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Mining » N v Press 








In Ci 


>n»umptlon tit leaching 
Addli k - Wei 

.11 mi nutation i • 


r N i '■ • 

Qi ande - 

tannla mine 


outlying districts 

Afflnft) In amalgamation 

general Knowledge of 

It L. and A., and the Calumet A Hoc la 

iratlon and Inspiration- 

: onda companies 

Air- com pressor, Hydraulic \. K. Chodiko. . . . 

ovements In 

a ble electrlc-drlven 

Air drill hose and "i I 

Filter, tube-grate 

- suit 

In flotation 

In flotation, tisr of, by Elmore 

in mines, quality affected by consumption »f oxygi 

Nitrogen In 

Shocks In War 

AJr-cel I 

n so II da led copper mine 

Alabama, gold mining in 

Alameda v, Success extra-lateral cas 

Alaska Editorial 

Coal Editorial. . . . 

Ketchikan district Emll Edward Kurja.... 

New man of, and results In 1915 

Railroad ill. 248, 

Railroads, map 

i [old Mines Co . output 

Alaska Mexican Gold U Alaska Treadwi 

Milium Co., Alaska United Gold Mining Co., consoli- 
dation of, returns to date, and prospects 

Alaska Treadwell mill, gold from copper plates 

Alasklt* t term 

Alkalinity m cyanldatlon 

ent powe>r of cyanide for gold 

M. R. Edmanda. . . . 

Alloys of aluminum 

Alta. Co Fork region of Utah, geologic 

invest i ga tlon of . 

Altftud i Andes 

Alumina sulphate use for 

Aluminum, alloys of 

is, fusing 


in explosives 

<s and markets every ^ 

Production of United states 

■ in. Co. ol America 

Aluminum Ore Co 

Alunlte, a source ■ 

AtvaradO Mining & Milling Co 

or county, California, wage dispute Editorial. . . . 

Amalgamating copper plates 

Plates absorbing gold Editorial 

rl ty in 

Physical i themical process 

amator, shaking, Cor dredges 

an boy and the mine Robert M. Raymond.... 

Ital in British Columbia Bditoral. . . . 

Engineers' work in British Columbia 

Impression of South Africa H. Foster Bain ... . 

Machinery exports 

Minmg law, and the extra-lateral right 

Ships and export carrying 

Americans in Mexico R, s. Burdette. . . . 

Ditto Editorial 

Americanizing British mines Editorial. . . . 

American Association for Advancement ol >■■ i.-ne. 

Editorial. . . . 

American Chemical Society 

American Fork district, Utah, development 

American Girl mine. California 610. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers as censor — a pro- 
test \V. h. shockley. . . . 

In Arizona Editorial. . . . 

in Arizona and New Mexico, notes on 

Flotation discussion at Globe. Arizona 

President Editorial 

American International Corporation, proposal of 

Am" , ' i, nn Mining Congress 

Ditto Editorial. ...151, 

American Smelting & Refining Co.. company report 







i 16 

2 8 :, 





1 63 

2 S 9 





9 18 


I 13 
."1 1 

\ - ,\ i; • 

Ammonium nil 


i • ' Ho| 

Mini ilk CO 

tit with Mlm 

And ind Utah Coppei comp 

Electrolytic line planl ... Ed 11 i 181 

Flotation concent ration al 

Frederick Lalst and \ E w >. 
Report for taxs lion 

The new 

Is ol molybdenum ores 

M Weatllng and Cat I Andi *<17 

Anchorage district. Alaska 

nd Weatllng, H .Anal] 

molybdenum oi ■■- 

Anderson, Robert .1 Flotation ol II 

Announcement Editorial 

Anthracite miners' wages 

Antlmi \ laska 

i '. termination or 1 1 

Prices and markets every week 

Edltoi lal 

AnyOX and Gland Fork i siting al 777 

Apex decision, another Editorial ... 1 13 

Ditto lohn M. NIcOl. in Rhodesia 106 

suit In London Editorial. 

Arbitration, strlki hours Editorial ... 617 

Argo mill. Colorado, notation at il'7 

1 pany report 60S 

Arizona as b copper state Edlti 

Bureau of Mines and sale of ore Editorial. 

Burei E Mines Chaa. F. Willis. 

Copper mines in 

Flotation in Ed 

Mining in 

Charles F. Willis. 




. 157. 319 

Motor-truck In Wilbert g. McBrlde..., 16 

Ta \ assessments Ill 

United States experiment station In 

Arizona Copper Co., flotation al Mo rend 

Incline trams of 

Labor troubles 

Arkansas, manganese In west central G A. Joslln. . . . 947 

Milling practice '. 289 

Mining and milling In L. L. Willi, h. 

Asbestos in Arizona LOS 

In Quebec :'.:• 

Types of vim 

Assay of silver-gold concentrate 

Assay- furnace, oil v. charcoal for 22 

rig cupellatlon losses in 159 

Errors in '.* I 

Assessment work on claims Editorial, . . , 931 

Associated smelters of Australia 112 

Atl, Dr., work in Mexico 90 

Atlanta. Idaho, local treatment of concentrate 41 

Atlantic district. Wyoming 254 

Atlantic Mines Co. and La France Copper Co .".7 1 

Atlas Mining and Milling Co.. company report.. :t:.v 

Atmospheric decomposition of cyanide solutions 

<;. ii, eleven ger and Harry Morgan.... 113 

Humidity ami its measurement. .. .Kenneth < '.. Smith. . . . 866 

Australia, dredging in 670 

Miners and Slavs Editorial.... 181 

Mining law, early 708 

Spelter Editorial .... 108 

Zinc si I nation 1 1 L' 

Austria ns in Russian mines . 7 J I 

Re-opening Serbian mines Editorial. . 

Authors, suggestions to Editorial. .. . 184 

Authorship of papers, joint Edltorla l . 

Automatic electric hoisl al the Ensplration 

II. K. Burch and M. A Whiting. . . . m-i 

Avery, Paul w importance of efficient settling 

of si I mo 7::^ 


Babcock, A. H. .. .Engineers for Officers' Reserve Corps.... 7J*.» 

Ha Id Inn in Cold Mines, Nicaragua, company report 7 7.7 

Plant S. M. Parker.... 911 

Badger State and Emily claims and PII01 dispute, Butte.... 160 

aley, Effle 1.. and basic lining 519 

Bain, 11. Poster.. American's Impression ol South Africa.... 301 

Ditto Lif< an earl: geological survey.... 664 

Bald Mountain distrct Washington 748 

Ball, Sydney H Lead mines of Washington county, Mo *"7 

Ball-mill, an early S 

\nd stamps, fine grinding W, E. Cahill... 79 

Crushing, action due to 849 

v. stamp" Editorial. ifl 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb. 389 

Ditto E. C. Morse. . . 988 

Bancroft, Geo. J Mining in Colorado 285, 673 

Bancroft, Rowland Bolivian tin Industry. . . . 119 

Banket, gold of the Editorial.... 3S 

Banks of the World, greal 230 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 113 


Developmi in ' 

I'l" ' nn ;, Baggaiey 

Batholllh at Butti 

iii British Guiana ... 



Belgian Kid •;;;.■.■. 


irthquake In Nevada 

I man Jjj 

I '• |. t - 

Blg Three, i 1 

Rllharz mill 

.,,,,, ... ■,■■■■ 




:. i •.' 



kota, mineral production of. ■•■■•■ •.•: .J, 

Black-ll gland. 

I.llll H-ll^llll^ ■-. - r I 

,,r tl "' '■'"'" ' 
Blai kv 


,H| - I 1 1 1 1 1 : ' ' • ' i ' f c 

i ntah _";; 

1 ; , ,. 




■ • ,, 

ard w Mo; 

S : 
na by the Horn 


. E ' . D 

•I a. Rickard 

Inslnns kn United States 

Id In 

Map 0« .. 

P ol , ■ ■ ■ ■ - - 

Editorial 181 

I* ' 1 T„ 

Howland Bancroft . 119 


ipper deposits 


B. II. !•• 
■ Tungsti n 

Bouldi r breaking 



Boul well, .1 M . on Bingham > 

Robert H. Raj mond 

m In notation suit 

..ii notation at Wilmii stoi .51, 591 

1 1 i ter for Bolul li 

Bradley, I-' W report on Treadwell mines 


nrldgc dlsl i do 

>* E. Electrolytic pri :i , . 798 


R, B Two Washington mining MS 

T. A Rickard 698 

Itlng Co ,; '' i 

Editorle I. . . 762 

Edltoria 1. . . . B66 

Copper mines Editorial.. 

l-'siir ror 1916 

Extra-let i 

I in ■ ."12 

Journey to T. A. Rickard. 

Mm t.'i- 1916. estimate 

Mining law i 701 

lirst half ..r 1916 

ne products in 

and W. I- . . 520 

y report 


\V:i - 

Blnc-lead deposits t i^ 

dividends v 7 1» 

Rrnmln, production of United States in i!»i". 246 

■ onomic in 

. K i' Prevention of misfires. ... 871 


R >: Prom precipitate to bullion, 

:: i ■! 

Notes on i . 

da, cyanlding clayey mp at 

Paul R. Cock 

M ' 1 06 

R. R. l:, 

Reining f-.r mint 

Bullwhacker copper mine. Butt.-, sends ore to British l 

lumbla 181 

Bunk , r Hill * Sullivan M. a C Co., lead output IT.n 



Hiink.-i mil *.- Sullivan (con I Page, 

<,,,, . Ed -lal. ... a3i 

11. K.. ami Whiting, M. A \ui trie 

hoist at Insplral •• ••• ■«•;■/ Ti\ 

, of mailed advertising F. N. Fletc 

tte, R. S x "" rlcans In M< 

tVj!; ora '- 

Ion Editorial. 

Past mining by • • • ■ ■ - 

Mountain • - power-plant ............. s»J 

Dltti ■ W. R. Ingalls.... 2T6 


1 1., tables '"''' 

na . .... SI, 9M 

1 00 


Mining Co., comp inj report 

Separation 813 

J .' 

Wins Injunctloi ■ Minerals Separation. 

Buylnt Nelson Dicfcerman. 

- from United States coke-ovens 282 

i ska 

Dredge Sumner S. Smith .... 

Cadmium in zinc 

used In concreting a shaft 

Cahill, \\\ E Fine grinding, stamps and hall-mills.... 

Calavei - ,:i - 

Plotatlon at a simple Bow-sheet. .Hallet it. Robbins.... 

it El 

■ i ' 

c I d en t s 

ndustry W. R. Hamilton.... 

Gold production ol Mother Lode 


Men ■ ii urn ii in mines, etc Edltoi Is 

Mil prod id ii. 1916 361. 


ol Herbert La 

C pensatlon A-cl In - '- years 

ml annual mine- n 

California Ti !o 

<':ii!,iu' notation-mi pulp 

■ i Co i ila lit additions 

stoping methods. . ..Philip D. Wilson... 

Calumet a.- Heclo Mining Co Editorial.... 

A ml dotal Edltoi 

\n.i Nevada Consolidated, mines compared 

for employees 

.7. Parke Chi Il 

1 IX. 

i osl Edltoria I. 

ii B [ne, historj ni discoi '■!•>■ - i 

: I ill . i Ii -I 

Ing i lorporatlon, compi 'e ' 

Edll oris 

ii- i bulletin Editorial.... 

■ Co notation ai 

Re-timbering Capote shaft 

i. Mexico, copper deposits 

Canby, R. C Discovery of cyanldation . . . . 

iii. standard 

et ylent 

Capillarity, - flotation 

Capital available In London and New York. . . .Editorial. . . . 

Foreign T. Nipper. . . 

No. j shaft re-timbering 

m steel 

i ii mines 

.ii,- ores, notation concentration 

Joseph T. Terry, Jr. . . . 

In notation 

Istrlct, New Mexico 

r, Jay A.. .Ore treatment at West En a Tonopah. . . . 

I in . nl' in i Editorial .... 

■ Septembei 1916 

On mines Editorial 

Reign in Mexic 

■ iiml work 

' '■■ i son mine 


I in Korea 

- system ai inspiration 

i strontlanite 

overy of W. Mall. ■ 

in Texas 

Treatment tor stronti 

Cement for underground work 

Cutis. US,- of 

Mortar for plugging trees 

Settling in mineralized water 

ring gravel treatment 

I '.ni ral fit in, ri, an .Mines. npiinv report 

Centra] Eureka company's yield unci costs 

i states, metal production In 191S 

Centrifugal pump 

Gordo Mines ' !o. pays dividend 

Progress - 

Chali it.- nn.i chalcopyrlte slime only treatable by notation 

Reef min,- 

1 :i. China 

[ng. i Parke, and copper mining. . .T. A. Rickard.... 

omputlng excavations 

Por tape correction 

Of metal prices 

mine ventilation 

Chemical industry Editorial.... 

Industries, National Exposition of 

Ohemli Hption at Iiollingter mine 


7 II 








i -,; 




i S3 



27 1 
















4 87 


\..l ii : 

Ml\|\>. .,ml Nirnl.h, I'KI SS 




It i 

Id French 




H . . v. 

Ditto . . . .B i: Bai 

W o i 

Cinderella Consolidated mine, Rand 

i 'Inn&b 

Flotation for Mark R, Lamb.... 

CltJ Deep, Ltd., c pany report 

■ ■ •• Editorial 

I n A frlra 

b of mining 

i. >, and I-', in paten) No, 835.120, Infringed 

ri.i|.|,. ii i; Flotation at Florence-Goldfleld null., 

r and Mexico Editorial. . . . 

ig-bell type 

Clay -workings, a residual lead depo lourl 

Clevenger. G. n.. and Morgan, Harry Atmospheric 

composition of oyanlde solutions 

Mark Twain as a metal In I "gl 

Clifton -Morencl district, Arizona, dotation in the 

David Cole. . . . 

Mineralisation of 

dyne, c. ii Stoddard mill— a copper concent] 

CoaL burning powdered 

Consumpl <i States per capita 

Firing reverberatorles at Garfield 

In Colorado 

ng in Alaska 

Mmi-- wages m Colorado ami Pennsylvania 

■fining in Alaska 

Mining n 1915 

PowiiiT'it for steam 

Coal-tar as a flotation agent 

Coast Copper Co., British Columbia 

Cobalt, notes on 

Cobalt. Ontario, notation at 

Products, supplies, and power 

Progress in deep development 

Result of labor Investigation 

Cocur d'Alene, Idaho, mining in Editorial.... 

Small mines of 

district, California 

Coghlll, Will II Molecular forces and flotation .... 

i '<>k. production of United States 

Coke-oven by-products in 1915 2S2. 

Colby, W. E... Extra-lateral right, shall It be abolished?. ... 

Cole. David. .. .Flotation in the Clifton-Morenci district of 


Ditto Grindlng-mllls at Inspiration.... 

Cole-Bergman flotation-machine 

Collins. George G Elmore and flotation.... 

'oil.. His. definition of 

Color of earth's surface 

' if porphyry or monzonite 

Colorado, coal output in 1915 

Mining in George J. Bancroft ... 885, 

Tungsten in Boulder district E. H. Leslie. . . . 

Uraninlte in 

Colorado Metal Mining Association 

And tungsten 

do Power Company 

Colorado School of Mines Editorial.... 

Colorado Scientific Society and revision of mining law 

Columbia University 

Comacaran mine, Salvador, cyanidatlon at the 

C. O'Brien. . . . 

Ditto A. B. Peckham.... 

Company repoi ts: 

Amalgamated Zim i I i. i i 

American Smelting & Refining Co 

Am. Than Trona Corporation 

Argonaut Mining Co 

aii.i. Mining A Milling Co 

Babilonfa Gold Mines 

Blackwaler Mines 

British Columbia Copper Co 

Buffalo Mines Co 

Burma Corporation 

Butte & Superior Mining Co 

Canadian Mining i 'orporatlon 

Central American Mines 

Chi-ksan Mining Co 

chin,, Copper Co 

City Deep, 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co 

Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa 

Consolidated Tntersta te-Callahan Mining Co 

Cordoba Copper Co 










5 l ;, 



4 68 












2 07 

3 53 

71 :. 



54 6 




:: 6 1 



M. I, 


Ml I. 

D lug las i 'o|-i.,t •■■■ 
Oriental r il Mlnlni Co 

i mio I' Qold Mil' II ... 

Porcupine Vlpond Mini 


1 i nbouw Ma.. 

I!.., [tester Mines Cc 

■ I Mountain Mining Co 


Tomboy Gold Mini 

Tom Ri ed Gold Mini ■ Co 

Tonopa h Extension Mlnln r Co, . . , 

1 'nlon i Ion. Minion i '.i 

Utah i 

i c.ihi Mlnln Ci 

Zinc ' torpors tlon 

Compo rise una mine 

,. i .... 
m, i 'mi 1 1 dec! Ions on 

In Montana 

Complex ore treatment in the United siatcs 

Compressed-air by falling water 

I I : i ' i I Of 

Pumping water with 

I'ScS of 

o I. Lode, Nevada, progress : " 191 

Progress in 1916 

'..I rate, cyanldlng dotal \. B. Drucker.... 

Produced ai Suan mine, Korea 

Wet treatment of per L, Addlcks.... 

Whv ship? W, Macdonald . . . . 

ii i smelting of vanadium ore 

R. I, Grid. I . . . 

Ai Garfield, Utah 

AI Miami 

i >r molybdenum 

I If I nil listen or.- in Korea 

i if ores by flotation, Hoover's new book reviewed 

Tables at Flat River, test between 

Cone lly mill Ruby districts, Washington 336 

cim. Hie dividers ami guide In shafts 

Laying in cold weather 

Stringers in inclined shafts 

Concreting a shaft Editorial.... 

Shafts in Am.'idoi unty. California 

Th. Sacramento shaft at Blsbee G. S. . . . 

Condenser. Beyer barometric 

Conditions in Mexico 

I el i Our Mexican Correspondent. . . 

Ditto E. A. II. Tays. . 

Congress of Human Engineering 

Coning and qua rter In g sampling 

Conrev Placer Mining Co.. dredging results 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co.. company report 

Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa Editorial.... 

Company report 

Consolidated Interstate-Call.. ban Mining Co.. company re- 


Consolidated Mining & Smelting C". of Canada, reduction 


Consolidation of the Treadwell mines 

Contact deposits, definition of 

Construction and operation of Nevada Packard mill 

Herbert g, Thomson 

Constructive aid for prospector II. N. Lawrle..., 

Continuous counter-current decantatlon pun ess. notes on., 

Ore-sintering machine 

Converters, basic-lined copper 

Basic, who used the first? 

Cook, value of at survey or mining camps 

Cook. Paul n Cyaniding clayey ore at the 

Buckhorn mine, Nevada 

Coolers lor compressors 

Cool.v and llarz jigs at .foplln 

Copper, 'Analysis of Copper' — new book 

And oilier exports Editorial.... 

AI :::: cents Editorial.... 

Companies and Allies' notes Editorial.... 

Concentrate, wet treatment of r,. Addlcks.... 

Concentrator, Stoddard mill C. P.. Clyne.... 

Consumed in electrical products 

Converters, basic-lined 

Cornices from buildings In Berlin, stripping 

[i-posits Of New South Wales 

I lerlva tive of word 

Details of great sale to Allies 

Dividends Editorial. , . . 

Electrolytic at Trail 

Exports from chile and Peru Editorial.... 

Found by the stefansson expedition Editorial.... 

From Alaska 

in August, refinery output Editorial.... 

In steel Editorial.... 

In Texas 'panhandle' 

■Investments' Editorial. . . . 

Loss at Anaconda 

Merger, 'billion-dollar' Editorial ... . 


In . 


:i 1 1. 





r. i 

7 12 





22 1 










5 i 8 



7 20 
7. M' 

7 2 
1 00 
:, I I 


r. si 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 113 

t loppel 

Mctallurg) at Garfield, Utah. L. O Howard. 

I' B Mi 


<>r liiitif-i, Columbia 


T A. Rl 

onomlca in Editorial 

iv in Nevada 

i ires, occurrence In certain Sti 

:. I 

. . 297 
. ! 187 
. . 172 


. 212 

i lutput In Sepli n 

Plates, gold aba ■ ! by "- 

every week 

Prod i War i 721 


Production In ini7 Editorial.., 

Produc I largi Noi th and So 

I -i ... i 51 


Produi tlon, rat< of Ed 

Bdltoi lal . . is- 

lellca in 

. n , > : 

Solution, strength before precipitation 

Solutions, atmosi ompositlon "f 

G H. Clevengi -'■'" 

Solutions, on |±! 

Solu for 


:rnss Valley and N. \ada 

in 1916 ',;.'' ■,-.' ".' ', 

ux s nd 1- A. \ estai 
' mine, Nei ads 

Paul R. k 

Flotation concentrate A. E. Drucker 

Cj anidatlon at tl in mine, Salvador.. . . , 

Ditto *■■ 1! Peckham 

Dla i Of .;.; 1; ','. ''' j ,"'','', 

| iltt . . I his. M 11 sll ill 

i its, i in Ed ml Shaw 

el of lead sails In .'»' 

Of Si! '•••'" 

and refinery capacity Editorial.... 182 

in advance Editorial. 

Surficlal Indlcal s "f Editorial.... 262 

Ditto, IV and V Prank ii P irl ....81. 267 

Ditto Courtenay De Kali, . 116 

I ia B Joralemon. . 

Taxation Editorial. . . .76 

Tonnage tax In 

Transferring molten 570 

Zlm and lead Editorial.... I". I 

n, by W. II. Weed 861 


Copper Queen Consolidated Mining rating shaft at 


Cordoba Co| i report 149 


Cornwall, treating tin ti Ling 


Corrosion, resists i tin alloys Tin 

<'i>*t at Mclntyre mine, Porcuplnt 211 

At Ri [in i 1 .", 

At Treadv 


In south-east U on 2 1 7 


Of blasting at Chuqulcamata 186 

i at ' '"halt 

g at i 'tun r 186 

Of decantatlon 

nr development at the Holllnger 62 

■ nglne pov ■ 

lage s I the Hoi II nget 

or erecting N- P ird mill 

on at Mi. Morgan 

Mas .... 171 

yanldtng at Grass Valley, and Nevada 

Calif 01 Ilia in IT, 

i: E, Tremoureux and F A. Vestal . - 706 
mining at Miami 

••ii the Mol I daya 

i a jit motor- trucks 2E 

Of operatlt trucks In Arizona 

Of opet ::i \ 

t>r operation of A. S. & R. Co., It 

Editorial .... 7 

al mi Lyell [OS 

n. at Trail 93 1 



smelting al Anyox, B. C 777 

Of stoplns ii svstems 317 

Of supplli illfornla. mill* 706 

Of t i v<n; n I i 

Of treatment nt Nevada Packard mill 

< »i t ii. hi at End, Tonopah 

stalks for paper-pulp Editorial.... 371 

Cottonw ,1 district, ' ' Ic Investigation '»r 59 


Cottrell plant al I in. 

Plant ai T i. iv' 

Process al i 

trren! dt i I., n. Barnes 

i Country rock, definition <>f 

• '"an : impensatlon 94 fl 

mini Ontario ft \v,irk at 

Cressnn mine. Cripple Creek, reserves 47t 


Cresyllc acid In notation inn 

CrlDDle Creek Colorado put 

Notes "n 89! 

' Irook 8rts 

I'm."! ' company report 7:: 

Hoisting at 

ratorv porl ' 

in g |n 

in cyantdi 

Plant f ,-» t it 

I "ii t,r, mintnir in 

i Hipella lion lopqe ng 

' 'upro-desclnlzl te ...... 46S 

Iters anil small mines I M Turnbull.... 132 

nd-fill avstem of mining 

New Mexli 

Hills. S. D 

I ! Ill" 

1 ,.. l > l 
.. . . . 

Risi in ]•• Ice Edltoi iii 789 




2 r,l 




Daly-Judgt Ml i - '""I Snake Oreek tunnel, Utah 

Davi npoi i. ii -i "I' U. S ti ide In South America 

, i . Gyratory crusl ■ 

Gold mining in South Africa.... 

IS-fa mill,- • • ■ ' 

i Iwood, South Dakota •■ 

B k in. -iii. ..I ..i top ■ licing at Miami. . . . 

Death \ n, California, mining In ......... 

thi i' ii • • -Jkl" 

i. counter-current L. ' 

n notation, Wilmington, tex pinion by Judge 

I Ira. It"., lil 

ne .-a npensal Court 

position "t cyanide Editorial.... 

in' cyanide solutions, atmospheric 

,: iii ■I,-. i iai t v Morgan. . . . 

affecting mining in Mexico 


i hllip -I. ath of . .. • ■ •• 

I,, Kalb, Courtenay stamp v. ball-mill.... 

inn Surficlal Indications "f copper.... 

Ditto, to join ii" Pbbss V7;.'." '. ", 

a ggljoi 

Deliver] of m. -mis Editorial. . . . 

I., 1H..H.1 Charlea I' MacDpugal 

netization of gold bs Great Britain Editorial. . . . 

nun and amortization Robert s. Lewis.... 

ony Jiarai R. Layng.... 

Detonators, fulminate for 

Notes mi 

Testing in New Zealand 

.1 found at Cherokee, California............ 

imports Editorial. . . .111. 

Not ea "a ■ 

nd-drill hole, longest horizontal 

Diatoms iii ■ 

Dickerman, Nelson Buying mine.... 

Diesel engines for mine power-plants. .Charles Liegrand.... 

, , mil pi i .ii. definition of 

Dlrei „ Editorial.... 

w. Walli 

i if cyanidatton R- ''- ''anhy 

I iltt,, Tli"S, Mai shall. . . . 

i i."' claims 

; . i ,1 b In cyanldatlon Bdmi shi 

i, mi,, i coppei companies results In third quarter 

.a 1916 

Copper deposits, use of term 

Copper mines, outputs ■ 

Ditto Editorial .... 

mis iii Septeml I ompanies . . . . . 

Mining Editorial ___ 

Paid i" II companies 677, 

I Run Lead Co. and St, Joseph Lead Co. consolidate 

Dolbeai Samuel H..Magnesite production and markets.... 

Dolomite, us, "I 

I a, in,. M i in- Co., company report 

,if Nova Scotia 

Dorr thickener, 180-ft, diameter 

gives si" 11 , to United Engineering 

s i , 

- Walter, and copper quotations 

Town area of Leadville drained 

Drainage scheme at Leadville 

Tiini, at Cripple Creek 

development and operation of a great 

Impro Editorial.... 

Oi Cai creek. Alaska 

, , ,, ,n mils of Conn y Placi r Mining Co 

Gold Bavlng on Howard i> Smith 

.Tiffs an 

ng at r.ii,., Colombia 

In Australia 

in Montana Editorial. . . . 

Ditto ■ Hennen Jennln 

Redding. California 

■ , nnt of California 

. ii fore H. E. Nieholls. . . , 

Drill-hole deepest 

ring I'". H Mason.... 

Drilling results with Hummer drills 

hafl method of shaft-sinking 

Drops of "ii Bpreadlng of 

Drucker, A. E Cyaniding fiotati loncentrate 

Dry and wet-bulb thermometers 

i tucktov n . oppi ' Sulphur .v.- Iron Co 

imst lossea at TS 

,in,,l ,,,,,, nt Trail 

'... notes "n la. 

Wood-flour for 

Wrappers U'r 

John L. . ."White Caps mine, Manhattan, Nevada..., 




a'. 1 

n i r. 



in 2 







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7 12 




22 1 




I 13 

ii in 





ill! I 



V.. I MA 

MINING ind Scientift. PI 



\ 1 

V 1 

\ s 

Id ItlHll Coluillbl I 


1 6 1 , 


■t *■. r 

ult In LJondoti 
Arbitration, strikes, and houra 

Arizona as a cop] 

Arizona Bureau <-f Mln< -r ore. 

ment work on claims 

Australian miners and Slavs 

Ilan spelt, r 

Auntrlans In Russian mines 

ii mines 

Authorship >>( papers, Joint 


metals after tin- War 

■•1 McNeill, death .-r 


[-listing firms by England 

in antimony and tungsten 


collapses al Quebec 

British Columbia 

British Columbia copper mines 

Bunker HID & Sullivan smelter 

Bureau ..f Mines 

Burma mines 

Business of mining 

ornla, men employed in mines, etc 

• rnlan mining I ;. Yah- ... . 

Calum I A Heels 

and flotation 

itput in .".n years 

Ditto, yield and cost 

Canadian taxes 

Alan Mining Institute editor and D. H. Browne 

Capital available in London and New York 

inza and the vice-presidency 

Carranzas credit 

Carranza's decree on mines 

Chemical industry 

Chemical fndus tries Exposition 

a n patent.s 

Classification and Mexico 

Coeur d'Alene region, Idaho 

Colorado School of Mines 

re ting a shaft 

Consolidated Gold PI el da of South Africa 

Copper added to steel 

Copper and Other exports 

Copper at 33 cents 

Copper companies and Allies' notes 

■ topper dividends 

Copper economies in production 

ler found by the Stefansson expedition 

Copper from Chile to Peru 

Copper In August, refinery production 

i 'opper 'investments' 

ier, low cost of producing 

er merger, 'billion dollar 

i 'opper mi M.S. the '■:--■ - ■ 

production after the War 

i topper prod notion of ' i i ■, per 

Copper production in 1917 

Ion, rate of 

' topper quotations 

Copper sales and refinery capacity 

Copper sold in advance 

Copper taxation 75, 

Copper, /.inc. and lead 

of living 405, 581, 685, 

Cost of producing copper 

Cos 1 of producing copper not rising 

Cyanide consumption and price on Rand 

Cyanide, rise in price 

Cyanidation of silver ore 

Decadence of the Rand 

Decomposition of cyanide 

Delicate subject, a 

Delivery of metals 

i lemonetization of gold by England 

Diamond imports 111. 


Disseminated copper mines outputs 

•Directors" of A. T. M. E 

Dividends, mining 

Dollar, purchasing power of 

Dredse improvements 

Dredging in Montana 

Education again 

Electrolytic zinc at Trail 









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1 1 1 

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n 1 

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5 1 5 
2 5 9 
5 1 6 



6 1 8 










I i:: 




If of |01< 

Hon ut Coball 


Flotation 1 
Rotation n 

Hellmann 1 appoint m< Dl 


tradu in know ledg< 
<;ohi and coppei mini 

Qold and Mr. Warburg 

" lold banks , 

< lold 1 ket 



Ores I 

Greatest gold i 

rd 1 or plumbing essay 7l*i 

1 . I ■. 1 

Me r ton A Co 

d the War 

I foil... .'I 

H uman sil, ,,.,., work 

Hyam Godfn a thi Tama rack sale 

Immigration 1 

imponderables, the 

Industrial capa< dj i*. s. Bold in advance 

1. W. v\\. Minnesota 112 

international engineering Congress 582 

International Papei Co , 

iron production of U. S. In lit si hair of [916 371 


roseph \ Holmes memorial 5 17 . 7 ~i: 

Korean labor troubles 

i 1 scarcity 581 

Labor tin res l 

1 r's wages profiting bj metal prices 618 

1 1 ■ ■. 1 ■ .--, learning, to help trade ".17 

Lead production ol certain states 2 

Leadvllle 76 

Lid unlocked, the 378 

MacDougall, spelling of :i 7 1 

Machinery for Russia, duty free i y i 


Matheweon. E. P 581 

Maiur of principle 5S2, 7t'.l 

.m.i tougall, spelling of 371 

Mergers 792 

Metal combines and cartels 932 

Metal cost on ships B97 

Metal prices 297 

Metal used at Verdun 225 

Mexico 187 

Ditto, and newspapers 547 

Ditto, our responsibilities; also protection of Americans.. 259 

Ditto, progress in six years 759 

Mexican affairs 582, 685, 828 

M> \ lean Commission 143 

Mexican crisis, the 8 

Mexican employees in the South -west 76 

Mexican fizzle 76 

Mexican mines resume 106 

Mexican money 151 

Mexican muddle ' ■■ 

Mexican pesos, value Of 858 

Mexican trade - 1 '" 

Mills, expanding capacity of 886 

Mines, prolonging life of B97 

Mining by the Government In South Africa 654 

Mining education 4 

Mining law ,;s j 

Mini ng reform 82 S 

Mining revision by Coloradu Scientific Society 898 

'Mining Magazine,' changes on staff 685 

Mining methods 581 

Minerals Separation and bond by Miami 581 

Minerals Separation wins 866 

Money making on Wall Street 515 

Mother Lode. California, strike over 685 

National f ii v Hanks of X. Y 932 

New York Stock Exchange 143 

flat man Bureau of Mines 721 

Ditto, exaggerations 897 

Oil production of U. S I, 259 

Ores, grade of certain i '■'• > 

Our economic bronze age 40 

1 >uro 1 'rcio mini . I Irazi I 871 

Oxv-acetyb-ne explosions 225 

Pan-Americanism — a myth 723 

Panama Canal 790 

Paper 38, 151 

Ditto, cost of 653 

Ditto, pulp and cotton stalks ■'571 

Patents, life of 931 

Peace and Wall Street B97 

Peace, effect of overtures on markets 931 

Persistence of ore In depth 821 

Platinum prices 685 

pontics : 65:t 

Porphyry 828 

Porphyries' second quarter 2ns 

Preparedness and Engineers' Reserve Corps 111 

Presidential election and business 481 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 113 


■ ■ 

i'i li pera and magazines . .. . 

ng and prosper tors 618 

Western Australia i 

Publicity In mining 


Railroad wagei 

Rand, gold output 871 

Rhodesia and apex law 

Rio Tlnto mine '■"•-' 

Base-brush oil 

St. J 

■ ■lit.' and gold 


for Federal experlmt nt station 

Selective Dotation at Broken imi 

Shaft-sinking . 


Silver ore treatment In Nevada 

Silver "ut , , 

Smelters over-taxed 

Hum sulphide • : 

Speculation In mining stocks 

Spelter 18s 

I Mil. 

I Utto, production 

i Utto. sold I'M ward 

Stamp v t.:i]i-mi)i 


Statistical 618 

opper wire 

Stock -spe< 181 

Ditto, on Wall Street 

Strs pendence. Ltd 

Strikes for high wages 

Successful engineer 

ons to authors 184 

Suppll Rand B27 



British Empire 182 

Taxa tlon i London 

Taxes in Western Australia . . 

Tennessee Copper 18( 

Thanksgiving time 

Then and now (Mothe: ! tellfornla i 

Those copper quotations 



-:--U ,: . 

Ditto, meaning <>f I'-mi 

Ditto, problems . ::"l 

I", s. Tfui fn ii <<f Mines al Ban Frai 790 

U. s. Bureau of Mines, saving In losses , 

i rnlted Vei Ing Co 

University <•( Idaho 

Vanderllp, F. A 

Wage Increase distributed 897 

\\':i zee i n She ta a i I 

WaR Streel 

Walled Mexli 4 44 

War and humanising effect filT 

War, exports and tradi 151 

War. two 187 

Western Australia, prospecting in l 

Western Australia, mine taxes 151 

Western Federation of Miners 

Wilmington decision 516, 619 

Wilson and 


Yuii i ted Gold Fields 

Zinc exports '>'> 

Zinc 549 

Zinc prices ill 

Zinc production of B rlor 

Zinc, sales, probable 

Zinc my 

Zinc I ?orp ■■ falre 112 

BSdmands, n. It Lead salts, alkalinity, and solvent 

power of cyanide for gold [61 

Education again Editorial. ... i i I 

United Stal ■ ■ s. Howe 126 

Mining F. Lynw 1 Garrison. . , 9 

Educator, mucking as an Curt X Si - i- 

<>f faults on richness of ore 902 

ning Van H, Manning 


Problems of I. n. Fin lay. . . . 231 

Eldorado Banket Gold Mining Co., metallurgical results 

Electric blasting i 186 

tp and fuse 224 

en air-compressor 

ilage in mines 321 

ir solutions ; i 902 

Hoists a1 the 1j ■-! nine, automatic * 

n K Burch and M. A Whiting, 

Hoists of Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co 

Hoists on !'(.■ Rand 

Lamp, Improved mln< r's 

Power ■ onsumption 640 

Powi ana ?i 5 

Power in south -west Missouri 27 1 

' mps 

oka silt 

Electric Point Mining Co.. Washingtjpi 106, U 

Electrical transmission in shi ■■ ■ 

Electro S61, 426 

Electro nomena In dotation 4? 

Prarth-e S I 

Precloltatlon E. C. Morse. . . . 622 

Refining at Trail T. A. Rlckard 

Zinc at Trail Editorial, 

Zinc In Australia Editorial. . 

Blectrol) tli (con.) 

Pagi - 


Ralston .... 77*.t 

Zinc ■■nisi r. . .Hai rj J. Morga n and Oliver C 

Olyttc ZlDC CO. Of Australasia 


Elkhorn, Montana . . . 

e, a. Stanley and flotation Editorial. .. .445, .. 

i Georgt E. Collins 88 

ore, A. Stanlej In elopraent, and 

•ductlon of the notation process 44y 

Elmore, Frank, and flol WW 

Ditto, do tail on pateni 

■ * : '' ,:; 

Elm * n -in Mining Co port '.''J 

El Oro Mexico Editorial. , 

Ore deposits. . . . 68S 

Emma llling results »10 

Emulsions, notes on *9 

llity of 169 

Endllch and Muhlenbei - patent 

. California, builds railway 179 

lend 85 

Pi oflta for ball 

'Engineering ft Mining Journal,' copper quotations 48! 

in the i rnited States 

Charles S. Howe, . . . 126 

ung 2 T'i 

An.i business Editorial. ... 188 

Ditto P. B. McDonald., 

• A. H. Babcock . . 

i. of Editorial. . . . 863 

5 n rich ni nitlon of 502 

Erie district, B. C l 15 

Esperanza Limited, company report 142 

notes on 62 

Nevada 4 7.". 

.: mine, Sutter « !reek, California, progress at 

owing in shaft 237 

Bverson and flotation 588 

•i for computing 1S6 

Exchange between New York and London 

Explosives 19. 166, ::4*.' 

i teterioratlon of 98 

Not allowed on t rains 902 

United States, 1915 

Extra-lateral problem Robert M. Searls.... 16m 

Right S. s. Fowler.. . 868 

Right— Shall it bi abolished? W. E. Colby. ... 701 

hts at Tonopah 113 

Rights, two decisions on 7 1 

st Kami Editorial 

Editorial. . . . 

Fault, definition of • 

Faults on richnesi ecta of 

I aid to mining efficiency Van H. Manning.... 

Feldapa of potaah 

Ferguson, Claude Traveler's library. . . . 

i ti buyers 

Fibrous structure In minerals 


Field-work of prospectors Herbert Ung. . . . 

Film -flotation 

Fllter-c; ila 

Filtering at Nevada Packard mill 

At Sa i dls 

Filtration troubles al Monltor-Belmont 

o 111 ons in Mexico In November, 1918 

Fine grinding: stamps and ball-mills W. E. Cahill.... 

I'm lay, J. R Imponderables. . , . 

Ditto Problems of efficiency. . . . 

Fin lay son, a. m.. and copper deposits 

■ owning a mine 

I'ii . s at mines Editorial. . . . 

In northern Ontario 

in United Verde copper mine 

First -aid to injured Editorial. . . . 

First National Coppei Co., California 

Walter, and shaft-sinking 

an ing of term 

Flat River, Missouri L39, 

- i:. N Burden of mailed advertising. . . , 

FUnn-Towne Rotation system 

Florence- Goldfleld mill, flotation at h. B. ciapp. . . . 

Flotation and dividend payments 

And Elmore A. Stanley Elmon 

Ditto Editorial. .. . 

Ditto George E. Collins.... 

And molecular forces Editorial. .. . 

At Argo mill, Colorado 

Ar A this mine Editorial ... . 

At Britannia mine 

At Calaveras Copper mine Ernest Gay ford.... 

Ditto, A simple flow-sheet Hallel R. Robbins 

At Cobalt Editorial 

At Florence-Goldfleld mill M. B. Clapp.... 

At MogOllon, New Mexico 

Book titles Editorial. . . . 

i vu at Calavi pas i opper mill 

Conc< Lnidlng A, E. Drucker. . . . 

Cent ration at Anaconda 

ierlck Lafsl and A. E. Wiggin.... 
Hon of carbonate oi roseph T. Terry, Jr. . . . 

isslon before A. T. M. E. at Globe, Arizona 

cinnabar Mark R. Lamb. . . . 

For tungsten me 

Hoover's new book reviewed 

In Clffton-Morencl district, Arizona David Col< 

In South-west Editorial .... 

in rj. S. Supreme Court 

Instruction necessary at schools 

improved pneumatic lames m, h> 

hlne, Kraut-Koflberg 

Molecular forces and Will H. Coghill . . . . 


34 I 

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Vol. II : 

Ml\l\l. ..,,.1 ScK-nllhc IV 



\ si .t,|. | Elm 


a Min- 

Ml in i 


lib.. . 

lackson \ Peai 
■ f opinion by Judge Bradford. 


Of Boulder Tuniestelt l luctlon Co. mill 

Il itiinlilu mill ... 

I >f > ' mill 

i if « ' C I ' plan! 

i if i afield mill 

nf lead plum al Trail 

of Nevada-Packard mill 

i if Plymouth mill 

nf Stoddard null. Arixonn 

Of Vanadium mill 

Fluorspar and galena in Kentucky 

[it "f Illinois held up by strike 

stain [lit y of . 

Forbestown, California, development at 

Ford motor factory, foremen not to discharge men 

Foreign Mines Development Co 

Formation of nitrate deposits 

Forms for concreting a shaft 

Fort Smith Spelter Co., < making-zinc 

Fowler, s. s Extra-lateral right... . 

ade in knowledge Editorial 

Freeman. Albert, his record Editorial . . . . 

French, A. G., sine process 

French. Harold Prospecting; < on... .117 

Ditto afanufactui chromlte. . . . 

French, Thomas. sln< 

r pump 

Pump arrangements at Nevada Packard mill 

Pumps, notes on 

Froment, Alclde, patent 

Kroih. requirement for 

Fumes from blasting 

Furnace for melting precipitate 

Fuse and detonator practice 

Kuture developments of tin- notation process 

Rudolf Gahl. . . 






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1 7 ;• 


4 SB 
8 i :, 
J i'. I 



i la hi. Rudolf Future development of 

the flotation process 

Ditto Notes on flotation.... 

Galena and fluorspar in Kentucky 

From blende by Horwood process of flotation, s. pal 

tion of Allan D. Rain. . . . 

Gambling in shares Tra B. Joralemon . . . . 

definition of 

rjtal copper metallurgy at L. O. Howard. . . . 

iting Co.'s plant, notes on 

Garrison. F. Lynwood Mining education .... 

Garvin Cyanidi Extraction Co.. process 

E. H.. advice to employers 

(las consumed in Joplin district 

From explosives 321. 

In magneslte mines 

Gash vein, definition of 

Gasoline hoists, danger of explosions 

Industry of California W, R. Hamilton.... 

Production from natural gas 

Gayford, Ernest ... .Flotation at Calaveras Copper mine.... 

General Development Co 

i al survey, life on an early H. Foster Rain.... 

Geology and mineralogy useful for prospectors 

In its economic bearing 

i if Mohave county, Arizona 

i if i tatman 

nf tungsten at Boulder, Colorado 

Georgetown. Colorado.. Why is it dull? 

German silver 

Germany, patent-office decisions on flotation 

Use of zinc in place of copper. 

Zinc-smelting processes - 

Glassware for chemical purposes, American 

Glimpse of South Africa Editorial. . . . 

Goethals. G. W.. ami the Canal 

Gold absorbed by copper plates 

Absorption lie plates w. Macdonald . . . . 

A correction Editorial.... 

And calotte 

And copper miner's wages Editorial.... 

And Mr. Warburg Editorial. .. . 

And silver production of the United States 

Discovery at Atlanta. Idaho 

From saprolite, recovery of 

Imports Editorial IS,. 

In Bolivia 








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I L'li 

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r, it 




» i n 


1'... I. 



i lolland and S« ■ u- n 
Gold Circle, N< uni 

' odd Log mine \ 1 . 

ti A I low , Clifford, and Dill ' 
Golden Hoi se-Slio. mini lit ,\. tnpanlna bufl) 

Gol.lllei.l i •..,,. Dlldated I 

Goldstone, California 


.ii.iat. .1 Mining, Smelting A 
p. i ny reporl 

Mines near Ketchikan 

Gran. i Bell Copper Co., Texas 

smelling al 

i ;, ami., at 'Butte, n 
i Iranu latlon at Hei 

s P. Llndau ami il B Smll 

Granville Ulnl tori 

Graphic method for correcting .W, s. Wei 

Grass Valley and X.'. i I I imla, milling and 

inldli cosl ' 1916 

i : K Tremoureux ami F. A. Vet > 

Mm. eold laid 

t\ M F Pro 


Greal Britain's mineral output 

Qn ii calamity, the Editorial.... 

Gold mines Editorial . . . . 

r AJo Copper Co 

Greater Miami Coppet Co 

Greatest gold mine Editorial ... . 

Green.. -i hi ,i,. . Copper Co., iiimiii report 

Gri.ier. R. I. Concentration ami smelting 

vanadium ore 

Grinding al the Homes take, line 

Mills at the Inspiration David I'oh ... 

Tans al Rabilonia 

Gruel ter. T. W Platinum on thi P 

Grunsky, Jr., C. 17 Man dp] 

Gudgeon, C, w Gold-scheellte on- in New Zealand 

Guggenheim brothers Edlto 

Guggenhelms, enterprises of 

Gun -eot ton. notes on 

i lypsum mined in U. S. in 1916 

Gyratory crushers Davenport 

H. A. C. Tunnel & Mining Co.. Ouray, 1'olorado 

Hague, .lames D-, and the Calumet & Hecla 

Hague. William Officers 1 Reserve Corps 

Hall. Edgar Useful miles 

Hancock, R. T Flotation or ss. 

Handling Mexican labor H. T. \\ . . 

Hanson. Luring Earthquake in Nevada 

Hardenherg mine. California, history of 

Harding sintering machine 

Hardinge mill at Inspiration 681, 

Harqua Hala Bonanza mine 

Harvard mine. California, changes ownership 

Harvard University, prize tor plumbing essay. .Editorial 

If, C. I,, (high cost of living) .Editorial 

Heater for solutions, electric I l> Bradley.... 

I [eiiuiann. Fred., appointment Editorial 

II.i eiiianeum, Missouri, matte granulation al 

S. P. Llndau and II. R. Smith 

Smeller Improvements 

Herreshoff ami McDougall furnaces 

Hicks W B Simple tests for potash... . 

Hiidehrand. Joel if Principles underlying notation.,.. 

Hill. .Tames J., on finance 

Hill City Tungsten Production Co.. new mill 

1 1, i hi 1." J Matter of principle. .. . 

Hoists at the Inspiration mine, automatic electric 

II. K. Burch ami M. A. Whiting.... 

■Little Tugger' 

On the Rami, electric 

Hoisting at the Inspiration 

Hollinger mill, decantatlon plant 

Holman pneumatic stamp ■ • ■ ■ 

Holmes. Joseph A., memorial Editorial. .. .647, 

Horn, stake Mining Co., hospital 

Mine • _- - 

Hoov.r. II. c., and Belgium ....278, 

Hooper J C Amortization "I I apital.... 

Horn 1 pi' ss °f flotation, Separation nf galena li 

blenli by Allan re Rain.... 

Howard, L. O Copper metallurgy at Garfield. Utah 

Ditto Mining in Utah 59, 

Howe Charles S Engineering education In 

the United States 

Ditto, on education Editorial.... 

Huelva, Spain, copper deposits of 

Hulhert. Edwin J., and the Calumet & Hecla 

Hull Copper Co.. suit 

Human side of engineer's work Editorial ... . 

Humboldt. Arizona 

85 I 










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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 113 

Humidity of air 


KMward Ket" I 

1 Editorial . . 

Inst In Minerals Separation suit 943 

! atlc flotation-machine 

i pressor. . •>.;■:■".. Isko 

California, breach <-f Camtnettl act.... 


sulphtdlzlng oxtdl 17 i 

nidation . . . . 41 8 




. . 
■ nents 

Flotation al 


! Iblo liquids, nut. s on 

Imponderables, the BdltO 

Ditto i. R. Fin lay. . . 

-nation, de 

1 1. il.-t.i tion ui.ii s M. Hyde . - , 

. editorial. . . .1. 

lining on 

i ii <.r California 

1 ami political relationships 


it of flotatf< 'i 

\V K 

Inspiration < !onsolldated Copj 


Grinding mills I •: 

I rti i ■ i 

Mine, automatic electric hoi el 

ll k. Burch and M. a. Whiting 

ng methods , tan .... 

Iiiatltui C arles F. Willis. . . . 



im • ' 


International Paper Co Editorial. . . . 

Invention, development, and Introduction of the flotation 

v Stanley Bin 


In fli of 

Irvln, Donald i Strontium nitrate: a new Indus! 

Isherw i kI nc procesi 

It mine, Alaska 

Ivan h tin 

I. W. W in Minnesota Editorial . . 






."i :. i 



5 1 5 





Jack I: i 33 

i iregon, development In 

: ; 1 1 Industry ■ > f i " . r . 

Tungsten production "f 

Jarbidge, Nevada 749 

Jennings, Hennen Dredging In 

l>itt<>. repi ad well mlnec 

Jerome. Arizona, activity 820 

District, Arizona, mining C. P. Willis. .. . 671 

Jig concentration In Joplln district, Missouri 

\ Wright 357 

■ dredges Editorial. ... 1st 

.11 m Butler Mining Co. v. West End Consolidated Mil 

Co., decision 10 

Johannesburg, Transvaal 396 470 

Mitt and splice 378 

Belmont notation-machine 

Joplln, Missouri 177 642 921 

Floods 29 

District, half-year, 1916, output 67 

District Jig concentration Clarence A. Wright.. 

Zinc on 

Jural. im. n, ira B.. on AJo, Arizona 

1 [ftto Gambling in Bhares. ... 761 

Surflclal indlcal i 

Joalin. Falcon 

In west ntral Arkansas.. 947 

■ irnbia T. A. Rlckard 

mountains. Montana, copper depos 
Jumbo Extension, company report 

Condition of mine 

u. Alaska ' 642 

Gold belt, map ..f ' ' ' (72 

Kalgoorlle, Western Australia, some large mines 334 

Kaolin, formation of 


Kama tunneling-machlne 576 

Kearns, Thomas, and Pa nal 

Kelp "i sea sh 

Kennedy, Nevada, earthquake at 

Kentucky, mineral production of 

Survey, early days <>f . . . M 

Ketchikan district, Alaska Ktnfl Edward Hui 


Kidder 3. .1 Modern bit »75 


Kolar, India, sunn- mines of 

gold mining in E Mtlfc ,'.'. 915 

Labc Editorial >'■'■ i 

Kotze, it N.. and Transvaal mining 

I fltto, report on Fur East Ha ml 

Kraut Mai Kraut-Kollberg flotatlon^machlne. ... 36 

n of Mother Lodi 6 1918 240 

In South Africa 

Scarcity Editorial. I 

Situation In Michigan 856 

Troubles at Kennett 180 

Troubles In An.. 

Troubles In™ Editorial. . . . 66 i 

. California 217 

Troubles at Oatman 179 

Troubles on Mother s ornla 

Unrest Editorial. 

Lackawanna distrli 

any report B95 

1 1 1 Washoe Reducl ion 

Worka 868 

Ditto, and Wiggin, a. E Flotation concen- 
tration at Anaconda B47 

I.akt- View & < >r<> ■ ■ i orl 756 

Lake View Consols mine, Western Australia, flotation at... 162 

Lamb. Mark R Flotation for cinnabar. ... 6 

Ditto Naltagua smelter.... '">J'.< 

Lamp, Improved miners 758 

ert i 

Ditto Potash -bearing mlnerah rnia. .. . 6G."> 

Ditto or's Beld-work. , 

Editorial. . . . ."» (7 

impanj report 26 

i mine, Washington 7 in 

Launch! ba No. 16 Walter S. Weeks. ... 872 


Lawrle, H. N Constructive aid for prospector..., B88 

Layng, Haral R Determination of antimony ... , 67 

Leaching pyrltlc copper orea at Rio Tin to 81 

Bted copper concentrate 630 

Roasted sine ore 906 

Tailing at Calumet A Hecla 

Lcetate, effect of In cyanidatlon 161 

And I i lunker Mill ami C k ] lecls . i 59 

And fluorspar In Kentucky 

District ol Missouri, progress 748 


Sydney H. Ball 807 

Electrolytic at Trail 940 

Ore 1 i Ri ]■ i. B. C 7 6 7 

' ■ 171 

Prices ind markets every week. 

on of certain Stat Editorial.... 2 


Salts, alkalinity, and solvent power of cyanide for sold.. 

H. R. Edmands 161 

al Trail 90 I 

. Her< Is Ileum, Missouri yso 

Lead-vanaoate ore of Cutter, New Mexico 889 

lie, Colorado 68 177, 287, 362, 169, 641, 674, 818, 930 

Editorial, . . . 7<; 

Population of - 

de plants 92 

.Dlesi i engines tor mine power-plants.. 

Mining methods at Knspl ration ... . 532 

Lena Go Id fields, Ltd., c pany reporl 16 

Sluices W. E. Thome. . 

rt, Warren C Acetylene v, candles.... 504 

E. u -Tungsten in the Boulder district, Coloi 

Leucft< of potash 

Lewis, Robert C Amortization and depreciation.... 456 

Lewlsohn Bros 

Lewlston, Montana 897, 648, 819 

Library, traveler's 230 

Ditto Claude Ferguson .... 410 

Ditto Arden Proctor..., 411 

Ditto Iph. . . . 689 

Ditto John B. Stewart. . . , 876 

Lid unlocked, the Editorial.. 

,H. 1 'oster Bain .... 58 i 

B nidation 161 

From molluscs 448 

Lin da u, S. P., and smith. H. B Matte granulation 

ill mil, Missouri 949 

Lining of ball-mills, wear of 

i liquid. Hquld-SOlld 

control for motors 788 

Slip-regulator for fly-wheel set 804 

n mines Russel T. Mason. , tl'7 

ng claims, law of 21 

i discovery of claims 899 

Lockwood, A. A., and Murex process 204 

Log-washer for saprollte 878 

m 396 

[enderson process 630 

irg, New Mexico 675 

Lost Packer copper mine, Idaho, treatmenl al 509 

Lo ■ loi i. . ids mining around P. B. McDonald. .*. . 14 

new book on 896 

Lumber, prices of in 1916 821 


maid, W Absorption of gold by plates 869 

Ditto Why ship concentrate?. . . . 41 

ling of name Editorial. .. , 371 

nitto Charles D. Demond. . . . 117 

nder Mel tougall. 

companies 570 

inery for Russia, duty free Editorial..., 481 

In mining P. B. McDonald. ... 417 

MacNaughton, Janv I Calumet & Hecla 78 

Mad Mule pocket mine 229 

Magnesite Editorial. . . . 226 

Bi Ick, price of 286 

Vol II : 

MINING and Scienli 


i in i 

B M Do 

il ultl to ml | 

■ I French 

.111 I ,. III.. .1.1 

Itannla mm. dli 

lowing pumping schemes 

llf M-M.'i.. 11. U 

i »f V 


nr Mother Lode of California ., 

tstern Nevada 

nf louthern British Columbia 

of Wyoming 

■ il nulls iii Detroit mine 

mills nt Inspiration 

Murk Twain us a metallurgist <:. II. Clovenger. . . . 

Murk, tin*; changes for n 

Mm shall. Tin is I Hscovery of cjranldatlon ... 

, AI II .Mining in Nevada. . . . 

I* I Swelling ground and P Canal.... 

P. il Synthetic - 

Ditto Tempering iirin steel. . 

Mason, Russell T Local stories about mine 

I 'iii" Pan -Americanism -a im-th . . . . 

Mathewson. B. P Editorial. , . .681, 

an all-round metallurgist -an Interview 

T. A. Rickard 

'Matte' ami •mat' 

granulation at Herculaneura, Missouri 

S. P. I. in. la. i ami II. I!. Smith ... 

"f principle Bdltorla I. . . .582 

I'll'" '■ i: ''.iiinskv, Jr.... 

L. J. Hohl 

Ditto B. W. Parker. . . .768. 

Ditto, argument closed 

I 'i ii". Protest \V. H. Shockley.... 

in, Mexico 

Will" it il Motor-truck In Arizona. . . . 

ild, P. B Bnglneer and business. .. . 

' 'iti" Machinery in mining. .. . 

i n"" Mining a run ml Lovelock, Nevada; . . . 

Prospecting. . . . 

i'itt., Two gr< companies compared . , 

MoDougall furnace T. T. Read. . . . 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Co., company report 


McKlnley-Dari ige mines, company report 

McNeill, Bedford, death "f Editorial.... 

i strict, California, ores IK.. 

Measuring with steel tap.- in mine-surveying 

W. S Weeks. . . . 

Mellor. E. T. ami geology "f the Witwntersrand 

Melting ai Santa Gertrudls 

Men employed in California mines, etc 

Mercuric chloride ami wounds 22, 

Mercuric fulminate, notes on 

I 'in,,, power "f 

is. contact between 

" ■' era Editorial.... 

M-iriii press, operation of 

M,-i inn & CO., Henry Editorial. . . . 

i ir-screen 

i.ia range labor troubles 

M.'.i cartels ami combines Editorial.... 

Deductions al smelters 

I .in shlDS Editorial . . . . 

Mini a mi i g m -i i ns rocks 

Price Mini na l inns during lie- War 

Prices Editorial. . . . 

Production of Central stales in 1916 

Production of Ontario for third quarter 

Mel. ils after the War. base Editorial.... 

i lounty mines. California Editorial.... 

R vered in 1915, scrar. 

Through Soo canals 

Used at Verdun Editorial.... 

Met.-ilim- mining district. Washington 

'Metallurgical Meeon' in Lnnilon 

Metallurgy at Garfield. Utah, copper L. o. Howard.... 

m.i :i -..mat ism. definition of 

Metric system considered by Eastern manufacturers. .. .833, 

System in Pern 

Mexico Editorial... .187, 272. 582. 686, 

American capital in 

Americans in Roller t S. Bnrdette. . . . 

And newspapers Ed i tori a 1 . . . . 

* walled Editorial.. .. 

i Yi m mission Editorial .... 1 la. 

I'l.-.narison of mining in 1912 and 1916 

Conditions in 

Ditto E. A. H. Tnvs. . . . 

Ditto Our Mexican Correspondent, . . . , 

Crisis Editorial ... , 

Currency Editorial .... 


I. .a 


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1 16 

81 i 




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20 7 
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7 12 



I 1 I 





Progress i. 

. . .. 


Mia tonsollda '• .1 U 

Miami Coppi 

Block mothod "f top sin Ing. . i ■ i •■ 

' "oil 1 1 

i :,. i i 

sun I.. Minerals Separation ....... 


' iklah a. development 

e of sheet 

i Sulphur i'" 

Mikado drainage scheme at Leadvllls 

Mill "i the Britannia company, B. C 

i 'ml. i ground In ' Colorado 

Mills, expanding ci - Editorial . . . . 

In iii.- North-west 

Mills, I-:, w ' il,. i.i mining In Korea.... 

i cyanldlng costs -i Grass Valley ami 

i'n>. California, in 1916 

R, K ii i ' ii - n\ and i' a Vestal. . . . 

Ill Arkansas 

t in Santa Gertrudls Hugh Ri 

Tungsten ore in Colorado 

Prletas mine, electrolytli precipitation 

Mine. American boy ami the Robert U Raymond..., 

Buying supplies for Nelson Did 

Fire, drowning 

Ladders, attention to 

Or proBpect, definition of 


Resci in California 

Supplies, shipping i 

Surveying, measuring with si •-<- 1 tape...W. s. Weeks.... 

Ventilation, cheap 

Ventilation and cost of mining 

Mine Inspector's Institute of America 

Mm.- La Mi.ii.- Co., Missouri 

'Mines Handbook and Clipper Handbook.' new edition by 
W. II. Wi-i-il 

Mines, local st i ai es about Russell T. Mason. .. . 

Of tile Mother Lode of California 

Prolonging life ,,f Editorial.... 

'Mineral Industry.' the bunk review 

Mineral industry "f -Japan 

Output of Great Britain 

Output of I'. S. in 1915 

Production of Black Hills 

Production of California in 1915 

Prod net i f Ontario in first half of 1916 

Minerals, Mutation of Unlit. .1. Anderson. . . . 

in desert regions, variety of 

In Rochester district. Nevada 

Through the ''anal 

Mineralization of Butte granite, incipient 

Mineral Slide drift mine . 

Minerals Separation and Inspiration-Amu inula companies, 


North American Corporation 

Origin "f 

Patent, life of 

Remarks on its attitude Editorial.... 

v. Butte <v: Superior's dividends 

v. -lames M. Hyde 

Hill", decision, text 919, 

Hill". M. S. wins Editorial.... 

v. Miami Copper Co.. bond 

Ditto, decision .".10. 

Miner-prospectors, value of 

Miner's lamp, Improved 

Mining and milling in Arkansas L. L. Wlttlch.... 

Around Lovelock, Nevada P. B. McDonald.... 

Business of Editorial. . . . 

Hi Ho W. R, In galls. . . . 

Bv the Government in Alii, a Editorial. .. . 

Decisions 71. 110, 481, 662, 720, 861. 930, 

Districts of Bolivia 

Districts, reports on — general suggestions 

Education Editorial. . . . 

Ditto P. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 

Efficiency, Federal aid to Van II. Manning.... 

In Alaska, conditions in September 

In Arizona Charles V. Willis. ... 157. 

In Colorado George .1. Bancroft. ... 285. 

Ill I 'I I ha ,. 

In Indian reservations 

In Jerome district, Arizona c. p, Willis 

In Nevada \1 H. Martin 

In Utah L. o. Howard 69. 

Law revision Editorial. . . .687. 

Ditto, Colorado Scientific Society Editorial.... 

Ditto. Falcon Joslin .... 

Legislation in Congress 

Methods Editorial 

Methods at Inspiration George R. Lehman .... 

Methods in Bolivia 

Possibilities in British Columbia 

Publicity in Editorial 

Terms, definition of 



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or, 1 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. L13 





Tungsten at Bouldei 
Mining & Metallurgical Society ol and mining law 

Mimn lotatlone 

' Ion price to $* 

Mining Corporation ol mpany report 

'Mining Ma on st;i(T Bdlto la] 

Misln K. 

slppl River Power Co., company report 

.11. diamond-drilling and grade "f ore 212 

i rl -Kansas nine- lead district for half year, i T * 

Mlxl n g i i : i n 

n blasting practice S. i Klddei 

Mogollon, New M m 


Mogollon Mines i • 612 

Tamping- bag filler 

inty, Arizona, ore deposits oi 

Mohave Daily Miner 1 693 

Mokelumne Hill California 

Molecul and notation will li. Coghill. ... .; 1 1 

Mollusi "ni t is 

Molybdenite, better demand Poi 


In * mtarlo 672 

Neai California ■"»; i 

Only comn ilybdenum mineral 

B tmi ril of 

i -nit m. concentration of 742 


ol m. Westllng and Carl Andersen .... 917 

d markets every week, 

Mon< ^ 

Making and stocli Ion on Wall Street 

■ I 

Rei lew of new book on 

Monltor-Belmonl mill troubles 229 

Montana, dn Hennen Jennings 165 

Map ol 175, 716 


Montana Powei Co 

Moore, Howard w Blasting practii e 

Chuquicamata, Chile 60 

Morencl, Arizona, flotation at 556 

I -Me tea If copper deposits 

Morgai H \ 

i ions 413 

Ditto, and Ralston, Oliver C. . .Electrolytic zinc-dust. 

E. C Electrolyl l< 

Ditto Stamp v, ball-mills 

Mother I.- 1 1 1.-, California ting old mines along. . , 

T. A Ricl 

Wli ■. 

Motors, liquid rheoatatlc control for 7 v B 

Motor-trui ; operating 268 

For mines B26 

In Arizona Wllbei I 1 1 McBi ld< 

Mt. Andrew Mining Co., Alaska 168 

Mi. i loppy 53 i 

Mouni Lassen still active 

Mt. i.v.-ii Mining S ompany report 

Cop] ! ion '■ 1 9 

an mine 

Composition of on 

Mucking as an educator Curt x. Schuette. . . . IS 

Mu lea, note on 

Murex flotal 

Mysore mine 


Nails, notes OH 

Naltagus smelt, r Mark I; La 

■ eras Hots ' Ion plants i om] area 

National Cltj Bank of N. Y Editorial.... 

National Expi Chemical Industries 

Nations notes on 


i i' s. In 1915 

mining industry 


Neil] jig for dredges 

Nelson, Lloyd G I ! silver ore. . . ! 

lltlons "f mining in 

s. L. Berry. .. . 

Loring Hanson. . . . 

Map <>r 

Mining- In Al H. Martin '.'.'. '. 

Bllver or. [n 

Some eastern dl 

1 Consollds . . Co.. and Calumet A 


Company report . .'. 

Mine, early hlstoi 

Progress '.'.'.'. 

Co.. compai , ,....! 

Nevada Packard, costs 

Mill, construction and operation of ......[ 

, . , Herbert G. Thomson ... . 

New c hi 

New Canadian Metal Co 

New Cornells Copper Co., ore reserves 

Protri.'^s .'..'.'. 

New ,!<<!■ ' 

New Idria. California, new mill at '..'.'/''' 

New Jersey Zinc Ci profits 76 


New Mexico metal production in 1916 

ew of 

New Mo orid 

New York Stock Exchange Editorial 

New Zealand i 

Gold-scl lite ore in C. W. Gudgeon 

Sua, plant of mta gold mines 

x-. , ,, ,t ^. — s M Parker.... 

Nlcholls, II. E Pr elnis 

Nickel and polities in Canada 














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1 r. :> 


! ! : 



Nickel (con 

■ states 570 

Controversy In Canada V 

Nee I 

Nickel-copper matt., prod d at Sudbury 

Nl< kel-Bteel 

Nicol John M * decision. 

I Regarding foreign capital... . 797. 

ps and rolls »} 

Nitrate deposits, formation of 31- 

ted 9|atea 9t8 

Situ. lean 

Stan • 

Nitric acid, synthetic I' ■ >i Ma 

Nltro-glycerlne, notes on 19. 167 

Moduli: - - on | 

Nomenclatui 'Sits .->- 

North Butte Mining Co Ill 

ir taxation ' '■■ 

North Dominion Copper Co ;■■••,■,■ ;■•■■ J '. v 

Notes on ll..tati,.n Rudolf Gahl.... I'." 

Oatman, Arizona - fi *. " ll 

Leroy A. Palmer 

eau of Mines Editorial.... 

Exaggerations Eklitorlal. . . 

Mills ' 103, 

Southern end development 

Water supply 

O'Brien. C Cyanidatlon at the Comacaran 

mill.-, Salvador 

■ >. 'elusion, use of term 

Corps, engineers tor. ...a. m. Babcock.... 

DittO William Hague.... 

Copper Co.'s affairs 

.ol and gas prospects In Montana 

tlon at Inspiration 

Consumpl in calcining n 

Consumption of Diesel engine 

Feeder for notation . 

In flotation plants 

flotation, new 


Lti tatentabllity of amount 

selective action of 

Flotation. Suan mill. Korea 

For hoisting ropes, .rude 

(Tor railroad loCOS ■ 

Ill Montana 

In Ontario 

In South America, early indications 

Lands of i'. S. bill before Congress 

it ,.f world in 1915 

Patentability Of amount in flotation 

Production of U. s. in 11. ir. Editorial.... 

m of U. S., present rate of Editorial. . . . 

p, new typ.- of mechanical 

■Hon of 

Used at Suan mill. Korea 

I T sed iii flotation, decision of the court 

Weil, dynamiting 

Wells in California, new 610, 

Oklahoma, recent development In 

Zinc i 

Zinc-lead region 100, 

i.i.i Dominion Mining & Smelting Co.. Improvements by 

ns ot" copper converter 

Oleic acid in flotation i ■ . ir of 

Deposits Fred R. Ely... 

