 
States. For, although we have the unusually rich and extensive 
copper-areas of Montana, Arizona and Utah, we have also far 
greater areas of low-grade, disseminated and highly siliceous 
sulphide ores, situated far from a market and from fuel, and too 
often scantily supplied with water. Mr. Muir, in his paper, and 
Mr. Eissler, in his discussion of the same, had so covered the 
ground that there did not seem to be much new to say on the 
subject. Still, the writer would venture to offer a few suggestions 
based upon his own experience, as well as upon information 

* Trans. Imt. M.E. f 1902, vol. xxiii., page 517. 



816 TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 

derived from engineers who have devoted much time to thia 
class of ores. 

In order to narrow the field of enquiry, it may be well to 
enumerate all the methods that seem to have any claims at all to 
consideration, in connection with the treatment of the ores in 
question. We may then eliminate all those processes that, on 
examination, appear economically inapplicable, and consider the 
few that then remain. (1) Direct smelting ; (2) mechanical con- 
centration, followed by the smelting of the concentrates and the 
lixiviation of the tailings ; (3) lixiviation of the ore direct, with 
a solution of ferrous chloride and salt; (4) lixiviation of the 
ore direct, with hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, which are 
regenerated in the solution by the precipitation of the copper 
from a chloride solution by means of sulphurous acid ; (5) 
lixiviation of the ore direct, with sulphuric acid; and (6) the 
Rio Tinto method of gradual lixiviation in heaps. 

1. Direct Smelting. — Wherever it is in any way practicable, 
the American metallurgist prefers smelting to any form of wet 
process. The perfect continuity of the operation, the ease and 
simplicity with which the unpulverized ore pursues its steady 
course from the mine to the blast-furnace, from the blast-furnace 
to the converter, and from the converter to the refinery, lend 
themselves to operations on a very large scale, and permit the 
substitution of mechanical appliances for hand-labour to an 
extent unapproachable in any other method. Another great 
advantage of smelting (absent in the present case) is the almost 
complete recovery of the precious metals present, with but little 
extra cost. 

Nor need we be deterred from the employment of direct smelt- 
ing, by even a very considerable excess of silica, and a correspond- 
ing deficiency of iron in the ore. Perhaps this was most clearly 
pointed out by Mr. F. R. Carpenter in the Deadwood and Dela- 
ware smelter, South Dakota, U.S.A. He demonstrated con- 
clusively that highly siliceous ores, containing a little pyrites, 
and with extremely expensive coke, could be smelted direct in 
the blast-furnace, with the production of slags containing 50 
per cent, of silica, 30 per cent, of lime and magnesia, and only 
16 per cent, of ferrous oxide. The lime and magnesia were added 
to the ore in the form of barren dolomite ; 20 to 30 tons of ore 



TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 817 

produced 1 ton of matte ; the slagB were exceedingly clean ; and 
the precious metals and copper (very little) that were contained 
in the ore, were almost entirely recovered in the matte. 

The most interesting features of this unusual type of smelting 
are the fusibility of the very acid silicate of lime and magnesia 
with but little iron, and the high rate of matte-concentration. 
The latter result is due to the very acid slag which decomposes 
the pyrites present, carrying their iron-contents into the slag as 
ferrous oxide. It is not always understood by blast-furnace 
smelters that, other things being equal, an acid slag means a 
high-grade matte, while a basic slag is accompanied with a low- 
grade matte. 

The writer has only gone into this detail in regard to the direct 
smelting of very siliceous ores in the blast-furnace in a raw state, 
in order to call the attention of metallurgists to possibilities that 
may solve certain difficult metallurgical problems. 

In the case cited by Mr. Muir, however, it may be feared that 
the absence of silver or gold in the ores, and the non-existence of 
limestone-ores for fluxing purposes, with the high cost of fuel, 
would compel us, most reluctantly, to give up the idea of direct 
smelting. 

2. Mechanical Concentration, followed by the Smelting of the 
Concentrates and the Lixiviation of the Tailings, — The writer has 
met with, or been cognizant of, so many difficulties and failures 
in attempting to concentrate low-grade, disseminated sulphide 
ores of copper, that he has always advised exhaustive mill-tests on 
a large scale before venturing to employ this method. It is only 
suitable for very exceptional ores and conditions. 

Mr. Muir's results seem to be stronger arguments against 
the employment of this process than any that the writer could 
adduce.* Without attempting to analyse his experiments in 
detail, the writer would simply point out that the results of Mr. 
Muir's concentrating tests show a saving in the concentrates 
amounting to about 20 per cent, of the original copper con- 
tained in the ore, and a loss of nearly 80 per cent, in the tailings. 
This, of course, means no concentration whatever, and there must 
he some reason, not apparent to the writer, why Mr. Muir 
attempted to concentrate at all. 

* Trans. Inxt. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiii., paged 520 and 521. 



318 



TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 



If a portion of the copper in the ore were present in the shape 
of some mineral that would exercise an injurious effect upon the 
subsequent lixiviation, and if this mineral had a higher specific 
gravity than the remainder of the sulphides present, there might 
be some question of attempting to remove it by concentration. 
But, as the 20 per cent, of the copper that was removed by con- 
centration had, as the writer understands, exactly the same 
chemical composition as the 80 per cent, left in the tailings, he 
fails to see the use of employing concentration; nor does he 
believe that these ores should be subjected to concentration. (It 
will be understood that the writer is referring solely to the 
ordinary methods of wet-concentration in making this statement, 
and that he is not expressing any opinion as to the results that 
might be obtained by one or two novel patented methods of 
which he has no personal experience.) 

It seems to the writer most advantageous, therefore, to subject 
the entire maas of ore to lixiviation, rather than to complicate 
matters and increase expenditure by any preliminary concentra- 
tion. 






3. Lixiviation of the Ore direct, with a Solution of Ferrous 
Chloride and Salt (old Hunt-and-Douglas Method). — Consider- 
able quantities of ore have been successfully worked by this pro 
oess in the United States. The method depends upon the faci 
that oxide of copper is decomposed by ferrous-chloride solutions, 
forming insoluble ferric oxide, while the copper goes into solu 
tion as cuprous and cupric chlorides. It is precipitated in a very 
pure metallic form by iron, the ferrous-chloride solution being 
thus also regenerated, and requiring only the addition of a little 
salt to fit it for further use. The consumption of metallic iron 
in this method is very small, as much of the copper is in solution 
.as cuprous chloride. 

As the copper must be in an oxidized form, in order to go into 
solution quickly and thoroughly, the ore will require a pre- 
liminary roasting of sufficient thoroughness to convert most of 
the copper present into oxide or sulphate. This means that the 
ore must be crushed dry, though not to nearly so fine a state as 
would be required for its concentration. Therefore, instead of wet 
crushing followed by concentration, the writer would suggest diy 
-crushing followed by roasting. 



TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 319 

It is impossible to make a comparison of the costs of these 
two different plans of operation without being accurately 
acquainted with the physical and chemical character of the ore 
under consideration. By the use of modern high-speed rolls of 
great diameter and weight, and of the automatic reverberatory 
roasting-fumaces so generally in use in the United States of 
America and elsewhere, the cost of dry-crushing and roasting 
should not exceed the cost of wet-crushing and concentration, 
while the condition of the pulp for lixiviation is incomparably 
better when produced by the former treatment. Apart from the 
advantage gained by the coarser condition of the pulp, and the 
much lesser proportion of very fine powder, the ore undergoes a 
physical change in roasting, which makes it much like sand and 
gravel, and enables the solutions to permeate it with a complete- 
ness and rapidity that are quite surprising. The advantages thus 
gained will only be fully appreciated by those members who have 
had experience in leaching the same ore both before and after 
roasting. They are so great that, in several instances in this 
country, tailings are roasted previous to lixiviation, solely for the 
purpose of improving their physical condition, and of increasing 
the thoroughness and rapidity of the latter operation. 

The writer desires to emphasize this dry crushing and roast- 
ing as being, in his opinion, the most important step towards a 
successful leaching of these ores by the methods that he has 
called Xos. 3, 4 and 5. 

4. Lixiviation of the Ore direct, with Hydrochloric and 
Sulphuric Acids, which are regenerated in the Solution by the Pre' 
cipitation of the Copper from a Chloride Solution by means of 
Sulphurous Acid (new Hunt-and-Douglas Method). — By this 
method, the copper is precipitated from its chloride solution, by 
means of sulphurous-acid gas, which throws down the copper as 
a very heavy white cuprous chloride, that settles almost instan- 
taneously. Sulphuric and hydrochloric acids are generated in 
the solution, which only requires the addition of salt to make it 
ready for further use. 

One great advantage of this method is the rapid dissolving of 
the oxidized copper present by the strongly acid solution, which 
even attacks sulphides with considerable energy. Any lead and 
silver present remain undissolved. The ores require to be 



TBKATMEXT OF LOW-GRADE COPPER-ORES. 

lo—tcd, as in the previous process. A supply of pyrites is 
essential to the economical working of this method, and, of 
coarse; it is very advantageous if these pyritic ores contain some 
metal of value. 

riatkm of the Ore direct, \cith Sulphuric Acid. — Mr. 
Muir has already considered this method in his paper, though he 
confined it to the treatment of the tailings after concentration. 

The writer can only add that, if lixiviation is at all suited to 
the tine tailings and slimes from the concentration -process, it is 
still more feasible, and much more economical, when employed 
upon the coarsely-crushed and roasted ore ; and, that instead of 
taking 11 weeks for the extraction of the copper, it is probable 
that, with roasted ore, an equally perfect extraction would be 
accomplished within 2 or 3 days. 

«.. Tfu Rio Tinto Method of Gradual Lixiviation in Heaps.— 
The writer agrees with Mr. Eissler in having a strong leaning 
to wards this process of slow, but inexpensive, lixiviation, in cases 
where the climate is suitable, and where the chemical and 
physical condition of the ore favours the gradual and persistent 
formation of sulphates. From the description of the ore given 
by Mr. Muir, the writer fears that, in the present instance, the 
percentage of sulphides might not be large enough to maintain 
the energetic and persistent chemical action necessary for the 
irradual decomposition of the chalcopyrite, and the formation of 
soluble snlts of copper. 

There is another very serious objection to the Rio Tinto 
method that does not always weigh sufficiently with the metal- 
lurgist, who confines his attention too closely to the perfection of 
his technical results, namely: — The time and money required to 
demonstrate on a large and safe scale that any given ore will 
eventually yield up its copper to this slow and tedious process. 
There is also srreat difficulty in finding reliable deposits of 
sufficient size to yield the enormous quantities of ore of a nearly 
identical composition that are required for the profitable instal- 
ment of this method, as well as in raising capital willing to wait 
so long for returns. 

] etes the list of methods that seem to the writer 

T leration in connection with Mr. Muir's Australian 

s one or two recent British patented methods that 






TREATMENT OF LOW-GRADE COP PER- ORES. 821 

bear on this same subject. No doubt they have been investigated 
by British engineers who are interested in the mechanical concen- 
tration of difficult copper-ores, and the writer does not feel at 
liberty to discuss them in this place. 

Recapitulation. — After enumerating the six methods of treat- 
ment that seem to the writer to be best suited to these Australian 
ores, he has eliminated the first two, namely : — (1) Direct smelt- 
ing, and (2) mechanical concentration and lixiviation of the tail- 
ings. The slow Bio Tinto method of leaching, which he has 
called No. 6, demands most careful consideration in the few cases 
where the magnitude of the ore-bodies and of the financial 
resources will permit of its application. 

This leaves only the three methods of direct and rapid 
lixiviation of the ore without any previous mechanical concen- 
tration. An intimate knowledge of local conditions tad costs, 
wide technical experience with modern lixiviation-methods, and 
long and careful experiments on an extensive scale, on the ore 
to be treated, can alone decide the method to be chosen. 

The writer is pretty well convinced, however, that if the choice 
should fall upon any one of these three methods, it will be found 
advantageous to crush the ore dry and roast it, before lixiviation. 



