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Whole No. 2685 v Sh%K*r SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1912 TE W°l#£g?<&S" t 





'T'HE Robins-Mcssitcr Ore-Bedding 
A and Reclaiming System recently 
installed by us at the Tennessee Cop- 
■.per Company's plant at Copperhill, 
Tenn., is now in operation and four 
illustrations of it are shown here. 
The general arrangement is similar 
to that of the system installed by us 
for the Cananea Consolidated Copper 
Company, which has attracted wide 
attention and favorable comment 
during the several years it has been 
in operation. 

This system not only reduces labor 
cost but produces an absolutely per- 
fect mixture with a consequent sav- 
ing of llux and fuel. 

It is fully described in our monthly 
bulletin No. yj which we gladly send 
to interested persons 

Robins Conveying Belt Company 


January 6, 1912 

Aldrich Electric Pumps 

For Heavy Service 

Triplex or Quintuplex 
1 Sinking or Track 

Horizontal or Vertical 

Wood or Cement Lined 
if Desired 

350 to 1400 Ft. Lift 
20 to 2700 Gals. Min. 

We have them in stock. :: Write for special information. 


= DENVER, U.S.A. — 


January to July 


Mining and Scientific Press 

420 Market Street 

San Francisco, California 



mines .... 

UHriifl us«hI us uii 114 

n ..f i .'M. en l rated mlphurlo acid 
Km hiBuran . r»" liability and, F .1 Marl 

i. mm .ti mI t itlon, mine, K.l Ryan 

tblllty for. - \ i PIHsburj 

Railroad , Editorial . . . 169 

v .i. sal.' .... i 66 

..i Bureau >>f Mines, n.w 

Adami ■ ■■ yeai among Nevada mlnei 

and mill- 

a.i.iv en Mining a 8m- King Co 

Adler, si.!' American mines in 191 1 . . 

Advance in copper Editorial. , 

in Silver prlc« 

I'lii Editorial. . . 21 

Advene claims ill. sis 

Advertlsli .\vner *"» 1 * 

■ >r pi.iiii truth Editorial 

ttus in 

lean institute Editorial. .. . 181 

Afforestation in Korea Editorial . . , 

.\iii. a, copper from Central Editorial.... 860 

African diamond mining •'•" 

Plateau, physiography of ti>- Bast. 

EC I.. Colli. i : 

Afterthought Copper Co 130 

Agglomeration of tin.' materials. . . . Walter 8. band Is. . . . 489 

Agitating and circulating solution 540 

Ditto Courtenay i>«- Kalb.... «:tl 

V greet -Ill 

Agricultural and mineral lands, leasing. . . Editorial .... 161 

Ahmeek mlna 882 

Ahmeek Mining Co 546, 886 

Alnsworth - . 68 

i , velocity of iii 

Discharge, pi pea rs, explosives in 2 i *> 

Hoists, direct 848 

Hose, mn" hi n.--. I i-ill 61 1 

in gas-engine cylinder, compressed S84 

Measuring low-pressure G. S. Weymouth..., 562 

Air-compressors .",:! 

Lubrication 782 

Hlons E. A. Ri\ ... 13 

Straight-line 684 

neter. Excelsior Excelsior Hrlll ^ Mfg. Co ... 828 

-Clancy process mill 80 

Gold Mining Co 187 

AJax mine 168 

Alamos district, Sonora, Mexico <;, L. Sheldon ... 208 

Old mines at 278 

Alaska an. I Us needs Editorial.., 896 

Ami th.- Yukon (iuv A. U. Lewi ngton . . . . 473 

.\i Washington Editorial 652 

Be Developed? How can IT. Poster Bain... 283 

l 'in.. knthony Elffner. ... 112 

i iltto Julius Thompson .... 282 

itlnental type of glacial deposits In 

Lawrence Martin .... 206 

Copoer mines Editorial .... 896 

District, gold deposits of Sitka \dolph Knopf W> 

Government railroads in Editorial ... 52 4 

Governor's report Editorial .... 3D 6 

ti <■ rule for Editorial.... 8is 

Immediate needs 96 

Legislation of Alaska and the Yukon 

Guy A. R. Le wing ton .... 473 

Matanusks Valley coalfields 

G. C. Martin and F. .1. Katz.... 4^9 

Mining at Treadwell 8fi3 

Mining In 1911 A. H. Brooks SO 

Needs, A laskans on 666 

New placer districts A. H. TCrooks .... 146 

Rich gold-quartz mines of Editorral . . . . 830 

Sweepstakes all Editorial ... . 5" t 

Timber in 382 

Tin -dredging Lydls R. Clements. ... 477 

Ditto T. M. Gibson.... II 

Trails Editorial ... 61 a 

Alaska Mexican Gold AT. Cm,.!!!*, I 19. 457. f,7fi, 7fi I, SOT. NfiS. Kll r . 

Alaska Dredging Co 46 

Alaska-Ebner Gold Mines Co 547 

Alaska Mexican Gold M. Co.. 119. 149.647, 675. 764, B07 863, 865 

Mill record 861 

Mine 853 

Ore reserves 863 

Alaska Tr. adwell Gobi M. Co 119, 353. 887. 4SS, 608. 

761. 771, 908 

Mill Row-sheet 88 

Mine 784 

Alaska United Gold M. Co 119. 853. 149. f»!7. G75. 764, S"7 

Ore reserves 7 . . . . R63 

Returns 861 

Alaskan development Julius Thompson ... 898 

Mining laws, proposed revision of 

F. Lvnwood Ojirrlsnn .... 31 

Railway building Editorial 748 

Alaskans on Alaska's needs 666 

Albert. Theodore, death of 90S 

A lb v Carbide Co Ml 

Al tee "Tine 1 " 

Alice Mining Co 87* 

A 11- Alaska sweepstakes 524, 5*7 

Allen \. W Estimation of tonnage.... 3ns 

Ditto La bora t or v evanfde tests. .. . ^S? 

Olrio..... Mill and cvanide plant records.... 174 

onto Pebble efficiency In tube-milling. ... 1 9 

Ditto Possibilities of British Papua. ... 5SS 

Ditto . Btatemenl of eons! i u< 

t Jit to stui. in. nt ..r working ■ 

Ditto Tonnage estimation 

Allen, Irving C, and Georgo Burrell., 

[,i.iuid products from natural gas.., 

A ills-Chalmers Co. Editorial 

I 1 iiiln.' 

Alio) ■, xlnc-aluniinum 

i Consolidated M. Co im 

Alpha in In. -s 

Ai| Quicksilver M. Co n 

i ■■-. 890 

Consolidated Mining Co 115 

Alta Tun in- 1 A Transportation Co 115 

A lu in in urn 177. 781 

Ditto Editorial 

Alloys, sine 7.'.:t 

Improving 171 

Alundum plates, nitration with :'"*'• 

a lun lie near uarysvale, Utah 

it. S. Butler and Hoyl 8. Gale 210 

Alvarado Mining & Milling Co 

i:. poi i . 

A in a dor COUnty, California, Immigrant gold -ml in- work- 
ers \v. .i. Lauck . 

Amalgamated Copper C 479, 545, 546, 685, 770, 835 

K. porl 

Amalgamated Development Co 707 

Amalgamated Ploche merger ,; " ■ 

Amalgamated Zinc Co., i.i.i hi. 637 

Amazon River 882 

Amendment act of New Zealand, mining 3 12 

Amendments to placer-mining act Dawson, recent 706 

American and foreign technical fournals 

'Noahs Ark.' T. T. Head.... 7*'..'. 
Iron trade Editorial.... 169 

Mines 17 

Mining a.t. birth of— I. II. ill. . . II. \v. MacFarren . . . , 

626, 564, 592 

Mining and land laws, need of revision of 

Editorial 748 

Mining law Editorial . . . . 566 

Mining law, failure of 887 

Museum of Safety Editorial.... 129 

Rosin soi.i in Japan sic 

Steel rails Editorial.... 266 

Sulphur trade AlbertUB Koch .... 890 

American Copper Producers' Association, statistics s 1 1» 

American Flag mind 226 

American Institute affairs Editorial.... 131 

American Institute of Mining Engineers 251, 543 

Ditto Editorial 266, 229, 880, 817 

Ditto. .Waldemar Llndgren, <;. P. Becker, A. n. Bi ks 2 19 

Annual meeting of 248, 802 

New York meeting Editorial 298 

1 >Itto Our special correspondenl .... .'Ml 

iron and Steel division of the 699 

Spokane Bectlon 806 

American Metallurgical Society, San Francisco chapter.. 420 

American Mining Congress 866, 486, 540 

Ditto Editorial 396, 686 

Montana Chapter 905 

American Agricultural Chemical Co. -Tennessee Copper 

Co., proposed merger SOI 

American Orovllle Co 577 

American Rutlle Co 172 

American Smelters Securities Co Editorial.... sin 

American Smelting & Refining Co 86, 293. 449 

Ditto Company reports. .. . 520 

Dividends 780 

Earnings 487 

Foreign laborers' strike 678 

In Mexico 876 

Smelter at AguascaUentes •* s ~ 

Spokane offices 875 

American Society of Engineering Contractors 

Editorial 129 

American Telegraph & Telephone Co 804 

American Tungsten Con. Corporation 391 

American Zinc, Lead & smelting Co 115. 180 

American Zinc Ore Separating Co 421 

A in pa to Mining Co Editorial 193 

Mine 91 

Work of the 793 

Amur region, go Id -dredging In the 470 

Anaconda, Montana, farmers versus smelter at 863 

Anaconda-Butte-Ballaklava settlement 1 17 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 

83, 121. 157. 219, 291, 545, 546, 674, 685. 770, 822 

Ditto Com pa n v reports. ... 813 

Ditto Editorial 159. 265 

Annual statement of 870 

Washoe smelter of the 480 

Anaconda Gold Mining & Refining Co 452 

Am p l . I : i Mining Co i ' ' 

Anadir Mining Co 696 

Analyzed Hollinger report 286 

Ancient river beds in California 478 

A ml:! rav-Posco mine 212 

Anderson, Charles E Tonopah milling. .. . 802 

Angels camp. Elghtner mill 413 

Anglo-Continental shares, slump In 482 

Ant.-lope mining district 121 

Anthracite coal shipments 56 

Antimonlal lead 212 

Tailing, cyanidatlon of....W. Archer Longbottom . . . . 884 

Antimony 478 

Tn Italy 55 

Arkansas diamond-bearing peridotite areas 171 

Appelbaum. Misha E 

Copper, corporations, and prices. ... 7 



Vol. 104 


<'..i i review 

• mil 144 

rnlcal 177 


patent, work on claim used In 

Applications of the specific gravity flask, practical.... 

II. StBdler.... 166 

Appllei a review of progress of 

. H. Brooks 284 

Appropriation committee Editorial.... 684 

Law o in 

Aii for mining 866 

Arbitration treaties with Great Britain and I 

adopts Bdttorlal. 

ts at tlurdun Bradley. ... 213 

Arcl 4x 

D of public lands 367 

Itlvatlng dredge ^7.", 

P II Colorado metallurgical progress B 

galena 599 

. petroleum In.. 532 

C. K. Tolrnan. Jr.... S2 

on i ilablo Edltoi Is 

i. Nelson Nevtus. . . . 854 

beds 815 

ile tailing, s pee i lie gravity test 754 

Eight-hour law 840 

v Editorial .... 817 

[zing test 764 

lor eondltlons In W. .1. Latlck 212 

Arizona ( 'ommerclal Copper Co 181, 480 

Ci 357. 446. 479. 608 

Arkansas mine 855 

! mine 511 


Consumption of 1 4 r. 

Ash: 171 


Minor, meerschaum in 

mi Co.. Ltd 'Jit', 

alt 14 8. 666 

rtOd from Trinidad 34L' 


P Copper smelting al Kyshtlm... 

e, Government '.'Is 


work or Salt Lake, i tea 481 

'If gold anil silver-bearing cyanide solutions 284 

phlc methods, presenting 

I B. Stewart 

rule, tl e W Fjtfi 

Assaying silver bullion, w-t meth 284 

llurglcal Investigations free 


inatlon methods for smeller . ... A. T. French. .. . las 

Vs.iei , Reduction Works property 180 

Work 114 

All' I 

Company reporl 

Atlantic Mining Co S71 

Atmo i iv 

Auburn, mining experiment station Editorial.... 616 

a ! tion. Fnssian gold property 112 

s Silver-lead smelling. . .. 20 

Austin Central Mining Co 

Austin Ms Ion, Mining i-.i Editorial re: 

Ausl r refining In ic.s 

! - Jaws II, , :, 

nalln -,;- 

'' ' ' iy Editorial. .. ! 884 

uary gold output 

Mining id 

• gold output In l'Jll 410 

1911 ■$ 


, " ' ' ' ' 4^'s 

8 t ;i,* 

ding A. W. Morris! ! . 249 


Plats and pitches of the 

n lead and sine district 

HOW can Alaska be d. 

,. 'I'"".: Ore not In sight.... 

'rusts K ili 

It'ng Editorial.!:: 

■ W , \ ' .....Mining in thi 

\\ est Africa, for 1911 ° 

lold Mining Co 


' "Ian:! \ nlckal j : , sit in the San 

l mining district 

Bankers, New York ' " Editorial 

if Glasgow.. Ejoitorlal.... 


& Consolidated mine 

Means 'and' potash 
•King Development Co 


nent Co. 

in a # 

Hon Works proi Bment of \ " ' 


san. is inntaining gold..:::::::: 

ing the gold in 4 u 'iV.,',.',-u 

II. Hauls 

us of manganese steel 


on Mining Co 

Ifrtca for 1!']], mining In the 
Syf,,u - J ' H Bali: '- : 

stems in shafts at tl, 

Mines Ltd 

t,, secure length for a 

I production ' 

Ren Harrison mine 

and M. L. Tlartmann. ....'.'.'.'. '..'.'.'.." 
Early history of cupellaiu 











l 18 


4 7 




i [id C SUl I S |. 

ngtil of elclruli 
on a rotating cathode 

Benonl Ron Mines Co 7:'.i 

Way-Ai buckle process al 

Johannesburg Corresponden 


Mni.-iug mine 512 

i urns Co 4s>a 

lem mine 7 7o 

nmtSSlOn on mining 629 

John i Mines and minerals of Macedo nle 

Id railway 60.7 

m-New Haven Copper & Gold Mining Co 486 

Birth of Hie American mining act — I. II. Ill 

II. w. MacFarren. . . 
Blslchl mine 769 

I Usui mil 

Ore 253 

Llaek diamonds -11- 

Black-prlnt papers . 

Bear, snOWSllde at [60 

lell Gold Mining' Co 

Black Hills grubstaking concern 219 

S output 77 

Smelting works 77, 218 

Llaek Jack mine 4J1 

Black Warrior mine 600 

Blackbird Mining Co 186 

Blair Mining & Milling Co 

Blake, Maxwell Geology ol Mor ... 791 

Blast-furnace at Chinnampo, Korea, proposed 

Lump, substitute for the W. A. Ernst.... 47". 

ue lamp, oil for use In 712 

Blue-Sky law Editorial 891 

Blue Bird type 7x7 

use dredge 16 

Blue Ledge Copper Co 

Properties 188 

Point Mining CO 183 

II mil.- 761 

Bock, I. C Removing fusions from crucibles.... 700 

Boi .i.i r Mining ''n 

e. W. F Small concentrating mills in the 

Wisconsin zinc district 

Bol8< basin, dredging operations in 

Bolivia, mineral resout b of Carlos Sanjlnt 

Mineral resources of. error in definition of pertenencla 


Producer of silver and gold Editorial .... 36 I 

i ess in 468 

hi tin exports 866 

Qoldflelds Editorial.... 819 

i - again 

1 opper mine Editorial. 

,me 271, 38 : 

I'm k,t mill, 

Sale Of 


'y, Wllhert L Sulphur mines in Mexico,. 

in ,,i payment at Laramie tunnel, Colorado. 7 I "■ 

Boom. High Grade and the Editorial. .. . 71". 

'Boosters.' survey reports and 

F. L. Ransome and W. Llndgreii.... '■'■ l . 

Borax 6" 

. posits T|l 

namellng Industry 781 

Or I 4 77. 

Production, California 563 

M. P Future of concentration.... 

Boston copper market 767. Soil 

Boston mine 

Cod Canal Co Editorial.... 818 

Boston & Idaho Dredging Co 

Consolidated mill 

i-Bly Mining Co 508, 

ind-drllling 837 

I: o mine 131 

ims of reinforced concrete, shaft 

ler county, Colorado, tungsten in <- v ~ 

mine 1 v 7 

Boundary district in 1911. . .William Pleel Robertson.... 

Boundaries fixing. United states O. H. Tltmann... 

Boyle, Jr.. Albert c 

Wyoming mineral Industry in 1911.... 109 

Braden concentrator 

Bradley process 

Bradley, Gurdon Costs at Arco. Idaho 

■ aw M. & S. Co 


Hematite ores of .. .C K. T.eiib and E. C. Harder 171 

RIo Grande del Stir, platinum deposits. ... 166 

BrethertOn. S E Problems in modern copper 


He. Tennessee, organization of mine-rescue work. '" 

Brick, strength of 

itlng of flue-dust sintering and. Felix A. Vngel. . 

Pro. ess, Grohdal 

Bristol company 191 

Bristol's ink-type recording Instrument [91 

British Columbia, coal in Editorial.... 189 

Coal mining E. Jacobs 70 

Living conditions S. S. Fowler.... 

Metal mining E. Jacobs.... 

Production of gold and silver in l'.Hl 400 

British Columbia Copper Co 2SS. 319, :!:•!. 153 

Dividends ssr, 

i - Editorial 

British Papua, possibilities of A. W. Allen..., 

British South Africa Co. 67,. 1 49 

British Steel Piling Co 7m: 

Broken Hill Co., New South Wales 221, ::r, l. 601 

Mine 717 

Mine. story of 7.?l 

Rroken Hill Proprietary Co r,7 

Rrokeii Hill South silver mine i; : " 

Rrombies and Iodines chlorides in :.'.:: 

Brooks, A. H... American Institute of Mining Engineers 249 

Applied Geolofrv. a review of progress.. "'i 

Ditto Mining in Alaska in 1911., 

New Dlacer districts In Alaska ... 116 

Brown, F. c.. New Zealand and Nevada mining n 

compared mi 

Ditto Tube-mill practice and liners. . . . L'OO 

Vol. 1"! 



BdMorlal .. ;•« 

..I and iln< drposttt ■ ■: 

I l 

Hu. line- tiiln>- 6yt; 

Budrow, L Is. and J W Maloolm 

Prallminarj handling • >( ore at 1:1 Tii. 

. Tl.rrn Mlniiik Co 411 

Burfui.. Mlnea, Ltd. 


Bullfrog Weal Extension Co 
Bullloi •>« tin, m]\.-i . 

• ■r Coball 

Tux, stall Editorial ... 624 

Bully Hill Cuppri M a .- • 119 91), I •> I 

Hunk, i coal 177 

Bunker mil & 8ulllvan M & C. Co 

9, 7 7-' 

Dividend! . 

Bunk, r Mm Consolidated Mining Co., dlvldi nds 

Bunker Hill mine ..... ; 71. ;m; 

Bureaus .iu.i potash, Qovernmenl ..George Otla Smith. . 


Bur. -an ..f U "47 

Funds t.. r Editorial ..'. 818 

N.-u acl for 887 

Philippines 434 

Teata "f , 414 

Bureau of standards. National 409 

Of Statistics Editorial.... 817 

Burmelster & Wain, of Copenhagen 482 

Burrell. George, and Irving C Allen 

r.tiiulii productions from natural «a- 

Business conditions In i"nlt,-,i States Editorial 

Butler. B. s Production of copper in 1911 

An.l H.iyt s. Qale — Alunite near Marysvale, Utah. 

Ruttf copper production 

Zinc ore 183 

Butti -\1- \ Scott Co 517 

Mine 1ST 

Butte & Bnllnklava Companv reports.... 870 

Butte i Ely Copper Co 219 

Butte A Superior Copper Co 1ST, 319. 223. 580, 612, 704. 

70S, vr.s. S69. 893 

As zinc producer 836 

Milling at the 899 

Butte Central Copper Co 117. 773 

Butte Coalition Co ^ IS. 352 

Butters. Charlos ,<• Co.. Ltd 766 

Buyers, prospectors and Editorial.... 616 

Bwana avKubwa Copper M. Co 610, 637 


Cabinet land 

Cable systems In shafts at the Crown Mines, Ltd.. bell 

signaling and 


Caetanl. Gelaslo. ... Re-treatment of table middlings. . . . 

Cages, changing 

Caisson disease Walter Peet . . . . 

Calcination and llxivlatlon tests. Durango ore 

Calcining costs at Cananca 

California, ancient riyer beds in 

And Nevada, mines of the Southern Sierras of 

Mark B. Kerr 

Borax production 

Eight-hour law in 

Gas production 

Gem stones 

Gold dredge, mechanical features of the — I. TI, III.. 
Robert E. Cranston 303. 338. 

Dredges Editorial. . . . 

Dredging Charles Janln .... 

Immigrant gold-mine workers, Amador county 

W. .T. Lauck. . . . 

Lode locators 

Mineral production of W. H. Storms.... 


Oil dividends 

Oilfields, production and prices In the 

J. H. G. Wolf . . . 

Oil wells, water in Occasional Contributor.... 

Petroleum production 

Production of quicksilver W. H. Storms.... 

Re-location in 

State taxes 

California-Oregon Power Co 

California Portland Cement Co 

California's mineral Industry Wm. H. Storms.... 

Calumet & Arizona Mining Co . .230. r, 15. 


Calumet & Hecla 106. 319. 3S3. 423. Iis. 7.',7, 77n. 

Ditto Company reports. . . .764. 

Cam & Motor Co S09, 

Camborne Mining School 

Cambria coal 

Campbell Separating Co 

Camp Bird. Ltd 211. 389. 421. 448. 514. 706, 

"Ditto Editorial .... 

Purchases Santa Gertrudis mine 

Cam-shafts, stamp-battery. .. .Algernon Del Mar.... 113, 
Canada In 1911. mining in eastern 

Nickel in 1911 

Refined copper 

Canadian coal-mining and markets Editorial.... 


Exports ■ 

Mining Institute Editorial. . . .159, 

Ditto. ...T. A. Rickard Editorial. .. . 

Ditto Toronto meeting of 

Proposals for change in mining law 

Silver production 

Canadian Collieries. Ltd 

Canadian Klondike Mining Co 4 22. 

Canadian Mining & Exploration Co.. Ltd S03, 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Canal, Panama 

Zone, census of Panama 

Cananea calcining costs 






■17 s 











1 17 

41 I 

r. 4 2 




la ..... .. 

Fit I .. I l e| 1 ■ 

■ .1 Consolidated Coppei Co . :ss 



II : 

1 '..1 lotta mini 


Carnegie Institution f"i tin- advancomenl •■' 


lal, gold at 

Ilei h. 11 A. . I lold Dl 

1 American mines In 1911 

"in Nicaragua and lis possibility 


11 Mining Co 

Cason • "...l.i Mini! 

ictlon 1 less Iifl 

- 1 

Castings for "".ik< products, securing good 

>.-n pulley with leather, to face 

k dredge 

castle Creek Gold Mining <",, 102 

Castle Dome lead district, Arizona. .J. Nelson Nevlui . 

cathode. Tensile strength >-i electrolyi pper en ., 

relating C. \v Bennetl 

Cattle loss, Frederic W Copper mining in tin- 
Caucasus 162 

Caucasus, copper mining in the 

Frederic w. Cauldwell 182 

Causes of loss of gold In amalgam.. 1 1. ,11 Ill 

Of ore-shoots, some It. A. !-'. Penrose.... 199 

Celluloid 621 

Cement 553 

P'or chemical apparatus ]77 

For porcelain and stone-ware 177 

Gun. pneumatic 563 

Iron to stone, how to 682 

Production In 1911. Portland 842 

Cement. Keene's 553 

Surfaces, Jialnttng 71* 

Cements, natural and Portland II". 

Census of Panama and Canal /one 218 

Centennial Con. Copper Co 226 

Ccntennlal-Eureka Mining Co 86. 516. 648 

Central American mines in 1911 Sy.ln- \ Adlec... .1:: 

Ditto T. Lane Carter. ... 60 

Central Asia, gold workings in 

Ellsworth Huntington 600 

London rallwal ventilation B69 

States metal production 7_-!' 

Central Idaho P. & M. Co 481 

Central Mining & Finance Corporation pass dividends.. 

Editorial. . . . 
Central Mining & Investment Corporation. Ltd.. 274. 576. 

Central Red, White, and Blue 

Centrifugal concentrator. Gee Edward Walker.... 

Cerro de Pacso Mining Co : 212. 

Cerro Gordo property 807 

Cerro Murlano Copper mine, Murex Process at Cordoba.. 466 

Certificate of weight for ore from Norwegian ports 573 

Ceylon graphite 781 

Chain drives, 125-hp. maximum silent 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Chalking of white lead and its prevention 

Henry A. Gardner. 

Chamberlln, A. M Nigerian tlnflelds. 

Chamber of Commerce, organization of ... .Editorial. 

Chambers of Mines and Oil 

Champlln Gold Dredging Co 437 

Champs d'Or Rigand Vandreuil Co 727 

Change in the lead tariff proposed W. A. Scott.... 247 

In mining law proposed by Canada 366 

Changing cages "X2 

Chapman & Lenan 481 

Characteristics of fuse 280 

Charges at Cananea. handling furnace 

Morris Jesup Elslng. .. . 619 

For survey and publication 316 

In Utah, smelter 145 

Charleston Hill National Mining Syndicate SSI 

Charleston, New Zealand, mica deposits a 6S0 

Chart of ore deposition Charles R. Keyes. ... 763 

'Cheap' labor economical, is? F. L. Cole. . . . .117 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon.... 631 

Ditto George Spence. . . . 442 

Chemical apparatus, cement for 177 

Process 269 

'Unknown' mixtures 745 

Chicago-Joplin M. Co 450 

Chichagof Gold Mining Co 333 

chief Consolidated mine 452 

Chlksan mines, Korea Thomas T. Read.... 314 

Mines 690 

Chile, coal in 866 

Nitrate taxes 853 

Chilean nitrate Industry 410. 59S 

Nitrate, Japan's consumption of 0S0 

Nitrate works 436 

Prospects for petroleum 600 

Smelter building Frank Langford 599 

Chillagoe companv 510 

Chilled rolls for tin-plate mills 250 

Chilposan. Korea 711 

China copper mines 910 

Diamonds in Edward dl Villa.... 4 12 

In transformation Editorial.... 120 

Mining in 1911 Thomas T. Read 33 

Republic established in Editorial 266 

China's loan Editorial 849 

New silver coin Editorial 880 

Chinese finance Editorial. ... 617 

Chino Copper Co S7. 126. 252, 357, 391. 436. 44S. 452. 464, 

581. 635. 641. 774. 906 

Ditto Companv reports.... 680 

Ditto Editorial.... 159 

Chlno mill Editorial 555 

Mine, milling the ore of the John M. Sully. . . . 464 




5 US 





Vol. 1(14 


Uinlng copper or.- at James O. Clifford. ... 46^ 

Steam-shovel work at ™? 

Chlno Copper Co. resume operations »7o 

Special meeting of stockholders Is? 

Work of the D. C. Jackllng 126 

Mining Co ȣl 

e Flat Mining <'o ||| 

les In bromides and Iodines BBS 

Christmas mine ■ ■ ■ ■ iiil 

Chrlstv. S. B Transportation of tailing 

through pipes »»» 

Chrome ore [H 

Chromlle produt'tl'iu in United Ctates SJJ 

Chucultambo gold mines - t l- 

Churn-drlll *!» 

Miami Copper Co j|J 

Cienlgnita companies r; . 

Clneo de Mayo, ore stolen from 516 

Circulating solutions, agitating and 540 

Ditto.. Courleiiay DeKalb 

Civilization, mining and James Ralph Plnlay.... 820 

Claim lode " s - 

Uonuments and workings glo 

:.i of mining law j**}" 

in applleation for patent, work on ;>84 

Clamps f..r stamp-milling A. \V. MacNIChol 413 

Clarke. F. W..Tfhe data ..r geochemistry' . .Editorial 103 

ciassirw atlon bv hand sorting, Jalisco ore 7... 

Classifiers, laboratory Thomas T. Read 669 

Clay, various colors of -Si 

Clean-up, treatment of matte from mill 

H. W. von Bernewltz. . . . 3i3 

with nitric acid 114 

Clements, I. villa It Tin dredging in Alaska. . . . 477 

Clermont Con. Cold & Silver M. Co 452, 185 

Cleveland-Cliffs lr.ui Co 858 

Cliff mine 4 411. T.7S 

Clifford. Henry B Edison and Ore dressing.. B61 

Clifford. James O Mining copper ore at Chlno . 4 63 

Clinton type of Iron-ore deposits. .. .C. H. Smyth, Jr.... 19s 

Coal and Iron consumption in United States B21 

Area: ..f Texas estimated by V. S. Geological Sur\ 

At Cambria 536 

in Arizona 815 

Deposits of southern Nigeria 280 

Dust explosions Editorial.... 363 

Fields, Matanuska Valley, Alaska 

O. C. Martin and F. J. Katz 499 

In British Columbia Editorial.... 188 

In Chili •• 855 

In L-.ndon. substitutes for 482 

In Montana 108, 815 

issla, 1911 no 

Lands, cost of developing public. . .James Douglas. ... 30 

:.g and markets. Canadian Editorial. ... 713 

Mining In Rrltlsh Columbia B. Jacobs.... 70 

Output in 1911 30 

Output, world's 186 

i of New Mexico 698 

notion, Western 146 

Shipments, anthracite 56 

Strike settled Editorial.. , 588 

Stripping In Illinois J. w. Ijams 410 

Sulphur In 414 

Trad.- In the Philippines 89 

Coal Substitute. Ltd IS? 

Cobalt and Its future Editorial. . . . 426 

Ditto Charles A. O'Connell 489 

And Its market 112 

Bullion production 885 

j;o m i 

Dividend record i::i 

Fire Editorial 81 S 

Ore shipments 907 

Sends six ears of ore to Germany 793 

Cobalt Central Mining Co 232 

Cobalt Townslte Company 288 293 

Col, Me, 11, k Mining Co 10? 

Coeur d'Alene district 88. 787, 826 

Coghlll. Will H. .Refractory manganese-silver ores— T II 

75*. 7!. I 

Iron as m . . 413 

„ Ditto Solutions of placer gold and sliver. ... 141 

Coins. China's new silver Editorial. . . . 880 

Foreign 521 

Colburn mill Denver Correspondence!!!! 16« 

Cold bend tests of steel 71 ■. 

Cole. F. I. Is 'cheap' labor economical?..!!!!!!!!!! 347 

• L Physiography of the East 

African plateau 173 

Collins. Edgar A. First impressions of 'trie Rand! !! ! 888 

Collins. Henry P Mining conditions In . 

south of Spain 49 

Colloid pltatlon of gold bv... ! 70s 

Ldo. construction costs at the New Portland mlil 

Cripple Creek.. j. M . Taylor.... 12 

Custom smelting In 521 

Metallurgical progress p h Arg'ali ! ! ! '. 78 

Mineral production by counties... 699 

f ; »t«li Seelitj ... .Eilt-nil. ! 3 
Vanadium In southwestern Klrbv Thomas IBS 

Alne g^q 

Calrradoa i sUts r r t sting pi , nt Editorial. :: r 

Colorado Carnotlte Co *%* 

lo Gold-Dredging Co.. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. iai 

Colors of clay, various osj 

Columbia i 'evelopmeni Co " 484 

Columbus Con. Mining Co 875 

Coin mb ii* mine I'*!) 218" 4 84 

Combination method* for smelter assays 

Combustion conditions A T French'.:.. 40* 

Surface Raymond C. Benner!!!! 836 

Common op mpprr, Eastern. The situation as seen In 

New York 7rt -j 

Commission on mintne. 1,111 to create 599 

Common principles of mining law,. 367 

Commonwealth mine Llewellyn Humphreys! " ' 79<t 

Commonw.-Mth Mining & Milling Co 2<r 

Como. Nevada H.' C.' Cutler: . '. '. 58* 


Oompagnlp du Baleo Co fj'sV 700 

Compar-iM Minora v Beneflcladora de Maravlilas *v* San 

Frarfisro. of P.-mhura , , 357 

Com pan ia Minora v Explorada de Ventanaa; S. a : '. '. '. '. '. 678 


Companla Real del Monte y Pachuca 123 

Company reports: 

American Smelting & Kenning Co 520 

Copper Mining Co 813 

Atbas&r Copper Pie Ids, Ltd 360 

met iv Heata Mining Co 764 

Chlno Copper <'•• 680, 7SS 

i.'unlagas Mines. Ltd I 58 

Corocoro l^pit.-d Copper Mines, Ltd 360 

Daly-Judge Mining <"<> 554 

er White Caps Mining Co 909 

Mines, Ltd 743 

Glroux Con. Mines Co 360 

Uoldfleld Con. Mines Co 186, 345. 487, 630 

liolllnger Gold Mines, Ltd 648 

La Rose Con. Mines Co 743 

Le Roi No. 2, Ltd 456 

Lucky Tiger Combination Gold Mining Co 909 

Miami Copper Co 722 

Mllierala Separation. Ltd 327 

Murox Magnetic Co. Ltd 393 

Nevada Con. Copper Co 680 

Nevada Hills M. Co. . 743 

York & Honduras Rosarlo Mining Co 327 

North Star Mines Co 648 

Phelps, Dodge & Co. Tnc 564 

Consolidated Copper Co 680 

I;. .and Mountain Mining Co 909 

Standard Con. Mining Co 

Tennessee Copper Co 393 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co 624 

Tonopah Mining Co 722 

T re the we y Silver-Cobalt Mine. Ltd 45"3 

Trinity Gold Mining & Reduction Co 

Utah Copper CO 667. 680 

Van Roi Mining Co.. Ltd (56 

Comparison of New Zealand and Nevada mining 

methods F. C. Brown 104 

Compensation in Great Britain, workmen's 4y »> 

Complex zinc-iron sulphides, treatment of 177 

Composition of concentrated sulphuric acid 177 

Compressed air in gas-engine cylinder 284 

Air transmission Ill 

Comstock mines Editorial .... 232 

Properties report 580 

Comstock Pumping Association 4S^ 

Concentrate, keeping gold out of... George A. James.... 629 

rated monazlte sand, naturally 845 

Sulphuric acid, composition of 177 

Concentrating mills in the Wisconsin zinc district, small 

TV. F. Boerlcke 828 

Concentrator, Gee centrifugal Edward. Walker. . . . 59$ 

Pan motion 782 

Concentration, future of M. P. Boss. ... 19 

Concession granted by Peruvian Government 599 

System of mining law 366 

Concessions, increase in mining 279 

Concrete for shaft bottoms, re-inforced 816 

Objections to re-inforced 216 

Work, gravel for 216 

Conditions at Porcupine 718 

In Arizona smelters, labor W. J. Lauck.... 212 

Tn Canada 367 

In Mexico Editorial 425. 460 

In the south of Spain, mining. . . .Henry F. Collins. ... 49 

improved Douglas Waterman. ... 567 

Conejo Blanco, Tavlche 474 

Conglomerates of the Wltwatersrand. . . .F. H. Hatch .... 201 

Congress, American Mining Editorial. . . . 395 

Conlagas mine 427. 447 

Conlagas Mines. Ltd Company report 456 

Conness Shepherd mine 886 

Con re y Placer Mining Co 84 

Conservation of investments in gold mines 

Charles .Tanin. . . . 215 

Ditto Morton Webber. ... 214 

Conservation v. <-nrouragement. . . .Martin Flshbach. . . . 766 

Consolidated Amador Mining Co 855 

Consolidated Asbestos Co 109 

[dated Gold Fields of South Africa. Ltd 

15. 149. 509. 637. 700, 884 

Consolidated Mercur. end of 736 

-lidated Mines Co 150. 449 

Consolidated M. & S. Co 538. 77:.. B01 

Hdated Mines Selection Co.. Ltd 839 897. 900 

Consolidated Virginia Mining Co 485, *~ * 

tanda mine 272 

Construction costs, statement of A, W, Allen. ...702 

Costa at the New Portland mill, Cripple Creek. 

Colorado G. M. Taylor.... 12 

Consumption of Iron and coal In United States 821 

Of asbestos, world's f 4S 

Turbln steam 553 

Contact deposits J. F. Kemp. . . . S100 

Continental Development Co 121 

Continental type of glacial deposits in Alaska 

Lawrence Martin.... 806 

Convenient slag furnace J. D. Hubbard.... 597 

Converter matte at Great Falls plant Editorial.... 714 

Conveyor belts, feeding fi"i? 

and the Panama broth Editorial.... c ^ ,,,> 

Co-operated potash laboratory, Reno 346 

Co-operative studies of mining conditions in THInnls.... 

Editorial «"i 

Co-owner, advertising out a 614 

Copper 6. 9? 

A.i. led to nickel steel 316 

Advance Editorial. ... 189 

'^rporatlons and prices Mlsha E. Appelhaum . . . . 7 

' ''-n sumption of foreiprn 

L. Vogelsteln & Co.... 112. 1 »6. 436 618, "on 

Deposits native A. C. Lane.... 200 

1 lOSitS. types of porphvry W. L. Tnvot*. . 686 

During 1911. metallurgy of Thomas T. R*>ad 26 

Eastern comment on. the situation as seen In New 

„ York 7ni 

Eh rtroclvtlc refining of 114 

Exchange proposed for France 

_ James E. Dunning.... 438 

Exportation from United States Editorial fill 

Evportations of Japan i£7 

Field in Belgian Congo '. :"..'... . 133 

Foreign 43s 

Foreign consumption of German 

L. Vogelsteln & Co. .. .112 l*fi 436 612 ™0 
From Central Africa Editorial 850 

Vol. 1"4 


ipliatlon "f W 

liiM- Horace \ win. u.-ti . . ill 


- . . 15* 

... 66 

. . 11 'i 
. . 647 

lint.. Editorial 

.... ...88, •!«. 6T1. M>». »o: 

I I. ..n. Ion . . 68* 

..'. 1 IT, ■..; 

Urm Il'.r.i. ■■ J Btovens .. Ill 

in China »10 

Superloi Rob. 1 1 II Usurer. ... 92 

.Editorial. ... 396 
1 1 ii Maui 
Frederic W Cauldwell . ... 1(1 
ting cathode, tensile itrengln ..r electro- 

. .<■ w Bennett ... 590 

Cnlno, mlnlDf JaiBtt O. Clifford.... 463 

In Inn 316 

electric ■melting' ..r 

-Uv.-r, load, and xlnc 315 

Hon. Itulte -1 

■•tion, earnings unil dividends 

Thompson. Towlfl & Co 617 

tlon .stlmate.l by Hoyden, Stone & Co -js 

:lon In 1911 11. S Butler.... 681 

Prodctlon in 1911, Russia, si. Petersburg Corres< 


Production, Rusala'a Increase in 

tuition In Transvaal 

Product Ion of Japan 

Production of Washington . 

Question Editorial ... 


Refineries Editorial 

nerles, electrolytic 

K.-'lnlng In Austi ilia 

Report. James Lewis £ Son's Co 161. 779 

Review Mlsha E. Appelbaum :. 582. 


l'itt Editorial.... 

Smelter at El Tlnlente, Chile 

Smelting Editorial. . . . 

Smelting at Kyshtlm V. P. Assaelefr. . . . 

Smelting In Siberia 

Illng, problems In modem. ...S. E. Bretherton . . . . 

Smelting, recent Editorial.... 

statist!.. s and the copper market 


\V. rks, Nlkko 

Copper Extraction Co 

r Iron King mine 

Copper Mines Co 

Copper Producers' Association Editorial. . . . 

Ditto, figures Ill, 152, 259. 411, 1.'.".. .".III. 

666. 834. 

Copper Queen Con. Mining Co 82, 

r Queen mine 209. 

Copper Queen Miners' Benefit Association 

Copper Range Con. Co 106. 671. 724, 

Copper Reef Con. Mines Co 

Copper Reef mine 

Copp.-r River & Northwestern railroad .197. 

Ditto Editorial 

Coppers and ore reserves, porphyry Editorial.... 

Cordllleran section of the Geological Society of America 


Cordoba. Murex process at 

Cordoba Copper Co 

Cornwall Tailings Co 

Coroooro I'nited Copper Mines. Ltd. .Company report.... 

Cornish tin mines 

Cornish Tailings Co 

Corporations and prices, copper 

Misha E. Appelbaum . . . . 

Cost and profit on the Rand, working 

Johannesburg Correspondence.... 

Of Electric power 

Of developing public coal lands. . . .James Douglas. . . . 
Costs at Arco. Idaho Gurdon Bradley. . . . 

At East Rand Proprietary mines, operating 

At Ploche. shaft sinking Tom McCormac... 

At the Goldfield Consolidated mill, operating 

At the new Portland mill. Cripple Creek. Colorado, 
construction G. M. Taylor. . . . 

At the Pittsburg-Siver Peak mill, operating 

On the Rand, working 

Johannesburg Correspondence. . . . 

Statement of construction A. W. Allen .... 

Statements of working A. W. Allen.... 

Cottrell. F. G Mineral losses In gases and fume.... 

On smelter fume Editorial.... 

Cougar mine 

Courtesy and etiquette Editorial.... 

Court of Commerce Editorial.... 

Cranston. Robert E Mechanical features of the 

California gold-dredge — I. II. Ill 303. 338. 

Creede district, map of 

Cripple Creek 

Colorado, construction costs at the new Portland 
mill G. M. Taylor.... 

District, report of S49, 

Gold production 253, 

Mines, dividends 

Roosevelt drainage adit 

Water at Editorial.... 

Critic criticized Algernon Del Mar.... 

Criticism of American Institute of Mining Engineers.... 

Editorial. . . . 

Criticized, a critic Algernon Del Mar.... 

Cross-fractures and ore-shoots Morton Webber.... 

Crown Chartered Co 

Crown Mines Co., Ltd 

Bell signaling and cable systems in shafts at the. . . . 

Crown Point mine 

Crown Reserve Co 185, 






g 22 


I s:>. 



l in 


2 1 :; 










4 -ii 


■I 17 

Ing fusloni Iron 

Crushing plant, largest slngle-unll 

1 1 1 

i us mill. I 1 i 

Cult I . 376 

Culture in i m of eng n 

w I. 

Cummins lubttltute for metal *• h.-dule in tariff bin ,., 


Cunningham . Hoatlni 

Current, velocity of air hi 

gold di posited by magnetic oleclrh 

i' .i Martin 314 

Cupellatlon, early history of 

i: C. Banner ami M. i. Hartrnajin. 

Cushlnff, George H Iron ore vemom on the 

i Lakes in lull 43 

custom snit-iting in Colorado 

Customs tanrr r.. r Korea, n.-w EQdltorlal.. 

Cutler, ii. i' I. .in... Nevada..,, 538 

unto Professional ethics 147 

Cutting samples ■ 148 

■ i. in. hi at Sllverton Warren C Proiser.... 250 

lutto Sllverton indent.... 443 

At rreadwell 893 

i ir antlmonlal tailing W. Archer Longbottom.... 804 

i if gold ;,,,,) sUvor "i.s during 1911, progress In. 

Alfred James. 

i 'yanl. iile. lion as a Will II Coghlll 

Cyanide plant. Kuk San Dong \. !•'.. Drucker. 

Plant records, mill A w Allen. 

Regeneration B. George NlChOll 

Pitt R. i'. Wheelock. 

Solutions, assay of gold and silver-bearing 284 

nil in Noel Cunningham.... 816 

Ditto v ii. Jones 176 

Tailing. Arizona, specific gravity test 751 

Tests, laboratory \ W. ah." 

Ditto John Randall... 177 

Cyanlte 621 

Cyclone damages at Kalgoorlle 54J 

Cylinder 478 

Compressed air in gas-engine 284 

n :i 

D. & W. Mining Co 182 

Dahllte 216 

Daisy mine 151 

Daly-Judge Mining Co 179, 324 

Ditto Company reports.... 654 

Annual report of 480 

Drainage problem of 480 

Dividends 736 

Yearly report of 452 

Zinc problem of 4S0 

Daly West Mining Co 550. 648 

Damage at Kalgoorlle by cyclone 543 

Dams 478 

Danish pebbles used in tube-mills 207 

Dark scale of hardness Alfred C. Lane 112 

Darrow. Wilter E..«. Slime-filters in New South 

Wales 508 

•Data of geochemistry.' F. W. Clarke Editorial 193 

Daughertv. R. L South Dakota gold and tin mines. ... 77 

Davis, Charles H Los Burros mining district.... 696 

Davis-Daly Copper Co 323. 448. 609, 709 

Davis James. .. .Packing supplies In a mining region. .. . 430 

Dav-Brlstol Con. Mining Co 485, 605 

Dawson, recent amendments to placer mining at 705 

Deadwood Lead & Zinc 607 

Ii.adwood Zinc & Lead Co 900 

De Bavay Co 411 

Debt, Institute R. W. Raymond 567 

Of New Tork City, municipal Editorial.... 194 

Devislons relating to mining Editorial 748 

Decline in Porcupine share 349 

Decrease In vale of ore-shoots with depth 

F. Lynwood Garrison.... 558 

Definition of engineers. Wellington's .Editorial.... 426 

DeGroff mine 333 

Del Mar, Algernon A critic criticized 381 

Ditto An unusual type of mill. . . . 897 

Ditto Stamp-battery cam shafts. .. .113, 176 

De Luce mine ............. 854 

Denver & Rio Grande railway Editorial.... 585 

Denver Engineering Works Westinghouse 

equalizer hoist 230 

Deposited by magnetic electric currents, gold 

F. J. Martin. . . . 314 

Deposition, chart of ore Charles R. Keyes... 763 

Deposits. Clinton tvpe of Iron-ore. .. .C. H. Smyth. Jr. .. . 199 

Contact J- F. Kemp. . . . 200 

In Alaska, continental type of glacial 

Lawrence Martin.... 206 

In 1911. literature of ore... Walter Harvey Weed.... 35 

Lake Superior type of Iron-ore C. K. Leith. . . . 199 

Law of the pav-streak in placer J. B. Tyrrell.... 760 

Native copper A. C. Lane. . . . 200 

Of lead-ore Dolgol Island 591 

Of Southern Nigeria coal 280 

Of the Ozark region, lead and zinc 

E. R. Buckley 199 

Of the Sitka. Alaska, district. gold..Adolph Knopf 332 

Types of ore — a review A. C. Lawson. . . . 199 

Depression in Rhodesian shares 509 

Depth, decrease In value of ore-shoots with 

F. Lynwood Garrison.... 558 

Dig to the A subscriber. . . . 174 

Developed? how can Alaska be H. Foster Bain.... 283 

Ditto Anthony Elffner.... 412 

Ditto Julius Thompson.... 282 

Developing public coal lands, cost of 

James Douglas. .. . 30 

Development. Alaskan Julius Thompson.... 898 

In Mexico, power 745 

Of Porcupine 272 

Rhodesian mining 65 

Development Company of America Editorial.... 397 

Device a mlsdemeaner. removal of safety 284 

Dexter White Caps Mining Co Company reports. . . . 909 

Diamond bearing perldotite areas, Arkansas 171 

Deposits In Brazil 463 

Mining In Africa 67 


Vol. 104 


Diamond King Mining Co 516 

mond-Nimrod Co 611 

Diamond Vale mine, explosion at 163 

Diamonds 614, 815 

tc 412 

In Belgian Congo 134 

In China.. Edward di Villa 412 

Dictionaries, Spanish-American Traveler 703 

Dictionary, international Editorial 684 

Diesel oll-engineb for marine use 482 

Difficulties, unwatering a mine under 

C. B. Whitwell 896 

"Dig to the depths," A subscriber 174 

Dioxide, manganese 112 

Tailing, Jalisco ore 796 

Diplomat Mining Co 481 

Dippers, trips for steam-shovel 238 

Direct air-hoists 848 

Dirt, drawing down 815 

Disasters, lessons from recent mine 

Joseph A. Holmes 462 

Discharge pipes and receivers, explosions In air 216 

Disease, caisson Walter Feet.... 335 

Distributions of mineral products Editorial.... 297 

Ditch-owners 478 

Dividend record at Cobalt 179 

And production. Portland mine 313 

Paid by Cripple Creek mines 251 

Passed by Central Mining & Finance Corporation.... 

Editorial 396 

Dobbs, W. S. . . .Vlpon Porcupine Gold Mines Co., Ltd. . . . 763 

Dobie Mines, Ltd Company reports.... 743 

Doctor- Jack Pot Mining Co 322, 904 

Doctor Reddlck mine 8 49 

Dodge products, securing good castings for 746 

Mfg. Co.. Mlshawaka. Indiana 746 

Doheny Oil interests t 217 

Dolcouth report 446 

Dolgol island, lead deposits of 593 

Dome Extension propertv 511 604 

Dome Mines Co., Ltd 17 

mill (47. G 

Ditto Editorial 

Housewarmlng at 640 

Domes of Nova Scotia T. A. Rickard.... 492 

Domlnlan. Leon Mining in Turkey in 1911 5S 

Don basin, coal mined In 273 

Dos H«trellas Co 90 

Mine 217 

Double-riveted lap joints ;,-.3 

Douglas, .James. .COSI of .] eve] oping piihlie coal lands. ... 30 

Douglas Copper Co 873 

DraimiKe at Miami 4S1 

in of Dalv-Judge ' 4\rt 

■is. large vertical 584 

Drawing down dirt Si 5 

Dream mine 4<><> 

Dr ^Sfi?. on , ° Vl ns rlver .Editorial! ! ! ! 880 


Dredged areas, cultivating ...!.!. '.. ■!!!!! ].* "! ! 275 

Dredges at Nome, new 

California gold Editorial 

Tailing In I district X S. W* ' jjqtt 

Dredging and sluleing in Victoria Editorial 

At Pato. Colombia g|s 

£? 8 f fl ■■- \V.7Bdhoriai 

In Australia «- 

Tn South Wales <>2i 

Operations in Boise basin jc! 

Drelsam mine T s j 

C r !* r ' ' Trvin! ' " 4flg 

P/I.V m i. nea % mrttive power to hoist grave! from 284 

Drill. Miami Copper Co., churn...... "' Son 

IW tO ' tjoi 

[rds, prospecting Charles H.'Waters! .' ! ! 833 

■'V,t Ms Paul M LcdgJ jg 

Ltd ij, 

1 MB ite. KukSM Don ~ »**«• •"««■ 'S| 

niinsun R salons Syndicate!":! iig 

:..Prnp„ SP , French Vopp.r; 

iz<mn. . . -::- 

me Mines Co 

mine at 

ft Blue Bell Mining Co 4 sb si, 

Eajrl.- Copper C ■"■ 

Karl.- Power r,-, * 

Fir];- history of c up. ll'.t I- i . . 

Earth, stony cnurtM "™ ann '■ '■ '■ '■ 

Surface, tempi neath 

r aat African plateau, 1 

East Asiatic Petroleum c . »rg» U Coilf. 

East Rafan eoal mine 

Hue Hills mine ... 

Bast Rutte Copper Mining Co 

East Butte Mining Co ,v Q - 

East K01 , ** : '• 

East Pood mine , 

Bast Rand fiasco .!!!!!.'!!!! 

East Rand Proprietary Mines. ... . 147* '^Rg " \>- 

Ltlnsroostsa. ~' ": '' : 7: ' 

Pon<l fnlpp returns ' 

Eastern Canada, mining In 1911 

Comment on copper, the situation as ' seen' Vn"xe\v 

&Lw producuor?" '*>?™ *°Vr«»on.iAni ! ! ! ! 
Eastern Mining Co 












Echo Gold Mining Co 577 

Economical? Is 'cheap' labor ...F. L. Cole 347 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon 631 

George Spence. . . . 442 

Economic geologv. teaching Editorial. ... 96- 

Economics of tube -mill log S. J. Truscott 533 

Economy andaelficiency in fuel use Editorial.... 330- 

Edgar Allan & Co 790 

Bdlson and ore dressing Henry B. Clifford 867 


Advance in silver 265, 363- 

Advertising value of the plain truth 

Afforestation in Korea 523 

Alaska and Its needs 396- 

At Washington 

Copper mines 396 

Immediate needs 96- 

Trails 615- 

Alaskan railway building . 74S 

All-Alaska sweepstakes 524 

Allls-Chaimers Co 555- 

Aluminum 651 

American — 

Institute affairs 131 

Institute of Mining Engineers 194, 231, 266, 829, 817 

New York meeting 298- 

Mining Congress 395, 585 

Mining law 556 

Museum of Safety 129 

Smelters Securities Co 849 

Society of Engineering Contractors 129 

Steel rails 265 

Amparo Mining Co 193 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 159, 265- 

Approprlationfl committee 684. 

Arizona Geological Survey 817 

Austin Manhattan Con. Mining Co 193 

Australian Transcontinental railway 684 

Balance sheet in smelting 461 

Baiting the trusts 

■Blue Sky* law 397 

Bolivia, producer of silver and gold 364 

Bolivian goldfields 819' 

Bonanza Copper Mine 396 

Boston & Cape Cod Canal Co 818- 

Brazll 265 

British language 365- 

Brush, George Jarvis, death of 266 

Bureau of Statistics 817 

Business conditions in the United States 817 

llfOrnla gold dredges 297 

up Bird mine 329 

Canadian coal mining and markets 713" 

Canadian Mining & Exploration Co 783 

Canadian Mining Institute 159. 193 

Ditto T. A. Rickard 427 

Canon Diablo. Arizona 555 

Carnegie Institution for the advancement of teaching 460 

ambers of Commerce, organization of 426 

China in transformation 130 

China's loan 849- 

New silver coins 880 

Chinese finance 617 

rhino Copper Co 159 

Chlno mill 555 

Coal dust explosives 36? 

Tn British Columbia 489 

Cobalt and its future 426 

Fir- 818 

Colorado Scientific Society 3" 

Colorado's state ore-testing plant 713 

I 'omstoek mines 232" 

Conditions in Mexico 4 25, 4 60 

Converter matte at Great Falls plant 714 

i looks and the Panama broth 525 

Copper advance 489" 

From Central Africa R50 

Market 557 

Question 266 

Refineries 586 

Smelting J 

Situation 819 

Producers Association 557 

River & Northwestern railroad 397 

rativc studies of mining conditions in Illinois. . 651 
• lordllleran section of the Geological Society of 

Amorica 4*r- 

Cottrell. F. G. on smelter-fume ifil 

Court of i InmniPTce 95 

Courtesy and etiquette r ^ r. 

Criticism of American Institute of Mining Engineers. . 330 

:i of geochemistry,' F. W. Clarke 193 

ons relating to mining 74S 

! 'enver & Rio Grande railway r>s5 

Development Company of America 397 

Distribution of mineral products 297 

Dividends passed by Central Mining & Finance Cor- 
poration 39fr 

I ,td 395 555 

Inpr and sluicing in Victoria 


Economy and efficiency in fuel use 330 

Elutrlation g51 

Emmon's memorial fund \t,$ 

English & Australian Copper Co 160 

in banks 4«--; 

Exports of copper from United States.....".".,!.!*.]!! 651 

Farmers Protective Association . 

Filter patents 

Fine ore 

Foreign trade of United States. ...'!!!'! 

Forest firep 

Foster bill !. 

Fourth and politics \ 

Fre*» assays and Government metallurgical investiga- 

Fuel famine at Nome ... j 

Fujita, Denzaburo. death of . . . 
Funds for the Bureau of Mines . . 
Future prices of silver In Far East. 


1 1- 



I n sea WS t e r ' . ' ',' o q- 

Gold field Consolidated mines.. VgV R94 

Cold field Consolidated cuts dividends ". sis 

uoldfleld report ' " ' " ^qr 

1 nment Bureaus ' " or 7 

T 7 : reaus and potash .! 4 60 \ 

V..I MM 


I at 
K..IU...,,|. In .11..!. . 



anU limlKlil. 

; - I ln(u 1 III 

III lit) 

■ ..pp. i i.i . 


Dli tlonar) 
Intaru ...pu.-ii Ctawnlstr) 

Intern : MiniDK Accountant* 

Enteral -I " tommlaalon 

Iron ■ inufacturera 

Tr.i.t. in At.i.i li 


Juvenile wait is inn! hypothtsai 


Leaalng agricultural ami mineral landa 


.1 club 

'.. r ..[ Mlnea A Oil 

ij| Um- Titanic 

Mammoth smelter 

I mine 


afetal prlcea 

Metallurgy anil the Rand 

i ■ ..n.litlons 425, 

■fining men 

t Ion 

Ifexl .ii Mining Journnl 

Mexico a n.l Intervention 

ReKaln* atablllty 

Miami Copper Co 159 

Mine accidents , 

Mm.- Inspectors' [natltute 

Min.- La Moite 

Mineral Association 

• if H.illvla, error In definition of per- 


Mining Association ..r I'niverslty of California 

An. 1 Metallurgical Soolety of America 

Experiment station at Auburn 


01 ' 

Montana Society of Knprlneers 

Moore Filter Co 

Morgan's art collection 

Municipal debt of New York City 

Napa Sunrise Oil Co 

Need ..f revision of American mining and land laws.. 

Nevada Con. Copper Co 

New customs tariff for Korea 

New York bankers 

Evening Mall 

Nlplsslng Mines Co 


Northwest Mining Convention '.'.'.'.'.'..'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Norweplnn Explorer 

Oldest Fossils 

Old Dominion litigation 

Organization of Chamber of Commerce 


Orovllli- to banish mosquitoes and flies ! 

Output of now securities 

Ovens river dredge 

Pacific Association of Scientific Societies '....'.'.'. 

Panama men and machinery shipped to Alaska 

Panama-Pacific Exposition 

Patent laws In United States 

Peary, Robert E.. receives medal of honor 

Penn Chemical Works 

Pension Increases, free sugar and ' 

Perkins, George \V., buys control of New York 'Even- 
ing Mail' 


Prices In West Side fields ., 

Phosphate lands in United States 

Pittsburg Silver Peak Gold Mining Co 6:,2. 

Political straws 


Porphyry conpers and ore reserves 

Possibility of labor troubles at Butte 

Potash. Government Bureaus and 


Prlchett. H. S.. annual report 

Primitive metallurgical methods 

Progress of the zinc Industry 

Prospecting on lands In the national forests 

Prosnertors and buyers 


Railroad accidents 

Rand mines output 


"Rational process 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co 159. 

Recent copper smelting 

Report of Governor of Alaska 

Of H. S. Prichett 

Republic established In China 

Research and the Government 


Revision of the mineral land laws 

Rice. George Graham, and his associates 

Rich gold-onartz mines of Alaska 

Ore and litigation 

Rock dust , 

Roofing plate 

Rush from Seatle to Alaska 

Ross^n gold-hearing land closed to prospecting.... 

Sun Frrincisco and the mint 

Search for tin In the United States 

Seattle to Alaska rush from 

Senate aoonts arbitration treaties with Great Britain 
and France 



M . 

I Vi 

:. s .i 





19 1 



71 I 







1 8 

7 s:: 
■IS 9 



3 96 

4 60 



3 31 


:■ I 

Bdltoi la I 

>.ll|. -.f 1 noj n ii Ike 

8 1 1 \ 


rimoltfli (time 1 1 

■ ■ 

. Mining low Dal 


Standard ■ til Co 

Stealing Bold 
Suggestion •>( Wait. 1 I«*l»h. i 

Taxation >>( on roaon ei 

Ing economic gi ■•!■■-■ j 
Technical education 
Terrestrial wave detector operatori 

olmont Mining <\. i ■■ \ topmenl ■ •■■ 

Tonopah Development ' Jo 330 

Tonopah mlnea and mlninn 

T pah Mining Co 96 

raphlc mapping 298 

between 1 nlted States and Philippine! 383 

d Statea Bui I .6 

United Statea Smelting, Refining A Mining Co 

United Statea Ste< 

United Statea Supremo Court declalon In mimeograph 

1 : •; 

Universal Postal Union 193 

1 'tali Copper Co 

of gold 

Ventilation In mines ,. 190 

Water in Cripple Creek 

Wellington's definition --i engineers «_••; 

Why not mlno? ifin 

Williams, Talcott is:< 

V .11 among 1 the gold mines i, iti'i 

Education of engineers, culture in the 

\v. 1,. Saunders. . . . 718 

1 -Is, Thomas, death of 552 

Effect of oxygen on Hame £16 

Efficiency In tube-milling, pebble \. W. Allen .... 19 

Eight hour law in Arizona 840 

Hour law In California 177 

Hour system for underground workers at Dome 286 

El Boleo smelting practice 

An Occasional Correspondent.... 700 

Electra oilfield 180 

Electrical drier for zinc precipitate. . .Donald F. Irvin.... in*. 

Electric bells 649 

Currents, gold deposited by magnetic 

P. J. Martin 314 

Ditto John B. Platts.... 177 

Hoist, Nevada-Douglas 191 

Power, cost of 815 

Smelting of copper ores 505 

Storage-battery locomotive 279 

Electrolytic apparatus 148 

Copper on a rotating; cathode, tensile strength of . . . . 

C. W. Bennet 590 

Copper refineries 662 

Recovery of zinc Thomas Sammons 173 

Refining of copper 114 

Electromagnetic separators 553 

Elements present In ore 478 

Elevating ten-cent gravel at a profit C, S. Haley. . . . 530 

Elffner. Anthonv. . . . How can Alaska be developed?.... 412 

El Frontal mine 118 

Elkton company 708 

Elmore vacuum plant 724 

El Oro gold mine 181 

El Ore M. & R. Co 582 

El Paso Con. G. M. Co 640, 842, 868 

El Paso Foundry & Machine Co 578 

El Paso mine 253, 290 

Elsfng. Morris Jesup Handling furnace charges at 

Cananea 619 

El Tajo M. Co 811 

El Tlgre mine 682 

Preliminary handling of ore at 

J. TV. Malcolmson and I-.. U. Budrow.... 398 

Mine situation at Editorial 395 

El Tinientl, Chile, copper smelter 600 

Elutriatlon Editorial 651 

Ely Consolidated Co 510 

Elv, geologic map of 292 

Ely National platinum 875 

Embaugh Mining Co 808 

Emma Abbott mine 257 

Emmons' memorial fund Editorial.... 159 

Empire Copper & Gold M. Co 639 

Empire Mines Co 256, 483 

Empire-Pacific 548 

Employer's liability and accident Insurance 

F. J. Martin 380 

Enameling industry, borax in 781 

Encouragement v. conservation Martin Flshback.... 766 

End of Consolidated Mercur 736 

Engineering data 191 

Engineer? Who is a mining T. V. Richards. ... 541 

Engineers, culture in the education .. .W. L. Saunders.... 716 

Rocletv 220 

"Wellington's definition of Editorial 426 

Engines. 300-up. gas 346 

Engle mine 548 

English & Australian Copper Co Editorial.... 160 

Equipment of the Hancock Consolidated, surface 

W. P. Perkins 469 

Ernestine Mining Co 155, 225, 292. 356. 452. 515. 

550. 611. 677. MO. 843 

Ernst. W. A Substitute for the blast-lamp.... 475 

Eskl-Chelr. meerchaum mines 59 

Esperanza "Ltd 218 

Establishment of republic in China Editorial. . . . 266 

Estimate of Texas coal areas, IT. S. Geol. Survey's 573 

Estimation of tonnage A. "W. Allen 308. 541 

Ditto T. B. Greenfield. ... 314 

Ditto Thomas T. Read.... 443 

Etherldge Prospecting Syndicate 36 

Ethics, professional H. C. Cutler. . . . 147 

European banks Editorial .... 425 

Stocks 453 

Examination of prospects, geology in the 

C. A. Stewart 622 



Vol. 104 


Examination*, geological **' 

Excavation, gopher-holes' In open-cut «» 

lor Drill & Mfg. Co Excelsior alrometer 3.8 

Exhaust steam ■ • ■ ■ • ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ JJ; 

Experiment station SI Auburn, mining Editorial 

Experimental work on the manganese silver pre.... 

Byron Jackson 


Experiments with the Thlogen process......... 

Frank L. Wilson... 49 ; 

Exploration Company ■• ... ■ .. • ■ 417 

Explorer. Noi Editorial 395 

Explosion at I llamond \'ale mine *j»» 

At the San Boll It Co ••■ :,;- 

Bxplosh w,v; , ' iii 

Coal-dust Editorial .... 363 

For open-air use ? J° 

In air-discharge pipes and receivers -J; 

Relative lateness of ;«; 

Of gold. Imports and ■ ■ ■ ■ • }•• 

Explosions. lessons from mines Joseph A. Holmes .... 46. 

Exportation of gold fiom New Zealand, duty on 

Exportatlons of South Africa 

Exported metal v; ;; ' ' V ".' ' ' ' 7*-1 

Exports ol copper from United states Editorial . ,. ,. . 651 

Is cheap' iabor economical? 476 

Exports of copp< 
Extralateral riglits 
Eye. C. M. 

Facing a cast-Iron pulley with leather 

Failure of American mining law 

Famatlna Development Corporation 

Famine at Nome, fuel Editorial 

Fairbanks Mining ft K> dUCtlOn CO 

Fans, hand-driven ventilating 

Par Beat, future price of silver in Editorial.... 

Far Baal Hand 

Farmer? Protective Association 

Editorial. . . . 

V. smeller at Ana. onda .Montana 

Parrell J. it Tanganyika Concessions Ltd. . . . 

Faults and suggested changes, mining law 

Horace V. WInchell. . . . 
Features of the California gojd-dredge. mechanical 

1. II. III. . 

Federal mines •_• ■ • 

Pi deral Mining & Smelting Co 320. . i 2. 

ral statute ■ 

Federated Malay States gold output 16, 

Ing, automatic slnc-diist A. w . Morris.... 


Dbamba Ltd - 1 - • »•■ 

Perro tungsten 

Perry county against tariff reduction 

Fertilizer manufacture at Salt Lake City 


Fibrous talc 

Fldalgo Bay Alaska * 

Piles cleaned with nitric acid 

Filter patent! Editorial 

[enters In New South Wales, slime 

fritter K. Darrow. . . . 

Filtration with alundum plates 

Finance. Chinese Editorial 

Flndlev Con. Mining Co.. annual report 

Fine grinrling. stage milling 


George W. Maynard. . . . 


Finlav. James Ralph Mining and civilization.... 

Fire :,t Cobalt Editorial 

Damages Mogul M. Co/S cyanide plant 


Fires, l.-ssons from mine Joseph A. Holmes. . . . 

Fireproof v. ash 

First-aid pi lama canal 

impi esslons of the Rand Edgar A. Collins .... 

..ii ion v. encouragement. . . . 

Fisher. Walter, Secretary of Interior, suggestion of 


Fixing United States , .O. It Tittmann.... 

Flask, application of tl gravity. .H. Stadler. . . . 

Flat-bottomed ore-bins Harry P. Stow .... 

Flats and pitches of Wisconsin lead and zinc district... 

H. Foster Bain .... 

Fletcher mill 

FlOdln Dredging Co 

Qotdfleld Mining Co 150 

Flotation of zinc ore C. T. Duroll 

Of zinc ores In Japan Tadashiro Inouve. . . . 

Flow-sheet Alaska Treadwell mill 

Fluctuations In platinum price 

Flue-dust, sintering and briquettlng of 

_ Felix A. Vogel 


Foreign coins ..."!'*' 

Copper. German consumption of .'.'...'.'. 

I- Vogelstein & CO 112, 146. 436 612 

Laborers strike at A. S. & R. Co. . 


Technical Journals. American and .... Noahs Ark' 

Ditto Thomas T. Read 

Trade of 1. nlted States. Editorial 

Foresight and Insight, hindsight Editorial 

Forest Ares Editorial.... 

!■ , .rests in Sweden 

Formosa, gold mining In W M Knox ' 


sulphur mines 

Mining report 

Fort Bldwell Consolidated company 28V '7io" 865' 

Fossils, the oldest Editor, 

Foster hill Editorial 

Foster Donald F., Labor and superb on the 

Gold ( oast 

Fourth and Politics Editorial 

Fowler, S S British Columhla living conditions 

Four Ace M. Co 

Fran, adopts arbitration treaties with Great 
Britain, and Editorial.... 

Vanadium Industry In 

Free assays and governroci I mi t allurglcal Inve'stic 

„ Editorial . . . 

Government assav 

Milling ore ....*!**"' 

Sugar and pension Increases '.'. .Editorial! '. '. ! 









2 19 



11 l 


1 16 








1 66 





i •: r. 






Use of timber from public lands. Ernest C. Orford. . . . 867 

Ditto T. D. Woodbury.... 831 

Freight rate on zinc ores 355 

French copper exchange proposed 

James E. Dunning. . . . 438 

French. A. T Combination methods for smelter 

assays 408 

French. W. % An unusal type of mill 865 

Frisco Mines Co 704 

Frisco Mining & Power Co 648 

Frisco Tunnel Co 385 

Frozen ground, prospecting Leon Perret . . . . 856 

Fuel famine at Nome Editorial. .. . 265 

Use, economy and efficiency in Editorial.... 330 

Fuels 614 

Funds for the Bureau of Mines Editorial. .. . 818 

Fu.iita, Denzaburo. death of Editorial .... 617 

Fume, mineral losses in gases and F. G. Cottrell 467 

Furnace charges at Conanea. handling 

Morris Jesup Elslng. .. . 619 

Convenient slag J. D. Hubbard. . . . 597 

Furukawa Company 471 

Fuse chara< teristles 280 

Fusions from crucibles removing J. C. Bock. . . . 700 

Future of Cobalt Editorial 426 

Ditto Charles A. O'Connell 4 29 

Of concentration M. P. Boss. ... 19 

Price of silver in the Far East Editorial. . . . 524 

Gagnon mine 

Gale. Hoyt s., and B. S. Butler Alunite near Marys- 
vale. Utah 

Garden Island mill 

Gardner Henry A Chalking of white lead and 

its prevention 

Garnet used as an abrasive 

Garrison. F. Lynwood. Decrease In value 01 

is with depth 

Gas. heating value requirements for 

Production in California 

Waste of natural 


Cylinder, compressed air in 


Units, largest 

mineral losses in F. G. Cottrell ... . 

and Three giant producers on the 

Rami in 1911 

oncentrator Edward W r alker. . . . 

■ nation of gold by colloid 

Gem mine 

General Development Co 

: i Eli ctrlc Co 

General Mining & Finance Corporation 

ilver ores in Wardner district. Idaho — 

I. II. Ill Oscar H. Hershey. ...760 

Geologic map of Ely 

Geological examinations 

Society of America, Cordilleran section of 

Editorial. . . . 

-y. a review of progress, applied 

Alfred 11. Brooks, . . 

At Treadwell mines O. H. Hershey. . . . 

In the examination of prospects C. A. Stewart. . . . 

Of ii Maxwell Blake. . . 

Of the Pis Pis district in Nicaraiigua 

Oscar H. Hershey... - 

Teaching economic Editorial. . . . 

German mining In 1911 

Gc-man Southwest Africa Government 

Germany receives ore from Cobalt 

Geronlmo mine 


G hlii red jlk mine 

Giant mines 

Gibson mine 

Gibson. T. M Gold dredging Industry on 

, rd Peninsula 

Ditto Tin-dredging In Alaska.... 

Gieseke mill 

Gilt Edge-Maid company 

Glrault* E Purlslma Grande mill. Pachuca.... 

GIroux Con. M. Co 77, 185, 509, 686 

Ditto.. Company reports.... 


Glacial deposits in Alaska, continental type of 

Lawrence Martin. . . . 

Glass, how to drill 

G. M. Co 

Globe & Phoenix mine 

Goers & Co.. A 

Gold and silver 

And sliver ores during 1911. progress in eyanldatlon 

of Alfred James .... 

And silver-bearing cyanide solutions, assay of 

And silver for Jewelry manufacture 

And silver production of British Columbia. 1911 

And silver production of Montana 

And silver solution of placer Will H. Coghlll .... 

And soot T. A. Rlckard .... 

And tin mines of South Dakota.. R. L. Daugherty. . . . 

At Ca-rlzal 

Beating, paper as substitute for prepared skins In... 

Buying station at Trail 

QOllOid gels precipitation of 

Coast, labor and superintendence on the 

Donald F. Foster. . . . 

Deposited by magnetic electric currents 

F. J. Martin 

Ditto John B. Platts. . . . 

Deposits of Siberia 

I> posits of the Sitka, Alaska, district 

Adolph Knopf. . . . 

Discovery In Venezuela W. Henderson. . . . 

From New Zealand, duty on exportation of 

Ground In Peru, placer 

Imports and exports 

In a new mill, retention of H. A. White. . . . 

In amalgamation, causes of loss of 

In beacli sand, saving A. H. Harris.... 

Tn Belgian Congo 

In Russsla. 1911 110, 

-water Editorial ... . 

Mini, Mount Boppy. N. S. W 




74 S 






l" r . 















50 n 

Vol. 104 



Uli..- workrra In AmnU.u if.. ml.*' 1 '" 

grant u 

Mil,.. eoaacrrMlon >•( Inrestmants In 

. .. : 

H. ll„ n A I 

Kdllorlul 1 


Mlnlns In Formosa \\ M Kno« 

1 , , . 

MiniiiK In In* Transvaal.. 1; . . «5 

tain tllncrU-c . . 76 

Out Of .'.'ii. .-nl rat. keeping. [ [ 639 

.1 Au.tralaatn. January 50s 

Output In 1911. Aiimr.iliiKl.iii 

11 ,,r Australia . (04 

ut ..f Federated Malay si.u. - 

iiiitiuit t,r Kalajnorlls for Janaar) 

• lutpul of Mm . .1 g29 

ut »>f Rhodesia, 1910 

Output of Transvaal 

prospecting J.J. Martin." .' 690 

Produellon «>r Bendlgo 263 

Production m 1111, Russian .' 

St. Patersburs; Correspondence ... . 313 

Production In IDs rjrals 

Production <-r Porcuplns 73', 

Production .'f th« world 4 

Production, Western Au.tniiiun 7fit 

Property auctions, Russian 112 

Dradsra, mechanical features >>f the California — I. II, 

111 Robert K. Cranston 38, ::T: 

Dredges, California Editorial 

Dredging at Ruby, Montana. . . . 11. -1, 11,11 Jennings..., M 

Dredging In California. Charles Janln*... 7L' 

Dredging industry on Seward Peninsula 

T. It Olbaon . . . (G 

1 infixing In 1111. review of Charles Janln ... . 101 

1 ir.-iiitiiiK In Russia Charles Janln ... . 66 

Dredging in the Amur region 47*» 

Dredging In the Philippines Charles Janln ... , 70 

Quarts mil f Alaska Editorial .... 330 

silv r and tin In Italy .">:, 

Silver mine In Montana George T. afcQee.... 83 

Ing Editorial 364 

Supply of KalKOorlle 

Value of Editorial 6",2 

yield of Queensland, i!>i 1 , 375 

Yukon O. B. Perry 668 

Workings in Centra] Asia.. Ellsworth Huntington.... 600 

,0.1.1 Beach dredge 48 

Gold Bullion Mining Cn S40 

Sold King MlnlnK A Milling- Cl 1 -"-' 

Gold King Mining Co 162 

Gold Ray mine 437 

Gold Trio Mines >',, 164 

Golden Cycle Mlnlns Cn 389 

te Falls , 180 

ite ml no 333. 420 

Golden Reward Con. Gold Mining Co 819 

Goldfleld Relmonl Mining Ci 161 

leld Consolidated I topper ' ,0 ''-. 166 

Ditto, Cut dividends Editorial.... B18 

Mill 815 

• iperatlng ,-.,nts 137 

Goldti,i,i Consolidated Mines Co 5. 7:,. 10.1. 390. 

181, 616, G07. G7i;. 77H. 609 

Ditto Company reports 186, 196. ::ir,. iv:. 630, B10 

run,, Editorial ! 

Ifl, -id Deep Mines Co fin? 

Goldfleld Mercer Mines ' '■■ 165, 421 738 

GoldHel.ln of Bolivia Editorial... S19 

Of Venezuela 894 

'Gopher-holds' In open-cut excavation 468 

Goranza mine 531! Gold Mlnlnic Co 89! 

berger, B. Brltton Miami Copper t'.,.... 71s 

Gould Mlnlnc Co 450 

Government assays, free 248 

Bureaus Editorial ... . 267 

Bureaus and potash Editorial .... 460 

Ditto Victor Barndt 731 

Ditto .1. D. Kennedy.... 669 

Ditto George Otis Smith. ... 571 

Gold-mining' areas, consolidated 790 

Metallurgical Investigations, free assay and 

Editorial. ... 233 

Minos department. Johannesburg 11 fi 

Railroads In Alaska Editorial.... 524 

Research and the Editorial.... 331 

Grace St Co.. W. R 89 1 

Grade for tables 4 7S 

Granby Consolidated Copper Co 701 

Granby Con. Mining. Smelting & Power Co. ..69, 4S1. 538, 844 

Ditto Editorial . ... 616 

Smelter 422, 907 

Grand Central and gold chain mines 51fi 

Grand Central mine 422 

Grand View M. & D. Co 451 

Graphic methods, presenting assay results bv 

J. B. Stewart. . . . 654 

Granhit" S2 1 

Ceylon 7S1 

Industry 414 

In manufacture of pencils, use of 44 1 

Gravel at a nrofit. elevating ten-cent. . . .C. S. Haley 530 

Beds, of Rogue river Clement H. Mace. ... 437 

For concrete work 216 

From drift mines, motive power to hoist 2R4 

Rocker for washing "W. H. Radford.... 801 

Gravity llask. practical application of the specific 

H. Stadler. ... 166 

Stamps, hfeh-dutv H. Stadler 274 

Test, specific. Arizona cyanide tailing 751 

Grease, wool 414 

Great Britain and France. Senate adopts arbirtation 

treaties with Editorial 395 

Organization of mine-rescue work 4°7 

"Workman's compensation in 496 

Great Cohar G. M. Co 508 

Great Eastern Co 4 « 1 

Grent Falls plant 6S5 

'Converter matte at Editorial.... 714 

Great Lakes in 1911. iron ore movement on the 

George H. Cushing. .. . 't 

Great Western Mining Co 451 

:,l Co 



1 dvldends 

" to 

Sin, It . r OUtpUl ' H7*| 


Or* tit... K lMll , 

< I r* It man m ( '•• 

Grinding rolls foi . .'. j is 

: brlquettlni ' &o 3 

Qround In Peru, placer void ,..1 


Growth -t copper Industry In United 81 

nh.-iin exploration Co 118, I 
Ouyot, n. k sit. nut.. 1, at MiKi. Orat 

■ 1 mill 

<;> ratory v. law crushers 

Haley, C, S Elevating ten-cent gravel at a profit .... 530 

_ ,V lu " T1 "- way »»f ;i 11, in, with a mli 

rax mine 515 

Hall, Jt ,: Zinc ore and Bine smelting!!., 8 

Hancock ContmUdui. .1. ilpment <-r the.. 

, „ \v. P, Perklm 1611 

Humim-r -drills 177 

Hancock shaft .....!!..!! 

Eland driven ventilating fans ....!.!.! 521 

Sorl Ing, Jalisco ore, classification by .! 7?. 7 

Handling furnace charges at Canonea. 

Morris Jesup Elsing.... 619 

Of mull Bdltoi h 

< tf materia) 553 

Of ore at El Tlgre, preliminary . .. 

J, \\\ Malcolmson and L. it. Budrow.... 398 

Hansen. Carl C IV{r<iU-um products In Slam.... 846 

Han-Yen-P'lng Iron & Coal Co Editorial.... 7 is 

Harden Iron and steel plates, t<> 269 

Harder, E. <\. and C. K. Leltfa Hematite ores of 

Bras!] 172 

Hardness, dark scale of Alfred t La .112 

Harris, .\. if Saving the gold In beach and... 

Hart man n, M. !.., and EL C. Benner Early history of 

cupellatlon ;,n 1 

Hastings & Sebery :, 1:: 

Hittr-h. F, IT. . . .Cunglonu-rates «>f tin- Wltwatersrand 201 

Hi den plant B94 

Hayden, Stone & Co. estimate copper production 28 

Hazel <;. M. Co .-,77, 843 

h min. 422 

Health, minor?' 670 

c anlde solutions Noel Cunningham 315 

Ditto a, H. Jones. .. 176 

value requirement for gas 745 

Hecla mine ; -, 

Heel a Mining Co , 223 609 772 

Hedley G. M. Co 186 

Dividends 7d 

Helena property \s\ 

11. matlte ores of Brazil. C K. Lelth and B". C. Harder.... 172 

Helndl, Alexander J Russian platinum prices.... 668 

Relnze and the Stewart Mining Co 736 

Henton, H. M Titanium and Its uses.... 172 

Herron, John, death of 260 

Hershey, Oscar H Genesis of lead-silver ores in 

Wardner district, fdaho, 1. 11, III 750, 786, 826 

Ditto Geology at Tr.a.lw.ll mines.... 200 

Ditto Geology of the Pis Pie mining district 

in Nicaragua 270 

Hidden Creek mine tut, 550, r. 7 1 , 576 

Hidden Lake property 325 

Hidden Treasure mine 272 

High-duty gravity stamps H. Stadler. . . . 274 

High Grade Editorial 4£)0, 683 

And the boom Editorial ... 715 

Situation at N. E. Guot 703 

High price of zinc ore in Missouri 481 

Hill grove district N. S. W 884 

Hills. Victor G Magmatlc origin of ore-forming 

solutions 703 

Hindsight, foresight, and Insight Editorial.... 881 

Hirst Cove mine 334 

History of cupellatlon. early 

R. C. Benner and M. L. Hartmann.... 501 

Hobson. J. B.. death of 187 

Hoist gravel from drift mines, motive power to 284 

Nevada. Douglas, electric 191 

Westlnghouse. equalizer 230 

Hoists, trunk cylinder 84S 

Hoisting at Klmberley s 1 f; 

Ropes 606 

Speed in 878 

Hoi linger Gold Mines, Ltd 263 

Ditto Company reports.... 6IS 

Hollinger mill Sit 

Mine 179. 186 

Report analyzed 285 

Holmes. Joseph A Lessons from recent mine 

disasters 462 

Home rule for Alaska Editorial.... 818 

Home Run Copper Co 185 

Home Ticket mine 387 

Homestake Mining Co 77. 219. 320, 506, 576, 677 

Electric power 900 

Mine 734 

Hook, safeguard 281 

Hoover. H. C Australian mining laws. . . . 731 

Horse-Shoe mine 38R 

Hot Springs district of Tanana Valley 783 

Hough. George J Salfda smelter. . . . 895 

Houghton Copper Co 90? 

Housewarming at Dome mill 540 

How can Alaska he developed? H. Foster Bain.... 283 

Ditto Anthony Elffner 412 

Ditto Julius Thompson.... 282 

To drill glass 521 

To oxidize metals .210 



Vol. 104 


Huanunl tin-mining district 603 

Huastlca Petroleum Co 112 

Hubbard, J. D Convenient slap furnare.,.. 597 

Hudson mill 899 

Humphreys, Llewellyn Commonwealth mine. . . . 79S 

Hungarian riffles 382 

Hunter mln.- 549 

Huntington. Ellsworth.. Gold workings In central Asia ..600 

HuntlnKtnn-H.-lM-rl.-in Pol process " 503 

Hurley, New Mexico, milling the ore of the Chlno mine. . 464 

Hyacinth 878 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co 782 

mi talents 370 

1 1 lc M. & M. Co 900 

Hypos theses, juvenile waters and Editorial.... 194 

Mining Co 

I«la HcCallum mine 

Idaho w. A Scott 

at Areo Gurdon Bradley 

Genesis »t lead-silver ores in Wardner district, i, II, 

Hi O. H. Hershey, i 

urvey Editorial. . . . 

Idaho Springs district, production of 

Idaho Continental mln 

Idaho Tungsten Co 

Idaho Realty & Power Co 

Idle mining property 

Idora Hill mine , . , 

Ifft. George Nicholas Building-stone from slag. . . . 

If I Can mine 

ijams, ,i. \v Strlpi , Illinois. . . , 

Illinois coal stripping I. w. Ijams. , . . 

Co-operative studies of mining conditions 


Imnn river 

Imlay inlng Co. .....[.[.[[[.. 

Immediate needs of Alaska Editorial' ! '. 

Immigrant gold mine workers in Amador county Cali- 
fornia. . - W. 3. Lauck .... 

impartiality, improbability of Editorial 

Iiuperntor-QuUp Co 

Imports and exports of gold 

Of copper in United states Editorial 

Impressions <»f the Rand, first Edgar \ Collins 

Improbability of impartiality Editorial 

Improved cone Douglas Waterman 

rone of I,ondon market 

Improving aluminum 

Increase in mining concessions 

In Russia's copper production 

Independent Oil Producers' Agency '. 

India, manganese ore in 

Qullon, Travancore 

Indians Gold Dredging Co 

Indians Pteel Co "[] 

Indigo dyeing, sine -dust in 

Induction motors \ ', 

Industry. Chilean nitrate 

Graphite ."!["! 

In Franc.-, vanadium !!.!!! " 

in United states, growth of the copper "'" ! 

Of nitrate In Chile 

On Seward Peninsula, gold-dredging 

_ T. M. Gibson. . 

Progress of the zinc Editorial 

Industry mine 

Tngails mine . , 

In go mar Con. G. M. Co 

1 profltt guide wronglv. when A. H Martin " 

Injuries to workers on Los Angeles aqueduct, personal 

Ink-type recording instrument. Bristol's 

Bristol Co. of Waterburv Conn. . , 

Inouye, Tadashlro Flotation of zinc ores In Japan. 

inside a mine, life of timber 

Insight hindsight, and foresight .Editorial 

Inspiration Con. Copper Co. 151. 252. 255. 423 551 63 r " 771 
£j tto Editorial ' 

■fine 157 

Inspiration Con. Mines Co 217, 218*, 289,' 4*1*8) 737' 

Inspiration Copper-I.lve Oak Development 'consolidation ' 
_ „ Editorial. . . . 

Inspiration Copper Co 157 isi is? 

Institute debt r. w. Raymond. .. .' 

I In mining Engineer 

International Congress of Applied Chemistry 

_ . , ai , Editorial. . . . 

International dictionary Editorial 

Economic relationships .'.'.'.'. Editorial 

International Lend ft Ti on Co 

International Power ft Mr- Co 

International Smelting & Refining Co .". .86* 179 "186* 

_. .. . 421, ti;. 186, 516, 63S. 811, 


International smelter, Dtata 

International Society of Mining Accountants! . . . . 

, . „ „ Editorial.!'. '. 

Interstate rommerce Commission Editorial 

Interstate Railroad Commission .... FditorlaJ 

Intervention. Mexico nml ...: 

Investments In gold mines, conservation of !!!!!!!!!!!!! ! 
T , Morton Webber!! ! ! 

Investors, protection (II, n H. Rogers. . 

Iodines, chlorides in bromides and.. . 

Iowa Tiger Mlnlne Co !!!.!!! 

Iron and coal consumption In United States 

And Steel division of the A. I. M. E !.!'! 

And steel manufacture* ..Editorial' 

And steel plates, to harden 

As a cyanide Will H. Cognlli! !!! 


leposlts, Clinton typ< of c. H Smyth jr "" 

Ore deposits. Lak.- Sup C. K I.elth 

Ore In 1911 

Ore mines In Siberia 

Ore movement on the 'Ireat Lakes In 1911..!.!!!!!! 

Ore reserves of Michigan c K I. .Ith 

i "r.-. Swedish 

Ranges of Michigan p. B. MacDonaid 

To stone, how to cement 

Trade In America Editorial 






:. 1 9 
























4 80 






4 31 









4 2 


1 is 


Iron Blossom Con. M. Co 156, 5*i 

Mine 7 Hi 

Iron King Con. M. Co 422 

Iron Mask Mining Co 842 

Iron Silver Co 484 

Irvln. Donald F. . Electrical drier for zinc precipitate.... 405 

[rvlng, J. 1>.* Replacement orebodies. . ! . 1 It 9 

Is 'cheap* lahor economical? F. L. Cole. 

Ditto C. M. Eve...'. 476 

G. L. Sheldon . . . . 631 

George Spence . . . . 442 

d. Copper Co 108, 391 

lsoplunation 114 

Italy in 1911. mining industry In 

Charles Will Wright 
Ivanhoe mine .'386 

Jackling. D. C Work of the Chino Copper Co.... 725 

Ditto Work of the Ray Consolidated.... 692 

Ditto Work of the Utah Copper Co 663 

Jacobs, E Coal-mining In British Columbia.... 70 

ore 7 9 4 

liAcatlOn by hand sorting 757 

Ide tailing 7'.o; 

James, Alfred Progress In cyanidation of gold and 

sliver ore during 1911 37 

James, George A... Keeping gold out of concentrate.... 629 

Janln, Charles Conservation of investments In gold 

mines 215 

Ditto Gold-dredging in California 72 

Dittos Gold-dredging In Russia.... 66 

Ditto Review of gold-dredging In 1911 101 

January gold output of Kaigoorlle 544 

Japan, American rosin sold In 316 

Antimony 47s 

reexportations of copper 487 

Flotation of zinc ores In Tadashlro Inouye.... 892 

Nikko Copper Works 471 

Smelter fume in Editorial.... 364 

Zinc-mining In . . . .- 54 

Japan Petroleum Oil Co 678 

Japan's consumption of Chilean nitrate 680 

Mineral production H. Foster Bain.... 52 

Japanese copper production 865 

Patents registered 114 

velt and the H. Vf. Reed 867 

Jarbidge Gold Co 384 

Jarbldge, mining at An Occasional Contributor.... 626 

Jaw-crushers, gyratory v 215 

Jennie Sample G. M. Co 484 

Jennings. Henn.-n . .Gold-dredging at Ruby. Montana.... 84 

Jerome Tunnel Co 182 

Jersey type 788 

Jewelry manufacture, gold and silver for 441 

Johannesburg Con. Investment Co 834 

Johnson, A. R., and W. R. Woolrlch Nature of 

sherardlzlng 569 

Jones. A. H Heating cvanlde solutions.... 176 

Jones & Laughlln Co 859 

Joplin lead Editorial 849 

Lead and zinc production 109 

Zinc-ore shipments 831 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co 414 

Journals, American and foreign technical 

'Noah's Ark'. . . . 765 

Ditto Thomas T. Read 76a 

Jullen Dredging Co 48 

Jumbo Extension Mining Co 905 

Jumpers Gold Mining Co.. Ltd 724 

Junk collectors 759 

Junta c.old Mines Co 579 

Jutlandia 4S2 

Juvenile waters and hypotheses Editorial.... 191 

Kabin gold mine 630 

Kai-lue Mining Administration 909 

Kalping-Lanshow amalgamation 909 

Kalgoorlle, damage done by cyclone at 5 12 

Gold supply 504 

January gold output 544 

Labor troubles 902 

Kalgurli mine 4S7 

Kanioka mine 54 

Kanltchatka, placer deposits on Chukat peninsula 695 

Kansanshl mine 133 

Katanga copper 878 

Kate Hardy mine 290 

Katz, F. J., and G. C. Martin Matanuska vallev 

coalfields. Alaska 4 99 

Kawamura, Takeshi Asaruzawa mine. . . . 720 

Keene's cement 553 

Keeping gold out of concentrate. .George A. James.... 629 

Kellcy, P. K Wisconsin zinc district. . . . 276 

Kellogg tunnel ; 75o 

Kemp. J. F Contact deposits.... 200 

Kempfer, W. H Preservative treatment of poles.... 309 

Kenal Mining & Milling Co 903 

Kennlcott Mines Co Editorial.... 396 

Kennedy, J. D Government Bureaus and potash.... 669 

Kentucky, phosphate rock In central 815 

Kerr, Mark B Mines of the southern Sierras 

of California and Nevada 34 

Ketalioen gold mine, Sumatra 312 

Charles R A chart of ore deposition. .. . 763 

'Told Mining & Milling Co 900 

Kimball & Sauple dredge 4 6 

Klrnb.-rley mine, hoisting at 815 

King David Mining Co 156 

King Midas Mining Co 355 

Kinkwaseki gold mine 435 

Kinney bill 606 

Kitty Lane Gold Mining Co 450 

Knight interests, properties controlled by 480 

Smelter near Silver City... *. !8o 

Knob Hill Co isr, s7'l 

Knopf, Adolph Gold deposits of the Sitka, Alaska. 

riot 332 

K: W M Gold-mining In Formosa. .. . 435 

Knuckle guard gi 4 

Vol. I'M 



Sulphur trade In 


Itonansa Mlnra Ltd 

itlun tn. 


at Chlnnampo 

l'i"-l <mn "■ 

K - Ilk '■• plum \ i: llruik.T 

Inn ill V P. Asaarl.'fT. . 

Labor anil aupartntandenoe on the <;••. 

I lonald P. Posl 

litlons In Arizona sm. It. , - W.J. lain, k ... 

momical t- p. 1. Col 

Ditto ...i. Sheldon 

1 »i 1 1 «» George Spenoo. . .■. 

Problem in BoutKeni ithod.-slu 

ei at Hun,, powtblllty of Editorial 

Troublea at Kalgoorlle 

Troubles In New Jersey 

Laboratory >• lass tilers Thomaa T. Read. ... 

\ W. Allen 

I""" John Randall.... 

Reno, co-operative potaah 

impagnle dee Champs .1 < >r ,i,- Rlgaud-Vaudreull. . . . 

Lb Companla Metalurglca afexlcana... 

Ladders, maklrii; mln,' II. Vincent Wallace. . . . 


La I'm:, Mining i Milling Co 

Lady ROSS mine 

La Prance Copper Co 479, 

(range mine 

La ' Irange Placer -Minim: Co 

La Junlia nilii.- 

Lake Copper Mining Co 92.187.218, 1 1 v. lis. 153.511, 

Annual report 

Lake ships 

Lake Superior copper mlnea Robert H. Maurer.... 

Copper mining In 1911, review ol 

Robert n. Maurer. . . . 

Type of iron ore deposits C. K. Lelth .... 

Lake View & Star mine is 7, 

Lfl Lul y Los Angeles mine til. 

La Mln.i min.- 

Lamp, oil for use in blow-pipe 

laws and their defects, mineral 

George Otis Smith. . . . 

Laws, need of revision of American mining and 

Editorial, . . . 

Laws, revision of the mineral Editorial .... 

Landls, Walter s Agglomeration of line materials.... 

Lands, area of public 

By the U. S. Goverment. sale of mineral 


Free use of timber from public.. T. D. Woodbury.... 

Leasing agricultural and mineral Editorial.... 

Lane. Alfred C Dark scale of hardness. . . . 

Native copper deposits 

Langford. Frank Smelter building in Chile.... 

Language, British Editorial. . . . 

Lap Joints, double-riveted 

Laramie tunnel, Colorado, bonus system of payment at.. 


Large vertical drawing boards 

Largest gas-engine units 

Single-unit crushing plant. .. .Samuel W. Traylor.... 

La Republic Mining Co 

La Rose Con. Mines Co 419. 

Ditto Company report.... 

La Rose Copper Co 

Las Chlspas mine 

Last Chance claim 

Lauck, W. J. . . .Immigrant gold-mine workers In Amador 

county. California 

Ditto. . . .Labor conditions in the Arizona smelters. . . . 

Laurlum-Montana Mining Co 

Law. 'Blue Sky' Editorial . . . . 

Claim system of mining 

Common principles of mining 

Concession system of mining 

Mining Editorial 

Mining, its faults and suggested changes 

Horace V. Winchell 

Of appropriation 

Of the pay-streak in placer deposits. -J. B. Tyrrell ... . 

Systems of mining 

Lawrence woolen mills 

Laws and their defects, mineral land 

George Otis Smith. . . . 

Of the United States, patent 

Proposed revision of Alaskan mining laws 

F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 

Regarding use of timber 

Revision of the mineral land Editorial. . . . 

Lawson, A. C Tvpes of ore deposits, a review.... 

Lead 10. 649, 

And its prevention, chalking of white 

Henry A. Gardner.... 

And zinc deposits of the Ozark region 

E. R. Buckley. . .. 
And zinc district, fiats and pitches of Wisconsin.... 

H. Foster Bain 

.And zinc in Italy 

And zinc mining 

And zinc production of .Toplin 

And zinc production of Wisconsin 


Deposits on Dolgol island 

District, Castle Dome, Arizona... J. Nelson Nevius.... 

"In Russia, 1911 

Mines, zinc and Otto Ruhl.... 

Mining, zinc and 

Pencil electrodes 

Production in 1911 C. E. Siebenthal 

Production of Washington 

■ Secondary ' 

•Silver ores in Wardner district Idaho, genesis of — 

I. IT. Ill Oscar H. Hershey 750, 786, 

'Tariff, proposed change in the W. A. Scott.... 







I S3 

34 7 

J is 









:, I a 





7 17. 

6 I -> 
I 7 'J 

7 Sil 


III.' 2 






I., ,,.|\ ! 

I., u.iviii. Mine* Pumping 

,. I„,w lo i 

Ledge ion M Co 

\l A H •' 

LegTalatlon ,.f Alaaka 

Lelth, C. K ..n. i K. i' iiar.i,., n..„, 

iroi reserves of Mlohlgan 

Length for a belt, how to aecui 

la- Sol No. J. 1.1,1 

, ' reporla. ■ ■ ■' 468 

'-at min,- dlsatloi 

Joseph A. Hoiiio 

Lawlngton, Guy A, I: Alaska and the Yukon 

port on ooppoi 

I.. Wis. .1, Volioy 

Lewie. Samuel P., death of 

.ma Mines Co ■■.,. i , •, 

Liability an, i accidont Insurance, employers' 

I' I. Martin 380 

For accidents, mine-owners' \. .1 Plllsbury. . .. 

Llbby I'll r M. Co is. 

Life of timber inside a mine 

Llghtner mill. Aim, is Camp n:: 

In Con. M. Co 

Lincoln's speech 

Llndgren, Waldemar American institm,- ,,f Mining 

Engineers 849 

An, i '■'. I. Ransoms. .Survey reports and 'boosters' ... . 347 

Liners, tube-mill practice and F. C. Brown.... .'"<; 

Lion Hill Con. M. & M. Co 123. 17, J 

l.l'iuld air ||4 

Products from natural gas 

Irving C. Ail, -ii atol ll.-orge I'.uri HI . . . . 436 

Literature of ore deposits In 1911 

Walter Harvey Weed.... 35 

I.llhlum minerals 781 

Llthosphere, volume of 414 

Litigation. Old Dominion Editorial. . . . 747 

Rich ore and Editorial.... 881 

Litmus paper 478 

Live Oak Development Co 157. 321 

Mine 287, 319, 513 

Living conditions In British Columbia ... .S. S. Fowler.... 764 

Lixivlatlon and calcination tests, Durango ore 756 

Tests, Durango ore 755 

Llano Gold & Rare Metal M. Co 482 

Location notice 165 

Locators in California, lode 316 

Locomtlve-manufacturing plant in Sweden, oldest 316 

Lode claim 382 

Locators In California 316 

Lodge, Paul E Drill-holes and patents 802 

Logan mine 536 

London Electrical Works Co., Ltd 414 

London market for mining shares and metals 

T. A. Rlckard 15 

Market, Improved tone of 482 

Share quotations of the year 93 

Substitutes for coal in 482 

Lonely Reef Company 37, 509 

Lone Star Con. Co 610 

Mine 272 

Lone Swede mine 156 

Longbottorn. W. Archer Cyanidatlon of antimonial 

tailing 884 

Los Angeles aqueduct, personal Injuries to workmen on. . 313 

Los Angeles Chamber of Mines and Oil 194 

Los Angeles mine ' 146 

Los Burros mining district Charles H. Davis. ... 696 

Losses in gas and fume, mineral F. G. Cottrell. ... 467 

Loss of cattle 882 

Of copper In slag 667 

Of gold in amalgamation, causes of 114 

Of pressure 414 

Of the Titanic Editorial 557 

Lost Hills M. Co 518 

Louisiana oil 815 

Sulphur deposits 890 

Sulphur mining in 634 

Lovelocks claim 485 

Low mining costs Charles Butters. . . . 765 

Pressure air, measuring G. S. Weymouth .... 562 

Lubrication 521 

Air compressor 782 

Lucky Chance mine 335 

Lucky Tiger-Combination G. M. Co 39S 

Ditto Company reports.... 909 


Mace. Clement H Rogue river gravel beds. . . . 

Macedonian mines and minerals John L. Blnda. . . . 

MacDonald. P. B Iron ranges of Michigan ... . 

MacFarren, H. W Birth of the American mining 

act— I. II. Ill 526. 564. 

MacNichoI. A. W Clamps for stamp-milling. . . . 

Machine drill air-hose 

Machinery of Selandia 

MacNamara Mining Co 323, 

Magma Copper Co 

Magmatic origin of ore-forming solutions 

Victor G. Hills 

Ditto C. F. Tolman. Jr 

Ditto W. L. Tovote 

Magnetic electric currents, gold deposited by 

F. J. Martin 

Ditto John B. Platts 

Mall handling Editorial 

Making mine ladders H. Vincent Wallace. . . . 

Mine models C. L. Severy .... 

Malcolmson, J. W., and L. R. Budrow Preliminary 

handling of ore at El Tlgre 

Mammoth Copper Co 182, 483, 









Vol. 104 


Smelter Editorial.... 615 

Work 421 

Manganese dioxide 112 

in Italy "■ 

or,- depoalta In Weat Indies 859 

In India 312 

Silver ore experimental work in... Byron Jaekaon.. 78J 

Sliver ore* refractory— I. II... will H. Coghlll :'■< 7:k 

Steel, bearing and pinions at 815 

Manhattan Chamber Of Mines.. 615 

Manhattan Securities Co €36 

Manufacture of fertilizer at Salt Lake City 

from gold and silver til 

Of pencils, use of graphite In 44 1 

Man Willi a mi ne. the way of a Charles SL Haley. ... 176 

Map of Creed.- distil, t 450 

Of Ely. geologic 89! 

Harloops Mines Co 610 

Marine use, Diesel oil-engines for 4S2 

Market. Cobalt and Us 112 

Coppei Editorial 

For mining shares and metnls. London 

T. A. Kickard 15 

In mil. N.-w Yotk sl.ari 

Our regular Correspondent. ... 92 


Tin mines and 

Markets. Canadian coal mining and Editorial.... 

Markings of a claim, monuments and 

Marmalo Hill mine 

Mars mine 

Martie iron mint 

Martin. A. 1! When initial profits guide wrongly.... 

Martin. !•'. I Employer's liability and accident 


Ditto Gold deposited by magnetic electric 

• ills 

Mart: I F. .1. Katz. . . .Matanuska Valley coal- 
fields. Alaska 

Martin. .1 I Proi id placers In Korea.... 

Martin. Law rem .- Continental type of glacial 

deposits in Alaska 

Mary McKlnney Mining Co 

Marvsvale. I'tah. alunite near. 

B. a Butler and II. .yt S. dale 

ol Copper Co 

Ditto Editorial. .. . 

.Mif- Editorial 

F. i.. Sizer. . . . 

n Valley Mil (51, 515, 

copper Horace .1. Stevens.... 

Matanuska Valley coalfield! 

Marlln an. I F. J. Katz. . . 
Mat, rials, agglomeration of Una. ...Walter s. Landls.... 

Handling of 


Mathewson, E. P. from sticking to the Job.... 

Ma it.. M. ,im mill clean-up, treatment ■ >■ 

M. W. vi. n Bernewlta. . . . 

Mam ; i Lake £ er mines. . . . 

Ditto Review ..t Lake Superior copper mining 

In urn 

MaxSeld property 

Mayflower mine 

Maynowei Mining Co 3is. isi, ;,:t. 

Maynard. George W. Sintering line ore. . . . 

McCaskey II. D Cold mining In 1911.... 

McPeran mine 

McQee, Qeorge T Gold-silver mines of Montana.... 

McGIII plant 

Mclntyre m 1 1 i 

M, Kin 1,-y-i farragh-Savage mines 422. 

Mechanical features Of the California sold dre... 

II. in Robert K. Cranston 

McPherson-McCormlck claim 

Meadow Valley M. Co 

Meaaure Ol Editorial.... 

Meaaurlng low-pressure air <;. s. Weymouth.... 

Meerschaum In Asia Minor 

Mines at "heir 

Meesc ,v Qottfrl i l - 125-hp. maximum silent 

chain drives 

Meell. an Institute of Mining Engineers. 
annual ji s 

N.w v..rk .. Correspondent...! 

Melones mine 

Melones Mining Co !. 

Merrill. F. J. H Prospector and the mining law 

Ditto Revision Of tile mining laws. . . . 

IJUto Spring Valley oilfields In southwestern 

\\ coming 

Merton A- Co., II. my 1; , 

Messlan mine 

Metal exported 

Market, New York as a 

Mining In British Columbia E. J;i 

Normal price of 

Prices Editorial '.'.'.'. 

Production and prices in mil u Vogelatein 

Production In the Central Slates.., 

Production in t: - ]] 

Production review in 1 s in mil !!!! 

Schedule for tariff bill. Cummins substitute...!..!! 

Metallurgical in-. sand government 

,. . j ... rial. . . . 

Methods, primitive Editorial 

Progi do P. H. Argall 

Metallurgy and the Rand . . 

u T. Read!!! ! 

Metals how to oxidize 

London market, for mining shares and.... 

_ T. a. Rlckard. . .! 

Metamorphlsm of olivine to serpentine 

Met! overlng pn in solution!! 

< if assaying silver bullion, wet 

Methods for smeller ,i iblnatlon ]'.'.'. 

„ . ,, A- T. French!! ! ! 

Primitive metallurgical Editorial 

m Gold a.- sii\ er Ml 
Mexican Light & Power Co .... 

Mill '.'.'...'.'!.'.! .422. 




! 1 6 







SO 4 


















Mexican mineral production 345 

Mines 737 

Mining men Editorial 817 

Situation Editorial. .. .615. 717 

Mexican Mining Journal Editorial.... 651 

Mi-i lean Petroleum Co.. Ltd 548 

Mexico Our Special Correspondent .... 90 

Alamos district. Sonorfc G. L Sheldon... 208 

And intervention Editorial 491 

c- .millions In Editorial. . . .446, 4 60 

Mining on the west coast of G. C. White 765 

< Hd mines at Alamos 278 

Oilfields 112 

Power development In 145 

Purlslma Grande mill. Pachuca E. Glrault 433 

Regains stability Editorial. ... 5 

Situation in 448 

preliminary handling of ore at El Tlgre 398 

Sjuyer A- Co.'s loan lo 804 

Sulphur mines In Wtlbert L. Bonnev .... 309 

Tavlche 474 

M. xlco Mining. Refining & Exploration Co 357 

Mexico Petroleum Co.. Ltd 642 

Miami Copper Co 82. 90. 126. 153. 325. :r 1x7. 

546. 547. 551. 606. 635. 636. 639. 737. 771. 849 

Ditto Editorial. .. .159. 585 

I 'itto B. Britton Gottsberger 718 

M-n-.'rlll 42" 

i-entrator 281 

Mine 321. 349 

Report 608 

Miami Developing Co 321 

Miami, drainage at 481 

.posits of Charleston. New Zealand 680 

Trices 781 

p 815 

-an as a salt producer 662 


Iron ranges of P. B. Mac Donald. ... 858 

Iron ore reserves C. K. Keith.... 799 

.in Mining Co 871 

Michigan-Utah Mining Co 115 



Middlings, retreatment of table Gelasio Caetanl.... 495 

Mllke collieries 

Mill, an unusual type of Algernon Del Mar. . . . 

Ditto , ...W. G. French.... 865 

And cyanide planl records A. W. Allen. ... 171 

Clean-up, treatment of matte from 

M. W. von Kernewitz. 

Operating costs of the Plttsburg-Silver Peak 

Mills in the Wisconsin zinc district, small concentrating 

W. F. Boer 

year among Nevada mines and 

L. F. Adamson 

Milling at the Bulle R Superior 893 

The ore of the Chlno mine John M. Sully. ... 464 

Mimeograph case. I', s. Supreme Court decision in 

Editorial ... 126 

Mm. accidents Editorial 818 

Accidents and their prevention Ed. Ryan.... R59 

Disasters, lessons from recent.. Joseph A. Holmes.... 462 


lion in Nevada 860 

Ladders 414 

is. making H. Vincent Wallace.... 847 

Life of timber Inside 

Models, making C. L. Severy. ... 881 

i Iwners' liability for accidents. .A. J. Plllsburv. . . . 507. 542, 

572, il')3. 633. 668 
Rescue work, organization Of 472 

nalon, new.Westlnghonse Electric & Mfg. Co. . . . 522 
1'nder difficulties, unwalering a. . . .C. B. Whltwell. . . . 896 

Ventilation Editorial 490 

Waters, precipitation of copper from. .W. G. Nash. . . . 818 

Ditto 11.. race V. Wine-hell 314 

Wav of a man with a Charles S. Haley .... 176 

Why not? Editorial... 160 

Workes in Amador county. California, immigrant gold 

W. J. Lauck. . 

Inspectors' Institute 818 

Mines and markets, tin 11 

And mills, the year among Nevada 

L. F. Adamson.... 75 

And minerals of Macedonia John L. Binda.... 535 

Ail mining. Tonopah Editorial 749 

At Alamos, old 27S 

In Mexico, sulphur Wilbert L. Bonney.... 30£* 

In northern Sfnaloa. . . .An occasional Contributor. 

In Siberia, iron ore 295 

01 Alaska, rich gold-quartz Editorial 330 

ntral America In 1911 T. Lane Carter 60 

loyok. ruby -MX 

sore, gold Herbert A. Carter. ... 201 

Of the southern Clerras of California and Nevada 

Mark B. Kerr. ... 34 

Min.s Company of America 448. 704. 765 

Ditto, dividends 

■ iperating Company 710. 811 

s' benefit association. Copper Queen 866 

! 832 

Health 670 

Inch 911 

Phthisis in Southern Rhodesia 444 

Miners Phthisis Commission 

- Protective Association Issue cards 832 

Mineral associations Editorial.... 784 

Industry In California William II. Storms.... 71 

Industry of Philippines 383 

Industry of Wyoming in 1911 . .Albert C. Boyle. Jr l"s 

laws and their defects. . .George Otis Smith.... 98 

laws, revision of the Editorial.... 97 

- by r, s. Government, sale of 540 

s, leasing agricultural and Editorial.... 161 

■ s In gases and fume F. G. Cottrell. ... 467 

ICtlon of Colorado by counties 699 

notion of Japan H. Foster Bain. . . . 52 

LOtlOn of Mexico 315 

Productions of California W. H. Storms.... 348 

Products distribution Editorial.... 297 

'i.-es of Bolivia Carlos San.iines . . . . 376 

Resources of Bolivia, error in definition of perte- 

Editorial. . . . 459 

Vol KM 


l ■ 


' N'lKrrlA . . . KM i-.llfurnla 
\\ . ullli of Dnltl 
Mineral Creak Mmm* Co 
Mln. i,.l 11:11 Con Mill. ■ . .■ mil. Nevada i 

Mineral Polnl Bine Co ... 376 

Mineral* and mines of Macedonia I. Blnda.... 6J6 

Mln.-rul. .Separation Co., Ltd. . .3(0, 561 

Ditto ... 117 

Mining act, l.l rili ol the American I n ill 

11 W Mai Perm ,s4, 6» 



n r...-.-n t ami ndmenti to pla 
■ r New '/.. n Ian. I 

And elvlllaallon inn.. 

Ami land laws, n. . .1 ..t revision "l An., ii... ■■ 

Bdltorlal, . 


..ii. .ii ..f University ..i California. .Bdltorlal., 

At Jarbldge In Occasional Contributor., 

At Treadwell, Alaska 



i ii 

Claim i 316 

islone. Increase in 

Condition! inn; idles of 


lions In the iiouth of Spain 

Henry P. Colllna. ... 49 

Copper ore at chlno lamai O. Clifford..., 161 

low Charles Butters.. .. 766 

Decisions Kdluirlnl. . . . us Rhodeslan 86 

Dlatrlct In Nl. nraguu. geology of Pie ris 

Oscar II. Hersh. v 170 

Knuii r? win. Is a J. v. Richards.... :. 1 1 

Experiment station al Aw I. urn Bdltorlal . . . , 616 

In Africa, diamond 67 

■"kit In IMi a. II. Brooke.... s:i 

In Brltleh Columbia, coal B. Jacoba... , 70 

in British Columbia, metal K. Jacobs.... 68 

In China. 191] Thomas T. Read 33 

la in 1911 62 

in Germany in 1911 105 

ii axan, Salvador 

in 1911, Australasian 66 

in 1911, Bold 11. n. McCaskey 112 

In 1911, in the various states and districts, review .if ?i 

In Russia In 1911 11H 

In Hi- ..Frederic W. Cauldwell.. . . 162 

In the Belgian Congo. West Africa, for 1 1* 1 1 

Sydney II. Ball. . . . 132 

In the Moreloa district G. L. Sheldon, ... B86 

In the Philippines 42S 

in the province ol Quebec, placer H. A. Ball. .. . 727 

In Turkey In 1911 Leon Domlnlan.... 58 

tern Nlcaraugua Mil 

Industry In Italy In 1911 Charles will Wright .". I 

Interest In Engineer.... 634 

Law Editorial .. 164 

Law, i 'aim. linn proposals for change In 366 

Law. claim system of 366 

Law, oommon principles of 367 

Law, concession system of 366 

Law. its faults and suggested changes 

Hora. . V. Win. I:. II.... 366 

Law. prospector and the.... 
I Utto T. 

P. .1. II. Merrill. 
F. Van Wageni-n . . 


Law states 216 





.. 104 

Law', syatema of 

Law. Turkish revision of 

Laws of Australia H. C. Hoover 

Laws, proposed revision of Alaskan 

F. Lynwood Garrison 

Laws, rr-vlslon of the F. J. H. Merrill 

I ,11.1 sine 

Methods compared. New Zealand and Nevada 

F. C. Brown 

News. Peruvian 212 

Of sulphur In Louisiana 634 

On the west eoast of Mexico G. C. White. . . . 765 

Property. Idle 246 

Region, packing supplies In a James Davis.... 4.10 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon.... 541 

Shai-.-s ami metals. London market for 

T. A. Rlekai-.l 1 5 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America 543 

I>l Editorial.... 129 

Mining Congress. American Editorial.... 395 

Mlnltas mine 118 

Mint. San Francisco and the Editorial. ... 330 

Misilemeanor to remove safety devices 284 

Mississippi Valley rapid hoisting 44 1 

Missouri, high price of zinc ore In 4 81 

Mitsu Blshl Co 52, 720 

Mitsui Mining Co 587, 892 

Mitsui. Snhurosuke, death of l'.7!» 

Mlzpah Extension mine 905 

Models, making mine C. L. Severy. ... 881 

Modern copper smelting prohlems in .S. E. Bretherton .... 2 in 

Modoc Mining Co 188 

Moffet, James, death of 90S 

Mogok ruby mines 218 

Mogul Mining Co 516, 576 

Cyanide plant damaged by Are 445 

Mohawk Mining Co 107. 126 

Mojave Oil Co Editorial 96 

Molll Kathleen property 484 

Molybdenite 781 

Monazlte and zircon 746 

Sand 114 

Sand, naturally concentrated 345 

Sands In Nigeria 561 

Monopoly of platinum in Russia 419 

Montana 83 

Anaconda, farmers v. smelter at 363 

Coal 108, 815 

Gold and silver production . 127 

Gold dredging at Ruby Hennen Jennings. .. . 84 

Gold-silver mine George T. McC.ce. ... 83 

Sapph 1 res 712 

Montana-BIngham Con. M. Co 320, 356 

Montana Smelting Co 223 

Montana Society of Engineers 651 

Montana. Tonopah Mining Co 122. 798 


...I murklna* of s 


Moqui | 


Morelos dlstrli i mining In tl • 

Morffsn, J, )• . art . .-ii. . (ion 

M ' "■ V«ploB) ol Mexwi II Ml ■ 

Morris, a. \\ Automatl 

Morn.-, H. C Prospecting (»r tun rati 

MOI "man Nlv mln. 