Deposits, description of 

I ..posits ,.f Arkansas 

[,. posits ..f Mohave county, Arizona ... F. C. Schrader. . . . 

is of faults on richness 

Grade Of Editorial .... 

Grade of metal 

Mined in l: C. in I a I a 

Treatment at West End. Tonopah..Jay A. Carpenter.... 

Sa milling conditions in the West. . .T. R. Woodbridge. . . . 

Ore-bins s t Nevada Packard 

Ore-shoot, definition of 

i. inig machine, continuous 

ore Concentration Syndicate and Rotation 

platinum in 

Takllma district 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., company report 

Oroya-Brownhill mine 

Ouro Pr.t.. eld Mines of Brazil, company report 

Metallurgical results Editorial . . . , 

Plant for settling gold 

Out. rops and (he prospector William II. Storms. . . . 

Of important coppet deposits described 

Oxidation of pyrlte 

mineral, recovery by flotation 

Oxidized ores, flotation of 

•| C. Ralston and Glen L. Allen 

Oxy-acetylene explosions Editorial . . - . 

Oxygen in oxy-acetylene jet 

T n mine air 

Ozokerite in Utah, notes on in.".. 

a;, i 
v.. 7 

J 7 













M a 




3 i :: 

it. a 



r.l a 




i;x a 












2 7 7 



.-,, 17 

Coast, black sand of Herbert Lang -n 

Platinum on the T. W. Gruetter 20 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., sales to mines 209 

Packin u ^ ts lor foreign countries :::." 

Paleontology 712 

Leroy A Oatman district. Arizona.. la:; 

Ditto Tungsten near Bishop. California :1S.; 

Panama Canal Editorial 790 

Minerals through . . 393 

Swelling ground and F. J. Martin.... 192 

niism — a myth Editorial.. 7"2 

Ditto R. T. Mason. ... 9111 

Vol II : 

MINING ..".I, l'KI SS 

i i 

nil. fr<i 




tilts; In 
I ■ 1 1 1 - • 





I .1 till llll 
Hon trlbulutii 

|u . I I, 


ivrku I'll 



in in 

• ..! 

• r notation 
. k in Tennesse* 

.ns of 

n Dotation 

...... 629 

nsumptlon In precipitating - 

I i.i. ti. .1. In first hall 1918 . Editorial 

... ore 

Plna Canyon m Tunnel Co 219 

I'iih- Cri 

1'ip... notes "ii 

ipaclty R. I' Perkins 

Pipe-line f"i carrying concrete to ;i shaft 529 


ilende in Gilpin county, Colorado 13 

lurg niiii'-. Gilpin, 66 

Placer ck 7 i 

* rlsona 249 

Plant of Babllonla Gold Mines, Nicaragua. .S, M. Parkei 

absorption of gold by W. Macdonald . . . , B69 

mi .in.l quicksilver 

Field test for 

in Siberia, new And 221 

In Spain 

i hi thi Pacific .'....-i T. w . 20 

i Editorial. 

and markets 

imparlson "f 286 

Production <>f world 174 

iiii 102 

Plattevllle, Wisconsin 100, 287, 171. 608. i 81 922 

Platts, John B. . .Pocket-hunting applied to prospecting 

I Mi to Prospecting.. . 229 

lie '. B40 

Plumb-bob, notes on use 668 

iuth mill. How-sheet 231 

Pocket-hunting: applied to prospecting John 1:. Platts.. 306 

Mining, gold 229 

Politics Editorial.. . 653 

, Ontario, geology of 216 

Ipond Mines, npany report 72 

bottom for flotation-machines 495 

yry" Editorial B2t 

•Copper' w. N. Thayer. . 728 

'Copper' deposits, cause ol 

Porphj 1 tei Editorial 

I'nrls of Hi.- world, great 230 

Leading 123 

I.. South America LOUlS A. Wright ... . 3 37 

ila of California Herbert Lang.... 665 

definition of term 162 

From flue-gas 849 

Ii • Lake Editorial. . :■ 1 ^ 

Simple tests for W. B. Sicks.... 207 

Potassium and potash salts 162 

orate manufacture In Japan -I9S 

Powder at Joplln, cost of 537 

Powder-plant in Montana 322 

Power consumed bi Conrey dredges 505 

Consumed by stamps ami ball-mills 210 

For Cobalt. Ontario 503 

Plants. Diesel engines for mine. .. .Charles Legrand. . . . 393 

Precipitate to bullion Ft, R. Bryan.... 834 

iltatlon ami melting-room at Santa Gertrudls 241 

Electrolytic I.. I. Rowland 622 

and Engineer Reserve Corps ill 

Presidential elections and business Editorial.... 481 

Elections, conditions on eve of Editorial.... 652 

Prevention of misfires E. F. Brooks.... 871 

Prices of chemicals and old metals 895 

Of newspapers and magazines Editorial.... 790 

Of old metals 514 

Principle, matter of 

B. W. Parker an.] C. B. Grunsky, Jr.... 867 

Principles underlying flotation. .... .Joel ii. ETildebrand. . . . 168 

Probert. Frank II Surlleial indications of copper — IV 

and V 81, 267 

Problem of efficiency J. R. Flnlay 231 

Proctor. Arden Traveler's library.... 411 

Profession, definition of 27'1 

Profit in high metal prices 241 

Progress Mining & Milling Co 920 

Prohibition, notes on 8 

Prospect mountain. Leadvllle, development 362 

Prospects and prospectors I.. I. Rowland.. 621 

Prospecting, a suggestion Harold French.... 117. II." 

iiittn M. F. Graupner.... 376 

Ditto P. B. McDonald. . . . 337 


In ,■ i 

v. . 

i roi ii 


Mi . leal oil 

watoi wnii ... 

i'yi II.. deposits "t ' • I lain luipoi t 

1 n i sulphide 

Idatlon a n. t . 

Produi Hon i 1915. 

netting al Anyox, B C 


QuartSbUrg, Idaho 

Quartzlte, A rlsona, gold 

. . minora ' 
Quebec brldi 

1 1 1 


i markets 

Race problems in South aim... 

I 1. .n of Austria iii I9li 

Rag-mills or canvas tables '•" tungsten 

Rail i 1 1 ..I graph companies, some t.i^ 

tructlon in Coeur d'A Lene, Idaho 

in Alaska 

rial reports 

. ' . i - and oal u i <i 

01 i S., operating data 

i IT. s 


Rain, All-in i' Separation of galena fr blende by 

I loi wood process of llotal 

Ralph, Joseph Traveler's lib. 

Ralston, Oliver C, and Harry J. Morgan Electrolytic 


Ditto, anil Glen U Allen Flotation "i oxidized 


Ditto, Views on ...niiii 

i. .a n. i.n. e of the Edltoi 

Dividends for naif-year 

Eli ctrlc hoists mi tin- 

|.'ai East Edlto 

Hold oi iii.. bankel 

Gold output for half-year 

Maps Of parts 

Notes on Editorial .... 

Supplies on tin- 

Rai Consolidated C ier Co., company report 

Rav Hercules Copper Co 

Raymond, Robert M Unerlcan boy ami the mine.... 

Read. T. T Mel ion gall f urn:. 

Ready Hullian mine, Alaska 

l: in patents 175, 21". 860, 122. 180, 545, 603 

Redding. California 

Redjang-Lebnng. Ml.ihla.uw Man tseha ppi.i. company report.. 
Redw Is of California, notes on 

Reed, Jr.. Henry s Sunday work at the mini 

Refining at Trail, electrolytic T. A. Rickard. . , .903, 


Refractory Magnesite Co 

Regarding foreign capita] T. Nipper.... 

Rennerfell eleelrie furnace for ferro-tungsten 

Re-opening of obi mines along Moiher I....I... California,!! 

T. A. Rickard 

Repairing a crusher 

Replacement, definition of 

Reports on mining districts general suggestions 

Republic, Washington, notes from 69, 

Reduced rates on ores 

Re- timbering a f our-com par linen t shaft. ... II. G. Thlele. 

Retorts, zinc smelting in vertical 

Reverberatory-furnace practice ai Garfield, Utah 

Revision of the mining law i'i icon Joslin. . . . 

Rheostatic control for motors, I i on id 

Rhodesia and the ape\- law Editorial. . . . 

Mining law 

RlCO Lake district, Manitoba 

Rickard, T. A HI ue Bell mine, Riondel, I: C. ... 

Ditto Britannia mine and mill.... 

Ditto Electrolytic refining at Trail. .. .908, 

Hill, T. Parke ('banning and copper mining..., 

ibit Tourney to British Columbia... 

Ditto. ...E, p. Mathewson, an all-round metallurgist.... 

Ditto Re-ojening of old niin.-s along the Mother 

I, ode. California. IT 

Rickard, Thomas, death of 

Kirk. lis. I,. I" Matter ..f principle.... 

Rico Wellington Mines Co 

Riondel. B. C 

Rio Tint" mine Editorial. . . . 

Notes on mine an. i treatment 

Roasted gold ore, leaching 

Roasting copper concentrate 

Galena for flotation 

Zinc ore a I Trail 



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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 113 

; lotatton ai oppei A _ _ 

Robertson. \v. P., and Smith. G. W Tax on nun.- produi 

in Brll 

Ditto, imbla " ■;• 

i- . Hand 

'rowder'D notation investigations • -'._• 


■ ■ l4, 552 

Rock, Impoi tanl p 


Rock-drill practlci in 1 Rand lis 

In i mine r- 

Uoli practice at Nevada Packard mill 379 

■ i 

d Storms, \v. M Prospei t< 

.. Milling practice at SanU Gertrudlfl 242 


■ ry o04 

Joplln 3d* 

d Mountain Mining Co., company report 756 

M 1 

I ospecta and | pec ton 

il Minerals Sepal a Hon 40 fi 


' the Russian s 

Runner, -I J gravity method for tungsten 



on in 1915 

d mining Editorial. ... 898 

Measures and equivalents 166 

Notei ii 94 

Oil produ. tlon 


. « ; 5 

■ ■ ■ 

-■ rail a 

nine Editorial. . . . 

St. John Mines Co 

: i >... Run Lead <*«., consollda 

Improvements at Herculaneum 

Smelter practtci 

■ ush oil Editorial ... 

Plotal Ion oil from 

Notes ->n 

Bale, a J Gold In silver concentrate.... 

Bait In 


ide mills 


Mines Morton Web 

Band and gravel production •>( r. s in 1916 

i G. Tyi rel. . , , 

sinking through Edward A Sayi 

Pan Francisco Mini 186, 340. 112. 

I tit to, lark'*' bus! 


Sault St. Ms 

Sayre, Edward A Sli 


, .Editorial. - . , 

W. n Storms 

Gold ore In New Zealand C w. Gudgeon. . . , 

Schrader, P. 1 I tunty, Arizona.... 

Schuette. Curt N Mucking ator. - . . 

: In I 91 5 

■ .... 

te and tailing at Ai izona 1 

Editorial .... 

Roberl M Extra -1 

Seattle as site for 1 periment station. .Editorial 

t ration In ore formation 




from blende by Horwood pn 

flotation Allan i >, Rain 

■■ mine in 


Settlements by smeltei . . . 

Settling sllmi 

10I ruin,', a laska 

Seven Troug »n mine, Ne> on ... 

Underground photo of 

Shadow Creek dfi ' , 

Editorial. . . . 


1 ; Thlele 

Sinking Editorial 


Sinking, world's 1 ecord '.'.'.'. 

Work at Butte & Superior 

in -Ira B. J 

1 ' I' 1 ling. . . . 

county, California, labor troubles 

Edmund. . ,DI panidatlon. . . . 

Shear rone, definition «>r 

if ' ' 

Signs? foi 1 .'ine! ! ! ! 

Shipping mining supplies Editorial 




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1 :: 6 

; . . 










51 fi 



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Shockley, \v. H. .. .American Institute of Utol neers 

•t &89 

1 'it i rilnera' wages 685 

ling lead ore In south -east Missouri 46 

21 . 

Siberia, minerals in Urlanhai province 

Sierra county, California, activity in 103 

Signal code for surveying W. F. Sherman.... 411 

production d! United States ; - 


Silver, bonuatpatd In Colorado "90 

1 r*-s on value 

>ld in a. J. Bale..'.. B78 

Losses In cupellatlon 45y 

ments In England 440 


notation on Lloyd O. Nelson ... 223 

Futuri ol 284 

Output of Mexico Editorial. . 

Output of Hogollon, N. M 475 

Prices and markets every week. 

Statistical position In July 1916 :> ■ 

Silver City, New Mexico, notes on district 182 

Silver ton. Colorado. In 1916 

Simmer ft Jack mine 

tests for potash W. B. Hicks. 

Sinking through sand Edward a. Sayre., 

Sintering machine, continuous ore 288 

Slack-cable system of ore haulage 

Slag at Rio TlntO 85 

Study at smelters '-<ii 

Treatment ai Butte 

Viscosity of furnace 

ii Miami 

Methods of mining 

Slime at Morencl only ti itation 

1 settling Paul W. Avery.... 738 

at Lena gold mine 

1- M. Turn bull - 

And small mine, of Arizona 677 

At Xaltagua. Chile ■ 829 

irglan fanners [92 

[Ing Editorial.. 

at Trail, B. C 903 

Profits 13:; 

Any on and Grand Porks, B. C 777 

Bolivian tin, charges In England and Germany 132 

ges on Butte ore 1 m 

Study of slags '.*n 

Tin h Boll I.. 

Vanadium ore, concentration and R. L. Grlder. . . 

55tm I retorts 8$i 

Smith, G w .and Robertson, \v. P. ...Tax on mine products 

in British Columbia 

and Undi . S P Mai te granul 

Herculaneum. Missouri 944) 

Smith. Howard I 1 Gold Bavlng on dredg 202 

Theory of dotation 16 

Smith. Kenneth G atmospheric humldlt y and Its 


ner S < ■ ; iska. , . . 908 

Smuggler-Union 01 do, flotation of 7."-i 

Snake Creek tunn 205 

7 1 11 

Soap-bearing plant for settling gold 

Sodium amalgam, use of 

And potassium, chemical difference 

Editorial. . 17 

Sulphide for testing sll ver-cyanidr solution 

Sulphide in flotation . . .' 172 

in cyanidatton 161 

ter for F. D. Bradley.... 00^ 

Sonora, California *17 

Sonstadt solution 

Africa, American on of..H. Fos 

of Editorial. , 

1 mining in W. Karri Davl 

States ' 

Louis A. Wright 

Tariffs 201 

South I takota . gold production of SO 

•a rly 7"i 

Method for tungsten J. J. Runner. .. . 11 

pulp 159 

11 mills 

Speculation in mining stocks Editorial 

of belt-conveyors SS5 

Torque curves fi 

ei Editorial 1^ 

Early history of 

Exports Editorial. , - - 827 

For galvanizing wire , 217 

Impurities in is 6 

S Editorial. ... 259 

d markets every 1 

rorward Editorial. 

Spltzkasten with tube-grate air-filter 

Spurr, J. !■'.. on the Raj '. . 

Square-set stoplng 315 

Stain on surl 272 

Statups and hall-mills 7 

And hall-mills, fine grinding W. E. Cahill. . . . 73 

' in weight 

ball-mill Editorial. . 

1 Courtenav De Kalh. . 

E. C Mori 

ies, weight of steam 

Ales, size of 

State mining Editorial . 

ictlon of 73 

pi ospertty Editorla I. . . 61fl 

wii*e Editorial. . . . 8^7 

ps En Michigan 489 


ii ; 

MINIM. Scientific I'KI SS 

» - 

\\ . 

I ,| null. Aril .mi i 


\i ,v a P In n 
s. ■« ichoi lit.- d 

1 Mil" '•" 

i Idftorlul 
Strike -it Moihi i i.". I. C illfoi nta, mini 

Ed lal. • ■ ■ 

Is .... . 
•,. >w Indueti i Donald P. In In.... 


mill. Wallace, Idaho 

tul ■ "k ■ » Editorial. 

Sudbury Ontario, nlckal-copper matte from 

Bdltoi i'i 

in Machinery Co., alr-comprcesora 

Sul li mi ii mine, B. C 

Sulman, Plcard and Ballot and flotation 

Sulphatlsu i ••( galena 

Sulphldlalng oxldl 

Sulphur from mi Lyell 

In Wyoming 

.Mm ' 

Sulphuretted hydrogen and olla 

Sulphuric acid determination in sulphates 

iracture In Tennessee 

Manufactun al Copperhlll, Tennessee 

Sun, lav work .u Hi.- mine Henry s. Reed, Jr.... 

" In small African mlnea lohannesburi 


Supplies for ii mine, buying Nelson Dicker man. . . . 

in, the Rand Editorial 

Surface tension 

Cause of 

Itlon ,.f 

Notea on 

1 Indications of copper. IV anil V 

Prank II. Probert 81 

to Ira B. Joraiemon . . . . 

o Editorial 

I iiit., Courtenay De Kali,.... 

W. R. Sherman 

iurlng with steol lap" In mine. . . .\V. S. Weeks.... 

Sutter Creek, California 24, ml. its. -ii. 396, 171, 

571 608, 64 I. 676, 712, 749, 781, 861 

Sweating copper piat-.s 

Swelling ground and Panama Canal F. J. Martin... 

Symons disc-crushers at New Cornelia 

Synchronism In ore-sampling 

Synthetic nitric acid P. H. Mason... 






SI 9 






Tailings and their abandonment, law regarding 

In Cornwall, treatment 691, 

Zini-. treatment al Joplfn 

Til, production of United States 

Tamarack mini-, grail" of or" 

Sale to C. & li- and G. M. EXyams 

Tamplng-bag filler 

Tank construction 

Tap.- In mine-surveying, measuring with tin- steel 

W. S. W""kS 

Tapes, graphic method for correcting steel 

W. s. Weeks. . . . 

ii. metallurgical developments 

r process 

i mine products in British Columbia 

G. W. Smith anil W. P. Robertson 

Taxation In Arizona 

Of mines In British Empire Editorial 

Of minis in London 

Taxes In Mexico 

Tays, B. A. n Conditions in Mexico.... 

Ditto Mexican tangle. ,. . 

1 1 writing iiy young men 

nature and steel tapes 


During tempering drill-steel 

rn Treadwell mine 

in" notation concentrate and Altering 

ring drill-steel P. II. Mason.... 

Drill-steel, tanks for 

Ten a "ss"". map "!' "iijipi-r and zinc districts 

Phosphate rock In 

Tennessee ' lopper Co Editorial. .. . 

Origin of ■ 

Tennessee Copper & i 'h"mical Co Editorial. .. . 

Tension or tensile strength of liquids 

Terlingua, Texas, quicksilver field 

Terry, Joseph T Flotation concentration of 

carbonate s 

Texas Graphite Co 

Text of Minerals Separation v. Ryde decision 

Thanksgiving time Editorial 

Tharsis, Spain, ore treatment 

Thayer, w. N Porphyrv copper.... 

Then and now (Mother Lode of California) Editorial. . . . 

Theory of flotation H. Hardy Smith 






:;7 : , 



S3 I 









and iia 



Tlmbel l.i..l. 

I in lull" 

i,\ Unit,, mines 
Tlmbei Cal umi i A tiecla. 

Timbering Capote No : ahafl 

\ ml lead, an. I Of WOI III" I'i ".la- I l-ui 

I'liai I -a prlci 

I ictlon 
Concentrating plant in iiumui provln 
pin, nt in South Dakota 

iiiiin ii i.i Howland I 

in silk manufacture 

a Nevada 

-its of United siai.s for six months... 
Prlci markets. 

Production of American Smelting * Refining plant.... 10 "i world 

I"! H "' w "i la. 1,1 - ">t 

Smelting charges 

Tailing treatment In Cornwall 

I's.-s in war 

Titan in in. character! I 

In Mexico 94! 

ins district, Alaska 

Tomboy Gold Mines, company report 

Tom Reed Gold Mines Co., company report 

Mine developments 641 

Notes on 

Tonnage estimation in mills 

Tonopah, Nevada 68, !".'•. 181, 218, 263, 

541, 61 i. 648, 676, ;.".:' 857, 888 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co., company reporl 22:: 

Tonopah Western 1 ',111s, ,11. la I "il Mining 1',, 475 

Top-slice caving system of mining 816 

Top-sllclng ai .Miami, i.i. .rk method BJ. Q. Deane.... 601 

Toronto. Ontario 

25, mi. 140, 211. 896. 186, 607, 688, 578, TI2. 7 Is. Ma, 85 

Track- lark use of 953 

Trail, British Columbia, electrolytic refining at 

T. A. Rlokard. 90 

Notes on 

Smeli.-r, larger receipts <>f ore 30 

Transvaal Chamber of Mints, report 371 

Traveler's library "'■'■" 

I 'in,, Claude Perguson .... 410 

i at i a rii .a i Proctor. .. . i'i 

Ditto loseph Ralph .. 689 

niit.i lohn rv Stewart.... 376 

Treadwell mines, consolidation of 801 

I Ht to Editorial..;. 299 

Treasure mill. California mi 

Treatment charges at smelters 184 

Of coppei licentiate, wet L. Addlcks... I ;:: " 

Of molybdenite 661 

Tremoureux, R. E., ami Vestal, P. A Milling ami 

Cyaniding costs as Grass Valley anil Nevada City, 

California in 1915 706 

Trench. I '. S. . mi 'M"tals after Hi,- War' 686 

Triiiin Star Dredging Co 103 

Till" vein, definition of ' 

Tube-grate flotation ""11 658 

Tube-mills, manganold balls and Danish pebbles 107 

Practi." at Nevada Packard mill 379 

Tube-milling at Santa Gertrudis 245 

Tulare Mining Co 234 

Tungsten Editorial. ... 2 

Analysis, specific gravity method for.... I. .1. Runner.... 11 

And "gold in New Zealand, separation of i::»i 

In Boulder district E. II. Leslie. . . . 363 

In New Brunswick 

Meaning of terms Editorial... 

Mining in South Dakota 676 

Near Bishop, California Leroy A. Palmer..., 186 

Ore dealers 2 

Ore occurrences in California 764 

Ores of South Dakota 11 

Prices Editorial.... 617 

Pric 'S and markets every Week 

Prices in Colorado and Japan 376 

Problem Editorial.... 331 

Production of United States in first half of 1915 215 

Situation in Colorado 142 

Situation in Whit" Pine county. Nevada 

Tunnel, definition of .■•■-;: ;'2; 

Being driven near Salt Lake City 1S- 

In American Fork district, Utah . . . . 541 

Turnbull. J. M Custom smelters and small mines. 

Twin-angle compound air- com pressor 

Two Washington mining districts R. B. Rrlnsmarle. 

Tyrrel F. G Black sand. 


Union Cons. Mining Co., company report 867 

United Comstock Pumping Associations work 151 

United Eastern Mining Co., mine and mill JM 

United Gold Mining Co., Oregon. Jlf 

United states coal output in 1915 ... . •; 

Engineering education In Charles S. Howe... 

Explosive production in 1915 


Foreign trade, 1915-'16 



17 1 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 113 

Import* in IMS . - 

Induati lal i apa Bdll 




H'nrk ..ii flotation 1.1 

Irat ball "f 19H 

BO t 

hi; Cc Editorial. ... l 



.::. 4 1 

"mi' 490 




Mining In I. . . I, 

m flotation 


. 14! 


1.,.,. .1 ,.• 


or • ■ 

Ventilation, cheap mine 

In driving sn.ik.. Creek tunnel.. 

...... . . . . 


I ■ r 


us Power ' '.- 23 



i'v ..f rurna 


■ '. 

[nci >uted Editorial. 

nd, low-native 718 

t:i) prices Editorial. 

Waihi Gold Mining I 


'nm. New Zealand, ore treatment at... 


Wall Si er Editorial. 

Wall.-.! Mexl 

Ed Iti rl i 

metals aft.- 1 Editorial. . 


Exports and trade Editorial .... 151 

Situ:. end of 1916 899 

Two Editorial. 

n district, Arizona 

9 a i',:. 

Washington, l k C 24. 139. 322 

Ington ci . ;■;•• 

v H. Ball 807 

Map of pair lsj 

■ig districts, two U. B. Biinsma< 

Montana, progress at 67 

pper Mining Co 

■. olframite 

i wmi i is 

In rocks 

Waste-dete< tor, Venturi 

on. New Mexico 

Of tin- world 

M-Tton Sampling of mines. 


Weeks, W. S Graphic mei 

Ditto.... ...Launching <>( Yuba No. 16.. 

Ditto. .Measuring with Bteel tapes in mine-surveying.. 

and Jira Butl«-r suit.... 113 


West i 43S 

Western Australia mini Editorial. ... 151 

Editorial l 

Wa i 

Western Federation of Miners Editorial 897 

\\". stling H.Aand Anderson, Carl Analysis ..! 

molybdenun 917 

Wei treatment >>( copi L Addlcks.... 630 

Wetting b <»r term ... ziG 


black labor in Africa 300 

mi in'. Manhattan, Nevada. .John 1^ Dynan. . . . B84 
Whiting, M, a . ii • t ru- 

plratlon mine ... 801 

Why ship concentrate? William Macdonald 41 

Wlggln, a, E., and Lalst, Frederick Flotation 

ition al An. 

Willis. Charles F Arizona Bureau of Ml 

1 Utto Institute meeting. . 

Ditto Mining in Arizona.. 

I -itto .Mini:: Arizona 37] 

Willow creek, Alasb m 

Wilmington flotation decision Editorla I. . , .516, 619 

Ditto, Text "f opinion by Judg.- Bradford.. 

Wilson and Hughes Editorial 

Wilson. I 'in lip l 1 < Comparison of sloping methods at 

Calumet & Arizona mine 31s 

Wire old art -.711 

Wini.ii. I. I... di ath "i 

Ditto M 

Wolfram in Arg< 

\\'a.-p No. J. South Dakota 

Wolframite ore, analyses of ij 

Wolftone drainage -scheme at L>eadvllle ] mo 

Wood, <;. M us to authors 

Wood blocks for pi - 

w (bridge. T. II. .Ore-sampl) tlone in the West. . . . 7"7 

Wood-flour for dj gj 

laho ] 1 647 


a Ji> opltn 


Wright, Louis a i Soutl America, 

Wyoming Edltoi 

California mining data 111 

Y M. C. a. al But1 

Ida Editorial. - 

Launching of No. 1 >'> Walter S. Weeks. . -. ^7™ 

Yukon Territory, report of William Si me 

Silver King mine at Mayo 31 


- Editorial ... US 

And smelting 

Company report 

ad copper In Central States 

Average in Joplin or»- 

Dust, electrolytic 

■ry -i Morgan and I >ii . 

Dust precipitation at Nevada Packard mill 

I lust production of United States 

CtrolytlC in Australia 

Exports Editorial. ... 70 

Exports and imports "f United States 

Extraction from ores Editorial... 548 

In Nova Soot i a 719 

■ ■ d States 

Metallurgy, progress in 

Mines al Butte, Montana 

Mining in Nevada 

imports in 6 months 368 

Ore t reatment 

» ire t Trail 

* Mjtput of New South Wales 

Editorial 111 

s and markets every week. 

luctlon Of Australia 408 

Production at Bui 767 

Production of the Butte & Superior, copper production 

ol Utah Copper Editorial 37 

obable Editorial.... 515 

Smelting in Europe, present and futuri 

Smelting in vertical retorts 

vatlve for mine timber 

Sulphide, iron pyrite 

Trust in Mexico 649 

Used in place of copper in German>' Editorial.... 181 



Edited by 


Volume 113 
Number 1 


For Mining Service 

J The warm rains of summer— the clinging ice of winter are a trying com- 
bination for any tubular material. 

«I The uniformity and durability of "NATIONAL" Pipe meets these severe 
conditions with a minimum impairment to serviceableness. 

"NATIONAL" Pipe withstands equally well the severe conditions of 
general mine service. 

«I Ask (or a copy ol "NATIONAL" Bulle- 
tin No. I I— History. Characteristics. And The 
Advantages of "NATIONAL" Pipe— this 

r r\ r\ l • r- r\ n is one of a numb « 

Bulletins on the sub- 
ject of Pipe. The 
Bulletin is free, but 
you must ask for it. 

It paim.dp £ 




District Sales Offices in the larger Cities 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 






Tilte tr 


501 mar.k.elt st. 
San Franc i sco, Cal. ; 

Let the railroads buy 
an Oliver Filter for you 

Sounds strange to you! Still it is possible to make 

money which you now spend on railroad or other 

transportation pay for an Oliver in a very few 
months. Listen ! 

One user writes: "Our Oliver 
Filter installation paid for it- 
self in three months on 
freight savings alone." This 
man stopped paying excessive 
freight and handling costs on 
moisture in his concentrate. 
You can do the same thing. 

Assume a rate of $10 per ton 
of concentrate from mill to 
smelter. A reduction of 1% 
in moisture content will save 
10c. a ton on freight alone. 
In addition, there are further 
savings on handling in the 
plant, elimination of losses in 

transit and the cost of pur- 
chasing sacks. Olivers filter 
as low as 8% moisture con- 
tent with great rapidity and 
at exceptionally low cost. 

If You Use Continuous 

here also is a use on which 
the Oliver Filter will pay for 
itself well within the year and 
afterwards pay profits, for it 
will save cyanide, eliminate 
soluble losses of gold and sil- 
ver, cut in half the zinc used 
for precipitation, save floor 
space and increase capacity. 

Why 110! get details? Tell of the nature 
of your ore, tonnage, soluble losses. 


.luU 1 1916 

MINING .nd Sdeatifii l'KI SS 





















We carry a large and well assorted stock of machinery and 
supplies of all kinds and are prepared to make immediate 
shipments of any standard equipment that may be required. 



A complete equipment, a pump, hoist or an order for a few 
bolts, a pulley or a shovel. Let us know your requirements. 


harron, rickard 
& Mccone 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 

No. 54 Marcy Mill 

Capacity 75—100 Tons in 24 Hours 

Reduce your milling costs by crushing 
and grinding in 



Minimum Floor Space. Simplicity of Plant. 
Low Horsepower. 

Made in the following sizes: 4', 5', 6', and 8' diameter. 

The Mine & Smelter Supply Company 

Denver Salt Lake City El Paso 

New York Office : 42 Broadway 

Mining and Milling Machinery Electrical, Assay and Chemical Supplies 

U'il/Iey Tables, Single ami Double Deck 

Iiil\ 1 1916 

MINING .nd Scrniiiu PRESS 

Upkeep expense is appreciably less 
where "Perfect" Wire cloth is used— 

Look into any mill where screening costs are at absolute bed-rock and where efficiency 
is at par and you will find "PERFECT" Double Crimped Wire Cloth in use. 

Costs cut in stamps or jigs — 

or in ball and tube-mills, flotation machines or 
assay offices. Screens wear out — yes. But they 
need not wear out so quickly. They will not if you 
insist on getting "PERFECT" Wire Cloth. Its life 
is longer by reason of the excellent material used 
and its design. Its efficiency is higher because of 
the double crimp, which eliminates slippage and 
assures a uniform product. 

"PERFECT" Cloth is the culmination — 

This wire cloth is the result of taking advantage 
of every success and every mistake made in the 
past. It represents the best in all other screens 
with the faults eliminated. 

Remember the two big features — 

Remember, always, that "PERFECT' - Wire Cloth 
costs less to maintain and that it gives a uniform 
product under all conditions. It is for these 
reasons that, hereafter, you will probably specify 
this screen for all your machinery. 

A type of "PERFECT" Cloth for all work— 

This wire cloth with the double crimp is made in 
a score of types — from the lightest, finest mesh 
for assay work, to the heaviest and coarsest for 
classifying crusher product. And each of these 
types or sizes is backed by a guarantee of 
performance under which all r 'PERFECT" Cloth 
is sold. 

We publish a book containing worth-while engineering data 
on the subject of screening as well as a description of all types 
of "PEEFECT" Cloth. It shows why maintenance cost is so 
low and efficiency is SO high. Write for a free copy today. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

20 East Jackson Blvd., Chicago 

Mills Bldg., El Paso, Texas 

Felt Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah 

MINING .«nd Sciaattfc PRKSS 

.lulv ). 1916 

Vanner Practice Is Often Bad 

Shut-downs, feed changes, machine adjustments, all mean 
variation in Bavins as well as capacity, and it is unques- 
tioned that the plant whose final concentrators require 
the least attention makes the greatest total saving, other 
things being equal. 

Mechanical Effectiveness Counts 


embodies that effectiveness ; its construction and arrange- 
ment are improved and simplified, thereby insuring a 
minimum of repairs. It is a 24-HOUR- A-D A V machine. 

As* for Bulletin 1801-A. 

Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. 

Mining Machinery Dept. .... Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

vU Outtiiaa Baaafes re*r t.- Can»iar. AUfc-OttWrs. Ltd.. T jiU 

.Iiil> 1 1916 

MINING «nd Sc.rt.hh. I'KI SS 



and the same things apply to pipe — 

No steel tanks made can equal wood tank service. Steel tanks may be 
protected from acid and alkaline solutions — but not for long. On the 
other hand, tanks, pipe, and vats made of RKMCO air-dried RKDWOOD 
are absolutely uninfluenced. And they last for 75 years. 




For cyanide or flotation 
concentrating mills ; for 
handling sluicings; for car- 
rying solutions or water; 
for protection against in- 
sects, electrolysis, and fire 

When steel tanks buckle, as they do, a workman with 
an oxy-acetylene outfit ami a riveter will tix it tor yon. 
He'll charge you, too. Redwood tanks can be re- 
paired by your own mechanics — but oul of thousands 

of tanks si. 1. 1, noi tnu lias failed. 

Tanks of RKMCO Redwood are uninfluenced by heat, 
cold, dampness, dryness, acid or alkaline solutions, or 
by flotation oil. Neither do insects harm them. First 
• <>st is less — so is their erection cost. Maintenance is 


Shown below are four of a battery of tanks at the 
Homestake Mill, Deadwood, S. D. They are of the 
"cannot leak" variety. During the years they have 
been in use. not a sign of deterioration has appeared. 

REMCO tanks, pipe and vats are erected under a 
definite guarantee. Guesswork does not enter into 
their purchase. That is the reason for the hundreds 
of installations made annually by mining companies 
in every part of the world. 

There's money to be saved, efficiency to be gained, trouble to be elim- 
inated. Find out about REMCO tanks, pipe, and vats. Write to us today. 

Redwood Manufacturers Company 

1611 Hobart Building 

San Francisco 

Of course they're 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 

Krogh Sand Pumps are lower in first cost 
and in maintenance than others — 

Krogh Lined Sand Pumps will give you greater satisfaction for the very good reason that, compared 
with any other pump of equal efficiency, they are much lower in first cost and in upkeep expense. 
Other pumps of equal price cannot equal K rogh Lined Sand Pumps in work or in low operating cost. 

Simple, sturdy, and with common sense 
built into every part, these pumps are de- 
signed by men who know mining and 
milling conditions. 

Notice, in the illustration, how the liners 
are easily removed and replaced. They 
are made from special chilled car-wheel 
iron, harder than steel, yet less costly; 
no through bolts used to hold the liners 
in place. 

Regularly made in 2", 3", 4",' 6", and 8" 
sizes; special types designed to meet ex- 
traordinary conditions. 

We shall be glad to mail you descriptive 
Bulletin No. M-79 or other bulletins 'In- 
scribing Krogh Sinking Pump, Krogli 
Horizontal and Vertical Automatic Cen- 
trifugal Pump, Horizontal Motor Driven 
Pump, Krogh Dredge Pump, Krogh High 
Pressure Centrifugal Pump — write. 

Krogh Pump Manufacturing Company 

159 Beaie Street San Francisco 






Flotation Concentrate 

varies so much in settling qualities that it is difficult, without making 
careful tests, to determine the amount of area required for each case. 

We have made a careful study of settling and are equipped to make 
necessary tests as a convenience to those planning the installation of 
Dorr Thickeners. 

If you are in doubt as to the settling area required, send us a 
5-gallon sealed sample of your pulp to be fed to the Thickener, stating 
tonnage to be handled, and we will advise you as to its size. 

Dorr Thickeners are used extensively for: 

Thickening dilute pulp to the right consistency 
Thickening the concentrate before filtration 
Recovering water for its re-use 


1 7 Battery Place 


Successors to the Dorr Cyanide Machinery Company 

1009 17th Street 

16 South Street 

.lulv 1 tOlfl 

MINING «nd ScMMiufic PHI SS 

Sullivan Diamond 
Drilling Service 

(Established in 1884) 

is the most reliable and accurate means 
you can employ for testing your mines 
or mineral property. 

Sullivan Core Drills show: The depth 
and inclination of the orehody : the thickness 
of the ore and its richness; if more than one 
vein, the exact location of each, and the coun- 
try rock to be penetrated in development ; the 
cheapest way of reaching the ore and the 
proper point for sinking a shaft or driving a 

Sullivan Drill records are accepted as final 
authority by engineers and mine owners every- 

A T.nF..ol Sullivan Cor.' from C'onl Formation In Chile 

What We Do 

Sullivan Contract Drill service includes 
the use of the most up-to-date drilling 
machines and tools, by skilled operators 
trained in our organization. 

The drills are operated day and night. 

The cores and other records are pre- 
served under lock and key for our cus- 
tomers' information only. 

We supply written logs of each hole at 
the completion of each. 

Sullivan drilling service is nation-wide. 
Between 30,000 and 50,000 feet of core 
drilling done annually. 

Shall we send one of our field experts to 
learn your requirements and quote you 
a price per foot ? 

Booklet 13113 contains further details. 

Mill. van 1'rospocting Outfit in Chile 


122 So. Michigan Ave , Chicago., U. S. A. 

461 Market Street, San Francisco 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

.Fulv 1. 1916 

Get quick action, get safe dealing, 
save on freight — buy it locally — 

If you are in touch of Phoenix, Arizona, you can save on 
freight, you can deal with a local firm that is jealous of 
its reputation for square dealing, and you can get right goods. 

We carry a large stock of exceptionally high grade g^ W"v *11 

mining and milling equipment and supplies. Com- ^•OITiPrCSSOl'S* UTlllSa 

pressors. Drills. Hoists, and Tools and Supplies of *■ ' ' 

the Sullivan Machinery Co.. Foos Gas Engine Co.. Hrticffi Morninai'ir 

American Pulley Co.. Bond Foundry £ Machinery Co., JTlOlSlSj IVlClCIlinCl J 

Peerless Rubber Co.. and Hubbard Shovel Co. 

We solicit your trade. We are here on the ground 
where we can understand local conditions. You get 
courteous and fair treatment. Give us details of the 
work in which you are engaged. Just address us. 
Phoenix. Arizona. 





Eccleston Periphery Discharge Ball Mill 


Tube Mill Linings 
and Balls, 

White Iron Castings, 
Screens, Etc. 


Mining Men 

The mineral contents of your ore are hard to save if slimed. Why nut crush yonr ore in tin- only 
Periphery Discharge Ball Mill on the market ami save sliming? In this mill the product is discharged 
as soon as it is crushed tin.- enough. The discharge is in the natural place and for the full length of the 
mill. Wouldn't it he wise to at least investigate? 

Write for Bulletin TODAY 



.Inly I. I ''It. 

MIMNi. tod Scienlin. I'KI SS 







I ou cannot fail to be interested in the reasons which prompted the following 
important operators to buy "Ingersoll-Rogler" Class "PRE" Air Compressors. 

A Few of Many Satisfied Users — 

No. Purchased Name of Company Horsepower 

6 Anaconda Copper Mining Co 4265 

1 Inspiration Consol. Copper Co 1 1 80 

2 Maryland Steel Co 1800 

3 Isthmian Canal Commission 1700 

1 Cerro de Pasco Mining Co 550 

3 Ashio Copper Co. (Japan) 1375 

12 Flinn-O'Rourke Co., Inc 7200 

4 Tennessee Copper Co 1860 

2 Canadian Copper Co 1892 

3 United Steel Company 900 

2 Hardaway Contracting Co 1100 

1 Nevada Consol. Copper Co 576 

ple, efficient and durable. 

pendent, reliable and cleanly. 

— Absorbing heal of compression. 

CLEARANCE CONTROLLER-Auiomatic. reliable 
and economical regulation. 

ENCLOSED CONSTRUCTION— Dirtproof yet fully 

Bulletin No. 3026 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 

11 Broadway 

Turbo Blowers 

Olllai the World Over 

F<<r i aimou. aiMr-'-s i ;iiiii'liaii InfrersoU-Kniul Co.. Montreal 

Rock Drills 

IBS Q. Victoria SI. 


Drill Steel 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 


NewYork City -9| 


CB 1420 

w _ st , BCSKX MTtUT «ft «H9 

125RH GR 1247PM---10 





A 50,000 Ton Test at the 
Great Dome Mine, Ltd. 

which is controlled by one of the most astute mining men the world has ever pro- 
duced, and managed by a mining engineer formerly of Goldfield, Nevada, 
is scrapping eighty 1250-lb. stamps because these eighty stamps, even with 3 s -in. 
screens, produced only 800 tons per day and the mine is capable of producing 
2,000 tons per day. 

Therefore, in January, 1916, the Dome Mines 
Company installed an 8 ft. x 30 in. Hardinge 
Mill under a guarantee by the Hardinge Com- 
pany that said mill would crush over 350 
tons of same ore to a finer degree than its 
stamps, returning oversize if necessary ; 
that the power would not exceed 125 net hp. 
with a 28,000 ball charge and a ball and lining 
consumption of less than % lb. per ton of ore. 

Result at the End of Four Months: 

This mill is crushing (to be exact) 498 tons 

per day and has crushed over 600 tons 

— Without returning oversize ; 

—Is consuming 113.2 hp. with 28,000 lb. 

of balls ; 

— Ball consumption, 4-10 lb. per ton of ore ; 

— Lining consumption, "too light to estimate" 

at the end of 4 months. 

Based on tonnage, product, power, wearandtear, we 

are about 100 per cent over guarantee, while the tinal 
result is the above telegram, sent after investigating 
tin- claims of oilier mills. 

Each of these mills occupies the space of 1 0, but does the work of over 40 stamps. 



Cable Address : Halharding, New York London Office : Salisbury House 

V. A. STOUT, Pacific Coast Agent, Balboa Building, SAN FRANCISCO 

0» > 

Milium \i -.1 UK 

t \ nacARD 




Mini II 1 


1M kBUSHHD in 

PtMahnl .1 420 M.ikH N !■ ('»««... Lr ih. LVwr I'ulMuat Co. 


Ml. Ml i.iMKIl' 





i' U 

\v i 


. Inchall 

S. i. n. .■ hoi in» cni-my sure ihc tjpioruni 

Iuued Ev«ry Saturday 

San Francisco, July 1, 1916 

IS par Year— 10 Cents per Copy 



Nona 1 

a Mm. ui Brand 3 

Regarding a controversy in progress In other mining 
journals concerning the American invasion of tech- 
nical men In London 

Tin. Mt\n \\ CaiSIB 3 

As the position appears at the time of writing, on 
June 16, with a summary of events leading to the 

Mimm Education 4 

Comment on Mr. Garrison's article in this issue. The 
need for a broad education and the p;irt that the min- 
ing engineer ought to play in the life of the com- 



By R. C. Canby 5 

The cyanide process is stated to have been tried at 
Lake Valley, New Mexico, in 18S5. two years previous 
to the work by MacArthur and Forrest in Scotland. 
as described in the article by MacArthur in our issue 
of . I une 10. 
Ti.Mi'raM; Dull i.-Steel. 

/>'.!/ F. II. Mason 5 

Solutions for quenching drill-steel need not be so lung- 
Irritatlng as that employed by a drill-manufacturing 
any as given in our issue of May 27. The func- 
tion of the carbon in the steel. 
Flotation for Cinnabar. 

By Md'k R, I.amb 6 

Quicksilver ore in Chile, running as low as 0.1'. Is 
being retorted. A McDougall furnace or the flotation 
icess v. ill likely be adopted later. 
CYANIDAT105 M mi CoMACARAN Mink, Salvador. 

By 'C. O'Brien 6 

Points about the continuous counter-current decanta- 
tion process, as contrasted with using filters. 
Phospi i i in.. Before Dredging. 

By ll. E. Nicholb S 

Driving pipe for prospecting placer ground has been 
employed in the Malay States and Xlgeria; an appre- 
ciation of Mr. Brayton's recent article. 
Useful Notes. 

By Edgar Hall 8 

Exports of machinery should be insured fully so as 
to cover freight and miscellaneous items. An Aus- 
tralian community where prohibition has been a suc- 
cess. Ball-mills and nodulizers. 

Miking Edu< ation. 

By F. Lynwood Garrison 

Many distinguished mining engineers came from 

large cities, remote from mines. The value ol culture 
and breadth of view to supplement practical attain 

Sl-l.iiin Giiamiy Mi l ll. hi nut Ti m. -ii \ ANALYSIS. 

By ./. ./. Runner n 

Prospectors may learn the approximate amount of 

tungstlc acid in ore without a chemical analysis. 
Additional information to that supplied by A. D, 

Cox In our Issue of January 8. 

Mineral Production of the Black Bills 13 

The llomestake mine produced $6,446,191 In gold 
during 1915, of a total of $7,619,684 from the Black 
Hills of South Dakota. 

Mining Around Lovelock, Nei u>a. 

Hii P. K. McDonald 14 

Observations from an underground visit at the 
Rochester silver mine. Other activities of the Love- 
lock region. 

The Theory of Flotation. 

By II. Hardy Km ith 16 

No amount of agitation or blowing will produce bub- 
bles of the right kind and number in absolutely pure 
water; a contaminant is necessary. 

Explosives 19 

Straight dynamite and gelatine are explained. 

Platinum on the Pacific Cham 

By T. W. Qruetter 20 

If two-thirds of the platinum in the heavy sands going 
to waste at hydraulic mines in California and Oregon 
were saved, the production would exceed the present 
consumption of the United States. 

Electric Hoists on the Rand 22 

Notes from a recent article in the General Electric 
Review; electric hoisting is important on the Rand. 



Rev i i:w OF Mining 24 

Special correspondence from Sutter Creek, California; 
Washington, D. C; Toronto, Ontario. 

The Mining Summary 26 

Personal 31 

The Metal Market 32 

Eastern Metal Market 33 

Company Reports 34 

City Deep, Limited; Dome Mines Co.; Canadian Min- 
ing Corporation; Mining Corporation of Canada; Lena 
Goldfields, Limited. 

Book Review 35 

'Elements of Mineralogy.' by Frank Rutley, revised 
by H. H. Read. 

Recent Publications 35 

Industrial Notes 36 

The Kraut-Kollberg Flotation Machine, by Max Kraut. 


Buyer's Guide 38 

Index to Advertisers 44 

Established May 21. 1S60. as The Scientific Pre**; name 
■changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Sclentlllc 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York. 130S-10 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico. J3; Canada. $1; other countries in postal union. 
21s. or $5 per annum. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Your work will be Easier, 

Your efficiency Higher, 

Your costs Lower, 

if you use 


Placer Equipment 


Gold, Tin and Platinum 

July l. 1916 




Union Dredge No. 18, operating on Mastodon Creek, 
near Circle City. Alaska. This 3A-ft. dredge has made 
an enviable record of 1900 cubic yards per day under 
adverse conditions. 

We invite your correspondence. 
Ask for Catalogues. 



604 Mission Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 


Prospect your dredging ground with 
Union Drills. Made in two types. 
Above is shown the steel-frame type 
in operation. Union Drills are simple, 
easy to operate, low in cost, and can 
be transported over any ground. If 
necessary they can be knocked down 
and carried mule-back. Bulletin 15. 


Eight Neill Jigs on one dredge have 
paid for themselves in 60 days, mak- 
ing a commercial success of jigging a 
product running 2ft cents per ton. 
The Neill Jig has double the screen 
area of other jigs requiring the same 
floor space. All parts are easy of access. 

unionTredges^- bucyrus dredges - urnoTnEmLTs^^EmuiGS 

.Iiih I 1916 

MINIS'. ,nd Sdeobfii I'KI SS 



T. A. RICHARD. Editor 

Oil. PRODI I TION of the United States is ratio 
be at the rate of 800,000 barrels daily, equal to 
o.ihhi barrels per annum. In 1915 the total was 
291,400,000 barrels, but the marketed production waif 
onlj 267,400,000 barrels. At the present time there 
exists i good market for all grades of petroleum 

A STATEMENT lias i n made, and widely pub- 
lished, thai mi account of European capital being 

unavailable t itinue work at certain California 

mint's, tin -iv are 1000 less miners employed in this State 
than formerly. While sundry prospecting operations 
depending cm foreign capital may have been suspended 
or reduced, there has been a noteworthy increase in the 
nnmber of men employed in re-opening old minis, start- 
ing ni-w mills, besides an expansion of operations at 
antimony, chrome, copper, lead, magnesite. manganese, 
tungsten, and zinc mines throughout California. Such 

increases largely ex 1 suspensions. The industrial 

Accident Commission reports that at mines, mills, quar- 
ries, smelters, dredges, and eemeut plants there are 
13,000 men employed, and gains are continually being 
reported. A similar expansion is in progress in the 
West generally. 

"DUMORS are current on Wall Street that "a billion- 
-*-*■ dollar copper merger" is to be organized for the 
purpose of consolidating or combining, in a manner not 
described, all "the big copper mines of the West and 
Alaska." We believe this to be untrue, for no sound 
economic basis exists for such an agglomeration. The 
copper-company units are big enough. Some of them — 
like the Kennecott affair — are already more conducive 
to stock manipulation than to cheapness of operation. 
Any idea of controlling the price of the metal by re- 
striction of output or domination of the market is pre- 
posterous, having in mind the two previous abortive 
efforts to do so. If the Secretan syndicate failed in 1899 
when the world's eopper production was only 47G.O00 
metric tons, what chance of success is there now with an 
output of over 1,200,000 tons per annum? We assume 
that the talk is made in order to excite speculation. 

WESTERN Australia, as a State in the Common- 
wealth, endeavors to assist mineral exploration by 
means of money grants, the erection of stamp-mills for 
treating small lots of ore, and by geological surveys. In 
the end, however, the best work is done by private and 
corporate enterprise. The latest phase of systematic 
prospecting is credited to the Sons of Gwalia. a mining 

company thai produces 1100,000 in gold monthly, Tins 
company is equipping partus to prospect for gold and 
oiher metals. The men are paid wages with a contingent 
interest in anything that they And. Something is Deeded 

to sustain the gold production of the Australian i 

monwealth, tor a Bteady decline is reported officially. 
During the first quarter of the current year the yield 

from the Six Stairs was 104, 260 ounces, as against 177. 
410 ounces during the same period of 1915 and 875,000 
ounces ten years ago. Western Australia showed a de 

crease of 41,841, to 255,948 ounces, in the quarter men- 
tioned. This compares with 460.(111(1 .unices in the lirst 
quarter of 1906. 

TMMIGRATION is increasing slightly. In December 
-*■ 1914. also in January and August 1915, the admis- 
sions were less than the departures, but in April 30,560 
arrived as against 4082 that departed. In April 1914, 
before the War, the arrivals numbered 119.N85 and the 
departures 22,801, a gain of 97,084. This question of 
immigration plays an important part in fixing the price 
of labor, especially on the Atlantic seaboard. During 
the 21 months preceding the War, 2, 102, 360 immigrant 
aliens were admitted to the United States and 538,850 
departed ; in the ensuing 21 months, 503,364 were ad- 
mitted while 293,644 departed. Nobody can predict con- 
fidently what effect the War will have upon immigra- 
tion: whether the work of reconstruction will find oc- 
cupation for ex-soldiers, as well as the many women now 
B0 usefully employed, or whether the disintegration and 
penury of large masses of population will cause them to 
seek new opportunities on the American continent, and. 
if they do so, whether they will come to the United 
States, or to Canada and South America. 

*-^ shares of which have risen to $30 from a par value 
of 50 cents, had many hard knocks before success was 
achieved. The company was organized in 1894, and 
early work on the claims at Jerome proved so futile that 
the promoter committed suicide. Later the Red Rock 
mine near Providence, also in Yavapai county, Arizona. 
was acquired without successful result, and relinquished. 
In 1902 the United Verde Extension Gold, Silver & Cop- 
per Mining Co. was re-organized into the company of the 
present name, and in 1912 another re-organization took 
place. The Boston News Bureau estimates that the high 
price of $30 per share will just repay the principal to 
the old stockholders of 16 years record, without consider- 
ing interest. In 1913 the mine had about one mile of 
underground openings, and showed "a little ore of 2% 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. L916 

copper, 1 <>z. silver, and $3 gold on the 800-ft. level." 
At the end of 1915 the bonanza, an orebody 250 feet 
square of 17V, copper, was uncovered. The president 
of the company is Mr. James S. Douglas, the BOn of Mr. 
James Douglas, the distinguished president of Phelps, 
Dodge & Co., New York. 

success of their operations on a price nearer that exist- 
ing before the War than even the present reduced 

p< ODFKEY M. HYAMS is the name of the stockholder 
'-' who lias brought suit in the United States court to 
restrain the sale of the Tamarack mine to the Calumet 
& Electa company. He charges that in the proposed sale. 
the Calumet & Eecla is acting both as vendor and pur- 
r, because this company already owns 19,400 shares 
of Tamarack stock, nearly one-third of the total issued. 
Air. Hyams claims that the property is worth $6,000,000 
instead of the $3,563,486 offered by the Calumet & 
Eecla. This is not the first time that Mr. Hyams has 
blocked the financial schemes of the Michigan copper 
companies. By menus of bis scattered holdings of stock 
lie lias opposed nearly every important move made by 
the Calumet & Eecla company during recent years. His 
ownership in the Tamarack mine is 1300 shares, which 
would be worth, at the $59 offered by the Calumet & 
Eecla, $76,700. It is not evident what .Mr. Hyams gains 
by so many law-suits; but he is not unique; in nearly 
every mining region a similar type of man exists, a con- 
sistent opponent of combination ami organization. 
people love to thwart others; they are burn cantankerous. 
others engage in battle to defend the down-trodden, for 
example, minority shareholders. We do not know to 
winch category Mr. Hyams belongs. 

"TH'XCSTKX is quoted at $30 per unit and France is 
-*- reported to be buying the metal. The following 
list of buyers and manufacturers of ferro-tungsten may 

prove useful to some of our readers: in Pennsylvania. 
the Primos Chemical Company, at Primos; the Vana- 
dium-Alloys steel Company and the Manhattan Reduc- 
tion Company, both at Latrobe ; the York Metals and 
Alloys Company, at York; the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, at South Bethlehem; the Crucible Steel Company 
of America, at Pittsburg: the Midvale Steel Company. 
at Philadelphia; and the Firth-Sterling Steel Company, 
at McEeesporl : at New York is the Goldschmidt Thermit 
< lompany, at 120 Broadway. Among brokers dealing in 
tungsten ores are the Foote Mineral Company, at Phila- 
delphia; E. P. Earle. Charles Hardy, and Arthur Selig- 
man at New York. Some of the steel companies buy ore 
as well as ferro-tungsten. The recent recession in price 
is due primarily to the decreased business in munitions. 
When the placing of contracts for munitions was at its 
height, there was a heavy shortage of high-speed tool- 
steel, so that an inordinate demand for ferro-tungsten 
was incited. Just now new contracts for munitions are 
few. so that some manufacturer* find that they had 
over-bought tool-steel. Fresh foreign business is pend- 
ing and a strengthening of the market is anticipated, 
but the boom prices of a few months ago must be con- 
sidered a thing of the past. Those are wise that base the 

T EAD is produced in large quantity by three States, 
■ Li Missouri. Idaho, and Utah. Their production in 
1915 was 195,621 tons. 1^0,680 tons, and 106,105 tons, 
respectively. Colorado was a poor fourth with 32,352 
tons. The great bulk of Missouri's output comes from 
the south-eastern part of the State, where a half-dozen 
companies work on 3 to 4% disseminated ore. The 
characteristic of this district is that lead alone, without 
zinc, is produced. Idaho's production cones from the 
lead-silver-zinc ores of the Cocur d'Alene. During some 
years the output of this region has exceeded that of 
Missouri. Utah's production has risen steadily during 
recent years. The silver-lead ores of Park City and 
Bingham have been the principal source. To these must 
be added the mixed ores of the Tintic district From 
foreign ore and bullion, only 43,029 tons of lead was 
refined in the United States last year. This compares 
with 94,984 tons in 1911 ; the bulk of it coming from 
Mexico. The production of lead from domestic ores last 
year reached the total of 537.012 tons, comparing with 
389,211 tons in 1910, a gradual growth. The American 
Smelting & Refining Co.. it should be recalled, produces 
about 50'; f the country's total output of lead. Next 
to the United States, the important lead-producing 
countries of the world arc Spain and Australia. 

T"|ISCUSSION this week starts with a reminiscence 
*-* from Mr. R. C. ( anliy. who recounts an unsuccessful 
effort to use cyanidation two years before the Mac- 
Arthur-Forrest process was made known. Mr. Canby 
was one of the principal experts in the Minerals Separa- 
tion-Miami case: hence his last remark is apropos. Our 
friend Mr. F. H. Mason contributes some notes on the 
ring of drill-steel, dealing more particularly with 
the physics of steel as elucidated by Osmond, and in- 
dicating the part played by quenching. From Chile we 
have a letter signed by Mr. Mark R. Lamb, the repre- 
sentative, at Santiago, of an important machinery manu- 
facturer. He describes a personal experience in the re- 
torting of quicksilver, with due consideration for the 
possible use of the flotation process. Mr. C. O 'Brien, an 
experienced mill-man. lately at Kirkland Lake, breaks 
a lance with a recent contributor. Mr. Peckham, in re- 
gard to a special phase of cyanidation. His argument 
is that the continuous counter-current-decantation sys- 
tem, which he mercifully abbreviates to 'C. C. D.', does 
not lose efficiency by addition of high-grade ore. and 
that any failure to obtain the best results at Comacaran 
was due to an imperfect flow-sheet. Mr. H. E. Xieholls 
writes from London to approve Mr. Corey C. Brayton's 
recent article on a method of drilling alluvium and 
draws attention to an earlier article by himself on the 
same subject. Finally. Mr. Edgar Hall, one of our best 
friends in Australia, contributes bits of information that 
will be appreciated by our readers as coming from a man 
of varied experience. 1. I91ti 

MINING .nd Scwnnhc PRESS 

A Delicate Subject 

We DOtS Ilml lli«- /-'in. in. 1. 1/ \.„ ,. of I don, ami tht 

Engim i rin,/ a Milting Journal, of New fork, have got 
into a controversy on the subject of 'Americanizing 
British .Minis." referring thereby ii> the employment of 
American engineer! by British oompaniea The subjecl 
has alsn engaged the attention of the Mining Journal, of 
London. These journalistic amenities were started by 
an intemperate and orudely phrased editorial in the 
Financial Sins, which is a low-grade paper not to be 
confused with the Financial Times, published at the 

san ntre. The article in the Nfiwt was followed bj a 

number of letters showing much prejudice, and, we 
think, a regrettably provincial attitude. Some of the 
feeling that found vent in this ill-tempered outburst is 
the product of the War. At this time of great conflict, 
when half the world is under anus, the individual be- 
comes touchy, if not belligerent, on international affairs. 
Civilization has become a 'rough-house' Our most 
cherished beliefs and our dearest sentiments are being 
wounded during this terrible turmoil; we are on edge; 
even the beat of friends wax warm over the issues at 
stake. Nn wonder then that the politenesses of life are 
in danger ami we say tilings that in quieter normal days 
would Burprise us. The controversy to which we refer 
is a sign ut' the times. Our own attitude in the matter 
will In- readily .surmised by our readers. Iii professional 
matters we are Mercutio, having no sympathy with ei1 her 
the Capnlets or the Montagues that attempt to stir 
jealousy or ill feeling among English-speaking members 
ut' a hroad-gauge profession. The American engineer em- 
ployed by British companies has been selected on account 
of his ability; so long as he. in turn, selects his assistants 
ami subordinates for the same reason, not on account of 
the plaee nt' their origin, lie does what is eminently fit and 
proper. When, however, a junior is picked, not on ac- 
count of fitness for the work in hand, but because he is a 
fellow-countryman, a brother-in-law, or a Baptist, the 
senior is not dealing fairly with his employer, whether 
that employer be a board of directors or the shareholders 

in a company. This error has 1 n committed, and usually 

it has brought its logical punishment in the loss of con- 
fidence and the lowering of efficiency. We grant that 
some second-class Americans have gone to London, and 
have faired ill there: also a number of poor specimens 
went to South Africa, where they did tiot remain long ; 
but only an ignorant man would deny the splendid serv- 
ice given to the British mining industry by such men as 
Gardner Williams. Hennen Jennings, George Webber, 
Prank L. Bosqui, W. L. Honnojd, R. Oilman Brown. 
H. C. Hoover, W. J. Loring, and R. M. Raymond. We 
agree with our contemporary in New York that if the 
arts of mining and metallurgy, as applied to Great 
Britain's overseas dominions and her investments 
elsewhere, be unsatisfactory, it arises largely from the 
failure to appreciate the fact that the British empire 
was extended in the footsteps of the mineral explorer 
and that British trade followed, not the flag, but the 

pick (lining education alao has received no 

port i,- ,i deserves at the metropolis oJ an empire the 

development of wbiofa was based largelj on the i sploita 

''"" ol leraJ wealtK The Boys! School ol Mines 

thanks to the help, among others, of an American, .Mi 
Ileum ii Jennings, has been saved from extinction, it is 
true, but it is absurd to oonsider its pi tus si 

sctorj 'o us endowmenl as adequate for the one 
oentraJ mining college of a people whose flag tins over 

such mineral regions as Australia. South Allien, and 

India. Fortunately, Canada has taken cure of herself in 
this regard. So that if this controversy is remembered, 

we hope that it will he to emphasize the fact that the 

mining industry needs efficient nun. ami will get them 

wherever il can. particularly from among those speaking 
the language n[ ils Anglo Ainerie; peralois ami sign- 
ing with them the great traditions of fair play, honor 
able sport, ami good government 

The Mexican Crisis 

A slate of war exists between the I'nited Stales ami 
Mexico, but at the time of this writing the fact had mil 

yet been recognized officially. When, on June 17. the 

President called the state militia to duty on the Mexican 
border ami followed this step by the publication, on 
June 20, of -., not,, to the <li facto government of Mexico, 

il was assumed that at lasl the policy of watchful wait- 
iiiL' had been found unavailing: thai a policy of urn ha mi 
had given place to one of hay. The public generally sup 
posed that military intervention, as a preliminary to 
restoring order in Mexico, was assured and that the six 
years of .Mexican misrule was to end in measures similar 
to the ones found effective in Cuba and the Philippine 
islands. Those who had properly interests in Mexico 
may have been pardoned for supposing that heller days 
were in store for them. But on June L>2 Secretary Lan- 
sing scut a memorandum to the diplomatic representa- 
tives of the Central and South American republics in 
which he stated that the object of the United Stales 
government was "not intervention in Mexican affairs 
• * * but the defence of American territory from fur- 
ther invasion by bands of armed Mexicans, protection of 
American citizens and property along the boundary 
from outrages committed by such bandits, and the pre- 
vention of future depredations by force of arms against 
the marauders infesting this region and against a gov- 
ernment which is encouraging and aiding them in their 
activities." We quote at length because this statement 
is one likely to have been overlooked or subordinated to 
the diplomatic note published two days earlier. No 
reference is made by Mr. Lansing to Americans or 
American property in the interior of Mexico; he men- 
tions only such as were suffering from the banditry along 
the border. However, while the statement begins by dis- 
claiming intervention, it ends in the promise of using the 
force of arms "against a government which is encourag- 
ing and aiding" such activities. This pointed directly 
al Senor Venustiano Carranza and his associates; and 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 

:.s these gentlemen constitute the dt fpcto government 

of Mexico, r gnized as such by the United States, ii 

gave warrant for the belief that war between the United 
States and Mexico would ensue, if the unsavory condi- 
tion of affairs was allowed to persist. The truth con- 
cerning the Carranza government's attitude toward the 
brigands, of whom Villa was only one and the attitude 
of that government toward American life and property, 
whether within Mexico or on the border, is made per- 
fect!] dear in the note of June 20. Indeed, that note 
indicates what bad faith Carranza lias shown to the 
i oited states, the- government of which stretched a point 
in recognizing him, in the hope that the recognition 
would strengthen his hands in the work of pacification. 
It shows that the effort made by General John J. Per- 
shing's expedition to catch Villa and his followers re- 
ceived no assistance from the .Mexican local or federal 
authorities, that other notorious bandits have hobnobbed 

with Carranza 's officers, and that the Mexican govern- 
ment has taken do steps to prevent repetitions of the 
Brownsville and Columbus raids. One weak point is 
the evidence that the punitive expedition was not sanc- 
tioned by Carranza, although on this the note is not 
clear, for in one place it is said that the expedition 

Crossed the border Under "the repudiated agreement of 
March 10-13" and in another place "it is admitted that 
American troops have crossed the international bound- 
ary in hot pursuit of the Columbus raiders and without 
notice to or the consent of your government." Again, 

the note certifies to the fact that t he victims of the Santa 
Ysabel massacre carried safe-conducts issued by the 
local authorities. In that horrible affair, as in the 
Columbus raid, the Carranza officials took no steps what- 
ever to obstruct Villa in the perpetration of crime. Then 

came General Jacinto B. Trevino's order, subsequently 
endorsed by General Alvaro Obregon. the Mexican Secre- 
tary of War. forbidding General Pershing to make any 
movement of troops except northward, that is, a retire- 
ment. General Pershing ignored this order; in conse- 
quence, on June 21, troops C and H of the Tenth 
(negro i cavalry came in conflict with a commando under 

General Felix Gomez, under circumstances not yet clear- 
ly disclosed, but with the result that several were killed 
on both sides and 17 American troopers were made 
prisoner. Thereupon, on June 2-1. the Mexican govern- 
ment coolly informed the American government that the 
attack at Carrizal was due to a disregard of Trevino's 
order to Pershing. To this our government replied by 
demanding "the immediate release of the prisoners taken 
in the encounter at Carrizal," with a peremptory re- 
quest for an early statement as to the course of action 
the Mexican government proposed to take. Obviously. 
Mr. Wilson is loath to commit this country to war; 
equally obvious is the fact that Senor Carranza shrinks 

from Starting definite hostilities; but it looks as if Villa's 
expectation wouh'] be fulfilled and his depredations force 
Carranza either to war with the United States or out of 

office. Thai is the position today. The logic of events 

will prove too strong for either side. At this tim 
writing it appears to us that war. followed by military 

occupation and political intervention, in order to ensure 
orderly government, is inevitable. 

Mining Education 

This is a subject often discussed in the MINING and 

Scientific Press, and we offer no apology therefor. 
Education is one of the fundamental problems of the 
orderly way of living called civilization and it must 
interest every man, both as a son and a father. In this 
issue we publish a thoughtful article by Mr. F. Lynwood 
Garrison, himself the product of a generous culture and 
a wide experience. He comments upon the fact that an 
art is best taught in the place where it flourishes, while 
mining schools are usually situated far from the mining 
regions. As to that, it is natural that schools should 
flourish near centres of population. Freiberg gave this 
country more good analysts and chemists than mining 
engineers. It is the old question, whether it is better to 
bring the fuel to the mine or transport the ore to the 
fuel-supply. Colleges and schools need the support of a 
large population even more than the stimulation of an 
environment congenial to a particular branch of study. 
The reason why the small college in a small Western 
town spoils good ranchmen in the vain effort to make 
mining engineers is that it cannot give its students such a 
range of instruction as is within the scope of a central 
university. We agree with Mr. Garrison that a mining 
engineer requires a broad education ; he needs all the 
education he can get in order to cope with the wide 
variety of men and conditions he has to face during his 
professional career. Indeed, it is a career to test char- 
acter. Next, Mr. Garrison refers to the part that the 
engineer plays in the life of the community. He is a 
'super.' instead of a principal actor. The profession will 
never reach its proper status until the members of it 
recognize their duties as citizens and demand a larger 
voice in community affairs. Most of us think that the 
lawyer plays too great a part and too many of them. 
He does so not only because his occupation gives him 
practice in public speaking and writing, but because his 
cultural training is such as to fit him for leadership in 
politics and government. The broad or cultural educa- 
tion for which Mr. Garrison pleads as a preparation for 
the mining profession is exactly the training that makes 
not only a capable engineer but a useful citizen. That 
should be the aim of a democracy or any other enlight- 
ened method of government. Lacking a general prepara- 
tion for life, trained to be a specialist, prepared to pur- 
sue the elusive shekel, the mining engineer is likely to 
find bis opportunities circumscribed. To practise as a 
specialist he must be where his specialty is in demand ; 
to pursue the shekel successfully he must have a modi- 
cum of nwnas; for money makes money. Not many en- 
gineers are engaged in the particular branch of science 
lor which they originally made sonic special preparation ; 
most of us did the work that was first offered, and found 
our aptitudes after a good deal of 'knocking about' 
unci the fortuities of circumstance. 

