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Full text of "Mining magazine"

JIBWH& UST m 1 5 m 









The Mining Magazine 



PUBLISHED AT SALISBURY HOUSE, LONDON. 
/ 

INDEX TO VOLUME XXI. . i7 > 

FROM JULY TO DECEMBER, 1919. )/%h\ 

Explanatory Note. — Items in italics are names of books reviewed ; illustrated articles are denoted by asterisks (*) ; the letters (m.d. I 
refer to notices of articles under the heading "Mining Digest." 



PAGE 

Abbontiakoon Progress 262 

Alaska Gastineau, Mining Methods at .{m.d.) 315 

Alaska Juneau 138 

Alloys, Carbon-Free, Electric Furnace for (vi.d.) 250 

Alluvial Mining, Teaching :i 

Aluminium from Labradorite (m.d.) 375 

Aluminium, Metallography of {m.d.) 250 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's) Report 61 

Amalgamation, Steaming in (m.d.)...... *121 

Anatolia, Minerals of....N. M. Penzer ..."16, *153, -218, 279, *337 

Anchadura 9 

Anglo-Persian buys Scottish Oil 75 

Antelope Report 127 

Antelope Mine to close 73, 200 

Arsenic, Estimation of (m.d.) 375 

Ashanti Goldfields Corporation 326 

Ashanti Goldfields Shaft Accident 7 

Associated Gold Mines 200 

Associated Nigeria Tin Mines 74 

Astronomy for Surveyors R. W. Chapman 124 

Audley, J. A., Refractories in Zinc Metallurgy.. .(m.d.) 177 

Aurora West Report 64 

Aurora West Accident 7 

Baiaghat Reconstruction ., 200 

Bateman's Tin Process 34 

Bauxite in West Africa A. E. Kitson (m.d.) 49 

Belgian Non-Ferrous Metal Industry 130, 161 

Bisichi Tin... Report 62 

Blackwater Mines Report 126 

Bleloch's Theory of Far East Rand 67 

Blumental, R. H Spitsbergen 40 

Blythe River Iron Mines 8, 136, 288 

Boston Creek, Ontario 38, 351 

Botha, Louis, Death of 131 

Braden, Mining Methods at (m.d.) 315 

Brakpan Progress 261 

Brandlehow Mine 101 

Briseis Tin Report 126 

British Association 194 

British Guiana Outputs 327 

British Platinum and Gold Corporation 264 

British South Africa Co.'s Claim 73 

British South Africa Co.'s Mining Department 7 

Broken Hill Block 10 Report 125 

Broken Hill Block 14 Report .... 125 

Broken Hill, British Report. ...60, 381 

Broken Hill Extension... (m.d.) 185 

Broken Hill Junction 15!) 

Broken Hill, North Report 3-<l 

Broken Hill Proprietary 136 

Broken Hill Proprietary Report 317 

Broken Hill, Prospecting at *132 

Broken Hill South 263 

Broken Hill South Fire 74, 288 

Buena Tierra 9 



Bullen, F. Jumbil and Trevascus 291 

Bullfinch Proprietary 327 

Bullfinch Proprietary Report 126 

Burma Corporation 136 

Burma Corporation Report 317 

Burma Corporation Metallurgy 258 

Burma, Geology of M. H. Loveman {m.d.) 122 

Burma Ruby Mines Report 127 

Bwana M'Kubwa, Flotation at 262 

Calvert, A. F., in Cornwall 74, 137, 201 

Camborne Letter 34, 162, 226. 284, 355 

Camborne Mining School 3, 130, 256 

Cambridge, Geology at 256 

Camp Bird, Exploration at Depth 9 

CamDbell, J. M., on Origin of Tin and Wolfram 322, 343 

Cariboo, Placer Mines of J. B. Tyrrell {m.d.) 190 

Carnegie, Andrew, Death of 131 

Caucasia, Mineral Resources, of 252 

Cauvery Falls, Hydro-Electric Power at 2(i:f 

Cement from Blast Furnace Slag (m.d.) 122 

Cementation Process in Staffordshire (m.d.) 315 

Cerro de Pasco, Pulverized Coal at 194 

Chemical Prices 47, 109, 175, 237, 301, 365 

Chenderiang Results 201 

Chillagoe Company 8 

China Clay Deal 131, 164 

China Clay Industry H. F. Collins • 2<,9, *329 

China, Gold-Washing in (m.d.) 122 

Chrome in Maryland (m.d.) 122 

Chromite in America im.d.) 315 

City Deep, Ventilation at (m.d.) 1^7 

Clark Tructractor 

Clifden Estates 131. 164 

Climax Rock-Drill Patent 190 

Coal, Brown, Furnaces (m.d.) 315 

Coal Commission :!, 31 

Coal in French Indo-China (m.d.)., 

Coal in the Midlands .(m.d.) 375 

Coal Mines, Nationalization of 180 

Coal Mining, New Method of (m.d.) SCO 

Coal, Powdered 133. 139, I 

Coal, South African (m.d.) . 

Cobalt, its Occurrence, Metallurgy, and Utet 316 

Cobalt, Ontario 38, 99, 160, 225. 291, 350 

Cobalt Strike Settled 75 

Collins, H. F China Claj tndustrj 269, '329 

Colombia, Dredging in 261 

Colombian Corporation 202 

Colombian Mining and Exploration 9 

Commission, Non-Ferrous Mining. .163, < ,227,284,287,353,855 

Compressed Air Plant R. Peele 125 

Concentrator, Curvilinear 229 

Congo PiOL-r.ss S. H. Ball and M. K. Sbaler (m.d.) 190 

Consoli Ids Reconstruction 72 

Consolidated Goldfields of New Zealand Report 126 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



10 

359 
189 
53 
189 

139 

188 
35 

856 
, 165 
♦309 

all 



Constancia Mine 

Constantinesco Roek-Drill 

Conveyor for Minesj McDonald's (m.d.) 

Cooked L. H-.Teraestriai Magnetism, & Mine Surveying (m.d.) 

Copper Leaching In Australia (m.d.) 

Cop> i M< tiltai ■•■ . Pulverieed Coal in Mathewson & 

Wotberspoon 

Cordoba Copper Co 

Cornish Mmejs, State Aid for 

Cornish Scientific Societies 

Cornish Wages 85 

; Process on Silver-Refining Fume ......(m.d.) 

Cyanide, Gold-Zinc W. R. Feldtmann {m.d.) 

Cyanide Manufacture (m.d.) 

Cyanide Solutions, Solubility of Gold in {m.d.) 

Daggafontein Property '9 

Dagwin Manganese Properties. "<* 

Dams, Construction \>f B. H. Matthews 125 

David, Professor T. vV. Edgeworth 

De Beers Prosperity 825 

Derbyshire, Oil in 264 

Diamond I uttin in Great Britain (m.d.) 315 

Diamond Catting Works 835 

Diamond Discovery at Ronxville 1 

Diamond Discovery in Weal Africa 7:t 

I ii.ni i i.i in- sovery in West Africa \.. E. Kitson.. 148 

Dia nd-Drill Holes, Straightening (m.d.) »312 

Diamond-Drilling J. A. MacVicar '.i7 

Diamond Mining Methods (m.d.) 815 

ad Output • , '• i • , 

Diamonils in Bouth-Wesl Africa 969 

Diesel Engines for Mines (m.d.) ... 815 

Dolcoatb 226 

I)oico;uli Report.... 

Dole mi. Labour 'Troubles at 856 

Dorrco Diaphragm Pump 

Dumas, Admiral, on Conservation ol oil 

Deep Report - 4 

Durban Roodepoorl Deep, Pall at 

Dust-Allaying Water, Handling (m.d.)... 

East Pool 166 

Bast Pool, Flotation at 

nd Propri tary 

Ecuador, Petroleum in (m.d.) . 

Hay, Mi tallurgy at 

Electric Mining Machinery S. P.Walker 

Elecl roplating, Early History of {»'. </.).. 

Elmore Process, New - 

Elmore Process, New... (m.d.) Ill, 1--. 249 

El Oro Mining and Railway 264 

English Oilfields, Ltd 7."., 131 

English Oilfields, Ltd., and Torbanite 901 

Enterprise and Giant Consolidation 

Esperanza ,; - ! 

Esperanza Copper and Sulphur Report I ' 

Esperanza's New Property 188, 201 

Evans, .1. W., on Aids in Geology 195 

Evans, J. W Geological Problems (m.d.) , ... 24*) 

Exhibition, Mining, in New fork 

Exhibition, Shipping and Engineering 231, 294 

Ex-Lands Nigeria Report 62 

i st Rand IV7 

F.,r "Bast Urn, I W. E. Bleloch 3TJ 

Ear East Rand Bore-holes.. 7 

Far East Rami Mining Shares Boom 191) 

Warrant, J. C, Four Fears as Prisoner of War 81, 90, K.7. 218 

Federation Tin 136 

Feldtmann, W. R Gold-Zinc Cyanide (m.d.) 311 

Ferreira Deep Report 69 

l-Yrro Manganese, Electric Furnaces for [m.d.) *_;"•< » 

Fertilizing Materials S. L. Lloyd 252 

Flotation at Bwana M'Kubwa '2iv> 

Flotation at East Pool 3-28, :!•">!'> 

Flotation at Penarroya 1" 

Flotation Cell, Jones-Belmont 359 

I lit at ion. Colloids and (m.d.) 815 

Flotation, Gaseous Frothing Agent in, Patent for 251 

Flotation in California (m.d.) 189 

Flotation Litigation 2, 68, 828 

Flotation, Salman on 323, 367 

Forum River Tin Report 192 

1 laser & Chalmers Engineering Works 

Frontino and Bolivia Report :is-2 

my in Steel Manufacture {m.d.) 250 

cton, Hodgart and Barclay Air-Compressor 230 

Fulton's Electric Zinc Furnace (rn.dj 31o 

(iaika Gold Report . 

Gallard's, J. A. L., Articles in Financial Times 194 



or, Progress at 8, 35, 16."), 264, 355 



Geevor Tin Mines Report -:i77 

Geldenhuia Deep Report 64 

Geological Survey 

Ginsberg Report 128 

Glass Sands in South Africa P. A. Wagner im.</.i 1*0 

Glencairn Report 64 

Glencoe (Natali Collieries Report 128 

Globe and Phoenix Position 262 

Glucinum, Chemistry of (m.d.) 815 

Glynn's Lydenburg Report... . B18 

Goch, New.. Report 64 

Gold Discoveries in West Australia, History of.. C.M.I Ian 

Gold Market, Free 185 

Gold, Price of 820 

Gold Price, South African 

Gold Production, Statistics of 194 

Golden Horse-Shoe, Geology at 82 I 

101 

Goodchild mi Ore Deposits 6 

Goodchild on Ore Deposits 1. P. Mennell [m.d.) . 

Goodchil.l's Paper, Discussion on 



Gowganda, Ontario 

ora]. bite Deposits, Value of . (m.d.).... II i 

Graphite In Alabama 199 

Great B ler Proprietary Report.. 61 

Grenville Reconstruction I 

Grootvlei's New Capital 

Guatemala, Potash In m.d.) 69 

Hampden Cloncurry R< 

tin ric i ■ itrict 

Harris, C. M II estAuei 

:n West Australi i 
Hams, i . m , on West Australia 

i. 116 

nt 

California 

I Sulphur !■• | 

I Mine 71 

I, his Hydraulic 'I'm 

[noomi 

D.N. Wadia., 

U90 

ma. Coal it ■ "*•) * :J "7 

Inst it-,' 

Institution an 1 Inci 

Ipoh Tin Dredging R< 

Iron Ores, Microscopical Examination of (m.d.) -J..o 

Jernma ■ .1. II. I . 

.11.11 Eirkland Lake Goldfli 



Jumbil and Trevascus .. P. Bnlh-n 

.Inmt.il in Cornwall... 71, 1 

Jupiter •:• port 1'27 

'-' ,;;! 

ing Kamnnting Tin R-p »rl 199 

Killifreth Progri 

Kinta Tin Mines Re] ft..... : '17 

Kmta Tin Resull -"' 

Kirkaldy Cooling Plant "81 

Kirkan-11.:' II 

Kirkland Lake Goldfleld H. H. Johi 

Eirkland Lai - 

Eirkland Lai ry wj 

Kit-on. A. E. . Bauxite in West Africa [m.d.) 49 

\. r. Diamond Discovery in Wert Africa 148 

Kits. ii. \ I Geology of Southern Nigeria (m.d. 1 119 

Kleinfontein Plant '' 

Elondyke, A of "»■''■' 

Krainat Pulai Report l'2t> 

G7 

" 

61 
136 

126 

815 
59 
199 
195 
B72 
261 
►11 
:Ut 
•2 



Labour Troubles in England 

Labia lorite. Aluminium from (**■*.) 

Lafon Tin Fields, New 

Lahat Mines Report 

Lake View and Oroya Exploration 

Lake View ai uloration Report 

Lake View and Star Report 

Larder Lake, Ontario 

Larder Lake, Ontario (m.d.) 

Leaching Copper Ores R. W. Perry {m.d.) 

Leadhills Report 

Lead, Innovations in Metallurgy of... Lyon and Ralston 

Lead in South Africa „ ...W. Versfelil (m.d.) 

Lead Mines in Transvaal 

Lead Mines Wanlockhead John Mitchell 

Lead and Zinc in North of England :t»i, 101, 166, 

League i t Nations 

Leake, P. D., on Income Tax 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



r\'.i 

Lena Goldfields, Bolshevism at 10 

Lesser Concentrator (m.d.) 59 

Levant, 166, 227 

Levant, Accident at 263, 285 

Libiola Copper Report 127 

Lignite S. M. Darling 60 

Long Rig in Rock-Drill Practice (m.d.) *112 

Loring, F. C Porcupine '216 

Louis, Henry, on Income Tax 06 

Lower Bisichi Report 62 

Lucky Chance Report 253 

*265 
130 
97 

313 

♦240 

20 

52 

250 

327 

73 

377 

95 

250 

186 

, 222 

38 

*183 



MacDonald, D. J Tin Discovery in West Africa 

McNeill's Codes 

MacVicar, J. A Diamond-Drilling 

Magnesite in the United States (m.d.) 

Magnesite in West Australia (m.d.) 

Magnetic Surveys 

Magnetism, Terrestrial L. H. Cooke (m.ii.) 

Magnetite, Determination of (m.d.) 

Malayan Tin Dredging 

Manganese in West Africa 

Manganese Ores A. Harper Curtis 

Mansfield, Ernest Spitsbergen 

Mapping, Quick Reconnaissance (m.d.) 

Marshall's Broken Hill Theory 

Marstrander, R Spitsbergen. ..38 

Matachewan, Ontario 

Matachewan, Ontario H. C. Cooke (m.d.) 

Mathewson & Wotherspoon Pulverized Coal in Copper 

Metallurgy H39 

Mauss Centrifugal Concentrator (m.d.)... 59 

Melbourne Letter 159, 224, 288, 351 

Mennell, F. P Ore Deposits (m.d.) 374 

Merrill Plug Valve *230 

Metal Markets 42, 104, 170, 232, 295, 359 

Mexican Conditions 101, 138 

Mexican Corporation 75, 202 

Mexican Mining Law (m.d.) 190 

Mexico Mines of El Oro, New Property 202 

Middleburg Steam Coal and Coke Report 382 

Mill Close Mine, Strike at 287 

Mine Maps, Symbols for , (m.d.) 250 

Mine Supplies Stronck and Billyard 60 

Mine Surveying & Terrestrial Magnetism. .L.H.Cooke(m.rf.) 52 

Mineral Industry. Vol.27 376 

Minerals Concentration Co 103 

Minerals, Searrk for A. McLeod 123 

Minerals Separation and the Shadow 194 

Minerals Separation at Bvvana M'Kubwa 262 

Minerals Separation at Penarroya 10 

Minerals Separation Litigation 2, 328 

Minerals Separation New Capital 261 

Minerals Separation's Future 68 

Mining Corporation of Canada 201 

Mining Engineers, Register of 3 

Mining Engineers, Wider Scope for 70 

Mitchell, John Wanlockhead Lead Mines *11 

Modder East 73, 135 

Modlerfontein, New Report 318 

Modderfontein Shares Split 199 

Mongu Report 62 

Moreing, C. A., on Future of Mining in Cornwall 284 

Mount Boppy Report 61 

Mount Boppy, Influenza at 74 

Mount Boppy Reconstructed 7 

Mount Lyeli 327 

Mount Morgan Report 253 

Mount Morgan Labour 8 

Mount Morgan Output 74 

Mountain Copper Mines, Concentration at. [m.d.) 250 

Mungana Silver Lead Co.. 8 

Mysore's New Capital 327 

Naraguta Extended Report. 62 

Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines Report 382 

Nationalization of Mines 3, 34, 130 

National Mining Corporation 261 

Nechi Mines Report 63 

Nechi, Progress at 10 

Nechie Consolidated 264 

Nelson Cell ' [m.d.) 190 

Nenthead Mines Closed 287 

Nickel-Copper Separation, Annable's Patent 190 

Nickel Industry of Ontario 290 

Nickel Ores, Treatment of Low-I trade (m.d.)... 120 

Nickel Plate Gold Mine •_»! . 1 

Niger Company 31 s 

Nigeria, Geology of Southern.... A. E. Kitson {m.d.) 119 

Nigeria, Lead Zinc-Silver Ores in 186 

Norfolk Oilfields 75 

North Anantapur Gold Mines Report 377 

Norwegian Iron Ores (m.d.) r.m 

Nourse Mines Report ill* 



PAGE 

Oil, British Mineral J. A. Greene 251 

Oil, Conservation of ' :vi\ 

Oil in Derbyshire 264 

Oil in England J. Ford (m.d.) 123 

Oil in West Canada (m.d.) 315 

Oil Possibilities in Scotland {m.d i 315 

Oil Prospecting F. H. Li 815 

Oil, Scottish, and Anglo-Persian 75 

Oilfields of England, Ltd 75 

Oils, Mineral, Tests on.... (m.d.) 3t5 

Oil (see also Petroleum) 

Ontario Forest Fires 99 

Ontario Ore Deposits, Geology of (m.d.) . . . 250 

Oolitic Ironstones R. H. Rastall (m.d.) 122 

Ore Deposits, Evolution of, Discussion 150 

Ore Deposits, Goodchild on 6 

Ore Deposits, F. P. Mennell on (m.d.) 374 

Oroville Dredging Report 62 

Oroya Links Report ... 61 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines of Brazil 10 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines of Brazil... Report .. .. 63 

Pahang Corporation 

Palladium in Alaska (m.d.), 375 

■ Papua Oil Ventures 263 

Parsons, C. A., on Tapping Earth's Heat 194 

Pas, The, Gold Discoveries at (m.d.) 315 

Patents Published, Recent 59, 123, 190, 251, 

Pato Mines Report 62 

Pena Copper Mine< Report 318 

Penarroya adopts Flotation 10 

Pengkalen Dredging Ground 263 

Penman, D Rock-Drill Practice... . i 

Penzer, N. M.. Minerals of Anatolia *76, *153, *2 

Personal 41, 103, 168, 229. 292, 358 

Petroleum Accumulations (in.il.) 190 

Petroleum Control, World's 6 

Petroleum Report Books (m.d.).. 

Petroleum Well in Scotland 201 

Petroleum (see also Oil) 

Philippine Dredges Report 317 

Phosphate in Queensland (m.d.) 59 

Phosphate in Victoria [m.d.) 123 

Phthisis Act, New 135 

Phthisis Taxation, New 7 

Pigments, Covering Power of White (m.d.) 375 

Pilares Copper Mine. Mexico (m.</.i 190 

Pitchblende in Ontario (m.d.) 374 

Planet Arcturus 7 

Platinum Deposits, Geology of iii.J.i 250 

Platinum in Rhodesia ...(m.d.) . ... 57 

Platinum Position (m.d.) 190 

Platinum, Substitutes for uu.d.) 59 

Poderosa Rep it ... 127 

Po:dice, New Capital for 74 

Porco Tin Mines... 202 

Porcupine P. C. Loring 216 

Porcupine, Ontario 37, 99, 201, 225 291, 350 

Potash, Californian H. H. Roe (m.d.)...... 190 

Potash Determination (m.d.) 375 

Potash in Guatemala (m.d I 59 

Potash Recovery at Cement Plants A. \V. G. Wilson 252 

Potash Salts in South Africa (m.d.) . ... 373 

Premier Gold Mine 821 

Premier Mine, British Columbia (m.d.). 

Prestea Block A Report 382 

Primrose, New Report... 128 

Prisoner of War, Four Years as. ..J. C. Farrant.. 31, 90, 157. 213 

Progress Mines Repi rt 126 

Prospecting, Future of 259 

Prospecting in West Australia C. M. Harris 

Prospectusless Companies 320 

Pulverized Coal 133, 139, 

Pumping Costs and Rainfall 227 

Quartz in Veins, Genesis of G. J. Bancroft im.</.) 315 

Queensland Coal tm.d.) 123 

Queensland, Wolfram in 221 

Queensland, Wolfram in (m.d.) 120 

Quicksilver Fume Losses Duschak and Schuette .... 60 

Rand, Dust-Allaying Water on (m.d.) 239 

Rand Low-Grade Commission 72. 135, 199 

Band Metallurgical Practice. Vol.11 121 

Rand, Revival of Far West 135 

Randfontein Central's New Shaft 199 

Rarer Elements, Analysis of Minerals and Ores o/..,.Schoeller 

and Powell 1 376 

Rayfield (Nigeria) New Capi i 200 

Refractories in Zino Metallurgy ...J. A, ludley (m.d.) 177 

Register of Mining Engineers . ... 3 

Renong Dredging Report 317 

Renong's New Property 263 

Reverberator} Practice W. G. Perkins (m.d.) 190 






THE MINING MAGAZINE 



i.'.'.i 

Rezende Mines Report... 63 

Rhodesia Broken Hill ■■■ Va""£ \btot 

Rhodesia Broken Hill S.J.Snta 

Rhodesia, Platinum in. ('"•"•> J" 

Richardson, Alex., and Camborne .. - £*> 

Robinson Deep ......... Keport 128 

Rook-Drill Practice, Long Elgin ■ • ••■■ ("»•«•) ■•»• J" 

Rock-Drill Practice, Modern D. Penman *21, 82 



Rock Drill, Wave Transmission. 



359 



Rock-Drills, Electric ,,""■•' ,"7 

poort United Main Reef Report 64 

Rooiberg Developments ■•• ';{ 

Ropes, Wire, Defects in '""'■' dl ;> 

Rouxville, Diamond Discovery at •■■•"••"■ 

Russia, Journeys in A. L. Simon . 

Russo- Asiatic Consolidated aio 



10 

346 
260 
909 

101 



st. John del Rey ,.";';:,' 

rohn lei Rey R 

st. John del Rey, Ventilation at tmM.t. 

pling by use of small Rock-Drills (m.tf.J. 

san Francisco del Oro 

San Francisco Letter 

San Francisco Mines ol Mexico 

3an Miguel (upper 

Schools of Mines i: d „ ; 

ii Report 

Selukwe Columbia w id op • . ' 

Seoul Mining Co.'s Mines, B ""■''•' jj™ 

S:::::::::::::::::::::::: '■>-■- *»»» 

-v.California H. Lang (m.d.) 190,5 

Sheba to be reopened .'••. 

Sheba Reconstruction \r' 

Shockley.W, n - 

Shot-Firing ,.'"":; as 

SiameseTin Report.... 196 

Si he nan I unlit ions 

Siberian Conditions .. - O. W. Porington (m i. 
Siberian Mining Companies, amalgamation of -';» 

Germans in 

Silicate of soda, Commercial (m.a.j 

sihcr, Price of ■• ••; 

. Sterling Smith and I nrner (w.d. 

Silver, Volatilization ol F. 1". Dewej m.d.)... 

Bimmer Deep ! ' •"" .. 

Simon, a. L Journeys in Ri 

Simplified Spelling 



180 

890 

190 
198 



i -7 



Simplified Spelling W. H. Bhookley.. 

Sintering with Powdered Coal (*t.a.j •-- 

Sissert ;;•• 

Slags, l.osse- ol copper and Nickel in m.el.).. 

Slate Refuse, Utilizing ""••'•' 

Sin. Iter Problem in West Australia 

Societies, Alliance of Technical 

3onora Mexican Silver Mini ■ f" 1 

South Africa, Glass Sands in P. A. W agner (•»•<£•)- 

South Africa, Lead in *"'•''•' ;''- 

South Afriea, Lead Mines in • 

South Africa, Potash Salts in (HI.*.).. 

south Afriean Carbide and By-Prodncts Co »■ -"' 

South Amrriea. Miner,,} Deposit* of... .Miller and Smgewald 191 

South Kalgurli t onsolidated • ■■ -.. 

South Kalgurli Consolidated Report -•;■( 

South-West Africa, Diamonds in 

Southern Perak Dredging I I ............... 

Speak, S.J Rhodesia Broken Hill 90S 

Speiss, Treatment of ....(».«.) > r: 

Spelling Reform W. H. Shockley. 

Spitsbergen -•••■•■ ; '" 

Spitsbergen R. Marstrander 

R. H. Blumental 40 

Ernest Mansfield 95 

Spitsbergen Advertisements 9 

Spitsbergen Iron -'f' 

Spitsbergen, Norwegian Enterprise in l»» 

Spitsbergen, Scottish M -< *~ 

Sulman on Flotation ....... • ■■•-■• ■•■ -•>• ■;" 

sulphide Corporation's Acid and Phosphate \\ orks (m.d.).. 114 

Sulphide Corporation's Lead Refinery tm.d.i 50 

SungeiBesi Re P ort 62 

Taeheometer Tablet... Louis and Caunt 

inyika Concessions 

man Tin Output 

Taxation, Transvaal Gold Mine 

and Lanhydrock »— "-^"oca 

Tehidy Minerals =>, •«, 11)4, 2b.J, 

Tekka, Progress at •• 

Theodolite, New Mining (m.d.) 

Thornthwaite Mine 

Threlkeld Mine 



Ticketing, Cornish Tin 

Tin Alloy Analysis [m.&.) 189 

Tin Alloys [m.d.) 250 

Tin and Tungsten Research (i/i d.).. 57 

Tin and Wolfram, J. M. Campbell on Origin of 822, 348 

Tin Dressing, Ferguson's Patent 251 

Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria Report.... 

Tin, Flotation of 88S 

Tin for Monuments 66 

'1 in in Tailing Water (m.d.).. 

Tin in West Africa D. J. MacDonald *265 

Tin Minnie in Afriea, Ancient '«</.) 59 

Tin Ores G. M. Davies... 

Tin Output. Tasmanian 74 

Tin, i'i B. F. Northrup (m.d.)... 189 

Tin Smelting, Bolitho's Patent 

Tm Tic Irish 

Tincroft, Position at 166, 26 

Tipping Bucket, Automatic (m.d.).. 

Tomboy Gold Mines 81 

37,99, 160,226,290,850 

New Propel i 

...41, 108, 168, 229, S 

..ii Gold Mi ... 

i ornwall 74, ! 

•us and Jumbll l ■ BuH< a 

Tronoh, South 

itt, S. J., appointed Professor '- 1 

Turbine Pumps for Mines 

Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines... G. V. Wilson (m.d.) 

t'ln Vam Dredging 

i opper Tailing, Impounding (m.d.) 948 

Vanadium, Extract l< m i I 

Ventilation.:' H I 187 

Ventilation ■ 19J 

Ventilation ol Dei p Mines . .. .., 

Village Mam R< i ■ R< port 

Wade' • Patenl 

Wagni r, P. a "h Africa (m d.) 180 

Waibi Electric Work- • 186 

Waihi Grand Junction Report 

Wanderer Mine Closed " ; 

Wanlookhead U ad Mines John Mitchell 

Wusipika, Ontario "' 

Wa-saii Mini 

Water in Rock Magmas and Veins.. J.M.Campbell. ... B48 
Watt Centenary 

K< I 01 : ■•• 8H;i 

. Bauxite m " ' ■-■ ''■' 

w , .1 ■ ad Discovers .. A. 1 . Eitson 148 

Wesl If rioa, Diamonds in ~ :l 

We-t ■ ances in 

West Australia, llistoryofColdDise,.v.rie-ni ( .M.Hal 

Wi bI Australia, Magnesite in 

Wesl Australia, Mineral B C.M.Hi 

We-t Australia, Prospecting in 

Wesl Australia Prospecting in C. M. Hams m.d. 

\\ , Bl Australia, Smelter Problem m 

Wesl Rand I I I: ' 

Wesl Shining Tree llKI 

West Shining Tree, Ontario (m.o.) 950 

White Lead. Microscopical Examination of (m.d.) 816 

Willoughby's Consolidated Report 31h 

Winding Engine, Belgian im.d.i 1 

Winding Engine Ropes '"■''■' | -'-' 

WinnebahTi D. J. MacDonald... 

Witbank's V " % 2: ' 

Wolfram and Tin, J. M Campbell on Origin of 322, B4S 

Wolfram in Quei Dsland 

Wolfram in Queensland [m.d.) 120 

Wonthaggi Coalfield •••• 123 

Wotherspoon and Mathewson... Pulverized Coal in Copper 

Smelting '•'•_' 

Wnlfenite as source of Molybdenum (m.d.) 31.) 



377 
:l-2t\ 
74 
72 
131 
286 
8 
315 
100 
100 



Zinc 
Zinc, 

Zinc 
Zinc 
Zinc- 
Zinc- 
Zinc 
Zinc, 

Zinc 
Zinc 
Zinc 
Zinc 

Zinc 
Zinc 



and Lead in North of England 36, 100, 166, 227, 26 

Bibliography of Metallurgy of 816 

Corporation 

Corporation Report. 

Dust. Estimating Metal in (m.d.).. 

Dust, Preventing Formation of im.d.i l'J'2 

, Electrolytic, Patent 251 

from Lou-Grade and Compter Ore*, Recovery of.. ..Lyon 

and Ralston 377 

Furnace, Fulton's Electric... (m.d. 1 31a 

in Wisconsin (■*■<*.) 190 

Metallurgy, Refractories in I. A. Audley im.d.i 177 

Oxide Manufacture at Port Pirie i»i d.i 

Retort Residues, Treatment of im.rf.i 

Roasting for Electrolvsis C. A. Hansen (m.d.l. 



The Mining Magazine 



W. F. WHITE, Managing Director. 



Edward Walker, M.Sc, F.C7.S., Editor. 



Published on the 15th of each month by The Mining Publications, Ltd. 
at Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E.C.2. 



Telephone: London Wall 8938. Telegraphic Address : Oligoclase. Codes: McNeill, both Editions 
Branch Offices : 



420. Market Street. San Francisco. 

300. Fisher Bde.. Chicago. 

2,222, Equitable Building, New York. 



c I U.K. and Canada. 12s. per annum (Single Copy Is. 3d ) 

subscription -J Elsewherei 16s , per annurn (Single Copy Is. 4d.l. 



Vol. XXI. No. 1 



LONDON, JULY, 1919. 



PRICE 
ONE SHILLING 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial 
Notes 



Minerals Separation Litigation 2 

Minerals Separation, Ltd., has finally won its case 
in the United States against Butte & Superior, 
and its patent for the use of any fraction of 1% 
of oil has been upheld. 

The Coal Commission 3 

Manufacturers and other users of coal in this 
country are alarmed at the possibility of the 
coal-mining industry coming under Government 
management. 

A Register of Mining Engineers 3 

Proposals are in hand for the preparation of a regis- 
ter of qualified mining engineers. 

Tehidy Minerals 5 

Particulars, with a map, are given of the mineral 
royalties of the Tehidy Estate, which have been 
recently purchased through Dolcoath and East 
Pool, and the campaign of geological and min- 
ing research is described. 

Goodchild on Ore Deposits 



Mr. W. H. Goodchild's theory of igneous ore de- 
posits was discussed at the June meeting of the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, many dis- 
tinguished geologists, petrologists, and mining 
engineers giving their views. 

Review of Mining 



Articles 

The Wanlockhead Lead Mines 

Joint Mitchell 

The Manager of the Wanlockhead lead mines 
gives particulars of a successful mining district 
in South Scotland. 

Modern Rock-Drill Practice 

David Penman, B.Sc, M.Inst.M.E. 

The Kirkland Lake Goldfield 

H. H. Johnson 

The author, who is visiting the District in the in- 
terests of the Kirkland Lake Proprietary, gives 
his opinion of the prospects of the mines. 

Four Years as a Prisoner of War 

J. C. Farrant 

The author continues his account of the treatment 
of Prisoners of War sent by the Germans to 
Kurland, Russia. 

1—3 



11 



21 



29 



31 



PAGE 

News Letters 

Camborne 34 

Nationalization of Coal Industry; Tehidy Minerals, 
Ltd. ; Tin and Tungsten Research ; State Aid 
for Cornish Mines ; Grenville. 

North of England 36 

Lead and Zinc; Profit-Sharing. 

Toronto 37 

Labour Troubles ; Metalliferous Production of 
Ontario ; Kirkland Lake ; Cobalt : Boston Creek ; 
Matachewan. 

Letters to the Editor 

Spitsbergen Rolf Marstrander 38 

R. H. Blumenthal 40 

Personal 41 

Trade Paragraphs 41 

Metal Markets 42 

Statistics of Production 44 

Prices of Chemicals 47 

Share Quotations 48 

The Mining Digest 

Bauxite in West Africa A. E. Kitson 49 

The Sulphide Corporation's Lead Refinery 

R. E. Coivles 50 

Terrestrial Magnetism and Mine- Surveying 

Professor L. H . Cooke 52 

The Heidelberg Gold fields 54 

Tin and Tungsten Research 

Platinum in Rhodesia //. 11. Maufe 

Zinc Oxide in Australia 58 

Short Notices 3° 

Recent Patents Published 59 

New Books 

Stronck & Billyard's" The Efficient Purchase 

and Utilization of Mine Supplier" 

A lex R ic ha rdson 60 



Company Reports 



60 



Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's) : Ai I nited ; Bisichi 

Tin; British Broken Hill ; Durb irt Deep I speranza; 

Ex-Lands Nigeria; Kerreira 1 G denhuis Deep; Glen- 

cairn; Great Boulder Pm, Iris Hydraulic I'm; Lahat 

Mines; Lower Bisichi (Nigeria! I'm Mines; Mongu (Nigeria) 
Tin Mines; Mount Boppy Gold ; Naraguta Extended; NewGoch; 
Oroville Dredging; Oroya 1 inks; Ouro Preto Gold Mines of 
Brazil; Rezeiulc Mines; Roodepoort United Main Reef; St. 
lolm Pel Rey ; Sungei Besi ; Tronoh South : Village Main Reef: 
Waihi Grand Junction; Wesl Rand Consolidated: Zinc Cor- 
poration. 



EDITORIAL 



A SECOND exhibition under the auspices 
of the British Science Guild was opened 
the other day at the Central Hall, Westmin- 
ster. It is well worth a visit, and should be 
supported by all who take an interest in the 
application of science to industry. 



TIIH new Elmore process for separating 
mixed sulphides consists of treating the 
ore or concentrate with hot strong sulphuric 
acid, which converts the galena into sulphate, 
but has no substantial effect on the blende. 
The sulphate of lead is dissolved by means of 
hot concentrated brine. 

PEACE has been signed and a contract 
made by the English-speaking countries 
to come to the aid of France when wantonly 
attacked. In certain circles among mmingen- 
gineers in this country there is a disposition 
to jeer at the League of Nations and President 
Wilson, and an inclination to prophesy acute 
friction between England and the United 
States before many years have passed. To 
such unbelievers in the principle of good-will 
we would say that one way to ensure the 
arrival of a disaster is to prophesy it publicly 
often enough. In the present case we know 
of no other reason for expecting the failure 
of the League or trouble between England and 
America than this form of prophetic wisdom. 

IN this issue is published the first part of an 
article by Mr. David Penman on Modern 
Rock-Drill Practice. The article is not in- 
tended for either the makers or every-day users 
of rock-drills, but rather for the general read- 
er interested in mining. Of recent years many 
improvements have been introduced in rock- 
'. drills, among which the use of the hammer ac- 
tion, the automatic keeping of the drill to its 
work, and the introduction of water to avoid 
the creation of dust are the most important. 
The descriptions of these improvements have 
usually been confined to strictly technical arti- 
cles or to trade announcements, and the average 
reader who is not a specialist has not had full 
opportunity of grasping their significance. Mr. 
Penman's brief review gives the information 
desired by such readers. In preparing an arti- 
cle of this character, it is difficult to present the 
matter in such a way as to please all makers, 
and an author is sometimes accused of having 
a particular axe to grind. Mr. Penman is, 
however, quite impartial, and hischoiceof typi- 



cal machines for description does not neces- 
sarily imply any expression of opinion of rela- 
tive merits. 

CONGRATULATIONS to Mr. S. J. 
Truscott on his appointment as Profes- 
sor of Mining at the Royal School of Mines. 
Mr. Truscott hasheld the positionof Assistant- 
Professor for the past seven years, and in both 
the lecture room and the research laboratory 
has proved his efficiency and enterprise. He 
took his A.K.S.M. m 1889, the De la Beche 
Medal in the same year, and the Murchison 
Prize in L888. I lis professional experience 
has been gained on the Rand, and in the Dutch 
Indies, West Africa, and the Urals. His 
book "The Witwatersrand Goldfields" is a 
standard authority, and his translation i t ! 
chlag, Krusch, and Vogt's "Ore Deposits" 
is winning a similar reputation. 

SPITS] i large in the ad- 

vertisement columns of The Tunes and 
the financial papers on June 27, where the 
speech of thechairmanof the Northern Explora- 
tion Company was reported at great length. 
A different story is told by two Norwegian engi- 
neers elsewhere in this issue. The chairman 
took care to discount this class of evidence, by 
alleging that German influence ay is 

strong and that it is being used to belittle the 
doings of his company. The weak point of 
the chairman's case is that he produce's no evi- 
dence of equal class to that of the eminent 
geologists quoted in our pages. When he can 
produce a favourable report from a leading 
British specialist on iron ore deposits, we ^hall 
begin to take notice. 

TI I E Supreme Court of the United States 
has delivered its supplementary judgment 
in connection with the interpretation of Min- 
erals Separation patent 835, 120, applied for 
on May 29, 1905, claiming the use of a fraction 
of l"o of oil for the making of a froth by agi- 
tation. In the proceedings against James M. 
Hyde, Minerals Separation won its case, but 
subsequently it had to commence a second ac- 
tion, because Butte & Superior sought to evade 
the patent by adding more than 1".. of oil. 
Judge Bourquin, in the Montana court, held 
that the use of more than 1% was an infringe- 
ment, because Butte i.v. Superior added cheap 
petroleum to the effective pine oil for the sole 
object of bringing the total over 1% and so 



JULY, 1919 



evading the patent. The Circuit Court of Ap- 
peals reversed this judgment, and introduced 
a new definition of " a fraction of 1%," hold- 
ing that " a fraction " meant less than \%. 
The Supreme Court has restored the meaning 
of " a fraction " to " anything less than 1%," but 
sustains the Court of Appeal in its view that 
the use of any frothing oil or mixture of froth- 
ing oils, efficient frothers or not, exceeding in 
amount 1% evades the patent. The case is 
now remitted to Judge Bourquin for him to 
assess the amount due to Minerals Separation 
for use of the process before the total oil was 
raised to over 1%. Presumably Butte & Su- 
perior will continue to add cheap petroleum, 
which is a comparatively poor frother, to the 
pine oil, and to obtain a lower recovery, in 
order to avoid paying royalties to Minerals 
Separation. 



MINING engineers in training in this 
country have little or no opportunity 
of studying the problems involved in the treat- 
ment of alluvial deposits. It is to be hoped 
that when the Camborne Mining School is 
expanded, or when this school and the Royal 
School of Mines are amalgamated or affiliated, 
a practical course in alluvial mining will be 
established. There are many places in Corn- 
wall where such operations can be studied. 
The degree of insight into the various methods 
of bringing the alluvium to the sluices would 
depend on the commercial installations in 
operation, but examination of the sluicing 
characteristics of the deposits and the testing 
of gravels by drilling could always be conduc- 
ted. It might be that the work done by the 
schools would prove of value to the commu- 
nity if it disclosed profitable deposits. 



NO user of coal can accept the ill - con- 
sidered proposals contained in the vari- 
ous reports on nationalization issued by the 
respective sections of the Coal Commission. 
These sections appear mostly to have placed 
on paper the views which they have often ex- 
pressed before and since the Commission was 
appointed. Mr. Justice Sankey issued the only 
unbiassed report. He enunciated a scheme 
for working the mines by means of machinery 
similar to the Joint Industrial Councils. Natu- 
rally, knowing nothing of technical matters, 
his opinion could only be based on the exigen- 
cies of political and labour problems. For 
this reason his recommendations are quite 
superficial and offer no suggestions that will 
help in improvements in the mining and use 
of coal ; while, on the other hand, he did not 



please the working miner because he attempted 
to impose restrictions on the inalienable right 
to strike. It is not necessary to discuss the 
miners' proposal to override the statute of limi- 
tations and rob the royalty-owners without 
compensation. That is not the basis of Eng- 
lish justice or business principles. Nor need 
we examine closely the proposal of the miners 
and the socialists to operate the mines for the 
benefit of the worker, except to say that if the 
miner thinks only of himself in his relation to 
the employer he at the same time plays false 
to his fellow worker in the trades and manu- 
factures that depend on cheap and plentiful 
coal. The only way for a worker to place 
himself in a comfortable position and to pro- 
vide opportunities of profitable employment 
to others of his class is to be continuously 
diligent and to take a pride in his effi- 
ciency and and quickness. Users of coal are 
naturally alarmed at the prospect of continu- 
ous rises in price and decreases in delivery, 
and every effort must be exerted to prevent 
the Government from plunging the country's 
manufactures into the quagmire. The only 
recommendation in the whole of the reports 
that will be received by economists with satis- 
faction is that dealing with the nationalization 
of royalties. Under the proposed system it 
will be possible to improve the methods of 
mining and distribution of coal, and to inau- 
gurate comprehensive schemes of generating 
power at the pit's mouth involving electrification 
and recovery of by-products of gas manufac- 
ture. It will also tend to remove the old 
abuse of gutting the properties by working only 
the best seams and thereby ruining the others. 

A Register of Mining Engineers. 

In his valedictory address at the annual 
meeting of the Institution of Mining and Me- 
tallurgy held in May, the retiring president, 
Mr. Hugh F. Marriott, referred very briefly 
to a matter now before the council, namely, the 
preparation of a register of qualified mining 
engineers. Some years ago it was the hope 
of certain reformers to make the membership 
of the Institution the test of efficiency and re- 
liability, and they even went so far as to sug- 
gest that no one should be allowed to call him- 
self a mining engineer concerned in non-fer- 
rous mining and metallurgy . unless he had the 
qualification of membership. In theory this 
ambition was laudable enough, but the means 
of judgment as to suitability of membership 
was, and still is, on too narrow a basis for the 
responsibility of one society. There are so 
many ways of becoming dependable mining 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 




JULY, 1919 



engineers, and mining engineering has so many 
ramifications and interdependencies, that some 
latitude as to membership of societies is neces- 
sary. To illustrate our meaning, we would 
say that many men who belong to no other 
society than the Iron and Steel Institute would 
be excellent judges of the value and nature of 
the iron ore deposits at Spitsbergen. It would 
appear therefore to be politic for the four so- 
cieties to undertake the responsibility conjoint- 
ly. These societies, the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy, the Institution of Mining 
Engineers, the Iron and Steel Institute, and 
the Institute of Metals, have already taken 
joint action in connection with the establish- 
ment of the Imperial Mineral Resources Bu- 
reau, and a similar course is appropriate in 
connection with the registration of mining 
engineers. 

The public has still to be protected from the 
quack in mining, though the Treasury control 
of new issues has tended of late to prevent 
glaring cases of fraud and incompetence. The 
proverbial ex-tinker is only hibernating, and 
will awake when his time comes. It is well, 
therefore, to be prepared for his renewal of 
activities. It would be fortunate if the four 
societies could be empowered to do more than 
prepare a register of competent engineers, for 
as a rule the victims are people who would not 
be aware of the existence of a register, any 
more than they are aware of the existence of 
the restraining influence of such papers as this 
Magazine and The Financial Times. When 
an objectionable prospectus or similar invita- 
tion to subscribe for shares is circulated pub- 
licly or privately, thoseresponsible for theregis- 
ter should have active as well as passive duties, 
and should have the power to take steps to 
suppress a scandal. It is not necessary for us 
to say more, for readers are well aware of our 
desire to place mining on a respectable footing. 
The new step indicated by Mr. Marriott has 
our entire approval. 

Tehidy Minerals. 

. Readers will remember that a year or more 
ago the controllers of Dolcoath and East Pool 
combined to purchase the mineral rights of the 
Tehidy Estate, in the Cambornedistrict of Corn- 
wall, an estate that had been in the Basset 
family since the days of William the Conquer- 
or. The two companies retained for them- 
selves the rights to the ground they have work- 
ed for many years, and also of adjoining prop- 
erties that can be conveniently worked in con- 
junction. The remainder of the mining rights 
were handed over to a company -called Tehidy 



Minerals, Limited, formed early this year. Of 
the capital (^100,000) ^"40,000 belongs to Dol- 
coath and ^20,000 to East Pool, while ^40,000 
was subscribed publicly. Messrs. Bewick, 
Moreing & Co., general managers of East Pool, 
and Mr. R. Arthur Thomas, managing director 
of Dolcoath, were appointed consulting engi- 
neers to the new company. But long before 
the company was formed, the work of investi- 
gating the geology of the district was under- 
taken by members of the staff of Messrs. Be- 
wick, Moreing & Co., namely, Dr. Malcolm 
Maclaren and Mr. \V. A. Macleod. At the 
statutory meeting of the new company held 
last month, Mr. C. A. Moreing gave some 
particulars of the exploratory work, and ex- 
hibited on the wall a number of elaborate plans 
and sections of the rock- formations, iodes, and 
workings, which have been compiled by the 
researches and deductions of Messrs. Maclaren 
and Macleod. He also showed a map of the 
estate. We give herewith a generalized con- 
densation of this map, from which it will be 
seen that the estate extends from G wit hi an 
sands on the west to Porthtowan on the east. 
The horizontal hatching indicates the parts of 
the estate where the company owns the whole 
of the mineral rights, either from the surface 
downward or below a depth of 15 fath- 
oms; while the vertical hatching represents 
parts of the estate where the company owns 
varyingshares of the mineralrights. The topo- 
graphy shows the position of Dolcoath and of 
East Pool, together with ^he Tolgus proper- 
ties, which are being developed by the latter. 
In between, the position of South Crofty is 
indicated. As regards the tracts where the 
company has the entire rights from the surface 
downward, these are confined chiefly to the 
line of the Red River and to the Gwithian 
sands at its mouth. It is probable that the 
company will associate itself with the com- 
pany owning the lease of Gwithian sands for 
the purpose of inaugurating a comprehensive 
dredgmg campaign, and that it will undertake 
similar work on the river itself. As regards 
prospective lode-mining, the intention is to 
attack the deep levels of the lodes to the north 
of the present line of workings between Cam- 
borne and Redruth. In earlier times proper- 
ties such as theSeton have yie ■'■■ d copper ores 
from the killas, otherw . and there is 

every reason to believ t where the lodes 

enter the granite workable tin ore will be found. 
These northern lodes, however, enter the gran- 
ite at too great a depth for the older mining 
operators, but with modern improvements in 
methods this fact should present no difficulty. 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Mr. Moreing's system does not involve any re- 
opening of old shafts or the unwatering of old 
workings. His plan, as demonstrated at the 
Tolgus, is to prospect laterally at depth by 
means of cross cut and bore-hole. British 
metalliferous mining has never before been the 
subject of so comprehensive a scheme of ex- 
amination and development as is proposed by 
Tehidy Minerals, and Cornwall should reap 
great advantage from the campaign. 

Goodchild on Ore Deposits. 

Last month's meeting of the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy was devoted to a dis- 
cussion of the theory of igneous ore deposits, 
which was propounded by Mr. W. II. Good- 
child in his articles published in this Magazine 
last year. The subject was introduced by 
means of a paper containing a brief summary 
of the subject matter of the articles, and by a 
short verbal opening by the author. The fact 
that the theory should be discussed in this way 
speaks much for the general recognition of its 
importance, and the quality of the discussion 
and the personality of the speakers goes to con- 
firm this impression. We feel ourselves ar- 
rided, as The Times dramatic critic used tosay, 
that articles in this Magazine should be dis- 
cussed at a meeting of the Institution, and we 
thank the Council for the compliment implied. 
We also pat ourselves on the back for having 
recognized the importance of Mr. Goodchild's 
theory, and for having encouraged him to write 
the articles. 

Of the various speakers at the meeting, Mr. 
R. D. Oldham was perhaps the most interest- 
ing, for he extended the application of the 
principle of volume changes to physical geo- 
logy. Mr. Goodchild himself was not unaware 
of this application, but when he wrote the 
articles we had, owing to the exigencies of 
space, to. advise him to confine the discussion 
to the genesis of ore deposits and not to tackle 
the general history of the earth. Mr. Oldham 
is one of our foremost physical geologists, and 
he admitted that in his studies there were 
several problems without solution until Mr. 
Goodchild propounded his theory. Faulting, 
elevation of mountain ranges, and the "sudden - 
origin " earthquake are now all explained by 
change of volume. 

That distinguished doyen of petrologists, Sir 
Jethro Teall, in complimenting Mr. Goodchild 
on his work, made the announcement that the 
founding of an institute for the study of the 
origin of minerals is being favourably consid- 
ered by the Committee for Scientific and In- 
dustrial Research. Such an institute would be 



able to obtain evidence of the behaviour of 
minerals under high pressure, evidence which 
Mr. Goodchild has naturally been unable to se- 
cure. Another distinguished petrologist, Dr. 
J. W. Evans, mentioned that Mr. Goodchild's 
arguments directly controverted the opinion 
recently expressed in America that pressure had 
little to do with the formation of minerals. 
For this reason, if for no other, he said, it would 
be well if independent investigations were made 
in this country, instead of depending as hereto- 
fore on the researches of the American institu- 
tions. Dr. Evans differed in one detail from 
Mr Goodchild. He thought 2% of water in a 
magma to be far too little to produce the re- 
sults described, and he proposed 20% instead. 
For ourselves we think that with Dr. Evans's 
figure no land surface would ever have been 
formed on the globe. Dr. J. V. Elsden also 
discussed the paper in thoroughly competent 
fashion, though perhaps he has not fully ap- 
preciated the significance of density analyses 
of minerals. 

< >f the speakers on the mining engineering 
side, Mr. E. T. McCarthy made the most ap- 
preciative speech. Mr. H. 1 . Marriott and 
Mr. II. F. Collins were a little sceptical and 
cold as to the practical value of the author's 
speculations on the origin of ore deposits. The 
pessimist of the evening, however, was Dr. 
Willet G. Miller. The only congratulation be 
extended to Mr. Goodchild was based on the 
omission of the name Sudbury from the paper. 
This showed that Dr. Miller had not read the 
original articles in the Magazine, forthediscus- 
sion of the application of the theory to the Sud- 
burydeposits gave the (] met us to the two con diet- 
ing schools that have maintained so animated 
a controversy for years. Dr. Miller, was, un- 
fortunately, right when he said that controver- 
sies on the origin of ore deposits arouse bitter 
feelings and professional jealousies. We may 
put this another way, and say that the greatest 
tragedy in the life of a young economic geolo- 
gist is his discovery of field evidence which up- 
sets his principal's pet theory. The other geo- 
logist from Canada contributing to the discus- 
sion, Major R. W. Brock, was not quite so 
dismal as Dr. Miller, but he did not appear to 
think that the theory was of more than scien- 
tific interest. 

It is not desirable for us to report the dis- 
cussion in full detail on the present occasion, 
for further discussion will come forward in 
writing, and Mr. Goodchild will reply. On a 
later occasion we shall publish a supplementary 
article embodying the new arguments and 
opinions adduced in the discussion. 



REVIEW OF MINING 



Introduction. —The signing of Peace, and 
the conquest of the Atlantic by aeroplane and 
air-ship are the favourable events of the month. 
On the other hand, the labour unrest in this 
country is an evil omen, and the continued 
rise in the price of coal is giving manufac- 
turers great disquietude. Mining and the 
metal market are still overshadowed by the 
vast Government stocks of metal. There ap- 
pears to be little hope now that gold mining 
will receive national support in any part of the 
world ; any benefits to be obtained will depend 
merely on methods of marketing. 

Transvaal. — The Government still stands 
aloof in the matter of helping low-grade mines, 
and the Rand houses in vain draw attention to 
the critical financial position of many of the 
operating companies. Conditions might be 
improved if labour was more plentiful, but per- 
mission to resume recruiting from north of 
latitude 22°S, the most likely source of addi- 
tional natives, is refused. The labour shortage 
was clearly indicated by Sir Lionel Phillips at 
the meeting of shareholders of the Central Min- 
ing and Investment Corporation when he said 
that the plants were able to work during 1918 
at 71% capacity, and during 1917 at 81%, as 
against a normal of about 92%. 

The Transvaal mines are expecting another 
burden in the shape of additional contributions 
to the Phthisis Fund for retrospective pay- 
ment to sufferers and dependents of past suf- 
ferers. If the bill passes into law, probably 
the mines will have to pay ,£"2,000,000. 

A serious fall of hanging wall occurred at 
the Durban Roodepoort Deep on June 23, in 
No. 1 shaft, between the 7th and 11th levels. 
It will take a month to repair the shaft. 

The Aurora West reports a serious accident 
at the mill engines, and until repairs are com- 
pleted it will not be possible to run more than 
45 out of the 80 stamps. The June and July 
figures of output will be affected. 

It is announced that the bores on Eendracht, 
Boschoek, and Town Lands in the Heidelberg 
districthave been suddenly stopped before they 
had been sunk far enough to intersect the reef 
according to orthodox views of the geology. 
Mr. Bleloch's theory is that the Van Ryn reef 
is nearer the surface than the orthodox geolo- 
gists hold. The position is not clear at present. 

Diamonds. — Reports are to hand that a 
diamond deposit has been found in the Roux- 
ville district, Orange Free State. The dis- 
covery was made in the course of digging an 



irrigation trench. The stones are said to be 
plentiful and of good quality, the largest weigh- 
ing 50 carats. 

Rhodesia. — The output of gold during May 
was ^218,057, as compared with ^"213,160 in 
April, and ^239,205 in May, 1918. The end 
of the Eldorado mine is reflected in the May 
return of £5,110 as compared with ^10,233 in 
April. Other outputs for May were : Silver 
17,587 oz., copper 297 tons, chrome ore 4,890 
tons, asbestos 832 tons, arsenic 13 tons, coal 
45,759 tons, and diamonds 30 carats. 

The British South Africa Company is about 
to close its mining department, probably at 
the end of the current year. The company's 
chief engineer, Mr. A. H. Ackermann, has 
already resigned, and, as recorded in the Per- 
sonal column, has gone to Transylvania. He 
held the position for thirteen years, having 
succeeded Mr. E. H. Garthwaite in 19C6. 

The mines of the Selukwe Columbia com- 
pany have recently been let on tribute, but are 
notnowyielding profit to anybody, so the whole 
property of the company is to be sold and the 
company wound up. 

The Planet Arcturus company reports that 
its chief properties, the Slate and Arcturus, 
have been put in order by the Gold Fields Rho- 
desian Development Co., and that the mill will 
be ready to start at the end of this year. 

West Africa. — The output of gold during 
May was ;£" 100,827 as compared with ^109,570 
in April and ^"126,290 in May, 1918. The 
Ashanti Goldfields reported a figure lower than 
normal, due to an accident at the shaft which 
caused hoisting to be suspended for four days. 

Australasia. — During the last few years 
the Mount Boppy gold mine has suffered from 
alternate drought and flood. No rain worth 
mentioning has fallen since January, 1918, and 
the campaign on the ore around the old main 
shaft, which began in February, came to an 
end in November for lack of water. In March 
the drought was broken, but the mine did not 
benefit as much as some districts in New 
South Wales, and resumption of opera- 
tions was only temporary. This dislocation 
has put the company in financial straits, and 
further funds are to be raised by reconstruction. 
The preference shares are to be reduced from 
£\ to 10s., and three new 10s. ordinary shares, 
credited 7s. 6d. paid, are to be offered to the 
holders of two £\ shares. In this way ^22,687 
of fresh capital will be provided if all the 
shares are taken up. The ore reserve is cal- 



8 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



culatedat 188,158 tons averaging 5 dwt., and 
in addition there is a large amount of low-grade 
oxidized ore that can be worked by open-cut. 

We recorded some time ago that the Muti- 
gana company near Chillagoe, Queensland, had 
been put into liquidation owing to the impos- 
sibility of continuing operations after the clos- 
ing of the Chillagoe smelter. Now that the 
Government has purchased the Chillagoe prop- 
erty and is re-opening the smelter, the Mun- 
gana mines are to be reopened. A new com- 
pany has been formed to acquire the prop- 
from the liquidator, to be called the Mungana 
Silver-Lead Mine- Co., having a capital of- 
^"100,000. Half of the shares will be paid as 
purchase price and the remainder will be sold 
for cash, and will thus provide ,{'50,000 work- 
ing capital. The two mines, the Girofla and 
Lady Jane, are full of water, the latter having 
been flooded to extinguish a lire. The first 
work to be undertaken will be the unwatering 
of the workings, which is expected to cost 
,£"10,000. The ore reserves in sight in the 
Lady Jane are stated to be estimated at 50,000 
tons, containing 27% lead, 10 oz. silver, and 
3% copper ; while the Girofla is estimated to 
contain 107,000 tons ore, averaging 10 oz. sil- 
ver, and 5".. copper. During the years 1906, 
1907, 1909, and 1911 the old Mungana com- 
pany made a profit of over ,^90,000. In addi- 
tion to increased facilities generally expected 
from the taking over by the Government of 
the Chillagoe smelter and the Chillagoe and 
Etheridge railways, it is expected that coke 
for smelting will be now available from the 
Mt. Mulligan mine, at a cost of 35s. a ton, 
compared with £\ a ton, the cost previously 
ruling at the smelters. 

The transfer of the Chillagoe mines, smelter, 
and railway to the Queensland Government 
has at last been effected. The company's sole 
remaining asset is the Mount Mulligan coal de- 
posit. As mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, coke ovens are to be erected. A satis- 
factory business in both coal and coke is an- 
ticipated. 

Labour troubles at Australian mines con- 
tinue. The strike at Broken Hill is not yet 
settled, and now Kalgoorlie is threatened with 
a suspension of operations owing to the wood- 
cutters demanding an impossible advance in 
the rate of pay. 

The labour position at Mount Morgan has 
improved. After operations had been sus- 
pended fora fortnight from June 14, the Unions 
agreed to allow blister copper to be transported 
to the Port Kembla refinery. The directors 
'hereupon decided to resume work at the mine. 



The Commonwealth Government has re- 
quested Mr. A. A. Boyd, general manager of 
the Mount Morgan mine, to report on the Blythe 
River iron ore deposits in northern Tasmania, 
particulars of which we gave in the March 
issue. Mr. Royd will be assisted by Mr. C. 
G. Gibson, geologist, and Mr. (i. W. Young, 
mining surveyor. 

At the South Blocks mine at Broken Hill, 
worked by the Zinc Corporation, the lead lode 
continues to develop well. On the other hand, 
the parallel zinc lode is not up to expectations, 
and in depth the profitable blende occurs only 
in irregular lenses. When the mine was bought, 
it was expected that the zinc lode would pi 
vide material suitable for treatment in the con- 
centration plant employed on the zinc tailing 
dumps, for the treatment of which the corpora- 
tion was originally formed, when these dumps 
are exhausted. The lode is failing to support 
these expectations, but the lead lode is more 
than making up for it. The corporation has 
recently taken a fths share- in the Australian 
patents right of the new Elmore process and 
is proceeding to erect an experimental plant. 
The Amalgamated Zinc (Re i has 

adopted a similar policy in connection with the 
Ganelin, or chloride, process. 

Malaya. The report of the Tekka com 
pany for the year ended January 31 shows in- 
es in the output and profit. The amount 
of ground treated was 487,950 cubic yards, and 
the output of tin concentrate 510 tons. The 
profit was £"72,166, out of which '"34,000 has 
been distributed as dividend, being at the rate 
of 42i%. Extra cost has been incurred re 
cently owing to the falling of ground and the 
consequent necessity of moving the pipe line. 
The current output is rather less than during 
1918, but is sufficient to maintain the rate of 
dividend. A large balance was kept in hand 
at the end of 1918 to provide for R 
Profits Duty. 

The Pahang Corporation announces the cut- 
ting of the Willink's lode on the 900 ft. level. 
The lode at the point of intersection is 5 ft. 
wide and assays R5°o metallic tin per ton. 

Cornwall. — The new treatment plant at 
the Geevor mine, which will double the month- 
ly capacity from 2,000 to 4,000 tons and the 
output of concentrate from 30 to 60 tons, will 
be completed shortly. Mr. John M. lies has 
paid another visit to the property, and has 
made a brief report, in which he expresses 
gratification with the results of development 
and of the prospects for still further increasing 
the ore reserves. He is of opinion that with- 
in a short time it will be possible to mine \000 



JULY, 1919 



tons per month, so that a further expansion of 
the treatment plant may be considered. 

British Mining. — The Government prom- 
ised an inquiry into the state of the non-ferrous 
metal industry in this country, but has shown 
no inclination to take promptstepstorelievethe 
financial stress caused by the fall in prices of 
the metals, higher statutory wages, and the in- 
creased cost of fuel. Our Cornish correspon- 
dent announces that the only benefit offered is 
the loan of money something below the break- 
up value of the machinery. A specific case of 
the doubtful future of lead and zinc mining is 
provided by Mr. John Mitchell, who writes in 
this issue on the Wanlockhead and Leadhills 
district in South Scotland. These fine old 
mines have plenty of life left in them, pro- 
vided the temporary adverse conditions can be 
weathered. The driving of the drainage tun- 
nel advocated by Mr. Mitchell is a thoroughly 
sound proposal, and it would undoubtedly make 
available large reserves of ore. If the mines 
were in the Dominions, part of the cost of the 
tunnel would be readily shouldered by the 
Government. It is not too late for the home 
authorities to take the same interest in non- 
ferrous metal mining. 

Canada. — We publish elsewhere in this 
issue a short article by Col. H. H. Johnson on 
the present conditions at the Kirkland Lake 
goldfieid. He was sent out recently to advise 




Map or part of Kirkland Lake District 

as to the policy of the Kirkland Lake Proprie- 
tary in connection with a proposed amalgama- 
tion with the Tough-Oakes, Sylvanite, and 
Burnside. His report has just been issued. 
This contains an account of the workings and 
plant of the Tough-Oakes and the Burnside 
and of the workings of the Sylvanite. The 
Tough-Oakes plant has a capacity of 120 tons 
per day and was operating until July, 1918, 



having produced gold worth £"400,000 from 
127,000tons of ore, and paying small dividends 
for 1915 and 1916. At Burnside a 30 ton mill 
isnearly complete. Asthe Tough-Oakesveins 
dip into the Burnside, an amalgamation would 
be advantageous. Exploration at the Sylvan- 
ite was suspended on the outbreak of war, and 
consisted of trenchesand several shallow shafts. 
The evidence obtained showed that the main 
line of lodes of the district traverses the prop- 
erty. The development could be done from 
the Tough-Oakes and the Burnside without 
further sinking. 

United States. — The exploration by tun- 
nel of the continuation of the Camp Bird lode 
in depth is being followed with unusual inter 
est. The first reports of results tended toshow 
that only straggling roots were to be found. 
The latest cable gives much more gratifying 
news. It is announced that, in the ventilating 
rise, which is now 290 ft. up, the ore is con- 
tinuous, and that the width of the lode is in- 
creasing, the last 20 ft. averaging $50 per ton 
over 3 ft. In two other rises, similarly grati- 
fyingresultshave been obtained. Atone place 
the ore averages more than 5 oz. gold per ton 
over a width of between 3 and 4 ft. We con- 
fess to having been rather doubtful as to the 
prospects of finding valuable ore below the old 
workings. Our congratulations to Mr. J. A. 
Agnew on the successful results now being ob- 
tained are, for this reason, all the 
more sincere. 

Mexico. — Workatthe Buena 
Tierra silver-lead mine, in Chi- 
huahua, controlled by the Ex- 
ploration Company, was re com- 
menced in May, 1918, and from 
then to the end of the year, 
1 3,063 tons of ore averaging 1 0% 
lead and 10*9 oz. silver per ton 
was sold to smelters. The re- 
ceiptswere / £'29,379,and the prof- 
it was ^7,373. Development 
is being vigorously conducted 
with gratifying results. 

Colombia. — The Colombian 
Mining & Exploration Co. con- 
tinues to provide mild sensa- 
tions for the mining market. At a meeting of 
shareholders held in the middle of June, the 
chairman stated that the gs are continu- 

ally filling with gold ore, or "anchadura," and 
that there is at present half a million tons of 
this material that can be extracted, some of it 
sampling 5 to 16 dwt. We presume that this 
is clayey gouge matter brought down by the 
heavy surface drainage characteristic of the 



10 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



district. Shareholders must not suppose that 
there is a perpetual spring of gold. They 
might ask the chairman whether the sampling 
he quoted truly covered the half-million tons. 
It is well to remember, also, that gold is diffi- 
cult to extract from stiff clay. 

The California properties of the Oroville 
Dredging Co. are now practically exhausted, 
and the American company is being wound up. 
Attention will in future be turned solely to the 
Pato and Nechi properties in Colombia. The 
Nechi property has been carefully nursed, un- 
til two months ago, in order to avoid so great 
a share of the profits going to Excess Profits 
Duty. Opportunity was taken to work some 
of the poorer ground and also part of the ground 
of the Pato company. The latter work was 
done in order that the tailing should form a 
barrier between the river and the men's quar- 
ters, which were often in danger from floods 
during the rainy season. The richer gravel is 
now being treated. The present returns show 
yields of 67 to 98 cents per cubic yard, with 
operating costs at 10 cents. The ground is 
easy to work, as may be judged by the fact that 
62,000 yards was handled in a week by adredge 
with 9 ft. buckets. 

At the meeting of the Oroville company, the 
chairman gave some information about the 
Constancia lode-gold mine recently acquired 
by the Pato company. This mine is situated 
a mile north-east of Anori, on the Anori river, 
which is a tributary of the Nechi river, and is 
44 miles south-west of the Pato property. The 
purchase price is $180,000 in cash. It is be- 
lieved that the property has been worked for 
140 years, mostly by open-cut. The lodes and 
country rock are similar to those characteristic 
of the Mother Lode in Amador County, Cali- 
fornia. The principal workings are on two 
parallel veins, which occasionally join. On 
the fourth level each is about 6 ft. wide. From 
1914 to 1918, gold worth S3 11,000 was extrac- 
ted from 46,000 tons of ore. It is estimated 
that the present workings contain reserves of 
200,000 tons averaging 6 dwt. or more per ton. 
It will be possible to mine 100,000 tons averag- 
ing 8 dwt. per ton for each 100 ft. sunk, and 
the cost should not be more than §3*50 per ton. 
Of the total length of the veins, 1 6,000 ft., only 
2,400 ft. has as yet been exploited. Mr. 
Prichard recommends the erection of a mill 
with a capacity of 100 tons per day, at an ex- 
penditure of ^70,000, to be enlarged eventu- 
ally to 300 tons at an additional expenditure of 
^80,000. In order to provide the capital re- 
quired anissueof preference shares is proposed. 
Brazil. — The persistence of ore in depth at 



the Morro Yelho gold mine, belonging to the 
St. John del Rey Company, is remarkable. 
The lowest horizon, No. 21, is 6,126 ft. verti- 
cally below outcrop, and though development 
is not complete, the results are as satisfactory 
as on the levels immediately above. On the 
20th horizon the ore-body measures 935 ft. 
long with an average width of 16 ft., and on 
the 19th it is 942 ft. long with an average width 
ol 14*8 ft. The assay-value of the ore has 
been increasing, standing now at 55s. 10d., as 
compared with 53s. 9d. the year before. The 
reserve down to the 21st horizon is estimated 
at 1,209,000 tons, sufficient to keep the null 
going at full capacity for over six years. Mr. 
George Chalmers, the superintendent, gives 
particulars of the development of manganese 
properties belonging to the company. De- 
spatches at the rate of 3,000 tons per month 
were just begun when the Armistice was sign- 
ed. Exploratory work has also been done on 
bauxite deposits which promise to become of 
importance in the future. 

The developments at the I'assagem gold 
mine, operated by the Ouro Preto company, 
have been comparatively encouraging recently, 
and discoveries on the 920 and 1,040 metre 
levels tend to show that the deposits are Dot 
giving out at depth as was expected. The 
mine is in the same distrii t a- the Monro Velho 
mine of the St. John del Key company, but 
has not been so successful as regards either 
the continuity or content of the ore. During 
1918 the assay-value of the ore treated was 
7i dwt., and the income about balanced the 
expenditure. The company has recently 
commenced the extraction of arsenic from the 
ore, and the necessary furnaces have been 
shipped to Brazil for the purpose. In order 
to pay for this plant, purchase a new air-com- 
pressor, and expand development, the issue 
of debentures to the extent of ,£10,000 bearing 
10"., interest has been authorized. 

Spain. At themeetingof MineralsSepara- 
tion, Ltd., it was announced that Col. A. C. 
Howard had been appointed resident manager 
in Spam. He is engaged in designing a plant 
to treat the Penarroya company's lead slime. 
Of particular interest is the news that thiscom- 
pany also owns extensive low-grade copper de- 
posits, which it will be possible to treat by the 
flotation process. 

Siberia. — The report that the Bolsheviks 
had taken possession of the Lena gold mines 
is now declared to be false. A message from 
the assistant general manager at Lenskoie has 
been published stating that tranquil conditions 
prevail at the mines. 



THE WANLOCKHEAD LEAD MINES. 

By JOHN MITCHELL. 

The Manager of the Wanlockhead lead mines gives particulars of a successful mining 
district in South Scotland. 



THE Wanlockhead and Leadhills lead 
mines are situated in the uplands of the 
south of Scotland, and adjoin each other, 
Wanlockhead being in Dumfriesshire, Lead- 
hills in Lanarkshire. All the streams from the 
Leadhills side flow into the River Clyde ; those 
in Wanlockhead reach the River Nith at San- 
quhar, and so on to the Sol way Firth. The 
two properties areowned by different landlords, 
Wanlockhead being the property of the Duke 
of Buccleuch and Queensberry, and Leadhills 
the property of the Marquis of Linlithgow. 
There are different companies working the 
mines. Wanlockhead has its head office in 
Glasgow, and Leadhills in London. Until a 
few years ago, the mines were much handi- 
capped by being about seven miles distant from 
a railway station, and in former times, the lead 
had to be conveyed to Leith, the port of Edin- 
burgh, in carts, a distance of 50 miles. There 
is now a branch of the Caledonian Railway in- 
to the two villages, and in Leadhills there are 
sidings that go right into the mines and dress- 
ing-floors. A very satisfactory service of pas- 
senger and goods trains is maintained. There 
is now direct communication with Glasgow, 
and other centres of industry. The villages 
are situated at an altitude of 1,200 to 1,400 feet, 
andare probably thehighestin Scotland. They 
have a great attraction for visi- 
tors in summer, for the air is 
bracing and invigorating. 

Although mininghas been car- 
ried on for a long time, and very 
considerable returns made, the 
area so far worked, or proved, is 
small. Mining operations have 
practically been confined to the 
veins lying around the two vil- 
lages. The veins have been 
proved for a length of about two 
miles from north to south, and 
about three miles from west to 
east. The geological formation 
is the Lower Silurian, the grey- 
wacke, or what is known locally 
as whinstone. This is a pretty 
hard stone, and does not vary 
much in the mining area. There 
aresome beds of schist, andsome 
slips, but none of these dis- 



place the veins to a great extent, although the 
schist until recently was supposed to have cut 
out certain of the veins that have now been 
found to be lead-bearing when driven through 
it. Though the geological formation does not 
show much variation, the filling matter of the 
veins varies widely. Some veins contain hard 
compact quartz, and others are filled with soft 
stone, which readily exfoliates when exposed 
to the weather. Some are filled with friable 
quartz, oxide of iron, and other vein matter. 
Most of them contain vughs or loch holes, from 
which some beautiful quartz and calcite crys- 
tals are obtained. Some of the veins contain 
a great variety of mineral specimens. The old 
heaps of the abandoned mines are a happy 
hunting ground for the mineralogist. There 
are collections of the minerals in most of the 
museums in Scotland, and some of the miners 
have very valuable collections. 

There are records of the mines having been 
worked for lead in the thirteenth century. It 
is thought probable that the Romans may have 
done something in this field, as they had a camp 
not far distant and were not likely to overlook 
the lead mines. 

In the sixteenth century there was a large 
amount of gold-washing done in the neighbour- 
hood of the mines. There are records of gold 




Map of part ok South Scotland showing 
and Wanlockhead 

11 



position of Leadhills 



12 



THE MIX INC. MAGAZINE 



to the value of ^"100,000 having been recovered 
in the course of a summer's working from the 
valleys of the Wanlock, El van, and Glengon- 
nar. Anyone interested in the records of this 
working will find a detailed account in " God's 
Treasure House in Scotland," by the late Rev. 
J. Moir Porteous, D D. The gold was got 
from the gravel, and some very large nuggets 
have been found. Some of the miners still de- 
vote a little of their spare time to gold-washing. 
No doubt ihey find it an interesting pastime, 
and can sell the gold for more than its intrinsic 
value to people who have a fancy for a little 
native gold. Some people hold the opinionthat 
there is still a gold reef to be discovered. 
Pieces of gold quartz have been picked up from 
time to time. Last summer Mr. Wilson, of 
the Geolcgical Survey, found a piece of quartz 
with gold through it, as lar^e as a man's 

There are records m Wanlockhead of con- 
tinuous and sometimes very successful mining 
for 239 years without any suspension 
tions. The first worker was Sir J imes Stamp- 
field (1680—1691), then Matthew Wilson to 
1710, then from 1710 to 1721 a company for 
smelting down lead with pit coal, probably that 
which came to be known as the London I 
Company. From 1721, there was more than 
one company operating in Wanlockhead at the 
same time. These were the Friendly or 
Quaker company, and the smelting company 
already referred to. These latterly joined to- 
gether, and were succeeded in 1734 by Alex- 
ander ,v. William Telfer. In 1755, the whole 
field of W'anlockhead was taken over by I 
aid Crawford, Meason, & Company. This 
company, which in the end was owned by a 
late Marquis of Bute, worked the mines until 
1842, when the then Duke of Buccleuch took 
the mines into his own hands, and worked them 
until November, 1906, when the present Wan- 
lockhead Lead Mining Company took over the 
mines. All of the companies are not reported 
to have been very successful, but there were 
times when the mines were very rich, and no 
doubt large profits were made. The mines 
were successful until 1832, when the introduc- 
tion of " Free Trade " brought the price of pig 
lead down to £\1. 10s. per ton. Before that 
period, steam engines had been largely used, 
the company being about the first to avail 
themselves of these. Some of the earliest 
nes were erected at Wanlockhead. The 
low price of lead, and probably the poverty of 
the mines, led to the disuse of the steam en- 
gine, and water-pressure engines were substi- 
tuted for pumping purposes. These were eco- 
n jmical and good of their kind, but being de- 



pendent on water were not conducive to steady 
work. 

Ronald Crawford cY. Company, who worked 
the mines for the longest period, had the as- 
sistance of some very able engineers, Smeaton 
of the Eddystone Lighthouse fame, Symington 
who built the first steamboat, also the Taylors 
who were connected with him in this, and other 
able engineers. The skill and courage they 
displayed in discovering and marking out the 
veins, and the way they laid out their works, 
reflects the greatest credit upon them. Many 
of the old works that are still extant give evi- 
dence of great skill and perseverance. 

I may instance a tunnel that was driven from 
the Wanlock to the Mennock Valley, to bring 
in the supply which is still used for the 

working of the mine. This I-- 1,266 yards in 
length. It was commenced in July, 1763, and 
finished on November 4, 1774, having taken 
11 years to carry through. 

Much very interesting information regarding 
the early workings in Leadhills is contained in 
l*s Treasure House in Scotland." I n this 
there is a record of the mines being let to the 
Monks of Newbattle in 1239. Even in these 
early times there was litigation, anil it seems 
that it hail stuck to the mines pretty mm h ail 
through their history. It was through Mr. 
James Hope, an advoi ate, who successfully 
conducted a law case for an heiress to the 
mines, whom he afterwards married, that the 
mines came into the hands of the Hopetoun 
family, who still own them. The mines were 
held in high repute in those days, being called 
" God's Treasure House in Scotland," " and it 
is said that so great is the value of the lead that 
has been raised from beneath one of the moun- 
tains at Leadhills, that a competent authority 
has declared that it would suffice to pave its 
surface completely with gold guineas set on 
edge." The competent authority was prob 
ably what is now known as a mining expert, 
and perhaps it might be safe to take this with 
the proverbial grain of salt. 

Coming to the year 1747, there were two 
mining companies working at Leadhills. One 
of these, the Scotch Mining Company, whose 
shareholders are said to have originated the 
Sun Fire Office, worked on until 1860 or 1861. 
Mr. Horner and others held leases on parts of 
the districtatthesametime. Mr. Horner'slease 
was purchased by the Leadhills Mining Com- 
pany, but they were unable to work for want 
of water, and had a lawsuit with the Scotch 
Mining Company, which lasted upwards of 
twenty years, and cost ^"25,000. This led to 
no satisfactory result, and a compromise was 



JULY, 1919 



13 






entered into in 1861, by which the Scotch 
Mining Company relinquished their lease, and 
the Leadhills Mining Company obtained pos- 
session of the entire mining field. From that 
time the works have been carried on with con- 
siderable spirit and enterprise. Mr. Nevin, 
who was manager, laid out some very impor- 
tant works. He was very successful in dis- 
covering ore, and may be said to have laid the 
foundations of the prosperity that has since 
attended the mines and village. The present 
Leadhills Mining Company, Ltd., has been very 
successful ; it has only a small capital to pay 
dividendson. Thecompany from which it was 
reconstructed returned a large quantity of ore, 
but during most of its time the price of lead 
ruled low. Forthe last twelve or fifteen years, 
operations have been chiefly confined to the 
Brow Vein, which has been remarkably rich. 
The whole average of the ground cut has been 
high, probably richer than any other mine in 
the country, if we except the mines in the Lime- 
stone districts of England and Wales. The 
prospects in the bottom of the mine are still 
considered good. The veins in this grant are 
numerous, and are sometimes very rich. The 
last company obtained their ore chiefly from 
the Brown and Raike Veins. The Susanna 
Vein, which was worked in former times, is 
reported to have been very rich, and is yet con- 
sidered to be far from being worked out. The 
trouble then was water. Anattempt wasmade 
to restart this some fifty years ago, but the 
water again proved too much for the appliances 
then available. An engine of 300 h.p. was put 
in at Leadhills a year or two ago to generate 
electricity and drive air-compressors. There 
arealso other engines, so that the mine is pretty 
well equipped with power. Modernrock-drills 
are used in the mines, also electrically-driven 
pumps and winding engines. The machinery 
throughout may be considered to be good, but 
a field of such promise as Leadhills is well 
worthy of being laid out on a more compre- 
hensive scale, and of having a shaft, or shafts 
of decent size, these being vertical, or carried 
in a straight line. No extensive developments 
can be expected through the present shaft, 
which for half its distance is vertical, the other 
half following the dip of the vein at a flat 
angle. 

For the last 52 years up to the end of 1917, 
Leadhills produced 88,796 tons of dressed lead 
ore. For the last ten years of that period 
the production was 18,162 tons of lead ore. 
Wanlockhead in the same period produced 
91,509 tonsof lead ore, and 8,654 tons of blende, 
and in the last ten years of that period 25,324 



tons of lead ore, and 6,513 tons of blende. 
The returns before the period mentioned are 
rather difficult to get at. It is said that at the 
time of the law plea the books and plans were 
all destroyed, or removed from Leadhills, and 
there are no mining records in Wanlockhead 
office prior to the time that the Duke took over 
the mines. It is understood that there was an 
old journal of the workings, but that somehow 
disappeared a number of years ago. The 
Statistical Account of Scotland says that in 
the fifty years prior to 1835, Ronald Crawford 
& Co. expended at Wanlockhead the sum of 
^500,000, and during the same period raised 
47,420 tons of lead. At the price then ruling 
the quantity of lead named would be worth 
about £ 1 ,000,000. From other records I have 
seen, the production about the year 1790 from 
Leadhills was 1,400 tons of lead, and from 
Wanlockhead 1,000 tons of lead, worth ^20 
per ton, or a total of ^48,000, per annum. 
Taking it altogether there is little doubt that 
this has been a rich field, and that the works 
have been carried on fairly successfully over a 
long period. 

When the War compelled the nation to look 
to its own resources, the lead mines were con- 
sidered of national importance, and the Depart- 
ment for the Development of Mineral Re- 
sources was formed. Sir Lionel Phillips, the 
Controller, and several of the Department's 
engineers, visited the mines to see what could 
be done to increase production and help the 
country in its need. Among other things then 
suggested was the driving of an adit to serve 
both mines, and I was asked by the Controller 
to submit a scheme for a drainage adit. This 
was a matter that I had considered thirty years 
ago, when advising a company who were in 
terms for taking the mines from the Duke, and 
had almost completed negotiations for taking 
them over, when a difficulty arose owing to 
rich ore having been cut, and ,£"2,000 per year, 
dead rent, being insisted on. At that time, I 
recommended the driving of an adit from Men- 
nock, a distance of about two miles, to unwater 
the Wanlockhead mines down to the 80 fm. 
level. That same scheme at a later period was 
strongly recommended by a firm of engineers 
who inspected the mines for the Puke. It is 
a good scheme still, but when the Government 
were expected to take a hand in the matter, and 
the scheme was to serve both Leadhills and 
Wanlockhead, and it was thought the Govern- 
ment would bear a good share of the expense, 
and that the two landlords, as well as the com- 
panies working the mines, would all join in the 
expense, a bigger scheme was recommended, 



14 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



namely, to drive from Enterkinfoot, in Niths- 
dale, a distance of six miles to the Wanlock- 
head mines. This would intersect the veins in 
Wanlockhead at the 160 fm. level, where the 
present company has already driven over 300 
fm. of a cross-cut, across the veins toward Lead- 
hills, when the Leadhills company would have 
taken it up, and continued it across their area. 
This tunnel would have given backs of 80 fm. 
of fresh ground below the bottoms of most of 
the waterlogged mines in both grants. Most 
of these mines might be expected to prove well. 
All theevidence pointsinthisdirection. There 
is no change in the geological formation, and 
all the veins are known to be holding down 
strong. It is admitted and known that some 
courses of ore failed, or were lost through water 
difficulties and other troubles, but if fresh ground 
was opened out, there is little doubt that other 
coursesof ore wouldbe opened. In those veins 
that have been worked to a good depth, it is 
seen that a course of ore may fail in one place, 
and another be discovered in a different place. 

The New Glencrieff working in Wanlock- 
head, now at about 250 fm. from the surface, 
looks quite encouraging for holding down any 
depth. The Brow Vein at Leadhills, which is 
about the same depth, is also holding down 
good. Theseminesbeing a good distance apart, 
and there being a number of productive veins 
between, there is every indication that 
quantities of ore may still be expected to h 
from this district. That there is a large future 
for these mines I am firmly convinced, but the 
plan of operations to ensure success should be 
such as would enable work to be carried on at 
a greater depth, and on a larger scale than ever 
has been done in the past. If these come to 
be considered a national asset, probably th< 
properties would be worked as one. This would 
be an advantage and would effect a saving in 
several directions. The tunnel referred to, in 
addition to opening up the present mining area, 
would have come through fresh ground, where 
it might reasonably be expected productive 
veins would have been cut. 1 1 would also have 
given a chance to develop a large amount of 
power from water that could have been dropped 
to that level. The proprietors of the land 
would have been certain to reap large benefits 
from this scheme, and might have been ex- 
pected to contribute to the cost, but as it turned 
out, they were strongly opposed to it, so noth- 
ing has been done. 

Sir Lionel Phillips, in his report, refers to it 
as follows : 

" The Wanlockhead & Leadhills Mines have 
produced, since the year 1856, 192,932 tons 



of dressed lead ore, and 6,982 tons of zinc 
concentrates, which represent in the first case 
about 95i f 'o, and in the second 75% of the en- 
tire production of lead and zinc ores from Scot- 
land, during the last sixty years. 

" Constant expense and difficulties are being 
experienced in connection with the working of 
these mines, owing to the increasing cost of 
pumping, and a suggestion has been made for 
draining the whole district by means of a tun- 
nel some 7 miles in length, winch would tap 
the workings of these two properties at a low 
level, and at the same time would traverse a 
number of known lead veins, and possibly 
justify reopening some of the formerly pro- 
ductive mines. In addition to this, important 
discoveries might be made in ground hitherto 
unexplored. It is estimated that an expendi- 
ture of £150,000 would be involved in carry- 
ing out thi> work - , but as it would take from 
five to six years to complete, it is clearly a 
matt' osideration after the war. It is 

one of those cases in which the State should 
oly take a benevolent, and possibly a 
financial interest, if those directly concerned in 
the locality would incur the major risk." 

The Wanloi khead Mines. Having in 

the foregoing paragraphs described the mining 
district generally, I will now k'ive details of the 
Wanlockhead mines, beginning with the time 
for which there are full records, that 
the date that the Duke took over the mines. 
Mr. James Stewart who had been connected 
with the management for some ten years prior 
to 1842 managed the mines for the Duke for 
thirty years, and 1 think with a very fair n 
ure of success. The chief workings when he 
hold of them for the Puke were the Loch- 
nell and the Belton ( iram. These became un- 
profitable, largely through inadequate means 
of dealing with the water. He then turned his 
attention to the New Glencrieff Vein, which 
had been abandoned as unprofitable, and stood 
idle for over seventy years. He also reopened 
both Bay and Straitsteps, from which consider- 
ablequantitiesof ore werereturned. The New 
Glencrieff proved very successful, and is the 
lode from which thereturnsarestill beingmade. 
He began with the mines comparatively poor, 
and left them rich. He had the satisfaction 
before he died of cutting a new course of ore, 
which has probably yielded as much as any 
shoot of ore ever discovered in Scotland. He 
also put up a new dressing mill, and laid out 
new smelting and desilverizing works on a 
goodscale. This gentleman was succeeded by 
his son, Mr. T. 13. Stewart, who also managed 
the mines for a period of about thirty years, 



JULY, 1919 



15 




wanlockhead 
Leadhills 

MINING DISTR ICTS 

Scale of feer. 



16 



THE MIXING MAGAZINE 



and raised a large quantity of ore from the 
New Glencrieff and Straitsteps Veins. In his 
time, he replaced the dressing mill with new 
crushing machinery, and self-acting jigs, a 
pretty little plant, but too small for the require- 
ments of the mine. He also introduced a new 
water-condensing plant with an elaborate sys- 
tem of flues for catching the fumes at the 
smelting mill, which resulted in a great saving 
of lead. Hehad unfortunately to contend with 
low prices. In the latter part of the Duke's 
time, things were allowed to drift. The ap- 
pliances for many purposes were inadequate, 
and nothing was done to provide necessary 
machinery for draining the mines or to depart 
from old ways and customs that had become 
obsolete, and it is said the works were carried 
on at a loss. 

Arrangements were made with the present 
company for taking over the mines in Novem- 
ber, 1906. The company started with high 
hopes, some of the principals believing that the 
mine was very rich, and only required a little 
capital to make it — as one of the directors put 
it — a gold mine. As the difficulties encountered 
were greater than expected, no doubt some 
disappointment was experienced. After a 
period ofsomehesitation, the necessary matters 
were tackled with skill and determination, and 
taking the results as a whole, from the start to 
the present time, the mine has done very well. 
In the last eighteen months, this mine, with 
other lead mines, has received some help from 
the Government, but not sufficient to compen- 
sate for the increased price of labour and ma- 
terials, considering that the price of lead was 
controlled at a low figure during the war, and 
de-controlled as soon as it was over, when the 
Government had heavy stocks to put on the 
market. 

Since the present company took over the 
mines, they have deepened it to the extent of 
100 fm., over a length of nearly a mile. In 
that time they have cut 195 fm. in shafts, 
1 ,052 fm. in rises and winzes, 6,075 fm. in driv- 
ing, 28,896 fin. in stopes and other excavations, 
altogether a length of 41 miles. In addition to 
the regular developments of the mine, they 
put out a trial level to the south at the 120 fm. 
level, a distance of half a mile. This was only 
successful at the start, where very good ore 
was cut, much more than sufficient to pay for 
the driving, but the remainder of the drivage 
was disappointing, although at times it looked 
promising. They also extended the two bran- 
ches of the vein north, a very considerable dis- 
tance beyond the former workings. On the 
.v^est branch, they did not meet with the suc- 



cess that might have been expected consider- 
ing the size and strength of the vein; still, 
sufficient ore has been had from there to pay 
for all the driving, and good ore is still being 
raised. A strong opinion is held that further 
extensions in this direction will open good ore. 
On the eastern or main branch of the vein go- 
ing north, the management formed the opinion, 
from certain evidences that they discovered, 
that lead might be had there by driving through 
the barren part, at which the drivages had 
formerly been suspended. The drivage here 
did not prove as encouraging as might have 
been expected, and to make matters worse, 
some joints led the drivage a considerable way 
oil the proper track ; the survey showed it to 
be 20 fm. off the usual track. It was decided 
to cross-cut this 20 fm., and say as little about 
it as possible. The 20 fm. was driven and 
nothing was discovered. Some engineers who 
I the mines said, " What are you driving 
there < hhers said we would not get 

anything there. Although disappointed at not 
cutting the vein at 20 fm., it was resolved to 
go on, and at 21 fm. the vein with lead in it 
was cut. Some 11 fm. was opened at that 
place, worth 15cwt. per fm. A considerable 
distance was driven on a nice vein, but with 
nothing to value, when a shoot of ore 50 fm. 
in length was cut, which is valued at l\ tons 
of lead ore per fm. I he drivage has been ex- 
tended through that, and other small sp< 
lead have been cut. This is at the 160 fin. 
level, and is in whole ground to surface. Two 
deeper levels are being driven up to this point, 
the 200 fm. and the 240 fm. There are sev- 
eral veins in this hill bot,h to the right and to 
the left, which may also be found to continue 
productive when driven through the Bchist. 
Great things are expected from this part, which 
is practically a new mine. 

Another trial of considerable importance that 
is now being carried out is a cross-cut at the 
160 fm. level to the east, under some of the 
waterlogged mines, 80 fm. below any of the 
former workings. This has already intersec- 
ted some promising veins, and is expected to 
cut others shortly. It is now in about 320 fm. 
It has been carried a fair size, being 7 ft. by 
7 ft. and perfectly straight. 

When the present company took over the 
mines, all the drilling was being done by hand. 
The men were generally good single-hand bor- 
ers, some of them being experts at this work. 
The practice was to drill holes of a small di- 
ameter, using the highest class of explosives. 
The holes being placed to the best advantage, 
this class of work was hard to beat as to ex- 



JULY, 1919 



17 



pense ; but it was not possible to get sufficient 
men to work on the scale that the company de- 
sired, so rock-drills were immediately intro- 
duced for driving the levels. These were of 
the heavy reciprocating type, and did good 
work, but were heavy to handle, and not 
at all suitable for the stopes. A lighter type 
of the same class of drills was tried in the 
stopes, but with only a moderate amount of 
success. Early in 1909, hammer-drills were 
introduced, and of these a number of different 
types have been tried. Two of the first types 
that were tried were water-flushed, and did 
very satisfactory work, but the renewals of 
working parts were expensive. The dry bor- 
ing type were effective and fast borers, but it 
was seen that these would injure the health of 
the men. When water- flush devices of differ- 
ent sorts were applied to these, good work was 
done with them. Some of these were self -rota- 
ting and self-feeding, and when all was going 
well, the man could stand and look at the drill 
boring, but the spare parts were still a serious 
item of expense. All the drills that were tried 
in the stopes were fixed on a column and ra- 
dial arm. The same method of fixing is still 
employed, but all the drills mentioned have 
been discarded in favour of air-feed telescope 
drills, which are hand-rotated and water-flush- 
ed. These are much simpler in every way. 
There is no rotation gear, and little mechanism 
to get out of order, and the expense of running 
is very small. A heavier type is used in the 
drivages than in the stopes, the former being 
100 lb. weight, the latter 56 lb. weight. These 
are one-man drills, but there are generally two 
men with them in the stopes. One man works 
the drill, the other being engaged sorting the 
stuff, and so on, there being quite as much 
work sorting and picking the stuff as there is 
breaking it down. In the drivages there are 
two men and two drills. A round of 18 holes, 
about 3j ft. to 4ft. deep, isgenerally putin each 
shift. 

The method of working for some time back has 
been to sink 40 fm. before putting out the 
drivages. When the drivage cuts ore, a rise 
or winze is generally put through, effecting 
communication with the next level. Then the 
ore ground is worked away by overhand stop- 
ing, the method being to lay a floor with 3 in. 
planks, keeping the same at least 4 ft. in ad- 
vance of the heading ; then the round is blas- 
ted down on the planks, the stones being pick- 
ed out and thrown forward to fill up, and so 
allow the floor to be extended for the next blast, 
and the lead wheeled or shovelled to a pass 
behind. These passes, being closed at the bot- 
1—4 



torn, form a hopper from which the stuff is 
run into the tram wagons, and drawn to the 
foot of the shaft by ponies, which draw four 
wagons each journey. At the bottom of the 
shaft, the stuff is tipped into a skip, which is 
self-dumping, and empties into another wagon 
at the top of the shaft. From there it is taken 
to the screens or grizzlies, which are only a 
short distance from the shaft. 

There is no trouble experienced either in 
putting the rises or the winzes through the 40 
fm. Some of the drivages have been put out 
half a mile without experiencing any incon- 
venience as to ventilation, a 9 in. pipe being 
carried for the purpose of ventilation, with a 
water jet fixed every 50 fm. These jets have 
a head of anything from 20 to 80 fm., as cir- 
cumstances may permit. Formerly the stuff 
was all trammed by manual labour. The in- 
troduction of the ponies into the mine saved 
much hard work, and was a great saving to the 
company. Before the ponies could be intro- 
duced, the whole nf the tram roads had to be 
re-laid in a substantial manner, and some of 
the old levels had to be made larger. The 
new levels are always driven ample size, these 
being generally about 6 ft. wide by 7 ft. high. 
In the cross-cut we are now driving, very 
good work is being done. Two men blast a 
round of fully 3 ft. deep, two men in the next 
shift lifting the stuff, so that eight shifts 
generally cut a fathom of ground and fill the 
stuff into wagons for the pony. 

The efficiency of the underground men is 
now about three times greater than when the 
company took over the mines. Of course the 
expense is not reduced in the same ratio, but 
the rock-drills and air-winches are a great sav- 
ing of labour, also the haulage by the ponies, 
and things are so arranged that there is much 
less handling of stuff in the mines. There are 
still a great many things that could be improv- 
ed. The small shaft is a serious drawback. It 
has one good feature, it is perfectly straight, 
but the two compartments for winding only 
take a cage 2 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. It was 
thought at first that a pony could not be got down, 
but when they have their legs tied up to their 
body, it is wonderful how small a box they go 
into, and they go down quite comfortably by 
that method. A good size horse could go down 
quite well if required. 

The whole of the old plant at the mines and 
dressing mill was scrapped, and new plant put 
in by the present company. They also put in a 
temporary pumping plant when they took over 
the mines, which was discarded as soon as 
more permanent arrangements could be made. 



18 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



There are three Babcock & Wilcox steam boil- 
ers, having a combined heating surface of be- 
tween 6,000 and 7,000 superficial feet. These 
provide steam for the pumps in the mine, the 
largest of these being a Riedler pump, at the 
160 fm. level, which throws 400 gallons of 
water per minute to the adit level. There is 
another of the same class of pump at the 80 fm. 
level, with a capacity of 300 gallons, which it 
also delivers at the adit level. This last is 
only worked at times when the water is heavy. 
There are other pumps in the deeper levels, as 
well as auxiliary pumps in several parts of the 
mine.whichareall driven either by steamorair. 
The steam pipes are well covered with non- 
conducting material. The pumps are consid- 
ered to be fairly efficient, but the mine is get- 
ting deep, and there is a limit to where steam 
can be efficiently used. 

There are two air-compressors, one 750 cu- 
bic feet of free air per minute, which is now 
kept as a standby, another of 1,000 cubic feet, 
which is a very efficient machine and supplies 
air at 80 lb. pressure for all present require- 
ments. The boiler plant also supplies steam 
for the winding engine and the two engines 
that drive the dressing plant, also two small 
engines for hoisting waste. 

At the dressing plant the stuff is tipped over 
grizzlies, the oversize being shovelled on to a 
pan conveyor, where the stones are picked out. 
This conveyor delivers into the stone-breaker, 
from which it drops on to another conveyor, 
which deposits it in the hoppers behind the 
crusher. The smalls from the grizzlies are 
run into these hoppers by small tram wagons. 
The stuff then falls on to a shaking screen, 
which takes out the small, and gives a regular 
and steady feed to the roller crushers. These 
are 30 in. by 16 in., the one being a duplicate 
of the other. The ore is elevated from the 
crushers to the trommels. There are two series 
of seven trommels, the first being 10 m.m., 
which returns the oversize to the crusher, and 
the last 2\ m.m. These serve fourteen four- 
compartment jigs. The slime plant consists 
of six Buss tables, 3 James sand tables, and 3 
James slime tables ; a double dipper wheel 
raises the middlings for re-treatment ; there 
are also a double system of water classifiers 
for sand tables, saddle-back classifiers for the 
finer tables and slimers, and two mechanically 
worked dolly tubs. The chat plant consists of 
a small roller crusher with six jigs, four of 
these being four-compartment. In commenc- 
ing to jig through a 10 m.m. hole, there is not 
a great deal of clean ore recovered at that size 
from the first jig, but a good deal of clean 



waste is thrown off, and the chats are taken to 
the chat mill to be re-crushed. The waste 
from the jigs is clean and free from ore. The 
slime plant is effective, but it might be further 
extended with advantage, as it is difficult to 
get the very last of the ore out of the slime. 
The lead ore is trammed to the smelting mills. 
The blende, which is dressed up to 50 or 52% 
zinc, is sold to the zinc smelters. 

As the mines are in a high place, and get 
more than the usual quantity of frost and snow, 
the machinery is all housed in a steel-framed 
corrugated-iron shed, which is heated with 
steam, the water being brought from the reser- 
voir in earthenware pipes, which are deep- 
ly covered in the ground. The severity of the 
weather does notpreventdressingbeing carried 
on regularly. 

The lead-smelting plant is situatedabout one 
mile from the dressing floors, and consists of 
two roasting furnaces, five Scotch hearths, and 
oneslag hearth. There is awater-wheel, which 
drives the blower for the Scotch hearths. It 
also drives an exhaust fan to take away any 
smoke that may be blown out to the injury of 
the men working. Only the slime ore is roast- 
ed, the rest being fed direct to the Scotch 
hearths. These are simple to run, are econo- 
mical for fuel, and, as the ore is clean and of 
uniform quality, they are considered to be the 
most suitable for the requirements here. This 
system of smelting has one disadvantage, 
namely, a large percentage of the ore is carried 
away in fume. But there is a very good sys- 
tem of condensing here, and a large propor- 
tion is recovered. The condensing plant con- 
sists of a brick condenser, in which the smoke 
travels through a number of chambers, where 
a fine spray of water is brought to play on it, 
and washes the bulk of the fume into settling 
ponds, the remainder being caught in long 
flues that wind round the hill, very little escap- 
ingthroughthe stack at the top. Upto 1910, the 
lead was desilverized on the mine, but owing 
to the then low price of silver and the scarcity 
of labour, it was found more advantageous to 
sell the silver-lead to silver refiners, who had 
more up-to-date plants. The process practic- 
ed here was the Pattison, which made a high 
class of refined lead, the Queensberry brand 
having a good name in the market. The silver 
was made quite pure, and sold to the silver- 
smiths. 

The company put in a private siding at the 
railway station, and made a tram road to the 
smelt mills, a distance of two miles. The coal, 
ore, and other materials, are drawn over this 
by horses to the bottom of a steep incline by 



JULY, 1919 



19 




Glencrieff Shaft and Dressing Plant of the Wanlockhead Company. 



the station, where the tram wagons are hauled 
up to the railway station by an air-winch. 

The following table maybe interest asshow- 
ing the cost of mining and dressing for the 
twelve months ended December, 1914, as com- 
pared with twelve months ending December 
31, 1918: 

1914 1918 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Total Cost per fm 7 17 5 18 16 3 

Cost of Wages per fm 3 11 11 8 6 10 

Cost of Fuel per fm 12 3 3 6 7 

Cost of Explosives per fm 11 3 14 5 

Cost of Stores per fm 18 4 1 18 1 

Cost of Timber per fm. (Min- 
ing) 4 8 16 2 

Total Cost per ton of Lead Ore 

and Blende 7 9 8 22 11 1 

Cost of Wages per ton of Lead 

Ore and Blende 3 8 5 10 1 

Cost of Fuel per ton of Lead 

Ore and Blende 113 3 19 11 

The produce of the mines has not increased 
in the same proportion as the cost, and the 
Wanlockhead mines, although not at present 
in any financial straits, are looking to the fu- 
ture with considerable anxiety. In the report 
of the last general meeting of the Leadhills 
Mining Company, the chairman stated that 



they could not go on without drawing on their 
capital if the War Bonus was not refunded by 
the Government. The managing director in- 
timated that they would not carry on at a loss. 
The Wanlockhead Mining Company have in- 
timated to their workmen that they are seri- 
ously considering the position as to whether 
they will go on working at a loss, now that the 
Government are not refunding the War Bonus. 
The position is certainly difficult, but 1 think 
that mines that are in a position to do so might 
take some risk, as one might hope that the pres- 
ent times are abnormal, and that the price of 
lead at least will in time adjust itself to the 
prices ruling for labour and materials ; but no 
doubt the position is full of uncertainty, and 
there may be a stoppage in both the mines. 
If there was mutual goodwill between the com- 
panies and the workmen, and no further in- 
crease of costs, I would recommend any that 
I had to do with to go on . If costs are to con- 
tinue to increase without a corresponding in- 
crease in the produce, I would hesitate to make 
this recommendation. The efficiency in Wan - 
lockhead has been considerably increased, and 
could be still further increased. The company 



20 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



can do something in this direction, and the men 
can do a great deal by duly recognizing the 
value of their own time when at work, keeping 
the machines and machinery steadily at work, 
and by the careful use of the machines and 
materials supplied to them. 

The following comparative figures of lead, 
zinc, etc., produced show that, as to produc- 
tion, Wanlockhead and Leadhills are above the 
average per person employed, as compared 
with the lead and zinc mines of the United 
Kingdom. 

1914 191? 

s. d. - d. 

United Kingdom... Approxi- 
mately 109 2 4 136 

Wanlockhead 188 6 -4 

Leadhills Approximately 153 8 _'-!! 

It would be useful information if every-one 
had to give the amount of the ground cut, and 
its value, as well as the amount recovered. 
Taking 16 tons to the fathom, the value of the 
stuff broken in Wanlockhead in 1914 

* of dressed lead ore, and 1*62% of blende, 
having a total value per fm. of £\0. 9s. 6d. 
In 1917, the figures were 3'59".. lead ore, 
1*34% blende, value ^13. 13s. 3d. Leadhills 
for the same period would give for 1914, say, 
10 ",. of lead ore, and total valve per fm., ^fl9. 
7s. Od. ; for 1917, 7*52% ol lead ore, and total 
value per fm. for lead ore and value. 
^25. 9s. 9d. 

Leadhills has been much the richest of the 
two mines for a number of years back, and 
has probably larger reserves of rich ore ground 
laid open for stoping, but looking a few years 
forward, it would be very difficult to say which 
would be the most productive. It is greatly 
to be hoped that both mines will continue to 
go on, and be successful, as it i> no light mat- 
ter for 2,000 people to be thrown out of em- 
ployment, especially in a district like this, 
where the people have much to attach them to 
their mountain homes, but it would be particu- 
larly sad after so many had gone out to fight 
for the country, numbers of whom will not re- 
turn. It is to be hoped that those who have 
fought for their homes will not find that they 
have to look for new ones now that they are 
home. Those who remained at home did so 
because the Government wanted their work 
here. The women also in Wanlockhead came 
forward, when asked, to help to carry on. Some 
thirty women gave their services to the mine 
in Wanlockhead in the time of need, no women 
having ever been employed in the mines be- 
fore. They deserve credit for the good work 
they did. I think that if the mines had a price 
ior their products commensurate with the in- 



creased rates of labour and materials, they 
could still go on and prosper. 

For many years the mines have provided a 
living for a most respectable and industrious 
class of people. 

One of their own poets says of the men : 
For the chiels are as likely a set as ye'd meet, 
Frae the muir and the glen tae the square and the 

street, 
Big, buirdly, and bauld, like the hills o' their 

hame, 
And no cruppen doon \vi' inherited shame ; 
Hut gaiin frae the knee tae their grave in the glen, 
I.'ke their faithers afore then, the walins o' men. 

I am indebted to the Wanlockhead Company 
for the use of their plans, and to Mr. William 
Mitchell for preparing plans and sketch , 



Magnetic Surveys as an aid in 
Geological Examination. 

The report t t the Conjoint Hoard 

of Scientfic Societies contains some informa- 
tion relating to m it Melton 

Mowbray and Irthlingborough, in Leio 
shire, undertaken by. Messrs. G. W. Walker, 

\. 1 1 v\ n. The last- 

named devised an instrument for determining 
magnetic susceptibilities. The chiet results 
of the investigation may be summarized as 
follows: It has been proved that the relative- 
ly small magnetic disturbances at Irthling- 
borough may be correlated with the presence 
there of the bed v . lampton iron-ore. 

The Melton Mowbray disturbances, however, 
cannot be attributed either to Jurassic iron- 
stone, or to any sedimentary deposits which 
may underlie the area. Any deposits of the 
ordinary iron-ores (ferrous carbonate or red 
or brown hematite), had they existed, must 
have lain so near the surface in order to pro 
duce the observed effects, that they could 
scarcely have escaped detection by ordinary 
geological examination. These disturbances, 
on the other hand, appear to be connected with 
the tectonics of the deep-seated formations. 
The investigation has led to two important 
conclusions: 1. With a suitable modification 
of the instruments the small magnetic dis- 
turbances caused by the Jurassic iron-stones 
are capable of detection, and may be of use in 
determining the boundaries of concealed fields 
of these ores in areas not affected by larger 
disturbances due to other causes. 2. It prom- 
ises to throw light upon the tectonics of the 
older iocks where overlain by more recent for- 
mations, and thus to afford assistance in solving 
problems of great practical importance, such 
as the determination of the limits of concealed 
coalfields. 



MODERN ROCK-DRILL PRACTICE. 



By DAVID PENMAN, B.Sc, M.lnst.M.E. 



Introductory. — Next to the invention of 
gunpowder and dynamite nothing has contri- 
buted so largely to progressin tunnelling, shaft- 
sinking, prospecting, and development work 
generally as the introduction and improvement 
of the mechanically-operated rock-drill. The 
process of drilling shot-holes in hard stone was 
slow and laborious in the extreme when the 
only available means of doing so consisted in 
utilizing the force of gravity and the power of 
a man's arms. But with the advent of the 
successful machine drill a new era was initi- 
ated in which rapid progress even in the har- 
dest ground was possible and man-power could 
be utilized to an extent and with an effective- 
ness never dreamed of under the old conditions. 
The credit of inventing the first self-operated 
rock-drill belongs to the United States of 
America, where Couch of Philadelphia in 1849 
patented his machine. Previous to that,Trevi- 
thick, in Cornwall, applied arotary steam-driven 
boring machine to drilling shot-holes in lime- 
stone near Plymouth, and Brunton, of the same 
county, invented a machine called a wind-ham- 
mer which was driven by compressed air. Also 
in America two brothers, J. M. and J.N. Singer, 
used a large drop drill, of which twelve were put 
in use, in the blasting required in the construc- 
tion of a canal in Illinois. None of these appli- 
ances, however, can be strictly termed the fore- 
runner of the modern power drill, and probably 
the first invention embodying the principle un- 
derlying the action of the present-day machine 
was that patented by J. M. Fowle, of Boston, 
U.S.A., in 1850. This drill was operated by 
steam ; the possibilities of compressed air had 
not then been fully realized. The drill bit was 
made to form an extension of the piston rod and 
the whole machine was fed towards the rock as 
the drill tool advanced in the hole. The pis- 
ton was given a slow rotary motion. In Ger- 
many in 1853, Schumann used a drill in the 
mines near Freiberg which exhibited, though 
in an imperfect form, many of the features of 
the modern power-drill. In France, too, in 
1855, M. Fontainmoreau invented a drill oper- 
ated by compressed air which had both a ro- 
tary and a forward movement, while M. Som- 
meiller in 1861 to 1863, using an improved 
form of Mr. Bartlett's drill (patented in 1855), 
did very good work in the Mt. Cenis tunnel 
and in the mines at Moresnet, Belgium. This 
latter drill was also actuated by compressed 
air. These drills were the precursors of the 



modern hammer-drill. The air was caused to 
produce a rapid succession of blows on the end 
of the boring tool. About the same time a 
drill invented by Gen. Haupt, and subsequently 
improved by Taylor, was employed with good 
results in the St. Gothard tunnel. This ma- 
chine was further improved by Burleigh, who 
used it in the Hoosac tunnel in Massachusetts. 
Mention should also be made of Bidding, 
who used a reciprocating hammer-drill, oper- 
ated by steam, as early as 1853, of Schwarz- 
kopf, Sach, Lisbet, and Bornhardt on the Con- 
tinent, and Crease in England, all of whom 
did something to advance the development of 
rock-boring appliances during the early sixties 
of last century. The proper automatic rota- 
tion of the drill steel was a difficulty with the 
early inventors, and it was not till 1866 when 
Jordan and Darlington invented the rifle bar 
and ratchet method that the problem was ade- 
quately solved. In 1 870 Osterkamp attempted 
to anticipate the now well-known hand ham- 
mer-drill in so far as the holding-up of the 
drill is concerned, but the recoil of the ma- 
chine was too great and the drill had to be 
mounted on a carriage or frame. Thereafter 
followed drills by Beaumont and Appleby 
(though this was a rotary drill), Ferroux, Dar- 
lington, Burleigh, McKean, Franke, Schram, 
Ingersoll.andmany others. The valve motion 
of the earlier drills was either of the tappet 
type or of the piston variety. For example, 
the first Climax, and the Rio Tinto drills used 
the tappet valve, while the Darlington and the 
Adelaide had no proper valves, the piston it- 
self acting as the valve. The tappet valve 
proved a success and is still used in modern 
drills, but the valveless drill, though simple 
and having few moving parts, was a poor 
hitter, and the principle was abandoned, to be 
revived, however, in the modern valveless sto- 
ping drill. In the subsequent developments 
many makers have vied with each other to 
produce a powerful and reliable drill. First 
place must be given to our American cousins 
for the great work they have done in bringing 
the rock-drill to its present stage of perfection. 
Chief among American m ikers who have a 
well-earned reputation in the history of rock- 
drills are the Ingersoll-Kand, the Sullivan, the 
Chicago Automatic Tool, and the Denver 
Rock-Drill companies. In England, Holman 
Brothersand Mr. W. C. Stephens, of the Climax 
company, have done a vast amount of work in 



22 



THE MIXING MAGAZINE 



the development of both the piston and the 
hammer-drills. Various manufacturers in 
Sweden, Germany, France, South Africa, and 
Australia have likewise contributed to the 
general progress. 

In the present article attention is given to 
those drills which have proved of outstanding 
worth as well as to some of the more recent 
improvements. It must be borne in mind, 
however, that the number of drills on the 
market to-day is very great and that in a com- 
paratively short article it would be impossible 
to give anything like a full description of all 
the successful machines. 

The Piston DRILL. — In this form of rock- 
drill the drilling steel is fixed in a chuck at- 
tached toan extension of a reciprocating piston. 
The piston and the bit therefore move together. 
With such an arrangement the machine itself 
must necessarily be of considerable weight, 
making it imperativeto fix the drill to some form 



extends through the cylinder head, which is 
bushed so as to reduce friction and secure 
air-tightness. The piston-rod terminates out- 
side the cylinder in the U-bolt chuck U which 
is designed to grip the drill steel by means 
of bushing, gripping pad, and wedge. The 
bit is placed in position and the wedge press- 
ed forward by hand. The grip of the chuck 
on the steel is tightened by the first few blows 
of the piston against the rock. A blow with 
a hammer or jumper promptly loosens the 
wedge and releases the drill steel. The nuts 
on the V bolt are chiefly for adjustment, and 
to compensate for stretch and wear. In the 
position shown in the figure live pressure air 
is entering the cylinder behind the piston 
which is on its forward or hitting stroke, while 
the air in front of the piston is escaping to the 
atmosphere through the exhaust port. The 
valve V controls the admission and exhaustion 
of the air. This action is described in detail 




Fig. 1. The Hoi. man Piston Drill. 



of support. This renders it unsuitable for some 
purposes. Nevertheless, partly by reason of its 
size, which enables a powerful blow to be struck, 
and partly from the efficient sludging or mud- 
ding produced by the to-and-fro motion of the 
steel in the drill-hole, it is admirably adapted 
for most kinds of development work, such as 
the sinking of shafts and winzes, the driving of 
levels and cross-cuts, and wherever deep shot- 
holes are required. There are many drills of 
the reciprocating type in use at the present day 
and the principle of action of all of them is the 
same, though each possesses its own little dif- 
ferences in detail. 

For the purpose of explaining in general 
terms the operation of a reciprocating rock- 
drill, the Holman drill, which has been in use 
for many years and which has done very good 
work, may be selected. Referring to Fig. 1, 
P is the piston, which is provided at its larger 
diameter with leather piston rings so as to 
render it air-tight in its cylinder. The piston- 
od R, which is an integral part of the piston, 



later. On the hitting stroke the piston shoots 
straight, and the drill-bit strikes a clean and 
powerful blow on the rock at the bottom of 
the drill-hole. On this stroke the rifled bar 
I rotated slightly. Just before the end of 
the stroke the valve is thrown over so as to 
admit live air in front of the piston and con- 
nect the rear with the exhaust. The piston 
now makes the backward stroke, pulling the 
drill-bit outwards in the hole. During this 
stroke the piston, which carries a twist nut, is 
given a slight rotation by the rifled bar, the latter 
being prevented from rotating by a ratchet and 
pawl arrangement at its rear. Thus on thenext 
forward stroke the drill-bit strikes at a differ- 
ent part of the bottom of the drill hole. As 
the hole deepens, the cylinder, which slides in 
two Y-shaped guides, forming the cradle, is 
fed forward by rotating the handle H of the 
feed-screw F, which works through a nut in 
the drill casing under the cylinder. In addi- 
tion to providing a means of keeping the drill 
up to its work, the feed allows of a variation 



JULY, 1919 



23 



in the length of stroke of the piston. When 
it is required to withdraw the drill-bit from the 
hole, the drill cylinder is run back on the 
screw, the air pressure having been previous- 
ly cut off. The drill is built in sizes ranging 
from 2i in. diameter and 5 in. stroke, to 3* in. 
diameter and 7 in. stroke. The heavier drills 
are chiefly used in development work and in 
tunnelling and quarrying, while the 2\ in. and 
the 2\ in. drills are intended for use in the 
stopes. The weights of the last-mentioned 
drills are 1001b. and 1401b. respectively. 
The heaviest size weighs 380 lb. The length 
of feed varies from 1 8 in. in the 2\ in. drill to 30 
in. in the 3| in. drill. The larger the drill 
of course the larger the diameter and depth of 
hole which can be drilled easily. Thus, where 
particularly heavy charges of explosive are 
desirable, the heavier the drill the better with- 
in limits and consistent with other desiderata. 
For stope work a light drill is essential. 



holes, but it proved so successful for this pur- 
pose and it possessed so many advantages 
over the large and heavy reciprocating drill in 
regard to portability, ease of handling, and 
suitability for cramped and awkward situa- 
tions that manufacturers soon began to pro- 
duce models suitable for a much wider range 
of work than was at first thought practicable. 
Now they are being used to an enormous ex- 
tent for almost all conditions of rock-drilling, 
both in coal and metalliferous mining. 

The chief requisites of a good hammer- 
drill are : (l) strong and compact in construc- 
tion, (2) light in weight, (3) effective in drill- 
ing, and (4) simple in construction and opera- 
tion. Every manufacturer of rock-drills now 
includes one or more forms of hammer-drills 
among his products. All of them endeavour 
to produce a drill to conform to those require- 
ments, and where all are so good it is a diffi- 
cult matter to discriminate. Some of the best- 




Fig. 2. The Holman Hammer-Drill. 



Other well-known piston drills are the Inger- 
soll-Sergeant, Chicago Giant, and Slogger, 
Stephen's Imperial, Climax, Siskol, Denver 
Waugh or Dreadnaught, Sullivan Liteweight 
and Hyspeed drills. The valve-action of sev- 
eral of those drills will be described. 

The Hammer-Drill. — The hammer- 
drill differs in principle from the piston drill 
in respect that the drill steel is not attached 
to the piston rod but is held at rest in the 
chuck, and instead of being reciprocated is 
simply struck a series of blows from the rapid- 
ly moving piston or hammer in the cylinder 
of the drill. The idea of the hammer-drill 
is an old one, but it was not until comparatively 
recent years that it attained the high degree of 
perfection which has enabled it to be utilized 
to such an extent as is seen to day. Prob- 
ably no single individual has done more to 
develop the hammer-drill than Mr. George 
Leyner, of Philadelphia, whose name will be 
always associated with the history of rock- 
drilling. Leyner was one of the first to fore- 
see the great possibilities of the hammer type 
of drill. The drill was primarily designed for 
light work and comparatively shallow bore- 



known makes are the drills of the Holman 
and Climax companies, the Flottmann, Jack- 
hamer, Hardy-Simplex, Sullivan Rotator, and 
Leyner- Ingersoll drills. 

The parts of a hammer-drill are clearly 
shown in Figs. 2 & 3, showing a Holman and 
a Climax Britannia respectively. In Fig. 2, 
H is a freely moving hammer which strikes a 
rapid succession of blows — 2,000 to 3,000 per 
minute — on the anvil A, which transmits the 
force of the blow to the drill steel D, which in 
turn transfers the impact to the rock. In the 
Jackhamerand similar hammer-drills the anvil 
is omitted and the hammer hits the steel direct. 

The hammer-drill may be subdivided into 
three classes, namely (a)those which aresimply 
held in the hand, that is, hand hammer-drills, 
(b) those which are designed to be mounted 
on supports and have a screw- feed similar to 
the reciprocating drill, that is, cradle hammer- 
drills, and (c) those with automatic telescopic 
air-feed. The last is illustrated by Fig. 2 
and the first by Fig. 3. 

The Valves. — There is no more important 
part of a successful rock-drill than the valve 
motion. The types of valves in use may be 



24 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 




. ■< v -•< By (c-t -tt. 



2: BRITANNIA MODEL H.H. DRILL- 



M HaMhUOMtfL _ . 

42 ■ • . ' ■" 

< ■ .'ilin 



£l_S 



Fig J. The Climax-Britannia Hammer-Drill 



divided into the following classes: 

(1) The tappet valve; 

(2) The spool or air-piston valve ; 

(3) Auxiliary-operated valves; 

(4) Piston valves ; 

(5) The flap valve ; 

(6) The ball valve. 

The Tappet Valve. —This valve was the 
earliest successful form for regular work. 
Examples of drills in use which employ the 
tappet valve are the Chicago Giant and the 
Climax drills. Referring to Fig. 4, the piston 
will be seen to have two enlarged portions. 
As shown in the illustration, the piston is just 
on the point of making the forward stroke, the 
valve V being in the position which allows 
live air to pass into the cylinder port P- and 
thence into a space behind the piston ; the 
front of the cylinder is in communication with 
the exhaust E through the port P t . When 
the piston has nearly reached the end of its 
stroke the raised portion lifts the rocker, 
which shunts the valve into the position for 
reversing the stroke of the piston. In the 
Giant drill illustrated the rocker and valve is 
actuated chiefly by the rear end of the piston ; 
while in the Climax either end operates the 



valve alternately. The tappet valve is posi- 
tive in action and it cannot readily stick. It 
is the only form which is equally suitable for 
air or steam, as in the spool valve the con- 
densation of the steam interferes with the ac- 
tion of the valve. Makers who use the spool 
valve in their air drills have for this reason to 
employ the tappet valve where steam is to be 
the motive power. On the other hand the 
tappet valve is more subject to breakages 
than the spool valve. 

The Corliss valve used in one form of the 
Wizard drill differs somewhat from the ordin- 
ary tappet valve. Two tappets are used and 
these, operated by inclined surfaces on the pis- 
ton, impart a rotary or turning motion to the 
valve. It is claimed that the quick and easy 
valve action obtained, combined with liberal 
port area, provides a means of changing rapidly 
from pressure to exhaust and so ensures rapid 
reversal of the piston. By this means a high 
velocity of operation is attained. 

