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b- '5 7. ^^ 









. FEBRUARY, 1898 

C I S K^ 





• • • < 

• . • • •• 

• • • • • « 
• • « • • 

• • 


The stretch of mining country lying 
between the Mokelumne River and the 
Gwin Mine on the N.W.and through the 
Utica on the S. E. has been compara- 
tively neglected in the general re- 
suscitation of mining. The Calaveras 
County Jubilee Committee have 
prqiared the within pamphlet, 
merely to call attention to the 
r<^sources of this stretch of coun- 
try, which since 1849 has produced over 
$50,000,000.00. It is generally conced- 
ed that, by proper management, this re- 
gion can be made to double its present 
yt;:irly output of a million and a half. 

Our statistical friends in neighboring 
counties have placed their total output 
away up into the hundreds of millions, 
but from all available data, we have not 
been able to accotmt for more than is 

Our estimate, we think, is about cor- 
rect, and if our colleagues should revise 
their statistics, Calaveras County will 
probably take second place in Califor- 
nia's total gold output. 

The county has been divided into five 
districts, as follows: 

1. The foot -wall belt, of which the 
Gwin Mine is a type. Mr. Mark E, 
Kerr outlined the work at this point, 
treating mining as a business. 

2. The Central Mother Lode, of which 
the Ford Mine is a successful type. Mr. 
H. W. H. Penniman undertook the de- 
scription of this section. 

3. The Mokelumne Hill Mining Dis- 
trict, described by Col. W. T. Robinson 
— The Esperaza being successfully 
worked here. 

4, The various mining sections from 
Murphys through El Dorado, Railroad 
Flat and West Point have been grouped 
as the Eastern belt. M. A. Shepard and 
H. W. H. Penniman of San Andreas, 
and E. M. Price, must be thanked for 
the compilation of this portion of the 

5. The vicinity of the Utica Mine, 
through to the Stanislaus River, whidh 
belongs property to the middle group, 
has been given a special dass. 

Special attention is called to the ar- 
ticle on Compressed Air by Mr. Ed- 
ward A. Rix, mem. Am. Soc. M, E. & 
C. E., mem. Am, Soc, C. E., and also on 
Electricity Applied to Mining by Mr. 
George P. Low, Electrical Engineer. 

The Geological work is extracted 
from the Report of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, by Mr. H. W. Turner. 

If a longer time had been given us, all 
the mines could have been mentioned. 
We have taken only facts and have been 
governed by them. No one has been 
intentionally neglected, and we ask the 
indulgence of our friends in presenting 
such a compilation on such short no- 

Notwithstanding all the work done m 
this vicinity, it is very difficult to ob- 
tain good maps. It was hoped to have 
inserted a copy of the claim map now 
being prepared by Mr. A. B. Searl, un- 
der direction of Geographer R. U. 
Goode, of the United States Geolt^i- 
cal Survey. The Director of the Survey, 
however, writes that the work will not 
be in readiness for some weeks. So the 


committee has used what material could 
be compiled without a map. 

Attention is also called to the article 
on the use of Oregon Pine for Mining 
Purposes, by Mr. G. A. Buell. 

We desire also to express our thanks 
to each and every one sending down ores 
and specimens, and especial thanks to 

Mr. I. S. Foorman, who contributed the 
article on Water, and to our friends in 
San Francisco, whose interest and gen- 
erosity in giving advertisements has ren- 
dered it possible to publish this pam- 



JKmm JKmm 




Calaveras County, previous to the 
year 1849, w*s almost an unknown re- 
gion, especially that portion lying 
along the foot hills ot the Sierra Ne- 
vada. When first defined in 1850, it 
embraced, besides its present area, the 
counties of Amador, Mono and Alpine. 
The county scat was first established at 
Pleasant Valley, but two months later 
was transferred to Double Springs, a 
town then situated near Valley Springs 
of the present day. Jackson consisted 
of three log cabins and seven tents, 
while Mokelumne Hill, settled by sol- 
diers from Stevenson's army, was but 
a little hamlet. The discovery of gold 
in 1848 at Coloma was followed imme- 
diately by similar discoveries in the hills 
surrounding the town of Mokelumne 
Hill. On "Nigger" and "Stockton" 
hills, both within the present townsite, 
limits, the diggings were found to be so 
exceedingly rich that only 16 feet square 
was allowed to any one man. In Au- 
gust, 1848, Jas. H. Carson, a sergeant of 
Stevenson's Regiment, traveled south on 
a prospecting tour with a Mr. Angel, 
which resulted first in the location of 
Anpels Camp, where much gofei was 
found, and a IHltle laiter in the settlement 
of Carson's, which included both the 
present hill and the lower lands along 
the creek. 

The great gold excitement of 1849 
has never been equalled in the world's 
history, and is too well known to war- 
rant detailed description here. Towns 
sprang up like mushrooms. San An- 

dreas, Railroad Flat, West-^ofpt Cala- 
vcrita*, and Murphys, are a'fetf-^ the 
many settlements and camps that-nfVtled 
in every gulch, '-'V"'.' 

Moi^n, sHuated on the north ^ope* 
of Carson Hill, rival^ed Mokelumne 
Hill in poulation and the richness of the 
gold deposits. Both towns soon had 
over 5,000 inhabitants. The actual out- 
put of precious metal will probably 
never be known. The placer diggings 
of Mokelumne Hill were fabulously rich 
— while ait Morgan Hill, the quartz mines 
in less than two years yielded to their 
o^^ners $3,000,000, which, of course, does 
not include the amount stolen by the 
Mexican miners. Tiavrf was so great 
that in six weeks $10,000 was taken in 
as ferry tolls at Robinson's Ferry. At 
Angels in 1852 two brothers by the 
name of Winter washed out in common 
sluices $9,000 from a piece of ground 
?oo feet square, and upon sinking dis- 
covered a ledge yielding $200 per ton. 

At the Morgan, on Carson' Hill, 
much of the ore had to be cut out with 
cold chisels, being completely bound 
together by filaments of gold. $iio,000 
is said to have been thrown down at a 
single blast. 

A band of ruffians under the leader- 
ship of Billy Mulligan, a man of desper- 
ate character, took forciHe possession of 
these mines, driving out the lawful own- 
ers, who immediately instituted a suit of 
ejectment that lasted until 1853, when 
they were finally reinstnted. The largest 
nugget ever found in California was dis- 



covered on Carson Hill iiVNptember, 

1854. It was fifteen incb£a.^long by six 
inches wide and 4 incKei.jfhick, weighed 
195 lbs. troy and wa^wt)rth over $43,000 
At Mokelumne Jif^kfich discoveries were 
also made. . *•..'* 

Near the tdp^of French Hill, overlook- 
ing the .'fpWxr'of Mokelumne Hill from 
the ea^t»..Hle remams of what appears to 

be \he. foundation of an old stone wall 
• • • • 

.burlt>along the edge of a lava bluff may 
'••be 'seen, while all around below are piles 
of rock, tailings, tumble-down banks of 
lava and gravel, shafts and tunnels, in 
short, every evidence of an aban- 
doned placer mine. This historical 
spot, which at one time, was one of the 
richest placer mines in the State, was the 
property of a company of Frenchmen, 
and the wall above referred to is the re- 
mains of a fortification built by them for 
the purpose of defending their property. 
This mine yielded its golden treasure by 
the painfull, and the owners of the prop- 
erty made no attempt to conceal the 
fact, but on the contrary indiscreetly 
paraded their golden treasure before the 
eyes of an avaricious public. So rich 
was the mine, it is said, that the watch- 
man, placed in charge, picked out with 
his pocket-knife during the first night 
on dutv, several thousand dollars worth 
of nuggets. 

This tract of land is now owned bv 
Mrs. Vandel of Mokelumne Hill. 

The following extract from a letter re- 
cently written by August Sanno, of Ne- 
vada City graphically describes his per- 
sonal experience, and throws an 
interesting side light upon the conten- 
tions between the French and American 
mines, as viewed by the French contin- 
gent. He writes as follows: 

"I am the man who in April. 1851, dis- 
covered Trench Hill.' We are the 

Frenchmen who were driven out by a 
mob. As I was well known, I was told 
to leave as I would be killed first for the 
money; I left with a part of it; my part- 
ner had the balance; he was going to 
stay behind and see what was going on, 
and then he was going to follow me; 
I went ten miles, to the Calaveras river. 
In my journey I passed by the county 
seat, (Double Springs). I had the 
money hid with Mr. King. I coaxed 
Mr. King to come back and look for my 
partner. I offered hitn twenty dollars a 
day to come back with to try and help 
me recover my mining ground; he came 
with me; I was riding a mule; the 
French were a/t the county seat — where 
it IS now. Expecting an attack by the 
French that nig'ht, the road was 
guarded by a sentinel; my mule 
was sihot; I fell in the ra- 
vine by the road; I was unconscious 
for a long while; my shoulder was 
broken and my knee was dislocated 
when I came to; King was very near 
killed; he died in Campo Seco; we were 
wounded so we could not walk, so we 
had to crawl as best we could to try and 
get away from them; the next morning 
King could see, and we traveled all day 
and all night, and found a Frenchman 
Avho told us where the French were, and 
that all their camp was going to be burnt 
that night — that was his report. In the 
morning we found ourselves in the 
Stockton road. Afterward my partner 
came to San Francisco and we divided 
the gold. I went to Mexico." 

In 1852 the county seat was trans- 
ferred to Mokelumne Hill. In 1854 
Amador county was established, with the 
county seat at Jackson, then a place of 
1500 inhabitants. In 1863 an election 
was held, which resulted in the designa- 
tion of San Andreas as the county seat 


of Calaveras Co. The legality of this 
election was hotly contested by the resi- 
ilents of Mokelumne Hill and it was not 
until i86fi, after the case had been bit- 
terly foiigfht in the Supreme Court, that 
the records were finally moved. During 
this legal contest, in 1864, Mokelumne 
Hill siiflered from a great conflagration, 
that consumed nearly the entire town 
and destroyed many valuable county 
papers. In 1868 San Andreas had a 
similar experience and Mokelumne Uill 
was again burned in 1875. Gradually 
the surface diggings of the county. 
those that could be worked with small 
effort, became exhausted. Other gold 
excitments drew the population else- 
where, and a great depression, the inevi- 
table aftermath of high boom fever, fell 
upon Calaveras. The people gave more 
attention to agriculture and stock rais- 
ing, and large tracts of land were secured 
to individual owners under agricultural 
patents along the Western and Mother 
Lode belts, for at that time few appreci- 
ated the prospective value of the great 
bodies of virgin ore that traversed the 
county. Milling processes were crude, 
and quartz that will to-day yield large 
dividends could not then be profitablv 

It must not be understood that min- 
ing was by any means totally suspended, 
for Calaveras, even in the times of great- 
est depression, has always maintained 
her position among the leading gold pro- 

duetts of the State. In the early sixl 
the attention of the world was drawr 
her copper mines, and until overprot 
tion placed the price of that metal be 
the cost of extraction, Copperopolis . 
Campo Seco enjoyed prosperity ; 
world-wide renown. The immense 
crease during the past few years in 
demand for c(q)per, a result of its uni' 
sal use in electric appliances, is aire 
foresliadowing an early revival of 
iin; ortant branch of the mining indus 

Alot% the Mother Lode, the cliir 
and general facilities for mining 
very favorable. 

Some little snow falls in the win 
but not enough to cover the ground 
more than a few hours. 

In the h^fher altitudes, the snow p 
up in Urge quantities, which supplies 
streams, and in turn the ditches for 
mines below, or the power necessary 
run large electric plants that are r 
bemg constnicted upon the Lode. 

Indeed, when one thinks of the fro 
icr-fields of the North, ai*d the de 
tropical growth of the South, it seemi 
if Nature has been generous in best< 
ing the foot-'hill counties with natural 
sources very hard to surpass. 

Olives, oranges and fruit of all ki 
are grown in the foothill valleys of C; 
veras County, and as happy and hea 
ful a life can be had here as in any n 
ing region of the world. 





The geological history of Calaveras 
bounty may be said to date from some 
ime during the Paleozoic era, which in- 
;ludes the Cambrian, Silurian, Devon- 
an and Carboniferous periods. A great 
)cean then covered this area, whh per- 
laps the exception oi the extreme north- 
eastern portion. The great prehistoric 
ivers flowing from Nevada for long 
iges carried to this sea a vast amount of 
-ill, schist, that sinking formed the Pal- 
:ozoic sediments of the gold belt, after- 
vard metamorphosed to quartzke, mica 
ichist and clay slates with limestone 
cases. Rounded crinoid stems, 
ithcstrotion, spirifera, fusuhna, and 
>ther genera, found chiefly in the lime- 
stone, indicate the formation to be prin- 
cipally of the Carboniferous age, but it is 
}rol>able that many strata are much ear- 

A conglomerate, the evidence of a 
ihore on which were pebbles of quartz- 
te, diabase and horneblende porphyrite, 
-(lUiKled by the action of the waves, is 
ound in fhe lower portion of the county, 
nterbedded with the slates of this period 
—presumably of the same age and show- 
ng by the presence of igneous pebbles, 
hat volcanic eruption began very early, 
or the homblende-porphyrite fragments 
epresent lavas similar to the horn- 
ilende-andesites of a later date. 

Near the close of the Carboniferous 
>eriod the land area of Western Nevada 
subsided, and the shore line of the ocean 
idvanced far east covering Calaveras to 
1 still greader depth. During the Jura- 
TJas period there were two great up 
ledvaJs. The first raising a land mass. 
itretching the length of the Sierra Nc- 
/ada.folding and rendering schistose. 

the sedimentary strata, and intruding 
granite and other igneous rocks among' 
them. The land thus raised above the 
water level was not mountainous, and the 
present exposed portions were thou- 
sands of feet below the surface. 

This land area at first partially and 
then completely separated the Pacific 
Ocean from the inland sea, a conclusion 
based upon the fact that fossils of Juras- 
sic age, found in the Mariposa slates, 
have closer relations with those of Rus- 
sia than with those of Eastern America. 
These Mariposa slates consist of an ex- 
tremely fine sediment deposited in two 
narrow bands traversing the southeast- 
ern portion of Calaveras County in a 
northwesterly and southeasterly direc- 
tion, accompanied on the east in both 
instances by a belt of amphibolite schists. 

After the deposit of the Mariposa 
slates, a second upheaval o* much great- 
er magnitude occurred, resulting in the 
development of a mountain range along 
the line of the Sierra Mevada, turning 
the Mariposa strata into a nearly vertical 
position, injecting granite, vast masses 
of diabase and other basic igneous rocks. 
It was during this time of intense erup- 
tive activity that innumerable fissures 
were formed, to be soon after filled by 
the auriferous quartz veins that now at- 
tract the attention of the world. . The 
famous Mother Lode is supposed to date 
from this period. The strata of suc- 
ceeding epochs are wholly sediments 
and n\H lying nearly horizontal or at 
low angles, proving this to have been 
the last great uplifting disturbance, 
though the Pacific has steadily contin- 
ued to recede, leaving its deposits far 
above its present level. The lower por- 


tion of Calaveras County was under 
water with the Great Valley of Califor- 
nia during the Cretaceous and Eocene, 
becoming exposed probably early in the 
Neocene period. The climate was warm 
and humid, immense rivtrs, far greater 
than those of the present day, flowed to 
the sea, and before the close of the Neo- 
cene period, had lowered the land sur- 
face thousands of feet, cutting for them- 

the sand stones of Valley Springs, als 
the coal seams, farther west, wei 

1 oward the end of the Neocene perioi 
an eruption of a volcanic nature too 
place along or near the summit of tt 
Sierras, accompanied by gre; 
floods of so-called lava, consisting i 
andesite and basalt, that, following ti 
drainage system, completely choked tV 


selves great channels through the hilU 
and filling them with vast deposits of 
gravel from the hard quartz ledges 
broken down. 

The gold released sunk by its great 
specific gravity to bedrock, the lighter 
detiitus being carried away, and thus the 
natural process of concentration was for 
ages carried on. The Pacific shore line 
was during this period retreating, and 

channels in which it flowed, and in son 
cases, severaJ times made an enti: 
change in the courses of the stream 
preserving even until this day an inti 
cate system of ancient river beds, fiUt 
with gold-bearing gravel that have j 
yet received little or no attention excej 
in those portions exposed by the actic 
of the streams of the present. Tl 
Pleistocene period was characterized t 



a radical change in climatic conditions, 
the Sierras being capped by glaciers at 
elevations above 5000 feet, which effect- 
ually protected the portions covered, but 
greatly assisted erosion in the lower al- 
titudes. The change from that time to 

the present has been gradual, and with- 
out eruptive disturbance, though great 
erosion has and undoubtedly is still tak- 
ing place, throwing some light on the 


The modern system required in the 
management of an immense gold mining 
plant is so different from the idea ihat 
the average man has acquired from read- 
ing the romantic experiences of the pros- 
pector, seeking for the precious metal, 
that a description of the actual practical 
business involved, the complicated ma- 
chinery and engineering skill called into 
play, in developing and working a mod- 
ern, up-to-date mine, may prove of in- 

In the eager search for gold, the world 
over, constant scientific exploration wiU( 
in time, open up new fields. The mod- 
ern prospector, however, does not move 
from one location to another without 
giving his claim a thorough trial in 

ITie excitement attending the recent 
gold discovery in Alaska and the North- 
west Territory, bids fair to cause a wild 
stampede there during the next year, ri- 
valing the exodus to California in the 
esrly fifties, or even excelling the mad 
rush to Australia and South Africa in 
more recent years. But gold mining is 
now a legitimate business, and consists 
in not only digging out gravel and wash- 
ing the gold contained therein, but the 
work must be managed with as much 
precision, care and judgment, as is nec- 
essary to insure success in any other 
great industry. 

The modern method of scientific gold 
mining and milling practice has reached 
its highest development in California. 
As a proof of this, the principal point to 
niention is, that almost all the promi- 
nent mine managers of the world, have 
had some previous practical experience 
either in the great hydraulic gold gravel 
deposits, or in the deep level, goH quartz 
mines of the Golden State. 

The application of hydraulic engineer- 
ing to auriferous deposits, originated in 
the mines of the Pacific 9ope. The meth- 
od of treating gold sulphurets by chlor- 
ination, which is simply the chemical 
discovery of the affinity of chlorine gas 
for gold, was first successfully tried at 
the Gwin mine in Calaveras county, Cali- 
fornia. This mine, a typical California 
go!d mine, and one of the greatest on the 
mother lode, is described in this article 
as an example of what good judgment 
will do, when combined with experience 
and skill. The writer, having interests in 
tl'c vicinity of a similar niiure, is very 
familiar with the history and develop- 
ment of the Gwin property. 