Jul> l 1916 

\1I\IV. „„l Scientifii I'Kl SS 


our rtadm art Invited lo uie ihii dtpartmtnl |ur fht ducuuion of ttchnlcal and olh#i molten ptr- 
talninj M nrininj mid mrtallargy. Hit Editor ivricomai |Im u c pr o ui on "/ vtam eonlraiy to lu» own, tv- 
Hasina dun careful crirtctom ii more valaaMa Hwn Gonial complbnml. 

Discovery of Cyanidation 
The K.litor: 

Sir I have read with interest Mr. John 8. Mao- 

Arthur's article on this Bubjecl in y ■ issue of June LO. 

It is. however, nol the original discovery or use of 
cyanide as s solvenl of gold and silver from hits thai 
Mr. MacArthur describes. !•'. M. Bndlich and Nicholas 
Muhlenberg filed ;i caveal in the 0. 3. Patent Office for a 
process utilizing the solvent action of potassium cyanide 
to extract by leaching gold and silver from their ores. 
Hr. Bndlich was the general manager of the Sierra 
Grande, and associated mines, at Lake Valley, New 

In lSN.'i I went to Lake Valley to witness a trial-run of 
the Russell hyposulphite process in the interest of the 
directors of those mining companies. E. H. Russell was 
himself in charge of the Russell process plant, which 
had been built as an annex to the Boss continuous process 
pan-amalgamation mill. The extraction by the Russell 
process upon the 20-mesh ore was only about 72%. I 
was. therefore, persuaded to try Endlich's cyanide proc- 
The cost of the cyanide, however, as compared with 
that of the 'hypo' was such, and the improvement in ex- 
traction, if any, so slight, upon the 20-mesh ore, that 
Bndlich 'a cyanide process was not substituted for the 
Hussell process. This was before the days of fine grind- 

This trial of the Endlich and Muhlenberg process that 
I made in the Russell-process hyposulphite-leaching 
plant of the Sierra Grande company at Lake Valley, 
New Mexico, some two years prior to the experiments 
referred to in Mr. MacArthur's article, I believe to have 
been the first application of cyanidation. 

1 have always considered, however, that it was the 
very two things which Mr. MacArthur rather minimizes 
in his article that actually made the cyanide process 
economically possible ; these were the effectiveness of the 
dilute solutions and the precipitation by zinc. I agree, 
however, most fully with Mr. MacArthur when he says: 
"Cyanide does this (dissolves gold from ores and holds 
it in solution) and so far as I know is the only solvent 
that can do it. This is the real essence of the invention — 
the matter of weak or strong solutions follows as a 
matter of chemical (and commercial) economies." 

Such an expression from Mr. MacArthur is extremely 
apropos in the present notation litigation, in which it 
is contended, against the pretensions of the patentees of 
the minute quantity of 'oil,' that it is the notation by 

use of such reagents that is the "real essence" of ti„ 
process tin- matter of more or less of the reagent being 
"a matter of chemical and commercial economies." 

R. C. Can a v. 
Wallingfbrd, < 'mm., June 15. 

Tempering Drill-Steel 
The Editor: 

Sir— In your issue of May 27. you publish a drill- 
manufacturer's recipe of 7 lb. blue vitriol and 4 lb. sal- 
ammoniac dissolved in 15 gallons of soft water for tem- 
pering drill-Steel. Pi i the earliest days of steel to the 

present time, blacksmiths have had their pet recipes for 
tempering steel, and often have guarded the secrecy of 
them with a persistency worthy of a better cause. In the 
16th century some very quaint recipes were published, as, 
for instance :• ' ' Take the blood of a man XXX years of 
age, and of a sanguine complexion, being of a merry 
nature and pleasant, and quench the steel in it." I don't 
say these recipes have no merit ; they have, but, as what 
merit they possess lies in the varying thermal conductiv- 
ities of the liquids, the end may be attained by less lung- 
irritating or typhoid-inducing fluids than those men- 
tioned above. 

Osmond, the French metallurgist, has shown that iron 
cools from a bright-red heat at an almost even rate until 
it reaches a temperature of 858° O, when the cooling is 
arrested, and it takes 26 seconds for the temperature to 
drop through an interval that had previously taken and 
subsequently took only 6 seconds. With low-carbon steel 
there are two points of arrest, at about 720° and 650°, 
respectively, while with high-carbon steel these two 
points seem to be merged into one, and there is a long 
period of rest amounting in the case of 1.25% carbon 
steel to 76 seconds while the temperature dropped from 
685° to 665°, while previously it had fallen through a 
like number of degrees in 12 seconds. Steels containing 
20% manganese or 10% tungsten, on the other hand, 
were found to cool at a uniform rate without any marked 
period of arrest. Osmond found that if ordinary steel 
was heated and quenched rapidly before it reached this 
period of arrest, or the critical temperature, as he called 
it, it was hard, but if quenched after the critical tem- 
perature it was soft. High manganese and tungsten 
steels, which showed no critical temperature, are hard 
when cold whether they are quenched or allowed to cool 

•English translation of 'Reenter Gebraueh d. Alchimei.' 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 

From tiles.- experiments Osmond argin.l thai ;tt the 

critical temperature there is ■ rearrangement of the 
molecules, and in the case of steel there is a re-arrange- 
ment of both iron and carbon molecules, and that while 
before the critical temperature the carbon is dissolved in 
the iron, after that point it exists as a carbide of iron. 
The point, then, in hardening steel, is to eool the metal 
before the molecular change lakes place, and while the 
carbon is dissolved in, and gives hardness to. the steel. 
St.rU that pass rapidly from the one state to the other 
require a quenching fluid of high thermal conductivity, 
in order that the molecular change shall not take place 
during the process of quenching. In the tempering, or 
'letting down,' as the blacksmiths often call it. it is often 
desirable that the quenching operation shall he pro- 
■ I. so that tie- earhon may he jndieiously mixed in 
the two forms, ami in this ease a quenching fluid of low 

thermal conductivity is desirable. 

P. II. Mason. 
San Diego, June 7. 

Flotation for Cinnabar 

The Editor: 

Sir — The communication from Mr. E. M. Hamilton 
on this Bubjecl in your issue of April 15 makes it seem 
probable that our experiments at I'unitaqui (Chile) will 
be of interest. 

We are retorting quicksilver ores containing from 
ii )'. up. in retorts varying from 12 to 24 in. diameter. 
The recovery on the low-t;rade material is much lower 
than on the ore above :','; The ores contain the quick- 
silver in four distinct forms: cinnabar is the most im- 
portant; a red powder supposed to be an oxide is next 
in importance. Followed by native quicksilver and a 
tetrahedrite containing lo<; quicksilver in the pure 


When the price of quicksilver drops to $30 our prob- 
lem will 1m- tn choose between a MeDougall furnace and 
flotation. Flotation gives a high extraction. The oxi- 
dized ore simply cannot he wetted, and the cinnabar is 
little better. The tetrahedrite would concentrate well 
on tables and also gives excellent results with oil. The 
only tests thai show a loss of native quicksilver with 
flotation are on minerals very poor in sulphides. The 
ore is mainly quartz and a soft gangue. 

So far, I have decided that retorting is much the 
cheaper treatment, even assuming a perfect extraction 
by flotation. Even in the present slow and fuel-wasting 
manner, the retorting is extremely cheap — much cheaper 
than the crushing. The cinnabar sometimes occurs 
massive or in 20-mesh crystals, but 90$ of it is in the 
form of finely disseminated particles in the quartz. This 
would mean fine grinding, which would cost more than 
roasting, and the plant would be much more expensive. 
At present we are roasting three tons with a ton of wood 
worth $3. With a MeDougall we could roasl 40 tons with 
line fuel. This does not mean, of course, that we 
shall diseontim ur tests, in the hope of being able to 

treat the big waste-dumps in the most profitable way. 

Our greatest loss at present is in the vapor that cannot 
he disentangled from the ore, after the major portion 
has been dragged out by the water-vapor. In the large 
retorts containing 600 lb. of ore with a content of 24 lb. 
of quicksilver, it will be easily seen that half the metal 
can remain in the interstices of the ore. whatever the 
temperature. When coarse ore is being treated, it is not 
difficult to make this vapor move forward into the con- 
densers by squirting about a gallon of water upon the 
red-hot ore. but with tine, this plan docs not give the 
desired result. 

Mark R. Lamb. 

Santiago. Chile. May 16. 

Cyanidation at the Comacaran Mine, 

The Editor: 

Sir — In studying the article by Mr. A. B. Peekham 
appearing in your issue of April 29, one cannot help but 
note the difference in practice between the continuous 
counter-current decantation process as used there and in 
such localities as Porcupine, where it is recognized as a 


The flow-sheet presents something unusual in the re- 
grinding closed circuit. Why the crushed ore from the 
stamps is sent to a Dorr duplex classifier, the overflow 
going to thickeners, the heads to a simplex classifier, by- 
passing the tube-mills, is difficult to understand. The 
flow-sheet shows nothing entering the tubes but some- 
thing coming out. This must be a mistake in the dia- 
gram. However, more information is gleaned by reading 
under the heading 'Tube-milling and Classification.' A 
suggestion will not be amiss. Even a casual analysis of 
the ore and screen tests would make the article of greater 
value to metallurgists. 

Looking over the 'Slime treatment,' five agitators are 
in use. two mechanical-air and three Pachucas. The 
size of these agitators is important but it is not men- 
tioned. Experience all over the world proves that inter- 
mittent or charge agitation is not any better, if as good 
as continuous agitation. The first cost of the latter, and 
certainly the operation, is less. The agitation would be 
disclosed by analyses and screen-tests, seeing that a 55c. 
loss of 'insoluble' metal is acknowledged. 

'Continuous Decantation.' To one accustomed to the 
simple and efficient manner of regulating the passage of 
the pulp and the counter-current, so that it becomes 
almost automatic, the reason for juggling the solutions 
is not readily apparent. In the 'C. C. D.' process, the 
distinction between values of the dry slime and solution 
are of paramount importance, especially at the dewater- 
ing end. 

"The pulp from the Pachucas, which contains about 
$3.50 together with the clear overflow of battery-solu- 
tion from thickener No. 1. which contains $1. goes to 
thickener No. 4. The clear overflow from No. 4 to the 
rich-solution tank, which assays about $1.75 per ton." 

July l. 1:>16 

MINING .„d Scientific PRESS 

"'I'll-' pulp from ili'- Paehuoaa, which asNa>s shout 

Is this \alm- in dry slime alone" Tins is quoted 

under '81iiBfl treatment' aa -■'•'. or three i" one. "The 
- overflow of iinii.i v solution contains (1 " Bi 

cepth nisi l«- taken ti> tliis misnomer. Ii is not bal 

trry solution. Imt the overflow Cram Hie closed grinding- 
I'in-uit. us the flu* sheet shows tin- Dorr duplex classifier 
tn In- tin- only outlet tn thickener No. 1. Then 
is the raise of extraction, diasolved valae, in the closed 
grinding-circuit, conaiating of stamps, tun classifiers, and 
Bra tulxs. 'I'liis seems strange. Practice today is con- 
sidered I»>"|- it' it lines lint dissolve lit least "id', . 

Precipitation »< solution, value $1.75, cannot be said 

in l.e tin- beat practice, when so much richer Boluti -an 

he precipitated at the same coat, greatly curtailing the 
work in the refinery. 

The flow-sheet does not show the overflow of battery 
solution from thickener No. l going directly, us stated, 
tn thickener No. 4. It passes through settler I). What 
function this performs is not stated. 

Coming tn 'Tailing.' One notes n 10c. loss as dissolved 
value. This is certainly good work : credit must be given 
and taken. The 'insnlulile' metal loss is 55e. In the 
tables, under 'Solution Assays.' 'Tailing thickener 7.' 
the word 'undissolved' is used. There is a vast differ- 
ence between 'undissolved' and 'insoluble,' in metal- 

The rakes of the thiekeuers are said to have caused 
trouble by Sticking. No doubt, some of us have had tin- 
great pleasure of emptying and cleaning out thickeners. 
The chief and really only cause of that is abuse. All 
sizes of thickeners, like all machinery, are calculated to 
do so much work, and no more. When they are over- 
loaded, like the mule, they buck and stick, or the central 
shaft turns into a corkscrew. In this case the Prenier 
pump, a pulsator pump, might have been the trouble. 
In time, a large amount of hard pulp is likely to have 
accumulated on the bottom of the tank. The raising of 
the rakes gave a little more grade. 

A difference of opinion arises concerning the disad- 
vantages mentioned. No necessity exists for precipitat- 
ing a large amount of low-grade solution. The reverse 
is more nearly true. For obvious reasons the highest 
grade of precipitate is desired, principally to save zinc 
and refinery work. The precipitation will regulate the 
barren solution. All that is really desired is enough for 
the counter-current. The water-wash will balance the 
amount of moisture sent to the dump. It is not obvious 
why barren solution is fed to thickeners No. 5 and 6 ; one 
should be sufficient. A paramount feature of the decan- 
tation end is a steady counter-current and a general 
equilibrium. But under 'Sand treatment,' barren solu- 
tion is used for 'baths.' This is hardly fair to the 
'C. C. D.' This explains the large amount of barren 
solution. The process is only meant to take care of itself, 
not two processes. (2). The impracticability of the 
process with an ore that resists settling. This is vague. 
An ore that resists settling may still settle sufficiently to 
permit good work. An ore that will not settle has few 

ehiii-ius for tin- '' i l> ' prooi raid have been 

considered in tin- beginning. The Hon- people an frank 
in this matter. They make all their calculations mi 

moisture, Bo this cannot, again, be called a diaad 
rantagi I in- C. C. I > process is not thrown out of 

adjustment, any mure than any other process, by a slid 

den rush of rich ore. Of course, a higher tailing may 
result. This is imt a metallurgical difficulty, but a min- 
ing difficulty. It' the mill heads an- doubled it is imt 

in Bsary tn double the amount of barren solution, nor 

use more water, nor is it sound metallurgy tn say the tail- 
ing-loss will double. What is the grinding-eireiiit doing 
at this time? Is it. dying of iiuuii or a devotee of 
m/i/Vnia? (4). A large amount nl' water is imt used in 

the c. c. l). process, only just enough tn make up for the 
amount of moisture sent tn tin- dump. The proci 
continuous and therefore reuses all the water, solution, 
i tc. But, it' as said, water is scarce, precautions should 

be taken at the beginning, and something like an Oliver 
filter installed to save as much moisture as possible. 

Wit limit exaggeration, it can be said, that the con- 
tinuous counter-current deeantation process has come 
into the field of metallurgy with less trouble and more 
practicability than any other process. It is just as 
amenable to the treatment of high-grade as of low-grade 
ores, both gold and silver, and is being installed tn treat 
highly complex ores. In the beginning the metallurgy 
and the plant should conform to the highest grade of ore 
in the mine, then it is easy to take care of the lower 
grades of ore. Its flexibility is unequaled by any process 
as the four different t.vpes above. It has redeemed de- 

Reviewing the mechanical side of the plant: With the 
large experience before us today, why install stamps? 
Let us make a short comparison with a ball-mill. The 
Hardinge conical ball-mill is in general use. A 6-ft. 
Hardinge will do the work of 15 stamps; it is cheaper in 
first cost, mill to mill ; takes up considerably less space, 
consequently less building ; less weight ; less foundation : 
uses less power ; crushes ore for less per ton than stamps ; 
not half the trouble and work for the millmen ; is not any 
more difficult to transport on mule-back, if as trouble- 
some, when you figure heavy stems; the putting together 
is not more difficult than batteries; any kind of crushing 
can be done to suit conditions ; amalgamation can be per- 
formed, if desired, with less trouble and space. So, 
really, what advantage do stamps have today? 

The use of Frenier pumps, or pulsators, is new in the 
C. C. D. and it is doubtful if they can be recommended. 
No one would use them after having tried the cheap easy 
running diaphram pump. 

The many experiments with tube-mills in South Africa 
proved that the 20-ft. mill was not any better than the 
16-ft. mill, if as good. Neither crushing nor re-grinding 
takes place in the last four feet, so of what use is it ? Any 
U. S. machinery is just as good as Krupp's. 

C. O'Briex. 
Berkeley, June 9. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 

Prospecting Before Dredging 

The K.litor: 

sir— My attention has been drawn to the article on 
this subject appearing in your issue of April 29. The 
auiln>r refers to a new method of drilling by driving 
pipes, as used extensively by him. The method is one 
which was adopted by me in the .Malay States as long 
ago as 1903 and was the subject of a short paper read 
before Ate Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 
I.ond m. and incorporated in the transactions of 1904- 

I have employed this system with equal success in 
northern Nigeria; given suitable conditions, it is with- 
out doubt not only the cheapest but also one of the most 
reliable methods of testing alluvial deposits. My own ex- 
perience is fully borne out by the figures given by Mr. 
lirayton in his very interesting article. 

London. June 2. H. E. NlCHOLLS. 

Useful Notes 
The Editor: 

^In one of your recent issues you refer, as you 
have often done previously, to the waste of mining in- 
formation owing to so much experience passing un- 
recorded. May I contribute a little of my experience 
ime matters touched upon in various articles in 
your issues of January and February, which have just 
reached met 

1 American Machinery Exports. Among the im- 
portant points necessary for exporters, I think that of 

insurance has been omitted. Next to having the articles 
properly packed, their insurance during transit is of 
the most importance to the buyer. It is not enough to 
insure the goods for the amount of the invoice; sufficient 
must be added to cover freight and other outgoings 
that the purchaser must pay. and often in advance. In- 
surance companies recognize this, and it is customary 
to increas st and charges by 10' ,' to cover further pos- 
sible losses to the purchaser (through delays or changes 
of price incidental to duplication of the article lost). 
This does not appear to be understood by some American 

Some years ago I bought a machine direct from a 
large American firm, one that advertises largely in all 
the technical papers and inundates members of tech- 
nical societies with its literature. I instructed them to 
pay freight and insurance, and our London bankers 
paid them cash on shipment. The vessel soon after went 
to the bottom with our machine on board. "When we 
went to collect the insurance we discovered that the 
policy covered only the cost of the machine at the 
maker's works. Result: we lost freight and other 
charges amounting to ,*150, and resolved to buy nothing 
more from that firm, if we could help it. 

Prohibition. This village, of about 600 inhabi- 
tants and solely dependent on the mine, has no hotel or 
licensed house. For several years the land was held so 
that the owners' opposition was sufficient, later the ap- 

plication for license was defeated by direct voting, un- 
der a local-option clause in tic State Incensing Acts. 
The mine worked continuously from May 1893 to the 
outbreak of the AVar. a period of over 21 years. The 
depth attained is 500 ft. vertical ; the orebodies are iso- 
lated lenses: the, ground is heavy in general, and in 
- very bad. Only one fatality occurred during the 
21 years: a fitter, sent below to repair a leaky pipe, 
looked down the shaft and was struck by a descending 
cage. Only one broken limb occurred: to a miner, at- 
tempting to light a cigarette when in a moving cage, 
whose projecting elbow struck a landing. No other 
accident, at mine or smelter, to any workman, could be 
called serious. No shift was ever lost owing to drunken- 
ness, and no delay ever occurred at the furnaces owing 
to absence of men through drink. There were no St. 
Mondays. No other Australian mining town has such 
a record. We did not escape 'sly' grog-shops, but judg- 
ing by our experience, the harm done by drinking on the 
sly is small compared with that of even one well-con- 
ducted open and publicly-licensed hotel. 

Early Rail-mills. At the Sunny Corner mine. 
in N. S. W., when I went there in 1887, there was a ball- 
mill procured. I believe, from San Francisco. It was 
then idle. I got it going and used it for crushing quartz 
for making silica bricks. It did excellent work. 

4 No.luliziiig. At the same Sunny Corner mine, 
in 1888, I treated a large quantity of sulphide ore 'fines' 
in exactly the way described in your issue of February 
12. as now practised at the Rraden mine, only we did 
ill it 'nodulizing.' We used a revolving calciner, 
got about the same reduction in sulphur content, and 
the same red-hot nodules of varying size, and treated 
them very successfully in blast-furnaces, apparently 
just like the people at Rraden. Again, at Silverspur we 
have a small sinter-plant for fine, which we used for 
some time, like that described at the Rraden. only our 
boxes, though of the same width, and using similar 
grate-bars and down-draft, are much shorter. The re- 
sults were the same and the sintered material worked 
well in the furnace. 

Edgar Hall. 

Silverspur. Queensland. April 20. 

The Russian n<&/<> is equal to $0.5145673 United 
States currency. At the present time Russian exchange 
is quoted at $0.3075, the decrease since 1913 being ;:s 
follows: to 51.50c. in 1913. 51c. in the first part of 1914. 
42c. in the second part. 29.75c. in 1915. and 29.31c. t > 
June 13. 1916. Although the ruble has declined about 
abroad, its purchasing power in Russia is more 
nearly holding its own. advances and decreases in prices 
of commodities being due chiefly to changes in supply 
and demand. 

Tungstex ore (wolframite) concentrated at the Wasp 

No. 2 gold mine in South Dakota since early in 1916 

totaled 1800 tons, averaging 1.08% tungstic tri-oxide 

WO, i. The tailing assayed 0.13%, giving a recovery 

of 88%. Concentrate averaged 50 per cent. 

Jul) I, 1916 

MI\IV. tnd Scknufi. I'KI SS 

Mining Education 

By T. Lynwooa Qarxlson 

IT might naturally be supposed that the minini 
gineering profession would be Largely recruited from 
boys who have grown up in communities associated 
in one way or another with the mining industry. While. 
of course, many such boys drift into it by opportunity 
or desire, it is a notable fact that very many of our dis- 
tinguished mining engineers of today were born and 
reared in great cities remote from everything apper- 
taining In mini's, minerals, Or geology. Similarly sunn-, 
if not a majority, of our great minin g BChools have had 

their origin and now flourish in large centres of in- 
dustry and population in no way directly related or con- 
i ted with the mining industry. 

\ atudent in every Other branch of engineering may 
without difficulty find in all large cities practical ap- 
plications of most of the technical subjects with which 
he must familiarize himself, but the mining student must 
needs go far afield, often to considerable expense, and 
seldom has the opportunity of seeing what lie learns in 

tl lass-room put into immediate practical use. This is 

an unfortunate condition and a serious handicap to the 
students, for an art is best taught in the atmosphere and 
environment in which it flourishes. Probably the most 
ideal and certainly the most famous mining school in the 
world is that at Freiberg in Saxony, situated on the 
northern flank of the Erzgebirge, a mountainous dis- 
trict famous for its mines since the Middle Ages. In- 
deed the old Saxon Mining Academy may justly claim 
to have been the mother and model of our American min- 
ing schools; the writings of its professors, such as 
Planner. Von Cotta, Rittenger, Beck, and Stelzner were 
and still are among the classics of the profession. And 
although its glories have departed with the closing-down 
of most of the neighboring mines and the rise of institu- 
tions better qualified to teach the Anglo-Saxon, the Royal 
Saxon Mining Academy in my student days was a name 
to conjure with and offered its students an excellent 
technical training both theoretical and practical. Like 
most German universities, the social atmosphere of the 
place, however, was coarse and degenerate, sometimes 
demoralizing and often disgusting to American and 
English boys reared in refined and cultured homes where 
the laws of God and the moral precepts of man had been 
taught and respected. 

There has doubtless been a great advance in tin- effi- 
ciency of our American mining schools in the last twenty 
years, but at the same time there seems to have been a 
needless duplication of effort that has tended to crowd 
a profession already over-stocked with varying degrees 
of talent. Some of our "Western universities have estab- 
lished mining schools, and mining schools as such have 
been started in "Western towns simply because they hap- 

pen to he relativel] near mining districts 1 once I 

a mine manager gay that as far as he could See tie 

tieal result of most of these schools was '" -i"" 1 good 

ranchmen and make mighty pom- enj This brings 

me hack to my original thesis, that a mining engineer 
should above all else |>e a broadly educated man and 
that such a foundation may he best obtained as the re 
suit of a general university training. I doubt it' any 

profession subjects its members to tests of character so 
severe ami so prolonged as does that of tie- mining engi 

neer. Consider for a moment how often he is jda I in 

places remote from restraining influei s. where he can- 
not seek advice of his elders or benefit from the stimulat- 
ing moral control of home and family. In the absence 
of these checks a man must fall back upon his own cul- 
tural ami mental resources, his books, his pen. and a love 
Of Nature, into which the educated man sees so much 
deeper than one who has not been taught. A mining 
engineer often finds himself in situations so absolutely 
detached and foreign to the life he has been accustomed 
to. that it becomes a serious test of character if he has 
no diversions save' his employment and the often friv- 
olous pastimes of his companions, ft cannot be dis- 
puted that a too complete absorption in one's work is 
bad both for the man and the job, hence it is highly im- 
portant that the mind for short periods should be com- 
pletely detached and interested in something wholly un- 
connected with the engineer's daily occupation. Under 
such conditions the broadly educated man has a great 
advantage over one who knows the technicalities of his 
work and little more; in lonely remote mining camps 
it is the idle hours that are the real menace to both body 
and soul. In this connection it is well to remember that 
on the last analysis it is the man. not his tools, that makes 
civilization, and the character of it will be either brutal 
or ethical according to the spirit he infuses into it. 

There is another subject relating to an engineer's edu- 
cation that has received little or no attention, that is, 
his fitness and the indisputable importance of his taking 
an active part in the public life of the nation. "We live 
today in a mechanical age, yet it is the rarest thing to 
find men who have had engineering educations in the 
supposedly deliberative bodies that make our laws or in 
the executive positions and offices that administer them. 
No country in the world affords such abundant oppor- 
tunity for higher education as the United States and the 
least its recipients can do is to make some return in 
public service. During our Civil War the military 
officers on both sides of that unfortunate contest were 
largely recruited from the professions, chiefly the law : 
for in those days engineering bad hardly reached the 
dignity of that designation. Yet today, although we are 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July l. 1!H6 

living in an engii ring age, the engine* as a citizen has 

mi more influence or voice in public affairs than fifty 
years ago. This is all wrong, for it is a serious blunder 
that the laws now governing us should he framed and 
administered by men wholly unfamiliar with engineer- 
ing in any of its branches. That men are competent to 
frame laws simply because they a* lawyers is absurd. 
for law is or should be based on common-sense and a 
thorou :h understanding of the physical conditions affect- 
ing the different phases of human life and endeavor that 
it is intended to regulate. In the present War the 
British are drawing heavily upon the engineering pro- 
fessions for their army officers and the response has been 
gallanl and unselfish. Now, conditions of life in Eng- 
land and the United States are almost precisely alike as 
to fundamentals and under similar circumstances we 
shall blunder, expend lives, treasure, and time just as 
they are doing, so the British are not only fighting our 
battles for us against the common enemy of liberty and 

all mankind, but they arc giving us a vivid object-lesson 
as to how we shall err and behave when our turn comes. 
Anticipating thai time, we are now engaged in a cam- 
paign of 'preparedness'; it is a most welcome sign of 
national sanity and it is to be fervently hoped it will 
continue unabated until something substantial is ac- 
complished. The plan suggested by President Wilson 
in calling for the co-operation of our national engineer- 
ing societies is a wise one. for they arc likely to become 
the \ri-y backbone of any sane common-sense scheme of 
defense. And I think it will be found that the engineers 
who will become the most efficient leaders are those hav- 
ing broad educations and tolerant sympathies. 

As to the over-crowding of the engineering professions 
in genera] and thai of mining in particular. I would 
venture to say a few words. It is obvious, it seems to 
me, that if the engineer is to live a narrow life and con- 
fine himself strictly to the technical phases of his craft. 
the field is certain to be restricted and over-supplied. 
My notion is that simply because a man has had an en- 
gineering education and training is no reason why he 
should confine his activities exclusively to that class of 
work. The mere fact that a youth has had such an edu- 
cation ought to make him a better business man. a more 
efficient public servant, and a better all-around citizen 
than if he had not had it. It is a hard rough road to the 
top in any narrow strictly professional career, and one 
will notice if he looks carefully about him that today 
many, if not most, of our leading engineers are also good 
business men. It is certainly no disgrace to make a 
business of one's profession, indeed I would go further 
and say a man is a fool who neglects to do so unless he 
is on a salary and employed in strictly technical work 

having littl - nothing to do with the commercial end 

of the organization with which he is connected. I think 
I have said enough to show that a professional man can- 
not be too broadly educated, but there is a great danger 
in sending out into the engineering professions men who 
are simply skilled artisans, whose hands are trained but 
not their heads; such men are useful for what they can 

make in the sane- sense a brick-machine is valuable for 
the bricks it produces, but as its capabilities are strictly 
limited to that product, nothing more may be expected 
of it. A man. on the contrary is a living, growing, de- 
veloping entity whose capabilities may often be unsus- 

1 teil even hy himself, until opportunity or force of 

circumstanc impels him to do things he never antici- 
pated doing. It is to the glory of our race thai we so 
often do them well, and one may be thankful to live 
under a System of culture that develops the individual 
and in a country that affords abundant opportunity for 
personal initiative. We hear much said against soulless 
corporations, and indeed this indictment has often been 
justified, hut it must he remembered that without the 
unity of individual effort in the form of corporations. 
there are a great many enterprises that could not he 
carried out ; a corporation is simply a form of team-work 
in which a number of individuals are pursuing a common 
purpose in a co-ordinated effort. As our mineral re- 
sources become more and more depleted the individual 
has an increasingly difficull task in competing with cor- 
porations having great resources in both brains and 
money. As ores become leaner it is necessary to handle 
a larger and larger volume in order to make profit ; a 
logical corollary to this is the increasing equipment and 
a pay-roll; hence the obvious and consistent line of least 
resistance is for the individuals to combine into an im- 
personal corporation. Of course, the tendencies of cor- 
porations is to stultify individual initiative, which is to 
lie deplored, but it is hard to see how this may he avoid- 
ed, although no doubt there are some corporations that 
give considerable latitude to their employees and due 
credit to their ability and genius. I believe a young man 
fresh from college should seek employment with a cor- 
poration whose system is well matured, and that has a 
sound traditional policy, even though the pay may be 
smaller than those organizations which appear to have no 
policy at all or treat their employees solely as parts of 
the machine designed for the purpose of making money. 
.Men want money because they must live, but there is a 
subtle, though nevertheless distinct difference, between 
the attitude of mind which regards money solely as an 
end in itself, and that point of view- which considers the 
wages of labor as the necessary complement to decent 
living. In other words, one cannot make a genuine 
success of life and disregard the human element in his 
daily work. Our system of culture was never intended 
to make machines of human beings, and we shall fight 
to the limit to resist anything of the kind. 

( Ioke peoduction of the United States in 1915 amount- 
ed to 41,581,150 tons, an increase of 20%. Of the total. 
34% was by-product and 66% beehive-oven material, 
there being 5481 and 40.540 ovens worked, respectively. 
Pennsylvania made 25,622,862 tons of coke, followed Hy 
3.071,811 tons in Alabama and 2.768,099 tons in Indiana. 

Tin is being produced at Perth Amboy, in the A. S. 
& R. smelter, at the rate of 250 tons of electrolytic metal 
per month. 

Jul) 1 1916 

MI\|V. >nd Sc*enti6i I'KI SS 


Specific Gravity Method for Tungsten Analysis 

By J. J. Konnar 

h is probably true that in i !»»• great majority of tung- 
tbe gangue ia composed dominantly of quarts, 
insequence, it ironld seem that 1 1 1 » - specific gravity 
of the gangue is a more or It as constant factor. The ore- 
minerals <>f tungsten are, furthermore, usually confl I 

t" one <>f ih<- wolframite aeries,* or to Bcheelite, the 
specific gravity of which is easy to determine. It is ap- 
parent, then, that if we know the specific gravity of the 
ore-mineral and of the gangue, we can easily calculate 
the percentage of the former from the specific gravity 
.it' the ore, and from tins the percentage of WO„ or 

tnngstic acid, in the ore, from the pei ntage of WO in 

the ore-mineral, by means <>f the formula?: 

xx sp. gr. M / 100 - X \ 

SP 8r. 0= - ,„„ - + (sp. gr. G < —Too-; 

_ 100 x (sp. gr. Q-sp. gr. G) 
'"' J _ Sp. gr. il - sp. gr. O 

nttare -£- = ' i by volume of mineral in ore 

Sp. gr. = specific gravity of the ore 

Sp. gr. If = specific gravity of the pure ore-mineral 

Sp. gr. = specific gravity of the gangue 

S p. gr. if __ cr D y weight of mineral in ore | W 
1 x Sp. gr. ' 

U ■ , WO, in ore-mineral = % WO, in ore 

For logarithmic calculation, 
log WO, = log (sp. gr. O-sp. gr. 0) -log sp. gr. + 
[log sp. gr. M -+- log % \V0 3 in mineral— log (sp. gr. M 
-sp. gr. G]. 

To test the efficiency of such a method I have de- 
termined, with considerable care, the specific gravity of 
18 ores of tungsten that were at the time available in the 
laboratory of the South Dakota State School of Mines, 
and computed their WO, content, assuming the specific 
gravity of the gangue to be 2.65, of the wolframite to be 
7.35, of scheelite to be 6.0, and the WO, content of wol- 
framite 74.58%, and in scheelite 80%, and compared 
these results with the WO, content obtained by chemical 
analysis. The results were satisfactory as will appear 
from a study of the accompanying table. 

The value 2.65 is taken as the specific gravity of the 
gangue. for in all of the underground samples used, it 

•Throughout this article the name wolframite is used for 
the hiibnerite-wolframite-ferberite series. The differences be- 
tween the members are of scientific rather than of practical 
value, since the percentage of WO, and the specific gravity of 
each is nearly the same. Speaking of the series between the 
end members, hiibnerite, MnWO, and ferberite, FeWO,. Hess 
says: "For the mixtures between these end members the older 
term wolframite may properly be retained and this term may 
well serve as a general or field name for the members of the 
serieB which cannot be definitely identified." 

was evident thai the gangue was predominantly quartz, 
in some cases with small amounts of sulphides, oxides, 
ami silicates, on the whole, resulting in specific gravities 
differing little, though slightly higher than that of 
quartz. For the specific gravity of the wolframite - 
Dana gives 7.2 7.5, and hen- the mean ?::.-> was used. 
For scheelite Dana t:i\es 5.9 6.1, hence G was taken. 
In wolframite it was found thai 74 58$ gave the small 
est differences between calculated and determined WO, 

_. . . .. . . L 


__: ~ . i 

.... . 1 



t -i 

4- t 

t 4 

4 -f 

L I 


/ 4 

$- -/ 

\rw \7 


/ y< 

/ / 

/ 7 

/ \y^ 






1 53 





17 O 4 a n 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 485236606468727680 
percentage of tYOj in Ore. 


content; hence this value was adopted. It was not 
thought permissible to obtain a value for WO, in scheel- 
ite in a similar way from so few data, so that 8O9; was 

The material for testing, in the case of nine of the ores, 
was taken from laboratory specimens, and the entire 
mass was pulverized. In the other eight tests, samples 
were taken from materials already ground, so that 
there was no selecting of ideal samples. The ores rep- 
resent 11 distinct districts, and the value of the method 
lies particularly in the fact that such close agreements 
can be obtained from random ores representing so many 
occurrences. In some cases, however, it is doubtful 
whether the specimen used represented the average ore 
of its district, for example, the specimen of Cornish ore 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 1. 1916 

ed to contain little of impurity other than quartz. 
whereas it is well known that a considerable proportion 
(if sulphides or with wolframite in that district. 

The method is recommended as useful to the small 
producer who lias no apparatus for chemical analysis, 
and who does not wish to go to the expense of having 
analyses made, but who wants to obtain an approximate 
value for the W0 3 content in his ore: and for others 
who want a quick method for obtaining the same. 

Ore No. 2 from Hill City. South Dakota, gives a 10% 
too high WO, content when calculated from specific 
gravity, but upon investigation, it was found to be a 
plat it ore, and to contain cassiterite, which has a specific 

gravity of 7, and he was calculated as wolframite. 

Another ore, from Bohemia, was treated on the steam- 
hath for two days with concentrated hydrofluoric and 
hydrochloric acids, but failed to go completely into solu- 
tion. BO that tin' analysis was not completed. The reason 
assigned for failure to decompose it completely is that it 
contained cassiterite, and hence the specific gravity 
would not give a correct value for the W0 3 content any- 
way. These two, then, are ores for which the method is 
not applicable unless the cassiterite content were con- 
stant and eotdd be figured with the gangue. No attempt 
to do so was made. 

Table of Analyses of WOLFBAHITE Ohes 


% WO ' 

'„ WO, from 





of ore 

from S.G. 



Hill City, 

S. D... 3.09 



— 0.31 

,1 ,, 

" ... 4.05 



'• ... 6.77 



-f 0.04 

... 5.69 




*• " 

"... 6.28 



+ 0.05 


" ... 3.92 



— 0.19 

Utah... 7.27 



+ 0.54 

. . , Colo 

rado . . . 4.59 



— 0.30 


England 5.85 



— 0.97 


Nevada. 5.17 



+ 0.48 


Arizona. 6.02 



— 0.61 


Nevada. 4.43 



— 1.99 

Wasp mine. Lead, 

S. D. 




+ 1.30 



S. D. 




+ 1.08 


Analyses of Scheelite Ores 

15 Nome, Alaska ... 5.83 78.32 76.67 

16 Randsburg, Cali- 

fornia 5.26 71.09 72.90 

17 Jardine, Montana. 5.47 73.80 73.94 


+ 1.65 

— 1.S1 

— 0.14 

Mean 1.20 
It will be noted from the table that for 13 of the wol- 
framite ores (omitting No. 2 for reasons given above), 
the mean difference between W0 3 calculated from spe- 
cific gravity and obtained by chemical analysis is 
0.649%. A part of this difference is flue to experimental' 
error in determining specific gravity, and part to wrong 
assumptions as to tic rarity of the gangue, pure 

mineral, and WO content of pure mineral. Values for 
scheelite ores are less closely in agreement but doubtless 

for the same reason. In order to get some idea of what 
part of the difference between the value calculated for 
WO, from Specific gravity and from chemical analysis 
was due to these various factors, the specific gravity anil 
WO, content of the pure mineral were determined care- 
fully for the tvw ores in which the differences were 
greatest, namely. Tonopah wolframite and Randsburg 
scheelite. The specific gravity of the Tonopah wolfram- 
ite was found to he 7.233 instead of 7.35 as assumed, and 
the WO, content of the pure mineral 75.74% instead of 
74.58%. In the case of the scheelite the specific gravity 
was determined as 5.91 instead of 6.0. and the WD 
■out cut 80.12% instead of 80%. Substituting these 
corrected values in the formula we obtain 48.03% WO. 
in the Tonopah ore instead of 46.86%, and 72.10% WO, 
for the Randsburg ore instead of 71.09%. both of which 
arc more closely in agreement with results obtained from 
chemical analysis. The differences between 48.03% and 
48.85%, or 0.82% for the Tonopah ore and between 
72.10% and 72.90% or 0.80% for the Randsburg ore are 
due in part to experimental error, and to wrong assump- 
tions as to specific gravity of the gangue. By the use of 
the method described below, specific gravities can be 
made to check within two or three points in the second 
decimal place, for example, for the Randsburg ore the 
values obtained were 5.25 and 5.27, which gave 70.96% 
and 71.23% for the WO, content. Assuming the mean 
71.09% as more nearly the true value, we find that with 
an ore of this grade, one can check to within 0.14 to 
0.21% of the mean, so that 0.80 ± 0.21% or 0.6 to 1.0% 
may be taken to represent approximately the error due 
to the assumption that the gangue had a specific gravity 
of 2. 65. Little error is assumed to be due here to in- 
accurate chemical analysis, for duplicates checked to 
within 0.12%. In many ores, of course, the specific 
gravity of the gangue might vary more widely from 2.65 
and the corresponding error in determining WO, would 
be greater. 

The diagram on the previous page shows the propor- 
tion of WO, to the specific gravity of the ore assuming 
that the gangue has a specific gravity of 2.65, wol- 
framite of 7.35, scheelite of 6.0, and the wolframite con- 
tains 74.58% WO,, and scheelite 80% WO,. They are 
believed to approximate within a few percentages (less 
than 2% in high-grade ores) the WO, content of the 
average ore. in which the gangue is chiefly quartz. If 
the gangue contains also feldspar and mica or other 
light silicates, the error will not be large. Should, how- 
ever, the gangue contain heavy minerals, such as sul- 
phides and oxides in appreciable quantities, the error 
may be large, and the method will not be applicable un- 
less the specific gravity of the gangue is accurately de- 
termined, and corresponding corrections made. In all 
eases more accurate results may be obtained by using 
correct values of specific gravity and WO ; , content of 
pure ore-mineral, instead of those here assumed. 

The specific gravities of No. 1 and No. 2 were de- 
termined by means of a pyknometer, with rather coarsely 
ground ore, using distilled water, and bringing the water 

Jojj 1 1916 

MINING >od Sir, |'KI 5S 

•wer lha 01 the IxiiIuil- poii expel sir 

bubbh oling t.. the room temperature, exhaust- 

ing under an mr pump in order to remove an) remain- 
ing air. BJling the pyknometer with freshly boiled di» 
tilled »iii.r. ami linally weighing at Hi. room temper- 
""" v Thia method ia recommended wherever poanbla 
.Ml other results wen obtained by a method ao simple 

that a ran be d< in the ordinary small-town drug- 

• r any place where a balance of fair accuracy is to 
!»• found. The only apparatus necessary ia a thin rather 

long, slender-necked, Plorm Mask of 25 oo, capacity, 

with a scratch around the neck near the top, (•> at rve as a 
mark. Such a tlask may be obtained from any company 
dealing in chemiste' or assay ers' supplies, at a coal of 
only a few centa [f coarsely ground on i a pin 

is used, the sample maj vary somewhal from the 
true average for the ore, bul for ordinary purposes it is 
better tor there will be leas difficulty in getting the ore 
to settle, and less trouble with bnbblea However, finely 
powdered ore can be used with success, if one exercises 
sufficient care and can wait long enough for it to Bettle. 
Place a weighed amount of ore, aboul 5 grams (or 75 
grains in the flask, till aboul half-way with wain-, heal 
until it .just comes to the boiling-point, cool in a basin 
of water, then in several changes of water at room tem- 
perature, and finally till to the scratch with water that 
baa r mtty been boiled and cooled to the room temper- 
ature, taking car.- that no bubbles or particles of ore arc 
floating on the surface, and that the inside of the Bask- 
neck is dry so that the water will not climb up the side 
above the scratch. Care at this point, is vital, for in- 
accuracies here will lead to serious error in the final 
result. When the level of the water is nearly to the 
scratch, it is besl to complete the operation by dropping 
in the remaining water from a glass tube drawn fin.' at 
.me end. for a large drop in excess results in a consider- 
able percentage of error. The flask should be filled until 
the central and lower part of the water surface is on a 
line with the level of the scratch on the near and far 
side of the neck. Weigh the flask, with its ore and water. 
when it has come to the room temperature. It is also 
necessary to obtain the weight of the flask filled to the 
scratch with water. This should be determined by using 
freshly boiled water at the room temperature, and tak- 
ing the same precautions as for the flask, with ore and 
water, mentioned above. If the flask is perfectly dry 
when operations are begun, it is better to obtain the 
weight of the ore, by first weighing the flask empty, then 
with ore, and subtracting. The specific gravity of the 
ore can now be calculated from the formula: 

Specific gravity = o + f °_ f0u) 

where O = weight of the ore 

fw = weight of flask with water 
/ow = weight of flask with ore and water 

Having the specific gravity, the approximate WO, 
content can be found from the accompanying curves. 
First find along the vertical column the number corre- 

sponding t., the -i Ic gravity of thi dated 

from 'in formula then follow the Una nearest tins valui 
to the right until it ureases the upper ourve, if a wol 
framite or.-, or until it low, ,■ curve, If a 

aoheelite ore, and from tins point go straight down and 
read the percentage of WO in the ore on the base line 

l-'"i- example, it will be seen from the cur. | die 

gravity of 4.7 corresponds to a WO content of 61 J2% 

Mineral Production of J the 
Black Hills 

The Mine Inspector's report for 1915, covering this 
part of South Dakota, gives the following output: 


Wine Tons of gold 

Golden Reward 58.837 $4s I 

Homestake 1,573,822 6,446,191 

Mogul 87.419 161,606 

N'.w Reliance 27,045 61,508 

Trojan 79.903 276,188 

Wasp No. 2 111,300 183.488 

Placers 1,822 

Miscellaneous 950 3,887 

Total $7,619,684 

The Homestake also produced 25 tons of tungsten ore 
worth $31,331, and the Wasp No. 2, 187 tons valued at 
.+ 147,730. 

The Cobalt district is beginning to show signs of 
prosperity since the price of silver rose. Exploration is 
increasing and search for the high-grade little veins is 
stimulated. Reginald E. Hore, a geologist who has given 
particular attention to northern Ontario, says editorially 
in the Canadian Mining Journal, "the geological struc- 
ture at Cobalt is such that one can reasonably expect to 
find silver on some claims that show no ore at surface. 
It is characteristic of many of the orebodies in the con- 
glomerate of the Cobalt series that they lie close to the 
underlying Keewatin and pitch with the sloping con- 
tact. Where erosion has worn the conglomerate thin, the 
ore outcrops. In other places, however, the ore does not 
extend to the surface, and can only be discovered by 
underground exploration." This helps to explain the 
disappointment that occasionally comes when a company 
removes the surface soil or unwaters a lake, hoping to 
find outcrops of rich veins. These may be present but 
not outcropping. The structure suggests the reason for 
lack of depth of many of the orebodies, because they are 
close to the contact of the underlying Keewatin. in which 
the veins are apt to be barren. Mr. Hore calls attention 
to the importance of studying the faulting system at 
Cobalt, and indicates also the significance of the thick 
sheets of diabase that intrude the other rocks. "On the 
theory that the lower contact of the diabase is a promis- 
ing horizon, development at considerable depth is to be 
undertaken at the Beaver and Temiskaming mines, 
where the early workings were in rocks overlying the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 

Mining Around Lovelock, Nevada 

By P. B. McDonald 

Nevada has the least people and the most mines of any 
stiii. in the country. It has more square miles than 
inhabitants, and for the most part is rightly pictured 
as an arid waste. There are, however, a few places 
where conditions favor ranching, ami where eases appear 
in the sage-brush desert. These are the more attractive 
it' they can he used for a headquarters by miners and 

engii re. Since the coming of the automobile, 30 or 40 

miles can he traveled with ease, to give the dust-covered 
mining man a change of atmosphere at week-ends or In 
tween trips. Such an oa.sis i^ 
the town of Lovelock in the 
north-western part nf the 
State "li the main line of the 

Southern Pacific Railroad, 
the centre of a prosperous 
cattle industry and el' varied 
mining activities. By aid of 

water from the Humboldt 
river, the valley produces ex- 
cellent alfalfa for feeding 
eattle and sheep, which are 
sent from a wide area in tile 
West to In- fattened lor the 
San Francisco market. Love- 
loek is preferred for this pur- 
pose rather than California, 
because it has no rainy 

A two-hours automobile 
journey south-eastward from 
Loveloek brings the traveler 

to (lie much advertised Rochester silver district, and tie- 
same distance northward are the Seven Troughs gold 
mines. The Humboldt range has long been a famous 
producer of the precious metals; it was here that the 
old Queen of Sheba and De Soto mines of George Hearst 
were situated. Regarding the foundation of the Hearst 
fortune, a writer iti the Overland Monthly remarked re- 
cently. "Little did the old-timers dream, as they prod- 
ded their oxen to brackish water-holes with creaking 
loads of ore. that the wealth they carried would sen. 
day appear in screaming headlines." A number of 
prospects and small mines are scattered throughout the 
region. Some are heing operated, others are idle, and 
still others alternate between these conditions. Besides 
Rochester and Seven Troughs. I may mention Mazuma, 
Vernon, and American Canyon, all small mining camps 
At Rochester a half-dozen silver mines are operating, 

notably the Rochester Mines. Rochester Merger, Xevada- 

ard, and Lincoln Hill: and at Seven Troughs are 

several gold mines, the more important being the Seven 

Troughs Coalition. Seven Troughs Mining Co., and 
Mazuma Hills. Tungsten has been found west of Love- 
lock; several mines are now producing tungsten ores, and 
one or two eoneentrating-mills are heing operated near 
Toy. along tin- edge of the Humboldt sink. South-east 

nf Lovelock, about 60 miles, is Bernice, near which are 
the antimony mines described recently by Willard 


The two principal mines with headquarters at Love- 
lock are the Rochester Mines Co. and tie- Seven Troughs 

is m] !/ ' 


m.^ ^m 


Coalition Mining Co. The former, a silver mine working 
on wide veins of moderately rich ore, is the largest pro- 
ducer in the Rochester district; it has extensive work- 
ings well developed by adits, and a 10-stamp continuous- 
decantation cyanide-mill of a capacity of 120 tons per 
day; the company recently accomplished the payment of 
an indebtedness of $200,000. The Coalition mine, in the 
Seven Troughs district, is a spectacular producer of 
high-grade but pockety gold ore ; its output last year 
was +335.736. of which $180,382 was paid in dividends. 
A 10-stamp mill extracts the gold by amalgamation, the 
concentrate heing shipped to the Selby smelter on San 
Francisco hay. A cyanide-plant was destroyed by a 
cloud-hurst several years ago. when 10 lives were lost. 
The mine is 1650 ft. deep, and the vein has been much 
faulted. In one month. October 1915. over $60,000 was 
produced, at the rate of $2000 per day from a 10-stamp 
mill — a pleasant performance while it lasted! 

•ft. & S. P.. April 15. 1916. 

July l 1916 

Ml\l\i I Suenti6< I'KI SS 

The mine was operated under ■ leasing 

,: ago Tins did nol pi 

apparent ilmt the leasee* were work 

ing the 300 m blocki without any re 
k'ur.l for the future, Drifta in the various blocks wore 
not >>n the same leveL Accordingly, the B Mines 
Co. pur.-lnis.-il the ti for 140,000; alao the ad 
jii.vnt Weaver claims were secured. The lessees bad 
produ I'.. nil from ore averaging over $20 per 
ton The oompany, operating its own mine, has pro 
duced in nine months $433,606, part of which was from 
purchi ^ • ■ -iii ore The machinery has been cen- 
tralited at the mouth <>f the lower or Friedman adit. 
The upper or transportation adit haa been straightened, 
widened, and laid with 12-lb, rails. There are three 
productive veins; the stopes vary up to 15 or 18 ft. 
wide, and the ore runs as high as $90 per ton, but moat 
of ii averages $10 to $30 per ton. The ore is hand- 
picked before being sent t <> the mill. Th «1 per ton of 

mining during the nine months to May 15, 1916, was 
of which underground tramming absorbed 30c, 
timbering 35c, ore sorting 9c, and surface tramming 
13c. Explosives coal 22c, and power 23c. per ton. For 
the month of May. 1916, the total cost of mining was 
$3.10 per ton, showing a slight reduction. At present 
two shifts are worked; the night shift drills and breaks 
the ore, the day shift loads, trains, and sorts it. By 
this arrangement everything is made ready for the drill 
operators so that they have a minimum of interruption 
ami bother. Also the requirement for power is dis- 
tributed to equalize the demand; this is helped further 
by doing the coarse crushing at the mill when no power 
is needed for drilling. Power is furnished to the mine 
and mill by the Nevada Valleys Power Co., which de- 
rives it from th«' Lahontan dam. a government irrigation 
project 85 miles distant. The power is bought at $8 per 
horse-power per month. 

The mill was started to operate in March, 1915. A 
feature of the practice is the grinding of 93% of the ore 
to 200-mesh. The mill was designed by G. W. Wood of 
the Dorr Co. It is a eontinuous counter-current decan- 
tation cyanide-plant, using Dorr thickeners without a 
filter. A complete description of the mill, written by 
Mr. Wood.f was published in this paper a year ago. The 
cost per ton of treatment in the mill during the year 
ending May 15 last was $2.69, of which coarse crushing 
and sampling took 16c, stamping 33c, tube-milling 60c, 
thickening 7c, agitation 52c, decantation 17c, and pre- 
cipitation 49c. The cost for power was 56c per ton. 
For the month of May 1916, the total cost of milling per 
ton was $2.14, showing an appreciable reduction. Add- 
ing to this the cost of mining, $3.10, the total is $5.24. 
Indirect expense, such as transportation, water-line, 
taxes, etc., was 89c per ton, making the total of all ex- 
penses $6.13 per ton. This figure seems high but the 
practical difficulties overcome have been considerable. 

The president of the Seven Troughs Coalition Mining 
Co. and the Rochester Mines Co., is L. A. Friedman of 

t.M. & S. P.. August 2S. 1915. 

I. Mi Friedman ited in operating the 

Coalition mine ■> th.- rush to the Seven Trougl 

trict, which came ss an aftermath of the Qoldfleld boom 


in 1907. The Coalition mine has had a hard row to hoe, 
in spite of its high-grade ore. Faults in the vein, the 
disastrous cloudburst, and internal disagreements among 
stockholders have interfered with regular production. 
It has been necessary to go deep for the ore, and at times 
it has required considerable faith to keep going. Later, 
Mr. Friedman secured control of the Rochester Mines 
Co. His management has been criticized at various 
times. He has run things in a vigorous way to get re- 
sults, and lias conducted a wide publicity campaign for 
making the stock known on the mining exchanges. As 
indicative of the internal differences that have arisen, 
I may mention the recent statement by Mr. Friedman to 
the stockholders concerning the previous management. 
He said: "How men can do what has been done in the 
affairs of your company and escape the penalty of the 
law is beyond my comprehension." In a general way 
it should be remembered that any energetic man with a 
definite policy makes enemies; and to achieve results, he 
must be allowed to manage a mine according to his 
understanding of conditions. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 

The Theory of Flotation 

By B. Barfly Smith 

IT appears to me that the problem of elucidating the 
theory of flotation could be greatly simplified by 
formulating some definite line of attack; the first con- 
sideration in which should be to segregate the various 
physical forces with their attendant phenomena, and to 
attack each in turn. 

It is quite possible, in fact, most probable, that some 
of the forces come into play in all the phenomena, but 
by delivering a massed attack on each section in turn, 
perhaps success can be achieved more easily. 
I BUggesf the following as a possible segregation: 

(1) The physical forces governing the formation of 
bubbles in a pulp. 

(2) The physical forces governing the attachment of 
bubbles tu sulphide particles in a pulp. 

(3) The physical forces governing the stability of the 
bubble attachment. 

(4) The physical forces governing the stability of a 
bubble at the free surface of the pulp. 

Leaving out of consideration those processes in which 
bubbles are formed in a pulp by the chemical action of 
one substance on another, and also Mr. Norris's unique 
process, in which minute bubbles are 'born' in a pulp 
which is super-saturated with a gas, and regarding only 
processes in which a gas is introduced directly 
from an external source, segregation No. 1 will be found 
to present a considerable problem. 

Several of your correspondents appear to be laboring 
under the delusion that it is simply necessary to intro- 
duce air violently into a pulp either by agitation or 
blowing, and immediately bubbles of the right number 
and kind obligingly form themselves. Anybody who has 
had practical experience with flotation, especially with 
the so called air-froth flotation, knows that most un- 
furl imately this is not the case. No amount of agitation 
or blowing will produce bubbles of the right kind and 
number in absolutely pure water. A contaminating 
agent is necessary, and as some of the contaminating 
agents commonly used happen to be oils, concentration 
by frothing most unhappily has been named 'oil-flota- 
tion,' thereby masking the real significance of the use 
of the reagent. The action of certain substances in 
producing innumerable minute bubbles when air is in- 
troduced forcibly into a pulp, seems to be of funda- 
mental importance, since without these bubbles the most 
common forms of froth flotation cannot be considered. 

Professor Pollock of Sydney University, in Australia, 
has done some very interesting and useful work on this 
all-important subject, and I believe has formulated a 

tl ry. I once saw a set of instantaneous consecutive 

photographs of bubbles, taken by him. showing their 
formation after the introduction of a blast of air. With 

pure water the bubbles were mostly large, and even the 
small ones which were instantaneously produced had a 
tendency to collect together to form larger ones. With 
contaminated water the reverse was the case, the in- 
stantaneously produced large bubbles seeming to break 
down into smaller sizes. 

From my experience in the practical application of 
the froth-flotation process, I am inclined to believe that 
many of the troubles that crop up from time to time at 
flotation plants are due to the inability of the reagent 
used to produce the required quantity of bubbles, owing 
to the appearance of some reactive substance in the pulp. 
Heine practical, as well as theoretical considerations 
demand a thorough understanding of the physical forces 
governing the production of bubbles in a pulp. 

Coming now to segregation No. 2. More attention has 
been paid to this phase of the question perhaps than to 
any other, and rightly so, as it is of the utmost im- 
portance in all flotation processes, those employing the 
surface-film effect being excepted. Many writers pass 
lightly over the problem and simply state that the 
bubbles attach themselves preferentially to the oil or gas- 
filmed sulphide particles. 

Let us now see whether this is possible if the two forces 
of surface tension and adhesion are alone considered. 
In the following discourse surface tension can be most 
simply defined as that force acting at the surface of all 
liquids which continually tends to reduce the surface 
area ; and adhesion as that force which acts across the 
interface between two substances, which are in infinitely 
close contact, and tends to keep them from separating. 

Consider a particle of sulphide mineral (which, for 
the sake of clearness, we may assume to be nearly spher- 
ical) and a bubble in close contact, in the interior of a 
pulp, but before the bubble has actually 'picked up' the 
mineral. (Fig 1). Even if the particle possesses ap- 
preciable adhesion for the water, the surface of the 
liquid in contact with the particle must be considered as 
tending to have surface tension, although the tendency 
is opposed by the adhesion. (See T. J. Hoover's 'Con- 
centrating Ores by Flotation,' pages 50 to 55). 

In the first case, assume the adhesion to be negligible. 
The surface tension forces that now come into play are 
shown in Fig. 1. where Tg is the gas-liquid, and Z'.s- is the 
solid-liquid, surface tension. A glance at the force 
diagram will show that whatever the value and direc- 
tion of the forces Ts and Tg, their component Tc can 
never be greater than Tg + Ts. Therefore surface-ten- 
sion alone cannot rupture the intervening film, and cause 
the bubble to envelop the particle. If the particle pos- 
sesses appreciable adhesion for the liquid, then the case 
is more hopeless still, as Tc must then be sufficiently 

Jnlj 1. 1916 

MINING «nd Scientific I'KI SS 


strong tn rapture the intervening film ami eiao in tear it 
ewaj against the aotion of tin- adhesive force between the 
solid iiml tin' liltn. 

i »ini' 11 rapture has been effected, bubble attachment 
resolves itself into ■ straggle between surface tension 
ami adhesion, the Former strongly favoring a strategical 

retire at ti> tin- rear, tram tin- salient, so .1-. in 

straighten 1 1 1 « - line, ami adhesion endeavoring in hold the 
right wing to its position 

As it is an established fact (See Pig. 'J .Mr. C 'l'. 


Bubble unattached 

Bubble-film continuous and 

Bubble perfectly mobile. 

Bubble attached and 
Bubble-Film discontinuous. 

Durell notwithstanding) that a bubble contiguous to a 
surface with negligible adhesion does become attached 
almost immediately, so that its film forms part of a con- 
tinuous film covering both solid and gas, there must be 
some force that causes rupture of the bubble-film at the 
point of contact. 

In the ease of two plain bubbles in pure water with 
their films in contact, the immediate coalescing can 
probably be explained by the difference in vapor-pres- 
sure existing in bubbles of different radii. But we add a 
contaminating agent for the very purpose of counter- 
acting this force due to the difference in vapor-pressure 
so as to allow small bubbles to exist in the presence of 
larger ones; otherwise a froth would be an impossibility. 
Hence some force other than the difference in vapor- 
pressure must be present when one of the bubbles hap- 
pens to have some, or all, of its interior space occupied 
by a sulphide particle. 

In .ill probability this additional force manifests itself 
in tin- phenomenon known as the 'hysteresis 1 of tin- oon 
ugle Byati resit is defl I as the lagging of effect 

lii-hiii. I .•ails,-, ami a .•.■Mart angle is the "effect" that is 

".■aiis,., I" by bringing a solid surface in contad with a 
liquid Burface in tin- presence of a cas With many sub 

stances the "effect" (th tact angle does not assume 

its inll value immediately, but lags behind. The 1 
why the angle changes can l»- fairly well explained if we 
assume that there is a force acting between a solid sur 
face ami a gas, inn. linn in concentrate the gas mi the 

solid Burfi : ami that this force is sii g enough in ant 

across a thin lilm of the liquid. 

In Pig. :i the solid is a piece of glass, which is clean, 
ami has been ii -rsi-il fur some time in the liquid. 

On drawing it through the surface, a contact-angle is 
immediately formed, and for any given angle, the forces 
Tsg, Tig, and Ad are in equilibrium (ignoring gravity). 
If now the solid possesses the power to adsorb the gas 
through the very thin film at the toe of the angle, the 
adhesion of the liquid for the glass will be lessened and 
a corresponding surface-tension Tsl set up in the direc- 
tion shown. This additional force will be sufficient to 
upset the state of equilibrium, the toe of the angle will 
recede, and the angle will increase in size. The stable 
angle will be reached when Tsg, Tig, Tsl, and Ad have 
such magnitude and direction as to balance one another. 

It has been found that those substances which possess 
the greatest power to vary the contact-angle also show 
the strongest tendency to float under suitable conditions. 
and it is reasonable therefore to assume that this power 
has something to do with the attachment of bubbles. 

The problem presented by segregation (3) is not 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 

nearly BO formidable as that just considered; it. as al- 
ready stated, merely resolves itself into a struggle be- 
tween surface-tension and adhesion. With most sub- 
stances in their natural states, adhesion is altogether too 
strong, and, even it' the film at the point of contact is 
ruptured, the bubble cannot attach itself on account of 
the inability of the surface-tensiof to tear the solid and 
the liquid surfaces apart. Hence cither the surface- 
tension must be increased or the adhesion decreased. 
The hitler course is usually adopted, as, with dilute solu- 
the former is difficult ; except for very small 
amounts is an impossibility. 

Although an absolute increase in the surface-tension is 
out of the question, a relative increase is possible by 
raising the temperature. Both surface-tension and ad- 
hesion decrease with a rising temperature, but the latter 
much faster than the former; one being zero at the 
critical temperature and the other probably zero at the 
boiling-point. This is one of the reasons why solids that 
will not collect bubbles at ordinary temperatures, will do 
so when the boiling-point is approached. 

The usual methods employed for decreasing the 
natural adhesiveness of liquids for solids are: 

(a) To allow the solid to take on a film of gas by ad- 
sorption (or occlusion!). 

(b) To allow the solid to take on a film of oil or other 
greasy matter by adhesion. 

(c) A combination of both (a) and (b). 

A B 

While collecting evidence for one of the patent law- 
suits that are ever with us. an interesting discovery was 
made. A piece of Broken Hill sulphide ore, taken from 
the centre of a large uncracked block, was found to con- 
tain 0.0037% of natural grease, as obtained by an ether 
extract. Samples were afterward taken from several 
other mines, and all gave an oily residue after extracting 
with ether in a most careful manner. Perhaps it is just 
as well to add that this was discovered accidentally and 
was not being specially sought as prospective evidence. 
This discovery goes a long way toward explaining the 
preferential adhesion of bubbles to sulphide particles. 

The tenacity with which the bubble holds the particle 
depends on the length of the line of contact, which in 
turn depends on the size of the contact-angle, itself pro- 
portional to the relative values of surface-tension and 
adhesion. (See Fig. 4.) 

If the adhesion is negligible, and the particle is large 
in comparison with the bubble, the result would be as 
shown in Fig. A. 

If the particle is small, then the result would be as in 
Fig. B. 

As adhesion increases, the teudency is for the particle 

to get more and more out of the bubble and into the 
liquid until the surface-tension does not act over a suffi- 
ciently long line of contact to hold the weight of the 
particle, and it falls off. 

The problem presented by segregation (4) has been 
dealt with in 4 most excellent manner by Mr. W. H. 
Coghill in your issue of February 26, 1916. His re- 
marks in regard to a lowering of the surface-tension per 
sc not being essential to the formation of a froth, are 
most timely. 

The tension that exists in a pure liquid film is unlike 
all other tensions with which we are familiar, in that 
the stress is not proportional to the strain. Within the 
elastic limit (that it. the limit wherein the substance 
will return to its original shape when the contorting 
force is removed) a steel rod, or, taking what is more 
familiar still, a steel spiral spring, needs twice the pull- 
ing force to stretch it twice as much, and so on. The 
well-known spring-balance depends on this fact. But 
with a liquid film the same force can continue to cause 
an extension until rupture takes place, in spite of the 
fact that the film, right up to the point of rupture is 
within the elastic limit according to the above definition. 

It is plain then that our common conception of a ten- 
sion must be entirely revised when we come to deal with 
the tension at, the surface of a liquid. For a system to 
be in a state of stable equilibrium it must offer a greater 
resistance to any force which tends to change its con- 
figuration, and as a pure liquid film does not fulfill this 
requirement it cannot possess stability. 

The extreme instability of bubble-films is strikingly 
shown by the phenomenon in certain boiling liquids. 
with which we are all painfully familiar in our student 
days, called 'bumping.' In the absence of nuclei on 
which to form, the radius of a steam bubble when it first 
comes into being must be infinitely small, and the vapor- 
pressure to balance the surface tension of these small 
hubbies is large. Therefore before the bubbles can ex- 
pand and rise through the liquid (that is, before boiling 
can occur) the temperature must be raised above the 
natural boiling-point of the liquid. As soon as the 
bubble has expanded to appreciable size, the vapor- 
pressure of the liquid is in excess of that necessary to 
balance the surface tension, and the bubble expands so 
rapidly that it literally explodes. 

A boiler does not explode until its steel plates are 
actually ruptured, but the bubble explodes at the bottom 
of the beaker, that is, w r hile its shell is actually in ex- 

In the case of a solid, the greater the tension the 
greater the tensile stress developed ; for a material of 
given strength, the greater the tensile stress, the greater 
the chance of rupture. 

This line of reasoning does not hold in the case of a 
liquid film. The idea that a bubble film can be ruptured 
by the force of its own surface tension is about equiva- 
lent to the. idea that a man can lift himself by his own 

It is obvious from the nature of the molecular forces 

.lulv I. [916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


engaged, thai the greater the surface tension the greater 
the ultimate tensile strength of the dim. The lowering 
of the tension in itself therefore cannol give gi 
stability to a liquid dim; bu1 the surface adsorption, 
which accompanies the lowering of the tension in the 
of ••••riiiin solutes, can 
For reasons thai need nol be gone into, a solute which 
lowers the surface tension of ;i liquid, concentrates at 
the surfai f tin- solution, but iliis process of concen- 
tration (called adsorption takes a certain definite time 
to reach its full value. Now. if a film of the solution be 
stretched, new surface is produced, and this new surface 
at the moment of production possesses greater tension 
than tlu> rest of the surface, because the surface adsorp- 
tion has not had time to reach its full value. It there 

fore "tiers s greater resistance to the stretching force, 
and fulfills the conditions tor Btable equilibrium. Ku 
strong is the adsorption factor in certain cases, thai 

practically the whole of the solute is con itrated in 

the surface layers, and therefore, although the absolute 
quantity in the solution may be exceedingly slight, the 
surface effect it produces is considerable. This explains 
the efficacy of the extremely small amount of contaminat- 
ing agent used in some froth-flotation plants. 