The Spool VALVE. — An example of this 
form of valve is that used in the Siskoldrill. In 
Fig. 5 the piston is making its forward stroke. 
The valve is in the position which allows live air 
to pass down the port C into thecylinder D. At 




25 



Fig. 4. The Chicago Giant Drill, showing Tappet Valve. 




^P-^'. ~ ■■ | - .., 



-"' 



~ 1 



Fig. 5. The Siskol Drill, showing The Spool Valve. 



the same time air fromthefrontof thepiston es- 
capes through the port C 1 to the exhaust K, as 
shown by the arrows. Now the valve is held 
in this position because live air is pressing on 
the surface B 1 , while at the same time the end 
of the valve F 2 is connected with the exhaust 
K through the hole in the valve-spindle. The 
other end of the valve is also acted on by live 
air, but as the area here is less than the area 
at B, the valve is held. But as soon as the 
piston uncovers the port hole J live air rushes 
into the space B 1 , and as the total area sub- 
jected to the live-air pressure here is now 
greater than at B, the valve is forced over. A 
similar action takes place on the back stroke. 
The Sullivan Liteweight, Imperial, Holman 
cradle-hammer, and other drills use this type 
of valve. 

The Hardy-Simplex hammer-drill (Fig. 6) 
is much favoured for stone work in British 
coal and metalliferous mines and in quarrying. 
It is also being largely used abroad. The ac- 
tion is similar to that of other drills mentioned. 
The valve is a pressure-operated spool-valve, 
and owing to its short movement is very eco- 
nomical of air. 

The Auxiliary Valve. — This form of 
valve is to some extent an attempt to combine 



the outstanding points of the tappet and spool 
valves. The first drill to adopt auxiliary 
valve motion was the well known Sergeant 
machine now manufactured by the Ingersoll- 
Rand Company. In the Ingersoll-Sergeant 
drill, as in machines using the tappet valve, 
the piston is in two sizes. On the forward 
and on the backward strokes the piston strikes 
the auxiliary or trigger valve, which consists 
of a light arc-shaped piece of steel working in 
a groove and having one end or the other pro- 
jecting slightly into the cylinder, as shown in 
the figure (Fig. 7). As the piston raises this 
trigger valve, a small port is uncovered which 
allows pressure air to escape from one end of the 
spool valve, so that the valve is shot over into 
a position admitting live air into the opposite 
end of the cylinder from that which had just 
previously been connected with the pressure 
supply and putting that end now into com- 
munication with the exhaust. Other drills 
using a similar valve to that described are the 
Chicago Slogger and the Sullivan Hyspeed. 

Another well-known and highly successful 
drill using this principle is the Holman drill. 
The arrangement here, however, is sufficiently 
different from the others to warrant special 
mention. Two trigger or auxiliary valves are 



26 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 




Fig. 6. The Hardy-Simplex Drill, show Spool Valve. 



used. They consist of steel balls as shown in 
Fig. 8. The ball valve C is shown lifted off 
its seat and so allows the air in the end ol the 
valve chest at E to exhaust through the port 
shown between the upper and lower balls. 
At the same time the ball D is held down on 
its seat by the spring, and pressure air enter- 
ing the valve chest at F pushes the valve 
over, allows the air to obtain access through 
the port G to the upper end of the cylinder and 
air from the lower end of the cylinder to ex- 
haust through the port H. The enlarged parts 
of the piston operate the ball valves alternately, 
thus producing reversal of the valve. 

The Flap Valve. — The outstanding point 
about the flap or butterlly valve is its simplic- 
ity of design and action. It is employed in 
the Jackhamer and Leyner-Ingersoll hammer- 
drills and in some types of piston drills made 
by the Ingersoll-Rand Company. It is also 
used in the Meco hammer-drill. Thevalvecon- 
sists of a single piece of steel having two 
wings and oscillating on a central trunnion by 



the unbalancing of the air pressure on the 
wings. The action will be clearly understood 
from Fig. 9 on the opposite page. In the 
figure live air which enters at So passes to 
the rear of the piston and forces it forward. 
At the same time air from the front of the 
piston escapes at the other wing of the valve 
at l-i into the exhaust. When the piston has 
travelled far enough to uncover the other ex- 
haust port EEfl, live air passes through the lat- 
ter and acting on the lower wing of the valve 
balances the pressure on the upper wing. At 
the same time, however, the exhaust port E E , 
is covered by the piston and the compression 
of the imprisoned air in front of the piston 
throws over the valve. Fig. 10 shows the 
Jackhamer hammer-drill in which the flap 
valve is used. 

The Ball Valve. — This form of valve is 

used in the Flottmann hammer-drill and also 
in the Chicago Hummer, Stoper, and Gatling 
drills. The action will be understood from Fig. 
1 1. The valve consists of a hollow steel ball 




Fig. 7. The Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill, showing the Ai-xiliary Valve Motion. 



JULY, 1919 



27 




~^ 




Fig. 8. The Holman Auxiliary Valve. 



| in. diameter, and is specially hardened and 
ground. The bail works in a cage or chamber 
as shown in the figure. The air is obtaining 
access to the rear of the cylinder as shown by 
the arrows. This live air also presses on a 
portion of the surface of the left-hand half of 
the sphere, but the total pressure tending to 
force the ball to the right is less than the 
pressure acting towards the left, since the pres- 
sure acts over the whole of the surface of the 
right-hand half of the sphere. When the 
piston has moved far enough to uncover the 
exhaust ports, which are in the cylinder itself, 
the pressure is suddenly released from the 
right-hand side of the ball and the valve is shot 
over against the right-hand port exposing the 
left-hand port to the entry of live air. On the 
return stroke of the piston the operation is re- 
peated. The travel of the valve is only § in. 



This form of valve is simple, strong, tight, and 
not liable to stick. In the Climax Britannia 
hand hammer-drill a light tubular valve is used 
instead of a ball-valve. 

The Piston Valve. — The piston valve 
was one of the earliest forms. The Darling- 
ton drill, and subsequently the Adelaide, em- 
ployed this type of valve. They were, how- 




Fig. 9. 



The Ingersoll-Rand Butterfly or Flap 
Valve. 



f/fOIVT HIM SPRlHO ffS 

SSLf LOCK.'NC MOT 




NT &OTAT* O'V 






Fig. 10. The Ingersoll-Rand Jackhamer Drill. 



28 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 




Fig 11. The Ball \\i.\i 




>: ' - ^T^kk r —' 



Fig. 12 The Hi 

ever, feeble hitters, and for a time the principle 
of makingthe piston itsown valve fellintoabey- 
ance, to berevivedlater, however, in the Murphy 
hammer - drill and in various forms of sto- 
ping drills introduced during the last few years. 
The action is illustrated in Fig. 1 2, which refers 
to the Holman valveless stoping drill. The 
hammer or piston H is constructed in two 
diameters with a narrower portion between. 
The pressure air enters at A, fills the space be- 
tween the two portions of the hammer, and also 
gets behind the hammer, and the latter is shot 
forward. After a portion of the distance has 
been travelled the piston covers the inner end 
of the port B and the rest of the stroke is com- 
pleted by the expansion of air behind assisted 
by the live air acting on the difference in the 
two diameters of the piston. When the port 
D is uncovered the air is exhausted. Shortly 
afterwards the port C is uncovered and pres- 
sure air gets to the front of the piston and 
the return stroke commences. On C being 
again closed the air works behind the piston 



expansively and towards 
the end of the stroke ex- 
hausts through E. 

The A i r - F eed 
Drill. — This class of 
drill is a comparatively 
recent development. It 
is specially designed for 
work in the stopes. The 
forward feed of the drill 
during boring is perform- 
ed automatically by the 
pressure of the supply 
air on the end of a tube 
which fits and slides in- 
side another cylinder, 
(see F, Fig. J). Theoper- 
ator is thus relieved of 
the strain and trouble of 
keeping the drill up to 
rk. The rotation is 
by hand, i g. hows 
one form of the drill by 
in Brothers. The 
Climax Company make 
two forms, the Hydro 
max and the Hydromite 
drills, in both of which a 
waterfiush is used. 

The Hardy Patent Pick 
Co., Ltd.,hasrecently in- 
troduced a telescopic air- 
feed hammer - drill spe- 
cially designed for 
in stopes, drifts, and rises. 
The drill, known as the 
Water-Jack, is shown in 
Fig. 13. It possesses 
several features similar 
to other drills of the air- 
feed pattern. The valve 
is of the air-thrown spool 
type, and rotation is by 
hand. An anvil block is 
interposed between the 
piston and the drill steel, 
a feature which is em- 
ployed in the other air- 
feed hammer-drills men- 
tioned above. Water is 
fed under pressure 
through the anvil and 
thence through the drill 
steel to the bottom of the 
bore hole. For relative- 
ly light work these drills 
give excellent results. 

(To be continued). 





View of Gull Lake from Tough-Oakes. 



THE KIRKLAND LAKE GOLDFIELD. 

By H. H. JOHNSON, M.Inst. M.M. 

The author, who is visiting the district in the interests of the Kirkland Lake Proprietary, 
gives his opinion on its prospects. 



IN the midst of the general activity which is 
being manifested in mining development in 
Northern Ontario, Kirkland Lake stands 
out prominently in the foreground to-day. To 
anyone who has not been in close touch with the 
field during the whole war period, it is certainly 
surprisingly interesting to see the progress 
which has taken place in those years of diffi- 
culty, due to lack of adequate transport facili- 
ties, labour, and stores. It is evident, how- 
ever, that one factor has never been lacking by 
those on the spot, and that is confidence. 

There is now a continuous stretch of 2\ 
miles, from the west end of Gull Lake to the 
west of Kirkland Lake, of gold mines in all 
stages of active operations, while the width of 
the belt is expanding to at least half a mile. 
The properties most concerned at the moment 
are briefly as follows from east to west : 
Tough-Oakes, 120 ton mill, developing ; Burn- 
side, 30 ton mill, developing; Sylvanite, de- 
veloping ; Black, developing ; Ontario Kirk- 
land, developing ; Hudson Bay, developing; 
Wright-Hargreaves, 200 ton mill in prepara- 
tion, developing; Lake Shore, 60 ton mill, 
running ; Minaker, developing ; Teck-Hughes, 
100 ton mill, running; Kirkland Porphyry, 
developing; Kirkland Lake (Beaver) 150 ton 
mill, running; Elliot-Kirkland, developing. 
Farther to the west the Mclvor is developing, 
under the auspices of the Lake Shore, and in 
addition to those mentioned there are a number 



of properties north and south of them which are 
being opened up. 

The Provincial Government having decided 
to provide improved means of transport from 
the railway at Swastika, the local inhabitants 
were recently asked to state their opinion as to 
which would meet their requirements best, a 
branch railway six miles long with two stations 
and a service of one train a day, or a good ma- 
cadam road suitable for motor-lorry traffic. 
The latter was almost unanimously asked, so 
the Hon. G. H. Ferguson, Minister of Lands, 
Forests, and Mines, after a personal investiga- 
tion, promptly authorized its construction at 
an estimated cost of $75,000, and work has al- 
ready been commenced. This will undoubt- 
edly prove a great incentive to further work on 
outlying claims. Judging by the way motor 
traffic is competing with the railway on short 
hauls, its flexibility, and facility for delivering 
freight and passengers to their own doors, it is 
likely that this road will be the forerunner of 
a large programme of permanent high-road 
construction in the North Countrv. 

Like the experience in most mining camps 
it is becoming apparent that many of the early 
ideas, amounting almost to dogmas, concerning 
the occurrence of the ore-bodies have to be con- 
siderably modified in the light of actual ex- 
perience, and it is now possible to form opinions 
which closely fit the facts. 

It is clear that the intrusions of felspar and 



29 



30 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



quartz-porphyry into the sedimentaries have 
been both the cause of the fracturing and the 
media from which the mineral-bearingsolutions 
were derived. But there has also been later 
faulting of considerable magnitude where no 
appreciable ore deposition has taken place, if 
one neglects the occasional occurrence of brec- 
ciated ore in the fault-filling. This is well il- 
lustrated by the so-called east and west mud- 
seam which has been proved for long distances 
and has been driven on for hundreds of feet 
without finding ore. Probably there are 
several such seams, though it has been com- 
monly assumed that wherever found it is one 
and the same. Again, the main north and 
south fault on the Tough-Oakes appears to 
produce a horizontal displacement of 350 ft., 
besides a considerable vertical movement, 
while no gold values are met with on it, nor as 
a rule in its immediate vicinity. 

There has also been a subsequent period of 
ore deposition to these faults, however, as is 
proved by veins in some instances going con- 
tinuously through the faults without displace- 
ment. There seemsgood reason to classify the 
veins as a whole into two series, an older and 
younger, the former being perhaps most closely 
related to the porphyry and generally the 
richer, although good values are found in both. 

So far, development has demonstrated that 
veins have quite frequently improved in depth, 
this being particularly the case at the Lake 
Shore and Kirkland Lake mines, down respec- 
tively 400 and 700 ft. ; and also that blind veins 
exist, or at leastonly outcrop in lakes or swamps 
where there is no chance of finding them. 

It is improbable that individual veins have 
the continuity of strike that was sometimes 
claimed for them in earlier days, and certainly 
the ore occurs in fairly well defined payshoots. 



On the other hand the old idea of there being 
one definite line of ore-body is completely dis- 
proved by the series of veins found paralleling 
oneanotheracrossmore than 2,400 ft. of country 
at fairly close intervals, while over wider gaps 
encouraging veins are found two milesand more 
to the north in the Goodfish Lake vicinity. 

Mining methods have greatly impro\ed. 
Settled development policies are being carried 
out instead of merely applying the original 
Cobalt method of gouging out high-grade as 
soon as struck, a method which suited that field 
at the time quite well. As an instance one 
might mention the Lake Shore mine, where 
from 60% to 70 % of the mill rock comes from 
development faces, and the average recovery 
is about $24 per ton. 

The surface plants are uniformly of a high 
order of substantial design and efficient work. 
The general practice is stage crushing, ball- 
milling, tube-milling, and counter-current cya- 
n illation. Electric power has almost entirely 
superseded steam, the cost of the former being 
about $50 per h.p. per annum, basedon400 h.p. 
average load, the load factor being over 70%. 

Labour is now quite plentiful and wages are 
high, and with the rapidly growing town of 
Kirkland Lake with its organized municipality 
the district bids fair to be one of the most pros- 
perous in Northern Ontario. 

Since Colonel Johnson sent us the forego- 
ing article, his report made for the Kirkland 
Lake Proprietary Company as to the advis- 
ability of effecting an amalgamation with the 
Tough-Oakes, Burnside, and Sylvanite com- 
panies has been published. A brief resume of 
the recommendations in this report is given in 
Review of Mining," together with an outline 
map of the properties and their neighbours. — 
Editor.] 




The Lake Shore Mine 



FOUR YEARS AS A PRISONER OF WAR 

By J. C. FARRANT. 

(Continued from the June issue, page 353). 

The author continues his account of the treatment of Prisoners of War sent by the Ger- 
mans to Kurland, Russia. 



There were 469 of us in this building at Erb- 
sen Krug, with three flights of stairs and two 
narrow exits. Fire alarms were practised. 
Seven minutes was the quickest time recorded 
for clearing the place. Fortunately a fire never 
occurred here. There were five carbide lamps, 
so most of the rooms had none other than home- 
made lights. These lights consisted of an Oxo 
tin, a strip of shirt, and dripping. It broke our 
hearts to burn dripping, but there was no alter- 
native, as candles were unobtainable. We of- 
fered to buy carbide lamps, but we were told 
that there was insufficient carbide. During 
most of the eighteen months we were in Rus- 
sia, we were compelled to supply our own light 
in the manner above described, except when 
we were at Libau. 

January 7, 1917. Temperature zero. :: 
Camp routine : Parade 7 a.m. pitch dark, men 
worked till 3 p.m., and returned for soup at 
4 p.m. The work consisted of building a light 
railway to connect up the various villages and 
towns. There was no doctor here, only a Ger- 
man sanitat. Serious cases were despatched 
by sleigh to Libau. This meant a 25 mile 
drive in an open sleigh to Hasenforth the near- 
est station. 

January 9. Lager III. burnt to the ground ; 
the men lost all their kit and food. 

January 10. I made a bet with Jerry Now- 
land that peace would be signed bv January 1, 
1918. 

January 17. 10° below zero, several men 
brought back to lager with frost bite. 

January 20. Inspecting German Captain 
came from Libau. Chief Petty Officer Bacon 
and P. O. Picton-Warlow wereordered in front 
of the Captain. I went as well to know why 
the money sent from home six months ago had 
not reached me. The Captain asked if there 
were any complaints ; a large number of com- 
plaints was made. The complaint or rather 
question which abruptly terminated the inter- 
view was the following : Q. Is this a punish- 
ment Kommando, as all men who do wrong 
at Libau are sent here ? A. By German mili- 
tary code such a question from a prisoner of 
war is forbidden. We were then dismissed. 



* The degrees of temperature recorded in these notes have been 
converted to Fahrenheit scale from the actual Centigrade readings 
taken by the writer. 



After the Captain's visit a German doctor 
visited the camp twice weekly. Water for 
the camp was supplied from a well. The pump 
was continually breaking down, and on many 
occasions we were reduced to molten snow for 
drinking purposes. 

January 22. Warmer. 15 degrees of frost. 
Bisset, of R.N.V.R., Clyde Division, was kick- 
ed and struck with bayonet by Dolmetcher M. 
Bisset had reported sick. M. ordered him to 
work. Bisset refused and was handled as 
above. His only " offence " was that he wish- 
ed to see the doctor. Bisset handed in later 
a written statement of this affair to the Ger- 
man Lieutenant. Although bloodwas drawn the 
the wound was not serious. The general atti- 
tude for this German interpreter was such that 
the camp was in a state of mutiny on Janu- 
ary 28 and some of the N.C.O's drafted a letter 
to the Lieutenant. On January 29 M. was trans- 
ferred to guard duty, which made life in the 
lager more tolerable. 

February 1 . New routine. Reveille 5 a.m., 
coffee 5.30., parade 6.15., work 6.30., finish 4 
p.m.; men took lunch with them. 

February 2. 10 degrees below zero. All 
men recalled at 10 o'clock, 40 men frost-bitten 
and some of the guards. 

February 3. Fell in one hour later. Whole 
party recalled at midday on account of cold. 
Several more cases of frost bites among men 
and guards. 

During the very cold spells it was impossible 
to work, as the ground was like iron. There 
were very few guards up in this Godforsaken 
place, about 1 guard to 35 men, and this short- 
age of guards was very neatly turned to ac- 
count. As before mentioned, the work con- 
sisted of levelling ground for a light railway, 
the engineers laying out the line ahead of our 
working parties. There was a good deal of 
cutting and filling, but when it came to rilling, 
the men, when opportunity offered, started fill- 
ing upwithlumps of iceandsnowcoveringthese 
with a good layer of earth. 

Our men left this region in the spring of 
1917, and in the summer when those chunks 
of ice had melted the greater part of the pris- 
oner of war's work had to be done over again, 
as the line in that section was more like a 
miniature switch back. Ever since we had 



31 



32 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



been in Russia we worked 6h days a week, 
and every Sunday afternoon there was a parade 
of some kind or other. The Mutiny Act was 
read by the Lieutenant once a month. The 
amount of leisure time was confined to the 
evenings, about 2 hours, as we had to be in 
bed by 9 p.m. These Sunday afternoon par- 
ades were intensely annoying, as it was the 
only time the men had for washing their 
clothes. It was all part of the " reprisal." 

February 20. Our red-letter day, though 
we didn't know it until later. The 100 K.N.D. 
men attached to this Company were told off to 
pack all their gear. This made our fifteenth 
move since leaving Doberitz. At 10 a.m. we 
paraded. Each man received half a loat i 
two days. We were offered uncooked horse 
lights as well, but we did not accept them, a^ 
we still had some food from the parcels sent 
from home. We set off at 10.30 a.m. Our 
packs were loaded on sleighs. Three men 
with frost-bitten toes also rode on sleighs. 

We reached lager II. at 5 p.m. where the 
"mad 500" (British Tommies from Mi'mster 
lager) were installed. It was bitterly cold in 
the barn. The thermometer stood at zero on 
the wall outside, and it wasn't much above in- 
side. Many men walked up and down all night 
as it was too cold to sleep. I turned in with the 
sanitats, who had a stove m their room. In 
spite of the cold the boys of No. II Company 
turned out their band and gave us a concert. 
They played with overcoats and scarves on, 
and were alternately stamping their feet and 
blowing on their fingers. The men at this la- 
ger had previously had their instruments taken 
away from them for refusing to play on some 
German feast-day when requested by the Ger- 
man kommandant. The concert given in our 
honour was the first since the occasion cited 
above. This was the first music we had heard 
since we left Doberitz and we just did appre- 
ciate it. 

We reached Libau at midnight on Febuary 
21. On the 23rd., 20 volunteers were called 
for to load up packs at the station. I made 
one of the party. When we arrived at the 
station we were told off to load provisions and 
furniture. Among the provisions was a 15 
litre jar of rum. As soon as this was loaded 
m the railway truck a sentry was put in the 
truck to guard it. 

Our party consisted mostly of North Sea 
fishermen, and they were all old " Gefangs." 
Two or three of them started an earnest con- 
versation with the guard and English cigar- 
ettes were offered and accepted. As soon as 
one topic was finished another was started. 



Meanwhile the others were busy with the jar 
which was in one corner. It was quite dark- 
inside the truck and an empty 5 lb. jam tin was 
filled not once but many times without detec- 
tion. Different men engaged the guard in con- 
versation, in order to give each man a fair 
chance. By the time the guard tumbled to the 
game several of the party were well '' alight," 
and as we were all to entrain the same even- 
ing for Mitau, the question of reporting the 
matter didn't disturb us. 

We returned to the lager about 6.30 p.m. 
and paraded immediately; at s p.m. 600 men 
left the lager and entrained at Libau. 500 
disentrained at Mitau on the next day, while 
our party of 100 went on to Ekau. 

February 25. We marched 17 kilometres 
in a blizzard, and arrived at Reiskatte at 2 p.m. 
red a barbed wire enclosure in which 
were two or three dugouts. Over the gate a 
sign bore the words " Vergeltung Lager" (Re- 
prisal Camp). We were kept on parade for 
>urs in the snow. New numbers were 
given us and our kits searched. We were then 
told to go into the dugouts, and as usual we 
were overcrowded. 

February 26. We paraded at 6 a.m. The 
lieutenant in charge announced through an in- 
terpreter that we 100 men would be sent daily 
into the trenches to work, as German prisoners 
of war were employed by the British in their 
trenches. While they continued to keep Ger- 
man prisoners under shell fire so long should we 
be kept here. Further a man or men would 
be shot upon the slightest provocation 
ringste Gegenstandigkeit). We were then told 
to write home and state that we were in the 
German tiring line. The lager was about 5 
kilometres from the first line. 

We were then split into two groups of 40 and 
60. The 60 party, which was the day shift, 
left the lager at 6. 1 5 a.m. Our party of 40 left 
at 4 p.m. and met the others returning, who 
said that they had bsen under firemostof theday 
but no casualties. We arrived at the third line 
at 6 p.m., where we were given shovels. A 
lieutenant addressed our guards, telling them 
we were on no account to cease working, and 
rubbing it in that the German prisoners were 
receiving brutal treatment in the British lines. 

The first night's work consisted of shovel- 
ling snow out of the third line, which was com- 
pletely filled. The first lines of German 
trenches were, in this section, from 50 to 300 
yards from the Russian line. The second Ger- 
man trench was 200 yards from the first, and 
the third trench 200 yards from the second. 
The place had once been a forest, but shell fire 



JULY, 1919 



33 



had swept it clean. 

We returned to the lager at 3 a.m. tired out. 
We had been away from the lager . 1 1 hours. 
The Germans weren't content with this, for 
the next morning the night party had to do an 
hour's camp fatigue from 10 to 11 a.m. 

March 7. At Point 111/35, 50 yards from 
first line, 150 yards from Russian line, pulling 
sleighs loaded with timbers, frequently had to 
take shelter from machine-gun fire. German 
soldiers in trenches bore us no malice, and 
were surprised that we should be working here. 

March 2. Our party carrying " bird cages" 
weighing about 3001b., two men to a "bird 
cage," having to carry them 1 kilometre, usually 
done with five rests. They cut our shoulders, 
and it was the most straining work I have ever 
done. These bird cages, as we called them, 
were about 18 ft. long, and consisted of a 4 in. 
pole with wooden crosses at each end and one 
in the centre, round which barbed wire was 
wound. They were about 5 ft. high, and were 
used to repair the barbed wire entanglement. 
We walked 25 kilometres between 4 p.m. and 
2.30 a.m., carrying from 6 p.m. till 1 a.m. We 
had to keep moving to prevent frost bite, but 
my linger was bitten in spite of that. 

March 3. Below zero. We were in the 
second line, and were stamping our feet for six 
solid hours. The ground was like iron. We 
couldn't work. We were supposed to trim off 
corners and level off the bottom. The guards 
were dancing up and down as well. They 
were relieved every two hours. A Russian 
machine gunner had located us, so we had to 
keep our heads down. 

March 5. Day shift called 5.15. Coffee 
(for want of a better name as it was made from 
burnt barley and other stuff) 5.45. Fell in 
6.15. Trenches at 8 a.m. Four of us were 
digging a hole for a rubbish shoot. The picks 
were blunt, and we didn't pick two barrowfuls 
all day. Scott, one of the party, was cursing 
the cold and things in general with vehement 
bitterness, when his pick fell out of his hands 
and down he went from exhaustion. I went 
over to him, but he was motionless. I asked 
the guard to let us take him into a dugout. 
He merely shrugged his shoulders and said 
" Esgeht nicht." While I was expostulating 
with the guard a German N.C.O. came up and 
he allowed us to take Scott into a dugout where 
he thawed out. He was helped back to the 
lager when we returned. 

Just after we had taken Scott in, our little 
party was subjected toabout 20 rounds. They 
were bursting unpleasantly close. The guard 
was alright, in the lee of a substantial dugout, 
1—5 



but we were in the open, but that guard wouldn't 
let us get shelter until the same N.C.O. came 
out of a dugout and ordered the guard to take 
us to an " Unterstand," that is a specially con- 
structed shelter, until the firing was over. 

March 7. We were searched for diaries and 
some were found. We were now beginning 
to feel the effect of insufficient nourishment as 
all the food we had brought with us had been 
eaten. We were strictly on German rations, 
which were 2/5ths of a 3 lb. loaf per day per 
man. This was the only solid food we had. 
Coffee substitute was served at 5.30 a.m., and 
soup at night. What soup it was ! consisting 
of dried vegetable or pigeon peas, or horse 
beans. Theamount of solids in the soup never 
amounted to more than two or three spoonsful. 
Twice a week we were supposed to have meat. 
The meat was boiled in the copper, but before 
we drew our soup the solid meat was fished out, 
and cut up, and divided among the guards. 
The same graft was carried on with the jam, a 
large portion being scooped out from our issue 
for the guards. We never had potatoes. 

March 11 . (Sunday). We had all looked for- 
ward to thisday forarest, and to mend and wash 
our things, but we were disappointed. We 
were called at 5 a.m. and were kept shovelling 
snow till 11 a.m., returned to lager for soup at 
4 p.m. We were marched to trenches and 
worked till 2 a.m., returning to lager at 3.30 
a.m., badly done up. One man collapsed. It 
was the coldest night yet, 10° below zero. 
From my knees down my legs were numb for 
11 hours. We had been working for nearly 
20 hours. 

March 12. On account of an alleged entry 
made in C's diary to the effect that we were 
working sixteen hours a day, the actual work- 
ing hours were extended as punishment for re- 
cording incorrect statements. Theguardswere 
lectured and their attitude to us from now on 
was distinctly hostile, as they had to partici- 
pate in the longer period. 

The actual time at night in the trenches was 
from 6 p.m. till 2 a.m. No matter if the work- 
was finished ornot, onehourpause was allowed. 
By orders issued we were not allowed in the 
German dugouts, and to stand in the trenches 
for an hour without working meant getting 
frost-bitten. Inordertoprevent this we worked 
straight on, but the damned swine wouldn't 
allow us to leave an hour earlier. So while 
this bitter weather continued we worked an 
extra hour. The guards were doing an hour 
on and an hour off, going to warm dugouts for 
their stand easy. 

{To be continued). 



34 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



NEWS LETTERS. 

CAMBORNE. 

Nationalization of Coal Industry. — 
Now that, as anticipated, the Coal Industry 
Commission has reported in favour of the 
nationalization of the country's coal industry, 
it is for the non-ferrous mining industry of 
the West of England to express a considered 
opinion as to whether nationalization, if adop- 
ted by Parliament, is likely to result in the 
maintenance, or, as seems probable, in an in- 
crease in existing coal prices, with its resultant 
serious effect on the mining of non-ferrous 
metals. The Cornish Chamber of Mines took 
no steps to present evidence before the Com- 
mission as to the relation of high coal prices to 
working costs of the tin mines, although great 
stress has properly been laid by the representa- 
tives of Cornish companies, when the financial 
results have been laid before the shareholders, 
of the great burden which the much increased 
price for coal has involved. This inaction m 
such an important matter is much to be de- 
plored. A Chamber of Mines is essentially an 
organization to protect the interests of themine 
operator, and no opportunity should be lo^t in 
combating all movements which will increase 
working costs without any offsetting benefit. 
The same apathy seems likely to prevent the 
presentation of evidence before the Income 
Tax Commission, now sitting, as to the present 
unfairness of the incidence of income tax on 
mines, a really very important matter to many 
Cornish mines. However, the point now to be 
considered is whether the non-ferrous mining 
industry is likely to be unfavourably affected 
by the nationalization of the coal industry, and, 
if so, steps should be at once taken to join in 
the opposition movement which is now being 
organized. Soon it may be too late, and then 
lamentations and protests will be useless. At 
the time of writing, a further rise in the price 
of coal is threatened by the coal owners ; how 
it is to be met by most of the mines in Corn- 
wall is a conundrum which it is by no means 
easy to solve. 

There can be little doubt, whatever the fate 
of the proposal to nationalize the coal industry 
may be, that the Government will decide on 
the purchase by the State of the coal royalties 
of the country, seeing that publicopiniongener- 
ally is in favour of this step. It might now be 
considered whether it would not be wise to ad- 
vocate the purchase by the State of all miner- 
als. Much capital has been kept out of the 
West of England by the onerous and often un- 
reasonable conditions laid down by some of the 



mineral owners who, not infrequently, are un- 
willing to take any monetary risks, but insist 
on a royalty whether the mine is being opera- 
ted at a profit or not. The substitution of the 
State for the privateowner could — if the people 
so willed — enable the principle of "no profits, 
no dues " to be adopted, and some of the iniqui- 
tous conditions now insisted on by certain own- 
ers to be abolished. Besides, too, the State 
would be concerned to see its mineral wealth 
exploited, and might therefore not be indis- 
posed to join financially in drainage and de- 
velopment schemes, as is not unknown in the 
Colonies. It is a large question, but one which 
might with advantage be considered jointly by 
the organizations which represent the metal 
mines in this country. 

Ti iiinv Minerals, Ltd. — The statutory 
report of this company shows that the whole 
of the 40,000 shares of £\ each offered for 
public subscription in February last were taken 
up, and already it appears that a detailed ex- 
amination of this large and important mineral 
area, situated in the heart of the Mining di- 
vision, has been made by I>r. Malcolm Mac- 
laren, the eminent geologist, and by Mr. \Y. 
A. Mai leod, who both are much impressed by 
its great potentialities from the mining stand- 
point. See plan in another part of this issue. 
— Editi >k. The greater part of the estate has 
already been extensively mined, and the faith 
of the engineers is based on the fact that the 
lodes hitherto worked have, in the main, only 
been worked in the killas, whereas experience 
has proved that their mineral content increases 
in richness in the granite. A recent and ex- 
cellent illustration of this is shown in the case 
of the famous Rogers lode at East Pool & 
Agar, which was poor in the killas. The granite 
throughout the estate will be met with at a 
depth not unreasonable for exploitation ; the 
extreme limit is given at 338 fathoms. It is 
fairly evident that lateral development from 
shafts now in use and below the bottom of the 
old workings will be the plan of exploitation 
adopted ; the capital cost of pumping out the 
accumulation of water makes that method pro- 
hibitive. The /"40.000 provided will not go 
far to prove this large area, but there are 
powerful financial groups behind the company 
who can doubtless provide the wherewithal if 
conditions and results so justify. 

Tin and Tungsten Research. — Re- 
cently there was published in the Western 
Morning News some correspondence between 
a Mr. C. G. Bateman and the Research Board, 
from which it appears that the former claimed 
to be able to demonstrate a new process or 



JULY, 1919 



35 



method which would give a much improved 
extraction of tin and wolfram, but a condition 
precedent to such demonstration anddisclosure 
of the process was that, if proved successful, 
he should be paid a " permanent retaining fee 
of ,0,000 per annum and an additional ^100 
per annum in respect of every one per cent, 
improvement over 10 per cent, in the increased 
amount of tin and wolfram concentrates ob- 
tained." The Board were unable to agree to 
this on the ground that "their resources and 
their work are likely to terminate within a limi- 
ted period," and they suggested that Mr. Bate- 
man should secure provisional protection by 
means of patenting his process. This he is not 
content to do, because he "attaches little value 
to patents " owing to the costly litigation which 
a patentee is often involved in to protect his 
patent. It is, of course, true that a patent is 
but an invitation to litigation, and it seems a 
pity that some plan cannot be devised by the 
Board to guarantee that an inventor shall sub- 
stantially benefit if his process is really worth 
adoption. Whether Mr. Bateman's process 
will do what he claims for it is another story ; 
inventors are usually optimistic people. He 
definitely states that it isnot aflotation process. 

State Aid for Cornish Mines. — The 
memorandum on this subject prepared by Mr. 
F. D. Acland,M.P.,for submission to the War 
Cabinet, referred to in the last issue, has now 
been published, but no new points have been 
made, except that special emphasis is laid on 
the " ugly industrial position in West and 
North Cornwall " likely to be created if some- 
thing more than the unemployment dole is not 
provided by the Government. Mr. Acland's 
principal suggestion is that, pending the long 
promised inquiry, the Government should pro- 
vide financial assistance by means of " advan- 
ces against realizable assets and to taking a 
definite share in approved development work." 

The decision of the Government was com- 
municated by letter dated June 25, 1919: 
With reference to the previous communica- 
tions on the subject of assistance to the Cornish 
Tin Mining Industry, I am directed by the 
Board of Trade to inform you that it has now 
been decided that there shall be an inquiry 
into the whole position of the Non -Ferrous 
Mining Industry of the United Kingdom with 
a view to deciding if the industry can be placed 
on a satisfactory commercial footing ; and that 
in the meantime, in order to enable mining 
operations to continue, His Majesty's Govern- 
ment shall make advances to approved mines 
up to an amount somewhat below the break- 
ing-up value of their plant and machinery as 



established by independent valuation, such loans 
to bear interest and to be repayable in a short 
term of years, and the offer of such advances 
to be open only until the report of the inquiry 
has been received and a decision taken there- 
on. I am to add that the Board of Trade will 
be glad to receive at an early date applications 
for such advances. The applications should 
be in each case for a definite amount and 
should be accompanied by a detailed statement 
of the financial position of the applicant com- 
pany and of the security offered, together with 
such information as to the condition and pros- 
pects of the mine in question as is likely to 
assist the Board in arriving at a decision. I 
shall be glad if you will communicate the con- 
tents of this letter to the interests concerned." 
This decision does little to advance matters, 
because already money can be obtained locally 
on the security of fhe break-up value of the 
machinery. 

Geevor. — The report of Mr. J. M. lies on 
this mine, referred to briefly in the last issue, 
has now been published, and he states that 
although he had formed a high opinion of the 
value of the property on a previous visit, the 
development since has very much strengthened 
that opinion, and he records his view that a 
very small amount of further development will 
justify increasing the plant for the treatment 
of a much larger monthly tonnage than the 
4,000 tons of ore which the mill now being 
completed will handle. He figures that by 
milling 4,000 tons per month, 60 tons of tin 
concentrate should be produced, and if this 
result materializes, as appears likely from the 
value of the ore reserves, then Geevor will 
rank as the third largest producer in Cornwall. 

Demand for Increased Wages. — The 
demand for increased wages for all classes of 
mine employees put forward recently by the 
Workers' Union can hardly be unexpected, al- 
though probably the extent of the increases 
demanded, particularly those for surface work- 
ers, is a matter for surprise. Indeed it is not 
too much to say that, in the present parlous 
state of the industry, the demands are absurd, 
and it is out of the question for the mine-own- 
ers to meet them. The officials of the Workers' 
Union are quite aware of this; they know per- 
fectly well that few mines in Cornwall are even 
meeting costs, much less earning dividends, 
and that with tin metal at less than ^"280 per 
ton, only abnormally rich or shallow tin mines 
in the West of England can even "clear their 
heels" under existing conditions. This being 
so, one can only assume that this is a move by 
the Union to force the Government to finan- 



36 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



cially assist the industry toenable higher wages 
to be paid. It has long been conceded, for in- 
stance, that the surface workers are underpaid, 
taking into consideration the existing cost of 
living ; indeed it will be recalled that the depu- 
tation from the Joint Industrial Council, which 
waited on the Parliamentary Secretary of the 
Board of Trade on January 30 last, pointed 
out that the abnormal conditions caused by the 
war had prevented the worker from being paid 
a wage adequate to meet the increased cost of 
living. If this is not the explanation, then it 
must be assumed that the demands have been 
drawn with a view to allowing some latitude 
for a compromise. It is not difficult to fore- 
shadow what will happen if the Union refuses 
to recede from the position taken up. The 
mine owners, being unable to meet the in- 
creases demanded, however much they might 
like to, will refuse, and this will bring about a 
strike. Industrial strife is about the only thing 
which will make the present Government move, 
and so a strike will probably have the effect of 
hastening the promised inquiry. 

To return to the demand of the l" ni< in . 1 
out below a brief summary of the claim : 

Rock drillers on develop- 
ment 15s. per shift minimum 

Rock drillers on stoping 13s. 6d. 

Allotherclassesof under- 
ground work 12s. 6d. ,, 

Allotherclasses(under 16 

years of age) 25s per week rising to 30s. 

after one year 

In the case of afternoon shifts, five shifts to 
count as six. ( )vertime at the rate of time 
and a half for ordinary days ; double time for 
Sundays and public holiday-. 

Surface Mechanics 1- Sd. per hour minimum 
Engine drivers d. ,, ,. 

All others (men) In 4d 

Boys starting at 14 years 

of age 18s. per week- 
Women 30s 

(iirls (under 18 years of 

age) 20s 

Hours of ordinary surface workers to be 44 
per week, shift workers 48. Overtime on the 
same basis as underground workers (see above) . 
Those working continuously running machin- 
ery to be paid for all meal hours. 

It has been figured in the case of one large 
mine working in the Camborne district, that 
these demands equal 7s. per ton of ore milled. 

Grenville. — It is understood that this 
company will shortly be reconstructed, suf- 
ficient new capital being provided to pay off 
the existing bank mortgage, and for the vig- 
orous development of the property. The new 
manager is Mr. J. Nile. 



NORTH OF ENGLAND. 
Lead and Zinc. — The outlook is no brighter 

than a month ago. Everything is still in a 
state of suspense. Consternation prevails. So 
far the applications that have been made to 
the Board of Trade have been without result. 
No answer can be obtained : and the time is 
fast approaching when the mines will have to 
close down or run without any assistance what- 
ever to pay the war wages. A number of the 
mines, I understand, are still waiting on, in the 
hope that some satisfactory reply may be forth- 
coming. The Lead and Zinc Mining Associa- 
tion has, in fact, recommended their members 
to take no irrevocable step. This is undoubt- 
edly sound advice, for, after all, Sir Auckland 
Geddes on May 30 did definitely promise that 
the decision of the Government should be com- 
municated to owners. It is true that the 
anxious inquiries of mine managers have elici- 
ted no response. Hut there is just the chance 
that no news may be good news. Hope need 
not be abandoned until it is crushed. What, 
however, does the Go\ eminent expect to hap 
pen in the industi 

PROFIT-SHARING. At one of the mines, I 
understand, a long conference took place be- 
tween the Union officials and the management 
concerning a profit-sharing scheme that had 
been submitted by the owners. The company 
had been led to believe that the Union would 
welcome some method of profit-sharing if the 
basis were such as would not jeopardize the 
standard rates of pay to which they are appar- 
ently determined to adhere come what may. 
men seemed to realize that working costs 
must include a proper charge for depreciation, 
and the scheme had on the whole a good recep- 
tion. I have had access to the scheme, whi< h 
appears to meet any difficulties and objections 
raised by the Union. It is essential that such a 
scheme must be distinguished by simplicity, and 
the scheme of which I write undoubtedly exhib- 
its that feature. The first thing to doisto ascer- 
tain the average monthly working costs, which 
must include wages, materials, carriage, office 
expenses, royalty, salaries, insurances, and an 
agreed fixed charge for depreciation, but ex- 
cluding of course income tax and capital ex- 
penditure. Afterthat has to be determined the 
average monthly revenue from sales of concen- 
trates, excluding rents receivable and interest 
upon investments. The division of the cost 
by theaverage price gives the tons which should 
be raised to meet the working costs. 1 he 
actual output is known, and the excessof actual 
tons of output above the output needed to bal- 
ance working costs would be profit tons on 



JULY, 1919 



37 



which £3> per ton would be paid to the men. 
At the mine in question the charges consist of 
a wages bill plus all accounts for materials pur- 
chased during the month. No monthly stock- 
taking is carried out because with an average 
of six months the figures are sufficiently ac- 
curate. In the event of especially large pur- 
chases of, say, timber, the item is spread over 
three months in order to avoid violent fluctua- 
tions of costs. A bonus of £3 per ton on profit 
tons, would probably suffice to yield the men an 
increase of anything from 8d. to Is. 6d. per 
shift. A question that might be raised is : 
would it be possible for men working the re- 
duced number of hours per week to get the out- 
put necessary to bring profit tons ? The merit 
of the scheme is that it arouses the sporting 
instinct of the men. Imagine the interest 
which would be taken in a large chart exhibited 
at the mine on which are shown two graphs, 
one representing the tons to meet costs, and 
the other representing actual outputs. The 
narrowing of the gap between the two graphs 
and the gradual overhauling of the profit graph 
would surely stimulate the workpeople to such 
exertion as they were never before responsible 
for. Who that recollects the devicesemployed 
to produce record War Loans can doubt that 
seeing clearly how by the expenditure of extra 
energy they can benefit themselves the work- 
people would have a new interest stirred in their 
work ? It would not necessarily mean, as mine 
managers well know, that satisfactory results 
were to be obtained wholly by severe labour. 
The gap between the two graphs could be de- 
creased partially by the mere act of starting 
promptly, and working until the expiration of 
the allotted time. The taking of an intelligent 
interest intheir work would initself substantial- 
ly raise the workman's production. And more 
than this, it lies largely within the power of the 
men to bring down working costs. How much 
might not be saved by the care of tools, and 
economy in the use of explosives and other ma- 
terial ? The stoppage of careless waste would 
play apart in bringing thetwographs nearerthe 
other. How much waste of ore in stopes could 
not be avoided by men keen on producing profit 
tons? Every ton lost in cutting fresh ground 
before every particle of ore in the old ground 
was recovered, the miners would know, would 
enlarge the gap. Once get the men interested 
in the chart, and the efficiency of the mine 
would mount rapidly no less in the office, in the 
dressing department, in the fitters' and black- 
smiths' shops, than in the workings of the 
mine. For all about the place would partici- 
pate in the profit-sharing, from the clerk to the 



miner. Once the benefits began to be derived 
it is improbable that the workmen themselves 
would tolerate slackness on the part of any of 
theirfellows. The authorof this scheme would 
like the foremen to have double bonus, and he 
is even sanguine that if adopted and proved 
sound and satisfactory, it might lead eventually 
to the extinction of contracts. This letting of 
contracts is a hopeless system. It leads to 
endless friction, and resolves itself mainly into 
prolonged haggling over terms which engenders 
friction and breeds suspicion. Onestrong point 
about the scheme is that it settles all dispute 
about the price of metal. As the price goes 
up fewer tons are needed to raise the output 
above the profit-ton line ; as the price falls a 
greater production must be forthcoming for the 
bonus to be earned. I hope to give details of 
the scheme in a later report. 

TORONTO. 

June 12. 

Labour Troubles.— The general feeling 
of unrest and dissatisfaction prevalent among 
the working men of Canada, which has resul- 
ted in protracted strikes in Toronto, Winnipeg, 
and other cities, has affected the mining camps 
of Northern Ontario. Demands for increased 
pay, shorter hours, and recognition of the 
Union have been made by the miners at Porcu- 
pine, Cobalt, and Kirkland Lake, and refused 
by the companies, and a strike at the two lat- 
ter districts is likely to take place very shortly. 
Many of the mines are making preparations 
to close down. 

Metalliferous Production of On- 
tario. — Returns received by the Ontario 
Bureau of Mines for the three months ended 
March 31 show a decrease in the value of 
metalliferous production, which amounted to 
$10,182,479 as compared with $14,297,905 for 
the corresponding period of 1918. The princi- 
pal decline was in nickel and copper in matte, 
the value of the former being $2,692,800, as 
compared with $5,806,200, and the value of 
copper in matte being $588,280, as against 
$1,748,990 for the first quarter of 1918. Sil- 
ver production shows a decrease in value from 
$3,152,700 to $3,740,843, and the output of 
gold a drop from $2,265,521 to % .'.026,536. 

Porcupine. — Progress at the Dome Mines 
is handicapped by labour diffii ulties, and ow- 
ing to the shortage in the working force the 
mill is only treating about O00 tons of ore 
daily. The cost of operations is about 30% 
higher than before the war, being about $3'35 
per ton. Development work on the Dome 
Extension property, which is being worked 



38 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



under option, has placed a large body of ore in 
sight, stated to assay over $5 per ton. The 
Hollinger Consolidated has announced another 
dividend of 1%, making the third disbursement 
this year. In view of steadily improving con- 
ditions and an increasing output, it is expected 
that the payment of 1% dividends every four 
weeks will shortly be resumed. At the Mc- 
Intyre the main shaft is being continued to 
the depth of 1,375 ft., where another main 
haulage will be established. An intermediate 
level is being run between this and the 1 ,000 ft. 
level. When these workings have been com- 
pleted the shaft will be sunk further. Recent 
finds have added considerably to the ore re- 
serves. About 15,000 tons monthly is being 
treated, of an average grade of Sin to the ton. 
A mining plant is being installed at the Clif- 
ton - Porcupine, a short distance from the 
Dome. The Davidson is now on a regular 
producing basis, the small mill working at ca- 
pacity with mill-heads averaging SJ0 per ton. 
The ore-body at the 500 ft. level has been 
driven on for 75 ft., the high grade of the ore 
being well maintained. A winze is being sunk 
from the 500 ft. level to open up a large body 
of ore on the 700 ft. level. The 1 )ome Lake 
mill is treating high-grade ore from a large 
lens on the 600 ft. level. 

KlRKLAND LAKE. — The Lake Shore during 
April treated 1,800 tons of ore for a yield of 
$44,781, being an average of $24*88 per ton. 
The Tough-Oakes has developed an ore re- 
serve sufficient to keep the mill in operation 
for half a year. Development work will be 
steadily continued, and the mill will not be 
put in operation until later in the season. The 
Wright- 1 largreaves is making good progress 
with the construction of a 200 ton mill, which 
will be the largest in the district, and is ex- 
pected to be ready for operation in the autumn. 
The Teck- Hughes during April produced gold 
to the amount of ^27,216 from the treatment 
of 2,602 tons of ore, the average gold content 
being $10*46 per ton. Mining has been re- 
sumed on the Hohenaur property adjoining the 
Kirkland- Porphyry. At the Ontario- Kirkland, 
vein No. 1, which dropped out of the shaft at 
a depth of 190 ft., has been cross-cut at the 
300 ft. level where it shows a width of 5 ft. 
The shareholders of the Canadian Kirkland 
have ratified an agreement giving a controll- 
ing interest to the Crown Reserve of Cobalt. 
The Berry claims, comprising about 200 acres 
near the Burnside, have been optioned to in- 
terests associated with the Mclntyre of Porcu- 
pine. 

Cobalt. — The Nipissing, during May, pro- 



duced oreof an estimated net valueof $347,751, 
and shipped bullion from Nipissing and cus- 
tom ores of an estimated net value of $ 102,578. 
Underground work during the month was at- 
tended with satisfactory results. Veins 99 
and 109, each about 2 in. wide, on being open- 
ed up showed ore containing over 5,000 oz. 
silver to the ton. The Mining Corporation of 
Canada has suspended work on its property 
in the south-eastern part of Bucke Township. 
Three veins were cross-cut at 300 ft., but com- 
mercial values were not encountered. The 
Temiskaming has taken an option on the 
Cochrane property adjoining, and agrees to 
spend S3, 500 per month in development. The 
Northern Customs Concentration has leased 
the Silver Cliff property, and is taking out low- 
grade ore. A high grade vein has been found 
on the surface on the Paragh property. The 
management of the McKinley- Darragh is ar- 
ranging to carry on extensive explorations m 
the south-eastern part of the property. The 
Nipissing has dropped its option on the Ophir 
mine. 

CR1 i K. — At the Miller Independ- 
ence a vein containing 16 ft. of high-grade ore 
has been cross-cut at the 100 ft. level. Equip- 
ment for a large reduction plant has been or- 
dered, and contracts have been let for clearing 
a right of way for the power line. 

M\ i.v ii kwan. -This field, which is at- 
ing much attention, is to be provided with 
electric power by the development of Matache- 
wan Falls, six miles to the north. The falls 
have a nearly vertical drop of 41 ft. At the 
Matachewan mine, formerly the Otisse, a rich 
lens of ore showing visible gold has been found 
between the 50 and 100 ft. levels. A group 
of claims lying northeast of the Matachewan 
are to to developed by a company under the 
name of the Matachewan- Rand Gold Mines. 

LETTERS to the EDITOR 

Spitsbergen. 

The Editor: 

Sir — As a Swedish mining geologist who 
has spent two summers in Spitsbergen, allow 
me to send you a criticism of the projects of 
the Northern Exploration Company, an Eng- 
lish company that has much advertised its 
iron and marble properties. 

In one of the pamphlets issued by this com- 
pany, entitled "Spitsbergen's Mineral Wealth, 
its Vital Importance to British Trade and In- 
dustry " (also appearing as a series of articles 
in The Financier, October and November, 
1918), Mr. Mangham, of the Northern Ex- 



JULY, 1919 



39 



ploration Co., expresses his conviction (p. 16) 
" that the famous Swedish iron mountain at 
Gellivare was outclassed by the Northern 
Exploration Company's iron mountain at Re- 
cherche Bay, Spitsbergen, without reckoning 
the further immense deposits believed to exist 
in the related ranges. Prior to the discovery 
of the Recherche Bay mountain the Swedish 
mountain was admitted to contain the largest 
and richest deposits of magnetite known, but 
it was dwarfed'"' by the Spitsbergen iron de- 
posits of the Northern Exploration Co. The 
Recherche Bay mountain is about 12 English 
miles long against the Gellivare mountain's 
length 3 i miles; has a breadth of three miles 
and a height of 1,400 ft. against 525 ft." . . . 
and (p. 22) : " If we promptly avail ourselves 
of the magnificent resources Spitsbergen now 
offers — and no hitherto undeveloped region of 
the world can compare with it in respect of 
ore abundance, high - grade quality, cheap 
production, and easy transport — we shall not 
only hold our own against all rivalry, but we 
may regain the former ascendency of our iron 
and steel industry over European, if not 
American, competitors. If, on the other hand, 
we neglect that opportunity we may imperil 
our future as an industrial nation "... also 
(p. 37) " it is indeed doubtful if these deposits 
can be paralleled in the whole world." 

So the pamphlet runs ; they are brave words, 
which could hardly be " dwarfed," but not ex- 
actly the words of an expert or a responsible 
company. 

Now, I happen to know the results of de- 
tailed reports on the same deposits, made from 
1912 to 1916 by three iron experts, one Nor- 
wegian and two Swedish mining engineers of 
repute, and their conclusions could certainly 
not be more disconcerting to the reader of the 
pamphlet, for they all independently come to 
the conclusion that the iron deposits at Re- 
cherche Bay are of no value and that, even 
with the most favourable position as to min- 
ing and market conditions, the deposits could 
not be worked. The last examination was 
made by a Swedish engineer in 1916; he spent 
one entire summer on a thorough examination 
of the Recherche Bay deposits, and his results 
were, if possible, even more disheartening than 
those of the earlier engineers. Although the 
predominant constituent of the iron minerals 
present is magnetite, the ore-body " had 
no effect on the magnetic needle unless the 
needle was placed directly on the mineralized 
part of the rock ; while the amount of ore 
present was so insignificant that it was im- 

* The italics are mine. — K.M. 



possible for the engineer to collect a proper 
sample for a milling test. 

The mountain alluded to in the reports of 
the Northern Exploration Co. does not con- 
sist of iron ore, but of dolomite of Cambrian- 
Silurian age, which is intercalated with thin 
stripes and bands of quartzite. The ore, which 
is a very pure magnetite and hematite, mostly 
the former, is found as thin covers on the 
cleavage planes of the quartzite, and as small 
vein fillings that only at one place — and very 
locally — reached a thickness of half a metre, 
mostly only a few centimetres. The frag- 
ments and boulders of quartzite, being covered 
with this thin film of iron minerals, may lead 
to the false conclusion that large quantities of 
ore are present ; by breaking the stones, how- 
ever, the barren rock appears. 

This, then, is the iron mountain of the 
Northern Exploration Company on Spitsber- 
gen, the mountain that "outclasses the famous 
Gellivare mountain in Sweden and that hardly 
can be paralleled in the whole world." 

No one knows the mineral deposits of 
Spitsbergen better than the Norwegian geolo- 
gists and mining engineers, who for the last 
13 years continuously and systematically have 
carried out the exploration of the entire west 
and north of Spitsbergen. Such phrases, as 
are to be found in the reports of the Northern 
Exploration Co. regarding the mineral wealth 
of the islands, as (p. 7) "The abundance 
and diversity of minerals there is probably un- 
paralleled in any area of like extent on the face 
of the globe" ... (p. 19) " Spitsbergen simply 
teems with mineral wealth . . . There are no 
fewer than 16 minerals on the properties of 
the Northern Exploration Company . . . Prob- 
ably no equivalent area in the whole world 
can compare with west Spitsbergen for the 
abundance and diversityof its mineral wealth," 
etc. — such phrases, I say, are, to put it mildly, 
utterly astonishing to us, who not only have 
traversed the coast-lands of Spitsbergen every- 
where, and mapped it topographically and 
geologically, but also the inland plateaus in 
every direction. 

Far from being rich on ores and minerals, 
Spitsbergen is — excepting the coal deposits — 
rather poorly supplied with mineral wealth. 

The Northern Exploration Company also 
mentions guano deposits in Horn Sound, 
stretching 5 miles inland. In 1917 and 1918 
three Norwegian geologists, together with their 
topographical surveyors, traversed e'very cor- 
ner of the land surrounding Horn Sound, and 
they found — well — some birds' excrement 
here and there, as such material usually is, on 



40 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



the rocks on the north side of the bay. 

Personally I have, during my two summers 
stay on Spitsbergen, had the occasion to ex- 
amine the so much advertised marble deposits 
of the Northern Exploration Company at 
King's Bay. The stone, which is a brecciated 
limestone, cemented with calcite veins, takes 
a beautiful polish and has beautiful colours, 
but it is so scattered and broken throughout 
the deposit that it is useless for anything else 
than very small articles. 

There are a considerable number of other 
statements in the company's reports and 
pamphlets that could be criticized and con- 
troverted, but the above is sufficient. 

Ri 'i i M UtS 1 RANDE R. 

Kulhuset, Telemarken, Norway, 
June 2. 

The Editor : 

Sir — There has been a good deal of contro- 
versy lately about the mineral wealth of Spits- 
bergen, and a brief recapitulation of a paper 
read by Mr. Adolf Hoel at a recent sitting of 
the Norwegian Geological Society may be of 
interest to you. The paper was entitled : " The 
Coal and Ore Deposits of Spitsbergen, their 
oornic Value and theii 1 Hstribution among 
Different Nations. * 

The author of the paper is probably the 
greatest authority on the geology of Spitsber- 
gen. He was formerly a Government Geolo- 
gist, but has since entered private service, and 
he has spent the last ten or twelve seasons on 
Spitsbergen, occupied with exploration work. 

Speaking of the much discussed iron-ore de- 
posits, Mr. Hoel seated that as early as 1909 
he had come across numerous pebbles i if mag- 
netite and hematite in a moraine on Prince 
Charles Headland. Such stones have since 
been found at numerous points along the 
west coast. Mr. Hoel succeeded in identify- 
ing the nature of the formation accompanying 
the iron ores, and this formation has been 
ascertained in a narrow strip at various locali- 
ties near the coast. All deposits hitherto 
found — with the possible exception of that on 
Prince Charles Headland — are, however, too 
poor for exploitation. 

The iron-ore deposits north of Bell Sound 
and on Martin's Range (or Iron Mountain) 
near Recherche Bay have been closely ex- 
amined at different times by a Norwegian and 
two Swedish experts, and have been proved 
to be without the least economic value. The 
ore is very pure, but it occurs in quite narrow 
streamers seldom attaining a width of 1 ft. 
In places a number of streamers run parallel, 



but the iron contents of the entire mass are 
in all cases so low as to exclude the idea of an 
exploitation. The ore consists almost entirely 
of magnetite, yet the deposit does not influence 
the magnetometer. 

The accessible parts of Spitsbergen have by 
now been fairly well explored, yet no ore de- 
posits of any importance have been discovered. 

The exploitation of other minerals — except- 
ing coal — has hitherto likewise proved disap- 
pointing. The Spitsbergen marble, on which 
a great amount of money has been spent, is 
too friable and quite useless for architectural 
purposes. Several hundred tons of phosphor- 
ite and gypsum from deposits near Cape Thot - 
sen (Icefjord) have been shipped to Norway. 
The former proved of too low a grade to pay. 
The gypsum is being tested at cement works. 
An asbestos deposit of some extent has been 
worked for two seasons near Recherche Bay, 
but DO spinning- fibre has been produced. 

I will not dwell on Mr. Hoel's description 
of the well-known coal deposits. The seams 
worked occur in the Tertiary formation. They 
are of great extent and regularity, and the 
value of the properties vai ies as they are more 
or less favourably situated foi transport and 
shipping. The largest and most valuable prop- 
erties are held by Norwegian companies who 
in 191* shipped 55, 0< coal, employ 

ing 600 workmen. In the same year 4,000 
tons was shipped from Swedish owned proper- 
ties (100 employees), and J, 500 tons from 
mines in Russian possession (40 employees). 
English companies employed 50 workmen, 
but exported no coal. 

Mr. Hoel pointed out that the scientific ex- 
ploration of the country is mainly due to Nor- 
wegian enterprise. Thus 64 Norwegian ex- 
peditions of a wholly or partly scientific 
character have visited Spitsbergen within the 
last hundred years, beginning with Professor 
Keilhan's expedition in 1827. Besides, the 
majority of foreign expeditions sailed on Nor- 
wegian ships and with Norwegian crews and 
generally with Norwegian members on the 
staflf. Almost all men employed in the mines 
at present are Norwegians. 

The present political status of Spitsbergen 
as "terra nullius" seems impracticable in face 
of the growing industrialization of the country, 
and a more definite arrangement islooked upon 
as inevitable. Prom the reasons stated above, 
and considering the geographical position of 
the Island, there is a strong feeling here that 
Norway has the first claim to Spitsbergen. 
R. H. Blumental. 
Kristiania, May 29. 



JULY, 1919 



41 



PERSONAL. 



A. H. Ackermann has left for Transylvania. 

Sir Frederick Black, the Government's repre- 
sentative on the board of the Anglo- Persian Oil Co., has 
been appointed a managing director of the company. 

G. W. Campion is here from West Africa. 

F. C. Cann is expected from Queensland. 

Frank Carroll, representing the Ingersoll Rand 
Co , has been visiting Australia. 

A. G. N. Chalmers, son of George Chalmers, super- 
intendent, has been appointed assistant superintendent 
for the St. John del Rey Company. 

W. R. Degenhardt is home from Burma. 

F. Julius Fohs, an American oil engineer, has 
passed through London to Palestine, where he will 
make investigations for the Zionist Organization of 
America. 

Arthur W. EASTLAKEand William Sutton, who 
were for many years associated with the late Sir Bover- 
ton Redwood, have entered into partnership. Robert 
Redwood will co-operate with them in connection with 
the examination of oil samples, and W. H. Dalton in 
connection with geological matters. 

J. Jervis Garrard is here from South Africa. 

A. Gernet has left for Russia. 

A. Goldwater is expected from Nigeria. 

H. D. Griffiths has left for Burma. 

R. G. Hall is here from Burma. 

Sir Thomas H. Holland is on his way home from 
India. 

Lt.-Col. A. C. Howard, D.S.O., M.C., late of 
the R.E. 41st Division, has been demobilized, and is 
now in Spain. 

Austin Y. Hoy is back from the United States. 

J. G. Lawn is here from South Africa. 

Dr. Malcolm Maclaren has left for Bucharest. 

T. Bruce Marriott has returned from South 
America. 

L. J. Mayreis is here from Burma. 

F. P. Mennell has been visiting the newly-dis- 
covered tinfields of Portuguese East Africa. 

Arthur H. P. Moline, superintendent of Bendi- 
go Amalgamated, has been appointed general manager. 
E. C. Dyason has resigned as managing director, but 
retains his seat on the board. 

William Neill, manager for the Cassel Cyanide 
Co., has been visiting the United States, Canada, and 
Mexico. 

C. E. Pargf.ter has gone to Abu, Egypt. 

Floyd W. Parsons, editor of Coal Age, has been 
appointed to the editorial staff of the New York Satur- 
day Evening Post, which has recently started a busi- 
ness and science section. 

W. Pellew-Harvey is home from Australia. 

Wallington A. Pope has gone to Nigeria as mana- 
ger of the Dua property. 

G. E. Stephenson has returned from Egypt and 
will be leaving shortly for New Zealand. 

E. O. Teale is here from the Gold Coast. 

W. E. Thomas has moved his office to 6, Drapers 
Gardens, London, E.C. 

Scott Turner has been appointed consulting engi- 
neer to the Mining Corporation of Canada. His office 
is at the Bank of Hamilton Building, Toronto. 

Edward Walker has been on holiday in the Isle 
of Wight. 

A. B. Watson has returned from Nigeria. 

J. P. B. Webster has returned from Siberia. 

Lt.-Col. H. H.Yuill, D.S.O., M.C.lateControl- 
ler of Mines, First Army, B.E.F., has joined the firm 
of Bainbridge, Seymour & Co., Ltd. Col. Yuill is 



M.Sc. of McGill University, Montreal. 

Two medals of the Institution of Mining Engineers 
have beenawarded this year, toDR. AUGUS1 E Rateau 
and Victor Watteyne respectively. 

The John Fritz Medal has been awarded to Gen- 
eral G. W. Goethals, the builder of the Panama 
Canal. 



TRADE PARAGRAPHS 

The Iron & Coal Trades Review, of which 
Harold Jeans, A.R.S.M., is editor, has moved its 
offices from 165, Strand, to Bessemer House, Duke 
Street, Adelphi, London, W.C.2. 

John Browning, 140, Strand, London, W.C.2., 
send us catalogues of petrological and metallurgical 
microscopes, and of spectroscopes and spectrometers. 
The firm also deal in second-hand instruments, and 
issue lists of such as are on sale. 

The India Rubber, Gutta Percha, & Tele- 
graph Works Co., Ltd., of Silvertown, London, E., 
send us a pamphlet describing the wide scope of their 
manufactures. Mining men will be interested in their 
conveyor-belts, rock-drill hose, and golf balls. 

The Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co , 
Ltd., of Cambridge, send list No. 191, dealing with 
thermo-couple potentiometers. These potentiometers 
are particularly intended for use in checking thermo- 
couple pyrometers. They are made in two patterns, 
suitable respectively for workshop and laboratory use. 

James Keith & Blackman Co., Ltd., of 27, Far- 
ringdon Avenue, London, E.C. 4, send us list Y97 just 
issued dealing with small electric blowing fans such as 
are suitable for smith's forges. Particulars are also 
given of small exhaust fans intended for removing 
smoke and fumes furnaces of various descriptions 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, Illinois, 
send us a leaflet describing their various machines for 
comminuting ore : stamp-mills, gyratory crushers, jaw- 
breakers, crushing rolls, tube-mills, ball-mills, Hunt- 
ington mills, and Symons disc crushers. Forty 4S in. 
Symons crushers are in use at Chuquicamata, and 
eighteen at the Ajo mine, Arizona. 

The Oliver Continuous Filter Co., of San 
Francisco, reports that the American Smelters Securi- 
ties Co. has recently purchased for the Veta Grande 
mill at Parral, Chihuahua, six 12 ft. diameter by 16 ft. 
Oliver filters with complete vacuum equipment. The 
mill capacity is being increased to 600 tons per day. 
Sales of similar equipment have been made to the Ben- 
guet Consolidated Mines at Benguet, Philippine Is- 
lands, and to the Government cyanide plant in the 
Dutch East Indies. 

The Norton Company, of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, has recertly secured the English rights to the 
trade-mark " alundum," the aluminous product for 
which it is noted. The company has issued its 1919 
edition of refractories. It contains many additions, 
including an extensive range of sizes of tubes, muffles, 
and cores, as well as newly developed shapes and a 
newproductknown as "electrically sintered magnesia." 
Prices are given of the various products A number 
of tables and charts and a complete bibliography of 
alundum snd crystolon refractories have been included. 
These make it useful as a reference book in connection 
with high temperature electric furnace products 

Adam Hilger, Ltd., 75a, Camden Road, London, 
N.W.I, send us a pamphlet describing the latest im- 
provements in their spectrometers. The instruments 
described are : (a) A Lummer-Getarcke Parallel Plate, 
(6) A Fabry & Perot Etalon, (c) A Michelson Echelon 
Diffraction Grating. They are designed to be suitable 



42 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Daily London Metal Prices : Official Closing Prices on 

Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Tin per Long Tons ; Silver 





Silver 


Copper 






Lead 






































































Standard Cash 




Standard (3 mos ) 






Electrolytic 






Best Selected 






Soft Foreign 


June 


d. 


£ 


<;. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


.1 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


d 




s. 


d. 


I 


s. 


d 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. d. 


11 


54i 


79 


10 


to 


79 


15 





80 


5 


to 


80 


10 





83 








to 


84 


o 





83 





to 










22 


5 


to 22 


10 


12 


54* 


80 





to 


80 


5 





80 


12 


6 to 


80 


17 


6 


83 


10 





to 


84 








S3 





to 


84 








22 


10 


to 22 


15 


13 


54 


81 


12 


6 to 


Bl 


17 


6 


82 


7 


6 to 


82 


12 


6 


85 


10 





to 


f-6 








B5 





to 


B6 





(1 


22 


15 


to 23 





16 


54| 


82 


15 


to 


S3 


5 





S3 


10 


to 


B3 


IS 





86 








to 


88 








85 





to 


86 








23 


B 


6 to 23 


7 6 


17 


545 


82 


2 


6 to 


S2 


7 


6 


82 


17 


6 to 


S3 


2 


6 


86 








to 


S8 








85 


10 


Oto 


S6 


111 







17 


6 to 23 


2 6 


18 


54| 


S3 


15 


to 












10 


to 


84 


15 





66 


10 





to 


88 


10 





B5 


10 


to 


86 


lo 







17 


6 to 23 


2 6 


19 


54* 


84 


5 


to 


84 


10 





85 





to 


S5 


5 





86 


10 





to 




10 





85 


10 


to 


86 


in 





_>2 


17 


6 to 22 


12 6 


20 


54* 


86 


5 


to 


86 


10 


ii 


87 


5 


to 


>7 


10 





89 


II 





to 


92 













to 


90 










15 


to 22 


10 


25 


53:,' 


86 


7 


6 to 


66 


12 


6 


87 


7 


6 to 


S7 


12 


G 


89 


a 


II 


to 


92 








88 





to 


'HI 








22 


in 




5 


2* 




88 


Q 


to 


88 


5 





88 


15 


to 


89 








90 








to 


93 








89 





to 


01 










10 


to 22 


5 


25 


54A 

53* 


87 





to 


B7 


5 





88 


n 


to 


88 


10 





90 








lo 


93 













to 


01 








22 





to 22 


5 


26 


86 


7 


6 to 


86 


12 


6 


87 


10 


to 


S7 


15 





90 








to 


93 








89 





Oto 


91 








22 


2 


6 to 22 


5 


27 


ssl. 


87 


5 


to 


B7 


10 







5 


to 


88 


10 





91 





a 


t.. 


93 








00 





Oto 


91 








22 


2 


6 to 22 


5 


30 
July 

1 


53 


86 


15 


to 


-7 








88 





to 


88 


5 





91 








to 


93 


'I 





90 





Oto 


91 








u 


7 


6 to 22 


10 


— 


S7 


5 


to 


B7 


10 





88 


5 


to 


" 


10 





91 








I.. 


95 








90 





to 


91 










5 


to 22 


7 6 


2 


53 


89 





to 


89 


5 


(1 


90 


n 


to 


90 


5 


o 


92 








to 


97 








90 





to 


91 


II 


II 


12 


10 


to 22 


15 


3 


533 


91 


5 


to 


91 


in 


o 


92 


5 


to 


92 


in 







11 


II 


to 


99 








90 





to 







I 


22 


12 


6 to 22 


17 6 


4 


53* 


91 


10 


to 


91 


15 





92 


10 


to 


02 


1 





95 








lo 


99 








94 





to 


95 










10 


to 22 


15 


7 


53* 


91 





to 


94 


5 





95 





to 


95 


5 


II 










t.. 


101 








94 





Oto 


95 








22 


15 


to 23 





8 


53},', 


95 





to 


95 


5 





96 





to 


96 


5 





97 




II 


I 1 


102 


c 





96 





to 


97 


I) 


1 


23 


n 


to 23 


2 6 


9 


334 


97 


10 


to 


97 


15 


o 


98 


10 


t<> 


98 


15 


'I 


100 








!■• 


105 








96 





to 


97 





o 


23 


10 


to 23 


17 6 


10 


95 


111 


to 










96 


10 


■ to 










100 






1.. 


105 













to 












12 




17 1. 



for use on the modified form of Hilger Wavelength 
Spectrometer (Constant Deviation Type). Thus ap- 
plied, the Fabry iV Perot Ktalon affords a means of 
determining wavelengths to a very high accuracy ; 
while either the Echelon or the Lu miner ■< iehn k<- l'late 
will demonstrate the Zeeman effect, the effect of pres- 
sure on the lines of the spectrum, or the minute struc- 
ture of any desired lines, with a minimum of trouble 
and with the great intensity of light that distinguishes 
these powerful devices for high resolving power. 
At the same time the wavelengths ol the lines under 
observation can be read off direct from the drum of 
the Wavelength Spectroscope. The mode of applica- 
tion to the Wavelength Spectrometer lias the further 
great advantage that a large number of the lines of 
the spectrum can be examined at one and the same time, 
all the lines which are visible in the eyepiece being 
simultaneously subjected to the analysis of the I. lim- 
ber Plate, of the Fabry & Perol I- talon, or of the 
Echelon, as the case may be. 1 -"abrv & Perot I 
is constructed with a distance piece consisting of a 
hollow cyclinder of fused silica between the plates. 

METAL MARKETS 

Copper. — The feature of the situation during June 
was the important upward movement in the price 
of the metal. This has chiefly emanated from America, 
where a considerable advance has taken place, amount- 
ing to about 2c. per lb. during the period in question. 
While the start of this rise seemed to have been largely 
in sympathy with Wall Street movements, which stimu- 
lated some speculative interest in the metal, it has been 
carried further by considerable purchases of copper by 
the ultimate consumers in that country. The market 
here has moved in sympathy, and it is believed also by 
a little assistance in the shape of support to the stand- 
ard market in London by American interests. At all 
events, the standard market has been active, the aggre- 
gate transactions having considerably increased, while 
the turnover occasionally amounted to as much as 1,000 
tons in a day. Values have risen substantially, the im- 
provement amounting to £8 in the case of cash metal, 
and £9 for three months. Electrolytic copper also 
went up in price on this side to the extent of about 
£9. 10s. per ton. A good demand has been experi- 



enced from consuming trades in this country, and the 
fact that most of the inquiry since the conclusion of 
hostilities has been for copper in the shape of win 
rather than ingot bars, has depleted the stocks of wire 
bars in this country, while even for shipment from 
America a considerable premium is asked for that de- 
scription In manufactured copper a good inquiry has 
also been seen, in which India has largely participated. 
An interesting development is the reported ottering of 
Ameru and yellow metal to India. 

The rice of cash standard copper in June 

May 191 June 

M • -. /110. 5s. 

Ii . —The past month has seen a moderate an. ount 
of activity in the standard market, which has, roughlv, 
fluctuated from slightly over £230 to a little ovei 
per ton for cash metal. The close at the end of May 
was at £232. 7s 6d. fur cash From this level values 
improved until on June 19 cash standard stood at / 24 3 
5s. Subsequently values reacted somewhat until the 
end of the month when cash metal stood at /238. 5s. 
and three months at £236 5s. A satisfactory feature 
of the situation has been the continuation of business 
in Eastern markets. Prices there have occasionally 
approximated the parity of values here, but latterlv 
have shown a tendencv to keep rather above this mar- 
ket, which seems to be attributable to the demand in 
that quarter for direct shipment to the United States An 
item of considerable interest to the tin market generally 
was the announcement of the raising of the import em- 
bargo in America as from the end of June. This was 
first announced as applying to tin ore and concentrates, 
but latterly the metal itself was added. It seems 
to be generally understood, however, that it is improb- 
able that permission will actually be given to import 
anv metal into that country before the end of July. 
This is presumably to put all buyers on a similar foot- 
ing, so that those who have accumulated metal near 
at hand, such as in Canada, will not be put in a more 
favourable position than those who have to await ship- 
ment from the East. It will also, no doubt, give the 
American smelters an opportunity to dispose of some 
of the metal accumulated owing to their having with- 
held from the market to assist the Government in dis- 
posing of their stocks. Business in this country has 
only been on a moderate scale, the South Wales tin- 



JULY, 1919 



43 



the London Metal Exchange. 

per Standard Ounce. 



Standard Tin 







Zinc 




























(Spelter) 










Cash 










3 mos. 






£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


36 


5 


tc 36 


15 





236 


10 


to 236 


15 





2 2 


15 


to 233 








36 


5 


to 36 


15 





237 





to 237 


10 





23 j 


5 


to 233 


10 





36 


10 


to 37 








238 





to 238 


10 


o 


235 





to 235 


10 





36 


10 


to 37 








241 


5 


to 241 


15 


o 


237 


10 


to 238 








36 


10 


to 37 








239 


10 


to 240 








235 


10 


to 236 








3d 


10 


to 37 








242 


10 


to 243 








339 





to 238 


10 





36 


10 


to 37 








243 





to 243 








239 





to 239 


10 





37 


5 


to 37 


15 





242 


15 


to 243 


10 





238 


15 


to 239 








37 


10 


to 37 


15 





239 





to 240 








235 


15 


to 236 








38 


5 


to 33 


15 





240 


10 


to 241 








r>: 





to 237 


10 





38 


5 


to 38 


15 





242 





to 242 


10 





238 





to 238 


10 





38 


5 


to 38 


15 





239 


5 


to 239 


15 





2 36 





Oto236 


5 





33 


10 


to 39 








238 


5 


to 23S 


15 





235 


5 


to 235 


15 





38 


15 


to 39 


5 





238 





to 238 


10 





2 36 





to 236 


10 





39 





to 39 


7 


6 


239 


10 


to 240 








236 


10 


to 237 








39 


10 


to 40 








240 





to 240 


10 





238 





to 238 


10 





39 


15 


to 40 








241 





to 241 


10 





238 


15 


to 239 








39 


15 


to 40 








243 


10 


to 244 








241 





to 241 


5 





W 





to 40 


10 





248 





to 248 


10 





2(5 


5 


to 245 


10 





40 


2 


6 to 40 


12 


6 


247 





to 247 


10 





244 


10 


to 244 


15 





■41 


12 


6 to 42 


5 





249 


10 


to 250 








247 


10 


to 247 


15 





H 


15 


to 42 








250 





to 250 


10 





248 


10 


to 249 









plate trade being rather quiet. 

The average price of cash standard tin in June 1919, 
-was £238. 8s. 2d. ; May 1919, £234. 9s. 5d. ; June 
1918, £331. 10s. ; and May 1918, £364. 7s. 8d. 

Lead. — Values of this metal have shown little ma- 
terial change during the month of June. At the end 
of May the official prices were £22. 15s. to £23. About 
the middle of the month prices had improved to £23. 
2s. 6d. to £23. 7s. 6d., while at the end of June the 
close is £22. 7s. 6d. to £22. 10s. The Government 
stocks of the metal in this country, exclusive of old 
metal and scrap, on June 1 amounted to 119,907 tons, 
compared with 109,012 tons on May 1, so that the 
stock had increased on the month by 10,895 tons. The 
fact that the stocks are so large, and have shown an 
increase, coupled with the fact that large stocks of 
Mexican lead are understood to exist in the United 
States, while good quantities of the metal are also 
available in Australia, has had rather a subduing effect 
on the market in general. The consuming trades in 
this country do not appear to have made such good 
progress as was expected at one time, but at the pres- 
ent level of values, lead appears to be considered a 
fairly cheap purchase, and rather more interest has 
been shown in the metal on 'Change. The outlook is 
obscure, owing to the prevalence of such large stocks, 
but, as prices seem to be below cost of production, this 
may have a stabilizing effect on the market. 

Average prices of soft pig lead : June 1919, £22. 12s. 
2d. ; May 1919, £23. 18s. 6d. ; June 1918, £29 ; May 
1918, £29. 

Spelter. — This market has shown a good tone dur- 
ing June, values having steadily improved until at the 
close they showed a rise of about £3 compared with the 
end of May. The strength has been largely derived 
frbm America, wherepriceshaveadvanced fromslightly 
over 6c. to about 7c. per pound during the same peri- 
od. The generally satisfactory tone of the market has 
stimulated a considerable demand from consumers, 
and it is understood that the Government recently has 
been able to dispose of fair quantities of the metal. 
Refined spelter (99'9%) has not, however, improved to 
the same extent as virgin, owing to the fact that the 
demand for brass-making purposes has not been so 
important as that for galvanizing. Other grades of 
the metal have been well held, hard spelter fetching 



up to about £28. 10d., while Indian brands of hard have 
realized £36. 10s. Rather more inquiry for spelter 
has been seen from the galvanized sheet trade, which 
is a satisfactory feature, as this particular trade has 
not been an important buyer for a long time. 

Average prices of spelter : June 1919, £36. 19s. 6d. ; 
May 1919, £35. 13s. 9d. ; June 1918, £52 ; and May 
1918. £52. 

Zinc Dust. — High-grade Australian zinc dust 88 — 
92% purity is steady at £70 per ton f.o.r. 

Antimony. — There is no change in English regulus, 
which is still quoted at £45 per ton. Rather more in- 
terest has been seen in foreign regulus on spot, and £44 
has been paid for Chinese. French antimony has also 
been offering here, and the embargo has now been 
lifted upon imports, so that it may not be long before 
arrivals come in. 

Arsenic. — The market is still quiet, but firm. The 
price of white delivered London is about £35 per ton. 

Bismuth. — 12s. 6d. per lb nominal. 

Cadmium. — 6s. 9d. to 7s. per lb. 

Aluminium. — £150 per ton for the home trade. 

Nickel. — £l95per ton for the hometrade, and £210 
per ton for export. 

Cobalt Metal. — 12s. 6d. to 13s. per lb. 

Cobalt Oxide. — 7s. 9d. per lb. 

Platinum. — 450s. nominal per oz. 

Palladium. — 500s. nominal per oz. 

Quicksilver. — Themarketis firmatabout£l8 .10s. 
to £l9 per flask. 

Selenium. — 12s. to 15s. per lb. 

Tellurium. — 95s. to 100s. per lb. 

Sulphate of Copper — £48 per ton f.o.b. for ex- 
port, and £45 for the home trade. 

Manganese Ore. — The market is dull, and Indian 
grades arequoted nominally about 2s. 3d. c.i.f. perunit 

Tungsten Ores. — Wolframite 65%, 30s. perunit, 
and scheelite 30s. per unit. 

Molybdenite.- 85% 75s. per unit. 

Silver has fluctuated during the month, having 
touched 54sd. for spot standard, but on balance the 
market on the month is unchanged, the quotation be- 
ing 53d. at the end of June. The price of fine in New 
York touched 112ic, but closed the month at 108^c. 

Corundum. — 90° o , nominal. 

Graphite.— 80% c.i.f. U.K., £40 to £45 per ton. 

Iron and Steel. — The ore market has been firm 
owing to the increase in freights, and it is believed that 
values of hematite will have to advancefurther in conse- 
quence. Meanwhile considerable stringency has been 
experienced in the hematite iron trade, there being lit- 
tle prompt iron obtainable, while there is little disposi- 
tion to sell forward. A good demand was felt for 
Cleveland pig iron, but latterly business has been quieter 
owing to the approach of the holiday season. Home 
prices stand at 164s. for No. 1 and 160s. for 
Cleveland G.M.B. and No. 4 foundry, with No. 4 forge 
at 157s. to 158s. In the manufactured iron and steel 
trade, a strike of engineers on the Tees-side somewhat 
hampered operations, but an early settlement is antici- 
pated. Meanwhile ship-platesareingooddemand, but 
the inquiry forsectional material is comparatively quiet. 
There is a good deal of American material on oiler, and 
as the tendency in freights seems to be downwards, this 
may increase competition from that source. An inter- 
esting item in this connection is that the tender of the 
United States Steel Products Co. lor 5,000 tons of tram 
rails for Glasgow has been accepted at a price of £l 7. 9s. 
c.i.f., against the best British quotation of £19. Is. 3d. 
It is reported, however, that America is talking prices 
up, but at the same time works there seem to be in need 
of orders. 



44 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



STATISTICS. 

Production op Gold in the Transvaal 



Transvaal Gold Oi hi is 



Rand 



Oz. 

January, 1918 1 694.121 

February ... 637.571 

March 677.008 

April 697.733 

May 720,539 

June 708.908 

July 716010 

August 719.849 

September 686.963 

October 667.955 

November 640.797 

December 630.505 

Year 1918 

January. 1919 

February 621.1S.S 

March 694.825 

April 676.702 

May , 706.158 




Value 

£ 
3.033,653 
2.802.477 
2.957,614 
3.046.045 
3.141.915 
3.091.058 
3.127.174 
3.144,211 
3,008.267 
2.887.455 
2.797,983 
2.723.836 



221.734 
13.854 

15.540 
17.554 
18,242 
18,837 



676 

636.72S 
712.379 
694.944 



2.704.647 
3.025.992 
2.951.936 



Natives Emp loyed in the Tran svaa l Mines. 

Gold Coal 

mines mines 



Diamond 

mines 



Total 



April 30. 1918 182.492 

May 31 179.879 

June 30 179.028 

July 31 178.412 

August 31 179.390 

September 30 179.399 

October 31 173.153 

November iO 160.275 

December l\ ■ 152.606 

lanuarj 

February 28 172,359 

March 31 175.620 

April 30 175.267 

May 31 ' 



11.322 
11.211 
11.473 
11.790 
11.950 
12.108 
11.824 
1 1 ,826 
11.851 



11,863 

11,168 
11,906 



4.753 
4.773 
4.747 
5.011 
4,954 

4.749 
4,016 
3.1SX) 

5.080 
5.742 
5.939 



198,567 
195.863 

195.213 

196.395 
189.726 

167.637 



I'l.'-r- 
192.915 
191.547 



Cost and Profit on the Rand 

Compiled from official statistics published by the Transvaal 
Chamber of Mines. The profit available for dividends is about 
the u'tKhii; profit. 

Workg Work'g Total 

cost profit working 

per ton per ton profit 



Tons 

milled 



Yield 
per ton 



January. 1918.. 2 

February 1 

March .' 

April 2 

May 2 

June 2 

July 2 

August ? 

September 2 

October 2 

November 1 

December 1 



167.411 
946.338 
107.561 
181.609 
237,6*4 
i. :4.20s 
.167.869 
.158.431 
060.635 
015.144 
899.925 
855.991 



s. d. 
6 4 

5 11 



C 
703.665 
577.396 
596.109 
670. *7 I 
716.963 
736.694 
702 it>' 
676.146 
600.330 
531.774 
ISO. 1(>2 
507.860 



Year 1918 24.922.763 



27 11 21 7 



6 



January. I919- 1,942.329 

February 1,816,352 28 

March 2.082.469 

April ... 1 .9 93,652 I 28 



23 





23 


> 


22 


6 


22 


9 



547.793 

573.582 
573.143 



Production of Gold in Rhodksia and Wkst Africa. 





Rhodesia. West Africa. 




1918 


1919 1918 1919 




£ 

253,807 

232.023 

230.023 

239,916 

239.205 

225.447 « 

251.740 

257.096 

136.783 
145.460 
192.870 


£ £ 
211,917 107,863 104.063 
220.885 112.865 112.616 
225,808 112,605 1 12, M S 




213.160 117 520 109,570 


Mav 


21S.057 126.290 100. S27 


June 


— 120.273 — 


July 


— 117,581 




— 120,526 — 


September ... 


115.152 
— 61,461 — 


November ... 
December ... 


108.796 

— 112.621 — 


Total 


2.652.250 


1.333.553 539.619 



Aurora West 

Bantjes 

Barrett 

Brakpan 

City ,\; Suburban 

City I >eep 



Cons. Main Keef 

Crown Mine> 

Durban Roodepoorl Deep 

■.iid P.M. 

. 
Geduld 

Geldenhuis Deep • 
Ginsberg 

- Lydenburg 
Coch 

imenl G.M. Areas • 
I Iin a 
Jupiti r 

Kleinfontein 
Knighti 
Knights 1 <r> p 

l.aiigid 
Lnipaard's Vlei .. 

il 1 lull 

Modderfontein 
Modderfoutem B 

New I'nihed 
Nourse ■ 
Primfose 
Princi i 

teili I'l-nll • 

m ■ ■ 
Robinson 1 >*■«-. ■ 

Simmer \ Jack 
Sim mi 

Van Ryn 
Van R ■ 
Villagi 

Village Main 1 
West Rand ' 

Witwatersrand (Knights) 
Witwatenrand I '• • . 
Wolhuter 



May, 


1919 


Treated 


Value 






14.800 


16,511 


_ 


633 


j- 800 


91.024 


18.270 


32.036 


50.000 


98.556 


45.800 


56.606 


50.230 


71,812 


164.000 


226.079 


24.100 


35.300 


1 10,000 


141.800 


33.600 


53.983 


43.000 


65.198 


49.500 




10.400 




3.885 


7.078 


16.700 




125.000 




12.1N0 


16.102 


23.600 




59.480 


70.485 


22.500 




93.100 


73.415 


42.200 


53.467 


20.850 


— 


14.450 




84.500 


177.709 


55,000 




44.200 


92.852 


12.200 




40.900 


55.431 


20.300 


18.651 


20.500 


27.655 


144.000 


166.162 


40.900 


43.215 


52.200 


72.354 


23.800 


21.557 


51.500 


63.616 


5».8O0 


58.4t8 


43.700 


41.956 


36.070 


67.4F7 


10.300 


25.025 


16.830 


24.596 


35.900 


34.231 


49.600 


103.492 


47.200 


67.572 


19.400 




33.120 


38.375 


35,500 




31.600 


35.543 


30,000 


37.440 



Ma\ 



Abbontiako' 

Abosso 

Ashanli Goldfields 
Prestea Block A 

Ta>iuah 

hi 



, IN Gold (H ii i i ?. 



Treated 






£ 


8.040 


15.546 


7.390 


12.336 


- 


32.406 


15.140 


22.779 


5.120 


14.184 


2.037 


2.893 



Antelope 

Cam & Motor 

Eldorado Banket 

Falcon 

Gaika 

Globe& Phicnix 

Lonely Reef 

Rezende 

Rhodesia. Ltd. 

Shaniva 

Transvaal & Rhodesian 
Wanderer 



May. 1919 






Value 



Tons 
3.215 



£ 
4.341 



3.396 


5.770 




30.162* 


3.306 


5.4M 


6.034 


S.508* 


4,680 


24.403 


5.500 1 


12.3431 


390 ! 


1.113 


56.C61 


34.024 


1.700 


5.400 



* Gold. Silver and. Copper ; t Ounces Gold ; I Gold & Silver. 



JULY, 1919 



45 



Wbst Australian Gold Statistics. 



Production of Gold in India. 



Reported 
for Export 

07.. 



January, 1918 

'February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 
January, 1919 

February 

March 

April 

May 



Delivered 

to Mint 

oz. 



Total 
oz. 



1,4*4 
2.739 

733 

nil 

33 

525 



73,703 
76.987 
69 730 
66.079 
73.701 
74,904 
72.081 
76,156 
74.057 
71.439 
70,711 
61,314 
69,954 
66,310 
65,158 
63,465 
6S.655 



Total 

value £ 



72,155 
64,053 

67.0*3 
66.158 
63.498 
69,180 



306, 

272 

284 
281 
269 
293 



49» 
208 

779 
,120 
720 



* By direction of the 
from July, 1916, to Nove 



Federal Government the export figures 
mber, 1918, were not published. 



Australian Gold Returns. 





Victoria. 


Queensland. 


New South 
Wales 




1918 1910 


1918 


1919 


1918 


1919 


January ... 
February . 

March 

April 


£ £ 
32,134 36,238 
58.113 46.955 
65,412 . 40,267 
26,849 — 


£ 

47,600 
45.470 
48.020 
47,600 


£ 
37J0O 
43,330 
48.000 
61.200 


£ 

25,000 
28,000 
30.0C0 
30,000 
45,000 
32,000 
25,000 
21,000 
32,000 
40,000 
25,000 
38.000 


£ 
18.000 
24.000 
16,000 
24,000 
16.000 


June 

July 

August ... 
September 
■October ... 
November 
December 

Total ... 


45,765 
64,347 
61,163 
65,751 

70,674 


- 


51,420 — 
51,000 ~ 
44,600 — 
45,900 — 
54,400 

38,200 — 
56,281 — 


674,655 


123.461 


578,213 i 227.830 


370.000 


98,000 



* Figures not received. 
Australasian Gold Outputs. 



May, 1919 



Treated 



Value 



Associated 

Associated Northern ( Iron Duke 

Blocks ( Victorious 

Blackwater 

Bullfinch 

Golden Horseshoe 

Great Boulder Prop 

Ivanhoe 

Kalgurli 

Lake View & Star 

Mount Bo ppy 

Oroya Links 

Progress 

Sons of Gwalia 

South Kalgurli 

Talisman 

Waihi 

Waihi Grand Junction •• 



6,161 

2,034 
2,208 
5,006 
12,636 
13.622 
18,243 
2,703 
9.623 

1,507 

1,650 

12,758 

8,498 

15.119 
5.670 



£ 

8,673 

1,820* 

3,180 

3,326 

5,146 

23,587 

39,53* 

31,570 

5,929 

11,604 

10,8161 

1,689 

17,460 

11,006 

25,1591 
8,246? 



! Surplus ; t Total receipts ; t Gold and Silver to May 17. 
§ 23 days to May 17. 



Miscellaneous Gold 


Output. 






May, 1919 




Treated 


Value 




Tons 

13,506 
2,500 

7,200 

10,500 

33,950 
1.530 


£ 




3,663+1 

8,989 








10,087 




Philippine Dredges (Philippine Islands) 
St John del Rey (Brazil) 


770§ 

12.960 

40.000 

26.1501 1 

3,200 











1916 1917 


1918 1919 




£ £ 

192.150 190.047 
183.264 1 180.904 
186.475 . 189,618 
192,208 185,835 
193,604 ! 184,874 
192,469 | 182,426 


£ 

176.030 
173.343 
177.950 
176.486 
173.775 
174.375 
171.950 
172.105 
170.360 
167,740 
157.176 
170,630 


£ 

162,270 
153.775 
162.793 
162.550 
164.080 


February 




Mav 


T 


J u ly 






192,784 
192,330 
191,502 
192,298 
205,164 


181,005 
183.630 
182,924 
182,388 
190,852 




September ... 




November ... 
December ... 


— 


Total 


2,305,652 


2.214,163 


2.061.920 


807.465 



Indian Gold Outputs. 



Balaghat 

Champion Reef •■■ 
Hutti (Nizam's) ... 

Jibutil 

Mysore 

North Anantapur 

Nundydroog 

Ooregum 



May. 1919 



Tons 
Treated 



2.550 
11.853 



24,578 
1.000 
9.004 

12,900 



Fine 
Ounces 

2.194 

7,080 

900 

13,712 

913 

6,450 

7.359 



Base Metal Outputs. 



British Broken Hill 



Broken Hill Block 10 



Arizona Copper Short tons copper 

| Tons lead concentrate-.-- 
r Tons zinc concentrate-..- 

I Tons caibonate ore 

! Tons lead concentrate 
I Tons zinc concentrate. ... 

I Tons refined lead 

I Oz. refined silver 



Burma Corp 

Cordoba Copper 

Freemantle Trading... Long tons lead 

North Broken Hi!. .-l^^ZZ^ZZ. 

Poderosa Tons copper ore 

Rhodesian Broken Hill-. -Tons lead and zinc 

Tanganyika Long tons copper 

Tolima Tons silver-lead concentrate 

{ Tons zinc concentrate 

"" ) Tons lead concentrate 



Mav. 
1919 



1.200 
807* 
600* 
130* 

1.113 
917 

1.587 
ISO. 371 



650* 

26.3731 

208 

1,221 

955 

50 



Zinc Corp. 



* One week ; tTwo weeks. 



Imports of Ores and Metals into United Kingdom. 
Long tons. 



June 
1919 



§ Ounces, fineness not stated ; I I Profit, gold and silver 



Tons 

Iron Ore 3 23 683 

Copper Ore 417 

Precipitate 140 

Metal •• 5.002 

Copperand Iron Pyrite 14.064 

Tin Concentrate 

,, Metal... 

Manganese Ore 

Lead, Pig and Sheet 

Zinc (spelter) 1.977 

Zinc Oxide 

Barytes 

Rock Phosphate 

Brimstone 57 

Boracic Compounds 795 

Nitrate of Potash 1.327 

lb. 

Quicksilver... 375,000 



Year 
1919 

["ons 

2.555 

5 
68 

136 

8 
194 
152 

54 

1 

10 

10 

5 
5 
5 



884 
760 

.005 

.601 
.258 

.231 

070 
.256 
160 

,3*7 



1,313,100 



46 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



United Statks Metal Exports and Imports. 



Exports 



Copper Ingots 
Copper Sheets 
Copper Wire. 
Lead, Pig 

Zinc 

Zinc Sheets-- 







Mar. 


April 


Tons. 


Tons. 


5.843 


7,965 


381 


580 


5.375 


1.47V 


3.091 


2.375 


7,214 


16.075 


2,396 


962 



Imports. 



Antimony 

Tin Ore 

Tin.., 

Manganese 

Ore 

Tungsten 

Concentrate 
Pyrites 12.959 



Mar. 
Tons. 
591 
1.066 
3. 57 J 

48.23b 

675 



April 

Tons. 
433 
534 
225 

59.470 

' 314 
25.294 



Outputs of Tin Mining Companies. 
In Tons of Concentrate. 



Nigeria : 

Abu 

Anglo-Continental 

Benue 

Berrida 

Bisicbi 

Bongwelli 



Ex-Lands 

Pilani 

Forum River 

Gold Coast Consolidated 

< j ii r u in River .... 

jantar 

Jos 

Kaduna 

Kano 

Kassa-Ropp 

Kern 

Kuril 

Kuskie 

Kwall 

Lower Bisichi 

Lucky Chance 

Minna 

Mongu 

Naraguta 

Naraguta Extended 

New Lafon 

Nigerian Tin 

Ningbi 

N N, Bauchi 

Offin River 

Rayfield 

Ropp 

Rukuba 

South Bukeru 

Sybu 

Tin Areas 

Tin Fields 

Toro 

Federated Malay States : 

Chenderiang 

Gopeng 

Idris Hydraulic 

[pob 

Kainunting 

Kinta 

Kledang 

Lahat 

Malayan Tin 

.Pahang 

Rambutan 

Sungei Besi 

Tekka 

Tekka-Taiping 

Tronoh 

Tronoh South 

Cornwall : 

Cornwall Tailings 

Dolcoath 

East Pool 

Geevor 

South Crofty 

Other Countries : 

Arainayo Francke (Bolivia) 

Hriseis (Tasmania) 

Deebook (Siam) 

Mawchi (Burma) 

Porco (Bolivia) 

Renong (Siam) 

Rooiberg Minerals (Transvaal) ■ 
Siamese Tin (Siami 

Tongkah Harbour (Siain) 

Zaaiplaats (Transvaal) 



Year 

1918 

Tons 

33 

207 

146 

275 
17 
60 

312 

37 
274 

30 

99 
141 
228 
ITS 

60 
133 
118 

12 

108 
99 

27 
40 
476 

478 
280 

87 

435 
120 

13-' 
94 
40 
96 

108 
17 

179 
979 
136 

245 
236 

399 
730 

1,877 
207 
408 
508 
400 

1,36* 
133 

140 
787 
1,336 
352 
598 

1.816 
327 
398 
658 
227 
615 
335 
989 

1.528 
563 



.Mai 

1919 

Tons 

2 



41 
59 

199 
12 
25 
36 
20 

115 



34 

41 

228 
18 
26 
>5 
21 

124 
20 
77 

105 
40 



Year 

1919 

Tons 

10 

42 
1 

57 

20 

34 

118 

9 

72 

14 

45 

49 
109 
103 

69 

36 

30 

119 

3 



li 

14 

245 

161 

(;3 

104 

25 

16 

143 

15 

307 

419 

17 

23 

14 

34 

3 

52 
376 
93 
61 
96 
179 
5 
15* 
291 

75 
114 
197 
130 
604 



292 
495 
186 
222 

851 

104 
137 
295 
114 
394 
164 
264 
461 
255 



Nigerian Tin Production. 
In long tons of concentrate of unspecified content. 
Note These .figures are taken from the monthly returns 
made by individual companies reporting in London, and 
probably represent 85 % of the actual outputs. 



1911 1915 1916 


1917 1918 


1919 


Tons 

January 485 

February ... 469 

March 502 

April 482 

May 480 

July 432 

August 228 

September 289 
October 272 
November ... 283 
December ... 326 


Tons Tons 

417 531 
358 528 

418 547 
444 4^6 
357 536 
373 510 
455 506 
438 498 
442 535 
511 584 
467 679 
533 654 


Tons 
667 
646 
655 
555 
509 
473 
479 
551 
538 
578 
621 
655 


Tons 
678 
668 
707 
584 
525 
492 
545 
571 
520 
491 
472 
518 


Tons 
613 
623 
587 
531 
436 




5.213 6 504 


6.927 


6.771 





TOTAI :KATE AT REDRUTH TlCKETINGS. 

Value 



July 1 

July 15 

July 29 
Augu-: 
August 

•iber 9 

October 7...— 

r 21 ... 

abet 2 

tier 16 
December 30 



1704 

114 
142 
1424 

:»5i 
1364 

mi 
150 
1663 
1754 



£"199 12 
(210 19 

£203 7 
■ 

£197 16 

£195 13 
I 
■ 

£>8 6 



Total and A 

January 13. 1 

January 27 

February 10 
Februarv 

March 10 

March 24 



April 22 

May 5 

May 19 

June 2 

June 16... 

June 30 



4.094 






160 

1354 
153 

144* 
1484 
1344 
134$ 

1264 
140 
139 
136 




Details of Redruth Tin Tn • 



June 2 



Tons 
Sold 



E. Pool J* Agai 

. No. la 
.. No lb 
„ No lc 

Dolcoatb, No. 1 

No. la 

No lb 

No. 2 

A 

South Crofty. No. 1 

No. la 

Grenville Utd.. No. 1 

., No. la 

.. No 2 

Tincroft Mines. No. 1 

„ .. No. la 

Levant Mines. No. 1 
No. la 

Wheal Bellan 

Hingston Downs 

Trencrom Hill 



Total I4fi 



Realized 



£ s. d 
118 IS 

118 5 
lis 15 

118 15 
127 10 
12- 15 
129 5 

62 15 
112 15 
126 
126 15 

119 
118 



June 16 J une 30 



Tons 
Sold 



126 15 

127 7 
129 15 



129 15 



139 



Tons 
Sold 



10 
10 

10 
10 

9 

'.' 
') 

4 

11 
11 

7 

6 
6 
B 

7 



136 



JULY, 1919 



47 



Production of Tin in Federated Malay States. 

Estimated at 70% of Concentrate shipped to Smelters. Long 
Tons. * Figures not published. 



January •• 
February ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November 
December , 



1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 
Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


4,395 


4,316 


3,558 


3,149 


3.780 


3.372 


2,755 


3.191 


3.653 


3.696 


3,286 


2,608 


3,619 


3,177 


3.251 


3,308 


3.823 


3.729 


3,413 


3.332 


4,048 


3.435 


3,489 


2,950 


3,544 


3,5!7 


3,253 


3,373 


4,046 


3,732 


3,413 


3,259 


3,932 


3,636 


3,154 


3,166 


3.797 


3.681 


3,436 


2,870 


4,059 


3,635 


3,300 


3,131 


4,071 


3,945 


3.525 


3,023 


46.767 


43,871 


39.833 


37,370 



1919 

Tons 
3,765 
2.673 
2.819 
2,855 
3,404 
2,873 



Stocks of Tin 
Reported by A. Strauss & Co. 



Long Tons. 



Straits and Australian Spot 

Ditto, Landing and in Transit 

Other Standard, Spot and Landing ... 

Straits, Afloat 

Australian, Afloat 

Banca, on Warrants 

Ditto, Afloat 

Billiton, Spot 

Billiton, Afloat 

Straits, Spot in Holland and Hamburg 

Ditto, Afloat to Continent 

Total Afloat for United States 

Stock in America 

Total 



May 31 
1919 



Tons 

1.199 

797 

613 

2,044 

336 

105 



75 

10 

100 



5,279 



June 30, 
1919 



Tons 

1,816 

971 

793 

1,824 

332 



265 
25 
182 



6,208 



Shipments, Imports, Supply, and Consumption of Tin. 
Reported by A. Strauss & Co. Long tons. 



Shipments from : 

Straits to U.K 

Straits to America 

Straits to Continent 

Straits to Other Places 

Australia to U.K 

U.K. to America 

Imports of Bolivian Tin into Europe.. 

Supply : 

Straits 

Australian 

Billiton 

Banca 

Standard 

Consumption : 

U K. Deliveries 

Dutch 

American 

Straits, Banca & Billiton, Continen 
tal Ports, etc 



Straits in hands of Malay Government 

„ controlled by U.S. Government 
,, „ „ French and Italian 



Governments. 



Banca and Billiton controlled by Dutch 
Government 



June 
1919 



Tons 

1.349 

25 

265 

1,107 

150 

1,540 



1,639 
150 



1,375 
52 



PRICES OF CHEMICALS. July 8 

£ s. d. 

Alum per ton 

Alumina, Sulphate of , 

Ammonia, Anhydrous per lb. 

0'880 solution per ton 

Carbonate per lb. 

,, Chloride of, grey per ton 

,, pure per cwt. 

Nitrate of per ton 

,, Phosphate of 

Sulphate of 

Antimony Sulphide per lb. 

Arsenic, White per ton 

Barium Sulphate 

Bisulphide of Carbon 

Bleaching Powder, 35% CI 

Borax , 

Copper, Sulphate of 

Cyanide of Sodium, 100% per lb 

Hydrofluoric Acid , ,, 

Iodine ,, 

Iron, Sulphate of per ton 

Lead, Acetate of, white 

,, Nitrate of 

,, Oxide of, Litharge , 

,, White 

Lime, Acetate, brown 

grey 80% 

Magnesite, Calcined 

Magnesium Chloride ,, 

,, Sulphate , 

Methylated Spirit 64° Industrial per gal. 

Phosphoric Acid per lb. 

Potassium Bichromate 

Carbonate per ton 

Chlorate , per lb. 

Chloride 80% per ton 

Hydrate, (Caustic) 90% 

Nitrate 

Permanganate per lb. 

Prussiate, Yellow 

Sulphate, 90% per ton 

Sodium Metal per lb. 

,, Acetate per ton 

Arsenate 45 % 

,, Bicarbonate ,, 

,, Bichromate per lb. 

,, Carbonate (Soda Ash)... per ton 
,, ,, (Crystals) ... 

,, Chlorate per lb. 

,, Hydrate, 76% per ton 

,, Hyposulphite , 

Nitrate, 95% 

,, Phosphate 

,, Prussiate per lb. 

,, Silicate per ton 

,, Sulphate (Salt-cake) , 

,, ,, (Glauber's Salts) ,, 

,, Sulphide , 

Sulphur, Roll 

,, Flowers 

Sulphuric Acid, Non- Arsenical... 
140°T. 
,, 
., 

Superphosphate of Lime, 1S'\ 

Tartaric Acid per lb 

Zinc Chloride per ton 25 

Zinc Sulphate , 



17 








19 










1 


10 


33 






6* 


50 








4 








58 








114 








17 


10 







1 


3 


35 








12 








54 








15 








39 








45 







10 
7 




14 





5 








85 








59 








45 








52 








10 








17 








25 








16 








11 










6 


7 




1 


9 




1 


6 


85 










1 


2 


30 








150 








60 










3 


6 




1 


9 


40 










1 


3 


53 








48 








9 


10 




11 


10 








4 


5 



8 


23 


10 





16 








21 








25 


10 



7j 


12 








3 








3 








22 








20 








21 








5 








7 


5 


3 


9 


7 


6 


5 










3 


2 


25 








22 









48 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



SHARE QUOTATIONS 

Shares are £~1 par value except where otherwise noted. 



GOLD, SILVER. 
DIAMONDS : 
Rand : 

Bantjes 

Brakpan 

Central Mining (£8) 

Cinderella 

City & Suburban (£4) 

City Deep 

Consolidated Gold Fields 

Consolidated I.anglaagte 

Consolidated Main Reef 

Consolidated Mines Selection (10s). 

Crown Mines (10s ) 

Daggafontein 

Durban Roodepoort Deep 

East Rand Proprietary 

Ferreira Deep ■* 

Geduld 

Geldenhuisl 1 

Gov't Gold Mining Areas 

Heriot 

Jupiter 

Kleinfontein 

Knight Central 

Knight's Deep 

Langlaagte Estate 

Ml y< i & Charlton 

Modderfontein (£4) 

Modderfontein B 

Modder Deep 

Nourse 

Rand Mines (5s.) 

Rand Selection Corporation 

Randfontein Cl ntral 

Robinson (£5) 

Robinson Deep A (Is.) 

Rose Deep 

Simmer & Jack 

Simmer Deep 

Springs 

Sub-Nigel 

Van R>n 

Van Ryn Peep 

Village Deep 

Village Main Reef ■ 

Witwatersrand ( Knight's) 

Wilwatersrand Deep 

Wolhuter 

Other Transvaal Gold Mines 

Glynn's Lydenburg 

Sheba (5s.) 

Transvaal Gold Mining Estates ... 

Diamonds in South Africa 

De Beers Deferred (£"2 10s.) 

Jagersfontein 

Premier Deferred (2s. 6d.) 



JulyS 

1918 

£ s. d. 



July 7 

1919 

£ s. d. 



Rhodesia : 

Cam & Motor 

Chartered British South Africa 

Eldorado 

Falcon 

Gaika 

Giant 

Globe & Phoenix (5s.) 

Lonely Reef 

Rezende.. 

Shamva 

Wanderer (3s.) 

Willoughby's (10s.) 

West Africa • 

Abbontiakoon (10s.) 

Abosso 

Ashanii (A<.) 

Prestea Block A 

Taojuah 



West Australia : 

Associated Gold Mines 

Associated Northern Blocks — 

Bullfinch 

Golden Horse-Shoe !£"5) 

Great Boulder Proprietarv(2s.)- 

Great Fingall (lOsI 

Ivanhoe (£"5) 

Kalgurli 

Sons of Gwalia 



2 9 


3 


4 7 6 


3 10 


6 3 9 


9 


4 


5 3 


17 


13 9 


3 


2 16 3 


1 14 f, 


1 18 9 


17 


1 6 


14 6 


14 6 


15 9 


1 4 


2 6 


2 1 5 


1 5 6 


1 5 


10 3 


9 


3 9 


5 <J 


12 6 


11 3 


1 18 


■ 


12 6 


11 3 


3 13 9 


1 17 6 


1 


15 


4 


5 


14 


13 6 


3 


6 9 


7 6 




1 ■ 


1 6 


4 17 6 


4 18 9 


24 


26 10 






7 12 6 


7 10 


16 3 : 


16 3 


2 13 9 


2 17 6 


4 12 6 




10 6 


13 k 


15 6 , 








19 6 




5 


5 


2 9 1 




3 16 3 


2 16 3 




1 5 


19 6 


18 


3 12 , 


3 12 (, 


18 1 


16 3 


14 6 




1 5 


1 5 


7 3 


12 6 




4 


19 6 


1 1 3 


9 


1 3 


15 6 


15 


14 10 


23 7 6 


4 2 6 


6 5 


6 12 G 




11 6 


6 


15 


1 3 


7 9 


5 6 


1 2 


13 


14 


17 6 


7 6 




1 9 6 


1 7 


1 16 3 


2 13 9 


4 2 6 


5 2 6 


1 18 9 


1 18 9 


1 


1 


5 


6 6 


3 9 


5 3 


7 6 


10 


19 6 


1 .. 9 


3 9 


5 9 


15 


17 3 


3 


4 


3 


3 9 


1 9 


1 5 


2 1 5 


1 13 9 


10 


9 9 


1 9 


1 3 


1 17 


1 IS 


9 


li 6 


8 3 


r. 6 



Gold, Silver, con<. 

Others in Australasia : 

Mount Boppy, New South Wales 

Talisman, New Zealand... 

Waihi. New Zealand 

Waihi Grand Junction. New Z'lnd 

America : 

Alaska Treadwell (£5). Alaska 

Buena Tier'ra, Mexico 

Camp Bird. Colorado 

Casey Cobalt, Ontario 

El Oro. Mexico 

Esperanza. Mexico 

Frontino ft Bolivia, Colombia 

I.e Roi No. 2 (£5). British Columbia 
Mexico Mines of Kl Oro. Mexico . 

Oroville Dredging. California 

Plymouth Consolidated. California 

St John del Rey. Brazil 

Santa Gertrudis. Mexico 

Tomboy. Colorado 

Russia : 
Lena GoldheM> 
Orsk Priority 



July 5 

1918 

£ s. d. 

6 

15 

1 17 6 

15 



I»J|UA 

Bala ghat 

Cha;. 2s. 6dl 

Mysore (10s.) 

i Anantapur 
Nondydroog (10a 
Ooregum (10s ) ... 



COPPER 

Arizona Copper (5s). Ai icons 
Cai- nee 

Chillagoe (10s. I. . 
Cordoba (5s.). Spain 
Great Cobar (£5). NSW ... 
Hampden Cloncarry, Queensland 
K\ ihtim, Ru la 
Messin 1 1 

nt Elliott (£"5). Queensland .. 
Mount Lyell, Ts 
Mount Morgan, Queensland 

Namaqua (i 2), Cape Province 

Rio Tiuio (£5). Spain 

Spassky, Rossis 

Tanalyk, Russia 

TansaiiMk.i < nuo and Rhodesia 

. n 

LEAD ZI1 

Bkokkn Hn i. 
Amalgamated Zinc 

British Broken Mill . 
Broken Hill Proprietar) (8a 
Broken Hill Block 10 (£101... 

Broken Hill North 

Broken Hill South 

Sulphide I 15s ) 

Zinc Corporation (10s .).. 

Asia 

Burma Corporation 

Irtysh Corporation 

Russian Mining 

Russo-Asiatic 

TIN 

Aramayo Francke. Bolivia 

Bisichi. Nigeria 

Briseis. Tasmania 

Dolcoath. Cornwall 

East Pool, Cornwall 

Ex-Lands Nigeria (2s.). Nigeria ... 

Geevor (10s ) Cornwall 

Gopeng, Malay 

Ipoh Dredging, Malay 

Malayan Tin Dredging, Malay 

Mongu (10s.), Nigeria 

Naraguta, Nigeria 

N. N. Bauchi Pref. (10s .''. I 

Ord. (10s.). 
Pahang Consolidated (5s.). Malay. 

Rayfield. Nigeria 

Renong Dredging, Siani •• 

Ropp (4s.), Nigeria 

Siamese Tin, Siam 

South Crofty (5s.), Cornwall 

Tekka. Malay 

Tekka-Taiping, Malay 

Tronoh. Malay 



12 
12 
13 

6 
10 

8 
12 

6 
5 12 
18 
I 2 
17 
14 
13 

1 7 
13 



5 

2 13 

3 

1 2 

18 



2 8 
2 10 

1 



3 5 
1 - 
I II 
1 12 
67 10 

I 



2 

1 2 6 

3 14 6 

6 10 



1 6 

2 10 

3 4 
1 17 
3 5 

12 

1 9 

1 k 



14 

6 
10 

1 9 
3 

1 2 

1 18 

2 1 

14 

17 
12 
7 

12 
H 

2 6 

3 6 

2 12 

3 15 
3 15 

2 2 



July 7 

1919 

£ s d 

i G 

8 9 

2 5 

12 6 



4 7 6 

1 2 
11 3 

2 10 



1 12 

18 

I 4 

2 

1 2 
15 
10 
11 

7 5 

i a 

19 

15 



I 12 6 
16 3 






2 1 

2 6 

1 

1 

I 

19 

1 13 

5 



I 5 

1 19 

2 3 



I I 
1 



3 

1 3 

1 3 

2 
S9 10 o 

1 5 6 

1 15 

i 18 9 

5 2 6 



7 13 9 

I 
4 11 G 



19 

17 

12 
7 

!6 

2 5 

3 2 I 

1 13 9 

4 5 

5 7 6 

2 5 



Share capital expanded 



THE MINING DIGEST 

A RECORD OF PROGRESS IN MINING, METALLURGY, AND GEOLOGY 

In this section we give abstracts of important articles and papers appearing in t ethnical journals and 

proceedings of societies, together with brief records of other articles and papers ; also reviews of new 

books, and abstracts of the yearly reports of mining companies. 



BAUXITE IN WEST AFRICA. 



The report of Mr. A. E. Kitson, Director of the 
Gold Coast Geological Survey, for 1917, just received, 
contains an account of the high-grade bauxite deposits 
near the summit of Mt. Ejuanema. During the five 
months occupied in the examination, three trenches, 
varying from 40 to 70 ft. in length, 4 to 5 ft. in width, 
and 3 to 8 ft. in depth, were dug in different parts of 
the top of the mountain. Shafts have since been sunk, 
with the aid of explosives, on the mountain to prove 
the thickness of the deposit. The evidence so far ob- 
tained shows that the bauxite is about 20 ft. thick, and 
that it merges into unaltered clay-shales, which lie a 
few feet beneath it. 

Mt. Ejuanema stands on the Kwahu plateau, two 
miles to the west-south-west of Mpraeso, and about a 
mile to the south south-west of Obomen. It is about 
2,530 ft. above sea-level, and rises about 1,000 ft above 
the Asuboni river on the plateau. In its upper, very 
steep portion it has a more or less oval shape, the lon- 
ger axis being nearly east-west. In its lower portion 
on the northern side there are several spurs trending 
northward into the valley of the Asuboni river. These 
spurs branch from the main mountain at the foot of 
the very steep part consisting of sandstone cliffs, 50 ft. 
high in places, at from 250 to 300 ft. below the sum- 
mit. They are separated from one another by little 
narrow deep valleys, in which aresmall streams, peren- 
nial along the whole or parts of their courses. These 
streams flow into the Asuboni river. On its south- 
western side the mountain presents vertical faces to 
the valley below. These comprise two escarpments, 
an upper one, varying from some 300 to 500 ft., con- 
necting the top of the mountain with the Kwahu plat- 
eau ; the lower one, from 200 to 400 ft. , connecting the 
plateau with the valley below, and forming the Kwahu 
scarp, up which the four paths from the valley below 
rise to the towns of Mpraeso, Atibbi, Obomen, and Obo 
on the plateau. 

The rock formations consist of a series of irregularly 
alternating sandstones, sandy shales, and clay-shales 
disposed horizontally, though in some places there are 
slight inclinations to north and north-east. The clay- 
shales are a few inches to 5 ft. thick in some places, 
but in others have a thickness of more than 100 ft. One 
of the thickest beds is on the top of Mt. Ejuanema. 
Another comprises the tops of the three spurs off the 
northern slope of the mountain. A third is at the 
town of Obo, some three miles to the north-west. De- 
nudation has operated intensely on the Kwahu plateau, 
with the result that these deposits of sandstones and 
shales, of various shades of grey, green brown, yellow, 
chocolate, and purple colours have been deeply ero- 
ded, and in the larger valleys, such as the Asuboni with 
an erosion of 1,000 ft., have lost the greater part of 
their masses. The result of this is that on the top of 
Mt. Iijuanema, and at numbers of places in the valleys 
at difterent altitudes there are remnants only of the 
original beds of clay-shales. 

Through some chemical action not definitely known 
at present, but probably due to the downward circu- 
lation of water, and to weathering, the original clay- 



shales, which consist of hyrated silicate of alumina, 
have been altered. They have lost nearly the whole 
of the silica they contained and thus the derived ma- 
terial is hydrated alumina. No fossils of a definite 
character have been found in these deposits, so their 
age is uncertain, but it is probable that they belong to 
the Devonian or to the Carboniferous period, since the 
beds show a strong lithological resemblance to beds 
occurring along the coast at Accra and near Sekondi 
in which fossils provisionally regarded by Dr. A. Mor- 
ley Davies as of Middle Devonian and Lower Carboni- 
ferous age respectively, have been found. These sedi- 
ments rest on a granitoid rock varying considerably in 
character from place to place. Some of it is an acid 
granite consisting of a flesh-pink felspar, quartz, and a 
little black mica ; other portions have a pale green fel- 
spar, clear quartz, black mica, and hornblende. 
Though normally granitic in structure, it is also por- 
phyritic with large crystals of felspar. It is an exceed- 
ingly pretty rock and would make a handsome and dur- 
able building and ornamental stone. The line of junc- 
tion between the basement rock and the overlying sedi- 
ments shows that the original surface of the granite 
was uneven when the sediments were deposited on it. 
At the Durabong Su the actual base of the sediments 
consists of pockets of a chocolate to purplish clay- 
shale filling hollows in the granite, while here, and at 
the Obomen and Obo scarps, the lowermost bed of the 
sediments is an arkose, a granitic gravelly sandstone 
or grit. Immediately overlying these are fine indura- 
ted sandstones and sandy and clay-shales in thin beds. 
Broadly speaking the foot of the scarp is the base of 
the sedimentary series. 

Bauxite shows definitely in situ along the whole of 
the rim of the top of the mountain, and on the surface 
over a large part of the top ; also apparently in situ 
at various places below the broken rim for 100 ft. in 
vertical distance below the top. On the northern slope 
of the mountain a sandstone ledge, approximately 100 
ft. lower than the flat top of the mountain, shows a 
fairly well marked division between the clay-shale beds 
with bauxite overlying and the underlying sandstones. 
There is no doubt that the top of the mountain had 
originally a cap of clay-shales, in places probably 100 
ft. thick. Whether that cap consisted solely of clay- 
shales, or had intercalated thin bands of sandstones is 
a point that must remain unsettled for the present. On 
the surface at several places on the top there area few 
bits and small slabs of sandstone showing worn faces. 
These may be the remnants of this bed of sandstone 
or they may owe their presence there to human trans- 
port. The latter is probably the correct view, for there 
is evidence that the aborigines frequented the place, 
and probably made their last stand for existence be- 
hind a low curved wall of blocks of bauxite near the 
western end of the mountain, the remains of which are 
now visible. 

Of the three trenches dug on the top of the moun- 
tain two are at places where the surface consists of red 
soil, and where, with the exception of one small piece, 
no massive bauxite was visible close to them. The 



1— G 



49 



50 



THE MIXING MAGAZINE 



third is in a portion where numerous blocks of bauxite 
outcrop at the surface. Trench No. 1 is 75 ft. long, 
4 ft. broad, and 7 ft. deep. The upper portion of the 
3 to 4 ft. shows red soil only. In the lower portion of 
3 ft. there are big lurrips and masses of bauxite, with 
soil containing granular bauxite between them, while 
the greater part of the bottom is massive bauxite of un- 
proved thickness. The proportion of bauxite and of 
bauxitic soil in a given layer 3 It thick is estimated at 
and 37 5 "., respectively. Trench No. 2 is 40 
ft. long, 4 ft. broad, and 8 ft. deep. The upper 4 ft. 
consists of red soil. In the lower 4 ft. there are great 
blocks and big lumps of bauxite, with red soil and 
granular bauxite between them. In a given layer of 
3 ft. in thickness the proportion of massive bauxite is 
66'6% and that of granular bauxiticsoil 33 3. Trench 
No. 3 is 50 ft. long, divided into two almost equal parts, 
A and J'. Pari A is 24 ft. long. 3J ft. wide, and 5 ft. 
deep. In part B there are such large blocks of bauxite 
at the surface or immediately below it that sinking was 
discontinued at 2 ft. In part A the material tfa 
out consists of small blocks and pieces of bauxite, to- 
gether with red soil mixed with innumerable particles 
and nodulesof bauxite from less than thesize of a pin's 
head to that of an orange. The total quantity of baux- 
ite in this rubble is considerable, but it has not been 
included in theestimate, which gives bauxiteabor. 
of the total mass. 

