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H9 Vr^ - 






PiorxssoK OP Mining Engineering in the School 
or Mimes, Coluhbia Univeksity 


New York 





ConnucRT, 19x8, 




to « 

• • • 




I /SUB a. 
'- xcis±&ai tike wT«iw^i-r%g 

- « <i Foster, Hi^s^&es* 

o€ miTiing, comprising 
t tJTSLiisaLCtions of engin 

Ttic treatises and i 

hliefiy for s.t:\aclents. Amon^ 
de Vol C^oui>iili^e, Kdhler, ( 
t^ Bakiles, Soulton, and Pan 

ing features, & 

&oaks..«^-^.^^v.^.^^ ^ " 

oC Calkin axLd l£a.t.orft> oontain. much that is still 

- thorny, oo. Hke T^Tit 

with them. 


.<1 soldfields, Charleton's 
inin«," Finlay's "Cost 
suLbjects relating to mi 

lhi.Arc:li. »9»3 

Iblining Engineer^; 
in existence eithc 

important parts 

^cMXM. <la.3r BaiixM^« engineer. It will be 

of t,\xc f oUo'wria^ pages, that a handlx 

«ly of s»xl>5e<:t. naatter than books oi 

^Y^^ fiieUi tx> be covered is too wide to 'vrill&ixx any reasonable period of 

, Editor of this book c 

of Associate Editors to co 

those sections dealin 

exploration and minin 

^ ^ om cexi-atm branches of dvil, elect; 

tl*o\a«l*t. l>y some that this collatcr 

r^JTiir tg. But, in view of the im 

^ ^».«3x\e«ring in equipping and opers 

^ik^tment of space is reasonable. H 

ooly of engineers concerned with th 

also of the large number of thos 

^ in, the construction details invc 

Xm. has been to supply such 

and structural design, as 

out of reach of his personal 

is at the end of each section a 

on the subjects dealt witl 

boundary exists between the f 

xnetallurgist. While, under some 

gineer's functions end with the 

reduction works (mill or smelter 

ijK^cdudes a concentrating mill, amal^ 

.1^ and silver mines), or even a smcl 

duestion arose as to how much sp 

of ore treatment. To cover any ( 

taUurgy would be impracticable 

• • • 



^ 1- Kmlogy. By ^Ufred J. Moses, Professor of Mineralogy, Columbia 


' :-{, UoAi&catioD of Minerals Pages 2-1 x 

'^ Ocamcaoe and AsiociatioQs of Minerals xz~z3 

rra. I'ses ol Minerak 13-IS 

Docriptive and Determinative Tables ^'xG-?! 

^'^ Gtobfy tnd Mineral Deposits. By James Furman Kemp, Pro- 
-*' U Geology, Coluinbia University 

-*:-::. GraSoQr Pages 74-93^ 

. -:2. Maxtal Depouts: Ores 94-106 

..-X. Miaaal D^nsits: NoD-metallic Minerals 107-1x4 

'■"' I Etrtfc EictTStioiL By Halbert P. Gillette, Consulting Civil Engineer 
' -;.^ Excavation by Manual Labor and by Machinery Pages XX7-X42 

* L EiploBTes. By H. O. Haskell. Fletcher B. Holmes, Arthur La 

f ind F. J. LcMaistrc. 

:- - Chtsnistey ami Compoution Pages 143-iSt 

i-i TnsspoctatioQ and Storage 151-160 

MS Haadling. Chaiging, Firing, etc 160-177 

'^i iKkEzcsTStion. By Halbert P. Gillette, Consulting Ci\41 Engineer 

* •-« Hud sad Machine Drilling Pages 179-191 

: Qujipig and Firing 192-X9S 

^n Hutlbg. QiiarT>'ing, Trenching, etc 196-205 

*' I Tanduif . By David W. Brunton and John A. Davis, Consulting 

I. Dtu on Representative Timnds Pages 207-211 

>n. btHHag and Blasting 212-228 

1 h Maduog, Timbering, and Costs 229-246 

*' •• SItft-wikiiig in Rock. By Homer L. Carr, Mining Engineer 

" > C w t a Mc tioo and Sise of Shafts Pages 249-250 

i :s. Slaking Plant. Orsanixation. Drilling and Blasting 351-261 

n. hakiof; ia a Working Shaft. Shaft " Raising" 261-262 

• i TjTiberiBg and Lining 262-272 

i^ Kad-Chaudion Process 373-275 

•'-^iJ ^ipeed and Cost DaU 275-281 

' «^ Shaft-fliildBC in Soft, Water-betring Soils. By Francis Don- 

^' \ Medunica) Engineer 

•'-3 Tiabering and Spiling Methods Pages 283-288 

Open and Pneumatic Caissons 288-301 

H- Fneziag and Grouting Processes 301-306 

•• Boriig. By Arthur F. Taggart, Assistant Professor of Mining, 
-^idd Scientific School, Yale University 

''' «-4. Bori^by Hand Pages 307-314 

'-^ CfamDriUiog 314-338 

rt& Koiaiy DriUing (Diamond and Shoc-boriog) 338-368 

t'-i% Sorvey o( Bovehoks, etc s^-37f 


vi Contents 

Sec 19. Prospecting, Deyelopment and Exploitation of Miner 
posits. By James F. McClelland, Professor of Mining, Sheffield 
tific School, Yale University 

Art Z-14. Prospecting and Exploration 

' 15-23. Development 

24-38. Classification. Breaking Ground 

39-44. Open Stopes 

45-58. Timbered Stopes 

59^7- Filled Stopes 

68-70. Shrinkage Stopes 

71-75. Toi>-slicing '. 

76-79. Sub-level Caving ( 

80-83. Block-caving ( 

84-89. Combined Methods t 

90-94. Miscellany, Underground Mining C 

9S-IOX. Open-cut Mining 6 

I02-IH. Coal Mining Methods 7 

112-115. Subsidence 7 

1 16- 127. Placer and Hydraulic Mining, Gold Dredging, Drift Mining 7 

Sec 11. Underground Transport By Edwin C. Holden, Mim'nj 

Art 1-2. General Considerations and Primitive Methods Pages 8 

3-8. Mine Cars and Track 8 

9-10. Hand Tramming and Animal Haulage 8 

XZ-16. Locomotive Haulage 8 

17-20. Rope Haulage. Miscellaneous. Costs 8 

Sec 12. Hoisting Plant, Shaft Pockets and Ore Bins. By Willia 
Weigel, Associate Professor of Mining, Pennsylvania State College 

Art 1-2. Wmdlass and Whun Pages8^ 

3-12. Hoisting Engines 8j 

13-15. Hoisting Ropes and Sheaves 91 

x&-x8. Headframes 9j 

19-20. Guides, Signab, etc 9^ 

21-27. Buckets, Cages, and Skips 94 

28-30. Shaft Pockets and Surface Ore Bins 97 

Sec IS. Drainage of Mines. By Robert Van Arsdale Norris, Consi 
Mining Engineer 

Art x-5. Sources and Control of Mine Water Pages 993 

6-17. Pumpmg and Hoisting Water xooi 

Sec U. Mine Ventilation. By F. Ernest Brackett, Mining Engineer 

Art 1-3. Mine Atmosphere and Its Impurities Pages 1019^ 

4-9. Distribution and Control of Ventilating Currents 1034' 

lo-xx. Natural and Furnace Ventilation 1038^ 

12-18. Mechanical Ventilators 1044^ 

Sec IS. Compressed-air Plant. By Richard T. Dana, Consulting Engi 

Art 1-9. Compressors and Their Operation Pages 1061-; 

10-X5. Valves, Governors, Cooling Devices, etc 1079-I 

x6-2o. Transmission, Measurement and Reheating ot Compressed 

Air 1084-1 

21-23. Compressed-air Hoists and Pumps 1093-] 

34-29. Machine Drills, Coal Cutters and Compressed-air Loco* 

motives ,. 1099-1 

Contents vu 

Pover for Mine Seirice. By George R. Wood, Elec- 
r, Benrind- White Coal Mining Co 

' :-z PsFciased Po««r. Choice ol Cmrent and Voltage Pages 1x34-1 126 

■^ Bei-i-xkes axfed Plant 1136-1132 

^-£- Scrtaoe and Underground Tnuismi«ion Lines 1132-1137 

cr-Lz. Hj^.jig, Haulage and Pumping X137-1149 

i:-J7. ILsccilaneoos Ap^dicatiottB xx49-zf59 

'^ n. Sweyiflc. By Charles B. Breed. Professor of Railroad Engineer- 
^. Maaacbusetts Institute of Technology 

.' :-w ^Bveyimr and Diafting Instruments Pages xi6i'-i 180 

:^i7. I^ad Stuvcj-u^ X i8a-x 203 

t.^-cx. Lrre}xn^ u^ Contours 1302-1309 

:.-5c. Tflpogn.phic and Railroad Surveying X310-1333 

' K Uadcrgroand Snxreymg. By Edward R. Judd, Assistant Pro- 
■>T of Miniog. Columbia School of Mines 

" i—^ Si^tJnis, niumination. Transit Mountings Pages x 324-1339 

4-;. EuTi^oDtal and Vertical Angles. Travccslng and Level- 
in* 1229-X343 

1 Sfcatl x 243-1249 

•-.a Notes, CuTn;j4itatkms and Maps X349-X253 

"'*> H Mae Geologic Maps and Models. By Reno H. Sales, Geologist, 
- 3«ia Copper Mining Co 
- j-i. MapsandModds Pages 1254-1367 

'*' Hi Warn Orsanizatioa and Accounts. By J. R. Finlay, Consulting 

•T r-i. Onaxnatioo Pages 1 368-1 373 

:^ Miac Records and Accounts ia73-x3Si 

"c 2L Cost of Mining. By J. R. Finlay, Consulting Mining Engineer 

37 Examples, Comprising 1x8 Tables of Costs Pages 1383-1354 

* 3. Wages and Welfare. By Edward K. Judd, Assistant Professor of 
'1. -"4, Ct4uinbia School of Mines 

*- t-7 Day's Pay. Confiaft Work. Leasing, etc Pages 1356-13 63 

^:i. Acoirnt Compensation. Aifoitration X363-1369 

HIS- Chaiuse Houses and Miners' Dwellings 1369-1373 

U ti- Doiapsiic Water Supply. Sanitation. Miners' Diseases. . 1373-X381 

a. Mine Air, Hygiene, Explosions, and Accidents. By George S. 
r ' r. Chid Mining Engineer, U S Bureau of Mines 

- t'«- MuK Air Pages 1383-1397 

fA Mine Hygiene X397-1407 

v-ii. Lam(« and Apparatus for Determining Impurities in 

Mine Air 1407-1430 

t^-ti. Acctfirats and Their Prevention X430-1447 

'•'-30^ RcKue and Recovery Work 1447-1463 

ti-)( Mine Safety OrsaniaUioD and Regulations 1461-1465 


tt. ICtaittc Laws. By Horace V. Winchell, Mining Geologist 

t i-v latiaductioD and Theories Pages X468-1469 

r-ty. Uaited States Mining Laws 1469-1435 

i«-i7. SuteLaws X48S-1498 

;a-jft. S^HDSffy of United States Uwi 1498-XS14 

viii Contents 

Sec Z5. Mine Ezaminations, Valuations and Reports. By 

Young Westervelt, Consulting Mining Engineer 

Art z-3. General Considerations, Geology, Maps, Titles Pages i 

4>xo. Theory and Methods of Sampling x 

ii-ia. Determination o( Quantity and Value of Ore z 

Z3>zs. Marlcet PcLces of Minerals, Profits, Capital, etc i 

16-17. Conduct ol Examinations and Writing of Reports i 

x8. Estimating Standing Timber x 

Sec M. Aerial Tramways and Cableways. By E4ward B Qurha 
Associate Professor of Mining, University of California 

Art 1-3. General Formulas Pages zj 

4-19. Double-rope Tramways z > 

20-22. Reversible and Single-rope Tramways z < 

23-27. Cableways 1* 

Sec 27. Mechanical Conveyers. By Lincoln DeG. Moss, Assists 
fessor of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University i 

Art x-4. Chain Flight and Bucket Conveyers Pages x j 

5-7. Belt and Bucket, Belt and Helical Conveyers i^ 

8. Feeders. Grizzlies, etc ifi 

9-X0. Construction Details 16 

Sec 28. Ore Dressing. By Robert H. Richards, Late Professor of ! 
Engineering and Metallurgy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Art 1-2. Definitions and Principles Pages i6> 

3-7. Breaking and Coarse Crushing i6i 

8-X4. Fine Crushing 16^ 

15-18. Sizing and Classifying 16 1 

19-28. Wet Concentration i6j 

29-30. Dry Concentration 165 

31-35. Accessory Apparatus 165 

36-38. Mill Design, Testing of Ores, Flow Sheets X7« 

Sec 2t. Ore Sampling. By T. R. Woodbridge, Consulting Metalli 
Chemist, U S Bureau of Mines 

Art 1-2. Conditions Controlling Practice Pages 173 

3-5. Preliminary Sample, Hand and Mechanical z73i 

6-9. Final Sample. Moisture and Multi-samples i7i< 

10-X3. Comparison of Assajrs, Flowsheets, Costs r73j 

Sec M. Assaying. By £. J. Hall, Professor of Assaying, Columbia £ 
. of Mines 

Art x-3. Equipment, Reagents, Sampling Pages 1751 

4-5. Crucible Method i757 

6-9. Scorification, Cupellation, Parting, Check Assays 1764 

X0-X4. Methods for Different Minerals 1768 

15-17. Assay Apparatus i77i 

Sec SI. Testing of Ores. By J. E. Clennell, Metallurgical Engbeer. 
Edward K. Judd, Assistant Professor of Mining, Columbia Scho< 

Art x-2. General Considerations. Preparation of Sample Pages 1776' 

3-5. Screen, Classifier and Concentration TesU 1777^ 

6^. FloUtion, Amalgamation and Cyanidmg Tests 1789^ 

10. Equipment for Ore-testing Plants i797^ 

ConteQts ix 

-• & Bates oa Sel]iiig» Purchasiiig, And Treatment of Ores. By 

L-x^ L. WaSLcr, Prolesfior of Metallurgy, Columbia ScBool of Mines 

' i-i- *'**^«'-ii Ors. Fluxes, Value of Pnxhicts Pages 1799-1801 

Terms oif Payment x8oz-x8o6 

Oze Cootzacts 1806-1807 

:^ 9L Gdd Aaalgamatioii and Cysnidntion. By Edward L. Dufourcq, 
j:i£«i»tir4r Eogincrr 

JT 1-S- Gobi Aaalcumtioo Pages 1809-1814 

<-i4. Cjanide Prooeaa 1814-1833 

ii^7. FiBMnbeetaw CosU, etc ^ 1833-1840 

. U. Prepsration and Storage of Anthracite Coal. By Paul Sterling, 
'■'irhanijal Ec^ineer. Lehigh Valley Coal Co 

.' '-3. lIcRiaaaLAbic Sizes. Methods of Prapantioo Pages 1842-1850 

r-e. Do^cD otf Breaker Plant 1850-1855 

'r-ti- Soeroft. Rolia, CkaDers. Conveyera, Costa, etc x8ss~i^4 

,-19. ^Qca^ Off Coal. Costs 1864-1873 

: tt. Prijaratieo and Coking of Bituminons Coal. By H. McKean 

■MatXf Mirtrns Engineer 

• :-*, Dry Screesiag Pages 1874-1884 

i-ti. CaIWs^os 1884-1891 

tj-u. Axalyics, Coounercial Sizes, Frei|^t Rates, etc X89X-X895 

i!-:5. Cofce and Coke Making 1896-X9X0 

H XaHieinatica and Mechanics. By C. H. Bumside, Associate 
'* •rtfcjr 01 Mechanics, Columbia University 

' :-& Akri>ra Pages 1912-1930 

''Xi. CeocaelTy and Meosuxation 1920-1929 

::-i3. Pane TiigoiKWXieUy 1930-1933 

•i-22. Aa&Iyttcal Geometry i933-i94i 

.-36. CaJcuIos 194X-1944 

i-iW Sixtiis 1945-1959 

^-A FrklJuB 1958-1962 

'r-«a> Ccotecs of Gravity X962-1964 

41-45. MrjoacDt of Inertia of Areas and BfasKS 1965-1967 

Kinematics X970-1976 



-^ C Chwical Hotea and Tables Pages 1984-1988 

^f Sl BoMnts of Hydraulics. By J. K. Finch, Associate Professor of 
' i Ecgixveeriog, Columbia University 

' i-a Dciautjoaa. Properties of Water Pages 1989-1990 

•-4. Hydrartatics. i99o-i99i 

rii. Hydrodynamics I993~3oo3 

:i~x<. Pqk Lines, Ditches, Flumes 2004-2016 

:"-!>. Hydxaulk Measurements 2016-2021 

z>-2t. Water Supi^ 202X-2023 

^ & Caginaexint Thermodynamics. By Edward D. Thurston, Jr, 
-uunt PFofc!«flor of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University 

^•s t-^ Wock. Power, Flow of Gases Pages 2024-2033 

r5> WoriL and Capacity of Compressors, Steam, Air and 

Internal Combustioo Engines 3034-a<H6 

^t. Beat and Temperature Units, CoeiSdents of Expansion, 

Gases, Vapors, etc 2046-2054 

12- Pmpcstks of Steam 2054-2057 

D'ift. Combttstioo, Heat Tiauler and Heat Cycles 2058-2073 

X Contents 

Sec 4t. Steam Engines, Boilers, Pumps, Turbines, Gas En^in 
H. L. Parr, £. D. Thurston, Jr and A. L. Herrick, Department of J 
ical EDgineering, Columbia University 

Art x-4. Steam Elngines Pages 2 

< 5-7. Steam Torbioes 3 

8-x6. BoilerPlant a 

17-19. Steam Power Plant Design 21 

20-aa. Reciprocating Pumps v a> 

33-27. Centrifugal Pumps 2 

a^3i. Water Turbines a: 

32-35. Internal Combustion Engines ai 

36-39. Apparatus for Testing Power Plant a i 

Sec 41. Mechanical Engineering Miscellany. By C. W. Thorr 
H. L. Parr, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia Un 

Art x-4. Gearing, Belting, Pulleys, Shafting, Bearings Pages ai 

5-6. Rope Drives. Lubricants ax 

7-X0. Piping, Fittings, B<^ts, Rivets, Springs ax 

Sec 43. Electrical Engineering. By Walter I. Slichter, Professor c 
trical Engineering, Columbia University 

Art x-2. Definitions, Units, Principles Pages ax 

3-4. Conductors. Measuring Instnmients ax* 

5-6. Direct-current Generators and Motors 3x1 

7-1 X. Alternating-current Generators and Motors. Con- 
verters ax; 

12-X4. Power Plants. Transmission and Distribution 2x{ 

xs. Electric Lighting 211 

16-19. Electrochemistry. Batteries. Operating Costs an 

Sec 4S. Elements of Structural Design. By J. K. Finch, As 
Professor of Civil Engineering, Columbia University 

Art x-6. Mechanics of Materials Pages 22c 

7-9. Foundations 22] 

xo-x6. Masonry and Concrete Structures 221 

X7-19. Analysis of Framed Structures 22^ 

20-24. Timber Structures 224 

25-29. Steel Structures 225 

Sec 44. Engineers' Tables 

Mathematical and Engineering Tables Pages 227 

Weights and Measures 229 

Values of Foreign Coins 

Mining Engineeis' Handbook 

sEcrrioN 1 

• • • 


• ••• • 

BY * .•-. 

• • • 

ALFRED J. MOS^/.'.* . 
• .• • 







• • • • 

• * < 

-r "nl Tab aot Directly DependeDt oo CrysUUiDe Slnictare .'.'.* 6.'. 

*«J««iiiitfaeBlovpJpe •,^.'  




VMab«fGnffck»Ckys. and Maris 





[■» ^ Ibmb iA tbcir Natural State xj 

Ettactad or Maaafactured (rom MioenJs 14 


^ Metaflk or Sob-inetallic Lwtre. Black or Nearly Bbck in Color x8 
)b<nk d UcuUk Lotre, Tin VThite. SUver White, Lead Gray or Steel 

'">«?■ Coior 26 

ViMnberMcCalicLatre. Metallic Ydlow, Bronae or Red in Color 30 

^*«nh«IXoiMBctallic Lostre, with Decided Taste 32 

>^»wfctf Noa a e ta nic Lostxv. TastdcM. with Colored Stitak 34 

^'^oak of jiioa-aietallic Lostre, Taitdkas, with White Streak. Yielding 

*«*a>««ion Charcoal witl* Sodic Cvfaooate 43 

^■■nk «l Noo-mcCallic Loatre^ Tastdest, with White Streak, Yielding do 

^«a «ii& Sodic Carbonate 48 

"^^aeii ^bitaacca not Eaafly I>ctcniiiQable by a Scheme 68 

^aABtoTakWaof Miaexals 70 

- - - 71 




1. Defi^idons 

On the basis of several thousand aqalysdB ^e crust of the earth for \ 
of about ten hiiles is estimated by fjarko^" Z>a/a of Geoohemisiry" p. 3 
composed almost entirely of compoi^Qs^f fourteen elements: 


« Per 



49 78*' 


2 33 
a. 24 




, Potassium 





Iron , 




. . * 


These,gtei|at elements, and the -sixty or so others which form the rec 
fraction* Q^.dkMT per cent, occur in approximately one thousand dififerent 
cal cbq^Mnitions, known as minerals; that is, as homogeneous substd 
^finUk 'ohemical composiUon, found ready-made in nature^ and no^ dit 
pfddu^ of the Ufe or decay of an organism, 

WJftht two conditionB in which minerals may occur. A miner 
Mother chemical substances, will usually occur either in crystals of charac 

k shapes or in masses made up of many crystals so crowded together U 
shapes are not evident, although in each grain of the aggregation the cr>'^ 
structure will be shown by the constancy of the properties in parallel dir 
and their variation in directions not parallel. 

Any mineral may in solidifying fail to assume a crystalline structure, I 
of too great viscosity, or too rapid cooling, or other cause. If this cond 
invariable, the mineral is said to be amorphous. Opal b the best ez 
Amorphous minerals are few in number. 

2. Identification by Aid of Crystals 

The crystalline structure is much used in the identification of minerals, 
by a consideration of the symmetry and angles and habit of the external 
or by the study of properties dependent on the structure, particularly de 
and the so-called optical characters and etch figures. 

Symmetry. In eveiy complete crystal there is some repetition of 
and similarly grouped faces. By considering this so-called "symmetry" 
tals may be grouped in divisions, and as all crystals of any one mineral 
the same grade of "symmetry," they belong to the same symmetry divis 

In identifying an axis of symmetry imagine or actually cause the cry« 
revolve about some prominent line through its centre. Note the groupi: 
faces at the initial position. Note whether at any stage of the revolutic 
crystal faces appear to be all coincident (rarely), or all parallel to the 
positions of other faces. Or, in other words, note whether groups of fat 
replaced during the revolution by other groups containing just as many 
at exactly the angles of the first set. If so. a probable axis of symmetr 
been determined. If by measurement the angles of one set correspond in 
and order with those of the other sets, then the existence of the symmetrj 
is confirmed. According to the number of times corresponding groups or 
recur during a complete revolution about a symmetry axis the axis is knoi 
two-fold, three-fold, four-fold, or six-fold. No other varieties exist. 

If a plane so divides the crystal that on each side of that plane ther 


Idcndficatioa by Aid of Ciystals 3 

"fi the soK number oC laces at the same angles to It and to each other, 
..iZi is olSed a Plane of Symmetry. 

>'raHBi m ** systems'* bssed on sjrmmstry. The following seven 

^ £s eesoit rcauiily from this partial determination of symmetry, the state- 

:: >jL isipiying the absence of other symmetry elements: 

.^^ . j More than one axis of three>foId symmetry. 

I LMxattnc j ^^^^ ^j^ jjj^j^ jjj^ ^^ ^ four-fold.) 

z. Teoagooal .... Chie axb of four-fold synmtetiy and one only. 

n* T^ **'**'»i f Rhombohednd division — one axis of three-fold 

I aoM^ j qrmmctry and one only. 

4. ri*"fft*i Hexagonal division — one axis of six-fold ^mmetry. 

/Three axes of two-fold symmetry, but nothing 
^  . I I higher than two-fold; or one axis of two-fold 

5. «msttiomDic -j symmetry at the mteraection of two planes of 

V symmetry. 

4. iir^nrr ' i ^^ ^^^ ^ two-fold symmetry and one only, or 

^*"**^"*^ { one plane of sjrmmetry, or both. 

7- Txidiiisc. Without axes or planes of symmetry. 

Datagsiikiac apedcs by angles. Although different crystals of tiie 
'z i'^bstxaot may differ in diape, angles, and number of faces, the angles be- 
■:=. i Mnsf a ud iug faces are constant and characteristic. 

- "VMiiir . x farrs on the same czystaJ. or on different crystals of the same substance, 
r- ames yj o G iflg or aaaiogous portions with reXerence to the ^mmetry axes and usu- 
ia faastic and maftings. They frequently do not correspond in shape. 

Lf^riag of a few selected angles will, therefore, usually serve to differ- 
ii; the ay-atal from others in the same symmetry division. 

he detecBmed within one or two degrees by a very simple apparatus, 
is tbt PvJ t eid No. 2 goniometer, consisting of a cardboard on which is printed a 
.'<^ seaicirde, vith an arm ol celluknd swivded t^ an eyelet in the centre of the 
'-te. «r better a simflar apparatus of metal with removable and adjustable arms. 
4. the OTstal s placed so that the card edge and the swinging arm, or the two 
^£■1, an each ia amtact with a face and perpendicular to the edge of intersection 
and the mean of at least three readings is used. 
" doectkms, obtained as described later, are of great service in orien- 
r*%aystaL These and the angles between them are used in the lists which fdlow 

of hccs all parallel to the same line. Their intersections are 
-<.7t paafid to this Une and to each other. 

li'iMitik crystals. If a crystal shows more than one axis of three-fold 
'.-.^ay ft b an isometric crystal, and not otherwise. There will alwa}^ be 
'". also, axes ol two-fold or four-fold symmetry. The faces are often 
-'^ tad equilateral triangles, or these modified by cutting off comers. The 
. ..jaa art usually approximately equal in several durections, the forms 
'•s..feiag soBetiflies to the sphere. Rqietitions in any crystal of equal angles 
. ^ jtiTnaawfa g" faoea aie more frequent than in other crystal systems. 

am of the same aeries whatever the species. The important species 
' iasad by their "habit "; that is, the dominant forms of the crystals, as follows: 

(Tetahedrao angles, 70* 31') boradte, sphalerite, tetrahedrite. 

Wkk mty emUe eUmagt: oobaltlte. galenlte, halite: wilk oetahedrcl deoMge: flu- 
mthamt m&rktd clamsfs: argentite, boracite, cerargyrite, cuprite, pyrite. 

rOctahedfOD andes, X09* 290 chromite, odbaltite, cuprite, fluorite, 
zar ^taSu, goU, imacite, ougaetite, pyrite, splnd. Cleavages: galenite, 
^uriu. octahedraL Partings: frankfiaite and magnetite, octahedral. 

4 Identification of Minerals 

Dodaccbadral. (Dodecahedron angles, lao") boracite, cuprite, garnet, m 

Trapezohednd. (a4-faced trapezohedra, approximating spheres; oommoB 
ijx* I9'> 146" 27') anakite, garnet, leudte. 

Pjnitohedral. (la-faced pyritohedra; most oommoa angles, 136*53' A^d i 
cobaltite, pyrite, smaltite. 

Tetragonal crystals. If the aystal shows one axis of four-fold syn 
and only oat, it is a tetragonal crystal, and not othowise. A aection ti 
right angles to the four-fold axis is usually square or octagonal, or more 
the angles are again truncated. The dimension in direction of the fc 
axis is usually notably greater or less than in directions at right angles ti 

Angles. In the zone of faces parallel to the four-fold axis there are no varia 
angle dependent on the species. Between prominent corresponding faces the an 
almost always 90*, and between prominent adjacent faces either 90* m* i35*« T1 
acterizing angles lie in other zones. 

The principal tetragonal minerals may be classified by angles and cleavage as 
Angles between corresponding faces oblique to the /our-fM axis: chalcopsrrite, 
wulfenite, 99* 3S'; scheelite, 100** 5'; apophyllite, 105"; braimite, 109* 53'; caa 
xai*4x'; rutile. 123*8'; zircon, 123*19'; vesuvianite, 129*21'; wemerite, 136*1 

Braunite, scheelite, and wulfenite cleave at the angles mentioned. Wcmeri 
rutile cleave parallel to the four-fold axis, giving angles of 90* and 13s*. Apo| 
cleaves at right angles to the four-fold axis. 

Hexagonal crystals. If the crystal shows one and only one axis of 
fold symmetry it is a hexagonal crystal, rhombohednd division. I 
crystal shows one and only one axis of six-fold symmetry it is a hexj 
aystal, hexagonal division. A section taken at right angles to the a 
three-fold or six-fold symmetry is usually a hexagon, or its most pror 
edges form an equiangular triangle or a hexagon. Not infrequently each 
b replaced by one or two smaller edges. The dimension paralld to this i 
usually notably greater or less than the dimensions at right angles thereto. 

Angles. In the zone of faces parallel to the three-fold (or six-fold) axis there 
variations in angle dependent on the species. The angles between prominent 
spending faces are chiefly 1 30* or 60*. Other angles in this zone are usually large an 
occurrence leads to an apparently rounded, often nearly circular, croas-section, 
characterizing angles lie in other zones. 

The crystals of important hexagonal minerals may be classified by angles betwec 
responding faces and by cleavage as follows: 

I. With evident axis of three-fold symmetry and osnany ilieaibohednl h 

Angles whkh are both interfacial and between cleavage directions. Soda 
73* 30'; chabazite, 85* 14'; hematite, 86*; calcite, 105* 5'; dolomite, 106* 15'; I 
cbrosite, 107*; siderite, 107*; magnesite, 107* 24'; smithsonite, 107*40'; proustite, 10; 

Angtes which are interfacial only. Ilmenite, 85* 31'; alunite, 90* 50^; dm 
92*37'; willemite. 115*30': phenacite, 116*36'; tourmaline, 133*8' or 103*. 

n. With reel or apparent axis of lix-fold symmetry, and usually prisoutic ] 

Prisma capped by faces obliqne to axis and at anises, for exanqile, corun 
86* 4' or taS* 2'; quarta, 94* 14' or 133* 44'; apatite, 142* 15'. 

Prisms nsoally capped by aingle face at right angles to sxis. Beryl, iodi 
mimetite. nepbelite, pyrargyrite. pyromorphite, vanadinite. 

Tabular. Graphite, mdybdenite, iridosmine. 1 

Orthorhombic crystals. If a crystal shows either three axes of two 
synunetry or one axis with two planes of symmetry, and nothing of hi 
symmetry, it belongs to the orthorhombic system. Cross-sections taka 
right angles to the axes of syinmetry are unlike in angles, and tend to I 
angles and rhombs or to these combined 

- *» 

by Aid of Crystals 

of faces which has a ooostant seriet of aoi^ for a8 
ana^ ia the sncs panlld to the axet of aymmeUy aze nniik* (except 
*'^ ^. aad vary with the spedea. The orientatkm ia beat obtained by refereaoe to 

— ^9i^ and en ths basis the important |pedca may be tahiUtwi as follows: 

L VlftaflB dii e uiu a of doavace which faiaects pcominoiit aagles* for eiample: 
'.'u ao'jff': sllinmnite, 91*45': goethite, 94* 52^; manganitr, 99*40'; brodiaii- 
* -a»'i/; atKamite, 113*03'; staurotite, 139* ao^. Topax, with one direction of 
-w^. ba pn^iineoi angles 134* 1/ and 90" iz', not bisected by the deavafe. 

two dir ectioiM of deavafe or more ttum two ill one tone, and. 
facoa parallel to two each directiona : oolumbite and chiya* 
JO*; aaditeite, 90* ^\ natrolite, 91* is'; enazgite, 97* 53^; cakmine, 103* 51'; 

119' IS*. 

117* 14'; straotianite, 1x7* 19^; anconitc, 118* \if\ 

- ud loy' 44'. 

directjone of deavage not in one zone, and 

facea parallel to anch directiona: anhydrite, 90*; barite 

90* and 103* 44'; cdestite, 90* and X04* xo': stephanite, 

tfMedUc crystals. If a crirstal shows one and only one azb of two- 

-v-aaetry. or <Hie and only one plane of sjrmmetry, or both, it is a mono- 

:rrd:aL Any face in the zone of the symmetry axis makes a 90^ angle 

- tse qraametry pUne (or a face parallel to it). No other 90^ angles occur. 
:TG»-seciioQ of the zone of the symmetry axis is never rectangular, rarely 

-=2tc and usually markedly imsymmetrical. 

No aone has a ooostant series of angles for eadi ipedes. In th» system the 
pilaae, the a«e symmetry axis and the deavages, aU aaaist in the orienta- 
te the foUoving tabulation: 



17 ?'--.Te 


Gypsum . 


Angles in zone of 
symmetry axis 

xxO"9'. nx*36' 

Angles bisected by 
symmetry plane 


\\ol;ram:te ^ \vf e 

•T !jc-ibr t .> 


Borax. . . 



'Jrtwmx easi- 
-« iioivnu^es bs- 
•■ *.«<{ b:. ptaxke of 




I Spodumene. 
; TiUnite.... 


/I3S**I4'. 137'xo'. 

I 133** 45* 

124° S8'. X24' 43* 
"5* ay. laB* \^ 

f i40« 48'. 87* XT'. 

I ia6»a9' 
99' 43*. ia9» 44' 




105* so', 148* 40' 
110* ao' 
140* 43*. 159* 

90" 9*. X35' 

\ ia6*9' 

/i3i' Jt/. 143'* 48'. 
I 138*40' 

74* afi'. I3J* 3'. 


100*37'. 98* 6'. 
1x7° 49' 

99* 19'. 119* ly. 

90* S3' 
87', XM* 33*. 96° 32' 
91* 58', 71' 32' 
TO* 4'. 70* 29* 


93^ a6' 

li8* 47*. 90^ / 
119' S8' I 

ia4* xi'. 148° a8' 
93* 4X', X19* 10' 

rT* xo', lao* 49'. 
I3I' 31' 
»7*. 9x* ifff 
wtI* 3X', X36* xi', 



lis* Xy. X20* 56' 

115* 21' 

•ad chlaritci aie asually pseudo-bezagooal. 

Identification of Minerals 

Triclinic crystals. If the ciystal shows no axes nor planes of symmi 
is a tridinic crystal. There will be no right angles either between fa^ 
edges. The only corresponding faces will be opposite (parallel) faces. 
oystals of some of the most prominent triclinic minerals^ however, approx 
in angles monodinic crystals but are usually distinguishable by the ocxruj 
of feces which have no symmetrically placed assodates. 

Angles. No angle will occur more than twice in any crystal. There are cos 
tivdy few common triclinic spedes. The following table records a few of theii 
important angles: 

Angles between the two easiest cleavages or the 
faces parallel to the cleavages 

Other angles between com 
adjacent faces 

The Plagiodases: 

Albite 93* 36' 

Anorthite. ' 94° lo* 

Labradorite 93* 56* 

Oligoclase 93* a8' ' 

127* 44'. i2o'» 46' 

xi6" 3'. 98* 46*, iao» 31' 

ia8» 3', 98* S*. iao« 54' 

Amblygonite 104" 30' 

Chalcanthite 133" lo* 

Cyanite loi' 30^ 

Rhodonite 87* 32' 

I20'» 54' 

no* lo', 70* 22*. 103® 2f 
74"* iG', 131* 42*. 7«** 58' 


Cleayage and its value as a test. In any crystal, whether with < 
acteristic external form or not, the cohesion varies in di£ferent directions. V 
strain there is frequently a tendency to split or deave perpendicular to 
directions of weakest cohesion in definite planes, which are always parall< 
faces of simple crystals characteristic of the substance. In all crystals oi 
same substance the same deavages can be obtained. The number of direct 
of deavage and the angles between the c^avage planes are, therefore, eztrei 
characteristic; moreover the cleavages serve to orientate the crystals in n 
cases. If the individual crystals are large enough, deavage is obtained 
pladng the edge of a knife or chisd upon the crystal and striking it a sfa 
quick blow. If the individual crystals are very small the deavage direct 
can usually be developed by crushing with pressure or a blow, and «»"'nininj] 
fragments with a hand glasi. 

In pyroxene, spodumene, corundum, magnetite, and some other specie, some i 
imens break easily in definite planes, while others do not. Thb is not true deai 
but a secondary phenomenon due to pressure, and is called " parting." 

Cleavage and parting shapes may even be microscopically determined. To do ! 
sieve the crushed material through a loo-mesh screen upon a x20-mesh screen^ 
particles remaining on the latter being collected on a dean paper. 

A few fragments are placed in a drop of water or other liquid upon an object glai 
cover slip placed in position, and the preparation is examined. 

Other tests dependent on crystalline structure. If the microscope b ai 
able other tests may be applied to the crushed fragments, the best of which are: ln<j 
of refraction (by the Becke or van der Kdk methods), absorption or pleochroism, extl 
tion angles, birefringence and elongation. A scheme for utilixing these tests was | 
lished by A. J. Moses, in the School of Mines Quarteriy, Vol. 34, July, r9t3. 

S. Important Physical Tests not Directly Dependent on Crystallii 


The most important of these tests or characters are Lustre^ Color and Str« 
Hardness^ and Spedfic Gravity. 

Lnportaot Physical Tests 7 

TIk iostre id a huiicib] is dcpeodent upoo its retacdve ponvcTt its 
r^iDd^stnictiire. It may be called the ikmd of brilliaxicy or shine 

mxk minerals are bzx>ad|y divided into Metallic and Non- 
ICetallic lustre is the lostxe cl metals. It is exhibited only by 
^^ ararfiK and these, vUk Iht exception of the native metals, have a Uach 
* afisfriifacft sinak. Opaque dark-colored minemls not distinctly non-metallic 
-7 ttsad to be adb-metallic. Non-metallic lustre is exhibited by all transpar* 
'' r xjsskKettt mineials. It may be vitreous or glassy, adamantine like un- 
' 5aaciid, resinous Eke sphalerite, pearly like mother ci pearl, silky like 
-rxes axpeitiae. greasy like eheolite, or waxy tike chalcedony. 

Btrdacsk The resistance of a smooth plane sui^ux to abrasion is called 
-• ^rjamaad is recorded in terms of the following scale: 

I cTsIc 6.0 Orthodaae 8.5 Chiysobeiyl 

3.0 Cfpami 7.0 Quarts 9.0 Sapi^re 

J.0 Ciidte 7.5 Zircon 9.5 Carborundum 

4oF1aodte 8.0 Topcu zo.o Diamond 


nsqr be readied by use of finger nafl (aH), copper ooin (3) 
'- knie (5^). Some smooth surface of the mineral to be tested is selected, 
~ ^ricb A point of the standard is pressed and moved badk. and forth several 
-"A iMij^htti of an inch or less. If the mineral is scratched it is softer than 
-z saadanL Two minerab of equal hardness will scratch each other. Pul- 
or sf&iUry minerab are "broken down" by the test and 3rield an 
:" hardness often much lower than the true hardness. Rough sur- 
*- 2 Af^yidA doobtfu! results. 

sirsak. Hie color ol minerals of metallic lustre and the color 

r. or streak, when not white, are veiy much used in sight reoogni- 

fa non-metallic lustre often vary greatly in colon The color 

sidlf ohraimrd on a fresh surface. The streak is usually obtained by 

'i^ tibe SBnenl on a smooth but not glased white or black surtacep such as 

'ftreak piste" or a piece of toudistone (black quartz). The excess 

ihoafcl be brushed away and the thin adluring layer considered. 

gravity. The specific gravity of a substance is equal to its weight 

- ^9^ bf tbe weight of an equal volume of distilled water at 4" C. Oidinar 

' • noa tonperature is used. Pure compact material is needed. The most 

3atf rendts are obtained by a delicate chemical balance, but for determinsr 

• • ^Jfoats the foflowing are more rapid and suffidently accurate. 

^ l^r Wane*. Two scale pans are s t udi ed , one below the other, to a ipirai 
"•7 faoAd to which is a mirror with a grsdoated scale. The lower scale pan is kept 
'SnA a distilled water. The ooinddeiice of a bead on the wire and its image in 
' Kovgive: 

* • lodog with Bothing in diher scale pan. 
f * * " mtneral in upper scale pan. 

• * ' ** aanse iragBBent in lower scale pan. 

Sp. Gr. - (B -if) + (B -O 

Tb* WaSBpfeal balance. More accurate results are obtained by subatituthig for 
' '^rrsuaelcr float of a Westphal balance a double scale pan, the lower pan of whidk 
» II  1 in ifirtiHcd water. 

I "Vo^ aeeded to balance apparatus. 

<• * .«•<•• u with ninend m upper scale pan. 


Sp^Gr.-(il-B) + (C-B) 

8 Identification of Minerals 

HMivy liquids. If a fragment of a miiwral ii floating in a liquid of 
gravity and a diluent is stirred in, dmp by drop, until the fragment if pushed do 
neither sink nor rise but stay where pushed, the specific gravity of the Uqiud a 
mined by a Westphal balance will be the specific gravity of the mineral. ^TIm 
liquids most used are: Methylene iodide (3.32); diluent, benxol. Bromoform 
diluent, xykrf or benxd. Solution of mercuric iodide and potassic iodide (3.2); 

4. Testing with the Blowpipe 

AppsrstttS. The essential pieces of apparatus for all the tests given a 

z. Either a gas blowpipe, or some form of burner for gas or heavy oil 
plain blowpipe. 

2. Platinum wire about 0.25 mm diameter. Six inches of it will mal 
wires. A holder is needed. 

3. Platinum-pointed forceps. 

4. Charcoal in convenient sizes and with smooth surfaces (say 4 1^ x by 
S' Tubes of hard glass about 3 by fie in, dosed at one end. 

6. Pocket lens of good quality. 

7. Simple goniometer. 

8. Merwin Color Screen (G. M. Flint, Cambridge, Mass.). 

For the other apparatus considerable latitude is possible and substitut 
be improvised for the regular stock artide. The needed list would be: 
glasses, bottles (i oz) for reagents, hammer, anvil, and magnet. 

About ten reagents are used, the prindpal being borax, salt of ph<^p 
sodic carbonate, potassic bisulphate, cobaltic nitrate, and hydrodiloric 
Two others are needed in preparing the bismuth flux and there will be n 
occasionally metallic tin and nitric or sulphuric add. 

A continuous blowpipe blast is obtained by distending the cheeks and 
the mouth as an air reservoir, breathing regularly through the nose and 
time to time admitting more air from the lungs through the tliroat i 

Any luminous flame may be used and, by regulating the relative amou 
air and flame, may be "blown" as a dear blue flame or a yellow flame, b 
which owe their color to incomplete combustion (CO or C) and therefore V 
redttce, that is, to take oxygen* from substances placed therdn. Hereaf tc 
flame is designated by the letters R.F. A practically non-luminous col 
envelope surrounds the blue flame and less distinctly the yellow flame. I 
there is an excess of oxygen and it therefore tends to oxidize substances i 
therein. Hereafter this flame is designated by the letters O.F. 

Fusion or fusibility. The ease of fusibility and the phenomena c 
fusion are convenient tests. The hottest portion of the flame is just b( 
the tip of the blue flame. Some substances, noticeably certain iron ores, 1 
are infusible in the oxidizing flame are fusible in the redudng flame. 

The test is most safely made by flrst heating on charcoal a fragment ( 
substance the size of a pin's head, to prove presence or absence of volat 
easily-redudble elements, which are likely to alloy with platinum. If the 
present the fusion test must be limited to the test on charcoal. If redt; 
metals or volatile constituents are absent, a small sharp-edged fragmti 
heated in the platinum forceps, at the tip of the blue flame, directing the 
upon the point. Fragments long enough to project beyond the platinum s) 
be used and it is alwa3rs well to examine the splinter with a magnifying i 
before and after heating. Fragments for comparison must be approximal^ 
same siu and shape. 

' i Tesdng with tlie Blowpipe 9 

«f fwirilMflrf B rtated ather in termi of a scale of (uabOity, toiiestcd by 
IS easily fusible, fusible, fusible with difficnlty, tv infusible: 

I. StibmU, oosne ^lUntecs fuse in a candle flame. 
foifiife: ^ a. Ckak»pyriie, Small fxacmeots fuse in the Btmkea boner 

Gsnwl (almamdUe), coarse spfinten eaaaly fuse befocc the 

blowpipe. Not fusible in Bunaen burner. 
Actim«Ute, fine sptinters fuse eady before the blowpipe. 

Ortixkue, fased only in fine spSnten or on thin edges before 

the blowpipe. 
CaUwdme, finest edge only ronnded in hottest part of flame. 

Isfasible: 7. Qmarts, infusible, retaining the edge in all its shariuess. 

<d the fiakm may be a i^ass or slag, which is dear and transparent, or white 

«-;ae, or ol aoate oolor, or filled with bubbles; during the fusion there may be a 

'. jc EAasxaceact, or a swelling and sptitting (exfoliation). In certain »nf*^itTf 

•: aad kuxa may change without fusion, or the substance may take fire and bum, 

^a mtf krtiov the k«s of some volatile constituent. 

>o;zhaity. Adds, cspedaUy dilute (1:1) hydrodiloric add, are used not 
- ~ determine compositioa but also to determine the ease or degree of 

-7 This test faUs only from carelessness. The substance must be 
 '< a nearly pure as possible, finely ground and added to the add in suc- 
-'t saafl qnaodtics. A dear solution should be aimed at, add being added 
'-rt is needed until everything has dissolved. If complete solution cannot 

'jkai, the bqukl must be filtered and the dear filtrate slowly and partially 

• <.'^:ri Tmtil separation commences. If doubt exists as to solubility the 

• wajf he eoap^raied to dryness^ a residue proving solution to have taken 

- Sdbhi&ty may be accompanied by effervescence with or without odor 
: uid. or only on beating. The evaporation may be difficult and incom- 
r>' liiefe may be separation of a perfect jdly, or of separate lumps of jdly, 
>/«dff. or oC aystals. The solution may be of a characteristic color. 

"^'^Aag fv flMwrifl dompo&ente. The tests used are described in place 

- .tftenainative tables following Art xo. The manipulations and precau* 

- *si- boefty as follows: 

ToiinK hi rioaad tabes. A narrow tube of hard glass, about 3 in by Me in and 
J. -^ end, is best. Enough of the substance is slid down a narrow strip of paper, 
-»-* —ilul in the tube, to fill it to the height of about \i in; the paper is with- 

"- Lsd the inrlinrd tube heated gradually at the lower end to a red heat. Soda or 

~ •*■** ?» » tfc aonetimes mixed with the substance. The results may be: evolution 

r yicsom or non-odorous vapors, sublimates of various colon, decreiutation, 

' 'isaasoe, f ssion, charring, change of odor, and magnetization. 

1 Titfisg •■ charooal. A shallow cavity, to prevent the substance from slipping, 

** u aar eed of the charcoal, and a small fragment of the mineral is placed in it. 

* r:^ B keld tn the left hand, the surface tipped at about z2o* to the direction in 

'.-«( fsjse a hiown. and a gentle O.F. is blown on the substance. If no sublimate 

'^ b!st is increased, stiU keeping the flame oddiring. Another fragment b 

' n fki %S^ the sabsiance being kept covered for several mfaiutes with the yellow 

their color, position on the charcoal, ease of removal by heating in the 
« kJ*.. sad the cdon imparted to the flame are all noted. Chemical changes may 
' afimlBd by reduced metal, magnetic residues, alkalinity, etc. 

^ toflig wHfc soda on etaarcoal. Sodic carbonate C'Soda"), heated on diar* 
f'Sim flax; H also exerts a redudng action, attributeid to the formation of sodic 
<, iMwim sodium, and carbon mooodde. It combines with many substances. 

'*-K bsth isabie aad iafuiibie compounds. The most satisfactory general metBod 



Identification of Minerals 

b to mix ooe part of the substance to be tested with three parts of mdstanod soda 
little boiaz, and treat with a good R.F. on charcoal until everything that can be afa 
has disappeared. 

IV. TMtbig with Unniith flux on charcoal and on plaater taUeta. 
limates of brilliantly colored iodides and sulpho-iodides are obtained if bismut 
(two parts sulphur, one part potassium iodide, and one part add potassium sulph 
mixed with certain powdered minerals, placed on charcoal, or a plaster tablet, and 1 
gently. The larger series of tests are obtained on plaster, the sublimates differ 
position and to some extent in color from those obtained on charcoal. Plaster 1 
are prepared by spreading a thick paste of plaster of Paris and water upon a sfa 
oiled glass, and smoothing to a uniform thickness (H in to M in). While still soj 
paste is cut with a knife into uniform slabs. 4 in by x mn. It is then dried, after 
the tablets are easily detached from the glass. 

V. Flame coloration. A number of minerals when heated color the flame, sot 
a -gentle heat, some only at the highest heat attainable. Repeated dippini; of the m 
in hydrochloric add usually assists by forming volatile chlorides. A good metb 
cover all cases is as follows: Arrange a black badground, such as a piece of cha 
powder the substance finely, flatten the end of a dean platinum wire and dip it in « 
add, then in the powder, and hc^d it first just touching the flame near the blowpip 
then at the tip of the blue flame; again dip in the acid and again heat as before. 

Concentrated sulphuric add, and also a paste made of water, 4H parts add potoj 
sulphate and x part of caldum fluoride, are also used to release certain flame-col 
constituents, espedally boion, phosphorus and lithium. 

Red flames of caldum, strontium, lithium, and the violet flames of potasaium ii 
presence of sodium, are most conveniently studied by Merwin's C(Aac Scale (Sc 
Vol. 50, p. 571), consisting of three colored strips of celluloid; No x, blue. No a, 
lapping blue and violet, No 3, violet. These absorb different portions of the aptc 
as follows: 




Strontium or lithium 



Greenish yellow 

No a 


! Violet and 

No 3 


( Violet and 

1 Violet-red 

Paint crim 


These elements are still more exactly distinguished by use of a small pocket spe< 
scope. The mineral is. mobtened with hydrochloric add and brought on a plati 
wire into the non-luminous flame of the Bunsen burner. Thb b viewed through 
spectroscope and bright lines are seen. The yellow sodium line b almost invari 
IKcsent and the position of the other lines b best fixed by their situation rdative to 
bright yellow line. 

VI. Bead teats with borax and with salt of phosid&oras. The oxides of cei 
dements dissolve in borax and salt of phosphorus and impart characterbtic ccAon to 
mass, which may differ when hot and cold and according to the degree of oxidatio 
reduction. Preliminary to bead tests, sulphides, arsenides, arsenates, etc., may be • 
verted into oxides by treating in a shallow cavity on charcoal at a dull red heat; 6rst 1 
a feeble oxidizing flame, then a feeble reducing flame, then agaiq an oridiang flame, 
so on as long as odors or fumes are noticeable. 

To make a bead: Make a loop in platinum wire by bending it arowid a pendl p 
so that the end meets but does not cross the straight part. Heat the loop, dip it into 
flux, and fuse to a clear bead the portion that adheres. Add more flux nntil the bea 
of full rounded shape. With salt of phosphorus the bead should be hdd a little ab 
the flame so that the ascending hot gases wiU help to retain the flux upon the « 
Touch the warm bead to the substance, place it in the O.F., and treat until dear. ^ 
tbf colon, hot and cold. Then treat in the R.F. and note ofAan as before. 

Minerals of Rocks and Veins It 

Iwated with a strong flame will give dear glaaiet untu 
.xst b^ if heated slowly and gently or intcrmitten^y, will yield opaque or enameL 

<n. Tfrtu with oobolt so l ii U o n . Certain anbstances become colored, whea 
<^c9ed wik a sointion of oobait oitzate in ten parts of water and tliea heated to \ 
'^ asL The test b osaally made on cfaarcoaL Certain other snbetances yield cokni 
V -3^ haied, cooled, and then m oistened with the oobait solution without reheating, 
bofled with oobait solution are cokxed thereby. 

occurrence: and association of 


S. Minerals of Jtocks and Veins 

Most minerals occur in nuwe than one dass of rode or mineral 

'^'T^ ad t h ere fo re with different groups of associates. The most probable 

citetef vsf mineral in any particubir occurrence are: i . Tlie great minerals 

^jul Ibbb of occurrence. 2. Minerak containing some prominent dement 

tissfltti of the given mineraL In the following lists, which include the rock- 

"^ wmtnik and the minerab of economic importance, the species in italics 

liacEds of tbe igneoos rocks. These mmends in general have either sep- 
^.lii fnm I foskn solution or ''magma" (each sqiarating whenever for the 
irrjyr tOKpentuie and pressure the magma is supersaturated with it), or 

r% hi«e i<mcd later, as secondary minerals, by the decomposition or alter- 
'■ 1 of the primary minerals. It is estimated that they constitute 95% of 
'^ caovi cziist of the earth. 

^oadfA prianry minerals of igneons rocks. Albite, anorthite, amphi- 
'■.t hanblode), biotite, chrysolite (oGvine), enstatite, hypersthene, labra- 
- 'te, lente, mosoovite, nephelite (elaeolite) oligodase, orthodase, pyroxene 
^^ qnitz, aodalite. 

ICbv irimary minarala of igneons rocks. AnalcUe, apatite, ckalco- 
'^^ drys^beryl, diromite^ cumabar, corundum, epidote, gamei (almandlte, 
'^^ pyrope), goeHuSe, gM, grapkiSe, hematite, ilmenite, UpidolUe, mag- 
- *A lArtir, wdjMemte, monazite^ pynte, pyroxene (diopside), pyrrhotite. 

ia igneous rocks. AUnU, alunite, analcite, apophyllite. 
. krttr. calcite, chabaate. chalcedony, (JuUcanUtUe^ ckakopyrUe, cblo- 
f^yitA, capper, datoitte, epidote, kaolin, lepidoUte, limoniie, magnetite, mala- 
* ■Muwik, natrolite, opal, fyrargynU, quaita, serpentine, siderite, sphaUriU, 

tf ptgBMtite vdns. Vein-like portions of granites or other igneous rocks 
1 tke aiaeah of the lodc are found in much- larger crystals and in which many 
toocor not noticed in the adjoining rocks. 
■■Mjimiii, apatite, beryl, biottte, cMsitmte, cht^fosQet cUorite, ckrysoberyl, 
>f*y*tU,diaMumi, gdUnite, ganut (almandlte and speiaartite), graphite, lepi- 
^"^^ ^?^' °^c'('clioc> mUybdtnUet monatiU, muscovite, nepheUte, orthodase, 
fy^ tartkHk, qoaxtz, spodnmeoe, topas, tourmaline, uraninite, zircon. 

^^•1 ore fsins. For convenience these have been listed under 

^^^OMBgi: Minerab in aone d weathering or ooddaUon, and minerals of 

^*'™*J*WBe. hifonoof oiidatlon. Anglesite, aasurite, brochantite, cala- 

=3^ ocitite, cenigjnite, cemsate, ckakanthite, dirysocolla, copper, crocoite, 

4«te, anboGtc, etythiite, goetbite, gold, iodyiitc, limontte, malachite, manga- 

12 Occurrence and Association of Minerals 

nite, mimetite, pyromorpbite, rhodochrosite, siderite, silver, smitbsonite, i 
tianile, sulphur, vanadinite, vivianiu^ wulfenite. In unojddized zone. 
mony, argentite, arsenic, arseaopyrite, barite, bornite, braunite, calcite, < 
erite, chalcodte, chalcopyrite, cobaltite, copper, dolomite, fluorite, eaJ\ 
gold, graphite, jamesonite, Unnsite, marcasite, millerite, nicoolite, orpii 
orthodase, pentlandite, proustite, pyrargyrite, pyrite, pyrrbotite, quartz/ 
gar, smaltite, sphalerite, stannite, stephanite, stibnite, sylvanite, tetrahei 

Minerals of tin veins. Albite, amblygonite, apatite, arsenopyrite« 
muth, caldte, cassiterite, chlorite, columbite, fluorite, gaienUe, kaolin* lepid 
molybdeniie, pyrite, pyroxene, quartz, acheelite, wemerite, wolframite. 

Minerals of apatite veins. Albite, amphibole, apatite, biotite, ca 
enstatite, hematite, ilmenite, magnetite, oligodase, pyrite, quartz, rutile, tita 
tourmaline, weiiierite. 

Minerali due to ▼olcanic ezhalations. Alunite, aaasdite, gulphur, and relal 
small quantities of other spedes, as amphibole, hematite, sal-ammoniac, etc., occur i 
result of gases given off during volcanic action. 

I. Minerals Found in Saline Residues 

These exist as sediments predpitated from solution in natural waters, spii 

rivers, marshes, lakes, seas, and oceans. 

From sprincB. Alunogen, aragonite, barite, bauxite (?), caldte, cclestite, chalce<j 
dnnabar, fluorite, hydrozindte, kalinite, Umonite, pyrite, sassoUte, siderite, sulphur 

From soda and borax lakes and lagoons. Anhydrite, calcite, borax, cele 
cerargyriU^ colemanite, dolomite, emboliU, gold, gypsum, halite, mirabiiite, sas» 
soda uUre, sulphur, trona, ulexite. 

From oceans, aeas, lakes, and marshes. Apatite, anhydrite, bauxite, bora 
cakite, carnaUite, ceUsiite, cerargyriU, diiiomiU, epsomiU, gypsum, halite, kainite, kieac 
Umonite, siderite, wad. 

Local saline residues (often incrustations or efflorescences). Alunite, aluna 
chalcanthite, copiapite, epsomite, kalinite, mirabiiite. 

7. Minerals in Gravels, Sands, Clays, and Mails 

Minerals common to all. Biotite, caldte, chlorite, garnet, hematite, kaoH) 
limonite, magnetite, muscovite, orthodase, plagiodase, pjoite, pyropkyUUa, Pyren 
rutile, siderite, titanite, tourmaline. 

Gem minerals and ores in gravels and sands. Cassiterite, chrysoberyl, chrysoi 
corundum, diamond, gold, ilmenite, monazite, platinum, spinel, tourmaline, Unptus, xir^ 

Minor minerals in gravels and sands. Amphibole, andaiusiie, apatite, cyaC 
dolomUe, enstatite, epidote, kypersthene, mierocline, sepiolite, serpentine. siUimamitc. 

Ores in days. Galenite, limonite, manganite, psilomdane, psnolusite, wad. 
Minor minerals in clays and marls. Amphibole, aragonite, barite, utestile, g 
sum, halloysite, orpiment, realgar, strontianite, vivianite. 

Minerals in sandstones. Chiefly quartz, orthodase, plagiodase, limom'le. muii 
vite. Minor Minerals are camotUe, galenite, gold, marcasite, manganite, Pyrite, py 
lusite, siderite, sphalerite. 

Minerals in sedimentary limestone. Aragonite, calcite, dolomite, fluorite, gsleni 
Umonite (bog ore), nitre, opal (diatomaoeous earth), siderite, soda nitre, sulphur, apbakril 

In serpentine and soapstones. Amphibole, aragonite, arstn0pyrite, cakite, chl 
rite, chromite, chrysoUte, cinnabar, diamond, dolomite, enstatite, epidote, garn 
(pjrrope), gamierite, ilmenite, magnesite, magnetite, phlogopite, pl^inum, pyroxei 
pyrofdiyUite, quartz, sepiolite, serpentine, talc. 

Uses of Minerals m Their Natural State 13 

8. Coatact Minarals 

lodc penetrates a preSxisting rode the heat, pressure, and 
freqncDtly produce new minerals at and near the surface of 


' mto vilh fim€Stone. Amphibble (tremoltte), anorthite, biotite, bor^ 

:;Kx»izD(£te; corundum, danbwiit^ enstaiiUy epidote, fiuoriUt garnet 

T^3i aad aodiadite), graphite, lasMriie, molybdenite, pUogopite, pyrite, 

--i^ • Jopade), seJkeeiiie, spinel, tourmaline, vesuvianUe, wemerite, wollas- 

vHh siBcate rocks (day, shale, slate, or crystalline schists). 

"i^ ';banil^ende), andalusite (cfaiastolite), biotite, dilorite, corundum, 
spBit^ gamrt, ilmenite, magnetite, pjrrozene (augit^), quartz, rutile, 
2£^ sprad, staurolite, titanite^ tourmatine, topaz, wemerite, zircon. 

Minenls of Metamofphlc Roeks 

Tbt Biaasls ol the metamorphic rocks indude many spedes of the 

- x nxis» aad many qiedes already listed under contact minerals. A 
'-v. SSI idkms: In CrysiaUine LimestoneSy and Dohmites: amphibole 

" i:'-f '.. ipadte, aragonite, caldte, chondrodUe, corundum, dolomite, frank- 

~ •dfbiemiie, phlogopite, pyroxene, pyrrhotite, rhodonite, serpentine, 

^>32i^ spifid, Aok, wniemite, andte, zircon. In Gneisses and Schists: 

 ^tao. BBaerals of the second list (contacts with silicate rocks). Also 

^•t apatite, beryl, Inotite, caldte, dialoopyrite, chiysoberyl, datolUe, 

'-^. (lUcife, graphite, hematite, molybdenite, monazite, musoovite, ortho- 

ittgiodbae, pyzite; pyrophyllit^ pyiihotitev talc, ktrakedriU, vesuvianite, 


r:3 Zsi indudes only the prindpal uses of the minerals as such, and their 
^ IS tke Baterial from which other substances are directly extracted or 

- -vTjpcd. The secondary products derived from these primary products 

t. Uses of Minerals in Their Hatnral State 

Qoaftz, garnet, opal (tripolite and diatomaoeous earth), corundum and 
(bort). offthodase. Leudte and alonite rocks have been used as mill- 


Quartz, orthodaae, plaginrlaar. mnioovite, biotite, pyroxene and 
«k a raiyng proportioos, forming igneous rocks cammerdally knovm as granite 
'Vi lak and pyioplqrtttte (aoapitooes), lecpentines, cakite and dobmite lime- 
.-k uc Bttfaks). quarU (sandrtooe). 

Mrialsrs. Moacovite, i^bJogopite, caldte (marble). , 

rafmlHtf and kainite for potash; soda nitre for nitrogen; gypsum and 
' is fiae; ipatite (plwwphatc cock) for pfaoqihoric add. Muscovite and biotite as 

'^'Bia C a kitr, oa o rite, borax, pynhislte. 

^'^•>a OkAf qnaitz (sand and saadatooe) aad caldte CUmestooe); to a less extent 
Viigiodiae, cryolste, aad pyzdusite. ' 

Graphite talc, muscovite. 

'^^ taA figanBts. Hematite and Uraooite as "metallic paint;" the same min- 
wHh day. "ocher." Cakite (chalk) as " whiUng;" wad, barite, gypeom, 
, tak, kadSa, quartz, msgnesitr, axorite, graphite, aaphaltum. 

14 The Uses of Minerals 

Pftper mannfactiire. Talc (fibrous), gypsum (selenlte), as constituents ai 
Barite, caldte, kaolin, magnesite, bauxite, muscovite, for weight and glase. 

Porcelain, pottery, etc Kaolin and other days, quartz, orthodase, albiM 

Predous ttonee. Diamond, beryl, emerald, corundum (sapphire and ruby)i 
beiyl (alexandrite), garnet (demantoid), spinel (ruby spind). Semi-precious 
Other varieties of beryl, corundum, chrysoberyl, si»nel, and garnet. Also opal 
oUte (peridot), (Quartz (amethyst and yellow), topaz, tourmaline, turquoise, 
spodumene (kunzite, hiddenite), orthodaae (moonstone). Omameiitel stoines. 
dialcedony (onyx, camelian, sard, agate, etc.), quartz (rose, cat's eye, ave 
smoky, etc.), orthodase (amazon stone), plagiodase (labradorite and suustonej 
phibole O'ade), lazurite (lapis lazuli), malachite, azurite, calamine, smithaonite, chr:| 
fluorite, gypsum (satin spar), serpentine, hematite, pyrite, rhodonite, talc. Oc 
faceted stones are cut from apatite, andalusite, caasiterite, diondrodite, cyantte. p 
(dbpside), enstatite, eiudote, prehnite, staurolite, titanite and vesuvianite. 

Refractory material! and heat inanlators. Asbestos, banzite, cfarooiite, di 
graphite, ilmenite, kaolin, magnesite, muscovite, opal (diatomaceous earth), sei 
(chryaotile), quartz, pyrophyllite and talc (aoopstone). 

Rubber manufacture. Sulphur, stibnlte, barite, caldte. 

Soap and washing powders, toflet artides. Borax, opal (diatomaceous 
talc, quartz, magnesite, orthodase. 

Sundries. Ccioring or decohriwing: pyrolusite, psilomdane, nitile. Cond 
halite. Explosives: nitre, sulphur. Filters: opal (tripolite). Emamds: fliaorite. 
Matches: stibnite, sulphur. Optical: quartz, calcite. fluorite, gsrpsum, mua 
Pencils: graphite, talc, pyrophyllite. Pipes: sepiolite (meerschaum), sucdnite (ai 

It. Products Extracted or Manufactored Directly from Minei 

Aluminum from bauxite, possibly gibbsite, with ciyoUte as flux. 

Alundum (Al|Oa) from bauxite. 

Aluminium sulphate and alum from alunite, cryolite, bauxite, kaolin. 

Antimony from stibnite and its alteration products and lead ores carrying anCia 

Arsenic from araenopjrrite and sometimes from smaltite, ooboltite, enazgite, etc. 

Barium hydroxide and barium sulphide from barite. 

Bismuth from native bismuth, bismutite, and bismite. 

Borax and horic acid, from colemanite, ulexite, borax, and sasaolite. 

Bromine from halite (salt brine). 

Cadmium from sphalerite and smithsonite containing greenockite. 

Calcium oxide {lime) from caldte (limestone). 

Calcium sulphate {hemi-hydrate) or plaster from gypsum. 

Calcium superphosphate from apatite. 

Cements from caldte and days. 

Carbonic acid from magnesite and calcite. 

Ckkfrine from hydrochloric acid and pyrolusite, the former bdng derived from ha 

Chromium alloys, espedally ferrochrome from chromite. 

Cobalt oxide and cobalt arsenate iuaffre) from smaltite, cobaltite, and cobaltifi 

Copper prindpally from chalcopyrite and bomite, native copper, cuprite, mala< 
and azurite, though chalcodte, enargite, tetrahedrite, atacamite, brochantite, chal 
thite, and chryaocolla are all sources of copper in certain districts. In addition to i 
the iron sulphides often carry copper which is extracted after burning for sulphuric i 

Copper sulphate from chalcopjrrite. 

Gold from gold and the gold tellurides (sylvanite, calaverite, petate), from silver 
copper ores and from the minerals pyrite, arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite, and sphali 
and other sulphides or tdlurides. 

Hydrochloric add from halite. 

Hydrofluoric acid from fluorite and cryolite. 

Iodine from sodium iodate obtained from soda nitse. 

Iridium from iridosmine. 

Praducts Extracted or Manufactured from Minerals 15 

- -^ w-ri>. liBoaite. masnetite, «nd siderite, goethitc. and turgite (commer- 
v^-ad wth ttBMUte). uxae ibneDite. and rardy fesidues from the roosUng ot 

\>« 9rm») flc * copperas" from pyritc and chaWrite. 
■.«^j«a«itf7lniBliai^diiute and certain maogamferou* hematites and »id»- 

. jc^ DfnfaBite. twfemdane, mansanitc and other manganese oxides. 
=SSI3tSteand ceniaite. Anglesite and pyiomorphite sometimes occur 

i^ tffi t**— ■< wtiU lead and blue lead) from galenite. 
! faoa spodomene, lepidolite. amUygonite. 

.1- j« imiiwiirr {mm ddooute. Basic carbonate from kieserite. 
vrammic book nacneaite. and indirectly kieserite. 

. vjw cUariit from caniaHite. ,, . , # -««-:»- 

x-wm sdfkak (epaom sahs) from kieserite and kss extensively from magnesitc 

.C^«a»t5 bma pyrohisile, pulom^ne and braunite, or with intermixed rbodo- 

^'■£ ad Aodoute. 

I'^aof s«Ui fnxa p y r u h ai t e . 

 "r, BOB dsBabar. 

>:<»* a^ «iMWflk awlyftiale from moTybdenite. 

n stn jntUnifite. garnierite, nickeliferous pyrrhoUttj. and to a leis extent 

-Jca*. akcofite and the cobalt minerals, cobaltite and Unnaite. 

^* sad fnn aoda-wtxe and nitre. 

tea ooDoei ores and platinum. 
» ^i^ fanainfaBpuR caktnm phosphate (sombrerite). or from bone ash. 
>-'^hasBativeplatiniim and sperryUte. and from some gold and copper oks. 
' -fca— fagi ctfaaQitc- 
f . -aa &lr«sMle from chramite. 
' . :-Mi »^4aC( tram kainite. 

> ".Mm rnHnU from soda nitre and camallite. 
<-^-^w dMdc from onniBite, camotite. and autnnite. 

4m Ina salpbor. chskopyritc. and pyrite. 

'--mtahiii icarfaorundum) from quartz and coke. 

.> t dVvf flem-^ooa) from quartz. s*^ .«^ i-^ 

- r^ :n» miive shrer. aigentite. ceraigyrite. embohte. proustite, pynxgyntt^ and M 

 • -^^ Wste polybasite. and iodyrite. Included m other mmeraU. noUbly. galen- 
botabo in copper ores, manganese ores and with gold in pyritc and aTBen- 



WA (bocaz) from oofemanite. uknte. sasM^ and naUve borax. 
^ idtktk (sak-^) from halHe. and from this, caustic soda, carbonate* Wcar- 

•^^iMfliM^aicJUtfrt^fromstrontianite. v.i.,«r»,^. 

.•^ic odd, sml^kvims acid, from native sulphur, pynte, maicasite, chalcopyrtte, 
• -^cs^K, p^Mite, and other sulphide ores. 
* aaSha ImB coiotBDite. 

Ttmm mttk ni tkonum vxide from mooazits, thorite, th o riwnitft . 
r-« mi rtBmt OumaU from cassiterite. 
'jammmijm9-l\taidum from ihnenite. 
*^smm emiiiie from rutile. 

'$-immtslem, from wolframite and schecSite. 
^"liin 4 toU Irom wolframite. 

CiMBB 9dbv«rMtf^wtf>w«Ml« from uraniiilte. camotite. ... . , . 

» <«««. tad/tm^miudwm from carnotite, pstronite, roMoeUte, vaasdmiU, detdoi- 

i^^i^^ld^^ ffom sphakdie, ■nWwmite. and calamine; and In 
^ loey. vtteiiite and zindtc. 
^« ia<#4^tmm sphalerite. 
>mUc from sirnon. 

16 Descriptive and Determinative Tables 



Rare spedes without economic value are omitted from these tali 
found and tested, the result would be a failure to identify. Tlieir ii 
would enormously increase the complexity of the tables and some'what i 
the difficulty of any determination. 

In view of the limited space the spedes are described only in the tab 
the accompanying index will enable the user to find a brief descriptioo 

(For example, Scheelite. A reference to VII, 4, will give composition 
talline system, hardness, spedfic gravity, colors, solubility, flame cole 
behavior with fluxes and general appearance.) 

The uses and occurrence of minerals are sunmiarized in separate tabli 
using the tables the customary precautions are understood to be taken: 

1. Tests must be made upon homogeneous materials, and lustres and! 
observed on fresh fractures. 

2. Classifyiog tests must be dedded; not weak, nor indefinite. If 
dded, the spedes on both sides of the dividing line must be considered. 

3. Hardness tests should be assiuned to be within say one half; tha 
determination H « s should for safety be taken as 4.5 to 5.5. 

As shown by the accompanying key, the principal subdivision is b^ 
metallic and non-metallic lustre. The blowpipe test is made subording 
minerals of metallic lustre and minerals of non-metallic lustre with ci 
streaks; but, for minerak of non-metallic lustre with white streaks, expe 
has proved that either the blowpipe or the microscope lead to a detennii 
with less repetition than such qualities as color and hardness. 

A novel feature of the tables is the "scheme within a scheme," by whi< 
order of testing may be varied. For instance, in Table VI the airan^em 
by blowpipe tests in order of hardness, but the parallel columns permit 
to be used as the classifying test; that is, the order of testing may be coIo 
hardness or blowpipe test and hardness. 

Similarly in Table III, the arrangement of the metallic white and ^ray 
erals is by streak and hardness, but the parallel columns permit the behav^ 
charcoal in oxidizing and reducing flame to be used as the classifying test; til 
the order of testing may be color, streak and hardness, or color and beh 
on charcoal. 

Chemical symbols are used only for the formulas of the spedes and fd 
common solvents, HCl, HsS04, HNOi, KOH, etc. Aside from these a 
abbreviations are used, the principal being: 

Systems of crystallization are indicated by the letters: I (Isometric), T | 
ragonal), O (Orthorhombic), M (Monoclinic), Tri (Triclinic), H (Hexagon^ 

Terms in blowpipe tests. Soda for sodic carbonate, S. Ph. for sai 
phosphorus, O. F. and R. F. for oxidizing and reducing flame, Co. Sol. for cc 
solution, coal for charcoal. 

The + sign in any column opposite any mineral indicates that- the qui 
indicated is a character of that mineral. 

Table I. Minerals of MeiaUic or Sub-Metallic Lustre, Black m NtaHy Bha 
Color (induding arbitrarily some dark-colored minerals of doubtful lus^ 

1. With black or nearly black streak. . "^ J 

2. With streak not black. ^^*^^ ^^^^ 

Key to Tables 17 

I%su n. JTflKFMif »/ MetaiiU Lautrt, Tm Wkite, SUwer White, Lead Gray 

% ti Uack streak. 
: ^.tbsdakaot bbck. 

*'ui m Mmertit of MetaOic Lusin, MtlaOic Ydhw, Sronu or JUd in 

. ridUKk streak. 

- VitkAicak not blade. 

'iU rr. Mmerals of Nom-UdaOie Lustre, with Dedied Taste (soluble in 
^sa faed, powdered, moistened with cancentrated HsSOi and ignited 
 phrtmim wire, yieki: 

• ?9Bt yAm. No violet through blue glaas. 
f^ne Tiakt thxocii^ blue glass. 

^ V. MimeraU ef Nen^IietaOic Lustre, Tastdess, with Colored Streah. 

Vdmr to ycBowish brown streak. 
« £fld to leddish-brown streak. 

^u \X Miuerals of Non-MetaOU Lustre, Tasteless, with White Streak, 
ritfai RmcHous on Charcoal with Sodic Carbonate: 

hones or sublimates. 
>) hmts or wiMimitfs, but are reduced to metallic or magnetic particles. 
Vf hmes, subGanates or reduced particles, but if mobtened wiU stain 

' U2 vn. Minerals of Non-MetaUic Lustre, Tasteless, with White Streak, 
Tiddmg mo Teste with SodU Carbonate. 
\ \sm hagmeot heated in platinum forceps at tip of the blue flame is: 

[wed eaafy (i to 4) to a white, opaque glass, or enameL 
. t-med ce3y (i to 4) to a colorless glass. 

: jaed cssljr (i to 4) to a colored glass. 
- ^aed with difficulty (5 to 6), sometimes barely rounding the edges. 

i^^aabk hot in powder ia made deep blue by ignition with cobalt solu- 

tad is Ml made deep blue by ignition with cobalt solution. 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables 

Table L Minenls of MeteUte or Sub-M^ 
(Including arbitrarily some 

Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 






H. Graphite 


H**lt0 2 G)-2.It0 2.2 


H-ito2.5 G>4.7to4.8 

O. Stibnite. 


On coal in O. P. and R. P. 



G«4-5 to 4.6 

I. Argentite. 

H»2t0 2.5 


O. Stephanite 

H-*2to2.s G"-6.2to6.3 

I. Galenite 

H-2.S G-7.4t0 7.6 

O. Jamesonite 

H«2.5 0-5^ to 6 

O. Polyhasite 

H»2to3 G«i6to6.2 

O. Chalcodte 

H-2.5to3 G«>s.StoS-8 



Dense white 

White, later 

White O. P. 
Yellow R. P. 

Dense white. 
Some yellow 

Dense white 




Hmerak of Metallic or Sul>-Metallic Lustre, Black 


in Color 

ila of doabtial Instxe) 

""*^ Sfllnbffity 


Heated in 
dosed tube 



SoL (with 

Sol. HNC 
S. Ppt. 
with HO) 

SoS. HNOk 

I (white 


hot Ha 

Yields ozy- 
gen and 

Other testa 

black hot, 
red cold. 


Sol. (with 


SoL BNO>. 
(Ppt. with 

1$ SoL HKO, 

Stight fed 

A tittle 

red sub- 


Puses. No 

In CuSOi solution in 
contact with sine 
quickly copper-plat- 
ed. (Molybdenite 
is sknrly plated) 

Colors borax ame- 
thystine in O. P. 

Made yellow by 
KOH and par- 
tially dissolved. 
HCl gives orange 

With soda, metallic 
Ag and S reaction 

Decomposed by 
KOH. HCl gives 

"Bismuth Plux" 
on coal gives 
greenish yellow 

Bi. Plus '* on coal 
gives greenish yel- 
low subUmate 

Metallic residue 
ignited with HCl 
gives asure blue 

Bmeraldgreen flame 
made azure blue 
by HCl 


^hinfng flakes and 
masses or dull, impure 
masses. Soft, greasy 
and cold to the touch. 
Shining mark on pa- 

Bright, easily bruised 
needles or fibres or dull 
Dull mark on 

Bright columnar, bladed 
or fine-grained masses, 
less frequently in pris- 
matic crystals or inter- 
laced bunches of needle 

Coatinffi and dissemi- 
nated plates. Raorely 
crystals. Cuts like 
metallic kad. Streak 
is shining. 

Pine-grsined. often dis- 
seminated. Some- 
times crystals. Soft 
but brittle. 

Granular and deavablc 
masses and cubic crys- 
tals which deaye into 

Needle crystals, or hair- 
like or felted; also 
compact and fibrous 

Best known in six-sided 
plates. In thin splint- 
ers is cherry red by 
transmitted light. 

Cxnnpact masses, nod- 
ules and dissemi- 
nated. Often coated 
with the green carbo- 
nate. Rarely crystals. 

Descripdve and Detenninative Tables 

Tttte I (riiiirii lij.— Mmaa^ of 1^ 


a> frynnEynift.,. 

OnocnlinO. P.andR. P. 



a%M "W - 

H»4 0*3.T to 4-7 


I + 



o It: 




1 ' 

^ • X • 

*• •* >.> 


: w- 

♦►•^♦v^ kf^ 

« . 

^Daaah of Metallic or Sub-MetalUc Lustre, Blad: 
m H«u|j Black ia Color 


-^ ^^y ^^:^ 

SoLBNOv-SubL black 
' hot. red 
. cold 



A Utile 







Decompoied by 
KOH. Ha pro- 
duoei oraxige pft. 

SaUimatc on oool 
made bright green 
by ignition with 
cobalt solution 

Borax O. P. ame- 

Often react«A3r man- 
ganeae and may 
pvc jdly reoidue 

ganete. (Soda 
head O. P. bltdah 

Borax O. P. ame- 

Solutions become 
deep blue on addi- 
tion of tin. Solu 
tionofS. Ph.bead 
in HO best 

Filtered solution 
boiled with tin be- 
comes violet 

Veins or crusts with a 
brilliant adamantine 
lustre showing red tint 
in thin layers. Raxe 
crystals. Streak pur- 

Black and gray crystals 
and deavable to fine- 
grained masses. Streak 
pale brown. 

Crystals often igrouped 
in bundles, rarely mas- 
sive, granular or sta- 
Uctitic. Streak dark 

Cdlular and pulveru- 
lent or as compact 
masses often radiated 
or stalactitic and with 
varnish-like surfaces. 
Never crystallised. 
Streak yellowish- 

Occurs massive but is 
best known as crys- 
tals, often flattened 
Uke scales, or needle- 
like, or in parallel po- 
sition. These shade 
into feather4ike. and 
velvety crusts. 

Granular masses occa- 
sionally in twinned 
pyramids. Streak 
chestnut brown. 

Heavy monoclinic crys- 
tals and cleavable, 
bladefl and granular 
masses. Streak brown- 
ish black. 

Usually compact mass- 
es, often thin plates 
or imbedded grains or 
as sand. Rarely in 
tabular hexagonal cry 8- 
taU. Streak brownish 

Minermls ol Metallic or Sub-Metallic Lustre, Black 

or If Mi|f BUck ia Color 



Heated in 

Other teste 



Sol. HNO, 






Solution gives 
ydlow i»pt. with 
•mmania. Borax 

ntttration black- 

Borax or S. Ph.. 
O. P. or R. P., em- 
erald green cold 

Botryoidal or granul 



with pitch-like lust; 
Rarely in small isomi 
ric crystals. Stre 
dark green. 

Granular or compa 



or rarely in small c 
tahedral crystal 
Pitch-like lustr 
Often with serpentir 
Streak dark brown. 

Coarse to fine micaoeo 


Posed with KOH 
and boiled with 
HCl and tin gives 
blue solution. 

Soda bead 0. P. blu- 
ish green 


S. Ph. bead in R. P. 

W;ith soda or sul- 
phur on coal in 
strong heat a subl. 
ydlow hot. white 
cold, made bluish 
green by ignition 
with cobalt lolu- 

masses and tabular 
coarser crystals wi 
brilliant lustre. Oa 
sionally kidne 
shaped. Streak brow 
ish red. 

Masfies and brilliar 



often iridescent, pr 
matic crystals. Stre; 
dark red. 

Compact masses, rour 



ed grains and octal 
dral crystals. Slight 
magnetic. Red zii 
ite and yellow to gre 
willcmitc are asso 
ates. Streak da 

Masses and crystals wi 


considerable lustr 
Strrak pale yellow. 

Brilliant cr>'stals, u< 

ally with brown tin 
Streak pale yellow. 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables ^ 

Tfebl« n. IfiaMtte of Metdlk LaHre. T\ 

On coal in O. P. and R. P. 

Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 






J. 1 

1^ CJ 






O. Stibnite 


Dense white. 

H-a G-4.S 

T. Galf^nite 


White 0. P. 
Yellow R.P. 



H-a.5 G-74 to 7.6 

0. Jamesonite 


Dense white. 
Some yel- 
low, vdatile 



H-a.5 G-5.5 to 6 

I. Tetrabedrite 



Dense white 

• •   



H-3 to 4-5 G-4.S to S.I 


I. Stannite 



N on -volatile 
white sub- 
limate (yel- 
low hot) 

 • •  



H-4 G-4.S 





L Unnirite 



<Co . Ni) A 
H-5.5 G-4-8 to 5 

I. Cobaltite !... 



VolaUle white 


H-ss G-6to6.i 


I. Smaitite 



Volatile white 


H*5 to 6 G-6.4 to 6.6 

0. ArsenoDyrite 



Volatile white 


H-s-S to 6 G-6 to 6.3 

I. Sperrylite 


Slight vol. 

• • • • 


H«6to7 G-10.6 

Maenk d Metaffic Lustre, Tin-White, Sflver-White, Etc 27 
I wi Cwy or S tec K toiy m Coioc 

Hated in 


Other tests 

tdiL black 

sou bl'MIU- 


'^ Oeoepitases. ^Greenish yellow siibl. 

Solution in npper part 
test tube repptd. as 
'. by HfS troin 



'3^i ohndcald 


oa oool with Bi fltii 

Likie gialcnite 

Dark- Metallic residue 


-■« 1 
• -> 

'*'*^, nhlimate 



with HCl 
gives azure blue 

Subl. on coal becomes 
bluish green by ig- 
nition with cobalt 

Borax deep blue O. P. 
andR. P. 


'^^ Ifimrind 
"c bhekrabU' 

"'A BRMukh ted 

■^ , ««. Later 

- *' tunor and 


After short ignition 
on ooal» disaolves in 
HO with odor of 
HfS and ydlow ppt. 

In open tube white 
subl. and, spongy 


Lead-gray columnar or fine- 
grained masses or prisms. 
Cleaves into lath-shi^ied frag- 

Lead-gray granular and cleav- 
able masses and cubic crystals 
which cleave into cubes. 

Steel-gniy to dark-gray needle 
crystals, or hair-like or felted; 
also compact and iibrous mas- 

Steel-gray fine-grained masses 
and tetxahedral crystals. 

Steel*gray. massive, granular. 
Often intermixed with yellow 

Steel-gray granular or ocmipact 
masses, or small octahedral^ 

Gray masses and tin-white crys- 
tals. Often a red tarnish. 

Steel-gray masses and tin-white 
crystals usually cubes, often 
with erythrite. 

Tin-white to gray masses or crys- 
tals often striated, the sections 
of which are rhombic and rec- 

Tin-white grains and minute] 


Descriptive and Detennmative Tables 

TkUe DL MImciiIb of MotiJII 

Crystal syiieiii: 

nsme. oompootioo* 

bardneB aoad specific gnvitr 

On oQsl in O. P. and R. P. 


. I 




!H-3 G-4^toS^ 

•'H. Hillerite 

H«3to^5 G-sato5-6 

T. Ch a Viiyjiite 


! ^ 

•I. I^ntlandite 

|H«33to4 G«4.6toS 



+ i 

! Sobli- 

I «*»« ... I If e- ( Mag- 


H. PyiilmKite 

H-3^to4^ G-4^to4.6 


H« Niooolite t* 


Volatile + 



I. Pyrite '-. + 

H-6to&j G-4-9to5>' , i 



H-« to &5 G-4.6 to 4-9 

L Goa 

Aa I 

H«2^to3 G«xs6toi93. 


I H*xsto3 G«&StoM 

icLustic, Metallic YcUoWyBronzci or Red 31 



'i. »5l 

HjiO|  uBmoB. may 
, five ydkiv 


[agaetic i^bule is 
brittle with Ted frac- 
ture and ignited 
with HC! gives 
hlixe flame 

Roasted colon borax 
O. P. ted hoti brown 

Like bomite except 


V^ MaroraabH- 

3VO, Fvible snbU- 
arias I mate red 

hot. yellow 


Puaed globule yellow 
oo fracture. Borax 
O. P. reddish brown 

Slightly magnetic be- 
loie fusion 

Borax and roasted ma- 
terial give blue, 
green, brown, sue- 
oessivdy as borax is 

Fused man efferves- 
ces in HQ with odor 

?N0» ;Fwble mhli- Likepyrite 
mate red 
hoc. yellow 




fused mass is yet- 

Posed mass is rod and 
ignited with HCl 
gives asure blue 

Red bronze on fresh fracture. 
Tarnishes in blue, purple and 
black tints. Very brittle and 
usually massive. 

Brass colored in hair-like or 
needle crystals. Crusts made 
up of radiating needles. 

Bright-ydlow brassy masses and 
crystals, tarnishing in peacock 

Light bronae-ydlow maiset re- 
sembling pyrrhotlte but not 
attracted by a sted magnet. 
Cleavage octahedral. 

Bronxe-yellow masses, tarnish- 
ing brown. P6wdcr attracted 
by a sted magnet. 

Pale ooppcr-red inmiei some- 
times enclosed in white metal- 
lic crust. 

Pale bms-ydlow cubes or other 
crystals, isolated or grouped in 
crusts or bounding a mass. 
Also masdve lobular, nodu<v 
lar stalactitic 

Pale brass-yellow "spear." 
"cockscomb" and simple 
tabular crystals. Often radi- 
ated. Fresh fracture whiter 
than that of pyrite. 

Golden ydlow to pale yellow 
nuggets, grains and scales or 
distorted crystals passing into 
wire, fern and leaf forms. 
Malleable. Streak gqlden yel- 
low to pale yellow. 

Copper red. disseminated grains 
sheets and irregular masses or 
groupsof extended and branch- 
ing crystals. Malleable. 
Streak copper red and shininp 


Descriptive and Detenninative Tables 

Tftbto rr. Miasnis of HoA-Metallii 

Crystal system: 
name, oomposition. 
hardness and specific g^vity 


H. Soda nitre.... 

H*i.5to3 G 

M. MirabiUte, 

H-x.stoa G-*x^ 

I. Halite 


H-2^ G-2.4t0 2.6 

M. Trona 

NaCO^ NaHCO,+a H,0 
H«a.5to3 G-a.z 


O. Camalltte 

H-x G-X.6 

0. Nilw 


1. Kalinite 

KAl (SO,)t+ia H,0 
H-a.5 G-1.7 

M. Kninite 

H«i.5to3 G-atoa,a 






Salty and 

Salty and 

M. Bona 

H>ito.».5 O-i.T 

Tti. SiM»<>lit* . 

H-i O-M 

Salty and 




a;, s.v.i^iu'^ 

Heated on chi 

F.<-i. Deflagr 

Fuses and will 


Fuses easily 

F.-i to 1.5. 1 
with Co. sol. 

F.»z. Deflagi 

F.-i. Swells, 
will stain silv< 

Puses easily 
stain silver 

F.-i to 1.$. 
smI gives <de> 

F.-2. Within 
to deal 






of NcttJdeUUic Ltfstre, .With Taste 



Recrystallizatibn in 
a drop of water 

Rbombk outline 

Loth shaped 

Square (cabes) 


"'A ^ Givea 


I^Ktli ihapcd 

Octahwiron. (Three- 
aix- and foar-«ided 

GtUe I Six-«ided platet and 




SO, kich 

'ok. AddatUch 


Whitejnle j«d or p ale yellow manes 
and crystals with forms and an- 
gles of caldte. 

White efflorescence or powdo? crust 

White or colorless or impure browA. 
yellow or red ma»es and crystals 
with cubic cleavage. 

White listening crusts»« 

Wlute to reddish granular masses. 
Very deliquescent 

White sfledlea lie IhixLcrusta. - 

White fibrea or mealy efflonsoence. 

White to brownish red granular 

 !«■• JH 

Snow white crystalsi crusts or po- 

White pearly scaloB or plates. 

Blue glassy crystals, veiss and 

White efflorescence or fibroas crusts. 

White fibres or crusts. 

Yellow scales or granular masses. 


l^esoipdve and Detenninative Tables 

Table V. MiiMralB of ] 

Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 


M. Vivianite , 

H»i.5toa G*2.6to2.7 

— . Chrysocolla. 

H-a to 4 G-2 to a.3 

M. Azurite 

Cu, (OH), (CO,), 
H-3.Sto4 G«3.8 

I. Lazurite 

H-s to S-S G-a.etoa.g 

Chlorite Group 

H«xtoa.5 G-a.6toa.9 
(Micaceous dark-green min- 
erals such as clinochiore 

Gamierite* , 

H-a to 3 G«a.3to3.8 

O. Atacamite 

H-3 to 3-5 G=3.7 to 3-8 

M. Malachite 

Cu, (OH),CO, 
H-3-Sto4 G-3.9to4 

O. Brochantite 

H-3.S to 4 G-3.9 


Al, (0H),P04H,0 
H-6 G-2.6toa.8 

In powder boiled with hydrochl 

There is 

(Odor H,S) 

There is 

a residue 

of jelly 





<A silica) 

of silica) 



MiiMgmh of Non-Metallic Lustre, Tasteless 



y^T '• Heated in 



Momentary blue 
flame with HtS04 
(cone). Yellow 
pt. with amxQonic 



iS ,1 

Emerald-green flame. 
Solutions blue with 

Yellow flame 

P«. M«A 



Milky solutions 
with oonoentrated 








brawn odd 

Ature blue flame. 
White and red sub- 

Gfeen flame, blue 

Green flame, blue 
wHh HCl. Fused 
with soda stains 

Yellow ppt. as in vi- 
▼ianite. Green 
flame, blue with 



Bluish-green to dark blue, often 
earthy and filling shells, horn, 
etc. Rarely as colorless or 
glassy crystals, gradually be- 
coming blue. 

Enamel-like crusts, veins, or 

Dark-blue glassy crystals, light- 
er blue crusts, velvety, dull or 
earthy masses. 

Deep4>li]e fine-grained masses 
usually spanned with pyrite 
and intermixed with other 

Dark-green masses of coarse to 
very fine scales. Tabular and 
curiously twisted six-sided 
crystals and fan-shaped groups 
which cleave into thin soft 
pliable but not elastic plates. 
Also as a pigment in other 

Dark emerald-green masses 
often cellular and very crum- 
bly and paler-green masses 
and crusts. Lustre dull. 

Deep emerald-green, confused 
aggregates and slender prisms. 
Formerly found as a sand. 

BHkht-green radiating fibres or 
crusts, often banded in shades 
of green, sometimes stalactit- 
Ic. Also dull green and 
earthy. Rarely, lender crys- 

Bmendd-green needle crystals. 
Fibrous veins and crusts. 

Sky-bltie to green nearly opaque 
nodules or veins, with lustre 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables 

Table y (CoMMmMrf).— Mfaiafalt of 

Crystal lyctem: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 

O. Ooethite 

PeO (OH) 
H*st0 5.5 G«4t0 4.4 


H»Sto5.s G-3.6to4 

T, Rutite.. 


In powder boiled with hydrochloric t 

There is 

G»4.i to4>a 

T, C«»at«rite 

H»«t0 7 0*<L«to7.i 

There is 

a residue 

Of jelly 


M. Krxihnt*^ 


\\s \AvO»\ 



U-» .\ to ».j 



U \^t^^^J^t>*t 




H - * u> ♦^'^ 



M >Vh'^V'* 


O *• V ^ *o «. 



*< TV--%"«x-rt<f 



S - tA 

0—1 15 


^ I'^v 


v*«? 4 v> ^A 

iXtwt^rmU of Non-Metallic Lustre, Tasteless 


Jij I Heaiedtn 

« W 



Black labl., 




Other tesU 

On coal R. F. strong- 


S.Fh.O. F.skmlyto 
yeUow. nuule violet 

On coal stnmi^y heat- 
ed and aided by 
soda or sulphur 
gives button and 
sabL yellow hot. 
white cold, bluish 
green if ignited with 
cobalt solution 

Borax deep blue. 
O. P. and R. F. 

Cloaed tube with soda 
metallic mirror 
which can be col- 
lected into visible 
lobules. Soluble 



Soluble HNOf De- 
composed by boil- 
ing KOH and a yel- 
km ppt. by HCl 

As with proostite but 
ppt. IS orange '^ 

Deep blue if ignited 
with cobalt solu- 


Occurs massive but is best 
known as yellowish to brown 
and red needles, scales and 
velvety crusts. Streak yd- 
low to ydlowish brown. 

Brown dull-lttstred heterogen- 
eous bog ore. cellular stalactit- 
ic and pipe-like concretions of 
rusty brown to nearly black, 
often fibrous smooth masses. 

Brownish red to nearly black 
crystals with brilliant lustre 
often parallel or netted. More 
rarely massive. Streak pale 

Brown to red and nearly black. 
Dull, kidney-shaped and 
rounded pebbles. Brilliant 
crystals, and disseminated 
grains. Streak pale brown. 

Pink earthy crusts or powder 
or crimson fibres. Streak 
pink to crimson. 

Vermilion, scariet and dark 
brownish-red fine-grained 
masses. Crystalline crusts. 
Streak scarlet. 

Scarlet to vermilion crusts or 
masses. Rate six-sided prisms 
with brilliant adamantine 
lustre. Streak scarlet. 

Blackish red veins or crusts 
with a brilliant adamantine 
lustre. Red tint stronger in 
thin layen. Rare crystals. 
Streak purplish red. 

Red to xeddish-brawn masses 
of rounded grains or clay-like. 
Dull in lustre. Streak red- 
dish brown. 


DeacriptiYe and Determinative Tables - 

Table V (CmHmm^. — MiiMaas ^ fU 

Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardxiess and specific gravity 




I. Cuprite.. 


H. nmenite. 


G-5.8 to 6.Z 

G-4-5 to S 

H. Hematite 

H-5-5to6.s G«4.9toS-3 

M. Realgar. 


M. Crocoite. 

G«3.4 to 3.6 

G-5.9 to 6.x 

O. Deeclolzite 

H-3-5 G«5.9to6.3 

H. Zindte 

H -4 to 4-5 " G"-5*4 to 5-7 

In powder boiled with hydrochloi 

' There is 

There is 

a residue 

of jelly 





Minexab of Non-Metallic Lustre, Tastdess 

- ^VEJty 

Heated in 


-- t 

nbl. bbck 

hot, TStl 



Other teste 

Ignited with HCl. 
azure-blue flame 

Solution boiled with 
tin becomes violet. 
Fused with soda is 

Dark-blue ppt. 
with potassic ferro* 

Soluble KOH. HCl 
ppts. ydlow flakes. 
Soluble HNOi 

In S. Ph. O. P. and 
R. P. bright green. 
On coal Bi flux 

In S. Ph. O. P. amber. 
R. P. green. On 
coal with Bl flux 

S u b li mat e~ ignited 
with cobalt solution 
Is bright gnm 

Dark-red to brick-red 
Deep-red to crimson isometri> 
crystals, sometimes hair-like 
Streak brownish red. shining 

Brownish-black to rusty-browi 
irfates. grains and masses anc 
thin tabular crystals. Streal 
brownish red. 

Dull dark red, massive, oolitic 
or earthy, sometimes kidney 
shaped and fibrous. Streal 
brownish red. 

Orange-red granular masses o 
resinous lustre and transpar 
ent crystals. Streak orang 

Hyacinth red prisma, 
orange yellow. 


Black, hitmn' or red crust! 
of minute crystals. Streal 
brownish ofangiB. 

Deep red to bridk-^ed adaman 
tine masses. Granular o: 
cleavable. Very rare crystals 
Streak orange ydlow. 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables 
Tablo VI. Mimnls id lloo-MetalUc Laglra.TasteleMa]id WUh 












Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 




O. Sulphur 

H»x.5to2.5 G«ato2.x 

— Hydroiincite 

ZniCOs (OH)4 
H - a to 2.S G -3.6 to 3.8 

O. Valentinite. 



O. Anglestte. 


G"6.i to 6.4 

T. Wulfenite. 

The color of the mineral is 


H. Vanadinite. 

Pb,Cl (VO4), 
H-3 G-6.6to7.a 

O. Cerussite. 

H-3 to 3-5 

G-6.5 to 6.6 

H. Pyromorphite 

Pb,Cl (PO4), 
H-3.5t0 4 G-5.9to7.i 







+ + 

-H + 








of Non-Metallic Lustre, Yielding Reactions 
Btt duueiMl Wkh Sodie Cubeoate 


 Heated in 


>r^ale Y^am 





'iraltD ; 





Poaes. part- 
ly sub- 



fed hotp 

Turns yel- 
low then 
red. oools 

Other tests 

Takes fiieand 
bums with odor 

On coal R.P. heavy 
white subl. made 
bright green by 
ignition with co- 
balt solution 

on coal 

Bright yellow subl. 
on coal with Bi 

Ltkeanglesite. Al- 
so solution, cool- 
ed, diluted boiled 
with tin is blue 

S. Ph. O. P. amber, 
R. P. green 


Like an^eslte. Al- 
so (uses O. P. and 
on cooling has 

Bright translucent crys- 
tals and masses or 
powder with resinous 
or dull lustre. 

Chalk-like masses or 
crusts on other sine 

White silky minute 
crystals or radiating 

Simple crystals, often 
transparent and color- 
White brittle 
and compact 
granular masses of 
gray color from inter- 
mixed galenite. 

Tabular square cr^tals 
of resinous lustre. 

Sharp hexagonal prisms, 
sometimes hollow. 
Also parallel groups 
and globular manes. 

Twinned crystals or in- 
terlaced fibres or gran- 
ular masses, often 
with galenite. 

Hexagonal prisms and 
tapering groups in par- 
allel position. Also 
rounded and moss-like 

I fliggregations. 


Descriptive and Detenmnative Tables S 

Table VI (CoNlmflMri).— lliDcnli «f NoD-M«lallk Imlrt, TkateleM 

CO ' 

R I 







Crystal syitem: 

luune, composition t 

hardneas and specific frnvity 



I. Sphalerite. 


G-3.9 to 4.x 


H«4.5 to 5 G«*4-3 to 4.5 

H. Smithsonite 

H-s G-4.3to4.5 

H. Willcmite. 


0-3.9 to 4-2 

T. Cassitcrite 

H«6to7 G-6.8to7.x 

The color of the mineral is: 







I. Cerargyritc 


G-s to S'S 

I. Embolite 

Ag (CI • Br) 
H«itox.5 G-s.3tos.8 



+ + 







of NoiFMetalHc Lustre, Yidding Reactions 4J 


SbHk, and TieUfa« RettctiaH ott Charcoal With Sodk Cafhonato 



Heated in 

Other testa 

^ Appearance 


white subl. made 
bright green by 
ignition with co- 
balt lolutiott 

Transparent to translu- 
cent crystals and 
deavable masses witt 
strong resinous lustre 
Compact masses oi 
alternate layers witt 
galenite. Rarely s 
white powder. 


>^ ' 




Like sphalerite 
(best if aoda and 
borai added in ig- 

White masses, the cavit 
ties lined with crys 
tala. often showinf 
only ends, usually par 
alld, forming ridges 
The fracture show; 
the crystals like par 
allel fibres. 


if pure 

Like sphalerite 

Porous, cellular masses 
Crusts with smootl 
rounded surfaces 
Occasional drosy sur 
faces, the crystal end) 
being three-faced. 


Like sphalerite 


Granular masses inter 


mixed usually witt 
black and red grains 
Rarely large reddist 
or brownish crystals 
Lustre resinous. 


On coal with soda 
non-volatile subl. 
made bluish green 
by ignition with 
cobalt solntion 

Crystals with briUiani 

adamantine lustre 
disseminated grains 
and rounded heavj 
pebbles dull and oftex 
with radiating struc 


hot. white 
cold, vio- 
let in itm 

On ooaI acnd odor 
and stiver button 

Thin crusts which dark 


en in sunlight and cui 
like wax with shinini 
surface after cutting 


dark mi 
hot. dark 
cold, dark 


green in 

. M 

Doalptlve &Dd DeterminativE Tabled 
UMnb el lla»-Msliltk lotn 


The color 01 the mlcasl u:| 

C/yital ■yRcm 

■ums. comfodtioD. 

hardncH and ipediic gnvitv 


0| gg H-JWM 0-. 

S ^ K AW A\^, - .■)..■' 

of Non-MetalUc Lostxe, Yidding Reacdons . 47 

OB Chanotl Whh 8odk Carbooato 

Heated in 
closed tube 

Other tesU 


= aU I 


Black and 



>^ I Rd 



rOyaad ' 


Water at 

Water and 

With soda on coal a 
copper button 

On ooal becomes 
black and nuig- 

Blue by Icnition 
with CO. solution 

Bine in fine powder 


Enamel-like crusts, 
veins or compact 
masses. Never crys- 

Compact, fine-frained 
and deavable masses 
and rhombohedral 
curved crystals. 
Cleavage angles 107*. 

Soft, colorlen or slightly 
tinted masses, which 
may be scaly. silk> 
fibrous or compact or 
may be mnwscfl and 
crystals, cleaving in 
three directions to a 
rhombic plate of 66*. 

Granular, deavable'and 
fibrous. Crystals 
common. Cleaves in 
three directions to 
rhombic plates of 

Colorless to white crys- 
tals and fibrous, lam- 
ellar and granular 
masses. Cleaves in 
three directions to 
rhombic plates i>f 76*. 

Cleavable and fine- 
grained masses. 
Cleaves in three direc- 
tions at 90*. 

Fibrous or lamellar or 
small cuboids, usually 
miied with hard, sili- 
ceous material. 

Pine-grained, usually 
spangled with pyrite 
and intermixed with 
other minerals. 












Descnptive-and Detenmnative Tables . 
TftUe Vn. MinanJi of HoiH^tfctellic I^nitn, Tastelf 


Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 







M. Lepidolite 

(KLi),/U (SiO,)t 
H-2 to 3.5 G*3^ to 3-3 

M. Cryolite. 


I. Pluorite. 



M. Stilbite 

H,R»A1, (SiO,), + 4 H,0 
H-3.St0 4 G-a.ito2.2 

H. Chabaritc 

H-4.S G»2.otoa.i 

T. ApophyUite 

HuKiCa, (SiO,),. 9 H,0 
H>4.5to5 G-2.3to2.4 

T. Wemeritc Group 

SUicates of NaCaAl 
H-Sto6 G-2.7 

Tri Plagioclaae 

H-s to 7 G-2.6 to 2.7 



The color of the mineral if: 




+ - 








6 I 

of Non-Metallic Lustre, Yiddtng No Tests 
Ho TMti With Sodie Catbento 


Heated in 
dosed tube 

Other tests 


Red to 







Blue if ignited with 
Co. solution. 

Swdls greatly dur- 
ing fusion 

Intumeaoeiice dur- 
ing fusion 

Exfoliates during 

Bubbles in fused 


Masses of coarse or fine 
scales with easy cleav- 
age into thinner 

Tran^cent maMes r^ 
sembling watery snow. 
Rarely small six- 
sided monodinic crys- 
tals nearly cubes. - 

Transparent cubes and 
masses of glassy lustte 
which cleave in four 
directions at angles 
70*31'. Color usually 
brilliant. Sometimes 

Sheaf-like groups or 
many small crystals 
forming a crust or 
lining. One easy 
cleavage giving sym- 
metrical pearly face. 

Groups of small rhom- 
bohedral crystals 

" which are nearly 

Tabular or "cubic" or 
pointed crystals with 
internal opalescence. 
Occasionally lamellar. 
One easy cleavage. 

Coarse thick crystals 
with octagonal or 
square cross-aection. 
Cleavage angles 135* 
or 90*. Cleavages 
fointly fibrous. More 
rardy massive col- 
umnar or fine-grained 

and crystals with 
two easy cleavages, 
nearly but not exactly 
90*. Often show paral- 
lel striations. Some- 
times opalescent. 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables 
Table Vn (ComHmud). — Ifintnli of Ifoo-MetaBic Lostn, Tn 



Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 














Tri. Amblygonite 

H-6 G-3to3.i 

O. Prehnite 

H,Ca«Alt (Si04)s 
H-6 to 6.5 G-a.8 to 2.9 

H. Tourmaline 

RttB, (SiO.)4 
H <-6 to 6.5 G»a.8 to 2.9 

I. Boracite. 

G-2.9 to 3 


H-i G-1.6S 

M . Colemanite 

H'"4to4-5 G»2.2to2.3 

The color oi the mineral is: 

at ^ 


0. Natrolite 

H=s to S-S G-2.2 

I. Analcite 

H-S to S.S G-2.2 to 2.3 

M. Datolite 

H-Stos^ G-2.9 to 3 





l&enk of Noft-MetaDic Lustxe, Yklding No Tests 

!!• Tasli With Sodk CuboMte 



Heated in 
doBed tube 




ctcbinc of 


Momrntary blue- 
green flame with 

After fusion di»- 
aolvei leaving 

+ C.F, 


After igmtloQ dis- 
solves leaving 

Violet if ignited 
with cobalt solu- 

•- -til 





•' With TdBow 

o^. vim 

Water, but 

Water at 
high heat 

Green flame with 

Decrepitates before 

Becomes opaque 
before fusion 

Cleavable msMWi and 
rough crystals. One 
easy cleavage. 

Lining cavities as 
smooth rounded 
crusts or ss sheaf-like 
groups of tabular; 
crystals. Sometimes 
in bantd-shaped crys- 

Prismatic crystals often 
hemimorphic andl 
roughly triangular in ' 

Minute glassy crystals. 


of. silky 

Highly modified 
tals with one easy 
cleavage, cleavable or 
fine-gzained compact 
"porcelain-Uke" or 
loose, chalk-like 

Slender prisms with 
square cro ss se c t ion 
and flat pyramid at 

Trapesohedral crystals 
usually forming a lin- 
ing. Rarely granular. 

Brilliant small highly 
modified glassy crys- 
tals lining a cavity, 
also porcelain masses. 
No easy cleavage. 



Descriptive and Detenninativc Tables ] 

Table Vn (CoRMniMd).— Minenta of HoB-Meldlfc Losln, HI 










Crystal system: 

name, co m position, 

hardness and specific gravity 










H. Nephelite 

H»5.$ to 6 G"*3.2 to 3-6 

Pyroxene (diopstde) , 

CaMg (SiO,), 
H-BStoe G-3.3to3.6 

M. Amphibole (tremoUte) 

H»5to6 G-a.9to3.4 

Tri. Plagiodase 

nNaAlSiA + mCaAli 
H«sto7 G-a.6toa.7 

(Albite) NaAlSiA- 

(Anorthite) CaAl,SiA 

(Oligoclase) Ab| «• • An 

(Labradorite) AbAni i» s 

M. Spodumene 

LiAl (SiO,)t 
H-6.S to 7 G-3.I to 3.2 

The color of the mineral is: 











o£ Xon-Metallic Lustze, Yidding No Tests 53 

Tlcldfa« H » T«ls nidi Sodk Cttbooato 

Heated in 
dosed tube 

r *-*A , 

Other tesU 

Blue if ignited with 
cobalt solution 

t -^ 

. a.-.jc 

if YeOov 

1 A 

• .^ YcOov 

White ppt. 


-^ CrinMin 

Sprouts and be- 
comes opaque 
during fusion 


Translucent masses and 
coarse heiagonal crys- 
tals with peculiar 
greasy lustre. More 
niely highly modified 
small white crystals. 

Usually prismatic crys- 
tals with eight-sided 
cross-section and an- 
f^ between alternate 
faces 90* or 87*. Cleav- 
age angle of 87*. 

Fibrous and columnar, 
often radiating. Also 
crystab with cross- 
section, a rhomb <rf 
xa4* or six-aided 
section. Cleavage at 


Masses and crystals with 
two easy cleavages, 
nearly but not ex- 
actly gp*. Often show 
parallel striations. 
Sometimes opalescent. 

Usually pure white, 
often granular with 
curved cleavage sur- 

Highly modified glassy 
crystals or grayish- 
white larger crystals 

Broad cleavages. Good 
striations. Some- 
times spangled (Sun- 

Good striations. Beau- 
tiful play of color. 

Coarse, flattened prisms 
with cleavage at 87*. 
Often separate in 
broad plates (bisect- 
ing cleavage angle). 
Often striated .and 
etched or roughened. 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables 
TtMm Vn (CoiiMiMMd). — Ifiaanla ol RoiHMatinic LosCre, 1 




Crystal system: 

name, composition. 

hardness and specific gravity 







M. Titanite 

H •$ to 5.S O "3.4 to 3-5 


RSiOf. Many varieties 

(R - CaUgPeAl) 
H-5to6 G-3.ato3.6 

M. Amphibole RSiO, 
H-sto6 G-a.9to3.4 


Ca (MgPe), (SiO,)« 

(Hornblende) — 

The color of the mineral is: 




p. H y pers t hene  + 

H»5to6 G-wtoj.5 


Tti. Rhodonite 

MnSiO, I 

H-6tod^ G-34t0 3.T 






M. Kr»vV"4<» 




+ + .... 



o£ Non-Metallic Lustre, Yidding Ko Tests 
Tiddiiic No Tests WKh Sodic CarboMto 


Heated in 
dosed tube 

Other tests 

May hccom e S. Ph. O. P. slowly 
eolttble. Undis- 
aolved portion 
milk white. R. P. 


After fusion st- 
tracted by mag- 

Borax, O. P. ame- 

Water at 
high heat 


Water at 

high heat 

After fusion will 

After fusion will 

After fusion 



Wedge-shaped or tabular 
crystals, with adaman- 
tine lustre. Also mss- 
sive. Easy deavages 
give monoclinic shapes. 

Usually eight-sided 
prisms with angles be- 
tween alternate faces 
96* and 87*. Cleav- 
age ang^ 87*. 

Bladed non-terminated 
crystals, divergent 
fibres and granules. 

Crystals six-sided cross- 
section, with ang^ 
124* and 1x6*. also 
nbrous and compact 
masses. Sometimes 
with lustre of horn. 

Poliated aggregates 
sometimes with pecu- 
liar "Schiller" or 
pearly effect. 

Pine-grained or deav- 
able masses and dis- 
seminated grains, 
often coated with a 
black oxide. Some- 
times in crystals. 

A secondary mineral 
often with the origi- 
nal mineral as grains 
or needles. Less fre- 
quently in distinct 

Square and octagonal 
prisms and radiated 
columnar or gran- 
ular masses or 
compact resembling 

Imbedded crystals, often 
nearly spherical or in 
druses and granular, 
lamdar and com-| 
pact masses. Also) 
I found in alluvial mate- 1 
\ rial as rounded grains. \ 


Desaiptive and Determbative Tables 
Tabic Vn (CHUiiiMrf).— MiMfalt U Hon-Mclallfe^ 





Crystal system: 

name, composition. 

hardness and specific gravity 

The color of the mineral is: 







H. Tourmaline ^ 

RmB, (SaO»)4 
H«7to7'S G«3to3'a 


HAl (SiO,), 
H>xtoa G->2.8toa.9 

O. Talc 

H,Mg,(SiO,)4 • 
H«xtoi.5 G-2.5to2.9 

M. Chlorite Group 

H»itoa G"3.8to2.9 


H-ito3.5 G*3.6to2.9 


5 G-itoa 

t5 M. Muswvite 

g' (HK)AlSiO« 

5 n«i to i.s G*J.8to3 


M, nuuitv 











■l i 

IfxDerals of Non-Metaaiic Lustre, Yiektiag No Tests 





: Ko Tests With Sodic CsrbsBSto 

_'jry naoie 

Heated in 
dosed tubf} 

Other tcsU 


^ -'t 


After fusinm ^11 and- 

czoss-section often 




showing a triangular 
prism. Often the color 
is different at oppomte 
ends or centre and 


outer shell. Also radi- 

ating aggregates and 


in compact masses. 

PW-ai 1 Water 

Blue if ignited with 

Radiated folic or fibres 

1 1 

cobalt aoluUon 

and ccnnpact masees. 

' t 


Smooth and soft like 



^ "** "^^ '••*««*•*•■ • • 


Pink if ignited with 

Foliated compatt and 



cobah Bolutioia 

fibrous masses w^th 
soapy feeling. Theib- 
liated talc cleaves into 
non-elastic plates. 

* s-ia- Much 1 


Masses of coarse to very 



fine scales. Tabular 


and curiously twisted 


six-sided crystals and 


fan-shaped groups 




which cleave into thin . 
soft pUaUebut not elas- 


tic plates. Also asa pig- 


ment in other minends. 



Pink if ignited with 

Soft, compact, smooth 

cobalt lolution 

feeling masses of very 
Ught weight. Rarely 


Water at 

Plates and masses of 
scales and crystals. 



often large and roughj 
with rhombic .or hoi- 
agonal cross section. 
Lustre pearly, cleav- 
age very easy into 
' thin elastic {dates. 

-**^;n>- i Walter At 

Scales or asffresates. 


high beat 

Rarely large sheets or 
pseudo hexagonal crys- 
tals cleaving easily in- 
to thin elastic plates. 
Lustre pearly. 


Water at 

Rouidi nrisms with hex- 

• jm« 

high heat 

agonal or rhombic sec- 


tions. Also dissem- 
inated scales. Cleaves 


easily into thin elastic 


Descriptive and Detenxiinative Tables 
TaU* Vn (ConUmitti.—maanl* of IfoD-Matdtte LaslM. 1 






Crystal system: 

name* oomposition. 

hardness and specific gravity 















H-3to4 G"-a.sto2.6 

O. Strontianite 

. SrCO, 
H-3to3.S G-3.7 

M. WoUastonite 

H-4tos G-2.8toa.9 

T. Scheelite 

H->4*Sto5 G-*S-9to6.x 

H. Apatite 

Ca. (CI . F) (P04)i 
H*4.s to 5 G>-3.a 

O. Bnstatite 

H-5.S G-3.it0 3-3 


KAlSiA « 

H-6 to 6.5 G*-a.s to a.6 

H. Tourmaline 

RiaBi (SiO|)« 
H-7to7.S G-3to3.a 

H. Beryl 

Be»Al, (SiOa)4 
H«7<5to8 G-2.6to3.8 

The color of the mineiBl is: - 







IfiBoals of Non-Metallic Lustre, Yielding No Tests 


YUkSkBg Ho Teste With Sodk Cobooftto 

Other teste 










GratB vitii 

Pink or browniih 
red if powder ig< 
nited with cobalt 

Spnrate and glows 
intensely during 

S. Ph. O. P. color- 
lett to nulk white. 
R. F. deep blue 

Solution added to 
nitric sol. of am- 
monia molyb- 
date gives bright 

Like serpcintine 

After fusion will 

Often becomes 
white on fusion 

Compact masses with 
little lustre and smooth 
somewhat greasy fed. 
often with veins of silky 
fibres or foliated. 

Blasses of parallel or radi- 
ating imperfect needle 
crystals. More rardy 
fine granular. 

Fibrous to compact 
masses. Rarely tabu- 
lar crystals. Usually 
intenniied with caldte. 

Very heavy masses with 
resinous lustre. Square 
pyramids and drusy 

Usually hexagonal 
prisms. Lustre of oiled 
glass, dull if altered. 
Also compact, dull, 
massive bone phos- 

Lamellar to fibrous 
masses, often with 
pearly Itistre. 

Masses and crystals 
which cleave in two di- 
rections at exactly gcT. 
Except in the variety 

' miorocline the sur- 
faces resulting are not 
groo ve d. Sometimes 

Prismatic crystals, often 
showing a triangular 
prism. The color may 
differ at opposite ends 
or centre and outer 
shell. Also radiating 
aggr^ates and in 

Hexagonal prisms, from 
mere threads to several 
feet in length. Some- 
times also in columnar 
or granular masses. 


Descriptive and Detaminative Tables 
TaMe VH (Coiih*itttftf}.^Uiiifl(al8 of Koa-Meteliic 












Crystal system: 

name, composition* 

hardness and specific gravity 

M. Aluminite 

H=ito2 G-X.6 

— Baiuite 

A1,0 (0H)4 
Hs»ito3 G»2.4to2.S 


(in part) H4Al,SiA 

H»»2t0 2.S G-2.6 

M. Gibbsitc 

Al (OH), 
H«2.sto3.S G«2.4 










O4 Tri. Cyanite. 
g I AljSiO, 
Q H-sto7 



* Leucite 

2 I KAKSiO,), 

^ H-S.S to 6 Gb2.4 to 2.S 


O. Andalusite 


H-4tos G-2.1 


The color of the mineral is r 



9 > 



^ O. Sillimanitc 

S I AltSiO, 

^ H=6to7 G=3.a 

S I 

C3 O. Andalusite 

M  Al(A10)SiO« 

H :H=-7to7.S G»3.ito3.2 


g Topaz 

g AlaSi«O.F« 

'^ ,H=8 G«3-4to3.6 








+ + 






Igjusah of Noo-Metallk Lastie, Yidding No Tests 61 


■^ HaUiv Ho Tciis Willi Sadie Cttbooate 




Heated in 
closed tube 

Other tesU 



Much add 

Water at 


but maM will 
stain silver 

ICay become mag- 
netic in R. P. 

Often plastic with 


Exfoliates on heat- 

Rounded chalky masses 
with peculiar, harsh 
(meagre) feel. 

Masses of rounded grains 
(pisolites or oolites) 
or earthy or day-like. 
No lustre. 

DttU day-like or mealy 
masses. Greasy feel. 

Small stalactites or tUn . 
smooth <7usts, with 
internally fibrous 
structure. Rardy in 
small crystals. 

Coarse, rounded prisms. 
Often superficially 
black. Cross-sections 
show a cross or 
checked figure. 

Trirlinic blade-like 
crystals and blade-like 
masses, cleaving par- 
allel largest face. Col- 
or deeper along centre. 

Translucent nearly 
spherical crystals and 
grains in volcanic 

Thin, almost fibrous 
prisms and tough fi- 
brous aggregates. 

Coarse, nearly square 

umnar or granular 

one easy deavage. 
Also columnar aggre- 
gates, and water-worn 
crystfds in alluvial 







'.Um^H^ ... 


*- nb Violet. 

-^i» (Color 

••-*«bfc ... 



Heated in open 
tube with fused 
8. Ph. Etches 


Descriptive and Detenninative Tables 
TaMe VO (CMfiniMi).— Minenls of NoB-lf«tallic Loatra 


Crystal system: 

name, composition, 

hardness and specific gravity 

















•^ ■* 

I. spinel 

H-8 0-3.S to 4-5 

O. Chrysoberyl 

H-8.5 G-3.S to 3.8 

H. Corundum 

H-9 G-3.9to4i 

(Sapphire) or (Ruby) . 




CaCO, . 
•3 G-a.7 



-3-5 to 4 G-a.9 



CaMg (CO«)i 
■3.5 to 4 G-a.8 to 3.9 

The color of the mineral is: 

« to 














+ + 








Miaenls of Noa-MetaUic Lustre, Viddmg No Tests 

Ho T«rti WUh Sodk Cttbouto 




Other terta 

Often changes oolor 

Color changed by 

Unchanged when 
boiled with co- 
balt adtttion 

Becomes lilac if 
boiled with co> 
bait solution 

Pink if ignited with 
cobalt aolutioD 

Simple or twinned 
octahedral crystals 
and rolled pebbles. 

Usually pseudohezago- 
nal crystals or pebbles. 
Emerald green crystals 
by transmitted light 
are purplish red; some 
pebbles .show an in- 
ternal oipalescence. " 

Coarse crystals or 
masses with partings 
in four directions at 
86* and 57*. or granu- 
lar, slightly trans^ 

Transparent to translu- 
cent, usually in 
crystals and of fine 

Opaque, granular co- 
rundum, intimatdy 
mixed with hematite 
or magnetite. 

Crystals of many shapes 
which cleave in three 
directions to rhom- 
bohedron of lOS*. 
Cleavable, ooane and 
fine-grained, fibrous 
and loosely coherent 
masses. Crusts, sta- 

Simple or peeudohesag- 
onal crystals. Also 
columnar ancf needle 
masses, oolitic, stal- 
actitic and ooral-like. 
Two easy cleavages 
with angles near lao* 
(ii6*, 12a*). 

Curved rhombohedral 
crystals, or coarse to 
fine-grained masses. 
Cleaves in three direc- 
tions to rhombo- 
hedron of xo6*. 


Descriptive and Determinative Tables .  
Thbto Vn (CoNfimwd).-^ Minerals of Noo-IUtdlic lastre^l 










Crystal system: 

name, oomposition,. 

hardness and specific gravity 

The color of the mineral is: 

1 3 -5: 







H. Magnesite 

H-3.St0 4.5 G-«3to3.l 

H. Rhodochrosite 

H=4.S G-3.5to4.S 

M. Monazite 

H «=s to s-S G«"4.9toS-3 


H«s to 6 G-2.6 

M. Chondtodite 

H«^.S G»3.ito3.2 

O. Chrysolite 

H-6.S to 7 G-3.3 to 3.6 

Opal , 

H-*5.5 to 6.S G»2.i to 2.a 

T. Rutile.. 


Chalcedony , 


G»4.x to 4-3 



















of Non-MetalKc Lustre, Yielding No Tests 
Md TkMlBK Ho T«sls With Sodie Cttteoatt 



Bci.H\Oi GsccaCCn) 

^^ *sh 


dosed tube 


A little 



* ■-.'''tf 


Other tesU 

Like dolomite 

Darkens on igni- 
tion. Borax. O. P. 

Yellow ppt. if solu- 
tion added to ni- 
tric solution ol 
amnionic molyb- 


Heated in open 
tube with fused 
S. Ph. etches 

Whitens on heating 

Slowly soluble in 
caustic alkali 

In S. Ph. ILP. 
I ipvcs violet 


Compact, dull nodulea 
or veins in serpentine. 
Shell-like fracture. 
Rarely cleavable. 

Rhombohedral crystals 
often with curved 
ed0a cleavable and 
granular masses. 
Sometimes as a crust. 

Translucent grains in 
some sands and small 
imbedded resinous 

Nearly opaque material 
with wax-like lustre 
found filling cracks 
and cavities in igneous 

Compact masses, dis- 
seminated grains and 
crystals of great com- 

Transparent to trans- 
lucent granular masses 
or i^assy grains, or 

Translucent veins or 
lining with internal 
color reflections, or 
without "opales- 
cence" and with 
waxy lustre, and shell- 
like fracture. Also 
dull like ptunice and 
like drops of melted 

Crystals with brilliant 
lustre often parallel 
or netted. More 
rarely massive. 

Translucent crusts and 
cavity linings with 
smooth rounded sur- 
faces, often in con- 
centric layers with 
wax-like lustre. Never 
in crystals. 


Descriptive and Detemunative Tables 
Tabto VII (C(NrtiMied).~BIiii«fil8 of Hon-MeCallk Imtn, Ti 

Crystal system: 

name, composition. 

hardness and specific gravity 





H. Quarts. 



I. Garnet (Ouvarovite) 

Ca,Cr, (Si04)« 
H-7 G-3.1 to 4-3 

T. Zircon.. 


O. StattroKte 

Fe (A10)4 (AlOH) 


H-7.S G-3-6to3.7 

H. Tommaline. . , 
Ri A (SiO,)4 
H-7 to 7.5 G' 

>3 to 3.2 

I. Diamond 

H-io G-3.5 

The color of the noinenl is: 
















of Nan-MetaDk Lustre, Yielding No Tests 
Tialdinc No TmIs Witfi Sodic 


Healed in 
dosed tube 


Glows intenady on 


In powder 




crystala td other 

erala. Also 

<vaque material. 

taining mttch iroa 


CrTitals only. 

Sharp<ut square prisms, 
long or short, usuaHy 
imbedded in the asso- 
ciated mineral. Lusf- 
tre asnally adaman- 
tine or greasy. Also 
rounded pebbles. 

Prisms often twinned, 
or in threes, crossing 
at 90^ and xaof*. Sur- 
iaoes bri^t if unal- 

Glassy hettgonal prisms 
differently fsced at 
the two ends. Cross' 
section often suggests 
a triangle. 

Crystals often rounded 
with IcBtre suggestinR 
oiled tflass, and cleav- 
age in four directions 
at 70* 3x'. 

68 Descriptive and Determinative Tables 

Table Vm.— Mineral Substtncee not easily Detenninable by a Scbc 

The fdlowing mineral substances of economic importance have not been in< 
the determioative tables, some beoiuse they lack fixed characters, others beca 
characters are lost in those of their associated substances and others because tli 
only in one known locality. 

Amber, once the most prixed of gems, now used sometimes in jewdry, oftc 
mouthpiece for pipes, is a name given to those fossil resins which cnntain suoc 
and woe derived from a particular extinct species of iHne. The amber of tl 
Sea and the Sicilian amber are the most valued. Color, garnet red, reddish 
brownish, sometimes with bluish fluorescence. Lustre resinous, streak white, I 
2.5. G * ix>96. Melts quietly at 125* to 150* C. and gives off a choking vapt 

Asphaltf are rather indefinite mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxidized [ 
They vary from thick, hii^ly viscous liquids to solids, are generally bUck in a 
pitch-like lustre, and bum easily with a pitchy odor. They are slii^tly heav 
water. Exampks: the pitch lakes of Trinidad and of Bermudes, Venesuda; the 
of Barbados; the elastic elaterite of Derbyshire, England; the albertite of Nev 
wick, and the gilsonite of Utah. Sandstones and limestones inqnegnated with 
occur in many localities. 

Canotite, s UOiVAK^ 3 H/) (?). A cinary yellow, pulverulent mineral, ii 
scales, filling the interstices of sandstone in several counties in Colorado. Ran 
pact and wax-4ike. It contains radium, and is an impure vanadate of uranium 
tassium, or uranium and lime, or both. Is a commercial source of radium, urani 

Clays are mixtures of mineral fragments, due to rock decay. They are osuallj 
when wet, can be molded, and harden on heating. By analysis they ate principal 
and alumina, with some iron oxide and small amounts of other deoMnts. Mii 
cally they contain hydrous silicates of alumina, free quarts, and varying amounts > 
other minerab. In origin they may have rewlted from decay in place (rcstdus 
or may have been transporte4 by water, ice, or wind (sedimentaqr days). Tl 
important day% are: 

Kaolins. White-burning, residoal dajrs, often not plastic, approaching kaol 
composition, but not necessarily composed chiefly of that minenU. They are t] 
of white wares and porcelain, etc. 

Ball days. White-burning sedimentary days. They ate highly plastic 1 
added to kaolin to give plastidty. 

Fire days. Either sedimentary or residual days, which stand hi|^ degrees 
without fusion. Compodtion very variable and apparently beat with little fre< 
lime, magnesia, or alkalis. 

Stoneware days. Clays suffidently plastic and tough to be turned on a potter't 

Terra-cotta clays. Usually buff -burning days, with low shrinkage and denae-l 

Sewer pipe and paving-brick days. Vitrifiable, high in fluxes. 

Brick days. Low-grade clays, with oondderable plastidty, which hardoi at 
paratively low temperature. 

sup days. Mdt at a oomparativdy low temperature and form a d«K. 

Paper days. White days free from sand; used for mixing with pulp fibre. 

Seserite (MgSOi -(- H^) is the source of Epsom salts, and an important so 
magnesium oxide and basic carbonate (magnesia alba). It occurs at Stassfurt, I 
as about one-fifth of a layer 190 ft thick, chiefly halite and camaOite, and as ooe 
constituents of the overiying mixed salts. Exposed to the air it becomes ep 
After removal of associates there remains a mass dowly soluble in water and essily i 
H  3 to 3.5, G "■ 3.5« Rardy orthorhombic ayitals. 

HinenlsNot Easily Determinable by a Scheme 69 

(HsSt^). Foand in Mexico at Huitzuco and Gnadakaxar and said 
' ' m bhI u a source of mercary. It resembles stihnite in appearance, has me- 
- >A iod^rty cokar, red streak, H » 2. G »■ 4-^1, and oocun in groups of slender 


Vtfaste (CaFbl^VAi 2 H^). The vanadium of commerce was formerly 
^ ^njs tin. blackish incnisutions of mottramite upon the Kenper sandstone, 
j ^"^^ad. Stieak yellow. H - 3. G - s-9- 

J^ niiiMriiilly. is a soldeo-yeflow intimate mixture of day with 90% or more 
 -^ >a:4 imic onde. Mineralogists use the name abo for pulverulent yeltow iron 
t} and for polveralent red hematite. 