Mosquitoes .mil ni i from * (rot lilt 


Mother Lode Bheep Creek Mining Co 
Motive power .<■ holm gravel from drlfl 

Moulton mine 

Mountain > topper l Jo 

Mnu ii i Andrew Mln Ins Co 

Mount Boppy gold mine, N< w South v7al< 
Mnijii i . !hampion MImIhk Co 

Mount Morgan Gold Mining <*•■. 
Mount Bhasta mine ... 

Movement on the Great Lakes In 1911, Iron ore 

George ll. cuHhinic. . • . 

Municipal debt <•■" >»vw York City Editor! 

Murea gold output 

Murex Magnetic Co., Ltd 

Ditto Company reports. .. . 

Murex prn.-rHN nt Cordoba 

Mysore, gold mines of Herbert A Carter.... 

Mysore Gold .Mining Co 









..rl Con. Copper Co 876 

Nahuel Huapl railway in Argentina 667 

Napa Sunrise "ll Co Bdltorlal. . . Bll 

Nash. w. G Precipitation of copper from 

iniin waters 213 

National Borax Co 

National Bureau of si.-uniar. is 409 

National forests, prospecting on 'an. is in the 

Bdltorlal 96 

National Lead Co., dividends 764 

National Mines Co 76, 151, 580 

Ditto Bdltorlal 881 

National Placer Mining Co 138 

Native copper deposits A. C. Lane.... 200 

Natlvldad mine 1 1 j 

Natomas Consolidated Mines Co 7 2 

Natural and Portland dements lir. 

Gas 890 

Gas. liquid production from 

Irving C, UJcn and George Hurrell.... 186 

Gns. waste of 382 

Naturally concentrated monazite sand :'■!"> 

Nature of sh era rdi zing 

A. R. Johns. .11 ami W. It. Woolrich. . . . :.■::> 

Ditto 1. w. Richards.... 698 

Ne miikeag Copper Co 391. 418 

Nebula mln.- 134 

Needles mines 707 

Need of revision of American mining ami land laws 

Bdltorlal.... 748 
Needs, Alaska's immediate Editorial.... 96 

Alaskans on Alaska's 666 

Of Alaska Editorial 396 

Neft-gil in 

Nelson 68 

Neuchatel Asphalt Co 666 

Nevada, Como 11. <•. Cutler. . . . 538 

Dlvlilens Ill 

Mineral Hill R. H. Toll 888 

Mine inspection in 860 

Mines and mills, the year among. . .L. F. A. la m son ... . 75 

Mines of the southern Sierras of California an. I 

Mark B. Kerr 34 

Mining methods compared. New Zealand and 

F. C. Brown. ... 104 

K.-.lil.-tion plants 148 

Riparian rights in 781 

X. . ■,,iis. l ]i.l:il,..l iiiiin-s Tin 

Nevada Con. Copper Co 259, 390, 636. 663, 677. 704, 838 

Ditto. Company reports. .. . 680 

Ditto Editorial 615 

Ditto Dividends 805 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co.. work of the 

Pope Yeatman .... 627 

Nevada I leep Mines Co 540 

N.-vaila-Douglas Copper Co 582. 905 

Nevada-Douglas electric hoist 191 

Nevada-Falrvlew M. Co 183 

Nl va, la Hills mill W. A. Scott 143 

Nevada Hills Mining Co Company reports.... 743 

Nevada Mines & Smelters Corporation 605 

Nevada-Utah mine 288 

Nevada-Utah Mines & Smelters Corporation 152, 575. 612 

Nl vada Wonder M. Co 580 

Nevius. J. Nelson. .Castle Dome lead district, Arizona.... 854 

New a. i f..r Bureau of Mines 287 

Assay schedule 576 

Companies In British Columbia 733 

Customs tariff for Korea Editorial 683 

Mine suspension.. Westlnghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. .. . 522 

Placer districts in Alaska A. H. Brooks. . . . 146 

Portland mill. Cripple Creek, Colorado, construction 

costs at the G. M. Taylor. ... 12 

New Ely Central Co. reorganized 838 

New Jersey labor troubles 875 

Zinc mines In 866 

New Jersey Zinc Co 801. 866 

New Keystone Mines Co 738 

New Klelnfonteln mine 481 

New Linden Gravel Co 578 

New Mexico 87 

Coal production of 698 

Mining copper ore at Chino James O. Clifford. . . . 468 

Riparian rights 649 

New Reliance Co 900 

New South Wales statement 887 

Dredge tailing in the "Wagga district 699 



Vol. 104 





Slime Alters In Wilter E. Darrow 

New York as a metal market 438 

Bankers Editorial 850 

City's municipal debt Editorial 184 

Copper market 77'>. 

Employers" liability commission 96*> 

Meeting;, American Institute of Mining Engin 

our Si indent . 

.- market in 1911 . .Our R ndenl 

New York & Honduras Itosurlo Mining Co 

Company r< 

N.w York Evening Mall Edll 

New Zealand and Nevada mining methods compared. 

F. C. Brown. 

Duty on exportation of gold from 

tflca deposits at : > 

Ing amendments act 342 

News, Peruvian mining 212 

Newsboy mine 446, 544 

sua and its possibilities. . . T. Lane Carter. ... 443 

Geology of the Pis Pis mining district In 

Oscar H. EXershey. 

Mining in western 146 

pper Works 4 71 

Nlcholl, George B . .Cyanide regeneration. . . . 406 

Nickel deposits in the San Poll mining district. Washing- 
ton Howland Bancroft .... 144 

inada, 1911 662 

nd 788 

Steel to 316 

Nicola Valley Coal A Coke Co TO 

Nigeria, monazlte sand In 561 

Tin in London < dence. . . . 379 

. . . 596 

Tin - !orporatfon 379 

Tin mines 

Tlnftelds v. M. Chamberlln , 

ii Copper Works 471 

Nlkko Copper Works 471 

Nlkolatevsk, Ochotsk company near 470 

Nlplssing mill 293 

Nipisslng Mines Co 129, -~'"- : "., 574, 804, 736, B76 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 58S 

Nitrate Industry, Chilean 598 

Industry of Chile *10 

Taxes In Chile 853 

Works in northern Chile 436 

Nitric acid for cleaning Mies 114 

Nitroglycerine 815 

Noah's Ark American and foreign technical 

journals 765 

Nohi Steel Co 484 

Smelter 841 

Nolls 611 

Nome Editorial 783 

Famine in Editorial 265 

In 1911 60 

New dredges at 872 

Nome-Montana-New Mexico Co 45 

Nonardage Co 900 

Normal price of metal 521 

North American M. & D. Co 421 

North Butte Mining Co 83, 126, 187, 867 891. 511 

:>\*;, 609, 818, 905 

Ditto Company reports 870 

North Butte mine 286, 517 

North Cerro Murlano copper mine 466 

North Coolgardie tteid. western Australia 57o 

North Dome-Temlskaming light .. 226 

North Dome mine 349 

North Star Mines Co 119. 122. 548, 648 

North Washington Power A Reduction Co 185, 871 

Northern Anthracite Syndicate 486 

Northern Nigeria Mining & Exploration Co 379 

Northern Ontario Exploration Co 453 

Northern Slnaloa, mines in 

An Occasional Contributor. . . . 591 

Northern Transvaal Copper Co 895 

Northern Verchotur mine 411 

Northwest Bureau of Mines 486 

Mining convention Editorial. . . . 129 

Norway, 5 !o 724 

Norwegian explorer Editorial. . . . 395 

Ports weights certificate of ore 573 

Nova Scotia, domes of T. A. Rlckard. ... 492 

Nundydroog mine, output of 482 

Ochotsk company near Nlkolalevsk. gold-dredging In the 

Amur region 470 

Oaks Co 292. 356, 422. 515. 550. 677 810 

Objections to reinforced concrete . ] 

Oceola G. M. Co., Ltd 637 

O'Connell. Charles A Future of Cobalt 429 

Offices at Trail, assay , 272 

Of mineral resources of 1*. S. Geo!. Surv. Western 208 

Ohio & Colorado Smelting & Refining Co 81, 895 

Ohio Copper Co 86, 148, 152, 17'.'. 7:;:. 

Report 835, 837. 843 

Ohio copper mine 517 

Ohlo-Kentuckv M. Co 576 

Oil dividends California 127 

Engines. Diesel, for marin.- fjfce 4SL' 

For use in blow -pipe lamps 712 

In Louisiana 815 

Industry In Arizona 82 

Industry In California 71 

Industry In Turk<v 59 

Market 18 

Perllla 521 

Possibilities of Utah t so 

Wells valuation 284 

Wells, water In California 

An Occasional Contributor 379 

Oilfield, a possible 248 

In southwestern Wyoming, Spring Valley 

F. J. II. M< Trill 163 

Saturation In an 284 

Oilfields of Mexico 112 

Production and prices in the California 

.1. H. G, Wolf ■:• 

Old mines at Alamos 27S 

lony U Co 31S, 471. fins 

mlnton Copper M. & S. Co..lSl. 259, 35" 


Dlttc Editorial. ... ,17 

Litigation 806. 836, 869 

Old Dominion mine 612 

Smelter 287 

Oldest fosssils Editorial.... 

notive-manufacturing plant in Sweden 816 

Olivine to serpentine, metkmorphtsm of S15 

Olson. Anderson. & « lust&fson mine 289 

Ontario mill . 710 

Mine at Park City 735 

riles report .' 581 

Silver production 1911 Editorial 585 

Type 788 

Ontario Silver M. Co sil 

deposits In east Tennessee 74 

Opal in Washington 712 

a lr explosives 316 

xeavations In 'gopher holes' 468 

Operating costs at East Rand Proprietary mines 529 

at the Goldfleld Consolidated mill 137 

at the Pitts r Peak mill 239 

Operations of air -compressors E. A. Rix . . . . 13 

Resumed at Wasp No. J mill 445 

Ophlr Mining Co 122 

Opohongo Mining Co -.' 612 

nd litigation, rich Editorial SSI 

And zinc smelting, zinc R. G. Hall. ... S 

At El Tigre, preliminary handling of 

J. W. Malcolmson and L. R. Budrow. . 

Bins 478 

Bins, fiat-bottomed Harry P. Stow. . . . 601 

Cars, side latches on 584 

Certificate of weight from Norwegian ports 573 

Sitlon, chart of Charles R. Keyes. . . . 763 

Deposits in 1911, literature of 

Walter Harvey Weed. ... 35 

Deposits, tvpes of — a review A. C. Lawson .... 199 

Dressing, Edison and Henry B. Clifford 867 

Fine Editorial 426 

Forming solutions, magmatic origin of 

Victor G. Hills 703 

Ditto C. F. Tolman. Jr 401 

Ditto W. L. Tovote 601 

Ere • milling 584 

In India, manganese 312 

Mines, in Siberia, iron 295 

Movement on the Great Lakes In 1911, iron 

George H. Cushing. ... 43 

Not in sight H. Foster Bain. . 

Of the Chi no mine, milling the John M. Sully.... 464 

Reserves on the Rand 833 

pes, porphyry cuppers and Editorial.... 663 

Reserves, taxation of Editorial.... 329 

Roasting 584 

Shipments from Republic district 871 

:, G 6 

Shoots Editorial. . 

Shoots, cross fractures and Morton Webber.. 

Shoots, some causes of R. A. F. Penrose. . 

Shoots with depth, decrease In value of 

F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 558 

Sintering fine George W. Maynard . . . . 192 

Stolen from Cinco de Mayo mine 516 

Testing plant, Colorado's state Editorial. . . . 713 

Ores containing copper 316 

During 1911, progress In cyanidation of gold and sliver 

Alfred James. ... 37 

Electric smelting of copper 505 

Elements present In 47s 

Of Brazil, hematite. . . C. K. Leith and E. C. Harder 172 

Orebodies ". . . . 614 

Mascot F. L. Sizer. 

Replacement J. D. Irving. . . . 199 

Oregon, eastern Our Special Correspondent. ... 81 

Oregon High Grade Gold M. Co 77 1 

Orf ord. Ernest V Free use of timber from 

public lands 867 

Organization of Chambers of Commerce. .... Editorial. ... 426 

Of mine-rescue work 472 

Oriental Con. Mining Co., for 1910-1911 report 125 

Origin of ore- forming solutions, magna tic 

Victor G. Hills 703 

Ditto C. F. Tolman, Jr 401 

Ditto W. L. Tovote 601 

Original Amador Mines Co 513 

Original mine 388 

Oroville to banish mosquitoes and flies Editorial 850 

Oroville Dredging Co 577 

Oroya Brownhlll mine 214 

Oroya Links mine 487 

Orsk Goldflelds, Ltd 66, 502 

Gold-dredging in the Amur region 47m 

Osaruzawa mine .Takeshi Kawamura. . . . 720 

Osborne & Chappel 286 

Osceola Con. Mining Co 107 

Osceola mine 448 

Osiridlum In the Urals 7«8 

Ostrovltza mine 536 

Otagawa. M.. speech of 471 

Output. Federated Malay States gold 315 

Of coal in 1911 30 

Of gold in Australia 504 

Of gold In 1911, Australasian 410 

Of gold In Rhodesia, 1911 178 

Of gold in Transvaal in 1911 411 

Of gold in Murea, British Papua 529 

Of Kalgoorlie for January, gold 544 

Of new securities Editorial 880 

Of Nundydroog mine 482 

Of Transvaal, gold 251 

Owens river dredge Editorial. . . . 880 

Ox Shoe claim 639 

Oxidize metals, how to 216 

Oxygens effect in flame 215 

Ozark region, lead and zinc deposits of the 

E. R. Buckley 199 

Ozark Zinc Oxide Co 116 

Pachuca Light & Power Co 145 

Pacific Association of Sientlflc Societies Editorial. . . . 489 

Packer, O. H., death of 742 

Packets, Panama canal first-aid 382 

Packing, rubber 382 

V..1 KM 




Ilea in • mimiiii r»« 

ipbell prop* ■ nit. . . . 413 

I'alnlltiK . i 

Palmer Mountain Tur- Iff. 486 

Panama broth, cooks and thi . (36 

ni >t al.l i h . . . 3ri2 


i. ol 
Men an.) n. 

... 817 

■ I work In . . . J29 

Pan motion conoenti aloi 

t as a auiixtit ut. for prepared aklna lii ci'i'i i" <iinK 312 

I.ltnni ... 47* 

Paraoii.- Qold Dredging Co 

ParilKendl* of • J. Volni . 143 

Park city district ... 87 

Bine mines .... 808 

Parrot Silver & Copper Mining Co., dividend! 

Patent applicants . ... . 444 

Laws of the United States 602 

Ditto Editorial 

Work on claim u-o'.! h> application for 684 

ii. drlll-holea und Paul K Lodge .... 802 

Foreign 269 

Regletered In Japan lit 

Pato. Colombia, dredging at 

1.1,1 '.77. 629 

nent system al Laramh tunnel Colored 74.". 

Pay-slrenk In placer deposits, law of tin- 

.i H Tyrrell :•'•" 

Pavlak mill 184 

Pearl Uikc dlltrlct 349 

Pearl Lake Mining <",,. . 661. 844 

Pearson. Benjamin P., death ,,f 326 

in tube-milling \. w. Allen. ... 19 

M used 111 nil" -mills. Danish 207 

Qold Mining ''.•. .. 540 

Pi . t. Walter Caisson disease. . 

I'. -mi Chemical Works Editorial.... 96 

Us. use of prnphlte In manufacture of 444 

Peninsula Power Co 859 

Penrose. It. a. F s causes of ore-shoots,... in;* 

Pension Increases, free sugar and Editorial. .. . 126 

Penoles Mining Co 844 

Perldotlte areas, Arkansas diamond bearing 171 

I'. rllla oil 691 

Perk W Editorial.... 196 

Perkins. W. I* Surface equipment of the Hancock 

I kmsolldated 469 

Perm district Ill 

Permit to cut timber 478 

Permutlte. softening of water by 721 

Perret, Leon Prespectlng frozen ground.... 856 

Perry O. B Yukon gold 658 

Perry. Robert E Editorial 489 

Perseverance mine 487 

Personal injuries occurred to workers on Los Angeles 

aqueduct 313 

Perth Amboy strike settled 900 

Perth mint 386 

Pertenencla. error in definition of mineral resources of 

.via Editorial 469 

Peru, placer gold ground In 500 

Peruvian government's concessions 594 

Mining news 212 

Petroleum Editorial. ... 4 

In Chile 600 

In Argentina 532 

In 1864 148 

In Formosa 13 6 

In Russia. 1911 110 

Possibilities of Utah 4S0 

Prices In West Side fields Editorial 396 

Production. California 93 

Production In 1911 157 

Products In Slam Carl C. Hansen 246 

Total production of Texas ISO 

Pharmacist Gold Mining Co 549 

Phil Sheridan type of mineralization 786 

Philippine Bureau of Mines 434 

Philippine coal trade 89 

Philippines and United States, trade between 

Editorial. .. . 363 

Dredge 383 

Gold dredges in Charles Janln .... 70 

Mineral Industry 383 

Mining in 423 

Phonoltte. ground 284 

Phosphate lands In United States Editorial 849 

Phosphate rock In central Kentucky 815 

Rock in the West F. B. Weeks 25 

Physiography of the East African plateau 

George L. Collie 17" 

Phelps. Dodge & Co., Inc 418. SCS 

Ditto Company reports.... 5u4 

Phelps-Dodge Mercantile Co 153 

Pillstuirv A. J Mine-owners* liability 

for accidents 507, 5 12. 57 2. 602, 633, 66S 

Pinions and bearings of manganese steel 81S 

Pioche. shaft sinking costs at Tom MeCormac 632 

Pipe in limestone or granite 444 

Lines, testing for 4 41 

Vises a21 

Pipes and receivers, explosions in air-disoharge - 1 <> 

Transportation of tailing through. . . . S. B. Christy. . . . 506 

Pis Pis mining district in Nicaragua, geology of 

Oscar H. Hershey. . . . 270 

Pitchblende 255 

Pitches of Wisconsin lead and zinc district, flats and.... 

H. Poster Bain. ... 199 

Piedros Verdes mine 209 

Pilot Butte Company 220 

Pilot Butte mine 451 

Pioneer Con. Mines Co 257. 110 

Pioneer smelter 873 

Pittsburg & Mt. Shasta G. M. & M. Co 841 

Pittsburg-Idaho Mining Co.. dividend 764 

Pittsburg mine 223 

Pittsburg Silver Peak Gold Mining Co 773, 801 

Ditto • Editorial 652, 747 

Miner's strike 810 

Mill, operating • o»u ii lbs . 


. . ta'i 
I >lsi rlcts In Alaska, new \ 1 1 n 

Qold and -Hi . i i-oiu ■ ,,t u ij; 

i lold gl oinol In I'll 

Mining .o i i uk.. t 701 

Mining lii the I'l.'i ii t Qui I ' I , 

Prospecting gold in Kori . . J .1 Martin.... ilO 
Tutu sslonal I'm i - 

i i 111.- i'.. I, I Ml ii.-- Co . 671 

Plain truth, advertlalng valui i . 569 

t-Arcturus Qold Mlnea, Ltd .... .16 

Plant, largest single-unit crushing 


aide \ w Allen . . 174 

Producer- . . 691 

Plateau, physiography or the Beat African 

• .III-.... I7J 

filtration with uliiioliini . ... 20C 

irden Iron and ateel ... 269 

rial iiium coins 9ii 

Alluvial deposits 856 

Deposit-. Rio Qrande del Sul, Hrazll 466 

In Russia, Kill no 

Market, Russian. ...St Petereburi lent 

Monopoly m. Russia 419 

Un Ely National 876 

Prices. Mm. i ii. 1 1 i,.ii in 419 

Prices. Russian Alexander 3, Helndl 

Production In Russia in 1011 

St. Petersburg Corresi lence.... 411 

Platinum Industrial Co 591 

Pies for revision of the Sherman act....G, w Traer.... 268 

I'll, n Mining & Dredging Co 47 

Pneumatic cement-gun 563 

Ppland China mine 480 

Poles, preservative treatment of....\v. H. Kempfer.... 309 

Political straws Editorial. . . 

Polities, the Fourth and Editorial.... 299 

Pompeii M. Co 451 

Pood, a weight measure 878 

Poor Farm Placer Co 84 

I'ori'i-laln and stoneware, cement for 177 

Porcupine Editorial 396 

Development 272 

Qold production 735 

Working conditions at 718 

Porcupine Gold Vlpond management 486 

Mine 447 

Miii-. decline In shares 349 

Porphyry coppers and ore reserves Editorial.... 668 

Copp.-r deposits, types of W. L. Tovote.... 686 

Mines 187 

Port Kembla Electrolytic Refining & Smelting Works. . . . 468 

Portland cements, natural and 145 

Cement production in 1911 34 2 

Portland Canal M. Co 185 

Portland Gold M. Co 295. 316. 150 

Mill 79 

Portland mill at Colorado Springs Editorial. .. . 784 

Portland mill. Cripple Creek, Colorado, construction costs 

at tile new G. M. Taylor. ... 12 

Portland mine, production and dividends 313 

Possible oilfield, a 248 

Possibilities of British Papua A. W. Allen.... 588 

Of Nicaragua T. Lane Carter. . . . 443 

Possibility of lnbor troubles at Butte Editorial. .. . 586 

Pot process. Huntington-Heberleln 503 

Potash-bearing rocks In Wyoming 203 

Fertilizer 284 

Government Bureaus and Editorial .... 460 

Ditto Victor Barndt 731 

Ditto J. D. Kennedy 669 

Ditto George Otis Smith 571 

In Germany 105 

Laboratory, Reno co-operative potash 346 

Near Salt Lake City 253 

Salts Editorial 3 

Salts In southern California 475 

Potassium cyanide, titration 848 

Powder, whitening 521 

Power development in Mexico 145 

' On the Rand 278 

Supply problems in the Transvaal 482 

To hoist gravel from drift mines, motive 284 

Potter's Sulphide Ore Treatment Co 411 

Pottery 815 

Practical application of the specific gravity flask 

H. Stadler. ... 166 

Practice and liners, tube-mill F. C. Brown.... 206 

Precious metals from solution, method for recovering... 406 

Precipitate zinc, electrical drier for 

Donald F. Irvin 405 

Precipitation of copper from mine waters. W. G. Nash. . . . 213 

• Ditto Horace V. Winchell.... 314 

Of gold by colloid gels 728 

Preliminary handling of ore at El Tigre 

.1. W. Malcolmson and L. R. Budrow.... 398 

Prepared skins in gold-beating, paper as substitute for.. 312 

Presenting assay results by graphic methods 

J. B. Stewart. . . . 654 

Preservative treatment of poles W. H. Kempfer. . . . 309 

Press Bulletin of tin- I". S. Geol. Surv.. imtash salts in 

southern California 475 

Pressure filters 712 

Loss of 414 

Of wind 584 

Prestea Block A.. Ltd 16 

Preston East Dome mine 179 

Prevention, mine accidents and their Ed. Ryan.... S59 

Price of metal, normal 521 

Of silver in Far East, future Editorial. . . . 524 

Prices, copper corporation and...MIsha E. Appelbaum . . . . 7 

Fluctuations In platinum 419 

In 1911. metal production and L. Vogelsteln . . . . 169 

In silver, advance Editorial. . . . 363 

In the California oilfields, production and 

J. H. G. Wolf 22 

Of petroleum in West Side fields Editorial 396 

Prlchett. H. S.. annual report of Editorial.... 460 

Primarv spelter In the LTnited States, production of 

C. E. Slebenthal 335 

Primitive metallurgical methods Editorial.... 490 



Vol. 104 


Prince Con. M. & & Co 

Prince mine ' ' 334 

Princess Plnder 

Princess Kepublic property 480 

n of Daly-Judge, ztnr ...• ■•••v-v" I49 

Problems in moderi nettlnff.S. B. Bretherton . . - . ■" 


UpfrlmOTtt with tht ThlJ^n tank L v. . «J 

Greenawalt ' " 503 

Grondal brlquettlng 

Huntlngton-H. berleln pot 


Producer-gas plants ■ • ; ■•• ■••: • • • • «... 

Iver and gold. Bolivia editorial.... 364 

Producers on the Hand In 1911. Three slant 

Production and dividends. Portland mine.. .... 313 

And prices In 1911. metal I. vogetateln.... l«9 

And prices in the California oilfields. ... . .. . -.;-• ■ ■ ,, 

Butte copper .;, 

California borax ' _'' h 

Canadian silver 

In 1911, Russian gold ■ ,,_ 

St Petersburg Correspondence... . -si^ 

In United States in 1911. Review of metal .... 

Japan's mineral H. Foster Bain 

or California, mineral W. H storms 

Of cement in Portland, 1911 

Of Cobalt bullion 

Of copper in t»ll B - S. Butler 

Of copper in Transvaal 

01 Cripple Creek gold 

Of gas in California ■''- 

Of gold and silver In British Columbia, 1911 -10 

Of Idaho Springs district ......... lin 

Of lead Kdlo. rial ... . 533 

Of lead In mil C. B. Slebenthal 

i >r Mexico, mineral 4™ 

of petroleum In California aJ 

Of platinum In Russia In lull 

si. Petersburg Correspondence.... 411 

Of primary spelter in the United suites 

Slebenthal. . . . 886 

Of quicksilver In California W. H Storms 100 

Of Texas petroleum, total 180 

Of the world, gold rj 

Russia's Increase in copper 386 

Productive thinking < lfi 

Products distribution, mineral Editorial ... . 291 

In Slam, petroleum Carl C. Hansen.... 21>, 

Professional ethics II. C. Cutler 117 

Profit, elevating ten-cent gravel at a C. S. Haley 

Profits guide wrongly, when initial \. H. Martin.... 147 

On the Rand, working cost and 

Johannesburg Correapondi < ■ ■■ 895 

Progress, applied geology, review of 

Alfred H. Brooks. . 231 

In Bolivia 463 

In cyanldation of gold and silver ores .luring 1911... 

Alfred James '■ ■ 

Of the zinc industry Editorial ... . 687 

Promontorlo mine 4'_ , 3 

Properties controlled by Knight Interests 480 

Russian 698 

Property. Idle mining 216 

Proposed blast-furnace at Chlnnampo. Korea 698 

Change in the lead tariff W. A. Scott-. 847 

French copper exchange James E. Dunning.... 43s 

Revision of Alaskan mining laws 

F. Lynwood Garrison.... 31 

Russian shipping law 14S 

Prospecting Ill 

Drill rei Charles H. Waters 

For petroleum In Chile 

For tungsten H. c. Morris 

Frozen ground Leon Perret 

Gold placers In Korea J. J. Martin 

On lands in the National Forests Editorial 

Prospector and the mining law F. J. H. Merrill 

Ditto T. F. Van Wagenen 

Prospectors' Alliance of America 

Prospectors and buyers Editorial 

Prospects, geology in the examination of 

C A. Stewart 

Prosser. Warren C Cyanldation at Sllverton 

Protection of Investors Allen H. Rogers 

Prussian properties 

Publication, charges for surveys 

Public coal lands, cost of .lev. -loping. James Douglas... 

Land, timber on 478 

Lands, area of 367 

Lands, free use of timber from. .Ernest V. Orford. .. . 867 

Ditto T. D. Woodbury 831 

Pueblo Smelting & Refining Co 862 

Pully with leather, how to face a cast-Iron 177 

Pulp from a battery 148 

Pumpkin head-mill 450 

Pumps 682 

Purchase of Santa Gertrudls mine by Camp Bird com- 
pany h; 

Purlslma Grande mill. Pachttra, "Mexico. . .E. Glrault 433 

Purlslma mine 118 

Putu placers An Occasional Correspondent. .'. . 273 

Pyrlte and sulphuric acid, sulphur 793 

In Italy 55 





Quintera mine 2 9, 

Quotations of the year. London share « 


Quebec, placer mining In the province of..H. A. Ball 727 

Queensland gold yield. 1911 375 

Quesnelle Hydraulic G. M. Co 788 

Quick. John William, death of 294 

Quicksilver 11 

Ditto Editorial 29S 

In Italy 55 

Production of California w. H. Storms.... 400 

Production In 1911. United States 896 

Qullon. Travancore, India 345 

Qullp Mining Co 225 

Qulncy Mining Co 107. 163 741 77a 

Rack for drill steel 

□ mines. ■ ■ 

Radford, W. HT Rocker for washing gravel 

Radousha mine ■ • :.■•••,•'. ■ ■ ■ ' 

Rallro ts Editorial 

Railroad Valley Saline Co • ■ ■ ■ • ■ ■ • ■ 

Railroads In Alaska, government jjjdltoriai 

Ralls. American steel £,, . ■ 

Rallw iv building. Alaskan Editorial 

Rand llrst impressions of the Edgar A. Collins 

In 1911, three giant producers on the 

Rowland Gascoyne. . . . 

March output of Wi.V",*;*" 

Metallurgy and the Editorial... 

Mine 251. 

Mine affairs "i""."."" 

Mines output Editorial. . . 

Ore reserves 

Power on the ■ • ••■■■,■', ■ • • • 

Shareholders Editorial 

Underground transportation on the 

Working costs on. . Johannesburg Correspondence. 

Randall. John Laboratory cyanide tests 

Randfonteln Central 

Randfonteln mines 177, 

ime. F. L„ and W. Lindgren Survey rep 

and 'boosters' 

Rapid hoisting In the Mississippi Valley 

Rate on zinc ores, freight 

Rational process Editorial .... 

Raven Copper Co 

Ray & Gila Valley railroad 

Raj Central Copper M. Co 259. 281. 

Con. Copper Co 82. 16T, 182, 252. 288, 289. 418. 

487. 608. 631. 613. 771. 

Ditto Company reports .... 

Ditto Editorial.... 

February report of 

Work Of the D. C. Jackling 

Ray Consolidated mine 

Ray Development Co 

Rayfield syndicate 

Raymond. R. W Institute debt 

Raymond & Ely M. Co 

Rae mine 

Read, T. T.. American and foreign technical journals.... 

Ditto Chlksan mines. Korea.... 

Ditto Estimation of tonnage.... 

Ditto Laboratory classifiers.... 

Ditto Metallurgy of copper during 1911 ... . 

Ditto Mining In China. 1911 

Ready Bullion claim 

Real prospecting 

Lvera, explosions in air-discharge pipes and 

Recent amendments to placer-mining act, Yukon 

Copper smelting Editorial.... 

Record for the Transvaal 

Price for zinc 

Sinking on the Rand 

Recording instrument. Bristol's Ink-type 

Records, mill and cyanide plant A. W. Allen . . . . 

Recovering precious metals from solution, method for.. 

Recovery of zinc, electrolytic Thomas Sammons.... 

Red Cliff Mining Co 

Red Mountain M. Co 

Red Star mine 

I : djang Lebong. gold mine at Sumatra 

Reduction plants in Nevada 

Reed. H. W Mr. Roosevelt and the Japanese. . . . 

Reef, saddle T. A. Rickard 

Refined copper 

R.-tlnlng of copper, electrolytic 

Refractory manganese silver ores — I. II 

Will H. Coghlll. . . ,764, 

Regeneration, cyanide R. P. Wheelock. . . . 

Of cyanide B. George Nlcholl.... 

Registered in Japan, patents 

Reinforced concrete for shaft bottoms 

Concrete, objections to 

Reindeer M. Co 

Relative safeness of explosives 

Re-locating mining claims 

Re-location in California 

Removal of safety device a misdemeanor 

Removing fusions from crucibles J. C. Bock. . . . 

Reno co-operative potash laboratory 

Renong Dredging Co 

Ri placement orebodlcs J. D. Irving. . . . 

Report from Dolcoath 

Of Governor of Alaska Editorial. . . . 

Of the Goldfleld Con. Mining Co 

Of the Oriental Con. Mining Co. for 1910-11 

Of the Tonopah-Belmont Development Co 

Reports and 'boosters'. Survey 

F. L. Ransome and W. Lindgren.... 

Republican mine 

Republic district ore shipments 

Established in China Editorial.... 

Republic Mines Corporation 

Requirement for gas, heating value 

Rescue men at mines, trained Joseph A. Holmes. . . 


Work, organization of mine 

Research and the Government Editorial. . . 

Research Corporation Editorial 

Resources of Bolivia, mineral Carlos Sanjlnes. . . 

Of Nigeria, mineral London Correspondence... 

Of the U. S. Geol. Survey, Western offices of mineral. 

Results by graphic methods, presenting assaying 

J. B. Stewart. . . 

In Transvaal for 1911 

tion of gold In a new mill \H. A. White. . . 

Re-treatment of table middlings. .. .Gelasio Caetanl... 

Revenue mine 

Reverberatory costs at Cananea 

Furnaces, wood-fired 

Review, copper Misha E. Appelbaum . . . .293. 423, 582 




5 v ,-, 





4 4 9. 

2 1 1 

22 2 


\ l.'l 




in| ir, i •! i . harlea Janln 

» »t ; lining In I •: 


f h« \ arloui i dutrlola 71 

\i(i..i ii it k* i 

\ III 

Aluakun n i Hit iik laws, proposed 

I' L) nwood Qari laon 1 1 

•in mlnlnic and lunil liwi, n 

Bdltoi lei Ml 

Lttid l»w n EdltOI ''7 

I : II M 
of ihr Sherman Q, W. 
i kirtii mining 1 1« 
iJfK-IIull miii.- , , 44Q 

gold output 111! 

Mining -i«-\ alopmanl 15 

... 507 

Rhodealan Refractor) Mi:, m, Ltd 343 

Editor la ! . . Ill 

Rich gold-quarts mlnea of Alaska. Editorial. ... 330 

md litigation Editorial ,, 111 

irde, J v Who In a mining engineer?. . . . 541 

UK-hard*, J. W ..Nature of sherardlslng 

Itl.-kard. T. A.Cnnadinn Mining Institute. .Editorial. .. , 111 

Ditto Domes of Nova Beotla.... 499 

DlttO. Gold and SOOl 

Ditto London market for mining eharea and 

metala 16 

Ditto Saddle reef. - , 100 

RlfflVs. Hungarian 

Rights, riparian 414 

Rio das Garclas, In IfattO Graaao. Brazil, diamond de- 
posits 4tV.i 

RIO Grand.* del Sul. Bruill, platinum deposit* Ill 

Riparian rights 414 

Rjghta in Nevada 781 

Right* In New Mexico 649 

Rise in silver S46 

Rising $nn mine -1 J l 

River Amazon S82 

River benda in California, ancient 178 

River I man BOO 

Rl.\\ E. A Operation o! alr-compressora 13 

Richfield Copper Co 418 

Rich-in-Ore Mining Co ^ r. 1 

Rio Antigua Mining Co 548 

Rio Plata Mining Co 186. 448 

Rio Tint.- Company 635, 638 

Robert Km met Company 187, 514 

Robertson. William Fleet ... Boundary district In 1911.... 538 

Robinson mine 254 

Rochester Zinc & Lead Co 481 

Ruck dust Editorial 363 

In the West, phosphate P. B Weeks. ... 25 

Rocker for washing gravel W. H. Radford. . . . 801 

Rocks In Wyoming, potash-bearing 203 

Rogers, Allen H Protection of Investors.... 631 

Rogue river gravel beds Clement H. Mace.... 437 

Rolls for grinding 316 

For tin-plat.- mills, chilled 250 

Roofing plates Editorial ... . 615 

Roosevelt deep-drainage tunnel 484 

And the Japanese H W. Reed ... 867 

Ropes, hoisting 896 

Rosarlo mine 61 

Roshdan mine 536 

Roshervllle plant 278 

Rosin sold in Japan, American 316 

Rossland 69 

Rotating cathode, tensile strength of electrolytic copper 

on a C. W. Bennett 590 

Royal Commission on Mines 781 

Round Mountain Mining Co 224, 842 

Ditto Company reports. . . . 909 

Rubber packing 382 

Ruby City Improvement Association 513 

Ruby mines of Mogok 248 

Montana, gold -dredging Hennen Jennings. .. . 84 

Ruhl, Otto Zinc and lead mines.... 897 

Rush from Seattle to Alaska Editorial.... 425 

Russia, gold in 878 

Copper production, Increase In 285 

Platinum monopoly 419 

Russian copper production in 1911 

St. Petersburg Correspondence.... 657 

Gold-hearing lands closed to prospecting 

Editorial 684 

Gold-dredging Charles Janln .... 66 

Gold production in 1911 

St. Petersburg Correspondence. . . . 313 

Gold property, auction 112 

Mining In 1911 110 

Platinum market. .St. Petersburg Correspondence. .. . 591 

Platinum prices Alexander J. Heindl.... 668 

Platinum production in 1911 

St. Petersburg Correspondence.... 411 

Shipping law, proposed 148 

Ryan, Ed Mine accidents and their prevention. . . . 859 


Saddle reef T. A. Rickard 200 

Safe Harbor Iron & Steel Co 810 

Safeguarded hook 281 

Saf eness of explosives, relative 382 

Safety device a misdemeanor, removal of 284 

Sale, A. J Accurate 'slop coppers' .... 165 

Sale of Bonanza mine 391 

Of mineral lands by U. S. Government 540 

Sallda smelter George J. Hough .... 896 

Salmon river country 88 

Salmon River Mines Co 484 

Salt Lake City, fertilizer manufacture 253 

Potash near 253 

Salt producer, Michigan as a 662 

Saltpetre In Siberia 281 

Salvador, mining in Morazan 599 

Sammons. Thomas Electrolytic recovery of zinc .... 173 

Samuels & Co 436 

i !■ it. 
' tomlnajo mini jot 

' leronlmo mine . til 

...n Iflnlng ' >- 

San Juan n 

lUfael v A? .., JJ5 


foy Mining Co - . , , . \ 

Band, naturall) ,i monaalts 

Saving the gold In \ m | 

Hand a in Nlgei la r.rti 

Ban Crane I boo and the mini 

Chapl in Metallurgy al Bo< Ii i 

Stock Ex chan »- ■ 
Han Francisco del Oro mini ' 637 

Ban lines, Carloa Ml n oral 1 376 

Ban Poll mining district, Washington, a nli k. 1 deposit 

'» the How land Bancroft . , in 

Kulalta mlnea so 

s.i m a I'.- Gold A Copper M «'<> 22U, 674 

Santa Gertrudla mill 

Mine purchased by ''amp Bird company 

Santa lilln, .Ww MsSlcO, milling OOPPSI Si ClllttO 

JB I O. CllffOI 

Sapphires, Montana 711 

Saturation in an oilfield 984 

Saunders, W, 1 Culture in the edui 

or engineers 71 •; 

Saundera Dredging Co is 

Saving the gold In beach -sand \. m. Harris., 

Scale of hardness, dark Alfred C, Lane 119 

Scenic M. St M. Co 

Schedule, new assay 571 

Schumacher process 504 

Scott. Donald M., death of 742 

SCOtt, W. A Idaho 88 

Ditto Nevada mils min 149 

I 'It to Proposed change In the lead tariff. ... 247 

Ditto I'tali 86 

Scotland Mining Co 77 

Scrap mica 815 

Screening 111 

Tests 848 

Sea water, gold In Editorial. ... \::t 

Search for tin in the United States Editorial 783 

Searchlight Spokane mill 186 

S. -a lies ur Borax Lake 718 

Sears, Stanley C The way of a man with a mine. ... 176 

tie to Alaska, rush from Editorial. . . . 425 

Secondary lead * 753 

Securing good castings for Dodge products 7 4 »i 

Length for a belt 111 

Securities, output of new Editorial.... 880 

Selandia, machinery of ( sj 

Selukwe Columbia Gold Mine Co.. Ltd 317 

Selukwo Columbia mine 508 

Sclhy Smelting & Lead Co B73 

Senate adopts arbitration treaties with Groat Britain 

and Prance Editorial .... 395 

Senn -Smith Pan Motion Concentrator Co 782 

Separators, electromagnetic 553 

Serpentine, metamorphlsm of olivine to 815 

Settlement of coal strike Editorial.... 528 

Seven Troughs Coalition Co 323, 451, 730 

Severy, C. L Making mine models.... 381 

Seward Peninsula, gold-dredging industry on 

T. M. Gibson 45 

Sflltche mine 536 

Shaft bottoms of reinforced concrete 316 

Sinking costs at Pioche Tom McCormac... 632 

Two-compartment 47S 

Shafter mill 485 

Shafts at the Crown Mines, Ltd., bell signaling and cable 

systems in 695 

Shaking-plates 177 

Shannon Copper Co 805 

Share quotations of the year, London 93 

Shareholders of the Rand Editorial.... 266 

Shareholders Syndicate 418 

Shares and metals. London market for mining 

T. A. Rickard 15 

Sharwood, "W. J Zinc-dust tests 659 

Shasta county. Farmers' Protective Association 483 

Sheldon, G. L Alamos district, Sonora, Mexico.... 208 

Ditto Mining in the Morelos district 8S6 

Ditto Packing supplies In mining regions.... 541 

Sherard. Cowper Coles 569 

Sherardizlng, nature of 

A. R. Johnson and W. R. Woolrlch 569 

Ditto J. W. Richards 698 

Sherman act. plea for revision of G. W. Traer. . . . 268 

Law 250 

Shigley property 421 

Shipments, anthracite coal 55 

Shipping law, proposed Russian 148 

Sho Me mines 480 

Shaffer & Co 484 

Shannon Copper Co 423, 551, 612, 701 

Shattuck- Arizona -Copper Co 449 

Shepard & Co 421 

Ships, lake 797 

Slam, petroleum products In Carl C. Hansen .... 246 

Siberia, copper smelting In 732 

Iron ore mines 295 

Saltpetre In 281 

Siberian gold deposits 728 

Mining outlook 146 

Side latches on ore-cars 584 

Slebenthal, C. E Lead production in 1911.... 570 

Ditto. .. .Production of primary spelter in the United 

States 335 

Siemens & Halske. A.-G 177 

Slempre Viva mine 272 

Sierra Nevada 382 

Sierras of California and Nevada, mines of the southern 

Mark B. Kerr. ... 34 
Signaling and cable systems In shafts at the Crown 

Mines, Ltd., bell 695 

Devices 649 

Silent chain drives, 125-hp. maximum 

Meese & Gottfried Co 362 



Vol. 104 


Silver advance -•" -■ 888 

Advance in Editorial.... 265 

And gold 6 

And gold, Bolivia producer of Editorial 364 

And gold production of British Columbia. 1913 400 

And tin In Italy, gold go 

Bearing cyanide solutions, assay of gold and 

Bullion containing tin 284 

In the Urals "68 

In Far East, future price of Editorial.... 524 

Lead smelting L. S. Austin 20 

Lead ores in Wardner district, Idaho — I. II. Ill 

ar H. Hershey 750, 786. 825 

Lead, zinc, and copper ores 315 

Market 384. 827 

Ores during 1911, progress in cyan Ida tl On of gold and 

Alfred James. ... 37 

Ores, experimental work on managenese 

Byron Jackson.... 732 

Prices, advance in Editorial.... 868 

Luctlon, Canadian 470 

Production in i:*ii 142 

Production, Montana gold and 127 

l 'induction of Ontario, jyil Editorial. . . . 586 

RISC in 346 

Solution of placer gold and Will H. Coghill 141 

Silver City, Knight smelter at 480 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co 811, 837 

Silver Stream mine 320 

Silver Peak Consolidated 291 

Silver Peak Mines Co 677 

Sllverton, eyanldation at. . .Stlverton Correspondence.... 443 

Ditto Warren C. Prosser. ... 250 

Simmer Deep mine 672 

Single-unit crushing plant, largest 

Samuel W. Traylor 310 

'Ng and brlquettlng of flue-dusi.i'Vlix a. Vogel.... 508 

Fine ore George W. Maynard 192 

Sioux Alaska Dredging Co 48 

Siskiyou 114 

Sitka, Alaska, district, gold deposits of .Adolph Knopf 332 

[on at El Tlgre mine Editorial 395 

At High Grade M. E. Guyot 708 

In Mexico 44s 

Slxtymlle mine 453 

Sixer, i'. L Mascot orebodles 537 

Sizing test. Arizona ore 77.4, y mine 484 

Skinner, Robert P Tungsten and its uses.... 878 

Skins In gold per as a substitute for preps 

Mines Co 25c. 

February report 483 

May production 903 

uildlng stone from George Nicholas Ifft. . . . 173 

Furnace, convenient J. D. Hubbard. ... 597 

Loss of copper In 667 

Slime Biters In New South Wales. .Wilier E, Harrow.... 508 

Slocan district, Rrltish Columbia 68 

Slop Coppers, accurate A. J. Sale. ... 165 

Sluicing and dredging in Victoria Editorial 880 

Slump in Anglo-Continental shares 482 

Small concentrating mills In the Wisconsin zinc district 

W. F. Boerlcke 828 

Smart, George Osier, death of 424 

Smelter assays, combination methods for 

A. T. French 408 

At Anaconda, Montana, farmers v 363 

At El Tin ten te, Chile, copper 600 

Building in Chile Frank Langford 

Charges in Utah 145 

Fume in Japan Editorial.. . 864 

Smelters in Italy 56 

Smelting at Tintle 4S0 

Balance sheet In Editorial. ... 461 

r at K yen Una V, P. Assaeieff. . . . 891 

In Colorado, custom 621 

Of copper ores, electric 50S 

Practice at El Boleo.An Occasional Correspondent.... 700 

Problems In modern copper s. E. Bretherton . . . . 243 

i ent copper Editorial.... 6S5 

Silver-lead L. S. Austin 20 

Zinc ore and zinc R. G. Hall.... 8 

Smith. G ent Bureaus and potash 

Ditto Mineral land laws and their defect;: ... 98 

Smoke necessai tallurgy 614 

Smelters Securities Co 4^7 

Smuggler Union M. Co 

Smyth, Jr., C. H.. . .Clinton type of Iron-oi .... 199 

Snake ("reek tunnel, work in the 10S 

Snedekei a., death of 294 

hoe mine \s jog 

Snowsllde at Black Bear , 460 

Internationale Forest! ere el Mint ere du Coi 
Ottomane des Mines 

Soft coal 911 

Softening water by perrautlte 721 

tine - i 

Ing tl u id 682 

Paste , go 

1 46 

Solution method for recover! i metals from. 406 

of placer gold and silver. .H Will ir. Coghill. ... 141 

Solutions, agitating and circulating 540 

Assay of gold and bI 

Heating cyanide Noel Cunningham , 

Ditto \. ir. Jones lie 

MagmatlC origin of ore-forming. . Hills. 708 

Ditto C P. Tolman, Jr 401 

Ditto w. i„ Tovote. ... 601 

iota R, A. F. Penrose. ... 199 

Sonora. Mexl< ■ don . . . , 208 

Mexico, preliminary handling of ore al E] Tlgre 898 

Soot and gold T. a. Rickard, . . , 300 

Sorocabaun railway 7<»1 

South African exportatlons ' 532 

Gold trust report 440 

South African Mining Journal Editorial..!! 460 

South Dakota gold and tin mines... R, L. Daughertv. . . . 77 

South of Spain, mining conditions In the 

Henry F. Collins 49 

South Hecla Mining Co 135 

South Kalgurli mine ' 457 


Uve Oak Development Co 479, 578. 771, 872 

South Utah mines and smelters, dredging in 867 

South Wales, dredging in 867 

South Yuba Water Co 483 

Southern California, potash salts In 475 

Nigeria coal deposits 280 

Rhodesia labor problems 445 

Rhodesia, miners' phthfJds in 445 

Rhodesia, yearly gold output 445 

Slam, tin-dredging in 318 

Sierras of California and Nevada, mines of the 

Mark B. Kerr 34 

Southwestern "Wyoming, Spring valley oilfield in 

F. J. H. Merrill 163 

Southwestern Miami Development Co 479, 606 

Ditto Editorial 298 

Spain, mining conditions in the south of 

Henry F. Collins 49 

Spanish-American dictionaries Traveler. . . . 703 

Specific gravltv flask, practical application of the 

H. Stadler 166 

Gravity test. Arizona cyanide tailing 754 

in hoisting 878 

Spelter 10 

Production of primary In the United States.-. 

C. E. Siebenthal 335 

Spence, George Is 'cheap' labor economical?.... 442 

Speyer & Co., loan to Mexico 804 

Loan Editorial 817 

Spring Valley oilfield In southwestern Wyoming 

F. J. H. Merrill 163 

Spokane Editorial. . . . 395 

Ober of Commerce 486 

Meeting A. 1. M. E 805 

Mining Men's Club 486 

St. Agnes Consolidated 769 

Stability regained in Mexico , Editorial ... . 5 

Stadler, H High-duty gravity stamps.... 274 

Ditto Practical application of the specific 

gravity flask 166 

Stage milling and line grinding 146 

Stamp battery cam-shaft Algernon Del Mar.... 113. 176 

Milling 381 

Milling, clamps for A. W". MacNlcnol 413 

Stamps, high-duty gravity H. Stadler. ... 274 

Standard screens 816 

Oil Editorial 459 

Standard Consolidated Mining Co. .Company reports.... 554 

Standard Oil Co Editorial 817 

Standard Silver-Lead Mining Co 41 

State bullion tax Editorial. ... 524 

Taxes In California 171 

Statement of construction costs A. W. Allen.... 702 

Of working costs A. W. Allen ... . 20+ 

States and districts, review of mining in 1911 In various. 71 

Mining law 216 

Station at Trail, gold-buving 272 

Statistics. California mineral 230 

Stewart receivership case 

Stewart Mining Co 708 

And Helnze 786 

Stealing gold Editorial.... 864 

Ore from Clnco de Mayo mine 616 

Steam consumption, turbine 

Exhaust 553 

Shovel dippers, trips for 238 

Shovel records on the Panama canal 2B6 

Shovel work at Chino 436 

Shovel work at Panama Editorial.... 329 

Stearin 414 

Steel and Iron manufactures Editorial.... 12i» 

Division of the A. I. M. E.. Iron and 699 

Making in Transvaal 20 

Metallurgy, smoke necessa ry in 614 

Plates, to harden iron and 269 

Rack for drill 667 

Rails. American Editorial 265 

Works for Vereenlglng, Transvaal 286 

Steptoe plant 509 

Stevens, Horace J., death of 613 

Ditto Mass copper. . . . 113 

Stewart, J. B Presenting assay results by graphic 

methods 664 

Stewart Mining Co 219 

St [ves Consolidated Mines. Ltd 440 

St. Louis Machine & Tool Co 479 

St Louis Placer Mines Co 320 

Sticking to the job. success from...E. P. Mathewson . . . 

Stockholder?' Protective Committee 418 

Stone from slag, building George Nicholas Ifft.... 173 

How to cement iron to 682 

ware, cement for porcelain 177 

Stony crust of earth 114 

Storage-battery locomotive, electric 279 

Storms. William H California's mineral Industry.... 71 

Ditto Miner;! 1 production of California.... 348 

Ditto Quicksilver production of California.... 400 

Story of Broken Hill mine ;, 7"4 

Stow, Harry P Flat-bottomed ore-bins 601 

Straight- line air-compressors 584 

Stratton's Independence. Ltd 7 6 

Straws, political Editorial. . . . 2H9 

Streams, velocity of a 316 

Strength of brick 653 

Of electrolytic copper on a rotating cathode, tensile. 

C. W. Bennett 590 

Strike of foreign laborers at A. S. & R. Co 678 

Stripping coal in Illinois J. YV. I jams . ... 410 

Substitute for prepared skins in gold-beating, paper as a 312 

For the blast-lamp W. A. Ernst.... 475 

1 1 tutes for coal in London 482 

Success from sticking to the job E. P. Mathewson. ... 852 

Success Mining Co 88. 154, 450. 515. 648 

Pine mine 897 

Suggested changes, the mining law — its faults and 

Horace V. WInchell 366 

Suggestion of Walter Fisher. Secretary of the Interior.. 

Editorial 426 

Sullivan pyrlte dissemination 786 

Sully. John M Milling the ore of the Chino mine. . . . 464 

Sulphide corporation and zinc corporation 637 

Sulphides, treatment of complex zinc-iron 177 




1 1 


l i U Co 
■ i mining king Jan.. 


, ilH.'.'l II. 

nbustlon. . . R , . n i C 

k Consolidated 

W. P Parkins. . 

, .. , 

L Runsomc ami \v Llndgren 

mini , 

Swedish foi its 

Manufacturing plant, oldest 

i Co 

Alaska . Editorial '.'.'. 

underground workers at I , eight-hour., 

mle i unnel, < Colorado 
la at tin- Crown Mines, Ltd., bell signal- 

and cable 

of mining law 

ruble middling*, re-treatment of . . . .Oelaslo Caetanl ... 

Tables, grade for 


"ii of antlmonlal.W. Archer Longbottom 
Through pipes, transportation of....S. B. Christy 


rack Mining Co 107 

Tanana Valley, Hot Springs district Editorial.... 

I Powei ' '-. 

1::- Ltd 182 MM 1 7 v" 

Ditto J. U. Farreil 

Tank.. Klsen Kalsha Co 

Tantalum or.- 

Turin* i.iil. Cummins substitute for metal schedule 

Editorial. . . . 

Proposed change in the lead \v. a. Scott . 

Reduction ounty against. 

Tarr Mining Co 

Tasmania Cold M. Co 272 

he '.'.'". ,.' 

...a ..f or.- reserves Editorial.... 

Taxes In California, state 

Taylor A: Sons. John i x-_> 

Ditto Murex process at Cordoba ... 

Taylor, <: M. ...Construction costs at the New Portland 

mill, Cripple Creek, Colorado 

Taylor Iron .4 Steel Co 

-rile geology Editorial.... 

Technical .duration Editorial.... 

Journals, American and Foreign "Noah's Ark'.... 

DM T. T. Reatr. ... 

Tellurium 284 

Temperature 478, 

Beneath earth surface 

Temtskamlng Mining Co.. Ltd 

Temlskamlng-North Dome 

Ten-cent gravel at ' jo. .hi elevating. .. .C. S. Haley..., 

Tennessee, onyx deposits in * 

Tenness opper-Amerlcan Agricultural Chemical pro- 
posed merger 

r Co 226. 453, 671, 

I 'it t.. Company reports . . . .' 

Ditto Dividends. . . 

Tennessee Gulch mine 

Tensile strength of electrolytic copper on a rotating 

cathode : C. W. Bennett... 

T> in. -plate 

Terrestrial wave detector, operators Editorial.... 

Tests, laboratory cyanide A. W. Allen..., 

Laboratory cyanide John Randall.... 

Of Bureau of Mines 

Of steel, cold-bend 

Of sstne-dust W. J. Sharwood. . . . 

Tewkesbury Amalgamated Co 

Texas coal ureas estimated by IT. S. Geol. Survey 

Petroleum, total production 

Thinking, productive 

Thlogen process, experiments with . .Frank L. Wilson.... 
Thomas. Klrby. .Vanadium in southwestern Colorado.... 
Thompson, Julius Alaskan development .... 

Ditto How can Alaska be developed?.... 

Thompson, Towle & Co 

Ditto. .Copper production, earnings, and dividends. . . . 

Three giant producers of the Rand in 1911 

Rowland Gascoyne. . . . 

Three Friends dredge 

Three Nations mine 

Three R"s mine 

Tlghtner Mines Co 

Tmber from public lands, free use of 

Ernest V. Orford.... 

Ditto T. D. Woodbury 

In Alaska 

Inside a mine, life of 

Laws regarding use of 

On public land 

. lit 

3 I'i 











1 IV 


4SL , 

7 17. 





7 vi 








\ H Chamberlln 











T. T 7: 







Tin i 

In A 
In I ; 
In .\ 
In t'. 
M.u k i 

Mm. s In 

Mini; I llu. mm, I 

mills, chill, , I rolls for 
Scrap ... 

Sllvei hum. .a containing . . . 

M .V I i I'o 

i -ii. ..i'i Mining i'o ...'..'.'..'.'. 

ii- in i ii.ui. 

Titanic, loss ,,f the Editorial 

Titanic Gold MlnltiK Co., dlrei led 

Titanium Alloy Co 

Titanium and its us. s n \j ijenton 

Tlttmann. ii. ii Fixing i i ndarles 

I II rati. 

Mineral Mill. Nevada 

ii'liiian. Jr.. i '. F Irlxona 

Ditto... Magmatle origin ..r ore-forming solution 
Tomliill M. Co., Ltd. . 
Tom Reed Gold Mines Co 

" ! 

rongkah Harbour Tin Dredging Co 

ige, estimation of \ u Ulen 

Ditto T i. 

Ditto Thomas T 

Tonopah district, report of 

Milling i'i,:, iirs B. Anderson 

Mines and mining Editorial 

'r pah-Belmont Development ''.. 

Ditto Bdltot mi 

iioiu M. & D. i'o 76, 32 I 390 610 624 

Ditto Ed 

: i Extension Mining Co 486, 


Tonopah Golden Crown M. < '.. 

T poll Midway M. Co im 

Co 8 152, 186,' 

736, 749. 

Ditto Editorial 

Work ,.i th 

Topaz Mining i'o 

1 1 



313. Olt 





... xj 

:;is. .;7s 

... :i 1 x 

808, :. ii 

. .. ::i i 

. I l.: 

... 421 


Topographic Burvey 

Toronto meeting of the Canadian Mining Institute 

production ol T ■■ as pel roleum 

Tovote. W. I. Magmatle origin of ore- 
forming solutions 

Typca oi to'i'ii copper deposits 

Trade between United States and Philippines 

In Am. -lie:!, iron Editorial.... 

t aer, ■ ;. W Plea for revision of the 

na ii act 

Trail, assay office at 

Gold-buying Btatlon at 

Trails. Alaska Editorial 

Trans- Australian ra llroud 

Transmission, compressed air 

Transportation of tailing through pipes 

S. II, Christy. . . . 
on the Rand, underground 

Transvaal, copper product I on in 

Gold mining Rowland Gascoyne.... 

Gold Output 27.1. 



1911, gold output 

Power supply problems in llie 

Record for 

Results for 1911 

■ 1-making 

Steel winks for Vorecnlging 

Tray lor. Samuel W Largest single -unit 

crushing plant 

Treadwell, cyanldatlon 

Alaska mining at 

Mines, geology at O. H. Hershey.... 

Treasure M. & It. Co 

Treatment of complex '/.Inr-lron sulphides 

Of matte from mill clean-up 

M. \v. von Bernewltz. . . . 

'it i 'I pr really.- . . . . \Y. H. Kempfer. . . . 

Trestles for pip. -lines 

Ti el hewey mine 


Trethewey Silver Coball Mines. Ltd 

I'i l tr Company reports. . . . 

Trinidad, asphalt exported from 

Trinity Dredging (',, ' 

Trinity Gold Mining & Reduction Co 

Ditto Company reports.... 

Trinity Hydraulic M. C 

Trips for stearii-sliov.-l .llpp. I s 

Trolliiattan Mechanical Works 

Troubles at Butte, possibility of labor Editorial.... 

Trunk cylinder liolsls 

Truth, advertising value of Ho- plain Editorial.... 

Truscott. S. J Economies of tube-mil ling. . . . 

Trusts, baiting the Editorial. . . . 

Tube-in ill practice and liners F. C. Brown. . . . 

Milling, economies of S. J. Truscott.... 

Milling efficiency -A. \V. Allen .... 

Tube mills. Danish pi Miles used in 


And its uses Robert P. Skinner. . . . 

Prospecting for. H. C. Morris.... 


. . . . 1X1 

7nx. 77:: 

S15, 77 1 

730, 801 

681, '111 

77 1. 802 

.... 96 

... 722 

. . 1 1 8 

I si. 



2 7 2 

7.11 I 






3 1 8 

4 29 


I :, i; 
:: 1 2 

2.2 2 
.",-. I 





Vol. 104 



Turbine umptlon 961 

Turkey, mining In l Ml l Leon Immlnian 58 

Turk Isti water wheels 148 

Tuolnr rflnll 181 

I ne 

Tuolumne mine 

impartment shaft 478 

Two Mikes mine 350 

Tyep Copper Co.. Ltd 

Type "f glacial deposits In Alaska, continental 

Lawrence Martin. . . . 

I'll. Smyth, Jr.... 
or Iron-ore deposits, Lake Superior. . .C, K, Lelth.... 

ire deposits, a review A. C. Lawson. . . . 

\V. I.. Tovote. . . . 

Tyrrell, J. B Law of the pay-st reak In 

placer deposits 


Underground clr< iratet 

Transportation on the Rand 

Workers al Dome, eight-hour system for 

Underwood acl 

Union Sulphur Co 

Union I hi Co 

Union u Haut-Katanga 


United Copp O 121 

Its Its chai ter 

United Copper Securities Co 

United Qlobe mine 

United dold M. * M. Co 

United Mine Workers of Ami nlzed 

d Philippines, trade between 


0. IT. Tlttmann. . . . 

Bureau of Mines 

Ditto Editorial 

i of Mines report Editorial .... 

Coal and Iron consumption 

Government, sale of mineral Inn. is by 

Growth of copper industry 

Imports .,r copper Into editorial ... 

I n I :< ! i pi view nf mets m In 

Mineral wealth 

I lil WK 

C ! Slebeni hal .... 

Quicksilver production, 1911 

Supreme Courl decision in mimeograph case 


United States Geological Survey's .siim:it.- of Texas 

coal areas 

Press bulletin .»r potash salts in t n California 

Topoi ' 

Vnlteti States Smelting Company Editorial ... . 

United States Smelting, ReHnlng & Mining Co.. 


Ditto Editorial 96, 160, 

As coal dealer 


United States Steel Corporation 

ed States Steel Products Company Editorial 

d v- rde ' topper Co 

ed Verde Extension Company 161, 

United v. rtli- Junior property 

Units, largest gas-engine 

University ol Pittsburg Scl I ol Mines 

Unknown mixtures, chemical 

Unusual tj n Algernon Del Mar.... 

Ditto w. t:. French. .. . 

Unwaterlng n mine under difficulties 

'■ B. Whitwel] 

L'rn] iductlon in the 

Osmlrldlum and Bllver in 

Uranium In Utah 

I'.s.- of graphite In manufai I pent ils 

Of tiinbei from public lands free 

Ernest V. Orford. . . . 

I'l'i" T. I), Woodbui i 

i >f sulphur 

Uses, titanium and its H. M Henton.... 

Tungsten and Its 

U"»h W. A. Scott 

Alunlte near Marysvale . . 

B. S. Butler and Hoyt S. Oale 

International smelter 

Mine ....!.: 

Petroleum possibilities of 

Smelter charges 

Uranium in 

Utah-Apex M. Co ' ' 166 

Utah Con. Mining Co 

Utah Consolidated Coppei Co 86, 226 253 4*7 

S12, 643, 

I tuli Copper ''ii -i 366. 448 179 

."l SOI, B05, 

Ditto Company reports. 667 

I'll 1. 1 Edftoi lal. ...567, 

Work of the I .. c. Jackllng. . . . 

rtalt Metal Mining Co 

Utah Min.s Coalition Co ' 







I is 



21 l 

Mi 'J 

17. "I 

7 7.-. 




.' ' _• 

Valuation nf nil wells 

Value of gi.iti Editorial.".'! 

e-ahoots with depth, Increase In vain,- of 

!•'. L.3 : Ison . 

Of plain truth, advertising Editorial... 

.in. tits for gas. '_ 

Thomas! ! ! ! 

Industry of France 

..I mines 

Van-Rol Mining I '•■ . Ltd o'rts! !! ! 

Van Wagenen, Ti P Prospector and the 

mining law 

lora <>f eltiy .....!! 

Varlssa mini *. , ! ! ! ! ! 

Velocity Ol a sir. -a in \ /_] 

t-'f air current 



I I I 





I Ml 

1 15 



5 16. 




7 15 





ii i 


Venezuela, gold discovery W. Henderson. . . . 894 

Ventilating fans, hand-driven 521 

Ventilation in mines Editorial.... 4'.lu 

"'I Central London railwav 6! 

Verde Valley Oil Co 

Vei ntglng. Trail eel works for 286 

Vermillion Silver & Lead Co 904 

wU|g-boardi large 584 

Victoria dred^hg ami sluicing Editorial.... 

Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co., Ltd 286. is: 

Victoria Fails rower Co :7s 

Villa. Edward .11 Diamonds In China.... 412 

toi i Ion G M. Co 121, 357, 549, 

s. sine 553 

Vlpond Porcupine Gold Mines Co., Ltd...W. s. nobhs.... 76! 

on. M. & M. Co :::i 

pipe 521 


Vogel, Felix A Brlquettlng ami situ. -ring 

of tlue-dust 

i .in ,t Co.. L Consumption o 

copper 112,146, 136 111 

Ditto Metal prodi itlon and prices in inn ... . it'.'.i 

Volui .i llthosphere 411 

Von Bernewltz, M. W Treatment of matte from 

mill clean-up 342 


Wagga district, x. S. w , dredge tuning 699 

Walhl Grand Junction Co 434 

Walker, Edward Gee centrifugal concentrator..., 599 

Wallace, II. Vincent Making mine ladders.... :: \ 7 

Wandlllgong Gold Dredging Co 

Wankle Colliery Co 178 

War Eagle M. & M. Co jv.i 

Ward Consolidated company 822 

Wardner district, Idaho, genesis «>t" lead-silver ores In 

I. 11. Ill .Oscar H. Rershey 750, 786 

Warren & Co 484 

Wash. fireproof 521 

Washington gravel, rocker for \Y. H. 801 

Washington, a nickel deposit In the San Poil mining 

district Rowland Bancroft ... i 1 1 

Alaska at Editorial.... 658 

Mining operations in 87 

Opal in 712 

Washoe plant 822 

Smelter of Anaconda company 480 

Washouts -its 

Wasp N<>. 2 dividends 900 

Mill 44 1 

Mine 152, 7:: I 

Waste of natural gas 382 

Water at Cripple Creek Editorial 329 

By permutite softening 723 

in California oil wells 

An Occasional Contributor. . . , 379 

legislation -Ill 

Power sites 

Wheels railed mangano-pygano 148 

Waterman, Douglas An improved cone .... 587 

Waters and hypotheses, juvenile Editorial. .. . 19 i 

Precipitation of copper from mine. . . .W. < .. Nash. . . . 213 

Waters, Charles H Prospecting drill records, ... 

Way-Arbuckle process at Ben on i 

Johannesburg Correspondence. . . . 7:,':: 

Way of a man with a mine Charles -S. Haley ... . 1 70 

Ditto Stanley C. Sears.... 176 

Weaver mine 481 

Webb City Smg. & Mfg, Co (80 

Webber, Morton Conservation of investments In 

gold mines 211 

Ditto Cross- fractures and ore -shoots ... . 380 

Weed Walter Harvey Literature of ore deposits 

in 1911 

Weeks, F. B Phosphate rock in the West. 

hi certificate for ore from Norwegian ports 

Of the atmosphere 1 4 s 

Wellington's definition of engineers Editorial.... 426 

We llman-Seaver- Morgan Co. . . 

Nevada -Dbuglas electric hoist.... 191 

Wells, valuation of oil 284 

Wenatcbee M. & M. Co 225 

West coast of Mexico, mining on the. ...J. C. White... 765 

w. st End M. Co 185 

West Indies, manganese ore deposits 859 

West, phosphate rock in the F. B. Weeks. . . . 25 

West Side fields petroleum prices Editorial.... 396 

Western Australian gold production i'-i 

Western eoal production 14C 

Office of mineral resources of 0\ S. Geol. Survey 80S 

Western Fuel Co. 70 

Western Ore Purchasing Co *"' 

West Enghouse equalizer hoist 230 

Wet method of assaying silver bullion 284 

Wetherlll, William Chattln. death of 124 

Weymouth, G. S Measuring low-pressure air . . . . 562 

Wettlaufer Lorraine company 258 

Wesl Kitty M. Co 4 m 

West Mexican Mines. Ltd 4S7 

West of England Tin Corporation 901 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co 

New mine suspension..., 522 

Western Australia mines production 902 

Wheal Kitty & Penhalls ; 386 

Wheelook, it. P Cyanide regeneration .... 506 

When initial profits guide wrongly A. H Martin.... 117 

White, r;. C Mining on the west coast of Mexico. .. . 765 

White, H R Retention Off gold In a new mill. . . . 500 

White lead and Its prevention, chalking of 

Henry A, Gardner. . , . 568 

nents 614 

Whitening powder 52] 

\\ in I' v, William Ash lev. death of 361 

Whit w. 1), C, B. .I'm watering a mine under difficulties. ... S9'6 

Who 1( mi] rig engineer? I. V. Richards . ... Ml 

Whv not mine? Editorial.... 16" 

Wllbert Mines Co 116 

W lid floose dredge 46 

Williams. Talcott Editorial 189 

Creek mine 488 

Wilson & Rose 4S4 

Vol. l"l 




I" K K 
- mil Id In I 

\\ I- 

\\ t I ^v 

1 ' u» of Umbei i 


ii i 

ii i 

. . r.«» 
Work in (he Snake Ci Kk I innel 

kllng . . Iti 

i-aria Con. Copper Co Pope ifealman . . . . 687 

D. C Jackllng ivi 

ke L'nltrd - 1(1 

nf Hi.- All. pin. Mining Co 

nr Hi. Tonopah Mining Co 722 

of the Utah Copper Co D. C. Jn. kilns ««3 

i in claim used In application for patenl 

On manganese silver ore, experimental... 

Byron Jackaon 
\\'..rk.-t-i at Dome, eight-hour system for underground 
In AmadOl California, Immigrant gnlil inln.-.. 

W. .i Lauck 

i in Lob Angeles aqueduct, peraonal Injuries to 

Working condition! al Porcupine 

id profit «'ii Hi-- Kand 

Johannesburg Correspondence. .. . 
Costs on the Rand. .Johannesburg Correspondent 

atement of V W. Allen. . .. 

Workings In Central Asia £"i<i 

ESllsworth Huntington. .. . 

Workmen's compensation act in Great Britain 

World's coal output 

Gold production 1911 

Wolverine Copper Ulnlng Co in 7. 

■ ft 

Wright, Charles Will Mining Industry In Italy 

In Ull 

Wyoming mineral Industry In 1911 

Albert C. Boyle. Jr 

Potash-bearing rocks in 

Spring Valley oilfield in southwestern 

i- H. Merrill 

\V> yshrod mine 







Yankee Con. Mining Co 843 

Year among the gold mines Editorial. ... I, 160 


- -I Ihi 




■Sack shaft ... 

.Struma mining dlntrli I 

Zeolite... par a tien i i \ aim 

Sine and • oppei ■ i 

An. i lead In it;ii\ ,1 

An. i i. ad In 

And lead mine* <•.-.. Ruhl 

An.t lead mining 

And I 


Electrt ivorj " ( Thomas Sammons. 

Aluminum alloys t:.:< 

i tepoalu n| the < >iai k rogli 

B. u. Buckles 193 

' lei flats and i In lead and 

n. Poster Bain. . . . 10ft 

Dlstrlcl 4»f Wisconsin p. K ECelles 

District, small concentrating mills in the Wisconsin.. 

u P Boi i i. K, B38 

Dust-feeding, automatic. \. W, Morris. .. .249 

Dust in Indigo dyeing us 

Dual teats \v ,i. Sharw i 

in Colorado B99 

Industry l ir. 

Induatiy, progress of the Editorial. . . . B87 

iron sulphides, treatment ol complex 177 



in Mew Jersey 866 

Mines, Park City dlstrlcl 806 

Mining In Japan M 

Ulnlng, lead and 10 

Ore and /.\nv smelting... R, ';. Hall..., 8 

Ore. Butte is:t 

Ore in Missouri. I.t^h price "f 481 

Ore shipments from Joplln 881 

Ores, flotation "t C. T. Durell.... 717 

( irt'.s. fr.-itfhl r:it<- on 866 

Ores in Japan, flotation "f Tadashlro Inoyue.... 892 

Preclpltati-. electrical drier Cor.. Donald I", [rvln 405 

Prices abroad 815 

Problem of Daly-Judge #80 

Production, Joplln lead ind l oi» 

Record price of 770 

Secondary 7fi6 

Violets 553 

Zircon 815 

And monaztte MS 

Zopllote mine • 118 

Zuiho gold mint-- I3E 

" Science ha» no enemy uvc the ignorjn 

26S5 v 

««;■'? SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 6, 1912 

Slofle Coplea, Ten Cenu 


■ :■>■! on i ti ., 


Ml. ..UK Ihl 

a Regains Stablllt] . 

iu:\ i. » or miim i , T io> 


in. I Btlver 


Copper, Corporation*, and Prices !!!"!!! 

■ i: Appi Ibaum 

/.In.- ore and Zinc Smelling.... R Q ll.ili 

Lead and Zinc Mining 



Tin Mines and Market 



Construction Coats at the New Portland Mill Crip- 
ple Creek, Colorado .; m. Taylor 

Operation of Air-Compressors E. A 

Tin-Dredging in Alaska T. M i 

The London Market for Wining Shares and Metals.. 
_ ... __ T. a. Rlckard 

Pebble Efficiency In Tube-Milling a. \v. Allen 

The Future ..r Concentration M p Boss 

Silver-Lead Smelting u s, Austin 

Butt.- Copper Production 

Production and Prices in the California Oilfields!!!! 

J. H G. Wolf 

Phosphate Rock In the Weal p. b. Weeks 

Metallurgy of Copper During 1*11. .Thomas T. Read 
Cost of Developing Public Coal Lands. James Douglas 

Coal Output In Hill 

Proposed Revision Of Alaskan Mining Laws....!!!!! 

F, I.ynwood Garrison 

Mining In China, lull Thomas T. Read 

Mines of the .Southern Sierras of California and Ne- 

vad »- Mark B. Kerr 

Literature of Ore Deposits In 1311 

Walter Harvey Weed 
Progress In Cyanldatlon of Gold and Silver Ores 

During 1911 lifted James 

Iron Ore Movement on the Great Lakes In 191] 

George H. Cushing 

Gold-Dredging Industry on Seward Peninsula 

T. M. Gibson 

Mining Conditions In the South of Spain 

Henry F. Collins 

Copper Surplus 

Japan's Mineral Production n. Poster Bain 

Mining Industry In Italy In 1911. Charles Will Wright 

Anthracite Coal Shipments 

Australasian Mining In 1011 

Mining In Turkey in lull Leon Dominlan 

Nome in 1911 

Central American Mines in lull T. Lane Carter 

Mining in Eastern Canada in 1911 

Transvaal Gold-Mining Rowland <; 

Rhodesian Mining Development 

Gold-Dredging In Russia Charles Janin 

Diamond Mining in Africa 

Metal Mining in British Columbia E. Jacobs 

Gold-Drerlging in the Philippines Charles Janin 

Coal Mining in British Columbia E. .1 


California's Mineral Industry William II. Storms 

Gold-Dredging In California Charles Janin 

The Year Among Nevada Mines and Mills 

L. F. Adamson 
South Dakota Gold and Tin Mines... R. L. Daug! 

Colorado Metallurgical Progress P. II. Argali 

Eastern Oregon Our Special Correspondent 

Arizona C. F. Tolman, Jr. 


Gold-Silver Mines of Montana George T. McGee 

Gold-Dredging at Rubv, Montana. .Hennen Jennings 
W. A. Scott 


New Mexico 


Idaho W. A. Scott 

Mining in Alaska in 1111 1 A. H. Brooks 

Philippine Coal Trade 

Mexico Our Special Correspondent 

Lake Superior Copper Minos. Roberl 11. Maurer 

■ New York Share Market in 1911 

Our Regular Corn spondent 

California Petroleum Production ' 

London Share Quotations of the Year 


Market Reports 

Current Prices for Chemicals 

Current Prices for Ores and Minerals 


B81 till ii ti it .i 


Til. ..MAS T READ 




Alien. Charles Janin. 

A. \V 

Leonard S. Austin. 

T. Lane Carter. 

nay De Kalb 
.1 R. Plnlay. 
P. Lynwood Garrison 

James F. k 

C. W. Purlngton. 

C. F. Tolman. Jr. 

Waiter Harvey w i 

Horace V. Wlnchetl. 




Telephone: Kearny 4777, Cable Address: Portusola. 

Code: Bedford McNeill (2 editions). 


CHICAGO— .34 Monadnock Bdg. NEW YORK— 29 Broadway 

LONDON— The Mining Magazine, 819 Salisbury House. E. C. 

Cable Address: Oligoclase. 


United Stales and Mexico »3 

Canada $4 

Other Countries in Postal Union 21 Shillings or $5 

News Stands. 10c. per Copy. 
On Library Cars of Southern Pacllic Coast Trains. 

L. A. GREENE Business Manager 

Bniered at San Praneitoo Paatofllce at ffsoond-Oosi Mattef> 

Greeting ! 

The close of one year and beginning of another is uni- 
versally a time for casting up accounts. The merchant 
takes stock, balances his books, and decides what lines to 
push in the new year. In solemn family council lather 
and mother add up the bills and debate measures necessary 
te stretch a fixed income to cover an expanding style 
of living. Everywhere people are sifting and sorting to 
mine, if possible, what is. ami what is not, worth 
while I ask your indulgence for a few minutes that we 
may have a conference of the Mining and Scientific Press 
family, including the publishers, editors, readers, and adver- 
tisers, to consider ways and means. 

Changes come even in the most united of families. 
Children grow up and move away, and from time to time 
new laces appear at the fireside. In 1911 pressure of 
other business lias prevented a number of our friends 
from keeping up the relation of special contributor, and 
si eral have accordingly dropped out, though we hope 
not for always. Their writings have contributed greatly 
to the interest of the paper, and their future articles, if 
unfortunately less frequent, will be no less welcome. When 
'business lets up', or any of them reach that haven to 
which every mining engineer looks forward — when he shall 
live on a ranch and bother only with cattle and alfalfa — 
a cordial reception awaits his reentry into our circle of 
those who by frequent note and advice help to shape the 
paper. Other old friends remain in the list and to them 
the thanks of the editor, swelled, I am sure, by those ol 
the readers, go today. As newcomers we have welcomed 
Mr. T. Lane Carter, who has written for us frequently 


January 6, 1912 

this year of South Africa, Central America, and other 
countries; Mr. Charles Janin, who is beeping in especially 
close touch with the development of gold-dredging; and 
Mr. A. \V. Allen, whose knowledge of South America and 

ty other countries "ill be generously placed at tin' 
disposal of our readers. Mr. Courtenay De Knlb has found 
life in Mexico too exacting for, frequent editorial contribu- 
tions, but continues as a special contributor. Mr. T. A. 

kard, having placed The mining Magaeme upon a satis- 
factory basis as to clientele and business, will find time 
this year to devote to the 1 tific Press. With 

eye to rivaling our New York contemporary, The Out- 
look, Mr. Rickard is accordingly listed as Editorial Con- 
tributor, ami our readers may expect in 1912 a serii 

Cor which he is Ea 
In the year that lias just closed the advertisers have 
given generous support to the paper; support all the more 

liberal in that business has undeniably been less g I than 

in 1910, and only the far-seeing business men recognize 
that it is in had times thai - prove their qualit} 

and by extra efforts lay the foundati rapid expan- 

in 'he first succeeding period of prosperity. The 
leaders have been kind and discriminating. Many cheer- 
in-.' words have come from them to the editorial office, and 
if there have al plaints, who shall say that they 

were not. iii pari at least, well founded 1 (in behalf of 

| we have ."/hen the best we had. If 

yon have missed an ex| ected news item, if you have tailed 
to find a bit of technical information for which you were 
searching, I can only say that we selected Erom the store 
available, to the best of our judgment, what would surest 
e your needs. If something has been crowded out. I 
would remind you thai the field i- wide ami printing forms 
arc not elastic. The Business Manager remarks, too. 

Ins seat in the far uer of the room, that paper and 

printing bills have -tea. lily climbed while subscription and 
advertising rates have remained fixed. Extra pages cost 

extra money, and. pleasant as it is to publish -the largest 

paper.' there are limits that must be I - I. We have 

done what we could in 1 01 1 and we shall bope to do better 
in 1912. The practical problem is. how.' And the only 
niablc answer is. through the belli of our friends. 
Not that our friends have not already proved more than 
kind. In the course of the past year members of the 
editorial staff have visited many States of the Union and 
a number of foreign countries, and have everywhere been 
• he i of much appreciated courtesies. Whether 

b fellow members of the Institution of Mining and 
Metallurgy in London "lasses clinked over the 'rare r 
beef of old England'; or at Colorado Springs, for one brief 

space of time among the millionaires, as coffee and cigars 
went round, the story of Cripple Creek was retold: or with 
fellow travelers at Chitina we ate ham and eggs for break- 
he fare by taking eggs and ham at luncheon, 
and ham for dinner; or with new-found friends at the 
Maple Club in Toky 1 "Tilled tat and 

sate, everywhere it has been the same story of cordial 
of quick sympathy, and of ready helpfulness. 
The year, for myself and associates, is stored full with 
ies. Hay after day. too, in San Francisco, 
where a new chair in a new oft i elcomes old friends I" 

the sanctum, there has been a stream of royal g 1 fellows 

from all over the world giving of the fullness of their 
experience and knowledge thiouf .,, their fel- 

lows in the profession. 

■arily the ke; technical journal. 

If it does not e W ell. it withers and dies. 

And service depends upon b knowledge 

upon willing friend- jghip 

and your knowledge, that we may "ive to others. Did it I 

ever occur to you. Mr. Mine Owner, that there would he 
substantial advantage in allowing us to publish the real 
figures at which you bought that last property? The pro- 
moter, of course, hies himself joyously to the local print- 
shop, gathering in a few ciphers on the way. and the local 
editor, with the laudible ambition to 'boost' his own com- 
munity in announcing the sale, perhaps plants a few more 

where they will do the most good. The next time you try 

li buy a property you find, as a result, that prices have 
'unaccountably' risen. We have known many a good trade 
to fall through because of honest but none the less absurd 

ons of the present vain a property acquired by 

claim-owners through this sort of education. Mr. Sidney 
Jennings is quoted as saying that for his company he 
ed into 604 properties and was aide to buy only two; 
vet the Inited States Smelting, Refining & Mining Company 
has an enviable reputation for fairness in examining and 
buying properties. A Dutch mining engineer of knowledge 
and personal wealth spent some months in the United States 
and Canada in 1010 and 1911, with a view to acquiring 
:. property or properties. lie was prepared to pay a 
fair price, and be was careful and thorough, but he went 
back to Holland without buying, and has turned his alien 
lion to the Far East. There are whole districts in Cali- 
fornia ami other States where no new capital is going into 
mining, and the residents wonder why. In part, the reason 
lies in the crudities of our mining laws, whereby every 
I nrrhasc or find of a good orebody involves a lawsuit, but 
ii. pari this stagnation is due to the exaggerated notions 
of claim-owners as to the value of their properties. This 
is not true in the States alone, for quartz-mining in the 
Philippines is making but slow progress, and the most 
important single reason is. that men with money can not 
buy claims at fair prices. A million dollars in the ground 
i- not worth a check for a million in the bank, and better 
education in present values is needed. 

Ami you. Mr. Engineer — do you remember the time 
when, isolated ami lonely, far from professional associates 
and engineering libraries, you awaited the coming of each 
number of your favorite technical journal, knowing that 

it alone si 1 between yon and the rustiness that leads 

failure? Have you ever, in making estimates, wished 
you knew exactly what a certain other plant had cost 
Have you ever, in puzzling over a process, wished yon 
knew exactly how the other fellow did it.' Do you realize 
that such information can only be obtained by free inter- 
change—that you can not expect to receive unless you also 
Ltive.' Docs not such generous publication of detail as 
in the series of articles on the (ioldlield Consolidated mill 
by Mr. J. W. Hutchinson, published in this journal last 
year, or the painstaking and exact tables of cost presented 
in this issue through the courtesy of Mr. O. M. Taylor. 
call for some return on your pari .' Such articles require 
more of labor and effort than any publisher can pay for 
in money, and the only fitting reward is like generous pub- 
lication by those who reap the benefit. Engineers must 
help each other, and it is one of the pleasures of belonging 
to the profession that the obligation is so widely recog- 
nized. It is true, undoubtedly, that there are times and 
circumstances under which metallurgical secrets must be 
kept. The experience of Mr. Richard S. Pearce at Argo 
with the Pearce process, ami thai of Mr. Willard S. Mors 
it converting copper matte at Agnascalientes, may be cited 
as cases in point, to mention only snch as have passed 
into history. Too often, however, the manager who guards 
jealously 'a method all his own', has merely failed to meas- 
ure the depth of his own ignorance. So surely does this 
policy of secrecy defeat its own ends, that many instance- 
might be cited. One in the experience of one of the 
larger metallurgical companies will do. Ti r al 

I'M J 

MINING AND S< II M ll [( PR| S3 

a bai 

i result, and ban 
■ little 1 1 Miik inten 

Would have l«-.-li ..I III. ., ,,,-lil. 

Thea in all things, but it 1- bard to !»• patient 

the absurd lengths i.. which tha policj leads 

•ww ■ .Hi bureau*, en 

rhnical publications, nil (be recognised 

i leans of building up your profession and business, pen 

■ n. depend on you. Tbey are what you make them. 

No editor sen give out what is given to biu I it' 

you would have better papers, give them better ami 
complete data. For the generous support thai you, both 
readers and advertisers, bave given the Mining and • 

n 1911, I thank you for myself and on behalf 

"'" ' -. ami for 1912 I bespeak your tinned 

sympathy and support, at the same time that I wish for 
you all. tl». fullest measure of prosperity. Front the 
Vi/.ina to Rancagua, from Moji to the Am-.. lira, from San 
Francisco to Kolgoorlie, on to London and back again to 
the "Golden City in the Golden Stan, by the Golden G 
I aand the ;."»iil wishes nt myself and associates to the 
many mining engineers we bave come to look on as per 
sonal friends. 

II. Foster Bain. 

January 1. 1912. 

■^■|.\ Al> | 

thai state which we publish 

i.i \. ., stall 

eak with exceptional knowli 

/CONTROVERSY ; mm producers and A 

^ ran ■ miners ..I pots n final!) nettled, 

ami an agreement reached which, though cauaini 

the American interests, is apparently satisfactory. One un 

dubitably g I result of the disagreement has been the 

lati I search 

ci tinent, though so far little definite result has eventu 


nEGULAB departments have been ruthlessly crowded 
■*■*• aside t.i make room this week tor review articles, and 
even much mntt.-r pertaining to a first of the year issue has 
ln-eii regretfully held i 

■JlTI'.TAI.I.IK'iiK'AI, developmenl at Cripple Creek is so 
-"A associated with the nan:,- of Argall, that it is pleasant 
to be able to present a summary of progress for the year 
prepared by Mr. I'. II. Argall, who is now carrying on work 
initiated by bis father, Mr. Philip Argall, so well known to 
our readers. 

T*\ENVEH is fortunate in containing within its purlieus 
•1— ' the Colorado Scientific Society, whose meetings bave 
been notabli i \ were the gathering place of notable 

The Society itinues with unabated \ iv.--.i- and we 

null, that Mr. <i. I-'.. Collins will be president for the con 
year, with Messrs. E. N. Hawkins and \Y. P. .1. Dinsmore 
at vjee presidents, J. \V. Richards as treasurer, and II. »'. 

Par lee as secretary. V7e wish the Society long life and 

continued success. 

T u CYANIDE operators, one of the events to be looked 

■*■ forward to at the beginning of each year is the apt ear- 
ance of the annual review of progress in eyanidation by 

Mr. Alfred James. •(; I wine needs no hush.' and we 

need only mention, therefore, that Mr. James' summary 
appears on another page of this issue. 

JAPAN and the Japanese have won many friends among 
** American engineers in the past year, and, since the 
New Year is a period of which much is made in the Land 
of the Rising Sun — not one but three celebrations being 
held there — we are glad to send to our neighbors across 
Ihe Pacific our especially good wishes at this time. 

STATISTICS of production in 1011 are given this week 
*s-> as far as they are available. The excellent preliminary 
estimates furnished annually by the Director of the Mint, 
the Director of the United Slates Geological Survey, and 
Ihe monthly figures of the Copper Producers' Association 
and similar organizations, permit a comprehensive sum- 
mary of business at the close of the year that is extremely 
helpful. Estimates are not expected to be exact, though 
those mentioned have enviable reputations in that particu- 
lar. Renders will notice a few discrepancies. For this rea- 
son the source of the figures has been given in each case. In 
addition, we gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the 
many friends whose cooperation lias made possible Ihe 
preparation of this review number. 

MINING LAW revision has attracted ih attenl 
recently, both in the United States and Canada. Il 
seems likely thai in \\>\'J active steps will be taken toward 

b r prehensive rewriting oi the statutes relating to mines. 

We plan to Ural the matter in some detail in an early 

ssue, and are glad to present uow the discussion by Mr. F. 
I.ynwood Garrison of the problems in Alaska and of Dr. 
James Douglas of the cost of developing coal mi public 
lands. Such articles strike bottom and such information 
is a prerequisite to any informed discussion. 

WHEREVER mining men go, to the uttermost end of 
the earth, the name of Collins is known and re- 
s| ected, worthy sons having upheld the traditions of an 

h able sire. Mr. H. F. Collins has prepared for ns a 

valuable discussion of the conditions under which mining 
is carried on in Spain, which will be of interest as well as 
service to our readers. Americans are becoming a cosmo 
politan people, and this is especially true of mining engi- 
neers, so thai reviews of mining ill Turkey, Japan, and 
other countries which also appear in this issue, will be of 

COPPER smelting is likely to remain an important lac- 
tor in the production of the metal, since it is the 
iii.isi expensive one and shares with ore dressing the honor 
nf having made notable advances in recent years. In con- 
nection with the review of progress for the year, by one 
of the editors, it is interesting to note that the oil-fired re- 
verberatory furnaces constructed at El Paso, Texas, under 
the direction of Mr. Willard S. Morse, were built with 100- 
foot hearths, but provision was made for the addition of 
30 feet more, which, in the light of experience at that and 
other plants, is likely to be added. 

DREDGING has beeome a most important means of gold 
production, and the method is being applied to tin in 
an increasing number of places. In 1010 dredging opera- 
tions supplied $9,293,100 of the $96,269,100 of gold won in 
the United States, and Ihe proportion is steadily increasing. 
We print ibis week especially interesting articles descrip- 
tive of dredging operations, written by Mr. T. M. Gibson, 
Mr. Hennen Jennings, and Mr. Charles Janin. A continua- 
tion of Mr. Janin's review of dredging operations through- 
out the world will be printed next week. Mr. Jennings' 
brief description of winter work in Montana will, we are 
sure, be read with especial interest. 


January 6, 1912 

PETR0LE1 lers found 1911 an anxious year, 

but one of substantial progress. The California fields 
are discussed in detail by Mr. J. II. Q. Wolf in this issue, 
and i Pacific Coast was outlined 

in an earlier issue by Mr. M. L. Requa. Evidently an 
adequate supply of fuel oil lias been developed to warrant 
steam users changing from coal to "il throughout a wide 
Held. Producer! ik consolation for low prices in 

this broad market, but one wonders what would happen 
it thi Government should insist upon cap- 

ping wells upon disp nd until controversies as to 

title were settled. Evidently the present low prices are by- 
no means certain to prevail, and probably producers may 
expect better returns in the future. A slight increase in 
price at the well would benefit them without seriously handi- 
capping consumers, and in view of the risks and capital 
involved, such an increase is warranted. In the Ap- 
palachian fields the price of crude oil was raised late in 
December, but il is more and more evident that better 
lo hut little to increase output east of the Mis- 
sissippi. According to the oil City Derrick, the new pro- 
duction of the Appalachian fields for the first eleven months 
of 191] was 23.04(1 bbl.. as against 49,208 in 1910. The 
Lama field has practically been abandoned, new produc- 
tion being but 5(iS0 bbl. In Illinois, according to figures 
compiled by Mr. R. S. Blatchley, of the State Geological 
Survey, the 1911 output was 31.111)11.000 bbl.; a marked de- 
cline, due to exhaustion of early found pools and lack of 
development. Prices were raised at intervals through the 
year and some of the newer fields offer distinct promise, 
though there is no immediate hope of discoveries rivaling 
those of 1005 and 1900 in Eastern Illinois. In Oklahoma. 
Texas, Louisiana, and other Western States, aside from 
California, the year passed without marked incident. In 
Mexico production is now estimated at 200,000 bbl. per day. 

GENEROSITY has always characterized the miner, but 
at the end of the year a new and striking instance of 
this trait was exhibited in the announcement that Mr. F. G. 
Cottrell and his associates had presented to the Smith- 
sonian Institution the patents covering electrical precipi- 
tation of suspended matter. The Cottrell process lias al- 
ready been described in this paper. It is in successful 
operation in California in acid works, cement manufac- 
turies. ami for clearing crude oil of water. Extensive ex- 
periments in treatment of smelter fume indicate that it has 
hen- a wide field, and ork is now being conducted 

in Utah. Royalties have, we are glad to say. reimbursed 
Mr. Cottrell and his friends for the large sum of money 
rj; the process. Iii the ordinary course 
of events they might have been expected to result in a con- 
siderable fortune. Mr. Cottrell, however, does not care for 
•ring to devote his time to further 
mental work under the service of the Bureau of 

Mines, " is I i „,v private interest 

in the results of his public work. His associates in San 
Francisco, with a broad - that is as pleasant as 

it is unusual, consented to join him in 

only the already ,, n iia field. We under- 

stand that Mr. Cornell's exam£e has already been taken 
to heart by other inventors, so that it is not unlikely that 
in time the Institution that has done so much for the 
advancement of scientific research in thi world may be 

fullj The i iiee of a 

depository lor the patents is a WIS . Smith- 

sonian, while under the 

legally a private corporation and can handle such matters 
in the same business-like way as could e . It is 

thus assured that the patents will neither be buried nor 
pirated, and much good is certain to result from the gift. 

The Year Among the Gold Mines 

convenient opportunity for 
comparisons between the estimated production for the year 
d and (lie official figures for the preceding 
year, since both become available at about the same time. 
In the case of*gold il is useful to compare these with the 
production of live years earlier, in order that we may 
obtain a series of 'cross-sections' of the industry which 
may prove of service in its study. The table below gives 
the official figures of gold production for the principal 
gold-producing areas of the world for 1905 and 1910, to 
which is appended an approximate estimate of the yield 
during 1911. If should be noted that the data for 1911 
for the United States, and the world's production for 1905, 
lulu, and 1911 are the figures of the Director of the United 
States Mint, since considerable differences exist be 
Statistics prepared by different authorities. Nevertheless 
useful conclusions can he deduced. It would appear that 
fbe output of gold is no longer increasing at so rapid a 
rate as formerly, since the increase 1905-1910 was approxi- 
mately 20 per cent, while the increase in 1911 oxer 1910 
was only 2--> per cent. It is also obvious that practically 
all the increase is due to African production, since the out- 

Gold Production of the World 

Africa, Transvaal.... 

Rhodesia . . . 

West Coast. . 

Madagascar . 
United States (total) 


Australasia (total).. 
Western Australia... 
World's production... 























put of the United States, which increased slightly during 
the five-year period, is now almost stationary, while Aus- 
tralasia has been declining slowly but regularly, the decline 
being general, though it will be noted that during the past 
year Western Australia has exhibited a tendency to hold 
its own. Africa, on the other hand, shows a general ad- 
vance, with the exception of Rhodesia. But even in the 
case of the Transvaal the rate of increase appears to be 
slackening, for it will be noted that the increase for 1905- 
1910 was nearly .53.5 per cent, while the increase during 
lull was 9.6 per cent. It would 'seem, therefore, in the 
absence of unexpected changes in the status of the industry, 
that a | i riod of declining world's output lies in the not 
ite future. It is unnecessary to attempt at this time 
to further analyze the gold production of the world, since 
we hope, early in the year, when fuller statistics are avail- 
able, to be able to present a more complete discussion of 
the topic by Mr. T. A. Rickard. 

Turning to the United Stales production, of which a 
fuller analysis appears upon another page, we find that 
California has, during the year just past, taken first place. 
-o long held bj Colorado. Nevada remains in the third 
I lace, pressing Colorado closely, and Alaska has fourth 
place, which if assumed in 1910, dropping from second in 
1909. Il is a curious fact that the four leading producers 
range from twenty to sixteen millions of dollars each, while 
the i nearest State, South Dakota, produced only about 
and a half millions. Utah, Montana. Arizona, and 

blah implete the list of the Stales which produced over 

lion dollars each. 

Comparisons are always of interest, and it may be worth 
while, therefore, to add that the greatest gold mine in the 
world, from the standpoint of tonnage, is the Randfontein 
Central, which hoisted 217,984 Ions and milled 212,510 tons 

Ml\|\i. AND x II \ l II It |'|<I SS 



llclllls f0| till" > 

lividend payer of Ibe 
- the Crowu Mines, which bad declared 
divid the teu months ■ 

in October. The buccal mini' in A rica bom the too 

standpoint i- the Uomeelake, which milled over 

a hi 1911, though this is almoel equaled by ilu- 

.1 Treadwell i -. which niilli'.l l ..'>< x i.ohi i u>na. The 

etition between tbeae two companiea i- wry close, and 
not unlikely that their relative positions may alter at 
■nj lime. The Treadwell mines have 900 stamps at work, 
with a stamp duty ol overG tons per day, and at the Some- 
stake the 1000 stamps have a duty of a little over 1.2 tons 
per day. The daily output of the Treadwell mines is there 
slightly greater, hut working conditions permit the 

Bomestake to operate more continuously, thus overc big 

the handicap. The deepest ■-'•'1.1 mine of the world is the 
Monro \'«lli... in Brazil, owned by the St. .l..lm del Rey 
Mining' Company, though the deeper mines along the 
Mother Lode in California are worthy companions, the 
Kennedy, which is the deepest gold mine in America, having 
attained a depth oi 3550 feet. Tin. 1'nited States takes, 

therefore, no mean place in the gold industry, being m id 

in total production, having the largest dividend payer, and 
having more dredges at work than nil the rest of the world 

Mexico Regains Stability 

The year 1911 has been one of disturbed conditions in 
Mexico, and the mining industry has suffered as a result. 
The Madero revolution, just gathering force a year ago, 
triumphed within a period of six months, overthrowing a 
irnment thai had proved strong for more than a quarter 
of n century. Labor troubles and brigandage have fol 
lowed in the wake of the political upheaval, and attempts 
i. overthrow the Madero government were for a time 

feared. Failure late in the year of the counter-revolution 
attempted by Gen. Bernardo Reyes has set these fears 
at rest. Francisco I. Madero was legally elected president 
in October, taking charge of Mexico's affairs on Novem- 
ber (i. ending a provisional government of live months' 
duration. At present the prospects for a peaceful admin- 
istration are better than at any time in the year. When 
consideration is given the great political changes wrought 
by the Madero revolution, it becomes a matter of wonder 
that the mining industry of the country has not suffered 
to a much greater extent than it has. In many ..1 the 
important mining districts of Mexico (he political up- 
heaval had practically no effect on operations, and pro 
duction has been well maintained throughout the year. 
Naturally, little foreign capital has entered the country 
during the year, and few important transactions have been 
recorded; money for projected extensions and betterments 
has been lacking, and few new enterprises have been 
launched. An exception, and one that illustrates Ihe faith 
in the future of the country held by those who know it 
best, was the continued investment of money throughout 
the period of disturbance by the men associated with the 
American Smelting & Refining Company. 

The hostilities of the revolution were principally con- 
fined to the States of Chihuahua. Sonora, DurangO, and 
Coahuila, and in these mining, milling, and smelling suf- 
fered serious interruptions. In northern Mexico railroad 
lines were cut early in the year, and some of them re- 
mained out of commission until after peace was declared. 
Toward the end of the revolution the affected railroad 

lion die D 
union of dynamite with tl M .|,, 

■HI ol the luin. I | ,|„. 

alining <■ panio that were no) well stocked wilb d 

mite wen- eventual!} forced to curtail or impend opi 

nous. For si time the Mexican Exj 

nting on the National Railways ...i Mexico, . 

assume any responsibility for the handling ol bullion ami 

The lal roubles thai followed the political upheaval 

in Mexico Heie mostly of short duration. Strikes have 
lined at the Torrcon. Mapimi. Chihuahua, Asai..., San 

I. in- I'oto ■ i. ami Matehuala smelters, ami in i mber ..t 

mining districts, including Velardefia, El Oro, Santa Eula 
Ha, Cananea, and rTacozari. In Chihuahua, when the mud 

ter workmen were ready to return to work they found 

that the management bad no intentii t immediately re 

opening the smelter, and the plant remained closed for 

several nths. During the revolution Mexican workmen 

generally gained the impression thai the triumph of Madero 

would mean shorter hours and higher pay. Some are now 
coning a demand that Madero take steps to bring thm 

Railroad construction in Mexico during 1911 has been 
limited. The Pearson extension of Ihe Mexico North- 
western railway in Chihuahua was delayed by the revolu- 
tion and will be completed late Ibis year. Since the 
close of the revolution the company has built a '22-kilo- 
rielrc branch into the Cusihuiriachic silver-mining district. 

The revolution also delayed construction of the Durango 

Canitas line of the National Railways, which will provide 
transportation facilities for the Sombrerete, Nieves, Chal- 
chihnites, Nombre de Dios, and other mining districts. The 

work out of Canitas was suspended, and is only now being 
resumed. The Southern Pacific has just completed its 
West Coast extension to the Tepic capital, and late in the 
year engineers of the same company were sent into the 
held to make surveys for a projected line from Quadala 
jara to Mexico City. There has been no interruption of 
work on the Penjamo-Ajuno line of the National Rail- 
ways, building through the State of Micboaean, ami good 
progress has been made in the building of the Pachuca- 
Zimapan line, in the State of Hidalgo. An electric line 
has been built to connect the big Pachuca and Real del 
Monte districts in Hidalgo. The Mexican Union Company, 
owning the Torres and Prietas line in Sonora. has hceu 
building an extension to TJres. 

These advances in railway construction and development 
are especially worth emphasizing, in that they indicate 
a substantial recovery from the disturbed conditions nal 
urally incident to a period of revolution. In another col 
umn our Mexican correspondent reviews at length the 
mining situation at the close of the year. The picture he 
pri -cuts is no less cheerful, and it is accurate. The ways 
of our southern neighbors arc not our ways, and a presi- 
dential change there is accomplished through methods that 
differ from our own. It is a debatable question whether 
their methods result in more real loss to business thai 
follows our own prolonged agitation for a new president 
and a revised tariff. There are limes when the direct 
methods of the revolutionist at least appeal to one. Mex- 
ico has bad a troublous year, bul has come through il 
without much damage and with a basis for much perma 
nenl sain. It is too much to expect that all troubles 
are over, but we are not among those who see only clouds 
in the future, and we are glad to congratulate Mexico and 
Ihe Mexicans upon the excellent prospects with which they 
enter 1012. 


January 0. 1912 

Review of Metal Production in the United States in 1911 

Gold and Silver 

Tin- deposits '>t gold bullion at the mints and 

of the Onited States by domestic producers and 

- during the calendar year 1911 amount 

match to fine ounces, of the value of 

$120,082,315. Tins compares with 5,826,104 fine ounces, 

01 the value of $120,436,258 fr the same sources in 

1910. These Bgun bullion extracted or refined in 

this country from imported ores, bul indicate that 

when it rose rapidly to the high point of November 21. 
At the close of the year the price was practically the 

same as a year ago. The price of silver is intimately re- 
lated tip crop aajd political conditions in the Far East, 
modified by the manipulations of a keen lot of specula- 
tin's at Bombay. Higher prices late in the year seem 
to have been due to the trouble in China, but more silver 
is now being shipped from London than a year ago, and 
with good crop conditions in India higher prices may be 


Ooui and Silver Production in the United States. 





A laska 



< 'olorado 










New Hampshire ami 
Pennsylvania . . . 

New Mexico 

North Carolina . . . 





Porto Rico 

South Carolina . . . 

South Dakota 







Fine Oz. 
1.1 01 

















lb. --'71 .son 


26,9 II I 


:;. 7'2o.-nio 







- 1.21m 






Fine Oz. 


















































2. i,:,:,. 700 








Com'! Value.* 

$ 20H 







































Com'l Value. 




1. 7,oo.o;;-, 






11. 11 0.77S 





































Total 4.057.01s $96,269,100 

4,655,297 $9622332528 57.137,900 
'Value 54c. per ounce. 

s3ii.s34.500 57.796,117 $31,787,866 

production of North America was practically the same in 
1911 as in 1910. In the table above are given the gold 
and silver production of the United Stat,- in 1910. revised 
furnished by the V. s. Geological Survey being 
used, and prelii inarj 1911, published by 

tb urtesy of George E. Roberts, Director of the Mint. 

The 1911 figures do not show c plete distribution. 

Il will be noted that silver production in 1911 is esti- 
mated at 7,,., 110.117 oz., ed with 37,137.900. From 
Mexico, which is the leading silver producer of the world. 
11 1911 were sub-tat' as 1910, 
but the production, owing to disturbed political conditions 
i« the nortl was undoubtedly less than in 1910, 

when it a unte 20 ,,z. Tl 1 output 

was larger than in 1910. when it was 31 

3,000.000 oz.. due mainly to the larger amount r, 

grade ore treated at Cobalt. 

The price ..I si! wn by the weekly quotations, 

has rat 1 in cents per ounce.' 

New York. Starting 

the low point by the middle tary, and then re- 

f airly steady until the second week in 


Statistics and estimates received by the U. S. Geological 
Survey from all plants known to produce blister copper 
from domestic ores and from all Lake mines indicate that 
the copper output from the United States in 1911 exceeded 
that of 1910 and nearly equaled the record production of 
1909. The figures showing smelter production from domestic 
which have been collected by B. S. Butler, of the 
Survey, represent the actual production of each company 
for eleven months and include an estimate of the December 
output. The November figures for a few companies were 
i ol available and these companies furnished estimates for 
the last two months of the year. According to the sta- 
tistics ami ii'pitt of blister and 
Lake copper was 1.091.554. mm II... against 1,080459,509 lb. 
in 1910 and 1,092,951,624 lb. in 1909. Arizona again 
first place, followed in order by Montana. Michigan, 
Utah. Nevada. California. Alaska. Tennessee. Colorado, 
and Xew Mexico. Monthly figures of production 
and consumption, and the course of prices through the 
year, art described in another column by Mr. Appelbanm. 

MINING AND n II \ I li |« |'KI 

Copper, Corporations, and Price* 

Bj M \ 'W i I'm m 

Unci and mirpliu "i roppei 

pally in I 
(run, which is band on the figures <•< ilia Copper Pro 
iluaai York quotations published 

During the 

I'M I the ' opper fluctuated 

within narrow limits, and the stead) the market 

principal!; due to the enormous eonsumpl abroad 

















' \ 



















..— .. 








* a 






















>— o — 







TQ7-/3L- S(/«Pit/J 


f/W 7"£*3 5 TA T£S PROOUC T/O/v 


■ , v/v/teo states expo/rts 

copper ix 1911. 

and to fairly normal consumption in this country. Toward 
the end of the year, due principally to the small produc- 
tion, a large buying move nl developed in Europe. At 

Brat American consumers bad little faith in lliis movement 
and did not enter the markel until the price bad passed 
13c. As a result, however, of libera] purchases on their 
part, the market, quickly advanced, and at t lie present 
writing is very firm at 14e. per lb. The statistics for the 
year show that consumption has more than overtaken pro- 
duction, and as another 25,000,000-lb. decrease in surplus 
is expected during; December, the figures on the firs! of 
January should show the visible supply to be less than at 
any time since the beginning of 1907. 

As usual, when the metal experiences a violent advance 
in price, there are numerous predictions of a copper fam- 

" 'I tht 

■■I. 1 1 uit Ihi 
boon absolutely proved, however, Hi 

each wonl 

I'rodui ■ ■ ' !■■ un 
the Government, and there 

ing their accuracy, li is difficult to know upon what 
basii li,.- charge is rnada that the coppei 

• into real consumption. Certainly the visible supply 
in Europe shows n stead) in spit.- of the • 

' is exports. I. for one, di i believe thai with the 

present business conditions, or even allowing the modi 
improvctneut, which is the most that can be c.x| ected during 
n Presidential year, II be a copper famine, li is 

Hue thai the visible supply is small, and that, should 

anything happen to ■ of the leadii . the metal 

might advance vcrj quickly. A particularly sudden bust 
,1 might also bring about a sharp increase in 
price, but, assuming that neither of the two will occur 
during the coming year, I think thai the metal will flue 
man- between 13% and 15c., instead of, as during the for 
fen years, between 12 and 1 :t ' -_.■-. Assuming 

the product) f cupper during- the coming year from 

the old mines remain on the same basis as during 1911. 
there will be enough copper produced by the few new 

mines to lake care of a r lerate increase in < sumption, 

and. furthermore, if the metal should advance to a higher 
level than 15c, a larger production on the pan of exist- 
ing mines would immediately prevent a runaway market. 

There is a {rood deal of talk to the effect that an agi 
ment should be made among the producers to fix a mini- 
mum and maximum price tor copper. I fail to see how 
any business man understanding economic conditions can 
advocate this. 1 believe that once a departure is made 
from the universal rule that prices should he governed by 
the law of supply and demand, it will create an artificial 

condition, and, while this might temporarily bring about 
a better torn- to copper, it would eventually result in a 
much mure demoralized condition than can possibly occur 
if everything is left to the law of supply and demand. 
The great trouble with business conditions is that, while 
the need of proper and conservative laws is admitted by 
everyone, much worse cures are proposed than present 
methods involve. T fully concur with the opinion of some 
of the leading business men, that unnecessary competition 
is ruinous, hui 1. tor one. < 1- > not believe that to eliminate 
competition almost entirely, will be beneficial. The re- 
sources of this country having grown to an enormous vol- 
ume, it is hut natural that this growth should bring on 
many difficult prohh-ms. but in solving them, and in pass- 
ing laws to cope with the enormous combinations, no de- 
parture should he made from the universally established 
principles that competition is the life of trade, and that 
prices should be governed by the laws of supply and de- 
mand. For this reason, I do not see anj necessity for 
creating- a large copper combination or having any agree- 
ments among the producers as to prices. The best evi- 
dence, to my mind, that such agreements are not i«-rcssary, 
is. that the metal during periods of depression lias sold 
around lie. per lb., and that, without any agreements or 
laws as to the minimum and maximum price, it at other 
limes advanced to 26V&C, because the demand was greater 
than the supply. Simply heeause this country has for the 
past tew years been through a period of depression and 
readjustment, ami has registered low metal prices, does not 
mean that in periods of activity we shall not again see 
prices very profitable to the producer. If. in ll" 1 mean 
time, the wheel of fortune runs in favor of the consumer, 
this should not he begrudged. Furthermore, this has its 
advantage that the low copper prices have stimulated con- 
sumption and that an enormous surplus is being gradually 
worked off. 

As to the probable course of prices Eor 1912, it is ex- 
tremely difficult to predict. The majority of people believe 
that during a period of tariff readjustment and political 



January 6, 1912 

agitation incident to a Presidential election, it is impos- 
sible to expect brisk business. Some believe thai business 
will be extremelj poor, bul 1 am inclined to bold that 
the year of 1912 will be at least a little better than lull. 
though brisk business cannot be expected until the Presi- 
dential election lias been settled, and a conservative but 
wise policy on the pari of the Government toward business 
interests lias been established. By that, I do >i"t mean 
that the Government should shut its eyes to any wrong- 
doing on the lorporations; neither do 1 ma 
it should go out of its way to Hie complaints against those 
that are known to have lived up to the letter of the law. 
From my point of view, it is ridiculous for a government 
to file a dissolution suit against a corporation simply be- 
cause administrative ollieers believe that in some particu- 
lar it has not lived up to the letter of the law. If the 
rank and file of the people engaged in the same business 
as competitors admit that the tactics of such eorpi 
have been fair, reasonable, and just, it seems to me that 
! oration should be encouraged rather than harassed. 
The result of the dissolution suit against the United States 
Steel Corporation will, I think, mark the beginning of 
u new era in this country, for I believe that the United 
States Supreme Court will come to the conclusion that 
the only fault to be found with that corporation is in its 
tremendous size and the volume of business it is doing, 
and that the Sherman law was never intended to limit an 
individual or a corporation provided its work were directed 
with proper business methods. The corporation question 
is much in the same state as the tariff question. If it is 
admitted on all sides that a tariff board composed of the 
leading business men and statesmen is more able to cope 
with the question than politicians. I do not see why a 
corporation board, composed of the leading business men 
and statesmen should not also be able to handle the ques- 
tion more intelligently. This, with a compulsory Federal 
incorporation law, would give the board proper super- 
vision over interstate business, and. with a broad view- 
point, it would be able to solve most intricate qu 
without any disturbance in business. 

Zinc Ore and Zinc Smelting 

By It. G. Hall 

The conditio SS in the year just clos- 

ing presents a remarkable contrast with that prevailing 
lor Mime years previously. The latter months of 1910 

foreshadowed i ous limes for the smeli< 

as the year 1!)1 ! I. the smelting margin grew 

ditions which prevailed in the busi- 
ness from the close of 1(107 until well into 1910 are con- 
sidered, no one can deny that the people who have ill- 
money in zinc - are entitled to some sun- 
shine between tin- periods of cloudy weather. Notwith- 
standing the efforts of the Joplin Ore Producers' 
ciation. the law of supply and demand has not yet been 

repealed. In the b n days i oduction in Kansas, 

wheu a plant could he supplied with fuel by a well in 

its own yard, gas apparently cost very little. To embark 

in the smell ii 

taking. The inevitable 

smelting .,,.,- i, v tin- supply 

of ore or the demand tor spelter. Tl 

was met by importations Pro 

bia, until the Payne tariS bill p« on a prohibitory duty. 

The resulting decrease in the si 

with the rapid .In-line in the I jas supply, pi 

gas plants out of exist, nee. while the . price of 

mutated production from the mines. All Un- 
to work in favor ot ' ning of 
Kill the re) i , reducers' hands were 

about a 00 . whirl: was shown to have diminish,.,! to 

about 1 r,000 tons v idle of the year. 

European conditions were also such 
high prices, and duri . ,.,.„• t ne 

prices in the two countries v., to make il 

hi,- occasionally to export domestic metal. As our own 

supply was also short, the result was a rapid advance in 
the domestic price, until in November it. for a time, reached 
5, St. Louis, with some sales reported at even higher 
figures. From that high point the price tumbled almost 
during one day. to around $6.20. at which point it has 
held pretty steadily. The year closed with stocks in the 
hands of producers unusually low, and in the hands ot 
consumers down to such a point as they have probably 
never reached before in recent years. The available sta- 
tistics of ore production are complete only for the Mis- 
souri-Kansas and the Wisconsin districts. They are given 

Approximate Tonnage, All Ores of Zinc 

.Missouri-Kansas district. 11111 270,000 

Wisconsin district. 1(111 76,000 

Prices is the Missouri-Kansas District 


Base price 
Month. 60% blende. 