In the foothills of California, and fol- 
lowing a general trend parallt' 'o the 
crest of the Sierras, extendmg m sinuous 
lines through the counties of Placer, Ne- 
vada. El Dorado, Amador, Calaveras 
and Mariposa, a great open fissure has 
been discovered, encased between black 


Le walls and filled with decomposed 
le (gouge) and quartz. The gradual 
^p-development of several well known 
les has proved the existence of gold 
the quartz. This fissure or cbaanel Is 
Dwn to mining men as the great 
Hher Lode of California. In many 
-lions of this lode, chutes of gold- 
iring quartz have had strength 
)ugh to come to the surface. These 
ites, in depth, spread out longitudi- 
iy, rendering it possible to sink shafts 
1 strike the same formation in other 
nts near by, even when very little 
irtz is shown on the surface. In every 
e, however, when surface indications 
: favorable, development in depth on 
s lode has discovered both high and 
i grade ore in the lower levels. Ex- 
iration seems to prove that the verti- 

trend of these chutes is pyramidal in 
ucture. On the surface the chute may 

only 60 or 100 feet in length, but 
en greater depths are reached, the 
jtes are often over 1000 feet long. If 
irofile should be made upon this plan, 
: chutes of ore would form hills and 

The hills, or points of pyramids and 
! lower bases, being the region of the 
Id bearing veins, and the valleys be- 
', barren, except at great depths, when 
■ extension of the base of the ore-py- 
Tiid renders it possible to encounter 
'. pay channel. This makes a strong 
^sibility that when a shaft is sunk ad- 
ning a successful dividend-paying 
ne, the new shaft, at a great depth, will 
:ounter the same pay chute previous- 
discovered. The results Obtained at 
; Argonaut mine in Amador county, 
1 be cited as a proof of this theorj'. 
i:'s company sunk a large shaft 1200 
t through the barren zone or coimtry 
:k, and at this depth encountered the 

same theoretical pay zone erf the Ken- 
nedy mine, which had gradually elongat- 
ed in length of chute enough to extend 
beyond the emd lines, and into and under 
the ground controlled by the Argonaut 
Company. Since the success of the lat- 
ter, litigation has commenced between 
the two mines, as to the continuity of the 
veiii between the surface outcroppings 
and the deep-level workings. 

All this recent exploration work upon 
;he Lode, has absolutely proved that 
these gold-bearing chutes, when ex- 
plored, go down to great depths, and 
Icrge bodies of low-grade ore have been 
discovered and successfully treated in 
bulk, at depths over 1400 feet. 

The present low quotations for mining 
machineiry. supplies and labor, render 
possible the profitable working of these 
low-grade ores, when existing in large 

Gradually a system has been inaugu- 
raied. where ore yielding over $2.50 gold 
per ton at the present time, can be 
treated at a profit. 

These veins dip generally at about 70 
degrees east, sometimes flatter, or again 
nearly vertical. Imagine a curb stone of 
great length coursing down into the in- 
terior of the earth's crust, here, bulging 
out to a tremendous width, and there, 
narrowing, or, as the miners say, "pinch- 
ing out." An idea can then be formed of 
such a vein, seemingly independent of 
the surrounding country rock, which 
nay be slate, granite or porphory, al- 
though the dip of the walls is generally 
parallel to the dip of the veins. 

In many newly discovered deposits, 
the first gold washed out from the pla- 
cers, marks only an epoch in the history 
of that district, and long before the pla- 
cets are exhausted, enterprising prospee- 




explore the hills in search of a 
;e for the gold supply, 
metimes the placer deposits are cov- 
with loam and detritus. The bed- 
underlies the gravel, wherein the 
iest gold is found. Sometimes, how- 
in ancient river channels, the gold- 
el is covered by a deposit of lava, 
other long tunnels must be driven 
r this overflow, and the gravel 
gilt out to tlie surface and washed 
reams of water under light pressure, 
is drift gravel mining. Or when 
urface gravel banks are washed 
1 on a much more extensive scale 
Ireams of water under heavy pres- 
and the gold gradually deposited 
e bottom of long flumes, the opera- 
is termed hydraulic mining. 
le larg« amount of debris washed 
1 upon the agricultural fields in the 
r valleys has injured the farming 
to such an extent, that unless large 
expensive restraining barriers are 
tructed, hydraulic mining in the 
imento valley and its environments 
)een prohibited by 'aw. For .a long 
to oome, the gold Adds of the re- 
y (tiscovered Alaska- Klondike, will 
ashed by the drift or hydraulic pro- 
before organized companies can 
out the great gold-bearing quartz 
i, prospect them in depth, and make 
ng a regular business, which it is 
in Cailifomia and South Africa, 
le success attending the re-opening 
ime of the <^d. abandoned mines in 
omia has changed the apathy of the 
less men of the State into energetic 
ity. Experience will prevent repe- 
1 of past errors. Over-capitalization, 
:ing mines without e.'cperienced, 
:ical advice, as well as erecting large 
before developing and blocking out 
're, and such kindred mistakes, have 

done more than anything else to occa- 
Mon the past lack of confidence in mine 
m vestments. 

Mining on the mother lode necessarily 
requires large capital, but such g^ood 
judgment is now being used that the list 
of dividend-paying mines will be great 
ly increased in the near future. 

The re-opening of these old, aban- 
doned mines by sinking deep shafts, 
marks another epoch in the history of 
cold mining development. Most of the 
great successful working plants of to-day 
have been placed upon old claims, and 
arc now treating the low-grade ore left 
in the upper workings of the formerly 
aiiandoned properties. Fifteen years ago 
the heavy operating expense. combin«d 
with ignorance of the best method of 
treatment, made it impossible to obtain 
a profit on any ore yielding less than $6 
or $8 per ton in gold. Going back forty 
years ago. the cost of mining and mill- 
ing gold quartz ore reached as high an 
ainount as $25 per ton. 

A successful mining plant can now be 
planned to treat not only all the low 
grade ore left in the abandoned drifts, 
hut when properly exploited, new chutes 
or chimneys of ore, of quite as high a 
grade as were formerly found in the old 
workir^fs, can be discovered by sinking 
laigt. perpendicular shafts to tremen- 
dous depths. Then the mining and mill- 
ing machinery is afterward erected to 
treat all these ores in an economical 

To intelligently describe a great Cali- 
fornia gold mine of to-day. renders it 
necessary to give a slight idea of the 
mines of the different counties upon the 
gold belt. Beginning at lh' most norther- 
ly county on the lode, Nevada countr 
takes rank as the leading one of the 
State in the production of gold for the 


year 1896. The two mining camps oi 
"Grass Valley" and "Nevada City" ara 
too well known for further commenL 
The "Empire" and "North Star" minca 
were once abandoned, and then after- 
wards re-t^er*ed successfully on a large 
scale. Other mines in this district 
reached great depths. The width of the 
pay streak is small, from one to three 
feet, but the veins are of higii graxle. 
Many millions of dollars have been cred- 
ited to California from the principal 
mines of this county, and most of them 
are still good dividend payers. 

In El Dorado, good progress and de- 
velopment has been made upon the lode, 
but as yet the mines have not been ex- 
plored deep enough to prove their per- 
manent capacity. 

The mines o* Amador are famous, as 
v.eU as those of Placer coimty. The 
"Kennedy," in Amador comity has been 
such a successful dividend-paying prop- 
erty that two lai^ plants have been built 
oil either side of it, the "Argonaut," on 
the south, and the "Oneida," on the 
north. Deep shafts are now being sunk 
on both these mines at large expense, 
The "Oneida" has the most complete 
steam hoisting plant in the State, and the 
4C'-stamp mill o* the "Argonaut" is prob- 
ably the finest on the lode. Sutter creek 
in Amador county is a typical mining 
town, and one of tlie most picturesque 
upon the mother lode. 

The celebrated old Eureka, with a rec- 
ord of having produced a gross yield of 
$30,000,000, is situated within one-half a 
mile of the town, also the old Lincoln, 
with a $4,000,000 record, is located with- 
in the town limits. Electricity for light- 
ing and motive power has been success- 
fully introdiKed into Amador county by 
means of two plants. The Blue Lakes 
Water Company has erected an exten- 

i&i\c power plant on the Mokelumne 
river, and has placed 1040 feet of 22-inch 
pipe from a pressure box at end of a 
long ditch. They obtain an alternating 
current of from 5,000 to 10,000 volts, and 
supply portions of Calaveras, as well as 
Amador with light and power. Another 
electric power plant has been com- 
pleted at the town of Sutter Creek, 

Since the re-opening of the "Ken- 
nedy" mine in 1885, H has paid over $2,- 
COoooo in dividends and good ore la 
still obtained from the 2200-foot level, 

fn Calaveras Bhe nwst extensive devel- 
opments are around the "Gwin" mine in 
north end of the county, and around the 
"Utica" in the southern portion. The 
"Utica" is one of the moA important 
mmes in California and will be described 
in another part of the magazine. 

The "Gwin" mine will be described in 
another part of this article, representing 
a t>pical working mine erf the lode. The 
ore bodies in Amador and Calaveras 
counties have immense width and length 
oi chute, and are generally low grade in 

In Tuolomne county, great activity ex- 
ists and a railroad has recently been con- 
structed in this county, bringing the 
mines nearer to the base of supplies. The 
"Rawhide," "Jumper," and other mines 
have extensive plants. The mines 
around Coulterville in Mariposa cotmty 
are being vigorously exploited. Alto- 
gether the outlook for the mines of Cali- 
fornia is extremely promising, and act- 
ual work has proved the existence of 
deep paying bodies of low-grade ore 
along this lode, which encourages eco- 
nomical prospecting. The report of the 
State Minerologist for 1896 gives the 
yearly production of gold for nine of the 
principal coimties as follows: 
I. Nevada County $2,380,756.13 


Placer County 1,674.844.30 

Calaveras County .... 1,546,398.85 

Amador Coun<y 1,523,351,28 

Trinity County 1,296,330.30 

present conditions existing in the State, 
and show very clearly the two periods 
of development in a targe property. A 
full description of these plants will do 


6. Siskiyou County 1,091,264.82 

7. Tuolomne County .... 1,070,141.81 

8. El Dorado County 8i2,289.2» 

9. Mariposa County 335'637-33 

Trinity and Sisldyou, northern coun- 
ties of the State, are mentioned in the 
above list, but do not properly belong 
to the mother lode. 

The "Gwin" mine — and "South Pa- 
Icmp." property adjoining — represent the 

mure to prove how the business of a 
great mining enterprise is conducted 
tlian any other illustration. Mention has 
been made of similar plants in other lo- 
calities, merely to give the yield of the 
principal counties, and emphasize the 
tact that the first important problem in 
mining as a business is to start prospect 
v.'ork upon a sound basis, and in a local- 
ity where gold is known to exist. Proper 
management will again make even 


old, abandoned mines pay large profits, 
especially when experience absolutely 
proves that ignorance and recklessness 
have caused the principal failures of the 

Ihe middle bar of the Mokelumne 
river was one of the richest "diggings" 
in the gold excitement of 1849, and the 
cabins of the miners were built upon the 
slopes of "rich gulch", or "Gwin gulch," 
as it is now called. The placers were soon 
exliausted, and search was made in the 
adjoining hills for the quartz veins. 
Shafts were sunk and tunnels driven, 
wherever favorable indications could be 

At the "South Paloma" prospect, an 
old tunnel was driven many years ago 
into the hillside. Ore was obtained, but 
not in sufficient quantities, and of too 

done except this prospect tunnel. It is 
fair to state that unless the "Gwin" had 
successfully re-t^ened, the shaft would 
never have been sunk on the South Pa- 
loma- With systematic development the 
company has carried the prospect shaft 
700 feet in depth, and are drifting at that 

The South Paloma prospecting plant 
is very complete and economical, and 
consists of a steam 35-horse power hoist, 
shop and out-buildings, representing the 
first step toward the making of a great 

The shaft is 5x7 in the clear and tim- 
bered every 5 feet with 12x12 Oregon 
pine timbers. The gallows frame is 35 
feet ihigh, also of 12x12 timbers. The 
hoist has a capacity <A 1200 feet. About 
$26,000 has been expended in equipping 

1 character to pay at that pe- 

When t^e preseiH company took hold 
of i* in 1895. very little work had been 

and sinking the mine to the 700-ft. level 
and drifting at two levels. In this class 
of work the main expense is in the shaft 
sinking, but when once the shaft is sunk 




and drifts run on the ore, the profits can 
be calculated with as much regularity as 
the interest upon 6 per cent bonds. The 
cost of the shaft sinking depends upon 
the size of the excavation, nature of the 
country rock through which the shaft is 
sunk and the amount of water encoun- 
tered. The shaft at the South Paloma 
prospect was sunk at an extremely low 
figure, all the conditions being favorable. 
Comparatively small quantities of water 
were encountered in sinking and the slate 
was easy to break. 

A detailed average cost of sinking per 
foot is presented as follows, taken from 
the Superintendent's record: 

Labor, per foot $ 8.00 

I ights, per foot 15 

Powder, per foot 50 

Management, per foot 2.00 

Top labor, per foot 2.35 

Timbering, per foot 2.00 

Total, per sinking foot $15.00 

The South Paloma has been sunk up- 
on the south extension of the famous 
Gwin mine. The latter was one of the 
first quartz gold mines to be opened up 
in California. Some miners in 1850 hav 
ing found the surface pay croppings of 
the Gwin mine, were joined by a few 
others and the shaft was sunk 200 feiiv 
on the incline of the vein. The method 
of reclaiming the gold in the sulphurets, 
not being known, the values obtained 
were entirely from the free gold and the 
sulphuret went to waste. Dr. Gwin, one 
of California's first Senators, took hold 
of the mine about that time, and a water 
power hoist was put in, with a capacity 
to sink 1000 feet. Messrs. Deetkin and 
Garland also introduced the Plattner 
Chlorination process a little later to 
treat the sulphurets, which enabled them 

to work the low grade ores successfully. 
£vei. then it was impossible to obtain a 
profit on any ore not assaying $6 or $8 
per ton, although the mill capacity had 
been increased to handle large quantities 
of quartz. 

Very rich ore in streaks was taken out 
from time to time, but as the mine 
reached a depth of 1350 feet, the neces 
sity of more effective machinery became 
apparent. The management, however, 
went on taking out such ore as could be 
made to pay. All the high grade ore in 
sight was mined, and the mine was thus 
"gutted out." As the shaft reached 
greater depths, the water increased. The 
pumps and buckets were of insufficient 
capacity. The drifts had been run about 
1200 feet north and about 100 feet south 
and the mine was allowed to fill up with 
water. The drop in value of all Califor- 
nia gold properties took place at that 
time, and the owners could not got the 
means required to re-open it. A IktlQ 
later forest fires devastated the vicinity, 
and in 1894, w*hen the present company 
took hold of it, a deserted log cabin here 
and there, or a coil of rusty rope, with 
bundles /of old iron and steel, scattered 
down the gulch, were the only traces of 
former activity. 

Believing in the permanency of the 
lode in depth, and knowing of the actual 
existence of large quantities of low 
grade ore in the upper levels of the mine. 
Superintendent F. F. Thomas conceived 
the plan of bonding the land and sinking 
a vertical shaft 1400 feet through the 
country slate, and north of the limits of 
the old workings. The same work had 
previously been accomplished by Thom- 
as at the Kennedy mine in Amador 
county. A shaft was sunk there through 
the comparatively barren belt, and 
struck a body of good or^ below. This 




was an especially bold work to under- 
take at that time, for the depth of the 
gold bearing veins, as well as their per- 
manency, was uncertain. Reducing the 
inclined depth of the shaft of the Ken- 
nedy to the vertical, the total depth ot 
the mine reaches 2100 feet, the deepest 
vertical shaft in the State. 

The Gwin Company erected a com- 
plete water power hoisting plant and the 
shops, in the summer of 1894. The old, 
abandoned mountain roads were put in 
repair, and soon 'hundreds of teams be- 
gan hauling the heavy timbers needed 
for the shaft, and all the thousand and 
one im:idental supplies. This work of 
sinking was steadily prosecuted for two 
years, until the 1000 foot level was 
reached. Drifts were run at the 700 and 
Ilx-c. foot levels. At the 1000 foot level 
a well boring madhine ^vas use<^" to sink 
a prospect hole, in advance of the shaft 
work and down past the old drift. It 
encountered the north prolongation of 
the ore body at 1195 feet. This bore hole 
was sunk to the 1300 foot ( vertical) level 
end happily just escaped the old drifts 
enoug'h to ensure safety in sinking the 
shaft down near them. The shaft was 
then continued to the 1400 foot level and 
the work of opening up the ore body 
began on the 1200, 1300 and 1400 foot 
levels, w'here the vein in a great many 
places was over twenty feet in width, of 
milling rock. 

As soon as these lower levels had been 
opened up and the levels connected, the 
ore was extracted, sent to surface in 
large buckets termed "skips," and then 
run by hand cars into the bin of the 40- 
stanip mill, whic^h, in the meantime, 
had been erected. A photograph taken 
of the mill at this time shows founda- 
tion, mortar blocks, water pipe and 
psessure box. The mill is run by water, 

which also supplies both power and elec- 
tric light. 

In the north drift at the 1400 ft;, level, 
in the stopes, a rich vein about 2 ft wide 
running throug<h the main fissure was 
encountered, full of free gold. The 
writer himself was present when a piece 
of quartz filled with free gold was taken 
out. The piece was about the size of an 
orange and afterward $2,500 worth of 
gold was extracted from it But it is not 
this rich specimen rock that keeps the 
mill going steadily, but the large bodies 
of quartz are yielding $3.00 and upwards 
per ton. 

Ihe gold suiphurets now are all uti- 
lized. The percentage of these suiphurets 
is between 2 per cent and 3 per cent and 
average from $60 to $100 per ton, when 

As the Souibh drifts in the 1200 and 
i joc levels approached the old workings, 
it became necessary to open them up and 
drain out the water. Several schemes 
were thought over, one to tap the old 
works by diamond drill holes in the 
lower levels, but this necessitated com- 
pressed air for power. To run such a 
lirge hoist under 365 ft. pressure, and 
llic mill under 375 ft. head, required at 
least 200 miners' inches of water every 
2.; hours. This was purchased from the 
Mokelumne Canal Company at 15 cents 
per inch per day of 24 hours. This 
water was nmning to waste, so a plan 
was devised to put it in a settling tank, 
and carry it underpressure in a 15 
inch sheet iron pipe 4500 feet to the 
bank of the Mokelumne River, where 
^«So feet effective pressure head could be 
obtained. A large Pelton water wheeK 
] 9 feet in diameter, was then put in, and 
compressed air enough to readily gener- 
ate 250 horse power was obtained. This 
ct;inpressed air was sent back in a 6 inch 



pipe laid alongside the water-pipe, not 
only to the settling tank, but 1670 feet 
further to the old original South shaft. 
An air receiver was put in there giving 
the power to pump out the water from 
the old shaft. In fact receivers for the 
air can be placed at any point where 
pcwcT is needed to perform general 
hoisting or any other work in the future. 