JacaJKfSr ainaal wax, is essentially a paraflBne, oolorless to white when pure, but 
*^rr prnUi « bovn, and posMSsang all the properties of beeswax except its sticki* 
^ ^ icie ii oiaed m Utah aiKl about 3/xx> tons are imported annually from Galicia 
- "ii^en. Used in crude state as insulation lot electric wires. By distilling it 

i.j aebE. laed br candles, bnrmng oils, parafiCne, a product like vaseline and a 
-'. a ittck, vjtk iadia-rubbcr, ooostitutes the initiating material called okonite. 

?caHtB {fiMiwiH lotphide). At the one locality of Cerro de Pasco, Pern, 
'-'^ 1. 1 fOB 7 or 8 ft thick of a nearly black material resembling slaty coal. About 
i^-: ?s i tUi B patraoite and ooe-tlird metallic sulphides and free sidphur. Bdow 
' '^ikd ooke-Gke material, chiefly carbon, which blends into a lustrous black 
'- ''^ 4 te 6 ft thick, mmtaining more silphur than carbon, but known as asphaltite. 

' --A 'i ^tat two asBoriates are also rich in vanadium, and the roasted or burned 
^ -■o^Brtel 




a a antore of hydrocarbons, obtained from the earth. It varies from a 

'^; iang Bquid, to a thick viscous oil. and is usually of a dark brown or green* 

«v «iih a disdnct B no fe a c cn ce. Chemically the American petrdeum consists 

-^ 4f bfdiQcubQos of the paraffine series C^H^ ^^^-t* ^^ smaller amounts of the 

.^« ttd C^Hy, f The oils from Baku, on the Caspian, Rangoon, Galicia, and 

more of the C^Ht, or olefin aeries. 


). A naica of brown to brownish-green color, long known 
"^^"^^ o( fold in certain mines of California, and containing approximately 
^ ^ 3 Bov ooanadally obtained from a soft Colorado sandstone of greenish color, 
^ ^ nmcfite fills the interstices bet we en the graina. 

^TkO^/)^}. Small water-worn blackish cuinc crystals found in the 
as a somce ol thoria. H * 5.5 to 6. G ~ 9.3. It is radio- 

T^SD^). Black or ocmi«e-ydlow, arcon-Uke crystals and masses, occurring 
*^^* *ifl qnaatity: used as a source of thoria. H "> 4.5 to 5, G «■ 4.8 to 5.2. 

^^ * kab-colored mixture of iron and afamdnum silicates, oontainhig manganese 
" '"I nil nddjah brovii on boning* Sienna is similar, but with less man- 

*^ Ettthr to compact indefinite mixtuRs of oxides, espedally of manganese, 
'' ^^ftr. sie known as wad. They have no constant characters, but may be 
^^nL Dnflydait brown to black b color. 


Index to Determinative Tables. 


Actinolite {see Amphi- 

Albite {see Plagiodase) 

Aluminite, VII, 5 

Alunite, VI, 3 

Alunogen, IV, 4 

Amber. VIII 

Amblygonite, VII, i 

Amphibole, VII, 2, 3 

Analdte, VII, 2 

Andalusite, VII, 5 

Anglesite, VI. x 

Anorthite {see Plagio- 

Antimony. II, 2 

Apatite, VII, 4 

Apophyllite, VU, i 

Aragonite, VII, 6 

Anhydrite, VI, 3 

Argentite, I, x 

Arsenic, II, 2 

Arsenopjrrite, 11, x 

Asbestos (see AmphitxJe) 

Asphalt, VUI 

Atacamite, V, 7 

Augite {see Pyroxene) 

Autunite, V, 3 

Azurite, V, I 

Barite. VI, 3 

Bauxite. V. 4. Vll. 5 

Beryl. VU. 4 

BioUte, VII, 4 

Bismuth, II. 2 

Boradte. VII, i 

Borax. IV. 3 

Bomitc. Ill, X 

Braunite, I, i 

Brodiantite, V, a 

Calamine, VI, x 

Calaverite {set Gold tel- 

CaUitc. VII. 6 

Camallito, IV. 2 

Carnotite. VUI 

Cassutcritc, 1. 2, V, 3, VI, I 

Olwlito. VI. 3 

Oraricvritr. VI, J 

CVrujcafc, V!. 1 

Chtdmaitr. VU. 1 

Chukanthito, IV, 3 

Chnk^loi\>\ VU. 6 

Chaktxitc. I, 1 

Chalcopyrite, III, i 
ChiastoUte {see Andalu- 
Chlorite Group, V, 2, 


Chondroditc, VII, 6 

Chromite, I, 2 

Chrysoberyl, VU, $ 

Chxysocolla, VI, 2 

Chrysolite, VII, 6 

Chrysotile {see Serpen- 

Cinnabar, V, 4 

Clays, Vni 

Clinodilore {su Chlo- 
rite Group) 

Cobaltite, II, i 

Colemanite, VII, 2 

Columbite, I, x, I, 2 

Copper, III, 2 

Copiapite, IV. 4 

Corundum, VII, 5 

Crocoite, V, 5 

Cryolite, VII, x 

Cuprite, V, 4 

Cyanite, VII, s 

Datolite, VU. 2 

Desdoizite, V, 5 

Diamond, VII, 6 

Diopside {see Pyroxene) 

Dolomite, VII, 6 

Elaeolite {see Nephelite) 

Embolite, VI, 2 

Emerald {see Beryl) 

Emery {see Corundum) 

Enargite, I, x 

EnstaUte, VII, 4 

Epidote. VU. 3 

Epsomite, IV, 4 

Erythrite, V, 4 

Huorite. VU, X 

Franklinite, I, 2 

Galenite, I, x, U, i 

Garnet, VU. 3. VU, 6 

Gamicrite. V, a 

Gocihile, I, 2, V, 3 

Gold. III. a 

Gold tellurides, II, a 

Gibbsitc. VU. s 

Graphite. I, 1 

Grrcnodiitc. V, 3 

Gv|i«um. VI. 3 

Hafite, IV. X 
Hausmannite, I, 3 
Hematite, 1/ a, V, 
Hessite, H, 2 
Hornblende (js^e 

Hydrozindte, VT. 
Hypersthene, VIJ, 
lodyrite, V, 3 
Ilmenite, I, i, I, 2 
Iridosmine, II, 2 
Jamesonite, L x, 1 
Kainite, IV, 2 
Kalinite, IV, 2 
KaoUn, VU. 5. VI 
Rieserite, VIII 
Labradorite {see ] 

Lapis LazuU {see 

Lazurite, V. x, VI 
LepidoUte, VII, x 
Leudte, VII, 5 
Limonite, I. 2, V, 
Linnaeite, H, x 
Livingstonite, VII 
Magnesite, VU, 6 
Magnetite, I, i 
Maladiite, V, 2 
Manganite, I, 2 
Marcasite, III, j 
Mercury, H, a 
Microdine {see < 

Mispickel {see A 

Milleritc. ni, X 
MirabiUte, IV, x 
Molybdenite, II, a 
Monazite, VII. 6 
Mottramitc, VIII 
Mundic {see Pyrrh 
Muscovite, VII, 4 
NatroUte. VII, 2 
NepheUte, VU. a 
NiccoUte. ni. X 
Nitre. IV, 2 
Odier, Vm 
Oligodase {see I 

Ofivine {see Chtyi 
Opal, VU, 6 



^TciEc, vn, 4 

^" •adt Uk Unn- 

^ -WtVII.I.VII,2 

 * te. L I 
^ ---c V. 4 


r-asyme, I, a, V, 4 

^ririSe. vn. 4 

r^ssK, vn, 2, 3 




fr «CaraBdn^ 

b2, «i}fcr («ar Praos- 

^ ad Pjfwfyiite) 

Rutne. 1, 2. V. 3. vn, 6 

Sapphire (see Conindum) 

Sassofite, IV, 3 

ScheeEte, Vn, 4 

SepioUte. Vn, 4 

Serpentine, VII, 4 

Siderite. V, 3. VI, 2 

Siflimamte, vn, 5 

Shrer. II, 2 

Smaltite, n, i 

Smithsonite, VI, i 

Specular iron {see Hem- 

Soda nitre, IV, i 

Spenylite, II, i 

Sphalerite, ^ 2, V, 3, 

Spinel, vn, 5 

Spodumene, VII, 2 

Stannite, II, i 

Siaurofite, Vn, 6 

Stephanite, I, i 

Stibnite, I, i, n, i 

Stflbite, vn, I 

Stream tin {see Casait- 

Strootianite, Vn, 4 

Salphnr. V. 3. VI. i 

Syivanitc {see Gold tel- 

Talc, vn, 4 
Tellurium, n, a 
Tenorite, I, x 
Tetrahedrite, 1. z, II, x, 

n. 2 

Thorianite, VIII 
Thorite. VIU 
TItanite, VII. 3 
Topaz. VII, s 
Tourmaline. Vn. i. VII, 

3. VII. 4. vn, 6 

Tiemolite {su Amphi- 

Trona, IV. i 
Turquois. V, 2, VH, 6 
Ukiite, VII. 2 
Umber. VIII 
Uraninite, I, i, I, 2 
Valentinite. VI, 1 
Vanadiaite. V, 3, VI, x 
Vesuvianite. VU, 3 
Vivianite. V, i 

Wad, vin 
Wemeritc. VII, x 
Willcmite. VI, x 
Wolframite, I, 2 
WoUastonite. VII, 4 
Wulfenite. VI. z 
Zindte, V, 5 
Zircon, VII, 6 


'^" S^ wfaicb foOow are fdected as books of value, published at compata^ 
'• • sBceaC data and «iiere possible are in English. Great treatises and more 
netaiy tot books aze induded. 

' •*« J D. SfUemk of If iaeraloor. 6th editioo, with two appendices. John Wiley & 
-Ik S Y-. xa92. 

Bd. 1. 1904; Bd. 2, 1897. von Vdt & Co., 

* " ^or md DMvomslMW MiuereUgy. Text Books, 
' -^ cad WooOoo. The Mineralocy of the Rarer Metals. J. B. Lippincott Co., 

^- »f dfl Maaml of Biioeraioor. 13th edition. John Wiley & Sods, N. Y.. 19x9. 
^-n H. A. MiBenfagy. Ao Introduction to the Scientific Study of Minerals. 

' Kafta 4 Col, Loodon. 1903. 
tl^iriiwM QeoMBts of Mincndogy, Crystallography and Blowpipe Anslyss. 

.-> fl^aiaa. D. Vsd Nostraod Co., N. Y., X9xx. 
' - ipt. A. H. MiKtakcy. The MacmiQan Co.. New Yoik, x9xa. 
' •^ A. F. i^***i^twi« to the Study of Minerals. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. 

72 Bibliogn^hy 

Delermnaiitt Mmeralogy. 

Brush-Penfield. Manual of Detenninative Mineraloor. x6th edition. J 

& Sons, N. Y., i9oe. 
Fraicx-Bcown. Tables for the Detennioation of Minerals. 6tli edition. 

pincott Co., Philadelphia, 19x0. 
Kraus-Hunt. Tables for the Determination of Minerals. McGxaw-Hill 

N. Y., 191 X. 
Lewis, J. V. Detenninative Mineralogy. John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 19x3 
Plattner-Kolbeck. Pxobierkunst mit tier Ldtxohre. 7th edition. Joha 

Leipog, 1907. 

Bayley, W. S. ElemenUry Crystallography. McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. 
Groth-Jackaon. The Optical Properties of Crystals. Translated from 4 

John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., xgxo. 
Gtoth Marshall. Introduction to Chemical Cxystallography. John Wile 

N. Y., X906. 
Lewis, W. J. A Treatise on Crystallography. University Press, Catnbri 

Tuttoa, A. £. H. Ciystallography and Practical Crystal Measurement. 
& Co., London, xQxx. 

Rock Minerals and Their Microscopic Bxaminalum, 

Iddings, J. P. Rock Minerals, and edition. John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 
Johannsen, A. Determination oi Rock Forming Minerals. John Wil^ & S 

Johannsen, A. Manual of Petrographic Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Co. , ^ 
Luquer, L. McI. Minerals in Rock Sections. 4th edition. D. Van Nos 

N. Y., X915. 
Pinson, L. V. Rocks and Rock Minerals. John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., i9< 
Weinachenck-Clark. Petrographic Methods. McGxaw-HiU Book Co., N. 

Microscopic Study cf Minerals in General. 

Schroeder van der Kolk, J. L. C Tabellen zur mikroskoiMschen Bestin 
Mineralien nach ihren Brechnungs-ezponenten. and editi<». C. W 
Wiesbaden, X906. 

WuKhell-Winchell. Elements of Optical Mineralogy. D. Van Noatrand ( 

Occmrmc$t Asudalion and Origin of Minerals, 

Beyschlag-Kiuach-Vogt. Die Lagerstltten der nutzbaren Mineralien und 

Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart, 1909. 
Clarke, F. W. The DaU of Geochenustry. Bulletin No. 330, U. S. Geol. Si 
Meciill, G. P. The Non-metallic Minerals, and edition. John Wiley & S 
Van Hiae, C R. A Tkeatise on MctamocpUsm. Monograph 47i U. S. G 


The Uses rf Minerals. 

Mineral Resources of the United States. Annually since 1883, U. S. Geol. Su 
The Mmeral Industry. Annually since 1893, McGraw-HQl Book Co.. S. Y 

Gems and Predons Stones. 

Bauer, Max. Edeisteinkunde. and edition. Tauchnits, Leipzig. 
Cattelle, W. R. Precious Stones. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1903 
El^er, A. Die Schmuck- und Edelsteine. Felix Krais, Stuttgart, 19x2. 
Snith, O. F. H. Gem Stones. James Pott ft Co., N. Y., xgxs. 

Mining Kngincprs' Handbook 








Art ^ace 
IS* Cavities in Rocks, and Jrouadr 

watcfs 95 

i6. Minerals and Localization d 

Ore-deposits 96 

17. Classification of Ore-deposits. . . 96 

18. Iron 97 

19. Copper 99 

ao. Lead and Zinc lox 

ai. Sflver and Gold xoa 

aa. Minor Metals 104 


73. Abrasives. Asbestos. Asphalt 107 

34. Building Stone. Cements, Clay, 

Limes 108 

as. Carbon Minerals: Coals, Petio- 

Icttm, etc X08 

a6. Miscellaneous Non-metallic Min- 
erals xia 


Bibliography 1x4 

in text telex to Bibliography at end of this section. 

74 Geology 


1. Introdnction 

A rock b a mineral or aggregate of minerals, forming an essential 
the earth; but many important mineral bodies, such as ores of metals, 
to be considered as rocks. Of about i ooo species of minerals, only 24 
are important as rock constituents. 

The three great classes of rocks are: Igneous, solidified from fuston; 
ifENTARY, deposited in water or air; Metamorphic, recrj^tallized or otj 
altered igneous and sedimentary rocks, such that their original charac: 
been obscured. Igneous rocks are believed to have been the predecess< 
source of all others (i, 2, 3). . 

An analysis, illustrating gross coMFOsmON of the outer 10 miles of the earth, 
in Sec I, Art x. Compared with the percentages there stated, nidLel and izx>n p 
become increasingly abundant toward the earth's center. 

Most abundant elements of rock-forming minerals are: sOicon, oxygen, alu 
iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassiiun, and hydrogen; secondarily, 
chlorine, phosphorus, titanium, manganese, and suli^ur. All other denkent 
the familiar copper, lead and zinc, and the precious metals, or an abundant atxxu 
gas, as nitrogen, are comparatively unimportant. 

Z, Chemical Compo8itio& of Rock-formiag Minerals 

Rock-forming minerals comprise silicates, oxides, carbonates, sul] 
chlorides, phosphates, sulphides, and native elements. 

Silicates are the most important, whence silidc add, in various forms 
foremost add in Nature. Three prindpal forms of silidc add are repr< 
in the rock-making minerals: HiSiQi (metasilidc), H«SiO« (orthosilidc 
H4Sij08. Pyroxenes, amphiboles, and leudte are salts of metasilici< 
Micas, olivine, anorthite, nephelite, garnet, and many minor minen 
orthosilicates. Orthodase and albite are salts of H4StiQ8. Some silicate 
only the usual bases, aluminum, iron, magnesium, caldum, and the a] 
and are called anhydrous; others, usually formed by weathering or altc 
of the first, contain hydrogen and oxygen in such proportions as to be 
off as water, and are called hydrated silicates. This distinctioa is ra 
important by the general secondary character of hydrated silicatea. Tb 
anhydrous silicates in igneous rocks embrace the following mineral ^ 
feldspars and feldspathoids, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, and olivine, 
and less im[X)rtant are: zircon, titanite, tourmaline, and analdte. On we 
ing or other alteration, the hjrdrated silicates, kaolinite, chlorite, and serpc 
usually result. Metamorphic rocks contain a few characteristic silicate 
sides the common ones of igneous rocks, viz: stauiolite, sillimanite, c> 
andalusite, scapolite, and epidote. 

Oxides are next important, of which quartz (SiOi) stands first, being 
dant in all the great classes of rocks. The related form of silica, chalcx 
and the hydrated variety, opal, should also be noted. Next are the 0x14 
iron, magnetite and hematite, and the hydrated form, limonite. With nu 
ite are assodated chromite and ilmenite (FeO • TiOx). Water, whether 
or ice, is also technically a mineral. 

Carbonates are caldte, dolomite, and siderite, with thdr intermediate 
tures. They are of chief importance in sedimentary and metamorphic | 
occurring rarely in the igneous, except as products of weathering. The^ 
two SULPHATES, anhydrite and gypsum. One chloride, common salt. 

Lt I Igneous RodLS 76 

Tfaere is one phosphate, apatite, which, strictly speaking, is 
-'..•^pha£c and chloride or fluoride. Two sulphides, pyrite &nd pyrrho- 
-rc widely disizitMited. The one native rock-fonmng element is graphite. 

X Rock-fonning Minerals (i, 2, 3) 

«f the igaeoos rocks are grouped according to their usual order 
'7»gqtTon into: x. Iron ores and minute associates. 2. Ferromag- 
(olivixie, pyroxenes^ amphiboles, and micas). 3. Feldspars 
(plagiodase, ortliodase, nephdite, leudte, and analcite). 
-irtz, m wadac and higher mwlinm rocks only. For descriptions, see 
. Taliks I-VTIL 

of file sedimefltsry rocks are principally fragments of minerals 
locks. Quarta b most resistant to solution, alteration, and abra- 
tad t ii e i g fat e appears in almost all sands and sandstones. The others 
— ^reqoe&t. After quartz, carbonates are of chief interest. Caldte and 
'^ze ooasdtute the limestones, sometimes with slight admixture of siderite. 
-££, bam feldspars, enters the fine sediments. The two sulphates, 
.^ the man abundant, and anhydrite, appear only in sedimentary rocks. 
^-ae is true of the chbiide, rock salt. 

tf Ae metsinoirpliic rocks. The components of both sedimentary 
rocks, when deeply buried, with attendant heat and pressure, re- 
size al times to distinctively metaoiiorphic minerals. Silica, being om- 
'Tjr:L Mindve s as quartz. Tlie aluminous components afford andalusite, 
--■^e. and cyanite. Magnesia n, iron, and aluminous compounds yield 
'•u=i. fatodte and occasional epidote. Lime, in association with ferric iron 
 -"aa, Bakes garnet possible, but orthodase may become muscovite. The 
•tn ire important components. The ferromagnesian minerals (chlorite 
x-peBtinc) are derived from magnesium- and iron-bearing originals. 

of Rock-fomdnc Minendls 


FELOSPAas: octhodaae. plmporhy 

Fklostaihoids: nephdite, leudte, aaaldte, mdilite 

PraoxxirEs: hypersthene, diopside, auidte, aoda-pyrannes 

Amphiboles: hombleode, soda-amphiboles 

HiCAS: biothe, muscovite 

OxBEB MDrxKALS: olivine, magnetite, ilmenite, apatite, aroon 

Fnjcments from igneous rocks, especially quartz and fdd- 
'^y**^, dolomite, siderite, limonite 

Qoarta, feldspars, biotite, xnoscovite. hornblende, epidote, 
, andahaite, caldte, doAomite, serpentine, talc, dilorite 

4. Igneous Rocks 

testares. In a broad way, igneous rocks, as ^contrasted 

«rtjiBcatary and metamorphic, have a massive structure; that is, thdr 

t^ ae not arranged in paralld or distinct layers. Massive is some- 

•j»A M a synoaym of Igneous. Examined more in detail, as in hand- 

'-rift, they have 4 common textures. Where the molten mass has been 

, siy daHed to crystallize, the texture is glassy. This texture appears 

''' S^jfders of thin masses, on upper surfaces of lava flows, and, in rda- 

.afasible vaiietica, it may extoid through an entire flow. It is^ most 

. 21 m filkeotts rodu, which have high fusing points; it is rare in the 
SL sad scaicdy known m the bade. Where molten masses have cooled 

c apidly, sad yd not flo qukkly as to prevent crystallization, very fine- 

76 Geology 

grained textures result, called FEisinc.- But, if older, larger, and 
formed crystals at the time be swimming in the magma, which then 
in relatively small components, the texture b called POSPHyuxK:. ITi i 
crystals are called phenocrysts and the matrix the ground-mass. 
crysts of acidic rocks are chiefly quartz and feldspars; the dark ferroxxia ^ 
silicates are much less common. In medium rocks, quartz practically ts i 
feldspars are associated with more of the ferromagnesian minerals. I 
porphyritic rocks, feldspars decline, while augite and olivine, and "ver^i 
biotite and hornblende, gradually replace them. When a molten mA^^nri 
tallizes into an aggregate of fairly coarse components of about the same :i 
texture is granitoid (like granite). Rarely, in these coarsely crystal limi 
the feldspars become unusually large and stand out in contrast with tlie 

As a result of explosive outbreaks at volcanic vents, igneous rodks are 
out as fragments of all sLses, from impalpable dust to laige bombs. The f rii 
settle down on the sides of the cone or at greater distances, and yield rocks -wrscii ; 
fragmental texture, allied to sediments. If coarse they are called breccias; if firw* ! 

Chemical compositioii of igneous rocks. Siuca ranges from abou 
to a theoretical minimum of o% in certain igneous iron ores; only ii 
cases does it fall below 40%. Igneous rocks containing above 65% siiii 
called acidic; those with 55 to 65%, medium; below 50%, basic* Of ai^ 
the superior limit is 25 to 30%; general range, la to 18%; minimum, nc.| 
Iron oxides are low, 1% or less, in the most addic rocks, but 
basic to 10 to 20%; in rare extremes, 90 to 95%. Magnesia sinks to a 
trace in the acidic, rising with fall of silica to 30% in the extremely basic. 
is low in the acidic, gradually increasing to about 15% maximum in c 
basic rocks. Potash is highest in the rare leucite rocks, reaching 10 or 
it ranges from 4 to 7% in medium rocks with much orthoclase, and disap 
in basic types. Soda has a similar maximum in the rare nephellte rocks 
the same range in medium rocks rich in albite, approaching extinction I 
extremely basic. Water, of 0.5 or 1%, usually indicates weathered rocksi 

It is important to connect chemical compositions with the resultant 
vice versa. Chemical composition obviously determines the minerab, and, in so I 
extremely acidic rocks have relatively high fusing points and chQl more easily^ it aj 
fluences texture. 

Classification of igneous rocks shown in Table i has general accepil 
by geologists. Rocks range from acidic on left of table to basic on right; 
quickly-chilled rocks above to slowly-cooled rocks below, a still lower lil 
fragmentals marking transition to sediments. The forms assumed in Na 
are in extreme left-hand column; to be defined after the descriptions. 
rocks are further subdivided in vertical columns on basis of minenlogy. | 
spars and feldspathoids are the fundamental basis of subdivision; other ml 
als are subordinate. 

The table fpves a general view of the igneous rocks and defines those commonly 
in mining. For close determination greater refinement may be desirable. In s 
mining districts in the western U S are found the ORANO-Dioarrss (intermediate beU 
granites and quartz-diorites), not mentioned in table. They have about the saaie araoi 
of orthoclase and plagiodase. Intermediate between syenites and diorites are the M 
ZOKITES. If they have a little quartz, but not as much as grano-diorites, they are ten 
quartz-monzonites. Butte granite, containing the copper veins, is usually descril>e< 
quartz-monzonite. Several great bodies of "porphyry coppers" are in monzon 
porphyries. The varieties of gabbro containing hypersthene instead of common au^ 
are called NoarrE; important because they contain the nickel-copper ores at Sudbii 
Ont. (For meaning of names of other rare igneous rocks, sometimes appearing in 
porta, see glossary in later editions of Kemp's "Handbook of Rocks.") 


Igneous Rodcs 

•sqitioooeq 's^ 


GlftMy rocks are tbe most evident results of cooling from fosKm. 1 
almost always acidic and are represented by the rhyoUtes and dadi 
scribed later. More basic varieties are known, but are less frequent. 
monest glasses are the obsidians, black, red, and brown, with 0.5 to x^ 
They may be assumed to be quickly-chilled rhyolites or dadtes. Pi7ia< 
excessively cellular obsidian. A rarer glass, which chills into an a^gr^ 
shot-like spheroids, is pea&lite or peasl-sione, usually containing 3 
water. The last glass deserving mention is the rare, resinous v&riet> 
PiiaiSTONE, having 5 to 10% water and b more easily fusible with bj 
t)um the others. 

Rhyolite-gnnlts teriet embraces igneous magmas containing: silici 
80%; alumina, la to 15%; iron oxides, i to 3%; magnesia, less thA 
lime, I to a%; potash and soda, 5 to 8%. They are common in N'atu 
on crystaUiaing yield finely to coarsely crystalline rocks, oonaisting cli 
orthoclase, acidic pUgioclase, and quartz, together with relatively small aj 
of the dark silicates, biotite, hornblende, and aogite, stated in order 
quency. Light-colored minerals are in great excess. 

Rocks o( thb leries are: xhyoute (ssm, liparite), fdsitic or partly idassy tezti 
phenocrytts; RHYourc-poaPRYaY (83m, quartx^KMphjrry), febitic ground-maaa 
dAiit phenocrysts; ORANiix-PoapHYaY, predominant phenocrysts, subordiiiate \ 
mMs; QRANTTK, granitoid texture, conqxMients of about the same siie, but fi 
•limedmea abnonnaUy Urge. Psqmatxtis: crystalUsatioo of granite is often 
panicni by separation of portions of the magma, in ammnmtmn with abnormal] 
aitroixtures of diasolyed gaacs. These portions pass outward into wall-iocks as 
KttXtTi for great di»tancts ami in large siie; on crystaDiang* thor s^idd v«y coa 
grrnates <^ same minerals as appear in granite itself, with many rare demeats < 
tr«t«d in them, and are called pegmatite. 

In thb SKwa the prominent minerals are fekbpan and qoaits; dark sJKcatfs a 
ordinate^ Thigr are dosely related to the dadte-qttarta-diQrite series, from which 
tingubh them microscopic eiaminatfcm nay be neoesmxy. The diirinctina is pcai 
id «m*ll SMment. This series is veiy ahwulant a;Bd widely distributed. Its tu 
hrecvias ait abd frequent. 

Tr«€byt«-«y«alH mHm embraces igneous magmas containing: silica, 
<S>^ v> alumuia. 15 to io'c; irv>naude% i to j(^>; magnesia, i to 3%; lim 
si* I X i^^axh aikI :<kU. 7 tv> 11 ^V. They are miKh less oommon than tbt rfa^ 
1^1 Auittr ^1 Kt< iXx V r>>a aHIuivc th^y xSeid nnely to coarsely cqrstalline rockj 

ju^tuvs v>l x>JtiKs,^>i*v Svkiw l^Ujjn^vU5e. and usually 
\U»t MlKAt^'N. hk^;:e. K^^\Kc.sle. and au^te. ooeor 
at im>»t. i»«^v(iv<\%<N> >uS.><Uxru(e. U$ht<v4c««ii 

Ik .^l* •«».»«V* Vx» *v\**X 4V J»KX*. ."tv*** iK-«t. *t*fi 

X \>^ v\» ,v v*^ , • Ki^ > ;v ^ „ . ^-\v o.vwN. ; V 5*V si^gSMaa. i to 
> s.\ » ,v ' 'VS. t*"^ iK* i^Nxv '.x*" V ,x , fVjf .xvar r^reqaently- 
x»\N»,'^ Vv v^ \<v«k • v<s ,v As^ >•>> >\%^».»'v 'wiLSv cuosisting of oi 

Igneous Rocks f§ 

awfinrd to BrauiMl-^naaB; iisrKKtiTB4VAiuii^TC8nRtT, 
sabocdinate sround-maas; MsnacLm-«TEMm, granitoid 
uka fiac to CKtzandy course varieties, Khaiting into pfgnntifni 

Bost pioiiiineiit, but in the last-named, ncfthelits 

iMve been reoogntaed, depending on wtrancf of 

and the dedine ol nocmal oompooents. Sodafite 

and Ikomblende are not so frequent as pyrascne. 

but axe far lens oommon than those with 

I ^TTH »srti diuilm ■«!•• embraces igneous magmas containing: 8ilic«» 
•3^^; ahanna, is to 15%; iron oxides, i to 3%; msgnfuis, i to 3%; 
' 'J 4%; »da and potash (soda in excess), 4 to 7%. They are common 
|«?^7ti*e cstcEs. On crystallizing they yidd findy to coarsely gystalline 
f * . .jussoa^ d plapodase, less orthodase, and quartz, as the ,most promi- 
. c -mmh, with biodte, hombleade, and pyiozeneb one or several. The 
are in 

cB of tin aeries ere: nAarra. fdntic or partly ^aaqr textures, few pbenocrysts; 
"s^amki, fidsitic groimdHnaaa, with abundant phenooysts; QUAEn-oioun 
T n, pwrt— i nmt phenociyata, subovdinste groundHnaas; quarts-diosiie, granit- 

cmbcaccs igneous magmas containing: silica, 

'r%; shwins, 15 to 18%; iron oxides, 4 to 9%; magmmisj, 2 to 7%; 

~ : ^ S^; soda, 3 to 5%; potash, a to 3%. They are very widespread. 

-*'5uiSiJuj, they yield finely to coarsely crystalline rock^ consisting of 

- *^^>s; t ficde orthodase, and biottte, hombleiide, or augite, one or several. 

-sA^cknd minerals are in excess and are the chief pbenocrysts. The 

-^ ^«c vodDy light gray colors. 

Virki ^ tkn eeries sre: AMUEUia (varieties, micaHuidesite, homblende-andeaite, 

testores. few phenoaysts; ANDSSRa-posPHYSY, fdsitic groond- 

pbenociysts; D maA ra-PoafHYmTf, prrdo m i n ant phenocryats, groand- 

b; JJUjaim, gnn^otd texture. Ande^tes are important in many wertem 

' ^ ifeiiiLL, ia the rcoently extinct and active vokaaoes along Pacific coast, in 

^sca, ad is other parts of world. 

«• r 

embraces igneous magmas containing: silica, 40 to 

■^■Bsa, 16 to so%; iron oxides, 6 to 15%; msgneria, 5 to 10%; Ume, 

■oda, 3 to 4%; potash, i to 2%. They are very widespread. On 

they yield finely to coarsdy crystalline heavy rocks, consisting of 

ittk or no orthodase, and large proportions of psrroxene, dlivine. 

The dark sJBratfai are in excess and give rocks dark gray or 

^*^ilthiftieriei8ie: aasALT, felsitic textures, few phenooysts; BASALT-pospByKT, 
^^^ liiiJeii iL. abondant pbenocrysts; CABBKO-roBPHYaY, predominant pheno- 
^•iSi tHwrrTrsiK. graond-mass; diabasx, granitoid texture, feldspan long rectangular, 
; "-tst wttfahx and oocopying spaces among the wcU-oystallised feidqwis; gabbko, 
•^'-•idiCBayanentsasfafoad as long. 

•  i T ph biM neks are very abundant.' Phenocryits sre almoit enttrebr divine and 
^^^ The pecaiiar texture of diabase, due to fddspars oomi^eting their crystalliza- 

' i^m the p y mar ii f B . oootiary to rule, gives them a spedal place. Varieties of 
-nr Aid special varieties ol both basalts and gabbcos. Hornblende and biotite 
* ivr ehaervvd: aepfaelite. leodte, analdte, and melffite aometimcs appear and may 

«T thr pbgiodaae. Afl feldspars and fddspathoids may fail, giving the rare ba- 
aad angitilf, and the rare gabbroa, peridotite and pyrxnenite (Table i). 

There are a lew rarefgneoua rodka with ksa than 40% smca and 

The most nnportant are the igneous magnctitea, dtea 

' ' ' dikes and sheets, in others, 





72 ••« 










•a .t: & c & 

S S 8 I 

3 .5 

i« - 

' C "^ ca 'c ^ 





i9 O 




o 4) .t; 

g -S 8 

O o 

1 1 1 1 II I II I S I 

I' 5 

9 <o 


I ^ 





TS ♦J «B 


■= * « « s 


« ^ g S 

•S -2 -c ^ v£ 
o si ^ &^ 6 






5 §-5 





~ -'^ I -r - t .^ -I 


/ ^ 







V C w* 

"- >" — • w CU Ok 




«.4 i?-RfS5 

< -5 ,-^ ^ z 







I'T Forms Assumed by Igneous Rodcs 88 

ki^ 3p of tke ocisiiial rock, paitly to altentioa mnd disintcgntioa by reaoval of 
' * zzn^ats. Quarts and aluminoiis hydrated siiicaUa, with fcnic hydrate, be- 
: - '-^uMj mrifhrH, vhUe the other oxides go off in acrfution. Soib and subsoib 
- od «i«fij»»»i*«. are aflocded for making sedimeBtazy rocks. General names for 
I.- -u-ie d leathered products are: sAmouTE or rotten rock; lateute, residual 
i. '^ Laleraatkm is most proooaaoed in tropical climates. 

ro^s is xardy difficult. Definitions convey the 
homfebes sometimes resemble fdsites, and may require 
G i M. i wr.s , with increisingbr fine foliation, shade into mica- 

. ^ akft'schisls into slates, 90 that dwtinftions may be matten of judgment. 

- X neks of this aeries give little difficulty. 

7. Forms Assumed by Igneons Rocks 

- c SekL igneous rocks are found in dikes, necks, boaseSk stocks, surface 

:^^^CTe sheets or silb, laccoliths, and batholiths. The size and shape 

• ' :<udies exercises an important influence on texture of the component 

'- "cail bo(fies chUl quickly and are glassy or felsitic; large bodies cool 

* -^ are porpfayritic or granitoid. Designating one horizontal dimen- 

- £:^^ {L), the horizontal dimension at right angles to X. as breadth (JB), 
■-X votical dimensioQ as depth {D), a mathematical expression can be 

-~" ^niohted for each type. 

-^ irt kxkg, narrow bodies of igneous rock, fiUing fissures in older rocks, 

V* ii t his entered in molten condition. In dikes L and D are great, B 

": sflttfi; they vary from less than i in wide and a few yards bng, to 

'^ d I nile in width and many miles in length. They usually have steep 

'^ oltea intimately associated with ore-bodies, and in one place or an- 

- ^::^rBce all varieties of igneous rocks. They may mark the last out- 

- z\ series of eruptions in a particular dbtrict, and are then usually very 
> -a % Cripple Creek, Colo. 

" 3S7 BMiate from an igneous center for miles into the surrounding strata, as in 

'-r. Mto, Moat, or the Trinidad coal r^ion, Orfo. They may appear hundreds of 

"^ ^Kker known igneous rodss, u in the coal measures of S W Penn^hrania. A 

'-^■ri hooi solidified molten rock, even though a magma be regarded as a solu- 

r-^Jy aO of which crystallizes in sUu, is contrasted with a vein, similar in shaoe 

'--iiuas to the walls, but which is defxisited from solution, the sdvent passing 

' ■= tile case of pegmatites, it is not dear whether the term dike or vein should 

jaef say be considered the result of aqueo-igneous processes of fusion. 

^4^ 3 the solidified mass of lava that remains in the throat of a volcano 
' .ait outbreak. When first congealed, it connects the lava that has 

- rjm the crater with the unerupted re^ue in depth, just as a human 
-i^ects head and trunk. As seen in the field, it is usually a decapitated 

^ .:^ it is ezinsed to view only after removal of the lava flow and much 
'ae by cfosioQ. L and B are small, D gnat. 

ijaem, winch yield both lavas and explosive products, the neck may be part 
• «ad part brecda. Necks project in a rudely columnar manner from remnants 
*^ oxter sad from debris furnished by their own disintegration. 

-«t are rougfaly cylindrical masses of igneous rock, projecting above sur- 

-'- *afl rocks like the boss on an old-time circular shield. Coarse granite 

~ 'ite, because of its relative resistance to erosion, often projects from 

~ j: mica-schists or other softer rocks. Bosses differ from necks in 

^ doe to volcanic activity. As in case of necks, however, L and B are 

> floaO, D gnat. 

^ are larse, roughly cylindrical masses of intrusive porphjrritic or 
'1 rock, m the midst of older waUs. They do not necessarily stand in 

84 Geolosy 

rdief, but othennse are mocfa the same as boases; L and B aie small m 
sped to D, although absolutely of rather laige size. 

The name ''stock" is the Gcnaao word Cor floor or stoiy in a house, and was i 
to masses of igneous rock of cylindrical shape, because certain giaaite bodies of t\ 
outline, containing diascnunated cassiterite, were fonnedy mined in horiaootal si 
floots. Finally the man of rock itself came to be called a stock. For good i! 
tioos, see TeOnride folio of U S Geol Sunr. 

Surface flows are pioduoed when lava wdb out from a vent, and flow 
surface in a relatively thin sheet; L and B are huge, D small. In upp< 
under portions are many cavities, caused by expanding gases; the xniddl 
is usually dense, and in a thick flow may be comparatively coarse-gi 
The cavities are flattened and rounded like an almond, whence, from the i 
they are called amygdaloids. 

The top of a flow may be a rough, slaggy scoria, even consisting of cakes of 
and broken crust. Where dissolved gases have all escaped before conaolidatic 
while lava is yet molten, the final chilled surface may be comparatively smooth. S 
flows may bury one another in succession, or be covered with later sediments, 
are distinguished from intrusive sheets, because their heat can at most affec 
underiying rocks, not those formed above them alter cooling; whereas intrusive 
bake both walls. More than loo successive surface flows of basalt have been cut b 
shafts in the Lake Superior copper district. 

IntnuiTe sheets or sills are masses of igneous rock which have been J 
between strata of older rocks, and have solidified parallel with them. L { 
are great, D small. The shape resembles that of a surface flow, and wi 
surface flow resting on sediments is buried under subsequent beds the re 
much the same. The heat of intrusive sheets, however, alwasrs affects the 
ments above and below them, and sometimes produces important contact i 

Intrusive sheets vary from a few feet thidL, and of no great known extent, to \ 
sill as the Palisades of Hudson lUver, visible 50 miles, traceable by drill 25 miles 
its thickness reaches 600 ft, but is usually less. Intrusive sheets doubtless rise fra 
depths along fissures, like dikes, but then turn sidewise between strata along a 1 
least resistance. They are sometimes aasoriatfd with ore-deposits, as at Lew 
Colo, and Mercur, Utah. 


Laccoliths are a variation of the intrusive sheet and are lenticular in shape, 
sill be supposed to start from its feeding dike, sidewise between strata, and to i 
easier to raise the overlying beds of a limited area than to force its way with uil 
thickness far and wide, a lenticular mass will result, tapering from a central majg 
thickness to a thin edge. Hence, L and B are relatively large, D smaller but vaJ 
Laccoliths which are fed outwardly from a central supply fissure are symmetrical 
this fissure is sometimes a fault, with hard strata opposite soft ones, so that the i 
sive can penetrate outwardly only on one side. Unsymmetrical masses, practically 
laccoliths, result. Laccoliths heave up overlsring strata in domes, and when thea 
eroded the laccolith is exposed in midst of outwardly dipping beds. The entrao 
laccoliths may have been aided by incipient folding or arching of beds under cod 
sion. Laccoliths are widespread in the western states. The name was coined by < 
Gilbert from the Greek word for cistern, as the shape suggested the ancient dome-coi 
vaults for storing water. 

Chonoliths are irregular intrusive bodies, either filling a pre-existing cavity, or ] 
ing apart the rocks to make a way for itself. The name was coined by R. A. Daly 
the Greek word for a mould in which metal is cast. No definite expression in teni 
L, B, and D is poasible. 

Batholiths are huge masses of intrusive rock, of irregular shape and great ezj 
L, B, and D are all great. Granite masses, square miles in area and sometimes ( 
miles in volume, are illustrations. They are vpedaXty abundant in pre-Csml 

-ri Rode Distuibances 86 

1 ?■■■ *T"**^ bj S«dtflMiitiiy and MetsmofpUe Sodn 

' ' ibimgrfAmg feature of sedimentary rocks is thdr arrangement in parallel 
" 'iX!f fonnatioo. Vaiiations in deposition of sediment from high and 
jir^ pjoaas and cairns, floods and droughts, produce contrasts in coarseness 
-.rusft. At the outset they are flat, except for the slight inclination ci the 
• " "ia. lod irregularities due to delta formation and swift currents. The in^ 
-. vsaioQ often seen in e:qx3sures today is due to subsequent distuibances. 

=>aictflfl^ The smallest division of a sedimentary rock is a iayex or 

> I: oay be a fraction of an inch thick and marks one period of es- 

.. ih-aoduit deposit. Layers go together to form beds, the natural 

' iofimentaiy rocks. Bedding planes are recognizable and thick- and 

f.tsd sedimentaries are distinguished. Beds combine to constitute a 

' i. gr tabular mass of one kind of sedimentary rock between others 

- irt (fiioent. A stratum may range from z to x ooo ft thick. Thin 

. ^t saafiy called seams, as in of coal. Limestones, shales, and 

' -Ts affofd thkk strata. In geological mapping, a thick and persistent 

-^ is ofta called a formation. 

ndki pRscat all the features of the bottom, or of the strand between 

- tov wtto: as rqipfe macks, tracks, stranded shdis, rill-marks, mud-cracks. 
' i'iav fraia swift currents, irregular beddings, and cross-bedding in individual 
• =^ ddtaa. Since the greatest thicknefls of sediments gathers along subsiding 
-«^ w8k actteadaiA advances of sea over land, there are found in normal suc- 

czWaentes which repnseot old shore shin^e, foHowed by sandstones, repre- 

- ^-itee thftOows; aext shales, corres p onding to deeper, quieter water; lastly, 
^«Ma« uM deeper water, free of mechanical sMimimts, are Umestones, con- 
: .i^sesy of organic mnains. This normal suoceiaoa b not always found, since 

'^ rmeB, etc destroy unifonnity. but it is ncA infrequent. There are also desert 
-t^'iaa. wherein wind-blown partides are important, and are associated with 

'Q ta^aeary atfeama, lakes, and floods. Land accumulations are character- 
ts. niB onifitioQ 01 ma. 

ti Rock Distiirbftiicef 

' ^vide observation has shown that the rocky outer portion of the earth 

•^ v2b}ect to many disturbances. Great masses may rise or sink without 

'.' ise local attitude of the rocks. These continental movements are of 

- Bterest, but sddom of importance to the engineer. Localized move- 
:ae to devation of a long and relatively narrow belt in a mountain chain, 
' -ihaaoes incident to intrusive entrance of bodies of igneous rock, are 

' ;dvtaaL The results of these movements are termed folds and faults. 

.U art beufings in strata, whereby each layer assumes a curved form, 
-.idflg m portion of a cyliikler. When rlawficd in order from least to 

*-' ^jids onbcaoe momocunes, anticlines, 
 ^«is ci several types, domes and basins. 

^oofSan (Fig 1) are terrace-like bendings of 

- wn indinatioa varying in amount, but 
' ause direction, as the name implies. A 

' '^ of the terrace marks a belt of especial 
' the strau affected, and may be accom- ^ j Monocline, in a Suc- 
.' mnneroui cracks. At foot of the terrace cession of Beds 

^»j n^ in lewsed direction, with attendant 

L*<d Clacks. In the upper roll, oveiiying beds are subject to tension. 
-< to oomprcsaion; in the lower roll, the upper beds are compressed, 
* tCBir. Between these areas is necessarily a surface of no strain. 




Trou»U "t^ 

ManodinM which involve porous beds, such as open-textured suidBtoDes 

tight shales, are sometimes important places for accumulation and storafi^e oj 
gas and petroleum. The search for these is essentially an endeavor to locate, 
drill, favorable monoclines or gentle anticlines. Monoclines have been des< 
arrested anticlines. In a series c4 sediments comprising shales or otber sol 
monodines or even more violent folds in stiffer strata may at depth disappeai 
in the adjustment of soft overlying shales, the plastic movement of whidi take 
distributes the fold until it is diffused and lost. The name monocline (or mi 
structure) is sometimes applied to a remaining half of an eroded anticline or 
the other half of which is not apparent; inclination of the beds is all in one din 

Anticline and syndine (Fig 2) are complementary terms; one rai 
pears without the other. An anticline is an arch-like bend, a syncliiK 

responding trough. The upper pai 
anticline is called the crest; its 
sides, LIMBS or legs; the central i 
running parallel with the axis of t 
centric partial cylinders, the surfi 
which are represented by each foldi 
is the AXIS. The bottom of a syn 
the trough. Beneath anticlinal en 
Fig 2. Antfcline and Syncline, with syndinal trough the beds are cs] 
Horizontal Azb strained and cracked; the cracks I 

to gape upward in the anticline and 
ward in the syncline. The limbs of each type of fold are less straine 
crest or trough. Thus, good building stone will be found on the limbs 
than at crest or in trough. On the contrary, veins and mineral deposil 
circulating waters find natural resting places in crest and trough. 

Anticlines and synclines, when followed for a mfle or more, seldom have ho 
axes as shown in Fig 2. The axes usually pitch downward (Fig 3), though th 
afterward rise again. In Fig 2, the 
component beds, if eroded, would 
appear at surface in parallel bands. 
When pitching folds are eroded, the 
several beds appear at surface as 
concentric curves (Fig 3). In anti* 
dines the upper or later beds are 
outside, the under or older, inside; 
in synclines the under or older beds 
are outside, the upper or later, in- 
side. Because of these relations, 
geologic structure may sometimes 
be inferred from a colored geologic 

Anticlines received their name 
because the observer was assumed 

Ik 'i!;\^ ;*' r ^L''"'.^' ^T ^^""^ P« 3- Etching Antklme, Showmg Concent 
the bedb mchned outwardly in op- Curving Outcrops of Erod«l Beds 

posite directions; hence the prefix 

"anti," for "opposed." SUnding in the trough of the syndine the observer M 
indined beds sloping toward him, hence the prefix "syn," for "together." An< 
and synclines of which the inclination is the same on both sides of axis (see diaij 
are called syioietrical. Symmetrical folds may vary from those of comp&ir^ 
slight disturbance to tightly compressed folds. In the former, where the limbs of 
are separated by other beds, the fold is called open; but where from extreme coij 
sion the limbs of a single bed are brought tightly together, the fold is closed. 
shows open symmetrical folds; Fig 4 dosed symmetrical folds. A limiting case i 
antidine, speaking mathematically, is the dome, in which the beds pitch radiallv' 
directions from a central point. The variable direction of the indinatioa has |u^ 

tr .-; 



■r<3CAq[ra.vnsAL A dome m an aDtidioe of which the axis is icdoced to a point. 
: ^s didif developed above laccoliths; sddom in other relations. A BA8IH ia a 
3c :te axil d vhich is a point, toward which the strata converge. 

J ±A utiict aeoae aie rare, and result from local removal of 
- od caBapK of strata. The tenn is also used in the geology 
. X a ifBcfiBal anangcment of strata, wherein a rising pitdi 

.s» at opposite diiectioas brings the measures to the surface. 
oHs thas fonn coooentric canoe-shaped or spoon-bowl qm- 

foldB. Strains which caused a fold may 

liinb under or over the other, thus producing p. . ri^uA FoM 

-'retrial tnrittimfrMn* From relatively dight differences, 

- •<rC3a any increase until the overturned portion rests on an underlying 

" 1 Sodi folds may even be S^shaped (sigmoid) or recumbent. On a 

— <:3k, thoe ofteo occur in metamorphic districts; on a large scale th^ 

^ ^3Bif m rcgbns of violent disturbance. 

, such as the Jura type for ^nnmetrical folds; Appalachian 
side than the other CFig 5). Gosed folds are those of which 
the limbs are squeezed so tightly at one spot as to cause a 
great bulge of an upper or under core of rock. When the 
sorroonding strata incline away radially from the compressed 
area, like cibs of a fan, the f ohi b called a fan-fokL 

Folds vary in size from small wrinkles and pudkers, ss 
in schists, to axes having chords of yards, miles, or hundreds 
of miles. F<rfds are scnnetimes designated as of the first, 
second, third, or hi^wr orders. A mountain range, consist- 
ing of an antidiae or a S3mcline, is respectively called an 
AxmcuNORiuic or SYNCuNOBniM, the Greek wc»d for moun- 
tain being added to type of fold. When great flat folds occupy 
an appreciable part of earth's surface, they are called respec- 
tively GEAimcLonES and geosynclines, prefixing Gredc word 
■effold. Folds are of great importance in engmeering wcxk, not only jn 
■isiiila like coal, salt, and some hxm ores, or in the discovery of petro- 
hA also in oooaection with railway tunnels, aqueducts, and other engi- 

J 1 

^ nd Urikt. Dtp is the angle of inclination of a vein or bed below hori- 
'.•: Szim (coone or beaxing) is the direction of line of intersection of an 
W tm or bed with a horiaontal plane.. 

 the aa^ b e t n e c n two perpendiculars, one in the inclined plane, the 
koebeaCsl, let fall from a common pomt on their line of intersection (the 
itifte is stated in degrees and minutes, E or W of N or S, for eiample 
Simx plane of dip is at right angles to line of strike, it b recorded in de- 
af ttr&e; thus, a strike of N 25* E and dip of so* N W signifies that the 
dtp b measured runs 65* west of north. Some observers note exact 
of dip, leaving strike to be inlerxed. Thus, a record of a sand- 
so* in a direction N 65* W, implies a strike of N 35* £. First mode 
 CBStooary in America. A geologist's compass has one flat side, and 
twinging around a graduated semi-cirde, so as to give direct dip read- 
esch obiervation of strike may be corrected for variation of needle, or, 
ooBpasBcs, the graduated drde may be tamed to read directly ob- 
totme north. 

It. Fatats 

' UJ{ b t diilofatiqn in otherwise continuous strata or masses. It results 

-^ lods ace to excessively strained that they yield along a crack or series of 

•A one ade ahcting its position with respect to other. One side may rise, 

IstaEdly, or (as resultant of all 3 movenftents) diagonally, with 


- atte 

• -L 

1 s i 

' mi 

• J 



respect to other side. In nearly all cases the fault plane or planes are ixm<r. 
horizontal, the upper and under sides being designated by the miner's 
HANGING WALL and FOOT WALL. Limiting cases are vertical and horizon ^.sl ] 

Clasaification of faults (9, xo). The commonest are: normal, revet 
shift faults (Fig 6, 7 and 8). In normal fault ("normal*' here 

[Fig A. Normal Fault, Displacing Flat 
Coal-Seam. Cross-Section 

Fig. 7. Reverse Fault. Begun ais a 1 
Overturned Fold. Cross-sectioo 

*'usual" or "common") the hanging wall has slipped down with referei 
foot wall. The movement is rarely directly down line of dip of fault i>l3.r 1 
usually on a diagonal. The position of any point in dislocated portion 
ferred to the 3 axes of solid geometry: the vertical component is the t?! 

horizontal component perpendicular I 
strike of the fault plane b the H£a\i ! 
horizontal component in fault plane I 
SHIFT. These mathematical factors sls \ 
determining direction and amount of : i 
ment, the line of which is the diagonaJ j 
rectangular prism the edges of which a 1 
heave, throw, and shift. 

Fault-brecda. Movement of fault { 
Fig 8. Shift Fault in Vein Dipping so', or of one wall on the other, often crl 
Same Effect would be Produced by adjacent rock to a mass of angular 
Normal Fault, with Diagonal Dis- ^lents, mixed with more finely oommiil 

Urge Throw, Straight Down the Dip 'he whole mto a solid mass* by depoi 

new minerals, sometimes producing val 1 
ore. This mass is a fault-breccia. Fragments of any bed, dike, or ' 
involved in the fault movement, will be dragged along from stationary si<{ 
direction of movement; or will be- left behind by moving ode; and if foUd 
along fault plane, will indicate direction of movement. Such fragments fu! 
valuable evidence and by F. T. Freeland have been aptly termed the traj! 
THE fault. Should a vein be cut off by a fault, with attendant brecda, ! 
ments of the vein should be sought in the breccia and the trail followel 
pick up continuation of vein. 

Drag. Faults often cut relatively soft beds, as shales or shaly sandstci 
Friction of the walls upon each other causes a downward bend in the bee! 
stationary or lifted side and an upward bend in those of the moving or dro[ | 
side. These bends, called drag, show the direction of movement (Fig 
Drag is not found in strong rocks, like granites or heavily-bedded limestoi | 

SlickenaideB are polished and usually grooved surfaces, often caused 
movement of walls of a fault or vein. Upon the wall-rock the grooves indi* 1 
direction of movement, but do not necessarily show which side has gone up 
down, or laterally. 

Some observers have thought that by scraping finger nail or finger across the groo I 
one aide of them will be found steeper than the other. If the grooves are tested in si I 
earidcs on underside of plane of movement, such steep rid^ is cooiidcred to be I 

- :•( Faults 89 

«de«f poove, or the aide wbSth reasted besriag damn of hugiiig wtU whSk mov- 
duMjwai d ia Unit plane. It viU Unu indinU the actual directioo o( 
SlmiU. the steep ridge be oa upper side of grooves, aa upward movement 
«al is indicated. Otbeia have thought that when the finger is moved along 
the greater rougfaness is felt in the direction of movement of the part felt, 
in fank-bfeoda are of little significance, sinoe they are not 

masses of wall rock, involved in faults, or pro- 
.-: :j forkJDg of a fault fissure around a split-off fragiment, and especially 
1 rckLed to aibsequent vein-foimation along fault. 

SicoF^HM^ When a fault movement is distributed along a number of 
'-jsd pfaaes not widely spaced, the wall rocks are broken into parallel tabu- 
and are said to be sheeted. The resulting fault is "distributed," 
sheeted strip b a shear-zone. Gouge is a sheet of clay, often occur- 
the outer edge of fault brecdas, especially those subsequently min- 
hy dicuiating waters. Other names are: selvage and flucan. 

If a fault involves an appreciable vertical component, the 
' 'tiy Sfted side may stand out as a terrace or escarpment, the fault-scarp. 
'^ soon wears it down, so that fresh fault-scargs are rarely recognizable. 
. '3 bmvz sometimes aided the deposition of ore bodies by f lunishing water- 
i> Vhea they are developed across an okier mineral deposit, serious 
kjr be caused. 

for aoHnic lautts have been formulated by Schmidt (ii), Zinmier- 

'IJ^ Fredbad (7) and others. In studying a fault, observe trail, drag 

MtmfjAn Stratigraphical succession, if known, will reveal amount of 

Bore-holes are useful. Models assist, and are sometimes 

to profectioos on paper. If there be no evidence to contrary, the 

I that fault is normal is justified, becatise most faults are such. Never- 

-4 «l»*«>^iw shows that a reverse fault occasionally appears in a series 

rsd ix^ts, that shift faults may occur, and that fault movement may be 

.1 joai (nonBal at one extreme of fault pUme, reverse at other). On en- 

a fault, m mathematical solution is attractive, but, despite many 

the necessary data are seldom obtainable. Attention 

'd he t oB ie ntr ated on the fault plane and the movement along it (12). 

' irAmle d portion of a tabular body b to be sought, presenting a broad 

"'^ 2 rightly atta^rkfd As a rule, it b easier tQ drift horizontally, than to 

^ s tmt; the prooednre b largely determined by the way the vein or bed lies. 

''JH^ a series of stratified rocks, the suooessbn and thickneaa of which are 

>~ hjr prrvioits mining operations, by study of the surface, or by borings. 

'■^ » far side of fault b recognizable, and its place in the series known, 

' -:'xxbin aaid amount of movement may be determined. As gulches often 

.- -« ito^ts, because of easy erosion of crushed rock, faults may sometimes 

f^ man lemdily by study of surface exposures than by observation 

' adencrtxnML Directions of slickensides, drag, and trail, commonly 

' '"* baited stratified rodts, are highly significant. If none of these evi- 

"^ n dflcEive in dealing with a mineral deposit cut by a fault, there is strong 

*'Jky tbmt the fault b normal On thb assumption, if a fault be en- 

- '^ oa its under side the rule b to cross it and sink; if on its upper side, 

"■• it and raise. Thb b expressed in the old rule: "follow the obtuse 

."'t ~ ihdu if Ott fault happen to be reverse, the rule would lead in wrong 

IvJmc ^"^ steeply dipping veins in massive rocks, or steeply dipping 
r. xA flodfca CTmf*^*^"ff coal seams or other intetstratified deposits, the si*''- 




Zimmennann's Solution of a Fault (Pro- 
jection on Horizontal Plane) 

cession of strata must be known to detennine the movement Then, » 
tentatively as a normal fault, due weight must be given to throw and sh 
possible components of diagonal movement. That is, besides the heav 
throw of a normal fault, a large shift-component might cause displaci 

opposite to that anticipated, u 
of straight down the dip. I] 
case, the occurrence of slicker 
trail, and drag may be esseni 
correct solution. 

Zimmennann's rale (13), foi 
faults, cutting aieeplty dipping 
Suppose (Fig 9), in driving a li 
vein so striking N 30* W and <i 
60" W, a fault // is met, strili 
80" E and dipping 45* S. At in 
tion 0, draw ob perpendicular tQ 
of fault, and prolong it toward I, \ 
the fault. Project upon plane < 
the intersection og of fault an< 
Line og is borixontal, and passes ob 
through 0, into unexplored grou 
ward h, on one side or other 
Then, if exploratory drift on fi 
of f auh be tuned from ok tow 
and parallel to~strike of fault, the displaced segment xy of vein will in most & 

The horizontal projection og is found as in small diagram of Fig 9. Draw hor 
line Mfi, lay off ma and mb to represent dips of vein and fault; draw mo perpen* 
and ob parallel to mn. Then oa and ob are the d is ta nc es by which, in descending s 
cal distance mo, the planes of vein and fault depart horiaontally from vertical. Ii 
part of Fig 9, M and ob are drawn respectively perpendicular to strikes of vein and fau 
ac and <ie, passing through g, are parallel j. 
to those strikes. Whence g lies in the hori- 
zontal projection of intersection of vein and 

In Fig 10 is shown a similar relation of 
vein and fault, except that the vein lies 
cast and exploratory drift should turn east, 
as shown. Both solutions depend on as- 
sumption that the hanging wall of fault 
(f e, its south wall) has slipped with little / 
shift down on its footwall. With a strongly 
diagonal movement the fault might still be 
normal, but the solution might lead miner 
in wrong direction. Therefore check aU 
rules by trail, drag, slickensides, etc. 

The following additional terms ap- 
ply to faults. In tilted, stratified rocks, F« *<>■ Zimraermann's Sohition of a 

faults striking parallel with the strata ST'™ v"*°. " ."" ^S \^ ^*^ ^ 
are st^ite-fauxts, often resulting Whence Exploratory Dnft T^ms fi 

when folds pass into faults. Faults running across strike and parallel wit 
of dip are dip-paults. Step-faults are series of parallel faults, dippi 
same direction. The hade is the angle made by a fault 'plane with a v< 
plane; hence, hade is complement of dip, and is a superfluous term. 

Various puzzling cases of faulting have become classic. Fig 11 shows a Comisl 
from de la Beche; Fig 12, a case of two contrasted pegmatites in Sweden, obseri 
A. G. Hogbom. Two parallel veins may be so faultmi as to bring dislocated part ' 
opposite sundered end of another, and temporarily ooocesi the extstence of a faui 

r A 

Joints, etc 


to grow 


at rigbt aai^ea to van's strike, tbe imoinit of shift 
in depth, leading to infnenoe of a hinos-vattlt, or 





are often explained as due to tension strains in earth's cnist, leading 
^Kft of the two sides of fault, and the slipping down of upper portim on 
they have been called tension or gravity faults, 
by cpfttrast, are called, compression or thrust 
_ :be; oba begin as overturned folds. If these stresies 

do ftfoduce their respective faults, then 
reverse faults should customarily have 
low dips, since, on approaching the 
perpendicular, friction would increase 
prohibitivdy. But, if tenwmal stxcss 
were relieved by a aeries of parallel 
faults, and one fault blodL were to drop 

bdow its neighbon, there would be a pjg n^ '^^/q vdns^ 
nonnal fault on one side of dropped ^jh Converging Dips, 
bkxrk and a reverse fault on other. Normally Faulted 

Compressive strains along the strike 

can eaadly develop normal faults by downward bulge of hanging 

wan and upward bulge of foot. Where comparatively short 

faults die out at each end, this ezplanaticm has wei^t. Again, 

asunming that in depth rocks are capaUe of viscous Oow and 

trazfifer, pressure transmitted upward from such moving masses 

=4r &bIes frao stresses whoUy different from any previously mentioned. Where 

ex inrfrirrf. iauh Mocks with the larger base would be relatively lifted, as com- 

> Ji tkise havias smaller base. Foot-walls would therefore rise relativdy, caus- 

■wi Uohs (4. 5. 6. 8j. 

IL Joints. Unco afogmi tlag, Ovtcropt, Brodon 

cracks which cross strata and masses, without produdng disloca- 
Nijtwithstanding absence of dislocation, there may be difficulty 
ii:g between jcMnts and distributed faults of slight disphu^ement, 
pndaoe sheeted structuie. 

wa sae dae to easing of some kind of strain; as oontractioos in cooling of igne- 
of ould rode under the sun's heat, shrinkage from drying of water- 
t**m'*'r' strains at crests of antidhies or in outer layers in bottoms 
sad tanMMial stresses produced over wide areas by warping of earth's crust. 
oEks break into polygonal rohimns of greater or less regularity. In Joints 
by cascnctkm of igneous magmas during consolidation, the long axes of tbe 
t chmRticaSy peiiw i wlin i Ur to cooling surface. If the magma be homogeneous 
iff tf heat onifann. reipilar hexsgnna] columns result, ported also across their 
-y ih^iiri joints. Occasionally, as at Giant's Causeway, theoretical perfection 
^^jmmA' asoaliy, the columns are of all numben of sides, from 3 to 8. Similar 
.^fam drying. 

ktt fltf am and weathering cause massive toda to shell off in thin layers. 

by jointing may become rounded bonldeiB. In graake <|uarriea 

coQcentric curves, like a huge onion, has probably been caused 

tiaiaa in cooling, or onnpressioa stiains in earth's crust. Cracks 

at crestfl of anticlines, and gaf»t downward in troughs oi syndines, 

of folds. In certain districts of flat sedimcntaxy rocks (as in south- 

I Voik). jamta in two series, Botersecting eadi other at nearly right augles 

^*), ran with remarkable regularity; probably due to torsional strains 

In axma of massive or metamorphic ro^s, while a prindpal series can 

no regularity. Observed strikes may be plotted over a wide 

•i a ooounon center like a dock-face, resulting in detection of 

IW predominant joint is called a mastce joint; the others, mmoi 

of 0«nt pnctical imxHtaaoe ia quanying and in mining. 

Or* flfSMils are p ri umj aad tmomfaiy. Tk iumakt are those orij 
deipcMted io fomtas aa occ body; the SEoaaunr are prodaoed by alt* 
c^ prunaor annctala andcr certam fi ni diti i «rv . Ezce|it ahmrinum, iron, 
faaete* chroaDttm, pbfiimm and tin, afl iaiumj ore miiienls are sulf 
anenidcs, Mtlphanemdei^ solphaiitiiBooidcs or abnSar r^nmnjtnnwtAv. Sul 
are of chief importaiice. Thoasb seooodaiy miiicnk are lugeiy oa 
conpotimU, they aiio comprise a few very important sulphides, 

TheimportaaGeo(thediitiDctioBfisiathefollaf»ii«idatiantDthenir€K^ G 
wftlcn tuad at vafyiof depths, d rpcnd i ng oa local laioUl. locfc tezlxixe axKl loc 
loKical •tructure. Bctweco grouod-wmtcr levd and the suifaoe, is a aone cal 
Pfnepny the vsdose xooe, by Van Hue the aone of weathering, through which ti 
dicing and diMohrinf lain waten freely descend. Within this verticsl mse, su] 
become oxidised to sulphates, and pass extensively into solution. Migxatinc dowi 
the idutions merge into the standing and protecting gnwnd-watets. and often p 
tate their diisolved metals in a xone of SECONDAmY EnascBMEifT* at or near g 
water level. The rewtioa is etpedaUy important in copper nnnes. 

Oangllg mlntrali comprise quartz, caldte, fluorite, barite, rfaodoch] 
rhodonite, and admixed minerals of the country rock. Decomposition or 
at ion under influence of thermal waters gives rise to much seriate, kao 
and rcUted species. 

Localiiatloa of ora depoalta. Ore deposits resulting from procwscs oatlmed 
arr developed where circulating mineral-bearing solutions find favorable places t 
clitltate their contents. One method of classification is to arrange in a logicai s 
the UvoraMe gfoloKical places (or this reaction. For the formation of some kinds 
Hepuftlt. however, circulating solutions are not required. Ores may crystallize di 
from molten magmas, and, either by sinking hi the fluid mass because of higher s; 
gravity, or (tir some reason not well understood, may enrich the rock mass to the re 
mentM u( mining. Again, and in contrast with the reactions above indicated, a 
waters )n streams, or by wave action, may liberate and concentrate heavy minei 
•sddnentaiy deposits, to the point of prd&tabb mining. Again, in residual de| 
heavy and resistant minerab may be left behind in a ooocentrated condition by lei 
tU i^uducU ol weathering. In a few cases, chiefly iron ores, the procesaes of sed 
Ulitm. ur asMwiatrd pmipitation. have given rise to bedded ore deposits. Ezpe 
shown. therrCiMT, thAt it is dithcuU consistently to classify ore bodies on any ooe of 
suUii\liiuite )^nci(4rs. Hut, as compared irith old-time schemes based on ahap< 
hr^Md |«Hiu i)>le of m\v%r or oaiiiiN has become increasingly important. In the folL 
«Uttim«lkM^, the fiHW*>-t>r has been to pass from igneous phenomena, pure and si 
t^« vut«\t> itsAviK^vi iH>t cxmnrcted with igneous phrnniafna. cnvhaniac '<^*^ 4f1 
ri vi >. >i^hew \«M Uh1i«s ori«:in4te. 

n« CteMttcatloa of On Dtpodta 
h PriiMwy auHMtle orifiB. 

\.4 ^ \UvM •% pi\Hiuv\>l U\ V i> stAUuatk>n and 5«>grcinitioQ ia ooiJins and solii 
^^ ^&u>vu^ ni.vcinA^ titiiuuH\>u» and iK^ci:jL':UerDtts Bsasactitcs^ chrot 
wMvuKhim jU.»uuui«. A»wi iM\^v^l^\ >uUv*»ki<* iM irvo. nickel, and ooppcr. A 
d^CA a>Kl *Svvt'» 01 \^ Kxs.'k KiAjC'u^cit^ irv kno^ 

VL m#Mit«4 Vy a^HioMi ll«« caaH , __^ 

, *^ \ V '.»'» w ihs^ *M« ,-»v vV tHrl(m^«tt^Nk x:s*A-i-v: t-v«i the nascsakcy of gn 
w »i' ^ !•« -v N«> * , . >\*»v-» »►?< •^v.»«»^t\.^. :».v.-'tc aad is»enb contaii 
K.^ \^H xv \ns « V \ S*> a V 'Mvv>,v', xv o." v * n-r e v ese n t^ aad csccptioo 
i> V' * »%» »•% .' N «s.v * >• ,♦ ^o<w^vc »i"Vx'^> aad vttts; mnu tiiULi 

' xo'.ts'* -,«%,■*. \\x V ;vvis-.NV>> w^. ^'' -t^^'.'or^ >ii II Ml MMi] boas an 

^^ IzoQ Ores 07 

> •c2stoaite, vcsaviaiiitc, eiiidote; also of magnetitf, specular haxntite, 
.-£> i insn, oopper, and less often of other metals. 

^ Difariiid by ciicntetiiig gnnmd-waten. 

• l^^osts n or akmg faults, witli greater or less replacement and im- 
-jijkaaC the valb; olten called "true fissure" veios. ThQr vary from the 
^~ i a open and dean-cut fissure, to unpregnatioa and replacement of 

, ^wzd huhs of smal^ individual displacement. 

^^ddb^eeb; pccdpitations of quartz or other minerals, at crest and be- 
' aj«s 01 aa anticlinf, and extending with diminishing thickness for 

* :^ >ii Koally moderate distances down its flanks. Inverted saddles ^>- 
^ syadinB. Apparently arching of the strata has aided precipitation. 

Ltpiaits in joints with greater or less replacement and impregnation of the 
- >±fa oDcd *'gash veins,*' because limited to a single stratum or sheet. 
IafwgiMrinn& of volcanic agglomerates in the conduits of extinct ex-- 

with greater or less replacement of penneable rocks, 
' ^* aogrsifbiaidi, volcanic tuffs and brecdaa^ open-textured sandstones 

■iiftfcwinrtes, antodastics, etc Supply conduit may be obscure. 

kepbccBents of limestones, calcareous shales or other beds, which have 
-■si la cBcslatiQg grotmd-waten. Supply conduit may be obscure. 

^' JkfmBud m timta uka tad by aid of tuff aca watan. 
^rive pccdpitations, which may later be involved in stratified series. 

^ '^ 

or msoluble minerals, concentrated as a residuum by weather- 
of the matrix. Residual deposits. Cuban brown hematites, 
or caoccntrations of heavy minerals in sands and graveb by 
aoving water. Gold placers. Stream tin. 

aie aetf-ezplaiiatory, and will reoeive no further oomment. 
he iooad m lerthook^ (2a). 

18b Iron Oras 

ara cUafly productiva of iron: limonite (brown hematite, 

rt' 1 Fc-Ob • 3 H/). Fc 59-8%; siderite (carbonate, spathic ore) FeCO», 

:- hnwritf' (red and specular) Feid, Fe 700%; magnetite (magnetic 

'* • FoOk. Fe 72-4%. Associated with limonite, but less common, are 

•^-TTc Irydratcs, as: turgite (2 FeiQi • HtO) ; goethite (FeiOfHiO). 

'if ^:2tes may also occur, as: chamoistte (hydiated ferrous aluminum 

tbiairupte (hjrdrated ferrous or ferric aluminum silicate); greenalite 

->: Ibrous silicate). Siderite may have its iron partly replaced with 

-s and faldum. With brown hematites, manganese minerab are not 

' T. Pyrite (FeS«) may appear with all the ores, and, when largely 

' a.> soiphur, may yield a residue possible of utilization for the poorest 

i aoB. Pyrrfaotite (FeySi) b frequent with magnetites. Ihnenite 

r-.v is BwrhaniralTy mingled with many magnetites. The objection- 

Is oi iron ores are sulphur and phosphorus. Definite limits of 

yades of ore are variable, because of possible admixtures 

* t isactice. In general, the less the better. In ores used for acid 

r sir. the pcrmLisible phosphorus maximum b 0.00X part of the per- 

i irun Roughly, thereifore, about 0.06% b the maximum with 


''At ad 9peadar tanatftes are the richest faon diet. In America lump mag- 
's hMi • i;k«uc ocecded 65% i^^o* but today piacticaUy only magneticalb' 

W Minenl Dqioats: Ores 

cpacctatated on readies tlm fisoie. Kimna, Swednh ThJbhH, humrvti. ca| 
A freat tottOMg/t <ji Out gnde, even to Amcfkui fnxnaces. Avcncc of all iron \ 
is the U S in 1914 vac not Car from 50% iron. Tbesnde wiD doubtless gnduail 
AJafaama Cliotoa red hrmalitrs nm 36 to 57%- Some exude ore is even M 
principal local supply of continental Europe, from the niinette oics, avenges ab 
The nearness of good fuels, marfceU. mixtures, etc, dctcrminr limiting percent^ 
In the U S about four-fifths of the ore comes from Lake Soperior region, 
order are the red hematites of Alabama and Tmnrwy. the brown bonatitd 
magnetites of Appalachian bdt. Individual mines in Wsnoming, Colorado, 
Mexko have fed the iron and steel plant at Pueblo. Colo. Magnetites will be 
in time on the Pacific coast for a future industry to be located presumably in 1 
Sound region. 

L$k9 Superior iron districts. In order of productiveness in t! 
Superior region are Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Ontario 
productive range, and possibility of developing others. The ores of th 
are all in pre-Cambri&n strata, now classified as follows: 

Keweenawan: sandstones, basalt flows. Copper. 

Huronian. Upper, Middle and Lower: sedimentary and some igneous roc 
ores in the sediments. 
Laurenttan: granites. 
Keewatin: green schists, from ancient basic eruptives. Some sediments with 

An now mined the ores are chiefly soft, partially hydrated hematit 
percentage in water not reaching that of limonite. They have been % 
by alteration of great beds of cherty carbonates of iron, of hydrattxj 
silicate, and of associated pyrite, imder the general processes of we2 
Soft earthy masses of ore have thus resulted; of enormous volume, ac 
cheaply mined, and of relative purity as regards phosphorus and 
They occupy synclinal basins, troughs produced by intersection of 
dikes with each other or vrith impervious strata, or other minor plac< 
circulating and o.xidizing meteoric ground-waters have been tempora 
structed in their flow. Besides soft ores there are lenticular bodies 
specular hematite, produced by metamorphism of ancient soft-ore bodi 
great bodies of jaspery or siliceous iron-bearing strata, of 35% and a 
iron, whiih, partly as concentrating ore, partly as low-grade lump or 
the gradual exhaustion of better grades, will be available for a long 
come. The grade is well above that of present European ores. Thi 
originally formed beds precipitated at surface (Art 17, i). They becam< 
in a stratified series, and afterward by weathering yielded residual 1 
(.\rt 17. k)» some of which extend to great depths and are cases of sei 
enrichment. Some have been metamorphosed to specular hematite, ai 
magnetite. In northeastern Minnesota gabbros occur with igneous tj 
ous magnetites not >*et shown to be valuable (Art 17, a) {2^). 

CUatoa r«d hemstites are next in productiveness. They appear 
of i>6Uiic, often fassiliferous ore. associated with olive-green shales ai 
ordinate limestones of the Clinton stage, at base of Silurian system, 
outcrop in S E \Yis«.vn!^in. western Ohio, central Kentucky, western Nei 
south of Lake Ontario, and farther east at town of Clinton (whence their 
in Pennsylvania, Vinrfnia, eastern Tennessee. Georgia, and Alabama, 
great e>;t dexiMoiMncnt is in AKibama. where they form an inner terrace 
Red Mount.Ain. in the Birmiivcham anticlinal \-aHey. Good coking ci^ 
Kmestone anr, Si> that lc»w-v\v<t pi> *^^n be produced even from j^s a< 
ore*. At outvn.H>« the one^ are silk>\>u<; bck^w gnvund-water level, tl 
come basic. AU are mixleratelv htch in phoi^phoriis. They are p| 
oGlitic bc<b« precipitated in shallow estuaries, fed by uoa^mriog 4 

Copper 0ns 


I SiBftk). AkboQ^ utilized in Tennessee and Georgia, tbey are moit 
"■^zi ia Ahbama. In time those in New York, Kentucky and Wlaoonam 
-^laed to be oi greater moment than now. 

("brawn oces*'} of the U S are pioduced chiefly abog that portion 

■MBtains formed by etriy Paleozoic atiata, aod just west of the 

They axe prodocts of weathering oC fexni^nous rocks, especially 

all the mines thor mmt be freed of ochen and cby* by washing. 

Wnwfitei oomr in two chief types of deposits. The commoner is a 

-21 or pod-shaped mass, in gneisses, parallel with the foliation. They 

"'r «Sdd> m the ancient Appalachian crystallines, but are most productive 

r i^^cadacks. The second type appears in the contact zones (Art 17, c), 

^-vibff ioDnsive igneous rocks on limestones or limey shales. The greatest 

<- .4 this type in the East is at Cornwall, Penn. The igneous rock b 

- ~«* and the fanestooe, CambroOidovidan. Ia the West many such de* 

-* an known. In Utah (Iron Springs Dist), Nevada, California, and along 

■i m eke 

' :^a von 


.Em^and, and Fnmoe foDow the US in order of production of iron 
SBgle soRUGe bdog found in a soies of Jurassic beds in and near Luxem- 
of England. The ores (called "minette") are of 30% or a 
bes» carbonates, and vaxioua sOicates. Minor ore 
k «f carbonates, and in beds of day iron-stone and bladt4)and. Spain 
great quantities of partially hydcated bematite, the weathered product 
1 depth. Sweden is a heavy ezpc«ter of magnetites, eqwdally from the 
Biirnrfitf at Kiraaa, Tapland, Maiqr lenticular magnetites have been 
i Sweden. Great bodies of igneous magnetites ex»t in the Urals. Algiers 
ameosts ci red, partly hydrated hematites. 

have recently been develop m N E Cuba, where ancient serpen- 
for a«es, leaving a residua] soil, ridi enough in iron to form ore. 
fT"**'' hrmafitf are reported froim eastern Brazfl, state of Mlaas 
of aadent geoiogica] age, but as yet (1914) lack rail connectwn with 
the ^Tfi-»'«g of the Panama canal, iron ores will reach American fur- 
la S E NewfoiinHland. at Wabana, extensive beds of red hematite 

li. Copper Ores 

LSowiac miocralj constitute the common ores of copper: 

Tabia 4. Copper Ores 



*'. C^«S,U CuiS • PetS,) 

r*. C«S 

« -cfiiuCa^ 

^itmda w^ 5rfj>*anrtwnatffr 
^' r9,AiS,<:3CiisS*AsiS|) 




- •' Corf) 






Chalcanthite. CUSO4 • 5 Hrf) . 
Brochantite. Ctt4(OH)«S04. . . 


Malachite. CoCO, • Cu(OH)t. 
Aaurite. aCuCOj* Cu(OH)s. . 

ChrysocoUa, CuSiO^ • a H/) . . 

Atacamite. CU|C1 - (OH)t 

Nathe Mtta 
Native copper. Cu 



55. 10 


100. CO 


Stfiwtinn between primary and 
Chan whh any other metal. 

secondary minerals b more important 
Some copper minerals appear in bo*^ 

100 Mineral Deposits: Ores 

giotips. Psdiary: chaloopyrite, bomite, chakodte, enat^te, tetn 
(possibly native ooi^r in Lake Superior mines). Secondary: dtu 
coveilite, melaconite, cuprite, dialcanthite, brochantite, malachite, 
chrysocolla, atacamite, and native copper. Possibly chaloopyrite and 
are secondary in some case^ As a primary mineral lean copper-bearing 
is very important, especially in intrusive rocks. When oxldi2sed by c 
waters in the vadose zone (belt of weathering), all copper-bearing s« 
yield some form of sulphate. This soluble salt, in deposits in siliceoi^ 
trickles downward until, in contact with some reducing agent, like pyi 
copper is precipitated as chalcodte. This causes great concentration of 
at or near ground-water level, termed secondary enrichment. From fa 
copper- bearing sulphides, in regions of abundant rainfall, as at Ducktowi 
an upper zone or gossan of brown hematite results, which may form an I 
Below this, near ground-water level, a belt of rich chalcodte (black ore) i 
oontaimng most of the copper once distributed throughout upper pari 
posit. Still lower are unaltered, primary sulphides. In a comparativi 
regten, when copper-bearing sulphides, usually in form of cupriferousi 
are disseminated in intrusive igneous rocks, or quartzites, or schists 
may be crushed or rendered open-textured along a zone of znovezne] 
scending waters of the vadose zone develop an upper leached belt, undei 
a chalcodte-bearing section of maximum richness; and bdow this is a 
secondary enrichment. Thus have originated the disseminated copp^ 
Qow being extensively mined in the southwest. If oxidizing reactions < 
open-textured tuffs, or contact time silicates, chrysocolla often results, 
of chalcodte; if in presence of limestone, the blue and green carbomt 
cuprite are characteristic products. In North America most of the cop] 
duced comes from chalcodte. 

Szamplet of copper deposits (letters m parentheses refer to Clasai 
Alt x7)- 

A, Bodies of eopper-beaiiiig 8iilpliidee» chiefly cfaakx>pytite ti 
copper-bearing pyrite in igneous rocks (a). Chakopyrite may be ass 
with a nickel-bearing sulphide, pentlandite, and with pyrrfaodte, in b 
tnisives (Sudbury, Ontario). Lean Q>pper-bearing pyrite of igneous i« 
masses, usually monsonites, requires secondary enrichment for pntfitabi 
atkm (Bingham Canyon, Utah, and near Ely, Nevada). 

B. Irregtder mesees of copper-beexing enlpliides in contact zones 
sssodated with lime silicates. Secondary enrichment, incident to oxidatM 
be necessary to increase piercentage to mining requirements. Various inin< 
of deposit may be assodated. Bisbee and Morend, Aris, are best illusti 

C* Veins aloskf fenlta, with greater or less replacement and imprq 
off the wails {d\ as at Butte, Mont, where walls are granite. Innui 
other vtins are known in all parts of worid. 

D. Lealicnlar or pod-ehaped bodies of pyrite or pyrrhotite, with 
pijrrite (osuaUy of later introduction). The lenses favor schists or slatj 
Ke parallel with the foKation. These rocks ssay be sheued cnipdves, or < 
sc^&Dsettts (Ducktown, Tenn, and many ore bodies aloaf Appaladnans). 
txaasples appear in foot-hills of Sierra Nevadas, CtL Rio TInto, Spain, 
hsps the laitest body yet disco>>ered. 

TW en bodis w«n pnbaU]r origHuOr Tciat (^ puild to stractanl planes 
tockt. umI sttbHq«Hi4r piwdbcd iatD Imscs hj pnamn. The type caflcd *'KJ^ 
iMCf b» of arcfaapnury orisin or m t rod tt ctd asvcupmd pitched by ptMaiu e. So^ 
oMadend Is*m*>s iMnisirtH u at Soliitkaa, K«i«ay. aad i*****— >*i«. Ba^ 

-y) Lead and Zinc 101 

in aodoles, sheets, minute scales, tod sometimes luge 
in ainygKUIoadal basalts, and associated conglomerates (k). 
-r-jM PoiBt, ^""h^*", is du^ example. Introduction of the copper is a 
*<! ^ject, whether a product of expiring igneous activity, or of cir- 

- « sctftiric and connate waters. • 

'• iBpragBHtioos of ■•disieoti^ cocks with sulphides or their oxidized 
':-k::i. «ftca drporited on organic rfimiins (A). Mansfeld, Germany* is best 
7a fMptr, where a black shale, wi^h .abundant organic remains, is im- 
>~-j£ed «4h capper minerals for a wid^ir'l«ai than i ft, but over a great 
« h is GBccrtain whether the coppo: was ^ireppitated from Permian sea- 
-.' 'J&g^ with the sediments, or introduced/ by/ drculating ground-waters 

- iter a&Dcnts wcse deposited. Triassic stx&t^-t (>f the U S have many 
. ^c Enpn^natJoas, mostly smaU. * > * ' 

of ODpper far suooessful miniag depends otf jHeddy varying oonditioiis. 
? C9ps cock, on Keweenaw Point, Mich, sridding only 0.65^ (13 lb per ton), 
"sz. tsaud saacaduOj. The dJseminated chaloodte oi Bini;Eun Quiyoo, Utah, 
r^jtd asBOtse mays over 3 months' periods as low as x.3%/snt^*a|)9ioximately 
■-^rk Muivciji. Raw imehing ores, ot slightly above 2% and with 1i}^ jud from 
'^ Tirrik. have beea worked at Ducktown, Tenn. In early days'k* ^fStcm U S, 
(9 30^ were fr equent in oxidized and enriched parts of deposits. \aat quan* 

*• i tc^ me are now eeported from S E Congo State, Central Africa. T(^ bs *'alU' 
« J km-ffaOt depoaxts must be of great size (25). 

». LMd and Zinc 

Polowing minerals constitute the common ores of lead: galena, 

^'i7v lead; an^lesite, PbSO*, 68.3%; cerussite, PbCa, 775%; pyro- 

-^^ J (PfaO • PK)J PbCU, 76.2% (much rarer than the others). Other 

' '^ ■.■■ appear in small amotmt, as wulfenite, crocoite and 

 "SB, m the daef primary lead ore, of which others are oxidation products. 

^:cicttiy it^i^K"**4 with sine blende and pyrite. All lead ora are oom- 

' a Siae^tone^ than with other wall rocks. Many lead ores carry silver 

~J30dal asbounts, e^xdally in regions characteristically productive of 

• aetals. GoU is a rarer associate. The oxidized product of galena is 

* 'trosbaHjt than anglesite. All oxidized ores are mingled with Umonite 
' ^ degree, and with silica and earthy minerals from alteration of wall 

Lead azvl zinc can best be discussed together. 

IttL. FoBowing mixkerab constitute the common ores of zinc: sphalerite or 
.-de, ZaS, 67% anc; calamine, 2 2^0 • HaO • Sid, 54-a%; smithsonite, 

t. 53.1^; wiOeQiite, 2 ZnO • SiOk, 58-6%; zmdte, ZnO, 80.3%; frank- 
FOCaJ^nK>(Fe,Mn)30i, variable, about 6.0%. Willemite, zincite and 

' ^e are so exceptional in their occurrence m northern New Jersey as to 
CTjephy themselves. 

^ode ii the ainoet oBiwisal primary mhieral; mlaminf and smithsonite are its 
Tiae latter two are often inseparably mixed, and together are known 
"Dry-hone" is a local name in Mississippi Valley, the oxida- 
oU bones. (The rignificaaoe of the names calsmfnr and smith- 

* ' Bill nil » the canct reverse of the Americaa meaning, smithsonite being used 
^aifld aDcate. ) The oxidized compounds are characteristic of the vadose eone. 

** ooBX bwkuck frT*r«*** cap of residual products. The deposits are summarized 
'kwvilk lead aloae to those with zinc alone. Intimate mixtures of both ores afford 

w PMt iMtalugical pmbtoas today. Neither lead nor zinc deposits have been 
' .^HfiBlr lawwiati o n with igneous iodES,sucfa that a direct igneous origin could 

M to tten. ThQT obvious^ reach their pbces of precipitation in solution. 

102 Mineral Dq)osits: Ores 

Examidec of lead and zinc deposits. (Letters in parentheses r^ 

Classification, Art 17.) 

A. Disseminated and sometimes coalescing deposits of salens 
aasodated sulphides, in sedimentary strata. The galena impregnates th 
sediment; believed to have been introdacedih' solution, and to have rei 
preexisting minerals; source is conjectujral (ksnd s). In S £ Missouri, th 
American source of lead for lead a)pne» JCmnbrian limestones are impreg 

Near Laurium, Greece, galena rcJ^jt^e^ limestones inv<^ved with mica achls 
Leadville, Colo, Carboniferous Ij^estoa^ has been replaced with silver-bearing 
pyrite, manganese compounds ^.aqd adaietimes nnc blende, along under sides of 
rhyolite-porphyxy ("white poQ>hyjy"). Extensive oxidation devekn^ed carbona 
for the early miners. Gal^oajoay^ yield to sine blende in amount. In Belgium, J 
burg, and near Aix-la-G^p5e*tie, huge subordinate lead ores have beea mined 
vonian and Carbonifemu^ limestone along great faults. Zinc blende was doubt] 
original mineral. . In Sifesia the zinc and lead ores are in Triassac limestones. 

At Commera, G^^many, knots of galena are disseminated in Triassic sandstcM 
Cceur d'Alene. distrfot, Idaho, silvo'-bearing galena, with aiderite, i^tpears ii 
bodies in pr^Cafiiibnan quartzite, along or near extensive faults. Zinc blende lu 
met in sc^ne Jbb^i copper ores in a few others. Siderite seems to have first n 
the quadzfl^*s£d then yielded to galena. The reaction is much the same as with < 
Ume9toii«> ' 

^•}d*p^ Missouri zinc blende and subordinate galena impregnate breq 

• ciM!M,*interbedded in Lower Carboniferous limestones. 

• • "^ 

'•'. B. Galena, zinc blende and associated solphides in joints (*< 
Veins ") and related cavities (/). In S W Wisconsin and neighboring 
of Upper Mississippi Valley the Ordovician "Galena" limestone has nun 
vertical gash veins, with horizontal "runs" and inclined "pitches," cont 
galena, zinc blende, marcasite, and caldte. 

C. Galena and zinc blende in flssnre veins, often together, often sep 
usually with other sulphides (d), Predous metals are frequently assoc 
Such deposits are world-wide, and in all kinds of wall-rocks. 

D. Lenticular deposits containing willemite, franklinite, subordiiiatc z 
and many lime silicates, now folded in pitching sjmdinal troxighs in pre-Cani 
limestones. It is difficult to classify these deposits. Their zinc-bearing mil 
are unique. The mineralogy suggests contact zones (c), but the actual 1 
morphosing igneous rock is not apparent. 

In recmt past, the price of lead has varied from extreme minimum of 3^ pet 
maximum of 5^, ruling in late years not far from 4^. Each percent in a ton 
means roughly h value of 80^, of which the miner may expect about 40^. zi 
spelter rules about x^ above lead for ordiiiary brands, and a^ above for brands | 
oJly free from lead, antimony or arsem'c. Each per cent of ordinary spelter in 
of ore means roughly $1, of which the miner receives about 50^. Poaiibilitiea of n 
and concentration may be estimated on above basis. 

tL Silver and Gold 

Though deposits are known containing either gold or silver alone, 
metals are generally associated and must be discussed together. Both ar 
tensively obtained in connection with copper and lead. Lead ores are 1 
called "wet ores," because metallic lead, freed in smelting, acts as a solven 
the predous metals, the distinctive ores of which are called "dry ores." 
desilverization for base bullion, electrolsrtic refining for copper, and the 
stitutbn of cyanidation for amalgamation, have greatly facilitated treati 
of silver and gold ores. 

.- a Sflver and Gold 103 

azgentite ("sflver f^ct"), AgiS» 87.1% silver; 

A»Fc; 6a^%; proustite ("light niby ore"), AgiStAs or 3 Ag^ • AsA, 

pvTvsynte C-daik ruby ore"), A«kSsSb, or 3Ag>S*Sb«Si, 59-8%; 

St •"tffittk sflver ore"), Ag;S«Sb or 5 Ag»S • SbtSt, 68.5%; ceraigyrite 

*'). AgCI. 75>$%; native silver, Ag, xoo%. 

always contains at least a trace of sflver, which probably 
' muk isamocphons sulphide^ but not appearing separately in polished 
^ Slier is a aMnpanent of certain varieties of tetrahedrite, and in this 
itoi lomd in copper ores. 

- ^ J. 

:nlidify oiefs as a bur into other capper minenls. Silver it sometimet fownd in 
bat asdy id p]rrite. Modem jihrer piodactiao is chiefly in connection with 
CeEKgjxxte and oatlve lihrer are Ittbitually aecoodaiy minerals, resulting 
the vadose aone of other minerals mentioned above, or frcnn silver- 
aaaenis. Ax|entite probaUy is somftimw secondary; it certainly 
The otiien are generally primary. 

calaverite, AuTei, 44-5% gold; sylvanite ("graphic 

-'-a'O, (AiiAg) To, variable; native gold, alloyed with silver, etc, vari- 

= <jdd Bkost cxxmaooly occurs in quartz veins, both as native, and as 

■^ ad wires nediaBically misKed in pyrite. It may be set free by oxidation 

' -r^oval of tlie pyrite. It also accompanies mispickel, chalcopyrite, and 

-. ciJeoa. In same of these mincrab, when the ores are refractory, it may 

.' 2s MA iovoived tdluzide, or as a bbmuth compound (Richard Pearce). 

' 'fthiTdfs of gold (a number of rare mixed teUurides of gold and other 

'^: s« not mestiooed above) are primary minerals. On oxidizing and 

: U' lifiGm, they yield extremely fine particles, not readily panned and resist- 

-•Mjffntatioo; called "rusty" gold, (jold, presumably as chloride, some- 

- - iesceads in solutioa from oxidized portions of veins containing manganese 

"J^ tad s repxecipiiated at or near water level. • Presence of caldte may 

'et vtth the reaction (7). The high sp gr and resistance of gold to naturU 

'sti gieatJy fa^-or the formation of placer deposits. 

lonetimes dasufy precioos metal deposits into an older series, b 

tsai «Re> wad a later series, llie great sihrer-gold veins associated with mountain 

"^nl sad wamom outbreaks, at close of the Cretaceous and in the opening Twtiary 

<a. <aa thas he d adugu iahed from older ones. Each group can then be subdivided 

.tiMZMiai sBBerab, of which a series of subtypes can be estabUshed. Other writers 

- .4iced las fmptia^ on variations in time and mineralogy. Admitting some 

al aasodatioiia, which might make possible finer subdivirioa, the fol- 

cjpsaie perauwbie (see Oaatficatkn, Art 17). 

iBrar. A. Flsnire veiiif , with distinctiTttly tllTer min- 
ts n <|B»tz gtngue, often amethystine and associated with manganese 
*ia lad socne cakite. Galena, zioc blende, pyrite and copper minerals, 
«rr lat a w d lnafe Many great veins of Mexico, as at Pachuca, Real dd 
't tad Gaaaajuato, exhibit these characters. The Butte sflver veins are 
' ^ now, in tn<tanrr% tend to develop copper in depth. In general, 
'- :« is the chief aouioe of sflver (i)* 

iilTer with litfle gold, in association with galena, 
minerab, and pyrite, in gangue of quartz, calcite, barite, fluor- 
"'^ ur Kvesai (d). Veins of this mineralogy are world-wide in distribution. 

Irtr» ilv«r sad minor lilTer nineralg, with arsenides of cobalt and 

.^ Arfaka^e cracks or fissures involving slight displaajhient {d and /). 

* Cm, is best example, where veins are predominantly in Huronian con- 

?k«e. ■Moriirwt with a diabase sill, which has some veins, and Keewatin 

vlikh contain a lew. 

104 Mineral Deposits: Ores 

D. Impregiuitioiit of porous rocks, sandstones, ttiffs, etc, with ar| 
ceraiK3nite, and native silver; supply Assures obscure; some copper a 
may occur. (Silver Reef, Utah, Silver Cliff, Colo.) 

E. Impregnations and replacements of crushed rocks along 
(silver-bearing galena in Cceur d'Alene, Idaho, Art 20, A). 

F. Replacements of calcareous rocks with silver-bearing galena an 
ciated sulphides. Leadville, Colo. (See Art 20, A. for other cases.) 

Predondnant Gold. A. Fissure Teins containhig natiTe gold, a1 

mechanically mixed in pyrite and much rarer base-metal sulphides, m 
gangue. Gr%y, greasy-looking quartz seems to accompany best valued 
common association of quartz with gold makes this type of world-wid< 
bution. Veins appear most frequently in schists, slates, or other metat 
rocks, and in association with intrusive rocks, of which granite is comm 

-B. Impregnations and replacaments of open-textured rocks wit] 
bearing p3rrite. The "banket" of gold-bearing conglomerates of Transvi 
chief producers today, is the best example. 

C. Saddle-reefs, or arch-like deposits of gold-bearing quarts at a 
anticlines (e) (Bendigo, Victoria, and gold reefs of Nova Scotia). Sadd 
may succeed one another in depth. Slates or slaty schists are ooouno 

D. Veins carrying gold tellurides. At Cripple Creek, Colo, tli 
associated with an eroded Eocene volcano, often favoring nei^borl] 
minor dikes of phonolite and basaltic rocks, with which volcanic activity 
Purple fluorite is a characterbtic associate. In Boulder Co, Colo, veim 
gneisses; at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, in amphibolites; in Hung^ 
tered andesitic rocks, called propylites. Once considered extremely ran 
rides have been very productive in Cripple Creek and Kalgoorlie. 

E. Lateral ioipregnations and replacements of calcareous shalei 
tellurides along supply fissures, called verticals. Example, so-called " Pot 
or "refractory ores," of the Black Hills, S Dak, the walls of which 
Cambrian age. 

F. Contact zones, on the border of intrusive igneous rock and liiq 
containing gold-bearing mispickel in lime silicates (Nickel-plate mine. 
The usual contact zone of this type carries copper sulphides, with i 
gokl (Art 19, B). 

6. Placer deposits of gold-bearing gravels, which may be: residual 
weathering of rocks in situ; river gravels in active streams; river gr^ 
abandoned and often buried channels; alluvial fans; sea-beaches with 
surf; sea-beaches now elevated and inland. Gold in streams favors 
where current has been checked, as the inside of bends; junctions of tribu 
heads of quiet reaches. Gold favors gravel next the bedrock, or next aj 
bedrock" of clay, but fine particles may be generally distributed in a thi^ 
tical section. Magnetite, zircon, garnet, and various resistant, heavy m! 
are characteristic associates, yielding "black sands" (26). 

22. Minor Metals 

Aluminnm is obtained today from bauxite, representing a series from AI3O 
to AljOj • 3(HjO), which is treated clcctrolytically in a bath of cryolite (3 NaF 
Bauxite is developed by weathering of aluminous rocks, and may appear as a li 
product. It is probably also produced by solvent action of sulphuric add, from 


Minor Metals 106 

Tte. span dyinin i j i w rocks, such m thaka. The resuking acid tolutioB of alu* 

:: -wi^j^ftte mj be aeutialiaed by limeaCooe, with predpitatioa of aluminum hydrate, 

~~i:f thcB ioffm cu nc x e ti omucy ■*afit In America bauxite is lai^ely produced io 

> «^eR hat named leactioa is believed to explain its occurrence. In Arkansas, it 

c.uad vith ^Fcnitk craptives, to the alteration ol whkh, perhaps while yet hot, its 

- UA ■■ttriheted. CiyoUte is commexdaUy obtained only on west coast of Green- 

^ooBstitiitesa Uise* fiat vein in gneiss. . Siderite, galena, zinc blende, and a 

axe sparing mingled with it. 

from its milphide, stibnite CSb|Ss); sometimes from the oxide, 
as an aUoy bom antimonisi lead oces. Charactefistic occur> 
neins, bat some leas regular &epotiiM in lanHttnne have 

aLaoet eotody as a by-iHoduct in smelting arseDical copper oies, 
tCosAsSa). It is ss^ as odde, but much more could be saved were 
<^ 1 asikct ior it. 

LS thfc sulphate (BaSQi). Barite chaiacteiisticany sp^ 
also a frequent gangue with lead and copper ores, re- 
Chief output in U S comes from residual clay d^Kisits 


^■■n ii a fve by-piodact in lead-dhrer refining. A few districts, Tellucide and 
— '--^ CfliOk piDdiioe small amounts of high-grade bismuth ore. 

iate of one, and whenever separated b a small by-product 
r m treatment of sine-bearing lead ores. 

iThsKnr dement of nmch the same asaocJations as nibidinm. 

?3m, v^ didymiam, erbium, lanthanum, thorium, and yttrium, constitutes a 

z- rsMei the cerium group of rare earths. Their compounds, especially those of 

^a, hB«e mcandeacent pn^ierties when heated, for which purpose they are sought. 

^ BE (Afiii'iJ as phosphates in mooazite and xenotime, and are characteristic of 

-xitei. They may appear in normal granite. Befaig resistant and heavy, monazite 

Tisjae have accumulated in placers in the drainage of p^matite and granite 

•T i^ Caralinaft; ako on aea coast of Bahia, Btaril. Relatively high percentages 

-'^33 me desirable 

(FeO-Cr/)i), sometimes (Fe • Mg)0 • (Cr • Al • Fe)A. >■• ehaimcteristic 

• *u -i ricUy magnnian, basic igneous rocks, usually altered to serpentine. The 

^ • bdie««d to be a direct crystnlliaation from molten magma It forms irregu- 
-vtas Urge, distributed masses, and being extremdy resistant may be freed 
 •jmx^UtA as a reaidaal product in weathering. Commercial chromite should 
^ *: hast ^fi Cr/V 

• "^ bras a variety of arsenides and sulphides, prutically always in association 

id. Linsite (Co3S4), smaltite (CoAa,). cobaltite (CoAsS), and the oxidized 
?rurite or "cobalt bloom" (Co»AsA * 8 H|0). Once the object of a small 
aetaAorgy and produced as a by-product in the larger nickel industry, since 
^"vciy ol the ridi silver-cobalt veins, at Cobalt, Ont, cobalt is over-supplied. 


bom 2 sflkates: lepidoUte. the Uthia-mica (LiK • AlAFiSi,) with 
^. I to 5%; aad spodwmme (UO - AlA* 4 SiO^) with lithia 7.S%< Qpth are 
^'4« miBemli, ocxarrmg mainly In Bkdi RQIs, S Di^. Lepldolite is more easily 

kcUifly used as the earthy carbonate, magnesite, a refractory material. 

n amiirisfiim with serpenthies, in the altemtion of which it is formef* ^ 

- Maagsiy. Ccseoe, and Calatania are cbi^ pcoduoexs. 

Abrasives; Asbestos; A^halt 107 

(Me NoB-MeCallic Minerab). 

B olitaHird from the sulphate, cdestite (SrSQc), occttrring like buite, bot 
'jtt Bazinni). 

imm Cerium). "Xliofiaiute is also found commetcially m Ceybn and 

(SoOk), and ooe lare sulphide, stannite. Caastterite is al- 

with granites and pegmatites, or veins closely akin to pegmatites. 

of these, bdng heavy and resistant, it a concentrated in 

parriHfs, called stream tin. Cassiterite is obtained both by 

working. It has been observed associated with rhyolites. Tin 

Bolivian silver-bearing veins. 

the tifanifrTDOS magnetites, in which it has hitherto been a dis- 
to the iraa. Varieties extremdy rich in titanium, and pegmatitic veins or 
.r> -jctasiag mtfle (TiO^» are now mined as a source o£ ferro-titanium. Titaniferoua 
i- Ti *r.ei ace iateigniwths of magnrfitr and ilmenite, olten extremely intimate. 

•3crtea is obtained from several tungstates, sts; wolframite, (FeMn)W04; huebner- 
^izWOb: scfaeeike, CaW04. It b a characteristic mineral of pegmatite and veins 
-^u !d pepnistites Schieelite appears at times in gold-bearing quarts veins. 

great prommcnce as the associate of radium, but has also uses oi 
or uiaainite, (UPbOsU^O^ the earlier and still prized source, is a 
minrral of pegmatites and reiated veins. A series of phosphates, 
etc. have similar geobgicai relations. Camotite, a vanadate. 
2 CjOi • V A • 3 H^, with 15 to x8% vanadium oside, is found impregnating 
Colorado and eastern Utah, and is now much sought for radium. 

B a mxaor compcmcot of titaniferoos inm ores, and of the uranium-bearing 
L in a series of vanadium snlphidea and their oxidiaed derivatives, appears 

siroon (ZxSiO«), an sssoriate of granites and other feld- 
faara which on weathering it is freed and concentrated ia 


n?7v 15 indoded a misceDaneous series with no fundamental relatioDs; hence, 
' '•^4fd aiphabeticajfy. The carbon series is the most important (30). 

& AbrtsiTM; Asbestos; Asphalt 

AhnMS. ConaMhra and emery (emery is a mixture of corundum, spinel, magnet- 

* oi. Qlkv haid aad heavy minetals) are found in two principal geological rdations: 

 "f^.^ oystaBiscs from imrc igneous magmas containing excess of Al^ above re- 

.-rsesti «f oidiBary rock-mafciag mioerala. Nephehte-qyenite, in Ontario, and peri- 

> a Xecth CsroliBa. fulfil these conditions. Emesy is commonly found at igneous 

*ucti or vhe«e jndiisions of ahiminmis sediments are involved and partly digested in 

' as Baia. A veun or bed at Chester, Mass, containing emery in metamorphic rocks, 

— tSotaL Gabset, either in hornblende schist, as in the Adirondacks, or in mica 

JL IS It Rmfing, Coan. is a minor abrasive. Crushed, angular fragments of quastz 

- * -«i iar md-paper. Dxatoikacbous easth and decomposed chert (raipou) are soft 

. ...1^ W aaiaitiB i as are made of gritty slates, which sometimes owe their "tooth" 

^■^ SUKte or other hard minerals; or <^ novaculite, a fine-grained ttliceous rock 

' • •'A dK ■fJiT'*'" and lemowal of mJnute rhombs of calcite have left shan>«dged 

'j% Coane varieties are tandft^T'*rs, or sandy schists, in which are set rutile, garnet, 

'JUmtosMA are made of H^^itf**"^ sufficiently friable not to wear smooth (31). 

, a Tariety of serpentine, called chrysotile, appears as veins 

serpentine districts (most important is in southern (Quebec). 

'^ fadts appear akag sl^ in the ■frrmtfTr and in the mass of the lock. Some 

108 Non-Metallic Minerals 

bdieve the Canadian asbestos to be a deep-seated alteration product of 
rocks; others that it is devdoped from serpentine in fissures near intrusive 
aplite, a variety of granite (32). 

Aapihalt (see Carbon Minerak). 


21. Building Stone; CUy; Umet; Cements { 

The granite indtistry b mainly developed along Atlantic seaboard; secondJ 
Wisconsin, Missouri, and California. Among igneous rocks, granite breaks bea^ 
quarry. When of good grade, it is homogeneous in texture, though sometimes mi 
from black inclusions, local coarse crystallizations, and development of gneisaoM 
ture. Sandstones are widely quarried. The "browsstone" of eastern U S is a '1 
sandstone, from Longmeadow, Mass; Portland, Conn; Avon, N J; Hummelsto^ 
Harrisbuig, Penn. "Bluestone," of Hudson River region, is a Devonian arKill 
sandstone, specially adapted to flagstones, curbing, sills, and lintels. Potsdam rec^ 
stone or quartzite is Cambrian; quarried 00 western side of Adirondacks. A 
stone of nearly the same geological boriaon is produced on south shore of Lake Suj 
Medina pink sandstone of the Silurian is extensively obtained along the Erie i 
between Rochester and Lockport, N Y. Cleveland or Ohio sandstone is a gray 01 
blue stone, of Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) age, developed in outskirts of 
land. Limestones. Preeminent is the Indiana or Bedford oOlitic stone, of Missisal 
(Lower Carboniferous) age, which outcrops in an extended N and S belt in S W Ix» 
Mabjblbs, of Cambrian and Ordovidan age, are extensively developed along the 1 
of Western Vermont, Eastern Tennessee, and Georgia; of other age, in Colo. S 
appear in S W Vermont and neighboring parts of N Y, and in the Lehigh Valley, 
They are in less degree produced in Virginia, the Lake Superior region, and Newf 
land. Wales b a famous source of slate and of skiUed workers in shte. Sekpe: 
b quarried in southeastern Pennsylvania and the neighboring parts of Maryland Q 

Clajs are of two kinds: residual, espedally from weathering of limestone; and t 
ported, which are the finest sediments of still water. Residual days are conun 
south of the terminal moraine of Glacial epoch. They are impure and variable. T 
ported clays were extensively deposited by the floods which followed the melting of thi 
tinental glader. They are very abundant in the valleys of the Connecticut and Hi 
rivers, and are the basb of a great brick industry. Fireclay for refractory materials s 
be as free as possible from other ingredients than SiO|, Al^Ot, and H^. It b often 1 
beneath coal seams. In these relations fireclays are mined in Pennsylvania, Mmry 
Ohio, and at Cheltenham, Mo. Other fireclays of Oetaceous age are devdoped at V 
bridge and its neighborhood, N J. and near Golden, Colo (34) (see also Sec I, Table A 

Shales often possess properties which fit them for vitrified brick. They ar« 
ground, moulded, and hard-burned. They are useful for pavements, eqiedally whe 
good rock b available for macadam. 

Limes and cements. For quicklime, calcium carbonate should be pure, free 
coloring ingredients, such as iron compounds, and b preferred with little magnmiiim 
bonate. Silica and alumina together devek^ hydraulic properties, and injiue *' 
limes. Kilns are widespread and, for local use, any reasonably pure limestone ans^ 
Rockland, Me, b the prindpal American producing dbtrict. As limestones contai 
creasmg amounts of alumina and silica, they develop hydraulic properties when bui 
and in varieties of special excellence afford natursl rock cement. The crude stoi 
called a "water-lime." Although important in former years, the natural cements ! 
given way to "Portland" cement, which b an artificial mixture of limestone and da 
shale, entirdy under control of tbe chembt, and being therefore more uniform in pre 
ties. In Portland cemeat magnesia b kept very low, not over 3 or 3%. The Le 
Valley, Penn, b chid center of manufacture in U S, but plants are widely distributed 1 

Z&, The Carbon Minerals 

These embrace Coals and their relatives, and the Petroleum series, ind 
ing Natural Gas, Maltha, Asphalt, and Asphaltites. 

Coals and their relatives are vegetable remains so preserved in sediment 
Strata as to become progressively enriched in carbon. They begin as^aome fc 


The Carbon Mineral 



pcrimig abo in part spores» algs, and.resiiis; under conditions 

-Tiedonbtion tbcy pass toward a theoretical limit of nearly pure carbon, 

-Jrj to mioeFal ash. Ceiiulose, the principal original contributor, is 

. t i ippFu, C 50%, H 6%, and O 44%), but there was always also a little 

- ^ nuBenl matter in original deposit. If vegetable tissue accumulates 
-' I ;ix^ecdDg byer of water, oxidation is retarded and relative enrichment 
-"■•-c osBcs. On subsidence of the land, or, in case of lakes and swamps, as 
. • .: aesvy floods^ sediments bury the accumulated vegetable tissue. The 

- izynasB Gomprises several stages. Peat is still brown; a visible aggregate 
~\ kaves»etc; Ugh in O and H and rdatively bw in C. Ligniie is firmer* 
' .cd, butt bis a brown streak, and usually still shows evidence of vegetable 
^ i^VsO and H than peat and relatively more C. Sub-bituminous coals 
.jci %Bites are a stage beyond tsrpical lignite, but are not typically bitumi- 
-: fiTTnasocs coais (Sec 35) are black, solider, tower in O, higher in C, and 

coking properties. Semx-bitdminous and semt-aiubracite 
(Sec 34) in which the C is greatly enriched and the 
^ tad firm. Still further stages toward graphite are known. 

liUt 5. Charactwiartc Chemical Compoaition of Coal Series 

















-^ M tho praeat in wying percentages, up to aevoal units, and minenU ash 

^ m adfied oonmiercially in a ways, proximate and dementary. In pkoxi- 

t'^'UTSB, Boistttre. volatile matter, fixed carbcm, ash and sulphur are usually de- 

zt^^ Siaipic  dried, weighed, ignited until flames cease or for a standard time 

' . ^Eaadud Booaea bnmer, weighed, ignited again to consume the carbon; after 

' 'TKtee a vogbed for ash. Sulphur is determined in a separate sample. This 

'. shovi if t^ coal b high or low in water; is high or low in volatOes; has a 

' ^ luie; cokes or not; is high or low in ash; is sulphurous or not. These are 

' '^^- ■partsflt poiats regarding a fuel. Dividing the percentage of fixed carbon 

« TfKoaagt of voktiks gives tbe "fuel ratio/' characteristic for each particular 

i-ckKka give high, and richly bituminous coals low ratios. Ratios vary from 

M. i.totboat JO. ELEXEjcTAav axalysis of a dried sample gives the C, H, O, N, S, 

.A h alardi « better idea ol the beat units m the coal, a matter of growing im- 

-' - cvi) jnear, bat does not indicate coking properties nor volatiles. It is known 

' a <mk  aheady combined with C or H, and is as inert as ash, besides re- 

' tte nuUble C aad H. Since H has a high calorific value, the necessary pro- 

* t J ]ndd H^ vith the O present is often called combined hydrogen; the excess, 

MnofoL Relative^ high values of the latter are esteemed. 

TtiMe 6. Characteristle Prosimate Analyses 



17. 75 







15. 47 


73 51 


a. 95 







Non-Metallic Minerals 
TM» 7* Chancteristic EteixMntenr AnaljBQS 






Peat (Air dried) 




XX. 05 




54 9x 


5 37 



XX. 49 







1. 01 





Heat units are expressed as British thermal units (B t u), or as French 
High-ash or high-ozygen coaia give low thermal values. The usual ran^e is aa 
the peat being exceptionally good (Sussex Co, N J): 



Bituminous coal 













X3 790 



Moisture in coal is a serious drawback, and varies so much in unprotected i 
especially of lignites and sub-bituminous coals, that the sample, as soon as cut in tj 
should be pat into an air-tight glass jar, and analyzed as so<m as possible aftc 

Claasiflcatioii. . Many attempts have been made to classify coals, but for easte 
the scheme suggested by H. D. Rogers, State Geologist of Penn, about 1855, 
widely current: 

Bituminous Volatiles, greater than z8 
Semi-bituminous " x8 to la 

Semi-anthracite " la to 8 

Anthracite " less than 8 

More recent schemes are those of: M. R. Campbdl. based on C -s- ff ratio, ma sfa 
elementary analysis; F. G. Grout, who emplojrs ratios based on sum of volati 
fixed carbon of a proximate analysis, and the elementary carbon of ultimate al 
and D. B. Dowling, who employs what he calls the split-volatile ratio. Ail th< 
greater attentbn to western lignites and sub-bituminous coals, which in earliti 
were practically unknown. Elaborate classifications are unimportant oomnM 
The B t u 's and the physical and coking properties are the essentials. 

Geological associates of coal seams are almost always shales and 
stones. They often have a fireclay floor; are seldom associated with 
stones. A seam may be broken up into benches by a "parting" of shale, 
"slate" by miners. A parting may increase in thickness and separate a 
into 2 distinct seams. Seams may be cut out by old drainage channels, 
contemporaneous with the old swamp, or later and long after coal was fo 
Pot-holes and channels in Carboniferous coals were developed ^ven. 11 
Glacial epoch and filled with gravel. Coal seams may be pinched by th 
ward bulge of a relatively plastic clay floor, and may have cracks filled 
clay gouge. 

Coal seams are subject to faults and folds; are very often in synt 
("basins"), left disconnected by erosion of intervening anticlines. Folds 
be violent, as in middle anthracite fields of Penn, and in Belgian and Fi 
areas. Coal seams are of all thicknesses from a fraction of an inch to I 
feet. The thickest siogle seam, reasonably free from thick partings, recc 

:=:5 Tbe Carbon Minerals 111 

 at AdaviUe, Western Wyoming, with 86 ft of dean coal (ezcept 
ol I in of sandstone). A thirknfaw of i ft is ordinarily oon« 
^i :be BBaimum of workability. 

'z aaease of ash (20% ash is the usual commercial maximum) coab 

- ::ij "bcay" coals, then into "bone" and into bituminous shale or slate. 

^ matter may be minnteiy interstratified with thin layers of relativdy 

=*k or be invisibly mingled. If the layers are sufficiently coarse, crush* 

. od nshBtg may greatly reduce the ash (Sec 34 and 35). In a croas-section 

I cDod seam can be recognised: bright lustrous "glance" coal and duU» 

"isA "spGnt** coal. The proportions vary; one variety may be in great 

-^ Thoe is a third variety, porous, tender, and often showing plant 

.-rzc. caled "mother ol coal" or "mineral charcoal." It affords an un- 

' ^^sxt pbce of predpttation for gypsum, pyrite, and other undesirables. 

.^^}car b coal is partly in pyrite, when half passesoff in burning; partly in 

' .TL vfatn an passes into the ash; and partly in sulphurous hydrocarbons. 

. i^sg or other combustion, roughly one-half the sulphur passes off. 

'. > * I me coal laBges practically from Carboniferous period through Tertiary. 

9CB crported in remote pre-Cambrian itrata of Finland, but no icams of 

yet knoita older than Carbomferous. The oldest Beamr m America is in 

ol the Blissisnppian (Lower Cartwniferous) strata of S W 

i). The real^ important coab begin with the Pennsyl- 

b cHtem baU of North America, they range up into the Permian and even 

'■ Va and N C). In the western U S, coals range from-eariy Cretaceous 

The Tjfimir of Cretaceons and Eocene Teitiaiy are moat productive. Tht 

e oitcB iicnitic, e^wially if in relatively undisturbed strata (j6). 

Coab are residual accumulations; petrpleums axe evolved, 
'MfPt from their sources elsewhere for storage. The petroleum series em- 

'- ^ Eases Kqasds, and solids. The chemistry is very complex, but most 

tse aaafaen beloBg to the marsh-gas or paraffine series of compounds, 

-rt-i^ Up to C«Hii they are gases at ordinary temperatures; from C«H« 

^ am sdBds. The gases arc called natural gas; the liquids, petroleum; 

' '^kx, Uack, tarry Kqiiidit, maltha; the solids at ordinary temperatures, of 
.^ kttiiay diaracter, asi^alt; the brittle, coal-like substances, asphaltite; 

 uiiaal ptraffirws, oaocerite. Shales impreniated with bituminous matter 

• jUd o3 shales. They may be rich in pars^mnes. 


fitmd gpaea are chiefly CH4, but have some higher members, with a little 

- -e olcte series C»Ht«« more or less of HsS, N, O, CO^ and others rarer. 

y<»riiwBg indude the liquids at ordinary temperatures. Some are of low 
^'*. ttae fa^ These chazactets are expressed in degrees Beaum^ a scale 
«aid 10* Rfanm^ is sp gr i. Others are calculated by the formula: 

- ' *9 p) - rjo. Light petroleums range from 35* B up. The heavy drop 
*.>« xTE. LIgfater oib give higher percentages of illuminants and are the 

* ^-lUblei Heavy oils have an asphalt base. Some oils contain sulphur 
^3cji^ Malthas are much rarer than pietroleums, and have different 
^. i^hiks are specially employed for paving; asphaltites for varnishes, etc. 

OripB il pttnleossa. There are two radically different views: the inortcanic (now 

' i-irii lad the ocgamc There is some support for the theory attributing hydro- 

rim to HBBDas sovrcca, but most geologiata favor the organic ezpbnations. These 

zt wiginl plant or animal matter in\he sediments, by decomposition in the rock 

- Rst); or ittrtflHtff* from internal beat (J. S. Newberry); or, the modem view, 

«aBal teompoatioQ while freshly deposited, the hydrocarbons being later sqneesed 

.' 4 da Aihsaad flMdHracks, by prcasuie 61 overiyingaocomulatioos, into porous beds 

b the ktter way manh gas, CH«, certaialy docs develop, but oils rHoaln to 

CScc B. Table VUD. 

112 Non-Metallic Minerals * ; 

8tor«f • in the rodn k better ondentood. The most extensive poob are found 
low, anticUnsl folds, in which an impervious shale rests upon a porous sandstone <j 
stone, 80 as to imprison the gas and oil; which, from some source of the bydrod 
rise through the heavier ground-waters and are finally caxight beneath the crest, 
retically, and sometimes actually, there is an uppermost layer of gas. a layer bexii 
oil, and a bottom layer of water or connate brine. Usually either gas or oil rests ox 
Other deposits favor lenticular or pod-like bodies of sandstone in shales, apparenj 
sand-ban, or similar accumulations. Prospecting is usually guided in recent yij 
the anticlinal view. The axes of anticlines rise and fall, and poob are thus nd 
Unuoua along their trend. A very gentle anticline or even a slight monocline may 
Poob sometimes seem to lie to one side of the observed anticlinal crest. 


O«oloclcall7» the oldest gases and oib are tapped from Ordovkian (or Loiwer Sj 
strata, of which the Trenton lunestone is very productive in Ohio and Indiana. | 
in the Paleoaoic, the Silurian (or Upper Silurian), Devonian and C^bomferoua 
are all productive in the Eastern States. A sandsUme at base of the Coal Measure! 
boniferous) b very productive in lUmob, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Cretaceous 
stones carry oil in Wyoming: . and Cretaceous h'mestones are the ai^Munent soi| 
Mexican petroleum, even though tapped from overlying Tertiary beds. Varioti 
Uaiy horiaons yield oib in different parts of the world, but the Miocene b especial] 
In America are the following fields: Appalachian; Lima-Indiana (western Ohj 
Indbna); lUinob; Mid-Continental, in Kansas. (Alahoma and northern Texas; 
to I«ouisiana and Texas; Mexican, in the coastal plain or tiena caliente, west of T^ 
and (urther south; and CaUfomia. That are many smaller areas in OAamdo, Wyj 
Alberta, and Alaska. Ttiaidad b productive and V'enenda very promising. A 
RuiMaia* Baku on the Caspian Sea,tDtttch East Indies, and Japan are the chi^ 
duoars, but aooM ofl has abo been fouiMl in Germany Cs7)* 

Maltht b a rather unusttal product, but appears at times where oib with an as| 
but rial to auifac* and km their man volatib oonatitiieata. Maltha tamy imp^ 
lyftBMig sandstona. 

Aaphtht a furthM* staiR in the process, may acomralate in pools, '4 
pK^mktt poit>us sandstones or limestones. Sometimes ofls have risen in B 
and hax'e chanieed with loi$« of volatiles to brittle substances* soggestin^ 
llhistrations: albertite, of N B: firahamite, of West V'a; uintaite and wurl 
of Vtah. iXb with a |>arat!ine ha5e ha\T left behind the natural pan 
otvvctite. in tbsunK in sandstone iSec i» Table Mil) (3S). 

OrMbit* U the i\na1 nKtamorphk stance of all carbon minerals. It a| 
jik>nvr<inK>» in jv^wauu \Yin*H tntt hk\t<' %Nt;cn impregnates sandstones, s4 
a»H^ xt>xuU\*.i<' hnxstvxncs fivwi whkh is may be sepwiteJ by ooncenti 
the iv^M v\'»n\j\>n<^nt> ^.^iV 

fUnM a*t x-^^-t* <>f ~>^'»>f»f Sit tV 4B*v>^v>-:a! rtlsCMa we 

*■* ri«w>m'\y *• ^K^iiK S.-; »hf A-arif^A caarrM.! mar Sf 

^.*« «*"> van <»K -sii*' A« ,)«♦ ♦vns> %\"s«m.<A£ assxaasiaas »#?' 
\ ^r > f fc j »» ^'•»e Oa 'S.** Vi*w<^>*\ 

-*J$ Miscellaxieous Non-Metallic Minerals 113 

faraig Ugber prices). Denand for palveiued miat b amply np- 

fracn aheet<imc& miDes. (b) Softness; the softer the mica the 

' sii^Ml k is far clectiic oommatator iosalation. {c) Freedom from inctuskms, 

- a pKfa&y iroo attnerals and diminish insulating properties, id) Flexibility. 

' * A crnai mica csa be ascertained only by submittiniE samples to a dealer. 

-red MiMtfa t tiir ei s air the bluest coosomos. 

Go (see Caiboo Minenb). 


paintak pigments), or the bases for than, are sometimes the objects 

ail axe mkiecab <^ icon. Limonitc, deposits containing iron car- 

- * ad od hematite, are all ntiiized. The crude prodnct is usually calcined to in- 

^jcaily ol oolctf or shade. Fine cUys stamed ^Hth Umonite yidd ochers. Barite 

> r s a6ae akte are gnMud for **SUtm,'* 

are dug or quarried for fertilizers. They are of a kinds: 
.-TsOl^Dc apatite, which generally appears on borders of igneous intrusive 
trA is espcdally associated with pre-Cambrian limestones, along the 
V- iJTtx in Ontario and Quebec. Apatite in different geological relations 
-led as tailings in magnetic concentration of richly phosphatic magnetites, 
- -".-i^e, K Y. (6) Earthy phosphates, such as fossil bones, coprolites, and 
. '^ffiis of carbonate of lime in limestones by phosphate of lime. 

' "-f the aeacoBst of Sooth Csralina. Tertiary beds have long been dog for fossil 

- ^i^s and replaced Kmrsfonf nodnles. More recent discoveries of Florida rock 

-As, and of pebble phosphates in deltas in the drsmage of rock-phosphate areas, 

' ' >f Tscd very low-coat product. In the Peace River, Fla, is done much dredg- 

. r - aenrBtrition similar to that in placer gold deposits. Beds of rock phosphate 

"-sestary aeries have been still more recently discovered and uUUzed in Tennessee. 

'" «^ have bees discovered by prospectors in N E Utah, but have been withdrawn 

■x^ii» by the Federal Government. These phoq>hates form interatratified b«ls, 

- '- raodocwi by reaction upon limestone of phoq^horic acid from organic remains. 

by the droppings of wild-fowl in regions of slight rainfall, is- now prscti- 


:kmA) Csee Caiboo Minerab). 

I^lien circulating ground-waters have traversed rocks contain- 

-^-u sahs, and have afterwards been impounded and evaporated to dry- 

' then bodies of sea water are isolated and evaporated, the dissolved 

> -^ -irecipitiLted in the inverse order of solubility. From sea water, gypsum 

'Je& 6T5t, then common salt, and then rarely the less abundant potas- 

«3w In general, potassium-bearing final mother-liquors seem to have 

' . or f^ their very soluble precipitates were f emoved in next inrush of 

- w^aced bodies of the ocean, cut off perhaps by a barrier cast up during a storm, 

- tfiia beds of salt and their associates have been derived. Thick beds of hun- 
: ret m. sectioa are difficult to explain in this way. A substitute ezplanatbn is 
c Theory" of Ocfasenius. A deep estuary is assumed to be isolated by a broad 
"7 tse open aea. Evaporation on the bar leads to the passage down inner side of 
:'aTF ooooeBtxated tvine, until salt is deposited in the estuary's depths. - Thick 
-' 1^ be precipitated in salt lakes, in deep defweaaioas without outlet, yet so 
u to be fed by aalt-bearjng streams. Great Salt Lake b an illustration. Salt 

l^ti^MM ukd elsewhere along Gulf of Mexico, appear in co- 
form, crossing sedimentary strata as great cylindrkal masses. 
or mounds, and around whfefa the beds turn up. These are best 
Bah flpringa aad the eipanahre force of growing crystals, whkh may 

114 Non-Metallic Minerals 

have thnut the ttnU aside and upward. The only important beds of potmaaiu 
yet discovered are in the Stassfurt region, western Germany. Beds of Nm^Si04 
infrequent in arid regions, and less often waters or even beds charged with N'acC 
sodium and calcium borates, likewise occur in a few districts (as southern Ca 
and western Nevada), where local drainage contains these rare salts. The soils 
northern Chilean desert have become charged with sodium nitrate, as have the 
few other arid localities (42). 

Borax is obtained, by chemical treatment, mainly from a minerals: bo 
occurring in fumaroles in northern Italy, and in dry-lake deposits in 
desert regions of the world; and colemanite (borate of lime) ocx:urr 
bedded saline deposits in southern California. The latter, averaging 
boric acid, are now the principal source of borax in the U S, refineries 
at San Francisco, Cal, and Bayonne, N J. 

Sulphur. In native state, sulphur b foimd in 2 types of deposit: ^) 
near volcanic craters, expiring er largely dormant. Emitted as viqx>r, si 
condenses on walls of cavities and impregnates porous tufifs and breccias, 
possible, but not highly probable, that SOi and HiS when mingled hot r< 
deposit sulphur. (6) In association with gypsum in sedimentary strata, 
Sicily, Louisiana, and Texas. The sulphur was formerly believed to 
from reduction of gypsum (CaSOi • a HsO), by organic matter in circi 
ground-waters. There is at present a disposition to refer it to minute 1 
isms now known to secrete elementary sulphur, and to favor its precipi 
amid deposits of decaying organic matter, at bottom of certain bodies of 
Gypsum is a universal associate (43). 


Rocks and thtir Minerals All good treatises on geology have chapters on rocks 
X. Barker, A. Petrology for Students. Longmans, Green & Co. London an 

Revised ed. (Based on midx>sco(uc study) 
3. Kemp, J. F. Handbook of Rocks. 5th ed. D. Van Nostrand Co, N Y 

3. Pirsson, L. V. Rocks and Rock Minerab. John Wiley & Sons. loc, N Y. I< 

J. P. Igneous Rocks, a voL John Wiley A Sons, Inc, N Y, 19x3 

Faults Current textbooks on ore deposits, mining and geology, usually devote a c 
or less to faults 

4. Church, J. A. Cause of Faulting. Trans A I M E, Vol 2X, p 78a 

5. Dannenbcrg, Robert. Ueber Verwerfungen. Freiberg, 1884 

6. Emmons, S. F. Faulting in Veins. RAM Jow^ Vol 53, p $48 

7. Freeland, F. T. Fault-rules. Trans A I M E, Vol ai, p 491- A dear expi 

8. Koehler, G. Die StSrungen der Gftnge, Fldtse und Lsger. Leipzig. 

Trans by W. B. PhiUips, as: Irregularities of Lodes, Vehis and Beds. I 
Jour, June 25, 1887, p 4S4; July a, 1887, p 4 

9. Ransome, F. L. Directions of Movement and the Nomenclature of ] 

Econ Geol, Vol i, p 777! discussion in Vol 2 
10. Read, H. F., W. M. Davis, A. C. Lawson and F. L. Ransome, CommitI 

Proposed Nomenclature of Faults. Bnll Geol Soc Amer, Vol 34, pp 163-1 
XX. Schmidt, J. C. L. Theorie der Verschiebung ftlterer G&nge. Frankfurt, 19 
X3. Tohnan, C. F., Jr. Graphical Solution of Fault Problems. Min 6f* Sci Pr, 

A pamphlet 
13. Zimmermann, C. Die Wiederausrichtung verworfener G&nge, Lager und I 

Leipzig, x8a8 

Siraligraphic Geology 
X4- Chamberlin and Salisbuzy. Geology. 3 vol. Henry Holt & Co, N Y, 190 
15. Chamberlin and Salisbury. College (kology. x vol, 1909 
x6. Dana, J. D. Manual of Oology, American Book Co, N Y, X895 
17. Geikiet A. Textbook of Ckology. 3 voL MarmilUn, London and N Y, 19 

Bibliography 115 



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•< Scan, W. Bw lat wd u c tiu n to Geology. Mianillmi, N Y 

~ £9Bi». J. F. What h an Ore? Min dr 5ct Pr, Mar ao, 1909, pp 4X9-4S3 

> Le^ J. F. Tbe Groimd-Watezs. Trans A I M £, Vol 45. P 5- Van Htie, 
C B. SooK Praicqilea Govczning the Depoiitkm of Ores, /dm, Vd 30. p a? 