January $41.85 

February 40.21 

March 39.85 

April 38.88 

May 38.25 

June 40.50 

July 40.75 

August 42.50 

September 42.63 

( 1,-lober 42.38 

November 45.40 

The production in 1910 was 269,000 tons for the Missouri- 
Kansas district and 56,000 for the Wisconsin district. The 
prices paid in the two years show, for 1910 an average of 
$40.42, and 1911 an average of $41.20 for the first eleven 
bs. Apparently the Missouri-Kansas district has made 
no increase in production, notwithstanding an increase ill 
I rice, while the Wisconsin output has shown a gratifying 
ne; perhaps because the mine operators in Wisconsin 
devoted more time to the mining of ores than they did to 
attempts to control the market. 

Tn the Western orefields the most interesting development 
has been the greatly increased production of carbonate at 
Leadville. The end of the year finds that district with a 
daily production of close to 350 tons. The tonnage of sul- 
phide ore from Leadville has probably not increased ma- 
terially, while in the other parts of the State no noteworthy 
new properties have been opened. Montana's production 
was large. Fire recently stopped production at the Clark 
properties, but the Butte & Superior mine continues to 
operate, and ships a large tonnage. The year 1912 will 
probably record interesting developments here. The new 
concentrator of the Butte & Superior company is nearly 
completed, and W. A. Clark is said to be contemplating 
building a new mill to replace the one recently destroyed. 
In Idaho the Success mine has made regular shipments, the 
Morning mine has begun making some production of zinc, 
and the Black Horse has been added to the list of producers. 
In Nevada the Good Spring district continues a good pro- 
duction of carbonates. Other production from the Rocky 
Mountain States will show a material advance over 1910. 
and the outlook for ore from these States in 1912 is bright. 

The average spelter prices for 1911, at St. Louis, are 
below. New York prices, shown in the diagram and 
quoted from week to week in the Mining and Scientific 
Press, are normally 15c. per hundred higher. At rare in 
tervals there is a wider margin, but when it occurs it is 
promptly closed. 

January $5.11(1 July $5.79 

February .1.70 August 6.04 

March 5.67 September 6.03 

April 5.54 October 6.2-1 

May 5.52 November li.ii:; 

June 5.02 December (Est.) 6.25 

Considerable new smelting construction was under wa\ 



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in 1911. In Oklahoma the Bartlesville Zinc Co., owned by 
the American Metal Co., is constructing a plant of 5 blocks, 
or 3200 retorts, and the Tulsa Fuel & Mfg. Co., of the New- 
Jersey Zinc Co., has about eom] leted one of 7 blocks, or 
46S0 retorts, all at Collinsville. These plants are both 
partly completed and operating, and will be producing at 
full capacity in the early months of the new year. In 
Illinois the R. Lanyon Zinc & Acid Co., owned by William 
Lanyon, has under construction an acid works and two 
blocks, or 1600 retorts. This will he completed early in 
1912. The American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co. is con- 
structing an acid works and a 5-block plant of 4000 retorts. 

List of Plants Uxder Coxstruction 

American Z. L. & S. Co Hillsboro, 111. ... 

Bartlesville Z. Co Collinsville, Okla. 

K. Lanyon Z. & A. Co Hillsboro. 111. .. . 

Tulsa F. & M. Co Collinsville, Okla. 


No new developments are to be recorded in zinc metal- 
lurgy for the year in the United States. Some spelter is 
being produced in Norway by electric furnaces and much 
experimenting has been done with this method of smelting. 
In California, especially, important work is being con- 
ducted by the' Bully Hill' Copper M. & S. Co. Undoubtedly 
some developments along this line may be looked for in the 
future, but to date nothing of importance has taken place 
in this country, and for the present attention is being con- 
centrated on better ore dressing and improvements in the | 

conduct of smelting by standard methods. 

Zixc Smelting Plaxts in Operation 
Company. Location. Retorts. 

American Z. L. & S. Co Caney, Kan 364S 

American Z. L. & S. Co Deering, Kan 3840 

Bartlesville Z. Co Bartlesville, Okla 4608 

Chanute Z. C Chanute, Kan 1280 

Collinsville Z. Co Collinsville, 111 1528 

Edgar Zinc Co Chiirryvale, Kan Isntl 

Edgar Zinc Co Caron'delet, Mo 2016 

C. ran by M. & S. Co Neodesha, Kan 3840 

Grasselti Chem. Co Clarksburg, W. Va 5760 

Grasselli Chem. Co Meadowbrook, W. Va. . 2280 

Hegeler Bros Danville, 111 1800 

Illinois Zinc Co Peru, III 4640 

Kansas Zinc Co Altoona, Kan 3840 

Kansas Zinc Co Gas City, Kan 2520 

Kansas Zinc Co La Harpe, Kan 1856 

Lanyon Starr S. Co Bartlesville, Okla 3450 

Mattbiessen & Hegeler Z. Co.LaSalle, 111 4380 

Mineral Point Z. Co Deptie, 111 4520 

National Zinc Co Bartlesville, Okla 3040 

New Jersey Zinc Co Palmerton, Pa 2868 

Prime Western S. Co Iola. Kan 3240 

Prime Western S. Co Gas City, Kan 2.560 

Sandoval Zinc Co Sandoval. Ill 996 

U. S. Zinc Co Pueblo. Colo 1680 

United Zinc & Chem. Co. . . .Springfield. Ill 3680 



January 0, 11112 

Lead and Zinc Mining 

The V. S. Geological Survey lias prepared a preliminary 

m of (he lead and zinc mining industry in 1911. 

This statement is compiled by C. E. Siebenthal from the 

most reh'abli available al this time. It appears 

probable that the mine product) f domestic lead in 

ore in 1911 bveen 25,000 and 30,000 

Ions over the 395,313 Ions produced in 1910, which, when 
compared wi rease in the smeller pro- 

d, 35,987 tons, indicates thai 
lie lead lelters wore < siderably de- 

pleted during the year. This is emphasized by tl 
that a large stock of lead ore was accumulated al a West- 
ern lead smeller now under construction. Of the greal 
lead-producing districts, thai in southeastern Missouri is 
believed lo have fallen behind 1910 by about 4';. while 
Idaho gained 1-V; in output. The Joplin district yielded 
15,500 tons of lead concentrate, Dtah gained aboul B . . 
Colorado remained stationary, and Nevada fell behind aboul 
Montana and Arizona showed 1;: 

il is believed thai the mine production of n verable 

/me in ore was about 20,000 tons greater than the output 
of 327,712 tons in 1910. The increase in the output of 
Iter in lull was apparently 21,328 ions. The 
quantity of zinc recovered as zinc pigments is not known 
at this time, so that conclusions as to zinc-ore stocks can- 
Mi. I be drawn. The production of the Joplin and Wis- 
consin districts is discussed elsewhere by Air. Hall. New 
Jersey made its usual production, Tennessee attracted 
much attention and made substantial gains. Leadville is 
estimated to have shipped B0,000 tons of 3IK; zinc ore 
Montana gained about 40%, as did also Idaho. Nevada 
increased its output al t 60%, while Utah fell behind. 


Estimates made by t '. E. Siebenthal of the V . s. Geo 
logical Survey covering production and consumption of 
spelter in the United Stales in 1910, show that the year 
was B record-breaker in many particulars. Both produc- 
tion and exports exceeded lliose of any previous < 

The production of spelter from domestic ore is estimated 

sii, short ions, and from foreign ore at 14,237 tons, 

a total of 288,044 ions, worth, at the average price. 

$33,837,000, as oo > « total of 269,184 tons in 

up of 252,479 tons of d istic origin and 

ij spelter 

IV both domestic and foreign ores, apportioned accord- 
ing to the States in which smelted, was approximately as 
ons in 1911, as compared to 
(■3,038 tons in L910; Causes, 97,790 ions in lull, as com 
pared to 105,697 tops in 1910; Oklahoma, 46,061 tons in 
1911, as compared bo 34,760 tons in 1910: all other States, 
"us in 1911, as compared to 55,689 tons in 1910. 
The total production of spelter is equivalent to the output 
of 67,555 average retorts operating continuously through 
the year, or about 80% of the effective smelting capacity 
of the country when working 60$ zinc concentrate. 

The appare ,,„,, ,,f spelter in 1911 

" ia . v be iputed as follows: The stock on hand al smel- 
ling of thi ons, plus the 
3, 285 tons, : 288,044 tons, gives 

the total available 311,561 s. !■"■ lis there 

are to he subtract 

tons, the ■ spelt**, 10 the ex- 

ports under drav. I tons, and the slock on hand 

at smelters December 15 s, a total of 27,62 

leaving a balance of 28 I - the appa 

consumption. This calculation takes no acci 
-locks of speller held by dea 

paring imption in 1911 with the 

consumed in 1910, the 270,730 tons in 1909, the 214.107 

ions in 1908, and the ons in 1907, it 

noted that the app i ,- large, 

indicating thai stoi ks ers have 



The total production of refined lead, desilverized anil 
soil, from domestic and foreign ores in 1911 was approxi- 
mately 487,520 short tons, worth at the average New York 
price $43,876,800, compared to a production of 470,380 
tons in 1910 and 448,112 tons in L909, according in B§ 
compiled by C. E. Siebenthal of the l\ s. Geological Sur- 
vey. These figures do not include an estimated output 
1,195 tons of antimonial lead, against 14,009 tons in 

1910 and 12,896 tons in 1909. Of the total production, de- 
silverized lead of. domestic origin, exclusive of desilverized 

lead, is estimated at 208,428 tons, against 193,213 tons 
in 1910; and desilverized lead of foreign origin at S9.7II0 
compared to 108,553 tons in 1910. The production 
oft lead from Mississippi Valley ores is estimated at 
189,386 tons, compared to 109.244 tons in 1910, which 
means thai Missouri retains firsl place among the lead- 
producing Stales. The final figures for the production of 
soft lead in 1911 are likely to show- an increase of a 
thousand tons or so over those above given because the 
■ ■us-lead smelters and refineries undoubtedly 
ed more or less soil lead ore from the Mississippi 
Valley which is not taken into account in their preliminary 
esl imates. 

The amount of lead available for consumption during 

1911 may be estimated by adding the slock of foreign lead 
in bonded warehouses at the beginning of the year, 35,972 
short tons, the imports. 91,244 tons, and the domestic pro- 
duction. 397. S14 tons, making an apparent supply of 525,- 
030 tons. From this is to be subtracted the foreign lead 
exported from warehouse. 103,656 tons, the exports of 
foreign lead in manufactures under draw-back, estimated at 
10,468 tons, the deduction by liquidation, 10.17S tons, and 
the stock in bonded warehouses at the close of the year 
(assumed to be the same as at the close of November). 
3728 tons, leaving as available for consumption 391,000 
tons, which by comparison with 370,021 tons in 1910 and 
370,013 tons in 1909 seems to be a normal increase. 

The foreign lead remaining in warehouse al the close 
of November 1911 was distributed principally as follows: 

At Chicago, 030 short tons, compared with 10,545 tons 
at the close of 1910: at Newark, 977) tons, against 3774 
tons at the end of 1910; at Perth Amboy, 125 tons in 1911 
and 18,056 tons, in 1910; and at Paso del Norte, 1852 tons 
compared with 3409 Ions al the close of the preceding \Q:\r. 
Air. Siebenfhal's figures are of especial interest in that 
they furnish the only information available as to surplus 
and stocks. Sales of lead in the United States are largely 
in the hands of the Guggenheim interests, and in that con- 
nection the curve of price for lead in lull may he com- 
pared with interest with that for spelter, in which there 
is here a free market. The two curves show the effect of 
'.stabilizing' an industry. The price of desilverized lead 
was even steadier than indicated by the graph. On October 
5 it was reduced from 4.7>0 to 4.37). that being the first 
reduction in price since November 18, 1910. October 15 
it was dropped again to $4.25. Current quotations take 
into account the soft lead of the Mississippi Valley which 
now dominates the situation. 


There was a sharp falling off in the production of tung- 
- in 1911, owing to the decrease in the market for 
tool steels, iii which the bulk of the tungsten is used. Ae- 
to preliminary figures collected by Frank L. Hess. 
of the United Stal i ,d Survey, about 1125 shorl 

tons of concentrate carrying (ill', tungsten trioxide was 
produced and shipped during the year, which is less than 
two-thirds of the out j ml for 1910, when 1821 tons was 
marketed. The prices for the year ranged from $4,50 to 
$8.50 per unit, depending on quantity, quality, and in- 
dividual bargaining. At the (dose of the year $5 per unit 
red. The unit is twenty pounds of tungsten tri- 
ll -hort ton of ore. 
As usual the Moulder County (Colorado) fields gave the 

Januar) ". 18U 



llolia (California) do 
S Her miK >iin i ~ were produced 
'. rfc m do 

of llli' 
ft at the 11 t higher prices Naa uiilU 

for treating lui i<ruted t>l Oweola, Ni 

.. an. I in ih. I.; . \\ u - distrirl on Patterson ■ 
Idaho, and • new mill wai 91 al the close of the 

n, Nevada. 

Tin Mines and Market 

rear P'll was characterized bj ularitieti 

in tin- London tin market, a^ noted by Mr. Rickard on 
anotl the morkel 

duly reflected in New York with certain added permuta- 
I .at »• in the year tin advanced in London t.> 

equivalent to H ' _•<-. per H>. At the si time il was an- 

iiimiii'i'il from the St mils that shipments the first li 

I ember amounted to 3354 tons, and for the month they 

were estimated al 5500 tons. This brought the total for 
the year up to 54370 tons, which is a small increase over 
last year instead of a decrease as anticipated. According 
i" 1.. Vogelatein >\. Co., English and Continental deliveries 
tin- eleven months averaged the same as in 1010 and in 
tin- United states were slightly less. Figuring on iliis 
- for December, total deliveries for the month should 
run tii"! ... R00 inns in excess of supplies, and the visible 
supply December 'il should have been about 16,000 inns. 
or Ioimi tons less than a year ago. This shows a very even 
balance between supply ami demand. Consumption has 
really exceeded production, more than these figures indi- 
cate. Tin' excess has been drawn from invisible supplies 
and non-statistical brands, principally Bolivian. Visible 
lently and for long periods have been ai 
much lower figures, and present high prices are predicated, 
not so much on the present situation .is on the fear that 
in the early months of 1912, alter the Chinese New Year, 
Straits shipments will fall off and a serious depletion of 

stocks i nr. Meanwhile supplies will pile up in London. 

Average monthly quotations at New York in cents per 
pound are given below: 


February ...32.92 

March 32.40 

\nril :: 

May 33.12 

■lune 32.77 

1911. 1910. 1911. 

41.255 July 32.69 42.4(1 

41.614 August 33.97 13.32 

40.157 September ..34.98 39.76 

42.185 October 36.19 41.18 

43.115 November ...36.55 43.12 

44.606 December ...38.20 45.00 

Of more Interest is the commencement of actual ship- 
ments of tin from Alaska, as noted by Mr. Gibson, Hi" 
reeonl of actual shipments from Ihe Black Hills, and the 
development of our new sources of supply in various 
parts of Hie world, as recorded by Mr. Rickard. Tn the 
Transvaal tin excited sonic interest and shows promise, but 
it cannot be said that its progress has come up to expecta- 
tion, nor has the long anticipated 'boom' made its appear- 
ance. The value of the tin-ore shipments commenced to 
increase in January, when it was £32,508, and continued to 
steadily increase until May, when it reached £48,933, but 
fell to £22,867 in September. There are, however, only two 
important producing mines in the Waterberg district, which 
fact will go a Ion;; way in explaining the variation in ship- 
ments. The Waterberg tinfield lias come into increasing 
prominence during the year, and quite a large number of 
properties have been taken up by companies, syndicates, 
and others. The tin ore occurs in both lodes and 'pipe-.' 
the latter being- sometimes described as 'chimneys.' They 
Miry considerably in shape, occurrence, and lin content. 
Quite an extensive area has been proved to be mineralized. 
and one mine — the Zaaiplaats — has for some lime paid 
dividends at the rale of 200% per annum, the 5s. shares 
standing in the market in the neighborhood of 90s. As be- 
fore remarked, a tin boom has been looked for throughout 
the year, but up to the time of writing it was still out of 
sight. Near Victoria, in Rhodesia, tin discoveries were an- 
nounced, and created some stir, but development indicates 
that the deposits are patchy and irregular. 


The yaar 1911 wan important to 
ol quickmlver maud, 

dition ' '-11 known, the major pan ol the I - 

output has I" in marl 

telling agency know iat' and which worked ii 

close harmony with the Rothachilds in London, In Keb 

ruar> last, oi t the hading producers withdrew In- 

account, and. bring followed shortly after bj others, the 
combination was quickly Todaj buying ami sell 

of quicksilver is on a strictly co lissioe basis and 

Ihe market is one of the freest in tin! inblal trades, San 
Francisco is the primarj American market for quicksilver, 
though quotations there, as furnished weekl] in llie Mining 
and S Press, show a relation to those in New York 

not greatly different from thai bbtaining between St. I 
and New York prices for had. There is also a relation, 
though not as close as formerly, between New York and 
London prices. At times this year New York quotations 

have been as much as $3 above the London parity, though 

without importations, The average qubtation by months 
in dollars per flask of 70 lb. each, is given below: 

[910. 1911. 1910. 1911. 

January .... 60.87 44.40 August 40.76 50.00 

February ... 50.62 48.40 September .. 46.00 47.50 

March 50.00 52.50 October 46.00 J6.12 

11 49.55 50.911 November... 45.62 45.50 

May 48.66 16.60 December ... 44.90 44.50 

.lune 47.56 46.50 Average .. 47.80 47.58 

July 47.12 18.0 i 

Production in 1911 was probably a little below that iu 
1910, hut prospects for HUH are unusually good. I'ali- 
Pornia, which remains the main producing State, shipped 
17.211 Masks in 1910, a trifle over 18,000 in 1911, and 
will probably ship 120.111111 In l!lll>. Texas, which ranks 

- i. shipped 3320 flasks in 1910, but only about '2500 

in 1911, and probably will not shi| re in 11)12. It is 

ALPINE ijt'ieKSIl.VKt; FfltN'ACE. 

not thai the Texas mines are failing, but that the markei 
in St. Louis, which is the one principally supplied from 
Texas, does not require more, and the producers do better 
not to scramble for general business. Nevada and Oregon 
each produce small amounts. Probably 100 flasks would 
cover their output in 1911. Nevada, however, will soon 
become a more important producer, as the Mercury Mining 
Co. is building a furnace al lone and should ship early 
in 1012. In California the New Guadalupe M. Co., New 
Idria M. Co., Quicksilver M. Co., Oceanic Quicksilver Co., 
and the Helena mine remain the principal producers. There 
are in addition a considerable number of small furnaces. 
The Alpine Quicksilver M. Co. operates a 5-ton Scotl 
furnace, as shown above, near New Indria. The ore 
is I lie usual cinnabar in a crushed serpentine, and is said 
to exist in considerable quantity and up to ~ c ', in grade. 
Plans are under way for increasing the capacity of the 
plant. A number of other properties have attracted atten- 
lion in the past year, and the outlook is distinctly favor- 
able for increased production. 



January G, 1912 









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Operation of Air-Compressors 

Bj I A K:x 

An air-eom] d l>\ the displace ill ol ii- 

pntoQ or pistol . and bj its low- 

r mult i stags machines, h 
i- self evident thai this is the proper manner, although 
ii is theoretical. Any attempt to givs the actual deliver) 
•it" an air-compre ss or would give the consideration of 
tunny factors, quite diffleull i" ascertain. Ii in right, how 
. fur the public to know about ihis. for when an air- 
eompressor seems unable to do its work or was not 
enough in tin- Bret place, aq intelligent idea of its defl 
aeneies may )«' helpful in providing a remedy. While 
an eir-eompresBOT does nol differ materially from a steam 
engine in matters that affect its volumetric efficiency, b 
steam-engine which is delivering its horse power is only 
eritieized for its economy, while a compressor, whether 
economical or not, if it does not deliver the volume, is 
not doing its work and may therefore have t" be replaced. 
It may lie helpful to inquire into the principal things thai 
affect volumetric efficiency, and perhaps among some of 
them an explanation may lie found for the failure of any 
particular machine under consideration. Inasmuch as single- 
stage compressors constitute the majority of all air-eom- 
pressors operated, these may he considered lirst. and in- 
asmuch as the majority of air-compreesars are built for 
ami operated under LOO-lb. air-pressure, investigations will 
be directed to thai pressure. The factors affecting the 
volumetric efficiency are: (1) Piston and valve-pocket 
clearance; (2) piston and piston-rod leakage; (3) valve 
leakage and slip; (4) temperature; (•">) piston speed. 

Piston and Valve-Pocket Clearance. — When the displace- 
ment of a compressor is given in terms of the volume 
swept by the piston, it supposes that there is no clear- 
ance of any kind in the cylinder, and that all the air in 
the cylinder is forced into the receiver. This, however, 
cannot be done in practice, for the piston must not reach 
either cylinder-head by a reasonable distance demanded 
for safety in operation, and this varies with the character 
of the compressor. Pew builders leave less than '/„ in.. 
and many Vi; an average may be safely taken as Y s inch. 

When compressing air to a given receiver pressure, it 
always takes a higher pressure within the cylinder than 
is indicated in the air- receiver; this is due to the power 
required to force the air through the valve passages. At 
100-lb. receiver pressure, the pressure remaining in the 
clearance space is at least 5 lb. greater, or 105 lb., which 
corresponds to eight atmospheres or eight compressions. 
The Vg in. of clearance, then, is filled with air at 105-lb. 
pressure. Now, when the piston begins its intake stroke 
it. is evident that, until the compressed air in the clear- 
ance space expands to atmospheric pressure, no air can 
come in from the atmosphere. An eighth of an inch clear- 
ance would thus hold compressed air enough at 105 lb. 
to expand to one inch before any air came into the cyl- 
inder. In other words, the stroke has been actually short- 
ened one inch. It is evident, therefore, that the shorter 
the stroke with the same clearance, the less the volumetric 
efficiency; a lG-in. stroke losing 15%, an 8-in. stroke losing 
12%, and a 4-in. stroke 24%. It might not he supposed 
that anyone would operate a 4-in. stroke machine with 
any such clearance as y% in., but I have seen a */8-in. 
gasket put under the heads of a 4-in. stroke compressor 
that already had */„-in. clearance, making '/ 10 -in. clearance; 
and this simply because a gasket of that size was on 
hand. It w^s therefore used, the result being that the 
compressor doctor had to he called in. 

Now, in addition to the piston clearance, there are the 
pockets below the outlet and inlet valves that add to the 
other clearance. Generally speaking, this is about one- 
fourth of the piston clearance. Talcing both these clear- 
ances into consideration and reducing them to percentage 
of cylinder volume, it may be said that the average single- 
stage compressor has clearance spaces equal to 2% of its 

volume At 100 lb 


■ ii and /'■ svet tight 

in mi air-compressor, even when it i> new and fitted with 
the beat i this be expected, far m 

requires gaskets and many bolts i" keep n cylinder head 
tight, and heavy pressure iron, a to b to make 

B pipe thread light. It is evident. therefore, that the 

contact the rings make with the cylinder walls is not suffl 
for a joint This can casdv be tried by taking an 

inlet valve out of one end of an air compressor and an 

outlet-valve from the other end; admit the receiver pre* 

sure at 100 lb. into the cylinder, and the air will rush out 

ii the inlet-valve opening in proportion to the i 

diiion of the cylinder piston and rings. Inasmuch 
s dime- tin- becomes a great lo-s in an air-compressor, 

an operator should, upon installing a compressor, make 
the above te-t to familiarize himself with the normal leak 
age when the compressor is new. Then, when the machine 
is not delivering its proper quantity, a second test will 
show the difference, For this purpose I use a plug to 
screw into the inlet-valve opening. This plug has a round 
hole bored in it of such a size for any given compressor 
that the pressure indicated on a gauge also attached to 
the plug shows somewhere from 2 to 10 lb. By a refer- 
ence to a 'Discharge from Orifices' table, the approximate 
volume flowing out may be determined and recorded. If 
after use this machine requires overhauling, a repetition 
of this test will show the additional comparative loss, and 
thus the condition of piston and rings may be determined 
without removing them. Speaking of rings, it is seldom 
that snap rings, even with eccentric circumferences, are 
good enough for compressors having cylinders over 8 inches 
diameter. Sectional rings provided with springs are better. 

The leakage around the piston-rod through the packing 
gland may be considerable when a compressor is carelessly 
operated, or it may be practically nothing with good pack- 
ing, a smooth rod, and proper attention. Taking average 
cases, it may be assumed that there is a general loss of 
3% of the volume of the cylinder due to leakage around 
the piston and piston-rod. In testing for such leakage the 
piston is placed in different positions and air under pressure 
thai corresponds to the position of the piston is admitted, 
and the results are then properly averaged. 

Valve Leakage and Slippage. — Poppet valves are seldom 
perfectly tight, and at ordinary operating speeds do not 
close exactly at the end of the piston stroke. All result- 
ing leakages are against the volumetric efficiency of the 
compressor. In the inlet valve comes, first, the slight slip- 
page due to delayed closing when some of the air in the 
cylinder will he pushed out again; and when the valve is 
seated, if it is not absolutely tight, a certain quantity is 
being pushed out as compression progresses. In the outlet- 
valve the slippage and leak help fill the cylinder as the 
intake stroke progresses, thus reducing the intake volume. 
I determine these leakages in the same manner as with 
the piston leakage, by means of a pressure gauge and 
small nozzles, using the orifice discharge tables to get the 
quantity. In ordinary machines these valve leaks and slip- 
pages will amount to 4% of the cylinder volume. It will 
readily be seen that the slippage is a function of the piston 
speed ; the greater the speed the greater the slippage, until 
a speed of 200 r.p.m. is attained, which is practically the 
limit for ordinary poppet valves. Indeed it may he less, 
depending on the weight of the valves. I remember trying 
a 10 by 10 compressor driven by a water-wheel so that 
any desired rate of revolution could be maintained. A 
hole was drilled in the side of a receiver and gauge read- 
ing taken at various speeds. At 168 r.p.m. the maximum 
reading was taken, and this reading was maintained up 
to 180 r.p.m., when the pressure fell for any increased 
number of revolutions. If mechanical valves had been used 
the revolutions could have been materially increased; just 
what the limit would be, I do not know. 

Temperature Considerations. — These are of great impor- 



January 6, 1912 

remely difficult to determine. It is evi- 
dent, however, that the lower the intake temperature is. 
the weight and consequently volume of air 
sot will deliver. It is desirable, therefore, t" 
draw the air from the coolest place adjacent to the ma- 
and at the same time from a place free from fume 
or dust. It is als.i evident that the hotter the inlet-valves. 
n- heated the intake ah - through 

and over their hot surface, and the greater it will expand. 

_ I taken into the cylinder ai 
quently the resultant vol ssed air. I 

is true cylinder walls am Inasmuch as 

■ iily method in a single-stag 

temperatures, it is important 
hat tin/ water-jackets are tree from sediment and 
that a quantity of water is passed through the jackets 
sufficient to show no noticeable difference of temperature 
gh. Tlie idea is to keep a cylinder conl 
; to get as great a weight of air as possible into it. 
An experiment can readily he made to show this tem- 
perature influence. Drill a hole in the air-receiver and 
note the gauge pressure when it becomes stationary with 
sor running, then clo-c off the jacket water 
and note the pressure gradually drop, showing the loss of 
volume. In stage machu " - not too 

much to allow foi rature influ 

ming the loss are: (1) Clearance losses, 

1 1 valve leal, 
_■-. V , ; i li temperature I"-- i akin;.' a total 

In other words, the compressor gives 
its catalogue free-air rating, when operating at catalogue 
receiver pressure. 1 quite a 

loss. Inn il is practically true, ami may he BO 

berent in the ordinary poppet-valve sing] pressor. 

Now. if this condition exists to start with, and neve 
lw-ltcr. hut always worse by wear, it is evident that the 
best care and attention must be given the machine. I have 
noted many machines of this type [hat were not giving 
ralumetric efficiency from being in had repair and 
unskillfully handled. It becomes evident, thereto 
if an air-compressor is not doing its work, very material 
gains can he made by investigating the Bourees of loss 
as herein indicated, and making necessary repairs. [; | s 
If-evident thai these losses will decrease in some 
ratio as the pre-. - and by experiment the 

result is about as follows: 

Volumetric i 100-lb. pressure, 7" 

i (in 11... 82$ ; at 40 11,.. 859S : ai 25 lb., 38' : 
other words, the same i will give 25' ' , more air 

at i"> Ih. than at 100-lb. receiver pressure. Now, inasmuch 
as 25 Ih. is the working pressure of the low-pressm 
take cylinder in a two-stage machine, it needs no comment 
to show why it is desirable. Tt is also evident that a 
purchaf ore for his money, i' 

cully of other gains, when buying a two-stage con 

While rs an- rated by displacement which does 

not show their true output, most pneumatic tools are very 
much underrated by their builders, especially pneumatic 
-. chippers, and boring machine: some as much as 
An air-compressor need not he condemned for laek 
of duly, tin- it does not operate as many tools 

a- rated in the catalog 

For first aid rippled compressor, it may be sug- 

iy he remedied by 
putting a thin piece of boiler pjnte on the piston, or thin 
paper gaskets under tl If possible. Piston and 

rod losses point ■_■ the cylinder. In new rings, 

and to need of proper packing. Valve leakage demands 
ding; valve slippage, the putting in of heavier 

pressor . Temperature 

lay be decreased bj _ 

jacket water or more of it. or by cleaning out the jackets, 
mpressor lack- but I fumish- 

enougfa for its work, and the 
tions have all been taken advani 
pensi sting of a rotary blower may be attached to the suc- 

tion of the compressor so ;is to give an intake pressure 
of one or two pounds, and this will materially increase 
Ihe output of the compressor. tare must be taken to 
supply a blower having al least l.V; greater capacity than 
the compressor. 

Tin-Dredging in Alaska 

By T. H. GlBSOH 

A dredgl ailed this year on Buck creek in the 

York district of Seward Peninsula for tin- purpose of 
mining It is. I believe, the only dredge ever 

built to mine tin in territory belonging to the United Slates. 
The material for this dredge was landed on the ground 
; -1 7. and il was completed and ready to run Septem- 
ber ti. though, on account of the dam behind the dredge 
washing out. ami some engine troubles, operations were 
delayed until September 10. This dredge was designed by 
\V. W. Johnson and H. 6. Peake and was financed by 
them and some of their friends in San Francisco. It has 
-ft. bucket-line and its power is supplied by two 40- 
hp. Union gas-engines. It uses 160 gal. of distillate per 
day. The material passes from the buckets into a 4-ft. 
revolving screen 13.5 ft. long and having 3-in. perforations. 


The oversize- passes to a conveyor-bell running almost hori- 
zontally ami is dumped just far enough asleni to give 
clearance. The undersize drops into a steel box open at 
the lower end ami set at such an angle that the material 
flows freely into either of two 42-in. sluices which run to 
the stern and project 44 ft. beyond, being supported by- 
cables from the rear gantry. A cut-out partition in the 
steel box enables the operator to send the material down 
one sluice-line while the other is being cleaned up. The 
water is supplied by a 10-in. centrifugal pump. A 6-in. 
pipe leads to the head of the sluices and an S-in. pipe 
to four 3-in. nozzles in the screen, which spray np- 
against the downward moving material. The sluices 
contain Hungarian riffles 2Va in- deep, set 2% in. apart. 
The dredge was closed down October 15. so that the crew- 
could catch the last boat down from York this fall, lie 
tween September 10 and October 15, 92 tons of tin con- 
centrate, having an average content of 64% tin. was mined. 
Of this, 74 tons was shipped to Seattle on the Corwin. 
The rest was shipped out on the Duxbury, a small gaso- 
line schooner leaving later. The concentrate at present quo- 
tations is worth over $500 per Ion. Heretofore, small lots 
have been shipped from the York district and had to go to 
i!!. to Wale-, or to Hamburg, Germany, for treatment. 
but it is now thought thai arrangements may he made to 
treat it on the Pacific Coast. Mr. Johnson thinks the out- 
put will exceed 300 tons of concentrate next season. The 
phenomenal of this little dredge seems to open a 

very alluring field for others, but it must be kept in mind 
that so far as known, the rich tin-bearing grounds are con- 
fined to Buck creek and this company has it all tied up. 

Jaauan 6\ 1913 


The London Market for Mining Shares and Metals 

i i 

The !• .1- been marked bj profound political 

disquiet, « hi.h has bean so widely diatribnted as to affect 
both mining operation! and those financial arrangements 
mi which tli.> miner depends for capital, Revolutions In 
1 China, military in Morocco, Ti ipoli, 

iiinl Persia, serious friction among at least three of the 
Oreal Powers, has all shaken thai pockel nerve which 
i- (!■ ponsiva in the human anatomy. The Mes 

nan revolution appears to have run its course to a pacific 
unmation, ami the hope may be entertained thai the 
political stability of the Government in thai great mining 
d will tend i.. encourage further exploitation. China 
il in tin- throes of an upheaval thai seems likely i" 
•■an-.- a complete abandonment of hoary anachronisms; 
Imt it is improbable thai industrial peace will be restored 
for i long time to come. The mining interest in this rero 
hit inn is relatively unim- 
I ortant, except as it af- 
fects coal, Imt the destruc- 
tion of credit will affect 
tin' money markets "(' Eu- 
ro| e. TIip iron mini 

Morocco and tl il-nml 

turquoise deposits of Per- 
sia 'jims a mining touch 
to the unhappy plight of 
two decadent nationalities. 
Hut these direct relations 
IxMw mining ami poli- 
ties arc insignificant com- 
pared to tin 1 indirect effect 
of international imbroglios 
upon tlic business of the 
world. More than one 
chairman at recent com 
pany meetings in London 
lias explained how the fi- 
nancial arrangements made 
by him and his co-directors 
during 1911 were modified 

by the panic which in turn seized Paris, Berlin, and Lon- 
don, with instant echoes at New York, Melbourne, and 

Bombay. Indeed, the most salient feature of the year under 
review is its testimony that the London market is keenly 
sensitive to international political trouble, and that other 
centres are quick to respond. The telegraphic wire has 
proved a boon to business by affording swill communica- 
tion, but it has also added a new terror to the life of a 
business man in placing his plans at the mercy of events 
in the far corners of tin' globe. 

Socially the year 1911 was rendered noteworthy by the 
coronation of King (ieorge V. with attendant celebrations 
and festivities, all of which interfered with the routine 
of business and the progress of speculation. After the 
coronation came an exceptionally sunny summer, causing 
the holidays to lie unusually prolonged. To our American 
friends it may seem that such incidents should not affect 
business, but they do. It has been said that my fellow- 
countrymen take their pleasures sadly: they certainly take 
their holidays religiously. For several months the City 
was half deserted by its most dynamic personalities. Spec- 
ulation languished. Then came wars and n rs of wars, 

a railway strike, a couple of mining fiascos, followed by 
the usual November fogs and cold rain, enough to dampen 
the spirit of Sunny Jim himself. On the whole, we are 
well rid of 1011, and have good reason to expect better 
things in 1912. A comparison of quotations, given on 
another page, will exhibit the trend of the market since 
this review was written a year ago. The general tendency 
is downward. 

Transvaal. The South African or 'Kaffir' market has 


the fact that (be Hand hi lith. An ■ 

moiis quantity of g,.|,i remains to be dug out ol the ground 

and many millio - :>ids sterlinj 

tribute! among shareholders, but thl departed. 

'I'hc best features of mining at Johannesburg have 
been discounted, and in future the unexpected will be 

unpleasant. Much new and original work remains to DO 

done in the technical departments, but thi 
expansion as regards minii , ions bIiowb sigtu 

termination. At the beginning of tin- year the fir i 

Wernher, Beil & Co. distributed h mg two 

holding npanie-, the Rand Mines and the Central Mm 

ing iv [nve tmenl Corporation, Allied Beil died 

years ago. Sir Julius Weridicr is an invalid and has been 
■ pclled to withdraw from active business. Thus a big 


factor in Hand affairs is no longer potent. The financial 
house next in rank is the Consolidated Gold Fields of 
South Africa; this also is extending its activities outside 
of the place of its origin, and has aci|uired interests in Cali- 
fornia, Canada, Trinidad, and Mexico. Other South Afri- 
can bouses have followed suit. It may he accepted that 
the well informed recognize a necessity for diverting ener- 
gies hitherto concentrated on the Main Reef series in the 


Turning to the It) representative quotations, it will be 
noted that the East Hand Proprietary, alter a tardy and 

discreditable confession of a vain effort to carry out a too 
ambitious programme, has suffered a drop of 40< , in its 

market valuation. The life of the Robinson is drawing tfl 
a dose, heme a decline iii the appraisal thai should have 

I earlier I iv gradually. The Meyer & Charlton 

affords a pleasant example of stability ami good manage- 
ment. The big consolidations of the Crown Mines, Hand 
Mines, and the Randfontein groups have suffered from the 
East Rand exposure and from the shortage of native labor. 
This last has been a constant hindrance to the fulfilment 
of large-scale plans of operation, and it is only recently 

that frank acknowledg nt has been made of it, The 

companies that have completed new and large milling plants 
during the year have tended to cheek the drooping lone 
of the market and will be prominent in 1912. I refer 
especially to the i wo Moihliu' I'm 1 1 eiu companies, ill'' City 
Deep, and the Brakpan. The City Deep has suffered from 
errors in mill construction and from rumors concerning 
the title to its mining claims. 

Rhodesia ban engaged a large share of public attention, 



January 6, 1912 

due in part to an uneffectnal effort on the part of market 

stimulate a b a, that is. to drive the public 

into a Btate of irrational optimism. The boom spluttered 
lika a ;, 'l by a doom all 

the denser for the brief pyrotechnics. The production of 
gold shows an increase, but it is so slight as to be dis- 
appointing. An analv- Khodcsian returns indi- 
cates that 21 out of the 162 productive mines yield 70 r ; 
of the put. Further, the four biggest producers 
(the Globe & Phoenix, Giant, Eldorado, and Lonely Reef) 
contrifa rot. The Rhodesian mar- 
ket is the most cleverly manipulated of any mining depart- 
ment and the legerdemain of share-dealings is nowhere car- 
ried to so dangerous a point. Reports given to sharehold- 
ers are usually both belated and cryptic. However, as 
against the slight gain in production and the manifold 
signs of irresponsible finance, it is pleasant to record the 
development of several fine properties, quite capable of 
becoming the basis lor profitable mining, if that operation 
were not tied to over-capitalization and excessive appraisals 
that leave no chance for sound business. Among the new 
mines are the Shaniva, an agglomerate deposit that continues 
to open-up splendidly, the Cam & Motor, with several 
lenticular ore-shoots of excellent grade, and the Lonely 


licet, a small hut rich and continuous orebody. The last 
mentioned affords an excellent example of ill-regulated 
optimism; the vein is rich but narrow, the mill has a ca- 
pacity of 40111) tons per month, at which rate two levels 
must he opened up annually, arguing unbounded confidence 
in the persist, in,, of the ore-shoot. The shares stand at 
£3%, or over $4,500,000 for a mine having only about 
$1,500,000 of profit assured. The Globe & Phoenix is the 
most productive mine and holds its own. despite some minor 
set-hacks. The Giant has lost its orebody by a fault, and 
now fai srtain future. The British South Africa 

■ ' company, which is the landlord of Rhodesia. 
has not declared a dividend as yet. but holds out the promise 
of doing something tor i iters soon. The Tangan- 

yika Concessions, the big Anglo-Belgian copper company, 
with mines i i Free Stale lias been the sport of 

hulls and b< I . throughout the year. 

This enterpri ats tin- application of much energy, 

more money, and less tei perienoe than is advisable 

at this stage of the world's history. The coming year should 
see a show-down, Eo laign was started in 

.Tunc and the publication of n » be deferred. 

Wist Ainu I has bad its sat-back in the shape of . 

Prestea, the company representing the consolidation 
of the Prestea Block A ami the Prestea Mines. When the 
UO-stamp mill was approaching completion it was stated 
new manager t 1 ough ore for half its ca- 

pacity could be supplied. On the other hand, the Ashanti 
Goldfields is doing well and has opened another ore-shoot 
of a most promising nes of which good 

things were expected have languished. The Gold Coast is 
i with a malaise that deadens the energy' of every 

white man and binders the completion of plans cheerfully 
devised in London. Lack of labor, or lack of laws regulat- 
ing the native laborer, has become a familiar complaint. 
The companies are co-operating and are doing their best to 
i unsympathetic colonial Government to aid them in 
this first step to industrial development. The Government 
is not quick to aespond ; it appears to look upon the mine 
operators as the 'bold bad men' of a nursery ballad and 
mulcts them of even scant profits by imposing excessive 
rail's for transport of supplies and machinery on the Gov- 
ii t railways. The output of gold is increasing, but 
nothing like as rapidly as was expected. Profits are small 
because the initial outlay is heavy, time is squandered, and 
agement is rendered costly by climatic obstacles. 
As a supplement to gold digging, the West African 
D boasts the beginning of a petroleum industry and of 
alluvial tin mining. The latter has brought Nigeria much 


to the front during 1911. At the end of the year the public 
interest in a dozen tin companies shows signs of increase. 
Eleven years ago the first samples of tin ore were sent by 
the then High Commissioner to England. Now a hundred 
companies and syndicates are at work on the Bauchi plateau 
and elsewhere in Northern Nigeria. A branch railway is 
being built to the placer mines. Water conservation during 
the wet season lias helped to prolong productive operations. 
The landlord of this region is the Nigeria Company. At 
present shipments are being made ranging from 5 to 40 tons 
of concentrate per company per month, the total being 
about 150 tons of stuff containing .111 to 7()'' c tin. Owing 
to the prevailing high price of the metal a further increase 
of activity is probable. 

Australasia, as a mining region, is largely divisible for 
market purposes among Western Australian. Broken Hill, 
ami Copper departments. Of these, Broken Hill has been 
most prominent during 1911. owing mainly to the discovery 
of a new run of ore in the British Broken Hill Proprietary, 
a mine whose career has been chequered by over-capitaliza- 
tion and other misfortunes. The mine was shut-down in 
1907 and the company sold its tailing heaps to the Zinc 
Corporation, receiving over $500,000 in cash. With this 


In 1910, a 

-»'!i. level, mill in 191 1 this 

ileal importance. 

l'.\ 1. 1. -in-,' indicate* thai this ore ia not pai i lode, 
lint In 

* thai have mad* Broken Mill famoai for n^ silver, 

production, A high price for the baae metals 

luu helped Broken Mill and the successful heheflciatii 

old d Ion |rrade refractory ore in the 

ininc. ha', lifted share quotations. The process companies 

■ bitter tiijlii ( il»' events of the year 

being the unfavorable decision obtained by the Elmore com- 
panies' in ilii'ir rail against the Sulphide Corporation. This 
particular quarrel, however, represents only a small pan of 
the cross Are of litigation. 

In Western Australia the gradual exhaustion of the 
RaJgoorlie bonanzas is repeatedly emphasized by acknowl- 
edged reduction of ore reserves and decreasing dividends. 
New nulls and new managers arc introduced to stem the 
ebbing tide, bnl in vain. Among the big mini's the Golden 
Borse-Sboe has suffered from a drastic diagnosis of its eon- 
iliti'ui and the Kalgnrli has had to submit to an unpleasant 

stock-taking;, An g the outside mines the Sons of Qwalia 

IihIcIs its own, a new orebody having been traced from 
surface to the 11th level. The Oreat Fingall has aroused 
fresh hopes by the discovery of an orebody in the bot- 
tom of the mine, giving some color to a favorable geo- 
logical surmise. Efforts to regain public interest in new 
districts have proved futile by reason of the failure to find 
any new goldfield justifying keen interest. The Bullfinch 
boom, started in a most reckless manner at the close of 11110 
and endorsed by the Premier of the State, came to an in- 
glorious end early in 1911. The shares of the original mine 
have fallen to W shillings from a height of £3% while the 
'pups' or extensions have gone to the liquidation morgue. 

The crisis at the Waihi mine in New Zealand is one of 
the notable events of the year. From a quotation of 
£10' „ in 1910, the price of the 500,000 shares dropped 
to - 7 s in 1911. This was due to a belated acknowledgment 
of the fact that the several lodes in the mine had become 
poor, necessitating a radical diminution of the gold and 
silver output. The impoverishment became marked just 
below the lower limit of oxidation, and is also due in part 
to a change of country-rock. This was for many years 
the finest gold mine in the world; hence the fiasco is much 

The AMERICAN department includes the Mexican group. 
It is first in alphabetical order, and the first in honor is 
the Alaska Treadwell. The mine, with its affiliated neigh- 
bors, the United and the Mexican, on Douglas island, con- 
stitutes one of the very best exponents of the application 
of technical science and good sense to mining. The man- 
agement deserves the greatest credit for economy and 
skill, both of which, fortunately, have been favored by a 
persistent orebody of big dimensions. The Camp Bird is 
now a Mexican enterprise, the old mine in Colorado being 
nearly exhausted, after yielding a magnificent return, part 
of which has been re-invested in the purchase of the Santa 
Gertrudis at Pachuca. There the new mill has recently 
started, the mine is opening up well in depth, and a profit 
of $1,000,000 this year and $1,500,000 next year is antici- 
pated. At El Oro the year has been marked by the trans- 
fer of the management of the Mexico mine from the Ex- 
ploration Company to S. Pearson & Son. The transfer 
was not effected without heart-burnings, but it was fol- 
lowed by the reappointment of the former resident man- 
ager, and has not been associated with any marked drop 
in quotations, which remain on the rose-tinted level of 
French optimism. The Esperanza has had some setbacks, 
and the El Oro is doing nobly despite its waning vigor. 
Oroville Dredging has gained interest by the completed 
purchase of the Pato concession, in Colombia, which it is 
hoped will restore its shattered fortune. West Mexican is 
not quoted, being in difficulties with its famous Rosario mine 
near Guadalupe y Calvo, in Chihuahua. The Tomboy has 
again prolonged its life by acquiring adjacent property, 
the approaching exhaustion of the Argentine being com- 
pensated by the purchase of the southern part of the Rev- 

ple ol nun:.. , .1,1 

notable events in the \ 
ware the issue ■•! bonds by tin 
trolling dredging end agricultural propert) iu Califoi 
and the Granville, a mining companj 
C. Treadgold, II. C, Hoover, and A. C. Beatty, In exploit 

a pari of the White Cha 1 in the Klondyke di 

public issue was made, all il apital required being readily 


The quotations for one or two Ontario shan 
the brief excitement created by the gold discoveries si Por 
rapine, Bewick, atoning & Co. brought oul the Northern 

Ontario Exploration Co. and enlisted the i peration of 

other financial houses. A block of Bollinger shares was 
acquired, but was sold on the lir-t big rise. Lack oi real 
information, in the form of assay-plans of the rich mines, 

has nearly killed public interest in the Ontario goldflelds. 

Asn. No new discovery of note has been made at the 

Kolar gold mines in Mysore, India, during the year, bul 

the developments have been satisfactory, especially al 
Mysore and Nnndydroog mines. The Champion Reef has 

been in poor ground for lour years, but th ■<■ disclosed 

during the year is better than a year ago, and the profits 
are consequently greater. The mosl important factor in 
the improved situation on the Kolar field lias been the 
reduction in costs consequent on cheaper electric power. 
Of other gold-mining districts in India, the Uliarwar has 

proved a failure and work has been suspended; on the 
other hand, the Anantapur goldfield is developing in a 
promising way. 

In Siberia the Lena Goldfields is remarkable as the most 
productive alluvial gold mine in operation anywhere. The 
ground is permanently frozen, as in the Yukon, and the 
gold lies on bedrock 100 ft. below the surface. Drift- 
mining accompanied by steam-thawing is employed. In 
the season of 1911 the output of gold was £1,619,406, or 
$8,047,030, from 881,000 cu. yd., or an average of 10 dwt. 
per yard. The cost averaged $6.21 per yard. This seems 
appalling, but it is due largely to dillieulties of administra- 
tion and the expensive character of the methods required 
to extract the gravel. In the far east of Siberia, the Orsk 
Goldfields has erected a dredge, from which much is ex- 
pected. A preliminary run with a stacker-scow has shown 
a yield of $1 per yard, but it is not likely that this is a 
correct average of the ground. 

Copper. This group is important and interesting. Some 
of the Australian mines have been unfortunate. At the 
Great Fitzroy, in Queensland, the oil-flotation process 
proved a failure in the concentrating mill until the end of 
the year, and smelting of selected ore gave scanty returns. 
At Great Cobar, in New South Wales, the acquisition of a 
neighboring gold-quartz mine has been good policy, as 
affoi'ding a profitable form of silica for mixture with the 
pyrite ore, but the underground operations in the parent 
mine had been neglected during the reorganization of the 
smelting portion of the undertaking. The Poderosa, in 
Chile, has made many shipments of 22% ore, but the lode 
is pinching in depth and operations have been hindered by 
heavy snows followed by flooded workings. The Siberian 
group has been conspicuously successful. During the 



January (i, 1912 

year the Atbasar passed under the control of the group that 
is operating the Spassky, by the transfer of a block of 
shares held by an American group, which still holds a large 

interest in th<- Kyshtim. I a ipanies, unlike in 

many respects, are linked in several ways, and represent the 
tit survival uer boom. The Sissert estate, another 

Russian copper property, in the X'ral region, has been the 
objective of examinations and negotiations on the part of 
British operators, who, failing to meet the terms of the 
vendors, have Been the estate pass into the hands of a group, which is likely to develop the mine and 
give the B chance to come in on an upper 

The Arizona Copper at the end of the current year 

has completed plans for re-arranging its plant. Several 

Norwegian copper mines are controlled in London, but 

labor troubles and other causes less transitory have de- 

sed them, The Caucasus Copper company, which is 

by J. P. Morgan capital, is still in difficulties. 

Large sui have been spent and the best English 

and American advice obtained. The concentration plant, as 

ganized by James Colquhonn, late of Arizona, and the 

Iter, under the management of W. R. Van Liew. at one 

time at Anaconda, are both in excellent condition, and the 

reserve cm, noons. The dims 

ditions are a b againsl success, and the heavy eapitaliza- 

i debts lefl by previous mismanagement will always 
militate againsl the reputation of this company. The Mes- 
sina mi lorthern Transvaal, though containing rich 
ore. Iin- not made any profit so tar, because of the inability 
II on the spot and the lack of communication. The 
more hope] nl, bei ause the railroad will 
he shortly completed, connecting the Rhodesian railway 
system with Delagoa Bay, and with Pretoria, Johannesburg, 
and Cape Town. The most important event, however, has 
been the discovery of a coal seam aboul thirty miles away; 
been promptly boughl by the company. A year or 

o the Ferrobamba copper property, til'iy mile- E b 

of Cuzco. Peru, attracted much attention in London. I >". ing, 
however, to the lack of support obtained here by the pro- 
moters, the control has heen allowed to pass into the hands 
of A. C. Barrage, of Boston, and be is now maturing plans 
tor the erection of a concentration plant. The Anaconda 
and Rio Tint., reflect the improved market for copper; the 
big mine in Spain is believed to he aboul to increase its 
production of pyrite. Copper producers everywhere end 

the year in a hopeful 1. 

Ti\. The market for tin has been disorganized by a 
comer on the 1 ion Metal Exchange, where metal pro- 
s' 1 ni the Malay Slates ami Australia has hitherto heen 

the only sort t gnized officially in connection with specula- 
tions, 'flic oil.,. r brands produced in Cornwall. Bolivia, and 
Germany have now heen included among the 'good delivery,' 
so that i. course of prices OUghl to he checked. The 

ce ruling for tin during the year, culminating in a 
quotation of £230 per ton in May. has naturally stimulated 
tai A group of mines in the Federated 
states, notably the Tronoh, Gopeng, and Tekka. 
largely by enterprising Cornishmen, has done re- 
ly well. Tins has led to one or two flotations of ex- 
already referred to the new supplies 
coming Eror, but 1 mighl add here that some of 

rate unfi i minerals be- 

sides cassiterite. A more important source of tin in the 
Inline is South Africa. some of the mines in the 

ii pari id' the Transvaal are yielding handsomely, 
the Rooiberg and the Zaaiplaats I ially notable. 

trions parts of the 

■ German SouSnvest Africa that appear to he 

of considerable pro ,.;. ,.,,, ; _ 

iii'">' to h, productive. In Bolivia, the lodes containing 

exploited actively, and much 

machinery is being erected. As regards Cornwall. 

it is worthy ew vertical shafl at Dol- 

coath is now readj for work ami the cost of mining will he 
reduce, 1 considerably in the near futui dressing 

cost also oughl i" he reduced on account of the pri 

of improved crushing plant. The South Crofly is un- 
doubtedly the best example of modern mining and concen- 
tration in Cornwall at the present time. The cost and the 
yield are two-thirds those' of Dolcoath. and the ore is 00 
plez, containing much wolframite and arsenopyrite. A 
ile event has been the appointment of an outsider, E. S. 
King, formerly of West Australia, to the management of 
the Cam Bre.i & 'fiiicnifi, with the consequent introduction 
of more modern ideas of mining and dressing. The results 
achieved by the Cornwall Tailings Co., on the treatment of 
the old Cam Brea dumps, provide a practical demonstration 
of if. of the old ideas regarding the concen- 

tration of tin ore. The scheme for dredging the alluvium 

al Cos- M has been put into effect and the tirst results 

are promising. With these few exceptions, the outlook for 
Cornish mining is as unfavorable as it has been for the last 
thirty years. 

Zinc has occupied a large share of attention in London 
during the past year. The zinc problem at Broken Hill 
continues to be studied closely from various points of view. 
The Broken Hill Proprietary is now in a position to pro- 
duce metallic zinc and is considering the advisability of 
starting an iron-smelting industry for the purpose of manu- 
facturing galvanized sheet and wire, the most profitable out- 
let for the zinc. The other producers of zinc concentrate 
centering their attention on the beneficiation of the 
accumulated slime, which is high in both lead and zinc and 
noi annual le to table concentration. The plan of the Sul- 
phide Corporation was to add slime concentrate by flotation 
lo the zinc product, so as to conform with the modern re- 
quirements of the British and European smelters for a zinc 
material high enough in lead to save silver in the retort 
residue. But when the mixture was offered, all sorts of 
difficulties arose. In consequence, the Broken Hill mines 
have during the past year been investigating the possibili- 
ties ot the electric furnace for the production of lead, 
silver, and zine direct from the slime. The first system 
tried was that at Trollhattan. Sweden, but as this did not 
give good results, attention has been turned to the Imbert- 
Fitzgerald type of furnace. The cost of electric heat and 
the incomplete production of molten metallic zine have so 
far been against the success of these processes, but there 
i mi hardly he any doubt that this method of treatment will 
provide the eventual solution of the complex sulphide 

Oil. The interest in oil has suffered from a reaction fol- 
lowing the boom in the spiring of 1910. During 1911 one 
or two California!! enterprises were launched on the London 
market, but they sailed into troubled waters. Maikop has 
proved disappointing. The original gushers came from 
relatively small bodies of petroliferous sand in the shale, 
and later exploration by boring has failed as yet to confirm 
the geological supposition that a series of oil-sand forma- 
tions existed in that part of the Caucasus region. Trinidad 
has been the motive for several new issues, hut the Trinidad 
Oilfields remains the premier company. The Peruvian com- 
panies, notably the Lobitos and London Pacific, are giving 
excellent results. But speculation in oil is not lively; in 
the shares as in the wells, too much water is mixed with 
the petroleum. 

The past year has been one of depression, varied by 
moments of inspissated gloom, but no great destruction of 
credit has occurred; hence the bad times of the immediate 
past need bear no sequel of further trouble. British trade 
returns indicate a continuous expansion of industry. The 
cheerful spots are occupied by the Broken Hill. Siberian. 

and tin mining depi ints. The comparative scarcity of 

tin is stimulating the search for that metal, and the growing 
demand for zinc is prompting metallurgical research in the 
treatment of complex base ores. West Africa and Rhodesia 
have gained ground slightly. The Rand has retrograded in 
market estimation. Excessive holidays and disturbed polities 
have hindered sustained speculation. The market is there- 
fore burdened with undigested securities, but its dyspeptic 
feelings could be relieved by even a small dose of reasoned 
optimism. Eras of depression and elevation come in cycles; 
(lie London market ought to be lively in 1912. 


Pebble Efficiency in Tube-Milling 

Bj A \Y. A 


in tube-mi irliesl application 

uning gold on • al Kal not lia il 

wan a common practice periodically to overhaul tl m- 

tanti of tlif mill-; and lo reject the smaller flints. Some 
evidently accrued, although the question »as uol 
.iml then iru a want of unanimity of opinion 

as tu the advai ed by tl Deration. 

Tin. bulk of the sliming action in robe-mills resul 

the direct impingement of the pebbles, o ipon the other. 

Tins is ;il~. the easier action t.> consider theoretically. It' 
supposed thai the contained pebbles in a tube-n 

perfi I, 2, :!. and I in. diam, their res] live 

in tin- ratios of 1. B, 27. and 64; and su the 

velocity al point i>t' impact would practically be tbi 

in each ease, the available energy .-;iii be roughly estimated 

as follows: 

Mi At point of impact, 

Diam. of Momentum Energy 

pebbles. ratio. ratio. 

1 inch 1 r. 1 

- - Bo. 8 

3 - 27». 27 

4 " 64t>. 64 

< — • Assuming one point of impingement per pebble, in 
each cubic foot, 
Diam. of Points of 

pebbles, impingement. 

1 inch 1728 

2 " 216 

3 " 64 

4 " 27 

(3) Energy ratio times frequency equals composite efforts 
per unit volume. 
Diam. of Energy Unit of 

pebbles. ratio. Frequency. effort. 

1 inch 1 1728 ' 172S 

2 " 8 216 1 7-Js 

3 " 27 64 172S 

4 " 64 27 172S 

In place of a statement of simple fact the above details 
may seem labored, but the idea is to emphasize the utility 
of the smaller. :is well as the larger, pebbles. A com- 
posite equality of available energy per unit volume does 
not, however, necessarily imply identical performance with 
pebbles of any size, under all conditions. Fracture, and 
resultant effect, will depend on the friability of the ore 
as compared with the size of the particles to be broken 
and the momentum of the mass thai is expected to break 
them. Present-day tube-mill practice indicates that a 
cylindrical mill operates with a mixture of pebbles of all 
sizes below 4 or 5 in. diam., with the exception of a pro- 
portion of the smallest, which are periodically discharged 
with the pulp. Attention is seldom paid to the question of 
feed, but it is evident that efficiency is sacrificed if the 
material fed contains a proportion that is too coarse even 
to be fractured by the smaller pebbles; that is, energy is 
being lost if any individual impact is unproductive of re- 

Under these conditions a reduced feed often indicates 
an improved efficiency, the probable reason being that, with 
the full feed, coarse sand is found even at the discharge 
end of the mill, and, in consequence, the smaller flints have 
no opportunity for doing useful work on particles of ore 
proportionate to their size. By lowering the feed the coarse 
sand may be uniformly reduced in the first half of the 
mill. The smaller pebbles in the second half then have an 
opportunity of doing useful work in return for power ex- 
penditure. From which may be inferred that an efficiency 
with regard to feed-volume is strictly relative to the grade 
of ore being introduced. 

the pulverising ..t a 

i by the larger pebbles can never i" 
productive as l"ie_- as tho unclassified product from the mill 
contains a proportion of unalimed 

Tube nulls nr ed for sliming i product previously 

milled, and also for re grinding a coarse batter] product 
preparatory to classification and leaching treatment of the 

remaining sand. Wl t . and [fc eub 

11 '■ itself, arc us.'.i for grinding purposes, it Mould 

s.'"in that the tube-mill is better adapt. -.1 for tinning than 
tor re grinding; and that when- the output from the bat 
i. tics is through a coarse mesh, another .-lass ,,r pulverizer 
or grinder should intervene between them and the tube 
mills in order to handle and reduce the proportion of coarse 

sand produced. 

The Future of Concentration 

By M. P. Boss 
Following the introduction of the Frue vanner the pub 

lie held complacently the thought that that machine would 

do about all that could he dune in , ■entralion. The years 

that have elapsed since have unveiled additional complexi- 
ties in proportion as understanding has increased. Sizing and 

classification have long been in a measure appreciated, but 
even today are broadening into wider and more universal 
practice, and arc evidently destined to much greater con- 
sideration by the general public. It has been and is cus- 
tomary to measure success by profits of treatment, quality 
of work often being sacrificed for quantity; and often the 
loss is a final and permanent one. This matter may yet 
run counter to the conservation tendency, and thus stimu- 
late a desire to get all that mechanical genius can get — to 
get out by automatic mechanical means what can now be 
gotten out by a batea through skillful hand manipulation. 
At the present stage of the art little progress can be ex- 
pected by haphazard means. A thorough understanding of 
the principles involved in the obstacles that yet so thwart 
engineers is essential to cope with today's problems. This 
is particularly true in slime treatment. New devices bring 
hopes, to he followed by disappointments, yet the why and 
how is continually becoming better understood. 

In all concentration two active agents are involved, im- 
pellant energy and retardation. Retardation may be liquid 
and non-directing, or it may be rigid and guiding. In a 
feed composed of true spheres of absolutely equal size, a 
concentrate could undoubtedly be completely segregated 
from a gangue of but little less specific gravity, even if 
the material was so fine as to be classed as slime, by ma- 
chines now on the market. In true spheres 'impellent 
energy' (as of gravity) is in ratio as the cubes of their 
diameters multiplied by their specific gravity, while 'liquid 
retardation' (as in precipitation) is in ratio as the squares 
of their diameters. This unfailing law is the bogey that is 
the cause of the greatest troubles in intelligently manipu- 
lated concentration. Two spheres of equal size but of un- 
equal specific gravity would meet, in liquid precipitation, 
equal resistance, their displacement being the same, while 
the 'impellant energy' would be greater in the heavier 
sphere. Thus a large grain of gangue will sink faster than 
a small grain of concentrate. This is a clear reason why 
thorough sizing is desirable. The closer the sizing, the 
easier and better the dressing. It is easy to size a coarse 
material, but the difficulty multiplies with fineness, and in 
slimes one particle may be several times the diameter of 
another, an associated particle. From this rises the diffi- 
culty with slimes, a difficulty which probably never can be 
wholly overcome, so that there is little hope of slime treat- 
ment through 'liquid retardation' (precipitation or longi- 
tudinal hurling). 

Rigid and guiding retardation, as on a table, or in a 
batea, introduces other principles, the horizontal plane 



January 6, liH. 1 

estopping precipitation and the finer particles finding their 
way through the interstices between the larger grains and 
ing upon t lie bottom, where they are in a measure pro- 
i are less affected by currents that sweep along the 
coarser grains. The efficiency of this action decreases with 
depth of materia] and is a factor of grain diameter. 
The bed should be thinnest with slime, as a thick bed brings 
into play the 'liquid retardation' law*, that precipitates the 
lar-' Caster than the fine grains of con- 

re principles to consider in regard to 
riffles am] to table-deck treatment, lo avoid as much as pos- 
ill effects from liquid retardation. When a concen- 
trate ached bottom all effort should be 
in keep ji there. To this cm! riffles should be so de- 
ed as not to have a turbulent raising effect below then,. 
unless materia] is very closely sized or of widely differing 
The foregi i that all unencased concentrate ma 
terial might be segregated from a gangue, even if only 
slightly heavier, when properly classified. The term classi- 
her than sized, is used here advisedly. Material can 
be thoroughly sized by screens only. Classified is a broader 
term and includes hydraulic classification, which is a process 
on the law of liquid retardation, wherein the heavier 
particles are smaller than those that are of lighter specific 
gravity. As we have seen, the latter is more suited to 
lateral table-deck treatment and the former to liquid re- 
tardation. In looking at the acres of concentrating ma- 
chines in one of the great modern plants of today and 
realizing that the same machines are greatly overworked 
' inns, one quite naturally drops into com- 
pulating the percentages of the total area that is actuall] 

c 'entrate from gangue, and it is small. 

Prom the present viewpoint, where is the relief? As 
has been noted, no space is wasted. Yet it is quite prob- 
able that in some future day more work will be done on a 
less area. About as the flying machine was to human travel 
a half dozen years ago, so centrifugal concentration is 
viewed today. Vet an impellant energy many times aug- 
menting that of gravity may be developed by high cen- 
trifugal action, some like characteristics existing in both, 
yet with complications abounding for future solutions. 
When the capacity of present machines has been greatly 
increased without increase of cost, then a better quality of 
work may he expected. While very great progress 'will 
likely he made in tin- near years In come, there will likely 
he ample field for study for many years. 

wealth of Sweden lies chiefly in its forests and 
ally the iron mines. The forests are not only 

vast, hut the w 1 (chiefly pine) is of a high quality, 

owing to slow growth. This makes n particularly fit for 

" ! PnlPi especiallj that intended for manufacture of 

I "kraft' paper, which is tougher and stronger than 
of lower-grade, softer wood. The result has 
at Swedish wood pulp and Swedish kraft paper 
have been more and more sought after, and the export of 
these articles shows a steady increase. The extensive iron 
weden, especially those of Lapland (northern 
. contain probably the largest high-percentage iron- 
ore deposits in the world. They were discovered only 
twenty years ago, ami are controlled by the Grangesbergs- 
ims 00 to 90% iron, and sometimes 
even more, and is in great demand on account of its 
I his ore to the United States 
in 1909 and inci cably in 1910. It is 

Steel- .makini; is about to be initiated in the Transvaal, 
having at last attended the efforts to secure the 
necessary capital for the erection of a plant' to manufacture 
drill steel I'm, jcrap. This is regarded as a begin- 

ning perhaps of an iron and steel industry in the Transvaal. 
about which there Iras been much talk of late, but it is 
ized that vasl changes will have to take place in 
Africa before a legitimate self-supporting iron or steel 
trade can be profitable. 

Silver-Lead Smelting 

By L. S. Austin 

In the intcruinuntain region of the Western States prog- 
ress in the sftelting of silver-lead ores (which at the same 
time carried more or less gold) was at first one of in- 
creasing complexity, but later rather one of elimination. 
i hat is. of simplification. In the first period the problem 
was a simple one. The surface ores, largely oxidized, were 
subjected to a reduction in smelting, yielding the n 
able lead as base-bullion. If sulphides were present on the 
charge, the sulphur was largely volatilized, and what little 
matte might have been made, was thrown away as not worth 
bothering with. But this condition could mil last when it be- 
came necessary to treat sulphide ores. They were cither put 
through the furnace, making matte which was heap-roasted, 
or were crushed, roasted, and then snrelted, with the pro- 
duction preferably of no more than hi< ( of matte as 
computed on the weight of the total charge. Though no 
account may have been taken of it, many ores contained 
some copper which when smelted yielded copper-bearing 
matte. When this was present the metallurgist began to 
find out that cleaner slags were produced and. with in- 
creasing sulphur, less fuel was needed. Sulphides con- 
taining galena, blende, and pyrite, were at first roasted in 
the long-bedded reverberatory furnace at a cost of $1.75 
to $2.50 per ton, but this was an expensive operation, and 
for some years a determined attempt was marie to substi- 
tute the mechanical furnace, already successfully used on 
copper ores. But these furnaces failed because in the pres- 
ence of lead, the charge, upon an incautious increase of 
heat, was liable to sinter and adhere to the hearth; then 
troubles began for- the mechanically-operated rakes. Even 
the Bruckner cylindrical roaster might, with lack of care, 
have its charge 'hung up.' the mass adhering to the entire 
interior surface of the cylinder, so that it bad to be barred 
off. Still, with careful handling, costs could be cut in half 
as compared with hand-roasting, and this latter was done 
only for roasting of that necessary product of the blast- 
furnace — leady matte. To this day this is still done. The 
fact is, when crushed matte is roasted, it must have a high 
finishing heat if there is to be a proper roast, and no fur- 
nace has been so satisfactory for this purpose as a hand- 
operated one, where, before drawing, the charge is subject 
to the highest temperature of the adjacent fire. 

With the introduction of pot-roasting, or blast-roasting. 
and especially of down-draft sintering or sinter-roasting. 
as the operation has been variously called, a new set of con- 
ditions arose. The plant occupied a comparatively small 
space, a better sintered product was obtained than with 
ordinary roasting, and in consequence the blast-furnace 
drove faster-. In down-draft roasting, practically no flue- 
dust was made, and finally the product, when smelted, 
lost more sulphur through volatilization than with the old- 
fashioned roast. According to the patentees of the Car- 
miehael-Bradford process, a final product. CaPbO,. results 
from the blast-roasting. This reacting upon decomposed 
sulphides would explain the increased sulphur loss just 

Smelting under the approved methods would therefore 
seem to include : 

(1) Screening all oxidized ores and sending the oversize 
of a %-in. screen to the blast-furnace. 

(2) Crushing all sulphides intended for roasting. 

i 3) Combining or bedding the tine oxidized ores with the 
crushed roasting ore. and by-products of the furnace, that 
is. with the matte after crushing, and with the flue-dust. 

14) Giving a sinter-roast to mixture (3), and then send- 
ing it to the blast-furnace. 

(5) Catching all flue-dust and volatilized lead by means 
of dust-flues and a bag-house. 

(6) Remelting all base-bullion, and returning to the 
blast-furnace, the dry drosses containing not only lead but 
some copper, arsenic, and antimony. 

In the earlier silver-lead smelting plants, even where sul- 


MINING AND S( [1 \ I II ■ |. I'KI SS 

phide orm were roa- ladled by * 


But ii achinc bandlil planl 

r.|un to overbalance this advan- 

lead malting planti 
methods ol 

ruction ba' -'. par 

i"n : in' computed on this addi- 

tional amount at 7\ , ami the history of plants show thai 
in from r to 10 yean the] an in .1 large degree obsolete, 
mill planl after planl has been discarded hugely for this 

'. Aliowii iatiou loaaof lOfl . ii follows thai 

1" the total additional charge is due to better and 

iimn' model natruetion. Indeed, il may be questioned 

•bather this idea of thorough building and cheap handling 

rdone It an alteration is to be madi 
i" change in methods and improved processes, ii is preth 

rive to tear up heavy foundations and retaining walls 
i.r I., alter iron buildings. With side-hill construction, either 
expansion of plant or alterations are more expensive than 
those made al a level site. 

It' these inareased costs of construction bo considered to 
be to obtain cheaper handling only, then the comparative 

per ton of materials may he computed as follows:, 

iH,i method. New method. 

Unloading ami bedding $11. 11 $0.04 

Charging to tin- furnaces 0.14 0.04 

Interest and depreciation o.:,i 1.02 

$0.86 $1.10 

Accordir 11 would he actually re costly 

to handle material at a i lent planl than in the older anil 

simpler one. But on the other hand, the older w ten con 

Btruction carried a higher lire risk, Deeded more current re- 
pairs, was mure subject t" the disadvantages of lower priced 

labor, ami was less certain in operation. 

That the tine ore, even when oxidized, should be screened 
out seems evident when the action of the blast upon it is 
studied. In the first compartments of the dust-flue will be 
found particles of 20-mesh material. It is true that this 
portion of the Hue-dust contains particles of coke and lime- 
stone, but a general will be equal tn the average of 
the charge. It seems wise, therefore, to remove fines before 
smelting rather than to recover them later and to have 
again to handle them. On the other hand, the blast-fur- 
nace is a pretty effective screening machine. The cooled 
gases, by the time they reach the hag-house, are dropping 
their load of volatilized lead in flocculent form. As a guard 
against volatilization, poor working of the blast-furnace, 
and fine ore, the bag-house is effective. Thus, Sprague has 
succeeded in so effectively treating the blast-furnace '.rases 
that it needs careful observation to note that any visible 
smoke is escaping, even with a half-dozen furnaces in blast. 
A recent improvement in the bag-house consists in a new 
method of shaking the hags. The older way was for a man 
to enter the chamber, protected with a smoke helmet (such 
as is used in mine-rescue work), and shake down the ad- 
herent dust by hand. Now the method consists in cutting 
off the pressure in the chamber and so connecting to the 
stack as to produce a suction in the lower chamber of the 
bag-house. This loosens the Hue-dust as the bag collapses. 
It is rapid and requires no hand labor. 

The older way of preparing ore for use at the blast- 
furnace has been to layer or bed it and then to smelt each 
bed as though it were a single ore; but this has its draw- 
backs. In the first place bedding is more or less imper- 
fectly done; then as the ore is removed the face may sud- 
denly fall so that too much of the upper layers enter the 
charge. Thus are introduced into furnace-operation various 
irregularities which reflect themselves in poorer working and 
in dirty slags. The Messiter system of bedding, as used 
for copper ores at Cananea, offers an ideal solution to the 
above-named troubles. Its cost in a warm dry climate is 
half that as compared with a bin system, though for a 
northern climate housing-in would add largely to the ex- 
pense of installation. 

\\ 1 

ml., i 
the I' 

by conveying bell !•■ I 
down charging costs ami its development will In- wa 

with mili'li [(a ililllclllti. 

The most important work of the year has Keen in 

working out of the rioter I now 

well known Dwighl Lloyd down-draft machine, we tin. I 
the Bellinger up-drafl endless-chain machine, when 
prevent the escape "i Hue dust the ore 1- 1 ith ■ 

layer of crushed limestone. Ai the Feed end of the grate 

ami outside the roasting h I are two hoppers, one i 

the ore 111 i V t III tile hi, I where it l- ignited, I he oilier 

lie, Is on top Of tl e a thill he, I ol clll-llcl II 

coarse ore, which serves as a filter ami to hold down 

ore from being blown away. The sintered ore is ilis- 

charged outside the roasting chamber at tl ml oppi 

ih,' feed. Tii,' Dwight-LIoyd machine is now built in 100 
ton units ami is giving a satisfactorily roasted and sintered 

product with a minimum of line unsintered ore. No I" 
iir,' up of the product is needed as in the case ,,| |„.l 
roasting. For success in sinter-blast roasting S suitably 

combined mixture is essential, • which will sinter properly 

and thai contains 17 to 23% of sulphur, so thai em 

is present to give the necessary heal, 'l'lie ingredients should 

he lor galena about 8-mesh, and for the other ores about 
1 mesh size. The other advantage of the continuous rinter- 
roasl machines is that for a given capacity tiny occupy 
little space as compared with Ihe hand reverberutory. Thus 
a 100-ton Dwight-LIoyd machine could he placed in a build- 
ing needed for a single hand-roaster, or, say, in one-seventh 
of the space needed by the latter. 

Australian practice with the Carmichael-Bradford pro- 
cess has brought out some encouraging features in blast- 
roasting. Three parts of concentrate, slime, or mixed con- 
cern rale and slime, are combined with gypsum which has 
been heated on iron plates to dehydrate it to about 50% 
of its contained water. These are mixed in a pug-mill 
with a small amount of water, and passed through a trom- 
mel to form into lumps. The partly hydrated gypsum 
combines with more water, and sets in hard lumps, and the 
lumps are further dried on a floor. To start the roasting, 
a shovelful of embers and a bucketful or so of chips are 
placed at the bottom of the pot, a gentle blast turned on, 
and when well lighted the granulated mixture is run in 
from a hopper and the blast raised to 8 to 12-oz. pressure. 
The converting is complete in three to four hours. Be- 
sides quick roasting but little attention is needed during 
the process. The plant is less expensive than the Hunt- 
ington-Heberlein, and where limestone and gypsum are 
cheap costs less per ton. 

Butte Copper Production 

The production of the Anaconda and East Butte smelters 
in 1011 is given by The Butlc Intcrmountain as below, 
figures being in pounds of copper. 

Anaconda. East Butte. 

January 21,600,000 1,137,882 

February 20,000,000 770,746 

March .' 21,900,000 1,156,161 

April 21,500,000 1,183,636 

May 21,700,000 1,235,158 

June 21,850,000 1,144,767 

July 21,052,000 981,310 

August 22,500,000 789,101 

September 21,300,000 969,224 

October 21,400,000 1,107,714 

November 20,850,000 '980,000 

December '21,600,000 '1,120,000 

Totals 258,152,000 12,586,699 

•Estimated. The East Butte also produced 402,542.81 
oz. of silver and 18,177.215 oz. of gold. 


January 6, 1912 

Production and Prices in the California Oilfields 

By 3. H. G. Wolf 

Production of petroleum on an extensive scale in Cali- 
fornia began with '-ry of the Kern River Geld 
near Bakorsneld in 1900. The yield of all the fields was 
1,000,000 bbl. annually.; the markets Kr*. coi 
respondingly limited, and the price per barrel to the pro- 
averaged one dollar. The lli>,ul of "il following the 
g of the Kern River field Ben! the production figures 
for Ken. county alone, bj L903, to 18,000,000 bbl. annually, 
ami the price to 20c. and less to the producer. That date 
and circumstance marked a new epoch. Consolidation 
erests, absorption oi the smaller by the larger corn- 

great Midway valley poured forth the (lood of oil. 

The table ana the graphic exhibits accompanying, pre- 
sent the status of the business in this State in lucid 
form. The overshadowing factor is the rale at which the 
stocks have accumulated. The stocks on January 1, 1910, 
were 21.(1110.0011 l.l.l. : on November 1, 1811, 39,950,000 bbl., 
or an accumulated excess of 18,950,000 bbl., equivalent to 
900,000 bbl. per month, or 30,000 bbl. per day. 

Analyzing the diagrams, Fig. 1 shows that the San Joa- 
quin Valley fields are the dominant factor in the State's 
production. The Southern and the Coast fields, while 

Production and Pricks op California Oil 

Returns per Barrel. [Pumping Wells. Drilling Well 

Stocks, Production. Shipments, 
1910. bbl. bbl. bbl. 

February 4,515,560 

March 5,598,745 

April 6,618,636 

May 7,172,313 

• lone 6,696,789 

July 29,337,808 6,901,965 4,781,065 

August 31,557,635 6,743,159 4.822,468 

September 30,516,319 6,492,462 4,612,185 

October 34,308,509 6,098,388 5,208,322 

November 34,047,388 5,753,625 4,873,803 

tber 33,319,724 6,111,807 5,514,860 


January 34,016,514 5,992,352 5,330,017 

February 34,947.540 5,439,720 4,584,907 

Man-], 37,317,636 6,341,603 4,541,368 

April 37,984,865 6,725,259 5,470,318 

May 38,294,830 6,630,133 6,032,445 

June 39,119,527 6,402,304 5,392,716 

July 40,084,099 6,663,325 5,421.515 

August 41,234,623 6,696,896 5.413,430 

September 41,929,003 6,885,135 6,016,848 

October '39,951,406 6,906,750 6,431,94] 

November 41.093.377 6,741,718 6,020,558 




4] .5 





35 less 5 
35 less 5 
35 less 5 

35 less 5 
35 less 5 
35 less 5 
35 less 5 







Non-Agency Total 
members, number. 
(Cents. I 






30 4320 

30 4444 

30 4658 















Total Number 
number, active. 




4322 1003 
4386 S65 
4420 869 









•Figures readjusted to allow for storage losses. Lakevlew well losses, etc. 

tAll wells of State, except the 402 in Los Angeles City field and the 135 at Summerland, the yield from which com- 
bined is only about 1000 bbl. per day, and which can be considered as spent wells. 

ud the beginning of a cooperative 
movement among the interests remaining independent was 
the logical outcome of that situation. The influence of 

o be felt ; collective 
instead of individual bargaining with the marketers, to- 
gether with i of the expanding uses of crude oil 
and tli of transportation facilities, sent the 

price back to al 50c, per barrel by 1907. That year 

the Independent Oil Producers' Agency (the outcome of 
the cooperative movement) made a two-year contract with 
the Associated Oil Co., one of the three marketers, at some 
63c. per ban-el at the well. The effect was magical; hun- 
of drills were set to dropping in every part of the 
State, and the consequences therfoi mother epoch. 

When the drill of the Lakeview Oil Co. at Maricopa and 
near the old Sunset field, dropped through the last 'shell' 
on March 15. 1910, int.. the producing sand, it dropped 
into a veritable P the riches of which no 

operator, in the moments of his maddest dreams, adequately 

foresaw. With tl pening of the box the riches escaped 

and spread upon the land, but ell following the 

legend, remained bottled up. The dreams of wealth were 
dissipated almost in a day. the price of crude oil at the 
wells dropped fron 60i I 10c. within a few months after 
the Lakeview and the atti D ,nd down the 

important in themselves, particularly because of the ad- 
vantage of being nearer to tidewater, influence the gen- 
eral situation mainly as regulators of the volume of out- 
put. The field consumption of the State is some 420,000 
bbl. monthly, which constant should be added to the figure 
for a particular month to obtain the gross output. The 
amount of fuel consumed in pumping the oil to tide- 
water is not known, but it must to some extent influence 
the net output to the market. The drop in output be- 
tween September 1910 and February 1911 was due princi- 
pally to the decline and final collapse of the great Lake- 
view well. The diagram shows a magnified drop in Feb- 
ruary, due to its having 10% fewer days than an average 
month. The recovery from March 1911 onward has been 
uniform and coincident with the bringing in of an in- 
creasing number of flowing wells from the deep territory 
of the Midway, revealed as oil-bearing by the discovery 
of the Lakeview. The November output (not plotted) was 
about the same as the two previous months. The one grat- 
ifying aspect of the overproduction situation is the man- 
ner in which shipments have increased. While shipment 
figures are not consumption figures, as expounders some- 
times think, they are significant indicators of the same. 
Of the stocks carried in the State, some 20% are carried 
in the pipe-lines and storage at tidewater. Thus a volume 

J an iu 

MINIV. AM) >. I! Mil It I'KI SS 

100,000 Mil. I. October, though it »:n 

i ilmi the .-^ili"< in November wi 
puled thai i-'nui- 

chibits the unvarying 
'ii January I : » 1 * ► onward. 
The vulii . il would si cm, t" a 

any ordinary demands of eon 
othing appearing in the outlook to 
i he surplus 
obex 1 over November I i> reported aa 1,141,000 Mil.. 


will | in,, | 

which in turn i 

ii not the 

rorth flghtii .,,ilii., 

in 1907 and 1008 ol prices which gave the p 

fair pi doubtful whether il (tensive ■ 

of il"' [real Weal Bide itry (the Midway) would have 

I a undertaken. Today the oonsumer baa the knowli 

whan contracting for fuel oil, thai there has I u derel 

oped in tin- additional proved Bald* ^ supply which com- 

estimate .annul i„. exhauated ii 
This wonderful showing i intee to him of the 

certainty of Ihe supply and non-fluctuating prices; ii is 



which is about the monthly surplus for the 12 months 
past. The returns to the producer have remained fairly 
constant since the break in the spring of 1910. Pig. 3 

presents an important exhibit. It shows that the uniform 
increase in production has followed the increase in the 
number of producing wells, and until the rate at which 
new wells are being drilled and new wells are being put 
on the beam is decreased sensibly, there will probably be 
no reduction in stocks or betterment of conditions. The 
November figures (not plotted) of drilling show no mate- 
rial increase, which is helpful. The production per well 
per month over the State has dropped but little since July 
1910, when the Lakeview had about reached its maximum, 
indicating unmistakably that the wells brought in since 
that time are heavy producers. The present yield is about 
1450 bbl. per well per month, net. 

There are two objects to be served in bettering present 

the result largely of the cooperative effort some years ago 
of a handful of individual producers to improve their 
own condition, and who succeeded in getting a fair price 
Eor their product. 

Substantial slocks are a necessary adjunct to every busi- 
ness. The Independent Producers' Agency, through its 
marketer, the Union Oil Co., has sold 60,000,000 to 70,000,- 
000 bbl. of oil, to be delivered over a period of five years; 
stocks in the hands of the Agency amount to some 14,000,- 
000 bbl., which is a comfortable surplus, but one that is 
a burden when prices are depressed. California supplies 
36% of the crude petroleum produced in the United States 
and is carrying stocks aggregating 50% of its annual yield; 
the remaining States, producing 64% of the total yield, 
carry stocks of 105,000,000 bbl., or 77%. Viewed in that 
aspect, the volume of stocks here is not disproportionately 
large. The menace is the rate of increase of stocks; it 



January 6, 1912 

is so much in excess of the rate of expansion of sales 
iption) thai there can be no' hope for an early re- 
sumption of normal conditions, There is no profit in pro- 
dneing erode petrolenm at 30c. per ban-el in this or any 
other Siate. capital and other charges properly considered, 
excepting from Bowing wells, and an industry that cannot 
■ lucted at a profit is not on a sound basis. To im- 
prove fundamental conditions) it appears that help might 
be derived in the following ways or directions: ll) The 
ate cessation of active drilling in known or proved 
oil territory; (2) providing adequate storage facilities for 
the oil now upon the ground; (3) the release of all les- 

llighly productive territory better defined, drilling in the 
yielding only ordinary pumping wells has practically 

I. The wells now being brought in are mainly of 
the flowing type. This is an added menace. 

There are today 5401 finished oil wells, of which 4720 
are actively producing, against 4320 finished wells and 
:t!m."> producing wells 14 months ago. In other words, the 
actual daily yield of 222,600 bbl. represents but 87% of 
the potential daily yield at this time. If there were a 
market, these idle wells would be put back on the beam. 
All the idle producing wells may not have the capacity of 
the average producing well now on the beam, but, on the 


— r — i 1 — ; h~ ~~r 

3ft*Hfr r 



Bees bj the lessors from the requirement to do continuous 
development work, particularly in proved territory, until 
normal i ed; (4) expansion of tl 

product; *ping of the removal of oil 

being produced from I deral Govern- 

ment da ere withdrawn from 

entry and exploitation on September 27, I:" 1 ' 

- 1 "'"' that "ii July 31, 1910, or four months 
after the Lakeview well was brought iii. and when drill- 
ing activities accelerated by the phenomenal yield of thai 
well, were under full swing, the Dumber of wells being 
drilled was 751, of 13 were active. On Oct 

1911, or 14 months thereafter, in the face of an accumu- 
oi 1,000,00 bbl. per month. 845 wells were 
being drilled, of which 521 were active. It is fair to 
assume, too, that with the limits of the newly dis 

other hand, there are numerous capped and restrained 
gushers which can pour forth a flood of oil if cut loose- 
and which might maintain the average. The present situ- 
ation has this added element of danger not generally rec- 

It would seem, then, that so simple a corrective measure 
as stopping the active drilling in proved territory is de- 
manded by common sense and ordinary business prudence. 
The big factors in the producing end of the business can 
together in a 'gentlemen's agreement', if in no other 
way, with an understanding as to new drilling. Since the 
term 'big factors' comes near to meaning the marketers, 
it is plain the small factors would, in event of any such 
agreement, likewise cease drilling. Mutual mistrust has to 
be set aside. If the marketer will stop drilling and stop 
buying oil for a period, the situation will correct itself' 




to iU 

inr in tin' iiirl problem on the .' i not lima I 

J n- field 
buililiuf; permanent reservoirs, I be Associated i- incn 
rapidly l>y adding eonereb 
pendent Pradnei storage 

mdez way which will, if effectually earned out, 
make .mil will relieve the preaeul .li.-- 

sad situation of many of it- individual membere. Stor 
in steel ■■■ . onservee the oil pro 

dueed : 11 ■ are enormous under i i 


A large of operations are Inctad on lands 

r leasehold. The owners of these lands are coni 
principally in collecting royalty oil produced al no cap 
ital outlay or risk of tin-it- own. Leasees today can with 
profil gel - mi their continuous drilling require- 

ments; to do continuous development on proved ground 

with oil al a price less than its i mercial value, is nol 

sound business. A clause in contracts limiting drilling 
activities when the price al the wells is less than a figure 
calculated p> give fair remuneration is good business for 
nil concerned, though it is do) generally used. 

The expectation for expansion of sales mast be based 
largely on the adoption of "il as fuel by the trans-Pacifio 
shipping, by the Government, and its more general use 
in the Northwest. The domestic markets are quite well 

worked op. Bales have 1 a pushed as far east us Ely, 

Nevada, in competition with Utah coal, and to Arizona 
iitnl Cananea, Mexcio, on the Southwest, in competition 

with Texas oil and New alexia al California crude 

oil is sold as far north as tin- Copper river in Alaska, 
npi-tiii.ui with the vnst though undeveloped coalfields 
nearby. The sale of oil us fuel !us been pushed as widely 
as competitive conditions will permit; establishing the 
■ nt horizon lias be™ a levy upon tbe producer's live- 
lib 1. 

Stopping tbe removal of tbe oil from lands in dispute 
would serve the immediate situation well. The courts arc 
about to try tbe Government's contention that the Southern 
Pacific railroad has no rights to the oil under the lands 
patented to that company under the railway-aid acts. The 
deeds to tbe lands reserve the right to the mineral con- 
tained to the Government. The acts apparently made no 
such reservation, and an ad.jttdietion of rights is In order. 
.Meanwhile, it would he most helpful if tbe removal of the 
oil were held up temporarily. A year ago the railroad 
was consuming in its serviee some 32.000 bbl. per day, 
which quantity was bought largely in the genera] market. 
Drilling activities in the past year, through its petroleum 
department, the Kern Trading & oil Co., have resulted in 
a reputed output of 30,000 bbl. per day, which represents 
about, tbe present daily surplus. Tbe extent of the pro- 
duction from the lands withdrawn from all forms of entry 
or exploitation by tbe President on September 27. Kin'.i, 
is not known. It may be considerable. The gushers or 
flowing wells of the Midway, the disturbing factor, arc 
wholly upon lands considered prior to 190S as possible oil- 
land only. They lie away from the 'cropping' wells, upon 
the flats and in tbe hills to the north and east. The with- 
drawal order eam'e before any sensational wells were found, 
and includes all lands not then lawfully entered upon or 
occupied; hence many of the gushers are upon disputed 
land. The status of the operators upon the withdrawn 
lands is uncertain, regardless of tbe rights concerned, and 
it is not improbable that the Government will endeavor 
to restrain tbe removal of tbe oil pending adjudication. 
This will retard production until other conditions adjust 
themselves, which in the end will help tbe individual pro- 
ducers tbe more effectively. Whether or not it was law- 
less to proceed with drilling on the withdrawn lands, did 
not concern many of those who did so. Whether or not 

returns ml to a tnoi 

I could I" 

I with ml' 

Phosphate Rock in the West 

Bj r. B v. 
the phosphate in the W< 

1911, tun, Ha- mined in Idaho. Wyoming', and Utah, The 
production in these states was sboul 10,000 tons, which is 

practically the same as thai for 1010. Tl nine product 

«as obtai 1 from the mine- of Bradlej Bros., in north 

eastern Utah near Sage, Wyoming; the Union 

Phosphate Co. I ikeville, Wyoming, and the 

San Francisco Chemical Co. al Montpelier, Idaho. 
Utah Chemical & Fertilizer Co. has a large area of phot 
pbate land easl of Georgetown, Idaho, but it has no) yel 
begun shipping rock. No production i- reported 


Several placer patent- to phosphate lauds were issued i>v 
the Government during 1911, and the policy heretofore an 
nonnced by the Interior Department of granting patei 

placi r or lode, to original locators who filed on the 
land prior to the phosphate withdrawals, has been cot 
tinned. Considerable developmenl work was done dm 
the year preparatory to applications for patent-. The 
question as to how the Government will dispose of the 
phosphate lands in the withdrawn areas is still unsettled, 
and there is no prospect of an early derision. There ap- 
pears to he much difference of opinion among membi i 
of Congress and administrative officers in reference to the 
further disposal of phosphate land. It is quite certain 
that the phosphate lands now held under patents or min- 
eral locations are advantageously situated with reference to 
transportation facilities, and the rock can be mined at low 
cost. These mines will therefore supply the Western mar- 
el Eor many years, and there is no necessity for a hur- 
ried and possibly inadequate solution to the question. l\ 
may well await the result of an extended discussion i 
our future public land policies and the laws which will 
make them effective. The legal status of those who ac- 
quired mineral rights prior to the withdrawals of phosphate 
land is still undetermined. During the past year the ques- 
tion as to the rights of lode locators over prior placer 
locators has been before the U. S. District Courts, but no 
decisions have been rendered. 

Geological field work of the V. S. Geological Survey dur- 
ing 1010 and 1911 has considerably extended the known 
phosphate area, and its estimate in tons has assumed almost 
incredible proportions. The productive area of phosphate 
rock in other parts of the world has been greatly ex- 
tended within recent years, and there need be no apprehen- 
sion of the exhaustion of the available supply. 

Practically all of the phosphate rock mined in the Wesl 
cm States is shipped to San Francisco and Los Angelo 
and manufactured into acid phosphate and mixed to make 

complete fertilizers. Al I 20,000 tons of fertilizer was 

sold during 1911, nearly all of which was used in Cali- 
fornia. With the exception of lo00 tons shipped from 
Japan, the entire product was manufactured in California. 
The outlook for a considerable increase in the near future 
in the use of phosphate rock in the West is not, at pres- 
ent, encouraging. Such increase depends largely on the 
practical demonstration of immediate improvement in crop 
returns as the result of the use of fertilizers through Gov- 
ernment or commercial agencies. What may be done 
through foreign shipments to further the sale of phosphate 
roek is problematical. Existing transportation rates to 
the Pacific coast are prohibitive so far as foreign markets 
are concerned. At present, 70% rock is worth about $7 
per ton on the seaboard. The freight rate from the phos- 
phate region is $4.20 per ton to San Francisco, and $5 to 
Los Angeles. This leaves a small margin to cover mining, 
transportation, and loading charges at the mines. 


■'■: .j— : .-:_ 

Metallurgy of Copper During 1911 

By Thomas T. Rkad 

the meti TI* r Jarin? 1911 has 

% *ii:« x.- ; _- lines already established rather than 

-.nru to hlast-far- 
-!>>• snotfDBg - ■»» "- ■ £ ttiatenafly rktiijnl daring the year, 
aad ti- mH beyond attempts to apply the 

aoait fad to the bmst-faraare. Revert- 

irv»-s in importance as the amount of 
^«a tow-grade ores which nave been sob- 

;. . - -. _ 
H!. 1 ii i t' i ^ i of tee are aad flae-dast. the co a Tert i ne of 
matte, the I mil ato. of f mar. aad the leaching of copper ores, 
have ad beta objects of stucv. and sahstantml progress 
mast he reeoedett- 

■-_.-•■ r.:. -.: ■_■. .-.:■'. 

The as* of aomw fael for bfast-farnare smelting has 
often heea proposed, and sappfrnwattry oil- jets hare often 
area mad to thaw oat tayeres and to vara ap eoU pardons 
of the hearth. Bat is trnpto i atuit as the sole soaree of 
heat owers ib iiaa. d i me alt i e s. and metalrarggts have been 
hwa w Cy to erik that they knew aot of . The ■aiinmyl.i 
j.fuat as* of ioei-od and the present araiUhil 
akiii rif al sanady at few east in many areas has refased to 
natter rest. ho wcce t. The problem has heea at- 
tacked from both sales: by the machinery maaafarrarers 
and by operaMs. The Colorado I roc Works Co_ of Den- 
T-r. has i v-src , l*Vtoc roaad water-jacketed blast-far- 
aaee. irj j nid to emptor oafy oil as a fact The on b 

led directly iato the shaft - 

below the tayeres. The water- jackets 


rang away with the 
The furnace is provided with gas taps 
aid is the control of the m km _ operarjor 
that wwh rob - ton and fact-oil at $L25 per 

ha nd , the reiatnr* f aet n laaiiacl to piadme lMUMMUttt 
Luaar- - . *x aad k t farther ebbned that 

: aetu* of th^ 

Dwaar the year a annea imiaa of biast-faraare saaek- 

a«g with oil was aade by Thomas Kamfae at the peaat of the 
V-omiua OB Smamme Co. Ud- at V 
isamt. rV.c^ci Cbanahm The typa al 

I desrrmoa. bat prestsitobly was oi Mr. Kio-i- - 

■Ktuag oaiy part of one day. bat 

■ • the directors. Mr. Kiddie ckmns that the 

- -etord at the ra ■■'•■i-~ y- 

ad eimsampoea 

watt saeJaM. -^f. per toe. 

«. o»w«<r«. . is fettle more thaa aa 

estamn*. i .jra,. fc^ .^ M 

* j v m was coasoarred to ia c* beea ased ia 
ap i* fazsar*. Mr. Kiddw renamaemded eextata 
wWea be 9e&prws wiffi had to a redmrtin of the fact easT to 
M «r 3Sa per tuo. Ttte -~~- 1 ' r .> of sarh esperaaeae 
vresv bat the attirade of 
*rd the ase of liana fact at the Wasc- 
Sacaaw as anaai Ba oac >-ward aerop&wMs. a hrK 
•oanaol smmesru; empvyntaie and asefai^.. 
aeaoar omttouats. ceaaiaid ^ 

>.-!« Ltj«.' wbwh appea 
ma y«r. ami .- - maameal -s .>r- agaaa 

exhaastrrehr disraseed i 

need be added* Blast-roastBg. so 

menl of lead ore. has not proved so • 

meat of cop p er ores, and ia ■ 

tried has later beea ibondnexd. It 

the Ashio plaat of the Ashio saammr of 

Mining Co. Bat. as poiated oat by Prtezs. blast-! 

of copper ores may iaioh e eaher the Kaaseal of as i 

of the «alphar as posahle. or as Ikiie as 

to «ii cam l ia »- aad the problem w£ 

may be said generally that a b ut all the ore mmst be i 

- - 

•tji aad roastaa 
mer Ae as* of the Meftoa 
scoarbas re 

L. D. Kirkeccs. who narman to set aa etaaaale of gener- 

- . 

costs and other iafinaariia for the six imwab . fr«n Febra- 
ary to Jaty HU. iaelaaTe. darrag wbirh both iiiubimmj 
faraacas banc beea ia oaeaaaaa. The ealcmaag eaaease at 
the McD o aga lb mr biaii : a» costs from the tame the tamway 
defiroad the matenal to be cakmsed to the hms. aa<2 the 
eaimar is eVlriered at the itmhi.imatj faraaees. We have 

the mat of the M cPa a ga B faraacas. ami have iiti od mud a 
>hieh grrcs room Car two beds of 
: 3MH taais earh. The ore is recefsed on 
beks from the r*3way baas. ;• miiipti ■ oa its way to the beds, 
aad is bedded, it 'tamed aad raareyed. by bek «o b eaa u. 
over the Mc|ti'nL,ri>' which we bare Ma e ailj BBmaaal aad 
which give storage :'itH>inH to ran the faraaees Cm 
hoars. As a ce a:e am! ai ce. reemamme has to he d—e oa hat 
oae shifk. The aasts were as sbowa m the tmk few" 

srs. Ftaarjar ia Jtu. BID 

vo rVreeac 

Fme sal*&de .•«> 


Cafeaae rewem-. 

h . aflcBiie. *V 



. - - 

•-i*r F-oml Oeaober 14. tS«X ?. «T 

■-.. J at kmabm I EMl a Btt 


MINING ii Mil |i i'i 








fha 0.0254 

'■■'■ 10.0579 




At the Steptoe Valley smelter, al HeCHIl, the limi 
"••I for Hi. | added in tbe IfcDougalU, a 

sulphur in the eoneentrate ii nol high •■! _-h to give sum 

'■"■tit || (or warming the limestone. Al the Tooele 

plant, on ill" other hand, Kreened silieiona ore is added upon 
the fifth hearth • : the UcDongalla, this difference in prac- 
hting doe to ;i '■','', higher inlpbnr content in the i 
■ mi, i be noted thai tbia addition b 
the heat i the working margin, bo thai in tbe case of 

temporary ihnl ary to employ a few 

oal to lirin'_' the roaster back to its normal 
working temperature. Thi- well illustrates tl»- close margin 
of economy uj>«n which modern smelting operatio 

Progress in reverberatory smelting daring the year 
cbiefl about the increasing aae of oil-firing, which 

hai been adopted al the Steptoe smelter, follow! 

a ami elsewhere. Ii, I be noted thai tbe new 
le I'lani retaini coal-firing, as this illustrates tbe i 
'ial feature ol the use of liquid fuel. The Bteptoi 
at HcOill, Nevada, approximately midway between iln- 
sources of supply of fuel-oil and coal, while tbe Tooele 
plant i- near tbe coalfield ant from tin- oilfields. 

Fuel <iil i- worth abonl Wc. per barrel al the wells, and 
Wyoming and Ctab coal approximately $1.50 per to 
the mine; upon the usual basis of reckoning of •')'- bbl. of 
oil as equivalent to 1 ton of coal, it is evident thai the <|ii<- 
ti'/n of desirability of use comes down to a compari - 
freight charges, though thi- i- influenced by other co 
erations. At the Steptoe, for example, Borne difficulty was 
erienced in keeping tbe furnaces up to the tempers 

to smell a rather infusible char'."', until oil-flring 

oyed, when the difficulty disappeared. Oil-firing, 

therefore, i- nol a panacea, but a valuable method which 

will find application where the condition* favor il 

The genera] features ol reverberatory smelting have beei 

illy discussed by Peters in the volume already men- 

■ -I thai only a few supplemental 1 ; 

oi are 120 ft. 10 in. long, due to 

tbe removal of thi al grates, and work well. Al Cai 

20-in. arch brick are now employed on the furnace* thi i 
out. The wa te heal boilei - hould be of a 
raits easy cleaning; al Cananea this ii expeditiously doi 
the use of a jel of coi pri ed a to blow the fume off the 
tube, of tbe economize] . done daily and le I ha 

hour is required to clean four economizers. Oil-burners for 
rberatory work apparently continue to offer scope for 

in II,- 


by O. B. Lee and 1 ■ .|.<-r 

•I thai by f ling flue 

and I ■ into a di 

the i« lesirable products could !»■ converted 


addition to the 
• w,nilil be secured, but the question of 
to which in, definiti i an yet be i 

, FSBRVABT to JtJM 19] |, 


I Iry to of total. 

21,010 34.90 

Calcine 35,553 59.15 


179 ii BO 

Total 60,073 100.00 

Furnace da; -. 312.5. 


Per dry ton. 

Operating furnaces $li 

Blag and man,- expense 0.0851 

Boiler I - 0.1900 

era! expense 0.0702 

of flux 0.0136 

Total $2,2193 

Stei iredil 

Operating cosl $1.4057 


1 . Operating : 

Labor W 

Power 0.0099 

Fuel-oil 1.4654 

I 0.0041 

Water 0.0015 

Transportation 0.0063 

Sundries 0.0053 

Flux 0.0136 


I,'* pi 

Labor $0.1842 

Supplies , 0.2068 

Sh,,|> expense 0.0252 

Total $2.2191 

earn credit 05134 


Tbe use of tbe basic-lined < verier bids fair to beeomi 

universal. C. B. NTe< I ei some of il, 

features of recent progre - in this work in a paper of ■ 
ipon hicb only eon [deration oi pace pri 

Tbe ] 'ierce & Smith tj pe of con' i 

is coming into wide use for iis large capacity ami con- 
' bape, with tbe modi cation of thi 
h rather than al tbe end, a tbis gives a bi 
tribution of the gases inside and of the flux added. The 

■■Eng. A Min. Jour., April S. 1911, p 707 



January 6. 1912 

flux, which was at first preheated, is now commonly added 
cold. The Day pn Mowing silicious slim.' into the 

converter tl i of the tuyeres, is now in use al 

ethod to niy colleagues 
but was unable to test the D erimentally; doubt- 

rs, it remaining to 
Mr. Day to make successful application of it. Tlie usual 

inverter has a capacity of 65 tons of blister copper, 
usual charge finished. The high 

age of working time (88, according to Neel) very 
the conduct of operations in the converter 

and the crane, which is kepi so busy in an acjd- 
converter plant, stands idle much of the time. This is 

tated by the use of casting machines for handling 
the blister copper and the pouring of the slag into chilling 
pans which are drawn to the slag bins, as at Garfield, so 
that it begins i" semi probable that in future plants it may 
be possible In iln away with the heavy ami expense 
and substitute some other device. It is to be hoped that 
another year more definite cUtta regarding 

bjeel may be available than at present 
The problem of smelter fume received an accentuated in- 
terest during the year by the closing by injunction of the 
Bully Hill ami Balaklala smelters in Shasta county, Cali- 
fornia, and the procuring of an injunction against the 
Mason Valley smelter at Wabuska, Nevada, before it hail 
been completed. On t he other hand, the United States 
Circuit Court of Appeals, in the 'smoke suits' against the 
ami Anaconda plants, upheld the decision of the 
Master of Chancery ami the trial judge that the damage 
dime by these plants did not warrant the issuance of an in- 
junction, The Mammoth plant, in Shasta county, continues 
tu operate, though under surveillance, and the Washoe and 
Anaconda plants still have the suit ..(' the Federal Q 
nieiii. alleging damage to a National forest, pending against 
them. In the latter ease a committee, consisting of L. D. 
Kicketts. J. A. Holmes, and .1. H. Hammond, has been 
appointed to arbitrate the matter, the understanding being 
that if the smelters put in force the recommendations of 
iii. committee the Government will not press the suit. The 
general features of the smelter-fume problem have recently 
been so admirably discussed by Herbert Lang" that only 
a few points of interest will be made here. The solid par- 
ticles in smelter fume can he removed effectively upon a 
practicable working scale by either the Cottrell 7 mi bag- 
--. but the St I content is more of a problem. 
The Tennessee Copper Co. is engaged in converting it into 
II Si I,, but this is not of universal applicability for a num- 
ber of reasons, the chief of which are that markets for the 

a, -id thus produced are commonly lacking, and the , en- 

i SO, is frequently lower than de- 
sirable in acid manufacture. Several other methods are 
commonly employed. The use of tall chimneys to lift the 
- 1 ' into the air that they will be diluted before 
coming into contact with vegetation may be supplemented 
or replaced by direct dilution by blowing air into the base 
of the stack. In the former the initial cost is high; in the 
latter, o li: ,ny the Wicslenius 

stack is used to produce vortex currents in the escaping 

with the idea of aiding dilution by the surrounding 

air. Young'' has proposed the reduction of the SI) to S, 

D sulphite as an intern,, dial ] , 

but the proce only in the experimental stage. At 

the Ashio pli ..,,.. i s ,-iai, ] 

to neutralize the SO, as well as the SO . but full details are 
■ As lone held to that a 

may not commit a i may be ex- 

peeled. But the decision in the Montana cases that the 
- not sufficient to warrant the issuance of an 
injunction is a ho] as is the di 

judge In the nsl Ratbbi of New 

York City, fur committing a nuisance. In this i 

court held that the b i. hints was a neces- 

•l.ang. Herbert. 'Metallure ol. 1. New York. 1911. 

" """ »*, September 2. 1911. p. 286. 

i .(• .i/i;i. Jour., March 25, 19 
'Mining anil Scientific 

Sary one to the community, that il was necessary to carry it 

on within the city, and that as tl lors complained of were 

not detrimental to health, hut only unpleasant, the issuance 
of an injunction was not warranted. 

The great importance which the mining of low-grade de- 
posits has assumed, ami the necessarily large losses in wet 
• : in inn. has greatly stimulated the in- 
vestigation of leaching methods. The most important re- 
sult of such investigations that has been disclosed is the 
announced intention of the Braden Copper Co. to construct 
a leaching plant at its mine iii Chile. According to Pope 
Yeatman. 1 " the consulting engineer, this plant will consist 
of 1 Wedge furnace, with acid tower, and accessories, 3 
Icaching-vats. 3 settling-vats, 9 solution tanks, and a pre- 
cipitation plant of a capacity of 10 tons of cathode copper 
per day. It is thought that by this method copper can be 
produced at a cost of 7 or b'^c. per pound; the low cost 
of electric power being a great advantage. Other com- 
panies have studied the problem, and by next year I shall 
doubtless be able to record substantial progress and to 
cite the results of actual operation. W. L. Austin has 
published 11 during the year a series of articles, discuss- 
ing leaching methods in great detail, but the general 
appreciation of these was somewhat shaken by Mr. Austin's 
securing, during the year, a patent upon methods of leach- 
ing copper ores in place that have been widely known and 
used for many years. 

Below is given an estimate of the total copper produc- 
tion for 1911 by companies in the United States, according 
to Hayden. Stone & Company. 

Estimated Production 


Ahnieek 15,000,000 

Allouez 4,800,000 

Anaconda 225,000,000 

British Columbia 10,000,000 

Calumet & Arizona 50,000,000 

( 'alumet & Hecla 75,500,000 

( liino '50,000,000 

I upper Range 31,000,000 

Bast Butte 12,000,000 

I Ireene-Cananea 45,600,000 

Isle Rovale 7,200,01)0 

Miami *3S,000,000 

Mohawk 11,800,000 

Nevada Consolidated 62,300,01111 

North Butte 25,000,000 

Old Dominion 25,000,000 

Osceola 18,200,000 

Phelps, Dodge & Co 132.0110. I 

Quincy 22.500.000 

Ray Consolidated '80,000,000 

Shannon 14,500,000 

Superior I 'upper 3,200,1)1111 

Tamarack 7,500,000 

Tennessee 12,500,1)1)11 

Utah Consolidated 8,000,000 

Utah Copper 95,000,000 

Wolverine 9,700.000 

'Estimated total capacity. 

Considerations of space forbid reference to many details 
of mechanical equipment. The Messiter electric weigher 
appears to have successfully solved the problem of keeping 
an accurate and continuous record of the weight of the mill 
leed. and is already coming into extensive use. The han- 
dling and feeding of ore and concentrate at Cananea, is 
elsewhere referred I" by L. S. Austin, and is of so much 
interest that it is hoped to make it the basis of a later 
separate article. The number of plants wdiere extensive 
new construction was installed or completed during the 
year was unusually large. The Tooele smelter of the Inter- 
national Smelting & Refining Co., was blown in during 1910, 
but construction has been in progress this year, though 
chiefly confined to the two new lead stacks, now in process 

i "Mining ami Scientific Press, December 16, 1911, p. 772. 
«e« anil Methods, January to December, 1911. 

Jamiarv 8, 1912 


i-l ion. Tliin plain lm* Bve 19 bj 102 

The plan) of ■ In' 1 irit i-li Columbia Coppei 

wood, ».i~ bnill upon the - rormer plant, tl" 

ruction being Bve months. This plant 

lira (8 bj SCO in. blast mil one I s by 240-in., 

having a imelting capacity oi 3400 tone per day. The Raj 

ilidated Copper Co, bad a 1800 ton imelting plant 

under construction at Hayden, Arizona, but arranges 

bave recently been made by which this plant baa been 

I to the American Smelting A: Refining Co., and 

the new scope of work baa necessitated some changes in 

design. Tins plant should be in operation early in 1012. 

The Mason Valley Mines Co. smelter, at Wabnska, Nevada, 

has two 42 by 300 in. blast-furnaeea. The ground for this 

plant was broken bite in 1990, and it was expected to blow ' 

in lati ber 191 1. 

II li> 180 in. Ml 

rision has been made for !«•• i ire found di 

The Cop] ■ baa under construe 

ii. in at Copper Creek, Graham county, Arizona, ■ I i 
matting furnace and a 75-ton reverberatory fumaoa. The 
moat important new construction now on fool is the Dew 
plant of tb Copper Co., at Clifton, Arizona, l-'ull 

details of the design are not yel available, but the plant 
will handle approximately 1,000,000 tons of ore per year, 

in reverberatory>furni s, L. D. Rieketts is consulting 

engineer. The following table, revised from one published 
in 'Mineral Resources of the United States tor 1910,' by 

B. S. Butler, may be of interest. It si 1. 1 be noted that 

the list includes only plants which treal material derived 
from the United States, 




Final copper product. 



('lift. .a 


Globe . . 
Jerome . . . . 
Morenci . . . . 
California : 
Campo Seco 
Martinez . . . 


Maryland: Baltimore 
Michigan : 




Montana : 



Great Falls 

Nebraska : Omaha 

Nevada : McGill 

New Jersey : * 




Perth Amboy 

New York : 

Klaek Rock 

Laurel Hill 




Texas : El Paso 




Virginia: West Norfolk... 
Washington : Taeoma .... 

British Columbia : 


Grand Forks 



Aguasealientes: Aguascal- 


Arizpe, Sonora 

Arizona Copper Co 

Shannon Copper Co 

Calumet & Arizona Mining Co 

Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co 

Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co. 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co 

United Verde Copper Co 

I let n 'it Copper Mining Co 

1'enn Chemical Works 

Mammoth Copper Mining Co 

Mountain Copper Co 

General Chemical Company of California.. 

Needles Smelting & Refining Co 

Baltimore Copper Smelting & Rolling Co.f. 

Lake Superior Smelting Co.. 

Quincy Mining Co 

Michigan Smelting Co 

Calumet & Ileela Mining Co. 

Washoe Copper Co 

East Butte Copper Mining Co 

Boston & Montana Consolidated Copper & Silver Mining Co 

American Smelting & Refining Co 

Stcptoe Valley Mining & Smelting Co 

United States Metals Refining Co. 
American Smelting & Refining Co. 
Balbach Smelting & Refining Co. . 
Raritan Copper Works 

Buffalo Smelting Works. 
Nichols Copper Co 

Tennessee Copper Co 

Ducktown Sulphur, Copper & Iron Co. 
American Smelting & Refining Co 


Garfield Smelting Co.f 

International Smelting & Refining 

Virginia Smelting Co 

Taeoma Smelting Co.f 


Tyee Copper Co. (Ltd.) 

Granby Consolidated Mining. Smelling & Power Co. 
British Columbia Co., Ltd 

American Smelting & Refining Co. 
Greene-Cananea Copper Co 





Anodes and lake 


Blister and electrolytic 

Electrolytic and casting 


Electrolytic and casting 


Lake and electrolytic 
Electrolytic and casting 


Blister and matte 



•This list does not include a smelter in New Jersey and one in Pennsylvania, both of which make blister from ma- 
terial solely of foreign origin. 
fSubsidiary of American Smelters Securities Company. 



January l>. 10U 

Cost of Developing Public Coal Lands 

By James li 

*In any revision of the coal-land laws, three questions 
will have i" be considered: ill The quantity which should 
be allotted to a single entryman or corporation; 12) the 
terms under which tire Government should part with its 
eoal resonn r by out and out sale, by lease, or on 

payment of a royalty; (3) the price which should be paid 
by a purchaser, a renter, or a worker on royalty. The de- 
cision of these questions is more or less interdependent. If 
a certain amount of coal must he secured in advanci 

warrant the expenditure of the eapilal necessary t iuc 

the eoal. and to handle il as eoal or coke commercially 
when brought to the surface, and if this outlay is i 
repaid, with a reasonable rate of profit to cover interest 

and risk, the 0] ISl Start with the 

certain minimum supply of coal. Whs hould 

ds upon the size of the beds, and tin- initial out 
lay to utilize to ill'- best advantage the property. In the 
following estimate I assume that 50% should be deducted 
from the estimated coal content of any given area of coal 
land, in d - and that 10,000 acres, or 

4(1 years' supply at l .nun. nun ions per annum, is the mini- 
mum which should he allowed to a corporation willinj 

safe and economical works and er|uip its mines with 
every known safety appliance. 

I outlay includes the cost of the surface equip- 
ment, which in the West, where the Government coal land- 
lie, must be cosily if it is to he efficient. Based upon ex- 
perience at Dawson, New Mexico, the following estn 
of the value of coal land, baaed on one acre of lain) 
tabling 8000 tons of coal, may hi' made: 

10,000 SO.IIIHI.OOII tons coal 

Deduct oil', for ii>k of mining, land will 
yield 40,000,000 Bcoal 

Net yield per acre 1,000 Ions coal 

Royalty per ton 8c. 

Royally pel acre $320 

Number of ions mined per year 1,000,000 tons 

to exhaust 40 

Total. Ion coal. 

10,000 acr. 10 per acre $3,200,000 S.OOc. 