From the granular character of the red material, like 
soil, occurring among the massive bauxite Mr. I. 
formed the opinion that the greater part of it, if not 
the whole, was incoherent bauxite. Samples fi 
alysis were collected, but they were lost in transit to 
England, Further samples were obtained durn j 
and taken to Kngland in September. This ma- 



terial was sieved through a 40-mesh sieve, and the 
coarse and the fine portions are now being analysed 
separately. There is little doubt that all of the coarse 
material is bauxite, while much of the fine material 
shows the same granular character as the coarse, and 
comprises about 5% of the whole of theinterstitial ma- 
terial. Thus, of the whole of it among the massive 
bauxite about 95% consists of granular bauxite and 
since each of the two kinds, namely, the massive baux- 
ite and the rubbly loose matter, may be taken as ap- 
proximately 50"o of the whole mass, the latter repre- 
sents about 2 5",, of the whole. One partial an 
has been received to date. This shows: silica, 17 
alumina 38*17% ; ferric oxide, 20 94",, ; titanium oxide, 
; and water 20*36%. A rational analysis of 
this sample gives : free alumina, 24 5".. ; combined 
alumina, 13 7% . and quart/, 1*4% , so probably near- 
ly the whole of the silica shown by the partial analy- 
sis exists combined with the 13'7",. of alumina in the 
form of clay. Should the additional analyses give 
similar results, and assuming that the whole of this 
clay be removable by elutriation, the alumina in the 
!'• would be abon: - i bii does not take into 

consideration the ferric oxide, some of which e 
the form of the hydrate. If so. washing should re- 
move it. and then the percentage of alumina in the 
pondingly increased. The 
average of seventeen analyses of this massive bauxite 

ilnmina 60*55%, ferric oxidi 
titanium o silica 1 42 ,, moisture 25 

with a little lime ami magnesia, together less thai 1 
By the caustic soda processof cot; bauxite into 

alumina, ore of tins grade should of alumina. 

iluminium. 
( >ther ile; noun in the distrut 



THE SULPHIDE CORPORATION'S LEAD REFINERY. 



In our last issue we quoted two papers read at the 
1918 meeting of the Australasian Institute of Mining 
Engineers describing the smelting and pot-ro i 
plants of the Sulphide Corporation at Cockle I 
where the lead concentrates from the Central Mine, 
Broken Mill, are treated, together with custom ore and 
concentrate-. Herewith we quote from another paper, 
read at the same meeting, describing the lead refinery, 
written by R E. Cov 

The lead refinery building is a lofty, well-venti- 
lated oneof hardwood frame, with galvanized iron walls 
and roof, and consists of five spans running north and 
south. < overing a total length of 236 ft. Each span is 
composed of nine bays of 13 ft. centres, making the 
total width of the building 117 ft. It is situated con- 
veniently at a distance of 100 yd. from the smelters 
Through the third span of the building runs a 5 ton 
electric overhead travelling crane, of a 3 motor type, 
with a span of 29ft. The crane runway extends over 
a railway line, which connects the smelters to the re- 
finery. This crane is used for handling bullion, coal, 
melting kettles, lead pumps, v . A 3 ton crane of 
similar type, but with a 50 ft. span, runs through the 
fifth span of the building, and also extends over the 
railway line already mentioned. This crane is used to 
load the soft lead into railway trucks, or to stack lead 
awaiting shipment in the area covered bv the crane's 
operations. 

The installation is in two units in parallel, each unit 
-ting of : one 50 ton copper drossing kettle, one 
4o ton an Ittner, two 44 ton desilverizing 

pans, one 40 ton refiner, one 38 ton market kettle, one 
moulding ring ; and common to both sets: one small 
furnace for working up skimmings and drosses, one 



antimony dross furnace, one gas producer for retort- 
turnace, one four bottle regenerative gas-fired retort- 
furnace, two single bottle oil fired tilting retort uir- 
naces, three concentrating cupels, two finishing cupels, 
electrolytic parting plant, gold and silver melting fur- 
naces 

The 44 ton desilverizing kettles and 38 ton market 
kettles are handled on special runways, centred over 
their respective kettl- These runways are 

carried on two 14 in. by 7 in < )regon beams supported 
on C I. brackets and, spiked to these It in. bv 7 in. 
beams, are the rails which ill-bearing i 

To this crawl is suspended a tackle, from which are 
hung slings to lift the kettles. The travelling of these 
is done by hand, but is easily operated by one man 
Ordinarily, these crawls are used to hang and travel 
the Howard presses and stirrers. 

There are three working-floor levels in this build 
No. 1, on the dump level, known as the cupel refiner 
parting room and tiring-floor level ; No, 2, on a level 

n. lower than this, known as the mouldir. 
soft lead storage floor : and the other. No. 3 floor, be- 
ing elevated 7 ft. above the No 1 or refiner floor. This 
elevated floor is know n as the top floor, and is the one 
from which the melting kettles, softeners, desilverizing 
kettles, &c, are worked. This floor is built in rein- 
forced concrete, with indented bar reinforcement. It 
is designed to carry 12j cwt. per super ft., having 12 in 
bv 1 2 in. columns on 3 ft. 6 in. sq. footings. The beams 
are 24 in. by 12 in. up to 27 in. by 15 in., according to 
span. The floor proper has a total thickness of 
Sin of this being 4-2-1 mixture, the other inch 
a specially finished floating coat, laid while the main 
body was still plastic. The advantage of the elevated 



JULY, 1919 



51 






floor is that it allows a more perfect ventilation for the 
men engaged working on the No. 1 floor level, and also 
provides storage space for the various material used in 
connection with the operations. It also shows easy ac- 
cess from one end of the building to the other. The 
various furnaces are connected to three stacks of simi- 
lar construction through the three main parallel flues 
running underground. 

The base bullion, after being drossed and moulded 
(25 bars per ton) at the smelters, is run on trucks via 
a low-level railway, direct to No. 1 electric crane, slung 
and hoisted in two-ton lots to the copper-drossing ket- 
tles. The bars are charged into the kettle, melted at 
a low temperature, and the copper dross skimmed. 
This dross is treated in a small liquating furnace, and 
the liquated bullion returned to the refinery, the cop- 
per dross going to the smelters. The molten metal in 
the copper-drossing kettle is then transferred to the 
antimony softener by means of a direct-coupled electri- 
cally-driven Rumsey centrifugal pump. These pumps 
are an innovation in Australian refinery practice. The 
pump is permanently fixed in a frame, which rests on 
the circumference of the kettle, and so arranged that, 
when in position, the pump is immersed to the full 
depth of the kettle. The casing is provided with spac- 
ing studs to keep it from actually resting on the bottom. 
The time of pumping 40 tons is twenty minutes. 

The antimony softener is the usual reverberatory 
type, water-jacketed, and lined with magnesite bricks 
at the litharge level ; the end jacket is centrally chan- 
nelled, the channel leading into a removable inclined 
spoilt, carrying the litharge into portable slag pots. 
After charging, fhe furnace is strongly fired, giving an 
oxidizing atmosphere, the resultant litharge being con- 
stantly run off at the channel and acting as a vehicle 
for carrying off the antimony and arsenic. Towards 
the end of the operation the furnace is allowed to cool 
back, and, the crust of litharge is skimmed by hand. 
The further treatment of the antimony and arsenic dross 
will be referred to later. The operation takes, accord- 
ing to the antimony and arsenic contents, from eight 
to twelve hours, from time of charging to time of dis- 
charging into the desilverizing pans. 

When clean the metal is tapped into one of two 
desilverizing pans, and the gold and silver separated 
by the Parkes process. No attempt is made to separ- 
ate the gold and silver in the crusts, the whole alloy 
being mixed and retorted. The gold and silver con- 
tents are very variable, but only two zincings are made. 
The spelter is added in cakes, melted on the surface 
and stirred in mechanically by means of the Howard 
rope-driven stirrer. The first zinc alloy is pressed off 
by the Howard press, which is worked by pneumatic 
pressure, and conveniently handled by an air hoist sup- 
ported by a carriage on overhead runway. The sec- 
ond zincing is skimmed by hand. The pressed alloy 
goes direct to the retorts. 

The desilverized lead is then syphoned to the refiner, 
of the usual reverberatory jacketed type, on the lower 
floor, and the zinc and any remaining antimony are re- 
moved as a dross by skimming. The refined lead then 
passes by gravity to the market kettle, from which it 
is syphoned into a pot and runner, and moulded in a 
semicircular rake of hundredweight moulds, further 
skimmed and trimmed, weighed, stacked by means of 
an electric crane, and is then ready for shipment, 

The skimmings from the antimony softener are stacked, 
and treated periodically in the antimony dross furnace, 
a furnace with refractory lining, but no water-jackets. 
The material is charged in 3,000 lb. lots, mixed with 
sufficient fine coal to reduce the bulk of the metal, the 
antimony and arsenic remaining in the slag. The slag 



and metal are periodically run oft, the former into a 
bed, the latter into a five-ton kettle, from which it is 
moulded into bars and returned to the copper-drossing 
kettles. The slag, when cold, is broken up and further 
treated in a small blast-furnace, the metal carrying the 
antimony and a trace of arsenic. This antimonial lead 
is melted in a kettle, and the antimony percentage is re- 
duced by dilution with refined lead to the requisite 
quantity for marketable shrapnel lead, and moulded 
into dumpy hundredweight bars. 

Returning to the pressed silver-zinc alloy from the 
desilverizing kettles, this is charged in 12cwt. lots to 
the inclined bottles of the gas-fired retort-furnace, the 
zinc distilled and condensed, and the retort bullion 
ladled into moulds. 

The two tilting retort furnaces are a special feature 
of the plant, and are worked by one attendant. Each 
furnace is supplied with a low-pressure burner using 
oil from the Mond gas plant. This oil, which is also 
used in the gold and silver melting furnaces, is a heavy 
distillate from the tar, and has proved very efficient. 
The amount of oil used is 26 gal. per shift of eight 
hours. One charge of 10 cwt. of alloy is finished each 
shift. The retorted bullion from the tilting furnace is 
lower in zinc than that from the gas-fired retorts. The 
life of the retorts in the tilting furnaces is very good, 
and for simplicity of operation the furnaces are a great 
success. When ready, the molten metal, instead of 
being ladled as in the case of the ordinary retort, is 
poured by tilting the furnace direct into moulds placed 
at the requisite height on a stepped portable frame. 
The retorted bullion, assaying 2,000 to 2,500 oz. Ag per 
ton, passes to the concentrating cupels, where it is 
worked up to concentrated bullion, the lead passing oft 
as litharge, which is granulated in water, the final alloy 
containing approximately 16,000 oz. silver and gold per 
ton. The charge held by the cupel or test increases 
with use from lOcwt. to 14c\vt. The concentrated 
metal is ladled into moulds and transferred to the 
finishing cupel. Here it is worked up to dore, which 
may undergo a further transference to a drying cupel, 
that removes the last traces of lead by absorption. The 
pure dore is then ready for moulding for the parting 
operation into anodes ; these are rectangular plates 
about Jin. thick, weighing approximately lOOoz. 

The electrolytic parting plant is furnished with 36 
earthenware cells of the Balbach type. Each cell con- 
tains two wooden paraffined cradles with inner frames, 
holding the cloths (10 oz. linen duck). The anodes lie 
horizontally on the cloth, and are just immersed in the 
electrolyte. The electrolyte is essentially a solution of 
silver nitrate carrying as impurities a small quantitv of 
lead nitrate and a considerable amount of copper ni- 
trate. The solution is slightly acid, usually about 3 
grm. per litre of free nitric. The current is passed to 
the anode by means of a contact piece (usually of pure 
Ag), and the silver deposited as pure crystalline metal 
on the carbon cathodes, which lie on the bottom of the 
cell. The silver is raked forward periodically and 
drained on the lip of the cell, withdrawn, washed in a 
separate wooden vessel, and stored loose in draining 
boxes. When comparatively dr\ »ed in very 

light calico bags, charged to a Morgan tilting lurnace, 
and run into bars of l,050oz. The gold remains as a 
sludge on the cloihs. This is di '. inquarted with 
three times its weight of silver, am! re-parted to give a 
denser product. Anv remaining silver is dissolved In- 
boiling with concentrated sulphuric acid, the gold 
washed free of silver, and melted in a Rockwell oil- 
fired furnace into bars ol about 600 oz. The silver is 
remarkably pure, assaying 099-9 fine and carrying only 
traces to 4dwt. of gold per ton. 



52 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



All kettles and furnaces, with the exception of the 
retorts, are Bred direct with coal, butlater on, nodoubt, 
these will be heated by means of Mond gas. At pres- 



ent, however, the supply is not available, and it is im- 
possible to build further producers until the supply of 
steel plates becomes more plentiful. 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND MINE-SURVEYING. 



In our issue of September last, Professor L. H. 
Cooke drew attention to the influence of terrestrial 
magnetism on mine-surveying, and discussed the in- 
vestigations on this subject made by Dr. Charles Chree 
ai Kew Observatory. Dr. Chree read a paper before 
the Institution of Mining Engineers last year entitled 
"Terrestrial Magnetism in relation toMine Surveying." 
Professor Cooke contributed to the discussion on the 
paper. By permission of the Council of the Institu- 
tion we are enabled to reproduce herewith Professor 
Cooke's remarks, which are published in Vol. LV of 
the Transactions. 

Many misconceptions on this subject are current, 
and have even found their way into the text-books ; 
thus, it is often stated that the needle points to the 
terrestrial magnetic poles; or, again, with greater ap- 
pearance of precision of phrase, that the planes of mag- 
netic meridians of different places intersect at the ter 
restrial magnetic poles : or, again, that the needle is 
subject here to violent disturbances which frequently 
amount to one or two degrees ' Dr. Chree's paper will 
dispel many such foggy inaccuracies incidentally, but 
its chief service will be to shatter the blind unreason- 
able faith in the random misuse of the needle 

The main source of trouble is the reference of the 
surveys to a " mean magnetic meridian " ; then follows 
the misconception that the " mean magnetic meridian " 
can be determined with a compass, a dial, or a com- 
pass-theodolite, despite the fact that the sighting plane 
(plane of collimationi of the instrument is never paral- 
lel with the zero line of the needle-scale ; that the geo- 
metric axis of the needle does not as a rule coincide 
with its magnetic axis ; that the pivot is never exactly 
at the centre of the needle ring that the line joining 
the two points of the needle does not pass through the 
point of the pivot, etc Naturally follows the crude 
notion that from a map of isogonals, or from a list giv- 
ing the declinations at various places, or by applica- 
tion to a magneticobservatory, trueorgeographic north 
can be found by way of a knowledge of the mean mag 
netic declination Dr. Chree specifically condemns 
two of these fallacious modes of proceeding, but the 
tale of errors will never be ended except by a more 
rational training and stricter testing of the mine-sur- 
veyor, a point made by Mr W. H < ialletlv 

Again and again, surveyors blame the instrument- 
makers because no two compasses will give exactly 
the same measure for the magnetic azimuth of the 
same draft. Professor Cooke has in his charge an in- 
strument which has the trough compass attached 5^ 
degrees in error, but he considered its enormity a rare 
piece of good fortune ; for even the most negligent of 
students could see that the instrument was faulty and 
be induced to interest himself in the simple and readv 
means of neutralizing the error, namely, by the aid of 
a line of orientation. A few years ago Mr. E. W. 
Newton, the well-known instrument-maker, of Cam- 
borne, Cornwall, showed Professor Cooke his records 
of tests of groups of needles, each group having 
been cut from the same strip of steel. When plac- 
ed one after another in turn on the same pivot in 
the same compass, the readings they gave differed com- 
monly by a few minutes up to about \ degree. The 
non-coincidence of the magnetic and geometric axes 
of the needle and the failure of the line joining the 
two points of the needle to cut the supporting point — 



one, or the other, or probably both together — were 
doubtless the causes — almost if not entirely irremedi- 
able. The orientation. line, rationally used, cuts out 
not only the constructional blunders like that of the 
5\ degrees just mentioned, but also these irremediable 
errors, as well as that due to the eccentricity of the 
pivot ; and largely reduces errors arising from the 
regular and irregular changes in the position of the 
magnetic meridian. 

The use of maps showing "smoothed " isogonals is 
recommended in error by almost all the recent British 
text-books on mine-sun. eying, a fact which lends force 
to Dr. Chree's warning ; his further hint that even the 
unsmoothed isogonals of Nc^ 5 and 'of the K ticker 
and Thorpe maps do not tell the whole truth, should 
help to keep surveyors from attempting to lake a value 
for the magnetic declination from any such map, if the 
value is to be used in good work in mine-surveying. 
Here and there in some of the northern coalfields are 
volcanic necks piercing the Coal Measures, such 
bodies of more or less banc rock mav cause local dis 
turbance which will generally escape representation on 
small maps. Dumbarton Kock is such a neck (not in 
the Ci here a century ago a compass set 

up at various points on a straight line running nearly 
tangent to the neck showed v <-i ■ 

of the azimuth of the line The late Mr. J Henderson 
and Mr W. Tbomashave both called attention to great 
deflections of the needle they have encountered in their 
surveys of Cornish mines ; and an acquaintance, when 
surveying a certain colliery, finds the magnetic meri- 
dian fairlv abruptlydepartsfrom its usual position 

ng from one part of the colliery to another part 
I 'ossibly in such cases of areal disturbance, the sin 
should make use of several lines of known orientation, 
as, for example, the lines of a tnangulation system 
Fortunately such local disturbances seem to be rela- 
tively rare in the collieries, but it would be of inter 
est and value to learn whether the local disturbing 
agencies affect the temporary change (diurnal varia- 
tion and irregular disturbance). In other words, 
whether the Kew data could be usefully applied in such 
cases. 

Mr W. G, Walker states that the effects of the rock, 
the presence of iron railways or electric currents in the 
mine, and secular and daily variation of the normal 
magnetic forces make the use of surface values even 
near the mine quite inadmissible underground. This 
might be discouraging if magnetic orientation were 
a thing born only yesterday but it has had a scienti- 
fic basis for three-quarters of a century in Germain, 
and the scores of successes attained are ugly facts for 
Mr Walker's views. One striking example is worth 
quoting : mine surveyor Schmiedicke made an under- 
ground traverse between two plumb-wires suspended 
in shafts 550 metres (600 yards) apart, conditions which 
afford a trustworthy means of finding the azimuths of 
the drafts. Two drafts were afterwards oriented mag 
neticallv, with results as follows : 





Azimuth 


Azimuth 


Difler 


Praft 


from 


by way 


ence in 




traverses 


of niacnet 


seconds 


1 to 2 


155° 31' 08" 


i0' 42" 




43 to 44 


359 c 15' 32" 


359* 15' 37" 


5 



We cannot hope to approach such accuracy unless 
we adopt instruments with filar suspension of the 



JULY, 1919 



53 



needle. Apart from the body of evidence obtained in 
mine-surveying practice, the practical concordance of 
the regular and irregular variations of the declination 
at the surface and underground has been established 
by the synchronous tests organized by Bergrat E. Bor- 
chers in an observatory at the surface and in another 
545 metres (596 yards) underground in the Eleonore 
mine, Clausthal, at intervals during the years 1843 to 
1846. This was the first time that comparative obser- 
vations had been made at so great a depth, and for 
their trustworthiness speaks the reputationof Borchers, 
a magnetician, an inventor and improver of mine sur- 
veying instruments, appliances, and methods, and a 
scientific mine-surveyor whose wonderful results in 
practice were the admiration of his age. Earlier ob- 
servationsin the Freiberg mine, and later ones by Ober- 
markscheider Schmid and the magnetician Liznar for 
a depth of 1,000 metres (1,094 yards) in the deep Adal- 
bert shaft at Przibram confirm Borchers' observations, 
and tend to show that Clausthal is not an exceptional 
case. So far the observations were at most made no 
more frequently than every 5 or 15 minutes, but in 
1906 self-registering observatories were installed at the 
surface and 813 metres (839 yards) below, in the Mono- 
pol Colliery, Westphalia, and the tests were conduct- 
ed by mine-surveyor Stiepel, who had been specially 
trained at Potsdam. No noticeable difference showed 
itself in the curves of the two stations on quiet days, 
or on days of irregular but slow disturbance, and no 
noteworthy discordance in the quicker swings. In 
1903 L. A. Bauer investigated the possibility of opera- 
ing self-registering instruments in the Lake Superior 
copper. mines and found the conditions exceptionally 
good, in the absence of electric installations, at a depth 
of nearly a mile below the surface ; but delay in the 
delivery and the defective character of the German in- 
struments prevented the carrying-out of the work. 
Owing to electric installations, the conditions are no 
longer favourable. Mr. T. Russell, of the Great Lakes 
Survey, reported that in the Tamarack, 4,760 ft. below 
ground, the diurnal range of the declination and the 
times of elongations were about the same as those ob- 
served at the surface, while the dip was 27 minutes 
less. 

From the body of evidence it would seem that we 
may arrive at the important practical conclusion that 
underground magnetic declination and its regular and 
irregular variations are much the same as at the sur- 
face if there is no great mineral orartificial disturbance ; 
and the absence of mineral disturbance is fairly gen- 
eral in the coalfields. 

But magnetic research is much wanted in disturbed 
areas whether shown in, or omitted from, the Riicker 
and Thorpe maps. Mr. V. Watteyne has called atten- 
tion to the distortion of the plans of some Belgian col- 
lieries owing to the non-verticality or twisting of the 
magnetic surfaces of force ; and Prof. Haussmann and 
hisstudents in the Diepenlinchen zinc minehave shown 
that it is probable that the run of the magnetic lines 
of force at grass differs from their underground course. 
But these irregularities seem to be rare exceptions, 
as rare as those for difference of elevation at the surface. 
One would like to know what correction Mr. Walker 
applies for difference of elevation in his surface surveys. 
Doubtless with every change in elevation or profundity 
there is some change in declination ; but, according 
to the available evidence, the amount must be very 
minute whether man observes on the mountain-tops or 
in the mine-bottoms. Commonly in surveying in a 
district free from local disturbance one can rely on the 
same value of the declination holding good for a mile 
at the surface ; and on a priori grounds one may be- 



lieve that the change will be generally much less for 
a mile of depth than for a mile horizontally. 

While the British Empire has allowed Germany a 
three-quarters-of-a century start in magnetic orienta- 
tion, her Roberts shaft-plumbing system stands well 
ahead of all other methods in the world for orienting 
an underground survey from a single, deep, vertical 
shaft independently of the needle. The optical meth- 
ods appear to break down in depth, owing to difficul- 
ties of visibility, and perhaps also of air-refraction and 
reflection, which will give food for consideration of the 
Ordnance Survey when they are easily transferring the 
geographic meridian to the bottom of deep shafts. 
The optical plumbing method of the geodesian Nagel 
is no longer applied even in the county of its origin or 
in Austria, and its description has been deleted from 
the latest text-books. The method with the miner's 
transit-instrument which he has modified from the 
astronomical instrument (not the transit-theodolite or 
the misnamed American " transit ") has a far surer 
scientific foundation and better chances of success. 
While this purely British method overtops all its op- 
tical rivals, and with the improvements introduced by 
Prof. E. Liveing and Prof. G. R. Thompson permits 
of reducing the mischaces of vibration, refraction, etc., 
by repetition and averaging, it halts at a moderate 
depth, owing to limitation of visibility, and awaits fur- 
ther aid. 

More than one contributor to the discussion has 
questioned the applicability of the Kew data to the 
whole of the coalfields, and Dr. Chree himself states 
that science is so little advanced that he is not in a posi- 
tion to say what is the desirable number of observa- 
tories in this country. As the publication of the Kew 
data arose out of the writer's (Professor Cooke's) pro- 
posal to procure a self-registering declinometer for the 
Royal School of Mines and to extend the benefits of 
its records to the country, it is perhaps desirable to 
state the grounds on which that proposal was made. 
Apart from its educational uses for staff and students, 
it was hoped to stir up a greater number of surveyors 
in this country to take an interest in diurnal variation 
and irregular disturbance. as a probable source of the 
occasional waste of their efforts or the occasional poor 
quality of their results. While one recording instru- 
ment was looked upon as a good and useful begi)iiiing 
only, it should be recollected that Riicker and Thorpe 
in their magnetic survey reduced to the epoch Januarv 
1, 1886, used a correction which was the algebraic sum 
of the diurnal variation at the local time and of the 
disturbance registered at Kew at the Greenwich mean 
time at which the observations were taken They 
applied the Kew data over the whole of the British 
Isles, a much greater area than that of the coalfields, 
and, as a test of the validity of their procedure, thev 
picked out stations in Ireland and Scotland, where two 
or more observations were made at times when the 
diurnal variations differed by more than 4'. Taking 
the extreme western and northern stations, for West 
port they found the values 23° 55', 23 5"4' ; 

for Portree, 23° 216', 21' 22'T : and for Stornoway 
23° 50'7', 23°48'4', 23 50 T . The results for the coal- 
fields, which are all nearer Kew and in perhaps less- 
disturbed localities, should be no worse, and may be 
better. 

The late Prof. Brathuhn arranged a number of ori- 
entations at mines in the Ilarz in the neighbourhood 
of the Clausthal Observatory, in the Mansfeld copper 
district, near Barsinghausen, etc. The results were 
corrected in duplicate for diurnal variation and distur- 
bance from the data provided both by the Clausthal 
Observatory at distances of from 7 to 62 miles, and bv 



54 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



the W'ilhelmshaven Observatory at the much greater 
distances of from 94 to 204 miles. The greatest differ- 
ence of any pair of results reached only 47 seconds of 
arc, and the average difference of twenty-six results 1 8 
seconds. Brathuhn thought in 1888 that he was en- 
titled to draw the conclusion that a good central ob- 
servatory in Clausthal would satisfy the requirements 
of mining and mine surveyiug of the whole of Prussia. 
However, the lapse of time and further experience 
made him less confident, and in 1892 he wrote that if 
important orientations were in hand, the time from 
10 a.m. to 2p.m. should be avoided, becausethechange 
in the position of the needle, owing to the diurnal vari- 
ation, was at a maximum in these hours, and places 
east and west might sutler from the difference of local 
time and consequent non-concurrence of the diurnal 
variation. In the later editions of his Lehrbuch der 
Markscheidekunst (see, for instance, the fourth edition, 
1908, page 364) he extends his ban over the time from 
6 a.m to 3 p.m., unless the declinometer is in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood ; he would have distant curves 
used only forevening and night-work, and then only if 
there were no disturbance. 

Brathuhn probably had in mind the attainment of 
such fleckless results as those of Schmiedicke. As Dr. 
Chree's invaluable tables show the relative infrequency 
of disturbances in the morning hours, and as Riicker 
and Thorpe's corrections were fairlv successful, it 
is possible that the Kew data may suffice — between 2 
a.m. and noon — for most of our mineral fields. How- 
ever, in the night-hours electric trams stop running 
and much other electric work ceases. 

As irregular disturbances occur on the majority of 
days, and as the method of smoothing the curves tends 
to conceal the smaller vagaries of the magnet, a very 
great increase in the accuracy of the corrections for 
the fluctuations of the magnet would be secured if the 
Kew authorities would issue the actual declination 
curves smoothed only as regards artificial electric dis- 
turbance. 

As the irregular disturbances and the ordinary diur- 
nal changes in the northern and Scottish coalfields are 
slightly larger than those of the south, a further in- 



crease in the accuracy of the corrections would result 
if the declination curves of Eskdalemuir could also be 
published. 

Proportional interpolation for places situated in the 
Midlands, etc., with, perhaps, a slight further correc- 
tion of the ordinary diurnal change for the difference 
of time or longitude, would probably give all the ac- 
curacy desirable for most of the important work of the 
surveyor A better way of interpolating may be pos- 
sible later. His most difficult tasks, however, would 
demand the use of two instruments, especially, per 
haps, in disturbed areas. 

In any case, the use of a surface line of known orien 
tation is desirable for comparison ; and if surveyors 
would use the better-class olds methods of orientation, 
compare their results with those corrected by the light 
of the Kew data, and publish their results, some guid- 
ance would be obtained for the future as to where scien- 
tific research could be best applied. The actual curves 
of Kew and Eskdalemuir would enable the surveyor to 
take out corrections to his magnetic azimuths for any 
5 minutes of the day, and would reduce the uncertain 
tv in the magnetic angles nearer the very desirable fig 
ure of 1 minute of arc. At the present time, perhaps, 
we can hardly expect such an expense to be incurred . 
but on the resumption of more normal conditions the 
suggested improvement will doubtless receive the con- 
sideration of the Meteorological Office. Meanwhile, 
in addition to the two-hourly averages, or in place of 
them, the values of the Kew and ilskdalemuir declina- 
tions for points of time (not averages for 2 hour or 
other lengthy spells), should be published I'mfessor 
Cooke suggests that the values for 7, 7-30, 8. 8 30, 9, 
9-30, 10, 10 30, and 11 a.m. (G M T i should be given. 
However, he has known many diallers to find it conveni- 
ent to survey in the afternoon and evening and night, 
and although their hours are more liable to disturbance 
than those of the morning, it might be well to issue 
observatory values for such times, but at less frequent 
intervals. Moreover the possible freedom of the i.ight- 
hours from troubles due to electric power is to be taken 
into consideration. Professor Cooke concluded by 
paying a high tribute to Dr. Chree for his work 



THE HEIDELBERG GOLDFIELDS 



We continue our abstract of a series of articles ap- 
pearing in theSo//r/i African Mining and Engineer- 
ing Journal giving a history of the Heidelberg gold- 
fields. In the last issue the abstract ended with the 
publication of Dr. E. T. Mellor's theory that the work- 
able reef of the Par East Rand basin is a continuation 
of the Main Reef Leader of the older part of the Rand . 

Dr. Mellor's lecture was almost immediately follow- 
ed by a challenge on the part of Mr. Bleloch Mr. 
Bleloch threw down the glove on the grounds that Dr. 
Mellor was reported to have defied " all unorthodox 
geologists and prospectors and less learned obsei \ 
to pick out Main Reef Leader banket from among a 
mixed lot of Main Reef Leader and Van Ryn foot-wall 
reef." Mr. Bleloch claimed his ability to separate in 
a similar way "specimensof Van Ryn Reef from speci- 
mens of Nigel Reef provided that in each instance the 
specimens had portions of the foot- wall shale attached. 

Dr. Mellor's findings in regard to the identity of 
Nigel series with the alluring attractions of the Main 
Reef Series and the reefs worked in the Modderfontein- 
Van Ryn area soon began to be applied to support and 
foster commercial enterprise. Thus in July, 1916, the 
directors of the Oceana Development Company an- 
nounced that information had been received that the 



extension of the Nigel 'or Van Ryn) Reef had recently 
been located on the farm Platkoppies No. 03, south of 
Heidelberg township, and fully 30 miles south of the 
Daggafontein shaft. The reef was reported to be well 
defined, and, where struck, to have assayed 36dwt. 
over a width of 14 inches The statement added that 
the interest of this information to shareholders was the 
accumulating proof that the company's farms Eend- 
racht and Koppieskraal were well within the area of 
the extension of the reef now being worked by the 
principal companies in this district. [Readers are re- 
ferred to the map in the June issue which shows the posi- 
tions of the farms mentioned in this abstract. — Editor.] 
But it was also evident that there were those whose 
opinions were in contradiction to Dr. Mellor's and who 
did not hesitate to back their heterodoxy with cash. 
Thus we find that in April, 1916, it is recorded that the 
finding? of the Geological Survey were not generally 
accepted by prospectors and others for practical pur- 
poses. This related to the pegging of 300 claims sup 
posed to contain the Van Ryn Reef along the southern 
boundary of the New Rietfontein company's property 
on a line assigned by the Government Geological Sur 
vey to the Government Reef series. Also with regard 
to the Southern Van Rvn Co the news was : "We 



JULY, 1919 



are officially informed that this company's bore-hole 
No. 4 has attained a depth of 770ft. After passing 
through the coal measures with about 15 ft. of Dwyka 
conglomerate at the base the drill entered Witwaters- 
rand quartzite at 60 ft. and from that depth down- 
wards has exposed a typical section of the beds usually 
found overlying the Van Ryn series, that is, the beds 
between the Chimes series and the Van Ryn. No 
shales, beds, or dykes have been encountered, and only 
three small pebble beds of less than six inches in width 
were found down to 770 ft. At 770 ft. a banket leader, 
six inches wide, was cut, and at 772 ft. a section of 
thirty inches of quartzite with scattered pebbles and 
containing three distinct bands of reef." 

The Southern Van Ryn Reef had been registered in 
March, 1915, to acquire l.OOOclaimson the farm Var- 
kensfontein 217 in the Heidelberg district. Other 
claims were subsequently acquired, and to-day this 
company possesses an area equal to 1,661 claims on 
Varkensfontein and Draaikraal. The original geologi- 
cal thesis upon which this company was floated was 
that it contained both the Nigel and Van Ryn Reefs. 
The leading promoter of the enterprise was Mr. W. 
E. Bleloch, so that it is not difficult to understand Mr. 
Bleloch's opposition to Dr. Mellor's identification of 
the Van Ryn and Nigel. Mr. Bleloch crystallized the 
importance of his contention at the last meeting of the 
Southern Van Ryn, when he declared : " The Nigel 
Reef has been worked for 30 years by the Nigel Gold 
Mining Company and the Sub-Nigel, and, generally 
speaking, it is a thin reef with well developed pay shoots, 
which brings the grade of ore above the average. This 
reef has been found to carry 30% to 35% of these pay 
shoots in a given area, but the reef is thin and the ton- 
nage found in the pay shoots in this reef is not very 
great. As an example, the Sub-Nigel after a good 
many years' working has only 400,000 tons of payable 
ore developed on the Nigel Reef, whereas in the great 
mines to the north, such as Government Areas and 
New Modder working the Van Ryn Reef, the tonnage 
of payable ore runs into many millions, and it means 
that if such development continues at that rate the 
value of the Government Areas mine will run to 

£100,000,000." 

It is not surprising that Mr. Bleloch attaches much 
greater importance to the Van Ryn Reef than to the 
reef worked in the Nigel mine, and he is not alone in 
his desire to draw attention to it. For instance, the 
Sub-Nigel, Ltd., in the report for the quarter ended 
September 30, 1916, states : " It will be noted that the 
reef upon which this company is working is in this re- 
port described as the Van Ryn Reef instead of as the 
Nigel Reef as heretofore, as it is accepted by our engi- 
neers that the reef in question correlates with the Van 
Ryn Reef as recognized in the large and well-known 
northern mines of the Far East Rand." 

The Platkoppie Syndicate was registered so long ago 
as 1909, but it does not appear to have sought much 
notoriety or importance until the late Dr. Corstorphine 
reported in favourable terms on the property in the 
middle of 1916. In the course of his report Dr. Cors- 
torphine dealt with the theory of the identity of the 
Nigel-Van Ryn and Main Reef Leader. He wrote: 
"It has often been urged against this correlation (1) 
that at Nigel there is only one reef, instead of the three 
typical of the Main Reef Series on the Central l\ mil, 
(2) that the one reef is a very narrow one, and (3) that 
it rests on a slate foot-wall, which is never thecal on 
the Central Rand. All of these objections are suffici- 
ently answered by the fact that in the Far East Rand 
mines the gradual replacement of the sandstone or 
quartzite foot-wall by slate can be traced, and there too 



the thinning out of the reef series is shown in the mine 
workings. Dr. E. T. Mellor has recently correlated 
the ore reef of the eastern portion of the Rand with tin: 
Mam Reef Leader of the Central Rand, a correlation 
which may be accepted for the Nigel district also. 
Several reefs have been traced through the farms 
Nooitgedacht, Elandsfontein, and I'latkoppie by Mr. 
John Moffat, on behalf of the Platkoppie Syndicate, 
Ltd., and on the two last-named farms he has exposed 
the reefs by trenching and prospecting shafts. There 
is some old prospecting work on Nooitgedacht and on 
thenorthern portionof Elandsfontein, but the continua- 
tion of the Nigel Reef on the southern part of Elands- 
fontein and on Platkoppie is exposed for the first time 
in the present prospecting work. This means that some 
four miles of unprospected outcrop have been added to 
the stretch previously known and partly prospected." 

Following on this report came the flotation of the 
Platkoppie Exploration Company with a nominal capi- 
tal of £20,000 to test the value of the areas referred to 
by Dr. Corstorphine. These two concerns — the Plat- 
koppie and the Southern Van Ryn — in the geological 
premises upon which they have been floated crystallize 
the wholeissueofthemoderncontroversy. The former 
represents the view that there is one reef and one reef 
only, which has been proved by experience to contain 
gold in payable quantities over such large areas that 
wherever it may be found the chances are that a profit- 
able mine will be developed. This reef is the Nigel- 
Van Ryn-Main Reef Leader, the varying names being 
merely local designations and the identity of all three 
are vouched for by the most distinguished geologists of 
the country. On the other hand we have the theory, 
of which Mr. Bleloch is the sponsor, that not only the 
Southern Van Ryn but a vast area of the Far East 
Rand contains the Van Ryn Reef overlying the Nigel ; 
that there are, in fact, two profitable conglomerate 
bodies of which the upper or Van Ryn is infinitely more 
valuable. 

It should here be pointed out that while Mr. Bleloch 
would appear to have obtained very little encourage- 
ment from present-day geologistsand mining engineers, 
his theories have found a certain measure of support 
from no less an authority than Dr. G. A. F. Molen- 
graaff, formerly StateGeologist. Mr. Bleloch, writing 
to the directors of the Houtpoort, Ltd., on November 
5, 1918, said : " I will present the following statement 
by Dr. Molengraaff, a geologist of world-wide reputa- 
tion. I will add that I have the same opinion stated in 
writing by the late Mr. J. S. Curtis another eminent 
geologist, formerly of the Geological Survey of the 
United States, who had over a quarter of a century's 
experience of these Witwatersrand reefs, and I will add 
that this is the opinion originally held right from the 
early days of the Rand and it is the opinion still held 
by the great majority of mining men with practical ex- 
perience. Dr. Molengraaff's letter is dated Delft. No- 
vember 27, 1911. In it he states : ' I quite agree with 
you about the Far East. I also think that portion of 
the basin too shallow to give enough spare for such 
thickness of the strata of the Witwatersrand S} item as 
would include the Main Reef. / also only- 
Lower Witwatersrand beds there' That is ; 
that the Van Ryn Reef and the N 

the Far East Rand, are deposits v gical posi- 

tion is in the Lower Witwat beds and that 

therefore they are older and ferenl d< 

from those of the Main Ro 
position is m the Upper Witwai rand bi 

Mr. Bleloch in L916 induced the Houtpoort, Ltd., a 

concern which was originally registered so long ago as 

to revive its interest in the Heidelberg area and 



56 



THE MIXING MAGAZINE 



to take over under option contract the farms Goedver- 
wachtij and Klippoortje. At later dates the Eastern 
Van Kyn and Modderfoniein Gold Mines, Ltd. , entered 
the arena, and to-day we find the Heidelberg Town 
Lands and the farms Tulipvale. Eendracht, and Bosch- 
fontein involved in the controversy. On these prop- 
erties work is being undertaken with a view to demon- 
strating the truth of the "two-reef" theory. But ac- 
tivity has by no means stopped at this point. It has 
swept onward over the Balfour area. 

Meanwhile it should be recorded that in the early 
part of 1916 the Daggafontein Gold Mine passed into 
the control of the Consolidated Mines Selection Com- 
pany, which had successfully developed the Brakpan 
and Springs pi operties and was thirsting for fresh con- 
quests. Another important change in control took 
place a year later when the Consolidated Gold Fields 
of South Africa became interested in the Southern Van 
Ryn and assumed financial and technical control of 
that property. The latter action did not, however, 
imply that the technical advisers of that corporation 
endorsed Mr. Bleloch's view. On the contrary, it has 
recently been decided to sink a deep level shaft to in- 
tersect the "Nigel-Van Ryn-Main Reef Leader " in 
depth. Mr. Bleloch, speaking at the meeting held on 
January 31 last on this point, agreed to Mr. I^eslie's 
programme only on his assurance that he had an open 
mind on the question of the Van Ryn and Nigel Reefs 
and that development will be done on the Van Ryn 
Reef when intersected in the shaft. The decision to 
sink a deep level shaft on the Southern Van Ryn has 
caused considerable disappointment to many share- 
holders who had been told that they had an outcrop 
proposition, and it has been the cause of reviving in- 
terest in the controversy. From the point of view of 
the economic exploitation of the Nigel Reef the loca- 
tion of this shaft is sound policy, but as against that it 
is contended that for the Southern Van Ryn, with its 
not excessive cash resources, a more sound project 
would be the immediate development of the reef which 
has been exposed at surface and on which a certain 
amount of preliminary development work has been car- 
ried out. It is again a question of the two-reef theory 
as opposed to the declaration that there is one and one 
only payable reef section in this area. [Since the 
above was written the Gold Fields has given up con- 
trol. — Editor.] 

Previously to the acquisition of an interest in the 
Southern Van Ryn by the Gold Fields, a consider- 
able amount of preliminary development work was 
done. The report of the manager for the period ended 
with October 31, 1917, stated " that considerable pros- 
pecting in the shape of bore-holes and shafts had been 
done on the property previous to my taking charge, and 
data appertaining to work that was done on the prop- 
erty some twenty or more years ago have been found. 
I refer to the Henderson shaft, which is situated on 
this property, close to its southern boundary. We now 
have information to the effect that a reef of 18 ft. in 
thickness and assaying 5Adwt. was encountered in this 
shaft at a depth of 200 ft. Of course, in thosedays these 
values were not considered payable, and no one would 
think of working them, but it is a very different matter 
to-day ; this reef could be worked now and a very de- 
cent profit made from it. Eight bore-holes in all have 
been put down on this property in various places, rang- 
ing in depth from 122 ft. to 1,600 ft. Five of these 
bore-holes have intersected the pay reefs — Nigel and 
Van Ryn — and gone into their respective foot-wall 
shales. Four prospecting shafts have been sunk to the 
sub-outcrop of the Nigel Reef, and in every instance the 
reef was located at 60 ft. from the surface, or less. No. 



1 shaft was sunk to a depth of 77 ft. ; at 60 ft. the reef 
was intersected, dipping at 65 . A cross-cut to pick up 
the hanging leader was then started to the west ; :1ns 
leader was intersected at a distance of 30 ft. : work was 
then stopped in this shaft No. 1 main shaft on the 
Nigel Reef is located 100 ft. south of No. 3 prospect 
shaft, dipping at 62 , and should encounter the reef at 
a depth of 69 ft. No. 1 incline shaft was sunk to a 
depth of 160 ft., and then stopped according to instruc- 
tions received from the consulting engineer of the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields. The reef was intersected in this 
shaft at 83ft. ; the following figures give depth, width, 
and values : — At 83 ft, 9 in. wide, assaying 100 dwt . 
85 ft.. 24 in., 2 50 dwt. ; 8S ft.. 12 in . 13 70 dwt. ; 90ft., 
16in.. 1250dwt. ; 92 ft.. 18 in.. 7 50dwt ; 94 ft., 15in , 
6 20dwt.; 96 ft , 1 2 in., 3 75 dwt. ; 98ft., 18 in., 6 30 
dwt ; 100ft ,12in.,5 40dwt. ; 105 ft.. 14 In., 4 39 dwt . 
110ft., 12 in.. lOOOdwt. ; 115ft.. 14 in . 2 54dw;.; 
120ft.. 15 in . 6 04dwt. ; 125 ft.. 18in., 3 lOdwt . 
130 ft . 18 in.. 745dwt.; 146ft.. 21 in , 499 dwt. ; 
150ft, 36in. 2 07dwt. ; 155 ft., 36 in., 2' 17 dwt. No 
driving was done on the reef in this shaft. Quartz 
veins were scattered through the reef exposed. These 
veins decreased the values very considerably, as it was 
impossible to section the reef without intersecting 
them ; at the same time they were conclusive evidence 
that the shaft was being sunk in a disturbed zone. It 
is believed, however, that this disturbance is purely 
local. When the technical control was assumed by 
the Gold Fields no further work was conducted in the 
shafts referred to and operations were centred on the 
sinking of a deep level shaft which, according to the 
plans of the Gold Fields engineers, would cut the 
Nigel Reef at a depth of 3.000 ft. or more. The Gold 
Fields apparently are disciples of the orthodox school 
of thought Their technical advisers do not or have 
not yet recognized the claims of the two-reef theory, 
and accordingly the No 1 incline shaft which certainly 
was in auriferous conglomerate at its lowest depth and 
had been in ore from 83 ft downward was closed down, 
much to the disappointment of the original and present 
shareholders. 

The Daggafontein property . after extensive diamond- 
drilling and shaft-sinking, is developing from its No. 1 
shaft a reef lying on a shale foot-wall. This ore-body 
Mr Bleloch correlates with the Nigel. Both this No 
1 shaft and the No. 7 bore-hole, almost on the site of 
which theshaft was located, are claimed by Mr. Bleloch 
to have passed through a reef which he terms the v'an 
Rvn but which has apparently been regarded by the 
management as the Kimberley. In the No 1 shaft 
the bottom reef was separated by 280 ft. of quartzite 
from the bottom of the diabase, whereas in the No 7 
bore-hole, which is not more than 100ft. away from 
this shaft, only 60 ft. intervenes between the bottom of 
the diabase and the lowest reef series which is termed 
by the management the Main Reef and by Mr. Bleloch 
the Nigel. In each instance a reef was passed through 
at approximately 2,100 ft. In the bore-hole this par- 
ticular reef assayed 18 dwt. to the ton, but records as 
to the value of this reef where intersected in the shaft 
are not available. This bed of conglomerate is as- 
signed by the management to the Kimberley series 
By Mr. Bleloch it is termed the Van Ryn. 

Immediately south of Daggafontein lies the triangu- 
lar shaped farm Vogelstruisbult of the Rand Mines and 
Consolidated Gold Fields, into which Vlakfontein of 
the Lydenburg Gold Farms intrudes. To the west of 
the Vogelstruisbult is Vlakfontein of the Lace Proprie- 
tary Mines, and immediately south is Grootfontein of 
the Consolidated Gold Fields and the farm Varkens- 
fontein, on the northern portion of which the Southern 



JULY, 1919 



57 



Van Ryn Reef G.M. Co.' s property, while the southern 
portion is held by the Sub-Nigel and Nigel G.M. Cos. 

The farm Marais Drift No. 4 lies immediately to the 
south of Noycedale (Ryan Nigel G.M. Co.) and east of 
Spaarvvater 154 (Lace Proprietary Mines-Barnato 
Bros ) and of Klipportje 288, on which the New HE. 
Proprietary have interests. Thegreaterpart of Marais 
Drift is held by the Amalgamated Properties of Rho- 
desia, Ltd., now the Rhodesian Exploration Company, 
and African Farms, Ltd. , while the south-eastern corner 
is under the control of the Consolidated Gold Fields 
of South Africa. A good many years ago a fair amoun t 
of work was done on this property on its eastern side. 
Two incline shafts put down in this portion of the 
property exhibit a reef lying on a shale foot-wall and 
there can be no doubt that the banket bed disclosed in 
this shaft is correlative to the reef worked in the Nigel 
and Sub-Nigel mines. 

About the middle of Marais Drift the reef appears to 
have taken a gradual bend to the east, judging from the 
old workings on the Gold Fields section of the prop- 
erty. It is, however, contended by one or two geo- 
logists that the true line of the Nigel lies to the west of 
the old Gold Fields workings and that the reef dis- 
closed on the southern portion of Marais Drift is not 
the Nigel at all. This reef would then appear to cross 



Tin and Tungsten Research. — The report of the 
Tin and Tungsten Research Board for the year ended 
March 31 gives details of the progress of the investiga- 
tion. We have already quoted Professor Truscott's 
results in connection with slime concentration, in our 
issues of December, 1917, and March, 1919. We re- 
produce herewith other parts of the report. 

The examination of the physical condition of cassit- 
erite in Cornish lodes has been continued by E. H. 
Davison, of the Mining School, Camborne, throughout 
the year. He has examined a large number of sections 
of lode material with the aid of the microscope, and 
finds that most of these contain fine cassiterite particles 
so minute in size as to be difficult to save in dressing 
operations. Certain clearly marked types of veinstone 
were recognized, readily distinguishable from one an- 
other. His investigation is not yet complete, but his 
report will probably be ready for publication in a few 
months. H. W. Hutchin, assisted by L. J. Meade, 
has begun a parallel examination with the microscope 
of the grains of cassiterite in certain mill products. 

The treatment of complex low grade refractory ma- 
terials, such as " tinny iron " or " black iron," by fusion 
with nitre cake has been investigated by H. R. Berin- 
ger, Captain A. M. Drummond, and F. H. Mitchell. 
They found in the laboratory that by fusion at a red 
heat and treatment of the melt with water, the iron and 
tungsten passed in great part into solution and the 
cassiterite remained in the residue in a suitable condi- 
tion for recovery on the dressing floors. An experi- 
mental reverberatory furnace with a flat cast-iron bed 
was built at the King Edward mine, and about a ton 
of refractory material from East Pool treated, with 
promising results. A furnace of larger capacity but 
different design is now in course of erection by the 
management of the South Crofty mine with the ob- 
ject of utilizing the process. There seems reason to 
expect that the remaining difficulties will be over- 
come and that the nitre cake process will be avail- 
able for treating such complex refractory low-grade 
concentrates, which at present realize little or noth- 
ing, involving a loss of many thousand pounds a year 
in the country. The same investigators have also 
been engaged in endeavours to find a chemical method 
of removing and recovering the tungsten from con- 



the extreme south-west corner of Rietpoort No. 89 and 
continue through that portion of Poortje No. 125, in 
which the Crown Mines have an interest through their 
absorption of the old Paarl Central assets. Here, too, 
the Consolidated Mines Selection (otherwise Rand Se- 
lection Company) isinpossessionofaportionof Poortje. 
On this latter area prospecting pits were sunk long ago 
on the line of the reef discovered to the north, and the 
reef has been disclosed as a comparatively thin body 
of conglomerate lying again on a shale foot-wall. It 
is found again on Houtpoort, maintaining an approxi- 
mate north and south line of strike, and a flat dip to 
the west. Between Poortje and Houtpoort, and al- 
most in a line with the township of Heidelberg, it is 
contended that the line of this ore body takes an S- 
shaped curve and after traversing the farm Bothaskraal 
No. 207 is to be found on the extreme eastern side of 
Blinkpoort 253, recrossing Bothaskraal and the south- 
ern portion of Poortje 125 with an approximate E. and 
W. line of strike and a dip to the north. There are old 
workings approximately on the corner of this bend to 
the south-east of Heidelberg on the main road to the 
Free State, but the delvings of the workers of more 
than two decades ago seem to have come to naught 
from the point of view of material output. 
(To be continued). 



centrates as they leave the calciner and from certain 
ores containing wolfram, and have had most success 
with a modification of the Oxland process. It does not 
appear at present, however, that the method can be 
applied industrially. 

Dr. O. J. Stannard has succeeded in separating 
tungstic acid in a remarkably pure form by a new pro- 
cess from concentrates and wolfram ores. Further 
work is required before his method is ready for tests 
on a larger scale. Details will be forthcoming as soon 
as protection has been secured. 

H. W. Hutchin, assisted by L. J. Meade, made ex- 
periments on the recovery of tungsten from concen- 
trates by digestion with solutions of caustic soda, and 
found that dilute solutions were ineffective, a point 
confirmed by independent work by Mr. Beringer. 
Strong solutions, however, acting on uncalcined ma- 
terial effected what was apparently complete extraction 
of WO :) , the extraction from calcined material being 
incomplete. Further prosecution of this inquiry has 
been suspended, as economic success appears to be un- 
likely. 

A process devised by E. W. Janson and H. W. C. 
Annable for the recovery of tin has been carefully ex- 
amined, the tests being watched by J. H. Goodchild. 
The method is promising, and extracts the tin from 
finely divided cassiterite more readily than from coarse 
particles which can be easily saved by ordinary ore- 
dressing methods. It is proposed to make further 
efforts to develop the process, and to examine certain 
modifications of it which present themselves. 

Platinum in Rhodesia. — A short report has been is- 
sued by H. B. Maufe, director of the Rhodesian Geo- 
logical Survey, on the occurrence of platinum metals 
in the SomabHla diamondiferous gravels. The gra\ els 
which contain the diamond and numerous gemstones 
are found almost on the main watershed of Southern 
Rhodesia close to Willoughby's S ing and about 12 
miles south-west of Gwelo. An examination of the 
pebbles composing the gravels revealed the presence of 
chromite and chromite-bearing rocks in appreciable 
quantity; and, therefore, the possibility that the rocks 
might contain platinum or metals of the platinum group, 
namely, iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium, and 
ruthenium. The late Mr. Zealley, in writing of the 



58 



THE MIX IXC MAGAZINE 



occurrence of platinum in Southern Rhodesia, said : 
" The Somabula gravel for instance is a likely source, 
since it is known that much heavy material is concen- 
trated therein, and that a considerable proportion of 
the pebbles are irom ultra-basic rocks ; thus pebbles 
of chromite rock are abundant, and many of the chalce- 
dony pebbles can be recognized by the practised eye 
as silicified serpentines derived from the Great Dyke 
and from the ancient schists. The fine heavy black 
gold-bearing sands concentrated from the Somabula 
gravelsapparently have not beenexamined forplatinum. 
The finest material should preferably be tested 
sample of the heaviest fine concentrate obtained in the 
washing for diamonds was sent to the Imperial Insti- 
tute to be assayed for platinum metals. Under date 
February 17, 1919, the director of the Imperial Insti- 
tute reports the following results : platinum 3 6 oz and 
osmiridium 7oz., per ton of concentrate. He also re- 
ported : " Palladium was probably present, but the 
quantity was too small to be definitely identified. 
Theconcentratealso contained a large amount of gold." 
Zinc Oxide in Australia.— Chemical Engineering 
mui Mining Review (Melbourne) for April describes 
the manufacture of zinc oxide at the plant recently 
established by the Broken Hill Associated Smelters 
Proprietary, Ltd., at Port l'ine, South Australia The 
French process is employed. The basis of this pro- 
cess is the low boiling point of zinc (about 925 'C), as 
compared with the boiling points of lead, iron, etc., 
which usually accompany commercial zinc as impuri- 
ties. The zinc, being heated in an atmosphere of < < >. 
distils off, leaving those impurities of higher boiling 
point behind in the retorts, from which they are re- 
moved at intervals. Oxide of zinc made by oxidizing 
the molten metal is a yellow granular product of no 
use in the arts, whereas the oxide made by oxidizing 
zinc vapour possesses certain physical properties which 
render it of great value. The weight of a cubic foot 
of oxide as collected is about 201b. After packing, a 
cubic foot weighs about 50 lb , while the true weight 
of the oxide is .350 lb. per cubic foot. Owing to its 
exceedingly fine state of division it retains entangled air 



which gives it its light fluffy character. Its extreme 
whiteness is another of its valuable properties. 

The plant consists of a distillation furnace, a gas 
producer to supply CO gas to the retorts, a retort-an- 
nealing stove, a baghouse with fan to collect the oxide, 
and are-heating muffle furnace. The distillation fur 
nace, which is hand-fired by means of step grates, car 
ries ten retorts similar to those used in distilling zinc 
from its ore. The front end of the retort is sealed with 
a fireclay tile, which is removed when zinc is being 
charged in, or when dross is being scraped out 
Through a hole in this tile CO gas from the producer 
is introduced. The producer is merely a shallow fire 
brick shaft with firebars on which the coke fuel is 
burned. The top is closed and the gas is led off through 
a pipe to the retorts At the back end of the retorts 
there is an opening through which the zinc vapour and 
the CO gas escape into the combustion chamber 
ing to its high temperature the zinc vapour oxidizes 
immediately on coming into contact with the air in the 
combustion chamber, and dense white clouds of zinc 
oxide rise up and fill the chamber. A newly charged 
retort shows the lilac blue flame of carbon monoxide 
As the temperature rises the flame turns gradually pale 
green and then bright green as the zinc vapour comes 
over and burns. Zinc oxide has the property of phos 
phorescing with a brilliant gold yellow light when 
heate d or thereabouts, and this temperature 

is substantially exceeded in the combustion chamber, 
so that when a retort is in full work the chamber is a 
most brilliant spectacle. Owing to the very strong 
light of the burning zinc it is necessary lor the furnace 
attendants to wear cobalt blue glasses lo protect their 
The combustion chamber is connected by a flue 
to the baghouse fan which draws the oxide fume from 
the chamber and forces it into the collecting bigs 1 be 
oxide taken from the bags contains an excess of en 
tangled air which renders it too light and bulky to be 
economicallv handled. It is therefore re-heated in a 
mullle furnace, called the re heating furnace, 
expels some of the air and so makes the packing for 
market a more convenient operation. 




Zinc Oxidi Plan r at 1 < ir i Pirie, 



JULY, 1919 



59 



SHORT NOTICES. 

Rock-Drills. — The Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal for May 31 gives particulars of the latest pattern 
of Sullivan air-feed stoping drills. 

Efficiency in Drilling and Blasting. — The May 
Journal of the South African Institution of Engineers 
contains a paper by J. H. P. Bilbrough entitled : " The 
Increase in the Average Length of a Round in Modern 
Development/' Particulars are given of the time oc- 
cupied and the methods employed in the Turf section 
of Village Deep. 

Flotation. — In Chemical and Metallurgical Engi- 
neering for June 1, F. G. Moses discusses a variety of 
factors in flotation practice, intended for the practical 
mill-man. 

Flotation Oils. — Chemical and Met allurgicalEngi - 
ncering for June 1 publishes a paper by L. F. Hawley 
and O. C. Ralston giving an account of experiments on 
hardwood tar oils. 

Flotation Litigation. — The Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal for June 14 gives the full text of the 
United States Supreme Court's decision in the case be- 
tween Minerals Separation and Butte & Superior. 

Mauss Concentrator. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for May 17, E. M. Weston gives an 
illustrated description of the Mauss centrifugal con- 
centrator, which is used for tin concentration and other 
purposes in South Africa. 

The Lesser Concentrator. — The South African 
Mining and Engineering Journal for May 3 contains 
a description of a concentrator invented by C. Kumst 
and financed by the Lesser Ore Reduction Company. 

Substitutes for Platinum. — The Journal of Indus- 
trial and Engineering Chemistry for June contains 
a paper on palau and rhotanium as substitutes for 
platinum for laboratory ware. Both of these are al- 
lovs of gold and palladium. 

Vanadium. — In Chemical and Metallurgical En- 
gineering for May 15, J. E. Conley describes a method 
of extracting vanadium from vanadinite. 

Blast-Furnaces. — The Iron and Coal Trades Re- 
view for June 6 contains a fully illustrated description 
of iron blast-furnaces recently erected at Park Gate 
works, Rotherham, and Staveley works, Chesterfield. 

Copper Leaching. — In the Mining and Scientific 
Press for May 17, R. W. Perry describes a process for 
leaching oxidized copper ores with ferric chloride, the 
patent rights of which are owned by the Midland Ores 
& Patents Company. 

Copper Leaching. — In the Mining and Scientific 
Press for June 7, P. R. Middleton suggests the treat- 
ment of copper sulphide flotation concentrates by roast- 
ing to sulphate and extracting the copper sulphate by 
leaching, 

Zinc-Retort Residues. — In Chemical and Metal- 
lurgical Engineering for May 15, K. Stock describes 
the practice of the Bartlesville Zinc Company in the 
treatment of zinc-retort residues for the recovery of 
lead, silver, and gold. 

Petroleum in Ecuador. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for May 31, W. M. Brodie gives an 
account of the geology and occurrence of oil in Ecua- 
dor. 

Zinc in United States. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for May 31, W R. Ingalls gives re- 
vised figures for the output of zinc in the United States 
during 1918, with details of the capacities of the vari- 
ous smelters. 

Potash in Guatemala. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for June 1-1 , Hoyt S. Gale describes 
the extraction of potassium nitrate and chloride in vari - 
ous parts of Guatemala. 



Colorado Oil-Shales. — In the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press for May 24, Arthur J. Hoskin writes on oil- 
shales in Colorado. 

Divide, Nevada.— In the Mining and Scientific 
Press for May 10, F. L. Sizer describes the geology 
and ore deposits of the Divide district, adjacent to 
Tonopah and Goldfield, Nevada. 

Salt Industry of Canada. — The Canadian Mining 
Journal for May 14 reprints a paper by L. Heber Cole 
on the salt industry and the possibilities tor its future 
development in Canada. 

Phosphate in Queensland. — In the Queensland 
Government Mining Journal for March, E. C. Saint- 
Smith, Government Geologist, describes deposits of 
rock phosphate on Holbourne Island, off the coast at 
Bo wen. 

Ancient Tin Mining in Africa. — The April Journal 
of the Chemical, Metallurgical, & Mining Society of 
South Africa contains a contribution by E. R. Schoch, 
manager of the Rooiberg tin mines, to the discussion 
on Max Baumann's paper on ancient tin mines of the 
Transvaal. 

Heidelberg Goldfields. — The South African Min- 
ing and Engineering Journal for May 3 contains a 
description of prospecting work on Modderfontein and 
Malanskraal farms, south of Heidelberg, along the 
western part of the Balfour syncline. 

Magnetite. — At the June meeting of the Physical 
Society, E. Wilson and E. F. Herroun read a paper on 
the magnetic properties of varieties of magnetite. 

Protection for Australian Zinc. — The Industrial 
Australian and Mining Standard for April 3 de- 
scribes the business, present and prospective, of the 
Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia, with par- 
ticular reference to the necessity for a protective tariff 
for its various products. 

Oxidation of Ammonia. — The Journal of Indus- 
trial and Engineering Chemistry, the organ of the 
American Chemical Society, for June, contains an im- 
portant paper by Charles L. Parsons on the oxidation 
of ammonia to nitric acid. 

Willet G. Miller — The Mining and Scientific 
Press for June 7 contains an interview with Willet G. 
Miller, the Provincial Geologist of Ontario. 

RECENT PATENTS PUBLISHED. 

1,003 of 1917 (126,377). R. E. Alexander, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. Improved method of producing 
coherent metal such as tin from the metal obtained by 
heating scrap or refuse in a reducing atmosphere. 

2.791 of 1917 (126,720). J. P. Roe, London 
Terminal stations for aerial ropeways of the single 
cable type. 

11,379 of 1917 (118,606). NORTON Co., Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. Method of producing crystal- 
line alumina in the electric furnace. 

14,778of 1917(127.354). J. W. White, Widnes. 
Improved means of supporting the carrving ropes used 
in aerial ropeways 

2,255 and 2,256 of 1918 (1 13,960and 118,591). 
NORTON COMPANY, Worcester, Massacl tts Im- 
provements in aluminous abrasr 

7,008 and 19.333of 1918 (127,0S0). J P. Roe. 
London. An endless convevor iploying wire rope 
instead of chains. 

7,908 of 1918 (115,647). ' B6HN, Sorumsan- 
den, Norway. A tunnelling machine having a num- 
ber of reciprocating drills \es are employed 

8,440 of 1918(127,095). F, W. Davis, Maghera- 
morne, Antrim. Method of treating flue gases con- 
taining steam, with water, particularly gases coming 



60 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



from cement kilns or from furnaces used in dehydra- 
ting aluminium hydroxide. 

9,195 of 1918 (127,119). HUNTINGTON, He 
BERLEIN& Co., Ltd., H. J. BUSH, and H. A BURNS, 
London Improvements in the electrostatic method of 
precipitating dust from gases, whereby the electric 
discharge from the electrodes is prevented from becom- 
ing concentrated on parts of the electrodes. 

9,888of 1918(127,128). W. Anderson. Helens- 
burgh, Glasgow. Method of recovering cyanides and 
sulphur from spent oxide used in the purification of 
coal gas. 

10,464 of 1918 (127,134). C. KRAUSE, Luderitz- 
bucht, S.W. Africa. Improvement in jigs used for 
recovering diamonds. 

11,531 of 1918 (118,097). PRATT ENGINEER- 
ING & Machine Co., Atlanta, Georgia. Improved 
method of burning sulphur for the production of sul- 
phuric acid. 

20,080 of 1918 (121,599). METALS DlSINTl 
grating Co., New York. Method of reducing met 
als to fine powder by treating them in a molten state 
by means of jets of steam 



NEW BOOKS 



^"Copies of the books, etc.. mentioned below can be obtained 
through the Technical Bookshop of The Miming Muxazitte. 
723. Salisbury House. London Wall. EC. 2 

The Efficient Purchase and Utilization of Mine Sup- 
plies. By Hubert N. Stronck and John R, Bill- 
yard. Cloth, octavo, 97 pages, illustrated. Price 
6s. net. New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London 
Chapman & Hall. 

If an analysis of the current mining costs of the 
world were made, it would probably be found that, 
roughly, of the total average cost of operation, labour 
accounted for 60",,, supplies for 30. and establishment 
for 10. In mining, as in manufacturing, the chance of 
success is increased by the concern being run on busi- 
ness lines. It is therefore important that the depart- 
ment through which flow materials that are account- 
able for more than a quarter of the running cost should 
be equipped with an efficient system for controlling the 
buying, receiving, storing, and issuing of supplies. Of 
this requirement, most mining engineers are aware, 
but, usually, being by training technical men first and, 
by want of training, business men second, they are 
more attracted by investigations which have for their 
object the improvement of methods employed in the 
mine and the mill, than by those which aim at the 
betterment of the systems followed in the office and 
the store. Store-keeping is closely allied to banking. 
It differs from it mainly in that materials instead of 
cash pass over the counter. To both commodities are 
equallyapplicablethebusinessprinciplesthat safeguard 
against misuse. The manager is not niggardly who de 
votes close attention to devices for eliminating care- 
lessness and waste ; and he is not good to his men if 
he allows them to continue in extravagant ways 

This small book by two American engineers will serve 
to demonstrate the practical importance attaching to 
the design of an efficient system of stores purchase and 
use. It lavs stress on schemes for large mines, with 
simplified methods for smaller ones ; and, in recogni- 
tion of the desirability of introducing modifications to 
meet particular cases, is suggestive rather than admoni- 
tory. It considers the subject in its broader issues un- 
der six main heads : Purchasing department ; receiving 
and testing ; stores system ; issuing systems ; reports 
of consumption of stores ; and methods of preventing 
waste. It develops it in detail under sub-heads : Cata- 



logue files, special quotations, correspondence and 
general price list, economic amount to be purchased, 
book of standards, purchase orders, location of store- 
rooms, arrangement of store-rooms, stock piles, powder 
magazines, interior arrangement of warehouse, bins, 
racks, mnemonic classification of materials, stores rec- 
ords, checks, graphic charts, records of equipment, 
tools, lubricants, timber, pipe-lines, prevention of cor- 
rosion, fuel consumption, and training and loyalty of 
workmen. Twenty-six illustrations of forms suitable 
for various types of stores records and a plan of a 
simple style of warehouse are given ; and fourteen pages 
are allotted to an example of a store's mnemonic class- 
ification. 

The inclusion of a consideration of such matters as 
the protection of ground pipe- lines from corrosion, fuel 
consumption in the boiler room, and methods of tim- 
ber preservation, all of which are primarily the affair 
of the foreman engineer, interferes with the unity of 
the subject matter 

The book is well produced, but possesses no table of 
contents, list of illustrations, or index ; and the price 
at which it is issued seems high for the amount of in- 
formation it contains. 

alkx. Richardson. 

Traps for Saving Gas at Oil Wells. By W. R. 

Hamilton. Technical Paper 209 published by the Uni- 
ted States Bureau of Mines 

Notes on Lignite, its Characteristics and Utiliza- 
tion. By S. M Darling. Technical Paper 178 pub- 
lished by the United States Bureau of Mines 

Fume and Other Losses in Condensing Quicksilver 
from Furnace Gases. By L. 11 Duschak and C. N. 
Schuette Technical Caper 96 published by the United 
States Bureau of Mines 

Cadmium in 1918. By C. E Siebenthal. This 
pamphlet is a chapter of " Mineral Resources 1918." 
and is published by the United States Geological Sur- 
vey. It gives particulars of the production and sources 
of cadmium and of some information as to war uses. 

COMPANY REPORTS 

British Broken Hill. — This company was formed in 
1887 to purchase Blocks 15 and 16 from the Broken 
Hill Proprietary at Broken Hill, New South Wales 
The propertv has not been one of the most successful 
of the silver lead-zinc mines of the district. A new 
ore-body was discovered in 1912. The mine was closed 
on the outbreak of war, and operations were resum- 
ed in January, 1917. We recently gave particulars of 
the new flotation plant installed. The report for the 
half year ended December 31 last shows that 3,145 
tons of carbonate ore was raised, averaging 24 9',, lead 
and 4 7oz. silver, and that 105,697 tons of sulphideore 
was raised, averaging 12 4° lead, 10 8% zinc, and 
71 oz. silver. The lead mill treated 105,727 tons of 
sulphide ore, producing 16,679 tons of lead concentrate 
averaging 61 5 "., lead, 6 9% zinc, and 27 oz. silver 
The flotation plant treated 77,722 tons of tailing aver- 
aging 11 5 "... zinc, 3 ",, lead, and 31 oz. silver, for a 
yield of 13,550 tons of zinc concentrate averaging 
zinc, 8 7° lead, and 10'5oz. silver. Slime to the 
amount of 11,326 tons, averaging 5 3",, lead, 12"., zinc, 
and 5 1 oz. silver, was stacked for future treatment. 
The reserve of sulphide ore was estimated on Decern 
ber 31 at 1,095.015 tons averaging 128 /o lead, 11 <■ 
zinc, and 6 7 oz. silver. The accounts show a balance 
of profit of ^"39,383. I >wmg to the zinc concentrate 
being unsaleable and also to the drop in demand for 
lead since the Government's contract to purchase ex- 
pired on March 31, no dividend is being paid. At the 



JULY, 1919 



61 



time the report was issued, the mine and mill were 
idle owing to a strike. 

Zinc Corporation. — This company operates the 
South Blocks mine at Broken Hill and treats pur- 
chased accumulated zinc tailing. Bewick, Moreing 
& Co. are the general managers. The report for 1918 
shows that 135,580 tons of ore averaging 15'6% lead, 
9% zinc, and 3 oz. silver per ton was sent to the lead 
mill. The products of concentration were 28,351 tons 
of lead concentrate averaging 64'4% lead, 7% zinc, 
and 10'5 oz. silver, together with 45,133 ions of zinc 
middling averaging 16'4% zinc, 4'4% lead, and l'9oz. 
silver. At the flotation plant 257,300 tons of zinc tail- 
ing and slime was treated, averaging 14 3% zinc, 5T% 
lead, and 6'2oz. silver. The yield of zinc concentrate 
was 61,470 tons averaging 47'5% zinc, 7'6% lead, and 
10'8oz. silver; of lead concentrate 5,230 tons averag- 
ing 57'6% lead, 14'8% zinc, and 28'9oz. silver; and 
of zinc slime 9,080 tons averaging 36'6% zinc, 15% 
lead, and23'3oz. silver. The last-named was stacked 
for future treatment. The sale of concentrates brought 
an income of £742,693, and the profit was £226,470, 
out of which £39,000 was placed to mine development 
account, and £10,000 to new plant account. The divi- 
dends absorbed £183,963, being at the rate of 32£% 
on the £245,692 preference shares and 30% on the 
£329,308 ordinary shares. The mine continued to de- 
velop well during the year. On December 31 the re- 
serve was estimated at 2,076,000 tons averaging 14'6% 
lead, 9'4% zinc, and 2 6oz. silver, being an increase 
of 189,000 tons during the year. There remains on 
the old dumps 763,978 tons of zinc tailing awaiting 
treatment. 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's). — This company 
was formed in 1909 to treat zinc tailing from the Nonh 
and South mines at Broken Hill by the Ue Bavay flo- 
tation process The contract with the North mine ex- 
pired on April 30, and that with the South mine will 
expire at the end of this year. A contract was recently 
made with the Junction mine, but, as the deliveries 
were not satisfactory, notice has been given of suspen- 
sion of the contract. The plant hitherto used on North 
tailing is to be employed for the treatment of dump 
material purchased some time ago. The company owns 
a large interest in the Electrolytic Zinc Co. of Austra- 
lasia. The report for the half year ended December 
31 last shows that 112,775 tons of tailing was treated, 
for a yield of 30,038 tons of zinc concentrate averaging 
47'4% zinc, 7% lead, and 9'3 oz. silver, together with 
1,807 tons of lead concentrate averaging 54'2% lead, 
11'9% zinc, and 61'3oz. silver. The accounts show 
a profit of £32,913, of which £8,604 was applied to re- 
serve for depreciation, and £25,000 was distributed as 
dividend, being Is. per £l share. 

Mount Boppy Gold. — This company was formed by 
John Taylor & Sons in 1899 to acquire a gold mine in 
Cobar district, New South Wales. Mining operations 
were uniformly successful from 1902 to 1911. After 
thelatter year several factors militated against success. 
Finally it was decided to sink a new shaft 400 ft. deep 
in the country rock so as to work the ore round the 
main shaft. The report for 1918 shows that the shaft 
was completed by the beginning of that year and that 
milling was resumed in February. Owing to entire 
absence of rain, the water supply was exhausted in 
November, and work had to be suspended. During 
the ten months, 61,176 tons of ore was milled, for a 
yield of 8,554 oz. of gold bullion. In addition, 13,152 
oz. was extracted by cyanide, and 859 oz from concen- 
trate and slag, bringing the total yield to 22, f>65oz., 
containing 15,577 oz. of fine gold worth £65,551. The 
working cost was £71,508. Rain fell in March, and 



operations were resumed for a short time. Develop- 
ments, though restricted, have been fairly promising, 
and the reserve on December 31 was estimated at 
188,158 tons. There is also a large amount of oxidized 
ore that can be worked cheaply by open cut. It is in- 
tended to reconstruct the company in order to provide 
further funds for development. 

Great Boulder Proprietary.— The twenty-fifth an- 
nual report of the premier gold - mining company 
operating at Kalgoorlie, West Australia, covering the 
year 1918, shows that 152,196 long tons of ore was 
treated, yielding £154,316 by amalgamation and 
£323,982 by cyaniding. In addition, 19,801 tons of 
old tailing yielded £5,917, making the total output of 
gold £484,210. The net profit was £220,931, out of 
which £19,577 was allowed for Australian taxation, 
and £196,875 was distributed as dividend, being at the 
rate of 2s. 3d. per 2s. share. The total cost per long 
ton was 32s. 6d., as compared with 28s. 8d. in 1917. 
Little development has been done during the year, and 
the expectation of any considerable additional ore be- 
ing found is not great. The reserve at December 31 
was estimated at 345,719 tons averaging 14 49 dwt. 
per ton, as compared with 387,571 tons of similar 
tenor the year before. Since the beginning of opera- 
tions thetotal gold outputhasbeen £11,649,970. From 
1900 to 1918, the average output was about £550,000. 

Oroya Links. — This company was formed in 1 896 as 
the Golden Link, and has been twice reconstructed. 
The name was changed in 1909 when property and 
plant were bought from the Oroya Brownhill. Small 
dividends were paid from 1910 to 1914. Owing to war 
conditions, operations were suspended in 1916, and 
portions of the mine were let on tribute. Bewick, 
Moreing & Co. are the general managers. The report 
for 1918 shows that 16,181 tons of ore was raised by 
the tributers, of which 12,403 tons was treated at the 
company's mill, and 3,778 tons at other mills. The 
12,403 tons, together with 6,498 tons purchased, yield- 
ed gold worth £100,582. The royalty accruing to the 
company was ;£ 18,358, and the company's net profit 
was £5,439, of which £3,000 was written oft develop- 
ment and shaft-sinking account. 

Waihi Grand Junction. — This company was formed 
in 1897 to work extensions of the lodes of the Waihi 
company, in the northern island of New Zealand. The 
report for 1918 shows that 80,210 tons of ore was treat- 
ed , yielding gold and silver worth £ 141 , 755, equal to 35s. 
2d. per ton. Owing to shortage of labour and to the 
influenza epidemic, the tonnage was much below nor- 
mal, comparing with 116,130 tons the year before 
The grade of the ore also shows a decrease, the yield 
per ton comparing with 39s. 9d. in 1917. During the 
first four months of the current year, the yield has 
further decreased to 30s. per ton. The working cost 
for the year under review was £140,034, leaving a 
profit of £5,616. The company has had, however, to 
provide £15,000 for income tax in London and New 
Zealand, so that the balance for the year is on the 
wrong side. Owing to labour shortage, it has not been 
possible to maintain development, and only 3.145 ft 
wasdone, as compared with 4,692 ft in 1917. There- 
serve is estimated at 106,400 ton i decrease of 
25,200 during the year. 

Lahat Mines. — Thiscompanv I elongs.to the Tronoh 
group, and was formed in 190'' to acquire a tin-gravel 
property at Lahat, in the Kinta valley, Perak, Federa- 
ted Malay States. Four years ago Osborne & Chap 
pel were appointed managers The report for 191s 
shows that 397 tons of tin concentrate was produced, 
as compared with 452 tons the year before The fall 
is due to shortage of labour, the smaller working area 



62 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



with depth, and the fall of ground on the west side of 
the mine. Tin sales brought an income of £74,090, 
and the net profit was ^29,848. out of which £27,000 
was distributed as dividend, being at the rate of 22$%. 
Additional ground has recently been acquired, chiefly 
to serve as a dump for tailing, but about 100 acres of 
it is workable for tin. 

Idris Hydraulic Tin. — This company belongs to the 
Tronoh group, and was formed in 1913 to work allu 
vial tin properties in I'erak, Federated Malay States. 
The report for 1918 shows that 102 tons of tin concen- 
trate was produced from the Batu Karang section, and 
22 tons from the Kianji section. As the workings in 
theformer section became too deep, and the seepage be- 
gan to be dangerous, the working was abandoned. 
Meanwhile a new paddock was opened, and the gravel 
pumps transferred. The Kranji section was transfer- 
red in the middle of the year to the owners of adjoin- 
ing properties, who are now working the deposit on a 
profit-sharing basis. The Snudong property has been 
let on tribute. The company's total output of tin con- 
centrate was 124 tons as compared with 213 tons in 
1917. The income from sales was £21,513, and the 
expenditure £20,951 . After allowance for taxes and 
depreciation, a net loss of £3,073 was incurred. W 
K. II . Chappel, one of the managers, is on bis way to 
the mines to investigate conditions and prospei 

Sungei Besi. — This company belongs to the Tronoh 
group, and was formed in 1909 to work alluvial tin 
ground in the State of Selangor. Federated Malay 
States. The report for L918 shows that the out: 
tin concentrate was 402 tons as compared with 40 

ar before. The receipts from sales wen 
and the net profit was £30,304, out of which / '11.140 
has been distributed as dr. ng at the rate of 

As the company is liable for 
I 'uty this year, the balance is carried forward 1 tar- 
ing the year, the electrical power station has been 
moved, and the ground on which it stood is thus made 
available for treatment, Negotiations are in hand for 
additional property adjoining on the north. 

Tronoh South. — Thiscompany belongs to the Tronoh 
group, and was formed in 1911 to work alluvial tin 
property in Perak, Federated Malay States. There- 
port fo iws that operati .-pended in 
August owing to poor results, and tributers who took 
the workings soon abandoned them. The company's 
output was 106 tons of tin concentrate, and the tribu- 
ters extracted 12 tons. The profit for the 
£6.011, and £2,500 was distributed as dividend. I 
at the rate of 2.V',, . The directors are looking for other 
properties. The company owns ground that can be 
treated by bucket-dredge, and is estimated to contain 
1.785 tons of black tin. It has not yet been decided 
how to deal with this area. 

Mongu (Nigeria) Tin Mines. — This compan] 
formed in 1914 to acquire from the Anglo-Continental 
Mines Co. alluvial tin property in the Ropp district, 
Nigeria. W. F. Turner is the chairman, and ! 
Kumbold & Co are the consulting engineers. The re- 
port for 1918 shows that the output of tin concentrate 
was 476 tons, of which 299 tons was obtained by sluic- 
ing and 177 tons by dredging. The output was 95 tons 
lower than in 1917, owing partly to scarcity of labour, 
and partly to low-grade areas being worked during the 
period of high prices of tin The accounts sh 
profit of ;£59,788, out of which /2S.78S has been dis- 
tributed, being at the rate of 25%, less income tax. 
■ £30,000 is reserved for Excess Profits Duty. 
I luring the year, nine new mining rights were acquired, 
covering a length of over eight miles on tributaries of 
the Mongu river. 



Naraguta Extended. — Thiscompany was formed in 
191 1 to acquire, from the Anglo-Continental MinesCo., 
alluvial tin property on the Delemi River, Nigeria. 
S. R. Bastard is chairman, C. G. Lush & Son are con- 
sulting engineers in London, and R. W. Mannam is 
consulting engineer in Nigeria. The report for 1918 
shows that the output of tin concentrate was 280 tons, 
as compared with 334 tons in 1917. Of the output, 
154$ tons was won by the company and 125J tons by 
tributers. The amount won by tributers tends to de- 
crease gradually. The reason why the company's out- 
put was less than in 1917 was partly the influenza epi- 
demic, and partly the necessity for working low-grade 
areas left behind when selective mining was the policy. 
With new plant now in course of erection, it will be 
possible in future to work all the ground as it comes. 
The profit for the year was .' 16,074, out of which 
05 has been distributed as dividends, being at the 
rate of 12$%, less income tax 

Ex-Lands Nigeria. — This company was formed by 
ploring I. an 1 & Minerals Co . in 1912, to ac- 
quire alluvial tin property in the South Bukeru district, 
Nigeria. In 1914 additional property was pun 
from the Budurua company. The report for 
shows that the output of tin concentrate was 3) 
Owing to scarcity of labour and the influenza epidemic 
the output was lower than that of the previous two 
The net profit for the year « I. out 

of which / I been distributed as dividend, be- 

ing at the rate of 12$%, free of income tax. A large 
ed for excess profits I 

Bisichi Tin. — This company was formed in 1 
tin ground in Nigeria Jame- 
diner is chairman and A V. II. 

diaulicking commenced in April, 1912, Ti ■ 
1918 shows that owing to s ibour during the 

latter part of the year, due to the influenza epidemic, 
the plant was not operated to its full capacity The 
output nsof tin concentrate, and the net profit 

rbe dividends absorbed > 25,000. being 
• 

Lower Bisichi (Nigeria) Tin Mines. — This company 

belongs to the Tin Anas group, and was formed in 

to acquire alluvial tin property in Nigeria The 

report for the year ei t ember 3<> last shows 

us ol tin concentrate was extracted, ascom- 

pared with 64 tons the year before. The net profit 

5,014, out of which £2,552 has : 
dend, being at the rate of 12$%, while /l,n00 has 
been placed to reserve and £500 written off develop- 
ment account. 

Oroville Dredging. This company was formed by 
1 W Baker in juire the share capital of 

an American company of similar name operating gold 
dredges on Feather River, near Sacramento, Califor- 
nia. Subsequently subsidiaries called the Pato and 
Nechi were formed to undertake similar work in Col- 
ombia. The report of the American < >rov ille company 
for the year ended September 30, 1918. shows that the 
California property is neanng exhaustion and that only 
one dredge was at work. The yardage treated was 
2.433,161 cu. yd., and the yield 'of gold $95,472, or 
3 92 cents per yard. The net loss for the year was 
;>-nds from previous balances absorbed 
'IS, of which £71.993 was received by the English 
Oroville company, which distributed £68,653, being 
at the rate of 10%. — Pato Mines (Coiombia). The 
report for the year ended September 30 shows that 
1,345,215 cu, yd was treated for a yield of gold worth 
as compared with 1,181.945 cu. vd and 
522 the year before. The yield per yard 
cents, as compared with 55 cents The yield in Lng- 



JULY, 1919 



63 






lish money was £54,745 and the net profit was £12,832. 
The outstanding income notes representing capital ad- 
vanced by Oroville Dredging have. been paid off. — 
Nechi Mines (Colombia). The report for the year 
ended September 30 shows that the dredge treated 
1,076,558 cu. yd. for a yield of $253, 787, or 2357 cents 
per yard, and also treated 1,066,371 cu. yd. of Pato 
ground for a yield of ft 183,711, or 172 cents per yard. 
The net profit was £25,841. The preference and ordi- 
nary shares received dividends of 25%, absorbing 
£35,000, being £17,500 to each class of share. 

Esperanza. — This company was formed in 1903 by 
F. W. Baker and others, to acquire the bulk of the 
shares of an American company of similar name oper- 
ating a gold mine at El Oro, Mexico. The mine is 
now nearing exhaustion. The report for 1918 shows 
181,832 dry metric tons of ore and old fillings was 
treated for a yield worth £336,000. Theworking profit 
of the American company was £40,555, but, as £48,761 
was placed' to reserve for depletion of ore and depre- 
ciation in order to avoid American income tax and ex- 
cess profits duty, a loss for the year of £8,206 was in- 
curred. The American company paid dividends of 
ftl35,000 out of the balance brought forward from 1917, 
and the English company has paid £16,209, being at 
the rate of Is. per share, less income tax. The reserve 
of ore blocked out was estimated on January 1 at 
35,131 tons, and the old fillings at between 50,000 and 
100,000 tons. Itisexpected that, in addition, fairly large 
amounts of ore will be disclosed in extracting the fil- 
lings. As already announced, the company has re- 
cently taken an option on property situated on the west 
coast of Mexico. 

St. John del Rey. — This company was formed in 
1828 to work the Morro Velho gold mine in Minas 
Geraes, Brazil. For over thirty years it has been in 
the charge of George Chalmers. The report for the 
year ended February 28 last shows that 165,000 long 
tons of ore was milled, for an extraction in gold worth 
£423,029, and silver worth £6,040. The yield per ton 
was 52s. Of the gold, 37s. 7d. came from concentrates 
and 13s. 5d. by cyaniding tailing. The working cost 
was £290,876, and State and , other charges were 
£•13,855, leaving a working profit of £124,338. Out 
of this, £35,000 was placed to capital expenditure ac- 
count. Dividends of 10% were paid on £100,000 pref- 
erence shares and £546,265 ordinary shares. Owing 
to severe floods and the influenza epidemic, the ore 
milled was 15,300 less than the year before, and the 
profit £29,341 less, but the amount distributed was 
the same. Owing to war conditions, it has been im- 
possible to proceed with the scheme for cooling and 
ventilating at depth. The deepest working is now 
Horizon 21, at 6,126 ft. vertically below outcrop. The 
ore-body here is as satisfactory both as to extent and 
assay-value as in the levels above. The reserve is esti- 
mated at 1,209,104 tons, sufficient to last 6| years at 
the normal capacitv, 192,000 tons per year. 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines of Brazil. — This company 
was formed in 1884 by John Taylor & Sons to work 
the Passagem gold mines in the State of Minas Geraes, 
Brazil, in the same district as the mines of the St. 
John del Key company. Several reconstructions have 
been necessary, and the dividends have been few. The 
ore is not so persistent or of so high a grade as that at 
St. John del Rey. The report for 1918 shows that 
63,400 tons of ore was raised and treated, yielding 
21,245 oz. of gold, realizing £90,234, or 28s. 6d. per 
ton. The profit for the year was £l,222. Duringthe 
previous year, 82,500 tons was treated. The decrease 
was due to shortage of labour and to the influenza epi- 
demic. Developments have given good results in the 



920 and 1,040 metre levels south-west of Secondary 
No. 2 shaft. The reserve is estimated at 81,874 tons, 
an increase of 20,644 tons during the year. Furnaces 
for recovering arsenic have recently been despatched, 
and for the purpose of providing the cost, £10,000 de- 
bentures were issued in April. 

RezendeMines. — This company was formed in 1892, 
as the United Goldfields of Manica, to work gold 
mines in the Umtali district of Rhodesia. There have 
been three reconstructions, and in 1912 the mine and 
plant of the Penhalonga company were acquired. The 
Penhalonga mine was, however, exhausted two years 
later. Two years ago the control passed to Sir Abe 
Bailey, and the head office was moved from London 
to Rhodesia. At about that time, ore of much higher 
grade was discovered. The report for 1918 shows that 
23,293 tons was raised from the Central section and 
31,177 tons from the Eastern section. At the mill, 
54,000 tons of ore was treated, averaging 13'76dwt. 
per ton. The total yield of gold by amalgamation, 
cyaniding, and from concentrate was 35,516 oz. Of 
the gold produced, £129,279 was credited to revenue 
account, and the remainder placed to bullion reserve. 
The working profit was £48,557, and the net profit 
£41,561, out of which £23,687 has been distributed as 
dividend, being at the rate of 20% . The ore reserves 
have continued to increase, and now stand at 175,374 
tons averaging 12'66 dwt, as compared with 135,941 
tons averaging ll"77dwt. a year ago. Of the total, 
60,748 tons averaging 7 05 dwt. is in the Central sec- 
tion, and 114,626 tons averaging 1563 dwt. is in the 
Eastern section. These are the figures given by the 
consulting engineer and the manager ; the directors, 
in their report, give the figures at 447,690 tons. De- 
velopment is being continued actively in promising 
ground. 

Village Main Reef. — This company was formed in 
London in 1890 by the Consolidated Gold Fields to 
acquire from a South African company a mine in the 
central Rand below the Salisbury, Jubilee, and the 
western part of the City & Suburban. The remains 
of the Wemmer outcrop property were acquired later. 
During recent years the technical control has been with 
Rand Mines, Limited. The report for 1918 shows that 
279,264 tons of ore was raised, and after the rejection 
of waste, 265,585 tons averaging 7 22 dwt. per ton was 
sent to the mill. The yield by amalgamation was 
67,333 oz., and by cyanide 25.929 oz., making a total 
of 93,252 oz , worth £388,504, or 29s. 2d. per ton 
milled. The working cost was £299,073, or 22 
per ton, leaving a working profit of £89/431, or 
per ton. The shareholders received £47,200, being at 
the rate of 22£%, which will be distributed in the form 
of shares in Village Deep. The ore reserve is estima- 
ted at 378,510 tons averaging 7 dwt., a reduction of 
149.640 tons during the year. The development is 
now nearly complete, and future operations will depend 
more and more on reclamation. Severe falls of ground 
have made it almost impossible to stope the richer ore 
in the deeper levels. 

Ferreira Deep.— This companv belongs to the Rand 
Mines group, and was formed in quire prop- 

erty on the dip of the Ferreira in the central Rand. 
Production commenced after the loer war, and excel- 
lent dividends have been pa 1904. The mine 
has suffered much from crushing and coll.' 
hinging wall. To obviate these dangers the 
of reef-packing was introduced The report for 1918 
shows that 556,330 tons of ore was raised, ami alter 
the rejection of waste, 50^ 150 tons, averaging 
dwt., was sent to the mill. The yield by amal 
tion was 143,585 oz., and by cyanide 19,649oz., tnak- 



64 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



ing a total of 193,234 oz., worth £806,694, or 31s. 9d. 
per ton milled. The working cost was £594,978, or 
33s. 5d. per ton, leaving a working profit of £211,715, 
or 8s. 4d. per ton. The dividends absorbed £220,500, 
or 22$%. Development of the best ground is nearly 
complete, and only 143,700 tons averaging 66 dwt , 
was added to the reserve during the year. The re- 
serve now stands at 932,400 tons averaging 8 dwt., of 
which 375,800 tons is not immediately available, being 
in pillars and isolated blocks There is also 307,660 
tons in the reef-packs. An area in the eastern part of 
the mine, believed to be of low grade, remains to be 
developed. 

Geldenhuis Deep. — This company was formed in 
1893 to acquire deep levels in the near east Rand, be- 
low the Geldenhuis Estate. The control is with Rand 
Mines, Ltd. The report for 1918 shows that the out- 
put continues to decrease. The ore raised was 65 
tons, and after the rejection of waste, 591,100 tons 
averaging 5 8 dwt. was sent to the mill. The vield of 
gold by amalgamation and cyanidingwas 164,476 oz , 
worth £684,688, or 23s. 2d. per ton milled. The 
working cost was £683,480, or 23s. Id per ton. The 
year before, 648,000 tons milled yielded £772,255 at a 
cost of £675,551. The ore reserve is estimated at 
1,549,600 tons averaging 5'9dwt , as compared with 
1,811,000 tonsaveragmg 5 8 dwt a vear ago The de 
velopment of the eastern section of the property is 
nearly complete A fairly large area remains to be 
developed in the western section, but the tonnage of 
payable ore that can be expected is not great, and the 
cost of development will be considerable. 

Durban-Roodepoort Deep. — This company was 
formed in 1895 to acquire deep level ground in the 
Roodepoort district of the western Kand The con- 
trol is with Rand Mines, Ltd. The profits ha%'e never 
been great, and three years ago the output began to 
decrease slightly. The report for 1918 shows that 
359,626 tons was raised, and after the rejection of 
waste, 300,450 tons averaging 7 52 dwt per ton was 
sent to the mill. The yield by amalgamation was 
74,596 oz., and by cvanide 33,687 oz , making a total 
of 108,263 oz , worth £450,344, or 30s. per ton milled 
The working cost was £420,277, or 2ss per ton, leav- 
ing a working profit of £.30,067, or 2s per ton. The 
shareholders received £l 1,000, being at the rate ot 
The reserve is estimated at 1,07s, 500 tons averaging 
6'5dwt. The deeper levels are to be developed by a 
new vertical shaft, the sinking of which was commen- 
ced at the end of February of this year 

Roodepoort United Main Reef. — This company be- 
longs to the Albu group, and owns outcrop and deep- 
level properties in the west Rand. It was formed in 
1887, and there have been several rearrangements and 
amalgamations. Dividends were paid from 1894 to 
1910, except during the Boer war. In 1910, funds 
were borrowed from the General Mining & Finance 
Corporation to push developments and erect a modern 
mill. These loans are still outstanding. The report 
for 1918 shows that 291, 878 tons was raised, and 286,3 13 
tons averaging 5 14 dwt. per ton was sent to the mill. 
The yield by amalgamation and cyanide was i 
oz, worth £290, 792, and the working cost was £324, 968. 
The ore reserve is estimated at 223,041 tons averaging 

02 dwt. Owing to the increase in cost, it has been 
necessary to eliminate large blocks from the reserve. 
Recourse is now being had to low-grade reclamation 
ore, which can be mined comparatively cheaply. 

West Rand Consolidated. — This company belongs 
to the Albu group, and was formed in 1903 to acquire 
a number of properties in the far west Rand. In 1907 
the Violet mine and mill were bought, and in 1915 



part of the property of the Lancaster West was pur- 
chased. The property includes workings on the Botha, 
or Main, Reef, and on the Battery Reef to the south. 
Milling started in 1908. The only dividend paid was 
one of 3?% in 1909. The issued capital is £2,004,424. 
and there are £221, 221 debentures. The report for 
1918 shows that 258,727 tons was raised from the Botha 
Reef and 126,384 tons from the Battery Reef, and after 
the rejection of waste, 379,530 tons averaging 5 46 dwt. 
per ton was sent to the mill. The yield of gold by 
amalgamation and cyaniding was 96,575 oz., worth 
£403,195, and the working cost was £410,743. The 
ore reserve is estimated at 1,208,315 tons averaging 6 1 
dwt The feature of the year's development was the 
discovery of high grade ore in the Battery Reef be- 
tween the 6th and 9th levels. 

Aurora West United. — This company was formed in 

1889 to acquire property on the outcrop in the middle 

west Rand. There were several reorganizations and 

absorptions in the early days, and milling was not con 

tmuous. Operations were resumed in 1908. Further 

reconstructions took place in 1909 and 1912, and in 

addition, capital has been borrowed from the Albu 

parent company, the General Mining it Finance. The 

teport for 1918 shows that 173,'<<>3 tons was raised, 

and after the rejection of waste, 158,550 tons was sent 

to the mill The yield of gold 162, or 22s 

6d. per ton, and the working cost was £177.067, or 

n The ore reserve is estimated at 

18 tons, averaging 5 6 dwt. < iwing to increased 

I has lie,-n necessary to omit large amounts of 

South Reef from the reserve. Delays in obtaining the 

amps have postponed the development of 

the 15th 1' 

New Goch. rhis company belongs to the Albu 
group, and was formed in 1887, as the George Goch. 
to acquire claims on the outcrop in the central Kand 
between Wolhuter and Nourse. There have been sev 
eral reconstructions and rearrangements of capital and 
property I >ividends were paid for 1910, 1911, 1915. 
oid in 1915 the outstanding debentures, 
( 1 12. 4 75, were redeemed The report for 1918 shows 
that 199,070 tons of ore was raised, and 197,300 tons 
averaging 4 3'>dwt. per ton was sent to the mill The 
vield by amalgamation and cyaniding was 39,436 oz 
In addition, 34,200 tons of accumulated slime yielded 
3.595o/. The total revenue was £185,655, and the 
expenditure wa- The ore reserve is esti- 

mated at 111,670 tons averaging 5 6 dwt There is a 
fairly large amount of partly developed ore, and much 
of this may be worth working, though no definite esti- 
mate of its value can be made Reclamation ore will 
also help to keep the mill going. 

Glencairn. — This company belongs to the Barnato 
group, and was formed in 1889 to acquire property on 
the outcrop in the middle east Rand. As already record- 
ed the mine is exhausted and hoisting ceased It 
vember. The report for 1918 shows that 218,786 tons 
of ore was raised, and after the rejection of 8?o waste. 
200,900 tons averaging 5 ?) dwt. was sent to the mill 
The yield by amalgamation was 20,443 oz., and bv 
cyaniding 10,519 oz. , making a total of 30, 962oz., worth 
£132.152 In addition, £5,029 was obtained from 
16,868 tons of accumulated slime, and £5.407 from 
clean upof the mill. The net profit was £6,796, which 
with the balance £20,83S brought forward from the 
previous year, made a disposable balance of £27,634 
Outofthis, £27,500hasbeen distributed as dividend, be- 
ing at the rate of 5 l V, Operations are now confined to the 
treatment of accumulated slime, of which there remains 
about 190,000 tons averaging 2 dwt. The rate of treat- 
ment will be 7.500 tons per month 



The Mining Magazine 



W. F. White, Managing Director. 



Edward Walker, M.Sc, F.G.S., Editor. 



Published on the 15th of each month by The Mining Publications, Ltd., 
at Salisbury House. London Wall, London, E.C.2. 

Telephone: London Wall 8938. Telegraphic Address : Oligoclase. Codes: McNeill, both Editions. 



(420, Market Street, San Francisco. 
Branch Offices: j 300. Fisher Bdg.. Chicago. 

( 2.222. Equitable Building, New York. 



Subscription \ "; K - a , nd Canada, 12s. per annum (Single Copy Is. 3d ) 
I Elsewhere. 16s. per annum (Single Copy Is. 4d.) 



Vol. XXI. No. 2. LONDON, AUGUST, 1919. 



PRICE 
ONE SHILLING 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial 
Notes 66 

Simplified Spelling 67 

Attention is drawn to the Pitman-Ellis system of 
simplified spelling, which is more logical and 
convincing than most methods put forward. 

Labour Unrest 67 

The causes of dissatisfaction with present condi- 
tions are examined, and high prices and Govern- 
ment extravagance are blamed. 

Minerals Separation's Future 68 

The American patent governing the use of less than 
1% of oil expires in 1923, but the company has 
other patents, particularly that covering soluble 
frothing agents, with a longer time to run. 

Wider Scope for Mining Engineers... 69 

The mining engineer and metallurgist have wider 
opportunities for work than the extraction of 
ores and metals ; the design of plant and the 
manufacture of commercial commodities from 
minerals and metals are also open to them. 

Alliance of Technical Societies 70 

The present tendency is for technical societies to 
join hands for the furtherance of their objects in 
many ways. 

Review of Mining 72 

Articles 

The Minerals of Anatolia 

Norman M. Penzer, B.A., F.G.S. 76 

The author gives particulars of the mineral deposits 
of part of Asiatic Turkey, about which little is 
known in this country, though the Germans 
compiled records some years ago. 

Modern Rock- Drill Practice 

David Penman, B.Sc, M.Inst.M.E. 82 

Four Years as a Prisoner of War 

J.C. F arrant 90 

The Author continues his account of the treatment 
of English Prisoners of War by the Germans, 
describing conditions under which they worked 
in the firing line in Russia. 

Letters to the Editor 

Spitsbergen Ernest Mansfield 95 

Diamond Drilling ... J. A. McVicar 97 

News Letters 

Toronto 99 

Damage by Forest Fires; Porcupine; Kirkland 
Lake; Cobalt; Matachewan ; West Shining 
Tree. 

2—3 



North of England 



PAGE 

100 



"The Times" Article ; Zinc; Lead; Thornthwaite 
Mine; Threlkeld ; Brandlehow Mine; Wear- 
dale; Goldscope. 

San Francisco 101 

Mexican Conditions. 



Personal 

Trade Paragraphs 

Metal Markets 

Statistics of Production 

Prices of Chemicals 

Share Quotations 



The Mining Digest 

The Elmore Process 

The " Long- Rig " in Rock- Drill Practice 

F. C. W. Ingle 

Acid and Superphosphate Manufacture at 

Cockle Creek /. H. McFeeters 

The Heidelberg Goldfields 

Geology of Southern Nigeria .4. H. Kitson 

Low-Grade Nickel Ores C W. Davis 

Queensland Wolfram F.C. Cann 

Amalgamating J. Fairfax Walker 

Oolitic Ironstones R. II. Ra stall 

Short Notices 

Recent Patents Published 

New Books 



McLeod's " Practical Instructions in the 
Search for, and the Determination of, the 
Useful Minerals, including the Rare Ores 
Arthur Holmes 

Chapman's " Elements of Astronomy for 
Surveyors " Alex. Richardson 

Text- Book of Rand Metallurgical Practice 

Vol. II 

Peele's " Compressed Air Plant " 

Matthews' "Studies in the Construction of 
Dams " 



103 
103 
104 
106 
109 
110 

l n 

112 

114 
116 
119 
120 
120 
121 
122 

123 

133 



123 

12 1 



125 
125 



125 



Company Reports 125 

Antelope; Briseis Tin & General Mining; Broken Hill 
10; Broken Hill Block 14; Bullfinch Proprietary; Burma Ruby 
Mines; Consolidated Gold Fields ol New Zealand; Esp 
Copper & Sulphur: Ginsberg; Glencairn ; Glencoe (Natal) Col- 
lieries; [poh ["in Dredging; Jupiter; Kramat Pulai ; Lake View 
.v Star; Libiola Copper; New Primrose; Poderosa; Robinson 
Deep; Siamese Tin; Simmer Deep. Transvaal Gold Mining 
Instates. 



EDITORIAL 



ATTENTION is once more being drawn 
J~\ to the advantages offered by tin as a 
material for out-of door memorials. In the 
permanence of its surface it is not rivalled by 
any other metal than gold. The tablet in the 
Chelsea Physic Garden to the memory of Sir 
Hans Sloane is an excellent example of the 
superiority of tin over bronze or stone. 

THAT active body, the British Lead & 
Zinc Miners' Association, had a convin- 
cing spokesman in Professor Henry Louis, 
when they appeared before the Royal Com- 
mission on the Income Tax. He urged that 
mines should be allowed to redeem their capi- 
tal without taxation, and that the cost of all 
development and renewals of plant should be 
deducted before assessing profits. We hope 
that other public bodies interested in non-fer- 
rous metal mining will offer similar testimony. 

THE Government has at last granted the 
South African gold producers the con- 
cession of permission to dispose of their out- 
put in the most favourable market. It is 
now possible to sell the gold in the United 
States, where the producers will at present 
have an advantage in exchange to the extent 
of nearly 10%. Hitherto this profit has ac- 
crued to the British Government. The bene- 
fit to the producers will, of course, be a vari- 
able factor, depending on the balance of Eng- 
lish debts to America, and in times of British 
prosperity the concession will be meaningless 

OIL magnates in America are becoming 
alarmed at the gradual increase of Brit- 
ish control of the oilfields of the world. In 
the United States the influence of the Shell 
combine is regarded with some anxiety, and in 
Western Canada strenuousoppositionhas even 
arisen. The acquirement by English shipping 
interests of the control of the Huasteca Petro- 
leum Co., the company formed some years ago 
by the brothers Doheny to operate south of 
Tampico, is another event of importance. The 
purchase of the Scottish oil-shale properties 
by the Anglo- Persian company, the activities 
in connection with oil-drilling in the Midlands 
and elsewhere, and the development of the 
Norfolk oil shales, are helping to focus the at- 
tention of the public on the importance of oil. 
The Admiraltyand certain sections of the mer- 
cantile marine are backing oil, a fact which ex- 
plains their comparative indifference in the 
matter of the coal strike. 



ELSEWHERE in this issue we publish a 
rejoinder to our remarks last month on the 
Spitsbergen iron ore enterprise. This letter is 
written by Mr. Ernest Mansfield, a prospec- 
tor who has been in the islands for some years 
in the service of the Northern Exploration 
Company. His contribution to the discussion 
deals chiefly with the international rivalry for 
the possession of the islands and their miner- 
als, and does not give any specific information 
with regard to the question we raised, namely, 
the value and extent of the iron ore deposits. 
It is announced that Mr. William Selkirk has 
left for Spitsbergen for the purpose of examin- 
ing these deposits. Until his report is pub- 
lished, it is little use arguing the matter further. 



IN another part of this issue a full abstract 
is given of the patents describing Mr. 
F. E. Elmore's new process for separating lead 
and zinc sulphides. As mentioned last month, 
the essential idea is to convert lead sulphide 
into lead sulphate by treatment with hot con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, the zinc sulphide re- 
maining unattacked, and to dissolve the lead 
sulphate in a solution of brine. This attack 
of finely ground galena by sulphuric acid is a 
reaction unknown to the text-books. It is in- 
teresting to note that the patenteeand his friends 
do not intend to rely for their profits on royal- 
ties, but will work the process themselves. 
Many properties can be obtained where the 
process is applicable, and ore and concentrates 
can also be treated at the works in this coun- 
try. Arrangements have already been made 
for the sale of the foreign and colonial patents. 
The Chemical & Metallurgical Corporation, 
which controls the patents, is not confining its 
attention to this one particular process, but is 
open to finance other inventions. For instance, 
the Francois cementation patents have been 
acquired, and a number of contracts for sealing- 
off underground water have been taken over. 

THE committee of the Royal School of 
Mines Old Students' Association has had 
no small difficulty in preparing the Register of 
Old Students. In January of last year we 
referred to this subject at some length, and 
appealed to all readers who have been at the 
Royal School of Mines to forward the particu- 
lars of their record for inclusion in the Register. 
At the time, only about 500 out of over 2,000 
had responded to the circular appeals of the 
committee. Subsequently the number of 



66 



AUGUST, 1919 



67 



records secured reached about 600. It was 
felt that no further delay was permissible in 
printing the Register, but before finally pro- 
ceeding with the binding it was decided to cir- 
culate it in proof form among all who had sent 
their records. Old students and others who 
see the proofs may observe the absence of 
names they know, and in this way laggards 
and absentees will be afforded another chance 
of being included. When the Register isfinally 
complete it will be bound with the History of 
the Royal School of Mines, written by Miss 
Reeks, and the volume will include a Roll of 
Honour, and lists of associates, prizemen, and 
medallists. In reading the proofs of the entries 
concerning them, we advise old students to 
correct errors of typography, of which there 
are many, due no doubt to illegible hand-writ- 
ing ; and we would also recommend the elimi- 
nation, in one or two cases, of certain details 
relating to qualifications which are entirely out 
of place in a register of this character. 



that the English Simplified Spelling Society 
and the various organizations for reform in 
America should join hands, throw over their 
jejune propaganda, and initiate a campaign on 
behalf of the Pitman- Ellis system. 



THREE months ago we gave our opinions 
on the subject of simplified spelling, and 
our reasons for refusing to depart from the 
standard of the Oxford Dictionary. Among 
many letters commenting on the article, a par- 
ticularly interesting one came from Mrs. Ed- 
win Field, who draws our attention to the Pit- 
man-Ellis phonetic alphabet. This alphabet 
was invented by Isaac Pitman in 1847,andsup- 
ported by Alexander J. Ellis, a noted philolo- 
gist and a Fellow of the Royal Society. It con- 
sisted of 40 letters, representing 40 sounds, and 
in this way presented the only logical form of 
improved spelling to which we referred in the 
article. No difficulty is presented in reading 
words spelt on this system, for there arenodoubt- 
ful conventions for the pronunciation of the let- 
ters of the current alphabet, as is the case with 
the spelling advocated by the Simplified Spell- 
ing Society. The Pitman-Ellis system was re- 
ceived with great interest in the middle of the 
last century, but it eventually failed owing to 
one of the drawbacks mentioned by us, namely, 
the inability of the advocates of simplified 
spelling to agree as to the exact form and meth - 
ods. In this case Mr. Pitman was continually 
suggesting or introducing improvements or 
alterations, much to the annoyance of his co- 
operators. The consequence was that the lit- 
erati and the general public were mystified and 
became tired, and the propaganda languished. 
This was a pity, for the system is the only one 
worthy of serious thought. It is to be hoped 
that Mrs. Field will be able to resuscitate pub- 
lic interest in the system. Our own view is 



DURING the last two or three years, Mr. 
W. E. Bleloch has been much to the fore 
in connection with the Far East Rand and the 
extensions of the goldfields around and south of 
Heidelberg. Mr. Bleloch is not by any means 
a novice in Far East Rand geology, as many 
of our readers will remember, but owing to his 
being a free lance, his views and activities 
have not been so well known in this country 
as locally. He is indeed looked upon by most 
of the big houses as an interloper, and some 
people go so far as to say that he has no busi- 
ness to enunciate theories at all. The testing 
of his theories, however, will make nobodyany 
poorer, and may possibly be to the benefit of 
the South African community, so it is not for 
us to throw discouragement in his path. A 
lengthy series of articles that has lately ap- 
peared in the South African Mining and 
Engineering Journal has given us the opportu- 
nity to publish some account of his views. 
These articles are discursive and disconnected, 
and do not give a very intelligible account of 
the Bleloch theory, or of the history of the 
operations on which it is founded. We were 
obliged to resort to liberal excision and some 
rearrangement, but the account is still too long 
and not as clear as we could wish. 



LABOU R troubles in the coalfields continue 
j to prevent the resumption of the indus- 
tries of this country on a peace basis. But dis- 
affection is not confined to the miners, for trans- 
port workers, policemen, bakers, and others 
receiving fixed wages are out of temper with 
the profiteer, and with everything in general. 
Economists are once more trying to teach the 
worker that if wages are increased the price of 
commodities will be put up by the shops for 
the sole reason that the customers have more 
money to spend. But would it not be better 
for the economists to recommend the mine- 
owners and other employers to establish trad- 
ing establishments that, would not take advan- 
tage of the worker, according to the plan adop- 
ted in many other countries ? The argument 
with regard to the vicious circle does not start 
from the right point, for the high prices of com- 
modities came from scarcity of supplies, and 
the high wages received in certain quarters 
originated from extravagant Government of- 
fers. Then, again, it is little use telling the 



68 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



toiler that the country is going to ruin unless 
he works harder and ceases to demand higher 
wages, while at the same time the roads are 
crowded with gorgeous motor-cars, the pleas- 
ure resorts are full of gay and thoughtless 
holiday-makers, and the newspapers are filled 
with descriptions of the magnificent dresses 
worn by the ladies at Goodwood races and the 
King's garden parties. It was not over-wise 
on the part of those in authority to give the 
children an extra week's summer holiday in 
commemoration of peace. Another cause of 
the present love of idleness is to be found in 
the influence of trench warfare : hour after 
hour and day after day nothing to do but to 
grin and bear it. That was not a good prepara- 
tion for a hustling peace campaign of indus- 
try. The country wants a leader who has a 
different solution to offer than the creation of 
new Government departments, or suppression 
of the dukes, or even a promised prosecution 
of profiteers. In the meantime public ex- 
penditure continues at an appalling level, with 
out check or control. The labour unrest is not 
confined to this country, for in the United 
States also the high cost of living is causing 
serious trouble, and agitation has arisen for the 
placing of the control of certain enterprises 
such as the railways more in the hands of the 
< nn eminent and the workers. As far as the 
industries in which this Magazine is interested, 
the present position is that the non-ferrous 
metal mining of this country is hard hit by 
the scarcity of coal and its high price, and that 
the makers of machinery depending on the 
regular supply of iron, steel, and coal are un- 
able to promise definite prices or time of de- 
livery for any contracts offered. 



Minerals Separation's Future. 

Some doubt has arisen in various quarters 
as to the exact value to Minerals Separation of 
the recent decision of the United States Su- 
preme Court in connection with the less- than - 
1% flotation patent. It is pointed out that this 
patent, No. 835,120, applied for on May 29, 
1905, and granted on November 6, 1906, will 
expire in 1923, so that the company has only 
four years more of monopoly. This question 
has to be considered from two points of view, 
one relating to the collection of past royalties, 
and the other the value of other patents more 
recent than that on which the litigation centred. 
In the first place, the Butte & Superior Com- 
pany, which was the defendant in this case, 
will have to pay Minerals Separation between 
fifteen and twenty million dollars. This is the 
assessment of the Montana court, published on 



July 19, and it is based on a far higher rate of 
royalty than would have satisfied Minerals 
Separation had thenegotiationscometoahappy 
issue at the beginning. Whether Butte & Su- 
perior can or will pay the whole amount, or 
whether it will appeal or adopt some legal sub- 
terfuge for evading payment, it is not possible 
to say, but, as we said in a recent issue in con- 
nection with certain unsatisfactory features-of 
American Patent Law, there is many a slip 
between the awarding of damages and their 
collection. Presumably other users of flota- 
tion methods are rendered liable to similar ac- 
tion and will have to settle their debts, but on 
this point we have no definite information. 
The judgment apparently does not cover the 
Miami case, where agitation is obtained by up- 
ward streams of bubbles of compressed air 
which enter the cells through perforated bot- 
toms, or the employment of other means of 
agitation than the rapidly rotating impeller. 
The judges in the Butte \- Superior case were 
only informed of the Minerals Separation 
method of producing a froth, and as they had 
no other source of information and were not 
conversant with general practice, their defini- 
tions of the limits of application in their judg- 
ments have not been perfectly clear. It is a 
pity the Miami case did not go to the Supreme 
Court so that the full effect of the less- than - 
idgment could be ascertained. The judg- 
ment of the Appeal Court was not unanimous 
as to the invalidity of other methods of agita 
tion, and for that reason a final judgment 
would have been welcome. The Miami com- 
pany, however, stated some time ago that it 
did not intend to appeal to the Supreme Court. 
At the present time, therefore, the legality of 
other methods of agitation in connection with 
the use of less than 1% of oil is not satisfac- 
torily settled. 

When the future of Minerals Separation is 
I considered, it has to be remembered that the 
process is not based merely on this particular 
patent. The company has had for years a staff 
of investigators who have introduced many im- 
provements. An echo of one of these im- 
provements is to be found in the recent Su- 
preme Court's judgment, where it was incident- 
ally laid down that the use of pine oil consti- 
tuted a vast advance in practice. The original 
statement to this effect is found in the judg- 
ment of the Court of Appeal in the Miami 
case. On that occasion it was held that patents 
962,678 of 1910 and 1,099,699 of 1914 were 
valid. As the suit was not carried to the Su- 
preme Court this judgment stands, at any rate 
for the present. The first of these patents was 



AUGUST, 1919 



69 



granted to Sulman, Greenway, and Higgins, 
and covers the use of organic compounds mis- 
cible in water obtained by the distillation of 
coal and wood. It is thus clear that the use 
of soluble frothing agents such as pine oil and 
coal tar compounds is under the control of 
Minerals Separation. The other patent, in 
Greenway's name, covers the use in connec- 
tion with copper ores of aromatic hydroxy 
compounds such as phenol and cresol in a cold 
solution without acid. These two patents are 
good until 1927 and 1931 respectively. So it 
will be seen that Minerals Separation has other 
strings to its bow than the original patent that 
disclosed the secret of the commercial success 
of flotation. 

While writing of flotation, it is convenient 
to draw attention to the revival in the Ameri- 
can press of an old claim on the part of Mr. 
J. D. Wolf in connection with rapid agitation 
as applied to flotation. Mr. Wolf took out 
patents in 1903, numbered 4,793 in Great 
Britain and 787,814 in the United States. In 
the course of his process he used a rapidly ro- 
tating impeller, but it was intended for the pur- 
pose of recovering heavy oil from the rejected 
gangue, and not for creating a froth. Thus, 
though it may be truthfully enough said that 
the Wolf process first proposed rapid agitation 
in connection with flotation, it cannot be taken 
that the proposal anticipated theagitation-froth 
method. However, in many quarters, any stick 
is good enough for beating the back of Minerals 
Separation. 

The Alliance of Technical Societies. 

On several occasions recently reference has 
been made in these columns to the modern ten- 
dency of technical societies to form alliances 
of one sort or another. Men of older genera- 
tions used to think that one society was enough 
for pure science and one enough for applied 
science, and successively objected to proposals 
to have any other organizations than the Royal 
Society and the Institution of Civil Engineers. 
But with the spread of knowledge and investi- 
gation, and the continued subdivision of the 
various subjects, it became necessary, in spite 
of objections, to establish other societies for 
the purpose of affording adequate opportunity 
for discussion and interchange of opinion. 
It was then found that these societies could 
serve other purposes than the mere reading of 
papers, and that they could be made the repre- 
sentatives of the professions, both internally 
andexternally. For the purposeof still further 
increasing their public influence, it became 
clear that the alliance of a number of societies 



representing various ramifications of one big 
industry would be a politic step. There is an- 
other reason for considering rapprochements of 
this kind, which weighs nearly as much. This 
is the opportunity it gives for combining funds 
for the erection of a suitable home and the for- 
mation of a central library. In some quarters 
federation, or even amalgamation, has been 
proposed, but with the exception of the feder- 
ation of the provincial mining societies under 
thenameof thelnstitutionof MiningEngineers 
such schemes have not found favour, chiefly 
because the qualifications for membership of 
the various societies differ too widely. Con- 
sequently the limited, as contrasted with the 
full, partnership has been adopted in this 
country. Among notable alliances formed or 
proposed may be mentioned that between a 
number qf chemical societies, and another be- 
tween themining and metallurgical institutions. 
As particulars of these have already been given 
in these columns, nothing further need be said 
here. 

In the Overseas Dominions steps have been 
taken in Australia and South Africa to bring 
together the various engineering societies. In 
Australia there are twelve societies involved in 
the negotiations. Of these, the Australasian 
Institute of Mining Engineers, the Institute 
of Local Government Engineers, and the Elec- 
trical Association of Australia have the whole 
of theCommonwealthastheir field. Theother 
societies are the Victorian Institute of Engin- 
eers, the Engineering Association of New South 
W ales, the Queensland Institute of Engineers, 
the Northern Institute of New South Wales, 
the West Australian Instituteof Engineers, the 
Sydney University Engineering Society, the 
Melbourne University Engineering Society, 
and theTasmanian Engineering Institute. The 
progress of the preliminary proceedings in this 
matter has been hindered by the disinclination 
of the executive of the Australasian Instituteof 
Mining Engineers to participate. At this dis- 
tance, the ins and outs of the dispute between 
theexecutiveandcertain members, and between 
the executive and other societies, are not clear, 
and in any case, as we have not received the 
whole of the circulars and correspondence, it 
is incompetent for us to discuss the question in 
detail. It is only on general principles that we 
deplore the inability of the Australasian Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers to take part in the 
proposed consolidation of the Australian en- 
gineering societies. 

In South Africa the societies interested in 
mining have taken the initiative, and are pro- 
ceeding in no half-hearted fashion. Then 



70 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



scheme is ambitious and comprehensive, and 
they are energetically hunting foramillionaire, 
or millionaires, who will endow them with a 
suitable home. There is no talk of consolida- 
tion, but only of alliance for specified purposes. 
The three societies responsible for the scheme 
aretheSouth African Institutionof Engineers, 
the Chemical, Metallurgical, and Mining So- 
ciety of South Africa, and the South African 
Institution of Electrical Engineers. We have 
said that the soeieties interested in mining have 
taken the initiative, and in so doing we claim 
the Institutionof Engineersasasociety largely 
identified with mining, a claim which will be 
generally admitted. The other societies which 
are being asked to join are the Association of 
Transvaal Architects, the Institute of Land 
Surveyors of the Transvaal, the South African 
Association of Analytical Chemists, the Geo- 
graphical Society of South Africa, the South 
African Association for the Advancement of 
Science, the Astronomical Society, the South 
African Society of Civil Engineers, the Royal 
Society of South Africa, and the local branch 
of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 
The proposal is to erect a home for all these 
societies in Johannesburg, if possible near the 
School of Mines Building. Here there would 
be offices for the various societies, several 
meeting rooms, and a club ; also a library, the 
nucleus of which would be the Louis Seymour 
Memorial Library, now temporarily housed at 
the School of Mines. The societies would not 
only be provided with a home, but an organiza- 
tion would be formed through which the socie- 
ties as a body could act in matters of technical 
and public interest. The cost of such a scheme 
in capital outlay and endowment would be 
^100,000, and the question of raising the 
money will require close inquiry. No doubt a 
large number of members of the several socie- 
ties will be able to subscribe liberally to the 
fund, but, as we have said, the easiest solution 
of the matter will be the finding of a generous 
millionaire, or a millionaire who is ready to lay 
out his money on any plan that will help in the 
advance of the study of technology. 