:. 5«i. S. Lefare raa dtn ErdagenUtten. Berlin, 1909. 3rd cd. Trans <rf and 
cd, "Tkt Nature of Ore Deposits," 1^ W. H. Weed. 1905. Beyschlag. Knisch 
and VogL Die Lagent&ttcn dtr nutzbaren Mineralien and Gesteine. a vol, 
Z909> Tnas. by S. J. Tnxsoott, MacnuUan, 19x4, 3 voL von Cotta, B. Die 
Lebs voQ den ErdasersUttcn. Freibeis, Z859-61. Trans by F. Prime, Jr, as 
CaOa's Treatise on Ore Deposits, N Y, 1870. Dc Launay, L. Traite de 
Ifeulkvenk. Paris, r9i3, 3 voL Fuchs et De Lannay. Tzaite des Gites 
Uiafzux et M^taliiferes, Paris, 1893, a vol. von Groddeck, A. Die Lehre von 
TipjiilUhB dcr Ene. Leqng, 1879. Kemp, J. F. Ore Deposits ci United 
States sad Canada. N Y, 190X. Kmach, P. Die Untenuchung und Bewcr- 
t8BgvanEi;dagentatten. Berlin. 191 x. LindgTen,W. Mineral Deposits. NY, 
S9XJ- H.Rics. Econotnic Geology of United States. NY, X91X. Stdzner, 
B. Die ErdagerstAttea. Leipeig, 1906, 3 vol. Thomas and MacAlister. The 
Gflokgy of Ore Deposits. London, 1909. Whitney. J. D. MeUllic Wealfh 
af Caited States. 1854. For occnrxenre, technology, and statistics of ores and 
e Minersl Indostry (ann), McGraw-Hill, N Y.; also Mineral Re- 
Cam) y S Geol Sorv, Washington 
Getiogy of L^ke Soperior Regioo. Monograi^i 5a, U S Geol Surv, X9za 

.« boa Ore Resooxces of the World. Tenth Internat Geol Cong, Stockhohn, 19x0. 
2 -wtA and atlaa (Greatest singjie work on iron ores) 

' Veed. W. H. Copper Mines of the World. McGraw-Hill Book Co. N Y, 1907 

^ I^. D. T. aod Ridtards. R. H. Investigations of Black Sands from Placer 
MiseB. BmB aSs. U S Geol Surv, pp X50>x64, 1906. Emmons, W. H. AgenQf 
of ^»*ga"Ti* in Soperfidal Alteration and Secondary Enrichment of Gold 
Dcpoits in tlM U S. rroiu A I M £. Vd 42, p 3 

V ftatmt, R. A. F.. Jr. Manganese, its Uses, Ores, and Deposits. Arkansas 
Geol Surv. 1890, Vol x, 1893 

^ ^j^afl. P. Nickel, Occurrence, Geology, Distzibutkm and Genesis of its Ore De* 
Ptvc Colo Sci Soc. Vol 4, p 39s 
>. J. F. Geologica] Rdatioos and Distribution of Platinum and Associated 
Arfl X9J. U S Geol Surv 

V^K^ IkpKiis: Nan wrtafffe Mimerais 
z. Mcnia, G. P. The Non-Metallic Minerals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ries, H. 
Geology of the United States, MacmOUn & Co. Stutaer, O. Die 
Bcriin. 191 1-14 
u GnMsid, L. R. On Whetstones, etc. Ann Rep Ark Geol Sorv, 1890, Vol m. 
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and LcvB, J. V. Conindnm and the Peridotites of Western N C Geol Surv 
•i- Cakct F. Asbestos. Dcpt of Mines. Canada. Butt No 69, 1910 
. MotiLG.P. Stones for Buildxng and Decoration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. N Y. 
Moza. G. P. and Hawca, G. S. Rept on Building Stones. Tenth Census 
C S, Vol low Local Reports of State Geol Survs 
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190& Rjea, R aad Leigfaton, H. History of the Clay-Working Industry in 
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Joay; x88o. by J. C. Soaock. and 1904, by H. Ries 
t Ed«LE.C Cements. limea and Plasters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1905. Liter- 

< Coal tisiiuim of the World. Eleventh Internet Geol Cong, Toronto, Can, 19x3, 
t vol aad atlaa (important work). Campbell, M. R. and others. Methods of 
Totmg. Sam|3iit« and OassifyiBg Cttds. Prof Paper 48. U S Geol Surv, 1906. 
D. B. Oasaifirarion of Coals on SpUt-volatile Ratio. Jow Can 


V«lii,PMo. (kDit.F.F. OfcHiwiiiliiiigf 
V«l 1. p ns. rwcr. J. B. Ivrat«itiaB oi tke 00^1 of CfeBMla. C 
Govt Pnti« Ofc^ 191a. StrraMa. J. J. Fnc Amt Pki Soc. Vol 
I amd S19; V«l $1, p 4*3; Vfll sa. P S7^ iBesl seviev of feohicy of cool « 

37. fi^kr. C awl Hosfar. H. Das Enil. wmt Pkjrak. fWair. Goolocie. £ 
1909. B^v. H. Das Erddl aad seme Vcmadtca BrMiiwrlnpeig. : 
I9W. OnoB. E. Geol Sonr of Ouo, £cm Gmf. Vol 6; Geol Surv Ky 
Bma 3o,SY State lliaevD. 1S99: ^^ Geol Sac Amtx, Vol 9. |> 85 
Thoopna, A. B. Fe tr oic uM IfiniBC. D. Vaa Kostnad, 1910W Pei 
S. F. TtMk 0—1. U S. Vol 10. Rcpt am Pttnlen 

3ft. Eldinife.G.H. Asplttk aBd BimonDnB Rock Departs of the U S. a^i 
Rcpc, U S Ged S«t. Put I. p aog 

19. CnkcL F. Gffaphkc ks Propoties, Oocarcaoe, W 1 faiia^ and Uses. Cai 
Mines, BmM So tS, 1907. Scataer, O. Skktwnt Part i. p 1. 191 x 

«B. Km. G. F. Gc^ aad PrednB Sbaes of Xortk Aaerica. McOra 
Book Co 

41. Elib«i%e.G.H. Sfcctck of Ptexpkates of Florida. Ffwat A I M E. Vol 21. 
HaTcs»CW. TriPHfii FhoBiAotes. irtk Am Rcpt. U S Geo! Sonr. F 
1S96- Ffw A I II E. Vol as. P 19- Stataer.a OftPfaMphates. Nic 
Part I, p 165. 19" 

4a. Claifce. F. W. Data of riithiMJUij. BmM 491. ^ S Goal Sorr. 19x1. 
F.F. IWForBofSakDcpaals. &m GmI. Vol 7. P taob I9t* 

43. SlaiKX.O. OtoMlpkv. Kkktene. Pmi, p iSs« 19U 

Mining Engineen' Handbook 









l<e^ ud C<M of LooKning . 

• ^V'<iiadC«A of Shoveling. 
I'-r^^ aad Cost of Haulii« . . 


> <«^ ad Bdt CoBvcyon . 

'■ ^taa^ndWoik 






9. Dredgiiig 134 

la ^dimulic EscsrataoD 134 

zi. Tieochiag 136 

13. Excavating Fzosen Earth and 

Hardpan 139 

13. Embankment 240 

Bibliography 14a 

refer Co Bibliograpt^ at end of this lectioa. 

L Cletfiiig and Grubbing 

MiMt: (•) Grubbing; ((} burning; (c) blasting; {d) stump pullers. 

hui. Toob: mattock, axe, roond-pointed shovel, and long bar. Two 
a aa^ ttonp are moce cffident than one man alone. If the bige 
^JKotn the bfl and allowed to lie during the winter, the heavy fnwU of the northern 
VI ha»t tke Mnmp and mateziaQy aaaist the mtk of removal. 

, ^^ *mi. The aofl should be dug away, partly exposing the largest roots. 

V^l^J"^ ut pibd about the stump, and kept burning until it and the larger roots 

' "^bkL Thk method b capedaUy adapted to rotten, hollow stumps, difficult to 

' ^ CiAa-RT mrthod consists in placing brush or kindling around the stump 

'-_ '-"^ al vitk cby and sods, leaving small openings for admission of air while 

'•^ F«beaiaakB,itnmps should be split; dcme most cheaply by exploding dyna- 

: 1 Am   lub in the center of stump. 

Toob: long-handled wood and earth auger, chum drill or pointed 
^ ^duBbainc the bottom of a hole, wooden tamping bar. and blasting mate- 
'^*k» of bhstiag depend upon: character oC the roots (whether fibrous or tap). 
***'^ ^ cA ud the miitsnrr it offers to the explosive, size and state of preservation 
' ^^ Fmk. ondecayed, fibrous-rooted stumps are harder to blast than those 
* ^ ^ofid or have tap roots. For tap-rooted stumps place charges against the 
'^ ^ '^ V b a hole bored into iL For cypress or wiOow stumps, or those in 
" "^nl hsK) 106 hobs, ts to 18 b from the stump, and inclined towards it. For 
_ "^ <Hpi chaqpes of 40% dynamite an giva b TaUe i. For green stumps, 
'•>^ lbs chMgH by i.s to a: for oU, decsyed stumps, use bas than the chariea 
. '* *«h««gqbiivcaHijbeiiiedfarhudloamorcby,buttAMndocniiKk6o% 


Earth Excavation 

Tabl« $. ATenge WdgbtB of Soili 



Lb per 

Lb per 
cu yd 



Lb per 


Sand. ... 
Sand. ... 
Gravel . . 










3 37S 




Clayey earth 

Loose, dry 
In place 
Rolled dry 





Ancle of repoM. The face of a mass of earth whezi exposed for a tii 
the elements assumes a natural slope. The angle which a face makes 
the horiz when not dt exposed is the angle op repose (Table 6). 

Anfl^e of temporary face. Factors affecting the angle at which an eart 
will stand when first excavated are: kind of znaterial, condition (wet or 
width of face, lieight of face and distance below origizial surface, time of exp< 

Clay in natural state (especially if it contains soxne coarse sand and gravel) wiU 
vertically for a considerable time if well drained. Saturation causes slipping. Ha 
hc^ a vertical face for a long time. Coarse sand will not stand so well as clay, but 
than fine sand. Saturated sand slides readily; slight dampness aids in holding it ii 
taon. A small face, or a face under small press, will stand where a large area wi 
In arid regions eaith will hoU a steep, often vertical face, of greater height and for a 
time than in rainy regions. Rankine gives for greatest depths of temporary, v 
faces: clean, dry sand and gravel, o ft; moist sand, or ozdinazy surface mold. 3 t< 
ordinaiy clay. 10 to 16 ft (z^). 

Table 6. 

Slopes and Angles of Repoae 

Kind of earth 

Slope of 

Angle of 

Kind of earth 

Slope of 


Sand, clean, loose. . . . 
Sand and clay, loose. . 
Sand, wet 

1.5 : 1 

X 33:1 
2.5 : z 


1 .33 : 1 

I 33:1 

z : z 




Clay, wet 

Rock, hard (riprap) 

Sand, clay, gravel (suc- 

River mud (suction- 

3.5: I 
i: I 

2: z 
3: 1 

7.5: 1 


Gravel, clean, loose. . . 
Gravel and day. loose 

Clay, dry. looee 

Clay, dry, natural. . . . 



Gravel& sand on shores, 
exposed to waves 


S. Methods and Cost of Looseoiag 
Table 7. Cost of Flowing (wages $1.50, horse^keep $z, per zo-hr day) 



Gravel and loam 

Fairly tough day — 

Very hard soil | 

Ordinary soil 


z driver, z holder, 2 horses 

z " z " 2 •* 

z " z " 2 " 

z •• z " i-6 *' » 

2 men on plow beam of rooter plow J 
z driver. 6 hones, on gang plow 

per hr 




i perci 




Barring down earth banks over 8 or zo ft high, or undennining it 
picks» is an economical method. Very tough hardpan, with many bou) 
may be barred down and picked into shape for ahoyeUng at sate of 3 cu yf 
man-hr, costing 5^ per cu yd. 


Methods and Cost of Shoveting 


^liyujiuiiiiis- Hard- Htbto 8. Cost of Pick-'WQck (^ 15^ per hr) 
2  flQQBQBiicaJly looaoiod by 

sof bv-gnde dynsmhe^ Jud- 
-:. 3r coBtactDr's powder. Holes^ 
2.^ B faii^ bccastSk dwukl be at 
' 'j> the vtiticd. Horiz boles in 
-: n»xfl< a bank sie effective. For 
.sik of ffamhrr and oosrote-bole 
BC Sec s» Art 7. 



Labor cost 
per cuyd 


Gravd and loam. . 
Faixiy tou^ clay.. 
Hardpan  . ^ x ^ . 








4. Methods and Cost of ShoreUng 

^)itfpst dfprnds upon the material, height or distance it must be thrown, 
^sxtdL siwvcL Very large shoveU may be used for light soib. 

^ 5 > tiar fiBag sfaorel and sbaighteniqg up to throir, min; t  time throwing z 
'•'J^d, aia; d « tfisfanrr carried, ft; w > time walking x ft wfth loaded sbovd, min; 
*'  tae tia i ag i ft with empty shovd, min; L -■ load of i siuRrtl, en ft; F » percent- 
•f^^n ipiiwl fi  wt and dclaya; r«tiinesfaovdingicu]rdaftcritialoaBcned,initt. 

nm r-(l5.1-/ + (w+w^)rfl^)(i-|-F). 

la r-(5 + /)^(x+P)whennowaIkin8isdaoe. 


C values for the above factors: 



f. min 
























* Has tedoccs to as low as s when much walking is done. 
TaUa 9. Coat of T.oadlng bf Shoveling 




Cost per cu yd,^ 

(Wages, isi 



4V1 iBto WHoeiwarTO^B ,.,,.,, 




a. a 



t as 

I 75 



XX. 3 









M. Ancelin 




Cole (a) 

D. K. Clark 

GiUette (b) 

" (c) 

J. M. Brown 



G. A. Parker 


'sa^ " " 

r^a»it •• •« 

t aver 

l«r± (a3 kinds) into wagons 


^ ^«d frav^Sy soil into wagons 


*f ttd paTcl into carts 

-*a iaio carts 

•-•iy «uih into carts 

'nruad mto carts 

J » . tabrioQs. Chicago ..,..,.. 

"-•riitn teto low dvmsp can 

' -r«nh 

Erie CanaL {h) 10 000 cu yd bank measurement, (c) ao 000 cu 3rd In 
i0) AnAft^ (r) SfMuMont and handled with fc»ks. 


Earth Excavation 

Ttbte xo. Cost of Piddnc moA LowUiic (i) 




Cost per 

cu yd, i 

(wages isi 









Tough clay.. 


40 , 
ao ' 

Ordinary clay, gravel, loam 
Light sandy or loamy aoil. 


• o.8o 

5. Methods and Cost of Hauling 

Speed of horses.* A 3-horse team can travel 20 miles (10 loaded and i o i 
in xo hr, over fairly hard earth roads, 15 miles over poor roads, and 25 mil 
good macadam, gravel, or paved streets. This gives in ft per min : poor 
132 ft; fair earth roads, 176 ft; best roads, 220 ft; aver speed of 220 ft p 
may be expected of teams when actually walking (not including delays and 

Work of horses. A good aver horse exerts a pull of about o. i his own 1 
when working constantly for 10 hr. For a short time he can pull about 
weight, at 220 ft per min ( = 2.5 miles per hr). A X5oo-lb horse will do 
550 ft-lb work per sec, or the commercial horse-power. Two horses w 
pull twice as much as one, and the exact proportionate work of 2 or more ] 
as compared to that of one, is unknown; it is commonly assumed that a i 
team will pull 190% as much as i horse; 3 horses, 255%; 4 horses, 320^ 

Effect of up-grades upon size of load that can be hauled by a team 
definitely known, authorities differing. 

Prof. E. B. McCormick found that increase of grade decreases the load that can be 1 
in each of 3 ways; (a) required pull per ton is increased; (b) possible pull of the 1 
decreased by the effort required for him to raise his own weight up the grade; (c\ 
tive pull is reduced by a change in the angle of application of the pull. The first i 
are unavoidable, but the third can be nearly, if not quite, eliminated by changing th 
of hitching. McCormick assumes that on grades the team's tractive effort decrease 
amount equal to the gnule resistance due to wt of team, as calculated by the formn 

3 xoo 
where W " weight of team; X «- tractive effort of team; G » percentage of gradt 

Table ix. Loads which x Horse can Haul on a Grade (in terms of perceni 
load on level, when exerting a uniform pull equal to o.i his weight) (Ira O. Bah 


Kind of pavement 















100 ~" 




































































/ 8 













Loads given in Table xx are not the max loads that a team can pulL If a teal 
pull 2 000 lb on a veiy poor road for a whole day, and can exert 4 times its aver ] 
for a short time, it can easily poll the same load up a 5 % gxade, provided the difflb is j 

t^ Methods and Co6t of Hauling 123 

Ittk a. tmtSan RMistaiiee per Ton of a ooo lb (E. B. McCotmick) 

, Tractive 

"imdwarface f resistance, 

1 lb per tOD 


Road surface 

lb per ton 





Macadam, very good 

" average 

Sheet asphalt 



- ' 

— xae 

Asphaltic concrete 

nV- md.oonpu:t 



Wood block, Bood 

•• •* awn^n^ 



Cobble stone 

Granite tramway 

Table xj. Loads Hauled by a-Hone Team (z) 




! Earth. |! 
en yd 




Road SQifaoe 

Good hard earth road . 
Good clean macadam . 




cu yd 



'*'- 1 i % l «i B. or over first-<laas pavemeol, much laiger loads may be hauled than 

ta THwpeHsliuu (ii): Let £•■ total expense per day, ct; w -i* net load 
e . TQ}^ , » jpffg spe^ ^li^ loaded, ft per min; ks «> aver speed when empty, ft 
K-^D « kflctli of haul in ft. measured one way; / «» time lost while loading, resting, 
' ^-"Qt. tanieg. sad misccQaiieoas, per loaod trip, min; W» number of minutes in work* 
^'-AfC-ooaperlborca yd. ct ; i. •> a constant representing the cost of loading, ct. 

D D 

for loaded trip. min. — » time for empty trip, min. 

n. *' 

1+ J f I -f TJ w aver ttaoe for one round trip. 

aver number of trips per day. 

" ever total amount transported per d^y. 

cost of transportation, per lb or co yd. 


+ £ ■* coat of picking, loading, and transporting. 

"■^ Mftt ** coits. The costs in foUowiog six paragraphs are for earth 
' ^'^J* UMtghneai, ia which a 2-horse team can plow 35 cu yd per hr (Table 7). 

. tv work. Wbeelbanows hold from 0.07 to 0.12 cu 3rd (175 to 

* f . tk aw load being about o.i cu yd of earth (250 lb) for work on level 
^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ cu yd on stoep grades. One man will wheel a barrow 
^*i '' ^^ ^ ^y- ^"Ulc dumping, about 0.35 min per trip is lost, or 
"'^ *5" iw 5« yd. when barrows hoW Ht cu yd. About the same time is 
• •« dtaapag barrows and in delays. With wages at isi per man-hr, 
<^ ^4f pckiog, loacfing, and lost time is 17^ per cu yd. Cost of hauling is 
'♦ P« ca yd per loo-ft haul lor Icvd nmwayst and s^ per cu yd pet 100-ft 

124 Earth Excavatioa 

Cost of wheelbarrow work (wages, 15^ per hr): To a fixed coat of 
cu yd add 5^ per cu yd per xoo-ft haul, on steep grades^ and s-S^ <mi lei 
ways (i). 

Cart work. One-horse, two-wheeled, dump carts hold 0.3 to 0.5 
On ordinary road loads of earth seldom exceed 04 cu yd (pUce measui 
loads of 048 cu yd gravel and 0.52 cu yd sand are common, and 0.59 cu 
0.63 cu yd may be carried. Double carts and wagons hold twice as n 
single, the loads being limited by condition of the road. 

With hauls of 300 ft or less, i driver can attend a carts by taking one to the diua 
the other is being loaded; on Icuig hauk, and where the relative positions of pit as 
are fairly c(»stant, horses may be trained to travel without a driver. 

Cost of cart work. A cart can be loaded with 04 cu yd in 3 min by 
of 4 or 5 men, and should be dumped in i min. If cost of a horse and 
$1 per zo-hr day, and the driver's wages $1.50, then the cost of a cart ai 
a driver is $1.75 per day; hence, cost of lost time is 3^ per cu 3rd. Co 
dimipman is x^ per cu yd, if 150 cu yd are delivered to him in 10 hr. < 
picking and loading is about 15^ per cu yd. To determine total cost, ad< 
per cu yd per loo-ft haul to the fixed cost of 19^ per cu yd, as above. Fo 
easily plowed and shoveled, the fixed cost may reduce to 14^ per cu yd. 
a driver for each cart, the cost of hauling is i ^ per cu yd per loo-f t ha 
carts carry 0.67 cu yd the cost of hauling is 0.5 ct per cu yd (i). 

Wagon work. There are 3 types of 4-wheeled wagons in common us( 
tom-dump; end or rear-dump or double cart; and slat-bottom. The laj 
is not now often used, and the end-dimip wagon is employed chiefly iw^h< 
is dumped from piers into scows. Double carts and wagons hold about 
as much as single, their loads being limited by the condition of the road 
13). Two-horse teams are the rule, but 3 to 6 horses are often very econc 
as almost 50% greater load can be hauled by 3 horses and a pr(Hx>rtio 
greater load by a greater number. 

Cost of wagon transport depends upon time bst in loading and dui 
and upon speed of the horses. Loading time should not exceed 4 or i 
Having extra wagons to be loaded while the teams are traveling to and 
the dump materially reduces lost time. A team can be dianged froi 
wagon to another in i to i.s min. Dumping time: o to 0.5 min for be 
dump, I min for end-dtmip, and 1.5 to 3 min for slat-bottom wagon (i)< 
suming cost of loading earth at 13^ per cu yd, and cost of lost time for a 
and driver at si per cu yd (with wages of team and driver at 35^ per h! 
fixed cost of wagon transport is 18^ per cu yd. 

At speed of a.5 miles per hr. the cost of wagon work per cu yd b found by addl 
following rates per ico-tt haul per cu yd to a fixed cost of 18^: For 0.8 ca yd kuK 
o.66r: i.ocu yd. o.$3^; 1.6 cu yd, 0.33^; a.o cu yd. o.a6^; 2^ cu yd« o.aa^ 

Coat for traction engines and large wagons. For 3-yd wagons haul 
trains (1 1 ), use the following factors in the transportation formulas given ai 

fi « total expense per day. •- a too cents, made up as follows: Eaginenian.S3 ; fii^ 
$2; coal for 10 mUcs (1.25 ton # Sa>8a: repaiis (tnction engine and la waj 
t4*3o; depnc (tnction engine and it wagons), tl.53; int (tnction engine and za wi 
$i.7a; miK and superiueodence. ts.fij; total. $ti. 

» - as tons, plus or minus (3 to 8 wagons of3cuydor4to$ torn eadi). 

« « 24* ft: ^ * a€6 ft per min. 

/ « 30 min (indudiag gettii« coal and water). W  600 BBin. 

t depends on method <^ loading. 

(Interest is baa«l OB wQcking swna ol 7 aM»thi» ol as veikfac daye. or 175 WQ 

Methods and Coat ol HauUng 125 

- s > vt of Eve load, too; m «> dead load oC Teliide, too; s * speed loaded, ft per 
c 3 ^eedaapty. ft per mm; D ^ distance of haul, ft (one way); / * lost time per 
z^ F » fixed cbarses per workmg day. m int. insurance, taxes, deprec storage. 
 s-y^Bttiom of &xed annual changes should be based on number of actual working 
'« far. vith due aDowance lor bod weather, break downs, etc); O » operating 
-se pa wa^kjag day, cents, as: fud, waste, oil, chau£Feiir and other labor, repairs; 
zaha af minutes in wocJung day; R » transportation cost per ton, cents; S • 
•e J Tmad trips per day of W min. 
- ' a tine ^ kttded tripw mm. I> -^ if >■ time for empty trip^ nln. 

l-^fD-i-ks) « actual noo-rrodoctive time per tripb min. 
» ^ ^ f I + ^ s total time per trip^ min. 

r-fft +? (x + ^ 1 - nomber d trips per day. 

Vw-i-l^ I ' V "^ D I* *^^ amount tnnsported per day. 

'0 -^ r. [/ -r ? (x + 4) I -»- ir» - X » cost of transport per ton for distance D. 

»-»-'■ -^ v) «■ canyiog efficiency of vdiide. percentage. 

tad bottom-domp WAgons. Trafler wagons drawn by auto- 

r rrjdki or tracton are economical for long hauls. An auto truck can 

^ n oicd load, and under proper conditions haul in trailers excess loads 

■^- '. SD yxTc Tractors are usually 3 or 4-wheeled automobiles^ with a 

'- *>^ wkeei and king bolt for hauling a a-wheeled trailer. Trailers are 

'-d-jmp type, of 3-ton (76 cu ft) and s-ton (120 cu ft) capacities. They 

 ? x^tt bst bf>' the tractor when loading and dumping; front of the trailer 

< j«i«d up and ita body loaded while the tnutor is hauling another 

' ' ^^^kfes of tractor and trailer over ordinary tST^ of auto-trudi are : simplicity of 
* t'S tad coosequent reductio n in first and maintenance costs; reduction in tire 

'^^ i auntcnaaoe. due to use of springs; lessened shocks in starting and stopping; 
'•>> of (Kfts. Disadvantages: difficulty of turning in small space; can not back 
tractive power is insufficient on yeiy bad roads. 

Tkoe are 6 methods of moving cars in excavation work: by hand; 
- "cvKoie: by locomotive; by cable; by sdf-contained motor and ^electric 
'*'-' ty gn>ity, combined with one of the other methods. 

".xstfA^ ciuBCs: small H to >>yd light, steel, narrow-gage, side or end-dump cars, 

' UT =>7bed by hand or bone; small 3 to ft>]rd wooden, narrow-gage, side-dump cars. 

>^ 7 jidled by amdactor's locomotive; standard gage, wooden or steel-side, dump 

< ^ '« x>r\ capacity, genefally pulled by large contractor's kxomotive; standard- 

 K an lad standard kxmnotives; small, narrow-gage side or end-dump cars, 

^^ > mu%. cafie or smaU air-dectiic industrial kicomotives; special qiurry or in- 

** -aii> eqaifjped with 

by sauli can. Double side-dump, V-shaped, steel cars, 

• :* to $4 CO ft, weigh 700 to i 800 lb, and cost $50 to $100 each. When the 

"J* ocavated fies higher than the dump, these cars traveling under grav- 

-^ . pyAed back by horses or cable are economical *- 

^iliaa flf a 14-fl faHsk of haidpan v^ camTdeted in 1907 with an outfit of this 

' Kast: II j6<v ft can. 600 ft of 36-in gage track wiUi turnout and switches. 

i ti us. Labor cost per day: i foreman, ts; 6 pick and bar men. % $1.50. I9; 

-«n» %* $18; I \aKm and driver,; s dump and track men. ^ $1.50, 

^^Mik ( p w p oi ti oa). $1.75: Total. %^%%. The soil was undennined by picka 


Eoith Eiaivatl<« 

•Dd bus. loukd into 6-cii tniiu. u 
Thr empty ntn were pulkd by i bor». 
dkuurJ were dumped in iq bt, giving 

Cwi uid toGomotiTei. Dump 
used Cor steam-shovel irork. Com 
"dinteyi," are 4, 6. or 8-yd; tract ( 
with 30 to 5i>-Ib rail, few ties, uid 
OD nidi rou^y laid roils is (ar gre&U 

often 50 lb or mora. Stmitino 

ably double the loUiDg resistano 

K. V. Nonfa ITrmi Am lut Min 

nin by (nidty dcnni a 4% iiad* to tin 

a libot cut ol 1S4^ pa oi yd. 

can or Mandaid ratlmy can are ge 

mon szes, for coatiactor's locomoti 
!age, usually 3 (t. Tiack is conUDon 
unballasted, Rolusg kesistancb ' 
r tliin on Btraisht, well-ballasted R R 
lb per ton, it is iddom less thsD 40 
of diit can on rough tnck is 

3. Vol iS, p 50S) giva milt ol acvaal h 
ap(y Had loaded can nquired a dbU of & 
6 lb pet too. A. W. Wrigbl, liomTesu on 
dnnn street can in Clucaga. foun 
the pull 10 itaft can on diity raila av 
lUi lb per toB. and ji J lb to keep t 
n»tioD. C, E. Emory. Irom expcrim 
N Y. foundaioirtaDCed lt.S lb. Tl 
probably 00 dean ccnter-beaiiD£ rail, 
P. Holt lausd I ; to 46 lb per too oa 
luaight tiadi. U. Kughei lound 
16 lb, ud M. Tmca. 31.4 lb. 

Rul* lot calcnlatliis hauling o 
Ity(H.K.Porter). Divide tractivi 
of locomotive by resistance per ton i 
gravity and rolling frictiOD; then d 
wt of locomotive (and tender, if 
This gives the wt ia toos (includu 
of cars) that the locomotive can 
Tractive force of a bcomotive: (r->i 
+ £>, where r-tractiveforce, lb; d- 
of one piston, in; L — length of st rob 
P - pitH of Steam in cylinder^ lb | 
in; D •• diam of driving wheels, in 
Haolini capad^ of ocutnictioa k- 
tivcs is given in Fig 1. RoUitig tiict 

gravity a ai^roi 30 lb per too for cac 
cent of grade. 

Struck- ar walM-meuure cspadtieiand weight* of domp can an j 

in Table 14. Actual capacities, earth measured "in place," ia 75 to 80' 
the water-measure capadty. See also Table 3, p t 19. 

TaUB 14 

Dump Caia, CapadUn 



Water measur. 
Weigh, of car 











•Sled: V^hapeddoubh-tidedianp can. t Wood: diuoaDd-fnme,da4ik4ide<hBBp 

Sp«ed of "dinkey" It 
lagmika per hr empty 01 

Scnper Waik 127 

^ rfhadfagcira depends manJyupoooqtpttt of the tfiniiyhovd loading 
^ Qq iBidivp to I GOO ft I cfinkqr can often serve a 1.5-yd ioovd. About 
. : SB b iwiaii ed for x man to dump and dear a 3*yd car. Under favor* 
zjiskmif 1.5 to 2 mia are lost in switching a train. 

-^- tf caabacte^ tnck depeads upon tbe prices of tails, ties, and fastenings, ancl the 
^ uddkittcrof the znea emplayed. Wd^t of nil for cootnctiiig woil: b usually 
' r .^ per HL aHboQgh 16 and ao-lb laB is oomman in manes and quarries where 
. . seBB-pasBsaeBt. For j-f t gage tradw, a 6 by 6-in by 5-ft tie is best. About 37s ft 
•':3e«etia,aBdx ton erf lo-Ib rail, are required per 100 ft. Cost of laying construc- 
after paifing road bed and delivering tbe material, is from $a to $6 per xoo ft. 

t d ial^ opetalktt of 2 dinkeys, awiming 132 woiking dajrs per year (2): 

---Tf-Tgn oa 2 diakeys) @ $j; a trainmen ^ $a; 6 dumpnen @|i.75 $20.50 

-.Kg a rfaiirijiuo.6 ton #$4 a 40 

~T tt so; od and waste, $0.50 2 .oo 

~ stm t&ooo (2 dinkeys. 24 cats). ^ 6% per year -1- 132 days 3.6s 

-jr, OB $a aoQ, ^ x.5% permooth -i- 22 days 5.45 

•-f-QukaanSSaao ^8% per year -r 132 days 4.85 

3CkkoaHaKlaaanoCxves& cars oDce during year. aiQr $500 +132 days 4.00 

Zrtd dBsiga: train crew. fud. repairs, care of fcwomotives and cars. . $42 .85 

~ra gadfag and txack ibxfting ^$1.75 $10.50 

3 S: 230 C3S-4b aib for x mile of txadL). d 6% -»- 132 days x .00 

"'^Katioa oa $2 250, @ X2% -f- 132 days 2.00 

-^-M 30 $750 :tie&.at3o^. 2 miles txack). @6% -i-x32days 0.3s 

V -'satiaB on $750 (ties). ^ xo% per month 4- 22 days 3.50 

Tital lack crew and track $z7-35 

. -.^.^ . and cable are often used to pull cars on grades when the 
^ 1 000 ft or less. Cars will coast down a grade of about $%, and may 
' bKt by cable (Sec 11). 

C Scraper Work 

^iic «r 4p ■cnapsr is aa open-frant sted box. or scoop, usually provided with run- 
' ? a aise akaet cf sted. to take wear. Wooden handles at the rear are for loading and 

s tL The baa. for the wfaifile-trees, is pivoted at tbe sides near the front. Two 
*- 'X craoaOy osed. Common sizes of drag scmpexs. No x. 2. 3, are listed as holding 

-4 i CB ft respectively. Actual capadty (place meanire) is about 0.5 list capadty. 
^ li IB ts; vt. 75 to 90 lb eadi. 

"^--•t of week. Drag scn^iers are economical only for short hauls, or where 
'"-aratkc B in confined places. The minimum "run-around" or 'total 

'.A uy kind of scraper work b about 150 ft Lead is the aver straight 

-' r between center of cut and center of fill; it is shorter than the actual 

V tbe dbtaoce required for turning and handling the team. About 0.53 

" sffl per cu yd is lost while loading and dumping. With wages of team 

r >v at 3$f per hr, cx»t of loading and dumping is about 2.75^ per cu yd, 
•• ^^ 1.5c and for bst time, turning, etc, 3^ making total fixed cost in 
 *'.d 6.25* per cu yd. To this add 4.5^ per cu yd per 100 ft of lead for a 
' €Ttftr. Cost of foreman's wages adds about 0.75^, and wear and tear 
••-;«=i *bout aJ5< per cu yd. Work in stiff clay may cost 30% more (i). 

^^ tad Ikaaao a uap e is . Simplest form of bdbk scraper is an upright board, 8 ft 

"- vtik a toagne far the team and a rear platform for the driver. From this the 

"' oi^Rs and levckrs fcave been developed. Fresno scraper is a long pan. open 

I" t^ and witboot a pole. It is handled like a drag sciaper. except that 4 hones 

'-1 a«ad of 2 are used. Common sises aic No x, 2, 3, having a tisted capadty of 

•^ ud 11 CB ft. aad aa actual aver capadty of 9 54. 7-43. and 6.36 cu ft, Wpectivdy. 

--t:cii|i6; wt. a^ to 300 lb. 


Earth Excavation 

Coft of work of 4-lioT9e Fresno acnper, holdiog as ca yd, with i 
driver and hones at 16 per day, is found as follows: To a fixed cost 4 
cuyd, add x.75^periooft of lead. Fixed cost includes extra distance 
while loading and dumj^ing, shifting of the gang, and x^ for piowin^. , 
is 9 cu ft, the fixed cost is 5^ per cu yd and the traveling charge per xo^ 
is 2.67^ per cu yd. To this add 0.5 to x ^ per cu yd for foreman's w«ses., 
scrapers are usually more economical than Fresnos for hauls exceeding : 

Whed tcrmper is a sted pan hung hinged between a wheels, with a pole for 1 
and a lever in the rear for lowering the pan when loading and for upsetting it whi 
ing. Sixes are No x, 2, aH, and s, with listed capacities of 9. xa, 14, mod x6 e 
actual aver capadltaes of 8. 8.75. xa and 15.5 cu ft, respectively. Coafta, $a2 
wt, 330 to 750 lb. 

Cost of work with wheel acrapera is found by adding a traveling 
zoo ft of lead to a fixed cost per cu yd. Costs in Table xs are based o 
O X5^ per hr for men, or 35^ for team and driver (2). 

Table 15. Coats of Whoel-acraper Work 

Number or size of aciaper 



Load hauled, cu yd 




I. a 


Loading and dumpins cost, i per cu yd. 

Man for loadins. i per cu yd 


Extra team travel, • 

Snatch team, " " *' " 

Man for dumping 

Total fixed cost, i per cu yd 



a. 2 

Traveling cost per 100 ft lead, ^ per cu yd 

Cost of foreman and repain adds about li per cu yd. 

Maney 4-wheeled scra p er s , hauled by a or 4 horses or a tnction engiQe. ar 
tially self-loading 4-wheel wagons. Loading and dumping are controlled by si 
and chains from the rear wheels. Capacity is 31 cu ft struck measure, but thi 
measure capacity is little more than 50% of this. Cost of field labor and team is 
PCX cu yd, for 250 ft lead. 

Lcvelers and graders. Tongtte scraper is a wooden platform drawn at an t 
60* with the surface of the ground by 2 hones. It is economical for qxeading 
earth, and filling shallow ditches; cost, about $7. Roxn scrapers and oaACS, for 9 
ing nits in roads, cost $12 to $30. Standard roao machuvs wdgh x soo to 2 
cost, $125 to $260. They are drawn by a or more (generally 4 or 6) hones or by 
tion engine, and are used for spreading earth on embankments, gxading roads, a 
ging shallow ditches. Small, a-horse. i>man road machines, of several types, we 
to 900 lb and cost I50 to $150. They are economical for light grading and apm 

SlevatiBg graders for loading wagons. Best conditioBs: ample room for tana 
maneuvering the teams, and ground fairly level, with few boolden or roots. The n 
is a 4-wheelQd track, carxying a heavy plow which turns its furrows upon a lateral, u; 
sloping belt conveyor, whence the material is discharged into wagons or falls 
ground. It is propdled by a traction engine, or xo to xa horses (8 in front and 4 b 
The conveyor is driven by gearing, or a gasoline or steam engine. Cost, $x 000 to 4 
weight, 5 to 9 tons. Capacity undtr favorable conditions, 400 to x 000 cu yd in 1 

Coat of grader work, at on output of 500 cu yd per xo hr, is as follows 
wages at $1.50 for driver, and $1 for a horse, the fixed cost of xo horse 
4 men on the grader is 3.5^ per cu yd; of 5 men spreading on the dump. 
aDdofint,rcpaara,anddeprec,$5perday,or x^percuyd. To these baddi 
cost of the waste labor of the teams following the grader to receive their k 


Scraper Woik 


'its of z dnver and 3 bocses oo a dump wagon holding x.25 cu yd are $4.50 per 
.' -jf. tiK caii a< Inn tin g is 0.6^ per cu yd per 100 ft of lead, or 3.5^ per cu yd for the 
. « (t «f ^Mte lead traveled by the wagons. Hencei to find the cost for a given 
- <:k: «^ per ca yd per xoo-ft lead to a fixed coat of 8.5^. With a traction engine 
^B^ oat k mi a rrd by oJ&i per yd. If water for the engine must be pumped and 
-"<. sagtnay be inrmird 0.5^ or more per 3rd. 

vary in shape from a horse-drawn drag scraper to a bot* 

er (Fig 2) bcrfds from 0.5 to 7 cu yd and costs $350 to 96oo. 

is fastened on a nmner frame adjustably connected to the back- 

e^iedany economical in sticky material, as the load is not dumped 

Fig 2. Bat^ Gndtr (Bottomkas) 

~ ^ "yA lols OD the ground and is dragged to the point of deposition. It requires a 
' ^'9p ea^vic. '% to x-in haul-back line and i to x.aj-in pulling Une. Approx oper- 

'•£'«&> I2S per day. With a 6oo-ft haul, about 15 trips per hr should be made; 
i • jao4L hauL about 6 trips. An output oi joo cu yd per 9-hr day can be averaged 


4 JT) or deokkSk with 

(Fig 3) are operated by locomotive cranes, field 
or by dredges. Fig 4 shows a drag-line excavator 

Fig 3. Page Dng-ltne Scraper 

*-- bo«B denick type. Scraper buckets ate of various shapes, so arranged 
*.it forward or backward in dumping. They hold H to 5 cu yd, and cost 
'•' Isoo per en yd of capadty, not including rigging nor power plant. 

-^ kind of cMth. 

of dng-Hne 

- mi 

excavaton varies with type of bucket, operating 

local conditions. Saucrman excavator, wherein the 

dtrectioB by a pulling line, and allowed to dide back by gravity 
., (Art 7). will, under favorable conditions* excavate and deliver earth 
.. ft for 5.5 to loi per cu yd. A scraper excavator machine of the fuU 
wWriy*^ type, has an upper platform rotating on a lower frame. The 
d hng boom for opefating the scraper are carried 00 the platform. These 
Iraa $5 000 to $xo 000 complete. Cost of operating in well compacted 
•oil is s to 7^ per ctt yd (ia>. 

• - * 

Steaiihsbovel W€^ 131 

7. Caideways and B«lt Conveyors 

For design and constructioQ, see Sec 26. When the tiack cable is 

- rttl ifaai the sag may be varied, at will of the operator, thereby directly 
.' £ naa^ the load, the machine is a slack cable way. For operating a 

'\::iviiisM bucket, one md of cableway is set higher than the other, and 
^ vaded or empty bucket moves by gravity. When loads are all carried 
-nrtkjQ it often pays to have the dump end lower than loading end. 

« rLisK wae ol cablewmys reqaires: («) woik on a scale large enough to warrant 

' TTg. iBSoBaikm, plus costs of ensuing removals and reinstallatioiis; (b) enough 

-^ ckr isng^ ci span, and within economic reaching distance each side of the 

'9 Rpay c^t of one installatian and removal. These c(Kiditions are often 

' ~j3c£ and ctfal esBcavadoa and dam coostiuction. 

- '^ irTiends 00 length of span, height and type of towers, and amount aad 

> ver reiiured. In general, cableways for operating, digging, or conv^- 

•- '^ co^t, installed complete, from ^ to $1 5 per ft of span, for sptos of 400 

: 2Ld fnan $6 to $12 per ft for spans of x 000 to 2 000 ft. Duplex cable- 

~~ 2 complete cables i s to 20 ft apart on common towers) cost about $ia 

' 5pcL» of 2 000 ft, with towers 75 to 130 ft high (s« also Sec 26). 

>^v <d 9ftnAoo. (see Sec 5, Art 8, 11; Sec 26; and Bibliog i, 2, 7, 8, 9, xi). 

-' - caBTcyvn. For dcdgn and construction, see Sec 27. In earth exca- 

''-nvgyors find their most important employment as accessories to 

■" '^ irr^s. as dredges, trench excavators, and elevating graders. But 

~ ^ Tietisrs used in long lengths for excavating cellars, and transport- 

• 'W rnjm boats (i, 2, 7, 8, 9, xx). / 

^-"^<a- A ce3ar excavation for a power house was made in New York (1899) by 

'y- A tretkch 7 ft deep was fiirst excavated; across it were erected 3 bridges 

 -e> ibf^t Uk cxmvcyor. and the earth was moved to the hatches by wheel 

9 .ta i. to-ia bdt the daily output exceeded i 300 cu yd (7). In 190S a flat 

•-r } :3c ft loog was built in the South for conveying shale from a quarry to a 

-^ Tbe belt was 3 ^-in, S-ply. in 3 aectioos. one being x 000 ft between centers, 

' -33 h It wa.5 carrieti by rollers, the top rollers being 4 ft and the return idlers 

- -t Gwfe rjilds were placed 40 ft apart. Ctmtraction and expansion were 

• • *jf9sk3Q carru^es. Since all loads ?rere carried down grade, more power was 
'- <7«z:ac tbe beU empty than when loaded. Power was furnished by two 

'-'.•jf* C'.'Kt o<f kistalUtion was $9 106. or $4.37 per lin ft. Cost of operation 
'TUMcr mcludini: labor, power, supplies, int. deprcc, and renewals, estimated 
r c^ji . vxb S4'04 per lo-hr day, or 3^ per ton. Cost per unit of operation is 

 ~ 1 capkLity ai 200 tons per xo hr (£. C. Soper, Am Soc Mech Engs^. « 

8. Steam-choYel Work 

' *-^ >lo«ds. U?0AL DESicw. The dipper and its arm or handle move in a verti- 

^•^jfTcd by a derricic and boom, rotating horiaontally. By a rack and pinion, 

' t'i.the •iipf'cr arm runs in and out with respect to the boom, so that a load 

■^-r: ukd tioTTt^ed at any point within the reach of the machine. Specxal designs. 

r,^caa 'a:i'vay ditcher, the dipper arm is hinged to the boom, the cutting 

.' i.t:iiaM tor each case. In the Tbew shovel, the length of dipper arm is 

-rr-inr! by bolts, and its ixmer aid b attached to a carriage traveling back 

r ijtAABy «m the boom. In a broad sense, the temi steam shovel inrUidfs 

• -: dnfi^srea. operating clam-sheQ and orange-ped buckets. 

' ^dt uBualiy nm on standard-gage track; lighter machines on oarrow-gage 

' %'untcd OB a truck with broad-tire wbcdis for road traction. For excavat- 

' LVy may be mounted 00 rollers on a platform spanning the trench. Land 

^/ run oo roUers or on very broad-gage wheels, or. in nutrshy ground, on 

- ktccSa/* Ditchefs. for R R work, usually travel on track laid on thr 

te tet oa being loaded, (x. 3, 4, s* 7> 8, 9> xo.) 

Ifl Euth ExcavmtkB 


TjpM of dnd^: dipper; gxappte or gntlnbodtet; hdder or toAct^vatl 
danfic or siKtkm. Tbose having bunLas or hoppers for cuiyiog the «tredsed B 
an 'hopper dredges" (i. 2. 6. 8. 9, ti>. 

Dnpcr dredge is esficntiallv a steam shoo-d mounted oa a xofv. There mre 3 cla^ 
dojoace and irrigatjoo ditches; for deep water and haiborimpreraiients: »n<l '^ 
woA. Ditching dredges are small, with narrow hulls and tdescopK busk spud^ 
dndges have narrow hulls and side floats; 'deep-water dredges, for depC^to 5< 
pmenUy o* large she, with spuds operated b)- iad ep end ftit cngmes. Woooaa fc 
OMBmoD. but steel hulls are now favored. 

Gtspfle dredce is a floating deftidk, with dam-shelL onnge^weL or oCiser 
gnb backet. It serves lor very deep water or in confined places. 

Im ^'^ dredge, popular abroad, is especially adapted to gold placer mining; 
ooostructioa and use. see Sec 10.) 

HydfWiBc dredfe is a scow, carrying a centrifugal pomp, with a wcttoa pi|>e r 
to the bottom to be excavated, and a discharge pipe to place o* deposit. In all ex< 
easiest materials, a revoiving cutter at the mouth of the suction pipe is rcMul 
kKMenmg the soil. Special advantage of this dredge is its ability to convey exj 
material long distances. 

!•. Hydraulic ExcaYatton 

Thb method originated in California for excavating goM-bearing gravel. 1 
DRAULtc MiNtNO, pipe, monitors, ground sluices, etc. see Sec 10. Hydraulic n 
are here considered for moving material in ordinary exca\'ation. as for hydr^ 
rfam*^ railway embankments, and ordinary grading (x, 3. ix)- 

Hydraulic-fill dams. With enough water, a suffidently high working fa 
grade to convey the mixed earth and water, dams can be built more cheaply 
well) by hydraulickingthan by ordinary methods of embankment with rollj 
tamping. Water b delivered by pump or grav ity to a hydraulic GiAtrr o t 
TOR ; pressure at nozzle, 100 to 1 50 lb per sq in ; velocity, 100 to 200 ft per sc 
umc, I o to I s cu ft per sec. When water is scarce the waste may be led to a si 
clarifying basin, and used again. The soil, after being loosened by the mor 
carried by sluices to pipes or flumes and thence to the dam. The baiik from 
the earth is washed must be at a higher elevation than crest of the daxn, g^ad^ 
dam being at least 2% for fine materials, and 6 to 8% for coarse, heavy st« 

The solid material hydraulicked may be retained by the sumnr pool or SHt.Ki 
method. The first is the commoner, consisting in keeping the sides oC embai 
higher than the center by discharging the mkcd water and solids along the sides. \ 
water runs ofif through drains, the entrances of which are kept above the centexl 
finished part of the fill, thus forming a summit pool or settlem«it basin. TbLn 
only successful method for clay or other slow-draining soil. In the shcarboard i 
the water and its contained solids run lengthwise of the bank, the stream beinK 
from place to place. The slopes arc formed by "shearhoards." consisting of j.] 
laid edgewise and held in place by vertical stakes. The embankment is built f rl 
ends instead of from the bottom up. as with the summit-pool. This method 
applicable in grading sand and gravel, or other fast draining soils, where terraces 
steeper slopes than the natural surface are desired. 

The pipes and flumes discharge directly at the sides of the dam, or tl 
laterals that can be shut off at any time. When any one material begins t 
a pervious layer through which water can percolate, the soil must be kn 
and mixed by men working with long boards or poles from a raft. Pera 
of solids carried by the water in dam construction averages 20 to 25%, r;j 
from s% to 50%; it depends on hardness and other characteristics of th 
quantity of water, and grade of flumes (16). 

Cost of tb« Cooeully dam (15). This dam is part of the Okanogan projcictj 

U S Reclamation Service, at Salmon Creek, Washington. It was made of a talus ^ 

- 1) 

HydiauUc Excavation 


! fnoi <fismUgzztk)a of graiatt, mixed irith angular rock fragmetitfl. Water 
(i^ a iSvcoioD Cram West Fork o< the creek, througii a 3-inik flume. Creek flow 
'.-:«= d per KC and more during April. May, and June, to xo ft per eec in Aug and 

1 dSxr Apply flume. dixt flume, gpall-wayi etc, were buflt in 1907. In 1908. 97000CU 
~- z..acedy in 1909. i&3ooo en yd; and in 19x0 the rrmaining 64000 cu yd. Inj years 
•^ percentage of material carried by the water was 2.85. 2.4a. and x.87 respective^. 
: < «as $524 3 25. or a cost per acre-ft of $24.95 for 13 000 acre-f t. The hydraulidc- 
' 1 : 5 a '^ i r . or 45-79^ P^ cu yd. place measure; unusually high for such work. Table 
:5 iisrJzed costs. Wages per 8-hr shift: Common labor, $2.25 to $2.50; pitmen. 

Ij putmen, $3; powdcrmen. $3; carpenters, $4 to $4.50; foreman, I5. 

lou Cost ci CoDcnlly Dam (built by Hydraulic Method) 

FC^Les, and labor 

Tziy d^ras& fliimes 
■-A. rrettics, ezcept 


asd hose. . . 
fcbt plant . . . 
cc c.xnQp bldgs 


Total ' ^ P<^ 



-"— ^ Q. «=i« g. een exp 

a «. a plant 00 haxkd 


3 7^5 
I 250 
I 116 
7 8o> 


^ brtvjt A r lothififr . 

" ' >i\r* oc caznp bldgs 

■-'rtience ' 

--K a tsi^'g. gen exp\ 

71 204 

2 105 

2 150 




I 194 

|ii 7S3 


5 04 

5 94 
I 09 

I 49 

Plant, supplies, and labor 





o 23 
o .36 

3 48 



Building road to pit 

Clearing borrow-pit 

Feed-supply flume tenders. 



Clearing pit of rock 

Building Ibteral flume in pit 
Hauling & laying pipe in pit 

Dirt flume tenders 

Labor, steel lining 

Spr'd'g soil & puddl'g in dam 
Carp'ters on dam & flumes. . 


Operating light plant 

Transporting laborers 


Propor charge for camp bldgs 


Administ'n, eng'g. gen exp. 





7 261 




4 975 




4 543 

74 755 





3 89 
a. 46 


1. 15 

a. 06 


, ^^ River banks by water jet. In 1882, a barge no by 30 by 6 ft 

•*. a Hlike compound dufdez pump, with x6 by 24-in plungers, and 18 and 36 by 

"i^^^LT^'li *••*•"• Cort«H,d™aicFaifae(lrorP«eRR) 

*^UT B'as led to <bore 

: ;-« r'»5«'' aud delivered 
-.: >a££Jes thTottj?b 2-S-in 

^j*. la G^x^r^tion the 

c; mfr^-^ to the bank, 

-•V iai Co within 8 ft of 

..'ccat bf hand in bank. 

^-ski. each maxmed by 
' -i »*w of I 300 cu yd was 
"• :*• -iiy at abcut 4 1 1«r 

'*m frvied the bank to 

< 1 15 to I. trirnxniog be- 

377 000 cuyd 

i per cu yd 

42 250 cu yd 
pumped), * 
^ per cu yd 

Sluicing and building 
side levees 



Hay used in levees — 
Tools, lumber, nails. . . 
Labor, building flumes 

Coal for pumping 

Eng'g, superintendence 

1 OlAI . ..«*.....■.*■■ 



I • 

. ....^ R & embttiikineiit In 1896-7. a luunber of trestles were filled 
.«t by the t^diaulic method. In 8 cases, where there was a gravity supply 
!hi oo«t WM 4.79^ per cu yd. In one case, pumping was necessary, making a 


clearing of dense forest growth (Table 21). Pl&nt includ 


Earth Excavadoo 

a No 3 giut. ootting I95. and 300 to 1 000 ft of Hgbt libfocirkctt pipe. mC 27 
Stake boics were paved with 3-in blocks, and when icBBoving gntTd or 
00 grades of 7 or 8% (i). 

U. Trenchiiis 

Mcdiodi: By hand; with scrapers, drawn by horses or cables; with 
loaded backets 00 a cableway or oveihead track; by trench eacavators. 
land dredges, or derricks. 

Hand work. Cost depends on hardness or tenacity o{ the soil, n 
boulders or other obstructions, presence of water, and depth aad isc 
on the width of trench. In trenches over 4 ft deep, some of the soil 
shoveled twice: first, to the surface; then, as the spoil pile gro^^ss b 
edge of trench. In trenches 6 to 12 ft deep, the soil must first be tbr 
staging about halfway up^ thence to the surface, and finally, back-fiom 
For depths of 12 to 18 ft, the soil must be handled 4 times. 

From studies by the Constniction Service Co (4) of sewer, drain, and wmter-pii 
tioa. in aver soils, 9.33 cu yd per man per 10 hr are excavated in tranches 3 to 
7.37 cu yd for depths of 6 to 13 ft. and 6.38 cu yd for X3 to z8 ft. (For de« 
trenches, machine excavation is better than hand woik.) These rates are aas hi 
be expected for aver trenching; when water, quicksand, or bouldos are preaexit 
the men and superintendence are less efficient, costs may reach $1.25 ver cu yd 
of trench affects the cost. In narrow woric, men are cramped and can not mrovk e 
in very wide trenches, cost of removing the spoO from the edges increases tota 

Coat of back-fflHng depends tm: nature and condition of soil (whether fro 
packed, or diy ) ; means employed to back-fiU; amount of tam|Mng require 
back-filling and tamping are done by hand, work per man-hr ranges from 1- 
aver i .5 cu yd; most compact tamping (clay excepted) is obtained by castinj^ 
water; for thorough dry tamping on large-scale work, power tampers should 

Stayley power-tamper will strike in a trench from x to 4.5 ft wide by 6 ft i 
weighs 950 lb. costs $300. and requires i opentat and x .5 0U gasoline per i o hr. 
60 blows per min and. assuming 50% k>st time, should cover 900 sq ft per hr; or. 10 
3 ft wide and 5 ft deqp, tamped in 6-in layers, should compact 30 lin ft o^ trenc 

Labor cost of ahoeting in small trendies is from o to say 25^ per 
trench, or o to i«s^ per sq ft of wall; aver, about 0.4^. 

Tronch eacayatioii by scrapere is advantageous in trenches wide 
for a teatoi, and in soil free from obstructions and not requiring sheeting, 
cableways, with scraper-excavator buckets, are economical on wid 
trenches, and may be used even where braces and sheeting are neceasai^ 

In building a 7-ft sewer in sand at Gary, Ind (3). where the giound-water at mai 
was level with the surface, the trench was unwatered to depths of 6 or 8 ft. andf 
Schnable drag scraper was uied to dig to water level. This held 2 cu yd and 
j8-ft boom. Excavation amounted to 10 cu yd per lin ft of trench, and the 

60 lin ft per day. (This was not its full capacity, but the speed was det 

rest of the work.) The machine was mounted on rollers traveling on a timber 
by dumping some ot the soil ahead of itself, formed its own roadbed. TbaJ 
moved itself. u?ing the bucket as an anchor for the drag line to pull on. Aver I 
400 cu yd in 9 hr, with i engineer, i foreman, and 4 laborers. Costs were as ^ 

Costs of 

per cu 
chiding cli 
ctt yd) 

yd) @ o 
filling (5c 

^ 0.040 

Per day 

Per lin ft 

Scraper excavator work (400 cu yd) 

Shovel excavation (300 cu yd) 


29 50 

94 50 


7 00 

a. 833 


1 575 

Slut'ting and bracing (300 cu yd) 

Pumping and pipe system (300 cu yd) . . 
Back-filling (500 cu yd) 

Miscellaneous (300 cu yd) 


I343 SO 

Is 72a 

Tieudiixig 187 

(Sec 36) can be used to advantage on trendies 6 ft and wider. 

*'nj oQ 30-h towers, 500 to 400 ft apart, handliixg z-ca yd tub at a time, 

. n dzher soft dicing or rock, as no part of the machine is carried on the 

■**&> Tabs can be loaded at any point and swung as much as 10 ft to 

' f Esgiae and x tower stand on a car on rails; the other tower stands 

' CT3«ad, xnd must be lowered for removal to a new position. Outfit, 

'-'^ xboot :o tons, can be loaded on i R R car. Price of a 300-ft cableway 

-It 9 xbout Si 250; 400-ft cableway, about $3 500; they can be hired 

^ *= 1300 tD $335 per month. Engines are usually 7 by lo-in duplex, mov- 

^mkexs at about 440 ft per min. To move the machine to a new posi- 

- -rad. nqoires iram 4 hr to say 3 days, d^jending upon method used and 

:=u:t d the locn (i, », 7, S). 

£ J* 1 nmA 14 ft vide by 1 8 ft deep, in earth sBghtly more compact than average, 
i^sxriiLasabat cableway. ddxvering buckets Uuougfa a chute snlo R Rears, was (x): 

Per day 

-r: hadia^ baeketa. #Sz.5c 145-00 

 TMHran t;s:^ialing to engjxieman) @$i.7S l-TS 

T^kxdQ3ioabaskets.^$z. 73; I man damping baskets 9 $1.75 3.5o 

. rxz irrna^ usect plank and bracing. @ $1.50 6.00 

'■f^.spnsidx^tsuth in can and moving can, ^ $i.So 7-50 

r= r^aman $1; x fireman ♦z.75; z water boy >x; z foreman %4 9.75 

"^^al $73.50 

~Kt a above wotk was 260 budcets in 10 hr. each holding z.3 cu yd loose earth, or 
-r :-cre thaa i cu jd in place. Wa^^es and coaL $76 a day. Hence, not incfaichng 
■or tanlmg and unloading of can, the cost of excavation was about 30^ 
Then was no back-filling, as the trench was for a retaining walL 


are usually earth conveyors rather than excavators, 

*~2 cab bisckets operated by a cableway are included. In general, they 

: i a cableway or an over-head track, carried longitudinally directly 

' t^ tRTarb. The .\dams trench machine comprises a series of wrought- 

' -ih^ftd bents, supported on wheels. Under the top of the bents Is a 

' ' \ii£ tjccket carriage. In the Moore conveyor, the rail for the bucket 

~^^ B «3pported by A-bents. Potter machine has a track on top of the 

"" vhk fa traveb a car carrying a hoisting drum. Two men stand on the 

.fCfate the buckets. Carson machine comprises a rail supported on rec- 

' 7 .Mrames, with a rail for a train of 6 connected carriages and buckets, 

* TJbf ai at yd. Its working length is about 288 ft; total length, 336 ft. 

*i-:ds ea a Trail track, and may be pulled ahead to a new position by its 

' ri£be. Cost, about $3 400; capacity, about 350CU yd in zo hr. 

^ •^^m fane for a Canon machine, in a 4 000-ft section of the Metropolitan sewer 

' ^^AoBwoaeBixiied: i eaginemao, $5; x lockxnan. fa; z dumper. $x.5o; Sshovelcxs, 

t ~ l«4: xbncBs (ai$$5; 2 tenden # $3. $4; 4 pfauk drivets @fa.$8; amen 

ii«« pbaks ^ $j. 94: S men palling planks, etc. ^ $i.7S> $m; total, l55-50. 

'Jtatk vas 9 ft wide by 20 to 50 ft deep; aver advance per week, 64 lineal ft in 

u «^ 19a ^ in cnvd and ooazse sand, at a oost of from 35^ to 80^ per cu yd. A 

$co per day was raqinnd. Faelconsiiii4ition,o.stoncoidperday(x). 

•zcmttors comprise: the wheel type, in which exca* 
are carried 00 the perimeter of a whed; ladder type, in which 
'^lag buckets or scrapers are carried on a belt traveling on a ladder frame. 
:»?*er plant and excavating mechanism are mounted on tracks, platform 
-'endkr" wfaeeia. The earth b acn^sed into the buckets and carried to 
'. «ho«e the gpoond suifaoe where it is dumped on a belt conveyor and 
**«1 to one ade of the machhie. These machines do not woik (efficiently 
boolden or other obatructioas. 


C I 

138 Earth EzcavftUon 

Buckeye iMchiiie b o[ the "heel typt. Itwnglas.s lo 51 tco^ coOiSioo lo 
Ion. ud euavmta to depths ol ].s lt> " 't- At Gndey, Cota.  ]6-mi1e w: 

travel the rest in c1»y, A trench. 30 is wide by 4 ft detp, wm dug >t mn kv(l 
£17 (I is lehr.ui cento! itt per Knit. UKhina of the belt type ue: ttke Mi 
F*Tiaoi(FicSI. Aintin.ud the Iniley. Inl*yincT-S mOaoI Fopciennnt Sfa 

pportid Dii 


. iS by ,4 

ft pUtIo 


.ded irmcha 16 It frid. 

m itay, l«d 


The shir 

el WIS n 

»ved loQimrd by b able 

made in 

I benclia, Itie fint ig Ct and the 

1. in ordei 10 

obtain fine malem 

lo. b4ck-ilUnf. 

Coats olthiithavel worf 

:J]o<n. i5-toB (hovel 

>y. ».9.> 

; cuyd 


g. JS.8^ 

Di woAins 

Q-tt>o thavd: COM pet dw. (jS. 

adiiy. !69; 


11 yd. 6-7( 


44.9% of -oiUnc lime. 

A i-cu yd onnxF-peel bucket. 00 a (ull-iwing ToDa-monnted derridc. osed in 
by city fom. cost per day for labor of 6 men. Ordinufly ti enat^trd ■! 
u yd pa 1 ht dxy, ill dumped on 1 9ix>il buk at ine "  
31 yd. fa lb dynimite 0, 1 St. and 0,7; too coal @ tj. vcniuea per 
I yd, deluding wsr and tear. For thi* work tk 

-1 12 

Excavating Frozen Earth and Haidpan 


u ft apart. With the denkk the soil caaid be deposited far 
the treach to make lehandling anneccsBacy. A steam shovel would have 
bradng. l<4low«i by permanent bradng, and its boom would be too 
the aofl the neoesaaxy dislanrr from edge of trench. 

by ezplofliTefl, if properly done, will excavate and spread the 

r-ji ov>cf a distance, and is ecxtnomical in dry or wet ground, or soil under 

^. Tbe gov of water is depended upon to clean out the bottom. In stiff 

jt kardpan, holes shoidd be 36 in apart, in loose mucky soil, 30 in apart,' 

: £-? pQscbed or bored to within 6 in of desired depth of ditch. Strongly 

.I'd sloI is cut with a spade aJong side lines. For methods of charging and 

.j: djTHmiir, see Sec 5, .\rt 7. 

^ •£$ wn best bbsted anndtaneoosly with a magneto; or placed iS to 34 in apart and 
•irri by ooacoseioo from a middk hole, detonated by fuse and cap. Table ia gives 
^-?*:chu9e& 20^;^ dynamite is wdinarily used, or 40% in stiff, tenacious soil. Forsoib 
 &i tflp aM hard at bottom, use 40% darnamite in bottom of charge and 20% above. 

XttUa 2^ Chazgiea for Ditch 

(Du Pont Powder Co) 

Vitboat magneto 

With magneto 

- 7 1 Apprax 




; Dist 

Approx number 



-•-I- ttsxnber 


Top width 

cartridges per hole 


' -x cartridges 

• holes 


of ditch, ft 



per bole 



4 ft 

5-6 ft 






• • . . 

• • . . 


• • • • 

• 3- 







• • • • 

•' >» 








<rf * * 








«« ^ A4 















. is- - - 











Length No 6 

- -^ J«i -> 

Victor fiises 4 ft 

6 ft 

6-8 ft 

tL Ezcavating Frozen Sarth and Hardpan 

In hard, cemented deposits, dynamite is better than black 

• '.T. in soft ground, the latter is more economical. With very high banks 

• 'too sbnikl be blown out and the top allowed to drop. Charges should 

^ ed 90 ti^t the line of least resistance is horizontal. With banks 50 to 

. t*igh b cemented gravel, the length of main drift should generally equal 

-.* beij^ht of hank. Cross drifts are driven i^rallel to the bank face, their 

 i-pendinjg on length of face to be blasted. Powder charge for aver con- 

. is ab.jut 4 lb per cu yd of ground to be broken. (For further details, 

' 5 Xn 7, Table 14, Cases 12-16.) 

-AJmti 9t the property of the Milton Mining and Water Co. Sweetland, Cal, during 

-^v r e ma rad ajk aver of 0.38a lb Judson powder per cu yd (3). The top gravel had 

- •*■ a^afari ^. kai\ log banks {usually hard and cemented for 50 ft, but soft above) from 

: =5 fi bi^ In some parts, 8.3 to 8.5 cu yd were shattered per lb of powder. 

a>. toam. conelofnerates, marl. etc. difficult to pick, blasting may be econortiical. 

.ue by picks uotil a face is formed, and make vertical 1.5 to holes in a 

4i± «f the face with pointed bar. chum drill, or anger. Depth of holes should 

' *a)t km thaa the height of bank, distance between them bdng 1.5 times line of least 

(Sec 5. Art 5). In the formula B « CX*. B » charge in oz, and R « line of 

in ft: the "rock coeff" C should be determined by trial. For loam, con- 

aad ^tiSamtf soO, using jo% dynamite, C is usually nearly 0.6. Holes in 

rwBd should be "chambered'' (a). 

140 Earth Excavation 


Thawing frozen groiind may be done by burning gasoline or coal oil, or I 
of lime, steam jets^ or wood fires. In northern Minnesota, where earth f rd 
a depth of 4 or 5 ft, frozen earth is softened, where pole holes are to be d| 
pouring in a cupful of gasoline or coal oil and igniting it. Use of x gal of oil p^ 
reduces cost of digging 15%. C. P. Chase states that groimd froEen to 4 
hard to be excavated by a trench machine, was softened sufficiently by spr^ 
small pieces of Ume along the line of proposed trench, covering them ^^tb ni 
or straw, and pouring on hot water to slack the lime and liberate tbe hea 

An economical mode of thawing earth for digging trenches is to uae open-end -9 
boxes xa by 34 in by 16 ft; 4 of them are placed end to end. with joints ^rrappe 
gunny sacking or canvas, and are covered with earth, a rows of boxes are set aide \ 
over the site of the trench and filled with steam from a boiler. Thawing lias ihu 
done for 1.75^ per lin ft of trench. For digging post or pole holes, a steam jet iNp 
be foned down, a men being able to thaw about y> hoLts in xo hr. 

Coat of triimtriwyiwi dfOMing frosan poood on R R construction is thus 
About X soo ft of roadbed had to be dressed for laying track, a 500 sq 3rd of surface 
in cut and 900 in embankment. The cut was within a few in of -grade throusha 
aver of x in being trimmed off tbe surface, amounting to xoo en yd. X33 cu yd wi 
cavated by ditches. Only a few i^aces on the fill had to be cut down, the low 
bong raised with stuff from the cuts. The ground was finuen to about i ft deep, 
was as foUows: foreman, 9.5 days ($31.67). i^ per sq yd; labor. X45.5 days (S2x8.^5>i 
carts. X5 days ($52.50). x.6^; total. 9.4^ per sq yd. Usual cost of trimmins oa R B 
is about x^ per sq yd. On thb woHe each man trimmed and dressed m sq yd pe 
while under favorable conditions he can do about 6 times as much. Each man l<M 
and shoveled x.scu yd per day. Total cost per cu yd was $1.30. Kdu could not b 
to advantage except m ditches, and most of the soil was cut with mattocks, 10 
pickers being required to keep 3 or 4 sbovds busy kwdiiig (x). 

IS. SmlMuikment 

Dumping. Earth dams and dikes shoukl be built in horis layers^ but 
embankments are usually made by dumping from cars traveling on temp^ 
trestles, and are built up from ends and sides. When filling in old trestl 
may be necessary to spread the soil evenly when dumped, to pcevent the ti 
from bdng thrown out of line. 

Ualoadar plow* (ballast unknders) used to scrape or pbw tbe earth from fiat 
Tbey arc built of »tcel in 3 general types: center, right-hanid. and leffc-haad plows. 
art usually drawn over the tops of cars vafter the wbeds have been bkxrked) by a 
attached to the Ioco(noti\-T. The Lklgerwood unkadcr uses a cabk from a xo by 
hM»tiQg engine roouoted on the first car. Prior of unkMdeo. Iioo to $650. A I 
train can be ualoadc^l in 10 t« 30 min oa straijcht trad:. Ob cnrrcs tbe cable ma 
guided l]Qr snatch blocks* and unloading requires SBoie tine. 

Spraadtng. .^ cah spread 4 to 10 cu j-d (aver, 7.5 cu yd) of carti 
hr. s to 5i cu >*il of irmNTl or hardpan. and about 2.5 en yd of mud. A | 
(:rader. such as a Shuart w Twentieth Century, with team and driver, 
sprrad up tv> 50 cu >d i^er hr. but must ha\-e room for the team to operate 
rvvMl machmc, with ( tesiras. dn\-er and helper. wiD spread 90 cu yd per It 
<> in laymk l^«^ Med there is plenty of ixx^m. Under certain conditions e 
cju\ t»e HjytMivl ertxicntl>- by h>\irauliv:kin^ vArt xoK 

RailrMd gra4«r is a macHioe. mounte^l 00 <tandird-«age trucks* Imvii^ wings ai 

»kWs^ «rkKti >tM\Mt) am) <r.(^Kr the ntrth Atler ii hjks bcra dumped from cars. A i* 
«,i-*a kxxMiH^tNe w rr\iujrv\} iv* i^V tSe <r4vk"T. Weicht. 6 500 lb; cost. %s 000 (tth 
tnm k%*i( vil t \o to xv cu wi ^An be trw^i m $ m:n ^u&oenUy to dear passing trt 
and lr\el«\( vK>wn to t tt b>rK*w the nL>i ta tc to t n m:a. Fnxa x 000 to a ooo cu ydi 
«ky can bv hamlleil Vihx\v\ k\m (itr vUv. IVt^rrc oa t. nnn mil him (xs-yr hie. 
days v^ \tK $a^u. lut «« >'v^ $1: m>un. $<o cw year. ao#: t opeaftor, $; 
waalt^ Hw t«#t k^NHMoti^t^ aad cxrw. $.>,s. toctl $$qli^ 




lU for reservoixs is done iritfa g rooiwd rolkn. 
"'^jnal asBt be tfaoraagUy compacted., to avoid fntofc settlement uid obtain max 
"^ & s egoaBjr spread in 6-m ko^en. soajLod with water, and wdl n^Ied. 3-borse 
•^. feaUag 150 ca ft ftf water, can sprinUe 333 cu yd in 10 hr. Coat of sprinkling 
^•sccsfankaBtt cBaspikayiog 3 wagons was 2.35^ per cu yd, s cu f t water being used 
z. ^ Mcs vKh base will usually be more expensive, but this depends on thoroogii- 

< '3e ywAKt On a reservoir embankment, made by dump wagons loaded by 

- cavd, T2 men were employed on the dump (mostly lot piddngj out stones) and 
"v ad 2 am on a Ught Austin leveter. Sprinkling was done from a line of x-in 

' v^ wIrs cveiy so ft. Daily labor cost is given as follows (i): x craneman, $4; 
• er^iia. is;  fireman. $2; 1 pit boss, $2.50; 4 pitmen @ $1.50, 16: 19 teams on 
:: a |}.$a. 166. so; 2 teama on leveler. $7; 12 men 00 dump d $1.50, $18; i man 
^ -jLtiio^ I water boy, so^; i foreman on dump* $3.00; total, $114. AtSoocu 

- assist cost of Labor and fud was about isi per cu yd of excavation. To this 

< iitfed iat and depcec of plant, and cost of moving diovcL This cost is unusually 
f "BCTiar work. 

mula I 

mula a 

Coarse gravel.. 
Fine gravel.... 


1. 00 






-^^^ddfe is a asitaie of day and gravel, wetted and rammed or rolled into a dense man. 
"' -f^ poooiatioa ol water. 

'•'~Ja I vfil laake x.3 cu yd, or 1.25 cu yd when thoroughly rolled; formula 2 will 
->' - 1^ ca yd.aad u cu 3rd when rammed. When clay can not be obtained, very fine 

od me bua may be used to fill the voids - „^ „ i>«««r««n« f«r P«ildlii 
',-^ t\. Oayakoe is sometimes prefened. Table aj. Proportiwis for Paddle 

t ;x.>i3r b oaed m confined places it must be (Ingxcdients measured loose) 

• -le aiaciete and rammed by hand. With 
.:a a $(.$0. the cort of mixing and placing 

-t s 20 to 6o< per en yd. When covering a 

A.'Si the pavei should be spread 3 in thick, 

' .^t spread over this, and sand on top. The 

' • ~-ied by barrow auul team, then watered, 

■Icrivith a ^^aD9ectioaaI roller. With labor 
I 'C ad leaDs at $3.50. spreading by hand 

V percDTd. faarrawxog 5^. sprinkling 2^. and 
- V ifc taiaL 9ot. 

Treiiw. Esoept as an approach to a higher trestle it rarely pays to build 
1.^ f'Y coastructioo work under 16 ft in height. The track should be built up 
'^^ iiroi height by jacking and fiUing in the dumped material. Coat per cu yd 
*.2!£rial dcnqwd b nearly constant for trestles between 20 and 60 ft high. 

Ci«to. T«o trwtles (Table 24) were dengned to carry a train of 5-ctl yd dxmip cars 
' nolle was filkd. and locomotive only after filling. Each bent consisted of 2 soft- 
wood piles, bracing, and cap. The timber, 
except bradng. was seoond-hand. There 
were 2 8 by 16-m stringers for each X3-ft 
span; stringers were lecovered; all other 
matoial was buried in embankinent. 

A pile trestle for building a concrete pier 
at Superior Entiy. Wis, c»6t $x6 per M for 
lumber and I3.25 per M for hbor of framing 
and erection, exclusive of foundation [Hies. 
It was built each side of the proposed pier, 
3 023 ft long. 

TaUs 24. Coat of a Treaties 

• rh. ft 


-' -.^*t 

' 3jn. Jin ft . 
^jJ cost, lin ft . 
i 'Jrt^lboft 

No I 


1. 30 

I 74 
3 04 

No 2 






trade and dumping platf oma may be used where the ground to 
m too soft and jrielding to cany a trestle, or where the required height of a trestle 
' -soke the oast prohibitive. Two of these were used on the Lake Erie ft Pittsburg 
(be was X.2S mik long, for a 3o4t embankment on a marsh. First attempt at 

- •' *as by laying crossed timbers on the muck surface, piling brush upon this grill- 
■A dyapiiv tiaina from this. After being extended 600 ft, the entire work sank 

- (t ^ wAier. A trestle boOt for the same distance became badly deformed after 
->•' lae. The third method was as faUows: Two xH*in stod cables, at s-ft centers. 

i:«kM fran tke fill aliesdy made over the nearest rrmaining ticatlabento to the 

Mining Elnc^neen' Handbook 





- 'J. 


K*-s Liikeivcs 

t<i«cx Bhsdi« Povder 

I'Uipaftstjoa of Exploexves 

<utci Expbiives and Blast- 




Art Page 
7. Handling of Explosives and 

Blasting Supi^ics x6o 

& Charging and Firing Explosives 165 

9. Spraal Uses for Explosives. . . . x6S 

xo. Blasting Supplies 173 

Bibliography 177 

^«(e> — Nnflriters in porentliescs in text refer to Bibliography at end of this section. 

1. Chemistry of Explosives 

Pulnljlm f ri tiy fas. The power of an explosive to do work depends upon the facts: 
"ai t wmaM vobunc ol expki^e b capable, under certain conditions, of changing into 
of gas at high temperature, and (ft) that this change takes place almost 
, resnktttg in the development of great expansive force at the moment 
la the case of black blasting powder, a mixture of sulphur, charcoal, and 
nitrate, the nitrate supplies oxygen for oombustion of the sulphur 
t-^McnL The decomposition of black powder, ona started, therefore pvoceeds 
-' accd of oxygen from the air. The case b somewhat different with nitroglycerin, 
•uad of ortMm, hydrogen, and nitragcQ, which b explosive in itself without requir- 
^•aixtaie with other substances. When detonated, it b decomposed into COk, nitro- 
I'd vater, whidi at the higfa temperatufe of explosion and at atmospheric pressure 

the volume of the original nitroglycerin. 

^^cnAeats sad ^eir properties. The common ingredieiits of high ex- 

'■'^ are given in Table x. The term " explosive base'* in colimm 3 covers, 

^ GBiipoands ezplostve in themselves, certain compounds ^hich are not 

true akne, but become so when sensitized -by some such substance as 

' jnytxrin. 

thb section, nftrog^oerin will generally be designated by N G, 
of explosives by thdr chwnical symbols. 


Table I. fasredients «f W^ 




Xitrof^yoenn • CsHf(KOs)i 

Explosive base 


(CH,(KO,)/Ds), Explosive hue 

and gdatinis- 
ing agent 

Nitrostarch ((^HtCNO.)/),). ' Explosive base 

Organic nitto* 






Wood pulp 

Wood meal 

Ground coal 





Zinc oxide 









Explosive baae. 
but used 
primarily to 
reduce beex- 
ing point 

and oxygen 

Oxygen carrier 

Oxygen carrier 

Absorbent and 

Absorbent and 









Liquid, highly 

Sotid. highly ini 
andei^losive ^rlien <: 

White powder, Ixislily 
flammable an<l explcM 
when dry 

Some solid, others Uqi 
the higher iiitro-oi 
pounds explosi've. 
lower non-explasiv« 


Solid, not exjrfosive alo 
very soluble in w^ater 

Soluble in water, higl 
explosive when mil 
with combustible mat 

Difficultly soluble in wat 
highly explosive wh 
mixed with oombustit 

Soluble in water, not expi 
sive alone. ddiQueacei 

Soluble in water, not exjd 
sive alone, not dehquc 

Best combustible absor) 
ent; in highest gradt 
equal to kieariguhr i 
absorbent capacity 

Fairly high absorbent 

Has no value except as ab- 

. I 

Chemistry of EzplosiYes 145 

When caifaon bums in preaen€e of -an esaeas of cxygm 00| b 

-^=iL i there be insufficient QKygen for complete mmbiMtion, XX) also is 

~'i inicn csvban in hunps bums in air, combustioD b alow; but if in 

' ( f«t tJbe reaction is veiy rapid, and may result in ezploBkia. The in< 

-c^- ''A bbck blasting powder (S, cfaaicoal and niter) are &i^ gvound, and 

~^ -^ i a uK iKi i atfd, to bring all parts of the oombustibfes into dose con- 

. m'^ the nridtang ingredient, thus favoring rapid and complete combustioa. 

Vaci Uaek po wde i explodes, the" reaction is: 

^':^*3dC + loS - 6K,CO, + KtSO«+3K«S| + i4CO| + xoCO + loN, 

Cbar- Sal- Potass Potass Potass Carbon Carbon Nitn>- 

-~-~c oqbI phar carbon- sol- trisul- dioxide moo- gen 

ate phate phide onde 

SoLid Soad Solid SoUd SoUd Gas Gas Gas 

^vfMB is armmpanied by evolution of heat, wlkich expands the gases to 

■ri ar|e vofajxae, resulting in high pressure. 

^:ca oitreglfeeria explodes, the reaction is: 

4C;H,(N0,), • mCO, + loH^ +6N, + O, 

N G Carbon Water Nitxo- Oxygen 

dioxide gen 

Liquid Gas Vapor Gas Gas 

^^iiT3t npi<fity of this change is illustrated by the fact that, if a pipe 5 
^ «^4 voe 61ktl with N G, and a blasting cap were detonated at one end, 
'.:i:v oolosin would be converted into gas within about one second. 

-^Tsaatta consists essentially of a mixture oi NaNQi, wood meal, and N G. 

VaN'O^ Bay be replaced by KNO^ the wood meal by flour ^or sawdust, and 

' 1 portion of the N G by other organic compounds or by^NHiNOb. The 

' ::«?edcxLti are not so finely divided as those of blade powder, nor so thor- 

• incorporated; hence, the mixture would not bum ^ rapidly except for 
' "« U the extremely rapid explosion of which so accelerates combustion of 

^J^ zQfToiieaits that the whole mixture explodes much faster than black 
"kz. Tsiung a dynamite of the composition: NG, 40%; NaNQi, 46%; 
'•- *3fa!, 14%; ud assuming that wood meal has same ultimate composition 

^T a£akbc (CtU«OjA the reaction of explosion is: 

vNaji^6NaNO. + CJI,^»-9COk+6N,+ ioHjO+aOt+3Na«CQi. 

' ueow yndncts of explosion. When explosives detonate, thiy usually 

" ' mixtare of solid, fiquid, and gaseous products. The solid products^may 

' sodium or potassium carbonate, sodium or potassium sulphate or 

*-. where sulphur is present in the explosive, and calcium carbonate, etc 

'•.• -^ explosives, except black powder, form laxge quantities of water, be- 

V ^^^J^ at mc»nent of detonation. Smoke consists of the solid products 

- K (!hided state. Gaseous products are of most importance to the miner, 

* '-><(>' determine character of fumes after a blast, and provide the ruptive 

• Fgr products of different explosives, see Sec 23, Art 3, Table 3.) 

^'A tfet Bkkef jrsMure gage (1). it is poesibie to detonate an explosive in a closed 
''V. x» iri^dBiw a mmfkt dl the gases formed by the ezptoooa, and to detomine 
' <^P«iiiaa. The ftaaes produced by a 40% straight gdatin under these conditions 
- ' »-MvaJmMiAg the foUowiag composition, as determined expenmentally: CX)s, 
^u%, <h.i%- The oompositioo of the gsses varies with different explosives. 
"T* CMS tbcK if a small aroonat of free Oit as in aounple cited above; in others, 
'^OifaaiiwymgaiBoiratsof COandHi. CO b potsonous, aod serious or cvro fatal 
r-joaek aar nsnh fraca the use of explosives which produce larg* a n wi n t s of thb 
whone vmtihtioti b poor. ' , 

146 Expbaves 

Character of tamm from an exploaive is affected by ooaditkxis imder 
explosive is used. When dynamite burns instead -of detonatin^r the fund 
entirely different from those formed by detonation, and contain ]argc an 
of oxides of nitrogeo^and CO,*both poisonous. Burning of dynaxnitd in j 
hole may result from improper mode of charging; for example, if tiie fi 
passed through a cartridge, the dynamite may be ignited by side-spit 
from fuse. Blown-out shots are apt to produce noxious fumes; ^^ell-ti 
shots are least apt to yield them. Wh«n djmamite is so charged that maj 
amount of usefid work is done, the fumes are least harmful. 

2. High EzplosiveB 

General dassiflcatioii of ezplosiTea. There are two general classes: < 
different types of black blasting powder, and {b) high explosives. 
powder is a mixture of combustible and oxidizing ingredients, no one of 
is explosive alone; high explosives always contain an ingredient which 
plosive in itself, at least when sensitized by proper means. Because a 
difference in composition, high explosive detonates with much greater ra; 
than black powder; hence, the great rending and shattering efiFect of 
explosive, even when unconfined. It is a common idea that high expi 
"shoot down," while black powder "shoots up." This fallacy arises froi 
fact that the slow black powder, when exploded unconfined on top of a re 
other object, docs no damage to the rock, but dissipates into the air; ivhi] 
quicker high explosive, under same conditions, may break the rock bei 
it, even without confmemcnt other than that of the atmo^here. All ezpl< 
exert equal pressure in all directions. 

Propertiet. The different types of high explosives vary wide^ in 
pnxiertics. Some are exceedingbr quick, others relatively slow, still c 
intrrmciUate in quickness. Different types of explosive also vary in del 
fmm the heavy gvlatins to some of the coal-mine powders, which are 
liKht, High explosi>*es are graded according to their strength oom|>ared 
straight il.vnamitc, which is the onl>' tMie containing actual percentages of 
The tether tyi^'s make up their strength by such explosive substances as i 
Hxilwtitutiuu iXHUi^ounds. expk^\*e salts, and gunootton. High ezi>l5>sives 
taiuiixi: no N Ci tirv* (graded the same wa>' as "40% strength.'* ^ 

Straight dynamite, ixvitaining only X G. NaXCV wood meal, and an aii 

V l\>)»le \ Vi* taken ;\> ?ii.ii\»lai\! Ihxmum." it is the simplest and best known ty 
hv*;h e\pKvxi\o iu the l" S, It is nv>nf iv k^<s pulpy, easily crumbled } 
\\\A\y\M.^\ u ivm»»\\\<. t4>t,uu,\10o in ^i'!Toi\»nl >trvngths up to 60%, very qi 
iAu[\ \\.uo>\M>s^i, M\x\ the nu^Nt v*:\vi-\e vM the dynamites. A so-lb case 
t.uuv »^\* <*» Ia S t»\ xUvkx StT.vvcVl 00 v.a:'.\:ios arc suitable for work rcqiij 
vtuMV*;*!^ .^n\l *nnAui sv \%horx' >\\4;or'iKxis aiv not too se\'cre; not re^ 
mrnvK>l \\l\>»v \\\\uUnvM\ u \vvv-. Krvx-cii;,: ;x>int. usually from 4a* to 4^ 

Amm«vn(a «lvnamlt^ h^w* v\',xV^\e Kv>f cxxi^asting of N G and NHJ 

Hun .i>\' »m vu<\o xUvnw^tw a^ >UA^<.tt »^;»Ar.iiies. but slightly slower and 
>*^i»MU\>\ ^»> M*M *^».u^ u;:\(|\n; !\\ :\Ar.K\ ju^.v bec^v. not habk to be lightd 
M*K- M>»» «^« '^»'^' l^>.tu'^v »M IN- >^\;./-' ;y v^ NH»Xt.l^ ia water, they red 

k^^t.Wa ..-.k^*i>.-. 


W^ Eiqiloaves 


are amllar to straight gdatins in oompositioa and prop- 
nptorinn products are especially free from noxioiu fumes; hence, 
jT- esdeaoEBxaeaded i<x coofizied work. - 

Table a. Classification of High BiylodTes 


Eaieatial ingredients 

i^Tji^X. dyriamite. 


NitTx>glyoerin, sodium nitrate, and 
wood pulp or other combustible 

i=naac3a d^-namite Like I, with addition of ammonium 


yj:»«3S seLoin. 

} — 



j~i'rg^ated dynamite. 

^-td expl wire* 
: J -oal :=u.aes . . . . 

\.*is,Tig nttrogiv- 



I Ammonium 

nitrate class 



Nitroglycerin, nitrocotton. sodium 
nitrate, and wood pulp or other com- 
bustible material 

Like 3. with addition oC ammonium 

Nitroglycerin and nitrocotton 

Sodium nitrate, sulphur, and coal« 
senfdtized by nitroglycerin 

Nitroglycerin, sodium nitrate, and 
high percentage of wood pulp or other 
combustible material 

High percentage of ammonium nitrate, 
with low percentages of nitroglycerin 
and wood pulp 

Am monium nitrate, with small amount 
of organic nitro-com pounds 

Nitrostarch. sodium nitrate. and com- 
bustible material 

Potassium chlorate or perchlorate. 
I with organic substances 

'^*< —Lew -freezing modifications of neariy all dynamites and gelatins are also on 
~— "Xf^ Thry have same essential composition as the above, with additional ingre- 
'tsch cLose ibem to remain unfrozen for a long time at temperatures far below 
-^ >i.a: oi other nitroglycerin explosives. 

is a tough, elastic, jelly-like mass which, except for i% of 

- 1 txTisists entirely (rf N G and guncotton. It is the strongest and most 

: '^r^txBg of all explosives. When loaded to fill drill-hole completely it Is 

-::: for hard rock, eijpedally where large holes can not be drilled. Owing 

-astiaty it is difficult to make it fill the holes completely; whence, a loss 

' -JanT- Best results arc obtained if explosive is charged with wrappers 

: rm then be pressed in to fill the hole, without so much tendency to spring 

.jvi iea^-e tmniled spaces. When soft and plastic, blasting gelatin is no 

Ait^Muu a than other cxpkidves, but when frozen it should be handled 

^nbtSy, It is dangerous to break frozen sticks of blasting gelatin. 

are mixtures of NaNOi and combustible dope in form of hard 
: of N G. They are free running, espedally the lowest grade, 
«-. n R K P, ^T^t^'^^g 5% N G. which isingiaiiisoearly conespondinginsize toFF 

f • 

bluting powder. R R P dyiamitt b lumlly p«cktiHii[imffianlliig»,iimt»i¥»ini 
GnnuUr dynunita arc iknral oi all dynuniUs, ipprouhiog bltck poinler mo 
tbu other high Eipkieivcs: dm well wbptcd (or wel voik. but reuu water l*c: 
black powdery opecuJy ludul (or ttripping work, ud l« hnKiiiiit laad Kotl e 
C^fMi-tmlnlng aipIodTei. Special "short-Same" eipUwves should 
in ccdlieries contammg dangerous amounts of inflammable gas or dust _ 
explosives bave been largely developed during the past lew yemiB, aji- 
DOW on the market can salely be ki^ under proper testrictions. Tbcii 
lacture began in Germany about 1SS61 in II S, igai. In U S, 11 300 lb w 
Id 1903; in 1913, 17 6B5 770 lb, of which 11 804 iSj lb were uwd in col 

Fig I. Ballistic Mortal • 

1 the Pittsburti latinn station of U S Buieiu of li 
DUung explcHlTea are loted lo drtennine whether they meet de~ 
uCely in "Bery" mino Tboae which the procribcd phyiical aod chemica 
are daised as "permissible" eipksfvcs (19). liils of which arc published frim t 
time. The tsta include the Giijur of ''blown-out" shots into enplosive minturea 
and air. cool dusi and air, or gas ind dust with aii. in a large ilee! EEllery IFIg 2> 
plmlva which do not cause Ignitioa al such miiturcs. and which arc also latiaiacl 
to chemical camtHHition. stability, sensitiveness, and volume of poisooous gases cv 

lible." when used under pmcjibcd cacidilioas. These cxpj 

quired by law for dangerous mines. Dureau o[ Mines buUelins describe tbctbt 
testing, results, and fees fot teiliog eiplolives (19). 

ClaniBcatioa ol permiMlMc dptouvn in the U S: (a) anunoDlum-nitnle 1 
jhes, containing NH.NO1 as chief ingredient, are insensitive (o shock. Iree fmia ha 

dated eapkoives. in which the desired reduclioa of lemperalure results chiefly Vroi 
wala of crystallieslian of ulls included in Iheii comixHitign; tc) eiploaives of t) 
ganic-nitrate {othtr than \ Gl class include nilrostarch raplosivM; (tl) oilroglyi 
etna compnws lh.«e tootalnniE NT. whKh art not included in Ihe other tU 
Ttese are deficient in oiygeo, thus producing much CO, instead ol CO,, but are piele 
in wet minis. la each class aie ciplosiva of widely varying pnfienits and the seb 
ol a suitable "permissible" depends largely upon local conditions. 

Hlch elploriTM no» conUlniiif H O usually contain do Uquid imrrtd 
whidi can frewe, a decided advantage in tald dimates. They «« uwlly !i 

High EiiJoaives 


tj, ur dftm Kanewbuit dusty, and hav* the disadvutagn of low 
taagth, aod knr lenslivBMss. Tbcy can not be uaed indncfim- 
X ol N C aplosives, but arc nadul 1^ medial pwpoMt. 

• an limilii' in pnipertiei lo other higb eipkwivcs. 

; rjl mast li m ine at tanpentura comkleiablv below fittaiBg point of N Gi 

maats oaiiD^ai for days or wcrLs at ttmpcratuici as low as o° F. More 

- ^^ ids are reqaiml m ■"•^"■e hnr^fnezing dynamites than regular dyna- 

z DkaBy grades are on the ""*". ■mne of doubtful merit, tbcir 

11 and diuty mipcA: detern 
(Fig 2 Md 3)7 

Othci F*cto»b an: ptopualing power, density, nstsCuux lo water. resisU. 
liming. lUhility. and KnsiUvrncas to imp«cl. 

t. Black Blutliig Pawdtr 

"A" blasting powder (Mltpetar) is made Irom KNOi. charcoal, an 

phur. id the approiimale proportions of ;s. is. ■nd >o- It ij used mail 
quurying, lor blasting hard dimen&ioB stone, and for woric in damp dima 

" B" blatting powder (loda) h made from NaNOh charcoal, and su 
in the approiinuile proportkins of }i, i6, and i>. Because of ita lowe 

"B" powder is more commoaly U3ed than "A" ponder, and UsufBdeatJy i 
for most o( the purposes for which black powders are used. Owing tq 
guesrent property ot soda niter, " B " powder is leu desiraUc foe use in i 
dimate, and for long transpartation or storage. 

Important propertict. Black powder is not made in different StnrnfitI 
dynamite, but varies in quiduicss. depending upon aze of grain. Classe-i 
and "B" are of different granulations. For '"A" powder the comiDon 
are C F, FF. and FFF: (or -B" powder, CCC. CC, C. F, FF. FFF. 1 
The CCC grains, representine largcal aic. are about H in diunetrx: 1 
grains, the sma lest, arc about (it in diameter. Fig 4 shows the differmt 

The finer granulations arc (guicker th.-in the csarser, and are used for I>ll 
rock, refractory materials, and coking coal: the roirser granulations nre 
and are used for other (iiali. >hale, and earthwork, or wherever it 13 dcs 
to heave out the material in larae jMece^. instead of shattering iL (St^ A 
Blasting powder is other glued (polished) or unglaied. GUh<I pow^ 
brighter, and more frce-ninntng than ungbied. an I is more EeDecatly 1 
Glaang doca not increase efficiency, and produti-s more smoke. Xhc sij 

jt 4 Tistspartaticm of Ezploaives axi<l ^Blasting Supplies 


r ' ' ^ijhKk powder varies from 1.5 .to i .9, ixsiiaXly about 1.8. High 9ped6 
' '^ ^Ib fram compresBbv tiie powder ^o smaller bulk, with cooaequei] 

Tig i Sundaxd S 

of Black Powder Grains 

^ . • ♦u-. ,w^^\n "Black, powder is unaffected by cold, bu 

,m aiiir.ip.ces « ^ f™f ' ^^^^^cadily soluble, 
'flttk RSBtaaoe to waiter, amce imx.«^ » ' -^ 

L Tt«i»«Utioi^ Of -Bxplowve. and BUsting Supplies 

Tn^Mt Vf tA X dipper of explosives should be familiar with loa 

wteHSr^iSe md ItdemA \aw^ and the regulations of the Interstate Com 

ttrtCoBm^ai. By Xct ol Coagress. March 4, 1909. eff^e Jan x 191c 

':^birr.tiie Coaanetce Comnusskm bas power to n^ulatc mterstatc trans 

rf- oi extAwKes. T^cse teguUtiofis specify that explosives to be shippe« 

#ka faost pa.%s cmaici lest-s lor stabiUty and sensidvenes^, that container 

^ osd switvcd te&is loT strength, and that cases and contents be pack© 

fc;iir<^»3Tb«i way. Hence, nearly all manufacturers of explosives doing rail 

^bfsiaesi inake and pack all their product to comply with the regulationi 

J|^^ ao|»o of TC9ila.tiaas Vn pamphlet form are obtainable on request f roc 

mSmsKma of Bspkissves. 

Trti^li csB not b« ddpped by nfl include: 


CTii^^»"My over 60% N G (except geUtinB); see Table i 

^ 4, and s. 

having an UDsatisfactoiy absorbent, or showing signs 


1G2 Ezplosves 

4. NttnKodhilose m a diy cxxiditkNi, in qtuatitiei over 10 lb, in a 

ade package. 

5. Dry fufaninates in balk. 

The matter of forbidden explosives is of interest to the user mainly in fon 
with the condition of his stocic, in case reshipment is necessary; then 
above becomes important. Dynamite stored for a great length of time, a 
adverse temperature conditions, occasionally exudes N G, and becom< 
for rail transport. With proper storage, reasonably rapid movement oi 
and care to use old stocks first, this condition should not arise. If ne 
to ship by rail explosives not acceptable under Interstate Commerce Comi 
regulations, these exploaves may be repacked only when authorized by i 
of Explosives. No explosives in broken or damaged packages should be 
for rail shipment. The aforementioned Act of Congress makes it a c 
offense to ship explosives on common carriers carrying passengers for hii^ 
offer for shipment any explosive under deceptive markings. 

Bzploii?ea which must not be shipped together. The Bureau 
plosives publishes a chart showing the explosives and other inflammable 1 
which must not be shipped together. A specially important regulatioQ 
blasting caps must not be shipped or stored with high explosives. 

Condition of cart. R R cars in which explosives are shipped must b 
fully inspected, and must comply with certain specifications. They must i 
certified and placarded in uniform manner, as well as loaded and brace 
»l)ix'ified way. 

Carload thlpmeata. The Interstate Coomieroe Commisuon regu] 
permit shipment in one car of not more than 70 000 lb gross weight of expl 
'th» minimum quantity taken at carload prices varies with different ral 
and in diff<^rent parts of the countr>\ ranging from 17 500 to 30 o 
i\\usigt\ee must ivnK>\*e shiiunent of explo6i\TS from carriers* property 1 
48 hr after notice of arrival at destinatk»; many railroads allow only 

Shipment by boat* Navii^tion hws must be cximplicd with, also all 
i\>::\kt.«tHms m rx^.trvl to Authv>risxxl vkvks and quantities wliidi may be unhl 
KiiEuUtKMu iw^i^uitve tnx\s(x>rt 01 caps with d>'namite shoold apply wj 
the \«tKM') U uuvWr lutt^ut«c CiHiinMYv^ CtxnmissioD joiisdiction or not| 
it i(» ^vuiuvat^k" sM\ Uric<> W58s<rK in lYftxin easiest to cany caps in special 
(v*uuKH\tN «^tiuri> MTtvAiAic trv>«i the canieo g< high explosives and at saf| 

ShiMRent ^y wag««s. S^xvu! v^tik $K>cVi be taken that equipment 
K>i t'Awv^t x»l v'vvvvaxv^ Ix :n jPhwI vX^ftv* Vvxx no< &e^ to break 1 
vv" A^ \ V KsAv* \ N*\ \^ o\ \N ^M,i « jt^cv^vv \\ vv>K^^ intradied far regular tran 
w sA*»»\vii\\«» Okv. «.' Viw M'^i* \<N Ji'v.* "wA' oc N.x*y -ihocki be Seed with b\ 
V**^*.' .4'v\J» vM *»',N 'UN ^«* >\'^.''*> vW.-^;f*Nt:-t E Apkte ives nay be t 
l^«..u\t ,.«4k ^(.v\iL \(» s<ivwv * i"i vvvil ^Ht ':'>4vv ,»c Nx*y 5? vtjwmd with boM 
\4*\^iv v\' kvwvt*^ iNxA. awtt v\>ttv.»^ itcv.> vvcticc witb the csplooves ca^ 

lliv4 ¥)k*<%M^ ih^w^lw \s <« ts."* 1' .^'' -v ^t*iv^ ft kxys el two sies, Id 

'■ 9 Storage of Explosives aod Blasting Supplies 153 

t 01 poMki) are padbed together in a kmg can. Graae ireights of moce 
.sraii packages of Mack powder are: 

::^ bvwkli cBBteaits Approz groM ift tjH lb 

--wIV «•»«•* «« »• •* i«4l *• 

^ '^cmSsvitkcaateDts and shipping box... " " " 135 " 
%. r^ _-K ..^^t. in twocartridges " " " 29 " 

hipped in cylindrical cartridges* about 8 in long and 

Cartridges are usually packed in wooden boxes or cases, 

^ ;7 lb to the case. Character of cases, as to strength, thickness of wood, 

' -aiioactian, b icgukited by Interstate Commerce Commission. The 

<cT of cutiidges <»f each size in a 50-Ib case b fairly regular for any given 

i::jst saxtsidzt 

Approx nnmber cartridges per so4b case- 

Stfiught dynamite 

Gelatin dynamite 

Colliery powders 

** br 8 in 
1 '• g " 
1^ • § - 

J •* 8 " 








63 ' 







per cubic inch: 

f'jebski inxv^ and ammoma) 0.97 os 

^Tuiaitc (straiidit. anuBooia, and graaulated) 0.85 " 

^.S^MXf jpamden 0.63 ** 

fitt. — There are sooEie ezcepdons. Abo, there are a few explosives, such as the low 
.uied dyaaantca. which are packed in xaH-lb paper bags, four bags to a case.) 

thrtig Mppfits. Caps are packed in tin boxes, containing 100 caps, and 
»aes b wooden cases of 500, i 000^ 2 000^ 3 000, or 5 000 caps. Electric 

~ tsd efectric squibs are packed in cardboard boxes containing 25 or 50 each, 
'bex aie packed in wooden cases of from 250 to 500 electric caps or squibs. 

■*.' hse b in roQs of two 50-ft lengths; shipped in wooden boxes containing 

"ii 000 to 6 000 ft. — 

t. Storage €f BxploiiTae and Blagrtng SoppUee 

iboald be stored m well-ventilated buikiings, erected for the 

Bmldings for storage of bbck powder or blasting supplies should be 
T<>jQf ; those for dynamite, both bullet-proof and fireproof. 

^•«albft of megeiine. In selecting a magazine site the kxail topography 

*" ht considered, and advantage taken of such natural protection as b 

' iri by htlb and areas of timber. The magazine should be far enough from 

- ^.t buildings to minimize danger to life or property through an accidental 

*'^ri Table 3 gives distances, depending upon quantity of explosives, to 

-•■w ruined bu w citu magazinea and inhabited buikfings, public railways, and 


Table 3- Distancet for Magninwi, Ameckui Pndfco 

Minimtim distance, ! 

Minimnira dtis±4 




Quantity of 


Quantity of 

•a »-• 


^. t 

"O M* 

^ « 



•a ^t 

.s §"2 



M^^ . t 


2^ 1 

2 S g 

3 ^ g • 


Xt'O c 

2 ^ g : 



35 , 













55 . 

20 000 


S3S : 




" ! 


I 205 





95 ' 








no ' 
















70 000 






140 ' 



X 040 




150 1 







155 1 

100 000 


X xoo 

I 000 



160 , 



X z8o 

X 500 



180 I 

200 000 


X 260 




195 1 



X 330 




215 1 



X 400 














2 555 






245 1 



I S90 







z 650 

8 000 



255 ' 






• •• I 

Screened " as here used signifies that the building containing explosives is sci 
from buildings, railways, etc, by either natural or artificial barriers. Where suck bi 
do not exist, distances should he doubled. 

Table 3 is the result of an investigation of a committee appointed by the exp/^ 
manufacturers of the U S, and represents conclusions reached aftM' prolonged stu 
available data. The Bureau of Explosives of American Railway Association has appi 
and applies the distances specified to be maintained between magazines and piih2Ki 
ways. When there are specific state laws and local regulations, they must be cos] 
with, but if there be none, the table of distances gives the accepted practice. V| 
explosives are distributed among several magazines the distances between maga 
should comply with the following formula (distances given are for magazines fully 
tected from each other by natural or artificial barriers; lacking such protection, disi 
should be doubled): For magazines containing 35 000 lb or under, not less than xC 
for magazines conUining over 35 000 lb. add i H ft for each x 000 lb of explosives a(^ 
When applying Table 3 for location, if nutgazines are nearer than the above dista^ 
they should be classed as one magatine containing total quantity of explotives store 
all. Magazines containing blasting caps should never be nearer than 50 ft to any c 
magazine, and if quantity is over 20 000 caps, distance should be at least xoo ft. 

Construction of magazines. Dimensions of magazine without aisles: 



8 ft X 8 ft 
8 X 10 
8 X 12 
10 X 12 



[ 5 000 lb 
10 000 

25 000 lb 
1 30000 

1 so 000 


12 ft X 12 ft 
12 Xi4 

X4 X I^ 

14 X 18 


Storage oC £zplomv«s and Blasting Siq)plies 


d these soes are for temporary use, and should therefore be as small 
cijc kt qiandty of explosives to be stored. Such magazines are mainly 
'--.sGs oszBg expkisves in a or 3 sizes or grades; dimensions are there- 

^ "-"T^s. for the given quantities, leaving: floor space sufficient on^y to per- 

' .~^ii enter magazine when filled to stated capacity . 
- ^dias 01 naean'nr with aisle from front to back and cross aisle through 




tat lb 
:; 730 

X 330 

SftX 9ft 
10 X 12 
12 X 12 
12 X 16 


as 000 lb 
30 000 
SO 000 


12 ft X 18 ft 
la Xao 
14 X 23 
14 X24 

■~.^>tnict23g a magazine consideration should be given to the permanency 
■^. i^ variety of brands and materials to be kept, the quantities in whidi 
--'- to Bufozine will be made, and the ease with which stock can be 
•^\ irom mill or distributing magazines. 

^^ssTodStn. fpedflcationa. Stone and concrete magazines are'undesir- 
•^s-jie of danger from nussiles in case of accident. Brick or sand-filled 

'-—jifi sutf be used for dynamite, black powder, or blasting caps. Wood 
~ c nacazmes without sand filling are suitable for black powder; other 

• ="JT be used, bat this is the roost inexpensive construction; it is not recom- 
- : 'or <t}iiamite, because it is not bullet-proof. The nature and thickness 

- nries «ith the kind of small arms in general use in r^on where magazine 

- ^- Tests show that it requires xo in of sand, between walls of x-in , 
- -\ to »u^ the bullet from a U S Govt SpringfieM rifle. Where ordinary 

'- ni'es. such as 30-30 Winchester, are used, 8 in of sand is sufficient. 

' ntJc vail U bullet-proof against the strongest small arms in use in U §. 

^ zxd doors it is found that H-tn boilerplate, backed with 3 thicknesses of 

' -triwoQd, wis stop the bullet from a U S Springfield rifle. This com- 

- • of iroD and wood seems to be the most practicable, as any fnctease in 
--tH oi cither the wood or iron, with corresponding reduction of the other, 
'^'jnM&y to weijdit of the door. 

' -r^ibsi of various widths may be designed along lines indicated below, 
^^ Vtoag of material being revised accordingly. 

* DjitBBiie — rfTJn-t of bcick. Fig 5 shows a brick dynamite magazine 14 ft 
' •^- Anay dcsii^ length consbieat with this width. ^^ 

'^j..ama oajr be of brick, stone, or concrete. They should reach bdow frost Kne, 
: «i beuiag material. 
' - If? 9 ic thick. laid in cement mortar. Use as soft a brick as possible, consistent 

'•*i ',uai^y and durability. 

^- ^>e^ro0/cx>nstftt5<^ ceiling-joists, floored as shown. A box b formed above this 
•St ^bx strip around walls, the box being filled with 4 to 6 ilx of sand. Bullet- 

' ' "i coaatittctioo abo helps to maintain a uniform temperature. 

*' Kaftees covered with rough boards or ship-lap, and then with No 24 corrugated 

* --H iron. The iioa should have side lap of not less than two corrugations, and 

* aot leas than 6 in. Tin roof may be used, but is more expensive. 
"' «r Brkk walk are fined with 3 fay 2-m naiUng strips, covered with x by 6-in 

* ^ {-nang a Uttice work. Naib shodd be countersunk. The purpose of lining is 
'"^ <oA away from walb and assist ventilation. 

"^^ Merdy a strip of No 34 flat galvanized iron, bent and fastened over ends oi 
"''^ Aft iraa shooU ba pat 00 with galvanised oails and lead wasbersi 

viS Scocage of Explosives and Blasting Sui^lies 


«'>i^- nif t»o ron ci 2 by 4-in studs, spaced as shown, desired quastky of stud 

^rsiiaaf tpaoBg of studs across wall. Studs are iseld parallel t^ nailers at top. 

- at issenaediate. in number sufiBcknt to prevent ^ireading under weight ol 

xak tie covoed outside and inside by H-in matched boards, to prevent sand 

=.£1^ tTi^r. S^aa between is MIed with coarse sand tnever -use coarse gravd 

■^ stoae kcbise ol possibility of their becoming missiles). Lower foot of filling to 

- - i I aofc iiBiture of sand and cement, to prevent remainder of sand from leaking 

.. (MUX Anihing b covered with No 24 flat galvaniaed iron. For othei detaib. 

* — 

iir-*^ c* :r otTsrat sktion a.*- 



m/>_a_. ^, .^ m S i>w» to UA Srtt MM\tHttQ 

^ *■" * * *^ . . Ty^^v I /.f > 8'. 10- 

t Atel 


Hg 1 BvHet-prool Door for Dynamite Magazine 

{or brick magazine apHv- When post foundations are used the board 
' - iJ^«id be veaiOiicd by boles. 8 by 4 in. covered with punched sheet steel. 

^^ _ yowder mngarin^. Fig 8 shows a wood and iron magazine for 

^ »wdB or bUstii^ supplies. 

* -*■ Of i by 4-in or 2 by 6-in studding, covered on outside with Ji-in boards and 
• . ill phrMbed iron: on inside, by i by 6-in lattice work. 
'' •^'mct amd jUars (ice specifications for brick magazine). 
«v££ui9 „j ttmtiUtum (fice spedficatioos for sand-fiUed magazine). 
'^ Suudird dour for this type magazine consats ol two thicknesses of H-in 
jn'ntd iritli iron of any desired weight. No ai being considered the lightest 
^ '^'^•^y. fjtha a mortise lock or padlodi may be used. 

'^ ^'^B rtonge tnnBTJiw. A "knock-down" iroa magazine b mant^actured 

* y * uififactory for northern or temperate climates. Can be obtained in sizes 

~ i br 6 fi to It by 21 ft. When used for dynamite storage it should be made 

-c CTM by \uaa% with 3 or 4 in of hard wood, or with studs and sheathing, sand-filled. 

magnriiiff, for storage of small quantities of explosives within 
^ Tdoy, or at stores, or within dty limits. A box may be made of a-in oak, or 
^ anod and covered with sheet iron. For dynaf&ite* iron should be at least 
^^^ Topof hoc of like natcrial. should be on hinges. Inside metal should be 
Boi Aoold be kept locked and marked to indicate contents. 

Cue of stock in nuctiiiiaB. Migaxtnei ihiwH be w ocmstrtji 
located that tfacy will not be biought to tiigb temperatures by rays 
N G becomes less viscous at high temperatures, wfaich may ause tbe c 



y — id — w 





. , 


' ^ " HAL 







— )"]- 

Fig T. Woodoi Dyiuunlie Maguine 

to leak. In hot climates metal raaeazines should be protected by doutfc n 
and aides, with good ventilation between, so that lompeialure In'magaiirM " 
not rise above outside temperature. Take care to keep dynamite d/y, espfcu 
tbe anunooia dynamites, as they contain hygioscoiric salts, and in humid diin*' 
may eventually allitkct enough moistuie to Impair t' ' 

Storage of Explosives and Blasting Supplies 


".-t^ When dynamite is shipped in winter at very low temperatures, it 
.' ^ be sent down immediately into the mine, as cold dynamite may 
t=x aiaa^ moisture In the warm humid mine to impair its effiden/gr. 



,,11 il 

-If: t_. 

»*• ^* *•- 

•1; • 1 c— tw H 

-T-'A ^^ C— au^^ p 








#MOdr. 0«s. Ins IB ;i' 





S Oak «r BodveoAi \ 






Fig 8. BUft-powder Ma^aiine 

' r-aaes ibooM always be in charge of one person, who can be held respon- 
*cr axufitioo of magazine and stocks, and for their proper and safe 

160 Explosives 

RoIm for djiuunite and powder mn^Tinug 

Ezploeives must be handled carefully. 

Do not throw down boxes of explosives violently, nor drag them along the floo 

Do not open boxes of dynamite or powder kegs in or near msgitinr 

Do not have in or about the magazine loose cartridges, open boxes of <|]fna 
loose powder. 

Do not make up primers in the magazine. 

Do not smoke, have matches, oil-buratng lamps or lanterns, fire-arms or csxtri 
or near, magazine. If artificial light be needed, use dectric flashlight or dectiic 

Do not store blasting caps nor dectric blasting caps in this msgsrine. 

Store dsmamite and black powder separately. Store dynamite boxes flat, top : 
grades and brands showing; store powder kegs on sides with seams down, or o 
bungs down. 

Powder kegs should be rolled over and contents shaken every a or 3 months. 

Always use old stocks first. 

Keep magaane floor dean. 

Keep the ground immediately around magazine dear of leaves* graas, trees, s 
and dA>ris, to prevent fire from reaching it. 

Do not allow any shooting in neighborhood oi magazine. 

Keep the door locked. 

No unauthorized person should be admitted to msgsrinf. 

Do not keep any steel, or metallic toob or other implements, in the magazine. 

See that goixl ventilation is maintained during all seasons of year. 

When repairs have to be made to interior of magazine, all stodu of explosives 1 
be removed to safe distance and carefully protected from weather during progi 
repairs. Before starting repairs in a black-powder magazine scrub floor with 
If dynamite has been stored in a magazine, any stains on floor should be carefully scr 
with solution consisting oi: H gal water, i gal denatured alcohol, \i gal aoelom 
sodium sulphide (fused) or potaaaium sulphide. 

Rvdes for blasting-siipii^ magazinas. 

Store blasting supplies only in this magazine, i t, blasting caps, dectric blasting 
and fuse. 

Do not store powder or dsmamite in this magazine. 

Do not have loose blasting caps, dectric Uasting caps, nor coils of fuse b^ ai 
magazine, nor take them out of original packages until required for use. Keep pac 

Open boxes with a wooden mallet, except when lids are screwed on; then use a 
driver. Do not keep any other metallic toob in magazine. 

7. Handling of BxplosiTeg and RlaiHng SnnpIlM 

The Interstate Commerce Commission in matters of transportation, and 
majority of states in framing thdr laws, recognize that explosives are a < 
merdal necessity, and furthermore that they can be handled with reason 
safety. Nevertheless, one must always recognize their nature; thdr fun( 
is to explode. AU owners of explosives should require employes to obs 
rigidly the rules and regulations which experience has shown will best cons 
safety of the men themselves, as wdl as of the public 

From can or boats to magazine. Use only wooden or non-sparking metal too 
breaking the bradng in cars. Wooden wedges and mallets answer all pncticaJ purp' 
Damaged or broken cases or kegs found in shipment should be set aside, and not take 
magazine with undamaged stock. If damage b slight, the cases or kegs should be U 
to a safe dbtance from magazine, or from car, and repaired. If damage is too gral 
repair, take explosives to point of consumption and use immediatdy. If broken c 
ridges or loose grains of powder are scattered in the car, they should be carefuQy sn 
up and removed bdore proceeding with unloading, and afterwards destroyed. If tl 

HmdKng of Explosives and Blasdng Supplies 


not mart than 6 io aptft ud runataf 

be fastened bj wooden pegi to upper mifaoe of bottom 

^-amaatx packajr* are being handled, wipe down chutes with wafte 

! oi. A mattress, 4 by 6 ft, and not less than 4 in thick, or a heavy 

' rsp aat «C Iftc diraensioos, should be placed under dJacfaarge end of chute. 

-^ Bot be so steep that packsges slide too rapidly. With a long chute, statioa 

• - I ' AMut. iatervab akng it. to check speed <rf packages and prevent bumpfaig 

" Bo set fffhsBrffr or switch the car to other points after the bracing has been 

put of shipment is to go to another point, the part remaining m car 

g to Interstate Commeice Commission regulations) before 

rrrti kr sfclpmrwl The load on any vehide should be braced before transfer 

s. Always protect caqjlouvcs from weather. 

'sa mkam or qoany. Same rules and regulatioiis should be adopted u 

."siad magaxinfs and elsewhere above ground. Never bring ecpoeed 

joBt to ezpiosaves. Only the smallest posable quantity for economic 

.r If operatitn should be taken underground at one time. In tran^KMrt* 

'±e mice by cage or tram-car, only the man in charge should be per- 

:.■ rie'ci same ca^ or car with exfJosives. Primers should be made up 

••-teatudy separated from regular stock of 4ynamite. If made up above 

— JKv sbouU be taken into mine at a separate time and in separate car 

' > r erpkKtT.xs. In opening dsnoamite cases, use no metal tools other 

^^ Bade of ooo-sporking materials; wooden wedges and mallets are 

1' opeoiog biadc-powder kegs use wooden wedge. The rather common 

" * in\-is^ a pick or other tool through the keg is dangerous. If possible, 

' ^ •-BC d>-caxnite or powder in mine over night. If this can not be avdded, 

" • rj»c sfaouiil be left in a place set aside for that purpose, protected from 

' .^». and posted so that all peiaons will know nature of material stored. 

•> viag fonca djaaaiite. If dsmamite is f n»en it must be thawed before 
^ vr fmxing point of pure N G is about 55* F, it follows that dynamite 



Fig 9. Dynamite Thawing Kettles 

« u any higher temperature.^ In thawing, it is usually necessary to 
^xniMAi somewhat; hence, higher temperatures are used. But 
: » readfly decomposed by ezposare to high temperature. Thawing 

i» ho« a^Ks, on top of a boiler, or around a bonfire, is dangerous, and 

> to expk»4on, with possible loss of life. Small quantities of dynamite 

be thawed in a double-jacketed kettle (Fig 9), the dynamite being 

water cocBpajtment, wb'le jacket is filled with water at temperature 
' : I ^* F. Water hot enough to scald the hand is too hot to use. Al- 
J water m separate vessel, and then pour into jacketed kettle. Heat 
rvo be applied (Srectlty to kettle containing the dynamite. Thawing 
typci an made in two sixes, holding 30 and 60 lb of dtyasmite. 

I>7iuiiiit«tti*«lii(-haM«hMtedby«jthanM«teaiii. WIkitIii^ 

oi dynamite vt used, a Chawing-bouK should be provided. Fig 10 
good type of permanent lliawing-house, for 500 lb dynunile at a CJme, 
of so lb; lame coustiuctioa for larger capacity, siu being increased 
units, with (xmtapoti^as increase of radiating surface ol steam coils, 
steam n usually the most ectmomical and conveniait source ot ha 
stoun (steam undei pressure) is dangerous, because of pcssibiljty of b 
perjure. The area of raHmtfng surface necessary to insure complete 
varies with climatic conditions. In installing the steam coil, give pipes 
slope to drain prcqierlj'. If preferred, same type of coil may be used as 
designed for hot-water heating (Fig 11). TtaepaclLmg in the walls is eil 

or »»dusL Dry sand is good insulating material, but makes ship-laP 
and groove boards necessary on outside walls to hold it in place. Ni 
morse gravel for packing on account of missiles which would be throve 
of BCddent to thawing- house. Dry sawdust is probably the best cheap I 
Mineral wool or asbestos fiber gives more perfect irkBulation, besides be 
proof, but cost is much higher. A thermometer is placed in back wall of I 
bouse, behind a double glass window, so that inside temperature may b( 
without opening doors and admitting cold air. A damper is abo pbai 
stodt to permit regulating the circulation of air through the house. 1 
ature of So°F (17' C) is good for thawing. This houK can be built 
materials at ipproiimate oost of tioo. At mines or other works ibeie >s 
moogfa fife lyiog around to roake tile heating ooil, and scrap lumber 

of Etpl uMiv ea and Blastiiig Snppliea 

p^ II. PjiMiullf Thawtac-bauK BrnUA by Hut WiMr 

nKtMD, wtbcb y"^ mataruQy reduce oM. Nate that tlieie is no 
^ ^ii„ to pemA * penoD to tnur, n that It fa impoamble tOLiue ft 
1 vine ortiidS^ ^ dcsirod, s imall boi rat wheeli on be made 

164 Explosives 

of a tiM juit to hold « oerUin number of trays from thawing-bouse. 
ber of trftys needed at one time are placed in the box, covered, and tai 
work without exposing the dynamite to cold air until ready for cliargi 

Dynamite thawiac-hous* boated by bot water (Fig II). Thb is di 
thaw 500 lb dynamite at a tinoe, in tnyt of so lb each. For greater capacit 
•1m qI house in units of 250 lb, with correspooding increase of radiating surf a 
and sIm of heater. Construction details are same as of the steam-beated tbaw 
Tbe beater bouse and standard heating unit for small hot-water systems a 
llsattr house must be enough lower than thawing-bouse to permit good gx 
In return pi|ie to beater. Heater bouse should be 30 to 50 ft from thawing-bous 
distance increases construction cost and diminishes economy of operation, wbil 
liroximlty to thawing-bouse increases risk. Cover the pipes between tbe huSL> 
standard magneiiia pipe-covering, or place them in a sawdust-fiUed box. Ap 
cust, when of new materials, $17$. 

DIapoaltloa of damaged explosiTes. Dynamite to be destroyed should Y> 
from magaiine In quantities not exceeding 100 lb, to a safe place 400 to 500 
from any magaiine, and i 000 ft or more from any dwelling, building, publi 
railroad; where, in event of its exploding while burning, no damage will be dc 
of boxes should be carefully removed with wooden wedge and mallet, each 
slit, and the otwned cartridges spread upon the ground over as large a ^ptucn 
ticable. To insure proper burning of tbe dynamite, spread a quantity of str] 
shavings, or excelsior on ground first, on which djrnamite is placed. A chain 
paper, or other material, is then led away from the dynamite to such a distazi 
may be lighted without danger of flame reaching the dynamite before operator 
position of safety, which should be 400 or 500 ft distant. Explosions aometio 
even with care, and operator should never remain near the burning explosiv 
powder may be destroyed by pouring it into a stream or large body of water; U 
part quickly dissolves and remainder becomes harmless. Cases which have * 
dynamite are dangerous; they should not be used again for any purpose, but : 
burned, using same precautions as described above for destroying damaged d> 

To destroy damaged blaatiag caps, pbce them, not more than 500 at a ( 
hole a or 5 ft deep, preferably in sand. Prime a small dynamite cartridge wi( 
electric blasting cap, and place it in contact with the damaged detonators. Fill 
with sand, and fire with a blasting machine from distance of about 200 ft. I> 
ordinary caps and fuse, as there b danger of premature explosion from sparii 
great care is taken. Before being destroyed, dectric blasting caps should h 
wires cut off an inch or two from capsule, as the wires are liable to cushion the si 
prevent complete explosion of all the caps. Observe utmost caution in handling 
caps, as they are extremely sensitive to shock, friction, beat, and ^Mtfks. 

I^ecantionary Roles: 

Don't forget the nature of explosives; but remember that with pfoper care 
be handled with comparative safety. 

Don't smoke while handling explosives, and don't handle them near an opec 

Don't leave explosives in a field where cattle can get at them. Cattle like tast 
and saltpetre in explosives, but the other ingredients may ipake them side or kill 

Don't carry loose caps in the dothing. Keep them in their boxes. 

Don't tap or attempt to open a blasting cap or electric blasting cap. 

Don't try to withdraw wires from an electric bh»ting cap. 

Don't attempt to take caps from tbe box by inserting a wire, nail, or otiM 
metallic instrument. 


Don't store or transport blasting caps or electric bhudng caps with high expkj 
Don't store fuse in a hot place, as this may dry it out so that uncoiling will bra 
Don't allow priming (the pUdng of the detonator in dynamite) to be done iai 
house or magaxine. 

Doo*t leave explosives, caps, or blasting machines in a wet or ^^^m place S 
tultabis, dry place, under bxk and key. and wboe cblldien or tncsDomibla 
can not get at them. ^-r«» 

Charging and Firing Explosives ' 165 

or cldDed expkxives; it is dangexous and wasteful, 
amaccraent for thawing djmaniite other than tboie reeGmnaMled by 

-I-* dynaasite oq heated stoves, rocks, sand, bricks, or metal, nor in an oven; 
-J.* .>ii3faite :n front of, near, or over, a steam boiler, forge, or fire of any kind. 
aead thaviog- house with pipes containing steam under preaauxt; high tem- 
-^-* J iaa^aoA and escaping steam may spofl the explosive. 

>ttfcc a kit-w»ur th<twer over a fire; never put dynamite into hot water, nor 
• ' u< dime in contact with steam. 

8. Cliarpnff and Fixing BzploaiTM 

<Se« alao Sec s, Art 5, aad Sec 6, Arti 8 to II.) 

rag holOT. A drill-hoie may be "straight'* or ''spnmg." A straight 

- oe which is loaded and fired without enlaiging. A sprung hole is en- 

*: ;he bociom by explodiDg in it one, two, or more, successive charges. 

' ^iurges axe usually not tamped (steoimed). The first charge usuaDy 

>-: ^H oce or two caitridgcs of dynamite, increased in subsequent charges 

::^zher is large enough to bold required quantity of explosive. This 

-^1 IS known as ''springing/* "chambering," "squibbing," or "bum- 

rji-rjA in 9oft rocks, slow-acting dynamites are better for ^ringing than 

£-acti:^ x& more of the rock is thrown out of the hole and there is less 

- ' • %j cave zT.ii choke up. If sides of hole are very rough, final charge may 

. '^ L3r>jui;n a tube of bnL», tin, or galvanized iron, about 2 ft longer than 

-•- ioa as briiee as will fit into it. This prevents cartridges from being 

" jr. or smeared along sides of hole. Where a loading tube is not avail- 

'^ >:Axtrid|?c5 are usually attached to a sharpened stick, lowered to bottom 

}s the placing of the detonator (ordinary or electric blasting cap) in 

-"znt cartrid^; or placing electric squib or electric cap in a cartridge of 

^ .KmiitT. In priming high explosives, place detonator so that its closed 

• : s towardfi bulk of the explosive; that is, if primer b inserted last, the 

' ^ ^aiickl be so placed that its closed end points toward bottom of hole. 

' ^..lar should be so secured that it will not diange its position, nor jam 

ItN of biAit, nor oome in contact with tamping stick. The wires of an 

U.-tinc cap should not be secured in a half hitch; for, when tension is 

. be current may be short-circuited where wires cross each other. In 

* I ^r-aaaite with cap and fuse, the fuse should never be "laced" or run 

." 'artnd^e. because the "side spit" of ftise will often ignite dsmamite, 

•' ^hkh wfll bum, decreasing efficiency of charge and producing noxious 

I>jp of cap should be imbedded % in deep in the dynamite, to cushion 

- uneptng sddL Tliis small length of fuse will not side-spit before cap 

-ar{XBg» Efiminate all air spaces by slitting cartridges lengthwise with a 
-ifr and presKing them firmly home, so that they expand and entirely 
Mir. Excepboos to this are: (a) Blasting gelatin should not be slit, 
<<' '-bstic that it can not be rammed solidly like other dynamites; (b) ui 

- c-s of coal an air space is purpose^ left to cushion action of explosive 
nrevent ondue shattering. Dsmaniite cartridges* especially gelatins, 

-vr/er be brokea, if there is a poasibility that some portion of the ex- 
.« hoHB. They may appear soift on outside and yet have a frosen core. 
' -r fioch a cutridge may explode it; acddentB due to this practice have 
m naay foreign countries. 



Tampiiig is necessary for all explosives to develop their full power, 
required in practically all work except springing a hole (sec above), 
sand, and loam make best tamping. Broken rock, screemngs^ and oi 
serve fairly well, but are liable to break or cut the fuse or wires. 

Wiring for electric blasting. There are three general methods: 
parallel, and parallel-series connection. 

In series connection (Fig 12) one of the wires from first drill-hole is connecter 
leading or firing line. The other wire is then connected to one oC the wires faoro 

hole and the other wire of tha 
of the wires of third hole, and 
the last hole; the rematning I 
from that is connected to th 
leading or firing line. Seri^ 
tion is necessary when firii 
ordinary blasting machine. 1 
- rent required for series conne 
at least 1.5 amperes, and the 
sufficient to overcome resist 
electric eaps. ResisUnce var 
length of wires. About one 
required for each cap connected in series, although an excess, up to about 440 volti 
harmful. Too high voltage may cause misfires from short circuits across the caj 
especially when more than one cap is used in a hole. Direct current b general^ 
but alternating current is equally efficient when of a frequency of 60 cycles oi 
and can be used down to 25 cydes. 