« lost of plant 1,979,264 4.04c 

Interest on plant investment, at 5% per 
annum, equals $98,963 per year for 
4ti years 3,958,520 9.90c. 

cost $9,137,784 22.84c. 

Payment of 10,000 acres in advance. 
I 'tie dollar compounded at 6% per annum for 411 


Royalty of $320 $10.29 equals present worth per 

:u .1 

Total. ton coal. 

10,000 i icre $ 311,000 0.78c. 

■i 1,979,264 4.04c. 

5% per 
annum, equals pet year for 
40 year- • 3,958,520 9.1 

Total cost $6,248,78 1 15.62c. 

The value of coal in situ may lie assumed to he detir- 
niined by the royalty demanded in any given district for 
eoal to he extracted. In Colorado, uncomplicated by store 

i. If, there- 
' acre in the Trinidad district yields on : ,n 
8000 tons of coal, .■in,] the royally is 8c. per ,. 
value of the coal in the ground is $640 If the 

i and out , the compound interest calcu 

•Portion of an address delivered before the Amern 
ing Congress at Chicago. 

lated mi the prjae and the number of years necessary to work 
mil an area large enough to return the purchaser a fair 
remuneration for his investment, compensation for his risk, 
and pn te enterprise as a business venture, must be 


In determining the cost of coal, the fixed charges I in 
this ease estimated at 15.62c. per ton) should be taken into 
account as well as lie charges. Inasmuch as the 

plant has to he maintained in perfect working order until 
the exhaustion of the mines, it seems to me that the cost, 
as well as the interest on the cost, generally represented by 
interest on a bonded debt, should be included in the lixed 
charges. This certainly should he done, unless il is ex- 
tinguished by a sinking fund during the life of the mine. 
Mining costs are likely to he more rather than less in the 
future, because the mines must lie deeper and gn 
cautions must be taken to insure safely for the men. 

If the' Government should lease the coal, reserving the 
surface rights, and the same requirements as to initial out- 
lay were either imposed or voluntarily acquiesced in. the 
rental being a men- annual payment and not imposed on 
the producer in advance, would be calculated on the acr 
value of the eoal. exclusive of Ihe deductions for discount. 
But in considering the other alternatives, such as allowing 
the coal t" l;c mined on royally or rental, objections may be 
d against both systems. If 8c. per ion he a fair valua- 
li f coal in the gr id. the Government would seem- 
ingly gel all il was entitled to by accepting thai amount: 
but under this system the miner has every inducement to 
mine cheaply and thus wastefully, and to rob tin- mine of 
its best and more profitable coal. 

Under the rental system, which could he based on the 
calculation of the eoal ill a given area, less the deductions 
above. I lie lessee, as he approached the period of ex- 
haustion, would he paying an exorbitant figure on the bal- 
ance of the value and would be inclined to evade payment. 

Would not a fair system be to charge a small rental on 
the total area and a reduced royalty on the eoal extracted? 
Assuming in. nun acres to he the required area and 8c. per 
Ion to be a fair royalty, would not a rental of, say "fl per 
acre on Ihe gross acreage, or say .fill. (Hill per annum, and 
4 or 5e. per ton royalty, be equitable? This would secure 
in the miner lus necessary reserves and give to the Govern- 
ment the value of the coal in place. 

The above suggestions are thrown out as subjects lor 
discussion; but I lie conclusion forces itself strongly on my 
conviction that if a satisfactory revision of our land laws 
is to be reached, the farmer, the miner, the lumberman, and 
the banker must be consulted before the politician acts. 
The eoal miner alone knows the conditions and restrictions 
under which eoal can be extracted with safety to the work- 
man, with profit to tin' operator, and justice to the public; 
(he metal miner and the mining engineer alone appreciate 
Ihe impossibility "I literally living up to the letter of the 
old mining law, and the lumberman is certainly entitled to 
be heard before such sweeping judgments are passed upon 
him as we have heard pronounced of late veal's. Repre- 
sentatives of all the interests who actually occupy the public 
should sit upon a committee to suggest revision of 
the laws affecting Ihe sale and the use of the public lands 
after sale, if such amended laws are to be practicably ap- 

Coal Output in 1911 

Coal production in the United stales in Hill is estimated 
by E. W. Parker, of ihe United State- Geological Survey, 
in have amounted to 411(1,000,000 tons. This is less by 
11,000.1100 tons than in 1010. Of Ihe total. 406.000.(100 ton's 
was bituminous coal. The year was oj £ low prices, ore- 
production, and extremely unsatisfactory business. 




Proposed Revision of Alaskan Mining Laws 

By F. 

In tin' luio tummai ..i 191 1 l lie 

iiikI Metall 

tri.iii ili.' ' .mil Mining of the I' 

\\" . i - 1 1 1 1 1 ■_: i . ■ 1 1 . asking stionx 

oi tin mining lam of Alasks. A- 11 

idle in have these data in time for the assembling 

ber, the secretary referred the matter 

to tli<' Philadelphia aeetion of the Society, knowing thai 

among its members were some "t the ablest coal mining 

in ili«- w.iii, 1. Tin- Philadelphia section held w\ 
end meetings during September and October for the pur- 
poae •■! considering the matter. The outcome of the conse 
qoenl discnarion was ■ reporl prepared by a committee 
consisting of Eli T. Conner, William Qrifflth, li. II. San- 
ders, and myself. This reporl was later approved by the 

Philadelphia members ami. after discussion by a 1 imittee 

••I' tin' Council "I' tin' Society, submitted for vote of all 
the members in tin' following form, in which is embodied 
a number of minor changes from the original draft: 

1. It is essential for the proper 
development of Alaska that Its coal- 
fields in' opened for commercial use 
without further delay. 

2. There arc now known to exist 
but two relatively small fields con- 
taining high-grade naval fuel, ami In- 
asmuch as the Government now pos- 
sesses no original source ot such 
ply on the Pacini I'. last, it is di 
ble, In the Interests of national de 
fense. that a selected area of these 
fields be held anil operated under the 
direct control of the Government. 

3. All rights which have accrued 
legally under statutes heretofore ex- 
isting should be recognized. 

4. If it be decided by the Congress 
that it is to the best interests of pub- 
lic welfare that coal lands 1n Alaska 
be leased, we recommend that the fol- 
lowing conditions should be embodied 
In the leases; (A) These leases 
should be made for all the coal in the 
ground: (B) The royalty should be 
low and based on percentage of sell- 
ing price of the coal at the mines: 
(C) The minimum annual production 
upon which royalty Is to be paid 
should be nominal for the first two 
or three years after the execution of 
the lease. In order to permit and en- 
courage the installation of efficient 
and durable equipment, after that 
period the minimum production upon 
which the royalty should be paid 

should increase more rapidly that the area increases (for 
example; the minimum production upon which royalty 
should be paid on a tract of 5000 acres should be several 
times more per acre than for 1000 acres) — such a plan 
would prevent the tying up of large areas of undeveloped 
coal territory; (D) A due-diligence and forfeiture clause to 
effect continuous work should be included in the lease; 
IE I Leasehold in coal lands should Include all neces- 
sary timber, mining, and surface rights; (F) Leases 
should not be given for less than 40 acres, and in shape 
should be rectangular, their boundaries being east and west 
and north and south, and after the system of public surveys 
has been extended to Alaska and the land applied for is in 
a surveyed township, the unit areas of a lease should be 
those established by the Government survey as subdivisions 
of the sections; (G) The tract of land embraced within a 
single lease should not be more than three times as long 
as its width. 

5. It should be clearly recognized as a basic principle 
that the value to the Nation of coal-lands in Alaska lies 
more in their use for industrial, commercial, and naval pur- 
poses than in the royalties to be derived therefrom, and 
it is desirable that the revenue obtained from coal royalties 
inure to the benefit of the Territory. 

The Secretary of the Interior, W. L. Fisher, in his 
address before the American Mining Congress at Chicago. 
October 17, 1911, evidently thought well of the conclusions 

of the Pennsylvania engineers, for be added them verbatim 
in Ins address, which was afterward pnbliabed by the 1 
Bureau • •! Mines, in Bulletin Mo. 38. Thi 

the Philadelphia section, in carefully 1 sidering ail tin- 

best available informs lean eondil 

si in the conclusion thai the extent ami Milne of the 

coalfields in thai meat domain bad 1 n unwittingly • 

{rented, and thai the public had a false notion as to then 
worth. The beds ami -rams are not only much crashed 
ami disturbed, bnl the average quality and grade of the 
•••■:il is distinctly inferior to thai of Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. It is true the Bering River and Main 
Duska Balds contain -mum- relatively -mall areas of 1 1 i -_r i ■ 
grade coal, both anthracite and bituminous, but the extent, 
depth, and uniformity of these beds is absolutely on 
known at the present time. Politics ha- befogged the 
whole question; mistaken deductions of geologists, on 
checked and unrevised by any competent mining engineer, 
have been rushed into the print by the sensational press 

COALFIELDS OF ai.aska. (After TJ. S. Geological Survey.) 

under the banner of 'Conservation', until the very word 
has become offensive in some quarters, whereas with sensible 
people it should be .1 synonym for foresight and common 
sense. The truth is the mining and mineral laws of t he- 
whole United States are antiquated and need revision, and 
real conservation may be best accomplished in that way. 
Alaska is a good place to begin, it is perfectly 
true, as M. L. Requa has pointed out, 1 that it will probably 
be many years before the coal of Alaska can be assured 
of a market outside of local demand; certainly at feast 
not until the superabundant supply of California oil is 
greatly reduced. One exception in regard to this state- 
ment must be noted, that is, in regard to fuel for the 
Navy. Unless fuel oil comes to be used almost exclusively 
on the war-vessels in Pacific Coast waters, the Government 
has no original source of supply of suitable fuel except 
certain small areas in the Bering River and Matanuska 

The suggestion that the Government open and operate 
these fields for Naval purposes and to supply a limited 
outside demand, makes evident some differences of opinion. 

'Mining and Scientific Press, November IS. 1911. 



January fj, 1912 

That the Government is justified, under the peculiar eir- 
enmstances indicated, not only in opening collieries, but 

in building railways to bring the i I to market, was the 

view of the ei nittees and others concerned in tins discus- 
sion. Surely no corporation or individual would be justi- 
fied in making such a large investment as is necessary 
under the present conditions, even alter new and satisfac- 
tory mining laws were enacted. To open the eoal would 
he an exceedingly expensive undertaking and should be 
part of a greater plan for development by building of a 
through trunk line of railway from the coast to the upper 
Yukon. In the present undeveloped and unsettled state 
of Alaska, this can only he done by the Government; the 
climatic and physical conditions are too uninviting to tempt 
private enterprise. At best the profits of such an under- 
taking will be remote, though probably sure in the end: 
individuals or a corporation could hardly afford to wait 
perhaps fifty years for an adequate return upon their in- 
vestment, whi ntui'v is not a long span in 
the life of a nation. This, if you like, is paternalism, hut 
ressary for governments to be paternal 
and take the initiative when it is desired to make the 
waste places of the earth blossom ami two blades of grass 
<rrow where there was before but one. In other words. 
without Federal aid, the development of Alaska is eertain 
to be painfully slow, and probably would be effected only 
with great waste of capital and effort. 

The leasing system advocated by the Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society may at first sight appear objetionable 
to some Western miners and mine-owners, they being gen- 
erally unaccustomed to the idea. It may not always lie 

f t tint the plan proposed by the Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society lor all the coal in the ground is in reality 
a sale as far as the coal is concerned, since no time limit 
is set. An operator, knowing he has a large tonnage of to depend upon, may take his own time in mining it. 
and hence is likely to equip his property with substantial 
and enduring machinery and buildings, and lay out his 
underground work in the best manner, feeling sure that 
in the end it will he most economical and conducive to 
efficiency and preventive of waste. Another advantage 
of such a lease is that no large payment of money is nec- 
essary at the outset in order to acquire title from the 
Government. The price of the property, or rather the eoal. 
is represented by the royalty, whose payment is an annual 

nl of the operating cost, depending upon the quan- 
tity of the coal taken out. The royalty rate should he 
small, and in such a case will hardly be felt by the opera- 
tor; no amortization charge for his investment other than 
for equipment will be necessary on the part of the opera- 
tor, yet the Government will be receiving a fair and just 

sation for the public's property, and the feeling 
that it is giving away for nothing valuable public domain 
need not be entertained. Similar leasing systems have 
existed for years in many foreign countries, and have been, 
on the whole, found to be most satisfactory. It is. in 
my opinion, the only logical system of acquiring title to 
public mineral lands of all kinds: provided, of course, the 
regulations affecting it are based upon sound and liberal 

- principles. They should obviously he Bond 
upon the character of the risk the lessee assumes. Thus. 
tor example, the hazard is much greater in gold mining 
or drilling for oil than in equipping and operating the 
colliery upon a well defined coal bed. it is perhaps need- 
less to point out the grave defects in our present archaic 
mining laws. In some respefts they were good for the 
country fifty years ago, but the statute (Sec. 2322) giving 
extralateral rights to the locator or owner nf the surface 
has never been and never can be anything bi t an ignorant 
and litigious enactment, a reflection upon our national in- 
telligence and practical good sense. 

Mr. Fisher's views on the Alaska coal question, which 
presumably reflect those of the Administration, are appar- 
ently set forth in the Chicago address above 
In this document he advocates the building a 
by the Government of railways in Alaska. The physical 

-Mining and Scientific Press, November 25, 1911. 

and climatic conditions of this vast Territory are, on the 
whole, so adverse, that it is highly improbable private 
enterprise will venture unaided into such undertakings for 
many years to come. But it will be argued, has not pri- 
vate enterprise already built 195 miles of railroad over 
river and glacier from Cordova to Kennicott, on the Chi- 
tina river? This is true, and it is likewise true this rail- 
way cost its builders about twenty millions of dollars. The 
tion why it was ever built may perhaps be best an- 
swered by those responsible for its construction. Suppos- 
edly it was intended chiefly as an outlet for the Bonanza 
copper deposits at Kennicott owned by the same interests, 
and for whatever incidental business might be obtained by 
the development of neighboring mineral properties. It has 
been stated, however, that the Bonanza is but a "third- 
class property, a sort of copper-plated gold brick, in that 
an interior core of limestone is surrounded by phenomen- 
ally high-grade bornite and copper glance, and that no 
competent mining man who has visited this property ever 
has estimated the amount of ore developed and safely in- 
ferred as capable of yielding more than 100,000,000 lb. of 
finished copper; a total production equivalent to only one 
year's maximum output by any one of the six leading cop- 
per mines of the world." "The gross value of all the cop- 
per contained in the Bonanza mine, taking the outside 
estimate of tonnage, is considerably less than the lowest 
estimate of cost of this railway, and the net profits deriva- 
ble from the Bonanza mine, cannot, by the most liberal 
figuring, be estimated at more than $4,000,000 to $5,000,- 
000." 3 Assuming this statement to be correct — but which 
I personally doubt — it is difficult to understand how hard- 
headed, experienced business men can be credited with the 
tolly of spending this large sum for a railway that has 
no assured traffic. It has been suggested this may be a 
deep-laid scheme to sell the railway to the Government as 
part of a national trunk-line project to the upper Yukon 
river. But, as has been pointed out, it would be much 
better, in such event, that the Government begin this trunk 
line or continue the existing line from Seward or Resur- 
rection hay, passing through the Matanuska coalfields on 
to Fairbanks and its destination, wherever that may be. 
Evidently such a road would be enormously costly, but it 
would undoubtedly give an immense impulse to the coun- 
try's development. 

Speaking of the extension by the Government of the 
existing railway from Seward to the interior, Mr. Fisher 
says : 

I believe this road should be continued on to the coalfields 
and beyond them to the interior, and that if private In- 
terests do not care to undertake the task the Government 
itself should do so. The situation here is not like that in 
the Copper River country. No large financial interests are 
back of the railroad: no large investments have been made 
which it will be necessary for private interests to protect. 
Such a railroad as I have suggested will pass through a 
country which appears to have large agricultural possibili- 
ties as well as great mineral resources. These possibilities 
and resources, however, will require time for their develop- 
ment. The adoption of a leasing policy will take away 
from the promoters of such a road the lure of great gain 
from the exploitation of the coalfields. This exploitation 
clearly should be prevented in the public interest. But at 
the same time the Government must recognize that if it 
withdraws from private capital this incentive for railroad 
construction, the Government itself must assume the obli- 
gation of making possible that kind of development upon 
which it insists for the general good. It has been urged 
that the Government should meet this objection by guar- 
anteeing the payment of bonds or the interest on bonds 
equal to the cost of the construction of the road. I can 
see no advantage whatever in this policy. If the Govern- 
ment is to guarantee the cost of construction, I see no 
reason why the Government should not own the road out- 
right, whether it operates it or leases to an operating com- 

Referring, however, to Government ownership of coal 
mines, he does not take quite the same view as the Mining 
and Metallurgical Society, for he says : 

Unlike the Government' ownership of railroads, public 
coal mining has never been held by the courts to be a 
function of Government. It would be regarded by many 

^Horace J. Stevens, Mining and Scientific Press, November 
4, 1911, p. 585. 

January 6. 1913 



»re and dlMnliM' ns as an Invasion of the 

rtrlil of prl would Involve luch general 

and uncompromising VSH those a 1»»» believe 

Id It" adoption aa a principle thould not Insist 

upon ilflelds of Alaska until tin 

BOmli :">i» tlmt arc Involved In || 

■ Daldi bar* been fougbl out to 
a pr . n Thv trua function ol government 

non \>( public order or thi regu- 
lation of tin- eonducl of Individuals, but the carrying on 
of any enterprise which win promote the welfare ol the 
community as it whole more effectively if carried on by 
the " community than if left to the voluntary 

action of ImllvMual mefflberi of the community. Hut to 

determine whether a particular activity answers thi 

depends In every Instance on a final ami complete analysis 

involving a consideration not only of Immediate reeulta, 
but of the Bar-reaching consequencea upon humanity ami 
upon the social order. While, therefore, much can lie said 
In fnvor of permitting the Government to enter experi- 
mentally Into those fields upon which Industrial develop- 
ment and the welfare of society depend, which perhaps 

may In the future Include the development and distribution 
of power and the means by which power may lie created. 
I do not believe that the Government alone should preempt 
those fields or exclusively assume their development until 
It becomes far clearer than it is today that their develop- 
ment by private enterprise cannot be effectively controlled. 
For this reason I am opposed to the policy of having the 
Government alone own and mine Alaskan coal. 

The views of the Mining ami Metallurgical Society on 
this phase of the subject arc fairly set forth in Section - 
of the above recommendations. The contention here is 
that the Government should control the best coal in the 
Matanuska and Bering River fields in the interest of na- 
tional defense. Having drawn this clause myself, I have 
naturally followed with interest the discussion of it which 
took place in committee and council meetings. The im- 
piuooion I received as a consequence of the debate was 
that the majority of the members do not think the Gov- 
ernment, under the circumstances, will be assuming too 
much in opening these coalfields in this way. The infer- 
ence bains;, in my own mind, as it appeared to be in that 
of other members, that the Government could and would 
be justified in selling such proportion of the high-grade 
coal produced at its collieries as exceeded the demands of 
the Navy. In this way the development of these coalfields 
will be assured and pressing local needs provided; at the 
same time these collieries would be opened in a proper 
manner, provided with the best equipment, and become 
an object-lesson to future operators in the territory. 

If the mineral laws in the United States need revision, 
and it is pretty generally admitted they do, Alaska is a 
good place in which to begin. The number of existing 
rights already established there under the present laws is 
relatively small, but whenever it can be shown they have 
been honestly and legally acquired they should unquestion- 
ably be confirmed. If owners will agree to revision — such, 
for example as an abolition of the extralateral right — all 
the better for them and even-one else, except possibly the 
lawyers. After an effectual scheme for the revision of 
the mineral laws is worked out and successfully applied to 
Alaska, I believe the results will be so satisfactory that 
a general revision for the whole country will be demanded. 
K is certainly true, as George Otis Smith, the director of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, pointed out in his address 
before the San Francisco section of the Mining and 
Metallurgical Society on October 16, 1011. that "at the 
present time we are develoning oil land with a law that 
was made, not exactly to help gold mining, but apparently 
to control and keep gold mining from going ahead too fast. 
It did not promote gold mining, and it is the worst kind 
of a law for oil development. Our general mineral-land 
law antedates the present knowledge of either geology or 
the technology of the industry and is completely out of 

When, in the history of the country, was there better 
opportunity for this revision than now? The U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, the Bureau of Mines, the Mining Congress, 
and the Mining and Metallurgical Society are all interested 
and willing to advise upon, and even initiate, reforms 
affecting the welfare of the mining industry. 

«M. & M. Soc. Amer.. Bull. 41, p. 213. 

Mining in China, 1911 


Full details in regard to the mineral production and 
resources of China were given in the Mining ami Seitntifte 

and November II. I'.MI, and it is 
unnecessary to do more than add a tew holes upon mai- 
lers oi more recenl occurrence. easily the most 
important is the abrogation "i the concession of the Byn 

dleat ilu Yunnan, Ltd., an Anglo -l-'rench company which 
held the mining rights over an area of 10,000 sq. mi. in 

Yunnan. In addition to iis mining rights, th mpany 

possessed a ooncession for railroad budding, hut in the 
present temper of the Chinese people the exercise of ihis 
right was not within the bounds of possibility, and the 
company has wisely agreed to surrender its concession Cor 

a consideration of 1 ,0110.1 11 HI tads (approximately $1,000,- 

000) payable in half-yearly installments of 350,000 tads 
cadi. The company was organized in 1890 with a cap 
ital of £35,000, and held a 60-year concession (renewable 
for 25 years more), but has been unable to accomplish 
much, on account of popular opposition in Yunnan. Most 
of the foreign mining concessions in China (with the nota- 
ble exceptions of the Chinese Engineering & Mining Co., 
the Sehantung Bergbau Gesellscliafl. and the Peking Syndi- 
cate) have now been canceled, and there is little probability 
that any new ones will he granted. 

A recent report from Tai-yuen-fu is to the effect that 
commercial quantities of petroleum have been found in 
the neighborhood and that a company of local merchants 
will be organized to develop it. If the report is true, 
it greatly extends the area in which petroleum is known 
to occur in western China. It begins to seem probable 
that the general area between 3(1° and 40° N. lat. and 102° 
and 112° K. long, may eventually develop into a petroleum- 
producing territory of some importance. 

Statistics from China are always a year old, at least, 
the Han-Ych-P'ing Iron & Coal Co., which operates iron 
mines at Ta-yeh, in Hupei. collieries and coking plant at 
P'ing-hsiang, in Kiangsi, and blast-furnaces, steel plant, 
and rolling mills at Hanyang, near Hankow, reports that 
during 1910 it produced 130,000 tons of pig iron, of which 
29,000 tons was sold in Japan and 15,000 tons in the 
United States; presumably nearly all of the remainder was 
converted into steel at the plant. The colliery produced 
160,000 tons of coke and a total of 610,000 tons of coal 
during the year. In addition, an unreported amount of 
iron ore, probably about 100,000 tons, was exported to 
Japan, and a smaller amount to the Pacific Coast of the 
United States. It is not probable that the works at 
Hanyang have been much injured during the revolution, 
and they will probably be able to resume work soon after 
conditions again become quiet. 

The Sehantung Bergbau Gesellschaft reports that during 
1910-11 it produced 237,544 tons of coal at Hung-shan, 
and 194,897 tons at the Fangtse mine. The operating 
profit was 247,719 marks which, by the payment of in- 
terest and amortization charges, is converted into a loss 
of nearly 600,000 marks. The Chinese Engineering & Min- 
ing Co., on the other hand, is a very profitable enterprise, 
having produced 1,117,312 tons of coal in 1910, at a profit 
of approximately $1 per ton. The neighboring Lanchow 
mines, however, which were organized under Government 
auspices about two years ago, and which have been equipped 
to produce 4000 to 5000 tons per day, are only producing 
about 1200 tons per day and seem unable to operate at a 

Mining in China will be greatly interrupted by the revo- 
lutionary outbreak, and normal production can scarcely be 
resumed for some time. At the time of writing, the out- 
look is gloomy, and a speedy restoration of quiet seems 
quite unlikely. The famine in central China threatens to 
become more serious during the coming winter than during 
the past one, and combined with the long interruption of 
trade in the interior, will tend to produce a year of 
marked depression in 1912. 


January 6, 1912 

Mines of the Southern Sierras of California and Nevada 

By Mark B. Kkiik 

The eastern escarpment of the Siena Nevada range, 
between California and Nevada, marks a tremendous faull 
culminating particularly in the greal drop into the Mono 

Lake basin. A line drawn in a genera] northwest course 
projected through the cciiic of lakes Tahoe and Mono, 
would strike through the Sierras and touch most of the 
gold-quartz mines that have been heretofore prospected 
along this great mountain mass: hut in the northern coun- 
i'laeer. Nevada. Sierra, and Plumas, the hold quartz 
i - are situated generally on the western side of the 
while in the southern counties of Alpine, Mono, 
and Inyo the quartz veins are in the heart of the uplift 
or near the eastern escarpment. The veins of the l'linnns- 
Kureka district, at Allegheny in Sierra, and in the Wash- 
ington district in Nevada county have been extensively ex- 
plored and have been repeatedly described; but the 

The valleys of this region range in elevation from 6000 
lo 8000 ft. abore sea-level, and the snowfall begins early 
and soon blocks the mails. The season is short, and all 
winter supplies, of any hulk whatever, must be hauled in 
and the plant made snug and protected to withstand these 
heavy .-tonus. This renders prospecting and mining. ex- 
pensive and difficult. The ranges east of Mono lake all 
have the same approximate strike parallel to the crest of 
the Sierras, and form, in reality, a portion of the struc- 
ture of the i iicai Basin plateau. The quartz outcrops are 
bold, ami the veins mark great dynamic disturbance, the 
ore deposits generally being along fracture planes or fault 
fissures. While in some places these veins are not in gran- 
ite, but along contacts of either porphyry or slate with 
granite, the same general structure exists, ami signs of great 
volcanic activity are much in evidence. Toward the east 



more southerly counties are still comparatively unexplored 
and inaccessible. 

A Stale wagon-road from the fosemite by way of Hetch 
Hetchy and the Tioga mining district has just been finished 
alter years of delay, but packhorses must still be used 
-iip trails by those desirous of prospecting or 
camping out in this region. In winter the heavy snows 
accumulate and avalanches frequently rush down the steep 
eastern escar] i l.undv, a little mining village 

near Mono hike, such an avalanche hisl year not only de- 
stroyed this village, tint completely demolished the neigb- 
r-plant, and all were killed except the wife 

superintendent. The g i , eople of Bodie, after 

a gallant fight in the storm, came over the mountains some 
twenty miles on skee, and brought out the only survivor, 

who was dazed and not in fori 1 of her husband's death 

a I'd. 

lake, a body of water about fifteen miles wide, is 

sink about 6500 ft. above sea-level, tts 

shores are covered with sancjand pumice, but irrigation 

■ and manj its, with horses and cattle 

grazing, stand oul i the otherwise general desola- 

■• was formerly fresh ami of 

much greater extent, the oat let at one time hem- through 

a low gap toward Hawthorne, Nevada, but the waters nov 

contain a strong sulphate of 

soda with chloride of sodiui . Two .-lands have formed 

near the centre of the lake, and at the southeast corner 

of the largest one, - two miles from north 

p. south, steam issui of ci inch can 

be seen extending 

cools when exposed to the air and is precipitated on the 
island in springs of good fresh water. 

is the Excelsior mountain mass, ranging from 6000 to 8000 
ft. in height. Along the summits toward Mina, veins of 
silver-lead are found. 

Numerous large sinks with steep sides, generally of 
basaltic dill's, are found irregularly over this region, such 
as Adobe meadows, Huutoon and Whiskey valleys. These 
are now dry and have no outlet. Gold is found at many 
points, and still farther eastward are desert valleys be- 
tween isolated mountain ranges. Until the mines of Ton- 
Opah and Goldfield were discovered these were as little 
known as the deserts of Gobi or Takla Makan. The bot- 
toms of these valleys are occupied mostly by borax and 
sail marshes, s climes fifteen or twenty miles wide, with- 
out a shred of grass and only an occasional bunch of sage- 
brush, but yet patience and hard work can utilize these 
sails and make them of commercial value. 

The extended view is the great fascination of these des- 
erts, the outlook being only limited by the surrounding high 
ranges. The outcrops are so well defined that it requires 
lil ilr imagination lo project the different veins to some 
intersection in depth, and greater chances may be taken 
in suggesting possible orebodies in a country like this where 
the direction of the veins is so easily traced by the out- 
crop, than is permissible in a wooded country where little 
of llie surface is exposed. For the pioneers who penetrate 
llicsc deserts, suffering from heat and thirst in the hot 
summers and exposed lo the winter blizzards, only admira- 
tion can lie expressed, for in many eases prospecting and 
hard work reveal that the grade of the ore is too low to 
pay. The output of such camps as Tonopah and Gold- 
field, where over a million a month each in gold and silver 
is regularly produced, however, lures the miner and jrro- 
moter on to further efforts. The light-colored limestones 


witli tin- different colored sulphide one, nil a 


iphirall,v describe tb« 
pon ilu' pioi 
In ihr aoutbarn | ii„. ..,,1,1 „,„„... yielded ili.-ir 

output between 1871 and 1884, whan tbe Bodie 

'i' 11 " ■ ■■ yearly more than 12,1 ,000. The mines 

tbe activity al Bodie, yielded a prose 
output oi I The Tioga lodes, al the h* 

Leevinina and aan be traced tor long .li> 

tancee, bul since tbe Qreal Bierra eompany, in 1880, built 
the expensive wagon road, over 50 miles long, from Crock 
an by waj of Ink.' Teoaya, little baa bean done. The ore 
earriea oonaiderable silver. The May Lundy mine is end 
itod with .. yield of $2,000,000 and is now under bond to 
ilu- Tonopah Mining Co. The Standard mine ol Bodie 
built the Bret long line for transmitting electricity. 

1 Bap power is what is needed in these mines, for until 
tly, steam from wood furnished by the Mono 
Lake Lumber Co. was almost universally used. This lum- 
ber eompany I , bad of timber land and can 
furnish timbers for any extensive development in this re- 
gion, nt reasonable prices. The Pacific Power Co., al Jor 
.Inn, just below Lundy, has recently pul in n large al 
plant and is supplying electric power to Bodie, Aurora. 
Fairview, and Won. In-. 

Bj tar the most picturesque ..t any of these .amps is 
ai Mammoth, in the Lake mining district, and Dear the 

border of Mono and tny unties. The outcrop of the 

Mammoth lode is large. The vein lies between quartzite 
and porphyry and is heavily stained by iron oxides. Spec- 
ime "- sold ore were taken out in 1879 and 1880, 

causing great excite at The lowest adit taps the Mam 

in. uli loda (ittti ft under the outcrop, and in the past two 
years while the mill was running, the mine is credited with 
an output ..i $200,000. Numerous streams and waterfalls 
fed by the melting snows rush down the mountain slopes, 
any one of whirl , being harnessed, is capable of gen- 
erating power cheap enough to warrant further develop- 
ment in this and many other properties now abando I. 

This country is now included within the Mono National 
Forest, and restrictions as to prospecting and securing 
rights of way and the necessary timbers for mining are 
bad enough as it is. without further tinkering with the 
present laws governing mineral location. If the leasing 
system of mining claims by the Government should be 
introduced into the United States, then the Government, in 
my opinion, should also build power-plants and deliver 
water, power, and timbers al reasonable rates, tor it is 
hardly possible thai any private company would care to 
organize and develop a power scheme under a Government 
lease, as is now suggested by certain officials of the Inte- 
rior Department. The lack of steady development on 
mineral locations is the greatest objection made to present 
regulations, but if the small prospecting eompany were 

''' uraged by giving il cheaper power, water, and mining 

timbers, then in my judgment more claims would he worked 
steadily. One good paying mine gives steady employ- 
ment to many miners and quickly builds up a community, 
and the small prospector, in every case, is entitled to the 
credit of opening up the ground sufficiently to encourage 
capital to venture further. Any amendment to present 
laws should he designed to encourage more vigorous and 
steady work in these wild and almost unexplored regions. 
and to the discovery first of the mineral to be conserved. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that these southern 
Sierra mines of Mono and Inyo counties have yielded to 
date approximately about $30,000,000, and with the advent 
of cheap and effective power and better transportation 
facilities, such as are now available with tbe mines in 
the northern counties, renewed activity may be expected. 
To the sportsman, as well as the miner, the hunting and 
fishing will prove attractive, and I know of no place in 
California more interesting than this region in which to 
enjoy a summer holiday. 

Literature of Ore Deposits in 191 1 

Bj W n.riii II u 
The put.: 
a number ot works of \ itnl interest to the i 
particularly to thoai in valuing . level 

oping prospects. This neither implies any great epoch 
marking work nor a discovery ••! new law- ol ocout 
of oil's, tor the science i- a- yet in its infancy. 

oing a property sidl rely upon comparison with other 

developed deposits as a basis for judg at, bul the appli 

cations oi the searching methods of modern petrography 
m the study of polished surfaces and thin sections oi 
and of wall rocks, of the newer chemistry, and of a rec 
ognition of the true meaning of physical factors, ar.- rap 
idly developing this into e i which the apparent 

vagaries of ore deposition are seen to have definite and 
uizable causes. The present is yet a transition period 

in which the literature is still largely descriptive, with a 

few general papers dealing with principles, or giving gen 
cralizaiions to be tested by the experience ol engineers in 
the field. The bold generalizations of Horace V. Winchell' 

a year ago. have been discussed throughout the year by 
Mr. Winchel] contrasts the process pf 

superficial alteration and si n.lary enrichment in Arctic 

ami temperate regions to the distinct disadvantage of the 

former, maintaining thai in boreal climates there is less 
migration of material by solution, and secondary ores if 
formed were planed oil' by glaciation. His observations 

upon a veneer of secondary sulphides formed yearly are 
especially worthy of consideration by examining engineers, 
au.l 1 have personally observed similar crusts in British 
Columbia. His conclusions are. if sustained by experience, 

the most important announcement of recent years to the 
investing public. They may be summarized as follows: 
111 boreal regions seldom contain rich and extensive de- 
posits of secondary ore; (2) surface appearances are de- 
ceptive, and high-grade ores show a sudden decrease in 
value at a limited depth; (3) primary ores are likely to 
extend downward. In temperate zones. (1) deep-seated 
alteration is an indication of good ore below; (2) ore de- 
posits in general are more abundant in warm and temperate 
climates; (3) they are not so likely to terminate suddenly 
or change rapidly in depth. Mr. Winchell's critics have 
cited exceptions, but do not appear to have contraverted 
his sweeping generalizations. 

The 'Characteristic Features of Replacement Deposits 
and the Criteria for their Recognition',- is perhaps the 
most important single paper of the year; it certainly is 
so to the average mining engineer. Replacement deposits 
have long been recognized as erratic and difficult of esti- 
mation of value. Mr. Irving's experience lias given him 
a wide familiarity with the type, and his paper is there- 
fore valuable tor its accurate presentation of facts as well 
as the conclusions drawn. He shows that the shape of a 
replacement ore mass is due to: (1) relation to channel 
of ore-bearing solutions; (2) variations in chemical char- 
acter and structural arrangement of enclosing rock; (3) 
manner in which mineralizing waters have affected the rock; 
(4) amount of material supplied in solution. The illustra- 
tions in the paper are excellent and tell the story peculiarly 

The agency of manganese in superficial alteration and sec- 
ondary enrichment of gold deposits described by W. II. 
Emmons last year has inspired a paper on tbe origin of 
silver bonanzas in the arid regions by C. R. Keyes. 3 Mr. 
Keyes ascribes these valuable but most astonishingly erratic 
deposits to solution of the metals by salts in meteoric waters, 
particularly sodium chloride, with precipitation by the alka- 
line silicates of clay selvages of faults, shear and joint 
planes, etc. The latter process is a legitimate deduction 

I'Prospecting in the North,' Mining Magazine, Dee. 1910. 
=J. D. Irving, Econ. Oeol., September 1911; also in 'Types 
of Ore Deposits,' Mining and Scientific Press, 1911. 
■iBull. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., July 1911. 



January t>. 1912 

from the experiments made by Mr. Sullivan at the sug- 
gestion of myself, in the laboratory uf (lie V. S. Geo 
Survey, and the extensive investigations '>n days and soil 
constituents in the bureaus of the Agricultural Department, 
especially those of Milton Whitney on soil and those on 
road materials. This paper should be read by all mining 
men interested in the ore deposits of arid regions, but it 
is lacking in direct facts, and the references given to the 
work of others often prove illusive when consulted, so that 
the paper is speculative and suggestive rather than the 
presentation of proved theory. The genesis of mineralized 
sandstones, whose widespread occurrence in the United 
States, both east and west, as well as in Russia, Mexico, 
and South Ameriea. has led to many unsuccessful attempts 
to recover their metallic contents, is discussed by W. Lind- 
gren. According to him. ehaleoeite, bornite, and ehalco- 
pyrite are primary ores and, with accessory galena and 
vanadium, are typical of the deposits throughout the world. 
They are described as epigenetic and not of true sedimen- 
tary deposition. 

In the field of descriptive works there is a wide variety. 
The State geological surveys of Australia contribute several 
papers describing the ore deposits of that island continent 
which suggest comparisons with Arizona and Mexico. The 
Queensland and Western Australia geological surveys pub- 
lish bulletins which are not as widely read by mining men 
as they should be, since they are not readily accessible, and 
their important deductions are too frequently concealed in 
a mass of local description. Our own geological survey has 
contributed several volumes of permanent value, besides 
carrying out its recent policy of publishing reconnaissance 
notes on newly discovered mining districts. The monograph 
on the gold placer gravels of California, by Mr. Lindgren, 1 
is the result of twenty years of observation and study of 
these deposits by himself and other members of the Survey. 
It is a noteworthy contribution tn the subject by our fore- 
mosl living mining geologist. Cobalt's silver deposits are 

ed by R. 11, .re. who gives a Careful and cor 
scription of the rocks of the district, 5 but only hi 
rather unsatisfactory mites aD oul its ores or then 
rence. To tl ir the account by W. G. Miller" is 

full of interest, showing by maps and cross-sections (he 
relations of diabase, Hnronian, and Keewatin. He consid- 
ers the magmatic vapors from diabase the source of the 
ores, but thai surface waters working downward played 
an important part. He Bnds, however, that secondary cu- 
nt is less important than other geologists believe. 
The Huelva copper deposits of Spain have been contro- 
versial ground for geologists for many decades. Two new 
bave appeared in 1911, Collins 7 has given a pithy 
description in which he notes a popular error that the 
'I- pyrite are uniform in composi- 
tion. He has also justly called attention to the complex 
lead-zinc-cop E several of the lenses. Attention 

is als.i called to the surface, or ehaleoeite enrichment, ami 

lit of pyrite by chaleo- 
pyrite as myriads of irregular interlacing strings from 
Vmo in- «P to an inch thick. This he ascribes to crushing 
and Assuring ,wed by enrichment 

The association of cbalcopyrite with calcite, dolomite, and 
quartz is m.ted. iscribed to the intrusion 

of later basic dikes, the deep enrichment coming from the 
original cop, ,_. so i ut j ons 

now highly alkaline, depi ., and but little 

P.™ 10 A • jist and engi- 

neer, discusses the specular irofi deposits of Huelva and 
their relatiot teposits. His theory assumes 

one source for the . ! ;,,. 

sulphurous ' it or near eruptit 

cupriferous pyrite deposits in crushed zones in schist which 

<Prof. Paper No. 7?.. U. S. Geol. Surv., 'The Tertiary Grav- 
els of the Sierra Nevada of California.' by Waldemar Lind- 
gren. Washington, 1911. 

"Bull. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., 1911, p. 413. 

iBng. ami Mm. Jour.. Sept 

'H. F. Collins. 'The Pyrite Deposits of Huelva,' Mining 
Magazine. August 1911, p. 121. 

Milan Herese. Diaria de Huelva. April -I. 1(111. 

were enriched by hydroxidation in the middle portion. Sul- 
phides dissolved in acid waters formed replacement enrich- 
ment and another portion dissolved by alkalies traveled 
far from eruptive centres and formed handed complex sul- 
phide deposits. 

Tlie geologj nl the Breclfeuridge district by F. L. Man- 
is a well Miitten account of one of Colorado's lesser 
hut productive and interesting mining districts. The illus- 
trations are pertinent and the facts well presented, though 
the book is rather large and its subject-matter too varied 
to bold the average reader who is not personally interested 
in the district. An excellent example of geological obser- 
vations of general interest obtained in the course of a 
mining engineer's professional examination work is given 
in a paper by F. J. Pope on the ore-shoots of Pachuea. 
Mexico. The splendid geological report on this district by 
Ezequiel Ordonez, published by the InsHtuto Geologico 
Mexico some years ago, has given an idea of the magnitude 
of these veins, which contain what are probably the largest 
bononzas of high-grade silver ores extant today. Mr. 
Pope's 10 observations show an association of these bonanza 
ore-shoots with phases of the igneous rocks resulting from 
magmatic differentiation. Descriptions of geologically un- 
known mining camps appear in the current periodicals, 
that of Hostotipaquillo, Mexico, by S. J. Lewis 11 being 
especially timely in view of the prominence of that dis- 
trict in the past year. The gold deposits of the Philippines 
are described by H. G. Ferguson 1 - in a paper giving his 
personal experience and observations at the more important 
mines. He gives a conservative but fairly favorable view 
of the future of the industry of the Islands. The Trans- 
vaal gold deposits are described in two interesting papers. 
The first, by A. L. Hall, 13 on the Pilgrims Rest district. 
bears the imprint of 1910, but reached most readers in 
1911. This paper deals with a district yielding about two 
million in gold a year and containing 14 interbedded 'reefs' 
mostly in dolomite rocks forming the middle of the Trans- 
vaal series. The ore is a dirty white honeycombed quartz 
carrying minute particles of gold yielding $9 to $13 per 
Ion. The reefs are small, the most profitable being bul 
S to 24 in. thick. The second paper, by W. E. Bleloch," 
discusses the correlations and age of the banket deposits 
of the Rand. It is seldom that a theoretical discussion 
of this kind has such an immediate application to develop- 
ment work. The gold deposits of the Porcupine district, 
in Ontario, have been described in numerous papers in the 
Canadian Mining Journal and have been given much space 
in the technical press generally. The general geology of 
the district is relatively simple, but the gold occurrence, 
which is marvelously rich in patches in one or two mines 
and occurs in sparser quantity over several townships in 
many veins, appears to be governed by minor geologic fea- 
tures demanding close detailed study. The long-looked-for 
i! I'liugraph on the geology and ore deposits of the Lake 
Superior region, by C. R. Van Hise. 1J has at last appeared, 
and sustains the reputation of its author, whose views on 
the mining districts of this region are so well known. The 
book should be owned by every engineer interested in iron 

Tin: Etheridge Prospecting Syndicate has applied for 
two 100-acre leases on the Einasleigh river, about 2 1 * miles 
west of Hot Springs, Queensland, Australia. As this is 
about fifteen miles in a northeasterly direction from 
Georgetown, some idea may be formed of the extent of this 
great mineral-bearing belt. As a proof that there is rich 
ore existing in the deep ground on this field, recently a 
solid mineral specimen was taken from the Durham Con- 
sols mine at the 750-ft. level. The mineral weighs a little 
over 7 lb., and coarse gold can be seen all over it. 

"Prof. Paper No. 68, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1911. 

h. Oeoh, 1911, p. 501. 
"Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 101, pp. 335-337. 
i-Econ. Geol, March 1911. 
"Trans. Mine Dept., Geol. Survey, No. 5. 
1 'The Witwatersrand System,' map and pamphlet, Lon- 
don. 1911. 

''.Mon. LII. IT. S. Geol. Survey. 1911. 

Janu»r> 8, ISIS 


Progress in Cyanidation of Gold and Silver Ores During 1911 

Bj A i JPBI .11 .1 i\ii s 

lntr,:<iu, txm. still boldi pride of place for 

advanced practice daring the year, although the tendency 
has rather bean to aattle down and to assimilate the great 
advancei of the paat year or two. One is inclined t" 
i ill" Banta Qcrtrudia mill aa abaolntely the beal 
example of a rilver gold mil] on ap to il:it<- lines. In every 
way this mill is noteworthy, whether for the trouble taken 
in the preliminary investigation, tin- competitive nature of 
ilic practical tests, ii„. expert talent assembled from all 
quarters, or the gnat success of its working. <>n the 
other hand, Africa is coming forward prominently, and 
there an- signs of the more genera] adoption of methods 
of great sueeeea elsewhere. In this review 1 last year 1 ven- 
tured to suggest that K. L. Bosqui, assisted and uol hin- 
dered by local talent and experience, would probably give 
a good account of himself, and the new Brakpan plant, 
for the Bueoees of which \V. I.. Honnold gives Mr. Bosqui 
well deserved credit, has signalized itself among recent 
African plants in beiti'-r successful from the outset TIh' 
Brakpan is notable also as being the first example on 
the Rami of a mill on modem Mexican lines; thus agitn- 
tion instead of being by pump transfer is by Paehuea 
tanks, and the gold in solution is recovered by filtration 
instead of by deeantation. and precipitation is by Merrill 

zinc-dust process instead of by zinc shaving. The first 
dividend paid in South Africa from a modern mill — Pa- 
ehuea tanks. Dorr thickeners, and filtration — seems to be 
that of the Lonely Reef in Rhodesia, to which credit is 

due for having at work the first plant of this type in 
that territory or on the Rand. A feature of Rand prac- 
tice is the apparent difficulty of estimating the value of 

the gold in slime, pulp, and cyanide solution. That the 
difficulty does exist is shown by the discussions on the 
subject at the meetings of the Chemical, Metallurgical & 
Mining Society of South Africa, and the official report on 
the Adair-Usher and Butters results at the Crown Mines. 
At the same time, it seems almost inconceivable that groups 
of such grreat responsibility could he misled. Only a year 
or so aero the Adair-Usher results (readers will probably 
remember the criticism of the secretary of the company 
on the remarks in this review) were reported to show a 
saving of 5d. per ton over the deeantation process. The 
chief mining group was publicly reported, without denial 
on its part, to have paid a large sum of money for the 
right to use the process. It now appears from the frown 
Mines official report that the Adair-Usher residue was 
really 0.423 dwt. instead of 0.225 dwt.. the apparent value 
when samples wen' taken in the usual way. A fuller ac- 
count of this interesting report is given under filtration. 
In another way Africa has also been prominent. Earlier 
in the year there were glowing reports on what the Gieseke 
mill was to do for the industry. Surprise at this was all 
the greater because it was evident to anyone of experience 
in ball-mill practice that the mill could not be the success 
claimed, because it has long been shown that for econom- 
ical grinding in a tube-mill the elimination of the already 
slimed material is essential. The Gieseke mill combined 
a ball-mill with a tube-mill as one unit, the whole of the 
product of the ball-mill going without separation into 
the tube-mill portion of the appliance. It was therefore 
manifestly uneconomical. In addition, it has been com- 
mon experience from the time of the original Globe, Lam- 
berton, and other ball-mills that the wear and tear of iron 
or steel balls, when wet-crashing, was enormous, and there 
was no reason to anticipate any less wear and tear with 
the Gieseke mill. Indeed, the Krupp mill is the only one 
which appears to be able to stand the wear and tear of 
wet-crushing with iron or steel balls, and even in this mill 
the wear and tear is very much heavier than when dry- 
crashing. Last year in this review I ventured to predict, 

^Mining and Scientific Press, January 7. 1911, pp. 52-56. 

although tin' Citj Deep t\| t null »ns then at the lenltb 

of its fame, that a high proportion of the new South 

African nulls would he designed tor BItrati 

the hitherto impregnable deeantation, and already tin- 

prediction seems to he completely fulfilled. It Inllsl lie 

difficult to gauge the feeling) of such | iers aa ice \i. 

& Charlton an. I New (loch, which alter putting in the lil 
leis which enabled them to show recoveries of 94%, re 

lapsed to deeantation — it has been slate. I for the sake of 

obtaining a tar !»>\ sample ! 

India, too, is attacking other methods tor the treatment 

of slime, and the erection of an up to-date plant is an- 
ticipated at the Champion Reef mine; details are not avail 
able, but it is understood that the plans provide for Pachuca 
tanks and vacuum-filtration (Butters type). 

West Australia puisnes its already evolved practice. 
Much metallurgical skill has been applied to disco-.. 
less unsuccessful system of treatment of the Gwalia Con 
solidated antimonial ore. On the other hand. II. T. Brett, 
late of West Australia (of Ivanhoe pan fine-grin 
fame I. seems to have no doubt as to the Correct method 
of meeting successfully his similar problem at the Globe 
& Phoenix. 

Cornwall, curiously enough, is evolving practice which 
may later become a potent factor in gold ore treatment. 
Arthur Richards, who has made no little success of fine 
grinding of local tin residues with a consequent produc- 
tion of tin only surpassed by the largest mine or mines 
in the county, has set himself to increase the line-grinding 
standard from -200 mesh to — 400 mesh, and is endeavor- 
ing to find some more suitable appliance than the tube-mill 
for this particular purpose. Again, Doleoath has now an 
equipment of smooth running — giving almost the impres 
sinn of velvet cushioned — pneumatic stamps which in 
American or African hands would probably easily beat 
the record for tonnage per head per diem. It is a matter 
for surprise that someone has not taken a battery of these 
and determined their output on, say, 3-mesh screening with 
quick drop and most suitable quantity of water, leaving 
the liner crushing to be accomplished in some secondary 
appliance such as the tube-mill. 

Before proceeding further it is fitting to refer to the 
satisfactory (from the metallurgical point of view) termina- 
tion of the East Rand fiasco. It started with a reported 
huge loss of gold in the cyanide plant altogether incredible 
to those knowing E. H. Johnson, the able chief metallurgist. 
As Mr. Johnson was referred to in this review last year 
as regaining the laurels for the Rand in the matter of 
■ lushing, the accusation or charge was all the more incon- 
ceivable to me, and it has given much relief and satis- 
faction to find that the official report of the committee not 
only entirely exonerates Mr. Johnson and states there has 
been no (such) loss of gold in the cyanide plant, but 
shows how the supposed loss has really been brought about 
as a result of overcalculation of ore content and tonnage by 
the mine officials. Mr. Johnson had my sympathy; I now 
add my congratulations. 

New Mills. — Probably the most notable mills of the year 
are the Santa Gertrudis, Dome, Randfontein Central, City 
Deep, Brakpan, and Lonely Reef, the last a quite small 
mill but at the time of its starting probably the most up- 
to-date in Africa. The Lonely Reef company has already 
within three months after its starting the mill, declared a 
dividend. If the City Deep (deeantation) he excepted as 
being really a last year's mill, possibly still somewhat in 
an unfinished stage, and the Randfontein Central as beimr 
of the standard but now obsolescent deeantation practice 
with a vast number of stamps (600) instead of a greater 
proportion of tube-mills, it will be seen that all these 
new Mexican, Canadian, Rand, and Rhodesian mills have 
points in common. They all include stamps of 1250 lb. 



January 6. 1912 

or heavier, Dorr type thickeners (Brakpan excepted), air- 
lift agitation (Pachuoa tanks), Bltratii I' slime, and, with 

caption of Lonely Beef, Merrill zinc-dust precipi- 
tation. They appi-ar i" have gone i" Htork smoothly from 
the start (except the D yet started) and to he 

giving results which are records for their particular terri- 
tories. The Stratton's Independence mill, treating dump, 
ami the Alaska Treadwell mill, treating concentrate, are 
also noteworthy, as will he seen later. The Tonopah Bel- 
uuuit, Modder 1'.. ami Palmarejo mills are not included, 

as details of the starting of these null- are not yet at hand. 
Of tin' Santa (ierlrudis mill, it is proper to stale that 
.ini-,.i has exceeded the estimates. 
and that it amounts i" over '.lie, of the silver. Exact 
figures will he given in a paper shortly to he published 
by Hugh Rose. The mill is of 600 Ions capacity ami 
i- being brought up !•> sun tons by a small additional ex- 
penditure. It includes 4 gyratory crushers; sixty loSO-lb. 
stamps; 14 Dorr classifiers; li primary 5 by 16-ft., ami 
adary 5 by 20-ft. tube-mills: ."> primary 35-ft. and 
:i secondary Dorr thickeners; ami Is I'achiica tanks. A 
feature of the mill scheme is primary and secondary treat- 
ment almost all the way through. Even the agitating in 
continuous agitators is noi in one operation. The pulp. 
when a little more dilute than 1:1. is agitated in a bat- 
tery of s Pachucas, is then elevated by air-lift to a laun- 
der, whence after dilution with 4:1 of barren solution, 
it Hows through a second set of linn- thickeners for a sec- 
ond treatment in in Pachucas, Filtration takes place in 
I Merrill presses, the water used for sluicing beii -■ re 
covered by two 35 ft. Dorr thickeners. After classification 
in 2 sand Idlers, the sol precipitated by li Mer- 
rill precipitation-presses in two circuits, involvh 

plete precipitation, the other and larger reducing the 
of bullion in solution in course of How. The Merrill 
iress is officially reported to he doing everything 
expected and to he showing greater capacity than origin- 
ally claimed and to recover a high percentage (9£ 

gold and silver in solution at a COS) of •_" £ to .'id. per 

ton. This takes rc.lii for the additional extraction 

obtained in the press, but actually debits the press with 
total dissolved metal — under 2 grams of silver — in the 
residues, although the two grams and more is undoubt- 
edly extra extraction obtained in the press itself during 
the treatment with barren wash. The above cosl does 
elude royally or the loss, perhaps 1'j'l.. in ,! - 
solved silver and gold. The zinc-dust consumption is stated 
to equal the weight of bullion recovered (1:1). 

The I, a Minima mill, which started at the close of last 
year. i- reported to be obtaining an extraction of 92.8^ 

silver and 95^ gold, and to be millin g .'Hill tons per diem 

al a cost of 4*4. HI. The M -e Idler is used in this mill 

staled to show dissolved silver to the value of .! 
lo 4 grains only on the residues from 750-gm. 01 gil ll 

Seme mystery a hang on Ibe Bel i mill. 

Last year the technical press gave full details of the pro- 
posed equipment, the chief new feature of which appeared 
i" be ibe Way-Ai e-plant. h i- reported that 

after many < : : in i ictober to com- 

ply with certain Government regulations, hut that the 
slime i. iol yet in working older; doubtless 

full information will be available later, and il is to be 

hoped Dial Mr. Way has . ade as -real a success of the 

Benoni mill as be previously made of his New Kleinfontein 

but ibe latter ws i the treatment 

prevalent at the time, whe Benoni slime-planl 

would appear to be based on Improved and 

untried . 
at the Fast flat ply to it. 

The New Dome mill has had a setback owing lo Ibe 
disastrous forest tire which I truction. 

From the published description ii would appear to he 
a mill of standard mode type; f"iiy L250-lb. stamps. 
Dorr classifiers and thickener-. | tube-mills, continuous 
I'achuca agitation, Merrill slime-flltration, am! zinc-dust 

The cyanide plant at Treadwell is notable as an example 
of a recent concentrate plant as well as tor the extreme 
attention to detail characterizing the design. \V. P. Lass 
drives a full description of il in the Mining and Scientific 

Press of October '-'1, 1011. Filtration takes place in Kelly 
presses and there is Merrill zinc-dust precipitation. 

The Stratton'saplant is left until last, as it is undoubt- 
edly one of the most noteworthy achievements of the year. 
Readers will remember that the treatment cost of the West 
Australian telluride ores was brought down from a very 
high figure in the early days lo as low as lis. fid. per 
Ion. 2 It was a brave if not audacious proposal, therefore, 

"5-H. P. Electric Hoist 

Osgood Track-Scales. 



Dorr Classifiers. 

Abbe Tube-Mills. 


Lauoder Distributors. 
' Aratlgain-l'laies for coarse pulp. 
. Air-Lift-s 

Dorr Clii^sifier. 
. Abbe Tube-Mill. 
. Ail-Lift. 
, Tank. 

. Callow Tanks. 
. Launder Distributors. 
. Amalgam-Plates for fine pulp. 
. Distributor. 
. Callow Tanks. 
. Callow Tanks. 
. Pierce Amalgamators. 
. Preliminary Agitation-Tanks. 
. Aldrich Electric Triplex Pump. 
. Pachuca Agitaiion-Tnnks. 
. Byron Jackson 4-io. Cent. Pumps. 
. Pulp-Tank. 
. Wash-Water Tank. 
. Air-Lifts. 

. Kelljr Filter-Presses. 
. Distributor. 
. Clarifying-Tank. 


Wash- Water SumpB, 

Aldrich Electric Triplex Pump. 

Merrill Zinc-Feeder. 

Aldrich Electric Triplex Pump. 

Merrill Gold-Precipitation Presses. 


Drving-Furaace for Precipitate. 

Faber du Faor Furnaces. 


Amalgam- Press. 

Storage - Tanks for barren solu- 

Air- Lit l. 


■ S to imelttr. 
ilntloo returned 


lo spend a large sum on the erection of a mill to treat 
telluride dump rock of a grade of '.', dwt. and under! 
How Philip Argall has succeeded may be seen in the No- 
vember number of The Mining Magazine and also in the 
account of the November general meeting of the company. 
He has justified and beaten his estimates, and congratu- 
lations tire none the less sincere because he has accom- 
plished what few would have dared venture. Briefly, -Mr. 
Vrgall beneficiates the dump at a cosl of $1.40 per ton 
by crushing, concentration, and cyanidation of sand and 
slime, using gyratory crushers, rolls. Chilean mills, classi- 
fiers, concentrators, tube-mills ami it-concentration, vacuum- 
filtration, and zinc-shaving precipitation. It should he 
noted (hat the concentrate (3%, containing 44 r ,' of total 
gold in ore) is not treated, but is sold lo the smelters on 
advantageous terms, but the figures include bromo-cyanid- 
ing, whenever necessary, of the slime. During the fiscal 
year 109,800 tons containing 17,288.96 oz. of gold was 
treated, with a recovery of 7.346.S oz. in the concentrate 
and 4SN.S oz. from the sand and slime; a total recovery 
of 12,361.6 oz. or J.7.5% for a profit of $(15,000. 

New Processes. — It is ibe experience of many thai old 
processes continually reappear under new names with some 
ins change ringing on old chemical or electrolytic 
methods. It is not. therefore, my practice in this review- 
to refer to newly-proposed methods until the ordeal of 

-Great Boulder Proprietary — see this review for 1906. 



ural trial hu -Irvn- ihoni. 

tod trouble m.i i>\ a 

■i tin' 

snpilation of tli« 
though it prow tnainl) ol obituary no 

• i tbe >ilil i 

Uaftrs, and with it Ibe knowledge <>f the (roubles then 

hi finding ii would stand tbe disintegrating 

m of passage of currant, electrolysis of nlution, and 

■ .111.1 tear of agitation of ore pulp at lbs umt lime. 

It wai obvious thai the eyanamide process as described 

by .1. C Clancy must an* tiler jual the difficulties thai 

worried wo rker s with tl Ider proeeaa, ami from all ac- 
counts this trouble haa in fast caused delay in bringing 

tin- pr m t" :i working stage, 1" tbe same way the 

difficulty ni' tl leetrolysis of dilute solutions with com- 
plete precipitation of metals yel exists, and the troubles 
thai befell Peletan-Clerici and '■' II awail tbe eu- 

thnsiaatie inventors who chronically rediscover these proc- 

Long before the sdvenl of tin- Adair-Usber pn 
it was found iluu displacemenl by upward solution was 
perfect us to be unreliable, and thai tin- attempt i" 
recover deposited thickened shrm- by n screw-conveyor 
working under water bad caused the failure of many a 
filter nr slime-treatment device, and it was, therefore, not 
a little surprising to learn "■ sum (Clii.iiuiii 

stated i" have been expended on tbe Arbuckle experiment 
at the Hast Kami. Similarly, the continuous reshuffli 
the chemical reaction, solution, or oxidation processes led 
me i" write for the last Internationa] Chemical Congress 
a brief sketch of the results ol the employment of vari- 
ous oxides, alkalies, lead salts, lead coating, halogen salts. 
hypochlorites, accelerators, mercuric cyanide, and alkaline 
persulphates, with a note of their original introducers 
into the Held of cyanidation. A glance back at history 
is often sufficient to indicate the part probably i" be 
played by a 'new 1 method, and that, too, even when the 
method involves some ingenious application of nice chem- 
ical reactions. And as this was my excuse to the reviewer 

who criticized ih ission from 'Cyanide Practice' "I 

any reference to a certain process then advertised but 
never since heard of, so it may last year and today be 
taken as my reason for not including in this review of 
progress in practice, comments on ingenious scientific spec- 

I he attempts to turn an air-lift agitator into 
a continuous decanting device have so far had as little suc- 
cess as the old attempt (this year repeated) to filter slime 
from the bottom of the agitation plant through a filter- 
bed immediately under the agitator. The feature of the 
year has undoubtedly been the almost universal adoption 
of the continuous system of agitation in Pachucas pioneered 
by A. tlrothe. whose able and ingenious article on the 
principles of agitation in air-lift tanks has given us all 

i 1 for much reflection. Who before was brave enough 

to discount what many thought the supreme advantage 
of the air-lift accelerated agitation, and to argue from 
the downward travel of the particles only? That article' 
should be read by all. But none the less, the continuous 
agitation method has brought to lighl many snags and 
pitfalls hitherto unsuspected, and from plants on all sides 
valuable experience is at hand as to means of overcoming 
the difficulties that crop up. Probably the best course 
for the intending user is to get into touch with Mr. 
Orothe at once and to obtain from him the latest results; 
otherwise he may repeat the experience of a company 
whose mill is stated in the technical press to have suffered 
delays of some months on account of the non-working 
of a locally-devised adaptation of the Pachuca lank. It 
cannot be too strongly urged that anyone modifying a 
standard agitator should first experiment with a glass model; 
he would then find that much of the so-called agitation 
is merely the escape of bubbles which, cleaving through 
the volume of liquid, make a great show at the surface, 
but fail to even slightly modify the descent of all but 
the finest particles of the slime-pulp. 

'Mining and Scientific Press, July 15, 1911. 

The originally propoMd Lanka 

bj inclined pi| i 

M II. k 

lilt- the pulp in- any piiHieiilni i I to 

cut out. mid Mi, lliothe has central teed an. I 

with the Pachi id so thai any of 

the tanks can he made No. l, ami thus any particulai ' 
can be cut oul without difficulty, All tanks have diaebi 

valves, and thus any lank can lea, lily be made Ihe last 

of the series. A simple system of continuous agitation 
has also been described by Huntington Adams. 1 This 

method can readily be adapted to existing tanks, and lias 

the a, haniage of having all connections at the surfao 
the charge, but to one who has Dot seen the apparatus 
in operation the bj passes would appear liable to choke 

ami the system of a variable cut sampling DOX al each 

lank would seem to call for attention and adjustmei 
otherwise why the adjustments! whereas it has been shown 1 
thai the Qrothe method does automatically give a pulp of 

equal screen analysis throughout. The provision, however, 

in the last tank for agitating a partly Idled lank when this 

is used as .1 reservoir for idling Biters is surely a 

right direction. 

The form of dropping spider shown in the description 

' Treadwell plant 1 is worthy of note. A spider which 

will start up wiiiiin 15 minutes a densely-packed 30-ton 

mass of high specific gravity concentrate is an appliance 

considerable value in the agitation of concentrate. The 

Trent tank has come into prominence during the year, 

mainly by reason of Ihe description of ii by .1. \V. Hutch- 
inson. " He describes il as the most Berious competitor 

le Bat-bottom agitator and as B good means of bring- 
ing Bat-bottomed tanks up to an efficiency comparable 
to that obtained by Pachucas. The agitator resembles a 
garden sprinkler, submerged in the pulp, which it agi- 
i nit's by reason of the motion imparled to Ihe radial arms 
by an issuing stream of circulating pulp. In a personal 
letter Mr. Hutchinson slates the Trent agitator takes 6V2 
hp. to operate in a charge of 200 dry Ions at a dilution 
of 1*4:1. 

Amalgamation. — In parallel with the practice of con- 
centration ascribed to V. L. Bosqui in this review of last 
year, whereby the tables immediately after Ihe ballery 
were omitted and concentration limited to vanners or slim- 
ers after the tube-mills, several mills in South Africa do 
away with [dates after the mortar. boxes and rely on 
after tube-mill amalgamation only. II has been foreseen 
that plates after the mortar-boxes would have to go, be- 
cause the coarse-crushing now hiking place in the mortar- 
boxes yields fragmentary pulp quite unsuitable for amal- 
gamation on plates, bul ibis removal of the ballery plates 
in no way obviates the difficulty of ihe effect of cyanide 

solutions on amalgamated plates, and \Y. ('. Caldc it 

avoids Ibis by his scheme of dewateriug and adding cya- 
nide solution after the lube-mill tables. 0. W. Merrill, 
similarly, at tbe Dome, is unable, by reason of his em- 
ployment of amalgamating plates, lo avail himself of any 
advantage arising from crushing in cyanide solution, and 
either dewaters his slimed pulp prior lo agitation or does 
not introduce cyanide solution until the pulp is in his 
press. The Caldecott system yields a beautifully separated 
and dry (10% moisture?) product, adapted to his special 
requirement — the adding of cyanide solution with as little 
dilution as possible — but it is questionable whether a valve- 
less (able is the most satisfactory or economical method 
of accomplishing this object. A waste of vacuum al the 
scraper and a wear and tear of cloths seems inevitable, 
and possibly a continuous filter of the Askin Nicholas- 
Oliver type would be more satisfactory in the long run. 

A recent advertisement shows that J. V. N. Dorr has 
filled a vacuum-filter lo the bottom of his well known 
classifier, presumably to give a dryer product. Mr. Argall, 

'Bull. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., August 1911. 

'Mining and Scientific Press. October 21. 1911. 

"For description of Goldfleld Consolidated Mill, see Min- 
ing and Scientific Press. May 6, 13. 20, and 27, June 10. 
1911: also, Eng. d : Min. Jour., June 17, 1911. 



January 6, 1912 

at Stratton's Independence, classifies and dewaters his pulp 
down to 15 oisture, treating 200 tons per day 

with ] 2 hp. By means of two screen-conveyors he 
the sand and withdraws it with considerable control of 
fineness of particles and dryness. 

For thickening slime-pulp the Dorr type thickener, and 
its last variant, the El Tigre. holds the field by reason of 
its simplicity, its low operation and maintenance cost, and 

of a series of parallel corrugated sheets placed at an angle 
of. say. 45° to the surface and continuing for some dis- 
tance (18 in.) below. The corrugations are stated to regu- 
late the flow of descending slime and ascending clarified 
water without interfering with the settlement of the rest 
of the pulp. At the Sons of Gwalia an experimental plant 
is stated to haw improved the thickness of the pulp from 
26 to 41 per cent. 

— €> 


3 m 



its efficiency. For dewi le-pulp the Oliver type 

filter is probably as convenient as any oilier apparatus. 
The method of filtering (dewatering) slime by squeezing 
it in a folded belt between rollers, described in this review 
for 1909. is still being experimented with in Australia. 
and the latest develo] menl h:. been re ribed in 

the Journal of the Western Australian Chamber of Mines. 

A considerable a unl of work has recently taken place 

in South Africa and watering 

slime by assisted settli such as that included in the 

Way-Arbuckle Benoni ; 

Gardner in the Maj irn Australian 

Chamber of Mines. Tin- accelera- 

tion produced in settlement n , employment 

Clarifying Solutions. — E. J. Sweetland, the Treadwell 
staff, and C. W. Men-ill have all invented presses for clari- 
fying solutions with flowing or sluicing off of the sedi- 
ment. It is perhaps too early to predicate as to the suc- 
cess of these presses; this must to a considerable extent 
depend on the nature of the suspended matter in the solu- 
tions to be clarified. At the Santa Gertrudis recourse is 
had to sand filters; the well-known Dehne (hand-cleaned I 
was specified for the Palmarejo mine, but at the 
last moment sand filters have been substituted here also. 

king. — The race of the Rand to heavier stamps has 

I a serious check, and the City Deep mill does not 

to be entirely satisfactory. Indeed, the Nissen 

- reported to have shown up remarkably well against 




tin* Muni wort' in Rand milU li maj be assumed thai 

f..r the ; 

ube mill to itamp. I 
tuna' !i « „, 

known ilmi Hi. lred Rand tuba 

nnll« iiIit.. inal install 

ps*** ihing capacity al tba than 

standard o could be • orally Increased 

by ail.lm it tube mills rather limn of stamps, hut nn 

tin- nih.T bandi the increased fineness resulting from tnbe- 
mill grinding has broiigbl about increased extraction and 
sent up the Rand standard of Oneness ir.i M i BO mean to 
90 mi'.-li. Indeed, tba greatest opponent of tube nulls mi 
the Rand is apparently at last convinced and baa nol only 
laid down a reeord ratio of tube-mills to stamps for the 
Rand at the Benoni, but it looks as if the Www Kleinfontein 

plant itself was following (nit on the same lines. We 
may thus lake it thai, in spilt- of the greater horse -power 

used in grinding through tube-mills, the practice is one 
that pays. 
In this review reference has been previously made to 


the low ratio, 2 to 4% of tube-mills to stamps prevailing 
on the Rand as against 16.6 and even 20% elsewhere. An 
instinctive lahle is given in the South African Minin - 
Journal for September 2. It shows that the mills with 
a tube-mill to stamp ratio of about 1:18.5 crash from 11 
to 20 tons per head per diem; when the ratio is 1:20 
the output is from 10 to 13 tons per diem, with a ratio 
of 1:25 the output descends to from 9 to lO'i tons per 
diem, and those with only 1 tnhe-mill to 30 or more stamps 
show only 8 to 9V-> tons per diem: but the value of the 
table is diminished by ahsenee of any note of the weight 
of the stamps or of the total horse-power employed. 

The trial of the Nissen stamp at the City Deep has pro- 
vided some extraordinary results: it would scarcely be too 
much to ascribe a superiority of over 30% in crushing 
capacity, weight for weight, for less horse-power and re- 
pairs, and that, too. taking a considerably coarser feed. 7 
It is evident from the above results that a limit will be 
put to the development of heavy stamps in batteries of 
5 heads per mortar-bos, as the heavier the head the greater 
should be the area of shoe and die. A noteworthy point 
is made by J. W. Hutchinson, 8 who states that instead 
of increasing the Goldfield Consolidated mill by 40 stamps 
and 3 tube-mills as originally proposed, they obtained the 
desired output by the addition of 6 Chilean mills only 
between the existing stamps and tubes. Battery-screens of 
4 mesh were substituted for the existing 12-mesh with n 
resulting duty of 8% tons per head. This scheme saved 
a month's time, $100,000 in money, and yet increased the 
capacity of the plant by 40 per cent. 

Fine Grinding. — E. J. Ball, in a paper before the Insti- 
tion of Mining and Metallurgy, shows that present African 

''South African Min. Jour.. Nov. 4, 1911. 
'Mining and Scientific Press, loc. cit. 

•hi hp. with a 1 
depending on i ! 

pn vioualj given in I 

in Soiuii \ j |,|, pgr ,.,, ; . (llt | 

produces 111 tow ton ol pebble 1 1 

roughly, l'_- torn power thr. 

■ produces 1.2 tons per bora 
200 11 1 -ii Waihi fbj 1 than these, bi I 

elude the slimed ore from the mill. Thr beal feed ap| 

i" be 30 ions per ton of pebble load al a isturs oi 

1 Walter Neal). The pebble lo bj Mi 

Ball to be the beat when the mill is filled t., jus) beloa thi- 
ol rotation, while the speed of rotation should be 
id greater than thai given by Davidson's formula. Won 
Mall's tests urn id (hat he brought the efficiency 

makeshift tube mill an old chlorination barrel from 

3.87 (S.8) to .8.82 ( V 1 and gave results c parable with 

those from present day S] ially designed mills. It is to 

be hoped ere long similar tests may be made on the eco- 
nomical limits of coarseness of feed and of irregularity 
of mine rock (substituted for pebbles!. 

There is but little fresh to ohronicle in tuhr-mill prac- 
tice. As previously suggested, Walter Xeal's reverse screw 
outlet is becoming more and more widely used, and bar 
liners are displacing all other forms. The ideal liner 
would seem to be an EI Oro liner with replaceable ribs 
or bars, so that the backing need not he wasted when 
lining is necessary. Richards (Cornwall) points out the 
1 ecessity of having small pebbles as well as large in tin 
charge of tube-mills newly started. Alter continued run- 
ning, the necessary proportion of small pebbles is mechan- 
ically produced, but at the outset he finds output poor 
unless the charge is made np as slated above. Allen's 
point of rounding off mine rock prior to its introduction 
into the mill appears well taken, and is supported by the 
work of Davidsen and the experience of Meal. The original 
ten machines at the Great Boulder have treated a million 
tons of slime to date — a pretty good reeord. The latesi 
type of machine, however, has adjustable periods of rcvo 
lution enabling (lie- cycle to he altered al will or even with 
the age (and lessening filtering capacity) of the cloths. It 
works automatically, the adjustment being by water-balance, 
with feed varied at desire, ami is showing a good capacity 
even with the difficult St. George kaolin. On Great Boulder 
pulp this latest Ridgway type handles daily over 250 Ions 
per unit. 

Filtration. — The fact that all the new great .mills of thr 
world referred to under "New Mills' treat their slime by 
filtration, evidences how absolutely Ibis method has dis- 
placed deeanlation. From West Scotland Street to Karan 
gahake, from Karangahake to Kalgoorlie, from Kalgoorlie 
to the uttermost parts of the earth, filtration has progressed 
on its triumphant march; except for the Rand, where flu- 
New Consolidated Langlaagte mill is reported to be de- 
signed for deeanlation, it may he regarded as universal. 
It is noteworthy that all the typical new- mill plants noted. 
except the Brakpan, have pressure-filters in spite of flu- 
great advances made in vacuum-filters, mainly on the lines 
indicated by Crush in 1900, namely, the adoption of grav- 
ity-filled huge pipe-line plants emptying or filling in three 
minutes and thus avoiding or lessening cracks, in place 
of the centrifugal-pump-throttled slow-filling systems de- 
scribed in the technical press of that date. 

Pressure-Filters. — The Dehne still easily ranks first for 
number of installations, and is the press adopted by such 
new mills of the year as the Lonely Reef and the Matabele 
Queen. The Merrill has given a remarkably good account 
of itself al the Santa Gertrudis, and the Kelly has been 
adopted for the treatment of concentrate at the Goldfield 
Consolidated and (he Alaska Treadwell new mills. 

Vacuum-Filters:. — A spell of holy calm has supervened 
after the enthusiasm of past years. The Moore is reported 
to have been adopted for a further plant at Pachuca by 
an old friend there. The submerged filter has undoubtedly 
advanced since the adoption of the principle of rapid 



January (i. 1912 

emptying and filling. Charles Butters has been 
ically moving in new territory, Africa and India, and the 
official the Crown Keel' plan! may be regarded 

as a veritable triumph. Years Denny brothers 

pointed oul the loss in dissolved gold in the decantation 
• and their accom] solution. Ii was reported 

that the total maximum furthei possible saving was onlj 
■Sd. It seemed impossible to break down this stand and 
in save gold for people who thus plainly expressed their 
belief it was no! there to save. Even the Ridgway demon- 
stration which reduced decantation residues from 0.5 and 

0.6 dwt. to 0.12 dwt. tailed to shake this attitude, and 

wl thi tration showed indubitably thai gold 

was still being dissolved alter the pulp bad hi 

tated and treated by decantation, even then the possibility 

of this was locally denied. The official report on the work- 

the Butters planl at the Crown Reef should put an 

end to all this. The true average of Adair-TJsber residue 

is shown io be ii.4l':; dwt. instead of the 0525 dwt. stated. 

The Butters plant recovers the dissolved gold, and also by 

the use of barren solution wash further gold, to the extent 

of 0.332 dwt.. Is. 5d. per ton, and may under normal con- 

pected to show a gross sai ing over 

decantation of 0.20 dwt. (10d.), or a net saving of 0.12 

i lid. ) per ton of slim,- tillered with a treatment cosl oi 

ltd. per ton filtered. It may be reasonably anticipated 

ii.ler norma] conditions the Butters cosl will not 

amount to anything like this figure. Cinder demonstration 

conditions extra cosl will have naturally been incurred i" 

I. It will be remembered that 

the fixed submerged ■ tosts were given as from fid. to lOd. 

per ton in this review for 1909, and with the hu . 

gravity Mlii adopted at all plants, ii 

may be expected that eosts will be still further re, lured. 

The following cycle is given for comparison with the 
old ones published in -Recent Cyanide Practice'. It well 
shows the advantage of the gravity-filling huge pipe-line 
planl to which an old pump-filling plant was converted, 

and is only possible, of course, by the use of the hydraiil- 
ieally operated valves first included in the rapid-filling 
Crush installations. By the use of 20-in. pipe-] 
cycle is completed in .me hour, as follows, the lime being 
stated in minutes: Pill, .-i.e. 19; discharge pulp. 

3j till, wash, discharge with barren solution, 21: water- 
wash and cake discharge, 11; total. 57. This may be cora- 
witb a cycle of -J hr. .1 min. by the old pump- 

throttling system. By the nevi method, not only a better 

duel i< obtained by avoiding the formation of 

.■rack- by long exposure of the uncovered cake, but also 

Ihe unparallel out] if 7 dry metric ton, per leaf per 

'-'I In', is achieved. The industry is indebted to ('. \V. Van 
Law. ,,f Real del Monte, nol only P ■ .,,] established 

e work, but for much serious original investi- 
m of the continuous solubility of 
gold and silver i,, pu i p a ftcr agitation, and even after 
filtration. Mr. Van Law establishes Ihe necessity for 
dilution with alter agitation, and fo 

lion to obtain best results. An extract from a 
letter dealing with one of the largesl and most recent sub- 

ives poinl to ihe remarks 

i he advantage 

of the Van Law cycle. "The bad feature of it is that 
' time of change from slime to wash is worse 
than WS il allows ihe cakes I., crack. When 

a water-wash the time losl in manipulation, exclusive of 
discharging the cakes, is :tt; minutes on i Allow- 

hour and a ball' per cycle, thai - - a 20 

of capacity a- compared >' : 'i changing in (i minutes." 

•L W.'- articles on the mill al Goldfield' 
have already been the cause oi the , many thou- 

s: "" ls " I He most 

carefully prevents unavoidable of the wa 
which bis cakes are dischai i . 

■ lor diluting his Pachuca 

i. Any enrichment of ihe solution is thus retained 
ill the mill-flow for ultimate precipitation. His slime 
"Mining and 8rten«/tc Press, loc. <n. 

residue Hows to the dam as a very thick pulp, carrying 
little more than 33% moisture. Whether this method is 
an improvement on that of A. II. Smith, also at Goldfield, 
described in this review of 1909, is perhaps a moot point. 
Mr. Smith runs bis residues into a pond with wash solu- 
tion, settles, and decants, and to this extent may recover 
a larger proportion of value contained in the cake than 
Mr. Hutchinson, who decants from his lank: on the other 
hand. .Mr. Hutchinson's method should be less costly and 
less liable to loss. But it would look as though he could 
make a higher recovery by following the example of Mr. 
Smith and decanting after the cake has been agitated with 
wash instead of after a dropping only. 

I'lie Ridgway has nol been entirely resting on its laurels. 
From New South Wales comes the account of its having 
ousted a grouped-frame filter of well known type, and 
a planl has also gone into British Columbia. But in 

Africa its sponsors, having demonstrated its efficiency, 

have preferred to wait for a coming to terms by the mili- 
um groups rather than to undertake further expense for 
a problematical minute remuneration. The Thompson- 
Davis-Crush plants have this year introduced a further 
refinement by a contrivance which avoids the use of air 
(with its inconvenience of frothing) for agitation. Drage 
has brought out a filter in Australia which somewhat re- 
sembles a Ridgway set vertically. The Way-Axbnckle com- 
bination appears to have been long endeavoring to patent: a 
somewhat similar appliance with double screen-area, judg- 
ing from V. S. Latent Specifications issued June Ii. 1911. 

Heating Solution. — Year by year I refer to this in the 
hope that it may lead to a general communication of 
views as to ihe benefits or disadvantages of Ibis course. 
The difficulty of precipitating gold from solution on the 
Rand in the winter months emphasizes Ihe necessity for 
some such exchange of experience. The method suggested 
by Swen of reheating the air employed in air-lift agitators 
seems a simple and feasible plan of warming solutions 
and at Ihe same lime making less air necessary for a given 
duty. ('. T. Rice"' refers to an increased recovery of 2% 
at the Desert mill resulting from heating the solution. 

Precipitation. — The Merrill zinc-dust method has been 
gaining ground as a result of the careful technical super- 
vision of the inventor and bis associates. This method 
has been still further improved by the adoption of a two- 
circuit plan, the main circuit for reducing solution con- 
tent during flow, and the secondary circuit for the complete 
precipitation of solution to he used as wash. etc. By 
the adoption of this system the consumption of zinc-dust 
has been reduced to 1 : 1 of bullion; indeed, even a lower 
consumption is claimed at some plants. The system lias 
also shown to advantage in the precipitation of cupriferous 
solutions. The continuous feed of zinc-dust acting at once, 

instead of he. ling more -sluggish after a while, as with 

copper-coated zinc shaving, has given remarkably good re- 
sults in dealing with such solutions, as witness the Gold- 
field Consolidated plant when the precipitate contains 4ii' , 
copper. Undoubtedly, a drawback to the system is the 
large amount of oxide and impurities, perhaps 15%, added 
to the precipitate, all of which has to be fluxed off unless 
resort is made to acid treatment. Another drawback is 
undoubtedly the clogging up of the pipe system between 
the feed and the press with bullion precipitate! — this latter 
difficulty should be easily overcome, and I am expecting 
Mr. Merrill to make bis hold on the process greater than 
ever by supplying a specially prepared pure zinc-dust. 

General. — Silver mills seem to have bulked more largely 
this year in the matter of advanced practice than gold 
mills; silver sulphide is not so easily attacked by cyanide 
solution as metallic gold, and this fact probably accounts 
for the advanced position in practice held by Mexico and 
for the extraordinarily high efficiency in gold recovery of 
the mills there. The keen enthusiastic emulation of the 
Gertrudis, Real del Monte. San Raphael. La Blanca, 
El Dro, Esperanza. and Dos Estrellas mills reminds one 
of the similar position in Kalgoorlie some years back. 
and cannot but make for great technical progress. 

v>Eng. .1 Min. Jour., June 17, 1911. 


MIMV. A\H S( I! Mil It I'KI S> 

Iron Ore Movement on the Great Lakes in 1911 

■ i 

ii. I from the staudpoiul ol eitti <■ ol the 


»hi| nt> 

a falling "IT of 10,000,000 

would verj dearly i the steel 

trade, were it do! for the f«el t : quantity .it' iron 

S'H-k piles and Lake docks 

fmm thr season nt' 1910. To gel a ipletc survey of the 

- nt' tin- stifl trade, it Is neccssarj to study the ck" 
uillv that nt the Connellsville district, which 
still . predominant influence over the blast furnace 

bnaineajB. The figures of coke production show an output 
of approximately <»t>' , thai of the preceding yearn, sach 
as l!H)7. Lake iron-ore shipments, on the contrary, 
amounted ti> a little more than 7.v, of those "i 1910, which 

tnon tlinn n niilliiiii tuns in excess of tho I the big 

■tee] year of 1907. It being considered ilmt coke consump- 
tion measures the extent of pig-iron manufacture and eoke 
prodnetion, and this, for the last two years, nol being in ex- 
• •-- ol BO oi the not al, it must be concluded that the 
furnace and dock companies have on hand both al the plants 
and nt the Lake porta an enormous quantity of ore, or 
enough to keep them in operation, even though business 
should revive speedily, well along into next Bummer. 

The Lake ore shipments, up to the rinse of navigation on 
November 30, 1911, totaled 32,130,41] tons. This compares 
with the record shipments by the Lukes of 42,620,20] tons 
in 1910, and shows a decrease from the maximum of 10,489,- 
790. This was incidentally a decrease of B,158,344 ions 

from the n nl made in the season of navigation of 1907. 

It marks, in fact, the smallest shipment, save one, of iron 
ore since 1904, which was the climax year of the 'rich man's 
panic,' Btarted in 1903. In 1904, the Lake shipments 
amounted t" 21,849,40] ions. The following year there was 
a gain nt 12.iiimi.immi tuns, which took account of the re- 
vival of business following the 'rich man's panic' There 
are some who believe that from the present outlook then' is 
likely to be another sm-li an increase in shipments in 1912 as 
a natural growth of business and reaction from the period 
of depression just now drawing to a close. A similar in- 
crease to that made in 1905 over 1904 is expected for 1!)12 
over 1911. This would bring 1912 shipments up to the 
record total of 44,000,000 to 15,000,000 tons, and this has 
been and is being freely predicted. Mitigating against any 
such result, however, are both the accumulation on the Lake 
docks and furnace stock-piles as previously referred to. 

The Lake shipments of iron ore. in fail, for the past four 
years have been lively, ami this ran only be accounted for 
on the basis that the iron trade has constantly been ex- 
pecting a return of business prosperity which Would war- 
rant such enormous tonnages. That disappointment has 
followed consistently lor the last three years is evident to 
every student of iron trade conditions, ami the heavy move- 
ment of 1909 anil 1910, taken with the shipments of llii- 
year. must leave a large accumulation in the bands of dock 
companies ami users. Sinee no statistics an- compiled 
showing ore on furnace stock-piles, this point can be made 
by conjecture only. 

The shipments, as eompiled by the Iron Trade Review 
for the past eight years, have been as follows: 

Year. Tons. 

1904 21,849,401 

1905 :;::.47i;.f)04 

1906 37,513,595 

1907 41,288,755 

190S 25,427,094 

1900 41,683,873 

1910 42,620,201 

1911 0-2,130,411 

The statement of shipments by the various ports does not 

give a- deal an idea ol the quolit) "t ore used an. I the put 

■ ii put as was the caac last j 

principal shippii ■! the i ml moved from i 

for the past two i follows, II isual, 
in long Ion- 
Ton. L910 1011. 

Eacanaba 1,9 iQJBGSl 1,278,44/i 

Marquette 3,248,929 2,20 

Ashland 4,093,822 2.12:1.200 

Superior 8,437,20] B,920,490 

Duluth 13,009455 0,934,260 

Two Harbors 8,271465 

(2,620,201 .12.1:111.111 

While il is known that the melalli nlent of tin 

shipments has been steadily decreasing tor the pasi I. v. 

years, an analytical review of the trade lias not been made 

or published. At this time it is only possible to make the 

rough calculation which is naturally suggested by the 
amounts moved through the various ports. The 'bessetner 
old range 1 ores are commonly supposed to be shipped 
mainly from Escanabn ami Marquette, while the lower 

■j 1 ;i 1 1. - mi-., such as those from the Mesabi range, 1 

from the other ports mentioned. According to these state' 
ments, Escanaba lost bul tittle of its tonnage, its shipments 

being less than three quarters of a million tons below those 
of 10111. while Marquette showed a .1. 'crease of ah.. nt a 

million toils. On the other band, the business f Ashland 
was alniiisi cut iii two. Superior made a gain of a million 
ami one half, while Duluth. her sister port, lost almoSl 
7,000,000 tons. Two Harbors, which is well up toward the 
head of the Lakes, ami which ships about tbe same {Trade 

of in j- Dulnth ami Superior, lost approximately 2,000, 
000 Ions. Making a rough estimate, it would seem that 
the low-grade "res bore more than SO', i.f the total loss 
ill business, this making its own suggestion as to the rela- 
tive manufacture of bessemer ami of open-hearth Bteel. 

In connection with the Lake shipments a point is brought 
out clearly by trade peculiarities this year. It is no longer 
possible to judge with any accuracy the iron-ore situation 
by the activities of Lake boats. The lime was, and not 
very long ago, when the carrying capacity was about equal 
10 the Lake movement. In fact, at times the carrying 
capacity of Lake ships, and especially the dock facilities. 
determined what the Lake moVemenl of ore might be. That 
time is definitely past until the end of a long reconstruc- 
tion period. There has been, through accident and other- 
wise, a loss in the actual number of boats navigating the 
Lakes, but this is far more offset by tbe increase in the 
size of the carriers. The larger boats which are now navi- 
gating the Lakes are able, on the draught permitted by 
the interlake channels, to carry easily 15.000 tons of any 
bulk commodity. Almost all of the new ships which have 
been built in tbe last four years have had a carrying capac- 
ity in excess of 10,000 tons. This constant increase in 
the size of ships, taken with an increase in speed of dock 
equipment, has given the Lake carrying fleet such an enor- 
mous capacity thai it is almost, out of the question for any 
reasonable movement of iron ore and other Lake commodi- 
ties to keep the total equipment constantly employed. Thus 
if anyone had attempted to judge what the iron-ore ship- 
ments were for t lie last season by computing the running 
time of the Lake fleet, he would have come to the conclusion 
that the movement bad been more nearly 250,000,000 than 
32,000,000 tons. The fact was, that the boats got a late 
start because there was no demand for iron ore. Then 
they ran in haphazard fashion for a good part of the 
summer and stopped the movement of ore for some com- 
panies as early as the latter part of October. At no time 
was there any rush of equipment, and at no time was 



January 6, 1912 

the busim airly active. In fact, the middle of 

the summer brougbl the remarkable situation that these 

great carriers Wi ballast in- 

i nf with ' carrying 

coal back to the head of the Lakes; a thing which, in my 
thirteen years' association with Lake commerce, I have 
known to have happened before. 

apacity of the great Reel now avail- 
able immerce is best illustrated by the fact thai 
with a halting movement, with 8] attempted, 
with the boats of the Steel Corporation, in a large meas- 
ure, in ordinary for a fair share of the time, the equip- 
ment in.. ve.l easily the .IJ.inili.lHlil tens ul' iron ore. 25.000,- 

000 tone of coal, and proportion; of grain, lum- 

ber, and package freight. Ii is needless to say that this 
•vidi i rproduction of Lake equipment has hail a 

decided influence upon t lie shipbuilding industry, and has 
practically brought an end to the construction of new shi|is 
except those Of smaller size which must trade at small and 
imperfectly improved ports, This has had a certain influ- 
ence upon the steel business, since each one of the big 
ships contains upward of 5000 tons of finished steel. Prac- 
tically no orders have been taken for the delivery of new 
boats next spring, and the state of affairs can be under- 
i when I say that I remember one year when 42 new 
iteel ships were constructed. This, for one small industry. 
means a considerable loss in steel consumption, and ac- 
counts for some of the reaction in the steel trade. 

spring it began to look as though the steel business 
was in for a slight upturn in demand. Beginning at the 
bottom, efforts were made to readjust prices in such a 
way as (o bring the buyers back into the market. The 
factors which controlled the iron-ore movement from the 
head of the Lakes decided to brine; about a horizontal re- 
duction of fide, per ton in the prii I' ore to the furnaces. 

In pig-iron circles the influence of merchant furnaces had 
already been exerted to bring the price of No. 2 foundry 
iron to an average of below $11 per ton in 'The Valleys.' 
Of course, this was not the minimum price, because the 
trade reports were teeming with suggestions that pig iron 
of this grade, lo meet Southern competition, bad gone as 

low as $12. or even below that. At the same time, there 
bad been a radical reduction in the price of coke. In a 
good many instances, the manufactured product was not 
bringing much more than the price of coal; not enough, 
surely, to cover the actual cost of conversion into coke. 

It was believed that, with this readjustment in the prices 

of raw material il would he possible to scale down in the 
prices of finished steel so as to invite timid buyers back 
into the market and possibly start a renewal of activity 
that would he beneficial to the country. 

It is always easy, in attempting to explain why a thing 
did not materialize according to plans, to lay the blame 
principally upon the must conspicuous factor and to disre- 
gard other important factors which may lie basic in their 
nature and tin rning, while the others are super- 

1 and of a sentimental effect only. Thus it is the 
easy thing to say that, just when all (dans were being 
made for a revival in business, the Standard Oil and the 
American Toba, , handed down by the 

1 T - 8. Sim;, i . ui. upsetting confidence and working 
through sentimental channels |o the destruction of the prom- 
ised prosperity in trade. It is easy to follow from this 
to the assault upon the United States Steel Corporation 
by the Go 's legal dep and to say that 

this completely destn trUdence which business 

and financiers were b in the situation. Com- 

ing on the heels of that, were the assaults upon the lumber 
companies and associations, and similai _ainst other 

large industries which wen the Sher- 

man anti-trust act I would nol contend thai these were 
not important factors, because they were Ii may be noth- 
ing more than a coincidence, and again it may he highly 
significant, that the plans for larger trade were either 
annulled or suspended instantly following the announce- 
ments of these actions. From a broader economic stand- 
point, it is necessary to take into consideration other fac- 

tors, and to make this point was on.- reason for dwelling 
upon the size of Lake ships and for dwelling upon other 
phases of the Lake carrying trade. Through the force of 
etitive effort, the Nation lias, for a matter of almost 
a decade lien struggling to obtain economy, and. in order 
to reach thai goal, has baen constantly increasing the size 
of the producing ami transporting units of industry. Em- 
phasis litis alreaVly been placed upon the increased size of 
Lake ships and their influence. The railroads have moved 
in the same direction by increasing the size of both cars 
ami engines to move the larger units of freight to market. 
11 e Steel mills have increased the size and productive capac- 
ity of single trains of rolls in order to get out more steel 
with the Bams plant and men as were employed formerly. 
Particularly, the coal mines of the Kast have done exactly 
the same thing. The size of mines has grown from 1000 
"I tons of daily output through a single shaft. With 
big producing units and with big transportation units, and 
the high speed of loading and unloading equipment, and 
no other market than that supplied by home consumers, it 
has been absolutely impossible for the country to absorb 
all that has been produced. It can easily be realized by 
the business interests that it is practically impossible to 
continue the old scale of prices and costs, and certainly it 
is impossible to expect to market the output if producing 
units are further increased in size, except through unhoped 
expansion of foreign trade. 

All this gives particular point to the discussion which 
has been going on for the past year, and principally for 
the past six months, of the effect of certain National stat- 
utes and the need for radical revision. The fact of the 
matter seems to be that the country has reached a period 
where reconstruction is necessary, and this is toning down 
the activities of the country, regardless of any action on 
the part of Mr. Taft's administration in enforcing laws 
which inveigh against trade crimes. At the time this is 
written there is quite a general feeling all through the 
East that an expansion in trade may be expected on the 
first of January. It is impossible to say what is the hope 
at root in this matter, but it is a known fact that the 
hope is there. A few indications may tell precisely what 
is anticipated. In the first place, despite the enormous 
accumulation of iron ore from the Lake Superior region, 
assurances are given that the output will be increased next 
year. There is a slight tightening np in the pig-iron situa- 
tion, and prices are firmer on future delivery than they 
have been for the entire year, with the exception of a 
short time in June and July. Also, for the past two or 
three weeks, reports have been coming in that consumers 
of coke are ready to abandon the open-market policy which 
has prevailed heretofore and are now willing to place con- 
tracts at existing prices for deliveries of considerable quan- 
tities over the lirst quarter, and even through the first half, 
of 1912. One representative of a company which is a 
large factor in the steel business, made the statement re- 
cently that bis orders and inquiries for January and Feb- 
ruary delivery are heavier for either month than have been 
the sales for October, November, and December combined. 
A report from the East says that some of the steel mills 
at Philadelphia and Baltimore are expecting to resume activ- 
ity by the first or fifteenth of January. Statements from 
the South or from the Birmingham district indicate the 
same condition. Knowing the need for readjustment along 
the fundamental lines previously outlined, my own disposi- 
tion is to take these optimistic statements with a certain 
degree of allowance. I do not want to contend that the 
economic conditions, such as were outlined, are always and 
surely ruling factors in ordinary merchandising, but I do 
contend that, whether recognized or not, their influence, 
within certain limits, is powerful. It may be that certain 
constructive legislation at Washington this year will per- 
mit a gradual toning down of the great stress of competi- 
tive action and thus eliminate the need for a radical read- 
justment such as has been indicated. It is almost sure that 
some constructive legislation would have a large sentimental 
influence, at least upon the business situation, which now 
definitely needs some encouragement. 

•Isnuary ti, ltflj 

MINING AM) >< II Mil h PR 

Gold-Dredging Industry on Seward Peninsula 

B] T M G 

i quota in this article ar.' obtained 
art dinvtlv IP" • rit nt' the 

discussed, and in pari them 

to be flow approximations t.> the truth. Solomon rivi 
the oldest, and at praaaol the most important, 
ditti • orated 

in this nrrn tin- Haaon anil all b I letory 

showings, while aoma have had quite | lienoiueiiul si ess. 

The Three Friend* dredge, now in its seventh season, was 
the first modern dredge installed "ii Seward peninsula. It 
has ■ I bucket line, and when running 

in gravel of a suitable depth has been able t" maintain an 
average of 3300 cu. yd. per day for many consecutive days. 

i In' Sewat I Dredging l'o., that the consideration paid for the 

property u.i- -.'nil. and the last payment mu 

mi or before January 1, 1!»12. 

Mr. Ilnlla informs thai the 10,000 

rn. yd. s<> far tins season, and thai 
amortization and winter ran'. i> 18c. per cubit yard. Efa 
ml the gold content u a "i Bolomon river is 

between 40 and 50c. per eubio yard. Mr. Ilalln will remain 
here this winter and will continue t" operate the dredge as 

long as the weather c litiona will permit. II.- wys the 

company will probably build a planl near tin- 

mouth of Soloi river, early ne This plant will 

cost about $85,000 and will generate 1000 hp. It will burn 


It is a steam-driven machine and burns coal. Its power 
costs are perhaps the highest of all the dredges on the 
peninsula. It is equipped with simple slide-valve engines, 
exhausting into the open air, and its fuel consumption has 
been from 12 to 15 tons of coal per day. For many years 
coal cost about $21 per ton at the dredge. I am informed 
that the price this year is $19 per ton. It was the intention 
of the management to install a hydro-electric plant at the 
foot of Salmon lake, fifty miles distant, the year following 
the installation of the dredge, and thereafter run the dredge 
with electric power, but litigation over water rights, and 
other causes, prevented this plan from being carried out. 

Last winter the Three Friends company sold this dredge, 
and a large tract of ground on lower Solomon river, to John 
A. Webb, who later transferred it to the Seward Dredging 
Co., an organization promoted hy Mr. Webb and Otto Halla. 
both of Nome. This company was financed in the East, 
chiefly at Boston, and is a merger of the Nome Mining 
Trust and the Three Friends Mining Co. into one concern. 
It appears from the deed filed for record here, transferring 
the Three Friends Mining Co. holdings from Mr. Webb to 

crude oil, and it is hoped thus to reduce the cost of handling 
gravel to 13c. per cubic yard. The depth of the gravel 
worked this season is about 7 ft. and the profitable area 600 
to 800 ft. in width. 

The Nome-Montana-New Mexico Co., operating a 5-ft. 
open-connected Risdon dredge on Solomon river, near the 
mouth of Shovel creek, has had a very successful season. 
This dredge is now in its fourth season and has been a 
money maker from the start. But heavy investments in a 
ditch scheme, with other complications, involved the com- 
pany in considerable financial difficulty at the beginning of 
this season. J. P. Pearson was succeeded in the manage- 
ment by Dr. Ramsey, and a heavy indebtedness was wiped 
out by the end of the first month's run. The dredge now 
has about $100,000 to its credit for this season. This boat 
is steam-driven, but, unlike the Three Friends, it has com- 
pound condensing engines and water-tube boilers, and con- 
sumes about one-half as much coal. Its actual operating 
costs do not exceed 12c. per cubic yard, but as there was 
only five years of work ahead of the dredge when it started 
the amortization charges are necessarily high. 



January 6, 1912 

Charles Kimball installed a 2'j-ft. open-connected dredge, 
as the sluice-box type, on Shovel creek this season. 
Shovel creek is a tributary of Solomon river, flowing in 
ie west aide. Tt is well suited to a dredge of this 
The gravel o clay, and is mod- 

erately coar i containing but few boulders of large 

size. The gold is coarse and I. The gravel av- 

abonl 85c. per cubic yard. Mr. Kimball's dredge lias 
neither screen, tailing-stacker, nor tables. The buckets 
dump "!i a grizzly, which cuts oul the largest boulders and 
II-. while the undersize drops into an 
-. sluice, which runs thi if the boal and pro- 

jects aboul 20 ft. beyond the stern. It is driven by gas- 
engines and the sluice water is supplied by a 10-in. cen- 
trifugal put 

The total COSl of the dredge, when ready to run. was about 
II was landed on the ground early in July; was 

built and ready to operate by the middle of August, and has 
handled an average of 800 yd. per day for about 71) days. 
II has paid its expenses, its initial cost, and has a snug profit 
Mr. Kimhall has enough ground to keep it work- 
ing six or seven years. In an article published in the Min- 
Press last fall I emphasized the profitable 
nature of this class of investment on Seward peninsula, and 

while this area may be classed as ai g the very best, there 

are other g 1 ones awaiting the enterprising dredge man of 

small means. 

The Sivertsen & Johnson 'J' --II. Kisdoii dredge, built 

last year on Solomon river, made a rather poor beginning 

i on. but in the latter half of the season has been 

<li hi .- well. It worked through a shallow area having low 

gold content, but later reached good ground and will make a 

editable showing. 

The r'lo.iiu Dredging Co., operating a Risdon dredge near 
the mouth oJ Big EJurrab creek, has had a very successful 
season. Mr. Flodin, the president and has in- 

I mi i bal I he; bi bandied 130,000 cu. yd. this 
al actual digging cost of lie. per yard. His repair 
hills have been pretty heavy this season, and these, with 
winter care and amortization, make bis total charges con- 
siderably higher, though he was not prepared to say ex- 
actly what they are. He stated, however, that more than 
50% of his gross output is net profit. His dredge has a 
2 , L -ft. bucket-line and is steam-driven. The fuel used is 
eoal, which costs $20.50 per ton at the dredge. He has 
had a 130-day run this season, and closed October 28. 

The Solomon Dredging Co.. operating a J'-j-ft. Bucyrus 
dredge near East Fork, on Solomon river, has had a splen- 
did season. It handled approximately 160,000 cu. yd., and 
cleaned up about 70c. per yard from rim to rim of the 
river bed. which is about 300 ft. wide in this area. This 
company was promoted by Frank Reed, of Nome, in the 
winter of 1000-10. Some of the stock was taken by local 
people, but the majority is held in California. Henry 
bring man, is the president and con- 
■r. The dredge cost $75,000, and the 
eight claims secured by Mr. Reed upon which to place the 
dredge cost $16,000. The company has issued $100,000 of 
its capital stock. The operating expense for this season is 
about $30,000, and thej have taken out about $102,000 

with a $100,000 invest i. This dredge was built last 

in the delivery of machinery 
it was not completed .until the freeze-up set in. Mr. 
Reed, who was then i rted in and ran long 

enough to try it out, and thej laid it up for the winter. 
At the annual n ecting of the stockholders, Mr. Reed was 
. retired itber of Mr. 

Malloeh was elect . has been 

run by him this j i ipped to 

burn crude oil, but , n used. 

Coal I- ; -,s|. and $6 

per ton for a ' the Si River rail- 
road, thus making per at the dredge. 

Oil costs $2 per b- -10 per ton railway 

freight. Since 3 1 _■ equivalent in fuel value 

to 1 ton of eoal. Id be a saving 

ton in the use of oil. The dredge was stopped for the sea- 

son on October 19. The company has acreage enough ahead 
of the dredge to keep it digging four more seasons, and 
then it will reach a block of ground, consisting of 21 claims 
and covering about five miles of the river bed, which was 
lately purchased by the Pioneer Mining Co. for $79,000, 
of which $15,800 was cash and the remainder to be paid 
October 15, li«2. 

The Wild (loose dredge, on upper Ophir ereek in the 
Council district, leads ail the dredges on Seward peninsula 
both in yardage and in value of output for this season. 
This is a 3%-ft. dredge of California type and was built by 
the Tuba Const ruction Co. It was installed last season, 
and was run about 10 days to try it out just before the 
freeze-up. Its power is supplied by a Standard gas-engine 
of 12.5 hp., which drives all machinery except the light 
plant, which has a separate engine of 6 hp. The dredge 
lias now been running four months and will continue to 
run as long as the weather will permit. F. M. Ayre, gen- 
eral manager for the Wild Goose Mining & Trading Co., 
estimates the operating costs at 12c. per cubic yard for this 
. but thinks it will be reduced to 10c. next season. 
Gilbert Russet has been in charge this season. This 
dredge used an average of 300 gal. of distillate per day. 
which cost 6e. per gal. in San Francisco; the combined 
ocean and river freight and wagon haul up Ophir creek to 
the dredge adds 17e. per gallon, making 23c. per gallon, 
corresponding to a total of $73.60 per day for fuel. The 
dredge has handled an average of 2000 cu. yd. per day, and 
has bad some phenomenally rich ground. As much as 
$25,000 has been cleaned up for an eight-day run. It is 
not all as good as this, however, but the average has been 
above $1000 per day for 120 days, so far this season. The 
cost of the dredge was about $80,000, a large part being 

The Blue Goose company's dredge on lower Ophir has had 
a much better season this year than last. It has worked 
through a portion of claim No. M 1 ;.., all of the Humbug 
Fraction, and a portion of No. 4 which the company holds 
under lease from the Wild (loose company. This is the old- 
est dredge on Seward peninsula now in operation. It was 
built by I. B. Hammond of Portland. Oregon, for Hernando 
De Soto, and installed on the Niukluk river just below 
Council City, in 1004. Hernando De Soto was unable to 
make it pay, and it passed into the hands of a receiver ap- 
pointed by the court and by him sold to a company organ- 
ized by local people, and called the Blue Goose Dredging Co. 
This company floated it up the river to a point opposite the 
foot of the valley of Ophir creek and worked across the in- 
tervening fiats to Ophir creek, where it has worked success- 
fully for the past five years. It has a 5-ft. open-connected 
bucket-line, shaking-screen, and belt-stacker. Almost every 
part of the machinery has been renewed, some of it several 
times, so that today, although it is old-fashioned in many 
respects, it is a staunch and strong dredge. It handles about 
1000 cu. yd. per day. has about $SO,000 gross output to its 
credit this season, and is still running at this writing. It is 
a steam dredge and burns wood. This is laid down at 
the dredge for $10 per cord. I have been unable to get 
figures as to the cost per yard for this season's run. 

The Alaska Dredging Co.. having one dredge on Gold 
Bottom creek and one on Warm creek, is reported by Jerry 
Wilson, the promoter and one of the heaviest stockholders 
of this company, to have bad an excellent season. These 
are both 2'j-ti. gas-driven dredges, and Mr. Wilson says 
they have averaged 1000 cu. yd. per day and the digging 
costs were 10c. per yard. It is said they are digging in 
ground that runs from 30 to 50c. per cubic yard, so it is 
evident they have made a profit. 

The Kimball & Saupie sluice-box dredge, on Melsing 
creek, is reported to have kept up the high standard of 
work set last year, and the results of the season's work 
are highly satisfactory. This is a low-cost gas-driven dredge 
and is the type after which Charles Kimball's dredge on 
Shovel creek was made. On shallow creek bottoms having 
loose gravel and coarse heavy gold they are to be strongly 
commended, though they do not look as 'classy' as some of 
the other types. 


MINIM. AM) M II M II |( l'K 

creek. • II iu liuill by tho 

kid t,, bava 
m tin 1 dredges of the 
■ i W, W. J I installed in th. 

■ visited th 
like the tv, •!. it* bnekel line, trommel, and nl 

driven by a 50-bp. SU d Its pump 

i~ driven by ■ 30 bp. Western gas-engine. Ii uses 150 gal, 
itillate per day, baa ■ craw of nine man, and its 
■I operating about 10c. par ruin,- yard. This 

\ igust and i ning abonl 

To days, I am i"lil it lias bandied abonl 1000 en. yd. per 
Mid thai its owners are well pleased with the showing. 
I'll. Beardslej dredge, '>n Willow creek in Casa river dis- 
trict, has not been verj successful tin- season, I am told, 
impared with mosl other dredges on the peninsola, al 
though Mr. Beardsley says his disappointmenl lies nol bo 
imirli in ilic returns upon the investment, which have 
fairly remunerative, Imt in his failure t" realise the im- 

would pump 

and thei 

Tin n i in 

the .i : In Mi rii, n, and be fa 

i.l .i 
unique ez| ound with 

• I nl a lower cost than bai generallj b 
thought possible. His gravel deposit is from in to 12 ft. 
ilii,'k and overlain by 1 to 2 ft. of mock and sod an 
deposit to thaw. If ii were much deeper, the points would 
have to !>■ ind cumbersome i" handle, 

nol like]] thai they could be t< •- ) .t vertical in penetrating 
ravel, and if much shallower the yardage would prob 
ably be too small to pay to work unless it dally 

rich. Mr. Plien mounted a 35-hp, boiler on heavy -kills 
and covered ii with lighl bousing. This boiler supplied 
steam to ■ battery of l"> points. Crude "il was used for 

fuel, and Hi sumption was 300 gal, i er day. The j ■■ nm - 

were 12 ft. long and were sol ii ft. apart in a lim vei 


mens? profits that he anticipated when he went into the 
enterprise. He stopped work early in October, as Willow 
creek does not furnish water for flotation after the first 
frosty weather sets in. 

In the Nome district tbe dredges have had a busj seasoi 
and have met with a fair degree of success in must cases. 
The Plien Mining & Dredging Co., having a .'i'j-ft. Risdon 
dredge on Otter creek, lias bad a satisfactory season. Fur 
several reasons the yardage was much less than the theorel 
iial capacity of the dredge, but Mr. Plien I ells me that the 
ground is good enough to make up for the low capacity. 
The dredge has only averaged about loon cu. yd. per day, 
and it is rated at 2000 yd. The low efficiency is due in 

part to a high percentage of heavy sand in tl aterial. 

making it difficult to wash, and in part to an insufficient 
amount of sluice water. This is. perhaps, the weakest point 
in every dredge on the peninsula. Nearly every one of 
them can dig more material thai it ran wash, and the chief 
reason why they cannot wash more gravel is because their 
pumps do not give them sufficient water. Larger pu ip 
should he installed with a given sized bucket than has been 
the practice. Possibly if the perforations in the spray-pipe 
were made larger, thus reducing the back pressure on the 
pumps, the difficulty might he overcome. There is BO 
cemented gravel to be disintegrated by the action of the 
screen and spray, and I notice that wherever a dredge 
strikes a bed of clay, it passes through the screen and out 
over the stacker in balls a foot or more in diameter, just 

about 100 ft. The next line was 6 II. back, and the points 
were set so that each was midway between the points in 
the line in front. Steaming was continued for 20 hours. 
It was found that this overthawed the space between points, 
so il was widened to 7 ft. and the lines of holes made 7 ft. 
apart. Repeated tests show thai (his is the correct dis- 

tance for si economical work. To set the points requires 

two men and consumes about two hours time. The rousta- 
bout from .tin- dredge aids the point man in this work, and 
i In ii goes hack to his regular duties. There is one point 
man on the day shift and one on the night shift, and each 
works 12 hours. Crude oil costs $2.85 per barrel, deliv- 
ered, 'fhe plant is moved ahead from time to time by 
means of a long cable passing through a sheave anchored 
ahead. By this system Mr. Plien thawed 20,000 en. yd. at 
a total cost of $2000, or 10c. per cubic yard. These ligures 
allow for wear on points, hose, ami other equipment, ami 
for use of the boiler, hut do not ever the wdiole cost of 
this equipment. This work has demonstrated the feasibil- 
ity of working shallow frozen deposits, which ar( nveni- 

ently situated, at a total winking cost of 22' ;,<■. per cubic 

yard. Mr. Plien tells me his operating costs are $12£ 

day, or \2'^c. per yard on 1001) cu. yd. daily average. 

It must not he understood that these figures apply to all 
depths of frozen ground, nor to all localities where gold 
may be found in permanently frozen ground. With greater 
depth of ground it becomes increasingly difficult to pene- 
trate it with points. It is impossible to control the direo- 



January 6, 1912 

tion of a long slender point in ground containing i 

material, and a limit is si reached below which it i> 

economically impossible to thaw by any known method. 
Nor would Mr. Plien's Bgures apply to interior jKiints, 
where the cost of tnel is prohibitive. Mr. Plien tells me 
that this season's run has enabled him to pay off obliga- 
tions of the company amonnbjpg J 10, and, in addi- 
tion in this, a substantial dividend to the stockholders. 
This is certainly a satisfactory result. 

The Saunders Dredging Co., which was organized here 
last year to take over the machinery for a dredge which 
had been shipped here fur the Gold Beach Dredging ('".. 
ami which was held and certain charges which 

the company were unable to meet has. ai last, after over- 
coming many obstacle ted the construction of its 
boat aini launched it on what is hoped will prove a long and 
— sful life. It was thought by A. Anderson, the man- 
ager for the Saundei __ Co. when this plant was 
taken over, thai he wi a high-class Bucyrus dredge, 
and he was much chagrined to liml. after the dredge was 
delivered a nd upon which it was to operate, thai 
the only parts the Bucyrus company had built were the 
bucket-line, tumblers, and driving gear, and the balance ol 
the machinery had been bought from various houses and 
ted by a man who had hut little knowledge of the re- 
quirements, and therefore, a- might have been ex.] 
the machinery, other than the Bucyrus equipment, "a- 
little else than an aggregation of misfits and unbalanced 
parts. Many thousands of dollars had t • • he s] cut in the 
purchase o achinery ami in making changes u 
first Int. The machinery was landed on the ground about 
the' middle of last summer, and it was nut until the middle 
"f this summer that it began tn run. although every effort 
was made to hurry the work along. The dredge lias now 
ed Cm- the season, after 4"> days of v ,\ Jfr. 
Andet utside to purchase additional material. 
He says after Ihc contemplated changes are made he will 
have its size as any in the country. 
None of his winch friction clutches worked satisfactorily. 
and his main-drive winch friction would not work at ail. 
It he wanted to stop his bucket-line it was necessary to 
stop the engine driving it. Fortunately he is digging to a 
talse bottom of marine sand and there arc no large boulders 
in the deposit, so thai this was not so dangerous as it might 
otherwise have been. -Mr. Anderson will liny new friction 
dutches of a different make. The shaft in his winch- 
drums were loo small and all were broken as soon as put 
under strain. He had larger shafts turned, and the drums 
re-bored in a local machine ship, hut this has weakened the 
slock in the huh of the drums so that he will replace them 
next season with new ones. His stacker ladder is 36 ft. 
long and he will lengthen il 10 ft. next spring. He lias 
already lengthened his digging ladder by inserting a 9-ft. 
section. In the 45 days he ran. he handled about 110,000 
cu. yd. He has Met? & Weiss gas-engines and burns 200 
gal. of distillate per day. By investing $1600 in 200 oil- 
drums, he is able to lay his oil down at the boat for about 
14c per gallon. He figures his actual digging cost at about 
10c. per cubic yard. 