In a mineral-froth, it is strikingly obvious that those 
bubbles which have their films thickly studded with 
sulphide particles have their stability enormously in- 
creased. In some froths, one such bubble can he seen 
pursuing the even tenor of its way. amid a regular holo- 
caust of its less fortunate brethren. The reason for this 
is not quite clear, but it is probably due to the adhesive 
force between the liquid and the solid. 

The above remarks are given for what they may be 
worth, in the hope that they may be of some assistance to 
other mill-men. who. like myself, are anxious to see the 
inner workings of a flotation process clearly, as by the 
light of day. but at present, only perceive them dimly, as 
by the flicker of a candle at the far side of a 50-ft. stope. 
To the mind of the ordinary mining-man, much of the 
reading-matter available on the theory of flotation is 
just about as ponderous and obscure as a bull elephant 
cavorting in a fog. I sincerely hope that the preceding 
discourse will at least cause the fog to lift a little. Our 
heartfelt thanks are due to Mr. P. A. Fahrenwald* for 
giving those gentlemen their quietus who wished to solve 
the problem of flotation by leading us into the mystic 
realm of static electricity. I think the trio, surface 
tension, adhesion, and adsorption, if given an attentive 
and intelligent hearing, will acquit themselves admir- 


The American - International Corporation', formed 
to promote participation of Americans in foreign enter- 
prise, will confine its activities to a semi-banking busi- 
ness, encouraging the financing of railroads, steamship 
lines, light and heat services, water-works, etc. The 
Corporation will maintain representatives in foreign 
countries but permanent expenses will be kept low. 

♦The Electro-statics of Flotation.' M. & S. P.. Feb. 26. 191G. 

Nitro glycerine is a limpid oil formed by the action of 
a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid upon ordinary 
glycerine. This chemical action la a violent one unless 
carefully controlled. After n has taken plane, the nitro 

glycerine is Washed repeatedly U) remove any trace of 
acid that might remain. The praam ( acid is dan 

gerous in the finished explosive because it may produce 

a chemical action of disastrous results. h'or practical 

use. the liquid nitroglycerine is so sensitive to percus- 
sion and friction that it is dangerous to transport it or 

attempt to employ it alone. However, when nitro- 
glycerine Was first introduced for driving the Iloosae 
tunnel in Massachusetts, and tor springing oil-wells in 
Pennsylvania, it was used alone, being carried In copper 
cans and loaded in tin tubes. In the oil-well region, men 

made an occupati if driving a horse and light wagon 

through the country for carrying the pure nitro-glycer 
ine to the consumers. Many accidents were reported, 
and a carrier's position was scarcely to be envied. 

Later it was learned to mix the nitro-glycerinc with a 
quantity of kieselguhr, an infusorial earth composed of 
the silicious skeletons of minute diatoms, and therefore 
called diatomaceous earth. The nitro-gylcerine is ab- 
sorbed by the earth, which is itself inert and simply 
forms a plastic mass that can be more safely handled 
than the nitro-glycerine. Another advance came when 
it was found that nitro-cellulose, or gun-cotton, could In- 
dissolved in the nitro-glycerine to form a nearly uniform 
jelly. This mixture constitutes blasting gelatine. The 
gun-cotton is made by the action upon cotton fibres of 
the same acids as are used in the manufacture of nitro- 
glycerine, great care being taken to wash away all trace 
of excess acid. When gun-cotton, or nitro-cellulose, is 
incorporated with the nitro-glycerine, it shares in the 
explosion, instead of acting as an inert base like kiesel- 
guhr. Thus additional power is gained. Blasting gela- 
tine, then, is a mixture of two complex compounds, 
which fact increases the possibility of chemical change 
with consequent deterioration and danger. Blasting 
gelatine contains 92% nitro-glycerine and 8% nitro- 
cellulose. There are. also, various intermediate mixtures 
of nitro-glycerine and nitro-cellulose with a proportion 
of wood meal and potassium nitrate, the object being to 
product effects intermediate between straight dynamite 
and blasting gelatine. When such a complex mixture 
was attempted, it was at first difficult for any mechanical 
method to render a perfectly homogeneous mass, but 
later methods of manufacture have improved this. 

The initial pressure of the different explosives when 
detonated in their own volume are as follows: straight 
dynamite (nitro-glycerine mixed with an inert base) 80 
tons per square inch, blasting gelatine 113 tons, gun- 
cotton 71 tons, black powder 21 tons. It is evident that 
blasting gelatine is the most powerful. Likewise it has 
the highest rate of detonation, 25,262 ft. per second, as 
against 22,368 for straight dynamite and 984 for black 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 

Platinum on the Pacific Coast 

By T. W. Oruetter 

SOUTH-WESTERN Oregon and northern California 
in- the chief Bonrcea of platinum in the United 
States. Tn this region it is recovered as a by-prod- 
uct from gold placers. At the present time the greater 
part of the platinum is won in the Californian alluvial 
Mats where many dredges are at work, and where more 
attention is given to saving the fine metal than at the 
average hydraulic mine. 

David T. Day says in 'Black Sands of the Pacific 
Slope,' a U. 8. Geological Survey bulletin, on page 3: 
"If only two-thirds of the platinum in the heavy sands 
going i" waste at hydraulic mines in California and 
i Iregon were saved, the total production would exceed 
the preaenl consumption of the United States." 

The platinum in the sea-beaches from Oold Bluff, Cali- 
fornia, to i '.mis Hay, Oregon, varies Erom 1 : 20 to 1 : ."> as 
compared with gold, while in the dredging areas on the 
Reather and Yuba rivers it is from 1:1000 to 1 :30oo. 
Eight large samples of natural sand from Crescent City 
southward to thr vicinity of Gold Bluff, averaged 48c. 
gold and platinum per ton. Eleven similar samples from 
Crescent City north tn Coos Kay averaged 61e. gold and 
platinum. The largest proportion of platinum to gold. 
along the mast, is in the vicinity of l*t. Orford. Where 
the rivers cut large hodies of serpentine dunite), the 
usual source of platinum, the metallic particles are 
coarser than on the beaches. Along the rivers they are 
often encased in hematite, chromite. olivine, serpentine 
from olivine, etc. From 20 to 50c. pel' yard is not un- 

[ridosmine, "in- of the platinum group carrying a high 
percentage of iridium, forms a higher proportion of the 
platinum along this part of the Coast than in any other 
locality in the world, one Oregon sample being 37 
..1, K. Kemp, I'. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 193, p. lit*. 
Tin' iridosmine is generally a mechanical inclusion in 
the platinum and is present as fine brilliant plates. 
Aipia regis "ill dissolve the platinum from the nuggets, 
which then fall apart and leave the fine plates exi 

As usually found, the platinum will pass a 20-mesh 
screen. It cannot be separated from the heavy black 
sand by means. of riffles. The flakes of platinum and 
gold drift over the surface of the black sand and will not 
concentrate easily. At mines where all the heavy sand 
is saved, it is sometimes panned by hand or shipped to a 
smelter. As platinum will not amalgamate, gold can be 
separated from it with ease. When the miner ships the 
black sand to a smelter, the platinum is not paid for. 
Some mines, by table or centrifugal concentration, will 
make a rich product for shipment, discarding the tailing. 
which is a wasteful method. Jigs and hydraulic classi- 
fiers are also useil. particularly on dredges, to improve a 

low-grade concentrate, the coarse concentrate being 
ground fine to release the precious metals. This refers 
to inland placers where the sand is coarse. 

Occasionally low-grade black sand is treated with 
quicksilver to get at the gold, and then sodium is added 
to make sodium-amalgam and the platinum extracted 
with this. However, the sodium soon decomposes and 
often lets go of the platinum before it is collected. Elec- 
trolytic sodium-amalgam is aiso used and is the only 
practical success known to me. Panning is a tedious and 
expensive process. When machine concentration is used, 
it is generally carried too far, a concentrate being made 
that is worth, say. $3000 to .$20,000 per ton. Of course, 
this usually gives only a few pounds of concentrate, the 
greater part of the valuable contents being lost in the 
tailing, which are discarded. 

Within recent years dredging and hydraulic mining 
companies have given more attention to close saving but 
except where electrolytic sodium-amalgam is used, there 
is still a large loss of platinum and coated gold, as well 
as gold amalgam from "flouring' and 'sickening.' There 
are immense areas of rich sand where the gold and plat- 
inum are flaky and coated. These can be worked with 
electrolytic sodium-amalgam at a handsome profit, ps 
described already.* The treatment is preceded by a two- 
stage concentration process, the concentrate being nun li- 
no richer than can be done without excessive loss in the 
tailing. A 95 to 100% recovery is not unusual. The 
cost ranges from a fraction of a cent to several cents per 
yard, to which concentration is added. Concentration 
on a 2400-yd. basis would be about 2c. per yard or less. 
Mining costs run from lc. to 10c. per yard in ordinary 
cases. In this system there is no loss from oxidation of 
sodium, coatings of silica, oil, slime, oxides, etc.. unless 
the metallic particles are wholly encased. With the pres- 
ent high prices for the platinum metals it would pay 
many mines to add electrolytic amalgamation to their 
equipment. First costs vary from $500 to $3000 in ad- 
dition to concentration machinery. The new system has 
been much improved and a high degree of efficiency and 
simplicity has been attained. The correct design of the 
apparatus is a somewhat complicated matter, but once 
installed, anyone can run it. I have not patented my 
improvements and would be pleased to give further de- 
tails on application. 

As already stated, platinum is mostly derived from 
serpentine. Prospectors should test deposits of chromite 
in serpentine. A simple and reliable test is as follows: 
Have your druggist order 1-oz. stannous (tin "t chloride 
crystals; 1 package 4-in. white filter-paper; buy from 

*M. & S. P. November 6, 1915. 

.Iul> 1 1916 

MINIM, ind >.,<•„!,.„ l'KI SS 


linn ii bottle two thirds tilled with strong hydrochloric 

mill, another with nilrir arid ; « tlnr.l for dissolving the 

stannous ehloridi should be about 1 oi 

with glass stoppers . two drappen end Hveral Bo. teat- 
nmpleta the outfit, which should nol oosl oi 

nor weigh over 1 pound 

t ill >•- put a small pinch "I' tilu'ly -DOWi 

on "r rod; drop on tins tour drope hydrochloric acid 
with one dropper end two drops nitric said with the 
other dropper, taking care nol to draw the acid into the 
rubber bulb, and washing. Warm contents of tube gently 
with a match held on the aide, keeping mouth of tnbe 
pointed away from your face. This will dissolve most of 
the gold in a few minutes. It' not testing for gold, this 
solution may be poured away. Add fresh acid in the 
same way and pour off all but enough to well cover the 
Band. Boil with several matches. Then pour what is 
left of this solution over a piece of Biter-paper. From 

the Btannous chloride bottle pour a little over the filter- 
paper Where the two solutions meet on the paper a 
bright orange color will appear if platinum is present. 
The gold solution crossed with the stannous chloride 
gives B red-purple or brown-purple eolor, according to 
concentration. If both metals are present, both colors 
will appear ami the intensity of eolor is in proportion to 
concentration and richness. The tin crystals are dis- 
solved with Water and hydrochloric acid, about half and 
half. Leave the bottle open occasionally, as this produces 
stannic chloride and improves the action. 

Foreign trade is becoming important to mining and 
manufacturing companies in this country. Since the 
War has called attention to it. interest has arisen as to 
how such business is transacted. How our exports of 
copper are marketed in Europe, how tin is bought in 
London and shipped direct from the Straits Settlements, 
how mining machinery can be sold in South America or 
Russia, all these questions have exercised the minds of 
those engaged in American industries. The trade at 
American ports, particularly New York, has increased 
greatly, and efforts are being made to retain perma- 
nently the new ties of foreign business. The National 
City Bank of New York points out. in a recent publica- 
tion, how London has built up its commercial supremacy. 
Two principal reasons are given. First, because tin- 
port was free to all the world with few restrictions 01 
encumbrances. Secondly, because shippers in remote 
countries had confidence that a cargo of anything, sent 
to London and consigned merely to the general market, 
would receive fair and expert treatment in storing, 
grading, and sale to buyers that would speculate in any 
product. A shipper could draw immediately on a con- 
signment and receive part payment. 

quire* .1 prospector to make an actual ■! tnin 

erul in place !■ ng out his claim The more 

you think of it. the more absurd it he. oa A prOS 

is a man searching for mineral. He must neces 

■aril) '"' protected in Ins possession while In- is search 

ing lor Ins vein, but under tin present law he is a Ins 
■ upon the public domain until he has found his 

vein Twenty-five yean ago it was perhaps an easy 
matter to make a discovery without an.v prospecting 

work. Today it is ex lingly difficult." This was 

said ill discussion of a paper by Courtenay | ),- Kalb in a 
bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engine* rS, 

The minim; law of this country contains a stipula- 
tion that discovery of a valuable mineral must be made 
prior to locating a claim. Regarding this, Horace V. 
Winchell, the well-known authority on mining law, has 
remarked ''No other country, so far as I am aware, re- 

ZlNC is temporarily more important than copper in 
the Central or Middle- Western States, gays B press bul- 
letin of the r. s. Geological Survey. The zinc produc 
tion of the Mississippi valley was worth (17,189,264 in 
1914 while the copper output of the Central States, 
mostly from Michigan, was $21,865,043. Bui for 1915, 
the value of the zinc produced reached the remarkable 
figure of $53,540,472, or over three times that of the 
previous year. The copper production increased in Alii 
494,96!) and more than doubled in value. The value' of 
the copper produced in the Central Slates hail for years 

i'x -ded that of zinc, owing to the higher price per 

pound received for the copper, while the quantity of 
zinc produced has been larger. In 1915, the output of 
copper in the region mentioned was 101,300,000 lb. 
greater than in 1914, but the low figure for 19] I was 
partly due to a disastrous strike of copper-miners in 
Michigan. The 1915 output of zinc exceeded the 1914 
production by only 95,700,000 lb., but the proportionate 
increment in price of the zinc was greater than for cop- 
per. "The salient facts relating to zinc and lead mining 
in the Central States in 1915 were the building of new 
mills and roasting-plants in the Wisconsin-Illinois 
region; the increased output and the better recovery 
made by flotation in the disseminated-lead district in 
Missouri; the more general use of thickeners, classifiers. 
and tables and the vastly larger yield from the sheet- 
ground in south-western Missouri ; the development of 
the new mining territory near Picher and Cardin, in 
the north Miami field in Oklahoma; and the active pros- 
pecting and mill-building and the increase in shipments 
of zinc carbonate in Arkansas." It is interesting to 
note that two of the principal uses of spelter in the 
manufacture of war munitions are for galvanizing the 
barbed wire used in making wire entanglements and in 
making the brass for cartridge-cases and parts of pro- 
jectiles. The average price paid for spelter in the LTnited 
States during 1915 was 14.44c. which is nearly three 
times the 1914 average of 5.36c. Zinc has truly been 
the "metal sensation of the War." It is generally pre- 
dicted that the reaction in the price of zinc will be more 
decided than in other industries, but as no one expected 
anything different, the event will he sufficiently dis- 
counted. Some authorities predict that after the War, 
zinc will drop to its former price of 5c., hut others ex- 
pect a price of about 7 cents. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 


Rradrrs o( Iht MINING und SdmflflC PRESS art imilrd lo ash aualions 
and iiivf information dralinti Willi technical and olhcT matltn pcrlmnini to Iht 
practiet of minirut, millinjl. and irnclltnj;. 

Eighteen elements have melting-points above 

ECTBIC HAULAGE ill the Hollinger mine. Ontario. 

resulted in a saving of 7'-. per ton in tramming charges 

Anaconda, a copper producer, yielded s . 064,986 oz. 
<>f silver last year; Nipisaing, a silver producer, yielded 
1,097,301 o/ . or about one-half of the former. 

Flotation at the Broken Hill Proprietary Co. 'a works 
in Australia lias produced 744.816 tons of zinc concen- 
trate from 2,988,919 tons of tailing, since 1904. 

Rock-drills working in the Eomestake mine, South 
Dakota, number 575. There is 4500 lb. of dynamite used 
daily. On two 8-hour shifts 1200 men are underground, 
extracting 4500 tons of ore. 

Ax U3SAY-FUBNAOE burning crude-oil at the Rosario 

mine. Honduras, effects a saving of 1*5110 to 1MI00 per 
month over a charcoal type, anil also allows the work to 

be done iii two-thirds of the time. 

WoOD-FLOUH and wheat-flour refuse, worth about $15 

per ton. an' used in the manufacture of dynamite to 
absorb oitro-glycerine. Flour of a good white color is 
preferred, as dynamite is judged for freshness by its 
light color. 

Wounds should not be treated with mercuric chloride 

dressings, if iodine has been applied. The consequence 
would he the formation of mercuric iodide, which is 
strongly irritating. To remove mercuric iodide, wash 
the wound with a 10',' solution of potassium iodide. 

ChROMITE, or iron ehroniate, usually called chrome- 
iron ore. is used in chemical manufacture to make salts 
used in tanning, also for a refractory lining employed 
in basic open-hearth steel furnaces, more particularly 

where the silica brick arch meets the magnesite lining 
Of the hearth. Most of the present supply to this coun- 
try comes from New Caledonia and Rhodesia. The high 
ocean-freight has given a market to the California prod- 
uct, obtained chiefly in Shasta. Tehama, Tulare, and 
Fresno counties. The chemical trade demands a 45-55% 

ore; for refractory brick a 35 40', ore will suffice. 

To ai.i.ow TAILINGS to flow where they may without ob- 
struction, is to risk the loss of any valuable metal re- 
tained. If they lodge on the lands of another, they arc 
considered as an accretion and belong to him. If they 

accumulate on vacant and unappropriated public land. 

it has been the custom of tin' mining regions of the West 

to recognize the right of the first coiner io appropriate 
I hem by proceedings analogous to the location of placer 
claims. The Supreme Court of Nevada ruled that, al- 
though not a mining claim within the strict meaning of 
the expression as generally used in this country, a "tail- 
ing claim" is sw closely analogous to it that the propriety 
of subjecting the acquisition and maintenance of the 
possession id' it to the rules governing the acquisition of 
the right to a strictly mining claim at once suggests 
itself. The Land Department has recognized this pos- 
sessory right and permitted entries to be made on lands 
containing beds of tailings, under the law applicable to 
placers. There ari' no adjudicated cases in the reports 
of department decisions upon this subject that have 
Come under our observation, but we have knowledge of 
several instances where patents for this class of claims 
have been issued under the mining laws. 

Woodkn ulocks, crcosotcd. which arc already used 
extensively as paving material for city streets, arc com- 
ing into use as flooring for warehouses, factories, shops, 
platforms, etc. Floors made of wooden blocks placed on 
end are noiseless under heavy traffic, durable, sanitary, 
and easy on the feet of workmen. The high cost is a 
disadvantage, being $2.40 per square yard for the com- 
pleted floor. The wood commonly employed is Southern 
yellow pine, although hemlock, larch. Douglas fir, black 
gum, beech, and maple are also used. The blocks are 
sawed from long sticks of timber and are treated ill 
Steel cylinders id' li to 7 ft. diam. and 100 ft. long. Creo- 
SOte-oil is run into the cylinders, and pressure is applied 
lo force it into the wood. The oil is a product obtained 
from the manufacture of coke from coal. Wood satur- 
ated witli creosote does not decay, shrink, or swell to the 
extent customary with untreated wood. The blocks are 
laid usually on a concrete foundation, with the grain of 
the wood vertical so that the most resistant surface is 
exposed. The joints and cracks arc tilled with hot pitch 
or asphalt. 

Hi ST LOSSES in smelting plants should be investigated, 

and a systematic study usually proves worth while. 
Although the advantages of this work are fairly obvious, 
the limitations should not be overlooked. Estimates 
of dust losses by any methods at present in use are sub- 
ject to considerable errors. The average of a number of 

lests is a close approximation to the truth. One set of 
tests gives a figure that applies to the particular operat- 
ing conditions of that time only, and no estimates ran 
safely be made from it of dust loss under different 
operating conditions. In using the results of these tests, 
a probable error of 10^t is allowed at the Copper Queen 
smelter at Douglas, according to J. M. Samuel in a 
paper prepared for the A. I. M. E. Changes will prob- 
ably improve methods from time to time: but. in measur- 
ing the dust content of a flow of gas in a conduit, varia- 
tions in How and composition of gas. under ordinary 
operating conditions, are so great that the average of a 
number of tests rather than individual tests will always 

have to be depended on for accuracy. 

July i 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Electric Hoists on the Rand 

*Exelusive of winches then are 148 eleotrio hoist* at 
(he Rand mines, their oombined continuous rating being 
over 74.IHH) hp. Power is obtained from local steam 
plants, the largest of which are those of the Viotoria Palls 
Power Co., which have a total capacity of 220,000 kw. 
i This ooncern originally intended to generate power at 


the Victoria falls on the Zamhesi river, nearly 700 miles 
distant from Johanneshnrg, but the difficulties of trans- 
mitting high-voltage current over such a distance were 
so great that steam plants were decided upon near the 

Near the centre of the region is the property of the 
Crown Mines, which in 1915 produced 763,061 oz. of 
gold from 2,497,000 tons of ore. Reserves are estimated 

Number of turns ol n'i p oooc 

* ,ilv im speed, revolutions per minute 

wi; ol revolving parts of hoist (lew motors), pound 


Time for acceleration) leoonda 

Time for retardation (assumed), seconds in 

• rind, seconds 7 

> of ski|i. pounds 

Welsh! of ore per trip, pounds 16,000 

Slse of rope, Indus diameter 

Weight Of rope per side, pounds ^^.;iuu 

As will be sect, by the photograph, direct-connected to 

the drums nt each end is a 22 pole, 21 hp., 5 1.6 r.p.m., 

560-volt, shunt-wound motor. The remainder of the 
electric apparatus includes a limit, motor-generator 
set consisting of one 16-poIe, 5000-hp., 375-r.p.m., 2000 
roll induction motor; two 14-pole, 1650-kw. 375-r.p.m., 
550-volt shunt-wound generators; and one 60-kw. com 
pound wound exciter together with the necessary control 
apparatus. The hoist motors and generators operate in 

The accompanying chart shows operation of the hoist 
when lifting from the 354.0-ft. level. It was found thai 
when winding from the deeper levels the apparatus did 
not heat as much as when hauling from the upper levels. 
While hoisting from the higher parts of the shaft the 
rope never leaves the cylindrical portion of the drums; 
on the other hand, while lifting from deeper levels the 
conical effect of the drums is used. 


1 M"M II 1 1 1 1 1 I 



nil ' Output HQISt MottVX \ 1 




— • ^— Velocity Ascending /?ope 





















. — 


— _i 















1 1 

/ / 

























!' IOOO 










at 9,938,000 tons of $6.25 ore. Over a year ago a Gen- 
eral Electric hoist of the following construction was in- 
stalled at the South Rand shaft of the company, the 
shaft being 3540 ft., inclined at an angle of 90° to the 
horizontal, according to notes by F. L. Stone : 

Type of drum double cylindro-conical 

Diameter of rope centres at small end of drums, feet 12 

Diameter of rope centres at cylindrical end of drums, 

feet 20.75 

•Abstract from General Electric Review. June, 1916. 

Tin is least important of the metals from a military 
standpoint. It is used in war munitions only for a 
minor part in British shrapnel, and some other metal 
could undoubtedly be substituted. The recent high 
price cannot be laid to war consumption, but rather to 
the uncertainty of supply because of high ocean freights. 
Tin, which is now selling around 41c. per pound, 
sold for an average of 42e. during 1913, for 37c. 
during 1914, and for 39e. during 1915. The 
Daily Metal Reporter of New York remarks that 
"it is indeed fortunate that tin is not an absolute 
recpuisite in the manufacture of munitions of 
war, for it is a relatively scarce metal compared 
with iron, copper, lead, and zinc." The import 
of tin into the United States during 1915 — and 
this country is the greatest consumer — was 57,- 
000 tons or about 1000 tons per week; this figure 
is only a fraction of our output of copper or 
zinc. The new smelter of the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. at Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 
is now smelting Bolivian concentrate. The proc- 
ess includes roasting in a Wedge furnace and smelt- 
ing in a 12 by 38-ft. reverberatory provided with oil 
burners. Refining is done electrolytically — a new de- 
parture in tin making. The output averages 99.97% 
fine, which is better than the famous Straits tin, and the 
capacity is 15 to 20 tons per day, approximately 10% 
of the consumption in this country. 

Talc production in 1915 was 166,336 tons worth 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 


As seen at the world's great mining centres by our oirn correspondents. 


Pimi'Im, at THE Ei'KtK.i, — Lincoln and Other Mines to be 
Re-opened.— Central Eureka ami Kennedy. 

Two of the three sinking pumps have been installed in the 
old Eureka shaft and are discharging a large stream of water. 
The compressor and other parts of the plant are working well 
So far operations have been done only on one shift, but the 
shaft crew has been increased and on June 20 work began on 
three 8-hour shifts. As the water is lowered, the shaft-timbers 
are Found to be in an excellent state of preservation, notwith- 
standing the fact that the last work done at the mine was dur- 
ing 1886; in fact, it is said that much of the sets will not have 
to be renewed, now that the cave at the collar of the shaft lias 
been caught up. Miss Marguerite Beam formally opened the 
mine by blowing the whistle last week, on the day the pumps 


were finally coupled up and put into operation; it was a -sound 
most welcome to Sutter Creek residents. 

The sale of the well-known Lincoln group of mines to men 
interested In the old Eureka property was confirmed late last 
week, the purchase price being given as $205,000. The sale in- 
cludes the Lincoln mine proper, as well as the Wildman. 
Mahoney. and Emerson claims. With the exception of some 
prospecting at the Lincoln a few years ago, no work has been 
done on this stretch of mining ground for over 10 years, finan- 
cial difficulties having caused the closing down of the mines 
and their subsequent loss by the last operators. The assistant 
(Jniti d States treasurer, W. I. MeGee, and other local men are 
largely interested in the present deal, as they, incorporated 
under the name of the Lincoln Consolidated Mining Co.. came 
into possession of the combined properties after the old com- 
- failure to raise the funds necessary to pay off mortgages 
and equip the property for development. The mines have been 
opened by four shafts: the Wildman, 1*00 ft. on T2 J incline; 
Emerson, 619 ft. vertical; Mahoney, 1200 ft. on 62° incline; 
and Lincoln, 2000 ft. on SZ° incline. The intention of the 
former management was to sink the Emerson vertical shaft 
down to the point necessary to cut the large vein found in 
the Wildman property on the 1400-ft. level. This shaft was 

sunk in diabase 1000 ft. east of the Wildman. and the expecta- 
tion was to cut this great orebody at a vertical depth of 2300 
ft. This vein at 1400 ft. in the Wildman was opened for 100 ft., 
solid quartz assaying over $3 per ton, and should be made 
to yield a good profit with proper working facilities. Two 
40-stamp mills are on the property, but owing to their old 
style and dilapidated condition, they, with most of the other 
equipment, will have to be replaced with modern machinery. 
The Wildman and Mahoney plants were formerly driven by 
water-power, the company owning a large reservoir and pipe- 
line for this supply. The purchasers are said to be Michigan 
men of whom T. Hoatson is one of the principals. T. Walter 
Beam, president and manager of the Eureka, has taken formal 
charge of the Lincoln property, and such tools and supplies 
as will not he immediately needed at the Lincoln are being 
transferred to the Eureka. The Wildman claim adjoins the 
Eureka ground and underlies the town of Sutter Creek. 

At the Central Eureka 70 men are employed, where 20 
stamps of the 40-stamp mill are in steady operation on ore from 
the 2800, 3000, and 3100-ft. levels. Some development is con- 
templated at 700 ft., and preparations are in progress for sink- 
ing a winze below the 3200-ft. level in accordance with sugges- 
tions made by C. E. Julihn, who examined the property re- 
cently for the purpose of outlining the mine's future devel- 
opment. Fred Jost of San Francisco is superintendent. 

At the Keunedy mine at Jackson, preparations are nearly 
completed for sinking the shaft to a depth of 3900 ft. This 
vertical shaft is now said to be the deepest of any gold mine 
in the United States, and the ore developed on the lowest 
levels is quite as rich as that worked in the levels above, in- 
suring the stockholders handsome quarterly dividends. 


Mining on Indian Reservations. — Mining Law. 

A bill, prophetic of what may take place some day, is that 
of Senator Ashurst of Arizona before the Senate to authorize 
mining for metalliferous minerals on Indian reservations in 
Arizona. It directs the Secretary of the Interior, under regu- 
lations to be fixed by him and under such terms and conditions 
as he may prescribe, to lease to citizens of the United States 
or to any associations of such persons or corporations, any 
part of the unallotted lands within any Indian reservation in 
Arizona, withdrawn from entry under the mining laws, for the 
purpose of mining for deposits of gold, silver, copper, or other 
minerals, the leases to be irrevocable except under such 
breaches provided against in the bill. Ninety days after enact- 
ment of the bill the lands are to be open at all times for ex- 
ploration for minerals, the claims to be located in the same 
manner as mining claims are located elsewhere under the 
mining laws of the United States. It is provided that the 
locators or their heirs or assigns shall only have a preference 
right to apply to the Secretary of the Interior for a lease 
within one year after the date of location, and that any 
locator who shall fail to apply for such a lease shall forfeit 
all right to his mining claim. 

The leases are to be for a period of 50 years, with the prefer- 
ential right to renew them for successive periods of 10 years 
under conditions and terms to be prescribed by the Secretary 
of the Interior. Relinquishment is also provided for, should 
the locator desire to give tip his claim. On application by him 

July I 1916 

Ml\l\t. tnd Scieouhi 1M<I SS 

.1 >ii>; ill.- term ..t U>i 
upled iiui. i. nut exceeding . i for ..iuii>- 

.iii.I t..r ..ih. r 

m '.. i with the proper development and una ol 'i" 

i in Um Imm Poi tin- l nit.-il States the rlghl 

of tin' suit.!..- ol tii.- hiii. I embraced within 

■.n (in- m tin' hud iimy tint be neceaean inr use 

ol the leasee in extracting and removing thi ..i the 

IuikI . be cancelled tnd Forfeited bj ti»- Govern- 

mi nt bj appropriate i In the United Bl 

court, For the privilege* >>f mining tin 1 lands the 
pay to tile United States a myall 

the output of the minerals, parable at the end ol each month 
ding the extraction ol the mineral From the nun., and 
an annual rental, payable at the data ol the lease, ol 26c par 
acre for the tirst calendar year, 50c. for the second, third, 
ami fifth year, and ji for each succeeding year during 
the continuance Ol the lease. In addition It Is provided that 
the lessee shall expand annually not less than $100 In de- 
velopment work for each mining clnlm located and leased. 
The Secretary of the Interior Is given full power to examine 
the books and accounts of all lessees and to require them to 
make statements, ail under oath. The money from all royal- 
ties and rentals is to he deposited In the Treasury of the 
1'nited States to the credit of the tribes of Indians having 
tribal rights In the reservations in which the leased land is 
located. The rights of all States and local authority Is con- 
I, such as collection of taxes. Senator Ashurst has also 
introduced a bill in the Senate authorizing the Secretary of 
the Interior to lease for the production of oil and gas ceded 
lands of the Shoshone and Wind River Indian reservations in 
the State of Wyoming, the moneys resulting to go to the In- 
dians, and the regulations to be fixed by the Secretary of the 

Nothing has as yet been done by the committee on mines 
and mining of the House of Representatives on the hills pro- 
viding for the codification of the mining laws of the country. 
The committee seems to have gone asleep over the matter, in 
spite of Its enthusiasm manifested early in the winter. Those 
in charge, however, appear quite impressed with the many 
caustic letters that have been received in criticism of the so- 
called Foster bill codifying the mining laws. It seems almost 
assured that no codification bill will become law in this Con- 



At Porcupine the Dome management has definitely decided 
to substitute ball-mills for stamps, and has ordered three more 
machines of the S ft. by 20-in. type already found highly satis- 

Construction on the 2000-ton per day addition to the Hol- 
linger mill has been started the contracts having been let for 
the concrete foundation. 

Diamond-drilling at the West Dome is showing excellent re- 
sults. Four veins have been cut, the last at a depth of 700 ft. 
below the surface, being 10 ft. wide and heavily mineralized. 
The shaft is down 227 ft. on a vein, carrying free gold, and 
will be sunk to the 300-ft. level. 

The Mclntyre has cut a 16-ft. vein on the 1000-ft. level. This 
may he an extension of that previously found at the same 
depth of the Mclntyre Extension. 

Frank L. Culver, president of the Timiskaming and Beaver 
companies of Cobalt, has acquired a large interest in the 
Schumacher, and has been elected a director of the company. 

At the Vipond the shaft has been connected by a raise from 
the 400 to the 300-ft. level, making the high-grade ore on the 
lower level accessible for hoisting to the mill. 

Developments at the Porcupine Premier, formerly the 
Standard mine. 100-ft. level have been encouraging. A num- 
ber of Boston people inspected the property on June 3. 

At Klrkliinil lj»k.- *••"•, I pronrru i» i 

tit ol the Labelle Klrkland Tbli embrace) II 
which run Mveral >i 
The luitt i» down ::.'•" ii mi a lii: in which hi 

elated all the way, and win be (OUowed la depth 

A station has been cut at the 170-ft level. 

The Lake slime has opened ore oontalnin i and 

tellurldee on the !00-ft level, and the vein is thi 
tend Into the TecV Hughes propi 

The mill .>i the Tough-Oakea is treating about 120 tons ol 
$20 ore per day. The company is laying oul ■ townalte to the 

north ol the mine. 

Large shipments ol ore were made from I 
the total amount from 10 companies being 164 tons. Total 
bullion shipments fur the year to date were 8,226,1 

The Trethewey mill Is again In operation, treating broken 

Ore that was formerly left In the mine becau B Ol the low 
price of silver when the mine closed down. 

The Kerr Lake has taken an option on the Maidens property 
In South Lorrain. where it is thought thai there Is a con- 
siderable body of low-grade ore. 

The annual report of the Peterson Lake for the year ended 
April 30 shows a total income of $303. is::. After paying divi- 
dends, $277,376 was carried forward. This was practically all 
derived from royalties paid by the Seneca Superior. 

The Ophir and the Peoples mine have effected an agreement 
for the joint development of their properties down to the 
contact of the Keewatin and diabase at a depth of approxi- 
mately 600 ft. The surface of both mines shows a number of 
strong veins with low silver content. 

Steel plants in the Dominion are very busy, mainly on war 
and export orders. One result of this unusual activity Is a 
shortage in the output of steel rails, which is greatly retard- 
ing railway construction in the West. The annual report of 
the Dominion Steel Corporation of Sydney, Nova Scotia, for 
the year ending March 31, shows the largest profits in its life. 
The net manufacturing earnings were $7,004,310. an increase of 
$3,433,258 over the previous year. After all deductions for 
interest, depreciation, and dividends the net surplus remain- 
ing was $3,015,225. One-half of the total output of the year 
was exported. 

Two Cobalt, Ontario, silver producers in 1915: 


La Rose Darragh- 
Mines Savage Mines 

Development, feet 4,393 4,538 

Ore reserves for mill, tons 10,000 

Ore reserves, ounces 1,871,280 

Ore milled, tons 54.405 63,661 

Average content, ounces 15.28 17.165 

Recovery, per cent 7(1.7 80.9 

Ore and concentrate shipped, tons.. 1740.5 1S93.8 

Silver content, ounces 1,071,694 1.107,815 

Net value received $481,663 $515,401 

Cost per ounce, cents 31.64 28.71 

Net profit $230,662 $231,433 

Balance brought forward $1,032,S11 

Dividends paid $328,000 $269,723 

Balance carried forward $886,660 $280,299 

Silver shipped to date, ounces 22,891,038 15.1S3.661 

The general manager of the La Rose, R. B. Watson, reports 
that only a small amount of high-grade ore remains in pillars. 
but in clearing-up the mine other small shoots will be found. 
Some dumps should yield a small profit. 

At the McKinley-Darragh-Savage, T. R. Finucane is man- 
ager. Ore reserves in the McKinley were maintained, but as 
the property has been thoroughly prospected the chance of 
finding other important orebodies is slight. Before the Savage 
mine's possibilities are exhausted a considerable amount of 
exploration remains to be done. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 


The news of the week as told by our special correspondents and compiled from (he local press. 


Am iroitAGE 

Contrary to general belief, the Federal government has with- 
drawn from lease only a small area of the Matanuska and 
g river coalfields. There has been surveyed over 200 
sections of 040 acres each, and under the law the Department 
of the Interior is authorized to withdraw 19 of these sections. 
but it has not done so, according to the Anchorage Daily 

The mine inspector, Sumner S. Smith, who has been in con- 
ference with Franklin K. Lane in reference to the leasing 
regulations, is of the opinion that the entire field, with the 
exception of Government reservations, will be open to lease. 
Applicants can go on the ground and designate any area they 
desire to lease, subject, of course, to the usual mode of pro- 
cedure. Regulations governing the leases are based upon the 
idea of the immediate development of the coalfields on an ex- 
tensive scale, and to prevent speculators from getting hold of 
the land. Those who are willing to spend the most money on 
the development of a mine will be given the preference in the 
granting of leases. Mr. Smith believes that the coal can now 
be mined on a workable basts, and an important resource of 
Alaska fully developed. 

Reports from Anchorage state that a large number of men 
are going to the new placer strike at Tolstoi in the Innoko 
district, many centres in the Kuskokwim valley losing their 
population, Dogs have risen in price 200%. As usual, opinions 
differ as to the prospects of the ground. A town-site has been 
laid-out at the mouth of Boob creek. The distance by water 
from Iditarod to Cooper, the new town, is several hundred 
miles, but the diggings can be reached by dog-team traveling 
cross-country in a 60-mile journey. 


Satisfactory progress is reported in construction of the 
treatment plant of the Alaska-.Tuneau company. At the coarse- 
crushing plant concrete work has been completed, and steel is 
now being erected. Good progress has also been made with 
concrete work on the mill and power-plants. 


Cochise COUNTY 
Water from the precipitating plant at the Lowell mine of 
the Copper Queen is to be pumped into stopes containing low- 
made sulphide ore to dissolve the copper. This will be re- 
turned to the surface for precipitation on iron as usual, and 
returned to the mine continuously. 

Gh.a County 

It is reported in Boston that the Old Dominion company is 
to spend $1,000,000 on additions to its mill, power-plant, and 
smelter, also for residences. This will be spread over some 

At the Inspiration mill some of the sections are treating 
over 1000 tons per day each; their rated, capacity is 800 tons. 
Improvements to the Many mills have helped to do this. The 
last of the Colorado and Joe Bush ore-dumps have been 
Cleaned-up and sent to the mill. Underground work is evident 
by the large craters forming on the surface near the shafts. 
Drainage of the orebody is well ahead of stoping. 

Grekni.kk County 

Although the Arizona Copper Co.'s employees have signed 
an agreement with their employers, as did also those at the 
other mines in the Clifton-Morenci district, yet last week 
some men at the Coronado mine, Humboldt mine, and No. 6 


concentrator called a strike without authority. A Mexican 
mucker at the Coronado, considering that he had done enough 
work for the shift, downed tools before the regular time; 
others followed his example. After some argument with the 
superintendent, this resulted in the mine being closed. The 
grievance committee investigated the trouble, two men were 
discharged, and the mine resumed. At the Humboldt a man 
was discharged for some reason, whereupon the next shift 
refused to work unless he was re-instated. The grievance 
committee's efforts were fruitless, and the mine, with the 
concentrator, was shut-down. Eventually the difficulty was 
settled, and operations re-started. 

.luh I T'li. 


m uuoor* Ooi m< 

[ration, Dotmtlon, and cyanldallon, la to 

Hon vn Ooi an 

Mtman li 
confined in the -miiiu rn and. particularly 10 thai pan 
an the Pioneer rein system This formation extendi Into the 
Oatniau Monet* from lilt Arizona Tom Reed. Work 11 till 
latter is still largely , but Mine ■ have 

been obtained The main shaft is down 100 tl . and 
assay iiu iround $i" has baan ent Greater depth will be 

■ I a- on Ihr sain.' vein in tin- Pioneer Rood ore was 
! until depth waj reached. On the 200 and inOft. 

In thi Piont re la being rollowod toward the Arizona 

Tom Reed ground with good results. 

Another active property is the Paramount, joining the 
r on the southeast. At present the principal work of 

moan) la confined to tl vet ion of surface plant at 

the main shaft, which is sunk directly on the vein, Kx- 
cavating is under waj at the mlll-alte and for the hoist. A 
contrast has baan let for a 60-hp. electric hoist, and It Is ex- 
pected that the transformer will he running in BO days. Two 
shifts are working In the mine. The shaft is down To ft., and 
Is t.i be sunk tn :5<>m ft. The drift at this point will be watched 
with Interest, as it will settle several theories regarding tin- 
formation of the vein system In the southern end of the dis- 
trict In the Paramount the drift will he driven toward a 
Junction of several well denned and proved veins, one coming 
from the Arizona Tom Reed and the Pioneer, and others from 
a more southerly direction. The question is whether high- 
grade ore will be found at this junction. 

The vein system of the southern end of the district is pe- 
culiar and interesting. It comes from the east in the Lexing- 
ton Arizona as one large lode, which branches out in that 
property to big veins, one of which passes into the Boundary- 
Cone and the other into the Paramount, both of which proper- 
ties Join the Lexington on the west. The more southerly vein 
again branches out in the Paramount, one of which goes into 
the Pioneer and the Arizona Tom Reed and others in a more 
southerly direction. As yet but little prospect work has been 
done on these junctions. 

(latman. June 10. 

The Elkhart gold-silver-lead mine in the Chloride district 
has been acquired by the A. S. & R. Co. The property has a 
past production of $1,300,000, and has been idle for 12 years. 
The workings are flooded, and unwatering is under way. The 
Tennessee zinc mine adjoining is owned by the U. S. S. R. & 
H, Company. 

Yavapai County 

In the Shamrock mine of the New State group of claims, S 
miles south of Prescott, 6 ft. of $19. 14 in. of $276 ore, and a 
dike of $7 gold ore has been opened. This is one of the best 
developments for some time. A number of promising mines 
are near-by. 

In an interview with the Jerome News, W. A. Clark of the 
United Verde company said: "We will increase the output of 
our plant here as soon as the all-steel fireproof smelter at 
Clarkdale is placed in full operation. The smelter is the 
latest word in the construction of a metallurgical plant. More 
houses will be built at Clarkdale. Additional school facilities 
will also have to be built, but I never regret money spent for 
schools. Butte, my home city, has more schools and better 
equipment than any town of its size that I know. In Jerome, 
arrangements will have to be made to take care of the addi- 
tional force that will be employed when the smelter is in posi- 
tion to operate at capacity. The Verde district certainly has 
encouraging prospects. A few good mines will result from the 
numerous corporations that are forming here this year." 

Ibla that 111.- s. >• 

i ha plant i 


\l Mlli.S COI M * 

The north 10,000 lb. ol ore during 

May Seventeen ol the rortj minis produced ilni 

which was shipped dlreol a.1 Rush the fellow Rosa mine has 
■ 100 l"ii null at work. 


lit i ll OOUHTI 

Tin- Hear Can] langaneao mine at Clipper Mill 

closed on account ol ■ dispute between tha owner, o, v. 
and the Noble Electric Steel Co., which is operating it for its 
smelter at Heroult, Shasta county. The ore Is li i Kit gradi 
Woolley la opening a good deposit of chrome Iron near-by. has Cot Ml 

i special Com i lence.)- The MoKnlghl Mining Co., op- 
erating the llamby mine, is making many surface Improve 
mcius. A Saii-cu. ft. Sullivan compressor and motors have 
been Installed. A 20-stamp mill, with concentrators and aural 
gamator, are almost completely erected and housed In a corru- 
gated-iron building. Electricians are nearly through with the 
wiring and the plant will soon be ready for work. The hoist 
for the present will be driven by steam generated with fuel- 
oil. It is contemplated in the near future to use a motor, 
using steam as auxiliary power. Luther Everltt Is superin- 

The Mokelumne Mines Co., a subsidiary company of the In- 
ternational Investment Syndicate of Los Angeles Is now 
operating the Easy Bird mine at this place, together with ad- 
jacent property, covering an area of 400 acres. A 457-cu. ft. 
Ingersoll-Rand compressor, driven by electric power, has been 
installed. A 75-ton plant with amalgamators, concentrators, 
and classifiers will be installed soon, and a cyanide plant for 
treating concentrate on the ground, may he erected. A con- 
tract has been let to John Casey and Herbert Blais for the 
construction of a road from the mine to the public, highway, 
whereby freight to and from the mine may be hauled to 
Martel station by auto-trucks. For the present ore will be 
milled from the upper workings, above the adit-level, where a 
good body of $8.50 ore has been blocked out. Work will soon 
be commenced on a three-compartment shaft, by raising from 
the adit-level about 350 ft. to the surface and by sinking from 
the same point. An electric hoist will soon be installed. A. M. 
Howat is superintendent and H. J. Wendler is manager. 

Work, Sharpe, and Reade are re-opening the Nuner adit in 
Stockton hill. This is a 2000-ft. tunnel into the Ancient Chan- 
nel mine, and it is expected that the gravel will be reached 
about July 1. The property is equipped with a Boise gravel 
mill, which has a capacity of about 90 tons per 24 hours. 
Water from the Mokelumne Hill canal will supply power and 
for washing the gravel. H. E. Sharpe is in charge of the 
underground work, and F. B. Work will attend to surface 

Mokelumne Hill, June 19. 

Kern County 

The Baltic mine and mill and the Buckboard claims near 
Randsburg have been sold to Los Angeles people headed by 
A. O. Hunsaker, J. C. Woodmancy, and L. H. Harrod for 
$100,000. The mill is to be remodeled. 

Nevada County 

At Ormonde, above Washington. 160 acres of patented 
ground has been acquired by the Columbia Consolidated 
Mines Co., of which E. C. Klinker is manager. The company's 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

•lulv 1. 1916 

area la now 430 acres. The Ocean Star and German mines 
were also bonded by the company. 

Amalgam was stolen from the plates at the Black Bear mill 
in- >r Rough and Ready last week. Quicksilver was also taken. 

Lumber and machinery amounting to $70,000 has been 
ordered by C. A. Brockington of the Grass Valley Consolidated 
Gold Mines, to be used in re-opening the Allison Ranch mine. 
R I.. Hathaway, of Nevada City, will erect the buildings. The 
Taylor Foundry & Engineering Co. will supply some ma- 
chinery, Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. the electric hoist. Ameri- 
can Deep Well Co. the electric pumps, and Sullivan Machinery 
Co. the compressor, etc. 

San Bk.nito COUNTY 

A plant of 250-ton daily capacity, consisting of a ball-mill 
and tables, has commenced treating quicksilver ore at New 
Idria. Most of the ore comes from the company's San Carlos 
mine, which is of considerable promise, is at a much greater 
elevation than the plant, and is being connected with it by an 
aerial tram about 1» miles long. The cinnabar in the San 
Carlos occurs differently to that in the Idria, where narrow- 
veins are the rule. Three furnaces are also at work treating 
over 300 tons daily. 

Shasta Corvrv 

Zinc ore amounting to three carloads daily is leaving Ken- 
nett for smelters in Kansas. A car of blister copper is sent 
East every day. 

The Mammoth Copper Co. is to erect an electrolytic plant 
to treat the zinc fume caught in the furnace flues. Wages 
will be lower in June on account of the drop in price of copper 
during May. 

Sierra COUNTY 

For the sum of $5200, part of the North Fork-Wisconsin 
property near Forest has been purchased by the North Fork 
Mining Co. Both companies had claims on one another and 
settled disputes amicably. The Wisconsin is to open its gravel- 
claim from a certain point, while the North Fork opens Its 
vein through an incline. D. E. Hayden and G. F. Stone are 
the respective managers. 

Solano County 

A farmer, W. Hawhuth, and others have erected a large 
drilling outfit Just north of Vallejo. A hole will be put down 
to 1700 ft. to test the ground for oil. The prospecting will 
cost $"<> 000 

Trinity COUNTY 

From Its property near Wild Wood the Manganese Company 
of California is to extract 10,000 tons of chrome ore this sum- 
mer. This will be carried on auto-trucks, over a road to be im- 
proved to Redding. 

Yuba County 

Near Parks Bar on the Yuba river the Yukon Gold Co. has 
Tin men constructing its new dredge. 


rii ub Creek Colnty 

(Special Correspondence.) — Flotation at the Argo mill, 
Idaho Springs. Colorado, is giving remarkable results. Cus- 
tom ore containing copper, lead, gold, and silver yields 94'J 
of its metal-content. A good recovery is made on carbonates. 
Free gold is also said to be floated. The medium is S5% of 
Wyoming fuel-coal and l'v; of pine-oil. 

Idaho Springs. June IS. 

At Georgetown the Capital mill is working regularly. 

Gunnison County 

At Vulcan tin- Vulcan Mines & Smelter Co. has blown-in a 
new furnace. Sulphide copper ore from the Vulcan-Good Hope 
mine is to be reduced. C. H. Mace is in charge. 

Lake County (Lkadvtlle) 

At a point 1700 ft. from the portal of the Valley adit in 
Prospect mountain, and at a depth of 150 ft. below it, iron- 
silver-munganese ore has been cut by the Interior shaft. A 
5U-ton lot was sent to the Arkansas Valley smelter at Lead- 
ville. This development is of great ini|>ortance to the district. 

At the Wolftonc shaft the water is down 100 ft. below the 
SOO-ft. level, leaving SO ft. to be drained. 

The Penrose shaft of the Down Town property has been 
unwatered to the bottom, namely, 874 ft. Work commenced 
on May S. 1915. A Providence Manufacturing Co. centrifugal 
pump of 3000-gal. capacity, against a 900-ft. head, is being in- 
stalled. It is to be driven by a 650-hp. G. E. motor. The pres- 
ent flow is 1700 gal. per minute. 

Oubay County 

The Benack Mining Co. is to drive a new adit, 500 ft. below 
the present outlet. 

Summit County 

A car of ore, 27 tons, in three lots, assaying 10.5, 97.5, and 
1470 oz. gold per ton. also some silver, worth a total of $30,000, 
was shipped last week from the Dunkin mine near Brecken- 
ridge to the Globe smelter at Denver. The sampling company 
devoted 10 days to sampling the lot. Gayman, Knorr, Whar- 
ton, and Summers are the lessees. 

Teller County (Cripple Creek) 

The well-known Cresson mine has been sold to Colorado 
and New York capital for $4,270,000. A. E. Carlton negotiated 
the deal. The Colorado men in the purchasing syndicate are 
Charles M. MacNeill. Spencer Penrose, Eugene P. Shove, John 
C. Mitchell, Harry James, and Louis Noble. 

Shoshone County (Coeub d'Ai.enei 

The Marsh Mining Co.. which has been operating near Burke 
until two weeks ago is to be reorganized as the Consolidated 
Marsh Mines Co.. capitalized for 2.000,000 shares at $1 each, 
against the 1,500,000 shares in the old company. The new cor- 
poration will take over all the holdings of the company, the 
Green Mountain Mining Co., of which the Marsh has control, 
and probably some adjoining properties, the extent of which 
has not been decided on. 

An 18-in. shoot of galena has been opened on the 1100-ft. 
level of the Hypotheek mine near Kingston. The new 125- 
ton mill is doing good work. 


Tin: Copper Cointry 

(Special Correspondence.) — The committee of Lake Superior 
shareholders of the Centennial company, formed last year to 
attempt to bring about a plan for consolidation with the 
Osceola Consolidated, has dropped operations for the present. 
They have information to the effect that G. M. Hyams of Bos- 
ton is a shareholder in Centennial, although not owning the 
stock so that it shows on the books. Under the circumstances 
they think that if they made their proposal to the Osceola — 
both corporations being under Calumet & Hecla management — 
Mr. Hyams would be almost sure to bring some sort of court 
action that would prevent consummation of the deal, no mat- 
ter how fair the shareholders of the Centennial or those of 
the Osceola might look at the proposal. Their assumption in 
that direction is due to the court action which Mr. Hyams took 
against the Tamarack's consolidation, when that plan and 
price of purchase of Tamarack stock by the Calumet & Hecla 
was considered fair by practically every Tamarack stock- 

Houghton, June 19. 

In the Tamarack and C. & H. business the latter will only 
grant until July 1 its time-limit for completing the purchase. 

.luU 1. 1916 

MININC ,...d Sdantifu I'KI SS 

Mr rJymmi would not wain an appeal iToin th< d 

('our! now In .11 lug ill' 


Th* bowed llttlt • 1 1 < - .input 

of itn' Missouri k noma district m .■ 

■I ton* of calamine, and 879 ton* .if load, av< 
lag, M>< ">»'i MO i«m ton, pi Th* total vain,. wai 


Ixtases caused DJI the heavy r.iln (6 In, from 1" SO p.m. to 

i .1 in i on .hm.' 19 amonni to 1600,000, hall ol which was al 
the mines. Three men won drowned In the Cornlluii mine, 
ihitwood. The Ormee mill, of too ton capacity, alao near 
Chltwood, »as stunk i>> lightning ami deatroyed by Bilbao- 
aural Br* There wore 1600 telophonoa put out of commission. 


Hi:>> \l.w A l l.K Cor \ i Y 

Develoimients at Copper City are reported to be encouraging. 
The Three Forks company has a shaft down 100 ft. cutting 
good veins. Good equipment has liecn erected. Power Is avail- 
able from the Montana Power Company. 


At the Butte & Superior, according to the general manager, 
J. L. Bruce, development of the 1700 and 1800-ft. levels shows 
larger and higher-grade orebodies than the 1600-ft., though on 
that level the ore-shoot is 1000 ft. long. During the last Ave 
years the mine has produced more than 1,250.000 tons of ore 
from the levels above 1600 ft., and above that depth there is 
more ore than was blocked-out when the company took hold of 
the property. Ore reserves are so large that the mine can go 
on producing zinc at its present rate of 180,000,000 lb. an- 
nually Indefinitely. The lower price of spelter has reduced 
the value of concentrate: in January the product was worth 
1101.60 per ton. In May $65.25. The May output was 11,668 
tons of concentrate from 50.6SS tons of ore. The mill is being 
re-modeled to increase the capacity by 50%. Ball-mills are to 
lie installed in place of some rolls. Foundations are being 
prepared for the new hoist and primary crushing plant. 

The Davis-Daly Is producing 100 tons of 2.5 to G% copper 
ore dally, the better grade coming from 2500 ft. depth. 

Development at depth in the North Butte is said to have 
been disappointing of late. 

The Bullwhaekcr mine is sending 100 tons of 4% copper ore 
to the Plttsmont, or East Butte smelter, daily. Regular ship- 
ments also go to Tacoma and Garfield. Development is satis- 
factory, and costs are low. 

Re-organization of the Butte & Bacorn is proceeding satis- 
factorily, nearly $264,000 being available for resumption of 


According to Victor C. Heikes of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
who recently visited Nevada, there is optimism for the future 
of the zinc-mining industry, though disappointment regarding 
the present price of spelter, among operators in the Yellow 
Pine district and at Goodsprings, who are sending out a large 
quantity of ore. There is considerable activity, also, in the 
Battle Mountain district. 

All of the ore-loading platforms are covered with ore from 
the different properties, and five dry mills are in operation. 
These use crushers, screens, and the Stebbins dry concentrat- 
ing table, and are making a concentrate that runs about 60% 
lead. In the Goodsprings district they are using caterpillar 
trucks for hauling ore, each truck carrying 30 tons of ore per 
trip. These and the narrow-gauge railroad are kept busy. 
The Yellow Pine Mining Co. is producing a heavy tonnage. 
The placer fields in the Battle Mountain district are being 
vigorously worked and extended. All of the larger properties, 
including the Glasgow & Western Exploration Co., in which 

Suit Lake mining nan nre hoatrilj Intt cotlng 

■ ■' gavsloi hi 

i, rompan) m in a prooaaa ol liquidation, and I 
Ralph, who la handling thai and, aip o oti to dhmoat • .( the 

mi mt ■ BommoT s.iiiniiit, of Ball 

Lake, is in chart* ■* goaeral in 

British ...ii. .■in. in which th* emits Orally, thread manutao- 
..!.■ Interested Th* mo ton notation mill was 

last wash on th* Battlt Mountain Minion A I nv.-lopim-i 
property In Lawla aanyon on tin- Gwrennh pi.. 

I.e. Hi., a Mali. mi on the Nevada (Vtilral railn.a.l. iiiiui 

tween Austin and Battle Mountain, a remarkable rata iuu» been 
opened by the Lemalr* brother*. The high-grade or* carrla* 

native n,,i,i and illvoi chlorides, Th* Wlnnai ca Mining & 

Mining Oo.'a 100-ton cyanide mill is about ready t.> begin op 

eratlons. Construction has lien delayed somewhat on account 
of the failure of th* transformers to arrive according to 


"Everything Is prospering in the country tributary to our 
line," according to Frank M. Jenifer, traffic manager of the 
Tonopah & Tidewater railroad In the Tonopah Bonanza. "The 

mines of the lower country around Death Valley are rapidly 
developing a tonnage that is all the more surprising since 
this is the dull period of the year. South of Beatty, I esti- 
mate there are 450 men steadily employed, and there is a good 
chance for the number to increase as more work is being done 
and more improvements installed by every company operat- 
ing. The Tecopa company has just finished its concentrator 
that treats 75 tons daily, and, in addition to this, the company 
is delivering to us an average of 35 cars a month. This com- 
pany owns 11 miles of standard-gauge railroad connecting its 
several mines with the T. & T. tracks at Tecopa. At Grant, 
12 miles east of Tecopa, I understand the company has opened 
one of the richest orebodies in its holdings. The Gunsight 
and Noonday mines are keeping up their output. At Death 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 

Valley Junction the roaster or the borax company is running 
to capacity. At Baker, 40 miles north of Ludlow, one of the 
Rigga properties is shipping three cars a week of silver-lead 
ore. The manganese mine at Owls' Head that has attracted 
so much attention was sold recently by Alexander Yeoman to 
the Mollett Development Co.. a steel concern of Massilon. Ohio. 
for $50,000. This company is shipping at the rate of 1000 
tons a month. It has put in two 30-ton Holt caterpillar trac- 
tors to haul the ore the distance of 27 miles to the railroad at 
Riggs. The Ibex at Zabriskie has been taken over jby the 
Goodsprings company, and is preparing for an output of zinc 
ore that will almost equal the production of the parent mine 
at Goodsprings. This company is putting on auto-trucks, and 
may mild a narrow-gauge line to cover the distance of 14 
miles between the tracks and the mine. The company at Car- 
bonate has had trouble in finding the right type of tractor, but 
now has secured one that is capable of doing excellent service. 
This motor came in recently, giving the company two trucks 
and tractors capable of delivering 500 tons per month." 

Clark Coin iv 

The old Umberseat mine, known as the Carbonate King, is 
employing 25 men and producing zinc ore. in charge of F. A. 
Crampton of the White Pine Mining Co. The occurrence of 
zinc ore here adds considerably to the Goodsprings belt. Lead 
is also contained in the ore. 

The Quartette gold mine at Searchlight has been sold to the 
Dupont Copper Co. of New York for $120,000. 

Ksmkrai.iia County (Goi.dfiki.d) 

Exploration in new ground is under way at 1750 ft. depth in 
the Atlanta. Other work on this and the 15S0-ft. level has re- 
vealed considerable low-grade gold-copper ore. 

Better ventilation has been secured at the Merger through 
its recent connection with the Jumbo Extension. 

Development has been resumed at the Lone Star Consoli- 
dated in charge of Emory Arnold. Work was started at 225 
ft. depth. The Silver King mine at Hornsilver has been 
acquired by A. H. Elftman and Eastern people. 

Lincoln County 

At Freiberg, 65 miles west of Pioche, the Alamo Mining Co. 
has opened gold-silver-copper-lead ore in a limestone-diorite- 
porphyry contact. This is a new and promising area. 

Washoe Counts 
LaBt week the Union mine on the Comstock produced ore 
worth $15,000. This included 112 tons of $71.05 and 155 tons 
of $34.81 ore from the 2400-ft. level, and 50 tons of $1S.43 ore 

from 2500 ft. The Mexican mill treated 389 tons averaging 

$39.20 per ton. The Sierra Nevada continued repair work 

at 2400 and 2500 ft. The Ophir and Con. Virginia advanced 

drifts at 2700 feet. 

Josephine County 
Grants Pass people are trying to re-start the Takilma 
smelter, which has been closed since 1908. About $4000 is re- 
quired to overhaul the plant, which is of 100-ton capacity. 
Ample ore is available. 


Lawrence County 

Gold ore is again being extracted at the Wasp No. 2. On 
account of water from recent rain, mining was suspended for 
several weeks. Dividends since January 1 total $100,000, 
mostly derived from wolframite production. 

The value of the gold, silver, and lead produced in South 
Dakota in 1915 from 33 productive mines, 10 of which were 
placers, amounted to $7,507,782. compared with $7,431,343 In 
1914, as reported by Charles W. Henderson, of the rj. s. Geo- 
logical Survey. 



At the Lakeview zinc-lead mine on Promontory point there 
are 90 men employed. The May output was S00 tons netting 
$16,000. Dividends, including $5000 on May 12, total $100,000 
since October last. The lead ore averages 26%, and zinc ore 
32% metal. 


I Special Correspondence. I — Under the direction of Forbes 
Rickard. H. M. Byllesby & Co. of Chicago has opened a large 
tungsten deposit near Lovelock. Nevada. Five hundred tons of 
scheelite has already been shipped to the plant of the Utah 
Minerals Concentrating Co., at Eureka, Utah. Operation of 
this mill has proved quite satisfactory to the management. 
Already several hundred tons of tungsten ore from different 
producers in Nevada and northern Utah have been treated. 
The management attributes the success of this plant to the 
elimination of stamps in favor of rolls. The extraction has 
been from 70 to 83%, which is expected to be increased. As 
it stands now the plant is probably doing as good work as 
could be expected, considering the class of ore received for 

Ogden, June 18. 

Millard County 

Sawtooth is the name of a new gold-copper district. 45 miles 
south-west of Oasis on the Salt Lake Route. 30 miles north of 
the Beaver County line, and 50 miles east of the Utah-Nevada 
State line. The altitude is 8000 to 9000 ft. There is plenty 
of water and timber near-by. The veins are mostly found on 

Salt Lake County 

An extensive deposit of molybdenite has been developed at 
the Alta Gladstone mine in the Little Cottonwood district. 
About 400 sacks are ready for milling. F. Redmond and L. S. 
Besley are lessees. 

In Big Cottonwood canyon the American Consolidated Cop- 
per Co. has cut 30 in. of copper ore at a point 1200 ft. in from 
the portal of the adit. 

Summit County 

Further trouble is brewing for the Silver King Consolidated 
at Park City, whereby Solon Spiro, one of the directors, and 
the company are sued by J. C. Dugan for the return to the 
company of 72,1808 shares and $87,205.20, plus 20,000 shares 
and $20,000, alleged to have been wrongfully obtained and 
appropriated by Spiro. The plaintiff owns 9000 shares in the 
company. The details are somewhat complex. 


British Columbia 

Ore sent to the Trail smelter is increasing in volume. In 
the week ended June 19 the total was 10,826 tons. For 23 
weeks the total is 224.472 tons. 

A large quantity of zinc carbonate ore is being opened in the 
Hudson Bay mine near Salmo. Shipments of 60 tons daily 
average around 30% metal. The cross-cut adit to open the 
vein at a depth of 1750 ft. is in 600 feet. 

During April the Standard Silver-Lead company at Silverton 
received $95,115 from 729 tons of lead ore and concentrate, 
also $26,S47 from zinc sales. The profit was $86,773. The 
surplus is $320,936, after distributing $50,000. 

On June 30 the Hedley Gold Mining Co. pays a quarterly 
dividend of 3%, plus 2% extra. 

The Beaver Consolidated shaft is down 1630 ft. Cross-cut- 
ting is to be done at 1600 ft. to explore above and below the 
contact. At 530 ft. a 4-in. shoot of rich ore has been opened 
for 20 ft. A flotation plant may be added to the mill. In 

.luU 1 1916 

MINING and Scienlifi. I'KI SS 

M»> i' ■ r to storage, and i" s 

|91 1^1 On A; flint 

|l 0| the quarter .- ii «t.-.t M.n :l || 

Ol <!t'M-]<i[<IIH'll(. 

Tin' Silver King mine in iiif m.i>.i diitrtel has been ^ ■ • i «i bj 

T. Ali: .vi... an.l McGinn, wall Known In 

the Nonli Winn ih>. mini. 1b in order an.l roads pai labia, n 

tona li expected, During the winter 
Aitkin mined 1700 bona worth op to I-' 1 " 1 par ton. Thl 

Is considered one of the most Important In years. 


I In- Beoul Mining CO. re|>ort3 the following results (or May: 


' rata 95,660 


wort awl fippftfn/m/m/i. Tin i^'*i(k.h u .nlmrfi^ 

Total recovery $144,800 


Operating profit JS9.S00 

Copper Is i air ii la i ■■. I at ISc. per lb. The recovery of this 
metal was 99.6' .. 

The Oriental Consolidated company's May yield was worth 



Practically all Americans have left Cananea. Their de- 
parture was made quietly and secretly, the Mexicans being in 
the dark as to movements made. General Calles issued a note 


to the Mexican population ordering them to respect the 
Americans and their property. 

Americans from EI Tigre are also in Arizona. Loyal 
Mexicans will continue to operate the mine and mill until 
compelled to suspend work. Bullion was brought across the 
border safely last week, also concentrate from Nacozari. 

Many hundreds of Mexicans are passing through Agua 
Prieta on their way south. 

The Lake Superior Mixing Institute will not hold its usual 
August meeting, but will meet January 20, 1917, when the iron 
mines are not so busy, for making a trip to Birmingham, 

MvaoN l. s. w i - 1 1 baa returned i" Bmunler, Colo: 
Horaci v wi\.iihi paaaad through Ban \ > 
lone -i. 
ltoniKi HAWxatmai Balled from New fort for Nicaragua 

on .Inn. 

O. O. Km.iii.iu has returned for a visit in the United states 
from Sardinia. 

Siiiili.N llllirn was married on .Inn.- 24 lii Miss Man Rand 

of Minneapolis. 

IImm.imi BfkBB Is with the Keweenaw county road rum 
mission. Michigan. 

\V. II. Si win lias opened an office in the Krlsc building. 
Lynchburg, Virginia. 

R. B. BBINSMADI lias returned from Mexico and Is at Bt 
Louis, 1429 Morgan street. 

in .ii Rose, resident manager of the Santa Gertrudis, is at 
Wllliamstown, Massachusetts. 

J. D. Si'iitu has resigned as mining engineer to the Tom 
Reed Gold Mines Co., Oatman. 

P. S. Hauby, mill superintendent of the Seoul Mining Co. 
of Korea, is at the St. Francis hotel. 

E. Fi.emino L'Enole has been appointed manager of the 
Royal Zinc Co. at Joplin, Missouri. 

R. S. Pratt, superintendent of the lola zinc mine 
in Kansas, recently visited at Houghton. Michigan. 

A. J. CLARK, who is operating tungsten mines at 

Bishop, California, was in San Francisco this week 

Harrison A. Dunn, a graduate of the Michigan 

College of Mines, is reported to be in prison in 

Mexico City. 

P. J. Jansen, manager of the Simau mine, Suma- 
tra, Dutch East Indies, is here on a metallurgical 
journey of observation. 

Frank A. Love has been appointed superintendent 
of the Elkhart mine, at Chloride, Arizona, recently 
acquired by the A. S. & R. Company. 

F. W. Sperr is attending the annual meeting of 
the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Educa- 
tion held at the University of Virginia. 

W. E. Tiiorne has entered into a new contract for 
two years more with the Lenskoie Company of 
Siberia, for selecting dredging and hydraulic ground 
and sampling same. 