Fig 12. Scries Wiring 





Alternating currents of lower fre- 
qtiency may cause trouble from mis- 
fires of the less sensitive caps in the 

In parallel wuing (Fig 18) one 
wire from each cap is connected to 
one leading line, and the second cap 
wire to the other leading line. This 
method can be used only where a 
power or lighting current is avail- 
able, having 1.5 amperes for each 
cap so connected. Thus, with 20 caps, firing drcuit must have at least 30 an 
The voltage required is very low. The greater the number of caps in circuit, tl« 
the resbtance. Assuming resistance of leading wire at 3 ohms and resistance (| 

cap at I ohm, the resistance 

Fig 13. Pandld Wiring 



Panllel SeriM 


Fig 14. Paralld Series Wiring 

caps in paralld k (i -f- 20) + J 
or 3.0S ohms. Paralld conni 
of ordinary electric caps a| 
often used, on account of larj 
ume of current required. 

In paralld-aeries wiring (1 
the caps are first connected in 
of say from 4 to 10, and eadi 
thus connected b in turn at| 
at its two free ends to the Ii 
wires. The current requli 
found by multii^ying the nun 
series by i .5, which gives the d 
in amperes. To determine n\ 
vdtage, multiply resistance of each cap by number of caps in each series, and divid 
1^ total number of series. Thb system is used frequently for firing a large numi 
chazges, where power or lighting current b available. 

Electric firing may be done with a blasting machine, or a power or li^ 
current For firing with machine, the caps must be connected in series. EiS 

- • Cbargiiig and Fuing Explosives 167 

~ xixM be loiped brigbt aixl dam and twitted tigbtly tosetber, and if 
-: ma bt pnaaiL, cxivcred witb insutating tape. Tbt tiro remuoing free 

- m the rao ia|B >t ends of saics are that coiuic<tal to the Ic&ding wire^ 
^ >k4i)d bt hou or booked mt end, to pKnat the ntuUer wiie from sUppfaig 

Fif a. Poor Cooucu ia Electric Circoit 

nibjerted to strain. Test drcutt with a dnniit toter (gal- 
attached to battery (Fig is), 
or Bhort drcuiu. Poor con- 
» readings. Looped conoec- 

Kl I*. Tcfthc CInait wilt GtlvuHcnetet 

-• vtns BB7 (how K« citeuU one moment and tiomal ntiiUaue the next. 
<r^ed wim tmdi each other and nulu a thoit drcuit, fW rciiitanw i« 
y^ i£l. The ends o( keadiog wires are inserted into the binding posts of 
. XLiiliiiv and bnnly M<:ure(l by thumb nuts. Place blaslhig machine 
•; ^nt (a dry baud or pUok is best), to prevent Its tippiiV over, and 
-'. u^k with both handi and full fane. 

168 Explosives 


If firing 18 by means of a power or lighting circuit, use a fecial switch 
design as to show at a glance whether circuit is open or closed. Avcud 
cated switches, espedally those having springs. The switch should be 
structed that it can be locked in the open position. The cut-outs on 
should be of ample capacity. 

Firing with cap and fuse is often done by taking an extra piece 
3 or 3 ft long, and cutting notches in it with a knife at intervak of abo 
The end of this fuse is then lighted, and, when powder train bums i 
notched place, the flame spits out vigorously. By directing each of thcst 
against end of the fuse to be lighted a round of shots may be lighted -w 
tainty, in a few seconds. This method may inflict disagreeable bums on I 
hands unless care is taken. Lighting fuse with hat lamp or candle is 
as the spit of the ignited fuse may extinguish flame and leave blaster in tl 
The surest and safest method is to slit the fuse at the end to expose powd< 
and light it with the gbwing end of a burning cotton rope, sudi as windc 
or clothes line. 


Don't tamp with iron or steel bars. Use only m wooden tamping stidc, with n 

Don't force a primed cartridge into a drill-hole. Have hole drilled of ample 

Don't cut or break a dynamite cartridge while frasen, and dont nib a caitridg 
hands to complete thawing. 

Don't prime dynamite cartridges, nor diarge nor connect drill-holes for electri 
during inunediate approach or progress of a thundentorm. 

Don't fasten a blasting cap to the fuse with the teeth, nor by flattening it with 
use a cap crimper. 

Doo't attempt to use electric blasting caps with ordinary insulation in very we 
For this purpose secure waterproof caps. 

Don't handle fuse carelessly in cold weather; when cold it is stiff and cracks ea 

Don't " laoe " fuse through dynamitejcartridgcs. This pcactioe is frequently re^ 
for burning the charge. 

Don't cut fuse short to save blasting time. It b dangerous economy. 

Don't use fuse that has been injured by (ailing rock or in other manner. 


D<m*t explode a charge before every one is well beyond danger woot and protect* 
flying dAris. Protect supply of explosives also from this source of danger. 

Don't exiilode a charge to chamber a drill-hole and then immediately reload it, 
hole will be hot and second charge may explode prematurely. 

Don't use a " permissible " powder in same drill-hole with another explosive. 

Doo't hurry in seeking cxpUnatioo for a misfire. 

Don't drill, bore, nor pick out a charge which has failed to explode. Drill and 
another hole at least a ft from the missed one. I 

Don't expect high explosives to do good work if you try to explode them with a 
ator weaker than No 6. 

•• Spedal Uses for EzplMiTes 

Hi^ ezploaiTM in coal misiiig. Use of the "peraussible explosivei 
defined by testing station of the Bureau of Mines (19), is increasing ii9 
anthracite and bituminous fields. They were used at first in gaseous and 
mines solely as a safety precaution, because of their comparative freedoai 
liability to Ignite gas and dust mixtures. It is now recognised that, byi 
gcfit use of these explosives^ the softest coal is shattered as sli^tly as with 
est grades ol black powder (iji). Permissible explosives are used for rock 
in hard-coal mines» and in bituminous mines for coking coals* where gas ol 

!r Spedal U^es for Explosive 109 

re mcamtatd. Different kinds of pennissible ezploiives shoald never be 

The best type of explosive for a given case can be detenntaed 

"T eipa ie uc e. It depends not oa|/ on character of ore, but on vcntilatkn 

x:£> cf bbor. It is often feasibk to substitute with satisfactoxy results a 

■=«S3^ explosive fior a more oostlly one, in mines where the miners miy be 

- ^ ^ adopt methods of drilling, charging, and firing other than those to 

: -iiey are accustomed. Tlnis» in soft hematite, a slow-actiiig ^mmftnia^ 

• <r pnperiy primed, loaded, and confined, will often break more ore per 

- ^an a BOiTe expensive dynamite handjfd unintelligent^. The use of 
" n^e. bang fuse through cartridge, and insufficient titmrmg are dangerous 

jcr^vagiat practices, often difficult to eradicate (i8» 20). 

iT^sBg or tanmiHug. It is desirable to "pull the cut" at the first ^t; 
r- a <itea pa>^ to use a stronger explosive fbr firing the cut than is required 

' sx Ttiad, I&, and lifter holes. It is impossible to increase effectiveness of a 
-- n the cut -holes by increasing amotmt of explosive beyond a certain 
'- '«r3use a definite amount of tamping is required to prevent charge from 

- ::^ rjev Generally, cut-holes require an explosive having strength and 
. 3^ 01 6d^ gebtin. Blasting gelatin is sometimes the most ecoq^nical for 

: -r%6e, in spite of its relatively hi^ cost. In refractory rock, or. one with 
■^.•ie stratifirarion, cut-holes are often blasted more satisfactori^ by 
" . r. than with cap and fuse. Delay electric caps (Art 10) are advanta- 
-: vaere cut-holes bottom up well; but tb^ should not be used in same 
. : 16 cot-hoie shots, if latter require to be loaded and fired a second time. 

^ ~ ping. Ever>'' mine is an individual problem. The principal point regard- 

-'£ opfesrve is the size to which it is desired to break the material. For 

■-% aamooia dynamite breaks fine enou^ for easy handling without undue 

"^icf. Hliere ventilation is poor, gelatin or ammonia dynamites are nee- 

^ nneirdkss of their other properties, and with much water, gelatin is best 

^^^ dsnsuniu has added advantage that it will "stick" in "uppers." If 

-*:- to blast out dry timbers in old stopes, to allow the top to cave and fill 

t -.-7Jt spaces, a permissible explosive should be used, to avoid possibility 

- v-i €2iBg with cap and fuse, the lead (difference in length (A fuse in holes 

~' i to fire in succession) should never be less than 10%. For instance, if 

r-i U scdi a round of holes has a 5-ft fuse, the hole to be fired next should 

a fuse at least 6 in longer. With less "lead? than this, variation in bum- 

• >^ of evtm the best fuse may cause holes to fire out. of order, generally 

z;! the shot. When fuses are not lighted in their proper order, the neoes- 

' locreaacd "lead" is apparent. When firing holes in rotation the priming 

~ -lir? is sometimes placed at or near bottom of hole, so as to have all fuses 

' V at a safe distance inside the boles, when first shot explodes; then, if the 

'"11 hole is shot off, its fuse wiH not be cut, causing misfire. This practice 

•'*. vith ammonia dynanu'te or gelatin dynamite, but never with straight 

~ -cs. which are readily ignited by the least side-spit from a fuse and are 

'"'^t hibie to bum in the hole. Efficient tamping should be insisted 

rt produces greater effect, and the more complete the detonation, the 

' r MIS will be the fumes. Ready-made paper tamping bags are a conven- 

use leads miners to exercise more care in tamping. 

<=aal Mvlag. The most satisfactory explosives are the gelatins, whidi 
ft^mmmm deosty snd water resistance, and produce minimum of fumes. 
'X4 cha fc**^****t. the diaige must be oonoentrated m the bottom of the 

170 * Explosives 

lv)tc«, to leave room for sufficient tamping to insure a clean breali^. 171 
arc Uftually wet, especially in the bench, and in dry holes or uppers, g4 
(lcilrft))lo because it can be relied upon to "stick." Ventilation in . t.«j 
gnieratly iKX>r and the fumes from gelatins are the least noxious of 
vxplottives. For headitig cut-holes, 60 or 75% gelatin or blasting g« 
generally used; for relief, rib, roof, floor, and bench shots, 40% ^elattixi is 
strong enough. In soft rock, and small tunnels or drifts, a good nxetln 
drill a hole straight into center of face, spring or chamber it once or t.^v 
IcMul for fmal shot with a fairly large charge of blasting gelatin, well taxjoji 
moist sand. 

Quarrying dimension atone, including stone for fills, rip-rapping, and crili 
well at (or building. Use slow-acting explosives; the more powerful, quidt-a^ 
plosives nhftltcr the stone. Granular, and other slow-acting powders, such as 
frtesinit ammonia grades, may be used in hdes where an air space is left foe si 
Un# of (mctvirv. For subsequent blasting, black powder is best, fired by dectLri 
Q^Un«^y (use, or electricity. For large charges, blasting powder is fired ^ratli &d 
by a dynatuite primer. 

Quairying email atone (for crushers, cement works, kilns, etc). Hish c 
may bv u«f<l, the one best adapted to be determined by ezperience. Quick. -ac: 
l^wiws art Innkt for mrk which readily transimts shock of explosion to a. con^ 
dUtaiHT. Hard UnMstone. trap, granite, etc, usually require straiglit K G <1>1 
t4 !(o'^* KtrruKtH and upwards. In very wet holes, where expksive is immcrsccj 
h\Hirs, irrlAtin d> nAmUrs mvtst be used. In dry w<wk. and in rock which a.l3sort 
t4 »h^Kk «M r\)4«Viuv>, »)\ms»cting explosives, like gnmular powder and low^ 
amnh^nU \x>\^\ter>. jtr^ u>^uAlt>- best. Quick >«ctiag explosives shoold not be used 
Ukf Mil\hl^vn<> AtKi n\aH. nor slow -actinic eipkvives in flint, granite, or the likei 
ttw^tivs eM^xvavr^ «^i *\\ fn^Wrs. eH^cv-tAlN ktw-freenng gelatins, are peeCeraJble 
MivalhHs t^VAUjw tbt> v)o not $udcr k>t!« in ec^ciency as noted with the slcmislxt ; 

Slri|«iikt> llw' >k««^e«i>avtinc fvch evTMsh-es are best; grannhtrd <|ynaxnj 
Kmi |il«vH<» s^ W«« trrejatvt a:*.>i(vvxia •Lixnamues ao to jori' beiag senenJlsr us 
W«>N ^iVoSMtv^ S^Nirs >iKx:»>'. ^e s^"'^"-^ ^a^ ^i^ v^^ sbwest-^cti^ K c^aAosiv 
xU> x*\vi. « r*..\rv*, ji-;Aa.:Ui\vr »v >iA>-,;r^ jx»»'j«- is !Bc«a ccvoMBicaL For znoi:>t 
M^ ft^ %?^' V«i «^ \a;v. \< x\ XY<;> wy<. a V««-^j,ie $:rx;$:^ 4>~iuflutc Hiilb-sx^d< 
vA'^'.v M\ y A^ .^"^ , <a> jiv<>t «s pivc .oc H'<f\c<:-.A$ v^uj-$«>. l^t kA far fiaeal cKiarse 

,V V V 1 ^. s. .V A- • J ^ %v -. •. *-. w' o*'.^-*??* .1: s».Tne a^iiasavv. Etcb aC hoA^ an 

K*-. V '^^ . V » < v«. ' '\.\ ^-s »,«^ ,-^-vt «• "v J.*". *v\ '.ttt «->eft 


Special Uses for Explosives 171 

than two cutzidges of x V4 by 8-in dynumte. TUs duige will 

«axe deep pot bales and mateml can be handled with hone scraper without miring 

For blasting boolders, block-hoUng is most economica], and 40% low- 

sutaUe. If time h more important than economy ol explosive. 

Iiy mud-capping or "adobe shots," with 40 to 60% 

Though gelatin dynamites withstand action of 
T better than other high explosives (blasting gelatin stands water almost 
'1:1 td%i. aiaight N G dynamites are usually preferred for submarine ex- 
'^T. because of their greater sensitiveness. The temperature of the water 

— Ih- so low that gelatins, less sensitive than straight dynamite under the 
-•-vliiksis, are very difficult to explode completely. Hence, holes are 
rri, rock, is not broken, and unexploded gelatin is found by the dredges. 
:^i ^■'r •^•-namite is sufficient^' sensitive to explode by concussion from an 
■'-^ &:k. if holes are not more than 4 or 5 ft apart. Consequently, in case 
. - r 01 oat of the electric caps or connections, all the holes will be exploded 
.^jxsA-m.. In submarine w<x'k, holes are generally untamped, except by 

-'". lad the quicker-acting straight dynamite therefore does better work. 

J anridves should just fit the holes; especially necessary for shallow holes. 

Manlnaaaa ases: dearing land of stumps and boulders: ditching and draining 

jij!i btotkiag log and ice jams; destroying wrecks; cutting off pilings; breaking 

 « tne pliBting: hardpan and subsoil blasting; digging boks for posts and poles; 

'- i2«2c fur foandatioQs and cellars; trenching for tiling and pipe lines; breaking 

cf. ire tad other materials; loosening frozen material in railroad cars; tearing down 

-I'^rya; «;^<btting k^^ for railroad ties, fence raib, etc; cutting off large fires; 

~ 4( am ftkies; breaking old building foundatkms; blasting old mine timbers; 

• zg ioRsi tires. 

Biack M«««<*«f powder in eoal mining. Bhick powder has so long been 

^' ::! coal mining tliat, as regards execution only, it is considered best for this 

~v Most coal miners are so familiar with its use, and good miners can judge 

- 1. T^miefy, that excellent results are usually obtamed with it (15). The sbw 

-^ action of black powder produces a large percentage of himp coal. Be- 

—jc i its bulk, it can be charged advantageously and estimated so closely that 

Rc 17. BlMti]« in Coal with Black Fig 18. Blasting fak Coal with Black Powder 
Powder and Fuse Middle Cartridge Primed with Electric Squib 

t"- snMTaDy be used more economically than other powders. But, as black 

• 'T is looae, considerable care and judgment are required to get best results. 

- k ;cvder must be made up by the miner in paper cartridges or shells of 

' *: uze. In doing this, observe following points: 

'1 .Lf cartridge of proper diameter to slip into the hole without too much 

'•' xt Gwtridge oC proper length to hoM just the quantity of powder necessary. 
\»A.t the powder down into the shell, to compact it, to minimise air-space 
m the fnttloroe. 

' "^ cartridge is placed in hole it must be well pushed back, unless an a!r- 
' \^TtA to cudikm force of explosion. 
' -.r drctiK squib ^ Fig 17 and 18) b fastened in cartridge to ignite powder, 





Fig 19. Miner's Needle, far Squib 

ora-'Deedk'' (Tig 19) or a'^blaatrngbuid'* ri<bokiswet)is iaacrted 

pofffder, *n^ the tamping cxmpacted firmly anxmd H. The more 

cfaaige is mnfinrri, the greater 
dexidoped. When unooofined 
simply bum (15). 

If a miner's squib (Art 10) 1 
pull out needle and insert squfl 
end first, into hole made by necc^ 
Ihe blasting barrel, and ignite sn^ 
of squib. The squib bums for 

secxmdsw and then shoots back into the powder, igniting it Use right 1 

tamping, so that needle-hole will be smooth, or, if barrel is used (H-i 

pipe), see that the hole in it is clear and dean. 
When black powder is ignited with squib or fuse, the force aeem^ to 

through seams of the coal, di^Iadng it fordb^. It does not exert a sharp 

and therefore does not produce much 

fines, if proper granulation of powder and 

correct quantity be used. >\Ticn very 

stow action is desired an air-space h left, 

cither between nowder and tamping or 

around cartridge (Fig 20). The proper ^^ ^^ . 

granulation of black powder is determined ^^'%^''y-^'^'" " '' 

only by knowledge of the powder and the 

coal, and by trial. A test is necessary to 

determine conclusively whicb size of grain 

is best for any particular coal. 

-'////////rr///////// •:■ '/ '^. '/,'. -^ '•"- 

^y,'  ''-". •//■  ■' ■' ' • ' * ' ''■* ' 

Fig 20. Blasting in Coal. Air S) 
between Charge and Tampinc 

Earth-work and soft-ore mining. In blasting soft iron ore in op 
work, boles are drilled by steam drill, or by hand chum drill operated by : 
men. Holes are usually spnmg with dynamite and fired with black po 
Miniature tunnels, gopher holes or coyote holes, as they are sometimes calle 
used in the stripping operations, and are also fired with black powder 
underground mining of soft iron ore, the approved method is to fire a a 
hole, after it has been spnmg several times, and then square up with relief a] 
holes. In this method, the lower strengths of low-freezing ammonia dyn^ 
are preferred to other explosive. In harder ore the V-cut is used, with 
ammonia dynamite. 

Railroad work. In cutting through fairly solid rock, the holes are usually 18 01 
deep, spaced 8 ft aptirt; they arc sprung with so% straight dynamite until each ho 
hold sufTicient explosive to break nuiterial small enough to be handled by steam si 
Roughly, from 25 to 75 lb ex[)lo!iive per hole is used in rock of average hardness 
it is economical to fire simultaneouMy as many holes as possible, a large-size bl: 
machine, or a power or lighting circuit, should be used for firing. For soft rock, \ 
clay, loam, or sand, it is economical to use a power chum drill. Thb makes a 4 t< 
hole, of any required depth, usually 40 to 100 ft; holes usually spaced 15 or ao f t t 
The holes are often sprung with dynamite, and after thorough cooling, usually oven 
are charged with black powder, sometimes several tons in a hole. Black powti 
granulated dynamites can be used only when holes are dry, and with great care 
working near steam shovels, locomotives, etc, as many accidents have occurred 
sparks dropping into black powder. If work is wet and sparks can not be avinded. 
fairly low-grsidc Uiw-freczing ammonia dynamite. In firing simultaneous^ a large 
ber of holes (50 to 100), use waterproof electric caps, to prevent leakage of corient thi 
rock, with attendant chance of misfires. 


Blasting Supi^ies 


li. BUsting SuppiiM 

A op is a copier cylinder, dosed at one end, fontaining a 
d drtnnating compositioii, and is fired by a hue. Caps are 
to qoantity of detonating composition contained (Table 4). 

Ttble 4. Ftalminate of Mercufy Biasrim Caps 
For Fuse Firing 


No 5 

No 6 

No 7 


- iibeSi " .. . 


o .234 




o 234 


1. 000 





No 8 

1. 875 




For Electric Firing 



"tc^ charge, grail 

No 6 



IS 430 

No 7 




No 8 






Tbe above tables refer only to caps charged with fulminate of mercury com- 

• - iri i BfTTn g osuaDy of 80% fulminate of mercury and 20% chlorate of potash), 

') tbc iUadard against which other detonating compounds are graded. Other 

'••wingi m ,j|go vntd, in diarges of such amount that the detonating effect is eqoal 

^ ^ oMUHwIiiig grade of fulminate composition. 

' ^ apbsvcs, the stranger the cap the better the execution, as a nile. 
' ^ctoBston abanki be used for tunneling, shaft-sfaikfaig and similar work; 
^- iai^es sQoetimes require No 8. Caps should never be crimped on fuse 
'< *kh special crimpers made for purpoee; biting them, or nicking them 

^ bife, is neither efficient nor safe. They should be stored in a dry phux, 
"'■*we weakens their force. Do not attempt 10 extract composition 
^ '^ VEus; it is exceedingly sensitive and is often detonated if scratched 

led OTt with a pitt or similar instrument. Miners should not wear oil or 
".'^ ku4amps when handling caps; many accidents have occxuied from 
">< iaSaf iBto a box of caps. 

caps (fiiMt) (Fig 21). An electric cap consists of a 

'^'^ M (A), i%« to 2 in long l>y a273 in diameter, dosed at one end. It 
'^ s chaife of detonating compon- 

' ^:. m which is embedded a fine pkti- 

a »vv (£) connecting the two copper 

'^ t>' lftlm(Z» are hdd in place and 

^^uol fna each other by a composition 

'^'P^ if), which, in turn, b retained 

'ir roopoBtion (G) hdd by corrugations in shell Electric c^;» are used for 
' "' ie pseooi and dusty oolfieries, and for firing charges simultaneously, thus 

' M ig cxpkisive. G^y one kind ok beand op electeic caps 6B0uu> be 

■yvtna oc OHE 8ESISS. Differmt brands vary m sensitiveness, and il the 
■^ Bsaria aie not nnifonn, the leait aeastive wiU probably misfire. 


Fig 21. Electric BlasHng Cap 


174 Explosives 

DsUy electric blattiiic cape are for firing blasts in 3 or 3 voUesrs 

application of dectric corrent. They are used with a special detonator, 
"No Delay," which is necessary because first and second-period <lel£ 
caps are less sensitive to ignition from passage of electric current, and i 
can not be used in series with ordinary electric c^e>s. When current 
mitted, about one second elapses before first-delay caps detonate^ a 
period between these and seoond-dday. These detonators are useful i 

driving and are especial 
mended for shaf t-sinkii 
enabling blaster to fiu 
round without returning 

^ Electric fuse isnit 

pjjj - — pwto ^fm« 22) are devices for ig 

Fig 22. Electric Fuse Igniter fuse, usually of hirfi-gra. 

proof quahty, by electric 
When shipped they are not attached to fuses, but are crimped on ^wh 
The interval between the (^leration of blasting machine (or turning os 
rent) and the firing of the cap, depends on length of the fuse attached. 

Spedal dedric blasting caps. For very wet work, and where sludge a 
possess high conductivity, special insulation of cap wires is necessary to preveni 
leaking from wires at one end of series to wires at other end, thus fonning a shuii 
wires at middle of circuit. This condition can be detected by making rrtritanm 
of firing circuit on a direct-reading ohm-meter. If reading is the same, tbere is 
age; if there is a drop in resistance, after loading in wet holes, there is liability c 
leakage, indicating necessity for special waterproof cap wires. For firiivs cl 
deep water, a special, highly waterproof electric cap is made. There are otb 
ficatioos for various purposes, such as having wires of larger gage than ord! 
decrease resistance in deep-hole blasting. Electric caps are also made with ire 
used where only a or 3 shots are fired simultaneously. These have much hifi^hcr i 
resistance than caps with copper wires, and are not recommended for lengrths o 
Electric caps with tin-coated copper wires are used in certain mines where it is 0I 
abk to have partides of bare copper in material mined, and where number of 
fired simultaneously makes use of iron wires impracticable. 

Electric squibs (Fig 23) are somewhat similar to dectric caps, 
the shell is of heavy paper instead of copper, and cap fiUmg is 
powder instead of a detonating compound. They 

are espedally designed for black powder; can not wimv z*^ 

be used for high explosives. They possess advan- 
tage of simultaneously firing several charges, and oi 
permitUng more perfect confinement of charge than pj. 23. Ekctric Sc 
with ordinary powder squibs; also, the charge can 
be ignited in middle, givmg a little quicker and strooger action and tr 
explosion of entire charge before any portion can be cut off by a fall of sur 
mg material. Electric squibs are safer than fuse or ordinary miners' squi 
cause shots are not fired until every one, induding blaster, is at a safe di« 
and hang-fires are entirely prevented. Th^ should always be stored 
place, being readily affected by moisture. Electric squibs are made ^tl 
iron and copper wires, those with iron wire being less expensive but req 
stronger current (see preceding paragraph). 

ISiners' squibs are for firing black powder only. The squib consists of a core of j 
composition tightly rolled in paper; one end terminates in a slow match, made by <j 
twisted end of paper in melted sulphur or other combustible. In using, the squib 
in mouth of hole formed by withdrawal of needle, or in the Masting barxd (Art 9). 
Other cod of hole so f orawd terminates in the charge. Outer end of squib is lighte 

-j:itj faM "nmtfi" iJ a tnin or core of a special kind of powder, tightly 
. .•X a ncixsvc tunu ot hemp. jute, or ooUoa yam. aa<l-t^K, made mare 
'- ■ueimof by ailditiciii of aqihah at other vomuh, or gutta-perdu. 
' <i:£fiT Bade to bum, when uocoafiDed, at rate of about i ft per min. 

- ; -yaly '■— p^, aa that gases from buming powder train an not escape 

-:^are oisej fuse to bum faster. For diy worii, hanp (use is good for 

- icria. but i; too anall ia diameter prc^terly to fit standard caps. The 
■.r rrads are usually the least waterproof: the laon expensive, tbe better 

■.-^•i watei. Fot very wet woric, or under water, gutta-percha fuse will 

<rve. ftlm eitiz precautioos are necessary, the aid of fuse and the 

- '-? op my be (£pped into >q>hslt paint and dried, or joint between cap 

 -* awHed with taDow oc soft soop. Do not use oil or grease, which is 

- '_ lirct powder train by dinolving asphalt varnish. As Che powder m 
" : '.aa ibsrjda moisture, always cut cS an inch or two Irom end, bdore 
■~--x laiap. Cutofi cod square across; push into o^ without twisting until 

.- -jQciB the op charge. If fuse is cut at an angle, painted end may batd 

- L3d by aMtrtog end ol powder train, cause misfire. Nearly every kiad 
•■ ?xu am nl ades more or less in burning, and therefore should mot be 

' . .n tbe dynamite. When neceHaiy to have priming cartridge at botloni 
' 1 hw jiould be vlected that will tjat from the sides as little as possible, 
— --ndgi sfadk must not be slit; fuse is less likely to ignite dynamite through 


: -^iher pushed doam or polled up, the dynamo bang same in both; tbe 
 -^"Ti machine is preferred. The current generated durizig descent of 
' 1' is ^KTl-drcuilnl through field magnets until end of stroke; then the 
' rid of lack-bai strikes spring of drcujt breaker, and shunta current tluough 
J Saa (a external circuit or firing line. Place machiae in a finn. level 
n. and operate whh both hands and full force; an attempt to operate it 
~ St taad, or Bi B bi^-hearud way, mil often remit in misfiiei from in- 

176 Explosive^ 

niffident cuirent Keep blasting machines in diy, oool place. Xlie c 
tor, brushes, and drcuit-breaking contact points should be kept, deal 
and free from oil Oil bearings and gears occasionally. 

Clrcttit testers (pftlvanometers) are of two general types: one merely 
whether circuit is open or dosed; the other is essentially a small direct -rea< 
meter, indicating by movement of a needle across graduated scale the approxim 
ance of blasting drcuit in ohms. With the latter, it may be determined whctb 
blmting drcuit is comi^te, or broken, or short-circuited. By a table, giv 
showing resistance of electric caps with different bngths and sizes of coanectin^ 
ing wire, the exact condition of blasting drcuit at nuMnent of firing may be di 
fairly accuratdy. The circuitrtester b a valuable adjunct, and, where a co; 
amount of electric blasting is done, should form part of blaster's equipment. J» 
to breaks and thdrt circuits, it also detects leakage of current through groundi 
pipes, steam pipes, and imperfect connections. The instrument is furnished witi 
chloride cell, which is constant in its current output. The current thereby geoci 
weak that the danger of firing ah electric cap while testing is remote; but, ats a 
precaution, tests should be made from a safe distance. The ordinary tyi>e \ 
reading ohm-meter and battery tester, containing carbon^dnc dry-cell ba< 
liable tp send suffident current through a blasting drcuit to explode an electric 
greater caution is therefore necessary in using them, espedaHy for testing one 

Wis sting machhie testers (rheostats). These are for determining inexpensi 
capadty and condition of a blasting machine. There are several types. One pi 
means of sending a current through different resistances and a small lamp, ao tfa 
connected to the poles corresponding to type of blasting iftarhine tested, a brij 
indicates that machine is up to standard. Another tester has 6 posts, with 
resistances so arranged that 20 combinations of varying resistanoe may be obi 
connection with use of an electric blasting cap in series, acting as an indicatoJ 
thus possible to determine whether blasting machine is up to strength, and if 1 
how many caps in drcuit it b capable of firing. By its use overloading a given 
machine b avoided, with consequent danger of insuffident cuirent and misfires. 

Connectiiig and leading wire. Connecting wire is used for oonnect 
electric cap wires of one hole to wires of cap in an adijaoent hole. As 1 
dealers in blasting supplies, it is usually No 20 or No 21 B & S gage, woi 
I and 2-lb spools. The use of the larger gage wire is advisable, as it ad 
to the resistance of firing drcuit. This wire shoUld not be used for con] 
a Kne of holes to blasting machine; for that purpose leading wire shu 
used, of No 14 gage or larger. No 14 B & S gage wire, ih coib of 504 
satisfactory for all kinds of dry work. 

Reatetaace tablet. The resbtanoe of copper wire, B & S gage, per i 000 ft, 1 
usualb^ employed in electric blasting, is: 

ri4Kt' No 







1 5S6 


J sn 

, »* 

4 ooi> 


^ c» 


ko 14 


I* 7S 


\^ \» 

Power and Ugfadag drcuit 

Leading wire 

S>metimes used for leading wire, but not 
recommended for firing large droiifif 

Connecting wire 

Sixv Attached to electiic caps 

\Wxtn ol rU'itiU i'mv» hrtvo K rfni^tance cf o^o^j ohm per ft (doubled). 
plMttiiiiin luUino tkl tsivh cUvttic v^)% ha.« a resistance of 0859 ohm. Til 
»Utttiv«ii \4 U\^\ wiiv, \4 ai4t> u»c\l for irun-wtte ekctric caps^ is about 101.0 I 
pM I iaai tl. 

ir. 10 

Blasting Supplies 177 

off EleGtric BUwting Caps with tbdr Wirw 

< ir- n 0? 


*Re5tstaxkcc of 

cap with copper 
wires, ohms 

Resistance of 

catp with iron 

wires, ohms 



o gB7 

1. 051 

I 179 
I 343 
I 371 

X 435 

1. 661 




•Length of 
wire, feet 




•Redstanoe of 

cap with copper 

wires, ohms 

1. 819 


W that 

the E. I. duPoot de Nemoun Powder Co, amily to prodacts manu- 
Tbey arc probably appraninate^ correct for most other 

. t; 


and their Power. John Munay, LoiMfea, 1892 

by Larseo. Testing Explosives. Chas. Griffin & Q>» 1905 

Tnaal by Monroe & Kibler. Explosives. John Wil^ ft Sons, Inc, 191a 
Modemes. C3i. Becsnger, Paris, 1911 

_ N. W. Henley Pub Co, New York, 1906 

A Mannal of Explosives. Ontario fiuicau of Mines, Toixmto, 1900 
UniaQvcrfaOtttos bei Spcen^arbeiten in SteinbiQchen. Carl Heymann, 
Beiia. 2^07 
Lciks Die Ezploshrstoife. Veit ft Co. Leipzig. Heft i, Schwarzpulver. 3, Die 
olie, 190s; 3> NititQglyceria und Dynamit, 1908; 4, Anunonsalt- 
_ . 1909; 5, ChJorstsprengstoffe, 1910 

The Manufacture of Explosives. WhitUker ft Co, London. 1895 
in Explosivin. Whittaker ft Co, London, 1909 
nd Sprangndttel. F. Vieweg und Sohn. Bxaunsdiweig, 1900 
Hirh £xpla«ves. Critcfaley Parker. Melbourne. 1913 
Nitro £xplasivca. D. Van Nostxand Co, New York, 1906 
MOitary Exploaives. John Wiley ft Sons. Inc. New YoA. 1906 

The Shot Firers' Guide. D. Van Nostrand ft Co. New York, 1889 

_ laire d«s Matiires Explosives. Ch. Dunod, Paris, 1903 

ky A. Cooprr. Frixncr of Explosives. Eyre ft Spottiswoode. London, England 
i r-.>.jMve«. Fuse and Caps, Used in Mining Operatioos. U S Bureau of Mm^, 

hmii 17 awl 48; TecM Papers 6 and 17 


Vfijcioe. Wm 
;>i-ucL Dicti 

U S Bureau of Mines, SuBs 15 and 66 

of Kgh Explosrves in Northern Muws. Mim 6» Set Press, Vol 106, p 930 
— with Machines on Tripods. Bmg 6r Min Jour, Vol 95, p 761 
> -aake Grade Maxkinss. Brng 6t Mm Jour, Vol 95, p 77a 
h "s^ime Holes for Pcrmissibles. Stack Diamond, Vol 50, lHo i2 
l^^roatiiv Caps- Emi fir Mim Jour, Oct 13, 1906, p 683 
'j.4»iv«» hk Miocn' Homes. Coai Age, Vol 3. No 13 
• «« Shoold the Primer Go ? Bmg6r Min Jour, Biarch 33, 1913, p 584; April 37, 

i^ts. p. 835 
Viuaaaea and Thaw Houses for Expksives. U S Bureau of Mines, Tech PaPer, 

V, 18 
V^eaci^ Princaples in Use of Dynamite. Coal Age, Vol 3, No is 

in EzpkMivcs. E»f fir Jf in /^.r. Feb 3, 1913, P 370 

178 Ezplosivefi 

ArtkUs in Periodiads, etc 

30. Blasting Supplies. Mhus bt Min, Nov 1910. p 322 

31. The Use of the Ballistic Mortar for Determining the Strength of Explosives. 

Comey and F. B. Holmes. Report Eighth International Codkx«ss of I 
Chemistry, New York, Vol 25, p 309 

32. Methods for the Determination of the Effective Strength of High Explosives. 

Comey and F. B. Holmes. Report Eighth International Coagnss oi J 
Cbonistry, New Yoric, Vol 25, p 217 

33. Methoden zQr Priifung der Rraftaiisserung von Sprengstoffen uxkd Nbrmall 

HerstelluQg von Bleicylindem und deren Anwendung zu einer Veislcichj 
Messung der Wirkung von Sprengstoffen. C. £. BicheL Fifth Intern 
Congress of Applied Chemistry, Berlin, Vol 2, p 292 

34. Methoden sur PrUfong von Sprengstoffen mit besonderer Berflcksicfatigui 

Trauzkhen Bleiblockprobe. H. Brunswig. Fifth International Congi 
Applied Chemistry, Berlin, Vol 2, p 286 

35. Study of the Velocity oi Detonatitn. A. M. Comey. Rq)ort of Seventh 

national Congress of Applied Chemistry, London, Section Ill-b, a8 

36. Ann Reps, H. M. Jaaptctoa of Ezplosivci. Pzinted by Eyre & 


Mining Engineers' Handbook 179 




ooHsuuDiG avn. ingimxek 

ki Page 

- Cm u Affected by diancter 

tad FotSHCiM of Rock X79 

2 :ic3 5*rf x8o 

Wffhwh and Cdei of Hand 

Di^^ 183 

<. MctteA aad Cost of Open-cot 

DxffiBV 184 

ofBhsdag 189 

Alt Page 

6. Spacing and Pointing Drin Holes 190 

7. Charging and Firing 192 

8. Cost of Loading and Hauling. . 196 

9. Quanying ^. 199 

ID. Open<ut Rock Eicavatioo aox 

XX. Txendung 304 

X3. Subaqueous Excavation 205 

BibUqgiaphy 205 

— Smabm in pnxeotkeses celer to BiUiognqAy at end of this aectioo. 

data OB Masting in genexal, and surface excavstioa of rock, as 
laibond and highway thxoogb<nts, and side>hil] cuts, and 
Tunneling (Sec 6), Shaft Sinking (Sec 7). Machine 
- J mi CoBpRnois (Sec 15) and Ezpkieii^ (Sec 4). 

t Coat u Affected by Ch«rftcter and Formation of Rock 

Bats flf diilliac is influenced chiefly by the hardness of rock. In general, 

• -Si 9eed in bard rocks is much kmer than in soft, though, in some shalea 
"< acker friabie rocks, the accumulation of sludge in the hole prevents the 
: biQ iti&jttg an effective blow, and retaids drillmg. This is remedied by 
'-i 1 vater-iet (Art 2). In some soft rocks a heavy blow will drive in the 
' *> that it sticks. Seamy, blocky rock also causes stidung or fitcbeking; 
-J7 ovcroofnc by withdrawiog the bit and dropping a handful of quartz 

* ast-iran fragments into the hole. Toughness and hakdness of the rock 
^ ^etenmc m great measure the kind and amount of expk>8ive required. 

< nkt^rtt rocks require more powerful ezpbsves and in greater quantities 

•^brittkrodU. Dip ok sLQFE<rf the rock strata and presence or absence 

«ims alsc affect cost at excavation. Rock strata may He at sudi an angle, 

i3t lams be so fecated, that the amount of drilling and explosive required is 

r*id7 kaaoMd. On the other hand, these conditions may require the ezcava- 

^ rf iD^ ootikle the deaiied cross-section. 


Rock Excavation 

Overbrealoige for 8 moDths dining 1909 in open-cat woik on the Uviagmf onp v 
ment of the Detroit River wiu 14.7%; 375 750 ai yd of limertonc ezavmtkm % 
for, and 314000 cu yd looiened (zi). Overbreakage in open cats (mostly in i 
on Grand Trunk Pacific R R, was 10 to 40% (20). Overbreakage in the approac 
tunnel near PeeksUU was 10%, tne strata dipping at a high angle (ao). 

Size into which rock breaks when blasted determines meCLod i 
dling, and influences cost. 

Voids in hard rod:, when broken by a crusher, amount to about 55% if all s 
mixed and the stone slightly shaken, but. if screened, each siae has 45 to 4.8 91 
Solt, friable rocks, as shales, break into widely vaiying sizes and therefore have 
percentage of voids. Hard rock blasted in large pieces and thrown into cars ha 
40 to 45% voids, X cu yd of solid rock making x.67 to i.8s cu yd broken. 

Voids 30% 

No of cu yd. loose measure. ) j ^ 
from I cu yd of solid rock I 

1. 54 






Swelling in fill. On excavating a mixture of solid and loose rode and earth, 1 
m {dace makes about x.4 cu yd b fill. If rock be first stripped of earth, and then 
and dumped by itself, the percentage of voids is larger. At Boulder, Colo. 3 6o< 
of solid rock made a 5 340 cu yd embankment; a ratio of x: 1.51. In Viripxua. 
cu yd of limestone and mica schist, broken and put in embankment, made 90 coo 
an increase of 80%. In subaqueous excavation, Ashtabula Harbor. O, 6a 869 
(place measure) gave 103 537 cu yd measured in scows, an increase of 65%. 

2. DriU Steel 

Octagon steel is most used. Length of cutting edge (gage) of bit 
from 200% of width of shank for soft rock, to say 130% for hard; cfaiaej 
is generally used for hand drilling, and cross, X, Z, and other shapes for mi 
drills. The projecting ends of cutting edge are the wings. 

Table z. Weights, Lb per Ft, of Solid and Hollow Drill Steel (Origin 





















low, lb 


low, lb 


low, lb 


















I 33 




















I 9X 

















1. 45 




























3 23 







I Me 









2 37 



3 38 


4 30 

4 13 


3 54 

3 53 









4. IS 




3 IS 



4 15 

















4 77 





5. 01 





5. 35 

5. 23 






5. 35 

7 03 






4 57 



















7. 59 

7 32 

7 X5 

• »< 






9 00 


8 64 


• • 1 

Note. — Sise of hole in hollow steel is assumed at 0.25 in. Actually* it varies 
aise of steel and with spedfication. 

DriD Sud 


 IFia III ard «itb iMgeaoO-Kaod "JkUudo'" «od Soffivan "Sa> 

lO Hollo- ^inl rtal. — - -"- -^'' 

Of cb^ bit», b good in solt or mediuAi 
[ '-oaBii aWfr it a hard lockmrml thccut- 
:. iiUOKsJnal.whbafisbuiloiY-bit, 
H inr ue  cqaI or Hit Jock. rornmooly 

Sud is (uuallr H to 

3dIi T«fc. H-in aed nuy have a i-in 
toi. a 1.35-iD bit. Diamof the "Gn- 
aa bit o( a set icK > siveD bole should 
4 thaa 0.75 in for charging dyna- < 

hiark pDvder, tlie bcje must be much " 

Hi iJ(t if 1 bad Ml iaaually 

SpcdaJ DriU Stcdi 

ihoold be it 90* ior hard nxfc, 
Uuol-ntge mtj (utR. Gaoi d1 bit dtcnua u 
9. The Tedvctioa ia gtgn depcTHb on hardnoa 
of the loA. In soft nek. tbe bit wingi wcu 
•lowly, and the dccrtuc id fafi ia kn linn ioc 
baTd nt^. Reductiaa in gage is commoaJy Hi 
to H ID pn bit. . 

MuUna-diiUlrfts. F^ 2 abowsdiffcr- 
ent abrnpti (T. H. Proske, M &-5 Proi). 

i4, ttaodard Azneiican crou-bit B has an 
tiasm ckannci: aiwlc (16*) and itnud edfs 

t«data"ndc" faeebelowl. A is auooffcr (bail 
3, tad m soft ncki will remain ahmxj> abovl 

»iety lorn 

g and kccpiDC Ibe bole round; 
D. Brui 

bins the eajy-iharpeninf qualities 
of the cnsa-bit irjtli advviU^sal tbcX. Eit 
tbe X-biL ihe wings o( which niut revoWc 180' 
lorlhe edgato Kriktiwice insameplaa; Ihb 
pirvaits airuHG. Fiflahi^i-ctfiLc(bic.lavDrfld 
lot bunmer-djillL bccLuse it starts a hole fasily; 
faut if k uri Id fallow warns uvl (aBse crooked 
Ideal- out tbe cuttings) 


I bmk aailr. B, round-edge bil. I9 
I rock, but liSeiinlBid.. /. V-bit. 
ndi fnebr u (bm is pltnty ol rocen tor die 
itJii^ 10 escape; difficolt to sbaip^ br hand. 
buS or du»l-bit. fujmerly used for bard ruck 
Missouri and still sometimes usrd m marble 
. hai been supeisedwl by power- 
I X-bit; cuts fast in ■eamy ibale with 
iel. X. Z-bit. iviHlimea employed 


Rock Excavation 

Table a. Shapes and Driniac Speeds of Hammer-drin BHs (SuSvan Mi 

of bit 

as* diamond- 
point -t- 

25" diamond- 
point X 

Convex + 

Flat + 

4* concave + 

as" pointed 
BuU - 

Plat Bull - 

tion of 






of faole, 



Aver in 
per run, 

70 lb 
air press 




Aver in 
per run, 

85 lb 
air press 



' { 



Spots easily. Hole rifles 
Rotation easy. Gage he 

Spots easily. Drills ro«xn<l b 
tation easy. Gage f skirl y 

Spots easily. Hole rifles 
Rotation easy. Gas® be 

Difficult to spot hole. Jl< 
badly. Rotation iistrd. 
fairly durable. 

Spotseasily. Drills round hi 
tation easy. Gageinrears 

Difficult to spot hole. H< 
badly (3 flutes). RotAti< 
Gage wears rapidly. 

Special bits for removing cuttings. A spirkl steel (like a wood 
propels the cuttings from the hole. Cruciform steel, with lugs at inte 
the angles, performs a like function, when used on reciprocating drills, 1 
acting as scrapers in removing the sludge. A steel with a longitudina 
her from the bit's point to a side outlet close to the chuck, also keei 
clear. A portion of sludge enters the chamber on the down stroke and h 
out by the entrance of more at each succeeding stroke. Locher tractii 
has kuge steels, with a hollow chamber and ball valve. Compressed 
WATER forced through hollow bits aids in removing cuttings; air alone 
rocks makes much dust (Sec 15, Art 25; Sec 23, Art 5). Water allay 
and preserves temper of the bit. Water- jet is ^ecUve. A small pip< 
serted in the hole alongside of the bit, and a stream of water forced thrc 

Quantity of water for jet (ao): Let Q * gal of water per min; D i* diam oi 
of drill bole, in; Z?'  diam of drill steel, in; d ■> diam of largest grain of slu 

Then. Q ~ 7 {D* - I/*) V^; or. neglecting area of sted, = 7^ "^d. Vck 
the rising current must exceed that at which the partides would fall in still -vrater. 
chips 1.4-in diam (as in shale), require 22 gal water per min in a 2.5-in hole. 1 
quartzite. with drills operating at 60 to 65 lb air press, dry holes were drilled at 
per min cutting time, while holes with a water-jet under a press of 40 to 80 lb p 
were drilled at 0.78 to 1.34 in per min. 

Drill steel sharpening is done by hand or by machine sharpeners, 
rocks, a bit must generally be sharpened for every 4 ft of hole; in medium 
for every s ft; in very hard rocks, for every 1.5 ft. A blacksmith a|id help 
sharpen about 140 bits per day at a cost of about 4i per bit. A machi 
sharpen up to 60 bits per hr, or say 200 to 400 bits per day. Machine-shaj 
bits cost about 3 ^, last longer, and cut better than hand-sharpened bits. 

Heatinc. Drill steel contains 0.8 to i % carbon; by overheating, steel is burn 
becomes softer through loss of C. For sharpening, heating must not be contint 
long, nor carried above a cherry red. The bit and part of the shank are w^ bee 
the fuel, whkh should be charcoal, coke, or blacksmith's coal. If the fud contains st 
the steel becomes brittle when hot, or hot short; if it contains phosphonis the 
britUe when cold, or com short. Oil and electric furnaces are fOfnetinwi v^ed, 
gives too Urge a flame and electricity requires a special forge. 

'^ Methods and Cost of Hand Drilling 183 

lilt j to rymn^ . Bits should be constantly turned in the fire, removed 
^sryTedacddies&ed. The ed^^e of a badly- worn chisel bit is first upset 
. 'r^a^tt width. The bit is then held on the anvil at a slope of about x 
. -.40, vith its edge even with edge of the anvil. While hammering 
.-fill aita each half-dozen blo^irs. A file may be used on the hot hit for 
:'vvi^. Bkjvs ^K>uUi be lisht and glancing, to draw the fibers of the 
' CA.'^ iW edge, thus toughening the metal. There are 2 methods of 

.-.^ madsne-driU bits: set-havjcer and fuller -anb-dolly. In the 

* . ^-'tamma is placed on the bevels for driving the steel back. After 
- ^sarpened a tew times a drill bit must be reformed. In the second method 
"is. & ^zst drawn sharp at the comers with a fuller and then set back in 

- ^va W6h. a doUy . 

Vak^bc Attftsung. Power sharpeners are made by Word Bros, Ingersoll- 
' ' '- C X EaKbocg Drill Co, F wbanks-Morse Co, and a number of others. 
tsList csBfTttiatty oi 2 air-driven hammers for shaping the bit; one hori- 
t* .. \^ giber voticaL Price is from $800 to $1 200. ^ 

Aher being sharpened, the Ut is re- 

<^ &; tempering. When cherry red it is plunged «     

^~^ia ior a mamcnt to cool it partially, and then '*** *^ 

-*- • Q a stnsie^ or «nap*l board, to remove scale. 

''-: Iku advances again toward the tip, the play of 

^ oion should be watched in a dark comer of the 

The cokiTs appear in following order: Paleyel- —_,^^ 
^ \o* F ! . straw (470*), brown (490*^* purple (sjo"), ) 
'•tjc { 560' t . If they do not advance parallel to the ^g-™! 
zx cx^ t]Mt ade on which the colorsare advancing ^r.r-_=- j 
should be hdd in water. When the edge j ^-~- -- 
ooior plunge the bit into water, wave it back _^ J 
.«k ioin«re rapid and ev«i cooling, imtil ^ ^, Dtill.ten«eringT«t* 
c& to fena, and then leave it m the quenching bath. 

V asay be of water, salt and water, rape-seed oil, taltow, or coal-tar; brine 
-- *Jie dsiS fastest, oocd-tar slowesL Fig 3 shows a bath in which a grat^ set 
: a bd0w the water surface, supports the bits at the proper depth. 

t. Methods and Cost of Hand Drilling 

Keika^B. Sc(Ci£-BAin> drojjko is usually economical in the softer rocks 
>pth of about 3 ft; wt of hanuner, 3.5 to 4.5 lb. Double-hand drilling is 
•: ^:3r deep bfjks or very hard rock; 2 strikers may be employed; wt of ham- 

-. !9 fe. For 6 to S-ft holes, the starting bit is usually 1.25 to 1.5-in gage. 
>A pani, well handled, is effective for deep vertical holes. It is raised and 
wai by one or more men. 

tt act of diam of hola on the speed of drilling has never been fully deter- 
<d. la general, doubting the diam divides the speed by from 2 to 4. 

of h^o. A horiz hole is drilled at about 0.5 the speed of a verti- 

'*jwn halt; in *' uppers" the speed is materially less. Horiz and up holes 

' saafly dry, and the cuttings prevent the bit from striking the rock effec- 

. water poured into a down hole keeps the cuttings in suspension, per- 

'j^ the bit to strike against a jdatively clean face. , 

HvteaM of rock as affecting speed of drilling. In vertical holes (1.5-in 
"z^ fait} 1 maB holding and 2 men striking can in 10 hr drill 6-ft holes at 
vug Eitta: granite, 7 ft; trap, 11 ft; fimestoae, x6 ft. 


Rock Excavation 

Table 3. Cost of Band-hammer DriUinff (Original) 

Kind of 

Railroad cut 
Open cut . . . 
Open cut... 
Side-hUI cut 
Open cut . . 
Railroad cut 
Railroad cut 
Railroad cut 
Railroad cut 

Block boles. 

Trench . , . 
Open cut. 


Mine. . . 

Kind of rock 

Hard limestone. . . 

Mica schiat 

Mica schist 


Hard porphyry 

Very hard gpranite. 
Dark hornblende. 

Re4 granite 

Trap, diabase 

Red granite , 


Gneiss, tough schist. . . 
Very hard mica schist. 
Conglomerate, shale. . . 

Tough sandstone , 

Very hard syenite, q'tzite 

Augite diorite, firm red) 

porphyry i 

Chalcopyrite, limestone 

Medium rock 

Compact phonolite dike 
Compact phonolite dike 













I. so 






1. 35 

3. so 
3. SO 

bit, in 

















20 (6> 





av 1. 35 









a. 9 







(a) Indudiog 3.5^ for "nippers" (carrying drills) and 5^ for blacksmithing:. 
usual depth for hammer drilling; chum drilling cheaper. After reaching depi 
ft all 3 men used hammers, the drill turning of itsdf on the rebound, (c) Indui 
for sharp>ying. Machine drilling cost 24^. (d) Steam-drill work cost i&8^ p« 
this woik. due to sticking of drills, (e) Machine drilling, including sharpmlng o 
cost 39^- (/) Including 9^ for sharpening steel. 

Cost of hand chum drilling. 30-ft holes, 3.75 in diam at start and 1.5 in at fi 
in blue sandstone, cost 35^ per ft. Inio hr. 3 men put down the first 18 ft and 4 n 
last 12 ft. In brown sandstone, cost was from 35 to 40^ (labor. 15^ per hr). In 
and sandstones of the coal messures. holes 20 to 24 ft deep cost 40^ per ft. In the ] 
Range. Minn (Art 10). 4 men can drill 40 ft of 1.5-in hole in xo hr in stripfMng overfa 
and 96 ft in iron ore. With wages at $2, cost in stripping is 20^ per ft; in ore. 

Hand-power auger driUa are sometimes used for prospecting and I 
blast holes in soft ground, as coal, slate, shale, salt, gypsum, and talc. 
vary from simple hand augers to elaborate machines with tripod or post nol 
ings. Mounted machines weigh 80 to 100 lb; cost, $30 to $70. 

4. Methods and Cpst of Open-cut Machine Drilling 

Drill mountings for open-cut work are the tripod (Sec 15, Art 39), qaany>bar. g$ 
and special carriage for deep holes (Fig 4). Quarry bar is a borix bar sopportad a( 
end by legs. It is 3 to6 in diam. 8 to 12 ft bng. Cost, about $x6o; wt, without dci] 
to I soo lb. These bars are primarily for drilling in quarries a nunJber of rows of v« 
boles close together, but may be used for similar wo^ in trenches, etc Gaddkr isa qt 
device for drilling a number of parallel holes in a plane at any angle, from horiz to vel 
as the undercutting holes in a bench partly freed by channding. A heavy cairiage, rul 
00 a tiBck. has hinged to it a stanchtrd, adjustable at different angles, on wMdi sli( 
•addk canying the drill. Cost of gadder fiame, ^400 to $450; wt, 2 500 to 3 500 lb, 

HdlxA aai Cot of Open-cut Hftchme Drilliiig 


-1 neb IR BKd to Kane extent Un deep-hole drilUns, and for tiendi 
n.o. ^1 ten  tnB^ csnying a detrick and lieavy drill (imilai to 
■iduqueDus driU-bo*.! eqiuimeiit. It is 
(^)entcd f lom t, ootnl compresscd-ur or 
steam piut, oi may any its own bralci. 
The drill may be sUtioniTy, or, u ihowD, 
Eoounted on a tumtabh. Hie cutbnsi 
are renioved from the bale by a. water jet . 
or by vedal iteela (Art i}. TTiere are 
otbei devices for mounting one or more 
ordinary madune diilla on a bar. The 
electric -ait drill (Sec 15] is aim lurnuhed 
on a carria^. A ^tecuil device for sewer 
WDikisdeacribedin Art It. RespecUng 
drill carriages, see also Sec 6, 15 (10, 10). 
Celt of mactiln* drilUiii comprises: 
(o) wages o( drill crew; (6) proportion of 
wages of power-plaiit crew; (c) fuel; (J) 
drill sbarpening; (*) repairs and renewals; 
if) ffll and water: {g) interest on plant; 
(*|depredation of plant; (i) proportion ol 
general expense inrluding taiea, anrf U) 
[ing uPi Tli*irT'""'^"ffi and moving plant. 

fill lafiiri"' T ^-•-'^"■"-r-'-T'-'^-'-"-' 



Rock EzcavadoD 

Ftcton affadiiif cpe«d of drilliiig: (a) diameter of rock, as haidnea 
ness, seams, sludge, and dust-forming quaiitxes; (&) time for changing bits; 
for taking down, moving, and setting up machine; (J) depth of hole; (e> d 
of hole; (/) diam of hole; {g) use of air or water, or both, in the l)ole; (i^ 
of bit; (0 quality of blacksmithing; {j) percentage of time lost, as by Ij 
breakdowns, delays, etc; {K) size, weight, and type of drill and mcnfiting| 
or steam press at the drill; (m) the energy and skill of crew. 

Time occopied by the different operations in drilling may be daaaed un 
TDf G mcE knd DELAYS, the sum of which gives total cycle time for diiUinir c 
Ddayv comprise time to (a) raise diiU, (6) loosen bit, (c) remove bit, (4) get bi 
but («) get bit. if) insert bit in cbudk. \i) tighten chuck, and (A) get started, 
the cyde time, there is the time required to move the drill to other holes, set it up, 
and miscellaneous delays. For time studies on different pieces of woric. see ( x x 
drills were mounted on tripods for holes 7 to 24 ft deep and a.s to 5.5 in 
start, in granite, limestoDe. and slate. From these records, cutting time average 
of cyde time; cyde time, 74.7% of total time; time for moving and startinj; 
X3-5% of total time; time lost in delays, ia.6% of total time. Cutting speed: in 
o.x8 ft per min; limestone. 0.13 ft per mln; sUte. 0.17 ft per nun. My own reooi 
4 to 16 min to drill 2 ft (cutting speed 0.125 to 0.5 ft per min), 2 to 10 min to 
bits and pump out hole, and 7 to 60 min to set up the drill (20). 

Table 4. Avenge Time Drilling Vertical Holes (Tripod Drill) (Orisii 


Kind of rock 

Length of shift, hr 

Air pressure, lb per sq in 

Diam drill cylinder, in 

Diam starting bit, in 

Diam finishing bit, in 

Depth of hole, ft 

Drilling first 2 ft, min 

Cranking out, removing bit, min. . 

Cleaning out hole, min 

Putting in new bit, cranking, min. 

Drilling second 2 ft, min 

Drilling last 2 ft. min 

Moving machine, setting up, min. . 
Ft drilled per shift 

Note. — Lm « limestone; S — sandstone (hard); Sd — sandstone (soft); 
granite; Tr » trap (diabase). 

Rate of drilling. Formula for estimating number of ft drilled per shift (ao): 

+ ( f + ^ + ^ J ; where, J\r - f t drilled per shift; S - working time per shift, min 

per lo-hr shift, if no time is lost by bUsts, breakdowns, etc; r ^ actual time t 
I ft, min; m • time to crank up, change driUs, dean out hole, and crank down « 
min ordinarily; / » length of feed -> 2 ft in ordinary percussion drills; 1 «» t 
shift machine and set it up  5 to 60 min, usually 12 to 20 nun; D ■* depth of b 

Records of drilling with 3H-in machines, at 70 lb air or steam press, st 
bit about 3.7s in, finishing bit 1.5 in, gave following speeds for x ft of hole 
soft sandstone and limestone, 3 min; medium sandstone and limestone, 4 
hard granite and sandstone, 5 min; very hard trap and granite, 6-8 min; 
rocks that sludge rapidly, 8-10 min. (For other drilling records, see " 
pressed *\ir Plant," Pede, pp 334-342 and 372-376.) 

Cott of drilling. Wages of drill crew in open-cut work range from %2 
for driller and $1.50 to $4-50 for helper, averaging about $3 and $2 respecti 
Wsges of power-plant crew depend mainly on size and type of plant and numl 
drills supplied. Drill repairs cost from 35 ^ to 75^ per woridog day (ao) (S< 

~4 Metbcxis and Cost of Open-cut Machine DriUfaig 187 

TiUe 5. Cost of Op#niting One Drill for zo Hr (Origintl) 

GnQ from portaMe boiler 


:telser. a.oo 

-i- a. 50 

-jei ^ S2.7S per ton 0.90 

- "— a>i 0.7s 

-*3i5c fatts ^ 4i 

;r!ka>dnll ami hose 0.7s 

Fifteen-driU air or steam jdant 

I drill runner T $3.00 

1 " helper 2.00 

Hs fireman (^ tS- •' 

300 lb coal @ $3 per ton o. 4S 

Water, nominal 

Sharpening bits <d 3^* 0.90 

Repairs to drill and hose 0.75 

$7 30 

aod geocial crpcnsf are not included. * Ma^t«;«* 

drills (Sec 15). Hammer drills will not stand 
i iB2ge as recipcTxating drills; their parts are lighter; the piston and 
i'xJcs are subject to crystallization due to the rafxdity of the blows; the 

- seed ctftcn ised is high-priced and is more difficult to sharpen. As the 
5 -A ibed of hammer drills is generally shorter than that of reciprocating 
. ::^ steels nritst be changed oftener; but time required for changing b 
••r Shaipenixig boUow steel costs somewhat more. The short feedlh- 

- dialler of the piston cracking the cylinder head, especially when han- 

:>,' SE biescpcnenced man. Hammer drills, while faster in horiz or "dry" 

. *x flkifver than recifKocating drills in "down" holes, so common in 

- zx wcirk. But, for block-holing, plug-and-feather holes,' or holes in 

trrechcs or other restricted places, the hammer drill is light and easy to 
szsd many modeb require no mounting; it is therefore af valuable ad- 
'.• *J^ heavier machines. It b especially useful for stoping in mines. 

M jimu driOft. Speed of cotting. A Sullivan, Class D-19 drill, 1.35-in 

irT. bufiov Steel, and air at 100 lb, drilled in granite i.25-in holes, i ft 

r, ac aver of z.75 min, using 2$ cu ft free air per min. A Class D-15 

r. ^-rn^ granite, drilled H-'m holes at rate of i 4H-U1 hole in 10 sec, and a 

^ :^ie in 15 sec. In trench work in odlitic limestone, 12 DB-15 drills 

-•-d ^ i.S-ft holes per drill per lo-hr shift for 12 mo work. Best record 

X I.S-ft bf^es in 10 hr and 36 3-5-ft holes in 7 hr. In dark green granite, 

-T7 dria in 16 hr made 47 ft in 25 holes, from 19 to 36 in deep; a DB-19 

- .Je 19 ft in 5 holes, from 32 to 60 in deep. A DC-19 drill, in soft sand- 
•, '^y*«jy 20 huks 18 in deep, at rate of 25 sec per hole. 

lectrie drills. Advantages, as compared with air drilb: low first cost of 
caje oi installation; economy of power. Disadvantages: very high 
itenance; loss of time due to breakdowns. Electric drilb have 
suooessful and are little used (See Sec 16) (xo, 20). 

^-'-electric driBs (Sec 15) are driven from a self contained compressor oper- 
 . aa dectric motor. 

^«rforBMBBce ef electric drillt (xi, 20). 8 Marvin solenoid drilb, oper- 

.ht and day for 2 yr in hard, seamy limestone, made 25 ft in 10 hr^ as 

-r>,d with 45 ft by air drilb. Tb^ had small pulting power after striking 

• «ad tbe stetA stuck repeatedly. 2 Adams electric drilb were tested in 

• <iiabeae dariD^ 53 consecutive lo-hr shifts, with 2 2.7S-in air drilb. The 

i-'cnsed 4 ft per hr during 3x7 drilling hr, with no stoppage for repairs; 

trk drills averaged 2.55 ft per hr during xoo drilling hr, with 17 hr lost 

'Tiursu 4 Gardner No 15 drills, used for 2 yr in firm augite-di&rite and 

-•nUy svoaced 13 bofes, 8 ft deep, per drill per 10 hr. Cost of drill and 

(oot inchwting overhead expense) was io# per ft of hole. From 


Rock Excavation 

2 to 7 Siemans-Halske drills were successfully used in Gennao Iroo mi \ 
fissured, sticky ground, in U S, this drill has been a failure. Dulles I 
drill, tested in trap and granitoid gneiss on the Catskill tunnels^ made ! 
of 5.3 ft per hr per drill for s weeks. Fort Wayne drill, tested in 1 1 
place proved strong, but lacked power to cut bard rock. 3 Box drills ! 
Mexico for mining in metamorphosed lime shale, pyroxene, and q\Ja.^tz^ 
4 -ft holes in 34 to 28 hr per drill. Cost of repairs was very hlsfar ^^ 
drilling with ineffident labor cost 37 to 50^ (Mex) per ft and wms more ex] 

Cable, well, or chum drills (Sec 9} are extensively used for deep li 
blasting in the softer rocks. Advantages, as compared with machine 
Any depth can be drilled, to the possible limit of blasting; no stripping 
overlying earth is necessary; holes in high faces are drilled to full depth j 
of working in benches; the large-diam holes hold larger charges, bence ^r^ 
ing of fewer holes, and consequent saving of time; smaller consumption oil 
power. To offset these points, machine drills possess the advaxtta^es of p 
ity and speed of drilling, which make them generally preferable (Sec z 5 

Size of chumHlrill holes. In sandstone, 3-in bits are common, i 
6-in holes cost little more, they are economical where large, conceotrated i 
are required. In a x6-ft quarry breast, with a 6-ft bottom stratum ai 
upper strata, 4-in holes were spaced 9 ft apart and to ft back. Xhou| 
was charged with ss lb of 33% dynamite to within 20 in c^ Uie top, and 
tamped with clay, the rock broke poorly. sH-in holes, spaced x 2 by i ^ 
charised with 42 lb of dynamite each, pennitted 39 in of tamping, and 
well. With 4-in holes, x ft of hole broke 8 tons of rock (i lb dynanute '■ 
tons); with sH-in boles, x ft broke X2 tons of rock (1 lb dynamite to 4.5^ 

Table 6. Speed of Blast-hole Drimnc with Chani or Cable ]>vjlls (Orj 


Kind of material 

Ft per 

Clay. &cvi(vstone. 



0\*rrburdtfn, porphyry o«« 

lam«*Sit».we ... 

* lUrvl, AM'.'.u' l>AdaI;ic rock 

S^iil. |j5i«vrl 

Un>wn <A»»v*>tvMi*' 

' Brv^xsn >ut\vl»xocie 













4 ' 

4 4 

4 V- 

I * 

S^ * 

I 5. 

» >^ 

hole, in 


















Cyclone | j 

Cable drill I 
Keystone • 
Keystone | 
C>xlone ' 
Cydone t 

Railroad -w 

Cement qui 

Lime, cmd 

roclc qtaai 



pit mi 
Cruslied st<j 

Cruahed sto 



Ltme Quarrji 

CLbie drill' 

Cenaent qtial 

OmI 9i ^Ntf*%%iM <^\k\m icOla .^v S<v ^ n^c tjiboUud data). For sti 
VMWM Atvut w* ^M I * W>1 v>l >*^ivi 4ujea ,%v.v %^ ^^^ )> ^ ooal per day aie rwiui 


Tbeory of Blasting 


(gasoGne 9 la^ per gal), cost is from yof to $i.3o per day; 

isctzic power at 3 ^ per kw-hr, cost is about $1.25 per day. A oooipresaed* 

-<rued ctenn driD uses about as much air as a 3.35-in marhinr drill. Abou t 

MiA water are required per ft of hole. If necessary, it can be collected 

. ---^p xad Bsed repmtedly. Sharpening bits costs much less than for 

-i^i <tnain g : one bit, drilling 10 to 50 ft of hole, requires i hr to dress. 

ol cfaoni and naddne drininc. A cydooe drill, making 3-in 

:^ h deq>, ia solid brovn sandstone in Ohio, put down 69a ft in 14 days df io br. 

: jm day (jo). A 3.2S-in nwrhine drill, making {.75-in holes, to ft deep, put down 

.(!• 9  days, or 70 ft per day. Daily fieki costs (exclusive of sharpening) of the above 

-ere: ijmm dxHL Runner, $3; helper (and fireman), $a; water. 60^; coal ^ 10^ 

:oci. 60^; taui^ I6.20; cost per ft. xa.5^. Machine drill. Runner, $3; helper, 

snsaas. $2; water. 7S#; coal, $1; total. $8.25; cost per ft ix.8^. The larger 

-. i^ chtira-dfxll bales laved dynamite, as each hde was qmrag but 3 times, whereas 

'jp:2ac-f^iB bo4cs had to be sprung 4 or 5 times. 

Zotts of cbora drilling for blasting (20) (see Sec 9, Art 8). » 

S. Theory of BlastiBg 

dang rasoKs of blaaling: aiae and number of free Ulocb; cohesive 
' itf tbe rack; s if uct u fc of rock (massive, jointed, fauninated. stratified, or fissured) ; 
' iad aatsre of the cxplouve; character of fuse and tamping; whether the shot 
cp 07 «;euhsneottsIy with others; whether the broken rock falls or must be 
.. xhe bUu; fo«TB and skat of chamber containing the explosive; proportion of 
of least rcsbtanoe to length of the hole, and to height of free face (3. ro, 30). 

Many have been formulated, but all neglect some of the 

. sjB» stated above. .\lso, most published rules are aM)licable to bbick powder 

^1 ve raJa^kss for hi^ explosives; and practically all ignore the use to which 

 >^ tfid rock is to be put. Hence, experience and judgment are more useful in de- 

' ~ix ptopo- meibods than the theories and rules sununarized below. Theory of 

-. is ibcsaoi in detail in (5). According to the ceater theory, a charge in a 

- f esjih or rock with boriz surface will blow out a funnel-shaped crater, the sides of 

' u*t a slope of T to I to the rasE face (Fig 5). Distance DB (more exactly, DF) 

• L2A tj9 L£AiT SESSTAXCE ■>- /; henoe. volume of crater 

' c '.; ^ X rP « /> (nearly). Henoe. general formula for 

=-* 4 rxk kwsened is K— m^. According to Schoen (5), 

- « iiv ttAgh. soft rock, and 0.9 lor bard, brittle rock. 

I^Ti'rff— of hole. If vertical (normal, as in Fig 5). the 
~.* naay bJow oat tamping and fail to break; hence, hcAt 
' . 't iacbned 'Fij? 6). to reduce chances of a blow-out, as 
.•t^'aonse area of free face and volume of rock broken. Fig 5. 
' ^ Bcima.ti<c« of drill hole is 45*- 

I*«cs olfnM faces. The greater the area of free face, the easier can rode be blastcl. 
i^ovs arei of vohune broken when there are 2 free faces (point G being uncertain). 

Theoretical Crater, 
Normal Hole 



Fig 7. Hole with Two 
Free Faces 

Fig 8. Hole with Two 
Free Faces 

• ^K,9% siea when chaigie is at unequal dittanres from the a faces; shaded area will 
>j> oat be removed fay the diicct force of the blast but may be broken indirectly. 
"^ 'vaMoe face faoes an caponed, the kmgest Hue of resistance should not exceed 1.5/. 
^um Ike aid ol gravity, / should be boriz, and the longest line of resistance vertical. 

It woik the dcptli of bold ibould be i. 

H ud cUun of the hole. 

TibU?. IMatl<H»o<DUmftI>eiMhd{HoI>,*L>>i(ll> 


hole, in 

Depth 0* 
hole, (t 


hole, in 

Depth ot 
hole, (t 








Fig 9 Ibowi the effect. II <9 ud 6 an bias 

len hIaAled lo^Lher c is hrokcn. if i u oat to 

lower hard ntck, x — i.jf to j^^ mvealE rock. : 

\ni/ J) '"-HI/' Kock coaOdent. TooMunil.Kl 

 ft y ij^d, J (( „yp by ] It Ugh. In Ih: 

Fi«». Effect of HolBFiKd lit^bole^ » .pjcrf^t the Muliog of «m . 

SiciuIUDeoiBly °^? "' '"" '^'^ ""^ f"^' ?*"' 

with difiercDI wei^Kd unouiti of the enplosiv 

used, begimiiiii Hith > mull quutitr- Fin the holei Kpantcly. II C — rvc 

i* - wt of powder. Ih. ; - line o( leul niituKe. ft; tben C - F + f, and F 

For } fne lacs. 1BC e.M i*: for tUaa.o.iP; iais,o^P-, fDi6.o.a5P. 

fU» ol drill hole tor chaiia. II i* - wt of eipkaire. lb; t - *p gt ot ei| 
ud J • cUam ol bale. It; Iben, P - o.n pp. 

t. Spacing uid Foiatinj; Drill Holet 
Spadnt bole* In opan-cul work. A conunon rule is to place a i 
vertical boles back iron) the face a distance equnl to fmm 0.75 to 1 time 
depth, ibe boles beiag spaced the same distance apart. This usually bold: 
ill stratilied rock, v^th boles of medium d^tb. but in dense grmnltic rotl 
^I»tinRlnus( hccbser. In shallow excavation the holes sbould seldom be (. 
.i|art than 1 to 1.5 times theii depth; inderpcuUtbe^Kdosimiy be much 
lldUT, nisi of drilling per ca yd is erealeT for low laces than lor hJsh. 

Tahia ft. SvadD« o( Drill Bala in Opa»<gt Vork 


Spacing and Poindng Drill Holes 


In deep, open cutsor pits, rock is usually excavated in 3 (N" more 

>3«fifts. Depth Cor ecooomicaldnllmg, size into which the rock breaks on 

-sc, aad pccKDoe or absence of seams or of boriz drill holes (called toe holes) 

r- 3xift asBSt breaking, all determine economic height of lift. 3 H and 3 H-ln 

rne <Mb are good to depths of 16 to 24 ft. Chum drills are efficient for al- 

: icr depth, and where they are used lifts of 60 ft are common. Max depth 

>^ driUmi? is about 8 ft with hand hammer, and for machine drills, 18 ft. 

'Jc the hieber the bench, the farther back from the face ma> the holes be 

.*^. but. the briber back the holes, the coarser will the rock break. In deep 

'^ -IK explosive should be separated into several charges with tamping between ; 

' *t£ entire charge is at the bottom of the hole, the bottom of the bench may 

^n cut and the top left overhanging. If 2 rows of horiz holes are drilled 

^c Uce. besides the vertical holes, the height of the bench may be increased. 


of Holiw, CfaargM, and Reanlts of Hadune-driU Blasts (Original) 


Kind of work 


' ."Kjc . . Ca2ial 

X3t Crashed stoQC. 

" --*./K Cemcat 

i>. -^iite RRtfaro*-<iit(a) 








. CanaJ(^ 

I Cnasbedstoaej 







R R s>d«Ncnt. . 20 

-joe . !R Rthro*-cat. 


iR Rent. 

R R tide-cut. 

R R thio'-cut 


^' ....Mine 

"- Mine 

•tT3» . Crushed 

' - trap ' 

• ibt« R R thro'-cnt. 
rck Uam fillinc. . . 







12. 5 



12 0) 






























Ft of 














1 3J 



1. 00 


















A (6) 



















cu yd 











X.3S I 

1. 00 












I. II 







4 5 

itc B. Black powder, (a) 35 holes, {h) Holes sprung with a lb dynamite. 
(4) AS boles, (e) 60 holes; top boles, vertical. 26 ft deep. (/) 75 holes; 
" Ja,oDr at IS* and one at 60* with vertical* xoto 14 ft deep, the former being 6 ft away 
Lisltniioatofktter. (f) Sfxuog 3 tiroes. (A) ut row 6 to 15 ft from face; 2nd low. 
'x hoB fast raw; aboot 2.3 lb of 7S % dyoaaiitc & 6.25 lb of 60% per hole. (tXHoles 
(/> 50 hoks; boksuaai^ of IS* with vertical. Sprung with 3 lb of dynamite. 






o< work 





f' rushed stone' 
element q'rry 
Omcnt q'rry 
Open-pit iron 

RR ballast. 

(^^ment q'rry 

Cement q'rry 


Lim« quarry 

Cement q'rry 

( >U!ihe(l Mind 
Copper mine. 

K H ihro'^.ut 










K (PkiTr drr<Utr^ 
.H H ihroVuii 

t 'C«*pjvr Muno 
















j 5H 






52 5 








4 5 .w-.?; 






























I 300 


I 800 







I 300 



SO 300 










« • • •  


40 I 



35 » 












c« y< 

ao cx:3 

5 7^ 

12 3ai 

»7 30t 

5 7ac 

13 <>6< 

12 ooc 

3 10c 



4 l^namit^ B CteUtin, C Gebtia d^-namite. D. Black bbsting powd 
I mH^ltMt^. f SAinUtx^ne, (t. IVxpKyry. If. Basah. /. Co|i|Kr poiphyry. J, 
%«iKMviit^ K v;rjA\r) f. Ore an^i ca|H'^(^> <*' Cost per day: RniiBfer. S2.S0; 
$«, rVshh )v««r4, $}, \mI. ^KAn>d\ir)|t. etc. $1.50: totail. tS> Aver ft per 10 I 
\y l>M Nn^K* 1** i\>»i- \in"iiv< *tK^ chanrim:. *^t per cu jFd (driHias by c«i 
«l ♦»** i«ii !\^ r\i>*>vvi><\ \:t ivr oi \\i. tv^tal. i*^ S« pier c« yd. H<4es sprun 
«W«(tl^ v* N^xLvs ««th »x* lb <«f K»',. »i\ti»-t»t«- C«tst: diilliiig ^ sSt I 
%i<^ « > \x^ (h «(\\v«*<^>t^ ^ i«v5«w |^t^%^: tu$ae aao cansc $^; labor chargiDS a 
\*«Vt.M«K $\>. ^s« $\\'>\ \>r 4 ir »>^ ctt »i ^*' H.-Kirs ia 5 p«g«IM lines: i 
l«^ v s^ x^' t^ ^«> K\ . ; litvr^ :« t\ :*%>« crrtfc ^:)e. 11 h ilatji lul. 14 ft apaJ 
^S« •<-%',> txN^ w <> .N* ,lx>v*" i^ v\>}4. r*c ;xc n Loaciaic rKrared 8 days, (j 

^\^ >v««,, s ,S ' X, '>• M .> « •,%-< a^Y v\>i <c< ;*«■ rL Holea sprung « 
*i>V« «v ,\ *'» • «, iS"* w v*x"vx ♦S^* "'x^viak tx-nr*^. after apsi m ^ igg. m 
«v^ < "< 1 *«>N« ,\v.« Iv * X ;V- K\«e %\>4 <»k iiittstms aboat 5^ per < 

0)ka;v<<v( M»i F^rcnf 




t» *^ 

' % 


^vs « 



> ^vv -^k >* N- A ••v^VN > ,^ V v^ N;aA powder and i 
\x ."»♦ ^ .>■• w^ ,s> xx*^* .^-N s.- . ..Vv • "v."**-^.*. Asd electric firing 

Vn ^v \ \ "^ 

W*C V^ >AawKAi ^ X V X 

* .- • •>.. Nit Ji" 

the dvTi^ 
A\-ing its 

Charging and Firiog 


' If ItK vxk ooosists oC.hard and soft layers, the charges shook) be 
 t^ baid layws. Oxitiactor's powder and Judson powder (R R P 
tfc cisigiBd Ske black powder, but are exploded by a dynamite primer. 

^n>des (d Judsoa and all dynamites are exploded with detonators. If 

Tvder sad dynamite are charged in the same hole, explosion pf the 

: v-2 drtoaatf! the dynamite. 

mad Mack yowder in one blast. In Moe sandstooe large cfaaiges of black 
13: isf^asutt kt alternate row of boles were fomid effective (20). In Fig 10, 

-t -vies woe made with chum 

^'-^btL Boksmaiked" kegs'* 

^jri «ith 25-lb kegs of black pow- 


ttXesB ftUBoiM 4DK<gi S B«im 

iv«e Baarked "boxes" were ^ 


t__ — ^S-'    • 1 V  T *rJS^- — »T* 1" * »» ^ - -flii - -»4*^ 


Fig 10. 


•., --i^fel 4 ft o< the top with 40% 
J^ o ihoaiL. Beiore kading 

1: ^ack powder, each ooe was 
. « jojw,: Qnt with 15 sticks of 

'"■ lae dyaamite. second with 
. . i^.:d with So sticks, and a final 

:: «5 itkks ol 40 % dynamite per 

~ac <ijrBafflke ami powder were fired together, on the theory that the powder 

Jt liae lock and tlie dynamite would shatter it.' About a 700 cu yd of rock were 

: 'j» blast, with 800 lb of dynamite for springing and 6 000 lb of black powder 
X4i> <si dynuaite for the final charges. 

r-^liflf holes (see Sec 4, .\rt 8, 9). In open-cut work in stratified rock, 

:> hUck or contractor's powder, it may be advantageous, for widely* 

'■o bv4i!s, to put the entire charge in the bottom. Sprung holes are then 

-T- Ilk springing ao-ft holes in sandstone the first charge was 2 sticks 

• iynzaite^ the second, 5 sticks and the third, 20 sticks, the last making 
- -rx bsc bokiinfl; & kegs (200 lb) of black powder. But, in trench exca- 
' --v a deep chum-drill holes in high breasts, the charges should be dis- 

' .-1 each having its own primer. Heavy springing is not advisable in 
'ii ahales, as it may fill the chamber with debris. In highly-inclined 

- Oc dfaxk (d springing may cause a slip and dose up the hole. 

_ is done by driving a small tunnel or inking a shaft, at the 
rr. ^fa chambers are excavated for the main charges of explosive. For black 
' 'iv chamber may be bek>w the floor of the drifts, for convenience m pour- 
< powder into large wooden boxes, built in the chambers. The tramping of 

the men packs it tighdy, and 
the solid sides of the excava- 
tion offer greater resistance 
to the explosion. Coyote 
HOLES are one-man tunnels 
or drifts, about 2.5 by 3 ft in 
size, which are charged with 
laige quantities of exptosives. 

Gophering is a mode of 

blasting used in breaking the 

overburden in the Mesabi, 

Minn, mining districts, and 

. ^. ^ « . ^ elsewhere, in sandy, loose 

*1L Ch«aberBla«tatStHetooa.O«e ground, where vertical holes 

^ kept open (20). (Sec Eng fir Min Jour, Vol 88, p 696.) A hole U 

• *b a pojnied bar, at a down angle of 15** to 20" in the side of the bank. 
cBctodgeii placed end to end, are pushed into the hole and exploded. 


Rock Excavation 

The muck is removed with a long-handk shovel, the hole deqpcned fort 
the process repeated until a hole lo or x2 in diam and deep enough is o 
A chamber is made at the end by springing with 2 or 3 cartridges. Alonj 
box filled with powder is pushed in and overturned. 

Chamber Mast, St Heleoa, Ore (Fig 11). The rock was basaltic weighins x 
cu ft. Explosive was No a. MV Trojan powder; charge, 3 500 lb. The tun; 
tamped to the portal with muck. The rock was suffidently broken to be ha 
steam shovel, but little bulldoiing (sledging) being necessaiy. Cost of explosiv 
charging, $58; total cost of blast, ezdunve of tunnel driving, I4X7 or i.24fi 
Volume broken, 14 280 cu yd. 

Table iz. Charges Used in Chamber and Coyote Blasta (Origin 














XIV. { 

XXI .. 




Porphyry . . 
Granite. ... 
Limestone. . 
Sandstone . 



Black tra- ) 

chyte I 
Limestone. . 





Cemented ) 

gravel J 








Hard basalt 


Cemented > 

gravel ) 

cu yd 



• • •   





150 000 



10 000 


I to 000 







 • « • 


• • • • 


' 26 















X 14 000(6) 



2 77S 










Lb percu yd 



• • • • 






Black 'ju< 
powder poi 


,0 a 














Notes on Table xx (x>). I. West Beaver Ciedc dam. Col. Tunnel 75 ft bel 
of rock. 135 ft long, with several bends. Cross drifts, 35 ft long, each way fron 
tunnel. Chaiges at ends of cross drifts, with 3 000 lb of powder along outer wa 
mainder of cross drift. Tamping: rock, earth. Umber. II. Otay. Cal. Tunn 
5.5 ft. 50 ft k>ng. x8>ft Y-branches at end for chambers. Charges: 4000 lb 
powder and 50 lb dynamite in one chamber; 8 000 lb powder and 50 lb c^mamite ij 
Cost: drifting. I645; powder, $960; chaiging, $75; total. 3.6^ per cu yd. Furthci 
ing by powder in seams made total cost 5^ per cu yd. III. San Diego. Cal. Morel 
Open cut perpendicular to face, with 4 by s-tt drift. 1x5 ft long, parallel to an< 
from cut. Chambers sunk beneath floor at end and 70 ft from face. Face c 
contained 500 lb 7% Champion powder and x 500 lb 40% dynamite; end d 
38 550 lb 7 and 9% powder, i 900 lb 40%, and a 000 lb 60% dynamite. Ta 
earth, timber. Cost: open-cut. $3 500; drifting and charging. $2 478; exp 
$3 116; total. 5.05^ per ton. I\'. Northampton, Pa. Quarry. Face. i35 f 
Drift. 3 ft wide and 338 ft long, along a fault 50 to xoo ft from face. 4 chamben 
tunnel, 45 ft apart, and 3 crosscuts each way, 35 to 56 ft k»g. Total cost, 15 ^ 

L' 7 Chai^Dg aAd Tiling 190 

-^E fiA. Qmnr- fis-ft'Cuc Two j.s by i-lt drift*. «o It tput; aoe tjo It * 
: 'D !  Tii^ iTi ^ & ■(■It, (mch So to loo It kuw; the otha i8a ft lauf. wicfa 4 
^ .:^ Bd TO m loo tt kac- 6a% dynainitc. Tunpini: muck, timber, udccmeBl 

- -.1. VL Fvdn. CmL Quany. Aver bei^I of Iue. gi It^ ivEr oveibunlHi. 

ji£b. adi So ft inoc. with i cnissciits octi tide. CiducuIi 40 Ft (iHrt. 40 ft 

Fu u esk o4 cuts. 60^^ drnvnilf and JwIhd R R P. Coat d[ upk»ivc9, 

' :» a W- ^'U- S> lUteii*. On. QmrTT. Driil. 3 It wide by 46 ft Icmc. with 

.--■^ gf (B ai 7as Dt in loag cut. Cost: nplosvo. tsS9; lending, tsi- VHI. 

- ''jI Qnury. Oveitjiuilai. Do It. Drift, no ft Ion(. with lidt drift 60 

' ao-iiflio^taleftudialltoright; djufoal drift So ft iRm bcc 40 It to Wt. 

-.»<ad4 ■'Ht~' diifl so It to Icftuida itni^t drift soft Iddk torii^l. End 

' -: :siird >ilb Judioa R K P ud 6a% dynuiUte. DC. U P R R. ig-ft cat. 

'■FBd witk 16 Lb dynaraitcuid a f7s Lb of powdB. CoBt. Hbout ti'io percu yd- 

--'ivwlimi. KD-ft luce, i drift at bolttn), 6s It deep; otLwr drift. 6a It from top 

..: u h deep. Two ij-ft ihaiu It top: *!» driil bolei. XI. Long Cove, Me. 

-- 1 ^ 4 ti. £4 ft deep, with t drilti at battcmi. eifh 17 <i Iodi. CroBcuti fnm 

- • c^=a, 16 ft lone- EipluBfa in chmcuu. Euimiie of 1 000 odd tow brakcD 
c :jo m^ yn Psncoa brdisulic mine. Fice. r y> ft higb. Drift. 1 10 It long. 

^^ (1 d^L 79 ft booit- witb drift tl end. t*>*IL^I to mtio drift. S5 It Ions. Cnvt- 

n: » K Idoc. with drift at end. }o ft Lonf. lluch qace left untunped for erpan- 

r sA GhI; Aillins. Sjoo; nplaiivn. (i }oc>. XHI. Blue Point hydnulic 

' '.TVL ) by 1 ft. 17] It lone. 6 ctwcuti. cub 1 10 ft Lcac od left, b on rifhl. 

■: .. uw. Firs drift DO li^t. 71 [t Iran portil. andiit end i ij-ft drift, ixnllel 

.-: 's-CL XIV. Dudukelles mine. Fue. 17} ft hi|^. i lOo It Long, s [KixUd 

. - u~>a nch erf ahicfa wen i or man croucutL Totid length ol drifli. i 100 It. 

' 311&: mine. Givil powdei .Vo 1. XV'L CiJo^do. Dam. Coj-ote di oqo- 

- .- -tfL ^ ft Wis- ' CTDsecnts from ewl. each ra ft bog. with piti it end. Ex- 

r>B pi»dc( ud 40% dynimite, cbuged in pits. Tampiag: euth. Coil: 

.: I -4, dyibAutE.$)5a; powder, ti 140; capauid Fuse, In. Total, 16.9^ pet cuyd. 

- 'i-vB- R R- Coyote hole, i.i by j ft in hiUiide. so Ft deep. Croucuts it 
:^ ii fl. Ciaxta in the j openi^i. XVDI. Ctvcki Landing. R R. 4 or 

- - v^ Bo ft kuc. with Ti JO to 6a It long it ends. XIX, Ongoo. R R. 
Lnui. XX ud XXL Oregon. R R. XXIL Snake River, Wuh. R R. 
'f Mdcv a s br s f t, c»cb avenging S9 ft kmg. run into and then parallel to 

ice. 1 ^B ft of ^ifl mined by 6 1 77 ft of coyote halo. 10 00a lb of dyna- 
. . c^ ,3 ;Kpirii« for muitriau of F to jF black powder, XXIII, OregoD. Coy 
n .•» 1 Traian powdei. XXIV. SmartlviUe, CaL Hydiaulk mine. Shall, 
- nk Bain drift iSj ft Long from bottoo. ] crosKuli, 70,i», and 170 ft from 
.. ,^ kaiosMliei aide- 10 lifter drift! Imm cinucuti, each 1 J ft long, panllel to 
- -L Tetal dnfta, 570 ft Long by t-s ft wide by 3-5 It higb. Material moved. 370 

^ . IB fL 

•iLjfataf Wflm is done by: mudcap[)iiic or buUdozJng; blockholine and 
~-sig or MuktimSat. Olbei mrtbod* m: by sledgiog; by dtop- 
"■J^jnuoigtiti; by 
-i nth in and then 
t by apfiyiot ct>ldl>i 

- -' <rf tlw metbodl. 
-■■'. z^duda: la) sledc- 

-Jig. Camut be lund 
• -rjcn taxcer than O-S 
" >< and it ii ntcea- n, u. MiJi»n6« T^ 1*. Satktholim 

Msfofipaig ctmsiitsin explodiDg a charge oj dynamite On the surface o( 
<. afio- anrcriox it witb earth (Fig 12). Mudcapptog U moit effective 
I liiai^ai b Kkcted (m tli« etploiive, if the cap u li^ on the dyno- 


Rock Excavation 

^ mite and not shoved into it, and if wet day is used as a ooverio^. Sna 
consists in boring a hole beneath a boukler and firing a chaige in it ( 
It is more effident, but not so rapid as mudcapping. Bloddiolin^ co 
drilling a shallow hole in the boulder for a small charge of dynamite. 

Average cost per cu yd of breaking boulders, from a number of rccc 
is: sledging, 4.3^; drop-hammer, 6.5^; heating, i4-9^; blockhoUn^, iG 
dermining, x7-5^; mudcapping, 31^; mudcapping and sledging, 33.1^. 

Table xa. Cfaafget for Boulder BhuHng (da Pont) 

Weight of 



Approx No of X .25 by 8-in 
cartridges (40-60% dynamite) 

Weight of 



AppnnNoof 1.215 ^1 
cartridges (40-60% dy 























4 5 

• 8 



8. Cost of Loading and Hauling 

Hand work. One man will load 2 to 20 cu yd of rock (place meat 
10 hr, depending mainly on size of pieces and height to be lifted. 

On Chicago Drainage Canal the aver per man in xo hr was about 7 cu yd loa 
dump cars. Sledging took about 14% of the time. Aver per man loading 
cableway skips, xo cu yd; large stones were rolled into the skips, very little 
being required. In loading wagons with high sides, x man will average 10 cu 
measure (17 cu yd loose) of easily-lifted stones per 10 hr. Stones handled singi: 
thrown off a wagon twice as fast. Stones can be loaded on wagons having stol 
at rate of about 13 cu yd per 10 hr, and rolled off at 50 cu yd per hr (20). C 
STONE can be shoveled from smooth boards or steel sheets at the rate of 13 cu 
measure (22 cu yd loose) in 10 hr; in shoveling from the ground or hopper-botton 
man will do only 7 to 8 cu yd solid measure (la to 14 cu yd loose). 

Steam shovel work. Cost in rock excavation varies greatly. In t 
iron ore of Mesabi range, under fair conditions, a steam shovel easily loi 
cu yd per hr; but, in poorly drilled and blasted rock, broken in large p 
shovel may do as little as 1 7 cu yd per hr. 

Table 13. 

Output of Steam Shovels, Loading Blasted Rock (Origin 
Compiled from one lo-hr day's woik (la) 


In I 

Iron ore 









Stock pile 



av of 2 



3 5 

RR cut 


R R 


C onditions. . 





















4 5 




Low face 




No of shovels 
Size, tons. . . 
Dipper, cu yd 
dxial. tons... 

OU. gal 

Water, gal... 
Cu yd loaded 











avof 2 



avof 2 

2. a 











Wages of crew: Foreman (per mo), $75 to $175, aver $135; craneman (per m< 
to $125. aver $96; x fireman (per mo), $50 to $87. aver 162; x coalman (per day) 
to $1.50, aver $1.47: 4 to xa pitmen (aver 6), $1.40 to $3.50. aver lx.90. 

Cdst of T^owfHng and Hauling 


>' Taia Bhii;, bnfcen laxgt, a 6s-ton, 2.2S-ca yd dtpfwr ahovd avengad for sev* 

• v^ss afcaot ato ca yd solid meaanie per day iato caxs; part loaded by the dinw, 

' .zixA by a cbaia hooked ervcr the dipper teeth (ao). On ChicacQ Dcamaf e Canal. 

JC..T2S sy*au ihowds, with broad sbaUow 3.35-ca yd dippea, loaded Hmfstone oo 

«:us iTabfe 13). Tlie rock .was in large pieces, much of which had to be Iift«l 

zum. Combined ooipat ol the 2 shovels was zx8 650 ca yd (solid meaaare) dur- 
sx. t>hr rinftSk or an aver of 296 cu yd per shovel per shift (4, so). 

derricks, and bucket or skip. Scows may be unloaded rap- 
v. Them 2Si per cu yd kx^se measure. 

■''n^epaateddenick.withaciewof xforexnaji (S3), x hooker, 6 shovders, atagmen, 
'.■-ymm {% $1.50). water boy ($x) and aUowing $3.50 per day for team and driver. 
'^. z JO ca yd knoe measure in x day at 19^ per cu yd. In using an engine^yperated 
 . vSiJa a bd Qwhed for slewing, tagmen (ifor slewing the boom) and team OMting 
:<r dhy axe rKminalfd. aztd an engineman axkd coal costing about $4 per day are 
^: A cnw of r engioeer ($2.75). x signal man ($2), z dumpman (tt.js), ^od 7 

-~ $11.33 ■'. onlocuied from a scow 21.3 cu yd of H-in crushed stooe per hr. at cost of 

.*« per yd, Bot iiwloding coal, oil, water, overhead expenses, or depredation. Clam- 

^ets air good for unkwrding cars and scows. A stifi-leg derrick with bullwheel 

aSgbx |^». f4-yd claa»4heU bucket about I400, and double-drum engine with 

- '~i au abottt $1 COOL. 

It^e«iys CSec 26) are frequently used in quarry work, canal and trench 
' irkjQ, and in open-pit mining. 

Table 14. Ovftpot of 4 Chicago I>raiiiage Canal CaUeways (i month) 

• :>hr shifts 

- -i «••! rock A 

- k:>loads. day shift 

i ^Ai-vkiE»ds« night shift 

1 >■-! 1 rock per ddp. 

' ^-v.*! rack per shift 

' .^rxavrs 

• : >m3«ia 

.• or. hr 

- ~3ck lo&ded per man per shift. 

'*. per shift 



5 III 






12 861 












8 98 


16 162 








9 46 





1. 6s 





9 54 

Caxial(2. ao)empfoyed 19 cabkwayswitb spans of 550 to 725 ft. tmv* 
tfsi 7 ; to 93 ft high, and equipped with aerial dumps. Main caUes,, hauling 
'■J^ oh^ '%, 0.7 5-in. but' 
^ping cabfes. H-in. Tabic 15. Cost of Cafalewaj Work Shown in Table X4 

: rj^eraod 10 by 12-in 

r^ * a iioHting speed of 

.&: a travdiag speed of 

~ ,cr sric. A coni|dete 

sS J by 7 by 7-ft skips. 

- ibasA 225 toais: cost 
• li.oQO. Crrv: engine- 

i. *0. iicmaa (fi.80). 
--*a tgz 70/. rigger and 
"3 I:. 50) for loading. 

/ caMr»a>s,;9aot0450 

. 'ji mesAaan per xo hr; 

' *-) yot per ca yd. iod 
' ■aersoual«ocl,fepaiis. 

*-" vrodr Dm, Boise irrigation project, Idaho. Two Lidgerwood cableways handled 

- -J yd of Masted rodk. bouldexs, gravel, and sand. Span, x 300 ft; aver traveling 

>-v SQO It; aver boisti^ distance. 300 ft. Hoisting load, 8 tons, at 300 ft per min; 

Distributed cost 

At 50^ per 


cost per 

cu yd. i 




















lo.s . 




Loading «. 




Sup't & geni labor 





198 I^ock Ezcavadon 

oonvcyiagipeeiiiMoftpermin. Skips. 8 by 8 by a ft. In July. X99s. 
Aug, Sept, and Oct, 3 shifts. Output for 4 mo, 40 6a4 loads, avenging a^9cu 
cally all bandied in a shifts. Cost of opetatioo (not including loading). 37 < Pcr^ 
foUovrs: labor, ix.x^; power. 4^: supplies, 1.5^; repai«.4.7*; dep««c,6^^; prc^^ 
expense, g.a^. Wages: laborers. $8.40 per 8 hr; cableway opentors, M to 95; J*^ 
to|4. Power cost, 1.5^ per kw-hr. Deprec was figured on charging off 75% of ^ 
and all the installation cost (ao). 

rmnai wotk. On St Mary's Channel Improvement, 4 eaWeways ha ndl r d » 
cu yd of limestone in a.s yr. Rock was loaded into skips by 4 60-toii tnctictk—rr 
steam shovels. Skips held 6 cu yd each, but sometimes 8 cu yd (18 tons) wei^e fr 
a cablcways had spans of 1 100 ft and a of 800 ft. Aver haul, 300 ft. Be&t. 1 
record for all, aa 000 cu yd each; best month's record for one cableway, 30 000 cu : 

Cost of an aver cableway of 8oo-ft span and for a s-ton load, complete wl^r 
la-in engine, but without boiler or towers, is $6 000 to $7 000. A boiler or sa 
motor-operated plant costs about $1 500. Towers cost erected in place. $500 c 
Travelling towers cost 3 to 5 tunes as much (19). 

Stone-boats are wooden or sheet-iron platforms, best mounted on niimers« f c 
ing large stones short distances. If the runners are greased, a ton can be palled t>y 
weighing a 400 lb. A skid »oad is formed of partly imbedded round sticks of 
set like ties on a track 3 to 6 ft apart. A stone-boat holding o.s cu yd (soUd mea. 
rock can be drawn over such a road. A lifter or OEva is a wooden stretcher o« 
9 men can carry as much as 0.5 cu yd. On the Grand Tnmk Pac R R (20) , re 
cheaply hauled by stone-boats on pole tracks in summer for hauls less than Goo ft. 
winter any distance. Track was of a lines of ao to 30-ft {Mies. 4 to 8 in dwzn 
apart for a-hone team and 3 ft apart for 3-horse team. Poles were joined by a-i 
wood pins. Boats were of xo or la 1<^. 7 in diam by 8 ft k>ng, fastened toKeCb rods. In winter the track was iced; in summer, greased (x gal per xoo ft. p4 
In winter, a team could haul a 3-yd rock; in summer, x.s yd; aver load, H cu yd. 
500-ft haul a team and 6 men took 40 to 60 loads per xo hr. Aver yardage p 
loading. 7.3 cu yd; many rocks were large and had to be bk»ckh(ded. The exc 
comprised: ao% shovel dirt, 30% easQy lifted stones, and 50% pieces x to sc 
volume. Cost of loading. 3X^ per cu yd; cost of tcansport, 17^. Wages: xn 
|a.oo to; foremen, 13-75; cost of each horse, 75^ per day. 

Wheelbarrows hold about 0.04 cu yd solid rock; loaded by x man in a mi 
wheeled at 180 to 250 ft per min, k>sing 0.7s niin per round trip. Cost, at X5# per 
loading, hauling, and dumping: to a fixed cost of 18^ per cu yd solid rock, add 6, 
xoo ft lead (ao). 

Carts and wagons. In aver rock, x cu yd solid equals x.75 cu yd broken, and 
about a.a tons. Over poor dirt roads, with occasional steep rises, 0.5 cu yd (z toK 
rock may be hauled by a horses; on hard, level road, x.5 cu yd; aver load on sood 
X cu yd (3 ton). Aver speed of haul, ^20 ft per min. A x-horse cart, on short, 
hill hauls, takes an aver load of 0.35 cu yd solid rock; under favorable conditions 
yd aver. Cost by carts. For short hauls, i driver can run a carts. With 4 or 
loading. ® isi per hr, and 3 carts, a horses, and x driver @ ssi per hr. the I 
cost is about 30^, cost of lost time S^, and cost of dumiMng a^. making a fixed cost 
per cu yd. For total cost of loading, hauling, and dumping: to a fixed cost of i 
cu yd solid rock, add o.xa^ per 100 ft lead. 

Cost by wagons, a men and a driver can load x cu yd on a stone rack in 15 mii 
man and driver can unload it in 7 min, ora total k>8ttimeof aa min. Aver of each 
7.5 cu yd inio hr. Hence, at x s ^ per hr for laborers and 35 ^ for team and driver the 
lost time of t^jn and driver is 1 2^. and for labor loading and unloading. 23^ ; hence. Sxi 
is 35^ per cu y<l ^^ ^^^' ^^^ total cost of i-cu yd loads, add o.fiif per xoo ft lea 

Can on track. For tractive power of horses and resistance of ordinary 
cars see Sec 3i Art s- On level track, a team will haul 2 cars of 3 cu >'d 
lock; on slight down grade, x horse will haul 2 cars holding x to 1.5 c 
On good track, at slight down grade, i hors^ can haul 4 light rocker 
cars holding 4 cu yd, if assisted by Uborers in starting. Cost. If n> 
broken into sizes that 1 or 2 men can lift, 6 to 7.5 cu yd can be loaded p« 

j:9 Qunying 199 

-? ir. Hu m . 4 nia ftie bit in clanging tcuns from empty to kMded can^ 

"::iad iIk tack ftnaagnDott b good. Speed shotdd be aoo ft per min. 

r-xt^kt hbofcn and 3s# for i horae and driver, lost time at pit costs 

-^ of kaadiog 20 to isij sivl the cost of dumping, a to 5^ per cu yd, 

- QcBoe, iiBd oast is say 25^. For total cost with i hone, add 0.5^ per 
: -<r Eoo ft lead; for 2 horses, add o.sii per 100 ft lead per cu yd, lolid. 

nim ifcii J tosdad. In loadmg rock by steam shoird. the output of ihe attendsBt 

- ud b cj — i tiw e is Gmited cfaieAy by the ahovd outimt, not by the speed at which 
'«-"• 31) be ^— "■** Foikwing woik was done in a qoany of hard aystalline lime- 

- '/ ; Bac>-rjs 9s-tan. 3.5-cu yd dipper, shovels (12). Shovzl A. First day: 
-J ciae. 691.5 min; kst time, 59 min. of which 41 min were for blasting, clearing 

. - i,:*i figbtffiing JMcks. 13 min waiting for can to be spotted, and s min idling. Sec* 

i;S mia were lost waiting for cars, of which 87 loin were spent in drilBng, 

•j: 'jrvdi^. sjkd {wcpaiing to move, and 51 min idling. On 2 days, 197 min, or 

< 'Jit Tinw. was iost waiting for cars; while the cara lost on account of shovel: no 

-:.t naoB, 7 min; moving forward, X07 min; drilling, its min; blasting, 67 nun; 

' >' track, 9 sain; total. 5x5 min, or 25 %• Sbovel B in a days worked x 290 min. 

'^ -i 2^6 mia or aojS% was spent waiting for cars, of which 87 min was in idling. 

--". CATL 327 aun (25^%) was lost to the trains by the shovel, as follows: oiling. 

' ceomc up steuB. 42; repairs. 5; waiting for cars to be loaded, 52; blasting, 

I * -^t^ ivwaid. 113; coaling and misodhuieoua. 25 min. There were 5 35-toa 

 juj—nin ai 4 wufkxng and i being overhauled. They hauled xo-car ixains. 

' «■ ^ 5 ca yd. w qgh e d 4 feons. and oast $150 each. While moving the engines aver- 

:-' it per ona; ■"««-""« speed 156 ft, maximum, i ooo ft per min. 

H Qomyiac (see also Open-cut Excavation, Art ic) 

sds qf skaa, ItamEXsioif stone b quarried and split to assigned dimensions ready 

-^'^^ RrsBLa SToarc is in rou^ slabs or blocks of irregular sizes. For dimen- 
ne. there must be a good wouuxc face and usually a channel at each end, to 

' iina. Then, by wed^ng or careful blasting, long blocks are secured, which are 
 >aact faiocks fac^ k^iwHing by derricks. To get a cushioning effect in blasting 
A <4iioe, sevctal inches of ha4e above the charge may be filled with hay; called 

• tjc tMrnfta^." For rabble or harking stone, but little channeling a done; the 
ifiaua up by lifM blasts and large incgular slabs barred and wedged oat 

=ti atf rtfiugw fisnne must be carefully ooosideved. All sedimentary rocks and 

"r>. S8 giaacce. have 3 perpendicular cleavage planes called the grain, azrr, and 

Tn? neks. Hb'^^r, diorite, porphyry, etc, often have no rift and are unfit for dhnen- 

-e. Cost of quarryiag depends partly on thickness of beds and their dip Cdf^e) 

•rtxntaL With steep dips, both thkk and thin-bedded stone must usually be 

t ^jouhaaeously; as the quarry deepens, the depth 

"> '^'Cs too gxvat far psofitable work. If joints are 

- •' A qnsny is a nocLoca quassy; if vertical and at 
va. ROCK quasxt; wfacie there is practically no 

- '-ai. bat a sesiea of horis joints, a sbbkt QUAtST. 

'•' sad feathefiag consists of splitting rocks by 

- '^'•^n. in which 2 rEATB£RS or shims (pieces of 

i irco, the sides of which are curved to fit the 

.." HjTced apart by hammering a wedge plug be- 

"ro iFig 14). 

^csrifirirad. A granite block 6 ft thick may be 

• t-j a row of plug holes $ in deep and 6 to 8 in _.,,-„, - . « ,^ 

t^ a 3.ft block, holes are 2.5 to 3 in deep. ^«"- Plug and Feather. 
«a &ad sandstones generally require deep holes. For sandstone, hoks are 
> • n diam, 4 to 16 in apart, depth being H the thickness of the block. 

'^^ aalhods. Plug holes are drilled by hand, pneumatic hammer 
' "T"'?^*!"^ diilL For shallow holes, the hammer drill b cheapest; 

200 Rock Bwsvmtno 

hud bunmer oeit. For deep boles,  ledpntaling diill do » qukny ba 
bammer drill, ii most ecoDoannl. Uamd flug-bolc dullino. Id j 
I man cu drill in S hr So H-m bola, 1.5 in deepi total, H St. Wit] 
14 to 30 in ipstt, and wages at 3o< per br, cost of ^tting a blocli 
lo i* per sq It. Pnedhatic hamuer dials. Id granite, 1 mail ca 
ID 8 bi 150 M-iu boles, 3 m deep, if tbe driller does not drive tbe pluj 
uodstone, 4-ft bolei have been drilled in 18 min, and lo boles, 18 ii 
were drilled at nle ol 1 bole id 15 sec. Babv dull, od quany bar, will 
i or 4-in bote in 0.75 min, avengiDg about 100 boles pet day. 

t. 6ot', louJ per diy, %ij. 
ere k» deep at 4 ft. Aven^iD 


(To tM> add I 

7 {1910}: 6 driltas @ ti 
lain, Go^; oil, etc 30^^ 
II sharpening and plant I 

It by iS hand driUen @ t'-Sa; total, t 
Special quarry metbodt. Bboachihg or broacb channeling cdqs 
drilling a tow of holes veiy clo» together, and tbes, with a BBOAtZH 01 
cutting out the rock between them. One drill on a quarry bai (Sec i; 
broachper day: in granite, 10-30 sq It; tuattile, JO-30; limestone, is-JSJ 
•tone, zo-40 sq ft. GaDdek is for drilling rows of bariz holesnear the quarry 
or a vertical or inclined row in the face. One drill has made 350 ft of 2-f 
in marble in lO far. Track channeleb is a self-piopelling machine, tn 
back and forth on a 10 to 30-ft section oi track, and cutting a narrow 
with a rfngle bit, or one or more gangs of bits. Some channelers cut > 
grooves, others can be swung at varying angles, or ate amnged for imt 
ting. Ingersoll "Broncho" channeler is mounted on 1 patallel ban, 
bling a quany bar. Channclers may cany a boiler, or be operated by 
or compressed air from an independent plant. IngersoU-Rand Co bui 
air-electric channeler, similar in operation to the air-electric drill. Chai 
_ coat li 300 to 13 oDO. In dimi 
~ stooequarriesCotherthatiKTaiuti 
are economic necessities, becaua 
>a% of the stoni: quanied w 
channehng is lost in subseciueat ci 
In granite, broaching or wedging 
Hy cheaper. Cost ot running a 

t the I 


n drill; I men and aj ton coal p< 
e lequired. Cost tiv chann' 
UBStONE, N Y Slate Baise Can 
' CDOsecutii'e DMOths follows: Su 
Y-8 cbannelos, costing $aSoo 
were used. Operating crew per 
* . neler: 0,16 loo-s of the timeof a 

man t»(4Perday, 1 runner © »3. 50. 1 fin-man »$j, r belper« Si.;;, 1 la 
«Hl.SO. (""St per sq ft for 116544 sq ft: labor, jjt; coal, 3 j*; water, 
r^iurs,o.i«i int and depirc, i.4t: total. 17», 

Standard or rigid-back channelers cut to depths of 10 to 16 ft- Ewnip 
gnd bar channeler^ 6 to ii ft; uiulrn.uttinE chanrelers, 7 ft. Max indir 
iJ ivrimtU.* thjnm'ler having b-'dtr or n-healer, ),=: other types, iS° 
hits d- not rwaie. In fiK 15: .t sh.™, lhegan« u«d in marble or rwks i 
,hip tredy; «. that u."**! for tough R,^ts which do not cWp fa«^- C, for 1 
/) is used in b.-th quarry «kJ .^«ln.t wv.rl, {.„ sharp, gritly Moia. E i 
sulii Zbil, cummoo m cuotract work in rvugh broken stone. 


Open-cut Rock Ezcavadoa 


TiltoA BM 

» aff Cvttiflc with SoUivaa ClMuuiaten 











1 cut 




Quarry "xrirk 1 

Quanjwork { 




10 hr 

Pennsylvania . 


6oiAver day | 

- - ,rA Vt 



10 br 




Aver day 



Aver mo 




Aver day 





Aver day 
High day 
Aver day 
Good day 




Aver day 


'-"^ ....... . 

Contract vnrk 


Lockport, 111.. 



Aver xobr 




Aver mo 

Loclcport, 111 . . 



High 10 hr 




Aver mo 

SaaltSte Marie 



Aver day«i.iB 



10 days 

Keokuk. la.... 



10 hr 

.--jf. Ark.. 



Aver day 







137 5 

Aver day 

SaultSte Marie 








New York City 




-i- ££?».... 


7SO |Averiohr| 

Panama Canal 




^x^^. B. Hard marble. C. Limestone. D. Hard limestone. E. Sandstone. 
-^ rati. G. Slate. H. Soft soapstone. /. Tough sandstone. /. Gneiss. K. 

LS0I sfRCB of blasting- A number of round holes axe drilled, and then reamed by 

'.' tbe shape shown in Fig 16. In medium sandstone, holes should be zo to 15 ft 

~ ^ frysfnne, ^>oat 4 ft apart. Black powder or contractor's 

•s w^ j{j& the rock in the direction of the angles. Cost of 

~ -^ Eaescooe by this ssrstem, including pladng it on scows for 

^ Eaalkvater (1900). was 99^ per cu yd (20). 

>:»xrpag hr eoMpKMMd ak is piactkaed at Mt Aiiy. N C. '^l* ***, 5?**.^'^ 
- tK gnnoe has few joints, and splits readily in afanoat any ^^ ^ Blastmg 
'tnL A oeotially-kKated hole, a to 3 in diam and 6 to 8 ft deep^ is sprung with dyna- 
ncB. Rpeaced chaises of black powder, bfginaing with a handful and giadoally 
*-•««€  aac, start and extend boriz cleavage cracks. When the deavafe rtacbes 75 
w % a ajl dBectioos, air at 7o4b press is admittftl throo^ a pq>e cemented into the 
ia aer 0.5 hr, the cleavage reaches the soi^Me 150 fit d: from the drill holc^ and the 
'■oi dbb k aplii into bkxks by plugs and feathers. ^ 

'■ctoffMRyiac. A anmber of detailed ecampks axe given In (30). Costof93 500CU 
-«ifi£«d m v«n) of limestone rubble stone for Chicago Drainage Canal was 74^ per 
i 'Cem. ci thin-bedded sandstone, for dry sk>pe walls and rubble, was 88^ (measured 
.I . ada&otg loading into wagons. Cost <^ 600 cu yd of sandstone dimensicn stone 
{. :5 per ca yd. and of 200 cu yd of nibble stone $x per cu yd. Cutting dimension 
^Ht IM3 per cu yd. Cost of 4 000 cu yd of gneiss dimension stone, ready for cut- 
'^ Si-SS per cu yd, and of 3 400 cu yd of rubUe stone, $1.80, measured in frface in 

-'- Cast of quarrying granite dimottion stone was I4.53 per cu yd. 

Ill Open-cut Kock SzcATttion 

vde-kiD cola, where rock b wasted <iirect)y in front of the excavation, 
■^[}y the least eipensive type of open cut. Ratio of the propulaive 
-' U Sbck powder to its shattering effect is about ^.6, while that of dyna- 
' i ibuut 1; hence, it is often desirable in side-hill work to use black 
• ^. so that when blasted the rock may be thrown as far as possible from 

?{k hraasts. Quarries* of other than buflding stone, are most cheaply 
*i viib a high face or breast. Deep^ large<liam holes by chum drills are 

202 Rock Excavation 

Throttsh cttto occur oftenest in canal and R R work. Depth and wj 
^ cut, and mode of removal, determine the plan of attack. Ezcavatkni in tJ 
cuts generally costs more than in side-hill cuts. 

Cost of ezcavating 19 295 cu yd of gneira (mica schist) in street woA in N Y p< 
was (30) : foremen and timdceepen, 8^; demckmen and helpers, 9.6^; labor loadin| 
hand diilleiB, xx.7^; blacksmith and helper, 5.3^; hauling in wagons, 40.5^; exidosivN 
coal, ocAje. oil, etc, 6^; drill repairs, i^; repursto boilers and derricks, i.a^; total, $] 
cu yd. Pour 5.5-in Ingersoll steam drills made the main holes and 2 baby drills, tb 
holes, and hand drills and sledges broke up the medium-size stone into pieces suitj 
buikfing foundati<»s. The cut ranged from a to 63 ft, aver lift, x a to 15 fL In souxj 
30-ft holes were drilled at an aver of 70 ft in xo hr; in shallow drilling, an aver of d 
2$ ft per drill per day. There were 18 433 lineal ft of main holes (not induding block 
Wages: i machine man @ $3, the others, $a.75 per 10 hr; hand drillers and sledgi 
laborers, $1 .50. Drilling plant cost $1 800; heelers, derridu, hoists, etc, $1 080; 40 9| 
mite, 2oi per lb. 

Mesabi iron range, Minn (see Sec 10). Comparative cost of open-pit and 
t ground mining. Aver cost oi stripping per cu yd: glacial drift and paint rod 
broken taconite, 75^: solid taconite, $x. Mining cost in ordinary oniditions: 
shovel, 30^; underRround mining, f 1.50 per cu yd. On these bases, the cost of ml 
column of ore x sq yd in area by 36 ft deep, with 65 ft ci overburden, is: 

Underground mining: ore 36 ft thick $x8j 

Open-pit mining: Stripping 50 ft glacial drift ' $5.00 

" IS ft solid taconite 5 .00 

Steam-shovel mining, ore, 36 ft thick 360 13 . 1 

In favor of open-pit mining 94 . « 

Open-pit mining is usually economical when there is not more than x cu yd oi 
burden to x ion (say 0.5 cu yd) of ore (x cu yd of hard slate and taconite being ci 
lent to about 3 cu yd of ordinary overburden), and when max stripping depth is le^ 
150 ft. As depth and track grades incmse, open-pit mining ceases. 

Steam shoveb used in Mesabi district are Bucyrus, Marion, and Atlantic weigh 
to zxo tons; the smaller for stripping, stock-i^ loading, and deaning-up worl 
larger for ore excavation. Standard R R cars of xoo ooo-lb capadty caixy the orcj 
30-CU yd sido^ump cars, the overburden. Locomotives, weighing 20 to xoo tons, 
side>rod and Shay types are used, the latter for steep grades. Pit trades laid < 
spirals are preferred to switch-backs. Aver output of shovds in stripping is x \ 
2 aoo cu yd per shift for a 60-ton shovel, and a 000 to a 500 cu jrd for a 90-toa; < 
short periods, 3 000 and 3 800 cu yd respectively. In ore a 90-ton shovel should al 
60 cars (960 cu yd) per shift for the season. Table xa. Art 8, gives output oi a | 
shovd as 893.5 cu yd; 90-ton shovel, x 350 cu yd. "High records per xo-hr shLJ 
xxo-ton shovel, 175 cars; 90-ton, x8o cars; 60-ton, xoo cars. Contract stripping 
a 7 to 30^ per cu yd. Actual unit costs by company account on one property were 
aa^. Aver cost of mining is about tsi per ton. Wages of steam shovd and 
crews, to 1913, but since increased, are: -shovel runner, $5.97; craneman, I4..04; fir< 
$2.50; locomotive runner. I13.75; fireman,; brakesman, $a.oo to $3.75; pitmen, | 
laborers, $a.xo per 10 hr. 

Blasting prdiminaxy to steam-shovel work is generally done by a spedal crew, 
in overburden are by hammer and drill; in ore, by jumper. Gopher holes are drii 
high banks. Drilling for stripping costs 8 to 15^ per ft of hole. In aa^ a to 4 mel 
an aver of 60 ft, and a max of xao ft per lo-hr, at coA of 7 to xo^ per ft. Qoph<^ 
cost 10 to 15^ per ft in ore, and 7 to xo^ in stripping; ao to as ft per shift are ij 
Holes are sprung with dynamite and blasted with black powder. 

As navigation on the Great Lakes ceases in winter, ore is stored throu^ 4 to 5 o^ 
in stock piles. Two systems of stock-piling are conunon, the Mkhigaa and the Ml 
aota. In the latter the stock pile is started at end of a short trestle, and b built outl 
end-dump cars (Sec 3, Art 13). The Michigan system has a long trestle. Neg^ 
Mine uses a permanent steel trestle. With wooden trestles the timber loss per >i^ 
ia.5toa5%. A tresde, 4a ft high, cost $3 per lin ft. Labor cost of stock-iaiing is | 
power oMt, low. Total cost varies from a to 7^ per ton; where x 000 tons per daj 

ji 10 Open-<nit Rock EzGavadon 203 

aai. oBit a 3 to 5^; for buU output 5 to 7# per too. Stock-pik or is idoaded by 
.laikMk CTifale xa, Azt S). 

Rdchestcr, N Y. in 1909 (30). Ovotrardeii, 30 ft, coo- 

^ <tf 19 & of ao3 and ^acisl drift and zo ft of Sxnestooe. a chum drilh drove 6-in 

'^. ><t 9«t. a few iadbes into the ore. Aver per day per drill, 4 holei (80 ft); cost, 

' -cr ic: 0x9 ft of hole per en yd. Cost per day per drill: 1 runner,; eoal, 400 lb, 

-. i^piea. 30^ plant chargei, $x: total, $5*50. Charises, 65 lb of 40% ds^iamite, 

: - b par CO yd, cntiQg i3# per lb. Overburden wu loaded by a Vulcan ahovel, 

*- a. t^ycm yd d^per, making a 40-ft cot, 90 ft deep. It excavated an aver of z 500 

. ^ pvAqr, citit. fcwrman. $3.50; runner. $3.50; oaneman, %»; fiErenum, $1.75; 

-.m ooii. $so.9o; ofl and supplies, 50^; S labcners, $10.40; plant charKes, $6; total, 

.'v S2io«cb loaded into s-cn yd skips, rmming on an inclined conveyor, 129 ft 

4 nd jankiar a waste bank 60 ft high. Cost of operation per day: engineer, $3-50; 

:j(S^aa. %xi topmaa. %a; fireman, $1.75; s tons coal, $7; oil and supplies, 50^; plant 

-TTL K; total, S3Z.75- Total cost (not including general expense), per cu yd of 

- <xffim: dnflii^ o.6#; eqiloeive, 4^; loading, a.5^; conveying and dumping, 1.5^; 


•.K«£ I a of limntfnnf capping adhered to the ore, and was blasted or barred off. 

=» acee ikifed tkroagh the ore 3 ft apart, and shot with 1.5 to 1.75 sticks of 15% 

9^ per Xb. Eadi cu yd of ore required 4 ft of hole and lb dynar- 

loaded into Aips by a Vulcan shovel, 1.35-cu yd dipper, having 

^pit <d joo toos (100 CO yd) per day. Skips were handlfd by a derrick on a car. 

J^ cast of faicakxag. loacfing, and handling: foreman, $3.50; drilling, f la; explosives, 

$3.50; craneman, $2; fireman, $1.75; coal, ton, $4.37* der- 
$2.50; wxncluBan, $a; fireman, $z.7S; coal, 0.75 ton, $a.6a; 8 lidwrezs, 
16; total, $sa.z6. 
-tjJ cBBt per cu yd: foreman, zr.6^; drilling, 40^; expkisives, zz.a^; loading, 35-4^; 
-XX haiwfrT^g. 39^^; lalxyert, 36^; plant charges, 90^; total, $1.74. 

cats, Grand Trunk Pac R R (ao). Cots, 30 ft wide at 
3 in to I ft. (Verbreakage, usually paid for, was xo to 40%. Rock was 
'*i^*'^^ Steam diiUs used in large cuts, hand drills in small. Haiid 
I H-in bit) made holes as deep as 30 fL To depths of 6 ft, 3 men struck 
. I held the doB; below 6 ft, all used hammera, the drill rotating automatically on the 
> j>l: iiigii. $ per ro hr (day's work), or 45^ per ft, sharpening and nippering 

- *aad. 3 OMO, drilling zo to X4-ft holes, averaged in dark hornblende 39 ft per day. 
-! imnirr jo ft, and in trw and diabase Z8.5 ft In drilling Uock holes, z gang made 

ks. avenging 15 in each, in 6 days. Drill sharpening for one month,, for 5 gangs 
.'iJed a Z42 ft. eoat: blackamith @ $3.50^ $8750; helper # fa, $48; nipper & $2, 
 aal. Sis: total, $195.50^ or 9^ per ft. Averagecost by s gangs, each drilling z8 ft 
sxs diiftng. 37#; sharpening, 9i; totals 4'^i per ft. 

I tes to JO or 3S ft deep were made by 3.35 and 3.s-in steam drills; holes to a$ ft deep, 

.3 ^rSa. Siaxtiag bits. 3.5 in; finishing bits, about m. (jost of nmning i drill 

r- >»day: ranaor, $3.75; helper, $9.2$; fireman, $3.50; 0.5 blacksmith, $1.87; 0.5 

•^^ It ij: z oaedwood»$a.35; coal, 30^; repairs and oil, 38^; total, $14.43. Aver. 

irOed per day, casting 48^ per ft. When s drills yffit run bom z boiler, cost was 

' ?*< ps ft. 

i^j, 3«cr as ft deep were made in a Ufts. In bottom benches, z ft of hole and in top 

:c<. a or i ft of hole, were rhambrred. A afi-ft hole, Z4 ft from face, was qming 

4, a stidKa 60% dynamite, water-tamped; (6) s sticks, water-tamped; {e) 12 

u^ w«tep<«aaq»d; id) 30 stidcs, sand-tamped; (e) 70 sticks, sand-tamped; total. 

tLcka Aaocbff aimilar hole: (a) a stidu, watcr-tamped; ih) s sticks, water- 

',>Ftu (0) St sticks, watcr-taniped; (d) 35 stidu, iand>Umped; (e) zoo sticks, sand- 

- k1 total, iS4 stkks. Fint hole was charged with 37s sticks of 40% dynamite; 
zso stacks of 60% and Z7S sticks of 40% dynamite, (i stick - 0.35 lb.) 

broke 4S0 cu yd of rock. Cbst: drilling, 4.8^; springing, 6.3^; blasting, 
'jXaL ao-4# per cu yd. Blaster. 37-5^ *xid powder monkey i2,si per hr. Dyna- 
i%4 per lb far 40%. aa^ for 60%, about 0.4 lb of 40%befa)g used per cu yd for the 
aad 0^38 lb of 60% for springing. About 75 lb Uack powder equaled so lb 
Cost of excavating 7 004 cu yd red granite from a tunnd approach on 
>■< ft E una fi«i9 per cu yd. 


Rock Excavation 


IL Trenching 

OTorbreakage. Specifications should name, a minimum width of t 
beyond which neat unes the rock removed shall not be paid for. J 
should also be named. Overbreakage in rock sometimes exceeds by 25 oj 
the specified cross-section. 

Depth and spacing of holes. Holes in thin-bedded, horizontally stri 
Focks are usually drilled 6 in below specified bottom of trench; in thick-b< 
tough limestones, etc, about la in below; in tough granites and traps, 

For hand drilling in granite, holes are often spaced about z.s ft apart. In tread 
to 3 ft wide, rows, 3 ft apart, of 2 holes each, are common. In a trench 6 ft wide ii 
trap 3 holes iwr row were drilled, the rows being 3 ft apart. In an &-ft trench in si 
there were 3 holes per row, rows 4 ft apart. 

Cost of trenching depends primarily on proper spacing and depth of 

In the 6-ft trench named above, about 4.5 ft <rf hole were drilled per cu yd, the 
going to 1.5 ft bek>w grade. Steamdrillsmade35ftof holeperday @3o^per ft. ] 
mite, 2 lb of 40% per hcte, or 2.6 lb per cu yd ot net excavation. Hence, drilliog cost 
and blasting 40^; total, $3.15 per cu yd. The above &-ft trench was x z ft deep; bole» <| 
to I ft below grade, naking 3.74 ft of fade per cu yd net. Drills a^^raged 45 ft in 
cost per ft. 33^. Dynamite, about 4 lb of 40% per bde, or x.i lb per cu yd. D\ 
cost 63^ and blasting 17^; total, 80^ per cu yd. 

Cost of trenchhig in Umeatone, St Louis, Mo (so). Rock was in horizontal 
3-ft strata, the upper 4 or 5 ft being seamy and rotten, the rest hard and difficult to ij 
Rock was excavated 6 in below all pipes of i8-in diam or lessi and 9 in bdow larger j 

Excavation was paid for to widths x ft greater than diam d 
of less than x8 in, and 15 in greyer than the diam of larger ] 
Drill holes were 6 in from side of trench, and staggered 4 ft 1 
in top rock (Fig 17) and 3.5 ft apart in hard rock. Proje<; 
were sledged or shot off. Holes were drilled in a lifts, top i 
j^~IZ . gdng halfway through the ledge, bottom fades 0.66 to 0.71 

Fig 17. Aita^cment tj^ckness of ledge. Drilling was ahigle-haad. with 1.7 5-m 
of Trench Hdes xo ft being drilled in 8 far. Dynamite, about 4 300 lb (3.25 il 
cuyd). Aver rock broken per 8-hr day per quarry man, 0.96 cu yd. Oveibieakage, a 
ao%. Cost of earth excavation, 50^ per cu yd. The cost of the rock woric was as fdl 

Table 17. Cost of Ttencfaing in Rock per Ca Td Net Seclioa. St Louil 


«— A^«-A^ 


•5 .2 


Length of 
pipe, ft 

V !: V 

Cu yd 




i2 1 r> 

Total di- 
rect labor 




Total cost. 




— 1 






5* l3 50' 24 



$4 90 

IS « 






3 a4' M 

4 43 ao 


5 03 


15 ' <l 






3.76 44 

4 04' ao 











3 13 39 

4 39' ao 











3.15' 66 

3 70 ao 







... 11 9 


«  •  


3.10; 36 ) 4-30' ao 




IS r t 

Unmounted machine hammer drills are now (19x5) often used In trei 
work, Ikcausc of their portability and ease of starting a bole. 

They are often operated b>' a portable gasdine-dxiveo compcessor. at a daily oost! 
3 drili^runners (c^ 13-50, $to.$o; compressor man, $3.50; is gal gasoKoe 9 30^ I3; | 
imewals depctc, $6; total, $23. Each drill should avenge 50 ft of hok perdsy ifl ' 
rock, thus costing 14*5^ per ft. 

- '^ 

Subaqueous Excavation 



for cairying a boiler, and a dzill moimtod on a bar, wen 
- ^ X9BS at Havana, Cuba. Wt per outfit, 5 000 lb; drills were Sullivan, 
-■^ Eock vaned faom very soft to flint-tike hardness. Time studies of 4 
aBednOn; 40 boles: total drilled, 366 ft; aver depth of hole 9.15 ft; aver 
^taae, 36-^ min per bote «■ 2.9 min per ft; chan^ng steel, 1.4 min per ft; 
.V drifi CD bar, 0.6 min per ft; moving machine from hole to bole, 1.0 niln 
."-, totii time, 2 231 min; average per ft, 6.1 min (ao). 

JaMm iS^ Bock BaDcaTatioo in Ttenches (Orifioal) 

=- t- i-s IS* 



' i I 








7 ! 









10. o 






Kind of 


All methods 






Air hammer 
I roan chum 




Cost per cu yd 




Si. 35 






Hjc aHtiBy 3 ft, apait. Hammer driUing, i fadder, a strikexB, on snuUl jobs. 