This compressed air plant is one of the 
most complete ones in California, and in 
view of the proposed use of three lifts in 
pumping out the old South shaft to a 
dcptli of 1300 feet on its incline, using 
re- heated air, deserves special mention, 
as on its success depends the use of simi- 
lar plants at other mi-n-es. Electricity haa 
been so freely used for motive power, 
tliat compressed air has been neglected, 
and it isf an open question to-day which 
one of the two operations in the end will 
prove most economical. 

The new 40 stamp mill ha-s been going 
steadily since January, 1897, grinding 
out the ore, and yielding a monthly divi- 
dend satisfactory to the shareholders, 
for it shows what the mine will do when 
thoroughly opened up. When the old 
South shaft is pumped out, all the re- 
serves of low grade ore can be obtained 
and the capacity of the mill, as well as 
the average of the ore being known, the 
profits can be calculated to a nicety. 

Some idea of the extent and value of 
these ores can be obtained by taking an 
average section of any one of t!he mines 
along the lode, 100 feet in length by 100 
feet in heiglht. A rough estimate of this 
section, taking average width of vein at 
20 feet, would give 10,000 tons. A forty- 
stamp mill grinds up 3,600 tons of ore a 
month when running steadily, and this 
scciion of loose quartz would be crushed 
in a little less than three months. Now 
take a general average of $5.00 gross 
yield per ton and place cost of mining 

and milling at $2. 50, the profit on this ore 
would be $25,000.00 for the above time. 
This does not take into account any 
rich ore fotmd from time to time, that is 
generally utilized in bringing the gross 
yield up to its usua<l standard, when for 
any reason, it may be necessary to shut 
down the mill. In all of these large 
mines, when the ore is blocked out, it is 
simply a question of the capacity of the 
stamp-mill going at full speed, to realize 
a steady income. The principal mines of 
the mother lode, at the deep levels, have 
chutes of ore over one thousand feet irv 
length, with varying widths, from ten to 
fort\ feet, and even more. It needs verv 
little figuring to show that they will last 
for years, and while one level is being 
worked, others can be exploited. 

With permission of the Superinten- 
dent of one of the mines mentioned, a 
statement is given for an average month 
of last year. During this month, 1 16 
men were employed, and the average as- 
say value of ore sent to the mill was 



Mine labor $ 7,838 46 

Min labor 640 00 

Chlorlnation la-| 
bor ' 

Mine supplies . . 

Mill supplies.. . . 

Chlorinat*n sup- 

Timber and lum- 

Assaying sup- 

Water for power 

Wood for power. 

Salary of super- 

Salary of secre- 

Oeneral expen- 

Express charges 
(sulphurets) . . 

Express charges 
"free gold" bar 

755 32 
315 50 

390 35 

3,422 30 

41 00 

1.561 75 

116 65 

400 00 

100 00 

67 25 

10 50 

64 00 

Total i $15,707 06 


Mill reoelpts.... 
Rent, etc 

886,000 00 
300 00 

Total 826.300 00 

Total profits for month, 810,502 04. 




This is only an average report, 
and when one of these large ore bodies 
are properly developed, such returns can 
be regularly obtained steadily for years. 

In the wheel-pit of the Gwin mine 
hoist, a pressure of 365 feet is obtained 
by a total lengtih of 840 feet of 15-inch 
sheet-iron pipe. 

The three-compartment vertical shaft, 
1 2 feet by 9 feet in the clear, has been 
sunk to the 1400 foot level at an average 
cost of $36.00 per sinking foot. 

The hoisting machinery, new forty- 
stamp mill and all other expenses, except 
shaft-sinking aggregate $180,000.00. 

The air-compressor plant (when com- 
pleted) will probably cost $20,000.00. 

The ore is run through a Blake crush- 
er before going to the mill, making the 
quartz that is to be crushed by the 
stanps, of uniform size. About 350 feet 
ot railroad track connects the hoist and 
the mill. 

The mine averages 30,000 gallons of 
water every 24 hours, which is readily 
handled with large skips, dumping auto- 
matically. Below the 1400 foot level 
there is a forty feet pump and reservoirs, 
at convenient levels, keep back the water 
ac cumulating in the drifts. 

The miners work eight hour shifts, 
and their pay averages $2.50 per day. 
Each shift of men generally excavate 
about fiftv tons of rock. The bin in the 


Upper part of the mill has a capacity of 
500 tons. The ore is run through the 
forty stamps each of which, when "shod 
up", weig'hs 904 lbs. and have a 6 to 8 
inch drop. The stamps run day and 
nij^ht, and each stamp will crush 3 tons 
of ore in 24 hours. 

A 16 mesh screen is placed in front of 
the stamps and dies, and tlie pulp is run 
first on the outside plates, which have a 

general grade of i J inches to a foot, and 
are each 4 to 6 feet long. 

1 hese outside plates retain most of the 
free gold upon their silver faces. The 
residue lodges at the base of the screens, 
where the inside plates are placed. 

The outside plates are cleaned up 
every day, and the amalgam of gold and 
quicksilver squeezed into balls of con- 
venient size to handle, through pieces of 
dnlJing or ck>th. A few drops of cyan- 
i Je of potassium and also quicksilver, are 
rubbed on these plates before again re- 
placing them in their proper position. 
After leaving the plates, the pulp is car- 
ried in wooden trouglis to large concen- 
trators or vanners, which pan out the 
sulpherets automatically. After concen- 
tration, the sulpherets are shipped to the 
chlorination plant to be roasted and the 
[;,uld reclaimed from them. There are 
tv\ o concentrators for each five stamp 
battery at the Gwin mill. 

At the end of each month, there is a 
general clean up of all the pulp in and 
around the stamp and dies. This pulp is 
placed in a barrel with some mercury, 
and revolved until the mercury has thor- 
ouj»hly penetrated the mass. The amal- 
gam is worked down and afterwards 
treated by a method similar to that used 
on the plates, until all the amalgam is 
collected in convenient shape to be re- 

The slimes that leave the mill are as- 
sayed from time to time, and if they 
show value to any extent, are again 
caught up and run over stationary can^ 
vas tables, placed on grades sufficient 
to allow the slimes to slowly run oflF. 
Such treatment is sometimes quite lucra- 
tive, and it is not uncommon for some of 
the mines to sell the privilege of washing 
tiiest sflimes to contractors for over 
$1,500 per month. 


The retort house is fitted up with a 
closed and an open furnace. The former 
is used to heat the amalgajn until the 
quicksilver is condensed. The vapor 
passes through a cooling tube, until 
again converted into liquid mercury. In 
this operation only a very small percen 
age of the quicksilver is lost. 

The rough masses of gold left in the 
reiort are then taken out, and all melted 

to build a flume from the South shaft 
down the gulch, and under the main 

This carries the water through the 
canjon and prevents the dump from 
caving. This flume is built large enough 
to carry easily the heavy streams of 
water rushing down the guldh during 
the severe winter stonns. 

The air-compressor line is also flumed 


together in a crucible in the open coke 
furnace. After a thorough melting, the 
gold is moulded into bricks and sent to 
the mint or smelter. An assay of the 
gold-brick is made at the mine office as a 
cl.eck upon the refiner. This rough gold 
vr.rics. but is generally worth from $i6 
to $i8 per ounce. 

The canyon or gulch in which the 
(iwin mine is situated is ver>' steep and 
narrow. Recently it became necessary 

where it crosses the gulch. Altogether, 
the work of the company is done thor- 
oiisi'hly and is justified by the present en- 
cuuiaging developments. 

The Gwin mine is a close corporation, 
controlled by a few vigorous mining 
men, who personally overlook the work. 
They control the entire s*ock and none 
oi ii is on the market, the few shares of- 
fered having been subscribed at the time 
of organization. It is typical of modem 





ingenuity and skill and its history is a 
history of California sinc€ the gold dis- 

In Bayard Taylor's "ElDorado", men- 
tion is made of the very place where 
this mine is situated. 

He says: "The rich guloh was filled 
*'w5th miners, mosit of whom were doing 
an excellent business. The streak oi 
white quartz crossing the mountains 
about half way up the gulch had been 
tried and found to contain rich veins of 
gold. A company of about twelve had 
"commenced sinking a shaft ait right an- 
"gles. In fact the metal had increased 
"rather than diminished, since my form- 
"er visit" 

If it were possible for the shade of 
Bixvard Taylor to again visit the rich 
gulch, and see the complete Gwin plant 
of to-day, grinding out steadily the 
masses of white quartz from the 1400 
foot vertical level, with occasional sacks 
of ore fully as rich as the mine produced 






cv^n in early times, with the addition 
of all the modern methods of treating 
these ores, surely he would again ex- 
plain "that the metal had increased 
since his last visit" He would also see 
comparatively little of the rough gamb- 
ling spirit of the early California fifties,, 
with all the license, frenzy and excitment 
of that period. This has all been changed 
and a more conservative and quiet com- 
munity has settled in the neighborhood. 
Steady employment is given to over 200 
laborers, who with their families have 
peopled the vicinity, and their homes 
axe again gradually dotting the hill- 

Experience and good judgment have 
made such changes possible and built up 
industries, absolutely making new 
money to be added to the gold produce 
of the world. A quiet reflection of the 
same bold activity and originality that 
formerly created and built up the great 
commonwealth of California. 


Following the Gwin and South Paloma 
to the south upon the foot-wall we en- 
counter The Hudson, Mester, Gold 
JRun, Horse Shoe, North Branch, Never 
Sweat and Macchiavello mines, forming 
a group upon the west belt of the mother 
lode at North Branch, enclosed in the 
black Mariposa slate, both walls being 
of the same formation. The Hudson, 
Mester, Gold Run and Macchiavello are 
upon the same fissure, which has a width 
of from 4 to 15 feet and may be traced 
for several miles. The development has 
been wholly by shafts as follows : 

The Hudson shaft sunk to a depth of 
three hundred feet following the foot 
wall, the Mester shaft eighty feet follow- 

ing the vein, w'hich at its depth is well 
defined and shows about four feet of 
solid quartz heavily mineralized with six 
feet of gouge and vein matter, the Gold 
Pun shaft, ninety feet, contains about tht 
same amount of quartz and vein matter 
a? the Mester; the Macchiavello shaft, 
sixty feet and on the Never Sweat two 
shafts, one of 50 feet on the middle vein 
showing a strong vein and well defined 
ledge, the other 24 feet on the hanging 
wall vein. 

The North Branch sihaft 22 feet and 
also a tunnel started but not run to anv 
great length; by continuing this tunnel 
Tio feet it will tap the vein at a depth of 
ISO feet below the surface. 


The Horse Shoe mine is practically 

Illinois Mine is situated six miles 
soulh of San Andreas on the Coppero- 
polis road. The general course of the 
vein is northwesterly and southeasterly. 
The out crop is exposed for 90 feet. A 
vein of stratified quartz on the hanging 
wall side is four feet thick and carries an 
abundance of sulphurets, also free gold. 
On the west or footwall of this vein there 
is what is known as a boulder ledge of 

varjj]^ width which is of lower grade. 
The foot wall is black slate, the hang- 
ing wall classed as diorite. The dip of 
the vein is to the east at an angle of 55 
degrees, and from its position and course 
is clearly on the foot wall of the mother 
lode. The developments consist of a 
shaft 130 feet deep from which a number 
of drifts have been run, the south drift at 
the 100 feet level having exposed a fine 
shoot of pay rock. B. K. Thorn of San 
Andreas is the owner. 


Under the superintendence of Mr. J. 
B. Pine, Mr. J, Finck of San Francisco 
has done considerable development up- 
on a group of mines, with exception of 
the "Flour Sack", may properly be 
classed in the middle mother lode belt. 

The Flour Sack has taken out a pock 
ct of ore heavily impregnated with arsen- 
ical sulpherets, similar in nature to that 
ei'Jtracted from the Mammoth in Ama- 
dor County. 

The Justice is the north extension of 
the Flour Sack, 1500x600 feet. 

A little to the east Mr. Finck has lo 
cated the Occidental Mine, and has also 
a north extension called the Virginia 

ITiese location are within a mile east 
of the Gwin in Calaveras and two miles 
south of the Mammoth or Nevills mine 

in Amador, and six or seven miles south 
of the Zeile and Kennedy mines. 

On the road between Jackson and 
Mokdumne Hill, Mr. Finck also has a 
locr.tion 1500x600 feet and a ranch of 
175 acres adjoining. 

Fiuther to the south or the middle 
belt of the northern lode, Mr. Julius 
Finck has done a great deal of develop- 
ment on the Hamby mine, mostly by 
tunnels which cut the hill 300 feet from 
the surface. There appears to be sever- 
al gravel Channels on the place and there 
was a great deal of prospecting done in 
early days. There is a good mill site be- 
low the Hamby mine of 20.91 acres pat- 
ented. There are 9.96 acres patented 
joining the Hamby and on the north 34.- 
53 acres, making 2700 feet in length on 
the fissure. 


TTie comparatively unexplored section 
of the great Mother Lode lying between 
Mokelumne Hill and .\ltaville owes its 
present undeveloped condition to three 

First and foremost the lack of capital 
judiciously expended, a prime requisite 
lo mining on the Mother Lode Belt. 

Secondly, the Mokelumne and Stanis- 
laus rivers, having their sources in the 


regions of eternal snow, drain the oppo- 
site sides of the same water-shed, and 
then diverging in their downward 
courses, leave between them an irregular 
triargle, the drainage system of which 
extends but a comparatively short dis- 
tance into the mountain rang^es and 
which is, therefore, during the summer 
season somewhat depleted. This has, 
until recently, seriously interfered witli 
the economical development of this sec- 
tion, for while adequate water can be se- 
cured for milting purposes, the main 
source of power has been necessarily 
steam, expensive in bot^ the inittallation 
and operation. 

1 he North Fork of the Calaveras riv- 
er, Calaveritas, San Antone and San Do 
nringo creeks flowing to the west, divide 
the section into five corresponding 
ritfees, and are never without waiter. 
Many small water rights are located upon 
these streams by private individuals, 
while the Mokelumne and Campo Seco 
Canal Co. are prepared to supply water 
to all properties north of the North Fork 
of the Calaveras river from their ditch 
carrying 1500 inches. The Treat and 
Wyllie system, cover the country south 
to San Antone creek, supplementi 
the Ide and Terwilliger doitch, 
thence south there are many p 
ditches, and the great Jupiter ditct 
bttilding, besides that of the I 
Water Company, suppKHng Angels and 

The California Exploration Limited, 
a substantial company backed by both 
English and American capital, has solved 
the piroblem of economical power for 
this section. 

By an arrangement made two years 
ago with the Blue Lakes Water Com- 
pany of Amador county, whose immense 
electric power plant, situated on the 

Mokelumne river at Big Bar Bridge, is 
one of the largest and most complete 
in the United Staites. they have control 
of tihe electric power in Calaveras coun- 
ty, and already their pole line, with Its 


various branches, con»pletely covers this 
portion of the Mother Lode, thus plac- 
ing at the disposal of minmg men the 



ideal power ol the age at a nominal exist. 
This company is also engaged in open- 
ing up a number of promising propertiea 
on its own accottnt, but has sufficient 
surplus power to soi^ly all comers for 
many years. 

The tiatural timber of this region is 
phic and the various oaks, though con- 
siderable land is cleared and already the 
main supply of cord wood and mine tim- 
ber is derived from the vast forests a 
tew miles to the east. Lumber is read- 

being wholly due to the long continued 
rains of the winter season. About the 
end of May, the grass dries up from tack 
of water, and during the stmimer, affords 
excellent feed for stock of all kinds. 

The heated term so enervating in the 
counties to the south, is here tempered 
by the trade winds fnwii the northwest, 
and a case of sunstroke has never been 
known; the nights are invariably cool 
anfl refreshing. 

In addition to the immense deposits 



ily obtained at from $18 to $20 per thou- 
sand feet and wood at $4 to $6 per cord. 

Wages vary from $2 for surface men 
t>-> $2.50 and $3 for miners, skilled mc- 
ciianks drawing from $3 to $4 per day. 

The wagon roads, while not all that 
could be <lesired, are always passable, 
though when possible, heavy teaming is 
done before the winter rains set in. 

Snow is a rare occurrence at this al- 
titiKle, and never remains upon the 
ground, the inclemency of the weather 

of gold bearing quartz that will ever be 
the paramount attraction of this region, 
theft are also targe and valuable veins 
of superior building marble, as yet but 
suDerficially exploited, and the finest 
quality of state, sandstone and soapstone 
are readily obtained in any quantity. 

The deepest mimes on this belt are, be- 
ginning at the north, as follows: The 
Quaker City, 600 ft.. Golden Hill. 300 
ft., GoOtsdhalk, 500 ft., Union, 300 ft, 
Thorpe, 700 ft., Bund, 400 ft., and the 


rord, 640 ft., each and all o[ which 
would be considered on the adjcnning 
section of the Mother Lode as mere sur- 
face prospects. 

The owners are generally extremely 
lenient with responsible parties, and un- 
der a system of options known at "bond- 
ing," the purchaser is allowed to enter 
and explore the property before reach- 
ing a final decision, the purchase price 
remaining fixed without regard to dis- 
coveries that might be made. 

The surface diggings of early days 
were enormously rich, and many pockets 

irjvtstigation of the manifold advantages 
offered by the Mother Lode Belt of Ca!- 
a\-eras county cannot but prove enter- 
taining, instructive, and, to those who 
come prepared to explore for mineral 
treasure, also extremely profitable. 

The third and indirect cause, responsi- 
ble for the present backward condition, 
lies in the fact that the greater portion of 
this belt was secured in large tracts un- 
der agricultural patents before their 
value for quartz mining was fully appre- 
ciated, and the comparatively small num- 
ber of owners, the majority of whom are 


have been and are constantly being 
found. Taking into careful considera- 
tion the character, surroundings, climate 
and natural advantages of the Mother 
Lode Belt, it is undoubtedly one of the 
most promising mining areas of the 

Free from the extreme heat and 
drought of the desert and Australia, free 
from the blighting cold of Alaska and 
the more northern gold fields, within 
nine hours jounrey of San Francisco. 
where supplies of every description arc 
obtainable at the lowest cost, a personal 

engrossed in fanning and stock raising, 
have, to a marked extent, detracted at- 
tention from the rich mineral resources 
of the county. 