Steps are being taken in India to unify the 
various engineering associations. The pro- 
posal is that a new society, to be called the 
Indian Society of Engineers, should be formed, 
and that it should be more or less under the 
control or patronage of certain London en- 
gineering societies. In Canada the propa- 
ganda for alliance has been active during the 
last year or two, but it is not quite clear 
whether the Canadian Society of Civil En- 
gineers, the name of which has recently been 



changed to the Engineering Instituteof Canada, 
is willing to co-operate amicably with the Can- 
adian Mining Institute. 

It is not necessary on this occasion to dilate 
at any length on what has been done in this 
direction in the United States. The four big 
engineering societies have a common home, 
provided partly by the munificence of Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie and partly by liberal con- 
tributions from individual members of the 
societies. Various chemical societies have 
offices under one roof, and their interests are 
interwoven in many ways. The Americans 
have largely adopted the felicitous habit of 
holding joint meetings of societies. The only 
fly in the ointment of general content is the 
inability of the Mining and Metallurgical 
Society of America to come to terms with the 
American Instituteof Mining and Metallurgi- 
cal Engineers. Here the question of qualifi- 
cation for membership stops the way, as is the 
case when anything closer than an alliance 
is suggested in connection with the English 
societies. 

We shall in the future give every oppor- 
tunity in our columns for the ventilation of pro- 
posals and views in connection with the move- 
ment for the alliance of societies. The policy 
is of prime importance in the establishment of 
technical professions on a sound basis and in 
the interchange and collection of information. 

Wider Scope for Mining Engineers. 

The scope for the activity of the mining en- 
gineer who specializes in thenon-ferrousmetals 
is, comparatively, a small one in most parts 
of the world. This is true in normal times, 
and at present the limits are accentuated by 
the sudden slackening of demand for the indus- 
trial metals during the reconstruction period. 
In some countries, such as the United States, 
there is still plenty of work for the mining en- 
gineer and metallurgist, and, given favourable 
opportunity, there are openings in Mexico, 
South America, and Siberia. But mining 
operations cannot spread laterally for ever, 
and costs and impoverishment impose a stiff 
barrier in depth. It follows that some other 
methods of providing work for the mining en- 
gineer and of increasing the importance and 
influence of our profession should be devised. 
There are two ways in which this end may be 
gained. Thesearealready well known, though 
not fully admitted as coming within the func- 
tions of themining engineer. In the first place 
the mining engineer may turn his studies to 
the design and manufacture of plant and ma- 
terial required at the mine or metallurgical 



AUGUST, 1919 



71 



works ; and second, he may follow the mineral 
or the metal further than the mine or smelter 
and engage in metal manufactureor the produc- 
tionof commercial chemicals. These industries 
areatpresentoutof theofficial scope of the min- 
ing engineer and metallurgist, for they are not 
included within the purview of the mining 
schools, and engagement in them does not qual- 
ify for the membership of the mining societies. 
Nevertheless, aswehave said, manymining en- 
gineers and metallurgists, as well as owners of 
mines and smelters, have crossed thestrict line, 
greatly to their profit. 

At the present time there is some prejudice 
against the mining engineer becoming a manu- 
facturer of machinery. Such mining engineer 
has, quite against his own wish, to adopt some 
sort of camouflage in his capacity as manufac- 
turer, in order that he personally shall not be 
mistaken for atradesman. Surprise is express- 
ed by superior people when it is found that a 
builder of head-frames is an Associate of the 
Royal Schoolof Mines, or that a maker of rock- 
drills is a Member of the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy. Our view is that the making 
of plant and materials used at mines and metal- 
lurgical works is advantaged by the direct in- 
fluence of men conversant with the objects for 
which the plant is used.and we therefore advise 
young mining engineers to note theopportunity 
offered by the careers here indicated. 

In considering the possibilities of participa- 
tion in the profits arising from the handling of 
mine products, it has lobe remembered that the 
mining engineer's and metallurgist's business 
issupposed to end with theselling of the mineral 
or the metallic ingot. The copper and lead 
smelters in this country, generally when their 
supplies of ore ran short, turned their attention 
to the manufacture of pipes, sheets, wire, or 
white lead. Some of the copper smelters in 
America are extending their business in the 
same direction, but without waiting for the ex- 
haustion of their ore supplies. In America 
and Australia the zinc producers are making 
galvanized iron, and many are engaged in the 
manufacture of zinc and lead pigments. 

The controllers of the chrome ore output no 
longer part entirely with their raw material at 
the beggarly price that used to beoffered by the 
chemical manufacturers, but share the latter's 
profits on a sound business-like basis. One of 
the companies owning wolfram mines is now 
producing tungsten powder from its own con- 
centrate instead of selling its raw material on 
the open market. A big producer of bismuth 
minerals has its own works for the production of 
bismuthalloysand chemical compounds. The 



talc industry in the Transvaal has been made 
profitable by the manufacture of marketable 
articles instead of practically giving it away to 
people that wanted it. In Rhodesiaa producer 
of arsenical ores is selling cattle dip in the local 
market. Certain firms of antimony smelters 
make antimonial pigments. The above ex- 
amples show what has already been done, and 
indicates the general line of expansion to which 
we refer. The policy is capable of wide and 
increasing application. There are difficulties 
in the way, of course, due to the opposition 
of the middleman trader, and to the secrecy 
surrounding the processes and methods. It 
is just these obstacles that give zest to the at- 
tack, and in the case of the disposal of mineral 
products the ruinous prices offered by the 
middleman afford excuse for the attack on 
other people's businesses. It is not necessary 
here to give specific instances of possible chan- 
ces of increasing mining profits by embarking 
in manufactures based on the products of the 
mine ; though one case may be mentioned, that 
of the gold producers, who might be enabled 
to put their financial position in better order if 
they were empowered to participate in the 
manufacture of jewellery, gold leaf, etc. 

The extension of the metallurgist's occupa- 
tion into the domain of the manufacture and 
uses of metals has been noticeable for some 
time. The study of the behaviour of metals 
and alloys during the process of manufacture 
and during use is now recognized as one of the 
most important branches of investigation, and 
provides occupation for a great number of in- 
telligent metallurgical chemists. The Royal 
Schoolof Minesand the University of Birming- 
ham are fortunate in having as professors of 
metallurgy men who are thoroughly at home 
in this branch of metallurgy, and their influence 
will tend to widen the opportunities of the stu- 
dent. While writing of professors, it is oppor- 
tune tomention that the application of minerals 
to chemical manufacture is fully appreciated 
by the professor of mining at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, as is evidenced by the fact that he now 
holds the presidency of the Society of Chemical 
Industry. 

In tendering the advice contained in the fore- 
going paragraphs to membersor intending mem- 
bers of the mining fraternity, we must not be 
taken as being desirous of interfering with 
present courses of study or with the established 
rules of membership of the societies. All we 
wish to do is to point out increased opportuni- 
ties for careers in the profession, and methods 
of getting greater rewards for the labour of ex- 
tracting metals and minerals. 



REVIEW OF MINING 



Introduction.— The country and the world 
generally is at present in a state of ferment 
owing to public and private extravagance, 
profiteering in food and clothing, and dissatis- 
faction among the earners of fixed wages. In 
mining circles the rise in the price of silver, 
the freeing of South- African gold, and the de- 
velopment of the new Elmore process have 
been the features of interest. An English en- 
gineer acquainted with iron ore, Mr. William 
Selkirk, has gone to Spitsbergen, so some re- 
liable details of the much advertised deposits 
should be available before long. In this issue 
we publish the first instalment of an article 
giving information relating to the mineral re- 
sources of Asia Minor, a country known in 
Continental mining circles, but of which little 
has been written in this country. 

Transvaal. — The Commission appointed 
by the Government to investigate mining con- 
ditions, with particular reference to the position 
of the low-grade mines, has been sitting as- 
siduously and hearing much evidence. Among 
other questions discussed were the removal of 
the colour bar and the granting of loans by the 
Government to mines temporarily in a tight 
corner. Judging by questions asked by some 
members of the Commission, the Government 
is not particularly sympathetic on eitherof these 
two points. 

As recorded recently, the New Modderfon- 
tein appealed from the judgment which declar- 
ed constitutional the imposition of taxation by 
the Transvaal Provincial Government on the 
gold mines. The Supreme Court confirms the 
lower court and has dismissed the appeal. 

With regard to the above-named tax, its 
incidence depends on the ratio of profit to the 
output of gold. Companies making a profit of 
less than 10% of the output are not affected. 
For profits above this ratio, the tax is 1% on 
the profits when the ratio is from 10% and 15%, 
and advances iV/o for each additional percen- 
tage of profit, up to a maximum of 4%. Thus 
any company making a profit which is 45% or 
more of the gold output will pay 4% of its 
profit as Provincial Tax, while companies 
fighting for existence are free of impost. 

The Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa, 
Ltd., has for some time wished to expand its 
field of operations, especially as few opportu- 
nities now offer for new gold-mining business 
in the Transvaal. The narrow confines of the 
memorandum of association have prevented the 
company employing its large reserve of capi- 



tal in industrial enterprises. It hasbeen deemed 
impossible to get the sanction of the courts to 
as sweeping a modification of the memorandum 
as is desirable, so the board has adopted an al- 
ternative plan. This provides for the forma- 
tion of a new company with suitable memor- 
andum and articles, and the whole of the shares 
of the new company will be held by the pres- 
ent company. The business will be handled 
by the new company, and its policy will be con- 
trolled by the shareholders in the present com- 
pany. 

Further detailsof the Daggafontein property 
as recently fixed between the company and the 
Government are to hand, and are given in the 
accompanying sketch map. The discoverer's 
claims (179) are around the No. 1 shaft, the 



e* 



Oo r 



'/ 



'-/ 



LeASEOJ MVNPACHT 


A 


ARE* 1 N %2 
\ 4 50 s^fi 


j d. Shaff 

l|79 Clliii] 


\ci*m\ 1257 Claims 


[bT 



V °GELSTRir, SBVLT 



The Daggafontkin Property. 

mynpacht area (l 257 claims) are to the west, 
the additional claims (450) leased from the 
Government are between the mynpacht and 
Springs Mines, and the areas A and B (173 
claims) were received in exchange for New 
Geduld Deep mynpachts. The positions of 
No. 1 and No. 2 shafts and of the proposed 
No. 3 shaft are shown. It will be remem- 
bered that the gold-mining rights of the north- 
west corner of Daggafontein Farm were re- 
cently acquired by the Cassel Clydesdale com- 
pany. A large area of the farm remains in the 
hands of the Government. 

On more than one occasion lately we have 
referred to the excellent results of develop- 
ment at the Government Gold Mining Areas. 
The results during the quarter ended June 30 



72 



AUGUST, 1919 



73 



are particularly good. Duringthistime 6,980 ft. 
of development was sampled, of which 4,140 ft. 
was payable, averaging 20 dwt. per ton over 
a width of 52 inches. 

The ore reserves at Modderfontein East at 
June 30 are reported at 850,000 tons averaging 
8 dwt., all of this being in the old Cloverfield 
section. Locally the prospects are considered 
bright, as may be judged by the jump in the 
quotations for both shares and convertible de- 
bentures. 

The inability of Kleinfontein to supply ore 
to its two milling plants to capacity continues 
to cause trouble to the engineers, who have 
been obliged more than once recently to modify 
the scheme of treatment. It is now announced 
that the Apex plant is to be closed temporarily, 
and that the output of the three sections is all 
to go to.the Kleinfontein plant. 

The annual meeting of the East Rand Pro- 
prietary Mines was enlivened by a discussion 
of Rand geology introduced by the irrepressible 
Mr. W. E. Bleloch. He urged that the wrong 
reef was being worked in the eastern or Blue 
Sky portion of the company's property, and 
that they had not found the "Van Ryn" which 
he claims would be the payable reef. He also 
holds that his Van Ryn reef extends all along 
the central Rand below the reefs now worked. 
A little cross-cutting and diamond drilling 
might well be undertaken to investigate this 
point, but the evidence in the hands of the en- 
gineers of the big mining houses is all against 
such proposals. 

The latest report from Rooiberg is more 
hopeful than some published recently. A lode 
has been disclosed by diamond-drilling in the 
Blaauwbank section 65 in. wide, and assaying 
2*4% metallic tin, the middle 26 in. averaging 
4'5%. The shaft is now being sunk in order 
that further investigation may be made. 

Rhodesia. — The output of gold during 
June was reported at ,£"214,215, as compared 
with ,£"218,057 in May, and ^225,447 in June, 
1918. Other returns from Southern Rhodesia 
are as follows: silver 1 5,900 oz, copper 278 
torts, arsenic 17 tons, wolfram 1 ton, chrome 
ore 4,963 tons, asbestos 833 tons, coal 43,295 
tons, diamonds 39 carats. 

The development of the lead-zinc ore de- 
posits of the Rhodesia Broken Hill Company 
has been rapid during the last year or so, and 
the output of lead is now regularly maintained 
at about 1,200 tons per month. Orders have 
been given for the erection of two more fur- 
naces, whereby the output will bedoubled. Mr. 
S. J. Speak is about to go to the United States 
for the purpose of studying the latest practice 



in the treatment of zinc ores of this type. Ar- 
rangements have been made for securing the 
services of one of the geologists of the Rho- 
desian Geological Survey, Mr. A. J. C. Moly- 
neux, in order that a thorough investigation of 
the geology of the district may be made. At 
the present time only No. 1 Kopje is being 
worked. Here the more leady portion of the 
oxidized lead-zinc ore is being worked by open- 
cut. Bores by churn-drill have proved the ore- 
body to go down 250 ft. A great many other 
outcrops are known, and are continually being 
exposed while clearing bush or digging founda- 
tions for buildings. 

The Wanderer mines have been closed, and 
the last clean-up yielded 30 oz. of gold from 
slags. The plant has been dismantled, and is 
being sold. 

Another Rhodesian gold mine, the Antelope, 
belonging to the Gold Fields group, finds its 
burden unbearable. The intrusion of a dyke, 
the scarcity of labour, and the mounting of 
costs have combined to extinguish the profit. 
The property is not suitable for tributing. 
The board has no alternative but to cut ex- 
penses and use the stores in working the re- 
serves as long as it pays to do so. 

The Government has appointed a commission 
which is to proceed to South Africa to examine 
the claims of the British South Africa Com- 
pany with regard to compensation for adminis- 
trative expenditure. A year ago the Judicial 
Committee of the Privy Council decided 
that the public lands were the property of the 
Crown and not of the company. It was claim- 
ed, therefore, by the company that much expen- 
diture that it had incurred in administration 
should really have been borne by the Crown. 
The amount of the company's claim is 
^7,569,435. # 

West Africa.- — The output of gold during 
June was valuedat /l 06, 612, ascomparedwith 
^"100,827 in May, and ^120,273 in June, 1918. 
The normal rate of output at Ashanti Goldfields 
has been restored, after the recent accident to 
the hoisting gear. 

Diamonds were recently discovered in West 
Africa by Mr. A. E. Kitson, the Government 
Geologist. They occur in gravels in a tribu- 
tary of Birrim River. The diamonds are 
small, but of high quality. We shall give 
some particulars in our next issue. 

The Fanti Consolidated Mines is about to 
form a subsidiary to take over the bulk of 
the manganese properties at Dagwin, and has 
made a contract for the sale of the ore to the 
United States, at the rate of 100,000 tons per 
year for five years. 



74 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Nigeria. — A new company has been formed, 
called the Associated Nigerian Tin Mines, 
Limited, to amalgamate the New Lafon Tin 
Fields and the Kassa-Ropp Tin Co., and to 
acquire the Yelwa property. The properties 
have been examined by Mr. J. M. lies, who 
reports that the proved contents of the various 
properties are 2,000 tons, 666 tons, and 1,536 
tons of tin concentrate respectively, and that 
the prospects are excellent. 

Australia. — The strikes at Kalgoorlie and 
Broken Hill continue. At the Broken Hill 
South a disastrous fire has occurred, which, 
there is reason to believe, was deliberately 
planned by a section of the disaffected em- 
ployees. At No. 1 shaft the headgear, ore 
bins, breaker house, and mill engine house 
have been destroyed. The new power house, 
winding engine, and most of the concentra- 
tion plant were saved. The mine workings 
were not affected. 

Cable advices announce that the Mount 
Morgan company produced 6,268 tons of cop- 
per and 92,983 oz. of gold during the year end- 
ed June 1. The ore raised was 323,264 tons, 
of which 190,604 tons went to the concentra- 
tion plant and the rest to the smelter. At the 
smelter the material treated comprised 128,543 
tons of ore, 17,348 tons of jig concentrates, and 
43,259 tons of table and flotation concentrates. 
Owing to the difficulty of marketing copper 
recently, it was decided to increase the yield of 
gold, and with this object a larger proportion 
of high-grade silicious ore in the upper levels 
was mined. As stated in our last issue, the 
mine was closed on June 15 owing to the strike 
of transport workers, but operations were partly 
resumed at the end of June. The dividends 
for the year absorbed /l00,000, being at the 
rate of 10 per cent. 

The Mount Boppy gold mine in New South 
Wales is the victim of another misfortune, 
this time in the form of an epidemic of influ- 
enza. All operations had to cease about the 
middle of July, and have not yet been resumed. 
The district is troubled with drought, but the 
water supply is sufficient for present purposes. 
The output of tin concentrate in Tasmania 
continues to decrease. The figure for 1918 
was 2,256 tons, as compared with 2,637 tons 
in 1917, 2,854 tons in 1916, and 4,010 tons in 
1913. Of the 1918 output 673 tons was pro- 
duced by three alluvial companies: Briseis 321 
tons, Pioneer 263 tons, and Arba 89 tons; while 
among lode mines the Mount Bischoff pro- 
duced 458 tons, the Bischoff Extended 155 
tons, and the Royal George 111 tons. The 
Mount Bischoff and the Briseis have been the 



biggest producers for many years, and their 
1918 outputs compare with 1,180 tons and 514 
tons in 1913. 

India. — We recorded two months ago that 
the developments at the Hutti (Nizam's) gold 
mine, in Hyderabad, were discouraging, and 
that the directors were uncertain as to the future. 
Anothermeetingof shareholders hassincebeen 
held at which it was announced thatexploration 
at depth continued to disclose no ore, though 
the lode-formation is clear enough. It was 
proposed that exploration should be continued 
as long as the present ore reserves provide the 
cost. These reserves will last until October. 
If an ore-shoot is discovered in the meantime 
work will continue, but if not it will be neces- 
sary to cease operations and wind up the 
company. 

Malay.— A company called the Southern Pe- 
rak Dredging Co., Ltd., has been formed, with 
a capital of ^125,000, to acquire tin-dredging 
property on the banks of the river Chenderiang. 
The report on the property was made by 
Messrs. Aylesbury & Nutter, and Messrs. F. 
W. lV. R. Payne are the consulting engineers. 
The control is the same as that of the Malayan 
Tin Dredging Co. It is proposed to build a 
dredge with a capacity of 100,000 cu. yd. per 
month, and the yearly output of tin concen- 
trate is estimated at 450 tons. 

Cornwall. The breath of the average man 
interested in mining has been quite taken away 
by statements emanating from Mr. Albert F. 
Calvert in connection with his operations in 
the Gwinear district. These statements are 
found in articles or advertisements appearing 
in certain newspapers. The chief property is 
the Trevascus, and there are also a number of 
dumps. The Trevascus has been known for 
many years as a wide lode containing very low 
grade complex ore. Mr. Calvert reports that 
his average assay-values up to date give 30 lb. 
of tin per ton. All we need say is that we do 
not accept Mr. Calvert as an authority on Cor- 
nish mining, or, for that matter, an authority 
on mining at all. We hope he will never offer 
these properties to the public, but keep them 
for himself. The company through which he 
works is the Jumbil (Nigeria) Tin Areas, Ltd., 
a derelict organization, theregistrationof which 
he purchased for this particular purpose. 

The Berrida (Nigeria) Tin Fields, Ltd., 
which holds the lease of the Poldice mine near 
Redruth, is in want of further capital for the 
plant for treating the dumps. Shareholders 
are invited to subscribe for 25,000 7% deben- 
ures at the price of £6. 8s. per ^10. Out of 
the iTl6,000 thus raised, ^10,000 and interest 



AUGUST, 1919 



75 



due will be paid to the bank in satisfaction for 
an advance, and the remainder will be avail- 
able as working capital. 

Oil in Great Britain. — A company has 
been formed called the Oilfields of England, 
Ltd., with a capital of ^250,000, for the pur- 
pose of sinking oil-wells on the Kelham es- 
tate, near Newark, in the county of Notting- 
ham. As has already been recorded in these 
pages, petroleum was found some years ago in 
a narrow bore-hole put down in connection 
with coal exploration. The oil was found at a 
depth of 2,440 ft. in a seam of coarse sand- 
stone 13 ft. thick. For eleven months the flow 
of oil was 5 to 6 gallons per day, but the hole 
was subsequently plugged. It is now proposed 
to sink three oil wells. Reports on the property 
and the oil have been made by Mr. James 
Ford, who did the drilling, and Mr. Arthur 
W. Eastlake is technical adviser to the com- 
pany. It is said that the sulphur content is 
not more than 0'59%. 

The Anglo- Persian Oil Co. has made a bid 
for the control of the Scottish oil-shale indus- 
try, offering to purchase the ordinary shares of 
the Pumpherston, Broxburn, Oakbank, Young's 
Paraffin, and John Ross companies. The plan 
calls for the formation of anewcompany called 
the Scottish Oil Co. The Anglo- Persian will 
supply crude oil for refining to the Scottish 
works in order to enable the present refineries 
to run at full capacity. 

The English Oilfields, Ltd., of which Dr. 
Forbes- Leslie is the leading spirit, is conduct- 
ingdevelopment work energetically on theNor- 
folkoil shales. Itisreported that deeper seams 
recently discovered are lower in sulphur than 
those on the outcrop. At depth also free oil 
has been found. 

Canada. — It is announced by cable that 
the mines at Cobalt have been closed owing to 
a strike. Our Toronto correspondent tells of 
the position, but at the time he wrote the pros- 
pects of a favourable settlement were greater 
than have eventuated. It appears that the em- 
ployees of the hydro-electric power companies 
are also disaffected. The miners demand a 
minimum daily wage from $4*50 to $5'00 ac- 
cording to the nature of the work done, with a 
bonus of 25 cents on 80 cent silver, and a 
similar increase for each additional 10 cents 
per oz. A 44 hour week is demanded, board 
at Sl'OO per day, increased allowances forover- 
time, and other changes in working conditions. 

In our last issue we mentioned the proposal 
for amalgamating the Kirkland Lake Pro- 
prietary, Tough-Oakes, Burnside, and Sylvan- 
ite companies, owning gold mining properties 



at Kirkland Lake, Ontario. The financial 
scheme has since been published, and has been 
sanctioned by shareholders. A new company 
is to be formed with a capital of £\, 000, 000, 
of which ^"800,000 will be represented by 
shares alloted to the several companies, while 
200,000 will be issued for cash when required. 
The amalgamation also includes the Sudbury 
Syndicate, Ltd., and Aladdin Cobalt, Ltd. 

Mexico. — A company has been formed 
called the Mexican Corporation, Ltd., with a 
capital of ;£" 1.000,000, for the purpose of ac- 
quiring mines in Mexico. The directors are 
Messrs. F. W. Baker, J. A. Agnew, F. A. 
Govett, A. Stanley Elmore, Walter McDer- 
mott, Herbert Guedalla, and Lord Brabourne. 
The company belongs to the Camp Bird-Santa 
Gertrudis group. 

Russia. — The political position in Russia 
is difficult to understand. The Bolsheviks ap- 
pear to be strong on the Archangel front and 
in the Urals, while the better element in South 
Russia is winning its way northward. In Si- 
beria the position continues fairly hopeful. 
Mr. T.J.Jones, engineer to the Irtysh Corpora- 
tion, has just arrived at Ekibastus and reports 
that affairs generally are satisfactory, opera- 
tions being self-supporting. 

The Sissert company has issued a short 
statement describing the events of the past 
eighteen months. The Bolsheviks held the 
property from November, 1917, to July, 1918, 
and communication was restored with England 
in December last. During the first five months 
of 1919, the output of the single blast-furnace 
was 3,200 tons of pig iron, and during the same 
time 3,500 tons of steel ingots were produced, 
which were used in the manufacture of wire 
and sheet iron. A second blast-furnace was 
started on June 1. The production of copper 
was greatly restricted owing to the lack of coke, 
and only the reverberatory furnace was used, 
the output of which was 110 tons. The an- 
thracite mines at Egorshino have been un- 
watered and production has been resumed. 
The bituminous coal mines at Minusinsk have 
been producing since January. As regards the 
Degtiarsky copper deposit, in which 3^ million 
tons of pyritic ore, carrying 2'77% copper, had 
been proved before the war, it has been de- 
cided to treat this ore in Ramen furnaces, mak- 
ing sulphuric acid first, then leaching for cop- 
per, and finally briquetting the remaining oxide 
of iron. It was originally intended to adopt 
pyritic smelting for the treatment of this ore, 
but the high quality of the iron oxide obtained, 
practically free from phosphorus, has made the 
alteration of policy advantageous. 



THE MINERALS OF ANATOLIA 



By NORMAN M. PENZER, B.A., F.G.S. 

The author gives particulars of the mineral deposits of part of Asiatic Turkey, about which 
little is known in this country, though the Germans compiled records some years ago. 



Introduction. — Now that peace is signed 
with Germany the question of the proper ad- 
ministration of the former Turkish Empire be- 
comes of prime importance. The vast econo- 
mic potentialities are but little realized in this 
country by the ordinary well educated man, 
and even the great leaders of industry are 
largely in the dark. The object of this article 
is to draw the attention of the nation to the 
valuable mineral deposits of a very large area 
and more particularly of Anatolia. 

By the term Anatolia the writer means to 
denote not the whole of Asia Minor, known by 
the Turkish name " Anadolu," but only that 
portion lying west of longitude 37° E., that is 
to say west of a line starting in the south about 
40 miles east of Alexandretta, skirting the east- 
ern boundary of Adana, and running through 
the centre of the town of Sivas to a point on 
the coast about 80 miles east of Samsun. Thus 
it will be seen that the silver-lead mines of 
Bulgar-Maden in the Vilayet of Adana and the 
copper mines of Sivas will be included in our 
survey, while the famous copper mines of 
Arghana Maden in Diarbekir will be excluded. 

In reading the following account of the min- 
ing in Anatolia, it should be remembered that 
the Turkish Empire is divided up into provin- 
ces called vilayets, which are administrated by 
a Governor-General called a Yali. These 
vilayets vary in size from about 12,000 square 
miles to over 39,000. Each is divided up into 
Livas, Sanjaks, or Mutessarifliks. These are 
all governed by a Lieutenant- Governor, locally 
called a Mutessarif. These, again, are divided 
into Kazas governed by a Sub- Governor or 
Kaimmakam, and finally the Kaza is divided 
into Nahiyes, which are administered by a 
Mudir. The Vali represents the Government 
in practically all matters, and the Mutessarif 
sends his reports to headquarters through the 
Vali except in such cases when the Sanjak has 
become an independent State, and then the 
Mutessarif communicates direct. The num- 
ber of these independent Sanjaks has lately 
been on the increase owing to political reasons 
which do not concern us here. 

The vilayets with which we are concerned 
in the following article are as follows : Brusa, 
Aidin, Konia, Angora, Castamuni, Adana, Tre- 
bizonde (in part), Sivas (in part). The San- 
jaks (independent) are Bigha and Ismid. 



The chief products of the country are wheat, 
cotton, dried fruits, oil, silk, mohair, carpets, 
wine, and the numerous mineral products about 
which we are especially concerned here. 

Mining has been carried on in Anatolia from 
time immemorial, and in the seventh century 
B.C. we read of the Lydians issuing the first 
coins of the world, composed of a mixture of 
gold and silver known as " Electron," which 
they mined from the so-called " Anatolian gold- 
field." Some of the famous meerschaum mines 
are said to be over 2,000 years old, and were 
worked by the early Greeks, but to what use 
they put the meerschaum, whether for pottery, 
personal adornment, carving, or modelling, is 
quite unknown. Although mining in Anatolia 
began at perhaps 2,500 years ago, yet to day 
the mining resources are little known and have 
been very incompletely studied, while much 
land is still absolutely unexplored. 

Although there is no doubt that Anatolia is 
very wealthy in minerals, we should not be 
misled by descriptions n which we read of 
Asia Minor being practically inexhaustible as 
regards mineral wealth. At present it seems 
unlikely that the production could ever com- 
pete with that of Caucasia and Southern Rus- 
sia, but until a far more detailed survey has 
been made, it is impossible to say anything for 
certain one way or the other. 

The chief reason why the minerals of Ana 
tolia have been so little developed is lack of 
communications. The Turkish Government 
builds (sometimes) but never repairs, and a 
road suitable for fairly heavy cart traffic one 
year, by the next will be covered with grass. 
In consequence transport from most of the 
mines is limited to camels and mules, and the 
latter always prefer the ancient rugged hill 
tracks which have been used for over 2,000 
years. A glance at the map will show how far 
from the railways many of the mining centres 
are, and also how deposits in certain areas have 
been unworked entirely owing to lack of com- 
munications. 

The mining industry of Anatolia has had 
little encouragement from theTurkish Govern- 
ment. They seem to look upon it as a means 
for obtaining a profit on the sale of conces- 
sions. There was no difficulty in obtaining a 
" permis de recherche," but when it came to 
serious development, obstacles of every kind 



76 



AUGUST, 1919 



77 




were put in the concessionaire's path. The 
result was that concessions were obtained not 
with a view of working the mines but of pass- 
ing them on at a higher price, or holding them 
for some favourable development, such as the 
death of the Sultan, or a sudden rush for con- 
cessions such as has only recently occurred. 

There is another reason for the lack of min- 
ing operations, and that is the scarcity of fuel 
for use in the smelting works. Coal is hardly 
used at all, again owing to lack of communica- 
tion, as it has to be brought from great dis- 
tances, and so wood is used, but this is also 
very scarce. As all the wood is usually wan- 
ted for smelting purposes, mining is usually 
carried on without timbers at all, and so, as 
soon as the walls of the mines fall in, the mine 
is immediately abandoned. Pumps are practi- 
cally unknown, and when floods occur the 
mines have again to be abandoned. Thus 
around Eskishehr, hundreds of deserted meer- 
schaum mines are found which could easily be 
made workable again with a pump and a few 
strong timbers. 

Finally there is the question of man power. 
The average Turk hates working underground, 
and as soon as he has made enough money to 



keep himself for a time he stops working. 
Native capital has not played its part in the 
developments of the minerals of Anatolia, and 
it is Europe that has chiefly exploited the 
mines in the past, although owing to lack of 
communications most of the exploitationshave 
been confined to mines near the sea or the 
main railways. The Germans for a long tirfie 
have had their eyes on these mines, and after 
the War started a remarkable rush for conces- 
sions has been noticed. The Turks began to 
copy the Germans, and, whereas in 1915 only 
eighteen applications were made, in the last 
few months of 1917 no less than ninety con- 
cessions were demanded in the vilayet of Aidm 
alone. The Turks, however, still buy conces- 
sions as a gamble, and in Brusa have found 
ready buyers in the Germans who know well 
what they are doing. 

German and Austrian engineers have mi- 
nutely surveyed the vilayet of Brusa, and de- 
clare it to be rich from a mining point of view. 
So great interest indeed have the Germans 
taken in this district that in 1917, according to 
the DentscJie Levande Zeitung, a society was 
formed at Munich for the express purpose of 
studying in detail the minerals of Asia Minor 



78 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



with a view to future German activities. 

The only place where up-to-date methods of 
mining are employed is in the marble quarries 
on the Marmora, where electricity has been in 
use since 1912. There is naturally great scope 
in the Turkish mines for electric plant, steam 
turbines, turbo-electric generators, turbo air- 
compressors, etc. Competition in supplying 
these fittings is bound to come in time, but if 
all the mining concessions are allowed to fall 
into German, Austrian, and Turkish hands, not 
only will a large revenue derived from the 
minerals be lost to the British, but the supply- 
ing of the mines with machinery will also be 
lost, and all the plant will bear the label " Made 
in Germany ". 

In view of the fact that at present the Brit- 
ish Government is opposed to the raising of 
funds in this country for the development of 
areas outside the British Empire, every en- 
deavour should be made to raise as large a part 
of the requisite capital as possible from Tur- 
key, although the management should remain 
in British hands. Such a policy would have 
the additional advantage of conciliating the 
well-to-do Turk, who naturally might resent 
the apparent exploitation of his native land by 
a foreign nation, while he would appreciate the 
technical skill and commercial ability and in- 
tegrity of a British board of directors. 

No special order of minerals will be adopted 
in the description following, except that the 
newly discovered and most unimportant will 
be dealt with last. In some cases two or more 
minerals will be taken together as they occur 
in close association. 

The list of minerals is as follows : Gold and 
Silver, Lead, Zinc, Meerschaum, Manganese, 
Antimony, Mercury, Coal, Lignite, Emery, 
Borax, Chromium, Iron, Copper, Rock-Salt 
and Saltpetre. Lithographic Stone and Marble, 
Kaolin and Fuller's Earth, Cement and Lime, 
Sulphur, Nickel, Arsenic, Bitumen, Petroleum, 
Opals. 

Gold. — Anatolia can hardly be recognized 
as a gold-producing country, although accord- 
ing to records of ancient writers and recent ex- 
cavations it was at one time famous for its 
goldfields. 

The goldfields were two in number, that of 
Anatolia, and that of the Pontic area. The 
former of these comes within the scope of this 
article, and a short account of it chiefly for his- 
toric purposes is of interest. 

The Anatolian goldfield stretches in semi- 
circular form from the Dardanelles to a point 
about 40 miles below Smyrna and just oppo- 
site the island of Samos. The gold-bearing 



river of the district is the classical Hermos 
with its equally historical affluent the Pactolus, 
from which the wealth of the Lydian kings was 
said to be derived and which is described by 
Virgil, Juvenal, Seneca, etc. In Strabo's time, 
at the beginning of the Christian era, the pro- 
duction had considerably decreased, and a wri- 
ter contemporary with Nero refers to itas being 
"formerly" auriferous, and suggests the prim- 
ary derivation of nuggets from Mount Tmolus 
(the modern Boz Dagh) where the Pactolus 
rises. To-day the peasants make a scanty 
livelihood by washing the gravels, and it seems 
possible that the main riches of the district 
were exhausted fifteen centuries ago. 

Lodes are also found in this neighbourhood. 
The largest was of low-grade arsenical quartz 
15 ft. wide, but the majority are far smaller and 
usually con tain a higher percentage of gold. The 
gold content varies from a mere trace to about 
3h oz. Deep workings have been found on 
MountTmolus and Mount Sipylus (the modern 
Manissa Dagh) whence Croesus is supposed to 
have derived his wealth. From the writings 
of Thomae an average sample of a h ton lot of 
the ore of this district was made up as follows : 
gold 13 dwt. per ton, silver 5 oz. 13 dwt. per 
ton, lead 7'6%, copper 2'2%, zinc 2'7%. 

Among the ancient workings which have been 
discovered near the Dardanelles may be men- 
tioned Serdjiller, which place corresponds fairly 
closely to the ancient Astyra. The country of 
the workings is mica schist, overlain and in- 
truded by Lower Tertiary igneous rocks which 
have been described by various writers as 
trachyte, liparite, andesite, and basalt. Thus 
it has been suggested that there is probably 
some analogy, and, indeed possibly genetic con- 
nection, between this auriferous area and those 
of Transylvania and of Eastern Serbia. The 
quartz veinlets in the volcanic rocks carry 
argentiferous galena, blende, pyrite, chalco- 
pyrite, stibnite, and a little free gold. The gold 
content is, however, very low. Concessions 
of the Serdjiller deposits are in the hands of a 
company controlled by John Taylor & Sons. 

Silver-Lead-Zinc. — The chief mines in 
Anatolia producing silver-lead and zinc are 
those of Balia- Karaidin in Brusa, and Bulgar- 
Maden in Konia. The mines of Balia- Karai- 
din date from very ancient times, and the old 
mines of Gumush, Koda, and Karaidin for a 
long time belonged to the Greek Company of 
Laurium at Athens. In 1892 the"Company of 
the Mines of Balia- Karaidin " was formed at 
Constantinople with a capital of 6,600,000 
francs. In 1901 there were about 1,600 men 
employed who produced 7,000 tons of argenti- 



AUGUST, 1919 



79 



f erous galena containing 70 %of lead and 0' 1 25% 
of silver, 3,000 tons of blende containing 40% 
of zinc, some hundreds of tons of calamine, 
and a little pyrites. In 1910 the output was 
12,000 tons of lead and 3,000 tons to 4,000 
tons of blende. In 1913 the output amounted 
to 13,076 tons of lead and 5,000 tons of zinc 
ore containing 42% of zinc. After the war com- 
menced the mines were shut down, but were 
recently reopened, and a contract was placed 
by the Turkish Government for 1,000 tons of 
pig lead. The mines are furnished with up- 
to-date smelting and refining plant, so that a 
good quality lead is produced. In all prob- 
ability the 1,000 tons was used for shrapnel 
and rifle bullets in Constantinople. 

The Bulgar-Maden mines, situated a few 
miles south of the Konia-Adana line in the 
vilayet of Konia, have been worked by the 
peasants for nearly eighty years; they sell to 
the Turkish Government at a fixed price. 
Owing to lack of initiative by the Government, 
little has been done, although the conditions are 
most favourable for cheap work. The deposits 
are the result of contact action of micro- granu- 
lites which have been intruded into the Paleo- 
zoic limestones. Two separate zoneshavebeen 
noticed extending all along the metalliferous 
formation from Bulgar-Maden to KizilTepeh. 
The ore is taken to the village on mules, and 
smelted with the aid of charcoal. The smelt- 
ing appears to be unsatisfactory, as the metal 
content of the slag is high. The work is only 
carried on in the warmer months, as in the 
winter the workings are snowed up. The 
annual yield is about 3,205 kilogrammes of 
silver, 7,000 grammes gold, and 400 tons lead. 
In 1892 the ore extraction was 20,000 tonscon- 
taining 20% of lead and 6,500 kilogrammes of 
silver, and going 30 to 40 grammes of gold to a 
ton of lead. These figures increased just pre- 
vious to the war and the mines yielded ore con- 
taining 75% of lead and from 1| to 3£% of 
silver. In Konia there are also silver-lead de- 
posits at Karahissar and Bulgar Dagh, the 
latter of which is worked by the Government. 
They yield ore averaging 75% of lead and 
1*5 to 3'5% of silver. At the outbreak of the 
war a lead mine was about to be worked near 
the Dardanelles at a point south-west of Lap- 
saki, quite close to Bergaz, but as far as is 
known no operations have been commenced. 

In the vilayet of Aidin silver-lead mines oc- 
cur near Balia, which from 1911 to 1913 
yielded an average of 14,000 tons of lead. Zinc 
is found at Kirasaliyaila and Bergama, where 
the deposits contain from 20 to 50% of zinc. 
In Angora, silver-bearing lead ore is found at 



Ak-Dagh- Maden, Denek-Maden, and Elma- 
Dagh ; all these mines are State-controlled, 
but the last named was abandoned many years 
ago. In Castamouni the argentiferous lead 
mine at Kurre has been abandoned owing to 
insufficient means of transport and communi- 
cation. In Adana, besides the silver -lead 
mines of Bulgar-Maden already noticed, are 
those at Karalar and Hadjin, while silver, lead, 
and zinc occur at Iotape, and zinc alone at 
Anamur. There are probably other deposits 
in the northern part of the vilayet, but owing 
to lack of communications and transport no 
exploitation has been carried on. Since the 
war reports have been received of two lead 
mines (probably argentiferous) twenty- four 
miles northeast of Bulgar-Maden. One is 
at Delik Tash, 15 miles due east of Bereketli 
Maden, and the other nine miles north-west 
of Delik Tash. No figures are yet to hand. 

It is reported that in 1916 the Germans ob- 
tained 70 concessions for the working of silver- 
lead mines in Asia Minor, probably in Brusa 
and Aidin. 

The silver-lead mines of Kebah Maden do 
not come within the area under discussion. 

Meerschaum. — As was stated in the intro- 
duction, the mining of meerschaum dates back 
to the days of the ancient Greeks, although it 
is unknown to what use the meerschaum was 
put. Apparently no special use was made of 
it until the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, when it was carved into pipe bowls. 
The story of the discovery of the virtueof meer- 
schaum for pipe-making is as follows : In 
Budapest there lived a shoemaker, Karol Ko- 
vacs, who made as much money by carving 
wooden pipes as he earned by his regular trade. 
One of his wealthy pipe patrons was Count 
Andrassy, who, when travelling in Asia Minor 
in 1723, was presented with a lump of meer- 
schaum, which he gave on his return to Kovacs 
with orders to make a pipe as an experiment. 
Two pipes were carved from the lump, but 
while working on one of them it slipped from 
his hand on to a disc of wax used in his shoe- 
making trade, leaving a stain on the pipe. 
Kovacs kept this pipe for himself, and was 
surprised to notice that, as he smoked, the wax- 
stain turned a clear brown, and the taste got 
sweeter, so he waxed and polished the bowl 
all over, which in time assumed a dark brown 
colour evenly distributed over the pipe. The 
original pipe is still preserved in the Budapest 
Museum. This hydrated silicate of magne- 
sium became known in Germany as meer- 
schaum, in France as ecume de mer, in Italy 
as schiuma del mare, and in England as sea- 



80 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



foam, although to-day we always use the Ger- 
man word. Meerschaum presents a globular 
appearance and seems to bulge out in circular 
form at different places, and thus arose the 
name likening it to the scum of the sea. The 
first account of meerschaum the author could 
find in English was in Tilloch's Philosophical 
Magazine for 1799 (vol. 3, p. 165) where it is 
referred to merely as "sea froth." 

Although the chief source of the world's sup- 
ply is Asia Minor, it has also been found in 
Moravia, Bosnia, Samos, Greece, Utah, Spain, 
andNewMexico. Both the quantityandqual- 
ity are, however, much inferior to that found in 
Asia Minor. A hydrous silicate of alumina 
was found near the Richmond river in New 
South Wales, with similar characteristics to 
meerschaum, but apparently no use was made 
of it. The soft white earthy mineral from 
Langbanshyttan, in Yermland, Sweden, known 
as aphrodite, is also closely related to meer- 
schaum. 

The centre of the industry in Asia Minor is 
Eskishehr, the ancient Dorylaum, situated in 
the eastern portion of the vilayet of Brusa at 
the junction of the Angora and Konia lines. 
The town lies on the river Pursak in iat. 39 
47' N. and long. 30° 25', is situated on a plat- 
eau at a height of about 2,500 ft., and has a 
population of over 30,000. Around the town 
is a higher plateau forming a flat trough, which 
is surrounded on the north, south, and west by 
mountains, while to the east is a flat plain in- 
terrupted here and there by hills which give 
an irregular character to the plain. At the 
foot of the mountains are the meerschaum de- 
posits, which are alluvial and probably lacus- 
trine ; most of them are about 20 miles from 
Eskishehr. 

The chief mines on the eastern slopes of the 
Boz Dagh are as follow : Sepek, Marga, Jeni- 
Damar, Eski-Damar, Kiil-Odschak, Giinduz- 
ler, Kemikli Maden, Yaka Kaya, Jarmalar; 
and those farther south: Kara-Euyak, Sari- 
Odschak. There, are other mining centres, 
but as the locality of the operations changes 
according to the productivity it is impossible 
to give full details. 

Sari-Odschakcanbetakenasa typical meers- 
chaum mining village. It consists of about 150 
houses which are solelyoccupied by men. The 
miners are of varied races, Turks, Kurds, Tar- 
tars, Persians, Greeks, Armenians, &c.,not to 
mention stray criminalsanddeserters. The men 
work either on their own account or for a con- 
tractor. A permit to dig anywhere can be ob- 
tained for five Turkish lire. Wages are low (li 
lire a month) and added to this is the fact that 



the Government has taken no steps to fight 
the malaria which is a truly endemic plague. 
Heaps of loamy earth and clay lie in all direc- 
tions marking the spots where mines, in many 
cases, are deserted. Each mine is about 60 to 
100 ft. deep, while the entrance is roughly 3 ft. 
square. The miner works his way through 
the clayey upper stratum until he reaches the 
meerschaum deposit among the serpentine. 
His only tools are an axe and a shovel, and he 
works by the light of a petroleum lamp. He 
descends the mine by means of his feet and 
elbows, and if the mine is deep he is lowered 
by a wooden hand winch, which is also used 
to bring up the meerschaum in baskets. He 
then makes horizontal galleries, which as often 
as not have no supports whatever ; sometimes 
the roof or sides fall in, and the men are em- 
bedded in the mine. There are practically no 
pumps, so that an inrush of water means the 
desertion of the mine and often the death of 
the miners. 

The meerschaum itself is found in lumps 
varying in size from an egg to a football. 
These are surrounded by a layer of wet earth, 
which when removed display a rough surface. 
The blocks are white in colour, but sometimes 
have a faint red, yellow, or grey tint, which 
usually disappears on drying. They have a 
fairly smooth conchoidal fracture, and are 
opaque, dull, and soft, being softer than cal- 
cite but harder than gypsum. The mineral ab- 
sorbs water and can be formed into a paste. 

The miner sells the meerschaum in sacks 
to the Isnaf, or small trader, at about 200 pias- 
tres a sack. The Isnaf then takes his goods 
to Eskishehr by ox-cart, where he either sells 
them to the Tydschar (wholesale man) or to 
the meerschaum depots which for the most 
part belong to Viennese firms. No raw meer- 
schaum is allowed to be exported, and so in 
all cases the preliminary preparation is carried 
out at Eskishehr. This consists of removing 
the outer earthy layer, cutting out all bad 
patches, and rounding off the surfaces. This 
has to be done while the material is moist, and 
in all deposits there are moist cellars for stor- 
ing the meerschaum as soon as it arrives from 
the mines. The next process is the drying, 
which in summer is done in the open air, and 
in winter in special drying chambers. This 
lasts a week, as the drying has to be done 
slowly to prevent cracking. During the drying 
the meerschaum loses about two thirds of its 
weight, and becomes harder and acquires a 
snowy white colour. If, however, a piece is 
yellowish or reddish throughout it can never 
turn pure white. No smoke is allowed to enter 



AUGUST, 1919 



-- D A G O O > ,\ 




Map of the Meerschaum-Mining District. 



the chambers, as in this way the pieces would 
get coloured. The final touches are then given 
to the meerschaum. It is smoothed by means 
of horsetail grass and polished with a flannel 
dipped in warm water and waxed. The meer- 
schaum is then packed for transport. 

There are thirteen recognized qualities, 
which are assorted into four principal sizes, 
and four minor sizes. They vary according 
as to how many pieces go to a box, the boxes 
being either of 6f by 13 J by 28 inches or 7i 
by 14f by 32 inches. The former size is used 
for lumps of the three largest sizes only. 
The box is built round the meerschaum, each 
piece of which is wrapped in cotton, and if one 
piece is removed it will be impossible to put 
it back. 

Before the Anatolian railway was built trans- 
port was by camel and mule to the sea of Mar- 
mora at Ismid, whence the boxes were shipped 
to Constantinople. To-day transport is effect- 
ed on the Anatolian railway to Constantinople. 
From here the meerschaum goes to Vienna 
via Trieste, where it is carved into elaborate 
pipes, mouth-pieces, &c, and sent to Berlin, 
Paris, Brussels, London, New York, &c. The 
export of meerschaum is on the decline, owing 
on the one hand to lack of enterprise and gen- 
eral slackness of the Turkish Government, and 
on the other hand to the introduction of the 
briar pipe into France in 1855. 
2—4 



The following figures show the number of 
boxes exported over a number of years. The 
1914 figure is only approximate, and probably 
rather too high: 1855, 3,000; 1865, 8,000; 
1869, 11,500; 1892, 5,700; 1904, 3,000; 
1914,2,000. 

The centreof the carving industry in Germany 
is Ruhla in the Thuringian Forest, where the 
factories were first founded in 1767. In 1911 
about 1, 200, OOOgenuineandnon-genuine (made 
of compressed meerschaum waste) pipe-heads 
and cigar-holders were manufactured. This 
output isabout one-tenthof what itwasin 1865- 
6. In 1911 the annual export of pipes and 
holders was estimated at ,£"35,000. There are 
also manufacturing centres at Lemgo and 
Nuremburg. 

As a material for pipe manufacture meer- 
schaum is all but ended, although with a little 
more enterprise a far greater supply of the raw 
product could be obtained. The pits, deserted 
on account of there being no timbers or pumps, 
cculd be made to work again, yet, unless some 
new use is found for meerschaum there is prob- 
ably sufficient in the present state of affairs to 
meet demands. Whether meerschaum could 
be advantageously used for whitening clothes, 
as a dentifrice, or in the manufacture of some 
electrical article, remains for chemists and 
scientists to discover. 

(To be continued). 



MODERN ROCK-DRILL PRACTICE. 



By DAVID PENMAN, B So. M.Inst.M.E. 

(Concluded from July issue, page 28. ) 



Rotation of Drill Steel. — In percus- 
sive drilling it is imperative that the drill steel 
be turned through a small angle between suc- 
cessive blows, otherwise the bit will soon be- 
gin to stick fast in the hole and further progress 
become impossible. In hand drilling the 
proper rotation of the steel is a simple matter 
in the hands of a skilled driller, but with the 
large and clumsy forms of power drills first 
introduced the turning of the hit was quite a 
different proposition. Two methods of over- 
coming the difficulty presented themselves. 
Either the front head, drill steel included, 
had to be rotated, or only the piston to which 
the drill steel was attached was revolved, the 
rest of the machine remaining in a fixed posi- 
tion. With large reciprocating drills the first 
method was out of the question, although it 
has been applied successfully in light modern 
stoping drills of the hammer type, in which, as 
will shortly be explained, the drill cylinder and 
the chisel are rotated by hand. The second 
method was so obviously the only feasible one 
that development along the lines of automatic 
rotation of the piston was rapid. Finally, in 
1866, Darlington and Jordan invented the rifle 
bar and ratchet mechanism which was des- 
tined to prove one of the most noteworthy ad- 
vances in the whole history of rock-drills. 
The device has since been modified and im- 
proved by many inventors and manufacturers, 
and to-day forms an integral part of almost 
every automatically rotated drill on the market. 

In machine drills the rifle bar and ratchet 
has been employed to produce two somewhat 
different results. In one method there is no 
possibility of the piston missing rotation when 
it ought to rotate unless breakage of some of 
the parts takes place. This is called " non- 
slip " rotation. In the other system the 
ratchet wheel is held by friction, and should 
the drill steel become excessively difficult to 
turn through sticking or friction in the bore- 
hole, the rotation system slips and the chisel 
is not rotated during that stroke. This is 
termed "slip" rotation. Until a few years ago 
non-slip rotation was employed extensively, 
but in modern reciprocating drills, owing to 
the obvious risk of twisting of the rifle bar and 
breakage of parts, it has given place to the 
modification which allows slipping on exces- 
sive friction. Practically all modern standard 



drills employ slip rotation. Rotation of the 
piston and drill steel always takes place on the 
back stroke, the forward or hitting stroke be- 
ing straight. In the Chicago Giant and Slog- 
ger drills and others the ratchet teeth are on 
the inside of the ring surrounding the pawls, 
while the latter, two or three in number, are 
placed in the head of the rifle bar. The Sujli- 
van and Siskol drills, however, have the ratchet 
teeth on the rifle-bar head and the pawls in re- 
cesses in the slip ring. It is claimed that by 
having the teeth outside the pawls the teeth 
are stronger, since their bases fall on a larger 
circle, and that for a given space they can be 
more numerous, giving a better rotative effect. 
A further advantage of the teeth being in the 
slip ring is that it is the least expensive part 
to replace. 

The commonest arrangement for producing 
rotation of the drill steel in the hammer type 
of drill is to use the rifle bar and ratchet as in 
the piston drill and in addition to have straight 
grooves in the front of the piston or hammer 
which slide in similar straight grooves in the 
drill-holder. This arrangement is adopted in 
the Holman cradle hammer-drill, the Leyner- 
Ingersoll, the Jackhamer, Cochise, and Wiz- 
ard. In hammer-drills made by the Climax 
Company, and in the Flottmann, Waugh, and 
Sullivan Rotator drills, however, the use of 
a separate rifle bar is dispensed with and the 
rotating parts are confined to the front end of 
the tool. 

A unique rotation device is employed in the 
Hummer drill. A section through the drill is 
shown in Fig. 14. In this machine the ordi- 
nary methods of rotation have been superseded 
by a method which is independent of the 
movements of the piston. The air is first ad- 
mitted into a small rotary motor M located at 
the back head of the drill. The rotation of 
this motor is transmitted through the worm 
gearing W, the shaft S and the spur gearing 
G, to the drill shank. Roller bearings are 
employed to reduce the friction to a minimum. 
The advantages claimed for this independent 
form of rotation are : (l) great smoothness of 
operation, (2) the free movement of the pis- 
ton produces greater drilling speed and opera- 
tion under very low pressure, (3) absence of 
expensivefluted pistons, rifle bars, and ratchet, 
with lower cost of repairs. As against these 



AUGUST, 1919 



83 








M W 










Fig. 14. The Rotation Device of 
the Hummer Drill. 



it must be remembered that the necessary 
shafting and gearing is a complication and a 
possible source of weakness. 

In the hammer-drill specially designed for 
stoping and having automatic air feed the ro- 
tation of the drill steel is accomplished by 
hand. A lever or handle is provided on the 
drill for the purpose. The handle is used in 
the manner of a ratchet brace, being swung 
alternately backwards and forwards as the 
work of drilling proceeds. 

Support. — Except in the case of the 
smaller sizes of the hammer type, rock-drills 
require to be fixed to some form of support. 
A common arrangement in quarrying, sinking, 
and in situations where the general direction 
of the holes is downwards is to mount the 
drill on a tripod. The legs of the tripod are 
heavily weighted by detachable weights so as 
to resist the upward thrust on the drill. They 
are also separately adjustable in length and in 
inclination so that the tripod can easily ac- 
commodate itself to uneven ground, and a 
widerangeofadaptability isobtained. Indeed, 



although probably best suited for downward 
holes the drill may be clamped to the tripod 
for any direction from downwards to vertical. 
The Lewis Hole tripod, made by the Sullivan 
Company, in addition to the regular features 
of the ordinary tripod, has a planed and slot- 
ted front bar which permits of a lateral move- 
ment of the drill. By this addition parallel 
holes can be drilled without resetting the tri- 
pod. 

Another arrangement which is extremely 
convenient for many classes of work is to 
mount the drill on a column or bar. It con- 
sists of a strong cylindrical steel column with 
a screw at one end to permit of adjustment. 
Sometimes for the larger drills a double-screw 
column is used. The drill is carried in a 
clamp or saddle mounted on the column, and 
sometimes a double clamp with an extension 
arm is provided. The extension arm is par- 
ticularly suitable for tunnelling or sinking 
operations, as it permits of the drill being 
mounted close to the side walls for drilling 
side or corner holes. The column is made in 
several lengths to suit different heights, as the 
jack-screw of course only allows a limited 
adjustment for length to be made. With a 
column the drill may be swung into any de- 
sired direction or moved into any position along 
the column. 

For tunnelling and quarrying, drill carriages 
are sometimes used, while in shaft-sinking 
boring frames or platforms allowing simul- 
taneous drilling over practically the whole 
shaft area have been employed. In quarry- 
ing work, where it is often impossible to fix a 
screw column in the ordinary way, recourse is 
often had to the support of the boring bar at 
its two extremities by means of weighted 
cross-legs. 

In the automatic air-feed drill, the telescope 
is also made to serve for the support of the 
drill. The tube ends in a spike which is stuck 
into a piece of wood placed on the floor or 
other convenient part of the working. This 
type of machine is especially designed for 
work in the stopes. 

Dust-Allaying. — Drilling, if carried out 
in the dry, rnust of necessity produce clouds of 
dust more or less fine. The operator of a rock- 
drill would, therefore, if no effective means 
were employed to allay the dust, inhale great 
quantities of it into his lungs. It has been 
found that some dusts, such as those of coal 
and shale, are not harmful, since after a time 
the dust begins to be ejected from the lungs. 
This is not so, however, with quartz and quartz- 
ite dusts. The finest portions of quartz dust 



84 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



remain inthe lungs or only a small proportion of 
it is expelled. They thus block the minute 
air cells of the lungs and lacerate the finer 
tissues, causing silicosis and rendering the 
operator extremely susceptible to attacks by 
the tubercle bacillus, so that in bad cases death 
from phthisis supervenes. Several Royal 
Commissions have investigated this matter in 
South Africa and elsewhere in the British 
Empire and enactments have been made which 
render it obligatory to prevent dust-clouds. 

Numerous devices have been tried to render 
the dust harmless, but only two may be said 
to have been completely successful. The 
first consists in sending a continuous stream 
of water down the hollow steel of the borer, 
and the other in spraying the mouth of the 
shot-hole with water. The first method is 
exemplified in the Leyner-Ingersoll drill, the 
Holman water-feed hammer-drill, the Hydro- 
max hammer-drill of the Climax Company, 
and the Denver Dreadnaught drill. In these 



oh the surface of the water in the cistern. 
Fig. 15 shows the Sullivan Hyspeed drill with 
water attachment. 

In drills which operate dry either with 
solid borers or with hollow steel and an air 
flush, the water spray is employed to allay the 
dust. This is accomplished in a very simple 
manner. Referring to Fig. 16, the air enters 
at (a) and passes through the nozzle (»). Here 
its velocity increases enormously, and the re- 
sulting injector effect sucks water at (w) 
through a flexible hose from a tank or pail. 
The mingled air and water are ejected at the 
spray nozzle (s) in the form of a coarse spray 
which is directed at the mouth of the bore- 
hole. The spray, meeting the dust-cloud, 
effectively renders it innocuous. It is neces- 
sary that the water be correctly atomized. 
This is best done, as has been conclusively 
proved by experiment, by means of compress- 
ed air. The pressure air, in issuing from the 
jet, effectively separates the water into drops. 




Fig. 15. Tin; Water Attachment ok the Sullivan Hyspeed Drill. 



water is forced through a hole in the boring 
tool right to the face of the bore-hole. The 
advantages arising from this method in ad- 
dition to the effective laying of the dust are : 

(1) the water effectively clears away the cut- 
tings from the bottom of the hole and allows 
the bit to strike fresh rock at every blow, and 

(2) it cools the cutting edge and preserves it. In 
the Leyner and Holman drills both air and 
water are used. The water passes from the rear 
of the drill through a water-tube into the hollow 
steel. Here air from the drill mingles with it 
and both pass down the borer to the bottom of 
the hole. This is a very effective system and 
aids the work of the drill. In the Water Jack, 
Hydromax, Dreadnaught, and Sullivan drills, 
however, only water is used. In this method, 
as also with the Leyner drill, the water must 
be under a pressure of 30 to 501b. per sq. in. 
This pressure may be obtained from a pres- 
iure-water pipe or by employing a small closed 
cistern and using the compressed air which 
operates the drill to act as the pressure agent 



SSS3 a. 



a* ***> 




Fig. 16. The Water Spray Prodicer. 



AUGUST, 1919 



85 



The size of the jet and the proportion of water 
to air should be proportioned so that the cor- 
rect degree of atomization is attained. If the 
atomizing is too fine a dense fog is created, 
and if it is too coarse large drops of water are 
formed which readily fall to the ground and do 
not effectively lay the dust. Indrillingacoarser 
spray is permissible than in sprays which are 
used for laying dust in the roads, since the 
distance before deposition is much shorter. 
Indeed in the spraying of roads and working 
faces after blasting, in which operation need- 
less to say a vast quantity of dust is produced, 
it is probable that the best method of laying 
the suspended dust is a combination of a very 
fine water spray followed shortly afterwards 
by a coarser jet. 




Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 



Drill Bits. — It is not too much to say 
that the success of a rock-drill depends very 
largely on the proper shape of drill steel and 
on the skilful sharpening and tempering of the 
bit. The single chisel bit so much used in 
hand boring is apt to drill irregular holes when 
used with machine drills, and the double chisel 
cutter is generally better, as boring much 
rounder holes. Moreover the two-edged bit 
has the great advantage of protecting the cen- 
tral hole in the drill steel when air or water 
flushing is used to clear out the cuttings from 
the bottom of the hole. Several forms of two- 
edged bits are used. A common form is that 
having the two edges parallel ; another has 
the two edges crossing at right angles ; and 
still another like the letter X. The last is a 
favourite form of bit with many users of drills. 
Thecentreof the cross should be raised slightly, 
a suitable angle of slope being 20° (see Fig. 
17). The convex shape tends to keep the drill 
bit central and to prevent the hole from di- 
verging. A three-edged bit, having the edges 
shaped like the letter Z, is also much used, 
while the rosette bit, which has three cutting 
edges crossing each other on the diameters of 
a hexagon, is preferred for some purposes. 



The section of the steel is generally cylindri- 
cal, either plain or having a spiral, but octag- 
onal and cruciform sections are also used. 
The function of the spiral is to act as a con- 
veyor which draws the cuttings from the nose 
of the bit towards the mouth of the hole. It 
is most suitable for soft rock and for down- 
holes where there is a tendency for the debris 
to clog the bit. 

Theoretically the best form of cutting edge 
is that which is so designed as to evenly dis- 
tribute the work over its whole length. With 
such a bit in perfectly homogeneous ground the 
entire cutting edge would become dulled to the 
same extent. With no bit at present in use 
is this the case. In all of them the outer 
fringes of the cutting edge have to do the 
major portion of the work of drilling. In 
consequence it is the outer edges which wear 
most quickly. The contour of a cutting edge 
which would theoretically ensure equal wear 
over the whole of the bit would, however, be 
impracticable. Nevertheless, in designing 
drill bits this fact should be borne in mind. 
From this point of view the double-edged 
chisel bit is better than the cross-bit (see Fig. 
18). An even nearer approach to the ideal is 
the double-arc bit recommended by the Sulli- 
van Company (see Fig. 19). 

For soft ground the angle of the cutting 
edge may be sharper than for drilling in hard 
ground. For hard rock the angle of cutting 
edge should not be less than 90°. The 
shoulders of the bit should be well supported 
for strength, and properly designed reaming 
edges are necessary to enable the bit to ream 
out the hole and maintain the gauge. 

The difference in gauge of following drills 
should not be more than § in., and some writers 
advocate as little as T V in. In hard rock, 
however, it is probable that at least | in. is 
necessary to ensure the drills following each 
other easily. It should be remembered, that 
the greater the reduction in gauge in the drills 
of a set the larger will be the initial diameter 
of the hole for a given final size. This means 
additional work the drill has to do for the same 
effective size of hole. 

The steel from which the drills are made 
should contain from 0'6 to 0'85°o carbon and 
be free from sulphur and phosphorus. The 
heating, whether in ordinary blacksmith forges 
or in oil, gasoline, or electric furnaces, should 
be properly regulated and the tempering done 
at the proper temperature. Sharpening is 
generally done by hand, but machine sharpen- 
ers are also largely used. A separate dolly 
should be used for each size of bit. 



86 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Operation of Drills.— The success of 
a drill depends largely on the care and skill of 
the operator. The commencement of a hole 
is the most difficult part, especially if a hand 
hammer-drill is used. With the piston drill 
securely fixed to its tripod or column the 
starting of the hole is generally negotiated with 
comparative ease if care is taken to select a 
/ace of rock normal to the line of the drill. 
But with the hammer-drill, even allowing for 
equal care in the choice of the starting point, 
there is the necessity for holding the drill up 
to its work, with the consequent tendency for 
the bit to spread itself over an area much 
larger than the proper size of the hole. With 
screw feed machines the proper rate of feed 
to suit the particular ground should be the 
careful study of the drill-man. Too rapid 
feeding shortens the stroke and reduces the 
drilling capacity, and under-feeding will result 
in damage to drill shanks, and produce break- 
age of chucks since, if the bit is not up to the 
face of the rock, the whole force of the blow 
of the piston expends itself on the steel in- 
stead of on the rock. I n feeding the bit should 
always be kept pressed lightly against the 
bottom of the drill hole. With hammer-drills 
care should be taken throughout the whole 
period of drilling that the drill steel and the 
machine are in line, otherwise the piston will 
not hit the steel fairly but on the edge, and 
may eventually injure the end of the hammer 
and chip the shank. 

Drilling with blunt bits is bad for any ma- 
chine, and sufficient sharpened bits should be 
at hand to replace a damaged or blunt steel 
when required. The blunter the bit, the 
greater the shock to the tool and the drill 
when the blow is struck. Breakages of drill 
shanks are largely due to drilling with blunt 
bits. Proper attention should be given to 
the lubrication of the valve. When insert- 
ing a borer which simply fits into the chuck, 
care should be taken not to force it in, as 
it may take hours to get it out, and the 
shank should not be passed by the smith be- 
fore being gauged to make sure that it will 
fit into the chuck properly without being too 
tight. With drills using the U-bolt chuck, 
the latter must grip the steel securefy and in 
true alignment with the piston extension. 
The chuck bushing should be renewed when 
too much worn. It is one of the most import- 
ant parts of the drill, as if it is much worn it 
interferes with the correct alignment of the 
steel. If the shanks of the drills become ex- 
cessively worn, they should be re-shanked, as ill- 
fitting shanks are a second source of incorrect 



alignment. With a new or newly-sharpened 
bit, the air pressure should be turned on gradu- 
ally, gently at first, and then afterwards grad- 
ually increasing to full pressure. Thiscaution 
may avoid breaking the corners of the bit. 
Before coupling up the air-hose to the machine 
it is a good plan to blow air through it for a 
few seconds, and on disconnecting the hose 
from the machine the inlet of the latter should 
be plugged. In this way dust and grit will be 
prevented from getting into the drill. With 
drills which have a water-feed through thesteel 
to the bottom of the bore- hole, the water should 
be turned on after the air and turned oft before 
the air. 

When the drill is not in use it should be laid 
in as clean a place as can be got and not just 
laid down anywhere. No drill, however well- 
designed or strongly-made, can continue to 
give satisfaction for an indefinite time unless it 
is properly looked after and overhauled from 
time to time. In examining and refitting, 
particular attention should be given to the 
valve, the rotation gear, and the piston. I Jam- 
aged or badly worn parts should be replaced. 
If the piston should become too slack in its 
cylinder, the latter should be re-ground and a 
new piston fitted. In general this should be 
done when the diameter of the piston is less 
than the bore of the cylinder to the extent of 
more than ,.', in. Some makers supply pistons 
increasing by i l (i in. diameter, and when a 
cylinder has become worn it may be re-bored 
to lit a piston /,; in. larger than the piston pre 
viously used. Some users of drills, however, 
prefer to purchase new cylinders rather than 
bore out worn ones. If a cylinder is much 
worn there is no doubt that the loss through 
increased air-consumption of the drill will in 
a few weeks equal the cost of a new cylinder. 
An innovation introduced by the Sullivan 
Company in 1913 in their Liteweight drill 
consists in the use of a cylinder fitted with are- 
newable liner of hardened steel. 

Rockers, tappets, and auxiliary valves 
should be frequently inspected. Excessive or 
irregular wear has the effect of shortening the 
valve movement, producing cushioning of the 
blow of the drill. The feed-screw and feed 
nuts in piston and cradle hammer-drills should 
be kept in order and replaced when worn. 
Careful attention should also be given to the 
cradle of the machine. If the cradle guides 
become greatly worn the machine loses in 
rigidity so that the drill bit does not hit true, 
but strikes adifferent place in successive blows. 
This undesirable feature will be most apparent 
when the machine is run out to the full extent 



AUGUST 1919 



87 



of the feed screw. Whenever instability of 
the machine is noticeable, inspection of the 
cradle or of the clamp, arms, or bar to which 
the machine is fixed should be made and the 
matter put right without delay. All cradle 
machines have provision for taking up wear 
in the cradle guides. 

All drills should be brought to the surface 
for inspection and repairperiodically,sayevery 
three months. A record should be kept of the 
condition of each drill at each inspection and 
the details of the repairs carried out. The 
importance of maintaining the drill in a high 
state of efficiency cannot be over-estimated. 
No type of drill, however good in design and 
construction, will continue to produce satisfac- 
tory results unless it is carefully, skilfully, 
and systematically overhauled and all the 
parts maintained in as perfect condition as pos- 
sible. As one writer on the subject has said, 
the key to success in rock-drilling may be 
summed up in the word "maintenance." 

Air Piping and Hose. — The compressed- 
air main should be designed to give a low 
pressure drop, say 3 lb. per 1,000 yards. 
Branch pipes may be allowed a greater pres- 
sure loss, anything from 3 lb. per 300 yards to 
3 lb. per 100 yards. Great care has to be 
taken in maintaining the pipes against leak- 
age. Joints shouldbe frequently inspected and 
leakages prevented. Stop-cocks are a fre- 
quent source of leakage. Gland packings 
should be renewed from time to time and 
whenever there is any sign of leakage. The 
faces of the valve should be ground to a per- 
fect fit whenever there is appreciable sign of 
wear. The air-hose should be of the best 
quality obtainable. Cheap inferior hose is 
uneconomical and soon ceases to be air-tight 
when subjected to the rough usage insepar- 
able from underground conditions. The size 
of the hose should not be less than f in. di- 
ameter, and for the larger development drills 
preferably f in. or even 1 in. diameter. 

Armoured hose has a longer life than un- 
armoured. The armouring, consisting of gal- 
vanized iron wire, round, half-round, or flat, 
protects the hose against abrasion, prevents 
flattening, and eliminates the risk of the hose 
being squashed flat or injured by being bent 
to too sharp a radius. 

The Electric Drill. — The use of elec- 
tricity .as a motive power has developed to 
an enormous extent in mining during the last 
twenty years or so. It has been applied with 
great success to practically every form of 
mining work. The operation of drilling, how- 
ever, presented peculiar obstacles. There was 



first of all the fact that the natural motion of 
an electric machine was rotary. Thus to ob- 
tain percussive action, which in hard rock is 
attended with much better results than grind- 
ing, it appeared to be necessary to convert 
from the rotary to the reciprocating motion.* 
This change involved complication of parts, 
many of which were necessarily weak unless 
the appliance was to be prohibitive in size 
and weight. Nevertheless, machines, of which 
the Gardner and the Siemens drills are ex- 
amples, have been constructed. In the Gard- 
ner drill the motor, mounted on a bogie, gave 
motion through a flexible shaft and bevel gear- 
ing to a cross-head and crank which imparted 
a to-and-fro movement to the drill steel. The 
drill was rotated after each blow by means of 
two ratchet wheels, and had the ordinary 
screw feed. In order to obtain a quick for- 
ward blow the crank was made to work in a 
specially shaped slot in the cross-head so that 
the blow was struck in a quarter of a revolu- 
tion of the crank-shaft. A fly-wheel was used 
which absorbed energy during the portion of 
the stroke when the drill remained stationary 
and gave it out on the cutting stroke. In the 
Locke electric drill the motor was mounted on 
the drill itself and the crank axle driven direct 
through gearing. The vibration in this ar- 
rangement tended to rupture the insulation of 
the motor, and caused the brushes to kick on 
the commutator if a direct-current motor was 
used. Other drills which have been tried are 
the Adams, Deitz, and Durkee. 

The solenoid principle has also been util- 
ized to produce a workable electric drill. In- 
deed it was one of the first ideas to be em- 
ployed. The Marvin - Sandycroft and Edi- 
son drills were of this class. In these, two 
coils of wire or solenoids were made to recipro-. 
cate a soft steel piston. Two-phase current 
was used and each coil was energized alternately 
every half-revolution. Rotation of the piston 
and drill tool was accomplished in the manner 
common to the ordinary air - operated drill. 
The disadvantages of this form of drill are : 
(1) the heating losses in the solenoids, (2) the 
great weight of the drill, (3) low drilling speed, 
(4) unreliability. The chief drawbacks of the 
crank-driven drill which, however, has attained 
greater success than those designed on the 
solenoid principle, are : (l) the weakness of 
the flexible or telescopic shafts used, (2) the 
clumsiness and complication of parts, (3) the 
low drilling speed, and (4) inability to stand 
the rough usage which is almost unavoidable 
in mining. Summing the matter up in a few 
words one might say that the electric recipro- 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



eating drill which will prove a serious com- 
petitor with the air drill has yet to be inven- 
ted. In the opinion of many mining men who 
have had long experience of machine-drilling, 
the rapid development of the light hammer- 
drill has made it unlikely that the electric 
drill will ever displace compressed air for this 
class of work. 

The electric rotary drill is, however, quite 
a different matter. Here there can be secured 
lightness, compactness, and simplicity of 
parts. The scope of the drill is of course 
limited to coal and soft rock, but for these 
purposes it has proved eminently successful. 
The rotary machine driven by electricity is 
more compact and more efficient than the 
same machine operated by compressed air, 
and for this class of drill it is only in situa- 
tions where there are risks from explosive 
gas or dust that the air-driven machine is to 
be preferred. 




PRILL. 



20. Diagram explaining action of the Temile- 
Ingersoll Electric-Air Drill. 



The most successful application of electric- 
ity to the operation of a rock-drill is to be 
found in the Temple- 1 ngersoll electric-air ma- 
chine. Here a combination of electricity and 
compressed air is employed. The actual drill- 
ing agent is compressed air, but the energy 
is stored in the latter by an electric motor 
operating an air-compressor, or rather pulsator, 
in close communication with the drill proper. 
In this way it has been possible to combine the 
great flexibility, economy, and efficiency of the 
electric current as a motive power with the 
well-known successful application of air to 
rock-drilling. The principle of action of the 
drill will be understood from the diagram (Fig. 



20). The two pulsator pistons Pi and P 2 are 
actuated from cranks on the motor shaft. The 
cylinders are connected to the drill cylinder 
by the two flexible tubes T t and T 2 . The 
whole of the space between the pulsator pist- 
ons and the drill piston is filled with air at a 
low pressure. On the upstroke of P t the 
air in that cylinder is compressed and the drill 
piston forced forward on the hitting stroke. 
This action is aided by the other pulsator 
piston which during this interval is on its 
suction stroke. On the back stroke of the 
drill, P a is compressing and 1', sucking. The 
air is never exhausted but is used over and 
over again in the closed circuit. Should leak- 
age of air occur, a compensating valve opens 
when the pressure falls below a pre - deter- 
mined limit and admits free air from the at- 
mosphere which is compressed by a differen- 
tial area on one of the pulsator pistons until 
the normal working pressure is restored. The 
drill is extremely economical and where the 
conditions suit is very successful, as for strik- 
ing power and mudding qualities it compares 
favourably with the ordinary drill. It is not 
suitable for ordinary stoping work because of 
the cumbersome nature of the motor and pul- 
sator, which is generally mounted on a bogie. 
But for tunnelling, level-driving, and quarrying 
work it is eminently suitable. 

Tests and Efficiency. — The success of 
a rock-drill depends upon the following points 
in order of importance : (l) speed of cutting, 
(2) strength and durability, (3) air consump- 
tion, (4) portability, (5) ease of fitting up, (6) 
simplicity of construction, (7) ease of repair. 

From the points of view of portability and 
ease of fitting up, the hammer-drill of course 
has a great advantage over the heavy piston- 
drill, but the two classes have really to be con- 
sidered separately, as each is to some extent 
supreme in its own special sphere of work. 

A high speed of drilling is a strong point 
in favour of a rock-drill, but that alone is not 
sufficient to make the machine a success. 
Nothing could emphasize this more pointedly 
than the competition arranged in 1907 under 
the auspices of the South Afi ican Mining 
Journal to test the merits of light stoping 
drills. The machine which outdistanced all 
others from the point of view of cutting speed 
was the Gordon, a hammer-drill. Yet when 
put to actual use underground it could not 
stand the wear and tear of everyday work, and 
failed to come up to the expectations warran- 
ted by its position in the tests. The test clear- 
ly proved that high cutting speed, though 
greatly to be desired, must also be accom- 



AUGUST, 1919 



89 



panied by reliability or else the machine is 
doomed to prove a failure. 

It should be remembered, too, that the cut- 
ting speed in any given rock material depends 
very largely on the skill of the operator, the 
state of the drill as regards repairs, the effi- 
ciency of the drill bit, and the effectiveness 
with which the bottom of the drill hole is kept 
clear of the cuttings made by the drill. Fur- 
ther, the air-pressure used has an important 
bearing on the speed of drilling. A high air- 
pressure produces a more powerful blow for a 
given size of drill, but the drill bits are blun- 
ted more quickly, the machine itself is subject- 
ed to greater stresses, with the inevitable result 
that breakages occur more frequently, repairs 
are high, and the life of the drill is shortened. 
On the other hand, very low pressures are cer- 
tain to prove uneconomical, especially in hard 
rock. Air-pressures varying from 40 lb. per 
square inch up to 1 20 lb. per square inch are used. 
The best practice istoemploy pressures of 60 to 
80 lb. per square inch, and to maintain the 
working pressure as uniform as possible. 

The speed of drilling has increased consider- 
ably of late years, and it would be safe to say 
that the average cutting speed has been doubled 
in the last ten years. But what is of more im- 
portance, the reliability and handiness of the 
machines have been enormously improved. 
There is no doubt that much of this advance- 
ment is due to the enterprise of manufacturers 
as well as to the insistence of the user on a 
drill that will stand the rough handling of 
underground conditions. 

Perhaps the most complete series of tests 
of rock-drills carried out in the history of min- 
ing were those conducted by the Transvaal 
Government and the Chamber of Mines in 
1909-10. The tests were carried out under 
ordinary underground conditions, and their 
exhaustiveness can be realized from the fact 
that they stipulated for 300 drilling shifts in 
seven different stopes. The test period was, 
however, eventually reduced to 215 shifts of 
eight hours each, owing chiefly to it being 
found impossible to maintain the requisite air 
pressure in one of the mines where the drills 
were to be tested. Twenty-three drills enter- 
ed for the trials, and nineteen of these started 
the competition. Only four completed the 
test, these being two Holman drills, the Siskol, 
and the Chersen. The prizes were ^4,000 
for the drill taking first place and ,£"1,000 for 
the second best. The I lolman and the Siskol 
drills were deemed of equal merit and the 
prize money was divided between them. The 
total cost of the competition was over ^17,000, 



but there can be no doubt about the great 
value of it, since ordinary working conditions 
prevailed throughout, and the duration of the 
test was such as to test the durability and re- 
liability of the machines severely. Elaborate 
records were kept of footage drilled, costs for 
labour, drills, sharpening, spares, and stores, 
air-consumption, etc. All the four drills com- 
pleting the test were reciprocating drills, an 
altogether different result from the 1907 tests 
already referred to when a hammer-drill was 
the best. The winning drills were light ma- 
chines, the weight being limited to 100 lb., and 
the competition being intended for stoping 
drills. Experience in the tests and since has 
shown, however, that a slightly heavier ma- 
chine can be conveniently handled in the 
stopes and a more powerful drill obtained. 
About 130 lb. is now considered to be the best 
weight for a stoping drill of the piston type. 

The air-consumption of a drill is a matter of 
of great importance. Not that it is quite so 
important a factor as speed of cutting and dura- 
bility. Nevertheless the air-efficiency of the 
drill must not be ignored. The compression of 
air is costly, and no machine operated by air- 
power can be tolerated which does not endeav- 
our to use the air to the best advantage, consis- 
tent of course with the other necessary desider- 
ata. During the South African tests the drills 
were periodically taken to the Johannesburg 
University Technical College where the air- 
consumption was tested. The air-consumption 
of a drill is usually expressed incubicfeetof free 
airper minute, that is,airat normal atmospheric 
pressure. The actual quantity of air measured 
in terms of free air taken by a drill depends up- 
on : (a) the size of drill, (b) the air pressure, and 
(c)theconditionof thedrill. Naturally thelarger 
the drill the greater the quantity of air taken. 
Also if the drill is in a state of disrepair it will 
take a much larger quantity of air to do the 
same work than if it were in good condition. 
As regards the air-pressure, the quantity of 
air taken by a given drill is not quite directly 
proportional to the working pressure. For 
example, a drill working at 100 lb. per square 
inch does not take twice as much air as the 
same machine working at 501b. per square 
inch, but only about 80% more air. The air- 
consumption of piston-drills in good condition 
varies from about 65 cu. ft. of free air per 
minute for a 2 in. drill at 70 lb. per square 
inch pressure to about 175 cu. ft. per minute 
for a 3§ in. drill and 100 lb. per square inch 
pressure. Hammer-drills take anything from 
50 to 100 cu. ft. per minute. 

Most manufacturers and many mine-owners 



90 



.THE MINING MAGAZINE 



test the efficiency of their drills from time to 
time. It is not a simple matter to measure 
the efficiency of a rock-drill. One can calcu- 
late with ease the horse-power represented by 
the compressed air the drill consumes, but it 
is a much more difficult problem to estimate 
the amount of useful work performed in the 
usual engineering units. As a matter of fact 
it is hardly possible to estimate the absolute 
efficiency of a rock-drill. All that one can do 
is to compare one drill with another. In 
order to carry out such a test fairly, the 
several drills should be in an equal state of 
repair, they should be operated by the same 
skilled drill-man or by men equally skilled in 
the working of their respective drills, the drill 



bits should be of the same class of steel, and 
shaped, sharpened, and tempered with equal 
care, the drilling should be carried out in the 
same kind of rock, and the air-pressure should 
be maintained uniform throughout the tests. 
Such tests, if carried out carefully and with 
scrupulous fairness, cannot fail to be produc- 
tive of good results. They will show up the 
relative merits of the types of drills tried, both 
as regards cutting speed and air-consumption. 
It should not be forgotten of course that a 
drill is constantly being tested in the ordinary 
everyday work of drilling in the mine, and 
the testimony of the drill-runner or mine-fore- 
man is one of the most valuable criteria of the 
worth of a drill. 



FOUR YEARS AS A PRISONER OF WAR 

By J. C. FARRANT. 

(Continued from the July issue, page 

The Author continues his account of the treatment of English Prisoners of War by the 
Germans, describing conditions under which they worked in the firing line in Russia. 



March, 1911. We were all weak from 
hunger and long hours, and men used to stum- 
ble and sway about every night when returning 
to the lager, often turning in without undress- 
ing. One or two men had watches, and every 
few minutes someone or other would ask the 
time. 1 was glad I had no watch. 

March 14. Returned to lager 4a. m, coughed 
continuously till 7 a.m. ; got up at 8 a.m., and 
saw doctor, who gave me some tablets and 
ordered me to work ; turned in from 10 a.m. 
till 2 p.m. Started for another night shift at 
4 p.m. ; came back to lager 12 hours later ab- 
solutely knocked. 

March 16. Observation balloon spotted us 
going to work. Russians shelled us all the 
way up to the trenches, but no casualties. It 
was warmer, and the artillery was more active 
on both sides. 

March 17. The most bitter night I have 
ever experienced, temperature at zero, with 
strong wind. Men complained about thinness 
of the soup. The Lieutenant went into a rage, 
and told us we were getting all we were al- 
lowed. 

March 18. Sunday. Reached lager ex- 
hausted. Temperature below zero, and bliz- 
zard part of the day. Couldn't keep warm, 
although we had a fire in our dug-out. 

March 19. Paraded 7 a.m., clearing snow 
till 8 a.m., then marched for two hours in deep 
snow to new position. Worked till 4 p.m. with 
no stand easy, two hours walk back. Done up, 



drank soup, and turned in. 

" I don't know how much longer I can stick 
it : my strength has just about given out, but 
I can still smoke." 

March Jd. Felling trees in 2 ft. of snow. 
Swapped some soap for bread with German 
soldier. We carried on with this work for a 
week, and of all the Germans I have met there 
is one who stands out as a white man in his 
treatment of prisoners of war; he is the N.C.O. 
in charge of the wood party. He offered us 
the remainder of his soup which was brought 
out to him daily, and believe me it wasn't of- 
fered in vain. 

At this time I was physically incapable of 
using an axe for felling, but 1 could use the 
saw which was much easier work. A Ger- 
man pioneer did the axe work. 

The bread ration yielded 5 thin slices about 
\ in. thick by 4 in. square. The methods of 
apportioning these slices varied. Some ate 
two slices for breakfast, and had three at night. 
Others one for breakfast, one for lunch, and 
three at night. While a third group, of which 
I wasone,had onefor breakfast, three for lunch, 
and one at night. This latter method helped 
a man to keep going by day, but often pre- 
vented him from sleeping owing to the knaw- 
ing pangs of hunger. Often being unable to 
sleep 1 have pulled my next day's ration from 
under my jumper, and taken a mouthful when 
I turned in. The hardest thing in the world 
was to put it away again. # 



AUGUST, 1919 



91 



Those men who had plenty of soap were 
enahled to get bread from the soldiers. At 
first it was a i lb. cake of soap for a loaf of 
bread, but competition soon knocked that. 
More than one man has eaten a whole 3 lb. 
loaf right off after having swapped it for soap, 
and in each case was bad after it. Trading with 
the soldiers or guards was strictly forbidden, 
but of course it was done while the soap lasted. 

The veneer of civilization was wearing off 
rapidly. Men seldom spoke ; when they did, 
it was always about food. 

A man was exchanging a piece of soap for 
a piece of bread one day, but another fellow 
pulled out a larger piece of soap and walked 
up to the German and got the bread. The 
second man w^s " birded " by the party, but 
little he care* it was every man for himself. 
" Dieu et mon Droit," which translated into 
navy speech is "To hell with you Jack, I'm 
alright," was practiced on all sides. 

March 30. Our party on returning to la- 
ger were searched again for diaries. While we 
were at work the Germans had gone through 
our kit bags. Several men missed soap from 
their kit bags. My diaries were in the toe of 
my sleeping bag, and it was on this occasion 
I almost decided to destroy my notes, as some 
of the men had been knocked about all day 
owing to C's diary being found, and naturally 
our own men were pretty sore. 25% sick, 
mostly of frost bite and general weakness. 

April 2. My birthday. I celebrated it by 
having half an extra slice of bread, which 
meant this much less for the next day. 

We were officially informed on parade that 
we should receive no parcels at all while we 
were here. The result of this news was rather 
unexpected, inasmuch as there was less "crib- 
bing." Men felt that they had got down to 
bedrock and couldn't go any further, and that 
the only thing to do was to stick it. 

April 5. Two more men dropped at work. 

April 6. Four men dropped and were taken 
back to lager. 

April 10. Men swapping underclothes and 
jerseys for bread. Some rotten fish was thrown 
out from the German cook-house. Some of 
the men ate it, and were violently sick later. 

Occasionally soup bones, which had been 
boiled up in the cooker for the Germans, were 
thrown out. They were bare of meat, but we 
used to boil them over again anddrink the water, 
crack the bones, eat the marrow, and chew the 
spongy portions of the bones. 

We were occasionally able to obtain chew- 
ing tobacco from the soldiers in exchange for 
soap or money. 



April 72. Russians and Germans started 
fraternizing, exchanging bread for cigarettes 
over the barbed wire. 

, April15. We weredisinfected ; that is, our 
blankets were put into a disinfector and we 
had a bath. There were nearly 100 of us and 
there were six tubs. As one man followed an- 
other, half a pailful of warm water was added. 
No water was run off, so the bath was not all 
that it might have been for those who went last. 

It was when we were in the bath house (in 
the German quarters) that men realized the 
privations they had suffered. We were like 
skeletons ; shoulder bones, hip bones, knees, 
and elbows were horribly prominent. 

April 16. 31% sick. New routine, rise 
4 a.m., coffee 4.30, leave lager '5.35, return to 
lager 6.30 to 7 p.m. One hour's rest only was 
allowed between these hours. 

April 1 7. Received letters from home ; the 
first for two months. We were paraded and 
informed that France had withdrawn the Ger- 
man prisoners of war from the firing line, but 
that England had not. 

April 20. Parcels arrived. The next day 
each man received a parcel after returning from 
work. The parcels were then deposited on the 
parade ground for inspection. The German 
Lieutenant ordered men to open tins in order 
to view the contents. No one slept that night, 
the excitement was too great. Some ate half 
the contents of their parcel the same night. 
Many were up at 3 a.m. cooking burgoo for 
breakfast. 

April 22. Sunday, no work and a lovely day. 
A food parcel had already been issued, and to- 
day each man drew tobacco or cigarettes. Men 
said " Good morning " to each other. Some 
even whistled and sung, the first exhibition of 
pleasure that had ever taken place in this cur- 
sed spot. This was the happiest day 1 ever 
spent as a prisoner of war. W T e were men 
again. It was great, and all on account of a 
little extra food. 

During the past two months, many men who 
had ' messed in " since they were captured, 
parted on this " spasm." 

The division of the bread ration was a matter 
of vital interest. There is only one fair way, 
and it is this : The loaf or loaves are cut into 
portions, every man taking an eager interest 
in the cutting. Then one man turns his back, 
and as the cutter indicates a certain portion, 
the man with his back to the bread calls out a 
man's name, the man named taking the portion 
indicated, and so on. The same method was 
applied to the jam issue, which ran out at a 
dessert-spoonful for two days per man. 



92 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



April30. The Jaeger Co. No. 151,who\vere 
mostly Saxons and had been in charge of us 
from the beginning, were relieved by a com- 
pany of Prussians who were not fit for active 
service. The first day with the Prussians 
was the reverse of pleasant. We were em- 
ployed in shovelling mud on to the corduroy 
roads. It rained all day long, and we were 
wet through by 1 1 o'clock, when the second 
guard took us over. We worked through till 
5.30 p.m. 

May 3. Bread ration reduced to three slices 
a day. Young, of the R.N. T)., died. He had 
been excused duty, but was not admitted to 
hospital. He died in the dug-out. 

The cold weather was now breaking up, 
snowing and fine alternately ; we were begin- 
ning to feel the beneficial effect of the extra 
food that came in the parcels, as on May 19 
there was only 4% sick other than those with 
frost bite. Heavy artillery became more ac- 
tive on both sides, though there was no rifle 
fire. At the end of May, before the snow had 
melted, the mosquitoes became very bad, for 
we were right in the swamps which lie south- 
west of Riga. 

May 26. Every man was compelled to sign 
his "death warrant" as the boys called it. 
The duly signed sabotage paper looked more 
like a Chinese puzzle than anything else, as 
few of the signatures were legible. 

June 1. Russian and German aeroplanes 
were getting busy, though we didn't see one 
brought down on either side. The work now 
was a " gaff." The new guards, who were 
very fed up with war, didn't bother us, so we 
took things easily. 
June 10. Received orders to move. 
June 12. Arrived at Libau. The reprisal 
was over. At Libau we met some of the 500 
■ men who had been previously sent to Mitau. 
They had had a great deal more sickness than 
us, and a much larger number in proportion 
were in hospital. Several men of this com- 
pany died from starvation and cold. After a 
week's rest our company and some of the other 
reprisal company moved to another lager in 
Libau, to work on the docks. The rest of the 
camp was sent on kommando. 

From now on we carried on as other com- 
panies had done in Libau, as has already been 
described. Each man more or less had his 
special " donkey," whom he saw at the docks 
every day. The hurried scraps of daily con- 
versation were in many cases supplemented by 
letters written in German at night and ex- 
changed on the following day. Some men 
wrote their own love letters, while others ob- 



tained the assistance of those who could "speak 
the bat." My services were occasionally re- 
quisitioned. On one occasion a big North Sea 
fisherman from Stornoway told me his"donkey" 
wouldn't speak to him because she had seen 
him yarning with another girl, and would I 
write a letter for him. So I told him to leave 
it to me. It took two hours to write that letter 
and I handed it to him the same night. Being 
Scotch, he wanted me to translate it to him, so 
I read him out the more prosaic passages and 
away he went. If that " donkey " upon read- 
ing the letter didn't think she was the best 
looking girl in Kurland then it was because 
the dictionary I used wasn't big enough. The 
next night Mac said " It's alright," so I asked 
him if he had any chocolate to spare ; he just 
grinned. * 

Everyone worked six and a half days a week, 
and on Sunday afternoons we generally played 
football. 

J tine 30. Went with a party to the 
" Fischerei," humping sacksof dried fish about. 
Some of the girls employed at the Fischerei 
were not more than 12 years old. In the 
cleaning room there was a raised gangway upon 
which the fish cars were run, the contents be- 
ing dumped into boxes on either side where the 
girls were working. A German unterofnzier, 
foreman of the cleaning room, took his stand 
on the gangway with a whip in his hand, giv- 
ing a striking picture of German kultur in con- 
quered territory. 

July 23. Received balance of money sent 
from home ten months ago. Employed in 
lager, writing signs. 

August 4. The following was given out on 
parade by the German unteroffizier in charge : 
" Your parcels will be stopped for 14 days be- 
cause you have been guilty of giving biscuits 
andbreadto theLettish civilians." The " Let- 
tish civilians " were children who begged bis- 
cuits from our men when going to the docks 
and returning to lager. 

August 25. Given out on parade by dol- 
metcher Michaelis, nephew of the German 
Chancellor, that an exchange of prisoners of 
war would take place shortly. 

August 31. One of our men was caught 
taking some sugar, with the result that the 
football match scheduled for that afternoon 
was stopped. This is typical of the German 
system of punishment. 

September 26. Another shooting spasm in 
lager. ( )ur men had been unloading rum, and 
by four o'clock many were down and out, and 
many of the rest were seeing red. The Ger- 
man in charge of the lager was requested by 



AUGUST, 1919 



93 



the dock authorities to come down and restore 
order. When he appeared at the dock some 
•of the men made a rush to throw him into the 
river and were only restrained by the cooler 
members of the party. The whole party was 
ordered to return to lager. Some were helped, 
some were carried, and others came in carts 
and were deposited on the ground inside the 
lager gates, where they remained until some 
of their "school" claimed them. Some of 
those who were still under the influence of 
liquor tried to get over the wall, so the guards 
started firing, but fortunately no one was hit. 
There was no punishment on this occasion, as 
prisoners of war were not officially allowed to 
handle rum, so the German in charge daren't 
report the matter. There were the usual scraps, 
and the usual resolutions on the following 
morning of "never again." 

November 2. Left Libau for Dantzig, by 
steamer or rather cattle boat. Arrived at 
Dantzig on the 4th, entrained, and reached 
Czersk on the 5th. The lager here had a hold- 
ing capacity of 100,000 and had been used as 
a distributing lager for Russians. It was a 
rotten hole ; rows and rows of dug-outs with 
a narrow gangway in thecentre, with twosleep- 
ing shelves on either side. It was not possible 
to sit upright on the lower shelf. There was 
the usual rush for places, but we settled down 
by midday and then started "drumming up " 
outside the huts. 

After a meal I was walking round the lager 
with another fellow. He had just remarked 
that there weren't many walking about, when 
two guards came up ordered us into the bar- 
racks. We turned in the direction of the bar- 
racks, and carried on with our conversation, 
when without any warning I got a bang in the 
back from a butt end. I turned round and just 
dodged a jab from a bayonet. I could see 
something was up, so I made toward the bar- 
racks and ran into six or eight guards coming 
round the hospital. The two who had first 
spoken were still following me, so there was 
nothing for it but to run the gauntlet. I was 
pretty quick, but those butt ends were quicker 
and I received a good drubbing before I reached 
the first dug-out. After I recovered my breath 
I asked what the trouble was, and I was told 
that earlier in the afternoon one of the guards 
had kicked over a can of water which one of 
our men was just drumming up, so the fellow 
let the guard have the remainder in his face, 
and then made a dive for the nearest dug-out. 
The guard had reported the matter, with the 
result that all the guard was turned out and an 
order was given that all British prisoners of 



war were to remain in the dug-outs. This 
order was unknown to many men, and of those 
who were walking about, many were man- 
handled, some of them having to go to hospital 
for medical attention. This matter was re- 
ported to the German CO. on the following 
morning. 

November 8. Seventeen hundred of us par- 
aded for general inspection. The inspecting 
general said : " They are a fine-looking group 
of men: why are they here ? " The German 
doctor, who had examined us on the previous 
day, replied : "These menhave been on punish- 
ment kommandos in Russia, and they are all a 
bischenverruckt,alittle mad ; they will be sent 
into Germany." We remained in this lager 
about three weeks, during which time, as no 
fuel was supplied, we burned most of the bed 
boards in our own dug-outs and smashed up 
beds in empty dug-outs. No guards came in- 
side the lager. We had never had so little 
supervision. We played football on the parade 
ground and quite a number of windows went 
west. One evening, however, an officer accom- 
panied by several guards visited each dug-out 
and made notes. This gave rise to all kinds 
of rumours. The next day we were paraded 
and marched inside a barbed-wire enclosure. 
We were then told we should remain until the 
damage had been paid for. It worked out at 
2 or 3 marks a head. The amount was finally 
collected, as every man felt he had had his 
money's worth. 

During our stay here the deaths among the 
Russians ran from 10 to 15 a day. A huge 
burial ground lay just outside the lager, and 
every day parties bearing coffins could be seen 
marching to the burial ground. 

November 27. A blizzard, with snow blow- 
ing in through the cracks. The narrow gang- 
way was soon ankle-deep in mud. We didn't 
get much sleep that night. This weather kept 
on for three days. 

November 30. Left Czersk for Chemnitz 
in Saxony. Before we entrained, we were 
warned that we must give up all knives. A 
dolmetcher and guards came round to each hut, 
searched us, and took all our knives, or thought 
they did. They said the knives would be given 
back to us when we reached our destination. 
The lager authorities undoubtedly believed we 
weren't quite "all there," owing to the horse- 
play and skylarking that went on during our 
three weeks' stay at this camp. Hence the 
order that all knives should be given up. 

December 3. Arrived at Dresden, where we 
wereagain disinfected. We entrained the same 
night, and reached our destination, Chemnitz, 



94 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



on the next morning. We marched about li 
miles to the camp, packing all our gear with 
us. The rest of the day was spent in giving 
in our names and regiments, family history, 
whether we had "done cells" while in Ger- 
many or Russia, and what trade or profession 
we followed in civvy life, etc. Some of the 
trades and professions given in are worth re- 
peating : hangman, doll's eye-brow painter, 
tea-taster, barman, and provision dealers by the 
score ; mechanics were generally farmers, and 
so on ; the majority of the men were regulars 
and just gave in " soldier." We were then de- 
tailed to different barracks, which were in re- 
ality stables. Our lager was situated in the 
artillery barracks, which were built entirely of 
concrete, as were the stables. I slept on a 
wood-wool mattress that night, the first mat- 
tress for a year. This lager had about 20,000 
men on its books, of many nationalities, all of 
whom were out on kommando except a few 
who did the clerical work for each company. 
Our company, which was composed of British, 
was 1,700 strong. I was lucky enough to get 
on the staff as a writer. . 

During December as many men as possible 
were drafted to kommandos. The first batches 
to go went to surface coal works and to the pits, 
factories, road work, and later to farms. Eng- 
lishmen were only sent to farms when they 
could send no one else, because it was far easier 
and more congenial work, though the hours 
were long. 

This was a rotten camp as far as " drumming 
up "went. There was no wood to buy, borrow, 
or steal, and no hot water was issued for mak- 
ing tea. The buildings were heated by hot 
water, which was turned on for ten minutes 
every two or three hours. The men used to 
form up in ranks with their billies at the dis- 
charge pipes, having to wait an hour sometimes, 
and then the water would cease as some un- 
fortunate man had his can underneath the pipe. 

December 10. Parcels were about finished 
up, also tobacco, and we were once more up 
against the bete noire of gefang life, hunger. 
The soup was thin and unsatisfying. The daily 
ration was Jth of a loaf, the only solid food. 
Men with money were offering high prices to 
Frenchmen for biscuits, the general pricebeing 
two for 1 mark. The absence of tobacco and 
cigarettes was hell. 

December 17. I gave a man 5 marks for 
iOz. of tobacco, and thought I was lucky. 

December 23. The French Help Committee 
decided to hand over to British N.CO.'s 35 
biscuits for each Britisher in lager for Christ- 
mas. The distribution was made that night, 



and several men had none left by the following 
night. 

December 24. Men returning from kom- 
mando had all personal kit taken from them if 
it exceeded one extra shirt. Complaints were 
made to the commandant without success. 

December 25. Christmas day in the home 
of Christmas festivities, Saxony. No parcels 
and no extra soup. The latter consisted of 
mangel-wurzel, potato peelings, and minute 
shreds of horse flesh. The electric light went 
out between 5.30 and 8 p.m., and that's how 
Christmas, 1917, was spent with ouf so called 
cousins. 

December 26, One of our men who didn't 
smoke came round to where a bunch of us were 
sitting, and offered atinof Capstan for40marks. 
Jerry Newland, one of our group, said : "Is 
he an Englishman?" Someone replied" Yes." 
" \\ ell ! " said Jerry, " I wish I'd been born a 
Chinaman." The man who offered the tobacco 
eventually raffled it at 1 mark a time, and I 
won it. One's feelings on such an occasion 
pass all description. 

December 28. " 1 ' arcels up." The words 
went round like wild-fire, and with one accord 
men rushed up to the parcel office. Nearly 
every man drew at least one parcel, and it was 
a contented bunch of men that turned in that 
night. 

December 31. Snowing and cold. Men 
waiting at the steam pipes throughout the day 
to " wet their tea." 

{ To be continued. 1 



The Institute of Metals. 

The autumn meeting of the Institute of 
Metals will be held at Sheffield on September 
24 and 25, Professor H. C. H. Carpenter, pro- 
fessor of metallurgy in the Royal School of 
Mines, presiding. The papers to be read are 
as follows: Moulding Sands for Non- Ferrous 
Foundry Work, by Professor P. G. H. Bos- 
well ; The Solidification of Metals from the 
Liquid State, by Professor C. H. Desch ; Ob 
servations on a Typical Bearing Metal, by 
Miss II . H. Fry and Dr. W. Rosenhain ; 
Season Cracking in Brass, by Dr. W. H. Hat- 
field and G. L. Thirkell ; Ternary Alloys of 
Tin, Antimony, and Arsenic, by Dr. J. E. Stead; 
GraphiteandOxide Inclusionsin Nickel-Silver, 
by Dr. F. C. Thompson; Constitution and 
Metallurgy of Britannia Metal, by Dr. F. C. 
Thompson and F. Orme ; Early History of 
Electro-Silver Plating, by R. E. Leader; 
Properties of Standard or Sterling Silver, with 
Notes on its Manufacture, by E. H. Smith and 
H. Turner. 



AUGUST, 1919 



95 



LETTERS to the EDITOR 

Spitsbergen. 

The Editor : 

Sir — After reading two letters in your July 
number written by Rolf Marstrander and R. 
H. Blumental, of Norway, I request you will 
give me permission to reply. 

Mr. Marstrander devotes himself mainly to 
attacking a publication issued by the Northern 
Exploration Company, and pins his own faith 
to ' three iron experts, one Norwegian and two 
Swedish mining engineers of repute." Who 
are these three gentlemen who were " on the 
deposits from 1912 to 1916 ?" The Northern 
Exploration Company had its representatives 
working on the property in 1912, 1913, and 
1914, but in 1915 and 1916 other work of more 
importance required British attention. It was 
then probably that the unnamed Swedish min- 
ing engineers took the opportunity to have a 
look round. It is a fact that the Swedish flag 
was hoisted on a building belonging to the 
British company, but this was hauled down 
when it was found that the result of the war 
was going in our favour. 

Mr. Marstrander makes a rather bold state- 
ment when he says " No one knows the min- 
eral deposits of Spitsbergen better than the 
Norwegian geologists and mining engineers 
who for the last 13 years continuously and 
systematically have carried out the exploration 
of the entire west and north of Spitsbergen." 
Well, I have been conducting operations from 
1905 to 1914, when war was declared. In 191 1 
one of my old workmen, and a good fellow too, 
Hans Norburg, of Tromso, led a Swedish ex- 
pedition up to a place where he and I dis- 
covered coal in 1906. I called on the Swedes 
and protested against theirtrespassand warned 
them that whatever work they did was at their 
own risk. Later on, a director of the Northern 
Exploration Company met officials of the Swe- 
dish company, when an amicable arrangement 
was come to. It is at this place, our old 1906 
discovery, where the Swedes are now working 
good coal, constructed a small railroad, pier, 
and put up a well-built township. I saw no 
mining engineers during all my experience who 
had a staff capable of sinking a 10 ft. hole, but 
an isolated geologist now and then came my 
way, though none was equipped to do anything 
in the way of mining. 

The main work done by Norwegians in 
Spitsbergen from 1905 to 1910 was whaling, 
by various companies, during the few summer 
months, and trapping in the winter by a few 
isolated individuals. Certainly no serious de- 



velopment work of any kind whatever was 
attempted on land, except at a few places in 
Green Harbour. It was here that a few per- 
sons were squatting on property which was 
claimed by the American company who were 
then opening up a seam of coal in Advent Bay. 
There was not a solitary Norwegian camp, or 
a company, that was doing any real mining 
work in any part of Spitsbergen, except the 
few men in Green Harbour who were dispu- 
ting the American claim. Later on a wireless 
station was built by Germans for the Nor- 
wegian Government at this place. But that 
was not mining ; it probably had some other 
object in view. 

It would be very interesting to know what 
year Mr. Marstrander visited Spitsbergen. I 
have not to my knowledge ever seen or heard 
of him. If he has explored the country, as 
his letter leads one to believe, perhaps he will 
be good enough to inform you where he at- 
tempted mining, the amount of cash expended 
in actual work, buildings erected, etc., and the 
length of time he pursued his quest ? " Two 
summers " are not much in Spitsbergen. Still 
a great deal would depend on the staff of men 
with him ; it may have been one of consider- 
able strength. An answer to these points 
would elucidate matters. From all accounts 
and reports, it seems that most of the Norwe- 
gian development work in Spitsbergen took 
place while Britain was fighting Germany. 
Mr. Marstrander says: "in 1917 and 1918 
three Norwegian geologists together with their 
topographical surveyors traversed every cor- 
ner of the land surrounding Horn Sound." 
Was Mr. Marstrander with this party of "ge- 
ologists and topographical surveyors" — quite 
a fine sounding outfit— when they " traversed 
every corner of the land surrounding Horn 
Sound ?" Captain Cook a few years ago 
claimed he had discovered the North Pole. 
No one believes his story now. 

It is quite evident that Mr. Marstrander is 
unfriendly to both Spitsbergen and the Nor- 
thern Exploration Company. Why ? Has 
he a reason ? I ask these questions because 
I have often been " approached," and more 
than once been invited to visit Berlin by good 
people who were very eager to make me rich ! 
I know the Germans wanted Spitsbergen pos- 
sessions- They actually came with a man o' 
war to take Marble Island in lMll.but I told 
the captain he was six years too late, and gave 
him a part of Cross Bay. It was at this place 
they conducted all their Zeppelin experiments, 
and erected a wireless station to connect with 
the station they put up for the Norwegian 



96 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Government in Green Harbour, and from there 
to every other part of the world. I know also 
that the Germans had some Norwegians act- 
ing for them in attempting to obtain coal 
mines ; in fact the Germans were very sweet 
on the country. 

I must disagree with Mr. Marstrander in his 
attempt to belittle the Northern Exploration 
Company's wonderful marble deposit. It is 
the finest ornamental marble deposit in the 
world. There are to-day- -unless taken away 
by exploring parties visiting the place while 
the war was on — solid blocks of beautiful orna- 
mental stone weighing 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 
60 tons, and these can be duplicated in any 
quantity, for there is enough marble to supply 
the world for all conceivable time. Another 
good feature of this extraordinary deposit is 
that there are a very large number of varie- 
ties, all of them handsome, and as Mr. Mars- 
trander truthfully admits, " take a beautiful 
polish and have beautiful colours." It is a cor- 
rect statement. Of course there are thousands 
of tons of worthless debris on this marble de- 
posit of about 10 square miles, but for every 
hundredweight of rubble there is a million tons 
of solid stone. But the rubble is not value- 
less, as lime or calcium-carbide can be made 
of it. 

In Norway, and in Scotland as well, there 
are granite quarries being worked for stone. 
Do the companies extractsoundblocksof stone 
from the surface ? I don't think so. The 
Northern Exploration Company's marble de- 
posit in King's Bay is ornamental marble, and, 
therefore, like all other ornamental marble in 
every part of the world, is of a friable nature. 
In King's Bay we are only scratching the sur- 
face, but from the tests made by bores (some 
of them down 170 ft.) we have evidence to 
prove that solid blocks of marble will be ob- 
tainable. This will be at a less depth than 
either the Scottish or Norwegian quarrieshave 
to penetrate in order to get a block of solid 
granite. 

I am very much inclined to believe that the 
geologist and two Swedish mining engineers 
of repute " who went to have a look at the iron 
deposit saw only the pup, and not the mother. 
There might have been a great deal of snow 
about at the time of their visit, and the iron 
location is not a place to go picnicing. There 
are formations in the vicinity as described by 
Mr. Mar>trander on other people's statements, 
but that is not the locality meant when the 
term " Iron Mountain" is used. There are 
mountain masses of magnetite iron, very high 
grade, and even if it fails to grip the geologist's 



compass, answers very well to the pick, drill, 
and dynamite, and after all that is the crucial 
test, whey iron ore is wanted of a 68% grade. 
I am convinced that every word of the Chair- 
man's statements will be more than verified by 
actual results, and that he was justified in 
making them. He had before him samples of 
the iron, marble, coal, and other minerals, and 
had questioned and cross-questioned hardy 
Sheffield colliery managers and iron workers, 
also Norwegian geologists and iron workers, 
and other men with a knowledge of minerals, 
all of whom had done actual work with pick 
and drill not merely for " two summers," but 
for a dozen summers, and as many long win- 
ters. There is a difference. 

With regard to Mr. Blumental's letter, I 
must say that this gentleman appears to have 
an axe to grind. After a long doleful account 
of other people's statements, including Mr. 
Hoel's, that all discoveries so far, other than 
coal, are valueless, he winds up, " that there is 
a strong feeling here (Kristiania) that Norway 
has the first claim to Spitsbergen." A rather 
tall order, when British and American capital 
have done more to develop the land than all 
the rest of the world put together. Mr. Blu- 
mental is also misleading for although it is cor- 
rect to state that " the largest and most valu- 
able properties are held by Norwegian com- 
panies," (I presume he alludes to the Advent 
Bay colliery), he omits to mention the fact that 
this company was developed and opened up 
solely by American capital, with American 
engineers and English colliery managers, and 
that the property with all its equipment and 
machinery, and already in a producing stage, 
was sold to the Norwegians by the Americans. 
At this time the Norwegians did not develop 
the property at all, but simply took over the 
show from the American owners, and every ton 
of coal taken out by the Norwegians was done 
while we were at war. 

We can go one better than a 100 years ago, 
for a great many Scottish whalers over 200 
years ago made Spitsbergen their headquarters 
every sum.ner, and, if reportsare correct, many 
of the crews used to go up to what was the first 
American workings in 1905-6 in Advent Bay, 
the present Norwegian company's property, 
and carried coal down on their backs for their 
galley fires. England also has had a great 
number of expeditions, both in the olden time, 
and more recently. Indeed the charts used by 
captains of ships belonging to all nationalities 
were then, as most of them are now, the Ad" 
miralty charts printed in London. Men o'war 
flying the white ensign have made navigable 



AUGUST, 1919 



97 



most of the harbours now frequented by call- 
ing vessels, by their work in making soundings. 

Norwegian labour is mostly employed in 
Spitsbergen. I have had many hundreds of 
Norwegians working for me, both summer and 
winter, and I find them very fine men indeed. 
They render service for the wages and food 
given, and it is a fair bargain to our mutual 
advantage. For many years there was not a 
soul working on the land in Bell Sound, Lowe 
Sound, Braganza Bay, Recherche Bay, Van 
Keulen's Bay, and King's Bay, except in my 
employ. I believe there are thousands of 
Norwegians serving in our mercantile marine, 
and give as great satisfaction in that branch 
as my workmen gave to me in opening up the 
mineral deposits in the early days. Although 
these sailors render such splendid service un- 
der our red ensign, I don't think any would 
claim that they were responsible for the finding 
of the ship, or guiding the vessel on its way ; 
none, I feel sure, would claim it. Is it not 
exactly the same with regard to the mines ? 
Supposing the Norwegian sailors refused to 
work under the English flag, it would not stop 
progress, for our vessels would sail the seas as 
of yore. 

The strangeness of Mr. Blumental's letter to 
me is that he doesn't seem to have even visited 
the country he is so anxious to decry and be- 
little, and yet at the same time work in what 
he appears to wish»for, that Spitsbergen should 
belong to Norway. Suppose Norway had it, 
and they had a fracas with some power similar 
to that we recently had. How long could Nor- 
way hold it ? And again, what about rights of 
us pioneerswho paved the way ? I don't think 
we should relish having our properties confis- 
cated. Will Mr. Blumental supply a fewmore 
figures, and state the number of tons of coal 
mined and exported from Spitsbergen before 
1914 and after 1914, also the nature of the de- 
velopments of the other companies during the 
same period ? By this way we shall then be 
able to see who the actual workers on the land 
really were. 

Ernest Mansfield. 

London, July 25. 

[We publish the foregoing letter in fairness 
to those whom we have criticized. Mr. Mans- 
field, however, does not give the specific in- 
formation relating to the iron ore deposit for 
which we called. We are aware of the value 
of the coal deposits, and described them in 
July, 1915. As regards the claim to the owner- 
ship of the islands, we quoted Sir Martin 
Conway's history of the dispute in March 
last. — Editor] . 

2—5 



Diamond-Drilling. 

The Editor : 

Sir — Reference was made in your issue of 
April to a paper read before the North Wales 
Branch of the National Association of Col- 
liery Managers by Mr. J. Walker Steele, en- 
titled " Some Difficulties met with in Putting 
Down a Diamond Bore-hole Underground." I 
have read the report of this paper in the Iron 
& Coal Trades Review for March 7. As the 
conclusions arrived at are greatly in error, some 
comment in the form of an analysis of the 
paper may be of interest to the mining com- 
munity. 

It would appear that Mr. Steele, in penning 
the paper, was actuated by a sincere desire to 
add to existing knowledge as to the adapta- 
bility of boring machines to underground con- 
ditions, but the conclusions drawn from the 
work in question are clearly not correct. In 
fact, a careful perusal of the paper leads to the 
conclusion that this particular work was car- 
ried out with a remarkable display of ingenu- 
ity in overcoming trouble, coupled, however, 
with great want of skill in the actual drilling 
operations. This latter would seem to have 
been the chief cause of getting into trouble 
while boring. Had a fairly skilled man been 
in charge of the work, there is absolutely no 
doubt that the only trouble they would have 
encountered would have been that occasioned 
by the loss of water in the bore-hole. While 
it is always requisite that an ample supply of 
water passes through the diamond crown while 
it is at work, it is not always requisite that 
this water be returned to the collar of the bore. 
This, you will note, qualifies the diamond 
crown. Where a shot crown is working, then 
it is imperative that the water returns to the 
collar. 

One of the things, in fact it is not too much 
to say that the outstanding thing, that impress- 
ed me more than any other in the account of 
this boring was that the drillipg plant should 
have been so destitute of apparatus for the re- 
covering of the rods after they had become un- 
screwed in the hole. Recovering tools such 
as Mr. Steele has illustrated his article with, 
though rather more perfect in design, are part 
of the regular equipment of the diamond-drills 
that have been working exclusively under- 
ground in Cornwall for the past three years. 
These machines are manufactured by the Sul- 
livan Machinery Company, and as these re- 
covering tools are always listed in their cata- 
logues, it would seem to have been rather 
superfluous to have gone to the trouble of de- 
signing and making them at the work. 



98 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Mr. Steele states that frequent difficulties 
were encountered due to the fracturing of the 
ground by adjacent workings, as well as to 
the ground being full of small faults which in- 
terfered with the washing out of the bore-hole, 
these necessitating the use of bran or sawdust 
in order to get the hole tight and secure good 
washing out. Both of these materials are 
only used as a makeshift ; the logical material 
to use in a case of this kind, apart from ream- 
ing and casing the hole, is cement. This ma- 
terial in addition to plugging the crevices and 
making the bore water-tight, also reinforces 
any weak portions and prevents them from 
caving while the drill is at work. The cement 
is just as easy to use as either bran or saw- 
dust. It is true that it takes a little time to set, 
but it makes a permanent job, whereas bran 
and sawdust simply give temporary relief. 
That the cores should split perpendicularly is 
nothing exceptional in any core borings, and 
with the Sullivan diamond-drills this is over- 
come by the use of a Sullivan double core tube. 
The wedging that takes place from the split- 
ting of the cores is almost always attributable 
to the mechanical action of the wash water, 
which causes the cores to open out and wedge 
themselves in the tube so that nothing remains 
but to withdraw the rods and clear out the 
tube. In the double core tube, the core is al- 
ways protected from the action of the water, 
and the clearance in the inner tube that car- 
ries the core is only such as to allow the core 
to pass, thus preventing the opening of the 
cores to any appreciable extent, and, therefore, 
facilitating the progress of the drilling. 

The losing of the diamonds in the bore-hole 
can only be attributable to faulty setting or 
careless running of the crown. As nothing is 
said as to the method in which the diamonds 
were set in the crowns, it is not possible to 
comment on this part of the trouble. I have 
to say, however, that in over nine thousand 
feet of underground drilling that has been 
carried out in Cornwall there has never been 
a diamond lost in a hole ; in fact, there has 
never been a diamond come loose in the crowns. 
This was not attributable to the fact that there 
have been highly skilled workers in charge, 
for the writer has trained all of the men who 
are operating diamond-drills in Cornwall, and 
in two instances these men had but three 
months in which to become proficient in both 
the running of the drills and the setting of the 
diamonds. This should speak very highly for 
the simplicity, efficiency, and adaptability of 
the Sullivan diamond-drills to underground 
conditions. 



I agree with Mr. Steele that it is always 
best to have a skilled man in charge of work 
of that kind, but with his conclusion that the 
shot-drill would have been a better machine to 
use, I cannot at all agree. In fact, I have to 
say, from a description of the ground bored, 
that I greatly doubt if he would ever have got 
a hole down with a shot machine. Had this 
method been adopted, every time they lost the 
water or struck a crevice in the bore it would 
have had to be filled up, as, where water will 
lose itself, so also will the shot. That shot- 
boring is fool-proof is rather wide of the mark. 

In regard to the unscrewing of the rods 
while the hole was being chopped or sludged, 
(this latter term I take to mean the cleaning of 
the bottom of the bore-hole), Mr. Steele is of 
the opinion that had the borers had more ex- 
perience so as to have been able to judge the 
necessary amount of percussion and the vio- 
lence of each stroke, the trouble would not 
have arisen. This is altogether surmise, as it 
is immaterial how great or how small a blow 
is struck. If other precautions are not taken, 
the rods will unscrew. Any fitter knows that 
a succession of blows will loosen the most re- 
fractory screw joint, and it may be taken as 
a rule that the solidity of the line of drill rods 
while chopping does not depend upon the rapi- 
dity of percussion or violence of stroke but 
rather upon the assiduity with which a tighten- 
ing process is carried out. .The usual practice 
is to strike a few blows and then turn the rods 
with a wrench. This method has the advan- 
tage of filling a dual purpose in that, in addi- 
tion to keeping the line of drill rods screwed to- 
gether, it also keeps the detritus in the bottom 
of the bore stirred up and prevents it packing, 
thus enabling the pump to evacuate it with the 
least trouble. It will be seen that this process 
is very simple and requires no skill to accom- 
plish. 

I gather from Mr. Steele's paper that his en- 
deavour was to throw as much light as pos- 
sible on the possibility of adapting diamond- 
drilling to underground conditions. As a great 
part of my life has been spent in doing just 
such drilling, I trust that the foregoing re- 
marks will be taken in the same light. 

J. A. Mac Vicar. 
Whitehaven, July 18. 



Patents in relation to industry formed the 
subject of a conference held in connection with 
the British Science Products Exhibition at the 
Central Hall, Westminster, on July 31, when 
the Bill now before Parliament was discussed. 



AUGUST, 1919 



99 



NEWS LETTERS 

TORONTO. 

July 11. 

Damage by Forest Fires. — Owing to the 
extreme heat and drought there have been ex- 
tensive forest fires in Northern Ontario, which 
at one time threatened the destruction of many 
of the mining properties. Fortunately the dan- 
ger was averted at the more important camps 
by heavy rainstorms, which checked the pro- 
gress of the flames. The principal loss sus- 
tained was at Boston Creek, where the mill of 
the Patricia Syndicate, valued at $75,000, and 
the mining plant of the Cotter were destroyed. 
Some damage to mining properties was also 
done in the West Shining Tree area. A com- 
pensating advantage in that district is that the 
fires have cleared off much of the vegetation, 
exposing large areas of bare rock and render- 
ing prospecting easy. 