'" sor vyk. holes 3.5 m, finisher 1.35 in. Aver rate of drilling per gang, 8 to xo ft 

7. as to jitkks. 75% dynamite per hole. (6) Depth of rock, o to z a ft. (c) Two 

' *v> of boks, z8 in apart, and a (xntcr hole staggered, {d) 6 to 8 in bdow grade, 

^A'jL,4fL U) H to 0.5 lb per hole. (/} Holes staggered. 4 ft apart in soft rock, 

■3 htri. (i) Dynamite was 40% to Go%, except (a) whkh was 7S%- 

tt Sabaqaeoua Bzcavatioii 

V«bo4t cBBpioyed are: exploding dynamite on the rock surface, unwater- 

'"c nxk by cofferdams or caissons, and drilling from platforms or scoii^. 

voik is a bnnch <d Civil Engineering, to books on which the reader is 

Ttsd 11,20). 


M. Einkr. John Wiky & Sons. Inc. N Y. 1899 
CS. HOL Eng News Pub On N Y. 1896 
Qoatries and Tonnds. A. W. and Z. W. Daw, Spon & 

CfauBbohdn. N Y. 1898 
CoBi of Dredging in the United Sutes. Emg Noes, Feb 17. 1898; Sept 5. 19x3. 

Emt-CmtratJimt, July x6, 1913; Aug 13. 1913 
L.uda(. .^^ynopdc and critic^ treatment of the literature of the subject. Dr. H. 

BnB»«i{. John \llley & Sons, Inc. N Y, 19x3 
E.j<isini£li'B Gukk. J. F. Sallows. Technical Press, N Y. 1908 
latrn Bb^ for i^n^i^pw^g Rock for Rock-fill Dams. Bng-Cenlractingt May 36, 

1909; Jan 19. 19x0; Nov 15. 19x1. rroas Am Soc Civ Eogs. Vol 75 (X912). P 37 
OMtxnctiaa of Roosevelt Dam. C. W. Smith. Emg Rec, Dec 31. x9zo 
Kcpoct by Coostzuctioo Service Co on Cost of HanUng by Hones and Tractkm 

Eagiaea. EnfC^ntracUnt, Dec 8. 1909 
Kock Drib. £. U. Weston. McGraw-RiU Book Co. N Y. 19x0 
iock Diiffing (especial refercnoe to open-cot excavation and submarine rock re* 

Mwal). R. T. Dana and W. L. Saonders. John WOey & Sons. Inc. N Y^ 191 x 
BnAoakofSteam-ShovdWcik. Cautnction Service Co, Pub by Bncyms Co. 

So Mihradkee. Wis, xgti 
Rat el Bunuag of Fuse. W. O. SodBng and W. C Cope. JscA PaA«r 8. U S 
of Mines. 19x2 

aOO Rock EzcavatioQ 

-'X4. Effect of Stemming on Rflkiency of Exploaivei. W. O. Snriling and C 

Ttck Paptr 17. U S Bureau of Mines, X9za 
xs. Subwiys and Tunnels of New Yoik. Gilbert, Wishtman and Saunders. 

Wiley & Sons. Inc, N Y. 19x2 
x6. Excavation for the Arrowrodc Dam, Idaho. C. H. Paul. Eng Nams, July j 
X7> Sdection of Elxi^osives Used in Engineering and Mining Operations. C B 

A. P. HowelL BvU 48, U S Bureau of Mines 
x8. Excavating Machinery. A. B. McDanid. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y. 
X9. Handbook of Coostructioa Plant; Cost and EfiBdency. R. T. Dana. 

Book Co, N Y. 1914 
sa Rock Excavation; Methods and Costs. H.P.Gillette. Claxk Book Co. N ^ 
3X. Handbook of Cost DaU. H. P. Gillette. Clark Book Co. N Y. 19x0 

Mi""^ Enpneets* Handbook 




• BY 





«i Dxin 

nf ShSfoa per Dmy 

of DiiB lloqiitim 

ol Hold per Kound. 


£>epihaf Hok 







V £j[plowc 
of Escplosn 
the Boles. 





Art Pac« 

zj. Men Empbjred 929 

I4> Positioiifl of Working 229 

15* Handling Can in the Headiag. . ajo 


x6. Materials 23X 

17. Types of Timbering 232 

X&. Concrete Linings 235 

19. Driving through Loose or Run- 
ning Ground 236 

COSTS 939 

Bibliography 247 

— Noabets in parentheses in text refer to BiUiography at end of this section. 

Scope «f fct i on . The foDowing discussioii is restricted to driving of tun- 

'a:- of sBttB aoas-sectXHi, the entire area of which is excavated in one operation. 

'4 St BniBg tanoeb and adits, and many intended for irrigation and water 

'^^iy. are anall enough to be driven in this manner. For tunnels of large 

• ^ '■MCt i on, as for rai l roads and some aqoeducts, the worit consists of two 

'tbaas: the driving of an advance hauling, followed by enlargement to 

- -all SBCtion. The method of work in such advance headings is ^^sentially 

. '. ^axDt as lor mine timnels and certain of its features, of interest to the min- 

r, win be noted. In this discussion no description is given of the 

sjrstcms of eoiaxging, timbering, and Kning railroad tuimels, for the 

-'s of wfakh the reader is referred to the works of Drinker (32), Prelini (48), 

'-iJa (56}, and the publications of the civil and mining engineering societies. 

1. RepTMentatiYe Tnimelt 

Tables I to IV contain data relating to 36 representative tunnels^ most of 
' ^ lor mines, which will illustrate the chief features of tunneUng. These data 

"^pnst: location, dimensions, kind of rock penetrated, type and number of 
-' ^ iBed in headings, organization of work, kind and consumption of expbsive, 
'-'-^ cart per hot ci completed tunnels. In other parts of this section axe addi- 
'-*il tiMfi» giviag detaib respecting drills and thdr mountings for tunnel wok, 

of holes per louod, and ooat per foot of hole. 


Table L Tannel Date 






Least li. 
feet t 




Buffalo Water 

Buffalo, N Y 


6 575 



Silver Plume, Col 


3 ooo 



Catskill Aqueduct: 

Ohio City, Col 




Moodna Siphon 

Orange Co, N Y 


2S aoo 


Rondout Siphon 

Ulster Co, N Y 




WalUdll Siphon 

Ulster Co, N Y 




Yonkers Siphon 

Westchester Co, N Y 





Idaho Springs. Colo 





Ouray, Col 


2 000 


Ft Williams 

Ft Williams. Ont 




Gold Links 

Ohio City. Col 




Grand Central 

New York, N Y 


3000 1 



Montrose, Col 


30645 ' 



Red Mountain, Col 

Drft De 




Larimer Co, Col 


xz 300 . 



Los Angeles Aqued: 

Mauch Chunk. Pa 




Little Lake Div 

Inyo Co, Cal 




Grapevine Div 

KemCo, Cal 


(*) I 


Elizabeth Lake 

Los Angeles Co, Cal 

WS & Irr 

20860 • 1 



Idaho Springs, Col 


638s i 



Empire, Col 


6 400 ] 



Santa Barbara. Cal 






Idaho Springs. Col 


33 coo 




Alder. Wash 





Northwest Water 

Chicago, lU 


21 180 ^ i 



Cripple Creek. Col 

Dr& De 





Bonanza, Col 






Ohio City, Col 


3200 S 



Cripple Creek. Col 


15700 1 


Si watch 

Leadville. Col 





Snake Creek 

Heber. Uteh 


14 000 



Spiral (two) 

Selkirk Mts. B C 


6090 A 



Telluride. Col 

Dr& De 

3600 S 



Wasatch Co. Utah 


19100 ' a! 


Utah Metals 

Tooele. Utah 


XI 780 R 



Leadville, Col 


23800 S 

WS B< Water Supply. Dr « Mine Drainage. De  Mine Develo|>ment. li 
Mine Transportation. Irr « Irrigation. R » Rectangular. A ■> Arched roof. \ 
Square. C « Circular. Hs » Horseshoe. T «• Trapesoid. (a) 12 tunneb, total leA 
32 000 ft. (6) 9 tunnels, total length. 30 300 ft. 

L »> Limestone. Gr >• Granite. Gn — Gneiss. Sh « Shale. Cn » CongloaKr 
Ac B Anthracite coaL SGr » Soft granite. MGr ■> Medium gnMiite. SI «* SI 


Tunnd Data 


Talilie n. Taanel Date (Coniimiei) 


i ! 













g a 

- 15 









; S 


Grft Gc 



IO& la 



> SS 

7 5 







; J 


Grft Sh 






' :g 








• 3 





la & 14 


iSuUivan j 


- li 


Grft Gn 






1 :.45 








7 S 

7 5- 

" Hard" 






















- t 






ISuIlivan j 









/Leyner 1 
ISaUivan / 


. U 









7 S 



































'2 3 


















Gr& Gn 



13 ft 13 




. Sft6 

1 ^ 





HA Ex 











. 9 5 







(Leyner 1 






















13 ft 13 






Gnft Gr 











i6ft 17 





7 5 








» 5 













 • • • 












9 S 








* :r 













. (0 




«RlijuBu Br-BRcda. 



Aa « Andotte. Qtzte » Quartate. <Hy « Hydraulic. 

P BI « P re ssure blower. Ex » Foul gases exhausted through 

> Fresh sir supplied through ventilating pipe. Bl ft Ez ■- Bkrv 

alter shooting, (a) IVimiel driven under compccsased air, no 

ib) Jet of comfxeaaed air b ventilating pipe, ic) No ventilation 

hf mMmng co mpwD w d air liae. id) Area eqiuvalcnt to a i4'tt dick. 




Table m. 

Tannel Data (,CotUiiu$Bd) 












ber of 

ber of 

ber of 

ber of 

ber of 

Type of 



ing of 















ers per 


cars * 



























.... I 
















































































3 men 




















































































a6 ftas 














I & 3^K & 3 

































 « • • 
































































































VC - Vertical column. HB - Horizontal bar. (a) Used a >i-cu yd bucket 
ilaft car. (b) Used a Markm shovel operated by compressed air. 


Tunnd Data 


Ikble nr. Tttantl Data <Cmi«himA 





4S ' 





I — 

• Sto€ 

:: itot 

*j ' .... 






cayd I ieet 




































per foot 

of tun- 



19 ('f) 


J9 S4 





x8 88 







July, '07 

Feb. '10 
Bftf. '09 
Oct. '09 
July, '10 

Aug, '07 
May, "07 
May. '06 

Jan. 'OS 

Dec. '09 
July. '06 



Oct. '07 


May. 'IX 

Feb. '06 

Jan. '06 







Apr. '10 


June, 'IX 
May. 'XX 
Dec. 'lo 
July, 'ii 

iiar. 'ce 
May. '09 
Dec. 'xa 

July. '09 

July, 'ii 
Feb, 'la 


Feb, 'XX 
191 X 
191 X 

. 19M 

Oct. '12 

Nov, 'xo 



June, '09 




Referenoet to 

6. 39. 4a. 54 


10. 41. 58 




9. 13. aa. 77 




3. 14. 16. 37. 43,so 




4, 17. iS, ao 

la. 46 

31. 44. 59 


\ while tcstini^ Burleigh drill. This was first use of machine drills in 
taaeL (^ Drrren intermittently; not yet completed, (c) Lined 

Ptnnaacnt equipment not included, (e) Practkally all timbered. 

 4nii««^.^ Art 19. U) PrsctictUy no timbering. 

212 Drilling 


t. Choice of Drill 

The prime requisite of a rode drill for tunneling is ability to perform e 
service under adverse conditions, and in spite of rough usage and abuse. 
from durability, the important determining factors in the choice of a di 
rate of drilling, and costs of maintenance, attendance, and power. (See ' 
pressed.Air Drills,'* Sec 15, Art 24-26.) 

Durability. The work of a rock drill in tiuineling is done under con 
that would quickly ruin almost any other' type of machinery. Constai 
severe vibration is unavoidable; in many cases the drill is lubricated ! 
larly and imperfectly; dirt and grit can be kept out of the moving p»arl 
by the exercise of the greatest care; the drillmen rarely understand tl 
chine's construction and often ignorantly subject it to shocks and straii 
not intended to bear. To give satisfaction imder such conditions n 
elimination of complicated details, rejection of parts not absolutely ess 
determination of the proper size and strength of parts, and selection of ma 
having proper wearing qualities. Since the pneumatic drill has beetl in p 
of development for more than 50 years, it is naturally better able to m« 
difficult conditions of tunnel driving than any of the newer types; it is, 
fore, the drill almost universally used for such work at the present tim 
certain cases, notably the Arlbeig and Simplon railway tunnels in the All 
33> 481 53, 55, 56), the Brandt rotary hydraulic drill has been employed a 
tageously (see The Engineer, Jan 25, 1895, p 74). The perfecting of tfa 
contained electric drill is now (1913) receiving much attention. The i 
thus far obtained, although not conclusive, indicate that such a machin 
possibility to be reckoned with in the future. (Sec 16, Art !$•) 

Rate of drilling is of course largely dependent upon the character < 
Twk, Study of Table V (showing that IngersoU-Rand and Sullivan drills, 
in shale and sandstone, rarely drill over xo ft per hr, while L^ner dri 
granite and other hard rock rarely fall below that figure) seems to warrai 
general statement that a hammer drill gives the higher speed in the 1: 
horisontal holes required for tunnel headings. This is probably due ti 
mode of operation, admission of water to the hole, type of chuck, and the 
reciprocating steel. A piston machine strikes comparatively heavy, sma 
bk)ws, which quickly dull the bit, especially if the rock be hard; after M 
until the steel is changed, the penetration must be accomplished by cms 
The faster blows of the hammer drill, being lighter, do not dull the bit so qv 
and the penetration is effected by the speedier action of chipping. The i 
cation of water, through the hollow steel to the bottom of the hole, cooti 
bit, preserves its temper, and in flat holes removes the cuttings promptly 
the front of the bit. Since in the Leyner chuck the drill steel needs only 
inserted and given a half turn, the delay in changing steel is minimized. Fi« 
as the bit does not reciprocate, holes are more readily started, when the 
face is oblique to the axis of the hole, than with a redprocatmg drill. 

Th« Brandt hjdniiBc rotary drill made an average of 8 to 9 ft of hole per hr il 
gnebs of the iwrth heading of die Simpbatunod, during three months of 1899. Inthel 
heading, where the rodi was much harder, the average driUing speed during the same p{ 
was 5 ft per hour. ThefooUgedriUedbythbmadune^B limited by the extremely b 
mountingrequiied. which increases the difficulty of shifting and setting up. This is p 
offset by the fact that the madkine utilises a high percentage, 70% acaxding to Prdioi 
of the theoretical power supplied it, and that the exhaust water injected through the U 
bit. as hi hammer drills, keeps the bottom of the bole daB« thus increasing the effid 
of boring. 


Hikto ▼. 

Rates of DriUiog 213 

Sfttes ot X>nlliiig in TttUMl Headioga* 





iu ... ...• 

\23s& Vater 

Make of 





"Je Lakr Divisoa 

"i?rrae Oivisioa. , 












- -sd 




















rShale and) 




rShale andl 


























Pair average 
Normal conditions 

Extremely hard rock 

Ordinary conditions 

/Aver <3f 15 accurately 
I timed shifts 

Average for 1909 
Average 3 drills 

Favorable ground 

Much harder rock 

{Average of 4 aocu- 
rately timed shifts. 
19.7 ft 

Stope drill 

Test tun 

in aettiiig up and tearing down column or bar, in diifting ma- 

bttt does not indude mudking set-up nor 

"^ a cnwprtirinn test ia vUcb both driUs were mounted on the same bar in 

»oae idmtical oooditioos of ro^, etc, a SoUivan machine drilled ai ft per 

''^ s Leyner drill made but so ft. The oooditioos were unusual, however, be- 

•<cr aids leu w m. wss eaoountered in practically every bole drilled, and doubt- 

the II Hilt  greatly. 

^ ^actrk dd^ duriag rrprrimmts on the Catakill aqueduct, N Y, is reported to 
' 'H bom 4 to 10 ft ol hole per hr in gneisB. An electric drill of another make 
- i^oage cif IS ft per far in mica schist, while in Fordham gneias the average wa5 
' 1 II A tkkd type of electric driD is sakl to have averaged about 10 ft of hole 
(data from private communicatloiB to author). 



Table VI shows the cost o( repair parts for pneumatic 
d twueb. Cocrespondiflg data for hydnu^c and electric 



drills are not available; but it is probable that the foimer, because of i 
and complicated parts, is more expensive to maintain than the air dril 
is certain that thf repair costs of the self-contained electric drills &r 
than the figures in the table, because they are still in the development 

TaUe VI. Coat of DriU Repair Parts 




Los Angeles Aqneduct, 
Little Lake Divisioo: 
iB South 


a A 








Elizabeth Lake. 
MaishaU-Rasaell.. . 


Jan, 'lo-June, 'xi 
Mar, *o6-Atig. 'o6 




July, '0!^- 
May. *iz 

Jan, '09- Jan, '10 
June,*o8-June, 'ii 

Jan, 'o(^June,'x2 

May,'ix-Oct. '12 

Sept.'07-Aug, '08 

nel ad- 



X 030 
I X73 







Granite and 



Shale and 


Granite and 







* Includes materials for drill repairs but does not indnde drill sted to replj 
wasted in ihaipening or destroyed by crystallixatioo. 

t Indudes labor of machinist making repairs, which is iMt induded in the otbeii 

The attendance required by the Lesmer drill is somewhat less than 
other machines. For most types of the larger size compressed-air fsisto 
(also for electric machines), a ruimer, and a helper are required for eac 
and sometimes an extra man is provided for every three machines to 
the duUed steel. Different engineers report that from s to 7 men are n 
with the Brandt hydraulic drill. With the Leyner machine and one 
fonns of piston drill, although a runner is necessary for each drill, one 
can usually attend to two drills or two helpers to three drills* and at th< 
time keep a supply of sharp steel on hand. 

Power reqoired. The most serious disadvantage of the pneumatic 
its well known wastefulness of power. The lowest catalogue rating for I 
consumption of any type of drill used in tunneling is 65 cu ft of free air p 
at xoo lb pressure, while drills using as much as 150 and even 175 cu 
min are numerous. On the basis of 20 hp for every too cu f t of free ; 
min compressed to 100 lb pressure, and without any allowance for loss of 
through friction in pipes or leakage in the machines as they become w 
pDeumatic drill requires the applicati o n of from 13 to 35 bcake bp at thi 

ri Number of Shifts per Day 215 

«tie tihe drffi is in operation. The Brandt rotary drills m the Sunpkm 

BS hp (the miDimam figure for air drilb); electric drills re- 

ol 6 hp and some of the smaller machines run on less than 

from these data is that the pneumatic drill, because of its re- 

ii* lad km oost of maintenance, is best for tunnel work, in spite of its 

"f ptma Goosomption. As between the different air drills, the Leyn^r 

•Sic {aam the IngersoD-Leyner) is preferred by many for tunneling be- 

•*- I. it awygimps somewhat less power and affords greater speed in drilling 

. :s^y hofiaQatai holes required in tunnel headings; 2, it eliminates dust. 

-■^abiity and its oost of maintenance and attendance are, for all practical 

~»aci. kinitical with other pneumatic drills. If in the future, however, the 

r .daiaed. efectik: drill can be so improved as to compare favorably with 

- iiT •diifi m idiafaOity, its lower power consumption will make it a fonnid- 

t n>^ at the pnrwnMtfic machine. 

3. Hvaber of Shifts per Day 

Oae ^HL Advantac**- i- Drilling and mucklpg are done on separate 

r tae hfading is ckar when the drill-shift comes on» so that the machines 

•r set gp at once and the next round begun. The drill-men and helpers, 

- ^-e. waste no time in mucking, preparatory to mounting the drills; an 

' "-im poiat whoi columns are used, be ca use for setting them up the debris 

* tie Cleared oat down to the floor. 2. During the drilling the drill-runners 
iT-^KTs are not hampered by the muckers, with the consequent waste of 

' ^>i eaefgy hardly to be prevented when two crews are working simul- 

-.iy m the restricted space of the heading. 3. Starting promptly, the 

.: U bdes can usually be completed within the allotted time. But, evdk 

-- > caanot be done, sufficient extra time is available without delaying the 

• -t^ shift. 4. The drilling and mucking shifts can be so arranged as to 
: *j^ (d time in waiting for blasting smoke to dear away: a serious con- 

'i'^ja where veatilatioo is poor. 

Ozi€ AifL Dimd^antagas : i . Since the daihr progress in driving is limited 

'1 idvanoe gained from a single round of holes, the total rate of advance 

««T. Moil tnnneb are useless until completed. Hence, if the work is 

^^uaed to the utmost, the capital invested in tunnel equipment is tied up 

T rhaa oeccssiary, whoice the charge for interest and depredation is pro- 

' -iidf tocreased. 7. The realisation of benefits to be derived from the 

'i IS delayed. For example, if a drainage adit is bdng driven, the ez- 

zdian below water level is dehiyed; or, if the adit is intended to lower 

.j^ of undcfsroond transportation, the bss on the additional tonnage 

-d a the old way shoukl be charged against t^ slower method of driving 

^caeL Smilarly, with an irrigation tunnd, an entire season's crops may 

-{ because of the increased time required by the one-shift system. 3. The 

i: idainestxmtion and other fixed charges is operative during the full period 

' ^jnctioo; hence* these charges per foot of tunnePwili he smallest when 

^jjcmam number of hours per day are employed in driving. In conclusion, 
^ra the one^shif t ^stem is ch^per in wages, this economy is offset by 

1 I'je to delay in completing the work. 

'«« iUfta p«r day permit faster progress than one shift, and if the work be 

^ mjin^*** there will be but little added cost per foot for excavation. 

sackoa sbould begin work in advance of the drillers^ and first remove 

 4*1 dOds IfOB the tmot to permit the drillers to let up their marhiniw 

216 Driiling 

promptly. If the drflling and mucking shifts begin aimultaneoualy a 
drillers take part in the work of rlearing back for the set-up, not only 
higher priced men lose time, but the two oews seriousbr interfere ^^t 
other. In a few tunnels, three gangs of shovders have been required to 
the rock broken by two rounds. This system is obviously expensive. I 
the cost of the extra shovelers must be charged against an advance ^w 
but slightly, if at all, increased by their efforts; furthermore, this plan. 
the disadvantage of simultaneous working of two crews. When two 
seem necessary, it is probable that a change should be made either in tli« 
and number of the holes or in some other detaib. 

Three ahifta per day. The chief advantage of this system is great« 
progress, because the full 24 hours are emptojred in driving. A certain s 
of crowding in the heading is unavoidable, but it is more than offset hy 
efficiency due to the necessity for perfecting the organisation. With tt. 
shift system, where drilling and mucking are done simultaneonslyp th 
know that they have some leeway before the next shift comes on, an 
speed is not so urgent; but with three shifts the reverse is the case 
muckers have constantly before them the task of removing the waste 
the drillers have finished 4heir work. Conversely, the drillers endeavor ti 
plete their round of holes by the time the muck b cleared away, so tj 
delay may be attributed to them. Both crews are in turn inspired to 
work by the knowledge that they are expected to finish their labor witt 
eight hours and that they will be followed immediately by a competing 
Besides, after the holes are drilled, the muckers assist the drillers in 
down the machines and removing them to a place of safety during bl 
The time spent by drillers in clearing muck and setting up machines < 
(educed by the use of horizontal-bar mountings and by properly directir 
blasting the holes. Delays due to adverse conditions are not always pr 
able, but the men are stimulated by rivalry with other shifts to reduce tl 
the minimum. While the ideal results of the 3-shift system are obtaine 
by perfected organization, still, by its adoption, the maximum efficiency < 

4. Choice of Drill Mountiiig 

American practice of mounting drills for tunnel work is almost evenly d 
between the horizontal bar and the vertical column (for details, see S 
Art 27), but, since drill carriages have been employed in several Kur 
tunnels, some reference to them will be made. 

Horizontal cross-bar. The mode of employing this type of mountin 
best be shown by a description of its use at the Laramie-Poudre tunnel i 
22, 27). 

As soon after blasting as ventilation permitted (ordinarily 10 to 15 min). the wo 
returned to the face, with a tunnel car containing the cross-bar, machines, tools 
etc The 'three drillers, aometimes with the assistance of the foreman, after ren 
any loose rock from the roof, deared a space in the top of the pile of broken rock U 
or three feet back from the face and four or five feet from the roof, to get room for ha 
the drills. Owing to the mode of blasting employed, little work was ordinarily re< 
to dear out the required space. Meantime, the helpers unloaded the bar and mai 
from the car, placed them on the rock pile, and connected the hoaes to the air and 
mains. As soon as the necessary space was cleared, the bar was held in position t 
driUeis and helpen transvenely across the tunnel, at a measured distance from thi 
and roof, where it was blocked, wedged, and screwed tightly in place. The mM 
were then mounted, the hose connected, and drilling started. As many as po^l 
the round of holes having been drilled from this position of the bar, and the wast4 


Choice of Drill Mounting 


RDBOved by die stanrdea (an opentJoa which was usually fiimbed 
dawii), the marhinf were dismounted, the bar lowered and reset iS 
ibove Ibe floor. The diffls were then replaoed ancf^one or two holes drilled by 
fran tlus pnnitino of the bar. The dxiUing outfit was then put on a car 
freB the hrarting during blasting. This system, sometimes slightly modi- 
used at several other tnnnds and adits with equally good results. 

rbe wlkal Cftlinmi permits a procedure similar to the above in some re- 

; 'a but (fificrent in certain important particulars. Owing to the vibration 

jxd bw tkt drills, neither method of mounting is satisfactory unless the 

^ "iruly wedged against solid rock. With a vertical column the vibration 

-t~A^ed, because the drills are usually mounted on arms projecting at 

." la^ from the columns, thus affording a leverage for any movement of 

: rii HetKre a solid foundation is all the more necessary, and to secure it 

• tde debris must be removed from immediately in front of the tunnel 

• Vss may cause considerable delay, even under normal conditions, 

-Jiv vith the 3-sfaift system. In the majority of cases where vertical 

-=a; aie empbyed. not more than two rounds per day are attempted, and 

- 'TIS wort of clearing away is performed by a crew of muckers befott the 

.sr^ been work. 

for drifls has been used with good results at the Loctach' 
C2i« 5-1 SS» $6) in the Bernese Alps, and elsewhere. 

Fig 1. DriD Caniage, Loetachberg Tunnel 

- '!» fm Loetichberg type (Fig I), a horizontal bar carrying the drills was mounted 

T-jd qf a ited beam, which was pivoted on a truck and counterbalanced by a heavy 

i. fcyt. ercB with a kmg beam, befoie the carriage could be brought sufficiently 

jt :mx bar the cross-bar to be 

' a poMaJoQ. it was necessary 

r 't i paaiujire partway through 

vrr <i the rack pile. \Vliile 

-' part o( the material was 

>" vmMf. the remainder being 

wHh s'in of the tunnel, to 

* -"^*ei during driBiiig, When 

.-^axe was finished, the drill 

:* «as qoidily moved to the 

'' 7cif»4ur svunjs around and 

' '^j position, and drilling 

fV™«*J**T^^ Flgi. Modified Drin Carriage. Loetschbeig 
wKiMMit ue cottaier' Tunnel 

the drill bar being 
anctly wpaa a short post mounted on the truck (Fig 2). With this device prac- 
t» ^ the brakcn cock had to be removed before the carriage could be brought to 

219 Difllmg ! 

TlM«im«reai>ind to bcgmdrimiig after blastiQg.indi^^ thm 

in setting up the marhinrs and that consumed in mucking, is an importai 
sidenttion in the choice 5f method of mounting. With a hortMOMial bar 
Laramie-Poudre tunnel (22), the normal cyde of operations was as I 
mucking back, 15 to ao min; wedging the bar in place, 5 to 10 min; mc 
the drills and coui^ng the air and water for Leyner drills, xo to 1 5 mini 
total time under ordinary conditions was 50 to 45 min, but it'was not u 
for the drills to be in operation within 20 or 25 min after the drillers n 
the heading. At other tunnels using horizontal bars the time requiij 
similar work was 30 to 60 min. When a vertical cdumn is employed, j 
to the larger amount of material to be mucked, the time oonsumed in i 
up the drills, with the 3-shift system, ordinarily ranged from 3V4 to 
even in favorable drcumstAnces rardy less than 2 hr. In the Loetsi 
tunnel the mucking time was about iH hr with the first type of ca 
and iH to 3 hr with the kiter model; but to accomplish this, nearly t-a 
many men were empbyed as are usually found in American tunnel hea 
After the heading was deared, however, the machines could usually be s 
in 5 to 10 min. 

The amount of broken rock to be removed has another bearing <hi the 
lem, aside from the time consumed in clearing. To reduce delay in st 
drilling, it is not customary to clear the heading completdy before settii 
much of the rock being merely shovded to one side and removed later. 
preliminary work is often done by the drillers, especially with the 3-shii 
tern; and where (as with the vertical column) much of it is necessary, 
men are tired by the time the machines are ready, and consequently cs 
work 80 rapidly nor effidently in drilling the round. On the other ha 
the temporary clearing away is done by the muckers, they lack stiznul 
knowing that it is dead work and that every shovelful must be moved 
later. This disadvantage exists also with 2-shift work, when the mi 
start ahead of the drillers to dear away for a column set-up. The horij 
bar and, to a less degree, the drill-carriage methods have the advantage 
quiring a smaller proportion of duplicated work. 

Adaptability of mounting. With a vertical column and piston drills, oj 
hammer driDs on a horizontal bar, the holes can be placed effectively. 
with dther type of drill, carriage mounting is somewhat handicapped 
the Loetschberg tunnd it was found that, with the carriage there used 
holes could not be pointed to secure maximum efficiency from the expl( 
Though the average depth of the round (about 4 ft) was much less than i 
center-cut system, heavy charges were necessary to make the holes brv^ 
the bottom. With the shallower holes more time was spent in the dead 
of setting up and tearing down the drills. Moreover, from a an^e set- 
the carriage mounting, the bottom row of holes (lifters) coukl not be d 
near enough to the horizontal to leave an even floor, and trimming ivas s 
times required to maintain the grade. On the other hand, dynamite is chi 
than labor, and, since shallow holes are of larger diameter at the bottom 
deep ones, the explosive is more concentrated. The rock is therefore hi 
smaDer and projeaed farther from the face, thus facilitating mucking, th 
at an increased cost of explosive (Art 7). 

Wear mud tear bless with the carriage mounting, because the driDa are kei 
the bar continuously and are not thrown around on the floor or on the muck 
TfauSk dirt and grit do not get into the drills, increasing friction and abrastoo 
the cart of repairs^ as wdl as lavage of air, with oonaequent km of efficiei 

Number of Hoks per Round 


TWJ, to 


to « new hole b an imporUuit advanta^ posaesaed 
and driO carriages. When these iiK>antings are 
hole it is necwaary only to slide the drill along the bar 
place. Hlth a vertical column, not only the machine but the 
as wdl requires adjusting, and, since the adjustment is vertical 
the entire weight of drill and collar arm must be lifted or 
evexy ijiange. 

«p the various factors, the iu)rizontal bar proves to be the best 
'.^ far tunnel ifork. It enables drills to be put into operation with a 

- jc Iqbb ci time and by the fewest hands. It minimises rehandling of 
The holes can be pointed in such a manner that the maximum strength 
r oplaave is utilized; deep holes are drilled, so that the time spent in, 

^ 'irils is dinunished, and the holes are so placed as to insure breaking 

<« sad fioor soioothly and at the desired grade. It is especially adapted 
.X rapid-driUing hammer machines. In common with the vertical mount- 

'■ a sobject to the disadvantage of allowing grit to become lodged in the 

jji thb can, id part, be prevented by care in handling. 

S. If vmbcr of Holes per Roimd 

of fht rock is the most important factor in determining 

"-per Btanber of holes per round in a tunnel of given cxoas-section, and, as 

j> <kkB twice nlike, the exact number can be ascertained only by trial. 

'-^rsl igneous rodts require more holes than sedimentary, but there are 

Iterances in both rbwes The holes must be ^>aced more closely in a 

' dose-gnioed rock, than in a brittle rock, even though the latter may be 

1 aad mace difficult to drill. Bedding planes and joints are of great assist- 

mdeziog a rock more easily broken and with fewer holes. If the number 

^- s GOfiect, most of the rock will be broken into fragments small enough 

' -tuxfkd readily. The blast should be heavy enough to project a part of 

' ^x sooK 4fistaace from the face; this saves time in setting up the ma- 

c^ iad grv-cs the slibvelen more room, enabling them to work to better 

^"jce on the scattered material. Table VII shows the number of holes 

'.jdm American tunnds, for different kinds of rock. 

7ite Vn. Vwmbcr of Holes 

per Sonnd in Ameriam Tunnel Haadiaga 



Area of 

Square feet of 
heading per hole 








*-' Vstcr 







Granite and gneiss 
Gneiss, granite, and 

Limestone, sand- 
stone, and shale 

Sandstone and shale 



1 lao 






5 5 



37-4. I 


 cU Aqvedoct: 

• '.4a* 






TaU* Vn (CMilJ«Mtf).~Nomber of Hotet 

TmuieL Headiagi 

ptt Rooob id 



Ft Williams Water. . . . 

Gold Links 

Grand Central Sewer. , 





Los Angeles Aqueduct: 

Elizabeth Lake 

Little Lake Division 
Grapevine Division . . 

Lucania — • 





Northwest Water 





Si watch 

Snake Creek 




Utah Metals ,. 


No of 


















Gneiss and granite 


Altered granite 

Close-grained gran- 

Shale, conglomer- 
ate, and coal 


Medium granite 

Hard granite 

Hard granite 

Granite and gneiss 

Shale and slate 



Sedimentary rock 



Gneiss and grailite 

Hard granite 




Conglomerate and 

Limestone, sand- 
stone, and shale 


Limestone, sand- 
stone, shale, and 

Area of 




















2.6-3. 1 




2.8-3. 1 


C. Arrangement of Holes 

The arrangement of drill holea, greatly influenced by local conditic 
arcly the same in any two tunnels; but nearly all the S3rstems adopt 
American mining tunnels may be classified under three heads, acoordiof t 
ype of cut employed. 

The "cut" or "cut holes" are those which are pointed in such manner that 
lasted first, they remove a core or wedge of rock from the solid face, thus decieasiT 
fotk to be done by the remaining boles. ^'^casu 

The wedge or " V "or center cut, the one most commonly employed 
ists of several pairs of holes directed toward each other from opposite sid 


Arrangemeat of Hdes 


They break out a wedge-shaped prism, usually eirteiiding from 

: I fhami a typicai 
I to8 

cut, like that of the Buffalo Water tunnel (6, 39, 
the cut and weie blasted simultaneously by elec- 

r< L Wcdee<»t Round of Boles Fig 4. Wedgesnit Round for Arched Headings 

-:• Skie holes 9 to 14 were next fixed together, the back holes 15 to x8 

: Lredla^ 

For ocfced or wtmwirtuUa haadings the arrangement of holes b somewhat 

 rM. Fig 4 iDttstratcs the round used in the headings of the large siphon 

rl. U the CatskUl Aqueduct (10, 3^, 41)- The cut holes i to 6 were blasted 

-■.XT, foibved by the ** relievers." 7 to 12 and finally by the "trimming" 

-' ■: to 17. 

Vah a horiioBCal-lMr mountisg further modification is necessary, thou^ 

caenl axnogemeot remains the same. Fig 5 shows a round employed in 

- .^anaie-pQudre tunnd (23). Holes x and 2 were called '^short cut" holes; 

• " "loBg arts": 7. 8, 9, 10, 19, and 20, "relievers"; 11 to 14, "sides"; 15 to 

i^iiks*; and 31 to 25, "lifters"; the numbers indicating the order of 

Roomd DriDed from 

Fig 6. Pyramid Cut 

*«r. The 

' Jeody 

-^ tr; tkecxater 

and two relievers, 19 and so, used only in hard gxound, 
drilled from the lower position of the bar. Three machines 
roufid, the left-hand machine drilling holes 17, 11, 5, 13, 7, i, 
machiDe drilling holes 16, 10, 15, 9, 3, and 21; the right- 
holes i8k 21, 6, Z4> 8> ^> ^ umI 23, in the order stated. 



The pynunid cut consists usually of four holes, drilled so th&t tliey 

or nearly meet at a common point (generally near the ajds of the 
which, when properly blasted, remove a more or less pyramidal cx>rej 
shows a round of this type as employed at the Yak tunnel (T^ables 1 
No 36), in which the cut holes (numbered i) were blasted simultaxieou 
lowed by the remaining holes in the order indicated. In most cases the J 
cut is made with vertical columns, but it can be drilled just as effective 
the horizontal bar, by making 2 or possibly 3 holes with each m&diine f 
lower set-up (Fig 7). 

The bottom or draw cut (Fig 8) has been employed at a number of i 
of which the Carter (Tables I to IV, No 3) is typical. The holes ivere 
in the order indicated, i to 3 comprising the cut. This method ott&rx f 1 

Fir 7. Pyramid-cut Round Drilled from 
Horizontal Bar 

Fig 8. Bottom-cut Ra 

the only solution for placing holes in a small tunnel, in which it is imprac 
to drill an effective wedge or pyramid cut. The cut holes should be 
from as near the top of the heading as possible, and so directed that tfa^ 
be assisted by "Ufter" holes (Fig 8, Nos 4, S. 6), both rows being blasi 

gether. ' 


Ixnportence of the cut holes. It can be proved theoretically that, ^ 
hole is drilled in homogeneous rock, the maximum efficienpy is obtained 
the charge when the "line of least resistance" (the shortest distance fro 
charge to a free surface of the rock) is at right angles to the axis of th< 
and that the minimum efficiency occurs when the two coincide. Althov 
practice a homogeneous rock is rare, and the results of drilling and blast!] 
quantiUtivcly influenced by differences of rock texture and the preseii 
absence of bedding planes, joints, and cracks, yet these results are found 
in general agreement with the theoretical deductions. It is obvious thai 
tunnel heading, where there is but one free face, it is impossible to dril 
blast a single hole in such manner as to produce maximum efficiency 
with a number of holes, arranged according to any of the preceding ws 
and blasting the cut first in order to increase the area of free surf ace^b^t^ 
suits are secured from the remaining holes. Hence, the position iind dwl 
of the cut holes are of pnme unportancc. the others being menJv »n^ 
fidently dose together to break the rock smaU enough for ea^ haLflS^ 

Dq>th of Hole 223 

opposite liolof oC the cut shoold be os wide as can be 

mth. X sTFOi depch of rotmd, so that the fine of least resistance may 

a perpendicular to the axb of the hole. Therefore these holes 

-^i ^CKt as dose as pcssible to the opposite walb of the heading, keeping 

rv the aeoessity for leaving sufEldent space for handling the bits and feed- 

jc dt3. For these requirements in narrow headings a greater proportion 

u total width miKt be sacrificed than In wide headings; in the latter an 

wide aitgie b easOy secured. 

cot holea. Owing to merhanical reasons^ the gauge of drill bits 
'« decreased with each successive change of steel; thib hole is therefore 
-r^ at the bottom, just where it should be as large as possible, to am- 
~iiz the charge. Tbds defect can be partly overcome by drilling opposite 
- V that they connect, thus concentrating the explosive at the point of the 
It is spedaBy desirable to do this when firing with fuse, because of the 
'^~3l i^n&'abtlity of gauging the lengths of two fuses to make them det- 

-^ t2eir charges simultaneously. Furthermore, the combined efficiency of 

v-j caonecting charges is greater than when exploded SQXirately. Assum- 

-:.u the hofes are in homogeneotis rock, and that they make equal angles 

'. tx hee face, if the charges are detonated simultaneously their maximum 

i ^ effect win be exerted along the resultant of their forces, which theo- 

-^ y coincides with the line of least resistance. The result may be some- 

-' aoiSfied in practice, but it is an established fact that where the ground 

' ^ sad (fifficolt to break, better results are obtained by diilfing the cut 

^u mtenecf 

7. Depth of Hole 

iifoalocoi of ahoBow holos. i. With properly directed holes, an in- 

* ^ rffrimr y k obtained from a given charge; for, since the width of the 

.2 is practically constant, the angle between the line of least resistance 

.^c axis <d the dnJl hole is a function of the depth of round. The width of 

i^saie, thereiote, and hence the efficiency, increases with shallow holes. 

'.:j£ holes may be of fauger diameter at the bottom, thus increasing their 

-z^zj kg explosive and concentrating it where most needed. 3. Since drill 

i£e not charged to their full depth, the mass of rock between the outer 

; ft charge and the free face (which may be considered a measure of the re-^ 

--je to be overoome) is not so great. 4. The rock tends to break into 

T faagm e nta . 5. The rock is projected farther, instead of being piled 

.waeifiatcly in front of the new face. This fadUtates mucking and saves 

a Kfcting op the drills. 6. The same care is not required in starting 

V holes, nor is it necessary to direct them with so great accuracy; never- 

- the desirahnlity of connecting the cut holes must not be overlooked. 

' . dttre cyde may be completed in a sin^e shift. Men do not work so 

rivaliy or special incentive, and it is important to have an accu- 

of the work done by each shift. In most cases there is a suffideiit 

'- d tmae for ordinary delays. 

:^ cUof daoAdraalago of aludlowlioloo it that a greater number of rounds 
> asade to secure the same daily advance. This results in waste of 
4 tnne; ior, ooder ordinary oonditioos, one hole of a given depth can be 
: ^oidccr thaa two holes of the same total footage, because of the time lost 
^ujp!« to a new position. Though the difference in drilling time itself 
^-Jy aoaall* each extra round required to make a- given advance causes 
i QSK ia dMigiog and blasting, waiting for smoke and gaaes to be re- 

224 DriUiog 

moved, clearing the d6bria from the face, and in settinc up the drills all 4 
is unproductive work. 

The above conclusions are substantiated by the results obtained frooa shaUofti 
in the Loetschberg tunnel, previously died. I 

Length of tunnel: 47 676 ft, driven from the two end headings only. (Headiij 
holed through, March 31, 1911; total time, 53 months; by marhine drills, 46 51! 
driven in 1304 days.) 

Bottom heatding: 6 f t 6 ic high by zo ft wide (nearly same siae as aooae doub 
mine ttmnels). 

Rock: hard granite and gneiss. ^ I 

Holes per round: usually 12 to 15; depth, 4 ft; diameter at bottom. 2 in. 

Arrangement of holes: 4 vertical rows, of a to 4 holes each; all neariy aonnal ; 

Drills used: from 4 to 5 IngersoU-Rand, F-94, 3H in diam. 

Approximate time for a complete round: _.. 


Setting up drill carriage and cross-bar 


Removing carriage from heading 

Charging and firing 

Clearing out smoke 

Mucking throui^ middle of rock pile to make room for setting up caniace. 

Total time (4 hours) 3 

Work carried on in three 8-hr shifts, each shift drilling and firing two roui 
which basb the normal rate of advance would be 7 ft per shift, or ax ft per 34 hr 
rate was reduced by ordinary delays to a general average of 18 ft per day, in each fa 
The maximum advance in any month was 944.6 ft (28 days), or 33.7 ft per day ( 

39. 55). 

The advantages resulting from a change to a shallower round were sti 
brought out in the Laramie-Poudre tunnel (9, aa). 

During the 7 months from April z to Oct 3z, z9zo, at the east end of the tunnel, 1 
were driven (average, 453 ft per month) using a round zo ft deep in a headini 
wide; but during the next 8.8 months, from Nov z, Z9Z0, to July 24, xgiz (wl 
tunnel was holed through), 4 798 ft were driven, or an average of 545 ft per 1 
with a 7-ft round. This aa % increase of speed was made notwithstandins that tb 
was farther from the portal; and, since there was no change in equipment or ch 
of rock, it may be attributed solely to the shallower holes. For an advance of 
9 ft with zo-ft holes, it was unusual to drill and blast more than two rounds ic 
(frequently less), as the daily average of Z4.5 ft testifies. But with 7-ft h<des. n< 
could 3 rounds be made, advancing an average of 6.5 ft each, but a good mar^n « 
was left for delays, which often meant increased footage. Thus, in March, Z91 
American hard-rock monthly record of 653 ft, or over az ft per day, was establisl 

At the Rawley tunnel (sr), in driving through andesite, 8 ft holes wrre driU< 
heading 7.5 ft wide. The cut holes were blasted separately, and it was usually 
saiy to reload and shoot them a second and occasionadly a third time. The eye 
therefore lengthened to about zo hr, and sometimes Z4 hr were needed. Lat* 
depth of hole was reduced to 5 ft, making it unnecessary to shoot the cuts sepa 
thus, instead of only two 7-5-ft rounds in 20 to a 2 hr, by working 3 shifts it was p 
to drill and blast four, sometimes five, 5-ft rounds per day. This increased thi 
progress from z5 to neariy 33 ft, at small added cost for labor and with a decre 
fully a5% in the cost of explosive. 

The most economical depth of hole must be determined by trial in ca 
dividual case, because of the numerous variables influencing the result. Us 
a depth of round of from 60 to 75 % of the width of the heading will be 
•atiafactory. Table VIII gives an analysis of American practice: 

Depth of Hole 

t)ill« ym. Dtfih ai SoBnd In Amarkia ToumIs 



Gndas, iraniti 

(Ltmntone. Baa 
t stone.axid^ 
Sandstone, sha 


{Granite and 
Altered gianite 

I granite 
I ahak, and coe 

Hard granite 
fGranite and 
I gneifli 

Shale and tlate 







Gneias and grai 




\ andandesite 
rLimestone. sani 
\ stoncrandsha 

{Limestone, lan^ 
stone, shale, 
and granite 

, '■'■i**'*^ of hs width, is oonsideved In tlfis ratio when t 

226 Blasdng 


8. Choice of BxplotiT« 

(See Section 4 for full treatment of Erplothret) 

A suitable explosive for tunneling, or other underground service, sbov 
duce the minimiim of poisonous gases; should not be easily a£Fected by m 
nor by changes of temperature. Gelatin d3mamite fulfills these reQuii 
and is almost invariably used in American tunnels, although ammonia. ci> 
was employed in some tunnels of the Los Angeles aqueduct (completed. 

The proper etrength of explosive for a particular case must be detc 
by trial. Such widely divergent results are obtained in different ]oca.liti< 
the same grade of explosive and in apparently identical rock« that it is 
to be dogmatic, even with accurate knowledge of local conditions. Gem 
tough, dose-grained, igneous rock requires a stronger dynamite, wlule 
mentaty rock (or an igneous rock that has been altered, weathered, o 
tered) can be blasted as effectively with a lower grade of dynamite. 

A notable example of the use of very high-grade ezplodves is that of the R 
tunnel (4, 18), where for the tough, close-grained Pike's Peak granite, '*xoo ^" 
dynamite (blasting gelatin) was required to obtain satisfactory results. It is 1 
to have been the first djmamite of this grade used in tunnd woik. Table II 
grades of dynamite uied in a number of American tunnels. 

Diiferent grades in the same hole. The practice of loading the bot 
a hole with high-grade dynamite, and using 40 or 60 % for the remainder 
charge, is not uncommon, especially in the Western states. It prod 
greater disruptive force at the bottom of the bole, where most needed. 
practice entails the inconvenience of handling two different grades of dyi 
both in the heading, and in the thawing-house. In some cases equally gi 
suits might be secured by the use of lower grade dynamite in shallower i 
or a change in the type of cut. But for very hard, tough rock, it is a 
praaice and reduces somewhat the cost of explosive. 

t. Quantity of Explosive 

Data on the quantity of explosive used in American tunnels are 9 
Table IV. It will be seen that the general average consumption is 5.7J 
cu yd. The consumption of explosive in the Simplon and Loetschbei^ 
ings was somewhat higher than this; at the Simplon the average chaise 
heading was 6.5 lb per cu yd, and at the Loetschberg the average from Ja 
1908, to July, 19x0, was 6x> lb of 85 % dynamite per cu yd in the nortl 
ing and 6.86 lb in the south heading (55). 

!•. Charging the Holes 

Position of the primer. Opinions differ as to the proper position 1 
primer ii.e. the cartridge containing the detonator). Some maintain ( 
should be the outermost cartridge; others, that its proper place is at 4 
the bottom of the hole. In our opinion the best practice is to place the 
at top of charge, preferably in next to last cartridge, thereby protectinl 
nator during operation of tamping. ^ 

Advantages of inseitiiig primer last. z. The danger of igniting the dynaij 
fide spitting of the fuse is riimin s tcd ; the dynamite thus being detonated and aoM 

- yy Firing 227 

itobuiiiedamd tbeKsulting gases aie not to is juxioui;. 

y^-^m^atwhtBkthe fire in the fuse travels past the full Iragth of the charge, Uioe is 

.r:t2£ the iaae may boxstthixjqgh the fuse oivering and ignite the dynamite, a. The 

:? :i -^psaaabt n more Kfcciy to be wdl compacted, leaving no air spaces to decrease 

- -aesi of the espkaoa. When the primer is the first or second cartridge in the 

cartridges (especially the one next to the primer) can not safely be 

of i ii i I rting pciner last x. It is maintaiafd that primer is liable 

.-'^ eahfrxbt expUidoa of a neighboring hole. Possibiy this might haKwn, but 

Tw^ be a stioQg indication that the hole was misplared or too heavily loaded. 

■' ::jt nay be torn oat by fljring debris. The remedy is simple: before igniting, 

' ^SK cuefdSy dose up to the mouth of the hole. 3. To insure that the explosive 

r J rsaeh the bottom ai the hole, a stronger detonator, or a higher strength ezplo- 

^ ^ be aed. The latter remedy would have the effect of reducing the length 

-.'B a tbr hole, ainoe a «*»"**• balk of ezpknive would suffifoe. 

.- t 

le. — it s auBi eiim ea desirable to prime bottom cartridge for rotation blasting; in 

- .ziKt raitridge must not be slit, and fuse must be of best quality (Sec 4, Art 9). 

'99 of •■i»fSn£ Tamping is absolutely necessary, to develop ^the full 
A ezplosrve, to a^uve complete detonation, to fniniTniy.e noxious fumes^ 
.< rediMT the flame. Unless thoroughly tamped, many explosives do not 
-^ completely; aD g^ve worse fumes, and in tunneling the cut bdles should 
.nrtcrl wkh special care, to prevent them from blowing out. Even water 
 -^ in down boles) b inferior to sand, and it is good practice to tamp 
' ..rd boks with rock screenings. 

•sf tmad men bold that any gain in efficiency of explosive ia more than 
J tbe <&sadvantages of using tamping; as causmg delay in charging and 
'-zJettoe in cases of misfire. Notwithstanding this, the omissio& of tamp- 
,Mjix practice, largely the result of prejudice. Much of the common over- 
■'-z qI boles in timneling could be obviated by proper tamping. In case 
^'JT. BcvtT pkk out tamping; drill and fire another hole at least 2 ft from 

'">zea djBUBite. Chilled or frozen dynamite should always be thawed 
'. ise. This is necessary: i, for the safety of the men; 2, because froEen 
^~ Lc can not be properly cmnpacted in the hole; 3, because the full force 
jioi djntaimte Is not developed upon detonation, whence a loss in effective- 
ice 4. Art 7) 

^tfDitiMi ci priaiar. (See Sec 4, Arts 8 and 10.) 

11. Firing 

''" faw. For a small round of holes the fuses are lighted by one man; for 

-~'r z',snher there shoiikl be two men, the best practice being for them to 

>:-JTa3vcously the fuses of corresponding boles, each calling out the hole 

~iy:ts it. 

- jr of the fuese projecting from the mouth of the bole should be dosely coiled and 

* -%i ^Itt fior Vi to H in to expose the powder train. The lighting may be done 

-. nf%i by a candle or acetylene lamp (4>it of fuse may Uow out flame and 

■T ta Che dark); better^ by a *'spitter." consisting of a short piece of fiise which 

lihcd and partly severed, at intervals of about )4 in, to expose the powder 

'-^ te tsawis along the spitter, and on reaching one of the cuts flares violently 

:« ade. attd. if directed towards the blast fuse, b ahnoat certain to ignite it prop- 

- 4. Art 8). The &cr shoald light each fuse separately, instead of bunching 

- ^ ittemptiBC to ignite aU at once. 

228 Bhstmg 

Pom icaiten. In vciy wet tumieb it is sometimes neoesaaxy to xu 
igniter. One fonn consists of a short cettuloid cylinder, dosed at one 
containing gunpowder or other explosive. It is sKpped like a cap on 
of the fuse, which is cut square. The cdlubid itself is ignited by a c 
other means, and, being unaffected by dampnfss, bums strongly until iti 
charge is reached. A flash then takes place, which Ughts the fuse, 
not very reliable, as the fuse wrapping may bum some time before pov 
is reached. 

Electric firing. When ordinary electric detonators are employ^ 
necessary only to connect the fuse wires and pass a current through tho 
current may be taken from an electric light or power circuit, or genej 
a hand-operated magneto or dynamo. All the holes are exploded 
neously. (For details, see Sec 4, Art 8.) 

Delay-action detonators (Sec 4, Art 10) make it possible to explode i 
consecutively, singly or in groups, with a single closure of the drctiit 
resemble ordinary electric fuses, except that the platinum bridge does 
plodc the mercury fuhninate directly, but ignites a short train of guj 
inside the detonator, which requires an appreciable, though short, < 
burning before it reaches the fuhninate. By maldng the powder train 
different lengths, two delays are obumed; or, if these be used in col 
with an ordinary detonator, the blasting may be performed in three st^ 

When using these devices in tunnel work, special detonators, called " No 
(Sec 4, Art 10), are generally pUoed in the cut holes, a "first delay" in the rdici 
the "second delay" in the remaining holes. Delay>action detonators niight 
made with other lengths of powder train. A fourth stage is needed for the lii 
cause a part of their function b to project the mAterial broken by the other h^ 
the immediate front of the new face; and, with the horusontal bar mounting, a i 
is also desirable for delajring one lifter in order to throw the material away | 
aide of the tunnel where the capstan end of the drill bar is to be placed, thus i 
space (or manipulating the jack bar. 

Advantages of electric firing, x. Certainty of detonating all the cut h^ 
ultaneoualy. With fuse firing, when two cut holes are connected at the bott< 
will explode as one; but it b impossible to make several pairs of holes, as in i 
cut, explode together because of the variation in burning rate of the fuse, no roal 
exactly the lengths are proportioned. 2. Absence of smoke and noxious gase 
by burning of the fuse. Tests by Bureau of Mines show that a Urge part of t 
itwcn bumlnff fuse b carbon monoxide. 3. Charge may be ignited from a place d 
thus Itsaoning dangers from premature explosicHis. 4. No time b lost in wai 

Dtoadvaatagta of electric firing. Electric detonators coot more and j 
trouble in keeWm the leading and connecting wires in good coodition, for they I 
cMAritv damaged by rver>' Mast. When dday-action detooatofs are not used| 
mu«( rrtunt to the hcAdiixi: after shooting the cut holes and connect the wires Id 
the hi>K<« to Ite tire^l in e«ch of the succeeding leroupa. As some time b requirH 
smoke to clear, ami cx^sitleml^le shoveling may be necessary to uncover wire 
bax-r l^ceit buricsl b> the (previous blast, it takes k»ser to fire a succession of t 

n. PrecanlioQs 

^S*«*r S<\* 4. «hhI v4 Art f» as to (vtcauUons in handling* storing, 0\ 
dtfinpng and luii\g ) 

r 13 Positions of Woikiag 22Q 


IS. Men Employed 

Sat of the — «M>M»g crew. Time saved in mucking is espedally tmporUnt 
' u c&e vertkal-cohmm drill mounting, because the set-up for a new, round 
~ ^ be aade until the heading 4s cleared. With the horizontal bar the 
:. jLJs^ dimid be firrishfd by the time the upper holes are down; if the shovil- 
'« 37V 23 too snail to accontpGsh this, setting up for the lower holes is delayed. 
'^rpc leouval of the mndc is always essential, for many little things are to 
' -sir after the heading is dear, and reserve time b valuable. ^On the other 

' % if the Bmcking crew be too huge, the men will interfere with one another. 

~ .oe of work ia a number of tunnel headings shows that a shoveler requires 

- i:> 3 ft width ol floor space. That is, in a tunnel lo ft wide there shouid be 
' :ax« than 4 sbovekrs; in a 6-ft ttmnel, only two. Besides these, a man or 

• -kcf^ be employed for pidung down the mudc in front of the shovelers, 
•■ 'zisg. hfse locks, aspasting in the handling of the cars, or doing other thin^ 
-- -uke for speed. Hence, in tunnels from 6 to xo ft wide, the mucking crew 
-^ rmgefram 3 to 6 men. 

^ttenmtt cr««s. In the Loetschberg and other European railroad tunnel 
. .' XV. tvo sets of muckers were employed, one resting while the other was 

- -£|E- This tended to greater speed, because men can w<«k harder for the 
^ -ksaitcs reqnlred to load a car, if allowed an equal interval of rest. But,, 

j^ tks plan wprdites mucking, the gain wouU hardly warrant such pro- 

 ^ where wa^es are high. At the Loetschbeig tunnel the shovders re- 

ni $oJo per day, as compared with $3.00 or $3.50 for like work in the 

rf^ United States; hence the Loetschberg double crew of five shovders 

-. ' cxu3 in this country an extra cost of $15.00 to $17.50 per shift, against 

« IS Eorope. Since th« advance per shift in America rarely exceeds 7.5 ft, 

. : utja oQsi of double-jcrew work would be at least $2.00 per foot of tunnel. 

14. Poaittons of Working 

The aivsatace <tf n rest from the severe work of shoveling can be obtained 
' 'Ot cmptoying extra labor, by shifting the men's positions systematically. 
«: a aoBibcr of American tunneb. In the Laramie-Poudre tunnel (13, 22), 
wDcked asfoUows: 

car f was filled, two flhovders, designated as A and B, took it to the rear, 

(C and D) jumped to empty car 2, whidi had previously been thrown 

'. d-^ <iff tW trade set it 00 the track and pushed it into pontion for loading. Mean- 

• -^ nsaaintBs aen (E and'F) stopped picking down the rock pile, took the shovels 

' A and B aod a«istfd C and D in filUng car 2. Car 3 was then brought up by A 

(kae to where car 2 was being filled, and was thrown off the track on its side in 

• 'JiMa fcjtm eriy occupied by car 2. A and B then picked down the rock pile for the 
' t -3f SMB. vhfle car 2 was being loaded. When filled, this car was removed by C 

•  wUc E and F act up the third car and k>aded it with the hdp of A and B. A 
car was naeaawhile brought up by C and D, who then took their turn at 

The cyde was completed when E and F took the third loaded car to the 
-•mrht hadk aniocher anpty and resoffied thor original position on the muck pile. 
•Ach flMB apeat two-thirds of the time in txammtng or picking down the rock pile. 
". A wWdi is eaaler week thaa loading, and luffioea to idieve the monotony of shovel- 

prooedoie there is no coolusioa, no lost motion. The foreman lardy 

and does not shoot at the men constantly, a bad haT>it unfortunatdy 

nor do the mea waste time by running to the f ocamaa ioc 

230 Muckii« 

work is ftttaimible by the system described above. Can oC z 
capacity at the Laramie-Poudie tunnel wert filled in an average of 3 or 
At the Rawley tunnel (51), where a similar system was used with four stu 
2S cars of 17 cu ft each were loaded in 2 hr; in another case, 20 cars in 1 
including aQ ordinary delays incident to making up trains. Taking in 
sideration the number of shovelers, these figures of $ to 6.7s min per c\ 
the Laramie-Poudre, and 7.5 to 8 min at the Rawley, compare favorab! 
work in the Loetschbetg tunnel, where 5 min were required to fill a z>c\. 
(35.5 cu ft) by a crew of 10 men, with an extra minute to replaoe it, wrh 
with an empty one. 

IS. Hindling Cars in the Heading 

A common system is to tram the cars by hand from the face to a 
where they are made up into trains and hauled to the portal>by tbe m 
transport provided. The disadvantages of this plan are: i, the s^Ht< 
siding must be moved frequently , to keep pace with the tuimel ad van* 
they will soon be too far from the face; a, an unavoidable loss of time 
the loaded cars are being removed and the empties btougfat up, becai 
switch can not well be nearer than 100 ft from the face, and it is often 
500 ft; 3, the loaded car must be moved by hand to the siding before tbe 
can pass it. 

Loading on alternate tracks has some disadvantages. The extra h 
laying two tracks in the heading, instead of one, which can not be don 
mucking is finished, may delay starting a new round. Also, the economj 
for keeping the switch near the face is not so apparent with this metkod i 
the other, so that shifting the tracks is apt to be neglected, and time -waj 
the tranmiers. Loading on alternate tracks only partially obviates the 
of derailments in crossing switches. 

Steel plates. The necessity for two tracks can be avoided by cover 
floor of the heading with steel plates for 30 or 40 ft back from the face 
cars can easily be jumped from the end of the track on .to the first of tbese 
and pushed up to the muck pile. When one car is full, an empty one can 
be shunted into position for loading while the full car is being moved I 
the siding. This simple method is especially advantageous for largi 
The steel pUtes also facilitate mucking, since the broken material is si 
from them with less labor than from the rough and irregular rock floor 

The best method, in most cases, is to use small cars; then the empties 
tipped off the track to alk)w full cars to pass, and can be righted and pu 
by two men, thus avoiding the complications and extra work arising f n 
use of switch and siding. The details of this S3rstem were well worked 
the Rawley tunnel. 

On reaching the heading, the empties were (wlled as near as possible to the f 
which ordinarily stood on the track some 75 or xoo ft from the face. The mole wi 
detached from the empty train and polled the full cars back to the one being 
usually the last one of the previous empty train; or, if all had been loaded, the f 
were pulled as near the face as possible. The empties were then hauled up to the 
cars and tipped oR the track. All this was done by the mule and driver ak>Be> 
when the shovelers had completed loading and could therefore assist. After the 
train had started for the poitd, the muckers took the two empty can nearest thei 
set them on the track and pushed them to the face, where one car was again tlpi 
on its side while the other was being loaded. Getting the loaded train out cl the | 
and an empty car in position agam nrely occupied more than 3 to 5 min. The len 
of the qrcte was similar to that in the Laramie-Poudre tunnel, aheadydMoibed (i! 

- iS Materials 231 

'_7 adnataces of this system are: i. It does away with the tratible aits- 
^ -B h&vios a switch near the heading. 2. It requires ^ use of small 

- ^nu^ kave more room for the sfaovelers. As the sides of the smaller cars 
sff. they axe easier to load, and to handle in case of derailment; and, 

men are requized for moving them, more of the muckers' time is 
aaoal loading. 3. The cars have to be hand-trammed only a little 
the kogth of ooe train, this, distance being constant and not varying 
-^ taaad advance. 4. The minimum time is consumed in replacing a 
m.^1 or by an empty. 5. Time is saved in making up trains. 


If. Matarials 

Irofidal sapforts of timber, brick, stone, metal, or concrete may be used 

Br -::aeh. Timber is in general use, because of its cheapness in manyjnining 

■tr::*, lad the reaifiness with which it is cut, framed, and placed in position. 

.'2 «^ the permanent lining is to be, of masonry or concrete, temporary 

-1 c argons are usually put im^first, as the work advances. 

dctanad tiBbcr is desirable, because it better resists decay. The bark 
• ^i. i^ny% be removed from round logs; the space between it and the wood 

'-• i faraecfiqg place for wood-destroying insects, while the bark itself col- 
-jd retaios moisture, thus encouraging the growth of fungi an^ hastening 

'"" fn in f thmbtrs, peeUd amd seasoned^ are more durable than sawed 
"^ became Che sharp comers of the latter are especially, liable to decay. 

' j^wbA soiall tiniber, commonly used for mining, the outer half of the leg 
-jEt entiidly sap-wood, containing starch, sugars, proteids, and soluble 

Ji\ 'TWfipmindst wfaidi are the foods upon which decay-producing fungi 
' t they are neaxly absent in the heart-wood (Sec 43> Art 30). 

«f a sqoafe timber oooaist latgdy of this easily infected sap-wood. In 

the coraos of sawed timben 3 or 4 years old ace often so decayed that 

*' 2s niiBj be pried otf to the heart-wood. Though the outer portion of a round 

' ^^-ahii of np^vood, the cells have not been ruptured by the saw and the ftmgi do 

• raSj ind 'Mg-'^^* Round timbers, however, ace not so easily handled as 

'^ caa not be ID readily alined, nor reinforced by false sets or pieces. Where 

'' a tnaiparted long distances, the greater weight of round sticks (espedally when 

•^ trwdted amea or ''diam shaped," instead of bdng nearly cylindrical) cause 

"-i^ aana, and square timbers should be used. Under such conditions the saving 

pay for a preservative treatment, applied to the timbers 

The best method of checking the growth of fungi is to poison 
' ''£^ of their food supply. Most of the preservative processes depend on 
's:otm. of liac chloride or creosote. The former is not suitable for wet 
'^- M it ii soon leached out of the timber. Creosote, properly applied, will 
' «w^ oat and b therefore the preservative generally empbyed for tunnel 
' ' It is somewhat more costly than zinc chloride and, being a liquid, the 
'Station chaises abo are higher (Sec 43, Art 30). 

*^ ycraaneat tmiari lininga brick and stone were formerly the chief mate- 
.«1 nd moit of the older railroad tunnels are lined in this expensive 
■^^ Stcei beams are sometimes employed as roof supports in the main 
'• Bid gangways of coal mines, and their use b likely to extend as timber 
'*"" more expensive. Concrete has thus far been restricted chiefly to 
' i>l irrigatioa. or water-supply tunnels, but it will probably be applied in 
*& to i^iQctant mming tunnds, where a permanent lining b necessary 

17. Trp«i of Timbaring 

Tht liiiiplBBt farm o( roof support is a bodiontal tiiiiber, set at each 
> "hitch" 01 recess ia the wall. When the aides U a tunnel are not 
enough to afford nlinble hitches (or this timber, "posts" are placed un 
ends, Mid it is then called a "cap," If the Soor is weak tlie posts res 
siti, thus fonaiog a ftnir-pUa itl. When the roof ptcssuce ii too sreai 
carried by a hariiontBl c^, the upper roember is divided ioto two oi 
Ecsmeats, forming the rafltr or arch ul, 

Foni-pleGa aatl. Fig 9 shoga a four-[Mece set of timbers, comprisic 
poets, and sill, [or as small a tuond as is usually advisable. Tbc main t 
are g by S in, and the posts are held apart and side pressure resisted by 
S-ia plank sfuked to the cap. Horiiontal collar and sill-braces are also : 

Fig lOpves 

Fig 11. SetlaiHmiUgeuMl Mj 

;t in a larger tunnel. The t 
are lO by lo in and the joint belween cap and posts is beveled at the c< 
lor resisting both horisontal or vertical pressure. For heavier groutid thi 
and c^i may be made of u by ii-in timber, with 8 by 8-in collar-brace 
single-track tunneis for s considerable traffic, it is often advisable to ma 
net cross-section large enough lor a mauway and ventilatiDg pipe od on 
and car tracks on the other (Fig 11). For carrying a con^dcrable volu 

Aich Set 'without 

Figi 1! and 13. Sets lot Dninage TVinneU 

water, the design shown in Fig 12 is satisfactory, ttotwitbitanding the fad 
the timbers are imsytnmelrical. The 6 by &-in sill, which also forms tbi 
tie, is not notched into the post at the right ^de, but is supported by a 
lo-in plauk spiked lo the post, the upper end of the plank being recessed 
to receive the sill. For still larger volumes of water, the deagn in Fig 
recommended. The quantity of water and grade of tunnel determine tbc p 
depth of the drain. 

Arch Mta. Sometimes tlie tunnel walb are firm and only the root netdi 
poet (^g 14V A carefully constructed footing for the udi timlxn is requ 


Types of Timbering 


r ti htad poeimimtic drills the cost of cutting hitches is repaid many times 
A-.^sg b timbefs and the snaller amount of rode to be excavated. Fig 16 

K . 1 cxnijiete arch set for a small 

.^ The main timbers ace 8-in 

-i.-^ cfllar-braccs (a) 4 by 6 in. 

-.-^ of piadns the braces near 

' .Jttx edgs of the timbers (as 

^iare sets* wi^^re they can be 

- Tiia bom the outside), they are 

't.icd inCo the face of the timbers^ 

■«c- The bevefed arch pieces, 

' vUe being erected and 

• < 3ie oaoce difficult to hM in 


10 iW" i* g' 


•-— «6^ 


FiSi 15 and 10. Aich SeU with PoaU 


^ -joa sqoaie sets, are prevented by the braces from slipping. A similar 
vertical posts, is shown by Fig 16. This increases the width 




Vx s" 

r-fir Doobfe-tnck Arch Set 

Fig 18. Inverted Arch Set for 
Swelling Ground 

-i taaad at the shonUers, and calls for 30" bevel joints throughout, thus 

^ the ade and top pieces of the arch interchangeable. Fig 17 illustrates 

similar timbering for a double-trade tunnel. 
Some constituents of certain rocks oxidize on 
exposure to the air, softening and increasing 
in volume to such an extent that the excava- 
tion tends to close in from sides^ roof, and even 
the floor. For driving through such swelling or 
creeping grounds the sets may be designed as in 
Fig 18, where drain and track are protected by 
an inverted arch. If 12 by la-in timbers of this 
fonn will not resist <he squeeze at the usual dis- 
tance of 4 ft between centers, the sets must be 
qMced closer. Where zones of rock are encoun- 
tered that can not be held even by this expedient, 
tl QoanMl Set aid Coa- *besetsmay bepbced3or4inapart,thedecom- 
ailf f t^.^ posed rock in line with the spaces between the 

posts being picked out to a depth of 4 or 5 in back 

'-'^tiabeca. Swelling ground is usually soft, so that this can readily be done. the tonnel subsequently with concrete, access of air to the rock is pre- 

.^ that pcoaaacotlyovcroombg the difficulty. The octagonal set (Fig 10) 



offers Aootber meaiii of supportiag very heavy ground. FiK inqtortajo 
it is advisable to follow up the timbering with oaaane, placed in front 
between the sets, as shown in the cut. In this case, to insure tbe sa 
the tunnel after the timbers have decayed, the sets should be ^laced t 
than II in apatt (15 to ig in is still better), because the wida opening 
loom for  Urongei rib of concrete between the sets. The ixXaganiLl 

easy to handle and where the flow of water is not too great for the dn 
area beiow the tiadu, nothing better can be Bdopted. All the piece) in 
set ace alike, which is a convenience in framing, storing, and erecting the 
Speed of work. The system of timbering employed in tbe north be 
of tbe EUcabeth Lake tunnel (Fig 20) affords a good example of speol 
effidency in iJadng timber sets. In this end of the tunnel, of which ij < 
iroe timbered, the avenge monthly advance was 340 ft, m compaitd 

z IS /CoQaete linings 285 

* ^ for te aootii lifrlfng, wliere only 3 434 ft of timbering were requited in 
-=« 13 Soo ft C37). 

"a an tiamrl (u by u ft) was pnoeded by a short pilot heading* aboat 8 1^ 8 ft, 

no; of vhich was mpported hy "falae" timbering. At the end of a shift, with the 

- u^iul fraoi the heading preparatory to bUsting, the position of the timbers 

i tc aemewtBBt tike that shown in Fig 20, which represents a short timbered section 

-f mT ill ttamei, abo the ho ri ao nt al timbers used temporarily for the pflot heading. 

z :>^ ^ the pcnnanent sets were 8by8inby8ft6in long. In the cat the sets are 

-^ i£ 8-ft iittenraJs; actually, they were often spaced irregularly, depending upon the 

.-': <a the xuaL The width between poets was lo ft 2 in in the clear, the rock section 

"■xi s aoily as pnasiblr it ft wide. The collar braces woe usually 2 by 6-in {danks, 

z cadi faebg sepported by wedges or timber-ends spiked to the set. The false'posts 

-ir pAat hrading were later used as permanent posts for the full-size tunnel; the bev- 

ryis itf these, mtnwird to carry the arch pieces, were stood on the heading floor, 

■-Z -J)ar sqaare ends supported the temporary caps, which likewise were already 

-~~^1 Kr ase as peznaoeat posts. Thus, there was no handling of timbers not intraded 

^ sc^Biar seta. Just befene Uaating the false timben were braced and wedged 

-- r^j to the rooL (Fig 20, b.) 

aha blasting, the new roof was shored up temporarily from the top of 

rack, by two nearly horiaontal timbers, placed dose to the side walls, and 

tiinbezs and blocking resting upon them (Fig 20, c). This was done by 

aad mtcrfeied but little with the woA of mucking back £rom the face 

^itacy to moootiQg the drilb. The debris was next removed down to solid bottom 

•Tsk the latUng of fake posts which, when capped, carried the weight of the roof. 

the toanel daxiag enlargement to full siae was readily done. New perman- 

fFlg an. 0) were erected as fast as the section was widened down the side 

~ T maw era e spreader timbers (Fig 20, Sec CD) were then wedged between the ^ 

■^« -Krtk thdr oikdenddea 14 in below the joint and resting upon timber-ends spiked 

the spreaders were [daoisd two layers of a-in plank, forming a floor 

This floor was 2 to 3 In bdow the caps resting on the false posts, so that it 

had wkSe the false sets continued to hold the roof. Working from the end of 

•jnr the w ui g Ls and Working trananitting the roof weight to the false sets were next 

.'Xfd otf aad tbe loose roof rodL picked down on the fUxttt from which it was later 

-'?ec into cars. By pladng the permanent posts a foot or so in advance of the false 

'. u a Fig 20. a, the arch timbm cDuld be erected as soon as the shattered roof was 

je^tiy ii bjmhhI T^inp"tr and wedging quickly followed, so that the roof was sup- 

'■£<: by the prnMBfiif sets shortly after the removal of the false blocking. 

18. Coacrate Lininci 

I: bibig a mtDe tunnel the concrete is usually placed in the spaces between 

'.TT'bas aad for a few indies in front of them. Where the sets are not 

•< too doseiy this is generally suflicient, even though decay of the wood 

-7 ciases weak spots in the fining. This defect can be avoided by the use of 

:• xad caps of reinforced concrete instead of wood, a practice which finds 

r wher e vt r its greater eipense is warranted. The concrete posts and caps 

- Tjde outside of the tmuiel, in a mold which gives them the 'exact form of 
•t^ pieces, and by proper reinforcement they can be made equal, if not 
'Tkr. m ttxength to timber. In water-supply tunnels a continuous con^ 

' - .TJ&g perionns the added function of preventing eddies and friction caused 

'te ochowiae irregular waHs* for which reason such tunnels are generally 

'- 'kroogboiii, irrespective of the need of the roof for support. In the 

loseles aqaedoct the lining is at least 8 in thick where the ttmnel is not 

<nd. akhoogfa an ocscasbnal rock projecting into the concrete space was 

. T ujov ei i nnlesB it came within 4 in of the inside finished surface of the 

<. b tfrnberod ground the concrete was placed between the timbers and 

distaace of 4 m in fixmt of them. The interted siphons of the 

me fined with ooncnte, otdmarily a ft thick, thoui^ vM 

3S6 Timbering , 

Tock was permiUed to [aoject to ir[thin lo in of the iatefto sorfdce- ( 
to the great bydnwtotic htad. reaclung 700 (t, to which these liiunEs are 
subjected, all timbering was removed before the concrete was placed ; 
necessary, especially designed steel suiq>art5 carried the roof while the 
Crete was setting. In the Snalce Creek tunnel a sone of sweUing groiiii 
encounlered whidi resisted all efiorts to hold it in the ordinary way, the si 
est timbers obtainable being crushed in less than a month's tinie. A coi 
lining leinforad with steel rails (Fig 21) was therefore introduced (46)- 

Fi| II. Reiiilinccd CaacKte Uning, Snake Creek Tuhdc) (£« Km) 

tt. Driving TtaranKh Loose or RdhhIhi Oromid 

Materials requiring special mi;thuils of support may be damified as folloi 

A. Rock which will probably stand, but under which the minen con 
work in safety, while ordinary timber sets and tagging are being erected. 

B. Rock or other material which a certain to crumble and cause ligbt 
unless promptly supported. 

C. Soft malerial which requires immediate support and brings heavy [ 
sure on lagging and timbers, 

D. "Running ground"; fnun 
consistency of broken, muddy, slipi 
rock, down to semi-fluid mud. si 

CUm a. Headings diivm ud 
these conditions can be timbemi 
shown in Fig 22. Each alternate t 
b slightly shorter than the olbeis 1 
CBiHes a double cap. This syslor 
timbers and driven lagging i* sol 
times used also for material of Class 
each length of lagging co 

n« M. Spdiif or Poiepating 

Drivii^ Through Loose ot Running Ground 237 . 

- II lull il aiid cflectne Mwort, at the "'■'■"■■'" apendhure of nuteitl 

> B. la thU case the tiil-block systeni shown in Fig 23 u lalMtxtory, 
J zi anaooa ose, ia Dearly evoy gan^ of men will be aome who hive 
zizmxc wiih it. A disadvantage is that i. siigbt presiute on the forwaid 
I UK iMiftm iiiii I ovates modi frictioa between the tail bkxli aod the 

F% 13. Tail-Uack Sjtttm ol FoRpoliDK 

HI '±il diinoc the lagging may bcfome difficult; but. when the ground is 
• boTy aial only figbl falls occur, this system ii unequalled (oi cheapneSB 
<=-iKiIT. In going throogh coarse, Iook roc^ whoc the janing efiect 
.1-4 tbt !T*li<« iorwud with a sledge increases the tendency to fall and 
ue hBni« may be foroed forward by a screw jad, wluch, while slower 
'j( bumaer. is leu tpt to bring down looae ""'-^-i 

-- ite nmoviblc tul-block systaa \ 

-t pOBCBcs advantages ova the I 

-x-s. When the staling pieces are J 

'- tnK. the wedges above the tail I 

iir kaockaj out and the tpiEng i 

'^: :a restod the auiiliaiy cap; the V 

-'X B then removed and k^ for I 



: «t d tinben (Fig 2S. A) placed uudwv between the permanent sett, 
-.T the Astance through winch the unsupported spiUng haa to carry the 
'Sd. Where vihng is-miuiiTd for only a few sets, tMs iy«tem works 
■d; bvt it po eatis ei many disadvantages, lod when a considerable dis- 
- vm be da*m throufb daM C nMoial, the twining lalae set ia 

238 Tlmbtring 

TlM iwllltias t*lM Ht is shown m Fig 26, In coimection with * thre 
Mch cap for very heavy ground; it can be applied with even gmter fac 
Ihe oidiiuiy borizoaU 
There are no tail blod 
does the spiling have 
driven across three acts i 
beis,asinFi«22. Tbe < 
coming on the front e 
the spiling is earned diret 
the swinfjing false act, m 
qjiiog ou be driven wl 

with the tail blocks. A 

cated in the tongitudinl 

tioo, tlie posts of tbe aw 

false set rest and rotate I 

(FlgSB. PoRpoling with Stationuy False Set siU of the pennaiient »t| 

when first erected occup 

position shown by the dotted tines. They cany a cap of heavy steel p 

which supports the fioot end of the spiles a. While dnving, the oiJy pr 

to be sustained is that of the rock immedialcly above and in Imnt of A; wb 

with the tail-block system, a few pounds weight on the front end of a 

brings 4 ot j times is much wdght on its supports. As the ^tiling is d 

Fit M Swingiac Pake Set 

tbe tumbuckle c is slowly unscrewed, allowing the false let to fall fori 
until tbe spiles are nearly horiiontal. When all the spiles have been dj 
home, and tbe suppoiting block d placed under them, the tumbuckle is sla 
still farther, until the swinging set loosens. Then the hanging rods an unho 
from the eye-bolts and the false set is advanced to its next forward poatii 

In addition to the swinffiQg ids and hangers, this system requires that tbe tin 
for at least 5 or 6 sets iiom the f^ce vhall be conDeded by tie rods, in mucb the 
manner aa hanging bolts ate used in shaft timbering. This, bowerer, ii an advan 
becaoK. by screwing tbe timbers up tighlly tfauut Ibe bnoa. they can be bkxki 
piMltioa more casiy and quickly. Also, tbe timben are held in place so ngidly 
if lutd gtouDd Is encounlcml in any pan al the face, heavier chugcs ol eiploHivf 
safely be used than if the timbers were bdd in place only by blocks and wedgo. 

CUm D. For driving any conriderable distance through tbe difficult da: 
nurterial. tbe ahield and ait-k>ck give tatislactory leaulls as to speed, sal 

' 11 Driving Tlixougfa Loose or Riinmiig Gnnnid 289 

of operation, in connection with nilroad tunittls; but the high 
'-^ aset h ni^, if ever, justified for the narrow zones and small areas of 
-^ ndk, or other bad ground, generally encountered in mining tunnels. 

he groond will stand foe a ihort time in a nearly vertical face, the 

of driving lagging does not differ materially from that suited to classes 

-3i C, ocept that the ground must be carefully and closely lagged, and the 

%= caaets btlwegu the vertical and horizontal lagging entirely covered by 

rz bonds or "bdng,** as shown in the cross-section. Fig 23. 

Plastic or semi-fluid material is difficult to hold back 

"Si «ith breast boards across the face (Fig 24). The head boards must be 

- .n^ blodEed and advanced from the top downwards, never in the reverse 

^tioa. To prevent runs of thin mud from between the lagging or lacing 

13^ taofjix, wiry hay may be used as calking, a bale oi it being kept at hand 

rsr the fHC. Working with breast boards in the face is a sbw and difficult 

As there is usually pressure from above as well as from the face, 

B necessary to prevent the boards from being forced inward, ad- 

isrBsh ci soft material. It b often necessary to tie the breast boards 

and to the posts with pieces of inch boards and wire nails. For 

load flf VQik, experience, skill, and constant care are demanded. 

«r rock in dais D fnitnrial. The difficulties of driving through 

'-v2d (ir^'snatfd as dass D are greatly increased when bouldets or masses of 

: rtxk otend part way across the heading (Fig 25). The soft ground must 

' '^nogUy lagged and breast-boarded from 6 in to i ft beyond the space 

.- ■:sziy to erect the timber set, and the rock projecting into the tunnel is 

-^Jsj bfokea with fight charges so as not to disturb the breast boards or 

water ia encountered in a firm rock heading, it merely causes 

rrkKt and inconvemence to the men. But, if heavy inflows of water occur 

o« rock or running ground, quantities of sand or silt may be brought in, 

J tbe Htg^g and breast-boarding are driven so dose that the water is 

rjtd <iff oompletely, the resultant pressure may become dangerous in the 

mntfitvvn of the work. Somctimes the volume of water is so great 

in fairly hard rock, anything like a reasonable rate of progress is 

*-Hible. In sach cases, it is usually cheaper, safer, and quicker to run a 

' otoi] to tap the water and drain the face, thus facilitating the work of 

•nrifn. TlVlien large voliunes of water continue to enter the heading as it 

.t.mced. it mny be best to cany a lateral parallel to the main tunnel and 

: li bee somewhat in advance of the main heading, thus draining the water 

lisuesh a sBsallcr opening, the alinement of which needs not be maintained 

'^^TmR By this means the main heading is generally relieved of both 

^aae of wmtcr and the pressure accompanying it, and the cost of driving 


**» loBoving data, showing the cost of driving a number of tunnels under 

'"^^jaBdaaaBt, axe as- complete and acairate as could be secured. These 

*^ vse IB all cases obtained from persons in charge of the work, or who were 

- * poatiaa to know the actual costs, and may be taken as authentic. Ac- 

^•inriBg the coat figoxcs are schedules of the wages pud the different classes 

' ^ sad data aa to the speed of advance. 


Cost of TunneUng 
Laitmto-Poiidre Tmuiitl (9, 13, as, 37) 11 306 ft 

Superintendence and foreman , 


Mucking and loading 

Tramming and dumping 

Track and pipe 

Power house , 



Bonus to workmen, 

Maintenance, of buildingB.>Lnd 


Machinery repairs 

Air drills and parts 

per ft 

Si. SO 
4 92 

1. 75 


Picks, shovels, and steel 


Lamps and candles 

Oil and waste 

Blacksmith supplies 

Liability insurance 

Office supplies, telephone, and 

Permanent equipment (1< 
approximately zo% average) 


Permanent equipment included power plant, camp buildings' and fumiahingi 
rails, cars, etc. 

Wa^es: Drillers, $4-50; bdpen, I4.00; mucke^, $3.50; blacksmiths, $5^00; 
$4.50; dumpmen, $3.50. 

Maximum progress in any calendar month: 653 ft, March, 1911. Average i 
progress: 509 ft (for the x6 months when finished plant operated). 

Special features: Inaccessibility; the tunnel was located about 60 miles fi 
nearest railroad siding, and the roads were mountainous and very steep in places 

Elizabeth Lake Tunnel (3, 14, 16). In the following table the first < 
states the cost per foot for driving the north heading 13 370 ft through I 
granite, requiring 13 031 ft of timbering; the second column relates to thi 
heading, 13 500 ft through medium to hard granite, requiring only 3 42 

Drilling and blasting 

Mucking and tramming 

Engineering and superintendence 



Light and power 


Cost of shaft at sta 30 + 16 

Permanent equipment (full charge, no salvage — esti- 






















Wages: Drillers and helpers, $3.00; mucken, $2.50; blacksmiths, $4.00; hi 
$2.50; motormen, $a.75; dumpmen, $2.50. 

Maximuffl progren bx any calendar month: 604 ft, April, 1910. Average ml 
pcogitss per heading: 350 ft. 

StOwdl Tumiel 


IGiBM Tiiiiad, Soofli Portal, May, 1909 to SepC, igix, s Si5 ft 


Cost per 


} -^-^aati„« 


3. 12 


Track and inpe 






Miflcellaneous sappliest 

Drill parts (including steel) . 
Bonus . . . .' 


-V-TSlTfl .. 

!r::«i54 (sfij ft) 

' ^ijAa ■pmntfniience, office supplies, and general charges. 

diei, electxic-iiKiit boRn, ahoveb, picks, Uacksmith's supplies and fuel» 

^^■'^ i}-5o; hdpas, $3.00; mockert, $3.75; blacksmiths, l4xx>; helpers, 
1^ nrtiiins. $a.7s; dampmco, $2.50; power engineers, $3.75. 
-l.raaB pngiesi in any ralmdar month: 4x4 ft, Feb, 191 x. Average monthly 
^' * no ft. 

Newhooie Tunnel (19, so, 50) 

--TTjissoa d broken rock. 

i 'irJh. repsirt. and stsal. 
''*«■*. tiBL raih. pipe, etc. 

Jan to 

Aug. X909. 

a 333 ft 

16. 72 
I 49 



Sept to 

Dec, 1909. 

X 096 ft 




$22. 42 

April to 

Aug. X910. 

693 ft 



a. 22 


^-x Ddca, $4^0 to 94.50; helpers, $3.35 to l4-oo; mu^ers, $3-50; motormen. 
13-00; Uackamitha, $s.So to 14.50; helpers, I3J00. 

Stflwen Tonne! 









Awage for. 






2950 ft 

Cost per ft 

22. 98 




^ <m3 'mdadt al bbor, snppUea, lepaxrs, powder, fuse, caps, candles, toola, 

" vr^uflgtaecal eqienaea; also total value of dectric-drill plant with which tunnel 

* 'v^'^ mi total value ol air-drill plant which s uc ce e ded it, together with buildings, 

'"-^ud netistdr, witk no credit for salvage on any permanent equipment. The 

•V diiid bom Sept 30. The tunnd was driven in 1901-03 with electric drills; 

' 4b o« igr i9os-«6 was due to station cutting, where the tunnd was double use. 

''s Odos,; helpefs. $4JOo; muckers and trammers, $3-50; bhurksmiths, l4'5o. 
^'''** mpcss la any cnloidar month: 170 ft, Aug, i904- Average monthly 

Roosevelt Tunnel 


Sbavt HsAooros 

ILmA ^<^' 






per ft 


per ft 

-r. svs ftvo hwiotinga) 



Dec. (one heading) 



^9 •• 



Jan, 1910 



-■s *• 














33 700 




-r •• 




393 V 


T " 






. — •• 












law hoidiiic) 319 


Sept • " 





37.7471 Oct 








Awr80B tor. 



9356 ft 


- 1398 


•OmittiogOct, 1908. 
TrrtcAL DxsTKZBUTxoN OT ExPBfSES res Foot 


"•j etc 

'i riclcB and sted 

-i fitiiaci 



'« s&d candles 



So. 61 



Shaft , 




General expense 

Lumber, ties, and wedges 

Horses and feed 

Drillers and helpers 


Blacksmiths and hdpers . 


Pipe and track men 

Drivers and dump men . 


Mine tdephone 














203 ft 

259 ft 









4. II 









I. so 







fsjoo; hdpeis, $4^00; muckers, $i3.5o; power engineer, $4.00; 
; bcipen, $3.50: dumpmen, $3.50; drivers, inside. $5.00; outside, $4.00. 
in any ralcndar month: 435 ft, portal beaifing, Jan, 1909. Aver- 
Portal beading, 300 ft; shaft headings, 270 ft; all headings, 385 ft. 

Strawberry Tuimei (44, S9) 


Cost per ft 

' "Mtflifiv. nrr^'ioias to liMJO 




19 o8x ft 



** durinc iopq , 

•• •• lOlO 

•• lOlI 

" fan to IqIy. IQX3 

• Ott. XQXt. to inlv. XOX2 

t««n^far, . , , - 


$3.50; hdpen, $3.35; milkers, $3.75: motormen, $3'35; brake- 

$4.00; helpers, $3.75« Maximum progress in any cs l en da r month: 

Avove BHmthly pracieas: 330 ft per heading. 


Cost ol Tunnding 

Strawberry Tnimal (44, 59) iConHnued) 
Detaxlxd Cosis pn Foot 




Shift bosses : 

Time keepers 

Drillmen and helpers 

Miners (for handwork, trimming, etc) 


Track and dumpmen 

Mule drivers 

Motor men and brakemen 

Electricians and blowermen 

Disabled employees 

Timber men 



Powder, fuse, caps, etc 


Oils, candles, etc 

Ventilating pipe 

Track, including ties , 

Gompressed-air pipe 

Drill repair parts (including hose) , 

Machine shop expense (including 

labor and supplies) , 

Blacksmith shop expense (including 

labor and supplies) 

Power (all purposes) 

Pumping (labor and material) . 

Haulage equipment , 
General equipment. 

General expense. 
(Zamp expense . . , 
Corral expense... 



3 89a ft 















1. 00 




•33 60 


5 031 ft 















>4 03 




191 1« 

34x9 ft 






















84. X3 



a 382 ft 


a. 59 










General expense includes a proportionate charge for the expenses of the Ptovo 
such as salaries, staUonery, telephone, and suppUes; also a proportionate charxe f 
expenses of the Washington, Chicago, and supervising engineer's offices. T^ 
office coven approxunately 68% of this charge, the Washington office 3?% th-r-i 
office 3%, •nd the supervising engineer's office 7%. "***"»«» «°« »3^, »«? CI 

Bibliography 247 


ia Sock Tmmcting. Eng Nems, Apr >, 1908, p 377* Sttci of pngnv 
■ta— bei of Ameckan and European tuimds 
3 IPtnate Sewer ia Rock. Emg Rec, Apr zx, 1908, p 496 

: laoBdt of Dirnag Rock Timnds and Comments on High Coat of the EllaUwth 
TaancL Emg mmd Camlracimt, Dec 9, 190S. p 393 
ronacL Mimes and Min, Apr, 1909, p 387 
of the Northwest Water Tuond. Chicago. Bng Rtc, Aug 7, 1909, p 144. 
D en ipti oB of methods used 
-. &Ab Water Works TimneL Proc Inst Ov Engs (England). Vol 183, p 340* 

CiiJiir liaed tunxnel. 10 845 ft long, under Lake Erie 
* racBBparaUe |LeccHt]s. Camp Air Mag, Jan, 1910, p 5537. Dtscoaies futility 
of oooparing different records of tunnel progress, without considering all the 

* yamt Fubiisfaed Tanrnd Costs, Los Angeles Aqueduct. Eng ontf CMUracting, June 

t, t9«o * 

: lAaaae-Poodre TunncL Emg Etc, July 2, 1910, p xx 
^ TwmdEag Record on the Catskfll Aqueduct. Eng Ree, Oct x$, 19x0, P 44X- 

KAOfd nm Sept, 1910, 523 ft) on Wallkill siphon 
 Snl Tosncb on the Can Pac Sy. Eng Nem, Nov xo, x9xo, p sza 
- *% art in the Snake Cre^ TunneL Mim ami Sci Pras, Jan X3 X9xa, p 108 
, Cai^nrisanof Speed of Driving the Laxamie-Poudre Tunnel with Recent European 

Tiaad Records. Proc Am Soc Civ Eogi, Vol 38, p 707, x9ia. Discussion bj 

V. L. Saanden of B. G. Coy's paper 

* Iii7ria« tli« E&£abeth Lake Tunnri. £»r <Kec, Jan 20, X9xa, |5 7a 
W. L Methods Empkved in Driving Alpine Tunneb (The Loetachbecg) 

.Vnri, Dec 31. 1908. p 746 

C W^ FKrahrth Tunnel. Mimes and Min, Sept, X9X0, p 103 
K- IC Tunnel Dxrving in Colorado. Proc Inst Ov Engs (Eaghnd), 
V«l xlo, p 36a. Roosevelt tunnel, Cripple Creek 

^B. R. M. Roosevelt Dxvnage Tunnd, Colo. B and M Jour, 'Say 97* x909> 
p la&x 

H.F. Driving the Newhoose Tunnd. £ oiMf if /mt, Apr x9, 1902, p 559* 

equipment and oosts 
H. F. Tnnnd Driving in Colorado. Mim and Sci Press, Dec 4i 1909 
Roosevelt, and Gunison tunneb 
R. Loctachhrrg TunneL Proc hut Civ Engi (England), Vol 177. P 3Xo, 
iz Braston. D. W. Notes on the Larsmie Tunnd. Trans Am Inst Min Engs, 

Vd *3, P 99 . « 

.- B<»e, W. fL Tonnd Driving at Low Cost Min and Sci Press, July zx, X908. 

p 6a CkopeU adit, Ouxay, CoL 
^ Qadvkk. L. R. Dziving the Mauch Chunk Tunnd. Mine and Quany, June, 

f^po9i, p 304 
.(. ChBn.H. The Simplon TuxmeL Proc Inst Civ Engs (England), Vol X37i P 474 
.^ i^n I . C. W. Great Tunneb of the World. Proc Colo Sd Soc, Vol 8. p 363* 

Tcapesmtare and rock pressure in deep tunneb 
r '\7f , E. G. Laxande-Poudre Tunnd, Bng Rec, Jan X4, 191 x. Abo, Proc Am Soc 

Or Engs. March. 19x2, p 2x7 
J Omt. W. R. Notes 00 Use of Concrete in Mfaws. ConereU and Conskuet Emg, 

March. 1908, p 39- Abo, July, X909, p 17* 
Tr rnnsiiii. W. P. J. Western Practioe ra Tunnd Driving. Mine and Quarry, 

Hay. t907. p xx8. Opbdia tunnd. Cripple Creek, Col 
p Di^Mtc W.P.J. The Gunnison Tunnd. lfiMafMr(?iMfry. Sept, 1909, p 3X5- 

Eafanig hauiaog to f uU siae «. ^ 

r CtdU M. G. Stxawbcny Valley Twmd Ixrigatlon Proiect fai Utah. Mtne and 

O^ivry. May, r9Kt. P 483- Includes some cosU ^.^ « o 

DiUkcr, H. S Tunneling, Explosive Compounds, and Rock Tf^. Pub 1878 
. l^lT Stapto T^umd. Prsc Inst Ov Engs (Eniland). Vol 168. p 6x. 1907. 

dBKxipdoB. with coits 

248 Bibliography 

34. Hancock, H. S. Method and Cost of Constructing a ^ater Supply 

through Rock. Eng and Contracting, May 2$, 19x0 

35. Herrick, R. L. Joker Drainage Tunnel. Mlius and JfM, May* 1907, p 

36. Herock, R. L. Tunnel Driving Records. Mines and Min, Apr, 1909, p 
37* Herrick, R. L. Tunneling on Los Angeles Aqueduct. Mimes amd A£im. C 

38. Hogan. J. P. Progress on Rondout Pressure Tunnel. Eng Rk, Jan x, x{ 

39. HoUingsworth, C. M. Rock Tunnel Records. Eng Rec, June xS, i9xc 

Comparisons nf methods at Loetschberg and Buffalo water tuiuiels. 

40. Hough, U. B. Kellogg Tuzmel, Idaho. Mines and Min, Oct, 190X0 p X2a 

41. Hulsart. C. R. WallkiU Pressure Tunnel. Eng News, Oct 20, z9xo. p ^c 
4a. Lavis, F. New Buffalo Water Works Tunnel. Eng Rec, June 35 » Z9z<; 

Driving and lining a hard-rock tunnel under compressed air 

43. Lippincott, J. B. New Record in Driving Hard-Rock Tunnds. JBm£ JVe 

19, 1908, p 570. Elizabeth Lake tunnel. Short Vat of Other records. 

44. Lytd, J. L. Strawberry Tunnd. Eng Rec, Apr 22, 1911. Methods, eqi 

and cost 

45. McConnell, J. W. Gunnison Tunnd. Untompahgre Valley Projedt. ^ 

Aug aS, 1909, p aa8. Proc Inst Civ Engs (E^lsAd), Vol i79» p ^Sx 

46. McKay, G. R. Lining a Tunnel in Swelling Rock. Eng Rec, May a; 

p 565. Reinforced concrete lining, Snake Creek tunnd 

47. Piilmer, L. A. Utah Metals Company Tunnd. Mina and Min, Dec, 19 c 

48. Prelini, Charles. Tunneling, 1902 

49- Richards, C. H. Some Detail Costs in Tunnd No 7i Los Angeles Ac; 
Eng News, Nov z8, 1909, p 54a 

50. Ripley, G. C. The Newbouse Tunnd. Mines and Min, Aug, 1906, i>p 3^ 

51. Russell, W. C. Driving a Long Adit. Bonanza, Col. EandM Jomr, Feb 

p a72. See also, Simonds and Bums, Trans A I M E, Bull 75, p 37^ 

52. Saunders, W. L. Driving Headings in Rock Tunnds. Trans Am Inst Ml 

Vol 40, p 43a. Special reference to European practice 
53- Saunders, W. L. Our Best Rock-Tunnd Record. Eng Rec, Jan 15^ T^xi 

Record drive on Rondout siphon and comparison with European pcncrticl 
54. Saunders, W. L. Rock-Tunnd Records. Eng Rec, Aug a?. x9<o, p 

parison of Loetschberg and Buffalo water tunnd 
55' Saunders, W.L. Tunnel Driving in the Alps. Tr wis Am Inst Min 

p 436. Simplon and Loetschberg tunnds . 
56. SUuffer, D. M. Modem Tunneling Practice. Pub by Eng News^ New Yo^ 
S7> von Emperger, F. Notes on Use of Concrete in Mines. Concrete amd C< 

Eng, p X34, May, 1908 
58. Zipser, M. E. Tunnel Lining, CatskUl Aqueduct Eng News, May 9, 19 x 4 
59* Zalinski, E. H. Driving the Stxawbeny Tunnd. EandM Jew^ June zc 

p XXS3. A 4-nule concrete-lined tunnd lor irrigation in Utah 

Mining Engioeeis' Handbook 








Uatfi^ and Muck< 

a&Worki^ Shaft. 









Art Page 

14. Timboing 263 

15. Steel lining 26S 

x6. Concrete Lining 369 

17* Masonry Lining 271 

18. Tubbing 271 

19. Kind-Chaudron Proosa 273 


30. Small Shafts 275 

31. Working Shafts, Metal Mines. . 376 
33. Working Shafts, Coal Mines ... 279 
2J. BandSlMits 280 

BibUogiaphy 383 


ID paxcothesea in text refer to BiUiograpby at end of this section. 

L Cron-Mctloa of Shafts 

may be rectangular, round, or elliptical. Choice depends on 

: Bttaki, chaxactcr of ground, and local practice. Rectangular section 

t«B vhcR timber b cheap, and volume of water moderate. It* requires 

' 'SL&vatka lor ghrcn hoisting area, is best adapted for aver conditions in 

'i B lock and b most widely used. Cikculas section is adaptable to 

vf or metal lining, and is strongest against heavy ground or water press. 

''vcts less surface and hence less resistance to passage of air, whik the 

'"-'4! areas about hoisting compartments furnish required ventilating, pipe, 

'^ ^»ce without providing special compartment. EiUFncAL section 

«CT uf Strength of cylindrical form and space economy of the rectangular. 

2£calt to timber aad to keep plumb when sinking. 

250 Shaft Sinking in Rock 

2. DiTiaion Into CompartmBiita 
RMtUicnUr ■hafta with nHnpartmcnts side by nde are nuMt coDve 
tlmbermg (Fig I). WJtb tbe oblong Kction, width ol coUu between tb 
c-jl bolta may be nude lute, resuttinf 
omy of ciplosive (Art 7). In heavy 
if long dimeoiioii of tbe rampartinentt 
the abaft, tbe dividers ve brougbt i 
gethcr and are better able to withst 

p. , i,„ i„5i„h pressure, la steeply diwMtiK strata, I 

r^ 1. Becungular Shdt " „jk are best supported, and safety <j 
increased, by la)riiig out the shaft with its short axis parallel to strilr 
strata. If such location is impossible, special pretautioos must be takei 
the long wedges of rock from which support has been removed. 

[n fina srouad. wboe structur&l st 
lioinf ii not tbe detcrmlDing lactot. si 
be nude lo suit operating condiUons- 
■balts, or IhoK having a width of i 
DKnts, do not permit anveDient am 
of slalioTu; laDdincs ant sc^Ar^ed a 

CyllDdricBl and elllptjcal ahafta, the shape of which assures str 
BiFength, tnay have compartments arranged as operating amditioiu d< 
Fig 2 and 3 show typical plans, 

t. SlieofSbafU 
CiOBS-aKtiana] dimeniloaa ate influenced by: purpose; tonnage 

hoisted; quantity of timber and supplies lo be lowered; number of undei; 
emptoyes; amount of waterto be raisrd; method of hoisting (cage or skip); 
acler of ground; and questions of ventilation, cgst, and operating charges 

ft; smaller sections cost more, due lo cramped positions of miners and in. 
to drill holes to get best effect from explosive. When a shaft larger thi 
minimum is required, size may be detennined from above factors. 

Proapscl shaKs are Irequenlty of minimum iIh. 9nH may have but t cnmpii 

Ab ihafta may have 1 or i com 

part menu tbe 

KCOnd b 


■rtmcnl >h:iFU 



nay be < 


coal of foniBg ibe lequired vahuo. 

Ibeie areas. 

- 4 

Sinking Plant 



are asaally divided into 2 cf more oompartments, one of 
ladders, pipes^ and wires. Shafts used exdusively for hoisting 
hare no laddcrway; all chance of injury to human life being 
^ boistiag b go'vemed accxirdingiy and b frequently automatic. 

t <tf cQoynitaMatft. Minimum size b determined by cage needed to 
-risdse the mine car in uae (Sec it. Art 3; Sec 12, Art 22-24); or, for skip 
:z tbe vcjhsme of ore to be hoisted per trip b the governing factor (Sec 12, 

. Ic Amaican metal mining, hoisting H to ^ton cars, size of hoisting 
.-'aeats. in^de of timbers, varies from 4 by 5 to 5 by 7 ft; or for a 3-com- 
•-^t ikait, a net dear section of approx 4.5 to 6 by 12 to 18 ft. In coal 

ihe ens are larger and compartments 6 by 10 or 7.5 by 12 ft are common. 

shaft (one hoisting compartment), equipped with an un- 
was oosmion in the early days of American metal mining. Tins 
^oeuooamkal of power, and b to be recommended only for shallow mines 

I a uwpiilimnl sbnft, with balanced hoisting in 2 compartments, b 
^ for ecoQomy, and is therefore usual for mines of moderate production. 

.'jzji BCB aad znatenab ia a a-compartmrat diaft, hoisting 24 hr per day. leaves 
e <i total time available for pre canying; this percentage may be increaaed 

. J3 

^ a sc^ cage cosnpaAment in manway (Fig 4). in _ 

vii be hjiyfiri ss^jplks and mine officials, and when 

-^ ii aaed for nakxag. Such a compartment is nn- 

jT >»— f.«g raiDcn when changing shift and is awk' 

-rbisSagtBibcffs. Its cage is generally operated by 

■haft usually has 2 ore-hoist- '^ 

a service compartment, and a pipe ^^.l" Shaft with Service or 

^oderway. Tbe ore-hobting compartments are Smkmg Compartment 

• ce£e«ed di otl^r mvk; men and supplies are handled promptly in the 
: compartment, which in emergency may assist in hoisting ore. 

'-^ partiaii of manway b sometimes set aside for a coonterweight. enabling the 

- :*«a t6 operate in halaace. In a 4-compartreent shaft, the ore-bobting coropart- 
 ,x o&ea equipped with skips, and the service compartment with a cage. lA 6rm 

- ' 's^ Kcvice cDsapartment b frequently made longer than the hoisting compart- 
' 4r 21>. so that timber tracks can be run onto the cage without standing the tim- 
-I .-^i la very wet shafts, to facilitate handling the pumps, it may be desirable 
lase a pBit of the pipe and ladderway as a small cage compartment. 

^ ciiM|«iliBiinf fSbMiX^ with 4 ore-hoisting compartments and a manway, 
r i::tige of balanced hoisting at all times. Two compartments are gener- 
al fram 40 to 60% of the time for service work. 

- '^Ms dL great depch, large production, or a combination of both, involve 
-iczi T"*^"*^ <tf hoisting and ventilation which make necessary large 
1 siifi mBDerotts compartments. 

- loAcaat shaft of the Gorvemment Gold Mining Areas, Wttwatersrand, has 7 com- 

- "*«, sack sectko, 45 by xo ft. The 7-compaitment WoAhuter shaft. Rand, has 
'''ja 46 bv 9 If. In the Lake Superkv iron district, U S, 13 by 3x-ft shafts are in 

• C ^ cuiLcry shafts range in rode sectkm up to 24 by 50 ft. 

' k action should be cut of sufficient size to aDow 3 or 4 in outside of timbers, 
'Axof and wedging. Rock removed in excess of thb involves needless 
'* V a fareaJdng, mucking, and timbering. 

4. Sinking Pli&t 
' lapMff ylaaC oaed lor anking commonly consists of following equipment. 
^ ■f l>*i**h'*- windiaas, whim, or engine, together with hoisting rope, and 

Shaft SSnkmg in Rock 



buckets or skips^ SuHJU t t for ^beavt: tripod, derridc, or headframe^ 
BOit for luini i iuR water: baiiins tanks, steam, or electric sinlciEi^ 
Bofler plant. Air conprcsBor, if madune driOs are used. 

(Sec 12) uc often used in sUzting a shaft an<l in sinkiri 
soil before tbe power hoist is imlaBrd. Amount of 'wat 
is practicable; lor depths o«er ao Id 30 ft the 

epoBs. or where mrrhoninl power is not avaDaJblie. 

•s sfaoukl be stnmi^y built, of duplex tsrpe; nL&ny 
pcnd on tbeir rdiabflity. For depths to say 500 ft, and hoistiiis ^Hth 
bucket (Sec is. Ait ai), a friction-eear engine of is to 50 rated hp is sLi 
pending on siae of shaft. After depth of approx 500 ft has been reacrliedi 
engine, preferably of reversing type, is oonunooly employed. 

Itipod made of timbeis hoitod tofcther at top. from which point sbeftv^r> is si 
foims a sinqjle sinking headfeame. A second sheave is sometimes fastened t 
of tripod kg nearest the hoist, to lead rope off horiaontally. 

S tiff la g dcrridc is often Bsed for sinking through surface soil; it doea not ezer 
on ground immediatdy surro«mding shaft, nor interfere with placing timberings or 
of pennaneat shaft collar. Donaldson {2) recommends for colliery shafts a <iei: 
40-ft boom and 30-ft mast of is by is-in timber. Where derrick is used for si 
depths of 100 ft or more, provision should be made to prevent it from smingjuMs ^ivh^ 
is in the shaft. 

Sinking hegdfnme design is the same in principle as that of opersit 
(Sec is). It is smaller; usually has one sheave; and the distance I 
sheave and crossbead in the dumping position is small. Sinking: bej 
should embody features for dumping buckets or skips; for protecting -v^ 
00 the surface and in the shaft fiom falling pieces of rock while dumpii 
for minimizing work of topmen, in dumping buckets and removing brok^ 
A contractor's sinking frame should be so designed as to be porta l>lij 
erected and dismantled. 

If conditions pennit erectkm of the pennanent hoisting plant and beadf rante foil 
expense due to inefficient engine and duplication of equipment may be avoided. 
temporazy plant is necessary, it should be so placed that the permanent i^lajntl 
erected in its proper location without interfering with sinking. In some *-^— >^^ th4 
hoist has been placed opposite the service compartment and later used for its o{l 

Water up to approx i 000 gal per hr may be hoisted, much of it filling ^ 
broken rock in the buckets; for greater quantity sinking pumps are nti 
(Sec 40, Table 11). For given character of rock, cost ami speed of shai 
ing-vary directly with mcrease of water. ' 

Spring Mines vertical shaft, on the Rand (41), was sunk through heavily water^ 
strata. Size, rock section. 42 by 9 ft. Labor per shift, 70 natives, i white forest 
white assisUnt; 3 8-hr shifts per day. Cost per ft of shaft, $238.35. Sinki 
divided mto 3 periods, i. From time of striking water to installation of pump 1 
2. From insullation of station to installation of pennanent pumping pJaxkt * 
installation of permanent pumps. ' 

Depth beginning, ft 

Depth ending, ft 

Depth sunk, ft 

Aver speed per month, ft . 
Water, gal per min 

Period I 



S7 3 


Period a 


I 14s 


I 199 

1 ^ 

Questions of steam economy in design of boiler plant must be subservii 
other con«deraUons, particularly in a shaft where a sudden flow of ^^^ 
encountered and pumps drowned if suflficicnt steam is not avaflabte^ 

^ > Organization 253 

a£ ttBKactor's new inaking plant for a soo-ft shaft, making 30 to 40 gal of water 
s s cNai by DaaaldsoB (2) as foilows: 

ca$c*KBK $1000 2 buckets $150 

S»i^ bdkn aad setting 1800 Rope 150 

ad T i Tw i gi B S SCO Buildiagi •. . . . 500 

ip fiBed-vmter heater 300 Dump cars and rails 300 

cmvtnamr x 750 Electric llgbtiag plant, 10 kw. . 750 

iba»iAttL 1000 2 sinking pumps 500 

: bar and das^s xoo Small tools and sundries 500 

■* 400 Total $10200 

C Organization 

^^"3% are two general systems of shaft-sinking organization. In one, the 

'^ laea drill and blast the round, and broken rock is loaded by lower- 

-"i sen. Efficient management is needed to prevent miners and muckers 

'^'^^g; wbok properly handled, this ssrstem is generally the cheaper per ft of 

The other qrstem uses the men as drillers or muckers as occasion demands. " 
" &nt syittm. both crews may work together in the shaft, or independently 
^"Torate diStSw In tbe latter case, the bottom is carried in benches, anii im- 
:~tdy <B 0ctng down all hands dear enough space for drills to begin work. 

- ^^akiac the So 5 Tamarack shaft, Mkhigan copper district, the cut and one ude 

'- -^rSed sad bbsted in advance of the other side. Drillers' shift was timed to begin 

"uiA. «f the BiaArts* shift. Modcers first cleared the side which had not been 

*^i and Msifc it nady for the msrhinf men, who then drilled and blasted before the 

*i gf the nest shift of muckers. DriOers and shoveiers each work^ 3 shifts per 24 br 

TUTinwa axBOttnt of mtenctence. 

il Oak ihaft, SoalsbyviUe, Cal. was sunk with hammer drills. One crew drilled 

'-Me naad d holes, and Masted and mudced the inner row of cut holes, in one 
I>mg the two SDOceeding shifts, remainder of the ground was mucked and shaft 
--^ down ready far the driBezs. 
'^r i9l the best machine-sinking lecoids on the Rand was made at the Village Deep, 

ac 3 S^ sUfts per day. The holes drilled during one shift bidce ground for the 

- ^ s shifts of mockcxs. It was often necessary to kwd and blast a round a second 
"'s a tiMri thae; the bottom being deaned between blasts. This made necessary the 
-'ace of  MThinr men or their equals in intdUgence between regxilar drilling shifts for 

'.2C. 'Hing snd firing the holes. Sometimes holes are blasted in idays, the broken 
' ' -cag aunuvul alter eadi hbst. 

m the shaft drill or muck as needed, each shift can pick up the«work 
of the stage at which the last one IdFt it. This system, operating 3 
'J per day, makes for speed, with slightly increased cost per ft of shaft; but 
'• Jvcs the use of experienced diill runners to do muckers' work. 

'"satda So J, S5* inclined dbaft of the Canadian Copper Co, the ncotd iar part of 

f jswB m Table i. was sunk hy nsing la 3H-in ptaton drills mounted on 6 columns, 

" <« a machine. Same crew did the drilling, diovding, or timbering, as required, 

car iS-ltf shifts per day. They VBoaved a bonus equal tor % of their wages for every 

. rr«r 100 ft per month. Hoisting was done in skips by a a-drum geared dectric hoist. 

• '<rr wm «D% Focdte, fired dcctrically by deUy-actkw fuses. Little timber was re- 

 'jaKfH ior skip rails. Size of shaft b 35 by 9 ft, with 5 compaitments each 6 ft 6 in 

T.'- fatores of the hammer drill which make it possible to take advantage 
'^ pecuGariCics of the face tend at the same time to minimize the regularity 
:r work, and it b usual to find the same men drilling or mucking, as required. 

^Mfbwy sIhIi. Newport mne, Ironwood, Mkh (3) during the 9 months encting Dec i, 
v«s ii^ at the av«r ate of xBs ft per month, using la Jackhamer dtills with same xa 

hait Sinking in Rode 


>. PutU9iaft«nUasIteco< 



































1-4 4J19 























d. Shaft 306 Ft dap. Aug i, igij. b. I 
band no attempt is usually made to distiogui 
Drilliug commeuces when the lost bucket of li 
m ictum to bottom as soon as the smoke has cl 
bu boo done by hand [Kafir labor). Each tfaift m 

drilled. bluUd an 

w i> H (bort that ao bad cficcta iBwtt. 
rs: mnoving drills and othei equipment 
ing; clearing bottom of smolie; clearing 
! rock and Eecurius bad ground alter blai 
ut in place during drilling. 

renuved from botlixq and pomp atoprwd I 

vcn] fHt of water 

I Emploraa, VUlaia 









By operating 1 shifts pei 

much of the above nark 

belween shifU; 1 

ae to make up fo 

usual delays. Willi j shill 

such opportunity ndsts; i 

is increased, but at  slij 

greater cost per ft than «< 

' ttufts. 

shaft liaking, and in many cases has increased i 
lonus is paid either as a percentage of vagei for' 
Qdard, or the company may allow a lump sum 
; woiken, u at Vills«e Deep, Rand (Tatde 1). 

a ■> 14th le*d. 

No other opetatioDs should be carried on, not looli 
-ed to or from other pointi ia the shaft, while men aie 
B tbey uz protected Irom lalliog material by  ireD Con- 
I extendins over Dearly the entire area of shaft, with 
« qnisgi for jttaaage of buckets. In dcxpening a wo^kfns shaft, in 
oi ibould be left, or timber bulkhead built before sinking begins. 
ii pwtioop tbciuld be piwidcd at uJlar to cover ibaft 
4 tiap doors wben dump pcHdt a Hbove coJkr, to prevent 
~ ' « lhra«b Ibt collar ioon. At Woodbary ihilt (3) 
Idl bat itiSned with Rsin aad ihellu:. Thae 
re bAawi from frngmenLd of iallioff rack. 

Udtennih«iirbc~piDvide(l to withio lucb distance [nun bottom ai will 
- irwy IB tbcn Ino bbstinc; Inn end of Okk, chain, inre npe o( i>DDd«i.ei- 
' ^'^ita.dMldbt provided unch bottom of shaft. This asHirea lalely oi men 

:^ Ute of bcBtiDf **y'**, fire or sudden inrush ol wstcTr 

' "^ 4aik ismu are isscd. ekctrk li^hla in shaic bottom advise sinkers of intenufH 


-''A ned k Aaft rinkuii ore: hand-chuin, single w double hammer, and 

in the hands of energetic workmen may be used with ad- 
a mk rock. Hole is usually aUrted with hammer and drill. More 
* be liken ra -'■-p"g the bit Ihan lor hanuner drilling, and a low temper 

'-ran vied. tspvkDy wlvn many diiDen nay be picked into the sbif I. bottom. 
^ Uad. wboc Ibe norid's records in ipod have been altaiaed. Such speeds can 
—    ■■-» with hi|h-poced labor, aaibe men •UlBoitote.iesncb 
- - , WitwMeanod, 41 bv 10 it, 8> Kafir driUen 



Shaft Sinking in R<x^ 

wcxeanployedper8faift,8miigainaxadvaiK)eo{a33ftperBMMith. (^) In plarjn^ 
full advaauseouy be taken of all peculiarities of rock in •^^ I 

ecaoomy. (c) Lighter cfauscs ait used in sbalkw boka. oompared with macfain^ 
_ i«^- with leaSkf tthnttr 

Table 3. ComftaimM of Hand and Machinn Drilling shaft ^"^^ 

OokUleld, Vvr C40) timbering. 

ooofbied move ezactiyi 
sired sixe, and timbd 
fidlitatwl. id) By a^ 
ing bottom in a. se^ 
bene heSf the Dtmlen^ 
bok becomes lean, will 
omy of powder, lu 
Rand shafts, tbe top 
is sometimes 40 ft abd 
sump. This method; 
feres somewha:t writh 
ing. especially if on] 
hoist is in 



Men per shift 

1 5 




as 3 

Shifts pfT day 




Aver advance per day, ft 

Powder per ft advance, lb 

Powder per ton rock broken, lb. . 
% of toUl time : 
Drilling and blasting 

Mncking. . 


bench system may also be used with machine drilling, but is not so advaataceoos 4 
hand work, (e) None of the deUys incident to marhinr drilling* as for aettins upi 
and hoisting them out before blasting. 

Comparison of hand and machine drilling at Goidfidd. Nev. A 7 by x^ft v 
shaft was sunk from 470 to 700 ft by hand. 60% of the drilling being done by chum 
and 40% by single-hand woik; from 700 to z aoo ft, 4 iH-m Ingecaoll>RaxMl w^i 
were used. Kock medium hard. 

Table 4. Comparisoii of Powder CoBsomptfam. Hand 

Holes, Rand 




Powder per 

ton rock 

broken, lb 




ton n 


Central Roodepoort 

Simmer Bast 



Cinderella Deep 


Durban Roodepoort 

Simmer and Jack No s 

Village Deep 



M. . 

TaMe 5. Comparison of Hand azui Machine Sfaiking, Rand (39) 

Machine drilling 


Rand Collieries 
Kleinfontein . . . 


City Deep 



Size, ft 

34 by 9 I 
34 by 9 

Aver ad- 
vance per 
month, ft 





Hard diabaae 
Soft shales 

Coat pen 

a. 92 

Hand drilling 

43 by 9 

46 by 9 

47 by 9 
46 by 9 










HAmmer driUg (Sec 15). which work best on down-holes, axe well 4ulaDf<^ 
shaft Binkiog. They partake of the advantages of hand work, without nec^ 

: Dq>th of Drill Holes 257 

^4.%d bbor wilUnir to be packed in the shaft bottom. They are best 
'?*! lor vertical or steeply incliaed shafts, where fractures or cleavages are 

-*: m strata, ance id this case the placiixg of each hole with regard to local 
-nses of tbe rock is of most importance. 

-^er drSs faave also been used successfully in ground where each successive round 

zuai'm pnctkaUy the same manner. The advantage of the banuner over the re- 

>«:«f 4lrii is ant in better drilling speed, but in the shorter time for setting up, tear- 

' ««. il^fejag fxDd one set-up to another. 

' s Back Oak shaft. Soaisbjrville, Cal (5), sinking was carried to the i 600-ft level 

yn miprocating drills, one miner and a helper on each machine. Below tbe i 600- 
R i ^•"TT**' driQs woe substituted for the reciprocating machines, with the same 
rr of men in the shaft. The result was a 25% increase in rate of advance and a 
-• "i air. 

• :*k shaft f4S). near Docktown Tenn, rock section 7 by 14 ft, penetrated very hard 
"'. ^a flcfaiat. By sobstituling 6 Jackhamen for 4 reciprocating drUls, an advance 

i: par DKMth was made for 315 ft; about double the best previous record. (For 
' details, see Art 21.) 

driUs (Sec 15) have general application for heavy shaft work, 

i;crt from que^ion of speed compete successfylly with other drills, and 

-\ Hand even with hand work, though the conditions there for manual labor 

.-sJL In rectangular shafts, reciprocating drills are usually mounted on 

: t»ir5 .Sec 15), placed across the shorter dimension of the shaft. From i to 

ace mounted chi each bar. 

brse American collierjr shafts, drills are mounted on tripods; but the tripod is 

0d Bon cumbersome than tbe shaft bar, and altogether the practice has little 

k ia a lectangular shaft. With circular or elliptical shafts, the use of shaft 

E» difbcoit and tripods are the rule. In Europe several t jrpes of sinking frames 

•ieriMd lor circolar shafts, on which the drills may be so mounted as to com- 

.-. 'j^ eattfe aoai sec t ioa. The frame with drills attached is raised to the surface 

f Utetiac (6, 7). 

7. Depth of DrOl Holes 

t)«|tk ef hole (Sec 6, Art 7) is a ftmction of shape and size of shaft and char- 

' t nxk. Tbe deeper the cut holes the greater the width of collar possible 

.-^ the two oppoate rows, and the less the number of breaking-out holes 

- ti Usual depth of hanxvdrilleo holes is from 2 to 5 ft. With recip- 

~«v. DKius, the maximum dq;>tb consistent with powder economy is ad- 

* as this reduces the percentage of time lost in setting up and taking down 
pw»«tf»if holes, and in raising and bwering the drills before and after 

r Tl» proper depth of hole should be determined by a series of experi- 

ir 2ay particular rock and other conditions. * In absence of other data, 

' '- may be a^umed equal to one-half, or in soft ground three-fourths, the 

A the shaft. In some districts, tbe practice has been to drill long holes 

^'\ 1 or even 3 times; this involves waste of explosive unless, before charg- 

kie is partly filled with sand or other easily removable material. 

rrifle to jo or i a-f I holes, or deeper, is the excessive weight of steel necessary to 
xsi a bok at a size large enough for a sufficient charge of powder. Long steel is 

< « j^J to handk in sinking buckets. The drill steel for hammer drills lx^inl; 

^'a *Jux f'jr reciprocating machines, the limit of length of hole which it is possible 
»"! ab£ have a crosa-section large enough to hold enough p>owder to break well, 

• n the way the sleel holds its gage. 

* Aoadlmy shaft, Iroowood, Mkh, lo-ft holes were possible, in soft slates, while 
" ted rfnaffriTrii starting with a aH-in bit, 8 ft was the max depth of bole. 
^ ktfd radi si tJic Goidoo shaft, near Ducktown, Tenn, reciprocating machines 
* 7>«t Lokft aiMt made appcox 5 ft advance per round. Hanuner drills put down 
aiad made appcox 3 ft advance per round. 


Shaft Sinking in Rock 

8. Location of Drill Holes 
Drill-hole location in sinking is governed by fact that only one free I 
exposed, and that to obtain max efficiency from charge 2 free faces are nee 
(Sec 5, Art 5). One or more key or cut holes are drilled at an angle to 1] 
face, and blasted in advance of the other holes, which are placed- to take i 
tage of new face formed when the cut is blasted. The cut is usually driUcxl 
middle of the shaft section, though in large shafts some engineers prefer | 
it towards one end, retreating towards the opposite end in blasting, and 
each row of holes in series. This arrangement tends to throw the broke 
to one end of the shaft so that the opposite end may be speedily cleared j 
machines to begin work while mucking is in progress. Local conditions, ^ 
ding planes, reentrant angles, position of hoisting compartment, etc, sorx^ 
influence position of cut. The nuix blasting force is developed if oppo^ 
holes meet at the bottom and are hred simultaneously. The obtuse an^ 
tween opposite cut holes should be as great as conditions permit (Sec 6, j 

Hand-drilled holes are usually shorter and 
more numerous than machine-drilled; they are 

with care to 

^j^^///<////^^^^^^ Placed 

^\ *' *>«--*-" -'-.;\.^ #'^ take 


, »4t"^-- 






advantage of 

? ^ cracks and shape of 
face, not with espe- 
cial regard to sjmi- ^* 
metry of arrange- ^ ^^ 
ment. The cut is ^ -4^^^ 





sometimes carried 
i^s^ well in advance of the 
« a 4 ^ other holes, which 
recede towards the 
shaft ends in a series 
of benches. 

Fig 6. "V." Center or Wedge iyr.-w-« ArOimA 

Cut for Shaft Sinking . Machine -dnfled r^gt, Double "V" 

notes are placed and 
pointed in accordance with a system designed to give desired results « 

increased powder consumption. A symmetrical aJ 
ment facilitates the operation of the drills^ axid { 
the max number of holes to be drilled from eacli 
of the shaft bar (Sec 6, Art 6). 




V»*' ceiUer or wedge cot is roost coauno>Qly m 
comprises a niunber of pairs of holes inclined to^^^i 
other from oppo^te sides of the short ce-nter linci 
shaft, their bottoms being dose together or |>reCerabl| 
ing. Fig 6 shows a simple "V" cut, with pooi^ioos 
bar for drilling. Holes in Unes i comprise the cut 
blasted first, holes in lines 2, 3, and 4 being fizzed in su<j 
Fig 6 shows 4 rows of holes for. a deep cut. In soft 
it is sometimes safRdent to drill only ooe Wu^ of c 
on each side, or, if the second line is used, to drill t.hi 
half the depth of cottcspoading hole on opposite sidei 

Pyiamid cat b rarely used except in circuWr slid 
consists of center boles sunounded by others snord 
concentric and so iaciined as to form a sump ^^ ^j 
Fig 7 shows amngenent of boles in a Calskili Aqueduct shafL Pyrrnxnid 
applied to lectansular shafts in the Jopiia. Mo, distnct (Fig 8i). €^^n |^ 

7. Pyramitl t'ul for 
Circular Shaft 


Explosives, Blasting, and Mucking 

=sc ioOowed by ade and corner holes in the order named. In «wli ihafta, 
■T be nsed to Uast the ramp. 

Center and wedfe cuts are socnetunes com> 
biocd by pointing the holes nearest the center oC 


" ?*iawd C«l for Rectangular Shaft 

FIgO. Bench or Stope Cut ' 

OBt a imall samp; the remaining holes are then arranged in ordinary 

r • • • 

cot b soraetiracB oaed in tight ground (Fig 9). The cut is alternated 

of the shaft to the other. There are always 2 more 

th«» increasing the efficiency of blasting. This 

""h t> pe&ject the broken rock towards the opposite end of 

- > BAad of directly upwards as do the wedge and center 

looK, there is kss delay in setting up drills, and risk of 

.« !«> dafaerim and pnmpa is reduced; also one end of shaft 

than Che other, facilitating mucking and drainage. 

<» ■nilsr to that used in tunnd work (Sec 6, Art 6), 
lodaJ for flat, inclined shafU (Fig 10). 

i» BUating, and Hacking 

Fig 10. Bottom Cut 
for Flat Inclined 

Sec 4 for full discussion) . 40% gelatine dynamite is generally 
■1 Amoican practice, where holes are drilled by hand or redpro- 

Tabfe 6. Consunptioo of Bzploiive in Shaft SinUng 


-'•:!'» caJ, Pa. 

-«4act . ... 


Size of 


" 'sA Jack No a. Rand 

13 by 26 

14 by 18 
10 by » 
17 diam 
'18 by IX 
13 by 24 

4 by 8 

7 by 13 

TS by 31 

Ezplofiiveuaed (dynam) 













Lb per 
cu yd 





a. 3 

I. OS 


Shale, slate 


Quartz conglom 


Schist, slate (a) 





U; Iad»ed6o*. (6) Haaddxilled. (c) Bbtttng gdatine. 


Shaft Sinking in Rock 

eating drilb. In some cases, 60% dynamite is used in the cut holes and 
bottom of others. The relatively small, deep hole drilled by hammer dr 
led to the use of stronger d3mamites; 60 or 80% gelatine is common, m 
hard ground 2 or more sticks of " 100% gelatine '* are sometimes placed 
bottoms of holes. In Rand shafts, 93% blasting gelatine is conunon. The 
amount of charge should be determin^ by experiment. 

Mucking is facilitated if the major portion of the rock is broken in pieces ^reighj 
20 to 200 lb, which can be loaded by hand. Shoveling in a shaft bottom is dtfiic 
takes more time than handling an equal quantity of rock in large pieces. Where '■ 
of the shaft is drilled and mucked in advance of the other, shoveling is faciliti 
covering the bottom, opposite the side to be blasted, with steel plates; the blast I 
throw the broken rock onto the plates. 

Blasting may be done with ordinary cap and fuse, timed to give succe^ 
shots, or by electricity. By the latter method the entire round may be I 
once, or the different series of holes timed to detonate as desired by use c 
electric blasting caps or electric delay-fuse igniters. 

In some districts the law requires electric blasting in sinking. Timbering carrj 
to the bottom is liable to injury from concussion and rock bombaidment caused 
simultaneous electrical detonation of an entire round of holes; this danger is Icsai 
use of delay devices, or by firing the series of holes in succession. 