Mr. James Douglas (New York, U.S.A.) wrote that he con- 
curred with Dr. Peters' preference for smelting over leaching, 
whenever conditions made the former possible. The greater 
simplicity of plant and process was overwhelmingly in favour of 
smelting, and the large size of the cupolas now used, 22 feet by 
42 inches or 48 inches, enabled a small plant to do a large amount 
of work. The Rio Tinto method could be employed, even on 
suitable pyritic ore, only in a hot climate ; and many ores (even 
though their chemical composition would point to this process as 
applicable) would not heat up and decompose. 

The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.) moved a vote of 
thanks to Dr. Peters for his valuable paper. 

Mr. J. G. Weeks seconded the resolution, which was cor- 
dially approved. 

Prof. Auguste Bateau's paper on " The Utilization of Ex- 
haust-steam by the Combined Application of Steam-accumula- 
tors and Condensing Turbines " was read as follows: — 



322 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM BY THE COM- 
BINED APPLICATION OF STEAM-ACCUMULATORS 
AND CONDENSING TURBINES.* 



By Prof. A. RATEAU. 



1. Introduction. — The ceaseless march of competition and 
the continuous rise of costs in these days impel the leaders of in- 
dustry to seek more actively than ever the means of improving 
methods of working and processes of manufacture. Within the 
last few years, extraordinary efforts have been made : — (1) In the 
direction of concentrating the means of production and the divers 
industries connected therewith; and (2) in the direction of a more 
rational and thorough application of scientific method to the 
purely technical conditions of industry. 

In this last order of ideas, the utilization of the heat of fuel, 
which is still far from having attained its absolute maximum, pre- 
sents to the inventor's mind an inexhaustible source of possible 
improvements. Investigation has been especially active along 
that line, and has indeed been productive of quite remarkable 
results. In this connection, we may recall the direct use in piston- 
motors of fuel previously converted to the gaseous condition, and 
more particularly the utilization in such motors of blast-furnace 
gases, the calorific power of which had up till that time mostly 
gone to waste. 

Alongside this, the writer may perhaps be allowed to place the 
economy which he proposes to effect in a whole group of the 
innumerable appliances of motive power now in existence, by 
utilizing the enormous quantities of steam daily wasted by inter- 
mittently-running engines and exhausting into the atmosphere, 
such as winding-engines at mines, the reversing-engines of 
rolling-mills, steam-hammers, etc. One result of the particular 
conditions, under which these engines must perforce be worked, 

* Translated by Mr. L. L. Belinfante, M.Sc. 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 328 

is that condensation or compounding by the usual methods is 
more difficult and less efficacious in their case than with ordinary 
continuously-running engines. Thus it is that the former class of 
engines has on the whole profited but little by modern improve- 
ments in the direction of economy, and thus it is that they con- 
tinue to lose daily much unapplied energy. 

2. Principle and General Arrangement. — The system proposed 
by the writer consists essentially in accumulating in an appro- 
priate apparatus the non-continuous exhaust-steam of intermit- 
tently-running engines, so as to obtain from that apparatus a 
regular flow of steam, which may be subsequently utilized in a 
secondary engine (preferably a turbine) provided with a con- 
denser. 

This arrangement thus enables intermittent engines to take 
full advantage of condensing arrangements, and to store up 
mechanically the considerable stock of energy which these engines 
have hitherto freely exhausted into the surrounding atmosphere. 

It is easy enough to demonstrate the theoretical advantage 
that is to be gained in a general way, by condensing exhaust- 
steam, thai is by pushing to its extreme limits the liberation of 
steam within any motor. If, in fact, we recall a formula, given 
elsewhere by the present writer,* for the theoretical consumption 
of steam in kilogrammes per horsepower-hour, namely : — 
^ =0 . 85+ 6^-^21og_P 
log P - log p 
(P being the entrance-pressure of steam and p the exit-pressure 
in kilogrammes per square centimetre), a formula which may also 
be expressed as follows : — 

K = 695 - ° 07 lo g P - 0«5_log p 

We recognize that the last two terms of the numerator being 
always insignificant in comparison with the first, the theoretical 
consumption of steam per horsepower is inversely proportional to 
the logarithm of the ratio Pjp of the entrance- and exit- 
pressures, and that consequently the power produced per kilo- 
gramme of steam is sensibly proportional to that logarithm. 

* Rapport au Congris International de Mecanique appliquee de 1900, sur lea 
Turbine* & Vapeur (report on steam-turbines). 



324 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



It results from the formula, for example, that the theoretical 
consumption of an engine, between the pressure P of 6 kilo- 
grammes per square centimetre (85 pounds per square inch), and 
p of 1 kilogramme per square centimetre (14 pounds per square 
inch), is equal to 8*8 kilogrammes (194 pounds) of steam per 
horsepower-hour ; while the consumption per horsepower would 
only be 93 kilogrammes (205 pounds) between the higher 
atmospheric pressure (P of 1 kilogramme per square centimetre 
or 14 pounds per square inch) and the lower pressure of 015 
kilogramme per square centimetre or 213 pounds per square 
inch, which may be produced by an ordinary condenser. We 
see then that, by applying condensation to steam-engines, the 
total work theoretically done per kilogramme of steam may be 
almost doubled. This considerable advantage may now be 
utilized in intermittently-running engines also, by means of the 
steam -accumulator and the condensing-turbine. 

To utilize the supplementary energy made available by the 
application of condensation, it was, of course, necessary to trans- 
form this energy into mechanical work by means of a suitable 
engine And that is the purpose of the steam-turbine, which is 
introduced between the accumulator and the condenser. The 
power developed by the turbine is henceforward obtainable 
without any additional expenditure of fuel, and may be prac- 
tically reckoned as all gain for working purposes. At all events, 
its relative value is so great, when compared with the total 
efficiency of most winding-engines, that the application of the 
writer's system appears likely to prove a source of considerable 
profit at those mines or works where it is adopted. We shall see, 
fur instance, that a pit winding 150 tons of coal per hour from a 
<lepth of 300 metres (984 feet), may, under these new conditions, 
utilize an additional force of 500 horsepower hitherto wasted. 



3. Use of the Turbine for utilizing Exhaust-steam. — It would 
not be impossible to expand in a piston-motor the regularized jet 
of steam, but turbines in the case of low-pressure steam offer 
manifold advantages. It will be easily understood that a piston- 
engine working at a pressure scarcely equal to that of the atmo- 
sphere would involve, in order to utilize properly the entire fall 
of pressure created by the condenser, dimensions so enormous 
that the mere cumbrousness of it, not to speak of its weight and 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 825 

the cost of installation and maintenance, would prove impractic- 
able. Moreover, the efficiency of such an engine would be much 
inferior to that of a turbine, because of the exaggerated import- 
ance of the part played by condensation in cylinders of such huge 
dimensions ; and also because of the inevitable strangulation in 
the inlets and exhaust-outlets of a steam-jet, the flow of which 
would be always too abundant (in comparison with the cross-sec- 
tion of the steam-pipes). 

On the other hand, the tremendous speed with which steam is 
ejected in turbines and the resultant great capacity of outflow 
favour the erection of a turbine capable of utilizing at low pressure 
a flow of steam of several thousand kilogrammes per hour, while 
at the same time restricting the size of the apparatus to moderate 
dimensions. It is noticeable even, and in this practice agrees with 
theory, that turbines in contradistinction to piston-engines yield 
on working at low pressures an output slightly greater than that 
attained with high pressures. Thus, according to the power of the 
turbine, the output amounts to 60 or 70 per cent, in relation to 
the theoretical consumption of steam per horsepower-hour,* while 
the output of a piston-engine working under similar conditions, 
would hardly exceed 40 per cent. It is well known that the in- 
dividual output of the low-pressure cylinder of a triple-expansion 
engine ranges between 35 and 40 per cent., although the cylinder 
works generally at a pressure exceeding that of the atmosphere. 

In other words, if the theoretical consumption of any given 
engine, working between atmospheric pressure and a pressure at 
the condenser of 015 kilogramme per square centimetre or 213 
pounds per square inch), amounts, as we have seen, to 9*3 kilo- 
grammes (20*5 pounds) per horsepower-hour, the real consump- 
tion will figure out at only (9*3 -*- 0*65 equals) 14*3 kilogrammes 
(31*5 pounds) or so per effective horsepower for the turbine, as 
compared with at least (9'3 -i- 0*40 equals) 23 kilogrammes (507 
pounds) for the piston-engine. 

There could then be no question of hesitation in making use 

of the turbine, the more so as it offers in practice a whole series of 

* All the figures relating to output in this paper represent the ratio between 
the work that is actually done and the energy that is theoretically available 
under such conditions of pressure, so far as the Tatter can be calculated from the 
formula set forth on an earlier page. This point should be borne in mind, in 
case the reader should have occasion to compare the efficiencies stated farther on 
with the efficiencies usually recorded from piston-engines, which (as a general 
rule) only express the ratio between the effective work done on the shaft and the 
work indicated on the pistons. 

V0L.XXIV.-lflWU*8. 22 



326 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



advantages attaching generally to that type of appliance, namely, 
maximum compactness, low cost of installation, absence of all 
complication in erection, working and maintenance, and finally 
its ideal adaptability to the direct driving of dynamos. 

It is only just to say that the Hon. C. A. Parsons, who had 
contributed more than anyone to the present development of 
steam-turbines, had also noted, in the course of his experiments, 
the capability of these appliances for utilizing the lowest 
pressures of steam and the consequent advantages which might 
be derived therefrom in practice. The present writer believes, 
however, that Mr. Parsons' observations in regard to this matter 
were not followed up by any industrial application. Moreover, 
Mr. Parsons had in this regard confined himself to the considera- 
tion of the direct combination of turbines with piston-engines, 
with the view of securing more perfect expansion of the motor- 
fluid. He did not enter into the particularly interesting 
question, dealt with in this paper, of the utilization of inter- 
mittently ejected steam. Moreover, the possible application of 
turbines to this use could hardly form the subject of serious con- 
sideration until engineers had at their disposal appliances capable 
of regulating the flow of steam (an aim which is attained in the 
heat-accumulator that the writer is about to describe) and capable 
of ensuring the complete independence of the second motor in 
relation to the first. This object also is attained by means of 
certain complementary arrangements devised by the present 
writer. 



4. Description of the Apparatus which serves to regulate the 
Flow of Exhaust-steam. — The aim which this apparatus was 
devised to attain will be easily perceived. Let us consider, for 
instance, the case of winding-engines at mines. These engines 
only yield steam at the beginning of the wind, finishing it with- 
out the aid of steam ; then they pause for about i minute during 
the moment when the tubs are being changed. The quantity of 
steam thus ejected, at each working interval, that is, at the begin- 
ning of each wind, often exceeds 150 kilogrammes (330 pounds), or 
in volume, more than 250 cubic metres (8,800 cubic feet). Now, it 
is easy to see that an ordinary reservoir, capable of accumulating 
without too much variation in pressure, so vast a quantity of 
steam must needs be of huge dimensions ; whereas, in the case of 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 327 

the apparatus to be presently described, both the size and the 
cost of erection are comparatively moderate. 

This apparatus plays the part of an accumulator-regenerator 
of steam. The solid and liquid substances which it contains form 
a sort of heat-accumulator, thanks to which, steam, when it flows 
in abundantly, accumulates, condenses, and is regenerated in the 
interval during which the flow of exhaust-steam from the winding- 
engine slackens or ceases. The variations of temperature requisite 
for the condensation and regeneration of the steam correspond to 
small fluctuations of pressure in the accumulator. The pressure 
rises while the apparatus fills, and falls while the latter empties, 
in response to the turbine. 

The amplitude of these oscillations of temperature and pressure 
is inconsiderable, being 3° to 6° Cent. (6° to 11° Fahr.) for the 
temperature, and 0*15 to 0*25 kilogramme per square centimetre 
(2 to 3*5 pounds per square inch) for the pressure. Moreover, 
this amplitude may be restricted as much as one pleases, pro- 
vided that in designing the apparatus an ample margin be 
allowed, according to the periods of activity and repose of the 
winding-engine. 