Porcupine. — This district has not been ex- 
empt from the widespread feeling of labour un- 
rest, which is unsettling the mining industry 
elsewhere, but so far no serious difficulties have 
resulted and a settlement satisfactory to both 
parties has apparently been arrived at. The 
miners asked for an increase of wages, but in- 
timated that they would be equally well satis- 
fied if a reduction in the high cost of living 
could be effected. The Hollinger and Dome 
Mines have undertaken to meet their views by 
the establishment of company stores, and it is 
reported that the employees of the latter com- 
pany have already benefited, by a reduction 
in the cost of the necessaries of life of about 
18%. As soon as their plans are fully matured 
the Hollinger promises to do even better than 
this in cutting down living expenses. The 
Dome is maintaining production at the rate of 
approximately $120,000 per month, or about 
half capacity, the mill-heads running a little 
higher than the average grade of the mine. 
Net profits are conservatively estimated at 
about $2 per ton. The Mclntyre is cutting a 
station in the main shaft at the 1,200 ft. level. 
Ore for the mill is being extracted from the 
1,135 ft. level, and the shaft will be sunk 175 
ft. deeper. The mill is running at capacity, 
with an average extraction of $10 per ton. 
The Dome Lake is driving a long cross-cut 
for the development of a large ore-body indica- 
ted by diamond-drilling. The capacity of the 
mill has been brought up to 100 tons per day. 

KlRKLAND LAKE. — Work on the leading 
mines has been completely stopped by a strike 
of miners which took place on June 12. Con- 
ferences between the miners and mine-owners 



havebeen held, but without result, and the great 
majority of the strikers have left the district. 
Some have gone prospecting, and others are 
working on undeveloped prospects or small 
properties in outlying districts. The mine 
managers have determined to remain closed 
down until overhead expenses, which they claim 
leave no margin for profit, can be consider- 
ably reduced. Active development is being 
pushed, however, on many of the newer proper- 
ties, including the Ontario- Kirkland, where a 
100 ton mill will shortly be installed, the 
Greene- Kirkland, the Young- Duncan, and the 
Kirkland Combine. The Lake Shore during 
May treated 1,750 tons of ore for a yield of 
$42,136, being an average of $24'08 per ton. 
At the Kirkland Lake, when closed down, a 
15 ft. ore face was showing at the 600 ft. level 
with ore stated officially to average $55 per 
ton. A 3 ft. ore-body running parallel carries 
$28 per ton. 

Cobalt. — For some weeks the miners have 
been threatening to strike, but the final decision 
has from time to time been postponed in the 
hope that a satisfactory settlement can be 
effected by the Canadian Minister of Labour. 
[Since the above report was written cablemes- 
sages have announced a stoppage. — EDITOR.] 
The Cobalt miners are in a better position than 
those engaged in the gold mines, as they re- 
ceive in addition to their regular wages a bonus 
regulated according to the market price of sil- 
ver. During June the bonus was increased 
by the amount of 25 cents per day, making the 
total $1*50 per day. It is hardly likely that 
the strike will take place so long as these 
favourable conditions continue. During May 
the Kerr Lake produced 105, 582oz., compared 
with 104,477 oz. in April. The production 
during the current yearshowsadeclineof about 
50% as compared with last year's output. For 
the five months ended with May 1918, the mine 
produced 1,085,793 oz. of silver, as compared 
with 528,358 for the first five months of 1919. 
Several new veins have been discovered on the 
old Foster property, one of which was found 
on the 40 ft. level, and is reported to be very 
high grade. Work has been started on the 
Mohawk property situated on the west side of 
Mud Lake. The Cobalt Provincial will in- 
crease the capacity of its mill from 40 to 100 
tons. The McKinley-Darragh is exploring 
the undeveloped south-eastern part of its prop- 
erty adjacent to the Nipissing. The Peterson 
Lake has had a judgment in its favour by the 
Supreme Court in a protracted suit over the 
ownership of slimes deposited by the Domin- 
ion Reduction Company's mill in Peterson 



100 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Lake territory. The case was originally de- 
cided by the lower court in favour of the 
Peterson Lake and an appeal taken resulted 
in the judgment being confirmed. The silver 
content of the slimes is estimated as at least 
500,000 ox. 

Matachewan. — This district is attracting 
a good deal of attention. The shaft on the 
Matachewan mine, formerly the Otisse, is 
down 140 ft., and is still in ore. The vein is 
about 30 ft. wide on the surface. Cross-cut- 
ting will be undertaken at the 200 ft. level. 
North-east of the Matachewan a group of 
claims known as the Matachewan Rand is 
being opened up. 

West Shin inc. Tree. — Many properties 
in the northern portion of this area are under 
development, including the Wasapika, Miller- 
Adair, and Riel-Foisey, situated on the great 
Ribble vein, along which they extend continu- 
ously for nearly 10,000 ft. Other claims which 
are being actively worked are the West Tree, 
the Herrick, and the Atlas. On the latter 
property the andesite is cut by dykes of olivine 
diabase which is considered a highly favour- 
able formation. The buildings on the Queen 
of Sheba were destroyed by a bush fire. 

NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

"The Times" Article.— I hope that 
readers of the Magazine saw the valuable arti- 
cle in "The Times Trade Supplement," giving 
a short outline of what has happened in the 
lead and zinc mining industry since November 
last, and revealing the position as it stands to- 
day. The three concluding paragraphs are 
well worth quoting : " There has been no at- 
tempt to force the Government into a prema 
ture policy of protection, but the mines feel 
that they have a right to live until the position 
becomes a purely economic one. When the 
Government stocks are liquidated and the con- 
sumer is compelled to purchase in the world's 
market, the price of lead and zinc metal and 
the price of lead and zinc ores will find an eco- 
nomic level which would enable mining to be 
carried on in this country on a profitable basis. 
The Government has protected dyes, motor, 
paper-making, and other industries by means 
of restrictive licences and duties, but in this in- 
stance, the mine owners are actually expected 
to produce their ores at a price to compete 
with the reckless sale at a loss of Government 
purchases. An output bonus of £5 per ton 
should be given for a year or two at least, in 
any case, until abnormal conditions cease ; but 
whatever is done should be done quickly and 
have sufficient permanence to give some secur- 



ity to the mine owners, who have for the last 
few years been the victims of an administra- 
tion that it is difficult to describe in polite lan- 
guage." 

Zinc. — There is little to say this month 
about markets. I hear that the smelters are 
being charged by the Government ^11 per 
ton for zinc concentrates guaranteed to contain 
45% of zinc. If that is so the smelters ought 
to be able to give mine owners certainly 30s. 
to 35s. per ton more for the material containing 
50%. Smelters, however, are heavily stocked 
with concentrates, and are not in the market. 
I am told that the zinc smelters are getting 
considerable subsidies from the Government 
either in the form of direct subsidy or a guar- 
anteed price which is considerably above the 
price of zinc in the open market. The Board 
of Trade has been asked for information on 
this point, but refuses to say anything. I am 
informed, by the way, that there are 2,000,000 
tons of blende collected and stored at Broken 
Hill or lying at Port Pirie. I presume that 
this has already been paid for by the Govern- 
ment. A pretty fine penny there must be for 
the interest running. 

Leah. As to lead the position is that large 
supplies are coming in and that they are being 
well absorbed. It is to be hoped that the Gov- 
ernment stocks will not increase this month. 
The smelters decline to buy at other than ri- 
diculously low prices. I believe in some cases 
they offer not more than ^12. 10s. per ton. 
In only exceptional cases are odd lots being 
sold at a reasonable figure. I have heard of 
an isolated spot transaction or two in the neigh- 
bourhood of £\1 . 10s. per ton. 

THORNTHWAITE MINE. — This mine has 
dismissed more than half of the men employed 
at it and is simply retaining a sufficient num- 
ber to carry on what development work the 
the directors deem it advisable to have done. 
It is interesting to hear that when the manage- 
ment sent word to the Government department 
on the step that had been taken a reply was 
received that, as the matter was one which 
evidently applied to coal, it had been sent to 
the Coal Controller ! Thereupon the manage- 
ment informed the Government department 
that as lead and zinc were not coal it would be 
advisable for the letter to go to the officialsdeal- 
ing with lead and zinc mines. No further com- 
munication, needless to say, has been received 
by the company from the department. 

THRELKELD. — Developments at the Threl- 
keld mine up to date show a length of ore- 
bearing ground in the extension to the old mine 
of about 97 fathoms. The whole of this is pay- 



AUGUST, 1919 



101 



able ground, and the contents will average 
about one ton of lead to the fathom. Though 
this does not appear to be a very rich yield, it 
must be remembered that the mine is worked 
by an adit level and that consequently there is 
no pumping or winding. The stoping ground 
is very free, consisting of sandy quartz and 
narrow bands of fairly solid galena with a little 
blende. Above the adit level there is about 
15,000 ft. of solid ground, and if this deposit 
goes up to the surface it must prove a very 
satisfactory venture to those who are interest- 
ed in the property. The trial stope has been 
put up about 60 ft., and reveals a gradual im- 
provement all the way as it rises. 

Brandlehow Mine.— This mine is now 
under the management of Mr. W. H. Borlase, 
who is engaged in sinking a new shaft which 
is about 35 fathoms deep. He hopes to carry 
it down about 55 fathoms, when lateral develop- 
ment will be undertaken. 

Weardale.— At one of the mines at Stan- 
hopeburn the men, who handed in their notices, 
have been definitely refused the Sankeyaward. 
The position does not allow of such a conces- 
sion. 

Goldscope.— Mr. Bennett Johns is vigor- 
ously opening out the Goldscope lodes in the 
Vale of Newlands, and is hoping to reach the 
intersection of the copper vein and Scalby's 
lode. This copper vein has only proved pro- 
ductive where intersected by other lodes. The 
total length of this adit level is 1,800 ft. Mr. 
Johns has gone past the old Goldscope bunch 
which was so rich, and is going onto the next 
intersection. The Goldscope mine has a ro- 
mantic history. It was worked continuous- 
ly for about 85 years, starting in Queen 
Elizabeth's day, and was closed by the 
civil wars in 1651, most of the miners being 
either killed or drafted into Cromwell's Army. 
The Dutch, who came with the Prince of 
Orange, re-opened the mine in 1690, and re- 
mained until 1715. For 130 years afterwards 
there was no record of what took place. It 
was re-opened by a private company in 1847, 
but it was offered for sale at the end of 18 
months, after ,£"5,000 had been spent, and 
Messrs. Clarke & Co. became the purchasers. 
Under the direction of Mr. Clarke fair success 
was secured. Mr. Clarke discovered a deposit 
of ore which far exceeded his expectations, the 
east lead vein being cut at a point where the 
adit level had been driven forward along the 
copper vein, about 60 fathoms from the old 
shaft. The deposit of ore measured 15 fathoms 
in length, and contained one vein of solid ore, 
3 ft. in thickness, besides three or four smaller 



veins, varying from three to eight inches in 
thickness, and making a total of upwards of 
four feet of solid ore. The amount of profit 
realized in stoping out the ore below the adit 
level was about ,£"25,000, and it is considered 
very probable that the ground above the level 
would return a profit, almost if not quite, equal 
to the amount forthcoming below. The mine 
continued to return large profits for many 
years, but ultimately the shaft became so deep 
that the waterwheel was no longer able to 
pump water, and the mine was abandoned in 
1864. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
[Owing to scarcity of newspublishedin Eng- 
land relating to present conditions in Mexico, 
the following paragraphs from the pen of Mr. 
T. A. Rickard and appearing in the Mining 
and Scientific Press will be welcomed by 
readers. — Editor.] 

Mexican Conditions.— Signs are multi- 
plying that even the long-suffering administra- 
tion at Washington is becoming vexed with the 
GovernmentofCarranza. The policy of watch- 
ful waiting was well-meant and might have suc- 
ceeded if this leader of the so-called Constitu- 
tional party had made the most of the chance 
given to him, by the American Government, 
to establish law and order in Mexico. It is 
announced that "urgent representations" have 
been made to the Mexican Government for the 
punishment of those responsible for themurder 
of John W. Correll, an American citizen, the 
maltreatment of his wife, and the attempted 
murderof theirson.at their ranch near Colonia, 
27 miles north of Tampico. The mention of 
the locality is significant because a few days 
after Correll had been murdered the paymaster 
of the Gulf Refining Company, an American 
enterprise, was held up and robbed of $15,000 
in gold which he was taking from Tampico to 
the oilfield ; and this was done after the local 
authorities had been notified of the route he 
would take and of the need for protection in 
going about his regular business. This was in 
so-called Carranza territory, that is, a region 
dominated by Federal troops, who, however, 
not only failed to give the proper protection to 
legitimate industry but, some of them, in uni- 
form, actually raided a camp of the National 
Oil Company, at Panuco, and robbed the em- 
ployees of their money and valuables. On top 
of these itemsof lawlessness, it is reported that 
the Mexican Government has prevented Ameri- 
can oil-drillers from working on land that had 
been purchased from its Mexican owners in, 
the ordinary way, that is, it was not a Govern- 



102 



THE MIXING MAGAZINE 



merit concession but private property. These 
incidents are in no way remarkable ; more than 
300 Americans have been killed in Mexico 
during the revolutionary period of the last eight 
years, and American properties innumerable 
have been looted or destroyed ; the recent 
happenings have fresh significance only because 
they mark the near approach of a limit to the 
patience with which the American people have 
waited in the friendly hope that the Mexican 
would set his house in order and become a 
respectable neighbour. It is, of course, not a 
little absurd that a Government with a mission 
to assist in the establishment of civilized 
methods in Armeniaand Dalmatia should shirk- 
obligations at its back door. Apparently 
and the wish may be father to the thought — the 
Administration at Washington is ready to turn 
from the consideration of mandatories far 
across the seas to the acceptance of a more 
logical and more pressing mandatory across 
the shallow waters of the Rio Grande. It is 
about time. Every intelligent citizen in this 
country must be tired of the opera bouffe varied 
by blackmail, rapine, and massacre that has 
flourished for nine years in Mexico, into which 
American men and American capital were cor- 
dially invited to come by Porfirio Diaz during 
the more than thirty years of his presidency. 
These alarums and excursions at Columbus, 
Cananea, and Juarez are ceasing to be even 
picturesque. We understand why a brigand 
like Villa and a desperado like Zapata are en- 
abled to continue their depredations year after 
year in mockery alike of the de facto and de 
jure government of Carranza who is ready to 
ally himself with any enemy of the United 
States that makes him an offer of money. 

The fact is that our southern neighbours are 
Indians withaslight admixture of alien, chiefly 
Spanish, stock ; and even that small infusion 
of European blood has become less influential 
during thedisorderly period since Diaz resigned, 
because the larger part of the Spanish popu- 
lation has emigrated to a safer domicile, shirk- 
ing their responsibilities and leaving their hap- 
less country to the more ignorant mestizos and 
the full-blooded indios. Mexico to-day is only 
10% white, and, what is even more significant, 
it is 85% illiterate, in this respect being com- 
parable with Russia, which, like Mexico, is for 
that reason entirely unprepared for any form of 
representativegovernment. Since Humboldt's 
visit, in 1810, the mixed population of Mexico 
hasmorethandoubled. Both Diaz and Huerta 
belonged to this group. Even the undiluted 
Indian has risen to positions of power. We 
are not dealing with a Spanish colony, but with 



a people among whom liberalism works as an 
explosive and to whom the contact with our 
material civilization has been the cause of per- 
sistent political ferment and systematic cor- 
ruption. Mexico is in the kindergarten of 
social evolution. Consider Carranza's at- 
tempts to administer the country with a com- 
bination of crazy idealism and sordid crafti- 
ness. He is not a soldier, he rose to power by 
means of the military ability — at least for the 
sort of fighting that obtains in Mexico — of 
Villa, Obregon, and Angeles, all of whom are 
now opposing him. He holds his remaining 
generals only by permitting them to graft at 
their pleasure. The Federal appropriations 
passed by the Mexican Congress tor 1918 
included 120,755,631 pesos for the Department 
of War and Marine ; this was two-thirds of the 
entire budget and nearly all of it went to the 
army, which nevertheless is unable either to 
drive Villa's band of outlaws into the moun- 
tains or to make a decent showing when he puts 
up a fight periodically. The reason why the 
Federal troops are so ineffective is because the 
money voted for their maintenance is squan- 
dered by the generals in riotous living in the 
City of Mexico and because the officers in the 
field actually sell arms and ammunition tosuch 
bandits as Villa and Zapata. Although the 
latter is dead, others of his kind are numerous. 
The military authorities have to be bribed in 
order to get anything, from the use of a rail- 
road car to the permission to employ labour. 
The names of 37 defaulting army paymasters 
have been published in the newspapers of 
Mexico City. Carranza's revenue largely ex- 
ceeds that collected by Diaz, and he gets it not 
by just taxation but by confiscation, which has 
paralysed industry. Much of the rolling stock 
of the railways has been destroyed during the 
guerilla warfare, and what has survived is so 
out of repair that only two lines, those from 
Laredo and from Vera Cruz to the capital, are 
able to maintain a regular service. The popu- 
lation in the bigger cities, such as the capital, 
Vera Cruz, Guadalajara, and San Luis Potosi, 
has been increased abnormally by thousands 
of utterly destitute people, brought thither 
largely by the fear of living in the country, 
where they are the victims of recurrent brig- 
andage. Agriculture is neglected because it is 
unsafe to remain on the farm, the produce of 
which likewise is at the mercy of bands of ma- 
rauders. Mexico may have a government de 
facto, it has none de jure. It neither possesses 
the power nor shows the inclination to dis- 
charge its obligations either to its own people 
or to those of a neighbouring country. 



AUGUST, 1919 



103 



PERSONAL 



Herbert Ainsworth is here from Johannesburg. 

R. F. Allen is home from Nigeria. 

H. Standish Ball, late Assistant Inspector of 
Mines, G.H.Q., France, has joined the firm of Albert 
Francois, cementation engineers. 

M. W. von Bernewitz is now associated with 
Walter Harvey Weed in the production of "The 
Mines Handbook." 

Francis L. Boscjui has opened an office at 90, West 
Street, New York. 

F. O'D. Bourke is here from Naraguta, Nigeria. 

Vicars W. Boyle, manager of the Bongwelli mine, 
is home from Nigeria, after an absence of four years. 

Arthur J. Caddick, consulting metallurgical engi- 
neer to the Rio Tinto Co., is here from Spain. 

J. Morrow Campbell has received the degree of 
D.Sc. from Glasgow University for his thesis on 
" Laterite " which was published in this Magazine. 

J. E. Clennell is here from the United States. 

Sir Hugh C. Clifford has succeeded Sir F. D. 
Lugard as Governor of Nigeria. 

Henry F. Collins is visiting Spain. 

D. L. Goddard has been appointed manager of the 
Chillagoe smelter, Queensland. 

Brigadier-General F. G. Guggisberg, R.E., 
has been appointed Governor of the Gold Coast. 

Ellwood Hendrick, consulting editor of Chemi- 
cal and Metallurgical Engineering, has gone to 
Venezuela. 

J. A. Hulme, managerof the MountMorgan concen- 
tration plant, has been appointed manager for the 
Kingsgate Molybdenite Co., Glen Innes, New South 
Wales. 

Bertram Hunt is back from Panama. 

James M. Hyde has been appointed professor of 
metallurgy in the Stanford University, San Francisco. 

R. Underwood Jarvis is home from Naraguta, 
Nigeria. 

Dr. W. R. Jones is coming to England from Bur- 
ma by way of China and the United States. 

F. R. Lynch is here from Johannesburg. 

R. L. Naish, manager for the Kamunting Tin 
Dredging Co., is here from the Federated Malay States. 

Lewis A. Parsons, lately with the International 
Nickel Company, has been appointed associate editor 
of the Mining and Scientific Press. 

A. G. Plews has returned from Burma. 

Professor J. W. Richards, of Lehigh University, 
is visiting electro-chemical plants in Norway. 

William Robertson, smelter manager for the 
Broken Hill Associated Smelters, is visiting metal- 
lurgical plants in the United States. 

William Russell has gone to Norway. 

James Scott has gone to Spitsbergen as mining 
geologist to the Scottish Spitsbergen Syndicate, Ltd. 

Lt. R. O. Simon, R.N.V.R., has returned from the 
Archangel front. 

Sydney A. R. Skertculv is expected from Peru. 

C. Lonsdale Smith has been appointed manager 
for the Tungsten Mines Co., Frogmore, New South 
Wales. 

Sir Arthur Steel-Maiti.and has joined the 
board of the Rio Tinto Company. 

W. H. Stronge is leaving for Nigeria. 

H. Leslie Swift has left for Nigeria to take up an 
appointment with the Jantar Company. 

HARRY J. Wolf has resigned the position of pro- 
fessor of mining in the Colorado School of Mines and 
has joined the editorial stall of the Engineering and 
Mining Journal. 



Edward Hall Watson was elected president of 
the North-East Siberian Miners' Federation in Decem- 
ber last, at a mass meeting of the mining fraternity 
held at Bodaibo. This is the first time that a foreigner 
has filled such a position in Siberia. 

Major Gerard W. Williams, R.E., D.S.C.. 
M.C. has been demobilized and is leaving for Nigeria. 



TRADE PARAGRAPHS 

James W. Carr & Co., Ltd., of 35, Queen Victoria 
Street, London, E.C.4., announce that they have been 
appointed sole agents for London and the southern and 
eastern counties for "Velos Vanadium" high-speed 
steel tools made by Walter Spencer & Co., Ltd., Cres- 
cent Steel Works, Sheffield. 

The British Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co., Ltd., of Manchester, send us a num- 
ber of leaflets relating to various accessories for elec- 
tric power plant. These deal with direct-current am- 
meters and voltmeters, oil-immersed motor-control 
units for slip-ring type motors, and consumer's oil- 
switch cubicles. 

Jno. Hy. Andrew & Co., Ltd., of the Toledo Steel 
Works, Sheffield, send us their catalogue of special 
steels and steel manufactures. Their Toledo mining 
drills are known throughout the world, and they pro- 
duce large amounts of steel used in the manufacture of 
mining ropes. Since the firm was made into a private 
limited liability company in 1898, Lord Beresford has 
been chairman continuously. 

The Minerals Concentration Co., of 4, London 
Wall Buildings, London, E.C.2., have issued a pamph- 
let describing the rotary concentrator invented by W. 
W. Richardson. We described the system in our issue 
of October, 1917. It is intended particularly for the 
recovery of tin, and can be applied to the concentra- 
tion of ore, slime, or gravel. A demonstration plant 
is at work in London. 

The Johnson Engineering Works, with offices 
at First National Bank Building, Chicago, are the 
makers of the Marathon mill. As readers are aware 
this is a tube-mill in which a series of parallel steel rods 
are used instead of pebbles or balls. The length of the 
mills depend on the duty required, whether they are to 
be used for coarse or fine grinding, or sliming. The 
company issue a number of pamphlets giving the re- 
sults of tests at copper, lead, and other mines. 

Ruston & Hornsby, Ltd., of Lincoln, Grantham, 
and Stockport, have issued an elaborate and handsome 
album describing and illustrating the wide range of 
war manufactures. As regards peace manufactures, 
among their specialties of use to mining men are steam 
shovels and similar excavators, gas and oil engines, 
suction gas plant, and traction engines. Their suction 
producers are adapted for the combustion of all kinds 
of vegetable refuse and low-grade coal and charcoal. 

Edgar Allen & Co., Ltd., of the Imperial Steel 
Works, Sheffield, have issued a new catalogue dealing 
with plant and machinesof interest to mining engineers. 
Their specialities are the "Stag" jaw-crusher, the" Stag" 
granulator or fine jaw-crusher, high speed rolls, cubing 
rolls for producing lumps 4 in. cube, coal -breaking rolls, 
coke-breaking rolls, the " Stag " ball nulls, the " Stag " 
tube-mills, the "Stag" pulverizing cylinders, air sep- 
arators used for classifying ground material in an up- 
ward current of air, trommels or revolving screens, 
spiral conveyors, belt-conveyors, shaking convevors. 
revolving driers, etc. The catalogue contains full de- 
tails of dimensions, power required, and materials of 
construction, and notes of the applications of the vari- 
ous machines. 



104 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Daily London Metal Pricks : Official Closing Prices on 

Copper, Lead. Zinc, and Tin per Long Tons: Silver 





Silver 




















C 


OPPER 






















Lead 
































































Standard Cash 




Standard (3 mos.) 






Electrolytic 






Best Selected 






Soft Foreign 


July 


d. 


£ 


£. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d 


£ 


s 


d. £ 


s. 


(1 


£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


d 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. d 


11 


53i 


94 


15 


to 


95 


10 





95 


15 


to 96 








99 








to 


104 








99 





to 1C0 








:.; 


15 


to 24 


7 6 


14 


53g 


97 


Ki 


to 


97 


15 





98 


7 


6 to 98 


10 





100 








IO 


107 








99 





to 100 








23 


15 


to 24 


7 6 


15 


531 


100 


15 


to 


101 








101 


10 


to 101 


15 


o 


103 








to 


111 








103 





to 104 








23 


12 


6 to 24 


7 6 


16 


54i 


105 





to 


105 


10 





105 


10 


to 106 








106 








to 


115 








103 





to 104 








23 


17 


6 to 24 


10 


17 


54i 


102 


10 


to 


103 








103 


10 


to 104 








109 








to 


117 








103 





to 104 








2.5 


17 


6 to 24 


10 


18 


54j 


102 


15 


to 


103 








103 


10 


to 103 


15 





109 








to 


118 








109 





to 110 








23 


15 


to 24 


10 


21 


54| 


104 


15 


to 


105 


11 





105 


10 


to 105 


15 





109 








to 


118 








109 





to 110 








•i 


15 


to 24 


10 


22 


54| 


104 


15 


to 


105 








105 


10 


to 105 


15 





109 








to 


118 








109 





to 110 








::■■, 


10 


to 24 





25 


54f 8 
54? 


103 


15 


to 


104 








104 


o 


to 104 


10 





110 


c 





to 


120 








109 





o to no 








25 


10 


to 24 


5 


24 


106 





to 


106 


10 





106 


10 


to 107 








110 








to 


123 








109 





o to no 








23 


12 


6 to 24 


5 


25 


55 r l a 


106 





to 


106 


5 





106 


5 


to 106 


10 





no 








to 


123 








110 





to 111 





I' 


23 


15 


to 24 


7 6 


28 


55J 

55J 


1C7 


5 


to 


107 


10 





107 


10 


to 107 


15 





110 








tc, 


125 








110 





to 111 








24 





to 24 


12 6 


29 


107 





to 


107 


5 





107 


5 


to 107 


10 





110 








to 


125 








no 





to 111 








24 





to 24 


12 6 


30 


56i 5 „ 


104 


10 


to 


104 


15 





105 





to 105 


5 





110 








to 


125 








110 





Oto 111 








:i 





to 24 


12 6 


31 

Aug. 

1 


55ft 


102 





to 


102 


5 





102 


10 


to 102 


15 





110 








to 


125 








no 


u 


o to in 








21 





to 24 


15 


553 


100 


15 


to 


101 





o 


101 


10 


to 101 


1 = 





110 








tu 


125 








no 





Oto 111 








24 


5 


to 25 





5 


564 


99 


5 


to 


100 


10 


o 


100 


5 


to 100 


10 





110 








to 


125 


o 





no 





Oto 111 








25 


5 


to 25 


15 


6 


. 57 


96 





to 


96 


5 





97 





to 97 


5 





108 








to 


123 





o 


no 





Oto 111 





o 


24 


15 


to 25 


10 


7 


571 


95 





to 


95 


5 





96 





to 96 


5 





106 








to 


121 








no 





Oto 111 








24 


2 


6 to 24 


17 6 


8 


58 


90 


10 


to 


90 


15 





91 


10 


to 91 


15 





105 








to 


118 








106 





to 107 





o 


: ' 


2 


6 to 24 


17 6 



METAL MARKETS 

Copper. — During the month of July the market 
witnessed a furthersensational advance in values of this 
metal. The source of the strength is, as before, the 
United States, where the large producers have consis- 
tently advanced their prices, and as they are working 
in harmony, at least so far as their shipping business 
is concerned, through the Copper Export Association, 
they can pretty well ask any price they like, and buyers 
must either pay up or go without. Of course, there 
are still large stocks of copper in this country, and it 
might be supposed that these would enable buyers on 
this side to be more or less independent of America. 
Unfortunately the stock of wire bars here appears to 
be negligible, if indeed there is any at all, and as this 
is the particular shape most in demand, American 
sellers have reaped the benefit. For some little time 
competition was seen in this market from Australian 
metal, which sold at rather less than American prices, 
and no doubt sellers of this took all the business that 
was going at the time. This selling, however, appears 
to have ceased for the present, no doubt owing to diffi- 
culties concerning shipment from Australia. The 
strong tone of copper in America, coupled with the 
low rates of exchange ruling between the two countries, 
considerably enhanced the value of refined metal on 
this side, and large buying of standard copper has been 
seen on the Metal Exchange, where a considerable 
amount of speculation appears to have been indulged 
in. This has made the position somewhat dangerous, 
and if anything untoward happened to the market in 
America, prices here of standard copper might react 
very sharply. Since the beginning of August weak- 
ness has set in in America and the quotations have 
receded again. Generally speaking the position is not 
regarded any too favourably on this side, as the high 
prices oi the metal have retarded legitimate demand, 
and the level to which prices have been put are hardly 
considered justified in thecircumstances. The Govern- 
ment stock on July 1 in this country was 44,298 tons, 
or 3,694 tons less than a month earlier. 

The average price of cash standard copper in July, 
1919, was £99. 14s. 5d. ; June, 1919, £83. 0s. 6d. ; 
Julv, 1918, £120. 3s. 3d. ; June, 1918, £110. 5s. 
Tin. — Business in this article with home consumers 



has not been any too good during the past month, first 
of all owing to the general quiet condition which was 
prevailing in the tinplate trade in South Wales, and 
secondly owing to the industrial crisis precipitated by 
the rise in coal costs, which has left users in some 
doubt as to the future, and created an atmosphere of 
caution. The outlook in regard to tinplates seems 
now more favourable, and therefore it is to be expected 
that an improvement will result in business in the raw 
material. In spite of these factors, trading in the stan- 
dard tin market has been very active, the re-opening 
of business in the metal with the United States owing 
to the raising of the import embargo having stimulated 
considerable interest in the article, and at the same time 
given rise to a certain amount of speculative buying in 
anticipation of the better times coming. Quite a large 
business has already been done on this side for ship- 
ment to America, and only recently about 800 tons of 
tin are reported to have been shipped from here for 
that destination. The United States is also believed 
to have bought considerably in the East for direct 
shipment. At all events, a large business has been 
moving in the Straits Settlements, and it is believed 
that the stocks there must have been very consider- 
ably reduced. It is also suggested that some of the 
selling which has taken place in the standard market 
in London has been for account of the Federated Malay- 
States Government. Another factor which may in- 
fluence the future of the market is the re-opening of 
trading relations with Germany-, but the extent 
of this business in view of financial considerations is 
difficult to forecast. There are as yet no signs of the 
holders of tin in China liquidating their stocks, and at 
present definite figures as to the extent of these are not 
available. 

The average price of cash standard tin in July, 1919, 
was £253. 5s. Id. ; June. 1919. £238. 8s. 2d. ; July. 
1918, £359. 17s. 9d ; and June, 1918. £331. 10s. 

Lead. — The general sentiment in regard to this 
metal has rather improved during the past month, and 
values have advanced to about the extent of 30s. per 
ton, in spite of the fact that the stocks in this country 
still continue enormous, and that consumption of the 
metal is not on a particularly large scale. The stocks 
here, however, being in the hands of the Government, 
are not by any means pressed for sale, and American 



AUGUST, 1919 



105 



the London Metal Exchange. 

per Standard Ounce. 

















Standard Tin 












Zinc 
Spelter) 


























( 






Cash 


3 mos. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


41 


10 


to 42 


5 





246 





to 246 


10 





245 


10 


Oto 246 








41 


IS 


to 42 


15 





245 


10 


to 246 








J45 


10 


Oto 245 


15 





■VI 


10 


to 43 


15 





250 





to 250 


5 





249 


10 


to 249 


15 





♦3 


15 


to 44 


15 





254 


10 


to 254 


15 





254 


5 


Oto 254 


10 





43 


10 


to 44 


10 





251 





to 251 


10 





250 


10 


Oto 251 








43 


10 


to 44 


5 





254 


5 


to 254 


10 





253 


15 


Oto 254 








43 


15 


to 44 


15 





256 





to 256 


5 





255 


15 


Oto 256 








♦3 


10 


to 44 








256 





to 256 


5 





^55 


10 


Oto 255 


15 





•13 


5 


to 43 


15 





255 


10 


to 255 


15 





:54 


5 


to 254 


15 





43 


5 


to 43 


15 





256 


5 


to 256 


15 





255 


10 


Oto 255 


15 





13 


5 


0to43 


15 





259 


15 


to 260 


5 





2M 


10 


to 258 


15 





42 


15 


to 43 


15 





268 





to 268 


10 





266 





Oto 266 


10 





42 


10 


to 43 


10 





269 


15 


to 270 


5 





267 


5 


Oto 267 


15 





41 


10 


0to42 


10 





268 





to 268 


5 





266 





to 266 


5 





41 





0to41 


5 





271 





to 271 


10 





267 





to 267 


10 





41 


5 


to 41 


15 





275 





to 275 


10 





269 





to 269 


10 





40 


10 


to 41 


10 





276 





to 277 





o 


268 





to 268 


10 





39 


15 


to 40 


15 





276 





to 276 


10 





263 





to 263 


10 





38 


10 


Oto 39 








275 





to 276 








259 


15 


Oto 260 








38 


10 


0to39 








260 





to 260 


10 





256 





Oto 256 


10 






competition has been absent, there being apparently a 
sufficiency of demand in the United States to take care 
of the production there. In addition, exchange rates 
militate against competitive offers from that country to 
this side. As regards Australian metal, it is understood 
that the production there ceases for the present at the 
end of July. In addition to these factors, it is reported 
that some selling arrangement has been, or is about to 
be entered into, for the purpose of eliminating com- 
petition, this resulting in Spanish lead being only of- 
fered to the Continent, and Australian lead to this 
country. Besides this, the market level seemed to 
have got down to below cost of production. The gen- 
eral result has been that a more confident feeling has 
been exhibited as to the future, and a considerable 
business has been done on the Metal Exchange, where 
all metal coming on offer was easily absorbed, and 
values gradually improved. The Government stocks 
of soft pig lead in this country on July 1 were 121,135 
tons, or an increase of 1,228 tons since June 1. 

The average prices of soft pig lead : July, 1919, £23. 
14s 2d. ; June. 1919, £22. 12s. 2d. ; July, 1918, £29 ; 
June, 1918, £29. 

Spelter. —This metal has also seen fair markets 
during the past month, the strength of the position 
having its source, like that of copper, in America, 
where values have fairly steadily improved. The gen- 
eral conditions which have caused the advance in 
America have been the reluctance of producers to offer 
freely, being for the most part fairly well booked up, 
a good export and improving 'domestic demand there, 
the strong position of the ore market, and lastly the 
optimistic sentiment in regard to metal business in gen- 
eral and particularly as regards copper. Added to the 
rising prices in America a declining rate of exchange 
had to be considered, and prices here responded. A 
very considerable interest has been taken in the metal 
in the market on 'Change, and quite large quantities 
have changed hands. To a certain extent the business 
was speculative, but, apart from that, consumers 
bought fairly freely, and it is believed that the Govern- 
ment have been able to sell not unimportant quantities. 
Latterly the rising prices, coupled with the unsatis- 
factory industrial situation, have caused the demand 
from users to ease off, anil puces reacted downward to 
a small extent, being assisted in this by the rather 



easier tone in the American market. Taking a longer 
view, however, of the situation, it is generally regard- 
ed as favourable. The Government stocks of GOB. 
spelter on July 1 were 26,059 tons, or 632 tons less 
than a month earlier. The stocks of refined spelter 
were 13,356 tons or 1,619 tons more than on June 1. 

Average prices of spelter: July, 1919, £42. 3s. lOd ; 
June, 1919, £36. 19s. 6d. ; July, 1918, £52. 

Zinc Dust.— Australian high-grade 88-92% purity 
is quoted at £70 per ton f.o.r. 

Antimony. — The price of English regulus has now 
been reduced by £5 to £40 per ton. Two prominent 
firms in this trade have been appointed agents for the 
sale of the unsold Government stocks. These stocks 
on July 1 amounted to 4,368 tons, or 132 tons less than a 
month previously. Foreign regulus on spot seems to 
have been fairly scarce, and is held for about the same 
price as English. Owing to an improvement in the 
market in France, there seems little prospect of fur- 
ther imports from there in the meantime. 

Arsenic. — The market has been very firm and the 
price of white stands at about £50 to £54 per ton. 

Bismuth. — 12s. 6d. nominal per lb. 

Cadmium. — 6s. 6d. to 6s. 9d. per lb. 

Aluminium. — £150 per ton for the home trade. 

Nickel has been advanced for the home trade, to 
£205 per ton, while for export the price is unchanged 
at £210. 

Cobalt Metal. — 12s. 6d. to 13s. per lb. 

Cobalt Oxide. — 7s. 9d. per lb. 

Platinum. — 450s. nominal per oz. 

Palladium. — 500s. nominal per oz. 

Quicksilver. — The market has been firm, and prices 
have advanced to £23 to £24. 

Selenium. — 12s. to 15s. per lb. 

Tellurium. — 95s. to 100s. per lb. 

Sulphate of Copper is quiet and stands at about 
£43 to £45 per ton. 

Manganese Ore. — The market is quiet, without 
much change in quotations, which are about 2s. 2d. 
to 2s. 3d. c.i.f. per unit. 

Tungsten Ores. — Wolframite 65% 30s. per unit, 
scheelite 65% 30s. per unit. 

Molybdenite. - 85% 75s. per unit. 

Silver. — The market has fluctuated in an upward 
direction in this country, and at the end of July the 
price of spot standard bars was 55f%d. Prices have 
continued to advance. 

Corundum. — 90% remains nominal. 

Graphite. — 80% about £40 to £45 per ton nomi- 
nal c.i.f. U.K. 

Iron and Steel. — These markets have latterly 
been in a state of suspended animation owing to the 
rise of 6s. in the price of coal which has necessitated a 
reconsideration of costs, and at the[time of writing future 
prices of steel are rather uncertain, although in the 
case of sheets, 30s. is hinted at as a possible advance. 
The feature has been the very large demand for steel 
plates, which appear to be now exceedingly ditlictilt to 
procure. In other lines, however, the stringency is 
not quite so great. A good deal has been heard of 
American competition, and there is no doubt that this 
is a very serious factor, especially in view of the gen- 
erally rising prices here. Of course, deliveries from 
America are not too quick, owing to the freight situa- 
tion, so that purchases from that country are not quite 
so attractive as the prices quoted might suggest. In 
regard to pig iron, it appears that prices are not likelv 
to be advanced further, even in i.ice of the rise in coal, 
in view of the fact thai during the period of great de- 
mand recently prices steadilv went up, so that this rise 
in costs was virtually discounted beforehand. 



106 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



STATISTICS. 

Production of Gold in the Transvaal. 



Rand 



January, 1918 
February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November • •• 
December ... 



Oz. 
G94.121 
637.571 
677.008 
697,733 
720,539 
708.908 
716.010 
719.849 
686.963 
667.955 
640.797 
630.505 



Year 1918. 



3.197.959 



January, 1919 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



662,205 
621,188 
694.825 
676,702 
706,158 
682,603 



Else- 
where 



Total 



Oz. 

19,991 
22,188 
19,273 
19,366 
20.778 
18,788 
20.189 
20.361 
21.243 
11.809 
17.904 
10,740 



221.734 



13.854 

15.540 
17,554 
18,242 
18.837 
19.776 



Oz. 

714.182 
659.759 
696,28' 
717,095 
741,317 
727.696 
736.199 
740.210 
708.206 
679.764 
656.701 
641.245 



8.419.693 



676.059 
636.728 
712.379 
694,944 
724,955 
702,379 



Value 

£ 
3.033,653 
2.802.477 
2,957,614 
3.046.045 
3.148.915 
3.091.058 
3,127.174 
3,144,211 
3.008.267 
2.887.455 
2,797.983 
2.723.836 



35.768.688 

2.871.718 
2,704.647 

3.025.992 
2,951,936 
3,079,583 
2.983.515 



Natives Employed in the Transvaal Mines. 
Gold Coal I Diamond 

mines mines mines 



April 30. 1918 182.492 

May 31 179,879 

June 30 179.028 

July 31 178.412 

August 31 179,390 

September 30 179.399 

October 31 173.153 

November 30 160.275 

December 31 152.606 

January 31. 1919 160.599 

February 28 172.359 

March 31 175.620 

April 30 175.267 

May 31 173.376 

June 30 ' 172.505 



11.322 


4.753 


11.211 


4.773 


11,473 


4.747 


11,790 


5.011 


11.950 


4.954 


12,108 


4.889 


11.824 


4.749 


11.826 


4,016 


11.851 


3. ISO 



11,848 
11,868 
11,168 
11,906 
12.232 
12.544 



Total 



198.567 
195,863 
195,248 
19§,213 
196.294 
196,395 
189.726 
176.117 
167.637 



3.539 
4.264 
5.080 
5.742 
5.939 
5.831 



175,986 
188.491 
191,868 
192,915 
191.547 
190.880 





Tons 
milled 


Yield 
per ton 


Work's 

cost 
per ton 


VVork'g Total 

profit working 
per ton profit 


July, 1918 


2.167.869 
2.158.431 
2,060.635 
2.015.144 
1,899.925 
1.855.991 


s. d 

27 10 

28 1 
28 2 
28 
28 5 
28 7 


s. d. 
21 2 

21 7 

22 

22 5 

23 1 
23 


s. d. £ 
6 6 702.360 
6 3 676.146 
5 10 600.330 
5 3 531.774 
5 1 480,102 
5 6 507,860 


September 


December 


Year 1918 24.922,763 


27 11 


21 7 


6 1 7.678.129 


January, 1919-. 1,942.329 

March 2.082.469 

April 1,993,652 

May 2.099.450 


28 9 
28 9 
28 2 
28 7 
\ 28 4 


23 
23 2 
22 6 
22 9 
22 3 


5 8 ! 547,793 
5 6 498.204 
5 6 573.582 
5 9 573.143 
5 10 60S. 715 



Transvaal Gold Outputs. 



Cost and Profit on the Rand. 
Compiled from official statistics published by the Transvaal 
Chamber of Mines. The profit available for dividends is about 
60% of the working profit. 



Production of Gold in Rhodesia and West Africa 





Rhodesia. 


West Africa. 




1918 


1919 


1918 


1919 


February 


£ 
253,807 
232.023 
230,023 
239,916 
239.205 
225,447 
251.740 
-'57,096 
247,885 
136.780 
145,460 
192.870 


£ 
211,917 107,863 
220,885 1 112,865 
225.80S 112,605 
213,160 117.520 
218.057 126.290 
214,215 1 120.273 
117,581 


£ 

104.063 
112.616 
112,543 
109.570 
100.827 
106.612 




Mav 


T 


July 






September ... 




115.152 
61.461 
108.796 
112.621 




November •■■ 
December ... 




Total 


2,652,250 


1.30*,042 


1.333.553 


646.231 



June, 1919 



Treated 



Aurora West 

Bantjes 

Barrett 

Brakpan 

City & Suburban 

City Deep 

Cons. Langlaagte 

Cons. Main Reef 

Crown Mines 

Durban Roodepoort Deep • 

Kast Kami P.M. 

Ferreira Deep 

Geduld 

Geldenhuis Deep 

Ginsberg 

Glynn's Lydenburg 

Goch 

Government G.M. Areas • 

Heriot 

Jupiter 

Kleinfontein 

Knights Central 

Knights Deep 

Langlaagte Estate 

I.uipaard's Vlei 

Meyer & Charlton 

Modderfontein 

Modderfontein B 

Modderfontein Deep 

New I'nitied 

Nourse 

Primrose 

1'rmcess Estate 

Kandfontein Central 

Robinson ■■■ 

Robinson Drep ... 
Koodepo'Tt United 
Rose Deep 
Simmer & Jack .. 

Simmer Deep 

Springs 

Sub Nigel 

Transvaal G.M. h'states •• 

Van Ryn 

Van Ryn Deep ... 

Village Deep 

Village Main Reef 
West Rand Consolidated 
Witwatersrand i Knights) 

Witwalersrand Deep 

Wolhuter 



Tons 
12.500 



45.500 
18.226 
48.000 
43.200 
47.000 

168.000 
18.400 

111.000 
33.000 
43.800 
47.200 
7.900 
3.830 
14.740 

118.500 
11.380 
22.300 
53.860 
21.700 
95.000 
40.900 
21.740 
14,030 
79.000 
54.500 
41.500 
11.600 
40.600 
19.500 
19.600 

150.000 
35.400 
50.000 
23.100 
50.600 
57,400 
43.600 
33.500 
10.400 
15.590 
35,250 
46.700 
39.900 
17,400 
31.620 
33.900 
29.900 
30.700 



Value 



£ 

12.933 

745 
88.210 

27.626 
94,347 
54,282 
72,050 

231,821 
28,669 

145.323 
50.629 
64.979 
57.228 
9.267 
6.348 
13.300 

204.595 
15.868 
23.873 
65.889 
26.382 
74,471 
49,296 

40.103 

172,398 

120.071 

93.475 

11.618 

53.048 

18.066 

25.604 

171.119 

35.687 

66.786 

21,884 

59.357 

45,214 
62,812 
25.797 
25.800 
34.336 
39 968 
61.193 
22.162 
36.933 
40.842 
35,916 
38,886 



\1 -mi AN < '.111. Ii til TPUTS. 



June. 1919 



I le.lt. .1 



Abbontiakoon 

Abosso 

Ashanti Goldfields 

Prestea Block A 

Taquah 

Wassau 



Tons 
7.267 
6.980 
7.752 

14,726 
4.980 
2.490 



Value 



£ 

16,203 
12.290 
36.525 
24.930 
13.796 
2,496 



Rhodesian Gold Outputs. 



Antelope 

Cam & Motor 

Eldorado Banket 

Falcon 

Gaika 

Globe & Phoenix. 

Lonely Reef 

Rezende 

Rhodesia, Ltd. • 

Shamva 

Transvaal & Rhodesian 
Wanderer 



June 


1919 


Treated 
Tons 


Value 


£ 


3,225 


4.335 


2.009 


4.233 


15,203 


27.539* 


3,052 


5.294 


6.040 


8.31H 


4,520 


23.992 


5.500 


12.641: 


350 


1.028 


53.013 


36.174 


1.750 


5.000 



* Gold. Silver and, Copper ; t Ounces Gold; J Gold & Silver. 



AUGUST, 1919 



107 



West Australian Gold Statistics. 



January, 1918 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November ••■ 
December ... 
January, 1919 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June ... 

July 



Reported 


Delivered 






for Export 


to Mint 


Total 


Total 


oz. 


oz. 


oz. 


value £ 


* 


73,703 


* 


* 


* 


76,987 


* 


* 


* 


69.730 


* 






66,079 


* 


* 




73.701 


* 


* 




74,904 


* 


* 


* 


72.081 


* 


* 


* 


76,156 


* 


* 


* 


74,057 


* 


* 


* 


71,439 


* 


* 


1,444 


70,711 


72,155 


305.494 


2.739 


61.314 


64,053 


272.208 




69.954 


* 


* 


733 


66,310 


67,043 


284,779 


nil 


66,158 


66.158 


281.120 


33 


63.465 


63,498 


269,720 


525 


68,655 


69,180 


293.856 


1,050 


73,546 


74,596 


316,862 


680 


68,028 


68,708 


292,852 



* By direction of the Federal Government the export figures 
from July. 1916, to November, 1918, were not published. 

Australian Gold Returns. 





Victoria. 


Queensland. 


New South 
Wales 




1918 


1919 


1918 


1919 


1918 


1919 


January ... 
February . 

March 

April 


£ 
32,134 
58,113 
65,412 
29.620 
87,885 
45,765 
64,347 
61,163 
65,751 

70,674 


£ 
36,238 
46,955 
40,267 
23,818 


£ 

47.600 
45.470 
48.020 
47.600 
46,740 
51,420 
51,000 
44,600 
45,900 
54,400 
38,200 
56,281 


£ 

37.100 
43,330 
48.000 
61,200 
38,200 
44,600 


£ 
25,000 
28,000 
30.000 
30,000 
45,000 
32.000 
25.000 
21,000 
32.000 
40,000 
25,000 
38,000 


£ 
18,000 
24,000 
16,000 
24,000 
16.000 
17,000 




July 

August ... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 


Total ... 


674.655 


147,279 


578.213 


272,430 


370,000 


115,000 



* Figures not received. 
Australasian Gold Outputs. 



Associated 

Associated Northern j Iron Duke 

Blocks 1 Victorious 

Black water 

Bullfinch 

Golden Horseshoe 

Great Boulder Prop 

Ivanhoe 

Kalgurli 

Lake View & Star 

Mount Boppy 

Oroya Links 

Progress 

Sons of Gwalia 

South Kalgurli 

Talisman 

Waihi 

Waihi Grand Junction 



June, 1919 



Treated 



Tons 

5,768 

2,138 
1,901 
5,400 
12,012 
12.854 
17,636 
2.976 
10.231 

1,524 
1,460 
9,629 
7,274 

16.037 
11,910 



Value 



£ 

8,191 

1,866* 

3,040 

3,903 

4,826 

22,401 

37,291 

30,210 

5,706 

12,223 

10.388J 

1,681 
13,873 
11.372 

26.259! 
17,620? 



* Surplus ; I Total receipts ; J Gold and Silver to July 12. 

§48 days to July 12. 

Miscellaneous Gold Output. 





June, 1919 




Treated 


Value 


Barramia (Sudan) 


Tons 

2,807 
7,000 

10,300 


£ 




10,162 






10,009 




Philippine Dredges (Philippine Islands) 

Plymouth Cons. (California) 

St. John del Rey (Brazil) 


328§ 
13,114 






Sudan Gold Field (Sudan) 


1,620 


1,840 



Production of Gold in India. 





1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 




£ 

192.150 
183.264 
186.475 
192,208 
193.604 
192.469 
191.404 
192.784 
192,330 
191,502 
192,298 
205,164 


£ 

190.047 
180,904 
189,618 
185.835 
184,874 
182.426 
179,660 
181,005 
183.630 
182,924 
182,388 
190.852 


£ 

176.030 
173,343 


£ 
162,270 
153,775 






176,486 162.550 

173.775 164.080 

174,375 162.996 

171.950 163.795 

172.105 

170.360 

167.740 

157.176 

170,630 — 


Mav 




J u ly 




September ... 


November ... 
December ... 


Total 


2.305,652 


2,214.163 


2.061.920 : 1,034.256 



Indian Gold Outputs. 



Balaghat 

Champion Reef ••• 
Hutti (Nizam's) ... 

Jibutil 

Mysore 

North Anantapur 

Nundydroog 

Ooregum 



June, 1919 



Tons 
Treated 



2,550 
11.430 



24.330 
900 

8.750 
12.800 



Fine 
Ounces 



2.151 

6.974 

900 

13.625 

918 

6.463 

7,328 



Base Metal Outputs 



British Broken Hill .. 



Broken Hill Block 10 



Arizona Copper Short tons copper 

Tons lead concentrate 

Tons zinc concentrate 

Tons carbonate ore 

I Tons lead concentrate-. 

I Tons zinc concentrate 

I Tons refined lead 

J Oz. refined silver 



Burma Corp 

Cordoba Copper 

Freemantle Trading.. .Long tons lead 

North Broken Hill ... ! Tons lead 

I Oz. silver 

Poderosa Tons copper ore 

Rhodesian Broken Hill... Tons lead and zinc 

Tanganyika Long tons copper 

Tolima Tons silver-lead concentrate 

Zinc Corp. I Tons zinc concentrate 

) Ions lead concentrate 



June, 
1919 



1.200 



1.531 
178.647 



153 

1.346 

2.035 

45 



Imports of Ores and Metals into United Kingdom. 
Long tons. 



Iron Ore 

Copper Ore 

Precipitate 

Metal 

Copper and Iron Pyrite 

Tin Concentrate 

., Metal 

Manganese Ore 

Lead, Pig and Sheet 

Zinc (spelter) 

Zinc Oxide 

Barytes 

Rock Phosphate 

Brimstone 

Boracic Compounds 

Nitrate of Potash- 



July 



§ Ounces, fineness not stated I I Profit, gold and silver. 



Quicksilver.. 



Tons 

632,618 

1.108 

1,062 

5.571 

41,966 

1.741 

2.129 

12.679 

13,480 

6.831 

1.737 

2,757 

13.100 

50 

1,515 

743- 

lb. 



-,Sl..'s- 



Year 
1919 

Tons 
3.188.502 

9.868 
6.957 

74.432 
177,971 

22.515 

207.280 

165.738 
61.736 

12.828 

5.211 
7.297 
6.090 

lb. 



1.695,087 



108 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



United States Metal Exports and Imports. 



Exports. 



Copper Ingots 
Copper Sheets 
Copper Wire.. 
Lead, Pig--. 

Zinc 

Zinc Sheets 



April 
Tons. 
7,96 
580 
1,478 
2,375 
16,075 
962 



May 

Tons. 

8,342 

382 

1,768 

1,017 

5,023 

596 



Imports. 



Antimony 

Tin Ore 

Tin 

Manganese 

Ore 

Tungsten 

Concentrate 
Pyrites 



April 
Tons. 

433 
534 
225 



May 
Tons. 

261 
2 

200 



59.470 19.644 



314 285 

25,294 33,262 



Outputs of Tin Mining Companies. 
In Tons of Concentrate. 



Nigeria : 

Abu. 

Anglo-Continental 

Benue 

Berrida 

Bisicbi... 

Bongwelli 

Dua 

Ex-Lands 

Filani 

Forum River 

Gold Coast Consolidated 

Guru m River 

Jantar 

Jos 

Kaduna 

Kano 

Kassa-Ropp 

Keffi 

Kuru 

Kuskie 

Kwall 

Lower Bisichi 

Lucky Chance 

Minna 

Mongu 

Naraguta 

Naraguta Extended 

New Lafon 

Nigerian Tin 

Ninghi 

N.N. Bauchi 

Offin River 

Ray field 

Ropp 

Rukuba 

South Bukeru 

Sybu 

Tin Areas 

Tin Fields 

Toro 

Federated Malay States : 

Chenderiang 

Gopeng 

Idris Hydraulic 

Ipoh 

Kamunting 

Kinta 

Kledarig 

Lahat 

Malayan Tin 

Pahang 

Rambutan 

Sungei Besi 

Tekka 

Tekka-Taiping 

Tronoh 

Tronoh South 

Cornwall : 

Cornwall Tailings 

Dolcoath 

East Pool 

Geevor 

South Crofty 

Other Countries : 

Aramayo Francke (Bolivia) 

Briseis (Tasmania) 

Deebook (Siam) 

Mawchi (Burma) 

Porco (Bolivia) 

Renong (SiaVn) 

Rooiberg Minerals (Transvaal) 

Siamese Tin (Siam) 

Tongkah Harbour (Siam) 

Xaaiplaats (Transvaal) ... 




Nigerian Tin Production. 
In long tons of concentrate of unspecified content. 
Note These figures are taken from the monthly returns 
made by individual companies reporting in London, and 
probably represent 85% of the actual outputs. 





1914 


1915 1916 


1917 1 1918 I 1919 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 

June 

July 


Tons 
485 
469 
502 
482 
480 
460 
432 
228 
289 
272 
283 
326 


Tons Tons 

417 531 
358 528 

418 547 
444 486 
357 536 
373 510 
455 506 
438 498 
442 535 
511 584 
467 679 
533 654 


Tons Tons Tons 
667 678 613 
646 668 623 
655 707 606 
555 584 d46 
509 525 445 
473 492 423 
479 545 1 — 
551 571 


September 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


538 520 
578 491 
621 . 472 
655 ! 518 




Total ■- 


4,708 


5.213 6.594 


6927 6.771 





Total Sales of Tin Concentrate at Redruth Ticketings. 



July 1 

July 15 

July 29 

August 12 

August 26 

September 9 

September 24 

October 7... 

October 21 

November 4 

November 18 

December 2 

December 16 

December 30 

Total and Average. 
1918 

January 13. 1' 

January 27 

February 10 

February J4 

March 10 

March 24 

April7 

April 22 

May 5 

May 1<> 

June -2 

June 16... 

June 30 

July 14 

July 28 



Long tons 



1704 

164 

146i 

144 

142 

1424 

1453 

1364 

150 

1411 

150 

166? 

1754 

152 



Value 



Average 



£34,035 
£34.595 
£33.816 
£33.116 
£31.211 
£28.793 
£29.639 
£27.037 
£29.672 
£27.636 
£27.592 
£25.170 
£26.032 
£ 19.539 




4.094 



£786.541 



£192 



160 
1354 
153 
142 

1484 

1344 

134J 

129 

1264 

140 

139 

136 

145 

122 



£ 130 11 
£125 10 7 
£113 19 10 
£105 14 10 
£125 8 5 
£l20 7 8 
£111 8 
£lll 18 
£115 13 
£125 5 
£122 15 
£123 15 
£123 8 
£l25 17 



:i38 16 H 



Details of Redruth Tin Ticketings. 



July 14 



E. Pool & Agar, No. 1 9 

., No. la 9 

., No. lb 9 

,. No. lc 10 

Dolcoath, No. 1 9 

No. la 9 

No lb 9 

No. 2 24 

A 14 

South Crofty. No. 1 11 

No. la 12 

Grenville Utd.. No. 1 8 

„ No. la 7 

., No. 2 3 

Tincroft Mines, No. 1 6 

„ No. la 6 

Levant Mines. No. 1 8 

No. la 7 

Wheal Bellan if 

Hingston Downs 4j 

Peevor 3 

Total 145 




£ s. 
126 17 

126 17 

127 5 

127 5 

135 7 

136 5 
136 12 

64 2 
122 12 

128 7 
128 5 
125 
125 10 

46 

133 12 

134 2 

132 12 

133 15 
136 
136 

45 



July 28 



Tons 
Sold 



9 
34 

14 
11 
11 

7 
7 

5 

6 



Realized 
per ton 

£ s. d. 

139 10 

137 10 

137 



144 

145 10 
145 10 

77 15 
130 
138 
138 10 
134 10 
130 10 



148 15 

149 5 

144 5 

145 5 



AUGUST, 1919 



109 



Production of Tin in Federated Malay States. 

Estimated at 70% of Concentrate shipped to Smelters. Long 
Tons. * Figures not published. 



January ••• 
February •-. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December . 



v 1915 


1916 
Tons 


1917 


1918 
Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


4.395 


4,316 


3.558 


3.149 


3.780 


3.372 


2.755 


3.191 


3.653 


3.696 


3.286 


2,608 


3.619 


3.177 


3.251 


3.308 


3,823 


3.729 


3,413 


3.332 


4,048 


3,435 


3.489 


2,950 


3,544 


3.517 


3,253 


3,373 


4,046 


3.732 


3.413 


3,259 


3,932 


3.636 


3,154 


3,166 


3.797 


3,681 


3,436 


2,870 


4,059 


3,635 


3.300 


3.131 


4.071 


3,945 


3.525 


3.023 


46.767 


43,871 


39.833 


37.370 



1919 

Tons 

3.765 
2,673 
2.819 
2.855 
3.404 
2,873 
3.756 



Stocks of Tin 
Reported by A. Strauss & Co. 



Long Tons. 



Straits and Australian Spot 

Ditto. Landing and in Transit 

Other Standard, Spot and Landing 

Straits, Afloat 

Australian, Afloat 

Banca, on Warrants 

Ditto, Afloat 

Billiton, Spot 

Billiton. Afloat 

Straits, Spot in Holland and Hamburg 

Ditto, Afloat to Continent 

Total Afloat for United States 

Stock in America 

Total 



June 3i>, 
1919 



July 31, 
1919 



Tons 


Tons 


1,816 


1.972 


971 


768 


793 


544 


1.824 


1.961 


332 


252 



265 
25 
182 



6.208 



435 

6.280 
50 



Shipments, Imports, Supply, and Consumption of Tin. 
Reported by A. Strauss & Co. Long tons. 



Shipments from : 

Straits to U.K 

Straits to America 

Straits to Continent 

Straits to Other Places 

Australia to U.K 

U.K. to America 

Imports of Bolivian Tin into Europe-- 

Supply: 

Straits 

Australian 

Billiton 

Banca 

Standard 

Consumption : 

U K, Deliveries 

Dutch „ 

American 

Straits, Banca & Billiton. Continen 
tal Ports, etc. 



Straits in hands of Malay Government 

controlled by U.S. Government 
French and Italian 



Governments. 



Banca in Trading Company's hands .. 



July 
1919 



Tons 

1.562 
5,305 

435 
2,487 

100 
1.000 

295 



7,302 
100 



1.949 
102 
50 



733 



PRICES OF CHEMICALS. Aug. 9 

i s. d 

Alum per ton 

Alumina, Sulphate of 

Ammonia, Anhydrous per lb. 

0880 solution per ton 

Carbonate per lb. 

Chloride of, grey per ton 

,, ,, pure per cwt. 

Nitrate of per ton 

Phosphate of 

Sulphate of 

Antimony Sulphide per lb. 

Arsenic, White per ton 

Barium Sulphate , 

Bisulphide of Carbon 

Bleaching Powder, 35% CI 

Borax 

Copper, Sulphate of ,, 

Cyanide of Sodium, 100% per lb. 

Hydrofluoric Acid 

Iodine ,, 

Iron, Sulphate of per ton 

Lead, Acetate of, white 

Nitrate of 

Oxide of, Litharge 

„ White 

Lime, Acetate, brown 

grey 80% 

Magnesite, Calcined 

Magnesium Chloride 

,, Sulphate 

Methylated Spirit 64° Industrial per gal 

Phosphoric Acid per lb. 

Potassium Bichromate 

Carbonate per ton 

Chlorate per lb. 

Chloride 80% per ton 

Hydrate (Caustic) 90% 

Nitrate 

Permanganate per lb. 

Prussiate, Yellow 

Sulphate, 90% per ton 

Sodium Metal per lb. 

Acetate per ton 

Arsenate 45 % 

Bicarbonate ,, 

,, Bichromate per lb. 

Carbonate (Soda Ash)... per ton 

(Crystals) 

Chlorate per lb. 

Hydrate, 76% per ton 

,, Hyposulphite , 

Nitrate, 95% 

Phosphate , 

,, Prussiate per lb. 

,. Silicate per ton 

,, Sulphate (Salt-cake) 

,, ,, (Glauber's Salts) ,, 

Sulphide 

Sulphur, Roll 

,, Flowers ,, 

Sulphuric Acid, Non- Arsenical... 

140°T. ,, 
,. 
.. 

Superphosphate of Lime, 18% 

Tartaric Acid per lb. 

Zinc Chloride per ton 23 

Zinc Sulphate 



17 








17 










1 


10 


33 






6* 


50 








4 


0- 





60 








114 








17 


10 







1 


3 


46 








12 








55 








15 








39 








45 







10 

7 




14 





5 








85 








56 








45 








51 








10 








19 








25 








16 








11 










5 


7 




1 


2 




1 


6 


85 




1 



1 


30 








160 








60 










3 


6 




1 


9 


40 




1 



3 


52 








48 








9 


LI 



11 


12 








4 


5 




8 


24 








16 


10 





21 


it 





25 


10 




7 A 


12 








3 








3 








22 








21 








23 








5 








7 


5 


3 


9 


7 


6 


5 










2 


) 


23 








22 









110 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



SHARE QUOTATIONS 

Shares are £l par value except where otherwise noted. 



GOLD, SILVER. 
DIAMONDS : 



Rand : 

Bantjes 

Brakpan •■■■• 

Central Mining (£8) 

Cinderella 

City & Suburban (£4) 

City Deep •••• 

Consolidated Gold Fields 

Consolidated I.anglaagte 

Consolidated Main Reef .. 

Consolidated Mines Selection (10s). 

Crown Mines (10s ) 

Daggafontein 

Durban Roodepoort Deep 

East Rand Proprietary 

Ferreira Deep 

Geduld 

Geldenhuis Deep 

Gov't Gold Mining Areas 

Heriot 

Jupiter 

Kleinfontein 

Knight Central 

Knight's Deep 

Langlaagte Estate 

Meyer & Charlton 

Modderfontein (£4) 

Modderfontein B 

Modder Deep 

Nourse 

Rand Mines (5s.) 

Rand Selection Corporation 

Randfontein Central 

Robinson (£5) 

Robinson Deep A (Is.) 

Rose Deep 

Simmer & Jack 

Simmer Deep 

Springs 

Sub Nigel 

• Van Ryn 

Van Ryn Deep 

Village Deep 

Village Main Reef 

Witwatersrand (Knight's) 

Witwatersrand Deep 

Wolh liter 

Other Transvaal Gold Mines: 

Glynn's I.ydenburg 

Sheba (5s.) 

Transvaal Gold Mining Estates... 

Diamonds in South Africa : 

De Beers Deferred (£2 10s.) 

Jagersfontt in 

Premier Deferred (2s. 6d.) 



Rhodesia : 

Cam & Motor 

Chartered British South Africa 

Eldorado 

Falcon ... 

Gaika 

Giant 

Globe & Phoenix (5s.) 

Lonely Reef 

Rezende.. 

Shamva 

Wanderer (3s.) 

Willoughby's (10s.) 

West Africa 

Abbontiakoon (10s.) 

Abosso 

Ashanti (4s.) 

Prestea Block A 

Taquah 

West Australia : 

Associated Gold Mines 

Associated Northern Blocks 

Bullfinch 

Golden Horse-Shoe (£5) 

Great Boulder Proprietarv(2s.)- 

Great Fingall (10s). 

Ivanhoe (£5) 

Kalgurli 

Sons of Gwalia 



Aug. 6 

1918 
£ s. d. 



3 
4 6 
6 1 

4 
16 

3 
1 16 
1 

15 

1 7 6 

2 6 
1 7 

10 
3 

13 

1 18 

13 

4 3 
19 



14 

3 

7 

14 

4 17 

24 15 

8 1 

7 12 

17 

3 2 6 

4 10 
11 
15 

1 3 
19 

4 

3 
3 16 
1 8 

ie 

3 15 

17 

14 

1 4 

7 



18 9 
9 

15 3 

15 
4 6 3 
6 15 



12 

17 

7 

1 2 

15 

7 

1 10 

1 18 

4 

1 19 

1 

5 



4 3 

7 6 

1 9 

4 

14 9 



3 

2 

1 

2 2 

II 

1 16 
9 
7 



Aug. 7 

1919 

£ s. d. 



3 10 

9 8 

5 

13 
3 
1 18 
1 1 

14 

1 5 

2 7 
1 4 





9 

i) 


9 



G 


7 6 
4 9 

8 9 
7 

13 



2 9 
11 

4 17 

13 

5 

13 

6 

9 

1 1 

4 18 

27 10 

9 2 

8 2 

14 

3 1 
3 13 

13 
14 

1 
18 

5 
3 

2 16 
i G 

18 

3 17 
15 
13 

1 5 




3 
f. 
9 


G 

G 
9 
o 
G 
6 
G 
i 
') 
6 


9 
3 
(i 
3 
3 
9 
G 
G 



13 
4 9 

I 
1 9 
13 6 

ZA 12 G 

6 7 6 
9 5 



5 
1 2 

4 
14 
16 

7 

1 4 

2 13 
5 5 
1 17 



5 

10 6 

1 2 6 

5 9 

16 6 



3 
1 

1 7 
9 
1 

1 15 
10 
6 



Gold. Silver, cont. 

Others in Australasia : 

Mount Boppy, New South Wales 

Talisman, New Zealand 

W'aihi. New Zealand 

Waihi Grand Junction. New Z'lnd 

America : 

Alaska Treadwell (£5). Alaska 

Buena Tierra, Mexico 

Camp Bird, Colorado 

Casey Cobalt, Ontario 

El Oro, Mexico 

Esperanza, Mexico 

Frontino & Bolivia. Colombia 

Le Roi No. 2 (£5). British Columbia 
Mexico Mines of El Oro, Mexico 

Oroville Dredging, California 

Plymouth Consolidated. California 

St. John del Rey. Brazil 

Santa Gertrudis, Mexico 

Tomboy, Colorado 

Russia : 

Lena Goldfields 

Orsk Priority 



Aug. 6 

1918 

£ s. d. 

6 

13 

1 !9 

16 

10 
12 6 



Aug. 7 

1919 
£ s. d. 



India : 

Balaghat 

Champion Reef (2s. 6d.) 

Mysore (10s.) 

North Anantapnr 

Nundydroog UOs.) 

Ooregum (10s.) 



13 
4 

10 
8 

12 

6 

5 12 

18 
1 2 

17 

1* 

12 

1 7 
14 



5 
2 13 

4 

1 3 

18 



COPPER 

Arizona Copper (5s), Arizona 

Cape Copper (£2). Cape Province.. 

Cbillagoe (10s.), Queensland 

Cordoba (5s). Spain 

Great Cobar (£5). N.S.W 

Ii ncnrry, Queensland 

Kysbtim, Russia 

Messina (5s). Transvaal 

Mount Elliott (£5). Queensland ... 
Mount I. yell. Tasmania • 

Mi. nut Morgan, Queensland 

ua (£2). Cape Province 

Rio Tinto (£5), Spain 

Sissert, Russia 

Spassky, Russia 

Tanalyk, Russia 

•Tanganyika. Congo and Rhodesia 
Tharsis (£2), Spain 

LEAD-ZINC: 

Broken Hill : 

Amalgamated /111c 

British Broken Hill •• 

Broken Hill Proprietary (8s.) 

Broken Hill Block 10 (£10) 

Broken Hill North 

Broken Hill South 

Sulphide Corporation (15s.) 

Zinc Corporation (10s.) 



2 8 

2 5 
1 
2 
2 

1 6 

1 7 

5 

3 5 
1 S 

1 14 

2 
69 

17 
1 7 
1 8 

3 17 
5 15 



Asia : 

Burma Corporation 

Irtysh Corporation 

Russian Mining 

Russo- Asiatic 

TIN: 

Arainayo Francke. Bolivia 

Bisichi. Nigeria 

Briseis. Tasmania 

Dolcoath. Cornwall 

East Pool. Cornwall 

Ex-Lands Nigeria (2s.), Nigeria •• 

Geevor (10s ) Cornwall 

Gopeng, Malay 

Ipoh Dredging. Malay 

Malayan Tin Dredging, Malay 

Mongu (10s.). Nigeria 

Naraguta, Nigeria 

N. N. Bauchi Pref. (10s.). Nigeria. 

Ord. COS.), 
Pahang Consolidated (5s.), Malay. 

Rayfield, Nigeria 

Renong Dredging, Siam • 

Ropp (4s.). Nigeria 

Siamese Tin. Siam 

South Crofty (5s), Cornwall 

Tekka, Malay 

Tekka-Taiping, Malay 

Tronoh, Malay 



1 7 

2 10 

3 9 

1 17 

3 7 

12 15 

1 8 

1 9 



4 iO 

1 9 9 

13 

3 11 3 



2 7 
15 
6 
11 
1 9 
2 
1 4 

1 18 
18 

2 7 6 
15 
18 
13 

8 3 
13 3 
15 9 

2 10 

1 3 6 

3 10 

2 11 3 

4 2 6 

3 17 6 
2 



2 6 
14 



1 12 

18 

1 6 

2 

1 3 

16 
9 

11 
7 
1 10 
1 9 

17 
1 14 

16 

1 10 
13 

6 
4 

2 2 
3 

17 
16 



2 1 

2 15 

1 

1 

I 
1 
1 6 

5 

3 10 
1 3 
1 5 
1 15 

60 
1 2 6 
1 10 
1 12 
5 
5 2 6 



1 5 

1 19 

2 2 



8 17 6 

1 16 3 

17 f> 

3 18 9 



3 18 
14 

5 

10 
17 

2 



1 

2 1 

1 1 

2 5 
19 
17 
11 

7 
15 
15 

2 5 

1 

3 2 
13 

4 2 

5 7 

2 6 



Share capital expanded 



THE MINING DIGEST 

A RECORD OF PROGRESS IN MINING, METALLURGY, AND GEOLOGY 

In this section we give abstracts of important articles and papers appearing in technical journals and 

proceedings of societies, together with brief records of other articles and papers ; also reviews of new 

books, and abstracts of the yearly reports of mining companies. 



THE NEW ELMORE PROCESS. 



The new process invented by F. E. Elmore for deal- 
ing with mixed sulphides is described in his patents 
6,546 and 11,348 of 1917, consolidated into patent 
127,641. The patent has been acquired by the Chemi- 
cal and Metallurgical Corporation, particularsof which 
were given in the advertisement columns of the Maga- 
zine for June. Details of the process, extracted from 
the complete specification, are given in the following 
paragraphs. 

This invention relates to the extraction and separa- 
tion of lead and zinc from ores, concentrates, and the 
like, in which these metals exist associated together in 
the form of sulphides. The invention consists in treat- 
ing the ore, concentrates, or the like with certain acid 
agents whereby the lead sulphide is converted into a 
soluble lead compound while the zinc sulphide remains 
substantially unattacked. The acid agents in question 
are sulphuric acid alone or a solution of a suitable salt 
to which has been added either sulphuric acid, hydro- 
chloric acid, or an alkali bisulphate Suitable salts are 
sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or other halo- 
gen salt (other than that of a heavy metal) capable like 
these of acting in solution as a solvent of lead sulphate 
or chloride. 

If finely ground galena be heated at about 100°C. with 
concentrated sulphuric acid (specific gravity about 1 '84), 
the sulphide of lead is converted into sulphate. With 
proper adjustment of conditions, such as fineness of 
grinding, proportion of sulphuric acid, temperature, 
and time of contact, substantially the whole of the sul- 
phide can be converted into sulphate. The latter com- 
pound may then be dissolved, for instance in a hot 
saturated solution of sodium chloride, and thus separ- 
ated from any insoluble matter. On the other hand, 
if zinc blende be heated with the concentrated acid at 
a temperature of about 100°C., only a relatively small 
amount of the zinc is converted into sulphate, the major 
portion remaining insoluble in hotbrine. If, therefore, 
the two sulphides be present in an ore or concentrate 
the lead and zinc may be separated in this manner. 

According to one form of the invention the finely 
ground ore containing the sulphides of lead and zinc is 
heated with a sufficient quantity of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid at a temperature of about 100°O, until sub- 
stantially the whole of the lead has been converted in- 
to sulphate. The product is washed once or twice with 
water to remove practically the whole of any remain- 
ing free acid, and to the residue is added a hot, strong, 
preferably saturated solution of sodium chloride. The 
sulphate of lead dissolves readily in the hot brine and 
may be separated by filtration, decantation, or other- 
wise from the undissolved matter containing the zinc 
sulphide. The hot brine is then cooled, whereupon 
any excess of lead salt over that which the cooled brine 
can hold in solution will be precipitated and can be 
collected for use in any known manner, while the brine 
is re- heated to be used again. The brine may thus re- 
main in circulation in the process. 

Example I . — A lead-zinc sulphide ore from Burma 
containing 23% of lead and 40'5% of zinc is ground to 
pass through a 60 mesh standard sieve. Twenty kilos 



of the powder are mixed with twenty litres of sulphuric 
acid of l'84specificgravity in a lead-lined, steam-heated 
vessel, and the mixture is heated at about 100°C, until 
the evolution of sulphur dioxide has practically ceased. 
Water is now run into the vessel, the mixture well stir- 
red and allowed to settle ; the water is run off, and this 
washing operation once repeated. One hundred litres 
of a saturated solution of common salt are now run in- 
to the vessel, the contents of which are well stirred and 
maintained at 100°C. for, say half an hour, whereupon 
the undissolved matter is allowed to settle and the hot 
solution run into a cooling vat in which a mixture of 
lead sulphate and chloride separates from the liquid 
and may be collected for metallurgical treatment. The 
residue in the heating vessel may be washed first with 
brine and then with water, if desired, and metallurgi- 
cally treated for recovery of zinc. 

If, instead of sulphuric acid of 1'84 specific gravity, 
a less concentrated acid be employed, the lead can be 
converted into lead sulphate, but a larger proportion 
of the zinc may be in this case converted into zinc sul- 
phate. In deciding whether to use concentrated or 
weaker acid, practical considerations such as the value 
of zinc and the cost of the different grades of acid must 
be taken into account. On using concentrated acid or 
somewhat weaker acid, the reaction upon the lead sul- 
phide is accompanied by an evolution of sulphur di- 
oxide and the production of free sulphur. With still 
weaker acids, however, the reaction is accompanied 
mainly by the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen. In 
whatever form sulphur is liberated it may be used in 
the known manner for producing sulphuric acid. By 
working separate batches with strong and weaker acids 
respectively, it is possible, as an alternative to using 
the sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen directly 
in the known manner for the production of sulphur or 
sulphuric acid, to lead the sulphur dioxide liberated 
from the strong-acid batch into the weak-acid batch, 
whereby the objectionable emission of both sulphur di- 
oxide and sulphuretted hydrogen may be largely abated. 
According toanother form of the invention, the finely 
subdivided ore is treated with an acid in presence of a 
salt, such as sodium chloride. A weaker acid may then 
be used. Thus, the finely subdivided ore may be 
treated with hot, strong brine to which sulphuric acid 
has been added. 

Example II . — Twenty kilos of the ore referred to in 
Example I, crushed to pass through a 100 mesh stand- 
ard sieve, are stirred in an earthenware steam-heated 
vessel with one hundred litres of a saturated solution 
of common salt and the mixture is heated to about I 
Six litres of sulphuric acid of 184 specific gravity are 
gradually run into the vessel, the heating being con- 
tinued. The lead sulphide is attacked, the lead pass- 
ing into solution, while the zinc sulphide remains sub- 
stantially insoluble. When the evolution of sulphur- 
etted hydrogen has practically ceased, the hot brine is 
separated from the insoluble matter and is run into a 
cooling vat, where it deposits lead salt ; it may be re 
heated to be used again. 

When the acid ajjent is hydrochloric acid in presence 



111 



112 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



of a suitable salt solution, lead chloride is formed and 
sulphur is evolved in the form of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. 

Examplelll. — Twenty kilos of the finely subdivided 
ore referred to in Example I are stirred in an earthen- 
ware steam-heated vessel with sixty-five litres of a 
saturated solution of common salt, the mixture being 
heated to about 80°C. Eighteen litres of hydrochloric 
acid of specific gravity I'll are now run in, and stir- 
ring and heating continued until evolution of sulphur- 
etted hydrogen has practically ceased. After settling, 
the hot brine is run into a cooling vat where the lead 
compound crystallizes. The brine may be used again. 

Example I V. — Twenty kilos of Broken Hill concen- 
trates containing 44 2% of zinc and 9 2% of lead, and 
capable of passing through a 30 mesh standard sieve, 
are mixed in an earthenware steam heated vessel with 
120 litres of a saturated solution of common salt to 
which 11 kilos of sodium bisulphate (NaHSO.,) have 
been added. The mixture is boiled until the evolution 
of sulphuretted hydrogen has practically ceased. The 
hot brine is then separated from the insoluble matter 
and is run into acooling vat where it deposits lead salt ; 
it may then be re-heated to be used again 

If it is more convenient under local conditions to 
smelt lead sulphate than lead chloride, it is preferable 
to convert the latter into sulphate by heating it with 
strong sulphuric acid, whereby hydrochloric ac 
is evolved ; this is absorbed in water or in brine in such 
manner as to form either a strong aqueous solution of 
acid or a solution of the acid in brine. The aqueous 
solution may be mixed with brine to render it suitable 
for treating a further batch of ore ; the solution of the 
acid in brine is already suitable for this purpose. 

The lead sulphate, whether made directly from the 
ore or from the chloride, may be mixed with lead sul- 
phide and smelted in known manner, and the lead sul- 
phide, or a part of it, necessary for the purpose may 
be made by utilizing the sulphuretted hydrogen from 
the treatment of the ore with hydrochloric acid and a 
salt solution. 

The following are the claims: 

(1) The treatment of lead-zinc sulphide ores, concen- 
trates, and the like, consisting in treating the ore with 
an acid agent as herein defined, whereby the lead sul- 
phide is converted into a soluble lead compound while 
the zinc sulphide remains substantially unattacked. 

(2) The treatment of lead zinc sulphide ores, concen- 



trates, and the like, consisting in heating the ore with 
strong sulphuric acid at about 100°C. until substantially 
all the lead sulphide has been converted into lead sul- 
phate, dissolving the latter with a hot strong solution 
of sodium chloride or other suitable halogen salt, sepa- 
rating the hot solution from the unattacked zinc sul- 
phide, and cooling the solution to cause a partial crys- 
tallization of lead salt. 

(3) The treatment of lead-zinc sulphide ores, concen- 
trates, and the like, consisting in heating the ore with 
a strong solution of sodium chloride or other suitable 
halogen salt to which a sufficient quantity of sulphuric 
or hydrochloric acid or an alkali bisulphate is added, 
whereby the lead is caused to pass into solution while 
the zinc sulphide remains substantially unattacked, 
separating the hot solution from the zinc sulphide by 
filtration, decantation, or the like, and cooling the solu- 
tion to cause a partial crystallization of lead salt. 

(4) In the herein described treatment of lead-zinc sul- 
phide ores, concentrates, and the like, for the sepa- 
ration of the lead from the zinc, heating a mixture of 
one portion of the ore with sulphuric acid of a strength 
adapted to evolve sulphur dioxide, heating a mixture 
of another portion of the ore with acid adapted to 

■ sulphuretted hydrogen, and passing the gases 
evolved from the first mixture into the second, substan 
dally as and for the purpose described. 

(5) In the herein described treatment of lead-zinc 
sulphide ores, concentrates, and the like, in which the 
lead compound produced contains or consists of lead 
chloride, heating the said compound with strong Mil 
phuric acid and absorbing in water or brine the hydro- 
chloric acid gas evolved, substantially as and for the 
purpose described. 

(6) Smelting the lead sulphate produced by the 
treatment referred to in Claim (5) with lead sulphide 
so as to produce metallic lead. 

(7) The treatment of lead zinc sulphide ores, concen 
trates, and the like, consisting in heating the ore with 
an acid agent as herein defined, which converts the 
lead sulphide into a soluble compound while substan- 
tially not attacking the zinc sulphide and causes evo- 
lution of sulphuretted hydrogen, utilizing the sulphur- 
etted hydrogen to make lead sulphide from the soluble 
lead compound, and smelting the lead sulphide together 
with lead sulphate so as to produce metallic lead. 

(8) The treatments of lead-zinc sulphide ores de- 
scribed in the several examples herein. 



THE "LONG-RIG" IN ROCK-DRILL PRACTICE 



At the May meeting of the South African Institution 
of Engineers, F. C. W. Ingle gave particulars of his 
"long-rig" system of mounting and operating rock- 
drills. This information was given as a contribution 
to the discussion on H. S. Potter's paper on hammer- 
drills and their history, design, and operation. 

The long-rig system is designed to give a support to 
hammer-drills and to avoid continually rigging up a 
support. In connection with piston drill work, the 
system eliminates the multiple hole bench. When us- 
ing hammer-drills on this system it is necessary, of 
course, to have cradles for their support. 

The method consists of putting up two bars in the 
usual way from hanging to foot, about 16 to 18 ft. apart. 
On to these, and extending past both, is clamped a pipe 
of suitable size and about 20ft. in length. This pipe 
acts as an elongated arm upon which the machine is 
rigged, and on which it can be moved from bench to 
bench between the two bars. The holes drilled from 
this bar are inclined all in the same direction, and the 
machine moves awav from that direction. When all 



benches lying between the two bars have been drilled 
over, the bar farthest from the position which the ma- 
chine will have reached is pulled down and re-rigged 
on the opposite side of the remaining bar, again atabout 
18 ft. distance, and the long bar, or pipe, similarly rig 
ged between the two bars. The machine, being placed 
upon it, drills in continuation. At the end of the shift, 
the machine and bars are left standing. Only those 
holes which can be blasted without danger to the ma- 
chinery are charged and blasted, so that drilling may 
be continued to the end of the shift, and only a few 
minutes before lighting up will it be necessary to stop 
the machine. Again, the machine will be found ready 
for work as soon as the miner returns to the stope on 
the following shift. This process is continued until the 
end of the face is reached, when the machine with its 
rig will again return to that end of the face from which 
it originally started. 

Several machines may be worked on one face with a 
suitable interval between them. The necessary length 
of face will depend upon the nature of the ground ( >r 



AUGUST, 1919 



113 




The "Long-Rig" System of Rock-Drilling. 



several machines may be placed on adjoining rigs, the 
long bars being clamped between a sufficient number 
of shorter bars. The latter method has the advantage 
that it permits of closer supervision, and it is easy with 
this arrangement to utilize advantageously a couple of 
natives to rig up bars in advance. One disadvantage, 
however, is that each machine has to be moved agreater 
distance at the completion of each traverse from bar to 
bar, and, usually, this entails the removal of hoses to 
new connections with each change. 

The long-rig is in use on the City and Suburban mine 
with jack-hammers, but is suitable for any type of 
hammer-drill. When used with jack-hammers, 2 in. 
bars and 2 in. steam pipe give satisfaction. With pis- 
ton drills it would be necessary to use 3 in. bars and 
3 in. pipe. Up to the present the contractor who has 
had most experience with the system has used four 
steels, to the set, 2 ft. 6 in., 4ft., 5 ft. 6 in., and 7 ft. in 
length, and with gauges li in., 1 £g in., lg in., 1 , : ; ; in. 
respectively. 

Thefaceremainscomparatively straight ; since all the 
holes are drilled from the long bar,' they must termin- 
ate at a line which is roughly parallel to the bar. Thus 
the tendency is to correct any irregularities in the line 
of the face. The holes, averaging 6ft. in depth, are 
drilled at an angle of 45° to the face, and spaced 26 in. 
apart at their collars. These details will, of course, 
vary according to the nature of the ground. In this 
way, although the holes are, to some extent, dependent 
one upon the other, the failure of one hole hangs up 
the deeper half of the subsequent one, but the remain- 
ing holes will not be affected. 

2—6 



In this stope 67'4 fathoms were broken in April b\ 
three jack-hammers, and this was the highest on the 
mine for all classes of machine stoping. Of the twenty 
contractors working in the same section of the mine, 
the next highest fathomage was 55'2. 

The chief advantages accruing from the use of this 
method are as follows : Overhand stoping becomes 
ideal ; there is no rock on the face, the ground being 
broken away from the face and into the packs ; timber 
is submitted to very littleblasting, as it is soon protected 
by the packs ; the dressing down of the ground after 
blasting is effected without interference with the ma- 
chines working in the stope ; there is no excuse for 
drilling near a misfire, as, there being no dirt on the face, 
misfires must be obvious. As pointed out already, there 
is no loss of time at the beginning and end of the shift 
in rigging up and pulling down. This is done during 
the shift as occasion requires, and the average time oc- 
cupied in rigging up is from fifteen to thirty minutes 
Thus drilling starts at the commencement of the shift, 
and is continued until just before lighting-up time. 

The holes are drilled parallel to one another, and 
the burden must be even along the whole length ol the 
hole. It is thus only necessary to place a mark on the 
face where each hole is to be collared, and the opera 
tor cannot go wrong. The result of these parallel 
holes and the evenness of burden is that long holes can 
be used to advantage. As each new stope was started, 
the ordinary lengths of steel were at first used, but in 
every case, with the long-rig, it was found advisable to 
equip with long jumpers, similar to those described 
above, that is, with 7 ft . chisels. The use of long holes 



114 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



has been justified by the fact that there are very few 
long sockets left in any of the stopes where they are 
used. 

As the holes are drilled upward, the cuttings fall 
away, and are immediately sludged, so that the steel 
has always a clean face to cut. In the initial stages of 
the trials trouble was caused by the sludge running 
down the jumper and reaching the chuck, where the 
escape of compressed air vapourized it. This trouble 
was overcome by attaching to the jumper, close to the 
chuck, a 6 in. length of § in. hose, slit down the side 
and clamped round the steel with a wire spring clip. 



The sludge drops off as soon as it reaches the greater 
circumference of the hose. A piece of sacking 9 in. 
square tied to the chuck so as to overlap the jumper 
6 in. is also very effective. Again, when drilling down- 
ward with the jack-hammer there is, in crushed ground, 
a great tendency for jumpers to stick, due to the cut- 
tings being coarse and lodging above the bit on the 
smaller diameter of the steel. Much time is spent in 
freeing the jumpers, and quite often it is found impos- 
sible to get them out. This trouble has never been 
experienced when drilling upward. On the contrary, 
the holes are drilled the quicker in crushed ground. 



ACID AND SUPERPHOSPHATE MANUFACTURE AT COCKLE CREEK. 

At the Newcastle meeting of the Australasian Insti- The casing and impellers are made of antimonial lead, 
tute of Mining Engineers, J. H. McFeeters described the impellers being mounted on a 3 in. steel shaft cov- 
the plants for making acid and superphosphate at the ered with lead sleeves on that part of its length ex- 
works of the Sulphide Corporation at Cockle Creek. posed to the acid gases. The fan is belt-driven from 
New South Wales. a 5 h.p. variable-speed motor, and runs about 240 

Sulphuric Acid. — Two separate units are in opera- r.p.m. The gas is drawn from the Herreshoff furnaces 

tion, No. 1 plant working on sulphur dioxide gener- through the dust chambers and Glover tower by the 

ated from pyritic ore, and No. 2 plant working on sul- suction of the fan, which then forces it through the 

phurous gases obtained from the Huntington-Heber- chambers and Gav-Lussac towers. During the pas- 

lein desulphurizing process. The latter plant is unique sage of the gas through the chambers, the chemical 

in being the first installation for the successful use of reactions, resulting in the formation of sulphuric acid, 

these gases. take place, the water necessary to these reactions being 

The sulphur dioxide for No. 1 plant is obtained by supplied in the form of an extremely fine mist by a 
the roasting of pyritic ore in the Herreshoff furnaces. number of Benker sprays. These reactions are so con- 
The type of furnace is the new Herreshoff furnace, the trolled that the gas issuing from the last chamber con- 
special feature of which is an air-cooling device for the tains practically no sulphur dioxide, and only free oxy- 
rabble arms and central column of the furnace, also gen and nitrogen oxides. These nitrogen oxides are 
enablingcontrolof the temperatureof roasting. There absorbed by the acid flowing down the Gay-Lussac 
are five of these furnaces in this plant. Working on towers, and are returned to the system by way of the 
ore of 36% and over of sulphur contents, no further Glover tower. These nitrogen oxides, which hasten 
fuel is required after once having been started. As the oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide 
the sulphur dioxide is given off during the process of during the reaction process in thechambers, are origin 
roasting, it is drawn through dust collectors by the sue- ally introduced through the Glover tower in the form 
tion created by a lead fan, to be described later. Each of nitric acid. 

furnace has a separate dust collector, which consists of The No. 2 plant, operating on gases generated by 
a large rectangular brick chamber, from the top of the Huntington- Heberlein desulphurizing process, pre- 
which are suspended a number of lengths of \ in. round sents several unusual features; consequently, the de- 
iron, forming a series of loose curtains through which sign of this plant was modified to meet conditions 
the gas must pass. The dust drops from these curtains which might reasonably be anticipated by obtaining gas 
to the bottom of the chamber, from which it is with- from such a source. To some extent the plant is prac- 
drawn from time to time. The gases then unite in a tically a combination of both the chamber and tower 
common flue and pass to the Glover tower. The Glo- systems of acid making, and consists of four chambers 
ver tower, the chief functions of which are denitration, and seven towers. Of the seven towers in the system 
concentration, and cooling, consists of a lead-lined there are two Glovers, two inter-chamber towers, one 
tower 30ft. high, packed with hard-burnt chemical regulator, and two Gay-Lussacs. The Glovers and 
brick in checker formation. The lead linings of this Gay-Lussacs are rectangular in section, and packed 
tower are much heavier than the others of the system, similarly to those of No. 1 set, the former being 25 ft 
owing to the violence of the chemical reactions taking high and latter 30 ft. Owing to the comparatively low 
place therein, and to the temperature of the entering temperature of the gases entering the (.lover tower, 
gases, which average about 300"C. The Gay-Lussac its function as a concentrator isnil, but, by observing 
towers, the function of which is the absorption of the several conditions, it still serves its purpose as an eflici- 
nitrogen oxides liberated at the end of the process, are ent denitrator. The inter-chamber towers are 20 ft 
two in number, and similar in section, height, and high, andalsopacked with chemical brick. Theirchief 
packing to the Glover tower. There are five chambers function is to keep alive rapid chemical reaction by 
in this plant, of the following dimensions: thoroughly mixing the gases, and so minimizing the 
Height Width Length retarding effect on chemical activity caused by carbon 
Nos. 1 and 2 19 ft. 6 in. 25 ft. 97 ft. 6 in. dioxide present as an impurity in the gas. The regu- 

No. 3 18ft. Gin. 20ft. 96ft. lator is similar in design to the inter chamber towers 

No. 4 19 ft. 6 in. 25 ft. 60 ft. It is placed between the last chamber and the Gay- 
No. 5 19 ft. 6 in. 25 ft. 36 ft. Lussacs. It-, chief function is to prevent any sulphur 

The curtains and tops of the chambers are built with dioxide entering the Gay-Lussacs, a condition which 

71b. lead, and the bottoms of 8 lb. They are con- might easily occur when working on gases liable to 

nected by 26 in. lead pipes with each other and with sudden variations of sulphur dioxide contents. The 

the towers, one line leading from the Glover tower to chambers of this plant are built narrow and high, with 

the chambers, and the other leading from the last the view of decreasing any tendency towards the for- 

chamber to the Gay-Lussac towers. The lead fan is mation of zones of sluggish gas-movement, and also for 

placed between the Glover tower and the first chamber. being well adapted to the use of water sprays. They 



AUGUST, 1919 



115 



are all comparatively short, and, in order to secure the 
requisite and proportional chamber volume, one to an- 
other, the first two are grouped abreast and work in 
parallel. These two act virtually together as ihe first 
chamber of the series. Regarding these two as one, 
the proportion between the first, second, and third 
chambers is approximately 4:2:1. The chamber di- 
mensions are : 

Height Width Length 

Two chambers in 

parallel, each 30 ft. 20 ft. 80 ft. 
Following chamber 30 ft. 20 ft. 80 ft. 

Last chamber 30 ft. 20 ft. 40 ft. 

The gases are drawn from the H.H. plant through the 
dust chambers and Glover tower by the suction of a 
lead fan, similar in design and position to that of No. 

1 plant. In front of the fan these gases divide, a por- 
tion going into No. 1 chamber, and a portion into No. 

2 chamber, working in parallel ; the gas volumes pass- 
ing into these chambers being controlled by dampers. 
The issuing gases combine in a 30 in. pipe, common to 
both chambers, and are forced through the first inter- 
chamber tower into the following chamber. From 
here they pass through the next inter-chamber tower 
intothelast chamber, through theregulator, and thence 
out of the system through the two Gay-Lussac towers, 
working in series. Attached to this unit is a small sul- 
phur burner, capable of burning three tons per 24 
hours. This will be used to supply sulphurous gas 
whenever the H.H. plant might be closed down for 
overhaul, or through the closing down of the blast- 
furnace. 

Nitric Acid. — The nitric acid required for use in the 
Glover tower is manufactured in a 2 ton plant, in a 
building attached to No. 1 sulphuric acid plant. This 
particular unit has only recently been installed, and 
embraces the latest improvements in apparatus for ni- 
tric manufacture. Its outstanding features are the un- 
usually large retort and the silica-ware condensers. 
The plant consists essentially of three principal parts 
— retort, condensers, and receivers. The retort is cup- 
shaped, and is set in brickwork. It is fired from be- 
neath, and the flues are so arranged that the hot gases 
of combustion circle twice round the retort before 
reaching the chimney stack. Both the retort and its 
cover are castings, made of special acid-resisting metal 
known as Narki metal. The condensers consist of a 
number of 3h in. pipes, 3 ft. long. The pipes are built 
up in parallel tiers, having ten pipes in a set. There 
are four of these sets of condensing tubes working in 
parallel from a common receptacle. All the pipes are 
made of fused silica-ware, known as vitreosil, which, 
besides being acid-proof, withstands sudden changes 
of temperature. The receivers are three in number, 
and of 100 gal. capacity each. They are made of acid- 
resisting stoneware, cylindrical in shape, and 3 ft. in 
diameter. The retort is charged with two tons of ni- 
trate of soda and the requisite amount of strong sul- 
phuricacid, and a slow firestarted in thegrate beneath. 
After sometime the liberated nitric begins to distilover. 
It escapes from the top of the retort through Sin. 
vitreosil pipes, which lead to a receptacle, also of 
vitreosil, communicating both with condensers and re- 
ceiveis. During its passage through these pipes the 
nitric is condensed, and runs into any one of the three 
receivers, 

Superphosphate.— In theory the process of manu- 
facture of superphosphate is in itself simple. The raw 
phosphate rock contains phosphoric acid as tribasic 
phosphate of lime, insoluble in water, and conse- 
quently not assimilable by plants. Therefore, the 
process of manufacture consists in converting this 



insoluble phosphoric acid into the "water-soluble" 
or " citrate-soluble" form in which it is available 
as a plant food. This is done by treating the raw 
phosphate rock with sulphuric acid, which con- 
verts two parts of the lime into gypsum, leaving one 
part of the lime combined with all the phosphoric acid 
as the monobasic or water-soluble phosphate of lime. 
This product is known as "superphosphate," the pre- 
fix " super " denoting that the ratio of phosphoric acid 
to lime is in excess of that of the normal tribasic phos- 
phate. The phosphate rock is imported from the Pa- 
cific Islands, the best-known deposits being at Ocean, 
Makatea, Nauru, and Angaur Islands. They contain 
a higher percentage of phosphoric acid than any other 
known deposit, and range from 82% to 87% tribasic 
phosphate of lime. Cargoes of phosphate rock are 
unloaded into trucks on the Corporation's wharf at 
Newcastle, thence by rail to the works at Cockle Creek. 
These trucks run over the top of the large storage bins, 
and are there discharged. The present capacity of 
these bins is 6,000 tons. They will shortly be increased 
to 10,000 tons capacity. The first step in the manu- 
facture is the crushing of the rock to the degree of 
fineness which allows rapid reaction between the raw 
material and sulphuric acid. The rock is first reduced 
in size by a gyratory crusher, and thence through a 
series of screens and rolls until a sufficiently fine pro- 
duct is produced. The power for the crushing mill is 
supplied by two direct-current motors of 75 and 50 h. p. 
respectively. The finely-crushed rock is elevated from 
its storage bin to the mixing floor, where it is conveyed 
by screw conveyors to an automatic weighing machine 
discharging into the mixer. As the crushed rock runs 
into the mixer, it also receives a measured quantity of 
sulphuric acid, with which it is mechanically mixed. 
The mixers are totally enclosed, and communicate with 
an exhaust fan, which removes any corrosive gases 
given off during the decomposition of the rock When 
mixed (a process occupying about one minute) the semi - 
liquid mass is discharged through the bottom of the 
mixer into reinforced concrete " dens " below. These 
dens are circular in section, 25 ft. long, and have a 
capacity of 55 tons. Here chemical reactions between 
the rock and acid continue, resulting in the semi-liquid 
material setting to a fairly-solid mass. When set the 
end and bottom doors of the den are removed, and the 
superphosphate cut out by a mechanical excavator. 
As the material is cut out it is carried by belt convey- 
ors and elevated to the "rasper," where drying, granu- 
lation, and aeration take place. A definite quantity of 
clean sand, free from dust, is fed on to the conveyor 
belt before the superphosphate reaches the rasper,' in 
order to maintain the standard quality or grade, and 
produces an effective free-drilling fertilizer. From the 
rasper it is elevated to the conveyor belt running along 
the top of the storage shed, where a movable tripper 
permits it to be discharged into any desired section. 
There are two large storage sheds with a combined 
storage capacity of 35.000 tons, and the following are 
the dimensions of the sheds : 

No- Length Width Height from floor 

to ridgr c.ip 

1 400 ft. 119 fl 4.S It 

2 400 ft. 126 ft. 59 ft. 

It is m these storage sheds that the final chemical re- 
actions take place, and from which the fully-matured 
superphosphate is bagged readv for market. The bag 
^ing is done by special mills, of which there are three 
in each shed. The superphosphate from the pili 
broken up and loaded on to conveyors or barrows by 
a mechanical loader. The material is then taken to 
the bagging mills, where it is screened, the screen 



116 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



dropping into small storage hoppers. Beneath these 
hoppers are placed the weighing machines. These 
machines deliver a set weight only to the sack, and as 
soon as that weight is attained they automatically cut 
off the flow of material to the sack. The superphos- 
phate is put up in standard cornsacks, 12 bags weigh- 
ing 6ne ton. From the bagging mills the superphos- 
phate is loaded for transport into Government trucks 
placed alongside the platforms attached to each shed. 



Besides superphosphate complete, mixed manures are 
manufactured and marketed. There are two points of 
special interest about these mixed manures : first, pot- 
ash is used in varying quantities in the manures, which 
is now being obtained from burnt seaweed (kelp), com- 
ing from works recently established in Tasmania ; 
the second point of interest is that the ammonjum sul- 
phate is obtained as a by-product from the power-gas 
plant. 



THE HEIDELBERG GOLDFIELDS. 



We conclude herewith our extracts from a series of 
articles appearing in the South African Mining and 
Engineering Journal dealing with the development 
of the Heidelberg district and the district to the south 
of that town. The following notes relate to boring now 
being done under the auspices of l>r Hans Saner and 
Mr. W. E. Bleloch in the Heidelberg district, and to 
the work done round Balfour The illustrating map is 
given in our June issue. 

In the Heidelberg district, three large diamond-drills 
and a small drill are being employed to test the Town 
Lands, Boschhoek, and Eendracht properties, and a 
large amount of trenching and shaft-sinking is pro- 
ceeding. The deepest bore-hole is on the farm Een- 
dracht No. 267. This hole is being sunk by Dr Hans 
Sauer under agreement with the I I npany, < >n 

this farm the strata may be observed in some clear and 
well-defined exposures, notably in the vicinity of the 
Homestead and close to the present diamond-drill site. 
The quartzitic and sandstone beds are here shown in 
perfect conformity with a line of strike which is ap- 
proximately N.E. and S.W. and a dip of about 10 to 
the N.W. The drill is a Sullivan P, with a capacity 
to work to a depth of 6,000 ft. Work on the hole was 
commenced in April of last year and was at first diffi- 
cult and slow. Latterly, however, excellent progress 
has been attained, and a few weeks ago a reef series was 
encountered at a depth of 2,350 ft. The values dis- 
closed were very poor The section as shown bv the 
cores is as follows : 2,350 ft., banket series ; 1 ft. ban- 
ket ; 19ft., 7in. quartzite; 2.370ft. 3 in .. 3 ft banket ; 
13 in. quartzite ; 12 in. reef; 5 ft. quartzite ; 2,380 ft. 
4 in., conglomerate 4 ft. 4 in. wide, laying on 12ft. 6 in. 
of schist and slate. At the time of writing this drill 
has penetrated to a depth of 2,614ft. and at that depth 
wasstill in quartzite. [In our July issueannouncement 
was made of the suspension of all drilling.-- EDI rOR ] 
Leaving Heidelberg to the north-west and travelling 
along the Vereeniging Road, one crosses the farm 
Bosch f on tein No. 271, the mineral rights of which (as 
to 3,000 acres) are held by the Boschfontein Gold Mine, 
Ltd. No work is being done on this property at pres- 
ent, but some years ago a certain amount of develop- 
ment was undertaken at a shallow depth. There is a 
reef exposed in acutting alongsidethis road. This reef, 
which lies on slate, shows a line of strike approximately 
N.E. and S.W. and dip to the N.W. Adjoining Bosch- 
fontein is Boschhoek No. 270, the property of the 
Boschhoek Proprietary, Ltd., which has a capital of 
/360.000. A bore-hole is being sunk here by agree- 
ment with Dr. Sauer. The drill is a Sullivan P. ma- 
chine, and at the time of writing the core was disclos- 
ing a fine-grained diabase at 1,226 ft. This diabase is 
now showing calcite amygdules, and it is thought that 
from these indications the diabase will soon be pene- 
trated. The drill encountered a bed of slate from 600 
to 705 ft. and then entered the diabase. To the north 
of this hole is the old No. 1 Boschhoek bore-hole which 
was stopped in dyke at 960 ft. This hole, it is con- 
tended, cut the Van Ryu Reef at about 122 ft., but the 



core was ground and assays were poor. This reef is 
correlated with the exposure in the cutting alongside 
the Vereeniging Road on Boschhoek already referred to. 

On the eastern side of the town of Heidelberg the 
Eastern Van Kynand Modderfontein Gold Reefs, Ltd., 
isprospecting 1 ,151 claims, while a further 1,000 claims 
on the dip of this property have been acquired by Dr. 
Hans Sauer and may eventually be consolidated into 
one property. Prospecting on the western portion has 
been undertaken in a number of shafts and cuttings. 
In the No. 1 or A working a 12 in. ore body lying on 
quartzite with slate underneath with a dip of about 12 
was being opened up, and the reef appeared tobe widen- 
ing at the time of the Journal s representative's visit 
In the B workings farther to the east, too, the reef ap- 
pears to be making. In the C workings the dip is 
steeper, and farther east again the reef in the D pros- 
pect is larger and has yielded 5dwt. over 24 in. In 
the next, known as the eastern workings, the reef had 
been sunk on to a depth of 114 ft., and was yielding 
6dwt over 4 in. More recently the values disclosed 
in the prospecting shafts on the reef identified as the 
Van Ryn have greatly improved, An old bore-hole 
was sunk on this property some years ago which en- 
countered a reef lying on shale at a depth of 1,943 ft. 
This reef assayed 1 1 dwt over 3 in. and was correlated 
with the Nigel. Under the present regime a bore hole 
was sunk to a depth of 265 ft., but was stopped at this 
depth, as it was considered to be below the horizon of 
the Van Ryn series. Another hole has now been placed 
1 .200 ft. to the south of this, and has reached a depth 
of 121 ft. It is estimated that in this hole the reef will 
be encountered somewhere around 1,500ft Farther 
to the east another drill of Sullivan H. pattern has been 
sunk to 219 

Adjoining the Town Lands are the properties of 
Houtpoort, Ltd I'rospectingand developing work are 
proceeding on Klippoortje and Tulipvale, and along 
the railway line to the north east of Heidelberg a well- 
developed line of reef, containing a number of black 
and striped pebbles with schistose enclosures, can be 
followed for a considerable distance. This outcrop, 
which runs almost parallel with the railway, is on 
Klippoortje, w here two bore- holes which obtained nega- 
tive results were put down some years ago. In the 
vicinity of the No. 6 shaft on the workings of Hout- 
poort, Ltd., the reef has been broken by an east and 
west line of faulting, but it has been located again, and 
in some portions assays of 10 dwt. over 2 ft. of reef are 
stated to have been obtained. Other workings on this 
section are styled the Nos. 2, 8, and 9, K. 1, and K 2 
prospects. The K. 1 workings got into dyke, and no 
reef is to be observed in this faulted zone so far. The 
K. 2 workings have followed the reef down to 37ft. 
and at this depth the conglomerate body is shown to 
be 2 ft. 4j in. and King on schist. This reef section 
has been divided into three portions and has given the 
following assays: 4 in., 3 4 dwt. ; 124in., 11 dwt , 
12 in., 2'6dwt. In the No. 9 workings the reef has 
given values of 5 dwt. over 4 ft. at a depth of 70 ft 



AUGUST, 1919 



117 



To the south-east of Klippoortje liesTulipvale, which 
is also a portion of the Houtpoort property. From 
the house just inside the fence and gate on the bound- 
ary of Tulipvale, a view is to be obtained to a corner 
of the Nigel mine, while to the west lies Heidelberg. 
A distance of twelve miles intervenes between Tulip- 
vale and the extremity of Boschfontein, and the greater 
portion of this ground is held by the Bleloch-Sauer in- 
terests. On the northern boundary of Tulipvale, within 
1 JO ft. of the Blesbokspruit and lying direct on slate is 
a reef 6ft. 6in., of which the bottom 6in. assayed 
lOdwt., and the other part 4 dwt. South of Tulipvale 
is the farm Poortje. 

The article proceeds to give an account of the prop 
erties with which Mr. Moffat and certain influential 
capitalists are identified. Reference has already been 
made to the late Dr. Corstorphine's report for the 
Platkopies Syndicate on the farms Nooitgedacht (261), 
Elandsfontein (281), and Platkopie (63), which consti- 
tute what may conveniently be termed the Moffat line 
of country. These farms, together with Koppiesfon- 
tein No. 304, lie to the south-west of Heidelberg and 
cover an extent of country approximating to 14 miles 
from the southern boundary of Koppiesfontein on the 
south to the northern part of Nooitgedacht on the 
north. Leaving Heidelberg to the north-east a drive 
of about four miles takes one on to Nooitgedacht, just 
outside the northern boundary of which a typical de- 
velopment of amygdaloidal diabase is to be observed. 
The gieater part of Nooitgedacht is overlain by quart- 
zites and conglomerates of the Upper Witwatersrand 
formation, but on the eastern portion of this farm the 
slates, quartzites, and banket beds of the Lower Wit- 
watersrand formation are clearly exposed. There are 
certain old workings on this farm — workings of the 
nineties — and it is reported that in one of these pros- 
pects a conglomerate body which has been correlated 
with the Bird Reef was opened up and gave values of 
7 dwt. per ton. To the east of Nooitgedacht lies the 
farm De Hoek No. 68. On the extreme south-western 
point of this farm a reef has been exposed by trench- 
ing. Judging from its geological horizon this reef is 
the same as that exposed on Nooitgedacht to the north 
and on Elandsfontein and Platkopie to the south. On 
the corner of De Hoek the reef is 15 in. wide and dips 
at a low angle into Nooitgedacht. It is proposed to 
sink a shaft here at no great distance from the De 
Hoek fence, with a view to intersecting the reef at a 
shallow depth. 

To the south of Nooitgedacht lies the farm Elands- 
fontein 281. The valley of the Sugar Bush River cuts 
through this property, which over its greater part is 
overlain by the sandstones and coal measures of the 
Karroo system. On the south-western and north-east- 
ern portions of the farm the Lower and Upper Wit- 
watersrand beds are not overlain by Karroo measures 
and may be clearly observed. At about the middle of 
Elandsfontein, the Consolidated Gold Fields of South 
Africa opened up a reef lying on slate about 25 years 
ago. This conglomerate body has been correlated with 
the Nigel Reef, that is the Main Reef Leader according 
to orthodox geologists. South of Elandsfontein is 
Platkopie No. 63. The southern and eastern portions 
of Platkopie are overlain by the amygdaloidal diabase 
of the Ventersdorp system, but on the western side the 
Witwatersrand beds are exposed dipping at an angle of 
about 25° to the west. A good deal of intelligent pros- 
pecting work has been carried out here on a reef lying 
on shale which is to be observed on the boundary of 
Platkopie and Elandsfontein and which has been ex- 
posed in a trench cutting for half a mile. This reef 
has a shale foot-wall and quartzite hanging, and dips 



at varying angles of from 15 to 30 c to the west. On 
the Elandsfontein boundary it is at its flattest, but as 
one proceeds southward the angle of dip increases un- 
til a point is reached at about the middle of the farm, 
where there appears to be considerable faulting, and 
the whole formation swings around to the east. In so 
far as the exposures in the trench are concerned, this 
ore-body exhibits an erratic tendency in regard to width . 
In places the pebble bed is 15 to 18 in. thick, while in 
other sections the conglomerates thin down to a mere 
pebble contact. The values obtained in this trench 
have ranged from 6 to 8 and 14 dwt. per ton. At the 
southern extremity of the trench the reef and its ac- 
companying beds manifest signs of faulting. The 
whole formation appears to have been swung around 
to the south east and the line of faulting would seem 
to be roughly denoted by the line of the spruit to be 
observed on this portion of the farm. Half-a-mile to 
the south east a reef which is in every degree compar- 
able with the conglomerate body referred to in the 
foregoing, has been exposed in a shaft. This reef lies 
on what has been termed a mud shale. The shale ex- 
hibits silicious amygdules and is regarded as possessing 
marked characteristics which enable one readily to dis- 
tinguish it from the shale development underlying the 
so called Kimberley series of the Upper Witwatersrand 
system. A shaft sunk on the banket at this point has 
exposed the reef as a well-developed body of conglomer- 
ate. But its erratic character, which seems in many 
ways to be comparable with the outstanding features 
of the Nigel Reef as worked in the Nigel mine, appears 
to be maintained, since on one side of this shaft an as- 
say of 36 dwt. per ton over 2 ft. was obtained, while on 
the other side values were negligible. To the south- 
west of this shaft are the sites of the bore-holes put 
down by the Platkopie Syndicate. These holes were 
apparently in igneous rock and obtained no results of 
any value. 

Still further to the south is situated Koppiesfontein 
No. 304, the northern portion of which is covered by 
the Ventersdorp amygdaloid. As the crow flies it is 
about 12 miles from the southern boundary of Koppies- 
fontein to the nearest point on the Vaal River. 

A characteristic and consistent geological feature over 
the greater part of this line of country is the persistent 
development of a conglomeratebody lying on sandstone 
with a quartzite hanging wall which is separated from 
amygdaloid diabase (the so-called Bird amygdaloid) by 
a belt of shale. This particular reef development is 
correlated with the Bird Reef series of the Central 
Rand. At numerous points it contains an apparently 
characteristic chalk pebble and it dips at a flat angle 
to the west. A distance of about 1,200 ft. separates it 
from the line of reef opened up by Mr. Moffat. This 
overlying conglomerate body has been exposed in 
several small shafts and cuttings on Platkopie. The 
reef is frequently split into a series of stringers, and at 
some points assays of 6dwt. per ton have been obtained, 
but values appear to be generally erratic. Another 
prominent feature of this line is the very marked de- 
velopment of a broad shale bed lying about two miles 
above the horizon of the reef worked by Mr Mof'lat. 
These shales are particularly noticeable at around the 
Elandsfontein- Platkopie -Scbikf on tein boundary bea- 
con, where the Sugar Bush River, after flowing through 
the eastern portion of Mount Arabel, cuts through a 
very large belt of these shales. 

The Moffat properties are now under the control of 
a company known as the Southern Rand Mines Synd 
cate, and the intention is to proceed with the initial 
prospecting of the farms and the proving of the line o( 
reef thereon exposed. The properties have already re- 



118 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



ceived the commendation of the late Dr. Corstorphine, 
and with a view to obtaining further conflrmation of 
Dr. Corstorphine's optimistic views and also obtaining 
expert advice on the best means of exploiting the auri- 
ferous conglomerates, it has just been decided to have 
the properties reported on by two well-known local 
mining engineers whose names stand high in the pro- 
fession. The reports of these gentlemen will be await- 
ed with very considerable interest. In the meantime 
the Journal expresses the opinion that the line of reef 
taken up by the Southern Rand Mines offers very 
promising opportunities for the demonstration of a 
payable extension of the Witwatersrand conglomerates 
from Heidelber^onwards. The sponsors of the syndi- 
cate are not concerned with the dual reef theory. They 
contend that they have in their properties the extension 
of the reef worked in the Nigel and Sub Nigel mines, 
that is to say, they claim to possess the Main Reef Leader 
of the orthodox school of stratigraphists This claim 
has been supported by Dr. Corstorphine. The syndi- 
cate is not engaged in the prospecting of a line of grit 
or grit contact as has been alleged by a member of the 
heterodox faith. The reef exposed on the properties 
referred to in the foregoing is a true conglomerate. It 
would appear to be a comparatively thin ore body and 
to have certain erratic characteristics both as regards 
width and gold content. But it is as much a con- 
glomerate as the Main Reef Leader or South Reef of 
the Central Rand. Moreover, it is an auriferous con- 
glomerate ; it contains gold and at numerous points 
along the line of prospecting it contains gold in payable 
quantities. 

The town of Balfour (previously termed McHatties- 
burg and Vlakfontein) lies about 17 miles as the crow 
flies to the south-east of Heidelberg The township is 
on the main Natal railway line and is the centre of a 
prosperous agricultural community. A small branch 
line forks off from Balfour to the (".roots lei Collieries, 
and it is reported that the Railway Administration has 
the construction of another line to the Free State in 
view. This branch line would traverse one of the most 
fertile areas of the Transvaal, and the future of Bal- 
four as a centre of agricultural industry is assured But 
there are also most unmistakable evidences of mineral 
wealth in this region, and it will not be surprising if 
Balfour becomes the centre of a flourishing outpost of 
the gold-mining industry within the next few years. 
This area, in common with most of the other sections 
of the Greater Heidelberg goldGelds, has been exten- 
sively prospected in the past, but it does not appear 
that the main geological features of this field were ap- 
preciated until recently. The Witwatersrand beds 
occur in the Balfour area in the form of an outlying 
basin, of which the southern rim is now being pros 
pected along the line of the farms Malanskraal No. 73, 
Driefontein No. 280, Tweefontein No. 98, Rietfontein 
No. 244, Wilgepoort No. 244, and Daspoort No. 120 
A complete section of the Lower and Upper Wit 
watersrand beds in their proper and ordered sequence 
forms an outstanding and favourable feature of this 
area. The section from the basal granite up to the Els- 
burg beds, which can beclearly observed in this locality, 
is in every degree comparable with a section through 
the heart of the rich Far East Rand area, across the 
stratigraphical line on which the great Modderfontein 
mines are working. The completeness and sequence 
of the various formations which make up this section 
have impressed a number of leading geologists and 
engineers most favourably. The onlv striking differ- 
ence to be noted between a section across the Malans- 
kraal- Wilgepoort line and a section across the Far East 
Rand is a difference in the thickness of the beds. This 



difference would account for mistakes which have been 
made in the past in prospecting this section of the 
country. 

The most prominent reefs outcropping on Wilgepoort 
are the Kimberley reef group, which reefs attain in 
places great widths, from 20 to 30 ft. , and generally pan 
gold. There are eight banket beds in this series within 
200 ft., and two more some 500 ft. on the dip. Where 
the Kimberley shales outcrop, their banded structure 
attracts the eye. It was on the Kimberley group that 
most work was done in this area in the past, it being 
taken for Main Reef series from the early days of the 
goldfleldsby prospectorsand miningengineers. Numer- 
ous shafts have been sunk on the different reefs, and a 
number of bore holes have cut the reefs in depth, show 
ing most encouraging values. On Wilgepoort a bore- 
hole under the direction of the late Dr. Carrick and 
Mr. J G I lutlmann cut two reefs, one at 90S ft., 15 in 
wide, assaying 114 dwt, and one at 953 ft., 30k in wide, 
assaying 6f dwt. On Daspoort a bore-hole put down 
under the direction of J II. Davies also cut two reefs, 
one at 2,024 ft , 174 in wide, assaying 15 4 dwt., and 
one at 2,464 ft., 30in. wide, assaying 783 dwt. Tins 
latter bore hole was carried down to 2,715 ft., where 
it cut a shale bed. On the lower beds a lot of shafts 
and bore-holes have tested the shale-sandstonecontacts 
looking for the Nigel Reef, and a small pebble banket 
reef from 12 to 30 in. wide is very persistent along this 
line. The attenuation of the strata and the prominent 
development of the so-called Kimberley series appear, 
however, to have misled the earlier searchers after a 
payable extension of the Far East Rand goldfields in 
this outlying area, The late Laurie Hamilton directed 
a considerable amount of work on two big pebble reefs 
which are now ascribed to Kimberley horizon, and in 
places he appears to have encountered good values, 
assays as high as 35 dwt. over 6 in. having been ob 
tained along this line. 

Proceeding from west to east, the line of strike of 
the formation appears to be east and west through 
Malanskraal, Driefontein, and Tweefontein, the dip 
being to the north. Across Wilgepoort the formation 
runs with a N.W.-S E line of strike and a dip to the 
north east in undisturbed country, and thereafter this 
line is maintained on Daspoort, although on this latter 
farm there are evidences of faulting and a substantial 
displacement of strata. To the east and south of Das- 
poort the formation is overlain by Karroo measures 
which are being worked on Grootvlei by the South 
Rand Exploration Company's colliery. Leaving Bal- 
four, a short drive to the south takes one to the line of 
banded ferruginous slates (often contorted and mag- 
netic) which so remarkedly resemble the Hospital Hill 
slates of the Central Rand, a characteristic formation, 
the value of which as a marker geologists are all 
agreed on. Traversing the formation from this hori- 
zon one cannot fail to be impressed with the ordered 
sequence of the various beds and their unmistakable 
similarity to a typical section across the Far East Rand 
At several points along this line trenches and cuttings 
have exposed reef formation and in some places shafts 
and diamond drill holes have penetrated to a substan- 
tial depth. 