The geological formation of this sec- 
tion is essentially identical with that of 
the more fully developed portions of the 
mother lode lying in Amador county on 
the north and Tuolumne county on the 
?outh, the country formation being the 
Mnriposa and Calaveras slates of Car- 
boniferous and Juratrias eras, accompan- 
ied by considerable areas of amphJbolite 
schists of a later date. 



Mokelumne HiU Mining District ex- 
tends from the upper end of Spanish Bar 
on the Mokelumne River, across the di 
vide to Calaveras River, thence westerly 
to the town of Paloma; thence northerly 
along the west rim of Rich Gulch, includ- 
ing the Gwin Mine, to the Mokelumne 
River, and thence up said river to the 
place of beginning, being about three by 
six miles in extent, and embracing with- 
in its exterior limits many pti>ductive 
quartz mines, as well as several aurifer- 
ous gravel channels of great value. A 
few of the quartz veins have been 
Lrought to light by hydrauHcing off the 

I'C oo feet at great expense into Stockton 
1 lill. But, of late years, by means of the 
hydraulic ele\'ator, now being success- 
fully operated on the river bar^ of the 
American River, it has been demonstrat- 
ed, that there remains millions of gold in 
beds and bars of our modern rivers 
throug^iout California — Spanis;h Bar, 
within this district, has been purchased 
I y San Francisco capitalists, who will 
soon incorporate it into a stock com 
pany, and put the necessary plant on it 
to extract, by means of the hydraulic 
elevator, the goJd not heretofore saved. 
The average prospector, especially 


gravel, for instance, the Moser and Lam- 
phear Quartz Mines, one mile southeast 
of the town of Mokelumne Hill, which 
were at one time covered with lava and 
gravel. The Hexter Tunnel, one mile 
west of Mokelumne Hill, has been driven 

those having little or no knowledge of 
the Mother Lode, when in search of gold 
bearing veins, are apt to be carried away 
with the idea that the mother lode, as a 
matter of course, must contain a bold 
out-crop. Heretofore has been pointed 



out the recbsons, that, in many places 
there are no visible signs of croppings o£ 
any kind, and in others only small seams 
or stringers of quartz. These seanis in- 
dicate, that at a depth of from 900 to 
1200 feet, hrge bodies of quartz will bt 
encountered. The value of quartz bod- 
ies largely depends on the character of 
quartz contained in the surface seams; 
so much so that there is yet to be discov- 
ered a paying mine anywhere within the 
mother zone, Where ridh seams of quartz 
have not existed at the surface. Hence 
the prospector must look for seams of 
quaatz within the limitations of the slates, 
or in the contact between the bull quartz 
rock and slates. 

A peculiarity of the pocket vein of the 
mother lode is center-veins, which orig- 
inate im the east wall rock in small blan- 
ket v«ins, lying nearly flat, and are us- 
ually quite barren of goid until within 2^ 
few feet of the slates, when they form in- 
to spikes of gold, usually identified with 
massive bodies of ars^enical sulphuirets. 
For instance, the Mammoth Mine at 
Middle Bar, Amador County. 

While the different lode veins nearly 
all trend paralllel to one another, and the 
quartz and the sulphurets therein con- 
tained are characteristic, yet there are. 
some ear marks by which the great 
hanging wall lode is distinguished from 
the others, chief of which is the gray 
gouge matter. The vein slates are more 
talcous in their nature and less shaley, 
and the ore bodies are larger, not so high 
grade, but more reliable for a continuous 
pay chute. For ftustance, the Zeile in 
Amador County, and the Utica in Cala- 
veras County. 

But locations on the same lode widely 
differ, as the local surroundings exercise 
a vast influence over the ledge matter — 
hence high or low grade quartz. 

If those who judge of a mine 
are experienced quartz miners, and one 
who is familiar with the modus operandi 
of handling the **horri" or "gold pan/* 
and also trained to tell at a glance how 
much per ton, by the ordinary milling* 
process, the quartz will yield, then in this 
cast it wouild not be necessary to go to 
the expense of mdlling ten or more tons 
to find its milling value. Otherwise, it 
is very unnecessary to do so, to give the 
mine a fair test. Ten tons of average ore 
should be milled at a neighboring plant 
to obtain a fair milling test. From the 
working test of said ten tons, judge the 
value of the property accordiiig to the 
widtih and length of the ore chute and 
tlie advantage of the conditions for cheap 
and economical working. 

If mine owners would establish a rule 
not to allow these so-called experts or 
would-be buyers, to take samples irom 
the mines for assay purposes, but rather 
compel them to sample by horn or mill- 
ing test, it would be found far better for 
bcth the capitalist and the mine owner. 
To test a mine by the horn process, one 
should require from tihree to seven da>*s 
on a mine, allowing him to be an adept 
in the business with the horn or gold 
pan. It is also necessary to be able to 
jrdge from the showing of gold in the; 
hc»rn, within less than one dollar per ton, 
what the quartz will yield by the ordin- 
ary milling process, otherwise the test 
wiell avail you nothing. To be perfect- 
ly sure of this sampling process, one 
must be a miner as well as a millman, 
and one w*ho is fully up to all the details 
of judging by the horn or pan test, as to 
what it will likely mill, or, in other words 
how much per ton of ore can be saved 
in the mill, and on the upper copper 

Therefore, one fit to be sent out to 


sample old quartz mines, must be a per- 
son that is weH up in all the details oi 
mining and milling;, and from long ex- 
perience, able to judge if rock will pay 
to dump into the mill, simply by the 
speedy process of panning a few patifi of 

the rock, dirt or quartz, as tihe miners 
say, "break it cjown." 

Men not understanding these matters, 
cannot do justice to the mine or their 



Tihe property of the Esperanza Gold the 500 level to the hanging wall. These 
Mine is situated about two miles north- ciosscuts show the vein to be an average 
cast of Mokdumne Hill and consists of of 50 feet in width. The property is 


seven adjacent c^ms, owned by the Es- 
peranza Quartz Miniiig Company, The 
Esperanza cliaim is the one which has re- 
ceived the greatest amount of develop- 
ment work. On this claim, during tlie 
past fifteen months, a three compaHtment 
shaft has been sunk to a depth of 800 
feet on an incline ot about 50 degrees 
At the 500 and 700 feet levels, drifts have 
been run on the foot ■ wall for 200 feet 
south, all in ore, with two crosscuts on 

equipped with a double reel hoist, run 
by water power under a pressure of 387 
feet, with facilities for getting 622 feet 
when desired; a 30-9temp mill also driven 
by water power under a pressure of 600 
feet; a Chlorination Worka, with capac- 
ity for treating five tons of stilpihurets per 
day; an electric light pkmt and all the 
usual buildings for a mining location. 
The mines and plant are weJl located for 
economic wwldtig; the grade of tihe 



canon, admits th-e handling by gravity of 
any quantity of ore. About 60 per cent 
of the value of this ore is in free gold and 
40 per cent in sulphurets, the latter 
treated by chlorinaition process. The foot 
wall of the vein is syenite, and the hang- 

ing wall micaceous slate. The course of 
the ledge is north and south, with an 
easterly dip of about 50 degrees. The 
deve^lopment work is still going on and 
the present shaft will be sunk to a depth 
of 1 100 feet. 


Nc description of the gold mines of 
Calaveras, and indeed of the State of 
California would be complete without a 
refcience to the Utica Mine owned by 
the Hobart Estate. 

It is another example of an old aban- 
doned mine made to pay well by syste- 
matic development and proper manage- 

Angels Camp was one of the earliesi 
settiernents in the County, but the pres- 
ent prosperous condition of the vicinity 
is entirely owing to the great work of 
this company, which in all its surround- 
ings employs over 500 men. 

There are three claims controlled by 
the Company — The Utica Stickles, upon 
which there have been erected 120- 
slamps — The Madison, upon which are 
40 stamp and the Gold Cliff which has 
20 stamps. A three compartment shafi 
has been sunk upon the Stickles to a 
depth of 1360 feet. It is very difficult to 
obtain an exact statement of 
the yield from this mine, but 
when the plant was running in 
full blast, before the great fire of lasl 
summer, for many months the yield was 
as high as $200,000 per month. 

Water is used for power and the sup- 
ply is owned and controlled by the com- 
pany ,the ditch being completed from 
Alpine County, over 60 miles. 

When the business justifies it, an enor- 

mous electric power can be generated 
fr« »m present water facilities. 

Tliecompany operates a large chlarin- 
atior: plant for treating sulpherets, also, 
a cyanide and electrical plant. 

In the town of Angels there is a re- 
markable complexity of veins. The 
main branch of the mother lode can be 
tr.xced along the hill west and northwest 
of the town though it diminishes in size 
The serpentine rock of the Madison is 
replaced northwesterly by an altered 

7 he shaft of the Utica and Stickles 
mine starts with vein at the surface, but 
at a depth of 500 feet the vein takes a 
somewhat flatter dip, but the shaft con- 
tinues at the same angle in the foot to the 
ijibo level. 

The stopes of this mineral zone are 
from 10 to 100 feet wide. The entire 
gold bearing zone consists of a great 
mas^ of altered diabase, which has been 
rendered slaty and splintery by pressure, 
and subsequently altered to chJoritic or 
talcose schist. Large masses of crushed 
diabase are replaced by solid, massive 
quartz. Power drills are used, and the 
average weekly progress in sinking the 
large shaft has been 35 feet. A great 
forest of round timbers are used up in the 
shaft and drifts. All the waste is used 
in filling up tiie old stopes, and the ab- 
sence of the large waste dump is a not- 



iceable and original feature of this mine. 

The formation of the Madison is typi- 
cal of the district, and of the other 
claims belonging to the Utica Company, 
and a description of the upper workings 
will show the general formation. 

The foot-wall is black slate, and hang- 
ing wall is diorite. 

One hundred and fifty feet away in the 
hanging wall, there is a decomposed ser- 
pentine rock. The hanging wall vein^ 
which is more regular, is in some places 
eight feet thick. No gouge separates it 

is mostly in the hanging wall vein. The 
slates on either side of the quartz are im- 
pregnated with sulphurets, and are 
worked for some distance in. These thin 
bands of quartz, alternating with leaf- 
hke talcose strata, form the body of the 
ribbon-like rock on either side of the 
main quartz deposits of this claim, and 
aisc of the Gold Cliff mine on the north. 
Its course is about the same as the Mad- 
ison. The dip is from 60 to 70 degrees 
northeast. It varies in width from ono 
10 four feet, and is groov:d and polished 


from the slates, which for some distance 
are intersected by small veins. The main 
vein averages three feet, with a thin 
gouge between it and the hanging wall 
van. \o well-defined foot-wall has 
been reached. The quartz is bunched 
and quite flat at times. The average dip 
is 43 degrees northeast. The massive 
portion of the quartz contains very few' 
sulphureis — the heavy mineralization be- 
ing on the foot-wall side. The free gold 

on its upper surface. A small vein, hav- 
ing a slight gouge, and a remarkably 
snvooth foot-wall, jcins this on the foot- 
wall side. TJie rock milled is the small 
vein, and the slates and ribbon-like 
quartz between it and the main ledge. 
which is not worked. Easi of it is a small 
pocket vein. This has no defined hang- 
ing wall, and the slates are mineralized 
i.nd intersected with quartz stringers for 
some distance. 




Things at the Tracy Mine, in the An- depth of 1,000 (eet. The two latter were 

gels Camp district, have a de- made in San Francisco expressly for the 

cidedly business-like appearance. Roads company. The machinery was put in 

have been built leading to the mine, the position under the personal supervision 


sitf for the works graded off, at>d sub- of Mr, Drown, and everything was found 

stantial buildings, covered with corru- to work like a charm. All the minor 

gited iron, have been erected thereon. details connected with the plant wen 

A forty-foot hoist has been put up over constructed with a view to econ(Hny and 

the shaft and the power consists of a 60 a saving of time and labor. 

borse-pow>er engine with eighty horse- The original shaft has been enlarged 

power boiler, capable of hoisting from a into one of two compartments, timbered 



atici boarded up in a substantial manner. 
The partition between the two compart- 
ments has been boarded up tightly so as 
to serve as a ventilator, the cold air in the 
natural order of things rushing down one 
compartment, driving the foul air and 
smoke from blasting up the other. This 
simple method is a great deal more ef- 
fective for straight sinking than the use 
of the artificial adr blast for shallow 

On New Year's day everything was 
coijipleted and in the evening the works 
were formally dedicated wifh a little 
ceremony before quite a crowd of inter- 
ested people. Woodson Garrard, W- 
W. Emery, and other miners who are 
authority in such matters, examined 
every detail of the works and pro- 
nounced them first class in every respect. 
Quite a number of people had gathered 
to witness the occasion. As the clock 
struck the hour of midnight, announcing 
the birth of the New Year, the first buck- 
et v/as lowered, and, as it descended into 
the shaA. Mrs. Dr. Lichau, one of the 
principal stock holders of the company, 

broke a bottle of champagne over it, 
toasting the future success of the mine. 
A spread was prepared in the open air, 
More champagne flowed (but not into 
the shaft) and many good wishes for the 
success of the property followed. 

Immediately after the dedication, 
about 3 a. m., a shift descended the shaft 
a:} J at once began sinking. The shaft is 
row 65 feet deep, and the intention is to 
go down about 400 feet before doing 
any cross-cutting. At that depth it is 
expected to tap the lead which crops out 
of the hill back of the works. In this 
vein, rock was found recently tihlat yield- 
ed fine returns; besides, there is reason 
to believe that other leads intersect at 
that point. Work is under the foreman- 
ship of Fred Brandt, a miner of wide ex- 
perience in quartz mining. 

Mostly all the stock of the company 
is held by German capital, and the cor- 
poration is a good substantial one. The 
promoters are very enthusiastic over 
the outlook, and believe with reason, 
that they have one of the best properties 
on the mother lode. 


The section of the county of Calaveras 
lying east of the Mother Lode is a re- 
gion that has not received the attention 
of mining men and capitalists that its 
merits deserve. 

This section comprises an area tra- 
versed by rich quartz veins, and channel 
deposits of auriferous gravd. It also 
contains marble, limestone, gypsum and 
iron in abundance, presenting a highly 
interesting field for investigation. 

The formation which contains the nu- 
merous gold-bearing veins is general!) 

a black, foliated and highly mineralized 
slate, with dikes and reefs of granite and 
limestone. Porphyritic and other rocks 
occasionally cut the foration ait varying 

The veins themselves are generally 
small as compared with those of the 
Mother Lode, but are of higher grade, 
botjh in free gold and sulphurets. 
From developments made, ledges vary- 
ing from a few inches in thickness, to 
ten, fifteen, and even twenty feet, have 
demonstrated the fact that in this zone 



are to be found a vast number of mines 
that, givefn the advanitages of skillful 
treaJtment, and comparaitively small capi- 
tal, would in a very short time largely 
inrease the number of dividend-paying 
gold properties, of wiiich Calaveras has 
furnished her full quota. 

At Murphys are a number of proper- 
ties, bodi placer and quartz, that are of 
late receiving mudi attention at the 
hands of capitalists. 

Those operating them are doing care- 
ful and consistent work, and are thus 
far realizing excellent results for the 
money expended. These mines lie in 
mica schists and quartzite phthanite of 
the Calaveras formation, east and west 
of the limestone reef that runs tfhrough 
the town of Murphys, and thence to 
Coltmibia in Tuoluimne county. 

In the East Belt near Murphys is the 
Sperry Iron Mine, containing a large 
deposit of iron ore, hardly touched. The 
dike varies from 50 to 100 feet, and can 
be traced for housands of feet. 

A deposit of Chrome Iron is found 
in the Page-Cutting property, fully 
equal in dimensions to the above. 

Marble, gypsum and carbonate of 
lime also occur in large deposits. 

In addition (bo the Buckhom group, 
the May Day, the Carley and the Mc- 
Neor mines, and many others may be 
mentioned in this locality, making a good 
showing, among which are the "Summit 
Blue," Yaller Kid," "Root Hog or Die/' 
"Beatrice," "Total Wreck," "Fair Play," 
"Shaw," "Dora," and "Gum Boots." 

About five miles east of Murphys lie 
the Collierville mines, which have for 
years attracted attention by reason of 
the gold specimens that have been tak- 
en out. The various claims arc all 
worthy of consideration and inspection. 

On Indian Creek is situated the Old 

Calaveras g^oup, comprising die Oro 
Minto, Enchantress and South Bank. 

To the east of the above group arc 
the Hercules, Driver, Hcnnestake, Sono- 
ma, Rose Rock, Big Horn and other 
mines, eacii and all estimated by iheir 
respective owners to be valuable posses- 
sions. Many would undoubtedly prove 
good mines, if opened and developed on 
a practical basis. 

To the west, on the ridge between In- 
dian and San Antone creeks, is the 
Golden Bell mine, formerly known as 
the Washington, when it was for years 
successfully worked by Samuel Woods 
of San Antone. The Esmeralda mine, 
near the town of the same name, has 
been prospected by two shafts 100 feet 
and 400 feet respectively in depth, the 
latter being the deepest shaft sunk on 
any of the properties thereabouts, as it 
is essentially a tunnel region. 

Three ore shoots have been explored, 
eadh of which is between one and two 
hundred feet in length. The course of 
the vein is a little north of west and 
south of east, averaging from three to 
four feet in width and has a northerly 
dip of about 68 degrees. 

The walls are both of Calaveras slate, 
and the water flow about 13,000 gallons 

North of the Esmeralda, and occupy- 
ing a corresponding position upon the 
summit of the ridge between the San 
Antone and O'Neill creeks, a large group 
of claims has been located, the Colum- 
bus and Rochester, two patented mines 
owned by D. Fricot, forming the nu- 
cleus. These mines were patented a 
number of years ago, and the develop- 
ment work done at that time oi>ened up 
a large vein of excellent ribbon quartz 
with free gold. 

A tunnel is now being driven upon 



the Albany, the west extension of the 
Rochester, to tap this vein, the former 
development having been wholly by 

The Grace Darling, owned by Mr. Ed. 
Moores, and tJhe Coralie Mine, owned 
by Mr. H. W, Pemiiman, of San An- 
dreas, are among the promising prop- 

The Bigney, Hobart, Bullion, Golden 
Star and Marpheus shiould also be men- 

The facilities for economic opera- 
tion are umeqiialled, with ample back^ for 
tunneling, and cheap waiter the year 
round under lour hundred feet piiessure. 
As with those previously mentioned, the 
course of the vein is nearlv east and 

North of O'Neil's creek, there is a re- 
gion literally netted w<th veins, contain- 
ing many shoots of high grade ore. In 
common with other portions of the East 
belt, this section, known as the Wash- 
ington Ranch Mining District, !ias been 
sadly neglected, many of the claims 
showing better surface indication than 
did the majority of the great gold pro- 
ducing mines of to-day, when in a like 
stage of development. Only a few of 
these properties can here be described. 
There are many oitihers witih prospects as 
good, both located and awaiting an 

The Bigney Quartz Mitie is 
owned by Wm. Casey, Jr., & Co., of 
.San Andreas. The ledge which out- 
crops plainly the entire length of the 
claim, is of a ribbon character and aver- 
ages three feet in width. It runs cast 
and west between a hanging wall of 
siliceous shist, with a dip to the north. 
The quartz carries free gold wiili few 

Ninety feet to the south of the main 

vein, another ledge, which in its exten- 
sion, is known as the Howard, can also 
be traced the length of the claim. 