If we call t the variation of temperature, P, the weight of the 
substances that form the heat-accumulator; and C, the mean 
specific heat of these substances ; the quantity of heat stored up by 
the accumulator and given out again at each interval is PCt 
calories. To these PCt calories corresponds a weight of steam, 
first condensed, then vaporized, equal to about PCtjL, L being 
the latent heat of vaporization of water. 

The apparatus consists (as will be seen from Figs. 2 and 3, 
(Plate VIII.), which are respectively a vertical and a transverse 
section) of a cylindrical sheet-iron cistern, CC, which may be either 
vertical or horizontal, wherein are piled up, one on top of the other, 
a series of cast-iron basins, AjBj, A a B 9 , A n B n , of annular shape, 
made of several pieces so as to facilitate handling. These basins, 
always nearly full of water, rest one on the top of the other by 
means of studs, and there are interspaces of a few centimetres 
(J inch), so as to allow of the passage of the steam. The result of 
this arrangement is : — (1) To offer a very considerable surface to 
the steam both for condensation and revaporization ; and (2) to 
allow of the inclusion, within a small space, of the largest possible 
mass of metal and liquid. 



$28 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



[I 

I 

SI 






This mass, which forms a heat-accumulator, should naturally 
be of greater volume, the greater the quantity of steam that ha* 
to be stored and the less the irregularity that appears desirable in 
the pressure of the exhaust-steam. It may be increased by casting 
ribs on the bottoms of the basins (aa, Fig. 3), and placing therein 
fragments of iron-scrap and such like material. 

The steam, entering the apparatus by a pipe, D, passes to the 
basins by means of the central distributor, F. That portion, 
which remains uncondensed, as well as that which is subsequently 
revaporized, flows downward along the lateral walls of the cylin- 
der, CC, to the outlet-pipe, E, which conveys it to the low-pressure 
engine. 

The water, which the particles of steam have carried along 
with them, separates out in the upper chamber, falling from basin 
to basin, first of all through holes, pierced in the sheet-iron 
diaphragm, TT, then through the overflow-pipes, b, to the bottom 
of the cylinder, whence it is drawn off by the pipe, de, and an auto- 
matic steam-trap. As a steam-trap, when the apparatus works at 
a pressure approximating to that of the atmosphere (which is 
usually the case), a U tube is employed, forming a reversed siphon. 

It will be observed that by the arrangement adopted here, the 
steam passes through all parts of the apparatus in such a manner 
that there is no chance of air accumulating anywhere. The 
necessity is obvious, of preventing any air that is dragged along 
with the steam, from being localized in some place where it would 
interfere with the exchange of heat between steam and metal or 
steam and water. 

It might be feared also that the oil, carried along in the steam 
coming from an engine, the cylinders of which must needs be 
lubricated, would cling to the metallic surfaces and form an in- 
sulating film that would constitute an obstacle to the free inter- 
change of heat. As, however, the duration of the passage of heat 
is far from being a negligible quantity, and amounts usually to at 
least i minute, the drawback just referred to need not cause much 
concern. The present writer has, moreover, planned an arrange- 
ment whereby the steam enters through the bottom of the accu- 
mulator, and is easily rid of the particles of oil and water imme- 
diately upon its entrance, so that the basins are kept clear from oil. 

5. Installation of the Apparatus, — Fig. 4 and 5 (Plate VIII.) 
illustrate the general arrangement, and represent an apparatus 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



329 



which has been working at the Bruay collieries (Pas de Calais) 
since August, 1902. 

A is the steam-accumulator, divided in this case into three 
compartments, into which the steam flows from the winding-engine 
through a pipe, V. 

T is the steam-turbine, which receives by means of a pipe, BC y 
the steam coming from the accumulator. This turbine may also 
be supplied directly with live steam from the boilers by means of 
a pipe, H, whenever the supply from the steam-accumulator proves 
insufficient. G is an automatic valve which admits of the entry 
of live steam direct from the boilers when needed, without the 
engineman having to trouble himself about it. It opens when the 
pressure in the steam-accumulator falls below a given point, which 
may be fixed at pleasure. 




Fig. i.— Rateau Tukbine-dyn amo. 



FF are the dynamos coupled directly up to the turbine. They 
are of continuous-current type, and supply a triplex or three- 
wire installation. Turbine and dynamos are set up on one and 
the same cast-iron bed. The exhaust-steam from the turbine 
is led by a pipe, E, to a condenser, whether it be an injection-con- 
denser, or a surface-condenser, or a central condenser (as at 
Bruay), or even an ejector-condenser. 

S is an automatic valve intended to allow of the direct escape 
into the atmosphere of the steam from the winding-engine when' 



330 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



it is not all utilized by the turbine. The pressure of ejection may 
be regulated at will by means of a spring that acts on the valve. 

A very sensitive regulator, R, whereof the component parts 
may be seen to the left of the turbine, controls the speed in such a 
way that it does not vary by more than 2 per cent., despite the 
changes of load and the fluctuations of pressure in the accumulator. 

It will be observed that these arrangements ensure the complete 
mutual independence of the winding-engine and of the turbine. 
Thus, if the latter does not take all the steam from the former, 
the winding-engine exhausts directly into the atmosphere by 
means of the automatic valve, S. On the other hand, if, during 
pauses of more or less duration, the winding-engine does not supply 
enough steam to the turbine, the latter is supplied direct from the 
boilers by its own automatic valve, G. 

One might also arrange for a stop-valve, which would permit 
of the turbine being cut off from the accumulator when necessary, 
in such wise that steam could be fed to the turbine from the boilers 
at as high a pressure as might be needed to perform all the work. 
The writer is thinking of those cases where condensation being at 
a standstill, the turbine would have to eject steam at atmospheric 
pressure and not in vacuo. 

The entire plant takes but little room. Turbine and dynamo 
together, of a capacity which may go up to 500 horsepower, can 
be lodged in a space of 4 metres (13 feet) in length, 15 metres 
(5 feet) in breadth, and 1*7 metres (5J feet) in height. The steam- 
accumulator, if the receivers be arranged vertically, occupies a 
very small area. As a rule, it may be erected out of doors, as 
there is no need to protect it from the weather. The only precau- 
tion in this regard that need be taken is to cover the accumulator 
with a layer of some insulating material, so as to obviate too rapid 
radiation of heat from it. 



6. Working of the Apparatus. — In order that the working of 
the apparatus herein described may be more clearly understood, 
the writer has reproduced in Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 (Plate IX.), 
the actual diagrams obtained from the plant working at Bruay 
collieries by means of a recording pressure-gauge. This indicates 
in functions of time the pressure of steam within the accumulator. 

The abscissa, AB (Fig. 8), corresponds to the duration of a 
complete wind, which at Bruay colliery lasts rather more than 1 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 881 

minute. During about 18 seconds, that is, from A to C, the wind- 
ing-engine expends progressively the whole effort of which it is 
capable for raising the cages. The exhaust-steam meanwhile 
flows to the accumulator, and the pressure consequently rises 
therein up to 1*3 or 1*4 kilogrammes per square centimetre or 
185 or 20 pounds per square inch (absolute pressure). This 
limit is fixed bv the tension, which may, however, be varied by 
hand, of the spring that controls the valve, S (Fig. 4, Plate VIII.).* 
If, therefore, more steam comes in than the accumulator can 
absorb, the excess immediately escapes by means of the valve, S. 
AtC, the engineman shuts off the steam from the winding-engine, 
which by its impetus continues to raise the cages up to the pit- 
mouth, when it stops to allow of the changing of the tube. This 
working with steam shut off lasts for about 15 seconds, and at B, 
the engine starts a fresh wind, after a stoppage of about 35 seconds. 
As the turbine inhales continuously the steam, which it needs, 
supplied to it by the accumulator, the pressure in the latter falls 
so soon as the inflow of exhaust-steam ceases, that is from the point, 
C, onwards. So long as this decreasing pressure remains below 
the working pressure of the turbine, the accumulator alone supplies 
the steam. But if the pressure in the latter threatens to fall below 
the limiting pressure, the automatic feed-valve, G, which has been 
regulated accordingly, opens, and supplies the steam that the 
accumulator (deprived for one reason or another of the main inter- 
mittent supply) is momentarily incapable of furnishing. That is 
what happens every time that the winding-engine is prevented 
from restarting with sufficient rapidity its periodic wind, and is 
precisely illustrated in Fig. 9. At E, the feed-valve has begun to 
come into play, supplying just the pressure needed for the working 
of the turbine. As, however, it feeds both the turbine and the 
accumulator, the pressure in the latter rises almost immediately 
(from E to F) a little above the working-pressure of the turbine. 
Nay more, at G (Fig. 8) this continuously rising pressure enables 
the accumulator j the feed-valve closing sharply, to yield up again 
(from G to H) a little.of the live steam which it had just stored up. 

* In the experiments, this maximum pressure amounted to 1 *4 kilogrammes 
per square centimetre or 20 pounds per square inch, yielding a total pressure- 
variation of 0*40 kilogramme, or 5*7 pounds, that is, higher than the variation 
of 0*25 kilogramme or 3*5 pounds, which has been previously mentioned as the 
most suitable. But this initial excess-pressure was then needed in order to make 
op for the comparative inefficiency of the accumulator, as will be explained on a 
later page. 



882 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM- 



i 



Then at H, the feed-valve opens again, and finally at /, the wind- 
ing-engine restarts running. 

The writer need hardly point out that it is the right-hand por- 
tion of Fig. 8 which illustrates the normal working of the plant, 
prolonged stoppages of the winding-engine being rather the excep- 
tion than the rule when a pit is in the full tide of activity. 

It will be observed that the appended diagram (Fig. 10) 
indicates at K and L, two secondary periods of momentary rise in 
pressure. The first represents the sudden closure of the throttle- 
valve of the turbine by the governor following on the excessive 
opening which had at first resulted from the sudden stoppage at 
C of the flow of steam from the winding-engine. The second 
period probably has to do with the complicated handling which 
four-decked cages necessitate ; they have to be unloaded in two 
operations, and involve repeated inflows of steam to the winding- 
engine. 

As to the pressure of the steam at its very entrance to the 
turbine, this is continuously controlled by the governor, and will 
therefore depend solely on the amount of work absorbed by the 
dynamos. Therefore, it will be absolutely independent of the 
variations of pressure in the accumulator, provided the centrifugal 
governor be sufficiently sensitive. 

Attention may be further directed to the fact that, at those 
times when the turbine must be necessarily fed with live steam, 
its consumption per horsepower-hour will evidently exceed that 
of an ordinary continuously-running engine, under the same con- 
ditions, working at the full pressure of the boilers (that is, about 
16 kilogrammes or 35 pounds per horsepower-hour instead of 
10 to 12 kilogrammes or 22 to 26 pounds). 

If the irregularities in the working of the winding-engine are 
reduced to a minimum, the total duration of the inflows of live 
steam will be inconsiderable in practice, and the consumption 
(slightly heightened during those intervals) will not materially 
affect the final economic result. Yet such will not be always the 
case, and then the greatest possible economy in the working of 
the turbine may be ensured under any circumstances, by one or 
other of the following arrangements. 

7. Expansion-hirbine. — The first consists in adding to the low- 
pressure apparatus, with which we have been hitherto dealing, a 



(If 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 85S 

high-pressure apparatus, the function of which will be to take 
from the boilers live steam during the stoppages of winding. 
Meanwhile, the low-pressure turbine will take indifferently either 
the steam from the accumulator or the exhaust from the other 
engines, each of these sources of supply predominating in turn. 

The two turbines taken together may be considered as an 
ordinary high-pressure plant capable of receiving at any moment 
and utilizing in the best way possible the steam ejected from a 
primary engine. With an ordinary vacuum, the combined appar- 
atus would only consume from 6 to 9 kilogrammes (13 to 20 
pounds) of steam per electrical horsepower-hour at full load, if 
supplied solely with live steam at say 8 kilogrammes per square 
centimetre (114 pounds per square inch); and, as aforesaid, it 
would consume from 14 to 18 kilogrammes or 31 to 40 pounds 
(as the case might be) if supplied solely with exhaust-steam at 
atmospheric pressure. Of course the inflow of live steam would 
be arranged automatically according to the power required of the 
turbine and so as to complete the quantity of low-pressure steam 
already flowing in. 