But it is not until one has crossed the big vlei on the 
southern portion of Wilgepoort that important work is 
to be observed. From the vlei the ground rises fairly 
steeply up to the line of kopjes, below which the pros- 
pecting camp of the Far East Rand South Compan\ is 
located. This company, which has a nominal capital 
of £75,000 in ten shillings shares, is styled the Far East 
Rand (South) Gold Mines Selections. Ltd. (to give it 
its full title), owns 500 claims on Wilgepoort No. 244, 



AUGUST, 1919 



119 



and has been quietly prospecting this property for some 
months past under the management of J. A. Thorburn. 
The claims held run for about two miles along the out- 
crop, and the depth of the area is from six to ten claims 
on the dip. A great deal of intelligent work has been 
done here along a line of reefs lying immediately to the 
south of the prospecting camp. After all the failures 
of the earlier days it remained for the late Dr. Carrick 
and J. G. Hoffmann and the late Laurie Hamilton to 
divert prospecting work on to the line at present un- 
der exploitation. Their efforts resulted in the opening 
up of two banket reefs which \yere reported as being 
" 40 ft. and 120 ft. away from the shale contact." 

The reefs, A and B, which are now being developed 
are correlative to the reefs of the great mines of the 
Far East Hand. This view is held by a number of 
prominent geologists and mining engineers, so that 
the Far East Rand (South) Company has plenty of 
stratigraphical justification for prosecuting work on its 
property. The series containing the A and B Reefs 
exhibit a dip of about 30° to the north-east and the 
whole reef section shows a thickness of 4 ft. 6 in. with 
a bastard foot wall. In this respect the section ex- 
hibits a striking stratigraphical similarity to a section 



of the May Consolidated mine. The reefs have been 
opened up for a distance of 5,000 ft., while one shaft 
had, at the time of the Journal's visit, been sunk to a 
depth of 100 ft. and another shaft on the South Reef 
to a depth of 70 ft. In each of these shafts the reef is 
showing as a strong and well defined ore-body, and it 
would be well if the company was in possession of 
sufficient working capital to demonstrate the exist- 
ence or non-existence on Wilgepoort of large pay 
shoots similar to those worked on the Far East Rand. 
More important from the commercial point of view 
than the geological aspect is the question of the gold 
contents. In this respect the company is favourably 
circumstanced. The latest development gives assays 
as follows : No. I shaft at 150 ft. : Sample No. 1 over 
25 in., 122 dwt. ; sample No. 2 over 14 in., 12 - 3 dwt. ; 
sample No. 3 over 14 in., 9'3 dwt. ; sample No. 4 over 
25in.,6 6dwt. Drive(west): Sample No. 5over 12 in 
214 dwt. Good results have also been obtained on the 
ground of the Wilgepoort Syndicate adjoining the Far 
East Rand (South) property and also on Malanskraal. 
where a large ore-body which is correlated with the 
A Reef worked on the Wilgepoort Farm has been 
opened up. 



Geology of Southern Nigeria — At the meeting of 
the Geological Society held on June 25, A. E. Kitson, 
director of the Geological Survey of the Gold Coast, 
gave a lecture on the geology of Southern Nigeria, with 
special reference to the Tertiary deposits. The oldest 
rocks in Southern Nigeria comprise a series of quart- 
zites, schists of various kinds, blue and white marble, 
grey limestones, altered tuffs and lavas, amphibolites. 
and gneisses. Their strike varies from west-north-west 
and east-south-east to north-east and south-west. 
They occur in the northwestern portion of the country 
(Yorubaland), north of lat. 7° N., and in Oban- Hills 
region in the east. They may be classed provisionals 
as Pre-Cambrian. Intruded into these are large masses 
of granites of various kinds, syenite and diorite, with 
pegmatite dykes and aplite dykes. In some parts these 
rocks have shared in the dynamic alteration to which 
the oldest series has been subjected ; but usually they 
are practically unchanged. There is no definite evi- 
dence to show to what period they belong, but they 
are certainly Pre- Cretaceous, probably Middle and 
Early Palaeozoic. So far as observed, there is a great 
hiatus between the Pre-Cambrian and the next known 
sediments, the Upper Cretaceous. Normally, these are 
slightly inclined rocks. They include :(1) marine fossil- 
iferous shales, mudstones, limestones, and sandstones 
in the great valley between the Oban Hills and the Udi 
plateau, the fossils being principally ammonites and 
mollusca ; (2) estuarine fossiliferous carbonaceous 
shales, mudstones, and sandstones along the eastern 
foot of the Udi escarpment ; (3) lacustrine sandstones, 
shales, and black coal-seams, with numerous plant- 
remains; and (4) fluvio-lacustrine sands, shales, and 
pebble-bands in the lower and upper parts of the Udi 
plateau Flanking this plateau on the south and south- 
east, and extending thence over the southern part of 
the great valley to the Cross River, is a series of 
Eocene estuarine shales, clays, and marls, with sep- 
tarian nodules and pieces of coal and resin, and a rich 
fauna consisting principally of mollusca, but including 
fragmentary remains of whales, birds, fishes, and tur- 
tles. A thick series of sandstones, mudstones, shales, 
and seams of brown coal forms a large portion of the 
basin of the Niger, west of the Udi plateau. These 
rocks appear to be of lacustrine origin, and are prob- 
ably Eocene. They contain numerous remains of un- 
determined plants, largely of dicotyledonous types 



Their relation to the Cretaceous and to the Eocene 
estuarine series is uncertain. In the Ijebu Jebu dis- 
trict are bituminiferous sands and clays with Pliocene 
estuarine shells. Extending over practically the whole 
of the country south of lat. 7° 10' N., and west of the 
great valley of the marine Cretaceous is a varying 
thickness of (usually unstratified) clayey sands, prob- 
ably late Pliocene, the Benin Sands Series of J. Parkin- 
son. Along the coast-line and extending for consider- 
able distances up the Niger and Cross Rivers are 
fluviatile, deltaic, littoral, and swamp gravels, sands, 
and muds of Pleistocene and recent age. In the Cross 
River basin, intruded into the marine Cretaceous, are 
volcanic necks of decomposed agglomerate, and sills (?) 
and dykes of olivine-dolerite. These are probably Pre- 
Eocene. Faulting and local folding are visible in vari- 
ous portions of this district. Numerous silver-lead- 
zinc-iron lodes occur along these fault-lines, with brine- 
springs in several localities. The Yorubaland crystal- 
line rocks contain magnetite in considerable quantities, 
while these and the crystalline rocks of the Oban Hills 
show smaller quantities of cassiterite, gold, monazite, 
and columbite 

In reply to questions, Mr. Kitson said that private 
boring reports stated that gas, oil, and bitumen, also 
shell and lignite, had been obtained in bores along 
the Awni River, at depths of from 630 to 750 ft. He 
himself had seen some of this heavy oil and fossilifer- 
ous clayey sand, etc., and had noted that the latter 
contained many foraminifera and fragments of mol- 
lusca. From the general character of the fossils he re- 
garded them tentatively as Older Tertiary. The Orbi- 
toidal limestone to which reference had been made 
had been determined by R. B. Newton as Eocene. 
In the Awni district these Tertiary deposits rest directly 
on crystalline rocks. Farther east Upper Cretaceous 
beds apparently supervene between them and the crys- 
talline series, for from the material which Mr. Parkin- 
son had obtained from one bore (locality not given) 
Mr. Newton had identified an Upper Cretaceous 
Pelecypod. This linksthecontaining deposit with those 
of the Cross-River region in the east of the Colony. 
No Miocene or Oligocene deposits have been observed 
in the Ijebu district. There is no definite evidence re- 
garding the age of the Brown Coal Series. Litho 
logically the beds are less compact than those of the 
lascustrine and estuarine Upper Cretaceous, and so 



120 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



far as seen the plants are predominantly of dicotyle- 
donous types, whereas those of the Upper Cretaceous 
show few of these types. No correlation by the aid 
of the contained heavy minerals of the coarser beds 
has been made of the Tertiary deposits, for all the con- 
centrates from such beds contain all or most of the 
characteristic minerals of crystalline rocks : such as 
zircon, magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, tourmaline, stauro- 
lite, felspar, monazite, and kyanite. 

Low-Grade Nickel Ores. — The Journal of Indus- 
trial and Engineering Chemistry for July contains a 
paper by C. W. Davis describing experiments on the 
treatment of low-grade nickel ore from Webster, North 
Carolina, and Chichagof Island, Alaska. The North 
Carolina ore is a silicate associated with much iron, 
and averaging 1 % nickel. The Alaska ore is a mixture 
of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pentlandite, running 3 7 
nickel and 4% copper. 

No satisfactory concentration of the ores was ob- 
tained by sizing tests, panning, tabling, magnetic con- 
centration, or flotation. Magnetic treatment of the 
reduced North Carolina ore brought the concentra- 
tion of nickel from 0'97% to3"6%, the recovery being 
45%. An excess of concentrated nitric acid or aqua 
regia extracted the nickel from the finely ground ores 
by hot digestion. Other solvents in large excess dis- 
solved only part of the nickel. Hot, dilute sulphuric 
acid (2%) in excess extracted the nickel from the ores 
which had been reduced with water gas at 1,000' C. 
A large excess, however, was required to react with 
the iron present before much of the nickel was attacked. 
The nickel in the reduced ores was largely extracted 
with an excessive amount of ferric sulphate solution. 
No state of oxidation was found at which the nickel was 
soluble in dilute acid without having the iron soluble 
also. The best extracton of nickel as the chloride 
from the North Carolina ore was, with water, 10%, 
and with 1% acid, 37%. The acid requirement is 
nearly the same as that for the extraction of nickel 
from untreated ore. By mixing the North Carolina 
ore with an excess of salt and sulphur, and heating for 
some time at 1,000°C., it was found possible to vol- 
atilize 50% of the nickel as the chloride. A sulphide 
roast of the North Carolina ore followed by a treat- 
ment with dilute sulphuric acid gave an extraction of 
about 70% ; the consumption. howe\er, was prohibi- 
tive. By fusing the reduced North Carolina ore with 
an equal weight of nitre cake, 90",'> of the nickel was 
rendered water-soluble; with one-half as much nitre 
cake as ore, only 60% was water-soluble. The quantity 
of nitre cake required for the extraction of the nickel 
from roasted and reduced Alaska ore varied with the 
nickel content ; the ratio of the ore to sodium bisulphate 
was, for a 2'3% ore, 1 to 1 ; for a 3 to 4",, ore, 1 to 3 ; 
and for an 8 to 11% ore, 1 to 3. The best tempera- 
ture for the nitre cake roast was 500 C. Thirty minutes 
was sufficient for the fusion of small quantities of re- 
duced ore with nitre cake. By treating the Alaska 
nickel ore with an equal weight of nitric acid (70%), 
and heating for 2 hours at 250°C. 95% of the nickel 
was made water-soluble, while all but 1"2% of the 
nitric acid was driven off. Most of this acid could be 
recovered by absorption. 

Results obtained from the work on the low-grade 
nickel ore from North Carolina indicate that it cannot 
be profitably treated with the chemical market as it is 
at present ; but that a silicate ore even of as low grade 
as the ore examined might be economically worked, if 
of low iron content, by reduction and subsequent leach- 
ing with dilute sulphuric acid. With a favourable price 
forquantitiesof nitre cake, the sulphide ore from Alaska 
might be treated for the removal of nickel by roasting 



the tails from the copper flotation separation free from 
sulphur, reducing with charcoal, roasting with nitre 
cake, and extracting with water, the nickel to be re- 
covered electrolytically or by precipitation with lime 
after the removal of iron by means of calcium carbon- 
ate. The complexity of this treatment would be an im- 
portant factor in determining whether the process 
could be used. The Alaska ore might be treated with 
nitric acid, heated to remove most of the oxides of 
nitrogen, and the nickel extracted with water, the nitric 
acid being recovered by water absorption. The quan- 
tity of nitre acid recovered on large runs would largely 
determine the availability of this treatment. 

Queensland Wolfram. — The Queensland Govern- 
ment Mining Journal for Maycontainsabrief account. 
written by the manager, F. C. Cann, of the mines and 
mill at Wolfram Camp and Mount Carbine developed 
by the Thermo Electric Reduction Corporation, and 
now belonging to the Burma < >ueensland Corporation. 
A general outline of the dressing plant at Wolfram 
Camp is as follows : The ore gravitates to a grizzley 
with 1 5 in. openings, the oversize falling into No. 1 
jaw-breaker, set to break at 3 in. guage. The ore from 
this breaker falls on a second grizzley, the under- 
size joining the undersize from the first grizzley, and 
the oversize falling into No. _' jaw-breaker, set to break 
at 15 in. gauge. The product from No. 2 jaw-breaker 
joins with the former products, gravitates to a storage 
bin, and is then conveyed to the mill bin. From the 
mill bin the ore is fed to stamps. The stamp screens 
are of steel wire, \\ in. aperture. The pulp from the 
stamps is automatically sampled as it passes to hy- 
draulic classifiers. Thespigotdischargefrom theclassi- 
fiers go to jigs, and the overflow to settlers. The 
jigs have three hutches. The products from Nos. 1, 
2, and I hutches are fed separately on Wilfley tables, 
and the jig tails on to Buss tables. The middlings 
from the tables go to grinding pans, and the tailings 
from the tables to dewaterers. The spigot of 'hese 
dewaterers passes to the flotation plant, and the prod- 
uct from the grinding pans goes to a second group of 
classifiers. The spigots of these classifiers are fed on 
high-speed reciprocating tables. Middlings from these 
tables are elevated to grinding pans, the tails joining 
the tails from the Wilfley and Buss tables, and passing 
to flotation plant. The spigot of No. 1 group of sett- 
lers joins the overflow from No. 2 group of classifiers, 
and passes to classifiers of No. 3 group. The spigot 
of these classifiers feeds Isbell vanners, and the tails 
from the vanners go to flotation plant. The overflow 
from the No. 1 groupof settlers joinstheoverflow from 
No. 3 group of classifiers, and passes to large settlers, 
the spigot of these settlers feeding slime frames. The 
tailings from the slime tables join the tailings from the 
vanners, and are treated in a flotation plant separate 
from the flotation plant treating the tails from the 
tables. The water-concentration plant produces wol- 
fram and bismuth concentrate and the flotation plant 
molybdenite concentrate. Thewholeof themachinery 
is worked by electric motors, and the works are lighted 
by electricitv throughout. The generating plant is 
situated alongside the mill, and when completed will 
consist of four Diesel engines (of which two are already 
erected) of 200 b.h.p. each, and coupled direct to al- 
ternate current generators. Storage tanks for fuel oil 
have been erected at Cairns and Dimbulah, and also 
alongside the power-station. The oil is pumped into 
tanks on railway wagons at Cairns, and conveyed to 
Dimbulah ; then pumped into storage tanks at Dimbu- 
lah, and when required pumped into tanks on road- 
wagons and conveyed to the power-station storage 
tanks 



AUGUST, 1919 



121 



Amalgamating. — The May Journal of the Chemi- 
cal, Metallurgical & Mining Society of South Africa 
contains the report of a discussion on the prevention 
of the escape of mercurial fumes during the steaming 
of amalgamating plates. 

J. Fairfax Walker described the apparatus used for 
preventing their escape at the plant of Consolidated 
Main Reef. The old method of steaming plates, com- 
mon to most mines, is to have a wooden box, or cover, 
placed over the amalgamated plate, with the usualinlet 
of steam. The sides are jammed with sacks, or blan- 
ketting, with a view to retaining all the steam. The re- 
sult is that, except in the well-ventilated plate-houses, 
mercury-laden steam pervades the building. When 
the steaming cover is removed, the conditions are even 
worse, as the workmen have to handle steaming sacks 



10 lb. pressure for the required time, 10 to 15 minutes, 
after which the steam is turned off, the flexible steam 
pipe disconnected, hook bolts and angle iron stays taken 
adrift, and a water drain pipe plug at bottom end of cover 
taken out. The fan, or ejector, is kept going until all 
the fumes are eliminated, and then the top section of 
the cover is raised £ in. for two or three minutes to 
allow fresh air to enter under the cover and drive out 
the last of the fumes. Lastly, the flexible hose-pipe is 
disconnected from the cover. When the latter is re- 
moved there is not a trace of fume to be seen, the at- 
mosphere being quite clear and sweet. The advantages 
of the device are : first and foremost, safeguarding the 
health of the men operating on steaming amalgamated 
plates; secondly, the amount of steam used is much 
less than formerly, owing to its being evenly distri- 




S/8 INLCT AIR OR STEAM 

,l~GAf> BETWEEi* match boarding 
( £20 GAUGE GAl /RON 

'-'■1 £=* £?-■„£ 



I STEAM INLET 



'A F£U 




<j *^ _ /'■?"■;« Strap 

^f] Bolted sioss ' 

& ENDS 



-M FELT ON FACE 
OF JOINTS 



Perforated pipe 

Running ACROSS BOX 




Steaming Amalgamating Plates at Consolidated Main Reef. 



and steam is still present under the cover. The new 
device adopted to combat these conditions consists for 
a 12 by 5 ft. table of a clamped down cover made in 
two sections. The top of the cover is made of 20 gauge 
galvanized iron, bolted on to a wooden frame, on the 
bottom of which is tacked thick Kafir blanket, horse 
rug, or any such material. This cover is placed on the 
plate with four pieces of angle or channel iron, two for 
each section of the cover. Hook bolts are fixed to the 
frame below the plate, and the screw portion is slipped 
into slots in the angle iron and fastened down with fly 
nuts. This makes a tight joint between cover and 
plate. A 1 in. steam connection is fixed to the top sec- 
tion of the cover, passes inside, and spreads over the 
full width of the plate by means of a perforated pipe. 
A pressure of from 5 to 10 lb. is maintained. The 
steam is drawn off through a chamber, tapering in di- 
ameter from 11 to 4 in., by means of a canvas hose 5 in. 
in diameter. A 1 in. spiral wire is run inside the hose 
to stiffen it, and the outside is given two coats of oil 
paint to make it steam-tight. The fumes are exhausted 
through the roof by an induction fan which, on this 
plant, is placed outside the building. An air or steam 
ejector has been found a satisfactory substitute for the 
■fan. The method of operation is as follows : The fan, 
or ejector, is started and steam turned on at from 5 to 



buted all over the plate and concentrated under cover : 
thirdly, the fixing of the device and steaming of the 
plate are done in less time than by the old method. 
The cost of operating is small, while the cost of instal- 
lation is not great. On this plant the cost of installing 
all but the fan was under /100. 

J.J. Smythe then described a simpler apparatus em- 
ployed at the Village Main Reef. It was considered 
that under existing circumstances the Village Main 
Reef was not justified in going to the expense of such 
an elaborate plant as that on the Consolidated Main 
Reef. The steaming box and mercury fume extractor 
at Village Main Reef was devised to do away with an 
expensive installation of piping and a power-driven fan 
for exhausting the steam. The apparatus consists of 
an ordinary steaming box with a patent 6 m. H.A.S 
blower fitted to the lower end of the bottom half of the 
box and open to the interior. This Mower has a nozzle 
of A in. diameter, and consumes at 80 lb. pressure 21 '_' 
cub. ft. of free air per minute. In operation it is only 
necessary to turn on sufficient air to cause a vacuum 
strong enough to prevent steam leaking from bad joints 
caused by irregularities of the surface of the amal 
gamated plates, and full on for a few seconds when 
steam is turned off from the box in order to clear out 
any remaining vapour. Where air is unobtainable. 



12; 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



steam can be used in the blower. The whole opera- 
tion of steaming one plate should not cost in air con- 
sumption more than one penny, if as much. At the 
Village Main Reef a short piece of pipe, 8 ft. long, 
joined on to the blower carries the steam outside the 
building containing the plants and exhausts to atmos- 
phere. Contact between the box and plate is made 
by sufficiently weighting them down with movable 
weights. No attempt has been made here to condense 
the steam from the box and so recover mercury carried 
off, it being understood the quantity is too small for it 
to prove a commercial success in view of the cost of 
providing and running a condensing plant. As a re- 
sult of the experience with the 6 in. blower it is con- 
sidered that a 4 in. would be ample to do the work, and 
thereby save in weight and cost as follows: 6 in. 
blower, approximate cost, £ 12, approximate weight, 
33 lb. ; 4 in. blower, approximate cost, /10, approxi 
mate weight, 22 lb. 

Oolitic Ironstones. — At the meeting of the Minera 
logical Society held on June 17, R. 11. Kastali read a 
paper on the mineral composition of oolitic limestones. 
In many oolitic ironstones the ooliths contain more 
iron or are more highly oxidized than the matrix. As 
suming that the iron-content of such rocks is intro- 
duced by metasomatic replacement of calcium carbon- 
ate, this may be explained iu the following way : 
Many ooliths and organic fragments in limestones con- 
sist of aragonite, while the cement is calcite Arago- 
nite is less stable than calcite and more readily decom- 
posed by iron bearing solutions, which therefore at- 
tack the aragonite first, while the calcite is replaced 
later. Hence we have the following scheme, in succes- 
sive stages : 

(a) (b) (c) 

ooliths aragonite -» chalybite ■» limonite 
matrix calcite — calcite -* chalybite 

The ooliths are thus always a stage ahead of the ma- 
trix in replacement and oxidation. The origin of the 
green iron silicate, found in many ironstones, requires 
further investigation. 

SHORT NOTICES 

Concrete Shafts. — In the Engineering and Mining 

Journal for July 12. R. L. Russell describes the sink- 
ingand simultaneous concretingof ashaft at the Miami 
copper mine, Arizona. 

Electric Hoists. — In the Mining and Scientific 
Press for July 5, O. E. Jager describes the electric 
hoisting equipment at the Butte & Superior mine. 

Electric Drills. — The Iron & Coal Trades Review 
for July 18 contains a paper by A. H. Telfer, read be- 
fore the Association of Mining Electrical Engineers, 
describing the Crescent and Becander electrically- 
operated rotary drills intended for boring coal. 

Gold in China.. — In the Engineering and Mining 
Journal for June 21, H K. Richardson describes gold- 
washing operations on the Yang-tse-kiang in Sze-chuan 
province. 

Dredge for Colombia. — The Engineer for July 25 
gives an illustrated description of the bucket-dredge 
designed by Inder, Henderson, & Dixon, and made by 
Lobnitz & Co., for the treatment of gold-platinum de- 
posits in Colombia. 

OilMining.— In the Engineering and Miningjour- 
nal for July 5, S. S. Langley describes the methods of 
sealing oft water from oil wells. 

Concentration. — The Engineering and Mining 
Journal for June 28 is the "annual milling number" 
and contains a number of articles on comminution, 
water-concentration, and flotation 



Magnetic Separation. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for June 28, G. J. Young writes on 
working adjustments of the Wethenll magnetic separa- 
tor. 

Magnetic Separation. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for June2S, E. (i. Deutman describes 
the concentration practice in the Wisconsin zinc dis- 
trict. The blende is associated with iron sulphide in 
the form of marcasite. The concentrate is given a 
a roast which covers the marcasite with magnetic ox- 
ide but does not affect the blende. The two minerals 
are then separated magnetically 

Refining Graphite. — -The Engineering and Mining 
Journal for July 12 contains a paper by F. G. Moses 
on the refining of Alabama graphite and the production 
of a material suitable for crucible manufacture. 

Lake Superior Copper. — In the Engineering and 
Mining Journal for July 5, C. H. Benedict, metallur- 
gist to the Calumet & Hecla, writes on recent advances 
in ore-treatment practice at the copper mines of Lake 
Superior. 

Shasta County, California. — In the Mining ami 
Scientific Press for June 14, Herbert Lang continues 
his paper entitled "A Metallurgical Journey to Shasta, 
California." This instalment deals with early cyani 
ding and chlorination. 

Sintering. — In Chemical ami Metallurgical /•.'>;; i 
neering for June 15, R M. Draper describes the sin 
tering or nodulizing of fine flotation concentrate in ro 
tary kilns using pulverized coal. 

Zinc Smelting. In Chemical ami Metallurgical 
Engineering for June 15, R. S. Dean discusses the 
prevention of the formation of blue powder in the 
smelting of zinc, and the reason why salt added to the 
charge is effective in this prevention 

Treatment of Speiss. — Chemical and Metallurgi 
cal Engineering for July 1 contains a translation of a 
paper bv P I'apencordt appearing in a recent issue of 
Metall und Erz describing research in connection 
with the metallurgical treatment of complex speisses. 

Powdered Coal in Blast-Furnaces. — The July littl 
letin of the Canadian Mining Institute contains a paper 
1>\ I P Mathewson and W. L Wotherspoon on the 
Garred-Cavers method of using pulverized coal in blast 
furnaces treating copper ores. In particular, detailsof 
practice on the Sudburv copper-nickel ores at the works 
of the International Nickel Company, Copper ('lift, 
Ontario, are given. We intend toquote from this paper 
in our next issue 

Cement from Blast-Furnace Slag. — The Queens- 
land Government Mining Journal tor April contains 
a paper bv William Poole on the manufacture of ce- 
ment from blast-furnace slag, based on studies at the 
iron blast-furnaces at Newcastle and Lithgow, New 
South Wales. 

Copper in Arctic Canada. — The Mining ami Scien- 
tific Press for June 14 publishes a paper by J J. 
O'Neill describing the occurrence of native copper in 
Arctic Canada In our issue of May, 1917, we quoted 
Mr. O'Neill's paper on the subject that appeared in 
the March Bulletin of the Canadian Mining Institute 

Burma Geology. — The Journal of Geology for May 
contains a paper by M. H. Loveman, giving the results 
of his investigations of the geology ol certain parts of 
the Northern Shan States, Burma, not previously 
mapped. 

Wasapika, Ontario. — In the Canadian Mining 
Journal for July 9, Reginald E. Hore describes the 
Wasapika gold area in West Shining Tree district, 
Ontario. 

Chrome in Maryland. — In Economic Ceology for 
May, J. T. Sinnewald describes the Maryland chrome 



AUGUST, 1919 



123 



ore deposits. In early days these ores were of great 
importance. Since 1880 the output has been confined 
to concentrate from chromite-bearing sand. 

Queensland Coal. — The Australasian Institute of 
Mining Engineers' Proceedings No. 32 contains a paper 
bv J. F. Hall describing the Blair Athol coalfield, cen 
tral Queensland, 240 miles by rail from Rockhampton. 

Wonthaggi Coalfield. — The Australasian Instituted 
Mi ling Engineers' Proceedings No 32 contains a paper 
by H. Herman on boring operations at the Wonthaggi 
coalfield. 

Phosphate in Victoria. — The Australasian Institute 
of Mining Engineers' Proceedings No. 32 contains a 
paper by E. W. Skeats and E. O. Teale describing 
newly discovered phosphate deposits in the Howqua 
district, near Mansfield, Victoria. 

Oil in England. — In the Iron & Coal Trades Re- 
view for July 25, J. Ford discusses the oil occurrences 
in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, dealing specially 
with the results of the bore at Kelham, near Newark. 



RECENT PATENTS PUBLISHED. 
11,643 of 1917 (128,623). E B. Maxted and 

T. A. Smith, Walsall. Furnace for producing am- 
monia from nitrogen and hydrogen under pressure. 

12,078-9 of 1917 (128,649-50). J P. Roe, 
London. Guard sheaves for preventing ropes of aerial 
ropeways rising from the supporting sheaves. 

15,629 of 1917(128,676). Societe de Metal- 
lukgie Electrolytique, Paris. Improved struc- 
ture of rotary cathodes used in the electeo-deposition 
of copper, zinc, and other metals. 

467 of 1918 (128,327). P. L. Hulin, Grenoble, 
France. Removing water from hydrated magnesium 
chloride by means of hydrochloric acid formed in situ 
by burning hydrogen in chlorine gas. 

6,097 of 1918 (127,930). Cooper Co.. Cleve- 
land, Ohio. An alloy used in making high speed tools, 
consisting of nickel or cobalt, zirconium, aluminium, 
or silica, with or without tungsten, molybdenum, chro- 
mium or uranium. , 

6,126 of 1918 (127,931). A. Francois, Doncas- 
ter. Method of pumping cement into cavities against 
pressure. 

6,270of 1918(120,194). New Jersey ZincCo.. 
New York. Making a pigment consisting of lead sul- 
phate and zinc oxide by volatilizing the oxides from 
oxidized lead zinc ores and submitting the oxides to 
S0 3 which converts the lead oxide to sulphate but has 
no effect on the zinc oxide. 

9,379 of 1918 (127,964). P. J. MacDonald 
and C. L. Claflin, Los Angeles, California. Fur- 
nace for reducing oxides to metals by reaction with 
carbonic oxide or other gas. 

9,622 of 1918 (127,985). Sir H. Rogers and 
C. M. Walter, Birmingham. Improved cathode 
construction for use in connection with the electrolytic 
recovery of tin from scrap. 

10,509 of 1918 (128,729). Barclay & Co., 
Ltd., Kilmarnock. Improved compressed-air engines 
for haulage between working faces and the main haul- 
age-way. 

11,378 of 1918 (118,605). Norton Co, Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. Improvements in the method 
of refining bauxite by excess of carbon in the electric 
furnace. 

11,380 of 1918 (121.721). Norton Co., Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. Aluminous abrasives contain- 
ing silica and an alkali oxide, the relative propor- 
tions of these being regulated according to the required 
strength of grain of the abrasive. 



11,424 of 1918 (128,041). E A Davies and A. 
CRYER, Cardiff. In hoisting plant for mines using 
balanced cages, gear for adjusting thecages as the rope 
stretches. 

13,245 of 1918 (128.455). G. H. T. Raynek 
and P. Rayner, Sheffield. Improved tool retaining 
device for percussive rock-drills. 

16.333 of 1918(128,818). E F. Morris. Roby. 
Liverpool. Method of obtaining white antimonious 
oxide from metallic antimony. 

16,334of 1918(128,482). E..F. Morris, Roby. 
Liverpool. Method of manufacturing antimony pig- 
ments. 

18,818 of 1918 (128,833). A. W. Gregory. 
London. Removing tin from scrap by ammonium 
polysulphides. 

381 of 1919 (128,507). Air Reduction Co , 
New York. Extraction of cyanides from furnace pro- 
ducts. 

2,103 of 1919 (128,517). A. Maes. Souvret. 
Belgium. A machine for trimming mine timbers. 

2,936 of 1919 (128,521). T. Price, Nanaimo. 
British Columbia. For the prevention of accidents 
due to breakage of wire ropes in hoisting plant where 
cages are balanced against each other, the provision 
of a second rope which winds on and off the same 
drums, in this way making it unnecessary to use bigger 
drums. 

3,242 of 1919 (128,865). Ceretti & Teofam. 
Milan. Improved turning stations for three-cable 
aerial ropeways. 



NEW BOOKS 

^•"Copies of the books, etc . mentioned below can be obtained 
through the Technical Bookshop of The Mining Magazine. 
723, Salisbury House, London Wall, E.C.2. 

Practical Instructions in the Search for, and the De- 
termination of, the Useful Minerals, including the 

RareOres. Second Edition. By Alexander McLeod. 

Price 6s 6d. net. New York : John Wiley & Sons. 

This small but comprehensive work of reference is 
dated 1917, although it was received for review only a 
month ago. It is a type of book, unfortunately too 
common in America, which reduces the conscientious 
reviewer to despair, and makes him wonder why pub- 
lishers accept certain technical manuscripts without 
subjecting them to a careful examination such asnovels 
must undergo before they reach the greater perman- 
ence of print. The book itself is, in this case, one 
which would probably be useful to the prospector in 
the field ; but the modern prospector, being a trained 
economic geologist or mining geologist, will recognize 
at once bow much better it might have been done had 
a little more time been devoted to the technique of 
blowpipe analysis, and accuracy of nomenclature, and 
in the proof reading stage to the deletion of infelicitous 
phrases and unnecessary opinions. As an example of 
the latter, we are told repeatedly that " absolutely no 
skill is required " to carry out the tests described, many 
of which are said to be " gorgeously simple." Frankly 
such a statement is not a compliment to the prospec- 
tor, whether he be the rough diamond of the older 
mining fields, or the highly-trained specialist of to-day 
The determination and location of minerals generally 
requires very rare skill, and an author who denies it 
adopts an unbecomingly modest attitude. As an ex- 
ample of inaccuracy of nomenclature (and fact) the 
followingsentenceisworthv of quotation (p. 9): "Some 
minerals, like tin, mona/.ite, uranium, and wolfram. 
are only found in old strata." 

The author, however, is filled with enthusiasm for 



124 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



his subject, and on p. 104 he momentarily drops into 

a poetic vein : 

" Who says the prospector's day hath fled ? His day 

is new ; and it is merely early morn. 
" And thecontinents, practically unexplored, especially 

as far as the rare ores are concerned, invite him to 

their undiscovered bonanzas." 

Arthir Holmes. 

The Elements of Astronomy for Surveyors. By R. 

W. Chapman. Cloth, octavo, 247 pages, illustrated. 

Price 5s. net. L6ndon : Charles (iriffin & Co., Ltd. 

An Australian professor (University of Adelaide) has 
put this work together with the object of providing a 
succinct and reliable exposition, not only of the most 
serviceable methods of observation and computation, 
but also of the main principles on which they are based, 
and which should be thoroughly understood if the 
formula- for the reduction of the field work are to be 
intelligently applied. He has endeavoured in his treat- 
ment of the subject to maintain a position intermediate 
between that of the severely practical text- book of 
surveying, which usually contents itself with catalo- 
guing the results of trigonometrical inquiry, and that 
of the treatise on astronomy, which indulges in mathe- 
matical disquisitions too recondite for the beginner to 
follow, besides discussing many matters that have but 
a remote bearing on survey work. By thus keeping in 
view the needs of the student as well as of the practi 
tioner, he has succeeded in producing a really useful 
book, and one that satisfactorily fills a gap in the 
literature of surveying. 

The twelve chapters into which the volume is divided 
deal respectively with the following sections of the 
subject: The solution of spherical triangles; the celes- 
tial sphere and astronomical co-ordinates ; the earth ; 
the sun ; the location of objects on the celestial sphere ; 
astronomical and instrumental corrections to observa- 
tions of altitude and azimuth ; the determination of 
true meridian ; the determination of latitude ; the de- 
termination of time by observation ; the determination 
of longitude ; and the convergence of meridians. Many 
explanatory diagrams, fully worked out actual observa- 
tions, and examples for working, are given ; and con- 
siderable attention is paid to analysing the effects of 
various observational and instrumental errors. 

Of all the operations performed by a surveyor in the 
field none is more fundamentally important than the 
establishment of a true meridian. To the ways of de- 
termining this the author has quite rightly devoted the 
longest chapter in the book. Four methods are dis- 
cussed : Equal altitudes of a circumpolar star ; circum- 
polar star at elongation ; extra-meridian observations 
on sun or star ; and time observations upon a close 
circumpolar star. The first may be ruled out by reas- 
on of its enjoining on the surveyor an almost all-night 
vigil ; the second is on the whole the most satisfac- 
tory ; the third is very convenient, and, especially 
when a star is used, is quite accurate enough for most 
purposes ; the fourth, which is a variant of the second, 
is more suited to the precise requirements of the geo- 
desist. By a little careful planning it is a fairlv sim- 
ple matter to arrange a programme of comfortable 
duration which includes observations on two circum- 
polar stars and on several east and west stars close to 
the plane of the prime vertical. The observations on 
the east and west stars can be fitted in before and be- 
tween the observations on the circumpolars. If bright 
stars are available, operations may be begun half an 
hour or an hour before sunset, provided of course that 
the position of. the stars on which daylight observa- 
tions are to be made have been calculated beforehand. 



It is not generally known that Polaris can be observed 
with the ordinary engineer's transit a little before sun- 
down or in the early dawn ; and that it is possible to 
observe a very bright star like Sirius at almost any 
time of the day. It is better for beginners, however, 
to confine their star work to the dark hours ; the con- 
stellations are then all visible ; and with the aid of a 
chart the star observed can be identified with certainty, 
and can be easily brought into the field of view by 
sighting along the top of the telescope. The author 
employs for the reduction of extra-meridian observa- 
tions the usual formula in which the co - angles 
are used ; he does not mention the one which en- 
ables the computation to be entered with the direct 
angles. The formula which allows of this being 
done, a simple modification of one of the primary 
equations of spherical trigonometry, was derived by 
John G. McKlroy, of Beckenbridge, Colorado, and is 
explained in the Michigan Engineer s Annual for 1889 ; 
it is much used in the United States. For the deter- 
mination of latitude the method, among others, of meri- 
dian altitude of sun or star is given as the most con- 
venient, and for precise work the method of zenith 
pair of stars. This latter method, devised by Captain 
A. Talcott in 1834, consists in observing two stars 
which culminate at approximately equal altitudes on 
opposite sides of the observer's zenith. Local mean 
time is generally obtained by means of an extra meri- 
dian observation of the sun or of east or west stars, 
on similar lines to the extra meridian observation for 
azimuth. In determining longitude the surveyor is 
usually restricted by circumstances to the method of 
moon-culminating stars, which, as the author points 
out, will, at best, permit him only an accuracy of 5 
seconds of time, corresponding to 1| minutes of arc or 
to a distance of one mile near the equator. It is to be 
hoped therefore that astronomers will be able to ad- 
dress themselves to the longitude problem with some 
anticipation of relieving existing observational disabili- 
ties. 

Surveyors would be further indebted to the author 
if he .would indicate to them the degree of precision 
attainable by the various methods of observation when 
performed with the ordinary type of 6 in. transit theo- 
dolite. Standards for comparison are highly desir- 
able in order that surveyors may be in a position to 
assess the quality of their work. They have probably 
read that with such an instrument azimuth should be 
obtained from the sun within from 1 to 3 minutes of 
the truth, depending on the care exercised, and from 
a circumpolar star within 20 seconds ; latitude, by a 
pair of observations on a close circumpolar star, with- 
in 20 seconds, and by the Talcott method, within 10 
seconds ; and so on. A critical review of this question 
of reliability of result under prescribed instrumental 
conditions would be of considerable value. 

Alex, Richardson. 

Text-Book of Rand Metallurgical Practice, Vol II. 

Second Edition. Cloth, octavo, 470 pages, illus- 
trated. Price 25s. net. London : Charles Griffin 
& Co. Ltd. 

Eight years or so ago a number of mining men and 
metallurgists on the Rand combined to publish a record 
of the methods adopted on that goldfield for crushing 
the ore and extracting the gold. A second edition of 
the first volume appeared a year or so after the first 
edition. A second edition of the second volume has 
recently made its appearance. In the interval a large 
number of variations in practice have been introduced, 
and the author, Mr. C O. Schmitt, has revised and 
extended the volume accordingly. We would here say 



AUGUST, 1919 



125 



that the two volumes partly cover the same ground, 
but the first deals with the metallurgical problems of 
milling and extraction, while the second is concerned 
with the mechanical side or the design and construction 
of the plants. In looking through the new volume, we 
see that the sections devoted to stamp-mills and tube- 
mills have been modified, according to present practice 
in coarse crushing with heavy stamps and putting more 
of the work on tube-mills, and the theory of the design 
of tube-mills is at the same time expanded. Particu- 
lars are given of the Johnson & Winterton screen used 
for removing the finer material from the ore before 
being fed to the stamps, and the benefits of classifica- 
tion before tube-milling are discussed in greater detail. 
In the amalgamation section attention is drawn to the 
modern practice of placing the amalgamating plates 
below the tube-mills instead of below the stamps. In 
the chapters on the transport of materials, additional 
matter deals with the hardening of the surface of 
dumps and the carriage of sand for filling. The biblio- 
graphy has been extended. Twenty new illustrations 
are given. The additional matter is not, altogether, 
very great, and some readers would doubtless have 
been glad if the modifications in practice had been de- 
scribed in more detail, especially seeing that descrip- 
tions already published are not now easy of access. 
During the past five years there has been little oppor- 
tunity for extensive research, but Rand practice has 
not stood still and innovations in, for instance, precipi- 
tation and in dissolution and decantation will be intro- 
duced in practice as financial conditions allow. Neces- 
sarily, no note is made in this volume of prospective 
improvements. 
Compressed Air Plant. Third Edition. By Robert 

Peele. Cloth, octavo, 490 pages, illustrated. Price 

20s.net. New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London: 

Chapman & Hall. 

This is the third edition of a book that has had con- 
siderable vogue in the United States during the last ten 
years. Mr. Peele, as professor of mining in the Col- 
umbia School of Mines, has a large audience, and his 
recent " Mining Engineer's Handbook " has extended 
his influence throughout the world. Compressed air 
practice develops rapidly and much re-writing is neces- 
sarv in preparing new editions. This book is useful as 
an exposition of American practice, and in this country 
it will be taken as a supplement to other text-books or 
courses of instruction. The main headings of the book 
are : the compression of air, the transmission of com- 
pressed air, compressed-air engines and other devices 
used in hoisting, haulage, and pumping, and rock- 
drills and similar percussive tools. 
Studies in the Construction of Dams. By Professor 

E. R. Matthews. Paper boards, octavo, 48 pages, 

illustrated. Price 4s. 6d. net. London: Charles 

Griffin & Co., Ltd. 

This book is written on the question and answer 
system, and is intended for students preparing for such 
examinations as that for the Associate Membership of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers. It covers earthen 
and masonry dams, and deals with calculations of de- 
sign and general description rather than of the method 
of construction. 

Oil and Petroleum Manual for 1919. By Walter 
R. Skinner. Cloth, octavo, 250 pages. Price 6s. net. 
London: Walter R. Skinner. This is the tenth annual 
volume of a well-known manual, K' vm g particulars of 
all the oil-producing companies known in London. 

The Inflammability of Aluminium Dust. By Alan 
Leighton. Technical Paper No. 152 of the United 
States Bureau of Mines. 



Black-Sand Deposits of Oregon and Northern Cali- 
fornia. By R. R. Hornor. Technical Paper 196 of 
the United States Bureau of Mines. 

Extinguishing and Preventing Oil and Gas Fires. 
By C. P. Bowie. Bulletin 170 of the United States 
Bureau of Mines. 

Innovations in the Metallurgy of Lead. By I> A 
Lyon and O. C. Ralston. Bulletin 157 of the United 
States Bureau of Mines. 

Mining and Milling of Lead and Zinc Ores in the 
Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma Zinc District. By C. A 
Wright. Bulletin 154 of the United States Bureau of 
Mines. 

Shutting-Off Water in Oil and Gas Wells. By F 
B. Tough. Bulletin 163 of the United States Bureau 
of Mines. 

Sulphur Dioxide Method for Determining Copper 
Minerals in Partly Oxidized Ores. By C. E. Van 
Barneveld and E. S. Leaver. Technical Paper No. 
198, published by the United States Bureau of Mines 

Fifteenth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Mines 
of Colorado. This covers the years 1917 and 1918, 
and is issued by F. Carroll, Commissioner. 

Third Annual Report of the State Oil and Gas 
Supervisor of California. By R. P. McLaughlin. 

Canadian Mining Manual 1918. Edited by Regin- 
ald E. Hore. Published by The Canadian Mining 
Journal. 

Limestone Deposits of New South Wales. By J 
E. Carne and L. J. Jones. Sydney : The Geological 
Survey. 



COMPANY REPORTS 

Broken Hill Block 10.— The report of this company 
for the half-year ended March 31 shows that 27,762 
tons of ore was raised, averaging 1103% lead, 10 s. 
zinc, and 9 65 oz. silver per ton. This ore, together 
with 13,447 tons of Block 14 ore, averaging 14 29% 
lead, 1163% zinc, and 10 92 oz. silver per ton, was 
sent to the joint concentration plant. The total of ore 
treated was 41, 209 tons, averaging 1209% lead, 11 07 % 
zinc, and 1006 oz. silver per ton. At the water-con- 
centration plant the yield was 5,886 tons of lead con- 
centrate averaging 64T7% lead, 6'62% zinc, and 34 98 
oz. silver. Of the tailing products 11,064 tons of lead 
slime, averaging 6'3% lead, 1316% zinc, and 9'36 oz. 
silver was sent to the lead-flotation plant, where 823 
tons of lead concentrate was extracted averaging 57 03°,. 
lead, 1118% zinc, and 76'24 oz. silver. The tailing 
from the two lead plants, amounting to 34,500 tons, 
averaging 11% zinc, 2 14",, lead, and 4 23 oz. silver, 
was sent to the zinc flotation plant, where 7,199 tons 
of concentrate was produced, averaging 46'8°„ zinc, 
5 '36",. lead, and 12 72 oz. silver. The final residue, 
amounting to 27,301 tons, averaged 1'29% lead, 
zinc, and 2 oz. silver. The profit for the half-year was 
£16,859, out of which £15,000 was distributed as divi- 
dend, being at the rate of 3s. per £\0 share. 

Broken Hill Block 14.— The mining ol sulphide ore 
was resumed in November, 1917, after the company 
had depended for its income for many years on car 
bonates from the old stopes in the upper levels At 
first the sulphide was sent to the Junction North mill, 
but from June, 1918, it has been sent to the new 
treatment plant owned jointly by this company and 
Block 10. The report for the half year ended March 31 
last shows that 13,447 tons of sulphide ore was raised 
and treated. Particulars of treatment are given in the 
preceding paragraph. 1 hiring the same period, 3,817 
tons of carbonate ore, averaging 22 '32"., lead and 13'62 
oz. silver per ton, was raised. The accounts show a 



126 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



profit of £7,748, of which £1,975 was received as divi- 
dend on shares held in the King Island Scheelite Co. 
The dividends absorbed £6,500, of which £l,500 went 
to the preference shares, and £5,000 to the ordinary 
shares of £l. 5s. each. 

Briseis Tin & General Mining. — This company was 
formed in London in 1899 to acquire alluvial tin de- 
posits in the north-east of Tasmania. On the exhaus- 
tion of the original properties, others adjoining were 
purchased, and subsequently alluvial gold mines were 
acquired in Victoria. Lake & Currie are the consult- 
ing engineers, and Lindesay C. Clark is general mana- 
ger. The report for 1918 shows that at Krushka's 
Flat 197,000 cu. yd. yielded 2568 tons of tin concen- 
trate ; at Ringarooma 300,000 cu. yd. yielded 65 tons, 
and at Mutual Hill 38,953 cu. yd. gave7'6 tons. The 
total yield was 328 tons, which, on treatment at Laun- 
ceston, yielded 234'3 tons of metallic tin. The tin was 
sold in Australia for £74,888, the average price being 
£319. 12s. 6d. per ton. Owing to low rainfall and 
consequent shortage of water, development of the 
properties by removal of overburden and re-diversion 
of the river have been retarded, and a smaller output 
may be expected this year. Owing to the greater 
depth of the workings it will be necessary to look out 
for additional water supply. The Mutual Hill work- 
ings have been exhausted. In Victoria the last dredge 
in operation treated 238,600 cu. yd. for a yield of gold 
worth £3,899. Operations at these properties have 
now ceased. An option has been obtained on an allu- 
vial property at Gulgong, New South Wales, and bor- 
ing is being conducted. The company's accounts show 
a net profit of £39,270, out of which £30,000 has been 
distributed as dividend, being at the rate of 

Lake View & Star. — This company was formed in 
1910 to acquire thegold-mining properties of the Lake 
View Consols and Hannan's Star companies at Kal- 
goorlie, West Australia. Bewick, Moreing & Co. are 
the general managers, and James Brothers are the 
consulting engineers. The report for the year ended 
February 28 last shows that 114,613 tons of ore was 
treated, for a yield of gold worth £136,507. The bal- 
ance of profit was £4,967, out of which and the bal- 
ance brought forward from the previous year £5,000 
was written off for depreciation of plant The amount 
of ore treated was 25,073 tons less than in the pre\ ious 
year, this reduction being in pursuance of the policy of 
selective mining during the period of high costs and 
scarcity of labour. Developments at the Lake View 
mine continued to disclose both oxidized and telluride 
ore. In Hannan's Star, ore was found in a winze be- 
low the 1,100ft. level. At Chaffers, No. 2 lode was 
opened up further on the 2nd and 3rd levels. In spite 
of the development at the three propenies being re- 
stricted, the ore reserves were maintained. They now 
stand at : Lake View 55,401 tons averaging 28s. 8d., 
Hannan's Star 240.213 tons averaging 25s. 10d., Chaf- 
fers 4,660 tons averaging 26s. 7d. per ton. 

Bullfinch Proprietary. — This company was formed 
in 1910 by Sir George Doolette, D. L. Doolette. ami 
others to acquire agold-mining property near Southern 
Cross, West Australia. The mine has not developed 
in depth in the way that was hoped, judging from the 
rich ore near surfaces, and dividends have been small. 
The report for 1918 shows that 57.609 tons of ore was 
treated for a yield worth £60,412, equal to 20s. lid. 
per ton, while the mining cost was £58,582 The ore 
reserve is estimated at 59,498 tons of similar tenor to 
that milled during the year, and developments continue 
to disclose the same quality of ore. If the working 
costs can be restored to their former level, or if ore of 
higher grade is discovered, a return to dividend-pay- 



ing may be expected. In order to place the company 
on a sounder financial basis and provide funds either 
for extra development or for the purchase of a new 
property, reconstruction is to be undertaken. Present 
£l shares are to be exchanged for a similar number of 
5s. shares, and 200,000 new 5s. shares are to be creat- 
ed and issued for cash whenever the occasion arises. 

Consolidated Gold Fields of New Zealand. —This 
company was formed in 1896 to acquire from David 
Ziman a number of gold-mining properties at Reefton, 
New Zealand. The Progress and Black water mines 
were floated as subsidiaries, and the company contin- 
ued to work the Wealth of Nations. The report for 
1918 shows that in April of that year a fire caused the 
cessation of work, and the mine is only now being 
reopened. During the short time the mine was work 
ing, gold worth £4,955 was recovered. The company 
also received dividends of £4,606 from its holding in 
Blackwater Mines. The profit was £2,221 . — Progress 
Mines. During 1918, the mill treated 16,320 tons of 
ore for a yield of £23,375, at a working cost of £21,893. 
There was also charged against revenue : development 
£4,280, depreciation £2,978, and debenture interest 
/ 1,719, so that there was a debit balance of £5,776. 
Blackwater Mines. During 1918, the mill treated 
31,728 tons of ore for a yield of £61,309, while the 
working cost was £38,597. After allowing for develop- 
ment and depreciation, the net profit was £10.885. 
Dividends absorbed £12.499, being at the rate of 5",,. 
The ore reserve is estimated at 84,887 tons averaging 
10 84 dwt. per ton over 3 ft. The mining operations 
of this group have been greatly hampered by scarcity 
of labour. 

Siamese Tin. Tins company uas formed in 190o to 
dredge alluvial tin ground at Ngow, in the Renong 
district of the Western Siamese States. H. G. Scott 
is general manager, and A N Wakefield is manager 
at Ngow The report for the year 1918 shows that 
two of the three bucket dredges were out of commis- 
sion for a considerable time owing to the necessity for 
repairs. The total ground treated was 1,656,900 cu. 
yd., and the output of tin concentrate was 777 tons. 
The yield per yard was 1 051b., worth 17 48d. The 
income was £212,707, and the net profit £35,652, out 
of which £30,000 has been distributed as dividend, be- 
ing at the rate of 25".,. 

Ipoh Tin Dredging. This company was formed in 
1913 to acquire alluvial tin property in the Kinta val- 
ley, l'erak. Federated Malay States. Since 1915 the 
local management has been in the hands of the Borneo 
Company. Reginald Pawle is chairman, and L. < ! 
Attenborough is mine manager. The report for 1918 
shows that 634,820cu. yd. was treated, for a yield of 
246£ tons of tin concentrate. The yield per yard was 
0'82lb. The proceeds of the sales, less Government 
taxes, were £45,219, and the net profit was £"14,916, 
out of which £8,960 has been paid as dividend, being 
at the rate of 10% free of tax. The amount of ground 
dredged during the year was 9£ acres, and the average 
depth was 4l| ft. The dredge was in rather poor 
ground part of the time. A new screen and new buck- 
ets have been supplied recently. During the year a 
block of land with an area of 10£ acres was acquired. 
This area is not valuable for tin contents, but affords 
room in which the dredge can turn. 

Kramat Pulai. — This company belongs to the Tro- 
noh group, and was formed in 1907 to acquire alluvial 
tin property at I'ulai, in the Kinta valley, l'erak, Feder- 
ated Malay States. Dividends have been paid since 
1912. B. W Thunder is manager. The report for 
191S shows that 1 77 tons of tin concentrate and 70 tons 
of scheelite concentrate were extracted In addition, 



AUGUST, 1919 



127 



114 tons of tin concentrate and 71 tons of scheelite con- 
centrate were won by tributers. The income from the 
sale of the company's output was £4 1,037, and the in- 
come from tributing was £7,603. The net profit was 
^35,551, out of which £25,000 has been distributed as 
dividend, being at the rate of 25%. Part of the bal- 
ance will go as Excess Profits Duty. 

Burma Ruby Mines. — This company was formed in 
1889 by the Rothschilds to consolidate a number of 
alluvial properties containing rubies and other precious 
stones at Mogok, Burma. The financial results have 
been generally disappointing. The report for the year 
ended February 28 last shows that 903,760 loads of 
ground was washed for a yield of stones valued at 
£44,168. The trading account shows sales of stones 
locally £46, 145, and in London £4,697. The year's 
work ended in a loss of £562, which, added to the de- 
ficiency of £6,753 brought forward from the previous 
year, make a total debit of £7,316. The company has 
suffered from lack of labour, due to natives preferring 
to work on tribute and to their going to other mines, 
such as those of the Burma Corporation. Another ad- 
verse circumstance is the exhaustion of the better grade 
ground in the neighbourhood of the treatment plant. 
New methods of treatment are being tried experiment 
ally. 

Libiola Copper. — This company was formed in 1867 
to reopen a pyrites mine near Sestri Levanti, in north 
Italy, not far east of Genoa. The report for 1918 shows 
that owing to war conditions, the output of pyrites con- 
tinued to decrease. The mining costs were 60% higher 
than in 1917. The profit for the year was £1,819. 
The reserve is estimated at 990 tons of copper ore and 
1 1 ,000 tons of pyrites. Since the armistice, the demand 
for pyrites has fallen away, and this, together with la- 
bour troubles, made it necessary to close the mine. It 
is impossible to say when work can be profitably re- 
sumed. 

Esperanza Copper & Sulphur. — This company was 
formed in 1906, to acquire the Esperanza, Forzosa, and 
Angostura pyrites mines in the south of Spain. G. 
Mure Ritchie is chairman, and T. D. Lawther ismana- 
ging director. The report for 1918 shows that 62,720 
tons of pyrites was raised, being 23,913 tons less than 
1917, and that the shipments from the port of Huelva 
were 67,546 tons, or 11,732 tons less than in the previ- 
ous year. The output of copper precipitate was 60 
tons, as compared with 104 tons. The net profit for 
the year was £4,761, to which was added £17,897 
brought forward, making a disposable balance of 
£22,658. Out of this, £17,500 was distributed as divi- 
dend in August last, being at the rate of 5%. The 
shipments throughout the year were irregular, owing to 
war conditions. After the signing of the armistice, de- 
mand ceased temporarily. It became necessary to sus- 
pend operations at Angostura and Forzosa at the end 
of October, and at Esperanza in January, 1919. The 
Esperanza was re-opened in June. The San Daniel 
and Nueva Esperanza properties have not given good 
results in development, and work has been stopped. 
The company's total ore reserves are estimated at 
886,000 tons. The company has recently acquired 
control of the New Lymni Company, which owns ex- 
tensive low-grade pyrites deposits in Cyprus. Thecom- 
pany has also purchased a small copper-extraction 
works at Stockton-on-Tees. 

Poderosa. — This company was formed in 1908 to 
acquire from local owners a group of copper mines at 
Collahuasi, Chile, not far from the Antofagasta tV Bo 
livia railway. The report for 1918 shows that ship- 
ments of ore to the United States were suspended in 
June, owing to shipping restrictions, and accumula- 



ted ores had to be disposed of locally. Mining opera- 
tions thereafter ceased for a time. The concentration 
plant was shut down in May owing to bad weather and 
shortage of fuel. Under the financial strain caused by 
reduced outlet for products, it was impossible to do 
much development. The output of ore at the Poder- 
osa was 2,557 tons averaging 32% copper, and at the 
Rosario242 tons averaging 27%. At the concentration 
plant, 3,547 tons averaging 4 2% copper yielded 316 
tons of concentrate averaging 26% copper. The total 
shipments during the year were 3,309 tons averaging 
30'7%. The ore also contains silver, the average of 
that shipped being 12'45oz. per ton. The reserve is 
estimated at 8,000 tons averaging 22%, and 5,000 tons 
of milling ore averaging 5%. The accounts show re- 
ceipts from the sale of products £60,100, and a debit 
balance for the year of £18,662. 

Antelope. — This company was formed in 1908 by 
the Rhodesian Exploration & Development Co. to ac- 
quire gold-mining properties in the West Gwanda dis- 
trict of Rhodesia, 60 miles south of Bulawayo. Con- 
trol passed subsequently to the Gold Fields Rhodesian 
Development Co. Milling commenced toward the end 
of 1913, the process consisting of dry crushing, roast- 
ing, pan-amalgamation, and cyaniding. No dividend 
has been paid. The report for 1918 shows that 39,830 
tons of ore was treated, for a yield of 18,224 cz. of gold, 
selling for £79,565. The working cost was £78,176. 
Various factors have combined to make the situation 
unsatisfactory, such as the intrusion of a dyke, higher 
pumping and hoisting charges, and the labour position. 
The directors decided therefore to cut down all un- 
productive expenditure and draw on reserve stores in 
the hope of continuing work at a profit for some 
months. 

Transvaal Gold Mining Estates. — This company 
was formed by the lateNicol Brown in 1882 to acquire 
gold-mining properties at Pilgrim's Rest, in the Lyden- 
burg district of the Transvaal. In 1895 it was amal- 
gamated with the Lydenburg Mining Estates, since 
when it has been in the control of the Central Mining 
group. The report for the year ended March 31 last 
shows that at the Central mines 112,130 tons of ore 
yielded gold worth £172,456, at the Elandsdrift mine 
14,870 tons yielded £35,333, and at the Vaalhoek 
16,650 tons yielded £22,419. The total ore treated 
was 144,245 tons and the yield £231,359. These fig- 
ures compared with 182,685 tons and £336,438 the 
year before. The working cost was £196,546 as com- 
pared with £2-19. 128. and the working profit £34,813 as 
compared with £117,310. The unfavourable results are 
attributed to the cessation of work caused by the influ- 
enza epidemic, the lower grade ot the ore mined, ai .1 
the increasing costs. The reseives are estimated a' 
Central mines 408,873 tons averaging 8'25dwt i< 
ton, Elandsdrift 70,700 tons averaging 15 2 dwi 
Vaalhoek 51,041 tons averaging 8 73 dwt. The share- 
holders received a dividend of £15,105, at the rate of 
2$ per cent. 

Jupiter. — Thiscompany belongs to the Consolidated 
Gold Fields group and works a deep level gold mine 
on the Rand, below the Geldenhuis Deep and adjoin- 
ing the Simmer Deep on the east. Owing to the low 
grade of the ore the mine was closed from 1913 to 1915. 
In the latter year the Howard section was reopened. 
The report for 1918 shows that 268,375 tons of ore was 
mined and 267,022 tons sent to the mill. The yield of 
gold by amalgamation was 44, S01 oz. and by cyanide 
30, 803 oz.,makinga total of 75, 604 oz., worth £315, 810, 
equal to 23s. 8d. per ton milled. The working cost 
was £312,589, or 23s. 5d. per ton, leaving a working 
profit of £3,221, or 3d per ton A dividend ol 1 \ ".■ 



128 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



absorbing £12,677 was declared in December, out of 
a balance brought forward from 1917. The reserve in 
the Howard section is estimated at 674,000 tons averag- 
ing 5 98 dwt., as compared with 787,000 tons averaging 
5 27 dwt. the year before. The variation in figures is 
caused by theelimination of blocksof low-gradeground. 
Sinking of the Howard incline was suspended at the 
I lth level owing to the dangerous nature of the hang- 
ing wall, and an auxiliary shaft is to be sunk to the 
south east. 

Simmer Deep. — This company belongs to the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields group, and was formed in 1906 to 
amalgamate several companies owning deep levels be- 
low the Simmer & Jack and Rose Deep in the eastern 
part of the Central Rand. Milling commenced in 1908, 
with a plant owned conjointly with the Jupiter. No 
dividend has ever been paid. The share capital is 
£l, 650, 000 and there are £689, 400 debentures out- 
standing. The report for 1918 shows that 522,203 tons 
was raised, and 516,700 tons sent to the mill. The 
yield of gold by amalgamation was 72,353 oz., and by 
cyaniding 51,748 oz , making a total of 124,101 oz 
worth £518,924, being an extraction of 20s. Id. per 
ton milled. The working cost was £546,796, or 21s. 2d. 
per ton, involving a loss of £27,871 or Is. Id. per ton. 
The loss is largely due to temporary causes such as the 
influenza epidemic and scarcity of labour, and as the 
development is now giving improved results, a turn 
for the better is expected In the meantime power to 
issue prior lien stock was obtained and the Consolida- 
ted Gold Fields underwrote £100,000 of the issue The 
ore reserve is estimated at 932,000 tons averaging 5 02 
dwt. per ton 

Ginsberg. — This company belongs to the Barnato 
group, and was formed in 1S92 to acquire an outcrop 
property in the middle east Rand. The Balmoral 
property was absorbed in 1906. The report for 1918 
shows that, after sorting, 155,330 tons averaging 4 95 
dwt. per ton was sent to the mill. The yield by amal- 
gamation was 20,507 oz., and by cyaniding 14,776 oz , 
making a total of 35,283 oz., worth £150,308. In ad- 
dition, £2,062 was recovered from 4,366 tons of accu- 
mulated slime. The net profit for the year was £4,595, 
which was carried forward. The ore reserves have 
been steadily depleted, and stood on December 31 at 
59,191 tons. It is expected that the mine will be ex- 
hausted before the end of the year. 

Glencairn. — This company belongs to the Barnato 
group, and wasformed in 1 889 toacquireproperty on the 
outcrop in the middle east Kand. As already record- 
ed, the mine is exhausted and hoisting ceased last No- 
vember. The report for 1918 shows that 21S.786 tons 
of ore was raised, and after the rejection of 8% waste, 
200,900 tons averaging 3'5 dwt. was sent to the mill. 
The yield by amalgamation was 20,443 oz., and by 
cyaniding 10,519oz., making a total of 30. 962oz.. worth 
£132.152. In addition, £5,029 was obtained from 
16,868 tons of accumulated slime, and £5,407 from 
clean-upof the mill. The net profit was £6, 796, which, 
with the balance £20,838 brought forward from the 
previous year, made a disposable balance of £27,634. 
Out of this, £27,500 has been distributed as dividend.be- 
ingattherateof5%. Operationsare nowconfined to the 
treatment of accumulated slime, of which thereremains 
about 190,000 tons averaging 2 dwt. The rate of treat- 
ment will be 7,500 tons per month. 

New Primrose. — This company was formed in 1887 
to acquire claims on the outcrop in the middle east 
Rand, and milling commenced in 1888. During the 
next few years several adjoining properties were ab- 
sorbed. For many years satisfactory dividends were 
paid, but the end is now near. The control is with 



the Barnatos. The report for 1918 shows that 200,936 
tons of ore was raised, which together with 10,914 
tons from the dumps was sent direct to the mill. The 
yield of gold by amalgamation and cyanide was 43,661 
oz., worth £186,223, being an extraction of 17s. 7d. per 
ton. The working cost was £172,711, or Ids. 4d. per 
ton, leaving a working profit of £13,512 or Is. 3d. per 
ton. The reserves dwindled rapidlv during the year, 
and at December 31 stood at 65,690 tons averaging 
61 dwt. There is in addition a large amount of ore 
that in parts may be worth working. 

Robinson Deep. — This company belongs to the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields group, and was formed in 1898 
to acquire property below the Ferreira Deep and 
Robinson Deep, in the central part of the Rand. In 
1915 the company was reorganized on the acquirement 
of the Booysens property on the dip, and in 191 8 the 
assets of Turfl'ontein Fstate were bought for shares. 
A new deep level shaft, known as the " Chris." has been 
sunk to tap the property on the dip. The South Reef 
was reached in June last year at a depth of 3,990 ft., 
and the working of the Chris section was started in 
September. The report for the year 1918 shows that 
10 tonsof ore was raised and sent to the mill. The 
yield by amalgamation was 109,692 oz. of gold, ami by 
cyaniding 61,317 oz., making a total of 171,009 oz, 
worth £714,034, or 26s. lid. per ton. The working 
cost was £679,808, or 25s. 8d. per ton, leaving a work- 
ing profit ol oris 3d. per ton Other items 
brought an income of £5,230, and £36,334 was dis 
bursed as interest on loans, special war expenditure, 
income tax, levies under Miners Phthisis Act, etc. 
The amount spent on equipment and shaft-sinking dur- 
ing the year was ; 125,005. Owing to interruptions in 
hoisting, the tonnage milled was 32,100 tons less than' 
during the previous year. The yield per ton was 6d. 
less, the working cost 3s. 3d. higher, and the working 
profit £108,466 lower. The abnormal rainfall at the 
end of 1917 and early in 1918 flooded the mine and 
caused delay in development and connection to the 
Chris shaft, and in the installation of the mechanical 
haulage system on the 35th level The No 2 shaft 
went out of commission at the end of 1916, and until 
the Chris shaft was completed, the whole of the hoist- 
ing had to be done through No. 1 shaft. Since the end 
of 1918, No. 1 shaft has been closed for repairs, and 
hoisting has been done through the Chris shaft. When 
the repairs are completed, a period of prosperity may 
be expected to return. The ore reserve at December 
31 was estimated at 1,632,000 tons averaging 6 9 dwt. 
per ton. In addition 85,000 tons of partly developed 
ore have an indicated content of 6 42 dwt At the end 
of 1917 it was necessary, on account of rising costs, to 
eliminate 175,000 tons of low-grade ore from the esti- 
mate. At the end of 1918, owing to still further rises, 
176,000 tons were classified as unpayable On Decem- 
ber 31, 1917, the reserve was estimated at 1,725,000 
tons averaging 6'43dwt. About half of the reserve is 
available for working through the Chris shaft. When 
the cross-cuts from the Chris reach the reef the rate 
of development will be considerably accelerated. 

Glencoe (Natal) Collieries. — This company was 
formed in Natal in 1901 to acquire coal properties in 
the Dundee district, Natal. The report for 191 8 shows 
that work was greatly hindered by floods, and that 
additional pumps to cope with the situation were un- 
obtainable. Scarcity of labour, following the influenza 
epidemic, also caused a decrease in the output The 
output of coal was 86,322 tons, as compared with 
HO, 955 in 1917. The accounts show a loss of £3.678. 
A dividend of £6,250 was distributed out of theprev - 
ous year's balance, being at the rate of 2J%. 



The Mining Magazine 



W. F. WHITE, Managing Director. 



Edward Walker, M.Sc, F.G.S., Editor. 



Published on the 15th of each month by The Mining Publications, Ltd., 
at Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E.C.2. 

Telephone: London Wall 8938. Telegraphic Address: Oligoclase. Codes: McNeill, both Editions. 

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PRICE 
ONE SHILLING 



Vol. XXI. No. 3. LONDON, SEPTEMBER, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 
Notes...., 130 

Camborne Mining School 130 

Interesting announcements are made relating to 
new appointments to the teaching staff. 

Tehidy and Lanhydrock 131 

Tehidy Minerals, Ltd., has acquired the mining 
royalties of Viscount Clifden's estate. 

Broken Hill 132 

Prospecting for continuations of the rich lodes of 
silver-lead zinc ore has been started recently, 
based on a new geological theory brought for- 
ward by the brothers Marshall. 

Pulverized Coal 133 

This class of fuel has attracted considerable atten- 
tion recently, from the point of view of its appli- 
cation both for steam-raising and metallurgical 
purposes. 

Review of Mining 135 

Articles 

Pulverized Coal in Blast-Furnaces ... 
E.P.MathewsonandW.L. W other- 
spoon 139 

We reproduce herewith a paper appearing in the 
July Bulletin of the Canadian Mining Institute, 
giving particulars of the use of coal dust in 
blast-furnaces working on copper ores, an im- 
portant recent development in metallurgical 
practice. 

Diamond Discovery on the Gold Coast 
A.E.Kitson 148 

This article contains Mr. A E. Kitson's account of 
his discovery of diamonds on the Gold Coast, to 
which short reference was made in the August 
issue. 

The Evolution of Ore Deposits from 
Igneous Magmas W. H. Goodchild 150 

A Discussion and Reply. 

The Minerals of Anatolia 

Norman M. Penzer, B.A., F.G.S. 153 

The author gives particulars of the mineral de- 
posits of part of Asiatic Turkey, about which 
little is known in this country, though the Ger- 
mans compiled records some years ago. 

Four Years as a Prisoner of War 

/. C. Farrant 157 

The Author continues his account of the treatment 
of English Prisoners of War by the Germans, 
describing conditions in Saxony. 

3—3 



PAGE 

News Letters 

Melbourne 159 

Broken Hill 

Toronto 160 

Cobalt ; Porcupine ; Boston Creek ; The Pas Mani- 
toba. 

Brussels 161 

Position of Metallurgical Industries. 

Camborne 162 

Non-Ferrous Mining Commission ; Grenville ; The 
Clifden Deal ; Geevor : Wages and Produc- 
tion ; Acquisition and Valuation of Land ; Re- 
search Work ; Tincroft ; Levant. 

North of England 166 

Personal 168 

Trade Paragraphs 168 

Metal Markets 170 

Statistics of Production 172 

Prices of Chemicals 175 

Share Quotations 176 

The Mining Digest 

Refractories in Zinc Metallurgy/. A. Audley 177 

Glass Sands in South Africa 

Dr. Percy A. Wagner ISO 

Gold Deposits at Matachewan, Ontario 

A. G. Burrows 1S3 

The Broken Hill Extension 185 

Ventilation Problems at City Deep 

E. H. Clifford 1S7 

The New Elmore Process 1SS 

Tin in Tailing Water 

Dr. J. C. Philip & H. R. Beringer L88 

Properties of Tin E. F. Northrup 189 

Short Notices L89 

Recent Patents Published 190 

New Books 

Miller and Singewald's " Mineral Deposits of 
South America" Ralston C. Sharp 191 

Company Reports 192 

Forum River (Nigeria) Tin ; Kampong K.ununting Tin Dredg- 
ing ; Leadhills. 



EDITORIAL 



CABLE restrictions have been considerably 
'relaxed during the last month or two, 
and mining engineers are once more permitted 
to use McNeill's Codes. The Defence of the 
Realm Act regulation preventing the use of 
this code was quite unnecessary and unjusti- 
fied. It imposed an inconvenience on the 
mining profession, and the temporary stoppage 
of the sale of the code involved a great hard- 
ship on our good friend the late Bedford Mc- 
Neill. For the sake of those he has left be- 
hind him, we hope the sale of the codes will 
rapidly resume its old proportions. 



GERMAN brutality of method is not yet 
dead, as the Polish population of the coal 
and zinc regions of Upper Silesia can testify. 
The district was one of Germany's treasure- 
houses and its permanent loss to the enemy, 
for so he must still be called, would be a severe 
blow to him. The Allied Council, in a fit of 
weakness or generosity, agreed to refer the 
question of the political control to a plebiscite, 
and the Germans promptly resorted to means 
for making the referendum a farce. Terrori- 
zing the population so astodeter it from voting, 
or even to drive it out of the country or cause 
it to rebel, has been the weapon employed in 
rendering the Treaty futile. 



IN another part of this issue particulars are 
given of the condition of the non-ferrous 
metallurgical industries of Belgium. These 
industries have been the victims of German 
hatred, but they owe their present parlous po- 
sition largely to the economic unsettlement of 
things generally throughout the world. The 
smelters of zinc, lead, silver, and copper ores 
depended for their living on imported ores and 
on cheap local coal and labour. With only 
limited supplies of ore at reasonable prices, 
and with coal and labour increased incredibly 
in cost, there is little encouragement toward re- 
construction, and the reopening of metallurgi- 
cal plant is restricted and tentative. 



ON another page we reproduce part of the 
discussion on Mr. W. H. Goodchild's 
paper on the evolution of ore deposits from 
igneous magmas, read at the June meeting of 
the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, to- 
gether with the author's replies. Space pre- 
vents any extensive quotation, so only those 
parts which dealt directly with the argument 
can be given. Readers who desire to follow 



the discussion in full will find it in the bulle- 
tins of the Institution. The discussion suffer- 
ed from the fact that the paper presented to 
the Institution was brief and did not contain 
the elaboration of detail that characterized the 
original articles in this Magazine. Conse- 
quently some of the speakers, who had not 
read these articles, did not grasp the full sig- 
nificance of the theory. As their criticisms 
and suggestions are answered in the articles, 
the discussion arising need not be reproduced 
in our pages. 

BEFORE Parliament adjourned for the 
autumn recess, Mr. Lloyd George gave a 
preliminary statement relating to the Govern- 
ment'scoal-mining policy. He threw over Mr. 
Justice Sankey's recommendation for nation- 
alization of the coal mines, and foreshadowed 
a scheme on the lines of Sir Arthur Duckham's 
suggestion contained in his minority report. 
The miners, under the leadership of Mr. Rob- 
ert Smillie, reject this Government proposal in 
advance. We have not space for a discussion 
of the Duckham plan, but, briefly, it lays the 
responsibility for the future good management 
of the country's coal resources equally with 
the Government, the coal owners, and the mi- 
ners. The machinery of management under 
the plan would be such that no one party to the 
agreement could take a defiant attitude without 
losing the confidence of the manufacturing in- 
dustries and of the people at large. The rank 
and file of the workers would do well to take 
the proposal seriously, and to cut away from 
the irreconcilable element among the agitators. 



GOOD news is to hand with regard to the 
Camborne School of Metalliferous Min- 
ing. Mr. J. G. Lawn has consented to take 
the position of Acting- Principal for a time, 
and to conduct the mining classes, until the 
governors find an engineer who can accept a 
permanent appointment. It will be remem- 
bered that he was lecturer at the school during 
the years 1907 and 1908. It is also announc- 
ed that Mr. H. W. Hutchin has been appoint- 
ed lecturer on assaying, taking the position 
formerly occupied by the late Mr. J. J. Berin- 
ger. Mr. Hutchin was for some years lec- 
turer at the school, but left in 1908 to establish 
a private practice. Under the new arrange- 
ment, he will continue some portion of his pri- 
vate practice, particularly his work for South 
Crofty. The school has been further strength- 



130 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



131 



ened by additional appointments on the me- 
chanical, electrical, and mathematical sides. 
Alluvial mining is to be added to the curricu- 
lum, and ground suitable for this class of in- 
struction has been secured at the head of the 
Red River valley near Bolenowe, about two 
miles south - east of Camborne. Mr. T. 
Knowles, who has manfully kept the flag fly- 
ing during the anxious times of the last few 
years, now takes the post of vice-principal and 
secretary, and will conduct the chemical clas- 
ses. The school is full for the coming session. 
It is a matter of sincere congratulation to all 
concerned, including the mining profession, 
that Camborne Mining School has entered 
another era of success and usefulness. 



TWO men of outstanding personality 
passed awayduring the month of August : 
Andrew Carnegie and Louis Botha. The first- 
named was known conventionally as the steel 
king and the philanthropist, and we will let it 
pass at that. Louis Botha was a man of far 
greater influence for good. He was rapid in 
action and decision when circumstances de- 
manded, yet easy and urbane when it was of 
advantage to give those who disagreed with 
him a chance of meditation and re-examination 
of the matter under controversy, and for that 
reason he was the ideal head of a new com- 
munity that had passed through turmoil and 
trouble. A brave foe, a steadfast friend, whose 
word was his bond, and having a high sense 
of public duty, he was a figure that might have 
stepped out of the pages of Sir Thomas Malory 
or Sir Walter Scott. When political difficul- 
ties arise in the future, in South Africa or else- 
where within the Empire, thewatchword might 
well be: " Remember Louis Botha." 



Tehidy and Lanhydrock. 

In these days, when the owners of mineral 
rights are denounced, by a certain section of 
the indiscriminating public, as the essence of 
wickedness, it is undoubtedly a judicious policy 
of the lords to sell these rights to commercial 
organizations or go partners with such com- 
panies. Other influences have also been at 
work among royalty owners of late years in 
bringing them to a decision to depart from old 
practice, and many shrewd observers among 
them have come to see that under modern con- 
ditions a change in methods of tenure and ad- 
ministration would bring benefits to the estates 
and to the employees, provided the purchas- 
ing company is not a mere incorporated land- 
lord, but a group of men of business sagacity 
and sound mining knowledge. But, of course, 



there are landlords and landlords. It is per- 
missible to quote this old tag in connection 
with Tehidy Minerals, Limited, because it is 
unusually applicable in this case. The com- 
pany was formed half-a-year ago to acquire 
the mineral rights of the Tehidy estate, in the 
Camborne- Redruth district, belonging to the 
Basset family, other than those purchased by 
Dolcoath and East Pool. The present head 
of the Basset family may be taken as one type 
of landlord. Another deal has followed quick- 
ly, for it was announced last month that nego- 
tiations were completed for the acquisition of 
the mineral rights of Viscount Clifden, of Lan- 
hydrock. In contrast with Mr. Basset, Lord 
Clifden has always taken a deep interest in 
his great possessions. The humorist in Punch 
may have had him in mind when he drew the 
picture of the farmer proposing the landlord's 
health at the annual rent dinner in these words : 
" If all squires would do as our squire do, 
there would not be so many squires do as they 
do do." And in this pleasant feeling of friend- 
liness, all Cornwall includes his agent, Mr. 
John Gilbert. As far as the purchasing com- 
pany is concerned, we may fitly describe it as 
a combination of the talents of Dolcoath and 
East Pool, and the names of Mr. Oliver 
Wethered and Mr. C. Algernon Moreing de- 
serve special mention. 

In the July issue we gave particulars of the 
rights acquired by Tehidy Minerals, and a map 
indicating the extent of the property. The 
Tehidy estate is all in the Camborne- Redruth 
district. On the other hand, Lord Ciifden's 
interests are more widely distributed. At the 
time of writing, no map is available, but one 
will be published before long. From the point 
of view of present tin-mining operations, the 
most interesting portion of the property is the 
Tincroft and the Agar section of East Pool & 
Agar, with the adjoining North Pool, West 
Tolgus, and North Seton blocks. This group 
of properties fits like a jig-saw puzzle, as Mr. 
Wethered said in his speech, between the Te- 
hidy properties, and their acquisition will be 
of great benefit to the proper development of 
the ground in that district. There are many 
tin mines worth re-opening in other parts of 
the Clifden estate, at Phillack, Gwinear, St. 
Just, St. Hilary, Gulval, Wendron.and Cara- 
don respectively, and silver-lead mines that 
have been worked in the Bodmin Moor dis- 
trict. The estate also contains a number of 
hematite deposits, in the districts of Roche, 
Lanivet, and Withiel in central Cornwall. 

The most interesting feature in connection 
with the deal is that Lord Ciifden's estate in- 



132 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



eludes many china clay workings and exten- 
sive areas containing undeveloped deposits. 
The most important of these are to the west of 
St. Austell, and they include the Carpalla 
property, which figured in the famous legal 
query : " Is China-Clay a Mineral ?" Other 
deposits are on Bodmin Moor, at YYendron, 
and Gulval. The china clay will be an im- 
portant source of strength to Tehidy Miner- 
als, particularly on account of the fact that the 
Cornish producers control the trade of the 
world, and sellers and buyers are in direct 
touch. In this way the china-clay producers 
are at an advantage over the tin miners and 
tin users, who are at the mercy of middlemen. 
It seems to us that the Tehidy Minerals 
company promises to be the most important 
factor in Cornish min- 
ing that has ever been 
known, and that its in- 
fluence on mining, geo- 
logical, and metallurgi- 
cal problems will be of 
immense benefit to non- 
ferrous mining in this 
country. The fact that 
the ownership of the 
minerals is in the hands 
of the people actually 
working them gives a 
freedom of policy not 
hitherto experienced. 
It has always been and 
still is true that the de- 
velopment of ore de- 
posits is hampered by 
the indifference of the 

majority of royalty - owners, a notable ex- 
ception, of course, being the Clifden estate, 
and in many cases the complicated subdivis- 
ions of ownership have made it well nigh im- 
possible to obtain compact leases of mining 
properties. This drawback has been empha- 
sized recently by difficulties in the Pendeen 
and St. Agnes districts, but it is ever present 
with us. For this reason it is to be hoped that 
the policy of purchasing royalties will become 
the recognized practice. It may be asking too 
much of Tehidy Minerals to expect the board 
to go further and acquire other mineral royal- 
ties, such as those of the Tregothnan estate. 
Other mining houses may incline to follow the 
lead of Tehidy Minerals and adopt the same 
procedure in dealing with mining properties. 
We take this opportunity of warning them in 
advance that they will only succeed if they 
can showcompetent and conscientious methods 
of business and technological management. 



Broken Hill. 

Mining news has not been arriving in this 
country from Australia with any regularity 
during the last few years. The war and its 
consequences as regards cost and scarcity of 
materials and labour are largely the reason, but, 
in addition, the decline of old mining districts 
and the absence of important new finds have 
also contributed to the dulness of the news. 
In the midst of this period of comparative 
silence on the part of the journalists, several 
interesting ventures that have been started re- 
cently have not received the attention they de- 
serve. One of these is the promised re-ex- 
ploration of the country to the north and south 
of Broken Hill. In the June and the current 
issues we quote articles in Australian papers 




Thackaringa 




l\iuk.-n Kill 
White Leads 



Rockwell 



Scale cfM/le.s 



Sketch Map of the Broken Hill District. 



relating to this revival of interest, and giving 
brief statements of the geological theory put 
forward by Messrs. Alexander and Allen Mar- 
shall. The news as it comes to hand is not 
very intelligible to English readers, for it as- 
sumes too much local knowledge, especially of 
the past history of this part of New South 
Wales. We have therefore preparedan outline 
map of the district, and by its means thepresent 
problem will be more readily appreciated. 

Considering itsgreat commercial importance 
as a producer of silver, lead, and zinc, Broken 
Hill deserves a greater attention on the part of 
geologists than it has received. For twenty- 
five years Mr. J. B. Jaquet's classic has been 
the standard authority on the geology of the 
district. This report was prepared for the 
Geological Survey of New South Wales in 
1893, just eight years after the Broken Hill 
Proprietary company was formed. From 
then until two years ago, neither the Geologi- 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



133 



cal Survey nor the mine-owners pursued the 
investigations on any comprehensive scale. 
In 1917, however, the companies jointly pro- 
vided funds whereby an entirely new survey 
could be made, and the Geological Survey com- 
missioned Mr. E. C. Andrews to undertake the 
work. If it had not been for the liberality of 
the companies, the Survey would not havebeen 
able to devote the close attention to the ex- 
amination that the conditions warrant, but as 
the companies will receive the chief benefit, it 
is right that the funds should come from this 
source. Mr. Andrews does not expect to have 
completed his investigations before the end of 
the present year, so his report will not be avail- 
able for some time yet. 

Silver-lead ore was first discovered in this 
part of New South Wales at Thackaringa in 
the year 1880, and the deposits at Umberum- 
berka and Pinnacles were worked a year or 
two after. In 1883 the giant outcrop of Broken 
Hill was tackled, but as it was covered with a 
compact iron cap the nature of the ore to be 
expected underneath was not understood. In 
those days the occurrence of tin and plati- 
num also attracted attention. After the Broken 
Hill lode had been opened up, its geology 
and that of the district began to be studied. 
The rocks were determined as Silurian schists 
much folded, and the main ore-body was found 
to occupy the saddle of a fold. The strike of 
the rocks is approximately NE — SW and that 
of the ore-bodies follows it. There are other 
parallel lodes, the saddles of which have dis- 
appeared. The present Broken Hill workings 
extend for about three miles, but mining has 
been conducted in earlier years at points farther 
along the strike of the rocks, south-westerly at 
Pinnaclesand north-easterly at Round Hilland 
Piesse's Knob. The ore and rocks at these out- 
lying places are similar to those at Broken Hill, 
but the lodes do not contain bonanzas. The 
arguments advanced by the brothers Marshall 
relate to the possibility of finding bonanzas 
similar to that at Broken Hill in these exten- 
sions north-east and south-west. A study of 
the plans and models of the workings at Bro- 
ken Hill lead to the belief that the saddle 
should be more correctly called a dome, and 
that there may be a succession of dome struc- 
tures along the strike. The way in which the 
ore-bodies north and south pitch leads to a be- 
lief that they may pass through troughs and 
come near to the surface again. Plenty of 
money is forthcoming for the testing of these 
theories, some of it being provided by the Pro- 
prietary, Block 10, and Junction companies. 
Additional work at some of the old properties 



such as Round Hill and White Leads will add 
to the knowledge of the geological structure 
of the country. After this development has 
been carried out and when Mr. Andrews has 
issued his report, there will be more informa- 
tion available on which to determine ascientific 
line of attack. But it must always be remem- 
bered that in highly contortedand broken rocks 
the bonanza may be discovered by accident. 



Pulverized Coal. 

The mining engineer who takes non-ferrous 
metals as his particular study is confronted 
with a greater variety of power problems than 
usually confront his confrere in other branches 
of the profession. He may be called at short 
notice to conduct mining operations in any part 
of the world, and under every conceivable con- 
dition as to sources of power. In erecting a 
hoisting plant or a stamp-mill investigations 
must be made with a view of securing the 
cheapest and most dependable means of driving 
it. The steam engine will be used if coal is 
cheap enough and water is plentiful, or wood 
may be employed for steam-raising if the for- 
ests are handy. If water is scarce and irregu- 
lar, coal, coke, or wood may be gasified and in- 
ternal-combustion engines adopted. If oil can 
be obtained at reasonable rates, theengine of the 
Diesel type may offer advantages, or the oil- 
spray may be fixed in the steam boilers. A 
waterfall or a catchment basin naturally sug- 
gests an electric installation. The eventual 
choice of the source of power does not, how- 
ever, depend solely on the ready delivery of 
coal, wood, oil, or water. There are other fac- 
tors to be considered. One question to be 
raised relates to the l)est method of distribut- 
ing the power to the various places where it is 
required, and in this connection it may be best 
to have separate engines direct-connected, or it 
may be advantageous to distribute electrically. 
Occasionally compressed air has been used for 
distributing power throughout the mine, and in 
any case it is the medium for operating rock- 
drills. Another factor arises from the associa- 
tion of a smelting plant with the mine. Fuel 
will then be required for heating purposes in 
the furnaces, and on the other hand the fur- 
nace gases may be employed for power pro- 
duction at the mine or smelter either in steam- 
boilers or in gas engines. A further factor is 
the recovery of the by-products, such as am- 
monia and the tar compounds, obtained when 
gasifying the coal or wood. Finally the engi- 
neer has to decide on the best method to adopt 
from the point of view of the life of the mine 
and its productivity. That is to say, the capi- 



134 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



tal outlay required for the cheapest form of 
power may be greater than is warranted by the 
prospects of the mine, and the balance between 
current working cost and capital expenditure 
will have to be judiciously studied. 

With the present advance in the price of fuel, 
the power and metallurgical problems become 
accentuated, and all possible methods for re- 
ducing the bill, whether at the power-house or 
the smelting furnace, must be closely investi- 
gated. For this reason we take the opportunity 
of drawing the attention of our readers to the 
use of pulverized coal. In this issue we print 
a paper sent to us by Mr. W. L. Wotherspoon, 
of the International Nickel Company, on the 
use of pulverized coal in copper blast-furnaces. 
This paper has already appeared in the July 
Bulletin of the Canadian Mining Institute, but 
the subject is of such great importance that re- 
publication on this side of the Atlantic is de- 
sirable. In a subsequent issue we hope to 
publish an article on pulverized coal as it 
affects the mining engineers interested in non- 
ferrous metals, written by Mr. L. C. Harvey, 
the engineer who investigated the application 
of pulverized coal in America for the Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research. In 
the meantime we recommend readers to study 
his report, which was issued recently. 

To the ordinary man who is conversant with 
the difficulties of securing a complete combus- 
tion of the carbon of the coal, the burning of 
the coal as a powder injected into the boiler 
furnace with a jet of air would seem both to 
solve the smoke problem and to increase the 
efficiency of the combustion. He would sup- 
pose that complete combustion is secured, that 
labour would be eliminatid, that the regulation 
of the temperature and distribution of the heat 
would be improved, and that the clinkering 
difficulty would be avoided. In such a sup- 
position he is, of course, mostly right, but on 
the other hand the opponents of the method 
have brought forward many objections that 
would confuse him. The system is admittedly 
not so simple as it seems at first sight, and there 
are a number of points that require careful con- 
sideration. One of these is the cost of pulver- 
izing, and another is the liability of coal dust 
to spontaneous combustion in bulk and to ex- 
plosion when mixed with air. Then it is said 
thatthe refractory bricks andthetubesdeterior- 
ate rapidly, and that it is difficult to control the 
flame and the temperature. Moreover the ac- 
cumulation of ash -and slag presents serious 
drawbacks. But to the practical man, who is 
not afraid of obstacles, these adverse conditions 
have not acted as deterrents. In spite of all 



the so-called disadvantages, the system has 
gone ahead in America, and has proved highly 
efficacious in reducing fuel consumption, while 
much coal hitherto considered as waste is now 
being turned to profitable account. Thus the 
cost of running the power plants has been sub- 
stantially reduced and the coal resources of the 
world are being conserved. 

The application of pulverized coal as a 
source of heat in metallurgical operations, par- 
ticularly in connection with reverberatory fur- 
naces in the smelting of copper ores, has been 
described in this Magazine on numerous oc- 
casions, notably by Mr. E. J. Carlyle in the 
issueof September, 1914. Morerecently its use 
in copper blast-furnaces has been the subject 
of experiment, first at the works of the Tennes- 
see Copper Company, and more recently at the 
Copper Cliff works of the International Nic- 
kel Company. The experience gained at these 
two smelting plants is recounted in the article 
published in this issue. Success has attended 
the work to the extent that 50% of the coke 
can be replaced by pulverized coal, giving a 
distinct saving in these days of high prices for 
coke. The results obtained so far with coke 
entirely eliminated have not been satisfactory, 
but they are sufficiently encouraging for the 
experiments to be continued. It has to be re- 
membered in connection with the application 
of pulverized coal to copper metallurgy that 
the coal is used for heating and not for the re- 
duction of the metal from its compounds. The 
reduction of copper oxide by carbon is an un- 
satisfactory process owing to inevitable losses 
in the slags, and much better results are ob- 
tained by removing the sulphur from copper 
sulphide by means of oxygen. In iron metal- 
lurgy on the other hand the reduction is effect- 
ed by carbon, and at the present time many 
experiments are being conducted in this coun- 
try, the continent of Europe, and America with 
a view of using blasts containing coal dust or 
carbon compounds for both heating and reduc- 
ing. Of these experiments we shall hear more 
later. Pulverized coal has also been exten- 
sively used in steel manufacture and similar 
metallurgical operations, butthese applications 
do not come within our province. 

Before leaving this subject, we would ask 
metallurgists or power engineers to invent a 
new word for pulverized coal. Various wri- 
ters refer to " pulverized coal," " pulverized 
fuel," " powdered coal," " powdered fuel," 
coal dust," " dust coal," "duff," "culm," 
rejected fuel," "coal sludge," "coal smudge," 
coal screenings," etc. Perhaps some reader 
will oblige with a suggestion. 



REVIEW OF MINING 



Introduction. — People have become 
alarmed at the reckless public expenditure and 
at the possibility of national bankruptcy or the 
imposition of severer taxation. Among the 
wage-earners there is little enlightenment on 
the necessity for hard work. The tendency 
to indolence is noticeable in other classes of 
society. For instance, in mining circles engi- 
neers are complaining that the financiers and 
boards of directors are painfully slow in get- 
ting a move on. The freeing of the gold mar- 
ket has been an important event, and will bring 
a brief period of prosperity to many mines that 
have been suffering from high costs. On the 
other hand the new Phthisis Act has added big 
burdens to the mines on the Rand. Silver has 
been soaring to a level that brings its market 
price to its monetary value. Another import- 
ant event of the month has been the aequire- 
ment of the Clifden mineral rights by Tehidy 
Minerals, Ltd. 

Transvaal. — The sittings of the Rand Mi- 
ning Commission have been completed and the 
report may be expected shortly. Political 
events, such as the ratification of the Peace 
Treaty, may prevent any vigorous action on the 
part of the legislature, and indeed no such ac- 
tion is immediately necessary owing to the 
freeing of the gold market. It is not thought 
that the report will contain any recommenda- 
tions of financial aid or government control, but 
that it will be confined to the widening of the 
recruiting area and the improvement in under- 
ground regulations to eliminate delays. 

The mines are now able to sell their gold in 
the most favourable market, and premiums are 
being received for gold shipped to the United 
States. With American exchange at $4*25 
the premium is 14j%, which will have impor- 
tant effects on the profit and loss accounts of 
the mines on the Rand, both rich and poor. 

As mentioned in a recent issue, the new 
Phthisis Fund regulations were expected to 
impose an increased burden on the Rand gold 
mines. These fears have been fully confirmed, 
and some of the assessments are distinctly dis- 
concerting. For instance, the levy on East 
Rand Proprietary Mines is increased from 
£"16,500 to ^41,000 per year. At the present 
time, when the mines are getting a premium 
on their gold, this additional impost may not 
be particularly alarming, but as the Phthisis 
Fund is a fixed liability and the premium on 
gold is an uncertain factor, the two items can- 
not be held to counterbalance each other. 



The excitement in the Johannesburg market 
in Modder East shares has continued, owing 
to the discovery of much high-grade ore. The 
developments have been so satisfactory that 
the directors have decided to erect treatment 
plant, with a capacity of 40,000 tons per 
month. For the purpose of providing funds, 
a further issue of ^"300,000 convertible deben- 
tures is to be made. These will be issued at 
par, and as the present debentures stand at a 
big premium, there is no doubt about the at- 
tractiveness of the offer. 

There appears to be some activity in finan- 
cial circles in Johannesburg having for its ob- 
ject the revival of interest in the far west Rand. 
Two particular instances may be mentioned 
in connection with this movement, the West- 
ern Rand Estates and the French Rand, re- 
spectively. Fifteen years ago a good deal was 
heard of the former, which was organized by 
Messrs. D. J. & E. J. Pullinger to prospect to 
the south-west of Randfontein. A number of 
bore-holes were sunk, which disclosed two reefs. 
One hole gave quite promising results, but, 
generally speaking, the reefs were narrow and 
of low assay-value. The present does not 
seem to be the right time for re-commencing 
operations. If the results at Randfontein took 
a decided turn for the better, there might be 
some encouragement to investigate its neigh- 
bours once again. As it is, the far west Rand 
can only be considered as an asset of problem- 
atical value in the dim and distant future. 

Rhodesia. — The output of gold during 
July is reported at ,£"214,919, as compared 
with £"214,919 in June and ^251,740 in July 
last year. The monthly returns have been 
remarkably regular this year, and the failure 
of some of the old stagers is compensated by 
the increased output from some of the smaller 
workings. Other July outputs for Southern 
Rhodesia are : Silver 13,493 oz., coal 41,521 
tons, copper 245 tons, chrome ore 2,679 tons, 
asbestos 941 tons, arsenic 4 tons, tungsten 3 
tons, diamonds 63 carats. 

It is reported that Sir Abe Bailey, working 
through his Anglo-American Rhodesian Cor- 
poration, is about to amalgamate the Enter- 
prise, Giant, and the London lY. Rhodesian 
Mining & Land companies. A new company 
is to be formed, with a capital of ,£"2,000,000, 
of which £"331,000 will be issued to the share- 
holders in thecompaniesnamed, the Enterprise 
capital being written down 75% and the capital 
of the other two by 50%. We have yet to 



135 



136 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



learn what is to be done with the large reserve 
of unissued shares. 

West Africa. — The output of gold for July 
is reported at £102,467, as compared with 
£106,612 in June and £117,581 in July, 1918. 
The Taquah return showeda temporary fall due 
to a shaft accident, while the Abbontiakoon 
figure was less than usual owing to ore of low- 
er grade being treated. The output of Ashanti 
Goldfields is back to normal again. A serious 
fire occurred last month in the Prestea Block 
A mine, and all underground work was stopped 
for three days. Good results of development 
are reported from the Abosso mine. The West 
African mines are now free to sell their gold 
in the best market and substantial premiums 
are being secured. 

Nigeria. — Much has been heard of lead-zinc- 
silver deposits in Nigeria belonging jointly to 
the Kwall Tinfields of Nigeria, the Transvaal 
& Rhodesian Estates, and the Union & Rho- 
desian Trust. Some particulars, based on in- 
formation supplied by the manager of the first- 
named company, Mr. R. Cousin, were given 
at the meeting in April, as reported in our is- 
sue of that month. Further information, based 
on a cable from Mr. F. H. Lathbury, has been 
published this month. It appears that several 
outcrops have been traced, and that they vary 
in width up to 50 ft. Bulk samples are now 
being sent home. Further prospecting and ex- 
amination will be necessary before any idea of 
the value of the deposits can be obtained. 

Australasia. — The strike at Broken Hill 
still continues. The woodcutters' strike at 
Kalgoorlie has been settled, but full resump- 
tion of work at the mines has been delayed by 
another outbreak of influenza. The drought 
has been broken in South Australia and New 
South Wales, and the position at many mines 
whose operations have been hampered by scar- 
city of water is improved accordingly. 

Cable advices announce that the profit of 
the Broken Hill Proprietary for the year ended 
May 31 was £652,342. At Broken Hill the 
concentrator treated 120,095 tons of lead-zinc- 
silver ore, producing 43,358 tons of lead con- 
centrate, while the flotation plant treated 
211,438 tons of tailing, producing 48,579 tons 
of zinc concentrate. At the steel works at 
Newcastle, the output of pig iron was 155,172 
tons, and that of steel ingots 178,000 tons. 
No. 2 blast-furnace was put into operation on 
December 5, and afterwards No. 1 furnace was 
repaired. Unfortunately, since the close of 
the company's financial year, the shipping 
strike has cut off the supplies of iron ore, and 
smelting was stopped on July 11. Two ad- 



ditional open-hearth furnaces are to be built. 
It was recently mentioned in this column 
that the Waihi Gold Mining Co. was contem- 
plating the sale of the Hora-Hora hydro- 
electric power station to the New Zealand 
Government. This deal has now been com- 
pleted. The agreed price is £212,500, payable 
at a date not yet fixed. The company is being 
credited with £10,625 per year, being interest 
at5%, against the cost of the power it takes 
from the new owners for use at the mine and 
metallurgical works. 

It is announced that an important discovery 
of gold has been made on Hampton Plains, 
West Australia, a district much to the fore in 
earlier days. Details are awaited. 

The Lake View & Oroya Exploration Co. 
is about to capitalize part of its reserve fund 
and distribute one 10s. share to the holder of 
every seven shares. The company's assets, 
especially the 100,000 Burma Corporation 
shares, have substantially increased in value 
recently. If the profit were realized by the 
sale of these shares, a large proportion would 
go as Excess Profits Duty. The present plan 
will give the shareholders some return that will 
compensate for lack of dividends. 

The West Australian Government has an- 
nounced its intention of introducing a bill to 
deal with gold-stealing at the mines, based 
mainly on the law in operation in Victoria. We 
devoted considerable space in the issue of De- 
cember last to this question, and detailed the 
efforts of the mine-owners at Kalgoorlie to 
secure proper protection against theft. But 
it seems like locking the stable door after most 
of the horses have been dispersed. 

The Commonwealth Government has de- 
cided not to exercise its option on the Blythe 
River iron mines in Tasmania. We take it 
that the abandonment of the project is due to 
present political and economic conditions. 

A flotation plant is to be erected by the 
Mount Read and Rosebery Mines, Ltd., at 
the Rosebery mine in Tasmania. Develop- 
ment is to be suspended during its erection, 
as the reserves are large. 

A company called Federation Tin has been 
formed by M elbourne interests to acqui re a lode- 
tin property at South Heemskirk, on the west 
side of Tasmania. A mill of 60 stamps is to 
be erected capable of treating 120,000 tons 
per year. The ore can be easily worked by 
open-cut, and Mr. J. B. Lewis, the consulting 
engineer, estimates the known ore at 1,000,000 
tons, averaging 1% of tin oxide. 

India. — It is reported that arrangements 
are being made fortheconversion of the Burma 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



137 



Corporation into an Indian company, but no 
official statement has yet been made. The 
policy seems a judicious one, seeing that the 
company is not merely the owner of mines 
and a lead smelter in Burma, but is arrang- 
ing for the smelting of zinc ores in central 
India, and, in co-operation with the firm of 
Tata & Sons, of Bombay, for the manufac- 
ture of brass and galvanized iron. Moreover 
the company has intimate financial relations 
with the Indian Government, the latter hav- 
ing advanced £"200,000 towards the construc- 
tion of the zinc works. 

Malaya. — Another company has been 
formed by the Austral Malay Tin Co., to 
dredge in the Federated Malay States. This 
is the Ulu Yam Dredging Co., Ltd. The 
area is 400 acres, and the ground is estimated 
to contain 13| million cubic yards averaging 
0'76 lb. of tin oxide per yard. A dredge with 
a monthly capacity of 80,000 yd. is being con- 
structed by Chas. Ruwolt & Co., of Melbourne. 

Cornwall. — Particulars of the expansion of 
Tehidy Minerals, Ltd., by the absorption of the 
Clifden royalties are given by our Camborne 
correspondent, and comment is made in the 
editorial columns. Our correspondent also re- 
fers to the Grenville reconstruction. An ex- 
amination of the Geevor mine has been made 
by Mr. Josiah Paull, buthis report had not been 
issued at the time we went to press. 

With reference to our criticism of Mr. Albert 
F. Calvert's mining ventures in the Gwinear 
district, Cornwall, contained in the last issue, 
we have received the following communica- 
tion, dated August 22, from Messrs. Ashurst, 
Morris, Crisp & Co.: "We have been con- 
sulted by our client, Mr. Albert F. Calvert, 
with reference to an article published by you 
on page 74 of the Magazine for August, con- 
taining statements which are entirely inaccu- 
rate. The statements you refer to are, you say, 
to be found in articles or advertisements ap- 
pearing in certain newspapers, but you must be 
well aware that they all appeared in an article 
written and signed by Mr. Herbert Thomas, 
Managing Editor of The Cornish Post and 
Mining News. It is incorrect for you to say that 
these statements emanated from Mr. Calvert, as 
he was in London at the time Mr. Thomas visi- 
ted the properties and wrote and published his 
article. It is untrue to say that Mr. Calvert 
reported that his average assay-values up to 
date gave 30 lb. of tin per ton on the Trevascus 
property. Mr. Calvert states most emphatic- 
ally that he has never given this or any other 
assay-value in connection with this property, 
nor has he ever tested, assayed, or valued any 



ore from this property. If you will refer to the 
article again you will see it distinctly states 
that it was Major Bullen who reported the 
assay-value you criticize, and as the Jumbil 
Company has erected an up-to-date laboratory 
and appointed a competent staff for assaying 
purposes under the direction of Mr. H. R. 
Beringer, of the Camborne School of Metalli- 
ferous Mining, we have no doubt they will be 
able to justify any figures put forward by them. 
Your statement that Mr. Calvert bought the 
registration of the Jumbil Company for the 
particular purpose of working these properties 
is also incorrect. Neither he nor anyone else 
bought this registration, but the company 
originally purchaseda property in Nigeria from 
Mr. Calvert which produced some tin, but did 
not turn out as successfully as was anticipated, 
and although our client was under no legal obli- 
gation and was not called upon to do so, he of- 
fered to transfer other properties in Cornwall 
on very favourable terms to the company or to 
purchase the interest of any shareholder who 
preferred to sell. These offers he carried out. 
In view of the fact that the company will next 
week commence selling tin from these proper- 
ties, and that the properties are turning out 
most favourably, it would not appear that the 
company has made a very bad bargain in tak- 
ing them over." As regards the source of the 
statements, it is true that they all originally ap- 
peared in an article in The Cornish P,ost. This 
article was reproduced as advertising matter in 
other papers. In the case of one London daily 
the order for the advertisement was refused. 
It is obvious that the article was based on in- 
formation supplied by some one in authority 
at the mines. Mr. Calvert says he did not give 
the figure 301b., but that Major Bullen did. 
No doubt Mr. Calvert accepts the figure, and 
from the point of view of the possible share- 
holder this is much the same thing. With re- 
gard to the third point raised, relating to the 
history of the Jumbil transactions, weacceptthe 
correction. We look forward to the regular sales 
of tin with uncommon interest. It is worth not- 
ing that though, on August 22, the company 
would begin selling tin " next week," it has not 
yet made its debut at the tin ticketings. 

Norfolk. — A brief outline of progress in 
connection with the development of the Nor- 
folk oil-shales was given by Dr. Forbes- Leslie 
at a meeting of shareholders of the English 
Oilfields, Ltd., held on September 1. This 
meeting was convened for the purpose of 
sanctioning the increase of capital of the com- 
pany from ^300,000 to^l, 500,000, by the crea- 
tion of 1,200,000 new shares, to be issued as 



138 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



required. Dr. Forbes- Leslie stated that 19 
bore-holes have been sunk, and that the ground 
proved thereby covers 20 square miles. A 
number of beds have been discovered, one be- 
low the other and separated by partings. The 
total thickness of the retortable material is 
given at not less than 150 ft. One of the bores 
passed through 70 ft. of shale high in paraffin 
wax. Mining operations commenced six 
months ago at No. 1 Mine West Winch, where 
the fourth seam of the series is being worked. 
The sulphur content of the lower seams is 
much lower than that of the top bed, where, it 
will be remembered, the shale gave a fuel oil 
having a sulphur content above the Admiralty 
limit. The present capacity of the mining 
plant is 500 tons per day, and is to be increased 
to 1,000 tons. The reserve of shale indicated 
by the bore-holes is 2,000,000,000 tons, capable 
of yielding 45 to 50 gallons of oil per ton, and 
60 lb. of sulphate of ammonia. A distilling 
works, with a capacity of 1,000 tons per day, 
is to be erected forthwith. Dr. Forbes-Leslie 
promises a more detailed account of the ven- 
ture later in the year. 

Canada. — Cable advices announce that the 
strike at Cobalt is over. 

Alaska. — Efforts to bring the milling plant 
of the Alaska Juneau gold mine up to esti- 
mated capacity are being vigorously continued. 
As has been recorded on several occasions, the 
ball-mills crushed only a small fraction of what 
was expected, and many experiments have 
been made to devise improvements in their 
performance. The latest news is that the cost 
can be decreased and the capacity raised by 
converting the ball-mills into the closed-cir- 
cuit overflow type. Instead of re-grinding 
oversize coarser than 10 mesh in tube-mills, 
the oversize is to be returned to the ball-mills. 
Also, grizzlies are now placed between the 
gyratory crushers and the coarse-crushing 
stamps. 

A permanent exhibition of mining machin- 
ery and metallurgical plant is to be opened at 
the Grand Central Palace, New York, next 
month. In a country of long distances such 
a plan will save much time, and buyers and 
designers with headquarters in New York will 
be better in touch with the makers in Chicago, 
Denver, and San Francisco. 

Mexico. —The public outcry against the 
Mexican Government, particularly in the 
United States, has roused Carranza to reply, 
but his statements are not couched in the 
language of a wise ruler and only serve to 
render his position more impossible. The 
British Government is issuing a warning in 



this country advising that anyone contem- 
plating the investment of money or the pur- 
chase of land in Mexico should communicate 
first with the British Consul in Mexico City 
before taking any definite steps. The warn- 
ing notice states that the precaution is neces- 
sary on account of the frequent disputes re- 
garding titles to land at the present time. 
This attitude on the part of the Government 
is all right in its way, as it may help to focus 
the present dissatisfaction, but many of us 
would be glad to see stronger action. 

The property of the San Francisco Mines 
of Mexico, Ltd., is beingexaminedby anAmeri- 
can group, not named, with a view to purchase 
for the sum of $3,500,000. These mines have 
been before the British public for sixteen years. 
In spite of the presence of many excellent 
business men on the board of directors, and 
the advantage of advice from eminent experts, 
the company has not been a success, owing 
chiefly to the complexity of the ores. A new 
plant with a capacity of 100 tons per day was 
erected a year ago, its object being the produc- 
tion of a high-grade silver-lead concentrate, 
but in April of this year the mine and mill were 
closed owing to the disturbed state of Chihua- 
hua. The company's position is that further 
capital would have to be obtained for extend- 
ing the plant. The directors consider the sale 
of the property advisable, if it can be effected. 

The Esperanza company announces that it 
has exercised its option on the Union en Cuale 
property, in the state of Jalisco. 

Spain. — The directors of the Cordoba Cop- 
per Company announce that the sale of the 
property has been completed, and that the pur- 
chase price, one million pesetas, has been re- 
ceived. The company's assets now consist of 
^"70,000 invested in government securities. 
The directors will submit their proposals with 
regard to future policy at an early date. 

The San Miguel pyrites mine is to be closed 
and the company liquidated. Several factors 
have combined to force this decision. The cop- 
percontentof the ore has been continuously de- 
creasing of late, being now less than 1%. The 
developments in depth have given poor results, 
and the known richer ore in the crush below 
the open-cut is too dangerous to work. The 
company is saddled with a very disadvantageous 
contract for the sale of sulphur ore, a legacy 
from a previous board. Finally, the price of 
iron required for the precipitation of copper is 
at a ruinous level. Mr. John F. Allan, the con- 
sulting engineer, and Mr. E. Mackay Heriot, 
the manager, have not been able to combat 
these adverse conditions. 



PULVERIZED COAL IN BLAST-FURNACES. 



By E. P. MATHEWSON and W. L. WOTHERSPOON. 

We reproduce herewith a paper appearing in the July Bulletin of the Canadian Mining 

Institute, giving particulars of the use of coal dust in blast-furnaces working on copper 

ores, an important recent development in metallurgical practice. 



HISTORY. — The use of pulverized coal 
in reverberatory furnaces, cement kilns, 
open-hearth furnaces, boilers, and other similar 
furnaces, has been dealt with extensively in 
many papers and publications ; the present 
paper will be confined to the applicationof pul- 
verized fuel to blast-furnaces, wherein the mix- 
ture of fuel and air is injected into the lower 
portion of a piled mass of material, and com- 
bustion takes place under pressure. 

Until recently the history of pulverized coal 
in blast-furnaces contained nothing but records 
of failures. Sir Lowthian Bell, in his book on 
the " Principles of the Manufacture of Iron 
and Steel" published in 1872, which deservedly 
ranks among the world's metallurgical classics, 
mentions an attempt to introduce finely divided 
coal with the blast at the tuyeres in an iron fur- 
nace ; the attempt was soon abandoned, and 
Bell remarked that it needed but little con- 
sideration to ensure the rejection of all such 
schemes. About 1902, Mr. W. J. Forster, of 
Darlaston, England, satisfied himself by a 
great number of experiments at the Darlaston 
furnaces " that nothing but failure can be ex- 
pected from the addition of cold materials into 
the hearth of the furnace with the blast." 
Possessed of this opinion, Mr. Forster sug- 
gested the use in theblast-furnaceof a specially 
prepared carbon obtained by heating solid car- 
bon to a very high temperature, so that all 
volatile matterand moisture should be expelled 
and the carbon should be strongly heated be- 
fore its use in the blast. He obtained British 
and American patentson the expedient of so pre- 
paring carbon and introducing it with the blast, 
whereby he hoped to make special grades of 
iron. The idea seems to have produced no 
effect upon the art of smelting iron, but it may 
be considered to illustrate the rest of the history 
of the use of pulverized fuel in blast-furnaces, 
as this history consists of sundry comparable 
suggestions of expedients all of which have, so 
far as known, failed to meet with practical suc- 
cess. The efforts to use successfully pulver- 
ized fuel in iron blast-furnaces have embraced 
such expedients as the substitution of heated 
gas, with and without super-heated steam, for 
some or all of the air ; the careful classifying 
of the fuel into different and distinct sizes with 
a view to employing the liner grade to create 



a high initial temperature to ignite the rest ; 
the substitution of an annular reverberatory 
arranged around the base of the charge, and 
the injection tangentially thereinto of the pow- 
dered coal and air ; the grinding and mixing of 
the charge itself so that the particles might fall 
through a stream of burning fuel and air, and 
so on. It is not profitable for present purposes 
to consider all these expedients or the various 
patents which have been granted on them, be- 
cause, so far as is known, none of them has 
been sufficiently successful to secure adoption. 
The results obtained by the recent work 
which we shall now describe have been attained 
not so much by resort to extraneous expedients 
as by the development of the combustion pro- 
cess itself. The chemical phenomena of com- 
bustion are relatively little known, although 
they have been made the subject of important 
research work by numerous scientists since the 
days of Bunsen, who, in 1845, made investi- 
gations on a coal-fired blast-furnace used for the 
smelting of iron ores ; and it is impracticable, 
within the limits of this paper, to discuss these 
phenomena in detail. The phenomena ap- 
parently embrace distillation of volatile mat- 
ter, gasification, and combustion. When a 
mixture of air and finely divided fuel is di- 
rected into and against a mass of more or less 
refractory material, different results may en- 
sue, according to variations in a multiplicity 
of factors. The work to be described seems 
todemonstrate that by proper provision of suit- 
able space for combustion, and maintenance of 
correct air pressure and fuel supply within the 
combustion space, it is practicable to develop 
within the charge a sort of super-combustion, 
which provides at greatly reduced cost the heat 
necessary to bring the charge to a molten 
condition. It is particularly difficult to gener- 
alize or define the possibilities or limitations of 
the generation of heat in a blast-furnace so 
operated, for much depends upon the physical 
and chemical characteristics of the charge, as 
well as upon the variable factors directly enter- 
ing into the combustion. A better idea of the 
work may be afforded by concrete illustration. 
For this purpose we describe work in a field 
which, we believe, has heretofore been un- 
touched even by suggestion, namely, the melt- 
ing of copper and the smelting of copper ores. 



139 



140 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Mr. Garred became interested in 
the application of pulverized fuel 
to blast-furnaces in 1913, but it 
was two years later when he applied 
some of his ideas in a practical way, 
by melting blister copper in a blast- 
furnace. The design provided 
special facilities for combustion, 
and the tuyeres were so arranged 
that in the event of the charge be- 
coming frozen, they would remain 
clear. During the experiment, 
over a million pounds of blister 
copper was melted. The experi- 
ments were particularly interest- 
ing owing to the fact that with a 
furnace of 36in. diameter, handling 
large angular pieces of blister cop- 
per, it was possible to continue the 
work to the extent described. In 
connection with the danger of a 
charge becoming frozen it might be 
mentioned that the furnace was al- 
lowed to stand over a week end, and 
was then successfully restored to 
its normal condition in a short time, by the 
use of pulverized fuel. 

Experiments at Tennessee. — Experi- 
ments at the smelter of the Tennessee Copper 
Co. were decided upon early in 1918, one of 
their standard blast-furnaces, 22 ft. 6 in. long 
by 60 in. wide, being used. Ten tuyeres on one 
side of the furnace were equipped for the use 
of pulverized fuel, and the first test run of im- 
portance started on April 22 and was continued 
until May 4, during which time the percentage 
of coal to the charge was 3'8 as against 5'7 of 
coke used on the other furnaces during thesame 
period, when operating with a similar charge. 
The second test run started May 9, and con- 
tinued until May 24, when the percentage of 
coal used was 3'6, a very small amount of coke 
being used intermittently. A third test run was 
then made, feeding a little coke on the side of 
the furnace where no coal was fed previously, 
as it had been found there was a tendency for 
crusts to form on that side of the furnace. It 
was then decided to apply the coal at ten tu- 
yeres on each side, but experimental work was 
postponed, owing to the possibility of some un- 
consumed carbon in the furnace gases causing 
discolorization and affecting the quality of the 
acid, which is an important product of the com- 
pany, particularly during the war, when a por- 
tion was used in the manufacture of high ex- 
plosives. The war requirements in this con- 
nection no longer existing, the company re- 
turned to the experimental work in January, 




Fig. 1. Diagrams showing the method of applying 

and are continuing, with various modifications, 
the methods of applying the coal. As the 
Tennessee Co. had not used pulverized coal 
previously, it was necessary to install a coal- 
preparation plant. A plant with a capacity of 
three tons per hour was constructed at a cost 
of about $35,000. The cost of the feeding ap- 
paratus at the furnace was about S5,000. An 
analysis of the average ore smelted at Copper- 
hill, Tennessee, during 1918, is as follows : 
Cu 1'55% ; Fe 34'6 ; S 24*6 ; SiOo 20"3 ; CaO 
49; MgO 2*0; Zn 1*4; AL0 3 4'3. The fur- 
nace has 27 tuyeres on one side and 24 on the 
other and the air blast is maintained at 35 to 
45 ounces pressure. Fig. 1 presents a general 
arrangement showing the method of applying 
pulverized fuel to the experimental furnace. 

Experiments at Copper Cliff. — Fol- 
lowing the work of Garred, already des- 
cribed, the International Nickel Co. decided, 
in June, 1918, to carry out experiments in the 
blast-furnace department of their smelter at 
Copper Cliff, Ontario. It was decided to uti- 
lize one of their standard blast-furnaces, which 
are 25 ft. 6 in. long by 50 in. wide. The fur- 
nace bottom is lined with magnesite brick to 
within 14 inches of the centre of the tuyeres; 
the two lower rows of jackets are cast iron with 
water - cooled pipes, and the two upper rows 
of jackets are of the standard water-cooled 
steel type. The furnace has 48 six-inch tu- 
yeres, 24 on a side, spaced about 12 inch cen- 
tres. These are connected to a main bustle 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



141 




Pulverized Coal at the Tennessee Smelter. 

pipe with 6 in. galvanized branch pipes fitted 
with canvas sleeves. The bustle pipe is sup- 
plied, by an offset, from the main delivery pipe 
which feeds seven other furnaces, the normal 
pressure of air carried at the tuyeres being 23- 
24 ounces. The furnace charge consists mainly 
of a refractory copper-nickel sulphide ore, a 
large proportion of which is delivered from the 
company's roasting plant. The composition 
of the charge and the average size and analy- 
sis of the constituents and products are as fol- 
lows : 

Nature of Charge. 

Percentage of charge 

to blast furnace. 
Average for 6 months. 

Roasted Ore 74 8 

Raw Creighton 2 8 

Raw Crean Hill 80 



Total Ore 



Converter Slag 

Converter Scrap 

Limestone and Quartz 



85'6 

10'2 
3"2 
10 



Screen Tests. 



Roasted ore— on I J in. 53 

Roasted oie — on 1 in 16 

Roasted ore— through 1 in. 31 

Raw Creighton, practically all through 1 in. 

Typical Composition of Blast-Furnace Charge 
and Products. 
Cu Ni He S Si0 2 Al 2 O a CaOMgO 



% % % % % % 
410 38'50 1175 20'25 4'50 
3'90 39 50 23 00 2100 525 
175 2400 11'50 32'00 1000 
3'00 47 00 2'40 26'75 300 
6 00 4200 2'00 2175 
... 100 ... 2'50 
300 ... 91'00 



Roasted Ore 1'40 

Raw Creighton Ore.. 1'40 
Raw Crean Hill Ore 2.50 

Converted Slag TOO 

Scrap Charged 2'25 

Limestone 

Quartz 

Blast-Furnace Matte 5'85 14'35 48'40 26 25 
B'ast-FurnaceSlag... 016 0'32 40 90 165 33' 15 



2'00 



290 



% 

2'25 2'50 
2'50 3'00 
5'00 5 50 
1'25 I 50 
75 1'50 
5275 l'lO 
l'OO 100 



6'50 370 2'50 



The furnace, under normal con- 
ditions of smelting, treats about 500 
tons of charge a day, using 60 tons of 
coke, the average coke consumption 
for six months being 12'5% of the 
charge. 

Regarding air conditions, only ap- 
proximate estimates were available, 
owing to the whole of the blast-fur- 
nace plant beingsupplied from a cen- 
tral blower installation. General ob- 
servations indicated that the furnace 
charge is kept about 7 ft. deep, and 
XX" the smelting zone is from 2 to 3 ft. 

above the tuyeres. Blow-holes form 
quickly after a fresh charge, but the 
amount of dust made is about nor- 
mal, 1'5% to 2% to the ore. 

The tuyeres require punching 
regularly, the method being to re- 
move the tuyere cap, and, by intro- 
ducing a rod, to ease the ore in the 
vicinity of the tuyere. It was usual, 
when cleaning these tuyeres, for 
some loose ore to be blown out on 
the furnace floor in a condition which indicated 
that the ore close to the tuyeres had not been 
strongly heated. Through the tuyeres, the 
charge appeared black, and usually there 
was no appearance of fire until near the mid- 
dle of the furnace. 

The us*al practice is to make up a furnace 
charge consisting of certain proportions of 
roasted ores, green ore, by-products such as 
converter slags, and coke, all being dumped 
into the top of the furnace from small cars in 
such a way as to give an even distribution in 
the body of the furnace. Under these condi- 
tions of intermittent charges of the fuel, the 
regularity of its distribution is not easily ob- 
tained. 