In u^ng ordinary fuse and caps, many engineers advise doubling the fuse, 2 dd 
with equal lengths of fuse being inserted in each hole. If the fuse is wound aroui 
erly placed nails or hooks and cut at only one of them, with caps crimped on boi 
the mark made by the other luul or hook will show the place where the fuse is to bo 
spit at blasting time. 

Where the shot-firers begin spitting at each end of the shaft and work towj 
middle, they need not walk over lighted fuse, possibly stepping on one and puttid 
The men are also nearer the bucket at the finish. This method involves cutting 
for each series of holes at different lengths, so that the cut holes which are general] 
center will explode first. When spitting begins at the center, all fuse may be cut i 
length and proper order of firing naturally follows; and if the entire round is i 
through any cause, the cut holes and those nearest to them are sufe to explode. 
keeper fuse, cut so that it will bum out about 3 min before the first charige L» { 
explode, serves as a warning that it is time to get to safety. In wet shafts on til 
fuse is spit by torch, or " Cheesa stick," made by siditting blasting gelatin, wrsi 
around a pine stick about 18 in long and covering with clay. The fumes givei 
readily absorbed by the water without any bad effect. In part of the Woodbtj 
(3), the ends of the fuse were lighted by being placed in a cardbqard box containi 
powder which was ignited by an electric fuse. Great care was exercised and end 
kept dry. Considerable smoke resulted from burning black powder and long lengths 

Mucking, or loading broken rock into hoisting conveyance, occupies 
50% of shaft-sinking time. Number of men employed depends on m^ 
organization, size of shaft, and number and type of containers for hoistii 
For VERTICAL SHAFTS, a bucket or skip is sometimes suspended from boi 
sinking cage, which is provided with long guide shoes to permit lowering 
the last set of timber. In other cases, sinking crossheads (Sec la. Art 
used to prevent bucket £rom swinging. On the Rand, skips have been us^ 
guide shoes long enough to engage the lower end of guides when the ski 
is on shaft bottom; they are considered safer than buckets. For i>i 
SHAFTS, buckets sliding on skids, or suspended from a carriage runntit 
cableway, and skips running on regular track, are in general use. Ten 
track, capable of being raised on blasting, is provided to reach from end 
bering to shaft bottom. 

Empty bucket should always be available at bottom to render muckers indc 
of irr^ularities and delays. In large shafts, where more shovelers arc employ 
can crowd around one bucket or skip, two compartments are sometimes uaed for 

^-^ a Shaft Raising 261 

UL VtBtDMiaii (See abo S(c T4) 
~ je BitiD^ enoueb air murt be delivered at shaft bottom to remove poirrder 
: ^iid mk du!t, ind to enable sinkers to work in reasonably pure atmospbere, 
automatically, may acne to great depths: tn 
n mutt be adopted at the outset. Some of the 
il ventilation are, cluracler and temp of surface atmos. 
~; .1 anla penetraUd, and amount of water falling in shaft, 
'ucjcil uMibliiiu (Sec 14. Art 10) niiiy he aided in leTcrsl wayi. II a unall por- 

~p. -;> joto the l*a<jlranic tiy a chimiKj-, diffcrebcc of hIt head wil] cbiuc cimtUlioa. 
---- .;nH ttnkiBj pginf« we uxd, and steam pipsejRMd in  Kpanle compaftineDt, 
' -—^t/ H aiuAUy iiiSk-ian la esUbiuh a riun^ current; a iteam jet directed upward 
'^ re itsit ticttoei «ilJ atcofnpJiah ume rnull. It nttcD tapiwns thai, even vitb tw 
^11. ite fpace aPMBhd the neant pipe? is upcast while the Df>poAite ude a downcaat- 
'a <r y*«tT « votIwt. cmDerted to a wmden or ibeet-iron pipe ri to ift in diam, 
vrfcHidihafl bcatum, nay be UMd toloicedawii fteth oreihaun fool ait. II is 
-vs miidctiaY la use a Ian to eihmisl b1;ulini< fumes promtxiy; the fan is Ihm 
-". u ^pvtv Ensh ail. If the pipe or chimney be o< wood, Ibe boaidi ihouM be 

O. StakiB« in  WarUni suit 
-IXC (hafti arc frequently decpeaed while 
ji aaabg operatkins are being earned on 
 ^iktn dioukl be ptoteded from falling 
'^ br  rack pentke (Fig II); or by a 
■jiibrf ►■■'n«*«^i whkh is Bometimcs loaded 

— t aie two geneial metbodt: (it) rock is 

^ (beet to nirface Inxn >haft hottom 

-^ ^KcU goktn^ compartment; {b) rock 

<id to ihr bnrennost working level, by 

dectric or compressaJ-air hoist, whence 

-ijtd Ut the surface by regular hoisting 

The rock penlice may be left across 

-• ■bict area, in which caae a short incline 

' ' uBk frora the bevd above before the 

full section. If the penlice ^'^ "■ ^°« ""*" ^°^ 
n of hoiiting compailmenti fentice 

ay be cut in line with tbe ladderway, through which 

s raised instead of sunk, where an additional opening is 
nine. A rai» is laade on the center line of tbe proposed 
n just large enough for good delivery of the broken rock 
;^Tiide room (or drilling. Where speed is an object, several points oi 
•■iy be opfDcd by driving drifts from the mine levels to intctiicct the Une 
■-JL When the diSeient sections have Iteen tunnctted, the raise '•■i 
: '■« to tbe desred cnns-section, thus eliminating uny slight errors of 
-0 U work i> to be done in one lift, the taiie is sometimes catried at 

Shaft Siukiiig in Rock 

Shift nising ii Euta- ind cbap« 

U. Deticn al lining 
Chtncter ot shaft lining depends chieQy on diancter of Rround and 

ol shaft. No eiacC rules tie appliubk far computatian of loading and ^i 
of shaft support, and eicept where hydrostatic pressure is present, the strert 
the lining is based dn previous experience under similar conditions. The 
mu^it be strong enough to support the hoisting guides, and to withstand 
on ahait vails which usually increases with size of section. Wet ground 
to be heavier than dry. 

Id some firra rocks, it nuy be only BeceaHiy to keep k»e pMca from diopptng ii 
ihafL In cue of heavy watcT-bcaring itnta, the luunf must not only rcsiat thi 
vails but also dan oui the water. Undet these CDDditions. circular ahafta liw 
tubbing (Art iS) are uiually beat. 

BI*t«rUl« used fot sbaft lining are timber, >tc«l, C I, concrete, brick and 

Shaft collar. The height above surrounding ground is detenniaed by 
ties for disposing of waste rock, or other local conditions, as niifac« drainag 
a level placx, collar is sometimes raised TS to 3o ft and waste filled in aroi 
Ii the shaft b^ns in solid rock, a collar set is framed hy eatenditig the ^ 
end plates, or both, 4 lo 6 ft on either side ol shaft mouth; frorr) this s 
hung the succeeding sets, until the first bearing set (Ait 14) is placed. 

Vlhut collar let I9 at the lurfux. tbe eneoded ends of plates rot on timbers or ci 
pien. A collar Kt ibove the ground level may beplaotdaldaciibedaiKlliinberir 
up 10 tbe ruTuircd height; or tbe collar set itielE may be railed and Hp|»rted b; 
and diagonal bradng until waste 11 dumped around it. 

If soft overburden must be penetrated before solid rock is readied, the upi* 
tionof sliaft may be cribbed (Art i4),or preferably Uned with conncte or tna 

Often an c^n pii b made to bedrock, the ndcs being altowtd to take their natun 

with pi 

a filled. Guide tnlts may be 11 
or ceKular shaft seti placed in 
jid eitend far enough into solid j 
c water. Both limber and corK 
fitly dnigned to provide foundati 



^ RU(.P.<>|MI.(b.CWrtWu„ 


LIi^-?:«- -,— .- - -- 



. Water Ring for Concrcce-lincij S' 
■Hmbered Shalt lij <Vi«i &■ Mini 

TatM Tin0 are placed at intervals in vertical shafts to intercept falling 
which is then led to a sump and pumped to surface. A groove it cut arou: 
(haft to 1 depth of i.s or 1 ft, on the edge of which a dam is made of timlj 

- < 

''- 14 Timbering 263 

'vtl Bcfaj or concrete, or of day or concrete akme, to form a channel behind 
i: viter is ooBectcd and led thence to a somp. 

- '-=baed Aabs, water is guided into the ring by short plaiiks placed in an inclined 
:.-B zo mac^A its fan (Fig 12). In concrete-lined shalU (Fig 13a), the ringi are 

- "i VUid iIk liaiBg. water being led to them by lines of tile pipe, placed vertically in 
' ' ziii*ht ODOcrete; a small projecticm on inside of lining senres to catch the water fall* 
J. z i.:an. The nog aboold have sufiSdent grade to the outlet pipe. 

14. Timbering 

S«*ncidir 1111111 are commonly supported by timber; in recent years, the 

' ' tfed and concrete is increasing. Timber is subject to decay and in dry 

''Si. amrce of danger from fire; but, in shifting or swelling ground, it is some- 

prefierable, due to gzcatcr elastidty and ease of replacement. Vertical shafts 

cpcfted by Kts, usually composed of 4 pieces of timber, framed together at 

' t-^. and wcdgpA again^ the walls. Types of timbering are cribbing, and 


'Tftkiig may be of any size timber, round, hewn on two sides or squared 

. ^^nafts-are often cribbed throughout. For large shafts cribbing b chiefly 

; through the soil 

bed ro c k . But, in 

moad on the Comstock 

±»t cribbii^ was used 

'jTt depth of large shafts. _ 

fl0 13 
-•at foRB t% made of poles 

-^land lengths and hud on 

'ach other; vertical strips 

the comen keep the 

Phaks may be 

'.ucsd OQ edge, with ends 

- afio each other, or cut 
" tad held m posit i on by 

- m pbosd skin to skin. ^^ 

^y^ ,'*V^ if°^ ^? F« 13, M, 15, 16. Cribbing Joints 

• n-tmg. biFigl6,B*o.5i4, 

' m ha^ Uid op k«-hoase fashion. Open cmbbikg allows some space between 

^ Tinrfrm: Fig IS b a common type o( fnuning, in which B b less than 0.5 A; 

- J « o-s ^ the joint is same as in Fig 16. 
'MSKia el «n»ad pamits, sufhcient depth u excavated to pUce several feet of 
. It a tine; a set is placed and wedged at bottom, and cribbing built up to meet 

In — »«**M*^ ground, the sets are placed as the excavation advances. 

Skift Mti. Each set (Fig 17) consists of 3 side pieces, or wall plates, 

.-: !o the Icjog axis of shaft; 2 end pieces or end plates, parallel to short 

•A A last 4 pcMis or studdles, to keep the plates in proper horiz position. 

-'* t3 (Srided into compartments, the dividing timbers, in same plane as the 

' ^•c caDcd DIVIDERS, centers or buntons; opposite the ends of each divider 

.^<<aary to set extra posts. Wall and end plates and comer posts are 

of •"»»■ size: di\iders are generally same depth as plates, but are usu- 

rrma, interior posts may be of same size as dividers, or smaller. 

r- Sec la. Art 19) arc attached to end plates and dividers. Guide posts (8) are 

'^ jwd to ctiffen and support guides; they run vertically behind guides and are 

i«o cHt plates and ^viden. Guide girts (8) may be provided for same purpose 

-MOs; tJMy are placed honaontally, in same plane as end plates and dividers, and 

iim»piyTi»lf of ftuddlM. The girU take some of side thrust of shaft 

204 Shaft SinkiDg in Rode 

For pntKt Blineinent oC miida. laon may be aUamd in daita ol timbering h 
of a 7 or ^v>n tlisruKX faecc oc BUcr bctHcen fuide ud end plate « divider. L 
hcring shiJu iiiulFr pnsiurc, Ihr thicknras ol tbse GLIen is increued at dim 
nlbemrat, wilhout moving nuin limbers. 

Fig 17. Shallot 

Saved timber is preferable to round for shaft sets, aa better framed jo 
po^ible. Size of timber varies from 6 by 6 in far small shafts in good 
li> 14 by 14 in for large shafts in heavy ground. Uoder ordinary coiujit 
by lo in timbers are common. Distume between sets is variable; in aj. 
maximum is 6 to 7 ft, in bad ground they are placed closer. Usual dist.:^ 
lo 6 tt. All the limbers of any one set are framed together accurately at 1 
u'edged firmly against shaft walls by means of blocking and wedses and I 
by at least two plumb lines hung in opposite ends of shaft. 

LagtHag, If ground is Ijrm, with no tendency to shell off, no laEsins \ 
s.iry behind the sets. Ordinarily, however, safety demands complete t; 
ul rotk w.ilia. LagglnR matcriali round pules placed skin to skin, or . 
slabs and planks are common; galvanised, corrugated sicol and buclcUi 
have also been used. WTicie several sets can be placed before bcinj^ laci 
lagging is cut into lengths spanning 1 or more sets and shoved into r 
Where conditiims demand that lagging keep pace with shaft sets, 3 t>y ;. 
i;iNC STRIPS (Fig 17) arc nailed to outside of wall and end plates and 2 tn 
ring planks are set between these strips. Space between lagging and s.ha 
is packed with any available filling to prevent the walls from " startinR ' 

To iacilitate irmoval of broken or rotred la^ag. cleats mar be s[uked to top ajn 
»idp« nf the |ilate>, lo lonn a urooi-e in which the ends o( shon-lagginK plank 
'lliui ijIocpI. Ijelwecn inslend if behinil the wt», lagging i^ in shorter Icniitlia 411a 
■new, lliia method is aol applicable to bcivy ground. 

Baaglng bolla (Fig 18) are used chiefiy For convenience in placuij; tii 
luniliun. ICach bolt is composed of 1 parts, exact duplicates, irith hool 
end lo engage hook of its mate, and threaded at the other end, nfhich 
Ihroiiiih the wall plate and issecurcd by washer aud nut. 




•—nm of adjostment, length of each bolt, from inside of hook to top of thicaded 
w4 tc 3 to 4 ia f^reater than half the distance between the top of wall plate of one 
-« bcjctom of the plate of next set. I>iain of bolts ranges from 0.75 in, for small 

... : ^5 or iH in for kxge shafts with heavy timbers. C-I washers of large diam 

c t^ to prevent nuts from cutting into timber. 2 or 3 bolts per wall plate are 

' •.5'. r* '-a >L£e of 5haft section. 



Fig 18. Bearing Timbers (8) 

^etria^ sets, or bearers (Fig 18), are placed in the shaft at intervals of 50 

• ^o prevent peneral displacement of the timbering, and to take its weight 

vks and wedges, by which ordinary sets are secured, fail of their purpose 

•-■r in part. Alternate wet and dry periods may cause this condition. 

' : . >. xedging should be such that ordinary sets are as solid as bearing sets. 

* r aie of two forms: (a) independent timbers; ih) extra long end plates, the ends 
 iK wedi^ in hitches in the shaft walb. Independent bearers are preferable; 

' -> A beavy timbers, of same bfeadtb as end plates, but deeper as desired, and are 

xrdri to end plates of regular set. No change is made in framing of tegular |^es, 

^4 on the bearers (Fj^ 18). Gains or daps in wall plate, which ordinarily receive 

4addkk, now fit into a similar gain on bearer; studdles fit into gains on under side 

:t End plates aod dividers are placed in usual manner and are sometimes bolted 

^ %s dvwn. Bearers are ordinarily placed only under end plates. Where weight 

^ t« gsetX, as ID kfge shafts, or where rock tends to slip, rendering it difficult to cut 

> iadt tl«y may also be placed under one or more of the dividers, as in Fig 18. 

* ttmanA suength. wbkh theoretically should be suffident to support the weight of 
"^ '<> aeit bearer ^mw. 2 or even 3 bearers may be placed one on top of the other. 

sar«s sOk placed parallel to wall plates in continuous hitches; on these sills the 
•ft ncoiriy seated aod wedged. 

r«isBBg !9, 10). Usual method for vertical shaft sets is shown in Fig 17. 
".^ry <A workmanship is important, so that each piece will go into place 
1 cuttinc or trimming underground. 

is best secured by timber-framing machines, by use of carefully constructed 

«, in abaence of these, by drawing a base line lengthwise on center of the most 

'.!k 4 faces of the timber to be framed, and making horizontal and vertical 

with reference to this line. If the timber faces are not true, one may be 

"^ hdoK hying out the framing. The face on which the base line is drawn should 

-i.'it of the shaft when set is in position. 

(boras) arc 0.5 the thickness of the plates; those of wall plates are 
-V bottom half of plate; of end plates, the top half. Hence, when assem- 
i ^ad plates rest on wall plates. 
^M a sometimes bored in center of tenods (Fig 17). and a wooden pin driven to 

* :uia t^ig T***** while erecting. A 45' bevel at each comer of a set is usually made, 
'aeoB f^aies are in contact to thdr full depth, thus minimizing effect of area of 

" "i)sf coiiiBg tcaoos. At Butte, Mont, 0.5 to 0.25 in is generally cut off the end 
to make the beveled edges draw ck»e together while being blocked and 


Shaft Sinking in Rock 

k b better to set tbc instramat in ooe of tlie hoistiiig compartments J 
any error fall in laddenray. Id steep sfaaits, timnsit most have auzOiaiy tcl« 
biadcct to screw into tindMis, or a stretcher bar, are often better than a tripod for 1 

^luk it is customary to check op the setting of the timbers cveiy few days by 
toob usually employed by tunbermen are spirit kvd« c^enter's square, f^umb 
>trai|^t edj(e loni; enough to span 3 sets. The stnugl^^K is often made as one si 
framed triangle, the top oi which is horiz when the b^P^ of the straight edge is 1 
inclination of shaft. 

Horiiootal alinement may be secured by making use of tacks pbced as describe4| 
transit aJinement. In setting a sill, a string is stretched fnm a tack in the new 
one similariy located several sets above. The plate being placed is then 
until the string is exactly over the tack in last completed set. Sill is leveled witbi 
level. The banging- wall plate or cap is set by stretching string as for sill, and at t^ 
completed set drop a plumb lin ^ Irom the string and wedge the c»p over until pluni 
hits the footwall string. 

Cylindrical shafts may be lined during sinking by lagging driven behind woo4 
steel rings placed at vertical intervals of 4 to 6 ft (14). which in turn are kept in pla 
wood or stcd distance pieces. Sted plates are also used. These forms of lining ser 

temporary support previous to placing permanent metal ot masonry lining. 


Swelling ground is diflkult to hciA unless provision is made for cutting away protr 
rock and easing the shaft timbering. Thb is best done, without interruption of hoti 
by making the shaft opening large enough to allow a 3.5 to 3*ft space outside of re 
shaft sets. Auxiliary or jacket sets (8) are then placed and wedgrd around regular 
Floors may be laid on jacket sets and lagging placed outside of them in the regular 

in some cases regular 



1 1 

are also boxed in with p 
A In space thus prov 
_t work of easing t imbers 

proceed as required. 

15. Steel Lmini 

Steel 8hafC "ttml 

ing" is often used ins 
of wood for both ver 

and "inclined shafts 1 
All members used i<» f 
timber sets &nd t 
counterpart in steel 

J -J Stresses in wall and 
plates are: bcndinjc. dt 
--" -Fio ..-.. -Ti 'i^p: r L "<^« pressure of rock v 

and compression, due u 
reactions of adjacent pi 
Stresses in huntoiK o*- d 
ersare: dinct compre« 
in case of vertical si 
while in inclines or 
type of shaft in mc 
ground, the buntons 
also resist bending. ] 
or sluddles are in d 
oompresHion in vertical nhafts but are subject to U-nding in inclined shafts. Henct 
plAle^ and tlivitlen. ri>Ucd -haj^s must be selected which have a comparatively large 
radiu«4 of uvr.Uion, and are e lually sironi; about both axes of symmetry (Sec 45). 

•The H Hcition \> xisai cxtcn<i\ely: it is adapted to withstand combined stieasca, 
afTnnU ample l>earinp anHinsl the skies of shaft. This shape has also been used for 
guides. ca«t»teel la. Wh. Mtmetimes l»olled on the steel guides to engage the safety < 
seem of douUful value due to the heavy stresses and shocks. An^ ace Urgely ust 

Fig 21 . Steel Timbering for s-compartment Shaft 


Concrete Lixung 


"^ ad <fo a«aj with neceaaty for pennanent hanging bolts. I-beams are ooaimoiily 

- tx kiica. T-caik alooe or rdniorced with angles, and steel cross ties, have been 

1 *i!i and end plates; I-beams, double channels, and Z-bars for buntoos; and raib 

••^ vtasr the weight of shait b carried by lower bearers. Where there is enough 

~ '*^>vtfae lowest set to permit turning into position, each set may be riveted to- 

* z ssrbcF and lowered intact, chain blocks being used to swing it into place. If 

' -^'y u> cany timbering so close to bottom that there is insufl^cient room to ti^m the 

' ^ ^^ cr vbexe it is difficult to lower the entire set without interfering with dividers, 

be :bop-riveted in parts and the underground assembling done with tx^ts. 

K. Concrete Lining 

icssteced-cencrete sluiit sets, with members corresponding to those of 
" -kt^ have been successfully used in both vertical and inclined shafts (ii). 
. '. idu^ members are cast in steel or wooden forms. 

-r Ima Ifzatng Co. Mich, used a x : 3 : 3 mixture, poured wet, in molding sets for 

. ikaiu; Aisaeek Mining Co, Mich, used 1:3:5 mixture for plates and dividers, 

: : 4 aaotiue for studdles oi an 80* inclined shaft. After removal of forms, mem- 

<^%=c tSoved to harden for se\'eral weeks before placing. Reinforced concrete slabt. 

3 : 3 or I : 2 : 4 mixture, are molded for use as shaft lining between successive sets 

-- Amiioas between compartments. Where used as lagging between sets, the slabs 

XooolHhBan ^ -.- 

^ « «■ —  T V — J — 2. — ^ / / X \ V ■_ >' 

H«d— for Bmagimw BdU „ f . 


I A — », — V 

1 1 1 ; J J f— 




4 XsalHfc Bus voBiid with )< Web 








Uaifltf Slab 
Fig 22- Reinforced-concrete Shaft Sets (43) 

"r fBt en cffseU provided on plates for this purpose, space between slabs and rock 
ita^ filed with broken rock or other materiaL Slabs used as compartment par- 
-^^1 be bolted to dividers. 

' 1 wt has been blocked into alinement it is sometimes tied to the rock by placing a 
' joUam and filling around set with concrete. In some cases, members are mold«i 
"^kKDBg **t f««««»ig from the ends, which serves to bind the sets to a monoV"^'' 

290 Shaft Sinking in Rock 

concrete liniiig poured after they are in place. Wall plates of long shftfts, on acoc 
their great weight, are aometimea made in a or more sections. Holes are cored to i 
asaembling and hanging bolts. ^ 

In a 3-compartnient shaft of the Ahmedc mine (43), concrete sets (Fig 23) replai 
by i2-in timbers. Costs per set delivered at shaft mouth: timber. $37.60; col 
$22.50. Unit costs: timber, $28 per M; crushed stone, 35^ per cu yd; aand, 60^ per 
cement, $1.15 per bU; reinforcement, $12 per shaft set. Labor of racing a coocxl 
is more than for timber because of its weighL 7 men placed one set per 9-hr shift. ' 

Monolithic concrete lining (2, xi), both with and without reinfordni 
been successfully applied to inclined and vertical shafts of all shapes, thouj 
flat inclines some reinforcing is needed. 

Concrete lining may be designed to resist hydrostatic pressure and dam d 
water. Except in passing through a zone of surface water, however, it is { 
ally best to collect water in rings (Art 12) if in moderate volumep and pui 
surface; excessive volumes are handled by grouting (Sec 8, Art 7). 

Concrete lining is sometimes poured around steel or molded-concrcte shaft si 
other cases, dividers of wood, steel or remforced concrete are placed while pouring, 
neither sets nor dividers are emi^oyed, one or more reinforced curtain walls betweci 
partments may serve to stiffen the lining; these walla having openings at inters 
prevent injury from suction when hoisting. Bolts for guides are imbedded in th^ 
walls, or holes are cored in dividers and end plates to receive them. Concreting I 
started at the bottom of a shaft; if so, temporary timbering is usually required for :! 

Details of monolithic lining. After sinking as far as is safe, hitches aii 
bearing timbers placed, and a platform placed upon them. With the pla 
as a foundation, forms are placed, a temporary floor laid on top of forms, an 
concrete poured. 

Mixtures from i : 2 : 4 to i : 3 : 6 have been successfully used, depending on m^ 
available and strength required. Concrete is mixed on surface and lowered in bi] 
or delivered through a pipe, say 4 in diam. Buckets with dbtributing chutes at b 
place concrete directly in forms without shoveling; where delivered by pipe, it m 
received in similar buckets and placed as desired. 

If the rock section has been brc^en to nearly correct size, inside forms alone are Tt<\ 
If large cavities exist in rock walls, outside forms with back filling are nccessar>': o< 
ties may be filled with dry rubble, which answers both as outside fwrn and filling 

such places it is customary to increase the thkknes of «n 
use sleel reinforcing, or both. It is important that all ini1 
water be cut off by the grouting, or piped through the forms I 
concrete is placed, to avoid separation of cement fnnn the 
Minimum thickness of concrete is from 8 to 18 in, depeodj 
character of ground. 

Forms are of wood or steel, built in sections from 2.5 to 

high; aver about 5 ft. They should be designed to strip 1 

after concrete is set. If greased before pouring concrete, ; 

come away easier, and leave better surface. Wckwem forii 

1 usually of 2-in plank dressed to uniform size, and tied togetl 


Fiff 23 Plan of ^°°^ ^ **"^ bracing. Fig 23 shows a simple typ>e (the nui 

Wooden Fonn for ^°<^*^** order of stripping. Steel forms, of H to M-in ri 

Concrete Lininc ^^ *°^^ bracing, are extensively used for circular and cllil 

^ ^ shafts (12.) 

Reinforcing for concrete linings is commonly of old mine rails or hoisting rope; si 
ard steel shapes, or steel bars and expanded metal, are also used. 

Cimcrete hlocks have been used in Europe for shaft lining. An interior 
reinforced block molded in Z-form has been successful in Belgium. After pli 
the blocks, spaces behind them are filled with concrete. 

Sted and wood shaft timbering and lagging, covered with wine netting, have been c| 
with a layer of concrete grout 1.5 to 2 in thick, applied by a cement gun under ;> to 
pressure. The grout serves to fireproof and lessen decay of wood and prevents con 


17. Mmsonry Lining 


In Europe cytindrical shafts are common and masonry walling 
) . .-Tyiy ised as Kning, where the volume of water is not excessive. Good hard- 
? jd brick, or durable stone or cement blocks laid with hydraulic cement, are 
s. ."j^ jsed. ^ For sDiall-diam shafts, brick should be shaped to curvature of 
*^".kx dam over 12 to 14 ft, ordinary straight brick are used. Cut stone is 
•^r-Tsvt vfaexe other material is available. Where water luder low head is to 
r JAT.mrA back, a special form of brick lining (coffejung) is used (see below) ; 
.- tasj pressures, C-I tubbing (Art 18). 

Shaft is sank until strata b lesfched firm enough to permit {dadng foundation 

That ioundatiops or walldic cans are usually spaced 30 to 50 ft apart. 

■riTy fRKad, a temporary lining (Art 14) is used. Diam of shaft is enlaiged 2 to 3 ft 

-a Ktf for cxib. thk work being done with as little blasting and shattering <^ rock as 

c la ina groond. walling may be started directly on the rock seat. Usually the 

s d wood or C-lr made in secdoos, and wedged or grouted into position. In very 

rncad, the aib is bid 00 x or i-in iron bars, driven into holes a to 3 ft deep around 

of tinlt. ThiduKss of 

b nonally 9 to x8 in. Space 

sad rock b filled with 

or coocreU. Various types 

have been drvbed tot plac- 

sa that walling and siok> 

lannltaneously (6). 

In wet strata weeping 
'^ oc kft ia lining, and water col- 
•'■t a wood or C-I water riagi or 
:.ua5» wfakh axe often combined in one casting with walling crib (Fig 24). Above 



Fig 14. Walling Crib and Water Ring Combined 

for a height of 4 or 5 ft b tapered back, so that 3 to 6 in of 
dear space » allowed for ring (Fig 26). Under the walUng crib, a 
supporting shoulder of rock, 3 to 5 ft deep, b left before enlarging 
to foil Tock iectitm. Great care should be taken in removing this 
sfaoolder when completing the next lower walling section. 

Coffering (t) is watertight lining formed by several concentric 
brick or ooncrcie^block walls, with a apace between filled with caa- 
Crete, sted pbtes set in concietc. or day. It must start from an 
impervious stratum and rest upon a watertight foundation or wedg- 
ing crfl>. as used for tubbing (Art iS). There are usually 4 to 8 
concentric rows of brick, often laid in stretcher courses. The bottom 
coune of alternate rows frequently consuls of split bricks, so as to 
break jomts vertically. Hydraulic cement b used. Formulas have 
been derived for thickness of coflfering (14) • 

CoaL English engineers place cost of walung crib at 
$35 to $50, and cost per ft of ordinary brick walling at $0.75 
to $ix>o per ft of shaft diam; bricks at approx $s per M. 
Coffeking costs more, depending upon its thickness and cost 
- iTginj? iihaft to admit extra thickness of brickwork. Costs in England for 
vtt shaft were %S3 per ft; for a i6-ft shaft, I17 per ft. 

U Walling 
"■ od Water 

• J>C OB "" 

18b Tabbing 

CaaAioaft for nae are: a heavily water-bearing rock formation, underlaid 
1- impervious stratum, which in turn lies above the mineral deposit. The 
«aiity of water most not be too great to be pumped during smking. 

CemractMMi. Tubbiog is a watertight Uning, usually of C-I rings, made in 
The lowermost ring rests on a wedging crib, which makes a tight 
with itm impervious stratum. Most of the ground-water is permanently 
' ool, thin greatly redudng the pumping cost during the life of the mine. 


Shaft Sinking in Rock 

The wedging crib (Fig 26), ot wood blixks, oc better ol C I, i9 made in segmi 

and wedged tightly against the shait walls (see Art 17). 
The wedfing crib seat is prepared by carefully drc^inir the rock around the shaft p< 

eter- A gasket ot thin [line boanls, wmclimes covered with tarred flaaneL is laid bi 
the c-ib ii placed, or the crib may be set od ^ bed ol fre 
floated concrete. After crib is ia poaition. fhi^ wcdgpa 
driven fining space between it and 1l>e rock walls. O&k and 
lomctjmei [ullow tbe pine wedges, the ateel being withdi 
and hardwood wdgca driven into tbe cavities. The crib t 
to spring under the tension ol wedging, and is propped J 
Imm the walK Diy mou is sometimes placed in spa^ bcti 

cribfl oiBV be laid, one on top of the other- Instead of vedj 

.t above. 

ind the : 


Fig M. WeOgmg Crib ^ 
vul Outside - Bange ; 

plugged. Gasltets of dry pi 
of which are lighlly wedged, after be 
and ribs is cssl in seicinents i-s to 5 It deep. Flanges ar 
No wedging is necea&ary. 

being placed in posilio 

is filled with CO 

le flanges and ribs is c:ii 

Fats handling and serve: 
ilion: the bole b snbseque 

Tobbing with inside Oai 
:ateFulty machined and b>i 
he space between the tubl 


s required, And deeper riaES are possib^ at 
ft; (A) the wedging required with out^e iUmges throws strain on the inner 
plate, wlKreas it is evenly distributed with bolted, inude flanges, Disadvs 
id bolting a that the rings are rigid, and shifting gnsund causi 

stnini in the lir , 

System of suspended tubtun^. used in Gemu 
cuts off part of inflowing waier during sinking 

StrtDgth o( mtertlghl lining depends an th 
□r ground-water, which is usually taken as the enure i 
question- Stresses due to rock piessure and wedding . 
water is also an importaril factor. It is customary to use several graded t hick nes 
t^OR, from maximum at (he bottom to a minimum at the top, based on hydn»tali< 

A numlHT of formulas have been proposed for thicknss of tubtnng- t^iplon 

y. requires no temporary timbering 1 

lining material, diam of shaft, and b 
bing above the poin. 



ibbing lor a depth of 100 fit jt 1- - in. in whkh x — ihickni 

— , where y - thidLness. in, for ntiy depth other than 200 ft: i" thicknps 
oundbyfirMlormula; y*-deplh,it, ThickneMshouldoevetbeless thano.,! 
of nanges Lupton gives the lonnula: i~A W — .where s- width of llaa 
depth other than xKih; A- width of Usage, in, for 100 ft depthasgiveobek 

Shalt, ft 




Shalt, It 


hof flaow.i: 

Und-T 10 

AS 1 IStoiJ 



Kind-Chaudron PnKess 


ftf KacUdi Shaf ti Lined with Outskie-iUnc* Tnbbiag (14) 

: r>epih of -ec- 

: u«i n:bhird. ft 

Thickness of 1 
tabbing, in l 

z ^ ' 





Diam of 
bhafl. ft 

Depth of sec- 
tion tubbed, ft 

Thickness of 
tubbing, in 

:ci to 303 
1 10 to 255 



340 to 450 

60 to 260 



iH to i?* 

'9tL In England (6, 16), cost of tubbing installed ranges from $40 to $100 
1 laft; castings cost $35 to $35 per ton, and placing $6 lo $10 per ton. 
^rithr A x4-ft shaft, werer 0.75-in tubbing, $44; pladng, $5; gaskets, 

".etc, |j. pRiiariiigseat and placing wedging crib, $300. 

11. Kiad'ChAitdron Procett (15, 44) 

for use: heavily water-bearing rock fonnation, with an imper- 

r^tam overlying the horiion to be reached, similar to the conditions 

<r lining by tubbing (Art 18), but where the inflow of water is too great 

rped while anking. The stratigraphy essential to the success of the 

ts nre in the U S, but common in parts of Europe, where about 90 Kind- 

- shafts have been sunk. 


The shaft is excavated by a boring process, under water, by means 

? drop tools, called trkpans, the method being an extension of the rod 

: toring Sec 9. Art 5, Canadian rig). The water stands at its natural 
' 1 the work b nnished. A small shaft may be bored 6rst and then en- 

• foS diam, or the full section bored in one operation. On completing 
■: acu is prepared to receive the bottom section of lining (tubbing), called 
^Box, wfakh automatically makes a tight joint with the underlying 

ui stntum. The tubbing is put together at the shaft mouth, ring after 
-2g added as the entire lining is lowered through the water. W^en the 

.'. place, the space between it and the shaft 

.: A with concrete, and the shait is pumped 
.':£ success of the proce^ depends upon the 
iz-iiess of joint between the tubbing and 

■u stratum. 

~*s, 'ii^ mff% tint sinking by ordinary methods is 

*u ckc Kiod-Chaadrcm process for mean depths 

..1 190 ft. wkh less than 1 700 gal of water per 

' "0.3 depths less than 300 ft with less than 900 

- Far depcbs greater than 500 ft, where water- 

'*3U ue at least t6o ft thick, and make more 

. :J per win, the Kind-Chaudron proeess is 

K the cheaper. 

" ^rfe it is anticipated that this process will 

:^ ^lit is commonly started by ordinary 

ATc being taken to keep the walls of com* 

^fm dear of ail projectibns which might 
-•!>• interfere with the passage of boring 
■' Juft were suddenly flooded. 

' ' .u Ted coitti«t<» of a suitable bcodfrnroe (with 

' uod'm« the heavy Ijoring took) . power plant, boring rods, small and large 
•ton aad specuJ tools. 

*c \ daflow hole, the diam of small trepan (Fig 27), is made in the center of 

the ticpan. which cuts an advance center bore 4 to 10 ft diam. 

Fig 27. Small Trepan 

s usiaJiy ketit at a ninimum distance of about 30 ft in advance of the enlarge- 

374 Shaft Snking in Rock 

mtal, bill it H loiiwtiinB diitlid Id the cnliir dcptli befoR oilarglnK befiiH. C 
fmn HivU IxT^KD jLTc TciTHved by sludger (Sfc 9) . white thov from Ui^ trrpui ajc 
lod pcnodkilly niwd. In & Ufk« budid suspcndol id the advknce bote. Dnllii 
ue AltAcbcd to rodi nupoidat at lurfuje EiDm tbe «*]kiat beuD by a tezDper w:i< 
9. Alt j), whkJi feedi down u shaft is dnpoicd. 

Trapuu ait massive steel frames, to the lawn edge of which are at 
chilled-sted trits wdghing about 100 lb each. Bits are placed uo^nunci 
to cover entire area of shaft boll 
trepaa rotates; they are alio set t 
the shaft bottom towaids cenlei 
tmilita ling removal of cutting. T 
are inqttctecl frequently and du 
Wdcht ol Trepani for small dial 

e nl i rpn gtrepm(FigBg) has a project 
tioD otcDdiDg into advanre bare, ti 
kr«pinf pntper aliDcmoit. Tius pu 
also served by attaching 10 trepan j 
bead fittinc id tbe shaft. Thoe cro 
may any bits to dran don the sha. 
SliiikQ per minute vary from e to as, 
<d amkc. 6 in to 1 It. 

TemporaiT fiollic. U thafi iraJ 
badly, caviar areas may be lined tern, 
with sbect-cteel casing, supported 
sbnuldet o( twk left fur tbe purpose 
— J pcoded inm sor^ce. Diam ctf aha 
be reduced bdov such temporsiy linir 
pBraunent liiiiii(. Wben sh 
been sunk weD into the impervious stratum, the bottooi is deaned by 3 
tool, iod moss-boi and tubbing lowcRd into place, lite bung has insidi- 
(Art iS), and all flaoge (aces are machined and packed with 
sheet-lead gaskets before being bolted together at suifact. 

The inass-boT (Fig 29) is formed by constructing the 1 
bottom tubljdug rings 50 that they can telescope; tbe annular 
qiace between bottom ring and shaft wall is filled with moai 
secured to bottom ring by wire netting while lowning. Whoi 
bottom ting reaches its seat, the weight of tubbing above 
foms arcond ring to telescope over the &rst. compressing tbe 
moss against shaft iralb and forming a watertight joint. 

Id defp shaftA^ the lublniia beCDrnq cKenivdy heavy; it may be 
rendered tiucpyaat by iDsertmg a false botlom or di^hngni, above 
the nuss-boi- Id this diaphragm is placed a verticsl iguiuaaiDH w//^ 

FIFE, coatTDlled by valva which admit ballast water as necessary. Fig £0. Se 
Section after sectioa of tubbing is added, and tbe whole loweied Uoat-t 

until the buoyancy is greater than the « c^ tubtang. Enou^ water 
is then admitted to sink tbe lining and ccunivesB the nwas. Cemsit gnhjlitvi t 
lowcted in tiip^boltom boies. to &U tbe annulu siKce between shaft walls and I 
What the coociele has set, tbe shaft is pumped oul aad tbe lake bottom n 
Wedging cribs are placed below tbe moss-boi and sinking is lenjmed by affdin^i^' r 
ModiAcatkxu. The moss-boi has sometimes been omilted, the cnncmiDK ^ 
peskded on to make a tight >oinl. Id this case, special bits are f4aced on the enlart 
pan to cut a level seat lor the bottom Oangc at the lining. A raDdi6catiilti iotrod 
UpfKian b to ban out tbe entire shaft in oae opentkn. Bang a trcjiui tt special 
Spe«d and coat. Aver speed id sinking in nocthon France is ^vcn {f 
to 3j ft per month, to depths of 600 ft; diam, 8 to 13 It; cost, $66 tofioa 

Fig 18. Large Tiqian 

- 5) 

Small Shafts 


^nkkg X4.5-ft dtam ebafts io the Ruhr <&txict, Gcmany, to mean depths b^ 
:*i aad I X4S ft are given as follows (x8) : 

-'! aad oiaipaiefkt, 50% oi fixst coat $a5 000 to I35 000 

- -aacoas 13 500 to 35000 

^ per fi 90 to 195 

-x-rt-p«rft 13 

T and mpplits per ft 60 to xos 

.■■rpcfl X35 to 3IO 

- .1 ofooat of sinking only, exclusive of tubbing, at $83 to $350 per ft; ordinary 
.Miu. 9 to 13 in per day. In general, complete cost of la-ft shafts ranges from 
(*3o pa ft: 14 to 16 ft shafts. $350 to $500 per ft. The x 33S-ft Georg shaft, 
is the deepest thus far sunk by Kind-Chaudxon process. 


21. SmaU Shafts 

^"^ Hal 4 by 6-ft prospect shafts, 15 ft deep, with no water, cost about $s per 
 1 ieptk of 7 ft; the upper 7 ft is paid for on basis of about $1 per cu yd. A 4 by 
' :3ft deq) is generally accepted at Butte by U S mineral surveyors as costing $35. 
vaesas based on miocrs* wages at $3.50 per ^hr day. 

:=. Me. 5 by 5-ft prospect shafts, with light cribbing, cost $3 to $6 per ft in loose 
' ^ud. dry ground. 18 to $12. Presence of water adds $s to $3o per ft. Aver 

•c U'ltotL 

fka Ca. Her. Expkxntovy xompartment shaft. Following 6guies t 
.. czixfo. Shaft was sunk to 900 ft and timbered to 875 ft. 

<^jco s by 9 ft; i«*mw»*y drills; 2 8-hr shifts pet day. 


-'"jpr shift: 

•5=-aeo ^$400 

• '■•OTtta ^ 3-00 

= -"aeer % 4-50 

1 •rrbexrun 

_ t '.^.aaster 

"-T per II 



$3 » 



. . <S» 4.00 

.. % 3.00 

.. $32 

.. 6by6in 

Cost per ft 


Drilling $2.53 

Shoveling 0.93 

Steel 0.03 

Gnides 4 by 4 in 

No of holes per itmnd 18 to 32 

Depth of cut holes 6 ft 

" " breaking out holes... 5ft 

Powder, strength 35% 

Powder per ft adiouice 8.41b 

Aver advance per day 3.54 ft 




General expenses . 

$ 2.84 

Total ,.. $17.59 


General expenses . 0.95 

^*. 9«T. Vertical ^halt. 6.5 by 10.5 ft rock section, was sunk 100 ft using a wind- 

^t SK fint 30 ft. after whkfa a " whip" was operated by horsepower. First 30 

''ted jnvel. remainder in firm soft shale, drilled with hand chum drilk. From 

' • ' it . ii by ^in timbers were used; below 25 ft, 6 by 8-in. No water encountered. 

'i^U sbjitperday (19). 

' •*- I'lrft. 4 men $400 

"pnlh 0.18 

'•^•Jn ao.oo 


Powder per ft advance 3 lb 

Powder per ton rock broken lb 

Av advance per day i .85 ft 

43 SO 

Cost per ft 

$8 56 

Cartage $006 

Sundry 0.028 

Timbering 4 75 

Total fisoa 


Speed and Cost Data 

21. Working Shafts, Metal Mines 

Tsmarack No s vertical shaft, Lake Superior copper district, was sunk throug) 
amygdaloids and conglomerates, dipping api>rox 38*. Dimensions, outside til 
29 ft 2 in by 8 ft xo in, divided into 5 compartments. Surface force comprised U 
laborers, hoisting and compressor engineers, firemen, and blacksmiths, their n 
varying, depending on conditions. 

Timber dimensions: 

Wall platei 10 by 14 in 

Dividers and end plates . . 10 by 12 in 

Posts 8 by 10 in 

Guides 5 by 7 in 

Drills, 4 Rand Sluggers 

Size sinking rope: 

Surface to 3 Soo ft iH in 

3 soo to 4 680 ft I H in 

Sinking bucket capacity i ?% 

Labor per shift, underground: 
(11 miners, 7 muckers. 5 
timbermen, i pump tender) 
2 8-hr shifts per day 
Aver number holes per round 44 

Aver depth hole 4 to 

Aver advance per round 5 ft ' 

Speed and Cost 

Depth sunk, 

Surface to 140 
140 to 986 
986 to 2 015 

Aver ad- 
vance per 
month, ft 

8S 75 

CcMt per ft, 

sinking and 



Depth sunk, 

2015 to 3 000 
3 000 to 3 818 
3 818 to 4 580 

Aver ad- 
vance per 
month, ft 

62. S 

63 s 

Cost pi 


&4 ^ 
105 d 

Following items were included in cost: captain and assistant; timbermen; mi 
men; muckers; engineers and firemen; blacksmith; carpenter; machinists; team;| 
der, fuse, caps; oil, candles, and wick; wire ropw, hardware, and ir<Mi; pipe fitting 
machine parts; lumber, timber, and lagging; engine house supplies and fuel. 

New Anvil vertical shaft, Bessemer, Mich, was sunk through hard rock having 
ding planes parallel to long axis of shaft. Bonus was paid for all work in excess of 
per month. Following figures cover work from surface to 960 ft. Lining, concrell 

Rock section, 12 by 18. S ft: 
8 hammer drills used 
3 8-hr shifts per day 

Aver number holes per round 40 

Aver depth of hole 4 . 6 ft 

Aver advance per shift 1 5 ft 

Powder per ft advance 22 lb 

Time analysis 


^ of t^ 





23 1 


57 9 

9 I 

Cost per ft for labor and supplies, sinking only 

1 abor, 9men per shift (A $3.50 

Powder @ ii Sfi per lb 

Fuse @ 31^^ per ft 

Drill steel (estimated) , 

Total cost, finished shaft, 





Corbin, Mont. A 3-compartment shaft was deepened 313 ft below 400-ft level th 

dark hornblende granite 

Labor per shift: 

Miners $4- 00 

Engineers 4.00 

Shaftmen 400 

Blacksmith... 400 

Helper 3 so 

Carpenter 4S0 

Topmea.,«. ... 3-5o 

Bonus paid to sinkers hastened work (23). 

Wall plates 10 by 10 in 

End plates 10 by 10 in 

Dividers 8 by 10 in 

Rock section, 17 by 7 ft: 

Drills 2 2V^in Sullivan 

Powder, strength — 40% 
3 8-hr shifts per day 
Aver adv'ce pr day 3.23 ft 

Cost per I 
Labor . • \ 
Power. - . i 

Total. . i 

Workiog Shafts, Metal Mines 


A ifaaft was deepened from 879 ft to x 017 ft, through heavy water- 

'- -''^^ vbSe the mine was in operation. Size, 8 ft xo in by 23 ft 8 in, outside tim- 
. .-^;>utoicflCs. Timben, xo by 10-in Oregon pine. Water, a 300 to a 400 gal 
^ ioJowias coats do not include hoisting. 

la 39 


Cost per ft (26) 

Luxnber $12.85 

Supplies 9.84 

CooipresEor and drills. 478 

Labor, miners.. $58.63 
Labor, general . . i.6fi 

Total I92.38 

"T^asten Miwmiii lesd district. Shafts in this 6dd are in hard magnesian 
-^ ifld an oatimbetcd except stulls supporting cage guides and pipe lines. Fol- 
'.^ifits are aU vertical shafts (20). 

-att ptr day. It . 

-- :«? yniry 

6 by 18 

18 by 20 

10 by 20 

7 by 10 

6 by 14 















Ycrtica] Sliafta. Wisconsin Zinc District (21) 


No I 

So 2 


I 42 

•~ 3er m'th 125.0c 

irrday . . 2.00 

r TKfiay. 1 73 

*- •• -« . 3 8c 

 ^-cred. ft f9 

*- per arm. 

^ by •> 5-5 by 9 

145 |I5J 

135 00 
I 75 
I 75 




, 13. 5 

I 40 


' 12 
1 Vi 

No 3 

Sby II 






II 5 


Machine sinking. 


Hand sinking, ft 

No I 


No 2 



No 3 


Cost per ft 





Candles. . . 
Sundry . . . 

Total . . . 


$14 54 



I 33 






» a • • 


1. 21 







--' puBpB uacd in sukking. Rock, limestone and shale. 

'""^ So ) j-corapajtmeat shaft, on Mesabi range, Minn (39), was sunk to a depth 
' f SBooihs, thxou^ tnoken taconite, paint rock, and solid taconite. Water to 
'^ r^ was pumped. Lined with steel sets 6 ft by 18.75 ft inside dimensions. 

• tA pbza were 5-in i8.7'lb H-pie«s; dividers, lo-in I-beams; sets spaced 4 ft 

* ^i together by S 35 by 3-5'in angle studdles. Lagging, 2-in pine, held in 
K 3HB angles, sbop-riveted to back of wall and end plates. 

".wkrbeise expense. $28.30; pumping, $12.67; labor. $58'39; explosives, $4.17; 

fc .7; Biscel. $X7 96: sted sets, $14.73; total per ft, $i34-49- 
La^iaa ihsfl. Globe. Ariz (11). t 0x7 ft deep. 12 ft 4 in by 8 ft 6 in rock section, 
' >*r^ <4 («nly banied timbers, relined with concrete of 8,in minimum thickness, 

--1 b> aa 8-in reinforced curtain wall. Contract juioe, $28 per ft. 

ilMft* Bisbee. Axiz, 27.25 by 6 ft in clear, x 536 ft deep, wan lined with 
>uiBriiMs 3 curtain walls. Coat of concreting for 9 months, ended Aug 24, 
.. \4)t^mT% (11). Supervision, $1.40 per ft (approx). 

Monthly cost per ft 

"-iatb. it . . 



$ 3 24 
.S3 83 
9 2C 







41 $72 82 


$ 4 72 


II 63 


$46 41 

$ 0.07 
4 05 


3 17 


180 I 200 
$0.10$ 0.15 






2. IS 



$ 0.12 




^ 0.01 


7 II 


\ 0.00 

a so 

$29.12 $.11. Of I 

broke Imrgr. S 
rrviied placing i 
of bolea. Bonu 



iD« dila an bii 

n then. Mj 

Working Shafts, Coal Mines 


Vo 3 iteft, Nesviuiee, Mich (58), 17 ft diam, was begun by »n S.s by 

' '^ frara the &>6-ft levd to top of rock. 68 ft below surface. Raise was then 

' - ^w to y| sedioo, ooocreted, and steel dividers placed. Following costs per (t are 

"litdntk sectioo; falsing, f 18.68; enlarging, $17.33; steel divtden, $10.06; 

-" -^aoriefams, $i.a6; tempocary plant, $6^74; concrete, $17.22; compressed air, 

^ -^^ per ft, $72.17. Aver thicknra of concrete, 16.2 in. 

'''^r^ ilnft C45), Dncktown Sulphur, Copper and Iron Co, Tenn, was excavated 

f.ik of I X75 ft m comparatively dry, very hard, silidfied mica schist, by a com- 

*- <E si ^ing. tsising and rcamug. Size of shaft, 7. by 14 ft. Shifts per day, 2 

• a. 

^< :'3 ft of shaft was made np as follows: collar 8 ft above surface; 63 ft reamed 
^ c id ihift and 99 ft sunk. Upper 84 ft were timbered and lagged; shaft sets. 13 
. £: jividca, 8 by 10 in; sets, 5-ft centers. Rest of shaft was in solid ground and 
, ^'£» cRflkted; (hvidecs and end plates necessary to carry guides were set in hitches. 
':: 170 to 629 ft, drifts were ran from 5 levels to line of shaft and a raise, about 5 ft 
-' *^ ^Jrted at 5 points, sinking being carried on simultaneously from surface. The 
' •(?( iutsattfuxidy enlarged to full section. Shaft was put in operation to a depth 
.. f: adadiag is-ft sump) in 13 months; approx monthly aver, 49 ft. Drills per 
> -^»J3S, 2 hunmcr siopers; reaming, 4 3-in reciprocating. Number of moi per 
* ' "o^'^^. 3 dziDeis, I nipper, txammcrs as needed; reaming. 8 drillers. 
' ~ iu to &60 ft, the shaft was sunk, as there were no workings beneath to permit 
; .\i*bofi^ every facility then available was employed, the sinking and equipping 
t sectka pnxeeded at an aver monthly rate of Itts than~i7 ft. Drills per crew, 4 
'^natof^ Number of men per crew, i boas, 8 driUers, x hoistman, x lander. 
'" ^ to 1175 ft, the shaft was sunk with 6 jaddiamer drills, and with increased 
'-~>»i fanstiag facilities A maximum of 80 ft was sunk in a month of 47 9.5-hr 
*y ivcripeed being 63.5 ft per month. The 300 ft of divider timbering and hitch 
' : :5 ft of the so-ft sump being untimbered) was done in i month. 
V oats apply to first 8£o ft. 

S^viad and tgm p or a ry structures 



■'^ijii^.... '.[[[[][['.[ 

• ^ taaal equipment (a) 



~ ■? «7S ft 

''t'i (tatioos 

. hitches in 774 ft of sliaft 


"^ »d ntr (indndtng stations) 

Total cost 

$ 760.03 



20 607.70 


17 691.11 



IS 495. 57 



$94 519 63 

Cost per ft 


27- 18 

4 24 


Aver advance 
per mo. ft 




''^eai equipiseot largely suflkient for shaft when sunk to depth of 2 700 ft. 

a. Workfaig Shafts, Coal 

"4 liver, W Va. Klfiptical shaft. 180 ft deep, X7ft4inby33ftin clear, was lined 
*oEk. am tiuckncss x ft (37)- 

Coats per ft of Concrete Lining 


$ S.90 




' ^r''iaf. 

3 83 



~UT. jjul 


a. 19 

Forms: Lumber. $13 per M $ i .83 

Making. $21 per M 2.95 

Placing 483 

Platform for starting 0.92 

Superintendence 303 

Plant 0.28 

Oil, 0.31; tools. 0.24: sundry. 1.06 1 51 

Total perft $Si.*^ 


Speed and Cost Data 


Pocahontas cdliery ahaf t, W Va, 14 by 22 ft. was sunk x8o ft throngb hard sand 
cansriog little water. 3 8-hx shifts per day underground, 2 i2>hr shifts on sarfacci 


:' } 

» . 



Wages: Foreman.. $3.00 

Drill runners — 2.50 

Helpers 2.25 

Muckers 2.00 

Blacksmith 2.7s 

Engineer 2.00 

Compressor man 2.00 

Carpenter 2.50 

Helpers 1.75 

Coal per ton ,. $ 1.25 

Timber per M 20.00 

Wall plates 8 by 10 in 

Dividers 6 by 10 in 

Lagsing plank 2 in 

Aver advance per day 3 . 33 ft 

Coat of Shaft Sinking in Pennsylvania Anthracite 


Size, ft 




per ft. 1 

14 by 47 3 

15 by 50 
14 by 37 2 
14 by 24-2 
I5.2by33 5 
i4.2by 40.S 
14 by 18 

I 175 
I 650 
I 009 
I 550 
I 000 

191 2 


IIS. 70 

Sinking only 
Soft ground (a) 


Sinking only 

Cost per ft 
Installing tem- 
porary plant . I 






Total i 

{a) Aver advance r> 
46 ft. (ft) Cost di^ 
tion: labor, $54.75; bu] 
$a6.25; temporary 
$13.45; timbering, ! 
concreting;, $13.50. 
vance, 60 to 90 ft per n 
Cost distribution: si] 
$57-73; preliminary, i 
concreting, $1.55; tl 
rary plant, $4.47. (d 
thro' mine dump and 
@ $82.50; 675 ft coni 
I50; 277 ft contr'd (0 


Rand Shafts 

Cost and Rate of Sinking Vertical Shafts on tlie Rand (30) 


Size rock 

"3 'I* 21 r; 


Size rock 





•« 1 ii c 

per ft, ; 




H &!« 




OS ' 

Rose No 1 — 

23 by 8 


Vogelstruis . . 

18 by 7-5 



" No 2... 

18 by8 


- . , . 


i8by 7-5 

960 86 


Glen No I.... 18.5 by 8 




Kni^ts Deep 

28 by 8 




" No 2.... i8.sby8 

1 017 66 


41 •« 






Simmer East 

28 by 8 




Roodepoort 18 by 8 




II It 





Robinson No I 22 by 8 




South Rose. 

28 by 8 




" N02 

18.5 by 8 




Simmer West 

28 by 8 

3408 130 ' 10 

Vogelstruis . . . 

18 by 7.5 



100.73c 1 Jupiter 

1 1 

28 by 8 

3752 13s 


Costs given include overhead charges, (a) Mostly in dyke. (6) Hand drillinj;; 
includes deprec on sinking plant, (c) Hard dyke from 250 ft to bottom, ((f) j 
drilling, (r) Very wet. 

Government Gold Mining Areas, Rand (35). Southeast 7-compartment ^tud 
sunk 233 ft, from i 738 to i 971 ft, during March, 19x3. Rock: 155 ft quartzite. 
shale. 7-lb hammers were used in double-hand drilling (benches drilled single>haq 
Ventilation by brattice. Water was hobted. 

Labor per shift: 
I White foreman 
I White assistant 
82 Native drillers 
4 White timbcrmen (a) 

II Native assistants 

Size, rock sec * 45 by 10 ft 

Number holes per round .... 40 to 45 

(a) Timbermen worked i shift per day, drillers 3 8-hr shifts, (ft) Aver of Janj 
March, 1912. 

Depth holes 35) 

Aver advance per mo 294 . 3 i 

Water, gal per min 21.0 

Timber, pitch pine: 

Wall plates 9 by 9 

End plates 9 by v{ 

Dividers 7 by d 

Guides 4 by 3 


Rand Shafts 


(jt). Two vertkml ikafts were sunk in 1905-1907; drilling by hand; 
4^ ^ 9 ft, rock aectioa. VentiUtion maintained by brattices, no meclianica] as- 
-xe to air cnncBts being necessary below 300 ft. Timbermen worked morning 
Geaeial mine force, carpenters, blacksmiths, etc, were used as needed. 

r ?er shift: 'Timber: 

^>«T :WaUpUte».. 

. 9 by 9 in 

' ■* vsn End plates. . 

. 9by9" 

. 8by8 •• , 

-aiag eo- 

t-m jStuddles 

.12 by 4 " 

~:jni 'Dividers 

.7 by 10 " 

.t-ej ..Brattice... . 

.6by lii" 

• _ .. . 
>tU Cost per ft of Brakpan Shafts 

No I 

No 2 

•  ? 



**-t*T 1 

"-■« baudiJnK 

- ^faad hailing 

$ 82 86 


56 03 

6 56 

5 91 

$163 06 


3a 91 

$ 73 76 


55 73 


7 77 

' . ^SS JW ft 

... f, 

' ii-«aace per mo, ft 
» -eTpcrftidv, lb. t 

$159 75 

3 777 


Supplies, No 

X shaft 


per ft 

of shaft 


Blasting gelatin, per lb 
Caps, per M 



4 709 






17 91 

49 52 

Fuse, per M ft 

Drill steel, per lb 

Shovels, each 

Picks, each * 

Hammers, each 

Sundry tools 

Carbide, per cwt 

Paraffin, per gal 

Sundries, laraos. etc . . 


Shaft sets, per M 

Blocks, lagg'g. wedges 

Brattice, per M 

Guides, steel 


Hanging bolts, per set 
Steel andiron, per lb. 


Total cost supplies per 


• mek 

- 4 

md shaft turns from vertical to incline at depth of 3 096 ft. In June, 
advanced 223 ft, from 3 453 to 3 676 ft, and in Augiist, 261 ft, through 
SSls plaoed at 7-ft centers were the only timbers used. 

19 by 7 ft Aver no holes per round. . .\ . 30.6 

13" Aver depth h<^ 5.06 ft 

3H-in Powder per ft advance 25.5 lb 


ciicolar shaft (34) • i8-ft diam, was sunk a 258 ft at an aver speed 

H. per mooth. DriUing was by hand and small machines; 3a hand holes breaking 
*. Liaing: concfete coUar, 36 in thick; from collar to 100 ft, ordinary brick a ft 
i-ao to 600 ft, brick i ft thick. Below 600 ft concrete blocks were used. Cost per 
of ffenaal charges: sinking* $70.41; lining, $37-02; total, $107.43. 

East shaft (ss) was sunk at a pitch of 30" through slates. Sills 
In May, 1903, the shaft was sunk 213.5 ft. Following data 


'• "iLksBc 6 by 21 ft 

" -'T k-Jes per round . 28 
'icpthhote 7 »8ft 

Aver advance per round 5.95 ft 

Gelatin per ft advance 2436 lb 

Aver advance per mo 171. 6 ft 


I S6 
6 75 

3 50 


xae 7 67 

Kis 14.87 

•uig 0.24 


Cost per ft 

I Traveling $ 0. 02 

• Candles 0. 75 

Caps 0.10 

Fuse 0.24 

Blasting gelatin 8 . .10 

Ixxm and steel 0.29 

Rails 1.83 


Bdtsandnutt 0.10 

Dog spikes $ 0.04 

Fishplates 0.21 

Nails and screws. 0.04 

Oils, grease 0.04 

Pipe 0.12 

Toob 0.07 

Timber 0.40 

Sundry supplies. . 0^51 

Total cost per ft.. $67.12 






X. Principles of Mining. R. C. Hoover. Hill Pub Co. N Y. 1909 

a. Practical Shaft Sinking. F. Donaldson. McGraw-HUl Book Co. N Y. ign 

3. Sinking the Woodbury Shaft. J. M. Broan, Proc Lake Sup Min Inst, Vol 2q 

4. Rules and Regulations for Metal Mines. Bull No 75, U S Bureau of MlneSi 

5. Shaft Sinking with Hammer Drills. L. A. Pahner. B& it Jow, Oct 9, x^ 

6. Piactical Coal Mining (Vol X & 2). W.S.Boulton. Gresham Pub Co, London 

7. Text Book of Coal Mining. H. W. Hughes. Griffin & Co, London. 1901 

8. Shaft Sinking Methods at Butte. ^. B. Braly. Trans A I M £, Vol 46, i^ 

9. Mine Timbering. Sanders, McDonald and Pailee. Hill Pub Co. N V. 1907 
xo. Tmibering and Mining. W. H. Storms. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y. 190^ 
XX. Details of Practical Mining. McGraw-Hill Book Co. N Y. 1916 

xa. Two Concrete-Imed ShafU. F. C. Auld. Coal Age, July 13, 19x3 

X3. Publications of Carnegie Steel Co, Pittsburg, Pa 

14. Practical Coal Mining. Geo. L. Kerr. Griffin & Co, London, 19x4 

X5. Shaft Sinking under Difficult Conditions. J. Riemer. Trans by Coming 

Pttle. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. N Y. 1907 
x6. Modem Practice in Mining (Vol 2). R. A. S. Redmayne. Longmans. Gr< 

Co, London, 1909 
X7. Cast-iron Tubbing. A. Lupton. Ir<m 6r Coal Trades Rev, Feb x, X895 
x8. Leistungen und Kfisten Schachtabteufen im Ruhrbezirk. L. Hoffmann. 

Vol 37». 190X 
19. Shaft Smking at Pioche. T. McCormac. Min £r Sci Pr, May 4* X9i2 
30. Shaft Sinking in S E Missouri. E Sf M Jour, Dec 5. 1903 
81. Zinc Ore Mining in Wisconsin. £ d* Jf Jour, June 30, 1906 

32. Giroux Shaft, Kimberley, Nev. C. £. Arnold. Trans A I M E, Vol 41, p ^ 
23. Shaft Sinking Record at Corbin. Mont. F. J. Tuck. Min £r Sci Pr, Sept 24, 

34. Sinking No 5 Shaft at the Tamarack Mine. Michigatt. W. E. Pariaall, Jr. 

Lake Sup Min Inst, March, 1901 

35. Sinking at Argonaut, Ca^. R. S. Rainsford. ESt M Jour, March xx, 19x1 

36. Sinking a Wet Shaft at Tombstone. £. W. Walker. Min 6r Sci Pr, Feb 2o^ 

37. Shaft Sinking in Pocahontas Coal Field. H. Rawie. Mina £r Min, Jan, 11 

38. Shaft Sinking with Small Machines. A. B. Foote. Min 6r Sci Pr, Oct 13, 

39. Machine vs Hand Drilling in Sinking on the Rand. E.M. Weston. B 6r M 

Feb 39, 1908 
30. Sinking, Devebpment and Equipment of Deep-level Shafts on the Rand. 

Pettit. Trans Inst Min & Met, Vol 15 
3X. Rand Practice in Deep Shaft Smking. C. B. Brodigan. Min 6r Sci Fr, Ap 


33. Shaft Sinking on the Rand. E^ M Jour, Aug 29, 1908 

33- Cost of Sinking East Shaft of the New Kleinfontein Co. Ltd. E. J. Way. I 
Inst Min k Met, Vol 13 

34. New' Circular Shaft on* the Rand. Ebf M Jour, Aug 9, 19x3 

35. Rapid Sinking on the Rand. Ebr M Jour, June x, 19x2 

36. Notes on Vertical Shaft Sinking on Witwatersrand. H. F. Roche. J^mr Gil 

Met Soc of S Africa, Vol s 

37. A Concrete-lined Shaft. Francis Donaldson. Min Or Sci Pr, Nov x9, 1904 

38. Method of Raising, Sinking and Concreting No 3 Shaft. N^aunee, Mich. 

Elliott. Proc Lake Sup Min Inst, 19x2 

39. Iron Mining in Mixmesota. C. E. van Barneveld. Minn Schod of Mines, ] 

Sta Bull No x, 1912 

40. Shaft Sinking at Goldfield Merger Mines. E^ M Jour, Aug 3X, 19x2 

41. Notes on Sinking Operations at Spring Mines, Transvaal. B. D. Bushel]. | 

Inst Min ft Met, Vol 22 

42. Improved Shaft Sinking Methods at Ducktown. W. Y. Westervdt. E 1 

Jour, Jan 29. 19x0 

43. Concrete Timbering of Mme Shafts. E. R. Jones. Coal Age, Oct 36, 19 12. 

44. Sinking by Kind-Chaudron Process. Proc Instn C E, England, Vol 71, p 

Re9 Um9 ies Mines, Oct, 1902 

45. Shaft Sinking in Extremebr Tough Rocks. W. Y. Wcstervett. Eng and 

tracUnti Mch xo, X9X5 

Mining F.ngjmrra' Hmwihook 283 






Page Art Page 

m Siakiiis in Soft 5* Forced Drop-shafts 298 

GflBBod 383 6. Freesing Process 301 

aad POiag Methods. . 384 7. Grouting Process 304 

(Dro(>^hafU) a88 B;iJS«.r~.*K« ,nfi 

q^nna gdx BiWiogrspny 300 

^«Ml — NoBtets in paienthcaes in text refer to Bibliography at end of the section. 

L DifflciiltiM of Sinkiiig in Soft Groiud 

is the prime cause of the special diflkulties met in sinking through 

of sand, gravel, mud. or a partially cemented mixture of these. 

is osuany required at once, for it is impossible to check inflow 

CBMSt grout, as can be done in water-bearing rock. The water 

" J» other be p— tpr* oootinoously. or excluded permanently by a lining strong enough 

-s« dtinsi preasore tm r e sp onding to head of water or of semi-fluid material. The 

^r smd sack 6amg, e xp ense of puminng during construction, and general engineering 

-'3&MI isfv^vcd in ^"t^iag under these advene conditions, have led to the invention of 

'•cjd^ far cKtvating and sinking the lining wmouT puiipim& The ground water is 

.i>ri to ^»»^ St jt» natural level, and all excavation is done under water. Finally. 

' -^^ k f»«M to naderl>'ing rock, or other impervious stratum; after which the 

-" ipiimuioat, nad ainkiiv is oontinned by ordhuuy means. 

284 Shaft-sinking in Soft Water-bearing Soils 

Rfuming ground is a term applied to unstable materials, ranging 
clean dry sand to semi-fluid silt. Presence of water increases instability, 
is a more serious obstacle to sinking than the water itself. In fine, 
sand, a relatively small quantity of water acts ^ a lubricant, convert! i 
material into a siow-moving fluid which will penetrate the smallest leaks> 
lining, m\\ flow under and around lower edge of lining and rise in the, 
but can not be pumped. Continued removal of such material from shaft 
slips and falls in the ground outside the shaft, and produces irregular a.; 
cessive stresses in the lining, often distorting it and causing surface subsi 
around shaft mouth. In some cases this subsidence has affected an a 
more of surface, wrecking neighboring buildings and foundations. Ilei 
preparing to sink through unstable ground, the possible result of sub^rj 
must be considered in laying out the plant and its foundations. Boilers 
pressors, and engines should be set well away from shaft mouth; derrick \ 
have a boom at least 60 ft long and should be erected on a spread foum 
which can readily be jacked up. If a headframe be used it slu>uld be in< 
on long trusses spanning the shaft; independently supported derricks ai 
ferred to headframes for soft-ground work. 

Boulders in soft ground cause much trouble, and their probable presence or i 
often determines method of sinking to be adopted. When sinking in runoins gri 
is always necessary to force down the lining somewhat in advance of excavat; 
minimize flow of material into shaft; this may be difficult or impossible, if a bou 
imbedded in the ground directly under edge of lining. As an attempt to dig doi 
remove the boulder is liable to result in a violent inrush, it is usually necessary t<i 
the boulder in place. 

External pressure, which affects the design of shaft lim'ng, depends on: dcptli 
cavation, nature of ground, and quantity of water. Where seepage is to be alio 
drain into the shaft, the lining at any given depth must be strong enough to r» 
corresponding hydrostatic pressure. In heavy, running ground this pressure may 1 
exceed hydrostatic pressure, since it is due to a depth of fluid composed of water an 
or mud. of greater specific gravity than that of water alone. The lining must als4 
stand severe localized stresses caused by irr^ularities in sinking. 

Methods of sinking in soft, water-bearing soils: (a) Linings construe 
the shaft as excavation progresses, including various types of timbering^ 
poling and spiling, and the shield method. (&) Linings constructed at si 
and sunk as excavation advances, including open and pneumatic caissoi 
"drop shafts," sunk by their own weight or forced down, (c) Solidificati 
the material in advance of sinking, including the freezing process for < 
sand, and the cement grouting process for wet, seamy rock. 

2. Timbering and Piling Methods 

Characteristics. To resist normal earth pressures to depth of, say, ] 
requires merely the setting of sufficiently heavy timbers close enough tog< 
but in unstable ground, to build a timber lining strong enough to resist 
dencies to distortion, due to shifting and falls of soft material behind the ij 
is practically impossible. The solution of the problem is to prevent in 
that cause falls, by driving a continuous row of sheet piles or poling U 
around area to be excavated, in advance of excavation, or by forcing do 
shield. The tendency of the surrounding material to flow under lower ed; 
lining into the shaft is thus checked by the weight of material inside. 

Limiting conditioos under whkh timbering is applicable in soft ground are: (a)i 
of shaft at which external pressure is not greater than a practicable timber lioio^ 
safely cany; (6) soil which permits piling to be driven far enough ahead to prevent id 
at bottom, but, at the given depth, will not exert enough fluid pressure seriously to di 

Varied ikact piBnCi lupportcd 
. -jiiBiil ^«t! of (tarnal tiiti- 
" a cmuDDD fi>r shallow shafts 

--'Trf, Qoe 5 or 6 It above the 
' ibf« 5«ve as a guide frame for 
■-■frfiaf. which i* driven around 
~~.L The lDf> wil ia ifiually &nn 
-liirlheMsetstobe placed be- 

-; ^«nd pile* are driven as 
:■ -jfl procresse*- SrUare 5cp- 
- -I) POdI^ aod are usually tied 
ir mih vertical rmJs. invery 

- L'--~^Ed Jnm Irus^c^ brid^^ing shaft mou 
 -aJ ;<[s jie pUcid a» depth is gained. 
:r --i^ be drivn well ibcad all jtmund ibe : 

ii tzwbkaafnc b 

: f-mrabove. the nambciofcounaibould bcmiai- 

 aim iaat heavy pils ibai will stud bard diiving. pj^ j Dati 

^■a I CBsnci ibould Drva be allempced. Tbr lower IimciCourKol 

J. .^ifKd pdn aaiki cna braes lFi( 7). Id gnHisd 

=^ Its hTuHm. i by Jo-io tooffued a«l frooved pilca can be drivm 

"VH. — •'■■-f a net depth, iodHdlng tietnwry lip. d about ii It 

288 Shaft-sinking in Soft Water-bearing Soib 

SvUocd 6 by lo-in pils cau be driven in i6-It letutlu by using • pile dtivcr (prefi 
(UUQ hunmcr), oiakiDg oct depth ol about 30 Lt per couik; buL at tbia dcptb' 
lioo □( lower end) and aHueqUEDl IsiLi In lining aie probable. When, alter sinkit 
lariy. a pile luddenly atopa, preacDct ol a boiildtr is indicated; the adjncat ptJi 
then be driven bome. and boulder dug out or broken up at once. II btouik] ma 
ud yet conUina maoy bouldcn, no type of sheet piling will give good roults. 

lutulockiog ttsd irillng. Among well-known designs are those of 
linger, I) S Steel Coip (Carnegie] (Fig 6), Lackawanna Steel Co (Fis 6 
Friestedt. Some are of channels and angles, others of special shapes. 1 
as to croaa-aection^ azes, and wcightg 
> can be obtained from makers' catal 
S Interlocking 1 i-in steel piles can be 

K< in lengths of 40 to soli without sepa. 

I and a dei>th oi 75 ft baa I>eea reach< 

d, I courses (see Example lit, below). 

C j Indinad piles ot pding boards < 

j arc sometimes used in deeper sha 
I avoid sBcri&dng area. This is a mo 
1 lion ollorepoling, common in tunnelii 
' ground (Sec 6, Art 19). but is not ( 
! adapted to shafts. Havins carried 
] the shaft with vertical sheetittg unl 
ground is reached, a set of timbers 3 
than Ihoseabove is 90 placed on the fi 
that a uniform q>ace, slightly widel 
thickness of pioposcd poling boards. 
between the backs of these timbei 

T the boards driven on an outward slant. Length of boards must be morl 

double the out-to-out spadng of limlKr sets; when driven Itome they bear q 

i outeredge ol bottom sctof timbers and inner edge of 

^' set above. The completed course thus forms a flaring 

^ wall, within which another set of timbers can be 

. ^ placed witliout reduction in shaft section. Especial 

! j caie is taken in eicavating at comers and opposite 

cross braces, where gaps are necessarily left to be 

I - r' closed by short horiiontal BkEASTBOABDS. Thetim- 

i ' ' bet sets are tied together with hanging bolts, and the 

t '. ^ wholestnictuiemaywellbesuspeDdcdfromasuriace 

! ' ' ' truss or heavy collar set. A modification is sfwwn 

[ ,] -in Fig 9. IncLncd piling is adapted to hand work, 

 \ \ but is not suitable for very soft ground nor great 

^ :' depths, owing to difficulties of keeiang tight a lining , 

; I with so many joints, and the multiplied stresses in ' 

^' timbers, due to lever action of poling boards. 

•l''.,'\ Shields Id very soli Hiound. ircn shidds with docn, 

'.|, ricavalion or cloKd to slop an inflow oi malerial. are sometimes used (Hg 10), 

1 (j are !on»l down with jacks bearing agiinil the lining, and an provided with a 1 

3 i\ tail plate iniide wbich the boing is built up, usually ol heavy boriiostnl plank lii 

2j j wise. The lining is lied losether by spiking on vortical planks, and to prevent 

■W """^ '' " ■""^y suspended liom heavy beams or tnuH* acroai coUar rA sbnfll 

' 1 13 *'>°' "^ '^ shield must also be suspended, so that, il one end baoBl on a bauldel 

IE H tMuUy to about So H, bdcc bdow that the upward pniaun of nmaiag grouBd' 

Uniberiiig and IHliDg Methods 

r« la SbieUi SuqKnkd Innn TruB 

tBivti^L Boom deitick, eQui[^ed with doi^le-drum engine, hu super- 
i-^adtnaie for siaking ia X)tt sround, dtber by timbering or by open or 
~j'-: Qono mrtluds, because of iu lightness uhI Beiibility. Tbe boom 
' nind or bnrered to cover eatire >m of shaft, a useful featurejn placing 
-. Boom should be at lea^t 60 ft toog, and derrick set well back from 
ad at coQMructed Ihat it can be readily raised if ground settles, Ma- 
-< lEoally dug and loaded by band into sbaft buckets (Examples I and 
■' >'. but in laise shafts, wbere piling is driven well ahead, and in open 
- "' u D'aage-peel or clam-shell bucket may be economically used (Ei- 
lllt- These require a third druta oo the engioe. While removing 
'- (mn btwath points of sheet piles, or cutting edge of shield or cais- 
•^. moa be taken to prevent an inrush of soft ground. It is often oecei- 
linve ibort siKCt piles around a boulder projecting Into shaft, until its 
1: be rtacbcd. and then to break it with light charges of dynamite. In 
'f. sKtion pipe should be kept weQ below general level of eicavation, 
■:. I be Dcccssaiy to drive a small sheeted sump in advance. In several 
 Akajul has been succesfully drained by driving into it perforated 
ii vlnrb tbe pump suction was attached. On completing a stretch of 

- -1 ii ^KBtial to its stability that all water coming through it shall be 
■'.: dear, cuiying do sand or mud. This is best attained by liberal use 

ri^ned behind the liiung and ioto every crack and crevice. Sealing a 
r.>. iBunt to rock is not difEcnlt, as the pilet, if driven home, fit them- 

- ' , ImEularilies of rock surface. Subsequent excavation of tbe first 10 
" of rock must be done with extreme care; the &rat cut should be line- 

oitirely around the shaft. 

BA ^ Vdfefll (ipboB, Calaklll iqaeduct, wu nuik thmgh 41 
-r ikA. Tap counc, 19 br JO f> outside; seowd. iG l>y 3; El; I 


Shaft-sinking in Soft Water-bearii^ Soils 

Average progreas, 9 in per day. Cost per ft: timber (laoo ft b m), $30; labd 
supplies and mtaceUaneoui, $24; total, $300. (Compare Example I, Art 3.) 

n. Shaft 5, 01^ tunnel, Catsldll aqnedact, was sunk through 30 ft of fin 
bearing sand, close to brick conduit of old Croton aqueduct, and great care was m 
to prevent undermining the latter. Finished shaft is 14 ft diam, with reinf or^ 
Crete lining, 3 ft 6 in thick, through soft ground. One course of 4 by 12-iii 
tongued and grooved sheet piling was driven; supported by 5 sets of 12 by r ^ 
bers, 35 by 35 ft over all, braced diagonally across comers to leave unobstnicte 
onal opening. These outside dimensions were adopted on account of the shaft c 
A second course of 12-in U S Steel Corp sheet piling (Fig 5) x6 ft long, was d 
rock; supported by 6 octagonal sets of xo by lo-in timbers. 20 ft 8 in across ancj 
for added stability. Material excavated by hand and raised with dorick ; pilini 
with steam hammer. Some trouble was experienced by the separation of lowcn 
sted piling, due to boulders, aoid an oxy-acetylene torch was used to cut oS scv^ 
which projected into shaft. Progress, 9 in per day. Coat of first lift per ft: tin 
piles, $37.50; labor, $97.50; supplies and miscellaneous, $20; total, $155. 
second lift: timber, $8; piles, $35 ($15 allowed for salvage); lad)o^> $115; aup^ 
miscellaneous, $2S; total, $183 per ft. ' 

m. Shaft for pier foundation, Tunkfaannock viaduct, (21) was suok 
through 75 ft of earth and sand by 2 courses of Lackawanna Steel C6 sheet pilinfj 
The 30-f t pilings for first course were assembled around a rectangular timber f rai 
driven successively 2 or 3 ft at a time, until they reached their full depth, materl 
excavated meanwhile with derrick and grab bucket. Sets of 12 by X2-in timi 
placed as excavation advanced. A course of 4S-ft piling was then assembled a^ 
frame concentric with first course, and 4 ft 8 in outside of it, and driven grad 
about 15 ft. The earth between it and the inner course of sheeting was exj 
outer course being braced against outside of inner course and by timber sets abj 
of inner a^ne. Driving the .inner course was then resumed, the sets of interior; 
being shifted downward as excavation advanced, new sets of bracing for outer cout 
added above top of inner course. Thus the inner course was driven to rock ai^ 
course to its fuU depth, without interference between the two sets of bracing. 

3. Open Caissons (Drop-shafts) 

Characteristics. Strong heavy caisson, of inside dimensions equal 
greater than those of proposed shaft, is constructed on surface, and si 
excavating within. This caisson or lining may be circular, rectangular, 
other desired shape. The first section is built on a shoe or cutting ed| 
when sunk to nearly its full depth another section is started on top anj 
ing is resumed; the process is continued until cutting edge reaches rocl^ 
vantages: (a) lining is built above ground, where construction is chea[3^ 
easiest; {b) since weight is desirable in sinking, a permanent masonr>i 
can be built at once, of sufficient strength to resist any probable stress; 
cavation is done in a comparatively open space, unhindered by cross 
likely to be struck or knocked out by a bucket, and consequently wii 
risk to workmen; {d) completed lining is waterproof; («) weight and <tl 
of lining are sufficient to crush or push aside boulders that would stop ari 
of sheet piling. Disadvantages: (a) under certain conditions it is diilii 
keep caisson vertical; (ft) skin friction increases rapidly, and at consiij 
depths lining must be heavy and expensive, to overcome friction; (f) in^ 
ground, large excess of material is always removed through caisson. ^ 
panied by settlement of surrounding surface and damage to adjacent stru 
For a temporary shaft, the cost of materials for a lining hteavy enough ti 
and strong enough to resist strains of sinking, is much greater than co{ 
timber sheet-pile lining which will serve the purpose if it can be plac^ 
cessfully. On other hand, in a permanent shaft the masonry caisson p{ 
the permanent lining, and cost of temporary timber b eliminated. 

Open Caissons (Drop-shafts) 289 

OpcB caiasoD was probably first used for sinking water welb. the caisioiis 

vaot or bckk masonry, as timber is usually too light to sink. The masooxy 
'^' upa a tmber curb or SBoe, with steel cutung edge. Applying the ideft to mine 
"liiary stoac masocuy proved to be too weak to stand the uncertain stresses 
.r; fijud-OTLroed brick, well laid in cement mortar, is better, but still too weak 
V- -iHifTOii Ttw next step was a compound caisson, an outer ^eet-sted shell, 
. r rvetoi to Getting edge, and Uned with brick. Compressive stresses are borne 
: icx. sad tesaik by the steel, and caissons so constructnl have been sunk to great 
3 ±&caiit material. The widely different elastic properties of a thin steel shell and 
1 Inck ImiDg prevent the oMnpound structure irom acting as a unit, and serious 
-' z. the brick axe poesible without rupturing the steel. Abo, with compound, as 
!=;•« SLo^ or brkk caissons, the only ponible shape is circular. Development of 
Ti coecrete has produced a material so well fitted (or caisson construction that 
> aed al3»et esuiusivdy for important work. Concrete is as heavy as brick or 
.^ m tooghcr and cheaper. With thorough reinforcement, and bonding between 
a c xmcict e caison acts as a monolith; since its walk will bear both ten- 
it may be rectangular, oval, or drcolar in secticm. 

Factors to be considered are: (a) probable skin 

" 1 ii i LE ae ut d^ths, and weight necessary to overcome it; (6) stresses 

. i£3iUQg; {c) permanent exterior earth pressure. The last is least im- 

.X ijf aay caisson heavy and strong enough to sink safely will stand the 

.-; Tliere ar« no exact rales for^ calculating stresses. Examples are 

^j-'W ai successful caisson work, with statement of skin friction exist- 

. Cerent depths. FaicnoN of circular caissons is generally less than that 

*-n7«Jar« umier similar conditions, because of the arch action of sur- 

. r scE. Friction is reduced by making outer surface, true and smooth; 

.- «e9 braced concrete forms are essential and for important work these 

: -x h»f^ oT faced with steel plate. The outer surface is often given 

"i-vaid batter, so that as the caisson sinks it will tend to pull away from 

. .i: ^ soil; tiKnigfa this action takes place in fairly firm material, in run- 

• '_--i it B doiabtful if anything is gained.- Another device for reducing 
' i',:^ is to build occasional horizontal pipes into and extending through 

-.n walls, through which water or air under pressure can be pumped 

'< ^Toend to loosen its bold. Friction increases with depth, but not 

' . It is sometimes high around upper part and absent at bottom, so 

r caisKni b practically hung by the top. Severe tensile stresses may 

• u". tf. resist whith the successive masonry courses must be thoroughly 
-: MT^ in deep cai^ons vertical reinforcement is also necessary. The 

.' 9 action is greatest when caisson cuts into running -groond after 
.'irj? a thiHc strattim of firm material. 

* e 'iK^iid be so constructed as to cut into the ground with minimum re- 
*.. aT4 to provide a firm base for the walls, so that "hanging up" of 
^ a boaldcr or irregular rock ledge will not seriously crack or damage 
■'11 ibaw% a cocnmoD form of riioe, as used at Shaft a, Rondout siphon 
«r I), fig 12 and 13 show other forms, in which the plates are con- 
tirjogfa the wall by gusset stays and are bonded to masonry with ^in 
- ^t.v The latter n&ay be extended to form the vertical reinforcement 
' . above, which, in any case, should be attached to shoe. 

'■'avflltoa sad aff****f Excavation within the caisson is done by hand, 

jraiutv^peel or clam-shell grab Ducket. The grab bucket is cheaper 

li ^f^j pr***ff though for a single shaft its cost, with the additional rigging 

'.' fc^***»^ it, outweighs the saving. But if the sinker owns, as part of 

ti'«q«ipineiit« a grab backet with derrick and engine adapted to handle 

" - •tOBOcmi to install them rather than the lighter and cheaper equip- 

Aikle from cost, the character of the soil often determines 


Sh&ft-sinking in Spft Water-bearing Soils 

the method of excavation. An important point is to keep the caissoi 
TtCAL. In uniform ground this is dione by excavating evenly around un< 
shoe; in variable ground, when caisson deviates from vertical, it is recti: 
cutting more material from under the shoe on the high side. When tl 
strikes a boulder big enough to support the caisson, it must be remove 
fully to prevent an inrush (Art a), or it is drilled and blasted into piece 
enough for the shoe to cut through. Thus, even when a grab bucket 
tor most of the excavation, some hand work is necessary. When depth 
ting edge below bottom of excavation is less than width or diameter of c 
deviation from vertical is easily corrected as stated above. At greater 
correction is difficult or impossible; but in this case the caisson is unii 
deviate, provided boulders are properly handled and inrushes of groui 
vented by keeping cutting edge well in advance. This is accomplished : 
•larting with heavy caisson, having smooth outer skin and sharp cuttio 

Kit U RoovUit 

Cttttti« F^^pn of Skocs ..\U Rxrcts t^uv^ Cuttinc Edccs 

v>' b> mx^jchtitxj: oMja'tn; v-^ by reduvHa^ skia trictioo. For 
ir«.K\ b> Sr>t $»uvY a ^rw&t vvi^t can be pil<ti on a neiaih^eH- 

FVic drrr c jam i fck cstn vc^te $K>ttU be m^ridrd for la tW 
FtnHjittxi =ki:<nA: «s<fc v tie vh<«st wr^t. ^a 

a Jr»^ ^^^.'l«« >rjr-rf w«vi !."<c «xc» •,-«icr vucr. iv as 

rvmurcc N^ ;«».'^« u«m LxjA«.^«t Ui. 5r*.-« > 




ir-2> STT'ivc *> X rj-^^rt 

■w «. 

--* Open Caissrais (Dnip-flhafto) 2B1 

-^ aq be dooe more fiedy. u there are no cross braca to be knocked 

'» ml mrlice is slo[nng or irregular, and ground immedialely over 
al tbi tboe may be rigidly supported at one point of its perimeter, tbe 
i i bdii( in loft ground. Tbe caisson is thus tbrovn out of plumb, a coo- 
- ' - riidi is iffinvated by runs of »ft material caused by attempts to break 
. -J ad aads' point of contact. This rock must be blasted uvj removed 
Tin ore, a Utile at a time, breast boards ot short sbect piles bring used 
-i iu± idilceol soil. 
- imd te raj wh. it miT be BKOBiy to mppoR 11k I« ride of eiinao OB pceli 

1 ■niO ledge being left to lupporl tbe cultini edge, or 
UH lama pua ir« i3l. All mter comiiig in under tfaoe or ibinugb tbe pilinc 
u tkii Ufv» ukd led tluough pipes to iDteriar ot ihkft. A back form b con- 
nci Ufr la cuhb, just biside cuttinK edge, ud i concrete lining is built 
I haOi^ la ^^^™"** After concrete bu set the drain pipes ere plugged or 
b o^i4 cml farced in under premre (Ait 7), Since tbe lining meets the 
fkr adr ij isi«a it should be bonded to it with rods cr bdti. I( ground ii 
■ri TB€k Hirliix irreKuhr. tlK dilliCMltin tl (wnding and aealing the 
IT be B gmi u to requin use of compeemd lii to bold buk the Hiter (An 

I, CatAU aqnadnct. Tbe caimiB f« ioft-gnuDd pur- 
i« it outside diem, nlta t ft S m thick. Slue (Fit II) 
. . ^t«, with 4 by r-in filler at cutting ed^, end his u- 

de br So ^ by jo-ia rods, altacbed etterailely to inner and outer pUtei. 

■■(iK. mvfionat bf inlk-iran ringa lied through walls with H-hi lodi. 
k B $- aad loJl KfU to Ml dcl«h d is ft, lilu beiiic boDdad together bv 

* { Pneumatic Caissons d63 

"sjfjiatg, $39; gBMcal expense, I32; total. $i33> Before smking was atopped by 
iT- itdqstk of so ft, ikin frictioo was less than 380 lb per sq ft; afterward, at same 

- ~V 530 &. 

- ':«S«y shift for D, L & W RR Co, near Wflkcs-Barre, Pa (Fig 16).' Caisson 
xcctacgolar section, with rounded comets, and divided into 3 compart- 
v%]!s. End compaitinents were arranged to permit further subdivision 
- t' -iisitsQs. Oitside dimensions, 28 by 59 ^ ft; total height 90 ft. Shoe is 
- Vx Q. ThidukesB of walls at bottom : sides 7 ft; ends, 5 ft 4 in; outer surfaces 
:roer carfaccs aei^>ed, in lifts of 9 ft 8 in; thickness at top, a ft 8 in; main 
"-d-Tctd vertically and boriaontally with i- and x.25-in rods. At 7 ft above 
cloned by an air-tight deck, for sealing caisson to rock under air pres- 

'< was ]e\-eled. shoe aasembled. and 30 ft of concrete placed. Sinking was 
' (fajr aad dgfat. each shift consisting of a foreman and 16 men in shaft. After 

-a3ed rack, the soft ground was held bock temporarily with timber blocks wedged 

^-z xa6a korieaotal portion of the shoe (Fig 16). As thtt stratum was not firm 
V) sake a permanent seal, the shoe was undercut and shaft excavated 4 to 5 ft 

J wmead than inside ol caisson at bottom. In blasting, great care was taken 
-^»k. tke ledge under shoe and blocking. Sound rock was found 15 ft below 

' fitt, tad a wall was built up to underside of caisson. Drain pipes disposed of 

''^a^iae tkroo^ blocking, and were grouted after wall was finished and con- 
' ^o. Dnring coostruction of this wall, water was led to the pipes by building 
'ft dan cpoD the ledge. Total depth of soft ground, 70 ft; average progress, 

' ' "Xiirfiag of caisson and construction of temporary seal, about 7 in per day. 

' titu sooewliat less than 700 lb per aq ft. 


Rrrcr sxphon, Atisona (aa). Shaft 30 ft outside diam. Walls 
> k eacqA for xo ft above cutting edge (Fig 12). Shoe was assembled on bot- 
£ 'r4t 10 ft deep, and concrete walls were carried up xo ft before sinking began. 
V- bf kaad to depth of 73 ft, making 62 ft sunk and about same height 
*iLk m 71 days. Pumps were used for lower* 45 ft. When inflow amounted to 
'^K pit prr min, iaxushes of ground under shoe prevented further progress; the 
^•s tfacB flooded and di edged with a H-cu yd dam-shell bucket. Ground was 
"^ aad after caiaaoa bad sunk 5 ft further it stuck, although all material that 
'«tid fCBch waa dug out to depth of 10 ft below shoe. Advance of 11 ft was 
water level inside caisson, and a further advance of 2 ft by exploding 
ia fnpcs jetted down on outside to depth of 5 ft below shoe. 16 ft 
by blasting underneath shoe, with dynamite placed by divers. Cais- 
' stmk last, being held by akin friction of over 400 lb per sq ft. The 34 ft done 
-^ to tkia point took 50 days. Successful attempt to relieve skin friction by 
' 'Z4 xxound the oatside was now made; by which, and with use <^ djmamite, 
<■ n *is soak to final depth of 139 ft, a furUier penetration of 32 ft in 38 days. 
'^Jetkm at first xo ft of wall above the shoe, 128 ft of caisson was built and sunk 
-^/S. Maxiravai akin friction was about 460 lb per aq ft, even when caiaaoa waa 

4. Pneumatic Caieaons 

'faoil dcdgn of pneumatic caissons is similar to that of open caissons 

.''^hading materiab and construction; chief difference is in method of 

- b the pneumatic caisson, an air-tight deck is constructed 7 or 8 ft 

.^c and inooml water is entirely excluded by maintaining under the 

-' air pmsare equal to or greater than that of the water outside. A 

^f is therefore required. Men are admitted to working chamber, and 

' ^ materially removed. thnc»ugh one or more air locks fitted to openings 

<k9cral vertical section of a caisson is shown in Fig 17. Advantages: 

* •atcr is excluded and shaft bottom is held down by air pressure, in- 

-^ «boe are prevented, even in very fluid materials; (6) caisson may 

' • ailhoat "pulling in*' surrounding soil, and hence may be kept con- 

'*- •' vmical; (c) boulders or other obstnictioos under shoe can be removed 

Pommiatic Caiseons 

d air be i.vaiUble, loose wid can be blown out tbnusfa 
'jytnn (Example I), by Bhoveling it into the sid of « suction bote  
-: > pqg The aork ilseU U simple, the difficulties of the pcocess beii 
'- daii of cofDpreased air upon laboma. Up to preuurea (A about » 1 
^ depth of 46 ft bctow ground-wat^ Icvd], mco can pai 


-^ luck is 4 ot S mill, and can work 8-hr shifts under pressure without io- 

' tj, HprcsareiiMTOses above this poiot, the time of locking through must 

:sL^ and ien^th of shifts decreased, to avoid caisson wnrken^ fvralysis 

' - <Sec 15, Art 34.) Rate of wages also increases nith air pressutc. 
•-I i koBan aahuaitce b about 50-lb iKeuure. Table i shows requirements 

'n Vcit law BDvcmiDg Caisson work, aitd wage «c>)e in force in 1914: 

[■w York Law for CalMOD Work 

Hours pec shift 




time o( de- 


As worked 

;„f' . 

»ihr (or lunch 

i.Soi..4.s'ofl. i.Son 
lon.soff. loD 






40 lose 




suit be pumped into caisson for adequate venti- 
id practice requires jo cu f t per mia of free air per man. When leas 
iouDl (scapes in lockages and leakiges, the remainder usually flows 

■tf* raqniiad, tbeoreticalty, shouU suffice to balance hydrostatic 
 at tbe level of working cbunber, due to depth below water Icvd. 
Biy be graitcr or less than depth below surface of suil. Pressure, 
B per ft head, is 0.43J lb in (reih water, 0445 lb in aea water. If 
I lierce a lUalum oi stiff Impervious clay, it mi^t be possible t< 

206 Shaft-sinkiDg in Soft Wftter-bearing Soils 

reduce working pressure mucb below that theoretically required (as al 
battao bridge, N Y), and thereby the atuinable depth. To m 
m vertica] face o( soil under the unsupported side of a caiEBon resting at o 
a sloping or irregular bedrock, the [Wessure should conespood to th< 



Weightinc. In Nuking pneumatic caissons, upward pressure of comi; 
«ir must be overcome, as well as skin friction; hence, they are usually l 
per unit of botizantal area than open caissons. On other hand, the hu 
up o[ air escaping under sboc stirs up the ground and reduces its adhn 
caisson. Pneumatic caissons can easily be loaded by filling space over llii 
between waits and air shaft, with excavated material; pig iron may bi 
on top, if necessary. A sudden release of air pressure {the men having I 
woriung cbamber) is an effective method of starting a stuck caisson. 

Sealing to rock of a pneumatic cai^^on is similar to that of open c 
(Alt i), except Ibat, instead of inflowing water, outflowing air must I 

Mil 22 

vented in making Ihc seal. Lc\'eling of the rock ledge aiul blocking up i 
arc diHic in same way. A strij) of waterproofed canvas laid over lb 
amdiil* in preventing escape of air, but provision should be mode for srI 
Scvfral «1«<in> of the City tunnel, CiUkm iqueduct. were sealed ai foUw'^ '' 
(a) IrIic levelnl; (t) shaft eicavated to depth □[ j ft (about i ft brser iH aniui 











1 c>a™. with 



:na per ft for 

-'™nc ««) 


iiQ.II Ta. 

n of > It. foi  nquimi 


Shaft-sinking in Soft Water-bearing Soils 

in deck and a vertical line of 36-in flanged steel pipe (air shaft) was led from <fped 
top oi caisson, where air lock was attached. Opening was formed by casing bottom] 
of air shaft into the deck; (where deck is of wood or iron, the lower flange of air i 
bolted to it). Air shaft was long enough to keep lock always above ground-water li 
that, in case of accident to lock or to air-compressing plan^ the caisson men would] 
trapped by rising water. Air shaft had ladder rungs so arranged as not to iq 
with operation of bucket. Besides the air shaft, one or two 3-in inlet air pipesi 
at bottom with check valves, a a75-in whistle (signal) pipe, a high-pressure air I 
conduit for electric wires, and sometimes a 4-' or 6-in discharge or "blow" pipe, | 
through deck. In deeper caissons, a air shafts were provided, fitted respective 
material lock and a man lock. 

n. Kidder tbaft, Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co, Mich. Caisson was 24 ft 1 
diam (Fig 23). Air shaft, 10 ft diam, was used first as a dredging shaft for a cla^ 
bucket, which excavated to a depth of 87 ft. As it then became necessary to uai 
pressed air, a deck and air lock were bolted to the top. Ledge rock was reai^ 
104 ft. Shoe was sealed to rock at X13 ft. Average progress, 0.7a ft per day 4 

S. Forced Drop-ihafto 

General description. For penetrating depths of quicksand and oth< 
stable, water-bearing material, beyond the limit of open or pneumatic cai 
a method has been devebped in Germany of jacking down a tdesooiMc sei 
iron drums, inside of and against a preliminary cylindrical concrete ca 
The latter is strong and heavy, and built into it, near the top, is an in 
cast-iron flange, the reaction ring. This is anchored by vertical rods e^ 
ing to the shoe, for resisting thrust of the jacks, which are attached to axu 
against under side of ring. The caisson is sunk by dredging in the opei 
depth of 50 or 60 ft; then a concrete floor, plug, is placed in the bottom ( 
water if necessary), and shaft is unwatered. A cast-sted shoe, with an o 
diam slightly less than inside diam of caisson, is set on the concrete floor, 
cylindrical drum, of flanged and bolted cast-iron segments (similar to 
tubbing, Sec 7), is built up from shoe to under side of the jacks. The cone 
then broken, thus admitting water to natural level, and the drum is jacked 
the material being excavated under water by a grab bucket, mammoth 1 
or sack borer (described below). Finally, the jacks are removed and add! 
segments of lining added as required. By using hydraulic jacks, a drum 
outside diam can usually be forced down 250 to 300 ft before it sticks. I 
lies still deeper, the bottom b again covered with concrete, the shaft 
watered, a second drum of smaller diameter is built inside the first, the 
are shifted inward to bear upon it, and sinking is resumed. Frequently a i 
drum has been necessary; less often, a third (4). 

DetaUe of construction of caissons, drums and sinking plant are she 
Fig 24 and 25. A headframe is provided to handle the machinery, whi 
dudes: trepans, similar to those used in the Kind-Chaudron boring meth 
rock (Sec 7), for breaking up the concrete floor and any boulders or pari 
mented ground that may be met; the caisson, with reaction ring and hyc 
jacks; and sinking drums. The outer drum (Fig 24) is the patented Pa 
compound, the cast-iron shell of which is lined with 22 in of strong brick 
Crete, for additional weight and stiffness; the second is a simple iron-se 
drum. The compound drum is made necessary by the great earth pr^ 
at depths of 300 or 400 ft, a number of shafts having been lost hy coUa 
unsupported iron drums, notwithstanding use of segments 3.5 in thick, 
segments are about 5 ft high, flanged and bolted on both horizontal and v 
joints, and 8 to 10 of them make up a ring. The shoe must be veiy stroi 
heavy, and anchor and reactbn rings and all bolts must be deagned to 

800 Shaft-sinking in Soft Water-bearing Soils S 

safely the full thrust of the jacks. For considerable depths, the grab bi 
used in ordinary caissons has been superseded by the mammoth pump in iii 
and the sack borer in softer, soils. 

Mammoth pump (Fig 24) comprises the hollow rods of the trepan or b 
tool (through which water b pumped under pressure to cutting edge of trci 
in combination with an air-lift pump, the pipes of which are also attachi 
boring rods. The suction opening of the pipes is at the middle of the tr 
just above its point. The trepan should make short rapid blows^ to agitat 
broken fragments of ground, so that they may be more quickly sucked it 
discharged by the pump. As compared with the sack-borer, and other rot 
or dredging devices, the mammoth pump shows less tendency to deviate 
vertical direction. 

Sack borer (Fig 25) is a large auger-like tool, with its stem in center of i 
The stem is composed of a series of lengths of heavy flanged pipe, termii 
at upper end by a splined section, on which is mounted a large horizontal 
wheel. A wire rope, from hoisting engine drum to swivel link at top of , 
suspends the sack borer. The stem is rotated through the gear-wheel b 
other engine, and is lowered gradually by hoisting rope. New sectioi 
borer stem are added as shaft is deepened. Cross arms are attached V 
stem at intervals, having rollers at their ends which bear against sides of 
and keep stem in line. The material cut by rotating borer is swept int< 
heavy, open-mouthed canvas sacks, fastened to backs of cutters. From 
to time the borer is raised and emptied. In an improved form, the sack 
mounted on a frame sliding on guides attached to cross arms on stem, an 
hoisted by an independent engine. The sack borer is best adapted to claj 

Sas8enb«rg process of hydraulic flushing reduces skin friction and adbesion in 
soib. Shoe and 4 lining rin;^ above it are made of about 1.5 in larger outside dia 
than the rest of the lining, and in the shoulder thus formed are water passages, whti 
connected through pipes to a high-pressure pump. By operating this pump i 
sinking, the drum is partially siurounded by a film of water. 


I. Shaft 5, Rheinpreussen colliery, Homburg am Rhein, Germaay, was s| 

in 1901 with a brick caisson 29.3 ft inside diam, walls about 3.5 ft thick. Thb ren^i 
depth of 65 ft. Concrete plug, 9 ft thick, was then placed on the bottom, under 1 
the shaft was pumped out, the anchor ring, rods and reaction ring (designed for si 
sure of 3 000 tons) were erected, and an inner, truly vertical, brick linin^e: was ' 
reducing inside diam to 35.68 ft. A compound sinking drum with outer and inoei< 
of 25.52 and 21.32 ft respectively was then constructed, and sinking was bcf^in ii 
percussion borer and mammoth pump. The concrete was bored through in 4 d:iyi 
thereafter the average progress was about 5 ft per day. The compound drum stuck \ 
ft, and shaft was filled for 60 ft with sand and gravel (instead of concrete). Shal 
next pumped out and an iron drum, 3.5 in thick and 19.35 ft inside duun, was bui 
to the jades. This drum struck at 315 ft; the shaft was again partly filled and pu 
out, and another drum, 17.38 ft inside diam was forced to a depth of 343 ft, wbe< 
shoe entered clay firm enough to permit shaft to be pumped out. A fourth drumi 
ft inside diam. was finally forced to the coal measures, at a depth of 508 ft. The u^ 
took 3 years, the average progress being about 6 in per day (4). 

II. Sterkrade shaft, near Holten, Germany, was started with a brick o 
34.6 ft inside diam, which was sunk to a depth of 59 ft. The excavatron was cont 
by hand to 131 ft, where an iron sinking drum, 33 ft inside diam, was constnicteii. 
drum was forced to 364 ft; a second drum. 19.3 ft diam. to 433 ft; and a third. 16 
diam, to 448 ft. Here the water was found to be successfully shut out, and siakir, 
continued by hand (4). 

303 Shaft-snking in Soft Water-bearing Soils 

Freezlllt tubw are sunk t^ methods ordjo&rily used for casing bo: 
(Sec 9)1 in aoFt graund by waslung tbe material up iiuide ouins by ;, 
mter forced down a smaller interior [ape (witli occasional use of sand 1 
and la bafd giouiid by drilling with a percussion well drill, the ca&ioii 
forced or hammered down in both cases. The holes should be surveye< 
time to time, so that one with too greM a deviation may be abandoned , 
new hole started. Absolute verticality is impossible; good practice liiri 
deviation to not over 3 ft in joo ft. (Holes are surveyed by tzic:tliod.: 
in Sec 9.] Difficulties caused by breaking of casini 
to temperature stresses during freezing, make it od 
to use independent frceang tubes. Fig 26 shows 
used at Dawdon colliery, Durham, England, ID 1903 
4-in heavy pipe, wtth its lower end welded shut, is I< 
into the S-io bore-bole casing, testni hydra.ulic:all; 
casing is then withdrawn. The freezing solution la p 
down through the i-in interior pipe and returns tl 
the other. The inner and outer japes are aumec 
headers as shown, valves being provided to T^cfulat 
of solution and cut out any hole quickly, in esse ol 

Freeiiiig pUnt ud beodng. Ammonia compi 
freezing [dants are generally used, the Linde type of mi 
being particularly satisfactory. The freetirtg soluti 
miiidiiH brioe, is chilled by the expansion of ccmpresscd am 
"J*"! *J* gas, and is then drculated through the frccung pipi 
"T**^ magnesium chloride solution is recommended, as tin 
has less tendency to precipitate at low tempuatum 
tbe csldum chloride commonly used in ice plants, and 
fs consequently less dinger ol clogging the pipes. 
required capacity for a given shaft may be m>rl:c 
theoretically, but good European practice prcscril 
cspadty of from i to i tons of ice pet hr for dept 
loo to joo ft, and a freeiing period of 3 to 5 months 
a rough approximation, i ton of ice per hr requires ; 
at compressor en^e. The total hp of difTerent pjanl 
ranged from 50 to ijo. The condition of tbe ground 
being frozen is ItHlicated by temperatures of inflowini 
returning brine. The brineleavesmachine at » temper 
of about -90° C, and at first returns comparatively  
As tbe measures become f to«n. the (onpeniliirE of the n 

ing fluid drops until the difference is only 1° or 3" C. ' 

FigM. FnoiagKpei, excavation can be safety begun. Throughout cicai-atioi 

DawdoB CoUiery, fre„jng pUnt must operate at full speed, to maintain (I 

Engtand „^j, jgjj^j thawing by drcuUtion of warm air in the * 

SinUnii after freeung, a done by hutd. It ia uuilly Hcauiy to blast ibc t 

sand with light dialrcs; bluk pavdet, gelinnile. ind dynunitc having bera uvd 

leBtully. Cue must be taken not to crick tlie Iroiin wJl, for the inullest leak b 

ID a drill hole jiinitia that the soil is insufficiently froien. ind linking should be An 

806 Shaft-sinking in Soft Water-bearing Soib 


n. Laos Mining Co, Fnnoe (13), sunk a shaft by direct cementation in 
Ordinary sinking, with pumping, carried depth to 126 ft before the inflow becan 
great to liandie. Grout pipes were then inserted in fissures, and shaft allowed 
with water. Four 8-in holes, 13 ft outside the shaft, were bored through the fi 
ground, and sludge pumps were attached to them. Cement grout was run into th< 
ices from a mixer at surface, and at the same time mud and water were pumped 
the bore holes, to assist grout to penetrate. Injection of 500 bbl cement sealed the fi 
■uffidently to permit shaft to he sunk to solid rock at 492 ft. The cost was: 

Installation of plant, etc |x2 800 

Pumps 5 040 

Cement i 550 

Labor, sinking and lining 21 770 

Tubbing (material only) 17 100 

Total $58 260 

Cost per ft for total depth 1x8.30 

Books BibUography 

X. Mine Timbering. Sanders, Parlee, and MacDonald. McGraw-Hill Book < 

2. Practical Coal Mining, Ed by W. S. Boulton. Gresham Pub Co. London. 

tion IV, by Henry Louis. Vol I, p 131, to Vol II, p 230. Special meth 
shaft-sinking, as drop-shaft, Pattberg, freezing, given in detail, with cost 

3. Practkal Shaft Sinking. F. Donaldson. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Metb 

sinking through hard and soft ground 

4. Shaft Sinking under Difficult Conditions. J. Riemer. Transl by Comiz 

Peele. John Wiley and Sons 

5. Modern Practice in Mining. R. A. S. Rcdmasme. Longmans, Green fc Co, L 

6. Handbook of Mining Detaib. McGraw-Hill Pub Co. Chap IV 

7. Rogers Concrete Drop-Shaft, Iron River, Mich. P. B. McDonald. JffȣrJ 

Dec 30. 191 X 

8. Cement Grout and Compressed Air in Shaft Sinking. R. G. Johnson. Cm 

Feb. 24, igxa. Compressod Air^ A[»-, 19x2 

9. Process and Cost of Shaft Sinking by the Freezing Method. Pcof Stege 

ClMeko^f, Mar x6. 19x2 
10. Shaft Sinking by Poetsch Method. Miues fir Min, Nov, 191 1; Sck of 

Qu4rt, Vol II, p 237 (1889) 
XI. Shaft Sinking by the Freezing Process. S. F. Walker. Mines 6r Mm, Au| 
IS. Method of Refriguation in Sinking of Shafts. S. EL Patterson. Mmimg 1 

Decs, 1908 

13. Sinking in Wet Rock by Injecting Concrete. J. Lombois. Bbr M Jour, M 

1909. For records of other European undettakings of same nature, s« 
dos Minos, Nov, 1907 (abs xnRSrM Jomr, Aug i, 1908); Awn d«s Mints, 
190$; Bmil Soc de Kind Min. Apr. 2X. 1906 (abs in fi 6r if Jonr, July a8. 

14. Sinking through Sand at Newbiggin Colliery. F. M. Bainbridge and ^ 

Redfeam. Drop-shaft method, tron 6* Coo/ Trndes Reo, Sept 17, 1909 

15. Concrete Shafts through Quicksand. Fred. W. Adgate. Sinking caissol 

pneumatic and drrdgin^ systems to depth of x 13 ft. Mines fir Min, Dec, 
t8. Sinking the Woodward No 3 Shaft. R. V. Norris. B 6r M Jomr, June 4, 

Rnt .Vnr«. Sept 24, 1908 
17. Sinking of .\stlry Green. Shafts, near Manchester, by Drop Shaft and G 

hanging Tubbing. Charles Pilkington and P. L. Wood. Iron dr Coal t 

J?«T, June 17. 1910. Abs Manchester Geol & Min Soc 
iS. Study of the Freezing Process. W. Walbreckcr. ClMchmtf, aerisl, bcginningOct 2^ 
19, Shaft Sinking against Water in Fissured Ground by Cement Injection. 

Shnglf. Iratt of Mining and Met. BwU 77. Feb xs* x9xx 
M. Pn«T«» in Shaft Sinking in Germany. H. Stegemann. ZoUsckrifi des Ve\ 

Dmisfkrr fnrmtnfri Jan 21. 1911 
tl. Sinking for Pier FoundAtion. Tunkhannock ViadocL Bng Roc, May 3t i^^ 
•tx Sinking Cai«nw of CoKvaiio Rin'tt Siphon, Ariz, Bmg News, Aug t3t X9i» 
•3, L^nnpku de la Congt4«tion. F.Schmidt. aiOt Soc de Kind Min, Vol DC 
M* Sittk^ Tbcf«M and Csstlere«gh Shafts. TVmi InCn Min Eng, Vol 3*. P ^ 


, maiimuu: 

1 deplli of liole 

■: alaoi 

L (n lengths. 

couplings at 


t; 1 casiog dri' 

. ouiog t«. 

md>, in .o-lt 1 



u«d in ligbt 

coupliDg; 1 bniscingsuf 




; I bushing, w. 

(or uking dry simpls: i -0™ tugtt 

; I hand ioit 

4-in cyl by 4.S- 

in ctrolui IS 

(t. i.i-i 


liner: y> k. 

7S-in. * 

-ply. nibbe, i 

with coupliBjs (of pump aikd 1 

ntet iwivel. 

_ h hoot so 

f cornered 6'in fi]Q; >, 10-in flat files: i mactutiisi a hj 
I oiler; i pick; 1 galviniud pail; i law; i acrtH 
ibIwvfI; itapelinc; 1, 36-in pipe toofi; itooiboi; 
unions; j Stillson wrenches, to. 14 and I4'in: i e 
wrencba. 6 and is-in; sam[^ bona and 4-oa wide 
bottles; 1 firing battery; dyoamite, dectne dOoiuu 
400 (t insulated copper wire; i pair siiter hooks lor 

I wagon. This outfit, lor 50-it Inlts, costs tjjo to ^4011, and will 
laat several yean- 

Operitioii. A pipe o[ Ibc required diam is sunk, the core 
is broken up by a jet of water, or, it necessary, by B chisel 
bit, and tbe disintegrated material is brought tu surface by 
the current of water. For penetrating soft ground, a smaller 
pipe carrying water under pressure is worked ahead inside 
the dtive|Mpe as fast as the loosened stuff is carried to surface. 
In such material the drivepipe sinks of its own weight, or can 
be made to do so by rotating it by cross-bars (brace beidl, 
weighted by old carwhetls, if necessary. In hakdeh hate 
BIAL. a chisel bit is attaclied to lower end of wash pipe and 
churned up and down to cut a hole below the dtivepipe 
Cuttings arc washed to surface by a stream of water issuing 
from holes in the udca of bil. In this case the rig show] 
Fig 2 is used, ropes A and B pas»ng through a double block 
in the derrick. In gkavels the fine tnaterial is washed out, • 
leaving coarser pebbles in the hole. If small enough these 
arc bailed out with a sand pump. If too laige, they are broken 
with a cross chopping bit before pumjung. Boi;loeks arc 
drilled through ahead of the casing, then broken withdyna 
mite. Tbe charge, made up (or electric firing, is lowered to 
the propn depth by (he leading wires. Before shouting the , 
casing is raised several feet to prevent iiyury. Alter riioot- 
ing, casing ran usually be driven through the broken rock. 
For testing overburden J.j-in drivqiipe and 0,5 or o.7s-in 
water pipe for drill rods are common size? Fig 2. Chopi"i 

may have to br sunt, iKlorenachinKbediWk. This com ingency **"' ^'"" 
eoough lor the dianioDd bit (Fi( 50]. Minimum lize a( itandpipe lot lUainuid di 


Boring by Hand 

dayer ground conuiniog boulden. Holes to 700 ft deep bsve been boa 
tbia type of rig. On Long Island, wells ijo ft deep are bored itrith tb: 
rig more cheaply than with power machines. Shall aucebs, i .5 id 1 
with post-hole diggers and chisel drills aa accessories have been laTS< 
lor prospecting and geological work. 
C. Catleit lisu loUoirinii outGt u med by him in pttapectiiv toft, superfia 

> of bUde I 

f sIMloI 

with u 

. D, length 13 in, pilch of spusl 4.15  
ded Co one end ol an i3-!a length of j-in iron pipe which waj thrvade«l 
•) i-in chisel bit. made of i It of i^-in actag<A Btcd. veldcd, like the a 
an 18-inleagthof I'inpipelhreadedforcoaiKetioD. it) Loftof i.a^-iniroD rod, I 
both ends for connection with pipe, id) Lengths of i-in pipe with couplii 
In» hwuUe, lengdii i ft. with central eye and Kt Krew. (/) Sand pump or slud 
diam. 2 it long, with  leatbec Sap valve. (1) t pipe tongi. It) Oil can. as 
flat file* flpring balance, water tnidtel. The auger was turned by 2 mert, staii 
sppoiite lidea of hole. Enough water waa added (0 toften the Diiierial. Hani 
ni penetiated with tbe chisel bit. Two men operated to depth o( is ft; 3 m* 
35 't, a rough frame ij to lo ft high being built (or tbe third man. TaUe i rec 

TaUe I. Proipecting with i-in Aug 

er and C^dtd Bite 



Total Number 
depth. It ofnHH, 


'i I 


Mostly clay 

Sand, sandstone, clay. ore. and flint 

in pntprcting reudual iron deposits at 
a similar outfit for coal prospecting, cost 

At Totonto. Can. in similar work, the ' 
wss ag to ss* per ft. respectively in cli 
repain comprised 15% of total coot per 

E. Low states (il that boring 450 6-ir 
in canb, clay, sand, and gravel, i men 
length of movea 100 ft; cost about i8< f 

Po*l-hoIe diggers are used alone 

New Maiiiet ^nc O). Tenn. used an o 
of zinc carbonate and silicate, in toURh, 
strap by which tbe handle was attached 
ol handle was threaded and attached to 1 
handle. From 1 ring at upper end of gas 
3-leg derrick, by means of which the di| 
drops filled tbe tool, which will eiitact j 
dyt^amite and then churned up. Two n 

SupiiJiea ajid !>!.< 

r in connection with earth augers. 

» to 40 ft per day. 
t. Spriag-iiole Big. H«ad Chum DtiH 

Fi« 7, Sprinc-pole Rig opented il Surface about t»o. 

OpeTition. Drilling and driving tooli are suspended by a i-in rope 

thmuKh a block in tripod. Driving is done by ordinary Keystone 

Uocks, clamped near top of drill. Total falling weight of the hanun 

l> «t-.^^ K 

Fig S. Detaib d Hand Churn Drill uKd lor Piaspectiog ShaDov Gtavdiil N'«"' ' 

formed la us to its lb. Hammer is raised i (03 ft per stroke by 1 ""f 
ing on free end dI the suspending rope. About 10 blows per min arr j! 
First joint of ca^ng, with driveshoe and drivehead, 13 set in a sbiUun '>'>l< 
tamped plumh. It h then driven some multipJe of 6 in, accordbiK tc f"' 

S14 Churn Drilling 

Cod ud ipsad. C. M. Rolker. prMpecting on Islamd or Hakia in tout' 
iitojiftdeqi, wiih nircR», 4 men on pbtftimiand GoagniuiHl, svengcd 
ft (f j.s-is bote pa hr. Actual bariDg uccupied onJy S to 30% of total time 

PoUmiiaa b a ncotd of work done in CoLonu, S A, in  juci(k kIkr 
could not be med. Day 1 ; Moved acrgu hvs utd nude tj (t id top aoil > 
(lavd. Day t: Finisbed bole i, i.j It to bediock, 97,: It total depth. PuUed 
moved leo It before noon. Sunk 
17 (t to bednck in 4 hr. Pulled 

Finiibed bole j, 14 

ft total deptb. 




Drilled 11 

and 101 

It »and and gravel by 5 p m . 

pasjing thrmigh buried tree. Day 
g^FuiiibcdhalejlaiSft. Fulled 
casing and began bole 6. Made 14 
9 II in grave]. Day 6: Finished bol 

hole;. Made6[iiaDVEi1nrdenaoi 
7; Finiihed hole 7, total dqitb 99 It 
bole 8, II ft to nek. Stattedbolcg 
made 6 [t ia txtp uil. Summaiyi 7 1 

J. Chisholm reports aver advance 
to jn-it boles; 6-is drill; 9 Co 10 

holes doea not eicced 60 ft. Onr 

itpain and sbarpeniiu for S outfits. Fig »■ Empire Drill 

R. E. Smith and H. G. Hann (4I give the following »'™ 

figures on vmt with two 4-iii Empire drills in Sibeiiji. when the thetmomeler r 
o"I0-4S*F. Total depth, 6 696 ft; lolal lime. I93,s days. PenMt lotallim. 
81.1. as follows: drilling. 6].r; pulting on pipe, 1.9; pulling pipe, j.o; tleirirnr ! 
brush. i.S: moving Inmhole to bole, i.g (aver time, 17 min); mavian Imm Iidf 

1.8. Perctnl total lime lost, 1S.9. as follows: moving camp llwiCE), iX; itni 
bolidayi. s.i; resting ictttti. j.j. Cr« o[ ; men on each drilL Avar time 


I. Oil-well Sig (Qd lu Hodlflcatloiii 
Earl; fonni of drills emt^oyed solid rods between the bit ind nirfirr 
uiism. But, in deep holes, the weight to be lifted becoii^es eicosjvc, wit 
btlity to buckling or breakage of the rods on striking the blow. To pi 
this difficulty numerous free-fall mechanisms have been introduced in Ei 
such as those of Dm, Kind and Fabian, liy which the rods arc kept i\f. 
tenaoa and tbe striking weight is constant (5). In America, drvdopnwi 
followed 3 lines: (a) substitution of a cable for the metal rods: {t} use 
ing liidc or jars between rod and bit: (c) use of wooden rods. The 6nt i 
these features are found in the standanl rig; tbe third, in tlie Cgua^ ri^ 

Opnutiiia prbBJplt 
ot Slip Socket 

Fl« Ml Slip Socket 

Fig 24 Id 3S. OO-wcQ FBhing Tocb 

CilUomU rig (Fig 37) is a modiGcatioa of the standard lig to n 
iqicdal conditions in the Califorom oH fields. Long strings of hcav^ 
sometimes have to be handled rapidly to prevent caving. This is done 
addition of the calf-wheel A and i to j eitra pulleys B in the crown I 
The caxng line, a 6-atTand iQ-wire rope, passes from A to one of the pu 
and is reeved from them through a multiple block D carrying tlw casiij 
Strings of casng weighing over 90000 lb have been handled in this wi 
cany the heavy loading the derricks are generally strengtheDcd by i 
the corner posts Lit a part or ail uf their length, and by increasiii^ .j^,. 
and bnces; or a steel rig is used. 

c uc now craFlDrcd. Fig 18 
d B, a&d hiviiK  hullwhcd ( 
cablt-tooli wfaea deaiied. 
wtHl C is bdted lo tB^ae. 
puUcyi oo tbe drivzng bJu 
bdti uc run lo puUeyi DO tl 
which cuiy ■pooli J tul 

^ nxk uc uuchKl lo nlUc 
^ by  cluin impped levcn 
' UDund end of btUB. ud Ux 

=r t wiodlui. which i> cootioU 
Pig 38. C«n»di»n Wen-drilling Big atcba. Rob ur of while k 

i.S or 1 in diun, tbait iS 
Two pcJo. JoUied by aaf» ind Blted at cndi wiLh Upcr-boi imd (ia-ioinU, [or 
About jti ft long. String of toob it the Bunc afl that of tlu standard lig. Cana 
can be disinaDtted and moved more raiudJy than the itaDdard. aod poic toob an 
lifiaui foe fishing; but it is oow nnly med eicept foe ihallow wdlt, wheie fieqiaeo 

t. Spasd and Coat of Oll-vell DrilUnc 
ControOlnc factora: (a) character of fonnatioD to be penetrated ai 
vfous knowledge coaceming it; (b) depth and diam of bole; M type a 
of rig and wdght of tools; id) cost of fuel, water, and drilling auppUes: ( 
poae of bole; (/) general considerations, as location, eiperience of driller. 
number of shifts per 14 br, climate, and accidents, discussed under D 
Drilling. Character of the fomutioD affects ^leed ol advance, and deti 
amount of caang necessaty. If much water is present, tbe buoyani 
lessens lorce of the falling tools, and in an oil or gas wdl Che water n 
excluded. The pioneer wells in any district are drilled more slowly, am 
cost more than the later wells. Character ol formation and depth of 
bong unknown, it is difficult to choose tbe rig best suited to the work 
depth to which casing of a given liie must be carried, to bottom the 
the desired tUam is uidmown, and the progress of the hole must be wall 

R. N. Boyd (ivej Edlowiog daU (or a i Mi-ft well in Galkk. usiw Capidiin rii 
log rods, is niia; letting down land pump with rods, 14 mio; drawing up sane 
14 min; chanclDg bit. j min; letting down bit. 14 min; oMDecting to bcain, 
total, S] min. Uilng a nndlbie for the bailer, tbe tine can be reduced to si min. 
op a atiooa. with a cable rig to i 600 ft, consume about >o min. 

Cranparative q>eeda with California and standard rigs in tbe same (or 
are leas important than tbe fact that with Califomia rig in a caving (or 
the casing may be moved instantly, thus preventing an expensve cave 01 
ing of tlie casing. This is impassible with standard rig. Heavy rigs an 
increase speed of drilling and of handling caang. For deep boles 1 
creased ^leed more than o9sets the gicaler time, labor and mooey invol 
erection. In established oil fields, the prkcs of natural gas or crude o 
for fuel vary »o greatly as to vitiate cost estimates. Where coal must b 
3.$ to lO lb per hr per boiler h p is generally suffident. Water may cos 
than (ud. In the Califomia fields, where water at the well has coat ai 
as t^ per gal. the daily water charge b Sj to (10. Cost of drilling suppli 
depreciation on the rig depend on depth of hole and character of scrvii 
deep boles, where the service is hard, there Li almost no salvage. 

WmI niiidU. All mils in uBdttona, linwatooo, ilUc ud cotl. Pipe 
with WDoden bousing, bailer ud iteain cofiDe, « gu sngiiic, chuicd to each < 
to 4c quarts of mtroglycaiiK per well used iai ■hootins, when desrtble. 
diilLing time lor i^ well) in tbeae countia in 1914 wu 4G diyi; ivenge cost c 


Sveod and Cott o( OO-wdl Mllinc la W«t Vbdnia 



Cuam 1 - 







it hr. 













8« 1016 

«» 1 1 Ma 

S*1. S638I 

Huiuon, Noi 






6H l»4»7 
S»U !>*I3| 







in 1 *1 . 


Kuianha, No J 





Lewis. No I... 







Lewis. No J... 









M«rioo. Noi., 







'94 i 








lis! 1 



No I 


I »8s 















Roue, Noi... 









Roane, No 2.... 




I, DO 


Wetsel. No.... 







3 Sis' 

"•""■""■ " 





... 1 

lod WHiel No i. AU 1040 r«.in | 
; bU SW-b fiom HiniKn No i 
u pulled bom Wel^ No 1. 

Fie 3S. Keystone FoiUbk Drinin« Ri( 

Uk object being to loosen rather than to disintegrate gravel. Mother H 
tuts, blunt, and almost filling the hole, are used to keep holes straight. 

*.«. ,. r-. 1 -f r™^ „f m.... holes become croolied they tun i 

straishtened by throwing in ca 
haid boulders, or rope, to a piNn 
the crook and re-drilling. It i 
■bout I hr to sharpen snd tonp 



with Steun and 


Chora DriUa 

































Aver (monthly) 



sumed per month for this purf 

Power. Slam, guoliDc, elcclrii 

CDmprencd air an used for pdHaM 

SteiRi hu the advantage that Ih 

n gcoenl, tlie Maun drill a en 
nore reliable tlian the others. A 
nginc, giving a resultant vertical vj 
i bettrr than a borisooul engine. tU 
ions of which arc at nipbt angles I 
auwd by the loob. Substituliow 
nessed air f« steam at Panama : 
D incTKUed dciU duty. Electric | 

Hot*. — Rock moaUy thatlered quiUtiite |incdrillin>u.B.c™,~..Lu..u=u,.. 
and porphyry. „ compared -itTa st^'dtiiri 

dnctHO in h4Ulage costs has a direct eSect on the cost of drilling ■* ihawn jn 11 
Gaadiite and electric diilli are lighter Ibto sleain driUi and hence iniiaUy less A 

6oD ft of S-in vul 800 ft of fi-in drive pipe. 3 thrad, * 
cesKd, and i escb asinf nippla. ncoHd; i acb drivr 
6-in and S-in drive pipe; pulUng ring lor S.ij-ia owns, 
B-ts tad 6-2ym pipe; pair 4-iD square wrenditt; 1 »c 
eievaton add ti.}5-iD; 1 each heavy (No 35} and mr 

lipped EDO^. » UDd ii-in; j boll Iimgs, o.;. 0.75 and H-in; i ach »-iD ton 
Eld toogi. 12-iD pick-up tonga; 5 each top and bottom iiraes. H, H, ^' ^i- ai 
i bol cMiels. 1.5.17; and i-io; i flatten, 9-in and j-in; i hardies, i.s ind i>L 
hammers. > and 34b; win thread brush; S-lb iled^. 
Caipenler (ooli: i m; i hatcbct; 1 iS-in band law; 1 ij-io jack plane, 

w knife; 

10 etcli of jod aad lod ai 
stard £la; ? ro-ia round 

e«h ol lod and Sd. ij lb evib fid ai 
Machinist and plumijcr out6t: 4 : 

Bits; 1 each nlchct drill) for holci up to i in. with i each drills from o.ij to i in 
teenths to fit same; 1 each 6. A. lo. u and 15-iii monkey wrencha; 1 each S. 
t4-in SUlisoa wrenchs; i eacho.ij by^.o.s byM. and 0.7s by ^in open-end vr 
I ball-peen hammer; 1 rivetioK hammer; supply H- H and ^t-m pipe and fiiuni 
•anment H, H. H. H tnd li bolts, nuu. washers and rivets; i bars o.j-ia roun 
I bai o.ij by i.j-io flat iron; i bars i>i-in octagon drill steel; 1 bat each 0.7s an 
Dctafoo tool sleel. is lb waste, jo lb Babbitl metal, i loldering oulfit. 1 each pj 
bott thieading outfit; 1 combination pipe vise; 1 ha^ saw and la ii-in bUds- 
Miscelianeous: j gasoline torches and 4 lanterns; 3 600-gal water tanks; a o, j-il 

rubber hose: iS ft o.;;-in suction hose; 1 barrels or distillate tajiks; i iron pulJe] 
and E double-swivel hook for j-iu rope; 11 ^inand 6 0.75-in black cable clamps- 
Following items tnay be added to Bowen's list: fan parts, extra boiler tubes, vah 
brasses for spudding arm, piston rings, H-in cable chain 10 ft ksg, lubricator, ii 
The price of [he machine itself is only 10 to ij% of coat of complete outfit. But, 
the work is done near a large supi^ center, tlv added first coat will be more thai 
in reduced delays. Table 1 1 gives appcoa prica and weights of Keystone Hg>. 