8. Raising of the Exhaust- pressure of the Primary Motor. — 
The second arrangement admits of a simple solution. It consists 
in deliberately raising the exhaust-pressure of the winding- 
engine (by fixing the normal pressure for the accumulator at, say, 
3 kilogrammes or 43 pounds per square inch), and in utilizing the 
regular flow from the last-named in a medium-pressure turbine, 
working somewhere between 3 kilogrammes or 43 pounds and the 
lower pressure (015 or 0*10 kilogramme or 2 or 1£ pounds) of the 
condenser. As a rule, the working of the winding-engine will 
not be much affected by this increase of pressure, while some 
advantage will be reaped by making up with live steam, under 
favourable conditions, the full supply of the turbine. The neces- 
sity of resorting to a supplementary high-pressure turbine as in 
the previously described arrangement is also obviated. It is true 
that the live steam will have to undergo expansion up to 
3 kilogrammes per square centimetre or 43 pounds, but this 
expansion being inconsiderable when compared with that neces- 
sitated in the previous case, its disadvantages will be greatly 
minimized. Thus from P (3 kilogrammes per square centimetre 
or 43 pounds per square inch) to p (0*15 kilogramme per square 



334 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



centimetre or 2 pounds per square inch) the consumption will 
only be 10 kilogrammes or 22 pounds of steam per horsepower- 
hour, the turbine being fed either with exhaust-steam or with 
live steam. This result is numerically comparable with those 
yielded by good compound high-pressure condensing engines. 

In the writer's opinion, it would be advisable to resort to the 
simple arrangement just described when erecting a new winding- 
engine, for it involves the considerable advantage of utilizing in 
the fullest possible manner the steam produced by the boilers. 
It will not have escaped notice, to begin with, than the con- 
sumption by the turbine of 10 kilogrammes or 22 pounds per 
horsepower-hour ensures very fair efficiency. Then, too, the 
efficiency of the primary engine, in which the steam is used 
before reaching the turbine, is itself improved by the heightening 
of the exhaust-pressure, one of the results of this heightening 
being the limitation of the temperature-interval to. the cylinder 
of the primary engine, and consequently the limitation of con- 
densation in that cylinder. 

But, if the output, compared with the ideal engine, be 
thus improved, the consumption of steam per horsepower-hour 
of the primary motor is, however, slightly increased. It will, 
then, be necessary, to obtain the full benefit of this device, that 
the full stream of steam, which the primary motor is able to 
supply, or at least the greater part of it, be utilized in the turbine. 
Yet that supposition will only be fulfilled if the turbine is so 
designed as to produce at its normal working-speed a sufficient 
quantity of electric energy. 

The arrangement just described might be still further im- 
proved by combining it with the preceding one; in other words, 
by causing live steam to expand, between the boiler-pressure and 
the pressure at the inflow into the secondary turbine, in a small 
turbine adjusted to the same shaft. 



9. Condenser. — The condenser may be of any type. Most 
often it will be a mixing-condenser provided with an air-pump. 
It may also be a surface-condenser or else an ejector-condenser, 
which latter possesses the merit of simplicity. The writer thinks it 
necessary to observe, however, that in these low-pressure engines 
there is every advantage in aiming at the best possible vacuum, in 
view of which the use of surface-condensers, although more costly, 
appears preferable. 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 885 

If there be already a central condenser, as was the case at 
Bruay colliery, it will suffice to interpose the accumulator and the 
turbine between that condenser and the primary engine. 

It is, of course, assumed that the use of condensers implies the 
supply of sufficient cold water to absorb all the exhaust-steam. 
But it is quite possible to dispense with renewed supplies of water 
by using over and over again the same water cooled either in 
pulverizing sprays in the open air or in cooling-towers. 

We know that in the case of mixing-condensers, the quantity 
of steam given up to the air is sensibly equivalent to, or even less 
than, the quantity of water re-introduced into the boilers, in 
such wise that with these condensers the condensation-water, far 
from being wasted, is regained. In plant of this kind, however, 
the water never undergoes complete cooling, and so we can only 
reckon on a comparatively perfect vacuum. 

10. Results which it is possible to obtain by Means of the Rateau 
System. — (a) Mines. — Let us consider first of all the case of the 
winding-engines at a colliery, taking as an example the actual 
conditions that obtain at one of the twin shafts at No. 5 pit at 
Bruay colliery, where the writers system has been applied. This 
shaft winds coal from a depth of 230 metres (755 feet), and 
although it is not yet in full activity, no less than 64 winds per 
hour have been accomplished, during which time 256 tons of coal 
and refuse have been brought to the surface. Now, 50 winds per 
hour constitute the usual average in collieries ; with eight-tub 
cages this is equivalent, when the pit is in full work, to an output 
of 200 tons or thereabouts. But 200 tons raised through 230 
metres (755 feet) necessitate an expenditure of energy repre- 
sented by 175 horsepower-hours. A similar figure would be 
arrived at if we were to consider the case of a shaft 310 metres 
(1,017 feet) deep (which is the average depth obtaining in the 
Nord and Pas-de-Calais coal-fields) winding 150 tons per hour. 
On the other hand, we may reckon at 45 kilogrammes or 100 
pounds per utilized horsepower-hour the consumption of steam in 
non-compound winding-engines with free exhaust. Therefore, 
the consumption of steam of such an engine will amount to about 
(175 horsepower by 45 kilogrammes or 100 pounds) 8,000 kilo- 
grammes or 17,500 pounds per hour, under normal conditions of 
working. This is a considerable expenditure, easily explicable, 



3B6 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



however, if we reflect that the engine works intermittently and 
consequently cools down at each stoppage in a way that affects 
very unfavourably its efficiency or output. 

Out of these 8,000 kilogrammes or 17,500 pounds, we may 
reckon that about 20 per cent, (or say, 1,600 kilogrammes or 
3,500 pounds) is lost by various condensations taking place in the 
pipes and internal parts of the engine. There would then remain 
available about 6,400 kilogrammes or 14,000 pounds of steam per 
hour, the complete utilization of which is now ensured by the 
writer's system. 

Since the consumption of a turbine, working between the 
atmospheric pressure and a pressure in the condenser of (for in- 
stance) 015 kilogramme or 2 pounds amounts to about 14*5 
kilogrammes or 32 pounds per effective horsepower-hour, that is, 
16 kilogrammes or 35 pounds per electric horsepower«-hour, it 
follows that the application of the writer's system to a colliery- 
shaft will entail the production of additional power to the 
extent of (6,400 + 16 or 14,000 + 35 equals) 400 net electric 
horsepower-hours. 

Such estimates, moreover, are extremely moderate, since the 
lowering (perfectly feasible in practice) of the lower pressure to 
010 kilogramme or 1\ pounds (instead of 015 kilogramme or 
2 pounds) would of itself have the effect of reducing to 13 kilo- 
grammes or 28A pounds per electric horsepower-hour the steam- 
consumption of the turbine. Thereby, the additional power 
obtainable in the aforesaid colliery-shaft would be increased to 
490 electric horsepower-hours.* 

Nay, more, if we decided to utilize also in the turbines the 
exhaust-steam of the accessory engines, driving ventilators, air- 
compressors, etc., before sending it to the condenser, the addi- 
tional power which could be safely reckoned as available in such a 
case would no longer be a matter of merely 400 or 500, but often 
more than 1,000 electric horsepower. 



(b) Steelworks. — If we turn now to the great steelworks, we 
shall find that it is by no means unusual to see there reversible 
plate-rolling engines, consuming some 20,000 kilogrammes or 

* It will be noted that, at tbe rate of 13 kilogrammes or 28} pounds of steam 
per electric horsepower-hoar (a result which can be most certainly attained in 
practice) the low-pressure electric generator would perform about three times 
as much useful work as the winding-engine ; and at the rate of 18 kilogramme* 
or 40 pounds, it would still perform about twice as much. 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 337 

44,000 pounds of steam per hour. From what has been said 
above, it may be inferred that such an engine could be made to 
feed a turbine yielding 1,000 effective electric horsepower. And 
if we supplemented the exhaust-steam of the main engine by that 
from all the other motors, especially from the steam-hammers, we 
could obtain from a works of ordinary size consuming about 
60,000 kilogrammes or 132,000 pounds of steam per hour, an 
additional supply of about 3,000 horsepower. 

It may be observed, moreover, that this recovery of power 
would be more simple, more immediate, more certain in its work- 
ing, and above all less costly than an equivalent recovery by means 
of the direct utilization of blast-furnace gases. 

11. Adaptation of the Bateau System to Intermittently-running 
Engines already provided with Condensing Apparatus. — In cases 
where the intermittently-running engine is already provided with 
a condenser, it would still be found advantageous to interpose be- 
tween the engine and its condenser the proposed group of accu- 
mulator-<?um-turbine. In other words, the advantage derived 
from the application of the writer's system would far more than 
compensate the loss entailed by raising the exhaust-pressure of 
the principal engine so as slightly to increase the consumption of 
steam. Indeed, the writer has shown, at the very beginning of 
the present paper, that the application of his system to an inter- 
mittent engine allows of the completest possible utilization of the 
fall of temperature that becomes available, on the adjunction of 
a condenser, and ensures thereby a practical advantage repre- 
sented in figures by much more than 50 per cent, (in relation to 
the consumption of steam in intermittently-working engines with 
free exhaust). Now, experience proves that condensation alone, 
in that type of engine, fails to reduce their consumption by more 
than 15 or 20 per cent. Therefore, the writer's system would still 
ensure, even in those engines already provided with condensers, 
an additional saving of at least 30 to 35 per cent. 

This can be shown also in the following way. Suppose that 
we are dealing with a primary engine consuming 6,000 kilo- 
grammes, or 13,200 pounds of steam per hour, when not working 
with the condenser. If we apply condensation, the actual saving 
in practice will be from 15 to 20 per cent., that is, for the same 
amount of work performed by the engine, condensation will 



3S8 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



economize from 900 to 1,200 kilogrammes or 2,000 to 2,650 pounds 
of steam at boiler-pressure that can be used in another motor. 
Now, with these 900 to 1,200 kilogrammes or 2,000 to 2,650 
pounds of steam a good ordinary condensing piston-motor will 
develop some 90 to 120 effective horsepower. 

With the writer's system of accumulator and steam-turbine, 
the primary engine will still consume the aforesaid 6,000 kilo- 
grammes or 13,200 pounds of steam per hour ; but about 80 per 
cent, of that amount, say 4,800 kilogrammes or 10,560 pounds of 
dry steam, will be utilizable in the turbine. This, at the rate of 
16 kilogrammes or 35 pounds per horsepower, will give us 300 
effective horsepower instead of the 90 to 120 obtained previously. 
The great advantage to be derived from the new arrangement may 
be thus accurately gauged. 

12. Saving to be effected by the Proposed System. — The economy 
which may be expected to result from this arrangement belongs 
to two categories : — (1) Saving on the cost of installation of a 
group of electric-energy generators ; and (2) saving on the cost- 
price of the energy thus furnished in the course of working. 



(a) Economy in the Cost of Installation. — This will arise chiefly 
from the suppression of the boilers, which it would have been 
necessary to put down if the writer's system were not adopted, in 
order to produce the electric energy required for certain auxiliary 
purposes in the mine. It will arise also from the lower price of 
the turbine and dynamos and the reduced cost of installation, in 
comparison with what would be involved by a group of piston- 
engines of the same power. On the other hand, the saving will 
be to some extent diminished by the cost of the accumulator and 
the corresponding pipe-connections, although it is evident that 
the accumulator will in any case cost less than a range of boilers 
producing equivalent power. 