Tiiko. C. Denis has been released from service in 
the French army at the request of the Canadian 
government, and will reserve his position as Super- 
intendent of Mines in Quebec. 
Albert Dickson, of San Francisco, secretary to the Wash- 
ington Mines Development Co., of Douglas, Arizona, was shot 
and probably fatally wounded June 21 in an ambush fight with 
a band of Mexicans near Cumpas, State of Sonora, Mexico. 

H. Kenvon Burcii, chief engineer of the Inspiration Con- 
solidated Copper Co., has completed his work pertaining to 
the design and construction of the plant, and will leave on 
July 1 for an extended vacation trip throughout the East. 
His forwarding address for the next few months will be care 
the Sierra Madre Club, L. A. Investment building, Los Angeles. 

The Editor will be grateful for occasional good photographs 
of subjects relating to mining and metallurgical operations. 
They should be printed on glossy paper. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 



San Erranclsco, June -~- 

Aniii per pound -" 

: t olytic copper, cents per pound 89.60 

Pig lead, cents per pound 7.25 — 8.25 

Platinum: soft metal, per ounce $75 

Platinum: hard metal. 10% Iridium, per ounce $79 

Quicksilver: per flask of 75 lb $85 

Spelter, rents per pound 15 

Tin, cents per pound 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 30 


San Francisco, June 27. 

Antimony: 50% product, per unit (l r '< or 20 lb.) $1.26 

Chrome: \0% and over, f.o.b. cars California, per ton. 12. 00 — 14.00 
Manganese: 50% product, f.o.b. cars California, ton. 20.00 

Magneslte: crude, per ton 7.00 — 10.00 

and over, per pound 0.60 — 1.15 

Tungsten: 809 WO* per unit 30.00 — 35.00 

Tungsten producers ami dealers at Boulder, Colorado, are 
more hopeful of the market. W. M. Long is paying $30 per 
unit to lessees, and $26 at the mill for other concentrate. The 
Boulder Tungsten Production *'•>■ is buying from lessees at $1". 

A mini, rate amount of business lias been done in New fork 

from $30 to $35. Russia Is reported to be a buyer at slightly 
over $30. France has been seeking t<> buy in the United States, 
Japan, and South America, despite a statement that she has a 
maxim per unit. 

B bulletin of the 1". S. Geological Survey is available. 
. 1 :n r. the averagi price "f quartz was $3.30 per ton for 
crude ami $10.66 fur around. $18.60 for trlpoll, and $ v 
• liatomaceous earth. 

Gypsum prices averaged $2,70 per ton in 1915. 

(By wire from New York.) 
June 27. — Copper is dull, re-sellers making the market 
is llrmer on export enquiry; spelter is dull and easy. 


Below are given the average New York quotations. In cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 


June 2\ 64.25 

■ 22 65.00 

- 23 65.87 

'■ 24 66.12 

26 Sunday 
'■ ■:<■> ... .. . 

" 27 66.00 

Average week ending 

May 16 76.40 

" 23 74.14 

" 31 70.81 

June 6 66.35 

" 13 64.68 

" 20 63.62 

" 87 66.49 


Jan 57.58 

Feb 57.53 

Uch 58.01 

Apr 58.52 

May 58.21 

.Tune ".t;.43 

Monthly averages 
1915. 1916. 



July 64.90 

Aug 54.35 

Sept 53.75 

Oct 51.12 

Nov 49.12 

Dec 49.27 


The movement of prices has been upward but sensitive 

quantities of silver are purchased In England and 

Europi for coinage, and there is a lack of competitive buying 

and sales from India and China, the price recedes somewhat. 

The large requirements of the mints practically guarantees 

producers a good price for their metal. Stocks in London are 

100 fine oz.. a large part of which is immobile. 

If war commences between the United States and Mexico 

1 the world's production will be unavailable. 
A 16c. dividend has been declared by the Tonopah Mining 


Prices In New York, In cents per pound. 

Monthly averages # 








July . 



. ..39.76 






Sept. . . 

. . .33.10 


Apr. . 



Oct. . 

. . .30.40 



Nov. . 

. . 88.61 



Dec. . 




Prices of electrolytic in New York. In cents per pound. 




. .27.50 


" 2.1 
" 31 

" 20 


Aug. . . . 

Sept. . . . 

age week endi 




. .14.21 

IS. 71 




. .I'.vnii 






. .14.46 







Dec. . . . 

Dividends declared are $2 per share by Granby Consolidated. 
inspiration, $1 by Isle Royale. and $4 by Osceola. Ten- 
passed its quarterly on account of trouble at its acid 

Kennerott produced 10.500.000 lb. In May, Granby Consoll- 
i,::'T,'.'_ , :i lb., an.l Miami. 4.600,000 pounds. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 


1 6.85 

" 88 6.80 

!8 6.76 

" 24 6.76 

25 Sunday 

■• 26 6.75 

" 27 6.76 

Average week ending 

Mav 16. 

" 31. 

June 6. 

" 13. 

" 27. 





. 4.11 
. 1. 08 

. 3.94 

Monthly averages 



: ::. 
6 77 














. 3.80 

. 3.86 

. 3.82 

. 3.60 

. 3.68 

. 3.80 



June 3.90 5.75 

The r. S. S. R. & M. Co. has declared Jl per share on com- 
mon and 87*4c. on preferred stock. 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price Is fixed In the 
open market, according to quantity. Prices, In dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds: 

Week ending 

Date. I June 13 (8.00 

May 31 75.00 ■' 20 68.00 

June 6 72.50 I " 27 85.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 39.25 

Feb 3 9.00 

Mch 39.00 

Apr 38.90 

Mav 39.00 

June 38.60 















July 37.50 

Aug 80.00 

Sept 76.86 

Oct 53.00 

Nov 55.00 

Dec 53.10 

1915. 1916. 

i;: 76 


England and 

Good sales of quicksilver have been made to 
Japan. The revival of export business in this metal and re- 
duction of local stocks tends to higher prices. 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York 
delivery, in cents per pound. 

June 8] 




24 18.00 

. il a y 

86 1340 

27 12.76 

Average week ending 

Mav 16 16.35 

" 23 

" 31 14.52 

June 6 13.20 

" 13 13.64 

•• 20 ii 

" 27 




. 5.14 

. 5.22 

Mch 5.12 

Apr 4.98 

Mav 4.91 

June 4.S4 

Monthly averages 


IS 99 


Julv 4.75 

Aug 4.75 

Sept 5.16 

Oct 4.75 

Nov 5.01 

Dec 5.40 



Tin is easy at 40 cents. 

The New Jersey Zinc Cn. has reduced prices of its three high- 
■ i iTands by Se. per lb., namely, from 25 to 17c. 24.% to 
and 24 to 16 cents. 

Juh I I'Mt. 

Ml\l\>. Soanuh. I'KI SS 

Eastern Metal Market 

n. v> June .'l. 
itlooa .hi: lower, ami tha market dull In ever) metal 
but our ■liiminiim Couaumera <x oopper, line, lead, tin, and 

.iii(unoii> a-, walling, marking time, as n were, i" 

at ■■ what u going to happen. Meanwhile prloea decline In 
the tattle attempt to action, 

Th>' oopper produoere' quotations show evidence "i soften 

ins. but op to tin scond-handa are taking what little 

m there la. To a considerable extent the Boarclty and 

Inefflelenej of labor la restraining consumption of the metals. 

■ metal-working planta In and around Newark, New 

are grappling with strikes. Common labor is bo scarce 

that unskilled men can be fussy about what kind of work 

they do. 

Zinc la neglected. The lead market is basiug some hope on 
a revival of foreign business, but so far it has not material- 
ized. Consumers of tin cannot be Interested. Antimony is 
weak at 1^ cents. 

Aluminum, alone, shows an advance, credited to ezporl 

Consumers, both domestic and foreign, are taking deliveries 
agalnsl their large purchases of recent months, and quiet is 
perhaps to be expected, but seldom has inactivity been so 
uniform in all the metals. 

The steel trade continues to find less new business. A 
peculiar phase of the situation is that Bessemer steel is more 
easily obtainable than open-hearth, this applying to plates, 
and liars. Japan has been a large buyer of ship- 
plates, while Italy has been a large buyer of pig-iron. Russia 
is buying large quantities of metal working machinery in this 
market for manufacture of all kinds, largely automobile works 
and ship-yards. The domestic machinery market is quieter, 
with the demand for smaller tools predominating. 

Second-hands have continued to make the market in cop- 
per, hut they have enjoyed but little business, with the ex- 
ception of odd and scattered lots for which they have accepted 
87c, cash. New York, where electrolytic was specified for 
prompt delivery. Lake is absolutely nominal at about 27.75c, 
although the price might be put at a lower level with safety. 
There is evidence that the producers are getting tired of the 
Inactivity, and some of them, at least, are willing to sell at 
prices not much higher than those which re-sellers ask. The 
entire market is inconsistent. The one outstanding feature 
is the intense dullness. There is no new war business re- 
ported. The belligerent countries are staying out of the mar- 
ket presumably for the reason that they are now taking de- 
liveries against their heavy purchases of a few months ago. 
As for domestic manufacturers, they are covered, in fact some 
of them have more copper than they need, especially in view 
of the unsatisfactory conditions which exist with respect to 
labor. Not only is common labor scarce, but once found it is 
inefficient and independent. Despite the fact that common 
labor is paid more than in years heretofore, workingmen do 
not hesitate to leave employment for no other reason than 
that they find the work "too hard" — work which men in or- 
dinary times are glad to do. The London market for elec- 
trolytic is dull, and the quotation is lower at £13S for spot 
(June 19). Exports from June 1 to 20 totaled 23,917 tons. 
The copper trade is, of course, watching the Mexican situation 
closely, but so far it has exerted little influence on conditions. 
It is conceded that should war be declared, production at sev- 
eral mines in Mexico might be suspended unless military pro- 
tection were provided. The consensus of opinion is that it 
would not greatly increase the demand for copper. 

There la little i • ■ saj except thai bu iwint 

in the metal. A few mall miles of prompt 

dnc have i a made al ISJIOe,, New fork, equal i" 

si. Louis. Conaumera iitim determined thai quotation! shall 

dip Still further be! they lake hold, .lulv In tO be held at 

ebOUl Ui ■.. New Yuri.. AllgUBl at 11.750., anil Sepli-n. 
1 1.30c., Inn futures are even n ed than ipot 

The London market is steady, inn Inactive, al £68 Bxporta 
in the •-•"Hi total 8948 tons. 
Bheetrclnc continues at 80c, carload Iota, f.n.b. mill, 

Dlspatchea from the Joplln, Missouri, district state that 
floods have caused many mines to shut-down, as was noted In 

the PBC8S "f last week. 

In the past few days the lead market lias been tinged with 
hope based on a slight revival in export inquiry, coupled with 

the Mexican situation. But, the fact remains that prices have 

continued to decline, and that little business has been done, on 
either foreign or domestic account. The A. S. & R. Co. con- 
tinues to quote 7c, New York, and 6.92AC, St. Louis, while 
Independents are asking 6.G2*c. New York, and G.45c St. 
Louis. Naturally the latter are taking what little business 
there is stirring. The sellers are in comfortable position in 
respect to their order books, but at prevailing prices they would 
be glad to book more business. Domestic consumers are well 
covered, however, and the war business has vanished. The 
London market is slightly higher at £31 7s. 6d. (as compared 
with a week ago). Exports for 20 days total 179s tons. 

Buying has been insignificant, and prices are lower. Spot 
Straits could be had yesterday at 40.75c, prompt delivery. 
The supply is more than ample, a fact of which consumers 
seem to be well aware. They also realize that the June ship- 
ments from the Straits Settlements will be extremely large, 
and that an over-supply may bring prices down to a still lower 
level. Until the market steadies itself activity cannot be 
looked for. The London market is weak, also that at t lie 
Straits. London dropped £4 today, (June 21) making the 
quotation £174. The market has been dull for about 7 weeks, 
and the end is not in sight. Arrivals, up to the 20th totaled 
3350 tons, and there was afloat on that day 3S77 tons. The 
encouraging feature of the situation is that consumption in 
this country is on a great scale. Tin-plate mills are filled 
with orders, most of them to the end of the year. No other 
item in steel is so active. 


The bottom has dropped out of the antimony market. 
Efforts to sell to uninterested consumers has brought the 
quotation for Chinese and Japanese grades down to 18c. per 
lb. Foreign buying is not in evidence. Some makers of 
antimony face heavy losses, for they cannot manufacture at 
prevailing prices. In many quarters it has been felt that 
ordinary grades of antimony, usually worth 5 to 7c. per lb., 
have been entirely too high. 


Good buying by Russia and Italy is credited with having 
stiffened the aluminum market, with the result that 63 to 
C5c is now asked for No. 1 virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure. 

Antimony: It is reported that South American ore is no 
longer offered. To do so would be unprofitable in view of the 
low price of antimony and the high ocean freights. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 



This Rand company will be remembered as one at whose 
mill several metallurgical experiments were made, chiefly in 
crushing. During 1916 there were 150 ordinary and 4 Nissen 
si Mm s operated, also 8 tube-mills, reducing 677,200 tons of 
ore. This averaged $9.71;:! per ton. of which 66.4", was saved 
by amalgamation. The cyanide works treated 678,160 tons of 
sand and slime assaying $3,313 per ton, with 85'; extraction. 
A Butters filter-plant was ordered. The combined actual re- 
covery of gold was 95.3%. against 96.3% by assay, according 
to the manager. Percy W. Sherwell. The year's revenue was 
£1,306,046, of which £624,632 was profit. Dividends absorbed 
£421,876. The balance for 1916 was £206,948, compared with 
li in.) 17 from 1914. Working costs were $4.90 per ton. In 1914 
the profit from 505,300 tons was £404,835, so that the past year 
showed a great Improvement. There were 47ns natives em- 

At the mine, a section of which is shown herewith, develop- 
ment totaled -7. ::'il it. The circular shaft is 2271 ft. vertical. 
Of the footage, 66% was in reef formation as follows: 
Main Reef, 45 in. wide, worth $3.30 per ton; Main Reef Leader. 

The mill treated 347,640 tons, yielding $5,117 per ton with 
recovery. Of this 59.04'; was by amalgamation, and 
33.84% by cyanidation. This is an increase, while costs de- 
creased to 91c. 

All operating charges amounted to $2,559 per ton. From the 
revenue of $1,778,959 there remained $912,380 profit. Three 
dividends absorbed $600,000. The year commenced with a bal- 
ance of $665,099, and ended with $602,560. To bring the mill's 
capacity to 45,000 tons per month it was decided to add two 
Hardinge ball-mills (to replace 10 stamps), two tube-mills, 
two Pachuca agitators, three Dorr thickeners, two Merrill 
filter-presses, an air-compressor, hoist, head-frame, etc., the 
whole to cost $282,514. 


The first of these concerns is an English company holding 
1.911.319 shares of the 2,075,000 in the Canadian operating 
company. Out of dividends received from the Mining Corpora- 
tion the English company distributed 30c. per share, or 
$460,000 in the year ended March 31, 1916. The balance for 
the current year is $58,000. 

The Canadian company owns an area of 1S3.5 acres in the 
centre of Cobalt, including the Cobalt Townsite, Townsite 
Extension. Cobalt Lake. City of Cobalt, and Little Nipissing 

Ground5toped(MainReef Leader) 
Ground included in ore reserves. u)ith main reel 



27 in. and $21.10; and South Reef, 29 in. and $14. Of the 784.- 
150 tons mined last year, the Main Reef supplied 29%, and the 
Leader 71%. There was 13.5';; discarded as waste. Reserves, 
according to the consulting engineer, E. H. Clifford, are esti- 
mated at 2,976,000 tons, worth $9.50 per ton, an increase of 
466,000 tons. The sand-filling of stopes is a success. 


This Is one of the large companies operating at Porcupine. 
Ontario, and its report covers the year ended March 31, 1916. 
The general manager is C. D. Kaeding. with C. W. Dowsett as 
metallurgist. The grade of ore increased by 82c. ore treated 
was 99,090 tons more, and costs were 43.6c. per ton lower than 
in the preceding period. 

Development totaled 17.359 ft., not including 5654 ft. of 
diamond-drilling. Exploration was fairly evenly distributed 
on the five main levels, with a zone 2000 ft. long. 400 ft. wide. 
and 700 ft. deep. Through the knowledge gained selective 
mining can be done, and 7S3.792 tons of unprofitable material 
was cut out of reserves. Reserves ate estimated at 2,600,000 
tons assaying $6.20 per ton. On No. 7 level the stoping width 
shown by the first cross-cut is 220 ft. On No. 5 and 6, near 
No. 2 shaft, there is 120 ft. width of $6.50 ore. Two new wide 
zones are being developed on No. 7. The new main shaft was 
completed to a depth of S77 ft. All development cost $307,090, 
or 60c. per ton. Mining cost 62.1e. per ton. 

mines, also treatment plants. The consulting engineer is 
D'Arcy Weatherbe, and general manager, C. E. Watson. The 
report for the calendar year 1915 covers 44 pages, not in- 
cluding plans and photographs, and contains much of interest. 
There was an average of 426.4 men employed at all prop- 
erties, who worked a. total of 133,776 shifts. Development 
amounted to 15.S16 ft., at $12.06 per ft., and 565 ft. of diamond- 
drilling. In 309.5 working days an average of 57.4 machine- 
shifts was worked per day. Stoping continued in the Town- 
site mine, and a good deal of new ore was opened, but in the 
west or Keewatin formation only a small area is available 
for exploration. In the Cobalt Lake mine the most important 
results obtained were along the Cobalt Lake fault, which pene- 
trates both the conglomerate and Keewatin formations. On 
three levels long drifts were driven, finding some rich shoots, 
largely of argentiferous niccolite. Cobalt lake was drained 
during the year, using 5 centrifugal pumps with capacities of 
450 to 700 gal. each per minute. This occupied 39 days. From 
April 12 to December 31. 1915. the cost of this work, including 
keeping the lake empty, etc.. was $25,598. The idea of this 
work was to render accessible ore under the lake. Present 
work on the Fault vein in the Cobalt Lake mine gives promise 
of finding more ore, but the future will probably depend on 
results of exploration in the north end of the property. Recent 
drilling proves that the underlying conglomerate is probably 
the deepest in the Cobalt district. Most of 1916 will be occu- 
pied in completing the work planned in this ground. Reserve? 

July 1. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

total l"l I '■'■' ton* o( ore. contain:: 
•.mall deereaaa In UN OltJ mtm- nr.- I 

egg i>t in tin- Ijii n>l 1,407,910 o«. Id 

tin' T«>w iimII .-. also I 

n» Detail Lake iimi Cobali Reduction plants treated :i 
taw ot it*\879 too* el ere, yielding 1,913,384 oi el silver; 
from tl eenl to nnelter tin- return was 1,64] 

makiiiK ■ total output ot 1,663,967 oa, The mill recover) waa 
..ui amoanted to 809,779 lb. The output ot 
silver to data la 18,671,699 oa. Tin. percentage ot extraction by 
>yaniiiiiiK ore slim.- and concentrate ellme waa 74.98. 

COBta In 1911 lor alt departments wen 910.16 |>or ton and 

per aa, of silver, agalnat 19.16 and 80.91o. In 1914 

lively. In the latter period operations were tor 9 months, 

The total Income was 91,633,682. The average price received 

for silver was 63.680. per ot The profit was $1.2X1,111 Divi- 
dend! absorbed 1618,760. The balance carried forward was 
1674,646, making a total on hand at the end of 1916 of $1.- 

Btnce April. 1914, there have been 124 properties 
of which To were examined. Of the total 100 were gold, 12 
silver, 6 copper, and 3 molybdenum. 

The Cobalt Reduction Co.'s plant showed marked increased 
efficiency, raisins the recovery from 80.94 to 86.51";^. This 
was due to improvements in milium and cyaniding introduced 
by Mr. Kairlle Table concentrate. 775 oz.. is re-concentrated 
to much higher grade, namely. 20no oz. 

Book Review 

This company controls the Lenskoie company, which oper- 
ates an extensive placer mine in Siberia. The report deals 
with the year ended September 30, 1915. The revenue from 
sales of Lenskoie shares, and dividends from same, Russian 
bonds, royalties, loan, interest, re-payment of advances by 
Lenskoie. and cash balance totaled £1,S28,174, against £1,469,- 
302. i The head office is in London). The net profit was SSO,- 
454 rubles (1 ruble = 50 cents), and a dividend of R.1.25 per 
share was paid on 1,158.297 issued. The balance to 1915-'16 
was over £250,000 greater than for 1914-'15. 

The consulting engineer. C. W. Purington, reported as fol- 
lows: The gold recovery increased by $5.68 per yard over the 
1913-M4 result, due to improvements in washing, etc., using 
American methods. At the four mines 974,234 cu. yd. was 
washed, yielding 479.937 oz. gold, valued at £1,791,944, equal 
to about $9.35 per yard. Including the gold from all sources 
the total value was £1,966,388, or $9,450,000. The output to 
date is $201,600,000. While the costs for 1914-15 are not known 
yet, the future charges are assumed at $6.S4 per yd. Reserves 
are estimated at 2,238,850 cu. yd., averaging $S.0S per yd., and 
1.821,200 yd. probable, assaying $5.32 per yd. Dredging is to 
be tried in the Bodaibo division, where 16,000,000 yd. exists. 
Further drilling is underway at that point. Costs should not 
be higher than in American dredging areas with similar 
climatic conditions. In the Nigri division is 5,200,000 yd. of 
gravel available for hydraulic-king, worth 46c. per yd. Some 
preliminary washing was done there last year. The Bulbukta 
tributary contains 4,000,000 yd. of 5c. gravel. Winter washing 
was carried on successfully with the temperature at 75° F. 
below zero. Further electric power is to be developed. Horses 
were used less, and the efficiency of men increased. The War 
had little effect on operations. 

During 1915 the Greene-Cananea Copper Co.'s properties 
yielded 13,547,575 lb. of copper, 536,657 oz. of silver, and 33S5 
oz. of gold. The net income from all sources was $1,362,606. 
Dividends absorbed $500,000. The balance was $S62,606 against 
a deficit of $3S4,20S in 1914. The continued revolution in 
Sonora was most annoying to the company. In spite of the 
small amount of development done, the ore opened undoubt- 
edly exceeded that extracted, and there were notably larger 
ere reserves at the end of the year than when work resumed. 

Kiimim- mi Minium. m.\ II, Frank Itntlr). revised 01 

H li. Head, with an Introduction bj <; T. Holloway. 19th 

edition. ThOE Murbj A: <'".. Loudon, anil |i Van N. 

Co.. New York. 1916 P 194. in.. Index i-'or tale bj the 

Mimm. \\i. Siiisiiin I'm is, Price, II 

Before the preaenl revised edition waa prepared ibis ueetol 
little work bad i s separate printings, 18 during the author*! 
life. Owing to the advance In tin subject during rei 
and the number of appendices added to former editions, altera 

tloiiB iii the new wort wen. dee 'i nacaaaarj Borne pertinent 

remark! as to the association anil value of minerals Is given In 
the Introduction. After a perusal of Part I, which Includes the 

chemistry, optical and physical properties ot minerals, crystal 

lography: and Part II. describing the mineral species, we can 
sakly recommend this as a useful and practical book, and 
quite up-to-date. A note Is given on flotation of minerals. In 
:i glossary of terms used in economic geology are to be found 
secondary enrichment, gossan, magmatlc segregation, meta- 
iiini -pliisiu. sedimentary rocks, tuff, and others frequently read 
in technical journals. 

Recent Publications 

The Caisson as a New Element in Concrete Construction. 
By O. G. Aichel. Portland, Oregon, 1916. P. 32. Plans. 

Engineering Experiment Station of University of Illinois, 
Urbana, 1916: 

Tests of Reinforced Concrete Flat-Slab Structures. By 
Arthur N. Talbot and Willis A. Slater. Bulletin 84. P. 128. 
Illustrated. Tests to determine the action of concrete and re- 
inforcing steel in floor slabs of the flat-slab type of building 

Strength and Stiffness of Steel Under Bi-axial Loading. 
By Albert J. Becker. Bulletin 85. P. 65. Illustrated. An 
investigation to determine the laws governing the strength 
and stiffness of mild steel when subjected to combined stresses 
at right angles to each other. 


ue Puira. Por Juan N. Portocarrero. P. 46. Map, illustrated. 
Boletin 55 del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, Lima. 

Physical Geography of Wisconsin. By Lawrence Martin. 
Bulletin XXXVI, educational series No. 4. P. 549. 111., map, 
index. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 
Madison, 1916. 

Students will find this well prepared publication of Interest. 

Administrative Report of the State Geologist of Virginia 
for 1914 and 1915. P. 45. Maps. Virginia Geological Survey, 
Thomas Leonard Watson, director, Charlottesville, 1916. 

Second Pan American Scientific Congress held at Wash- 
ington, D. C, from December 27, 1915, to January 8, 1916. 
The Final Act and interpretative commentary thereon. Pre- 
pared by James Brown Scott. P. 516. Index. 

Every topic of importance to the Americas was discussed 
at this Congress, this volume being a record of the proceed- 

In a neat booklet of 32 pages, 3 by 6 in., bound with 'fabri- 
koid,' the Do Point Fabrikoid Co. of Wilmington, Delaware, 
discusses 'book finish.' Leather is scarce, and an artificial 
product is necessary for books, automobiles, furniture, etc. 
Fabrikoid has proved that it wears well, and many book firms 
are using it. The materia! is water-proof and washable, also 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 


In/iirmnliim tupptini tut the manu/tieturer* 

The Kraut-Kollberg Flotation Machine 


This machine was invented and designed by Mr. Kollberg 
and myaelf at Bisbee. and since has been tried successfully at 
various other places. Patents on the machine have been 
grante.l and others are pending. Disregarding the metallurgy 
of flotation, the working principle of this machine stands in 
Dg contrast to both the agitator and pneumatic types of 
flotation apparatus. While the former effect the aeration of 
the pulp by agitating and churning, and, so to speak, beating 
the air into it. and the latter by blowing air under pressure 
through a porous medium into the pulp, the K & K machine 
effects the aeration by an original device, as simple as it is 
effective. The machine consists essentially of a long, hollow. 
cylindrical drum, mounted on a horizontal shaft. This drum 
rided with a series of longitudinal air-slots and a larger 
number of longitudinal riffles running the entire length of the 
drum. The drum is rotated rapidly inside of a close-fitting 
casing, the whole being enclosed in a suitable housing, as 
shown by the accompanying illustration. A discharge-lip 


placed tangi ntially to the periphery of the drum provides for 
taking the pulp into the frothing-box and a controllable intake 
passage at the bottom of the frothing-box provides for re- 
turning the pulp to the aeration-chamber for re-treatment. 

The operation of the machine will be best understood by 
following the pulp as it enters. The oiled pulp enters the 
aeration-chamber by the feed-pipe. As soon as the level of the 
pulp rises inside the aeration-chamber so as to touch the 
periphery of the rapidly revolving drum, it is taken up. partly 
by the adhesion of the pulp to the surface, partly by the 
skimming action of the riffles; it is taken around and im- 
mediately discharged by centrifugal force over the discharge- 
lip into the frothing-chamber. But any fluid moving at great 
speed in an enclosed passage has the tendency to produce a 
vacuum while in such passage and thus induce air-suction if 
the passage has a proper connection with the outside air. The 
pulp is moving In a thin layer at great speed in the narrow 
space between the periphery of the drum and its casing, and 
hence has the tendency to create a vacuum and thus induce 
suction, the air being drawn through the slots from the inside 
of the hollow drum. In turn, the inside of the drum is sup- 
plied with air through the open boxes through which the 
shaft passes at the two ends of the machine, as is plainly 
shown in the illustration. A further aeration of the pulp is 
effected by the suction induced by the jet or spray of the pulp 

thrown off the periphery of the drum by centrifugal force at 
the point of discharge. The pulp, thus thoroughly aerated, 
enters through a number of holes which cause it to spread over 
the entire area of the frothing-box. The mineral froth rises 
to the surface and discharges over the edge of the box into a 
launder while the pulp settles down and again enters the 
aeration chamber fqr re-treatment through passages, the open- 
ings of which are controlled by a sliding gate. These open- 
ings are so adjusted that the pulp in the aeration-chamber 
can never rise above the level where it touches the periphery 
of the drum, thus assuring a perfect aeration at a minimum 
expenditure of energy, as in this manner an unnecessary and 
power-consuming agitation, churning, or beating of the pulp is 
completely avoided. The tailing Is discharged through a 
pipe, the discharge being regulated automatically by a level- 
control, so as always to maintain the same pulp-level in the 
frothing-box. It will be seen that, as the new feed enters the 
machine at one end, and the tailing is being discharged at the 
other, the pulp gradually advances from the head toward the 
tail of the machine, describing in its course a spiral, as it is 
being re-treated repeatedly in the aeration-chamber and dis- 
charged into the frothing-box. A direct flow of pulp from the 
head end toward the tail end is prevented inside the aeration- 
chamber by rapid cross-currents, which prevent longitudinal 
currents, and in the frothing-box by a number of partitions, 
thus forcing the pulp to undergo a series of successive treat- 
ments as indicated. Except tne tailing-discharge valve, which 
is controlled automatically, there are no other valves to be 
regulated or adjusted (the bottom gate being set only once); 
therefore the machine is self-regulating and requires no atten- 
tion beyond keeping the bearings oiled properly. 

The automatic-level control consists of an overflow arrange- 
ment attached to the tail end of the machine in such a way 
thai by means of a sliding gate the overflow-level can be set at 
any desired height. As soon as the level in the frothing-box 
rises above the edge of the overflow-gate, part of the tailing 
overflows into a suspended bucket, which at its bottom is 
provided with a J-in. hole. When the overflow becomes so 
great that the inflow into the bucket exceeds its discharge, the 
bucket gradually fills with pulp and begins to exert a pull 
on a wire or string connected to the end of one arm of a 
lever, the other arm of which actuates a plug or gate con- 
trolling the tailing-discharge. In this manner, whenever 
the level in the frothing-box rises it causes the gate or plug 
of the tailing-discharge to be opened. When the level sinks 
below the overflow edge, the overflow ceases, the bucket 
empties itself and the discharge-gate closes. But now it is ap- 
parent that whenever the force exerted by the weight of the 
bucket becomes great enough to move the discharge-gate, it 
will do this not gradually but will open the gate completely 
at once. This would cause the mechanism to open and close 
the gate continually, with accompanying fluctuations of the 
pulp-level in the frothing-chamber. To overcome this diffi- 
culty, one arm of the lever is attached to a mercury dash-pot, 
that is. a hollow-iron weight suspended in a pot of mercury. 
The hollow weight is provided with a small hole at the 
bottom, which permits the mercury to run in and out only 
very slowly. When now the bucket at the other end of the 
lever is exerting a pull, the mercury inside the hollow weight 
counter-acts the pull, gradually diminishing in force as the 
mercury slowly runs out of the hole. The reverse action takes 
place when the level sinks below the overflow edges. The 
mechanism is sensitive to fluctuations in the quantity of feed 
and readily adjusts the discharge-opening to correspond to 
any variations in the feed automatically, and thus contributes 
to the ease and facility with which this machine can be 

The Western Electric Co. announces the death of Enos M. 
Barton, one of its founders, and for 20 years its president, on 
May 3. at the age of 72. 

.Ink 1. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PKKSS 



We have kept pace with the rapid development of electric mine hoist 
practice. Our experience in building electric hoists insures their capacity, 
safety, and economy in operation. Lidgerwood standard practice insures 
strength, durability, and long service. 



1000 H.P. 


More than 38,000 
Steam and Electric 
Hoists built and used 


96 Liberty Street, New York 

Philadelphia Pittsburgh Chicago 
Seattle London, Eng. 

X. B. Livermore A: <o. 
SanlFranciECo and Los Angeles, Cal. 2 


Study Some More Figures 


Wet grinding a feed of lVs" to %", all finer 
screened out before feeding. Product the first time 
through, no screening or closed circuit to send back 
oversize for regrinding, showed over 67 per cent 
through 4 mesh screens. Did you ever hear of any other machine doing 
one-quarter that under same conditions? Even with 4 mesh screens, 
stamps have only 3 to 4 tons capacity per horse-power per day. Ball 
mills require screening or closed circuit to send back oversize. Rolls 
require two-stage grinding with screens and elevators to do the same 

Since Phelps, Dodge & Company ordered their first Marathon Mill, 
we have received repeat orders for every one of their half dozen large 
ore milling plants; also from the American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany and many others. 

Send for full particulars of both coarse and fine grinding tests by 
FIERS are as superior to others as are our grinding mills. 






First National Bank Building 


Pacific Const Office: 

160 Beale St.. San Francisco 


MINING .nd Socntik PRESS 

July 1 

• Mad* in the U. S. A. 

The Uncle Sam 

Mine Lamp 

On. •» Ik. J-.I..I. I». 

It M feature* never before incorporated in a mine 

lamp. It has a removable spiral valve stem; an improved tip- 

a trouble-proof water cap. and. when desired, an 

—for use in wet mines — that protect* the rlame 

from dripping water 

. still use can- 
in half beskJi 




MH.. 1 «. 

and dans 






U S. A- 

w »..•. .. K.n«. .o.i-.j. ium t ,, 


2075 Sonlhport A... III 
Dw M 

■ ;"v~i i rt iin»il « . Ma4 mm Jm iu •*■'■ 
i f v.. >4 Uw C ■ 

The First Line of Defense 

linst the an t em 

I Thsj attacks' of this troub- 
lesome and pi 1} ropuiMd when \our 
ers are ; by 


the "Pion< 


e. 1 

le and >.an !•■ 


1 trill then steam ireeK and cloai - a matter of hours instead 

I A K I 
tlu- I 

i detail in ! 141 1 

Made in JERSEY CITY. N. J., by the 


I .1.1,1. .1,^ in.-: 

Job l. 1916 

MINING .,ml Sdwli6< l'KI SS 

Make Yours a "Safety - First" Mine 

By Using 



FIRING loaded bore holes with electrical currents de- 
creases the liability of accidents, increases the eliiciem j 
of explosives and reduces the cost of blasting operations. 

SIMPLICITY of design, compactness and dependability 
in operation make Du Pont Blasting Machines practical 
and popular with blasting crews. 

SAFEGUARD life and property by requiring the use of blasting 
machines for detonation of explosives. 


E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 


Powder Makera Since 1802 


The Flotation Process 

The only book printed giving practice up to 1916 


This book has had a truly remarkable reception, L600 copies sold 

before il was prillled. Ilul Hie reason is casih seen. Kvcry niinlni; 

operator, engineer and metallurgist recognizes "The Flotation 
Process" as a book to fill the need of the moment. It contains useful 
notes on methods in vogue In many districts; ii describes the ma- 
chinery necessary I'or the three methods Of dotation; tells how to 
make tests, plan and build a mill, treal dotation concentrate, gives 
primary principles and discusses development of the process. Flota- 
tion is destined to be as revolutionary and lo have a scope as much 
wider than eyunidation as CyanldatlOD was in advanced ohlorlna- 

The authors contributing to "Tin: Fi.otvtiun PaoCEBS" are among the 
foremost authorities of the metallurgical fields. The; include the 
men who have brought the process to its present stage of develop- 

"THE Flotation FboOESS" is comprehensive, it Is authoritative, you 
need it. 

364 Pages. Illustrated. Buckram Binding 

Published and for sale by 




420 Market Street 



San Francisco 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 



W J.COTTON. 21° Vice Pdesr anc-Mo* 0'»«cto« 




June 15, 1916 

San Francisco, Cal . 


We want to thank you for having catalogs and prices 
on transits sent to us. 

Without the aid of your Service Department it would 
have been necessary for us to have written to the manufac- 
turers, which would have meant a delay of weeks. 

Very truly yours, 

Yellow Aster Mining & Milling Co. 
(Signed) C. H. Fry, Supt . 

This letter needs no comment. It graphically illustrates 
a phase of M. and S. P. Service that is of vital importance 
to every reader. The next time you are in the market for 
anything, from a hundred feet of fuze to a heavy-duty 
hoist, save time and trouble for yourself by writing or 
wiring to M. and S. P. Service. 

.Inly 1. 1916 

MINING and Scientific I'KI SS 



Mine Pumps 

IK four mine is electrleallv equipped, it is to your 
advantage to gat fully acquainted with PRESCOTT 
Duplex Power Pumps before making your installation. 

We are specialists on Mine Pumps and every machine 
turned out by us embodies our knowledge of wbat mine 
pumps must do, gained by years of experience In this 

PRESCOTT Pumps are operating under every condi- 
tion to be found In a mine, and our experience and 
success enables us to recommend to you the proper 
machine for your particular requirements. 

Send us your specification* and ask 
for copy of our CATALOG P10S-32. 


Successor to Fred M. Prescott Steam Pump Co. 
US Brosdwsy, New York Works: Milwaukee, Wis. 

Branch Offices In all Principal Cities P179.2 

Meets Every Requirement 
of a Mine Sinker 

Every condition of economy and 
efficiency in operation are met by 

Mine Sinker Pumps 

They occupy smallest space In 
the shaft, and are perfectly bal- 
anced, so that they do not require 

They are suspended by cables and 
sheaves from a hoisting drum at 
the surface, so that they can be 
quickly raised or lowered. 

They are so designed that motors 
will not be overloaded under vari- 
able head, which is an important 
feature in a centrifugal pump in 
shaft service. 

Grit-proof bearings are provided 
above and below impellers, so that 
It Is impossible for grit to get into 
the main bearings. 

They are automatically primed, 
and possess many other features 
which insure greatest economy in 

Tell us your requirements. 
Ask for Catalog 132. 

The American Well Works 

General Office and Works : Aurora, III. 
Chicago Office : First National Bank Bde. 


A Simple, Strong, 
Durable Mill at a 
Moderate Pi ice 

Lining made of sptegellzed Iron, self-locking, no bolts 
through shell. Scoop feed, trunnions, equipped with 
spiral feed and reverse spiral on discharge end. 

The capacity and horsepower can be varied from above, 
depending on the steel ball charge, and Is based on IH to 
2-Inch feed, and product 12-mesh and finer. 

Capacity. Diameter Width Revolutions Horsepower BalU to 

Tona Dei Mil], Mill, per Chanje 

Hour Feet Feet Minute Poundi 

20 6 6 26 65 9,000 

13 6 4 26 46 6.000 

17 6 6 27 65 7,000 

15 5 6 27 45 6,500 

12 6 4 28 40 6,000 

10 4 5 29 38 5.000 

6 4 4 32 15 2.500 

3 4 3 32 12 2,300 


1732 Wazec Street, Denver. Colorado 

"It's a 


■NH MfH 

Waugh Stopers will 

■^fc* ^sJH 

drill the greatest foot- 


age on the least air 

i V5l 

with the minimum 

breakage of steel and 

R ''-^l? 

cost of upkeep. Their 


reliability, ease of rota- 

tion and simplicity of 
construction have made 

, -jffwm^h. 

them deservedly pop- 


ular with the miners. 

They are designed in 

different sizes adapted 
to all classes of rock 


and for either high or 

«Sk!Sj-»J&V : .._*V 

low air pressures. 

-|l£Vy\ww \^^A)v^l \\&#w^.vw«\ Q- 

New York El Paso DENVER, COLO. Salt Lake Sealde 

San Francisco Houghton Bulte Joplin Kingman, Ariz. 


MINING and Scientific PRF.SS 

July 1, 1916 




-ii i 


Till fact that dredging e purchased 

to infrequently i. one "I the strati 

Wr klx -W I'll" pUT ' 

Ki < mi i -.( tin , v.' Ii , I th.n 



ill. .ii tin f.i< i tii.ii t. . hnicc uf Brim who 

i pin "f El i illcy »<» know in ad 

tll.ll rr : 

bi r. quln -I "t it , hem i 

whatever you buy from th! rill be njgA/.mi 

' work. 

M - - 

■" ■" ^^"»Allm,l,., 1 bll '•«". N" w V.,,1., Snn liiiMllKi.. Smith 



Made in 3 Size* 

Mid o to no to OUI 

/( is ;i Ion;; w:i\ Inmi <>\-U-;uilS tO ailtO- 

tnobiles, and about the same distance 
between old Btyle ore-milling machinery 
ami ;i Denver Quartz Mill. 

The Real Cost Is: 

First Cost Plus Upkeep 

Posl yourself mi the efficiency <>f our pul- 
verizing machinery bj reaalng our (iiiiiloj; 
So 12. Ask for ii 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

216-217 Colorado Building, Denver, Colorado, II. S. A. 



Iron Cements 

Positively stop all leaks of steam, 
water, fire or oil, in iron, steel or 
concrete. They are easy to apply, 
harden quickly and make perma- 
nent repairs, proved by yt ars in use. 

Every engim ier should have a 
copy of our instruction book. 

Smooth -On Mfg. Co. 

Jersey City, N. J., U. S. A. 

Send for New 
No.15 Illustrated Instruction Book 

Here s Real Power 
With Real Economu" 

.. i,. i, i at flon'l buj merely a o.r- 

-I I-. ■ S i . '•'"' I' >'"" 

lool .i. i pi! >"i" thll "> i' I ■"" ' ■ 111 ll " ■ 

Bessemer Oil Engine 

( \wnrdod Gold Mi rtal Pannmi P&otfli I pa ttloii < 

i ,,, ii,. in ..* ...i . i ' 

i.i ■. ; ' i '■ ""i tuol 


oi i- ." Ii 

n outf ooata, '-niM in . I where n i» Inat&Uod 

in i ..I. n .■ I..- ■ leal r i 

Of Hi,. 


oni eompleta tine : Fuel Oil Enginci from i i in 185 

II. I'. Gat Kni ^ll.V. Keratin* Enjina, 2 

i,> 8 H.P, 

The Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

34 York Street Grove City, Pa. 

llcmM'im-r Knaliipw Hiuutlim '1'inliiy 
In SKIct'n Tlimitniitl rn»rr I'lmilw. 


MINING ...J Sorniiftc PRESS 


Putman Boots Shorten the Long Miles 

Mai u. ,_U< mi „„,. OUm aal W.i ka.... .«>,. 

an ia S J aMMB tw I ,.J tad Maa* lAMNIt ft" I ■ 

—I —I. m<J rW ...... "IV- 

• .. M»S l-i iaaa.l l . kW* 

k. JaaV illi ill 'k-f 

Comfort Shoe, for Active Men 

- Amy >*** ii iV- i 

|..rt.U. .aaraj a— kaan Mai, o. the 

a* . iS n. tai fcai* 
xkIuiiI Ji«. MW > oal. aa. •« *• 
am aaoaaV liiig-l d*»i ikra. a »• 
PWHi CaiMocar 

It.. I'ulman lloot A Shorlo. 
Minartpoaa. Hkna. 

.attralaaai ki 


Stanufacturtd by 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co. 






Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 

WORKS: MuTsriDe. Cal. SALES OFFICE: 433 California St.. Sao Francisco. Cal. 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend 





Rock Breakers 

Blake Pattern : Dodge Pattern 

Manufactured by 



Send for Catalog. 


Blue Center Rope 

i- nol rccoinnu'iidtx] i 

Thin' an.' ii 

which other make* <-\ Roebting (tope will answer better. 
But for heavy hoists and haulages, for dredging. logging, 
and other purposes where the nervice la html on wire rope, 
Blue Center Rope \- to bo preferred. 

John A. Roebling's Sons Company of California 

i Franc iftco 

Lo« Angeles 
Portland, Ore. 

Turbine PUMPS Centrifu 8 al 

Where the service is hardest you will find the Jackson. 

HYiie for Catalog iVo. t&-z 

Byron Jackson Iron Works, San Francisco 


Mont exten.lve and MticccMnful niftnufuc- 
torern. Old platen rt-plnti-d — made! 
lo new. 


1J(9-51 Mission SL, Sail Francisco E. 0. DENNISTON, Prop. 

Get our prices. Catalog sent. 

Telephone Market 2915. 

/ Sand and Slime Tables 
CONCENTRATOR Screens-Jigs— Classi- 
SPECIALTIES ( fiers— Ore Feeders, &c. 

Write lor the James Bulletins 


35 Rnnyon St. NEWARK. N. J. 






^sa*-^ SALES 

Birmingham. Ala— Box 908. 
Columbus. Ohio— 607 New Hayden Bldg. 
Minneapolis. Minn.— 840 Plymouth Bldg. 
New York City— No. I Broadway 


Chicago. III. — 509 In Nat. Bk. Bldg. 
Dallas. Tex— 1217 Praetorian Bldg. 
Kansas City, Mo— 716 Scam'tt Bldg. 
San Francisco, Cal. — 71 1 Balboa Bldg. 



Pine Oils— Pine Tar Oils— Coal Tar Oils— Wood Creosotes 

General Naval Stores Co., J 75 Front St., New York 



Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER, Pres. Guix Point, Fla. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 

JSiwHneers* Instruments 



*■ . 

Saves 20% to 
40% in Fuel 
For Work 
and Heat Units 

The Case 
Oil Forge 

(burning fuel oil) 

not only works this saving, but it possesses other 
powerful advantages. 

For instance : Drills heated in it will not scale, the 
steel remaining always in sight. 

Offsets danger from sulphurized or oxidized steel, 
and makes drills bold their edge a longer time. 

Practically eliminates noise and smoke. 

Get our descriptive catalog. More than 
one man has t>een "converted" by it. 

The Denver Fire Clay Company 

Denver, Colo. 

The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

Works; Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Cyanide 73-76% 

Cyanogen Content 39-40% 

Cyanide of Sodium 96-98% 

Cyanogen Content 51-52% 


Chemicals for Recovery Processes 

Borax Borax Glass 

Lead Acetate 

Zinc Shavings Zinc Dust 



importer San Francisco.Cal. ^porters 

Not for the 
man equipped 
with — 

* *^-*-* * V-F ^ DAVIS ) Oxygen Apparatus 

Thb apparatus has been approved by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. It has been tested and 
proved by mine operator* all over the world. It has replaced other apparatus time and 
time again. Why) Because oi certain features explained on request. "PROTO" is 
reasonably priced, sturdy. lasting, simple. Write for details. 


H. H. Fjmer, Gen. Agt., 1140 Mtmadnock Bik.. Chicago. San Francisco AgL, £. D. Buiiard, m MartelSI 
Pltlsburah Agls,, Mine Saled Appliances Co.. 541 Fourth Ave. New York Agts. Elmer & Amend, 208 Third Ave' 



• 8-SOMS • 


♦ U.S.A. » 

Tapes and 

Backed by a record of 25 years KllleS 
of dependable service. 

New York 

7h e fuFMN Rule (?o. 



For twenty years metallurgists and 
assayers have looked upon Thompson 
Balances and Weights as the acme of 

? precision. Made In a style and size 
or every purpose. 

Write for catalog;. 


Denver, Colo. 



Allis-Chalmers Co. Steams-Roger Mfg Co. 

Chicago, 111. Denver. Colo. 

Harron.Rickard & McCone, San Francisco.Cal. 
Frank R. Perrot. Sydney and Perth. Australia. 


July 1. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRKSS 

Professional Directory 



RATES: One half Inch. $25 par year, subscription Included. Combination rate with Th< Minim Mo, a, in. (London), one half Inch In each, 

$40 per year, subscriptions Included. 


a niro\ A 

Bradley. D. II . Jr 
Burch. II. Kenyon. 
DaKalb. Courtenay. 
Eye. Clyde M. 
Hind at Johnaon. 
Smith A Zleaemer. 
Tlmmona. Colin. 
Willis. Charlea F. 


Abbott. James W. 
Arnold, Ralph. 
Beauchamp, F. A. 
Bradley. Fred W. 
Brayton & Richards. 
Bretherton. S. E. 
Burch. Albert. 
Burch. Caetanl & 

Caetanl, Gelaslo. 
Caldwell. Forest B. 
Carpenter. Alvln B. 
Chodzko. A. E. 
Clark. Baylies C. 
Clevenger. G. Howell. 
Collins. Edgar A. 
Cranston. Robert E. 
Dennis, Clifford G. 
Durham. Edward B. 
Farlsh, John B. 
Gester. G. C. 
Gibson. Arthur. 
Grant. Wilbur H. 
Grunsky. C. E.. Jr. 
Hamilton. E. M. 
Hanson. Henry. 
Hoffmann. Ross B. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Huston. H. L. 
I Hyde, James M. 
Janln, Charles. 
Jenks. Arthur W. 
Juessen. Edmund. 
Klnzle. Robert A. 

Lanagan. w. H. 
Landera. William II. 
Lorlng. W. J. 
McBrlde. Will.. :i I G. 
Merrill. Charlea W. 
Merrill Metallurgical Co. 
Morrla, F. L. 
Mudd, Seeley W. 
Munro. C. H. 
Myers. Desalx B. 
Nell!, James W. 
Newman, M. A. 
Pepperberg, L. J. 
Prlchard, W. A. 
Probert. Frank H. 
Radford, William H. 
Ray, James C. 
Rlckard, J. Henry. 
Rlckard. T. A. 
Rlordan. D. M. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Scott, Robert. 
Slmonds, Ernest H. 
Sizer. F. L. 
Smith, Howard D. 
Stebblns. Elwyn W. 
Steel. Donald. 
Stevens, Arthur W. 
Storms, William H. 
Tolman, Cyrus Fisher. Jr 
Turner. H. W. 
Tweedy, Geo. A. 
Wardner. W. R. 
West, H. E. 
Wiseman. Philip. 
Woodworth. S. E. 
Wrampelmeler, E. L. S. 


Argall & Sons. Philip. 
Bancroft. Geo. J. 
Chase. Charles A. 
Chase & Son, Edwin E. 
Collins, George E. 
Dickerman. Alton L. 
Dorr Company, The. 
Farlsh, John B. 
Finch, John Wellington 
Hills & Willis. 
Lunt, Horace F. 
Rlrkard, Forbes. 


Easton. Stanly A. 
Hershey, Oscar H. 


Chase & Main. 
DeWllde. F. J. 
Hollls. H. L. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Masscy Co., George B. 


Stanford. Richard B. 


Dickerman. Alton L. 
Richards. Robert H. 
Rogers. Allen Hastings. 


Collins. Edwin James. 
Longyear Co.. E. J. 
Wlnchell. Horace V. 


Brlnsmade, Robert Bruce 
Copeland. Durward. 
Hall. R. G. 

Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Kirby, Edmond B. 
Malcolmson, Jas. W. 
Robertson. James D. 


Creden, William L. 
Greene, Fred T. 
Valerius, McNutt & 


Bristol. J. J. 
Lakenun, C. B. 
Symmes. Whitman. 
Turner. J. K. 


Kirk, Charles T. 


Aldrldge, Walter H. 
Arnold, Ralph. 
Ball, Sydney H. 
Banks, John H. 
Beatty, A. Chester. 
Benedict, Wm. de L. 
Brodle. Walter M. 
Bulkley. J. Norman. 
Channing, J. Parke. 
Clapp. Frederick G. 
Cranston, Robert E. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
Dunster. Carl B. 
Dwlght. Arthur S. 
Finch, John Wellington 
Flnlay. J. R. 
Henderson, H. P. 
Herzig, Charles S. 
Hoffmann. Karl F. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Leggett, Thos. H. 
Lloyd. R. L. 
Mein. William Wallace 
Mercer, John W. 
Mlnard, Frederick H. 
Olcott & Corning. 
Pavne. Henry Mace. 
Perry, O. B. 
Polllon & Polrier. 
Raymond, Robert M. 
Raymond. Rossiter W. 
Rogers, Allen Hastings 
Rogers, Edwin M. 
Sharpless, Fred'k. F. 
Slmonds & Burns. 
Simpson, W. E. 
Spllsbury, E. Gybbon. 
Sussman, Otto. 
Thomas. Kirby. 
Thomson. S. C. 
Von Rosenberg, Leo. 
Webber, Morton. 
Westervelt. William 

Weekes, Frederic R. 
Wllkens and Devereux 
Yeatman. Pope. 


Valerius, McNutt & 


Oregon-Idaho Inveat- 
ment Co 


Associated Geological 

Engln.-.. i n 
Chance, H. M. 
Garrey, George H. 
Garrison, F. Lynwood. 
Heinz, N. L. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Myers. Desalx B. 
Spurr, J. Edward. 


Eye. Clyde M. 

Klnnon, Wm. II. 
Nicholson, Francis. 


Fisher, C. A. 
Howard. L. O. 
Kirk & Leavell. 
Krumb. Henry. 
Neill, James W. 
Schmidt. F. Sommer. 
Sears, Stanley C. 
Talmage, Sterling B. 
Vadner, Charles S. 
Wlnwood, Job H. 


Stover. W. H. 


Bard. D. C. 
Bellinger, H. C. 
Keffer & Johns. 
Levensaler, L. A. 



Dixon, Clement. 
Dyer, S. C. 
Emery, A. B. 


Cole. F. L. 
Collbran, Arthur H. 
Macnutt. C. H. 
Mills, Edwin W. 
Vallentlne. E. J. 
Welgall. Arthur R. 


Fraser. Colin. 
Grace, William Frank. 
Jarman, Arthur. 
Smith, J. D. Audley. 


Brewer. Wm. M. 
Dodge, W. R. 

Ferrier, W. F. 
Fowler. Samuel S. 
Hitchcock. C. H. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Kirby, A. G. 
Lamb, R. B. 
Levy, Ernest. 
Simpson. W. E. 
Summerhaves. M. W. 
Tvrrell. J. B. 
"Whitman. Alfred R. 


Hartley, J. H. 

Alexander, Hill & 

Arnold. Ralph. 
Bach, William. 
Bayldon, H. C. 
Beadon, W. R. Coleridge. 
Botsford, Robert S. 
Brown, R. Gilman. 
Collins. Henry F. 
Curie. J. H. 

de Marny, E. N. Barbot. 
Drucker, A. E. 
Erdlets, J. F. B., Jr. 
Geppert. R. M. 
Holloway, Geo. T. & Co.. 

Hoover. H. C. 
Hoover, Theodore J. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Hutchins. John Power. 
Inder & Henderson. 
Inskipp & Bevan. 
Jones. Henry Ewer. 
Jones. T. J. 

Kuehn, A. F. 
Loring, W. J. 
Mayrels. L. J. 
McCarthy, E. T. 
McDermott, E. D. 
Michell. George V. 
Payne & Co., F. W. 
Pearse, Arthur L. 
Perkins, Walter G.. & Co. 
Purington. Chester W. 
Shaler. Millard K. 
Smith, Charles A. 
Smith. Reuben Edward. 
Stephenson, Geo. E. 
Stines. Norman C. 
Tellam, Alfred. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thorne, W. E. 
Titcomb. H. A. 
Truschkoff, Nicholas E. 

Weatherbe, D'Arcy. 
Wilkens and Devereux. 
Wright. Charles Will. 


Hoyle, Charles. 
Mines Management Co. 
Nahl. Arthur C. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Stevens, Blarney. 
Wllkens and Devereux. 


Bancroft. Howland. 
Chede & Company. 
Copeland. Durward. 
Couldrey. Paul S. 
Lamb, Mark R. 
Lewis, H. Allman. 
McCann. Ferdinand. 
Strauss. Lester W. 
Turner. Scott. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


July 1, 1916 

ABBOTT, James W., 

Mining KmkIih-it. 
123 N Grand Ave., Los Angeles. Cal. 


Metallurgical Engineer. 
Spokane, Wash. 

BURCH, H. Kenyon, 

Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Inspiration Con. Copper Co., 
Miami. Gila County, Arizona. 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H., 

Mining: anil Metallurgical Engineer. 

rn. B. Thompson, 
14 Wall St.. New York. 

BENEDICT, William de L., 

Mining; Engineer. 
19 Cedar St., New York. 

Burch, Caetanl & Hershey. 

CAETANI, Gelasio, 

Consulting; Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 

Cable: Caetani. Usual Codes. 


Consulting EnKlorfni anil Metallurgists 
4 Broad St. Place. London, E.C. 

BOTSFORD, Robert S., 

Mining; Engineer. 
% F. Riches, 9th Line, No. 44. 
Basil Island, Fetrograd. Russia. 

CALDWELL, Forest B., 

V. P. and Gen. Mgr. San Dimas Co.. 

San Dimas. Durango. Mexico. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 

Cable: Candelaria. Code: McNeill, 1908. 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip, 

Mining; and Metallurgical Engineer*. 

First National Bank Bdg.. Denver. 
Cable: Argall. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BRADLEY, D. H., Jr., 

Mechanical Engineer. 

Mill design. Mine equipment. Mine 


Bank of Arizona Bdg., Prescott, Ariz. 


Mining Engineer. 

508 Union League Building, 
Los Angeles. 

ARNOLD, Ralph, Cable: Ralfarnoil. 
Geologist and Petroleum Engineer. 

Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

233 Broadway. New York. 

No. 1. London Wall Bdg., London, E.C. 

BRADLEY, Fred W., 

Mining i:ni;ln,iT. 

Crocker Building, San Francisco. 
Cable: Basalt. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



Consulting* Mining Engineer. 

837 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia. 

BACH, William, 

Placer Engineer. 

■ .. I> 'n garth, Beech wood Rd., 

Sanderstead, Surrey, Kngland. 

Code: McNeill. 190S. 

Corey C. Brayton. E. R. Richards. 


Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 

CHANNING, J. Parke, 

Consulting Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 

BALL, Sydney H., 

Mining Geologist. 

71 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Sydball. Code: Bedford McNeil 


Con. Mining and Met. Engineer. 

Specialty: Smelting of copper and lead 

ores and treatm't of complex zinc ores. 

220 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 

CHASE, Charles A., 

Mining Engineer. 

812-824 Cooper Bdg., Denver. 
Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Tellurlde, Colo. 


Con* iilling Engineer. 

Mining. Metallurgy, Hydraulics. 
Bancroft Blk.. 220 Broadway. Denver. 
Cable Address: Bancroft. 

BREWER, Wm. M., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

P. O. Box 701. Victoria. B. C. 
Cable: Brewer. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

M. F. Chase. W. D. Main. 


Metallurgical Engineers. 

411 Marquette Bdg.. Chicago. 111. 


Consulting Mining Geologist. 

Symes Bdtf., Denver. Colo. 

CasiM iro, Bolivia. 

Cable: Howban. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BRINSMADE, Robert Bruce, 

Consulting Engineer. 

4429 Morgan St.. St. Louis. Mo. 

Edwin E. Chase. R. L. Chase. 

CHASE & SON, Edwin E., 

Mining Engineer-.. 

1028 First Nat'l Bank Bdg.. 
Denver. Colo. 

BANKS, John H., 

(Formerly of Ricketts & Banks) 

Mining Engineer and Metallurg.Nt. 

61 Broadway. New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

Reno, Nevada- 


Conaultlng Mechanical Engineer. 

Specialty: Compressed Air. 
647 Phelan Bdg., San Francisco. 

BARD, D. C, 

Mining Geologist. 

660 Stuart Building, 
Seattle. Wash. 

BRODD3, Walter M., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
60 Broad St.. New York. 

CLAPP, Frederick G., 

Manngino Geologist and Petroleum Engineer. 

The Associated Geological Engineer*. 

120 Broadway, New York City. 


H. C, 


□Ing Engineer. 



2, Sirdarensky 


BROWN, R. Gilman, 

Consulting Engineer. 

62, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Cable: Argeby. Usual Codes. 

CLARK, Baylies C, 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer. 

Sutter Creek, California. 
Cable: Baclark. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BEATTY, A. Chester, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

25 Broad Street. New York. 

1, London Wall Bdg.. London, E.C. 

Cable: Granitic. No professional work 

BULKLEY, J. Norman, 

Consulting Mechanical and Electrical 

Mining Work a Specialty. 
120 Broadway. New York. 

CLEVENGER, G. Howell, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
381 Hawthorne Ave., Palo Alto. Cal. 

Hamilton. Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 



Specialty: Flotation. 
4 19 Kmbarcadero. San Francisco. 

Burch, Caetani & Hershey. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco. 

Cable: Burch. Usual Codes. 

COLE, F. L., 

Mining Engineer, 

Shanghai. China. 
Cable: Hanco. 

.lulv I. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


COLLBRAN, Arthur H., 

MIuIbk Knglirrr. 

Ovneral Manager Seoul Mining Co.. 
I'yriiK Yang. Korea. 


I .moulting Mlnl.g 

D 81 . 

i.i.i." BpriAfa, • 


MlalMK i:ii|tlurrr. 

Roam SOI. (1 William si . 
New Y..rk 

COLLINS. Edgar A., 

M I ti I o * K u|( I nrr r. 

It.n l>omond. CaL 

DIXON, Clement, 

Mlalnic Kaflnrrr. 

P. O. Box 30S. Bulawayo. Rhodesia. 
Cable: Clement Dixon. Usual Codes. 


loa.tilf liiu (•roliiKlnt A I n.-l I !nKlnrrr. 

Firm Null. Ii;ink H. Ik.. li.nvor. Colo. 
Kearna Hdg., Halt Lake City. Utah. 
Cable: Ciillnli.. II Usual 

COLLINS, Edwin James, 

M i "i I nt Koslnrrr. 

aline Examinations and Management. 

1008-1009 Torrey Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H., 

CodiuKIdb Mining Knglorer. 

Specialty: Non-metallic minerals. 

1010 Flatlron Bdg.. San Francisco. 

FOWLER, Samuel S. ( 

Mining Engineer anil Metallurgist. 

Nelson. British Columbia. 
Cable: Fowler. Usual Codes. 

COLLINS, George E., 

M Inlug Knglurrr. 
Mine Examinations and Management 

*u Boston H.Ik. Denver. 
Cable: Colcomac. 


John V. N. Dorr, President. 
Hydroinetnllurglcol and W H Chemical 

Denver. New York. London. EB.G 

FRASER, Colin, 

Mining (.HilonUt. 

% Broken Hill Assoc. Smelters, Ltd., 

Collins House, Melbourne, Victoria. 


COLLINS, Henry F., 

Mining: I "tiin-.r. 

Huelva Copper 8t Sulphur Co.. Ltd.. 

Valdelamusa. Pro v. de Huelva. Spain. 

Cable: Huelvacop. Code: Broomhall. 


Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Ore Dressing. Cyanldlng. and Copper 
Leaching, Testing. Designing and Plant 
Construction. 62 London Wall. London. 

GARREY, George H., 

Consulting Mining Geologlnt and 

Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

COPELAND, Durward, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Missouri School of Mines. Llallagua. 

Rolla. Mo. Bolivia. 


Mlnlne Engineer. 

11 Pine St.. New York. 

Marquette. Mich. 

Cable: Breltanco. Code: McNeill. 

GARRISON, F. Lynwood, 

Mining Engineer. 

982 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia. 
Cable: Aurum. Code: McNeill. 


Mlulntc Engineer. 
Gen. Mining Supt. Cerro de Pasco Min- 
ing Co., Cerro de Pasco. Peru, S. A. 
Cahl*: Cerrocop. 

DURHAM, Edward B., 

Mining Engineer. 

2227 Ward St.. Berkeley. Cal. 


Mining Engineer. 

Salisbury House, London, E.C. 

Code: McNeill. 

CRANSTON, Robert E., 

Mlnlntc Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Room H08. No. 11 Pine St.. New York. 
Cable: Recrans. Code: McNeill. 1908. 

DWIGHT, Arthur S., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

29 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Sinterer. 
Code: McNeill: Miners & Smelters. 


Geological and Mining Engineer. 

919 First Nat. Bank Bdg., 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable: Gester, San Francisco. 

CREDEN, William L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examination and Management, 

First National Bank Building, 

Butte, Montana. 

DYER, S. C, 

Mining Engineer. 

P.O. Box 19. Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 
Cable: Minerals. Usual Codes. 

GIBSON, Arthur, 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
1022 Haight St., San Francisco. 












Mining Engineer. 

Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Min- 
ing & Concentrating Company. 
Kellogg, Idaho. 

GRACE, William Frank, 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. Waihi Grand Junction, 

Waihl, N. Z. 

Cable: Gracefully. Usual Codes. 

DE KALB, Courtenay, 

Consulting Engineer. Pacific Smelting 

& Mining Co., Tucson, Arizona. 
Cable: Dekalb. Code: McNeill. 

EMERY, A. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Management and Equipment of Mines, 

Messina, Northern Transvaal, 

South Africa. 

GRANT, Wilbur H., 

Geologic and Mining Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco. 

Code: Bedford McNeill, 

de MARNEY, E. N. Barbot, 

Mining Engineer. 

W. O. Stredny Prospect. 33 

Petrograd, Russia. 

Cable: Barbot deMarney. Code: McN..'08 

EYE, Clyde M., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Supt. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 
Baguio, Benguet, P. I. 

GREENE, Fred T., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Butte, Montana. 

DENNIS, Clifford G., 

Mining Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Sinned. Code: McNeill. 

FARISH, John B., 

Mining Engineer. 

58 Sutter St., San Francisco. 
315 Colorado Bdg.. Denver. 
Cable: Farlsh. 

GRUNSKY, C. E., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 

American Engineering Corporation. 
57 Post St., San Francisco. 


Mining Engineer and Geologiat. 

Galena. Illinois. 

FINCH, John Wellington, 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

730 Symes Bdg., 
Denver, Colorado. 

HALL, R. G., 

Metallurgical and Chemical Engineer. 

General Manager, 
River Smelting & Refining Co., 
722 Chestnut St.. St. Louis. Mo. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 


Hamilton. Beauchamp, Woodworth. Inc. 



Specialty: Cyanldlng Gold & Sliver Ores. 
419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco. 

HOOVER, Theodore J., 

Mining Engineer. 

1, London Wall Bdg.. London, EC. 
Cable: Mlldaloo. 


T. J„ 

Mining Engineer. 

No. 1 Nevsky 




HANSON, Henry, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 

HOWARD, L. 0., 

HlolttE Engineer. 

Examination. Consulting, Management. 
421 Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah. 

JUESSEN, Edmund, 

Mining Engineer. 
2S15 Parker St.. Berkeley, Cal. 


Mining Engineer. 
60 Broadway, New York. 

HOYLE, Charles, 

Mining Engineer. 

Apartado 8, El Oro, Mexico. 


Mining Engineers. 

Examinations, Reports and Manage 

ment of Mining Properties. 

610 Hutton Bdg.. Spokane. Wash. 

Burc h. Caetani & Hershey. 

HERSHEY, Oscar H., 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

Kellogg, Idaho. 
Cable: Hershey. Code: McNeill. 

HERZIG, Charles S., 

Mining Engineer. 

27 William Street. New York. 

Robert W. Hunt Jas. C. Hallsted 

Jno. J. Cone D. W. McNaugher 

HUNT & CO., Robert W., 


Bureau of Inspection, Tests and Consultation . 
Chlcagn-San Krancisco-New York-Pittsburgh . 
San Francisco Office. 261 Kearny >t. 
St. Louis-Montreal-London. 
Consulting, Designing and Supervising Engi- 
neers, Inspectors of Railroad. Structural and 
i ithcr Materials ami Equipment. 
Chemical. Physical and Cement Laboratories. 

KINNON, Wm. H., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

307 San Francisco St.. 
El Paso, Texas. 

KINZIE, Robert A., 

Mining Engineer. 

First National Bank Building. 
San Francisco. 

HEINZ, N. L., 

Consulting Engineer. 

Metallurgy of Zinc and Manufacture of 

Sulphuric Acid. 

1519 Oliver Bdg., Pittsburg, Pa. 


Mining Engineer. 

634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Haruston. 

KIRBY, A. G., Metallurgist. 

Mill Designing and Construction. 

Specialty: Concentration & Cyanidation 

121 Howard Park Ave.. Toronto. Ont.. 


Victor G. Hills. Frank W. Willis. 


Mining Engineers. 

Cripple Creek. 415 McPhee Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: HI1IWM1. Usual Codes. 

HUTCHINS, John Power, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Apartment 24, Morskaya 21, Petrograd. 
Cable: Getchlns. Code: McNeill, 1908. 

KIRBY, Edmund B., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis. 

Specialty: The expert examination of 

mines and metallurgical enterprises. 


Assayers and Mining Engineers. 

Mine Examinations and Reports. 
Oatman, Ariz. 