Arrangements for conducting the experi- 
ments were greatly facilitated because the com- 
pany had used pulverized coal in reverberatory 
furnaces since 1911. The coal preparation 
plant, however, was 1,100 ft. from the blast- 
furnace, and the first problem was how to trans- 
mit the coal. Attempts were made to transmit 
the coal in pipes by means of ejectors, but, al- 
though the results obtained were interesting, 
they did not meet the particular problem satis- 
factorily. Compressed air was then used for 
displacing the pulverized coal from storage 
tanks, and it was found that 2i tons of coal 
could be transmitted in live minutes through 
a 3 in. standard wrought iron pipe, 1,100 ft. on 
the horizontal and with an elevation of 50 ft. 
The feed or service bins at the blast-furnace 



142 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 




BBSS " ,' , \,,::j 



'/ * i Reducer. 



fj Coupling 



75 Air Delivers 4 Lbs Coal Againsl ? Lbs Pressure 
EJECTOR A 




■ij Coupling 
€5 Air Delivers 4lbs Coal Against / 'Lbs Pressure 
EJECTOR B 
I'/'l'ree- 




"^irf 



y ... . -"] 

■;;-■;--:;:"-::, 



40 Air Delivers 4ibs Coal Againsl 'Lbs Pressure 
EJKTOR C 




30 Air Delivers 41b x Coal Againsl /Lbs Pressure 
EJECTOR D 




~*v 



15 Air Delivers 4Lbs Coal Against ZLbs Pressure 
EJECTOR E 

Fig. 2. Various Forms of Ejectors. 



are about 13 ft. long, 3 ft. wide at the top, 14 
in. wide at the bottom, and about 6 ft. deep. 
They are constructed of No. 14 gauge steel 
plate, and are completely closed, a manhole 
being provided, and an air vent pipe to which 
a cyclone separator is fitted. The bins each 



hold about l\ tons of 
pulverized coal. At the 
bottom of each are 
twelve common screw 
feeders, operated from 
a line shaft through 
bevel gears, each feeder 
having a small clutch, 
the line shaft being 
driven from a variable 
speed motor. The feed- 
ers can be operated 
satisfactorily at speeds 
between 40 and 100 
r.p.m., to deliver from 
3 to 6 lb. of coal per 
minute ; and any indi- 
vidual feeder can be 
stopped without inter- 
fering with the general 
operating conditions. 
The screws are made 
of special length and 
pitch, being made in a 
lathe. In calibrating 
these at differentspeeds 
for the discharge of the 
coal, no flushing effects 
have been noticed. This 
arrangement of feeding 
the coal is positive, suffi- 
ciently accurate, and 
mechanically simple. 
The twelve feed screws 
at each bin discharge 
the coal into 1 \ in. dia- 
meter pipes which are 
in turn connected with 
the blast pipes or tu- 
yeres at the furnace, the 
coal being transmitted 
by ejectors, using a 
small quantity of high 
pressure air, which is 
beneficial in the mixing 
of the fuel and air for 
the furnace. 

Experiments have 
been made with a num- 
ber of ejectors, the de- 
sign of which is impor- 
tant, when giving con- 
sideration to economy in the use of compress- 
ed air. Easily constructed ejectors may be 
made from standard pipe fittings, by propor- 
tioning the sizes, but the size and proportion 
of the inlet of the compressed air to the dis- 
charge of the ejector is a most important fea- 






i •"■•- 



T^^ 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



143 



Dibliy Vclvt-' 



12 Lbs Air Oelivtrs 5 Lbs. 
Coal Against 27 Ox Pres 



ture. Some of the ejec- 
tors used are shown in 
Fig. 2. 

Incommencingthe ex- 
periments, the air blast 
for the combustion of the 
coal and for smelting was 
furnished in the regular 
way under normal opera- 
ting pressure, and the 
pulverized coal was intro- 
duced directly into the 
blast before entering the 
tuyere. It was found 
that the coal could be in- 
troduced very rapidly in 
this way while the fur- 
nace had its regular 
charge of coke and ore, 
but when the coke was 
cut below 50% of normal, 
it was found that the tu- 
yeres becameclosed,coa! 
dust would lodge in the 
tuyere pipe, causing 
troubleatany leaky joint, 
thus rendering the condi- 
tion around the furnace 
more or less dangerous. 
At thistime the joints be- 
tween the furnace jack- 
ets and the. tuyeres were 
notas tightas theyshould 
be, and there was con- 
siderable leakage of coal dust. Tuyeres of 
several designs were tried to avoid leakage, 
and the canvas sleeves on the branch pipes 
were replaced with standard pipes, having flex- 
ible joints. Improved results were obtained in 
this way, and some of the tuyeres used are 
illustrated in Fig. 3. Later on, the coal was 
introduced to the blast by means of an ejec- 
tor like that used by Mr. Cavers at the Ten- 
nessee Copper Company's plant. 

During this stage of the experiments, the 
main troubles were at the tuyeres, which re- 
quired regular punching, and there was some 
leakage of coal. The coal was applied to only 
half the tuyeres on each side of the furnace, 
being introduced to alternate tuyeres, those on 
the front of the surface being staggered in re- 
lationship to those at the back. Mr. Garred 
experimented with check or explosion valves, 
which were placed in the branch pipes. It was 
found that these check valves were not effec- 
tive except when they were carefully designed 
and placed in every branch pipe, and this was 
a complication of apparatus that was not con- 




SECTION OF TENNESSEE COPPER CO PULV COAL EJECTOR 




•dlasl Furnace 
<Ci Side J<kA.-/ 



1 2 Lbs Air Delivers 
S L bs.Coal Against 
2702 Pre s. 



EJECTOR G 
■Tuyere Coiling 
5 lbs. Coal Against 27 Or Pres FJFCTOR M 

Fig. 3. Various Forms of Tuyeres. 

sidered desirable. It was then found that if 
any individual tuyere was choked, the coal was 
drawn into the bustle pipe by suction and found 
its way down the branch pipes leading to tu- 
yeres that were open. It was therefore agreed 
that any possibility of explosions could be ef- 
fectively prevented by arranging check or ex- 
plosion valves in the bustle pipe itself. The 
experiment was then made of introducing the 
coal between and slightly above the tuyeres, 
by boring a hole through the jacket and con- 
necting to these the coal supply pipe from the 
ejectors at the screw feeds, thus introducing a 
dense mixture of coal and air into the furnace 
independent of the main air supply. This was 
found to be a clean method and a test was made 
over a period of eight days. During this time 
the coke was reduced from 12% to about 6%, 
with promising results, the most important and 
necessary condition still being that of keep- 
ing the tuyeres open. It was observed that the 
small openings (l^ in. pipe) through which the 
coal was introduced into the furnace required 
very little punching, the main trouble being 



144 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



with the large tuyeres ; and by observation 
through the Dibley valve, the combustion and 
the smelting of the ore in the furnace could be 
seen in operation. 

It was decided to use specially designed fur- 
nace jackets at the tuyere level of the furnace. 
The design finally adopted is shown in Fig. 4. 
These jackets, it will be seen, provide means 
for a more even distribut on of the blast, and 
it was thought that they would give better op- 
portunity for combustion at the entrance to the 
charge. It was also believed that furnace 
jacketsdesigned on this 
principle would not be 
more expensive than 
those of regular design, 
as two tuyere castings 
with their joints and ma- 
chine work would be 
dispensed with. The 
furnace is now equip- 
ped with some of these 
jackets.butitistooearly 
to state, definitely, how 
advantageous they are. 

Experiments have 
been made with a stan- 
dard blast-furnace re- 
duced in width from 52 
in. to36 in. at thetuyere 
level, with the air blast 
at various pressures, 
and melting a variety of 
furnace charges. Con- 
siderable study has also 
been given to modifying 
the design of furnaces 
in order to obtain ideal 
conditions in smelting. 
Fig. 5 illustrates one of 
these modifications, 
which it was found 
could be easily obtain- 
ed by changing the sec- 
tion of the jackets in 
the existing furnace at 
the International Nic- 
kel Company's smelter. 

These modifications 
should be advantageous 
for these reasons : 

(l). There will be 
produced, mechanically 
or artificially, a condi- 
tion wherein the melt- 
ing zone is fixed in pro- 
per relation to the com- 
bustion and charge. 



(2). The tuyereswill be free and unobstruc- 
ted, giving improved conditions with reduced 
costs. 

(3). The most efficient use of air blast 
will be possible, on account of its complete 
control, regulation and distribution. 

(4). There will be a combustion chamber 
and tuyeres so arranged that the gaseous fuel 
can be used efficiently ; among such gaseous 
fuels may be included pulverized coal and 
atomized oil. • 

(5). The furnace construction will cause the 




S«ct.on B-8 



Furnace Jackets at the Tuyere I.i vj i 




Fig. 5. Modified Form of Blast-Furnace using Pulverized Coal. 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



145 



gases from the combustion chamber to be dis- 
tributed efficiently to the furnacecharge. Com- 
bustion arrangements are such that positive 
ignition of all the fuel is assured. 

(6). The molten mass in the crucible will 
be strongly heated to facilitate the separation 
of the metals. 

(7). The furnace construction can be so ar- 
ranged that concentrates, flue dust, fines, etc., 
can be smelted economically and with mini- 
mum losses by being introduced into the lower 
part of the furnaces by means of the tuyeres 
or other suitable connections. 

(8). There will be the utmost economy in 
the use of air blast, with resulting economies 
in power, and there will be a greater efficiency 
in the use of oxygen, due to the pre-heating of 
the gases and their better distribution. 

(9). The furnace may be rectangular or cir- 
cular, with the melting zone arranged corres- 
pondingly. . 

(10). With a furnace of this design, com- 
bustion occursatthebaseof the furnace charge, 
thus obtaining the most efficient use of the heat 
and gases. 

(11). The furnace design provides facilities 
for repairs to the lower portion of the furnace 
without resorting to the usual procedure of 
shutting down and digging out the whole of the 
furnace charge. 

To summarize the results of the experiments 
at Copper Cliff, it can be said that under diffi- 
cult conditions, and without interfering with 
production in the slightest, it has been demon- 
strated that important economies are possible 
at many smelting plants by the use of pulver- 
ized coal, thus replacing a considerable portion 
of the coke, and the International Nickel Com- 
pany, early this year, decided that an aggres- 
sive policy of experimentation and develop- 
ment should be followed. 

Operating Conditions and Costs. — 
It is a foregone conclusion that the character- 
istics of the charge will have an important 
bearing on the results obtained. At Tennessee 
the charge consists of run-of-mine ore and 
quartz in large pieces, with a high percentage 
of sulphur, and melting conditions that call for 
relatively small quantities of fuel. At Copper 
Cliff,' the ore is comparatively fine, over 74% 
of the charge coming from the roasting beds 
from which it is reclaimed and handled two or 
three times, and the final sulphur content does 
not much exceed 12%. 

There are some blast-furnaces operating in 
conjunction with re verberatory furnaces, where 
the blast-furnace charge is favourable for easy 
smelting conditions, due to the slags and other 
3—4 



by-products being treated therein. It is gener- 
ally believed by those conversant with the ex- 
periments that successful work at Copper Cliff 
can assuredly be followed by successful work 
in a large proportion of the blast-furnaces 
smelting non-ferrous ores elsewhere. 

Regarding blow-holes in the charge, it ap- 
pears that these should be less when using pul- 
verized fuel than under normal operating con- 
ditions, as segregations of the coke are, to a 
large extent, responsible for the blow-holes. 
For the same reason, beneficial results might 
also be anticipated regarding dust losses. 

It is often stated that large pieces of incan- 
descent coke are necessary in the charge to sup- 
port the burden. This may be so under cer- 
tain conditions, but the experiments indicate 
that it is not essential in smelting copper sul- 
phide ores, and we do not expect it to be a mat- 
ter of great moment when treating other non- 
ferrous ores. 

Another point of great importance is the ef- 
fect of the Garred- Cavers process on the tuyeres 
and the amount of tuyere punching. Tuyere 
punching, under normal conditions, entails a 
good deal of hard labour, and it is our opinion 
the conditions in this connection will be greatly 
improved. The moisture content in the charge 
may be high without causing trouble, during 
the experiments several charges of wet fines, 
the clean-up from storage bins, having been 
handled without trouble. 

In the preparation of pulverized coal it is 
customary first to reduce the run-of-mine pro- 
duct, when this is used, to about one inch in 
size, preparatory to drying, and then to reduce 
the powder in pulverizers. The first precau- 
tion should therefore be to remove any iron or 
steel from the coal, by means of magnetic 
separators. The next precautionary measure 
is to employ a type of dryer that does not allow 
the coal to accumulate in large settling cham- 
bers, to guard against overheated bearings, and 
to have the dryer fired and controlled in such 
a manner that its temperature is under control 
at all times. It is also important, in arranging 
conveyors and elevators, to see that pockets 
and other spaces are not left for the accumu- 
lation of pulverized coal. 

Coals high in sulphur and moisture content 
are liable to spontaneous combustion, and it is 
therefore advisable that bins should be made 
of metal, totally enclosed, with no corners or 
pockets where the coal is likely to lodge and 
stay for any length of time. Storage capacity 
should be as small as possible, compatible with 
uninterrupted service. 

Danger of explosion occurs when the atmos- 



146 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



phere is charged with finely divided fuel, and 
overheating, through accidents or negligence, 
causes combustion. It is claimed that sparks 
alone will not ignite the coal dust air mixture. 

Pulverized coal is much safer than oil or 
natural gas, as a leak is easily detected by the 
eye, and the trouble can be quickly remedied. 
The entire system, from the point where the 
coal is dried, to the tuyeres at the furnaces, can 
be entirely enclosed, and the bins and convey- 
ing system contain but a small quantity of air, 
so that the danger of explosion is negligible. 

It is safe and good practice to blow pulver- 
ized coal through comparatively small pipes, 
and there are several successful installations 
where the fuel is transmitted long distances by 
the Bonnot system, the coal being carried in 
suspension, with about one-third of the volume 
of air necessary for combustion. 

With blast-furnace tuyeres in good condi- 
tion for operating, there should be no risk of 
explosion, but check and relief valves should 
be installed to guard against such a contin- 
gency, in the event of interruption of the blast 
pressure. Automatic controllers should be used 
to stop the coal feed under such circumstances. 

Regarding the ratio of furnace capacity to 
hearth area, it is too early to state anything 
definite. 

There is consumed, in the United States, 
about ten million tons of pulverized fuel per 
annum, and its use is still further being in- 
creased, so that there is now an established 
practice in the preparation of the fuel. 

The most important influence on operating 
costs is in connection with the fuel used, the 
normal practice being to use coke only, whereas 
these experiments show that coke can be re- 
placed, to a large extent, by pulverized coal. 
The relative costs of coal and coke vary a great 
deal, but, on the average, coke may be stated 
to cost twice as much as coal delivered at the 
smelters. It is only necessary to refer to the 
fuel conditions in Canada to appreciate this 
phase of the problem. For instance, the Inter- 
national Nickel Company of Canadaconsumed, 
in connection with their blast-furnace plant at 
Copper Cliff, during the last few years, about 
300 tons of coke per day, the average cost of 
this product during the year 1915-16 being 
§6"25 per ton. The price of high-grade bitu- 
minous coal, as used by them in connection 
with reverberatory furnaces, had a correspond- 
ing cost of $3'50 per ton of slack. Up to the 
present, high-grade bituminous coal has been 
used in the experiments. The average analyses 
of this coal during the month of August, 1918, 
which average may be said to be fairly repre- 



sentative, was : fixed carbon 51'85%, volatile 
matter 36" 10%, ash 12'05%, and sulphur 3'28%; 
fineness 93% to 94% to pass a 100 mesh screen, 
and 75% to 85% to pass a 200 mesh screen. It 
will undoubtedly be possible, however, to de- 
velop the use of a large variety of pulverized 
fuel for blast-furnace operations, as has been 
the case with boilers and other types of fur- 
naces. Lignite will be suitable in many locali- 
ties, among which are certain portions of Can- 
ada, Mexico, and Burma. 

In blast-furnace smeltingof copper ores, the 
ash content of the fuel is of minor importance, 
and the more erosion in a furnace charge the 
greater the efficiency, so that these two factors 
connected with the used of pulverized coal, 
which are discussed so freely in connection 
withother furnaceapplications.arehere of little 
significance. The influence on power costs 
should be favourable, owing to the increased 
efficiency in the furnace, and the possibilities 
of more regular charge reducing the wastage 
of air. The amount of power used for apply- 
ing the coal at the furnace is small, being con- 
fined to the feeders and other apparatus, such 
as ejectors, etc. The air supply will naturally 
vary according to the character of the furnace 
charge and the height of the column that is 
found to be advisable. The present work has 
been carried on with the same air pressure and 
the same height of charge as is usually em- 
ployed at these smelters; but if higher pres- 
sures are used, it is anticipated that the addi- 
tional cost of power will be more than met by 
the increased efficiency in the smelting opera- 
tion. 

The introduction of the fuel at the tuyeres 
gives considerable relief on the charge floor of 
the furnace, and in a large smelter should have 
favourable effects on the cost of tramming, the 
coke being usually handled in cars or other 
mechanical devices, from storage bins, and this 
requires an appreciable amount of labour, 
power, and equipment. 

The cost of preparing pulverized coal will 
vary considerably, as there are several factors 
bearing on the matter, among which are labour, 
power, fuel for dryer, repairs, in addition to in- 
terest and depreciation on buildings and equip- 
ment. The power required for crushing, dry- 
ing, elevating, and conveying the pulverized 
coal will be about 20 horse-power-hours per 
ton of coal handled, and with modern equip- 
ment under average conditions, the cost will be 
about 8 cents per ton per hour. The cost of 
operating the dryer will depend upon the cost 
of the fuel, as the amount required per ton of 
coal dried, with a given moisture content, with 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



147 



standard dryers, will not vary much. The cost 
of labour will be directly affected by the equip- 
ment installed and the size of the plant. The 
costs from several plants, with a capacity of 
from 5 to 10 tons per hour, varies considerably. 
The records for 1912, at the American Iron and 
Steel Manufacturing Co. of Lebanon, Pennsyl- 
vania, show 40c. per ton for the actual prepara- 
tion of the coal, on a basis of 150 to 200 tons 
per day, and 20c. for the conveying system, 
which, in their case, is of an extensive charac- 
ter, owing to the large number of furnaces to 
which pulverized coal is applied. 
The details are as follows : 

Rate per ton of 
coal produced. 

Fuel $0034 

Repairs to buildings 002 

Operating 0" 145 

Power (steam and electric) ... 221 

Repairs to machinery and equipment 200 

$0'602 

Atthe International NickelCompany'ssmel- 
ter, the average cost of preparing and deliver- 
ing the coal to the furnace in 1913 was as 
follows : 

Labour SO' 15 

Power 010 

Repairs 0145 

Coal for drying 0055 

$0'45 

The present costs are abnormal, due to war 
conditions, and will undoubtedly be reduced in 
the near future. They are as follows : 

Labour (6 months) $0'384 

Power (June to November, inclusive, 1918) ■•■ 0'084 

Repairs 284 

Coal for drying (101 tons per day average) ... 0108 

$0"860 

In this connection it may be stated that the 
cost of dry ing is excessive, because the moisture 
content of the coal averages about 10%, and 
that the amount of labour employed could con- 
veniently prepare a much larger tonnage of 
coal. The item "repairs" includes all repairs 
to coal crackers, grinders, conveyors, fans, belt- 
ing, etc. Four men on an 8 hour shift are all 
that are necessary to prepare and deliver 100 
to 200 tons per day. 

The costs in connection with lignite are, of 
course, greater than with other fuels, due to the 
large increase in dryer costs on account of the 
moisture. This, to a certain extent, is compen- 
sated for in reduced repair cost to pulverizing 
machinery, as lignite is easily ground. Some 
of the average operating costs, under recent 
conditions, are reported as follows : 

Small plants (2 to 5 tons per hour), Sl'20 
per ton. 

Medium plants (10 to 15 tons per hour), 75c. 
per ton. 



Large plants (20 tons and over per hour), 
45c. per ton. 

The preparation of lignite calls for more at- 
tention than that of other fuels, on account of 
the high moisture content, which is frequently 
in excess of 50%, and on account of the large 
amount of volatile constituents. It is usual to 
reduce the moisture to about 6% ; to attempt 
further reduction is to invite trouble in the way 
of fires and excessive dryer costs, and all to no 
avail, because it will again absorb this much 
moisture from the atmosphere. Various tests 
show that lignites lose 2f% of their volatile 
combustible matter, when exposed to a temper- 
ature of 214°F. for a period of 30 minutes. 
Such losses cannot be allowed, and so the dry- 
ing must be done at lower temperatures, and 
therefore with increased equipment, recent 
practice being to arrange the dryers in series. 

We have prepared a table showing the ap- 
proximate costs of plants of different capacities 
with certain costs as a basis : 

Daily Capacity Total Building 

in net tons No. of mills cost. only, 

per 24 hours. required. 8 $ 

20 one 33 in. 34,000 5,500 

50 one 42 in. 40.700 7,500 

100 three 33in. 49.500 10,700 

200 three 42in. 66.000 12.500 

300 two 57 in. 79,200 14,750 

400 three 57in. 92,500 15,300 

500 four 57 in. 106,700 16.000 

7i0 five 57 in. 143.000 19,000 

1,000 seven 57 in. 177,000 21,750 

These costs are for complete plants, but there 
should be added 10% for engineering. They 
are for January, 1919. The estimates are for 
construction in the eastern or middle regions of 
the United States. 

We also include the distribution of an esti- 
mate for a coal plant of 500 tons per day, 336 
tons capacity in 16 hours, electrically driven : 

Building 32ft. by 120ft. erected : 

Structural steel 10.200 

Corrugated roofing 

Corrugated siding l.tOO 

Louvres 64 8 

Steel windows and doors 1,650 

Concrete foundations 1,200 

Excavations 200 

S 16.080 

Machinery : 

Steel track, hoppers, grating, plate feeder, etc. 1.000 

Single roll coal crusher 1.410 

Motor for coal crusher 

Steel cased elevators 4,266 

Mo'or drives for elevators 1.720 

Magnetic separator 

Storage bins and supports 2,600 

Cr;ule feeder with driving mechanism 750 

Rotary coal dryer with exhauster, dust collec- 
tor, piping, and motor drive 12,670 

Brick work for dryer 1,400 

Pulverized coal equipment for dryer 1,500 

Screw conveyor with trough "00 

Three 20 ton bins above mills, with discharge 

pouts, bin gates, and spouts 4.571 

Thne 57 in. mills with pullej drives, motors, 

and belts 31.260 

Steel platforms, runways, and stairs 4,000 

Discharge spouts from mills 300 

10 ton crane 1,500 

Screw conveyor with motor drive 620 



148 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Conveyor cover, exhauster, dust collector, and 

piping 1,900 

Wiring and installation of motors 4,000 

Machinery foundations and floors 3,150 

Excavations 1,000 

Miscellaneous erection, labour 3,750 

Total 

Engineering 10% 



85.458 
8101.538 

10.150 



Sill. 888 

General. --Theexperiments described give 
a general outline of the work done by Garred 
and Cavers, and the authors have presented 
general information obtained to date. The ex- 
periments of the Tennessee Copper Company 
are continuing with encouraging results, and at 
the plant of the International Nickel Com- 
pany the most recent work has been to endea- 
vour to operate the furnace entirely without 
coke following earlier work where an average 
of about 50% of the coke had been replaced. 
The results, with all coke eliminated, have not 
as yet been satisfactory, but are sufficiently 
encouraging to continue the experiment with 
that object in view. 

The processes involving the application of 
pulverized fuel to blast-furnaces have been pa- 
tented in the United States, Canada, and many 
foreign countries, the patentees, Garred and 



Cavers, both being engaged in work connected 
with the smelting of non-ferrous ores, and both 
simultaneously working on practically the 
same problem, of the combustion of finely di- 
vided fuel in a blast-furnace. Owing to the 
magnitude of the problems involved, a con- 
solidation of their interests was effected recent- 
ly by the formation of the Garred-Cavers Cor- 
poration, New York, which company has ac- 
quired the patents issued and pending in con- 
nection with this work. It is expected that 
experiments on the smelting of silver-lead ores 
will be commenced in the near future, and we 
have every reason to believe the prospects are 
good for increasing the efficiency of blast-fur- 
nace practice. 

During the last few years, some twenty to 
thirtymillion tons of non-ferrous ores per year 
have been treated in blast-furnaces in the 
I'nited States, Canada, and Mexico, and it is 
believed that further developments of a satis- 
factory nature in connection with this work 
will enable a large proportion of these ores to 
be smelted with considerable economies in fuel 
consumption. 

[The subject of pulverized fuel as applied 
for metallurgical and power purposes is dis- 
cussed elsewhere in this issue. — EDITOR.] 



DIAMOND DISCOVERY ON THE GOLD COAST. 

This article contains Mr. A. E. Kitson's account of his discovery of diamonds on the Gold 
Coast, to which short reference was made in the August issue. 



IT was announced recently that diamonds 
were discovered by Mr. A. E. Kitson, Di- 
rector of the Gold Coast Geological Survey, in 
theshallowquartz-gravelsoftheAbomo stream 
and the adjacent ridge, near the village of Abo- 
moso, on the Birrim River, at a point about 15 
miles to the north-west of Kibbi, in the district 
of Akim Abuakwa, and some 65 miles to the 
north-west of Accra, the capital of the Colony. 
Mr. Kitson's report, which was published a 
few weeks ago by the Gold Coast Government, 
is given below, with certain modifications em- 
bodying the recent official announcement of 
the Colonial Office relating to the discovery. 

On February 4 last, while bicycling down 
the slope of the low rise on the eastern side of 
the Abomo Su, on the road from Asunafo to 
Abomoso, Mr. Kitson saw some angular quartz- 
gravel in the gutter, and decided to test it for 
gold. Three small panfuls were collected, 
panned in the Abomo near by, and two small 
diamonds with some gold, including one good 
speck, were found therein. Five small pans of 
gravel from the bed of this very small swampy 



stream were also concentrated and one more 
diamond was found. During the following 
six days numerous places on the low ridges 
and the Abomo Su flat were tested by pann- 
ing with a view to trace the distribution of the 
diamonds. Altogether 325 diamonds, most of 
them very small, were obtained, chiefly from 
the gravel in the bed of the Abomo Su. Most 
of the work was done away from the channel 
of the stream, otherwise many more diamonds 
would have been found. 

A tour extending over eleven days was then 
made to Kade Mountain and back to Abomoso, 
via Asunafo, through the country to the north- 
west of Abomoso, in order to test it for dia- 
monds. During this tour a few small dia- 
monds were found. Seven of these came from 
the Bwano Su, 4 miles away; twelve from 
the Asikawkaw Su, from three places, 6 miles,' 
6i miles, and 10 miles away; three from the 
Kadewa Su, 14 miles to the north-west: and 
two from the Akwasi Su, one mile north-east. 

On return to Abomoso, 21 pits, varying from 
5 to 10 ft. in depth, were sunk into bedrock 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



149 



at various places on the Abomo flat and on 
the adjacent low ridge to the east of it. 

Numbers of small pans of gravel and sand 
were washed from different layers in these 
shafts, and from the surface soil near them, and 
some 45 diamonds found. None of these was 
found in the bedrock; all of them came from 
the material overlying it. This later work 
proved the distribution of the diamonds over a 
length of li miles along the Abomo valley. 
The bedrock in some cases proved to be de- 
composed phyllites (altered slates); in others 
a decomposed volcanic rock with chlorite, or 
tuffs. All of them belong to the Birrim Series. 

Some 620 diamonds have been found merely 
by panning during the time the surrounding lo- 
cality was being tested with regard to theorigin 
and distribution of the diamondiferous gravels. 
Of these about 530came from the gravelsof the 
Abomo Su. This might appear as if the stones 
had been naturally concentrated to a consider- 
able extent in the stream-bed ; but that is prob- 
ably not so, for in the pool at the road crossing 
the native womenhavewashedthe gold-bearing 
material taken from the slopes of the eastern 
ridge. Since, however, the stream is little 
more than a trickle except during the height 
of the rainy season, there cannot be much con- 
centration of this calabashed material; hence 
theaverage yield from the stream-gravel should 
not be much better than that from the gravel 
on the rise at the site of the original discovery. 

Many of the diamonds are beautifully per- 
fect crystals, colourless and transparent, the 
commonest forms being the octahedron and 
the rhombic dodecahedron. A few are of pale 
yellow, blue, green, grey, and brown tints ; 
others are colourless, but with small dark in- 
clusions. Cleavage plates of octahedra occur in 
fair numbers, some of them by their size in- 
dicating that the original crystals were much 
larger than any of those found. Many are 
more or less chipped, as if due to damage 
during transport by water, while there are 
many fragments. 

All the stones found up to the present are 
small, averaging approximately 30 to the stan- 
dard carat, the largest being about j carat. In 
value they vary from 10s. to 12s. per carat for 
the smaller grade; 17s. 6d. per carat for the 
medium grade; and 30s. to 32s. 6d. per carat 
for the larger grade. This is for mixed sam- 
ples, including all qualities of stones. Some 
of the largest, however, are worth from 70s. 
to 80s. per carat. 

The gravel which contains the diamonds is 
usually coarse, with a good deal of quartz; the 
fine sand is as a rule barren. The concentrate 



is scanty, consisting of quartz, topaz, zircon, 
black sand (undetermined), a little red garnet, 
brown corundum, ragged and partly- worn gold 
(coarse and fine), odd fragments of rutile and 
black tourmaline, and numerous small flat el- 
liptical crystals (undetermined) of pale bluish- 
grey colour, but white when bleached. The 
general character of the diamondiferous gravel 
and the concentrates therefrom suggests their 
derivation from a granite-pegmatite area, but 
much of the quartz and the gold are undoubt- 
edly of local origin. Much more work needs to 
be done before the origin and the full distribu- 
tion of the diamonds can be proved. 

The diamonds may have been derived in- 
directly or directly (as in South Africa) from 
some volcanic rocks (now concealed) which 
were intruded as plugs and flows into the 
Birrim Series during the deposition of the beds 
of that series, or at a later time; or they may- 
have been formed in pegmatite dykes or along 
a contact between intrusive granite and the 
Birrim sediments; or they may have been de- 
rived from a pre-existing diamondiferous con- 
glomerate, or from an existing one of the 
Birrim Series. 

One of the pits sunk on the high-terrace 
pebbly gravels of the old bed of the Birrim 
River, near Abomoso, yielded one diamond 
from a small part of the material in it that was 
panned; while in the Anasso Su, close to the 
Birrim River, some 5 miles to the north-east, 
I found one diamond larger than the average 
of those at Abomoso. This indicates that the 
Birrim River gravels are diamondiferous, 
though to what extent remains to be proved. 
Bu| the peculiar character of the diamond- 
bearing gravel on the eastern slopes into the 
Abomo Su, where there is no definite Birrim 
gravel, raises the suspicion that some at least 
of the stones may have been locally derived. 

The mode of panning necessary to detect 
the diamonds is different from that for gold. 
Many of the larger stones, especially those 
more nearly approaching a round shape, such 
as the octahedron and the rhombic dodecahe- 
dron, roll easily out of the pan long before the 
concentrate has been obtained; while all the 
stones float quickly away on the water if the 
pan becomes partly dry on the bottom. Pan- 
ning needs to be done in a good light, prefer- 
ably a strong diffused one, and the pan needs 
to be tilted frequently from side to side and 
slowly forward so as to get flashes from the 
stones. Panning in deep shade is, therefore, 
almost useless; while strong sunlight gives 
strong flashes from many minerals, and causes 
confusion. 



THE EVOLUTION OF ORE DEPOSITS 

FROM 

IGNEOUS MAGMAS. 

By W. H. GOODCHILD, A.R.S.M., M.Inst.M.M. F.G.S. 
A Discussion and Reply. 



AT the June meeting of the Institution of 
l\ Mining and Metallurgy, Mr. W. H. 
Goodchild read a paper introducing his theory 
of the origin of ore deposits, the paper being 
in the nature of a brief summary of his views 
put forward in the seriesof articles appearing in 
this Magazine from February to October, 1 
The paper was discussed at some length by 
many eminentgeologists and mining engineers, 
as recorded in our July issue. A full report 
of this discussion, together with the author's 
reply, is printed in the Institution's Bulletin 
for August. We extract in the following 
paragraphs the parts of the discussion that ap- 
pear to be the most helpful, together with the 
author's replies in brackets. 

Mr. E. T. McCarthy said that the subject 
was so vast and complex and had been so little 
studied from the metallographic point of view 
that the paper opened up to most of them a 
new field of study, one which would give rise 
to much controversy and even antagonism ; 
nevertheless, he made bold to prophesy that it 
would prove revolutionary, as he believed it 
gave the explanation of the origin of many 
mineral deposits, although not doing away al- 
together with some of the old theories. Th^se 
old theories would still hold good to a great 
extent, but were more applicable to secondary 
deposits derived in the first instance from the 
author's primary ones. 

In the evolution of igneous rocks by mag- 
matic differentiation the author traced the 
changes which occurred in the melt from that 
of precipitation, the main source of contact 
deposits, down to the ultimate and complex 
sub-magmas which constituted the source of 
many other ore deposits. The author set out 
with the statement that primary rock magma 
was evolved periodically over large areas be- 
neath the earth's crust by direct oxidation of 
elemental Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, K, Na, Si, etc., 
the process being powerfully exothermic and 
expansive and in the nature of an annulment 
to the general cooling process of the earth, 
and he would like to ask him to dilate a little 
more fully on the proofs or methods of deduc- 
tion by which he arrived at the existence of 



his original melt, because it appeared to him 
that if the author could reasonably establish 
its truth most of his subsequent deductions 
would be incontrovertible. 

Again, what would be the source of the oxy- 
gen needed for its conversion into that highly 
exothermic condition ? It was difficult to con- 
ceive that the small quantity of water, or ele- 
ments of water referred to, would be sufficient 
to oxidize such enormous masses of the melt. 
The author referred to that process of direct 
oxidation as being powerfully exothermic and 
expansive and said that the CaO, K a O, Na_< >, 
etc., so formed was present in high-tempera- 
ture or anhydric forms in contradistinction to 
the low- temperature forms commonly present 
in larger proportions in the magmas subse- 
quently produced by ( rystnllization differentia- 
tion. He would ask the author to elucidate a 
little more clearly the cause for that exother- 
mic condition, because it was difficult to con- 
ceive how the pyroxene swarm of crystals 
which the author stated were in an anhydrous 
state could so exist with the liberation of water 
or steam which resulted from that fractional 
crystallization, although it was true that at a 
later period regeneration did take place in a 
highly exothermic manner. 

[As regards the origin of primary rock mag- 
ma, I do not think I can add much to the pres- 
entation of the subject given in T/ie Mining 
Magazine. It was based on the same funda- 
mental physico-chemical principles as applied 
to the cooling of rock melts. It is generally 
accepted that the interior of the earth is made 
up of matter in the metallic and elemental con- 
ditions. Clearly this elemental complex is 
surrounded in some way or other with a rocky 
shell. If one wanted to conserve the heat 
energy of a mass of metal one surrounded it 
with a non-conducting lagging, and it is pre- 
cisely in respect to this heat conductivity that 
the earth's shell differs so markedly from its 
interior. If one had a huge heated mass of 
mixed metals and their dissolved gases and it 
was radiating off heat energy into space, an ob- 
vious way of retarding this lossof energy would 
be to develop a non-conducting or only poorly 
conducting coating. Now that was precisely 



150 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



151 



what the Le Chatelier law told them a complex 
heterogeneous mass of elemental substances 
would be likely to do. Looking at the struc- 
ture of the earth in this way as displayed by 
cosmic investigations one could understand at 
once why we find a non-conducting shell sur- 
rounding a high density interior. By further 
refinements, that is to say, by evolving the non- 
conducting material periodically and exother- 
mally in the fluid state, and making the fluid 
crustitselftosomeextent self-heating by means 
of allotropic changes, in fact by the continued 
application of the LeChatelier law to the whole 
series of events, one arrived at the hypothesis 
of primary rock magma formation I have put 
forward. It is gratifying to note that Mr. Mc- 
Carthy thinks that if this hypothesis of prim- 
ary rock magma is sound, then most of my 
subsequent deductions are incontrovertible. 
W.H.G.].- 

Dr. J. W. Evans said Mr. Goodchild con- 
sidered that 2% of water was perhaps a very 
large amount to be present in a magma, and 
there might not be so much. He should have 
said himself that, in the average magma, 20% 
by weight of water and other volatile constitu- 
ents would have been very much nearer the 
truth. 

[With Dr. Evans' suggestion of 20% water 
for an average rock magma, I cannot agree, 
nor do I think he will find any support for such 
an extremely high proportion of water among 
petrologists generally. The known facts of 
igneous metamorphism are altogether against 
it, and, as another geologist has pointed out, it 
is probable that there would be no land surface 
to the globe if such were the case. A very 
small proportion of water in the melts seems 
fully competent to explain the known facts and, 
as I pointed out in introducing the paper, if one 
took the molecular weights of the substances 
into consideration, a very small percentage of 
water in the melts is sufficient to account for 
the difference in crystallization between gabbro 
and basalt as regards the mode of occurrence 
of their iron oxides. — W.H.G.]. 

Dr. J. Vincent Elsden endorsed the re- 
marks of previous speakers with regard to the 
incompleteness of our knowledge of some of 
the facts which appeared to be assumed in the 
paper. He referred more particularly to the 
high-temperature and low-temperature forms 
of calcic oxide and the proof, or evidence, that 
pyroxene lime differed from felspar lime. A 
positive proof of that problem would be very 
difficult to supply. 



As geologists they had always been more or 
less in a state of perplexity as to the actual con- 
dition of what might be called a silicate melt. 
Many of them had expressed various opinions 
upon that subject. Supposing one took an 
olivine crystal and melted it, what was there 
in the melt ? Was it olivine ? Was it a mix- 
ture of magnesiaand silica or was it still further 
dissociated, as probably would be found to be 
the fact, into more elementary substances still ? 
The experiments which had been made as to 
the electrical conductivity in silicate melts 
seemed to prove that there was a progressive 
dissociation as the temperature rose; there was 
an increase of conductivity certainly, and that 
could be most reasonably explained by dissocia- 
tion. Therefore, it might be expected that at 
a very high temperature one would have in the 
olivine melt, magnesium, oxygen, silicon, and 
perhaps various ions, according to the tempera- 
ture, which would make up the whole thing, 
and, on cooling again, of course, would recom- 
bine to form the original olivine. That was 
probably the state of things in an actual melt, 
but when one came to the changes of volume 
which they had been hearing about that even- 
ing, these must be the result of cooling and 
crystallization. 

One point which he had found somewhat 
difficult had been to reconcile Mr. Goodchild's 
theory with regard to those volume changes 
with some of the primary fundamental laws 
which he laid down as governing those condi- 
tions. For instance, they all firmly believed 
in the principle of Le Chatelier and the prin- 
cible of Van 't Hoff, but he found it difficult to 
understand how those principles were satisfied 
by such things as an isothermal reaction in 
which expansion took place. That seemed to 
be a difficulty, but probably the author could 
explain it. 

Then the author had referred in several 
places in the paper to reactions which were ex- 
othermic and expansive. He would almost 
have thought that an exothermic change could 
not be expansive ; it seemed to him that such 
a change must be endothermic. That was so 
fundamental to the author's theory that the 
speaker felt he had either misapprehended some 
portion of it or that he had missed some point 
upon which he could probably be enlightened. 

Again, with regard to one of the points upon 
which the author's theory seemed to rest, that 
is, the order of consolidation, Kosenbusch's 
normal order, it had to be remembered that, 
although that order might be called normal, it 
was not by any means universal. Let them 
take, for instance, the pyroxene crystal swarm 



152 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



described by the author ; he expected that, if 
one examined the pyroxene-bearing rocks all 
over the world, quite as many cases would be 
found in which there could not have been a 
pyroxene swarm as those in which there might 
have been one. There was no pyroxene swarm 
in the ophitic diabase, or ophitic dolerites ; in 
these, felspar crystallized first and formed the 
basis on which the pyroxene had crystallized 
afterwards. In regard to the normal order of 
crystallization or consolidation they had to bear 
those things in mind and consider them in their 
proper light. 

Another point which had occurred to him 
was that the mechanism which the author de- 
scribed as explaining the squirting of, say, the 
metalliferous veins with liquid material, as far 
as he could gather, was due to the expansion 
produced by high volume changes in mineral 
composition, which exerted a pressure upon the 
residual fluid in the magma. If they were to 
believe in the normal order of consolidation 
that residual fluid should not contain very much 
mineralore, because of all the substances whii h 
were deposited in the early stage he thought 
the mineral ores preserved the rule most gener- 
ally. If that were so, the squirt of residual 
liquid would not have any metal in it, as practi- 
cally it would have had its metal already pre- 
cipitated. 

[Dr. Elsden endorses the remarks of some 
previous speakers with regard to the incom- 
pleteness of our knowledge of some of the 
facts which appeared to be assumed in the 
paper. Now I particularly stated in the* in- 
troduction to this paper that these facts, to 
which he specifically refers later in his re- 
marks, were given in my original articles. He 
refersmore particularly to the high- temperature 
and low-temperature forms of lime. This 
seemed to have been a stumbling-block to so 
many, but the physico-chemical evidence in 
regard to lime is remarkably clear and definite. 
Two forms of widely different densities have 
been actually prepared experimentally, and by 
means of density analysis of felspars and py- 
roxenes taken in conjunction with the question 
of affinity pressures, very striking and con- 
vincing evidence has been obtained of the re- 
lationships that subsist between felspar calcium 
silicate and pyroxene calcium silicate. In the 
case of aluminium silicate there are noless than 
three different silicates definitely known in the 
free state, but in the case of the calcium sili- 
cates they occur as double silicates intermixed 
with some other silicate, such as one of these 
aluminium silicates, so that the phenomena 
are not quite so obvious, but nevertheless den- 



sity analysis on the lines I have developed 
brings them out into sharp relief and in an un- 
mistakable fashion. 

As regards Dr. Elsden's difficulty about an 
isothermal reaction accompanied by expansion, 
it is a question of ascertained fact and not one 
of conjecture. 

The oxidation of ferrous oxide, which is a 
strong base that exercises a strong affinity 
pressure on silica, to ferric oxide is approxi- 
mately isothermal, while ferric oxide is acidic 
and does not exercise this strong affinity pres- 
sure on silica, consequently the silica expands. 
Since Van 't Hoff's general theorem was that 
reactions proceeding at high temperatures tend 
to be endothermic while those at low temper- 
atures tend to be of the opposite nature, an 
approximately isothermal reaction is precisely 
the sort of thing to be expected and looked for 
as likely to occur over an intermediate tem- 
perature range. As regards these exothermic 
and expansive reactions generally, I would re- 
Fei Dr. Klsden to the experimental data given 
in my original articles. 

1 >i . IClsden's reference to the Rosenbusch 
law and its reversals is a welcome and pene- 
trating contribution to the discussion. It is 
a matter of fundamental importance to any 
petrogenic theory. When one comes to con- 
sider the ils in die light of the Le 
Chatelier law and the facts of allotropy, the 
meaning of it becomes pretty clear. It appears 
that the Rosenbusch order represents only one 
side of a reversible process, much like one side 
of a reversible equation. I f the concentration 
of the low-temperature forms in a rock melt 
tend to become high, then in terms of the Le 
Chatelier law one would expect these to crys- 
tallize out before the unconverted allotropes, 
for when once conversion has taken place they 
are useless for the further generation of heat. 
By reversing the order in this way in the case 
of such magmas, the unconverted residues are 
available for a still further prolongation of the 
liquid state by their gradual conversion coinci- 
dent with the continuous crystallization of the 
low-temperature forms and the consequent in- 
crease of water concentration in the residual 
fluid material. 

As regards Dr. Elsden's remarks on the be- 
haviour of the mineral substances, I would 
emphasize that there are two opposing factors 
that must be clearly borne in mind when deal- 
ing with the behaviour of these traces in a rock 
melt, and if these two opposing factors are not 
duly allowed for, one is apt to get in a hope- 
less muddle in trying to decipher their joint 
results. Cooling of the silicate melt down to 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



153 



the point at which crystallization just com- 
mences tends to precipitate these traces, but 
with the advance of crystallization of the main 
melt, the water concentration in the residua is 
continually increasing and this not merely 
tends to retard any further separation of ore- 
making precipitates but to drive early formed 
precipitates back into solution, so that, granted 
early precipitation of these ore-forming con- 



stituents, unless they become concentrated in- 
to large masses during the fluid life of the 
main magma by gravitative descent or in other 
ways, the scattered traces tend to redissolve in 
the final aqueous residua and become expelled 
in solution when the solidified crusts are sub- 
jected to those intense mechanical stresses de- 
veloped during the later stages of magma con- 
solidation. — W.H.G.] . 



THE MINERALS OF ANATOLIA 

By NORMAN M. PENZER, B.A., F.G.S. 

The author gives particulars of the mineral deposits of part of Asiatic Turkey, about which 
little is known in this country, though the Germans compiled records some years ago. 

(Continued from August issue, page 81 .) 



Coal. — The coal deposits of Anatolia are 
of great economic importance, the pre-war out- 
put and value being far larger than all the other 
minerals put together. In the following notes 
reference is made to a map in this issue, and 
to the general map published last month. 

Practically all the coal is mined in the vila- 
yet of^Castamuni in the Hereclea basin. The 
term " Hereclea basin " is used to denote all 
the deposits in the vicinity, that is to say, those 
of Kiosse-Aghzy, Zunguldak, and Amasra. 
All the deposits are situated near the Black 
Sea coast, the distance from Hereclea (often 
called Eregli in maps) to Amasra being 65 
miles. At present the deposits are not known 
to stretch more than about 5 miles inland, al- 
though it is thought that beds connected with 
the most easterly of the deposits may be en- 
countered further inland. 

The three deposits above referred to consist 
of long and narrow parallel bands of Carbon- 
iferous rocks, comprising culm, lower Carbon- 
iferous limestones, and upper Carboniferous 
coal-measures. The general trend of the bands 
is N. 70° E. The correlation of the complete 
geological sequence of this area with the cre- 
taceous of the Balkan has been established. 
The strata of the Hereclea basin can be classi- 
fied in ascending order as follows : 

(1) Basal Carboniferous limestone. 

(2) Coal-bearing measures on which lie 

uncomformably thick Cretaceous 
beds represented by 

(3) Greyish crystalline limestone. 

(4) A mixture of dark clays and sandstone, 

for the most part fine-grained. 

Palacontological study by M.M. Zeiller, 

Ralli, and others, has lead to a recognized local 

sub-division intothreestages, the Aladja-Aghzy 

at the base, which comprises coal richest in 



volatile matter, the Cozloo or middle stage from 
which the best coal is derived, and the Caradon 
or upper stage containing a poorer variety of 
coal. 

Beginning at the west end of the basin about 
6 miles east of Hereclea at Kiosse-Aghzy, 
there occurs a long fault where the measures 
have sunk in depth. The coal seams in this 
district can be correlated with the Cozloo stage. 
The systems of seams occur here known as the 
Tsamly and Beylik groups. The former is the 
most important and stretches over a distance 
of about 2\ miles. At the village of Tsamly 
on the coast the seams appear nearly vertical. 

Going eastwards the Aladja-Aghzy stage is 
best represented at the village of the same 
name. The strata have a general east-west 
strike and dip from 10° to 30° south. The 
region has undergone much faulting since the 
coal was formed, and there are 15 seams dis- 
tinguished by various names. The same 
measures also appear at Kiosse-Aghzy and in 
the valley of the Kiretchlik. Almost vertical 
seams occurring along a double east- west line 
of faulting mark the transition zone between 
the Aladja-Aghzy and Cozloo measures. 

The Cozloo stage is represented in the val- 
leys of Zunguldak, Kilimli, and Chatal-Aghzy. 
This forms the most important part of the en- 
tire district. The strata dip respectively to 
the northandsouth, formingan anticlineplainly 
visible in the Kilimli valley. In the Zungul- 
dak valley the seams are 3 miles wide and ex- 
tend some way beyond Chatal-Aghzy. Their 
average thickness is 4 ft. 9 in. Twenty-five 
seams are distinguished locally, but lack of geo- 
logical information makes detailed information 
impossible. It was, however, reported in 1918 
that a cadastral survey of the mines at Hereclea 
and Eski-Shehr was to be shortly undertaken. 



154 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



The Caradon is represented at Cozloo and 
at the village of the same name between Kilimli 
and Chatal- Aghzy, but more inland than either. 
The seams have an average thickness of about 
4 ft. Beds of clay are intercalated between 
the seams. The Amasra basin comprising the 
Chatal- Aghzy district also appears to form part 
of the same series. Five seams are known 
here. The outcrops east of Amasra are thought 
to be a continuation of this group. 

The coal of the Hereclea basin is of the 
bituminous variety, and is lighter in ash than 
corresponding European types. It has been 
divided into two classes: (l) That obtained 
from the veins of the middle series, containing 
from 30% to 40% volatile matter ; (2) that 
mined from the lowest stage, containing from 
40% to 45% volatile matter. The first is ex- 
cellent for coking purposes, while that of Aladja- 
Aghzy is used chiefly in the manufacture of 
illuminating gas and for steam generation. 

Attention was first drawn to the Hereclean 
coalfield in 1854 during the Crimean War, 
when the Turkish Government allowed the 
allies to take what coal they liked. No fur- 
ther mining was done until 1885, when a 
French syndicate obtained a concession to 
work all the seams east of Cozloo, and to build 
a harbour at Zunguldak, and also to lay down 
a railway by means of tunnels from the mines 
to the coast. Seven years later the syndicate 



failed through want of capital, as did also a 
second French syndicate a year or two later. 
However, in May, 1896, a company was form- 
ed, known as the Societe Francais d'Heraclee. 
This company obtained a concession for 50 
years to expire in 1946. It got the right to 
work all the mines, which constituted a group 
of nineteen seams varying in thickness from 
3i ft. to 23i ft. The area was 5,000 hectares. 
Besides the mines above mentioned, which 
were worked by adit, one was worked by a 
vertical shaft over 800 ft. deep. The company 
also obtained permission to construct a port 
and quays at Zunguldak, the right to admin- 
ister the same, and to join the mines to the 
port by light railways. The company built 
three cargo piers to facilitate the loading of the 
coal. 

Difficulties were always cropping up when 
there was apparently no need for them at all. 
First of all the difficulties raised by the Gov- 
ernment were of a purely technical nature, but 
in course of time they became legal and dip 
lomatic. There were other troubles to con- 
tend with. Eighteen hundred miners were 
employed and a thousand workmen, but labour 
always difficult because the native popu- 
lation is agricultural and the miners only work 
for short periods. They bring their own food 
and as soon as it runs out they go back home. 
The first appearance of snow also sends them 




Mat of the Hereclea Coal District. 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



155 



home. The Government did nothing to help 
the various companies which obtained conces- 
sions a few years later, but, on the contrary, 
seemed to find pleasure in breeding hostility 
between them. 

With all these difficulties the Societe Fran- 
cais d'Heraclee could do little with its capital 
of 10 million francs, and so great were expen- 
ses that in 1900 it had to borrow another 
17,500,000 francs, and up to 1911 paid no divi- 
dend. Although the output was fairly good 
(1904, 456,075 tons; 1905, 403,033; 1906, 
450,425 ; 1907, 484,807) no profit was made 
until some years later. In 1911, 1912, and 
1913 matters had improved. 

The following table shows the amount of 
coal sold at the port in these years, and the 
amount exported : 

1911 1912 1913 

Bunker Coal 260.000 217 672 166,570 

Exports to : 

Constantinople 60,000 186.415 160,585 

Salonica 20.000 17,254 2.311 

Smyrna 72,000 6+,445 56,720 

Roumania. Bulgaria, etc .... 60.000 28,113 39,717 

Total amount screened and 

washed 472,000 513.899 425.903 

Average price per ton f.o.b 12s. 6d. 16s. 20s. 

Several other concessions, already referred 
to, were also obtained. Les Houilleres de la 
Banque de Metelin started very well, reaching 
an output of 90,000 tons, but owing to a bad 
fire the figuresfell considerably. Another com- 
pany, Les Houilleres Rombaki et Panopulos, 
produced about 100,000 tons which it sold to 
La Societe Fran9ais d'Heraclee. A fourth 
company, Les Houilleres Saridja, produced 
80,000 tons, but at a loss. The total produc- 
tion of these three companies in 1911, 1912, 
and 1913 was as follows : 

Year Tons Price 

1911 250,000 6s. to 7s f.o.b. chiefly to Turkey. 

1912 220.000 12s. 6d. f.o.b. 

1913 400.000 15s. 6d. f.o.b. 

In 1913 the producing centres were as fol- 
lows : 

Tons 

Zunguldak 43,000 

Amasra 6,000 

Cozloo 177,000 

Chatal-Aghzy 1,000 

Kilimli 98,000 

Aladja-Aghzy 7,000 

Candilli & Tsamly 6S.000 

As has been already stated, there were many 
influences at work detrimental to the thorough 
and harmonious exploitation of the Hereclean 
basin, but one not yet mentioned was the di- 
viding up of the area into too small conces- 
sions, which were too easily obtained. This 
trouble only disappeared when several of the 
smaller companies amalgamated into one or 
two larger ones, and it was found possible to 
bear the large initial expenses. 



A few years before the war a German com- 
pany under the control of Hugo Stinnes and 
the Deutsche Bank bought up a number of 
mines in this district, the chief of which was 
the Abadgi, from which 1,500 to 2,000 tons 
was extracted monthly. The Candilli mines 
were being opened out in 1917 by Hugo Stin- 
nes with new shafts, as the old ones, being on 
the sea shore, were too exposed to gun fire. A 
Belgian syndicate was also formed, and the 
Germans bought up 5 million marks worth of 
shares. In 1916 these mines were taken over 
entirely by Stinnes and the Deutsche Bank. 

For a long time the Germans have had a 
plan of connecting the Hereclea Basin to Bolu 
by rail. Bolu is situated on the Anatolian 
Railway near Adabzar. 

The Porte recently bought the harbour of 
Zunduldak from the French company for 
nearly ^600,000, as since the war the Turk- 
ish Government had taken over the control of 
the whole enterprise and had replaced the 
French employees by Turks and Germans. A 
further ,£"90,000 was granted for the enlarge- 
ment of the harbour, &c. 

The Government is endeavouring to form 
all the different companies in the Hereclean 
district into a single large company for the ex- 
ploitation of the district. In order to attain 
this end, it has ordered that the export of coal 
may take place only by way of Zunguldak, 
and the transport overland only by the rail- 
way now being built for the Government. 

It was reported in the foreign press in 1918 
that the " Societe Fran^ais de Heraclee," 
which had been transformed into an Ottoman 
company, had 40% of the shares in the hands 
of the ' Committee of Union and Progress," 
and 20% in the hands of the Ottoman mer- 
chants and shipowners. It will be interesting 
to see what finally happens in this area now 
that peace is signed. 

The annual production of the entire basin 
in 1884 was only 70,997 metric tons ; by 1900 
it had gradually risen to 390,428 ; in 1911 it 
was 750,000 ; and in 1912 there was a slight 
drop to 700,000 tons. If the war had not oc- 
cured it was thought that the output would 
soon have reached 1,000,000 tons. As to fu- 
ture developments little can be expected until 
a far more detailed geological and topographi- 
cal survey is made and maps constructed. 
These will in all probability show hopeful pos- 
sibilities in the Amasra- Djide region at the 
extreme east of the basin. 

Apart from the Hereclean basin the coal de- 
posits of Anatolia are unimportant. In most 
cases they only yield sufficient for local needs, 



156 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



as in the case of the deposits at Man jilik, south 
of Biga, Sokia, south of Smyrna, and Nazilli, 
east of Aidin. Other deposits have not yet 
been worked, as, for instance, the Lapsaki de- 
posit near the Dardanelles. 

By paying a certain percentage to the Gov- 
ernment, the local inhabitants of Soma, north 
of Smyrna, draw coal enough to supply the 
factories of Soma, Kirchagach, Kereh, and 
Bergoma. It is reported from Konia that coal- 
fields have been discovered in Jarik-Kasa, the 
development of which is being undertaken by 
the local authorities. 

AtMakri.in the south-west corner of the vila- 
yet of Aidin, there is a coal mine which pro- 
duces good quality coal. In the vilayet of 
Sivas, coal has been found near Zara, Zile, 
and Kardashlar. The deposits have, however, 
been very little worked. 

Lignite. — Most of the lignite deposits be- 
long to a transition stage between the Miocene 
and Pliocene, and are lacustrine in origin, the 
decaying vegetation having accumulated dur- 
ing a period of depression. The chief of these 
deposits is at Manjilik in the vilayet of Brusa. 
The seams outcrop for 2\ miles, and are work- 
ed by the owners of the Baha lead mines near 
by. The lignite is used for an electric power- 
station, which feeds the smelters, &c. A small 
trade is done at the portof Akchai, where lignite 
is transported from deposits near Edremid. In 
Bighalignitehasbeenfoundat Lapsaki, but up to 
1914 had not been exploited. The beds can 
be traced across the Marmora to the European 
coasts. There are also mines south-east of 
Pandemia, between Kirmasti and Michalij. 
The quantity and quality of the lignite is small. 
Further east at Demirtash, 5 miles north of 
Brusa, deposits are also known to occur, but 
they are of no real importance. On the sea 
of Marmora at Gemlik two distinct formations 
are found, but they are of little value. An- 
other deposit is at Koure, between Bilejik and 
Eskishehr, just east of the Anatolian Railway. 
By 1913 there was one shaft which had been 
sunk about 200 ft. Deposits have also been 
discovered at Gueve, between Brusa and Her- 
eclea. 

The most westerly Tertiary lignite is found 
in the mountains round Chai, near Afium Kar- 
ahissar. Seams have been discovered here at 
an altitude of 1,840 metres, lying over calcare- 
ous conglomerates and capped by clay beds. 
The thickness of the coal attains 6 ft. 

In the vilayet of Aidin there are three local- 
ities .where lignite is found : Soma, Sokia, and 
Nazilli. The Soma deposits are situated 58 
miles north-east of Smyrna. They were not 



worked previous to the war. The quality is 
decidedly second rate and it could only be 
used if mixed with better lignite or coal. The 
lignite was previously carried from the mines 
to the station by carts, but by 1917 an over- 
head railway was completed capable of dealing 
with 1,000 tons per day. 

The Sokia deposits lie 50 miles south-south- 
east of Smyrna. The monthly production is 
about 500 tons, but the quality is even poorer 
than that of Soma. It is, however, good 
enough for use of the railways, and the cloth 
and tlour mills in Smyrna. 

The Nazilli mines are situated near the 
station on the Aidin Railway. The quality is 
equal to that at Sokia, and is conveyed by road 
and then by rail to Smyrna and Aidin. About 
200 tons are extracted daily. The chief de- 
posits belonged to an American company, but 
were little worked during the war. 

In the vilayet of Angora, lignite has recent- 
ly been discovered at Karaly-Bala. The qual- 
ity is good and has given rise to a belief of the 
existence of coal in the vicinity, although as 
far as is known no further investigations have 
been made. 

To be continut 

The South-Western Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, Manresa Road, Chelsea, London, SAW, 
will re-open on September 12, for day and even- 
ing courses. The courses include lectures in 
physics, chemistry, mathematics, and practical 
instruction in the fully equipped laboratories 
of the Institute. The chemical and metal- 
lurgical departments are respectively under the 
charge of J. B. Coleman, A.R.C.S., F.I.C., 
F.C.S.,and \Y. A. Naish, A.R.S.M., A.I.M.M. 

The Meeting of the American Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, held in 
Chicago this month, promises to beat the rec- 
ord in many ways. No less than 145 different 
papers will be presented, and the social fea- 
tures include a smoker, a banquet, boat excur- 
sions on Lake Michigan, and trips to points of 
historical interest. Of considerable interest 
in the week's programme will be a symposium 
on bituminous coal of low sulphur content, the 
supply of which is rapidly becoming exhausted. 
Contributors to this symposium are planning 
a discussion of means of conservation, which 
is expected to develop results of vital import- 
ance to the country. The technical discussions 
include subjects relating to practically every 
metal known to the mining world. The cen- 
tral location of the meeting will probably make 
it the largest in the Institute's history. The 
membership of the Institute now totals 7,500. 



FOUR YEARS AS A PRISONER OF WAR 

By J. C. FARRANT. 

(Continued from the August issue, page 94). 

The Author continues his account of the treatment of English Prisoners of War by the 
Germans, describing conditions in Saxony. 



January 4, 7917. Chemnitz, Saxony. 
Men leaving for kommandos were compelled 
to give up their English blankets, which were 
personal property. Bowls, cups, knives, and 
forks, which had been purchased from the Ger- 
man canteen, were also taken away. This 
high-handed robbery was reported, but with 
the usual result. 

January 6. I swapped a jersey for 2 oz. of 
German tobacco. 

January 11. Russell, of the R.B., was 
murdered in the guard-room on Borna kom- 
mando J 675-6. Russell, who had been re- 
ported by one of the guards, was taken into the 
guard-house when the party returned from work. 
He was never seen alive again, and he was 
buried two days later. No Englishman was 
allowed to see him, but a Russian, who placed 
him in the coffin, stated his arm was broken 
and his body was covered with wounds. The 
matter was reported, and an inquiry was held 
by the Germans, but we never heard the result. 
Sergeant-Major Hall, of the R.B., who was 
exchanged shortly after, reported the matter in 
Holland. 

Men were returning from kommando almost 
daily, mostly from coal mines, with smashed 
fingers, strains, and ruptures. 

The life at the coal mines was hell. Con- 
demned mines at Oelsnitz had been reopened 
and British prisoners of war were compelled to 
go below. They worked absolutely naked. At 
first men wore their boots, but the sweat made 
this impossible, and soon every one went bare- 
footed. There was a night shift and a day 
shift. The men slept in crowded quarters and 
had no recreation. Indeed, they were only too 
glad to turn in after a meal. The place was 
alive with fleas and bugs, and continued in this 
condition during the whole of the time our men 
were there. In eight months 65% of the origi- 
nal number were returned to lager as unfit for 
work, and a man had to be very bad before he 
was excused duty. 'No two Englishmen were 
allowed to work together. As a rule a gang 
consisted of three Germans and one English- 
man. There were numerous cases of man- 
handling. Self-inflicted wounds were not in- 
frequent ; anything to get away from that hell 
on earth, Oelsnitz. The numbers of the mines 



to which our men were sent were I 32, I 34, 
and I 37. 

January 17. Twenty British N.C.O.s left 
Chemnitz for Holland. Urgent requests were 
made, by men who had been sent back from 
the mines as unfit, that a report should be laid 
before the Dutch Ambassador concerning the 
brutal treatment our men were receiving at 
the coal mines. 

March 13. The Dutch Ambassador's repre- 
sentative arrived in the lager and many com- 
plaints were lodged. He departed for the coal 
mines next day. The usual farce was enacted at 
the lager the day upon which the representative 
arrived. Potatoes were placed in the cookers 
and left there. Firewood and coal were placed 
in conspicuous heaps in the drumming-up shed, 
and the hot water was turned on for an hour. 
Needless to say, as soon as he left the lager 
the coal and wood were taken from the drum- 
ming-up shed by the authorities. But ort this 
occasion we did get the potatoes in the soup, 
the only potatoes we drew in the soup during 
the year 1918. I do not mean to say that no 
potatoes were issued, because they were being 
taken down to the cook-house on certain days. 
But we never saw them. The Russian cooks 
used to take what they wanted, and then vari- 
ous German N.C.O.s and soldiers would come 
and take what they could. So the graft went 
on. 

March 23. The big German offensi ve started. 
Weobtained German newspapersdaily, so dur- 
ing the next three weeks we had an anxious 
time. The Germans didn't lose a chance of 
rubbing it in. However, April 1 was a holi- 
day, and we were busy making preparations for 
a sports fete. Men were running round the 
square in the evening, getting fit. This was 
the best means we could employ as an antidote 
to the news appearing in the German papers. 

April 1. International sports were held 
throughout the day, and the whole affair was 
quite a success. There was a field behind the 
lager, which at first was opened on Sundays 
only, but after various letters had been ad- 
dressed to the commandant and the Dutch 
Ambassador, the authorities opened the field 
daily for a few hours. None of the English 
staff was supposed to play until after 5 p.m., 



15; 



158 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



and the field was closed at 5.30 p.m. As was 
only to be expected, the members of the staff 
used to dodge out and have a kick. 

This field was also used for punishment. 
Defaulters were drilled in squads, each man 
carrying an old German pack, filled with stones 
and weighing about 60 lb. Punishment drill 
lasted two hours, and consisted of running, 
halting, lying down, getting up, and running 
again. A German sergeant-major issued the 
commands. This same punishment was in- 
flicted at the mines, and many a man collapsed 
under it. One German sergeant-major in par- 
ticular " had it in " for the Britishers. He was 
called "Willie Woodbine " because he was 
thin and anaemic. 

He used to inspect the barracks daily at 
10 o'clock, and anyone in the room had to 
stand to attention while he made his survey. 
On one occasion he pushed one of our men be- 
cause he was not standing properly to atten- 
tion. Taylor, the man who was pushed, hauled 
off to plant him one, but was fortunately 
stopped by the man next to him. Taylor was 
sent to chink, and thence straight to the mines, 
where he had a rough time. 

Shortly after we were brought to Chemnitz, 
an order was given out that all Germans above 
the rank of lance-corporal were to be saluted. 
This was the first time since we had been cap- 
tured that such an order had been given, and 
every one jibbed. Quite a number got cells in 
consequence. Bill Partridge, a Cockney 
sergeant in the Royal Scots, was reported to 
the commandant for refusing to salute a Ger- 
man sergeant-major. The commandant swore 
at him and ordered him to salute ; Bill refused 
point blank, and got seven days' cells. 

Previous to this a boxing tournament had 
been arranged, and Sergeant Partridge versus 
Sergeant Wilkinson, of the The Buffs, was one 
of the fights. The boxing was held on Satur- 
day night at 6 p.m. Bill's time was up at 
6 p.m. the same day : at 7 o'clock he was in 
the ring, and after six good rounds beat his 
man, and the same German sergeant- major saw 
him do it. 

Here, as at other camps, the interpreters 
were our worst enemies, and the doctor at this 
camp was one of the worst we had struck. He 
was a dark-bearded man, and his soubriquet 
was " black muzzle." The sick were classi- 
fied by this man. 1 A, the dreaded " classment" 
meant mines. All kinds of dodges were used 
to induce palpitation, and in some cases ap- 
peared to be successful, though not many. Two 
men, Grassick and Brown, had been on the 
coal mines and had been returned as unfit. 



They were both determined that they would 
not go back. On different occasions they both 
" chucked dummies," that is to say, pretended 
to have fits. Brown had his fit in the square 
when the doctor was making his visit. He 
was taken to hospital, examined, and tested, 
and put under observation for three weeks. 
The final result was that both men got cushy 
numbers in the lager, and kept them till we 
came home. 

Every Sunday, football matches were ar- 
ranged, and many excellent matches took place. 
We really forgot we were prisoners on these 
occasions, unless the ball went over the wires. 
Sometimes the German guards would tin 
back, but more often not, and then the game 
would be held up until a Frenchman, who 
looked after the sheep grazing outside, came to 
our assistance. 

We were really in poor condition, as was evi- 
denced by the fact that if a piece of skin was 
knocked off the place became septic the same 
night. The same thing happened at work, ow- 
ing to the lack of fresh meat and vegetables 
for nearly four years. 

May 6. 500 new British prisoners of war 
arrived. These men had been captured in the 
big push. Their general physique was not 
equal to that of the 1914 men. 

May 17. One of the R.N. D. men was sent 
back from the mines suffering from brain 
trouble. He was quite off his head. The poor 
devil would implore every one he met to 
him from being sent to the mines again. 

Just at this time there was an epidemic of 
"flu" in the lager; most of the men got it, 
among them myself. Six weeks later an- 
other epidemic of " flu " broke out. This was 
much worse than the first, and out of 26 deaths 
among the British, 23 were old prisoners of war, 
clearly showing how our general health had 
been undermined during our long captivity. 

The numbers of new prisoners of war at this 
camp were nearly equal to those of the old at 
this time. 

.Every Sunday night a kinema show was 
given by the Germans in the riding school at 
a charge of 20 pfennigs and 50 pfennigs per 
man. The place was packed every time, and 
there were some exciting scrimmages at the 
entrance. The rushes, as soon as the doors 
were open, became so bad that the Germans 
posted guards inside the building with fixed 
bayonets. After the kinema had been running 
for some time, the Germans had the bad taste 
to show photos of military achievements, wind- 
ing up by producing Hindenburg's portrait. 
This was the last straw. The picture was 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



159 



greated with yells of derision, which continued 
until the light was switched on. The com- 
mandant issued an order the next day that if 
such behaviour was repeated the whole lager 
would be placed under punishment. 

During 1918 continual rumours were run- 
ning round the camp that all old prisoners of 
war would be exchanged. As a matter of fact 
we had lived on these rumours for about a year, 
and every time a batch of sick was sent for 
examination to Aachen, exchange stock boomed 
high, only to fall again when 50% of the sick 
returned a week later, having failed to pass the 
doctor. 

The exchange of officers and N.C.O.s 
started at the beginning of 1918, and we never 
gave up hope that the men's turn would come. 
But it didn't, at least not until the armistice 
was signed. During the second epidemic of 
flu" the boys called it "exchange fever." 

Men were coming into lager almost daily 
from the mines in bad condition, among them 



another man who had gone off his head. He 
was subsequently sent to an insane asylum. 
He belonged to the R.F.A. He would wake 
up in the middle of the night with a yell that 
startled the whole barrack-room, mentioning 
many times the name of " Knock-out Brown," 

a German N.C.O. whose name was K ,one 

of the worst type of man-handling bullies we 
had met. He was reported and court-mar- 
tialled, but never received any punishment as 
far as we knew. 

During August the reports from the west 
front were very encouraging, and coupled with 
constant exchange buzzes had the effect of put- 
ting the men in a very excitable frame of 
mind. The health of the men both on kom- 
mando and in the lager was very poor. Our 
blood was in such a state that if the skin be- 
came broken, it would take weeks before it 
would heal. 

(To be concluded). 



NEWS LETTERS 

MELBOURNE. 

July 12. 

Broken Hill. — The closing down of the 
mines owing to the strike has led to greater 
attention being given to the outlook at the 
mines as regards reserves, and to the possibility 
of finding extensions of the ore deposits, as 
already known. Some of the mines are coming 
to the end of their ore reserves, notably Block 
10, Junction North, and the Proprietary. 
These companies are taking interests in prop- 
erties north and south on the basis of the 
Marshall theory. The Junction North has the 
Pinnacles, the Mayflower, and the Allendale; 
the Proprietary is developing the Potosi; 
Block 10 has an interest in some of thesouthern 
leases. Little work is being done at present on 
these outside leases. Development is proceed- 
ing on some of the Marshall blocks, two more 
of which were floated into a company in Syd- 
ney recently. The wolfram claims are all idle, 
and there is no sign of the central treatment 
plant that was going to do so much. 

The contract between the Junction Mining 
Co. and Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's) has, 
as already recorded, been cancelled. The 
Junction raised and crushed the ore and De 
Bavay's treated it, but the arrangement did 
not prove altogether satisfactory. The termi- 
nation of this contract together with the strike 
caused a suspension of production at the mine, 
and the future working of the property is be- 
ing considered by the new directorate. There 



was recently a change in the board, and the 
control of the company was moved from Syd- 
ney to Adelaide. W. G. Thomas, well-known 
in Adelaide financial circles, is the new chair- 
man. With a view to assisting it in its future 
policy, the board engaged the services of C. 
G. Klug, the Australian manager for Bewick, 
Moreing and Co., who will report fully on the 
property. Developments have recently shown 
that the mine has a fair-sized ore reserve, and 
although the lead contents of the ore are not 
as high as in some of the other mines, this is 
off-set by the silver contents. Taking the last 
three years' production, the ore averages 12% 
lead, 9oz. silver, and 1\% zinc. Judging 
from the experience of the Junction in its 
prior dealings with the Sulphide Corporation 
(I quote the Industrial Australian & Mut- 
ing Standard) better results were obtained 
by mixing the Junction ore, which has a 
hard gangue, with the more easily milled ore 
of the Central mine. The best policy, how- 
ever, would be to amalgamate with an adjoin- 
ing property such as the British or Junction 
North, particularly with the latter, which is ad- 
mittedly in need of feed for its mill. The 
Junction property is in close proximity to the 
Junction North plant, and most of the Junc- 
tion workings are closer to the Junction North 
main shaft than to the Junction main shaft. 
Under the present regime, the Junction has 
been well opened up, is thoroughly equipped, 
and is able to produce a good regular tonnage 
of ore. In earlier years the old stopes in the 
upper levels were filled with high-grade tail- 



160 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



ing, which, under modern methods, would well 
bear re-treatment by anyone with the requisite 
plant. To-day, too, it is possible to recover 
some of the high-grade ore for which this mine 
was famous 20 years ago, and which was left 
in the old crushed ground. New lodes have 
been opened up, too, at the 900 and 1,000 ft. 
levels, the latter being the lowest working 
level, though the main shaft is down to 1,136 ft. 
The ore at the lower levels is of average value. 

TORONTO. 

August 12. 

COBALT. — The silver-mining industry here 
is completely at a stand-still, owing to a strike 
of the miners who, to the number of over 2,000, 
walked out on J uly 23, as they had been threaten- 
ing to do for some weeks. Definite action was 
delayed from time to time in the hope that a 
settlement could be arrived at by the interven- 
tion of Hon. G.D. Robertson, Canadian Minis- 
ter of Labour, who Opened negotiations with 
the mine managers. These were unavailing, 
as the employers firmly adhered to the position 
they have maintained throughout, in refusing 
to deal with or recognize the miners' union. 
This is practically the only question in dispute, 
as, though some further claims are put for- 
ward by the men, these issues are so com- 
paratively trifling that, were the matter of 
union recognition out of the way, they could 
be very easily disposed of. The reason as- 
signed by the mine managers for their stand 
is that previous dealings with the Western 
Federation of Miners, with which the union is 
affiliated, have been unsatisfactory. The posi- 
tion taken by the miners, and endorsed by the 
Minister of Labour, is that during recent years 
the policy and leadership of the Western 
Federation have been materially altered, and 
that it is unreasonable to judge that organiza- 
tion by the conditions which prevailed ten 
years ago. Since the strike was declared all 
attempts to effect a settlement have proved 
futile. Many of the miners have left the camp, 
and the mines are filling with water. One effect 
of the strikes at Cobalt and Kirkland Lake has 
been to stimulate development at the newer 
camps and outlying districts, where many of 
the strikers have found work on new pros- 
pects. 

The Nipissing during June mined ore of an 
estimated value of $357,474, and shipped bul- 
lion from Nipissing and customs ore of an 
estimated net value of $111,777. The share- 
holders of the Kerr Lake have ratified a by- 
law reducing the capitalization of the company 
from $3,000,000 to $2,400,000. The Foster 



mine is being dismantled and the mining plant 
transferred to a property owned by the lessees 
at Gowganda. The Peterson Lake is install- 
ing new machinery to treat ore formerly class- 
ed as waste. L. W. Ledyard has resigned his 
position as manager of the Beaver Consoli- 
dated and is succeeded by Harry Donaldson, 
of Madoc, Ontario. 

PORCUPINE. — The labour situation in this 
camp continues satisfactory, the relations be- 
tween the companies and theiremployeesbeing 
harmonious since an agreement was arrived at 
under which some of thegrievancescomplained 
of by the men will be removed. The Hollinger 
Consolidated is building a hospital and has 
purchased three stores, at which their employ- 
ees will be able to buy goods at considerably 
lower prices than have hitherto obtained. 
The men will also receive half-pay during 
periods of illness. The number of men em- 
ployed in the district is greater than ever be- 
fore, the Hollinger having 2,000 on its pay- 
mil and the Mclntyre about 400. The Hol- 
linger is installing machinery which will in- 
crease the number of stamps from 160 to 200, 
and this, together with the ball-mill, will increase 
the milling capacity to 3,500 tons daily. The 
Mclntyre has declared an interim dividend of 
5 . The mill is treating about 600 tons daily, 
the ore averaging some $10 per ton. Lateral 
work at the 1,350 ft. level will shortly be 
stai ted, tins being the deepest working at Por- 
cupine. The shareholders of the Davidson 
have authorized the reorganization of the com- 
pany, which will be known as the Davidson 
Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd., with a capital- 
ization increased to $5,000,000. The new com- 
pany acquires additional territory, increasing 
the area from 1 20 to 420 acres. Shareholders 
will receive a bonus of one share of Consoli- 
dated stock for every three shares in the origin- 
al company, and after paying for the additional 
acreage the company will have 1,000, OOOshares 
in the treasury and $125,000 cash. Of the 
treasury stock 500,000 shares will be sold at 
75 cents each to provide funds for development 
on a large scale. A power transmission line is 
to be run from the Davidson to the North 
Davidson, which "has shown up well undjsr 
diamond-drilling. The Norwood has let a 
contract for 6,000 ft. of diamond-drilling. 
Very promising ore-bodies have been en- 
countered in trenching and diamond-drilling 
on the Sovereign. A. shaft is down 60 ft. on 
ore averaging $9 to the ton. 

Boston CREEK. — This area is not affected 
by strikes, and mining operations are being 
carried on without interruption. There is much 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



161 



complaint among mining men against the in- 
action of the Provincial Government, which, 
while carrying out an extensive road-making 
programme in many parts of Northern On- 
tario, has failed to provide the promised im- 
provements in transport facilities for the Bos- 
ton Creek district. The Miller Independence 
is building an addition to its mill, and it is 
hoped to have the machinery installed before 
the cold weather sets in. Diamond-drilling on 
the O' Donald claims, which are under option 
to the Allied Gold Mines, shows encouraging 
results, one vein 28 in. wide cut at depth carry- 
ing upwards of $17 to the ton. Extensive ex- 
ploration work has been done in Skead Town- 
ship and some good finds are reported. 

The Pas, Manitoba. — Rich finds of gold 
at Copper Lake, some 70 miles north of The 
Pas, have caused arush of prospectors into that 
district. The genuineness of the discovery is 
confirmedby Dr. R. O. Wallace, Commissioner 
for Northern Manitoba, who has examined 
samples of the ore and declares that he has 
never seen gold specimens equal to them in 
richness. The vein is stated to be 4 ft. in 
width, of quartz and greenstone, carrying very 
coarse gold forming 50% of the quartz. Dr. 
Wallace states that it is almost impossible to 
break the quartz, owing to the tenacity with 
which the gold holds it together. Many claims 
in the neighbourhood have been staked. 

BRUSSELS. 

An official report has been issued giving de- 
tails of the condition of various Belgian indus- 
tries at the beginning of June. Thinking that 
your readers will be interested in the latest 
news as to the present position of the zinc, lead, 
silver, and other non-ferrous metallurgical 
works, I am sending you a translation of this 
section of the report. The metallurgical in- 
dustries in question are located in the provinces 
of Liege, Limburg, and Antwerp. 

First, with regard to the province of Liege. 
The Societe de la Vieille-Montagne, which ob- 
tains its ore from its own mines situated abroad, 
has restarted four zinc furnaces at its Valen- 
tin-Cocq works at Hollogne-aux-Pierres and 
six at its works at Flone ; others will be started 
soon. In May, smelting had not been started 
at the company's plant at Angleur, but work 
will be commenced at any moment when the 
necessary ore is received. 

The establishments for the production of 
crude zinc of the Societe de Lamine and of the 
Societe Austro-Belge, in the region of Huy.are 
not working on account of lack of ore. The 
Societe de la Nouvelle-Montagne has been 
3—5 



able to obtain a supply of ore, though at a very 
high price, and limited in amount, whereby 
it has been possible to start two blocks of fur- 
naces. The Societe Dumont at Sclaigneaux 
has also been able to light two furnaces which 
the Germans had not destroyed. The zinc 
furnaces and roasting furnaces belonging to 
the Societe Anonyme Metallurgique de 
Proyon at Trooz - Foret, are closed com- 
pletely for lack of ore. At the zinc works 
of Ougree, production has not yet started. 
Repairs of accessory plant are being continued, 
but the reconstruction of the furnaces has not 
yet been commenced. The zinc works of 
Bleyberg remain at a standstill. The princi- 
pal obstacles are the lack of supplies of ore, 
the high rates of transport, and the excessive 
cost of fuel. It is impossible to fix a time for 
the reopening of the works, but it is hoped that 
this will be accomplished during next winter. 
On the whole, the production of the zinc smel- 
ters of the province of Liege is very much re- 
duced, and this industry cannot regain its pre- 
vious activity as long as the supply of ore is 
uncertain. 

The zinc and copper rolling mills of Chenee, 
the zinc rolling mills of Fraipont, Angleur, 
Proyon, and Tilff, proceed at a reduced output 
by reason of lack of raw materials and high 
prices; the crude zinc treated comes chiefly 
from England and America. 

In the province of Limburg and Antwerp, 
the stoppage is complete at all the zinc works, 
and there is no reason to anticipate the early 
recommencement of the smelters. The fur- 
nace of the Boom (Antwerp) works have, 
furthermore, been damaged by the enemy. The 
Lommel (Limburg) works have been at a com- 
plete standstill since January 31, 1919. The 
last furnaces working at the Overpelt (Lim- 
burg) works were put out of commission at the 
beginning of May. The Rothem works, also 
in the province of Limburg, has remained 
closed since the beginning of the war. 

To sum up, it may be said that the zinc in- 
dustry in Belgium is greatly handicapped for 
the following reasons: (l) Considerable in- 
crease in cost of labour, (2) a similar great in- 
crease in cost of coal, (3) unfavourable rate of 
exchange, (4) high freight charges. As com- 
pared with 1914 the cost of coal used in these 
works is now three times as high and the cost of 
labour is double. The result is that the cost 
of treating one ton of ore has incfeased from 
70 francs to over 200 francs. Under these con- 
ditions it is impossible to buy ore at the pres- 
ent price and make a profit in smelting. As 
already mentioned, the rollers of zinc are be- 



162 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



ginning to introduce into Belgium zinc of 
foreign origin, English and American. 

The sulphuric acid industry, as far as it de- 
pends on the roasting of zinc ores, has been 
stopped in the province of Liege. With re- 
gard to the works in the northern provinces 
that depend on the zinc works, at the end of 
May three roasting furnaces were started at 
Lommel, feeding a system of lead chambers. 
These are treating blende ores for a Dutch 
company. With regard to the works of Bae- 
len, owned by the Societe de la Vieille-Mon- 
tagne, this was partly demolished by the Ger- 
mans. All the lead from the chambers and 
the platinum from the catalytic plant were tak- 
en away. Most of the furnaces and part of the 
lead chambers have been repaired, and it is 
hoped by the end of the year to be working at 
about 50% of the normal. 

The province cf Liege has only two lead 
works, that of the Societe Dumont at Sclaig- 
neaux and that of Bleyberg, near the frontier. 
The first one was completely destroyed by the 
Germans and the resumption of work is not 
yet in contemplation. Some of the employees 
are occupied in repairing what remains of the 
original installation. Work has been partly 
restarted at the lead works of Bleyberg on ma- 
terial and residues which were left by the Ger- 
mansand lead slags bought in Belgium. Itisim- 
possible as yet to obtain ore from abroad. 
Operations will expand as it becomes possible 
to buy raw materials in sufficient quantities, 
but it must be remembered that these raw ma- 
terials consist for the most part of by-prod- 
ucts of zinc smelting. 

The lead, silver, and copper industries are 
represented in the northern provinces by the 
desilverizing works at Hoboken, the Yieille- 
Montagne works at Baelen-sur-Xethe, and the 
Overpelt works. In the province of Antwerp 
the important works of the German company 
" Usine de Desargentation de Hoboken " have 
just been handed over, through the sequestra- 
tion of the said German company, to the Com- 
pagnie Industrielle d'Oelen. All their plant 
is in excellent condition. In May only one 
roasting furnace, a cupelling furnace, and a 
refining furnace for the treatment of black cop- 
per of the Union Miniere du Katanga were 
running. The works could be put again into 
activity in all its departments and the resump- 
tion of work would be complete if it were pos- 
sible to obtain the raw material such as lead 
for desilverizing, lead slag, galenaconcentrates, 
copper mattes, or sulphide ores of lead, cop- 
per, and >ilver. The German company used 
to treat ore from German West Aftica. 



At Baelen-sur-Nethe, the lead works of the 
Societe dela Vieille- Montague has suffered less 
than the sulphuric acid works, the only things 
taken away being the electric motors. It is 
hoped to set these works partly going again in 
two or three months' time, in such a manner as 
to reach, by the end of 1919, half of the nor- 
mal production ; but it is difficult at the present 
time to obtain ore on suitable terms. The in- 
stallation of the Overpelt works, devoted to 
the treatment of complex lead, silver, and 
arsenical ores and mattes, are also at a stand- 
still for want of raw material; at the end of 
May only a small furnace used for the treat- 
mentof lead mattes was working. 'I he Beersse 
works of the Compagnie Metallurgique de la 
Campine, which produced before the war a 
considerable amount of antimony and C0| 
have been completely at a standstill since 
the Germans left. Their plant and tools have 
been very much damaged, and to a great extent 
have been put out of use; all ores and other 
raw materials have disappeared, and, in addi- 
tion, the company has not the capital necessary 
to repair the damage and obtain raw material. 
These raw materials consisted mostly of ore 
and regulus coming from China, some copper 
residues, and antimony slag. 

To sum up, the future of the zinc, lead, sil- 
ver, copper, and antimony metallurgical indus- 
tries is far from being assured, the stoppage 
having been almost complete. 1 Belgium owed 
her prosperity in this industry to her special 
economic conditions, that is, cheap coal and 
labour and low shipping rates. 1 iy modifying 
these conditions the war has greatly handi- 
capped the future prosperity of Belgian in 
dustries, which are based upon the treatment 
of raw material of foreign origin. 

CAMBORNE. 
Non Ferrous Mining Commission.— 

On August 9, the Board of Trade appointed 
the following gentlemen as a Commission to 
" investigate and report upon the present con- 
dition and economic possibilities of Non- Fer- 
rous Mining in the United Kingdom and to 
make recommendations as tosuch Government 
action as may be expedient in regard thereto": 
H. B. Betterton, M.P. (Chairman), Henry F. 
Collins, J. Harris, Dr. F. H. Hatch, Sir Lionel 
Phillips, Hart.. R. Arthur Thomas, and James 
Wignall, M.P. Messrs. Thomas and Harris 
represent respectively the owners and workers 
in the tin-mining industry. Messrs. Collins and 
Wignall the owners and workers in the zinc 
and lead-mining industry ; and the other mem- 
bers were nominated bv the Government. 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



163 



The chairman's qualifications for that post 
are of a doubtful order, for he appears to have 
little or no practical knowledge of mining 
affairs, while certainly the labour representa- 
tives will be out of their depth when technical 
matters are under consideration. All the 
members of the Commission other than the 
chairman are known, by declarations already 
made from time to time, to favour Government 
assistance for the industry, and on this point 
it can only be the form of assistance or subsidy 
on which there is likely to be any difference 
of opinion. For this reason alone we are 
sceptical of any practical result of the inquiry, 
and this view, evidently, is held by represen- 
tatives of the zinc and lead mines, for Mr. 
Felix Wilson, of the Leadhills Mining Com- 
pany, at a recent meeting, referring to the 
inquiry and existing conditions, said: "the 
reformation will have to come from within, 
not from without." Most of the evidence and 
facts relating, at any rate, to the tin-mining 
industry are already in the possession of the 
Board of Trade. We hold the view, already 
expressed publicly by Mr. C. A. Moreing, 
that those interested in the tin-mining industry 
must take steps to help themselves by means 
of reorganization and scientific investigation 
if the mines are to be kept going, and Mr. 
Moreing, by his recent activities referred to 
elsewhere in this letter, appears to be acting 
on that opinion. There can be no question 
that the industry is deserving of Government 
assistance on national grounds, as has repeat- 
edly been urged in these columns. Moreover, 
non-ferrous mining in this country clearly 
meets pach of the following tests laid down 
by the Prime Minister in his speech of August 
18, when he outlined the Government's 
proposal to shield unstable key industries : 
" (l). Whether the industry was revealed to 
be essential for war or the maintenance of the 
country during the war. (2). Whether during 
the war it was discovered that the industry had 
been so neglected that there was an inadequate 
supply of goods produced in the industry for 
the purpose of equipping ourselves for the 
essential tasks of war. (3). Whether it was 
found necessary for the Government to take 
special steps to promote and foster that indus- 
try during the war. (4). Whether if that 
special Government support were withdrawn 
those industries could maintain themselves at 
a level of production which the war has shown 
to be essential to the national life." But in 
spite of this, tin-mining is not included in the 
list of key industries recently scheduled by the 
Board of Trade, and the niggardly way in 



which the department is interpreting the re- 
cent promise, made to the Joint Industrial 
Council, of lending money on the security of 
machinery, as witness the case of Wheal Kitty 
(which occasioned a spirited protest on the 
part of the Joint Industrial Council at its last 
meeting), is evidence of the views prevailing 
at Whitehall. No doubt the public pressure 
for economy is the ready excuse, but economy 
should be on sound lines, and it is obviously 
unsound to let the tin-mining industry be 
seriously injured for the want of a little 
financial assistance, pending the return of 
more normal conditions. 

Centralization of plants and amalgamation 
of properties, so that operations may be con- 
ducted on a much larger scale, thus materially 
reducing working costs, is clearly one of the 
recommendations which it may reasonably be 
anticipated the Commission will make, and 
steps to that end are not unlikely to develop 
in the not far distant future. Such a policy 
is obviously much facilitated in the Mining 
Division by the fact that the Basset and 
Clifden mineral rights are now owned by 
Tehidy Minerals, Ltd. 

Messrs. C. A. Moreing and Oliver Wethered 
have been appointed by the tin-mining inter- 
ests to give evidence from the owners' stand- 
point, and no better selection could have been 
made. We hope, too, that Mr. C. V. Thomas, 
whose work for Cornish mining behind the 
scenes is not so generally recognized, will, in 
his able and forceful way, find an opportunity 
of submitting his views. 

Grenville. — The financial resources of 
the company being exhausted, the directors 
have decided on a scheme of reconstruction, 
which will involve each shareholder who de- 
cides to support the scheme in a liability of 3s. 
per share. The existing company has a nomi- 
nal capital of ^100,000, divided into 200,000 
sharesof 10s. each, and of this number, 180,000 
are issued. The new company will be of the 
same nominal capital, but will be divided in 
shares of 5s. each, and for each 10s. share in 
the old company, two 5s. shares, 3s. 6d. paid 
up, will be issued. As the issue has been un- 
derwritten at a total cost of 2d. per share, the 
sum of ,£"27,000 will be available, less £3,000 
for underwriting, or £"24,000 net. In our 
opinion, this sum is inadequate to meet the 
registration costs, pay the debts of the old com- 
pany (the trade debts alone are estimated at 
£9, 000), meet current losses, and carry out the 
proposed development work in the upper levels. 
apart from any exploration in the bottom of 
the mine or any of the many equipment im- 



164 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



provements referred to in the reportsof Messrs. 
Josiah Paull and Joseph Nile. These develop- 
ments in the upper levels are alone estima- 
ted at ,£"12,000, and we therefore fear that be- 
fore the mine has had the further chance which 
its past record warrants, the capital will be 
exhausted and the faith of those now backing 
the venture seriously upset. We hope this 
expression of opinion will not be thought due to 
lack of good- will ; on the contrary, we admire 
the courage and perseverance of the directors 
under most discouraging conditions, but they 
suffer — and have for years past — through lack 
of sound technical advice. It is true they have 
now consulted Mr. Paull on the condition of 
affairs at the mine, and, incidentally, his report 
is by no means optimistic, but he says nothing 
of the outlay involved, nor probably would he 
know the financial condition of the old com- 
pany. He says : " Given pre-war conditions, 
or a post-war price for black tin in relative pro- 
portion to the rise that has taken place in ma- 
terials and labour, or other factors arising to 
equal the same, as for example, largely in- 
creased tonnageof production or rise in the pro- 
duce of the same, your mine is, in my opinion, 
well worthy of fresh capital being put into it, 
and its chances of again becoming a prosper- 
ous undertaking are quite good." We should 
be prepared to endorse this conditional expres- 
sion of opinion if, before " fresh capital," the 
word " adequate " were inserted, and by " ade- 
quate " we mean at least ,£"25,000 for expendi- 
ture in and at the mine alone. 

It is quite evident from the reports referred 
to that no systematic sampling of the lodes has 
hitherto been carried out, nor any assay plans 
kept at the mine ; the lack of this very neces- 
sary information may now lead to the waste 
of much money on clearing levels for investi- 
gation purposes. This is more evidence of the 
need of independent technical advice. 

The development work already undertaken 
in the upper levels has given very encouraging 
results, and with theopening up of many points 
of attack, there is good reason to believe that 
large quantities of average grade ore will be- 
come available, sufficient, perhaps, to warrant 
an increased milling capacity. In the bottom, 
too, the management are hopeful that when the 
water is got out, it will be found that a bunch 
of rich tin ground is within sight at the 395 tm. 
level. 1 1 is interesting and comforting to note 
that Mr. Paull does not anticipate any trouble 
with the* water from the adjoining Basset mine. 
He suggests the installation of an electrical 
pump at the 150 fm. level to supplement the 
existing pumps by dealing with the large in- 



flux of surface water ; by this means, the 
pumping costs could be considerably reduced 
and the life of the Cornish pumps prolonged. 
The Clifden Deal. — In February last, 
we recorded in these columns the purchase of 
the Basset mineral rights by Tehidy Minerals, 
Ltd., a company with a nominal capital of 
.000,000, formed by the Dolcoath and East 
Pool groups, the purchase price being .£"60,000. 
Now we have to record a much more impor- 
tant transaction in the transference to the same 
company of the mineral rights of Viscount 
Clifden for a sum of .£"200,000, all of which, 
with the exception of .£"10,000, is payable in 
fully-paid shares of the company. To enable 
this to be done, the nominal capital of the com- 
pany has been increased to ,£"300,000. Of the 
190, 0C0 shares to be issued to Viscount Clif- 
den, 40.000 are offered to existing shareholders 
— other than the Dolcoath or East Pool com- 
panies -at par, and as the shares command a 
premium, tins is equivalent to a substantial 
bonus, and no doubt they will be readily ab- 
sorbed. This will leave Viscount Clifden with 
150,000 shares, or slightly more than half the 
capital of the company. This is surely show- 
ing substantia] faith in its future. 

The mineral rights acquired relate, in the 
over 25,000 acres, principally 
situated in Mid and West Cornwall. In West 
Cornwall, the mines which are being worked 
include Wheal Agar (leased to East Pool & 
Agar, Ltd., in which the famous Rogers lode 
is located) and Tincroft mines, while in the 
ii of Ulogan, the areas acquired adjoin and 
tit in with the other setts already belonging to 
the company, so that, if, as seems likely in the 
future, large propositions are to be the order 
of the day, it will be very helpful to this end 
that the minerals will be under one ownership. 
In Mid Cornwall, the principal rights acquired 
are those for china clay, and taking pre war 
output figures, say 70,000 tonsper year, thepits 
concerned produced about one -eighth of the total 
output for Cornwall. But, in addition, there 
are large areas at present undeveloped or not 
even tested which it is believed by Mr. J. Gil- 
bert will prove to be good clay ground. There 
can be no doubt that although at the present 
time production is more than equal to demand, 
when labour settles down once more and trade 
conditions can be more clearly estimated, the 
demand for clays for the Continent and America 
will be enormous, and, bearing in mind that 
the selling price is controlled from Cornwall, 
we firmly believe that there is a very bright 
future for thechina-clay industry in this country. 
Mr. Gilbert asserted at the meeting that the 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



165 



output of clay in Corn wall had reached 1,000,000 
tons by the end of 1913, but this was not so, 
and probably the error arose through the in- 
clusion of the Devon output. As the figures 
given at the meeting by Mr. Moreing were only 
for 1912,weappend some later figuresextracted 
from the Year Book of the Cornish Chamber 
of Mines : 

Cornwall Devon Totals 

Tons Value Terns Value Tons Value 

1913 862.977 £555.330 414. 86S £170,097 1.277,845 £725,427 

1914 803,576 539,512 353.0,8 150. 87 1,156,594 689.899 

1915 549.670 361,272 222,254 96.3s>5 771,924 457,667 

1916 564,826 389 908 166. 7S9 85.721 731.615 475,629 

1917 439,661 342.536 143,074 99,012 582,735 441.548 
The reduction of output indicated was due to the war. 

Of course, the present available working 
capital of the company would be quite inade- 
quate for the development of its properties, or 
one might even say for the testing of them, 
but there are strong groups behind who can 
find all the money required. It appears to be 
the settled policy of the company not to work 
the properties but to sell outright or grant 
leases, although, no doubt, a certain amount 
of exploratory work will be done. The com- 
pany is at the present time in receipt of a 
revenue from royalties of approximately 
.£"20,000 per year, and it will doubtless aim to 
substantially increase this sum. It was a bold 
stroke on the part of Messrs. C. A. Moreing, 
C. V. Thomas, and Oliver VYethered to acquire 
the Clifden rights, and it is good evidence of 
the faith of these three leaders in the future of 
the Cornish mining industry. 

GEEVOR. — The publication of the report 
made on this property by Mr. Josiah Paull, as 
a result of a recent inspection, is being looked 
forward to with interest, but it may with con- 
fidence be stated that it will be of a highly fa- 
vourable nature. The developments continue 
to disclose high-grade ore, and every engineer 
who visits the property appears to be impress- 
ed with its great possibilities. The accounts, 
wrfen issued, should show a fairly satisfactory 
state of affairs, but doubtless more capital will 
be needed if the milling capacity is to be yet 
again enlarged. A dividend may be expected to 
be declared by the time this letter is published. 

East Pool & Agar. — It is good news to 
hear that the water has at last been got out of 
the workings on the Rogers lode at the 240 fm. 
level ; it has been a difficult and expensive 
task. Locally the slow progress in unwater- 
ing made a bad impression, and this doubtless 
accounts for the recent weakness of the shares. 
Now that the stopes on the 240 fm. level are 
available, and it must be remembered that the 
highest values were encountered at this level, 
it may reasonably be anticipated that the re- 



turns will considerably improve. With the 
installation of electric pumps to supplement 
the Cornish pump at Agar, there need be no 
fear in the future.. 

Wages and Production.— The demand 
bythe Unions for increased wages having been 
refused by the Owners' Federation, the Unions 
are now suggesting that the application should 
be submitted for arbitration. The owners, 
under the circumstances, will be well advised 
to refuse to go to arbitration ; the best answer 
is that there are not more than two mines in 
Cornwall able to meet costs at the present 
time. 

At the Joint Industrial Council, an interest- 
ing and illuminating discussion recently took 
place on the question of increased production, 
and the suggestions of the sub-committee of 
owners and workers to that end are awaited 
with interest. It has been truly said that on 
the average the miners do not put in 5| hours 
per shift at the face, and even when they do, 
the efficiency is so very poor. There can be 
no doubt in part this slackness is due to the 
fatal policy, much in vogue in the past, of cut- 
ting rates if the men did well, but there are 
nownotmany managers foolish enough toact so 
shortsightedly. But it is difficult to eradicate 
the conviction of the miner on this score, a 
conviction handed down from father to son. 

Acquisition and Valuation of Land. 
— As a substitution for the state purchase of 
minerals, which it is urged would put an end 
to the alleged evil of recalcitrant owners who 
refuse to allow their minerals to be worked 
except on impossible terms, the Ministry of 
Reconstruction Committee dealing with this 
subject agreed that wherever any private right, 
proprietary or contractual, interfered with the 
national interests in connection with mineral 
development, there should be an independent 
authority over-riding such private rights on 
fair conpensation. This is a matter which the 
Commission of Inquiry will doubtless deal 
with. 

Research Work.— The report of the Tin 
and Tungsten Research Board for 1918-19 was 
published recently, but as reference has already 
been made to it in the Magazine I need not go 
into details here. I would like to say, how 
ever, that the investigations of the actual Re- 
search Committee are in the main directed tO' 
improvements on existing methods of extrac- 
tion. It is left largely to outside investigators 
to experiment on entirely new lines, and cer- 
tainly the view in Cornwall in many quarters, 
although not openly expressed, is that the work 
is not being pushed very energetically by the. 



166 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Research Committee, nor conducted on right 
lines. However, when details of the results 
of the work done for the Research Committee 
by Messrs. O. J. Stannard, H. W. C. Annable, 
H. R. Beringer, A. M. Drummond, and F. 
H. Michell are published, a better idea will 
be obtained of the value of the mode of investi- 
gation. 

Mr. Moreing has now made public the fact 
that extensive research work has been carried 
out at East Pool — quite apart from the now 
suspended tests on the Richards process— and 
laboratory results of the process, believed to 
be flotation, show an extraction of 93/c, and a 
unit of pUnt for testing it on a commercial 
scale is now being erected. Mr. Moreing has 
high hopes of the success of this process, and 
if his optimism is justified, his firm, responsible 
for much splendid metallurgical work in other 
parts of the world, will be credited with the 
rejuvenation of Cornish mining. 

TlNCROFT. — This mine has recently been 
examined by Messrs. Bewick, Moreing & Co., 
proposals having been made for its acquisition 
by a neighbouring mining company, but no de- 
cision as to this is yet known locally. Doubt- 
less considerable losses are still being made in 
spite of the improved prices for tin and arsenic, 
but we firmly believe that this mine would 
justify the expenditure of a considerable sum 
in development. 

Levant. — The accounts for the 16 weeks 
ended August 23 last show a loss of £2,976, 
after deducting ,£"2,300 expended on " recon- 
struction," or presumably in other words on 
work of a capital nature. The difficulty is that 
no capital account is kept by mines run on the 
cost-book system. The loss made compares 
with £3,237 lost on the previous 16 weeks' 
working. The following comparative figures 
will be of interest : 

Black Tin Prodik i i"\ . 



Tons of 

ore 
milled 
Maj !, 1919 4.427 
Aug. 23. 1919 5.368 



4 months 
ended 



Q n s i,y A s* va - lb .r 

,ons I £ milled 

110.' l_'l 13.363 55 

1167 136 15.908 49 



NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

The position is worse, but it is a little clearer. 
We know at least where and how we stand. 
It cannot be said that the prospect is at all 
cheerful. It is true that the Board of Trade 
has appointed a Commission to investigate and 
report upon the present condition and econo- 
mic possibilities of non-ferrous mining in the 
United Kingdom, and to make recommenda- 
tions as to such Government action as may be 
expedient in regard thereto, but it is doubtful 
whether we have much to hope for from the 



Government whatever representations may be 
made to them by the gentlemen who consti- 
tute the Commission. It is patent, however, 
that for the present we can only mark time. 
The gentlemen who compose the Commission 
are mostly well known to our industry. Mr. 
Henry F. Collins is of course the representa- 
tive of the Lead & Zinc Association, Mr. 
James Wignall, M.P., is the representative of 
the Non-Ferrous Industrial Council ; Mr. K. 
Arthur Thomas, is representative of the Corn- 
wall tin mines; Sir Lionel Phillips is the late 
Controller of Mineral Resources; and Dr. F. 
H. Hatch, is the new Controller. Mr. II. B. 
Betterton, M.P., the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, and Dr. Hatch, I understand, are short- 
ly to visit the North of England mines, and 
will afterwards try to make the round of the 
Welsh mines. The Lake Country mines, 
Nenthead and W'eardale, are all, I believe, 
to come within the purview of Mr. Detterton 
and Dr. Hatch. It may not be without inter- 
est, by the way, to mention that though the 
Ministry of Munitions staff concerned with 
mineral resources is being disbanded, it is not 
unlikely that Mr. Cunningham will remain. It 
such proves to be the case we shall all be very 
pleased, for Mr. Cunningham knows the whole 
subjei t from top to bottom, and the capacity 
he has shown for the position he holds has won 
him the respect and confidence of all, and it 
should surely be unnecessary to add that his 
engaging personality has made him liked by 
every mine-owner who has come in contact 
with him. 

Strong representations have been made by 
the Lead & Zinc Mine-Owners' Association 
with a view to the continuance of the output 
bonus until the report of the Commission has 
been received. So far nothing has been heard 
of what effect, if any, they have had upon the 
powers that be, but I believe that Dr. Hatch is 
doing his utmost to obtain the reconsideration 
of the subject. The bonus terminated on June 
30. The industry has been two months with- 
out it, with the result that production has been 
suspended at Thornthwaite and at Nenthead, 
the latter a mine which raises about two-fifths 
of the entire output of the United Kingdom. 
Notice was given to the whole of the men to 
cease work on September 10, and any men who 
are retained after that date will continue their 
employment on three days' notice. 

A strike has occurred at the Mill Close mine 
in Derbyshire, the Union having withdrawn the 
firemen, enginemen, and pumpmen. It is to 
be hoped that wiser counsels will prevail among 
the men, who appear to have acted with un- 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



167 



usual precipitation, and that if they do not re- 
sume work they will at least permit the pumps 
to be kept going. 

The production of lead and blende is being 
suspended at Force Crag in the Lake Country, 
and I believe that the company intends to 
concentrate its energies on barytes, of which 
it has a very fine deposit. As far as Threlkeld, 
not many miles away, is concerned, work is 
being practically confined to development. The 
owners ha,ve suspended the reconstruction of 
the dressing plant, pending the decision as to 
what their position will be regarding the out- 
put bonus. The forebreast on the main horse 
level is showing good ore, certainly two tons 
to the fathom, which with this easily worked 
lode is a paying proposition, subject to reason- 
able prices being obtained. The whole de- 
velopment of the Caldbeck area is now in abey- 
ance, as the capitalists interested say that they 
cannot possibly touch it under the present cir- 
cumstances. 

One of the North of England managers 
offered his output of blende to one of the smel- 
ters and received an absolutely astounding 
reply. It appears that the smelters are not at 
liberty to purchase home-produced blende with- 
out a special permit from the Government. 
This question has been put to the Board of 
Trade, but no reply has been received. It 
seems fairly obvious that the Government is 
determined to place its concentrates, namely, 
those purchased from iVustralia, in preference to 
those of the home-produced ores. At all events, 
in this particular instance, as the smelter had 
no permit to buy the ore from this mine, the 
manager was unable to obtain an offer. 

One of the chief smelters informs me that 
as a matter of fact smelting is a game not 
worth the candle in existing circumstances. If 
you are rolling sheets or making pipes you can 
calculate the cost if you buy lead from the Gov- 
ernment. But he is not prepared to engage in 
any contract for the purchase of ores unless he 
safeguards himself against the possibility of a 
further rise in wages, and he can only cover by 
buying ores at a low figure. He has to dis- 
count the costs consequent upon shortening of 
hours of labour and the increase in the price of 
coal, ■ and he has therefore to quote a price 
which is ridiculous. In this particular in- 
stance, in which the smelter represents the 
lead smelters generally, the prices offered work 
out at considerably below the pre-war figures 
for ores. A broker tells me that the cost of 
importing pig lead and spelter is about ^"10 
per ton. When the Government has com- 
pleted such obligations in America as it entered 



into for the purchase of lead and zinc, the price 
in England of American lead must be as far 
as America is concerned ^"10 above the Ameri- 
can quoted price. But the tide has begun to 
turn. The Government stocks of lead were 
reduced during July, and it is probable that 
they were further decreased in August. It is 
reported that consumption is only at the rate 
of 64,000 tons per annum at the present mo- 
ment. The pre-war home consumption of 
lead was 200,000 tons. If these figures are 
correct, the present stocks of lead will prob- 
ably be absorbed within the next six months. 
Assuming that we shall return to the normal 
rate of consumption the feeling in well inform- 
ed quarters is that lead must rise to well over 
^30 and probably as high as £35 per ton, and 
spelter to a figure approaching ^"50 per ton. 
The zinc smelters at the present time are of 
course well safeguarded, as the Government 
is purchasing the whole of their output at a 
fixed price of ^"56 per ton, a figure which 
represents a bonus of almost ^"18 per ton, paid 
out of the taxpayers' pockets. This arrange- 
ment may be terminated by the Government 
on November 5. The difference in the treat- 
ment of the producer of the raw material and 
the smelters is a subject that might very well 
call for caustic comment. The battle is to the 
strong. The smelters put a pistol to the head 
of the Government. Their threat to close down 
unless the guarantee was given was effective. 
A contemporary makes the naive suggestion 
that as the Government has a great stock of 
concentrates on their hands they should be sold 
at a low price to the smelters, and thereby dis- 
pense with the continuance of aguaranteed price 
to the smelters, and so avoid the suspicion of 
giving a subsidy to any particular industry. I 
understand that Mr. Anthony Wilson, of the 
Thornthwaite mines, a gentleman with an un- 
rivalled knowledge of the industry in which he 
is engaged, who exercises great influence among 
mine owners, has written to the editor pointing 
out how disastrous this would be to the home 
mines. If the Government adopts this policy 
of selling zinc ores at a nominal price in order 
to get rid of something for which it had not a 
sufficient sale, it would bring the price of all the 
blende from home producers to the same level. 
The uncertainty as to what the Government is 
going to do concerning these concentrates pre- 
vents any user of zinc ore from making definite 
contracts for purchase from the home mines. 
No wonder is it that in a recent instance a con- 
sumer of zinc ores (not a smelter) offered a mm \ 
much lower sum (£2 a ton) than their ore is 
worth to him at the present moment. 



168 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



PERSONAL 



C. A. Banks has returned to Canada. 

E. G. Banks, manager of the Waihi Gold Mining 
Co., is returning to New Zealand by way of Canada. 

Guy Berling has been appointed general mana- 
ger in Australia and New Zealand for the Ingersoll- 
Rand Company. 

R. E. BlNNS is returning for Spain. 

E. C. Bloomfield has sailed for Burma 

F. K. Borrow is here from the mines of the Fron- 
tino & Bolivia Company, in Colombia 

G A. Browne has left for Nigeria. 

G. W. CAMPION is returning to Taquah, West 
Africa. 

A. R. Canning is returning from Nigeria. 
H. F. Collins is back from Spain. 
N. F. Dare has left for the Federated Malay States. 
\V. BOYD Daw kins, Emeritus Professor of Geology 
in the University of Manchester, has been created a 
Knight. 

II. S. Denny, C.B.E , has been demobilized after 
four years of factory work and three months assisting 
General Plumerin Cologne. His address is Salisbury 
House, London, E.C 2. 

W. Elsdon Dew is the new president of the South 
African Institution of Engineers. 

SAMUEL E \ w s is here from Johannesburg. 
James Gray has been elected president of the 
Chemical, Metallurgical, & Mining Society of South 
Africa. 

Max Hon net has been appointed assistant general 
manager of the Central Mining & Investment Corpor- 
ation. 

J. A. B. HORSLEY has been appointed an electrical 
inspector of mines under the Coal and Metalliferous 
Mines Regulation A.cts. 
James Howlison is in Abyssinia. 
Colonel H. W. Lake has been released from 
military duties and is back in the City. His address 
is Broad Street Avenue, EC. 2. 

Ernest Levy has left British Columbia for Hav- 
ana, Cuba. 

M. C. H. Little has been appointed manager of 
the Aber-Llyn zinc mine, Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales. 
H E. Nicholls has left for Nigeria. 
W. Pellew-Harvey has left for Spain. 
Dr. J. E. Petayel, F.R.S., professor of engineer- 
ing in the University of Manchester, has been appoint- 
ed director of the National Physical Laboratory in suc- 
cession to Sir R. T. Glazebrook, who retires this 
month on reaching the age limit. 

W. J. Phillips has returned from the Raub gold 
mines, Pahang, and is now at Chacewater, Cornwall. 
Thomas T. Read, formerly associate editor of the 
Mining mid Scientific Press, and lately with the New 
Jersey Zinc Co., has joined the staff of the United 
States Bureau of Mines. 

J. B. Richardson has left for Bolivia. 
Captain W. R. Rumbold, M.C., of the firm of 
Laws, Rumbold & Co., writes from Nigeria saying he 
expects to be demobilized shortly and to be back in 
London in September. 

W. E. Simpson is here from Canada on a short 
visit. 

Sir Harry Ross Skinner is expected from South 
Africa. 

J. E. Spirr has been appointed editor of the Engi- 
neering and Mining Journal. 

C. H. Stewart, of the firm of Alexander Hill & 
Stewart, is in Cuba. 



W.F.White is back from Felixstowe after a month's 
absence due to a sharp attack of pneumonia. 

Hallett Winmill has left for the Gold Coast. 



Arthur Burr, for so long identified with Kentcoal, 
died last month. His methods of finance were erratic 
and unorthodox, and the new coalfield suffered in re- 
pute accord in gly 

W. Toyote has been killed by Yaqui Indians in 
Chihuahua. He was a capable mining geologist, and 
knew the southwestern States and northern Mexico 
well. His articles in recent issues of this Magazine 
were characteristic of his careful habit of observation. 

Francis William Oldfield, who recently re- 
turned from Mexico to England owing to ill-health, 
died in London after a fortnight's illness. He repre- 
sented the Marcus Daly mining interests in Mexico, 
of which Judge Gerrard, ex-Ambassador to Germany, 
is president. During the Mexican revolution he man- 
aged by his ability and tact to operate successfully one 
of the few mines running during this time in the south 
western part of Mexico, which now ranks among the 
foremost silver-producing mines in the world. IPs 
record in Cinco Minas speaks for itself, for durn 
vears' stay under rev olutionary conditions operations 
at the mine had been practically continuous and large 
pro6ts had been made all at a cost lower than that of 
any other mine in the district He took Ins A.R.S.M . in 
1901, and was an Associate Member of the Institution 
of Mining and Metallurgv and a Member of the Ameri- 
can Instiiute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

TRADE PARAGRAPHS 

The Clark Trui ir\< tor Company, of Chicago, 

has been recently incorporated for the purpose of mak 
ing a motor which will carry a load and also haul trail- 
ers behind it. The machine has one wheel in front and 
two behind. It is built entirely of metal, its centre of 
gravity is low, and it can turn in its own length. Many 
applications can be found for it at the mine and metal- 
lurgical works. 

The Standard Spiral Pipe Works, of Chicago, 
I .S.A., send us a catalogue relating to their reinforced 
spiral steel pipes. These have a continuous interlock- 
ing seam, with the rib which acts as a reinforcement 
outside, the inside being quite smooth. Thev are use 
ful for many purposes in connection with minir.,', for 
water or oil, steam, or compressed air, powdered- 
coal circulation, pump-dredging, chimney stacks, etc. 
The catalogue gives full details of dimensions, and of 
■ joints and other accessories. 

,\i \i i EN & Co., Ltd., of the Imperial Steel 
Works, Sheffield, have commenced the publication of 
the Edgar Allen Neus, a house organ devoted par- 
ticularly to the interests of their business, but contain- 
ing also a great deal of useful information relating to 
steel and its applications. The tool steel and the ore- 
crushing machinery made by this firm are well known 
in mining circles. Engineers are recommended to apply 
to the firm for a copy of the News to be sent to them 
regularly. 

Henry Gardner, for so long a director of Henry 
R. Merton & Co., Ltd., having obtained a licence to 
trade under the Non-Ferrous Metals Act, has formed 
his business into a limited liability company, under the 
name of Henrv Gardner & Co., Ltd., with a capital of 
/l, 000, 000, of which £650,000 has been issued and 
fully subscribed. The directors of the new company 
are: Henry Gardner (chairman), Walter Gardner, 
Sir Woodman Kirby, George E. Leon, and William 
Murray. The new firm has purchased the whole of 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



169 



the share capital of Huntington, Heberlein &Co., 
Ltd., mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical engi- 
neers. The board of the last named company will con- 
sist of Walter Gardner (chairman and managing direc- 
tor), H. C. Bingham, H. J. Bush, and R. H. Bingham. 

The British Westinghouse Electric &Manu- 
facturingCo., Limited, of Trafford Park, Manches- 
ter, have sent us the following pamphlets relating to 
new specialties: Industrial motor drive of planing 
machines ; large outdoor switches and transformers ; 
bracket pedestal bearings ; some Westinghouse electric 
winding engines ; direct current motor starters, type 
" SD " ; Westinghouse motor generators; British 
Westinghouse oil-immersed forced cooled single and 
3-phase shell and core-type transformer ; British West- 
inghouse single-phase shell type oil immersed self 
cooled transformers. The particulars of the winding 
engines are of special interest ; fuller details will be 
sent by the company on receipt of a request. 

Hadfields, Limited, of Sheffield, have issued 
catalogue No. 147, giving up-to-date information of 
breakers, rolls, and disc crushers. The wearing parts 
are, as is well known, made of Hadfield's " Era" man- 
ganese steel. The machines illustrated in the cata- 
logue are intended for handling ore on a large scale. 
The breaker, of the jaw type, has a feed opening 54 in. 
long by 36 in. wide. It will take a block of ore or stone 
weighing 1^ tons or more and reduce it to 6 in. or 8 in. 
pieces. The capacity is about 150 tons per hour, and 
the power required is from 150 to 200 h.p. The weight 
of the machine is 90 tons. The high-speed rolls illus- 
trated are 60 in. diameter by 42 in. wide. They will 
crush Lincolnshire ironstone as delivered by the steam- 
shovel to 6 in. or 8 in. pieces at the rate of 100 tons per 
hour. They revolve at 200 r.p.m. and require 100 to 
150 h.p. One of the rolls is fitted with two rows of 
slugger-teeth for breaking up the larger pieces. The 
catalogue also illustrates the Symons disc crushers. 
These are essentially large capacity breakers, taking 
the ore from the sledging crushers and reducing it to 
2| in. or less, 

The Dorr Company, of New York and Denver 
(London office, 16, South Street, E.C.2), have issued 
Bulletin 13 describing the Dorrco pump, which is of 
the diaphragm type, and is intended primarily for 
regulating the consistency of the discharge from Dorr 
thickeners, though it is also applicable to elevating 
sludge where the actual lift is not greater than 6 to 8 
ft. The pump body is mounted on suitable base 
boards rigidly bolted to a steel and iron frame. The 
upper part of the frame supports the eccentric shaft 
on which the drive pulleys and eccentrics are mount- 
ed. The eccentrics are adjustable by means of a hand 
screw to give a variation in length of stroke. The 
eccentric is connected through an eccentric rod and 
lift yoke to the centre of a flexible diaphragm in the 
pump body. A light hood is supplied to cover the 
top of the pump body and prevent splash. The body 
of the pump is divided into an upper and lower cham- 
ber by means of a diaphragm. The diaphragm is 
clamped rigidly around its periphery to the pump body 
by means of a retaining ring, which can readily be re- 
moved when it becomes necessary to renew the dia- 
phragm. The lift yoke containing the discharge valve 
is attached around the central opening in the dia- 
phragm. The lower or suction chamber contains the 
suction valve operating immediately over the feed or 
suction line to the pump. The upper or discharge 
chamber is open and is provided with a discharge lip 
which is from 4 to6in. above the discharge valve. 
This depth of pulp protects the valve from air in case 
it is prevented from seating properly by foreign mat- 



ter such as chips, waste, etc. Both valves are opened 
by the action of the diaphragm and are closed by grav- 
ity, no springs being required. They are retained in 
place by suitable guide webs. The valves are faced 
with rubber gaskets which seat on rubber rings wedg- 
ed into replaceable metal valve seats. The upper 
valve is larger than the lower, and both valves may 
be easily removed without dismantling the pump by 
lifting the lower valve through the upper valve open- 
ing. This type of valve quickly cleans itself from chips 
and waste which frequently interfere with the opera- 
tion of other types of valves. Among the many ad- 
vantages claimed for the Dorrco over other diaphragm 
pumps are: (1) Integral casting for pump base and 
bowl ; (2) novel method of securing the diaphragm ; 
(3) novel design of valves and valve seats ; (4) high 
discharge lip. At the bottom of the suction chamber 
and level with the suction valve a small hole is tapped 
for the admission of water tangentially to the peri- 
phery of the valve. With pulps containing appreci- 
able quantities of coarse material the water is useful 
in freeing the valve in starting up after a shutdown. 
Another small hole is tapped in the upper part of the 
suction chamber for the admission of air for control- 
ling the capacity of the pump. The capacity of the 
pump is regulated by means of the speed, length of 
stroke, and by the admission of air to the suction 
chamber. Ordinarily the speed is held constant and 
the eccentric adjusted to a slightly greater stroke than 
required. The final control is then obtained by means 
of a small quantity of air admitted to the suction cham- 
ber through a needle valve. A ^ in. pipe is connected 
to the suction chamber and extended 2 or 3 ft. above 
the top of the pump body, terminating in the needle 
valve. The valve is thus removed from anv danger 
of contact with the palp. The admission of air pro- 
vides a very delicate and satisfactory means for accom- 
plishing a close regulation of the quantity pumped. 
Thisequipment is furnished with each pump. As com- 
pared to an air lift or free spigot discharge, the Dorrco 
pump is much more efficient in maintaining a uniform 
discharge from thickeners at a maximum density. The 
operation of the pump is extremely simple and requires 
practically no attention except lubrication once a shift, 
unless it is necessary to change the capacity of the 
pump. The power required is very low and for a sim- 
plex No. 4 pump will usually be about ih.p. The 
power for a multiple pump is less in proportion than 
for a simplex, since the eccentrics are set at equal an- 
gular distances around the shaft, thus giving a balanc- 
ing effect. At one plant a No. 4 simplex required £ 
horse power motor input when lifting 140 tons of solids 
per 23 hours at 40% moisture a distance of 2 ft. above 
the top of the thickener tank. In erecting the pump 
it is important to properly adjust the length of the 
eccentric rod to prevent over-stretching and tearing the 
diaphragm on either the upward or downward stroke. 
The natural shape of the diaphragm as installed in the 
pump represents approximately its maximum down- 
ward position. With the eccentric set for the maxi- 
mum downward stroke, the eccentric rod should be 
connected to the lift yoke with the diaphragm at rest 
in its natural position. When handling cold neutral 
sludges diaphragms should last from three to four 
months, and there are numerous records showing 
lengths of life exceeding a year. The firm have de- 
veloped diaphragms of special construction for general 
use as well as for strongly alkaline, acid, or hot sludges. 
In these diaphragms none of the fabric comes into con- 
tact with the sludge. Special moulds are used so that 
rubber covers the fabric throughout the surface as 
well as inside of the bolt holes and valve opening. 