These different factors will vary considerably in relative im- 
portance according to the additional power required, the mass 
of the accumulator, the system of working of the main engine, and 
the working conditions generally. It is consequently rather 
difficult to name definite figures. We may, however, reckon that 
in order to obtain in a colliery 500 electric horsepower, absorbing 
about 5,000 kilogrammes or 11,000 pounds of steam per hour, it 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST- STEAM. 889 

would be necessary to expend at least 80,000 francs (£3,200) on 
boilers ; whereas the price of the writer's accumulator, including 
75 tons of cast-iron, the needful pipe-connections, and the cost of 
erection, would hardly exceed 30,000 or 40,000 francs (£1,200 to 
£1,600). This alone, then, would imply a saving of 40,000 or 
50,000 francs (£1,600 to £2,000). On the other hand, to erect a 
generating-plant actuated by piston-engines (dynamos and cost of 
installation being included) would involve, at the rate of 225 
francs (£9) per horsepower, an expenditure of about 112,500 
francs (£4,500). The adoption of the turbine would constitute 
another probable saving on this of about 30 per cent, (say, 35,000 
francs or £1,400). It would seem then that, taken altogether, 
the saving on the cost of installation of an additional 500 horse- 
power may (by using the writer's system) amount to as much as 
75,000 or 85,000 francs (£3,000 to £3,400), namely, about 30 per 
cent, compared with an ordinary plant. These, of course, are only 
rough calculations, but they suffice to demonstrate the absolute 
certainty of an initial saving on the cost of erecting plant in those 
eases where the writer's system is adopted. 

(b) Economy in the Current-cost of Production of the 
Additional Power recovered. — There is no need to compare the 
total expenditure involved in the production of the additional 
power by a piston-engine with that by the proposed system, in 
order to obtain an idea of the enormous saving in the current 
cost of working. This saving will in greatest measure arise 
from the suppression of any additional expenditure on fuel, so 
long as the primary engine is at work. It will also arise from 
the possibility of dispensing with the firemen who would have 
had to be engaged if new boilers had been put down, and also 
from the annual amortization of the 30 per cent, saved on the first 
cost of installation. 

For the same reasons as those assigned on a foregoing page, it 
is hardly feasible in a general way to express these savings 
numerically. We may, nevertheless, attempt to form some idea 
of what they imply in the case (already considered) of a colliery- 
plant that is to be provided with an additional 500 electric horse- 
power. The annual economy would then be approximately, on 
the assumption that the machinery works 10 hours a day : — 



340 THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 

Francs. £ 

1. Saving in coal at 2 kilogrammes or 4-4 pounds per 
horsepower, or 10 tons per diem or 3,000 tons 

per annum, at 10 francs or 8s. the ton 30,000 1,200 

2. Saving in labour : 2 firemen 4,000 160 

3. Saving on the amortization in 12 years of the 

installation, about 7,000 280 

Totals ... 4UXK) 1^640 

It will be noted that the saving here is most considerable 
on the coal-bill. Consequently the economy thus effected would 
bulk still greater in the case of steelworks, which generally pay 
from 15 to 20 francs (12s. to 16s.) per ton for their fuel, while the 
engines are more numerous, more concentrated, more diverse 
than those used in collieries, and for the most part are kept work- 
ing day and night. The annual saving effected on the hypo- 
thetical 500 additional horsepower, even if the working day were 
restricted to 10 hours, would then (in the case of steelworks) 
amount to 70,000 francs (£2,800) or so. 

Finally, we may observe that the annual economy, that of 
amortization, being deducted, represents, in comparison with the 
total cost of installation of the system : in the case of a mine, 
25 per cent, of the estimate, and in the case of steelworks, more 
than 40 per cent. In other words, the cost of installation would 
be gradually extinguished by the sinking-fund which the actual 
saving on the mere cost of working represents, in the one case in 
2£, and in the other in 4 years. 

13. First Results obtained at the Bruay Collieries, Pas dt 
Calais. — No. 5 pit of the Bruay collieries, at which the apparatus 
devised by the writer has been erected, has only lately been sunk, 
and is not yet in full activity. At present, the daily output from 
this pit ranges from 700 to 800 tons, but it is expected ere long to 
average 1,200 tons. The consequence is that the winding-engine, 
with which the writer's accumulator is connected, only works 
2 hours 'per diem up to its normal, not to say maximum, capacity. 
It is, of course, only these periods of regular working that will 
be considered in the synopsis of results obtained. On the other 
hand, the electro-turbine plant is just now burdened with a very 
exacting task, supplying among other things large weight-lifting 
motors, which involve continual and considerable variations of 
current. But a few months hence, the conditions will have 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 841 

altered, for the plant in question will have to supply current to 
the electric motors actuating the ventilators of No. 5 ter pit (now 
being sunk). These motors will take up about 100 horsepower, 
and it was indeed mainly with the view of utilizing the current 
for working- the new ventilators that the management decided on 
erecting the steam-accumulator and turbine. 

Despite these rather unfavourable conditions, the accumulator 
fulfils the expectations formed in regard to it, and the turbine 
works with satisfactory regularity. In the note appended to 
this paper will be found a succinct description of the electric 
plant (turbine and dynamo) erected at Bruay colliery. The 
turbine, fed by the accumulator, exhausts its steam into a central 
condenser, which also receives the exhaust-steam from the air- 
eompressing engines and the ventilating engine. It will be 
shown further that the vacuum yielded by this condenser was at 
first far from satisfactory, and, consequently, the power pro- 
duced by the turbine was much less than it would otherwise have 
been. 

With regard to the accumulator, it consists, as was shown on 
a previous page, of three chambers, and comprizes in all 30 tons 
of cast-iron distributed over a series of annular and segmented 
basins, 10 centimetres (4 inches) in height. With this weight 
of metal, this accumulator is at present a little too weak, as will 
be seen from the diagrams shewn in Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 
(Plate IX.) to which we may now direct our attention. 

14. Diagrams of the Pressures in the Accumulator. — The dia- 
grams of pressures recorded in the Bruay accumulator have 
already been used in a preceding chapter to show in a general 
way how the writer's system works. It remains now to study 
them from the point of view of the particular results yielded in 
practice by this first installation. 

The reader will bear in mind that the graphic curves now 
referred to were traced out by a Richard recording pressure- 
gauge; that the pressures are measured along the ordinates, and 
time-intervals along the abscissae. The horizontal line, O, 
corresponds to the pressure of the atmosphere, and the intervals 
between the principal vertical arcs represent each one minute of 
time. 

Fig. 8 was taken at a moment when the winding-engine was 

T0L.XXIV.-WOMfOe. 23 



342 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



working at normal speed, while the turbine was working at an 
average inflow-pressure of 0'89 kilogramme or 12*7 pounds 
per square inch absolute, which corresponds to a calculated* flow 
of 4,950 kilogrammes or 10,900 pounds of steam per hour; as the 
vacuum at the condenser did not exceed 56'4 centimetres (222 
inches) of mercury, the power produced amounted to 198 electric 
horsepower. 

It will be observed in the diagram, that the pressure in the 
accumulator oscillates between (atmospheric pressure) and 0*40 
kilogramme per square centimetre or 5'7 pounds per square inch, 
at which point the exhaust-valve opened into the atmosphere. 
Therefore, the accumulator would suffice to supply the turbine if 
this maximum variation of 0*40 kilogramme or 5' 7 pounds in the 
pressure were deemed admissible. Yet this cannot be, for so 
marked a fluctuation is much too excessive, in comparison with 
that which had been laid down as best satisfying all the con- 
ditions of the problem. 

Fig. 9 was taken under analogous conditions, though the 
winding-engine was working somewhat differently towards the 
end of the record. The period of a wind, instead of being only 
\\ minutes (as at the normal speed recorded in Fig. 8) now 
amounted to more than 1£ minutes. The accumulator was then 
no longer equal to the task of regularizing the flow of steam (5,000 
kilogrammes or 11,000 pounds per hour) needed by the turbine: 
and the automatic feed- valve opened at E so as to draw upon the 
boilers, so soon as the accumulator had been emptied of steam. At 
each opening of the automatic feed-valve rises in pressure took 
place, indicated at EF in Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10 indicates a load on the turbine equivalent to 115 horse- 
power, the inflow-pressure amounting only to 063 kilogramme 
per square centimetre or 9 pounds per square inch and the flow of 
steam to about -1,500 kilogrammes or 7,000 pounds per hour. The 
curve shows that the accumulator in this case works with far 
greater ease, and that under such conditions it is quite adequate 
to supply the turbine even if the wind-intervals last as long as 
2 minutes. The vacuum in the condenser was then 57'2 centi- 
metres (225 inches) of mercury. 

Fig. 11 was taken at a inomeut when the turbine was only 



* This flow was calculated by applying the results previously obtained from 
experiments in the factory to the conditions of pressure above cited. 



THE UTILIZATION OF BXHATJST-STEAM. 843 

producing 85 horsepower, with the same vacuum of 57*2 centi- 
metres (22*5 inches) and with a higher pressure of 0*54 kilo- 
gramme or 7*7 pounds corresponding to an hourly flow of steam of 
3,000 kilogrammes or 6,550 pounds. The accumulator this time 
i$ far more than adequate, and the lower pressure rises to 010 kilo- 
gramme or 1\ pounds above atmospheric pressure, the upper 
pressure being determined (as before) by the valve exhausting into 
the atmosphere, as it did at each wind. 

Fig. 12 indicates an analogous consumption of the turbine, the 
higher pressure being equivalent to 0*60 kilogramme per square 
centimetre or 8'5 pounds per square inch, vacuum 52 centimetres 
or 205 inches of mercury, and power produced, 65 electric horse- 
power. It will be noticed that here again the live-steam feed- 
valve was not called upon to enter into play, although the valve 
exhausting into the free air had been so adjusted as to open at a 
pressure only 0'25 kilogramme or \\\ pounds higher than that of 
the atmosphere.* On the other hand, the valve admitting the live 
steam had been adjusted so as to let it in only at a pressure slightly 
less than that of the atmosphere, and this explains the lowering 
of the minima of the curve below zero. 

In all these diagrams a peculiarly rapid rise of the pressure 
is noticeable at the time when the winding-engine begins to work. 
In concert with the colliery-engineers the writer, in planning 
the accumulator, had calculated that the winding-engine would 
eject steam during about \ minute (duration of movement of 
the cages) ; while in reality, as the graphic record proves, this 
exhaust only lasts over 15 to 18 seconds. Consequently, the speed 
at which the steam reached the accumulator was far greater than 
could have been foreseen, and the apparatus proving rather inade- 
quate, it was found necessary to load the valve which exhausts 
into the free air, so as to ensure a rise or back-pressure of 0*40 
kilogramme or 5*7 pounds per square inch above the atmospheric 
pressure, instead of the 0*25 or 0*80 kilogramme (3*6 to 4*3 pounds) 
which had been provided for. It would suffice, however, to add 

* The exhaust-valve atill allowed a great quantity of steam to escape into the 
Atmosphere, even when the turbine was taking up nearly 5,000 kilogrammes 
or 11,000 pounds of steam per hour supplied solely by the accumulator, while the 
automatic steam-trap of the last named was ejecting 1,000 kilogrammes or 2,200 
pounds per hour. Hence it may be inferred that the total consumption of an 
engine like that at Bruay is at normal speed much more than 6,000 kilogrammes 
or 13,200 pounds per hour. 



344 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



to the apparatus a fourth unit, which should comprize about 10 
tons of cast-iron, in order to reduce the back-pressure to the 
desired amount. 

These same diagrams show also that, after each interruption 
of the inflow of steam into the accumulator, there is at first a 
very rapid and then a slower, diminution of pressure. Such 
variations in the rate of vaporization are evidently due to the 
fact that the whole mass of cast-iron and water contained in 
the apparatus does not immediately assume an equilibrium of 
temperature with the steam. The heat, of course, takes a certain 
time to penetrate fully into the body of the metal, and the delay 
thus involved produces a rise and then a fall in pressure, both 
far more rapid than if a temperature-equilibrium could be set up 
immediately. It is, however, easy to ascertain by calculation 
that the greater part of the metal and of the water contained in 
the basins plays in fact the part of a heat-accumulator. 