A tunnel of 600 feet would cut both 
of these ledges, giving between 400 and 
500 feet backs. 

Treat's ditch, carrying over 500 inches 
of water crosses through the highest 
portion of the claim, affording ample 
water suppdy, which could be utilized 
under a high head. 

Howard Quartz Mine adjoins the 
Bigney upon the west and i^ the 
property of J. B. Seibrean & Co., of 
San Andreas. The vein, which is four 
feet in width, has been developed by a 
60-foot tunnel and an open cut of 25 
feet. The character of the ore is ribbon 
quartz, carrying both free gold and sul- 
phurets. The trend of the vein is east 
and west between walls of state. 

The Washington Quartz Mine is 
the property of W. F. & E. L. 
Binum of San Andreas. The vein is 
three feet in width between a hanging 
wall of mica shist and foot wall of por- 
phyry. A shaft thirty-five feet in depth 
has been sunk in the opening. The ore 
taken out prospected well in free goKl, 
besides a large percentage of sulphurets. 

The Bonanza Quartz Mine, the Ho- 
bart Mine, the BuHHoin Mine, the Go-lden 
Star, and the Morpheus may be men- 
tioned as mines deserving of work. 
Wonder Quartz Mine adjoins the 
Bonanza. The ledge is in highly 
mineralized Mack slate, witsh por- 
phyry foot wall and carries a persistent 
gouge, also rich in sulphurets and free 
gold. The devlopment consists of a 
shaft of 43 feet, with a drift along the 
vein of 35 feet ,al'SO a 150 foot tunnel. 

Six miles to the east of the 
Washington Ranch district, lying on 
the ridge between San Antone and 



O'Neil's creeks, is the famous Sheep 
Ranch Mine. 

This property has been worked to a 
greater deptfh than any other mine in 
this part of the county. lit has pro- 
duced over two million, and has a world- 
wide reputation. The lowest level is 
twelve hundred feet from the surface, 
and though the vein in this mine is 
small, aveiraging probably not over eight 
inches in thickness, it has been so uni- 
formly rich as to utterly disj>rove the 
idea that "shoe string" ledges do not 
make paying mines. It is essentially a 
"poor man's mine/* having paid from 
the grass roots to its lowest levels, while 
a twenity-stamp mill in twenty years of 
constant running did not exhaust the 
ore reserves. Torday the shoots and 
levels are many of them full of rich 
ore, and it will require mew ma- 
chinery and perhaps a modem mo- 
tive power to again place the mine 
on a working basis. This prop- 
erty supported a population in the town 
of Sheep Ranch of about eight hundred 
people in yesars past, and it is now cur- 
rently reported that operations will be 
resumed the coming spring. The ledge 
in this mine as in many others in this 
section lies east and west, though the 
course of most of the veins is with the 
trend of the slates. The ore is free mill- 
ing, having no sulphurets in sufficient 
quantity to justify the erection of a con- 
cenitrating plant. 

In the vicinity of the town of Sheep 
Ranch are other claims upon which 
more or less work has been done, but 
are now lying idle for want of capital to 
open them. The Piocbe, Ohavanne, 
Smiley, and Lost Boy are all well known 
prospects, the owners of which are con- 
fident of their value. North of O'Neil's 
creek and in the vicinitv of Mountain 

Ranch and Cave City, is found a net 
work of claims mostly in the hands of 
the original claiimants. 

But little development has been done 
here, though the showing in many of 
the claims is very good. The Golden 
Eagle, Anderson, Grub Stake, McPhor- 
son, El Dorado, Wiley Bros., North 
Star, Gaston Hill, Alpine, Starlight, Me- 
teor, Rose Hill, Ritter, O'Hara, claims 
of D. Fillippini and others are all 
mines showing prospects sufficiently 
good to warrant the prediction that 
some day they will become producing 

The Little Hero Quartz Mine shows 
a two-foot vein of ribbon quartz run- 
ning northeast and southwest in a fissure 
of the Calaveras slates. A. L. Wyllie, 
of San Andreas, who owns the property, 
has developed it by a shaft of sixty feet 
and eighty feet of tunnel 

The Live Oak Quartz Mine, situated 
in t»his district, is supposed by some to be 
upon the same vein as the above. G. 
Tisoornia & Co., of San AnKkeas, are the 
owners and have developed the claim 
by 125 feet of tunnel. The vein here 
shows four feet in width and carries a 
six inch gouge. 

Between the Jesus Maria and Esper- 
anza creeks, is loca/ted a series of mines 
manv of them of recent discoverv, 
which are attracting considerable atten- 
tion. Here development work is being 
done, ores are being milled, and other- 
wise tested and indications are favorable 
for a promising mining district The 
same general characteristics as to for- 
mation, size of veins, value of ores, etc., 
apply to this district, as to those farther 
south in the same belt. The well known 
Greek mine, lying on the brow of the hills 
facing Jesus Maria creek is the most ex- 
tensively developed mine in this group. 



A five stamp mill, concentrators, hoist- 
ing works, etc., are already in place on 
the ground, and work is being pushed 
day and night. This ledge, like the 
Sheep Ranch, is an east and west one, 
but unlike that mine, carries a large per- 
centage of high grade sulphurets. There 
have been found many pockets or 
bunches of exceedingly rich quartz in 
this mine, though the average ore is 
quite uniform, carrying from ten to 
twenty dollars in gold per ton. 

The Potriftr and Paul, Belisle and 
Roy, Shady Side, Cook and Lamb and 
Lester mines are new locations showing, 
veins of from one to six feet, though 
the claims are but little developed. 

There are a great many other mines 
in this vicinity which are in the hands 
of men of limited means, that will 
compare favorably with those al- 
ready mentioned, while lying west at 
Whisky Slide and Jesus Maria are nu- 
merous prospects in both quartz and 
gravel. North of the Esperanza creek 
and the town of Railroad Flat is the 
continuation of the ledges traced from 
the south to this section. Here are many 
claims undeveloped, and yet showing fair 
prospects. The Chapman mine was one 
of the earliest worked, but no larq^e 
amount of development has been done 
on it. The Bismarck, Sanderson, Key- 
stone, Prussian Hill, Kangaroo, Boire, 
Bald Eagle, and itthe well known Petti- 
coat Mine are all in the prospect stage 
of development, except the last named., 
which is being actively worked, under 
the superintendency of W. H. Clary, Jr., 
formerly of the Sheep Ranch mine. This 
property, after passing through many 
phases, both good and bad, and lying 
idle for nearly twenty years, has been 
reopened, and now, under intelligent 
management and modern methods, 

proved to be one of the best quartz mines 
in eastern Calaveras. 

Situated in the granite belt, north- 
east of Railroad Flat, is the village oi 
West Point, truly named, the **Pour 
Man's Camp." There are few mining 
districts that have yielded such quanti- 
ties of gold as this, and in so continuous 
a flow since the early fifties. In tiie 
days of placer mining in one of the many 
gulches known aiS Sandy Gulch, from 
fifty to two hundred dollars per day to 
the man was taken out, and after the pay 
was supposed to have been exhausted, 
three men in six weeks at the head of 
the gulch cleaned up the sum of $5,000. 
Btwt West Point's cx>ntinuou5 out- 
put of gold has come from in 
numerable bunches or pockets in 
quartz, that have been found every- 
where th'roughout the district, and 
if the amount thus taken out by indus- 
trious prospectors could be acciu^ately 
stated, it would number millions of dol- 
lars. On some leads, the miners' monu- 
ments or dumps can be counted by hun- 
dreds, but the early miners rarely sunk 
below water level or into hard ground 
and there are hundreds of rich ore 
shoots extending deep into the granite 
that in the near future may become pay- 
ing mines. 

There is ample latent power in the 
many small, swift rivers that should be 
conserved to the service of the miner 
While this section contains no single 
large mine, it has had many good paying 
properties, only a few of which can here 
be mentioned; they are, however, typi- 
cal of the remainder. The mines aie in 
a granite belt striking north and south, 
which is at least six or seven miles wide. 
Southward' the granite is replaced by 
dioritic and homblendic «3ck, w'hile 
through the granitic area numerous 



dikes of fine-gained, dark-green diorite 
are found, having an east and west 
trend. Dikes of diorite oJ light green- 
ish gray cok>r, and coarse texture also 
occur, striking nearly north and south, 
and often accompanying important veins 
of the district. 

The Texas Mine was early discovered 
by people from Texas and was exceed- 
ingly rkh on the surface. Samples of 
ore from Ohiis mine yielded large re- 
turns, but the total output is unknown 

The Lone Star Mine, located four 
miles west of West Point, is the proper- 
ty of The Hurley Gold Mining Co of 
Wisconsin, but is at present being oper- 
ated by the Farrington Co., who employ 
twenty-five men. The veins, of which 
there are two important ones, are 50 
to 140 feet apart, strike a little east of 
north and dip generally to the west. 
The bunches of quartz which constitute 
the veins occur as replacements in the 
granite, crushed between a series of 
fault planes, some of which are nearly 
perpendicular and parallel, and a second 
series which pitch to the west at an ai^ 
gle of 15 to 40 degrees. The ore chutes 
have a pitch to the north at an angle of 
30 degrees. The sulphide minerals are 
iron, zinc and lead. A large percent- 
age of magnetic iron is also present Tlie 
development of this property is exten- 
sive, aggregating over 7000 linear feet. 

The Lockwood Mine is situated about 
three miles northwest of West Point. 
The course of the vein is northwest and 
southeast; the dip is westerly at the sur- 
face, but at a very small angle from the 
perpendicular and at the lowest work- 
ings is vertical. The average width of 
ore throughout is about three feet. The 
vein is cut by a dike of greenstone from 
two to six feet thick, nearly at right an- 
gles to it, and pitching slightly to the 

south. This dike has made no difference 
apparently in the character of the ore, 
which is the same on both sides. 7^lis 
mine has beien enormously rich in poc- 
kets of free gold, while the regular ore 
averages about six per cent in sulphurets, 
worth $50 per ton. 


The Kehz Mine is situated on the 
\orth Fork of the Mokelumne River, 
about four miles northeast of West 
Point and still bears the name of llie 
discoverer. Mr. Keltz sold the mine to 
a San Francisco company, who worked 
the property for two years, and during 



this short period it p^id for itself many 
times over. For some unknown cau'^ the 
mine was then allowed to remain idle 
until last summer (1897). 

The vein is in a simple fissure, six to 
eighteen inches wide in granite, and runs 
north and south. The ore is heavilv sul- 
phuretted, and is shipped to the Selby 
smelter. The mine is worked by a series 
of tunnels, the lowest, whic'h will have 
about five hiundred feet backs, is now in 
235 feet. A winze is being sunk 150 feet 
from the surface and has ten inches of 
good ore in the bottom. There are at 
present twelve men employed. John S. 
Morgan of San Francisco, owner. 

The Paragon group of mines, situated 
on the Licking Fork, three miles south- 
east of West Point, comprises the Tip- 
top, Mountain View, La Palomactta and 
Paragon kxrations. It is being worked 
by a number of tunnels, the lowest of 
which, when completed, will have upon 
the La Palomacita about 400 ft. backs. 
It is now about 300 feet in length on the 
line of the lode, and has already struck 
a four foot vein of high grade sulphur- 
etted ore. 

The Mountain View and La Paloma- 
cita were extensively worked upon the 
surface in the early days, and yielded 
many thousands of dollars. The Tip- 
top is being worked by two tunnels, 
while a 300 ft. tramway takes the ore 
to the mill. Five stamps and two con^ 
centratore are at present in operation, 
and five more stamps are being put in. 
An electric light plant and telephone 
system have been installed, and twenty 
men are given employment. S. Bow- 
man, P. L. Shuman and J. L. Haley are 
the proprietors. 

The Woodhouse Mine, situated be- 
tween the Middle and South Forks of 
the Mokelumne River, has yielded a 

large amount of bullion. It is worked 
by tunnels from each river, opening a 
ledge that is in places from six to eight 
inches wide, carrying $14 per ton in free 

The Mountain Boy Quartz Mine, sit- 
uated on the North Fork of the Middle 
Fork of the Mokelumne river, has been 
opened by two tunnels. The first 100 
feet in length, crosscut three veins re- 
spectively 12, 22 and 18 inches wide. 
The second, 142 feet long, has been run 
to tap a fourth vein at a depth of 90 feet, 
but has not as yet reached it. All of 
these veins run northwesterly and south- 
easterly with prominent outcroppings 
continuing on the extensions in botn di- 
rections. The country formation is 
granite. This claim is owned by W. P. 
Sargent and Alex Crawford of San An- 
dreas, who, besides owning the exten- 
sions, the Chimmie Fadden and Turro- 
bred, have a number of other properties 
in this district, namely, the Sparticus 
Beautycus, His Whiskers, Mamie, Mc- 
Haley and Hungry Higgins Quartz 
mines, all of which present encouraging 

Situated on the so-called East belt of 
Calaveras county and parallel to the 
Mother Lode at a distance of about five 
miles, lie the well known group of mines 
now popularly called the "Esmeralda'* 
Mines, and including the '^Esmeralda," 
"K. J.," "Cuneo," and "Bonehard'* 
Quartz Mines. They are situated in a 
slate formation that is similar to the fa- 
mous '*Sheep Ranch" Quartz Mine and 
containing a strong well-defined quartz 
vein of ribbon rock, averaging in width 
about six feet, and which has been ex- 
posed throughout this entire group. 

The ^'Esmeralda" Mine lies on the ex- 
treme east, on what is called Indian 
Creek, and the "Cuneo" Mine on the 



west, on what is called the San An tone 
Creek, while between the two is the "K. 
J.," and on the east is the "Bonehard," 
lying on a high ridge dividing the two 
creeks. This situation has rendered these 
mines particularly attractive by reason 
of the fact that it affords an economical 
and convenient means of developing 
them through tunnels run from either 
creek, which will tap the ore deposits at 
a depth of about five hundred feet. 

The ''Esmeralda" Mine, proper, has 
been extensively developed by Hon. 
John F. Davis, of Amador County, its 
present owner, through a shaft sunk over 
four hundred feet in depth, and numer- 
ous drifts which have exposed and 
opened up large and extensive ore 
chutes which have already netted Judge 
Davis and his former partners a large 
sum of money. 

On the ''Cuneo" property, a tunnel 
has been driven in on this same fissure 
vein, which has demonstrated that the 
ore chutes and deposits are to be found 
ontheSanAntone side of the group, and 
demonstrate that there must be extensive 
ore bodies between the "Esmeralda" and 
**Cuneo" Mines, lying within the limits 
of the "K. J." and ''Bonehard" Mines. 

Another interesting feature in connec- 
tion with these mines is the fact that run- 
ning parallel to this main fissure vein, 
which has been commonly termed the 
** Esmeralda" Lode, are two other strong 
veins, lying within the limits of the claim 
and at a distance of about sixty feet 
apart, which have been sufHciently de- 

veloped to show the existence of strong 
pay chutes. These veins can be readily 
worked in connection with the main lode 
so that these mines pratically consist of 
three well-defined veins, at distances of 
about sixty feet apart, all of which can be 
economically worked through one shaft 
or tunnel. The ore contained within 
these veins is the same as usually found 
in the East Belt, being a high grade, 
free milling, and the sulphurets being 
very rich. In this particular it differs 
from the so-called Mother Lode veins in 
the fact that the latter are usually low 
grade, but contain much more extensive 
and broader ore deposits. 

When it is remembered that the now 
famous "Sheep Ranch" Quartz Mine, 
which is situated about three miles from 
this group, was worked to a depth of 
twelve hundred feet, and many millions 
of dollars extracted therefrom, it will not 
be surprising to the many people familiar 
with this group to know that at an early 
date they will rank among the first gold 
producers of Calaveras county. Judge 
Davis, the owner, has had very tempt- 
ing offers submitted to him, but he has 
thus far refused them all, believing that 
with a comparatively small outlay he, 
himself, can place the properties upon a 
basis that will yield to him large and 
long continuing profits. 

None of the mines have been proved 
in depth, but no one has the knowledge 
to determine whether they "go down" 
or not. The investor must take his 
chances on that problem. 



Skirting along the edge of the great 
eastern quartz bearing area is the large 
well defined Fort Mountain Gravel 
Channel, wifh its numerous tributaries, 
a lava capped ancient river bed. having 
its source high in the Sierra \evada and 
coursing thence along the upper foot 
hitls of the main range, across the sev- 

Fort Mountain Channel is of a blue, 
partially cemented character, similar to 
that of the Forest Hill Divide and thr 
dead rivers of Nevada and Placer coun- 
ties. The portions of this channel lying 
remote from the water courses of the 
present day, have been almost entirely 
overlooked, while those sections worked 


eral branches of the Mokelumne river, 
southerly across the Esperanza and Je- 
sus Maria creeks, down past the towns 
of Mountain Ranch to Cave City, where 
it apparently met an obstruction and 
turned sharply to the west, running 
through Old Gulch. Washington Ranch 
and Calaveritas to a junction with the 
Central Hill channel fn'm Vallecin and 
wontinuing to San Andreas, tnence west 
where it joined the large channels com- 
ing in from Mokelumne Hill and Chili 
Gulch, soon to be lost in the great val- 
leys below. The gravel found in the 

have in every instance given rise to 
flourishing mining camps immediate- 
ly below such crossing. From the South 
Fork of the Mokelumne River to Cave 
City, but four openings, in a distance of 
sixteen miles, have been made, that may 
be said to have determined the extent 
and character of the gravel bed lying 
below the lava cap. At the Martin, or 
Table Mountain Mine, near Mountain 
Ranch, a shaft has been sunk to bed 
rock a distance of about forty-five feet 
Considerable drifting and crosscutting 
has been done, exposing a large and well 



defined blue gravel deposit, carrying 
gold in paying quantities. A five stamp 
mill and hoisting works are on the 
ground ready to operate as soon as suf- 
ficient water for power can be obtained. 
The Bessellla Mine is equipped for hy- 
draulic work, piping during the water 
season, the gravel lying along the 
rims of the channel. Powder is 
used on this property tx) blow up 
the bank, and owing to the ce. 
mented character of tlie ground, there 
must be a considerable loss of gold 
in this nuetbod. The mine is, how- 
ever, provided with a ten stamp. wate> 
power mill, and the owners intend to 
drift the property, when the piping sihall 
have been carried into the deeper, lava 
capped portions of the mines. 