The Arctic Gold Dredging Co.. running a 2%-ft. gas- 
driyi ass creek, has run all summer without 

a hitch or stop. This dredge was designed by W. W. John- 
son and built by the Union Construction Co. in San Fran- 
i. It was installed las! has had a remarkably 

successful record as a digger up to the present time. 
bucket-line, trommel, and conveyor are driven bv a 50-hp. 
and the pump is driven by a 35-hp. 
Western engine. Mr. Middaugh, the manager, tells me 
that he has handled about JBO.000 cu. yd. this season, dig- 
ging 130 days. The dredge hums 150 gal. 
day and the tola! operating expense is #105 per day. No 
time has been lost on account of repairs this season, and 
the repair hills are practically nothing. Mr. Middaugh 
says he has the best little dredge in the North, hut is sorry 
he did not put it on richer ground. There is still a long 
stretch of the Grass valley ahead of him, and he hopes to 
find the ground better as he goes up the creek. 

The Sioux Alaska Dredging Co., having a sister boat to 
the (Mass creek boat, and operating on Moss guleb, has 
had plenty of trouble this year, working down grade in 
a gulch that has a 'I',' gradient. The dredge worked up- 
stream las! year, and Mr. Murray, the manager, thought 
his worst troubles would he over when he reached the upper 
limit and turned lo come back, but in this he was much 
disappointed. He has found it necessary to build dams 
about 100 ft. in advance of the dredge and to raise the 
water-level .1 to 7 ft. in order to get flotation. These dams 
were made of timber, and about 10.000 ft. of lumber was 
required lor a dam. While digging to one dam be would 
be building another, and having reached the first one, be 
would allow the water to escape into the next dam, and 
then remove the first. Hi- lias been aground re- 

peatedly, but he has managed to get down the gulch 800 
100 ft., and is now in Halter ground, and bis "winter 
of discontent" has been "made glorious summer" by strik- 
| phenomenally rich ground that makes up for bis 
lost fl 1 ' 

The Gold Beach dredge, which was built two years ago 
on lower Dry creek, in an area almost all of which is per- 
manently frozen, was dismantled last winter and hauled 
12 miles to Osborn creek, and was there rebuilt early 
this summer. It has a 5-ft. open-connected bucket-line ami 
is steam-driven. Its fuel is crude oil, of which it burns 
1. per day. The moving of this dredge 12 miles across 
country, over the snow-covered hills and valleys, was no 
small matter. The total weight of the dredge is about 300 
tons. It was moved by the C. h. Morris Transfer Co.. 
under contract. The d pany had to dismantle and 

rebuild it. 

After the machinery was removed, the caps were taken 
from the gantries and the hull was sawed into two equal 
I arts, from the well to the stem. These hull sections were 
lie most difficult to haul. They were jacked up and placed 
on two sets of heavy round timber skids, fore and aft, and 
the skids were firmly chained together. A section weighed 
55 tons and was drawn by fifi head of horses. The whole 
thing was successfully landed on Osborn. and the two 
parts of the hull were brought together and firmly bolted 
by a series of rods running clear across the boat. The 
was heavily reinforced with timber, and it is claimed 
I liai t lie hull is as strong and rigid as ever. The machinery 
was replaced and the dredge was ready to work when the 
season opened. It has not been smooth sailing, however. 
as unexpected difficulties have been met. The ground con- 
tains many large boulders, which are difficult to handle. 
The dredge was started in an area that had already been 
worked over, and it was found that a much larger propor- 
tion of the gold had been mined than had been supposed. 
The dredge ran behind, and creditors finally became so in- 
sistent that the company turned it over to a group of 
creditors, headed by Joe Montgomery of the C. I,. Morris 
Transfer Co.. under whose management the boat is now 
operating. It has worked its way out of the old tailing piles 
and is now in good ground. Mr. Montgomery tells me that a 
further three weeks' run will pay all indebtedness, and the 
dredge will lie handed back to the company, which may 
yet realize a profit on what has been a very badly man- 
aged enterprise. 

A new dredge was installed on Osborn creek this season 
by the Julien Drediring Co.. of which V. A. Julien is pres- 
ident and manager. This dredge has a 3-ft. open-connected 
bucket-line, revolving screen, and belt-stacker. A 50-hp. 
Standard gas-engine drives the bucket-line, screen, and 
stacker, and a 30-hp. Standard engine drives the pump. 
There is also a 6-hp. engine that runs the electric-light 
plant. These engines use Hill gal. of distillate per day. 
This boat was designed by W. W. Johnson and H. G. Peake. 
of the T'nion Construction Co.. and was erected under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Johnson. The dredge con- 
struction began on dune, and was completed and ready to 
run July 21. It has now run HID days and has handled' an 
average of 1000 cu. yd. per day, or a total of 100,000 cu. yd. 
this season. This dredge cost $43,700 when complete and 
ready to run. 

January '>, 1011 



Mining Conditions in the South of Spain 


i iirgrni request at n valued trieud I have beau ta tins article, hi I type I dislike. 

Whan prodnaad spontaneously, such articles an usually 
written bj • •" mparatively green graduates on the strength 

• •r two or tana in a foreign oountry, often 
confined t. district, in the course "i which period 

associated as much with their owu 

eonnlrymen and as little as possible with the natives of 
m which (luv are ten aident, whose Ian 

have nol troubled to master, and whom, conseiously 

• ir i: despise as beings of an inferior 
order. Tin' more intimate is one's knowledge of a country, 
the greater the diffidence fell in generalizing about it. 

Din' predominating feature in the conditions is the fact 
that, compared with the mining regions of Spanish America 
end many of those in the United St) . Spain is a 

highly civilized country. I do nol mean 'civilized' in the 
thai every adoll or even every child enjoys the bless 
inir of bcim: able to read, say, the Sunday edition of the 
.\>rr Fork llerahl, tor tin- proportion hi' illiterate is still, 
alas, high; nor that all important towns enjoy the benefits 
of railro.iil communication, for in old countries towns came 
before railroads, and nol afterward, I merely wish 
■•all the fact thai Spain was t In- most civilized country 
in the world centuries before those twin pioneers, the 
'tins-iron' ami the whisky-bottle, overran the Wild West, 
and long before the Pilgrim Fathers were, through an ob- 
stinate narrow-mindedness at least as great as their own, 

driven forth to seek a New England across the Atlantic. 

Since thai date and np to the present Spain has assimilated 

of the manifestations of modern progress. 
Civilization, of course, has its drawbacks as well as its 
advantages. It is not possible, for instance, in Spain, as 
it is in many parts of Spanish America (or was a very 

few years ago), when the stock of ore in the bins is run- 
ning low. to lay by the heels on Saturday night in the 
company's lock-up a gang of trammers in order to have 
them ready fresh and sober on Sunday morning, and so 
prevent a stoppage of mill or smelter; nor is it always 
possible i" get one's own foreman or clerk appointed Jus- 
tice of the Peace or Police Commissary. Tt is not even 
possible, as in some more favored countries, for the mere 
possessor of unlimited cash without any political influence, 
properly so-called, to buy outright a Board of Supervisors, 
or of Aldermen, or a State Senate. On the other side 
of the account must be set the fact of comparatively good 
communications, there being a large number of State-owned 
macadamized roads for wheeled traffic, uniting important 
towns and villages even in districts not served by railroads. 
Tt is always possible, moreover, even in such remote dis- 
tricts, to contract locally for supplies of every variety. 
timber and other materials of construction, ;is well as for 
all kinds of surface work, excavation, and grading, and it 
is easy to get (at comparatively low wages) skilled artisans 
-of all kinds who are always ready to feed themselves, even 
if it be necessary in uninhabited regions to house them 
and start a store. It is therefore never necessary — as in 
many parts of Central and even of North America — to com- 
mence operations by importing at heavy expense skilled 
workmen with every kind of material required for building 
houses for them, to put up boarding-houses, and in some 
eases to import beasts of burden to handle the company's 
traffic over the newly built road to the mines, and even the 
very fodder for these to eat, or to erect saw-mills and lime 
and brick-kilns; such pioneer work having been done cen- 
turies ago. 

Spain counts for little at present in the progress of 
nations, and there is nothing brilliant in her immediate 
future; but she has at least a great and glorious past; its 
heritage still overshadows the land, and its traditions still 
mold, not indeed the everyday life of the people, for that 

is dependent upon their pi . but their in 

stincts, then- deportment, and to ■ jraal extant their 

of thought, and their resultant Do a Spaniard 

an injur} or put an affront It] him. ami he will move 

m ami earth to wipe mil thai affronl or to repay with 
compound interest thai injury, if it should take him tan 

ho him a trifling favor and he is yours t. m 

iiuind ver satisfied until be has found opportunities of 

ing your favor ten times i erything tha 

in the country, including this exaggerated conception 
of personal honor, has been handed down from a remote 
past; with ihe exception of indol te, ingrained in the 

.ally all the evil is oi com] aratively modern growth, 
ami the socialistic and revolutionary propaganda bo much 
in evidence lately, is purely exotic, having its origin across 
the Pyrenei 

So Ions as the feudal system remained a living reality, 
Spain w.i- a prosperous and a progressive country; it 

was only when all power bee: centralized in a corrupt 

court under the control of ecclesiastical dignitaries, and 
the close feudal relationship between the great nobility 
and their dependents degenerated into absentee landlordism 
(the curse of Spain today as it is of Ireland) that stagna- 
tion began, owing to the withdrawal from the rural districts 

of the element which si 1 ,n once Cor capital, intelligence, 

and initiative. After the departure of those who should 
be the natural leaders and rulers in the rural districts, 
there ensued the development of the present political sys- 
tem, under which local middle-class husyhodies and third- 
rate professional politicians become the agents and hench- 
men of the parly that happens to he in power in Madrid, 
and control not only the elections, but also (he appoint- 
ment of local authorities, judicial as well as administrative, 
with the result that exceptionally good codes of laws and 
bodies of regulations are administered capriciously, the 
principle of equality before the law being often set aside 
in favor of private interests, and still more often in favor 
of political influence. 

This does not apply as regards the administration of 
regulations affecting the mining industry by officials di- 
rectly responsible to the central Government. The regula- 
tions themselves indeed often appear lo be vexatious in 
the complexity of detail which they prescribe, and but 
little discretionary power is vested in the officials who 
have to carry them out, but the latter are as a rule rea- 
sonable and obliging (more so, in fact, than those of some 
other countries that might be mentioned) and if treated 
with due courtesy will invariably be found willing to con- 
cede all the facilities possible, and to exercise their discre- 
tion in such fashion as to cause the minimum amount of 

More especially is this the case as regards the corps of 
mining engineers, whose duties comprise not only the in- 
spection of mines but all matters concerning the survey 
and granting of mining concessions and subsequent modi- 
fication of the grants, questions affecting conflicting rights 
under different concessions, and the investigation of all 
cases in which the interests of the mining industry appear 
to clash with rights of individuals, of corporations, or 
of the State. For, as in all Spanish America, where mining 
laws were based on the Spanish law and have followed 
pretty closely successive changes in the latter, minerals 
(with certain specified exceptions reserved to the owner 
of the soil) belong to the State, by whom concession of 
the right to work them is granted upon definite conditions, 
chief among which is regular payment of the annual rent. 

In the execution of their duties the official mining engi- 
neers are hampered by detailed regulations, which, as usu- 
ally happens with Government, regulations in all countries, 
have been drawn up by officials who are not always in 
touch with the practical working conditions under which 



January 6, 1912 

the industry is carried on. However, as a body, they are 
cultured, well intentioned, and conspicuously honorable. 
and within the limits imposed upon them by official red- 
tape they do their best to oil the wheels and to enforce 
the law with as little hindrance as possible to the mining 

■ Conditions. — The Spanish workman is, as a rule, 
sober, steady, and industrious, if under proper supervision ; 
frugal, partly from necessity, he is almost always cheerful, 
generate to a fault, and improvident in the extreme. His 
efficiency, under proper control and supervision, is high, 
and. considering his poor feeding, surprisingly so. Per 
unit of wages earned, the Spanish miner does more work 
than any other in existence, save perhaps the Piedmontese 
and the Hungarian; for his wages arc low. the standard 
rate of day's pay throughout the south of Spain being 
about 3.5 pesetas (say 64c.) per day. This, of coarse, i- 
only the nominal rate, for practically all are on contract, 
and the average wage earned is about 85c, out of which 
each man has to find his own illuminant, either olive oil 
or acetylene. Laborers at surface earn 45 to 50c: under- 
ground trammers, etc., 55 to 70, or 75c on contract. At 
such priees it is not surprising that these efficient workers 
operate, for instance, in the Spanish pyritic mines, at a 
cost which under equal conditions as to hardness of ore, 
complete extraction without loss, and complete filling of 
excavations, would be utterly impossible in America. The 
American miner, whether native-born or of foreign nation- 
ality, although doubtless somewhat more efficient, man for 
man. than the smaller and less well nourished Spaniard. 
is by no means sufficiently better to offset the much higher 
wages paid in America. 

The Spanish miner in the south does not keep nearly 
as many feast-days as are observed by other classes of 
workers, particularly in the towns; being sober, he misses 
fewer Mondays than do most miners in northern dimes; 
moreover, he is always ready to work on Sundays or to 
do over-time when required at the ordinary rate of pay. 
So long as he is treated with scrupulous fairness by chiefs 
whom he can respect for their strict justice and good ex- 
ample he 'iocs not mind being handled firmly; in 

tike the school-boy he appreciates the firm hand when suffi- 
ciently discriminating, his unconscious ideal of good gov- 
ernment approximating to the paternal or patriarchal. 
What he most dislikes is to be treated as a mere unit or 
as "one of the hands" by an unsympathetic superior who 
not only does not know his name or anything, about him, 
but docs not r.uv h. find "til. This partly explains the 
undoubted fait that the smaller concerns, in which there 
i- more direct intercourse between individual workers and 
their chiefs, are able, other things being equal, to get more 
work done, man for man, than the large companies, even 
while paying the same wages. Unionism, already a great 
evil in the north and east, lias made no progress in the 
south, where the more capable of the workers fully rei 
uize that their own exertions will suffice to bring "them to 
the top and keep them there, and do not see Why they 
should be 'levelled down' to the standard set by the less 
In the north and east of Spain conditions are 
unfortunately different, partly owing to influences from 
across He' I ,ve been at work for a Ion- 

while, and possibl less consideration for their 

as individuals on the part of the large com- 
panies doing business there 

Methods of Working.— Timher being scarce and dear. 

and it being considered in Europe inadmissible to leave 

behind in a mine ore upon which there is even a small 

margin over the cost of extraction and treatment, it is 

ary in the case of almost all lodes and orebodies to 

employ a system of complete extract] E the ore-sl I 

with filling of the excavation, except in districts like Linares 
where comparatively narrow and almost vertical lodes cut 
h hard granite with go ! -olid walls, in which case 
filling of the excavations is to a great extent unnecessary, 
such portions of the lodes as are too poor for removal 
affording the required support. In a few cases where the 
lode or pay-streak is narrow and the ore rich, it is worked 

by 'stripping' or 'resueing', one of the walls being first 
blasted down and waste material thus obtained sufficient 
to till the excavation. In the case of wide lodes and masses, 
like those of iron ore and the pyritic deposits of the prov- 
inces of Huelva and Seville, tilling has, of course, to be 
i in fnsm outside. Even if the cost of timber did 
not prohibit the use of square sets, that method would 
he considered barbarous, as indeed it is. Caving methods 
do not appear to be applicable when it is essential that 
the ore should be taken out completely without loss, and 
without any admixture with waste, even 1% of which mixed 
with the ore would have a serious effect upon the selling 
value; moreover, the danger of premature leaching, and 
the still more serious danger of spontaneous ignition 
through the heat generated by crushing, are insuperable 
objections to caving methods as applied to cupriferous 
pyrite. Complete extraction and filling therefore is the 
only practicable method under the conditions. 

Up to widths of 30 to 40 ft. pyritic lodes are generally 
mined in successive horizontal cuts 2 metres high and the 
full width of the lode, the filling being kept some way 
behind or close up, according as the ore stands well or 
the reverse. With wider lodes, say, 40 to 75 ft., the method 
is varied, and often alternate blocks on each temporary 
level are taken out transversely from the foot-wall across 
to the hanging, and filled before attacking the intermediate 
blocks. In short wide orebodies a cut is sometimes taken 
out from the foot-wall side half-way across for nearly the 
full length, and filled; a temporary level being established 
down the middle, the remainder of the cut is then taken 
out in alternate blocks, each block being cut out first along 
the hanging wall from the cross-cuts and thence backward 
to the central temporary level, followed by the filling put 
in through the same cross-cuts. In one case, of a long 
and wide orebody, a central tramming level is established 
upon each floor and from it the ore is taken out right 
and left in alternate blocks to hanging and foot-walls re- 
spectively. These blocks being filled, the alternate ones 
are attacked and when the whole is cut out, over a height 
of 2 to 2 1 j metres, a working level is established on the 
filling, parallel to the tramming level and one set to either 
side of it. The next cut is taken out in similar fashion. 

The most satisfactory way of mining pyritic masses 
that are both long and very wide (150 to 450 ft.) has still 
to be determined. The system of cutting out vertical sec- 
tions right across from wall to wall on several floors suc- 
cessively, the empty space being filled, with strong masonry 
walls to support the filliug, has been tried and found want- 
ing. No ordinary masonry is capable of sustaining the 
enormous pressure over such a width; moreover, the local- 
ized pressure and movement are often so great as to give 
rise to spontaneous combustion of the pyrite. At one 
well known mine where hitherto the work has been done 
by open-cuts, and where the problem of working by under- 
ground mining a mass of ore from 200 to 400 ft. wide is 
only just being attacked, the method adopted is to take 
out first only a section along the centre, 75 ft. wide, by 
means of successive continuous horizontal cuts running the 
full width and followed by filling in the ordinary fashion, 
as if the orebody were only 75 ft. wide, the idea being 
that after some years the filling in the central section 
will become sufficiently consolidated to permit extracting 
I he remaining side sections by means of transverse hori- 
zontal cuts, removal of the foot-wall section presumably 
preceding thai of the hanging-wall part. 

The upper zone of all the wide pyritic masses that OKI 
crop or approach the surface is removed by quarrying, 
the cost of removing the overburden to uncover the ore 
averaging from :i to 17 pesetas per cubic metre of rock 
in place, according as it consists of soft easily broken slate 
or of hard solid 'porphyry' or other igneous rocks- The 
point at which it censes to be profitable to remove over- 
burden in order to quan-y the ore varies with a number 
of factors, but in general terms it may be said that pro- 
vided the rock to be removed does not amount to more 
(ban 1 to 2 cubic metres per ton of ore rendered avail- 
able, it is always worth while to strip, since the resulting 

January 8, 1019 

MIMV. \M) S< II Mil l< I'KI SS 


while lo i 
i. liui ill. n a ■bout i lie limit, unless 
thai has baas robbed or 
parti] w or ked bj I 

ng which bj • m of underground mining would 

than in tli. lode. 

h'i The financial eontribationi levied 

ili«' miin: ,lv onerous. A pro- 

ng mine, in addition to amps and other dutiei 

and taxation paid by everybody, baa t" pay the following 

Surface claim tax on tin- area covered by it s min . 
elaima, amonnting to 6 per hectare in the ease 

of iron iiml i"i pesetas per heetare in tl other 


j Land tax on any freehold land. 
Boom tax mi all or any bnildii 
i4) [ndnstrial tax on each of its workshops separately, 
namely, carpenters, blacksmiths, etc., etc. In the case of 

npany owning a workshop with machine-tools driven 
DJ .-team or other pc may be made, as in 

the ease .if a factory, mi spare parts ..i' machinery. The 
tax then levied is heavy, being at the rale of 200 peai l« per 
year par horse-power ol the motor installed tor driving 

purposes, whether or not that power lie fully occupied. 
Fortunately there is no uniformity of assessment, and 
workshops are nol always taxed under this head. 

(5) In e lax al 11)'",' in some eases and .V , in others 

• >n all salaries of employees, 'I'll,-.- : mils may he col- 

leeted from the employees if the company bo ol -■■-. hut 

in the ease of i jn companies it is not customary 

to do so. Iii any ease the company is responsible for 
payment direct, whether it collects or not. This tax is 
levied not only on employees resident in the country, bul 
on the salaries and fees paid to directors, auditors, con- 
sulting engineers, and other bead-office employees; in fact, 
on all who. draw tees or bonuses of any description from 
i In- company, wherever they may he employed. 

nil Profjts lax at the rate of 2% upon the amount of 
all dividends declared. 

i7i Tax on capital. This tax. logically quite indefens- 
ible, is levied at the rate of one mil on the total nom- 
inal capital nl' the company, or upon the total estimated 
value of its property and assets of every description, as 
determined by a special investigation conducted by the 
tiovemment officials ad hoc, whichever gives the highest 
figure! The object being merely to squeeze out as much 
revenue as possible, regardless of equity and logic. If company has a large watered nominal capital, tin - \ 
charge on that, and if the assets of another company are 
worth far more than its nominal capital, so that the shares 
stand at a high premium, they charge on their valuation 
of the assets. 

(8) Transport tax. 5% upon the amounts paid for 
transport of all products by rail, in addition to another 
~> r ; Collected by the Government direct from the railway 
company; this the latter adds to every way-bill, thus mak- 
ing in all W c ' c , which the producer pays the Government 
over and above whatever is charged by the railway for 
moving his ores and supplies. 

(9) Export tax. This is levied on most kinds of ores 
and metallurgical products, some of the principal items 
scheduled being the following: 

Description. Pesetas per ton. 

Iron ores 0.25 

Pyrite with less than 2 1 /2% copper 0.25 

Ores with more than 2 1 - 2 % copper 1.60 

Ores of manganese 0.50 

Ores of lead 15.00 

Argentiferous lead 10.00 

Copper matte 20.00 

The duties on ores of lead, argentiferous lead, and copper 
matte have, of course, for their object encouragement to 

undertake smeltli 

i In 

on li. 

old. In till 

ifll mi win. 
of tli. it i .ut at the mm. 

i.. a- much a- IS I., jo ..i the working pi ining 

the ore, ami in some in-.- ii ma\ in- re than the whole 

of the working profit. 

Production ■ •/' Electricity. Every nunc thai 

city, even for ii- own consumption, ha- to paj 

lav. which, however, is only one hall the a unl of that 

charged t.. a ipany producing electricity for -al.-. The 

rates ore 0.50 pi teta per kilowatt hour on current for power 
purposes an. I 8.75 pesetas on current for lighting purpi 

In addition t.. the production tax mi electricity, that 
used i'.r lighting i- al-.. taxed separately, whether or nol 
the current i- produced by the consumer tor his own use. 

It should further lie noted thai all machinery and the 

hulk of the raw material used by the m'""tg industry, in 
eluding coal, coke, railway material, wagons, constructional 
ironwork, explosives, lubricants, illuminants, ami tools of 
all kinds, pay exorbitant import duties. Explosives ami 
petroleum, indeed, are protected monopolies, ami. a- al 
ways happens in such oases, nol only arc the price 
militant, but the quality is had. Certain kinds of machin- 
ery and supplies, including pig and WTOUgfal iron, arc pro- 

duced in the country, hut except as regards constructors! 

ironwork, which is good ami cheap, the prices are in most 
cases practically the same as those "I' the imported articles, 

the duties merely serving to enrich local manufacturers, 
who, as in some other countries, arrange the tariffs to suit 
their own interest. 

In the case of the smaller pyritic mines of the provinces 
of Huelva and Seville, the total amount of Government 
taxation varies from 15 to 30 c ; of the gross value of the 
ore per ton f.o.b. the shipping port, or. which amounts 
to the same thing, from 20 to 40% of the value of tin- 
ore at the mouth of the mine. This is a crushing load 
of taxation for any industry to bear, and it will be readily 
understood that it presses with exceptional weight upon 
those mines in which, owing to the poverty of the ore. 
small size of the orebodies, distance from the shipping port, 
or other incidental circumstances, the working costs bear 
a higher ratio than usual to the value of the product. In 
quite a number of such cases indeed it snuffs out the profit 
altogether, and fiscal exactions transform what might be 
a small working profit into a substantial loss. 

Blinded by the prosperity of Bio Tinto, which is able 
to stand these and almost any imaginable fiscal exaction, 
tin Spanish Government, with its continual proposals for 
the increase of taxation and the undiscriminating way in 
which this is levied, is seriously hampering the development 
of the smaller mines and impeding the influx of capital 
to still undeveloped properties. Such a policy appears to 
be short-sighted. 

Copper Surplus 

Figures showing the visible supply of copper at the be- 
ginning of each month are now widely available. Below 
are given the amounts, in pounds, known to be available 
at the first of each of the last six months of 1911, with 
certain other months for comparison. 

U.S. Foreign. World, 

January 1009 122,357,266 124,716,480 247,073,476 

January 1910 141,766,111 244,204,800 385,970,911 

July " 16S.27ti.017 232,863,680 401,139,697 

January 1911 122,030,195 187,705,2S0 309,735.4 7". 

July " 157,434,164 157.184,280 314,618,444 

August " 137,738,858 152,376,000 290,114,858 

September" 133,441,501 149.8.87,360 283,328,861 

October " 140,894,856 150,841,600 291,736.456 

November " 134,997,642 138,512,640 273,510,282 

December" 111,785,188 131,447,680 243,232.868 



January ti, 1912 

Japan's Mineral Pioduction 

By H. Foster Bain 

Stat i - 1 teral production of Japan in 1911 

will not be available for some months. The figures for 1910 
are driven below : 

Mineral Production of Japan, 1910 

Gold ounces 

Silver " 

Copper pounds 

Lead " 

Tin " 

Iron : 

met ii 

Kera " 


Steel " •■ 

Iron pyrite " 

Antimony : 

Refined pounds 

< rude metric tons 

Manganese ore ... " " 

Zinc ore " " 

Coal " 

Lignite " " 

Petroleum gallons 

Sulphur metric tons 

Graphite " " 

Phosphate rock. 















76,572.1! Mi 




Value, yen. 





















It will be noted that the total mineral output was worth 
$50,000,000, of which one-half was derived from (he col- 
lieries, a trifle over one-fourth from the copper mines, and 
the remainder divided among petroleum, gold, silver, pig 
iron, sulphur, pyrite, lead, zinc, and minor items. A re- 
view of the figures for the past ten years shows a con- 
sistent and gratifying increase in output and value In 
1900 the total was $24,633,727; this had doubled by 1906. 
Increases since have been offset by decreases in price. 

The coal-mining industry continues in a flourishing con- 
dition despite the competition of the Manchurian and Chi- 
nese mines. In Japan the great bulk of the coal mined 
comes from the southern island. Kyushu. Here the Chiku- 
Ho districts prod 'lie coal output of the 

re and show a steady increase in output. Contrary 
to a widespread impression, the known reserves are in- 
ner than decreasing, deep drilling having 
resulted in i ie known field. At the well known 

Takashh the Mitsu Bishi Co.. additional 

beds oi coal have been found, and the engineers of that 
company now estimate the reserve at 160,000,000 tons; 
enmiL'li In continue the production of 2000 tons per day 
for over 20(1 years. Throughout this field large modem 
collieries with steel top works, excellent pumps, and turbo- 
electric power stations are t.. be seen. One interesting 
feature of the district is the Meiji Higher Technical School 

recentlj founded to give s ndarj instruction in mining 

and reli peering. It is cm. lone,] with 

yen by one of ill,, successful coal-mi perators, 

direi ti b [atoba, formerly of the Engi- 

neering College of the Imperial University at Tokyo. In- 
struction in the higher branches of engineering is also 
now provided by the Kyushu Imperial University at Fuku- 
oka. where Y. Watans i •■■.-ill )„. remembered by 

many America been al St. r.,,uis in 

1904, is nov, 

is the U in Japan. Ii alone pro- 

duces nearly one-eighth of tl the Km], ire. The 

firm, (o which it belot 5, pi In -,-.. alti 

sixth of the total out]. in. if this abonl 

exported, aside from that sold as bunker coal. The Miike 

collieries include six working pits, the deepest and most 
important being the Manda. This pit has two shafts 930 
ft. dee],, the larger being 12 by 41 ft. in cross-section. The 
output from this shaft is 22(10 tons per day. and for the 
whole field 12 tons of water must be pumped to raise 
one ton of coal. There are many interesting features of 
the mine equipment and mining practice at this point that 
must be left for later description, but here, as at the other 
large mines of the Empire, every advantage has been taken 
of latest improvements in plant and methods. Coke is 
at present in beehive ovens, but a bank of Eoppel 
ovens is now being built, and all by-products are to be 
saved. At present but half the gas is used, but with 
the new plant two 2000-kw. gas-engines will be included, 
to drive electric generators, supplementing the three 5000- 
kw. Curtis turbo-generators now in use. The total pump- 
ing equipment when complete will be capable of handling 
'JLl.'.no gal. of water per minute from a depth of 1000 ft. 






Pwsfie Atj' -y (£j^~~~^&->*^*=«t Jf 


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X \ 1 ZT tt/YO'</Quany 

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— »» ^—^//} 'li/fejtone Quarrjf*\\ 

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Aii excellent harbor with tidal lock lias been built and 
equipped with three Miike loaders, each capable of band- 
ling 5000 tons per hour. The use of mechanical loaders 

is in line with modern progress, but does away with one 
of the picturesque features of a stop in Japan, coaling 
ship by hand. In the latter work the Japanese have be- 
come expert. At Xagasaki. the Mitsu Bishi Co. in 1902 
put 1210 tons of coal on the Empress of China in 3V.i 
hours; at a rate of 372 tons per hour. At Tawata, where 
coal is loaded by hand, the cost is about 17V2C. per ton ; 
each workman handling two tons at a daily average wage 
of 35c It is against such labor costs that machinery must 
compete in the Far East. In northern Japan large coal 
deposits are being developed in Hokkaido. The output 
now equals about 10^ of that of the Empire and is 
rapidly growing. Examinations made this year by Japan- 
ese engineers have extended the limits of the known field 
and developed the presence of especially valuable gas coals. 
Arrangements are being 111:1, le to open additional mines. 
'flu- coal industry in Japan is conducted on a satisfactory 
ha^is of profit. Costs are not notably different from 
ih"-c in the United States, good coal being produced as 
low as $1 per ton at the pit mouth, and averaging, in 
1910, $1.61. Selling prices, however, are better, much coal 
bringing $4 to $4.50 per ton. Roughly, it may be calculated 

January ti, L01S 



ilmt excellent Japanear coal ran Ix l.u.l down profltabl) 
ily paid. at about t li« ■ MUM pi 
uraii ami Canadian eoaJi arv no* delivered, namely, 
$6 to QUO per i. hi. Actually tht Pacific Mail boati tun 
Japantwc mal on the •Ml bound trip, and, except when 
carpi ipaM is at a premium, bring over enough lo burn 

OH Ih* return trip. 

from i":il. Japan produces petroleum, though not 
h yet in large quantity. In 1010 the output was 182,000 
l>lil. Tin- production baa nol variod greatly for Ave years, 
an. I general opinion it to the effect that large oilfields ore 


not likely to be developed, except possibly in Saghalin. 
Prospecting there is under way. Charcoal remains the 
main fuel for domestic purposes throughout Japan, though 
in time coal may be expected to largely supplant this, as 
it lias already done in manufacturing, and in beating the 
larger modem houses. 

Next to COaJ the most important mineral mined in Japan 
is cupper. Tlic total Output in 1910 was 111,780,058 metric 
tons, and in 1911 will doubtless he larger. 1 While there 
an- a large number of cupper mines, three have been de- 



veloped on so large a scale as to overshadow ll there. 

These are the Kosaka. of the Fujita firm; the Ashio of 
the Fnrukawa firm; and the Besshi, belonging to the Sumi- 
tomo firm. The Kosaka. 400 miles north of Tokyo, has 
been for several years the largest metal mine in the Far 
East. In 1908 it yielded nearly 16,000,000 lh. of copper, 
with 1,000,000 oz. silver. Work has been conducted on 
a large scale with both open pit and underground mining 
and pyritic smelting. Because of the presence of much 
barite, the ore is especially refractory, bul the metallur- 
gists in charge succeeded in overcoming' all difficulties. 
This mine seems now to have passed its prime, unless addi- 
tional orebodies be found, and at present the leading pro- 

■ For review of the copper production of Japan in 1910, 
see T. Haga. Mining and Scientific Press. June 24. 1910. 

ducer is il, 

I ci' m. mill is produced f i ppei 

produced in !»■' 

iting 1%, brought up to 12" , b> milling. Ten • 
suppu is reported t" be available, i situation 

ami work at this mine have elreadj I In 

1910 ami liH I important improvement! and 

others are under way. A railway is now hem-/ built !•■ 
the mine*, the dressii it the mouth of the Tsudo 

adit are being enlarged, a new Ingentoll Rand daw I' cum 
pressor with air cylinders 1 < > ' ._. and 27VS by '_M in. has 
been put into service, ami many other chat \( 

N'ikkn additional water-power lias been developed, and the 
refinery is now being enlarged i" double its present capac- 
ity. In the new plant the multiple instead of series sys 

lein will be used. At the Besshi mine, which in lilll will 

probably rank first in production though between an) 
two hi' the three bit; mines there is tittle difference impor 
taut improvements are also under way. Dp to this year 

Steam-electric power has been used at the mine, hut n 
new 3000-kw. hydro-electric plant is bow nearly completed. 
An unusual feature of this work is that the waler is 

hi-.. ughi from the east side of the mountain through the 

mine by way of the lliura adit. If has a total fall of 
1975 ft. and 2~> 6U. ft. per minute is available. A new 

adit 15,000 ft. long is now being driven to undercut the 
present working's 1876 ft., and to meet il a round shall. 


16 ft. in diameter, is being sunk from inside the mine. 
It is interesting to note that this work is being undertaken 
without preliminary testing of the lower ground, because 
of the confidence engendered by the persistence of the ore- 
shoot, which is 5000 ft. long, to the present working depth 
of 2000 ft. The average content of the Besshi ore is 10', 
Cu, and it is so free from deleterious substances thai 
no refinery is necessary. To avoid their introduction into 
the matter, a barren flux is used ill place of the usual 
gold-quartz ore. Within the year briquetting has been 
abandoned in favor of pot-roasting, arid a unique method 
uf nodulizing the line ore preliminary to roasting has been 
developed by Keijiro Nakamura, superintendent of the 
Sumitomo smelting works at Sbisakajima. A number of 
other improvements are being made, and an excellent future 
may be safely predicted for this mine. In addition to 
the three big mines mentioned, there are many others less 
well developed, a number of which may be expected to 
become important producers. A.1 present Japan exports 
copper to the amount of about 80,000,000 lb. per year. 
While wire, sheet, and pipe plants are in operation and 
are being rapidly enlarged, it is probable that exports 

will continue to increase. Japanese e panics are able 

to work copper up into finished products and supply the 
local market, including the demand incident lo a rapid 
expansion of trolley roads now just beginning, and still 
export metal. Since the balance of trade is against Japan 
and foodstuffs in particular must continue to be imported, 
the mineral products form a natural means of payment 
for imports not covered by silk and tea while manufactures 
and shipping are being developed. While costs of copper 

^Read. T. T., Mining and Scientific Press, October 14. 


January 6, 1912 

production are doI published in Japan, as in the i 
Btati i.lent that they do not differ greatly from 

tboa rica, though possibly lower. At the Ashio, 

against heavy pumping charges, and with all the usual 
ike trouble, ii is possible to work a 1', copper ore 
in narrow veins and concentrate it in mills much smaller 
than those working on similar ores in ed States. 

Hold and silver form a much less importan 
the mineral output of Japan than in the United Male-. 
Oft i mual production is new about 151 
and of the latter 1,500,000 oz. * ;.■!.! mining is, however, 
increasing, though the placers have proved disappointing. 
For this metal the Japanese look to Chosen, or Korea, 
where both "lil and new mines are being developed 00 a 
large scale by both Japanese and foreigners. The prin- 
cipal Korean gold mine- have been repeatedly described 
in the Minim] ami Scientific Press. Within the year steady 
at the Oriental Consolidated and other 
inn pern.'-. Difficult^ rapanese and Amer- 
ican interests al have been adjusted, and, in addi- 
tion to quartz mining, the placer ground is now being 
te-ted. Farther north, Japanese engineers have been drill- 
ing placer ground with such encouraging results that it 
is expected that a dredge will be ordered within this year. 
In iron and steel. 1910 marked a turning point for 
Japan, in that, for the first time the Imperial works at 
Yawata slewed a profit. This has stimulated the industry, 
and extensive building is under way both at Yawata and 
in Hokkaido, where English and Japanese are cooperating 
in developing private iron and steel works. At the Im- 
perial works the t idation has been laid tor an additional 

blaBt-furnace designed to increase the capacity 250 tons 
per day. A more significant event, possibly, is the devel- 
opment of adequate supplies of ore within the limits of 
the Empire. When the works were established it was 
e-sary to import ore from central China, and even now 

approximately half the supply is brought from the Ta- 

yeh mine. Since, in accordance with the general tend- 
ency in mining and metallurgy in Japan, the works were 
established for the prime purpose of rendering the Empire 
independent of foreign producers, the disadvantage of this 
arrangement is obvious. Persistent effort has led to the 
development of iron ore of 50^ grade in Hokkaido and 
ai other points in Japan proper, and the opening of con- 
siderable bodies of ore analyzing 52 to 62$ Fe. much of 
ii bessemer grade, in Chosen or Korea. At present a 
considerable amount of ore is coming from these mines, 
and this is likely to be greatly increased since the Mitsu 
I'.islu ('.,. has taken important leases in the district. 

It may also be noted that among the less impor- 
tant industries of Japan, zinc mining is rapidly growing. 
The present ore production amounts to about 25,000 tons, 
the result of five years development. An interesting fea- 
ture of the industry has been the development of a nota- 
tion process which is being successfully applied at the 
Kauioka mine of the Mitsui company. Not content witli 
producing ore only, the Japanese are already planning to 
build a zinc smelter, and in a few years may he expected 
to supply their own needs for spelter. At present zinc 
to the .nil'.' of -I. 1,000 i- annually imported. 

Any general review oi it would be incomplete 

the Empire of the 
from the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
and tin- generous «>■! ae 'Mended to them by local mem- 
he mine-owners, and the Mi Japan. 
The memory of the meeting wjjl always remain | 

10k part. In 1899 when, on the initiative 
of the United States, Japan ed to join the inter- 

national coi: warding the (jes, the event 

was referred party.' [i 

use tlie in, i , .,„ i„ j a p an 

this year was similar, since tor the first time the local 
mining industry was thrown open to the lull revii 
large and representative body of foreign ei 
lor tlie first time, ill any large way. a body oi 
men visited the mines to carry awaj ideas and new methods 
in practice. 

Mining Industry in Italy in 1911 

By Charles Will Wkimit 

The statistical reports from the metal mines in Italy 
for Idll will not he available for six months or more, and 
only a tew general conclusions as to the results of the 
present year can be given. The statistical reports for 1910 
have recently been published in the Bern vizio 

Mincrario, and these are referred to in the present review- 
in order to show the relative importance and progress made 
in various phases of the Italian mining industry up to this 
year. The sulphur mines in Sicily are of greatest impor- 
tance. The zinc-lead mines in Sardinia rank next in value 
of output, and these are followed by the iron mines on 
the island of Elba. Then follow the quicksilver mines, the 
pyrite mines, and the copper mines. Other metals, in- 
cluding manganese, antimony, gold, silver, and tin. are pro- 
duced in small quantities. 


The output of sulphur during 1910 was 2,815,511 tons. 
with an average of 30.03% sulphur. The total value of 
this product was 32,383,409 Kre,* or 11.50 I. per ton. A 
total of 23,063 workmen were employed in these mines. 
the n being 2.37 1. per day. These figures com- 

pared with those for 1909 show a slight decrease in output, 
though an increase in the tenor of the product and a de- 
crease in labor, with an increase in wages of 0.17 1. per 
day. Electric power is being introduced in these mines 
for hoisting and transport. During 1911 there was a fur- 
ther decrease in labor, though the output will probably 
compare well with that of 1910. In recent years no new 
discoveries of sulphur mines have been made, nor in the 
methods of ore treatment were there any improvements. 

A review of the statistics shows that the sulphur output 
during the past 19 years has decreased from an average 
annual production during 1900-1995 of 3,659,819 tons, val- 
ued at 42.9-iti.717 1.. to an average production during 1906- 
1910 of 2,910,515 tons, valued at 32,882,770 1. This de- 
crease in recent years is attributed largely to the increased 
output of silver in the United States, principally from 
the mines of the Union Sulphur Co. in Louisiana. In 
1910 Sicily produced 92% of the total sulphur output, 
the remaining 8$ being derived from the mines in the 
districts of Bologna and Naples. The output of commer- 
cial sulphur in 1910 from Sicily amounted to 394,812 tons, 
and the exportation was 393.9S7 tons. The estimate of 
the stock of sulphur in Sicily at the end of 1910 was 
ti40.li47 tons. The value per ton of commercial sulphur 
during 191(1 was 96.97 1. Of the sulphur exported in 1910, 
pent to Germany, \'M J C to America. HI'; to Holland. 
'.> r , to England, and 6% to Austria. 

Lead and Zinc 

Nearly all of the mines producing lead also produce a 
considerable amount of zinc, and conversely. All of the 
lead ores contain from 100 to 1000 grams of silver per 
ton. The total lead output in 1910 was 36,540 tons, con- 
taining 80% lead and 400 gm. silver, and valued at 145 1. 
per ton. or at total value of 5,303,855 1. This shows a 
decrease of 1405 tons and 453.036 1. from that of 1909. 
The decrease was attributed to the unfavorable market 
price for lead. In 1911, on the other hand, the market has 
been more favorable, and exploration for lead ore lias been 
energetically carried on at many of the mines, and the 
it put materially increased. The lead ores consist of 
about two-thirds galena and one-third carbonate ore. 

The zinc output in 1910 was 146,307 tons, averaging 
37.76 r j zinc, and valued at 191. IS 1.. or a total value of 
1 1,803.100 1. This exceeded the 1909 output by 16.408 
tons ,i A 2,298,698 1. This rate of increase has continued 
during 1911. and for this year the totals will probably 
show a considerable increase over 1910. The cause of this 
increase is attributed largely to the steady increase in the 

•The lira (1.) is worth $0,193. 

MINING and m ii \ i ii i. cm ss 

mar. • „■. About 

I0<; lil. mi. 

.uul llirlllili' till' Montepoui mill. 

iinpany, tbo 

• V 

i ic-t protlui the Iota) le 

ill in Italy. Tin' remaining principally from 

Tin- total 
ployed in tlic lead-sine mines ..t' the [glesias .lis 

trirt during 1910 vw>- 12. vs. or a decrees 17.". from 

the total foi 1909, though the output was increased by 
In 1911 a similar decrease in labor will be 

■ tied, with a TMpondin itput 

Tdi- shows Increased efficiency in labor, though the results 
ilso due in pari t. « tln> introduction of rock-drills and 
improvements in the mechanical treatment of the ores. Ii 
Iso to be noted thai the miners' wages are gradually 
being increased, the present average being aboul 2.46 I. 
per day. 

A comparison ..f the output from the lead-sine i 
during 1901-1905 shows an average annua] output of 

'is. val I al 22,240,252 I., and during the years 

1906 1910 the average was 190 -. valued at 23,- 

075,782 I. The sine ] roduetion has been increased during 
recent years, and il is probable that ibis increase will be 
continued, as new reserves continue to be opened up, The 
lead production, on the other hand, lias decreased in late 
- ami no new lead mines have been developed. 


There are two lead smelters in [talj : the Pertusola smel- 
ter at Speria and the Montepnui smelter in Sardinia. Dur- 
ing 1910 ola smelter was shut down for s few 
months in order to introduce various improvements, in- 
cluding two Dwight-Lloyd converters. A total of 21,070 
tons of ore was treated, ami 11.7)00 tons of commercial 

lead and 12.000 k;;. silver prodi d. Tn 1011 the amount 

of ore treated will approximate 30,00Q tons. The Monte- 
poni smelter produced, in 1910, 2995 of commercial 
lead and '2227 kg. of silver. At this plant a new process 
for making zine oxide from low-grade ores is nsed. 


The production from the iron mines in Italy during 1910 
was 551,259 tons, containing 53% iron, and valued at 7,619,- 
031 1., or 13.82 1. per ton. Of this amount. 532.671 tons 
was produeed from the Elba mines, the remainder being 
from small iron mines in Sardinia and the province of 
Bergamo. These figures show an increase of 49,S9S tons 
above the 1909 output, which was entirely from Elba. 

The iron mines on the island of Elba are leased from 
tbe Italian Government by the Societa Elba, and their 
maximum production has been fixed at 500,000 tons per 
year. The ore is mined entirely by surface workings, and 
these are connected by overhead cable trams with bins at 
sea-level from which the steamers are loaded. The ore 
consists of hematite and limonite, and is especially free 
from impurities. The ore is supplied almost entirely to 
Italian iron and steel companies. There were 1571 men 
employed at the Elba mines in 1910. During 1911 there 
was a serious strike for some months at these mines, but 
because of tbe large stocks of ore at the mines it is not 
believed that the output will be materially decreased. 


The product of this metal is from cinnabar ores derived 
chiefly from the mines of Monte Amiato in the district of 
Florence. These mines produeed, in 1910, 87,129 tons of 
ore containing 1.04% Hg and valued at 3,729,352 1. Some 
70,000 tons of this ore was treated, and a yield of 89.3 
tons of quicksilver, valued at 5,358,000 1., obtained. These 
mines employ 994 workmen. The statistics show an in- 
crease in output to the value of 128,704 1. over 1909. No 
marked change is anticipated in the output of quicksilver 
in 1911. A small amount of this metal, usually less than ' 

Tile OOP] 

the mines in the provini 

mam. Hll ,| 

in 1909. During 191 1 these mines bave continued t.. keep 
up production as in 1910, but thi decline i- al 

ute.l I., the tall ill the market price of CO| per. Develop 

m. -nts are iii progress on copper deposits in Sardinia, though 
these «ill n..t I..- producing for a few 


The production •<( pyrite is becoming an imp.. nam in 
•lii-irv in Italy, and during loin there was a considerable 
increase over 1908 iii the output. A still greater inct 
Is ex] ted in L911, a- researches have been advanced hi 

the Miniera Vnllel.ria ami Miuiera di I lavniiauu... ami 
aerial trams installed for the transport of Ore. In 1910, 

l,>.">.ii'_'> pyrite was produced, containing 11.62% 

sulphur, and valued at 16.97 I. per Ion. or a total ot 

2,301,851 I. Besides this, 30.060 tons of cupriferous pyrite. 
with l.-'il', copper and valued al 562.680 I., was produced. 

These figures represent an increase over L909 in the total 
value of pro. In. 'i of 663,515 I. The pyrite mines employed 
1809 workmen in 1910. and in 1911 aboul twice ihis own 
her are being employed. 


The manganese output conies essentially from the Liguria. 
(lambatesa and Nasein-Monle Bianca mines in the province 
of (ienoa, the Monte Argentario mine in Grosseto province, 
and the Capo BeCCO and Capo RosSO mines in Sardinia. 
The total output in 1910 was 29,900 tons of ore, valued 
at 314,179 1.. a decrease from 1909 of 55.601 1. in value. 
The 1911 production will probably show a slight increase 
over 1910. 


The output of this metal showed a large decrease in 
1910. though in 1911 the production may show some im- 
provement. The entire production. 2194 tons, containing 
25' , antimony, and valued at 149.769 1.. was derived from 
the mines in Sardinia, Lu Luergiu and Corti Rosas. The 
decrease in 1910 from the output in 1909 amounted to a 
total value of 61,S51 1., though the tonnage produeed was 

Gold, Silver, and Tin 

These metals are produced only in relatively small quan- 
tities in Italy. The total value of the gold output was 
lint 58,730 1., and this was derived principally from the 
Valbianca mine in the province of Turin. The ore is 
pyritiferous quartz. The only productive silver mine in 
Italy is the Giovanni Bonn mine, near Monte Narba in Sar- 
dinia, and from this but 32 tons was produced in 1910, 
carrying 1.53% silver, and valued at 42,400 1., a decrease 
..I 25,400 1. from 1909. Tbe main silver production is de- 
rived from tbe lead mines already mentioned. No new 
discoveries of gold or silver deposits were made in 1911. 
There is also one tin mine in Italy; the Monte Valerio, in 
the province of Pisa. At this mine exploration is proceed- 
ing, principally by diamond-drilling. The output in 1910, 
which amounted to 170 Ions, valued at 41,000 1.. was derived 
by the re-treatment of the old dumps. 

Anthracite Coal Shipments 

(Figures in long tons. December 1911. estimated.) 

1911. 1910. 

January 5,904.117 5.306,61S 

April 5..S04.91.-. 6.244,396 

July v 4,804,065 5,202,059 

October 6.269,179 5,622,005 

Total 70,000,000 64,905,786 



January 6. 1912 

Australasian Mining in 1911 

The year lull was one of unexampled prosperity in 
Australia. Since 1902-3 the whole country lias enjoyed 
a run - The general prosperity of the 

world, the advance in industry! and the extension of civ- 
ilization, especially in the East, have been responsible Eor 
an ever-increasing demand for the duets of this 

country. The greatest recovery has been in the pastoral 

industry, which, after seven year- ' lUght, is now in 

a condition hardly ever before approached. It therefore 

can be said that as far as the greal staple products, such 

ol and wheat, are concerned, Australian wealth has 

been in nsely added to, by the largeness of the yields 

and the splendid prices realized in the world's markets. 
But while good seasons have placed the pastoralist and 
the farmer on their feet, they have unfortunately not 
helped I g industry of the country. When times 

I in Australia the instinct of the community is to 
go back to mining. When limes are pood, labor drifts to 
agricultural pursuits, to orcharding and to dairy farming. 
The withdrawal of labor for these industries during the 
past two years has been very great, and it has had the 



effect mil only " number of low-grade mines. 

pel nions in the great 
unknown districts in the centre of the continent. There- 
■ losed without the discovery of any 
new field of importance. 

Twelve months ago, as will be recalled, it was hoped 
that the Bullfinch district, near Kalgoorlie in Western Aus- 
tralia, was in provide a seco ' in .Mile'. All that 
d was i" prove the utter worthlessness 
of nearly every claim that was Boated. The parent prop- 

■. who declare 
that it- effect of that ill-considered 

boom was to tighten the purse-strings of a large part 
of the public and to discourage prospecting in other dis- 
trict-. Western Australia, as far Eastern States 
ne which is associated with heavy losses, and 
therefore icvestt lent lb thai jrreVt tract of country is small 
and on the most cautious Ijnes. The Kalgoorlie district 
has nothing fresh to show. Its mines are pushing ahead 
with work at depth, tl eat Boulder. 
The stability of the property is marvelous. It is alto- 
gether over capitalized, but the mine has develo] 
ceedingly well at different | oiuts. While ii may be doubted 
whether the ore res J the value i 
by the shares, still such com 

felt in tin' manag it and in thi mtl iok of the 

property that the claim holds publii -limation, 

not on! . Imt a- a : :i,i. r at depth. Taking 

the leading venture- at Kalgoorlie, it is to 

that the majority of tbein at depth show signs of impov- 
erishment. In the outside districts of the State, little that 
i- encouraging can be stated. A number of small mines 
are be i 1 1 lt opened, and everyone lives in the hope that some 
happy find will once more bring Western Australian min- 
ing to the front, but indications today are not stimulating. 
One of the tro&les of the country, of course, is the dry- 
ness of the interior. Prospecting means really exploring 

under the most adverse uditions. A man going out into 

the arid back territory carries his lite in his hands, and 
with capital shy there has been a shortage in the number 
of prospectors who are prepared to undergo personal bard- 
ship for possible future gain. Another thing that tells 
-I the industry is the exceedingly high price of labor. 
This is due to the introduction of Wages Boards, which 
allots a sel wage to the miner, and on such a liberal basis 
that it means the keeping closed of a great number of 
low-grade mines. A Labor Ministry has just been returned 
to power in the State Legislature, and it is hardly likely, 
therefore, that relief from this direction will come to the 
mining industry. In the northeastern part of the State. 
i! was hoped that the Tanami field would develop satisfac- 
torily. A proved deposit is known just over the border 
in South Australian territory, hut the conditions there are 
so adverse that, while large bodies of moderate grade gold- 
bearing material exist, the cost of transport, the difficulty 
of obtaining water, and the exceedingly high price of 
labor, have meant that the locality has been deserted ex- 
cepting by a few. 

Taking the Eastern States, the Victorian gold yield un- 
fortunately disclosed a fairly large shrinkage. This arises 
mainly from the exhaustion of a great number of the 
deep lead alluvial mines of the State. The famous Cres- 
wick district, which yielded millions of pounds worth of 
gold, is now almost deserted. The magnificent machinery 
and plant of one of the leaders of the famous Berry group 
has just been sold. This means that, with the exception 
of the South Berry company, not a mine is now working 
on this once famous gutter. At Rutherglen — another im- 
portant alluvial field — two mines remain out of the big 
group that once existed there. English capitalists tested 
ground at the Southern & Prentice, but abandoned the 
claim after large sums of money had been sunk. Now it 
would appear that, in the Chiltern field, another property, 
that within a short time has yielded over £1,100,000 worth 
"Id. is likely to close down. This would mean that 
only one mine would remain in this district. The cause 
of the trouble has been the impossibility of getting an 
adequate supply of competent labor. Miners have been 
allured from mining to agricultural pursuits by the high 
scale of wanes offered and the more pleasing conditions 
of work, or they have been attracted to the State coal 
mine at Woathaggi. In addition, in the lower levels of 
the deep-leads system, the average value of the ground 
is considerably less than nearer the surface. Alluvial min- 
ing is conducted at a depth of over 400 ft. below the sur- 
face, and as water is heavy, costs are high. With scant 
and poorly qualified labor available, with heavy charges 
for pumping, and lower gold returns, it is not to be won- 
dered at that alluvial mining is going a good deal out of 

The district that is saving the situation is Ararat, 
where, in some of the tributaries of the Lange Logan sys- 
tem, rich gold is being obtained. The quartz-mining in- 
dustry is also being affected by the absence of new dis 
coveries. Great mines, like the Long Tunnel, find the gold 
nt of the ore decreasing as depth is attained. The 
thing has happened at Bendigo and Ballarat. At 
Bendigo what is known as the 'side lines' of saddle forma- 
tion are worked. They are entitled to be called main lines. 
as it is from them that the bulk of the gold so far has 
been mined. In one of these side Hues, 'the Sheephead'. 
at a shallow depth, rich gold was found, and the discov- 
ery has stimulated the whole field. There arc ten or twelve 
undeveloped lines available for exploration. An old field 
that has shown very satisfactory signs of revival is I layle.- 
There the formations are flat bodies of quartz 



MINING II Mil |i |>K| s> 

running int.. I 

hi. In 

I Kill Willi till- drlinile 

i»>i troubling their heada 
ab»ut rartiaa] lodes, Thi i Bna tainea 

if llle mini 

brr of tbn« being il 

ii pari of the Stata'a industry 

is! mining. Dnforfunstely the >>>:il miner is about the 

• tiled being "m I the earth, and in this 

itle Un- its peek of troubles each week. 

miners, other timea the boys or the 

wheelers i Is hied The vast extent of the Greta 

and ili«' size of other eoaJ measures in the State, 

miikc coal mining under almost any conditions profitable, 

luit than nrr signs that the development of the coal meas- 

dand, and the dependence that Victoria is 

placing on it- State coal mine at Woathaggi, will affeel 

trade in v ^ \ g 1 deal of wonder is also 

expressed as to whether, when the Panama Canal is oj 

British coal, or coal t r. .in the Eastern Stales of All 
will ent out Australian coal from the market it now en- 
joys on the eastern coast of s,.nili America and also at 
San Francisco. A considerable quantity of Newcastle coal 
• bile and rem. and it would lie a great blow to 
the New Soutli Wales industry to lose tliis market. 

Copper mining in New South Wales has not gone ahead. 
The greatest claim then- is ii„. Great Cobar, but from 
one cause or another the mine has not done well of late 
years. What is badly needed is an increase in the price 
of the metal. Tin mining also is on the down grade for 
the reason that most of the alluvial deposits are worked 
out. No gold mines of any importance exist in the coun- 
try, but to Victorians a most interesting piece of work 
is being conducted in the Wellington district. Out that 
way rich gold leads were worked to shallow depths by 
the old miners, and then abandoned. Ballarat capitalists 
experienced in deep-lead mining are testing the gutters 
there, and, in one instance at least, have been rewarded 
with exceptionally profitable results. It is not beyond 
the region of a probability that a new goldfield will be 
developed there. 

The most promising development of the year has been 
made at Broken Hill. There the British mine, which was 
floated in 1886, by the Broken Hill Proprietary Co., for 
£500,000. and has ever since been more or less of a waster, 
appeared to be on its last legs. Boring just done in a 
block of the ground which alone remained untested has 
exposed the presence of .1 magnificent shoot of ore. This 
has been proved from 900 It. to within 200 ft. of the sur- 
face. Now the outlook for the mine is as bright as that 
of almost any property "M the field. A visit paid quite 
recently by the mining editor • •(' the Argot (Melbourne) 
resulted in some exceedingly interesting figures being pub- 
lished as to the reserves nf ore in the field. It came as 
a surprise to most people to find that, although mining 
on a huge scale has gone on incessantly at Broken Hill 
since 1SS0, the reserves are larger today than they were 
five years ago. The following table gives the figures: 
Ore Reserves at Broken Hili, 



Proprietary 3,500,000 

Block 10 1,000,000 

Central 3,623,000 

South 1.400,000 

South Blocks 400,000 

North 600,000 

Junction 200, 

Junction North 124.000 

British 600,000 

Block 14 220.000 

Ore treated 















1 ..".I "10.000 








11, 007.000 13,475,000 
The grade of ore at depth is certainly decreasing. 

folio* I 



- 1. 

.mi 1 



li 1,243 

11,1 1 



• '.mi 


boom ■ 

en, I 1910 




- i, 




1 i 

British 201. mm 

Block 1" ..... 1,00 

Sulphide I. Hill. I 

South 200,000 

North 1. 

Junction 100, I 

Junction North Isn. 

South Blocks 200,000 

South Extended < for 
meily A. II. B. Con 

337.: 150.344 50,000 

The most remarkable recent development lias been in con 

ncction with the zinc industry. The. flotation process has 
revolutionized the Held, the result being thai the income 
obtained from sine products has meant a doubling of thi 
returns to shareholders. The way that thai branch of the 
industry has gone ahead is illustrated by the statement 

thai Broken Hill now supplies the world with a sixth ol 

its zinc requirements. This yield is almost exclusively 
in the hands of the German buyers, although the Brokei 

Hill Proprietary Co. is smelling ziu a small scale at 

Port Pirie. 

Mining in Queensland has. on ihe whole, not been alto 
gether satisfactory. The big goldfields there, too. are on 
the wane, for with depth poor ores are being obtained. 
On the other band, the copper-mining industry is develop- 
ing most satisfactorily. Mount Morgan is becoming more 
and more a copper producer. In the north around Clon- 
curry, British capital has developed several undoubtedly 
line copper mines, and it is no exaggeration to say that 
within a short time this pari of Australia will be turning 
out more copper than any other district on the continent. 
The Chillagoe field has been a disappointment, and the 
chief English company that controls the interests there, 
is extending its influence to the Elheridge field, where it 
is opening up a number of gold and other claims. Tin 
and wolfram are other products and are being mined on 
a fair scale, but old deposits are being worked, and these 
will gradually be mined out. Striking evidence is being 
furnished that Queensland has great coal measures, and 
as time goes on, this branch of the mining industry is 
sure to receive attention. Unfortunately, at present the 
population is so sparse that the coal seams lie idle. 

New Zealand mining has suffered through the cutting 
out of gold at depth in the Waihi mine. Operation at 
1 lie State coal mine resulted in a loss for the last year. 
Generally speaking, the mining industry there is flat. An 
attempt is being mode to prove whether oil exists in New 
Zealand, but so far without any striking results. 

As regards mining in Tasmania, the leading mine, the 
Mount Lyell, is temporarily under a cloud through the 
miners having gone out on a strike. The most prominent 
of the men's several grievances is that contract parties 
have been allowed to work longer shifts than eight hours, 
thus breaking away from the eight-hour system. Also, 
they ask lor increased wages. Seeing the small margin 
of profit made last year, il is difficult to see how much 
increase in wages can be granted, unless some improve 
ell in the price of copper is forthcoming. The men 
were out on strike nearly three months. As regards the 
mine itself, the property looks well, and good ore is being 
won. The amalgamation of the Mount Lyell with the 
North Lyell mines in 1003 has been the salvation of both 
properties, as the basic ore of the one concern serves as 
a natural smelting flux of the silieious material of I lie 
other. The tin-mining industry has been fairly well main- 
tained, and the ample supply of water on must of the 
properties has permitted uninterrupted work. The big- 
gest disappointment in Tasmanian mining was the falling 
away in the amount of gold in the ore in the lower levels. 



January 0. 1912 

Mining in Turkey in 1911 

By Leon Dominian 

The growing attention bestowed on prospecting 
exploration work constituted the most noteworthy feature 
for 1911 in the Turkish mining industry. It is now real- 
ized in thai al possibilities of wealth exisl in 

added to the newly- 
fell beneficial effects oJ a liberal government lias led to 
active pros] is years it often happened 

he prospector's toil went to naught, as his discov- 
eries wire usually taken over arbitrarily by some one of 
the privileged few who stood well with Abdul Hamid. 
Fortunately, tins form of nepotism has disappeared since 
the downfall of this monarch, and a more equitable state 
..I affairs now exists. The bulk of this exploration work 

Somewhat farther easl of Anamur, near the seaport of 
Mersina, and still broadly speaking within the same min- 
eralized area, chrome-ore mines will probably yield about 
2000 tons. The ore is of a good grade, containing 51 to 
chromic oxide. Most of it is shipped, after a rough 
sorting, to Germany, although a small amount is usually 
reserved tor French buyers. The price paid f.o.b. steam- 
ers is in the vjcinily of $10.50 per ton. Considerably 
north of these deposits, in the valley of the Olympus, an- 
other chrome-ore mine is operated at Adranos by a Smyrna 
company, The production lor 1011 will probably amount 
io about 15,000 tons. The ore is higher in grade at this 
point, assays often giving 55% chromic oxide. It is 
shipped to the seaport of Gbeumlek at a distance of 90 
kin. from the mine. During 1911 practically all of the 
transportation was performed by means of wagons instead 
of the camels which were formerly used. The ore was 
disposed of as usual, a large tonnage going to Germany. 


has been accomplished by the natives. It is yet in its 

infancy, whei mpared to our knowledge of the country's 

mineral resources. The larger companies, most of which 
been content with gathering information 
from the natives, and it is only in a few cases that they 
have made show of sufficient interest to actually under- 
take anything else than general re, aissances. 

Asia Minor ha- b e of the greatest activity 

in this direction, ami. as might be expected, the more ac- 
cessible regi const-land have received a larger 
than the inland districts. In the vicin- 
ity "I ! about 30,000 tons 
ore .i :■■ i ■ ■ ly an Anglo-] rem i ; company, 
in the course of u^ in on from which 
promising reports emanate. This district lies at the foot 

of the southen st projection of the base of the Tauric 

ioi ted i "'■ and within 

which mining has been earned on in a desultory fashion 
tor over twenty centuries. A zinc mine in a very early 
stage of development is als , operated by the same company 
in the same district, ul was expected to reach 

2000 Ions iii the year. Here, nil all other producers 

in Turkey, accurate yearly returns arc not yet available. 

Operating expenses at this locality are stated to be as fol- 
lows, per metric ton : 

Mining $1.00 

Taxes 2.30 

Management 0.40 

Export tax and miscellaneous wharfing charges 0.23 
Loading on steamers 0.46 

The selling price of this ore is based on a 50%. assay 
plus a payment of Fr. 3.10 ($0.62) for every additional 
per cent of chromic oxide. At this price the costs tabulated 
immediately above allowed a margin of profit of about $6 
per ton, on the roughly sorted ore laid f.o.b. steamers dur- 
ing the year. 

Another chrome-ore mine in Asia Minor, situated at 
Karlyer near Inegheul, produced about 2000 tons, under 
practically the same conditions as those found in the Adra- 
nos deposits. The ore here averages about 50% chromic 
oxide. It is probable, however, that a careful sorting 
would increase the tenor of the product shipped. Some 
work was also undertaken by English capitalists in the 
vicinity of Aleppo, where high-grade chrome ores have 
been discovered. A deposit which is stated to run high 

January 8, 1019 

minim; II Mil K PRI 

in ahron ■• in the 

nub, northi 
I Ipvelopmenl mu eetivi i 
• •n in (Ins locality, and the Ural nhipmeuta are ex| 
to U ) in 1012. 

The d "it ni all i i. worked 

in A -in Minor occur ai Dagfa Ard urn. "I'h.- 

production for 101] i- estimated to exceed 15,000 metric 

- anil irregular lil>»ks 
in terpentine, and is naked without Farther handlii 
K ao i the nunc. In this condition n usually 

assay- i.. li i> transported on camel 

back (a eamal «>ll carry 100 i" 250 ,; 228 i" 570 

Hi. according to the nature of the country traversed, the 
smaller amounl constituting the limit for mountainous 

localities) foT a distan if 70 km. or abonl a three 'lays' 

journey, to the railroad station of Kmalna. whence it is 
rooted over the Anatolian railway to the Beaporl of Der- 
nidje, near [smid. Bare it is transferred to steamers and 
is shipped to one of the following harbors: Glasgow, 
Liverpool, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Havre, Mar 
Bailies, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or New York. It is usual 
to figure 5 camels to a ton of ore for tlie trip from the 

mini' tn the railway station, and tin st per ton laid f.o.b. 

steamers varies between $7 and $9. these being the lowest 
figures for this kind of ore in Turkey. In the European 
ion "f the country, mention must be made of the 
chrome-ore deposits of Oracha, lying close to the Salonica- 
1'skuli railroad. Their production will probably attain 
about 1000 tons, all of which are shipped to Austria. 
Some exploratory work was also carried on at Radicha 
and Caranza mar the town of Psknb, as well as near 

The meerschaum mines in the vicinity of Eski-Cheir 
were operated by the Government during the year as usual. 
Their production will probably amount to 250 metric tons, 
valued at about $500,000. This is probably the most im- 
portant deposit of its kind in the world. The mine He- 
at a distance of about 22 km. from the railroad station, 
to which the ore is packed by camel-trains. The deposit 
occurs in a valley tilled with drift material from the sur- 
rounding mountains. The sepiolite is scattered through 
the drift in rounded nodular masses with fragments of 
magnesian and homblendic rocks. As a rule, the nodules 
do not exceed three inches in diameter, but a few attain 
larger dimensions. In the raw condition the mineral is 
soft, light, and non-transparent. The color is white, with 
occasional blending of yellow, red, or gray. It is richer 
in silica than that found in Utah or North Carolina. The 
thickness of the meerschaum-bearing strata varies between 
3 and 40 metres. Mining is carried on under the leasing 
system, both in open-cut and underground work. About 
4000 men were employed in 1911. After extraction the 
product is sorted and cleaned. Six grades are prepared 
for export, mostly to Austria. The ore is shipped in 
boxes of a capacity of from 30 to 35 kg. of meerschaum. 
The following prices per box f.o.b. cars Eski-Cheir pre- 
vail at present according to grade, this classification being 
based entirely on the beauty and purity of the specimens: 

Class. Local Name. Per box. 

1 Son Mali $160 

2 Sir Nebrilk 135 

3 PamouJcly 1 1 5 

4 Dane Dukme 70 

5 Or/a Dulme 25 

6 Gili: Dulme . 10 

A new deposit of coal was discovered at about three and 
one-half hours' ride from the city of Aintab. Samples 
seem to indicate that the coal is bituminous. The assay 
reveals rather high ash contents. 

The oil district adjoining the Persian boundary, in the 
extreme southeastern section of the Empire, was the object 
of considerable attention during the year. The public press 
voiced the unanimous opinion of mining men in calling the 
attention of the Government to the necessity of undertaking 
a thorough investigation of the belt. No appropriations 

could he dorotcd for 

still I 

was made by ll> ilflald 

ined by thi portent rail 

companies. The matter is -i i tl pending, 

nothing short ol >n will l» imidcred h 

pany undertaking such work, and lien 

iblo reluctant n the pari "i the Government to pi 

any concessions until a batter knowledge of tl ndil 

prevailing throughout the oilfield enables tl fflcials ol i li.- 

n ining department t" form an idea of the approximate 
value oi what is suspected to be an important "d dial 

To jndge fr the satisfactory develo] tits taking place 

on the Persian Bide, where an English syndicate is carrying 
on a systematic plan of development, it appears thai il 
might be worth while to explore the Turkish Held. A very 

small amounl of the "il OOsing above the Boil, and which 

is collected on the surface "I pits dug for the purpose, was 
gathered by the Arabs for their local needs all the waj 
from Mossul i" Bagdad and Bassorah. 

No attempt was made, however, to transport the ml awaj 
from the immediate vicinity of the oo The coun 

try's supply is derived from Russia, Rumania, the United 

States, and Austria. In many Turkish towns, as in llnrput. 
for instance, petroleum sells as high as 30c. per gallon. 
All told, about $5,000,000 worth of the oil was impoi 
during the year. It therefore seems that there exists good 
reason for the endeavor to supply the 35,000,000 inhab- 
itants oi' Turkey with the only means of illumination which 
will he available to them for many years to come. Allen 
tion is here called to the possibility of competing with for 
eign oils in the other markets of the East as well as those 
of the Far East. Aside from this, some of the most im- 
portant Turkish railway companies finally decided, in the 
course of the year, to use oil as fuel in their locomotives. 
Trials which were made on the Anatolian railroads for the 
past two years have been so satisfactory that 100 locomotives 
are to he transformed. The Bagdad Railway Co, has also 
decided to adopt this fuel, and is about to build its storage 
tanks at Alexandretta. 

The revision of the Turkish mining law was also under 
taken during the year. The new provisions were to have 
been submitted to Parliamentary approval in the fall session 
of the year, but it appeals thai unexpected political events 
prevented their discussion by the legislative body, which 
found itself suddenly confronted by the necessity of at- 
tending to political matters of more immediate importance. 
It was not known at the time of writing (November 1011) 
whether the new law would be adopted before the end of 
the year or not. The changes proposed arc believed to 
be of a nature tending to facilitate operations. In the 
main, the object sought was to have the Turkish mining 
law conform to the practice in vogue among the more ad- 
vanced nations. The old text had been definitely promul- 
gated in 100G before the inauguration of the constitutional 
form of government and at a time when the country still 
labored under Ihe mismanagement of its former ruler. As 
such, the various clauses of the law were framed so as to 
hamper as much as possible the free and natural develop- 
ment of the industry. Prospecting and exploration could 
lie undertaken only by means of special permits, which 
were granted under conditions that were so restrictive as to 
be devoid of any practical value. These research permits, 
as they were called, were granted for a year and Cor small 
zones. Only the minerals specified in the permits could 
be sought, and a new permit had to be obtained for any 
ore that might be discovered and which was not specified 
in the document. Considerable 'pull' at headquarters was 
required for the issuance of these permits, and only a 
favored minority composed of Abdul Hamid's creatures 
could get them. Added to this, the Government, taxes were 
abnormally high in some instances, and thus prohibited the 
undertaking of any work. The revision of 1011 has elim- 
inated these obnoxious features, and while the final text 
of the new law will not be known until after Parliament 
has passed on the subject, there is no doubt of the fact 
that its provisions have been inspired by the same spirit 



January 6, 1912 

of enterprise which has characterized governmental action 
in the past two years. One of the results of this revision 
has already been felt in the increasing demand for min- 
ing, li is believed that over 400 com 
will be granted by the end of the year, this number being 
about double the one granted formerly. 

In t lie absence at this date of any precise BgUl 
the year's mineral output, the following estimates compiled 
from data available so far. represent fairly accurately the 
year's production : 

Aim metric tuns L,500 

Asphalt' " '■ 12,000 

Bituminous coal " " 700,000 

" " 16,000 

Chrome ore " " 40.000 

Copper " " l.".iiii 

Emery ore " " 72,000 

Gold kilograms 4."i 

Iron pyrite .metric tons 80,000 

Lead .' " " 13, 

mite " " 35,000 

Manganese ore " - 18,000 

Meerschaum " " 250 

Mercury flasks 4,500 

Silver line ounces 8,000 

Zinc ore metric tons 40,000 

Nome in 1911 

The report of E. YV. J. Reed, Deputj Collector of Cus- 
toms at Nome, Alaska, for the navigation season of lull. 
gives an interesting- insight into the business of this far 
northern community. The principal items arc list.-,! below: 

S. ports :u\ 

Vessels from foreign ports 31 

Passengers arrived from States at Nome 1.514 

Passengers arrived from States at St. Michael.... 778 

Qeneral merchandise received, tons 21,685 

Coal received, domestic, tons 1,650 

Coal received, foreign, tons fi.010 

received, feet, B. M 2,173,695 

Live St id, head 31 

SailiiiL's of vessels for U. S. i^orts 31 

Sailings of vessels for foreign ports 36 

Passengers outward, ocean vessels, from Nome.... 1,908 
Passengers outward, ocean vessels, from St. Michael 1.741 

General merchandise shipped, tons 507 

Gold-dust and bullion shipped : 

Ounces. Value. 

Through Custom House 142.013.44 $2,012,219.12 

Through postoffice 22.400.43 415,986.02 

Totals 164,413.87 $3,028,205.14 

a census showed the population of Nome last win- 
ter to be 2602, and 4S4 more people left this season than 
came in, the present winter population may be taken at 
2118. The coal received covers stocks at of naviga- 

Borax. — Virtually the entire product of borax in the 
United States is derived from two mines in California, 
one in Inyo and the other in Los Angeles county. The 
ore now mined is all eolemanite. Marsh material no longer 
can be mined at profit, and the crude refining on the ground 
has given way to better work fh large refineries. The 
industry is closely controlled. The output in 1910 was 
42,357 tons, valued at $1,201,842, according to figures col- 
lected for the U. S I Survey by Charles G. Yale. 
This is about the aver on since 1903, 
except for the year 1007. when high prices stimulated min- 
ing, and 1908, when, foil,, wing :t drop in price, most of 
the smaller mines closed. About one-half the borax is con- 
sumed by the enameling industry in making kitchen and 
sanitary ware. New uses are constantly being found for 
the material and search is as steadily being made for new 
sources of supply. 

Central American Mines in 1911 

By T. Lane Carter 

Central America is generally considered to consist of 
the five republics, Guatemala. Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica, and Salva<ft>r. Panama should be included in this 
list, but sometimes it is put in as South American. Min- 
ing in this part of the world has not yet come into its 
own. Dnsettled and unsatisfactory political conditions, to- 
gether with the lack of transportation, have been the prin- 
cipal causes for the backward state of development. The 
year 1111 1 shows some advance, and during this time the 
attention of capitalists has been more attracted to the 
mining possibilities of Central America than for many 

On account of the revolutionary troubles in Nicaragua 
ami Honduras, the attention of the world was turned more 
to these two republics than to their more quiet neighbors. 
During lull Nicaragua settled down to comparative peace, 
after one of the worst revolutions in its history. Everyone 
recognizes the tremendous help that the United Stales ren- 

nicaraguan mining districts. 

dered to the revolutionary movement in an indirect way. 
Had it not been for this indirect help of the United States, 
ex-President Zelaya would still undoubtedly be in power. 
During the year, General Estrada, the leader of the revo- 
lutionists, was succeeded in the presidency by Adolpho 
Diaz, a distinguished citizen of the city of Blueflelds. 
President Adolpho Diaz has been connected with mining 
in eastern Nicaragua for many years, having been employed 
by the La Lus y Los Angeles Mining Co. As he is well 
acquainted with the needs of the mining industry, it is 
highly probable that he will do all in his power to advance 
the mining interests. During the year 1911 a fundamental 
weakness in the mining law of Nicaragua was brought to 
light. This cropped up over the negotiations for the 
Bonanza mine in the Piz-Piz district. This is in regard 
to the deep-level claims. Under the present law titles 
to deep-level claims are uncertain. Now that the weakness 
has been pointed out, there is no question but that the 
Government will change the law so that large companies 
going in there will be sure of their deep-level claims. One 
of the difficulties has been the existence of the Dietrich con- 
cession, which blankets a considerable district. No doubt 
this matter will be amicably adjusted in time. 

At the beginning of 1911 there was a deal on for the 
Bonanza mine in the Piz-Piz district between the owner, 
Joseph La Pierre, and some influential capitalists iu Cali- 
fornia. At first it looked as if the deal would go through, 
but there was a hitch somewhere, and about the middle 
of the year, after spending a considerable amount of 

January S, WIS 


■nd development, il ■ rapi 

lure of the 
ibte in (be owner of tbe Boi 
mine, and bow thai ha i* -nil to own the property, Mr La 
Plana baa daeided i» pal in "••»■ machinery and to work 

tba sale "i tha Lona star mine, which ia box! to the 
Bonanaa mine, and ible thai tins mine will be 

■old daring 1912. The biggest mining deal during lull 

in Nicaragua waa tha pareha f the l^ 1 /, of tin La 

Lua \ 1 mine for |185,000 by il ajority 

■haraboldi • - now entirely owned by 

taburg capitalists, and the prioa which they have 
i"i- the minority intereet ahowa thai they pi 

0,000 "ii tins mine. The oatpol of gold 

.-mi in 19U amounted to a bale over $1, I, I. 

Ai the present time this is il nly metal of economic 

irtance produced in this rapoblic. Ii looks as if the 
nil wealth .it' Nicaragua would prove to he principally 

({evolutionary troubles in Honduras were straightened 
.•hi daring the year. This republic groans under a ter 
national debt of more than $100,000,000. It is sig- 
int of tin' growing importance of Central America ami 
tba interest these republics arc now exciting, that such a 
strong banking linn :i- J, I'. Morgan \- Co. is arranging 
i.i take over the debt, not only of Honduras, hut to loan 
a large sum to Nicaragua as well. It' the future of. these 

republios seemed dubious, a linn as cautious as the one 

Ived would never consider the lending of so much 
money. Recent revolutionary troubles nave proved that 
the agreement entered into between the republics, not to 

war tin' one against the other, is t.. be strictly respected 

in the future. The United Stat.-s will Bee to it that there 

o more inter-republic strife. Whatever fighting is done 

in the future will hi nlini'.l to internal revolutions in 

each republic. The outlook for permanent peace in Cen- 
tral America was greatly improved during mil. 

Mining in Honduras in 1911 did not make much prog- 
The premier mine of the country is. of course, the 

Rosario at San .Tuaneito near Tegucigalpa, which has been 
iii continuous op, -rat ion for thirty years and has produced 

over $10,000,000 in gold and silver. At present there i- 
in sight about $4.0(10.000. The milling- plant is up to date 
and the mine is a dividend payer. There are other mines 
in the same distriet. and with better conditions (hey should 
develop rapidly. The Gigante. under development by 

S;m Fran, -is apitalists, has heeu under examination on 

behalf of English investors. Honduras seems to he rich 
in silver, hut there have been recent denouncements in 
gold, lead, copper, kaolin, iron, marble, saltpeter, alumi- 
num, chalk, enal. antimony, zinc, and nickel. While the 
figures are not yet completed for the production of 1011. 
the indications are that the gold and silver output for 
the year from Honduras will amount to nearly $2,000,000. 
United States currency. A small amount of iron ore was 
also shipped. 

Salvador is the most populous country of Central Amer- 
ica, but as its people do not indulge in frequent revolu- 
tions, the world does not hear as much of this republic 
as Nicaragua and Honduras. During the year 1011 mining 
has been carried on successfully, the total product of gold 
and silver amounting to about $1,300,000. It will he 
some time before the official figures are published, so this 
amount is only approximate. Conditions are more settled 
in this republic than in any of the others, and it has 
been more prospected than either Honduras or Nicaragua, 
two republics which in many sections are still unknown. 

The_ Republic of Panama is known to the world more 
by its canal than as a mining country. Gold mining has 
been carried on in the Darien and Veraguas provinces for 
a long time. One company has closed its works on ac- 
count of a defective cyanide plant having been built. The 
ore at this property is rather low grade, but with a suit- 
able cyanide plant it could be made a success. The out- 
look for mining in Panama is fairly good. The country 
has not as much promise, however, as Nicaragua and Hon- 

' to hold 

iug than in mine 

isi-. thai an' makin 
in, -lit i- eoncai 
of the i antral I 

wen- no political disturbances. Tl ffocl ■•! | 

earthquake in 1910 ivai -nil fall daring loll, and mining 
did not make any marked sd\ 

Mining in Guatemala i- at a low ebl t because the 

country is without mineral res oee, but on account of 

unfortunate conditions, principally the lack of tranapor 
tat ion. 'flic small amount of gold bow being produced 
in the republic cornea from placer mines. Some prospect 

ing was done during the year, and Guatemala i- now 

known to contain deposits of gold, silver, copper, iron, 
lead. line, and antimony. An interesting deposit of mica 
not tar from Guatemala city was brought to my a 
lion recently. Not sufficient i- yet known of this deposit 
to tell what its value will he. A most interesting and 

• ing district in Guatemala attracted some attention 
during tbe year, namely, AJotepeque, about outh 

of Puerto Barrios in the eastern pan of the republic. 

A map of the region will show that this district is near 

tlie corner where the three republics, Salvador. Guatemala, 
and Bonduras, join. In (he .Middle Ages a considerable 
amount of mining was done here, and there is an old silver 
mine with a great record as n producer of while metal. 
Some years ago the Venture Corporation of London had 
an option on (hese properties, but never took over (he 
mines. The indications for (he opening up of a large 
amount of zinc lead, and silver ore are most favorable, 
and during the year Kill there were several inquiries on 
the part of big owners regarding these mines. The rail- 
road people in Guatemala have intimated that they will 
build into this district whenever (hey see a crowd of finan- 
ciers big enough and parties! enough to make a success 
of the venture. This district of Alotepeque is one of the 
most attractive in Guatemala. Reing so near the railroad. 
the ore can readily be shipped to (he smelters of Europe, 
•nnil no doubt in time Ibis district will contribute a great 
deal of lead-silver and zinc ore to Germany and Belgium. 
'flie freight from the mine to Hamburg will be remarkahly 
low, and if these prospects develop as they promise, ore 
from this district will be able to compete with almost any 
for the European trade. It is probable that during the 
next year or so there will be considerable development in 
this part of Guatemala. 

Mining in Central America is dependent to a large extent 
on railroad development. There has been progress made 
during 1911 in this direction. The proposed railroad from 
Bluefields, Nicaragua, by way of Rama to the lake will 
probably aid agriculture as much if not more than mining. 
Those best acquainted with the mining resources of Nica- 
ragua would have preferred to have a railroad into the 
l'iz-Piz district, as this region is the most promising of 
(he gold areas of Nicaragua. The proposed line will 
serve one old mining distriet, at any rate, namely, the Lib- 
eria,! , lis! rict in Chontales, where gold has been mined for 
over sixty years. In Honduras it is proposed to connect 
the capital, Tegucigalpa, with the coast by means of a 
railroad. The construction of this road will greatly stim- 
ulate mining in Honduras. It will not be many years 
now before the traveler can go by rail from New York 
City through Mexico, Guatemala, and the other republics 
lo (lie Panama Canal. This line will mean as much to 
the people of Central America as the Cape-to-Cairo line 
means to Africa. 

It is a satisfaction to state that during 1911 real progress 
has been made in Nicaragua in the improvement of the 
gold metallurgy of the country. At the Siempre Viva mine, 
the manager, H. B. Kaeding, has attacked the slime ques- 
tion with energy and ability, and it looks as if under 
his guidance this property will become a dividend payer, 
as it promised lo become when first examined by Courtenay 
De Kalb about twenty years ago. 



January 6, 1912 

Mining in Eastern Canada in 1911 

The year jusl closed has been characterized by marked 
ss in the mining industry, more especially in the 

pine district. The rapid develo] f this field 

has been larg the extension of the Temiskaming 

It Northern Ontario railway, owned and operated by the 
Qovern dent, i" Porcupine Lake, previous to which 
great difficulties were experienced in transporting beavy 
machinery and supplies. In the month of July the sur 
rounding country was ravaged by extensive bush Hies, 
which swept i!il> ci ing great hiss of life and de- 

ig or seriously damaging the buildings and plant on 
most of the mining properties. This disaster considerably 
delayed production, but (he work of reconstruction was 

as s i as possible and actively carried on through- 

result that the hastily erected tein- 
of the early days have generally been 
replaced by permanent and substantial buildings suited for 
operations on a larger scale. Prospecting has also been 
rendered easier by the clearing- up of the country by the 
tire, and many important discoveries have heen made. Uh- 
md work and diamond-drilling have also proved 
several of ii"- mines ai depth, assuring the occurrence of 
sufficient milling ore to justify the erection of stamp-mills. 
The actual production of gold has as yet been small, but 


considerable quantities of ore have been accumulated in 

ess for the machinery, and it is announced that the 
mills of the Dome, the Bollinger, and the Vipond will be in 
active operation early in the year. During 1911 the known 
gold-bearing area of the district has been considerably ex- 
tended by discoveries in outlying areas, including Swas- 
tika. West Shining Tree, and Bristol township, the most 
promising of these being the Swastika, where development 
on an i ale has been undertaken on several prop- 

Porcupine lias attracted widespread attention from 
both American and British investors, and much capital has 
been drawn Iron, these sources. The principal drawback. 
r. has been the extravagant prices placed by the 
upon improved prospects, which has done much to 
retard development. 

There has heen a considerable revival of interest in the 
ining districts oi northwestern Ontario, more espe- 
cially the Lake of Hie Wood Ifanitou Lake areas, 
where several mini's which were Eormerly producers have 
heen reopened, after having been closed lor many years. 

irative owing to the 
antiquated methods then in rogue of mining and ore 

lent; but it is anticipated that with the use or 1- 

ern machinery and the I: ■ ssi -. they can be profita- 
bly operati 

While the silver-mini I lobalt has made 

steady progress, lie- lead . iifing to yield fair 

retains a] their capital, this Held has been eclipsed in 

public interest bj th ■ ire tigi of Porcupine. The 

industry suffi rand early spring Er 

a shortage of electric power, but when this difficulty was 
overcome by the return of ope-] weather, normal conditions 
were resumed and thi outpul of silver showed a 
tory increase as compared with the pn < The 

most noteworthy feature was the extensive substitution 
of concentrating; and refining processes for the shipment 

of low-grade ore, resulting in a steady diminution of the 
tonnage output. Statistics for the nine months ended 
with September show that while the ore shipments, as 
compared with the corresponding period of 1910, have de- 
creased from 23,824 lo 18,592 tons, the quantity of con- 
centrate sent out has increased from 4633 tons to 691") 
tons, and th* output of bullion has risen in value from 
$247,263 to $1,116,571. The Nipissing company has for 
some time been successfully treating its high-grade ores by 
a combined system of amalgamation and cyanidation, and 
has arranged tor die erection of a 200-ton plant, in which 
the low-grade output will be treated by a modification of 
the same process, which will largely increase the value of 
its ore reserves, 'flu- same company lias erected a hydraulic 
pump for the purpose of removing the overburden on its 
property, in the hope of discovering new veins. During 
I lie later months of the year the La Rose Consolidated 

materially improved its position by important discoveries 

several of its properties. The company continued the 

conservative policy of accumulating a large reserve fund 

instead of increasing the rate of dividend. While the 
prominent mines have generally maintained their ship- 
ments, the stock market for some months previous to the 
close of the year showed great depression, and a number 
of the weaker issues entirely disappeared from the list. 
The outlying districts of the Cobalt field contributed com- 
paratively little to the silver output, the figures for the 
first nine months of the year being: Cobalt, 22.272,783 nz. : 
South Lorraine, 626.131 oz. ; Gowganda, 286,925 ounces. 

The earlier pail of the season witnessed increased activ- 
ity in the production of iron ore and pig iron. The slack- 
ness of the iron and steel industries in the United Stales, 
however, seriously affected conditions in Canada, and some 
months since several of the iron ore mines in Ontario and 
Nova Scotia were closed for the season. Production has 
been actively carried on, however, at the Helena mine in 
the Michipieoten district of Ontario, with an output of 
about 1100 tons per day. most of which is consumed in 
the furnaces of the Algoiua Steel Works at Sault Bte. 
Marie, and oilier mines in that district have been active. 
The iron-manufacturing industry was adversely affected 
by the withdrawal of the bounties on iron and steel, given 
for some years by the Canadian Government, and a move- 
ment for their restoration has been set on foot. Mean- 
while, the manufacturers have been endeavoring to meet 
the change of conditions by effecting greater economy in 
production. Important extensions have been made to the 
plant of the Dominion Steel Corporation, at Sydney, N. 
S.. which will largely increase the output, and the Steel 
Company of Canada is preparing to make additions to its 
plant at Hamilton. Out., at a cost of $2,000,000, including 
a rod. blooming, and billet mills, and two 60-ton continu- 
ous open-hearth furnaces. 

The coal output of Nova Scotia has considerably in- 
creased. The Dominion Coal Co. is increasing the number 
of its collieries from lour to twenty, and has broken 
all records for production during the season from May to 
November, its output amounting to 2,4S0,000 tons, as 
against 2,363,970 Ions in 1910. Of Ihis quantity 1.501.000 
tons was shipped to the St. Lawrence ports, tin- total 
coal shipments from Xova Scotia to that market agg 
gating nearly I wo million tons. 

Production bas I n steadily carried on in the nickel- 
copper mines of the Sudbury district, though the latest 
available returns show a comparatively slight diminution 
in the output as compared with 1910. The asbestos in- 
dustry in Quebec province is at present under a cloud. 
owing io the failure of Amalgamated Asbestos. Ltd.. a 
merger embracing many of the leading mines, to meet the 
interest on its bonds for $8,000,000, by reason of the de- 
ed condition of the asbestos market. A financial re- 
organization will be necessary. Mica mining was slack dur- 
ing the greater portion of the year, many properties in 
Quebec and eastern Ontario being closed down with ac- 
cumulated stocks on hand on account of the low prices 
prevailing. Recently, the market has improved and the 
prospects for the industry are favorable. 



Transvaal (Jold-Mininsr 

despite the chronic shortage 

marked by steady pi many 

important -. .it' which than ia room to mention 

but e drilling nnder expert guidance aaema 

in have finally diaaipated any luge hopes of discovering 

ihla in the Rand, 

,,r ai .ill known ana. 

Iii ilus and in other particulars, the Rand ia settling down 

into the period in which the heal possible use must be 

■ "f knowi md leas expectation based upon 

the unknown.' the Rand there have been do 

'"'I"" - :>".l in ili«' Barberton and Lyden- 

districts liill has brought little change. The year 
ehronieled i Ii*- entrance of the Randfontein Estates 
iiitu the struggle for the position of the largest gold pro 
dneer on the Rand ami in the world, but while ilu> com- 
pany lias on several occasions beaten the East Rand Pro- 
prietary Mines, it was until October that il 
in passing the Crown Minos ami taking the top position 
mi the list. The entrance of the Bantjes mine into the 
producing list has been an important feature of the year, 
but tor BO or other, the results have not i 

up to expectation. Another interesting new producer was 
the City Deep, ami there have been numerous other 
changes in rank among producers. The metallurgical rec- 
or.l is one of i.iu.-h interest, and is briefly sketched else- 
where by Alfred James: the share market is discussed 
by T. A. Rickard; these pages will be devoted, therefore, 
to improvements in mining technology. 


Daring the year the amount of vertical shaft-sinking 
carried on has been below the average. The starting of 
the four Large rectangular -halts on the goldfield known 
as the Government Areas without any previous boring to 
prove the position of the Main Reel' series caused some 
comments in mining circles, especially in such a variable 
area as that of the Far East Rand. When, however, it 
is recognized that this huge field has been practically proved 
on all sides by neighbors such as the different Modderfon- 
tein properties. Van Ryn Deep, Brakpan Mines, and 
Geduld, there does not appear to be much necessity for 
preliminary bore-holes. Drilling in the same neighborhood 
has shown that bore-holes are valueless as indicators of 
the probable average yield of a deep-level goldfield. At 
Geduld they gave excessive assay values, and at Brakpan 
much less than actual mining operations have shown. As 
indicators of the strata to be passed through and the 
depth of the reef, bore-holes are undoubtedly valuable, 
but practically all this information was, in this case, avail- 
able. This is another instance of the closer relation deep- 
level mining on the Rand now hears to eoal rather than 
alliferous mining. Sinking of circular shafts on the 
Rand has also emphasized the relation. This is not by any 
means the first time a circular shaft has been sunk on 
the Rand; in fact, there are several circular shafts in 
existence already at Rand gold mines. Nor does it indi- 
cate that all the shafts in the future are likely to be 
circular. Shalt shape on the Rand will probably be 
more governed in the future by the surrounding condi- 
tions than has been the case in the immediate past. The 
advantages and disadvantages of both circular and rect- 
angular shafts have been largely discussed on the Rand 
during the past year. Late in the year the Welgedachl 
Exploration Co. was compelled to cease sinking a rect- 
angular shaft owing to the excessive water, which was 
officially stated to be less than 2,000.000 gal. per 24 hours. 
In twelve months the shaft had been sunk only about 200 
yards, at the somewhat excessive cost of £170 per yard. 
At the Grootvlei mine, only a few hundred yards away. 

UU monu ntk 

In both king 

m n- commani ad, ii wai anticipated thai I 

bodies of water would be i well know 

• uvular -Impel shaft can better deal with 
Water thai dar shape, ami 

that quantities np to 10,000,000 gal per day have been 
handled with comparative case, but here are in 
rectangular shafts diaabled and slopped after the expend 
iinre of double the amount probably required to sink ami 
line a circular shaft. Then, too, in these deep level 
ncal shafts designed to work enormous areas, the ventilat- 
ing advanl .11 with the circular shaft, and van 

tJlating difficulties are coming to I d on the 

d.ep Icv.l pro| lertiee on Hie Rand. Ii is principally on 
two grounds thai the reap] Jar Bbafta 

during the year is to be welcomed, bul their introduction 
is naturally meeting with some opposition from engii 
who have always used rectangular shafts. N'.. one will 


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deny the many advantages a rectangular shaft possesses 
where the ground is strong, a moderate amount of water 
is made, and the property is small and of uncertain value, 
but the experience on the Rand during the last twelve 
months seems to indicate that where the Witwatersrand 
beds are overlain by a considerable thickness of soft ground 
and dolomite carrying heavy flows of. water, circular-shaped 
shafts may be necessary, while for ventilation purposes 
in some of the deep and extensive mines, they may even 
become indispensable. A somwbat premature start was 
made on the West Rand Estates to sink a circular shaft 
through bad and wet gi - ound, but owing to difficulties with 
the special pumps designed for the purpose and insuffi- 
ciency of capital, work was suspended after reaching a 
depth of only 20 ft. At the Government Area mines on 
the Far East Rand, where four large deep shafts arc 
being sunk to the Main Reef series, the question of Ihe 
shape of the shafts seems to have been fully investigated, 
and. after all the advantages and disadvantages of both 
circular and rectangular shafts were considered, it was 
decided to continue the almost general Rand practice of 
sinking rectangular shafts. These are now making rapid 

Ventilation and Hf.wtm 

During the year a goodly number of ventilating fans 
have been installed at several of the older mines and. owing 
to the air having to pass through rectangular shafts of 
small dimensions, it has been found necessary in some 
cases, owing to the excessive resistances offered to air cur- 
rents in these rectangular shafts, to place the fan under- 
ground. Underground ventilation has, indeed, attracted 
much attention this year. Some time ago a system of fan 
ventilation was introduced at the East Rand Proprietary 
mines with such satisfactory results that quite a number 


January l>, 1912 

tailed during the year jusl closing, the 
I cilia] si - I' has 

ound on the Rand thai whi 
depth oi 3000 ft., natural ventilation aided b; 

p the mines in a healthy condition, 
the mining regnlatioi 
ection VI of the Transvaal '■■ 
- than 70 cu. ft. or air musl lit- provided for each 
rrout d, a requi ■ always 

in iii the past, and o er, that nat- 

ural ventilation ca ler all circ . be ex- 

ipply. Owing, probably, to more attention 

ventilation, there have been app 
•_'' fatalities than usual during tl 
the provisions of the mining regulations "ere carried out, 

illy those I that all working plai 

traveling roads shall be in a Bl state for pei 
and travel thei 

disappear. 1 i" be a stronger tendency I 

out the mining regnlal ility for 

ing with them was placed on the shoulders 

rs. Imt there is still i ovement. 

In the Transvaal no i hehl and no particular 

i i- called to mine accidents, although tl 
published monthly bj the Government Mining Engineer. 
i iting, no unusual accident of any 
life lias occurred during the 

.Mink Dust and Mixers' Phthisis 

During the current twelve months miners' phthisis lias 

tally in the Union Par- 
liament, where an ill-considered anil somewhat premature 
measure on tin- subject was introduced and afterward with- 
on has I. until further 

knowledge is available. It was known, however, that the 
old on the mining population. 
icial of the Mine- Department ami a minim 
fixing the proportion at one in four of the 
miners, hat this is probably an exaggeration. Si 
ire known to exist that l! 

pelled to pi e of relief for advai 

which the Go as well as the mini] » 

died upon t" subscribe. The fine Rand quartzitic 

ners' phthisis 
of any known mine dust in the world, and what seems 
equally striking is the tact that thi on the Rand 

are the most careli liirenl of any in takin 

ual sti i even if every 

appliance is supplied them fur that purpose. A 

mining regulations, every dry development place 
and dusty stupe must he provided with a eontinuo 
quale supply of water for damping t 
and allaying the dust caused by drilling operations. No 
allowed to drill holes unless a water jet or 
spray or other device is pn o as to prevent the 

escape of dust into the air or to remove broken 

ii effectively damped. The complaints 
that miners neglect to take any precautions to prevent the 

particularly with regard to 
of water, are all the more remarkable, seeing that by its 
underground are considerably facil- 
itated. So striking is this neglect on the part of the 
er on the applieation of water to under- 
ground drilling operations and the advantages accruing 
therefrom at the Xonrse Mines, was read by one of the 
it mine inspeetors. It led to an interesting dis- 
cussion in which frequent mention was made of the aver- 
sion of the miners underground to the use of water as 
provided for in the regulations. Even at the Xonrse Mine; 
it was stated that the system had not been introduced with- 
out considerable coercion on the part of the management. 


The most important step taken during the year with 
regard to actual underground operations on the Rand ap- 
pears to be that of concentrating as much as possible of 
the work. In the past, when the areas worked by the 

r than they are today, the vagar'- 
ies of the yield and the higher costs did not allow this 
to be done, and the higher average yield also allowed oper- 
ations to he scattered in order to secure the highest reg- 
ular monthly yields, because at that time working n.sls 
were not i • importance. Today 

aalgafeated concerns on the Rand face a different 
:. each mining large areas where the yield varies con- 
ably in value. Some of these amalgamated concerns 
Derating at enormous depths, and it is becoming nec- 
to adopt a systematic method of working, which 
in itself means concentration, and it is hoped a much 
lower average working cost per ton. Briefly, it has been 
decided, in order to facilitate deep mining, to adopt > 
winding, and on all the large properties, main levels of 
dimensions are being driven as straight as possible 
from one end of the properties to the other, the first at 
eding 3000 ft. These main levels are in- 
i| to act as feeders to the shafts, and outputs carrying 
up to per day of 10 hours from one shaft are 

expected. These are supplied with ore from abovi 
well as below by subordinate levels, as much as 300 to 
500 ft., according to the dip of the reef and other con- 
ditions. These principal levels will also he fitted with 
ical or mechanical haulage, as may also he the sub- 
ordinate levels where conditions arc favorable, so that un- 
derground tramming expenses ought to lie reduced to at 
une-half of their present figure. Similar main levels 
will be driven as greater depths are attained, tl 

of winding heinir thus fixed at something less than 
6000 It. This, however, is at present all 
anticipation, as the deepest workings have not as yet ex- 
no ft. Another proposal is to work the reefs 
i- Par East Rand, where they run fairly flat on a 
modified system of longwall; the most recent proposal being 
t the principal drives in the foot-wall and at 
- apart. It was several years aL'o that 
the longwall method of working was first suggested for 
the tlat reels at (ieduhl in the Far East Rand, hut il 
never been adopted. More recently a modified • 

longwall has been suggested tor ring 

properties. In both these methods of working, opera! 

td will he closely concentrated, and tjie ore re- 
1 r these circumstances, the 
cist of ii to be materially reduced. 

Whether ' : i he Rand reefs will be 

i. to withstand the effects of varying yields 
ui- tin- desire for uniform monthly results, and at the same 
time compensate for the variation in ore values by a 1 
reduction in the working costs, remains to he seen. 

Decline of Gradk and Costs 

During the year the question "t a gradual impoverish- 
01 .rmle with depth on the Rand has hecn much dis- 
1. one mechanical engineer putting forward the view 
thai ai .in average depth of 4000 ft. the grade would have 
fallen and the working costs increased to such an extent 
as to render further mining unprofitable. There is, how- 
ever, nothing to show that the Rand will suffer as much gen- 
eral depreciation in depth as other mining fields in the 
world, while the idea that working costs must necessarily 
increase with depth is most distinctly opposed to wdiat 
has actually occurred during the past twenty years on the 
Rand. There are numerous instances on the Rand where 
the srrade has fallen with depth, and it may continue to 
fall for some time to come, but there are also other in- 
stances where after declining it has recovered. In almost 
every instance, working costs have declined with depth : 
perhaps not so much on the average as the grade milled, 
but it is becoming palpably clear that while a mining 
engineer cannot introduce a higher yield, he can and does 
bring about lower working costs when same are absolutely 
needed. In other words, he can adapt himself to sur- 
rounding conditions, and nothing seems more calculated 
to reduce the working costs on the Rand than the stem 
necessity which will be created by a lowering grade. On 
this and general grounds, the attempt to limit profitable 
mining on the Rand to a depth of 4000 ft. must therefore 

Jaauarj 6, IMS 

minim; and s ( ii n i ii k pr 

quite mil 


Ibc exhausted il 


. where il hai o larted, 

i ipporl I'u 
r 1 1 i ? i i 1 1 lt has caused .1 
"I an unqualified It Is round 

thai a vertical I m. pipe oan eonvej 100 tons of aand 
par hour quite easily in a mixture a of sand t" 

1 ton of haa ton of water to t tons o1 

if used in DMal eases, bnl with well arranged la in 
dan and Inns on the surface, 1 Ion of water I" •"> "I 
Band may be need. Special bore-holes for conveying 
lo the ttopet lia\ .• been made, one at the Robinson Dei i 
ding over 1600 ft. deep from the surface. I 

■'"»>•! thai ordinary bare pipes or porcelain- 
lined pipes ;ir.' beet; wood-lined pipes have been 
doned. fat straight inclined inns, wooden laundei 
the beat The Hand tailing is verj destructive to 
and their > including renewals, inns froin %d. to n 
penny per ton of sand delivered into the stopes. The 
wooden barricades m retain the sand in position 

along tin' levels until drained and set. are the cause of 

great trouble and also largely tribute to the cost, which 

might lie avoided if mining "i erations wer inducted in 

the Aral instance with a view to sand-filling. The total 

of sand-filling varies considerably. Where thin) 
well arranged at ihe Biirface and conditions favorable, il 
may be as low as ::,!. , er ton of sand filled. Generally, 

however, it costs a] t Bd. per ton, and in one ease where 

tee arrangements are anything bul good, it costs 
10,!. per ton. Even at tliis high cost, in lliis particular 
instance it pays for itself, and the impression is gaining 
ground thai if primary mining operations were condt 
with a view to subsequent sand-filling, and s,, I 

illars rendered annecessary. a direct profit rather than 
additional cost would result. 

Electric Power 

Perhaps the si important feature of tin- year has bean 

'!"■ si ess attending the general application of electrical 

power to mining operations, for pumping, surface haul- 
age, and lighting pin tricity has been in use Eor 
many years, lint during the year it has been successfully 
applied to mill , ,. pressing, underground 
haulage, and all the hundred and one processes on the 
mines needing the application of power. Today there are 

few mines where electrical power i- not iii use. and had 

the Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co. been in a posi- 
tion to meel the demand, or even to carry oul its con- 
tracts, the use of electrical power on the Rand would have 
been far more genera] than it is today. Many of the 

mills on Ihe Rand during the year have l>< banged over 

from steam to electricity, and when the power supply has 
been ample and uniform, the uiillmen prefer usiirj elec- 
trical power to steam. Electrical hoisting has also come 
much into vogue on the Rami during the year. The Eck- 
stein group of iniiics has adopted the three-phase system, 
while in the majority of other cases the Ward-Leonard 
system has been chosen. There is considerable discussion 
going on at present, with regard to the different merits 
of the two systems. The three-phase system is the cheaper 
in lirst eost, and for slow hoisting and shallow depths has 
many advantages over the Ward-Leonard system. Its prin- 
cipal drawback is that its control is less perfect and reli- 
able than the Ward-Leonard system. On this account, 
where the shaft is deep, loads heavy, and speed anything 
approaching or exceedingly 2000 ft. per minute, the Ward- 
Leonard system is generally preferred. The advocates of 
this system point out that, although its first eost is greater, 
there is not much difference when running costs are taken 
into consideration. At no time and under no considera- 
tion, they urge, should general safety of life and limb and 
better control he sacrificed, even to save capital expendi- 

Rhodesian Mining Development 

The unskilled labo 

era throughout the country are pu 

■nd leavoring to dim-over new 

ing the labor «upi ly. With a view to impra 

situation, the Labor B j, and Ihe 

new concern has a capital of C75, u debentures hearing 

st. The neu Bureau proposes spending a 
siderable amount in establishing new real depots and 

routes, exploitation of areas which have not i 

been visited by labor-recruiting Meantime, work 

ai the various mines progresses, even if not at the 
desirable Bpeed. Developments at tin- Shamva mine in 

the Abercorn district ,,t Mashanaland I 

torily. and there are now aboul 1,600,000 tons of ore de 

veloped, the average assay value being in tin- neighbor! I 

: dwt. per Ion. Provision for a railway has lieen 

arranged and plans for the equipment of the mine and 
button are Iherefore being prepared. The Kansnnshi cop- 
per mine, which is situated on the CongO-Rhodesian bor- 
der, has delivered close on 500 tons of copper to the North- 
ern Extensions railway. The lvalue Copper Co. is also 
conducting productive operations. The smeller of this lat- 
ter concern was worked lor 23 days during September 
and produced 327 tons, 73.5^'r matte. The British South 
Africa Co. has announced the flotation of a mines de- 
velopment company with a capital of £250,000, which has 
been hailed with satisfaction throughout Rhodesia. The 
avowed objects of this flotation are (o) assisting to bring 
about the more rapid development of mining in Rhodesia, 
(6) consideration of prospecting schemes, and (c) forma- 
tion of subsidiary companies. It is hoped that this will 
lead to more rapid development of the country. Another 
Rhodesian flotation of importance is the Planet-Arcturus 
flold Mines, Ltd., -which possesses a capital of £475.000 
in £1 shares. Of this sum. £150,000 has been set aside 
for working capital, and shares to this amount will be 
offered at par to shareholders in the Rhodesia Exploration 
& Development Co., of which Planet-Arcturus is a sub- 
sidiary. The properties to be acquired by the new com- 
pany are situated in the Enterprise district of Mashona- 
land, and at no great distance from what are known as 
the Gold Schists of Rhodesia Mines. 



January 6, 1912 

Gold-Dredging in Russia 

By Janin 

'Statistics of the dredging industry in Russia and Siberia 
have been collected yearly since' 1906, by the permanent 
consulting board of t lie Gold and Platinum Producers Asso- 
ciation. Translations of the published reports in Zoloto 
1 j'lalina appear, from time to time, in the technical 
press, and -how that the dredging industry plays an im- 
portant part in Russian mining. The number of dredges 
in Russia has increased steadily from 40 in lPOti. to 66 in 
1910, and a number of new ones are reported for 1911. 

Dredges Operating 

tx Russia, 1906-1910 

■y. O > 




verage No. 

working el 


1. of ,|rc,l 

in existenc 


-t S3 
— I: 
~ ~. 



- r 

CU S3 

recovery j 

dredge . . . 

ED ~Z 

2 H 

•< < 

: a 

(D * v 

re • ' - 

7. • m — ; 

1906 .... 40 32 173 2837 159,600 $19,205 12.0 

1!HI7.... 64 46 137 22511 139.300 20.235 14.5 

1908 .... 64 49 lilt 2502 160.400 25,380 15.2 

1909 .... 64 41 164 2771 188,805 32,185 17.0 

1910 .... 66 55 ... 29 14 182,486 31,357 16.0 

Iges, with buckets of 4y 2 to 5-cu. ft. capacity, pre- 
dominate, though there were 22 having 7-ft. buckets, in 
1909, and many of the newer ones are of this size. The 
average yardage handled per dredge in 1910, for 55 dredges 
reporting, was 182,486, on an average working time of 
2914 hours. This gives 62.6 eu. yd. per dredge per hour, 
which is small, compared to the 500 yd. per hour sometimes 
reached by the modern 15-ft California boats. Dredging, 
in Russia, seems particularly characterized by the small per- 
centage of dredges that are reported as working at a profit. 
Though the average value of the ground worked in 1909 
was 17c. per cubic yard, only 25% of the dredges operating 
that year made a profit, and. according to a translation by 
W. II. Shock-ley. in the Mining and Scientific Press of May 
20, 1911, "if attention is given to the royalty paid, several 
dredges must be excluded from that list." According to 
the data furnished by the commission, in order to pay the 

ng expenses of a dredge, allowing for amortization, 
it is necessary to work ground of the following value, the 
figures being in cents per cubic yard : 

Bucket capacity, Western Eastern 

<•»• ft. Urals. Siberia. Siberia. 

2 22.96 28.04 32.72 

4 15.15 17.96 20.40 

5 12.18 14.35 16.24 

6 10.50 12.62 14.14 

7 9.55 11.56 12.98 

According to S. I. Littauer, 46 of the dredges operating 

1 dug material exceeding die gold content indicated as 
ir commercial success, yel many of the dredges 
actually worked at a loss. In the report for 1910, in many 
cases the names of the dredge builders are given, and. while 
""' list is " note that out 

of 36 dredges. , are of foreigp make. It is admitted that 
the Russian-built dredge eann»t compare in material used. 
iency with the foreign-built boats, 

dly those of Ami ad there has 

been considerable agitation among those interested in the 
Russian gold placers to have the duty again taken off gold- 
t a period of 1, ,i,; s duty 

wa- remitted, bul a few years ago the Government, acting 
in the interests of the dredge builders, put the 
again, though the free b ichinery is. I under- 

-till permitted in the Amur and Premorsk districts 
in Eastern Siberia. T he dredges buill by the Russia] ld- 

•Reviews of gold-dredging in other countries will appear 
in a later issue. 

ers are of lighter construction, and made of material much 
inferior to that used in dredges following the best American 
practice. An instance of lighter construction in the case of 
steel hulls may be mentioned. According to Ross B. Hoff- 
mann, the hull of a 7-ft. Russian-built dredge weighed 190 
tons; this is only about one-half the weight of the steel hull 
on the Ameriqan-built Kolchan dredge, described below. 

Among the new installations for Russia, in 1911, are two 
Werf Conrad dredges in the Amgun district, Siberia. One 


of these has buckets of 7-eu. ft. capacity and is designed 
for a working depth of 25 ft. The total engine power is 
160, and the dredge hull is of steel. The other dredge is a 
small prospecting machine, with a bucket capacity of Vz 
cu. fi.. and is said to be driven by hand-power. The Kol- 
chan dredge, of the Orsk Goldfields, Ltd., was put in eom- 


mission October 25. .if this year. This is an installation 
that has attracted wide attention among those interested in 
the Siberian dredging industry. The ground was prospected 
by t'. W. Purington and J. Power Hutchins, with Empire 
hand-drills, and a stacker scow, was put in operation on the 
property :~ August 1909. This was described by Mr. Pur- 
ington, in the Mining and Scientific Press, Februay 4 and 


MINING AND S< II Mil k PKl ss 

11, l!»l 1. tiinl « mini 


.Mi', but for tin 

i "it 1000 yd. |k>i 

I during ili"' nasi Ave month*, $121,000, 

it, exclusive "i admi 

Tin' difficulty of disposing "I 

any failures on planti of this 

innting the machinery for 

* ami floating ii 

behind tin' sxeavating machine. The trashing apparatus 

waa specially arranged to aieel the conditions, t In- 

nun:.' morh clay. The plum wn . ami buill 

li> rk Engineering <'".. which also designed 

and limit the Kolehon dredge. 

■i dredge has buckets "i H cu. ft. capacity ami 
i Li; 1 1 06 bj I" by '■' it-, weighing 375 tuns. The 'li 

• ; tlir Imll an as follows, It is 95 It. lull!;. 12 I!. 

beam, ami ft, deep. Frames an' spaced 28 in. apart. 

duatry in Ituuia. Tl 

his li 

,.-« industry and il v dean 

mil be made in onld 

In' particularly attractive i" 

l- rich, tin' climate ami phy i hal umJ 

lar In Alaska. Wind' the low I by 

tlir California d I'm' variou 

the introduction of thi Inn California type 

'■ will iii!" bIiow tlmt tli". 

of auriferous gravels that are at present considered un- 
profitable, .•!■ thai an- n"i yel exploited, can !«■ worked at 
a profit. Mining engineers, familiar with the conditi 
ami dredge builders in general, an' . a to 

the dredging possibilities in Siberia, The success of tha 
Kolchan dredge, which. -" far a- I knew, is the flrsl modern 
American type boaf in Siberia, will undoubtedly encoui 
the investigation of new areas, in tic interests of American 


with 10-iu. floor beams, and 6-in. deck beams. These beams 
consist of what is commonly known as ship-channels. Two 
solid bulkheads of ' 2-in. steel plate, reinforced by 4-in. 
angles run throughout the entire length of the dredge and 
form each side of the well. Cross bulkheads of solid plate 
extend across the pontoons at the different points, and the 
hull really has a double stern. The last frame, placed 28 
in. from the stem, is built up of solid plate so that a sep- 
arate compartment is formed at the rear of the dredge, and 
in case the spuds break through the shell at any time, this 
affords ample protection. The hull weighed about 350 tons. 
which is about twice as heavy as the same size hulls that are 
now in the course of construction by some others. A 500- 
hp. steam-plant generates electric power. This plant con- 
sists of a cross-compound, medium-speed, 4-valve engine, 
directly connected with a 400-kw. generator wound for GUOO 
volts. 3-phase alternating current. The power is trans- 
mitted ten miles to the dredge, where it is stepped down 
to 440 volts. A complete machine-shop equipment, a wood- 
sawing and splitting plant, together with two 700-ft. con- 
veyors for stacking and conveying the fuel to the boiler, a 
complete pneumatic riveting plant, besides dredge extras 
and traction engines for hauling material, were included in 
the plant equipment, and the complete plant, weighing 
2000 tons, was built to design and shipped in four months 
and ten days; a noteworthy record. 

The number of dredges working in Russia seems small 
in comparison with the vast placer areas in that country, 
and may be partly attributed to the high operating cost, 
and inefficiency in general, of the Russian dredge, which 
would tend to discourage further installations; also to the 
lack of capital, which is perhaps the most important cir- 
cumstance retarding the development of the dredging in- 

and English capital. To those interests, when associated 
with influential Russians, and under the direction of com- 
petent engineers, Siberia offers, in my opinion, one of the 
most attractive fields for the mining capitalist. 