Figs. 8 and 9 represent, on the whole, the normal working of 
the turbine, since this had been designed for a higher pressure 
of 0*90 kilogramme or 12*8 pounds absolute. If the whole system 
then produced only 200 instead of the 300 horsepower which it is 
capable of producing, this was entirely due to the unsatisfactory 
vacuum yielded by the condenser, which only reached 56*4 centi- 
metres (22*2 inches) of mercury, instead of the 65 centimetres 
(25*6 inches) which had been reckoned with. For with 66 centi- 
metres (25*6 inches) the expected 300 horsepower could certainly 
be obtained, as the factory experiments prove — whereof an 
account is appended at the end of this paper. 

It may be mentioned also that the variations of the speed of 
the engine are of greater amplitude than will be admissible in 
another installation, as here they amount to about 3 per cent. 
This variation in speed results partly, it is true, from the irregu- 
larity of the work which the turbine is called upon to perform. 
It is evidently due also to the variations of pressure in the 
accumulator above the turbine. As the pressure oscillates at 
each interval, that is, about every minute, between 1 and 140 
kilogrammes or 14 and 20 pounds absolute, we are confronted with 
much the same result as if the work exacted from the turbine 
varied from minute to minute by about 30 per cent. As, however, 
this variation is not excessively rapid, since the rise and fall in 
pressure each take more than J minute to come about, a fairly 



THE ttTtLtZAtlOtf 0* ExftAtTSt-StfcAM. 345 

sensitive governor has certainly all the time been needed to pre- 
vent the speed from varying by more than 2 or even 1 per cent. 
When the accumulator shall have been supplemented by a third 
section, and when the difference in pressure becomes only 0*30 
instead of 0'40 kilogramme (or 4*3 and 5*7 pounds) the fluctua- 
tions in speed of the turbine will be considerably diminished. 

It should be added that at No. 5 pit at Bruay, which (as 
previously stated) has been working for a comparatively short 
time, the winding-engine on the shaft where the writer's 
apparatus has been erected is not yet worked up to its normal 
capacity, since it winds only 700 or 800 tons instead of the 1,200 
tons for which it was designed. It follows that, for tho moment, 
the emission of steam is not altogether regular, and the auto- 
matic live-steam valve on the turbine calls more frequently and 
during comparatively longer periods upon the boilers for a supply 
than would be the case in an older-established colliery. But this 
state of things will quickly change for the better, pari passu with 
the development of the workings. 

To sum up : despite the not very favourable conditions under 
which the writer's first steam-accumulator must needs work, it 
has already proved, and proves daily, that the practical and 
economical utilization of intermittently ejected steam is a 
problem that has now been solved. 

At Bruay colliery, the improvement in the vacuum yielded 
by the condenser and an increase in the bulk of the heat-accumu- 
lator will in the very near future ensure the full advantage that 
may be expected from this first application. A fortiori will 
this hold good of new installations, for most collieries, from the 
standpoint which we are occupying, work under far more favour- 
able conditions than No. 5 pit of the Bruay collieries. In steel- 
works, the circumstances should prove still more favourable. 

The writer has thought that it might be of interest to 
summarize in the appended note a description of the low-pressure 
turbine and the experimental results obtained at the factory. 
These results were recorded partly by himself, and partly by 
Mr. Sauvage and Mr. Picou, in the presence of the engineers of 
Bruay colliery. 



346 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUSt-St EAtt. 



In conclusion, he wishes to express his thanks, first of all to 
the board of directors of the Bruay colliery and more especially 
to Mr. Soubeiran (who was confident as to the practical value of 
the writer's ideas) ; secondly, to the engineers of Bruay colliery, 
who took every care in erecting the various portions of this new 
installation. 



APPENDIX.— Results of the Experiments carried out in April, 1902, o> 
the Low-pressure Turbine for Bruay Colliery, in the Workshops of 
Sautter- Harle & Cie. 



The Bruay turbine, designed and constructed in the workshops of Messrs. 
Sautter-Harle & Cie, is a multicellular turbine comprizing a series of wheels, Sb 
centimetres (34*65 inches) in diameter, adjusted upon one and the same horizontal 
shaft. These rotate, according to the arrangements that characterize the writers 
system, between diaphragms, which are fixed within the cylinder of the engine, 
and on the periphery of which the distributors are set. The whole thus constitute 
a consecutive series of turbines with partial injection, which the steam traverses 
parallel and concentrically to the axis, passing alternately from a crown or ring of 
fixed blades to a wheel or ring of moving blades, and from this last to the next 
following distributor. 

The working being effected by impulsion, the expansion of the steam takes 
place only in the successive distributors, while the fluid acts on the moving blades 
by its vi* viva. Therefore, each moving wheel rotates within a medium of 
uniform pressure which allows of considerable play between the blades and the 
adjacent fixed parts (3 to 5 millimetres, or 0*12 to 0*20 inch). The radial section 
of the blades and in particular the section of the various distributors increase the 
farther outward flow of steam and afford continuously wider passage to the fluid 
in proportion as its pressure and density diminish. The maintenance of a constant 
speed for variable loads is ensured by means of a ball-governor, which adjusts the 
higher pressure of the steam supplied to the engine to the power required. This 
governor is provided with a Denis compensator, which is designed to maintain 
the speed permanently at a fixed rate. Moreover, the speed may be modified at 
will between 1,500 and 2,000 revolutions a minute, thanks to a spring the 
tension of which can be varied by hand. Moreover, an automatic valve is 
adjusted, so as to admit into the turbine live steam coming direct from the boiler 
in case the supply of exhaust-steam proves inadequate. 

Two continuous-current dynamos, supplying a triplex-wire 500 volts system, 
are mounted on the same shaft, directly coupled to that of the turbine. They 
are two-pole dynamos, but are also provided with two supplementary poles so that 
there may be commutation at the brushes without throwing these out of gear. 
The induction-coils, series- wound, can each furnish a current of 400 to 450 
amperes at a tension of 250 volts. 

Fig. 1 is a general view of the machinery, reproduced from a photograph. 

The experiments conducted with this turbine lasted in each case about 'JO 
minutes, and allowed of 8 series of observations every 3 minutes. The average or 
mean results are embodied in Table I. 



THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



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348 



DlSCUSStOK — THE tTTILtZATtOtf OF EXHAtfST-STfeAM. 



In all the experiments, steam was superheated from 40° to 50° Cent. (104° to 
122° Fahr.), in view of the expansion, which it would at first have to undergo in 
order to be brought down from the pressure at the boilers to a pressure barely ~ 
equivalent to that of the atmosphere. But the results contained in Table I. have 
been so calculated as to take this superheating into account, and they must be 
sensibly equivalent to those obtained when working with saturated steam, which 
is the ordinary course in practice at Bruay collieries. 

It will be seen that the consumption of steam per electric horsepower- hour 
at full load amounts to about 18 kilogrammes (40 pounds) at 1,600 revolutions 
per minute, but only to 17 kilogrammes (37£ pounds) at 1,800 revolutions, and • 
that with a bad vacuum of only G3 centimetres (24*8 inches) of mercury. If the 
vacuum had attained 70 centimetres (27*6 inches), which is quite practicable with 
a good condenser, the above-stated rates of consumption would have been reduced 
by about 26 per cent., falling consequently to 13 and 12 kilogrammes (28i and 
26$ pounds) respectively. 

The efficiency at 1,600 revolutions, at full load, of turbine and dynamo taken 
together, amount to 55 percent., and at 1,800 revolutions it rose to 58 per cent. 
The structural conditions involved in the fact that the dynamos had been 
designed to run at a speed never exceeding 1,800 revolutions per minute, alone pre- ~A 
vented the writer from increasing the experimental speed. Nevertheless, the 
diagram which it is possible to plot out from the foregoing results in functions of 
the 8 peed, allows us to estimate that at 2,500 revolutions per minute an efficiency 
of 64 per cent, would be obtainable. * In fact, this has been obtained since then, 
from a similar group of machinery, but of twice the power, and supplied with 
high-pressure steam. Fig. 13 (Plate IX.) shows the curve of efficiencies in func- 
tions of the speed. 

Fig. 14 (Plate IX.) shows the curves of efficiencies at two different speeds is 
functions of the load, that is, of the electric power produced at the dynamos. 
It will be observed that the efficiency becomes considerable at one-third load, ,^ r 
and on the other hand remains practically unchanged from half-load upwards. 

Finally, Fig. 15 (Plate IX.) illustrates the total consumption of steam is 
functions of the load. It shows clearly that the total consumption at zero load, 
the electric apparatus being excited, does not exceed 12 per cent, of what it is 
at full load. With other groups of turbines and dynamos, the writer has known 
it to fall to 10 per cent. This peculiarity of turbines is worthy of note, for it 
is known that electro-generative groups, comprizing piston-engines, consume 
generally when running at zero load about 20 per cent, of their total consumption 
at full load. 



lm 



The Hon. C. A. Parsons (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that 
the members were much indebted to Prof. Bateau for bringing 
this matter prominently before them, as there were, undoubtedly, 
many cases where such a system would probably lead to a greai 
saving in the consumption of coal, and a reduction in the number 
of boilers required. 

* It is possible then to design when needed, low-pressure plant which shall have an efficiency of M 
per cent. This, between a steam-pressure equivalent to that of the atmosphere and a vacuum-pre#u^ 
of 08 kilogramme or 1 pound, corresponding to a good vacuum of 70 centimetre* (27^ inches) * 
mercury, would show a consumption of only 11 kilogrammes (24 pounds) of saturated steam per electric 
horsepower-hour, excitation included. 



Al 



Exfiaust-stectfrv "etc: 



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Rateau Turbine of 300 Horsepower. 



-Side Elevation. 



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VQL.UUPLATEVI 



M8CUSS101* — THE UTILIZATION OF BXHAtJST-STEAM. 349 

It might be interesting to add a short, and perhaps incomplete, 
history of the initiation, and application of the fundamental 
principle. The first suggestion of the storage of energy by con- 
densing and re-evaporating the water in a chamber, well lagged 
with non-conducting material, was probably to be found in con- 
nection with the hot-water locomotive. Such a system was pro- 
posed for the motive power on the Metropolitan .Railway in 
London many years ago. Then there are (previously or subse- 
quently) Mr. Smith Halpin's patents, No. 20,203 of 1891, and No. 
363 of 1892, describing and claiming the same principle of the 
storage of energy in water in conjunction with steam-boilers 
generally, for dealing economically with a varying load and in 
particular with reference to electric-lighting generating-stations. 

Pro! Bateau, in his interesting paper, proposes to utilise this 
principle by the storage of energy at or about atmospheric 
pressure. The formation of his storage-vessel differs somewhat 
from previous designs, in placing the heating element — the hot 
water — in shallow trays. The advantage of such an arrange- 
ment over that previously adopted, of blowing the steam below 
the surface of the water, would seem doubtful : in both cases, the 
result desired was easy condensation, and the tray system appeared 
to be the more complex of the two. In both cases, the re-evapora- 
tion takes place with facility. 

The first suggestion, as far as he (Mr. Parsons) was aware, of 
utilizing the reciprocating engine for the expansion of steam from 
boiler-pressure, down to a moderate pressure — such as the atmo- 
spheric pressure — and completing the expansion in a steam- 
turbine, occurred in his (Mr. Parsons') patent, No. 3G7 of 1894 : — 
" The method of obtaining work from expanding steam by com- 
bining together a reciprocating-engine and a steam-turbine, the 
turbine being operated wholly or partially by the exhaust-steam 
from the reciprocating-engine; " and that patent described many 
uses for the low-pressure turbine, one of which was for electric 
lighting. 

Prof. Bateau wrote, thanking the Hon. C. A. Parsons for the 
support which he had kindly accorded to his communication, and 
expressed his delight at availing himself of the opportunity thus 
offered to express his due sense of the remarkable ingenuity and 
high value of Mr. Parsons's various inventions, as also his 



350 



DISCUSSION THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 



appreciation of the originality of the process suggested by Mr. 
Smith Halpin in 1898, for accumulating heat m central electric 
generating-stations. But he (Mr. Rateau) was desirous of 
removing any misunderstanding that might possibly arise in 
regard to his own invention, which was absolutely independent 
of the ideas put forward by Mr. Parsons and Mr. Halpin. He 
(Mr. Rateau) had in his paper referred to the arrangement 
described by Mr. Parsons, which consisted in using a low- 
pressure turbine in place of the last cylinder of a continuously- 
running piston -engine, so as more fully to utilize the expansion 
of the steam.* In this arrangement, the turbine and the piston- 
engine are placed in the most intimate association. They form 
a whole, the parts of which are completely interdependent, and 
could not therefore work if the primary piston-engine were to 
run as irregularly as, say, the winding-engine placed on a pit. 