The Banner Blue Gravel Mine, a typi- 
cal property of this class, is situated on 
th-e Jesus Maria creek, and comprises 
a claim of one and one half males. 
It has been opened by a double 
ccimpartnuent shaft sixty-three feet 
deep to bed rock. A crosscut one 
hundred and ten feet in length has 
been made, and amain gangway or drift 
run up the channel three hundred and 
fifty feet. The gravel, of which some 
three thousand tons have been breasted 
and worked, is partially oemenited and 
bltje. It carries from 25 to 40 per cent of 
boulders, large quantities of magnetic 
black sand, and sulphides of iron. A 
miner can break down in the breasts 
from three to four tons per shift of ten 
hours, six to eight feet of gravel in depth 
being extracted. The gravel pays from 
$3 to $4 per ton and is mined and milled 
at a cost of $1 to 1.25 per ton. 

The Best Chance, Sugar Loaf, and 

Bingham Valley placer mines of 160 
acres each, lie north of the Banner and 
extend along the channel from a point 
south of Esperanza crrek to Caiaveras 
Valley near Railroad Flat. Tnese claims 
wliich cover two and a half miles of the 
Fort Mountain Channel, were located in 
November, 1897, by J. L. Lester of Rail- 
road Flat, and others. A double com- 
partment working shaft is being sunk 
through the lava at Esperanza creek, that 
will reach bed rock at about 100 feet. 

The Lava Bed Mine is opened by a 
shaft to bed rock, eighty-five iccc deep. 
The most extensive work at any point 
on the channel has been done on this 
property. The channel has been drifted 
and breasted for about six hundred feet, 
exposing an extensive body of slisjhtly 
cemented blue gravel. In the extraction 
of the gravel, powder is uSed only to 
break an occasional large boulder or to 
cut Hown a high point of bed reck. The 
mine is equipped with a steam power 
hoist and five stamp mill. The gravel is 
very high grade in many pares of the 
mme, yielding as much as $20 per ton. 
The property is extensive and promises 
to be very valuable. At and near tne 
town of Railroad Flat are several mines. 
Tnnber is abundant and of gO'"' quali- 

In the foregoing description of th.e 

mineral resources of this portion of Cala- 
veras county, but a few of the entire 
number of mines have been mentioned. 
As compared with other mining sections 
of the State of California, this region is 
scarcely touc*hed. Here is almost a vir- 
gin field that should be peculiarly in^ 
teresting and worthy the attention of the 
mine buyer of moderate means 



Carson Hill, the extreme southerly 
end of Calaveras county, through which 
the Mother Lode passes, is an historic 

Carson Ravine and Squirrel Gulch, 
were very rirfi in placer gold, which 
was fed from the erosion of the ledges. 
Tlie Morgan mine, situated on bhe 
northerly slope, was fabulously rich, and 

tiuns the fact that three of these proper- 
ties were being worked profitably in 
iS6y. They are now under bond to an 
Eastern corporation, and are being de- 
veloped by tunnels and shafts. It is the 
opinion of most mining men who have 
examined this section of the Mother 
Lode, that with the oppCMlunities £ot 
cheap power, ore can be mined and 


from this property the largest piece of 
gold ever taken out of a mine in the 
United States, was extracted. On the 
south, and adjoining the Morgan mine, 
lies the mines belonging to the Melones 
Consolidated Mining Company. This 
group, which consists of the "Reserve," 
"Enterprise," "Melones," Keystone," 
"Mineral Mountain" and "Stanislaus," 
extends to the Stanislaus river. In J. 
Ross Browne's report, made for the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury in 1868, he men- 

milled at a profit, which will yield $3 per 
ton. The "Iron Rock Mine," the "Fin- 
nigan," the "Carson Mine," known as 
the "South Carolina," and the "Ade- 
laide Mine" are situated also on Carson 
Hill, on the middle and east vein;* of the 
Mother Lode. On the west vein, to the 
west of Carson Hill, lie the properties 
belonging to the Calaveras Gold Mining 
Company, Ltd. The East Lode had a 
dip on the surface of about fifty degrees, 
but at a depth of two hundred feet on 




the Reserve Mine, it straightens up to 
sixty-seven degrees. A strange condi- 
tion exists on the East vein, in that the 
vein proper (which varies from five to 
ten feet in width) carries httle, if any. 
vahie; but the talc slate in the footwall 
country, which is impregnated with sul- 
phurets, carries values to a width of forty 
feet and over, similar to the Utica 
Stickle Mines, and which will pay to 
mill. In fact, on the Reserve Mine, ore 
was extracted in open cut work to a 

width of one hundred feet, and milled at 
a profit. A green stone belt lies on th» 
east side of the East lode, several hun- 
dred feet distant from the vein on the 
Adelaide mine on t!he Stanislaus river, 
\'ery rich telluride ores have been ex- 
tr.icted from the Stanislaus Mine, and 
scientific investigation by mineralogists 
hat failed to determine what kind ol tel- 
lurium it really is. Assays made of thW 
tclli'ride of gold show a value of over 
Sto,ooo per ton. 





Cadaveras county possesses not only 
one but both of the largest Air Com- 
pressors in the State of California. The 
first one was in-stalled at the Utica Mine, 
at Angels Camp, and consists of four 
i8x24-in. air cylinders, placed tandem to 
each other and driven from a water wheel 
under a head of about 565 feet. This 
compressor furnishes air for the rock 
drills and pumps of the Utica Mine. 

The second Compressor has been re- 
cently installed at the Gwin Mine, in Cal- 
averas county, and is an extremely inter- 
esting and economic installation of com- 
pressed air for mining purposes. 

The situation of the Gwin Mine is such 
that it naturally suggested a power plant 
either electrical or compressed air. The 
Crwin Mine is situated in a canyon, aboui 
5.000 feet distant from the Mokelumne 
River and 425 feet vertically therefrom. 

The mechanical operations at the 
Gmn Mine are actuated by water power 
from a ditch running on the hillside 
above the mine, at an elevation of some- 
v/hat over 400 feet. This water drives 
the 40-9tamp mill, and the hoisting works 
at the new shaft, and supplies such other 
uses of the water as are necessary 
aiound the mine, amounting in all to 
about 230 inches. 

The Gwin mine shlaft is a new vertical 
shaft, about 1450 feet deep and it is 
about 100 feet distant from the old shaft, 
through which a veritable bonanza was 
taken by the early day miners. 

The drifts from the new shaft have ap- 
proached dangerously near the old work 
ings and I believe in some instances the 
new drifts are beneath the old mine 
which has been full of water for the last 
twenty years. 

The desirability of draining this mine, 
both for matters of safety, and to 
turn it into an air shaft, broug-ht 
forward the problem of utilizing 
the tail- water running from the va- 
rious workings aibout the mine down 
the canyon to the Mokelumne river. It 
was evident that here was a splendid op- 
portunity to pick up a considerable 
ainount of power with the simple cost of 
the investment in the plant. 230 inches of 
water falling the distance to the Mokel- 
umne river has a potential of not less 
than 230 h. p., just about ' the same 
amount that was used around the mine. 
After taking estimates and bids and con- 
sidering the situation in general, the 
CI win .Mine Development Co. decided 
upon compressed air as being the most 
flexible power for the purposes intended, 
and the installation has been completed 
in what I believe to be a thoroughly 
satisfactory manner to the company. The 
water is first caught up from the mill 
and hoisting works, in a large redwood 
tank, holding 75,000 gallons, situated 
just below the tail water of the mill. 
From this tank a 1 5-inch steel pipe con- 
\eys the water 4500 feet to the power 
house, situated on tJie bank of the Mo- 
kelumne river. It is here applied under 
a pressure of about 181 pounds to the 
scjuare inch, upon a Pelton water wheel 
nineteen feet in diameter, making eighty 
revolutions p>er minute at its normal 

The compressor is the same size as tihe 
I'tica, viz., a Rix Horizontal Compress- 
or, having four 18x24 air cylinders. The 
la.^t two cylinders, however, have not 
been placed in f>osition, the work at 
present simply requiring the use of the 



first two cylinders. The air is com- 
pressed to about 85 pounds to the inch 
and carried through 6500 feet of 6-inch 
sted pipe to the old shaft, following the 
old pipe line gprade. At the old shaft 
the air enters two large air receivers 
four feet in diameter and twenty feet 
long each, and is distributed from there 
down the shaft to the pumps, and to a 
double lo-inch hoist which was installed 
at the same time for the purpose of clear- 
ing out the old shaft. 

The water from the old shaft stood 
\viihin a few feet of the surface. A Wor- 
tliington Duplex Sinking Pump, of a 
capacity of 1 50 gallons a minute, was put 
to work as soon as the compressor plant 
started, and at the present time of writ- 
injT^ the water has been lowered consid- 
erably below the 600 foot level, and the 
brge compound Worthington station 
punjp is about in position and ready to 
start. This compound pump will handle 
all the water of the 600, and the sinking 
punip will follow along down the shaft 
delivering water to the 600 foot level. At 
the 1200 foot level there will be another 
station pump from the upper station to 
handle the water, which accumulates be- 
low the upper station. 

The pumps started on or about No- 
vember 8th of last year, and have been 
continuously working during these past 
n-nety days, and the ease with which the 
whole work has been accomplished and 
the small amount of power it compara- 
tively has taken, should be good evidence 
tliat compressed air is the proper thing 
for this character of work. 

The compressor has been making an 
average of from 30 to 45 revolutions, in- 
creasing gradually as the sinking pump 
lowered the water. At the same time the 
hoist has been doing the work of clear- 
ing out the shaft, lowering new timbers. 

men, pipes, pumps, etc. There is an am- 
ple quantity of power, generously ap- 
plied, and there has not been in connec- 
tion with this work the usual delavs, 
mishaps and disappointments. 

!t is the intention of the Mine to re- 
heat the air in the compound pump at 
the 600 foot level, and also to reheat tlie 
air for the hoist, or any other work it 
may be compelled to do, so as to make 
the matter an economical one at the 
time when the compressor reaches some- 
whi re the limit of its capacity. This, how- 
ever, will be somewhere in the future. 

After the old shaft is drained and con- 
nection made wilih the new shaft, it will 
be used as an air shaft and compressed 
air will be used to run the main hoist of 
the mine, thus saving the water now be- 
ing purchased for that purpose. There is 
no appreciable loss from one end of this 
system to the other, the gauges register- 
ing practically the same. There is, how- 
evor. a slight difference, due principally 
to the difference of elevation. 

It would seem to me, that an inspec- 
tion of this plant by mine owners who 
have water power and contemplate using 
it in their mine, would satisfy them as 
to its desirability and utility. 

The economic power is not that pow- 
er which shows a high rate of economy 
for a two minute meastirement ; it is the 
power which costs less for a 24-hour 
service Wherein a proper credit has been 
given for its utility. No power can be 
made to yield a high economy until it 
it property used. A tangential water 
wheel must be speeded to 50 per cent 
of the spoil/ting velocity of the water in 
order to give the 85 per cent efficiency 
claimed by the builders, and it would be 
?^ sensible to judge of the economy of 
this wheel when running at 25 per cen* 
of the spouting velocity as it would to 



judge of the economy of compressed air 
where it is not used expansively. Un- 
fortunately, utility demands the service 
of air at all prices and hazards, and while 
the results have justified the means, still 
a little patience and investigation migiit 
result, where the inauguration of a com- 
pressed air plant is concerned, in obtain- 
ing a plant that, over and beyond the 
question of utility, would be extremely 
economical. Perhaps it is because air, 
as we find it in Nature, is so abundant 
and free, that it suggests the carelessness 
with which it is used in ordinary opera- 
tions, but certain it is that if more air 
is wanted miderground, the compressor 
is speeded to all it will stand, but little 
thought is given to stopping the waste 
in the air being used. It is only recently 
that mine owners are beginning to asf: 
about economic machines for the use 
of compressed air. 

In the installation of a compressed air 
plant, the duty of the purchaser does not 
end in selecting a compressor which he 
believes to be best adapted for his pur- 
poses. His duty really begins when he 
commences to install it and to use the 
air which it supplies. There cannot 
be a difference of more than ten 
per cent between the relative econ- 
omies of most of the compressors man- 
ufactured by the standard builders 
throughout the United States, but there 
can be a difference of more than this 
amount made in simply piping the com- 
pressor to the receivers, if it is done im- 
properly, let alone sending the air two 
or three thousand feet underground. 

Too much attention cannot be proper- 
ly given to the installation of the plant. 
A little less money spent on the com- 
pressor, and a little more on the receivers 
would often give a better power result. 

Tt has been consideied good p.nctice 

until recently, to establish with a single 
ic-inch compressor an air receiver 3 feet 
in diaimeter by 12 feet long, holding 
about 85 cubic feet, but this is far too 
small as a general rule, and with this 
compressor there should go a receiver 
about 4 feet in diameter by 20 feet long, 
holding 240 cubic feet, which is about 
three times the former capacity. The 
diiTerence between these two receivers 
vould enable the lo-inch » compressor 
thai is limited ordinarily to driving two 
rock drills, to have a capacity for aboui 

It is an important thing to have large 
conduits throughout the mine, and down 
the shaft, and no one-inch pipe convey- 

mg air. 

The difference in economy between 
using air cold and reheated is about 50 
per cent. This tells its own story, and 
if by using air cold one has nearly 
reached his power limit, by properly re- 
heating it can be increased to that ex- 

Many suppose that reheating cannot 
be done UTiderground. A ver>' little inves- 
tigation into the matter will show that 
there are few mines vn the State, where 
undcTground reheating cannot be suc- 
cessfully installed. There are mines in 
this State reiheating at 1600 feet, 
and at a thousand feet, and many 
below five hundred feet. This re- 
heating can either be done with oil, 
or coke or wood, depending entirely 
upon the nature of the air currents in 
tlie mine. The users of compressed air 
for pumping in mines have been com- 
pel.ed to employ the direct acting steam 
pump, whidi is an extremely wasteful 
engine, because the compound pump 
would freeze up. In the present method 
of reheating, compound pumps cam eas- 
ily be employed, saving fully 50 per cent 



of the air used for actuating them. 

The use of compressed air in mines is 
constantly expanded. A very interesting 
and novei proposition is now being dem- 
onstrated by the writer, for one of the 
principal mines in this Staite, on the sub- 
ject of mine haulage. Compressed air 

nrutors will be installed on the 2,000, I,- 
800 and 1.600 ft, levels of the mine, lo 
haul trains of ore cars from the face of 
the workings about one-half mile to the 
shaft, reducing the expense of hauling, 
f.-iini twenty-five cents per ton to five 


V/ater forms the agency of greater 
utility than any other in mining opera- 
tions. It is equally indispensable in th& 
primitive processes of panning and 
cradling, as it is in the more modern 
methods of hydraulicing. concentrating; 
or chlorinating. More than these, it at 
once furnishes power for the operation 
of hoists, rock breakers, stamps, concen- 
traitors, and every other power consum- 
ing device about a mill, in addition to 
its a'bsolute imperative uses for domes- 
tic irrigation, or fire protection purposes. 
Indeed, mining forms no exception to 
the inflexible truth that existetvce with- 
out, water is impossible. 

Calaveras county, with its many 

square miles of area, constitutes a terri- 
tory that is considerably diversified topo- 
graphically, and within its confines the 
low lands of the valley, the rollingcoun- 
try of tile foothills, or the wild rugged 
grandeur of the mighty Sierras. It has 
the finest of farm and orchard lands, the 
densest of forests, and, during the 
months of Summer and Fall, what ap- 
pears to be the dryest and most barren 
of soils, and indeed, its diversification is 
such, that while some portions of the 
country have only sufficient water for do- 
mestic purposes, its suf^ly being inade- 
quate for power, other and more favor- 
.ible sections of the county have an abun- 
dance of water for every imaginable pur- 



pose and, better still, the water is car- 
ried in canals that are unitormly run on 
the crests of mountain ridges, so as to 
enable every point of land to be reached 
and so as to be in a position to furnish 
water at the highest possible head for 
power purposes. The northern border 
of Calaveras county, which is separaited 
from Amador county by the Mokelumne 
river, is the most fortunate of any sec- 
tion of the county in the matter of water 
supply, and it is this section especially 
that is noted. In fact, from many points 
of view, the water supply of northern 
Calaveras county seems ideal, particular- 
ly in the feature just presented, of always 
delivering water at maximum possible 
head, as well as in the absolute perman- 
ency and reliability of supply. Practi- 
cally the whole of central and northern 
California derives its water directly or 
indirectly from the Sierra Nevadais, and 
the portion of Calaveras county noted, 
secures its water supply from the 
bead waters of the Mokelumne and Cala- 
veras rivers, two of the largest water 
ways of California. In the northern 
portion of the county, bounded by 
the Mokelumne river, the Mokel- 
umne and Campo Seco Canal 
and Mining Company has a system 
of ditches supplying water to that section 
of the county bounded by the Mokelum- 
ne river on the north, the Calaveras river 
on the south, Sandy Gulch district on the 
east and Camanche district on the west 
The main canal of the system is fortv 
miles long and extends from the south 
fori: of the Mokelumne river a half mile 
below Sawyer's bridge to Camanche, and 
the lateral ditches run southerlv to all 
the mining districts, such as Rich Gulch, 
Mokelumne Hill, Gwin Mine, Central 
Hill, Pine Peak, Campo Seco, Valley 
Springs and Camanche, in all covering 
over sixtv-five miles of ditches. 

By this, one can see the whole north- 
ern district of Calaveras county 
can readily be supplied with 
that most necessary power and ele- 
ment in mining. The Sandy Gulch dis- 
trict is so located, thaA they draw their 
supply from a separate system heading 
far up in the mountains, and near the 
headwaters of the middle fork of the 
Mokelumne river and is connected to 
the main canal by dropping the water 
through the Licking Fork and South 
Fork of the Mokelumne, this system 
acting as a feeder to the main canal. 