HYDE, James M., 

Treatment of Difficult Ores. 
634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Jamehyde. 

KIRK, Charles T., 

Mining Geologist. 

Albuquerque. New Mexico. 


Mining Engineer. 

Mines examined with a view to 
Copper Cliff, Ontario. 


Consulting Engineers. 

Dredging and Hvdraulicklng. 
70, Gracechurch St., London, E.C. 
Cable: Inderdaad. 


Consulting Engineers. 

Examination, Management, and Opera- 
tion of Mines. Design Equipment. 
Newhouse Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Mining Engineer. 

2 Rector St., New York. 

Code: McNeill. 1908. 

Dudlev J. Insklp. John A. Bevan. 


Mining Engineers. 

1, Broad St. Place, London, E.C. 
Cable: Monazite. Usual Codes. 

KRUMB, Henry, 

Mining: Engineer. 

Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Mining KiiKlneer. 

228 Perry St.. Oakland. Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof. 

JANIN, Charles, 

Mining Engineer. 

722 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Charjan. Code: McNeill. 

KUEHN, A. F., 

ConanJtlnK Mining Engineer. 

1 London Wall Building. 
London, E.C. 
Cable: Norlte. 


Consulting Mining Engineer 
nnd Metallurgist. 

1025 Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago. 111. 

JARMAN, Arthur, 

Asst. General Manager. 
Waihl Grand Junction, 
Walhl, New Zealand. 
Cable: Artharman. 


Mining Engineer. 

Ely, Nevada. 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 

Metallurgist and Metallurgical , 

13 Emmett St., Limehouse, London, E. 
Cable: Neolithic. Code: McNeill. 

JENKS, Arthur W., 

Mining Engineer. 

2533 Chilton Way. Berkeley. Cal. 
Cable: Jenksville. 

LAMB, Mark R., m.e., 

Santiago, Chile. 
Mgr. for Allis-Chalmers in S. A. 
Data and information available on 
mines and equipment. 


Mining Engineer. 

1, London Wall Bdg.. London, E.C. 
No professional work entertained. 
Cable: Crevooh. 

JONES, Henry Ewer, 

Mining Engineer. 

Parliament Mansions, Victoria St., 

Westminster, London, S.W. 

Cable :Ewerones. Code:BroomhaH's Imp. 

LAMB, R. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 75, 25 Broad St., 

New York City. 

Cable: Boblam. Code: McNeill. 

July 1. 1916 

MINING *mi Scastifa PRESS 




Mini ok KRglNrrr. 
10&T Mo na J nook IMk 
San Kranclico. Code: Mc 

N- 1" 

MAYREI8, L. J., 

Mining Cnglnrrr. 

98 Harlnitvl. it. Kotterdum. 

Sol bud. 

MUNRO, C. H., 

Mining r.n»lnrrr. 
H ..(..» [ t H.I, 
Cable » u mini sfcNatll 

LANDERS, William H., 

laity: Qulekallvar. 
■ Almadcn. California. 

McBRIDE, Wilbert 0., 

^Ilnhiii Knglnrrr. 

■ '...I.-: Ii. .ii... .1 McNeill 

MYERS, Desaix B. 

Mining i:iik 

ill Story I)>1k. Loi 

Philadelphia Address: 


'■ IS) 



LEGGETT, Thos. H., 

t ••ii*iiltlns liiitliirrr. 

H9 Broadway. New Fork. 

Cable: TomleK 

McCANN, Ferdinand, 

Consulting >l ItiliiK and Ml Inllur k I. nl 

I n U I III 1 ' I , 

La Cotabambaa Aurarla, 
% A. Calvo. Cuxco, Peru, S. A. 

NAHL, Arthur C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Trlunfo. Baja California. Mexico. 


Mining Engineer. 
Box 1464. Tacoma. Washington. 

McCarthy, e. t., 

Mining engineer* 

10 Austin Friars. London. 

NEILL, James W., 

Metallurgist and .Mining Engineer. 

169 Plerpont St., Salt Lake City. Utah. 
Pasadena. Cal. Snolllng. Cal. 

LEVY, Ernest, 

Mining I Engineer. 

Representing Alex. Hill & Stewart. 

Rosslnnd. British Columbia. 

906 Old Nafl Bk. Bdg.. Spokane. Wash. 


Mining Engineer. 

Zyrianovsk Roudnlk. 

Tomsk Government. Siberia. 

Codes: McNeill, 1908: Moreing & Neal. 


MIuIiik Engineer. 
Vantrent, Placer Co., Cal. 

LEWIS, H. Allman, 

Managing Engineer. 

The Porco Tin Mines. Ltd. 

Casilla 62. Potosl. Bolivia. 

Cable: Porcorama. Code: McNeill (1908) 

MEIN, William Wallace, 

Mini n,; Engineer. 
43 Exchange Place, New York. 
Cable: Mein. New York. 

NICHOLSON, Francis, 

Mining Engineer. 

% Rio Grande Valley Bank & Trust Co.. 

El Paso. Texas. 
Cable: Nlckhop. Code: McNeill, 1908. 


Exploring Engineers and Geologists. 

Diamond Drill Contractors. 

Manufacturers of Diamond Drills 

and Supplies. 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bank 

Bdg.. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cable: Longco. Code: McNeill. 

MERCER, John W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. South American Mines Co. 
Mills Bdg.. Broad St., New York. 

MERRILL, Charles W., 


121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


(E. E. Olcott, C. R. Corning.) 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

36 Wall St., New York. 


Ore Buyers, AHHayen*. 

Mine Examinations. 
Office: First and Court Sts., Baker, Ore. 

LLOYD, R. L., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper 
and Associated Metals. Cable: Rlcloy. 
Code: McNeill. 29 Broadway. N. Y. 



121 Second St.. 
Cable: Lurco. 

San Francisco. 

Usual Codes. 

PAYNE, Henry Mace, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Woolworth Bdg., New York. 
Cable: Macepayne. Usual Codes. 

Bewick. Moreing & Co. 
LORING, W. J., Mining Engineer. 

62 London Wall. London, and 
1018 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 
Cable: Wantoness. Usual Codes. 

MICHELL, Geo. V., 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
37. St. Mary Axe., London, E.C. 

PAYNE & CO., F. W., 

Dredging Engineer*.. 

62, London Wall, London, 
Cable: Panedrej. Code 

: McNeill. 

LUNT, Horace F., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gazette Bdg., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

MILLS, Edwin W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Supt. Tul Mi Chung Mine. 

The Seoul Mining Company, 

Holkol, Chosen (Korea). 

PEARSE, Arthur L. ( 

Mining Engineer. 

Worcester House. Walbrook. 

London, E.C. 

Cable: Undermined. Usual Codes. 


Mining Engineer. 

c /c Burma Mines, Ltd., 
Namtu, Northern Shan States. 
Burma. India. 

MINARD, Frederick H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Trinity Bdg., Ill Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Frednard. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Geologist. 

Examination of Oil Lands a Specialty. 
718 New Call Bdg., San Francisco. 


Consulting Engineer. 

1012 Baltimore Avenue. 
Kansas City, Mo. 


Mining Engineer. 

1057 Monadnock Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Fredmor. Code: McNeill. 

PERKINS & CO., Walter G., 

Metallurgical Engineers. 

% James Whishaw. Esq., 

Nlkolalevskaya Quay 7, 

Petrograd, Russia. 

MASSEY CO., George B., 

Consulting Excavating Engineers. 

Advice on Equipment and Methods for 

Stripping, Open-Cut Mining, Dredging. 

Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago. Illinois. 


Seeley W., 

Mining Engineer. 




Los Angeles. 


PERRY, 0. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

120 Broadway, New York. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


July 1, 1916 

Howard Poillon. C. H. Polrler. 


Mining Ensloeen. 
63 Wall St.. New Tork City. 

ROGERS, Allen Hastings, 

Consulting Mining; Englnetr. 
201 Devonshire St.. Boston, Mass 
71 Broadway. New York, N. Y. , 
Cable: Alhasters. 

SMITH, J. D. Audley, 

Mining Engineer. 

Dlbbs Chambers, 58 Pitt St., 

Sydney, Australia. 

Cable: Jadunand. All Codes 


Mining Engineer. 

% Oroville Dredging. Limited. 
Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 

ROGERS, Edwin M. 

lonmiltluK Mln 



32 Broadway, 

New York. 

Cable: Emrog. 

Code: McNeill. 

SMITH, Reuben Edward, 

Mining Engineer. 

% Lenskoie G. il. Co.. Bodaibo. Siberia. 
Cable: Resmlth. care Lenzoto. 

Code: McNeill. 1908. 

PROBERT, Frank H., 

Mining Engineer. 

University of California, 
Berkeley, CaL 

ROYER, Frank W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Consolidated Realty Bdg., Los Angeles. 

and Apartado 805. Mexico City. D. F. 

Cable: Royo. Code: McNeill. 


(Franklin W. Smith. Ralph A. Ziesemer. ) 

Mining Engineer.. 
Bisbee, Ariz. Code: McNeill. 

PURINGTON, Chester W., 

Mining Engineer. 

62 London Wall, London, E.C. 

Cable: Olenek. Usual Codes. 

SCHMIDT, F. Sommer, 

Mining Engineer. 

1020 Newhouse Building. 
Salt Lake City. Utah. 

SPILSBURY, E. Gybbon, 

Consulting, Mining and Metallurgical 


45 Broadway, New York. 

Cable: Spilroe. 

RADFORD, William H., 

Alluvlnl Mining. 

2360 Broadway, San Francisco. 

SCOTT, Robert, 

Inventor and Builder of the 
Scott Qulckallver Furnace. 

498 S. Eleventh St., 
San Jose. California. 


J. Edward, 



Bullitt I 





Company of 


RAY, James C, 

Mining Geoioglat. 

Microscopic Examination of Ores. 
Palo Alto, Cal. 

SEARS, Stanley C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Reports. Consultation and Management. 

705 Walker Bank Building, 
Salt Lake City. Utah. Usual Codes. 

STANFORD, Richard B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 206. Metropolitan Bank Bdg.. 

New Orleans, La. 

Cable: Stanford. Code: McNeill. 

RAYMOND, Robert M„ 

Mining Engineer. 

Professor of Mining, 
School of Mines, Columbia Univ 
New York. 


SHALER, Millard K., 

Mining GeoiogUt and Engineer. 

4 Blshopgate, London. E.C. 


Mining Engineer. 

Metal Mine Management and Reports. 
Krise Building, Lynchburg, Virginia. 

RAYMOND, Rossiter W., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metallurgist. 

29 W. 39th St., New York. P. O. Box 223. 

SHARPLESS, Fredk. F., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

52 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Fresharp. Code: McNeill. 

STEBBINS, Elwyn W., 

Mining Engineer. 

819 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 

RICHARDS, Robert H., 

Ore Dressing. 

Make careful concentrating tests for the 

design of flow-sheets for difficult ores. 

491 Boylston St., Boston. Mass. 

SIMONDS, Ernest H., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

616 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 

STEEL, Donald, 

Mining Engineer nnd Geologist. 
Palo Alto. Cal. 

RICKARD, Forbes, 

Mining Engineer. 

Equitable Building. Denver. 


Mining Engineer*. 

25 Madison Ave., New York. 






% E. T. 



10, Austin Friars, Lo 



RICKARD, J. Henry, 

Mining Engineer and Metnliurglat. 

Superintendent Chapman Smelting Co. 
Box 541. South San Francisco. 


Mining Engineer. 

Amos. Quebec, Canada. 
Fundicion de Los Arcos. Toluca, Mex. 
30 Broad St.. New York. 

STEVENS, Arthur W., 

Mining Engineer. 

606 Park Way Avenue, 
Piedmont, California. 


Editor. The Mining and Scientific Press. 
No professional work undertaken. 

SIZER, F. L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

701 First Nat'l. Bank Bdg., 
San Francisco. 

STEVENS, Blarney, 

Mining Engineer. 

Tema8caltepec. Est. de Mexico, 


% Lane Rincon Mines, Inc. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining investigations carefullv made 

for responsible intending investors. 

525 Market St., San Francisco. 

SMITH, Charles A., 

Design and Construction Metallurgical 


% The Mining and Metallurgical Club, 

3. London Wall Bdg., London. E.C. 

STINES, Norman C, 


Polefskoy, Mramorskaya Station, 
Perm Government. Russia. 
Cable: Normstines. Ekaterinberg. 
Code: McNeill (both editions). 


Con.uitlng Mining Engineer. 
Member A. I. M. E. and Am. Chern. Soc. 
1403 Syndicate Trust B.Ik 
St. Louis. M... 

SMITH, Howard D., 

Mining Engineer. 

Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Dlorlte. Code: Western Union. 

STORMS, William H., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

Mining Methods a Specialty. 
2437 Hilgard Ave., Berkeley. Cal. 

July 1. l'Mii 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


STRAUSS, Lester W 

KngUrrr ■>< Ml 

dillli M4. Valparaiso. 
Cable: lustra- Valparaiso 





' us KuIoi-it. 

634 Mills Bdg:.. San Francisco. 
Cable Latlle. i tod* : Bedford McNeill. 

WEIGALL, Arthur R., 

^11 n I uk Ku|lurrr. 
% Tho B«OUl Mining I'mnpany, 

Sunn Mln.-. II. .Ik-. |. 

Whang Hal Provlm 


>l tut ut I iifclnrrr, 

Mgr Portraplnt Crown Minus, Ltd., 
Tltninlna. Ontario, Canuda. 


Mining I nclii'T. 

Goldtteld. Nevada. 

WEST, H. E., 

Mln Ids I :nt in. . r. 
Santa Barbara. Cal. 




• In.; K 



el Broadway, 


bw York. 

TURNER, Scott, 

Mining I'.iikl'MT. 

Apartado ;:.*. Lima, Peru. 

WESTERVELT, William Young, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

17 Madison Ave (MadJaon Square East) 

New Y<>rk. 
Cable: Caaeweat. Code: HcNellL 

SYMMES, Whitman, 

M I n tut Knglnrrr. 

Mk'iv Uaxleail Mine. etc. 

Virginia City. Nevada. 

TWEEDY, Geo. A., 

MlnlttK KiibIiiitf. 

545 Bradbury Building, 
I.".- Angeles. Cal. 

WHITMAN, Alfred R., 

II in I lit (■rnlnglsf, 

5 Royal Exchange Bldg., 
Cobult. i Int. 

TALMAGE. Sterling B., 

Mining (-•eulogist and KokIik-it. 
Geologic Maps, Kxunii nations, Reports. 
200 Vermont Bdg., 
Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Mining Englnrer and Geologist. 

534 Confederation Life Bdg., 

Toronto, Canada. 

Cable: Tyrrell. Usual Codea. 

H. A. J. Wllkens. W. B. Devereux. Jr. 


Consulting Mining Kimlnri-rs. 

London. 120 B'dwy, N. Y. Mexico, D.F. 
Cable: Kenreux. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

TELLAM, Alfred, 

MelallurarUt anil Ore Dreeaer. 

1, London Wall Building, 
London. E.C. 
Code: A. B. C. Fifth Edition. 

VADNER, Charles S., M.Sc, 

Research and Experimental Work. 
Leaching and Electrolytic Recovery of 

Copper, Zinc, Iron. etc. 
22 H W. 7th South St.. Salt Lake City. 

WILLIS, Charles F., 

Director, State Bureau of Mines. 
University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

THOMAS, Kirby, 

Mining IlimlmiT. 
Examination, Valuation and Explora- 
tion of Mining Properties. 
120 Broadway, New York. 


Geologrlete and Mining; Englncere. 

Tulsa. Okla. Billings, Mont. 

WINCHELL, Horace V., 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

826 First Natlonal-Soo Line Bdg., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Racewin. 


Consulting Mining Engineer. 

120 Broadway, New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

Osborne & Chappel, Ipoh. 
Malay States. 



e: McNe 



Mining Engineer. 

Continental Bank Bdg. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

THORNE, W. E., Mining Engineer. 

% Lenskoie Gold Mining Co., 
Nadezhdinsky. Irkoutsk Govt.. Siberia, 
Cable: Wethorne, Bodaibo. 

Code: McNeill, both editions. 


Consulting Mining Engineer. 

42 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Porphyry. 

WISEMAN, Philip, 

Mining Engineer. 

1210 Holllngsworth Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Cable: Fil Wiseman. Codes:W.U., McNeill. 

TIMMONS, Colin, 

Mining Engineer. 

Patagonia, Arizona. 

WARDNER, W. R., Mining Engineer. 

Examination, Management. Mining 

and Oil Properties. 

1924 West 21st St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Boston Petroleum Co., Bakersfleld, Cal. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 

W00DW0RTH, S. E., 


419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco. 


Salisbury House London, E.C. 
Cable: Tltcomb. Code: McNeill. 






14 Copthall Ave., 



Cable: Natchekoo. 




Mining Engineer. 

701 First Nat. Bank Bdg.. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

TOLMAN, Cyrus Fisher, Jr., 

Consulting Economic Geologist. 

P. O. Address: 
Stanford University. Cal. 

WEBBER, Morton, 

Mine Valuation and Development. 

39 Cortland St.. New York. 
Cable: Orebacks. 

WRIGHT, Charles Will, 

Mining Engineer. 

Ingurtosu, Sardinia, Italy. 
Cable: Wright, Arbus. Code: McNeill. 

TRUSCHKOFF, Nicholas E., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. Ekibastous Mines & Sm„ 

Kirghiz Mln. & Tr. Co.. Irtysh Corp, Ltd. 

Pavlodar. Siberia. 

WEEKES, Frederic R., 

Mining Engineer. 

71 Broadway 

New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

Room 3533, 120 Broadway. New York. 
Cable: Ikona. Code: McNeill. 



51st and Telegraph Avenue, Oakland. Cal. 

Established in 1867. 

12 months' course in PRACTICAL ENGINEERING. 

Mining, Mechanical, Civil or Electrical. 
Send for catalogue. 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full 
degrees, low cost, fine climate, new equipment, accessible 
to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue. 
PAYETTE A. JONES, President, Socorro, New Mexico. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 

Assayers, Chemists, and Ore-Testing Works 


Altlnger, F. O. 
Cole & Co. 


Atkins & McRae. 
Baverstock & Payne. 
Gibson, Walter L. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp 
& Woodworth, Inc. 
Hanks. Abbot A. 
James Co., The Geo. A. 
Luckhardt Co.. C. A. 
Perez, Richard A, 
Smith, Emery & Co. 


Burton. Howard K. 
Frost, Oscar J. 
Piers, W. L. 
Richards. J. TV. 

Buskett. Evans W. 

Tout & McCarthy. 


You«g. H. W. 


Ledoux & Co., Inc. 


Penological Laboratory. 


CritchettA Ferguson. 

Bardwell. Alonzo F. 
Bird-Cowan Co. 
General Engineering 

Co., The. 
Officer & Co..R. H. 


A»»njiT and Cbemlnt. 

Analytical Work a Specialty. 

Oatman, Arizona. 


Assayers. Chemists, and Metallurgists. 

Control and Umpire Assays. 

Careful Analytical Chemists. 

616 South Olive St., Los Angeles. Cal. 

J. M. Callon, President. 



169 Pierpont Avenue. Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants. 
The 3rd edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin Is now ready for mailing. We shall 
be pleased to send It to you upon request. 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F., 

(Successors to Bettles & Bardwell,) 
Cum to in Annajer and C'bfmUt. 
168 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake. Utah. 
^ Ore Snippers' Agent. 


Industrial Chemliti and Aaanyera. 

Technical and Chem. Analyses of Ores, 
Minerals, and All Organic Materials. 

223 W. First St.. Los Angfles. Cal. 





Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals. 

Tests Made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons. 


Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco, Cal. 
Telephone: Sutter 5266. Cable address: Hambeau. Codes: West. Union, Bed. McNeill. 


Charles S. Cowan. Manager. 
Cnatom Aaanyera and Cbemlata. 

Agents for Ore Shippers. 
160 S. W. Temple St.. Salt Lake. U 



Supervision of Ore Sampling, Technical Analysis, Cement Testing. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off Bush near Kearny), San Francisco. 

BURTON, Howard E., 

605 Harrison Ave.. Leadvilte, Colo. 
Specialty: Rare Minerals. 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York. 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard. 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York. 

BUSKETT, Evans W., 

Aaanyer nnd Chemist. 

Accurate Assays of Zinc. Lead. Copper. 

Gold and Silver Ores from Anywhere. 

620 Joplln St.. Joplln. Mo. 


(A. H. Ward. Harold C. Ward.) Telephone, Kearny 5951. 


Sampling of Ores at Smelters. 53 Stevenson St.. San Francisco. 

COLE & CO., 

A»»ayiT«, Cbemlata. 

Ore Buyer*. 



Box BB 


is. Ariz. 

SMITH, EMERY & CO., (Ore testing plant. I.o. An K ele..> 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills. 

246 So. Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles. 

651 Howard Street, San Francisco. 


Aaaayera and Cbemlata. 

El Paso, Texas. 
Umpire and Controls a Specialty. 

FROST, Oscar J., 


420 18th St.. Denver. 


Assay or 

Send for price 
envelopes. 428 

und Chemist. 


list and free mailing 
18th St.. Denver. Colo. 

GIBSON, Walter L., 

Successor to 

Fnlkennu Assaying Co., 

Aaany Office and Analytical Laboratory, 

School of Ajtaaytns;. 

824 Washington St.. Oakland. 

Phone 8929. 

Umpire assays and supervision of sam- 

Fling. Working tests of ores, analyses, 
nvestigations of metallurgical and 
technical processes. 

Professor L. Falkenau. General Man- 
ager and Consulting Specialist. 

HANKS, Abbot A., 

Chemlat and Aaaayer. 

Established 1866. 

•30 Sacramento St.. San Francisco. 

Control and Umpire Assays. Supervision 

of Sampling at Smelters. 
Cable: Hani. Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 

OFFICER & CO., R. H., 

Assayera and Chemists. 

169 South West Temple Street, 
Salt Lake City. Utah. 

PEREZ, Richard A., 

Assayer, Chemist and Metallurgist. 

(Established 1895.) 
120 N. Main St. Los Angeles. Cal. 


\V. Harold Tomlinaon, 

Swathmore, Pa. 

Petrographlc work. Rock sections made. 

Microscopic examinations of rocks. 


Assayer and Chemist. 

1118 Nineteenth St., Denver. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms. 
Representatives at all Colorado smelters. 

tout & McCarthy, 

Richard McCarthy, 
Assayers & Cbemlata. 

Butte. Montana, Box 858. 


YOUNG, H. W., 

Chemlat and Aaaayer 

Prompt attention to samples by mall. 
Box 348, Reno. Nev. 

THE ACTIVE MEMBERS of the mining and metallurgical profession find it ad- 
visable to keep their names and addresses where possible clients can find 

them easily. When a man wants advice, he wants it promptly. This directory 

of practitioners is often used without acknowledgment. 

ADVERTISING RATES: $25 for a one-half inch card for one year, including 

52 issues of the MINING and Scientific PRESS. 

•Inlv 1 1916 

MINING «nd Sdantife PRESS 




I f|* folio* : 

Buttoi ■ 

with tine 

it.i.l.- at 32c. 4S.« 

Total p*r ton Of On tr«*t< I 10 l 

With Aluminum Duit: 

LSI lb. c 

id aluminum nt Me. 23.; 

1.63 lb. soda a> 

Total i'.*r tOD ..f or« lr«*.tt.-.| . 

aluminum duit, II. fl 
in addition lo iblf than ih in n !' Improved 

the accumulation i»r ilnc in tha solu- 
tion would have an Injurious effecl 



AWAROCO American Steel & Wire Company's 

1 \^. Trenton Sjlten 

Aerial Tramways 

"VO matter vrha. the contour of the ground, we 
■*■ will construct ;i tramway thai «ill transfer 

material at ininiiniiin expense; and no grades »re 
too steep to surmount; no rivers or valleys too 
wide to cross; and no grading, bridges or viaducts 
of any kind are required. There is practically no 
limit to the length of these tramways. 

Send for complete descriptive catalogue of 
tramways in use. 

American Steel & Wire Company 

Chicago New York Cleveland I*itt» Worcealer Denver 

Export Rrpfc*«nt«ilvc; V. S. Sloel Product- Co.. New York 
Pmdfic Coast Representative: U. S. Steel Product- Co. 
>.n Francisco Los Anielea 



Braun Universal 

Laboratory Sampler 

For accurately and impartially 
sampling dry material — chem- 
icals in pulverized or crystal 
form, ores, coke, coal, grains, 
fertilizers, and similar material 



Dependability and economy of operation are combined 
to an unusual degree in Deming Pumpa. There is a 
Deming Pump to suit every mining need Tell us the 
details of your pumping proposition and we will recom- 
mend the pump best suited to your requirements. 

THE DEMING CO., Salem, Ohio 

General Distributing Houses: 
Sun Franclnco, Cat., Norman B. Miller. 503 Market Street 
Denver. Colo., - Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co. 
Chicago. III., Henion & Hubbell. 217-221 North Jefferson St. 
Stir York Cltr, Ralph B. Carter Co., 152 Chambers Street 

The prominent features are — 

The separators do not have to be re- 
moved for cleaning — 

It is practically dust proof — 

It is thoroughly and quickly cleaned — 

Tho Yo\Ut Vihar Prooc It delivers an accurate and impartial 

111 K - v llllu 1RN sample not obtainable by hand sampling- 

It eliminates the personal equation. 


Write for Information. 

207 Felt Hdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
E. E. Lunawitz, 303-E. Hudson Terminal Bids.. New York 

Shipping weight, 220 lbs. Price, net $100.00 
Ask for Catalog 50M. 



Published and For Snlc by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



U llSrftBJTfjJB 



Manufacturers of Laboratory Labor Saving Machinery 

Specialists in Laboratory Equipment and Testing Apparatus 

Dealers in Laboratory Glassware and Chemicals 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. L916 

United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Co. 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

120 Broadvrar, New York City. 


Custom Lead and Zinc Concentrator at Needles, Cal. 
Address: Needles, Cal. 


Custom Copper Smelter at Kennett, Cal. Address 
Kennett. Cal. 


Custom Lead and Copper Smelters and Custom 
Lead and Zinc Concentrating Mills at Midvale, Utah. 
Address: Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Custom Zinc Smelters at Iola, Altoona and La 
Harpe, Kansas. Address, 413 Republic Bdg.. Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 

Goldroad, Arizona. 


Custom Copper Smelter and Electrolytic Copper 
Refinery at Chrome, N. J. Electrolytic Lead Re- 
finery at Graselll, Ind. Address: 120 Broadway, 
New York City. N. Y. 


Mines and Mills at Pachuca and Real del Monte. 
Address: Pachuca, Hidalgo. Mexico. 

For Examination and Purchase of Metal Mines. 
Address: 55 Congress St., Boston, Mass.: 120 Broad- 
way. New York, N. Y.: 1504 Hobart Bldg.. San 
Francisco, Cal.; Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake City, 
Utah: 906 Mills Bldg., El Paso, Texas: Edlficlo 
La Mutua 411, Mexico, D. F. 








Including "MASCOT 1 and "CANEY" Brands 


Send Ore Inquiries to 



Send Spelter and Add Inquiries 10 


Main Olllcc: 
Boatmen's Bank Building 

St. Louis 


Address communications to 

David Taylor 

Western Ore Purchasing Agent 

Boston Building Salt Lake City, Utah 

International Smelting Co. 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead 
and Antimony Ores 



Rarltan Copper Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago. Indiana. 

621 Kearna Building. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co., inc. 

61 BROADWAY, New York City 

•P, . Zinc Ores, Concentrates, 

nUVerS OJ Copper Ores, Matte, Bul- 
lion, Mixed Ores, Etc. 

^pllprv r.f Spelter, Copper, Zinc Dust, 
OtUU^a U/ Quicksilver, Etc. 

Own Smelting and Refining Works 



Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide Product 



Addreaa correspondence to 





MINING Sirn.iii, I'KKSS 

Granby Mining and Smelting Company 

Lm.i1 Smaller Udc Smaller .ii.l ArM 1'Lnl inallir 

Urvutiy Vo Eaji Hi Lout,. 111. ImIu. Kkmi 

M UiaU. MlHourl -AJJrru- S«w V.n. S Y 

Suit* 1710 Jrd NM1 l:»»k 1M.I« H.'l'l W. I'utiklln. 166 llro..l».y 

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"lir»kr llrnn.l ' 1Mb L— j '•"> "Orllrr. .ml 

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Burvr* of Hi»rn;r»ilf CterbooM*. BlUctti .ml BulphSd, EIdi 
K».r prupoalUoaa od or». ftddnaa SI. LoaU offlce. 

Address our O/rtc* : 

703 Symes Blag., 
Denver, Colo. 

Or a' rife fo 









600 Illustrations 

Over 850 Pages 

Twelve Folding Plates 

1916 New, Revised and Enlarged Edition 

The Modern Gasoline Automobile 

Its Construction, Operation, 
Maintenance and Repair. 

By Victor W. Page, M.E. • 

A Complete Automobile Book, Showing Every 
Recent Improvement. 

Price $2.50 

For Sale by MINING and Scientific Press. 420 Market SI.. San Francisco 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 


Rock Drills, Hammer Drills, Core Drills, 
Pile Ha m mer s , Atlas Jacks 


The Empire Zinc Company 
Buys Zinc Ores 

A Guide to Technical Writing 


Second Edition 

91 Postpaid 

Mr. Rickard's book will help you to present your ideas in 
such a convincing way that everyone will exclaim, "that 
man knows what he Is talking about." Send for A Guide 
1o Technical Writing. You will read it through at the first 

Published and For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Test your ores — 

Before you begin construction, subject 
your ores to thorough tests. It is the 
logical tiling to do. We maintain a most 
modern testing plant for all concentrating 
processes including the 



i THE 

Plumb Pneumatic Jig 

Have you complex ore? Write to us. 
Be sure you are right before you go ahead. 

American Zinc Ore Separating Co. 

1218 Foater Bdg., 

Denver, Colo. 

ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco 








Buyers of Quicksilver and Platinum, also Ores of Antimony, 

Bismuth. Molybdenum. Tungsten, Vanadium, Zinc. etc. 


Beware of imitations. The genuine Wah-Chang Antimony 
Pigs are branded "W. C. C." and our trade mark. Sold in any quan- 
tity. Wah-Chang Antimony rung as high as 99.7*, with non-traeoahle 
arsenic contents. Was awarded highest honors at Panama-Pacific 
Exposition. 1915. Order from dealers or write direct to us. 


2283 Woohvorih Building, New York City 

The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., 
of Canada, Ltd. 


Purchasers of All Classes of Ores. Producers of 
Pig Lead, Bluestone, and Spelter. 

Offices, Smelting and Refining Dept., Trail, British Columbia 

Mining Engineers' Examination and Reprot Book 

In Two Parts 72.50 Postpaid 

PART I Is a handbook covering examination of and reporting upon mines 
and mining property. Part n is a skeleton report, serving three pur- 
poses: First an outline of a model report; Second, a field notebook or 
Third, a blank form on which the final report may be submitted. 

Published and For Sale by 27 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 1, 1916 






Preparedness and Peace and the Engineer 


HE United States desires peace, based on justice and maintained with 
honor. Hut to insure this kind of peace Americans must know that nations 
are now defended not alone by fighting men. but by lighting industries. 

The Engineers oi this country, trained as only American Engineers are 
trained, hold that truth to be as fundamental as the law of gravity. With the 
authority of the United States Government more than 30,000 Engineers and 
Chemists, members of five eminent American scientific bodies, are making for 
the first time in the history of the Government a minute, sweeping survey of the 
industrial resources of America. They will go to the factories and mines of the 
land and with their sole method, efficiency, and their sole motive, patriotism, 
form a vast, flexible organization, such as the world lias never known. 

Their work will lie the basis for creating in this country a true line of de- 
fense in time of war — the ability to produce swiftly, abundantly and with sus- 
tained power all the thousand and one elements of modern warfare. Without 
such production there can he no efficient army and navy. 

Military Preparedness wins the hattle. Hut Industrial Preparedness wins 
He- WAR! Industrial Preparedness involves no huge expenses. Only the 
KNOWLEDGE of what American Industry can do. To KNOW the extent of 
each plaid, the equipment of each shop, tin- capacity of each machine, the 
ability of each man. THAT is tic essence of Industrial Preparedness. That is 

the task to which thirty thousand Engineers and Chemists are pledged. 

The Engineers' and Chemists' work will lay for all time the ghost of the 
••munitions trust" by making it possible to have munitions made in thousands 
of plants. 

This vital work of the Engineers and Chemists will supply the military 
authorities in Washington with information never before collected, and it is 
carried forward without a dollar's cost to the Government. And this advertise- 
ment is not paid for. The Associated Advertising Clubs of the World have 
prepared tic- copy and the publishers have patriotically responded and printed 
it without pay for the sake of National Defense and International Peace. 

.1// .inn ricans an ash dto strikt hands with '/<< Engim t rs and ('In mists so 
thai America shaU learn how to nils, up "<< impregndbU wall of deft net apaiiist 
a thin of trial. 



in co-operation with 

The American Society of Civil Engineers • The American Societt op Mechanical Engineers 

The Americas IssTurTE of Mining Engineers Tee American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

The American Chemical Society 


July l. 1816 

MINING and Soenhnc PRESS 

Hydraulic KUnlBf, Yukon Gold 

Wiilrr Supplied l'liri>U(?li 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

"New York. Jan. 16 1911. 
"Onilrnirn: We bpjr to acknowledge youra of Jan. 9th. 
maklntj Inquiry aa to or experience with your Spiral Riveted 

•Our drat uie of Spiral Riveted Pipe wae In connection 
with our hydraulic mining- operation* aa distributing llnea 
from our main ditch ayetem. The pipe waa given aevere 
aervlce and proved entirely antlsfactorv. We are now using 
It In dlametera up to 42 Inches and heads up to 530 feet. 
We have found the pipe eaay to lay and handle, strong for 
Its weight and generally satisfactory. 
"Very truly yours. 

"(Signed) YUKON GOLD CO., 

"O. B. Perry. Oen. Mgr." 

fiifatoffUt? and sjir-nat pncm Of) rrr/urat. 



Chicago, 111. 


Dryers - - - Ho. 16 
Screening - - No. 27 
Drop Forged Chain No. 32 
Mining Machinery - No. 41 
Crushers - - - No. 42 
Skip Hoists - - No. 43 


Reduce Your Handling Costs 

Our Automatic 
Skip Hoists 

reduce the cost of 
handling materials to 
a minimum. 

We make ffie larg- 
est variety of Mech- 
anical Dryers in (he 


CLEVELAND, O. 50 Church St, New York City 


Men are wanted SOMEWHERE all the time. 
The quickest way to find out WHERE is to 
insert a classified advertisement, at 2 cents 
per word, in the Mining and Scientific Press 
Opportunity Page. Results are quick. If you 
are out of work or wish to change try — 


Ball-Mills =Tube-Mills 


They crush Lumps to Sands 
or grind Sands to Slimes, 
consuming the minimum 
amount of power, balls or 
pebbles and lubricant. 

The proofs are at your disposal. 


36 Church Si. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Salt Lake City, UUb 

Waab IrtU Wavks 

Paterson, N. J. 

Manufacturers of the Drill that can be 
"Cleaned up with a Sledge Hammer" 
and "Wiped off with a Scoop Shovel," 
and yet "Stay with you." 


Joshua Hendy Iron Wokks 

76 Fremont St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

Gardner Machinery COMPANY 

620 JopUn St.. Joplin.Mo. 

LandesA Co., Inc., Salt Lake City. Utah 

H. C. Darnell & Co.. Kansas City, Mo. 

Pocatello Engineering & Machinery Co. 

Pocatello, Idaho 

The Canadian Fairbanks-Morse Co., Ltd. 

Vancouver. B. C. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 


Under this heading announcements may be made of new 
ard second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. 
: is Ave cents per word, one dollar minimum order. 
Remittances MUST accompany order. Copy must be re- 
morning for the following week's issue. 

MINING TIMBERS from the Tower of Jewels, 1,500,000 feet. 
No. i pine; 1x4, 14x14, all lengths up to 50 feet Lowest prices, 
' y. Quotations f.o.h. cars, Exposition Grounds. 
G. w-issbaum & Co., owners, 131 1 1 th St., San Francisco. 

I WILI, SELL CHEAP on account of sickness, a group of 6 

roup of 1 tungsten claims, with rich 

showing on all claims. Only 6 mi las apart on good road, but 

only f miles to 3 mills buying ore or concentrates. Loca- 

tlon, Pima county, Arizona. Investigate if you mean business. 

ess A. P. Voltsberg, Tucson, Arizona. 

ma GRINDING PEBBLES— Many mining companies 

Are you? Cheaper than imported. All sizes 

furnish. ,i. Address E. E. Garnett, Manager, Encinitas Cash 

■ ni tas, Cal. 

FOR SALE— One tungsten and one molybdenum property 

situated within shipping distance of San Francisco, will sell 

i • witli party who will put up capital. 

to hear from principals but will deal with brokers. 

Full Investigation invited, every opportunity afforded. Ad- 

J. Minin g and Scientific Press. 

FOR SALT-: — Prospecting outfits consisting of combination 

sollne engine and air — with or without hoist. 

01 without drilling outfit Can be carried mule-back 

when necessary. Sizes from live to twenty- four hp. Prices 

very reasonable. Address Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co.. 

San Francisco and Los Angeles. 

WANT HAUUNG CONTRACTS anywhere in California, Ne- 
vada or Arizona. All work done with auto trucks. Estimates 
furnished. California Auto Truck Co., 860 Waller St.. San 

FOR SALE — Due to change in plans, four new Wllfley con- 
centrators, No. 5, still in original crates at station on S, P. R. R. 
J. F. Luae Company, Sutherlin. Oregon. 

FOR SALE — New gasoline mine hoist and 20-ton milling plant, 
at a bargain. W. F. Downie, Shannon Ave.. Spokane. Wa sh. 

DO YOU KNOW that you could test your own ores by Way's 
Process? Send for booklet describing this simple and eco- 
nomical method. Accurate and reliable. Used by mining 
schools and colleges. No technical knowledge required. Way's 
Pocket Smelter Sales Co.. Dept. F . South Pasadena, Cal. 

WRITE HELENA MINING BUREAU, Inc., Helena. Mont., for 
booklet describing mining investment opportunities In the 
Helena Mining Region as outlined in Bulletin No. 527, United 
States Geological Survey. 

In Stock for 


— a complete line of Mining Machinery and Supplies, in- 
cluding 4-6-S-10 and 12 H.P. Vertical and 15-20-25-30-35- 
40-50 H.P. Horizontal 


— also Cleveland Stopers. Pluggers. etc. We ship on day 

order is received. 

Write for Catalog of Tump*. EnprlneH, Motor*. Etc., 

and state the particular equipment you are interested In. 


Michlnery— Supplies— Pipe and Fillings. LOS I M. i:i.i>. CAL. 


5 Dorr thickeners mechanism with lifting device for 
20x10 steel tanks. 

3 Dorr agitators mechanism for steel tanks 12xl0'8". 
The above have been used three weeks. Immediate 

Denver, Colorado. 


Announcements in this column are secured through the 
co-operation of many of the largest mining companies in the 
United States. Readers of Mining and Scientific Press are 
thus kept constantly informed concerning opportunities for 

WANTED — Assayer and bookkeeper for mine in California. 
.Salary $100 per month; board $1 per day. State experience and 
references. Address box 340. Mining and Scientific Press. 

WANTED — Two good lead and copper concentrator men who 
can furnish best references as to ability and reliability. Some 
flotation experience required. Wages $4 per day, 8 hours. Ad- 
dress Box 341, Mining and Scientific Press, 

WANTED — Two shift bosses for California, Preferablv men 
who are familiar with handling Italian and Mexican labor; 
$1.50 per day wages. Give references and details of experience. 
Address Box 331. M ining and Scientific Press. 

WANTED— To communicate with two experienced, practical 
shift-bosses. Copper property, Arizona. Positions open about 
July 1. Address Box 326. Mining and Scientific Press. 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circu- 
lation representative in every mining community in the world. 
Replies will be held confidential if desired. Address. Tin Man- 
ager, Mining and Scientific Press. 

Second-Hand Mining Machinery for Immediate Delivery 


Consisting of 150-kva Crocker-Wheeler Generator, B-phase. 60-cyele, 2800- 
volt. complete with Exciter and Switchboard: 5 foot Hug Water Wheel: 
0000 feet of 20-lnch Riveted Steel Pipe. 

Complete with Motor, two baskets, nil tanks, vacuum pumps, hydraulic 
crane for handling baskets, capacity 800 tons per 21 hours. Practically new. 


1-6x10 Farrell-Blake. 


\H Dodge. 
2— No. 4 Samson. 

1—7x18 Forsyth. 
1—9x16 Davis-Blake. 

I— '.<xl5 D. E. W.- Blake. 
1— 15x24 Blake. 
l—18x« lllake. 
i— No Gardner, 18 i xfl l jaws, 
1— No. 8 Aurora. LS'xflO 1 jaws. 
1— No. 10 Symons Gyratory. 
1 — Size C Come! gyratory. 
I— Size It Comet Hyratory. 


l set RxlO McFarlane. 

1 set 12x20 McFarlane. 

2 seta 12x20 Davis. 

1 set 14x27 McFarlane. 

.'sets 14x27 Colorado Iron Works. 

1 set 1 1x27 Montgomery. 

2 sets 14x80 Davis. 

2 sets l'ix:ii; Colorado Iron Works. 

2 sets 10x86 Davis. 

1 set 16x40 Colorado Iron Works. 

1 set 10x8 Triplex. 

1 set 18x5 Triplex. 

■ sets 26x6 Triplex. 

1— 6'xi 1 Ball Mill. 
I— 6'x4' Standard Ball Mill. 
1— I'xS* Standard Ball Mill. 


1 J— Rebuilt Wilfiey Tables, 
s - ti 1 Frue Vanners— ih-w belts. 
7— Sutton, Steele&SteeleDry Tables 
8 — Overstrom Tables. 
J— Ding Magnetic Separators. 

Send tor our Compl 


20 and B2x 18 Fraserd Chalmers Cross 

18 and 86x42 Hamilton Compound. 
24x48 Piles & StOWell Heavy Hutv. 
20x42 Reynolds Corliss. 
18x42 Bates Corliss. 
16x12 Files & Stowell Corliss. 
12x21 Philadelphia Corliss. 

16 and 80x27 Fitchburg Comtound 
1—16x21 Atlas Right-Han. 1. 
1 — 15x15 Arnimgton-Slmms C. C. 
1—13x12 Ball Center Crank. 
1—10 and 14x20 Atlas Compound. 
l-Kixl'2 Traylor Right-Hand. 
1 - 'V igXlO Armington-Simms C. ( . 
1—8x10 Hendv *i Meyer C. C. 
1—7x10 Rice Left-Hand. 

1—14 x ]* Houston, Manwood & 

1—14x18—80 H. P. Woodbury. 
I— 12x38— 65 H. P. Woodbury. 
1—12x16—60 H. P. Nagle. 
1— 10x20-50 H. p_ Bass. 
1-llxlfi— I5H. P.Atlas. 
1-11x14— 45 H. P.Jackson. 
1—11x15 — |o H. P. Erie. 
2— 10x12— lo II. p. Nagles. 
1- 8x12-25 H. P. Hendy & Meyer 
1— BxlO— 20 H. P. Atlas. 
1— 7x10-15 H P.Atlas. 

\—\- Morgan smith Turbine. 
1—85 In. Samson Turbine. 
1— a -ft. Hug Water Wheel. 
1— t-ft. Pelton Water Wheel. 
I— 5-ft. Pelton Water Wheel. 
tie Machinery Lu 

The Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co., 'KL^c^o.' 

.Illll 1 I'll. 

MINING ..nd Sci»u6< I'KI SS 

• •■■•■ 

Minings. ".'.Press > 

]\t OppoferoNiTY Page 


rtiaing for position! wanton 1 i* | oenti per 
• ii Minimum order 5o cent*. Ropllea for- 
warded without muit soc pany 

• •l Saturday morning for follow- 
ing week* iMUe. 

WANTED • l in. i n, 

\Z9, Mining And 
Scientific itcm. 

POSITION WANTED M ■uperlntendenl or chlof electrician «>f 

ii to, steam "i gms; ox - 

■■■it in station economies, construction and now 

lower operating expense*, and Increase 

■ i details up« m request. Address 

Box 33.. Mining and Scientific Press. 

MASTER MECHANIC With experience In steam, electrical, 

. ir. machinist, boiler work, stc; expert 

ii handle men with results; 

n . strict ly a ga -'•'; mar- 

tluns preferred. Addri Mining and 

Ml: M!.\r: MANAGER: l».. you want an efficient young man 

with a technical education and some practical experience? I 

wain ■ permanent position with chance of advancement Hav* 

on. four years experience underground, and 

• position as Inspector of rockwork for a 

railroad company, whore i proved my aballty to handle men. No 

on to going to a foreign country. Address Box 336. 

Mmifii: mill Sci.-ntlflc Press. 

POSITION WANTJED— By experienced and reliable electrician; 

.■I 12 years eal experience 

In intuii- ana oui rlcal construction, installation and 

maintenance of motors, operating in light and power stations; 

gas and water driven; at present employed by large cor- 

n as chief elect rlclan ; references and details upon re- 

guest. Address Box 338, Mining and Scie ntific Press. 

A-i man on Diesel oil engines, construction work; no 
plant too largo. Have son. 22, who is stenographer and ware- 
man; both speak Spanish. Desire position together in 
I vulval or South America or any foreign country; A-l refer- 
Address Box 334. Mining and Scientific Press. 

COLLEGE GRADUATE, 8 years experience, including railway 

s t ruction, gold and quicksilver mining in Mexico 

and California, wishes position about July 10; good references. 

Aililri ss jinx ::i:i. Mining and Scientific Press. 

i'I'KN KOU i:n<;.\i;EMENT as general manager or general 
superintendent, engineer of wide experience in the United 
Mexico, and Australia. Thoroughly posted in modern 
mining methods. References of the highest class. Speak 
Spanish fluently; will go anywhere; personal interview can be 
arranged. Address Box 335. Mining and Scientific Press. 

10 years In charge of various kinds of construction, mill-fram- 
ing, concrete, erecting machinery and shafting. San Fran- 
cisco references as to ability and personal character. American, 
age 38. Salary $175 and expenses. Box 344. Mining and Scien- 
tiflc Press. 

EXPERIENCED MINE ACCOUNTANT and commissary clerk; 

familiar with figuring operating expenses; references. Address 

12, Mining and Scient ific PresB. 

erintendent and successful organizer; technical graduate, ex- 
perienced in all phases of mining, development and examina- 
tion work; desires connection with reliable mine operator. Ex- 
pert miner and mill man; exceptionally qualified to work out 
close proposition where superintendent must be able to hold 
a foreman's job. Moderate salary and opportunity to buy in or 
become part owner. Address Box 34 5, Mining and Scientific 

MINING ENGINEER of the highest standing who has traveled 
extensively and reported on properties in Asia, Africa, North, 
Centra] and South America, desires to form a connection, in 
consulting capacity or for work in the field, with an organiza- 
tion contemplating mining investments abroad. Address Box 
:-:25. Mining and Scientific Press. 

FIFTEEN YEARS of practical experience as cyanide, concen- 
tration, amalgamation assayer and chemist; can make all re- 
pairs and operate gas engines; best of references. Address 
Box 333, Mining and Scientific Press. 

Competent Mining Men Supplied 


Washington Building LOS ANGELES 

Uon in California, Addn I, Mining and Sclontlfli 

MINE SUPERINTENDENT doilrea position In • imrge of 
opening up now prop* rty; mining onglnoer "f 1 1 
tical experience; efficiency and cheapness ■■! o\ 

I phosphatOi gold and illvor. Ad 
:\. Mining and E 

«jraim*atk mining and civil engineer, with 18 years prac- 
tical mining experience, Includlni I veylng 
and assaying, de porlntendanl oi assistant 
superintendent of mine. Address Box 164, Mining and Scientific 


The MOYLE Roll-Jaw 

Forced-Feed Safety 
Crusher and Pulverizer 


Something new in Rock-Crushers. Crushes 
to 40 mesh in one operation. Just the thing for 
crushing your lead and zinc for jigging. Will 
increase the capacity of any mill 50 per cent. 
Adjustability and safety a valuable factor. 

Built in all sizes, up to 12x20-in. jaw opening 

E. H. Moyle Engineering & Equipment Co. 




1 — 114 cu> yd. Bucyrus Vulcan Electric Shovel, 60 H.P. — 

30 H.P. — 30 H.P. motors, AC — 440 volts. 
3 — 50 K.W. Transformers, 23000-440 volts. 
1 — 6" Gravel Dredging Pump, direct connected to 20 H.P. 

Westinghouse Motor, AC — 440 volts. 
1 — 6" Centrifugal Pump, direct connected to 30 H.P. 

Westinghouse Motor, AC — 440 volts. 
1 — 20 H.P. Motor, back geared, AC — 440 


Miscellaneous l.ot of Ninall Tool*. Screen*} Washers, etc. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 




Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 
Addresses will be found on the Sixth followinq Page ••• 
If you do not find what you want communicatewith Mining and Scientific Press Service 


Acetylene Generators 

Billiard, i. 
Acetylene Limpa 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Bullard. K 1 1. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Justrlte Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Dorr Company. The. 

General Filtration Co.. Inc. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Air Brakes 

Westlnghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
A mnlKnnmted Platen 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co 

Moyle Eng. A Equip. Co.. 
E. H. 

San Francisco Plating Wks. 
Aasarrra' and Chemists' 

(See Index to Advertisers) 
Aasaycra' and Chemists' 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Denver Fire Clav Co 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Balances and Wrights 

Alnsworth & Sons. Wm 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co 

Thompson Balance Co. 
Ball Mills 
(See "Mills") 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co 

Meese & Gottfried Company 

Diamond Rubber Co.. The 

Dodge Sales & Eng Co 

£»HS r ? , .*J? cn5r - * Sup. Co. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Me f.\ e S Gottfried Company. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg Co 

Denver Fire Clay Co 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg & 
Supply Co. B x 

Jngersoll-Rand Co. 

null' ^ros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co 

R ! x ,.£ omp Alr * Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co 
Boiler Graphite 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg Co 

S^H°V' R |ck ard ft' McCone 
s n u*p r pfv & Co BO,th0,r Mf *' * 

Power & Mining MachT Co 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co 
Brick. Fire 

Atkins. Kroll ft Co 
Braun Corporation, The 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Brlfm^iii DE Machinery 
Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann' Co 
Meese & Gottfried Company 
Traylor En,- ft Mfff. Co 

Brtinbea. Motor and Generator 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
General Electric Co. 
"estinghouse Electric & 
Mfe. Co. 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 
A»,las Car & Mfg. Co. 

Bucyrus Company. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Burner*, Oil 

Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Cabletvaya, Snapenslon 

Leschen ft Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Lldgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Roebllng's Sons Co., John A. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Sauerman Bros. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 


Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. ft Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Carbons, Hon-,, and Dlamonda 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car ft Mfg. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. ft 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Caat Iron Pipe 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 

Dodge Sales ft Eng. Co. 

Lunkenhelmer Co. 

Moyle Eng. ft Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Union Construction Co. 

Tuba Construction Co. 

Bucyrus Company. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Denver Fire Clav Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Co. 
Chilean Mill* 
(See "Mills") 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Deister Machine Co. 
Dorr Company, The. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Trarlor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Clutches, Friction 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Coal < 'utter* 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Coal Handling Machinery 

Bartlett & Snow Co.. C. O. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
ComprenMora, Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

General Electric Co. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Concentrator Belts 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Deister Concentrator Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Eccleston Machinery Co. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Minerals Sep. Am. Syn., Ltd. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Concrete Mlxera 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Prescott Steam Pump Co., 
Fred. M. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Harron. Rickard ft McCone. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Earle C. 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun -Knecht-Hei man n Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clav Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er Co. 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mtg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
International Steam Pump 

Johnson Engineering Wks. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Meese ft Gottfried Company. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Vulcan Iron Works. 


Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Butters & Co.. Ltd., Charles. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Company, The. 
Hamilton. Beauchamp, 

Woodworth, Inc. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Kelly Filter Press Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. ft Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 


Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Company, The. 
General Filtration Co.. Inc. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Drafting Material 

Alnsworth & Sons. Wm. 

Buff & Buff Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Dragline Excavators 

Bucyrus Company. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Sauerman Bros. 
Union Construction Co. 


Bucyrus Company. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Dredging Machinery 

American Locomotive Co. 

Bucyrus Company. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Roebllng's Sons Co.. John A 
Union Construction Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Drill Hole Compass 

White. E. E. 

(Continued on page 40 1 

July l 1916 

MINING and Scicnt.hc PRESS 

i r 

Smith Hydraulic Turbines 

The Miner's Standard 

The Pelton Wheel was Invented by a 
miner, has been associated with nearly 
all the mining camps of the world, and 
today Is the accepted standard of mine 
power. It Is built in many styles, a 
popular one being the wood frame type 
illustrated above. Its use Is described 
In our Bulletin No. 8. If you are Inter- 
ested In minim; in any way. a copy of 
this bulletin will be serviceable. 

The Pelton Water Wheel Company 

2229 H&rruon Street, 89 West Street, 

San Fr&nciaco New York, N. Y. 


Let's say t liat you are contemplating the development of 
B water power. You are confronted by Hie task of 
selecting proper equipment. In Ibis your choice Is 
Influenced by a number of considerations. BUT — vour 
prime requisite is— SERVICE, and that ultimately is 
the deciding factor. 


In your plant will do just what It Is doing In thousands 
of other plants throughout the country — 


Write for Bulletin V. 


San Francisco — 505 Sheldon Bldg. 
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D AARON— Assaying— Part I. 


_ AAEON— Assaying— Parts II. and III. in (J;1 -^ 
one Volume. Value ,pl.DU 

□ ADAMS — Hints on Amalgamation and the ,t. nn 
Care of Gold Mills. Value Ipi.UU 

D READ — Copper Smelting Practice. &* C n 

Value .V.00 

□ RICKAKD — Journeys of Observation. 


D RICKAKD — Recent Cyanide Practice. M „« 

Value •T>i UU 

D RICKAKD — Through the Yukon and „,_ cn 

Alaska. Value .V.OU 

_ WEATHERBE — Dredging for Gold in $ . nn 

California. Value .p^.UU 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 


Drill Makers and Sharpeners 

Eclipse Drill Sharpening 
Machine Mfg. Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works. 
DHIU, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Rtx Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smlth-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works. 
Dxilla, Core 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Union Construction Co. 
Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Drills. Electric 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Drills, Prospecting 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

RIx Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

(See "Generators") 
Employment U area o 

Business Men's Clearing 

Mines Technical Agency. 

(See Professional Directory) 
Engines, Gas and Gasoline 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
En Brines. OH 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Snow Steam Pump Works. 
Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Du Pont Powder Co. 
Fans, Ventilating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

General Filtration Co., Inc. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Filter Bags 

Filter Fabrics Co. 
Filters Presses 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Kelly Filter Press Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Fire Brick 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard, E. D. 

Justrlte Mfg. Co. 
First Aid Equipment 

Bullard, E. D. 

Slebe, Gorman & Co.. Ltd. 
Flotation Apparatus 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Filter Fabrics Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Flotation Process 

Butters & Co., Ltd., Charles. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, 
Woodworth, Inc. 

Minerals Sep. Am. Syn., Ltd. 
Foundry Equipment 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Frogs and Switches 
(See "Railway Supplies") 
Furnace*. Assay 
(See Assay ers' and Chemists' 

Furnaces, Roasting and 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Gas Producers 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

(See "Packing") 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Giants, Hydraulic 
(See Hydraulic Mining Mach.) 
Graphite Products 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Hammer Drills, Pneumatic 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Worthlngton Pump & 
Machintry Corp. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Hoists, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bartlett & Snow Co.. C. O. 

Gerferal Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Hoists, Steam on, Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Hose Couplings 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

National Tube Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Wood Drill Works. 
Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

International Steam Pump 

Movie Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

National Tube Co. 
Iron Cements 

Smooth-On. Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Laboratory Supplies 
(See Assayers' and Chemists' 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Lamps, Miners 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Lead Joint Pipe 

National Tube Co. 
Locomotives, Electric 

American Locomotive Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Locomotives, Steam 

American Locomotive Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Lima Locomotive Corp. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Bucyrus Company. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Machinery, Used 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 


Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 
American Zinc, Lead £ 

Smelting Co. 
Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 
Consolidated Min. & Smelt- 
ing Co., of Canada, Ltd. 
Edgar Zinc Co. 
Empire Zinc Co. 
Foote Mineral Company. 
Granby Mining & Smelting 

International Smelting Co. 
Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 
U. S. Smelting, Refining & 

Mining Co. 
Vasco Mining Co. 
Vogelstein & Co., L. 
Wah Chang Min. & Smelt. 

WUdberg Bros. 
Woods, Huddart & Gunn. 
Meters — Flow, Air, Gas, Water 
General Electric Co. 
Worthington Pump & 

Machinery Corp. 
Rix. Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Mills — Ball, Pebble, and Tube 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard. E. D. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Eccleston Machinery Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
• Johnson Engineering Wks. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
San Francisco Plating Wks. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co 
Power & Mining Machy. Co 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co. 
Oil and Grease Cups 
(See "Lubricators" ) 

OH Well Supplies 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

National Tube Co. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Oil, Flotation 

General Naval Stores Co. 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 
Ore Buyers 
(See Metal Buyers and 

Oxy- Acetylene Welding and 
Cutting Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 
Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Smooth-On. Mfg. Co. 
Paint, Preservative 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Patent Attorneys 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

(Continued on page 42) 

.Iui\ I 1916 

MINING and Scientific I'KI SS 


The Slogan*! th* Cameron lt 6haracter: The Grandest Thing" 

Buy Pumps of Proved Efficiencies 



' UOt^ 

**. rastfi i|| 


Write for Bulletins— they tire free. 

Wlu-ii vim buy Cameron Centrifugals, you buy pumps 

thai have been tested by the st modern apparatus. 

This apparatus consists of weir tanks for accurately 
measuring the capacities of various size pumps, and 
a torsion dynamometer connected between the motor 
and pump I as shown in the illusl ration I for determin 
ing the ezacl horsepower input of the pump. The 
results obtained are exceptionally accurate, as the 
operation of this Dynamometer is entirely independ- 
ent of the motor Losses when the pump is undergoing 
s power driven test. 

Every Cameron Centrifugal Is given a rigid lest over a suf- 
ficient period of time to determine its capacity and effi- 
ciency for the conditions specified. 

Tests of our Centrifugal Pumps have been witnessed by 
eminent engineers, with entire satisfaction. Whether tin- 
test is witnessed by the purchaser or not. it is condiu ited 
with the greatest care. This is one reason why all Cameron 
Centrifugals now in service are giving highly satisfactory 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works, 1 1 Broadway, New York 



Quickly Sold — 

In every issue of the Mining and 
Scientific Press will be found a quick 
means for disposing of used machin- 
ery. Insert a classified advertisement 
on the "Opportunity Page." Rates 
are five cents per word; 2J cents per 
word when 500 words are contracted 
for. No advertisement accepted for 
less than $1. Every mine or mill 
manager wants used machinery at 
some time, perhaps, just when you 
have it to sell. Try — 




In the New and Largest Goldflelds of America. 

Metropolitan Service, Day and Night 
Rates $1.50 Per Day and Up. 

Only Hotel in Oatman having following special features: 

Large Spacious Lobby 

Ladies Parlor on Second Floor 

Baths, Hot and Cold Water 

Flush Toilets 

Telephone and Telegraph Service 

Rooms Single and En Suite With Private Bath 



Every one of our locomotives is guaranteed to be of good workman- 
ship and material, accurately constructed. Tills guarantee is backed 
up by a concern that has been building good locomotives for more 
than 30 years. 

Write lor our Catalog 


111 W. Second St.. Lima. Ohio 

30 Church St., New York 1 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 


Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Pipe Killing. 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Lunkenhelmer Co. 

National Tube Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Smith. S. Morgan. 
Pipe. Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Smith. S. Morgan. 
Pipe, Steel 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 
E. H. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Pipe, Wood 

National Tube Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Placer Mining Machinery 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Bucyrus Company. 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 
E. H. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Construction Co. 

Pneumatic Toola 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Du Pont Powder Co. 
Preservatives, Wood 

General Naval Stores Co. 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 
Preservative*, Metal 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

New York Engineering Co. 
Rlx Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
White. E. E. 
Pulleys, Shafting- and Hang-era 

(See "Transmission 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Metal Co.. Ltd. 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun -Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron W T orks Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Pomps, Centrifugal 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks 
A. .S 

Deane Steam Pump Co. 

Deming Co.. The. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. Iron Works. Joshua. 

Worthington Pump & 
Machinery Corp. 

Jackson Iron Works Byron. 

Jeanesvllle Iron Works. 

Krogh Pump Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Prescott Steam Pump Co., 
Fred. M. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Snow Steam Pump Works. 

Yuba Construction Co. 
Pomps, Reciprocating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 
A. S. 

Deane Steam Pump Co. 

Deming Co.. The. 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Jeanesvllle Iron Works. 

Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Prescott Steam Pump Co., 
Fred. M. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Snow Steam Pump Works. 
Pomps, Air Lift 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Pomps, Vacoom 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun -Knecht-Helmann Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Quicksilver Furnaces 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Railway Supplies and Equip- 

American Locomotive Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Lima Locomotive Corp. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Rescue Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 

Elmer. H. N. 

Siebe. Gorman & Co., Ltd. 
Rolls, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Earlo C. 

Bartlett & Snow Co.. C. O. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Rope, Manila and Jute 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Sauerman Bros. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Safety Appliances 

Bullard. E. D. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Traylar Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Saw Mill Machinery 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Schools nnd Colleges 
(See Index to Advertisers) 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bartlett & Snow Co.. C. O. 

Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Cal. Perforating Screen Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Smith-Booth-L'sher Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Second -Hand Machinery 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 

(See Transmission Machy.) 
Shoes and Dies 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Bucyrus Company. 

Marlon Steam Shovel Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Smelters and Reflnera 

American Zinc. Lead & 
Smelting Co. 

Beer. Sondhelmer & Co. 

Consolidated Mln. & Smelt- 
ing Co. of Canada, Ltd. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Granby Mining & Smelting 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & 
Mining Co. 

Vogelstein & Co., L. 

Wildberg Bros. 
Smelting- Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy, Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Cary Spring Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Stamp Mills 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Straub Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Steel, Drill and Sheet 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 
Suction Dredges 

Bucyrus Company. 

Krogh Pump Co. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Construction Co. 
Tanks, Cyanide 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Tanks, Steel 

Hammond Iron Works. 
Tapes, Measuring 

Lufkin Rule Co. 
Thickeners. Slime 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 


Yuba Construction Co. 
Tramways, Aerial 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 

Sauerman Bros. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Buff & Buff Co. 
Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

General Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Tube Mills 
(See "Mills") 

National Tube Co. 

Turbine*. Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith, S. Morgan. 

Torbloes, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

(See "Pipe Fittings") 

(See "Pipe Fittings") 
Water Wheels 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Smith, S. Morgan. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Waterproof Coating 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Welding; Process, Electric 

General Electric Co. 
Welding Process, Oxy-Acety- 

Bullard. E. D. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co. 
Well Drilling Machinery sad 

American Well Works. 

Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Wheels, Car 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Wire Cables 
(See "Rope. Wire") 
Wire Cloth 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Wire, Inaolated 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Zinc Boxes 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

National Pipe & Tank Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Zinc Dust nnd Shavings 

American Zinc. Lead &. 
Smelting Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Granby Mining & Smelting 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & 
Mining Co. 

.Iiilv 1. 1916 

MINING and Sckntin, PRESS 

I : 

Giant Fuel-Oil Engines 

Single or Duplex 

Fuel nil 

Coal oil 

Stationary or Tank Mounted for Portable Use. 

Direct Connected and Belted Sets 

For Operating Pump-* and Generators, Air Compressors 

and all Power Purposes 

Mail.' in capacities from 12 to 160 Horse Power and 
operate successful]; on 

Stave on niraol 

Mnr Oil Solnr Oil 

i mi.. I Gas Oil 

which means Low Operating Cost. 

No valves, gears, carburetors, mixers, oil or air heat- 
i is. magnetos, batteries, timers, switches, coils, wires or 
spark plugs. 

Hummer Rotating All Types and Sizes ol 

Jack Hammers Air Compressors 

Write for Bulletins and Prices 


San Francisco Office: 71 First St. 

Los Angeles Office: 915 Title Insurance Bdg. 

Portland Branehe? Kvr.-rywh.-re Seattle 

MM Fisher Bdff., Chicago :i 52 Vanderbilt Ave.. New York 


There are lots of reasons 
why you should require other 
than a stock car. If this Is 
the case, looking over our 
catalog would give you many 
valuable ideas for the pur- 
pose of re-designing. Re- 
member this — it doesn't cost 
anything to consult us on 
this matter, neither do we 
charge extra for building a 
car to meet your own par- 
ticular ideas. 

Let us hear from you. 


Denver Office: UNDROOTH & SHUBART CO. 


and CARS 


Switches, Frogs, and Equipment. 








Deister and Overstrom Tables 

In Either SINGLE or DOUBLE Deck Type 

Thousands of ta- 
bles in use in all 
parts of the world. 

Test sheets and 
hundreds of testi- 
monial letters from 
satisfied users. 

It's not what we 
say of our products 
— it's what our cus- 
tomers say. 
Send your concentrat- 
ing table problems to 
ns and make use of our 
years of experience. 

The Deister CONCENTRATOR Co., *■■ i 

l he Original and Well Known Deister Sllmer. 