By his (Prof. Rateau's) system, however, thanks to the steam- 
accumulator on the one hand, and to the automatic valve on the 
other, the primary-engine and the turbine are mutually in- 
dependent. Each can work separately, without influencing in 
the slightest degree the working of the other. 

The Halpin process consists in accumulating, in hot-water 
reservoirs, the heat of the excess-steam coming from the boilers 
at an electric lighting-station during periods of light load, and 
then in regenerating this excess in the evening when the 
machinery is running at full load. It constitutes neither wore 
nor less than an indirect means of increasing the total volume of 
water contained in a set of boilers, and forming a caJorihC 
accumulator. These reservoirs, being interposed between the 
boilers and the high-pressure engines, are evidently not adapted 
to fulfil his (Prof. Rateau's) object, that of utilizing the exhaust- 
steam of intermittently-running engines. Mr. Parsons, how- 
ever, appears to consider that this same apparatus, if interposal 
between an intermittent high-pressure engine and a low-pressure 
one, would fulfil all the purposes of his (Prof. Rateau's) accumu- 
lator, and that perhaps still more simply. An adaptation of this 
kind is indeed not impracticable, but it implies essential modifica- 
tions, as demonstrated in a later arrangement which he had de- 
vised. Steam cannot be regenerated so easily within a compart 
mass of water as within relatively thin films of liquid spread 

• Trans. Inst. M.E., 1902, vol. xxiv., page 326. 



DISCUSSION — THE UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST-STEAM. 351 

over a great surface ; and this applies not so much to the moment 
at which the steam is reconstituted as to that at which it is con- 
densed. At the period of condensation, the mass forming a heat- 
accumulator must be made to absorb within a very short space of 
time (usually 15 to 30 seconds) a vast quantity of calories. This 
operation cannot be performed efficiently, unless the aforesaid 
mass is divided into comparatively thin layers; or unless very 
active circulation of the liquid is ensured, in such wise that the 
steam shall enter into direct contact with every part of it. The 
Halpin apparatus, designed for very slow progressive condensa- 
tion, would certainly not permit of the almost instantaneous 
condensation of an abundant flow of steam, such as that necessi- 
tated by intermittent engines. It does not, therefore, seem to be 
applicable in practice to the special case which he (Prof. Rateau) 
has in view. 

The President (Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart.) moved a vote of 
thanks to Prof. Rateau for his valuable contribution to the 
Transactions. 

Mr. C. C. Leach seconded the resolution, which was cordially 
approved. 



352 



TRAKBACtlOKfl. 



THE INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

September 17th, 1902. 



Mr. JAMES S. DIXON, Retiring-President, in the Chair. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS, 1902-1903. 
The Secretary announced the election of officers for the 
ensuing year by the Council as follows : — 

President : 
Sir. Lindsay Wood, Bart. 



Mr. Henry A it ken. 
Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart. 
Mr. G. E. Coke. 
Mr. John Daglish. 



Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. M. Deacon. 
Mr, J. T. Forgie. 
Mr. John Gerhard. 
Mr. A. M ayon Henshaw. 
Mr. R. S. Williamson. 



Mr. George May. 
Mr. H. B. Nash. 
Mr J. B. Simpson. 
Mr. J. G. Weeks. 



Auditors : 
Messrs. John G. Benson and Son, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Treasurers: 
Messrs. Lambton and Company, The Bank, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Mr. J. S. Dixon (Retiring-President) said the time had now 
arrived when he must retire from the presidency of the Institu- 
tion, and it was with great pleasure that he vacated the chair in 
favour of Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart. He had been associated with 
their new President on the Royal Commission on Coal-supplies, 
and he had formed a high opinion of his powers for work and 
detail. He felt assured that he would make an efficient President 
of the Institution, and it was the second time that he had occupied 
the position. 



TRANSACTIONS. 85$ 

Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart., in taking the chair, said that his 
first duty was to propose a vote of thanks to his predecessor for 
the great trouble that he had taken in the conduct of the affairs 
of the Institution during his term of office. Although retiring 
from the Presidency, he felt sure that Mr. J. S. Dixon would 
still give the members the benefit of his advice and assistance. 
Mr. Dixon's munificent gift of £10,000 to Glasgow University 
at the end of last year testified definitely to the great interest that 
he took in mining, and in the higher education of mining- 
engineers and others connected with the great mining industries 
of the country. 

Mr. J. B. Simpson seconded the vote of thanks, which was 
cordially adopted. 

Mr. J. S. Dixon, in acknowledging the vote of thanks, took the 
opportunity of thanking the Vice-presidents, the members of the 
Council and the Secretary of The Institution of Mining 
Engineers for the manner in which they had supported him 
during his term of office. 



The Secretary read the Annual Report of the Council as 
follows : — 



!09i< 



854 ANXUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



THE INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The six federated societies constituting The Institution ol 
Mining Engineers axe the same as last year, namely the Midland 
Counties Institution of Engineers ; the Midland Institute of 
Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers; the Mining Institute 
of Scotland ; the North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers ; the North Staffordshire Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers ; and the South Staffordshire 
and East W or cester shire Institute of Mining Engineers. 

The following table exhibits the progress of the membership 
since the formation of the Institution in 1889 : — 

Total*. 
1,239 
1,196 
1,434 
1,552 
2,191 
2,319 
2,382 
2,507 
2,509 
2,486 
2,482 
2,554 
2,601 

Messrs. E. Harze, W. H. Pickering and Fred. A. Grey have 
been elected Honorary Members of the Institution. 

The Institution took charge of Section VI. — Mining and 
Metallurgy — of the International Engineering Congress held at 
Glasgow in September, 1901. The members are to be con- 
gratulated upon the excellent papers communicated at this meet- 
ing, and at that held in London in May, 1902. The thanks of 
the Institution have been sent to the gentlemen who kindly opened 
their collieries and works to the members attending these 
meetings. 

Prizes have been awarded to the writers of the following 
papers, which are printed in the Transactions (vols, xviii, an<l 
xix.) : — 



Year ending 


No. of 


No. of 


July 31»t. 


Member*. 


Non-federated. 


1890 


1,189 


50 


1891 


1,187 


9 


1892 


1,415 


19 


1893 


1,533 


19 


1894 


2,068 


... 123 


1895 


2,210 


... 109 


1896 


2,301 


81 


1897 


2,447 


60 


1898 


2,462 


47 


1899 


2,445 


41 


1900 


2,447 


35 


1901 


2,524 


30 


1902 


2,571 


30 



ANNUAL REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. 355 

" Probable Duration of the Scottish Coal-fields/' By Mr. R. W. Dron. 
" Notes upon Ancient and Modern Surveying, and Surveying Instruments, 

Books, Tables, etc." By Mr. H. D. Hoskold. 
"The Rating of Coal-mines." By Mr. G. Humphreys- Da vies. 
"Subsidences in and around the Town of North wich, Cheshire." By Mr. 

Thomas Ward. 

Addresses have been delivered during the year by Sir William 
Thomas Lewis, Bart., and Mr. James S. Dixon, presidents 
of The Institution of Mining Engineers ; by Mr. G. E. Coke, 
president of The Midland Counties Institution of Engineers ; by 
Mr. Henry Aitken, president of The Mining Institute of Scot- 
land: by Prof. Charles Lapworth, president of the South Staf- 
fordshire and East Worcestershire Institute of Mining Engineers ; 
and by Mr. James Mansergh, president of the International 
Engineering Congress, Glasgow, 1901. 

The high standard of the papers published in the Transactions 
has been maintained, and the Council trust that papers will be 
contributed as liberally as heretofore. 

The papers on geology include the following : — 

" Slips in a Sandbank." By Mr. James Barrowman. 

"The Carboniferous Limestone Coal-fields of West Lothian." By Mr. 

Henry M. Cadell. 
" The Oilshale-fields of the Lothians." By Mr. Henry M. Cadell. 
"The Mining, Concentration and Analysis of Corundum in Ontario, 

Canada." By Dr. W. L. Goodwin. 
" Some Silver-bearing Veins of Mexico." By Mr. Edward Halse. 
" The Coal-field of Northern Belgium." By Mr. ti. Harz*'. 
"The Sequence of the Carboniferous Rocks in North Staffordshire." By 

Dr. Wheeiton Hind. 
"Lead- and Zinc-deposits of the Mississippi Valley, U.S.A." By Messrs. 

C. R. Von Hise and H. Foster Bain. 
'• Deposits of Hydroborate of Lime : Its Exploitation and Refination." By 

Mr. Carlos A. Lynes Hoskold. 
"TheDysart, Wemyss and Leven Coal-field, Fifeshire." By Mr. Richard 

Kirk by. 
" Note on a Mineral Vein in Wearmouth Colliery." By Prof. Henry Louis. 
"Mineral Resources of the Province of Quetoc, Canada." By Mr. J. 

ObaUiki, H.M. Inspector of Mines. 
"The Rand Conglomerates, Transvaal." By Mr. Hugh Pearson. 
"The Beivoir Iron-ore." By Mr. R. F. Percy. 

" The Coal-tields of New Brunswick, Canada." By Mr. Henry S. Poole. 
"The Tarquah Gold-field, Gold Coast, West Africa." By Mr. A. R. 

Sawyer. 
"The Tarkwa Gold-field, West Africa." By Mr. A. R. Sawyer. 
"The Buffelsdoorn and Adjacent Districts of the Northern Klerksdorp 

Gold-fields, Transvaal." By Mr. William Smith. 
"The Carboniferous Limestone Quarries of Weardale." By Mr, A. L, 

Steavenson, 



856 ANKUAL REPOET OF THE COUNCIL. 

" Recent Work in the Correlation of the Measures of the Pottery Coal- 
field of North Staffordshire, with Suggestions for further Development." 
By Mr. John T. Stobbs. 

Milling engineering has been discussed in the following 

papers : — 

" The Working of Contiguous, or nearly Contiguous, Seams of Coal." By 

Mr. Thomas Arnott. 
" Working Coal under the River Hunter, the Pacific Ocean and its Tidal 
Waters, near Newcastle, in the State of New South Wales." By Mr. 
A. A. Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of Mines. 
"Description of Underground Haulage at Mossblown Colliery, Ayrshire." 

By Mr. James Baird. 
" What is the least possible Waste in Working Coal?" By Mr. James 

Barrowman. 
" Unwateriug and Fitting a Lanarkshire Colliery with Modern Appliances." 

By Mr. Robert Broom. 
•'The Occurrence, Mode of Working, and Treatment of the Ironstones 

found in the North Staffordshire Coal-field." By Mr. John Cad man. 
"A Method of W r orking the Thick Coal-seam in two Sections." By Mr. 

William Charlton. 
"Coal-mining in India." By Mr. R. W. Clarke. 
" Sinking by Freezing." By Mr. A. Gobert. 
"The Mining, Concentration and Analysis of Corundum in Ontario, 

Canada." By Dr. W. L. Goodwin. 
" Mining and Treatment of Copper-ore at the Wallaroo and Moon t a Mines, 
!i South Australia." By Mr. H. Lipson Hancock. 

\i "The Working of Contiguous, or nearly Contiguous, Seam* of Coal." By 

j j Mr. John Hogg. 

!j "The Dysart, Wemyss and Leven Coal-field, Fifeshire." By Mr. Richard 

;) Kirkby. 

|j| " The Working of Contiguous, or nearly Contiguous, Seams of Coal." By 

i; Mr. Thomas Moodie. 

[{ " Boring in Japan." By Mr. F. J. Norman. 

| " The Re-opening of Hartley Colliery." By Mr. R. E. Ornsby. 