The Mokelumne and Campo Seco 
Canal and Mining Co. is one of the fix- 
tures of Calaveras county, and one of the 
oldest water companies in the State, hav- 
ing been incorporated in 1858 by a com- 
pany of old pioneers who have made the 
history of the county and State. Mr^* 
S. Foorman has been president and man- 
ager of the company for many years, and 
under his supervision has been due the 
forty years of continued activity and im- 
provement to this most essential ix)wer 
in the county. This series of reservoirs 
and system of ditches have been so con- 
structed that the supply of water is con- 
tinuous the year around, and the import- 
ance of the water rights held being the 
first and amounting to more than 30GO 
inches, can readily be appreciated bv a 
mining community. The main canal be- 
ing situated on the south slope of the 
Mokelumne ridge and being surveyed 
un a very high grade makes it most ad- 
vantageous for mines situated in the dis- 
trict traversed by the same, as it enables 
them to use water at a very nominal 
cost. As, for example, they have 650 
feet fall at the Esperanza or Old Boston 
Mine and almost 400 feet at the Gwin 
Mine. Tlie surrounding districts sup- 
plied by the lateral ditches, are equally 
favored, and, in brief, it is very conserva- 


tive to state, ithat the canals of the sys- 
tem are at such an elevation, that the use 
of water therefrom by mines for power 
purposes, will be at such a head, that a 
consiuniption of but one and a half in- 
ches of water will deliver one horse pow- 
er Es an average condition. Of course, 
vater is sold by the miner's inch regard- 
less of head, hence the location of a mine 
with reference to the canal, determines 
the consumption of water that will be re ■ 
ciiired to deliver the power necessary 

a most interesting example of this sec- 
ondary use of water is found at the Gwiii 
Mine, fully described in Mr. Rix's arti- 
cle elsewhere in this pamphlet, and from 
which it will be seen that water from thv 
main canal operates the mine and mill 
at a head of about 400 feet ,and that this 
water is again picked up and piped fur- 
ther down the hill to the Mokelumnt 
liver, where the air compressor is driven 
by water wheels at a head of about 400 
feet. This is the greatest head at pres- 


to operate it, and lor this reason a defi- 
nite idea as to the cost of water powet 
cannot be given until the local condi- 
tions are determined. As stated, how- 
ever, consumption of one and a half 
miner's inches per horsepower delivered, 
is believed to be a fair estimate on the 
conditions which prevail, and crftimes 
the re-use of water may be done to the 
great advantage of the mine owner, and 

ent utilized in rwrthern Calaveras coun- 
ty, and being, as one might say, in two 
units of about 400 feet, the elevation of 
the main canal at the Gwin Mine is such 
as to give a head of about 800 feet. Else- 
where on the system, heads of about 
vr<X) feet and over are available and will 
be utilized for power purposes when nec- 
essity demands. 





The first step in the evolution of im- came deeper, and as a consequence, the 
proved methods in mining, was the rock- timbering ait the head of the shaift, sup- 
er: then followed tfie sluiee-box, the ma- posedly put in place temporarily, was 
terial for both being whip-sawed at f^^^nd too light, or else decayed in fron) 
great expense from timber adjoining the one to two years, necessitating re-tini- 
ckim; these being used on the surface of ^^'^^^ ^* ^ ^^^^^ expense. For stoping 
the gixnmd, and having no weight to and tunnels, round timbers were used, 

sustain, excepting their own, generallv ^ ^^^ !," "^^ ^' *\ ZT'.^'^"' t 

, ^ J , ° , . ., Ai. ' thoug-h their life is of short duration, and 

lasted as long as the claim paid. After . , , , , . , , ^ 

, , °. . * , in loose, shaley or schistose rocks at any 

the surface diggings were exhausted, g^ depth, they have to be very ma.- 

maners naturally turned to the gold sive, and set close together, in order to 

bearing quartz veins as a field promising ^^^ry their load. A round timber, even 

great returns for the amount invested, though a small one, is a slippery and 

In the pursuance of this theory, the awkward thing to handle, and when one 

shafts were timbered said lagged with is from 20 inches to 24 inches in dia- 

hewn or sawn timbers, cut from trees in meter, the difficulty of handling is corres- 

tbe immediate vicinity; these trees, in the pondingly greater, 
majority of cases, being the "pinus Quite a number of mining companies 

ponderosa," commonly known as bull are still using these old-time methods 

pine; the mines being located in the from the probable reason that the value 

heart of the Sierra Nevada mountains, of the Douglas spruce or "pseudotsuga 

with no method of communication with douglasii," commonly known as Oregon 

the valley and coast country save by wag- pine, has never been presented to their 

on, the thought very naturally never oc- notice in such a manner as to sufficiently 

curred to the operators, to ascertain if impress them with the economy of using 

there was any other timber more suitable it for their permanent work, 
for the purpose, having more strength, The purpose of this article is to dem- 

more life, and in fact, more durability in cnstrate the superior quality of Oregon 

every way. pine, over any other available timber on 

In the majority of cases, they found the Pacific Coast or elsewhere, for per- 

the vein growing richer as the mine be- manent use in mining operations. 


(Made by the University of California.) 


a. Bull Pine, seasoned log and saired timber S expts. 4,500 lbs. to sq. in. 

b. Bull Pine, green log 1 •' 4,000 " 

0. Oregon Pine 4 *' 7,750 " 


a. Bull Pine, seasoned log and sawed timber 3 " 6,460 " ** 

b. Bun Pine, green log 1 " 4,580 •• 

0. Oregon Pine 4 *• 10,130 " 


a. Bull Pine, seasoned log and sawed timber 3 " 1,194,300 " " 

b. Bull Pine, green log 1 •• 836.300 •* 

o. Oregon Pine 4 ♦♦ 2,449,200 " 



a. Ball Pine, seasoned log and sawed timber 8 

b. Bull Pine, green log 1 

o. Oregon Pine 4 


a. Bvill Pine, seasoned log and sawed timber 8 

b. Bull Pine, green log 1 

c. Oregon Pine 4 


II. Tension Tbsts 

a. Bull Pine, seasoned log 8 

b. Bull Pine, green log • 

c. Oregon Pine 5 

III. Cbushino Endwisn Tests 

a. Bull Pine, seasoned log 11 

b. Bull Pine, green log 6 

c. Oregon Pine 8 

lY. Cbusbing across tbb Gbain Tests 


a. Bull Pine, seasoned log W 

b. Bull Pine, green log 10 

c. Oregon Pine 8 


a. Bull Pine, seasoned log 18 

b. Bull Pine, green log 10 

c. Oregon Pine 8 

V. Longitudinal Shear 

a. Hull Pine, seasoned log 80 

b. Bull Pine, green log 81 

c. Oregon Pine 16 



per oent 







81.00 lbs. 

• t 

45.80 *' 


40 71 •• 


5,838 lbs. to sq. inch. 

















• 1 












• t 




























By carefully examining this table, it 
will be seen that the Oregon pine will 
stand, in mosit cases, double the load of 
the bull pine, which in turn, demon- 
strates that additional cost for the Ore- 
gon pine would be more than made up 
by the decreased size of timber required 
to stand a ceitain strain, and as an illus- 
tration of this, prominent mining men 
are now using 14x14 sawed Oregon pine 
timbers, where they formerly used round 
timbers of budl pine 22 inches and 24 
inches in diameter. 

Among the first to use Oregon pine 
for "their operations was the Gwin Mining 
and Development Company of Calaveras 
County, who sunk a three-compartment 
shaft 1300 feet before they attempted to 
take out any ore for milling purposes. 
Othens followed in rapid succession, and 
it is safe to say that the majority of the 
leading mining companies in Mariposa, 
Tuolumne, Calaveras and Amador coun- 

ties, use no other timber in their mining 

Up to two or three years ago, there 
was a reasbnable excuse and aiigimient 
against the use of Oregon pine, on ac- 
counit of the great cost of freighting it 
from terminal railroad points in the val- 
ley to the mines. This obstacle has now 
been done away with, as lumber com- 
panies with vast holdings have estab- 
lished distributing points at the termin- 
als of all motnvtain railroads, and can on 
short notice supply any size timber up to 
a mortar block, at a very slight advance 
in price over the mountain or bull pine. 

The idea of this article, is to bring to 
the notice of mdning men the economic 
advantages of the use of Oregon pine, 
which will stand the closest scrutiny and 
the hardest tests, and one trial will con- 
vince the user thereof of its superior 
value over any other known timber for 
mining operations. 



The grade of Oregon pine best suited 
for mining purposes is known to the 
trade as merchantable or No. i building 
lumber, and does not require the service 
of a lumber expert to determine whether 
or no a timber is of standard grade and 
suitable for a certain purpose. 

Admitting " the lasting quality of the 
material, the next question to answer is 
what constitutes merchantable Oregon 
pine? Coarse grain or wide spaces 
showing between the annual rings is not 
proof positive that a timber is lacking in 
strength, unless, as sometimes happens, 
the growth between the rings is of a 
spongy nature, lacking fibre and easily 
picked out. When Oregon pine timbers 
8x6 and up have been exposed to the 
action of the weather for any consider- 
able length of time, they become what 
is termed "season-checked." This does 
not impair the strength, when the checks 
are parallel with the grain; where the 
check cuts across the grain, it is in reali- 
t} a feature produced when the tree was 
felled, and the timber would be no 
stronger than the weakest point, which 
would be that portion not touched by 
the fracture. Pitch seams affect the 
strength of a timber in the same man- 
ner as '^season checks," and where they 
art: not very long, and run parallel with 
the grain they do not in any way affect 
the strength. Tight knots are allowable 
in this grade, and small loose knots when 
they do not materially affect the strength 
of timber. Large loose or rotten knots 
or fractures which materially impair the 
strength, should condemn a timber at 
once, and it should not be used under 
any circumstances. It does not matter 
what size trees the lumber is cut from, 
or in other words, whether the grain of 
tht timber or plank is slash or vertical. 

as long as the grain shows the length of 
the piece. Cross grain, or grain that 
shows both ends running out of the piece 
on opposite even at intervals of 6 inches, 
is not desirable and could not be used for 
any purpose excepting logging. 

Mining companies who are constantly 
extending their works should keep at 
least six months' supply of lumber on 
hand, and when same is to be exposed 
to the weather for any considerable pe- 
riod, it is advisable to stick same, allow- 
ing a free circulation of air, and the ends 
should be painted with **Frince's Metal- 
lic: and Fish Oil," which will to a great 
extent prevent checking. Where tim- 
bers are constantly exposed to dripping 
water or clouds of steam, it is advisable 
to dip same either in coal tar or a com- 
position of which asphaltum is the main 
ingredient. By so doing the pores are 
closed so that no moisture of any kind 
can enter the wood. This is only neces- 
srry in extreme cases, as under ordinary 
circumstances timber will last the life- 
time of a mine. It is, however, advisa- 
ble to heed the ancient proverb, *'An 
ounce of prevention is worth a pound 
Qt cure." and a brick or stone furnace 
with an iron vat and derrick to be used 
for dipping purposes could be erected at 
a very small expense, and it would per- 
manently insure material thus treated 
from decay, as Oregon pine has never 
been known to decay or dry rot from the 
interior of the timber. 

The chemical treatment of structural 
timber has been described by Mr. John 
D. Isaacs, of the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, and will be found in a pamphlet 
written by him and published by the 
State Minerologist in the thirteenth re- 
port, 1896. 



Though Calaveras County is bounti- 
fully supplied with electric power from 
the electric plant of the Blue Lakes 
Water Company, situated on the Mokel- 
umne River, and although several water 
powers are eligible for electric transmis- 
sion plants, there is but one electric sta- 
tion ol importance within the county, 
and this is that of the Utica Mining 
Company of Angels Camp This plant, 

world. The company owns the water 
power of 2O0O miners inches, from which 
is obtained a fall of 570 feet in 1750 feet 
of pipe line. The present electrical 
plant uses a'bout 150 inches of water of 
the 3000 horse power available. The 
power derived from a 6-foot tangential 
Dodd wheel is belted to a 1500-light 
2500-volt Westinghouse alternator, 
whence the current is carried over a cir- 


which is illustrated herewith, was in- 
stalled in January, 1895, largely for the 
purpose of deriving experience in the ap- 
plication of electricity for lighting and 
power purposes in the Utica Mine he- 
fore making expenditures that would be 
necessary for the installation of a new 
plant that would fully satisfy the com- 
pany's requiremtnts. Though this orig- 
inl plant is simple in the extreme, it has 
fulfilled its purposes, and will probably 
be shortly superseded by one of ihe larg- 
est mining electrical installations in the 

cuit of I B. & S. gauge, bare copper 
wire to the mine situated about 1000 
feet below the plant, where it used for 
lighting purposes, there being 25 alter- 
nating current constant potential arc 
lamps and 1250 incandescents. The ex- 
citer is driven by a Separate 12-inch 
Dodd wheel. It is probable that at an 
early date the large installation referred 
to will be undertaken, when 3000 horse- 
power will be generated and transmitted 
to the mine and thereabouts. The length 
of transmission will be about 8J miles. 



pany by contract. This plant was ex- 
haustively described in a profusely illus- 
trated and authorized article appearing; 
in the Journal of Electricity for October, 
1S96. In general, however, it consists of 
three 600 horse-power, Stanley, 2-phase 
inductor type gen^ators, driven by 40- 
inch Dofcle tangential water wheels op- 
erated under a head of 1042 feet, watet 
for the same beit^ taken from the Ama- 
dor Canal by the Blue Lakes Watrt- 

The cost of mining development in 

electricity as the most feasible power, 
and entered into a thirty yeaj-s' contract 
with the Blue Lakes Water Company, 
under which the Exploration Company 
has the exclusive rig-ht for the transmis- 
sion and distribution of electric power 
and light from the Blue Lakes plant in 
Calaveras County. This contract comtem- 
plates the use of from 1000 horse-powei 
up, and really forms the basis for the 
building of the Blue Lakes plant. 

The Calaveras pole line is of the most 
substantial type. Thirty-five foot se- 


Calaveras County has been high on ac- 
count of the expense of fuel, whih ranges 
from $4.50 to $5.50 percord.and without 
water power, and with high charges for 
wood, mine develc^mem has been pos- 
sible only for wealthy corporations, but 
after an exhaustive study of the means 
available for furnishing power tor the ex- 
ploration and operation of its mines, and 
after a thorough canvass of the various 
water powers available, the California 
Exploration Company resolved upon 

lected redwood poles are used through- 
out, measuring 10x10 at the butt by 6x6 
at the top, and being Sunk 6 feet in the 
ground. Two 22-inch cross arms, gained 
18 inches between centers, are used, and 
at curves these cross arms are doubled 
and framed t<^ether. All poles on curves 
are firmly guyed to inverted "T' guy 
stubs consisting generally of 8x8 red- 
wood. Two No, 3 B, & S. gauge wires 
are placed on each cross car at a separa- 
tion of 18 inches, and of the 4 wires car- 


le 2 cross arms, the diagonal 
phases. Locke triple petticoai 
ilators are used tbroug^hout. 
s not transposed. At the tops 
>les, supported by porcelain 
d grounded at irregular inter- 
in a close-barbed galvanized 
: wire. This ground wire con- 
:r the entire pole line, and its 

facilitate the grounding and 

1 (rf static charges, thereby 
g liability of lightning stroke. 

power house, which is situa- 

line continues on a distance of 7.05 miles, 
to the Bund Mine, to which the high po- 
tential circuit is now completed. The to- 
tal length of the Exploration Company's 
transmission line is at present 
miles, and in all probability the circuit 
will soon be extended to Angels Camp, 
which is about five miles beyond the 
Bund mine. 

One of the most interesting electrical 
features in connecti(m with the transmis- 
sion circuit of the California Exploration 
Company is the mode <rf operating rfie 


e north side of the Mokelumne 
e line is taken up a mountain 
distance of one mile to the Ex- 
Company's sub-station in Mo- 
Hill, in which town there is 
IS of a mile of pole line forlight- 
3ution purposes. The next sub- 
in the town of San Andreas, 
'.7 miles distant by way of the 
from the sub-ttation ii 'vlokel- 
1. The town lighting in San 
embraces 2.03 miles of pole 
aw tension distribution, and 
sub-station the transmission 

double compartment electric hoist in op- 
eration at the Gottschalk mine near San 
Andreas. This hoisting installation is. 
so unique that it is believed a detailed 
technical description of its modus oper- 
andi will be of interest 

A twenty horse-power General Elec- 
tric two-phase induction motor is direct 
connected to a t5-kilowatt, direct cur- 
rent multipolar generator, having 125- 
volt fields and a soo-volt armature and 
from the shaft of which is belted a one- 
kilowatt 125-volt shunt wound, bi-poUr 
exciter. The equipment thus far de- 



scribed, together with the necessan* 
step-down transformers, is placed in a 
small sub-station at the entrance of the 
mine tunnel, and within the mine is a 
20 horse-power, multipolar, direct cur- 
rent motor, having fields and armature 
corresponding to those of the generator, 
and which is geared through a double 
reduction to a two-drum hoist as shown 
in the accompanying illustrations. Con- 
veniently located on the hoist is a con- 
trolling field regulator by means of 

direct current generator, sucfi current 
being of either polarity as required and 
of a wide range of amperage due to the 
introduction of a graduated resistance 
into the exciting current. The value of 
this resistance in ohms is expressed on 
the diagram. 

Inasmuch as the fields of the motor 
are under constant excitation at a fixed 
polarity, and as the armature of the gen- 
erator is permanently connec*:ed with 
that ot the hoist, and as, moreover, the 


whidh, as will be detailed, perfect control 
of the skips is had. 

The circuit connections of the equip- 
ment appear in the accompanying out- 
line diagram, in which the field regu- 
lator is shown in exaggerated size that 
its construction may be more fully un- 
derstood. From this diagram it is clear 
tjhat the shunt wound exciter maintains 
a constant excitation cA the fields of the 
motor and that from it also derived cur- 
rent for the excitation of the fields of the 

generator is normally running with no 
field, it is evident that the creation of any 
field in the generator will be instantly 
manifested in the armature of the hoist- 
ing motor and also that the direction of 
rotaition of the motor armature will de- 
pend upon the polarity of excitation of 
the generator fields. These conditions 
are effected with the utmost celerity by 
the simple manipulation of the reversing 
field regulator, which is, as staited, 
merely a pole changing and resistance 



device controlling the generator fields. 
The motor gearing mgagos with either 
^rum at will and ttn: usual mechanical 
band breaks are provided to hold the 
skip at any level and in lowering. The 
hoist has a capa£:*.v of raising 2,000 
pornds net, at .1 spe-;"! of 200 feet per 

minute. Whatever may be said of the 
first cost, complication or efficiency of 
the Gottschalk hoist, it is certain that in 
matters of ease of control and reliability 
of operation, it stands pre-eminently su- 
perior to any polyphase driven two- 
dnim hoist yet installed in the West. 



Besides the gold mines, the develop- 
ments on the copper belt in metamorphic 
sletes to tlie west o( the gold belt marks 
quite a feature of the mining interests of 
the county, and show what may be 
looked for in the future, when the price 
of this metal stands in better relation to 
its cost of production. 