170 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



Daily London Metal Prices: Official Closing Prices on 

Copper, Lead. Zinc, and Tin per Long Tons ; Silver 





Silver 


















c 


OPPER 






















f 

Lead 




• 




























































Standard Cash 




Standard (3 mos ) 






Electrolytic 






Best Selected 






Soft Foreign 


Aug. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d 


£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


i 


s. 


d. £ 


s. d. 


11 


58i 


91 


2 


6 to 


91 


7 


6 


92 


2 


6 to 92 


7 


6 


104 








to 


115 








106 





to 107 








24 


7 


6 to 25 


2 u 


12 


58$ 


92 


5 


to 


92 


10 





9=1 


5 


to 93 


10 





103 








to 


114 








105 





to 106 








24 


12 


6 to 25 


7 6 


13 


58i 


96 





to 


96 


5 





97 





to 97 


5 





103 








to 


114 





II 


105 


ii 


to 106 








24 


15 


6 to 25 


15 


14 


5SS 


97 


10 


to 


98 





98 


10 


:o 99 








103 








to 


113 








105 





to 1C6 








25 


2 


6 to 25 


12 6 


15 


59 


98 


5 


to 


98 


10 





99 


5 


to 90 


10 





105 








to 


114 








108 





to 109 








25 





to 25 


12 6 


18 


59| 


101 


15 


to 


102 








102 


15 


to 103 





II 


107 








to 


118 








108 





to 109 








25 





to 25 


12 6 


19 


593 


100 





to 


100 


10 


101 





to 101 


10 





107 








to 


ns 








109 





to 110 








25 





to 25 


12 6 


20 


595 


100 


15 


to 


101 








101 


15 


to 102 








109 








to 


120 








109 





o to no 








24 


17 


6 to 25 


10 


21 


60i 


100 


15 


to 


llil 








101 


15 


to 102 








110 








to 


120 





1) 


109 





to 110 








24 


17 


6 to 25 


10 


22 


603 


99 


5 


to 


99 


10 





100 


5 


to 100 


10 


3 


110 








to 


120 








109 





o to no 








24 


15 


to 25 


7 6 


25 


eof 


98 





to 


98 


10 


(i 


99 





to 99 


5 





118 








to 


120 








109 





to 110 


11 





24 


17 


6 to 25 


7 6 


26 


6ll 


96 





to 


96 


5 





97 





to 97 


5 











to 


120 








109 


1) 


o to no 








24 


15 


to 25 


10 


27 


61? 


98 


Hi 


to 


99 








99 


11) 


to 100 








110 








to 


120 








109 


II 


to 110 





(J 


24 


15 


to 25 


7 6 


28 


58? 


97 


15 


to 


98 








98 


15 


to 99 








110 


'1 





to 


120 








109 


II 


o to no 








24 


15 


to 25 


7 6 


29 


58 


99 





to 


99 


5 





100 





to 100 


5 





110 








to 


120 








109 





o to no 





1) 


24 


17 


6 to 25 


7 6 


Sept. 
1 


59 


100 


15 


to 


101 








101 


15 


to 102 








110 


ii 


II 


to 


120 








109 


I) 


o to no 








24 


17 


6 to 25 


10 


2 


61 


101 


2 


6 to 


101 


5 





102 


2 


6 to 102 


5 





no 








to 


120 


1) 


II 


109 


1) 


oto no 


(1 


(1 


24 


15 


to 25 


7 6 


3 


61 


101 


10 


to 


I'll 


15 





102 


10 


to 102 


15 





110 








to 


120 


11 





109 





to no 








21 


15 


to 25 


7 6 


4 


61 


101 


7 


6 to 


101 


12 


1. 


102 


7 


6 to 102 


12 


f. 


110 








to 


120 


11 





109 


11 


oto no 








25 


ll 


to 25 


12 6 


5 


61 


101 





to 


101 


5 





102 





to 102 


5 





no 





(1 


to 


120 








109 





oto no 








25 


2 


6 to 25 


17 6 


8 


61 


iOO 


5 


to 


11)11 


10 





101 


5 


to 101 


10 





no 








to 


1 M 








109 





oto no 








25 


2 


6 to 25 


17 6 


9 


61 


100 


in 


to 


li 


15 





101 





to 101 


5 





109 








to 


120 


11 


o 


IC8 





to 1C9 








25 


2 


6 to 25 


17 6 


10 


61 


1(10 





1) to 


100 


5 


o 100 


l £ 


to 101 













II 


to 


120 









to I0Q 







2< 


5 








METAL MARKETS 

Copper. — The standard market has seen some 
fluctuation during the month of August, Prices in the 
early part of the month declined considerably, about 
£90. 10s. cash being touched. Subsequently a revival 
set in, carrying values to ^102, but latterly the tone 
eased off again. These fluctuations are, of course, not 
so much due to variations in the actual copper position, 
as to the vagaries of speculative sentiment. There is 
no doubt that, during the recent upward movement in 
copper in America, a considerable amount of specula- 
tion for the rise was indulged in in the London stand- 
ard market, and the consequence of this is that tin- 
market became somewhat top heavy and unwieldy and 
liable to be affected by outside considerations Rather 
easier stock markets in Wall Street had a somewhat 
unsettling effect for a time, as also had the reports of 
the unsatisfactory labour position in the I'nited States. 
There have, however, been frequent "shake-outs" in 
the market, which has no doubt consolidated the posi- 
tion, and, on any set-back, fresh buying for the rise is 
noticeable. Meanwhile the margin between standard 
copper and refined is fairly wide, and forth at reason 
it may be that no material decline is probable in stand- 
ard. The present price of refined, however, does not 
seem any too cheap, having regard to the cost of pro- 
duction in America, and although the demand for the 
metal has been growing, it still seems somewhat doubt- 
ful whether it is sufficient both to use up the present 
output as well as to absorb the surplus stocks which 
were on hand. Indeed, during the first half of the year 
it is stated that the surplus in America had not dimin- 
ished at all. Business here with consumers was on 
quite a good scale at one time, but latterly there seems 
to be less anxietv to buy, and there seems to be con- 
siderable competition for the orders which were going. 
Of course, during the upward movement in America 
much copper found its way into the hands of dealers 
and speculators, and this could be resold at under the 
producers' present price, and still leave a good profit 
to holders. When this gets used up, doubtless pro- 
ducers may have the market again in their own hands, 
but meanwhile it is rumoured that there are prospects 
of the American Copper Export Association being dis- 
solved before long, which of course might result in 



competition among the various producers with the 
natural effect upon prices. The manufactured copper 
business in this country has been fairly good. Makers 
are well sold, while India has been buying for delivery 
up to the first quarter of next year. This remark at 
least applies to yellow metal. 

Average prices of cash standard copper: August 
1919, £97. lis 5d. ; Julv 1919, /99. Ms 5d. ; August 
5s ; July 1918, £120. 3s. 3d. 

Tin. — This market has also seen some fluctuation 
during the period under review. Early in the month 
prices were firm, advancing to about £276 cash. This 
was followed bv a sharp reaction, when prices declined 
i) forprompt metal. Values later improved again 
to about £274. 10s , and finally relapsed to £l7i. A 
very good business was mm ing in the standard market 
in the early part of the month , but latterly the turnover 
showed an inclination to taper off, which might be 
partly due to the fact that at the moment there seems 
no particular feature in the market to attract specula- 
tors in either direction. At one time a large business 
was put through for America, but latterly, although 
the local demand there seems to be fairlv good, there 
has not been so much fresh business offering to this 
side. No doubt a pause is only to be expected, until 
the recent purchases have been digested. In the mean- 
time there has been a considerable inquiry reported 
from Germany for tin, and it is estimated that that 
country could take as much as from 3,000 tons to 4,000 
tons in order to get properly equipped for resuming in- 
dustry. Of course the financial aspect of the business 
is rather a difficult question, as some buyers are only 
willing to pay for the tin against its arrival, while sel 
lers here wish to do business on fob. terms. A fair 
business has been moving in the East, although at one 
tune sellers there were very reserved. Latterly they 
have shown more inclination for business, although it 
apparently could only be put through at high prices. 
At one time the price advanced to £278, although it 
subsequently declined about £6 from that level. 
Business with home consumers has latterly been show- 
ing some improvement. 

Average prices of cash standard tin: August 1919, 
£271. 8s.; July 1919, £253. 5s Id.; August 1918, 
/380. 16. Sd. ; July 1918. £359. 17s. 9d. 

Lead. — This market maintained a fairly steady tone 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



171 



the London Metal Exchange. 

per Standard Ounce. 

















Stan 


dard Tin 












7i«ir 
























(Spelter 










Cash 






3 mos. 


£ 


s. 


d. i 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


£ s. 


d. £ 


s. 


d. 


3S 


10 


to 39 








260 





to 261 








254 10 


OtO 254 


15 





38 


10 


to 40 








266 


5 


to 266 


15 





259 10 


to 260 


15 





39 





to 40 


10 





270 





to 270 


10 





264 15 


Oto 265 








39 





to 40 


10 





270 





to 270 


10 


263 15 


Oto 264 








39 





to 40 


10 





271 


10 


to 272 





266 10 


Oto 267 








40 


10 


to 41 


10 





271 





to 272 





0265 10 


to 265 


15 





41 





to 42 








272 





to 272 


10 


0267 


Oto 267 


5 





40 


10 


to 41 


10 





274 


10 


to 275 





269 10 


to 270 








40 





to 41 





272 


10 


to 273 





269 


Oto 269 


10 





40 





to 41 





273 


10 


to 274 





0[269 10 


to 270 








39 


5 


to 40 


5 





272 


10 


to 273 





268 10 


to 268 


17 


6 


38 


10 


OtO 39 


10 





271 





to 272 





0'268 10 


to 269 








38 


10 


to 39 


10 





271 


10 


to 272 





267 5 


Oto 267 


Ki 





37 


15 


to3S 


15 





271 





to 271 


10 


266 5 


Oto 266 


15 





38 


5 


to 39 


5 





272 


10 


to 273 








257 5 


Oto 267 


15 





39 


15 


to 40 


15 





275 


10 


to 276 








268 15 


to 269 








40 


10 


OtO 41 


10 





279 





to 280 





01271 10 


Oto 271 


15 





41 





to 42 








278 


10 


to 279 





0I272 10 


to 273 








41 


5 


to 42 


5 





279 


10 


to 280 





27+ 


to 274 


5 





41 





to 41 


15 





279 





to 280 





0274 


to 274 


5 





40 


5 


to 41 


5 





282 


10 


to 283 








275 5 


Oto 275 


10 





40 


P 


to 41 








282 





to 2S3 








276 


to 276 


10 





40 


5 


Oto 41 


5 





281 





to 282 








274 10 


to 275 









throughout the month of August. Values advanced 
in the middle of the month to £25. 2s. 6d. for August 
shipment metal, and at the close the quotation was 
only about 5s. less than this, while £25. 7s. 6d. was 
quoted for November. A fair turnover has taken 
place on the Metal Exchange, a good deal of the metal 
bought having evidently been on speculative account, 
and some conjecture is indulged in as to the effect on 
the market when this comes out for resale. Apart 
from this, a good demand has been seen from the con- 
suming trades, this remark applying particularly to the 
cable-making business. This line seems particularly 
active, and there is talk of some works putting on a 
night shift. Purchases have been made for as far for- 
ward as February of next year. As regards the sheet 
and pipe business, this has not been very active, being 
dependent upon the building trade, which has not yet, 
despite all the talk, got properly started. English 
makers are well sold and the Government appear to 
have the situation very much in their own hands, as 
competition from America and other overseas sources 
is absent. 

Average prices of soft pig lead : August 1919, £25. 
Is. 7d. ; July 1919, £23. 14s. 2d. ; August 1918 £29 • 
July 1918, £29. 

Spelter.— Like other metals, this article has seen 
some variation in price during the last few weeks. 
Prices about the middle of August declined to £38. 10s. 
for August shipment and £39 for November, and after 
showing some recovery declined again to £38. 5s. for 
August and £39. 5s. for November. The reason of 
the decline toward the end of the month was somewhat 
obscure, as the Government have firmly maintained 
their prices, which were £44 for Prime Western and 
£44. 10s. for English. The American market was 
above the parity of prices here, while English makers 
could not turn out the metal at the figures which were 
current on the Metal Exchange. Values appear to 
have become depressed by some resales of speculative 
parcels, while some metal which had arrived, and for 
which buyers could not apparently at the moment be 
found, weighed somewhatheavily upon the market. At 
the lower level, the tone became rather firmer latterly. 
Business with the consuming trades has been on a fair 
scale, and a gratifying feature has been the improve- 
ment in the galvanized sheet business, which should 



ultimately make for an increased business in this metal. 
At the present time, consumers generally do not ap- 
pear to be well covered, and in view of the weakness 
of the market on 'Change, have been confining their 
purchases to near-by requirements only. The low rate 
of the American exchange must have a considerable 
influence on this market in view of the increase in cost 
of importing metal from the United States. 

Average pricesof spelter: August 1919. £39 16s 9d 
July 1919, £42. 3s. lOd. ; August 1918, £52; July 

Zinc Dust.— The stocks of Australian on spot 
seem to be pretty well disposed of, and most of the 
business moving now is for forward shipment The 
quotation stands at £68 to £70 per ton c.i.f. for \us- 
trahan high grade (88 to 92%). 

Antimony.— The price of English regulus was ad- 
vanced by £2 to £42 per ton, at which a fair trade 
was moving, especially for export. Since then the 
price has been advanced to £45. Foreign on spot is 
not plentiful and stocks are well held. For import, 
Chinese might have been had at £40 to £41 c.i.f! 
at one time, but in view of the last advance in English 
doubtless more will be asked now. 

Arsenic— The market has been quiet but firm and 
the price of white is about £58 to £60 per ton delivered 
London. 

Bismuth.— 12s. 6d. nominal per lb. 
Cadmium.— 6s. 6d. to 6s. 9d. per lb. 
Aluminium — £150 per ton for the home trade. 
Nickel.— For the home trade £205 per ton, while 
for export the price is £210. 

Cobalt Metal.— 12s. 6d. to 13s. per lb. 
Cobalt Oxide.— 7s. 9d. per lb. 
Platinum.— 450s. nominal per oz. 
Palladium.— 500s. nominal per oz 
Quicksilver.— £23. 10s. to £24. 10s. per bottle. 
Selenium.— 12s. to 15s. per lb. 
Tellurium. — 95s. to 100s. per lb. 
Sulphate of Copper — Quiet at about £40 per ton 
Manganese Ore. — The market has been firm. 
Indian grades are quoted at about 2s. 3d. to 2s. 4d 
per unit c i.f. U.K. 

Tungsten Ores.— Wolframite 65% and scheelite 
65% are quoted at 3?s. 6d. per unit. 

Molybdenite. - 85% is quoted at 75s. per unit. 
Silver. — The market has been strong on Chinese 
buying, but declined when this ceased. At the end of 
August spot standard bars were quoted at 58d. 
Corundum.— Nominal. 
Graphite— 80%, £35 to £40 c.i.f. U.K. 
Iron and Steel.— The pig-iron markets in the 
Cleveland district underwent somewhat of a lull, ow- 
ing to the holiday season, but latterly business has 
been settling down again. The situation in respect of 
foundry iron is not quite so stringent, but the tone re- 
mains firm. The quotations at present are 164s. for 
No. 1, 160s. for No. 3 and No. 4 foundrv. and about 
157s. for No. 4 forge. Business in steel has been some- 
what difficult to negotiate as the main inquiry is for 
ship-plates, which are difficult to procure owing to the 
well sold conditions of works, A good deal has been 
heard of American competition, although this latterly 
seems a less serious factor in the home markets, which 
no doubt is largely due to the fall in the rate of ex- 
change. In overseas markets the American price seems 
still to be under ours, but the disparity between the 
two appears to be less marked than it was at one time. 
Fair quantities of American billets and semi-manu 
factured metal generally have been coming in, but 
latterly business in American products here seems to 
have tapered off. 



172 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



STATISTICS. 

Production of Gold in the Transvaal. 



July. 1918... 

August 

September 

October 

November 
December 



Year 1918 



January. 1919 662.205 

February 621,188 

March I i 5 

April 676,702 

May 706,158 

Uine 632.603 

July 705,523 



Rand 



Oz. 

716 010 
719.849 
686.963 
667,955 
640.797 
630.505 



Else- 
where 



Total 



Oz. 

20.189 
20.361 
21.243 
11,809 
17.904 
10.740 



Oz. 

736,199 
740.210 
708.206 
679.764 
658.701 
641.245 



Value 

£ 

3,127,174 
3,144.211 
3,008.267 
2,887,455 
2,797.983 
2.723.836 



221.734 Vtl'ivi; 



13.854 
15,540 
17,554 
18.242 
18.8:17 
19,776 
19,974 



676,059 
636.728 
712.379 
694,944 

70'. 379 



15.768.688 

2.871.718 
2.704.647 
3.025.992 
2.951.936 
3.079.583 

3.0ai,;iJ 



Natives Employed in the Transvaal Minks 



Gold 
mines 



July 31, 1918 178.412 

August 31 179.390 

September 30 179.399 



October 31 

November 30 

I lecember 3 1 ... 
January (1, f919 
February 28 

March 31 

April 30 

May 31 

June 30 

July 31 



173 153 
160.275 
152.606 



16 1,3 19 
172.359 
175.620 
175.267 
173.376 
172.505 
173.613 



Coal 
mines 



Diamond 
1 mines 



Total 



1 i .790 
12.108 

11.811 



11. 8 is 
Ll.,863 
11.168 

12.544 

12.453 



5.011 
4,954 

4.749 
4.016 
3.180 

4. .1.1 

5.080 
5.742 
5.939 
5,831 
5.736 



195.213 
196.29* 
196.395 
189.726 
176.117 

192.915 
191.547 
190.830 



Cost and Profit on the Rand 
Compiled from official statistics published by the Transvaal 
Chamber of Mines. The profit available for dividends is about 
6 0% i A the '..' 'i king profit 

Work'g 

cost 
per ton 



July. 1918. 

August 

September .... 

October 

November 

December 



Tons 
milled 



2.167.869 

2.158.431 
2,060.635 
2.015.144 
1,899,925 
1.855.S91 



Year 1918 24.922.763 



January, 1919... 1,942.329 

February 1,816,352 

March 2,082,469 

April 1,993.652 

May 2,099.450 

lune 2.032.169 



Yield 
per ton 



Work'g Total 

profit working 
per ton profit 



s. d. 
27 10 



s. d. 

6 6 

6 3 

5 10 

5 3 

5 1 

5 6 



5 8 
5 6 

5 (. 
5 9 
5 10 

5 10 



Production of Gold in Rhodesia and West Africa 





Rhodesia. West Africa. 




1918 


1919 1918 


1919 


January 


£ 

253,807 
232.023 
230.023 
239.916 
239.205 
225.447 
251.740 
257.096 
247,885 
136.780 
145.460 
192.870 


£ £ 

211,917 ' 107.863 
220.885 | 112.865 
225,808 , 112.605 
213.160 117. S2f) 


£ 
104.063 
112.616 
112,543 




109,570 


Mav 


218.057 
214,215 
214,919 


126.290 
120,273 
117,581 
120,526 
115.152 
61,461 
108.796 
112.621 


100.827 


i 




July 








September ... 


— 


November ... 
December ... 


— 


Total 


2.652,250 


1.518.961 


1.333.553 


748.698 



Transvaal Gold Outputs. 



702.360 
676.146 
600.330 
531.774 
480.102 
507.860 



6 I 7,678.129 



547,793 

573.582 
573.143 
608.715 
592.361 



July, 1919 



Aurora West 

Kantjt-s 

Barrett 

Brakpan 

City & Suburban -••• 

City Deep 

Cons. Langlaagte 

Cons. Main Kief 

Crown Mines 

Durban Roodt-pooi I 

East Rand P.M. 

Ferreira Deep 

Geduld 

I ieldenhuis Deep 

rg 

Lydenburg 



Government <i.M. Areas • 

Heriot 

Jupiter 

Kleinfontein ■ 

Knights Central 

Knights Deep 

Langla 

Luipaard's Vlei 

Meyer & Charlton 

Modderfontein 

Mi idderfontein B 

Moddei f ' intein I >eep 

New Tinned 

Nourse 

Primrose 

Princess Estate 

ntein Central 

Robinson •••■ 

Robinson I >* ep 

oort United 



Simmer & Jack 

Sumner Deep 

Springs 

Sub Nigel 

Transvaal G.M. Estates—- 

Van Rj n 

Y.in Rj n 1 >eep 

Villas 1 

Main Reef 

West Rand Consolidated . 
Witwatersrand (Knights) ■ 

Witwatersrand Deep 

Wolhuter 



Tons 
13.000 



55.000 
47,300 
50.3lO 

179,000 
11.700 

125.000 
35,000 
43.700 
51.100 

14. '.SO 
122.000 
12.6C0 
25.100 
51.000 
25.500 
95.000 
42.000 
22.250 
15.000 
81.000 
57.000 
43.500 
12.000 
41,400 
19.000 
20.200 
161. (mo 

55.500 
24.400 
56.000 
58.400 
45.200 
38,500 
11.000 
15,540 
34.500 
48.300 
43.200 
18.700 
33.260 
34,600 

32.000 



Value 



£ 

13.459 



92.854 
30,602 

106,778 
55.422 
73.530 

240.381 
11,357 

149.974 
50.552 
66.126 
58.232 

7.490 

12.721 

16.198 
27.632 
68 J43 
30.871 

50.281 
22.258 
40.382 
172.858 
1 22.600 
95 587 
12.018 
53.651 

27.705 
177.974 
43.3*4 
73.252 
22,333 
64,580 
69,952 
.50.484 

66.372 
28.135 
26.296 
33.923 
107.991 
64.119 
25.664 
38,865 
41. M0 

36.756 



Wbsi African Gold O' 



July. 1919 



Treated 



Abbontiakoon .... 

Abosso 

Ashanti Goldfields 
Prestea Block A ... 

Taquah 

Wassau 



Tons 
7.717 
7.300 
7.821 

15.189 
4,520 
2,641 



Value 



£ 

11.376 
12,470 
37.568 
25.345 
11.994 
3,332 



Rhodesian Gold Outputs. 



July, 1919 



Antelope 

Cam .V Motor 

Eldorado Banket 

Falcon 

Gaika 

Globe & Phoenix 

Lonely Reef 

Rezende , 

Rhodesia, Ltd 

Sbamva 

Transvaal & Rhodesian 
Wanderer 



Tn ,it( (1 


Value 


Tons 


£ 


3,025 


4.070 


1.040 


3.697 


16.447 


22.208* 


3.103 


5.477 


6.461 


7.749r 


4,650 


24,916 


5.600 


14.297 


345 


978 


54.366 


35,851 


1.800 


4.750 



* Gold. Silver and Copper ; t Ounces Gold. 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



173 



West Australian Gold Statistics. 



Production of Gold in India. 



Reported 
for Export 



August, 1918.. 
September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 
January, 1919 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 



1,444 

2.739 

* 

733 
nil 
33 
525 
1.050 
680 
835 



Delivered 
to Mint 



76.156 
74,057 
71.439 
70,711 
61,314 
69,954 
66,310 
66,158 
63.465 
68,655 
73,546 
68,028 
58,117 



Total 



72.155 
64,053 

* 

67.043 
66.158 
63,498 
69.180 
74.596 
68,708 
58.952 



Total 
value £ 



306,494 

272,208 

* 

284,779 
281,120 
269,720 
293,856 
316 862 
292.852 
250,410 



* By direction of the Federal Government the export figures 
from July. 1916, to November, 1918, were not published. 

Australian Gold Returns. 





Victoria. 


Queensland. | ^^T 




1918 


1919 


1918 


1919 


1918 


1919 


January ... 
February 

March 

April 


£ 

32.134 
58.113 
65.412 
29.620 
87,885 
45,765 
61.347 
61.163 
65,751 
* 

70,674 


£ 

36,238 
46,955 
40,267 
63,818 
37.456 


£ 
47,600 
45.470 
48,020 
47.600 
46.740 
51,420 
51,000 
44,600 
45.900 
54,400 
38,200 
56,281 


£ 

37.100 
43.330 
48,000 
61,200 
38,200 
44,600 
42,060 


£ 

25,000 
28.000 
30.000 
30.000 
45,000 
32.000 
25,000 
21,000 
32,000 
40.000 
25,000 
38,000 


£ 

18,000 
24,000 
16,000 
24,000 


Tune 


17 000 


July 

August ... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 


22,000 
20,000 


Total ... 


674.655 


225.432 


578.213 


314,490 


370,000 


157.000 



* Figures not received. 



Australasian Gold Outputs. 



Associated 

Associated Northern J Iron Duke 

Blocks ( Victorious 

Blackvvater 

Bullfinch 

Golden Horseshoe 

Great Boulder Prop 

Ivanhoe 

Kalgurli 

Lake View & Star 

Mount Boppy 

Oroya Links 

Progress 

Sons of Gwaha 

South Kalgurli 

Talisman 

Waihi 

Waihi Grand Junction 



July, 1919 



Tons 
6,110 



2,160 
5,700 
7,548 
6.861 
10.225 
3,217 

2,980 
1,523 
1,450 

13.057 

7,533 

225 

15.153 
5,620 



Value 

£ 

7.883 
1.956* 

4,035 
5.828 
14,238 
19,949 
21,118 
7,455 

4.650 
15,3381 

1,713 
18,546 
11.914 

2.962 
25.295; 

8.155t 



* burplus ; t Total receipts ; I Gold and Silver to August 9. 



Miscellaneous Gold Output. 



Barramia (Sudan) 

Espe.ranza (Mexico) 

Frontino & Bolivia (Colombia) 

Nechi (Colombia) 

Ouro Preto (Brazil) 

Pato (Colombia) ! 

Philippine Dredges (Philippine Islands) 

Plymouth Cons. (California) 

St. John del Rey (Brazil) 

Santa Gertrudis (Mexico) 

Sudan Gold Field (Sudan) 



Cubic yards. + Dollars. § Ounces, fineness not stated. 
I I Profit, gold and silver. 



Julj 


, 1919 


Treated 


Value 


Tons 


£ 


15,987 


3,250 


2.620 


8,861 


89,888* 


30.3?8+ 


7,600 


11.000 


165,428* 


121,7251 


— 


383§ 


10.400 


12.876 


— 


in. in 111 


35.100 


28.850ft 


1.530 


1,470 





1916 


1917 


1918 1919 




£ 
192.150 
183.264 
186.475 
192,208 
193,604 
192.469 
191.404 
192.784 
192,330 
191.502 
192,298 
205,164 


£ 
190.047 
180,904 
189,618 
185,835 
184.874 
182.426 
179.660 
181,005 
183,630 
182.924 
182,388 
190,852 

2.214.163 


£ £ 
176.030 162.270 




173.343 ; 153.775 
177.950 162.790 




176.486 162.550 


Mav 


173.775 164.080 


lune 


•174.375 162.996 


July 


171,950 163.795 




172.105 


September ... 


170.360 
167,740 


November ... 
December ... 


157.176 
170.630 


Total 


2.305.652 


2.061,920 ! 1,034.256 



Indian Gold Outputs. 



Balaghat 

Champion Reef ••• 
Hutti (Nizam's) ... 

Jibutil 

Mysore 

North Anantapur 

Nundydroog 

Ooregum 



July, 1919 



Tons 
Treated 



2,750 
11,856 



22.422 
1.000 
8.765 

12.900 



Fine 
Ounces 



2,193 
7,157 



13.534 

914 

6.481 

7.370 



Base Metal Outputs 



Arizona Copper Short tons copper 

( Tons lead concentrate.... 
British Broken Hill ... •! Tons zinc concentrate.... 

I Tons carbonate ore 

Tons lead concentrate. 



Broken Hill Block 10 



Burma Corp 

Cordoba Copper.... 
Fremantle Trading 

North Broken Hill 



Tons zinc concentrate- 
Tons refined lead 

Oz. refined silver 



..Long tons lead 

I Tons lead 

" I Oz. silver 

Poderosa Tons copper ore 

Rhodesian Broken Hill-Tons lead and zinc 

Tanganyika Long tons copper 

Tolima Tons silver-lead concentrate 

Tons zinc concentrate 

Tons lead concentrate 



July. 
1919 



619 
L52 



1 1 16 
219 
015 

45 



Zinc Corp. 



Imports of Ores and Metals into United Kinudom. 



Iron Ore Tons .. 

Manganese Ore Tons .. 

Copper and Iron Pyrites Tons ■■ 

Copper Ore Tons ■• 

Copper Precipitate Tons .. 

Copper Metal Tons .- 

Tin Concentrate Tons •- 

Tin Metal Tons .. 

Lead, Pig and Sheet Tons .. 

Zinc (Spelter) Tons .. 

Quicksilver Lb. .. 

Zinc Oxide Cwt. .. 

Barytes Cwt. .. 

Rock Phosphate -Tons ■• 

Brimstone Cwt. 

Boracic Compounds Cwt. .. 

Nitrate of Potash Cwt. ■■ 

Petroleum : 

Crude Gallons 

Lamp Oils 1 >allons 

Motor Spirit Gallons 

Lubricating Oils Gallons 

Gas Oil 1 i Lilon 

Fuel Oil Gallons 

Total Petroleum Gallons 



Aug. 
1919 



669,738 

13.7.:5 

25. S'.- 

516 

2,315 

". 

1,623 

1,353 

7.505 

5.535 

379.704 

44 933 

34.492 

19.341 

10,565 

-'6.239 

66 

1.723,335 

12. 547.058 

5.099.116 

2.409.321 

10,674 942 

45.396,482 



Year 
1919 

3,858.240 
221.005 

81,71 i 

12,067 
173.243 

2,074.791 

114,789 
172.189 
121,879 

1.866.734 

hr.9M.47-. 
140.935.081 
40.542,485 

13.269,287 

462.748.047 



174 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



United States Metal Exports and Imports. 



Imports. 



Copper Ingots 
Copper Sheets 
Copper Wire. 

Lead, Pig 

Zinc 

Zinc Sheets •■ 



t ports. 




May 


June 


Tons. 


Tons. 


8.342 


10.826 


382 


22-J 


1.76S 


2.127 


1.017 


7.492 


5,023 


10,730 ' 


5% 


746 | 



Antimony 

Tin Ore 

Tin ... 

Manganese 

Ore 

Tungsten 

Concentrate 
Pyrites 




June 
Tons. 

722 



338 
50,545 



Outfits oh Tin Mining Companies. 
In Tons of Concentrate. 



Nigeria : 

Abu 

Anglo-Continental 

Benue 

Berrida 

Bisichi 

Bongwelli 

Dua 

Ex-Lands 

Filani 

Forum River 

Gold Coast Consolidated 

Gurum River 

I.i ii 1. 1 1 

Jos 

Kaduna 

Kano 

Kassa-Ropp 

Keffi 

Kuru 

Kuskie 

Kwall 

Lower Bisichi 

Lucky Chance 

Minna 

Mcmgii 

Naraguta 

Naraguta Extended 

New Lafon 

Nigerian Tin 

Ninghi 

N N. Kanchi 

Offin River 

Rayfield 

Ropp 

Rukuba 

South Biikeru ... 

Svbu 

Tin Areas 

Tin Fields 

Torn 

Federated Malay Stall s 

Chenderiang 

Gopeng 

Idris 1 [ydraulic 

Ipoh 

Kainunting 

Kinta 

Kledang 

Lariat 

Malayan Tin 

Pahang 

Rambutan 

Snngi i Besi 

Tekka 

Tekka- Taiping 

Tronoh 

Tronoh South 

Cornwall : 

Cornwall Tailings 

Dolcoath 

I'ool 

Geevor 

South Crofty 

Other Countries : 

Aramayo Francke (Bolivia) 

Briseis (Tasmania) 

Deebook (Siam) 

Mawchi (Burma) 

Porco (Bolivia) 

Renong iSiam) 

Rooiberg Minerals (Transvaal)-. 

Siamese Tin (Siam> 

Tongkah Harbour (Siam) 

Zaaiplaats (Transvaall 



Year 

1918 

Tons 

33 

207 

146 

275 
17 
60 

342 
37 

274 
30 
99 

141 

228 
178 

60 

133 

118 

12 

21 

108 

99 

27 

40 

476 

478 

280 

198 

W 

435 
120 
689 
836 
132 
94 
40 
96 
108 
17 

179 
979 
136 
245 
236 
478 
28 
399 
730 

1.877 
/07 
408 
508 
400 

1.364 
133 

140 
787 
1,336 
392 
598 

1.816 
327 
398 
658 
227 
615 
335 
989 

1.528 
563 



July 
1919 
Tons 

l 



44 
46 

187 
9 
60 
30 
30 

129 



180 
18 

85 
27 
70 
12 
44 
107 
12 



Year 

1919 

Tons 

13 

79 

33 
1 

90 

29 

40 
208 

14 

35 

20 

65 

65 
136 
120 

93 

84 

30 
173 



52 

19 

21 

312 

215 

139 

125 

25 

25 

205 

32 

397 

596 

23 

32 

19 

«2 

101 

3 

52 
506 

90 

96 
252 

10 

242 

398 

1,258 

90 
210 
263 
186 
850 



444 
613 
186 
339 

1.253 
142 
160 
4 65 
162 
555 
186 
382 
672 
314 



Nigerian Tin Production. 
In long tons of concentrate of unspecified content. 
Note These figures are taken from the monthly returns 
made by individual companies reporting in London, and 
probably represent 85% of the actual outputs 





1914 


1915 1916 


1917 1918 1919 


February •■• 

April 

June 

July 


Tons 
485 
469 
5f2 
482 
480 
460 
432 
228 
289 
272 
283 
326 


Tons Tons 

417 531 
358 528 

418 547 
444 486 
357 536 
373 510 
455 506 
438 498 
442 535 
511 584 
467 679 
533 654 


Tons 
667 
646 
655 
555 
509 
473 
479 
551 
538 
578 
621 
655 


Tons 
678 
668 
707 
584 
525 
492 
545 
571 
520 
491 
472 
518 


Tons 
613 
623 
606 
546 
475 
476 
467 


September 
October 
November ... 
December ... 




Total .. 


4.708 


5.213 6594 


6.927 


6.771 





Total Sales of Tin Concentrate at Redruth Ticketings. 



Julv 1 

July 15 

July 29 

August 12 

August 26 

September 9 

Septeinl" i i 
October 7.. 

i Ictober 21 

Ni >\ ember 4 

November 18 

I ii r . 

nber 16 

iber 30 

.ind Average 

January 13, I 

January 27 

February 10 

Febl nary Jt 

March 10 

March 24 

April 7. 

April 22 

May 5 

May l'> 

June 2 . 
June 16... 

June 30 

July 14 

July 2S 

August 11 

August 23 

iiber 8 



Long tone 



Value Average 



1704 

164 

146J 

144 

142 

142* 

".45? 

136* 

150 

1 4 1 i 

150 
163? 
1754 
152 



£34.035 

£34,595 
£33.816 
£"33.116 
£"31.211 

£29.639 
£27.037 

£27.636 

£27.592 

£26.032 
£19.539 



£"199 12 


5 


£"210 1,9 





£231 4 


6 


£2.9 19 


6 


£"219 16 


ii 


£"202 1 
£203 7 


2 


2 


£197 14 


3 


£197 16 
£195 13 


4 


1 




9 


£150 19 


ii 


£J48 6 


7 



4,094 






160 

1354 

153 

142 

144* 

1484 

1344 

134i 

129 

1264 

140 

139 

136 

145 

122 

1274 

130* 

115* 



£130 

£125 
£113 
£105 
£"l-'5 
£120 
£1M 
£111 
£115 

£ 1 23 

£125 

' I to 

£143 




11 
10 7 
19 10 
14 10 

8 5 

8 10 
18 1 



13 2 

5 
15 

15 9 
8 

17 3 

16 11 

6 5 
4 3 

12 6 



I 'i l ah s oi Re DRI ih Tin Tic i 



E. Pool & 

No. la 

„ No. lb 

,. .. No. lc 

Dolcoath, No. 1 

No. la 

No lb 

No. 2 

A 

South Crofts 

.. .. No la 

Grenville Ltd.. No 1 

No. la 

. No. 2 

Tincroft Mines, No. 1 

,, No. la 
Levant Mines. No. 1 
.. 

Wheal Bellan 

Hingston Downs 

Peevi r 

Trencrom 



August 11 



August 25 



Total 127* 



Tons 

10 
10 
10 

9 
9 



11 
11 

8 

7 

2 

54 

6 

8 

7 

2 



Realized 
in r ton 



Tons 
Sold 



Realized 



£ s. d 

133 12 e 

134 10 
133 10 

139 

140 12 6 

140 15 
66 10 

135 5 
135 5 

128 15 

129 15 
63 5 

144 

145 15 

141 

142 

143 10 



£ s. d. 

10 138 15 

10 i 

10 138 15 



3 

1 
11 
II 

8 

8 

54 
6 



145 

147 5 

147 5 

62 

126 

139 10 

139 15 

135 15 

134 17 6 






150 

150 

147 

153 12 6 

111 12 6 

125 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



175 



Production of Tin in Federated Malay States. 

Estimated at 70% of Concentrate shipped to Smelters. Long 
Tons. * Figures not published. 



PRICES OF CHEMICALS. Sept. 10. 





1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 

Tons 
3.149 
3.191 

2.608 
3.308 
3.332 
2,950 
3.373 
3.259 
3,166 
2.870 
3,131 
3.023 


1919 


January ■•• 
February ... 
March 


Tons 

4.395 
3.780 
3.653 
3,619 
3.823 
4,048 
3,544 
4,046 
3.932 
3.797 
4.059 
4,071 

46.767 


Tons 
4,316 
3.372 
3.696 
3.177 
3.729 
3.435 
3.517 
3.732 
3,636 
3,681 
3.635 
3.945 

43.871 


Tons 

3.553 
2.755 
3.286 
3.251 
3,413 
3,489 
3,253 
3,413 
3,154 
3,436 
3.300 
3,525 

• 39.833 


Tons 
3,765 
2.673 
2,819 
2,855 




3,404 




2,873 


July 

August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December . 


3,756 
2.955 




37.370 


25.100 



Stocks of Tin 
Reported by A. Strauss & Co. 



Long Tons. 



August 31, 
1919 



Straits and Australian Spot 

Ditto, Landing and in Transit 

Other Standard, Spot and Landing ... 

Straits, Afloat 

Australian. Afloat 

Banca, in Holland 

Ditto, Afloat 

Billiton, Spot 

Billiton, Afloat 

Straits, Spot in Holland and Hamburg 

Ditto. Afloat to Continent 

Total Afloat for United States 

Stock in America 



Total 




18.157 



Shipments, Imports, Supply, and Consumption of Tin. 
Reported by A. Sttauss & Co. Long tons. 



Shipments from : 

Straits to U.K. 

Straits to America 

Straits to Continent 

Straits to Other Places 

Australia to U.K 

U.K. to America 

Imports of Bolivian Tin into Europe-- 

Supply : 

Straits 

Australian 

Billiton 

Banca • 

Standard 

Consumption : 

U Ki Deliveries 

Dutch „ 

American 

Straits, Banca & Billiton. Continen 
tal Ports, etc. 



Straits in hands of MalayGovernm.nl 

controlled by U.S. Governnn ni 
„ „ „ French and Italian 



July 
1919 



Tons 

1.562 

5,305 
435 

2,467 
100 

1.000 
295 



7,302 
100 
60 

1,955 
906 



1.949 
102 

50 



Governments. 



Banca 'n Trading Company's hands-. 



733 



August 
19.9 



Tons 

4 164 
3,825 

840 
1,363 

100 
1.720 

839 



8.829 
100 



1,333 

60 

4,345 



£ s. d 



Alum per ton 

Alumina, Sulphate of 

Ammonia, Anhydrous per lb. 

0'880 solution per ton 

,, Carbonate per lb. 

Chloride of, grey per ton 

,, ,, ,, pure per cwt. 

Nitrate of per ton 

Phosphate of 

Sulphate of 

Antimony Sulphide per lb. 

Arsenic, White per ton 

Barium Sulphate 

Bisulphide of Carbon 

Bleaching Powder, 35% CI 

Borax 

Copper, Sulphate of 

Cyanide of Sodium, 100% per lb 

Hydrofluoric Acid 

Iodine , 

Iron, Sulphate of per 

Lead, Acetate of, white 

,, Nitrate of 

,, Oxide of, Litharge 

,, White 

Lime, Acetate, brown 

grey 80% 

Magnesite, Calcined 

Magnesium Chloride 

Sulphate 

Methylated Spirit 64° Industrial per gal. 

Phosphoric Acid per lb. 

Potassium Bichromate 

Carbonate per ton 

Chlorate per lb. 

Chloride 80% per ton 

Hydrate (Caustic) 90% 

Nitrate 

Permanganate per lb 

Prussiate, Yellow 

Sulphate, 90% per ton 

Sodium Metal per lb. 

Acetate per ton 

Arsenate 45 % 

Bicarbonate 

Bichromate per lb. 

Carbonate (Soda Ash)... per ton 

(Crystals) 

Chlorate per lb. 

Hydrate, 76% per ton 

Hyposulphite , 

Nitrate, 95^ 

Phosphate 

,, Prussiate per lb. 

Silicate per ton 

Sulphate (Salt-cake) 

(Glauber's Salts) 

Sulphide 

Sulphur, Roll 

,, Flowers 

Sulphuric Acid, Non-Arsenical... 
140°T. 

90% 

96% 

Superphosphate of Lime, 18%. .. 

Tartaric Acid per lb. 

Zinc Chloride per ton 

Zinc Sulphate 



17 
17 

33 

47 

4 

60 

110 

19 

60 
12 
55 
15 
39 
43 



95 



160 

60 



30 

52 

60 

9 

12 

4 

24 
16 
21 

J 6 

12 
3 
3 

19 
21 
23 

5 
7 
9 
5 

23 







1 10 
















10 
7 

16 

0* 

















1 1 






3 3 

1 9 



1 3 



10 
11 

10 

5 

7 



10 



10 
7j 





10 









12 



176 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



SHARE QUOTATIONS 

Shares are £l par value except where otherwise noted. 



GOLD, SILVER, 
DIAMONDS : 
Rand : 

Brakpan 

Central Mining (£8) 

City & Suburban (£4) 

City Deep 

Consolidated Gold Fields 

Consolidated Langlaagte 

Consolidated Main Reef 

Consolidated Mines Selection (10s). 

Crown Mines (10s ) 

Daggafontein 

Durban Roodepoort Deep 

East Rand Proprietary 

Ferreira Deep 

Geduld 

Geldenhnis Deep 

Gov't Gold Mining Areas 

Heriot 

Johannesburg Consolidated 

Jupiter 

Kleinfontein 

Knight Central 

Knights Deep 

Langlaagte Kstate 

Meyer & Charlton 

Modderfontein (£4) 

Modderfontein U 

M odder Deep 

Nourse 

Rand Mines (5s.) 

Rand Selection Corporation 

Randfontein Central 

Robinson (£5) 

Robinson Deep A (Is.) 

Rose Deep 

Simmer & Jack 

Simmer Deep 

Springs 

Sub Nigel 

1'nion Corporation (12s. 6d.) 

Van Ryn 

Van Ryn Deep 

Village Deep 

Village Main Reef 

Witwatersrand (Knight's* 

Witwatersrand Deep 

Wolh liter 

Other Transvaal Gold Minks : 

Glynn's Lydenburg 

Sheba (5s.) 

Transvaal Gold Mining Estates. ... 
Diamonds in South Afrita : 

De Beers Deferred (£2 10s.) 

Jagersfontein 

Premier Deferred (2s. 6d.) 

Rhodf.sia : 

Cam & Motor 

Chartered British South Africa .... 

Eldorado 

Falcon 

Gaika 

Giant 

Globe & Phoenix (5s.) 

Lonely Reef 

Rezende.. 

Sham v a 

Willoughby's (10s.) 

West Africa ■ 

Abbontiakoon (10s.) 

Abosso 

Ashanti (4s.) 

Prestea Block A 

Taquah 

West Australia : 

Associated Gold Mines 

Associated Northern Blocks 

Bullfinch 

Golden Horse-Shoe (£5) 

Great Boulder Proprietary (2s.) 

Great Fineall (10s) 

Ivanhoe (£5) 

Kalgurli 

Lake View & Oroya (10s.) 

••CIH of Gnalia 

South Kalgurli (I0s> 



Sept. 6 

1918 
£ s. d. 

4 

7 10 
17 

3 
1 18 9 
1 

15 

1 7 9 

2 7 
1 6 

10 
4 
15 
1 18 
13 

4 13 
I 
1 3 

4 
16 

4 

8 

15 

4 12 

25 17 

8 
8 1 

17 

3 2 

4 6 
13 
15 

1 5 
18 



3 

3 17 

1 12 

15 

19 

3 16 

18 

12 

1 6 

9 

5 



3 9 
9 

16 



16 10 
4 16 3 

7 12 6 



11 

16 

5 

1 1 

14 

8 
I 10 
1 17 
5 6 
1 18 

5 9 



Sept. 5 

1919 
£ s. d. 



3 10 
9 5 



2 18 

1 18 

1 

13 

1 5 

2 12 

1 5 
7 
5 

12 

2 12 

10 
4 13 9 

11 
1 11 



12 

6 

8 

18 

4 8 

27 2 

8 16 

8 7 

14 

3 

3 13 

15 

II 

1 
16 

5 
2 

2 16 
1 5 

18 
1/ 

3 15 
15 
11 

1 1 
12 



18 9 

2 3 

13 9 

23 17 6 

6 2 6 

9 5 



5 
1 

4 
13 
15 

8 

1 2 

2 15 
5 5 
1 18 

6 



4 


3 


4 9 


8 


6 


12 


1 


6 


1 1 9 


4 





5 9 


15 


9 


16 3 


3 


9 


3 6 


4 


6 


3 9 


1 


9 


2 6 


2 





1 6 3 


11 





9 3 


3 


6 


1 9 


1 16 


3 


1 18 9 


9 





9 6 


13 





1 3 


8 





5 9 


5 


3 


5 6 



Gold, Silver, cont. 

Others in Australasia : 

Blackwater. New Zealand ■■ 

ConsolidatedG.F.of New Zealand 

Mount Boppy. New South Wales 

Progress. .New Zealand 

Talisman, New Zealand 

Waihi. New Zealand 

Waihi Grand Junction. New Z'lnd 
America : 

Buena Tierra. Mexico 

Camp Bird, Colorado 

El Oro, Mexico 

Esperanza, Mexico 

Frontino & Bolivia, Colombia 

Le Roi No. 2 (£5). British Columbia 

Mexico Mines of El Oro, Mexico . 

Nechi (Pref. 10s.). Colombia 

Oroville Dredging, Colombia 

Plymouth Consolidated. California 

St. John delRey, Brazil 

Santa Gertrudis, Mexico 

Tomboy, Colorado 

Russia 

Lena Goldfields 

Orsk Priority 

India : 

Balaghat 

Champion Reef (28. 6d I 

Mysore (10s.) 

North Anantapur 

Nundydroog (10s.) 

Ooregiun (10s.) 

IPPER : 

Arizona Copper (5s). Arizona 

Cape Copper (£2), Cape Province.. 

I peranza, Spain 

Hampden Cloncurry, Queensland 

Kysbtim, Russia 

Mason ,\: Barry, Portugal 

Messina (5s .), Transvaal 

Mount Elliott (£5), Queensland ... 

Mount Lyell, Tasmania 

Mount Morgan. Queensland 

Mount < >xnle. ■ )u< ensland 

Namaqua l£ii, Cape Province 

Rio Tinto (£5). Spain 

Sissert, Russia 

Spassky, Russia 

Tanalyk, Russia 

Tanganyika. Congo and Rhodesia 

LEAD ZINC : 
Hkokkn Hill : 

Amalgamated /mc 

British Broken Mill 

Broken Hill Propi ietary (8s.) 

Broken Hill Block 10 (£10) 

Broken Hill North 

Broken Hill South 

Suli i uion U5s.) 

Zinc Corporation (10s.) 

Asia : 

Burma Corporation 

Irtysh Corporation 

Russian Mining 

Russo- Asiatic 



Sept. 6 

1918 
£ s. d. 



8 9 

3 9 

6 3 

1 9 

!2 

2 2 6 

16 6 



12 6 

13 

6 5 



18 

1 2 

19 

n 

13 

1 7 
14 



5 

2 13 

5 

1 4 
19 

2 8 

2 10 



1 6 

1 10 

3 2 

5 

3 10 
1 11 

1 12 

8 

2 10 
70 

17 
I in o 
1 16 3 

4 3 



1 7 

2 14 

3 13 
1 18 
3 10 

14 

i 3 

1 11 



* Share 



TIN : 

Aramayo Francke, Bolivia 

Bisichi. Nigeria 

Briseis, Tasmania 

Dolcoath. Cornwall 

East Pool, Cornwall 

Ex-Lands Nigeria (2s.). Nigeria ... 

Geevor (10s ) Cornwall 

Gopeng. Malay 

Ipoh Dredging, Malay 

Kamunting, Malaya 

Kinta, Malaya... 

Malax an Tin Dredging, Malay 

Mongu (10s. I. Nigeria 

Naraguta. Nigeria 

N. N. Bauchi, Nigeria (10s.) 

Pahang Consolidated (5s.). Malay 

Rayrield, N'iiu-ria 

Renong Dredging, Siam 

Ropp (4s.). Nigeria 

Siamese Tin. Siam 

South Crofty 15s.), Cornwall 

Tehidy Minerals(l5s. pd.) Cornw'l 

Tekka. Malav 

Tekka-Taiping. Malay 

Tronoh. Malay 

capital expanded. 



■ 

1 15 



2 16 
15 
5 

10 

1 12 

2 

1 4 

2 
19 

1 12 

2 7 

2 5 
17 
18 

14 

15 

1 3 

3 5 

2 10 



4 5 1 
3 17 6 
2 10 



Sept 5 

1919 
£ s. d. 



8 9 

2 7 6 

14 



17 
1 4 
1 

19 
B 

II 
7 5 

12 
1 11 
1 7 

19 
1 14 



1 10 

13 9 

4 3 
1 17 6 

5 

14 
16 6 



2 
2 12 

5 
17 



1 6 

2 3 
5 o 

3 15 
1 3 9 
1 5 6 

7 

I 12 6 

54 10 ri 

1 2 6 

1 10 

I '?. r> 

4 15 



1 6 6 

2 1 3 
2 5 o 

1 5 o 

2 12 6 
2 5 0' 
1 1 6 

I 1 9 

9 5 

1 15 

17 6 

4 6 3 

4 

13 9 



17 
8 



15 
15 

2 8 
1 I 

3 r, 

13 

1 z 

4 5 

5 7 6 

2 2 6 



THE MINING DIGEST 



A RECORD OF PROGRESS IN 



MINING, METALLURGY, AND GEOLOGY 
In this section we give abstracts of important articles and papers appearing in technical journals and 
Proceedings of societies, together with brief records of other articles and papers ; also reviews of new 
books, and abstracts of the yearly reports of mining companies. 



REFRACTORIES IN ZINC METALLURGY. 



In December last we quoted a paper read by J. A. 
Audley before the Ceramic Society on refractories used 
in connection with the distillation of zinc. Mr. Audley 
has presented to the same society a second paper ex- 
tending the references on the subject. These addition- 
al references are to papers not readily accessible and 
most of them not in English, and the author has there- 
fore done a service to the industry in collecting them. 

The author does not deal specially with the furnace 
bricks, for the consideration of them is not essentially 
different from that of high-grade refractories in gen- 
eral. It is in reality in their case mainly a matter of 
proper selection and suitable treatment of the materials, 
due regard being paid to the proportioning and grad- 
ing of the grog. In a passing allusion in his previous 
paper to furnace bricks made from St. Louis clay there 
is no mention of the fact that the mixture used for 
making these bricks consisted of 40 clay to 60 grog, a 
much larger proportion of grog than is commonly em- 
ployed in this country. Special treatment (washing, 
etc.) of the clay to increase its plasticity, or substitu- 
tion (partly or wholly) of a more plastic clay than that 
ordinarily used, in order to permit the employment of 
a higher proportion of grog, deserves serious consid- 
eration in this connection, particularly as the best 
qualities of bricks are only needed at places where they 
come into direct contact with the flames. 

The following are further analyses of St. Louis clay, 
all from the same mine, given by Miihlhauser, in Zeit- 
schrift Angewandte Cliemie for 1903 : 

A1 2 3 

Top of mine | 34'95 

-I 33 80 
I 34 64 

Bottom 34'46 

Average of above. Dried at 120° C 34 - 46 

i. .. Calcined 39'26 

Average of a year's production 
(a few years later) : 

a. Dried at 120°C. 3502 

b. Calcined 39'26 

It will be noticed that the variations in composition are 
comparatively slight. The impurities in the St Louis 
clay — consisting of felspar, carbonate of lime, sphero- 
siderite, limonite, gypsum, and pyrite, with a few 
quartz grains, and no more than traces of titanium — 
amount to only 157% of the clay ready for use. after 
drying at 120°C. The clay itself, passed through a 
sieve with 5,000 meshes per sq. cm., had the follow- 
ing composition, and melted at cone 30—31 : 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 Fe 2 3 CaO MgO K.O Na 3 Loss on ignition 
48'00. 34 59 3'83 0'50 48 002 013 12'59 

St. Louis clay thus comes near in composition to two 
German clays, from Girode and Hettenleidelheim. 



decanting the water, and finally drying on a water 
bath the mud remaining as well as the crumbly resi- 
due on the sieve, the products analysed as follows : 



Si0 2 

St. Louis clay 5002 

Sieved clay 5006 

Residue 50'60 



MgO 

St. Louis clay 0'46 

Sieved clay 0'60 

Residue o'40 



A1 2 3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


3502 


276 


070 


35'82 


2'28 


046 


34"20 


3'24 


58 
Loss on 


K 2 


Na 2 


ignition 


06 


0'17 


1251 


05 


004 


12'49 


0"09 


0'16 


12'47 



The melting points proved to be the same for all three. 

The fine clay was found to be highly plastic, whereas 
the residue was only slightly plastic, though the com- 
position was nearly the same. This suggests at once 
that considerable increase in plasticity might be pro- 
duced in other fireclays if a suitable washing process 
could be devised. In trials on a small scale it was 
found that to obtain practically all the clay in washed 
condition wet grinding was necessary, as boiling or 
dry grinding gave no more than 50 to 66% of the clay 
in washed condition. 

Still another analysis of St. Louis clay, but after 
calcination, gave the following figures : 

Si0 2 A1 3 3 Fe 2 3 CaO MgO K.O Na 2 
Calcined St. Louis clay 5608 39'26 309 078 0'51 007 019 

In the former paper some analyses of old Belgian 
and Silesian retorts were given. The following an- 
alyses by Miihlhauser (Z. ang. Chem., 1902) of a Rhen- 

















Si0 2 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


K 2 


Na 2 




49 00 


2'45 


0'80 


0'58 


— 


— 


1300 


50'00 


270 


0'40 


0"36 


— 


— 


12'80 


49'60 


1'96 


1 20 


0'66 


— 





12'90 


49'40 


2'94 


0'80 


0'87 


— 


— 


1275 


49'50 


2'39 


0'80 


62 





— 


12 '86 


56 39 


272 


091 


071 


— 


— 


000 


50'02 


2 76 


070 


0'46 


0'06 


17 


1-251 


56'08 


309 


078 


0'51 


006 


0'19 


O'OO 



Si0 2 

St. Louis Clay 48'00 

Girode ciay 48'50 

Hettenleidelheim clay...49'23 



Loss on Melting 
A1 2 3 Fe 2 O s ignition point 
3459 383 12 59 Cone 30-31 
3510 1'80 13'06 „ 34 

34-57 2'05 1215 „ 33 



On making St. Louis clay into a thin slip, and wash- 
ing it through a No. 100 brass sieve until the water 
runs through nearly clear, then allowing to settle and 



ish muffle and two American retorts are instructive 
for comparison : 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 Fe 2 O s ZnO CaO MgO K-O Na«0 

Rhenish zinc muffle 68'84 20'38 2'52 6'42 0'60 12 — — 
Illinois zinc retort... 44 68 32'52 3'60 1910 10 000 O'll - 20 
Kansas zinc retort... 5206 28'34 2'40 16'88 0"06 0'42 — — 

It was stated that Schulze and Stelzner failed to es- 
tablish the cause of the blue coloration of zinc spinel 
in zinc muffle or retort bodies, and categorically stated 
that it was not due to titanium, as they were unable 
to detect any titanium in the isolated blue spinel. 
They, however, alluded to Kersten's observation [Ber- 
zelius : Jahresber. iiber d. Fortsclir. d.phys. Wis- 
senschaft, 1840] that when zinc vapour was passed 
over ignited titanic acid (that is, titanium dioxide) the 
latter became blue, and also that when a solution of 
titantic acid in hydrogen sodium phosphate was igni- 
ted in hydrogen it became lavender blue, and treatment 
with water left a blue lower oxide of titanium, which 
became white on heating in an open vessel. Brand- 
horst {Z . ang. Chem., L904) definitely states that the 



3—6 



177 



178 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



blue coloration in zinc muffles or retorts is due to re- 
duction of titanium dioxide, but gives no authority or 
special reason for his statement. Possibly he may 
have had the above-mentioned observation of Kersten 
in his mind, and assumed that the titanium compound 
must be present. The only difficulty in connection 
with this explanation is that Schulze and Stelzner 
failed to detect the presence of titanium in the German 
material, and Muhlhauser asserted that mere traces of 
titanium are present in St. Louis clay. In a recent 
paper Muhlhauser (Z.ang. Client., 1919) quotes Brand- 
horst's dictum, apparently with full acceptance, so 
that he may perhaps have found indications of large 
quantities of titanium later. Verneuil suggested that 
the tint of the sapphire is due to the same substance 
(Chem. Ztg., 1910). 

The brief allusions to zinc slags may be supplemen- 
ted by a few observations from a recent article by 
Muhlhauser (Metall und Erz. 1918). Though not 
formed in great quantities, these slags constitute a 
troublesome by-product which often damages the body 
of the retort. With other metals the production of 
slag is deliberately aimed at, but in the case of zinc it 
is sought to avoid or limit the formation of slags, or 
at least to make them as harmless as possible so far 
as composition is concerned. In some operations 
carried out with a small trial furnace at the works of 
the Matthiessen and Hegeler Zinc Co. in La Salle, the 
roasted mixture of Joplin ore and Wisconsin ore used 
was composed of 86 - 96 ZnO, 036 CaO, 008 CuO, 
37 PbO, 128 Fe. 2 3 , 2 22 A1. 2 3 , 080 CaO, 07 
MgO, 7 00 SiO a , 119 S, and must have consisted essen- 
tially of zinc oxide, silica, alumina, iron oxide and zinc 
ferrite, gypsum, zinc sulphide, and iron sulphide. 
After reduction of the roasted blende (50 lb. ore to 30 
lb. anthracite) in the trial furnace, the residue had the 
averagecomposition (for 19 operations) given in Table I. 

The residue, consisting of the matrix of the ore, of 
partly consumed anthracite, and of the mineral ingredi- 
ents of the latter, is probably composed of the follow- 
ing substances : the metals iron and copper, zinc oxide 
and alumina, iron silicate, AL0 3 .Si0 2 , CaSiO a , 
Na 2 SiO :! , and K.,Si0 3 , sulphides of calcium, iron, 
and zinc, silica, and zinc spinel (Al 2 3 .ZnO). The 
components of the glowing ash bed are partly sintered, 
partly melted, and partly neither sintered nor melted. 
During the reduction process, and especially at the 
end of it, some of the silicates in the ashes become 
liquified and absorbed. With rise of temperature in- 
side the muffle after removal of the zinc, fluid products 
will always be formed more freely because of the 
power which silicates possess of dissolving free silica 
as well as bases (protoxides and sesquioxides) andalu- 
minates. A softened mass is thus formed adhering to 
the bottom of the muffle or retort, and this slag resi- 



due accumulates in time. In the case in question, it 
was carefully removed from the muffle after 135 days, 
and on analysis the slag was found to be composed as 
given in Table II. 

The oxygen in bases to oxygen in silica is as 1 : 3. It 
is thus a trisilicate slag consisting chiefly of silica, 
alumina, ferrous oxide, and lime, with also a little zinc 
oxide. 

The slags from the regular operation — charges of 
54'8 lb. ore and 25 4 lb. anthracite per muffle, in the 
large reduction furnace — were found to have quite a 
similar composition as shown in Table III. 

The oxygen in bases to oxygen in silica is as 1 : 2'8, 
the slag being thus similar to that last referred to. 
Both slags were typical (as regards appearance, be- 
haviour, etc.) of the regular operation slags at that 
period. The slag was mostly viscous at the tempera- 
ture in the muffle, and formed an incrustation lining 
the inside of the vessel, more especially at the bottom. 
The skin of slag adhering to the bottom, or more or 
less merged in it, protects the underlying bottom from 
the corroding influence of other slag of different com- 
position, checks diffusion, prevents or retards volatili- 
zation of metal, and so helps to increase the yield. 

Examination of damaged vessels removed from the 
zinc furnaces showed that the accumulating slag had 
seldom seriously attacked the body of the distillation 
vessel, and only here and there was evidence noted of 
absorption of the slag by the wall in the lower half of 
the muffle. Similar action probably takes place, in 
the early period of use, with the porous bottom. Fer- 
rous oxide, which is by far the most important of the 
fluxing materials in the ashes, forms with silica first 
favalite, Fe 2 Si0 4 ; this, on being absorbed by the 
muffle body, takes up from the latter more silica to 
form FeSiC).,, the melting point of which is 1,500°C, 
as compared with 1.155° to 1,075°C. for fayalite. 
Alumina is also dissolved, and such other bases as may 
be at hand, the product becoming more and more vis- 
cous until it finally solidifies. The material so formed 
is different in its properties from the original porous 
body, and is more liable to become cracked. It is also 
possible that ferrous sulphide (melting-point 1,194 C) 
present in the charge may penetrate the muffle body in 
places, to be converted later into Fe.,0 3 and then into 
FeO or FeSi0 3 . 

Good slags are nearly or quite neutral towards the 
muffle, and can remain in contact with it for a long 
time without injuring it. 

The formation of a glaze or glassy coating on the 
outside of muffles — from the action of dust and fumes — 
does not prevent the entrance of furnace gases, or the 
exit of reducing gases or zinc vapour, but it materially 
retards such movements, and therefore diminishes the 
formation of zinc dust while helping to increase the 



ZnO CdO CuO PbO 

% % % 

Soluble in acid ...518 traces 0'30 010 

Insoluble in aci d 076 — — — 

Total 5'94 traces 0'30 O'lO 



Table I. 
Fe 2 3 Al 2 O a 



CaO MfiO 



8'40 
0'96 



160 
3'36 



J4 
0'02 



008 
002 



Si0 2 
% 



19'36 



K 2 



NaaO 

% 



Fe 2 3 
% 
763 
3'49 



Si0 2 
Jo 

Soluble in acid 0'52 

Insoluble in acid 66'42 

Total 66'94 

SK > a 

o 

Soluble in acid 000 

Insoluble in acid fiS'12 

Total 65*12 16 b6 792 



Al 2 3 
% 

5'^1 

13'66 



A1«0 3 



2' 72 
1414 



936 496 

Table II. 
CaO 
°o 
1'94 
2'40 



30 2 88 58 82 



MgO 



019 
I'll 



K 2 



Na 2 
% 



CuO 



006 
10 



PbO 



ZnO 
% 
1'60 
1'82 



11*12 



Fe 2 3 
% 
492 
3 00 



434 r: 

Table III. 
CaO MgO 



048 



016 



K 2 N'a 2 



1'08 
5'94 



0.00 
0'65 



CdO 
% 
006 

004 



PbO 



ZnO 

% 
1 32 
T32 



342 



702 



010 



— 264 0'98 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



179 



yield. (Muhlhauser, Metall und Erz. 191S). The rate 
of action depends on the extent of the slagged surface 
of the muffle, on the thickness of the glassy layer, and 
on the degree of viscosity of the latter. 

The rate of formation of the glaze depends much on 
the position of the muffle in the furnace and on the 
nature of the dust, and may be assisted by the white 
fumes of burning zinc. In the front of the furnace 
(where the producer gas enters) the muffles are more 
quickly covered than further behind. Dust is mostly 
deposited continuously on the rough surfaces of new 
muffles, and of those already covered with a viscous 
layer. Increase of the glaze is to some extent regu- 
lated by a trickling down when it softens by overheat- 
ing, and the excess may thus drip in succession from 
one vessel to another below it, and finally fall on the 
sand-covered bottom of the furnace. 

The glaze after cooling is mostly black owing to the 
soot present, but sometimes it has a greenish or brown- 
ish tinge according to the character of the furnace at- 
mosphere at the time the muffle was removed. But 
wholly brown muffles were seldom seen at La Salle. 

The following analyses show the composition of a 
dust such as formed a glaze on the body of a muffle, 
(1) before and (2) after its entrance into the zinc fur- 
nace, (3) the composition of the muffle body and (4) 
the composition of the glaze itself (with 8'85% FeO 
instead of Fe.iOj.) : 



SiO a Al 2 3 Fe 2 3 
% % % 

1. 1199 301 516 

2. 1310 4'66 7'44 
44'68 32'52 3'60 



CaO MgO K 2 Na 2 OZnOPbO CandS 

o/ o/ o/ o/ o/ o/ o/ 

to to to /o /o to to 

0'46 0'06 0'34 0'44 — — rest 

0'24 002 0'48 0'52 30'04 078 rest 

O'lO 00 011 0'20 1910 — 1'29S 



4. 50'26 31'84 8'85 (FeO) 1'40 0'36 109 1'68 3'20 0'28 1'04C 

The oxygen ratio of acid to base was 2 : 1, so that 
it was a bisilicate. The formula was : 0'519 FeO, 
0106 CaO, 0039 MgO, 0049 K.,0, 0114 Na 2 0, 0006 
PbO, 0-167 ZnO, 3 544 Si0. 2 , l r 321 Al 2 O s , 0366C. 

Another glaze gave on analysis : 54'98 Si0 2 , 32'78 
AI0O3, 5'47 FeO, 1'96 CaO, 64 MgO, 051 K 2 0, P81 
Na.,6, 0'04 PbO, 022 ZnO, F59 C, corresponding to 
the formula: 0461 FeO, 0213 CaO, 0098 MgO, 
0'034 K 2 0, 0177 Na 2 0, 0001 PbO, 0016 ZnO,5'570 
Si0 2 , 1 954 Al 2 O 3 ,0'805C. The oxygen ratio between 
acid and base was 1'602 : 1, indicating a sesquisilicate. 

The analysis of a glaze which had formed gradually 
about the centre of the middle wall of a large zinc fur- 
nace may be of interest : 

Si0 2 Al 2 3 Fe 2 3 CaO MgO K 2 Na 2 ZnO 

% % % % % % % % 
St. Louis clay 

(calcined) 5608 3926 3'09 078 051 007 0'19 — 
Grog (7 years in the 

fire) 55'96 39"49 2'02 0'97 39 0'06 0'05 107 

Glaze (on bricks)... 54'31 36'50 2'22 079 0'35 2'92 176 0'99 

The 2 22% of Fe 2 3 in the glaze represents 2 00% 
of FeO. The oxygen ratio between base and acid was 
1 : 1'516, indicating a sesquisilicate. The formula of 
the glaze was: 0183 FeO, 122 CaO, 0078 MgO. 
0269 K 2 0, 0244 Na 2 0, 0104 ZnO, 7 869 Si0 2 , 3 - 078 
Al 2 :t . This glaze was fusible with difficulty, and did 
not penetrate further into the body, but just like the 
muffle glazes it was liable to become mobile and flow 
away when the temperature of the furnace was acci- 
dentally raised. 

In choosing the heating arrangements for a zinc fur- 
nace, due regard should be paid to the advantageous 
influence on the yield of zinc, of the glaze coating on 
the outside of the distillation vessels. When firing 
with coal is adopted, and a coal rich in iron is available, 
a suitable producer should be placed in convenient 
proximity to the zinc furnace, so that the vessels may 



be exposed to sufficient dusting with the ash. From 
this point of view, natural gas and Mond gas — in spite 
of advantages due to homogeneous composition of the 
gas and the possibility of uniform heating — are by no 
means ideal combustibles, because they carry no dust 
with them. When such gases are employed for firing 
zinc furnaces it is desirable to remedy the deficiency 
by special glazing of the muffles, which, though not 
an easy problem, should not be impossible of solution. 

The colour of the glaze of a zinc muffle is in the back 
part of a zinc furnace (where the gases have already 
become mixed uniformly) black, grey, green, or brown. 
In other places different parts of the surface may have 
the different colours, as grey, green, brown. 

The glaze covering the blue body is green, like every 
muffle influenced by a reducing flame. When much 
soot is present in the flame the glaze is black ; when 
zinc vapour, escaping through a crack or hole in a 
neighbouring muffle, burns to zinc oxide, a green or 
milk-white glaze is formed ; when the green surface of 
the muffle was exposed to a transient oxidizing flame 
the glaze became brownish, or wholly brown with 
longer action of such a flame. Very rarely the glaze 
is nearly colourless and transparent, and appears blue 
because of the blue body which itcovers. (Muhlhauser, 
Z. ang. Chem. 1919). 

The tempering (preheating or annealing) of zinc 
muffles before introducing them into the zinc furnace 
needs careful attention. The body is least sensitive to 
sudden cooling or beating when the constitutional 
water of the clay has been expelled, but without melt- 
ing any of the fluxing material present in the body of 
the muffle. This is because the components of the 
body are still in practically the same unconstrained 
state as they were in just after the drying contraction, 
and the binding material (of the St. Louis clay in this 
case) has not yet begun to shrink. With overheating, 
sintering would set in, and the whole or parts of the 
vessel would begin to shrink, and the resulting strains 
would be liable to cause cracking and dislocation when 
temperature changes occurred. It is therefore impor- 
tant to avoid both total and local overheating as far as 
possible, in order to escape serious risks. (Muhlhauser, 
Metall und Erz, 1918). 

The tempering furnace is set while still very hot 
(over 100°C), and after being closed up the contained 
muffles (or retorts) are left to themselves about 15 hours. 
Then a small fire is kindled, and the heat is increased 
very gradually so that in 24 hours or so the tempera- 
ture reaches about S00 c C, at which it should then be 
maintained until the muffles are taken out. The actual 
time of tempering is about 24 hours, the muffles being 
altogether about 40 hours in the furnace. 

The gases about the muffles also diffuse into the 
bodies of the muffles, and reduction or oxidation actions 
take place according as combustible gases (CO, H, 
ammonia, hydrocarbons) or oxvgen are in excess 
Sulphur, H. 2 S, and S0 2 may in some circumstances 
exercise a sulphating action. Ferrous oxide in the 
muffle body takes up oxygen to form higher oxidation 
products, and these are in turn converted by the re- 
ducing gases into ferrous oxide or may even be reduced 
to metallic iron temporarily. The prevailing atmos- 
phere during tempering is reducing, but oxidizing con- 
ditions sometimes arise. 

The loss of constitutional water from clay takes place 
mostly between 375* and 666 C, and finishes at about 
800° (Muhlhauser, Metall 11 ml Erz, 1918). 

Pyrite loses gradually more and more sulphur as the 
temperature rises, from 200°C. onwards, the maximum 
being reached at 700 C. ; ferrous sulphide (FeS) or 
magnetic pyrites (Fe T S s ) is formed, or mixtures of FeS 



1, 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



with FeS 2 and Fe. The decomposition products re- 
main solid, since their melting point is never reached 
in the tempering furnace ; the decomposition will take 
place thereat a somewhat higher temperature, the bulk 
of the pyrite crystals being in the muffle body. Be- 
sides FeS and Fe, the decomposition products of pyrite 
may contain FeO and Fe 2 Gv Above 290° and up to 
500°C. oxidation of pyrites slowly produces Fe 2 ;s 
and S0 2 only. Beyond 500'C the oxidation of the 
FeS 2 may be preceded by a cracking. Sulphur is first 
distilled off as such, and combines with oxygen to form 
S0 2 - Then the FeS is completely burned or roasted. 
But this will not be normal in the tempering furnace. 

The decomposition of substances like spathic iron, 
limonite, gypsum, etc., takes place at comparatively 
low temperatures. Quartz in the muffle body is sub- 
ject to sudden increase of volume at 570 C C, and the 
strains produced give rise to cracks, and can sometimes 
cause complete destruction. But generally the amount 
of quartz is small, and its effects are scarcely noticeable. 
As a result of the reaction very small spaces are pro- 
duced between the grains. 

The tempered muffle is a moderately hard stone 
body, consisting of alumina and silica with small quan- 
tities of other substances which later partly act as flux- 
ing materials, and then increase the strength of the 
body. It is remarkably porous, and for the most part 
very small cracks, fissures, cavities, etc., form a con- 



necting system of spaces spreading through the muffle 
body from inside to outside. This system of spaces is 
highly permeable, either hot or cold, for gases, and to- 
wa'rds thinly fluid fluxes the body behaves like a capil- 
lars- tube system. 

The body is homogeneous, fairly dense, and reason- 
ably strong, and endures the temperature prevailing in 
the zinc furnace (maximum 1,300 C), and occasionally 
pointed flames (1,600 C), as well as abrupt tempera- 
ture changes, and it is also a fairly good conductor for 
heat. 

The gradual vitrification of parts of the muffle walls 
(especially bottoms) decreased refractoriness and re- 
sistance tosudden changesof temperature, but increased 
the strength, elasticity, and extensibility, so that the 
average life of the muffle was 63 days. (Miihlhauser, 
Metall und Krz, 1918). 

In the brief reference in the previous paper to the 
possible advantage from coating the distillation vessels 
with zirconia, it should have been pointed out that the 
very small contraction of zirconia causes practical diffi- 
culties in connection with such applications. These 
would in all probability be overcome if it were practic- 
able to apply a number of coatings in succession, each 
with a larger proportion of zirconia than its immediate 
predecessor, and finishing with zirconia alone. The 
best grades of natural zirconia should be good enough 
for such purpose, without any chemical treatment. 



GLASS SANDS IN 

In the South African Journal of Industries for 
May and June, Dr. Percy A. Wagner writes on glass 
manufacture, dealing particularly with the present con- 
dition of the industry in South Africa and its prospects. 
We extract herewith parts referring to the local occur- 
rence of glass sands. We have omitted those parts 
relating to sandstones and old sand- tailing dumps, and 
to the resources of alkali, lime, fluor-spar, manganese 
dioxide, fire-clay, and refractories. 

No systematic work has hitherto been undertaken on 
South African sands suitable for glass-making, and the 
writer's investigations have been confined to such oc- 
currences as are likely to be drawn upon in the near 
future. Enough, however, is by this time known to 
warrant the assertion that there is in the Union vast 
resources of sands suitable for the manufacture of all 
but the very finest grades of glassware, the production 
of which is not likely to be undertaken locally for many 
a year to come. 

The deposit near Pienaarspoort, in the Magalies- 
berg, Transvaal, from which the Hatherley glass fac- 
tory derives its supplies, will first be dealt with, as this 
is the only South African sand that has so far been suc- 
cessfully employed on a large scale for making glass. 
It is situated about 400 yards to the north-east of 
Pienaarspoort Siding, on the Pretoria Delagoa Bay 
railway, by which it is traversed. The deposit appears 
to be of considerableextent, and bore-holes haveproved 
the sand to be 90 ft. in thickness. Sections exposed in 
the main pit show from 1 ft. to 2 ft. of dark-grey sandy 
loam overlying the bed of glass sand, the maximum ex- 
posed thickness of which is 2 ft. 6 in. In some parts of 
the pit a layer of impure, brownish-grey sand inter- 
venes between the sandy loam and the glass-sand. The 
latter is of pale yellowish white colour, except when 
traversed by plant rootlets, around which a concentra- 
tion of reddish-brown ferruginous matter has taken 
place. It appears to be very uniform in character, 
though the composition probably variessomewbat from 
point to point. The following analyses may be taken 
to represent the best material : — 



SOUTH AFRICA. 

Unwashed Washed 

Sand. Sand. 

SiOa 9898 99 46 

AlaOa 057 — 

Fe 2 Os 10 0'08 

CaO None — 

I Trace — 

Loss on Ignition 31 0'20 

The results prove the sand to be fairly pure, the iron 
content being well within the limits prescribed for even 
the better grades of white glass. 

Under the microscope, the sand is seen to be com- 
posed almost entirely of grains of quartz with very oc- 
casional turbid grains of felspar. Most of the grains 
are coated wholly or in part with thin films of ferrugin- 
ous, clayey matter, which can be partly removed by 
washing the sand with water, and completely removed 
by treating it with hot hydrochloric acid. As regards 
the shape of the grains, there appears to be a close re- 
lationship between degree of rounding and diameter, 
the very fine particles being almost without exception 
angular, those of medium grain sub angular, and the 
coarse particles fairly well rounded. Treatment of a 
representative sample of the sand with a solution of 
methylene iodide (sp. gr. 3'3) shows that it only con- 
tains 006S", of heavy minerals, that is, minerals of sp. 
gr. greater than 3 3. This is below the average for 
ordinary glass sands. Magnetic particles constitute 
28% of the concentrate. The remainder was found to 
be made up of a very interesting assemblage of miner- 
als, including zircon, rutile, ilmenite, anatase, cyanite, 
and limonite. The ilmenite shows alteration to leucox- 
ene. Zircon occurs in well formed prismatic crystals 
with pyramidal end terminations ; also in rounded 
grains. With the exception of rutile, none of the other 
minerals exhibit idiomorphic outlines. 

The mechanical analysis of this and the other 
samples of sand examined was carried out with a set of 
standard laboratory screens, kindly placed at the wri- 
ter's disposal by Professor G. H. Stanley. In these 
screens the apertures, unfortunately, are in English 
units — 5, 12, 20, etc., meshes to the inch — and a com- 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



181 



parison with the metric scale adopted by Boswell can- 
not, therefore, be made, except in the case of the 12, 
50, and 120 screens, which have apertures of approxi- 
mately 1, 0'25, and 01 millimetres. There is no screen 
in the set with an aperture corresponding even approxi- 
mately with 0'5 mm. The mechanical composition of 
the sand was found to be as follows : 

Aperture in 

Mesh Millimetres % 

+ 5 + 2'54 O'Ol 

— 5 + 12 — 2'54 + 1056 0'02 

— 12 + 20 —1056 + 0'635 T60 

— 20 + 30 — 0'635 + 0'424 8'37 

— 30 + 50 — 0'424 + 0'254 4171 

— 50 + 60 —0'254 + 211 13'29 

— 60 + 80 — 0'2I1 + 0'157 9'00 

— 80 +120 — 0'157 + 0'107 16'91 

—120 — 0'107 1200 

It will be seen that sand grade, that is, particles falling 
within the limits 1056 mm. and 0107mm., are87'97% 
of the whole. (The limits adopted by Boswell are — 2 
and +01 mm.). The results of the analysis show that 
the sand is rather poorly graded, being much inferior 
in this respect to most European and American glass 
sands, and also inferior to the Zandfontein sand, to be 
presently referred to. The most striking featurein com- 
parison with the Zandfontein sand is the large propor- 
tion of superfine sand which it contains. The Pienaars- 
poort sand could be greatly improved by coarse screen- 
ing through a 20 mesh screen to remove particles less 
than 635 mm. diameter, followed by fine-screening 
through a 60 mesh screen to remove particles less than 
0'211 mm. diameter. The screened and washed prod- 
uct would be well suited by virtue of its chemical and 
mineralogical composition to the manufacture of the 
better grades of white glassware. The suitability of the 
sand in its natural condition for bottle-making has been 
amply demonstrated. The deposit is accessible and 
conditions are favourable to cheap working. The un- 
screened sand could be delivered on rail at Pienaars- 
poort Station at 3s. per ton, and the screened product 
at about 6s. 6d. per ton. 

Thereare extensivedeposits of sand suitable forglass- 
making in the Moot Valley, the wide, flat-bottomed de- 
pression between the Magaliesberg and Daspoort 
ranges, north of Pretoria. They extend along the south 
side of the valley from the neighbourhood of Silverton 
as far west, at least, as the western boundary of the 
farm Zandfontein No. 93, and probably mark the posi- 
tion of outliers of Karroo sandstone. The most im- 
portant deposits are on the farm Zandfontein, which is 
traversed from east to west by a sand belt some hun- 
dreds of yards in width, and at least two miles long. 
The sand is dug in shallow pits, being used for build- 
ing purposes, and by the Pretoria Iron Mines, Limited, 
for making the pig-beds in which their iron is cast. 
There are several groups of sand-pits. The most east- 
erly of these is situated 2\ miles to the west of the Das- 
poort Cement Factory, and about 500 yards north of 
the Daspoort range. Sections exposed in this and ad- 
jacent pits show a variable thickness of overburden, 
in the form of dark-grey sandy loam, which merges 
downward into greyish- white sand mottled and streaked 
with iron oxide or into yellow sand overlying a persis- 
tent layer of pale, greyish- white sand. The following 
sections may be taken as fairly representative : 

1. 2. ' 3. 

Dark-grey sandy loam 3 ft. in. 2 ft. 6 in. 3 ft. in. 

Greyish-white sand mottled 

and streaked with iron 

oxide 1ft. Oin. — 1ft. Oin. 

Yellow sand — 3 ft. 6 in. — 

Pale, greyish-white sand 2 ft. 6 in. 2 ft. 6 in. 4 ft. Oin. 

(1) Section exposed in most easterly pit. 

(2) Section exposed in pit about 300 yards to the west. 

(3) Section exposed in most westerly of eastern group of pits. 



The upper limit of the white sand was found in 
several instances to coincide approximately with the 
surface of the underground water-table. Its light 
colour and purity may thus be due to the leaching effect 
of the underground water percolating slowly toward 
the centre of the Moot Valley. In the deepest of the 
pits the white sand is seen to merge downward into a 
friable, even-grained white sandstone, and similarsand- 
stone is said to have been struck in some of the other 
pits. The white sand appears to vary somewhat in 
quality. The purest material is that exposed in the 
most westerly of the eastern group of pits (section 3), 
where the layer is 4 ft. in thickness. A partial chemi- 
cal analysis of a representative sample of pale, greyish- 
white sand from this pit, carried out by Dr. B. de C. 
Marchand, showed: Si0 2 9937%, Fe. 2 : , 31%. 

The microscopic examination of the sand proves it 
to be composed almost exclusively of grains of quartz. 
Many of these are completely coated with films of fer- 
ruginous, clayey matter, and few are quite free from 
iron stains. Sub angular grains make up the bulk of 
the sand, but many of the larger grains are exceedingly 
well rounded. ft It is remarkably free from heavy 
minerals, only containingO'081 % of particles of specific 
gravity greater than 3'3. Magnetic particles make up 
45% of the concentrate, and small, well-formed zircon 
crystals about 5% of the non-magnetic portion. The 
latter also contains small grains and crystals of rutile 
and irregular grains of ilmenite, leucoxene, and limo- 
nite. 

A grading analysis of the sand gave the following re- 
sult : 





Aperture in 




Mesh 


Millimetres 


% 


+ 5 


+ 2'54 


O'OO 


5 + 12 


— 2'54 + ro56 


004 


12 + 20 


— 1 056 + 0'635 


0755 


20 + 30 


— 0'635 + 0'424 


1+11 


30 + 50 


— 0'424 + 0'254 


57'50 


50 + 60 


— 254 + 0'2U 


10 8 


50 +120 


— 0'254 + 0'107 


5'2 


—120 


— 0107 


4'50 



Sand grade, that is, particles falling within the limits 
1056 and 0107 mm. diameter = 951%. The result 
shows the sand to be much better graded than the 
Pienaarspoort sand, 71 '61 % falling within the limits 
0'635 and 0254 mm., and 8241% within the limits 
0'635 and 0'211 mm. It is in this respect, however, 
still much inferior to the best European and American 
glass sands, and could be greatly improved by screen- 
ing. The chemical, mineralogical, and mechanical 
composition of the sand proves it to be admirably 
adapted to the manufacture of white bottles and better- 
grade white glassware. With washing and screening, 
it would, in all likelihood, be good enough for plate 
glass. The sand exposed in the other pits, though not 
quite as pure, is probably equally well suited to the 
production of ordinary glassware. 

The available reserves of sand on the farm Zandfon- 
tein must be enormous, and conditions are favourable 
to cheap exploitation. The sand is at present sold for 
building purposes at from Is. 6d. to 2s. per wagon load 
of three tons. It could easily be delivered on rail at 
Hercules Station at 2s. 6d. per ton. 

About a mile to the west of the Silverton Hotel, sand 
for building purposes has for many years been dug in 
shallow pits. The sand occurs in exactly the same 
position relative to the Daspoort range as that at Zand- 
fontein, in a layer from 2 to 4 ft. in thickness, beneath 
a thickness of from 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. of dark-grey sandy 
loam. It is of grey or yellow colour, with streaks and 
patches of brownish-red ferruginous matter, and while 
not nearly so pure or well-graded as the Zandfontein 



182 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



sand, is quite good enough for the manufacture of or- 
dinary bottle glass. 

At Kilnerton, about five miles to the east of Pretoria, 
and again in the same position relative to the faulted 
continuation of the Daspoort range as the Zandfontein 
sand, there is a fairly extensive deposit of pale-greyish 
sand, streaked with iron oxide. The sand layer, which 
has a maximum exposed thickness of about 3ft., is over- 
lain by 1 to 2 ft. of grey sandy loam. It is used for 
building purposes. 

There are extensive deposits of greyish-white sand to 
the north and north-west of Wonderboom Poort, near 
Pretoria, that appear to be well suited for glass-mak- 
ing. A sample of washed sand from this locality was 
analysed in the laboratory of the Geological Survey, 
with the following result : Si0. 2 99'5%. Fe 2 O a 009%, 
Loss on ignition 005%, total 99 64 

There is a fairly extensive deposit of sand, suitable 
for bottle glass, on the farm Olifantsfontein, near Oli- 
fantsfontein Station, on the Pretoria-Johannesburg 
railway. A company, called the Elephant Glass Works 
Co., Ltd., was formed some years ago to erect a glass 
factory at this locality, but the prqject did not ma- 
terialize. 

There are great accumulations of fairly pure sand on 
the Orange Free State side of the Vaal River at 
Vereeniging. The best material, forming a layer 1 ft. 
6 in. in thickness, analyses : SiOo 980%, Fe._,0 :1 
Sand of somewhat inferior quality, occurring in a layer 
with a maximum exposed thickness of 4 ft., analysed : 
SiO a 95 5%, Fe ? 8 155%. 

There are similar deposits of sand lower down the 
Vaal Fiver at Viljoen's Drift and other localities. 

Sand suitable for bottle-making occurs in consider- 
able quantity in the neighbourhood of Bronkhorst- 
spruit, on the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway It is 
rather variable in quality, as is clearly indicated by the 
following analyses of samples taken from four different 
localities : 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

<y o/ q 

SiO* 944 962 930 92'8 

Fe 2 3 16 0'8 OS 1'3 

At the Tweefontein Colliery, near Witbank, a belt of 
sand, 80 yards wide, has been proved over a distance 
of about a mile. Sections exposed in a sandpit ad- 
joining the colliery show : 

Sandy soil with grass roots 1 ft. to 1 ft. 3 in. 

Yellow sand mixed with oxide of iron Z ft. 

Fine white sand 1ft. Jin. 

Clayey sand with oxide of iron 2 ft. 7 in. 

The white sand was examined with a view to determin- 
ing its suitability for glass-making. It is of almost 
pure white colour, being superior in this respect to any 
other South African sand that has come under the 
writer's observation. On strong ignition it reddens 
slightly. Under the microscope the sand, which is very 
fine-grained, is seen to be composed for the most part 
ofsub angulargrainsof quartz, though manyof thefiner 
particles are quite angular. Most of the grains have 
a thin coating of ferruginous clayey matter. Heavy 
minerals of specific gravity greater than 3'3 make up 
016% of the whole. Among them minute crystals of 
zircon and grains of magnetite are fairly common. A 
partial chemical analvsis of the sand by Dr. J. Mc- 
Crae showed: Si0 2 99 26%, Fe 2 0„ 023%, A1,0 ;! 
0'28%, CaO and MgO traces, loss on ignition 23%. 
It is thus of great purity. With washing it would prob- 
ably yield a product containing well below 01 ° c of iron 
oxide. 

The mechanical analysis of the sand gave the follow- 
ing result : 





Aperture in 




Mesh 


Millimetres 


% 


+ 5 


+ 2'54 


TOO 


— 5 + 12 


— 2'54 + 1 056 


0'50 


—12+16 


— 1 056 + 795 


170 


—16+20 


— 0795 + 0'635 


230 


—20+30 


— 0'635 + 0'424 


900 


—30+50 


— 0'424 + 0'254 


23 '50 


—50+80 


— 0254 + 0157 


29'50 


— 80 + 120 


— 0157 + 107 


13 00 


—120 +200 


— 107 + 0063 


7 00 


—200 


+ 063 


1200 



* The particles belonging to this grade were mostly of the 
nature of small concessions. 

Sand grade, that is, particles falling within the limits 
1056 and 0107 mm. = 79 50% . The results prove the 
sand to be much finer grained even than the Pienaars- 
poort sand. The comparatively high proportion of 
superfine material would militate against its use in an 
unscreened condition. If it were coarse-screened 
through a 30 mesh screen to remove particles greater 
than 424 mm. diameter, and fine-screened through 
an 80 mesh screen to remove particles less than 157 
mm. diameter, the resulting product would be emi- 
nently suited to the manufacture of the better grades 
of white glassware. It would take approximately two 
tons of unscreened sand to produce one ton of screened, 
but as conditions are favourable to cheap working the 
screened product could probably be delivered on rail 
at 6s. per ton. 

The Union Glass Company proposes, in their new- 
bottle factory to be erected near Dundee, Natal, to use 
river sand occurring in the form of low terraces and 
banks in the bed of the Sandspruit, a tributary of the 
Buffalo River, about J mile south east of the Malon- 
jeni Station, on the Vryheid railway. The company 
has secured rights over a stretch of about two miles 
of the river-bed, which is from 100 to 200 ft. in width. 
The available reserve of sand within this stretch is 
practically inexhaustible, as it is replenished each 
rainy season. The sand is of brownish-yellow colour. 
It contains pebbles of sandstone, shale, and dolerite, 
and small concretions of calcareous and ferruginous 
matter. Another feature is the presence of numerous 
small fragments of coal derived from the colliery 
dumps within the basin of the stream. Apartial chemi- 
cal analysis of a representative sample of the sand, 
from which all coarse matter had been removed by 
putting it through a sieve with round holes of 2 mm. 
diameter, gave the following result: Si0 2 93"' 1 
Fe 2 :i 142",., Al a O s (including small amount'' of 
Ti0 2 and P 3 6 ) 2 20",. Under the microscope the 
sand is seen to be made up mainlyof sub-angular grains 
of quartz, most of which are coated or stained with 
iron oxide. As might be expected of a river sand, it 
is comparatively rich in heavy minerals, among which 
grains of pink garnet predominate. Actually, the 
heavy crop, composed of particles of specific gravity 
greater than 3 3, amounts to 0'23%. Magnetic par- 
ticles make up 17% of the concentrate, and grains of 
garnet about 25%. Other minerals identified include 
zircon, blood-red rutile, cyanite, staurolite, and ilmen- 
ite. The mechanical analysis of the sand was as fol- 
lows : 

Aperture in 
Mesh Millimetres % 

+ 5 + 254 1 

— 5 ■ — 2'5I + 1056 20 

— 12+16 — 1056 - 0'792 TO 

— 16 + 20 —0792 + 635 211 

— 20+50 - 635 + 254 69 4 

— 50 + 120 —0'254 + 0107 50 

— 120 — 0107 0'8 

Sand grade, that is, grains between the limits 1 056 
and 107 mm diameter = 97T%. The analysis 
proves that, while the sand is much coarser than that 
from the neighbourhood of Pretoria, it is, from the 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



183 



point of view of the glassmaker, better graded than 
either the Pienaarspoort or the Zandfontein sand. If 
it were put through a standard 20 mesh screen, and 
the portion remaining on the screen rejected, there 
would be obtained a product composed to the extent 
of 992% of particles ranging from 0'635 toO'107 mm. 
diameter, and eminently adapted, both as regards 
chemical and mineralogical composition, to the pur- 
pose for which it is intended, namely, the manufacture 
of dark bottle glass. Burning to remove particles of 
coal and organic matter would still further improve it. 
The Union Glass Company is at present employing 
coarse yellow sand found on the slopes of Talana Hill, 
Natal, which adjoins the factory site. The sand is 
derived from a thick bed of sandstone cropping out on 
the side of the hill. A partial chemical analysis of 
the sand showed: Si0. 2 955%, Fe 2 3 1"2%. The 
sand contains a good deal of fine coal and small con- 
cretions of iron oxide. To eliminate the coal it is 
burned in a small, gas-fired roasting furnace. Under 
the microscope it is found to be composed principally 
of sub-angular and angular grains of quartz, almost 
without exception coated with films of ferruginous 
matter. It contains 0' 18% of particles of specific grav- 
ity greater than 3'3. Magnetic particles make up 19% 
of the concentrate. The non-magnetic portion is fairly 
rich in crystals and grains of rutile. Other minerals 
present include zircon, garnet, ilmenite, and cyanite. 
The mechanical analysis of the sand was as follows : 





Aperture in 




Mesh 


Millimetres 


% 


+ 5 


+ 2'54 


21 


5+12 


— 2'54 + 1'056 


80 


12 + 16 


— T056 + 0792 


90 


16 + 20 


— 0792 + 0635 


iro 


20 + 50 


— 635 + 0'254 


460 


50 + 120 


— 0'254 + 0U07 


20 


— 120 


— 0'107 


3'5 



Sand grade, that is, particles falling within the limits 
1056 and 0107 mm. diameter = 86'4%. The results 
prove that the sand is]coarser than the Malonjeni sand, 
and not nearly so well graded. Like the Malonjeni 
sand, it could be greatly improved, as regards grade, 
by putting it through a screen with 20 holes to the lin- 
ear inch. 

As regards other occurrences in Natal, pure white 
sand is said to be available at Sweetwaters, near 
Maritzburg, and at Gezubuso. Sand suitable for 
bottle glass occurs at Jacobs, just outside Durban. 

Quartz sand, well adapted to the manufacture of 
glass, occurs in the south-western districts of the Cape 
Province in the beds of many of the rivers rising in the 
long southern and south-western mountain ranges. 

White sand of greater or less purity occurs in vast 
quantity at many localities along the coast of the Cape 
Province and Natal. It has been proved at Durban 
and Glencairn to be well adapted to glass-making, but 
in most instances its remoteness from coal renders it 
valueless for this purpose. 



GOLD DEPOSITS AT MATACHEWAN, ONTARIO. 



In our issue of August last year we quoted a report 
by A. G. Burrows, of the Ontario Geological Survey, 
on the gold discoveries near Fort Matachewan, on the 
Montreal River, where the results at the Otisse and 
Davidson claims have attracted considerable attention. 
Since then, H. C. Cooke, of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, has made a geological examination, and his 
report is printed in Economic Geology for June. We 
reproduce a large part of the report here, because the 
district promises to be an important producer. 

The gold of Matachewan district was originally part 
of a granite or quartz syenite porphyry magma. As 
the magma crystallized the gold became concentrated 
in the still liquid volatile residue, and was finally de- 
posited from it along with pyrite. Consequently the 
gold is found in satellitic intrusive bodies which range 
from dykes of granite porphyry through pegmatites of 
varying degrees of silicification to veins of pure quartz. 
It is also found in the country rock adjacent to the 
dykes and veins, which has been calcitized and pyri- 
tized for considerable distances from their walls. 

The geology of the district is similar to that of Tim- 
iskaming district in general. At the base of the geo- 
logic column lies the series of rhyolites, andesites, and 
basalts, with tuffsof correspondingcompositions, which 
have commonly been referred to in the literature as 
Keewatin. The rocks are in most cases greatly altered, 
and the original constituents more or less completely 
converted into secondary minerals such as chlorite, 
hornblende, kaolin, sericite, and epidote ; in places also 
the rocks have been converted into schists. These 
lavas are not overlain by sediments as in some places 
in Northern Ontario. After the deposition of the sedi- 
ments an intense regional folding compressed sediments 
and lavas into close folds, and converted great portions 
of them into schists. Following the folding came the 
intrusion of great batholiths oi granite and syenite. 
The syenite porphyry of Matachewan district is one of 
these intrusions ; its magmatic relationships to large 
bodies of quartz syenite lying to the south and west are 



shown by close similarities in chemical and mineralogi- 
cal composition. Both the syenite and the porphyry 
are cut by large dykes of a rather fresh-looking gabbro 
characterized in places by a great development of large 
plagioclases, which have attained diameters of several 
inches. After the granitic and other intrusions, a long 
period of erosion occurred, and the region was reduced 
to a peneplain of about the same contour as at present, 
on the surface of which the Cobalt series was laid down. 
This series, which is largely of sub-aerial origin, is the 
probable equivalent of the Middle Huronian of the 
south shore of Lake Superior. Later, probably in 
Keweenawan time, great intrusions of the Nipissing 
diabase took place, forming sills in the Huronian and 
dykes in the underlying rocks. These intrusions were 
the source of the silver ores of Cobalt and Gowganda, 
and the copper-nickel ores of the Sudbury district. 
Gentle folding movements followed the intrusion of 
the Nipissing diabase, throwing the beds into open folds 
with dips rarely exceeding 25°. The shearing and 
metamorphism characteristic of the olderrocks is rarely 
found in the Cobalt series and the later diabase, which 
are commonly as fresh as if formed during the Tertiary. 

The township of Powell is roughly divisible into two 
parts, the southern underlain by the Cobalt series, and 
the northern by the older volcanics. The gold de- 
posits lie near the contact of the two series, between 
the east and west branches of the Montreal river. 
Their situation with respect to this contact is purely 
fortuitous and without significance as regards their 
origin. The contact is in a shallow valley occupied in 
part by a small stream called Davidson creek. The 
valley was the temporary channel, after the recession 
of the glaciers, of a much larger, rapid stream, the west 
branch of the Montreal river, which has left its traces 
in the form of large pot holes at two or three places. 

The old volcanics are cut by a series of intrusions of 
granite porphyry of varying size, and these are ar- 
ranged along a fairly definite line striking N. 77° E. 
This direction is approximately parallel to the axes of 



184 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



the folding of the older rocks, and probably represents 
some zone of weakness developed during folding. It 
seems also probable that the exposed portions of the 
porphyry may be only projecting knobs of a much 
larger body beneath. The porphyries and older rocks 
are cut by many large dykes of the basalt of the pre- 
XDobalt age, some of which are indicated. The David- 
son discoveries were made on the westernmost body of 
porphyry, the Otisse discoveries in the schist adjacent 
to the largest body of intrusive. 

On the Davidson claims, Nos. 5371, 5372, 5374, 5375, 
and 5383, the ancient volcanics are greatly contorted 
and schistified, but have not been mineralized. Be- 
tween the porphyry mass on claim 5372 and that on 
claim 5379 the schists are cut by many small dykes of 
porphyry, too small to show on the map, which indi- 



are said to have yielded values varying from §5 to $25 
per ton. The gold appears to be chiefly present as the 
native metal, although it is difficult to tell whether this 
was its original form, as development has not gone be- 
low the oxidized zone. However, the lack of limonite 
around many of the grains of gold would indicate th*t 
it is not residual from the oxidation of pyrite. Whether 
the pyrite also is auriferous has not as yet been estab- 
lished. The gold is found principally in the narrow 
veins of quartz that intersect the porphyry, but grains 
of gold have occasionally been found within the por- 
phyry itself, although never more than a few inches 
from a veinlet. It is evident therefore that the gold 
was introduced by the solutions which also deposited 
the quartz 

On the Colorado-Ontario, or Otisse, claims the por- 




ic^ • >■•<••■ 



Tin: Matachewan Gold Area. 



cate the unity of the two larger masses. On the Col- 
orado-Ontario or Otisse, claims, Nos. 5379, 5380, and 
5402, the volcanics, though closely folded, are not 
greatly contorted and but locally schistified. In the 
neighbourhood of the mass of intrusive porphyry they 
are cut by dykes of porphyry and pegmatite and en- 
riched by solutions depositing auriferous pyrite. The 
porphyry mass on these claims is the largest yet dis- 
covered in the district, being somewhat over one-half 
mile in length and 500 to 600 ft. in width, On its north 
side, trenching has exposed on claim 5380 an ancient 
schistose conglomerate. Claim No. 5402 is as yet un- 
developed, and as it is heavily drift-covered. 

On the Davidson claims the ore-body is a portion of 
the porphyry itself. The porphyry is cut by a multi- 
tude of veinlets of auriferous quartz mostly less than 
one quarter inch in thickness, and spaced at intervals 
of approximately a foot. The porphyry has thus the 
character of a stockwork, although the veins in the 
main are not reticulating, but possess a sub-parallel 
arrangement evidently the result of jointing according 
to a definite system. Such jointing and enrichment 
has taken place mainly in the coarser-grained, more 
slowly crystallized phases, located, in general, toward 
the centre of the intrusive. Where the grain is finer, 
jointing and enrichment have not occurred. Channel 
samples taken along the bottoms of trenches in the en- 
riched areas by the engineers examining the property 



phyry has not been enriched as on the Davidson claims, 
so far as known at present, but a heavy cover of soil 
and swamp on it has hindered prospecting. Those 
portions which have been uncovered are jointed and 
veined only to a slight extent. The ore-bodies of this 
property are found in the schists surrounding the in- 
trusive. Little is known as yet about the nature of the 
ore-bodies beyond what can be seen on the surface. 

The schist ore-bodies are lenticular. While this has 
been proved in only two cases by the removal of the 
drift from the whole outcrop of the ore-body, the 
fact that ore-bodies crossed by a trench can rarely 
be picked up in a parallel trench 50 or 100 ft. distant, 
indicates a similar shape for these also. Drilling 
is at present being conducted with the object of test- 
ing the hypothesis that the lenticular outcrops are 
but the surface expression of ore-shoots which may 
have a considerable downward extension. The size of 
the ore-bodies varies greatly ; small bodies a few inches 
or feet in width are numerous, while the largest so far 
found is about 75 ft. in width. The large bodies lie 
with their long axes approximately parallel to the bed- 
ding planes of the tuffs, and may eventually prove to 
have some relation to the secondary folding. The 
position of the smallest bodies, those in general less 
than a foot in width, does not seem to have been con- 
trolled by the bedding, but by joint cracks, so that they 
lie in various positions. 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



185 



Close examination of the ore- bodies appears to justify 
the following conclusions : (1) The ore-bodies have 
been formed by solutions emanating from the dyke or 
vein at their centres. These solutions have altered and 
mineralized the country rocks. (2) The tuffs may have 
been more easily altered and mineralized than the 
altered basalts. (3) The extent of the mineralization 
and alteration are related to the size and the composi- 
tion of the central dyke or vein. The strongest altera- 
tive and pyritizing effects have been exercised by the 
pegmatites, while the effects of the end members of 
the series, the porphyry dykes and the quartz veins, 
have been slight. The pegmatites containing 25 — 50% 
of felspar appear to have produced the most powerful 
mineralization and alteration. Other things being 
equal, the extent of alteration and mineralization is 
roughly proportional to the size of the dyke or vein. 
(4) The gold content of the dyke and vein-forming so- 
lutions was also dependent on their composition. The 
pyrite deposited by the dykes of red porphyry contains 
relatively little gold. Grey porphyry dykes carried 
more gold, sufficient to give a good tenor within the 
dykes themselves, but not, apparently, to mineralize 
the surrounding rocks to any great extent. Pegmatites 
appear to have carried the maximum of gold, which 
they deposited as auriferous pyrite both in the veins 
and in the altered wall-rocks ; while the solutions form- 
ing the pure quartz veins carried little gold. 

The only primary ore mineral present appears to be 
auriferous pyrite ; however, a detailed study of the 
ores by the aid of the reflecting microscope has not as 
yet been made. If ore minerals other than pyrite are 
present, they are in minor amount. The gold occurs 
only in the pyrite, in what form is not known. Native 
gold is not found, except in oxidized surface portions. 
In general a high pyrite content indicates a correspond- 
ingly high gold value, although in one or two places 
this has not proved true. In the pegmatites the pyrite 
is coarse-grained in crystals and aggregates several 
mm. in diameter ; but in the adjacent schists the pyrite 
is always fine-grained, 0'3-0'f mm. in diameter of 
crystal. Only in one case was this not found to hold 
good. In this instance the pyrite is very coarse- 
grained. 

Mr. Cooke's summary and conclusions are as fol- 
lows : (1) The internal structure of the ore-bodies, con- 
sisting of a pegmatite vein at the centre, a middle zone 
of mineralized and altered rock, on each side, and an 
outer zone of altered rock without mineralization, 
which grades into unaltered country rock with irregu- 



lar and embayed contacts, is clear evidence that the 
deposits in schist have been formed by the alteration 
and mineralization of the country rock by solutions 
coming up along the central vein. The partial calcitiza- 
tion of the felspar of the pegmatite indicates a change 
in the character of the solutions during the formation 
of the ore-bodies. 

(2) The serial composition of the various veins of 
pegmatite, varying from veins of pure quartz up through 
pegmatites of increasing felspar content, to dykes of 
pure porphyry, indicates an igneous origin for all. 

(3) The satellitic arrangement of the veins, in that 
with few exceptions they are grouped within an area 
bounded by a line drawn about 1,000 ft. from the edge 
of the porphyry mass, with the major number within 
500 ft., points conclusively to their genetic connection 
with the porphyry intrusive. 

(4) Veins or dykes approaching the porphyry in com- 
position, deposited little or no gold, but did in places 
deposit pyrite. They had no strong alterative action 
on the wall-rocks. Pegmatites deposited auriferous 
pyrite, and had a powerful alterative action on the wall- 
rocks. Quartz veins had little action on the wall-rocks, 
and deposited little or no pyrite. Other things being 
equal a rough proportion exists between the size of the 
vein and the size of the altered zone around it. 

(5) It is concluded, therefore, that the schist ores of 
the Matachewan district were deposited by juvenile 
solutions originating as the last products of the differ- 
entiation of masses of intrusive granite porphyry. The 
solutions were at first rich in silica, soda, and alumina, 
which crystallized out first to form the material of 
pegmatite veins. The separation of these constituents 
left the solutions relatively enriched in lime, carbon 
dioxide, iron, sulphur, potash, and gold, and their re- 
actions with the wall-rocks caused the formation of re- 
placement deposits whose principal minerals are cal- 
cite and auriferous pyrite. 

(6) There is little direct evidence to connect the gold 
of the Davidson property with the porphyry, except 
the fact that the veins are confined within the intrusive 
mass. However, the proof that the neighbouring 
stock, which is petrographically identical with the 
Davidson porphyry, carried gold, renders the conclu- 
sion inevitable that the gold of the Davidson property 
was also a magmatic constituent. The differentiation 
has here continued uninterrupted to the stage in which 
the mineral constituents of the magmatic solutions are 
silica and gold, and these are deposited as quartz with 
native gold. 



THE BROKEN HILL EXTENSION. 



In our issue of June last, we quoted F. Dan vers 
Power's account of the theory of the brothers Marshall 
with regard to the continuance of the Broken Hill 
lodes and the work done, or to be done, in the outlying 
parts of the district. The Industrial Australian & 
Mining Standard for May 29 reprints an article which 
appeared in the Adelaide Register, giving further in- 
formation. This we reproduce herewith. 

Twenty-five years ago, the Broken Hill mining field 
became depressed when the carbonate ore gave way to 
sulphides. But the sulphide problem was solved. 
More recently the mines were faced with a zinc prob- 
lem. That difficulty also was solved. To-day some 
of the mines are threatened with a shortage of ore. 
These are promised a new life if the new Marshall geo- 
logical theory is proved correct. It is only a few years 
back that pessimists predicted but a brief life for the 
Broken Hill line of lode, and diminishing ore-bodies 
were spoken of gloomily, yet the South, North, British, 



Central, and South Blocks have opened up huge bodies 
of sulphides at depth, and are still developing with ex- 
cellent results. The field, as a result of these develop- 
ments, has visibly a longer life directly before it than 
at any stage of its existence; and if the Marshall theory 
be correct this life will be accentuated many times 
over. Geologists have always, in dealing with the 
Broken Hill line of lode, held to the saddleback theory, 
with the seat of the saddle at Block 14 mine. The 
ore-body, they have argued, has pitched therefore N 
and S, deepening the farther it gets awav from the seat. 
The Marshall theory is that the main lode comprises 
a series of ore-bodies at one time more or less horizon- 
tal, which have been lifted to the surface, possibly by 
volcanic or igneous action, forming synclinal troughs, 
doming at various points with intermediate basins. 
Allowing that one dome is at Block 14, the theorists 
claim that another is at Round Hill, a third at 1'iesse's 
Nob to the N, and a fourth near the old Rising Sun 



186 



THE MINING MAGAZINE 



to the S. In the basins the ore-bodies, it is asserted, 
even though possibly broken to dip E and W, form 
parallel lenses. The brothers Alexander and Allen 
Marshall, who, with Ernest V. Jones, have given the 
ore occurrences of Broken Hill many years of study, 
have great faith in the synclinal theory, and have ap- 
parently found many city investors and speculators to 
share their faith 

Long stretches of ground N and S of the group of 
mines comprising what is known as the main line of 
lode have been taken up on lease, and to-day there is 
a direct run of mineral propositions extending from the 
Pinnacles on the south to the Piesse'sNobon the north. 
The series has a length of 14 miles, from which about 
three miles may be subtracted for the main line of 
lode. A considerable area of this 11 miles of country 
has already been formed into working and developing 
companies, while the other companies are in process of 
formation. Close on £300,000 capital is already or is 
about to be involved in these mineral propositions. 
It has taken the Marshalls and those associated with 
them close on two years to put their scheme on its pres- 
ent basis, but they are now in a position to make known 
what has been done. So far, of course, work has been 
con6ned to development, extending on some blocks 
what was done in the past, and on others opening up 
and testing virgin ground. Considerable carbonate and 
sulphide ore has been won in development on Mar- 
shall's Caledonian Mine, once known as the White 
Leads. Some of this ore has been sold. An initial 
plant to treat the carbonates and prepare them to the 
requisite selling grade is now in process of erection. 
Underground it has been blocked out to the 300 level, 
but the Marshalls do not expect their theory to be 
fully tested until the 600 level is reached. Marshall's 
Monarch, at the Pinnacles, is also producing in de- 
velopment. Diamond-drilling will be adopted here 
and on the Village Blocks adjoining. Active work is 
in progress on the Round Hill, which property com- 
prises ten blocks of the freehold held by the old com- 
pany and five of Marshall's leases. Here the main 
work is being done in the old Chloride shaft, where the 
lode has been struck in two places between the 100 and 
200 levels going west. Those interested in the Round 
Hill proposition include some experienced mining and 
business men, such as William Jamieson, Colin Tem- 
pleton, L. Mackinnon, Alfred D. Hart, and others. 

The companies formed and forming in connection 
with the Marshall's scheme are Marshall's Caledo- 
nian, capital £25,000, Sydney; Broken Hill Extended 
£5,000, Sydney; Rising Sun~£25,000, Sydney; Young 
Australia £25,000, Sydney; Block 10 (Marshall's) 
£50,000, Melbourne; group adjoining (unnamed) 
£25,000, Sydney; Imperial, Cosgrove and Crescent 
group (under negotiation with Broken Hill Proprietary 
Co.); Round Hill Silver Mining Co. £13,000, Mel- 
bourne; Broken Hill Consolidated £25,000, Sydney; 
Barnes Freehold £12,000, Sydney; Broken Hill Op- 
tions £20,000, Sydney; Broken Hill Extended £5.000, 
Sydney; Broken Hill Block 196, £5,000, Sydney; 
Broken Hill (Alma) Extension £5,000, Sydney; East- 
ern Pinnacles £5,000, Sydney ; Village Blocks £20,000, 
Sydney ; Marshall's Monarch £5,000 Sydney. Broken 
Hill Options is in one respect the father of the Mar- 
shall proposition. It is an exploratory-development 
concern. It is not a producing company, though its 
object is to promote mines that will produce. It has, 
for instance, taken up most of the Marshall blocks, 
and has been instrumental in forming them into work- 
ing companies. The Caledonian and Round Hill are 
particular instances. Much money has been spent on 
the Caledonian as the White Leads, but the leases were 



lying dormant. So with many other blocks, but more 
particularly with Round Hill property. Much of the 
success or failure of the Marshall theory depends on 
Round Hill. The theorists claim that the ore is in the 
hill, but has not been searched for properly. They 
assert that following out their theory, they can find it. 
Upon the success of this assertion depends more or less 
the fate of leases farther north. The past has proved 
the existence of ore in the Consolidated and Globe, 
but never in sufficiently payable quantities. A good test 
of the Consolidated was made by voung Mr. Delprat, 
but the controlling company had not the money to sink 
deep. G. D. Delprat always professed faith in the pro- 
perty, but expressed the opinion that the payable ore- 
body would not be met with above 1,200 ft. The Mar- 
shalls think they can pick it up much higher. The 
Globe, a freehold property, has been tried once since 
the carbonate days, but the expenditure on it was not 
then justified. Since the company ended work, tribu- 
ters have been doing fairly well on veins of high grade 
ore. The Marshalls had an option over the Globe, 
which is directly in their run of property, but for finan- 
cial reasons have relinquished the option to another 
Sydney party. 

Broken Hill Options has at present fourteen blocks 
along the northern extension, which have been given 
under working option to four companies, each of which 
has undertaken to form one or more working com- 
panies of not less than £10,000 working capital each. 
In each of the companies to be formed Broken Hill 
Options will receive half whatever interest the pro- 
moting company obtains. These companies are the 
Broken Hill Extended Silver and Lead Mines, Broken 
Hill Block 196, Broken Hill (Alma) Extension, and 
Eastern Pinnacles. These companies had blocks, at 
the south end of the field, of White Leads (Caledonian), 
but transferred their interest to the north end, north 
of the Globe. Here also are Sutton's Blocks, while 
nearer Round Hill are Barnes's, in all of which Broken 
Hill Options is concerned. In the vicinity also are the 
Cosgrove, Imperial, and Silver Crescent properties. 
The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. had the water rights 
over these leases, and the question of mining rights 
has been before the mining warden for decision. An 
amicable arrangement, however, hasnowbeen reached, 
and an amalgamation of interests will, it is expected, 
materially assist the flotation. There has been another 
amalgamation at the south end of the field, bet.veen 
Broken Hill South Extended and the Block 10 Com- 
pany. Here several blocks held by Block 10 near the 
Rising Sun have been pooled with others taken up by 
the Marshalls, and a company has been formed in Mel- 
bourne. Delay in commencing work has been caused 
by the Federal Treasurer objecting to the capital as too 
large. This, however, has been reduced, and the com- 
pany is about to be registered. The blocks will be 
worked under Block 10 management. An amalgama- 
tion between Marshall's Monarch and the Village 
Blocks, at the Pinnacles, has also been suggested. 

The Marshall scheme, taken in its entirety, is a 
gigantic one. All the blocks in it will be worked more 
or less on the one big plan to test the new geological 
theory. This naturally will not be done in a day, but 
will take much development to achieve. Meantime, 
employment is being given to a large number of men. 
The scheme has got beyond its initial stages,- even 
though still in its preliminary stage. 

[Further reference to the Marshall theory is made 
in this issue, in the News Letters and in the editorial 
columns respectively. In the latter case the remarks 
are accompanied by an outline map of the district. — 
Editor.] 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



187 



Ventilation Problems at City Deep. — At the meet- 
ing of the Midland Institute of Mining, Civil, and 
Mechanical Engineers, held at Sheffield on July 24, a 
communication was read from E. H. Clifford, con- 
sulting engineer to the Rand Mines, Limited, giving 
particulars of the problem at City Deep. We quote 
Mr. Clifford's notes herewith. 

The structure of the City Deep mine is simple. The 
area is roughly rectangular, about 12,000 ft. long on 
the strike and 8,000 ft. on the dip. The reef along the 
northern boundary, which is the shallowest, lies at 
a depth of slightly more than 2,000 ft., and at the 
southern boundary the depth reaches about 7,000 ft., 
the dip averaging between 35° and 40°. The width of 
the workings in the stopes is about 5 ft. The mine is 
operated by two rectangular timbered shafts about 
4.000 ft. deep, and 4,000ft. apart. There is also near 
the northern boundary a ventilating shaft, 20 ft. di- 
ameter, and equipped with a Sirocco double-inlet fan 
of 400,000 cu. ft. per minute capacity. The two rec- 
tangular shafts are downcast. In addition, a new 
shaft is now being sunk near the southern boundary, 
designed to reach a depth of 7,000 ft. It is 20ft. in 
diameter, and will be used as a main winding and 
downcast shaft. At the present time the workings, 
which are confined to the uppermost portion of the 
mine, extend over an area of approximately 10,000 ft. 
along the strike by 3,500 ft. on the dip, and the great- 
est vertical depth at present is 4,500 ft. On the Wit- 
watersrand the temperature of the rocks increases at 
the rate of 4° for every 1,000 ft. in depth, and the rock 
temperature at 4,500 ft. is 84°. This would not be at 
all serious were it not for the fact that the air, shortly 
after leaving the main intakes, very soon became satur- 
ated in consequence of regulations stipulating that all 
rock surfaces must be kept wet in order to prevent the 
dissemination of dust. A saturated air at a tempera- 
ture of 84°F. is scarcely supportable unless the air is 
in active motion, and this latter condition cannot be 
maintained at every point, particularly in development 
ends. In this connection it may be mentioned that the 
katathermometer, designed by Dr. Leonard Hill, has 
been found most useful in translating the physiological 
temperature state of an atmosphere into a single nu- 
merical result, as this instrument not only takes into 
consideration the temperature and humidity, but also 
the cooling effect due to motion of the air. 

The limit has been reached on the City Deep, and 
there is yet an additional 2,500 ft. to go. The engi- 
neers are faced with the necessity of reducing the air 
temperature from between 95 and 100°F., which it 
would beat 7,000ft., to about 75°F. The principle 
that is being relied upon is the heat-absorbing capac- 
ity of the ventilating current of air due to evaporation 
and to its specific heat. Local cooling near the bot- 
tom of downcast shafts is, of course, taking place 
everywhere, but it generally remains local cooling only, 
and in any case can have little or no effect on the tem- 
perature of distant parts of the mine, unless the total 
heat absorbed by the air current as a whole is greater 
than the heat supplied from all sources. In the City 
Deep this latter condition obtains at the present mo- 
ment,- and there is not the slightest difficulty with tem- 
peratures down to a depth of 4,500 ft. ; but whether 
the principle will be equally successful at 7,000 ft. re- 
mains to be seen. However, practical observations 
and careful inquiry into the physics of the problem 
render it quite probable that they would be successful. 
The air becomes warm after it has travelled some dis- 
tance from the main intake, but, except in the case of 
long dead-ends, no difficulty has been found in keep- 
ing all the working places at a satisfactory tempera- 



ture. Dead ends will have to be cooled by a special 
ventilating pipe supplying dry air to the face, but the 
necessity for this has not yet become urgent, as the 
air at the face, where nearly all the work is done, is 
effectively cooled by the exhaust from the rock-drills. 
The heat of the air in the mine comes from the fol- 
lowing sources : (1) The compression of the air in its 
way down the shaft. This is considerable ; in fact, 
the temperature rise on this account is actually greater 
than the temperature rise of the rock due to depth. 

(2) The flow of heat from the rock mass to the air of 
the workings. This depends upon a great many fac- 
tors, among them being (a) the conductivity of the 
rocks and the temperature difference between the rock 
and the air current ; (b) the relation between the vol- 
ume of the workings and the rock surface ; and (c) 
the daily increment of surface resulting from mining 

(3) Further sources of heat are water, the men work- 
ing in the mine, the combustion of illuminants, ex- 
plosives, and electric power. A frequent source of 
heat supply, namely, chemical change of minerals, is 
not, in the case of the Witwatersrand, of any import- 
ance. 

To absorb this heat the engineers are relying upon : 
(1) The specific heat of the air, and (2) the heat absorb- 
ed by its evaporative power. It is fortunate that in the 
Transvaal the air during the greater part of the year 
is dry, the percentage of humidity ranging between 
74% during the rainy season and about 36°o during 
winter, and it is this fact that renders the method prac- 
ticable, and might possibly afford a complete solution 
of the difficulty. The capacity of the fan is, as previ- 
ously stated, 400,000 cu. ft. per minute, and the aver- 
age heat-absorbing power of this quantity of air is 
1,700,000 calories per second. Of this amount one- 
fifth is due to the specific heat of the air and four -fifths 
due to evaporation. On account of the dynamic heat- 
ing, there is lost, in the deepes