Diamond Mining in Africa 

There is not much new regarding African diamond mines. 
No new profitable mines appear to have been discovered 
during the year, but better prices have ruled, and the large 
producing mines at Eomberley and Pretoria have done bet- 
ter. The Premier mine near Pretoria is the only mine of 
any importance in the Transvaal. The output shows but 
little change, the improvement in price for the stones has, 
however, benefited the company, hut the Government im- 
post of 60% of the profits is one the company finds burden- 
some. Attempts have been made during the year to revive 
interest in several abandoned diamond areas in the Pretoria 
district, but without success. The Montrose diamond prop- 
erty continues to be worked at considerable loss to the share- 
holders, with little prospect of any change for the better 
taking place, and why work should he continued on this 
property under the circumstances is difficult to understand. 
In the Free State diamond fields the year has brought no 
important change, even the alleged discovery of the new 
pipe at Roberts Victor mine has turned out disappointing. 
At Voorspoed mine no change can be noted, the Crown 
diamond mine continues closed, but the old Monastery mine 
has changed hands during the year and operations on a 
small scale are being started. Altogether the year lias been 
a better one for the diamond-mining industry than the pre- 
ceding one and closes with encouraging prospects. 



January ti, 1912 

Metal Mining in British Columbia 

By E. Jacobs 

Viewed from the standpoint of production only, the year 
IW 1 v ■ ae for mining in British ( Columbia, 

but speaking generally, satisfactory progress was 

d Cassiar. — Barken i' and Quesnel 

riboo, and Ailin division, Cassar, are the two 

important placer-gold producers oi British Colombia. Both 

i production in 1913 as compared with 

1910 — about $460,000 from the two districts, as compared 

on foi gravel-washing 
is the reason for the dei on opened bite, and 

[10 fall rains to help out. In bolli districts 
there are lar l available for hydraulicMng. 

A feature in Cariboo was the commencement la^t summer 
of operations by the Quesnelle Hydraulic Gold Mining Co., 
which under the direction of Howard W. Dubois, of Phila- 
delphia, expended Dearly $1,000,000 in preliminary wort 
and equipment, and the resumption of work near Quesnel 


Forks by John B. Hobson, the veteran hydraulic placer 
miner of Quesnel division. 

East Kootenay.— iiets.] mining did not make much prog-- 
ress during the year. Exhaustion of the known orebodies 
of the St. Eugene lead mine, from whieh an aggregate of 
about 1,100.000 tons of ore has been taken, is near at hand, 
the production of concentrate having decreased yearly from 
28,000 tons in 1905 to less than tiOOO tons in 1911. The 
Sullivan has in part taken the place of the St. Eugene. 
but its enormous ore rescues contain much ore in whieh 
the percentage of zinc is too large to allow of profitable 
treatment of the ore in this province at present. The Koo- 
tenay Central railway, now being built, will eventually give 
ortatiou to silver and le^id mines in parts of the 
district now without it. 

Ainsworth. — This and the following named divisions in 
West Kootenay appear to have a brighter immediate future. 
Spokane men have secured and are opening several Ains- 
worth properties, and the Consolidated M. & S. Co. has 
bonded others. Arrangements are being made to resume 
work and ore production at the Bluebell, whieh is a big 
lead mine situated across the Kootenay lake from Ainsworth. 
The Vfica. 12 miles west of Kaslo, is shipping ore, and 
The Peep Mine. Ltd., is extensively developing the deep 
of the Whitewater group properties, with the object of 
making tonnage available when concentrating and trans- 

portation facilities, destroyed by forest fires in 1910, shall 
have been replaced. 

Slocan. — The mine not having a railway connection, pro 

duction of zinc ore from the Lucky Jim was not practicable, 

■ lily was undertaken. No. (i level. 400 ft. 

below No. 5, was driven 1134 ft., entering the 'lime dike', 

in which searolj for zinc is in progress) Rambler-Cariboo 

d three shoots of silver-lead ore on each level at noil. 

1 ami 1200 ft., respectively, and is extending the 1400- 

ft. level to find the same -l is. The concentrating plant 

oved down to a new millsite near the rail- 
way being constructed to provide transportation for this 
mine and the Lucky Jim. The development of much ore 
of good grade in lower levels of the Rambler-Cariboo is 
considered to have a most important bearing on the future 
of the Slocan district, this having proved that ore con- 
- i" depth. The Washington was further developed; 
it has much lead-zinc ore in its workings. The Payne 
is having a cross-cut driven 3300 ft. to cut the vein at 
675 ft. below the lowest old level. Cody camp was active. 
Shoots of silver-lead and zinc ore were found in the 
Noble Five. The Reco opened a new shoot of ore in virgin 
ground on No. 11 level. The Twilight also found ore in 
its Xo. 2 adit. The Sunset continued driving No. S level 
1600 ft. to reach a long shoot of ore worked for 300 
ft. in length on higher levels. The Surprise passed 
through good ore when raising from adit at 1100-ft. depth 
to connect with the bottom of the old shaft 830 ft. above. 
About Sandon. at the Ruth-Hope the upper levels have 
been extended, and a lower adit driven 800 ft., while more 
than 500 tons of silver-lead ore has been shipped. The 
Richmond-Eureka has continued development and shipped 
about 2300 tons. A new company has been organized to 
work the Slocan Star, on which the old workings have 
been reopened, and a deep-level adit is being driven to 
cut the vein in 2300 ft. at 630 ft. below No. 5 level. Four- 
Mile creek mines are nourishing. The Standard has cut 
good ore in No. (i. which is 1 DO ft. vertically below the 
big galena showing on No. 5; has constructed an aerial 
tramway S000 ft. from mine to millsite near Slocan lake, 
equipped a 100-ton concentrating mill, put in a water-line 
and an air-compressor, and lias commenced production on 
a larger scale. The Silverton Mines, Ltd., has opened 
much ore on four levels down to No. 7, connected by 
raises up to No. 4. found rich ruby silver occurring freely 
in the ore, renovated the Wakefield concentrating mill, and 
been making experimental runs with one unit of the El- 
more vacuum process plant on zinc middling from jigs. 
The Van Roi. which commenced concentrating at its new 
mill in March, put about 30.000 tons of ore through the 
mill and made two marketable products, namely, silver- 
lead and silver-zinc concentrates. The British Columbia 
Copper Co. bonded a gold property situated above Slocan 
lake and commenced developing it. Many other mines in 
Slocan and Slocan City divisions were worked, as well as 
those above mentioned. 

Nelson. — In this division, further development of the 
Molly Gibson has been favorable, and the outlook for the 
mine much improved; it is owned by the Consolidated 
company, which has put its mill in running order and 
increased the power available for mining purposes. No 
information has been received from the Granite-Poorman 
gold mine, in connection with which some sensations were 
sprung on the public in 1911 by a local newspaper. The 
Wilcox. Yankee Girl, and Dundee, all in Ymir camp of 
this division, were worked. The Yankee Girl sent 1350 
tons of ore to the smelter before it passed into the hands 
of a receiver; it has since been acquired by Spokane men. 
The Emerald, near Salmo, shipped nearly 2000 tons of 
lead ore. The Consolidated company bonded some claims 
in this district on which there is a big surface showing 
of lead carbonate ore. The Queen opened its gold-bearing 
vein down to greater depth ; the Nugget milled between 
3000 and 4000 tons of gold ore having a gross value of 
$20 per ton; the Mother Lode proved its veins down to 
500-ft. depth and put in a modern 10-stamp gold mill ; and 
the Kootenay Belle and others were further developed. 



Tin- I 

ami the i! 

•p lulu M iv. ninl tlii 

In keep up Ih-. 

• I 111 llllll I] 1 I.I I.I. 

i in. Holywell rein 
.1 much mi' in 
on tin- 1200-ft leveL The 1300 ft 
dad, an. I preparations were made for 
'_' shipped 27,000 tons of crodi 
!n the smelter end concentrated is. mm tons, producing 
1800 gold-copper concentrate. The Le K<>i was 

wlidated company; lately it has been ship- 
ping 100 day, and an early increase in 

linn' sted. The Bloebird and other small prop- 

■ were also worked. At the Trail smelter and lead 
refinery the Consolidated M. & s. Co. of Canada put in 
two Dwight-Lloyd sintering units, rearranged the Hunt 
ington-Heberlein plant, ami made numerous changes to 
facilitate handling and sampling 

<i'i,r it,-' Koottnay DMtiotu. In Bevelstoke division, 

mining is largely restricted to development of mica de- 

I bydranlicking for placer gold, both in Big 

district In the Lardeau, the Beatrice shipped 310 

of ore, and in Troul Lake division the Silver Cup 

made an outpul of about 500 tons, also of silver lead ore. 

lopment was carried on at the Winslow, a .jnl.1 claim, 

hut there was little else worthy of note, 

Boundary.- Tonnage of ore mined and smelted was the 
smallest for tliis district since 1907, due chiefly i 
Crow's NVst miners' strike. The total was about 1,200,000 
tuns, as compared with 1,600,000 inns in 1910. The Granby 
company's production was 583,000 tons, as against 1,075,000 
tons in 1910; the Bnowshoe also produced less — 31,000 

tons, d ipared with 147,000 in 1910. On the other 

hand, the British Columbia Copper Co. increased its out- 
put 95,000 tuns, making it 533,000, as compared with 
138,000. Little development was done in the Granby mines 
during tlm calendar year, for they were closed for several 
months, but in the liseal year, ended .Time 30 last, the esti- 
mated additional tonnage of ore blocked out was 1,248,000 
tens, while only 957,000 tons was shipped, consequently, 
ore in sight was increased 291,000 tons, making total or" 
'•.■Miniated in sight" 8,720,000 tons. Notwithstanding the 

reduce. 1 tonnage treated, smelting costs were thr oils per 

ton lower. A new method for the disposition of slag, pre- 
viously dumped molten, was arranged for while the fur- 
naces were out of hlast. This consists principally of granu 
lating the slag by water, sluicing it to central storage bins 
where it will he dewatered, and conveying it on belts up 

to 100 ft. above the old dump. Dump r for six to ten 

million tons is thus provided. Most of the B. C. Copper 
Co.'s ore treated came from its Mother Lode mine, in which 
a different method of mining was adopted. The orebody 
was divided into a series' of transverse slopes of a maxi- 
mum width of 25 ft., thus making available a greater per- 
centage of the ore and reducing costs of extracting it. 
Under this system more than 100,000 tons of ore was 
broken down at one time last autumn. In this connection. 
2433 holes were drilled, these averaging approximately 1-! 
ft. each in depth. These were charged with 425 boxes of 
40$ dynamite, a total of 10% tons: 2525 low-tension No. 
7 electric detonators were used connected in series of 25; 
connection was finally made to 550-volt current, and the 
whole exploded. The year's tonnage from the Mother 
Lode was about 315,000 tons; while from the New Do- 
minion Copper Co.'s Rawhide mine, 172.000 tons was ob- 
tained, and 40,000 tons from three other Boundary mines 
owned by the company. In addition. 15.000 tons from two 
mines in Washington, also owned by this company, was 
smelted. Three furnaces were kept in hlast nearly all the 
year, using Pennsylvania coke until Novemher, when one 
was blown out to economize in coke consumption until a 

i bout 

; the 
company also di tu -1, but little 

•lew. u thy. 

. the Medley Gold M 
that produced on im ii- 

Plate group "i mines was 7,000 

l.uis. milled al ils -til slump mill at lledl. pared 

with ' in 1910. Iverage value per ton 

$12.10 and 92. This shows . 

.1 value four cents per ton higher than in 1910. X" 
gold is saved on amalgamation plates, but about 

nil is by concentration, and 259j by cya The 

treatment process includes crushing by Btam] .-. tube-mill- 
ing, cyaniding, and saving of gold in Men rd ■ '•<• 
in. filter-presses with Oliver filters for the slime. Thi of concentrate is about 300 tons per month. The 

product, which runs high in gold, is reduced ill 'In- 
Development during the year added largely to know 
serves. The lower levels of the mine look well, and pros 

. ...j^a 

'•Ii 'ii/ 


iBLtaVa^HHam?!. t .. iStt! 


I e.-is for 1912 arc bright. Coal was shipped from a small 
colliery at Princeton, and a promising new coal mine was 
opened above Granite creek, Tulameeh. 

Const. — Quite a transformation has been effected in the 
Britannia mine, Howe sound. Two years ago the outlook 
for this property was discouraging; now there is in sight 
a large tonnage of ore running 4 to 5% copper, and it is 
believed the development in the early future will greatly 
increase known good ore. More than 100,000 tons of ore 
was e.xt railed ; most of this was passed through the graded 
crushing and concentrating mill. Extract ion was good, for 
chalcopyrite ore, about 80%. A full-sized working unit of 
the Elmore vacuum process plant gave excellent recov- 
eries, indicating that treatment of fine material and slime. 
following hand-sorting and .jigging, will bring the total 
extraction of value up to a high percentage. 

Another important advance made was that of the Granby 
Con. M. S. & P. Co., at ils Hidden Creek copper mine, Ob- 
servatory inlet. Reports of six engineers show an esti- 
mated reserve with a minimum of 6,000,000 and a maxi- 
mum of 12.000,000 tons, averaging 2% copper for the 
smaller and 1.65% for the larger tonnage. Since their 
examinations of the mine, further development has given 
additional reserves estimated to include at least 200.000 
tons of 5<"r copper ore besides that of lower grade. The 
company lias had up to 270 men preparing the mine for 
stoping and production, and earning out surface improve- 
ments. Establishment at (loose bay, near the mine, of a 
copper smelter, with blast-furnace capacity of 2000 tons 
per day is planned. The year's results in Portland Canal 
district have been disappointing. The only mine that made 
production on a commercial basis was that of the Portland 
Canal Mining Co.. from which ore was extracted that, when 
concentrated in the company's mill, gave rather more than 
2000 tons of concentrate, the bulk of which was a product 



January 6. 1912 

r unning l'J to 15 i«. sihcr per ton and 7 to 11 

The yi demonstrated that to be profltabli 

ing operations must lie on a much larger scale. The Red 

Cliff was reported to have developed much copper ore of 

rade, but bulk shipments to the smelter, Ere 
lalked i oi made, oilier pi were stated to 

be looking well, bul they are without it on facili- 

ties. In Skeenfi River district, numerous silver-lead claims 
or less prospected: in Some cases develi 

eg is confidently expected. Mosl of these 
arc within a radius of twenty miles of Hazelton. B 

irtation will likely lie available for some of 


The Tyee ( Sopper i elter, which is 

Ladysmith, Vai iver [aland, was operated intermittently 

the available supply of ore 
sufficient to keep the furnaces in blast continuously. 
The ore smelted came chiefly from British Columbia coast 
; 'i Alaska. 

Prospects for Future. — For metal mining, the outlook is 
fairly encouraging. More gold and silver should be pro- 
duced from Kelson, Rossland, Boundary. Similkameen, 
and tin Bilver and lead in larger quantity 

should be mined in the Slocan district especially, and to a 
smaller degree in East Kootenay and Skeena district ; the 

Coast mines pi ise a greater output of copper, but known 

inland mines will hardly make any increase: zinc produc- 
tion was so small in 1911 that it will not be difficult to 
make a considerable advance. 

Gold-Dredging in the Philippines 


The Para. .ilc district »as the only field in the Philippine 
Islands up to a si had been 

even partly successful, for none of the present boats can 

he pro] oi. As to the pres- 

ent time, according to K. Y. Banlon, in the Mim 

I agusl 26, there is only dredge 

working in the district and another dredge idle on a co 
of litigation. Both of these dredges are of New Zealand 
design and manufacture. They are equipped with 5-cu. ft. 
open connected buckets, work on a headline, and are op- 
erated with steam-power, each using about 3 cords of wood 
per day. Their efficiency is low, less than 1000 cu. yd. per 
day. The dredge of the Paraeale Gold Dredging Co. has 
worked about six acres of an average depth of 45 ft., mak- 
ing a total of about 450.000 eu. yd. The gold won from this 
acreage has been, according to Mr. Hanlon. $20,000, show- 
ing a saving of about 45c. per yard. The extraction is 
estimated from 50 to 75%. The property of this com- 
pany, including the Melville, Fingal. and Xueva California 
properties, was acquired late in the year by New Zealand 
capitalists, who have had the ground drilled and are pre- 
paring to build additional dredges. The Malaguit river in 
Ambos Camarines offers some opportunities as a dredging 
field. The depth of the ground where the Philippine Gold 
Dredgim.' Co.'s dredge is working on the river, about four 
miles fro,,, the sea, is from IS to 24 ft. The dredge is u 
Risdon boat with 3V£-ft. buckets. The average amount 
handled per month is between 15.0110 and 20.0110 en. yd., 
and the gold conte i is about 25e. per yard, 

of which ij i i. recovered. The working 

cost, exclusive of depreciation, office expenses, and interest, 
per cubic yard. lint, owing to the faet that no 
record . . pi the actual amount of 

gold won. an aci I I i ale is impossibl 

the Paraeale dredge where the same methods are employed. 

tion by the New York] Bering Co., is a 5V£-ft. 

driven dredge for the Qumaus river in the Paraeale dis- 
trict. This will be the lirst huge modern dredge in the 
Islands, and its success will undoubtedly givi 

to dredging in that country. A -ding to the builders. 

the ground was prospected with Empire drills, and suffi- 
cient gold found to warrant the erection of this equipment. 

The dredge will cost about $150,000 complete, and will be 
fitted with a wooden hull, as the life of the property with 
the one dredge is estimated at five years. It is believed 
that with a company with sufficient capital to operate several 
modern dredges under efficient management, a large por- 
tion of the district could be profitably dredged, and, under 
these conditions the working cost should not exceed 7e. per 
cubic yard. 

Coal Mining in British Columbia 

By E. Jacobs 

Substantial advance was made in coal mining during 
ear. The Western Fuel Co., at Nanaimo, made the 
largesl output in the history of its mines— about 5S(i,000 
long tons, as compared w-ilh nearly 513,000 tons in 1910. 
This company is opening a new shaft mine about four 
south of Nanaimo. Main and air-shafts are being 
sunk to a depth of about 1000 ft., and it is expected that 
vill be reached next autumn. Thereafter, the mine 
will be rapidly developed to a producing capacity of 1200 
to 1500 Inns per day. The company's mines are in excel- 
lent condition as regards equipment, development, and 
prospects, and it is expected that 1912 will prove a record 
year. Distribution of coal produced was approximately 
as follows: Sold in British Columbia, 59r<- ; in California, 
.;_'•, ; elsewhere. 9%. The Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), 
Ltd., maintained production at about the same rate as in 
1910. when the output was nearly 900,000 long tons, of 
which 122.000 Ions was exported to the United States and 
26,000 tons io other countries. The distribution of the 
1911 production was somewhat similar. The company has 
let contracts for construction in connection with the de- 
ment of a hydro-electric water-power, initial capacity 
to lie 11,000 hp. Contracts let include that for a dam and 
a water-line about three miles long. Power will be used 
at the company's several Union Colliery mines in the vi- 
cinity of Cumberland, Comox district. A new shaft is to 
be opened, but as the shaft, sinking of which has been com- 
menced, will have to be sunk about 1000 ft., no production 
from here will be made for about 12 to IS months. Many 
ji IS and improvements have been authorized, and these 
are being carried out as rapidly as practicable. Production 
is to be materially increased and more of the company's 
large deposits of coal utilized. The Pacific Coast Coal 
Mines. Ltd., has increased production at its Fiddick col- 
liery to about 20,000 tons per month, and has active de- 
mand for all the coal it mines. At its Suquash colliery, 
development is being continued to get the property in 
shape for shipping coal. The Vancouver-Nanaimo Coal 
.Mining ('". is providing shipping facilities at tidewater 
for the coal it mines at its New East Wellington colliery. 

The chief development in Nicola was in the coal mines. 
The Nicola Valley Coal & Coke Co. erected and equipped 
now tipple, increasing the coal-handling capacity to 1000 
tons per day: pul in new machinery and plant; extended 
railway trackage; much improved outlets from mines; and 
found, by means of diamond-drill, important extensions of 
i oal deposits. The output tonnage was in excess of 200,000 
tons, as compared with 141,000 tons in 1910. Develop- 
ment of several other properties was continued, but pro- 
duction was small. 

In the East Kootenay production of coal was practically 
stopped during the eight months the coal-mine employees 
were on strike, but in that period coal deposits were de- 
veloped at a level 500 ft. above the main entry to the 
Hosmer mine. Several new seams were opened at the Crow's 
Nest Pass Coal Co.'s Coal Creek collieiy. and others at 
Carbonado. The Corbiu company opened an enormous de- 
posit of eoal occurring 3000 to 4000 ft. along the surface 
100 to 400 ft. wide, which will be mined in open work- 

.More work was done on coal properties in the Telkwa 
and Morrice River district, while in the northern part of 
Skeena district much anthracite coal was found and partly 
developed. Prospecting for coal and oil on Graham island 
of the Queen Charlotte group was done on various holdings. 

January 0, 1018 


Review of Mining in 19U in the Various States and Distticts 

California's Mineral Industry 

Bj Wmmi ii- Storms 

Although the ral produeti i l 

rnd will not 1m- availab 
■■nil monl little donbl thai thi 

output for the | ill equal, if qoI axe I thai for 

the year 1910. >~ daring It'll a noticeable in- 

ly in gold mini' development ami operation! 
i lie i utly i" the surprising developmea 

old mines on tin' Mother Lode, when - have 

at depth in unexpected pla \ 

other stimulus to gold quartz mining lias been the success 
t'ul operation <>t several rich mines in the northern portion 
of tin' State, particularly in Shasta ami S 
ami at least one gold ininr lias been brought under success 
t'nl operation in Modoc county near Kurt Bidwetl. I" 
may lie added several new and successful drift mines 
in various parts of tin' north end "t the State ami tin' 
encouragement resulting from the promising development 

than any other tin' .■ m 

'I tinds of invastoi i ■ as of 

that deep mining for gold in California is now 

timate, bnl 
men!, in many coses, as can be found in any other kind ol 
business, At the same time, ( it 

standpoint, there is nothing else thai offers anything like 

real possibilities in the form of profits. Deep mining 

anywhere, whether for gold, copper, salt, coal, or any other 

mineral, n cap sxpei ienced manage nt, 

and a fair amount of l; 1 fortune. Those of limited n 

cannol hope to equip and develop mines tarter 

in half a million dollars, or perhaps twice the tatter 
will be required. There are, however, many opportunities 
for the smaller investor where a tew thousand dollars will 
prove a property to be either valuable or worthless, and 
unusual activity in mines of this class is now noticeable. 
Generally speaking, therefore, gold mining throughout the 
stale is in a decidedly healthy condition, and it is my be- 
lief thai this branch of our mineral industry is going to 


of new prospects in numerous old districts. Ever since the 
early days of gold mining in California, prosperity in this 
industry has swept over the State in a series of waves. The 
successful outcome of many of the earliest ventures re- 
sulted in a general organization of mining companies and 
the equipment of a large number of prospects, good and 
bad. The natural result followed. Some were success- 
ful, many were not. and in a few years gold mining came 
into disrepute. After a lull in mining investment, much of 
which has been ill advised or not advised at all, new suc- 
cesses were achieved, and again gold mining became popu- 
lar. This has been the history of gold mining in California 
throughout the past six decades. In recent years a wave 
of this character was distinctly observable. In 1890-91, 
gold mining in the State was at a very low ebb. Then came 
the fortunate development of the Kennedy mine at .lack 
son, and the phenomenal discoveries in the Rawhide mine 
near Jamestown, in Tuolumne county, followed by rich 
developments in the mines at Angels, particularly in the 
Utica group. These, and several other notable successes, 
together with the stimulus given gold mining throughout 
the world by the important operations at Cripple Creek. 
Colorado, and the wonderful developments on the Rand 
in South Africa, gave the gold-mining industry of Cali- 
fornia a decided impetus, and a campaign of development, 
particularly on the Mother Lode, was inaugurated which 
was without precedent, since the days between 1850 and 
1S65. As a result of this unusual activity numerous valu- 
able properties were developed, and as usual a far greater 
number proved unsatisfactory. An analysis of the numer- 
ous misadventures will show, in most cases, good and suffi- 
cient reasons for the lack of success; nevertheless, some 
of the failures of those years have since developed into the 
bonanza mines of today, and it is these latter that have 

forge ahead, with the result of a largely increased output 
within the next few years. 

For several years past the oil industry has steadily in- 
creased in importance, until it has become the most im- 
portant of the several branches of the local mineral in- 
dustry. Just at present there is a noticeable retardation 
in development as compared with two or three years ago. 
This is due to various causes, partly to the attitude of the 
Government in the matter of locating oil lands, and partly 
to the tremendous and unexpected production of several 
spouting wells, among these latter the famous Lake View 
gusher. A few more wells of this description would put 
small producers out of business. Fortunately, for the in- 
dustry, perhaps, these abnormal wells are generally short 
lived. That all of the oil-bearing territory in California 
has been discovered. I do not believe, and such belief is 
si lengthened by recent developments in several fields. As 
long as eighteen years ago, I asked a prominent oil op- 
erator if he did not think there were still splendid chances 
for oil in certain undeveloped districts. His reply was to 
the effect that if the untried territory was worth anything, 
he and his company would know of it. Since that time, 
in the territory referred to has been developed some of 
the most productive fields in California. 

The copper industry of the State is among the most im- 
portant, the output for 1910 having been 53,600.000 pounds. 
The closing of certain smelters by the courts because of 
damage by smelter fumes has reduced the output of copper 
somewhat, but the problems involved are, apparently, in a 
fair way to be solved. Several experienced engineers are 
working industriously in an endeavor to abate the nuisance, 
and if these efforts are successful, it will undoubtedly re- 
sult in increased activity in the copper mining industry in 


January 0, 1912 

structural materials of the State, of which there is 
which the quality is excellent, are 
constantly coming into 

r known to those contemplating buildii 
doubtedly the Panama-Pacific Exposition will do much ti> 
call world-wide attention to the advantages of employing 
nia building stones, ornamental marbles, porphyries, 
and other varieties for interi 

otta and 
bricks. At the present time there is bei id in the 

•an in the Perry building at San Fran- 
si interesting exhibit of structural materials, 
lection includes several varieties 
arble, terra-cotta, cement. 
a beautiful fountain constructed of California 
These materials have been cut and dressed or other'.' 
pared to form parts of several indi ructures. All 

who contemplate the erection i any sort, are 

invited to visit the Mining Bureau and ; exhibit, 

aand they will gain thereby valuable knowledg 
the posf niral materials of California. The 

several portions of the exhibit have been donated by the 
various conceals actually ! in producing or manu- 

facturing them from crude materials, all of which are ob- 
tained in California. On the whole, the outlook for the 
mineral industry of tin' State is most el j. and a 

noticeable expansion may confidently be expected along 
many lines. 

Gold-Dredging in California 

By I IB mm i s .1 \n-in 

The total .nulled by the California dredges 

during 19U will closely approximate 65,000,000 en. yd. 
This will be the more appreciated when il is stated 
is equal to. and perhaps in excess of, the to 

handled by all the dredges in the world, outside of 
California. In this connection the following table 
proximBtions for 1011 for sold dredges in different coun- 
ay be of interest : 

Dredges Approx. Approx. 

Country or State, working. yardage. value. 

California (il 65,000,000 $7^850, 

Victoria 57 14.0nii.oiui i,:,,! 

New Zealand 100 14.00(1.011(1 1,500,000 

Alaska ami Yukon.. 40 3,000,000 3,200,000 

Russia 60 11,000, 2,000,000 

Montana 7 6,000,000 700,000 

Colorado :t ,000 350,000 

Idaho 7 0,000 2O0.IHIH 

Other fields 6,000,000 1,1 

During lOlo. the production of gold won from dredging 
operations in California was $7 '550.254, being an increase 

1909. There were (il 
dredges in operation during the year, and the combined 

yardage handled approximated a total o 60, ,( CU. 

yd., which wi Me an average recovery of 12' ..e. 

per cubic yard. The production of Butte county, as 
review "f last year, fell behind that 
for 11100. ami the first place was laken by Yuba county. 
Butte will probably show a still further decrease for lull, 
as much of the best ground lias been worked over, and 

several of the dredging companies are fast approaching 

their end. The new 15-ft. boat of the Feather river divi- 
sion of Katomas Consolidated %rill add materially to the 

yardage bandied for that ipany, but for the reasons 

above stateil it is not expected that the total gold produc- 
tion of the county will be increased. The highest | 
tion for Butte county was reached in 1"' ,-e then 

there has been a considerable deci 

Yuba county showed ,. of $730,557 over that 

of 1000. The Yuba Consolidated Cold Fields had 
successful year, their 12 dredges handling for the 12 
- ended February 2 s . 1011. 13.970,728 yd., which 
yielded $3,927,246. Tuba No. 13 dredge was put in cm- 
mission August 10. This dredge is equipped wit!. 

ft. buckets and is the largest dredge in the world, digging 
to a depth of 95 ft. below water-level. Tin- Dredge was 

built by the Yuba Const™ I he Bucyrus c ipany 

furnishing much of the machinery. The actual capacity of 
ihc dredge has exceeded at time . yd. per week. 

Yuba Xo. l(i. a 7%-*t. dxedge, was destroyed by fire No 

vember 1(1. The. Ot been made public, but it 

is thought that the lire occurred i era. Elec- 

tric current was taken on the boat at 100(1 volts and stepped 
down to 440 volts at the transformers for use on all motors. 

'.iary-villo Gold Drei o.d .aniled Marigold Xo. 

2 during 1011. which was said to be too light for the deep 

d. ami put in CO in April. Xo. 4. an 8%-ft. 

boat built by the Union Iron Works. This dredge 
fully described in the Mini" i 
o. by B. E. Cranston. 

In Sacramento county the Nate lidated put two 

15-ft. dredges in commission, Natoma Xo. S in January, and 
Xo. II in August, and is constructing Natoma No. 10. Xo. 
8, after operating successfully on Rebel hill, in ground 
which, on account of partly cemented gravel, and the pres- 
ence of considerable clay, was formerly considered too diffi- 
cult to be economically dredged, was destroyed by fire Octo- 
ber 23. This dredge, differing from Yuba No. 10, also de- 
stroyed by fire, took electric current on board at 2200 volts 
for all motors. The lire was. as near as could be ascer- 
tained, caused by an explosion at the oil-switch. The sea- 
valves were opened when it was found impossible to ex- 
tinguish the lire, and the hull sank. The digging ladder 
dropping down prevented the front end, and the sand tail- 
ing the rear end. of the dredge, from a total submersion. 

.1 much of the machinery was destroyed. It is now 
beinu' wrecked by the Yuba Construction Company. 

'flu- loss nl dredges by fire in California has not been 
great. These two dredges are the first lost from this cause 
for several years. Viloro X T o. 1 was destroyed in Sep- 
I the Shasta Dredging I lo. lost a dredge 
in June 100S. both being from (ire caused from some de- 
rangement of the electric current. In connection with the 
lire on Natoma Xo. 8 and Yuba Xo. 10, it is interesting to 
uoic the different manner in which electricity was taken on 
I lie dredge. On Natoma No. 8, current was supplied direct 
in the motors at 2200 volts, while on Yuba No. 10, it was 

ed down on the dredge from 4000 volts to 440 for use 
at all motors. There was pointed out in Bulletin 57 of the 
State Mining Bureau on 'Gold Dredging in California,' 
written by William Winston and myself, the advisability 
of keeping sand within easy reach for use in case of elec- 
tric disturbance at transformers, and a suggestion was 

made that an automatic sand-box arrangement for 
extinguishing any fire at the transformers be provided. It 
would certainly he advisable to use one of the varieties of 

us board in building a fireproof shelter around the 
transformers, or "il switch. This practice is being followed 
- since the fire. In addition to this. I be- 
lieve that liquid stone paint can be advantageously applied 
I" c- • i j'.vork in the vicinity of the oil-switch, etc. 

Tin' best safeguard would be to have the dredge hull and 
housing made of steel, and this practice will probably be 
'd on future large boats. On the old dredges. I be- 
lieve, in addition to the precautions suggested, that an 
auxiliary fire apparatus consisting of a gasoline engine 
witli tin- pump and hose which could be started at a mo- 
ment's notice, would be advisable. At the present time, if 
occurs from the electric current, the motors are of 
nut of commission and the pumps are of no use. 
Besides the dredges of the Natomas company, the Ash- 
burton company is operating a 7-ft. dredge in Sacramento 
county; details of operations are not made public. The 
leal is reported as digging approximately S00,000 en. yd. 
per year. The I'nion Dredging Co. is constructing a 9-ft. 
boat for its property. This will be in operation in 1012. 
' "its of dredging from other counties have indicated a 

prosperous season. Of the outside unties. Trinity is 

perhaps attracting most attention. The Alta Bert com- 
pany has started its dredge, and two other dredges are in 
• nurse of construction: besides this, several areas are being 



I 'nil 

pnl ■ a dawn; 


intled or destroyed di 

yed or l'i 
iting. shut down, struct ion. 


^ .it... 

1 J 

I 'ala\. II J 1 1 

Siskiyou . 1 


Stanislaus 1 

Placer I 

Kl Dorado 1 

Trinity 1 

Total 57 8 (i 

//" testing feature of dredge construction 

duriiiL: tin- year is tin- fact that Natoma No. in is being 


built on a steel hull. 1'ntil recently there has been little in- 
ducement to resin-t to st.-i-l hulls in California, but with 
the growing scarcity of timber and the demon- 
stration that the wooden hull has a shorter life 
than was anticipated, more attention is being 
paid i" sieel construction. In a number of cases 
where timber is readily available the wooden hull 
will still be found preferable, and the selection 
.it' the hull will he a matter of judgment after 
studying the conditions and the advantages p..- 
sessed by eaeh material. While the steel hull has 
been used for years on foreign dredges, and lias 
been supplied by the Bucyrus ('<<.. the Yuba Con- 
struction Co., and the New York Engineering Co. 
on dredges for foreign service, Natoma No. 10 is 
the tii-sst dredge with a steel hull built for the Cali- 
fornia field, and it is expected that any future 
large dredges will be built with steel hulls. Aside 
from the danger from fire, which has been par- 
ticularly emphasized this year, the difficulty of 
getting suitable timbers for a hull of the larger 
size is becoming greater every year. While the 
first cost of a steel hull for the small and medium- 
size boats will be greater than for a wooden hull. 
steel hulls for the large dredges will probably 
cost no more than the wooden hulls in the first instance, 
and no doubt less in some cases. A few years ago it was 
customary to estimate the life of the wooden hull at ten 
years, but time has proved this a fallacy in many eases. 
The old Continental had a life of 10 years and 4 months, 
after having been refitted and overhauled several times, but 
wooden hulls in general require considerable attention after 
a few years of service. The ventilation of hulls has been 
greatly improved of recent years, and the life greatly in- 

llllll. to till in Oregon, due, or partly duo, to defective hull 

Iting Heal I-. 

le sliding down on the dn 
Id bull could n..i -tan.l tin- strain and the dredge -auk. 
The hull of Pacific No. i, in Oroville, after a li 

. sank I lecombei 1. near Jenny 

l.ind. after a Life o n mbar 11. The 

Champlin dredge on I reek, Jackson county, 

-auk in November, also from a defective hull. 

Another interesting change in i Btruction is shown in 

tin- s|uid arrangement on Natoma No, L0. The steel spud 
will be placed directly in the centre of the stern end of the 
boat. The -nam will thus be more evenly distributed, A 
d spud of wood placed on one side will be us.-.l for 
stepping ahead, as .hi the other dredges. Dredge 
Btruction of recent years has not, with the exception of 
increasing the size of the buckets, which was discussed in 

my paper of October 1 1. h i s -h a matter of radical 

change in design as it has been an endeavor to use better 
material and hi strengthen all wearing parts of the dredge, 
tints increasing the working time, and lowering the operat- 
ing cost. To this end o\ erators and builders have worked in 
cooperation ami have succeeded iii building, if not a per- 
dredge, at leasl in establishing a type thai is a gnized 

as the stan. laid dredge the world over. It is interesting in 
this connection to note the total number of dredges built 

by the different American companies. According to what 

information I have, the I'.uevnis company has built or fur- 
nished machinery tor s| i dredges, the ttisdon Iron Works 
built 7(1 and reconstructed '-'. the Union Iron Works 7, the 
Marion Steam shovel Co. about 30, the Yuba Construction 
Co. 28, the New Fork Engineering Co. has built a number, 
and several have been built by smaller construction com- 
panies whose output is not known at the present writing. 
All dredges now built in California are equipped with 
dose-connected buckets, revolving screens, and belt-conveyor 
tailing stacker. While a dredge of the same general design 
as that followed in the California fields can be built of 


lighter material, it is obvious that the life of those parts 
subjected to great wear, as proved by California experi- 
ence, will be shortened. Perhaps in some districts a light 
well constructed dredge might be the most suitable, but ex- 
perience in general has demonstrated that strengthening 
the wearing parts in the first instauce is better policy than 
frequent renewals. The first cost of a dredge should not be 
considered a matter of such vital importance by the in- 
tending purchaser as is often the case. If by strengthen- 



January 6, 1912 

ing and increasing the weight of certain parts that are sub 
jected to great strain or wear, the first cost of a dredge is 
increased $15,000, or $20,000, or even more, it is obvious 
that a saving of even V&C. jut cu. yd. in working cost, by 
reason of greater capacity, made possible by less los 

time for repairs, etc., to say nothing of the greater cost "1 
repairs for the light boat operating under the same condi- 
tions, would soon compensate for the increased initial out- 

d. — The Gardella dredge being 
built by the Union Iron Works for Lawrence Gardella OH 
the Downing tract at Oroville, will not he i hed in 
1911, hut will i ' iimenee operations early in Janu- 
ary 1912. This is a 5-ft. boat, designed to dig 35 ft. below 
water-level. The construction of the 9-ft. dredge of the 
Mokelnmne Mining Co. was delayed on account of financial 
difficulties, and the property has recently been taken over 
by J. W. Goodwin, who has had considerable prospecting 
done during the year on the Mokelnmne and nearby prop- 
erties. It is expected that the dredge will he operating 
early in 1912. The construction of the E. L. Smith dredge 
at Weaverville, Trinity county, has also been delayed, and 
this dredge will not he operated until 1912. The dipper 
dredge on the Poker property, in Trinity county, will also 
be in operation in 1012. The Bucyrns Co. is building a li- 
ft, dredge for the Union Dredging Co. on the Fassler ranch 
near Folsom, adjoining properties of the Natomas Con- 
solidated. This dredging company has invited some criti- 
cism by the methods employed in promoting its property, 
but it is said that the management has been taken out of the 
hands of the original promoters, and it is proposed to have 
the operations under competent technical direction. Xa- 
totna Xo. 10. which will lie put in commission in April 
or May 11112. is the first dredge 1" have a steel hull in Cali- 
fornia fields. This dredge will be equipped with 15-cu. ft. 
buckets. The steel hull will he 150 by 56 by 10% ft., and 
will have a total weight of 920,000 lb. This is about one- 
half of the weight of a w len hull to carry the same ma- 
chinery. The Scott River dredge, which was moved by the 
Union Construction Co. from Siskiyou to Trinity county. 
commenced work in December. This is a 7%-ft. boat, and 
its previous operations proving unsuccessful, the dredge 
was shut down. It was afterward bought by the Alta Bert 
Dredging Co. for ground near Trinity connty. The Butte 
Dredging Co., having worked out its ground near Oroville. 
moved the dredge to Jenny Lind, Calaveras county. The 
dredge has been equipped with a new bucket-line of 4-ft. 
buckets, and commenced operations on the new ground in 
December. The Poker Bar Dredging Co. moved a Marion 
■Upper dredge, which had formerly operated at Oroville, to 
Poker Bar, Trinity county, but has not yet completed the 
new boat. 

Dredges Dismantled. — The Marysville Gold Dredging Co. 
shut down Marigold Xo. 2. It is said that this boat proved 
too light for the ground being dug. The Yuba Consolidated 
Gold Fields shut down Yuba No. 2. using some of the ma- 
chinery in repairing No. 1, which is of similar design, and 
will probably also be dismantled in the near future. L. & 
J. Gardella dredge was dismantled, part of the machinery 
being used on Gardella No. 4. Lava Bed No. 3. Pacific No. 
1. and Calaveras No. 1, were sunk or put out of commission 
by reason of accidents to defective hulls. Natoma Xo. 8 
and Yuba Xo. 10 were destroyed by fire. Machinery from 
the dismantled Bear River dredge lias been moved to Oro- 
ville, where it is expected it will be utilized later in the con- 
struction of a new boat. The»Rear River property has 
been a great disappointment to the English stockholders 
of Oroville Dredging. Ltd. Originally expected to yield 
12c. per cu. yd., three dredges have been tried on this 
ground without success. The last dredge, a 7-ft. boat. 
handled, for the year ended July 31. 1910. 904,876 cu. yd. 
at a stated cost of 6.26c. The .'round worked gave an av- 
erage recovery of 4.71c. per cu. yd., so the operating loss 
was 1.53c. per cu. yd., or about $1200 per acre. 

Working Costs. — Mere figures of operating costs may be 
of some interest, but are really of little value unless accom- 
panied by detailed statements, and such are not always 

made public. The working cost of a dredge might show 
iderable variation for different years, and the cause 
not he apparent unless such information was furnished. 
In this regard the following example is pertinent: In the 
report of Oroville Dredging, Ltd., for 1910, mention is 
made of Exploration Xo. 3. a 7-ft. dredge which handled 
1,228,110 cu. yd. during the year, working to an average 
depth of 34.5 ft. The average working time was 19 hours 
"ill minutes per day, and the operating cost 4.16c. per 
cu. yd. "The cost of operation was reduced 1.54c. per 
cu. yd. (over that of the previous year), practically all of 
which reduction was due to the fact that the bucket-line 
had been overhauled and charged against the previous 
year's work." The average cost of the dredging operations 
of Oroville Dredging, Ltd.. in handling 5,661,612 cu. yd. 
for the year ended July 31. 1910, was 5.05c. per cu. yd. 
The Yuba Consolidated Gold Eields handled for the year 
en. led February 28, 1911. 13.970. 72S on. yd. at a total Cost 
of 5.67c. per yd. The Xatomas Consolidated Co. has 
dredged, from January 1, 1909, to June 30, 1911, a total of 
44.542.141 cu. yd., with an average recovery of 9.82c., and 
an operating cost of 4.13c. per cu. yd. Of this. 16,989,525 
cu. yd. was dug during 1910, at a cost of 4.52c. per cu. yd., 
and 10,793,891 cu. yd. during the six months ended June 30, 
1911, at a cost of 3.77c. per cu. yd. The lowest operating 
costs of record are those of a 13%-ft dredge operating in 
the Sacramento valley under extremely favorable conditions. 
This boat handled, from May to December. 1908. 1,830,201 
cu. yd. at a cost of 2.3c. per cu. yd., and from January 1, 
1909. to Xovember 1, 1910, a period of IS months. 5,814,975 
cu. yd. at a cost of 2.74c. per cu. yd. Xone of the 15-ft. 
boats have as yet been operating long enough to make the 
figures of operating cost of permanent value. 

While most of the gravel areas suitable for dredging in 
California have been examined in the interest of dredging 
■rmies. there are areas which a few years ago were 
considered too low-grade for economic dredging, that will. 
on account of the great advance made in dredge construc- 
tion, and the consequent reduction of working costs, be 
again considered. In this connection it is interesting to 
note that a number of examinations were made during 1911. 
The success attending the moving of the Scott River, the 
Butte, and the Poker Bar dredges, will no doubt encourage 
some of these dredging companies, whose property is fast 
approaching an end, to look for other areas. On some 
properties coming under my own observation, there have 
been certain parts which, if segregated from the balance 
and offered at a reasonable price, would be worthy of se- 
rious consideration by a dredging company, which having 
exhausted its own holdings, was in the possession of a good 
dredge, valuable experience in dredging matters, and what, 
perhaps, is the most important, money in the treasury. The 
machinery of a dredge, if in good condition, can be moved 
and refitted on a new hull in some cases at less than one- 
half of the cost of a new boat, and the resultant dredge be 
well suited for the conditions under which is is to operate. 
Altogether, with the advance made in dredge construction, 
the reduction of working costs and the probable increase in 
size of the dredge buckets to one cubic yard, enabling the 
working under favorable conditions of areas that could not 
have possibly been previously considered as dredging 
ground, and the possibility of working over some of the 
ground that was first dredged, the outlook for dredging in 
California is decidedly good. 

Onyx deposits have been known to exist in east Ten- 
nessee for a long time, and attempts have been made at 
recurrent intervals to utilize the material. Thus far no 
success has attended these efforts, but with persistent fre- 
quency hopes are aroused over some new find and glowing 
announcements are made of the possibilities of this indus- 
try. The onyx found is of cave formation and for the 
most part represents the remnants of vanished caves. The 
character and extent of the deposits and the possibilities of 
their commercial development were discussed at the recent 
meeting of the Geological Society of America by C. H. 


The Year Among Nevada Mines and Mills 

By I., F anAi 

While lb« statement that Nevada owea hei pr nenee 

today to bar mining industries is trite) it eannol be Irntb 
fully In the past Nevada baa inffen 

the 'wild catter 1 ami stock manipulator, They bare 
probably done more to discredit the State and bar para 

mount industry than all other opposing influences < i 

bined. Km now, by legislative act, they ha\ •■ I me pee 

silili' iii control, and may only apply their nefarious m< 
at such greet personal risk thai it has ceased to be attrae 
the in- profitable. The mining industry is' mi a 
sound ami attractive b 

Complete offlrial data of the mineral output of thr State 
is not yet obtainable tor the third and fourth quarters of 
1911. The statistics here given are compiled trom the 
swum quarterly statements of the various operators, 
bullion-tax purposes, and may be considered as verj 

Tin' State's tonnage produced during the first si\ months 
of 1909 was 1,371,027, and during the Bame period tor 
1910, 1,930,977, an increase for L910 over L909 of 569,950 
tons, or II';. During the first six months of 1911 the 
tonnage production was 2,148,901, an increase for L9U 
over 1910 of 217,924 tons, or Ll%%, and for L9U over 
loop of 777,874 tons, or B79&. Tonnage produced during 
the second six months ot 1,535,796, and during 

the Bame period for 1010. 1,824,051, an increase for 1010 
over 1900 of 288,255 tons, or 18%%. The gross value of 
the on' production for the first six months of 1909 was 
334,692.77 and for the same period of 1910, $15,026, 
15, an increase for L910 over 1009 of .•?i.79l.739.5S. 
or 13V2%. For the first six months of 1911 the gross 
value of production shows $10. .'172. 746. 63, an increase for 
1911 over 1910 of $1,346,314.28, or 9%, and for 1911 
over lotto of $3.13S.053>r,, „r ■_'!';. The gross value of 
ore production for the second six months of 1909 was 
$11,734,838.40, and for the same period of 1910, $16,576,- 
750.19, an increase for 1910 over 1909 of $4,841,911.79, 
or 41%. Statistics of tonnage and value by quarters from 
January 1. 1909, to June 30. 1911, are as follows: 

1909. Tons. Value. 

First quarter 649,222 $ 6.343,635.19 

Secoml quarter 721,805 6,891,057.58 

Third quarter 786,888 4,920,837.03 

Fourth quarter 74S.908 6,814,001.37 

Totals 2,906,823 $24.9C9,. r )31.1 7 

1910. Tons. Value. 

First quarter 930,282 $ 6,953,851, 1 I 

Secoml quarter 1.000.695 8,072,581.21 

Third quarter 912,802 8,131,375.47 

Fourth quarter 911.249 8,445,374.72 

Totals 3,755,028 $31,603,182.54 

1911. Tons. Value. 

First quarter 1.075.139 $ 8,455,5 13.30 

Second quarter 1,073,762 7,917,203.33 

Totals 2,148.901 $16,372,746.33 

Clark County. — During the year ended December 31, 
1909, Clark county produced a tonnage of 11,317, of a 
gross value of $66,723.44; during the same period for 1910 
the production was 36,894 tons, of a value of $190,791.43; 
for the first six months of 1911 showed a tonnage of 
2345. valued at $36,447.23. The falling off evidenced 
at this time is largely due to the temporary suspension 
of the Quartette mine and mill of Searchlight. This is op- 
erated by a close corporation, and facts for public informa- 
tion are difficult to obtain. The property is a gold and 
silver producer and has thus far yielded over .$150,000, 
and. it is contended, still has large ore reserves in sight. 

m the Searchlight, Eldorado, N • • 1 1 . . w Plni 
mum is liberall) sprinkled with 

of iilver4ead I il trill eventual!] 

• at protnii • 

ChurehiU County. I'm linrchill Bounty 

product totaled 715 tone, of a vali t | 

228.03; during 1910, 54 tons, $8209.30; and for the first 
m\ monthi oi 1911, 12 lo 14. During the 

two years, production in this county has scarcely I n 

I'ted. but extensive preparations have been made. 
particularly in the Fairview and Wonder .1 I 
future operations. 

I.\ni.riilil<i County. 'Esmeralda county produced, in 

[909, 627,870 tons ol ore, of a vali I 

in 1910, 459,801 tone 359; and during the 

six months of 1911, 280,333 tons, $6,022,210.71. n it 


impossible to do this county justice in a limited paper of 
this nature. The Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co., here, 
is probably the richest gold producer of the world today. 
Its wonderful group of mines has much high-grade mill- 
ing ore blocked out and a large acreage of undeveloped 
territory that doubtless contains untold wealth. Its new 
$1.2511,000 gold mill is now turning out bullion from 900 
ions of ore per day, and the property has maintained a 
dividend rate of 50c per share per quarter for a con- 
siderable time past. Other properties of exceptional 
promise in the Goldfield district are those of the Florence- 
Goldlield Mining Co., The Goldfield Combination Fraction 
Mining Co., The Merger Mines Co., The Atlanta Mines 
i .... the Jumbo Extension Mining Co., and the C. 0. D. 
Mines Co. The liianmndlield district lias but recently come 
to the front with a find on the Goldfield-Belmont of 
vast importance. This is giving new life to the district. 
The Rawhide district has many promising prospects. In 
the Silver Peak district the Pittsbnrg-Silver Peak Mining 
Co. is maintaining a large, steady, and profitable produc- 
tion of low-grade milling ore, of which there is an im- 
mense quantity in sight. The Gold Mountain district is 
particularly worthy of mention as a highly mineralized 



January 6, 1912 

on and will doubtless be heard from in a substantial 
manner before a great while. 

-Eureka count; produced, duri 
1909, l 11 -.' - : ore of a gross value of $815,- 

29,578 tons, r, 
i aoi as of 1911, 9832 b 
off in the production as 
tiiin occasioned by an unpre- 

and II Is in the year 1909. 

The famous Ricl I Consolidated and Eureka Consoli- 

3, which were for a number of years the 

ilver producing properties in the world, are 

now owned by the dnited Suites S. B. &M. Co., and several 

this company expended over a million dollars 

in placing the mines on a producing basis. The fig 

for L909 show the effects of this effort, and as soon as 

I considerable production may be 

this propi i iv. but many others. 

Actii ■ now in pro the reconst met i 

the rail 

ty, — Tliis county produced, during the 
year 1909, 8846 tons of ore, of a value of $350,798.96; 
during 1910, 1361 13 Brsl 

six i -Hi- oi 1911, 9166 I 1,448.97. I want par- 

ticularly to call attention to the almost unbelievable grade 
ill quantity of ore extracted during 1910. Hum 
bold) county, one of the largest counties in the State, 
has been but tittle prospected : i parison with others. 
hut what has been done along these lines has been pro- 
ductive of alts. In the National dis- 
trict i (rational Mines < !o., one of the 

richest producers of high-grad in the State. Certain 

table treasure chambers, and de 
: but fairly begun. Then' an ber of 

othi i pros] ••'•is in this district. Hn aboldi and 

: Run disl ricts an tion and will 

shov its within a reasonab i 

of wonderful richness have bul recently bi 
lished in this county. Awakening, Barretl Springs, and 
■ ill. There i ctivity in all. and the ore 

icted is extraordinarily rich in free gold. Particularly 

does this apply to the eat Eti all, 

. where ore has I 
out that ran appro-, pun gold. This camp 

has I I to a depth of less Hum 100 ft., and. 

while the final oi any siteh mining venture is prob- 

lematical, RexaU shows most Battering indications. A 

e in both Awakening 

and Barrett Spi i »s, ind cm i >ur- 

Increases both in the size and richness of orebodies 
as depth is attained [n n j ■•\' : ' j may 

prove a formidable rival for first 
. counties of Nevada. 

I an ore production 
for the year 1909 of only 36 1 % tons, of a value of $1892.05; 
during 1910 this was to 11,763 tons, valued at 

12; for the Brsl six nths of 1911 it produced 

1688 tons, of at ate value of $56,512.72. A very 

recent find of apparent magnitude has been made in Lander 
5 miles directly southwest of Austin, at what is 
known as the ci arroll. While no official returns 

for bullion tax purposes have as from this 

property, I am a what I consider reliable 

sources thai thn dy been made, the 

lowest returns from whicl I to the ton. My last 

information was that a shaft appro ! by 8 ft. 

had been sunk to a di of i 50 ft. on the deposit, and 
at several points therein gouged out 

for a distance of 6 fl.. and every inch of the surface 
expo- ■ of ore. One of the orig 

inal owners informed me, several weeks ago, that the 

property was under tease and '• d to Salt Lake men for 

$50,000, of which $.".11(111 was cash. A few days later J 
was told that Hie property had been taken over for eash. 
Lander county boasts a pro during the early daw 

of over $36,000,000 in gold and silver, and its mineralized 
territory has scarcely been touched. 

/.o /. — During the year 1909 Lincoln county 
ms oi ore valued at $511,331.33; in 
1910, only 760 ions. $10,640; and for the first six months 
911, 7326 ions. $46,775.69. The same evil influence 
loudburets and Hoods that proved temporarily so dis- 
astrous to Eureka 1 county, figured largely in the decrease 
of Lincoln county's output; but, in addition, there must 
Ided infflrna! dissentions in the ranks of some of the 

larger operators. The ll 1 damage in Lincoln county has 

■ - iious point to an adjustment of 
the persona] differences. 

Lyon County. — This county produced, during 1909, 21,578 

ions of me. of an aggregate value of $78,186.79; during 

18,469 tons, valued at $79,672.66; and during the 

first six months of 1911, tonnage not given, hut of a value 

-ls.S4S.66. The Lyon county product is largely in 

silver. There are large deposits of copper around Yering- 

ind Mason. A standard-gauge road has been built into 

the district, and a smelter built near Wabuska. A large 
output of copper is anticipated. 

Xfh County.— -This county produced, during 1009. 374,- 
sj7 tons of ore. of an aggregate value of $5,740,581.15; 
during 1910, 501,435 tons, $9,051,441.27; and for the first 


s.x months of 19] 1. 363,401 tons. $4,852,952.44. Nye county 
boasts the greatest numher of producers of any county in 
i !n Slate. The Tonopah Mining Co. is. so far. the heaviest 
producer. The Tonopah Belmont Development Co. has found 
recently large new bodies of milling ore. and is a rival 
for first place. Other properties in the Tonopah district 
worthy of especial mention are the Montana-Tonopah, the 
Tonopah Midway, the Tonopah Extension, the McNamara, 
and the West End Consolidated. All of these are heavy 
producers. In the Manhattan district the maintenance of 
the present activity is hound to bring favorable results. 
The Round Mountain district is holding its enviable posi- 
tion as a producer of merit, largely through the efforts 
of the Round Mountain Mining Co., which is turning out 
high-grade gold ore. In the southern part of the county 
the Bullfrog, Rhyolite, Pioneer, and Johnnie districts offer 
a great field for exploration. The Mayflower, in the Pio- 
neer district, and the Johnnie Mining & Milling Co. should 
be particularly mentioned. 

Storey County. — This county for 1909 shows an ore ton- 
nage of 83,048, valued at $643,511.78; during 1910, 115,890 
tons, $548,86616; and for the first six months of 1911, 
43,515 tons. $301,890.51. While the exciting times of the 
old Comstock days will probably never be revived, when 
that fabulously rich lode was pouring its kiug's ransom into 
the lap of an otherwise impoverished nation, yet every in- 
dication points to its taking a new lease on life and giving 



up addi d 

■ o . Iho 
the Belcl 
lh« Choll i Crown Poinl Gold i\ 

Silver Mining i ,. . ii„. Gould & Currj Mining Co, the 
yellow Jacket I idated m,„ 

'"- ' "• pbir, end the Phoenix have 

Inn recently reentered the dividend paying class. Tl 
mill recently erected by the Mexican baa begun opera 

""»• and a Urge ; nnl of development baa resulted 

in o able bodiea of milling ore. The ca 

ity ..i the new mill it . day. 

Current i Gould & 

furry property with a liml of much importance. The 
iow furnishing employment to approx- 
imately 1000 miners, 

■until. — Thia eounty produced, during li 

1200 re of a value o 00 during 1910, 543 

10.62; and during the o( L911, 

623 1,069.23. Bo tar Washoe county has been 

a alight prodm i als of value. There are 

i" be largi alized zones within her borders, but 

tittle prospecting has ever been done. The effect of honest 
persistent endeavor . i,v results 

ily attained on the property ol the Nevada United 

Mines I in a theasterly direction from 

What is known as the Arkell find on this property, 
after three years of unremitting labor without practical re- 
sults, has at last brought it into wbal a] i be a 
just reward. The orebi yet been opened suffi- 
ciently to warrant any broad 
value, but its general chai 

ditions are I n | i irgely 

lead-silver, with a small proporti f galena, zinc, and 

While Pmii ountj prodm 

1909, 1,678395 tons of ore (princij ally copper) of a value 

.$7,114,354.19; during 1910, 2,407,462 tot 109.83 
and during t lie first six months of L911, 1,430,651 tons, 
$4,326,529.49. This county, which during the late '60s and 
early '70s was the second largesi silver-producing county 
in the Stale, and which Cor over twenty years lay dormant, 
i> today one of the largesi producers of copper in the world. 
The copper belt lies in the Rol ag district close 
to the town of Ely. and il is here the famous Nevada Con- 
solidated and Cumberland-Ely properties are found. Sev- 
eral years ago these properties were consolidated. The cop- 
per production Er the Nevada Consolidated during 1909 

was 57.flti4.477 lb., valued at over $7,000,000. and in 
1910 the production was 64,359,398 lb, valued at $8,171 
These figures represent 99.3 1 , of the entire Slate's produc- 
tion of copper. During the years 1909 and 1910, it is 
understood, a curtailment agreement was in existence be- 
tween all of the large copper companies, which had the 
effect of lessening the production of the Nevada Consoli- 
dated materially, but notwithstanding this agreement, this 
company handled close to 10,000 tons of ore daily, some 
of which carried but 0.S r ; copper, being the lowest-grade 
copper ever worked at a profit. Adjoining the Nevada 
Consolidated is the Giroux, the property of the Cole-Ryan 
interests, and which is credited with carrying the highest 
percentage of copper of any property in the Robinson dis- 
trict. The Giroux was purchased by its present owners 
several years ago, since which time development has been 
carried forward to place the mine on a large producing 
basis. The surface improvements on the Giroux are said 
to be the most modern and complete of any property in 
the United States. Notwithstanding several years' time 
and many millions of dollars have been expended on this 
property, it is not considered probable that I lie extraction 
of ore will be commenced before another year. 

Douglas, Elko, Mineral, and Ormsbii counties offer many 
excellent opportunities for development. 

South Dakota Gold and Tin Mines 

Bj R I. I' 
.'.1,1911, ■ « : 


I, ilu 

Golden Reward B6,8tHI 

Wasp No. ■_' I i 

l.iiuill.i i Dot i Wilson 21,018 

New Relioi 

Small mines, eat 55,1 in 



,0 i i 









Totals 1,945,329 $7,625,506.28 

•The past twelve months have found the Hot 
company in operation without interruption of anj sort. 
The labor question is apparently settled, and there 
to be no difficulty in securing all the labor needed 
the different branches of the company's operati This 

any has nearly < pleted the constrt 

nl electric power | lanl on Spearfisb creek, at a coal 
of about $1,250,000, which will have a | horse 

power of 7500. Spearfisb creek is taken up at a dam 
nine miles from Spearfisfa anil the water oat 

igb concrete tunnels to the power buildings, which 
are built in the upper pari of Spearlish. 

The Somestake, Golden Reward, and other t. 

panics enjoyed a pros] r, as is shown by the tab- 

ulate,! output. The year was marked by (he beginning ol' 
nig operations at Mystic, which 1ms attracted renewed 

iOB or 1 in- | , i : ■ il ■ of till' Black Hills. 1'l-OS] e 

has been active throughout the Hill-, and the foundations 

are being laid lor a renewed activity in mining gold and 

silver throughout the region. 
.Much is expected from the in elter that is being 
I at Galena by the Black Hills Smelting Works. The 
plant will have a daily capacity of 300 tons ol charge, 
with pyritic smelling. The Burlington company has ex- 
tended its narrow-gauge track to the plant. Tl ant 

menl expects lo be able to lian die profitably ore that car 
lie- hut $4 per ton in gold. One of the principal contrib- 
utors of ore will he the dill Edge-Maid mine, which is 

near by. The mine has been lergoing extensive prepara- 
tions for a large tonnage production. The ore will be 
hauled over the Burlington track to a new concentrating 

mill which the new (lilt Edge-Maid company has built near 
tin- smelter. The plant will he able to handle 250 Ions 
daily of raw ore. which will be concentrated to about 50 

-. and this will furnish the flux for the smeller. There 

are a number of mines ill the Galena district within a 
radius of three miles, which will be given an opportunity 
to furnish ore lor the smelter. 

Progress has been made in the development of the tin 
resources of the Hills this past year. The Tinton Tin Co. 
has kepi a small force of men at work most of Ihe time 
in the mine, but no mill-run has been made. In December 
1910 the company shipped SOi.000 lb. of black tin to Liver- 
pool, England, which made 48,250 lb. of metallic (in. This 
was sold at 37c. per lb., or $13,027.50. The company has 
a considerable amount of tin concentrate on hand. There 
is apparently an abundance of tin-bearing ore. and the 
milling should not be a difficult metallurgical problem. 

One new company has been organized to operate in the 
Tinton district during the year. It is known as the Scotland 
Mining Co. It has purchased the A. J. Johnson ground, 
which carries an extension of the Tinton tin veins to the 
north. Active development of these tin veins on Ihe prop- 
erty is now in progress. A number of well known mining 
engineers have examined and made reports on these tin 
properties the past few months, and it is known that some 
very favorable findings were made, which will undoubtedly 
mean more activity in this camp during the coming year. 

•Abstract from annual report of State Mine Inspector. 



January 6, 1912 

Colorado Metallurgical Progress 

By P. H. ABGAUi 

In reviewing the metallurgical processes in operation in 
Colorado at the dose of the year 1909, I emphasized the 
fnllowi then taking place: (1) The decline of 

elting industry, due to the scarcity of high-grade 
ore; (2) the decadence of the chlorination process as a 
Caotor in the treatment of Cripple Creek ores; (3) the 
rejuvenation of the cyanidation process. At the close of 
ir 1911 the corresponding situation is: (1) The 
is nli.iut holding its own at the 1909 
tonnage; (2) the chlorination process is no longer a factor 
in the treatment of Cripple Creek ores, the Standard mill. 
handling about 8000 tons per month, having closed Deeem- 
her 1; (3) the cyanidation process now occupies first place, 
with the Golden Cycle and Portland mills at Colorado City 
and Stratton's Independence and the new Portland mills 
at Victor. The Golden Cycle has treated an avei 
25,000 tons per month throughout the year, the Portland 
6000 or more, the Btrat endence SOlin (., 10,000, 

and the new Portland G000 to 10,000 tons. Both tic- 
Portland and the Standard plants have been re-working 

the tailing from old chlorination mills by the cyanidation 
at substantial profits, and the Portland is now 
eliminating chlorination and changing the entire mill to 

Cripple Creek 

The past two years have been active ones in the metal- 
lurgy of Cripple Creek ores. The valley plants still treat 
80% of the ores produced, though division according to 

lower-grade ore, and treatment methods must be devised 
to meet this condition. The valley plants, with a dollar 
a ton freight for a 30-mile down-hill haul, have about 
reached their limit in the matter of freight and treatment 
charges, as a comparison of the following tables will show : 

^Freight ant Treatment 


Per ton 





to iy 2 7.oo 

to 2 7.:>u 

to 3 8.50 

Oz. An 

Up 1 

i., • 

% to 1 

1 to V., 
1 J 4 


Oz. Au 




Per ton 

.... $4.00 

.... 4.50 

.... 5.00 

.... 5.50 

to iy 2 6.00 

to 2 6.50 

to 3 r.on 

to % 

to 1 

to lVi 

to .3 


to 5 


That this scaled rate, at best, no more than covers ex- 
penses on the lower grades is borne out by the following 
significant statement from the last annual report of the 
United States Refining & Reduction Co.. operating the 
Standard mill: "An increase in tonnage was not possible, 
nor was the management able to obtain treatment charges 
giving any material profit over and above actual expenses." 

Of the mills in the district, the Jo Dandy, Wild Horse, 
and Anaconda are simple cyanidation plants, and having 
oxidized ores to deal with, present nothing new. Stratton's 
Independence and the new Portland, being designed to 
treat low-grade sulpho-tellurides. mark the new metallurg- 
ical strides, hence more or less detailed accounts of these 
two mills will be presented. 

Stratton's Independence. — The process, or combination 

Miu.s for Treating Cripple Creek Ore 


Lawrence .... 



El Paso 


Philadelphia . 


Standard .... 


Golden Cycle . 





Wild Horse . . 


New Portland 
Jo Dandy . . . 



Little Giant . . 
Homestake . . . 


. . 100 

. . 100 

. . 300 

. . 150 

. . 100 

. . 250 

. . 300 

. . 400 

. . 1000 

. . 350 

. . 100 

. . 120 

. . 100 

. . 100 

. . 100 

. . 350 

. . 350 

. 100 

. . 200 

. . 100 

.. 50 





Cyanidation . . . 
Clancy process 
Roast-cyanide . 
Cyanidation ... 

Destroyed by fire 


Obsolete: closed 


About 60% capacity 

About 75% capacity 

To capacity 


Destroyed by fire 
u ' u tt 


About capacity 
About half capacity 
To capacity 




s shows a change. Of the ore sent to the valley 
plants in 1909. about 50 Heated by chlorination: 

in 1911 fully 7" r ; has been cvanided at the I 
mill. The small cyanidation plants in Cripple Creek dis- 
trict proper, thosi a trea oxidized ores, have 

much. The Wild Horse was ' 
one in fairly continuous operation tl the two 

years. The Wishbone r le mill closed down early 

in 1910 and was . ; ire August 13, 1910. The 

Trilby roast-cyanide mi" been operated at all dur- 

ing the period, and the Anaconda has been but lateh 
re-started. The K the Jo Dandy, and the 

Ajax Clancy-process mill are new. 
The big feature of the two yen 1 
district has been the increase in milling "I 1> 
Each year the district is producing a larger tonnage of 

of processes, elaborated by Philip Argall in the spring of 
1907, and laid before and approved by the directors of 
Stratton's Independence, Ltd., in June of that year, pro- 
vided for: 

1. Crushing the ore in cyanide solution instead of water 
in order that the cyanide should begin dissolving gold from 
the moment that fine crushing began. 

2. Removing the rebellious tellurides as completely as 
possible by a careful concentration conducted alike on sand 
and slime. 

3. Leaching the sand in ordinary tanks to effect a fur- 
ther extraction and to wash out the remaining traces of 

4. Treating the slime by air-agitation and bromo-cyanide 
or other oxidizers as and when required. (A long and thor- 
ough series of full working tests has since established 



■ l " l! i niral applical 

'" Mi .„;_ ,,,.,,1,. , 

Hi.- dump 
eonld be obtained at n total • ■■ 
par loo treated, on ■ baaii of milling 10 

i. the mill Mttled do* 
now ii-.-. I hi. -In. 
eolation, discarding tl 

..i the alime aided bj 



per month. This is not a high recovery, but anyone who 
has struggled with Cripple Creek sulpho-telluride ore will 
admit it is quite a feat to obtain 70% from $2.75 un- 
roasted ore, yet, as a matter of fact, actual milling re- 
sults have bettered the estimates made before the plant 
was designed, full details of which are given in The Mining 
Magazine for November 1911. 

New Portland. — The second important mill of the dis- 

nide when necessary. The concentrate produced in this 
mill is shipped to the Colorado City plant of the Portland 
company for roasting and eyanidation; the cyanide pre- 
cipitate is also worked up into bars at the same plant. 
The costs and the recovery are closely guarded ; in the 
annual report of ll"- company receipts at the mine and 
the two mills are lumped together in one item, "cash 
receipts from operation of mine and mills." The local 



January ti, 1912 

rs, however, under date of October 19, 1911, givi 
"In the hist three months, ei ■ 

were treated, resulting in a profil <>i 
10.78, averaging betl 

i ucl is now a s| iendid mill, well man- 

d, ami will proceed in lime in 

lian all metallurgists wish 

-The big expert . tin- Ajax Clanoy- 

d is stall it 
going alterations and adjustments. The Clancy 

a radical departure from standard | racti n Cripple Creek 

low-'.- in that concentration is to be 

and the recovery to lip made bv straight chemical methods 
aided by electricity. This is the most recent Clancy proi 
and its meri be seen. Mechanically 

the mill is rather complicated, which is to be regretted, 
a new process is to he tried, but this apparently dor- 
not dampen the enthusiasm of A. \V. Warwick, the chief 
metallurgist, who has already predicted the chemical con- 
sumption at 12c. i er ton and the total eost per ton at $1.20. 
The formal beginning of continuous milling operations at 
the A.jax mill is awaited with expectant interest. Every- 
one in the district wishes a success may be scored by the 
new process, fully up to the claims made by Mr. Warwick, 
as in that event a notable advance will he marked in 
Cripple Creek metallurgy. None of the methods now in 
use i> perfect, and the profession will welcome any im- 
provement to increase the profit in milling low-grade ore. 
One of Ha- cyanidation-concentration mills producing 
high-grade smelter product has got the cost of treating the 
concentrate down to Idc. per ton milled; this, pins the 
small cost of concentrating, is an expense the Clancy 
process seeks to avoid, and to do so it may he necessary 
to crush the ore to pass loll or possibly 200-mesh screen 
aperture. Hence, unless much higher extractions are ob- 
gain is not worth the candle. 
Isabella. — An attempt was made during the year to work 
over the tailing accumulation of the Isabella mill, hut with- 
out success, the plant now being idle. 

nary. — Taking the district as a whole, the following 
ral summary may hi' made. There is an ever increasing 
quantity of tow-grade ore being produced which will had 
to II any more mills in the district. From 

present indications the method in use at the Independence 
mill is the most likely to l to its cheapness 

'plication. The valley mills will soon - 
a decrease in ore-supply due i !ing, and to the 

lad thai . to be produced ill the low-grade mills. 

is a smelter product. A further point to lie noted in the 
cyanidation mills is that the mechanical means employed 
lane about reached their highest Stage of usefulness, and 
iv further pro-; ■ along chemical lines. 


Sulphide ores form the bulk of t.oadville's production, 
the chief ore being iron pyrite carrying a little gold and 
silver with frequently some lead ami copper, 'flic ores are 

the Colorado smellers. The second la 
tone;' tde up of the mi ,at is. 

T.ineblende. pyrite. and galena. de zinc sul- 

phide ore is shipped dirct to the zinc smelters at points in 
Kansas and Oklahoma, while the 1" 
sulphide is sen! acentratioit | Canon City. 

Pueblo, am r. Of the oxidized oxide, car- 

rying about Hi'; mangani the greatest ton 

wlh zi xide or exl in point of production. 

Lead oxide on orm but a small prop 

of the total output. Iron anil lead oxide ores at 
locally, while tin- oxidized zinc ores are sent I" the zinc 
smelters for treat] sulphide ores, carrying 

gold, silver, and copper are now being mined in gt 
quantity, and this material finds a ready market at the 
Colorado smelt, i 

The Arkansas Valley smel I ladville has been in 

eontinuons operation throughout the year treating about 
000 tons per day in four furnaces. This plant is equipped 

with eight blast-furnaces, ami is therefore running on ap- 
] roximately unc-hal. its normal capacity, as indeed is the 

.nil most Ol the Colorado smellers. Practically the 

only meeha effected al (his si lelter during 

the yen has been the addition id' several sintering pots to 
increase the roastiBg capacity of the Huntinuton-ileherlein 
plain, 'fins added i- acity was made necessary 

by the eonstan increase in the proportion of sulphide ores 
coming to the plant. In order to handle the silieious ores 
carrying a low sulphur content, Dwight-Lloyd sintering 
to be installed. 

The milling ol Leadville's low-grade mixed sulphide ores 
has i" li conducted with any marked degree 

. and. of the various mills and concentration 
led in the district, not one is now in operation. 
The failure of these mills may be attributed both to the com- 
plex nature of the crude ore and to the high cost of opera- 
tion. The past year witnessed the closing of the Rowe mill, 
of the American Zinc Extraction Co.. owing, it is said, to 
the lack of a sufficient supply of suitable ore to keep it in 
successful operation. This mill was erected to treat low- 
grade iron-zinc sulphides and had been in continuous opera- 
tion since 1905! As originally designed, the ore was crushed 
and sampled when dried and further reduced to pass a 
0.043-in. screen aperture, after which it was fed to Inter- 
national separators, where a magnetic separation of the 
blende and iron was effected. With a change in the nature 
of the ore received, the operation of Ihese separators upon 
the raw ore did not prove satisfactory. They were conse- 
quently eliminated and the process was altered to include 
a magnetic roast in White-Howell furnaces, followed by 
cooling prior to magnetic separation on t'leveland-Knowles 
machines. These machines picked up the magnetic iron, 
the zinc, with its associated minerals and gangne, passiug 
as zinc product. While running on iron-ziuc sulphide ore 
the last described method of treatment was profitable, and 
was later extended In handle ores containing some galena 
and a more highly silieious gangne, This was accomplished 

by the additi jf a wet-concentration plant, where the 

product from I he Cleveland-Knowles separators was passed 
over tables obtaining a resultant product of lead sulphide 
heading, a zinc sulphide middling, and leaving (he gangne 
to pass off in the tailing, ft was at first found difficult to 
obtain a clean separation between the galena and blende, 
while considerable zinc losses occurred in slime, but these 
difficulties were finally, in a large measure, overcome. Dur- 
ing Ihe life of the mill it had done much toward solving 
(he problem of concentrating the low-grade mixed sulphide 
ores of Leadville. and its keen competition in bidding for 
re supply resulted in materially advancing the price 
paid the miner for such rues. The low-grade iron-zinc and 
zinc-lead sulphides are now being shipped to the Canon 
City mill, of the Empire Zinc Co.. and to the plant of the 
Western Chemical Manufacturing Co. at Denver. The 
nude ore does, however, receive some preliminary prepara- 
tion for the market, as hand sorting has been adopted at 
of the mines with highly satisfactory results. The 
common practice is to pick out the silver-hearing pyrite and 
galena, and also the higher-grade •zineblende, which sep- 
arate products are then shipped direct to the various smelt- 
ers, leaving the bulk ol the mixed sulphide to he sent to 
the zinc concentration mills as noted above. 

The production of oxidized zinc ores is now an important 
feature of Leadville's mining industry. Although the valu- 
able nature of these ores was not recognized until late in 
1910, so rapid has been their development that shipments of 
zinc carbonate ore have already reached a monthly output 
of some 12. nun tons. This tonnage is sent direct to the 
Eastern zinc smelters and shipments are limited to ores con- 
taining an average of 30$ zinc. The general schedule 
upon which these ores are purchased has been extended to 
all producers alike, and is as follows: $15.60 per ton. dry 
weight, f.o.b. standard-gauge cars at Leadville. Colorado, 
for ores containing 35$ zinc, when spelter sells at $5.50 
per hundred pounds St. Louis: the variation per unit to be 
at the rate of $2 per unit above 35% zinc and down to 30% 
zinc, and at the rate of 90c. per unit below 30% zinc; as 





that . which hi 

■ ■ product. Several trial shipments of this 
iai, in lots of shoal ni i" 

the i pur- 


li would therefore appear thai these 

ore* cannot be profitably smelted direcl hi rding to exist 

The problem then 
np to the standard required by present market 
conditions, and numerous metallurgists are now in the field 
working toward the successful solution of this problem. 
The Ohio fl Colorado Smelting iv. Refining Co. si tins 
pJaea i> running two blast-furnaces and treating an average 
■mi tons "t me per month, drawing its ore supply from 

Leadville and the Sun Jnan region. Many uiei'hiinieiil im- 

provements have been introduced daring the past two years, 

and this plant is now regarded as one of [he must n|i to 

date in Colorado. The chief improvements have been made in 
the roasting department, where hand-worked reverberatory 
furnaces have b ean eliminated and time Godfrey mechan- 

ical roasters installed. These hitter have a daily cap 
of 30 tons each and reduce the raw sulphide ores to about 
20 sulphur. This partly roasted product is fed to tour 

Dwigfat-Lloyd sintering machines, where the roast is com- 
pleted. This plant was one of the tirst to adopt the Dwight- 
I.loy.l niaehines. anil it was hugely through the efforts of 
the management here, that many of the early mechanical 
defects were corrected and the whole proeess worked out 
to a successful conclusion. An electric haulage system for 
handling the slau' has just been installed. 


The Pueblo smelter has increased its Huntington-Heber- 
lein plant somewhat to accommodate the increased tonnage 
of concentrate received, ami ha crated at a little 

better than one-half capacity throughout the year. The 
zinc smelter has been run at full capacity, with nothing 
new along metallurgical lines to report. The steel works 
has had three blast-furnaces and twelve open-hearth fur- 
naces in operation throughout the year. The prices on all 
products except rails have been much lower than in years, 
yet a substantia] gain is shown in (lie net earnings, speaking 
well for the metallurgists in charge. The principal ore 
supply is in Wyoming, a heavy tonnage also comes from 
New Mexico. 


The fllobe smelter has operated at one-half capacity this 
year, the only changes noted being the contemplated in- 
stallation of Dwight-Lloyd machines. The Argo smelter 
has passed into history. The past year witnessed the work- 
ing over of the dump with considerable, profit to the le 
The Modem smeller, as predicted two years ago, is extinct, 
having been literally smothered in its own Hue-dust, and 
leaving certain misguided ones $700,000 out. 


The plant of the North American Smelting Co. at Golden 
has run at full capacity throughout the year on ores from 
Georgetown and Idaho Springs. 

Idaho Springs 

The Hudson Reduction Co. at this place has during the 
year remodeled the old Hudson concentrator and applied 
electro-amalgamation and cyanidation. The ore is stamped. 
run over amalgamating plates, and further amalgamation 
accomplished in tank electro-amalgamators. The resulting 
pulp is concentrated on Card and Wilfley tables, followed 
by agitation in cvanide solution, the concentrate being 
shipped to the smelters. Excellent results are said to have 
been obtained. 

San Juan 

The famous mills of this district, the Liberty Bell, Camp 

up to date and thorou - 

In eonclusi the ■ 

liable metallurgical activity. The crying >• 

method ..i handling I Leadville, 

and this problem I ax| 

a constantly - production ol deed, 

this shortage of silica may become ■ rital problem during 

the i i i 1 1 ■_■ year. Cripple Creek will witness the trial of 

the Clancy process, and many eo being 

held np until the results of this trial are known. The 
United states Reduction 5 Refining Co. is turning us atten- 
tion to the Oyaniding Of its various tailing dumps; III. 

ai the u Plant at Florence is now I On 

Friday. November 10, water came into the 

Roosevelt deep drainage tunnel at Cripple tick, marking 
practically the completion of ibis enterprise. Deep mining 
will therefore he possible early in 1012, with a greater num- 
ber of men employed and renewed activity in bolli mining 
and metallurgy. 

Eastern Oregon 

By tin: Special correspondent 

During PHI there was a pronounced revival of minim.' 
operations in eastern Oregon, which applies principally to 
Baker and Grant counties, for which Baker, Sumpter, and 
Granite arc centres. One feature of the year's progress was 

the renewal of operations on the North Pole mine, al Bourne. 

This property was operated successfully for ten years by 
Baring Brothers through B. Melzer as manager. After 
a period of idleness lasting two years, it has been reopened 
by a Portland company under a bond and lease. It is a 
gold mine, the veins of ore in which are in a zone of 
slate. On the same belt is the Columbia mine, which has 
been operated steadily for fifteen years. The prop- 
erty is well equipped, the mill including stamps, amalga- 
mation and cyanidation departments. During the period 
named there has been no change in the management, which 
has been in the hands of Frank S. Baillie. The (lolcomla, 
situated on the same zone as the Columbia and North Pole, 
was started up by Spokane operators after having been 
closed a number of years. The Red Boy. a big producer 
ten years atro. is situated near Granite. It passed through 
a period of idleness, but within the past iwo years has been 
explored and developed extensively, whereby its prospects 
have been much improved. The Red Boy is well equipped 

with air-i ipressor, hoist, and mill, and is supplied with 

water-power. The operations in the Greenhorn district have 
been marked by good progress, several mines being at 
wuilc on a small scale. The Highland mine, situated be- 
tween the old Baisley-Elkhorn and the North Pole mines, 
lias been under development during the past three years. 
ore of •! 1 grade has been shipped, and a large ton- 
nage of ore "!' milling grade has been exposed; the High- 
land (I. M. Co. is now erecting a mill for jig and table 
concentration, the valuable metals consisting of gold and 
silver associated with iron pyrite. Tests show a recovery 
of 85% by this method. The Rainbow mine, situated in 
Mormon basin, was develo] ed and put on a paying basis 
within the past eight years by the Commercial M. Co.. which 
sold the properly about ten months ago to the United States 
S. R. & M. Co. Since the consummation of the purchase 
the mine and mill have been in charge of the exploration 
department of the latter company. The Humboldt mine, in 
the vicinity of the Rainbow, has been in course of develop- 
ment during the year, with encouraging results. The Dixie 
Meadows mine and mill, situated at Prairie City and con- 
trolled by New York men. have been in operation during 
the year. The ore consists of gold-bearing quartz, contain- 
ing sulphides; the milling method consists of stamp crush- 
ing, amalgamation, and concentration. Experiments are 
being made with the view to cyaniding the tailing. 



January 6, 1912 


By C. F. Tolman. Jr. 

In reviewing mining i in Arizona for the year 

1910, some indirect hen. im t lie cautious atti- 

tude .it capital toward mining ventures were mentioned, and 
attention was called to the decline in wild-catting, and the 
forced advances in mining and metallurgy. These tendencies 
have been still more in evidence during the year just fin- 
ished, and those companies that have been able to weather 
the financial storms of the past few years are reconstructing 
their plants, developing more economical methods of mining. 
billing with adjacent properties; the last for eco- 
nomically working the deposits, rather than with a view- 
to stock manipulation. The list of companies building or 
rebuilding reduction plants includes all but two of the im- 
portant copper producers. In addition to the great Can- 
anea plant just rebuilt, which lies south of the Arizona 
boundary line, the new concentrator at Miami has been 
finished, its last unit having been set to work. The con- 
centrator and new smelter at Ray are nearing completion. 
A 5000-ton mill for the Inspiration M. Co. is being planned, 
as well as a reduction plant for the Ray Central. The 
construction of an entirely new plant has been authorized 
by the Arizona Cupper Co. at Morenci, and the reconstruc- 
tion of the Calumet & Arizona plant at Douglas has been 
begun. Finally the United Verde has decided to build 
a new smelter in the valley below the mine. All of this 
reconstruction work is under the charge of three noted 
engineers. L. D. Ricketts. H. Kenyon Rurch, and C. H. 
Repath. After all the experimental work on the ores at 
the mines, and with the advantage of having the results 
of the concentration of similar ores in Utah and elsewhere. 
the 65 to 70$ savin? at Ray and the reported 7.V; saving 
at Miami is far from cause for congratulation when the 
value of the h>st product is considered. The query will 
not down: 'Has no( wet-coneenfaration for the ehalcocite 
ores been thoroughly tried and been found wanli 

The work of the past year at Ray and Miami has taught 
its lessons regarding the saving of ores, and much more 
will be learned next year. The combination of properties 
for the economical working of the deposit is much more 
difficult to effect than I lie solution of engineering prob- 
lems of mining and metallurgy. During the past year 
preliminary steps have been taken for such combination, 
and much will probably be accomplished along this line 
this year. Where claims interlock and caving stopes in 
.me mine injure the neighbor, as at Morenci. the demand 
for combination is evident, but as far as known, no com- 
binations are contemplated in this district. The expense of 
pumping and the depth to the sulphide ores, demand the 
combination of all companies on the Old Dominion and 
parallel lodes at Globe. The combination of two of these 
(the Arizona Commercial and the Superior & Boston) is 
practically consummated. At Ray. the Hercules and the 
■ntral are planning to combine, possibly to make 
the task of swallowing both easier for the Ray Consolidated. 
The Miami-Keystone-Inspiration-Live Oak combination, so 
much discussed, was a logical one. and would have covered 
all that has been developed of the great ore zone, with 
approximate! proved ore. It would 

have been al -. however, of the most important 

stimulus for advanced engineering work — competition of 
adjacent mines working under the same Condi 

Little has been made public during the past year of tech- 
nical and scientific int. : ng the developments in 
the older camps. Al Bisbee the deeper sulphide orebodies 
developed by the Calumet & Arizona company are of in- 
terest and should be described. The purchase by the Cop- 
ering the 'ore trough' toward 
heasl bej oi < : anj • the workh cresting. 
At Gloh -factory results of further exploration 
in the Old Dominion are reported. The Miami-Inspiration 
ore zone has been developed actively as noted above, and 
the discovery of ore on the Southwest Miami is interesting 
in that it extends the zone in that direction. The great 

depth at which the secondary sulphides are found at this 
end of the orebody (1000 to 14(10 ft.) is the result of 
peculiar structural relations, and of past topographies. 
will probably be discussed in F. It. Ransome's report 
on the re-survey <>( the district. At Hay the interest cen- 
tres in reduction plants and mining methods, and it is 
to be hoped tiiai the results of the experiments along both 
lines will be made public. 

The paralysis that has affected the mining operations 
of all but the larger companies has extended to prospect- 
ing, so that new finds of importance are hardly to be ex- 
pected. There seems, however, but little chance of find- 
ing a new disseminated deposit of anything like the size 
or value of the Ray orebodies or the Miami-Inspiration ore 
zone. The Bagdad Copper Co., operating north of Hills- 
dale in Yavapai county, is reported to have developed a 
disseminated copper deposit containing five to six 
million tons of ore. The disseminated deposits in the 
neighborhood of Silverbell, Pima county, have been devel- 
oped to a considerable extent, but the results have not 
been made public. It may be stated, however, that the 
ore is concentrated along silicified fissure zones in the por- 
phyry and granite, and therefore lacks the continuity of 
the Ray orebody. The reported tonnage and the value of 
ore given out by the Copper Creek company in the Ga- 
liuro mountains. Pinal county, would receive more atten- 
tion if vouched for by an engineer of standing. This 
property is reported to have been taken over by a FVench 
company. The famous Ajo properties have been bonded 
by the Calumet & Arizona. The possibility of a dissem- 
inated deposit here has been recognized for a number of 
years, and an attempt to drill was made by engineers 
connected with the Ray Com. but it was abandoned on 
account of the difficulty of churn-drilling. The develop- 
ment on the large number of copper prospects has been 
cut down in most cases to the assessment work necessary 
to bold the claims. 

The Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co. is busily 
pushing development on claims it has bonded in the Old 
Hat district, !!0 miles northeast of Tucson. The claims 
cover a part of the extensive garnet zones of the Marble 
Peak contact, and the result of the work is reported to 
have been satisfactory. A story has been told about the 
bonding of these claims that has a moral, even though 
it cannot be vouched for as authentic. It was said that 
these properties are the first that have been offered the 
Copper Queen at a reasonable figure, and, to encourage this 
unusual attitude of mind, the company took the bond and 
unexpectedly found ore. Failures are seldom reported in 
a yearly review, but they are as much history as the suc- 
■ i SSes, and often as instructive. The closing down of the 
Clara Consolidated smelter and properties was not unex- 
pected to those who had some acquaintance with the project. 
The shut-down at Tombstone has been a disappointment 
to all mining men on account of the historical association 
of the old camp and admiration for the courage of the 
Development .Company of America in going against such 
odds. The shut-down at Imperial is generally considered 
to be only temporary, in spite of foreclosure proceedings. 
The only happening in the 'high financing/ of Arizona 
mines that has met with general censure is the turning 
over of the Ray smelter to the A. 8. & R. Co., the feeling 
being that the Ray company would have done better to 
keep for itself the profit on smelting its ore. 

There is little new in regard to the development of 
gold, silver, lead, or zinc deposits. The unexpected size 
of the coalfields of northern Arizona, as appears from 
the recent reports of the V. S. Geological Survey, would 
attract more attention were there some satisfactory way 
of getting hold of large enough holdings to justify the 
development d! these isolated deposits. Oil development 
is active throughout Arizona, and while oil indications have 
been encountered during the drilling, no commercial quan- 
tities of oil -have as yet been developed. It is to be hoped 
that the undisturbed Terliary formations of the desert val- 
leys will be found to be oil bearing in places and that pro- 
ductive fields may be developed. 



Mont. in. i 

i op| 01 u »iill ill.- dhmI important uietnl produced in 

111 l'.'ll till' |>! 

I die independent 

r output estimated, totals 

. with 

I. amounts 

i" ' b., making the total production of the 


lb. In the production of i is included 

the output of tin- North Butte and Tuolumne companii 
both ive their on it the Washoe smelter, 

while in I are included the output of 

the I . which has been shipping aboul 

production of the 

,000,( lb. per month, and that 

of the Tuolumne 500,000 lb. per month. In connection with 

important output of 

old. The large 

numb are in counties other 

than Silverbow, as will !>•■ seen by tl I the State 

. b) Mr. Mi 

Gold-Silver Mines of Montana 

By Geobgi T. .m 

In this review the gold and silver | rodnction given is for 
eleven months, ended November 30, 1911. The figures in- 
clude the output of both placer and quartz mines, but only 
the amount purchased al the tJ. S. Assay Office at Helena 
has been taken into account. The figures are misleading, 
in that they d<> not indicate the value nt' ore ship] ed to 
smellers, or metals gold in other markets, anil final totals 
for the year will be much larger. The exact figures given 
below may appear absurd, then-fore, but it sliouhl be re- 
bered that these represent an exact record of a part of 
the total production. 

Beaverhead. — The county contains the famous old district 
of Bannock. Operations have been confined to the work 

of lessees and prospectors. Ba es and long hauls to 

the railroad are serious problems. Gold and. silver pro- 
dnetion, $212.98. 

Broadwater. — Winston and Radersburg have shown the 
most activity, and probably the latter has seen more real 
money put into new companies and real development work 
than any district in the State — Butte always excepted. A 
depth of 700 ft. on the dip of the vein has been reached, 
and the character of the ore remains practically unchanged. 
It is a heavy iron sulphide, most suitable for Smelting. The 
twelve-mile wagon haul to the Northern Pacific railroad 
would undoubtedly be done away with, were it not for a 
railroad bridge across the Missouri river, which would he 
necessary for a spur to the mines, and that may be built 
soon. A large amount of gold and silver comes from the 
Keating and other mines in the form of smelting ore. The 
gold and silver received at Helena, amounting to $7439.57 
in 1911, represents the smaller mines. 

Carbon. — Bordering the northwest corner of Wyoming, 
Carbon county has extensive coalfields, which, although they 
liavc produced for years, are now undergoing especially 
rapid development. The metal miner in Montana is apt i" 
overlook the commercial and economical importance of the 
coal deposits. The county's production of coal for the year 
will approximate 1,200,000 short tons, requiring the labor 
of 2000 men, and having a value of $2,400,000 at the mines. 

Cascade. — A large area is most excellent agricultural land, 
in the midst of which is Great Falls. Neihart. the famous 
silver district of the county, is still a shipper of lead-silver 
ore, and the operators are continuing work and hoping Cor 
better prices. The old Queen of the Hills shaft was un- 
watered last summer by one of the largest and strongest 
operating companies in the country, and there was a con- 
siderable holding of breath for a while — until the shaft 
was allowed to fill again. Cascade county is rich in coal, 

of the count} have rontin ii forth then 

exploratio d on bj both old ami 

- Tin- district 

the railroad. Oold and silver productio n. 

Di ' -hi, and neighboring 

trieta, -mi Dead hue in the tail, that 

the Anaemia Copper alining Co. bad acquired the Southern 

mine and would al - -, of 

'••Hi,-. Anaconda St Pacific railroad in Georgetown. 

Tl ires of ihe district, difficult to treat I. "-ally. 

will be Mel.-. .me a! Ihe Wa.-hoe smelter, and their pio.luc 

tion will he greatly stimulated by cheap ition. 

Gold and silver pn 1.6,229.71. 

Fergus. — The Kendall mine continued to operate profit- 
ably al Kendall, and lessees have operated successfully the 

Gold Reef mine at Gilt Edge and the Maginnis and Cum- 
berland mines al Maiden, in the Judith mountains. A new 
company commenced operations on the New Year mine. 
Cone Butte and Ford Creek districts are developing slowly. 
The county has been an important coal producer, hut the 
Houndup coal district, which will show approximate out- 
put for the year of 650,000 tons of sub-bituminous coal, 
is now in the newly created Musselshell county. The coming 
of the C. M. & Si. I', railroad lour years ago, led to the dis- 
covery of the Roundup mines, and they an- developing by 
leaps and bounds. Gold and silver production, $262,964.44. 

Granite. — Many years ago. the Hope mine at l'hilips- 
burg and the Granite-Bimetallic at Granite began the pro- 
duction of rich silver ores, and they are still at it. New 
work is under way, especially in the southern part of the 
county, which will be reached by the extension of the 
B. A. & P. railway. Gold and silver production, $11,439.18. 

Jefferson. — After the old placer days, some of the first 
quartz mining and smelting done in the Slate was in the 
Corbin and Wickes districts. The county is a steady ship- 
per of lead-silver ores, the principal output coining from 
the Elkhorn mine. Three well financed copper companies 
are developing properties, which are not yet heavy ship- 
pers. Gold and silver production. $10,180.83. 

Lewis and Clark. — Many mining men expect to see the 
Marysvillc district at the front once more. Thomas Cruse 
has been operating steadily the Bald Mountain mine, and 
prospecting has been active over the entire district. The 
long-drawn-out differences between the Drum Lummon and 
St. Louis companies are practically ended, and the latter 
company started operations in both properties. On the 
Missouri river, easl of Helena, at the mouth of Mag 
gulch, a modem electric, deep-digging bucket-dredge, with 
a capacity of 120,000 cu. yd. of gravel per month, was 
started early in the summer, with every prospect of suc- 
cess. At Helena, the Northwestern Metals Co. has been 
quietly building a 100-ton plant for the electro-chemical 
extraction of metals from ores, by the Burwell process. 
The aim will be to treat ores carrying zinc, lead, iron, 



January 6, 1912 

silver, and gold, for which there is a poor market, and 
on which the smelting: charge is often prohibitive, 
and silver production, $170,455.74. 

snowshoe mine. 20 miles south of Libby, 

began shipment of lead ore and started a 5000-ft. adit for 

ipecting purposes. Placer ground of great promise 

was sampled, and development work was general over the 

county. Gold and silver production, $1745.79. 

,-. — Prospecting went on steadily, and a successful 
producer has been developed in the Winetka mine. 4 miles 
above Virginia City, on Alder gulch. The work of the 
Conrey and Poor Farm Placer Mining companies is dis- 
cussed in a supplementary article. In the Pony district. 
the Clipper and Strawberry mines have been steady pro- 
ducers, both worked under lease. Tungsten ore was found 
in the same district. Gold and silver production, $547,983.8 I 

Meaghrr. — A number of copper properties are be - 
veloped in the county, and better railroad facilities would 
hasten work materially. Gold and silver production, $101.40. 

Missoula. — The northeast slope of the Bitter Root moun- 
tains, running off to the northwest, to within sight of the 
Coeur dAlene country, is included for many miles in Mis- 
soula county, and promising prospects are showing up 
well. Gold and silver production, $30,982.92. 

Pari-. — Here is another large area of coal land, which 
will produce 100,000 tons of coal for 1911. Gold and 
silver production, $1505.22. 

Powi II. — Some of the old-time placers were in this county. 
and ■ i els arc yet to be mined. Development is 

slow hut steady. Cold and silver production. $30,584.46. 

Ui. — This county is credited with a gold and silver 
production for the year of $1210.44. 

Sander*. — That portion of Montana immediately east of 
the famous Burke district of the Coeur d'Alene is in- 
cluded in Sanders comity, and development there has been 
quite active, hut production is still small. 

SHverbow. — The greatest mining activity of the State is 
centred in Butte. During the year, the first of the huge 
steam hoists has been rebuilt to use compressed air. 
delivered from a central plant and reheated at the shaft 
where used. This central plant is electrically operated. 
and in connection an automatic hydraulic auxiliary stor- 
age supply is maintained, to tide over any short break- 
downs of the electric power lines. Since the output of 
the several power plants situated along the Missouri river, 
the Big Hole, and the Madison, can be thrown together. 
the likelihood of a complete breakdown is remote. Within 
the year the Washoe sampler, for handling custom ores, 
as well as those from the Anaconda company's mines, was 
lebuilt with a greater capacity. The East Butte company. 
operating the old Pittsmont smelter, added a new dust- 
chamber and stack. At the Washoe smelter, new slime- 
treatment plants have been built. Everywhere the addi- 
tions and improvements are of a substantial character. 
The coming year will witness the construction of two and 
possibly three concentrators. The Butte & Superior com- 
pany has already commenced work on its mill, which will 
have a capacity of 500 tons per day and will be one of 
the most modern in the country. The Butte Central Cop- 
per Co.. operating the Ophir mine, has made preliminary 
arrangements for the erection of a concentrator, and work 
is to be commenced in the early spring. The Butte el- 
Superior mill is to be ready for operation by June 1, 
while that of the Butte Central will be completed early in 
the summer. W. -\. (lark ka» announced his intention of 
building a concentrator for the treatment of bis zinc ore 
from the Elm Orlu mine, but since that announcement was 
made a rumor has been in circulation that he may take 
possession of the Basin Reduction Works' mill, the lease 
on which to the Butte & Superior company expires on 
July 1. 

Summary. — Montana metal production will be a large 
factor in the markets of the world for a long time. Impor- 
tant discoveries of phosphate rock have been made during 
the year in Beaverhead, Madison, and Silverbow counties. 
30 miles south of Butte, and there is every indication of ;i 
growing non-metallic and metallic mineral industry. 

Gold-Dredging at Ruby, Montana 

By Hexnen Jennings 

"The operations of the Conrey Placer Mining Co. and 
those of the Poor Farm Placer Co., both under one manage- 
ment, are at Ruby, Madison county, Montana, about 80 
miles southeast of Butte. The principal work is in Alder 
gulch, the mouth of which has an elevation of 5200 ft. 
above the sea. The locality is only 50 to GO miles from 
the Yellowstone National Park and is reached by rail by 
the Northern Pacific branch line from Whitehall to Alder. 
When N. S. Shaler and his associates acquired the Conrey 


and Poor Farm properties, between 1S96 and 1S98, the art 
of dredging was in its infancy in this country, and the 
value of the gravel in these tracts of land was lower than 
that of any which had previously been worked successfully 
by any other process than hydraulicking. As physical con- 
ditions prohibited the hydraulic system, it was a bold project 


that Shaler initiated, since it required the designing and 
operating of machinery not hitherto used. 

The first attempt at working the ground was in connec- 
tion with that part of Alder gulch known as the German 
bar. Here a central tower was constructed, to which were 
attached cables, washing appliances, and sluice-boxes, and 
the gravel lifted and conveyed to the elevated washing appli- 
ances by scoop buckets operated by wire-rope traction. This 
system failed to show a profit and was abandoned in 1900. 

•Prepared to accompany the genera] review of gold-dredg- 
tng in 1911 by Mr. Janin. 


.ii the mou 

..n. I liiimli. 
as II 

•.-.I unh ■ boa) thai 
built in 1897 in ii.. ,, nn.i 

one of the 
levator dredge* in tin- country. 

started with the beet ty] 

known el the data ol ita erection. It was an elevator 

gted rontinuom bnekel line 

ami the aluiee rii,. boata 

were -•••! and the si/e of buckets rued 

at the tin.. in was in advance of the eurrenl prao- 

■ f thai period. 

Altogether, the two eompaniea have had 7 dredgi 
work on their ground; :i steam sluice-dredges; 1 electrical 
iroiee-dred ker table-dredges of the type naed in 

California, The three steam dredges have been dismantled 
ami discarded, and the eompaniea now have a Deel of four 
boats at work. No. 3, an electrical slnice-dredge, is still 
in commission and doing good 
work. This dredge is the largest 
and most perfect type of this class 
"t dredge in the world. It was de- 
i in 1904 and started work 
in 1906. A detailed description "I 
the Bteam dredge and of No. 8 has 
been ..'ivi-n by J. P. Htrtehins." 
Three California type dredges 
have been constructed since the 
death of Shaler (1906), and wi- 
der my advice us consulting i-n - 
gineer. They have been buill <m 
contract by the Mai-ion Steam 
Shovel Co. after competitive bid- 

No. 1 is specially constructed 
for working up Alder gulch on 
material which has been previous- 
ly worked by placer miners who 
left an irregular accumulation of 
debris. This dredge has a short 
string bucket-line of 7%-cu. ft. 
close-connected buckets, and an 
exceptionally long stacker in proportion to the length 
of the ladder. It has worked up the gulch for Several 
miles and. under favorable conditions, has excavated a 
monthly yardage of 140-,000, with an average of about 
90.000 yd.; depending on the gravel and season. No. 2 
has a 9-ft. close-connected bucket chain, with a capacity 
to dig to a depth of 35 It., and has dug- from 75,000 
cu. yd. to as high as 140,000 cu. yd. per month. No. 

3, as first constructed, lias I n described by Mr. Hutcbins 

in the article mentioned; but of late has been modilied 
considerably. It has been given greater flotation and 
n close-connected 9-ft. bucket chain substituted for the 
first open-connected bucket line. No. 4 started work in 
June of this year.f Ii has a rated capacity per month 
of 300,000 cu. yd., but this depends on the nature of the 
gravel. The highest yardage tip to the present is 200,000. 
This dredge is, I believe, as large as any other dredge 
now at work in the world. The bull is 150 by 5S ft. wide 
by 13 ft. deep; the bow. stern, and well are all sheathed 
with light steel plates for winter work in ice, which also 
requires an exceptional depth of hull. The ladder is 100 
ft. from centre to centre of tumblers, with eighty lG-eu. 
ft. buckets weighing 446S lb. each; stacker. 130 It. long; 
steel spuds, 44 tons each; washing screen, 50 ft. long by 
9 ft. 9 in. diameter, perforated plates % in. thick, lower 
end with %-in. holes. The gold-saving tables have an area 
of 2956 sq. ft. The tables were designed in accordance 
with my suggestions following our experience with gold- 
saving devices. The sluices coming from the upper sec- 
tions on each side of the 9-ft. washing screen are made 

*Eng. <& Min. Jour., June and July, 1907. 
tFor details see Floyd Bushnell, 'Dredging at Ruby. Mon- 
tana,' Mining and Scientific Press. Nov. 25. 1911. 

I ai the 


■ •! llj Mr I 
I" at Ruby, lion 

'"Mar lo thi ia The bed i- a volcanic ash similar t.. thai al Oroville, but 

sibly of a v clayey ami tenacious natui ravel 

impacl ami tenacious, but not cemented or bard 
the hardest in Oroville district h. howevor, has occasional 
bouldei than those found in California. The chief 

disadvs the .Montana workings over those "I < :ili 

fornia is the severity of the winter climate, where tin 

thermometer is known to tall a- low as 30 to 10 P. belou 

The two .-..mi. anic- nave, for the mosl part, kc|.t 

their dredges al work through the year, hm i« is doubtful 

whether it would be wise i tinue working through the 

year, were it not for keeping together an excellent, trust 

-QlV^ . 

■^^— — - ^^aaH3 ■■? I 

[ — : JH>fl 

[ j 

■Lassf/ / 


: ; 


worthy, and efficient lot of men that have been togethei 
under the able management of Charles Kammerer. 

The average wages of Montana are also in advance of 
those in California, and the working costs at Ruby have 
been somewhat in excess of those in California. During 
the winter season dredges have twice sunk and been badly 
damaged, and costs have thus been made exceptionally high. 
The system of keeping accounts also takes into consideration 
bucket-ladder renewals. In spite of all these factors, the 
average cost for the past two years has not been much over 
7c, and some months has run below fie. per yard. It is 
hoped I" still further reduce these figures when No. 4 has 
had, with the other dredges, a completed full year's run. 

The Conrey and Poor Farm companies, between them, 
have 2500 acres of ground, all of which, however, is by 
no means dredgable. In addition to the fleet of dredges. 
the companies have a very extensive machine-shop equip- 
ment, and they do all their repairs at their own shops, 
and, in fact, the assembling and machining of much of 
their bucket-lines. They also have a complete transformer 
station for reducing the line tension from 80,000 to 2200 
volts. The companies issue no printed annual report, as 
there are but few shareholders, and these in no way specu- 
late in the stock. The main shareholder, though indirectly, 
is Harvard University, which inherited the interests of 
Gordon Maekay and of N. S. Shaler, who at the time of his 
death was the largest stockholder. I am not in a position to 
tell accurately the amount of gold return for 1911; bul ii 
will probably run from $550,000 to $000,000. 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating 
Co. paid dividend No. 172 of $65,400 on January 4, 1912. 
This makes the total amount of dividends paid $13,225,050. 



January 0. 1912 


By W. A. Soon 

According to compilations made al Sail Lake City the ore 
odnction of Utah in 191] was approximately 6,680,000 
distrjcl supplied 5,871,000 tons; 
Park City, 121,000, and Tintii 104,000 tons; 35,000 tons 
was ship] Beaver county, 20,000 tons from other 

districts, while about 239,000 tons was mined and nailed 
at Mereur. 

■The following is a lisi of the dividends paid 
during the year, the aggregate being $8,973,856, a substan 
rial increase over the amount for 1910: 

Bingham-New Haven $ 261,558 

Boston Sunshine 5,632 

Cliff 30,000 

Colorado 180,000 

Daly-Judge 45,000 

Daly West 162,000 

■ iini 

Grand < lentral 25,000 

320,0 10 

Moscow 15.952 

Opohongo 10,000 

Sioux B9,400 

Uintah Treasure Hill 1 06,292 

Utah Copper Co 4,703,022 

I'nele Sam 75.000 

: ' onsolidated 150.000 

United States s. i;. & M. Co 2,770,500 

West Mountain Placer 5,500 

Smelter Products.— The four smelting plants which 
were operated during 1911 were the two belonging to the 
A. S. & R. Co., at Murray and Garfield, the lead smelter 
of the United States company at Midvale, and that of 
the International at Tooele. These plants were not oper- 
ated exclusively on Utah cues, a considerable tonnage hav- 
ing been received from Idaho, Nevada, and Colorado. The 
following figures show the quantity and value of the metals 
produced at the fonr smelters for the year: 

Gold— 240,039 oz. (5 $20.67 $ 4,961,606.13 

Silver— 12,573,931 oz. •■, ."..'..27c 6,698,233.04 

Lead 117,593,855 lb. <§ $4.42 5,197,648.39 

Copper— 131,782,916 lb. (5 12.27c... 16,169,763.79 
Zinc— 10,541,198 lb. (n $."..71 (iiil.902.41 

Total value $33,629,153.76 

The United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. bas 
operated the lead furnaces of its Midvale plant during 
year, having treated about 800 tons of ore per day: but 
no effort was made to operate its copper furnaces, although 
its success in controlling smeller fume has resulted in all 
injunctions having been dissolved by the courts. Before 
Starting the copper furnaces, a bag-house probably will 
be erected. The International Smelting & Refining Co. oper- 
ated two or three of its reverberatory-furnaces during the 
year. During the last two months of the year an average 
of 800 tons i er day of copper ore has been smelted. In 
the meantime two blast-furnaces for lead smelting have 

been constructed. It is underst 1 that these will be blown 

in soon aii , f il„. v . iir . A bag-house for hand- 

ling the lead fumes from the fiwoaces has been built. 

Biagh —The Utah Copper Co., Ear the first 

quarter of 1911, produced 21,296,709 lb. of copper; 24,469,- 
812 lb. for the second quarter, and 25,851,456 lb. Eor the 
third quarter, making a I : 977 lb. for Kbe 

nine months ended September 30. 

monthly products if 7,957,553 lb. The avers 

producing copper tor July. August, and September, 

maMng allowance for smelter deductions, was 7.56c per lb., 
as compared with the COSl of 8.02c. for the preceding quar- 
ter. The cost of production for September was 7.18c The 
company's two concentrating plains al Garfield treated 

1,273,373 tons ,,f ,,re during July. August, and September, 
the average grade of which was 1.4829' ( coppeff The larger 
of the two concentrating plants, known as the Magna, lias 

the capacity of 12.01111 ions per day. and it has b< per- 

> ai full capacity since August 1. The smaller mill, 
called the Arthur, was planned for 13 sections, and to 
a total capacity of Sunn tons per day: five sections 
built and^uive been in operation since September 1. 
treating oOOO Ions per day. ami the sixth section has since 
been completed ami put in operation. When the Arthur 
plant shall have been completed as to the 13 sections con- 
templated, the company will have facilities for concentrate 
0,000 tons of ore every 24 hours. The extraction dur- 
.iic year was close to 70%. Of the tonnage of "< 
.i during the .mailer ended September 30, aboul - 

■■■omul mining, and 7695 was tl utput 

i.iions. Wl 11 the 

isl quarter of the year are not available, it is learned 
a reliable source that this company's copper produc- 
tion for October was 8,666,729 lb., and for 
9,117,961 11... making a total for 11 montl - 12,667 

11)., and that the product oi D 

1 out, will bring the year's ..utput up to approximately 
98,000,000 lb. of copper. 
The Utah Consolidated company is mining daily 600 tons 

i its Highland Boy mine, and this is transported 
to the International smelter by aerial tramway. A I 

development has been accomplished within the 
year, including tbe sinking of a 3-compartment shaft from 
adit No. 7 to a depth of 400 ft. This shall was equipped 
with an electric hoist. The Ohio Copper Co. has operated 
ils mine and mill steadily during the year. Close to 2000 
tons per day of ore averaging 1.3% copper lias been con- 
centrated. The capacity and efficiency of the mill has 
been enhanced, it is claimed, by the use of Wall rolls and 
Burners. Fifteen rolls of this pattern have been put in. 
and others are to be added to the present equipment. It 
is reported that milling eosls have been reduced to 31c. 
per ton, mining costs are said to be 25c. per ton. and 
haulage, through the Mascot tunnel, to cost 15e., making a 
total of 71c. per ton. The saving is about li.'i^ . The 
Bingham Mines Co. has been shipping about 3000 tons 
per month of eopper ore and 00 tons per day of lead ore, 
ami has performed a large amount of development. Much 
exploration and development has been done during the year 
on the three known veins of the Ilalton & Lark group. The 
Bingham & Garfield railroad, 20 miles in length, was com- 
pleted September in. loll. This line was built by a com- 
pany controlled by the Utah Copper Co.; it extends from 
the latter company's workings at Bingham to the mills ami 
smelter at Garfield, and was built at a cost of .f3.000.000. 

Tintic District. — The year's operations in Tintic district 
resulted in the extraction and shipment of over S000 rail- 
road cars of ore to the smelters, which was about 700 ears 
in excess of 1910 shipments. The Centcnnial-Eureka was 
the largest of the producers, ils output having been over 
2000 carloads; the Iron Blossom has second place with 
nearly 1700 cars. Following these two, the main shippers 
were as follows, the figures in eaeh ease being for 11 months 
ended November 30: Dragon, iron ore, 692 ears; Grand 
Central. 502; Colorado, 387; Gold Chain. 249; Uncle Sam. 
212: Chief Con.. 165; Gemini, 100: Sioux, 167: Bullion 
Keck. 144; Black Jack, 150: Srranton. 153; .May Day. 151; 
Mammoth. 121: Yankee, 114; Opohongo. 92: Eagle & Blue 
Bell. 83; Beck Tunnel. 50; Victoria, .".:;; Ridge & Valley. 
32; Lower Mammoth. 31: Eureka Hill, 22; Iron King, IS; 
Swansea, 10 ears. There were other smaller producers, 
shipments from which aggregated about 00 ears. The list 

of dividend-paying mines given herewith < tains the 

names ..t' eight Tintic properties, including the United Slates 
company, which owns the Centennial-Eureka and Bullion 
fleck in Ihis district. The Opohongo and Gold Chain, near 
Mammoth, and the Victoria and Chief Con. at Eureka, are 
the newer properties of the district, on which development 
lias resulted in exposing bodies of shipping ore. Within 
the year some new bodies of ore have also been found in 
the Mammoth; and important discoveries were made on the 

MIMNi. \\l> S< II M II l« l'KI 

I, Mil' I 

ex working* "i the I 

>>ork beiilK in •• • . the 

dspUl "i UMO n.. BOO ri. oi 

«lurli is in sulphide ore, which i- not bung shipped. The 

Q Mid Mav 

Day. The Yanl ompa ihipping ore contained 

in a dump in ill.- north end of 

the district, ineludii rodnced by the Uncle Sum. 

Yankee, Colorado, and Iron Blossom isisl mainly of ^il 

mil lead; while thorn of the Cantennial-Eureka, and 
■•"lit' tain gold, copper, and silver. 

hi -hi- in. in the 

I'ark I'm . i urn aggragi I to 134,000 tons, 

The following are tl of the principal producers, 

for 1 1 months ended Now 

171 : D.-ll; : . Duly 

261 : Lottie '. New York Bonanza, 331 

Silver Kin;.- Coalition, 29,813; Silver 
King Con., 177: Virgin i. Ihose 

the dividend list are the Daly-Judge and Daly West. 
The Silver King Coalition, usually standing al thi 

ng dividend payers, was prevented from paying divi 
• lends the past win- by the litigatior in which it was in- 
volved with tln> Silver King Consolidated. The outcoi 
ihis was a jndgmenl against the Silver King Coalition Co. 
in favor of the Consolidated for aboul $725,000. Tin 
:s i.i be finally decided this year by the United States Court 
of Appeals. During Ihe year the Silver King Coalition per- 
formed important development, and completed the work 

providing for electric power for all purposes al Hie mine, 
shops, and mill. The Silver Kin;.' Con. opened a new body 
of ore on the 1550-ft level of its Amies claim. This nre- has been followed 600 ft., and is about 12 ft. wide. 
The Daly-Judge company has reduced its mining and 

milling costs, and within the year a connection has heen 
between Daly-Judge workings and the 1550-ft. level 
of the Daly West, whereby the Daly-Judge is drained to 
the 1900 n. level. Within the next three months a similar 
extension of the 2500 ft level of the Daly West is to be 
made into Daly-Judge ground. The Snake Creek drainage 
a.lit. largely controlled by Darj Judge stockholders, which 
is being driven into this territory from the opposite side 

of the Wasatch range, has I n advanced over Hum ft., one 

section of swelling ground in which is supported by rein- 
forced concrete. The Daly West, besides keeping up ship- 
ments of ore and operating ils mill, has carried on aboul 
2000 ft. of development per month. It produced 8100 tons; 
of crude ore and 23,000 Ions of concentrate. The Daly 
West. Daly-Judge, and Silver Kins; Coalition companies 
have united in a plan of impounding the tailing discharged 
from their three mills, and for this purpose a tract of 
700 acres has been purchased. The Ontario was a heavy 
producer under the Crowther lease, the ore mined consist- 
ing mostly of fillings in old stopes, which were found profit- 
able. The year's development on the American Flag mine 
has been mostly in bodies of sulphide ore from the 800 
down to the 1100-ft. level. The assays of samples taken 
show this ore to contain 15 to 30 oz. silver, $3 to $4 gold 
per ton, and 5 to 10% lead. The higher levels yielded oxi- 
dized ore carrying silver and gold in the ratio of $2 in 
silver to $1 in gold. 