U "Gold-dredging in Otago, New Zealand." By Mr. F. W. Payne. 

j " The Belvoir Iron-ore." By Mr. R. F. Percy. 

• "Chinese Mines and Miners." By Mr. Alexander Reid. 

• "The Tarquah Gold-field, Gold Coast, West Africa" By Mr. A. R. 
* c Sawyer. 

{ " The Tarkwa Gold-field, West Africa.' By Mr. A.R S awyer. 

[\ "The Bu^elsdoorn and Adjacent Districts of the Northern Klerksdorp 
;j Gold-fields, Transvaal " By Mr. William Smith. 

*• "The Carboniferous Limestone Quarries of Weardale." By Mr. A. L- 
:j Steavenson. 

■ ' "Auriferous Gravels and Hydraulic Mining." By Mr. William S. Weiton. 

A " Tapping Drowned Workings at Wheatley Hill Colliery." By Mr. W. B. 

• Wilson, Jun. 

1 

; Mechanical engineering has been the subject of the following 

l ] papers : — 



ANXT7AL REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. 357 

" A Method of Socketing a Winding-rope, and its Attachment to a Cage 
without the Use of Ordinary Chains." By Mr. W. C. Blackett. 

"The B.C.B. Instantaneous Either-Bide Brake for- Railway Wagons and 
Similar Vehicles." By Mr. Edward Brown. 

" Newcomen Engines." By Mr. M. Walton Brown. 

"An Instrument for the Automatic Record of Winding Operations." By 
Mr. Walter Newton Drew. 

" Fitting a New Drum-shaft to a Winding-engine, Florence Colliery, 
Longton." By Mr. C. V. Gould. 

" Some Experiences and Results derived from the Use of highly Superheated 
Steam in Engines." By Mr. R. Lenke. 

" Changing Headgears at Pleasley Colliery." By Mr. G. A. Longden. 

"A Regenerative Steam-accumulator, and its Application for Using Ex- 
haust-steam." By Prof. A. Rateau. 

The following papers have been contributed on mine- ventila- 
tion and safety-appliances : — 

" An Apparatus for Lighting Miners' Safety or other Enclosed Lamps by 

Electric Current." By Mr. Edward Brown. 
" Experiments on an Auxiliary Ventilating Fan." By Mr. M. Walton 

Brown. 
" Experimental Gallery for Testing Life-saving Apparatus." By Mr. 

W. E. Garforth. 
"A New Diagram of the Work of Mine- ventilation." By Mr. H. W G. 

Halbaum. 
"Apparatus for 'Closing the Top of the Upcast-shaft at Woodhorn 

Colliery." By Mr. C. Liddell. 
" Remarks on Mr. M. Walton Brown's Report on ' Mechanical Ventilators. 1 " 

By Prof. A. Rateau. 

Mine-surveying and instruments have been treated of in the 
following papers : — 

" A Traversing Stand for a Theodolite." 

** The Grnbb Sight for Surveying-instruments. " By Sir Howard Grubb and 

Mr. Henry Davis. 
"A New Civil and Mining Engineers' Transit-theodolite for Connecting 

Underground Workings to the Surface, vice-cerm, and for Gencial 

Surveying." By Mr. H. D. Hoskold. 
"Standardization of Surveyors' Chains." By Prof. Henry Louis. 
"Mine-surveying Instruments." By Mr. Dunbar D. Scott. 
" The Connection of Underground and Surface Surveys." By Mr. G. R. 

Thompson. 

The following papers have been written on metallurgy, etc. : 

" A Native Lead-smelting Furnace, Mexico." By Mr. A. H. Bromly. 
"The Occurrence, Mode of Working, and Treatment of the Ironstones 

found in the North Staffordshire Coal-field." By Mr. John Cadman. 
"The Imperfect Pulverization of Rocks by means of Stamping, and 

Suggestions for its Improvement." By Mr. E. D. Chester. 

VOL. XXIV.— 1901-1908. 24 



858 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

" Crucible-assaying of Gold-ores." By Mr. Hamilton C. Dickson. 

" The Mining, Concentration and Analysis of Corundum in Ontario, 

Canada." By Dr. W. L. Goodwin. 
" Mining and Treatment of Copper-ore at the Wallaroo and Moonta Mines, 

South Australia." By Mr. H. Lipson Hancock. 
" Deposits of Hydroborate of Lime : Its Exploitation and Re filiation." By 

Mr. Carlos A. Lynes Hoskold. 
" Treatment of Low-grade Copper-ores in Australia." By Mr. J. J. Muir. 

The application of electricity has been discussed in the follow- 
ing papers: — 

44 An Apparatus for Lighting Miners' Safety or other Enclosed Lamps by 

Electric Current." By Mr. Edward Brown. 
44 The Economy of Electricity as a Motive Power on Railways at present 

driven by Steam." By Prof. C. A. Carus- Wilson. 
4 4 Mechanical Undercutting in Cape Colony." By Mr. John Colley. 
44 Electric Traction on Roads and Mineral Railways." By Mr. W. R. 

Cooper. 
44 Electric Pumping-plant at South Durham Colliery." By Mr. Fenwick 

Darling. 
44 The Practical Results obtained on Changing the Motive Power of an 

Underground Pump from Steam to Electricity." By Mr. Hugh P. 

Swann. 
44 Sparkless Electric Plant for Use in Mines and Ironworks." By Mr. J. H. 

Whittaker. 

The question of coal-cutting has been the subject of the follow- 
ing papers: — 

44 Coal-cutting by Machinery." By Mr. R. W. Clarke. 
44 Mechanical Undercutting in Cape Colony." By Mr. John Colley. 
44 The Application of Coal-cutting Machines to Deep Mining." By Mr. W. 
E. Garforth. 

Coal-washing has been the subject of the following papers : — 

44 Campbell Coal-washing Table." By Mr. Clarence R. C lag horn. 
4 - The Craig Coal- washer. " By Mr. William Scott. 

The following papers have been contributed on the subject of 

(] coke-making: — 

* | 44 Coke-making at the Oliver Coke- works." By Mr. Fred C. Keighley. 

\-4 "The Production of Illuminating- gas from Coke-ovens." By Dr. F. 

j,2 Schniewind. 

The following memoirs have been communicated: — 

" Obituary of Thomas William JelTcock." By Mr. Oscar J. Cotterell. 
44 Memoir of the late George Baker Forster." By Mr. R. H. Forster. 
44 Memoir of the late George Clementson Green well." By Mr. G. C. 
Green well. 



li' 



II 



11 



ANNUAL EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 359 

The miscellaneous papers include: — 

" Brick-making." By Mr. George L. Allen. 

" Barometer, Thermometer, etc., Readings for the Year 1901." By Mr. 

M. Walton Brown. 
" Legislation and the Ownership of Properties Containing Coal." By Mr. 

Daniel Jones. 
" The Kitson System of Petroleum Incandescent Light." By Mr. Arthur 

Kitson. 
" The Analytical Valuation of Gas-coals." By Mr. G. P. Lishman. 
" Report of the Delegate of The Institution of Mining Engineers to the 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies of the British 

Association for the Advancement of Science, Glasgow, September, 

1901." By Prof. Henry Louis. 
" Coal -mining Subsidences in Relation to Sewerage- works." By Mr. F. W. 

Mager. 
" Report of the Delegate of the North of England Institute of Mining and 

Mechanical Engineers to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 

Societies of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Glasgow, September, 1901." By Mr. J. H. Merivale. 
" A Visit to the Simplon Tunnel: The Works and Workmen." By Dr. 

Thomas Oliver. 
•* The Determination of the Calorific Power of Fuel. " By Mr. S. L. Thacker. 
" The Training of Industrial Leaders." By Prof. J. Wertheimer. 

The preceding list, comprizing 94 papers, demonstrates the 
varied nature of the subjects printed in the Transactions (vols, 
xxii. and xxiii.) during the past year. 

" Notes of Papers (115) on the Working of Mines, Metallurgy, 
etc., from the Transactions of Colonial and Foreign Societies 
and Colonial and Foreign Publications " have been continued, 
and should prove of value to the members. 

Members can purchase, at privileged prices, copies of the 
Transactions of the following Corresponding Societies: — 

The Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers. 
The Canadian Mining Institute. 
The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 
The Mining Society of Nova Scotia. 

Prof. H. Louis represented the Institution at the meetings 
of the Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, held at Glasgow, in 
September, 1901 ; Mr. John Gerrard at the Jubilee proceedings 
of Owens College, Manchester ; and Messrs. James Barrowman 
and M. Walton Brown on the London Committee of the Inter- 
national Engineerinc: Congress held at Glasgow. 



860 AXXUAL EEPOET OP THE COUNCIL. 

Since 1852, the date of the formation of the North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, considerable 
improvements have been adopted in methods of mining and 
metallurgical processes, accompanied by increased production of 
minerals and metals, and a decreased death-rate. A great 
part of these improvements is due to the development of societies 
devoted to the consideration of methods for the safe working of 
mines and the preservation of human life. And since that date the 
| means of education for mining-engineers has been enhanced by 

J courses of lectures provided at Universities and Technical 

) Colleges ; and examinations have been instituted for mine- 

manager's certificates. Mechanical appliances for getting 
< minerals and improved explosives have become a necessity, 

ventilation is produced by fans on the surface instead of by under- 
ground furnaces, mechanical haulage has replaced horses, 
machine-holing is taking the place of human labour, and elec- 
tricity has been introduced as a motive power for all classes of 
\ machinery. 

* The object of a technical society is not wholly attained unless 
J there be adequate and critical discussion of the papers printed 

* in the Transactions. Discussion is the test of the value of a 
paper, it makes known the experience of the speakers, and it 
directs attention to questions that may have been overlooked by 

j the writer. The value of the Transactions would also be con- 

! siderably increased by the addition of written remarks, sent to 

! the Secretary, from members who are unable to attend the 

' meetings. 



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ACCOUNTS. 



Dr. 



The Treasurer in account with 
For thx Yiak 



July 31, 1901. 

To Balance at Bank, Current Account 
„ ., „ Deposit Account 

,, ,, in Cashiers hands 



£ s. d. 

... 338 19 3 

... 1,019 14 6 

... 53 6 7 



a. d. 



1.413 4 



15 4 



To Subscriptions for the Year ending July 31, 1901— 

Federated — 

Midland Counties Institution of Engineers 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical 

Engineers 

Mining Institute of Scotland 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers 

8outh Staffordshire and East Worcestershire Institute 

of Mining Engineers 



To Subscriptions for the Year ending July 31, 1902— 

Federated — 

Midland Counties Institution of Engineers 285 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical 

Engineers 275 10 

Mining Institute of Scotland 382 17 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers 1,084 18 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers 186 4 

South Staffordshire and East Worcestershire Institute 

of Mining Engineers 47 10 



9 10 







19 







70 6 







12 7 







31 7 





139 13 



Non-Federated — 
Mining Institute of Scotland 



Carried forward 



2,261 19 

15 

.. £3,828 12 * 



ACCOUNTS. 368 

The Institution of Miming Engineers. Cr. 

ending July 31, 1902. 

£ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ s. d. 
July 31, 1902. 
By Printing— 

Transaction*, vol. xx., printing ...197 6 11 
„ „ plates ...122 8 6 

319 14 6 

,, „ xxi., printing ... 87 19 

„ „ „ plates ... 74 13 

162 12 



„ xxii., printing ...424 2 6 
,. „ plates ...151 3 



575 2 8 



„ xxiii., printing... 72 8 2 
., „ plates ... 44 4 1 

116 12 3 



Excerpts, toI. xix. ... 





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6 7 


100 10 
23 16 


7 
4 


Proof 8 of Papers for General Meetings ... 






Circulars 






17 10 


8 
1,315 17 11 


„ Addressing Transaction*, etc 






40 6 


2 


„ Stamps — Circulars 


14 


13 






„ Correspondence 


20 


13 1 






„ Transaction* 


349 


19 8 


385 u 


9 


„ Stationery, etc 






57 8 


1 


,. Insurance of Transaction* 






3 





„ Binding— Library ..." 


3 


14 11 






„ „ Sundries