In visiting Copperopolis, where exten- 
sive copper mines and reduction works 
are located, the road from the south 
ciossing Reynold's Ferry over the Stan- 
islaus was traveled. Entering the county 
at the Bear Mountain range, which in 
its northerly trend separates the gold- 

bearing slates around Angd Caimp, from 
the copper-bearing ones (A Copperopolis 
and Campo Seco, the road from the river 
bank climbs up and across this range, 
a.Kl up Black Creek to the depression 
ninning parallel with the mountain 
range on which the mines and town of 
Copperopolis are situated. The belt of 
slates running northwest and southwest 
tliat form the country rock lies from 8 to 
12 miles west of the Mother Lode prop- 
er, dipping almost vertical and showing 
a distinct iron head by which the copfipr- 
bearing strata can be distinctly traced, 
which is found to contain pure sulphide 



ores, often in larg^e, solid masses. Fol- 
lowing it north, it arrives out to the 
west, where it is bounds by serpentine 
north and west of which another small 
gold-bearing belt is found, which indi- 
cates that there are paying gold veins 
west of the Mother Lode belt. One 
peculiarity of these copper ores around 
Ccpperopolis, is the fact that they con- 
tain neither gold nor silver in their 
make-up, while further north at tht 
Canipo Seco mines, where the copper 
belt and the gold belt approach one an- 
other closer, the ores contain both. 
Along the croppings, some carbonate 
ore, also red oxide and even native cop- 
per in small quantities, are occasionally 
found, but the main masses are sul- 
phides. A series of shafts have been 
sunk, but the depth has never reached 
more than 200 feet. The poorer ores are 
piled in large heaps, and roasted in the 
open air and leached. The saturated 
lead waters are conveyed to tanks. With 
the liquor a certain amount of scrap- 
sheet rion is charged. After a sufficient 
length of time, which depends on the 
degree of saturation of the copper solu- 
tion, the man holes of the drum are 
opened, and the mass discharged 
through wire screens placed over them, 
into tanks immediately below, the scrap 
iron being detained on the screens. 

From the tanks, the current copper 
that had formed in the drum, after set- 
tling, is shovelled onto heated drying 
floors, and stirred till the moisture is 
evaporated, when it is sacked and 
shipped to be used for paint. 

The matter is passed through a crush- 
er before being sacked. 

The copper mine at Campo Seco 
called Penn Chemical Works, has not 
been worked for some years, although 

((uantities of good grade copper ore ex- 
ist there. Under the superintendence of 
Mr. C. Borger, the works were system- 
atically arranged with a view to perman- 
ency, but have been idle now for some 

1 wo and a half miles southwest of 
Ccpperopolis, after crossing an extensive 
bolt of serpentine, a small group of gold 
mines is reached, and upon some of 
them, particularly the Pine Log Mine, 
considerable development has been 

Considerable work has also been done 
on the Plymouth at Jenny Lind. 

The Napoleon mine is situated near 
lelegraph City, Calaveras county, Cal., 
eight miles west of Copperopolis. 

This famous copper mine was worked 
in 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864 and 1865. 
Thousands and tens of thousands of 
tons good No. i shipping ore were 
hauled to Stockton, Cal. , by mule 
teams, thence shipped to Swan- 
sea, England. Notwithstanding this 
heavy expense in shipping and extract- 
ing the ore when labor was very high 
and scarce, this mine paid a handsome 
dividend to the owners. Shaft is down 
pt.Tpendicular about 500 feet and numer- 
ous levels run in every direction. It is 
said by those who are well acquainted 
with property that there still remains 
thouisands of tons of good shipping ore 
that carries a large percentage in cop- 
per, as well as gold and silver. It has re- 
n-ained idle 32 years. Owned by R. B. 
Packs, Copperopolis, Calaveras Co., Cal., 
(U. S. Patent for 16 acres). 

The Star and Excelsior mine is 
situated near Telegraph City, eight 
miles west of Copperopolis in Calaveras 
County, California. Work was com- 
m.enced on this mine in 1861, and 
worked more or less until 1867. Shaft 



125 feet and 80 feet deep, perpendicular. 
One tunnel 225 feet, aill in No. i con- 
dition and gxxxi working order. This 
mine prospects well in copper, gold and 
silver. Average width of vein, about 12 

feet. Title U. S. Patent, 20 acres. Owing 
to lack of capital, this mine remains idle. 
Owned by J. H. B. Wellman, P. O. ad- 
dress, Copperopolis, Calaveras County, 




South Pak>ma. 




S^hirley Queen. 

Blue Bird. 

Star and fihcceleiar. 

Nye Slate Quarry. 








Bulger Coinsolidated. 

Golden West. 

Golden Bell. 

Sugar Pine. 

Sand Stone. 





'Secret Treasure. 

Grace Darling. 

Sheep Ranch. 

Gold HiU. 

Philopoena and Rose. 

Grape Brandy. 

Red HiU. 

Bhie Fox. 





Chaparel Hill. 

Quail Hill. 


Napoleon C. G. & S. M. Oo. 

Black Biarble Qnarry. 



Gray Eatgle. 


Sperry Iron. 

Flour Sack. 

Cal. Ophir. 

Silver Queen. 


Gwin Mine Developinc Go. 
South Paloma Co. 
Eaperanza Mining Co. 
Utica Mining Co. 
Wilson & Binum. 
Oxindine & Hen<toch. 
R. B. Parks. 
Hank Willman. 
B. P. Nye. 
Alex. Wi«e. 
Miuiufl & Carey. 
A. G. Suaraz. 
J. J. McCormick. 
Wm. and J. B. Watson. 
Welch and Mobley Bros. 
Vandell & Tinan. 

.]. M. Bailey. 

J. McClay. 

E. A. HiU (Mrs.). 

H. W. H. Penniman. 

N. M. Fk)wer. 

Myers & Carlon. 

E. Thompson. 

W. H. Mailman. 

R. Hansen. 

E. Moofre. 

Haggin & Tevis. 

Sanders & Saltman. 

(ruerin & Sanders. 

Smith & Sanders. 

W. Moyle. 

Fricot & Moore. 

Board Bros. 

W. Titherington. 

M. S. Fein'berg. 

.T. Canepa. 

W. HamlHon. 

Eagle C. & G. M. Co. 

E. McCarthy. 

R. B. Parks. 

E. CaJdweU. 

W. F. and B. L. Binum. 

F. Vanciel. 

Mi'bberbauer & Carlisoo. 

J. Fincke. 

E. K. Stevenot. 

J. Klein. 



Mokelumne Hill. 
Angels Camp. 
San Andreas. 
Cnmpo Seco. 
Valley Springs. 
West Point. 
San Andreas. 
Mokelunme HilL 

San Francisco. 


Telegraph C»ty. 

San Andrea«. 







San Francisco. 





San Andreas. 


Valley Springs. 

Snn Fran-cisco. 

Carson Hill. 

Stfin Francisco. 




Valley Springs. 

San Andreas. 
West Point. 
Sjin Francisco. 
Carson Hill. 
West Point. 




Oood-«Doaffh Slate. 


Royal Consolidated. 

Bi|r Bonaasa. 


Gold Uill. 

Moantain King. 

VaH. Sp^gs Sandst'n Qaar. 

Curtis OonsoUdatedL 

Oreatt Western. 



Laya B— stone. 




Gold Oryvtal. 

Hog Pen. 


Gennan Ridge. 

HiU Top. 

Gold Oliir. 

Jones. . 

Treat Marble Qaarry. 


Plymonth Rock. 





Cape Horn. 

Tip Top. 



Bright Star. 

Pine Log No. 2. 

Yellow Pine. 

Bdg Bonanza. 

Diamond Jack. 


Liye Oak. 


Shady Side. 

Little Hero. 


Bobles. ^ 


Deep Oukh. 




Ella Mayer. 

Santa Cruz. 

Big Horn. 


Blue Stain. 


Bald Hill. 




Snmmit Blue. 



J. Fincke. 

Page Cutting Quarry. 

M. M. Fk)wer. 

Cal. Exploration Oo.» Limited. 

Ford Mining Co. 

Wilbur, Castle & Peters. 

W. M. Womble. 

Key«tone M. Co. 

(;U>ld mil M. Co. 

W. R. Womble. 

Curtis Cons. M. Co. 

Scieffard & Baumhogger. 

Ralston & Grayson. 

Alison <& Merack. 

J. B. Gasola. 

Cnl. Exploration Co., Limited. 

D. Fricot 
.1. Jackson. 
Redmond & Thompson. 

E. Peachy. 
H. S. Blood.' 
Wm. Steffler. 

.T. D. McCarthy. 
Utica Mining Co. 
San Justo. 
J. F. Treat. 
Roanoke M. Co. 
Plymouth Rock M. Co. 
Lightner M. Co. 

B. K. Thorn. 
Mrs. B. Valle. 
LjTich & Butts. 
M. Kennedy. 

J. H. WelU. 
P. Vinole. 

F. Brunner. 

.Tnckson Bros. & Bright. 

.T. D. McCarthy. 

Viinciel Bros. 

Oriole M. Co. 

.1. W. Howard. 

Binum, Wilson & Priestly. 

Tiscomia '& Go. 

W. F. & B. L. Bmum. 

Doe & Jackson. 

A. L. WylUe. 

.T<>hn Morgan. 

Rnratini & Segale. 

E. G. Keen. 

H. Dory. 

Coulter & Shims. 

Matteson & Co. 

Wm. Casey, Jr., & Oo. 

J. Hinsdorlf. 

P. Vinole. 

Taylor Bros. 

Wm. Casey, Jr. 

T. Logamoseno. 

Sebreau & Co. 

Fred. Brunner. 

C. Haneelt 

Tramontin & Bozoyich. 
O. Hanselt. 

D. A Black, 


&in Francisco. 

Murphy s. 


San Andreas. 

San Andreas. 








Sau Francisco. 



San Andreas. 

San Andreas. 


West Point. 



San Andreas. 




San Andreas. 

Mok. Hill. 



San Andreas. 

San Andreas. 


Forth Crossing. 



North Branch. 





San Andreas. 

San Andreas. 

San .Andreas. 

Railroad Flat. 

San Andreas. 

San Francisco. 


Ran Andreas. 

Mok. Hill. 

San Andreas. 


San Andreas. 




San Andreas. 

Mok. Hill. 

San Andreas. 














Moantain Boy. 

Taller Kid. 

Siparrow Hawk. 


Moontain Top. 

Sunny Side. 





Gold Rim. 


Oartxmate of Lime. 

GoMen Star. 

Chrome Iron. 




Keystone. W. T. Robinson. 

Exhibit of Minerals and Indian Relics, Prof. J. W. Glass, Nasaan. 
Green Mountain Quarts Crystals, John B. Burton, Mokelumne Hill. 
Specimens from the "Brown Pocket," C. D. Fontana, Copperopolis. 
Specimens from Marteen Mine, C. D. Fontana. 

Murrietta Knives, Indian Spear Head and Mark Twain Frogs, J. Ayala, An^ls. 
Gold-bearing Placer Spedmen, J. H. Southwick, Milton. 
Specimena from Gaston Hill, Rodesino Bstate, San Andreas. 


J. Mester. 

W. F. and B. L\ Binum. 

N. Barrow. 

Manna Broe. 

Sargent & Crawford. 

N. Barrow. 

A. Laidet 

Oassinelli & Co. 

Stone Bros. & Bragger. 

Cook & I/amb. 

Tramontin & Bosoyich. 

Culbertson & Stroogh. 

Fomiston G. M. Oo. 

J. Lampson. 

A. & J. Jackson. 

Page Cutting. 

Binum, Brown & Wilson. 

Pace Cutting. 

J. D. McCarthy. 

F. Maxwell. 

L. Ponge. 


North Branch. 
San Andreas. 
Jesus Maria. 
San Andreas. 
Mok. HiU. 
San Andreas. 
Railroad Flat. 
San Andreas. 
West Point. 
Railroad Flat. 
North Branch. 
San Andreas. 
San Andreas. 
Railroad Flat. 
Mok. Hill. 



W. L. Honnold, Chairman . . . .San Andreas Tom T. Lane Angels 

Arthur I. McSorley, Sec'y San Andreas E. H. Slhaefl9e Murphys 

C. M. Whitlock, Treasurer San Andreas W. T. Robinson Mok. Hill 

Jankes B. Duddy Ban Andreas Mark B. Kerr Valley Spring 


Woodsonn, Garrard, Angeis. 

Thos. G. Peachy, Angels. 

C. W. Tryon, Angels. 

M. H. Reed, Angels. 

Otto Dolling, Angels. 

W. G. Drown, Angela. 

Thomas Qar<^, Angels. 

Percy F. Wood, Rolbinson's Ferry. 

B. Delray, Robinaon's Ferry. 

C. D. Fontana, CopperopoHs. 
G. MoM. Ross, Copperopolia 

D. Jutton, Copperopolis. 

C. Tatton, Douglas Flat 
Jos. Heinsdorff, Murphys. 
Warren Garland, Muiphys. 
B. R. Prince, Altaville. 

D. D. Demarest, Altaville. 
Louis A. Irvine, Carson. 
Ed. Dierin, Nassau. 
Isaac Copeland, Vallecito. 

Benj. H. Lewis^ Vallecito. 
Walter Knight, Sheep Randi. 
M. S. FeinbeiK* Mountain Ranch. 
P. F. Pacbe, Mountain Ranch. 
Harry Clary, Raihoad Flat 
Tom Taylor, Railroad Flat 
J. R Smith, West Point 
T. A. Wilson, West Point 
J. Burt Glenooe. 
F. A. Hanke, Rich Gulch. 
O. M. Burleson, Mokelumne Hill. 
P. L. Sehuman, Mokelumne HiU. 
S. L. Davidson, Mokelumne Hill. 
Eugene Buree, Mokelumne Hill. 
.1. B. Hooper, Mokelumne HUK 
David McClure, Gwin Mine. 
H. A. Messenger, Gwin Mine. 
C. Borger, Campo Seco. 
A. Kester, Burson. 
.Tohn Storey, Camanche. 



H. F. Merrill, Wallace. 
T. J. Frendi, Valley Spring. 
F. B. I»attee, Valley Sprii*. 
John Sadgalnpd, Calayeritas. 
L. I*. Terwilliger, CalaTeritas. 
Jos. Bilester, North Branch. 
A. F. Cronrley, North Branch. 
M. F. Gregory, Jenny Lrind. 
AleiE. Brown, Milton. 
Jo«. S. Sonthwick, Milton. 
jA<colt> Tower, Salt Spring Valley. 
^W. K. Dean, Salt Spring Valley. 
R. S. Parks, Telegraph City. 

W. H. Oxendine, Telegraph City. 
Ira Hill Reed, San Andreas. 
John Raggio, ^n Andreas. 
C. W. G^tchell, San Andreas. 
H. W. H. Pennhnan, San Andreaa. 
Col. A. HaywaTd, San Francisco. 
R. A. Parker, San Francisoo. 
I. -S. Foorman, San Francisco. 
Desnre Fricot, iSan Francisco. 
B. K. Sterenot, San Francisco. 
W. C. Ralston, San Francisco. 
J. V. Coleman, San Francisco. 


Ford Gold Mining Company |20.00 San Andreas 

M. J. Donnallon -^.00 San Andreas 

S. B. Wiggin 10.00 San Andireaa 

Henry Wesson 5.00 San Andreas 

John J. Snyder 5.00 San Andreas 

D. Casrinelld 10.00 San 

Wm. H. Steffler 5.00 Son 

W. A. Gray 2.50 San 

John Steel 2.50 San 

G. Tiscomia 10.00 6an 

Mrs. M. O'Connell 1.00 San 

J. W. Roberts 5.00 San 

Chas. F. Hartsook 5.00 San 

D. A. Nuner 2.0O San 

John Grenados 1.00 San 

Walter & Nuland 2.00 San 

J. B. Seiekora 2.00 San 

G. Pfortner 2.00 San 

A. L. Thomas 1.00 fian 

C. H. Kean 2.50 San 

H. S. Davis 2.00 San 

G. Daeso 2.50 San 

K. Thorn 2.50 San 

V. Gottschalk 20.00 San 

J. SoKnsky JO.OO San 

M. Whitiock 1*0 00 San 

L. Wyllie 10.00 San 

Derire Fricot iJO 00 San 

California Bzploration Co 25.00 Slan Andreas 

J. B. AUen 1.00 West Point 

M. Cook 1.00 Wert Point 



Geo. J. Congdon 1.00. 

W. H. Morgan 5.00. 

J. R. Smith 5.00. 

Jas. Tyson 1.00. 


Wert Point 

Wert Point 

Wert Point 

Wert Point 

Fuller 1.00 Wert Point 

A. Messenger 1.00 Wert Point 

S. Goodman 1.60 West Point 

A. Curtson 1.00 West Po&nt 

Lampson l.OO. 

W. Calden 2.50. 

Leva*rgi 2.50. 

A. Wilson 2.50. 

F. Rechenbach 2.50. 

West Point 

West Point 

West Point 

West Point 

Wert Point 

E. P. Cond'gon 50 West Point 

N. R. Gregory 1.00 Wert Point 

G. W. Morrow 1.00 Wert Pdint 


is. Mittebauer 1.00 We« Point 

(. Morris 50 Weat Point 

.s. Za>valla 1.00 Wert Point 

W. T. JtoblnBon 10.00 M<A«hiiiuie Hill 

enuuA Mining OcmipanT 20.00 Mokelanuie Hill 

telnmne Hill, by W. T. RoblnSMi 10.00 

ielurane HUl, by W, T. BoMnaou 80.00 

t. & CHmpo Seco Oamal and M. Co 20.00 

«crlptioii Irom AngelB Oamp 378.90 

U. Demarert 5.00 Angels Gamp 

0. Hogate r..00 Angela Damp 

aarest ft Pullen 10.00 Angela Camp 

: from D. Jiittom, GoppeFOpollB 49.00 

B. Weigland 5.00 Valledta 

in Mine Development Oo ^i.OO Gwin Mine 

th Pnloma Gold Mining Co 25.00 Gwin Mine 

1. nnp & JnliuB Fink 10.00 Gwin Mine 

ek Mine 20.00 Monntain Eanch 

Sorger 10.00 Campo Seco 

turt 5.00 Olenooe 

iton & GreyMMi 50.00 San Francisco 

Lveraa Ooointy SOO.OO 

iTeras Coniity Minera' AasociaUon 07.00 

BCription from D. Jntton 49.00 Ooi4>ero{Kilis 

rd Pri« tm JaUIee Float 75.00 



3 klOS D17 ma 3li0 


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