1. Anni Watfrti and PrlcM of KevMooo PotObU Chioi 

DriUf. wUhoot Tool Sqnlpaumt 




Motive power 

Weight, lb 







' 71 



























































SBttint up. Level the rear wheels transversely by blockiog, if nece 
Take weight off frotit axle by lifting; the body oa jacks, and level ttsnsvi 
For boles less than 100 ft, longitudinal leveling is unnecessary if the tooti 
tlw front of machioe. For deeper boles some attention should be paid to' 

DMiiwB of Day 



Mi. Ji. 



mugh p 

Fvided w< 



Corebaml Rodi 







"^^ I-iO' 

















II H. 






I' til 








B Ballock 



E Medium 

E Eitn h«vy 



A Eitra h«vy 

I'ji. . 

I'M.  i"A> 




b» I 






LocgyeuCo; , 

U.R. AmdiniF 

Dillliat. FoOawIag is the aonnal uquence of openlkms: 
SUdr or twiog Uitd nudunism kmy from bole- Set ufcty damp Ed pott 
■Undpipe. CoDnect up bit, con ibell [with con liftcrl. tort bunl, and i len^ 
uid ]owB through tht Kafety damp until ouly a few incbea pn>}ect» tl>CTi IQ 
clainiB. Scmr boiituig swivel iato upper eod ol a uctioa of todi, swing mda 
with the hnit aixl scicw tbem into the joint projecting from the hole. L 
damp and lower the string on the h(ust brake until only i few inches pmiect I 
Tighten the jnfety damp, snd unscrew the hoitting iwivd. Repeat tbeie ojiersl 
witliin a rod length of txittom, Bnng Eeed mechanism back into place- AtL 
■wive] and lifting bail to the last length; lower it through the drive rod^ aixj 
into place. Run the ftfed to highest poaition, and tighten the chuck. Loc< 
damp- Connect water swivel to pump and start the pump. Start drill sod i 
ward until pressure sbowi that bit id against rode. While drilling, adjust feed 
■ary. When measurement of rod indicates that core barrel is full, or laboring 
»fld engine his^rst that it is blacked by broken pieces of core, stop the drill. Ki 
running until water iuuing from hole shows that sludge has been wdl rcmov« 
tixls by rrvBnng the operations of lowetiUK- Extract core, and place it in co 
Change iHt often enough to prevent diam of hole from falling below gage, luid 

Casing or csmsat grout u used Ut sui 

when they cave so as to prevent progress or 

TaUs J5. Fhuh-Joint Caalng 

t the walla of a dianxond d 
late samples. Casehg is flu 
tutring large enouKh to al 
bit to pass. Table jj givi 
sies of casing. If the holi 
tinued of same diam below t 
ing ground, it is reamed oul 
the CBsng is iclroduced. 
arangisadifGcuIl opera tid 
ing is usually twisted and 
down. Sometimes « " casii 
set with a few diamond c] 
placed on lower end of the 1 
which is then opents] as in i 
drilling. CcMEMi omoit i 
and more used instead of casing. In badly caving ground the drill is drivoi 
as is safe, and the am and sludge saved. Then the grout is pumped den 
rods or lowered in a bailei. Alter it has set, the resultiiig "plug" is i 
through, and  deeper section of hole is sampled and grouted. Quick i 
cements are used, provided they are strong enough to supfiort the bole. A 
o.ii% soda to ordioaiy cement shortens the time o( setting to 14 to 36 hr; 
Cementing ii usually cheaper than caaing. and allows the bole to be itaited at 4 
diam without considering posrible future support. In ihattefed gtDuod the rods mai 
X pulled frequently, on account of blocking of the core barrd. In soft gitHind 







per ft 





I 69 









or all of th 

withdrawal is 

If there is itandiDg water in fi 
a doK to the drill, and re-enter the bole w hen 
' pumped through the rods during LoistiaK, u 

Acddenti. nshlng. Comr 

ot is LOM or breakage or a itAHOHs (Ai 
I lena down an old bit. the end of which hu bm Glkd 
itself in this and is bCDUght to (urlacx. When Ibe 
tom. for using the waied bit. a lost diamODd may sonw 
The folbwiog device was used in such a cue: A scred 

uiiM ndi of tbe ame leOa dee Bid ud Fiuiogi. Ait lo). With tbi» rim 
the velodty in the rsUictid <|j*ce uoiuid Ihe con Is conudenbly bibber, 
ID great ku of okt in soft lodu ttut quantity of wftter a unuUy ndue«l. 
mDcb mtcT mtua iijkJ pfnifrm vid low oire TrtMvay. Little watei incn^ 

flccd £rom oil. cbc the pi 


12. Tiai« Dirtribotioii lit DUmond Drflliac 
TinM «fldeiicr in drilliiie a tbe perantage ot total woctins time i 
■ctuU cutting of rock is done. It rardy eicnds 60%, and depends upD 
and character ot overburden, time coasumed in hoisting and loweriDs n 
time lost in delays, luite (or handling rodi depends on depth oE hole, am 
between breaks. Number o( tilts necesauy depends oo nature of fcroui 
ol bit, aitd kind and length oC core barrel. Unilbnn ground will soi 
core the full kngth of tbe barrel. Cores in broken ground break up and ; 
barrel, ot ate lost. The double core barrel (Ait 10) tends to avercoi 
difficulty. A solid bit need be raised only to change it. 

TaUaje. line DiltrilnliaB oa B Shifti D 


— i ^^ ^^^ .»r„ 



^ pull 


, rods 1 


jToUl jer 

Hr 1 r. 1 

^' I 




64 I 

I. IS '0.57 ii.i o6j 0.31 

212 0^45 "4 l-6j 3J 
I.Sa D47 190 1 33 U 
1-95 48 18 4 I J8 046 
1-SS 0.63 136 1 S7 D39 
1 =7 : CM 1-6 0.87 0.43 

6.0 003 0.3  0.6t 6 s 

waste Cime cu be legitimately taken. 


ol avenge* of drillil 

TM, 36 show, thit. for holes from jso to B« ft deep, actual cntthig tin* st. 

but fi4%ofdiilliiigli™,nd»ing occupied i6.j%, lowering i..s%,inciilent.ld.Uy5 
Table 37 s><aws lor boles 3j6 to s6S ft deep: 37. }% cultiag time. 17-9% haadliu 

tearing down and setting-up are BKludcd.) Table 38 shows for shallower boles: | 
cutting time. j>.i% raijing lodi and 14. 1% lowering, inddentj delays bcina ixgl 
The bigbcr percentage of lime h.^re consumed in handling rods is due to the short 1 
(to It). Obviously, in using these figuns, weight must be given In the prognss' 

ToUl depth. 




per lilt, 





per lilt, 
















. w 

I 901 














CfDItion of rig. 396 hr (s,8%); d 
ol knt dUmonds, nitiiig looM ] 
IJO hr (16.1%); icliul drilUa 
pipe, tdocoped ioiide ;. t wd 1 
quutxite, 1-6 If. in biidly braki 

cca oI eoTF. brnkiice of 
3 4S3bi I6S.I%). Timeiel 
in lengths jji ir. Aver i»tt 

miiig. chokiDB erf bole, i 

ting 8& It of i- 
tima £or c^Qih 

TaUe 40- Tiau ><« H>n<tlio| Roda in Bolia ia acUtoml DlMricti 




RHiaing Lowering! and 


» 1 i 1 s ^ 

y. 1 ">* 

% ,1 


13 3 

Ldfe SupwioT iron region .. . 

Dalajl due to duuvcter of ground, and FurreDt repairs and renewals on 
■le incidental [0 oil drilling operations. Allowance of 10 to 20% of the tir 
mated for drilling (including bandling rods) will generally cover inddenlal 

Table4i xivesdeUy recDrdon 19 bolB Iroin 7a to 1 iji K deep on the Rut), ii 
incidental ddays caiiffed from o to J4% tA dxiUing line id rock, with id aver in 
delay ol n-i"o- Table 41 h u auJysis ol the delay reoiRl 00 i boln at a U 

Thcrj are other dday% due ta bieakaire of toob in the 1h^; Iobb d itancs fr 

bit; dnjppifig object! down the boJe; breakage ol tbc lig; lack ol fuel, w - 

Decenary tool. Theie canaot be loreieeii and miBI tank ai utrac " 
from poor maiusemoit and caieka numing. Time aUowaoce to 
matter id individiul judgment. 

11. Diunondt, BU-*etting, ud Lom of Carbon* 

Two vuietics are used for drill biU: (a) Cubon, > i 
loim of pure carboii, granular or compact in aUucture, without deavas< 
3.1 to 3^. black or grayish black in coIot. A fresh fncture bat appeui 
broken steel; lome slooea have a gieeni^ or browntsh tinge^ Nearly al 
Irom Brazil. (6) Bort is imperfect, or flawed brilliant! occurring in 
rounded farms, irith radiated ar confused crystallioe structure. Bot 
and carbon have a haniness of 10, but the ciystaUine structure of bort 1 
it more liable to breakage, and it is not suitable for hard rocks. Cutw 
roughly spherical carbons are best. Irregular, Sat, and pcnnted forms ai 
to set, and wear unduly on account of bieakage of the projections. I 
diamonds has fluctuated greatly in the last 35 jiears; general trend be 
ward (Table 43). Small, or poorly shaped Itonei cao generally be pu 

Table 43> Kange of Pii 

St9*o i9>< 






























191 1-1 J 


j6to *> 

36to 70 
JSto «s 

Oto 6s 





Hto « 1 


Soto 90 1 I 

a. For veciil gnde or eitim choke •tana the prices, particularly in litUr yi 
run tSm to tioA higher per cant. (Fricca Irom Sullivan Uuh'y Co.) t. ] 
corded in technkxl journal*. Lowest are for cubOBi of mlerioi fnde. poor I 

■mallBtze. c. Price of bort iiusually x>toi5%olClHpriceof Gnt^lass ofboo 

below market price, while the larger, well-shaped stonea command a pi 
Fragments of less than 0.35 carat are known at icrspi price in 191] 
$3 per carat, with carbons at Ks to (90 pec canU- Seleclioa < 
carbons requires judgment and eiperience ol an expert, iji-ving 
judgment, an engineer should buy Ihrougb a reliable dealer or diami 

Bit aettlDc requires skill and experience, and is ao importaiit of 
Diamonds must have such clearance that the metal of the bit will not 
contact with the rock, and be arranged to "cover" each other, so that 
of the area to be cut will fail to be touched by a diamond at each revul 
the bit. Number and sze of stoocs used vary with ate ol bit. 

The E ud :4 bit) (Art to) are usually set with 8 1 

Carats coniunied 


Sort { 

1. Hud, lUkioui rock. t. Sdiisu. 

Table u. Caitwn Conmmpdon 

OuBrttite, put brolcen. part a 


iron slale. hematite, diorite 
tone and granil*. bond. o(h 




Eiceptionally hard hroken jaspwand qu 



14. RecoTMy o( Core 
Cote recoTeiT is tughest in hard uniform cocks, in whkh it may read 
It is lowest in knse, soft, cleavable and broken rock^ vber^ unless IIh 
run almost dry, and rods are raised every few inches, rcfovery may tiot 
to moie than loYo- Vibration of rods causes low recovery. For good i 
in bard rock IIk drill should be run with low q>eed and heavy pressure" 
rw±, Ihe raverae. Retovery is invariably less in upper than Id knrcr po 
boles, due to decomposed character oS rock dot surface. 

TibU 5o> DluDODd Drinios In Ow Tnanul CiQ 

Depth, It 



ClUMCta ol rock ind % ol 




























I ce 







3. Bo 




ind qaaitiitc 

■7.8 69.3 
1,9 S9.3 

SO. 9 

t. Bou' 

by contcict eiccpt lut hole. b. Diibu 
badly brokeo, rate exceptioDally bw^ J. 
' thtn imbedded in Mft material. 

•-. rate evccptionaliy high, £. 
Indudea raiiiog and laHering 
Difficulty io keeping bole 

TaN* SI. Dlamood Dritttnt trndn Hodioa Km 











38- SS" 




44" 47- 


%o(i-in core nsovmd from a.7S-in hole 

9*7 4 

% of U7S-in CO" recovered (rom 1.06-in hole. . , 

»■ SI* 

Casing used.,it 


t ' 


Total (t driUed, a («4 


1 au't fomiuD @ tTD. 
4 toboren « Ms per 


Grmvel uid bouldera 

DECompoKd (uiB 

Hud gncM (cbtcecd 
wiLh toul caiboo coat) 


Inloo plaoi, tGa»« 



TaUast. Comtantbv Costi o( Hand 4iid Poww Diuund DrinioK In Hat 








RdHin indudllK material 

Avet cost per [t ocludiiig movini. 
AvttKBtperft including moving. 

II. S6 

aod keep. StcairiK 

TaU* » 

Diamond DrilUm 


the Lake 

SnpariMlrra Raoca 


Total depth, ft. 
Av« depth, (t.. 













6 (.ft 




Total (xel per tt,t 















I -I 




Supplies and i^p 

Carbons (a) , . , . 



^. Sudunne lod marble, fl. Slite and jasper. C. Haid ji 
£. Jupcr. F, Iron slate, diorite and qiurti parpbyry. G. Di 
H. Hard broken iuper. I. Hombleade schist, jasper am' 

a. Probably out about ti s per caial (lecatculated at %gi 
from bottom of a 70.ft pit. Aver advance, s [t per itiilt- c 
i. Fan-sbaped scries ol boles, Irom tbc bottom ot a g^-lx 
■bitt. I. Aver advance, 14 ll per itill. /. Fan-shaped sei 
piL Aver advance, B It per thiit. All i4d and co 
bMmen suiiace and uodcrsmmd driltioi. Crew: Runuc 

luaTti. J. Quaifl 


liasoual slot ii 

ijbot««f«i t 

wal] o( bit to tl 






HlCt IDCk. I 

.mtchuid coti 


£<ldg= coll. 

oluinc outside. 

«r edge or 

:heo»ncr sludsl 

Jd IMuire 

rod, wtikb u rou 

On upper 










iJT HC4trr<^ 

tug •riUi DriLS 
ppinc uid M lA 


DefinittoDS mxi< 


u Uethods 


Room-uid-iii >la I 

Itchins ScmoB. . . 

"di.^" '.'.'.'..'.'. 
ad in CobJ Mid. 

Fwof Steel Sui>^ 


nd Long Totn 
cing Methods.'.! 

■J. Can mad i^ 

WiBg moMlMioCB 


^-ft RclmnfluUr pit, 
1-huidlcd [w:k uid sbovd; tbr i 
boisUog. GalvmuKd-Lniti water pi 
IS buckcu iR better lor lugcr red 
cfa windlm. A 0.35-10 win ntpc sd 
joEtdaep: at (mlct dcpUn. the ti 
ilhniw tbe bucket agunst the walls 
T or eliiptiu] [Hts: (ff) Ibcy rE<^ 

Georgia and Alabuni. Round («i 
per ft. In onUnary luKonaolidatpd 1 
liam. Ala, a Uijc Dumber al 30-in |h 
I (t; ipeed of >mkin(. 18 to 10 ft 
peed to only 8 it pa day (6>. Eck 

author »Bk 

B day. pay 

wit. B<low4ol 

Table 1: cro»« 
ti; laboien, fi 
. WorkdoiKtiy 



r Hardpu. Ha-y Lati 





<64 00 














•«48-00 1' 

I [t per h 

For other detaila k< ^n 7 
Btic uutace eiploratioii. see Art & 
liushioi). Water, where available 
proqiecliag of bedrock. Smni^lin 
bitlsidc above tbe area to be pnupe 

' 1 Prospecting Methods .395 

'*uL-t into the ditch, water can be made to flow over any desired section 
71 aad soon cuts a trench to bedrock. 

'^ y tmcbes can thus be excavated. Where water b scanty, small rescrvoin 

r. . L jskie. When reservoir is full, the water is rdeased, and rrishing down the 

rs oG sarface loiL Process is repeated, if necessary, until bedrock is clean. 

•■^. my be ptovided with automatic gates. In other places a small quantity of 

.rr< ruiuxing down a lalkide; the soil, loosened by picks, is washed away. Large 

" -jo-cUy axe thos nbtainfid. At Cobalt, Ont, shallow surface cover is comi^ely 

-. -^- krge areu by hydrauHrking (Art 7). 

'; ?es .^ave a Hunted lae in soft sofl free from stones (Sec 9). Pipes are r to a in 

z 7 ^bjvs bottxsm length of pipe. The end is filed to a cutting edge, and has a slot 

.. 3.;5 in wide, in ooe side: this auds in gripping the soil and 

.-■-exzisLsibe pipe. Depending on depth and character of soil, 

■* ii.. be catuxted down by hand, or driven with a maul, or a 

' : u. &:e ijom a tripod.' Upper end of pipe is protected by 

e -insxTur. with a ^loe at lower end when used in stoE^ soil; 

r :- iji j^ axe scrc w td on as the hole deqiens. The pipe is 

- -■:<. I to j ft and con t ents examined. The method is cheap 
-^ I sAn^ic section of the groond passed through. If soil is 
^ ^•~ -mAx or distinctively colored mineral, drivepipes can be 

- :^ its area. For smaO diam pipes, limit of depth is usu- 

"^iif >>r probiiig). Pointed steel rods are used in search 
'^1 ! lying at shallow depths in or under soil. The 

- .^ jL^it h either much harder or softer than surrounding 
' >■ J( pubsesses a characteristic color. 

* ''^.^TD .Alaska, rods have been used to locate quartz veins 

: T , ft of mo«and humiau Fi«t q«arta ™ found in ^^ 7 Lo^^, ^^ 

''■ ''i aa o vg i tui ued tree. The "feel' and sharp chnk of Driv«>u>e 

'•: izxmt qoarta dktinguished it from the softer country 

':<'ja icr joves following instances of the use of pneidng: in France Cor buhr- 

•^ ^: ierths of xo to x8 ft in soft sand and day; on the Isle of Man for shallow 

i -4'. tmber easily penetrated by the rod; in the Fumess district, England, for 

'^. irr t to 8 ft of soil (detected by color) ; in South Carolina, for phosphate nod- 

-' '"b of 15 it in sand and day. In Burma, bamboo rods are similarly used to 

- ^ ie;>t^ throng day to underlying gem-beating gravels. 

- '^^ : the name given to a unique method of prospecting for phosphates on the 
' "^ ^ C. Phosphate rock occurs in irregular patches in the river bed, and is 

'"^u-ing. Sounding is done from boats by dragging a bottle filled with water 
• H '. .TL A string is tied around the neck of the bottle, and a cardboard dia- 
- '^ 'M to the free end is hdd against the ear, or the sounder holds the end of the 
: -nr «nrh his finger. On finding a dqposit, floats are set to show its outline 
 ve t-erlj?c (11). 

'•'Ution sometimes grows thickly along outcrops of one geological forma- 

- S'^'^^^b^ oQ another, thus aiding in woriung out geological structure, or 

^ iS':^ favorable or unfavorable to ore occurrence. At Cripple Creek, 

p- ^ favor areas of tuff and breccia; fir trees grow on granite. In the 

r .V W yo. ak»g outcrops of potash-bearing dikes, there is a noticeably 

«^^ ii sa;^ brash. In places in the southern Appalachians, the vegeta- 

'^ '• nd-k to underiying strata. 

v.a« taiaiala, as woodcbucka, pnirie dogs, gophen. badgers, and ants, sometimes 
>'<^Tor by the debris they throw out wh^ dig^ng holes. Such material b 
V ifMt, or penned for gold colors or specks of ore minerals. 

-'<r rad a still believed by credulous persons to be efficadous for finding water 

' '-^ pr oa pe clia g Wfllinos appear periodically in the mining camps. Some are 
wix otbcia asa planniid to take advantage of the difference in electromotive 

S88 Prospecting and Eiploration 

cowUtkKU in 1 4&4CR tnct, ObicTvations arc tint taken alon^ 

vili ol loo or 100 h and nadiogs taken on lios at light angka. b on DE. Rei 

Detk slate, Lina at light angles to ^ ^ are then uaked out ^oo [I ap&rt, and j**^ 
Is conducted by boreholes at regular intervala along tbem Ucc Ait ii). 

Kamlla of dlp-compasa anrrart are usually platted to scale and isi 
UNES (cotinectiog pointa o( equal dip) give infomiatioii as to form ajid ] 
of underlying orebody. Following ace general rules for interjjretjiig sue] 
Isoclinic lines are normal lo lines of force in the magnetic 5eld produceH 
orebody, and they ate adapted to indicating mild but extensive fields 
dips occur over the magnetic pole of orebody or the eaclosing areas 
around the outcrop. Small orebodies near surface may exert as much atl 
as large orebodies ileeply buried, but Ihdr efiect extends over & ^malti 
Slow steady increase of dip over a Urge area indicates a large deposit;; 
dip limited to a small area indicates a small depout. Lean ore near surfa 
give same indications as rich ore in depth. 

Horiiontal-compaai aurreya. Obnervalions are made at rceular id 
over the area to be tested, by same general methods used with dip e< 
The needle is used to measure local attraction causal by magnetic ori 
A preliminary transit survey may be made and lines established by m 
which compass is oriented. Far rapid and extensive work the dial con 
preferable; " it consists of a small portable sun-difll, provided with a « 
needle swinging within a graduated circle, which, when instrument is I 
horiz. On a sunny day if instrument is set up, leveled and turned in a 
until shadow o[ the gnomon (a thread) falls on the division of hour-cir^] 
sponding lo apparent time, zeros of graduated circle are in true tneridi 
needle gives declination " (ii;). 

For rorrect results, hour-circle must be graduated for a latitude dckt point of i 
(ion, angle tielween gnomon and pbne of hour-circle must — ktitude, xcrw of ' 
circle must be in vertical plane of gnomon, plane of tiour'CiTde must be level 
parent linie must be known. Apparent time is obtained from slAodard tinne by a 
lor diHerence in longitude between point of observation and standard tneridt^n 
addition or wbtniction of equation of time obtained from a solar ephemeris CS^ 
ij>. W- L. Comings gives following method a[ determining solar time (n^) 
free troni local attraction is selected, dial-compass is used to make && otj^^ervl 
Polaria,«nd a (uspmded string is lined in between ilat and compam xichta, j\fli| 
ian is delenniaed, compass is set on it while sun is shining and the tfar^tds' shedj 
true tolar time. Obwrver's watch is set to this time, and used for oricntltig coo 
lubssiuent work; compass is Kt on meridian each morning lor cnrreclins watcl 

PlatdDg. Compass deflections are platted to scale on a map and ts 
UNES (Sec IT. Art lo) drawn connecting points of equal deflection, intcrj 
where necessary; surface contours abould also be shown. 

lDl«rpr«tatioii of mapa. H. L, Smyth gives following points: Final d 
assumed by needle influmced by a magnetic orebody is in a line which is 
sultant of the horiz component of force of the earth's magnetism and ihai 
deposit. Important points to be located are those of lero and maa dcj 
called CRTTicU, points. Relation of critical points to deflections t>f nevtl 
their position with regard (o disturtung forces, ore inustralcd by conjdi] 
of several partly ideal cases: i 

(il) A single magnetic pole, regarded as upper (north) pole of a vertical-lia,' 
lying at a depth A bdo* a level surface, the lower (loutb) pole ot which is too far I 
affect compass. In this case, angle ol defleclinn is a function of i VKriabl^ the 

Prospecting end Exploration 

i m B (n's M, + rim A). RaulEt are pkM 
ioo, F it thcD fouDd gnpfa>c«tLy by cortag 
i; lioH F will ciHvctKe tm 

(be panlldoenra of forcei a) 

of depoiiC C isd indiciUiU poatuoo. 

I. GeologlcBl DiU for Prospactliig uid Ezplaimtioii 

(By J, D. InTIMG, Frofcwji of Economic Geology, ud A. M. Bahmah. Anisl 
Profeasoi of Economic Geology, EtieffiEld Scientific Scbool, Yale Univcnity) 

D tbe probable poutiori 
CoiTtct gcolacica] k no 
leterniiDed in advance 
I geology [umUbes n 

All mine explomlioQ rests upon some geolosicnl theory u 
Biu. ejcteoiioD, minenl cbaracter, or value ol ui ore mA». 

plontion, often with consldenble iccunicy. Id umc a 

whilever. and erploralion ii neceuaiily blind. Following are hnne common con' 
under which gef^ogy may aid in enploratoiy work, with metboda by wbicb results c 
Kcurvd, (See also Sec a. Mineral DepoQils.) 

Sourcea of infarmation: (a) Processes or oucih or a deposit dete 
its forai, size, and geological position, the mineralogy and value of the pr 
ore, prot»ble occurrence in undeveloped districts, and suci:ess or failure 
ploration for more ore in a partly developed district. Production of ore r 
is only one of many ^ects of ore-building proceues. If the other eSects t 
recognized, they may assist in discovering ores. Favoiable indications t 
Ensure ore occurrence, but, if they ore entirely lacking, ores of tlie type no' 
cated will abnost certainly not be found, (b) Processes of sdferpiciai. At 
nOM acling on an orebody after its formation. These determine infc 
from nature of outcrop as to value of undeveloped orebodie^ depth to 
developed ores may be expected to go, and often the presence or a,' 

Frocea ol DtpauUoa 

entrattoo at the luriace 

III. Metamorphic deriva 

orebody at all. (c) TniE or eohuation or a DErOSn. relative to other ki 
events, determines tlie time lelation between undeveloped ore ma !■ u and 
intnuive rocks; metamorpbiao], sediments, and all geoki^ eventa irtiitl 

SH Pioqtecting and Ezplontioii f 

•umunded by  lulo or lone o< Bcridtic or propylitic tJtention. which de^ 
u distance from the deposit is gained, and they constitute a tattH group <, 
each issodated with'ics own rock type. Tbey are distinguished troni c^ 
metamorphic ore maaaes by abience □( contact metamorphic gangue mil 
from replacement deposits by absence of non-igDeous gangue minerals ar 
dences of iotense hydrothermal alteration conunoa with replacement typo 

PmctiMl apl^eatiaill. Marginal igneous bodies result from differenl 
tbcT arc usually of iiregular form, and only tboae of large borii dimensio 
likely to extend far betow tbe surface. This is more true for maasea nearly 
dimensional in plan tbao foe oarrow and roughly tabular masses aloog the 
of tbe parent mass. 

Bxtnulona In daptfi are unlihdy to eiceed surfscc dimenaiDiifl, rlni^fa excvptfco 
occur. ToDiugE pouibilities aA thjC lafeiy be [dedicated on surface tl^trin, 
Igneous depoaits there is commonly no abrupt vill between ore and parent rock: 1 
merEegiadually intoeachollier; bence, exploratoiy wotkingi id tbe traoutioual j:t 
on Dot be expected to succeed. Under^Toand exploration for ore masses not rcvv 
outcrop are unlikely to be successful; surface npccures are apt to e<zual or exe* 
siie and number of muaei found in depth. EiplcxiCiiHi should (alkm the oontj 
Iween igoBus man uid country rock. In all bodies of igneous or. primary minei 
cuTTingnear Ihesurlacepcrsist to any depth to whicb (he depoailnuy go, except for c 
piaduced by tupcifirial altcntion. Any chiDfr ia tenor wiLb depth 'a soddeata: 

S«ftrdi (or orsbodiBS in ondaTstopad districts. Igneous orebodi< 
not Bccompanied by extensive mineraliiatian (seridliaation. propylitixatioi 
of tbe countiy rocisi for example, the granite rocks out^e of tbe Su 
nidul ore masses an ftcsh and immineralized. The pro^>ector has but o 
dicalion of probable or possible presence of an orebody of igneous orisin : t 
the existence of a body of igneous rock of the kind usually associated with 
ticular kind of ore. Such associations are valuable guides; fur contra, 
absence throws suqiidon on any reputed occurrence. Search for diamot 
Arkansas was initiated by discovery of the correct type of rock. Coi 

Pannt igneous rock 


Nickel ilerous sulphides 



Syenite, sycnil&porphyry 
Gabbni. norile, peridotile 
Peridotile (1; its metamorphic derivative, aerprn 

The rock mass being discovered, search should be made along its conta 
orebodies (except in csseof diamonds, which are scattered through the entire: 

Peripheral igiifous orebodies bear a definite relatioa in siie to the parent igneout 

igneous body can be determined (^lowanre being made for soull eiponirea repre* 

orebodies Hnutines concentiale at points where the igneous body makes an oa 
cmbaymcnt; hence, luch places should be pror^KctEd. 

Caotral coacauttaliona are mie and occur only in certain very baaie rocka, 
possihle eiistcDce ihould be recogniied. 

Syngenetic igneoui oiebodiss occurring as dOta diScr in no Rspect tron 

i^ue. There ace no geologk featum which will enable one to predict the occi 
igneous dikes in i district. This i.> Ime also of dikes of oie: Ihey are where you I 
Diks are the upward oaihoots ol igneous bodies, and mutt lead to tbe litter. 

896 Pnxpecting and Ezf^ntkni Sc 

MIlMnUnttoil. Ore deposits funned by drculating miDeral Mlution: 

uxompunied by widespread alteration of country rock. But. depositioa c 
■od Eangue ii not the only eipreimon of the icticm of mineralidnK solul 
Enmplesof ootabte effects of some common types of Klterstion uc as folic 

ContlcC matunDrphk iltermlioii. MJoenluinf ulutiom nor contact TQct&inc 
dopwU produ^ ccQUct miuntU. d«:olo(iEatioD of red itjcks, ind TecrystmJliz^ti 
liinHiona, either u miible or lime lilkata (mc Caatwt meunvxphk miitaals. bi 
Cwtict eSects oilen eiteod to graX diituca from uliul coiitacti. Other lyi 
ahcntton nuy be luperpoeed on them. 

Saricitie and propylltlc alteratian of icnwoi tocki. Uneoia lodu. poor in 
lilkatH. lubjected to action ol iraneialiriiig loluliom. change mlo an 14 - 
flakes ol mica, called serkitF, often sbonmg a little lecondaiy quiTti. and » 
which can be dMortcd by feeble eSeTveKmce wilb add). Serlcite at lim 
taken for white clay; it pva to the lock a dense white to fnytsh silky ar 
process has been extensive, the nick is usually soft and cnimblB on prpoflurr Co &ir. 
dtlratioo is common in tighter cokned ij^neous rocks; if bitense, the rock often coe 
diasemuutcd pynte. which 00 watfarrine yields stained outcrops- Sutphatca form 
Butface alteration of pyrile change seriate uito kaolin. Ibe rock louni; lla silky Iinti 

Tbe first effect of mineralizing solution! an the darkn. more basic igaeoua rodu 
change tbe darker ferromagnHian vlicates fas hornblende ud pyitneoc) to a gr^ 
chlorite and to dotmy sharpness of tbe component mlnetals. This is culled prop 
■Iteration; futthei alteration rrsuhj in seridliialiDn. 

LoMliMtloD ol ore depodt*. In aeuly all important miniiis distric 
the U S, ore deports constitute B very small geognphic unit, in the heart 
region of intense mineraliiation extending over a territoty usually greate 
muiy miles than tbe area wilhio which the ores occur. 

Leadville. the Corastock Lode, Bingham. Park City. Coeui d'Akas, Butte. Cr 
Creek, Ely, Chino. Miami, Ck>be. Clifton, Cananea, and many othn. an rccians < 
ttnse mincnliialion, which extends beyond tbe limits of ore deposition. Beoce. favv 
conditions for occunence in a given locality may often be justly infened fiTMn eilei 
alteration. Where mineraliution is slight, or confined to the immediate neighborhw 
individual depmils, and has an inappreciable gmtofik range, orebodia ate unlikely I 
large or aumemus. There are few eaceptioni to Ibis rule. The practice value of I 
is illustrated by the fact that tbe old-(asbianed prospecur. with years of | 
nee, ilwavs recognized them, thmigh unconsciously. Deposili like thi 
ol the Missinippi Valley are exceptnos. They cKcnr in a resioci wiU 
leous rocks, structural deformation, or heavy thermal alloatioo. Poaaib 
;iofi3 ol undisturbed limestones should be borne io mind, 
e. FfimnVeliUi 

T;pei. (a) Simple cracks filled by deposition o( mineral from solution; 
sheeted lones. consisting of parallel cracks, similarly filled with ore. In b 
types additional ore may be formed cither by replacement of the walls or of 
included plates of country rock, with all inleimcdiate gradations. The ore 
Butting from replacement of the walls may constitute the bulk of a depo 
Possibilities ol large orebodies are greater in replacement veins than in tli 
formed by ^mple cavity filling; hence, the i^orppt recognition of this chw 
teristic is desirable. Fissures are almost always surfaces of ctmptez ciuvali 
The strilie is never a straight line for any length; .it changes sometimes by get 
curves, sometimes abruptly. 

Practical coMldentiani. Prospecting, developRienl. and eiplotatioD ale often ba 
on assumption that Gssutca continue considerable dislinces along the mike observed 
csK pouil. This leadi to enon in locating crosscuts, shafts, or ai^ls to intersect tbr n 

duces risk in predicting extensions from a single eipceure. but trenching shnuld alwi 
pncede selection of sites lot openings. Aver strike miy be caknialed from •ne 
tipoacd poiau (Art 6). Reliable inlannalion can also ba HCUed bga ant Ueod of ml 

PTo^>ectiiig and ExplomtioD 

Ue, bidlate coaUct meumoipluc orifiB 
. . _ flikka Mt Kt aU ua^b,, II bJid chuactaiitic FolkHnnff t)i _ 
iDetAinaiphkdcpDwU4re common; they arc li»1«d in order o< Trtatlvr &b 

Group Merit ibiidduit ore miaenJi 

IroDfliDup. .-.-.., Magnetite 

Capper gcoup Chikopyrite. bomite, prrile, pynhiKJte. one blenih 

denitf, DutgnFtite, ipeculuile 

Lead-ainc icroup. . ., Galena asd ainc blende 

Gold type AncDopjTitc, gold 

I abwlutd^ unfriBble; Ihey are the matt icregulKT a 
bodies. Imgularilia in tcDor arr alio chaivctcrisi 
grwSg of on b dlea low. Haxx, much expIoTnt k 
Quired and predictiona ol extcDsioD far bcy^d cjcpc^ 
an unsafe. These an typically muninal deposits ( 
uui tearcb thould be omfiDed to the bordcn o4 tbc ii 
Contact depouts an not found asIodaUd nitb otrusii 
a rtvnlite, udesile. uid bssaJt. 

h. AllanUon and Swoodarr KarichmeBt 

Sapaiflclal BltantiDa ot on depoiltB. Ex 

cold, recently glaciated tcgions, ote deposits at < 

the surface undergo changes by auperficia.1 0, 

which enrich thdi upper portions, or impovcri 

Flj JS. Contact Mela- "PP^^ portions and enrich the lower. The ptocc • 

morphic Deposits of stTPERFiciAL ALTERAHOS andsKCONDABV EN»ic-i 

Magnetite id Line- both perfonned by cold, deacxnding waters, ca 

MoK. Surrounding In- matter in solution derived Irom oxidation of tbr 

tmave M«» of Ande- j^rt of the deposit. Outcrops must be interprc 

SJail^i'^sS^ the light of these cha^: if the ore in shallow. 

plST-^Contact Mini workings « pnmaiy, no abrupt change may be exj 

enli). AfteLeilb forprimary oreaaresubiectindepthonly to fluctu 

characteristic of their original fonnation. Secc 

ore may lead in depth to unworkable primary mntsial. as at R^y, Ariz. 

rich primary ores, as at Bisbee. Atiz. A knowledge of superficial chari) 

criteria for recognition of secondary oin, and of the probable charactcris 

orebodies below oxidized and enriched lones, is an invaluable aid in pniapi 

eiploiation ajid development. 

Alteration and enrfcfament prnceuet. When surface water com 
COi, O, etc, acts on an ore deposit, certain minerals are oiidiKd and with 
form uU-cnts which dissolve metals (as Ag, Au and Cu). forming dilute soli 
which trickle downward. On reaching a point whde O is no looger ava 
as at the ground-water level, their metallic content is, in favorable circums*^ 
deported as secondary sulphide. The petals dissolved may be added tu 
below, thereby producing secondary enrichment. As erosion ptogrcsse 
process is repeated; and [nth primary and secondary sulphides are dis: 
and rcprecipitated. A veiy considerable eorichment may result. In the 
mine, Atiz, the unenricbed material contains about 0.15% Cu, the cnri 
about 1%. The metallic contents of descending solulians may be depi 
before reaching the point where is no longer available; in this case, srcoi 
oxidized ores are formed. The put of the depost in irttich oxidation and 
tiongoesonistheoxiDtZEDiONX: that where secondary sulpUdes are depo 

ol the deposit below, the pumaiy tone. 

406 Prospecting and Expbmtioa 

half □[ the ton is removed by aohilloiui irhich do not diMolve the Au, tha 
ore then coDtaios o.i oz Au pei ton. 

PiwdplEBtloD of mlnenla In oxldlied lone mxj lake pbei by, (a) Satiui 
cvtpontion. by whidi m«t efflorocaica ue tonaed. m dukuithke, soalATlt4 
portant dcposiu □[ brnrlmntite- ((I OndilioD uid hydntioo. Tbe aiidatia 
pves riK to deix»its of PbSOi. which, bang uooluhlt, rcnuiDA ld tbe oitldij 
in crrUun ciroirniluKS. PbSOi is UuufbrnKd into PbCO|. SunQAHy. 
forma dcposlta t^ lunonile from iioa Kilpbida: CuO and native Cu from 
cnls; Ag and Ad may be Rleued from Bulpblds aod left or pi«d(Htkte<] in 
(r) Chlorii^ration ol Aff nunnals id a depoul baa foTDKd importaDt or^jodiem 
tf) Reaction *itb ml] rock. Somr of the metals Id sulpbale solutions may it 
lated by contact with limestoiM or otber csrbonata; lot euBipk. ihe caiboomti 
ores of Bi9b« ud Lcwivillc. II the solutiou come in conUct witb SiOb metal 
deported as tiUcate); lor enample. the coppei lilicsto at Globe, Aiii. 

Daptb of oxidation may vary from a few inches to over 2 cxd ft . 
depends oD many variables, a few generalized rules may be of vmluc 

fn varm. humid countries of low relief and high wateT-level. a shallQw ond 
may be expected- In umilai regions ol high relief and low water-level, a d«rTi 
aODe may be expected. In widely glaciated regions, or where labiccted to 1 
glaciation. the oxidiied xone will be Writing or only a few feet in depth. In cold < 
it is apt to be shallow; if oxidation took place in pre-gladal timr, arid tbe rv^oi 
been eiteDsively gUdated, the lone of oiidalioo may be deep, aA at EennecolC 
where it attains a depth of 1 100 ft. In arid regions, witb high watex-level, it u I 
■hallow. Id arid regions, with low waleT-level, i1 will probably be deep. In arij 
with no water-level, it niay t>e deep or shallow, dependent iqHD how quickly tbe' 
O WIS used up by oxidation in upper part of tbe deposit. 

CaiMr*] inforencii from ozldiied zoubb. Most ore depoaita havi 
idixed zone; it may be barren capping, or may contain oxidixedcHcs; if tlie 
cettaio infecenccB may be drawn as to the possibility ol ore boieath. If 1 
zone coQtains ores, these probably have beta formed by super£cia] chaoi 
a change not only in metallic content, but also in metallurgical char 
to be expected below. This change is of vital impottaoce ia the pru 
life of the mine, and in the mode of ore treatment. 

PredpItatioD m lecondair Bulphidas. Sulphate sotutioos whirh . 
lose their metallic content in the oxide zone trickle downward until a 1 
reached, usually at the ground-water level, where no more O is availal 
this ledudng environment, the metals are deposited as secondary sti 
According to L. C. Graton, secondary copper sulphides ate deposited' 
invariably by the replacement of other sulphides (16). 

Replacement of other sulphides depends upoD the relative scJubDitiea; a sut 
lower solubility will replace one of biflber, or, since FeSr Is idalively tmre solul 
CuS. the CuS win replace FeS,. Relative solubtliliei ol the comnoD su^ihid^ in 
log order are: HgS, Bi^. Ag^S, CuS, FbS. NiS, CoS. FeS,, ZoS, and MnS. IIo 
would not expect Id find zones of iccondary MoS or ZsS. because of their rcUtiu 
solubililies, but would expect eona of secondary CuS and Ag^S, because Ihcy 1 
lively leas soluble than many common sulphides. Secondary CuS md Ag^ arc 
commonly eocouDtered; if then is a gossan witb Cu stains, an enriched aooe of sci 
CuS may be expected, il eroaional and climatic conditions are favucable. 

InferBncsa  to CMnpleteneM of •nriduiiMiL This depends^ up 

(a) Rats of oxidation. The rate at which Baterial is released ban the tnidii 
depends chiefly upon rate of enwon. length oi time involved, elimalk ODOditio 
mealriUty ol the nek. and lopocnphy. Raia or EaosioH, Ores are first tvougbi 
Tcach of oxidation by erosion of overlying rocki- If erosion removes the top ol ibe 
faster than it can be oiidired, no oxidation, and consequenTly an earkhment. resu 
ondation proceeds faster than emsioD. oiidatioD will be halted by tbe ground-wati 
because the latter coolonns q>piox with tbe Inpofltaphy and is dcpfwed at saD 

Proapecting and Ezidorstion 


MmemU usu- 

ondflTj' (^u^ 
phide) enrich- 
mml origin 

Hiamis iuu- 



Native copper 



Native «lv« 








Native gold 

Native gold 













•Iron «.]phMei 

kben clulcodtr' 

■dace Uh ongi 
ptude. Upon 

DDdary. or oadiicd, according 

lirly even profile, and may thua be 

t pridiary minendf. IF the mint workinss an in tbe i 
 nature and value of the ore that will eiist beneath may 
nuning the kind and abundance ol the origiaal sul[^<: " 
ly ores. For this the miciDaaipe is necesmy. If detc 
liry sulphides replace lean FeSi, then lean pyritic mateiial i 
th the secondary zone; if thtS" replare galena, bornite. and i 
luable primary ores may be expected. 

t. SyttemRtic Surface Explontton 
lOTough ■nrface exploralloii is apt 
[nation wbicb dther piohibili or alk 

410 Ptospetdug and Etpbnatim 

Tradng hj paanlne (Sec 31, Art 
panful of dirt should be Uken each ti 
Ulive. The mineral obtained is weigb 
bei and wt ol each trace being eateiec 
*3 cuefuUy u good shawin;^. Havir 
can be done (ystemaCically at comers 
crops, or below (Hobable location of di 
oi finding oresboota and detennicioK 
TtenchinK. For a ungle orebody a 
iotervals, at right angles lo course ol 

should be stak 

Unce between 

body and dept 

determine aver 

together thai] c 

The But tRw 
geaenUy reduce 

trcDcbLDg abaff tl 

IrcDcbing botli w 

Vlbcn Urje dril 

Good sbowingi are eip 

■Urted where the soil id ahallowot; devpti 

Tilt jAtt for systianatic surface 
J eiploiHtion ace qMced on comers of 
squares. Principles iuvolved in their 
location are same as for boreholes 

SmnintiT of ie*ulti. AH expo*- 
UTCS in exploratory openings are 
measured and sampled^ width% 
assays, and any further geological 
data obtained ^ould be entered on 
the map, and geological cross-sec- 

pret structure. Results of shallow 
exploration may often be summar- 
ized by computing from area of ore- 
body erposed the tons of ore per ft 
ofdepth. Depth to which the known 
orebodies must continue to repay 
estimated cost of development and 
equipment and yield a profit can then I 
local geology and type of orebody, fum 
Uifratioii of outcrop*. With lu 
diiqnng 90°, the outcrop is in a straigh 
i^igil.A). Outcrop of such deposit! 

Prospecting and Explotatkm 

tioD of oulcropo. For 

SMIdnl probtblg looUon ol ontcrop on Ost eniimd a done in dtlFenrnt 
Plol prnbablc outcrc^ on n conlour mp, «nd l«y out this lime on grouBd by ori: 
veying methods, (ft) Set up a Iraiuil aver & koawn paint oo outcropi and pi 

cn>p, tA tot sIjLde atakn in milnnil work. Tiiis cnethad iDvc^vn mucb ckIcuIvD 
cinbcTeducedbyiuingalopfr^tAkedii^rairdr (c) Use tranait with SbAttuck so] 
meat (jj); set the Attichment lo that when it is revolved the deflected line of ci 
will gRicme a plane at right angles to the leleacope. Transit is Kt up o-ver a 
outcrop, main (elescope oriented in a line pen^endicular to atrike aiKl the tdesfcj 

of J 

- - toq 
i£ ftmnnd ia lighted, each atake will be alightly off Lhe col 
hrror IS slight II the outcrop ia traced rrom one iet'Uj>; where many sUtioos 4rc| 
error is cumulative, (d) TlanslL and top teleacope. Looaea capstan aCTdr. ACj 
top telescope will revolve In a plane paTaJlel to nuin telescope. Set traDsit o\'cii 
Dutciop, orient main telescope in a line at right angles to strike, and turn main 
down until it) line oi sight la parallel to the dip |vert angle - dip angle). The: 
scope then revolves in a plane parallel to plane of vein. A rod wiQ give tme J 
Dulcropt if sighted on at an elevation — height of instrurrvnt + {t + tts dip I 
vein)^ c, a coostaDt for any instrunvnt ~ distanoc bf^ween cents lin^ of top ^ 
telescopes, (el Bninton compaia. if set oo a light tripod with a ball-and-socket in 
is accurate enough (or Imcing ouLctopi shoit dialances. The spindle of tbe iin 
la tilted to a position at light angles to dip; then ughta will rotate in plaDc of ' 

7. SuT(««e Proipectiiig and BxptoraUon. EiamplM of Practl 
ITov* Scotia (24). Systematic prospectiDg is done here for eoldi 
vdnfl in regions covered by deep glacial drifts Prospecting is contined I 
lively unati areas, in vhich rich float occurs. Surface is fairly level and oi 
conditions causing float to move downhill are absent. The general direcj 
glacial movement was a little east of south, 

Pmpecting methods ire based on reoignitlon of fact that while glacial drift q 
rocks brought from a distance and entirely different from tbe underlying bedrockj 
be composed largely of material of local origin. Sccpience of operations ia as 1 

are recorded details of geological structure. draioBge lino, course of glacial trunsp^ 
distribution of gold-bearing float, position and d^th of existing pits. Acompas*! 
ii usually sulficicnt. Pinhinc. About 900 pans are taken from old dumps, surf^ 
beds ol brooks and sida of old Ireachesorpita. An exact record Is kept, ahoving U 
of Hrnples. number of pons taken, character and composition of drift (wbich mj| 
clue to iu source), and number and ai« of colors in eacb pan. Results are recorded 1 
map and summarized by drawing two lines, one encloaing the arfm in a-bjcb do^ 
occurs, and the otha luniting the area containing shotty gold and large colors- 1 

liminary work. It usually confirms inferences drawn from the distribution of Qoi 
prevents work in barren sms. Two men, panner and helper, usually do Iliis war) 
or 5 days. Test frs are then sunk. A notebook is kept showing each pit in cn^ 
on a Urge scale. Following details are noted; (a) depth, thicknos, slope, iryjde q 
mation and compoaition of each layer in the drift. Ea^h layer iji given a^ 
future reference; (A) results from panning each layer; (f) aheencc or presence of j 
quantity and estimated value per ton, numbuof pieces, size, degree of wear, and chao 
of each variety and its associated minerals, as an aid to identification; (^ details c^ 
rock. dip. strike, cleavage, results and direction of gladation; (i) depth and amod 

material lor sinking and timbering. Items r, /, g are useful for cacinatinB future ^ 
All pieces of gold quarti an kept for compariioD with Boiit from other ikafls; thc)l 
niunbeml aul put in bona. Caou^EcnotH show bc onkily attangcBeai of a^ 

11, by 

ed by : 


Proapecting And Exploiatioa 

For ^t* f»t«^ ^filontion of flit misive depoaita, drill boJo ate locmtfld on c 
•qoara. A (ystenuitic amngeiDCnt i> caicalial, U lecun impuiial lunplcs a 
mUrvali and aimpUfy aubaequeat caiculaliona oC toiuL 
aver valuo. Interval in 

in type a[ orebody. Qucatitmi ol oM uigc Lhat 

ia UucknEM and on itRguluity of 

n BiL Tint bole an (ciiRaDy loca 
tcfcRDCc to gulo^cal sttuctuR. UndHgiouiid nae 
ODDCCIIon with anliclines, monoclinB, ayDcliaca. and faulted tones 
jl be drained by dik well ia varioualy estimated a 


■a" (ji), L. G. Huntley Cjj) »¥>: "In ipaiing wdh the utOiaiio 
' c oil id a pool and the tbomugh drainipg of the maxiinURi an 
territory wilh the miniinuin number o( welU are the main considnaliou. As rc« 
6r«. the wellj almuld be apiced cloaer together acR» Ibe dip of the fonruiion jh 
the dip^ In many fielda the territory a divided amooA i oiunbeT ol <^)era1orv eai 
ing to eitract the most oil poaaible before his neighbor has a chance to take t 
luually remits m the balden of inull leaia drilling many wells dose to bouniU 

effect of one well on anotbe 

pnclice in Ibe oldei &eld> 

Tbeoreliully. if oil well 

ranged as in Fi« 51. Tab 


to drill w 

ce wdlg In 

onlToi auffidenl acr^fc tbe i 

jne draitia^ area, they slioul 
: with (his diafiam. 

DriU niadi are a serious item ol expense in swampy districts, and where tbe toii 
is iteep or rough. Standard ri^ and diamood deiils (eicept Uiisoun type) ate a: 
*a«ons requiring mads about ; [I wide. For traction chum drilb (Keyatone N 
Star Ko jj). used in porphyry copper diatricta. hillside roads art iBWle 9 ft mid 
solid. The fill Li relied on only in case tbe macbine skids. Mti gnde advisabte 
which it alto about the limit (oi tearai hauling fuel and water. Tnction diilb c: 

Prospecting aad ExploratuHi 












, in drilliiK 4 hoha in Uk Paiciipiiie district. Ontario. (0 
in Table 7. Orcbody cduiited of ■urifatui qoKiti mtrinj 
lenica in aduM. the latter carryiaA qo 
Often the only core itcoverad frDm a j 
CQOfliatcd ol ilxirt pieces i>f qiurte of a a 
[eivth o( not mw S in. Veluei in the sli 
not uerBpaikd Tith tbe richer KCtions of t 
but a;9eved s to 10 [t bekiT. Dn^ o 
«u roughly pmporlioutc to the <iepd] at w 
<nu cut, and Ihtle tmuhle wiu expi 
(iDm caving. Water Bipply was 

TheoRtic^Iy. It takei about 7] 
0.08 m diain from 1 depth of tea 

, TheKco 
mDation ol iludfe fmi 

3 8 in 

se the larger and 
poDdinccote. ti 
m walli. and loia oI «l 
be obtained by weighing or measiihng Kludge from a ujnple nm, and 4 
ing remit with calculated wt or volutoc. This gives an index of reliability of the 
and ibows vbere caHoi; is aeceviary. Volume of sludge: cu in - 0.7BS4 (UP - 
where L - in drilled. C - cnrr Rcovtml, in; D- dius bide, in; Di -diam of < 
Combinlns con ud ilndge uulyiaa. Follawing metbods arc u; 
diamond-drill samples: (a) Core and sludge from a run are combined and u 
giving correct results when the sludge is all from the sample run in qu 
{b) Core alone is 

assayed; correct TablaS. Rstiilt* at Two Method* of A*Myiag Diunoi 
only when com- ^^** *"■" ^'^ °"* '^' J "'^ '4°* 

rare. Sometimes 

mated from its ap- 
pearance (Art II, 
SE Missouri). Oa 
the Rand, cores are 
split longitudi' 
nally; one half ia 
assayed and the 
other hied for refer- 
enee. fc) Sludge 

only is assayed; correct only when none or all of the core enters slud 
beiDg ground up in core bairel. (J) Core and sludge are assayed sepai 
and 4n arithmetical average taken. This is incorrect, because volumes c 
and sludge are unequal, {/) Core and sludge are assayed scparatdy aiul 
values combined in proportion to their volumes. This gives correct n 
also the cores may be split and one half kept lor geological study. (Sarai 
Table 8, were taken in s-ft lengths.) 

Calcnlatloni for combiniBg core and (tndg* aaalyiM. Let O - dJam hola, 
Ka in; L - in drilled; C - coR Rxovered. in; Vi - cu hi of oore; Ki-cutaol^ 
sludge. ■na..A~ '^ ' ^^y^*'^ ~A,^+A,^: I 



Aver value (■■; P 

Method (i) 
















Core .... 

J9 6sl 


Core. . , . 


a. 30} 







424 Prospecting and E^qjloratkm 

H.L. Seward hucnutnictedtlie dUgns (Fie («■ In™ '•l>i(A'*I<»«f J^ 
be obuioed (or tU cub where the wnple run ii s ft « le» W™ •»•« t 
■ad Z. i> 1b> thin o.i, eflicl ol con luHy may be neglected, uid uuy of iludgi 

Chnm-drtll MUnple* (»e also S«c 9). With boUow-i 
lot flusbing, samples aie caught a> for diamond-drill sludge 
with rape drills. The 6 to lO-in bits employed with thcj 
lamples. At Miami, in a s-f ™n, a lo-in bit cut about 4 
bit, j6o lb; S.ij-in bit, igo lb (41). Practice in handlin 
oC material varies. Wati^ and thin shidge are lometini 
and heavier cutlings dumped into a bucket for assay. Thi 
at slime and serious etrora in assay, especially when drilUi 

KeyitoiK Driller Co RCDOunends that the sand pump be di 

ihown in Fig i9. built of i-k luriacid lunber aod set on Ion 

Tlie punii. 

H I h% if- 

Fig SB 
wept out Ihnugh Ur^ ptug be 

LVing chakodte slime make II 

divider^ biull like the Jones riffie sunplei (Sec 30. 

L. S. Cata lumisba dnirbig) of a splitter 
uiedby RayCoiuolCo. It consists of i launder 
(Fig W). iolo "hich the pump Is dumped and 
irtiich in turn spilh into the splitter (Fig SI). 
Fig 62. ft3 ate drawings ol the riRtes. At Kar, 
the last split (about 40 lb) is dried for assay. 
Five tubs an provided For each drill. Sampla 
an taken in ;-ft lectioni. Sampler keep* a record 
and pins tludge Innn upper portions of bi^ 
When specks of mineral appear, the 4 previous 
samples arr diird. u that assays of ground rs 
ft above first viaible mineial arc obtained and 
uselcQ eaayiog and drying avoided (41). Sim- 
ilar devicn an Lued in other districts, giving a 
final sample CDntaining o.jj to 0.06J5 ol tbc 
total cuttings in a lample run, depcading on 
number of splitters used. 

Savannah Copper Co. Burro Mtn district. 
N U, dried samples in an assay o&ce at a dis- 
tance from drills. If ilud^ showed visible mia- 
etal, it was reduced in splitter to about 4 gal; if 

Into t-gal milk cans, with tigbt.fitlin^ covers, n 
which they could be IraDsportcd in wagons withot 
Isr 3 drilb, kept notes and chicked drilleii'mea» 

^6 Prospecting and Exploration 1 

ta( abail lor not tuople. Tfab ptdccdim b cottly tnd cBttM uivuitace of dn 
b botfa cbeipDeu and ipnd- AJiOi itx icunlnf and h*n^iii*£ cuiD« in d«i> bole 
wheel b Rquircd. whkh ii not usualb 
DO portabl e chum driUi- Aa appm 
to above p»Kedun ii obtiined ihr 
by tuitist hole Hitb a laise bil. a 
tm aooo ai ilud^ ihovi mtnermJ. and < 
bisbokiritlia imalkrbit. Wlm D 
•eriout, anotbct ciaiiit pipe is insene 
tbe fint and drilHog it EraumBd wi 
■mailer tooli (Ait ii, Porphriy a 
In uy giveo dlMrict, pi 

iple. In chum-drill bolea, viIuh toni 

Lined by di»luC 

implete recovery of 

tioa ol both UitLu 

^prehole raiolto ihovld b« cbvcked by meani of ah&fu or raises at v 
Intervals, eqiecially in new districts and where they are to be used as  ba 
takulating tonnage and Bvet value. 

U. Boilni Racorda 

Fonaa are needed for keeping costs, and for preserving samplin); ini 
logical data. Fig 64 shows typical cost-keeping form (or dismond drillin. 
65, a simiLir form for chum -drill work. Fig S6 is an admirable daily record 
Fig 67, 68 are farms for aummariiing drilling, geologjcsl and sampling d 
coimection with Fig 64 (jS). Fig 69, 70 are combined forms for tindery 
diamond drilling; the snuller is (or the foreman on each machine; head i 
makes up the larger lorm, which is filed daily in chief Bigineo-'s office (41 

Printed [orma are preferable to natebooks. as Ibey leeuR iinUonn data, la imil 
chuni-dnlliiig, the umplel'a field notes aic ofloi nconled io so oediuiy iurv(]«'i 
lit book. The bole is drawn to Ksk on one pH«c, and rack iormation. chanftl mp 
depths, w^ter-levcl.chitracler of minera l UatbD. and lample numbers are entered in J 
poeitioa u they are obtained: the oppc«te page a used for ezplanaliocu and oChrr 1 
Theae notes are traoKribed into  limilv kxoe-leaf book lor oEke loe. io whidi J 
an also recorded, Complele detail ia essential in interpretlDg results. Besida the j 
reconb should hiclude: date of itutiog and Gniibing hole; total depth: kxaliin dI 
devukn of oiUari lime for casing; namn of drillcn, Mnplas. and bdpen (see alio ^ 

Ptatttac bwabola*. Drawings of drill hoka, ihowiog fonnatioQs and i>r 
and uay of ore, are oftoi MCOHuy for inteUigait oomputatiaa U tnt y 

[ToiishelvcsmsybeiuppannlstiDtciviltoC 1.5 in on ike jida of A-ibipcd [tunc 
11. SztmplaB of Boiine and Sampling Pnctics 

Porphyry coppen. These orabodies aie large, low-grade deposits of c 
mineials (usually chalcodte), diuemmaled Id altered and shattered mom 
porptyryi granite, or nchist. They have laige horii dimensioDS and are ovi 
by leached sonea (capping) varying in thickness from □ to 6m or 700 (t. Atte 
was fiist drawn lo »ine of these deposits by favorable surface indications; « 
were discovered wiiile working higher-grade deposits in Iheit vicinity. 
range from 1.5% to 3% Cu; loner limit & a conunerdal one. 

Boriot practica on tliae deposits in diSeieat districts varies only in minor d 
Holes are boird on cotneri ol 100 to 4O0-[l squires; moel often, joo ft. Dri 
raulls SR checked it intervals by lest pits, raises or witucs, and by drifts nrn ofi c 

HHrnpIo of this type ol orebody, and relative amouDts of boniiK and UDderEtound 

ID began. 

velopment woi^ prcparatoty to mining; figures for Ajo cover txi^irtalioo work 1 
Most boring has been done by steam-driven churn drills. Traction drilk. Keystone 
Star So 33, or Cytlone drills of Mrmponding aiw, hive proved ulisfactory. Hxpe 

At grtater depths, cost per ft of hole iocieBses rapidly. For holes uptoj^fl deptb.i 
comsponding in siu lo Keystone No ] are cheaper, lighter, and large cnoofh. Fl 
tails of cbum-drilling practice on tbe porphyry o^pers, kg Sec 9, Art j, Tabla 9. 
13. 14, and iSr for chum-drill sampling practice, see Art 9. Webber (^ rmCea xtr 
in away between drill iamplts and those taken from check raises o( as mocb as o,. 
ore mveraguig j%. H. A. Fu!d (49) reports that " where raises have been cut irnuni 
botes, the on from the lain averaga sevnal tenths higher than the lesvlt: (run 

433 Picepecting and Eiploration S 

Chilg KxplDntUa Co, Chnqiikwniita, Chile. F. Yatniaa and E. S. Berry fural 
kxrini data on driUing Imn begiDding of waA, April. 1911. ta Oct. 1914- Hieh 
doc to atiumluHry mpnisa and troubin incident to suiting noik in a rEmole I 
At fini Ibere Here numennu small difficultia in gdliog (uel to drills; wkter had 

being installed. Delays during firsi 6 monlla' operation, due to late delivery of 
pvt* Irom U 5, caused shuttiif down of tome drills for weeks at a lime, while wl 
driller) and belpen cantinued. 1 1 bi^ wen ov« i ooo ll ( 
and I ooo It. 8 cbun drills wtie putthascd. coating, with ni 
on pTDperty, about (67 000. o ti .47 pa- ft ol bole drilled; tb 

it of bole on most [avonble sbowings. to see whelhEi pn^ietly bad pomibilities of i 
a mine. Diamond drilling could be contracted at (4.7; per it; no cbum-drill contl 
were available. The Lmited lime mjuord apenLtion of i drills. Cost ol buying ] 
drills was tS ooo; c«I ol chum drilling was estimated as (j per ft- Aisuiniiv lU 
CDHts equal for both drilU, and allowing nolliiiig for 7 chum<drill outfits al expiial 
work, diamond drilling would save ts 37s an 1 joo ft of hole. That factors, csib 
■rilh risk involved, led to choke ol diamond drills. They gave accurate saanple^, al 
results wananled turthet Mploralion. To secure iiniform lampling data, work *a 
tinucd with diamond drills at contract price of %& per ft. Eatremely Tough topof? 
whkb would have prevented construction of drill roads, also induenced choice ni 

««l sludge dried 

ind quaiteied to 1 01 

4 lb. Small 

samples of 

art and sludge (rori 

by 6 tl, aver depth 

nfc to chttl 

drill hcje mult^ 


ck was sampled ui 

sunk; later 

cut on all 

aides ol each shaft. A little 


the following work; S, diamoTi. 

Irill holB, 

t deep, tool. ,j „* 

SI] ft drifting in suj 


ores; ! 7:1 It ihalti 

drilling; I 

Shaft samples in cariwnale ore avenged 0.005^ lower than conespondin^ dni 
samples; shaft and mtse sample; in sulphide ore averaged 0.05% lower than dril 
sampjes, luid drifts in sulphide ore averaged a.16% higher than valua indialed bj 
holes at comen of blocks. (This nmarkable agieement appean to be due to uii 
character of ore. rather than to any inherent accuracy in diamond-drill sampler .Aul 
Table 11 gives coet of drilling, bwd dd 17 ^lo ft of hole, and cost of «nking 4 ooo 
shaft; superintendence, office and engineering expense are not included. Note thaj 
eluding sampling, a js-ft shaft at AJo cast Irss than a jo-fl drill hole (17). 


. Coit>>(AjoCopp*fUl»,Arii 

Diamond drilling 


Shaft linking 

C«t p 

Contract price 


16. « 








ij it. Last few ft of ihafta, iij ft deep, ccst oret tjo st 

Proqiectmg tad Explonttion 

not cKccd 1 H lone if bogBf tiaa i ft, it muu be split oa top I 
BO th^ iludce coUectioe in pipe aaj be lecDr Set Ixu level, i 
evenly acrosB whole width at fv end, ind wedge partitioD 6i 
botloA of btu. Top d[ putltioa should be j in bck>w water k 
Rceive umple. While drilliDgi care must be tAken that do wb 
■round or over the tee, except through pipe leading to Bhjdce bo 
fnm ben ind ibe plug ai the end muit be tigbt. Sludge aampl 
drilled, oe Iqa, peeferably fnim evirn j-Et iotervak; that i«, fro 
etc Whenever a lamr^ ia to he taken, drillinc miuc be tto{ 
c lean. Pipe leading to iludge box must be cleaned out into 
then be itopped or tee timed h that waler will ao( diicharge in 
partition in hoi, lo aa not to atir up sludge. When ilud^ h 
watet, keeping end of liphon near aurfice of water, and not dill 
fine aludge Inm the botlora. Slpbtm may be allowed to Ooi 
ofi with water. Take out boae and thoraughly mix sludge in b< 
placed in a pan on a boiler Ifl dry' Pan muit be at least S by i 
bottom, and ii thoroughly cleaned each time before  aample 
water cannot be drawn oB. without disturbing sludge, so thai 
in this pan, lat a large: pan. Wbeo aludge hu bem denned ovt. 
washout with apoilor twoof wata, then replace plug and pofl 
■larled again. Sludge muit be labeled, giving depths betwi 
taken, and muit all be saved and lumed over lo inspector wbec 
or in other ferruginous or red material. While drillljig in mat 
duuld be takeo. if water ii lost, or U sludge does not come up 
taminated with material caving from upper part of hole, drilli 
bi^ is put b such condition thai good sludge can again be ot 
pennits drilling to proceed. WheoEver drill runs into or out of o 
trig must be stopped, and sludge box cleaned out, without wa 
nm. When drill mm out of ore, continue taking and laving slu 
ft, no matter what the material, k thai it may be determined 
Con. Keep core leparate from >lud<e; Each lime core ii p 
bMWBBI which it was recovered. Each run of con is kept » 
and timed over lo inqtector. When core is pulhd. if it is ioun 
in pfoportioa of i ft of core to lo ft of drilling, sludge box must 1 
to complete the s-ft tun, and Ihe sludge labeled and saved lep 
iborter dtstaiue than j It b in box at end of tfaift's work, and if 
of cole Ib saved, sludge may be left in box, provided shanty is loc 
from outside. If anybody csn get at the box, and if there is i 
be removed from box, dried, labeled, and placed with othd lai 

ICssabl Ruge, Minn. Orea are maisive, flat dcp<H 
bariz extent as compared with tbeir depth. Orebodies 
100 [t thick, and may extend latemlly for a mile or mi 
by 9ih1 and gUdal drift averaging 6s ft deep. Fig S3 [ 
■ection. There are lew surface indications of ore. £ai 
test pits througb Ihe drift, and as fat into ore as pen 
cost for handling water, hoisting, and ventilation. Eij 
from bottom of these pits by boring. At present, both [ 
tion are done entirely by boring from surface, which i 
avoids dangers from numerous open test pta. 

Bodng icmctlca. Both churn drilta, with perfonted Ut aod 
drilb are used C)s). with water under pressure for Suahing ci 
drill) are used in surface drift, soft tack, and ore; diamond drills 
fomatiooi. Hole^ are churo-diiiled to hard rock and cased w 
inpe. Diamoru] drill is then used imtil ore is struck ot hole aba. 
ol ore ii found below taconite. bole is enlarged by blasting, a 3-ir 
cootiiUKd with churn drill. Caung is kept close to bottom of 
mat tracts, and for preliminary praspecting s boles are put doi 
otlhe bolet n ' ' ' 

Proq>ecting uid Exploration 

438 FroqiectiDg and ExtJoratioD 

ATerai* value uid toniuK' <* ■n orefaody U ciJcubtcd from boi 
tulU in dlSerent ways, depending oq ore occuntace and infoinution di 

Bnmple*. IroD-ore dcpMiti aX Mm ud MayiK, Cuba, utd placer diBl« 
ertie), ui eiunpla of BurToce orebodia with do ovcrburdeii, and Furly irculi 
For wch oRbndia. atinutn hr mide tlius: Let V,. Vs . , . f,- xvtt vilu 
ol drill boki I. 9. J, . . . h; A^, A^ . . . A^ - mpeclive insi o( inSueaci 
bols. tnh;iy,,D, . . . D^- mpeclive deptbi cA tiolei. ft; A - EnUl tm c 
V - liver v»lue of depout; D - iver depth; T - total tonnage; C - cu it r 
pUcei II - aumbet of holea. Then. 

Mi) Y-'- 

_ {A,+A,+    +A^a 7- . dP 

Area o( InSvenee of a borehola is the un in which values shown 
hole are.assumed to persist. Theory of averaging samples in genetal 
on assumption that values vuy at a uniform rate between umple poini 
assumptioD is met by so taking the area of influence of a bole that evi 
within it is nearer to that hole tliian to any other. 

H for hole* iptced irrtculariy. 

They endow polygon ahcdi 

the nde oC which is Ibc 

between bob*. 

Practlee In S B H 

H TTie following practire 

Federal I.ead Co is qiioi 

B. A. Guess (55). 

Fig 81 (rra« A I M E. V0I48. p40) Fig SI slKnn put o( . 

%nx ia which diilBoK hu 

 Bumber of pay hola aod the onbody hu ben [Jitted. Poctkn A. area - 1 

(t - J7 -WO M ft: portion B, area - ,s, y 66 ft - jj ijj >q It: tot*l - 60 ; 

In falcaliiing iJiickneu ud grade ol orebody, each bolt ii Gni cooidcnd tTi" 


440 Proqxsctmg and Exploration 

lurfiKC and top and bottom of orebody. Usually, eileDsioa of ore bej 
bole in any section is arbitiarily set at a distance equal to depth of on 
hole, and bottom of ore ia assumed to be a line joining this point wit! 
of bole. The i aets of sections are checlted against each other, and fn 
Umit9 of otebody arc outlined in plan (Fi£ 82). Three piclimiiuury t 
are then made as follows: 

(i) Total tonoasa is cnmpiiled from srei of orebody and its ava depth. 
frirwEdsc&liapeDEcdfcaof ORbody, the line iiiari;«l ^' limit of area for total ore i 
(Fig 82) is drawn Icdf-wiy up the ilopts on mufins of the oi^wdy. Ar* cd 

planimcter. aver depth of ore a compoied from borehole data, lad cu It pes ta 
mated fn>m tola and upoienu. 

5 s » S ! S = 


Prospecting and ExfJoiBtioa 

oof drill I 

inonhody iiMTMnn u lower-grade ore a included in it. A. J. Sale (te}st 
Rwtbod of uulyanf these vuinbla. Before itverifEB ate An' 
ue corrected for tail] recovoy^ corrected valuea bang called het tsm <nm^ itet^ 
tioBS are then constructed to include on margina of orebody oie bavioff tninini 
amysof Bay i. i.j, 3. j-S, vid 3%Cii' EsdmatQ of tonnafe and aver vmJue (tu 
grade] are made for each minimum net % lued, and naulta plotted ai abown in 
Curve of net productioa. in lb of coppci, a computed from known pointa on cl 
tonnace and net mean gnde. IntopoLuioni made on theae curves ihow at (Dec U; 
of includiiii ore of any minimum net grade between i and 3%. Thit device a od 
limited to the ipedal conditions outlined above, 

11. Ex^onttioii bj SbafU, Tniineli and Drift* 
TrndoTETOuod eiploratioil is undertaken where oxiditioai prevent 1 
work, or where surface eiplontion gives no tnfonuatiOD a> to underlyii 
bodies. Art i contains suggesUoni u to loralion of openings with resi 
geology. General niles ; (a) Ktep workjnga in the orebody; [i> Do fits 
on best showings, to see whetber or not tbey are superficial: (c) Do tbi 
u cheaply ts possible on account of the high risk involved. 

Rwrow Ttint are explored as in Fig 86. On each oitsboot. a small 
has been sunk, foUowing sinuositiesof vein (see cross-sec A B), and drifts ore 
each dioot. Depth at which drifting starts iniuch work is from jo to too 
. ends largely on 
1 ol surface alteratic 
' level oC ground wal 
is influenced by so 
local factors that 

Fig 88. Typical Eiploiatory Woit 

y be put up at [egulai Lntervab- Workingi 
and value of ore exposed (Sec is. Art la to i. 
eae £euro, ttj^Aber with get^ogica" 
1) pro^Kct should be abandiHied; 

Further oploratiob wou 

of ctfe proved and n 
ic development Bud 
Ecpeoing shafts and 1 

Veliu outcropping aciosB  ravine may be explored with drift tunn 
raises (Fig 87). Tunneling in genera] is cheaper than shaft sinking, ai 
workings drain themselves. 

With sitcr iDFOCtAT'BY Oleic 

depth (Fig t. Art 1). laieni uplon 
tion being done by drifts, raises, an 
wiues as before. This invi^ves a 
higher risk than where workings fol- Fig 

Longitudinal Sectioti in Plane of ^ 
faults, and changes in dip or strike may can 

cut in a pinch aud not be recodniced; 

tuiubel to misa the orebody. Large 

use of croacut tunneh for early exploratioo. Difficultiea of such * 

idiedl tunnds should not be far span and there (hould be mooe) 

wnk. if orebody ii not cut at point cakulated from its surface r£p. 

144 Pro^tecting and Ezplaration 

Undargniaild eiploralion, HonUiui. R. H. Sales fumished loUi 

o1 suppLia and equipment for a crew coDaiatini; of a Foreman, 4 mini 
cook, walking in Flathead Ca, Moatani. fium Dec i, 191J, to May 
In that time they drove S5S It of tunnels and crosscuts, and sank a 4 by 
32 ft, using a windlass For hoisting. Rock was soft poq^yry; no watr 
countered and no timbering required. Wages: foreman. (5; miners 01 
S3. 50; on shaft, %4. Two small Frame shacks were built, each requiri 
I 000 bd ft of lumber. Total cost, including labot, supfilies, and ec 
was about Is 500. The list was made by a man of wide experience in < 
sort oF work in the northwest and includes no ui 


3 lE-iD himniec bandies 

6 ifrm 

3 iDDg-haDcUed round-point aluFVcls 


I Keytlime clMbsline 
a &-iq lent fUnees 

3 pkg ii bnus ihoe naila 

4 " H C H Hum naib 
I cobbler Kt 

7i, gelatine dynamite 

I yd 4«-in canvM 
square 1 ply Rubcioid n 

a yd j6-jn oil dotb 


Bhdamilli'i laUt am 
r Nd 1 blickstnith U 
r G & D tones 
1 cutter 

lb blacksmith vise 
I bbcksmith hanuD 

■o-in flat file 

6-iD Uper files 

lo-iD M B files 

meul -orker't 


lo-ui wrench 

Total cost 


C»ttmla', loUi 

e, irltb check draft 

I [ant II by 14 ft, ii 

Pro^Kcting and Exploration 



S lb 

11 lb 
1 lb 

gives Col 

UinmBU e 


C«niUieli 4 





in IsUr 

1 K>1 
IIS lb 

9 ql 
t g»l 
1 lb 
I (*■ 
] lb 

JO [b 


SJt j 

Nipauhi Hlnp 1 


BwfeirtMct S 


towing list of food o 

Mucbe> I 


G. A. P>uiwd 

J pet week by lom, 
id, S E AUska. ! 

>y (1904), $0.65. 

brought fresh be 

ef every 
. 15 lb 

'. >ilb 
. >lb 

' 3 lb 

1 weeks. Cost per 

Dried b«l 






GdUbK , 




EvvoiUed mples. 



, Cu<Ut»llCR»I>.- 




Spio... rine^. e. 

Rolled oUi 

At Iran Mt. Idaho. 10 men, including cooks, consumed following 1 
during 4 winter months. Fresh vegetables gave out and canoed goui 
used. Double the amount of cabbage, turnips, pannips, and onc-hi 
oniooa and carrots should have been provided. 


.. ijSjlb 


Fiahpotk .. 

.. i6t  

Dried w^ 



Dried pnues 


.. 47' lb 

Canned com 


Canned twnaloa. 

.. i9»dis 

Canned pwba.. 



.. )n lb 

Canoed oyslMi.. 


iHiad* liorrimfi... 




d _ I' .1 

>r Tig OS. Muun Oqicwl, Bii^hiin. Vttti V^ J 

lumerous or suddm tbey inCToue hoiatiog !L~ 

niting hoisting qjtxd. A sUaigbt inclioe (^ j 

X dip; at some point it must extend into 7U 

in such orebodia the footwall location ^.^^ 

' lacge shaft capadty. For siaall output, ^L 

1 tbe exploratory value o[ a ^ft in the ^^^ 

ii fairly legulu deposta, Urge outputs III 

I location; dunce is then baaed OD other 1./*^ 

(). TTir natire copper 

occurs in cmglomerate 

. of dfatrW* a j7- to 11 

:•. Opmton diHer a> 

t: W Bins lor loadinc 

ind I« tht moil pan 

rt fmm can. u H doi, 

« in many mines. ») 

. loatvin ^*a^t than I 

« a shaft b Ihc vein; 

is pmented by .ubrti 

»ity for ilmft pillars. 

unk in ore. and which 

mr^^onto s^^lais, 



rofthcdepDtit. Some 


ric< «T.«. depending on 

afU have b«n lunk in 

the lode. Itisanopen 

It .bould not bt gunk 

in tbe vein, and lateral 

!Iheon*ody. Tbew 

oricing Ihaft could then 

b. and pUcal In van 

or ioatwail in thi lilht 

IbeskipliiaicsTDpopeedlB iDc1io«d iliafu la > 
I>06»ib3? ODly wkb itnwbl ibifls. r»d loUijig 
ID «rU conglnjcLcd verlicAl fliifti hu reached 

lut materia] incicsK in crou-KC o[ shaft, and 
:dStiDg sptol- SidCe the trmck iirppaita a por- 



on for it! npEioit 

or over thick onbodies. ev 


ixn CDondentiai ud Umil 


wslimu. U™UxvHtial 

ihifli c«t le» for 


tlinbcr ud keep it 

hibiU Ibe UK of inclined shafti. 


tok in (he footinU 

ii unpoTtaot in plamuDf devdopmenl in amM ^ J 

deei^-levd projen* (Art »)). \, J 

: Uatbodt of DsTelopinmt p — 

ranmualy afieclioff both mode oE entrr and C-^'J 

ttiat drvdopnKAt nuthodi vt a compAjmue ^!>^_J 

odilimB often predominate in final choice- ** ^^ 

inous regions that a tunnel entry secure) 3t3 

:. Fig96ii]ustrBtesthefutilityofpo»tive ^Z. 

\, which would inc 
ical at»S; by cooperating with the mining 
itage of drvelopment work required, and 
'£ highest exploratory value and avcad bad 

bom t Bngle large oreshoot having a flat 
position AS, length ol driiti through bar- 
h. Inclined alialts CD, if Bunk in or under 

act tSiTtxhoM- 

acnp IB] D«p-)cnl tCnci. Vamtennnd 
e a dop-lnd p€rifiBtf. (Mtrt ulvinUifa, 1 

ropa. qp«uUy ATDUcid the lurn, Fmn Kud- 

al wcBacd shih I'Z (FiK M| ind venial shall 
CB; nanli B KDvcnwl br dip <Ani6)^ IbeBil 
.dips of Iht TUnd dfavniHiy EavorincJinBl shift* 
(>o>. SoRK tnsiDccn Uvcr Uk (tatnl valicil 
ihifl (or lU aaa Ibx fmlbs ckuil uid diHcr- %/ 
cnt pomts ot view, sec B^ 3O1 70, 73. 7j)' 

Facton o( rcducrd ipenl ind increased 
wear on boisling ropr. etc, become serious 
as depth increases, and, conibmed with 
mechanical diScultirs in deep hoisting, 
have led Rand engineers to lavor stage 
boistingfordepthsoveraoooft. If proper 
storage is [^ovided at iransier point, stage 
of ashaJt,Einceboth parts of it can belioist- 
ats of hoisting reported for turned -vertical 
irmer; this is to be expected unless depth is 
afem fully utiUied. Aturaed-verlicalshatt 
t was done in the mse shown by Fig 100. 
n\ Shalli kn 190a (Lcggetl, to) 


Ullimate uki- 
do«hs. It mate 
depth, H 


;s ;s 



(64 Devtlopment 

HlchiCA& coppn ntio^ ^ 101 ihowi ipprox p 

Dip ol beds, jt' to jg*. 

Tunuick Co woclu tbc undi 
nnglDg ID depth inmi 3 409 to 
ft; bottom of BhKEl a over 1 60 

(.913). Nos. 

id KcanuTC uiygd& 
'id (he bolloii 

m ittdiDe in ibe vqd is opemted bf 
This Hu to Hve deepeomg tbe thoft and diivin^ lonir crouciits. whicb havr hi^ 
nance coat. Calumet & Hccia Co bu worked this conglomerate bed for len^ 1 
througb lo inclianl ihafii in the vcuih deepest beiog S 000 ft on dip fi9Tj)- Tbi 
 verticil shAft. tbc Red Jaclet. 1 gio ft dsep. cutting vein at ] 1S7 [t, ud bim 
per nek from ill norlhem tbifls below jGtb level. Tract lyiDg betir«D Ta.n 
■nd Tamirark (Fig 10I|. about 1 ]□□ It wide and 6 (>» it bag, is i^xoed by 11 
•haft, 15 It in loMoall and sunk from S7lb level. This shaft dips only >i'. due tc 
of pnperty lines which forced the •haft to take a dinctioa at an aofle to dip oI vci 

e iKriHed ia tbis shaft and tnuported mechanically r 100 ft oa ]7th k 
shaft. This plan saved a very deep aitd cosltK vertical ahafl. 
H halt of Fig 101 ^a nmjeclion of property lines on plane of Keanar^ ve 

of which are sunk id the vein from oulcro 
outcrop i) owned by Mohawk Co. 9 thafi 
they curve on a loo-fl radius and enter 
There are j leveU, reached by cmswuts, 

These 1 Ahmeek shafu ^urt on suifue cIok loKctner, but diverge 
Alkiuei Mining Co has alio sunk t turned shalts to Keartarge inde. 
at anglts of about So*. Deplbs to change ' ' 

with j 

inletiectiaa al shaft a 

(Fig 101]. 

Co, The turned sh 

nek and Red Jack< 

Centlnnial mine 

9IS). Bothc 

ft before 

ODtiolled by Calumn 

t A (Fiff 1011. covering outcrop i>f Remi^age t 
1 ng« 01 way 100 it wine connecting it with tbe large undetlav property shown 
these cvDdiliiMU a novel mode of entry was adopted Two iocUned thafts wen 
is tbe autcnp, ckae together; southerly (halt runi straight down the dip: other ii 

Uethods of Derdopment 

at. CaJ. haa A different purpoK. Agi^-duartA 

luu] to suTficc by 1 370 ft, Bod it* fim am a 
I mainlcniiKe ant ol I lang intUm Ibrough old 
Bklod. Red Jacket >hiII,D[CiJiuiiet|[ Heck 
^ ID »iLitUiiiry openjuj with Bimikr purrxse. It 
d nu i n tEdance cent gf h 5 4cx>fl iodiDcd ibaft. 
1 iodioed deposit, the upper puts of which ait 
Choice is between vertical. turtied-verticaJ, uid 
dejjth to VLTGiii grouod and dip of depmit, Mt 
V DunKnnia lactwa to be couidered, Orebody 


depth ol JOB 10 900 ft verticUy. In igi4. it 
itwiJI ihlft (dip Si"), IS to so ft bdow deposit, 
ended ultinulely Id I 800 oc 1 400 It. Reuom 

1 oie pockets fat I vertical shsft, because (d the K^'^ 
A£ in the lean mineraliud foutwaH unci frcb- ^"^ 
tue totniruQgoperiEioas; a vertical sha/C tode- Jf^ 
le lOo ft lower than, and 1 coo ft distant from, ^^.^ 
■halt WDukl dettm on direct to mill (74}. ^~. 
'o Bccuie econamicaj harnHing, haulage f— ^ 
t <M change diiectioa by easy curves, and V' 
mportance ol thew points varies with size •' ' 
.ulage. FoUowing u^eiticme casca: ^..J 
Gilpin Co, Cob. the laonace per shift Irom any __._ 
ui drifts properly fallow the ori with little regajd - 

Rand, amainhauligelevel, 14.5 ft wideiodei- t>J 

lest.conucts iihaftiit a veiticaldepthof 1 100 ^U 

^, It IS planned foe electric hauhve to handle K ^^ 

auU^ waysaretobedrivFOBBreqaindatiater- ^^ 

itin^ are the r^fulai diifti on the nef. Sunilar 7^^ 

m ModdeiI<HiIiia and Ugdda B mines Ijsi. T*™- 

It orebodies, influence bodoo of openings. t^\ 

ebody at its lowest point, all grades in the 
led can. A location favorable for tateial 
, and vice vets*. Methods of handling ia 
levekqxneat are also intmelated (Art lo). 
mcDt mA can be i^nned to reduce pump- 
:S). Drainage also makes it desirable to 

the lowest point of flat-dipping or baan- 
en drain toward shaft and auiiliary sumps 
inction of lateral devetopment is to drain 
s, like some MicliigaD iron deports, this 
lent work done in advance of miriing. New 
: drain before extraction begins. This also 
ikc ptunping operations fairly uniform (76). 
levelopmetit openings be run in duplicate. 
1 complete control of ventilating currents 
rints ol entry are often required for venti- 
lation affect! chiefly the location of raises 
[sTu until sreat depths ore readied. 

IS. Ifiimbar of Opaningi 
DotMiuliiiiix tictora. Ventuation and gafetv dcmmnd at 

upenin^ to surface; they are lequiicd by law la maoy diitricts. lamcta 
stapes reaching the outcrop often afiord an adequate second openini;^ 
lieries, rigid ventilation nsjuirementa compel at least i openings. Othe 
tions to be considered : (a) Requiied output may be in excess oE capac 
single shaft ; this is unusual at ordinaiy depths, as  shaft can be dt-^i 
handle large tonnages. In deep shafts, the time required to get men on 
shift through a single shaft is serious: thin, together with time for h 
timber and supplies, greatly r«luces ore-handling capacity, (b) Sepaba 
BODIES may rcquiie separate shafts; depending on their size, distance 
depth below surface, and surface ronditiona. Separate shafts are sunk i 
a saving over cost of entry from, and handling through, another sliaft 
away. This is a matter of estimate in each case; size of orebody concern< 
be sufficient to return excess cost of separate shaft out of the saving l 
Cost of shaft anliing incieases with depth, that of drifts and crosscuts di 
hence, increasing depth should reduce the number of shafts and incrc 
area served by each. Topographic or other conditions affecting surface 
port ra,iy prohibit separate opcninps; conversely, they may show a aa\-iii^ 
face over underground transport which alone wil! justify a separate shaft, 
statements ^ply also to veins in which several oreshoots occur, seijar:' 
wide barren or low-grade areas. H. C, Hoover states that if cost per ft i 
sinking is 4 times that of drifting, . 

than 1 shaft 1 [ 

Fig IDS 

m a property of consii 
length. If ore occurs scattered thro 
whole veini question arises whether it is better to ank i central shaft j1. or 2 
B and C, plated at quarter points, or several shafts. This is determined 
by method of haulage on levels. Cost of hand tramming per ton increases 1 
with distance; there is a limiting length of tram beyond which a new sh: 
save its cost; economic limits lot animal and mechanical haulage are 
Tonnage produced per shift on i level affects method o( haulage (Sec 11). 
small, it may be possible to 

install mechanical haulacc ''■I''" '1' Ha°d Tramming In Mich Copper ] 
on every second or third ' ~~ 

level, ore from levels above 
hring transferred to the 
haulage level through winz- 

Name o( mine 

length of 
tram, ft 







Cal&HecIa, Osceola 

■'   eonglomcfste,. 


Tamamck . . . 


mditiDCit; they tbo my bwanM •ooh l^iH^ li 
|, Rccsit shaft! Are futher^part; aver dinukx for 
cy m in e , with electric KwnUj* ^^^ tnin i« i Soo ft. 
0C knfUi of pn^ivty tloag strike g ku thvi t joo 
■umnk; on InngET impettio t ihifti oeic deemed 
id for veotiiitkdi (^5). Trmnsvuil law requira j 
pnnioties uc u dose u 1 ood ft. but maaUy j 000 
ud. but labor is cheap. Uany deep-lmj proper- 
Latsc arras (400 to 900 dalmi of 1.4 acm eicb): 
betmei ihafu d 3 om to 4 ooo ft (78) . Occaiion- 
with adjoiniog pnjperty. bigc anas were opoal 
mceatnlal on a feir levek hu beea iatrodind u 
i (Alt 17). Brakpu miDC. Eait Rand, ilhutnta 
to a Sat oitixxly o( large aiea; property ii 6 oao 

707 ft. They are omnicted at battom by aa io- 

iriijcb levcta are opened (79). 

•m HAUIAOE. ideal locatitHi for > aliiKle shaft 

oiag distaiice. It is obviously impossible to 

■dvaoce. In massive ortbodiea Ulie the por- 

ape of whkh are determined by boriog in ad- 

of the deposit can be found, asd the ncaiest t^*k 

int gives shortest avtr tram. ^^ 

itioaof Opaniagi ^^ 

iag locatioo of opaungs with Rvect to dip ^T^ 

■ndpoints of geology, maintauoce, haulage, ^^ 

saed in Art 17, 18, 10. ^ _} 

FEV aflects location of openings. Sites tor ^. J 
laUe; shaft and tunnel locatioDS are often 

mnaneit mine openings should avoid gulches f ~^ 

ult from cloud-bursts; in mountain regions, 0'.3 

reference to possible slides of rock or snow. 7^ 

*kHl» of SVBTACE TKANSPOBT. Lowest loCB- J^ 

s dearable, because it gives the highest backs 2(3 

determined by position of a R R for sbipinng ^— _ 

lectins the portion of a spur track to be buiK J n 

ation must also be planned mth relerence to ^-/% 

on roads, 01 other means of transpoTti this 
line as well as ore from It. Piopestv unes 
affect location of entry (Art 17, Deep mines), 
hey may Umit dump room below a proposed 

e ddivend from a mine ofKnimi at a point high 
ity tiaoafer to suiface Iramport. Such elevadon 
I of entry planned to KCure it in (onnection flrith 

utnished in part by Prof. H. S. Munroe) 
ned orebodies varies from 50 to 300 ft; com- 
( custom, is too ft, but practice tends tawarda 

I InSb; Co«. DiiltiBi is iiAtaow woti, coat- 




Irift!. , 

d Crosscutting 




B (pt=v.l murt be 115 to 150 ft. TWj 
•j; vbcR on u [rregulic. do figuni ait 
deep-level Rujd mine), wheie develop- 
lo 500 ll .part; Ihnnigtiout thediilricl, 
imh Gud by kn of iDteral od moMy 
imbet o( •riB» (that is. tbe grata tbe 

unpte. delays while wvtinff for unokfl to cleir 
It of 'diiitiDg; with natiinl ventiliitiwi, ddiyv 
; boted througb to levd ibore. On impoiUDt 
: hUeival iDdepeodent of ventibtioni but. with 
nil beyond whicb cHber iocrcued cost or riow- 
. nil [imil, cootioUed largely by lool iKIora 

ud CroNCtittliig 

I, mountings, and eiplo^ves; mmparisou 

)f rharpng and Griog; mucking; driving %^~t 

u due Co banding, slips, or well-inBrked wafls. ^L* 

■illing, venlilarioD. traiBport. etc; Urgef pluti I -t 

■bkh are distrfbuted over many opening. Fof V.J 

are much lower than those loc long tunnels. __ 

IS is same as that oi tunnels (Set 6), Un- --" 

have an arched back, whidi tends toward Sj J 

palling ofl. Importance J^ ^C^ 

and narrow openings; in uJ^Vi^'S i'^ 

iging wall often [orms the .^J^ V'ii  50 

ot broken into (Fig 103), f^i J^ ^7- 

like Fig B, Sec 6) varies |:1,/F JJ^ 

id method of mining [tig ;. [jAit-tT^ 

'' Fig in 
rifts and crosscuts is given in Tables 15, iG, 
: Co) In EXPLORATION (Art 13). cross-sec 
ly by reducing amount of macli to be han- 
toG.j It higlibyj.S tQ4ftnide. Smalln' 
: cramped space reduces efficiency ot labor, 
width of development drifts and crosscuts 
for hand tramming, n to ig in wide and 
inimum clear width of 4 to 4.5 ft for single 
rger can, cross-sec of openiog is designed 
■r and posts of drift sets is usually 11 in 
ireen Car and lageiog. or room enough for 
t. For safety in untimbcred openings, at 
and wall on one side of drift; clearance on 
ioimum clearance between cars «i doublfr 
I are always desirable, especially for high 

id heav7 can. Shovders need a tatal width nl thoat 7 ft to 
n of a '"'"I I cai at face of a drift, (e) Dkainage dficses for I 
louats of water may increase width of drift or crosscut beyond 
ly car (Sec 6, Fig 12, 13). (d) Rajuirements for ventilation 
tennme minuDum size of opening. Design of ctosfriec must 
r vcDtilatiDg pipes, if used (Sec 6, Fig 11). it) In veini up to 8 
ift5 in oreshoots are often carried full width of vein, thus rcdui 
rforeobtained. (J) HEioHTorDBinsaudcrosscutsisaniBlter 
,S ft dear is about the minimum. 

ng uid croHCiittiii( by hand diUUni is done in coonecti 
ory work (Art ij) ui small mines, where expense for pUmt is 11 
1 in districts where skilled labor is not available for running 
Drill holes are not spaced systematically, but placed to take ad 
egularities in the lace. DiilUng is done double-hand in ha.rd gro 
md in aver ground; hand augei is cheapest and best for soft 
ng few bard streaks, and in coaL 

■n drifts, 7 to II holes, 1 to i.shdeep.annBxssaiy loadvincs face i. 
UTQ vary widely with hardness and toughnos of rock; in aver ground bji 

er shift in 

oclt Gim, fairly hard andesite, ad' 
Oiift <St). At RnvoLTTE. Ncv, 1 
irly soil miovraliied porphyry, tt 

'ueompleted in 5a 

-drilling Einj^le-haJul in 5 by j-h drifta and < 
'ATyJng from hard banded to soft KranuLu 
, adv.iK« 1.304 ft in drifUand 1.1S7 ft in  
liner drilling sicijle-liandia drifts 4.5 ] 
ikes o-s to 3 ft per «-hi thift. aver i I 
ly other niHi). Table 14 is record of 
:, S by 7 It: length, jn-s ft: aver tram i 

in 91 days. Aver advance per man-shifr 
Siperday, 4.13 (t: aver wages per aun-ehi 

Table 14. Kecotd of CroMCOt TboihI in Ail 




Pet linear It 

- Pcrcull 




to. 117 

Il^T ft 




itioo (e.i5ol*ne and oil) ... . 


lives data for Meiican labor (1901). Daily advance (j thilta) was 1 
man-ahill low. Veotilaljoo »aa poor in timbavi drifts No 3 aiid 4. 
ptxm was low, due to character ol mck and siis of oos^^ec. 
gives following data on hand work by native labor at nuDs m Ma 
61: MEiin;aN tass: doublt-hiod drilling: » and K-in sted: Iook h 
s; Mnlcan dynamtte. 40'^c and 60%, depending on gnnmd; dcy, hoi, 
Line; average ground luujch. rather than bard; (airly clean baafnnv 

, o.jt It. Maximum advance in drifting in a we^ of 11 shifts, j'l 
m 00 nighl shilt. 3) It. Men diillcd about 9 ft ol bolts per shift insolt | 
D hard ground. Aecehtini! mime, single-hand diiUiigi H-in sinl; 

Dnfting and Crosscatting 


:i^x5. Ilriffinc«iid( 

CraMcatliiic Bipeniia ICiiM, Bl Oro, Mcz (] 


«r 1 
ance ] 

'J 2 

id of 

ace, ft 

Lb 60% 



Per Per I 

' ^ ^ 





man- man> 1 








hr, cu 

- -t 5 




3. 51 







^^ 5 JT 










.... 7 8 






 • • • 

• • R • 

. • . • 

» • « • 

-■ - 5 7 







0.63 0.35 1 


~ 5 7 







• • * . 

• • • • 

• • •  

-^'  5 ' 7 



2.58 0.43 


• • • • 

. • •  

 • • • 

• • •  

 ^V bard andesite. (6) Friabk quartz, (c) S<tft sweOiog andeaite. (d) Moder- 
isi ^hije. (t) Bmxd, ti^ aadcsite. 

-: tosinvrs. 6 to 8 lb; Eagiiali gelignite and gelatine; dry, cool mine, poor ventila- 

ot i&iesiie and granite; shifts 8 to xo hours. Aver progress per man-dtft in 

:il ai&scuu in solt gnpund. 0.91 to 1.32 ft; in hard grouiad 0.37 to 0.55 ft. Usual 

^ 'z. crJijk, 2 shifts, x man on each, excluding Sundays, was 50 to 60 ft per month in 

* r -zr-i- » to 30 ft in hard ground. Men drilled about xo ft of hole per shift in 

' ,'ji 5 to 6.75 in bard ground. 

- leTw gives following data fitom Giiksan mines, Chosen, Korea (87) : Drifts 
' ' .2 qisartz veins; 3 shifts, 4 men (Koreans) per shift, double-hand drilling. From 

t d hr-k is dzflled per xnaxk-shift Two xo»hr shifts give cheaper work, but leas 
'. VcTiLhlj advance, from 30 ft in hard to 70 ft in good ground. Dynamite con- 

« r i}<?iite. 6or^, 3 to 3.5 lb per linear ft Cost per ft, esuHuding hoisting, about 

4 w^jch $o.x6 is for timbering. Crosscuts, 4 1^ 6 ft, axe untimbered; a-shift 

( i rrta racks m soft schist, dynamite consumption was about 2.3 lb per linear ft; 

~ iti-^ aad granite, about 4.8 lb; cost per Uncar ft in sc^ ground, $2.67; in hard 

S. :^ Wages: hand dxiUeis, I0.25; muckers and tiamxners, $ per shift. 

- d: -x. drifting in m»^a«t nas mznes, Minn, illustrates cheapneis and speed ob- 
" -'TA zksd ACGEa nan I.; on account of the softness of the hematite, few mines 

: '«i vrith machine drills; arrangement of drill holes a fairly 83rstenuitic. C. E. 

-art^i gives foQofwix^ dadta (35). Woxk is on contract; two xo-hr shifts; 3 men 

..It. Men do their own timbering, tiack-laying, and local tramming to distances 

' ~ E>nltrng is done with hand augen, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 ft long; hard streaks are 

V b 3 and 64t gads, of x.35-in drill sted. Main drifts are 9 ft wide by 8 ft, mside 

' i unf ramed 3-pieoe sets. A round consists of 5 to 7 6-ft holes. A 6-ft bole is 

3 13 to ^ min; back holes axe loaded with 7 to xo sticks 40% dynamite, titters 

Ju. Vppex boles are fired and mucked first. This reduces powder cost, but 

. - X twice a round, for smoke to clear; where ventalaticm is poor, entire round is 

- Tx« Aver monthly progren, xoo to x 25 ft; contract price, %s to $4 per ft, in- 
. eitM timbering; contxacton furnish all supplies except timber. In wet ground, 
' cuirung amnf kycn of taconite, contract price sometimes reaches $5 to $6. 

'A'.Tuxjt in saaBer drifts b from soo to 225 ft per month on a 4-man contract. 
" := baod-dzivca nek diSts, 35 to 40 ft per month; contract prices, %9 to $x3 per 

f'^jd Vp to fsOW 

ar^e ia eotl of amaU hand-driven drifts and crosscuts is indicated by fol- 
. t ;rure5; local conditions, character of labor, and hardness and toughness 
>, ^ctt speed and cost. 

'•'Kiy sKcfft uu a s cut tnnnds, 4 by 6 ft, in weathered granite, $3 to $8 per ft; Idaho, 

' t ird in shale, $3.50. in hard quartixte, $10; Utah, prospect tunneb in weathered 

' .w-i quartzite, $4to|6 (88); Utah, contract prkes for 4 by 6.s-ft drifts in quartx 

t: (3 : CALXfoaiOA, contract jmces for drifts in narrow, weathered quartz vein, 

<-£ TTiDs, 16; Nevada, drifts in hard quarts vein, 2.6 ft wide, dip 4S*. wall rock 

'r. Is to $7; conftnct prices for drifts in narrow replacement vein in andesite. 

i^t price fior eqiiontory drifts in seridtind rhyoUte (like dry kaolin, auger driU- 

> .« ft (Bee also Ait 33)* 




If, dsAnWoiii' AU typs of rock drill irr vstd for dtiltuuc 

nuUA ID whidi Ihc bit u attached to tod TcdprocatcG w- 
jgc huninu-type drill, mounted Wiie a pislon-drilL S^^. 

i by attachlne air-fnd cylinder to a column or boe. Plucci 
\> (like the Jackhamei). usiuOty having a D-handlc. And bel 
Dl details o[ drUIs. iccStcii) 

Hnii urangemenl of holss. See Sec 6, Art 6. 

umlMC til hole* depends on several interrelated Facton. O 
urd limited siiate far drills; length ol drill bit then iiinilj; ai 
ramid-cuts and may force uw of diaw-cut: in tonr; mines » j.. 
rd ground, to allow more efficient arfangement Os)- Sorre 
Uiers in flat holes and uppers, or in ceitain liinds of ^touikJ 

3UDd the bit in wet holes, while dry holes give no Iroubifr; 
I as few down holes as poBsible, In general, more tcancrrxi 
it of hole reQuired for a round is not grenUt than can be 


Fig 105. Pyramid Cut 

>iie more (iltcr is sometimes necessary. Fifl 105 tgi) is 
II openings in hard ground. The diill is mounted on i 

column set up in middle of ^ _ _ _ 

Irift; the onn occupies succes- ,'.S ] ::■; 

iively positions A, A', C, aiHi ;'>^i ^4 "■; ,'■' 

7; ireachposilion.somehnlps ' ~ 

ire drilled from top and some 

rom underneath Ihearm. In 

\ soft ground, holes i and ii 

may sometimes be omitted. 

■«>iier drill is well adapted 
ir this round. Fig 106 (91) 

showa a dkaw-cui made by 

piilon drills in aver ground St 
olo; Mico[dtitts,3.sbv6.s[llosby8 
ws v-cirrin a widcrdtifl, at Homestake 
tn driftins along a vein wall, or some 
d plane of weakness, tlie 5IDE-CDT (Fig 
eous; itisdrillcdfrumaainelcsel-upoC 
nbers of holes indicate order <A firing. 

Iioles, 4 to 8 ft, making a round. IliisUted 

TabUie. :x>a 



























aM in P* 


iH in P 

iH in P' 







" c6" 

DBloge Lead Co, Mo . 
St Joseph Lead Co. Mo 
Goldfield Cora. Nev,. , 



Leonard mim. Butte. 

Portland mine 

Cripple Creek. Colo.... 

Alaska Trtsdfiell 

Sunnyiide mine («)... 

Round Mm. Nev W.. 
iMelone* Mining Co, 
[ Me1on«i.Ca] 

Ray Cora. Aril 

labella mine. Cripple 
Cr. Colo 

vc & J'C. 



Biaden Copp Co, Chile 
Miami, Aril 


' i-nun drill, t Avenge. A - Dsloraite. B - Hud limotane. C — L>ac! 
diiUinc and breaking. D — Mintialim] ihear-woe in gianJtE. £- Schist. F\ 
andeaite biecdi. G — Siliceous diorite and slate. B — Medium hanL tis'iC 1 
I - Vein nutta, alteml rhyoUte. idt and looae. / - AmphibDlke ictiut . cbo| 
inegulai alringera of quartz; medium hard, filckery; brcaka nidi; on footwatl is i 
banded quacti which is very difficult diillisc- Id £i i j, two bole* arc diiUcd ii{ 
vein, TequirinRuseDlj-in drill; Ex 1 6, no holes air drilled in Quarts and.aa ground! 
and easier to drill, Lileueiiiht Sullivan drillcasbeuied. In drifli. Ex i j and i6, l| 
drilled pamtlel to jchistosily of mck; in ctcokuI. Ei it. boles an at ricfat mnsles ] 
(osit)' and break much better than in diifls. K — Hard, biittke schist. /. — Ai 
phont^te, brKdas, etc. J< - TuS and Uockr andoite; sec Fig 110. N — Si 
lured Khisi, easy drilling and breaking. J* >• Piston drill. LY — LeyiMr drill 
Slope drill. JK — Jnckhamer. CO — Vertical column. HB — HoriioDtai bar. ' 
Side-cut, Fig 108. KC - V<ut. Fig 107. DC - Draw^cut, Fig IOC. IDC ~ 1l 
draw-cul. Fig 110. PC " Pyramid-cut. (a) i shift drilUog; i mucking: i6 ^ 
days. (A) I shift drilling; j mucking; 15 working days, (c) 25 days; j-ahifl 
done Ear ipecd; round drilled in G br; blasting in i-S hr; crew 3 driUov j helpers. ! 
menpershift. <d) Minimum. |r) 4lD5.sft advance m schist and slate; i.jfti 
in vein material, speed reduced by soft ground and necessity tor dcae timbering; d 
advance in grtenjlone. so hard thai lometimB it look > shift* to drill a round. Ai 
onth of j& working days showed siirdlar variation. Crew, t diitler. j 

(/) 3 

>.i8j lb 

iwdcipercu h. (g) Kcl 
average 1J.5 ft hole drilj 
o U we^s of tj.j shifts). 

.. *1 

M^mitju^ ttuu ^rus:icui.i.U]g 


Jpt of bole 

^.ifr JJ^ of bol 

, &5 to8c 

S 130 

I 75(<0 

I 65+ 

47 S-6o 


i ** 




? 43 






38- a 






faoe per 



3.8 to4 



3 7S 






4t04 S 





Lb per 





35 to 4 

















40ft 60 



ft per 

90-100 (6) 










191 2 


















J - ;-u' 

I xjucpks IS. x6» 17. In F.Tumplfi 15 and X7, crew per shift is x diiller, i bdper, 

j:*.c:-, in FMmptr x6, crew is i diiUer per shift and x mucker alternate shifts. 

■«T. I hdpcr, X mocker, (k) Round diiUed m 4 hr. (/) Round drilled in 6 hr. 

'• '■cT, I mocker. («) Stope driUs mouilted on a column gave about same results 

.>toQ drills. (») Contract drilfing and blasting; one 8-hr shift; mucking done 

' ;«2:,- oQ opposite shift, (f) Mounted Jackhamer, %-m hollow steel, water con- 

•qf Crosscut, (r) Dxilt. (s) These drills are bcang replaced (X9x6) by mounted 

-L' r> (V) Data, from J. A. Fulton, Supt. (x) Data from C. G. Mitchell. Gen 

. £>:ita from R. H. Ernest, Supt. (s) Data from S. B. (jordy. Costs per ft. 

* ' I, Sio to $xx; 4* aver, 9S.X5; 5, I5.X0 to I6.9X; 8, $8.33; 9, $xx.68; 10, I6.40; 

^ -: 13 aad 14, awr, $6.56. 

"-rr cDd of troo^ is sp&ed to a small stull wedged acxoss drift about 4 ft bock from 
'■'ii 9215 7 by 7 ft. in taMy ground; 6 s-ft holes constituted a round, which was 

* r ; u Z.5 hr by X dxiO. a men relieved each other, so that drilling was continuous, 
t£ sdvaace of 94.5 ft in 25 shifts (xa6). 

'^e Conaol oriae, PlodM, Her (X9X5), used X5 Jackhamen in 8 by 7-ft diifts. pro- 

>.- x. Uios of OR daily. Ore is in a xtplarrmmt deposit in shale and limestone and 

-"^ r.'jch Fe and Mn. Round required 30 S-S-ft holes; aver output per driller per 

-. tuc«: 2 shovden handled the nuadx. x machine man, working on a bonus, 

' f^. I drift in shale xsa ft in sa shifts (xa7). 

^'ict of drills for drifting And croMCittting (see also Sec 6, Art 2). 
: -t « mftrhnH% practice favors 2.5 to 2.75>in, i-man drills, for aver 
 . \ and 3.35-iii, 2-nian drills, for very hard rock. 

7vi» Creek. F. T. Williams (x9o.|) compared performance of 3Vi and sV4-in piston 

'.nri&i( J parallel croaacutsu Drills operated under exactly similar conditions; 

'>? uu hdpcr 00 the large drill, x man on the small. Result showed saving in total 


ccct ot n% with anuU drill. Rite oCulvuu with mull drilling la to 9e>% 

Kith Itrgc diilJ (96) (Table 16, Eiunpla id, 11). 
Hkh copper mlnsi in 191 1 intiixluizd i-mu diillswkd eOecttd nufhed eci 
Aluka-Tieidnell mine. Wiler Leyner i-mu drilli have replaced i-^^- 

«ir cODsumptioD i» about same as bdon. Saving io labor far raarc th&n o^apts 
ccstforbollowsltel.drillsliupeiudK.etc. 4iiiialldriilsaaacniss-liamplscBd 2 I 
loBcnHacuE i j ft wide, with no lacrtaK in labor but frmlly iDcreued sp«d or a<Iv 
Foi comparisoD ol Lcyoei and piitoiHiiiUa lOT hciriz openinji. icc S«c 6, Ajt. 2'. 
Mounted atape-drilli may be used for drUlins. far rounds like tliose ' 
drills. Mounting causes deUys in setting up and shifting, but the light 
advantages (see following data frooi Fbahklin Fuekace, N J). 

Substitution in drifts of nounlsl itopcn lor lar^ piilon drilli reduced drill 
{iwn lli^^as.^ man-brpcl h of advance and coat ol ciplmive f rom Si.&« to \i. 
Utter reduction is due to smaller diam of holes ditlled and (o fleiibllity Aiad ease 1 
itopeis wbkh permit and tutaangic more effident placing ot bolts. Com for 1 
eilikaiva wu reduced Inm ts.^ to |3.;o per It C98). 

Use of stopers and plungers (or drifting and crosscutting was devclopi 
Wc3t largely by leasers, because uf Iheir tower initial and opeiatiDg coKt& 
remarkably low cosu have been obtained with them, and they bid f ai 
place other machines in many places, especially in ground which drills am 
eadly. Objection to drifting with atopera is that the muck must be 1 
S or 6 ft back from face before drilling can begin, also in dry sn>und tl 
ducemuch dust unless sprays or water jets are used. For very soft six>ui 
ger drills, with automatic rotating device and auger bits, gjvc CKCellcnt 
(See Colby mine, under Cost of drifting and crosscutting.) 

Br«akiiig ground in drifts tnd crotBcnts. Data in Tablem 1 6 and ' 
in a general way the eSect ot character of ground an^ size of cross-aec on 
and arrangement of holes, kind of drill used, and powder conMunptioti . 
nliiationi are difficult, because of interdependent factors; the data iadica 
bilities warranting careful experiment and analy^ in plannioK TOund^ f 
openings. With piston and Leyncr drills an aver of i hole is used per 4 
face ( <- aver burden per hole of 1 to j ft). Examples ii and iS, Table 1 
citcemes in stope-diill practice in this respect. 

HucUng ud tra mining Speed of drifting and crosscuttitij; i^ ^ 
termined by lime required for mucking, rather than (or drilling and I 
If more than one heading is available and speed not essential, it is u&u^llv 
to alternate drilling and muclcing crews at any one face, thus ^vin^ (j 
clean drift in which to set up. and allowing use of full shift for drillinjc. 
especially important if drilling is difBcult, or if a large foota«e is requ 
round. General points in regard to mucking in tunnels (Sec 6, Art \ ^ 
apply here also, especially where speed is desired. Table 18, by R . K . ' 
^ves mucking and tramming duty. A plat of sheet Iron or pUnk, laid 
dose to the face before blasting, materially increases output per muckcr-hr 
on loading and tramming from chutes are included for comparison and f. 
estimating on raises (Art 11; Seen, Art 9). Rateof mucking is >Ik> aUt 
file of pieces; observations hy author in Colo gave following data: 

Car, iS l>r iB by S4 in; capacity, i joo lb; i man mucking imaQ tn«tii j i| , 
Boor filled car at rate of j tons per In; with good Sdw, 5 Io 6 tons per hr It 
mock coDUbing many bi« pieos. which tiad to be lifted into the car. i man lukdi 
per hn a men kading miied mateiiil in™ rough floor and lakin« their tunc lui 
tons permsD-hi. imen, i picking and i shoveling, made Icdlowiof rates per m 
large and email matoialmiied, 1.9 toas; all tng pieces, j.i tana; all fiot muck j 

Drifting and Croascatting 


TaMe X7* IMftiBC mod CroneutOag Data (zo6) 






















10. 8 



a. 75 

19 13 

191 z 

j-r-r liver PeaJt, Nev, fairly hard ground. 2. Cananca Consolidated, Mex, hard 

. .'V'. Copfjcr Co, Utah, mrdhim hard quartzite. 4. Mammoth Cof^xr C<v CaU 

\ <th Star mine, Cal, hard granite. 6. Ejte Consol Co, Cal, shite and quartz. 

-■ax -in^ , Colo, quazta and silicified andeaite. 8. AlaakarTreadweU, Douglas 

>j: ck^rite. (a) i driUcx, i trammer, i shoveler. (i^) i driller, i mucker, (r) 

.: i tr^-inijai; not incliuied. (d) X driller and a trammers on each shift; z timber- 

 > Lr. . <.f) 2 set-ups. (/) Indwlcs time to clean out face, (g) 1.5 hr required in 

* r T^fk !:air back. (A) Secood set-up takes about zo min. (f) Footage drilled per 

i). P'^paBtaadnU. L'^LeynadnSL "z-mandzillCaHoraH'indiam). 

- - iw 


Tratnnring Data (55, 67, zo6, X07, xo8, Z09, izo, xzx, Z22) 




.r.,.4. Cal. 

.-.'I. Cal 

rj. loriiol, Mex 

^. Iror. M Co, N S 

r-or. Cal 

: "Over Peak.Nev 
-TreudwpU. Alaska 
, y ise. N C 

"V . t Lih 

V ' V . 

■" J-ru, Colo. 

..-. r.,n5r>i. Mex.... 

-'-:»^ Co. Utah... 

': "tLlvrt Peak.Nev 

.-Tneitiwe:!. Alaaka 

>id mine. 

k 1.11. 



r-T Co. Utah- 

."ai Cop Co, BC 

. .-T Pr^k, Nev. . 

'-'i C-cin.*:!!. Mex. . . 

-t-7'"^d'»cll, Alaska 

''■-:v>* . Cal 

-7-r Co. Utah..! 

Size of 

I ton 

I ton 

X ton 

X. 35 ton 

X. 25 ton 

1.6s ton 
18.0 cu ft 

I.I ton 

28.3 cu ft 

14.4 cti ft 



16.8 cu ft 


2.1 ton 

38.3 cu ft 

ao.6 cu ft 
3.15 ton 
i.x ton 
16.8 cu ft 
1.35 ton 
I ton 

^■yj. tJ) 

lb. (r> Calculated on basis that ao cu ft 
there was not enough wozk to keep a men 
walk, recoid for a montha. 

» 1 ton. (<n 
fuUy occur' 



Ttmbotius in croBscuts ii sunilsr to that foe tuonels (Sec 6, Ait 1 7) 

Bmenlly lighlei 
tupport fining or 

■ud shoiter life of these u 
alao of drifts, but timbering in the Utter is often desij 
in the stope (Art j6-jS). Uaual fonns of drift tim 
(a) HALT SET (Fi« 112), cap Rating in a bittJi 
end and on a post at tlfc other: used wbere ba 
one lide of drift requin: support; {b) ihbee-Q' 
BET (Fig 116, ^) cap and 3 post^ lucd where ba 
both sides require luppart; b the OHiimooest i 
ruLL BET (4-piecc), made by uMing* sU to tlu 
quarter set, Ls used where the floor ia soft (Sec 6, 
Posts of sets usually have a batter of i.s to 3.5 
ft of vertical bright; incieued where Uteral p 
is heavy and sets must be maintained for a consii 
time (Fig tl3}. Round or sawed tindtei is u: 
drift sets (for comparison, see Art jo; also Sec 
iS). Size or TiifBERs. Round timbo' Is usual 
liindiam; for heavy ground and large opening: 
34 in diam or more. Ordinarily, li^test sawed 
> 1 3 by 1 1 in are commoo. SfacdjO or sets di 
ground, and length to which available lasgil 
heaviei ground, 1 to 3 It; 

skin to ^lin. LAacma (£, 
Fig 113}, used to prevent 
(alls of ground between sets, 
is of round 4 to e-in poles, 
half-round mill slabs, or 3 to 
4-in plank. Flank is used 
where tight joints are neces- 
sary, and in districts where 
all timber is imported and 
plank is as cheap as other 
forms. Length of lagging 
usually - distance c to £ of 
er only back 



Fig lis 

in rare casesiillsanlagEcd also. La 

on sides open lagging (Fig 1 13) is gen 

sufGcieot. Space between lagging and 

is best packed with broken rock. Si 

- etcbers) (Fig 113, S) are dis 

:es to brace the sets hxigitudinally; 

heavy lagging poles, or 4 by 6 o( 

6-in timber, cut to fit between sets at 

between cap and post, and spiked in | 

in shifting grounl. feet of posts are h 

also. Sets ate firmly blocked to 1 

F*4 blocking and lagging often fonn adei 

Ce) lateral bracing. Joints. Simple 1 

ri»Ht. JoinU Between Cap ud PoM are desirable; object is lo get f uD stn 

of timbers with as Kttle framing as pos 

Fig 114 shows typical joints: (a) i. cheapest to frame, but cap may split tl 

vertical pressure; (4) avoids this danger; (c) is at good u (») and cheap 

give bdtii cap and post the atieos^li <> 

:; Id) and (e) are designed h 

Drifting and Crosscuttiog 


od are good where both vertica] and lateral pressures are heavy. 
L« cjomfia ior junctkni of post and siV in f all sets. 

ietL la beavy groaad, sets may be remforcad by diagonal bnxes between 
•- «Tkiasbr ledooag head room unlcH acts are bjgfa). In some cases a second 

Fig 115 

d dzifti&c mad crosaeiittinc (see also Sec ai). At some mines, these 
•it rmly breaking ground, timbering, mucking, and tramming; at 
' -> tiijcate charges for hoisting and general expense are added. Fol- 
'i'"J& sbov vaxiatioQ in practice (see also Dxifting and crosscut ting 
-r.-!2-4, above). 

: TT, Utah (i^ii). Drift, II by 7 ft, in ore on a contact vein in quaitzite with 
i^'jT^ vxil; good ventilation, dry, timbered; mu)e>tiam, i 750 ft; hoisting 
->^:i ^rcrtical shaft. Wages: mafhinrmen, pipe and tradunen, $3.25; muck- 
~ ^TTusi, $3.$o; ft-br shifts. Supplies: dynamite, 12 to 13.5^ per lb; timber, 
•3 u |x> per M, Oregon pine $20 to $23.50 per ML One large piston drill used. 
/>r 56 s ft. driven in 22 marhinr shifts (109): machinemen. $2.44; muckers. 
« ;.z.i trackmen. $0.21; dmbermen, fo.56; miscellaneous latxv. $0.25; cost of 
:^:r;i3es, $x 5S; cz^doshres. S0.56; lumber and timber, $1.28; hcustiog, $1.54; 
L jf. ^x£«ral expense, fo.40; total cost per ft, Ixi.xi. 

'. y^ii 'irKvn at same mine through hard quartrite, dip 25* in direction of ad- 

 f  eading, 7 by 7 ft; dry face; good air; 3 shifts per 24 hr; two 3H-in piston 

■ti -Q ooe cohixnn; 3 machinemen and 2 mucken per shift; each shift blasts; 

- '-trxmsMdxoooft 
' a'«.r vas done by 

5- ntr ft; total ad- 
F- 'lrt'-riagar«aver 
. r-.r ij days' vovk: 
-•y. .-rwt at operating 
. c».:4o*rv«s, $2.46; 

-^2. sffpplics, $0.13: 
'-3ie, (0.55; total cost 

H: Couol Co, Gold- 

'•r-^... Record of 3 

-rrtriit Tiiaes (102). 

rj; 00 d^y Vpay, np 

. h 4:.r.-aaceperday 

' , :i per day. total, 

' ; Tca>; for greater 

'i^ per ft per man 

L^^JAA and Jwnbo 

•^>inatioQ drift, 

, H ihW ccmditiotts, 

« ;t-T ft per nan. 

- -T ujKt $40 per M; 


Distance driven, ft. . . 
No days of a shifts. . . 
Aver advance per 8-hr 

shift, ft 

No men per shift 

Distance trammed, ft 

Drill charge (s).... 




Hoisting (fi) 

Cost per ft 



$ 0.51 









Isio] >6 9t| 

(a) Covers compressed air, drill repairs, and lubri* 
cants. Aver cost for 1909 » $1.83 per drill sluft. (&) 
Part of muck from drift was used as stope filling, thus 
itdoctng hoisting cost. 

-c ti 5^ per tb; macUnemen, $4; muckers, $3.75 per 8 hr. Accompanymg 
-' -ccb aa4 cDsia (see Table 16, Ex 5, for details; also S^ 21, Ex 2). 



BiJickmi. Ca](i9i>9) (Tabk i6, Eiiiaple4l. CiMtof it 

so. Part 
of work #ax contracted at 
Utah Coppei Co, Bisc- 
tiain.Ul*h (igij). Drifuia 
DDDJODitfrponifayTy; tonk^ 

traded; company fiinuahcd 
supplies aad paid lor tiin- 
bcrGig; K-br shifts (137). 

Dnlling and oiucldi 

Ponland Gold Hfntaii 
Co, Cripple CnA. Colo ' 
(190J). TwocDBCuta-ere 
run to teat nduive merits of 
large ami vnall pielon drilb 

Machliieinni. I4; helpers. 
*,.So: djoamLle. .i.;( per 

o-7t each. Aa»rnpaD>nitfl 

(. (c) Coatncti 
tber iiy M wa 

so per ft. 

depending on kagib i 

o shaft ; I 

 timber uwd; 


<^' W 

en..iosft. (fl) Cr«scuH.sby7ft; a..s-inii- 


locd sbo»s cosl ol 
targe piston drill!.; 

,0-hr shift (ioj>^ 

aod tracks; lubricants. <c) Coatpcrshift.jH-indr 


of fonmen and shift boaaes. .Eajin». aurwiios. | 
Lghling, office, and gatai surfua espHue. 

lo-hrihiFts; RnudwasdtiUedsr>rl 
l»)e3;4S%iosidebola. 3 mul 

ed upbr dectric 

Drifting and Crosscuttxng 



r.i, m aidvance of 1x6.5 ft was made at following cost per ft; dtiQ ninnen, $2.40; 

'-. Si-dt.; muckers. $1.29; powder, $2w»6; caps, $0.04; fuse, $0.12; air (aver for 
: r-j-. $1^4; driU sharpening (aver for preceding 7 mo), I0.19; H foreman's 
-f . $c-47; H powder moniiey's time @ I2.50, fo.39; total cost per ft, $xo.68. 

-•r Mining Co, LeadviHe, Cob. G. O. Argall, mgr. furnishes following cost 
--::TVg (191s): labor. $2,912; explosives, lx.091; air, I0.625; steel, I0.213; 
~»^ So.iSS; hoisting, $0,698; total cost per ft. $5-937 • 

r-Uoyd xBiDe, Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co, Ishpeming, Mich (124). Crosscut, ro 
:« >. high, was driven 2 960 ft in 1914-15. Fonnation, slate, greywacke, and 

D^Jlng by 2 No x8 Ingerscdl-Leyneis mounted on a bans bar. Face was 
If sh7s-a in Fig 116; portion A was drilled and shot , . , 

;' TKjQ B: XX to 15 holes broke section A and upper 

; to 4^ liftos, S to 9 ft deep, broke lower part ol B; 
ase j throughout. Crosscut was parallel to slips 
..if^ and grou&d was very tight. Each shift blasted 

•.;l&z cut and leaving crosscut squared at end of 
n. iicfc£ in 2 &-hr shifts, by 4 miners and (for most of 
.ji^rs; muckers altemat«i, 3 loading a car while 3 

iL-!i).«r vas necessary. Total time, 240 workhig days; 
-> prt^ress (26 working days), 3x1.5 ft; aver per day, 
R v'jnl nK»ith: best day, 19.75 ft; poorest, 12.75 ft. 
■rr^s^ was done for first 600 ft, after which can woe 

:=/^i I S3 ft to motor haulage. In latter paxt of work a portable loading machine 
- .rfa5S39 output of mucking crew 25 to 30%. Axtifidal ventilation was afforded 
X-? Un, capacity 20 000 cu ft per min, opcimted by a x5-fap motor; xo-in air 
rvt vithin 75 ft of face. Following statement coven entire length: 

Fig 116 

-I. _ 




Per ft 


$ 8430.27 
8 169. 03 


$ X 587.73 

$10 018.00 
8 169.03 











— <.-•«•.«**«■•«■■•••••■• • 







$11 393.35 


- 7trr se 

'  ' -^ir^ ................. 


- '^ alr^ t^XIt 

.jt lijfrhts) 

T ,t.i! cost 



1 t V rr jTjt 

.iwk anae, Mich. Cost per ft of driving 9 by x6-ft crosscuts, with x-man drills, 
". i:'. Aver wages per man-shift, $3.70; aver tons broken per drill per 2-shift 
.u.hisemen, $5.88; drill bpys, $0.29; shoveling and tramming, $144; sup- 

. I 

u»ui oist per ft, $9.50. 

*'z Cross winm^ Imperial Co, Cal (191^. Drifts and crosscuts in mineralJMd 

'.- -^^ec kbout 6 by 8 ft; 7 to 8 holes per round; i-man piston drill; 23 to 30 

.':j.-r. leper round; aver advance, 3.8 ft per 8-hr drill shift; 2-shift work. Most 

' Mexican; drilkn, timb^men, and txack men, $3.50; muckers and tranmiers, 

' ^n itit mocked out on night shift, affording a clean set-up; timber rarely 

( -«t ;icT ft (xzQ: labor. iHeaking. $125; labor, mucking and tramming, I0.90; 

X t-A pipe, $ox>8; labor, blacksmith, I0.32: explosive, $0.80; track (rails, ties, 

. ir.Tt and fittings (xH-in) . $0.10; candles and lubricating oil, $0.09; power and 

y • di^I repairs, $0.05; blackanaith coal and drill steel, I0.06; superintendence. 
•i ixt ft. $4^64. 

 I aery miae. Candor, N C. FoUowing record covers 6 months' work in 8 drifts 
.« crr«.»ec 4-5 by 6.5 ft. For details of cooditioiu and supply costs see 
2t^ Cost of iBJieB and winaes (x^S)* 


TiUei». RaUng 












Binjhani, Utah 

Fig 120 

Ohio Copper Co, Utah 
New Jersey Zinc Co (i) 

Pig US 

Rand. So Africa 

Notnia Lead ft Zinc 












56 tow. 









laabeUa Mine, Crip Cr 


Gold™ CtoB mine. Cal 
Tttadwell miaea, Alu 


NesBuon mine, Mich 
Lanuid mine. Butte. 

5-3 to 
6 ito6 

Granby Conaol. B C. 
Molhe. Lode mine. BC 


J - pofphyiy: (Ei i) »iti (£i S) hard, B > quartnte. C - tau«h 
D - banket. B — limestoM. F — phonoliie. andsiie. breccia, etc. C ' 
achi$t. n — ailiceotu dioritc, / — ^per and sduat. / ■* granite. JC — br 
iDfl. (a) See exampts of [incilce io niiiog. (&) Fig ill. itw Ei 9, Tabli 
j.jlD(-f( rDusd. <rf) Holes S to 7 ft deep in rowj o( 3. (i) FuiniibedtqrC.G. 

cbaiKin^^ At beginning ol flbift, muck [a cleaned ofi platfonn at top, and back 
down; pladka are Iciid Lcroas chute from next to top stuU, to prevent ateel or t 
falling into chute; umeticnea canvu is spread over Ibcae planks to niake thcrr 

ituUs at mannay end. and, Eor safety, theii eidi should be wired dawn; an open 
between planks on manway ude, through wliich minen can clunb. One nu 
does this work in about i.s ht. The round ii then diilled [rem top platfonn. 1 

ladders and air pipe. Befote blulin^, top slulls over manitiy arc covoud mh 
plank and blocks <Fig 120). Sometimes pockeU ire cut (/>. Fig 120) at intervul 
40 It, io wliich to store drill, tools, etc. One man daisg all the walk has nised 
month (this is above aver speed. Author), la a i-man raise of this kind, dcpti 
and coascquenl advance per round is adiusted so there will be time to keep the 1 
tip. It is usually beat to blast on each shift; hence, holes are limited to from 1 fo 
Fig 121 shows method of driving a small iocliiwd raite (uj). Up to rUpof jt 
ber is requiiFd to luppart men; at angles above ^*, it is best to place small har 
or J ft apart and 6 to 10 in above footwaU. Muck collectj behind these and foi 
which aid in dimbin^ raise and supporting drills; the steps also catcb steel a 
dropped accidentally. Sui^mt lor tail-pieciol slope drill maybcobUioed inn 
brace, is in Vis Hi. (At Braden Copper mine. Chile, s short pieces of drill stB 
into plug holes drilled in foolwiil. cany a pbnk placed on edge acme the riac, 
turn gives looting (or drill. No hack holes are requiied. 
Chiiatenxn gives lollowing data for aver condition! in a i-i 
fet ready 10 drill need not take over 1 hr. to put in round 1 
takea r.j to i hr; if a nipper bringi powiler to miner, it ii 
making 4 ft per shift: othemiie, mai daily aver advance e>i 
niM( OD dipa of leia than a' to 40* rcquuc tboveling (Table 

ks the ground bi 
an raise: "To d 
I 8 holes, avctag 

►- --1 

--- .1". 

,:z Raises and Winzes 475 

:3 Cia» mine* Imperial Co, CaL Several rais^ coooecting levels for ventflar 

•' n CI1 dips <A about 30*; sl<9e dhlanrr X13 ft; cross-sec of raise 6 by 8 ft. 