Considerable development has heen done and much in- 
terest aroused in operations in the mineralized country be- 
tween Big Cottonwood and Little Cottonwood canyons, with 
Alta as the centre for the latter. Among the properties 
are the City Rocks, including adjoining properties acquired, 
the Flagstaff, Emma, Vallejo & North Star, Grizzly, South 
Star, Columbus, Prince of Wales, and Albion. The proba- 
bility is that eventually these properties will find an outlet 
for their ores through transportation adits into Big Cotton- 
wood canyon, where there is an excellent road to the valley. 

Minor Districts. — Beaver county mines have been more 
productive than in 1010, ns have those of Opbir and Stock- 

New Mexico 

Bj iai the in. -I important ■ 
rainii in lull, pic 

lion ot the Chin,, mill mid the ei , I ,.p..| 

il producers \\ bill nut 
of the uo« producers ol 'porpbyrj copper,' the Chit 

in some particulars the most . pjny 

owns the Santa Rita, ihc oldest copper mini 

ioo if not in the United Stales, a property winch baa pro 

duced al interval.- since 1804. Yet when the new mill C 

work In the fall, tl re reserve was estimated al lfi,000,OQO 

opper, of which 70' , can be won 
shovel mining. This result of the application • •! new 
methods p. an old property speaks well for the mani 

John .M. Sully, and iates, The mill i- al 

Hurley, tl miles from I he mini', and the concentral 
shipped i" El Paso, where the A. S. & ft. Co. smelter hat 
been i .1 to handle the output. 

fi the I'inos Alios district, Corrignn, MoKinnej & 
Hutchinson made s valiant effort to resurrect the Western 
Belle without tangible results, Zinc ship 
district to Colorado, however, began within the year, ami 
development was quietly carried on in a number of prop 

.■Mies, iii the Burro i ntains the Savanna Copper Co. 

ueil drilling, and in Socorro • nty the Tri Bulli 

I'eadw I. Treasure, Hold Dust, Man. I. Soci astine, 

and other companies did good work. The American '/.. & 

I.. Co. took a bond on the Lynchburg, the Treasure intro- 
duced Oliver filters, and the Mistletoe M. Co. built and 

started a dry-. tentrating plant. In technical lines the 

most interesting event was the success scored by the De 
Ln Vergne oil-engines at the Deadwood mine. Despite the 
long haul of fuel, the cost was reduced to 1],-. per I 

power-day. This is so much neurit the cm of Bteam po 
with wood for fuel that similar engines have heen ordered 
by the Krncstinc and Socorro companies. One significant 
event of the year, not to be overlooked, was the distribu- 
tion of the excellent monograph on the 'Ore Deposits 
of New Mexico.' written by Waldemar Lindgren, L. C. 
Qraton, and C. H. Gordon of Ihe U. S. Geological Survey. 
It is much the best general treatise of the Borl available. 


Wining operations iii the State of Washington for 1911, 

as compared with those of 101(1. resulted in an increase 
of about Kl'r in gold, 14% in silver, and a small decrease 
in the production of lead, which was slightly above 1,000,000 
lb. The copper production for 1011 was approximately 
261,000 lb., as compared with 86,000 lb. in 1010. The 
gold production came principally from Republic, though 
there was considerable produced at Orient and the Okan- 
ogan country, and also in the Cascade range. The silver 
output came from Stevens and Okanogan counties, and 
the Cascades. Lead ore was mined at Metahne, Cut Bank, 
and Bossburg. The Napoleon mine, situated between Ori- 
ent and Marcus, produces iron ore with which there is 
considerable gold. The oxidized ore is milled and the gold 
recovered by amalgamation. The iron ore is shipped to 
the British Columbia Copper Co.'s smelter at Greenwood. 

The bulk of the copper ore mined in eastern Washing- 
ton was supplied by the United Copper Co., operating at 
Chewelah. In the western part of the State there has 
been some copper production in the Cascade mountains, 
also in the Olympic range. 

The Republic Mines Corporation, Knob Hill, San Foil, 
North San I'oil, Quilp, and others have been active the 
past year, near Republic, and there has been a good deal of 
ore shipped, though the low-grade ore is being held till 
the mill of Ihe North Washington Power & Reduction Co. 
is ready to treat ore. which will be January 1912. The 
tungsten mines. Mil miles north of Spokane, have been de- 
veloped to some extent during the year, and some of the 
ore has been concentrated. The First Thought mine, a gold 
property at Orient, has been idle for some time. 


January 6, 1912 


By \V. A. Scott 

The < Phe 1911 operations in the I ' n 

d'AJene mining districts wen- characterized by a general 

increase in ore extraction from (in- mines and - ad 

i work. There has been, as com- 
pared with 1910, n considerable increase in the shipment 
and a still greater increase of the ton- 

i concentrate. Within the year, the Bunker Hil! 
S Sullivan, the Hercules, the Stewart, the Gold Hunter, 
and the Monarch have each increased their milling Facili- 
ties. In the Morning mill of the Federal company im- 

ents have been made in the coarse concentration 
department, and an auxiliary plant has been built and 
pal in operation for treating, by tube concentrators, the 
middling and tailing, containing zinc sulphide and iron 
oxide. The plant of 119 tubes probably will be doubled 
in capacity; this method of recovering zinc-blende formerly 
lost in the tailing is attracting much interest, and is con- 
sidered successful. The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company, 

operating its two principal concentrating mills on 

level. Gold Hunter as a name is not now- applicable 
property, whicb is a lead mine. The Snowstorm 
mine, three miles east of Mullan, the 'only copper mine 
in the Coettr d'Alene. has kept up shipments of silieious 
to various smelling plants to be used as converter 
lining. To describe what was found bv driving the lowest 




ore direct from the mine, is re-treating tailing that ac- 
cumulated several years ago, in a plant built for that pur- 
pose. This company is now mining ore from levels and 
slopes below the great haulage adit. The Heela M. Co., 
operating the well known Hecla mine at Burke, has bad 
a successful year, as measured by tonnage of ore mined 
and concentrated and by dividends paid, The mine eon- 
tains ample ore reserves, and the mine and mill equipment 
is adequate. The He npany, which lost its first 

mill by fire in 1910, built a new mill at Wallace last 
winter and began operating it in April. This plant was 
described in the Mining and Scientific Pri -- last "May. 
Hercules ore is notei g of good grade, a COnsid- 

■'■■•■ i age is accordingly shipped without concentrating. 

A feature of the mining operations is the driving of a 
two-mile cross-cut adit from near the bed of Canyon creek 
at Burke to tap the Hen ties orebody several hundred 
Peel deeper than the lowest workings. This driving is 
in progress and will not. be finished until next year. 

The Success mine and mill, situated on Nine Mile creek, 
north of Wallace, produce a zinc-lead concentrate. Pro- 
duction has been kepi up during the year, and the com- 
pany paid dividends aggregating $75,000, The Gold Hunter 
company. at Mullan, has increased the capacity 

of its mill whereby about 200 tons of ore per day is being 
concentrated. Great depth in the mine has been attained 
by driving the lowest cross-cut from the mill level, and 
sinking a 200-ft. winze on one of the veins below that 

article. The higher workings yielded copper carbonate, 
to treat which a leaching plant, was built a few years 
ago, but that was later abandoned. It is understood that 
sulphide ore has been opened on the lowest level. The 
< 'aledonia. situated near Kellogg, and facing Deadwood 
gulch, is one of the newer mines. It has a well defined 
vein, dipping about 50°, within which is both oxidized 
and sulphide ores, containing lead, silver, and copper. 
some of it being unusually high grade. Shipments have 
been kept up steadily during the year, and the lower cross- 
cut from Deadwood gulch, by which about S00 ft. greater 
depth below the old workings is obtained, is nearly fin- 
ished. The Stewart, lying west from the Hercules, has 
become a heavy producer. It is an old mine resuscitated. 
The North Fork country, or Murray district, has at 
least live producing lead-silver mines. The Coeur d'Alene 
North, or Monarch, has now a larger mill than 
iu 1910, and has produced 70 to SO cars of con- 
centrate during the year. The most interesting 
accomplishment in the mine recently has been 
the sinking in ore below the 1400-ft. mill level. 
The Paragon, Black Horse. Bear Top, and Jack 
Wait* comprise the other mines of this region 
which have produced some ore and are being 
further developed. The Bear Top and Black- 
Horse each has a mill. The Jack Waite has an 
exposed vein of high-grade galena, and a lower 
level is being driven to open it at greater depth. 
Several properties, formerly worked, situated 
in Sunset Peak district, have been acquired by 
outside investors who are beginning to reopen 
ami equip them. Some orebodies have been de- 
veloped and made productive in the Pine Creek 
district, Lying south of Wardner. Much has 
been accomplished there during the year in the 
way of initial operating. 

Salmi, ii Hirir Country. — The Pittsburg-Idaho 
mine, situated at Gilmore, Lemhi county, has 
been operated during t lie year with a force of 
75 men, and has produced approximately 20,000 
tons of silver-lead ore of a grade that was high 
enough to stand the expense of shipping to Salt 
Lake smelters without concentrating. The veins are in 
limestone, and the ore has been opened to a depth of 400 
ft. vertically. The Latest Out mine, in the same locality. 
is similarly developed, and has ore of about the same 
character and grade as that of the Pittsburg-Idaho. Its 
shipments for 1911 amounted to about 10,000 tons of ore. 
The Allie mine, which has been developed, yields an iron 
ore carrying gold, some shipments of which were made 
during the year. The Junction mine, near Leadore, has 
produced 20 rail., ads of ore thai sampled over 40'; lead 
and close to 40 oz. silver. Much of the ore is carbonate. 
Tins district and other parts of Lemhi county have become 
more active since the Pittsburg & Gilmore railroad was 
built into the Salmon river region from Armstcad. The 
Wilbert mines, situated 50 miles south of Gilmore, in 
Blaine county, have been developed by several adits, which, 
with drifts, raises, and cross-ruts, have resulted in expos- 
ing over 20,000 tons of ore running about 23% lead. A 
concentrating mill is being erected to treat this ore. The 
properly is in the Dome district, 2."> miles northeast of Ami. 
a gold-dredge was built on Kirtley creek last summer and 
j nit in operation September 1. The locality is near Sal 
nion City. 

Boise Basin. — The Boston-Idaho company, which has 
operated a dredge of 2000 yd. daily capacity during the 
past three seasons at Idaho City, constructed a second 
dredge and put it in operation last season. The new dredge 
bns 13} I-™, ft. buckets, close-connected, and has a rated 



■ : .v Huth tin 

The rollowi il pro 

■II i- mn 
Ball, si.ii. 

mm, (in,, I), 

i total value, $18^420,000. 
Mining in Alaska in 1911 

By A. 11. Hi:. 

*'l'li.- value of i In- Iota] mineral output of Aiaaka in 
1911 b estimated at $20,370,000, compared with (11 
678 in 1910. The gold outpul in lull is estimated to have 
i. Talne of 117,150,000; thai of 1010 was 916426,740. [I 
rtimatad thai the Alaska mines produced 22,900,000 II). 
ipperin 1011, rained at about $2,830,000; in 1910 their 
output was 4,211,689 ll>.. valued al 1538,695. The silver 
production in l'.'ll is estimated to have a value of 1220,000, 
enmpared with - ir 1910. The value of all other 

mineral products in 1911, including tin, marble, gypsum; 
and coal, was about $170,000, an increase over thai of 1910. 
By using the above estimate tor the outpul of 1911, the 
total value of Alaska's mineral production since L880, when 
mining tirst began, is bond t" be, in round numbers, $206,- 

600,1 of which $195,950,1 is represented by the value 

of the gold output The total production of copper in 
Alaska since 1901, when the systematic mining of this metal 
began, is about oil. 700.000 lb., valued at about $S, 170.000. 

The favorable showing made by the Alaska mining in- 
dustry during the year is due. Hrst, to the very large output 
of copper ami. second, to the greater production, compared 

with 1910, of the gold placer mines in the Innoko-Iditarod 
region. Aside from the increased production, the most im- 
portant event of the year was the opening of the Copper 
River region by the completion of the railway into il. The 
industries already stimulated by this line strikingly illus- 
trate the importance of railway communication to Alaska. 
As no progress was made in the opening of the coalfields. 
the needs for cheap fuel in Alaska are being met by the 
substitution of oil-burning for coal-burning engines. The 
importation of California crude oil is rapidly increasing, 
with a corresponding decrease in the use of coal. Some new 
drilling was carried on in the Kalalla oilfield during 1911, 
one or two old wells being reopened and a small production 
made. The oil was refined and the gasoline sold in the local 

Although most of the gold still comes from the placers, 
much progress was made during 1011 in paving the way 
for an increased output from auriferous lodes. The work 
was carried on in most of the gold-bearing areas of Alaska, 
but the most notable advances were in the Juneau, Valdez, 
Kenai Peninsula. Willow Creek, and Fairbanks districts. 
Aside from the increase in copper mining, the advances 
made in developing gold lode mines is the most encouraging 
feature of the year's operations. Dredging also made great 
progress, notably in the Nome region. It is estimated that, 
in the entire territory, 22 dredges were operated for the 
whole or part of the open season of 1011. In addition to 
those operated, at least half a dozen were in process of con- 

As improvement in transportation is the most important 
element in the advancement of the mining industry, the 
progress for the year in this respect will he briefly sum- 
marized. The Copper River & Northwestern railway was 
completed to Kennicott in April 1011. There was no other 

•The annual report on the mineral resources and pro- 
duction of Alaska for 1911 is now in preparation under the 
direction of Alfred H. Brooks, of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. The more important features of this report 
relating to the mining development during the year are 
abstracted as above. Complete and accurate statistics of 
the mineral production of Alaska cannot be collected within 
less than four or five months after the close of the year, 
but meanwhile it seems desirable to give prompt publica- 
tion to preliminary estimates, which, although not based 
on accurate statistics, are believed to be not over 10% in 


It I that then 

Aiaaka winch made tome pi 1011. Custom mills 

tides, Cbena, Pairbai 

ited and milled ore I r many prospects which cannot 

\et be classed as productive mines. Some dc 

work was done during loll on several hundred prospect* 

widely distributed over the Territory. Ti tput from 

auriferous lodes in ion is believed to have been somewhat 

larger than thai of 1910, which was valued ai $4,105 
Auriferous lode mining was Oral attempted in the Ketohi- 


% $ 9vF 


—T* * ' 1 ^B^^^^S- 


OCTOBER 7. 1911. 

kan district some twelve years ago. Several conspicuous 
failures made at thai time so discouraged operators that 
relatively little attention has since been paid to gold mining 
in this district. However, some development work has been 
continued, and in 1011 work was pushed on several proper- 
ties near Dolomi and on Georges inlet. The advances made 
in the Portland Canal region of British Columbia stimu- 
lated prospecting on the Alaska side of the boundary and 
within the Ketchikan district. Some encouraging results 
are reported in this field. 

Philippine Coal Trade 

According to George E. Anderson. United States Consul 
General at Hongkong, the mine at East Batan in the 
Philippine Islands, is now turning out 100 tons of coal 
per day and is expected soon to be able to turn out and 
handle economically 300 tons. This mining enterprise, 
which was undertaken several years ago, at first proved 
a financial failure, and some lime ago it was placed in 
charge of William E. Nolting under an agreement between 
the company and its creditors. This receiver or manager, 
in connection with E. R. llix. a coal expert from the 
United States, has reorganized the business, and it is now 
said to be upon a pitying basis. The Government of the 
Philippines has aided the enterprise by advancing funds 
againsl contracts for coal. These contracts are now gradu- 
ally being carried out. The imports of coal into the Islands 
in the year ended June 30, 1911, amounted to 403,146 metric 
tons, valued at $1,207,312, as compared with imports of 
303,117 ordinary tons, valued at $072,341. in 1910, 171, OSS 
tons, valued at $461,465. in 1909, and 213,959 tons, valued 
at $567,220, in 100.8. Up to 1000 Australia supplied most 
of these imports, furnishing 160,151 tons out. of the total 
of 171,088 tons imported that fiscal year. In 1910, how- 
ever, Japan commenced to enter the trade in earnest, 
apparently largely because of labor troubles in Australia. 
For the past two years it has furnished about half of the 
total imports into the Islands, through British North Borneo 
has commenced to enter the trade. 



January Ii. 191J 


By Oub Special Correspondent 

In the tirst half of the last fiscal year Mexico's exports of 
se, totalling 929,510,679, as against 

I d of the pn ling 

fiscal year. Silver exports amounted to 1*38,805,842, as 
against P37,754,931. Gold exports for lull were over 9*60,- 

000,000, and silver exports about P75, ,000. The pro 

unction oi copper was well maintained in 1911. i 
months Greene-Cananea produced approximately 42,000,000 
[he -Miami concentrate. In the 
eriod the pi if the Moctezuma Copper Co. 

(Phelps-Dodge) was 22,048,094 lb., an increase over the 
production in the corresponds if 1910. In the ten 

i the .inn. ■!■ Co. ( French 

iidsi had a production of 22,167,221 lb. The 
Mazapil i the Stab and the 

Teziutlan Cop In the State of Puebla, contributed 

fear's output. Mexico's lead is principally 
lucl of the important silver-lead mines of the 
i of the Republic, and disturbed condil 
lack of transportation facilities curtailed the output during 
the tirst half of lilll. Zinc production was also ati 
Tlic year saw the completion of the extensive ca 
of betterment inaugurated by the present mans 
of the Greene-Cananea in Sonora, and involving an ex- 
penditure of fully P7,500,000. For several months 

er at an average cost of 
9c... and at the present rati' of production and the present 
price of copper the company is in position to earn approxi- 


mately $1,675,000 per year. There is talk of dividends in 
1912. Since the tirst of the year monthly gold content in 
ananea ores has increased from 468 to 763 OZ., 
silver from 90,135 to 127,568 oz. During the 
pari of the year Greene-Cananea has been smelting 
concentrate from the Miami Copper Co.. under a con- 
ade in 1910. The Calumet & Sonora Co. has put in 
a Huff electrostatic plant at its Cananea properties, and is 
getting good returns from regular shipments of concen- 
trate. The Moctezuma Copper Co. has provided against 
water shortage by the construction of a dam for the im- 
pounding of storm-water. For several months the Lucky- 
Tiger Gold Mining Co. has been operating its new 250-ton 
cyanide plant, and during the year it has been shipping 
1 ade ore. During the year small smelters have been 
blown in at the Mina Mexico, in the Sahuaripa district: at 
the mines of the Triunfo Consolidated Mining Co.. near 
Arizpe; and at the Ccrro Gordo properties near Cumpas; 
and 100-ton plants have been completed by the Sonora 
Copper Co. and the Cobriza Mining Co., both operating 
near Nona. Disturbed conditions have interfered with the 
plans of the Pacific S. & M. Co.. owning, throuf 
sidiary concerns, the Fundicion and Guaymas smelters, and 
neither plant has been blown in. The Pedrazzini I told & 
Silver Co. completed a cyanide plant this year, but . 

led operations, pending the I of labor and 

other difficulties. The Transvaal Copper Co., owning ex- 
tensively developed copper properties near Cumpas, is 

credited with plans for a concentrator, and for a railroad 
to Cumpas; also with negotiations tor the transfer of its 
properties lo the Phelps-Dodge interests. In ten months 
■ ■I Shis year the net earnings of the Mines Company of 
America, controlling the Dolores and El Mayo mines in 
Chihuahua and the Creston Colorada and La Dura in 
Sonora, amounted to $673,109. 1 ty has plans for 

i educing operating costs at Dolores by building a power 
plant at Madera ami transmitting power to the mines. 
Early in 1911 the properties of the Hidalgo .Minim,' Co., in 
the Parral district of Chihuahua, were taken over by the 
Alvarado M. & M. Co. at a price of $50 1,000. Recently the 
alvarado | the power plant of the Parral Power 

^ Reduction Co. Milling at the new plants of the Alvarado 

olorada M. & S. Co., in the Parral district. 
was not interrupted by the revolution, and the bullion nut- 
put has lie. n steady during the year. The Chihuahua 
smelter of the A. S. & R. Co., and the Terrazas smelter of 
the Rio Tinio Copper Co.. shut down several months agi 
a result of labor troubles following ttion, have 

been recently Mown in. Negotiations that may result in the 
transfer of the Santa F.ulalia mines of the Chihuahua 
Mining Co. ami the Potosi Mining Co. to English into: 
are in progress. The deals involve millions of pesos. 
French interests are reported to be negotiating for the big 

- of the Compaftia Minera de Nairn. The 
Rio Plata and La Republics companies have been operating 
profitably during the year. Work is in progress on a 300- 
ton plant tor the Palmarejo & Mexican Goldfields, Ltd. 
The San Toy Mining Co. has had a successful year, and 
has paid several dividends. The net earnings for the first 
half of the year were $1S2.G47. Development of the Buena 
Tierra mine at Santa Eulalia. purchased in 1910 by the 
Exploration Company of London and Mexico, has been 
attended by satisfactory results. Considerable high-grade 
ore has been shipped from the Dos Cabezas mine of the 
1'. S. Pearson interests, and machinery for a stamp-mill 
and cyanide plant has been purchased at a cost of $65,000. 
The labor trouble at El Oro in August, which appeared 
is at the start, was not prolonged, and operations were 
not seriously affected. During the year the Dos Estrellas 
company has been producing from 1*800,000 to 1*900,000 
pier month, with a monthly profit of close to a half million 
pesos. Big dividend payments have been continued. In 
the ten months from January 1 to October 31 the El Oro 
Mining & Railway Co. had' a production of $2,014,080, 
milling 302,860 tons of ore, and securing a profit of $S61,- 
060. The 1911 production of the Mexico Mines of El Oro 
has averaged about $127,000 per month. A report for 
seven months shows a total production of $S94,192 from 
S0.G49 tons of ore. the profits reaching $543,112. During 
the present year the net earnings of the Esperanza Mining 
Co. have been kept down by heavy charges, due to better- 
ments of various kinds. Figures for seven months show 
profits of only $247,604 from a production of $970,029. 
The ore milled in that period amounted to 147,520 tons. 
The Real del Monte & Pachuea Co., controlled by (be U. S. 
S. R. & M. Co., of Boston, has continued its improvement 
campaign during the present year, with the result that it is 
now handling about 32.000 tons of ore per month. The 
present rate of production represents an annual output of 
approximately 10.000,000 oz. of silver, and it is possible to 
further increase the tonnage handled. In June last the 
Santa Gertrudis company, a subsidiary of Camp Bird, Ltd.. 
placed in commission its new 600-ton plant in the Paehuca 
district of Hidalgo. The company reports that the ore 
reserves, estimated at 462.000 tons at the time the Santa 
Gertrudis mines were purchased, have been increased to 
1.150.000 tons, with a probable value of 1*16,500,000. In 
the first six months of this year the San Rafael y Anexas 
Co. had a gross production of 1*1,649,556, and earned profits 
of 1*5411,114. A total of 71,587 tons was mined, the mining 
cost reaching fMi.oti. and the milling cost 1*3.94. The 
average yield was 643 grams silver and 3.43 grams gold. 
Dividends of 1*434.400 were paid in the six months. In 
the past fiscal year the La Blanea y Anexas Co.. another 

i the Paehuca district, produced 67,354 tons 


MINING \M> S< 11 \ I II H I'KI SS 

Blanc*, raeanth il t.' buj lha I 

li >>. estimated llial the 1811 production ol the Quana 
juato district »>ll al least reach that of 1910, which was 
approxunateh 1*14,000,000. I p cyanide plant 

ot the Providencia M A U. Co., al the Tajo de Dol -. 

was > iplatad early in the year, and hai been in Buocesaful 

operation for several month*. A lO-etamp cyanide plant 
started by tin- Tula Mining Co. in the tirst half of the year 
bat bang that down pending the development • .) higher 
grade ore. The Peregrina If. A: M. Co. lui-~ bad a good year, 

handling * ^< '< '« » tons i er month from the Villapand ine 

ot' that Cuba M. A M. Co. in addition to Toon i.uis of ii> 
own nn\ Tlir Qnanajoato Reduction A Mines Co. b;i> 
averaged 30,000 tons per month, abont one-third of the ore 
milled reuniting from new development in the old Rayas 
and Tepeyae mines. Dp to tins year the company lias 
been operating on ore from . lumps and tills. The mill of 
the Qnanajoato Con. baa been operating at half capacity 
during the greater part of the year, but higher grade ore 
has been milled. The Pingmea lias been milling from 
5000 to 7600 tuns per month, and the Carmen-Guanajuato 
has been operating at a good profit. The year's produc- 
tion of the rich Kl Monte de San Nil. .las mine will be over 
1*1,000,000. The Nueva work, at a standstill during 
much of the year, was recently resumed. It is expected to 
cut the mother lode in February or March 1012. 

The old Mololoa mines in the Hostipaquillo district of 
Jalisco were purchased early in the year by the Makeever 
interests, operating the El Favor and El Tajo properties. 
Since the purchase, development has been extensive and 
much high-grade ore has been shipped. Power interrup- 
tions during the rainy season interfered with mill opera- 
tions of the Amparo company, in the Etzatlan district, and 
the El Favor company, in the Hostotipaquillo district, both 
taking current from the transmission line of the Chapala 
Hydro-Electric Co. The Amparo has continued dividend 
payments of 'i^o on $2,000,000. The addition of two tube- 
mills has recently enabled Amparo to increase the tonnage 
by more than 1000. tons per month. High-grade ore from 
El Favor stopes is being shipped to the smelter, and the 
development of the sulphide ores below the 600-ft. level has 
been commenced. The Consolidated Mining Co. has given 
an option on its Casados mine in the Hostotipaquillo dis- 
trict. During the first half of the year much high-grade 
ore was shipped from this property. The year's develop- 
ment has been extensive. The Espada Mines Co. has built 
an aerial tramway to deliver Espada ores to the Virginia & 
Mexico plant in the Hostotipafpiillo district, leased early 
in the year, and milling will he commenced shortly. The 
Cinco Minas Co. (Marcus Daly interests) has been develop- 
ing during only a part of the year. Plans for a 200-ton 
reduction plant are being drawn. The Regina Milling Co. 
has bad an important year of development and is ready to 
build a concentrating plant at its copper mines in the 
Ameca district. Operations of the Magistral-Ameea Cop- 
per Co. were suspended during a part of the year. Sinking 
of the main shaft was recently resumed. The old Cerrito 
copper mine in the Ameca district, has been taken over by 
the Almoloya Mining Co. at a price of 1*50,000. The 
■1*100.000 bond on the Zapote group of mines in the Ameca 
district, held by E. A. Montgomery, of Los Angeles, Cal., 
has been extended for a year, and extensive development 
has been continued. The San Miguel Gold Mining Co., has 
imported machinery for a reduction plant at gold mines 
near Ejutla. Work at the Keystone properties in the 
Tapalpa district has been resumed by the Mexieana Mining 
Co., a holding concern. The Tajo Mining Co., of the San 
Sebastian district, has increased its mill capacity to 100 tons. 

During the year engineers of the Esperanza Mining Co., 
of El Oro, examined the old Escuadra mine in the Taviehe 
district of Oaxaca with a view to its purchase by Esperanza. 
If is now reported that the deal has been abandoned. Much 
ore has been shipped during the year from the San Juan 
mine in the Taviehe district, shipments reaching a value of 
?100.000 per month. The San Juan company has installed 

ii mill I., handli 

e most important transfer ••! th. thai 

•it till ,■ of San I 

.in.l In k railroad i i B 

A i;. Co. for PI ,600,000. l-w ., mm - 

al lias I d an important Bbipper to tbi 

plan) ••! the \. B. A R, Co The railroad gives lbs i 

■ lion win. the National Railways al Las Chareas. The 

Santa Rosa Uining Co ntrolled by the Exploration 

laml ami Mexico, iia~ bean ai \mrk mi im- 
portant redaction facilities al th i Banta Roaa mines in il>>- 

pcion del Oro .lisim-i oi Zaeateeaa Operations in 
the principal Zaeatecas ili-m.-is have been well maintained. 
Important shipments of lead silver ore have been made 

from the Lead <,'i n mine in Aguasealienles to the Sun 

Luis Potosi smelter, the smeller company having the prop 



£tu* '^ y/: y>swTiPAm^ L " cau ' a/ ' 


erty under lease. Prom the Taxco district of Guerrero ore 
has been shipped during the year by the Atlixtac, San 
Miguel, Mora y Milagro, Espiritu Santo, and San Miguel 
concerns. Atlixtac also has shipped concentrate and pre- 
cipitate, and concentrate has been shipped from the 
Purisima and Chorrillo mills. There has been much de- 
velopment by the Taxco Mines of Mexico at the old Rosario 
properties, and plans for a 200-ton cyanide plant have 
been taken up. The Reforms M. & M. Co., owning the big 
Campo Morado properties, has been operating steadily. 

The Mexico Con. M. & M. Co., owning extensive proper- 
ties and a reduction plant in the Guanacevi district of 
Durango, was reorganized during the year, and since has 
been operating with satisfactory results. It is reported 
that English interests have made a ileal for the Restaurn- 
dora properties in the Guanacevi district, at a price of 
about 1*1,000,000. The Candelaria Con. Co., of San Fran- 
cisco, California, has built a 100-ton cyanide plant at its 
mines in the San Dimes district of Durango, and is aban- 
doning the old system of pan-amalgamation. The capacity 
of the plant will he increased after the completion of a 
hydro-electric plant. The San Luis Mining Co., another 
.San Dimas concern, is replacing an old 30-ton plant with 
a cyanide plant of 100 tons capacity. The Compaiiia Ex- 
ploradora y Explotadora de Guanacevi is pushing develop- 
ment work, and has entered into a contract to supply 50 
tons of ore per day to the Rosario M. & M. Co. The Reyes 
M. & S. Co. has blown in a 50-ton lend smelter, and is op- 
erating with success. A contract for a new power plant 
at the Guadalupe de los Reyes mines in the State of Sinaloa 
has heen signed, and the new plant will be ready for service 
by May 1912. Charcoal gas-producers will he used, and a 
big saving in operating expenses is expected to result. 


January li, 1912 

Lake Superior Copper Mines 

By Robert li. Maubeb 

As nearly as can be oalculated al this time, actual figures 
in most instances not being available, the output of the 
Lake Superior mines for t he year 1911 approximates 
222,874,350 lb. fine copper, representing a gross vain 

5. This output was made at a cost of about 
10c per lb. for all corn- 
pain; :ii 15,000,000 lb. was prodi 
at a profit. Omitting a production largely incidental to 
development in t lie various properties, and considering 
only the output of the profitable producers, the average 
was about 9.5c. per lb. Twenty-two companies con- 
tributed to this output, as against 20 in the preceding 
year, and there are now 18 yielding a regular production 
with a combined annual output not Car from 220,000,000 
11). fine copper. There is little likelihood that the present 
rate of production will materially increase ill the next 
year or two, tbot - i a increase is easily possible. 
New sources of production are seemingly limited to the 
Lake I lo, and will show no marked effect on the 
annual rale for a year at least. Any material increase 
must come from one or several of the present producers 
and may be looked for only in the event of further and 
great improvement in the metal market. There is no 
undue restriction on output except in case of the Osceola 
and Calumet & Hecla, both of which are capable of far 
greater production. The other companies for the most 
part are producing well up to capacity. A table showing 
the estimated production in pounds fine copper of the 
several Lake Superior companies for 1911. as also actual 
figures of production for the preceding year, is appended 
herewith. Estimates are based upon the most reliable 
data obtainable. Official figures will not be available in 
some instances for several months to come. 

1911. 1910. 

Company. (Estimated.) (Actual.) 

Calumet & Hecla 75,434,000 72,672,469 

I lopper Range Con. : 

Champion mine 17,845,000 19,224.171 

Baltic mine 16,329,000 17,549 

Trimountain mine... 7.200.000 14,868 

Quincy 21.398,000 22,517,014 

Osceoia 18,261,000 19.316,566 

aimeel 14,920,000 11,844,954 

Mohawk 11,937,000 11,412,066 

Wolverine 9.642,000 9,665,534 

Tamarack 7,514,000 1 1 .1163.606 

Isle Royale 7,292,000 7,567,399 

Allouez 4,725,000 4.655.702 

Superior 3.213,000 1.041 

Centennial I 1 .572,566 

Mass 1 .429,000 1 .321.885 

Victoria 1,415,000 1.16! 

Franklin 1.000.000' 966.353 

Winona 800.000 

Hancock 751,749 

La Salle 245,000 472,100 

Gratiot 15,605 265,869 

ellaneous 262,031 

Totals 222.S74.354 222,420,523 

The ail copper sold during 

the year was 12.65c, which, with one exception, is the 
lowest annual aver;: ecorded in ten years. Tie: 

avers 07 was 20e. 

Since that year it has ruled steadily under 13.5c. The end 
of the year bro enl in the metal 

market, and at the close the better grades of copper were 
selling freely at above 1+ cet 

In consequence ol the low price realized product, 

dividends were generally smaller and not always earned. 
The lotal disbursed by all companies during the year closely 
approximates $6,000,000. 

New York Share Market in 1911 

By Our Reoilar Corrksponuent 

FalstalV said : " My whole charge consists of 

lemen of companies, 
I as Lazarus in the painted cloth, 
the cankers of a calm world and a long peace." In an 
attempt to review the mining share markets of the year 
in the Bast, there seems to be almost as little to be proud 
of as Sir John found ill his motley band of riff-raff. The 
year 1911 will always be recalled as a period which broke 
all previous records for depression. Trading in milling 
shares in New York is carried on mostly on the Curb, an 
outside market without any organization, but whose mem- 
bers follow closely the rules of the New York Stock Ex- 
change. This market, which really occupies a legitimate 
field among the various market-places of the Eastern finan- 
cial centre, has been used by so-called brokerage houses 
making the bucketing of orders a regular practice, until 
the Curb has lost its public and can no longer fulfil its 
primary office — that of making a market for the distri- 
bution of new issues. The atmosphere of the New York 
Stock Exchange is distinctly hostile to all mining enter- 
prises: in fact, it is one of the traditions of the Exchange 
to treat with unbounded contempt anything connected with 
the mining industry, at least so far as public trading 
is concerned. There are those who dare to say that this 
b short-sighted, and who point to the building up of busi- 
ness which does not go to the floor of the Exchange and 
in which mining plays a very large part, but so far there 
has been no sign of any change of attitude by the board 
_" crnors. 

The beginning of 1911 found market operators turning 
from the copper shares, which were evidently facing a 
period of stagnation, due to the burden of accumulated 
stocks. The conditions prevailing at the beginning of 
the year clung to the copper market throughout nearly 
the whole of 1911. and only in the latter half of December 
was there any strong upturn. Throughout the year, the. 
copper situation was an exceedingly interesting one — one 
which was followed by the general public with close atten- 
tion as well as by producers, sellers, and consumers. The 
whole of 1911 must be counted a period of stress for the 
copper producers, a period devoted largely to close study 
of cost sheets in an anxious effort to meet conditions. The 
year just begun will undoubtedly demonstrate that the de- 
pression of 1911 was by no means an unmixed evil. Forced 
rehabilitation of many properties has been completed, de- 
velopment work has been accomplished, and economies en- 
forced that will all add to profit in the future. The 
Canadian silver issues — all Cobalt properties — with only 
one or two exceptions, demonstrated one of the queer turns 
of public sentiment as regards mining shares. The close 
of 1910 showed that the mines in Cobalt had broken all 
previous records, dividends were satisfactory, in some cases 
very large in proportion to the market prices for the 
shares, but the public trading had then dwindled to insig- 
nificant proportions, and in spite of increased production 
throughout the year, market followers refused to have any- 
thing to do with Cobalt issues. 

Trading in Nevada issues had sunk to very small volume 
during 1910. and when Goldfield Consolidated was 'taken 
inside', as the phrase goes, meaning its removal to the 
floor of the Stock Exchange, Goldfield shares were left 
without a leader and almost without any public following. 
It appeared, therefore, that there was no obstacle in the 
way of the development of a new mining field. Especially 
if a gold-mining district, with the lodestone of high-grade 
gold ore, could be brought before the public, then another 
real boom could be made in a market way. and many thou- 
sand shares distributed. So it was that Porcupine dawned. 
with every mining broker, promoter, and advertising solici- 
tor watching its rise with anxious eyes. Early in the year, 
the prospectors, claim-owners, and option-holders moved 
upon New York in solid phalanx, with tongues trained to 
speak of no sums less than hundreds of thousands. Hun- 


ii mii h rut ss 

nI b) 

ill. iiml li 

III I ly nil till' 

i .<• pnblie never took upine, 

in, which is Ibe market for the Lake coppei 
was in u tiininiil diu reater pari 

■eeo ilidation nil pied by the Calu 

Hecla; a move which was fougbl so bitterly as to In- 
finally abandoned by rs. The situation was made 

interesting by the work of .1. R. Finlay, formerlj 
manager of the Goldneld Consolidated, who made an in- 
dependent appraisal of the principal Laki es for 
the Uiehigan Stale Board of Taxation and Equalization. 
Mr. Finlav lias Borne advanced ideas about mines and min- 
ing investments that oughl to In 1 read by every would-be 
Inner of mining shares, before lie makes his purchases 

nut after. For Huston, like New York, the year was one 
"f low prices and a very small volume of business. One 
of the principal deterrent factors to normal activity in 

mining enterprises was the Mexican insurrection, which 
resulted in the exile or flight of General Diaz. New York 
has many mining men. promoters, ami engineers, to whom, 
for many years. Diaz was Mexico, ami it is not strange 
that confidence, uprooted by the downfall of Diaz, should 

have been slow to he recovered. New York has many in- 
terests in Mexico and is hoping for an immediate restora- 
tion of tranquillity. One of the brighter features in the 
mining-share market was the revival of Tonopah. The 

making of a big mine of the Belmont, ami coming hack 
of Montana-Tonopah, '_'ave one group of operators a cheer- 
ful air of prosperous business. 

Any study of the mining market in New York City begins 
and ends with an analysis of the peculiar conditions sur- 
ronnding the Curb market. In reality, the Curb market 
is simply an outgrowth of custom. It is granted the priv- 
ilege of trading in the street by a stretch of the police 
power, and holds its sessions in the open air during the 
whole year. The bulk of its business is in mining stocks, 
in new issues not yet granted the privilege of trading on 
the New York Stock Exchange, and the greater part of 
the business comes through members of the Stock Exchange. 
It is one of the iron-clad rules of the Exchange thai mem- 
bers are not allowed to trade with the rival exchanges. It 
has, therefore, been impossible for the Curb to organize 
itself without losing the overflow business from the big 
exchange. In fact, its members with Stock Exchange con 
nections have been strong enough to prevent any real or- 
ganization being effected. This peculiar situation has left 
the Curb without power to redress any wrongs committed 
by the traders who abuse the privileges of the open mar- 
ket. The Curb has been, and is still, unable to enforce 
any sort of discipline or punishment upon traders trans- 
gressing these unwritten rules. Could this anomalous con- 
dition be overcome, the New York mining market would 
immediately achieve an enthusiastic public following that 
would grow to immense proportions. 

If the mining engineers of the United States could, 
through some official organization, impose conditions which 
would prevent any reputable engineer from lending his 
name to 'get-rich-qniek' paper promotions, foisted upon 
the public by promoters, that bear no real relation to the 
mining industry, it would mean a tremendous double step 
forward. The public realizes mining to be a field in which 
it should be able to embark profitably. The same public 
has just recently begun to realize (he need of common 
sense and business judgment in making such embarkations. 
New York will never have one-half the mining market it 
should have until some preventive measures are adopted 
which will be more effective than the mere example of the 
punishmnt of those who use the United States mails for 
fraudulent purposes. 

California Petroleum Production 

HI 1911, 






kfaricopa 1,468,1 

Salt Lake 2,815,097 

\\ lut i hi < loyote 


Siiiniiii Hand 

Lost Hills 

Total ., 

Less loss 



77.S7 l.:;,'i 

Xct tor year 77,224,359 

Shipments 1911 66,665, 

Increase in surplus In. 5 

London Share Quotations of the Year 

(In pounds sterling, unless otherwise stated.) 

Dec. 5. Dec. 5 
Transvaal. 1910. 1911. 

Crown Mines . . 



Rand Mines .... 



East Rand 



Modderfontein . 


1 1 % 

Randfontein Cen 




Randfontein Es 




Citv Deep 





>; :: , 

Meyer & Charlton 4% 






Cam & Motor. . 


35V .s 



Globe & Phoenix 

- :; > 


Lonelv Reef .... 




: J .V„ 





-" „ 

West Africa. 

Ashanti Gold- 










Taquah Explora- 



West African 





Alaska Treadwell 8% 







Oroville Dredging 6s. 


El Oro 



Mexico of El Oro 






West Australia. 

Bullfinch Pro- 




Great Boulder . . 



Boulder Perse- 


4 Vis. 




Golden Horse- 




Great Fingall . . 



Sons of Gwalia. 



Broken Hill. 

British Broken 




Dec. 5. Dec. 5. 
1910. 1911. 

Broken Hill Pro- 
prietary 36s. 

Broken Hill 

North 4 ! , 

Broken Hill 

South :,i i 

Zinc Corporation 13a. 

Zine 34s. 

Sulphide Corpor- 
ation 23s. 


Anaconda $% 

Arizona I ( 

Atbasar IS 

Spassky 3 :; , 

Kyshttm 1% 

Great Cobar. ... r. ■ , 
Great Fitzroy. . . 13s. 

.Mount Lyell 32s. 

Mount Morgan. . '■'•'■'■, 

Poderosa 3% 

Rio Tinto C9 

Anglo Maikop.. . 25s. 

Cal. Oilfields 5 

Kern River.. . 12s.6d. 

Lobitos 28s. 

Maikop Pipe-Line 19s 
Mexican Eagle 

($10 pref.).... 20s, 
Trinidad 15s. 


Dolcoath 16s. 

Gopeng 3 1 /] 

Pahang 4s.6d. 

Tekka 2 \ ', 

Tronoh 1 : 'i 

Champion Reefs 1% 
Tin Fields of Ni- 
geria 1% 

Lucky Chance.. lVs 

Naraguta 1 


Waihi 6 

Waihi Grand 

Junction 30s. 

St. John del Reyl5s. 

Lena 3% 

Mysore 5 ' i 

Nundydroog 31s. 

Ooregum 15s. 

Champion Reef..Ss.6d. 







1 T - 























January 6, 1912 

Market Reports 

San Francisco January -i. 

Antimony 11— lljc i iJuicksllver (flaak) 44.60 

Electrolytic Copper 15—11 |c | Tin 47— i»ic 

Pig Lead 4.70— 6.660 Spelter "t— 8ic 

Zinc dust, 1400 lb. casks, per 100 lb., small lots 89.60— 9.70; large $7.50— 8.50 


Silver reached the highest point for the week ended Janu- 

n lust Wedni n New York quotations placed 

>i week opened strong at 51%. but on Saturday 

the price dropped to 54%. Since then it climbed steadily 

to the figure named. The latest New York quotations place 

tic copper at 13.90. lead at 4.4f,. and spelter at 6.30. 

(By courtesy of J. C. Wilson, Mills Building.) 

Closing Prices 
Jan. 3. 

Mohawk I 56) 

North Butte 28j 

Old Dominion 47) 

Osceola _ 107 

Parrot 141 

Shannon 10 

Superior i Boston 3J 

Tamarack 31 

Trinity 61 

Utah Con 17} 

Victoria 44 

Winona 6 

Wolverine 100 

Closing prices, 
Jan. 8. 

Adventure 6) 

Allouez 43 

Calumet A Arizona 61 

Calumet <t Hecla 440 

Centennial 18 

Copper Range „ 551 

Daly West 6 

Franklin IS 

Granby 39 

Greene Cananea, ctf. 8| 

Isle-Royale 22 

La Salle r,| 

Mass Copper..... 8) 


(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 

San Francisco, January 3. 

Atlanta s .17 

Belcher 48 

Belmont 7.90 

B. <S B 20 

Booth 06 

Chollar 15 

Combination Fraction 14 

Con. Vlrglna 1.05 

Florence 61 

Goldfleld Con 4.25 

Gould & Curry .06 

Jim Butler 29 

Jumbo Extension 22 

MacNamara .26 

Mayflower 8 .02 

Mexican 4.32 

Midway 20 

Montana-Tonopah „ 1.05 

Nevada Hills 2.52 

Ophlr 1.60 

Pittsburg Sliver Peak 1.20 

Round Mountain 54 

Savage .22 

Tonopah Extension 1.12 

Tonopah of Nevada 7.30 

Union 1.20 

Vernal 16 

West End 78 


(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 
San Francisco, January 3. 

Associated (ill 844.62 

Brookshlre 50 

Caribou (New Stock) 1.12 

Claremont 85 

Coallng.a National 14 

Con. Midway .02 

US — 

Enos 15 

Maricopa National .21 

Midway Premier 29 

Monte Crlsto 1.111 

Palmer 7", 

8 4.76 






Silver Tip 



S. W. i- B 




United (111 


W. K. nil .... 


Current Prices For Chemicals 

(Corrected monthly by Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co.) 

Prices quoted are for ordinary Quantities in packages as 

led. For round lots lower prices may be expected. 

while in smaller q giced prices are ordinarily 

d. Prices nai subject to fluctuation. Other 

conditions govern Mexican and foreign business. 

Mln. Max. 
Acid, sulphuric, com'i. 66°. drums, 9 100 lb 80.75 81.00 

Add, sulphuric I 96 lib 1.00 1.5(1 

ilnburlo, 0. I'..9-lb. bottle, bbl.. -f" lb.. 11.13 0.18 

Aold, sulphuric, C. P., bulk, carboy, n, .0.091 0.12 
Acid, muriatic, com'l, carboy, y 100 lb 1.60 3.00 

Acid, muriatic, l_\ P.. 6-lb. bottle, bbl., > lb 0.15 0.20 

Acid, muriatic, C. P., bulk, carboy, 9 lb 0.101 0.15 

Acid, nitric, com'l, carboy, fl 100 lb 6.SS 6.60 

Acid, nitric, c. P., 7-lb. bottle, bbl., 9 "1 0.16 0.22 

Aold, nitric, C. P., bulk, carboy, p 11 (U2j 0.15 

Argots, ground, bbl., 1 lb 11.20 0.25 

Borax, cryst. and cone, bags, r 100 lb..... 2.7.", 3.86 

Borax, powdered, bbl.. f 100 lb 3.00 4.011 

Borax glass, gd.. 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, f 100 lb 10.00 

Bone ash. till to 80 mesh, bbl., BlOOlb. 4.50 

Bromine, l-lb. bottle, lb 0.5S 

Candies, adamantine, l2ox., H)» ts, $ ens.. 3.50 

, adamantine, 14 os., 40 aeto, 91 case 4.00 

Candles, Stearic, 12 ok., 40 sets 4.95 

Candles, Stearic u o/.. 10 seta, > case 4.66 

(.'lay. domestic lire, suck, f 1111)11, 1.50 

Cyanide, 98 to 100 ■ 11 •< -lb. casi lb 0.20J 

Cyanide, 98 to I case, >■ lb 0.20 

Cyanide. 199ft, 100-lb. case, g n, u.27) 

Cyanide. 128 ■,. 200-lb. case, V lb 0.26J 

Lead acetate, brown, broken casks, ^ 100 lb 8.76 

Lead acetate, white, broken casks. $ 100 II, 10.00 

Lead acetate, white, crystals, j* 100 lb 11.75 

Lead. C. P., test., gran.. 1> 100 lb 13.00 

Lead. ('. P., sheet, $ 100 lb _15.00 

Litharge. C I':, sliver free. I 100 lb 10.50 

Litharge. COm'l, J 100 1b 7.50 

Manganese ox., blk., flora. In bags. ^ ton .20.00 

Manganese ox., blk., Caucasian. In casks, ^ ton _ 42.50 

(¥5* MnOj— it, Fe) 

Nitre, double refd. small cryst.. bbl.. (3 100 lb 7.00 

Nitre, double refd, granular, bbl., fl 100 lb 6.50 

Nitre, double refd, powdered, bbl., f» 100 1b 7.25 

Potassium bicarbonate, cryst.. & 100 lb 12.00 

Potassium carbonate, calcined, fi 100 lb 15.00 

Potassium permanganate, drum, $ lb 0.11 

Silica, powdered, bags, 5* lb „ 0.03 

Soda, carbonate (ash), bbl., $ 100 lb 1.50 

Soda, bicarbonate, bbl.. ? 100 lb 2.C0 

Soda, caustic, ground. 98$. bbl., $» 100 lb 3.15 

Soda, caustic, solid. 98*. drums, -a 100 lb 2.65 

Zinc shavings. 850 rtne, bbl.. f 100 lb 11.25 

Zinc sheet. No. 9—18 by 84. drum. t> 100 lb 9.75 



Current Prices for Ores and Minerals 

(Corrected monthly by Atkins. Kroll & Co.) 
The prices are approximate, subject to fluctuation, and to 
variation according to quantity, quality, and delivery re- 
quired. They are quoted, except as noted, f.o.b. San Fran- 
cisco. Buying prices marked •. 

Min. Max. 

Antimony ore, 50%, # ton "mOO 825.00 

Arsenic, white, refined, 9 lb 0.02 0.021 

Arsenic, red. refined, Y lb 0.071 0.08J 

Asbestos, according to length and quality of fibre, 

H ton 100.00 350.00 

Asbestos, lower grades. V ton 10.00 100.00 

Asphyltum. refined, •» ton 15.00 20.00 

Barium carbonate, precipitated, "? ton 42.50 45.00 

Barium chloride, commercial, e! ton 42.50 45.00 

Barium sulphate (barytes). prepared. $ ton 20.00 30.10 

Bismuth ore. 10* upward, f ton *75.00 upward 

Chrome ore. according to quality. ~& ton 10.00 12.50 

China clay, levigated. ? ton .. 15.00 20.00 

Cobalt metal, refined, f. o. b. London. >> lb 2.5) 

Coke, foundry, f 2240 lb 13- r i0 15.00 


Borts. according to size and quality, "p carat 2.00 15.00 

Carbons, according to size and quality, f carat .... 75.00 100.00 

Feldspar, $ ton 6.00 25.00 


Bauxite. « M .175.C0 

Magnesite, >■ M 1C0.00 275.00 

silica, tg M 42.50 47.50 

Flint pebbles for tube-mills, $ 2240 lb „ U .00 25.00 

Fluorspar. j< ton 10.CO 16.00 

Fullers earth, according to quality. $ ton 20.00 30.00 

Gllsonite. ta ton 36.00 40.00 


Amorphous, ? lb 0.011 0.02) 

Crystalline, « lb 0.04 0.13 

Gypsum, y ton 7.50 10.00 

Infusorial earth, y> ton 10.00 16.00 

Magnesite. crude. 9 ton 7.50 10.00 

Magnesite, dead calcined, ? ton 22.50 27.60 

Magnesite, brick (see firebrick 1. 

Manganese ore, oxide, crude, 9 ton 10.00 25.00 

Manganese, prepared, according to qualify. $ ton 30.00 70.00 

M lea, according to size and quality. t> lb 0.05 0.30 

Molybdenite, 96jt Mos 2 . $ ton 400.00 500.00 

Monazlte sand i.vahoriai. $ ton 150.00 200.00 

Nickel metal, refined, $ lb 0.45 0.60 

Ochre, extra strength, levigated. $ 100 lb 2.25 3.25 

Platinum, native, crude. $ oz 30.00 40.00 

Sulphur, crude, f ton 15.00 25.00 

Sulphur, powdered, f ton 40.00 46.00 

Talc, prepared, according to quality, f ton 20.00 50.00 

I in ore, 60ft, f ton 450.00 475.00 

Tungsten ore, 659b 466.00 520.00 

Vanadium on m 150.00 180.00 

Wolframite (see tungsten orei. 

/.Inc ore. 50* up, V ion •lS.OO 20.00 

' Scltocc tui no incmy uv< iht ignorint." 

Whole Ro. 2686 "SVUSm? SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 13. 1912 

8lD{le Capita, Ten Cenu 


l -I nil ISHBD >l \ > .1. isii". 


THOMAS T. RK \i< • 





\ \V. Alton. Charles Janln. 

Leonard S. Austin. James F. Kemp. 

T. Lam- Carter. C W. Purlngton. 

! t.nuy De Kalb. C. F. Tolman. Jr. 

J R. Flnlay. Walter Ilnrv.y \V 1 

F I.ynwooU Garrison. Horace V. Wlnchell. 




Telephone: Kearny 4777. Cable Address: Pertusola. 

Code: Bedford McNeill (2 editions). 


CHICAGO — 73< Monadnock BdK. NEW YORK— 29 Broadway. 

LONDON— The Mining Magazine, 819 Salisbury House. E. C. 

Cable Address: Ollgoclase. 


United States and Mexico "... |3 

Canada si 

Other Countries In Postal Union 21 Shillings or *."> 

News Stands, 10c. per Copy. 
On Library Cars of Southern Pacific Coast Trains. 

L A. GREENE ----- Business Manager 

Altered ut Ban Franeiteo Postofflee "* 67eeond-CVa« Matter. 



Notes 95 

Alaska's Immediate Needs 96 

Revision of the Mineral Land Laws 97 


The Mineral Land Laws and Their Defects 

George Otis Smith 98 

Review of Gold-Dredging In 1911 Charles Janin 101 

Kuk San Dong Cyanide Plant A. E. Drueker 103 

New Zealand and Nevada Mining Methods Compared 

P. C. Brown 101 

German Mining in 1911 105 

Review of Lake Superior Copper Mining in 1911.... 

Robert II. Maurer 106 

Work in the Snake Creek Tunnel 108 

Coal in Montana 108 

Wyoming Mineral Industry in 1911 

Albert C. Boyle, Jr. 109 

Joolin Lead and Zinc Production 109 

Russian Mining in 1911 110 

East Rand Fiasco Ill 

Copper Producers' Association Figures Ill 

Nevada Dividends , Ill 

Dark Scale of Hardness Alfred C. Lane 112 

Cobalt and Its Market 112 

Russian Gold Property Auctions 112 

Manganese Dioxide 112 

Oilfields of Mexico 112 

Report of the Oriental Consolidated Mining Company 

for 1910-11 125 

Montana Gold and Silver Production 127 

California Oil Dividends 127 


Mass Copper Horace J. Stevens 113 

Stamp-Battery Cam-Shafts Algernon Del Mar 11H 





Personal 124 

Market Reports 124 

Among the Copper Mines 126 

Book Reviews 126 

Decisions Relating to Mining 127 

Catalogues Received 128 

Commercial Paragraphs 121 


r us ANi; ki.ks mining engineers have formed a 

*-** mittae, under the etairmanahip of Mr. v. .1. n. Merrill, 

1 ganixe a local technical society. Whether il will be 

affiliated with one of the national societies has nol yel 

SHIPPING interests are 'after the scalp' of the Court 
of Commerce, and will make an effort to swim' its 
abolition, on the ground that appeals from the decisions of 
I lie Interstate Commerce Commission should go directly to 
the Supreme Court. 

NEW MEXICO is at last a State of the Onion, and will 
duly celebrate the event next Monday. New Mexico 
has had a long and interesting career as a Territory, it is 
a region of large, undeveloped resources, and we are glad 
to wish that as a State it may realize to a full its best 

T^XTKN'SIOX of the operations of the United States 
*-* Smelting, Refining & Mining Company into Stales 
oilier than Hidalgo, forecasted by an item in our news 
pages, will be welcomed in Mexico, where the company, as 
al borne, is well liked and has a record of 'lean dealing 
and achievement. 

WHAT'S in a name — "The largest open-eut mine in 
the Federated Malay States, situated at Kamunting, 
Perak, belongs to Towkay Ng Boo Bee, who has bad a very 
tempting offer from a Loudon syndicate. The conservative 
old gentleman, however, is not disposed to sell." He is evi- 
dently neither booby nor n. g., after all. 

TROUBLE with the fanners over smelter fume lias again 
come to a head in California. This time the Fanners' 
Protective Association is asking action against the Penn 
Chemical Works at Campo Seeo, in Calaveras county. Such 
matters should be settled by a joint technical commission 
rather than a board of county supervisors. Unfortunately, 
as yet this seems impossible. 

TEPIC, the ancient capital of the Ten-itory of the same 
name in Mexico, will be in railroad communication 
with the rest of the world after February, and construct ion 
of the Southern Pacific line on to Guadalajara is to be 
(inshed, according to Mr. Epes Randolph. The influence 
of better transportation facilities is already felt, the rail- 
road having cast its shadow- before, as noted in the cheerful 
account of mining development in the Territory printed 
on another page. 

LEASING the coal and grazing lands is advocated by 
Mr. Walter Fisher in bis annual report as Secretary 
of Interior. While by some this is considered the essence 
of radical doctrine, the idea is rapidly becoming familiar 
and popular. On the whole Mr. Fisher's recommendations 
are much less revolutionary than conservatives bad antici- 
pated and, being evidently based upon thorough and fair 
study of actual conditions, they have produced an ex- 
cellent impression. 



January 13, 1912 

D REDOING costs are not based everywhere upon the 
same method of computation. Too commonly the 
theoretics] capacity of the bueket, multiplied by the num- 
ber dumped per minute, is taken as the basis of yardage. 
In California practically all companies compute their re- 
turns on the basis of the ground in place that has bean 
ermine the amount each month, careful 
surveys and soundings are made. The capacity of 
in California is therefore larger and operating costs lower 
than those elsewhere, with few but important exc 
when equality of conditions is considered. Tin 
used by Mr. Charles Janin in his review of dredging are in 
each ease those computed according to the local standard, 
data for recasting them not being available. 

A SURPLUS in the United States Treasury once brought 
Grover Cleveland into the presidency, though, sad to 
relate, the surplus, having accomplished so much, promptly 
vanished. Another surplus, in the treasury this time of 
the Tonopah Mining Company, is popularly reported to 
have brought Mr. J. E. Spun- to the vice-presidency of i hat 
company, that he may expend it for another mine 'equally 
good.' We arc unable to say whether there is foundation 
for the report, but it is evident from reading the news 
columns that from now on every mysterious stranger seen 
hanging around a likely prospect will be regarded as an 
emissary of the potent Mr. Spurr, We hope the Tonopah 
Mining Company may have a long career of usefulness. 
Another good mine could hardly fall into better hands, but 
we doubt very much whether its campaign of optioning is 
as wide as current news items suggest. Somebody is going 
to be disappointed. 

MOJAVE has been the centre recently of a new oil boom 
engineered by the Mojave Oil Company, of Los An- 
geles. Rigs have been erected, certificates engraved, and 
drilling and stock-selling are simultaneously active. The 
literature distributed by the company dilates enthusiastic- 
ally on the "Kraemer anticline," "plainly traceable above 
ground for over a hundred miles," "without a fault." The 
supposed oil pool is linked convincingly with the field at 
Maricopa, the presence between of the Tehachapi moun- 
tains being gracefully ignored. It is stated that the •'drill 
has just penetrated through an exceedingly hard capping, 
and entered a brown shale, impregnated with the usual oil 
odor." The fact is that the drill is in igneous rock under- 
lying all sedimentaries, and that the anticline, of which so 
much is made, is a minor wrinkle of no great extent. There 
may be oil near Mojave, but the Mojave Oil Company has 
represei ted no convincing evidence thereof, and is evidently 
wrong in important particulars. However, there are those 
who maintain that at least some oil will be found — it is 
bard to sell stock on an odor, even when it is admittedly 

-ClOREST SERVICE officials are at some pains to dispel 
-*- the impression, so widely current, that prospecting on 
lands in the National Forests is to be restricted. In a 
circular letter recently issued ljy the District Forester in 
San Francisco, it is pointed out that the Act of June 4. 
1897, specifically says that prospectors shall not be pro- 
hibited from entering upon National Forest lands for the 
purpose of prospecting, locating, or' developing the mineral 
resources therein. Prospecting and mining may go on 
within the National Forests just the same as on public 
lands outside. The prospector is absolutely free to travel 
about and explore just as much as he pleases and wherever 
he pleases, without asking anybody's permission. When he 
finds mineral he can stake out, locate, record, ami work just 
as many claims as he thinks worth while, precisely as he 
would on the public domain. Any time he wants to get 

patent for his claims he can do so, providing the mining 
laws of the United States have been complied with. No 
one can patent claims which are taken up merely for the 
timber on them, or to get possession of land for purposes 
foreign to mining. The mineral as well as all other re- 
sources of the. National Forests are for use. Within a 
National Forest the prospector and miner are assured of 
timber when they need it, and as long as they need it for 
the development of their claims. Outside, the timber sup- 
ply is often doubtful. This i> designed to be the chief 
difference between prospecting inside and outside National 

ECONOMIC geology is recognized as perhaps the most 
difficult of all subjects, connected with mining, to 
teach, and in the current number of Economic Geology 
Mr. C. A. Stewart reopens the discussion as to teaching 
methods. It may be worth while to point out that the 
difficulties encountered, in part at least, arise from the 
necessity of covering three phases of inquiry in one course. 
The thorough study of the principles and criteria of ore 
deposition, for which Mr. Stewart pleads, must necessarily 
be based upon an adequate knowledge of the occurrence 
of deposits — what might be termed economic geography — 
and this, in turn, must be based upon a good working 
knowledge of ordinary geography. The average under- 
graduate mining engineer is too often devoid of the last 
of these, and the instructor's task is correspondingly mag- 
nified. Nevertheless, the criticism is justified, that in many 
teclmical schools too much time is devoted to the study of 
details; and too little to the correlation of details and the 
acquisition of general principles. Until by psychological 
analysis it is possible to determine beforehand exactly what 
the needs of a student will be, and to direct his education 
to that specific end, much as candidates for examination 
are coached on the questions asked during previous years, 
no better teaching method can be devised than a thorough 
inculcation of principles and methods of study. The 
capable man will be able to acquire detailed knowledge as 
it is needed, and will be the better off for not having his 
mental storeroom full of old lumber. Too often there is a 
ion to overvalue facts and undervalue principles. 

Alaska's Immediate Needs 

Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast cities have 
united in urging upon Congress prompt action covering 
the more imperative needs of Alaska along non-contro- 
versial lines. Attention has been so concentrated upon the 
railway and coal-land situation that other matters of equal 
importance are being overlooked. Alaska needs railways 
and better land laws, but, because there is dispute as to 
how these needs are to be met, is no reason why the present 
disgraceful condition of the Alaskan coast as regards light- 
houses and other aids to navigation, should continue. This 
past summer one of the steamers had occasion to run out 
of its regular course for a short distance in the immediate 
vicinity of Sitka, which, it is well to remember, has beei. 
a centre of civilization since 1799, and discovered that the 
coast was still unsurveyed ! Not only the coast, but the 
land is without surveys, and while a beginning has been 
made by authorizing the United States Geological Survey 
to take up the work, it remains true that settlement is prac- 
tically prohibited in most of the Territory by the fact that 
the land is still unsurveyed. Cable tolls are high, wagon- 
roads are few, the salmon are being fished out without ade- 
quate provision for the future, and in many other ways 
Alaska is being neglected and exploited rather than ration- 
ally developed. The Alaskans deserve better things. They 
have natural difficulties enough with which to contend, and 

January 13, UU 


dj shoald nol allow ii > attention 

ed upon p. . ion ..r ili.' bumble 

liui lawful matti 

Re\ision of the Mineral Land Laws 

-.-» t in..-- mIi. n a- in nfii intelligent pub- 
lic ; Med npon National problems aa now, 

bom probably when the laws relating <" the d 
landa were undu raeh general and active discussion. The 

need of thorongfa revision baa long l» reeogniied by those 

ijimilinr with Western titions, bnl inertia, seconded by 

u prevented any considerable accomplish- 
ment Both -till stand in the way of adequate revision, 
luii the demand for change is more widespread and is bet- 
organised than ever before. The withdrawals <>r public 
bud t n>in entry, Brat bj executive act, and later with Con- 
greesit.nul approval, have fereed attention to the need of 
change. So long as ii was poesihle by liook or crook 1 to 
continue to -_-.-t posseesioo of mineral bud aa needed for 
development it was done, and there were many who justified 

tli.' particular means adopted as affording th dy way 

for meeting an acute situation. \\V are not among 
those who believe that '.'"".1 would ( is from a wide in- 
vestigation of titles acquired under former conditions. If 
there were irregularities, responsibility therefor is not one 
aided, ami a genera] unsettling of titles would be a National 
calamity tot which neither necessity nor adequate justifica- 
tion exists. Bygones may well be let bygones; the present 
and future afford troubles enough. 

The American Minim,' Congress has maintained for sev- 
eral years a committee on the revision of the mineral land 
law. This committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. E. 
K. Kirhy. has undertaken a campaign to secure from Con- 
gress a commission or some other authorized body to hold 
public hearings and receive suggestions looking to a com- 
plete re-writing of the Federal statutes relating to mineral 
land. This plan has received wide support ami there is cx- 
oellent prospect of the suggestion being adopted. In the 
meantime an extensive discussion is going on among en- 
gineers as to just what changes should be made. The 
Mining and Metallurgical Society has appointed a strong 
committee, consisting of Messrs. H. Y. Winchell, C. W. 
Goodale, and M. L., to study and report on the 
matter. The San Francisco and other sections of the 
Society have debated the situation, though as yet no reports 
have been published. The chairman of the committee, Mr. 
Winchell, will be glad to receive suggestions from those in- 
terested, whether members of the Society or not. 

The admirable analysis of fundamental conditions by Mr. 
George Otis Smith, printed in this issue, affords at once a 
sound basis for discussion and a well formulated state- 
ment of the position taken by the proponents of change. 
The country is fortunate in having just at this time as 
Director of the Geological Survey, one who takes such 
keen and intelligent interest in the problem. The great 
mass of exact data available to an officer of the Geological 
Survey, with the detached position of the organisation as 
a technical bureau, renders particularly valuable opinions 
from such a source. Mr. Smith is evidently favorable to 
deep-seated and extensive change, but he approaches the 
matter mainly from the point-of-view fTf one who must 
help meet actual problems as they arise. He favors the 
separation of surface from mineral rights, "whenever the 
two estates have values that can be separately utilized," be- 
cause such separation permits the immediate utilization of 
the one in present demand without sacrifice of the other. 
Congress has recognized in recent legislation that it is 
foolish to give coal of large future value to the man who 
only wants and can only pay for desert land for agricul- 

eoal I- m.t vet ... demand. \\ ■• ; 
.pie ..I separation ..t th.- two ralui -. when 

tWO values, is -..mi. I. and main . M , k . 

••I bj \h. Smith. The general subject of land 
revision cm nol be discussed adequately in any one p 
01 editorial. We commend .Mr. Smith'.- arguments t.. our 
readers and we desire at tin- time to emphasise ana p.. mi 


The law Of the ape\ has proved t roiilil.--,,,,,.- from thi- 
ll i- founded on an emu us conception of tbi 

.-.- of ..I.' deposits, and in practical operation it 

i- necessary t.> buy and hold more Ian. I to protect a newly 

ered orebody, than would i»- n Bsary with square 

locations. 'I'll.- reason li.-s in ih nplcxity of the law and 

the necessity for protection against claims founded mi the 

nee oJ lodi -' ol bol b steeper and less steep .lip. The 

cs i' tli.- Bound Mountain Mining Company may be 

cited as one in point, and difficulties to In- la I by anyone 

undertaking deep developmi tin- Mother Lode in 

California, as another. The absurdity of regarding the 

porphyry copper deposits at Bingham, I'tah. as -I- 
such as originally contemplated by the law. is enough to 
condemn the latter. To all such arguments tin- common 
reply has been made that conflicting rights ..mid he ad- 
justed by the courts, and that introduction of the square 
location would interfere with existing rights. Adjustment 
by the courts of rights, themselves none too definite, is 
slow and expensive business, and if no other mineral claim 
was ever located in the United States, the courts would 
have enough and to spare of apex litigation for years to 
come. If, on the other hand, the square location had been 
adopted ten or twenty years ago, many important districts 
would have entirely escaped vexatious litigation arising 
from the extralateral right. The districts yet to be opened 
should not be denied protection because mistakes have been 
made in the past. Any change made now could not inter- 
fere with any existing right, and it cannot be said too 
plainly or too often that any revision of the mining law 
that may be undertaken should be in such terms as to pre- 
vent any possible question as to the protection of any ac- 
crued interests. This is demanded by the spirit of fairness, 
and any argument to the contrary is academic. That such 
a policy accords with the intention of Congress is shown 
by the fact that when the laud withdrawal act was passed, 
provision was made for confirming any vested rights. For 
the first time a locator on oil land had protection so long 
as he continued work in good faith. It is true that a clause 
which would have operated to confirm all claims, good and 
bad, was defeated, as it should have been, but legitimate 
locators were left, as a result of the new law, in a stronger 
position than ever. It happens that the United States does 
not recognize a location' as a vested interest acquired 
against itself, and that defence of the possessory right of a 
local or on public land, as against others seeking to dis- 
possess him, falls to State courts as a part of their work 
of preserving the public peace. It would be possible, there- 
fore, for the Government to refuse, in case a new law was 
enacted, to recognize rights acquired by location but not 
as yet confirmed by patent. We do not believe that this 
should be, or would be, done, though the point is worth 
emphasis in order to prevent any possible miscarriage of 
justice. Revision of the mining law is needed. Old con- 
ditions have passed, and to face the new, to continue the 
development of the West, to secure the highest possible 
utilization of the great natural resources, radical changes 
are imperatively demanded. Let the revision be prompt 
and thorough, but let it protect old rights and define new 
ones so as to free the industry from unnecessary litigation. 



January 13, 1912 

The Mineral Land Laws and Their Defects 

By George Otis Smith 

•The increasing share which the Geological Survey has 
been asked to take in the public-land administration by 
the Interior Department has brought many of the problems 
connected with the public-land laws more directly to the 
attention of those charged with the work of this bureau. 
For over 30 years, however, these problems have interested 
the Federal geologists, who have had exceptional oppor- 
tunities for first-hand observation in nearly all the impor- 
tant mining districts of the country, and for almost as 
long a period the engineers of the Survey have been in 
touch with the irrigation and power developments in the 
public-land States. This intimate experience with both 
tield conditions and administrative problems justifies an 
expression of opinion concerning the land laws, which, it 
is believed, will be appropriate to this administrative re- 
port. To a large extent the principles here presented and 
the specific provisions advocated have been expressed in 
memoranda submitted by the Geological Survey to the Sec- 
retary of the Interior during the past four years. 

Proposed Amendment of Public-Land Laws 

The objects to be sought by amendment of the public- 
land laws are, first, purposeful and economical develop- 
ment of resources for which there is present demand, with 
retention of such control as may insure against unneces- 
sary waste r ,r excessive charges to the consumer; and, 
second, the reservation of title in the people of all re- 
sources (lie utilization of which is conjectural or the ueed 
of which is not immediate. The means that are essential 
i" tin' attainment of these objects an-, first, the classifica- 
tion of the public lauds: second, the separation of surface 
anil mineral rights; and third, the disposition of the lands 
on terms that will secure the highest use. enforce develop- 
ment, and protect the public interest. Legislation based 
in these principles will not only secure the positive bene- 
lits of immediate utilization, but will also avoid the evils 
of speculative holdings of lands by fictitious use or by 
admitted nonuse for tile future enjoyment of the unearned 
incremert or of the profits of monopolization. With act- 
ual development made a condition of possession, and with 
land classification and separation of estates made prelim- 
inaries of disposition, the present-day utilization by indi- 
viduals or corporations, and the reservation to the people 
tor future use become at once possible without conflict of 

The classification of the public land is essential to the 
admin ist ration of not only such laws as express the prin- 
ciple of separation, but also of those whose purpose is 
to promote the highest use of the land. Land classifica- 
tion is, first of all, the determination of the best use to 
which each particular portion of the public domain can be 
put, and by the organic act of March 3, 1879, this duty 
was specifically imposed upon the Director of the Geolog- 
ical Survey. Progress now being made in this work is 
set forth in this report. 

Separation of surface and mineral rights might he 
effected without classification of land by the automatic 
reservation of all mineral deposits to the United States 
in every patent issued as a result of non-mineral entry, 
selection, or purchase. LegislatirSi of this type would pos- 
sess the merit of simplicity and effectiveness, but the well- 
known objection to limited patents would with considerable 
reason be made the basis for the contention that the Gov- 
ernment should assume the burden of classifying its land 
before disposition. 

The classification of the public domain is itself an out- 
growth of the principle of relative worth, which early 
found expression in the land laws of this country, in 
that they provided for the reservation of mineral lands 

•Prom annual report as the Director of the United States 
Geological Survey. 

from disposition for other purposes. The present coal- 
land law also expresses this principle of relative worth 
by giving deposits of gold, silver, and copper, priority 
over coal, and coal, in turn, preference over agricultural 
values. Such distinctions necessitate land classification 
based on adequate field examination, and with the classi- 
fication data at hand the principle of relative worth can 
be further developed. Wherever the different values of 
the land conflict, the highest use should prevail, and under 
legislation that does not oppose the principles of economic 
law the highest use will prevail. 

Under the withdrawal act of June 25, 1910 (Stat. L., 
Vol. 36, p. S47), classification is made possible in ad- 
vance of disposition, and disposition can be postponed fo 
await immediate legislation. Fully to accomplish this pur- 
pose, for which it was enacted, the withdrawal act itself 
needs amendment in several particulars. No withdrawal 
is effective against location or appropriation for minerals 
other than coal, oil, gas, and phosphate, the apparent in- 
tent of the law being to promote the exploration and dis- 
covery of metalliferous minerals. However, this exception 
to the application of the withdrawal law is far too broad. 
in that it would include such minerals as potash or nitrates, 
the disposition of which is a matter of no less vital con- 
cern to the agricultural interests of the nation than is 
the proper utilization of the phosphate deposits. So, too, 
it is true that attempts are being made to claim sand and 
gravel as minerals excepted by the law and under such 
contention to secure control of power-sites, even in the 
face of an executive withdrawal. Connected with this de- 
fect in the law is the lack of recognition therein of the 
principle of relative worth. There is a too-evident oppor- 
tunity for a gypsum entryman, notwithstanding the fact 
that the gypsum, by reason of poor quality or lack of 
transportation facilities, may be worthless commercially, 
to set up a claim for title to a tract of great prospective 
value for oil — a tract which is protected from oil entry 
by an oil withdrawal. Similarly, under the mineral law 
it is possible to seek title to the walls of a narrow canyon, 
withdrawn as a power-site, in spite of the great discrep- 
ancy between the utterly negligible value of the building 
stone it contains and the strategic importance of the dam- 

Separation of Surface and Mineral Rights 

The first step, both in principle and practice, in any 
amendment of the land laws, appears to be that of mak- 
ing possible by legislation the separation of surface and 
mineral rights whenever the two estates have values which 
can be separately utilized. A notable advance in public- 
land legislation was the passage of the acts of March 3, 
1909 (Stat. L.. Vol. 35, p. S44), and June 22, 1910 (Stat. 
L., Vol. 36, p. 5S3), which provide that patents issued 
thereunder grant title to the surface of the land only, 
and thus permit its agricultural development, while at the 
same time the United States retains title to the underlying 
coal deposits. The results have been of undoubted value 
in permitting homestead and desert-land entries. Carey Act 
selections, and reclamation-act withdrawals on lands which 
are withdrawn or classified as coal lands or are known 
to be valuable foii coal. 

A similar separation of surface and mineral rights should 
be extended to all other non-mineral entries, selections, or 
locations, to include oil. gas. and phosphate lands as well 
as coal lands, the mineral rights to be reserved to the 
United States until they can be disposed of most bene- 
ficially to the people. For all these lands the need of 
legislation for the separation indicated is not academic, 
but actual, since under each class there are already re- 
quests for surface patents. 

Similar legislation applying the principle of separation 


MINIV, AND SC'll Mil li I'KI SS 

l- .It '1 ..I' 

< ill.- future develop 
bmbI either powt 

and ui ll»' SUM Inn. tntl "I mm 

(cultural use ol tin' liuul. <>r ui patents when minin g may doI interfere with water 
powei development. Dunns ''"' P**l . Vl ""' the principle 

involved in iiu- proponed legislation «a agnized bj the 

■in-lit ol an item in ili.' In. lum appropriation eel 
whieh provide* for the issuance of limited patents on 
the slu.r.'s oi Flathead Ink-, in Montana, whan inoi 
storage for power and irrigation maj be al soma future 
lum' foond in be advantageous. A farther recognition of 
iln- prineiple was given in the water-power lull intro- 
ilurr.l i, v Berber! Parsons at the third session of the 
Sixty-first Congress ill. K, 33000), wherein provision is 
made for ■ doable use of land leased far water power 
ut il i s a t i on and for the reservation in perpetuity to the 
Qnitsd Btatea of all rights to future occupancy and use 

fur water power develoj ol on all Ian. is designated by 

the President. Tin- need of statutory authority for lim- 
ited patents is most evident in regions where, because of 
the possibility of future power-development, lands sre 
now withdrawn which possess present value I'm- agricul- 
tural ass. Provision should be made whereby future power- 
development will be absolutely insured whenever the value 
of the lands for sneh use would exceed their actual agri- 
eultural value. 

The chief advantage of land withdrawal and ola 
Son In-- b tial relation in iln- principle of proper 

dispoeiti t the public domain, the tea] purpose of 

public-land administration being in insure such reservation 
or disposal .•!' the people's land as will result in its 
highest ii-.'. Tin- question of amendment of the present 
laws relating to the disposition of coal, nil. gas. ami phos- 
phate deposits on tin' pnblie ilomain is reeoguized as fairly 
before the pnblie by the Bpeciflc mention of these min- 
erals in the withdrawal act. 

Law Applicable to Coal Lands 

The cool-land law is unquestionably the mosl satisfac- 
tory of the present mineral-land laws in thai it admits of 
the placing of an adequate valuation upon the depn.-ii-. 
and in the administration of this law the purpose is not 
only to base the appraisal price upon the quantity and 
quality of the coal present and to give consideration to 
every known physical and commercial factor affecting the 
value of the deposits, but also to make the selling price 
approach as nearly as possible the present purchase price 
of a royalty under a leasehold. Thereby it is intended 
to permit purchase for immediate development and at 
the same time to prevent, or at least discourage, purchase 
for long-time investment or for monopolization. So many 
factors, however, require consideration that an ideal ad- 
justment of the values is well-nigh unattainable for many. 
if not for most, coal lands, and on this account a strong 
argument may be made for support of the lease over the 
sale system. Under leasehold it would be comparatively 
easy so to adjust the relationship between ground rental 
and royally as to prevent the acquisition of coal deposits 
until such time as their development should be profitable. 
On the other hand, it is possible, under the present law, 
and it is the policy in its administration, to readjust the 
prices from time to time, either by reduction to encourage 
development in special cases, or, more commonly, by rais- 
ing the price on account of increased value due to new 
discoveries or to changed commercial conditions. The 
greatest advantage of the lease system to the operator 
directly, and to the public indirectly, is relief from the 
large capital outlay now required in the acquisition of 
the large acreage absolutely necessary for a modern mine. 
This argument, advanced against the present policy of 
valuing the public coal-lands at even conservative prices, 
thus becomes an argument for a leasehold law. Thus 
contrasting the lease with sale outright to the coal opera- 
tor, the reduction in capital necessary for original invest- 
ment must result in reducing the "cost of operation to 

.u.l Ihui ■ 

II. il. II;, I 

ihui. i the better eontml p 

' ii control 

.mist I,.' weighed il -i ■ & the 

|.o-silnliii.'s of inefficient administration or even maladmin- 
The present coal-land law, bow erious do- 

, which should he remedied if a leasing law is not 
enacted. The restriction ol area thai may legally be as 
quired to a maximum of 160 scree for an individual and 

640 acres for an association is nol in accord with g I 

mining practice. The fixed charges on the ooai of a mod 
ern coal mine provided with the up-to-date equipment 

-ai'v to conserve life and property and to assure n 
imum recovery, arc too high to be assessed against the 

output of >o small a tract, esj ially if the coal scam 

"ul\ i lii-aic thickness, a law designed i" promote 

the practical utilization of coal deposits, where the sys- 
tem contemplates sal ■ lease, must provide tor the hold- 
ing of a large enough unil to permit the opening and 
equipment of a modern mine and lo warrant lis econom- 
ical operation. Without such provision for commercial 
operation, to., great an advantage is given to the land 
grant railroads and large coal companies already In pos- 
session of considerable areas of high-grade coal. 

Laws Applied to Phosphate Lands 

The presenl uncertainty whether the phosphate rock of 
the public land should be entered under the lode law or 
under the placer law is conclusive evidence of the need 
of legislation. As a matter of fact, neither of these laws 
is more applicable to the acquisition of beds of phosphate- 
bearing limestone than it would be to that of coal beds. 
The realization that the phosphate deposits are more ex- 
lensive than was known or suspected when the Survey 
geologists began land classification work in Idaho and 
Wyoming does not lessen but rather increases the urgency 
for a leasing law which will provide for the utilization 
of this large supply of mineral fertilizer, so as to meet 
both present and future needs. 

Law Needed for Oil and Gas Lands 

The mosl urgent need of legislation for the disposition 
of mineral deposits is in the case of oil and gas. It 
is most apparent that the placer law, which is none too 
well adapted to meet modern conditions in mining placer 
gold, is wholly inadequate if applied to public oil lands, 
inasmuch as oil is discovered at a late stage in the ex- 
ploration and development of the land claimed under the 
law. Thus, large expenditures, extending over several 
months, if not years, are necessary before any right is 
acquired against the Government, and during all this time 
there is no legal protection of the oil prospector against 
unscrupulous claimants or competitors better backed by 
capital. The need for remedial oil legislation is some- 
what less pressing than it was a year ago, by reason of 
the passage of the act approved March 2, 1911 (Stat. L., 
Vol. .'Hi. p. 1015), the effect of which is to validate a 
class of claims that, although clouded by the construc- 
tion which the Department was forced to place upon the 
misfit placer law under which title to oil lands must now 
be gained, were bona fide in that the inception of their 
development antedated the oil-land withdrawals. This legis- 
lation was in accord with the spirit of the withdrawal act, 
which provides for the protection of equities already estab- 
lished. The need for a better law is, however, imperative, 
and the legislative action demanded by the situation should 
not be limited to an attempt to revamp the general placer 
law, but should consist of the enactment of an altogether 
new measure especially adapted to provide for the sane 
and equitable development of this industry in the future. 
First, the new law should authorize the issue of explora- 
tory permits, granting to individuals or associations the 
exclusive privilege of occupation, the sole condition of such 
a grant being diligent and adequate prosecution of develop- 
ment work, measured by the expenditure of fixed sums 
within certain periods, with possibly the payment of a 



January 13, 1912 

small fee to the Government in lieu of such expenditure 
during the first six months. The issue of this permit should 
preferably be limited to one to each citizen or association 
of citizens, although after the lapse or surrender of such 
a permit the former holder should be allowed to apply for 
another exploratory permit. In the second place, the law 
should provide that upon discovery the holder of the permit 
be given a leasehold title with a royalty varied to meet 
local and actual is. The 'wild-catter 1 or prospector 

in unproved country, whether such unproved territory is 
classified on gei dence as oil land or not, should 

oe given special privilege to offset his greater risk. This 
privilege might take tin- form of an increased acreage, 
held both under permit and under lease, or a practical ex- 
i inption from the payment of royalty, merely a nominal 
rental being charged under the lease. 

The chief advantage that may be urged for the lease- 
hold for oil over a fee-simple title lies in the prevention 
of monopolization through large holdings. Such large 
holdings without production would be guarded against 
by a ground rental sufficiently high to discourage the 
acquisition of lands except for immediate and continued 
development, although provision should also be made in the 
lease for surrender under terms which would protect the 
Government. This indirect control of development would 
be preferable to the direct enforcement, by forfeiture, of 
continuous production, which should be avoided because of 
the danger of disturbing the delicate equilibrium between 
supply and demand. Transfers of interest, under either 
permit or lease, should be permitted because of the absolute 
necessity in most instances of procuring capital for both 
drilling and operating an oil well. The law, however, should 
set forth the purpose of the control of such transfer, which 
would be to provide protection for the original locators, 
most of them men of small means, and more especially to 
insure the prohibition of too large holdings of Government 
leases by big companies. 

Laws Relating to M etalli i'erous Minerals 

Proposed amendments of the well established laws relat- 
ing to metalliferous minerals always raise the warmest dis- 
cussion. With the opinion of mining men in general 
favoring revision of mining laws of the United Slates, and 
with commission after commission appointed by various 
bodies to suggest improvements, the statutes have remained 
practically unchanged for nearly forty years, while the geol- 
ogy of ore deposits and the technology of metal mining 
have made marvelous progress. 

The law of the apex has proved more productive of 
expensive litigation than of economical mining. In many 
of the more recently established and more progressive min- 
ing districts this statute has been made inoperative either 
by common agreement or by compromise between adjoining 
owners. Its repeal could not affect established equities 
under patents already granted, but would render possible 
more certain property rights in large mining districts, not 
as yet discovered, where new and valuable claims will be 
located a hundred years from now. The unit of disposi- 
tion should be the claim, preferably square, limited on 
its four sides by vertical planes, and of a size sufficient 
to allow the miner occupying two contiguous claims to 
follow the vein or lode to considerable depth, even if its 
dip is only 45°. Such definition of a mining claim is 
found practicable in both Mexico and British Columbia, 
and in the latter country the change from the apex law 
was effected without trouble or confusion. 

The same knowledge of natural conditions that leads to 
the suggestion of a repeal of the law of the apex forces 
the further suggestion that discovery of ore in place can- 
not be made universally a prerequisite to the location of 
a mining claim. Geologic study of ore deposits has fur- 
nished examples in a number of regions where the present 
law cannot be complied with, although rich deposits exist 
underground and their extent can be more definitely sur- 
mised than in most places where ore is discovered al the 
surface. To meet such actual conditions, the law should 
provide for the acquisition of metalliferou land 

classified as such upon the basis 'if adequate geologic evi- 

dence, whether actual outcrops are present or not. 

Most important, perhaps, in any amended mining law 
would be provision for enforced development, a principle 
expressed, it is true, in the present law. but not made effect- 
ive in its workings. A requirement of actual use as a 
condition of occupancy of mineral land cannot be regarded 
as either novel or radical. As regards the large acreage 
of undeveloped Ipnd in many mining camps to which patent 
has already been issued, it is perhaps true that the situa- 
tion is without relief, unless the Western Australian plan 
is adopted, whereby the Government steps in and permits 
mining under a lease, the proceeds of which are assessed, 
collected, and paid over to the owner. The principle in- 
voked seems to be that no property-owner can rightfully 
oppose the development of the resources of the State. 

In the case of unpatented claims, a remedy should be 
sought for what has been termed "the paralysis of mining 
districts," and the rigid requirement of annual assessment 
work should be made actual and effective by inspection and 
supervision, in order to put an end to the present proced- 
ure of allowing a claim to lie idle for practically two 
years after its location, not to mention the many localities 
where claims are held year after year with only perfunc- 
tory compliance, or even without any performance of as- 
sessment work — a type of local disregard for law that is 
in striking contrast to the observance accorded to the dis- 
trict customs and regulations of earlier days, whereby tbe 
right of possession was made absolutely dependent upon 
continuous operation. 

The remedy, then, for the existing evil of idle mining 
property must be sought either in the adoption of lease- 
hold, under which the Government can enforce operation, 
a system which fully attains the desired end of promoting 
mining development in Australia and New Zealand, accord- 
ing to the report made in 1907 by A. 0. Veateh, of this 
Survey, to the President, or in the thorough revision of 
the existing system. Radical amendment to the present law 
would be necessary in order to secure something more 
nearly approaching equality of opportunity. Some limita- 
tion should be put on the number of claims which an 
individual can locate in each mining district, and the pre- 
vention of monopolization would be furthered by the rigid 
enforcement of assessment development. The record of 
claims kept by a local official elected by the miners should 
be reported to the nearest land office in order to furnish 
the Federal Government with a notice of the intention of 
the claimant, and thus to initiate the operation of effective 
inspection, the purpose of which would be to enforce the 
use and development of mineral land as contemplated in 
the law. 

Legislation Required for Water-Power 

On the subject of water-power legislation the position of 
the Geological Survey is essentially that set forth in 
January of 1911 in a report addressed to the Secre- 
taries of the Interior and of Agriculture by a joint com- 
mittee representing the two departments. The legislation 
there outlined would provide for leases of public and re- 
served lands of tbe United States valuable for water-power 
development for a fixed term, not to exceed 50 years, with 
moderate charges for use and occupancy of the land, revo- 
cable only upon breach of conditions or on account of 
the charge of excessive rates to consumers. These leases 
should be identical in terms, under whatever department 
they are granted, with joint and uniform regulations gov- 
erning all matters relating to water-power development of 
land belonging to the United States. Provision should also 
be made for periodic and equitable readjustment of charges, 
transfer of leases, preferential rights to renewal, and com- 
pensation for improvements at the termination of the 
leasehold. The law should specifically recognize water- 
power use as dominant, should insure to the lessee undis- 
turbed occupancy of the land needed for such use, and 
should reserve for future utilization all land believed to 
possess value for water-power development, these lands to 
be designated by the President but to be open to other 
entry, subject to this reserved right wherever separation 
of the water-power use ami other use is possible. 




Review of Gold Dredging in 1911 

By Cn 


•Tin- Eleanor I' M I nted a* baring ■ gold 

dredge in operation in Franeh guleb, hut no detail* an 



The only place ni which gold dredging i- being conducted 

in Colorado is al B Ige, Sumuiit county, where 

tlm - are no* operating one dredge each. The 

Breekenrid the New Zealand type 

and ware started in 189S; these, and a number of other 

- following, proved too liirlii for the ground and were 

-hut down. It «.i- nut until 1898, when the Reliance 

dredge was constructed, that any bi ess was met »itli 

ju gold-dredging in the State. This boal was 
originally designed as a double-lifl dredge, but 

was afterward entirely re< Btrneted. The 

Colorado Gold Dredging Co. is operating a 
.ins dredge, which is the largest in Sum 
mit connty. It was built in 1908, and bun. lies 
from 160,000 t.. 170,000 en. yd. per month. 
During 1010 (be dredge handled 1,400,554 co. 
yd. at an operating cost of 4.7e. per cu. yd. 
The dredging Bsason was from March 23 t.. lie 
camber 4. Tbis dredge lias 42 close-connected 
buckets of O'^-iMi. It. capacity ami is designed 
t.> dig 38 ft. below water-level. The profitable 
gravel is eonnned tn a narrow channel 1 _ >< » to 

200 tt.'. This c pany lias a dredge now 

idle it) the Blue river. When last in operation, 
the buckets ran into a hard porphyry <Iik<>, an 1 
the bucket-line was badly damaged. In French 
gulch there are boats belonging to two dredging 
Companies, the Reliance anil the French (lulcli. 
•each operating a 5-ft. dredge. The cost of 
operating the French Gulch dredge, a Bncyrns 
boat, which was built in 1908, is stated to be 
■' |l < per cu. yd., and the monthly capacity 
75,000 yd. Operations last through nine months 
of the year. The Reliance Dredging Co. han- 
dles 70,000 on. yd. per month, and operations 
are continued throughout the year. The Re- 
liance dredge is an old boat which has been re- 
peatedly overhauled and remodeled. It was 
originally designed for steam-power, but was 
changed in 1900 to electric power. Some years ago dredges 
were operated near Golden, but were unsuccessful, and the 
machinery was afterward moved to other fields. In Routl 
county several attempts have been made to dredge different 
areas, but no dredges are at present operated. A small 
dredge, with 1%-ft. open-connected buckets, operated for 
a few months near Hahn's Peak in 1007. The deepest 
ground was 12 ft., and the best day's work, according to 
the man in charge, was 1174 yd. in 24 hours, and the coal 
■consumption 4 tons. As coal cost only $3 per ton, deliv- 
ered, it is seen that the fuel cost in this instance was not 
high. The dredge did not pay, however, and was shut down. 
The gold won from dredging operations in Colorado 
has been approximated as follows: 1907, $36,000; 1008. 
$145,000; 1909, $413,000; 1910, $344,210; 1911. estimated. 


Gold-dredging in Idaho first started in 1S94 with the in- 
stallation of a suction dredge on the Snake river near 
Minedoka. It was claimed that this boat was successfully 
operated and that the working cost of handling gravel was 

•For notes of gold-dredging in California, Montana. 
Alaska, Russia, and the Philippines, see the' Mining and 
Scientific Press, January 6. 

per cu. yd, However, "Inn v built a 

• i boat, it was ol the bucket elevator type. 

u. ft bucket- and an ipacit] ol 

pen.., i ,.i twenty months 
reported cos) ••! ■ >' y. per eu. yd. It did nol pro 
profitable enterprise, and il was dismantled, and th< 
ery moved to Boise Basin. In Boise connty a :t'-j it 

don dredge was built in 1808 and operated for a i bar 

irs until worn mil. ami sii that lime a number of 

rful boats have been built The Boston & Idaho Gold 
Dredging Co. put in operation in 1911 a 16 it. boal built 
by the fobs Construction Co. Power i- furnished from 

ompany's plant on the Payette river and delit 
to the dredge motors, which call for a total ..t Mo hp. 
;u 2200 volts. Till- panj also operates a ."> it. Risdon 


boat with a capacity of 57,000 cu. yd. per month. This 
latter boat was built in 1909. One of the most profitable 
enterprises is said to be that of the Moline Mining Co. 
at Placerville, operating a 5-ft. Risdon boat. This com- 
pany formerly operated a steam-shovel plant on the same 
property. Other dredges have been placed in different parts 
of Idaho, two near Elk City, and one this last year by 
the Kirtle Creek Dredging Co., five miles from Solomon, 
Lemhi county. This is a 9-ft. dredge using electric power. 
The production for 1911 is expected to show a decided 
increase over that for 1910, which was, according to the 
I". S. (leological Survey, .fill .247. Dredging operations in 
Idaho were described in the Mining and Scientific Press for 
January 1 and July 16, 1910. 

Detailed figures of the number of dredges working and 
the production in recent years are given below: 

Year. working. Amount. 

1005 3 $ 34,332 

1906 3 39*200 

1907 li 74,434 

1908 5 77,189 

1909 8 101,705 

L910 6 01,247 

1011 (estimated) 200,000 



January 13, 1912 


The operations of the Con rev Placer and Poor Farm 
companies in Madison county were discussed by Mr. Jen- 
nings last week. In Missoula county there are two dredges 
working, one a Marion dredge at the La Casse placers, and 

tl Ihcr. which was started this year on Kennedy creek, a 

5-ft. Kisdon boat, with sleam-|iower using wood for fuel. 
During 1909 a dredge was operated for a few weeks mar 
Hot to. hut has been stopped. The Magpie Development 
eompany put a dredge in operation in May 1911 on 
Magpie gulch, in Lewis and Clark county, about twenty 
miles from Helena. This dredge is operated by electricity 
and is said to have cost $150,000. It was built by the 
Union Iron Works. 


The only dredging operation in Nevada is that of the 
I Mines Co.. about 14 miles from Oreana. Hum- 
boldt county. This has been discussed by H. G. Walker 
in the Engineering and Mining Journal of June 11. 1011. 
It is a Risdon boat, equipped with 28 buckets of 5-cu. 
It. capacity. The power is furnished by four Doak gas- 
engines with a total of 196 hp., using distillate as fuel. 
The depth of the ground ranges from 20 to 30 ft., and 
contains a considerable number of boulders. The dredge 
has been shut down after operating but a short time, and 
it is reported (hat the boat will be moved to a new location. 


Gold-dredging in Oregon has never met with any pro- 
nounced success. The total production of gold won from 
dredging operations in the State, does not, so far as can 
be let i D. s. Geological Surrey records, exceed 

0,000. A number of years ago dredges, both bucket 
and suction type were built on the Snake river, ami Eol 
a whi of them, perhaps, paid operating expenses. 

i in., of these, a 5-ft. bucket dredge, was reported as being 

successful after working over s. ■ liars of the river and 

was moved to Boise Basin, Idaho, where it was shortly 
afterward shut down. An article written a number of 
yean ago lor the Mining anil Scientific PreSS by W. M. H. 
Washburn, gives an interesting account of the gold occur 1 
rence on the bars of the Snake river and describes some 
dredging operations at that time. A pony dredge was oper- 
ated lor a while near Sunipter. but was not a success. 
It was claimed that the machinery was too light for the 
character of the ground. A company has started to pre- 
pare lor a dredge this season on ground near Sumpter. 
Alter considerable prospecting the dredge pit was dug 150 
ft. square by 12 ft. deep, and it is expected the dredge 
will be built next year. Tt is to have 9-ft. buckets and 
use electric power furnished by the Olive Lake power- 
plant, ami will be the first modern dredge following Cali- 
fornia methods to be operated in Oregon. In 1005 the 
Western Mining & Development Co. put in commission a 
dredge on the south fork of the John Day river. The 
dredge operated daring 1905 and a part of the second 
season, and was then dismantled. The White-Shelby Hunt 
dredge, which operated a short time in southern Oregon, 
was originally built for reclamation work at Grays Har- 
bor. Washington. It was afterward moved to Pleasant 
Valley. Josephine county, and mounted on wheels. Water 
interfered with its operation and it was again put on a 
hull. It was run a short thae only: large boulders and 
difficult digging proved a serious handicap, and the ladder 
was broken. The dredge was equipped with buckets of 
2-cu. ft. capacity ami a gasoline engine; it is now idle. 
The Josephine dredge, near Waldo, Josephine county, was 
a 4-ft. bucket dredge, using steam and wood fuel, and was 

owned by an English e pany. It operated only one 

season, when, it is claimed, the company got into litiga- 
tion. Repairs were not kept up. and while in charge of 
a watchman the dredge Bank and has never been recom- 
missioned. Recently there has been a report of another 
dredge to be built near Waldo, but no definite information 
is at hand regarding it. The only dredge operated in 

Oregon that seems to have made anything over operating 
profit, and that could be classed as even partly successful, 
is that of the Champlin Gold Dredging Co. on Foote 
creek, Jackson county. This is a 5-ft. dredge, operated 
by electric power. It was operated successfully for sev- 
eral years and during part of the present season, but the 
bucket-ladder 4ine broke a few weeks ago and the weight 
of the buckets, about 70 tons, sprang the hull planks and 
the dredge sank in about IS ft. of water. It is said that 
repairs will be made at once; the loss being estimated at 
$35,000. While this is the only company whose dredging- 
operations have returned a profit in Oregon, there seems 
to be no reason why some of the other dredges should not 
have proved a financial success if they had been properly 
designed for the ground on which they were placed. It 
is probable that investigations will he made of Oregon 
platers in the near future, and if the proposed dredge- 
near Sumpter returns a profit, a number of other dredges 
of the type that has proved snch a success in California 
will be erected. Gold-dredging in Oregon produced $34,010> 
in 1910, according to the U. S. Geological Survey. 


During June 1911 the Castle Creek Gold Mining Coi 
began operating a dredge at Mystic, Pennington county- 
The dredge was built by the Steams-Roger Manufacturing 
Co. of Denver and cost approximately $95,000. The dredge- 
follows California ideas closely, being built under charge 
of J. R. Henderson, who was formerly superintendent for 
the Yuba Construction Co. It is equipped with buckets 
of 5-cu. ft. capacity and is designed to dig 35 ft. below- 
water-level. In connection with the dredge a power-plant 
using coal as fuel was built close to the railroad. Elec- 
tricity is generated at 2000 volts and supplied in motors 
direct. On account of the power-plant being built to supply 
one dredge only, the operating costs are expected to be- 
somewhat higher than if several dredges were working. 
The costs for the first month are given at 5c. per cu. yd. 
Obviously this figure, while of some interest, has but little 
real value, and costs over a longer period will be watched 1 
with interest. 


Dredging has not so far been a success in British Colum- 
bia, and there are no dredges at present working in the- 
Province. Attempts have been made to dredge various 
areas, and the following account may be of interest. Ac- 
cording to the report of the Minister of Mines for 1910 : 
"The various dredging leases on the Fraser river have been 
amalgamated in one eompany, the Canada Dredging Co.,. 
Ltd., but there has not been any work done by the com- 
pany up to the end of the year." In 1900 a dredge was 
erected on the Fraser river, near Lytton. This was built 
for the Cobbledick Mining Co. by Roby & Co., England. 
The bucket ladder and tumblers were furnished by Simons 
Bros., Renfrew, Scotland, and the dredge was constructed' 
under the direction of George Hurst, now manager of the- 
dredging department of the Union Iron Works. The- 
dredge was of the open-connected type, equipped with 5- 
cu. ft. buckets and designed to dig 35 ft. below the water- 
level. The dredge was operated several years with varying- 
sueeess, but was finally shut down. It is stated that one 
of the causes of failure was due to the fact that no tailing 
stacker had been provided, as it was thought, when the- 
dredge was constructed, that as it was to operate in a run- 
ning stream, none would be necessary. It was found, how- 
ever, that at times the tailing piled up and prevented the- 
dredge from even digging its own flotation. No difficulty 
was encountered from the spring freshets, which some- 
nights, it is said, raised the water-level 15 ft., but experi- 
ence proved the advisability of keeping the head-lines out 
of the water. Some years ago two dredges, one having 
buckets of 3-cu. ft., the other of 7 1 i-cu. ft. capacity, were 
installed near Atlin. but operated a short time only. Large 
bonlders and an insufficient gold content prevented the- 
operations being a financial success. It is reported that 


MINlNv. II Mil It PR 

■here, ha ih a \i<« in building 

no definite 
i. public, 

\ I. rORIA, A I MUA1.1A 

for 1010 ■ 
In nil, 107 dredging plant* were in operation, and the; 

ad n total yd., irith an 

eovai yd. The following details of dn 

of differanl elaaaaa it taken from the Government report 
on Victoria: Bucket dredges, 53; pomp hydraulic sluice, 

• i elevator, B. Tha beat results during the year ware 
obtained by lbs Tewkeebnry Amalgamated Co., operating 
B bnekel dredges ranging rom t ' _■ to 5-eu. ft. 

buckets and dredging a total of 1,553,350 yd., al a yield 
of approximately 5.6e. per en. yd. and a cost ol 
par yd, This company paid dividei 125 for the 

year. Considerable attention has been paid of late, in Vic- 
toria, to rescuing 1 dredged ground. The latest arrange 
ments in this line have been described in the Mining and 

•,',- Prest of April 15, 1011, and a description of 
hydraulic pump dredge, which has proved sn successful in 
Victoria, was given November 11. The Austral <>tis En- 
gineering Ci South Melbourne reports thai during 1011 


—rtP» " .- ^ 

PRaSV, , 


w \ 

•r-- - :4>\ 



dredge construction was almost entirely comprised of 
the removal of dredging plants from old sites to others 
nearby, and that then' is little opportunity for new plants 
in Victoria and the Commonwealth generally, as dredging 
has of recent years been greatly restricted, and also as 
there are in existence so many plants, which were built 
daring the dredging boom, and put on unprofitable areas. 
The following table, giving the results of dredge mining 
in Victoria, has been adapted from the report for 1010 : 

~» 2 H k) |> h9 •< 

2 - - a- £ 5' - ' S 5' 

1905 ... 82 






1906 ...125 






1907 ...133 






1908 ...123 






1909 ...111 






1910 ...107 




(i!IS. II 


1910-1911* . . 






Prior to 1910* 









•Estimated. fTotal dredge and hydraulic sluice mining. 

Kuk San Dong Cyanide Plant 

I : ■. \ I • 

'The method "i treat met 

centrating the material as n ,., 

the dump. The tailing ft the concentrator plant i> 

led, while the concentrate obtained, • ■ 

bulk of value, i~ rla id tall sin I), and 

dn- gold extracted by cyanide 

Tin- plant consists ,.i a concentrator and cyanide 
annex. The concentrator contains one water supply lank 
12 by 12 bj in in. e dump bin (22 by 20 bj 

12 I'M. one B in, screw conveyor, one G by 3 ft, revol 

screen washer and distributor, one 36-in, hydraulic <■< 

classifier, tour Callow 6 ft cone thickeners, and eight No, 
■"> Wilfley tables. The cyanide annex contains one steel 1 15 

by 12 li. i stock cyanide solution tank, ncentrnte 

storage bin (22 i>.\ It) by 12 t't.i. two 6 in. bucket elevati 

"in. screw conveyor, one 1 by 16ft. tube-mill, two 
3-in. Morris centrifugal sand-pumps, two hydraulic 36-in. 
cone classifiers, two 6-t't. Callow cone thickeners, four 
Pachuea steel agitators (8 by 30 ft.), two steel 

clarifying tanks (10 by 6 ft.), four zinc-precipitation boxes 
(36 by 'in in. by 12 it. I. two steel cyanide 
tion sumps (15 by 12 ft.), two Morris 2-in. 

trifugal Bolution-pumps, one Monteju pressure 
lank, Dehne (24-frame) filter-press, one 
vacuum-pump, and ■_■■.. Id precipitate Biter-box. 

The power plant consists of 90-hp. steam 

engine, one air-compressor (300 cu. ft per min.) t 
and ion' Praser & Chalmers (60 in.) steam boiler. 
The foregoing is a full description of the plant. 
Il occupies a space 30 by 1 1(1 ft., with an engine 
and boiler room annex. The tube-mill, pump, 
engine, and Willleys are set on concrete founda- 
tions. Il was necessary to put in four stone re- 
taining walls. 

Op lii August 1, 1911, the plant had a very 
irregular run. due chiefly to trouble with the 
Band-pumps, Pachuea agitators, steam-engine, 
and inexperienced native help. The Pachuea 
agitators were connected in series and fitted with 
bailie cylinders so as to use the continuous agita- 
tion and decantation method which has proved 
an advantage in the modern plants of Mexico. 
This arrangement has proved a failure in our case, neither 
were wc able to obtain a satisfactory circulation of lh<* 
pulp, nor clear solutions to the clarifier tanks and zinc- 
boxes. This has been the most serious trouble and has 
prevented the getting through of a satisfactory amount of 
concentrate, also interfering largely with precipitation in 
Ihe zinc-boxes. We have, however, at the present time 
overcome these defects by a different arrangement. 

It must be remembered that in no other place has the 
attempt been made to re-treat an old oxidized concentrate 
cyanide tailing dump by the cyanide process, and in no 
case have we been able to profit by the experience of others 
on a similar proposition. Therefore we have had to work 
oul a special treatment of our own. The plant is now 
treating 60 tens per day and will be brought up to ,80 tons 
capacity per day, that which it was originally intended to 
treat. During the past we have been running through 
dump thai only assays if2.5(i per ton, so as to prevent 
I'.sscs until things were made right. Our new plant at 
Taracol will reap the benefit of our experience at Kuk 
San Dong. The assays and bullion returns so far show 
thai we arc able to obtain the following results: 

Dump heads, $2.56 per ton (average heads for total 
dump, about $7). 

Gold extraction by concentration, 79% (value contained 
in concentrate). 

Gold extraction by cyanidation, 73% (value extracted 
from concentrate). 

Total bullion extracted from $2.56 heads, 5S per cent. 

•From report of the Oriental Con. M. Company. 



January 13, 1912 

New Zealand and Nevada Mining Methods Compared 

By F. C. Brown 

Having recently spent a short time at the comparatively 
new mining districts of Tonopab and Goldfield, Nevada, I 
have been thinking it might be of interest to some of your 
readers to have a few comparisons between methods and 
conditions existing there and those in New Zealand, where 
X have been engaged in mining during the past fifteen years. 
The actual mining methods at Tonopab. and Goldfield are 
somewhat difficult to compare with those in use in New 
Zealand, as the conditions in the two places are different. 
In tbe former district there is very little water with which 
to contend, so the mines are not equipped with tbe huge 
pumps which are a feature of the Waihi, Karangahake. and 
Thames districts in New Zealand. All pumps and other 
machinery in the mines and mills at Tonopab and Goldfield 
are operated by electric power obtained from about 100 
miles away, while in New Zealand, although water power 
is available for generating electricity within a reasonable 
distance of the mines, power is chiefly produced by means 
of steam-engines, steam-turbines, and producer-gas engines. 
The Waihi mine is now preparing to produce some 6000 hp. 
from water power sixty miles from the mines, with the 
object of driving most of its machinery by electricity. 

At Tonopah and Goldfield tbe development work in the 
mines is done almost entirely by the wages system, and 
there is practically no hand-drilling of holes, the heavy 
work in drifts being done by piston machines, and the 
lighter work in the stopes and raises by the hammer ma- 
chines. In most districts in New Zealand the bulk of un- 
derground work is done on the contract system, driving, 
raising, and sinking at so much per foot, and sloping, 
usually by the ton of ore broken. The contract specifica- 
tions provide for the contractors doing the whole work to 
the satisfaction of the underground manager, and all neces- 
sary material, such as explosives, candles, and the like, are 
provided by the company, but charged up to the contractor 
at about cost price; the company also supplies the drilling 
machines and power to operate them. As a rule, a con- 
tract is taken by a party of men, and this party, unless 
large enough to fill the terms of the contract as regards 
the number of men employed, engages wage-workers to make 
up the required number. Such wage-workers are invariably 
paid higher wages than tbe ruling rate paid by the com- 
panies. The wages for miners are $2.15 per day of S hours, 
a week's work being 45 bom's, provision being made for a 
short half holiday on Saturday. A week of 45 hours is 
classed as 6 full working days on the pay-sheets. The day 
shift commences at S a.m. and the men stop work at 4 p.m., 
being allowed half an hour at noon for lunch. Men work- 
ing in the mills are on duty for the full S hours and have 
no half holiday on Saturday. Contractors, on an average, 
make about $3 per day, and they pay their wage-men at 
least $2.50 per day. Extra good parties' of contractors 
make up to $5 per day for each man. 

I understand the wages for miners at Tonopah and Gold- 
field are $4 per day and $3.75 for shovelers, and I should 
judge that the miner in New Zealand who can make $3 is 
the better off, as living there is cheaper and the general 
conditions better. A peculiar feature in New Zealand is 
the closing of the mines for about a two weeks' holiday at 
Christmas. It must be borne in luind that Christmas comes 
in mid-summer there and is a great holiday season through- 
out the whole country, 

In New Zealand there is now no Sunday work at the 
mines or mills, except such work as pumping in the mines 
and the running of agitators in the mills, and necessary re- 
pair work. This work is provided for by special permits 
issued by the Government Mining Inspector. When this 
law was under discussion some years as-o. all the - 
companies were against it. and nil the old arguments, such 
as decreased output from 

,'loyment for the miners, were brought to hear u] the 

case, but after the law had beeu in operation for some 
years there were»few. if any. who wanted to return to old 
conditions. Outside of the religious and physical aspects 
which indicate that a rest-day in seven is necessary for the 
well-being of man, tbe closing of mills on Sunday brings 
other advantages, as repairs and alterations can be effected 
while the machinery is at a standstill, instead of ha\ 
the men working amidst swiftly moving belts and rapidly 
revolving pulleys, shafts, and fly-wheels — all with such a 
terrific noise everywhere that it is even difficult for a 
foreman to give correct instruct ions. My experience is 
that, after the passing of the Sunday-rest law, the ma- 
chinery in nulls was better looked after than it was before. 

At the mines and also the mills in Tpnopah and Gold- 
field there is more effort in the direction of doing away 
with hand labor than in New Zealand. In the former 
places all the mining steel is sharpened by drill-sharpening 
machines, while in New Zealand this work is still done 
by hand, even at the large mines. The handling of the 
ore, especially the crushing of it preparatory to putting 
it in the ore-bins behind the stamps, is done in a far 
more practical manner than in New Zealand, and I notice 
the Goldfield Consolidated uses 50-ton ears for a compara- 
tively short haul from the mines to tbe mill, while in 
New Zealand the usual practice in hauling ore even over 
distances of five miles, is to use a large number of small 
cars, holding 3 to 4 tons each. 

With regard to milling methods, it is difficult to make 
comparisons, as each class of ore requires its own special 
process or combination of processes, and even in the case 
of two adjoining mines a variation of processes is some- 
times necessary. In New Zealand the tendency is to go 
in for all-sliming, and stamps followed by tube-mills are 
the favorite combination for reducing the ore. Crushing 
in cyanide solution is being introduced there and is giving 
satisfactory results. When concentration is necessary, the 
concentrate is treated in a separate plant, the process 
being grinding to a very fine slime and cyanidation of 
this slime. The slime is treated by air-agitation, usually 
in Pachuca tanks, and filtered in vacuum-filters, the solu- 
tions being precipitated on zinc shavings. The zinc-dust 
process has not gained a footing there, although it has been 
tried by some of the large companies. Tube-mill practice 
in New Zealand seems to me more advanced than at Ton- 
opah and Goldfield, and this is no doubt due to the fact 
that tube-mills have been used in New Zealand since 1903, 
while at Tonopah and Goldfield they are a more recent 

Most vacuum-filter plants in New Zealand are of the 
type which requires the filter leaves or frames to be 
lifted from the sludge and wash tanks, while at Tonopah 
and Goldfield the stationary filter-frame type seems to be 
the favorite. Both types do good work if properly erected 
and attended. 

In New Zealand all workers in or about mines or mills 
work under an industrial agreement as regards wages, 
hours, and some other conditions, this being one of the 
provisions of the Arbitration Act, the object of which is 
to prevent strikes by bringing the employer and worker 
together to discuss any matters causing friction which may 
arise. These agreements are entered into by the mining 
companies of the district as one party, and the workers, 
represented by their unions, as the other party, and are 
usually for a period of three years. The Arbitration Act 
has now worked well for a number of years, but it has 
still to go through the test of a general labor upheaval, 
when labor pits itself against capital for a reason or 
reasons often difficult to define. Even if the act should 
fail in a period of great stress, it has already, in my 
opinion, proved of great benefit to both the employer and 
worker by bringing them together to discuss the general 



lions of labor, both ikl« being called opon i" pw 

In Tanopab and Qoldflald ■ deduction i« made from 

ili'- ni.i;'- ,,,,!, a worker being 

entitle! to pita] treatment u lent <>r 

sickness, lii N.-w Zealand compensation for accident i^ 

u orb i -' i ompensation Act, under 

i a acbedu mi Unit ■•an be made 

for the \.i - kindi ol injuries, temporal-] or i 

health, or deatb. During dia- 
lenl the worker receives balf . of life i- 

wd in about |2000, ili.' money going to those who 
dependent upon the deceased for their support. 
• ■ great benefits of this arl is that the worker, instead 

in his claim through th tuts an. I risk 

the f<-<>s .if unscrupulous lawyers, receives lull com] 
tion according t.> the schedule. It a company dot 
lik.' to carry its own risk under tins act, it can taki 
an insurance policy, either in the Government Insurance 
Department or in a private insurance company, the pro. 
cednre being t.. pay a preminm rate depending upon the 
degree ..t' haaard in tin 1 ocenpation. The preminm is paid 
t'..r a year in advance and is based on the estimated wages 
l"..r tlir year, adjustment being made at the en. I of the 

I was familiar with mining conditions in this country 
when I left for New Zealand fifteen years ago, and I now 
ii. .tire n great improvement in the way men .'ire cared 
for and treated by their employers, ami it is to he sin- 
cerely hoped that mining companies will see the wisdom 
..f continuing to use every effort ill this direction. 