Denver Oillce : 1718-1720 California St. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 

San Francisco Oillce : 75 Fremont St. 



kT+.Iibitij'.Mo. Y\ 

MeiiYvifAc-rurer^K of 1 







MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1, 1916 


• Dash -Indicates • Eve ry-Other-WeeK-or-Honthly- Advertisement - 


AINSWORTH ft SONS, WM., D. river B2 

allis-ciialmers .MFC. CO., Milwaukee, Wis 6 

AMERICAN CAST [RON PIPE CO., Birmingham, Ala 21 

AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE CO., iron St, New STork.... 46 

AMERICAN META1 I.t.l.. 61 Broadway, Mew York — 


AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE CO., 116 Adams St., Chicago... 31 

AMERICAN WELL WORKS, Aurora, 111 19 

AMERICAN ZINC ORE SEP. CO., 1218 Foster Bldg.. Denver. 33 



ATKINS, KROLL & CO.. San Franrisi .1 33 

atlas CAR ft MFG. CO., Cleveland, OI1I0 43 

BACON, BARLE <'., llavomeyer i:Ug. New York 43 

BARTLETT & SNOW CO., C. O., Cleveland, Ohio 35 

SONDHEIMER ft CO., 61 Broadway, New York 32 

BESSEMER CAS ENGINE CO., Grove- City, Pa 20 

BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE, 37 First St.. San Francisco... -l 

BRAUN CORPORATION, THE, Los Angeles. Cal 31 

BRAUN-KNECHT-HEIMANN CO., San Francisco 22 and 31 


BUS COMPANY. South Milwaukee. 'Wis — 

r.i 1 1 A BUFF CO, Jamaica Plain Station, Boston — 

BULLARD, E. I'. 268 Market St.. San Francisco — 


BUTTERS ft CO., LTD.. CHARLES. Oakland. Cal 31 

cal. PERFORATING screen CO., San Francisco — 


CART, SI-RING WORKS, 240 W. 2'.'tli St.. New Y..rk — 

CHALMERS & WILLIAMS, Chicago Heights. Ill — 

c AGO PNEUMATIC TOOL CO.. Fisher Bldg., Chicago... 43 


CONSOLIDATED MIN. ft SMELT. CO.. Trail. B. C„ Canada.. 33 

DEANE STEAM PUMP CO., Holyoke, Mass — 


LEISTER MACHINE CO., Fort Wayne. Ind Back Cover 

DEMI NO CO., THE. Salem. Ohio 31 

DENVER FIRE CLAY CO., 171- Champa St., Denver 22 


DENVER ROCK DRILL MFG. CO., 18th ft Blake. Denver... 19 

I IBWET, STRONG & TOWNSEND. San Francisco 21 


I. INi IN CRUCIBLE CO.. JOSEPH. Jersey City. X. J 16 

DODGE SALES & ENG. CO.. Mishawaka, Ind — 

DORR COMPANY. THE, B12 Cooper Bldg., Denver IS 

DU PONT POWDER CO.. Wilmington, Del 17 

ECCLESTON MACHINERY i-ii,. Los Angeles. Cal 10 


EDGAR ZINC COMPANY, Salt Lake City. Utah 32 

ELMER, It. N., 1140 Monadnock Bloek. Chicago 22 

EMPIRE ZINC CO., 55 Wall St.. New Y'ork 33 

FILTER FABRICS CO., Felt Bldg.. Salt Lake City. Utah — 

FOOTE MINERAL COMPANY. 105 N. 19th St.. Philadelphia. — 
FRENIER & SON. Rutland, Vermont 22 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.. Schenectady, N. Y — 




GOODRICH CO.. THE B. F.. Akron. Ohio — 



Embarcadero, San Francisco 30 


HARDINGE CONICAL MILL CO., 120 Broadway, New York. 12 

HARRON, RICKARD * McCONE, San Francisco 3 


HENDY [RON WORKS, JOSHUA, San Francisco — 

HERCULES POWDER CO.. Wilmington, Del — 

1NGEKSOLL-KAND CO.. 11 Broadway. New Y'ork 11 

INTERNATIONAL SMELTING CO.. 42 Broadway. New York. 32 



NSoN ENGINEERING WR&, 1st Nat. Bk. Bldg.. Chicago 15 

JUSTRITE MFG. CO.. 2075 Southport Ave., Chicago 16 

. Page 

K kij.y FILTER PRESS CO.. Salt Lake City, Utah : 

K ;n PUMP MFG. co., 149 Beale St., San Francisco 19 

LAIDLAW-DUNN-GORDON CO.. 115 Broadway. New York.. — 

LANE MILL A MACHINERY CO., Loa Angeles, Cal 45 

LESCHEN ft SONS ROPE CO.. A.. St. Louis. Mo 43 

LIDGERWOOD MFG. CO., 96 Liberty St.. New York 15 



LUFKIN RULE Co.. Saginaw. Mich 22 

LUNKENHEIMBR CO., THE, Cincinnati, Ohio 43 


[ERNAN-TERRY DRILL Co., -New York :::: 

MEESE & GOTTFRIED COMPANY. San Francisco. .Back Covej 


MINERALS SEP. AM. SYN.. LTD.. San Francis, ,, 16 



MOUSE PROS. .MACHY. ft SUP. CO., Denver 19 and 36 

MOYLE ENG. ft EQUIP. CO., E. II.. Los Angeles JT 

NATIONAL TANK & PIPE CO., Portland, Ore 21 

NATIONAL TUBE CO., Pittsburgh. Pa Front Cover 


OLIVER FILTER CO., 501 Market St., San Francisco, Cal... 2 

PACIFIC TANK ft PIPE CO., San Francisco I.'. 



POWER & MINING MACHY. CO., Cudahy. Wis ." — 

PRATT-GILBERT CO., Phoenix, Ariz 15 

PRESCOTT STEAM PUMP CO., FRED M.. Milwaukee. Wis., is 

PREST-O-LITE CO., INC., Indianapolis. Ind — 

PUTMAN 1100T ft shoe, 439 1st Ave., N. Minneapolis, Minn. 21 

REDWOOD MFGRS. CO., 1611 Hobart Bldg.. Sun Francis,,. i 

KIN COMP. AIR DRILL CO., 16 Fust St., San Francisco — 

ROEBLING S So.NS CO., JOHN A.. San Francisco -1 


SACRAMENT'. PIPE WORKS. Sacramento Cal — 


SAUERMAN BROS., nil Monadnock Blk., Chicago — 


SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO., San Francisco 92 


SIEBE, GORMAN ft Co., LTD.. Chicago 22 

SMITH-BOOTH-USHER CO., 22S Central Ave., Los Angeles. 36 

SMITH. S. MORGAN, York, Pa 39 

SMOOTH-ON MFG. CO., Jersey City. N.J -0 



ST. FRANCIS HOTEL, Oatman, Ariz 4 1 


THOMPSON BALANCE CO.. S10 2oth St., Denver 22 

TKAYLoR ENG. ft .MFG. Co., Allen town, Pa ::.'• 


c. s. SMELTING. REFINING ft MINING CO., Boston... 12 


VAN DER NAILLEN SCHOOL, A.. Oakland. Cal -'0 

VoGELSTEIN & CO., L.. 42 Broadway. New York 33 

VULCAN IRON WORKS, San Francisco, Cal 21 


WATT MINING CAR WHEEL CO.. Barnesville. Ohio 43 

WELLMAN-SEAVER-MORGAN CO.. Cleveland. Ohio 47 

WESTINGHOUSE ELEC. & MFG. CO.. East Pittsburgh. Pa.. — 

WHITE. E. E.. Ishpeming, Mich 

WILDBERG BROS.. 416 Pacific Bldg.. San Francisco — 

WOOD DRILL WKS., 30 Dale Ave.. Paterson, N. J 35 


YUBA CONSTRUCTION CO.. San Francisco 21 

July 1. l!U6 

MINING Scientific IM<I» 

No Metal Exposure to Chemical Fluids in Wood Pipe 

Kur two laniratlODi our Dooglu iir and redwood pipe hai boon mod to otrrj mineral or tulpbur 
•atari u doM not corrode — »iii Hand Ugh praMore, hard treesea, and rough handling, mai 
machine banded or oontlnaooi itave, either galTtnlMd or copper wire banded, liade for preaiuree ap 
to 100 ft head. 

Our many (IokIkiis of tanks ur. ide of Do.ikIiis Or or redwood I Kor itony, saturated 

ore. or other special conditions, we make tanks with vertical ildei or epeclal requirement! Our tanks 
»re doing the work in inanv parts of the world. 

Working loads, various tis.s. weights, photos of Installations, etc., are available In our row catalog, 
Send (or mining Catalog No. 7. also the Interesting booklet: "Wooden Pipe: Its Many Advanl 
Hoth are tree. 


Pacific Tank and Pipe Company 

FACTORIES : San Francisco— Lot Angeles. OFFICES : 502 Fifth Sl„ S.n Francisco ; 
902 liuM and Saving* Blag., Cor. 6th and Spring Sis., Los Angeles, C«l. i 

The Minerals Separation Flotation Processes 

Invented, Perfected and Owned by 


of 62 London Wall, London, England, 

and lis Affiliated Companies. 

The Processes are protected in the United States of America by over forty patents and applications for 
patents, which include practically everything essential or of value in the use of the Process and Art of 
Air Froth Flotation of mineral values, irrespective of ivhatever mechanical apparatus may be employed. 

The Processes are now in almost universal operation, yielding phenomenal recoveries and record break- 
ing profits wherever properly installed as at Anaconda, Braden, Britannia, Inspiration, Timber Butte, 
and numbers of other important Copper, Zinc, Lead, Silver and Gold Mining Plants throughout the 

The Plant is simple, inexpensive and "Fool Proof" and occupies very small space for its large tonnage 

The Patent Rights for the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico are controlled by 

Minerals Separation American Syndicate (1913) Ltd. 

Sole Agenta : BEER, SONDHE1MER & CO. 
61 Broadway 
New York 
Cable: Beersond 

Chief Engineer: EDWARD H. NUTTER 

Merchants Exchange Building 

San Francisco California 

Cable; Nomology 

Notice Is hereby given that no one except our Chief Engineer and the Agents named above is authorized to act for or 
represent us, or to Introduce Minerals Separation processes or apparatus into the United States, Canada, and Mexico. A 
testing laboratory is maintained in San Francisco for the purpose of testing ores by flotation, and samples sent to our 
Chief Engineer there will be tested at minimum expense to prospective licensees. 

Infringers will be Prosecuted 


j^fc_-.l<J ^JjrLiStSfl* 11 ' 



in several plants during the past year. The following con- 
clusions can be inferred from this fact: 

' The equipment in use did not give satisfaction. 

The Lane Mill mast have been thoroughly Investigated. 
The investigation must have shown the superiority of the 


No sane man would change his equipment until he had 
received positive proof that it would lower his cost of opera- 
tion, increase his extraction, or improve his plant in some 
way, therefore it is evident that we are able to conclusively 
I demonstrate the superior worth of the Lane Mill for the 


better for vour work, too. "Why not investigate and find 
out? Our Catalog No. 7 will aid you. Send for it. 


422-423 Wcnley Roberts Building, Los Aneelen, Cal. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1916 




For Placer Prospecting You Will Want to Use the Empire Drill 


It is endorsed and used by all the leading mining engineers in all parts of 
the world. 

It is low in first cost. 

There is practically no expense for repairs. 

(It is really portable, and can be carried anywhere that a man can go. 
It is cheap to operate. 

And most important of all, your drilling results will be accurate. 

Write lor our booklets on PLACER DRILLING and GOLD DREDGES. 

We «ill assist yon in 
financing, or we will equip 
your property, if Empire 

results prove it worthy. 

We are specialists 
in Gold Dredge 
Building and Placer 



Our standard light locomotives are built on the 
Interchangeable Parts Plan. They are assem- 
bled from stock parts made to accurate gauges. 
Every operation is done in a carefully designed 
jig, and neither expense nor time is spared to 
insure absolute accuracy. On completion, a 
special corps of inspectors measure every part 
by means of gauges which are carefully checked 
up, and no part can be placed in stock until it 
has received the inspector's stamp. 

With this system every part must be so accu- 
rately made as to fit every other locomotive of 
the same size and type. 

For this reason we can make prompt shipment of either a complete locomotive or of any part. This 
method avoids long delays when parts wear out and also enables a user to keep on hand parts liable to 
wear in service with positive assurance that each part will fit. 



McCormick Building, Chicago, Illinois. A. Baldwin & Company, New Orleans, La. 

Dominion Express Building, Montreal, Canada. 
N. B. Livermore & Company, San Francisco and Los Angeles, California. 
Northwestern Equipment Company, Seattle, Wash., and Portland. Oregon. 

.Inly 1. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Portland Filter is 

A Satisfactory Filter 

In This All Users Agree 

One writes — 

"After ten months' use, I am pleased to say that the Portland Filter 
has passed expectations in the handling of a difficult collodial slime with 
satisfactory washing, the capacity being 20', over the rating. One cloth 
lasted 7 months, the only other repair being the replacement of the worm 
drive, which was cut out by grit getting on the gear, due to carelessness." 

Those who know most about other filters are most enthusiastic in their 
praise of the Portland. There's one sure way to solve the filter problem and 
that is to install a Portland Filter, No anxiety over possible patent litiga- 
tion — we guarantee that the Portland Filter does not infringe the legal 
rights of the owners of any other patents. 




I860- DENVER. 





In a Concrete Chamber 
Two Miles Underground 

Hoist Furnished Silver King Coalition Mines Co.. Park City. Utah. 

The double reel first motion electric hoist (shown 
here) hoists the ore from a vertical shaft over which 
is a steel head-frame, the ore being trammed through 
a tunnel from this point to the surface. Among the 
unique features of this hoist is automatic accel- 
eration from any level and slowing down at the end 
of each trip, thus preventing excessive overloads at 
starting and dangerous speeds when landing. The 
hoist has proved thoroughly certain and perfectly 
noiseless in operation. 

Our Hoist Bulletins make interesting 
reading for hoist users. Write for them. 

Meuhah-Seaw-Morgan Co. 

NEW YORK— Hudson Terminal 


DENVER— 611 Ideal Building 

MEXICO, D. F.— Apartado 1220 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 1. 1016 

The New Deister Simplex Rougher 
and New Deister Simplex Finisher 

are the latest developments in the art of ore 
concentration. We have demonstrated in numerous 
competitive tests that these are the most efficient 

Concentrating Tables 

on the market today. This was again demonstrated in a 
recent competitive test at the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining 
Company's test plant at Juneau. Alaska. THE ROUGHER 
handled 230 torn* per day, making a clean concentrate, 
and THE FINISHER handled from 75 to 100 tons, making 
a clean concentrate and low tallln*. As a result of this 
test we received the order for all concentrating tables 
and classifiers in their new milL consisting of 48 Rough- 
ers, 102 Finishers, and 72 Classifiers. 

Note: The reason for this large capacity and perfect 
control of the line of separation lies In our Patented 
Duplex Plateau, which consists of several steps or rises 
along a diagonal line intermediate the dressing zone and 
the main concentrating portion of the deck. 

Our customers tell us. "We consider your N'EW SIM- 

best tables made today. They are practically automatic 
in operation and require very little attention. An occa- 
sional oiling of the head-motion is about all that Is neces- 

We wish to make clear to all who are not Intimately 
acquainted with the personnel of the Deister Machine 
Company, that Emll and W. F. Deister. who are the In- 
ventor* of the original an well aa of all subsequent true 
Deister Tables, are exclusively and permanently engaged 
with this company. 

Remember, the Deister Simplex tables are the only ones 
that embody the latest Deister Inventions. Look for the 
word Simplex In our advertisements. 


Deister Machine Company 


HOME OFFICE AXD FACTORY: 1933-3)03 Eail WajTie Street. FORT WAYXE. IXD. V. S. A. 

LONDON OFFICE: No. 1 London Wall Bldgs.. LONDON WALL. E. C. 

Afenut .- WILLIAM L. Rbedeb. 410 Consolidated Bldg.. Johannesburg. S. Africa. Takatji A Co., 2 Yeiraku-chu. Nichome. Kojimachi-ku. Tokyo. Japan 

When you need a pulley send 
your order to 0L$c(&. 

Pacific Coast headquarters for 
anything in the pulley line. 

We offer four styles of pulleys: 

M & <& Steel Rim 
Gilbert Wood Split 
American All Steel 
Cast Iron 

A pulley to meet the requirements of 
anv case. 

Engineers and Manufacturers 
Conveying, Elevating, Screening, and Mechanical Power Transmitting Machinery 


660 Minion St. 


67 Front St. SS8 First Are. So. 
Send lor Catalog 


400 Ea*t 3rd St.. cor. San Pedro 


td.X-d by 


Volumn 113 
Number 2 



PROSPECTORS, and others familiar with Nature's moods, 
will recall scenes similar to that illustrated in the accom- 
panying photograph, which shows the rocky crest of the 
range illumined in a strong light against the sombre sky pre- 
saging a big thunder-storm. The picture typifies the days in 
which we live, when death and destruction have been har- 
nessed by man in his fierce fight for ambitions and principles 
that admit of no compromise. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. 1916 





Con tinuous 



50I MAR.K.ET St. 

San Francisco.Cal. 

have been installed in 320 different 

Is the experience of the engineers who 
have devised these many different means 
of meeting conditions of any use to you? 

Money has been saved — output has been 
increased — operating costs have been re- 
duced — in silver, gold, lead, zinc, and 
copper mines. Why not in your mine? 

By writing to our engineering department, giving 
complete details of your conditions, you will, with- 
out obligation, get data concerning Oliver Filter 
performance. Write. 


hhiokhi. 51 IFFI 


p. b. McDonald 



I M \l;l ISHEO I860 

I'ublaM >i 420 Miik* n . Su FaooW b» ihr Dnw PulJJiim Co. 

i 1 1 \RLES T. HUTCHINSON. Bimi>~ M.w, 


W 1 1 

I nui.l S Aualln. 

Courlenay De Kalb. 

I lm»n. 
Churl. -M J . 1 11 j i> 

1'' Kemp. 
P. II I'm I. .It 

I- U 1 

Horace V. wlnotioU, 

Seifnoi hoi "" enemy lave Ins ignoranl 

Isaurd Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 8, 1916 

$3 per Year — 10 Cents p< 


aOlTORIAL Page. 

N..ti~ 37 

TntGo > mi Banket 3S 

The origin of the gold in the deposits of the Rand as 
elucidated by Mr. Uellor ol the South African Geolog- 
ical Survey, with criticisms. 

Tun First Half "» 1916 39 

Review issued by the Qeologlca] Survey, with remarks 
of our own. concerning recent progress in Western 

Ot R Economic Bronzk Ai.f 40 

Preparedness for the commercial rivalries of peace 
amid the struggles of war. A warning against over- 

Why Sum- Cum i \ ikvte? 

By William Macdonald 41 

An argument for treating concentrate by cyanidation 
instead of shipping it to a smelter. How this is done 
in New Zealand. 

MrcKisi; as an Educator. 

Hu curt .v. Bcnuette 42 

Living conditions for young engineers at some mines 
are not of the sweetest. 

I'ium.mte is Colorado. 

By Ric/Utrd Pearce 43 

The discovery of a mass of urauinite or pitchblende 
in the Wood lode, near Central City, 45 years ago is 
described by the distinguished metallurgist to whom 
the discovery was due. 


The Oi ( OBBENCE OF Than ism: is Colorado. 

By Richard Pearci 44 

The author's original paper on his discovery of uranin- 
ite in Colorado, as written in 1895. 

Tiik Motor-Thick is Arizona. 

By Wilberi a. McBride 45 

Two 3 J-ton motor-trucks showed a cost of 2.37 cents 
per ton-mile in Arizona. Skilled truck-mechanics and 
good roads are necessary. 

Tiik Flotation' of Minerals. 

By Robert J. A nderson 47 

Surface tension, adsorption, colloids, electrolytic and 
electro-static phenomena, troth and bubbles, air and 
gas, are discussed in turn, with suggestive comment. 

As Earthquake is Nevada. 

By 8. L. Berry 52 

An earthquake in October 1915 as severe as that at 


San Francisco in 1906, but fortunately was in a 
sly populated region, a scarp E to IE ft. high 
and 22 miles long marks the earthquake-rift. 

Copper Metallurgy at Gabfield, Utah. 

By I.. 0. Howard 54 

Description of the Arthur mill of the Utah Copper Co.. 
and of the Garfield smelter. 


By Harai R. Layng 57 

As many as 50 determinations in a day can be made 
by this method of determining antimony. 

Misisc. in Utah. 

By L. O. Howard 59 

Zinc mining is receiving an impetus in Utah. The 
U. S. Geological Survey is preparing a new report on 
the Alta-Cottonwood-American Fork district. 

Blasting Practice at Chuquicamata, Chile. 

By Howard W. Moore 60 

Churn-drill blasting, as practised at the Nevada Con- 
solidated, was superseded at Chuquicamata by tunnel- 
blasting on an elaborate scale. An American mining 
engineer lately in Chile gives the details. 


Concentrates 62 

Ri:\ ti \v of Mining 63 

Special correspondence from Leadville, Colorado: Oat- 
man, Arizona. 

The Mining Summary 65 

Personal 69 

The Metal Market " n 

Eastern Metal Market 71 

Metal Statistics 72 

Scrap Metals Recovered in 1915: Manganese in 1915: 
Gold and Silver Production in the United States. 

Company Reports 73 

Crown Mines. Ltd.: East Rand Proprietary Mines; 
Chiksan Mining Co.: Porcupine Vipond Mines. 

Book Reviews 74 

'English and American Tool Builders,' by Joseph Wick- 
ham Roe: 'Cartridge Manufacture' and 'Shrapnel 
Shell Manufacture.' by Douglas T. Hamilton; '.Modern 
Starting, Lighting, and Ignition Systems.' by Victor 
W. Page. 
Mining Decisions 74 


Buyer's Guide ■ 2S 

Index to Advertisers 34 

Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Pre«»; name 

changed October 20 of the same year to Mining I Scientific 


Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York. 1308-10 
Woolwortb Bdg.; London. 724 Salisbury Mouse. E.C. 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico. $3: Canada. $1; other countries in postal union. 
21s. or $5 per annum. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

job - 

MINIM. ,„d Sccnlih. 1'RI SS 


T. A. RICKARD. Editor 

t \\ September 25 and following days the Beeond Na 
^ ii"n;il Exposition of ChemieaJ [nduatriea will be 
held in New York. 

OlI.YKi; baa been steady lately, at about 65 cents per 
*-* onnee, with a tendency to riae. We note that Tin 
Statist .'stimuli's the production .if Mexico in 1915 at 
55,000,000 ounces, aa againat 70,703,828 in 1913. We 
qaestion the 6gures for last year, believing that the re- 
daotion of output was more than is indicated by our 
London contemporary. By the way, the Real del Monte 

ery has nol yet b. me a source of production; 

it awaits further development. 

OODIUM SULPHIDE its chemical for which there is 
k -' likely to be a demand, in ton lots, in consequence of 
the new use of it in the sulphatizing of oxidized lead and 
copper ores preparatory to flotation. As a by-product, 
it .-an be made profitably at soda works and similar chem- 
ical manufacturing plants, if only a demand for it be- 
comes established in connection with flotation. Inci- 
dentally, we note thai the Nipissing company is about to 
us. sodium sulphide as a precipitant for silver in cyanide 
solutions, in place of aluminum, the price of which has 
been doubled by the demand created during the War. 

I" AST week we published an article on the theory of 
*~* flotation ; it came to us from Korea and was writ- 
ten by Mr. II. Hardy Smith, who explained the physical 
fores governing the formation and behavior of bubbles, 
on the basis of his work at the Suan mine. In this issue 
we give our readers the greater part of a paper by Mr. 
Robert J. Anderson, Instructor in Metallurgy at the Mis- 
souri School of Mines. This paper is to be read at the 
forthcoming meeting of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers in Arizona; it reviews the state of the 
art in a useful way, touching upon the obscurities that 
perplex the student and operator in this new branch of 
metallurgy. It will be noted that Mr. Anderson refers 
to several articles that have appeared in our pages. 

rpHB BIGGEST thing of its kind always attracts 
■*- popular interest. We note that Mr. D. C. Jackling, 
in an interview, places the Chuquicamala as the biggest 
copper mine in the world, having regard to its present 
development and future prospects; he places the Utah 
Copper second, and the Braden third. For the time of 
a generation the Rio Tinto was the premier copper mine 
of the world, but during the last decade the development 
of the disseminated copper deposits and of the two 
Chilean properties has changed our standards of mag- 

nitude. The Rio Tinto has been credited with a reserve 
of 100,000,000 ions of l'1\ ore. This was considered 
colossal ten year's ago, but the ChUquicam redited 

with four times as much ore of about the sane- grade. 

■VTost of the cyanide used on the Hand, at the rate of 

- 1 -*- 1 5000 tons per annum, worth about $2,500,000, is 

now obtained from Glasgow. At the beginning of the 
War tlie British government arranged for a supply at a 

price of 17 cents per pound, which was :! cents above 
the ante-bellum cost. It is announced that a new con 
tract has been made between the principal mining groups 
operating in the Transvaal and Rhodesia by which a 
supply of cyanide is assured for five years from the 
Cassel Cyanide Company, of Glasgow, together with a 
minor proportion from the British Cyanide Company. 
Fortunately for the Rand and other goldfields, the re- 
striction of silver mining and milling in Mexico has re- 
duced the demand for cyanide from that country, the 
treatment of a silver ore requiring about four times as 
much cyanide as a gold ore. 

TTOW low-grade is the gold ore milled at Juneau, 

-*■■*■ Alaska, is not fully appreciated. For example, the 
Alaska Gold Mines Co., during its ten months of opera- 
tion in 1915, recovered only 94 cents per ton from 1,115,- 
294 tons of ore, obtaining therefrom 23 cents profit per 
ton. Miners are accustomed to think of the copper and 
iron ores of Lake Superior as being the last word in 
low yield of metal, but a 30-ton carload of 1% copper 
from a Lake Superior mine contains 600 pounds of cop- 
per worth $90, with copper at 15c. per pound, and in 
recent times nearly twice as much. A 30-ton carload of 
iron ore is worth at least $60 at the mines and $100 at 
Lower Lake points. On the other hand, a 30-ton car of 
$1 gold ore can never have an assay-value of more than 
$30. It is interesting to note that the three mines of the 
Treadwell group on Douglas island extracted nearly $2 
per ton from the 1,652,307 tons of ore treated in 1915; 
of this about 80 cents per ton was profit. 

ZINC is being produced at the Butte & Superior mine, 
in Montana, at the rate of 90,000 tons per annum. 
This is more metal than is produced by the Utah Copper 
mine, just now the most productive copper mine in the 
world. The Butte & Superior company extracts this 
amount of zinc, as a concentrate, from about 650,000 tons 
of ore, while the Utah Copper company last year treated 
8.4H4.300 tons of ore to obtain 78,103 tons of copper. At 
the zinc mine, the ore averages about 17%, while at the 
copper mine the average yield of metal is only 1.5%. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. 1916 

Ordinarily copper is three times more valuable than zin.-, 
but in 191"). in consequence of abnormal conditions, the 
average price of spelter al St. Louis was 13 cents, while 
the copper of the Utah Copper company during that 
year was sold for 17,(i7!i cents per pound. In 1914 
spelter averaged only 5 cents, while copper averaged 
13.31 cents per pound. In 1914 the production of spelter 
in the United States was 353,049 tons. The present out- 
put of the Butte & Superior is equal to one-quarter of 
the country's annual production before the War. 

account of his discovery of this rare mineral, uraninite. 
4.". years ago, Suggests that Mr. Richard Pearce is in the 
evening of life, bul we arc glad to say that he retains all 

his old interest in minerals and metals, and men. 

"pAI'KR is becoming scarcer and more expensive. As 
-*• a means of reducing this country's enormous con- 
sumption of paper, Life suggests that advertising by 
means of circulars be curtailed, as scarcely anybody 
reads them since the flood of them has become so great. 
A further hint is the reduction of unnecessary periodi- 
cals. Nearly every institution, organization, anil cause 
publishes a periodical of some sort. Some of them are 
useful mediums, interesting to various kinds of intelli- 
gent people, hut "about a million of them," says Life, 
"could lie stopped entirely and no one would ever miss 

them." Th.- Congressional Record and <;. A. B. Journal 
are mentioned, and there are a great many more. Pub- 
licity for any cause, cut down to its proper proportion. 
can I"' obtained through the established periodicals. 
Meanwhile, if waste paper, that is paper that lias served 
its purpose whether for wrapping or reading, were col- 
lected and saved for re-manufacture, the consumption 
of a national resource, wood-pulp, could be lessened con- 

T~\ISCUSSIOX this week covers a variety of topics. 
- L ^ The first contribution asks a timely and pertinent 
question: "Why ship concentrate?" This is exactly 
what a number of managers would like to know, particu- 
larly on the Mother Lode and in the Tonopah-Goldfield 
region. -Mr. William Maedonald, a mill-superintendent, 
who has had much experience in Australia. New Zealand. 
and Nevada, quotes the method in vogue at the Waihi 
Grand Junction mine, which is next-door to the famous 
Waihi mine, in New Zealand, and has been conspicuously 
well managed by Mr. W. Frank Grace. Next comes a 
letter on a subject discussed recently in our editorial 
columns. Mr. Curt N. Schuette writes frankly, and in 
the vernacular; we are glad to record this personal ex- 
perience of a young man serving his apprenticeship in 
the profession, and we commend it to the serious atten- 
tion of educators and managers. Many of our readers, 
particularly the veterans, will be pleased to see the 
honored name of Mr. Richard Pearce at the bottom of a 
note on 'Uraninite in Colorado.' We wrote to Mr. 
Pearce asking him to correct a recent sensationally in- 
accurate account of his discovery of pitchblende in Gil- 

pil nntv: hence the letter ancl the re-publication of an 

article on tic subject from the proceedings of the Colo- 
rado Scientific Society. Mr. Pearce 's many friends in 
the West will lie glad to know that he is living near 
Liverpool, where he and one of his sons. Mr. Frank 
Pearce, have established a successful tin smelter. The 

TT looks Jike another vcracrusade. General Pershing 

-*■ has withdrawn his force three-quarters "I the way 
home. General Trevino has surrendered the troopers 
captured at Carrizal, and Sefior Carranza has made an 
evasive reply to our Government's latest ultimatum. 
The chances arc that the present crisis will pass without 
war. but it bears the seed of further friction. The de 
fat In government of Mexico is incapable of restoring 
order, ami recurrent clashes along the frontier are cer- 
tain. The Mexican muddle is no nearer a settlement. 
nor is a settlement likely until the United States, by con- 
sent i.r by force, intervenes. 

The Gold of the Banket 

An ore deposit provokes interest commensurate with 
its richness, that is, its content of valuable metal. We 
speak for the mining engineer. To the academic geolo- 
gist the purely economic phase may seem less insistent 
than eccentricity of structure or abnormality of occur- 
rence. It is no wonder therefore that the gold-bearing 
conglomerate of the Witwatersrand continues to attract 
technical study and scientific investigation, because the 
Rand, as it is called for short, produces 40% of the 
world's annual output of gold. Another reason for con- 
tinued interest in the subject is the fact that the origin 
of the gold in these deposits has not yet been explained 
satisfactorily. No monographic official treatise of a kind 
comparable with those published on the Comstock, Crip- 
ple Creek. Pzribram, or BendigO has been issued. We 
have had, it is true, a number of papers by mining en- 
gineers and another set of writings by geologists, but 
these cover various aspects of the problem without the 
co-ordination characterizing a single, complete and sys- 
tematic investigation. Hence we are not surprised that 
the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy — it should be 
unnecessary to add, in London — gave a cordial welcome 
to the paper presented by Mr. E. T. Mellor. of the 
Transvaal Geological Survey, on the subject of 'The 
Conglomerates of the Witwatersrand.' We have read 
this essay of 62 pages and as much of the discussion as 
has been printed. Undoubtedly it will take an honor- 
able place in the bibliography of South African economic 
geology. It represents the result of five years of con- 
scientious work by a capable observer. Mr. Mellor 's 
main conclusions arc (1) that the gold is not confined 
to the beds of conglomerate now being mined, but i> dis- 
tributed throughout the Witwatersrand system, which 
is a series of sedimentary beds fully 20.000 feet thick: 
(2) that the extraordinary persistence of the individual 
beds constituting tic lodes now being exploited — such 
as the Main Reef Leader — is due to their having been 
laid down in extensive deltas. Although he recognizes 
the probability of a re-distribution of part of the gold 
deposited mechanically with the conglomerate, and does 

Jul) - 1916 

MINING «nd,. I'K! SS 

not ignore nlDtioo and N precipitation u factors modi 
the richness of 1 1 1 «• ban! deposit, ha 

ii>iiiIii.Ii- ilmt the Main R 

placer In lus analysis o( the condition! tlmi must have 
governed the formation of these extensive beds of con- 
glomerate, he brings to bear a large mass of evidi 
hii impressive kind; in short, Ins work as a strotigrapher 
is oonvinoing. Se explains rhe origin <>f the oonglom 
ante satisfactorily. Next oomee the harder problem, 
tlmi of the origin ol the gold aaaotiiatod with the con- 
glomerate and tn which it owes all its economic impor- 
This phenomenon, or appearance, has puzzled 
niisis much as the milk in the cocoa ant or 
the fly in tin 1 amber nonplussed the small boy. Mr. 
Mellor proceeds to argue thai the concentration of the 
gold in oertain particularly well-defined and continuous 
beds coincides with, and is probably the result of, special 
conditions of sedimentation ; and even the distribution of 

the !_'■ 'lil within these individual beds of conglomerate is 

isiderad by him attributable to the manner in which 

sediments were laid down in pre-Cambrian time. 
He Bnds analogy between the Kami delta and the Nome 

coastal plain, which is not unreasonable, as regards pro- 
- of sedimentation, but he fails to note the entire 
unlikeness between the marvellous concentrations of 
gold constituting the raised beaches — the real fossil 
placers of Nome — and the broad area of low-grade con- 
glomerate constituting the Rand. Again, he compares 
the pre-Cambrian conglomerate in the White Waters 
Range of the Transvaal with the Cambrian conglomer- 
ate in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and not without 
warrant, but he ignores the fact that while the Dakotan 
conglomerate contains gold some of which was derived. 
by erosion, from the Homestake vein, it is also true that 
the main enrichment of the latter is associated with 
thermal activity accompanying the intrusion of rhyolite 
in an early Tertiary period. However, this is not the 
place for detailed criticism. Another interesting fea- 

tui ( .Mr. Mellor 's presentation of the subject is his 

uuhstei on the sedimentary origin of the gold while 

acknowledging the later deposition, from thermal waters. 
of most of the pyrite and all of the other sulphides, 
found particularly in the younger quartz veins that cross 
the conglomerate beds. Obviously, the last word has not 
been said The modification of the Becker-Gregory 
theory of a marine deposit along a subsiding shore and 
the substitution of a deltaic deposition is interesting, 
but it is not conclusive as regards the origin of the gold 
itself. The pyritic nodules that bothered Mr. G. F. 
Becker have been dissected by Mr. C. Baring Horwood 
in the admirable investigation described at length in the 
Miking and Scientific Press during 1914. The absence 
of ore-shoots, claimed as an argument against the theory 
of a lode formed by infiltration in the usual way, is not 
brought forward by Mr. Mellor. Indeed, the idea of 
uniform dissemination suited the exigencies of Rand 
finance better than it fits the facts as disclosed by the 
mine workings. Of course, the placer theory lends itself 
to talk of indefinite persistence of ore better than the 

lode theory, for if the banket be an Indefinitely huge 
layei of pebbles, sand, and gold, all of sedimentar] 
origm. then it is hori indeed Bui we doubl it. 

and suggest that be fori Ding to s confident conclusion 

it will be well to study the known gold bearing conglom- 
erates of Nova Scotia, South Dakota, Alaska. California, 
ami Queensland. Mr. Mellor has read about son f 

these; and his paper caius by his ivt'.ic s to them. 

At least he has escaped Ihe provincialism thai claimed 

the Rand deposits as unique. The idea thai any ore de- 

posit is a BpeciaJ creation is unseicnt ilic. On the eon 

trary. he will probablj agree with us thai every ore de 

posil must be studied in the light ol" Ihe knowledge ex- 
tant concerning kindred phenomena elsewhere. 

The First Half of 1916 

With commendable promptitude, the Geological Sur- 
vey issues a review of the mineral industry during the 

first six mouths of the current year. "The mining man 
is having his innings" is a phrase that summarizes this 
timely appraisement of progress. The production of 
gold is reported as a little short of last year, but silver is 
being produced at a rate likely to break all previous 
records. The production of copper has responded to an 
average price, during the six months, of 26 cents per 
pound, so that the rate of increase noted in 1915 has con- 
tinued into the current year. Arizona will maintain its 
first place, thanks to the splendid work being done at 
the Inspiration mine, among others. In Montana the 
total of all metallic products shows a 60% increase. Colo- 
rado has increased its copper output — which is small — by 
30%, with gains in lead ami zinc also. In Utah the 
copper produced will have a value twice that of 1915. 
Similar optimistic summaries come from Idaho, Nevada, 
and Alaska, but it is unnecessary to repeat them, our 
own pages having recorded progress week by week and 
month by month. "We regret that the Director of the 
Survey is unable to give more precise information ; bis 
review is too evidently adapted for the daily press, which 
enjoys glittering generalities. However, this official 
dictum concerning the prosperity of the industry is in- 
tended for those detached from mining. Any observant 
traveler in the West during the last twelve months will 
have noted the many signs of expansion: cars of ore on 
remote railroad-sidings: old mills being re-modeled and 
re-fitted; the smoke rising from smelters lately idle; 
pack-mules passing down abandoned trails; the freight- 
train loaded with machinery; the refineries choked with 
mine products: the ships being loaded with refined 
metal; the engineers on their way to examine mines; and 
the speculator eager to talk about the price of metals. 
Tndccd. we scarcely needed an official recognition of the 
fact that the mining industry of the West is thriving as 
never before; and. what is equally important, our pages 
testify to the re-awakening of technical ingenuity in the 
devising of new processes and the trial of new ideas in 
every branch of the industry. If all goes well. 1016 will 
be a year to make the Americi Lner glad and grateful. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. 191 G 

Our Economic Bronze Age 

It is prudenl to give serious thought to the perils of 
peace while the known safeties of war are still about us. 
Men Buffered through a generation of armed peace, en- 
during economic hardships, poor wages, cut-throat com- 
mercialism, contracts that protected those rich enough to 
get such justice as suited their desires; it was a time 
when men feared war, and piled up armaments so mas- 
sive and ominous that no one might dare to Gght while 
everyone was equally prepared. Wise men beholding 
this enginery of destruction declared war impossible. It 
meant suicide, universal annihilation, the wiping out of 
the civilized nations, so that the world would need to 
start over again from the nucleus of surviving savages 
in the outer darkness of unprcparedness. The parrot 
world took up the refrain and 'peace the actual and 
eternal, war the impossible and abolished' became the 
chief article of faith among deluded nations. They did 
not recognize that we had progressed no further in 
genuine civilization than Isaiah. EpictetuB, Luther, or 
Napoleon. The doctrines of pure morals and sound 
ethics have not been improved in any material aspect 
since the days of Augustus Caesar, nor have new and 
sounder economic bases of peace been discovered. The 
climax in human conceptions of the absolute moral was 
reached early, but the principles of a safe and sane peace 
have continued elusive. We are in the economic bronze 
age still, and many of us even reflect frankly paleolithic 
barbarisms of economic thought. 

It was such a barbarism to think that peace could be 
maintained permanently by an armed menace without a 
mathematically exact balance of menaces. It was a simi- 
larly wild dream to think that the stimulus of enthusi- 
asm for defense of country would awaken the dormant 
Mars in civilian breasts so as to match them equally and 
instantly against the trained millions of a prepared 
power. It proved a dream also, destructive of the beau- 
tiful theories of the wise ones who knew how to settle the 
affairs of men over their after-lunch cigars, incontest- 
able' and immutably determined, Q. E. D., to wit, that 
war was too destructive to be undertaken ; and, when it 
wax undertaken, that the Hth term of the series of daily 
military vulcanisms necessary to destroy all Europe was 
thirty — to guess at the extreme. Meanwhile others 
gained reputation for wisdom by building peace palaces: 
arbitration congresses fought over the way peace was to 
be maintained; and pacifist secretaries of state warred 
with non-militant presidents over the pungency of non- 
militant language used in explaining our pacific de- 

The childhood of man lias not yet passed away when 
these tollies can be enacted in an epoch of armed and 
aggressive peace, when the struggle for trade supremacy 
is bolstered up by tariff walls, by subtle subventions, 
and by gross bonus systems, serving as the infantry of 
embattled commerce drawn up under cover of the ar- 
tillery of protecting nat ti 

To affirm that armies, navies, great guns, militarism. 

are all of the same breed with the economic devices 
whereby trade is stimulated for the sake of national 
aggrandizement, is no more ridiculous than the folly 
that would undertake to guarantee peace by treaty, and 
give a world-court authority over the nations without 
an obedient force, big enough to transmute that court 
into the most stupendous grafting oligarchy that the 
world has ever seen. When capitalists and college presi- 
dents and politicians of international fame give vent to 
such puerile notions we may be excused for an economic 
juvenility of our own, because, even if the realization 
linger down the centuries, the old system of tariffs and 
guns and artificial centres of trade and manufacture will 
keep us from the perils that a scientific basis of economic 
peace might involve if applied suddenly as a cure for the 
madness of nations. It may not come true any more 
than arbitration treaties that will stand, or international 
courts that will be cheerfully obeyed, will come true; 
not for years and centuries, perhaps, can this come to 
pass, and yet it must come true in the end if a man is to 
advance higher and bring his economic bread-getting 
existence up to a par with his intellectual conceptions of 
morality and right. 

We are in the economic bronze age ! Only copper is 
free — copper alone of the ordinary articles of commerce. 
It is strange when we reflect how other industries have 
been coddled, while copper has grown to be one of the 
dominant factors in trade and exchange, unsustained by 
tariffs and subventions. The bronze age points the way 
to the next step in our economic liberation. When shall 
we advance to the economic iron age, and thence into 
epochs of more difficult science in the preservation of 
industry in accordance with the conditions set by 
nature? Should trade be allowed to grow by a pact be- 
tween exhausted belligerents and their supporters in the 
places and along the courses which by nature are favor- 
able, rather than by virtue of stimulative laws sustained 
by arrogant militarism, then a police force — all the 
kinks and wrinkles having been smoothed out by experi- 
ence — would be enough, just as it would be if all men 
were to be suddenly inflamed with religious zeal to obey 
an international court and abide by treaties of arbitra- 
tion as the corner-stone of a world association of 

This may not be taken wholly as a jest. In jesting 
mood and manner the wholesome truth may be thrown 
at an autocratic king. So may it be thrown at a too- 
proud and over-confident people, who may not pause to 
think how great were the folly of the fury and heroism 
of the European war if it should bring merely peace — 
only an empty peace, with the worms of national ag- 
grandizement rolled up in it to consume both the written 
word and the parchment. This is something to ponder 
while the guns are booming, so that when the time comes 
to end the strife the world may have caught inspiration 
from the bronze age, and may set something else free 
besides copper; may establish new principles of freer 
commerce, giving hope that the struggle has brought 
ncaiei- the blessings of an economic peace. X. 

- 1916 

MINING ud Sdsntifi, PRESS 



<>ur itutltu arc Invited i" il-. iln- dtpartmtni (or ih* diwunlon "/ technical and orhfr matui 
Miiiirii, 1 ro minim* and nwtallurgy, The Edifoi wtUomm the axpranlon of PunM contrary (o in* own, b#- 
Iteoaia 1 thut cartful < riricimi U more wiluaslf than eaaual oovtplimantt 

Why Ship Concentrate? 
The Editor: 

Sir The question "t' the l« «« - ^ * 1 treatment of concen 
Irate, especially in districts remote from railways and 
smelters, is mic iliai olaims the attention of many mining 
oompaniea. At the present time there arc several in- 
stances of concentrates being shipped, at heavy expense, 
although they could undoubtedly be locally treated to 
greater advantage In my experience in this country 
and iii other parts of the world there are few places 
where the raw concentrate is not amenable to treatment 
by cyanide. It is unlikely that any concentrate presents 
greater difficulties to successful cyanidation than that 
produced at some of the Mother Lode mines in Cali- 
fornia, but it has been shown iii recent interesting 
articles in this paper and by the fact that there are 
numerous mines on the Lode successfully treating their 
raw concentrate that such difficulties are not insuper- 
able. The amenability of a concentrate to cyanide treat- 
ment having been demonstrated, a possible field is 
opened up for treatment of the whole ore by similar 
methods, whereas preliminary roasting does not go be- 
yond the disposal of the concentrate. This fact is of 
great importance in new mining regions and might 
affect the future of a district or Lead to its more rapid 
develop nt. 

The YVaihi mine, which was probably the pioneer in 
this branch of cyanidation has maintained an extraction 
of 95-96% of both the gold and silver contents of the 
concentrate over a period of 12 years. At this mine, in 

Nevi Zealand, the ei cut rate presents no difficulty of a 

chemical nature, the chief consideration being extremely 
fine comminution of the particles and sufficient length of 

tn f agitation to dissolve the silver content, which is 

high in proportion to the gold. At Atlanta, in Idaho, a 

eoi atrate is produced carrying 4% arsenic, besides 

antimony, lead, zinc, etc., in less quantities. In this in- 
stance serious difficulties were faced in starting cyanid- 
ing operations, but the raw concentrate is now being 
treated profitably. Success in this case hinged upon the 
fact that freight-charges to the nearest railway-point 
were excessively high, thus allowing a considerable mar- 
gin for cost of treatment. Each concentrate presents its 
own particular problem, which may not be allnL'cther a 
metallurgical one. Local conditions may be a deciding 

Assuming that the treatment of a eoi atrate in the 

raw state is a commercially sound proposition, the ques- 
tion next arising is the best method of dealing with it. 

Ii is generally assumed thai separate treatment of the 

ooncentrate to > over the valuable metals is the i es 

garj procedure. Where the whole ore is cyanided this 
does not follow. At the Waihi Qrand Junction mine, 
also in New Zealand, a novel system of dealing with the 
concentrate was introduced some years ago by F\ ( '. 

Brown, the inventor of the Pachuoa tank, and is still in 

successful operation at that mine. Various articles have 
been published dealing with this system (some of which 
an- mentioned al the end of this article), but in mj 
opinion it has not been given the consideration thai it 
deserves by metallurgists in Ibis country. I'.riefly staled. 
the system consists in placing the concentrating machines 
in circuit with the tube-mill and making use of them not 
to recover the concent rate but as an aid to liner reduction. 


■*— <^ 

Dorr C/ass/f/e, 

M /returnee/ 

-* \ 

W/Zf/py or De/'sfcr 7o&/e 


Cone t/ass/f/er ( Dorr 7h/cAener rla/Tofor 

\ S//S77P 




The machines are placed in position to receive the over- 
flow pulp from the tube-mill classifier. It is advisable in 
most cases to have intermediate cone-classifiers for the 
purpose of separating the bulk of solution or water and 
fine slime, thus avoiding over-loading the concentrating 
machines with slime. The concentrate, together with 
what would usually be called 'seconds,' or just as much 
of this material as may be considered desirable, is col- 
lected in a common launder and elevated back to the 
tube-mill feed. In this way the coarser c< cut rale, to- 
gether with the larger grains of sand, is repeatedly re- 
turned and re-ground until the concentrate is sufficiently 
fine to float off with the ore instead of settling on the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

table. It then passes on, concentrate and pulp being 

treated together as one product. The essential features 
of the system are shown in the accompanying flow- 

Separate treatment of concentrate makes crashing and 
icentratmg in water compulsory, while the combina- 
tion treatment can be carried out either in water or cya- 
nide solution. Crushing in cyanide solution is usually 
the better practice for reasons well known to metal- 
lurgists and mill-men. It is certainly advantageous to 
carry out the operations of concentrating and grinding 
in cyanide solution, one advantage having a direct bear- 
ing on the system being that the strength of the cyanide 
solution can be kept as high as is necessary in order to 
attain the maximum extraction without undue loss in the 
form of waste solution. 

The Dumber of concentrating machines required is 
somewhat larger than would he ordinarily use. I on any 
given tonnage of ore crushed in proportion to the larger 
tonnage passing in the tube-mill circuit. The Wilfley 
or Deister type is the best for the purpose, as the con- 
centrate can he more conveniently collected and con- 
tinuously returned than in the case of machines of the 
Knie or Johnson type. 

Some of the advantages of this system are obvious: 
(1) The process of treatment is simplified, there being 
only one product to handle instead of two, thereby re- 
ducing cost of operation. (2) Saving in first cost of in- 
stallation of separate plant. (3) Improved metallurg- 
ical efficiency. The system results in an equal, if not 
higher, extraction at a less cost for cyanide and other 
chemicals and a more rapid dissolution of the gold and 
silver content than when separately treated. 

The improved metallurgical efficiency is accounted for 
by the finer reduction of the concentrate, due to the 
abrasive action of the sand on the softer particles of con- 
centrate and the fact that the particles of concentrate 
are separated one from another by sand, and thus kept 
from packing; also the high ratio of cyanide solution to 
concentrate. That the gold and silver content is brought 
into solution much more rapidly has been clearly shown 
at the Waihi Grand Junction. At this mine 80% of the 
total bullion content in the ore is in solution before the 
pulp leaves the concentrating tables, and 24 hours' agi- 
tation suffices to complete the treatment, whereas 8 to 
10 days was previously required when treating separ- 
ately. The decreased consumption in cyanide is brought 
about by reason of the fact that the use of a low-strength 
solution is made possible. The solution circulating in 
the mill where the system was first adopted is only 0.07% 
KCN and the extraction 90.9%. 

It is not suggested that the system can be applied to 
ores indiscriminately, although the cases where it cannot 
be applied an- few. outside ores and concentrates not 
amenable to cyanide treatment. If prolonged contact of 
iiicentrate with cyanide solution is required, it be- 
comes inadvisable lo hold hack the ordinary slime-treat- 
nieiit in order to extract metal from the concentrate, but 
due consideration must be given to the fact that a more 

rapid dissolution of the bullion-content ensues than 
when separately treated, Where a tube-mill and classi- 
fier operate in closed circut the heavier mineralized por- 
tion of the on- receives preferential treatment owing to 
its higher specific gravity, and in some instances the con 

centrate in* the pulp coming from tl lassifier-Overflow 

may he sufficiently fine to allow an economic extraction 
of the precious metals. As a rule, however, it is a 
sary to reduce the concentrate to a much finer condition, 
even to an impalpable slime, necessitating the use of con- 
centrating machines as already described. 

At mines where the method of treatment consists of 
amalgamation followed by concentration without fine- 
grinding or cyanidation of the whole ore. it follows that 
the concentrate must be treated separately or shipped 
to smelters, but it is a problem worthy of consideration 
by companies that may contemplate treating their con- 
centrate, or that are at present doing so. whether it 
would not he worth while to go a step further and treat 
the whole of their ore by some such system as the one 
outlined. Where no further treatment of the ore follows 
concentration, the mineral escaping into the tailing is so 
much profit lost; and even if concentration is viewed as 
a fine art. it is still subject to inefficiency of machines 
and the vagaries of the personal equation. In cases 
where cyanidation of the whole ore follows concentration 

and the c •enlrate is shipped, argument in favor of a 

combined treatment would appear to be even stronger. 

The above sketch of an exceptional procedure in - 

nection with the treatment of gold and silver ores is 
brought forward because it undoubtedly has metallur- 
gical merit, and is being applied, in at least one instance. 
with marked success. So far as I am aware, it has not 
been applied in this country, but there must be many 
localities where it could he adopted successfully.* 

William Macdonald. 
Berkeley. June 5. 

Mucking as an Educator 

The Editor: 

Sir — Being one of those who 'muck' during the sum- 
mer vacation of the university, in order to gain experi- 
ence and to accumulate some measure of filthy lucre, I 
would like to contribute a little first-hand experience. 
the gaining of which greatly increased my capacity for 
galgenhumor. I obtained my job by applying to the 
manager of a mining company whose product is quoted 
at twice its normal value since the War, and received the 
answer that they could make use of me if I were willing 
to work as a common laborer. 

•The following articles and papers have appeared on this 
subject : 

'Notes on Cyanide Treatment of Concentrate,' by A. Grot he. 
Proceedings of Mexican Institute of Mining & Metallurgy. 
August 1909. 

■Cyanidation of Concentrate,' by F. C. Brown. M. & S. P.. 
August 27. 1910. 

'Fine Grinding.' by H. S. Denny. Mining Magazine. March 



MINING Stirnt, I'KI S> 

Tht • I lived nt tin- company 'a boarding 

paying i per day for Ihe privilege of sleeping in 

mj nun blanket! .1 bedstead, the mat- 

■ supplied in theory onlj aa were nine tenthi 

of tin pan. s in th.- window. 

place where I worked was a stiff 50 minutea walk 
from th. boarding-house My job was so exacting thai 
1 never managed t . ■ .-at a single piece "t' bread from my 
lunch-buakel at one sitting. 

Since tli>- boarding-honae furnished only tin (medi- 

tneala per .lay. and aa I was required t" work on 

nigbl "i- graveyard shift exclusively, 1 seldom managed 

more than two meals i"-r day [one of them a cold 

lunch I took along), which .li.l no1 deter tl ompany 

from colleoting tin- full board-money each .lay. I then 

moved into a cabin, located nearer tin- pin »f my work, 

and 'batched' for myself, groceries, etc., being obtainable 
at the company store at tin- company's prices 

Near the boarding-house there was Bhower-bath, 

which had hot water only when tin- oil-engines broke 
down ami steam had to be substituted. At tin- camp 
where my cabin was, there was no shower-bath until 1 
made one from an old tin-ran and some pipe-fittings. 
This transformed my cabin into a public bath-room 
despite the assertion "Oh, if I build a shower up there 
you'd '"' tb ily one to use it." 

It became necessary, in the course of human events, to 
lay a pipe-line through verdant growths of 'poison oak.' 
Seeing us eovered from head to foot with the loathsome 
eczema, the manager facetiously remarked that we should 
have taken a salt-bath before starting in, the irony of 
which is apparent, there being no bath-tub within miles 
of the place. Then it was pompously announced that 
there was medicine for us "down at the office" and I 
was detailed to set it. It consisted of a 12-oz. can. half- 
full of carbolated ointment, which is painfully useless 
as applied to poison oak. This was distributed among 
five men and each man was charged $1.75 for "doctor's 
treatment !" Considering the fact that I was only get- 
ting $1.75 per day, and that none of us used the stuff, 
and that we never saw a doctor, and that it wasn't our 
fault that we had the malady, w-e felt considerably out- 

Such privys as were oil the place were a flagrant men- 
ace to public health, and were seldom, if ever. used. 

The lone amusement, or diversion, of the place was a 
home-talent band, whose every effort lapsed into the 
familial- strains of 'Home Sweet Home,' no matter what 
they played. 

The ambition of most men seemed to be to get out of 
the company's debt, and 'beat it.' To a single man this 
was practicable, but to a man with wife and children it 
meant a long struggle and privation, in addition to ex- 
posing his family to the prevalent unsanitary conditions. 
Other things that T heard on good authority and with- 
out solicitation convince me that if an employee of that 
company were to barter his soul to the devil, the com- 
pany would receive a rake-off on the transaction. 

Compared with Goldfield and other camps in which I 

ha.' 'mucked' and 'bohonked,' working In this camp 
can •■iil> I., expressed by the ancient phrase damnati ad 

It max not i.e aeceasarj "for an engineer to have 
thumped a drill or shoved a ear in order to detect 
whether the one kind of work or the other is being done 
properly," but l doubi if an engineer can gain a true 
understanding of the effeel thai g I or bad treatment 

and living conditions have on a man's attitude toward 

bis work, unless in- has worked under favorable and un- 
favorable conditions aims 

CUKT N. Srin 1 111 

Somewhere in the West, June -'>■ 

Uraninite in Colorado 

The Editor: 

Sir — In response to your reipiest for information con 
eerning mj discovery of pitchblende in Gilpin county, 
iS years ago, I send you a copy of a short paper of mine 

Which appeared in the Proceedings of the Colorado 
Scientific Society (Vol. V, page 156), which gives the 
true story of my discovery of uraninite in Gilpin county. 
Colorado, in 1871. as described by me in 1895. 

The clipping from the Montana paper, you will see, 
is incorrect. The discovery was made in the Wood 
lode, and a lease for working was obtained some two 
years before I became associated with Prof. Hill at 
Black Hawk. 

It may be of interest to record a peculiar feature con- 
nected with the deposit of mixed minerals, pyrite and 
ehalcopyrite. My paper was written long before the 
discovery of radium or the radio-active properties of 
pitchblende. In the concentration of the mineral for 
the separation of the pyritic minerals associated with the 
pitchblende, I noticed that the copper pyrite was black- 
ened on the surface ; it. had the appearance of being 
'powder-smoked.' The black stain, however, was only 
skin-deep, for a fresh fracture showed the brilliant 
yellow characteristic of copper pyrite. I was at a loss 
to account for this strange appearance at the time, but 
when the wonderful radio-active properties became 
known, I had no hesitation in assuming that the black 
deposit was due to radio-active forces. 

From the fact of there being such a large deposit of 
pitchblende covering a comparatively small area, the ad- 
joining rocks would, in all probability show, on examina- 
tion, indications of the alteration of uranium with its 
ultimate product helium. It has occurred to me that 
samples might be taken by sinking into the rock, some 
distance below the surface, or better still, by driving a 
small cross-cut into the country-rock each side, north 
and south. These samples need not be large; blocks 
about one pound in weight would be quite sufficient, 
being carefully labeled and making the distance from 
the deposit. 

Professors Joly, Rutherford, and Strutt, who have 
given a great deal of attention to the subject, might he 
glad of the opportunity of investigating a matter of such 
great interest at this time. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

It is difficult to arrive at even an approximate figure 
as to the quantity of pitchblende already extracted from 
tin- Wood lode. My own figures, winch cover the amount 
extracted under my lease in the year 1872, would repre- 
sent, in round numbers, three tons of 60% U,0 8 . Later, 
in 1904, I purchased some orl from other lessees, which 
would perhaps represent altogether two tons more. 
Since the shaft, in which the discovery was made, was 
sunk clear through the thickest part of the vertical 
lens-shaped deposit, the quantity of matt-rial suit to the 
stamp-mills and smelting-works at Black Hawk to de- 
termine its value could not have been much less than 
another three tons of 60% stuff. What has been done 
since, I do not know, but if we add still another two tons 
for later discoveries, we have a total to date of, say. in 
tons of concentrated material of about 60% U s 8 . 

The presence of such a large quantity of pitchblende 
must have had great influence on the adjoining rocks, 
and one might expect to find strong indications of helium 
as a result of radio-activity produced on a large scale. 

Richard Pearce. 
Liverpool, May 28. 

The Occurrence of Uraninlte 
in Colorado 

By Richard Pearce 

•This rare and interesting mineral was first discovered 
in Colorado by me in August. 1871. and occurred in 
what is called the Wood lode in Leavenworth gulch. 
Gilpin county, about one and one-half miles from Cen- 
tral City, and not at Black Hawk, the locality given in 
Dana's 'System of Mineralogy.' As the discovery was 
made nearly 24 years ago, it may prove of interest to the 
members of this society to have recorded a few details 
regarding its discovery, and the peculiar conditions 
under which it was found. 

In the summer of 1871 my attention was directed to a 
group of mines in Leavenworth gulch, owned by the 
Rochdale Mining Co., and in the course of my examina- 
tion of one of the several claims belonging to this com- 
pany. I found on the dump of the Wood claim a heavy 
black mineral which proved to be uraninite coated with 
a beautiful canary-yellow material, uranium vitriol, a 
basic sulphate of uranium formed from the oxide by 
lengthened exposure on the surface. 

The mine had been worked for gold some years pre- 
vious to 1871, and a considerable quantity of ore was 
mined and sent to the mill, and, it is believed, to the 
smelter, but the results were not satisfactory, and the 
mine was abandoned. The agent of the company stated 
that the mill-men objected to the ore on account of its 
high specific gravity, as it hung most tenaciously to the 

•Proceedings of Colorado Scientific Society. Vol. V. 1895. 
being the article mentioned in the preceding discussion by the 
same author. 

plates and scoured the amalgam ; he also stated that a 
of the ore was sent to the smelter to be tested, and, 
alter sampling and assaying, it was found to contain 
no gold, pronounced worthless, and thrown into the 

The discovery of uraninite thrown broadcast, on an 
old dump, was a source of astonishment to me, for I had 
been accustomed to see it only in very small quantities, 
and under peculiar geological conditions. At first I 
could hardly venture to trust my own opinion ; and a 
blowpipe apparatus, the property of an old Freiberg 
friend, being found at one of the mills close-by. in Russell 
gulch, a quick test proved the existence of uraninite. or 
'pitchblende,' as it was commonly called. 

About 200 pounds weight of the mineral was sorted 
out of the dump and sent to me. at Swansea (Colorado). 
There it was still further selected and sold to the firm of 
Johnson & Matthey, London, for the sum of £42, or $210. 

The rock in which the Wood lode occurs is mica- 
schist traversed by veins of feldspar and quartz enclos- 
ing magnetite, and the lode, which had been explored 
only to the depth of about 60 ft., was said to be four feet 
in width with six inches of solid uraninite. The associ- 
ated minerals, as seen on the surface, were pyrite, chal- 
copyrite. with small quantities of pyrrhotite and gale- 
nite, the gangue being mainly quartz. 

A lease of the property was obtained in the following 
year, and the mine was re-opened and worked for ura- 
nium. It was found that the shaft had been sunk through 
the centre of a vertical lenticular deposit of uraninite. 
and, consequently, the richest and by far the largest 
hulk of the ore had been lost through ignorance of its 
value. That portion, however, which was left, was ex- 
tracted, and, after careful sorting, about 3 tons of rich 
ore, containing about 60% of pure black oxide of ura- 
nium, was shipped to London where it realized about 

History repeats itself. In 1894, twenty-three years 
later, the mine was again opened and worked on lease, 
and in driving west from the old shaft at a greater 
depth, another lenticular deposit of uraninite was en- 
countered; but as the nature of the mineral was un- 
known to the people who had the lease, the same dis- 
appointment from the mill-returns was experienced as in 
the first discovery. A specimen of the ore was brought 
to me by the lessee, who had heard from some source 
that I had found something rare and valuable in the 
Wood lode many years before. The new find proved to 
be uraninite of exactly similar character as the first 
deposit found in 1871. I purchased a quantity of the 
ore, but have not as yet been able to find a satisfactory 
market for it. 

The mineral uraninite formed the subject of some 
highly interesting investigations by a former president 
of this society, Dr. W. F. Hillebrand, who pointed out, 
for the first time, that it contained the element nitrogen. 
More recently Prof. Ramsey has discovered that the 
large bulk of the gas thought to be nitrogen by Dr. 
Hillebrand. proves to be the new element helium. 

Julj - 1916 

MINING «nd Sdsntih, PRESS 

i • 

The Motor -Truck in Arizona 

By Wllb*rt O. McBrld« 


WO \; • : ■ toi trucks were used by Voting 

Broa while operating al the Mammoth Collins 
mine at Shull One was equipped with 

mi nil lank holding 1"7"> gal. ami was used for the trans 
portation of 'tops.' Tin other was Stted with a anil used to earrj machinery, wood, rails, pip.-, an. I 
all classes of miscellaneous supplies. The bodies were 
made of oak with maple flooring and were attached to the 
frame of the chassis bj I Knits, to avoid drilling the main 
members of the frame. 

Most of the hauling was done from Tucson, a distance 
of 471 mili-s. During tin- fust three months, part of the 
road was in bad condition and the tire eosl was exci asive. 
After this part was repaired, the mad was in fair condi- 
tion, but ni'ViT good. Then- were no excessive grades or 
bad saml. but wagon-ruts, too narrow for the trnck- 

wl Is and of a different gage, caused heavy tire loss; 

while chuck-holes, sharp curves, and stones, both im- 
bedded and loose, wen- objectionable features. During 
wet weather the trucks could not get sufficient traction 
to climb some of the hills and were likely to stick in the 
mud. so thai UO attempt was made to run them unless 
they were on the road when the rain started. This lost 
time amounted to about 5C< of the total, but, whenever 
possible, it was utilized in making minor repairs. 

The price of gasoline was from 17 to 21c. per gal. 
Rubber tires were used throughout. Drivers were paid 
(4.50 to $;"> per shift, and a return trip to Tucson was 
counted as two shifts even when made in one day. Driv- 
ers were provided with a room in Tucson and were paid 
for all time lost due to causes beyond their control. 
Trucks were loaded one way only. 

Speed ters were placed on both trucks, but the ex- 
cessive vibration soon caused them to fail. For this 
reason, and because no account was taken of the distance 
covered in picking up a miscellaneous load or in other 
minor ways, the mileage given is under the 'actual dis- 
tance traveled. Some of the weights had to be estimated. 
but care was taken to have the number of ton-miles low 
rather than high, to avoid under-estimating the costs. 
The cost of hauling from Tucson to the mines was $12 
per ton with the trucks, while the best possible team price 
was $15. Teams made one return trip a week, while the 
truck regularly made one in two days and could always, 
and many times did. do it in one day. The loss of time 
due to wet weather would he about half as much with 
teams as with trucks. 

The table of detailed costs given below covered the 
period from August 21, 1013, to August 15, 1914, the 

*A paper to be read before the Arizona (September 19161 
meeting of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 

only time in which the trucks were continuoual; 
ployed. Prom August 15, 1914, to March 30, 1918, the 
trucks were used intermittently, but the figures tor this 
d have been excluded as not being representative. 

[f included, thej would lower- tl st per ton-mile, .lust 

prior to the close of the period covered by the figures, the 

trucks were overhauled and put in good Condition; new 

rear-wheels were put on and new tires substituted. The 
cost, id" all this was charged to operation. Allowances for 

extra tires on hand would reduce Ih ist per ton mile 

approximately ;.-.. leaving a net cost of about 25c. Willi 
loads on the return-trip this cost per ton-mile would be 
lowered at least 40%. 


Total distance traveled by trucks 23,000 miles 

Total work done by trucks 42,700 ton-miles 

Average distance covered per gallon of 

gasoline 4.5 miles 

Average distance covered per gallon of 

lubricating oil 128 miles 

Average speed, loaded 7 miles per hour 

Average speed, light 7.8 miles per hour 


Total Per cent Per truck- Per ton- 
cost of total mile mile 

Wages of drivers $2,623.32 23.91 $0.1141 $0.0614 

Wages of helpers 286.50 2.62 0.0125 0.0067 

Repairs, labor 581.74 5.30 0.0253 0.0136 

Repairs, lost time 156.15 1.42 0.0068 0.0037 

Oils, grease, and waste . 379.17 3.46 0.0165 0.0089 

Gasoline 1.610.49 14.68 0.0700 0.0377 

Tires 2,445.75 22.30 0.1063 0.0573 

New parts 515.08 4.69 0.0224 0.0121 

Miscellaneous supplies . . 348.82 3.18 0.0152 0.00S2 

Incidental expense 226.21 2.06 0.0098 0.0053 

Depreciation 1,796.80 16.38 0.0781 0.0421 

Total $10,970.03 100.00 $0.4770 $0.2570 

The advantage of the motor-truck over the team and 
wagon are many — increased speed, ability to work 24 
hours per day when necessary, and lower cost on long 
hauls — but its adoption by the mining industry has been 
slow. Where trucks are used around mines they are 
usually driven by cheap inexperienced men, the upkeep 
and repairs being turned over to the regular mine me- 
chanics. It would be equally good practice to employ a 
timber-framer to make a dining-room table. Just as the 
niceties of cabinet-making are unknown to the timber- 
framer, the ex ct adjustments and fine workmanship of 
the high-speed engine and transmission-gears of a motor- 
truck are beyond the ken of the mine mechanic, one of 
the least skilled of his class. If there are enough motor- 
vehicles at the mine, the master mechanic probably turns 
the work over to one or two men who, in time, become in- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. 1916 

different auto-mechanics, but in the meantime the i 
maintenance Boaie and often the trucks are condemned. 
The aim of the makers of all motor-vehicles is to secure 
the maximum of strength and power with » minimum of 
weight and size. To do this. high-speed engines, tin- best 
of materials, and the finest of workmanship are em- 
ployed, and parts are reduced to the least possible weight 
consistent with strength and durability. This is just the 

reverse of tl rdinary American mechanical practice, 

in which reliability is secured by slow speed and large 
size, the amount of material used and the space occupied 
being minor considerations. It is, therefore, unreason- 
able to expect the mechanic trained in one school to 
understand immediately and adapt himself to the ways 
of the other. It must also be remembered thai no other 
machine is given the hard use and necessary abuse that 
motor-trucks receive. The vibration while on the road 
will loosen nuts and rivets, and this, if not attended to in 
time, will cause serious trouble. Where only one or two 
trucks arc used, the drivers should he competent mi 
chanics and should he held responsible for the mainten- 
ance of their machines. Where several are used, they 
should be under the direct supervision of a thorough 
truck-mechanic that is held responsible for operation and 
given entire control of the drivers and repair-work. His 
constant Care will detect and remedy many incipient de- 
fects and prevent expensive and annoying break-downs. 
Willi the exception of the time required for periodic 
overhauling, he should he able to keep the trucks in al- 
most continuous service. This will make possible the em- 
ployment of cheaper drivers without undue damage to 
the machines. 

Motor-trucks should not be installed without careful 
consideration of the roads to he traveled. The difference 
between the cost of motor-truck and team-hauling is 
largely controlled by the quality of the road, and on 
really bad roads the motor-truck is decidedly the more 
expensive. Many roads are fatal to truck-haulage, and 
considerable experience is required to decide this ques- 
tion without an actual test of some duration. Excessive 
grades are to be avoided, especially long ones. The 
ordinary truck will pull over a short 20% grade with 
ease, hut will give great trouble on a long one of half 
that rise unless special cooling arrangements arc made. 
tirades greatly increase the tire and gasoline consump- 
tion and decrease the life of the machine. Rocky roads, 
particularly when the rocks are sharp or loose, are hard 
on tires. Deep sand is difficult to cross, and for this class 
of road the caterpillar tractor and the four-wheel-drive 
truck have distinct advantages. Trucks that drive on 
the rear wheels only cannot operate in heavy sand. 
Narrow or rutted roads are objectionable for the larger- 
sized trucks because they throw all the weight on one of 
the rear dual-tires from time to time, and this over-load- 
ing is injurious to the rubber. Fairly deep streams can 
he crossed, but mud is an absolute harrier except to the 
caterpillar type of tractor. Few dirt-roads will stand 
up under a 7-ton truck, hut those of 4 tons, or under, do 

less damage than the ordinary freight-wagon. 