-.^ifioastatkmary steel chutes talevel below. Diy ore with considerable fines 

r. ;^:isle of i2^; at 50°. ^oes hang up ajid block chate; at 34", large pieces jump 

- - - .Jiv.^xaeni for long chutes was a slope of 34* fqpftst 10 ft. ^ttening gradually 

^ rr t^' . DriiiijDg was dooe with stope driUs; 6 to 9 holes per round, loaded with 

. ;:^u r«:iA-der; advance per shift, 2.5 ft. Distribution of cost per ft: labor, 

-- (. .>. labor, shoveling at face, $0.96; labor, loading cars and tramming. $0.93; 

-- ^'uu^ and pipe, $0.08; labor, blacksmith, I0.34; explosives, $0.80,- chutes, 

^< jii-i Dttin^ (iH and x in).|o«7; candles and lubricating oil, $0.12; power 

' V-.i-;; dhU repairs, $0^05; blacksmith coal and drill steel. $0.06; superin- 

' k :;: t<jtai cost per ft, $s-40. Aver wages: drillers, $3.20 per 8-hr; muckers, 

- -jTJd^ute&inraiSes were found to cost less per ft than track in drifts, and required 
--.' ^:rj>'Hiat of labor for placing. Drilling was done on day shift; mucking into 

- . :ii i>x always be completed (m night shift, even with forced ventilation (xx6). 

' -T^snr CuxBiid, Ouray. Colo (xxs). A very long raise starts 5 500 ft from the|x>rtal 

J. \«in dipping 45* to 60**; total inrlined height, 930 ft. Rock section of raise 

: . '■". with kiog dimension parallel to strike of vein. There are 2 compartments, 

• • ' " a ihe clear for a chute, the other 4 by 5 ft for ladders, slide for bucket and air 

^ '.j^ W3j> driven for exploratoiy purposes, with idea of enlarging it later for a shaft 

-.«! 2 ^\ auKfa 3-C stopers drilled a round of 8 or 9 boles, 5.$ ft deep, in an aver of 

: It^i?, helped in timbering, etc, during rest of shift. Holes were loaded with 

- -z - ^e-sXine dynamite, fuses being long enough to allow men to reach bottom of 

's-^ itajiizig occurred. Timbering consisted of a row of x)-in stulls, between 

- : . T:i:jrsay; a similar row ol 7 or 8-in stuUs, on other side of man way, supported 

'.<-*.« slide aiKi were lagged where necessary. Stulls were 5 ft apart and set in 

- >•- ies than 5 in deep; some hitches in soft ground were 20 in deep; no head 

^cr.> xted; stuDs were cot to fit tightly. Sides of 12-in stulls toward the chute .^"--^k: 

,; ^ bx and sheathed with 3 by xo-in plank fastened with 60 d spikes. Timber- ^ _^ 

TA io<ic to top of raise; a bulkhead of heavy timbers laid across stulls prevented * - j 

^ JV d^wn manway ; bulkhead was usually on top pair of stulls and never more . ' . 

' j^lii them. Chute was kept nearly full of muck to reducewear on lining, but, ^-^ 

\ <A 3SO ft, fine dirt stirking to footwall caused serious dogs. At 450 ft a r*-*-» 

•At la chute and a gate put in; then only 50 ft of muck was kept in lower IZT^H 

M ied clogging, but the 3-in lining showed considerable wear, and it is d:0 

: :iz: S-in linmg fastmed to stulls with lag screws should beused for heights over '^KU 

r—^^r. steel, etc, were hoisted up raise by a small coropires8ed-air hoist; a 12-in ^TT*^ 

' <i u top was booked to a 30-lb rafl on topmost stulls. Woxk was done in 2 8-hr 

. > inpTP^or (capacity, 320 cu ft free air per mln) ran continuously for ventilation* ' 

T'^'. I drilkrs and 2 timbermen per shift; sometimes 2 extra men on day shift for 

'.' I lomnaa on day shift. A mule was used for tramming, i man on day shift 

■. :zx ixA driving. Outside crew, 2 compressor men, x cook, and x waiter; outside 

- 'j-i 2 or 3 times as miKh woiic. Aver speed, xoo ft per month; max, 
. V « and speeds were apprpx same from beginning to end. Due to time required 

%'ne!-, only 5 rooxtds per week were drilled, indicating 5 ft advance per round. 
> -^ ^.\frs orj5t for 3 months. 

^urd mine, Butte,. Mont. Raising, as described by C. T. Rice, is done exclusively 

- 'isl.i. pt^Uon-drill rounds break with fewer holes, but 2 ttope drills can readily 
' a lA-^ with no increase in labor over that required for 1 piston drill; with 2 
 1 n.Lsc can be put up 20% faster than with x piston drill. A V-cut is used 

- >''i; crrMS-«ec ol raise is about Z2 by 6.5 ft, to take 2 square sets of xo by xo-in 
• .' e^l c t3 ft centers both capwise aiid girt wise (Art 47, 49). Holes are placed 
- : : ti> i^ hoiea being required for a stope-drUl round. Aver time for raising and 

rvj ft is aboat 90 days, with 2 men per shift, two 8-hr shifts. On rush work. 
':..-£: tas been made in 50 days. Drilling, blasting and timbering is done by con- 
Ma mine. Cripple Cr, Colo. C, G: MitcbeU furnishes following daU for aver 
-- xcttoa. 4 by 9 ft; rock, pfaooolite, andesite and breccias; Waugh No 12 and , 

cx-vj CC-xi stope driUs used; z6 bofes (« 80 ft of hole) per round; 30 to 40 lb 
per rooad; advance per rooad, 4*5 to 5 it, with x drill shift. 

TtbltM. TTMni7TlamdIUlM.OtnT.C«lo(ii5)(£niin«i»]tut«sii 





Drove loo It 














36- U 









Timb« 4 limber suppliM 








I- =194.53 



(■3 99 



Tools and ihop Bupplis. . . 




It 491.67 

(16. U 



»3 377.99 




(B) lBM.y 


Konnd HouBtaio Kinlnc Co, Nev 

 holts (-So 

H. Erneit, Supt, fuiuisbcs fot! 
ft; lock, raedium hud, tisbl 1 
s per nMind; 11 lb 40% gEluin 
pti iviuiu) o^'A^H.^, 4 iL IK* luiuifi, mm 1 uriU shift of 1 driller sikI i mucki 
UdODM HIdIdi Co, Ueloaa, Cal. }. A. Fulton, Supt. fiuniibcs foUovi 

medium hard, 6tchcry, bui breaks well; on the fooivkii i« % harui#v< ^.^w*- .. 
difficult diillini; IngerwU-RaDd fiC-ii ButteiSy . 

pirnnuid, givinij.ij ft advance with j drill ihiiti, „„ 

crew, 1 diillerj. A winie, 7 by n It. is kept 1 levels aiiead ol ihifi'i: 
the shall nlMd Imm Ihem. Shiil sinking cosU about (46 per fl 
and timbering. Raising and subsequent stripping down to full c 
costi about Ij6 per ft for same ili-ms. In the winie. ground is like that ■□ 1 

man piston drilla had a thorough (rial in wioie, but difficult rtv 
]-in piston drill. In the winie. 14 hola (114 It) ire drlUed per „ 
Dund. i drill ihifti, 4.; ft; tio lb of 40% dynamite used ner tdu 
irillers. , helpen, 3 mnckeis. uam per tmi 

roo«h an old filled itop« at Silver Plume, Colo (Fig 122). One 

1 . as used where raise was entiiel)- BurrtHiod 

d would not nm in tarxe unounta. Oiig 

<n of abort stulls 

•n coBpartments. PL 

Ingenoll-Rand CC-ii 

apart, set in hitches, a 

a lagging Ihe outside spreaden. Only hall 
Lopmost Btulls on other ude being corered m 
CI when at work. Eacava: ' - - 

dvanced about 1 ft, temporary stulb . 

planks lo form  nxrf for 
loose mateiial falling 


Raises and Winzes 


: 'aj^ djwa face oo other 

I harrranmr state are put m 

1^ zj.'. advaaoed far ftuwigh, 

' .-^ ut.i paititioQ behig kept 

s TAAzilAt to face. Tlie work 

--'js tad requires li%h degree 

'jv^tk ckote is kept as low aa 

' ->> that a sadden cave would 

- .;; chjte aad impriaoa moi. 

'Sa « nises mnd winzes 

T? H,\Ni>-DX£LiJK6, given 

> Ji, are far work doae at 

^^:a miiM, Mex, in 1901 

»l^x:c:an labor, 3 &-hr sliifts. 

-- -.^-jw dearly that the duty 

:^ ^>jr, la cu ft esccavated per 



Table ai. 


Fig 122 
Raises and WiBSM (HaodHlfimiic) 

SCO o-p 





-K.. j IX 

-se... IX 
.:* . ! II 

a 5 



















inite.60% Ngl 


a. 78 
I 75 







Labor per ft 





At w 




Aver ad- 





I 43 

1. 21 

rv.!! by machine; all others, hand-drilliiig. (a) Friable quartz, (b) Fairly hard 
- . . F xiriy hard andeaite. (d) Hard quarts. (^ Moderately hard shale. CO Hard 
'£. VeotilatJoa poor in No x, 3, 7; fair in No 4 and 8; good in other openings. 

>«:> 12. Raisiac ^^^ Stope-drills (See also Examples of practice in numng) 

'•.•..'>n, ft 

'T (j) f 

- i shift, hr 

--.• lrr,&, hr 

. i-r[\ 

- ^- - 

•- .T,\Zf per ca ft. 

'-? "7 An-hr 

-^rie ;«rr shift . . . 

5X4. 5 





3 . 












191 2 






1 93 







5.. 66 























• • • 


3 21 









* i jTs-SUver Peak, Nev. fairly hard ground. 3. Cananra C^nsol, Mex, hard 
i ui» Coppa Co, Utah, mecUum hard quarts. 4. Mammoth (Copper Co, 
-/"'^Ty. $. NcMth Star mine, Cal, granite. 6. Erie Consol, Cal, slate and quarU. 
"> BtH mine, Colo, quarts and silicified andesite. 8. AlaskarTreadweli mine, 
: (r^nkiin Fumaoe. N J, very tough crystalline limestone. 
" < i'lo tine lor timbermg. (6) 180 maa^hr on timbering for advance of 5^ ^t. 
' n aukd 2 mockers; pitch of raise, so* to 30*. (d) i driller uid x timberman. 
- -.f ^-nJy. (/) 0.38 raan-kr per hn ft for timbering, (f) Timbering, ao man-hr 
kt X .5 hr per shift on thnibering. (») Round required, xoa ft of hole, 14 to 20 
rrur Fig llfl). (j) In examples 2. 3, 6. 7. Vkd 9. no daU are available as to time 
r-.^edfortimbering; exafflplcsxto8(xo6),example9(xx2)- 5 - stopeninli. 



Dun-hr is highei in rainog tlum anking; tiiey also indicate a aUghtly 
duty in t^siog tiian in drifting and ciosscuttinc (Table 15). Raise I 
by machiDe drill, showi higbei powder consumptiun per cu ft than 
is generally true of machine-driven aa compared with hand-driven u 
Coit at raiaei uid winzei. (See Examples of practice ia raisli 
33; aba Sec 11.) 

drill; Ear wag« and supply 
Coats si diilting, Act ii. 
CotI of a W1N2E for period ol 

breaking; dry; good air; mule 

worked; totAl 

n belDw, 

will; (fOHldtilliElauidbieaking; 
'; good air; drilling done with 1 
;e piiloD drill. Material hoisted 

uft; bi^ltdupiD incline Kolt, 
Jtah Copper Co, Binjliain. Huh, 

Rabeat Park City 



Pipe- and trackmen 


Coat of operatiag machiaes 


Lumber and timber 


Total ™t 

tiars 4 by 5 it; atope drilU; 
S ft per round; breaking a: 
J on length o( raise; compu 
CoelB per ft ai follows: drilling and 
tranuning (see Table iS lor tnuniidng 

lo.Sj; comprosed air, (o.ij; miscel- 
lancDU, to.90; total per ft, {3.40. 
(Compare with driltkg coBs at same 
mine. Act 11.) 

er advance per da>'. 5.: 

neoufily); raise timbered v 
and 8 by lo-io f 
raising. tifi-£9; 

Is (for 

Winie at Park City 





Lumber and timber 


1>I9 > 

14 and iG-iit round posts. 

Ras i sets Long ana 1 sets wide. Ctntg per ft ( 

l5.og; timber framing. $1.76; blackamithjng. %i.i 

.51: air compressor, tio; supplie^ til-'i: haati 

e, tj.44; total per ft, •71.11. 

aiahea EaQonritifr of 
.... ... .-_._,. !5,»o,9<4; aii,;; 5I 

limber. (1.348; hoisting, $0,715; total per ft, W,99$. 

HoatcomeiT mine, Candor, N C, rgii. Secocd coven 6 monlht' worii < 
with 3-mao piston drills; hard quarti veins, aver width 3 ft; cmmtly rock, 
diabase; lari^y nexro labor. unsklUed and irregular; lo-hr ihlfta; labor cost 
Si. 75. for helperi and muckers, ti.50; dynamite coat, 15^ per lb; fuse. $6 10 $ 
ft. caps. So* per 100; candles, fa.ij pec case (us), C0W8 per ft we« as foil 

Misoenaneous Costs of Development Openings 


Kiiat No 


'- i^? 

■np air. and poznping. 

7-^ per ft. 

So. 979 


o 240 

S3 364 


o. 117 

S3 53 











S3. 00 



S3. 405 
1. 300 


S6 7S 

.i^id Coiool mine. Gdkifield, Nev. Ann rep for 1914 gives cott per ft <rf xi 351 ft 
' ^z <63 h of winao, as bdow. (For wages, supply costs and otha records, see 
*r: >o: 21.) 18 X4S ft of drift and ctosscut at same mine cost $7.52 per fL 





" ".-- irace 

$0 045 




3 436 ' 
3. 595 
0.856 1 

Other supplies (6) 

Total supplies 


So. 954 

-- sjii siuivboaaes 

Si. 607 

0.01 1 






- - -^^ -..r******* ^9 * 


Mecband elec dept 


' -"J3- 'i) 

Suriace expense 



S3 798 



0.133 1 

' ird 'gaging 


Total distrib charges 
Total cost per ft 


S2 189 

S14 26s 



-*'- boi^taaL, top carmen, shaftmen, pumpmen, nippers, blacksmiths and 
-crrers. vatchmeii. miscdianeous. {b) DriU fittings, pipe and fittings, track, 
-"-. s-jo. 'And stcri. hibricants, tools, sundries. 

r; Star anae, B C. Following record shows cost of winzes and raises for 1903; 
.'^* tor same ttems, $r7x>9 per ft. Wages: driUmen, $3.50; shovelers and traro- 
:'. TunbeTOca. $3 to $3.50; blacksmith, $4; 8-hr shifts. Cost per ft as follows: 





>'.u b..2£tmg.. 

3. 13 
1. 00 



S9 71 
3 72 





So. 57 



Hoisting, underground. . . 

Hoisting, main shaft 

Comnressed air 

' 'ti'ng 

. -„- -irA muck'g 

Fixed and gen'l charges (a) 
Total cost per ft 

~~? Ubor. . . . 

S38 77 


-f> err.snl miscel labor, drill repairs, and apportioned charges for electric 
— <rni n-ine tabor, mucking and tramming, ventilatitm, pumping, assaying, sur* 
1.^ .-rtK^ral apeme. 

a. MtedUneoiui Costs of Development Openings 

^co- Small 

--•; inilma; 

3 .0X, rec- 

• : nonths' 

J. 2 Cost 

'- ,.-hT *.hift- 

*,«^. &nd 

' IC-4S5: 



Cost per ft 1 





Crosscuts .... 

Totals and av 

464 57 
363 35 


Si 412.74 
822 02 

6s S3 

S3 5217 

4 5187(6) 
I 6272 

$1 0671(a) 

I 0526 

$3 0409 
2 2623 

I 3873 

875 16 


S4.S187 Si 0526 'S2 6284 

(d) In vein, not timbered. (6) Through loose boulders. 

: 'irmicT boys^ I0.497 to So.63 1 ', boistmcn, St -24 to $x .36 ; blacksmith, $1  37 • 
.3 : and 60%) cost 175^ and 199* pet lb; timber, $x9.88 to $2485 per M; 
^iij^^ iot Mexicaa cuixtncy, 0.4970 (139). 

Diiflx woe moMly in faotnll, « kud, doM rbyidile biccdi. ra mlri Dg hi 
Cmacuti mn tlrabend wben Clxr puKd Uuouab von, bul not in tin loot 
will iDd. RaiKs •rET« in iootwiU or in firm vrin tnitier. uid nquim] ae 
' Its, for St5.^ ft of opaiiagt. wu u foflmri: 




Shift bow (Bhue).. 


367. SJ 






Jio. .7 
« 6j 


Total cort ol Imbor ud 
mntnctar'i lUHriia. 



Total <Ht at develop- 


Ctat per It: drifu. fc 

. Cil. I90]. Band diillii«: aiam, (4 per S-b 

U. Is ij; nin. Ij.Gs; •hallow winica. ts,si ts 

devekipiiiait, tj-si per ft, of wtilch Ubac wm fa-ge and aupplki ti.i; 

Mining companiei often publish footage costs of development work « 

iegiegation into costs of drifts, raises, crosscuts, uid winies; thoe are use 

preliminary cslinules in name districts. Following cost* per It are mostly 

from company reports. 

Hut llazjbj Gold tUnlng Co, Cripple Crett, Colo, t9i{. 4 40r ft dtifta; 
ft cnaacuu; i 6;; ft raixai aver coac. t?.". 

BlUon Consol, CrippU C[«k. Colo. 1915. 1 9J9 ft drlfli,; 175 It rw«s. 
>o; fl wimix. t9.S5' CgsU cover labor utd powdu only. Contnct prices Cot dii 
IG. and; for wintei, 
hrtlaad Gold Mininc Co, Cripple CrcA Colo. isr4: drilti. ttAi; craocucs. 

UbutyBall mina, Telloride, Colo. igii. Coitrtcl price for drifts G ft wide b] 
IS; for widths exceeding 9 ftt In; ^.is-in piiton drills; contncton buy powder, fu^ 
and candlo Imn campunxi place iIuUs and lining, ud tnua tnuck not ova joo h 

Sarada Hilla, Falrview, Nev. 19U. Drifts and croHcuta, t«.ts; i»isn. 
wlnies. ti5.i7: total footage ol all kliidi. j 691 ft. 

Snada Wonda, Wonder. Nev, 1914. n 17G ft drifts, croncula and raiso 

Mostuw Tonopah Co, Nev, 1910. Drills, 16 14: cmacuts. t].84i raias. Is i 

Wait End Conaol Mining Co, Tonopah. Nev, 191]. i nt It drifts, |G.;o: 
HcroKul. 16.44; i Jii fl nisei, 16.66; iS} ft winies, Ii3.]9- 

SilTerKingCanaoliPuk City. Utah. 191]. Development and aphnatoty drifu. : 

Consol HercBi Co, Mercur. Utah, 1911, Averccat j6]t f t develop't opeoiog^ 

WotreriaoCoppar Co, Ukh, I9i>- 4 19] ft drifts. 16. 11. 

FiankUa HhUng Co, Mich. 19T1. 4 jG; « drifts, Is-r9; < 
It aha. I9.J0. 
' Han CobmI Copper Co, Mich. 1908. 

Akaka United, DougLu Idand. Alaska, 
ment. li]-4o; on joo-li claim, j 78j ft. I11.91. 

Alaiki Mexican, Douglas Iiland. Alaska, 1911. i 461 ft devekipment. ti 

Aluka-TraadweU, Douglu Island. Alaska. 1913. I 9«o ft 

La Roi Ho a, Konlaad. B C. i9ij. j loj ft drifts. 6ig ft croBculs. 
ft wius. total 4 611 ft; avtrcosi pet ft. •ij.St. 

HtidMaBaTmlne,E>o(cu(>iae.Oiit.t9lj. ■9gftdrifls.t14.4il 44Gft 

Can Lake Mining Cs, Cobalt, Onl. 1913. 1 974 ft drifts, 1 M] It c 
ujtn, lif ••■■-<■■■'- UMl t 9i* tl: svetaMtpalt.ti.t4. 

:, Classification of Mining Methods 481 


2i. General 

'-'2 ^ibods are baaed largely on the means of supporting the countky 
JT LTjiiiAg the orebody, and the ofe itself, during the process of stoping. 
' - .'demlly required for auxiliary or temporary support. In some cases, 

'  i.^ ocly locally, to support men or slabs of rock^or ore; in others, large 

' -i -rt employed, as an integral part of the method. 

' rLfTH idass underlying most mining methods are: (a) Surface and over- 
• 4> ire upported by permanent piixaes left in the orebody; chambers 

. i iz^. excavated between pillars, the removal of the ore being incom- 
1"- :^> Chambers are excavated in the orebody and filled either contem- 
!"- Aj or subsequently with waste (as broken rock, sand or gravel). 

' 'ir K^port afforded by filleng, the pillars are mined; filling, if contem- 
^ ' o. senses also to support men and stope walls during mining, (c) A 
'^ J- :i^i d the orebody is mined and overlying material allowed or forced 
I -•'■ 'J^ process being repeated in adjacent sections. Or, successive por- 
^ '.b«r deposit are nndennined and then broken down by weight of the 

-z TfXs, sQcnetimes assisted by their own weight. Caving metbods 
^' > suempt to support the surface above the deposit. 

- r^f roi plans are combined and varied in many ways. In veins or masses, 
I ' i..^ d on between levels are usually mined in descending order; to 
' iDrrv-ision, stoping is concentrated on as few levels as possible; num- 

 ^ lifts) worked simultaneously depends on the size of deposit, distri- 
; ' pay " ore, and output required. In large, uniform deposits, the ideal 

 - s to develop one lift while that above is being mined, and at same 

' ^ik the shaft to the level below. Relative times required for these 3 

A u<gether with the nature of orebody, determine sequence and extent 

: iseat work in advance of mining. Develo{Mnent on a level is often 

I'^^f^ untfl stoping has been started on that level. In flat beds, mining 

; ;in:ent may proceed almost simultaneously, the workings being, ex- 

.:*3rd in all Erections from point of entry; such methods are called 

'•-i SYSTEMS of mining. In ketkeating systems, development open- 

I ' x-^st dh^^n to the property boundaries, where mining begins, the work- 

I - . *-bg carried back toward point of entry. These terms apply also, 

-'J, X.J work in veins and masses. 

tt. Claaaification of Mining Methods 

I ^'r^irTirround Metal-mining Methods (Art 25 to 94) 

';'eD<ut Metbods (Art 95 to loi) 

'- -ii mining Methods (Art 102 to iii) 

' i ki cr-mining Methods (Art xi6 to 127) 

-s determiniiig applicability of metal-nilniRg methods: shape, size, 
*T.!iri»y of orebody; physical and mineralogical character of ore; 

 ' '-. • distribntion of pay ore; character of wall rocks and of overlying 

'<^.-!. jn of deposit to other orebodies on same property; kind of labor 
.^ .liability, character and cost of timber and material for filling. 

fr-^ are mterd«^)endent and of varying importance. The method chosen 

' XT. \ 3b<>aM give maximum profit and extraction. Last 2 factors are closely 

' r A Tnr^tnA wbkh sacrifices part of the orebody often yields maximum total 

,"u Ac. Mjch metbods ahoold be so planned that low-grade ore and pillars, 

'-rc.&«(, may be recovered in the future if desired. Improvements in mining 
-•^-^ pcoLcaces constantly tend to lower the tenor oC profitable ores. 

ClunBccliDil of Dndartranilil metal-mioiiig mathodl. A )osi(=>l c! 

tion. baaed on tbe (acton outlined above, [s impos^ble. because of Uieir 
relations. Type of stope is used here as » basis of claasification ; the stup 
Klvn are grouped, occoidine to modes o[ supporting waits uid men, as 

I. Open Stopes. (Art39to44) IV. Shrinkage Stapes. . (Art € 

It. TlmbeRd Slopes.. (Art45to5S) V. Caving Methods. . (Art; 
ni. Fiyod Stoptl (Art 59 to $7) VI. Combined Methods (Art 6 

This art^tniy dasiiActtion ii adopted for preKntinf tbc details with a mit 
dupUutioo. Pot clainficatioD of meUl-iiuiuiig melludi Irani utmi ' ~ 

eibility to diSeresi trpcs oi otebody. under difistnt condiliiini u 
and wall tocki, h Art 94. 

tt. BreaUiic Gtouid in Stopes. 
BrsBking stonod coven the woA ol blasting, including tocatins, 
charging, tamping and firing drill boles. For charging aad firing, Knd i 
explosive for diflcrent kinds of woilt, iM Sec 4 and 5. 

Fig 1:9 tbom a drill hole AB is vertical iKllon; top A and bottom B of t 

called its collai and toe. HoIea ptunting downward aiv doi 

« WATZK SOLES, water being uiuaJly k^ ia them while dnlli 

balei. or thoK al a ilighl angle above or below, are rt-KT Be 

Ilg IZSI; bola drilled tleeply upnard are ItrFias lUJ'. Fiji 

holn which will not hold water, mjid uppers, arc also callexl di 

la Fi« 1:3. the rock suriaca CD and 0C ore raEE rjtCEs 1 

the UNE or least besist*nce of haic AB. Length of lir 

■^Q right an^cs to ^ S, is the acaDEH on the toe of the hide. ( Fi 

Fig in. Yen Sec ^^ "^ hiaiting. and temaiks on Theory of blaiting. sec Sec 

6. 7.1 In practice, tlie amngement of bolfs and weight of c 

mailers of judgmeDt, bavd on enperieoce under umilar coodilioas aod mcxlified 1 

ment with the rock or ore to be broken. 

BresM Moping. Ore b broken by flat or slightly Inclined holes, dri 
vertical face (or breast) of considenble lateral area, which is beiriK adv 
a borii or nearly borii direction; work resonblea that of advaacui^ tin 
a very wide drift. This method is used in flat, thin beds; also in psrts n 
or vride veins, to provide openings Cor other methods ol attack (Art 30 
Underhand Hoping. Ore is broken ia horii slices, in deacendin 
miners stand on ore and drill holes downward; for diScretit forms 
which result, see Fig 147 to 153, Ait jj. 

Overhand stoplni. Ore is broken in horii or inclined slices, in »■ 
order; miners work beneath the lace of ore; boles may be flat, ujHicrs. 
hoka. For difleient forms of overhand slope, see Art 36. 

Underhand and overhand melhods are employed under widely Afferent con. 

lo liie and nalun rf owbody; in both, the stope fuies an usually ntaintslDcri  

betKhej (Fii HJ. U9, HI) Ore is blasted in blocks from flee endT^T^ " 

Dearly all cues there an a( least i tree laces. 10 which 1 bole can break. 

Catlag (Alt 71). A portion of the orebody is undercut and allowo 

Very lariro piece* of ore rlr^ chute? 
Ihey must olteo h. breken ia -lope, by sk-lgina o, BLocraoLo™ (Sec"i. AW'"r 
wiuire lame onuuBO ol eipk^ive iiw nolc w E< S Table «) SK^ll '1 

-aually MiUy adjusted is 

Breaking Gnxmd in Stopes by H&ad DnTHn^ 4S3 

- -~: « :3r ^jxreme case. 9k Fif 1171. EcoaosT <a ::.< zt 
>. c r a e TA l. brr^trng oi osr sb suipcs to m r*~mr ss 


n. Brecftng Gnmod m Stofes ^ Hiad IHWim^ 

*:frtL H^nd drillxnj^ is doeie xmder foQcrwrae: cco£t>3QS • see alao 

~ '-T ::> - ic'\ in aaxTDW veins, where ore is to be bn^ec vrtis zriimam 

^ ir_5te; narrower slopes can be carried by haod Uku by rrataHne; 

* p^-driiis ccnnpeCe with but do not equzl hand drilling m this respect: 
~sti A 5f"^H outpat, usoaOy of hi^h-gnde ore. where the tocnaee does 

I '-. .z\<<iiDCDt for cxMnpres9or and machine drills; (r) where power is* 
' -'■' r Ls cheap and xinskilled; these cocditioos have caxtsed extensrve 

^* - i irlliri^z; in the large Rand mioes (Art 41); (/) in very soft ores 
I -' .^ o{ cand aijueer drills: (r) in the early life ol mines, where stc^^ins 
*i.t< to prrjvide funds before ezploraticKi has pcxxseded far enoa|!h to 
} ~'" ^-Tc iiivcstment for plant; ij) tor vanous local reasons, for instance: 

-''. ''.ry. Ut ih. ore ia one mine must be sorted in Iwge slopes into smdriag and 

' - ~ — f. •in.iing b easy and hand vork is favored becaase it alknrs carefoi bieak- 

' ^1- ViTtiajr. At Silver Kin^ Coaiitioo mine, the orebody is so dat and thin in 

' > ir.u marf-hirM» dniis Can not be used, and most dhiling is done sinde-hand 

-j-Ksij; "iixt, crumbly galena in a mine at Tintic, Utah, hand dnibns waa 

-^-ac of the dust produced by stope-drills and conseqacnt danger of "kad- 

'::.«-hand driffiaf is done in medinm hard ore, a miner drilling 4 to 7 ft of 
".' t; speed of drilling varies widely with character of rock; in many 
' n^ working on day Vpay drill a certain number of holes or footage 
':^ rt, regardless of kind of ground. 

' r .:in< can usoally be done in vertical water-bdes. speed decreasing as incfi- 

* -£ s^iteas and is least for horiz holes or flat uppers. Speed increases in 
' '-' pHA^ied that: (a) ground is dry, so that cuttings nm out freely; (6) 

 - -«r-nen are available; U) there b room for miner to get a full arm swing. 

- ps \ary with the rock, and should be considered in planning stoping 

^ <i^l td drilling decreases with depth <ji bole. Economic limit for stn^e* 

5 ^ ..u; ) ft; usual depth in slopes, j to 3 ft; 3.5 to 4.s-Ib hammers are used; 

-♦ i> 'i in (Sec 5. Art a). 

.*l»-hand drilliiig is done in hard ground; increase in speed is not pro- 

r: ' L\ii%ase in labor. It is best applied to nearly vertical down holes, 

.'■'f^wi stop^; rarely used for systematic stoping work in U S. Drill 

' '^ 1'-% in; hammers, 6 to S-Ib; ordinary depth of holes, 4 to 6 ft 

' ' "sit nret. chum drills (jumpen) or hand-angers are mote efficient than single- 

* NX 5. Art i). Cham drills are best used in down holes, and under suitabte 

' io taster work than any other hand drill; the^^have a very limited applii- 
•-'.; Aui^en are used for breast and down h^es; both auger and chum 
*•' >•.! ore. free from haid streaks or nodules. 
I i-rpt-drilled holes is similar to those for machine drilling (Fig 124 to 128); 

 jrr I .irried in benches 2 to 3 ft high; hdes are roughly parallel to free faces, 
' -' t >y«teinatic, since the band miner takes advantage of slips and irregu- 

- < of face to aid in breaking ground; hence, consumption of explosive per 
'- ^ js'j^y less than with machines. 

-=081 widtt of ftope tbat can be carried by hand drilling is usually 
■^ iwrr stopes may be possible in thin, steeply dipping veins, with well 
^ vein waDa, but men work at a disadvantage in them; minimum 
- 'J. IS increased by flat dips. 

2^ Breaking Cround in Stbpes with Machine Drills 


Ore  toft henaadte, somewbat harder than usual Mesabi ground. 2 miners 

'-vi j.i£«T« make 5 6-ft ixdes in about 2 hr. Airniriven augers averaged i ft per 

. BamsH Columbia. Double-hand drilling of 6-ft water holes in firm augite 

' ' .ry: startiiiK bit, 1.75-in; finishing bit,; T^-in sted. 2 men averaged 

^ :k^ per to hr 

i -o^jf Copnoi Table 35. Overhand Stopfaig by Hand; Mexican Labor 

•-- ii"^, Chile. 

!u~>.e miners 

-: i-.f ft of boles 

— s«Bjle-hand; 

•v- -rei and lw«o- 

" —.J" It* and tuff, 

-.a:, hard (i3«>- 

<£. JCLVE, SoBOca, 

^ Is venicaJ qoartz 

t _> js i ft wide, 

-^ V  -ctxact labor, 

"— iicjcuj-ttaad in 

"a:.! rC :7piea, put in 

:o it of bole 


V MOF dip 6s*. 

- --.Jr-haaddriU- 

. li i>-3t 2 ft of 

,*" -^ ft in hard 


-- ,'-riaiid; boles, 

:: d-x7>; a a-ft 

&*- *;«€ 4 ft wide 

. . ^: .t 0.6 ton <rf 

^. f%rr is well 

-t r,,T- Russia, 

. a. geld ndnes 

'^•jiftz vcsBS a 

"T 3t dipping 2S* 

jcx.'^ in grants- 

L:: ^iand- mined 

3a*.(ve minen* 

'J lo<.riie-baLad 00 


per ton 

Tons per 

Cost per 


Shift bosses (a) . . . . 

236. 85 

I 382.40 




55 40 




Shovelers (b) 

Powder boys 








per unit 

per ton 


Per ton 

Dynamite. 40% . . . 

I 194.31b 
7 826.0 ft 
4 162.0 

4 090 lb 














4 22 





Cape, 5 X 

Candles. No 15 L. . 

Drill steel 

Pick steel 

Shovels, NoaD... 





Total cost, labor and sunn 



* • 

(a) Proportionate part of bosses' total time, {b) Shovelers 
in stopes. (c) Equivalent to 0.069 ^h dynamite per ton. 

\ierx. driB up to 10 ft of hole per 8 hr. Minimum task per shift is 4.42 ft of 
' 3 ovcrfaand stopes, or 5.83 ft of water hole in underhand stopes. H-in steel 
*..'':. cutting edge irom x to 1.5 in (140). Chxksan mtnes, Chosen, Korea (in 
' r«l ore occurs in shoots in 4 to S-ft quarts veins, dipping 65* or over; country 
„ -J Aikj granite. Korean contract miners, working overhand in shrinkage stopes, 
A .-^'.ile per shift, breaking 0.5 to 0.57 ton per man-shift; consumption of 60% 
^ abottt 0-4 lb per too (87). 

2S. Bre«lcuig Groand in Stopes with Machine Drills 
(For iVfiniTinMi ol names of nuchine drills as used here, see Art ax) 

opins (sec abo Art 33, 34)^ Fig 124 shows a 

an oxiderband stope. All holes are water holes, ^ 
..W3 across the slope; few data on depth and spac- 

.. Ai'ihlc. PistOQ driUs and Jackhamers or similar 

£. I') are best for this work; former are mounted 

•: i.n wide slopes, or on bar mounting in stopes up 

: 'J ft wide. Height of benches depends on width of 
4ji to which drill will work economically and ^ze 

• r omkeo an. High benches can not be broken efi5ciently in narrow 
oi^j fMrfg*>± in stopes up to 10 or 15 ft wide is 4 to 7 or 8 ft. 

t k •' fw J 



Fig 124. Vert Sec 

Ordiuiy limit o[ depth d bale driUal by 3 to j.>5-ia piitai dtiUi, ifi to 10 

uu of deep bolea in 1 luge itope, tee Ei ij, Table 30. Deep hola mtkc i,a 

breaiUBg; objtcCkHU lo tbem kr: <s) laag it«l) are irimnl to handle uiuleci 

(() ore m»y break in Urge pieca difficult to bandle along ilope In™. Obiecticm i 

Dot be urioiu; d«p hoks uually make uhi 

'•S. t_.Lj_ ' '  '•"*■ "'"" '•^ iKeca mme 10 rcU al toot ol 

^ r^" f  * *! ' convcoienlly for blockholing. Unial depth of 

-J-i- ; * drill boles in wide underband stopca ia Icaa thaj 

"* ^ "• economic limit of depth ol h»innn»-<lrill bola. 1 

Alia 11 iTniiiM iMMiMii^ Id 3 ft. Burden broken with hola placed as b I 

^*V»« o( bench'" depends largely on character of ore and must bt 

Fig 125- Plan mined by eiperimenl^ In easy KTDUDd, mnx il 

between bolea and between rows ol bc4ca ia 0.75. 

depth of bole lArt iG). In light ground, at Alaika-Treadnell, i i-It bole) amc dii] 

■part in rows 1.5 It apart, and lUggered ta in Fig IIS (lu). Foe luitbei de 

Bptunng and depth of hole*. Ke Breast itDping, Art ja. 

OvettMild ttoping comprises btepped-wce and flat-back stope 
also Art 36). Fig 126 Bhows part of a stape (ace. Benches may be bn>1 
Bit Cbreast) holes, running across slope, a: 
Fr.orby uppers, fP, Uppers are of ten pointed 
as al IC, so that cuttings will fall dear of drill. 
In narroff veins, uppers are drilled parallel to 
dip (0 avoid breaking into walls. 

tlppen va breast holes. Uppers are well adapted 
lo efficient use of stope-drills, but they shatter, more 
than breast bolea, the back under which men must wort 

bolts, thus ivoidmg nuisanc 

Al Baltic mine, Micb. and in patla ol Portland mine. Cripple Creek, Colo. 
boles are said 10 break ground more efficiently Lhan uppers, bcaides bcsng sail 
Broken Hill, K S W, in mining wide lodes in Sal-bw^k stapes, uppers are prohit 

uppers, depending on character of ore. 
J. A. Fultun, Sup 'I Melaae; mine, Cal, furnishes foUowing data showing that ch 

filling at Melonea is imphibt^ile schist, with irregular quarlE stringen. Vertkj 
are psTollel to schistosity and will not break ground in wide stopea^ when blnsto 
leave long jagged jbicb projecting from the back, which an dangerous and a 
impossible tor [oilowing shift to place and drill their holes advantageously, i 
breast holes across the schisLosity is easier, and explosive acts much more effecliv 

type o[ drill used also oBects choice (lee below 

may be drilled with eilbei | . . . 

Height of beach in mnchine-driven, overhand slopes dependl on vune I 
as fur underhand work. In lunow slopes, benches are 3 to 6 ft high: ij 
Slopes, breast-hole benches are 6 to J 1 ft high, broken by 3 to 3 rows of i 
or 14-fl holes {a, b,c, Fig 126). Benches broken by uppen aje usually s 
high and holes have conesponditig depths. Tables 39 to 31 sfaon prai-i 
to depth of hole. In squate-sel slopes (Art 46), depth o( either bccaist or 
holes is determined by di.-ncasions of sets (oole it. Ex 16, Table 30). 

Charader ol ore may influence depth of hole, and Ihcrefon height ol bench; at 
Ccosd mine, Nev. j Id ;-Ii botes are drilled in very soft or, beeanst Mutinii 
chamben tbe bottoms ol deeper holes, lailinc to bi^ik {143}. llnial rar^e ol 

- li 

BreakiDg Ground in Stopes with Machine Drills 487 

'«f ae breast boles is a to 4 ft For examples of drilling speeds, duty of labor and 
1 v«ziar fonsiimptSott, etc, see Tables 29, 50,31* 36« 

j: :: ihaws a cheap method of breaking ground, combining caving with wdinaiy 

-^d 7cik. It b enqployed in large flat-back shrinkage stopes (Art 68) in several 

r T, capper mines, and with modifications at Homestake 

r UaJi. EzAicPLBS: At Ray Cons(4 mine, Ariz (note D, 

- . Tcxtkal shrinkage slopes are 10 to 15 ft wide in soft 

^^. IS uy 30 it wide in harder ground. Pairs of 6-ft holes, 

iyxas each side of stope (Fig 127), break shaded areas; 

- <^ reatial pwti ou if of its support and causes it to fail by 

i:\ For drilling speeds, see Ex s. Table 31. H. R. 
. ' n-tts data on similar week at Braden mine, Rancagua, 

- t tyts (144)- Orebody is a wide copper-bearing zone of 
- t^ znd brecda, surrounding a volcanic plug. Part of 

:< :^ itcs in flat-back shrinkage stopes, the aver width of 
s ibt at 2s ft aikd length is width of deposit. Stope^drills 

riQ for each 40 ft length of face), holes being placed as in Fig 137; distance 
-ri b&es^ about 5 ft. 15 5-ft boles are drilled per aver shift, which when loaded with 
.^li'.i'^o geUgnite break about 60 tons. (See also Table 26.) Powd^ consump- 
(oam.pare with Tables 39 and 30) . Large blocks of ore falling from back do 
slopes, as they drop on ore filling and may be bk)ckholed if necessary. 

Fig 127. Vert Sec 
through Top of Stops. 


— — S.H 

Table 3& Brvaking Oronnd, Braden Copper Co, 19x4 


Tons broken 

Total in 
I too 





50. a 
47. a 

Lb 34% gelignite 

Per ton 



Per hole 




Aver depth 
of hole, ft 










h > 

. : M^rxky andesite, 52% medium hard breccia, 9% soft fractured andesite, all easy 

z ri BkMdky andesiu; 44% ea$y breaking; 3S% medium; 31% hard, (c) 50% 

- r- i uxa ea^' breaikii^; 7 % tight breccia; 35 % medium blocky andesite; x8 % soft 

: .zie::itt, easy breaking. (4 Soft fractured andesite, easy breaking. («) 3t % soft 

mr^"™ andesite, 33% soft breccia. CO 63% medium breccia; 37% 

Cc) 56% easy breccia; 26% hard andesite; 18% fractured andesite. 

Rill ttopM (see Art 36). Fig 128" shows sections 
through stope faces (133). Holes are drilled in rows 
across stope. All heles are wet, down holes, which 
avoids dust and is favorable for hand drilling (Art 44). 

In rill stopes on the Rand, piston-drills on columns make 

5 to 6-ft holes. In a stope 6 ft wide, a 6-ft hole may carry 

a 3-ft burden; in tight ground, burden may be only 2 ft; 

lor ocdinaiy itoping widths (5 ft), there are s to 3 holes in a 

Rin Cut (after i^}** Deep holes in narrow stopes will "bull-ring" (ground 

u Ibomaal on toe of hole b broken, but that on collar is not); prevented 

by drilling shallower boles and placing a heavier burden on 
Aft 41 and Table 36 give details ol Rand work. No data are avail- 
m tbe few cases where rill stopes aie used in U S. 

•e ocular. 

ct oi driSfl. Stope-drills can not be used for breast stoping, as they 

xnt for flat holes. For this work, the choice depends on hardness of 

.'-ry hlxd ofcs, 9-niaD piston-drills are required; uxider aver conditions 

1 OvO-drifls (2 to or Leytnu drills suffice; in very soft ores, air- 


488 EipMUUon ! 

□perated augera, or plugsei-drills iritti an automatic rotating device la thi 
can be U9«d as either augers or pluggecs, are the logical chiHce. 

Mioy ol the lemiAi an chince dC dnlli [or driftlBg (Art ii) apply here. Fa 
holfti in uddErhnnditoi^ing.haramcrdrilEi are efficients In stcepnlippiD^ overhead, 
vbcTc the halQaicupi)en,Btapo-drillsHrE iieat under aver ccmditioUr They arc li^ 
allow holes to be poiatcd u desired; delay in Kiting up, incident to pistoo-drill i 
avoided and that due to ctungiog tleel ii reduccti. But. hammer drills produce mui 
ilnle!! used with awaletjct. and ue not suited to very hiidorej in the latter. pislE 

Bnaiing BTDiind wili uppers in omhand 5top=l on flat dips (»" to jo") ro 
breast stoping; character of ore then determiAes whether stope or p^toindiills, 
used; in ncne dry ores, cuttings will run out of holes drilled oa an^es as low ai 
so' above hoTiAonlal^ in moisi oi clayey ores, cuttiuifs may pach around svopc-<| 
even in verticil up holes; all conditions are found between these eitremes. Et 
differ as la choice of proper driEl tor narrow, flat-dipinag deposits. Modem i 
shows an incrcosiag use of slope Eind plunger-drills. In general, tnstoD-drifEs aJ 
<b) iu ground that is very hard or that 6tchers badly, even if soft CLeyoet dri 
limes overcomes the latter cDTidilion); ib) in large-scale blasting with decT> | 
targe stopes. Mjnivuu width or stope in which piston-drills operate cfficil 
about 4.5 fl; this width is apt to be eicecded. e^ieciatlv for laige drills. Sl^ 
plugger-drilla can be used in stopea about 3 ft wide on steep dips, bat reqnire d 
aupervisJon to maintain this rainimnm. Uinimum passible width at atope iSi 
increase by Hal dips. Id narrow orebodis, when clean mining is desired, thesa 
influence choice oi drill and also choice between band and machiiK dr^lioe (Art | 
Bumplea illusiniiing foregoing discussion. LiauTT Bui. wn, Tetlnrid 
(rji). Quartz vein, aver stoping width 4.3 ft aod aver dip 57". was formedy rq 
hand drilling, as vein matter was crushed and knse, and ecommy ol air drills: 
narrow veins was doubted. Table ij ihowi effect on breaking costs produced byi 

Table it. Coat ol BraaUng On, UbaitT BsU Hliia j 





+ 4i 






Fuse and caps. 
Stapins labor, . 
Air pipe and j 


+ Ji 

from dominant hand mining in 1906 to machine mhifng in igio. Stop«-drills i 
lot mining overhand by uppers; a saving of st.S% in stoping labor icsulli 
change, nolwilhslaoding that drillers were pud more than hand miaen. BerlI 
Nev. Hard quarts vein, aver width 3,6 ft. aver dip 40', was mioed deui mud al 
by single-hand drilling in overhand slopes (Berlin mine. Art 17). An attempt 10 
hand-drillini! with 1 ;i-in piston-drills failed; sloping width with machines il 
to about s ft; mill had a Bied capacity and no sorting was dooe ahead of il; I 
maltrial sent lo mill was lowered about 50% and tannage UKreued but lillle; o| 
resulted in  loss. Fuamkuh FtiaHAca, N J. Oviriiod stiqHng; sround i 
siilency ol hard, loagli limeslone and is now broken by uppers driUod with sl« 
in large slopes. B F. TiUsou gives diu lo Table 28, showing effect of chiniil 
aU 3-m pulon-dtills in 1908 lo all sLoptHliills In 1913; steasivc tesU a« DmneiDl 
were made (9S). Mu.o«E3 lose. CaL J. A. Fuitoo. Sup't, funushes foUowi 

:5 Breaking Ground in Stapes with Machine DriU? 489 

Table 28. 

Brwikiiig Ore at Franklia Fomace, 

W J 

1 drills. % 



per drill 



size of 



per ft 

sticks per 

of .*^"» 


» • 

24 5 
55 8 
,69 7 




Net excl 







- • • 





I in 

* • • 




TCI yx> 7.0 

- ix-xc '12 7 
vVcoc 30 I 

- iryx, 15 5 

i*mP ,JC 3 

23 4 


38 I 

• • •  




I. ox 





95 8 

108 3 


 « «  

13 2 


-1 =^ Bi.jckhcling. H D - Stope-drilb. P = Piston-drills. (a> Hammer drill* are 
' UjcL*H>tins: in stopes, x drill puts in about 75 boles in 5 hr. (b) 3 months* 
. ^% esdmated. (c) Length ol shift reduced from 10 to 8 hr in middle of 1914^ 

"- Is ryoi, the stope-driQs then on market were tried and found unsuited because 
s^. c-f ore. i-man, iio-Ib, Water Leyner drills were then tfied and averaged as 
• -^r. ]a jttopes as the 2-man (Mston drills with about same air consumption. At 
t' i'uc^- MsnE, aver footages drilled per machine shift by 3.35-in piston-drills 
.:- 1> were reflectively $3.3, 31.7, 33.1 and 29.4 ft; in 1913, when all drills 
--in Water Lcyners, an aver of 34 ft was drilled per machine shift. One advan- 
"t Leaser is that, on account of the water jet, it puts in flat holes difficult for 
-.:-. ba this ground. GoiDTtBJD, Nsv. In flat overhand stopes, both piston 

' -xn'ls are used; choice b determined partly by dip, partly by dampness of ore; 

r i3i> hold as flat as 15* are drilled at fair speed by stopers, if cuttings are cleaned 

■^ '. in U45) • 

::eThaAd w orerluuid breakiiig. (See Art 44). 

iu ofi breakiiic ground by machine drilling. FoUowingf tables cover 
' irlerect mines. See also: Breast stoping, Art 30 to 32; Michigan cop- 
~ta^ Art 38, 40, and 64; Rand, Art 41; and individual mining methods. 

Table 39. Breakfng Ground in Stopes 


 r^-ijilver Peak 

'., Tal 

'jp?rr Co. Utah 
iT.-^ ' "on-iol. Mcx 
1 'tis Cojrper Co. 

' Top Co, B C 

•. ^.'jtT, Cal I 

•.rreadweU. DI 

• if ii, Colo .. 
- '.'I ' oosoi Nev 



U A 































3.25 in P 

325 in P 











Tons broken per shift (<:) 






In stopes 


13 r 

41 3 


as. 3 
II. I 
45 9 





13 5 


45 5 
35 of 

57. ot 
10. 2g 




5 I» 

23 7 

5 64 
8 9^1 34.7 

6.331 37 o 
3 73 20 34 
36.2 ISO o 

9 35 
5 58 
21 7 





T«bl« 39 (CatHBHut) 













0.65(0 0.9 





.8 9 










OutDut (Tons bnAm per (Uy) 


























t — Avernffe. * ^ UnderRTOund onty. OA — Ore brokm by ovcrbaad ej 
Of - Open itopei. Sk - Sbiinluce itoin. S - Stope-diill. F - PntoD-ilni 
— Caving metbod. A. OverUpptog lemei of bird cryitallioc aurifcrtHU qUArtE 
era] dips, 30* to 40'; usual widths. 8 ft or leas, but mcb t$ ft id Borae stapes; c 
ncki an scbut, alukite, limratDH. aitd diorite; ore caiiies (4 to (9 pa ton ii 
hanging waJl 6nn and supported by pillars of ore; slopes arc lar^. B. Sleetwi 
qaaclE vans b slate: 1S% ol or mined cams from overluiul ilulled stopcs; na 
from shrinkage slapea. C. Uassive deposit of medium hard shattered QuarLd] 
prcEDatcd inth chalcopyrite; orebody. ,400 ft ioPK. dips so' and has bcoi opme 
length of 4SO ft and to a depth of i ^oo ft. A caving method of nuning is used, foi 
icc Art 81 . D- Large masuve deposits of lov-gradc eoppcf ores in diorite aik 
sLooe; ore is easy drillLng. Etap« aie practically vertical. E- A serica of Ha 
tabular masses of pyrile and chalcopyrite in alaskile porphyry* iarfcft depa 

■dd I0-60 bj li goid; ore breaks eauly and is mined by top slicing. P^ Quvu 
dt.5 ft wide; dip 3^*; vein is mined in overhand stulled stopa. G^ Quarla vein; 
wide; aver dip 57*> easy breaking; overhand sluUed and shrinkage slopes (see 
and Sec 3i> £1 6)^ B. Imgular ore shoots occurring in silkified iwKi in daci 
Utile; common dips, 40'; widths, from pinch to 50 ft; data compiled fmn Ann E 
1915. (For other details, tee Sec 11. £1 1: (or squaro-set practice, see Ait gi 
Large iaIrusivE mass of miocraliied moaaonile poiphyry, aver 1-49% copper. I 

(team shovels, Stopra were vertical shrinkage ilopea, 16 ft wide asd 4S0 ll lo&g. 

(a) Jocludet men breaking ground, timbering and shoveling in ilopH. (U Eip 

coat 9-'' P«r '™- "''■■^ ■> PKvailinc com hI djFumiU, iDdictta powdtf cootui 



and Moping. 

S* - ibrinkig 


C> - caving. Fi - filled 



stopr. 5t - 

uodrthand stopioB- Op 



gl<wy-l»1t wort. S - Hope-drill, Ly 

- Leyner drill. /• - pista 

A. Lcad-silvc 

o>», with n. 



Ihkk; dip I 

■: imps uc vnticd; on 

eames 4% lead. 3 ™ -lili 

*°.» gold. 

S. LaiBC mu 

si™ dtp«it of 


N«rly venial 1od« <* qui 

m ilnn^enb amphibolitc 

shoou; miiKd by shdnUgt 

Slopes an 

d rill and e^-bmck eiled 

D. L«l 


In E< (. vein fitling i^ 


in B 

S, r™ndi» 

filchCTy, but b 


and (biTe is a very hard 

n '"l""";^ in^Eij 6 

and 7. ground ii Qlchery 

but breaks wdL fi. Mine 
igue mineral is biotite, wit 



wrrholile snd 

chilcopyFile; pi 


and ciilciie. Ofe « 

ur, in >bo<.u 5' 

10 soof 

long. Ores of district to 

ud |io lo 

|» gold p« ton. C, Sl«p-dippinB, narrow vrin. 


rUiK and k 

i.U; ore, h«d 

o medium 

bard. DaU fnoi annual 

lot 19 

5. H 

ol magnclilc i 

gneiu; ore bnb bvlly at both 

il Ml Hope, but holea in the latter tend ti _ 
f. Vcclicil miiH:nlii«l looei ol rhyolile and andesite bmcia funounding  Urgr t 

desrriplion ol orcbody and prncol method of mining see Art 41. JC. UiDeratixeii 
■OIK in granite; easy drilling and bnaLing^ individual itopa an vertical and 
SP ft in boriz section (see Art -16}. L- Steep-dipping, irregular shoots ol ^old ore. 
pying fractured nmei In gnnile neat dikes; on: occun in sheeted cones 6 to 10 ft 
also in chimneys where horii dimensions have reached 4) by to It. Oiidized 
soft and easy drillinjr; unoiidiied ore is hard breccia of granite and baaalt- 

of Die brulim per iruui underirnmnd per ahift, W Data furnished by J. A. Fi 
Sup't. (i) Includes Jackhamer drills used for blockholinK wwl dtQls b lunwa 
ends ol stopF. (/) jo';^ stope-drills, ^% i,7;-in piston-drillt. (t) For piston 
only. (*) Approi figure, jj iticki per bole. (0 Or less, (j) Usual widths; 

llcapwixand giilwise and 8 It high (see An 47, 49) Burden 00 total in^ta. alxiu: 
about 4 sticks of dynamite used in an 8-ft vertical upper. <J1 In soft ore.  stopi 
tnn mate JO [I of hole per hr and breaks up to 100 tons per shift; coBmon cfiai 

Table ji. BrsaUni Onmod In StopM. DcUHdc 8»Mdi (see also Tables 19, j< 









, ■^ 


.-1 Cn,. 

;.■ fnvk. Colo . . . 




h Mming Co. Sev 




5 K..y I 



mm-. Mich 

 fi 1 iW'j'vini' 

1.1 I'on...;. Xcv , 

, *• 1 Ok,i',.mP 


n.n.>. S..ii,l..n. U.nt. 
I-..;. .-,.. .\,„ .. 

G Oi jit-in F 
D Ok Lj 


"V "oi! 

"" ""'"'■ ^''■"'"'" 

. II Ok S 

J <<t 5 


"'""""■■ ""'*'"■" 

n u> iw,.ti>i}-. lud. 4nJ tree 


Breast Stoping 


—^ sdx to mwlluiH haid. C. Copper ores oobuning in a Tertical iuilt ame; 

3 Tushed aad altered granite and (fiabase; greater part of ore of medium haid- 

r Maasirc drawrminafrd duJcocite deposit in schist; easy driU&ig; (see text in 

J taetiiod of breaking ground at Ray). E. Amygdaloid coppor lode; fairly 

- :=3sc, for furtber drtaii on breaking ground see Art 64. P. See Ex xo, Table 29, 

- J orebody aad drilling speeds with stope-drill; ground generally ea^ drilling; 
zl.- 2ed in stopes on low dip, to avoid diflkulty of drilling flat holes (parallel 
> 13 stope-drills. G. Very hard hematite; difficult drilling; in some holes a half 


Art 87). (a) Uppen. 


ir epen stope, strict^ ^leaking, is a slope in which no timber or filling is 

• - i^«fx>rt walls or men ; a finished stope is an open hole. Various authorities 
>-r .Lmlpered stopes (Art 45-58), shrinkage stopes (Art 68) and some other 

--' ^i yosQ. stopes; as used here, the term comprises stopes in which walls 
^^\xnjcd. by pillars of ore, or by stuUs and other simple forms of timbering. 

2f. Gophering 

So^heting ** is a name applied to mining in irregular drifts or other open- 
- . - -h "foQov or seek pre without regard to maintenance of a regular 
-r -ejtkjo" (i); the method b also called "coyoting" in western U S; in 
_ ibc term designates any small-size, irregular, unsystematic workings. 

I ^ rsnz is a poor man's method, used in small excavations where walls T«]mre 

' :: . supp<Ht: obvimisly it may be employed in portions of veins, beds or masses, 

.- ::-• ;«U4:e In systematic mining. If used to mine rich seams in a large orebody, 

- .T v'ai results in temporary profit but eventual loss, as the irregular openings 

- c •^t of, or prohibit, mining the remaining iow-grade portions. On the other 

- •. 'serine has a [^acc in raining small irregular portions or isolated parts of an 
. ^Vre cost of sjrstematic development is not justified by probable tonnage to 

^ Ti-s k c^iecially true of small, high-gtade, spotted deposits, and where Mexi- 
' r,^ aalive labor, AiDed in this work, is available. 

." -zLTXTi in Mexico, Sooth America, India, aikd elsewhere, axe adepts at gopher- 
•j tevrl xsarteot is doac in aulvance; ore b followed up, down, or laterally, as values 

->i -• .jrk.mgs soon become intricate. Miners cany ore to surface in baskets or 

• '.- Ln;? 75 to 150 lb; inrltned winzes or ladders connect workings at different 
.\i: Mesckana use "chicken ladders," logs 10 to 15 ft long, 8 to 10 in diam, set 

- - &n i with no*rh4's cut on one side. Breaking ground in gophering is generally 
i ' irr-ioAii; openings are rarely timbered or filled. Gophering sometimes follows 
> ^j-'-'cm; thus, in Colombia, native work in mining soft, gdd-quartz veins out- 

- JG Liilsides, consists ci a series of drift-tunnels, xo to ao ft above one another; 
. -rr &3 po9s£bte b taken from the backs between tunnels, pillars being left to sup- 
' /T <uad temporarily. When water levd or hard ground is reached, workings 

.^.aol (i57)« 

M. Breut Stoping 

*tst stopioc ^ the name for a method of mining horizontal or flat-dipping 

: •ie;>/«its. It applies to work in deposits less than 10 to 12 ft thick, 

: A- advancing a vertical .face or breast, the height of which is the thick- 

jT^ki^idy. It also means a general method of working thicker deposits, 

'. ' h« top 6 or 8 ft is broken by true breast stoping and lower portions 

-'iurA stoping (Fig 135); a better term for latter method would be 

t.'l bench stoping." In either case, roof is supported by permanent 

I (>re. The term also designates a method of breaking ground by ad- 

• 1 breast (Art 26). 

4M Open Stapes 

T^pe of webodr to wtalcb bTBUt atopiiig !• apidJctUa is indica 
the foUoiriag descriptioD of Muoouri lead and dnc deposits, ia which the i 
has been eitecavdy developed. 

S K UiHoorl. Diuemiiuled gilau ocs 

(kpCli, lua to 6oD [l; ivet UQor o( on lac diiu 
iingul&r LD boriz ouUine and cover couidcnl 
generaUy good, with IdciLl ahaly vid fiuurod £ 
•topiog ii lued exdu: 

Bit « ilightly inclinr. 
bickneu cf deposils. o ( 
1 i% l«d. ThcH dEiH 

(F« 130). LimsloniT 


ily Qai bedded depDailA ol «phA 

t, locally colled "iheel ground"; depth ol depouti, 7_ 
DOS of bodd VBjifs from a pinch ta over ^ Ft^ t'^i'^Vn^^^ of workibte dcjios 
lo It. Oveclyinf ntck ia itnmf limestone; in ume cua, ore ia overlain by 3 l< 
kMd Sint, Hhicb itudi xell ud miks a deaa rvol to break lo. Or b li>i 
avongiDg a little lea than 2% sine. Methods oE expkiriDg these deposits are i 
Act II. See aba Wiumsn iidc depouls, below, asd MinevUle, N V, Ait ji. 
DavalopSMBL A vertical shaft is lunk to bottom of orebody; prai 
DO latetal developBMOt precedes Etuning; prelimiaaiy boring outlines ibe o 
tl way; slopes ioUow the on outwoi 
r abaft (Fig 130). 

General plao of frork. F1« 120 shows 

work; in deposits less than lo It thick, it ccin 
driving wide drifts, the {nterveaiiig ore ba 
through at intervals tojonn pillars. Fig 129 
diBerent stages of work; obviously, the face 
advanced in any directioa. Fig 130 is a plan 
in S E Mo, showing applicatkm ol i 

a (55). 

Breaking gronnd. Methods vary locally and with 'hlrttuM* of q 

abu Ex i6 and 17, S 

8 B HUtaori. H. A. Gus 

<k1a(tsl. Where are ii less th 
ia advaoced by breast holes; <; 

centec bole i> set 6 in nearei the f Ke to be bmken. 
All holes are apprai parallel to iue lo be broken 
(compare with Fi« 131). The i lower holes slope 
enough to carry water, top h^ points a little up- 
ward. Aver depth of holes, T to 7. 
iog a stope or in lumiog arouod a 
broken into by 3 cut hola 1 to 6 ft 1 
gnund is cafiied with 1 holes, bun 
3 U; with i boles, burden on middle bole is 3.5 ft. on others, 4 It. In thicker oreto 
al by bcdst holes aa above; lower portioci. called the stope. is 
' vertical bolea. the bottom being tr 
eii. Slope h  

mM fsss„» .i ?»"■-■■  

r.foceis Figiab. FlanolPartolaMini 
Where Missouri, Worked by Breasi >■ 


Breast Sloping 


■--*• 6 lb alt 5 or 40% dynamite; middle hole wkhibottt 7 lb, and 18 fired first. In 
-^wiwe 3 bd«a are «o«raUy dnlkd in a row between pillars, the end holes are 
— -» Tsith about 6 lb dynamite, the middle one with 9 lb; middle hole b fired 
.y fa- liftos varies, but m general is much lighter per ft. as the burden is less 

- '"t tte ^breast, care is exercised in pointing upper holes to avoid breaking into 

^ jf - A=k- Loose or drummy portions of the back are removed by moils, using 

\a wtei neccssar>'. In tummg pillars, holes arc phiced to shoot away from 

- iad avdd danger of shaltenng it. 95% of drillmg is done with i-man piston- 

' T-Daiiies axe beginning I1914) to use seU-roUting pluggcr-dnlls for down hol» 

' :, ^^ua ddSs in setting up on tripods. About »9 ^ of hole are driUW per 

---Z S^i^^ ore broken per ft of hole. Doe Run Lead Co. Flat River, 

-^"^Daaeminated deposit. 10 to 40 ft thidt; headings or breasts f*. about 30 

: .«S^xSto^^i°«*^™*^*«^' benches are 8 to 10 ft high; drill 

•S3 lo it 

c* ;:i 

Fig 132. Plan of Stope Face, 
Joplin, Mo (P " piUar) 

-- Ma ixKS\ (III) (iS9). Breart stopes are carried with a single vertical face 

'^«^o^<6 t?M iS. and sometimes to heights of 18 ft. Fig 132 show. 

-a oi badii^ and positioa o£ holes, which 

. to the face to be broken; number and 

- .* b3ks depenb 00 siae and shape of bk>ck 

*=a 3 to 6 boles make a round; typical 

-:: n 3 are shown in Fig 13«; depth of heading 

Jxict the same as height of face. Heading 

J- -r^ie with large piston-drills on columns, 

V; tis «^ be cliunb^ (locally termed *'sqmT>bmg^O to make room f^ 

IrrtS-eT^break the ground; holes arc squibbed at end of one shift a^*! Wasted 
f^^^lUuce^^le from dust and POwder »moke In thKker ore- 
, .^ MTlMiiing is carried 15 to ao ft in advance of bench or stope; bench 

i;ni^enr^h5S!drilLifromtripo^^ Sometimes a or moie benches. 

^ mth Mt«» ^stopc no«;, ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^. ^ oth« cases. 

yy^vynaf^a ^^^ ,^{t benches are broken by a row of stope 

bSfe at bottom and a row of "spUttera" above 

them; stope holes look down about 10 ; spbttOT 

look up same amount; stope holes are usimlly 12 to 

\'^ ^ \}k ^ ^r^jTOTste n dgep^ sometimes 17 or 18 ft; one machme dnll- 




_-L- t > u . u, . » r ^,^^mw X. ft deep, sometimes 17 or 18 ft; one macnmcunu- 
EW of FaceXB (Fig 132); * ^t^pe holes will keep up witJi from 6 to 10 dnib 
VI 43c* of Locating H<des j^^ headings. 33% "d 4©% ammonia and gdatrno 

- . ^ („ j_, ut»«r for wet holes: in some mines, 80% gelatme 

:" *^^^ s^^SnL C«t W^i- » -% to 30% of tojj.1 breaking cost^ 

'^ ^i^bbed 3 to 4 times, first with 4 to s sticks of powder, "^creasmg to 

'^" ^fS Ww^l^ Suih a chambered hole will hold 100 to 200 lb dyna- 

r d^I« asXhSL and 2 splitters, all 18 ft deep, loaded with 3 to 4 boxes 

iT^^ a bSch^ftwgh Loss a width of 10 to 12 ft, producmg 3S to 4S 

:r ;:;^L^^i^ for <Z heading and bench wori. ranges at vanous 

^- ^ ni^V^^^^hod of breaking used at one mine (158); upper 12 ft of 
. ;.f :^ t<^XSl«ft brob^ Heading was driven in softer ground 

. ^ of orebody by methods described above; 

•« I J ft deep. Upper rttatum was broken 

. T.*i4-ft holea. placed as shown; «^tter hola 

'*d.roof boles being left as drilled, as sqmb- 

Cm ittd to loosen roof and make it dangerous; 

/^ carried 50 to 100 ft ahead of stope. This 
. rn-«l cheaper in this mine than the usual plan. 

: ,^k;«i» brittle and bwnksweU; heading, 7 to 8 ft high, is kept anu 



„ Heading 

-. Fig 134 

•— — 


(d ulviace of beach, FlTe8-{I boles in hadiiwhrakkwidthaC iift. Bencli is 
with i6 to i^lt Uften, j holes unuUr nuking a iridtli of so (I- These boles a 
duunbcred sod then loaded vith so to isa lb to% dynamite; i.ij-in piiton-<li 
used: avec powder consumption lor both heading and bench. 14} lb pe too 
Otto ItiiU dei) gives dau in Table ji, the ncord covering 4 weds. 

Table 31. BnaUnc Org in t ShMt-srotiad Mine, Joplio, Ma (igi. 






Dec a 


Total Slicks powder 

Slicks uaed in shooting 

Slicks used in squibbinj. . . 
Number d holes dniled , . . . 












Sticks i>er hate, squibbing 

Total sticks per hole 

Slicks per tan. shooting 

Tout sticks per ton 

Tons broken per hole 




34 ja 

34 70 

86, 3S 



IS 9a 




38 J) 

13 4* 










Machine men, shifts 



Toul shifts, undera'd labor 
Total shifts, aurl labor (a). 


S| pernanundergt'd... 
(S p^r man. total labor 

Wltconain llac dMrict. Deposits of ZnS and PbS occur b pitches and U 
linstone; some are so irrr^^ular thai mining is ptsclically gophering; larger At 
arc commoDly mined by breast stoping. Orebodies are f mm 5 to 70 ft hi^ , 30 1 
It wide, and yio ta 7 ooo ft iDDg; nmf is geocnlly aolid, thick-bedded linMstone: dc 
lie at dfplhi of T5 to »o ft. 
Georit ti6i) gives following d 
breaking ground: Fig 135 sbowj 
method; in heading 6 to 7 ft 
S 10 lo-tt botes aRdriUed tno 
nmn; hesdiog is kept it toH 
•dvann <i benchea. which are 
lo ft fiif h; bench « atope hoi' 
10, II, or 14 ft deep: both f 
and pluna-diills are usnL ^ 
ing to characterof grmnd. a mat 

ft of bole per ihilt in hradii^ 
I ion of ore should be btokea [ 
from i.s to s Ions, depending oi 
the lop " dai " of ore in the bea 

» ft of hole; in sUve*. np to i( 
height and width of atope and 
lin|. Fif IIS shows pbn ol hes 


' I 

Breast Stoplng 


i^ d i ra tr set ops for drOliog holes x, 2, 3, 4, which break oat hatched areas; 

are set-ups for breaking areas C, C\ C^ Fig 137 is a cross-sec of an imguUr 

:=aaj-.y laiiaed; part B was worked out as a breast stope, 

:= jp a& a boich, thus requiring mining on 2 levels. In 

i!.^ 'A tius shape, heading and bench are worked simul- 

Succs of heading and bench being connected by an in- 
clined track in portion i4 , or in rock at right of 
A. Fig 125 shows a narrow orri)ody, the roof 
^funding unsupported over entire width; for 
greater widths, pillazs would be left (Fig 120)> 

Fig 138 


Safffioti of roof in breast stopiag is by pillars; in low-grade 
uniform deposits (as calcareous shale beds used for mftUng 
?>*stematic amngement and uniform size of pillars are feasible and 
Table 33 shows practice in Missouri lead and zinc mines. 


Table 33. Size and Spacing of PiOars, 

Breast Stoping 


of pil- 
lars, ft 

bet pil- 
lars, ft 




left in 


ness of 

body, ft 

Depth of 

ore below 




- I-.VTtin lead district 


= ZT. L-id Co. S E Ifo 

- i^ia:-.. Mo 

' in Za Co, Joplin . . . 
>o3 n:izie, Joplin.. 

- I> *»? rMae. Jovlin. . 

- . - z;-c- district 

- I-. Tinz district 

20 to 40 

10 to IS 
10 to 12 
12 to 30 
20 to 40 


10 to 20 

20 to so 

20 to 35 




IS . 
17 to 35 
10 to 15 



13 S* 





10 to 40 

9 to 10 
5t0 7o 
5 to 40 

300 to 600 

75 toaso 



75 to aoo 

100 to aoo 



K. <>i«s&; figures axe for aver conditions in district in 1914 (55). (6) C. T. 

I 'i^5K (O J- IL Finlay (172). («f) R. D. O. Johnson (164). («) A. H. 

f) C. A- Wright (ixx). ig) E. H. LesUc (174)- (*) J- H. Polhemus 

i: YL L. Herrick; pillaxs spaced systematically in. good ground; areas of poor 

A Tr t'.irvd irreg\ilar spacing at smaller intervals than in table (175). {3) W. L. 

t-i' ir) C. A. Wright (177). * Approx aver, computed from data in table. 

' -j: I u^h limntfone rool. 

^ \ ierjQisiu. the siae aiul spacing of pillars vaiy widely with local conditions; pil- 
iTj^ xofi spaced doser in weak ground and are left where possible in low-grade 
. ct< 'A orebody; they are phuxd with regard to haulage tracks to avoid awkward 
d- sUbs of lock scaling from roof between pillars cause serious danger and 
-. ^jrcis£ stoping; in thin portions of deposit, slabs are supported by vertical 
. 'jvux. orebodies, aU shelly ground is removed from heading roof before bench 
-r.ri Even with this precaution, roof-men are constantly employed in Mo lead 
• -vwT d>«Ti slabs in worked-out areas near stope faces or over traveling ways; 
■^, slabs are taken down with bars and gads; this costs more than blasting 
.V t4a£k powtler used lor blasting; holes drilled by hand or plugger- or piston* 
. ^ jerUiLi of staging, etc, to siq>port men in trimming high backs, see (163). 
'i "it trouble from dabs is caused by accumulations of water under pressure in 
; iif^ of roof Rxk; at tome mines vertkal holes C*dnin holes"). 8 to xo ft 
s' ^.U?'J from heading into roof every 8 to 10 ft, to allow water to escape (164). 

irs may be of any shape and size (Fig 130); often roughly circular in 
-r They aie splayed out at top and bottom to increase area of support 
•a: -IT on roof and floor (Fig 131). Fig 138 shows another means of deal- 
- . \ ibeUy roof« or one whkh scales on exposure to air; it is feasible only 

teugbtpressuresand in strong, low-KTode ore. Where tool is bturedwi 
Joiilt* or cncks, Btil|iiiig nuy unkey lanie slabs: this danger ti partial 
by a systematic slaggered airangement o 

beds, separated by barren limeslonc. 
worked iiom separate levels, cate bcini: 1 
' the pillars in upper and lower beds shall t 
n each other. 
Lg ore. Tracks are laid on ftnor oF deposit, from point oF en 
■tope faces (Fig 129, 130}. - In thin deposits, tracks ran inio headinfi?; 
th^ extend to foot of benches. Where more than i bench is worked, 
ing ore is shoveled lo foot of lowest bench; general slope of benches is '. 
to minimize handling. Broken ore is shoveled into cars, and trammer 
by hand, or by animal or mechanical haulage, depending on distance ar 
in small mines, buckets ace mounted on light trucks, reducing cost t 
and hoisting equipment. Air hoists are used to haul cars up ste^ 
caused by local rolls in footwall. 

At some Joplin mines, shovellog plus of i by i i-in oak plank arc laid at font 
over t6 ft hl^h. Allcmpu have been nude 10 use steun jhnvels of Thew i 
ated by compressed air or electricity, lot loading inlo cars (i6t>). For uw 
Whallcy michiiK at Flat River. Mo. sec Art g>. R. A. Guess <;;) stales <h 

15 lb per shAveh aver cost of loading in i9id, ij^ per ton. Records fof Ji>p 
on eonErael vork vary from iS to jj tona per man per S br. shoveled into but 

work in Wis zinc di^tnct ia igi j were s In 7t per bucket of r ooo lb {163). Se< 
Percentage of ore left ID pillars depends on following factors: (a) ci 

ported, and therefore the distance between pillars; (i) coARACTtR 1: 
a soft l]oor requires pillars ol large area, or closely spaced, so that th^i 
power will not be exceeded; <c) STHE.1CTH OF ORE determines minimu: 
of i»llar to withstand pressure of overlying rock; (d) depth Or depo- 
mines total wt to be carried on pillars, where depoat baa such Liter 
that the overlying rocks do not arch, and become self supporting (secSii 
Art 115). These factors are interrelated; their effect cannot be delii 
termined in advance in new districts; it is obvious that the percentage 1 
in inllars may be fairly constant in a given district, but vary widely in 
localities. Table 33 gives percentage losses in pillars, representing c 
of dilTurcnt engineers in Missouri lead and zinc ilistriccs. 

RecOTerr at ore from pillars in a systematic way is rarely attcm 
mining method like briast sloping is ju-itified by its simplicity and i 
and because, whore properly applied, it yields a max profit in spile 01 
of pillar ore. Use of method should be confined to low-grade de[i.«il 
value of ore in pillars will not repay cost of replacing them by artificial : 

Al JopUn. in some minn 1e.-i<en clean op floors and pillars in wocked-out nm 
 - a pillan - 

have oocotred. Atlempis have been n 

aade to lake oui pillaii, stsrtiiu ai 

and retreati™ toward shaft; such work 

teaults may destroy the remaininit pilk 

its aod may eilend over large areas. 

deposits, where ore is soli and wrik. 1 

-.^^are^^small and pillar, coot..ia^= 

profit. Following melhod^ hivt been i, 

ie,l ia .he* mines lot pilbt rooverr : 

limber cribs were built in •tope* aroim> 

1 pillars. 10 support ml while jBllar^ 

mionl; timbers failed, moch ore renu; 

ved was miied with waate and mue 

«- 'T 

Breast Sloping in Flat-dipping Beds 



r^K (I) At Longicre-CbapinaB mine, in 19x4* an attempt was made to sup- 
-> concrete balkheads wfaiie paUaa were mined. 6>in chain-drill holes were 
- AT^ot to stope; fimns z6 ft square were built under each hole; concrete 

. -'itr. mill failings; i contractor with a gasolene-dxiven mixer poured concrete 
\-> and I man bdow spread and tamped it. Hitches were formed near topdr 

. u: whkb tinsbeis and 6o-n> rails were placed to support roof between; where 

' rjnbcrs wa« supp o rt ed at midpointa by 

-■ '.tx- j-«ood was wedged between roof and 

.i icreeas, cot in pieces xo ft by 6 in and 

' ' «part. were used for reinfoicing pur- 

'^- '-iilxhtziA lequifcd 200 bU of concrete; 

'! co%i of coacrete, ta ptf en yd; 6 bulk- 

.-.n^jTiS^ i^ ft square, 40 ft high and as ft '^^ 

•• r> cc£.^tructed: i» data are available on 
r.> rxxxrriinait (165). {<:) Fi« 139 shows 

. M a A solt-oce mine, where orebody was 
.-. .7 solid limestone strata. Shaft was 

: .- 1 •dnits run beneath pillars (see dotted 

r ..V a back of 7 to 8 ft of rock bdow 

• r Raises wne put up in center of each 

T* was mined out around and handled 

-x. ^: irben pillar was weakened enough to 

- ' M tbf caved ore could be drawn through 


Fig 139 

-.^ f.<dov. Objections to this method; cost of subdrifts and raises, unavoid- 
..aion of waste with ore fnnn pillari and incomplete extraction (166). 

SI. Breast Stoping in Flat-dipping Beds 

^-"xnL Face oi stope may be carried parallel to either dip or strike; in 

" isr. the openmgs are sometimes called dip workings; as dip increases, 

' 'I :' breaidn^ grovani in these becomes the same as that in underhand 

' ' r lajTow veins (Art 33). Method is limited to deposits with strong 

: z il:s Three examines follow. ' 

'-if;«ta mines. East Rand, S Africa. W. L. Honnold gives following 

. The baziket, with aver dip of 7**, is broken by dikes and faults; 

. -^aIL quartzite; footwall, slate; both reef and hanging wall are harder 

i..^ry vein quartz, and have great cohesion and tenacity. Ore is in large 

irregular shoots, gen- 
erally elongated along 
dip; one measures 700 
ft on strike by 4 000 ft 
on dip. Stope widths, 
57 to 70 in. Inigis, 
workings had reached 
a vertical depth of 
4 100 ft (for character- 
istics of Rand banket 
see Art 41). 

Method of mining 
(Fig 140). There are 2 
vertical shafts, 4 400 ft 
apart in direction of dip, 
onmected at bottom by 
an incline on the dip. 
Levels arc soo to 800 ft 
apart; varying dips give 

Fig 140 


• '-n levels of 300 to x soo ft; winxcs connect levels at points near middle of 
; ur of stapes b carried parallel to dip; can are run to face and handled 
... A %3ufl iKiarts; pillaa of or and timber cribs support the roof. 

800 Open Stopes. 

tt£a under 5 ft hi^h. 1 white mfD on cfmtiact guperviseA 4 drilk. each bcdon 
3 Ki£ia^ I drill curicT serves 2 m&dubca, Huniner drills arc bdiif: btroducvd 
fully(i9i;) foiuppen. All boles are drilled ml where poaible. GoKnlly.iia tli 
much Btopme is doDE by hand. MacluBei vv used at Brakpan becaiue; (d) nati 
u oltsa fcktce, and is meScienl ios flat or upper holes, required by Ibe Oat dip; 
19 wider than in puhi Rand imnes; hence, the incnaied stopc width iocvitat 
machine diilUdoo not break ncesiveunoonti of waste (in An 41),. 57% of e 
used is blaiting edatine (91% -Vgl); rac is geUgnite (Ga% N(l). Laiie drills L 
aver of 11 tou pet shift; small drills, t Urns; avR slope widtha. }o in and s 
tpectivcly. Aver itope widths eiceed ava reef width by 11 in. 
Stopinf. Fij 110 shows face of a well opened stope. Work begini at comer 

appcoiaoce of overhand sloping (Art ^6) at botlom, and underhand sic^hhx ( 
at lop. of K'isze; but wben face has advanced too ft it is parallel to wiruc (Pig 

Support o( roof is by pillar? of ore and lo by lo-ll tlmbet cribs (pigsti*^ 
beiufl sometimes filled with rock- Both cribs and pillars are irregulaily apafi 
respect to faults and haula^eways. The stioag Quartiite nx^ settla sm<luaily. t 
faces advance ri«lit sad left from winie. EvcDliially pitlan an robbed. muEli 
crib timber is taken out and ihe slope nUowed tocave. Fack-waitt (Fig 170) pnil 
levels, and must be maintairied Ihiou^h worked-out azeas- 

Hindlini ore. A Imck is laid in the winie, with a small hoist al tap tad  
halfway down. Lateral tracks are run Iiocn winie track lo the stope face cvmi 
Ore Irani upper half of stope is hoisted lo level above, thai Imn lower balf U : 
to level below (Fix UO). Winze Uscks aie shllted toward stope face aa roof set 
requires. Cars hold i Ion (lo.; cu ft); native TDUcken receive B la lo^ p« coi 
and handle about 6 tons per S hr. I 

Park City, Utah. FisHl shows thedipworkingsot Silver King Coaliti 
J. Humes gives following data (ijt): Bilvcr-lead orebodiea occur u rcplaci 
in limestone; thicitness, 1,5 lo as ft; dip, 10° to jo°: oreshoots uv irreg 
outline and make off from fissures which gave access to mineralizing solu 

Uetbod ol mlnlnt. Eiploratory drilti, in the orc^bearing bed, foUoir Uh < 

when a drift cuts ore, slopes are started to the dip lod carried ai fu u brokni n 

be shoveled out. If ore coi 

a small hoist it iostalled. . 

is laid on floor of staf:« ari 

is thin. BiDugh of lootwuJl 

tiuy inchaes strike barrel 
tbe tncki are turned and 
tbeore. In orebodies Sf la 
eral extent, small drifts 1^ 

eb) IR run to right ant lei 

Fig HI. Silver King Miae. Park City. Utah (pan oO the main beline, Stopin 

(aver dip, iB"; aver thickness of ore, i.j ft) ceeds both up and down dj 

sub-leveU. in which tun tm 
dumping intocars on the iodine. Many oE these deposits are so flat and thin that m 
drills can not be used with advantage. This method peniits mining irrERular ori 
without excessive preliminary development, and is well adapted to yiaTwiUhf. \iriiU 

Buton Hill atltit, Minevillc, N V. Orebudy is a bed of stronf; mafn' 
thickness, oto jo ft or more; aver dip, betwctn 15° and 15°, rising to js' . 
in places. Hanging and foolwalls are very strong tough gneiss, the !■ 
fairly smooth, the latter warped by i series ol ridges, the axes of whir 
parallel and normal lo strike; this complicaies ore handling. 

Method ol mlolBg. Depout was first attacked al several pcmti akng outer 
bicasl sloiUBg to the dip. Mine can were hoisted to jurioce on InclioBd tracks -x 

Systematic Room and Pillar Methods in Beds 


Fig 142. Barton Hfll Mme. Mineville, 
N Y (part of) ' 


'. 113 shows 2 incfioes, abo pQlars for roof support (note that iadiiKs were smiag 

: ^ >ii as needed to frikm ore); tempocaiy horis tracks were also laid to nach 

• '*.-:<as oi stofft fjces, or for stopiog 

~jt ' ix pt^ts above bottma of mdimg; 

. rrtc^ iip woridngs. Fig 143 sbows 

^t nod. DcpoHt is opened by a drif t- 

cititcr^i diiectioa of advance of a stope 
-^ u^ iujk.c. Bant tracks are laid 

_ ax about 50-ft intervak along dip; 
•ord iato can, which dump into 

j:^rj^ fa inrlinrs ABi skips are hoisted 

':^ in bus at tunnel kvd by ondeigiound electric hoists. In places, the stope 

r; c'-\ j.Led OD timber supports near incline, to give headroom for dumping Into 

lie ssretbod diScfs irom tlnit at Brakpan miiM in that the roof is supported perma- 
nently by pillars of ore; irrqgfular f ootwall 
makes stope tracks crooked; steeper dips 
prevent handling stope cars to the level. 

9reakiiig giooad. FoUowing data 
werefumisbed by the management: holes, 
4 to 6 ft deep; in 19x3, as aver of 26.!;8 
ft of hole was drilled per shift with 3.75-in 
piston-drills on tripods; records fw 7 mo 
show aver pioduction of 15.53 tons per 
drill-shift in stoping and developmeat, 
and 19.91 torn per drill in slopes akme. 
In 1913, prizes were tiered for best foot- 
age drilled per shift. In a X4-wedcs' run, 
xst, and, and 3rd prize-winners drilled 
averages of 4x.a, 36.36, and 35.14 ft hole 
per shift; aver of next 12 men after prize* 
winnen, 37. X7 ft. Hammer drills, sub- 
stituted for many large machines, average 
40 to 50 ft of hxAc per shift. 40% dymt- 
v^:: oynraX coosuraption. about x.03 lb per ton on; aver for first 4 mo of 19x6, 
«T ton. Doty of labor (tons per man-day) for May, 1916, was: per man under- 
■^ tots; per tnuxuner, xo.xs tons; per man stoping, xo.xo tons. Drilling was 
r-:7 with hamnwr driUs; an aver of 33.75 tons^ ore was produced per drill-shift. 

Q. Systematic Room and Pillar Methoda in Beds 

-n " room and pillar " covers many diflFereat methods of cutting up a 

' ^v exc^vatiniT rooms, in which sense it includes breast stoping (Art 30, 

' '.- '&xls described below differ from breast stoping mainly in being more 

- '-: rooms and pillars are rectangular and laid out with almost mathe- 

'-..rjiirity; the piOars may be left for permanent support, or recovered 

V <:jperations. These are colliery methods appUed to mining salt, iron 

but may generally be simplified in these dqx>ats because of less rigid 

>. -. requirements. For details of coal-mining methods, see Art 102 el seq. 

ible dopomts for ezpbitation by room and pillar tire flat or slightly 

«-d: ol muform tenor and character, and of large area. Cheap, abun- 

•-.i^n mineral, and a strong roof and floor are necessary if permanent 

rr ; ft; where ore in pillars is recovered by robbing, a very strong roof 

- ^ ^ over large areas and cause trouble by dropping suddenly (Art 103). 

-3*:^ of prartlca (Cor cxplaaatson of coal rataiiig terms, see Art xoa): Bxvis 
r r '>. LyoiB, Kan. A flat bed of salt 18 ft thick is mined; depth, 1 065 ft; 
'*J. :in UuJe. C. M. Young (167) describes methods in X9xx: From a vertical 
'. e- fries A . and cross entries B, were driven (Fig 144). Rooms /?, so ft wide 
are turoed off the cross entries and advanced indefinitely. Pillars, 50 ft 
I, aie cat off evcfy 80 ft by break throughs C. Roof is good and 


4'. B^rtca RiO Mine, Mmeville. N Y 

r— I 


I ncnn. Hola an ncH drilled t< 
overlying 5 ED G-fl like; top byei 
drilled, bui left m place until bee c 
advanced loa il, Bhcu it ii all blasi 

Dcausly, breaking u mucb u .1 ooo 1 
Compressed-air augers aie used, tf 
about 100 £1 ot bole per hr; bli>.i. 
wilb ao% dynamite aud electric lu^ 
■re not mbbed Roval Salt Co. 
V r / Haul XB^ *="■ ■"'^ * '*" ""^ ■' *>^ "' 

FiglH. BeviiSaJiMiae.KaiKpBttof) btvkeninoneoperaiiod; agood pan 
o( bed nude underoiltini uniHccf.^ 

of rODiTU haviiur been opened by a V-cul. vertical row^ot ^de holes were drill 

flat -dippiiw beds. Three worLable beds of 
bematilc outcrop on Bell Island, averaging 
6t 8. and 16 ft in Ihicktaess (7J^ dipa. &^ to 
10": roof, slronit sandstone. Depoiils an 
opcneil by slotm a.} mile apart; main Icveh 
■re driven each uray Itam da)>e at iBla> 
. vols ol ISO ft. At points aUmf; lei-^ 

. set Table m , 
4 ', \ I ViioD uiNt, Vorluibire. Ensl 

°%f I InmL-MayerdSii). Dcp. 



beidiHR- H (Kij 146), I 
:h cut hed into [ilLir; . 
[^ □ ici Bord and pillar inrth.»( 

fZ2 Q lanue lohbrd b> amrr^T 


open Underhand Stc^)es, Narrow Veins 


I ^ 



(lonqit sec) 

Fig 147. Simple Underhand Stopes 


-•^.- ia- tenporary support of roof around them. Double-hatched areas indicate 
- . ei sJBultaneoasly ; some small pillars are left to aid m contxoUing subsidence of 

- l:'' raetbod gives a hig^ extraction. Posts are pulled systematically to make the 
•' *■ "^raly; mach of the timber a thus recovered. When robbing begins in a new 
' Me r^pf han^ over large areas and gives trouble from sudden falls; but after the 
r^ - settles rtgularfy and is easily contrdled. 

IS. Open Underliaiid Stopes, Narrow Velnfl 

?»nl piaas of **'***"g by underhand sloping are shown in Fig 147, 148. 

*'us \-2ry with modes of breaking ground and handling ore and wjatA, 
>^ case, (a) and 
.47. Suor of levd 
.'T^ into with a 
i: C, from which 
■i-v' drfg is ezca- 
' -: « all to wafl of 

- uje f/ advances, 
:c ^ dtt^pened and 
• -!i^ b started. 
: * repeated by ad- 

I -n rate. This produces step-like faces, converging toward bottom of 
' > :n are cfaancteristic of underhand work. Stopes like (a) Fig 147 are 

SINGLE stopes; those like (6), DOUBLE STOPES. Terms 
TOE and HEEL sometimes designate top and bottom 
of stope. Fig 148 shows a better phin, known as the 
Cornish method. Stope is worked around a raise 
or winze between 2 levels. Where work is carried on 
as in Fig 147, all ore except that from first slice is 
shoveled into buckets and hoisted out to the level 
above. In Cornish method broken ore falls through 
raise to the level below, and is loaded by a chute into 
cars; such stopes are self draining. This method is 
used instead of that in Fig 147 wherever possible. 

Underhand stoping as in Fig 147 is convenient for mining 

ore below a level without preliminaiy development, but its 

use increases cost of mining by the cost of hoisting ore out of 

the stope. Though sudi stoping is not used for systemr 

atic mining 00 a Itfge scale, it is useful: (a) for mining small, 

'T-^'^tti -arith spotted values; often such deposits can be explored only by stop- 

'■ is «ork approaches gophering (Art 29); {h) for mining isolated or faulted 

• TtriodJcs, as XV, Fig 149, where development open- 

. * >i rx> get andemeath them would be too costly or 

' - v.nt Jin; ic) far small'Scale work, lacking funds Cor 

--. l*r:tsl' fitment. 

'- -r^ P B. Scotland (178). shows underhand stoping 

'-.Tifi with 6rTn walb t^ Ariaona Copper Co. Stoping 

1' I ip of untimbered rases, put up in the oresboot 25 

An aich pillar is left; wocking flbor is kept con»> 

-' \-jrc fJwveling; a grizzly of logs, over top of chute, 

^-;s itieca oi ore from entering and dogging it. 

-l.^mmaL See Fig 91, 93 for methods suitable 

..'d itoping. 

...aggraaild(«eeArt26toa8). Fig 149. Cross-sec 

-rt of lerds. Underhand stoping, carried on as in Fig 147, 148, destroys 
:: »jr over m stope. Commtmication with parts of level beyond stope 



'■■■■/// ^/ 

— -.y/M. 

\ n »i>JiCOFVlBi 

■Tiish Under- 

^ ~jm 



XTbody; Icvd inters 
UD in cafh dirrction : 
Of JO ft ol level al>o- 

has been replaced by shrinkage and other nicllial!. AauHTDS une. Mioeral 
tabular iruiss of pytile; width. S to 6a f1; dip, 60**; the stroiu slatft waUa m 
no timber was used (iSO. Level interval is 50 to 100 ft; drifts. 10 ft vide, 
put through to level oboveal » js'snuiei heading is opened 11 ft below lev 

dropping ore to haulage level pierce this pillai at ij-ll intervib. Piltola aj 
MCbuiy. amoiuiliD^ to a to so% of the orebody. 

U. dndergronnd GIorT-I><^ Hatkod 
Oancr*]. This melhod, also know 


)f same name 

(Artioo). Thctopofa 

raise i 

in nil directions, making a 

funnel-shaped opening (CLOIV SOLE, 

which is widened and deep 

erhand stifling. Face of 


usually carried in benches, 

, fortninK in 

rcles . 

around the raise as a centi 

^r (Hg 166}, 

. General slope of fact 

eninigh for broken ore to move by gnr. 

dty to the raise. 

Often, brfore mittini begun, -iub-leveli or 

e fun Ihrangh the oiebody 

at vertical inlm'als of ij to 

so ft. F. W. 

Sperr «1a(a thai, lot eco» 

raLv interval on each sub-lev 

mm the main 


raises and sub-levdi depends 

also on hard. 

less of ore. (For full diKmsion 

Applicability. Method is limited to large orebodiis, as masse- 
veins, with strong wnlls and ore. Back and aide walls of a glory hoi 
inaccessible as stoping progresses, with great danger from faUittg sla 
but strong ground. 

Fiyal mine, Minn (iS.i). Hematite, undeilyir 

IK a cover of 6s to 90 ft 

drift, was foinieriy mined by untlcigraund milUng ii 


to 100 It long. A drift was run under center of projiosed room, with cai«-> 

vith saddleback slulls (Art M) and heavy lacgini;: 

into R.i««. \V,ilt6 of £ni,hed roon,* were vertical; 

; pilbt widths, ijft. Wh 

was mined nut it wi, filled. inlcr>™ng pillsrs beini 

i mined by lop slicing (An 

of limlKi for suppwlinii back* of (ilory holes is ran 

;ly feasible. 

AiiplicatioD of method to inclined dcpmils b limii 

led to those having di».i. 

for the footwall to dear ilsdf hy ernvity. Ore brciliing and handling arc c 

benches being carried, with deep boles. Since no < 

oning is possible in ato,,-.. 

must be unifotm. FaHowing eumples show applii 

where all Of m«l of ore mined is fiorn glory.hote woik. The method i. \U: 

auuUaty for cheap minin; of n»nis between pillara 

mined by other methods, a 

mint; »e also Ohio topper Co'i melbud lAtt Mi). 

Sectioa 11 nine. Mhm<«ile Ramre. Mich (.5, 

1. .84I. Fig 1SS. 1S6 ,ho 

jaspilile. Shaft i, in lontwall. To o[,en a level a 

ing; w-all- are thea ioll..»«l onlil drifts connect (» 

c plan. Fig Hi}; ctosscuU. 

between loot and haaemg.wiU drills at iotervali of 

: so to 60 (u Footwall.-^ 


Underground Glory-hole Method 


-li i. 


Fig 155 


^rit ab<yvc for vcntSatioo, when development has advanced far cooogh for a 
•j'. oipeiated wkhoat intofering with other wock on level; other xaitcs aie as 
u *>ertkaJ or nea^ so, 
-' i iew next to hanging 
r^^'^Mc (Fig 155) shows 
^ -Cift; oa 8ao-ft level, 
--^£ Is partlr completed; 
-4.- -Urted ia imiaei ahove 
- ; betveen 700 and 640 
'-. »:: -ristoed stage is shown; 
' -iz-h. level has icached 
r :• pm-3%Tng piUars. » To 
-e iTjfihcid 4 operating levels 
•-s 13 practice, all stages of 
^ ur.ibtaseoosly in differ- 
liit. Fig 156 shows 
ns. Breast slopes 5 are started near top of each raise, leaving a 6 to f o-ft 
Wrvel above, which supports the level until ore above has been removed. 
Ore below breast stope is milled into raise, and milling con- 
tinues downward to Hnes abctf, where ore will no longer slide 
on face of stope. Robbing the V-shiqied pillars over level 
above then begins from raises r, the piUars being thinned 
down until they will just support caved material above. Ore 
is dumped into open slopes below. Hdes are then drilled in 
remaining pillars and in level-pillan L, all being fired to- 
gether in sections, beginning at boundary and. retreating. 
Broken ore from pillars is drawn through chutes b and e; 
some ore is lost by mixing with waste, which falls when 
pillars are broken. At this mine a rigid gecnnetiical plan 
can not be followed, because of numerous intersecting dikes. 
An attempt is made to locate development raises to reach 
thickest portion of pUlars on level above. This method has 
.^^^ proved economical and safe; no timber is required ezc^ 

^ ^ -for chutes, and ventilation is good. It is stated thit the per- 

" : ^j/^.i^ oentage loss of ore through contamination with waste is low. 

. - -. * 3 EC 

p .^ Metcalf ndDe, Ariz. P. B. Scotland gives data for 1910 

"^ (152). Orebodies, of low-grade oxidized and sulphide copper 

-c^v 3, parallel Tein systems or stockworks in granite-porphyry, containing shoots 

-.. »cr, usually at junctions with cross fissures. Where ore is hard and stands well, 

- ---^i -ndling (Fig 157) is used. A raise is put up to top of ore and extended to 
' ' ! • 1 bij^ner opening for air. Mining begins at 50 ft above kvd. Ore is milled 

- ^2 fc by sloping cuts; top of mill hole is widened to 
"» ^ is far as roof wfll stand safely. Holes are deep, 

- ' n nlack powder to minimize injury to roof from shocks. 
i -^^tt b wcffked out. it is filled with waste through the 
. rule ajH Udderway are built up as filling progresses; 

■r '>ft :Axk ai oce above b similarly attacked. ' 

■rb7 C^osol Co, Phoenix. B C. Contact metamorphic 

i .i >-<minatjed chalcopyrite, pyrite, and specularite, in 

/ ii r'^-Aoic, garnet, etc. oc<;ur in crystalline limestone 

.<r «<: ELaob HiD-Ironsides orebody is a lens, a 500 ft 

.-J -J 155 ft thkfc. and 370 to over 900 ft wide; dip at 

1 i ! ^ ^ 
 ; i ' iV V 




,] to €0*, flattening in depth to 15* to 30*; footwall* 

i A''xd. hang»»*g wall is a commercial one, ore grading 

- - .u'v^ie or stopping at a slip. Ore b strong, of very 

.-i !r. sverajpng i2S% Cu, 0.04 oz Au, 0.3 os Ag, R. H. Allen (xao) and C. M. 

. • r irrv e data for 1909. Deposit b opened by shaft and timneb; level interval, 

f •■ .*■{ ririfta about 7S ft apart are run on each level in direction of strike; 7 by 
' -w-'incd 45*. are pat up from drifts at intervab of 25 to 60 ft. usually 45 f^- 

^'^> vyit above floor of level, and the raise b widened until it connects with 

'^ h <>j(ie. Groowl between raises b taken out for height of 10 to 15 ft. above 


faolis aie Mil oprnol s 

DriUiw is done with j-i 
pjGtOD-fihIli; ID picttmina 

Fig 198. GranbyMiat. Clary Holn. (Pillan virlksL pilbn betHYCn lh,^r 

■re blitk; sli^xs ol glory holt* hatchtd lo tbowspanotworliinEs brl w. 

Bbow contour; level below in dotted line) jrd levels. I111909. jcomcTi 

undprietound) mined 3 300 tL 

Finl undericrDiiDd mininKt done with square-Hts, &bowed Ihat onbody was 
unifomi, and of enormous lize. and that ore aod hongLng were stroas and v 
ovci larjfc «Tea9» condiliom which led to adoption of the open $Iopc melfao*. 
This work is cloKly allied Xo chamber woritiogs (Art 41)- For iurlber detail 

M. Open OTCrhand Slop«*, nacrow Veins 
General plant o( mining are shonn in Fig 150 to 162. Oi'rrhand 
practically inverted underhand stopcs (Art j3),nunersH'uituigupw;iT(l u 
the ore to be broken. 
Detallsvarywith modes ^ S» 

k i 

are limited in genciat to _ 

waib and ore strong 

; enouRh to stand unsupported over back of stope. 
^ are preferably started from bottom of a raii^e, <,•_,,_ 
^ horits1iccsbdnKtaken(Fi|il50). firstslice.dirct 1 

^ and, ird, etc, back-stopes. Slopes may be sis,; 

J or DOt-BLE STOPES (t) (Fig 150). Terras toe an. 

;* sometimes designate bottom and top comers of si.^r 

f The drift and cutling-out slope may be eiravat 

^. » =n,^ ''' Bother makin(!aniiinsTOPE(Art4o). RiLLSTopt 

ri' 0. ^ S'l "■ " ''"«"t''"'i"»l «= "''e »" in'":««l V (». Fig 159i ; ir 

''^' " fa«' may be produced by keeping the faces ol sun 

back-stopcs clow loBcther, or }yy u5inK the bill-cut, in which the stope i^ c 

from the raise by diadonal sUcea (Fifi 160). For choice between horii an,. 

Open Overhazid Slopes, Narrow Veins 


<rv see Art 44. Ritt-cut is more useful in filled than in open stopes 
uid in general 00 dips over 40** to 45*. In plat-back stopes (horiz 
. * i!i stirpes), the face is advanced in a general line imrallel to the level, 
-;_; fiLCS of successive back-stopes far 
i r 1 G 1 > . Many combinations between 
: li -bock stopes arc found. TheJium- 
ii^k -stopes advanced simultana)usly 
' - - -s mimber of points of attack, and 
- - .T»b<uiatioo with width of vein, deter- 


<rjtpat obtainable from a stope. 




.^..p-^ are too close together, miners p^ j^j^ Flat-back Stope (sec In 
z jg adjacent faces interfere with each plane of vein) 

- J^neral term stepped-pace ovekhand 
' -<''.!-^ stopes like Fig 159, or intermediate forms between this and Fig 161. 

jz'zr terms describe overhand stopes of same form in wide orebodies. 

-. ~rr:.^'x-ycA may require stopes to be opened in the back of a drift, without first 

. 'uz^. ^ in mining portion WV of vein in Fig 149, or in case of small irregular 

^ i->r.l\ problematical extent above the level. Raises insure natural ventilation, 

•'-ni^ of attack for starting stopes, and provide entry and fadUties for lowering 

: trLi kto liie stope. 

^-f«^opmeBt. Fig 93 shows ty[Mcal development in a vein, providing 
-:: '^9^k\^ for overhand stoping. 

'•uidiig groofld (see Art 26 to 2S). 

::?ort and protection of levels.. Broken ore from an open overhand 
ur falls to level below; hence, a barrier is necessary between level 

and stope to protect 
men and keep broken 
ore off haulage tracks. 
This is more important 
on steep than on flat 
dips; protecting the 
back of level also allows 
broken ore to be loaded 
through chutes (Art 91) 
and avoids shoveling. 
Practice varies with dip 
and width of deposit, 

\'r A walls and local custom. Stulls usuaUy protect back of level in 

- -. r p < having walls strong enough to support them; Fig 162 shows (!bm- 

~ r <rmen t ; a cutting-out stope is taken before 

.^ .u-e placed; distance between stulls and back 
z^mt stope, 7 to 10 ft. 

. A*v of round timbers, diam, 8 to 34 in or more; 

. ^t£. 3 to 5 ft, rarely excerding 6 ft; occasionally, 

■^ K«« tofretber (Quincy mine. Art 40). LACcnro 

. !. t>ui diam. or slabs or fdanks (see Timbering 

*rt ::.! are laid on the stulls. In open stopes, a 3 

^ A >oken ore is left on lagging to protect it from 

• ' L ! rg; ore; this is removed when stope is finished. 

t icj a nrrcn is cut in footwall with a moil or 

--: to recove foot of stull, which is flattened as at 

'o piTfvcnt it from rolHng. Hitch may be only 

>!< *a stnmg rock; a weak footwall may require hitches 6 or 8 in deep or more; 

' ^i Duist be xemoved befora cnttiiig hitch. Head of stull U square and to dia- 





Overhand Stope, Stull Timbering 


Fig 163. Stull Timbering 

oictims called a cap) of i I. 
huilbiHcd and lUDiciiie. Hesdboii 
CD(nprK»dby initial crcvp of ^roun< 

T. Johns. 

J' aiiitit of dip on flatter di 

Fig IM. SluU Timbering beluteen Ihe« limili. Object of Kltinnsiul Is 
is to prevent thdr fallinji ander weight of o 

r ora (levd-pillara) may be left over levd 
ol oveilwDd stop«; Fig 187, [lom Tnis- 
JioH^ Rand praclke (Art ji). In thii 
are opcnol [mm a sub-level (ilope-drifl) 
lecteit »'ith it hy abort nxie, B. in which 
luill; wcnlne-shaped pilesalorE.cullecIinK . 

Slopes, Narrow Veins 51 

nUctloB b atauuy Hbcre dip f> tcu Ltua x 

rmttS. Stuikd Slope 

t37. 3S). Square-setE and otba timbering 
ig vdiu, loo wide (or slulls (Art 4S to ss). 
Itopea, in veins •orked by open overhand 
m of o[wn stope to timbering, pillars o( ore 
s ate commonest timber support in narrow 
evd5,foreconoraiclimitsof length). When 
□» slabs. Stulls do nut adequately support 
ugh oS on cipoBuic to air; for such cases 
■i isg), aUowing use ot lagging along walls, 
lot adapted to veins with weak walls; filling 
ferable. Timbering in general istosuj^xirl 
lil the slope can be almndoned and allowed 
sort the weight of rock overlying a depcksit. 
Ut 37. 38. 

VBBt wule ii tnled on itulU |Fig 192). Fig 
rtol. H. C. Honrer lUteido): "This lyitem 

m btulls by vsian nulc which accuEnulales un- 
deiBTDund; arii^cial [>illus abo apply 10 ca't^ 
wbcrt 'tulla iilrme are nnt sufhcient support , and 
yet whtre compfcle (jIlinK 

I tbr c( 

c ulva 

. oi saving timber and over lil lint: sy 
ivmg imported filUng." Invert "" 
illm IFig IM) ilknvs broken arc 
evtl without especially built pasf< 
lyslem is employed, more special *l 




■vided fc 

rs than i 

rhile walls i 
bedding fix Urge 
ud give wlidity. II b kdvisabli 
walls to inside of Pidc with pice 
p pe Taili. rape or boards. poJtif 
cornen See Bnkpu mins. An 
Quincy mine. Art 40- 

Pilkn »l ore nuylic Mt in 
hud Mope, when the h a n gi n g 
(land luuuppoiud between (b 
where net value of ore in pOlais 
' pay for alteraaliv* modes of ; 
Low grade or waste portioog □[ 
.... II / . . i" 1 ibool are usually Wt as pillars; 

Pa£kwaU(atlefJoh>w») „ypill.notoB{aslevd-pilla«), 

Han for peniuiteDf support ii confined lo low-gtadc orebodtes, us 
siU lying OD Sal dips. For eun|dB sic Art J9 to 41. 
hanging will orar entire mine, in veins worted by open ov 
be effected as followi: 

9 when ore is in shooti, Ihe barren areas often Mm as piHan: so] 
)a is obtainable by one dI Uie above metliads. depending on size 1 
of walls, and slopes will remain open indefinilely or cave after th. 
id Foe permaDeot support to pTDlecl shafts, surface buiMings. 
1 may be filled, (ft) Where ore is conljauom over Ion* dislan 
nay be supported on pemaneol pillan of ore, Flal-dippina. lo. 
pper d^Msits (Mich) fumisli an eiample of this practia (Art 40) 
todio, sK^jing on eacli leN-cl may be canied to property Une or to 
nporary pillars, otlen of large siie, to support roof. A4 niiieh as j 
!islhcnniined,r^realingfnHnboundary toward shaft, and the hangi 
ibedanaslseeClinlonironores.Art ]9). ("0 In continuous oreb. 
at great depth eauang heavy prestures, levels may be driven 10 ban 
re begun above them. Ore is itoped in blocks, starting at boundar 
rfore wort begins in nut one toward the shaft. Sire of block is adju 
of raol, and speed ol woA, id that the stope caD he kept open with 
the hanging will is then allowed to cave and work repeated in ai 
umet & Hecia, Art jS). The lorcgoiiv (cnarks apply to open stop 
Is by filling, see Filled stopei. Act j9-6t. 
ore. In sTEEP-DiFPiHa veins, ore bralccn ia open overhand 
■ily to level bdow. Loading chutes ai ' 

pillara at intervals of is to jo ft (tor details, see Ait 91). 
n which ore will slide depenils 
oforeandfootwall; soft ores 
IS easily tban bard (see Bir- 
la, ArtiQ). Angle of friction 
ore; an irregular footwall 

5°;1 varying ft 
rhand work, no ore is stored 
except the small amount left 
ars or to protect level tim- 
NGsruLLS (Fig 171) (winged 
g chutes) are sometimes used 
handling ore in sleep-diT^tkg 

Wing Stolb (mc to plane 

:an be put in any at 
I not required (or * 
emponiv pl*t- 
ibat)' Bell and 


i])cditopeil»(Si). I 

itoring waste sorted fi 
t it on Mulls (Fig let 

nj( uadergnund. In I 
bs. or it at,y be Mt oo : 
'im paint is tuuftUy prol 
with tniupon ta tbe k 

m Oreihaiid 8tap«i 

Iwith stulled atopesa 

% tuff, breccia, etc, an 

Wolcott gives foUon 

173 shows method ( 

Open Stopes 

by bluting bcfon weight of htnging coma on Often, 
H Rcovend (roiB old itopa, BBtlcns in spliced 6 
{I ihnig dip: Ihcy have been used at Tinunck mine in 
, itulb tit bkcked at batiDm and bnced at middle Hilli bI 

HkU, ini 

•lulb b balleiies | 

welt adapted to O; 

Vis 177. fiittcry llmbtting. Calumet Ir Heda Mine, Mich is ft wide the>- a^ 

tiDDat^. PabtljU, 

nv or TDUEB is poHible il ilope Icn^h is luch thai ncesive weight does bo. 

timberi bd tha.t they may be pulled cput without danger la men; iduch lagginf^ i^ 

in good condition: they work at robbing either alter ihifl m t!ta GniibiiiK Iheii 
timbdinti. ' Hahdljhg scopto ou. BnAen ore slidea oi is shoveled to 6r?.t 
baltehes above level, belneen which chutes are built and ore Krapcd Iian the 
cars: bottom of chute is sometinus lined with ileel plaLe, or entire chute is I 
haidwood. In 5 HkI*, iil or jnd row of baLteria above level b lined liatn 
4 ft above foolwall. to prevent occaaional falling n»f slabs (rDm injuring tniiunei 

If . Extunplesof Practice, Opsn Ovsrluuid Stopei (Support by Paiars ( 
Clinton iron orea, Birmiiigham, Ala. The orebodies are beds oF hec 

occurring as inlerbedded tnemben oC a teries of sandstones anil shsles. 
entenri many miles along the strike and have been opened over 2 ooo ft c 
Leaching has removed lime from upper parts, producing an enriched » 
for varying depths down to 400 ft 00 dip; below this, ore is hard. W. R, 
(190) and E, C Eckel (191) give following data: thickness of beds, la 
fl; dip, 8° to 50°. but usually between iS° and 30°; hancing wali, latgely 
stone; footwall, shale. 

Method ol mining. Entry is by inclined shaft hi the deposit; level interval 
Gs ft. Dtifti, [] (o M ft wide, run from shaft each way Go to loa It; thence. th< 
tinue aa drill-slopes (locally, moms), eitending up the iBp 10 or jo it above ih. 

airways and aUo inclose pillar? to proteft shift; other nises connect levels at 
intervals (Fie ITS) (191), Dtift-stopea are driven to Umil of economic haulage 
levels; Iben pillars between levels are robbed, retreating toward shaft. RohbiDK rn 
depend on chiracler of ore, dip of bed. and the level interval. In vetyhigh lilts 
OK. which does not tUde readily on footwall, bona alica are takes oB lower side of 

Jce, OpeD Overhand 

aced evenly, ockt foolwall, 

dzillinj ore Is oftni haid xc 
ft; in OsceoUi Icde (ekiy di 
influcDtnlby IhefarElhali 
n Aiid ^ts are used Eor layi 
ffii^I to driJI, md arc mDit 
ke; but Utter nquirs itA| 
«all in stapes; tbeir siie 
oping {Alt 30). 
: 40 It M\oag strike, leu aim 
a ot [nllan ia At right angle 
er sides stuped to ihed bi 

j; size; Urge piecra are lift 
. Ccst of injIalUtion sod 
high; dae to Ehia uid the 

B belon; slope it abudone 
k, by a sinill power -icnpi 
n renuininit on slope flooi 

n WHE it on an unygd 
idtb. 14 (I: Tig 181 than 
rift-itofiet. Ground ie mil 

lop at drift-glope in euh ; 

lie of each itoiK (Fig 1%J). A flat-back slope [i carried, and  cut most be 
tuck lor each ilice. VeoIiktioD u pool in upper parts oi atope. NomTS 
BAiCE mm. Aver vidtb al lad 
. dip, jB°; level inler™]. ijj (t- 
' Btoped in blocks to It alons at] 

. Pilljui an usually left in i 
MS at top ol dritt-slape and al 
ipjKT slope, bul Ibeir spKcii 
at VEH cmta-ua „rj|„ depenib on hanging wall. 

. Sloinng, Wolverine Mine la-It cluia pillar is left, eiccpi w 

eb above ve stoped out, Ai t^h- 
16 Ft: dip, if; level interval, iij [1, Lifti are mined in j series o 
high, will] pillon at bottom of each itope; poor hangiog wall often 
asjsltalongilrike. Hufcoci lOHi, Widlhoflode.StaioIti di 
ETval, IDC ft, Drilts, 6 by 7 ft, are enlarged by  cutting-out stope 

lagging'at .s-It § a W" 

ervals, with a sollar uitder 
I drills: the real b drawn 

■t great depth. Drills ) by 6 fl are run partly in 
toUowed by a culting-out stope with back iS ' ' 
level. Back ol level b timbeted Kith stulls, 

apart, without lagging: this ia stated 10 be rbeapcr and safer than wider 
lag^ng. A s-ft space is left between stuUs every is ft, and paitially laned. lea 
by j-ft chute opening! which delivers oreontoasollaioverthe track, Stopcaconliii 
ous pUlan at irregular intervals; stulls support slabs as required; some iuti5t:L&1 
waste on stulb are used, A stepped-face,overhaDdstDpe is carried, VilicD atope ia 
KKkia blasted out of foalwall and piled on stulls o\'er the level laa height of 30 
ai the hanging wijl actllea, sluUs are comprcwed until the rock filling takes the 

Retreatiiig ■ysteiiu are attempted io moat amygdaloid mines: c! 
BS depth and consequent pressure from overlying rocks increaae. 
drilts or drift -slopes must teach the boundary before sloping begins abo^ 
output rrquirements sometimes prevent this. At AJIouez. it ia plai 
extend drifts to boundary before more than the first series of itopes ia 
at other mines, single slopes are opened successively, as lar out fimn 
development aJloirs, until the drifts reach property linES. 

DcTUdes increasing the difficulty and coat of maintaining dHfta, the prmetkre c 
iiing slopes before drifts reach boundary has lollowinji drawbacks: td) hlastLnK 
injures tracks on level; (t) mucking in ilope and in drill or drifl-jlope inie 
snull pieces of ore rolling from slope onto rails often derail cars; Hi danger fr 

must then be run to level bckiw: Ihis is trouUesome and costly, especially on fl 

41. Example* ol Practice. Wiimtararud, Sooth Africa 

(Open Underhnnd, Overhand, and Combined Slopes) 
Orebadiei comprise several gold-bcnring silicifiwJ conglomerate beds 
EK), inlerbtddcd with quarUite and slate. 

e, Witwatararand, South Afric 

jhUvhIuiJ m 
DplBB at R 

in Calol Rj 
• (194) 













vhidi M 

1< Dntappartcd <r 

: dictated largely by local dip; o] 
ing wall permits stoping outirard I 
y d«p workings, sand filling (Art g 
bly be DHXasBiy. On flat dips, bn 
I ; on dips ol lo" to 50°, mining is 
ombined slope (Fig 1S4). Steep ] 
re mined by shriokage stapes (Art 1 
entry, see Art 17. In Central I 
Is usually follow reeCi, but impottai 
drilu (-1. Fig 167) are often 5 or 
to ;oo-f t Lntavals (Art 10; Brakpai 
1 winze is sometimes used where 1 
is preferable with hand diilling, as n 
and uppers. Underhand stopes ai 
where steep dips pennit down hole 

above is njpported on atuDi; in sot' 
ner at loe of itope li avoided by dri 
Ltcu, underhand ito^ng Iobcb its advi 

piLlu5 IhKQ hukd^lrivfin, due to tluttefing kcIwd of bcavki Uut». Under aver 
tiona, CHAtH PILLAKS ftfc Ldl; in weak or or under poor roof , both above mnd beloir 
■ninimum Uucknoi, i It. Work, in tdjicmt reefi nuy make it doinble lo chanir 
^ t^m of ciuiD pillan, to uksure tbar 

^^ag* _,i^fi pontion (Fig IMt), Sbatt fiu^ks 

tl M^K^ 1^^^ lo 11 ft wide, RoBMMO of mtABs b^ 

_ Dwina to robbing ■□ outcnjp 
uul Locnased presura id deep-levels, t 
movements of hancioff nH bmve oa 

cua iSectisg shall pillan (Si); sand 

FiglM. AmngemenlotPillnnwithRe- ^^"^ •^"' " 

^93). SriTLLS art used kxaJty to si 

UftH T. Joh^ioS" " """ '""' dabs near -oALng («:h. Imported 1 

,— J ^ ^^^^ ^_^^ about 1*3. inlenor load r, 

li£ per M; bcDce its use n mbimiied Cld). Aannou FOUis, in tarm of pad 

(^ 170). oflen replace chain tuilan. Id fltopes» packs are also built of coarse 

Waste-packed stulla (Fig 1 52) are common supports, espcdally in ticep-dippimc uixk 

■topes of outcrop mibo; tbey alao protect men in bottom of stope from fallinjt 

Waste-filled ctiaa or Ficsms are ollen used, fotmiog cooveoient sii;qioit of moi  

pillanwhilcbeiiigrDbbed (Art3i,]6). For levels some enKinetrs prefer Ibera to pad 

Handlins ore la Mope*. Where dip allows it. ore dides on foot^^ll t 

level: on the usual dips of »5* to jo'. it is handled by mechanical dv 

to avoid shoveling (see Ait 91; also Brakpan mine, Ait ji). 

U. Pillu and dumber WorUiifi 
The term denotes methods of mining in nUch large chambers are excav 
leaving pHlsrs of ore for pennanent support, Ctiambeis ouy be miiu 
underhand atopea, glory holes or overhand stopes (see also Mother Lode I 
below). Support for men in overhand slopes is aflorded by Bcctunulatii 
broken ore (Shrinkage stopes. Art 68), or by square- sets (Art 4s elitt/); chan 
Hje rarely Med with waste to suj^nrt men (see Rimogne quarry, bdow). 

The method is a developmeiit of room ind pillar work in beds (Art 3a), for n 
masses or wide veins. Id typical cues, workings art a series of large open stope* 
arated by a oetwoik of vertical and hotiz pillnn of ore. SynonynHHis lernt 

Chamber wotkinfs are a very old form of mining, obsolete lor metalliferous def 
eicept in rve cases; they are useful for exploiiing cheap and abundant minetmls. a 
or skte, where much of the deposit (40"^ to 70^0! can be sacrificed in pilUn for aev 
theap support and low mining cost. Recovery of pillars is ([enerally cosily. ofiB 
posuUc. and workings are left in such shape that a change to other methods is difl 

ReqaireinantB of method : (a) krge deposits, as masses, wide veir 
thick beds; (fr) deposits of strong mineral or rock, with strong vralU, 11 
will stand unsupported over back and on walls of chambers: (f) cheap 
erals, which will not pay cost of installing other methods; {d) depoiils of 
form value, as no sorting is done in chambers. 

Booplea of jnetica which follow ibow vaiiadoDj and applications of the mcik 

TUly PoeM mine, N V. Drebody is 

embedded ii 

wide by w 

• 'I'Wh ot 600 It. Fi^ lg( shows method of ndninit pan o 
deposit. An UKliKd shall was sunk in fooiwall, with wide drifts at loo-lt inU 
■hiDgloDlwallloendioforebody. From drifts, rooms 14 (I wide with Jo-ll pUlarc 
carried acnw lo the^nging wall. They were eicavaled overhud as ahrinkaxe s 
(Alt 68]. A umbered onwut m Diiddle of each mm oonaected with fwKwall 

n Mc IFig 1S8) WD 
?a <rf the toUl OR : 


a by tUi mcthixl; is ate sbown, cilnctwa 
J, Chamber workingi werr sdopled largely be 

of pillan wKA Dcglected. Many nuDet have atjipped the overburden and rnined ik 
by opcc-cut, FLIling methods have given high auction in much rccenl 

Undergraund alata qoarhas arc typical of wirect application of tl 
workings. Fullowiog examples illustrate some of the methods employ 
further detail, see Bib (lO, 169, 104, 105). 

FMtiilioi Dllllici, N Wals. Slate beds. 30 to i» ft Ihick, dippiDR id° Id 
opened by inclioed ahalls or by aditi; level ' ' " 

md piUan on succissive levels are under at 
!Dch other. Vertical diatntm belnim fli 
rt. Main drifts are destroyed by work ui 

total is left in pillan. Funher l« 

1 i9oS the Oakley qu. 
slate pef mo (163). Oni 
Elsewhere in tbe district, condili 

ail lotl. and i 
es net yield to 
y. with full ct 

leans have been deiiud lor 

eld hy gi 

.0 build u[ 


o-ft K 

I qDUTT. French Ardinjies., Principal slile bed dips u* lo 4;"- ihi 
Lang chambers {30 to so ft wide) are ewavated along the strike. 

wide alonx diii, aides of [Hilars beiM normal to dip. Chambers are mined praclii 
overhand filled stope (Art 60); taSch of IM waste is used as GlUng do;}. 
Anjoo, France. Slate beds i.» to 500 ft Ihiclt stand «lmo.l vertical. Ouirt 
vered by . coifciderabic thickness of vmrlhleis 'late. They were f< 

dated cf 

entry fr 

A eye-bolt in float of chamber. Uoiia  

re chuKcd with 

Open Stopes 

Ht 1 pillar, 1 431 beds w 
brakiDg I7S ooo Coi 

iiukrgrouDd and trunming labor, 9-56^; c: 

ver. i.6(j^; lumber, a-iSf- iondrvs, i-s&' 
Brcakiof ground if thus very cheap; cost 
PVd IS uicreosol ay nrcesaily IQI blockboline Jorge piecB in chuls. 

Fnr successful appucatidn oI this method, Ibe orebody must be lir^e, falriy 
€l too low grade to pennit use of Ming or timber, and wilb foatwall steeper 1 
ADVAKT4CES: {a) little mucking is neccsary; (b) no timber except for chutes ; 
umical use of uploiivea (Table 39, £16); {d} drills have large capacity in pil 
as tbey drill cODlinuously without blasting delaya 00 each shift; (f) method b : 

U. Snb4«Td Stopioc 

This method, also known as stib-stoping, was developed in MichU 
mines about 1901. It is an tipcn-slope method and distioct from s 
caving (Art 76, 77), Following data and diBwiogs are From F. W. Sper 
McDoiald, and F. C. Roberts (]o8). 

TjiM of depoiit mined by sub-level 5to[»ng in Mich includes "p 
and namiw ends of large lenses; in general. steep-iiipiHiig, tabular d 
ij to TOD ft wide. Ore should be free fcom slips, and strong enough fo 
to stand after trimming and benches to stand under tbelr own wei^h 
bard ore increases cost of driving sub-levels and is a disadvantage). 
must be firm, or they will cave and mii with ore, and overlying capping 
be strong, so as to permit sCoping of large panels or blodis. 

DsTelopmaat. Shafts or other entries sikould be outside of the oreb 
g eventually causes walls to cave. Level ioterval, too to 150 fi 
cally, each level 

dmbcring Claboc), lyH: t 
9.97^; caadls, □.46*; drill 
lods), o.63«; compressor 
4i-07( Woges, »,! to (4 p 

way and sub- levels i, 1,1 
i are driven. If end of ' 
posit slopes backward 01 . 
vertical, lub-level) are started from 
lub-level (No i) is it lopi of chu 
IS It; Ibey are cloaer in toll than i 

Field of tua tcaaa to be in oiebodies with good walU, which arc toi 
or otherwise unsuited to caving (Act 71 il stq). aod in which the ore is tu 
to uie Bhriokaee methods aad yet not soft enough to require squsrC'Sct< 

U. Summary of Open-itope Hethods 
Applicttiotil. These methods, employing pilkn o[ ore for pen 

support o( walls, are best suited to low-grade orebodies; they ftacriiii 
of the deposit to secure low mining cost. Caving methods yield hi*;! 
traction than apen-atope methods, and compete in cheapness with them fo 
low-grade deposits. {For limitations of cavbig. and types of orebody to 
it ia suited, see Art 83. 1 Open stopcs are in generaJ limited to orebodii 
strong walls; in overhand methods, the ore roust be strong cdoukIi to 
unsupported over backs of stope, as is true also of most] v« 
wide orebodies {Art J4. jj). Strong ore is also required where ore pill 
relied on to support walls. Field of open-stopc methods emptoyinie ore 
(or permanent support is in beds and veins dipping less than 35° to 4 5 = 
massive deposits where vertical pillars can be left. Stulls for supptirtinj 
slabs, etc, are u-sually limited to a maji length of 10 ft (Art 36 to 38) ; se 
vidual methods, Art 19 to 4j. for their applicability and limitations. 

Underhud methodi. Advantages: (a) all drill bola aft down bales, drill 
this avoirla dust, ii advanUg^eoiu for hand-drilling with uiukilled labor. And j 
use of eflkicnl pluitKer-dnlls. la general, breakinx ore cchIa las in uaderhojid 1 
o\'erhand slopes; fb) minera aUnd oa an while vroritinir. vhich is uicr ttiAn <»j 

melhiids, where applitJiMr, muitc less timber than overhand; (d) in snicnkl. 
fines is lc» in ubderhuid thui in overhand wort. Disaovahtages: (o) dajijEpr. I 

slope i« extended, and loose pieces may fall; (£) due In atjcive conditions, ttie lew 
viO must usu.illy be smaller Ilum lar overhand methods; U) facililies foe stuHiu 
in slopes are poor; {d) broken ore from fan collects at a single point, whidi m^^ 
fere vilh ecoiHinucal ^■ruilmj ml loading. 

OrBrhand metboda. AnvAHTAUEs loot indicated above): (a> minen wor 
back ol mope, vheir they can examine face carefotty and take down loose ^rrrjua 
are not npoKd la danger fnmi pieos falling kwg distances: (t) hssic or otv i, 
stored in ilopes; (r) a greater variety of workinf pUna is available than in <rv 
slopn: any type «< machine drill may be used, and by using a ri[L<ul (Art i>-^ 
hoba may be drilled; lli an open, overhand method may. if rrquiied. be chaao 
lirinkaKe. or filUnx method, far more nzdily than aDdarlianil ^ 
In brmking ground; IJ) broken ore (alls d€>wn the dip under thcr ii 
'; tbii allows haihUin^ oJ ore Id tbe level belo* without nwchAnicAj I 
lijis than is poKible in underhand stoiio. DiaADVA.-rTACjts arv Lajfni^- |j 
IvanlsjCH ol underhand; in additioo. support for men is ncceasAry lu ov 
litu wtt 40* to a', whether required by vaJb d not {Art ^). 


U. SqiMn-wt HMhod 
741 w.-tT lirtt u«.1 in the V S in i860 by PUip Deidesbeim 
-, f.uuii.vt, l.,»tr, Nfv. Tbe mrlbod is often oDed the N" 
•.v-'tiTit. It is usni t'hicdy in ovtitund wwi; (of itA use in t 

I, K*' .\it 46. 

DitfT (A 5q-9et Syttan 

bifhat workids floor is t 
by iHyiDic plankj hctdu < 
o", etc (Fig 201). The I 

ml; nil kU uMbI are 
ich Ihe Mb alone an relii 
illon (CDcnl omtund p 

Sqnare-ict Stapes 
■re baud upon the 
ary overbaad Hopes. 
A drift, dther in wal 
In wide orebodiei. tht 
e raise to the level al 
ing of timbers and fiUi 
hud itopa is illustr 
Donald gives foUoifinf 
fiwure Tom in iHidfied 
cooDtiy nxk ire gencnl 

imtiii drifu, 6 by S It. II 

1 and ^Ui coveRd by p 
tliem. Fig 101 ilwn  

Itmbeied Stopes 

n ii idvtDced by * cut i act wide unra the vdn. B 
d aboul 7 It deep, ue drilled with luge piitai-drillx. 
d b ibovelcd to chuiB in Alternate teti or m every ttiird « 
nn wall lo will, loUowed by mucken 

. Squue-iet Stoin, Le Rd 

60 (I B|»n. to all 


ullaneous woili on eacb 


nsulily Rduad to 

t v»ri«ljmm«iT.US). 

into the fioisbed si 



Details of open square-set work in stepped-face, 
slope-drills are used, ground is broken by uppers < 
Main iunction ol timbers is Co support slabs, brok' 
ground, waste 611ing is generally required to prevei 
of work is tbea modified as follows: 

Square-Kts are used (or developEneat openinsi, which can be laid rut m stTai| 
eormpdndin^ to linefl of stope timber?; crooked drifts an usually timbcT^ wi 
HU, replaced with iquanj-Mts as sill-floor work proccedj. The floors ait wid 
vclions unall eooiigb f or ore to stand unsupported unti^ sets can be erected. Thc< 
kept filled urilh wiiilc, usually to witbin 1 or 3 sets of tbt back; under heavy pi 
only lop floor sets may remain open. Haula^reways are kept open on aUJ float- by 
(he sets Ihrouich which they run- Art 47 gives details of handling ore. wajtie^ 
tiled slopes. Occasionally, in very uft ground, the st<4K [aces arc advanced by 
Domed or prramid itopeg. Tbe work isso arranged that the genenl: 
of the slope back is dome-shaped or pyramidal. They are conunonl; 
stopes, and have been used in massive orebodies ol both Strang and m 
under strong hanging walls. The arched back is pajtly seU-supportii 
reduces pr