German Mining in 1911 

German mining is for the most part concerned with coal, 
iron, and potash. Coal production was unusually large all 
through the year 1911, and every in. .nth up to ami including 
October, with relatively slight exceptions, the production 
has been greater, month by month, than in any year since 
1907-. As this increase has been steady, it may be assumed 
that most of the coal has gone into industry, largely, of 
course, by way of the coking ovens. The improvement in- 
cludes brown coal, and the returns for coke show that larger 
quantities than usual have been used for metallurgy. The 
total quantity ..t' coal produced in tin- German Zollverein 
during the first 10 months of the year was 153,470,434 
metric tons. This compares with 126,030,092 tons in the 
corresponding 10 months of 1910. The figures for lignite 
were 60,292,946 tons, against 56,284,894 tons. The coke 
produced in the corresponding periods named was 20,81 S.- 
326 tons and 19,393,499 tons. 

Returns for iron ore production are not available. Since 
pig iron production keeps mounting up with a record out- 
put every month, the assumption is safe that the pro- 
duction of iron ore has been likewise growing. Import re- 
turns covering iron ore from foreign countries, such as 
Scandinavia and Spain, may, however, show that foreign 
countries have supplied the excess ore. The production of 
pig iron for the first 11 months of 1911 was 14,150,586 
tons. This is almost as large as the total for 1910, and is 
larger than the total for any other preceding year back to 
the year 1905. It may be observed that besides Spain and 
Scandinavia, Germany proposes to draw largely on French 
hxm-ore fields. One of the largest German houses has 
erected works in Normandy, where it will even engage in 
smelting. Brittany, too, will be the scene of German enter- 
prise. There are in Normandy already 22 iron ore works, 
of which 5 at least are of considerable importance, and 
in Brittany there are 7 in process of development. As 
these fields are not conveniently situated for smelting pur- 
poses, it may be taken for granted that, it is intended to 
export the ore. It is even stated that the house of Fried. 
Krupp has made a contract with a number of Normandy 
iron-ore producers for as much as 12,000,000 tons of ore to 
be shipped to Rheinhausen by way of Caen. 

But the factor in German mining which has stood out 

. the dovelo 

i ha i 

Ibrown ii harp relief b) 

I'lltc, ttll, 

• • "Inch resulted. Tl .. do waj 

lurhed iii the reports ••! thi 
but tin-, inu-t i.e read strietl] in tie- i When 

port was 
deed; so much to, that a learned professor at Heidell 

constrained to confess to Ins fellow countrymen that 
Germany need nol look for a permanenl n poly ..i the 

Well aware of the 

..■.' ..i large reserves in other countries which ha. I 
i" I \| -.1 i.. bring enterprising conti 

eld to develop them. Meantime it U known that the 

exploitatio potash fields of Germany has been 

ried on very actively, ami the value of the product 
ported, particularly, has reached an extremely satisfactory 
level, lint it is rather with the proximate future 
with the present that the chief interest lies. An effect of 
the new potash law. particularly the features juarante. 

a market for the product of almost any potash field fairly 

exploited, has been to bring a large number of c 

to the fore that have undertaken to develop and exploit 
fields hitherto left untouched. The effect of that on the 
potash mining industry has been somewhat remarkable, 
Germany is nol unacquainted with the principle of con- 
centration in her industries; hut when the company pro- 
moter swooped down on potash ami Boated company after 
company in order to take advantage of the new law, the 
existing ol.l fashioned potash concerns felt compelled to 
take steps in self-protection and adopted a policy of amal- 
gamation or concentration which has profoundly affected 
the whole potasli situation. Companies that were large 
before have by absorption become larger still, and insig- 
nificant or poorly paying companies, have acquired im- 
portance by reason of alliance with great concerns that 
have found it worth while to absorb them. The near future 
therefore will see a tremendous extension of potash pro- 
duction in Germany. The old works are equipping them- 
selves to compete in this respect with the new houses; and 
unless, as is urged by some, the Government intervenes 
with fresh laws to limit the production, the country is 
within easy reach of a feverish activity in the potash fields 
that may well result in a glut. Naturally as the world calls 
for more fertilizers the demand will at all events to some 
extent, if not entirely, ke"p abreast of the growing sup- 
plies, lint the time is approaching when the new com- 
panies will be starting exploitation in batallions and the 
great quantity of potash which they will bring into the 
market must almost inevitably produce a potash crisis. 
But that lime is not yet. Perhaps the Government will be 
able to take measures to regulate the business in proportion 
to the world's needs. This is a step that has been taken 
with great success — for example, in the neighboring coun- 
try of Russia with its sugar business — and as Germany is 
following in the same direction in the matter of nationaliz- 
ing industries, as shown by the interest her Government is 
taking in the coal and potash mining industries, it is fair 
to assume (bat no serious calamity will be allowed to take 
place for want of regulation. 

The petroleum production, which was 110,990 metrical 
tons in 1910, undoubtedly amounted to somewhat more in 
1911, as fresh wells have been opened. Other mining in- 
dustries exploited are copper, zinc, pyrite, lead, man- 
ganese, and salt, but the returns are not available on which 
to estimate the work done this year. As the German in- 
dustry in 1911 has been remarkably successful, there can be 
little doubt that in all these items progress will be reported 
as compared with 1910. 

The estimated December production of tbe Goldfield Con- 
solidated Mines Co. was 29,127 tons of ore from which tbe 
gross recovery was $700,000. The operating expenses were 
^240,000 (including $42,000 for construction work), cor- 
responding to a net operating profit for the month of 



January 13, 1912 

Review of Lake Superior Copper Mining in 1911 

By Robert II. M 

Dividend disbursements bj Michigan copper-minii 
paniee during thi at and total payments oi all 

companies for all years of which there is any rei I is 

itfa : 


Companies. lull. 1910. todate. 

Ahmeek $ 100,000 $ 100,000 

Atlantic 990,000 

Calumet & Hecla.... 2.400,000 2,900.000 114,900,000 

Central 2,130,000 

Cliff 2,518,620 

. Palls 100.000 

Copper Range Con... 1,157,837 1.536.740 11.914.303 

Franklin 1,242, I 

Kearsarge 160,000 

Minnesota 1,820,000 

Mohawk 150,000 200.000 2,300,000 

National 320,000 

Osceola 721,125 961.500 10.064.375 

Pewabic 1,000,000 

Phoenix 20,000 

Quincy 440,000 550.000 19,742,500 

Ridge 100.000 

Tamarack 9,420,000 

St. Mary's Land 480,000 160.000 5.i)S0,000 

Wolverine 540,000 600.000 6,840.000 

Totals $5,988,962 $6,908,240 $190,761,858 

The non-dividend payers an- many, and among them 
are Eew thai give promise of early dividends. The Isle 
Royale and the Allouez would seem to be exceptions. Both 
are operating with some profit t < > themselves, and each is 
rounding into shape I'nr heavier production, and dividends 
eventually. The status of Franklin has changed wonder- 
fully during the year under efficient management, and this 
company will make good. The same may be said for the 
Lake and Hancock. The others are coming along more 
slowly, with varying degrees of promise. 

Considerable attention was directed in 1911 to the ex- 
ploitation of new territory, though not to the extent ob- 
served in 1910. This work has on the North Range added 
materially to the known mineral resources of the district 
and opens a wide strip of possibilities along the eastern 
edge of this range. The disclosures in the St. Louis and 
New Baltic acreages are most important. The South Range 
was quite thoroughly explored in the preceding year and 
continues to receive its full share of -attention. More 
than 30 companies were actively engaged on both ra 

ing workable copper deposits or developing deposits 
already opened, and nearly #2.000,000 was required, in 

om $100,01 $300,000, to meet the 

cost of this work during the past year. Eight companies 
active in the preceding year suspended operations indefi- 
nitely for various reasi 

The number of workers employed in the various branches 
he industry was smaller than in the preceding year 
and is now around 1S.000, compared with 19.000 a year 
ago and 21,000 employed in the three counties in 1907. 
Fully 15. nun find en : In Houghton county. The 

surplus of labor is quite evident, despite the great num- 
bers that have gone to other fields. Attempts to unionize 
local labor are not very successful, and though the West- 
ern Federation of Labor has established a foothold and 
maintains local headquarters, its efforts are not well re- 

The fear in the minds of many that the Lake Superior 
district has seen its palmy days with the passing of the 
Calumet conglomerate lode, now less than 20 years re- 
moved, is a mistaken one. Less than one-fourth of the 
known mineral-bearing area has been touched, and though 

\em] be another deposit such as was the Calu- 
met conglomerate, there is in the area under development 
at different points a demonstrated tonnage far greater in 
the aggregate than was contained in this famous deposit. 
The porphyry bugaboo also has created a most unpleas- 
ant fear that the Lake Superior vein mines would soon 
be a thing of the past. This fear is brother to the fear 
that in the late '90s possessed so many of our good people 
when the Butte mines were expected to put the local pro- 
ducers on the shelf. There is not a sign of the grass 
growing on the streets that the mind's eye of that period 
pictured deserted, and the Lake mines will be doing busi- 
ness years after the present porphyry deposits have be- 
come exhausted. A brief resume of what the Lake Supe- 
rior companies accomplished during the past year and 
what can be expected in the future, follows. 

The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., with probably less 
than 20 years of life remaining in the conglomerate lode, 
is concerned chiefly with the development of the Osceola 
lode mine and with the development of a number of other 
mines on this and other formations in which it has large 
shareholdings. The conglomerate bed has been a most 
profitable source of production and will continue to be 
to I he end of its life, though declining values have mate- 
rially affected profits. Openings have been kept well 
ahead of immediate requirements, and much good ground 
is being developed in places long thought to be without 
value. Particularly is this true of the Black Hills por- 
tion of the mine. The conglomerate is supplying around 
80% of the Calumet production, about 2,000,000 tons of ore. 
averaging 30 lb. of fine copper, annually. There remain 
approximately 30,000,000 tons unmined. In the Osceola 
lode the company has a low-grade property easily capable 
of supplying 1.000,000 tons annually, of an average cop- 
per content of about 15 lb. of fine copper. A tonnage 
standing close to 16.000.000 tons has been placed in sight, 
out of a total possible tonnage estimated roughly at 40,- 
000,000 tons. A limited amount of work is also in prog- 
ress in the Kearsarge lode with results not altogether 
satisfactory. Many economies were introduced during the 
year in the effort to achieve 'dollar rock', and though such 
a figure may never be reached, material reductions in the 
cost of breaking ground have resulted. Early in the year 
the company became involved in litigation growing out 
of its proposal to merge the several so-called Calumet 
subsidiaries, and is to some extent yet involved, but has 
abandoned its merger plans and will continue to operate 
the \ :i i oi- companies independently. The great savings 
that would undoubtedly have resulted in their operation 
under the plans proposed, have by the opposition of pro- 
testing shareholders, thus become only savings that might 
have been made. In addition to the output secured from 
the Osceola and Calumet conglomerate lodes, the company, 
through its ownership in the subsidiary companies, con- 
trols upward of 57,000.000 lb. fine copper, giving a total 
output of well over 130,000,000 lb. fine copper annually, 
or approximately 60% of the entire output of the Lake 
Superior district. 

The Copper Range Consolidated is not directly en- 
gaged in mining, but is a securities-holding company con- 
trolling and directing the operation of the Baltic, Cham- 
pion, Trimountain, and Atlantic mines and the Copper 
Range railroad. It is none the less a considerable factor 
in the Lake Superior output contributing approximately 
20' ; of the total production of the district. The mines 
operated by the company yielded approximately 41,000,000 
lb. fine copper, a decrease of but 2% from the output of 
the preceding year. In this production the St. Mary's 
company has an equity equal to about 9,000,000 lb., being 
one-half of the output of the Champion mine, owned 
jointly by these companies, leaving the Consolidated a 

M1MV. II Mil U l'KMSS 

Ulantic properly, which di 
in be doI wholly without \ 

lined in the past iiihUt the ! 
I. N.i work lint been dona in tlo> propcrt) 
liv tin- mi owner*. The Baltic and Champion mini 
• lainstay ol lination and show do appro 

Both are opened well ahead 
• ■t' immediate requirements, and l»'th are yel in their in- 

rrimountain mine hu improved w lerfully 

during tin' year, is earning :i small profit, and promisee 
in take equal tooting with its big neighbors, the 
Champion ami the Baltic Production increased more 
than '-'■">', over the previous year. 

.; Consolidated (lining <'.•., Fourth in point 
of production, ranks third in tin' list .if dividend payers 
•if the district with a disbursement of $721,125. Produc- 
tion was smaller l>y about 1.000,000 lb. compared with 
that of the preceding year ami is about 'JO' ; under nor- 
mal, due principally to the loss of production from the 
ila Branch, which was shut down nearly two years 

duet ■! to a , ninl tin i 

r with a ' 

pauj paid its initial dividend ol 

'100,000 and just bel tl 

iieinl of $150,000, payable earlj in the with 

promise ol dividends quarterly thereafter. Develo| nt 

in the new north -halts disclosed a continuation of the 
name excellent copper ore opened in the older and deeper 
south shafta, and another year will put the mine m poai 
nun to produce upward of 20,000,000 lb, fine copper. 

The Wolverine Copper Mining Co. reports an 
production and dividends slightly reduced, the year's du 
bursementa amounting to $540,000, - 00,000 

last year. Production is secured entirely from the mine 
mi the Kearsarge Lode and promisee to hold for another 
ten years, after which the company will have t • ■ look 

elsewhere for its eopper. A number of promising copper 
bearing lodes traverse the property, and these are being 
explored. The Osceola lode has been opened by shafts 
and drifts t" a depth of 300 ft., ami is generally without 

Bach rectangle la a town- 
ship, six miles square. 
Key to Mines. 




Tamara. k 






1 •• laware 





Rhode Island 


Copper Kails 


Franklin, Jr. 













Isle Kovale 










-\* Kearsarge 











' '-ntennlal 



Tamarack Jr 




S. K.-arsarge 




Calumet & 

• via 


ago and remains idle. The output was approximately 
18,300,000 lb. fine copper. The Kearsarge North anil 
South branches were operated without interruption, ami 
in the North Branch resulted in the development of con- 
siderable productive ground in the older workings. The 
South Branch has become a stoping mine and fully devel- 
oped with about 2.000,000 tons of ore remaining unmined. 
-and will probably become exhausted within another ten 
years. The North Branch is good for 40 years to come. 
The Osceola, too, is striving for 'dollar rock', and its 
efforts have come closer to realization than lias any other 
mine in the district. The cost of mining, transportation, 
and milling a ton of rock during the past year will prob- 
ably average less than $1.20 and may even reach $1.10. 
The ability to show such remarkably low operating costs 
is in part due to the favorable physical condition of the 
South Kearsarge Branch, but is withal an achievement 
that fairly radiates good management. 

The Quincy Mining Co., when final figures are in, will 
report a production probably 5% below that of the pre- 
ceding year. The dividends, too, were reduced, and for 
the year totaled $440,000, compared with $550,000 in the 
preceding year. The mine is old and deep in the south 
end, in which operations were begun, but is being rein- 
forced by the north territory, in which three shafts are 
being steadily sunk. The Quincy is no longer the rich 
mine it once was, and ore values here, as in all other 
Lake Superior mines, have declined materially with depth. 
The present yield will range 14 and 16 lb. fine copper per 
ton of ore mined, and will probably average slightly better 
than 15 pounds. 

promise. The exploratory work to the eastward of Ibis 
and the Kearsarge lodes is showing more encouragement. 
A promising copper-bearing amygdaloid was cut in the 
horizon of one of the Old Colony lodes and will probably 
he followed by other beds with the further extension of 
the cross-cut now driving in that territory, and is ex- 
pected to give the company a mine in that section. 

The Mohawk Mining Co. is the champion low-grade pro- 
ducer of the district, and its ability to wring profits from 
the treatment of copper-bearing rock yielding less than 
15 lb. fine copper per ton of rock reflects great credit on 
the management. Earnings were at the rate of $150,000, 
compared with $200,000 in the previous year. The north 
and poorer end of the property has shown some improve- 
ment under development, but it is in the south end that 
the future of the company lies. This end shows marked 
betterment at depth and, already a considerable factor 
in the output of the mine, is yielding a grade of rock 
probably 25% richer than is that yielded by the older 
workings on the north. Five shafts are sinking steadily 
and one has been permanently bottomed. The No. G shaft, 
sunk on the extreme south end of the property, is down 
around 700 ft. in depth, with lateral extensions on sev- 
eral levels breasted in copper ground of exceptional rich- 
ness and which appears to improve with depth. 

The Tamarack is seemingly hopeless. It is a deep mine 
and the cost of production is high. Little encouragement 
is had from the year's operations, which were conducted 
for the most part in ground of known worth and with 
little regard for the creation of reserves. Work in the 
Osceola lode has ceased entirely. The working force was 



January 13, 1012 

greatly reduced in an effort to produce copper at a profit. 
Production declined more than 50% until late in the year, 
and near the close was again normal, the year's output 
reaching 7,500,000, as against 11,060,000 lb. iu the pre- 
ceding year. 

The Isle Royale. Allouez. and Superior companies may 
be grouped in one class. All report average prodnctious 
made at a small profit to themselves and, excepting 
sibly Superior, have become mines of demonstrated worth. 
Isle Royale is the largest producer of the trio. Production 
holds steadily around 7,000,000 lb. line copper annually, 
and to increase materially as a result of de 

ment now iu progress. Activity is centred in the develop- 
ment [sis Royale lode, in which the company 
has four producing shafts, with prospects of nv. . 
to follow. The property is one of great potential worth, 
and, though a limited amount of exploratory work in the 
Baltic lode failed to reveal copper in commercial quan- 
tities, the more recent developments in the Houghton acre- 
adjoining makes ultimate success reasonably certain. 
Allouez is giving full attention to the development of the 
Kearsarge lode with good results generally, and today is 
nearer dividends than is any other of a number of likely 
prospects among the non-dividend payers of this district 
The mine is easily capable of producing 10.000.000 lb. 
fine copper annually at a cost of not to exceed 10c. per 
lb. following completion of improvements now under way 
at the north shaft, and an output close to this figure is 
predicted for the new year. Superior is capable of greatly 
increased production. While development in the north 
shaft is adding to the reserve at a satisfactory rate, sim- 
ilar work in the south shaft is discouraging. The com- 
pany is just about breaking even on present price of 
the metal. 

In quite another class are the Lake. Franklin. Hancock, 
Mass. Centennial, and Winona. The Lake is an unknown 
quantity, with possibilities on the Lake lode rather limited. 
Its unexplored territory measures acres in extent. Com- 
mendable progress was made in the development of the 
Lake lode and in fitting the property for regular produc- 
tion, and a small though rich mine has resulted. Produc- 
tion is expected to begin in early summer. The Franklin 
has turned the corner after years of discouraging work 
and is going to make one of the biggest mines in this 
district. Development is confined to the Pewabic lode, in 
which two shafts have been sunk and provision made for 
three more. Both mill and mine were overhauled in a 
most thorough manner with the one idea of economy. The 
new year will see the rate of production trebled. The 
Hancock centred attention in shaft work and has attained 
a depth of 3100 ft., with prospects of reaching the Quincy- 
Pewabic lode within another 100 ft. Several promising 
veins were opened in the course of sinking in this shaft 
and will add materially to the mineral resources in this 
acreage. Considerable work was also done in the Hancock 
lode, and a mill-test of short duration gave returns of 
slightly more than 18 lb. fine copper from the material 
treated. It is quite unlikely that Hancock will figure as 
a producer in any considerable quantity for several years 
to come. Mass is in the making. The shafts are being 
equipped for heavy duty, and the reserve is growing at a 
satisfactory rate. The mine promises soon to do better 
than merely get a new dollar for an old one. Development 
is in progress in the Evergreen and Butler lodes, and is 
generally encouraging. The mine is in better physical 
condition than it has been in many years. Centennial con- 
fined activity to the development of the South Kearsarge 
underlay and appears to have turned the corner. The 
north laterals at depth are continuously in excellent cop- 
per ground. Winona is making haste slowly. A consoli- 
dation was effected with the King Phillip adjoining, and 
the two properties are being developed as one. Production 
was begun upon the completion of the stamp-mill about 
the middle of the year. A large tonnage of low-grade 
material has beeu developed, and the mine is easily capable 
of doubling the present rate of production. 

Of the greater number of companies engaged in explor- 

atory work among which Victoria, though yielding a reg- 
ular production may be included, lack of space forbids 
more than mention. Victoria is obtaining just enough en- 
couragement to induce further work. The best in this 
division are Laurium, Indiana. Algomah. Houghton. St. 
Louis, Adventure, Ojibway, Oneco, and New Baltic. All 
seem to have fdhnd copper deposits of promise and are 
now engaged in exploratory work. Wyandot has nothing 
in sight, hut has hopes. Others have passed this stage 
and found their several discoveries wanting. Among them 
are the Keweenaw. Gratiot. La Salle, and Seneca. A few 
others are seeking more encouragement before making the 
more thorough investigation that only underground open- 
_- can give, in which category are Mayflower, Old Col- 
ony. Bohemia, North Lake, and Xew Arcadian. South 
Lake has found a promising deposit, but lacks funds with 
which to carry on development. Section Twelve is in the 
- uewhere new mines are undoubtedly in the 

Work in the Snake Creek Tunnel 

The Snake Creek drainage and transportation tunnel in 
Utah, projected and controlled by stockholders in the Daly- 
Judge M. Co., has beeu driven about 4100 ft., and is to be 
15,000 ft. in length when completed. Its portal is in Snake 
Creek canyon, on the Heber City side of the Wasatch 
range, being eight miles from that town. It will cut the 
crest of the range at a depth of over 3000 ft., but the depth 
to be attained in Daly-Judge ground, on the Park City side, 
will be close to 2100 ft. The dimensions are 9 by 6 1 2 ft. in 
the clear, with a concave water channel, having a top width 
of 4 ft. and a depth of 3' L . ft.; this channel is on the right- 
hand side of the tunnel, the left-hand side having a solid 
roadbed for trackage designed for loaded cars. A track is 
to be laid over the waterway for empty cars. The present 
flow of water from the tunnel is about 2250 gal. per 
minute. The range of costs thus far incurred in driving 
- $25 to $30 per foot. 

About 300 ft. of swelling and caving ground was passed 
through a distance of about 2000 ft. from the portal, and 
this proved to be so troublesome that this part of the tun- 
nel was first timbered, then built up with reinforced con- 
crete. The concrete work is supported by an arch formed 
by 50-lb. steel rails set in pairs. The rails are heated and 
so bent that when two are joined together by fishplates 
they form an oval, and sets of these are placed 4 ft. apart 
inside the timbers in the tunnel, the lower or small end of 
the oval-shaped frame being placed downward and buried 
in concrete below the track level. This steel frame is re- 
inforced at the top of the arch by a second rail. The spaces 
next to the timbers are filled with concrete, and extending 
from one set of rails to the next is a triangular-mesh wire 
screen, weight 109 lb. to 100 sq. ft., held in cement. The 
arch has a height of 7 ft. I 1 ? in. above the tracks, and has 
a width at track level of 9 ft. 6 in. The track is laid on 
S by S-in. timbers, 4 ft. apart. This special work is now 
in progress. It is being performed at the expense of the 
Snake Creek Tunnel & Transportation Co., under general 
direction of G. W. Lambourne. manager for the Daly- 
Judge company, though the tunnel proper is being driven 
by Free & Taylor, under contract. 0. X. Friendley, en- 
gineer for the Daly-Judge company, has direct supervision 
of the tunnel work as a whole. 

Coal in Montana 

According to the annual report of State coal mine in- 
spector, J. B. McDermott. one man was killed during the 
past year for every 224.107 tons of coal produced in Mon- 
tana, and one man was injured for every 58.268 tons pro- 
duced. There was one fatal accident for every 290 men 
employed, and one serious accident for every 76 men em- 
ployed. The coal production for the past year amounted 
to 2.013.397 tons, as against 2.970.246 tons in" 1910. A total 
of 3776 men are engaged in coal mining, and the mine value 
of this year's product is given at $4,903,021. 


Wyoming Mineral Industry in I'M 1 

B) A: .>■;-! c I 

During iin- jtmt loll mini ni ,,. Wyoming u 

■ whole were quiet Certain districts bare bam chat 

. ■ [ . . 1 . 1 1 1 . ■ 1 1 1 . in. -i ..i which in,, resulted 

in opening budii I uderabkt attention has 

paid in ilic develnpmenl >•! n>w territory which baa 

.1 mii.-li tu ilu. known mineral resource! of tin- Slate. 

old 111111111-. the greatest am. .urn of work bai been done 
|» '•'»• Soi strict, where the Bnek Mining Ca baa 

■ •I a small mill log ami development have 

■•I on eh* In' Medicine Bos. an. I Beat Lodge 

mountains Hen gold is found in quai I .1 in 

'■'••ill tdition for cyanide treatment, and several si 

' l "'' 1 - • opper ores are found in every 
count) of tin- State, ami consist almost wholly of altered 
sulphides. In sum,, localities tin' oxidized ami carl ated 

have accumulated in great masses. Systematic 

pliug show- some of these ma»i> i. main 14< pper. 

At tin' i" e the deposits are situated far from 

transportation facilities, an, I are thi no impor- 

tance commercially, but are of interest a- possible sources 
"•' eopper i jreal drawback to. the State is that a 
portion is anil, ami prospectors, unless specially well 
equipped, cannot penetrate Bafely into the greater portion. 
Consequently a large pari is absolutely unexplored. 

Within recenl years Wyoming ha- advanced to the Cronl 
a- .11. asbestos producing State. Greal activity lias been 
in the Casper district, where asbestos of excellent quality 
occurs in greal quantity. Throughout the State tliis valua- 
ble mineral is found, but al present tins is the only known 
locality where chrysotile is in such associations as warrant 
conn ereial extraction. The Consolidated Asbestos Co. has 
erected a completely equipped flberizing mill ami is now 
placing mi tin- market excellent products. Tin- long fibres 


111,- si 

"ill i' importanl factor in 


the point •'! * ios ..i 

In ining the chief operation* lis 

• I ilu' Sunns.' district, »ln i 

. cist. 'I'hi' inn ' iain rail, I line, and •<> 

present ilu- products are shipped mainl) in Colorado. The 

- not known al the tin f this writing, 

but il is sal'.' In say thai 101] has 1 n the ban 

in the iron-mining industry. Manj other localitiet 
known within the Stall' where iron ore deposits of Iijgji 
grade exist. These "ill In- ,■(' greater importance as h 
portation facilities air made better. 

The ]iasi year has witnessed marked progress in the oil 
Pipe-lines, storage tanks, ami refineries are 
available in many i.i' them. New lid, Is have been drilled, 
ami while liiih' is definitely known regarding many of the 

smaller fields, ii is generally undersl I thai the prodin area has been greatly increased. The smaller wells are 
capable of producing from ion to 200 bbl. per day, and 
ii is stated on good authority thai some wells are 
producing 5000 bbl. per day. The "il found is of excellent 
quality, and, with few exceptions, has a parafflne base. 
The greater pari of t lu- oil produced is shipped oul of Ihe 
State, bul there i- considerable local consumption also. The 
l.ii-i.y. Spring Valley, and Byron fields find ready market 
for their products in I'tah and the West. The reported 
production for lull far exceeds thai of 1910. 

The coal production of Ihe pasl year is slightly in excess 
i.i thai reported tor linn. The total known acreage has 
hi', mi increased, as a result of recenl simlics mail,' by the 
1 . s. Geological Survey. It is estimated thai there an' 
In Wyoming 14,500,000 acres of coal land, valued al nboul 

Joplin Lead and Zinc Production 

The aggregate valuation of zinc and lead ores shipped 
from the Joplin .li^t ri.-t for 1913 was $13,055,511, more 
than $1.1100.00(1 less than (he totiil production for the 

previous year, and more than $2,000,1 less than the 

record production of 1on7. Taken by themselves, however, 
the shipments of lead were the heaviest in the history of 

the district, due largely (,i the enormous production from 
ilir Weill) City, Joplin, ami Galena camps. 

The new year ilawns much more auspiciously ill Ihr 
mining district than ili,l 1911. Prices I'm' all ores are 

considerably better. Spelter is quoted Jfl higher (ban al 

the opening of 1911, and the demand for bulb metals arid 
ores is extraordinarily heavy for this time of the year. 
The accompanying table shows the yearly output, in 
districts, with their valuations of zinc ami lead ores: 


Camp. Pounds. 
Webb City-Carterville, .Mm. .189,376,352 

Joplin, .\iu 116,869,886 

Galena, Kan 34.047.i;.~ii; 

Duenweg, Mo 30,363,950 

Alba. .M., 32,123,750 

Oronogo, Mo 20,330,390 

Granby, .Mo 8,225,510 

Miami', Olda 16,373,679 

Spring City. Mo 4,871,505 

Carl Junction, Mo 8,986,316 

Aurora, Mo 6,824,935 

( lave Springs, Mo 8,022,546 

Quapaw, Olda 4,295,120 

t larthage, Mo 3,052,350 

Sarcoxie, Mo 2,235,210 

Springfield, Mo 1,639,620 

Badger-Peacock, Kan. 
Lawton, Kan. . 
Stotts City. Mo. 
Wentworth, Mo. 

Reeds, Mo 

Seneca, Mo. . . . 
Peoria, Okla. . . 
Greenfield, Mo. 









74 7.: 102 



















i Calamine. • 

Pounds. Value. 

:< 707.100 $40,200 

107.242 2,786 

-' .51 2.255 50,075 

1 .540 238,600 
5,594,040 00,001 

3,556,755 42.01S 

18,010 210 

156,760 5.345 

622,310 7.21H 

256,900 3,320 

222.750 2.724 

197,670 2,005 

Total shipments 494,631,471 $9,925,145 38,133,422 $473,798 

t Lead. 















1 1 0,061 





2,735. 700 






5.354. 1 115 

• 149,882 







































$13,055,51 1 



Jauuary 13, 1912 

Russian Mining in 1911 

The two fine harvests of the years 1909 and 1910 had 
the inevitable result of making a fine business year of 

1911, which has been characterized by remarkable activity 
in the mining and manufacturing industries of the country, 
and the total foreign trade of which hids fair to eclipse 
easily that of any preceding year. It is hard to say in 
which of the departments of mining the country has 

i manifest progress in the year 1911; since in iron, 
coal, and copper the production has been a long way ahead 
of that of preceding years. That much is known already, 
hut returns must In- waited for from tin- goldfields before 
as much can he said of the industry of minim,' the pre- 
cious metals. 

In the South Russian coalfields, the Donetz basin, the 
output of coal bas been remarkably large. And that this 
is not accounted for entirely by the high prices of liquid 
fuel driving the consumers back to coal, is shown by the 
fact that the production of cuke has also heen largely in 
excess of that of 1910, and the evidence thai thi 
heen called for by the iron works is to he seen in the fact 
thai the production of cast, half-finished, and finished 
iron shows the best figures that these fields have been 

it The real production of iron , 
difficult !■> establish in more countries than Russia. The 
statistics, if gathered at all, do not appear to he consid- 
ered worth publishing, and one is compelled to estimate 
the quantity oi ore extracted by the quantity of iron 
smelted therefrom. Taking that as a basis, ami even allow- 
ing for the fact that considerable reserves remaining 
from HUH were used by the furnaces, there appears to 
he ii" room for doubt that the iron mines have been ex- 
ceptionally busy in 1911. It may be worth noli,,- that 
the pig-iron famine was not entirely due to the shorl 
production consequent on the workmen fleeing the works 
because of the cholera, but also (,. the extraordinary de- 
mand that the various Russian manufacturing indi 
have made on the national metallurgical works for machin- 
ery. Amo -not least-was the great national 
u industry. Bnl while the heavy metallurgical in- 
dustry of the South has flourished, that of the classical 
Urals has sadly wasted, and even the coalfields of that 
area, by a reduced production, bear testimony t" the fad 
thai the better organized South leaves the local prod 
no chance in the competition; although the disl 
which the southern products have to be carried is anything 
from 501 s to 1000 or 1500, according to the district 

to be served. 

Copper mining has been carried on vigorously through 
1911 and the statistics show a distinct advance on the pro- 
duction of 1910, with an additional note that is more metal- 
lurgical than mining in point of interest. The produc- 
tion of electrolytic copper is becoming of greater impor- 
tance in the country year by year. As is well known. 

tna leading coppet .. ling centres are the Urals, the 

Caucasus, and Siberia, and in each of these substantial 
l"""-' ade, and 'the hope continues to be expressed 

' 1 1-> ' the daj is not far distant when Russia will smelt 
!l11 ,llr '• id locally. That is an annually ex- 

ish, which up till now lias not found fulfil- 
ment, not ipn has not kept 
up to her previous requirements, but because her require- 
ments grow along with her rjfodn With a rapidly 
reproducing population such as Russia's. seeding 

150, ,000, and the inci displayed in her 

manufacturing industries, the demand for metals naturally 
grows, ami the development in their production must in- 
crease al a greal ir ratio I at present if she is going 
to be a self-supporting copper country. Tt may be that 
one day the Caucasus will export copper, but it will prob- 
ably be to the northwest provinces of Russia. This is a 
subject that has been dwelt .,n at considerable length in 
previous articles on Russian copper. Nothing particularly 
new is to be stated with respect to the equipment of the 
mines. Most of the increases are due to the initiative. 

enterprise, ami vigor of foreign proprietors, and it can 

be comfortably assumed without fear of error that these 
proprietors have introduced into the mines the most up- 
to-date machinery and plant. The cases where this is so 
could easily lie specified; but there is no room to do other 
tliau make the statement. 

Statistics must be awaited before passing an opinion 
on the gold industry. Naturally, in some districts where 
the foreigner is prominent, progress is to .he reported. 
In others there certainly have heen set-backs, due, as is 
always complained, to "want of capital, want of technical 
knowledge, and want of energy all through,' defects which 
are repeatedly attributed by Russian critics to her coun- 
trymen when they are reviewing the national metallurgical 
industries. One of the features of the year has been the 
encouragement afforded by the building of the Amur rail- 
way. It continues to develop or reveal new gold veins ; 
but the- exploitation there, as elsewhere in the East, con- 
tinues to suffer from the lack of labor, which is really 
an artificial want, for there is abundance of Chinese and 
Korean labor available if the Russian Government will let 
these people work. This it will not permit. Perhaps the 
most interesting feature in the gold industry is the con- 
tinued increase in the use of machinery, particularly 
dredges, which for working placers in Siberia (and from 
these practically all the gold of the country comes) are 
g more and more into favor. But here again the 
Government steps in and largely strangles the industry 
by allowing the Russian makers to make poor dredges at 
high prices by means of a high protective tariff, rather 
than allow efficient dredges to be imported from abroad, 
say from America or England. The gold producers com- 
plain continually, they telegraph to the Government, they 
or the Government, but hitherto they have met with 
nn satisfactory reply. 

The allied industry is platinum. This lias been a very 
active year t'nr platinum; but high prices obtained have 
stimulated both large and small producers to do their 
best In make hay while the sun shines. Further, the cold 
weather has been late in coming, and consequently the 
small operators especially have heen able to work for a 
longer period than usual. It will have been a splen- 
did platinum year. As for the associated metals, iridium. 
n. etc.. the production of these is so infinitesimal 
. to have a curious significance. They are eagerly 
inquired for, but are slow in coming forward. It will 
be some time before the statistics show what quantities of 
these have been locally separated from the platinum; 
though probably, as before, most of them have gone to 
foreign countries with the 83$ platinum ore on which 
standard the official quotations are made. 

Zinc and lead arc produced in the country, the former 
in Poland particularly; but away in the Far Fast, zinc 
mines have been opened at Tetyueh and exploitation is 
progressing at a great rate. Already there is a large 
export movement in zinc ore. Manganese has little to say 
for istelf. It has been considered a ruined industry for 
a long time, and it is not believed that it can recover 
until the operators are able to produce ferro-manganese 
on the spot. The last reports from the manganese fields 
(Scharopan) were very despondent in tone. Various rea- 
are assigned for the decline, but the most probable 
one is foreign competition, because all the other reasons 

existed previous to the appear: [ndia and Brazil as 

rivals in manganese production. 

Although the number of metals exploited in Russia is 
small, this is no index to the natural riches of the coun- 
try. Many of the metals most prized iii the world are 
plentiful enough here, and they will no doubt be exploited 
as occasion offers. 

The most depressing feature of the Russian mining in- 
dustry this year is in petroleum. The Baku wells, as 
their returns come in month by month, give every evi- 
dence that the forecasts of the previous few years have 
been correct. They are giving out, and there is little 
else in Russia that can afford any hope of taking their 
place. All the land called petroliferous in the Baku area 

January 13, 1913 



has not v bul there i« nol much lo 

etenl aulhoi -i the 

drained hy tin- walla mating, it <'iin Dtvw supply enough 

in bring buck Baku to (fir (rand producing dayi of 1004. 

ontinuaa to increase ii> production, but nol al 

tin- neriy. B •• enthusiasm think it will 

do m Baku ona day, bol there ara not many of 

that opinion. Maikop, the petroleum Bold thai was in 
dwarf Baku, and to become a serious menace to the Stand 
ard Oil Co. and 1 1 ■ «» Dutch Royal in their struggle for 
tin- win-ill's markets, baa np to the present time proved lo be 
ii disappointment. The wonderful wells of a year 
nr two iiu'i 1 hare become in bo exhausted and in 

otbert are producing less than before. Boring, however, 
proceeds vigorously in the more hopeful porta of the Beld. 

Tl ther oilfields of the i itry Buch as Uchta, which is 

in the prospecting stage still, and the Urals, a little north 
• •t Astrachan, which continues lo produce a nominal qnan 
tity "I' oil, eannol !»• taken into account tor the moment. 
It may be said of Uchta thai the same authorities and 
tbey arr the giants of the Russian petroleum world — thai 
spoke slightingly of Maikop will simply have nothing i" 
iln with Dehta al all. Maikop appi istify their 

views. Perhaps Uchta will Burprise them. Hut it is in 
the north, and even it' it furnishes a lot nf nil. it will 
only in' "i local significance. One result of tin' scarcity 
nt' petroleum in Russia has linn the greal advance in the 
priii'. which naturally lias materially reduced, if it has 
nut mora than made np for, the Insvs due to smaller pro- 
duction. Thus ii may hi' saiil that while the more solid 
mining industries an' doing well, the capricious nil indus- 
try is at last obviously yielding to tin- process of exhaustion, 

The East Rand Fiasco 

Tim' official report of the Government Commission ap- 
pointed in inquire into tin' Easl Rand Proprietary Mini's 
affair, confirms all the statements made in the October _l 

issue nt' the Minimi iiml Scientific Press ami goes further 
into details, Bhowing into what straits the general manager 
has been driven in the attempts u .a.ii- to maintain the out- 
put and profits, as likewise to make it appear that the 
working costs were being lowered. Ii shows plainly thai 
all the troubles al the Easl Rand Proprietary Mines were 
due primarily to overestimating the tonnage sent to the 
mill, perhaps with the object of apparently lowering the 
working costs per ton, Inn such a policy only led to more 
srold being reckoned on than was actually pul through the 
works. To recover this missing gold the monthly clean-ups 
were increased in intensity, and when that failed to pro- 
cure the desired output, the dale of clean-up was gradually 
postponed until il reached the thirteenth day of llie follow- 
ing month, instead of the first, finer started, this ma- 
neuvering did not end here. Mere estimates of the monthly 
outputs were supplied to the Chamber of Mines due on the 
10th, while accidents and mishaps were made occasion- 
when large tonnages of ore were put through the mill 

and not accounted for, in the hope of supplying si i 

of the gold based on former estimates which had failed 
lo materialize. Other acts of Subtlety are disclosed in 
the report, made with the apparent object of lowering 
ihe costs and keeping up the profits, and the wonder is. 
perhaps, that the artful contrivances used did not in the 
least seem to ameliorate the position. Eventually, the 
general manager made a clean breast of the fact that 
the gold already declared had caused 13,000 oz. to be appar- 
ently missing; that to estimate future profits was impos- 
sible, while working costs thereafter must advance, and the 
available tonnage for the mill must in the future diminish. 
To the credit of the directors he it stated, that as soon 
as the actual position was officially disclosed to (hem. dras- 
tic and immediate steps were taken to put the matter 
right, but the mischief had been already done, for which, 
rightly or wrongly, several of the directors have been 
blamed, with the result that, at the time of writing, a 

i fall ii his dul 

board, A farther inquiry i- to bo made bj tin 
into the whole nilmini 

Bdenci • likely i" .. 

from Ihe cnl Government inquiry is whol 

supplied in the Mines Deportment monthly did actually 
disclose the gold recovered each month, or 

a «hin the ii tidy clean-ups were postponed lo the 

13th of the following month. The mining regulations pro 
vide that these monthly returns iii the Mim-s Department 
shall disclose the actual output, and the forms are s,, elah 
orate ami detailed thai an estimate seems impossible and 
would probably be sure in fall short of the law's require 
The Government has the power, moreover, to have 
returns sworn to, should it be deemed necessary to 
do so. As in many respects the mining regulations in the 
Transvaal are more or less a dead letter, nn surprise need 
be ezp ren in this instance if a breach of the 

lations is shown to 1 committed, and the M 

Department may hesitate to institute a prosecution. 

Copper Producers' Association Figures 

The slate nt ni the ('upper Producers' Association for 

December shows a decrease in stocks on hand of 22,330,403 
lie. as compared with the previous month. The produc- 
tion for December was 122,986,607 lb., as against 111,878,- 
(iOl in November. Domestic consumption was iri.nss.i7l 
exports 70,238,716 lb., compared with 68,030,776 and 
67,049,279, respectively, in November, In the last month 

of the calendar year the stocks of metal on hand decreased 
51,440,161 Ih. This was more than an offsel to the first fiv" 
months, when increased slock ranged from 20,409,295 lb. 
in January to 44,000 in May. 

Below arc given the amounts, in pounds, of copper known 
in be available at the firs! of each of the lasl six months 
and for January of 1911: 

U.S. Foreign. World. 

January 122,030,195 187,705,280 309,735,475 

July 157,434,164 157,184,280 314,618,444 

A.ugust 137,738,858 152,376,000 290,114,858 

September 133,441,50] 149,887,360 283,328,861 

October 140*894,856 150,841,600 291,736,456 

November 134,997,642 138,512,640 273,510,282 

December 111,785,188 131,447,680 243*232,868 

Nevada Dividends 

During the year 1911 the mining companies of Nevada 
paid over $12,000,000 in dividends, distributed as follows: 

Goldfield Consolidated $ 7,118,296 

Nevada Consolidated 1,800,000 . 

Tonopah Mining Co 1,650,000 

Tonopah Belmont Co 1,350,000 

National Mines Co 225,000 

Florence Goldfield Co 105,000 

Jumbo Extension Co 97,105 

Moiilana Tonopah Co 60,000 

Manhattan Big Four Co 32,496 

Mexican Mining Co 20,160 

Opliir Mining Co 20,100 

Total dividends for 1911 $12,478,277 

Dividends have been declared and will he paid in Janu- 
ary, by (he Goldfield Con. of $1,779,574; by (he Tonopah 
Mining Co., $400,000; and by the Tonopah Belmont Co., 
$375,000, making a total for the month of $2,554,574. An 
estimate compiled by the correspondent of the Mining and 
Scientific Press of the gold production of Nevada in 1911 
before the announcement of the preliminary estimate of the 
Director of the Mint, places the total at $19,010,799, or 
within one-fifth of 1% of the Mint figures. 



January 13. l'HJ 

Dark Scale of Hardness 

Bj Alfred i !. Lane 

"The hardness of a mineral is its resistance t" shearing 
stress. Like other properties ol minerals, it may differ in 
different directions. When two similiar surfaces are rub- 
bed together, the softer mineral leaves a powder 'streak* 
mi the other. In "icier to lie sure which mineral gives the 
streak, it is at times convenient to have besides the com- 
mon Mohs scale 'it' hardness, composed of light minerals, 
a Mark seale "I hardness' of minerals whose color and streak 
is dark, especially in teaching. For such minerals, the fol- 
lowing properties are desirable: those of being quickly 
jnizable, easily obtainable, and uniform hardness. I 

used the following minerals: (1) Graphite, with • 

cleavage, nl artreme in the white scale, at the cither ex- 
treme in the black. (2) Stihnite (Sb,S I. with two good 
cleavages, bladed. (3) Galenite il'hs i. with three good 
cleavages. (4) Iron (use sofl wire nail), mag etic, ductile. 
(5) Xiccciliie iXiAsi. characteristic color, no cleavage. Hii 
Magnetite i !•'<• OJ, mi i 1 1 le. 

Cobalt and Its Market 

Another interesting problem in connection with the cobalt- 
silver cues, is what to do with the cobalt. The situation 
is described in the report of the Bureau of Mines of On- 
tario for 1010, as follows: "The cohallie oxide trade is 
at present demoralized, and is likely to remain in this con- 
dition until a greatly increased use of the article enables 
the demand to overtake the supply. The enforced produc- 
tion of cobalt ore from the mines at Cobalt has resulted 
in a much greater quantity of ore than can he converted 
into oxide and marketed as such. In tact, one year's opera- 
tion of the Cobalt mine- will produc 'e enough to meet 

the present consumption of oxide for several years. The 
inevitable consequence lias been a very decided fall in the 
juice of c.haliic oxide Cobalt ore cannot at 

Bnt he sold, and le is being hoisted from any of 

the silver-free veins of the Cobalt camp, the entire pro- 
duction being of ore associated with silver. • • • The 
only hope of absorbing the cobalt contents of the ores 
which will continue to he produced in Ontario is an en- 
larged demand, brought about either hy the low levels to 
which the prices have fallen, or by new uses for the 
product. It is not unreasonable to expect that the former 
will lead to the latter." 

Russian Gold Property Auctions 

The annual auctions of gold-mining properties will he 
held in 1012. in the month of February, in the towns of 
Ekaterinburg and Tomsk, for the Urals and Tomsk mining 
Governments, respectively. The number of mini's that will 
he put up foi- sale in the Urals district will he 525, and 
In the Tomsk district will number 485. These auc- 
tions will include a number of mines already auctioned 
on which the deposits have' been paid and forfeited. Many 
of them have already been worked: some of them not at 
all. The date of the auctions in Ekaterinburg is February 
in to 2::. and in Tomsk. February 8 to 21. 1012. These 
auctions are supposed to indicate to some extent 
dition of the gold industry in the regions where they are 
held. Some years ago after The Russo-Japanese war, it 

will be ii' nbered, there was what was called the gold 

fever in respect to Siberian and Urals mines, respecting 
which the English particularly were affected, and gold- 
it up hy Russians tor a few 
shillings and offered to the greedy Englishmen at fabu- 
lous price's. has seme down, and the 
difficulty is to get those who have' hid lor the mines to 
hold on to their bargains. At the moment it can be said 
that there is no sign of a recurrence of the activity re- 
ferred to; but one never knows what is going to happen. 

•Presented at the Washington meeting, 1911, of the Geo- 
logical Society of America. 

Manganese Dioxide 

Man .xide has been known from very early 

times. In 1740 I. 11. pott showed that it did not con- 
tain iron, and that it yielded a definite series of salts. 
while in 1774 C. Scheele proved that it was the oxide of 
a distinctive material. The material was isolated by I. 
II. Gabu, in 1774, and in 1S07 I. F. John obtained an 
impure material hy reducing the carbonate at a high tem- 
perature with charcoal mixed with a small quantity of 
oil. R. Bunsen prepared the material hy electrolvzing 
ranese chloride in a porous cell, surrounded by a 
carbon crucible containing hydrochloric acid. ( '. Brunner 
reduced the fluoride by metallic sodium, and E. Glabzel 
the chloride by magnesium. W. Moissan reduced the oxide 
with carbon in the electric furnace, and W. GoldsChmidt 
has prepared the metal from the oxide hy means of his 
Thermit process. W. II. Green and W. 11. Wahl prepare 
a 07 r f manganese from pyrolusite by heating it with oil' , 
sulphuric acid, the product being then converted into man- 
se oxide by heating in a current of reducing gas at 
a dull red heat, cooling in a reducing atmosphere, and 
finally reduced by heating with granulated aluminum in 
a magnesia crucible, with lime and fluorspar as a flux. A 
purer metal is obtained by reducing manganese amalgam 
by hydrogen. Prelinger's manganese has a specific gravity 
of 7.42. and the variety obtained hy distilling pure man- 
ganese nialgam in vacuo is pyrophorie, and hums when 
heated in a current of sulphur dioxide. The pure metal 
gradually evolves hydrogen when acted upon hy sulphuric 
and hydrochloric acids, and is readily attacked by dilute 
nitric acid. It precipitates many metals from solutions 
of their salts. 

Oilfields of Mexico 

Oil development in what is referred to as the Tampico 
territory in .Mexico has been growing rapidly, Late in 
December 1910 the Pearson interests brought in at Potrero, 
in the Slate of Veracruz, the greatest oil gusher in the 
history of the oil industry, with the possible exception of 
the burned-out I los Bocas. another Pearson well. Before 
it was brought under control the flow of the well reached 
170,000 bbl. per day. Two pipe-lines have bean built to 
give the gusher connection with the Tamiahua lagoon, and 
a third will carry oil to the port of Tuxpan. The Huas- 
teca Petroleum Co. (Doheny) has had great success in the 
Juan I asiano field, and has established a second tank-farm 
I hat i:ivcs it a total storage capacity of about 10.000.000 
bbl. of oil. The Huasteca will soon have a second pipe- 
line from the Juan Casiano field to Tampico. The Bast 
Coast Oil Co., a Southern Pacific concern, has brought in 
two gushers in the Topila field. The Texas Oil Co. has 
bought land on the Panuco river for storage facilities, and 
will build pipe-lines to the Topila and other producing 
fields. The year 1011 saw the first shipments of Mexican 
oil lo the United States. During the year several American 
and English companies have started exploration and de- 
velopment, an. I recently leases on several thousand acres 
have been taken for John Hays Hammond and Thomas .1. 
Ryan. Rumors of pending transfers of the Pearson hold- 
ings t" American interests have been current during the 
year, hul so far as known no deal has been closed. A hill 
recently introduced in the Mexican Congress seeks to place 
oil lands on the same basis as mineral lands, and open 
them to denouncement. It is authoritatively stated that 
the projected National Railways line from Tampico lo 
Veracruz, traversing the oil hell of the Slate of Veracruz. 
will lie built. 

L. Vogelstein & Co. give the following figures of Ger- 
man consumption of foreign copper for the mouths Janu- 
ary to October, 1911: Imports of copper, 157.934 tons: 
exports of copper. 7.107 tons: consumption of copper, 
150,427 tons; as compared with consumption during the 
same period in 1910 of 141.472 tons. Of this quantity 
[38,991 tons was imported from the United States. 



..In* of lha MtNv. rMTirtc l'Hr«N arc* Invo 

dar till* ilrpjirlinonl for tho dUMUSSlOa of t.-.nnl.:ul anil other 
maflcm pertaining to mtnlnif mil metalluray. Tho K.lltor 
■ the atpreaaton of vlawa contrary to hla own. ba- 

lloting that cartful crlttdam la mora valuable than caaual 
Insertion of any contribution la tetermlm 
abla Intaraat to tha raadera of thla Journal. 

Mass Copper 
The Editor: 

Sir In your Lame • >! Dec ber 'J. in a ahorl article 

on mass rupper, you stale thai when I - are 

• I in the Lake Superior mines, high explosives are 

..i little use in reducing the masses to fragments ol a 

.! .1 the work required in cutting up 

lb :i chisel i- -.. expensive a- to consume the 

pari nt ill.' profll from their extraction. 

In ill.' wry old days of fifty to sixty years ago, when 

powder was th Jy explosive, mi. I masses of native 

copper of enormous sine were found asionally running 

up into the hundreds of tons, the work of extracting the 

sea by means of long-handled chisels was very slow 

iiinl costly. Gradually this work was reduced to a better 

business basis; bul any sorl of an explosive is Inn | rh 

adapted to breaking mass copper, though it will break 
the mass from tin' surrounding rock, for the past 
ten years or -.>. pneumatic chisels have been employed 

i" excellent advantage, in cutting up heavy •> copper 

t'..iin.l underground. With the powerful hoisis ami large 
skips now in use. it is possible to hoisl masses up i" 
ten tons in weight, ami these an-, it necessary, band- 
cobbed, .'i- perhaps cobbed nnder a steam hammer in the 
roek-honse, ami then transported t>. the smelters, where 
they are dropped into the reverberatories by taking off 
the tops. Pneumatic chisels give aboul four times the 
efficiency of the old plan of hand-chiseling, an. I masses 
are divided by simply cutting channels, from which are 
taken ribbons of metal live-eights of an inch in width, 
ami averaging perhaps a quarter inch in thickness. 

Horace J. Stevens. Michigan, December L'7. 1011. 

Stamp-Battery Cam-Shafts 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of December Hi. ('. T. Hutchinson 
■ some interesting details of stamp-mill construction. 
During the last twenty years of experience with stamp- 
mills I have been in but one mill where ■< cam-shaft bail 
broken, ami. as it happened, thai shaft was nol on the 
fill.' of the mill of which I hail charge, hi' course, 1 have 
seen cam-shafts that had broken, ami manj of them. The 
chief cans;' I believe t.i be flue to the boxes getting oul 
of alignment, ami one would expect the more boxes tic 
greater the chance of a broken shaft. Now, it has been 
my fortune to have never seen or beard of a five-stamp unit 
cam-shaft breaking. Then why nol adopt the unit of five 
Stamps instead of the ten. fifteen, and twenty-stamp unit.' 
1 know the fifteen and twenty-stamp units are obsolete, 
but the ten-stamp unit is the standard for all large mills. 
The unit of five stamps is objected to on acconnt of 
the movements on the end opposite the bull-wheel. If 
the battery has been well put together with concrete 
foundations and the battery posts made of concrete, or 
the wooden battery posts well anchored to the concrete 
sole-plate, the vibrations are little more, ami in many cases 
not as great as those iu the ten-unit cam-shaft. It is not 
even necessary to cap the outer box. 

Mr. Hutchinson says that the question of "keeping the 
cam-shaft bearings in line will never be satisfactorily set- 
tled until the concrete, reinforced, self-contained battery- 
frame construction is employed, and installed without being 
connected in any way with the ore-bin." Two years 
ago I suggested certain departures from the regular type 
of construction, though the matter was not then published. 

pull wouli 
vertical, ami therefore the 

■i ••! !!».!> from the hill would 1m' lie-. ill,. I 

i hi tin- noii.. u as an improvement uii Lot 
all en. batter] post construction ibnt I bad pro| 
in the /....uii. . mil ,in,l Mining 

bccaii thai the -ell contain. 

nave a vertical pull s,. aa t.. reduce the tendency to 
up backward or forward, which would he present it the 

pull was from tl re-bin aide of tin- centre where the 

line-shaft is usually placed. Thai concrete structure should 
have guide girts, made of cast iron, attache. I i.. the con- 

This idea has since I n pni to practical tost In the 

City Deep mill, as Mr. Hutchinson states; bul to li 

the vibrations of the cam-shall, i proposed a bearing 

between each stamp. This, then, gave thirteen bearings for 

every ten slam] -. lint as these were all to 1 i a heavy 

casting the heai ings ild nol gel on! of alignment, ah I gb 

the shaft might gel oul of the horizontal it the concrete 
work should settle or tin- which tins casting 

rested should contract unevenly two Conditions thai B 
nol likely to occur. Another radical departure was thai 

of a low mortar box. with the boss projecting through 
the lop. a feature by no means original with me, as M. 

I'. I'.oss had long before adopted it. The battery plate- 
also were placed away from the mortar, ami in it- place 

a ear provided running alongside to carry si >. dies, etc., 

io the mortar, an. I battery sands away to the clean-tip 

barrel, or worn-out pieces to the scrap heap. 1 have heard 
niillincn object to this, because, as they contend, the pulp 
cannot lie distributed as well away from the battery as 
when issuing from the screen. This, in my opinion, re- 
quires simply a little ingenuity iu making a distributer. 
I would also have the back knee supports held in shoes 
that allow of the lengthening or shortening of the braces — 
an adjustment thai would require in practice but a few 
moments time. 

Mr. Hutchinson says thai chrome-nickel steel is the hesl 

material tor cam-shafts; yet. if I am nol mistaken, this 
material was used in the Boston Con. mill and broke 
so frequently that a change was made Io malleable iron, 
since which time no trouble has been experienced. The 
vibrations of a cam-shall in a stamp-mill are mil exactly 
those iu the axle of ;m mil obile. and so while chrome- 
nickel steel may be good for one purpose it may I f 

little use in the other, where the vibrations are of a 
different character. As Mr. Hutchinson says, nothing bul 
price is considered in placing orders for machinery. It 
may be that the mine-owner consults a Igineer who ob- 
tains the price with specifications from many machinery 
houses, but how often docs the engineer have the ultimate 
choice? Machinery houses should insist upon minimum 
sizes for certain parts of mills; Ibe quality of the mate- 
rial must be left to a competitive price. A six-inch cam- 
shaft, while not strong enough for a ten-stamp unit, is 
plenty large enough for a live-stamp battery. Some house- 
offer a f>' L .-in. shaft for a live-stamp battery, but this 
is nol strong enough. This size is well suited for a two- 
stamp unit. 

I would suggest the 'mortar hold down bolts' two inches 
in diameter. This I consider the correct size for con- 
crete foundations. Only six of these are needed, three 
on each side, and. as some millwright has suggested, four 

g I holts will answer the purpose as well as eight. The 

battery posts should be held down to the sole-plate with 
1%-in. bolls and not the usual inch bolts. The sole-plate 
may be held down by removable bolts, as used for the 
mortar construction; but. as Mr. Hutchinson indicates, 
the all-concrete, reinforced-battery construction will no 
doubt come into vogue as soon as the mining man throws 
off some of his conservatism and looks upon his mine 
as a commercial business instead of a slock- jobbing en- 

Algernon Del Mar. 

South Pasadena. December 20, 1011. 



January IS, 1912 


Most of these are in reply to questions received by mail. 
Our readers are invited to ask questions and give informa- 
tion dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

DATENTS can now be rej rod kept alive in Japan 

as in any other country. t The original tea is about 
$25, and renewal costs $10 per year. In ease a pat 

not within a certain time register his patent, a 
else caring t" do so may register it in his own name and 
collect royalties. 

'C'll.KS clogged with tin or lead may be cleaned by 
immersion in strong nitric acid. For iron filings, use blue 

vitriol, rinse in water, and dip in nitric acid. For copper or 
brass, use nitric acid several times: fur /inc. dilute sulphuric 
aeid. After any of tl its, rinse the tiles in water, 

brush vigorously, and dry in sawdust or by burning alcohol 
on the file. 

TMN occurs in America chiefly in the Black Hills of St null 
Dakota, at Spearfish, and at Harney Peak. Litigation 
lias hampered the development of the properties, whicl 
not of high grade, and the operations have not been suc- 
cessful. Tin is chiefly obtained from the Straits Settle- 
ments, though Bolivia. Cornwall, and China are important 
producers as well. 

/"1J.AKNET is used as an abrasive, the variety known as 
alamandite being preferred for this purpose. The 
present production is obtained from the Adirondack moun- 
tains, in New York, where the crushed rock is either hand- 
sorted or jigged. It is made into garnet paper, which is 
used in the shoe and wood-working industries, and brings 
$30 to $32 per ton. 

T^HE following is a short accurate method for securing 
length for a belt. When it is not convenient or possible 
to measure with line the required amount of belt needed, 
add the diameter of the two pulleys together, divide the 
result by 2, and multiply the quotient by 3}/ s . Add your 
product to twice the distance between the shafts carrying 
the pulleys and the result is the length for belt. 

CJISKiyOU, a county in California, and mountains in 
Oregon, by some authorities is said to be a corruption 
of the original name given the district in California by 
the French . meaning 'six boulders'; others 

stale that it is mi Indian word meaning 'bob-tailed horse,' 
the mountains between California and Oregon having been 
SO named because a famous bob-tailed race-horse was lost 

KfONAZITE SAND rior of Brazil con- 

tains only 4 ti, 5.7$ of thorium oxide, while that 
from tin- sea coasl contains 7%. The deposits have re- 
sulted from the erosion and concentration of felspathic 
rocks which contain .0.07 I.. 0.20% of thoria. The sand is 
mined a itrated roughly and is finished on eleetro- 

ic separators which make a I'V, monazite that con- 
tains 3.79J thorium oxide on the aver:: 


BOUND which is t]„- subject "'' an adverse claim may 
he excluded from it-- | lieation, that the latter 

" r >> : " aj entry and patent, without 

any rights to the ground in conflict being waived. An 
a patent ap] licant to deed certain por- 
tions of the claims has been obtained, 
to those threatening to adverse, in consideration of no 
adverse being made, is valid. 

T oss (iK GOLD i nation may be due to a num- 

ber of causes. If it he due to free gold included 
in or surrounded by gangue rock, a sizing test will reveal 
it through the higher value of the coarser sand. In 
cases the coarser sand can he crushed in a mortal- and 

panned to show a 'prospect 1 of gold. The remedy lor the 
loss is to crush fine, not the ore in general, but the coarser 
grains. This may be accomplished by using a finer screen 
with the same or lower height of disrh. 

■pLECTROLYTIC refining of copper, as is true of all 
other processes, involves some waste and re-treatment 
of material. The large loss is doe to a part of the anode. 
used for supporting the weight, becoming scrap. In East- 
ern refineries it is customary to use anodes where a lip 
projects from either end of the upper edge, and the mate- 
rial in these lips is necessarily left unrefined and must 
be remelted. Scrap in this process amounts to as much as 
VI',. At Great Falls the scrap has been reduced to 7', 
by means of an ingenious device perfected by the super- 
intendent. Willis T. Burns. Brictly, the weight of the 
anode is supported by two loops of copper wire in place 
of the usual lips. The ends of these loops are placed in 
the mollis when the anodes are cast, and thus the copper 
in the wire loop becomes firmly imbedded in the copper 
■ if t lie anode. At the end of the refining process the 
amount of copper left to he re-treated is much less than 
when the usual form of anode is used. 

TSOPLANATIOX. as a term complimentary to peneplana- 
tion. was defined at the recent meeting of the Geological 

Society of America by 1). D. Cairues, on the basis of physi- 
phic studies made by him in the Yukon region. "Where 
remnants of the original plateau surface remain," he said. 
"agencies, including nivation, frost, and chemical action. 
are at work on I he upland tending to remove all inequalities 
of the surface by transporting material from the upper to 
the adjoining lower levels; for this process the term 'iso- 
plauation' is proposed. This name has suggested itself, as 
its results tend to make the elevation of all points equal 
(iso) in the area affected. Isoplanation is the reverse of 
peueplanation. as by isoplanation there is but a slight, if 
any, loss of material within the planated areas, but in peno- 
planated tracts all crustal matter above sea-level tends to 
become transported to the ocean. Isoplanation thus in- 
cludes all planating activities, even wind action, whereby a 
plain-like surface tends to be produced, and by which 
there is no perceptible loss of material to the planated tract : 
all ordinary stream action, which is the main factor in 
peneplanatiou, is thus excluded." 

SCREENING line material over fixed screens where feas- 
ilile. is less expensive than where trommels are used, 
because of power and repair bills incident to the tatter. 
Where feed is irregular, however, there is a marked tend- 
ency for material to slide over the screen in a mass, and 
so to he delivered imperfectly screened. Ai the Portland 
mill at Colorado Si rings this difficulty 1ms been met by 
- of the device shown below. Across the screen is 

placed a tipping block swung on pins and weighted by 

means of an arm as shown. Along the lower edge of 
this block is fixed a strip of rubber belting, fitting down 
close to the screen. When a mass of material is dumped 
on the screen it slides down against the rubber strip and 
bounces the block up and out of the way. The counter- 
weight throws the block back into position and the material 
is. as a result, spread evenly over the screen by a series 
of light blows. This greatly increases the efficiency of the 

Jamiart 1 I. 1912 


Special Correspondence 

Si« - m • «*on Michiiiax-I'taii, 

i A i ' ■ 

.ili Mining Co. has I 
ink.- >i\.r ■ number of important mining properties lyiug 
on and l« ind Little Cottonwood canyons, in S:ih 

Lain county, "" ■ buti tentatively agreed upon in arrang- 
ing tor ■ lidation. The properties proposed t" 
-i of the Utah Mines Coalition, City Rocks, 

ly, Copper Prince, International, hTearaargej Qen. 

. mill Oen. May, Th* Utah Minis Coalition and City 
K.h-Us are developed to tue productive stage, and all form 
a contiguous group. The property of the Coalition com- 
pany has been operated some time through us Solitude 
runnel, which ran be utilised in working the City Rocks. 
It is demonstrated that, by driving a 600 ft. cross-cut from 

tliis ti el, a connection may be made with the Grizzly 

workings; and by other driving this haulage level run in- 
made to serve all other properties of the group. The tnan- 


ager and officers of the Utah Mini's Coalition Co. took the 
initiative in securing the agreement by which all these prop- 
erties are in a fair way to be united under the control of 
the Michigan-Utah M. Co. These properties are in the 
Alta district. 

The Alta Tunnel & Transportation Co., in which P. V. 
Bodfish. C. A. Gillette, John Caine, George H. Rathman, 
and R. L. Mack are directors, has acquired 14 lode claims 
on Honeycomb mountain between Big and Little Cotton- 
wood canyons. The plan of the company is to cross-cut 
the fissures of this region by driving an adit 3500 ft. from 
Silver fork on Big Cottonwood. The portal will be at an 
altitude of 8500 ft. above sea-level, and it is figured that 
the adit will cut several well-known fissures at depths rang- 
ing from 600 to 900 ft. below existing workings. It is the 
purpose to place an air-compressor at the entrance, and 
this will be electrically driven. The cross-section is to be 
5 by 71/2 ft., and the estimated cost of driving is $15 per 
foot. It is stated that this adit will give a depth of about 
600 ft. below the Solitude haulage level of the Utah Mines 
Coalition Co. The fissures to be intersected are nearly 
parallel. They occur in a formation of shale, quartzite, 
and limestone, overlying granite. The fissure veins strike 
parallel to a series of porphyry dikes which extend north - 

northwest, about R0 from thi horizontal 

din* far are iiiokiIv oxidized, tin rtali bi 

copper, with a small amount of gold I and 

copper in the higher workings occur as carbonate*, the 

xjlvar as chloride and br la. The proposed deeper da 

celo] nt is expected t" open the bodies of Bulphidi 

Former operators in tins vicinity mined through shafts ami 

were handicapped bj tl cceaaive inflow of wain- at theii 

I. .wrr workings. The projected adit is to serve for both 
drainage and transportation, and will make ii possible to 

mine ore in this and adjoining properties without hoisting. 

Tlie course is in the direction ot Uta .amp. which is in 

Little Cottohw I canyon. 

The Alta Consolidated M. Co., having ■ lease and bond 
on a group of developed claims, almost at the head of I. it 

tie Cottonw I canyon, lias snipped over 300 tons of on 

within the last live months, the gross returns of which 

amonnted to $12,000, The ore sampled al 1 1-', galena, 

■V , copper, and 75 oz. silver per ton. Originally the work 
hen was in carbonate ore, but present operations are en 
tirely in sulphide bodies. The lowest level is being ad 
vanri'il on the fissure vein in the direction of a contact 
which cuts the fissure nearly at right angles: according' to 
past experience in this district, larger bodies of ore may 
be found at this contact. The property is at an altitude 
of 9500 ft., and adjoins the Michigan-Utah group. J. 11. 
Winwood, T. and A. Jacobson, and Hans Vnnder are in 
control of the propertj . 


Zinc Prospects bob 1912 Bright. — New Contracts. — 
/.im' Oxide Works Mas Resume Operations.- Zinc 
and Lead Notes. 

The dawn of 1912 sees conditions exceptionally bright 
in the zinc industry, both mining and smelting, and the 
ore production from the Missonri-Kansas-Oklahoma dis- 
trict is much heavier than at the beginning of 1011. Spel- 
ter, which reached Ihe highest figure of years by going 
to $6.85 early in December, dropped to $6.10 toward the 
middle of the month, but recovered, and at the close of 
the year was firm at $6.20; while ziucblende, which had 

been selling for about $48, assay basis of 60$ metallic 
zinc, earlier in the month, dropped to $44 al the close of 
the month, with choice lots commanding s premium, bring- 
ing the price to as high as $4S. During the pasl year 

lal producers have reaped a profit much greater pro 

porlinnately than have the mine operators, due to the 
wide margin that has existed between the price of spelter 
ami the price of ore. At no lime has Ihe •eight.-lo-one' 
basis prevailed. Formerly it was considered that zinc- 
blende should bring eight limes as much, per Ion, as spel- 
ter brought per hundredweight, but litis ratio has been 
materially decreased. In 1910, when a $12 smelting mar- 
gin prevailed, profits were said to he good: but in 1911 

th argiu ranged around $20, and actually wenl to $'JS 

toward the close of the year. Realizing that they have 
not been united in their fight for higher prices, the ore 
producers appreciate the fact that through cooperation 
only will they secure a price which they believe to be rea- 
sonable. Without cooperation the heavy production of 
blende continues unimpeded, more than 5000 tons per 
week being turned out, to be placed on the market al 
any figure the smelters care to offer. With unity of action, 
the zinc-ore producers can restrict this onl put. and can 
to some degree at least have a voice in fixing the price 
on their product. 

A new scale of buying zinc ore lias been put in force 
by the Americar Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co.. which a year 
ago inaugurated for the first time in the history of this 
district a method by which the mine product should be 
bought at a price fixed on the average price of spelter at 
East St. Louis. The new contracts are much less favor- 
able to the mine operator and are not being accepted as 
readilv as were the former contracts. While the old con- 



January K(. 1912 

tract fixed a smelting margin "1 $14.80, the new contrast 

fixes a margin of $21, and many features of the i racl 

an mueb less desirable. It means thai the producer will 
nassive from $6 to $8 pBr (On leas lor his output than 
under the chednle. The i tracl system was em- 

ployed only by the one company and was largely in the 
nature of an experiment. The numerous other companies 
buying in this market purchased their ores in the old 
way. by bidding In the open market. Comparison of 
is throughout mil shows ilie contract, as 
originally employed, to have been much more favorable to 
Hie producer than the open market bidding. Contract 
prices invariably were much higher than the open-market 
figures, the difference between (lie two at times being as 

i as $5 per toll. 

After remaining idle more than lour years, operations 
are to lie resumed at the plant of the Ozark Zine Oxide 
Co. ai Joplin, officers of the company having decided to 

-I i $10,000 on repairs; The plant will he ready for 

work about April and will employ about 35 skilled work- 
men. It will open a new market for some of the zine 
ores of the Joplin district, though Mexican and Western 
nils are used almost exclusively. 

Having worked for years on an enormous ore deposit 
Unit netted thousands of pms of high-grade blende and 
galena concentrate, the Grace Zinc Co.'s mill on the Granby 
M. A. s. Co.'s land at Joplin is being converted into a 
tailing mill, the object being to rebandle the great hulk 
of lime and llinl gravel that passed through the pi""' in 

the years of its operation. 


Wm.mkk'i' M. Co. KitixTixi; 150-TON Mini.. — PROPERTY Db- 
SOMBBD an'ii Plans OOTMNED. 

The Wilheri Mines Co. is erecting a concentrating mill 
ot l.'iii tons daily capacity at its mining property situated 
in Little I, river range, Dome district, 25 miles north- 
easi of here. Ii is expected that the mill will he ready 
to operate by next March. This plant is being equipped 
with a 10 by 20-in. Blake crusher, two sets ,,f 36 by 16- 
ini rolls of Allis-Chalnieis make, tour Harz jigs, eight 
\Villle> tallies, two sliincrs. and a ."> -eoni pa rl u,enl J( y 

classifier for classifying the product of the fine rolls. The 
middling and tailing from the coarse tables are to be re- 
ground in a Hardinge 6-ft. conical mill, the product of 
the letter to be concentrated over slime-tables. A 20-ft. 
picking belt will extend from the bin to the crusher. 11 
is estimated that 15^, of the ore to he taken from the 
mine is high-grade, and this cdass of (.re is to be picked 
off the belt and shipped without concentrating. The ore 
consists of galena and silver in a quartzite gangue. M. M. 
Johnson, the company's consulting engineer, lias made a 
report on the property in which he gives an estimate of 
21,958 Ions of on' exposed and ready for mining. Assays 
of about 200 samples of this ore show an average of 23$ 
lead and 2 "z. silver per ton, with about 15c. gpld, making 
a gross value of $21.85 pee ton. In Ibis report it is 
figured that there mil be a loss of 20%, or $4.54, in mill- 
ing, and that costs will he T.'ic. for mining, 75c. for mill- 
ing, $2 for wagon haulage, $1.25 for railroad freight, $5.80 
as smell in i making a total of $14. Ml per Ion. leav- 

ing a net value of $6.96 per ton. It is calculated that 
the concentrate to he shipped Vil) run 50% lead and 5 

to oz. silver per ton. 

The holdings of the company consist of 15 lode claims, 
covering in the main a quartzite country, in which there 
are several well-defined fissares striking northeast. The 

mineralization, as indicated by the croppings, extends 
about 31 't. and lias a width The principal 

development has been accomplished by means of No. 1. 2. 
and 3 cross-cut adits, the tast-namei ith on 

ihe principal vein oi aboul 200 ft. The orebody exposed 
by the development already performed has an width 

of 21 ft., is 711 ft. Ion- and ISO ft. deep. Whal is 
believe, 1 to be Ihe northerly extension of this orebody has 

been opened by a fourth adit known as the 'caved tunnel.' 

loll ft. north of the former workings. The vein exposed 
by the caved tunnel is 10 ft. wide, the ore assaying lie, 
lead. There is at this place an extensive wash ot surface 
ore. The ore reserve indicated has been blocked out and 
is susceptible to measurement. The mill is situated near 
the base "i in'' mountain. ("Ill ft. from the portal of adit 
No. :i. and the Ore is to he hauled to the mill-bins in cars 
over a surface tramway of that length. The intention is 
to drive a haulage level to the orebody from Ihe level of 
iln mill-bins, whereby an additional depth of 400 ft. will 
he gained. While a steam plant is being eiectc, 1 nl the 
mill for temporary power purposes, the intention is to 
build a hydro-electric power-plant on one of the three 
creeks which How through the company's ground, a grant 
for the water rights of which has been obtained from the 
State of Idaho. A. S. Ross, one of the principal owners 
,,f the Pittsburg-Idaho mine, at (lilmore. Lemhi county. 
Idaho, has a controlling interest in the Wilberl mine. \Y. 
S. McCormick, Knight & Wnrnork, and others, of Salt 
Lake, are also stockholders. The Wilhert and Pittsbttrg- 
lilaho are about 50 miles apart, and situated on opposite 
sides of the same mountain range, both being lead mines. 
The latter is connected with a spur from the Pittsburg & 
(iilinoiv railroad, which extends from Armsted to Salmon 
City, and is a regular shipper of ore. 


Mixks Department Tki.i.s of Mineral Pboductioij. — 

Coal.— Tin. 

According to the returns issued by Ihe Government Mines 

Depart nt, the total value of the mineral output of the 

Transvaal, exclusive of diam Is. was, for October, £3,187,- 

387. Considering that gold alone amounted to £3,006,438, 
the balance may not appear to be a large amount to dis- 
Iribule among the base-mineral output; but. nevertheless. 
base minerals have made some progress of late. Coal, 
of course, has always been a drug on the market since 
the country became possessed of a railway system, and 
selling prices have been constantly falling, until in October 
ihe average price at the pits was hut 4s. tid. per ton. The 
district commanding the highest average pit-top selling price 
had to he content with 5s. 7d. per ton, while the cheapest 
district oily obtained .'is. 9d. per ton. It is clear that 
Ihe last price does not leave much margin for profit, and 
is obtained under somewhat exceptional circumstances. 
Owing to the efforts of the Transvaal Coal Owners' Associa- 
lion. coal prices, though low. are steady, and the majority 
of collieries lately have been able to earn a small dividend 
for the shareholders. 

The value of tin ore shipped during October was again 
somewhat disappointing, as it only amounted to £26,181, 
as , ipared with £45,009 in July. This fall seems prob- 
ably due to the Zaaiplaats mine, the principal producer in 
the Transvaal, not having been so overpnshed to obtain a 
maximum output and shipments since Ihe manager has re- 
turned, for there are few producing mines as yet in the 
Wat, Thing district, and a marked restriction of output at 
any one firings down the monthly returns lor the whole 
eountry. Affairs at the Zaaiplaats mine have not been run- 
ning smoothly of late, as the manager has persistently re- 
fused to adopt the suggestions of the acting manager and 
consulting engineer, regarding the equipment and policy. 
The directors, after agreeing to the proposed method and 
acting upon it. have now withdrawn their consent to its 

adoption, 0] the wishes and threats of the manager. It 

is believed that the plan of the consulting engineer was 
Largely suggested by the acting manager, and no surprise 

need be expressed thai affairs have recently been somewhat 
topsy turvy. The Zaaiplaats mine is a phenomenally rich 
one in places, and the doings there uiilsl have some effect 
upon the fortunes of the whole till deposits in that tjis- 
liicl. Copper ore also was shipped during October to the 

a mi of only £3014, although in August shipments had 

grown to (.'5007. When once the new railway is constructed 
io the northern copper lields. there is every indication that 
copper shipments will materially in, 'rease. 





\\ m.i:i i- rni i DPPi ' I'u" 

ii i« Um month of dividend distribution! :i 

,000,(100, ii i- .-in in I. will b* disbuj July, 

. t mi nii.i I distribution was made, nun 
had authoi iliea declared thai the resulting evideueea of ex 

ilitnre rould be found along the automobile highways; 

that iliuM- who before had do can were making tbeir Brat 

payments and taking their first trips, thai tboae who bad 

ears were investing tbeir dividends in new 

• and « «i othing of tbe gallons 

and galloi line required. It was hoped that in 

lbs winter season it might l>.- possible to draw tbe attention 
of t In- public from other things and create some speculative 
interest; it is something "i a shock i" the old timers to tin. I 
tliat tbe public is through speculating, whether the market 

- up or down. Shares bought for investment do nol 
greatlj interest the makers oi markets; they prefer the 
trader for market profits who goes In and out every day. 
The sorrow of Wall Street is that, like Western big game, 

i specimens are b. ning •<• and more rare. 

In copper there seems to be a good deal of underlying 
skepticism concerning the recent upward trend in prices. 

Some "f the large i su re are questioning the soundness 

of the situation and the movement in the shares hardly 
justifies Ihs tears expressed by some of the producers oi n 
runaway market. While it is not known as an absolute 
certainty that a pool of big producers was formed during 
the latter months of last year, it i- so asserted in Borne 
quarter-, the story being that the group included some of 
the more important foreign agencies, and thai a large 
am.. um of copper ha- been accumulated in an endeavor to 
stampede the American manufacturer into the market. Dis- 
cnssi.m ..I the topic with manufacturers reveals the facl 

that many ..I' them uere. and are. uneasy Over the prospeol 
.if higher prices ami no metal on hand, hut. while the report 

of the Producers' Association for December mil was ex- 
pected i" make a strong allowing, there was a tendency to 
await developments. It it he true thai a group "I copper 
producers working with the larger selling agencies has pur- 
chased ami is now carrying any large pan of the copper 
which is supposed t" have gone int. ■ consumption, if the de- 
crease in the world's v isihle supply proves eventually to be 
tunted for in this way. it is sale to say that in the end 
the copper market will suffer more than it will gain. In 
the meantime, one factor may he taken as assured — every 

producing mine that can lake mil copper at a satisfactory 
profit on the present market is straining to bring produc- 
tion up to capacity. An instance of the quick expan- 
sion in production which may lie anticipated is the record 
of the Anaconda fur December, which turned out 24.40(1,0(111 

lh.. being an increase of s c 3,500,000 lb. over the figures 

for the month preceding, and considerably more than any 
month of the year. The Phelps-Dodge output has already 
shown a marked increase and may lie expected to grow 
further. December output was 13.199.042 lh.. as against an 
average of about 11,000,000 11). for the preceding months 
of the year. If similar increases arc to be made by the 
larger mines. February or March will probably see the sur- 
plus gaining in bulk once more. The foreign visible supply 
is shown by fortnightly figures to show an increase on De- 
cember 31 of something over 1,500,000 lb. If is rather 
expected that December export figures will break all pre- 
vious records. 

The trial of George Graham Rice and his associates 
is still dragging along, without other incident than the action 
of tbe court in forfeiting the bail of tbe principal defend- 
ant. The spectacular methods of Albeit Freeman and his 
association with Julian Hawthorne have been the subject 
of a great ileal «f comment during the past eighteen months, 
during which time, these two and their co-workers, among 
whom was .Josiah Quiney, a former mayor of Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, floated several properties in Canada, The glitter- 
ing prospectuses, written by Mr. Hawthorne and spread 
broadcast through the mails, are now declared to have 

• , . ..t the , 

to Ik. built, at least iii the n bate futut 

company, which has had a long hard pull ii pi to 

■pel. I- said to Im- u I with the 

Slept.., \ alley s. ,\. M. Co, for treatment ol 

SheitU lug lo obtain a -ali-l.i 

smelting contract, and if possible to postpone thi 

of ll- own planl. The governing factor in both cause uu 

donbtedly i- the intention to lake advantage ,.t the pi, 

metal market and avoid I he delay n s-ar,\ to const ruction. 

The Calumet a Arisona, however, i- in better stead, having 

a plant which can he used while the new smeller, which is 

I,, est ah... n $2,000,000, i- ted. 

It has been a long lime since Ihe New Fork market look 

any particular active interest in (ripple (reel;, hut an 
effort is to be made i,, make a trading market in El Paso 
Consolidated on the New York Curb. 

Business of the 1 . S. Steel Corporation continues to show 
improvement, ami the volume ,.t new older- is now greater 
than in months past. Ii is said thai business now averages 
i5,000 tons per day. The Corporation ha- also increased 

its pro, Inchon, and operations are now al -in, ,,| capacity. 

Because oi the increase in business in December ami the 
-lightly higher range of prices, it i- estimated ilmi earnings 
for the quarter closed December 31 amounted to between 
^24.000,1111(1 and $25,000,000. 



Out ok Court.— Work Started on Butte Central 
Concentrator*— Aistaoqnda Production, 

There are rumors afloat to the effect that a settlement 

of the litigation between the Anaconda Copper .Mining 

Co. and the riutle-Hnlluklava company might he made in 
the next feu week-. In the application for the hearing 

of the case in some oilier placi Iside of Butte, the Butle- 

liallaklava c puny asserted that it was impossible to gel 

a fair trial in this city owing to the powerful influence 
of the Anaconda company. W. II. Weed, of New York, 

who is the expert of the Bntte-Ballaklava company, and 

II. V. Winched!, who acts for Ihe Anaconda company, 
many months ago completed all their examinations, ami 
are here. They have hail some conferences, and while 
neither one of them will express any opinion, it is thought 
they are discussing a possible line of agreement for sub- 
mission lo the interested parties, both acting in behalf of 
ihe companies they represent. The contention of Ihe Ana- 

ida company is that the Ibtltc-liallaklava company was 

taking ore from the Bight Bower and (he Mountain Chief 
properties, and .+ 1,800,000 is asked as (he value of Ihe ore 
taken. The Butle-Kallaklava company prospered for some 
time previous lo the Anaconda company, securing an in- 
junction prohibiting il from mining in the ground in dis- 
pute, and even paid one dividend. Since Ihe injunction 
Im- been in force, the Butte-Bailaklava company has sunk 
the shaft 200 ft. and has carried on some development 
work in .ground other than the territory claimed by the 

Ana da company, but with little success. 

Work- has been commenced on Ihe concentrator of the 

Butte Central Copper Co.. and it is announced ihe planl 
is lo he reaily for operation by .June 1. Il will have a 
capacity of IOO Ions ami will be operated by electricity. 
The company is maintaining shipments of about 50 tons 

per week from its Ophir mine, and Sam MeConnell, super- 
intendent of the property, says thai more than sufficient 

a ey is being received from Ihe shipments to pay all 

running expenses. 

It would appear from the ollicial figures of the pro- 
duction of (he Anaconda company for the month of De- 

e her that Ihe output was increased 2,500,000 lb. during 

thai month, and that it was 24,400,000 lb., or within 
600,008 lb. of the amount announced to be increased this 
year. This was the largest output of any month last year 
and brings the production of the Anaconda for Ihe year 



January 19, 1912 

191] up i,, 260,852,000 lb., and adding the Baal Butte 
company i total production for the year in this 

district 273,238,000 lb. of copper, s... while thi 

waa started in December, it will be cimti I ibis month, 

when the production probably (rill slightlj i,000, 

nun |b., .i the High Ore, which was closed down nil 

ane int< mmiasion 

■ have slightly increased their 

ontpi been el I do* d, and ii was 

h,,, i ... idi the High <>iv will 

than make up f< down of the Leonard. The 

during the time it waa onl of < mission, in 

addil d for ho ing ore by i 

air, had skip chutes trail! at di which 

the ore la dum] ad to be held in readiness to be hoisted 
t.i the Burface. The skip chutes are of the most modern 

km. I unci will greatly facilitate the work of g ■ the 

rook to the surface in large quantities, The Badger State 
.'mil Tramway mines, before the end of il nth, will be 

,,,■■ increa ed quantil iea of ore, bul nol much 
one half whal thay could produce if the occaajoi 
it. These mines are among the richeal in the district and 

an in excellent ■ lition. 

\'..w thai the Anaconda company has I an in- 
crease in production, both the l-";i^i Butte and Tuolu 

i. .mi | iea will follow sail in the near future. The Tuo 

lni pany'a new surface plant will not !»• ready 

in go into commiaaii loh before the hisi of the month, 

.1 will therefore be along b1 i the BtbI of nasi 

in. .ml before ibis mine shows anj increase. The Eaat 
Hun.' i: ii.. i likel) i" increaae its outpul muoh before Ibe 

of the month, although there ia an immense quantity 
c,t' ore blocked out and ready to be broughl to the Bur 
face. The smelter capacity will be increased in the near 
future by the adding of a new l>ln>i furnace, the inatalla 
i ion of a in. ii i ii"« under way. 


hi. i. mi.i:- i ; i . . i ■ i - . i •, . , . Railway Connection 

El Frontal, which is eaat of the town of Etoaamorada, 
Tepic, some -i\ houi lacs ride from the railroad 

Una, and ia owned bj an America ipanj having offices 

in Cincinnati, is mm attracting attention. Extensive de 

velopmenl work b« been done d the paal three 

.mil H large tonnage of ore baa i a blocked. A bodj of 

ore 7 ft. wide, reported to aaaa) $11 per ton, waa I <<' 

lust month in i oul J iO ft, below the adil level 

The mill and cyanide plant which was erected two 
ago, inii not Btarted for Each oi iufficienl tonnage, are being 
pul in sii;i| e and will co i ine in February. 

\ large trael of land, well wooded and watered, BurroundB 

md waa purchaaed bj the i pany several 

also owne a promising pros] t 

i the Bouthen Pi ailroad Btation Tagb, called La 

i 'in m i. lit peel work i.. iliis prop 

arty, bul Burface assays of the outcrop, which is wide, 

sIk.u v.'iv I values in gold and silver. There are b 

nun i Spanish woi kings on this property. With 

facilities which tl Iroad affords, Iliis pro] 

ought l" offer many advant operation. 

Minitaa, shunted Borne Bve minutes' ride from the 

Southern Pacific railroad Btal rlosamorada, is steadilj 

The flow of water which for 
some time greatly impeded the! work, has been controlled 

by the aid ol i i owerful pumping plant. A. ding to 

records, this property, which, judging by the many old ilong the vein, must have been wo 

verj extensively by I lie Spaniards during colonial tines, 
was ;. large produi ei , Tl 

.1. Tl ins nl Elay, Arizona, was on the ground during 

the ii Hi of 1 1 claims 

fr I. J. Hull, wliose claims are situated in the neighboi 

i ,1 of the town ol 

mine which baa been Bhipp to San 

Francisco for the paal two yeara Cucl i <.-d in 

the municipality of AVeaponeta, uear the \ i I l;t^;<- ol Huaji- 
cori, is owned by the Lacy fi 'j ... Los Ingeles and 

ol the three brothers, Ed. Laey. This is 
:i copper gold mine and said to have large reserves of ore 
blocked. The Cucharas waa one of the fewj if nol the only 

in the Territoi v, which shm down during the revolu- 
tionary trouble in May mil. Work has been resumed in 
r, and | :i be Btarted within a month. 

The Zopilote property is owned by a Qerman company 
with offices in Hamburg. Ii ia one of the largest, ii not 
il... i;, ( in the Territory of Tepic. Before the 

panj acquired ii in the eighties, the mini 

were owned by Beveral Mexicans who worked them 
years with large profits, A lil ird of the p 

.1 during those times exists, it is stated on good 
authority thai several million pesos were taken out. The 

hi i pany acquired all of the eleven mines now 

prising the Zopilote group] and also b large trael of 

s ■ 30,000 acres of land Burr ling it, and erected a 

stamp mill and hypo tixiviation plant. There are a number 
of substantial administration buildings and a pleasant town 

of brick 1 sea erected by the company and accommodating 

2000 | pie, ii church, a achoolhouse, etc. The Grer 

mini company worked the property without interruption 
for nil. .nl 25 years, milling during the laal ten years about 

500 i. .us per month, During this ii the property bus 

produced some $10,000,000, The ore waa roasted and treated 
by the hypo-lixiviation process, al a very high cort. In 
the year 1908 the property dosed on account of the. low 

r silver. A. V. Flyni, n mining and metallurgical 

engineer of Minnesota, acquired the property under lease 

.■in, I option in M :i \ last, and (withstanding, the revolu 

tionarj trouble in the country, he started work al once. 
The 20-stamp mill and the two ball-mills were repaired and 
pul in commission, a concentrator was erected, and the 
old hypo-lixiviation plant was converted into a cyanide 
plant. Milling commenced i" Anguat. Since (hat time the 
plant has run without interruption, the property employing 

200 men. Tie- si,i| rats are from piu.ono to P*15,000 

per nib. There are large reserves of low-grade ore in 

the ii b, ns the old company did nol attempt to work any 

ore assaying leas than one kilogram of silver per ton. The 
i. mi the Jabalina and Etastauradora mines are being 
worked al present Some high grade ore running from 8 
to i' 1 kg. of silver per ton is reported to have been found 
in both these mines. There is a line water-power near 
il.. property, which ii is planned to develop. This prop- 
erty ought in become a large producer with n further in- 
crease in the capaoit} of the plant. 

The Tenamoche is situated on the edge of the ground 
belonging to the Zopilote company and is owned by an 
American eompanj controlled bj a Mr. Ramsdell of Groat 
lajara. Development haa been under way lor i be pasi three 
years, opening up old Spanish workings. 11. Hale, who 
did the development work al the Favor mines in the llos 
totipaquillo district before Mr. Ramadell sold them, is in 

e. The ..res are silver bearing, and the mine is said 
lo contain high grade ore. There is no mill on the prop 
eriv. Inii n shipment is now being made ready to be sen' 
over the Southern Paeific railroad to a northern smeller. 

The 1'iirisima is situated 60 kill Ires north of II itv 

of Tepic, two hours' horseback ride from the Southern Pa- 
cific railroad Btation Corte, and is ow 1 by A. K. Flynt, 

who has been doing development work during the paal live 
veins. Th e is valuable for both '_'"hl and silver. The 

win is from 8 to III ft, wide, Ibe ore assavs $12 lo $l"i 

per ion across the vein, and there is said to be 'blocked 

onf s 50,000 i. .us of ore. A steam hoist and crasher 

have latelj 1 a installed at the mine, and additional eya 

aide tanks and a Wilfley concentrator are being erected at 
the mill, increasing the present capacity to '-.'"> ions per 
.in. No ore haa been stoped, all the ore milled originating 
from the development work, which bus paid the expenses 
of operating the property. The Southern "Pacific railroad 
will he opened us far ns the < • 1 1 \ of Tepic on January 15, 
1912, establishing b direct connection between Califomifi 
and the eitj of Tepic, a trip of about three days, and 

is no doubt that this district will receivi isiderable 

attention in the near future. 

Januarj 13, WIS 



General Mining News 


Ti.. ivetnbar mm 

with an VMunaiol realizable value' i 

ii7 111 N'ovi iii. preceding 

■ling profit ■! iii November 

an. I 23,391 111 October. Count ruction expenses amounted t" 

bar, leai ing nel profits 

of $23, !>.'>;' anil $10,170 t.o iii.- respective i iths. The 

_•.■ yield mi |2.0] per ton • >! ore in November and 
$2.76 in October. 

The Alaska United ft M. Co. in November made 
productiot ; 'estimated realizable value,' in. in the 

Beady Bullion and 700 Ft. olaims, (114,770 in 

October. Operating 98 in November, 

in October, leaving operating profl 

-"J. 701 In October. Construction 
expanses in November amounted t.. $31 17. and in October 
t.. |7482, leaving nel profits Ifl and $55,219 tor the 

live months. Tbe average yield in November tor t li<- 
Beady Bullion claim was *'.'..'>J per ton of ore, against 
in thr preceding month, and for the Tim Ft, claim $2.45 per 
ton in November, against $3.07 in October. 

The Alaska Treadwell G. M. Co. in November made -i 
gross production of $154,578, 'estimated realizable value.' 
Operating expense amounted to $89,835 and construction 
expense t<. $14,885, leaving a nel profit ol $49,858. The 
average yield was $2.46 per ton • •! ore. The October report 
has been published. 



The Summit mine, formerly known as the Gibson, which 
was iiniler option to the Summit Copper Co. for $442,375, 

has reverted to the original owner. The Gibson Copper 
Co. The latter company has a few men at work to keep 
the mine unwatered, but it is reported that Mtual devel- 
opment will not be undertaken for several months. 
Pinal County 

The Magma Copper Co., supposed to be controlled by 
Thompson & Gnnn, is reported to be developing a large 
deposit of ore from which an average sample assayed 50 
and till oz. silver per ton. The sample was obtained on 
the SOO-ft. level. The ore is being shipped to the Bl Paso 

Calaveras i 'ounty 

Protest Against the Penn M. Co.'s smelter al Camp Seco 
has been lodged by A. II. Keir. secretary of the Farm- 
ers' Protective Association, and a delegation of farmers 
from Amador, Calaveras, and San Joaquin counties, with 
the supervisors of the last-named county. Press accounts 
state that the Calaveras and Amador boards are waiting 
to see what action the San Joaquin supervisors will take. 
Mono Counts: 

The Tonopah M. Co. is reported to be negotiating the 
purchase of the Lundy mine, owned by the Crystal Lake 

Nevada County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The North Star Mines Co. 
declared a Christmas dividend of 8%, making a total of 
17' ", on the capital stock disbursed during the year. The 
payment in 1910 amounted to XV ', . The reduction for 
the present year is credited to greater depth at which the 
ore is mined, less production, and heavier operating ...sis. 
It is understood the company is planning for the opening 
of ore in the Massachusetts Hill mine, one of its main 
holdings. Considerable work has been performed during 
the year at the Cincinnati Hill group, but results were 
not altogether satisfactory, according to reports. The com- 
pany acquired control of the Champion mine, Nevada City 
district, and installed machinery, including an electric 


..I to prove one of II 
pan] ania If. O l» 

i In- 1 important 

some in. mi! ' nine 

will . ...ii. an.l the steam pumpi 

■ I ami everythin to start, 

shaft will be sent 100 it. deeper, J. YV. V ten 

mento. baa ■ ris months' opium on the property, 
alley, December 31. 
The Miii.liic G. M. Co, and Mincliie Extension <'• M Co 
property was Bold December 20 al sheriff's sale to the Pa 
cificOasA Electric Co. for $10,000, The sal iriaf) 

a judgment ..! the Smith Yuba Water Company, 

I'll M vs Col HOT 

Valuable ore was discovered recently in the Brown Beat 
mine, ahoui fourteen miles easl of Qnincy. 
.. County 

Frank Griffin was elected president of the Nat. .mas Con 
solidated of California at a directors' meeting December 
'js in San Francisco. Eugene l>e Sabla, who retired from 
the presidency on account of llie pressure of other business, 
,.:i- elected vice-president. 

Ban Fbancisco County 

The animal meeting of the San Francisco Stock Exchange 
was held January s . A. B. Buggies, president of the Ex- 
change, reported thai the oil and stock exchange transae 
tions tor the year closed amounted to more than $30,000,- 
000. Officers were reelected as follows: A. B. Buggies, 
president; William Edwards, vice-president: J. J. Mrlven- 
zie. secretary; C D. I.uing, treasurer. Messrs. King and 
Laildon, respectively chairman and assistant secretary, also 
were chosen to <fv\f anolher year. 
Shasta COUNTY 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Bully Hill Copper Co. 
is reported to he contemplating the early resumption of 

V Hill 

m. . . 1 ^PjBH 

WBTiKZ^-^ "m*k 


activities at its llelaiuar smelter. It is said an electrical 
process will be employed to recover zinc and copper con- 
tent. The company conducted extensive experiments with 
the electric iron-smelter at Heroult last summer, and re- 
sults were understood to be encouraging. The Bully Hill 
mines are the deepest copper properties in the county, 
having been developed to a depth exceeding 000 ft. The 
ore carries zinc, gold, and silver. The General Electric 
Co. of New York is largely interested in the company. 
The Delta Consolidated is planning increased activities 
with the advent of spring. Shipments of gold-hearing ore 
recently made to the Mammoth smelter yielded fair profits. 
The ore is silicious and finds a ready market at Eennett. 
S. I). Furber recently assumed charge of the property. 
It is stated the German syndicate which acquired the Even- 
ing Star mine several years ago is arranging for an earlj 
resumption of activities. The mine is situated in the Old 
Diggings district, a few miles west of Redding. George 
II. Bayha is resident: manager. Deep development at Hie 
Keid, another Old Diggings producer, will commence early 
in the new year. The Shasta Copper Exploration Co. is 
prospecting the Stowell claim and contiguous territory ad- 



January 13, 1012 

joining the Balaklala estate. The trad lies in the section 
situated between the Mammoth and Iron Mountain prop- 
. and gives considerable promise. Alden Anderson 
and associates are reported to be planning development ai 
the Trinitj group of gold claims. The property is equipped 
with a 2-stamp mill, and it is understood a larger planl 
will be installed. The Glenn Copnty M. Co. is preparing 
in equipment on its holdings in the Dog Crock 'lis 

trici. Lessees opened s> 1-grade ore during the summer. 

anil prospects are encouraging. The Noble Electric Cop- 
per Co. has completed th electric iron-furnaces 
ai lleronli. Pig iron will he produced in commercial quan- 
ities in i he coming year. 
Bedding, December 30. 

Sierra COUNTY 
(Special Correspondence.) Ahc Hall, the now supertax 

len.lenl of the TightneT Mines Co., has taken chaise of 

i he property, ami is outlining plans Tor development. 
Sufficient ore is blocked oul to keep the planl operating 

lor several months, ami it is undersl 1 the lower work- 
ings will lie crowded ahead to open the Red Star ami 
other veins to considerable depth. The snowfall, thus far, 
lias not hampered work. The Sixteen-to-One company has 
taken a lease on the Nissen mill, owned by the Tightner 
company. High-grade ore is being crushed. The mill at 
Plumbago, controlled by the Croesus M. Co., is running 
largely on ore from the winze in adil No. 4. Progressive 
development is under way ami considerable new territory 
ilv opened. The power ditch has been re- 

structed ami other surface work accomplished. C. W. 

McMcekin is manager. It is reported that the Rainbow 
company i> planning work along advanced lines during 
the coming summer. This was formerly one of the besl 

properties at Alleghany, bul the shoot was lost ah e 

year ago. The property is equipped with a 10-stamp mill. 
Denver people principally are interested, ami I,. P. Wood- 
bury is manager, other Alleghany companies report plans 
for progressive work with the new year. Tin lai ! of suffi- 
cient water has forced the closing of the big hydraulic 
mines at Scales ami Brandy City. The snow has partly 
blocked a portion of the ditch system, ami unless heavy 
rains set in. considerable difficulty will he experienced in 
operating the gravel properties. The Neocene at Scales, 
and the Brandy City, are two of the largest active hydraulic 
mines in central California. The Oro Finn company is 
rapidly completing its 5-stamp mill at the Oro Fino mine, 
on Hopkins creek, near Downieville. The Johnson con 
centrators have been installed. The vein averages around 
•_'ti ft, wide, consisting of quartz, schist, and porphyry. 
The adjt has been driven -"'."ill ft. The ore is said to he 
of fun- grade. 
Alleghany, January f>. 

Tulare County 

Newsp ile that a deposit of pure feldspar, 

used in glass-making, has heen found near Globe, nn the 
upper Tule river, by agents of the Pacific Glass company. 

i'mxk County 

'Special Correspondence.) — The Columbus mine has heen 
sold for a cash price, the buyers being wealthy San Fran- 

cisc en. The property is situated aboul three miles 

northeast of Tuolumne ami has heen idle for a number 
of years. Work was started on January (i witli a small 
men. Some machinery will immediately he in- 
stalled, a n nd the shaft repaired, 

alter which it is the intention to sink 2011 ft. deeper. T. 
C. Winwood is temporarily in charge of operations. 

Complete operations will he resumed at the Shawmut 
before long, the overhauling and repairing of the large 
plant being about finished. A contract lias been let for 
cutting a raise in the .lumper from the 500-ft. 1cm 1 north 

tn the 200-ft. level. Development work is being done in 

various parts of the i the shaft is being repaired 

lirlow the depth of 200 feet. 

The Rising Sun mine at Arastraville, owned bj D. A. 
Porter of Los Angeles, is beii anwatered and -ill he 
examined by Thomas Wilkins f Los Angeles. The 

MeAlpiue mine, south of Jamestown, has heen unwatered 
and development work is now in progress. The Clio, of 
which M. I>. Kelly is superintendent, is now in full oper- 
ation, the mill having just heen started. 

About $40,000 will he expended in surface equipment 
at the Black I hik mine. Some work is being done at the 
Mammoth, one o£ the group of claims owned by the Re- 
publiean M. Co.. commonly spoken of as the Republican 

The Climax mine, near Stent, owned by C. A. Fitzgerald, 
has just heen examined for Los Angeles capitalists. The 
body "f rich ore that was exposed by a cave on the 400- 
ft. level drift in the Providence mine has heen opened in 

several places. Some of the me is remarkably rich. 

Tuolumne. January (i. 

William H. Scott has bonded the Mayflower mine to W. 

I'. Daniels, of Wonder. Nevada. 

Clear Creek County 

i Special Correspond e.) — The compressor plant at the 

Bellevne-Huilson mine on Columbia mountain was brought 
into commission today, and a force of 15 to 20 men will lie 

given employ lit. .1. J. White has seemed possession of 

the Kaiusdell property on Lincoln mountain. A company 
is now in process of organization. Work on the Rosebud 
group of claims is progressing, a 4-iu. streak of gray cop- 
per ore having heen uncovered in the lower adit. Assays 
show 12."i oz. silver per ton. O. W. Teagarden is manager. 
A. D. Bryant, leasing mi the Everett mine, has found a 0-in. 
streak of ore that shows wire silver. Assays show 700 oz. 
silver per ton. 

I leorgetown, January 1. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The production from the 
Idaho Splines district for the past year is given as follows: 
gold, $056,612; silver. $176,375 ; copper, $ti!).400; lead. 
$60,057; zinc. $44.:«I0: total. $1,006,834. There is little 
difference from the preceding year. It is reported that the 
Lueania M. & T. Co. will resume work in the advance of 
the adit. W. W. Kirov is manager. R. R. Graham and 
H. B. Baker have taken a live-year [ease on the property of 
the Chicago Mountain M. & T. Co.. situated on Chicago 
meek. The raise from the lower level of the Blue Ridge 
mine is nearing completion. Ore shipments will start in- 
side of thirty days. P. H. Stanhope is manager. The 
Iloosae adit on Fall river is heing driven steadily forward. 
E. I>. Quigley, the manager, stales that a mill will he con- 
structed next spring. Work will he resumed in a few days 
on the Honest John adit up Chicago creek. The bore is in 
a distance of 2200 It. J. F. Puchert is manager. 

Idaho Springs, January 2. 

v Coin'tv 

Newspaper estimates place the production of gold, silver, 
lead, and copper in this county for 1011 at $3,829,792. 

The Brown Mountain Smelting Co. has an option on the 
Ouray smelter and will operate it. as a custom plant. 
Thomas B. Crawford, of Denver, has announced that a lead 
furnace of 50 to 100 tons capacity will he added to the 
equipment. The main part of the ore treated probably will 
come from Mr. Brown's properties. 

Sax Miguel Counts 

Press estimates of the production of vanadium in this 
county for 1011 place it at $1,884,000, against $630,000 

for 11110. Shipments of ore and i -entrate amounted 

to less than last year, largely due to interruption of 
traffic to the llnrango smelter. The number of ears shipped 
was 1002. of which 1 OiiS were from Telluride. 

Teller County (Cripple Creek) 
Arthur Carndulf. of Cripple Creek, has obtained a lease 
on the Dead Pine claim, owned by the Ophir M. & M. Co., 

and the Crown Point claim, owned by the Crown Point G. 
M. Co., on Battle mountain. 

Exceptionally rich ore recently was found in the Kala- 
mazoo mine on Bull hill, according to report. James 
Giglen, of Altnian. is one of the lessees operating the mine. 




Mouth Ban 

■ •nth. 

able .lamia 
The nvi'iil cold weather li.i- 

Ihe « 1 1— 1 1 )■ report. ' >« ins, la the 

iter in pipe* supplying Ihe !►. >i 1<- 1 ~ of the 
.' thaft-houae, the eompreaaon there bad i" '»• ahnl 
down for two days, 


Tin- Wither! U, i'.i,, I. ill., hai been Buaneed through Dern 

a. Thomas, of Suit Lake City. The mill ia almost ■ ipleted 

mill ii i> hoped it will 1m' in operation before March. 

The Foundation •■!' the c pressor of the Black Hit-.' 

M. t'li.. near Murray, has been completed, and the 
pressor will !><• erected in a few days. Tin- property I'- 
ll! In- in lull operation during this month. J. Thennes 
is manager of the property. 

A 250-ton ■ entrator is i" be erected at the Tuscmu- 

bia mine, on Beaver creek, nine miles from Wallace, says a 
i report. Tin' property, which is mar the Hercules 
mini', recently was purchased by 6. A. Lauzier, Paul Wol- 
eott, mill W. -i. Dawson of Butte, Montana, 


'I'lii- present depths of the principal mines "f the Ana- 
conda Copper Mining Co. are a- below: 


Diamond 2900 

High Ore 2800 

Neversweat 2500 

ia! 2500 

■iila 2400 

Qagnon 2400 

Mountain Cm 2400 

St. Lawrence Jinn 

West Stewart 

Mountain View 2200 

Tramway 2000 

Belmont 2 

The depths of the shafts of other Butte mines are: 


. Kania 1800 

r.l 1800 

West Colusa 1800 

■ Stat.- 1800 

Buffalo 1500 

Moonlight 1500 

West Graj Rock 1300 

Silver How 11 

Berkeley L000 

East Colusa 900 

J. I. C 600 


Raven 1500 

Butte-Ballaklava 1500 

Pilot Butte 1300 

Ophir 1000 

Elm Orlu 1000 


North Untie 2800 

Tuolumne L800 

Bull. --Alex Se.itt 1800 

Colorado 1700 

Butte & Superior ItiOO 

East Butte 1500 

Flathead Couhty 

(Special Correspondence.)— J. II. Ehlers, in charge of 
the extensive mining an. I water-power development work 
at Vakt falls, in the extreme northwestern part of the 
State, has interested Eastern capitalist- in the great amount 
of timber suitable for paper pulp in the Yakt watershed, 
and expects to have these men on the ground early next 
summer to perfect plans for a large sawmill and wood- 
pulp plant in the vicinity of Yakt falls, where electric 
power will be developed. His plans include building an 
electric railroad in the Yakt basin and the use of the 
most modem electric logging and manufacturing appli- 
ances in utilizing the immense stands of timber in that 
locality. It is expected to develop 3-100 hp. at the falls. 
which will also be used in the operation of the mines 
at Sylvanite. Mr. Ehlers has just returned to Spokane 
alter a visit to Libby in connection with this work. 

Libby. January 7. 

Silverbow County 

(Special Correspondence.) — An attempt is to be made in 
behalf of the shareholders in the United Copper Co. An 
organization called the United Copper Securities Co. has 
been incorporated under the laws of the State of Maine, 
with a capital of $4,000,000. The evident purpose is to 
form a stockholders' pool in the shares of the United Copper 

, Prevent 

t..r the , 

• •1.1. tin , . 
i to be .In nil. I. on.- ball <•■ 
lating the Nubsidiarj romps ■ I'nited and one-hall 

in the depositing shareholder*. It' the ue« 
lion can gel far enough into the heart ol the I nited Copper 
make an inventor) ol n- assets -■. thai outside 
rs may km.w what their certificates really repn 

they will have i ompliahed what has bo far proved an iin 

Butte, Januar} ii. 


t 'ill la'llll.l. I 'lit NT V 

The n.w mill of the Nevada Wonder M. Co. was tern 
poiarily shut down recently on account of the sold spell, 
which through contraction of the steel pipe-line spi 
a leak. By cooling the compressor with the oyanide boIu 
lion on hand, the agilahn-j vat- were Kept 'alive', althi 
other machinery was stopped arid two shifts were laid oiT 

at the mine. 

Esmeralda Cuntv 

The Continental Developn t Co. i- about to start work 

ai the Yellow Top and White Jacket groups of cla 
-,i\ advices from ilol.lii.-l. I. .1. E. Meyer is general man 


--^T^/ ^Ccy 

Vh«ttan ^-o^Arti, 

\~~~* f»-.«j ry 

(f*i4»G«t J 


*•**«...# W ~j ^ 

r --»'T 

if \ 


T *,*«« ^ 

"V\ \/oi\r'**-tf-' td - 

■ -O V"** *-A'C 


' '"'f».C^\.t 


\" ., 

>-^_l «•""<» 


ager and Lewis Cruikahank, of Los Angeles, secretary for 

1 1 oiupany, which is reported to have purchased .~>S7,000 

shares of Yellow Top stock. 

At a miners meeting at Antelope Springs, the name 
'Antelope Mining District' was chosen to designate that 
part of the county. The district is to extend from the 
spring north six miles, cast four miles, south six miles. 
and west six miles. A regular wage-scale is to be adopted, 
and it is thought ■$•} will be selected. A recorder-, sanitary 
committee, and other officials for the district were chosen. 
The boundaries of the district were chosen by a committee 
..I' old-timers. The Jordaus. represented at the meeting, 
have 225 sacks of ore from the original 'find' ready for 

E. I'eiiier de la Batne has purchased the Orleans group 
ol' live claims in the Hornsilver district, south of (iold- 
field. Development will be started this spring. 

Reports from fioldfield state that the Tonopah M. Co. 

is to buy the Lucky Boy property, situated in the I ky 

Boy district. 

Lincoln County 

The Virginia Louise M. Co. has been organized to operate 
the Louise claim at Pioche. Portland capitalists are re- 
ported to be heavily interested in the property. William 
Lloyd is president of the company. 



January 13, 1912 

Lyon Count y 

.1. K. Cameron and F. .1. Wilson, lessees operating On 
the upper levels of the Ludwig mine of the Nevada-Douglas 
Copper Co., »ill start shipping ore to the Mason Valley 
smelter in the near future. 

The tirst furnace of the Mason Valley Mini 
smelter at Thompson was blown in January t>. The smelter 
has a capacity of 800 tons of ore per day. Construction 
was started in November 1W1I1. and it is said that almo 
million dollars has been expended on the plant, It is 
peeled that of the ore Healed. 500 tons will come from the 
Mason Valley mine. 

Mineral County 

I'nanthentirated reports say that the Tonopafa M. Co. 
has purchased the Aurora property, on which it has 
a lease. The same report stales that the company is 
negotiating the purchase of the I.undy mine, situated in 
Mono county, California. 

Nye County 

i Spc.ial Correspondence.) — It is currently reported that 

the Montana Tonopab company has struck a rich vein 
ou the SOO-ft. level, the deepest working point. The vein 
is said to be (! It. wide, with 15 in. rich ore. Esti 
of the ore rang 00 per ton. Rumors 

credit the discovery as the most important in the history 
of the properly. Officials admit the intersection of good 
ore. On the 465-ft. level the Triangle vein has widened 
to about 4 ft. Ore is I- from the A. I'.. \\. 

vein on the 615 and 665-ft. lev. South, McDonald, 

and Mi/pah Fault veins are also reported to he improv- 
ing. The Tonopab Extension has recently opened good 
ore in the western portion of the property. The principal 
reserves are situated in the eastern section, hut develop- 
ment in the extreme western section i» progressing 
ously. The North Star company has levied an assessment 
of 2c. p. provide funds for additional work. 

- derable development work is going on. It is believed 
the new vein recently Opened in the Montana may extend 
into North Star estate. An option on the unissued slock 
of the Tonopafa Gypsy Queen M. Co. has been taken by 
San Francisco, Qoldfield, and Tonopab capital 
property adjoins the Montana on the east and the North 
Star on the south, and embraces three claims and a 
Hon. It is reported A. I'.. Rug lent of the San 

Francisco Stock Exchange, will be selected as president. 
The Priest mill has been purchased by C. K. Web 
Philadelphia, and will be operated by the Peak-S 

da lease on Manhattan Big Four. A recent !, 
of 1072 tons at the War Eagle [lain a \ - _". per 

ton. The vein is said to be 25 ft. wide on the 3 
level, and has been tapped at the 400-ft. point. A tube- 
mill will be added to the War Eagle plant, increasing 
its capacity to 70 tons per day. The mill is idle pe 
repairs. The discovery of commercial coal at Coaldale, 
30 miles north of Tonopab. is causing much in: 
Two veins have been found, one 11 ft. wide. 
Tonopab. January 7. 

Storey County 
Ophir company last week p] 37 tons 

valued at $11,904. Ore in the 2100-ft. level slope has 
decreased in value, but still is profitable. The 

i drift, 2100-ft level, was extended 1:1 ft. and tim- 
bered. The south drift. Level, was 

nded lti ft. through or,' of low assay-value. 
meats for the week included «o4ii tons l-class ore. 

The Ophir M. Co. on January 111 declared a dividend of 
10c. per share, payable January '_'"> to stockhol 
ord on the loth. The dividend will mean the disbursement 
of $20,160. 

The Mexican mill has resumed operating on 'waste rock". 
One shift per day is worked in the mine. 

ral repairs were made in the Union shaft and the 
winze used jointly with the Sierra Nevada company. 

The southwest drift, 2550-ft. level, of the Con. Virginia 
was advanced 20 ft. The face is now in vein formation. 
Pumping operations were carrii 

the O. & C. and Ward shafts. In addition to repairs at 
the Ward, a drill-hole was sent t>4 ft. from the raise on 
the 2000-ft. level without finding the old workings. On 
2200-ft. level cutting out ground has been started 
preparatory to cross-rutting beyond the bulkhead. Af