Unfortunately, trucks are not designed to suit mining 

conditions. At Shultz we found it neccsary to cut down 
the gear ratio, increase tl the wheels and tires, 

and add bumper or auxiliary springs. Had the grades 
been steeper it would have been necessary to increase 
the cooling capacity. 

For long hauls the motor-tractor will probably replace 
the motor-truck. It will operate at a lower cost because 
the load will be carried on iron tires, and. as the table of 
detailed cost shows, the rubber tires account for - 
of the total. Tractors travel more slowly than motor- 
trucks, but the tonnage hauled on a trip is much greater. 
They are also easier on roads, as the load is distributed 
over several trailers. By using extra trailers, loading 
and unloading can be done on the road. 

Tlic make of a truck is not as important as the care it 
receives Almost any standard make will do good work 
if given careful attention, but none will be satisfactory 
if not well cared for. Economy should not be sought in 
the lubricants used; the best oil is none too good. Over- 
loading should be scrupulously avoided. A truck may be 
made to carry many times its rated load without break- 
ing down, hut the damage is none the less real because 
not immediately apparent. High speed, particularly if 
the road is rough, should be avoided, since it subjects the 
machine to excessive strain and vibration. Most trucks 
are now equipped with speed-governors, but these are 
easily tampered with and must be carefully watched. 
When they are not used, the drivers should be carefully 
instructed as to the speed-limits and compelled to respect 

Distillate and 'tops' are now successfully used on 
trucks, by the application of a special carbureter. The 
use of these should effect a material saving in the gaso- 
line cost, which now amounts to almost 15% of the total. 
Tops' usually sells for 30 to 35', and distillate for 50 
to 60*5 of the price of gasoline. With a properly de- 
signed carbureter, the available power in the lower- 
grade fuel will be about the same as in the gasoline, hut 
the carbon deposition will probably be somewhat greater. 

SHOVELING of broken rock underground in the lead 
mines of south-eastern Missouri averages 18 tons per 
man per shift. The shovels used are long-handled round- 
pointed No. 2 type, requiring about 130 shovelfuls to 
fill a ton car. or a load of 15 lb. per shovel. The cost of 
shoveling averages 1:1c. per ton. Short D-handled 
shovels, such as are used in the mines of the Lake Su- 
perior region, arc not liked in the lead mines. The ad- 
vocates of the short shovel claim that a man can make 
more and faster motions with the shorter tool than with 
the long-handled shovel, ami can turn around more 
quickly in a narrow drift. Hut. it is argued in answer 
to this, the amount of rock that a man will shovel in a 
day is not measured by the fast motions that he can 
make while the boss is looking, but by the continued 
strain on his hack. The long-handled shovel scatters the 
muscular effort over the body, taking some of the burden 
from the hack and placing it on the legs. 

■ 1916 

MINI\i. Scientific l*KI SS 


The Flotation oi Minerals 

By Kob#rt J. Anderson 

•Many phenomena are supposed to contribute t" the 
flotation of minerals, whether in whole »r in pari is .1 
mooted question, l shall only sketch roughly the preset 1 
tendency of ideas ami make no reference to the flrsl early 
ami crude notions, which are now mainly of historical 

Surfaci Tension lias been well defined in articles ap- 
pearing in ilii' Journal of tin Ann rican ('In mical 8ocit ty 
during the years from 1908 to 1913. The theory lias 
been treated in particular by Laplace, Qaus, ami more 
recently by Van der Waals, ami by Willows ami llat- 
Bchek.' As defined by Jones,' "potential energy, present 
at tin- surface of liquids, produces a tension which is 
known as Burface tension." The phenomena invariably 
indicative of surface tension are: Drops of a liquid not 
exposed to an external force, that is. either suspended in 
another liquid of the same specific gravity or Ereelj 
falling, assume a spherical shape, the sphere being thai 
form of body with the smallest surface per given volume; 
further, if water be placed in an open vessel its surface 
Mini will he a measurable quantity, and its thickness will 
vary with a number of factors of which temperature is 
one. Its thickness is observed as ranging from 4 X 10"'' 
rin. to 4 \ lit ■ i-iii.. and its density, when referred to 
the main hulk of the water below, will approximate 2.14. 
Surface tension is not affected by the surface area. It is 
numerical in value and expressed in dynes per centi- 
metre. It is a variable factor dependent on temperature. 
increasing numerically with falling temperature, for ex- 
ample, water at 18° C. has a surface tension of 73 dynes 
per centimetre, and at 0° C. this increases to 75 dynes. 
At the critical temperature of a liquid its surface tension 
becomes nil. 

All liquids have a definite cohesion or tensile strength, 
which is ascribed to the mutual attraction of their mole- 
cules. This then is comparable to a pressure existing 
within a liquid, which has been termed the 'intrinsic' 
pressure. Naturally the value of the surface tension of 
solids is numerically high. The surface tension of a pure 
liquid against its vapor is markedly affected by the addi- 
tion of soluble contaminants. Some salts will raise the 
surface tension of water while others will lower it ; the 
fact that the salts of weak acids will lower the surface 
tension of water is explained by the fact that free acid 
is liberated by hydrolysis. It is further known that all 
acids will lower the surface tension of water, which is 

•Abstract of paper to be read at the forthcoming Arizona 
(September 1916) meeting of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers. 

iWillows and Hatschek: 'Surface Tension and Surface 
Energy,' 1915. 

-'Jones: 'Elements of Physical Chemistry,' 1907. 

also decreased by tin- addition of oil. or. in other words, 
oil will reduce the interfacial tension between the water 

air phases. A phen mm for which no explanation has 

been given is the one showing that the addition of eon 
taminants may either rais ■ lower the surface tension 

of water, but such addition, while it may decrease that 
tension greatly, can increase it only slightly. Any low- 
ering of surface tension is more marked in a liquid 
has a high surface tension, such ;is water, than in liquids 
of low surface tension. 

There can be. of course, no surface tension without 
adsorption, which produces, in the case of positive ad- 
sorption, an increased surface concentration resulting 
from a lowering of the surface tension by the contaminat- 
ing and dissolved substance, whatever it may be. The 
equation of (iibbs (lt= -C dc) gives the rela- 
tionship between surface tension and the distribution 
of the solute between the bulk of the liquid and the film 
interface. Here the notation is: 

» = excess of substance in the surface layer, 
i- = concentration in the main body of the liquid, 
R = the gas constant, 
/ = absolute temperature, 
o = surface tension. 

This shows that when the surface tension is reduced by 
the addition of a contaminant, the quantity do dc is 
negative and 1/ is positive (from algebraic considera- 
tion). The surface film then contains more of the con- 
taminant than the main body of the solution. If the sur- 
face film contains less of the contaminant than the main 
body of the solution it is a case of negative adsorption. 

As given in the foregoing, the surface of a liquid 
against its vapor is in tension; the surface of liquid 
against another liquid, or a gas or solid, is also in a state 
of tension; this is termed 'interfacial.' In the flotation 
machine the following conditions obtain: Pulp consist- 
ing of ore of approximately SO-mesh. water in ratio of 
3:1 of ore, and oil in disappearingly small amount, is 
being violently agitated. For the sake of a specific case. 
the air is being forced mechanically into the swirling 
pulp by beaters or stirrers. The phases present in flota- 
tion by the oil-froth process are therefore: solid-liquid 
(ore-water), solid-liquid (ore-oil), solid-gas (ore-air), 
liquid-liquid (water-oil), liquid-gas (water-air), and 
liquid-gas (oil-air). Thus six tensions are present, but 
if the oil is soluble in the water the tensions arc reduced 
to three. It is known that pure water cannot be made 
to maintain a persistent froth because its surface tension 
is too high. Acid, if present, will lower the surface 
tension of water, as will oil, if it is soluble. 

Certain metallic sulphides, such as galena, have the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

power of floating on undisturbea water; they are uot 
wetted and the curve of contact is convex. Souk- ganguc 
minerals, such ;is quartz, possess an adhesive Eorce of 
attraction Eor water that exceeds the intrinsic pressure 
of the water; they are therefore wetted and sink to the 
bottom, being drawn through the, surface Elm. Such 
properties of the minerals are 1 affected by the presence of 
oil. acid, and other reagents. Oil has a greater adhesive 
i (traction for sulphide minerals than for gangue min- 
erals; and the addition of acid and oil (if it is soluble) 
acts as a contaminant that will lower the Burface tension 
of the water and aid in the production of a persistent 
froth. Let us now look into the question of adsorption 
and see what part it plays in notation, since it is so 
requisite to the production of a variable surface tension. 

Adsorption. Generally speaking, adsorption dials 
with the unequal distribution of substances at the inter- 
face between dissimilar phases such as. solid-solid, solid- 
liquid, solid-gas. liquid-liquid, liquid-gas, and gas-gas. 
It is purely a physical effect. Commonly, adsorption 3 is 
construed to be the result of the condensation of a dis- 
perse phase upon the interfacial boundary solid-liquid. 
Returning for a moment to the Gibbs equation quoted 
above, adsorption may occur if the interfacial tension 
solid-liquid is reduced, this being positive adsorption. 
If. however, such an interfacial tension is raised in value 
it is a case of negative adsorption, as the solute or dis- 
perse phase will he rejected from the surface. Any 
condensation, strictly slated, of a solute or disperse phase 
in the interfacial boundary separating liquid-liquid or 
liquid-vapor is held to be a special case of adsorption. 
However, in the general sense, the phenomenon is looked 
upon as being t lie result of condensation of a disperse 
phase in the interface of two immiscible phases. Adsorp- 
tion is shown strikingly by colloid gels — the product ob- 
tained by the coagulation of sols — and certain cases of 
selective adsorption are most remarkable. Adsorption 
will naturally vary with the surface exposed. In Miss 
Benson's experiments with amy] alcohol in aqueous solu- 
tion, amy) alcohol reduced the surface tension of the 
water, and it was found by producing a voluminous froth 
that the alcoholic concentration in tin- froth exceeded 
that in the bulk of the aqueous solution by about 5%. 
A froth has a very large surface, and it would be ex- 
pected that the adsorption would be greater. Such ex- 
periments prove the value, qualitatively, of the Gibbs 

Recent work shows that all solids do condense gases on 
their surfaces and retain them there with great tenacity. 
Liquids in like manner adsorb gases. Further, liquids 
and solids exhibit selective adsorption of gases. Al- 
though this selective adsorption obtains, no proof has 
been submitted indicating that the amount of gas ad- 
sorbed by one substance is latgelv different than the 
amount adsorbed by another substance. An electric 
charge on an adsorbed Substance probably would in- 
fluence the amount adsorbed. The adsorption of air 

iBriggs: Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. XIX. No. 3, 
p 21 ii (March 1015). 

plays an important role in flotation, for as Hreuer points 
out, the adsorbed air film is euormously responsible in 
preventing the coalescence of solid particles. 

A comprehensive study of the adhesion of small par- 
ticles of solid to the dinerie interface (surface separating 
two liquid phases has been made by Hofmann* based 
on the theory of 1 )es ('moires.' From the standpoint of 
flotation this may he given as follows: If a solid particle, 
such as quartz, is wetted much more strongly by water 
than by another liquid, such as oil, the water will dis- 
place the nil. and a Him of water will form about the 
quartz particle according to the relative forces of ad- 
hesion. Then the quartz particles will remain in the 
water phase if the water has a specific gravity greater 
than the oil, regardless of their size; but if now the oil 
has a greater specific gravity than the water, then the 
quartz particles will remain in the water phase until the 
size of the particles is such that the force of gravity will 
remove them from the water. Conversely, if a solid 
particle, such as galena, is wetted more strongly by oil 
than by water, the oil will form a surface film about the 
particle and hence prohibit the particle from being 
wetted by water, that is. from entering the water phase. 
Then the galena will only enter the water phase when the 
water is more dense than the oil, and, further, when the 
galena particles are of such a size that the force of grav- 
ity overcomes the adhesion of the oil film to the oil. 

Returning to purely theoretical considerations. Hof- 
niann draws certain conclusions that deal with the suppo- 
sition thai solid particles will then remain in the surface 
separating two immiscible liquids, if those particles are 
wetted partly by each liquid. I quote Bancroft at 
length on this matter." "The solid particles tend to go 
into the water phase if they adsorb water to the practical 
exclusion of the other liquid; they tend to go into the 
other liquid phase if they tend to adsorb the other 
liquid to the practical exclusion of the water; while the 
particles tend to go into the dinerie interface in case the 
adsorption of the two liquids is sufficiently intense to 
increase the miscibility of the two liquids very consid- 
erably at the surface between solid and liquid." 

Any simultaneous adsorption of two immiscible liquids 
by a solid would tend to form a homogenous liquid phase 
at the surface of the solid. 

In regard to the effect of contaminants or other im- 
purities in contact with two immiscible liquids, this con- 
dition obtains: If the contaminant is soluble in one- 
liquid but not in the other, and also lowers the interfacial 
tension of the two, the equation set forth by Gibbs exacts 
the requirement that the contaminant should obtain in 
the interface. Examples of this prove the validity of 
the law. 

The terms adsorption and absorption have been used 
interchangeably in some writings, thus contributing to 
the already existing confusion of ideas. 

tZeit. Phys. Chem., Vol. LXXXIII, p. 385, 1913. 

eft. Entwicklungsmi , luinil;. Vol. VII. p. 325, 1898". 
"Bancroft: Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. XIX. No. 4.. 
p. 287. (April 1915). 

-i ni* 8, i9it; 

MINING and N.rnt.l.. I'RESS 


• n Tii. re .11. thro waj ■ by 
which gases oan be held with reference to solids: 1 By 
sorption; 2 in solid >- >1 n t i< m : snd, 

lasion. The term 'ooclnsion' has been applied in 

diacriminately to snj of these methods by which 

are held by solids Strictly speaking, by ' bided' gas 

nt gas thai is absorbed and held in finely divided 
or openings, which may be of microscopic si 

■ tl rv : holds thai occlusion plays the operative 

role in the flotation ol minerals by all processes. 1 am 
onable to reconcile myself to this explanation, for n 
Dumber of reasons. Marked instances of occlusion al 
normal temperature are known only in certain amor 
plums substances, like charcoal. Many metals, of coursi . 
Uiih in the liquid and solid states, have the power of 
occlnd often in mark.. I degree. There may be 

ami undoubtedly are One pores in the floatable minerals, 

which may in u sense bl isidered as an assemblage (if 

capillary tabes; these can and do occlude gas. Vet 

Iiisimi is marked only in amorphous substances and 

in certain metals as just stated. It is definitely known 

that hided gases are retained with great tenacity by 

the substances l luding them and therefore are ex- 
pelled only with difficulty. It seems anomalous to hold 
that the oeeluded gas can depart from the mineral oc- 
cluding it with sufficient speed to aid the air bubbles in 
the liquid in the process of flotation. I believe firmly 
that occlusion is not a COgenl factor in flotation, and that 
a more consistent theory may be formulated without 
postulating these conjectures regarding occlusion. 

COLLOIDS, in the original definition of the term by 
Thomas tiraham. do not constitute a definite class of SUD- 

stai s : a large number of different substances may be 

made to assume the colloidal state if proper precautions 
arc taken. All of wldch reveals the striking fact thai 
this colloidal condition is a state and not a form of 
matter. The ultra-microscope of R. Zsigmondy and H. 
Siedentopf has greatly increased our knowledge of col- 
loids. A general statement may be made regarding col- 
loids: that they do not show osmotic pressure in appre- 
ciable amount. Colloidal solutions — sols — are regarded 
items of two phases, in which the dissolved sub- 
stance is the disperse phase and the solvent the continu- 
ous phase. 

Since, in flotation, the ore is often as small in size as 
certain of the colloids, the pulp (ore. water, etc.) can be 
looked upon as a coarse suspension, and the laws of col- 
loids apply here with equal force as in the realm of col- 
loidal chemistry. So-called suspensions are systems con- 
sisting of solid particles of microscopic size distributed 
through a liquid. As mentioned by Ralston, 8 Reinders 
has treated at length the particular case of a solid phase 
maintained in contact with two liquid phases, that is, 
two immiscible liquids. His work is based on tbe different 

'Dwell: M. & S. P.. Vol. CXI, No. 12, p. 428 (Sept. 18, 1915) 
and Durell: Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 
XIV, No. 5, p. 251 (March 1, 1916). 

sRalston: M. & S. P.. Vol. CXI, No. 17, p. 624 (Oct. 23, 

•us existing, and Ins experiments and 
Bofmann, as mentioned in an earlier paras 
considerable bearing on the flotation problem 

t.oiU coarse dispersions of one liquid 
hi another with which it is immiscible. The simples! 

and eorai icst emulsions arc the pure oil wati r emu) 

sions, containing do emulsifying agenl such as 
proteids, etc, In such systems the oil globules can be 
coagulate, i by electrolytes, the] show the Brownian 
movement strikingly, and can even be retained by some 
filtering media. Any process of emuhnfication is di 
pendent on a Lowering of surface tension, or, to be more 
precise, on a lowering of the Lnterfacial tension between 
the two phases. According to Hriggs and Schmidt,' the 
two essential requirements of an emulsifying agenl 

I The property of condensing by adsorption in the 

dineric interface; and (2) the ability to form tinder 
these circumstances a strong coherent film. Tempera 
ture is a decisive la. lor in einulsilical ion. for its 
is to reduce the interl'acial tension between phases and 
also to lower the viscosity of the phases. In the produc- 
tion of emulsions, a considerable amount of surface 
energy is produced because of the relatively large sut 
lace ana of the disperse phase; an emulsion is the more 
speedily effected if such surface energy be reduced by the 
use of a liquid having a low surface tension as the con- 
tinuous phase. Some emulsions, under certain condi- 
tions, display a great increase in viscosity over that of 
either of the immiscible phases, for example, the emul- 
sions of the Pickering order — up to 99% of oil in 1% 
of soap solution — can be cut. into cubes. Any emulsion 
produced with soap solution is at once destroyed by the 
addition of acid, as the latter will decompose tbe soap. 

If solid particles are suspended in a liquid, they tend 
to increase the viscosity of thai liquid gradually, de- 
pending on the amount of solid particles present. Ex- 
periments have shown that whenever a substance in sus- 
pension is wetted by two immiscible liquids simultane- 
ously, it will go into the dineric interface in the manner 
already mentioned, and will tend therefore to produce an 
emulsion. If, however, the suspended particles cannot 
coalesce, owing to adsorbed oil film or for other reasons, 
and thus effect the production of a coherent film, the 
emulsion will not be stable. Few data are available on 
the production of emulsions by the oils used in flotation 
work, or on the matter of interfaeial tensions between 
such oils and water. However, we arc no doubt dealing 
with emulsified or partly emulsified pulp in some of the 
flotation processes, in the oil-froth process at least. 

Electrolytic and Electro-static Phenomena. Any 
substance placed in contact with water or many other 
liquids will assume an electric charge, the origin of 
which is, as yet, not set forth. Most substances when in 
contact with water become negatively charged, but these 
charges can be differed at will or reversed by the addi- 
tion of the proper electrolyte in requisite amount. These 
electric charges are by no means confined to sub-micro- 

"Briggs and Schmidt: Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 
XIX, No. 6. p. 479 (June 1915). 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

scopic particles, bnl are found also on the particles of a 
coarse suspension. Gangue minerals, such as quartz. 
when suspended in water, are negatively charged, and 
sulphide minerals, such as pyrite, are positively charged 
under like conditions. < >il drops are negatively charged, 
as arc air bubbles under certain conditions. These 
charges are very minute when referred to the mass of 
the particle. Substantial evidence is at hand to show 
that floatable minerals have the positive sign of elec- 
tricity when suspended in water or can be made to as- 
sume that sign by the addition of proper electrolytes in 
sufficient amount. As Callow 10 observes, there is a 
parallelism between electro-static characteristics and the 
flotative properties of ores. Many of the electro-static 
principles have either been carried too far or misapplied. 
as recent work shows. 

Experiments in colloid chemistry indicate that the' 
contact films are charged and that such charges affect 
the dispersion or coherence of the particles in suspen- 
sion. Of course, oppositely charged contact films will 
coalesce while similarly charged contact-films will repel 
each other, if the charges are sufficient in amount to over- 
come the force of cohesiveness ; in the latter, dispersion is 
the result. The oil and air contact-films having negative 
charges would tend to attract the sulphide particles, but 
further than this possibility electro-statics probably 
plays little part in flotation. 

It is generally admitted that only good conductors are 
suitable to flotation. Now then, as the electrical theory 
contends, electrified bubbles must be supplied to float 
the conducting minerals that are attracted, leaving be- 
hind those that are not. The bubbles in flotation are 
simply air spaces contained by a mantle of oil or of 
water, and there is. therefore, nothing within to bear 
the charge. In case it could carry a charge, which 
would only be possible by the presence of contained 
ionized gases or water-vapor, the charge would be 
speedily dissipated by contact with the interfacial boun- 
dary. Then in order that a bubble may carry a charge 
it must he protected by a dielectric film. Further. 
electro-statics plays probably little part in holding the 
sulphide particles and the gas bubbles together, as 
neither the bubble nor the particle can have a charge of 
sufficient magnitude when referred to the size. The 
electrical theory has been strongly championed by at 
least one writer 11 and has been tolerated by some others. 
A recent article 12 indicates that the principles of electro- 
statics have been considerably misapplied. It is my be- 
lief that electro-statics may be a small contributing 
factor in flotation in a manner not as yet understood be- 
cause of a lack of information concerning charges at the 
interfacial boundary between immiscible phases, for ex- 

i ij. If. Callow: Bulletin A. I. M. E. No. 108, p. 3342 
(December 1915) 

■ i Bains: The Electrical Theory of Flotation.' M. & S. P., Vol. 
CXI, No. 22, p. 824 (Nov. 27. 1915) and Bains: The Electrical 
Theory of Flotation.' II. ibid.. Vol. CXI, No. 24, p. 883 (Dec. 
11, 1915). 

i-Fahrenwald: 'The Electrostatics of Flotation.' ibid.. Vol. 
CXI. No. 11. p. 375 (March 11, 1916). 

ample, where the colloidal state is introduced in oil- 
water emulsions. Apparently, the electric theory is not 

Fboth and Bubbles. The idea has been abandoned 
by most people that a low surface tension is the essential 
requirement for froth formation. As mentioned by 
Coghill in a recent writing, 13 the contamination of the 
liquid with an impurity that will cause a variable sur- 
face tension is the real requirement. A bubble of air is 
spherical in shape and this shape can only be maintained 
if the external pressure exceeds the internal pressure. 
Since a bubble does not expand per se, large bubbles can 
only be accounted for by heat, coalescence, or electrifi- 
cation. Viscosity is an important factor in froth-per- 
sistence, as it increases the tenacity of the liquid film 
and thus prevents ready rupture. The rupture or 
bursting of bubbles is explained thus: 

1. Concussion upon a surface film deficient in the 
requisite viscosity and variable surface tension. 

2. Relief of pressure — here the gas of the bubble in 
expanding exerts a pressure exceeding that of the liquid 

3. Adhesive force of the entrained gas for the atmos- 
pheric air. 

4. Evaporation of the liquid film. 

Flotation bubbles will burst for any one or a com- 
bination of these reasons. 

Solutions in which the continuous phase is a solution 
of soap, various products from the saponification of 
albumens, etc.. will froth voluminously even in a very 
diluted condition ; frothing never occurs in pure liquids 
and is a definite proof that the solute or disperse phase 
lowers the surface tension of the solvent. A froth, which 
shows adsorption at the interfacial boundary of solution 
and gas, depends for its persistence on the production 
of a viscous film at that boundary; these viscous films 
are the direct result of surface adsorption of the disperse 
phase, that is. dissolved contaminants, the amount of 
which is small — disappearingly so. The work of Hall 
and of Miss Benson shows that in a foaming liquid the 
foam is richer in the dissolved contaminant than is the 
bulk of the liquid. Froth formation in the Callow cell 
is the result of the injection of air into the pulp (already 
emulsified I : the froth persists as long as there is suffi- 
cient air injected into pulp of the proper consistence. 
Tlie froth in the Callow cell is governed in nature by the 
kind of oil used and by the amount of air. A pneumatic 
froth is unstable or ephemeral ; it dies when removed 
rapidly from the influence of the injected air. The me- 
chanical froth, on the other hand, is thick and persistent. 
and must be broken up in dewatering the concentrates. 

Oils have a selective action for metallic sulphides, 
tellnrides, and some other minerals. The fact that both 
the oil and the air or other gas have a selective adhesion 
for sulphides prevents them from being wetted by water. 
Conversely, the quartz and other minerals exhibit just 
the opposite characteristics. The gangue-minerals, gen- 
erally, do not exhibit adhesion for either gas or oil: 

is'The Science of a Froth.' M. & S. P., February 26. 1916. 

Jul] 8, 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


they urr readilj wetted by water. Oases have n 
well-defined adl (or oila; therefore the air or 

ugly to the ml film. Tin' stability of a 
froth depends, in the main, on t h.- kind of oil osed, for 
•sample, pim- oil makes a weak brittle both, and creo- 
sote makes a stable elastic troth. The work of Devaux" 

mi nil tilms explain! how so small an amount of oil as is 

used in the various Rotation processes can in- so effica- 
.ions Prom a consideration of the immiscible oil-water 
interface, it' any oil will nl iii the internal surface of a 
Has hul. hi.' tin- sulphide particles would be contained in 
tin- oil-water interface no matter what the nature of the 
intained by the water film. Tin' sulphide, if it 
enters tin. oil phase, would then presenl an oiled Burface 
to tin- water phase. There are three conditions then I 
The mineral enters the oil phase completely; or ( 2 i the 

mineral enters the water phas unpletely ; or (3 the 

mineral enters the oil-water interface. 

Experiments made to determine the nature of the 
frothing selective, and collective action of different oils 
show some interesting results. I made tests on a zinc- 
iferous slime from Joplin with different oils, the results 

obtained indicating that a definite mixtui E oils will 

effect better recoveries than any one oil alone. The best 
combination consisted of pine-oil as a frother. plus wood- 
creosote as a frother and selector, plus refined tar-oil as 
a froth stiflVner. 

In general, pine-oil makes a brittle froth, which im- 
mediately dies; creosotes make a more elastic froth, the 
bubbles of which may expand to 3 in. diam. or more 
before rupture. Coal-tar products are poor frothing 
agents and if used must be aided by either creosote or 
pine oil to produce a good froth. Oils of a lubricating 
nature seem to be of little value in flotation, while such 
light oils as gasoline and naphtha are of value only for 
thinning the heavy coal and wood tars. 

Am iMi Gas. At this time, there are three ways by 
which a gas may be forced into a solution mechanically 
as follows : 

1. By beating it into the solution by means of pad- 
dles, as in the .Minerals Separation and similarly me- 
chanically agitated machines. 

2. By pneumatic means, as in the Callow cell, where 
the air is divided by the porous blanket-bottom into 
minute sprays. 

3. l'.y so-called liquid jets, as in a process recently 
patented in which the' air is introduced as a surface film 
surrounding a liquid jet by surface tension. 

Conversely, there are three methods by which dis- 
solved gas may be expelled from a liquid: 

1. When the liquid is super-saturated, the excess gas 
is expelled. 

2. By heating the liquid, when some of the gas is ex- 
pelled owing to an increase in its volume. 

3. By pressure reduction, as in the Elmore vacuum 
process, where, according to the law of Henry, 1 "' "the 

"Devaux: 'Oil Films on Water and on Mercury,' Smith- 
sonian Report of 1913, p. 261. 

i" Jones: Elements of Physical Chemistry, p. 177, 1907. 

amount ol gas dissolved bf s liquid is proportional to 

the pr ssiir. to which the gas is subjected." 

An air or gas bubble on being introdu I into a 

liquid is at one,- surrounded by a film of the liquid. 
Such a bubble will rise to the surface carrying the 

metallic sulphides by resa f the Forces already men- 
tioned on in- ill of gravitation, by which is meant 

that the adherence of the air to the liquid is leas than 

the foi of gravity. 

R Ml Prom : sideration of the foregoing, it is 

believed that the tl ry based on the different inter- 
facial tensions involved is the dominating one at this 

time. Probably flotation is die to a combination of com- 
plex phenomena. The theory based solely on occlusion 
L'oi -s "by the board," as has been shown that th >n 

tributing effect of this phenomenon has I n Interpreted 

laxly. 1 " The phenomenon of electro-statics may !»• a 

small contributing factor, but recent work indicates that 

the principles have been misapplied. An explanation 
more in consonance with fact can be given in terms of 
the interfacial tensions involved, without postulating 

either occlusion or electro-statics. 

The main and essential requirements for froth flota- 
tion are: (1) The production of a persistent froth; (2) 
the attachment of the bubbles of air to the sulphides or 
other material to be floated: and (3) the maintaining of 
a selective action by the froth bubbles for the sulphides 
or other material to be floated. 

Redwood is the famous big tree of California. Its 
property of resisting the action of acid and alkaline solu- 
tions, oils, insects, and decay in general, has brought it 
to the attention of miners and mill-men. Nearly 40% 
of the lumber cut annually in California is redwood; in 
1915 redwood furnished 418,824,000 ft. of a total of 
1,118,703,000 ft. cut. It belongs to the genus of conifer 
(or cone-bearer) called sequoia, which forms one of the 
links between the firs and the cypresses. Two species 
are found in California, the sequoia sempervirens of the 
Coast Ranges, and the sequoia- gigantea of the Sierra 
Nevada, the largest of known conifer. The sempervirens 
is the typical redwood of the California woodsmen. It 
grows to large size, up to 12 ft. diameter and 270 ft. 
long. The boughs are few and short, and the trunk is 
straight. The wood is like cedar, it splits evenly, and 
polishes well. While strong and durable, it is not espe- 
cially elastic. The tree does not grow in other parts of 
the United States. The species sequoia gigantea is con- 
fined to detached localities in the Sierra Nevada, usually 
at an elevation of 4000 or 5000 ft. A few have attained 
a height of 400 ft., some are believed to be 3000 years 
old. They are the remnants of extensive forests belong- 
ing to a past epoch. Nowhere else in the world are red- 
woods of large size found. 

Copper production of Russia during 1915 was 29,800 
short tons, compared with 36,430 tons in 1914. 

oiRalston: 'Why Do Minerals Float?' M. & S. P., Vol. CXI, 
No. 17, p. 623 (Oct. 23, 1915) 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

An Earthquake in Nevada 

By 8. X» Berry 

The old mining town of Kennedy, in Humboldt county, 
is situated in the East Humboldt range, in township 28 
north, ran}; and is about half-way up the east- 

ern Bide of Hi.' range above Pleasant valley. 

On October 2, 1915, at 3:40 p.m. there occurred an 
earthquake shock of sufficient intensity to be fell plainly 
by persons standing on the ground. This was followed 
by light ones until about six o'clock, when a fairly heavy 
on.- was noticed, followed by light ones at frequent 
intervals. Conditions were such that it was thought 
advisable to place crockery on the floor. About nine 
o'clock things quieted down to such an extent that it 
seemed sale to retire for the night. 

At about. 10:50 there was a violent prolonged shock 
that jerked the small bunk-house in an alarming manner 
and made an infernal noise. Shelves were cleared of 

1 Iis - bottles, papers, etc.. and water in cans on the floor 

was scattered about. A number of men present had 
been through the San Francisco shake of 1906, and it 
was. and is now, the general opinion that the Kennedy 
shake was more violent than that one. 

The feature that produced much nervousness was the 
fael that the shocks did not cease, but one followed an- 
other, at frequent intervals, all night, connected by 
periods of uneasy feeling, slight tremblings and waves. 
The sage-brush was good camping-ground for the thirty 
or forty people of the town during that night and many outside for some time. 

Next day the shocks were felt at close intervals. Some 
were timed at noon and occurred at less than minute in- 
tervals. An estimate based on frequency showed that 
during the three months following there were at least 
500 shocks, mostly light ones, but many moderately 

The visible signs left in Kennedy were slight, consist- 
ing of small cra.ks in soft ground, ore-piles flattened out. 
and rocks displaced on the slopes, but a rocky summit 
on the ridge above town was whipped to pieces, thou- 
sands of tons of rock rolling down into a gulch on the 
western watershed. 

The most pronounced evidence of the disturbance is to 
be found on the east side of Pleasant valley, just where 
the detritus meets the steep mountain slopes. The 
valley is about three miles wide, covered with sage- 
brush, with steep slopes on the east and gentle ones on 
the west. The slip or settlement varies from 5 to 12 
feet, measured vertically, and as much as 8 ft. measured 
horizontally. At places the bedrock is visible, showing 
signs of the movement. The line follows the contour of 
the hills closely, and at a few joints there are two slips, 
one above the other. Its length is about 25 miles, and it 
extends along that part of the valley where the slopes 
are the steepest, disappearing gradually at both ends 
where the hills flatten. The indications are that this 
slip was a result of the earthquake and not the cause. 

although it may have contributed to the length of the 


A ranch-house within 300 yards of the heaviest slip 
had much less shock than Kennedy, although only five 
miles from the nearest point, and the inhabitants .li.l 
not know^ibout the slip until next morning. The floor of 
Hie valley was. in places, cracked and displaced; water, 
carrying line sediment, flowed out. 

The photographs, taken on October 10, will give a 
general idea of the appearance of the slip. Streams 
flowing from the mountains into the valley were much 
augmented, but in Grass valley, near Winnemucca, the 
flow did not change much, and at one point a spring was 
cut off. 

The number of shocks and the quietness of the sur- 
roundings favored a detection of the sounds that usually 
accompany an earthquake. It is stated that tin- velocity 
of an earthquake shock is about 200 miles per minute, 
which is about fifteen times the velocity of sound in air. 
The query is, why is the rumbling sound heard, in many 
cas.s. before the shake is felt? The sounds here have 
varied from sharp explosive to low rumblings, like dis- 
tant thunder, generally heard a fraction of a second 
before the shock was felt. There have been many in- 
stances of sound without an appreciable shake, a few 
of shake without noticeable sound, and some of shake 
preceding sound. The fact that, as a rule, the sound 
precedes the shake and the further fact that there have 
been numerous cases of sound without appreciable shock 
lead to the suggestion that an earthquake may produce 
sufficient sound to be heard yet lie so light as not to be 
felt. Under conditions prevailing here sound carries far. 

| In the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of Amer- 
ica for December 1915 we find an account of the Pleasant 
Valley earthquake by J. Claude Jones. He states that 
the fault appeared at the surface "as a fresh vertical 
scarp from 5 to 15 feet in height, running for over 22 
miles along the junction of the alluvial apron and the 
base of the Sonoma range." The earthquake was as 
severe as that of 1906 in California, but the damage was 
small because the centre of disturbance passed through 
a sparsely populated region. If it had traversed a 
densely populated country, this earthquake would have 
ranked among the most terrible in history. An observer 
at Kennedy describes how he was suddenly awakened 
from sleep by "a great roar and rumbling" and how he 
was "thrown violently out of bed and buffeted in all 
.lire, lions." One effect of the earthquake was to in- 
crease the flow of streams and springs three or fourfold 
throughout northern Nevada. Immediately afterward 
the office of the State Engineer received over 50 applica- 
tions for new water-rights. — Editor.] 

Gold received at the San Francisco mint during .May 
amounted to 197.535 oz. fine, 11.719 oz. of which came 
from Australia. There was 104,111 oz. sold. Silver re- 
ceipts were 97.473 oz. Coinage was only $9500 in one- 
cent pieces, and f*21,000 in one centavos for the Philip- 
pines. The vaults contain $371,681,472.13. 

.Inly B, 1916 

MINING and Scientin, I'KI SS 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

Copper Metallurgy at Garfield, Utah 

By L, O. Howard 

THESE notes are based on a visit to the Arthur mill 
of the Utah Copper Company and to the plant of 
the Garfield Smelting Company, at Garfield, upon 
the occasion of a recent excursion by the Utah section 
of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 

Arthur Mill. This has 13 sections enclosed in a 
structure 587 ft. long by 325 ft. wide. In it arc treated 
daily 10,000 to 12,000 tons of low-grade copper ore from 
Bingham, the remainder of the 25,000 tons mined by the 
company being treated in the Magna mill, after which 
tin- Arthur is modeled. The Arthur mill was originally 
the property of the Boston Consolidated and, before it 
was taken over by the Utah Copper company, had at- 
tracted much attention as an exponent of the Nissen 
stamp. There were over 300 of these, which were used 
alter the coarse breakers to prepare the feed for the 
Wilfley tallies. A comparatively simple flow-sheet char- 
acterized the plant at that time. The finely crushed ore 
was delivered to 3-compartment hydraulic classifiers. 
The first two spigots were tabled, making finished con- 
centrate and tailing. Middling was passed over John- 
Ston vanners, likewise making a finished concentrate and 
tailing. After thickening, the slime was treated on other 
vanners for final products. 

Construction of the old mill was along the most 
modern lines. Driving-shafts were placed close to the 
machines, and belting minimized. Pipes and launders 
were carried in tunnels beneath the floor. There were 
no elevators or centrifugal pumps. All machines had in- 
dividual dutch-drives. The floor was of wood, special 
precautions being taken against spillage. The launders 
had high sides anil steep pilches. Vanner belts had 
high flanges. The absence of elevators aide,! in keeping 
the floor dry. Launders were fitted with plate-glass 

The capacity of the plant was given in 1909 as about 
2400 tons per day of ore containing 1.58% copper. The 
recovery was 21.8 pounds of copper per ton of ore, 80% 
of the total concentrate, containing 85% of the total 
copper, being made on the Wilfleys. After the merger 
with Utah Copper in 1910, a test lasting 30 days was 
made under identical conditions in the Magna and 
Arthur nulls, resulting in the decision to re-model the 
Arthur mill to follow the process used in the Magna 
plant, in which a greater tonnage was treated for a 
higher recovery and at a lower cost. Without increasing 
floor-space, the capacity was raised from 3000 to 8000 
tons and finally to about 12,000 tons per day. The best 
of the constructive features were retained* 

The increased capacity "as obtained by the use of 
Garfield tables over which an enormous quantity of 
material was passed, with no attempt to make any fin- 

ished products in the first stage. The concentrate was 
cleaned on Wilfleys. the tailing classified in the improved 
Kichards-.Janney mechanical-hydraulic classifiers, the 
finer sizes going to vanners while the coarse was re- 
ground in Chilean mills, reclassified and re-roughed on 
Garfield tables, from which the tailing was returned to 
the primary classifiers. The concentrate from the second 
set of tables was classified and cleaned on Wilfley tables 
and Johnson and Frue vanners. 

The ore is received in 50-ton ears on the high line and 
dumped to the receiving-bins. These are 300 ft. long, 
34 ft. wide, and 20 ft. deep, with a steel frame and 
wooden lining. They are equipped with scalping griz- 
zlies, and the fine ore is by-passed around the coarse 
breakers. The bins have 80 discharge openings in two 
rows, delivering to chain-belt feeders driven by ratchet 
and pawl. Thirty-inch flat belts take the ore to the 
coarse-crushing plant at the end of the bins, where it is 
reduced to |-inch in No. 8 Gates crushers and 72 by 
20-in. rolls, this section being equipped with the neces- 
sary grizzlies and trommels to increase the percentage 
of coarse fed to the crushers. From the coarse rolls the 
ore is taken by two 18-in. belts up a 20° incline to the 
fine-ore bin, into which it is distributed by two self- 
tripping 18-in. conveyors. This bin is 580 by 22 by 20 
ft. and has a capacity of 13.000 tons. The bottom is flat. 

The ore is fed automatically to impact-screens, which 
appear to be about 8 or 10 mesh. The oversize is crushed 
in 374 by 15-in. rolls and elevated to the screens. The 
undersize is treated on Garfield roughing-tables. the con- 
centrates being classified and cleaned on Wilfley tables 
and [shell vanners. Each section has 6 Garfield and 2 
Wilfley tallies, and 4 Isbell vanners for the primary 

The tailing from all these tables is elevated to the 
primary classifiers. These have four spigots and an over- 
flow. The pulp from the first two spigots is re-ground 
to about 40-mesh in two 6-ft. Garfield mills, and is again 
classified for a second roughing on three Garfield tables. 
after which the tailing returns to the primary classifier. 
The product of the 3rd and 4th spigots of the primary 
classifier is re-classified in two 5-spigot secondary classi- 
fiers. The coarse product is treated on two Garfield 
tables, where the first clean tailing is made. The fine 
products go to 24 Isbell vanners, making finished con- 
centrate and tailing. The concentrate from the Garfield 
tallies is elevated to a classifier the coarse from which is 
finished on a Wilfley. and the fine dewatered in 24 
Callow cones before final treatment on 36 Johnston and 
Frue vanners. 

The flow is as nearly gravitational as it is possible tc 
make it. The successive tables are strung out. down the 

- 1916 

MINIM; and Scwnl.h, NO s.« 

li liiblc being "ii I -par-iit.- BoOf 

Tin .intiiillv tin' ir.-iiiiii.ui doh given 

111 I- lii th. 18th mii.-li experimental work 

ha» been undertaken. The One ernahing bai been limpli- 
Bad The impac rolla, and roll-return elevators 

• timinated, and ernahing ia done in two Many 
Imll nulls, part of tin- prodnol going t.> the Qarfleld tables 
mi. I through the lection, aa in the other twelve. The 
ah'me-vannen have been taken out, and nil of the ma 

l.Tial I". irni.-rl \- t r.jit.-.l then . BJ Well us the BnOBl DM 

i.-riiil from the kfarey mills, ia subjected to flotation. 

Much taating with oils and with miMliti.-ntii.ns ..r standard 

practioea, baa been conducted, concerning which no data 

iir>- available for publication, since the process is siill 

in the experimental stage. The Janney flotation ma- 

- ar. need, the lateal development including t )■•• 

Callow modification. In section No. 13 there are 12 mix- 

ing cells and : >" roughing-machines, arranged in 6 units 

aeh, although the arrangement is flexible and may 

be changed if conditions indicate s differenl grouping 

arable. The machines in each unit are in cascade. 

Ka.-li machine, whether mixer or roughing, is driven by 

an individual 10-hp. motor, Bel on a vertical shall in the 

middle of the machine. On each side of the agitation- 

ipartment is a flotation-box. which is eqiiippod with 

Callow mats fur the introduction of air, thus combining 
mechanical and air agitation. The receiving compart- 
ment is equipped with a pulp-overflow to maintain an 
even teed, and the concentrate discharges automatically. 
A thi.-k light froth was produced under the conditions 
obtaining at the time of inspection. 

The feed to the flotation department is lirst dewater'cd 
in s 7."> by 12-ft. Dorr thickener, elevated on a timber 
stru.-ture. from which the pulp is pumped to six units 
of two mixer-eells in series. Construction is under way 
to provide six of these large thickeners. After violent 
beating in the mixer-cells, the pulp flows to the first of 
the roughing-cells, oil being introduced at such points 
• Ivantageous. Tailing from the first cell goes to 
the next lower machine, and so down through the series. 
All of the concentrate is received in a common launder 
delivering to the cleaning-department on a lower level. 
The machines used for cleaning are of the straight Jan- 
ney type. No air-mats are used. Instead, the froth is 
skimmed by a board driven by eccentrics, the froth being 
much heavier and more compact than on the rougher?. 
Whereas the roughing-machines were arranged with all 
the cells in a single line, end to end, the cleaning-ma- 
chines, each of three compartments, are set side by side. 
They deliver concentrate from both sides, and may be 
operated in series or in parallel. Most of the cells at 
present make a finished concentrate, only the last few 
returning middling to the head of the series. Middling 
may be taken off any machine by swinging into place a 
hinged board that diverts the overflow to a launder. 

Another set of these machines is provided for clean- 
ing low-grade vanner-eoncentrate. Concentrate con- 
taining 8% copper and about 80% insoluble is brought 
up to 22 to 25% copper, thus allowing the vanners to 

mak. a larger amount of loa gradi oonoentrat 
.•Iran tailing, with a higher recover] than is poaaibla 
with tin- vannera in the other aectioni 

The part played by Mutation in the Arthur mill there 
lor. ia as a .substitute l',.r \aiin. rs in handling current 

slim.-, and as a .lean, r for low grade -. nlial.. from 

the Isl.ell vannera in particular, which in reality n...\ 
treat a line sand only, the slime having been separated 

an.l diverted a.s mentioned. This particular applioa 
lion may be regarded as the reverse of the customary 

treat at of tailing, in plants where the tables are run 

to make as high a concentrate a.s possible, depending 

on flotation to recover any tal lost in tailing. The 

advantage of removing the large bulk of tailing from the 

process is made possible by the low grade of the ore, 

and throughout the plant it will be noted thai this 

practice is followed. I niing the principal factor in 

aug nting the capacity of the plant. All concentrate 

is laundered to drain-bine below the mill, and ia re- 
eiainied by clam-shell buckets loading into railroad-cars. 

Excellent metallurgical results are being obtained in 
the experimental section, and. incidentally, on an ore the 
principal mineral of which is chalcocite. not so long 
ago regarded as unsuited to flotation. ll needs no 
imagination In see the scrapping of approximately 1000 
vannera and about 700 cone-tanks, in the two mills, as 
well as the elimination of the impact-screens and sev- 
eral sets of rolls and elevators. 

An idea of the magnitude of the operations can be 
gained from the following list of machines in use before 
the adoption of flotation: 182 Garfield roughing-tables. 
26 Wilfley tables, 832 vanners, 92 Richards. lanney 
classifiers, and 364 dewatering cones. 

Garfield Smelter. This treats oxidized and sul- 
phide ores from Bingham and other districts in Utah, 
Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Nevada, California. Oregon, 
Wyoming, and Arizona, silicious ore from Tintie, and 
concentrate from the Utah Copper mills. The daily 
charge to the furnaces consists of about equal amounts 
of crude ore and concentrate. 

The crude ore, with foreign matte, is unloaded from 
gondola-cars to bins or to belts that deliver to the top of 
one of two sampling-mills for oxidized ore, or to one of 
a similar pair for sulphides. These mills have a com- 
bined capacity of 2400 tons per day. They are en- 
closed in two buildings 83 by 70 by 72 feet. 

The oxidized ore and the coarse sulphide ore from 
the sampler are taken by belt to the blast-furnace bins, 
of which there are four of a capacity of 2500 tons each. 
Concentrate is shovel-sampled to a system of conveyor- 
belts delivering to 25,000-ton bins, where the fine sul- 
phide ore from the sampler is also received. Cuke, lime- 
stone, slag, matte, and miscellaneous material are de- 
livered by railroad-cars to long bins, arranged in four 
rows. 490 by 25 by 20 ft., divided into 28 600-ton com- 
partments. These form part of the same structure with 
the blast-furnace ore-bins. Eight trolley-tracks below 
serve the blast-furnaces from here. 

The system of handling ores and fluxes is flexible. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. 1916 

Material may be unloaded into bins, or upon belts de- 
livering to the sampling-plants, or to blast-furnace bins, 
or may go directly by belt to the fine-ore bins. 

There are four 20-ft. by 42-in. blast-furnaces equipped 
with oval settlers 25 by 1"> ft. Each furnace has 22 4-in. 
tnyeres on a side. Jackets are 10 by 6 ft., six on each 
siil'-. and one at each end. Twenty thousand cubic Eee1 
of air per minute is used per furnace at a pressure of 
40 oz. The ore, flux, and coke (7%, made from Sunny- 
side coal) are loaded into 5-ton ears from the blast- 
furnace bins. Trains of five cars run to the top of the 
building, and deliver the charge through side-doors of 
the furnaces. The doors are operated by compressed 
air. The ore-column is 15A ft. high. Formerly, with a 
column of 12 to 14 ft., the furnace was fed through a 
set of chutes delivering below the level of the feed-floor. 
The openings in the furnace on this floor were confined 
to end-doors through which barring-off was done. Only 
two furnaces are now in operation. With the increased 
delivery of flotation-concentrate, and the higher effi- 
ciency and lower cost of the coal-dust fired reverbera- 
tories, it is only a question of time when the coarse ore 
will be crushed and smelted in reverberatories. 

Slag flows continuously into 10-ton slag-cars, operat- 
ing in a tunnel below the floor-level. Matte is tapped to 
10-ton ladles as required by the converters. 

Alongside the blast-furnaces are six reverberatories. 
four of which are 112 by 19 ft., one is 112 by 204. ft., 
and another is 120 by 204. ft., with an average capacity 
of 460 tons each of ore and concentrate per day. 

Concentrate is prepared for the reverberatories in 34 
roasting-furnaces having a capacity of about 2400 tons 
per day. Sixteen are 6-hearth MeDougalls, 18 ft. diam. 
Fourteen are 6-hearth MeDougalls, 194 ft. diam., and 
four are 7-heartb Herreshoflfjs, 19i ft. diam. All are 18J 
ft. high, and have air-cooled shafts and arms. 

Larry cars operating on tracks over the reverbera- 
tories bring the calcine from the roasting-plant in tin 
charge-hoppers of the reverberatories. Part of the fur- 
naces are charged from hoppers on the centre-line of the 
furnace, and part through slots along the walls. The 
best results have been obtained by a combination of the 
two methods and it is intended to equip all furnaces 
with central hoppers and side-slots. 

Although the plant was equipped with an elaborate 
oil-firing plant, the furnaces are now fired by coal-dust. 
Utah slack-coal is now used on the four furnaces in 
operation. It is received in gondola-cars and dumped to 
bins near the ground-level, from which it is taken to a 
60-ft. Power & Mining Machinery cylindrical dryer, 
having a capacity of 225 tons per day. Moisture is re- 
duced from 8 to 1%. An elevator and belt-conveyor de- 
liver to bins over four Raymond pulverizers and 
vacuum-separators, which grind the coal so that 90% 
passes 100-mesh. The vacuum system lifts the coal to 
screw-conveyors, which deliver to the coal-hoppers above 
the furnaces. The coal is fed to Sturtevant burners by 
the usual methods. 

The air in the furnace clears rapidly as the flue-end 

is approached, and combustion is perfect. There is no 
trouble from ash-blankets on the charge, nor is the 
draught through the waste-heat boilers impeded. Three 
Stirling boilers are arranged in parallel in each reverher- 
atory flue. About 400 horse-power is generated at each 

The system lias given excellent satisfaction. Furnace- 
capacity has been increased and the fuel-ratio decreased 
to 7:1. The minor advantages are many. The total 
consumption of coal is 300 tons per day for the four fur- 
naces, which in 1915 averaged 459 tons of charge per 
day each. The oil-burning equipment is maintained at 
full efficiency as a reserve. In ease of trouble with the 
coal firing apparatus, it is only necessary to swing in the 
oil-burners and continue firing without interruption. So 
far no serious accidents have occurred. Care is taken to 
keep the pulverized coal in small units, and watch is 
kept for incipient fires, which have been easily and 
quickly extinguished. 

Slag is tapped from the furnaces once per shift, 8 to 
10 pots at a time. It is taken to the dump by steam- 
Locomotives. About 1200 tons per day is made. Matte 
is tapped from near the fire-end into 10-ton ladles. 

The coal-pulverizing plant, blast-furnaces, and rever- 
beratories are strung out in a row along one side of the 
main building, which is 840 ft. long. 3054 ft. wide, and 
92 ft. high. In the south-east corner are the blast- 
furnaces. At the west end of the south side are the 
reverberatories. On the north side opposite the blast- 
furnaces are six converter-stands. Three 60-ton Shaw 
cranes operating in a 60-ft. aisle serve the furnaces and 

The converters are of the Pierce & Smith, horizontal 
barrel, type, lined with magnesite brick. They are 10 
by 24 ft. outside measurement, and 7 by 21 ft. inside. 
There are :;7 U-in. tuyeres on each converter. Tilting 
is by means of a hydraulic piston operating a cable 
wrapped around the converters. The charge to the con- 
verters consists of 120 tons of matte and 30 tons of 
silicious ore from Tintic. Three converters are in opera- 
tion, producing about 60 tons of blister copper per day 
each. Slag is taken by cars to a easting-machine, making 
cakes 60 by 17 by 4 in., which discharge automatically 
after cooling into bins or chutes delivering to railroad- 
cars, which are hauled to the blast-furnace bins at a 
higher level. 

Copper is handled by ladle aud crane to an oil-fired 
cylinder, from which the pouring ladle is filled. There 
are two Walker casting machines. 24 ft. diam., carrying 
26 molds. The cast-copper, 99.1% pure, is shipped to 
Perth Amboy or Baltimore for refining. 

Independent flues are arranged for blast-furnace, 
roaster, reverberatory, and converter gases. The blast- 
furnace flue consists of three sections. One is of brick, 
2300 ft. long and a cross-section of 320 sq. ft. ; another is 
of steel, 620 ft. long, with a eross-section of 215 sq. ft. : 
and the third is of brick, 600 ft. long and 215 sq. ft. in 
cross-section. Gases from the blast-furnace pass through 
the flue to a dust-chamber, 300 ft. long and 920 sq. ft. in 

.luh B, l"l<; 

MINING and Scientific PRE.SS 

The chamber baa Iw ctiona Bud one 

on hunt; with \ «- rt i .-n t wins at intervals of 1. 

md provided with a mechanical shaking device. 

From the dust-chamber the gases pan to a new brick 

■tack, '-''.' ft diameter at tin- top, and 350 ft high, or i 30 

ft above the furnace-floor. 

The Sue from the roasting furnaces, made of brick, is 
1600 ft long and 320 sq, ft in section. Roaster-gas a 
.ir nducted to the old stack, which is of brick, 30 ft. 

top diameter, and 300 ft high or 500 ft above the 
floor "i" the reverberatory furnaces, this stack receiving 

from the latter also, after they have passed through 
tlit- waste-heal boilers by means of a l»ri«-k flue of which 
1200 ft baa a section of :t-° wj. ft, and 775 ft a section 

1 s<|. ft Gases from the converters pass through 
900 t't. of steel One, "Jl'T sq. t't. in section, to the Cottrell 
plant. After treatment in this plant they pass to the 
nru stack. The Cottrell plant receives only gases from 
the converters; they can be handled al the rate of 250,- 
000 cu. ft. per minute, in a chamber having a cross- 
section of 1775 sq. ft. and 105 ft. long, in which are 2500 
"i-in pipes. 1(1 ft. long. The pipes are arranged in seven 
sections of 360 each. No. 10 iron wire is used for dis- 
charge-electrodes, which cany a voltage of 25,000. The 
power consumed is 60 to 80 k\v. Several tons of fume 
daily are recovered thai "ill assay over 50% lead. The 
fume is removed from the pipes by shutting off the gas 
from each section in turn, and striking the pipes with 
swinging hammers operated by a lever at the side. This 
equipment was the first of the multiple-pipe type, and 
has smaller tubes and a lower voltage than is the practice 
in later equipments. The high content in lead, the varia- 
tion in the gas analysis, and the high temperature, alone 
or together, prevented the use of a bag-house, even with 
the aid of some neutralizing method, as it was impossible 
i" feed the neutralizing agent automatically. In blowing 
leady matte it has been the custom to waste the lead. 
The application of the Cottrell process in the recovery of 
this lea.l is. therefore, of especial interest. An interest- 
ing description of the plant and the tests that led to its 
adoption may be found in the Transactions of the A. I. 
M. E., Vol. XLIX. page 540. It was written by W. H. 
Howard, consulting metallurgist to the company. 

EXPORTS from the United States increased from 
.fl'. 4*4.000,000 in 1913 to $3,555,000,000 in 1915, which 
is a gain of more than a billion dollars over a former 
total of about 24 billion dollars. "Astonishing as it may 
seem," states the chief of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, "the increase in the export of 
munitions of war has been less than the gain in sec- 
ondary war-supplies; while the largest increase has 
been in materials that have no direct relation to the 
activities of belligerent nations." Exports from the 
United States to South America increased 32% ; those 
to Central America 34% ; to Africa 51% ; to Asia 135% ; 
to Australia 17% ; and to Canada 23%. One of the 
greatest gains that American industry is making in trade 
with foreign countries is that of good-will. 

Determination of Antimony 

By Haral R. Layng 

Tie- following method is a modification <>( a pri 

published III till' appendix of l.nue's book. The modi 

lied method has been used by me in making over L500 

determinations of antimony contai 1 in ores, alloys, 

ami compounds, and it is the result of numerous experi- 
mental testa The application of this method will enable 
a chemist to make as man] as 50 determinations in a 

day. The method produces reliable results on samples 

containing arsenic or tin, and in this reaped it differs 

greatly from the unmodified thod, which is quit.- no 

trustworthy in the ease of samples containing arsei ' 

tin. In order to produce reliable results it is neecssan 

to follow the method closely. 
Soluble Substances (alloys and sulphides). Place 

J gm. of the liliely pulverized sample in a dry 3(10 ee. 
tall glass beaker; add 25 cc. hydrochloric acid and line 
mine solution (20 cc. of Br dissolved in 500 cc. HC1) ; 
cover with watch-glass and heat until the solution is 
complete, being careful always to have bromine present 
during the solution of the metal. Heat to boiling for a 
few minutes to drive off the excess of bromine. Cool to 
room temperature, add carefully 8 gm. (measured to 
within i gm. will answer for most purposes) of pure 
dry anhydrous sodium sulphite, then add 25 cc. hydro- 
chloric acid in such a manner as to rinse the sides of the 
beaker. Cover with a watch-glass and place on stove, 
producing a heat sufficient to maintain the temperature 
of the assay at 108 to 109°C. When the assay has had 
exactly 50 minutes of such heat treatment add 40 fr. 
boiling hot dilute hydrochloric acid (T part IIC1 to 2 
parts ILO) and continue heating for five minutes. 
Rinse the bottom of the watch-glass and the sides of the 
beaker with as little hot water as is necessary, add 4 
drops of methyl orange solution (-/, T gm. to 100 cc. ILO) 
and titrate the nearly boiling hot assay with a standard 
solution of potassium bromate, adding the bromate solu- 
tion as rapidly as possible, avoiding such a rapid addi- 
tion as will cause localization of reactions, stirring vigor- 
ously all the while ; continue the rapid addition of the 
bromate until the pink color of the assay begins to fade ; 
then proceed more slowly, finally finishing the titration 
drop by drop, stirring vigorously meanwhile. The end 
point is the disappearance of the last trace of pink color- 
ation, or, in the absence of color-forming substances, 
such as salts of iron, the assay liquid is water-white. In 
the absence of iron or like salts, a yellow colored solution 
indicates that the titration is overdone. 

Standardize the potassium bromate solution against 
pure pulverized metallic antimony, proceeding with the 
method exactly as before stated. The standards should 
check exactly. Run blanks on the chemicals, using the 
same amounts and proceeding exactly as in the ease of 
the sample. The blanks sometimes require as much as 
■fV ce. potassium bromate solution (1 cc. of KBrO^ = 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

5 mg. Sb), depending upon the chemicals used. The 
bromate solution should be standardized often, and for 
particular work when the stove does not give a steady 
heat the standards should be run with each batch of 
assays placed on the stove. For ordinary work when an 
electric stove is used the solution does not require stand- 
ardizing more often than once in three or four days. 
The titration is based on the following reaction : 

KBr0 3 + 3SbCl 3 + 6HC1 = 3SbCl 5 + KBr + 3H 2 
The excess of potassium bromate, to finish the titra- 
tion, oxidizes the methyl orange indicator, thereby de- 
stroying the pink coloration due to the action of methyl 
orange with hydrochloric acid. The standard potassium 
bromate solution contains 2.191 gm. KBr0 3 per 1000 cc. 
H,0 (lcc. = 5mg. Sb). 

Lnboluble Products (oxidized ores). Place J gm. of 
tin- finely pulverized sample in a 20 cc. porcelain cru- 
cible containing about 6 gm. of an equal mixture of 
sulphur and sodium carbonate; mix well and cover the 
mixture with about 2 gm. of the sodium and sulphur 
flux. Cover witli a porcelain cap and heat gently until 
the mass is fused ; do not prolong the heating. Con- 
siderable experience is required to conduct this fusion 
method and I would advise that its use should be pre- 
ceded by a number of experiments in order to obtain 
knowledge of the proper temperature at which to con- 
duct (he fusion. High heat or prolonged heat causes 
Considerable loss of antimony, while, on the other hand, 
insufficient heat or time causes low results. Dissolve the 
fused mass with hot water; filter from solids; heat the 
filtrate to near boiling and add sufficient dilute hydro- 
chloric acid (HC1 + 211,0) to render the assay slightly 
acid. The mixture is stirred for a moment and allowed 
to stand warm with occasional stirring, to coagulate the 
precipitate of antimony sulphide, for about 10 minutes; 
add a little H 2 S water and filter, using preferably an 
alundum filter-cone. Wash with 11,8 water. Rinse the 
precipitate from the filter into the 300 cc. tall beaker 
that originally held it with as little hot water contain- 
ing traces of IPS as possible; decant the excess of water 
nun, the precipitate in the beaker. Drive off the balance 
of the water from the beaker by means of moderate 
heating, finally finishing on a water-bath. Place the 
beaker containing the almost dry precipitate under the 
funnel containing the filter with its traces of antimony 
sulphide and pour 25 cc. warm hydrochloric acid and 
bromine solution through the filter little by little to dis- 
solve traces of antimony ; then continue to treat the assay 
according to the procedure customary with soluble ores 
as described previously. 

Remarks. It is unnecessary to filter from insoluble 
residue or free sulphur unless their presence is so 
marked that they obscure the .titration. Small amounts 
of iron do not interfere. If iron is present to such an 
extent that it obscures the end-point or bleaches the 
methyl orange indicator it will be necessary to remove 
it by precipitating the antimony as a sulphide and filter- 
ing off the iron solution ; in such a ease proceed to get a 

practically dry antimony sulphide precipitate and treat 
it just as if it were the sulphide from the fusion. With 
practice an operator will be able to conduct the titration 
without removing the iron, in cases of samples contain- 
ing as much as 10 r ; iron. The antimonious chloride and 
methyl orjfcige are oxidized by the potassium bromate 
before the ferrous chloride is attacked. Zinc, lead, 
arsenic, or tin do not interfere. The arsenic and tin are 
volatilized during the 50-min. period of heating the solu- 
tion containing sodium sulphite. Some antimony is 
volatilized during this period but its loss in this manner, 
which is constant, only amounts to 3 mg. when 500 mg. 
of antimony is present, which loss is corrected by the 
standardization. In cases where extreme accuracy is 
desired, it will only be necessary to have present the same 
amount of antimony in the standards as is present in the 
assay, in order to compensate for the loss taking place 
in volatilization. 

The determination of arsenic in the presence of anti- 
mony appears to bother many chemists, judging from the 
returns given by different chemists on samples divided 
among them. I have made many experiments along 
this line and found that Lowe's modification of the 
Pierce method is absolutely reliable. 

The following tests, a few of many that I have con- 
ducted, were run in duplicate and are given to show the 
value of the method : 






Mg. Mg 









Zn Cu 

Na-SO = 



















































10 cc. 





25% Sol 

































Letters indicate that a different standard solution 
was used for each series of tests. 

Baryta, or barite, has been a bugbear to many oper- 
ators in Summit county. Leadville, and in the San Juan. 
Now a new product called 'lithopone' is being produced 
at Leadville by the "Western Zinc Oxide Co., this product 
being a mixture of zinc oxide and barite. It forms a 
pure white pigment that is used as paint in interior 
decorations, and to some extent in the manufacture of 
linoleum and rubber goods. The market for baryta has 
been good for the past year. 

July -. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PR [AS 

Mining in Utah 

By L. O. Howard 

Dullness m the metal market baa not diminished 
activity in mining in tins State, Interest in sine >> in 
ng The neoesi scored at Promontory, where a 
dividend-paying mine was opened at graaa roota, baa 
■purred other prospectors with the hope of finding 'poor 
men 'a' minea Zine ore haa been mined in the san.i 
atones of Booth-eastern Utah, and a few ears shipped. 
About 98 miles weal of Suit Lake, in Timpie canyon 
near Qrantsville, then haa beau a raah of prospectors 
for sino, and from one mini' shipments are being made 
that will average abont '■-',. In Boxelder county, 28 
milis north of Ogden, 50 Ions of aino ore is held for 
shipment al one mine, and others are being opened up. 
This mine is only Ij miles from an electric railway, ami 
other facilities are said to he available. Zine is also 
known to occur in the Santaquin district, south of Salt. 
Lake City, and development is proceeding there. 

Anions; the smaller operators much activity continues. 
The Utah Ore Sampling Co. has three plants at work. 
The one at Murray is sampling 500 tons of ore daily, 
and another plant of equal capacity is planned. At 
Silver City the plant is crowded with ore from the Tin- 
tic mines. A heavy tonnage is also heing sampled at 
Park City. Inasmuch as a large proportion of this ore 
comes from the small mines, a healthy condition is evi- 

The State Conservation Commission announces that it 
has arranged with the University of Utah for the estab- 
lishment of a free information bureau, which will de- 
termine for prospectors the nature of any ore or mineral 
they may send. It is not intended to compete with regu- 
larly established assayers by making quantitative an- 
alyses, but the prospector will be aided in determining 
if he has found any unusual minerals. 

Tungsten mining is at a standstill. Where low-grade 
ore was being mined and sent to custom-mills, operators 
face a decided loss, and several milling projects arc held 
in abeyance. The ardor of the search for profitable an- 
timony mines has cooled, although under reasonably 
favorable conditions the price is still ample to permit 
profitable exploitation. The potash industry is flourish- 
ing. The Mineral Products Co. at Marysvale continues 
to increase its production, while seeking to attain higher 
extraction. The principal vein is said to be opened for 
a length of 1000 ft., the last 800 ft. of which is 20 to 25 
ft. wide, and is composed of nearly pure alunite. The 
Florence Mining & Milling Co. has selected a mill-site 
near the railroad and preliminary work has been started 
on a 100-ton plant that is expected to produce 10 to 15 
tons of potash salts daily. For the present the ore will 
be hauled by teams from the mine, 13 miles distant. 

During May the Lakeview mine shipped its usual 
tonnage of zinc ore from Promontory. Indications are 
that this district will become a producer of lead and 
copper ores also. The Lakeview has done enough de- 

valopment on its had ore-al i to commence ihipmenta 

Another property has opened a vein • .i will 

aaaaj i ■••, copper, and while tins average may not be 

maintained it is probable that a good tonnage of ship 

ping ore will be developed. 
The uunmer weather haa stimulated activity In out 

lying portions of the l'ark City district lliat have long 

been idle; tor instance, at the American Flag, where a 

new company has hecn fon i to undertake thorough 

exploration; also at the Daly Judge Extension, when 

the Old workings are being cleared with a view to opera 
tioii; and at I lie Iowa Copper, at the head Of Thayncs 

canyon, on Scott hill, near the crest of the Big Cotton- 
wood divide, which has been made the subject of a re- 
organization to provide funds for development. 

Geologists of the Survey have started a more thorough 
study of the Alta-Cottonwood-American Fork district. 
V. K. Ilintze, of the geological department of Lehigh 
University, is associated with the Government men in 
the work. His selection is a happy one, for to him is due 
the only comprehensive report on the stratigraphy and 
structure of this region, and his collaboration may be 
expected to aid in clearing some of the points of differ- 
ence appearing in various descriptions of the district. 
Concerted effort by local mining men is responsible for 
the prompt beginning of this work. It is to be hoped 
that the publication of results will follow as promptly, 
and that these men will not be placed on other work be- 
fore they have completed their task. There appears to 
be a tendency recently to avoid the repetition of the 
Butte and Park City blunders, so that the information 
may be expected to be available before another spring. 

D. C. Jackling of the Utah Copper has announced that 
in two or three weeks work is to begin on the first 2500- 
ton unit of the long-expected leacbing-plant. Details of 
the process are withheld, but it is known that sulphuric 
acid will be provided by the plant that is being built to 
utilize the Garfield smelter-smoke. About 40,000,000 
tons of oxidized ore containing 1% copper is available 
for treatment. 

The overloading of the lead smelters has resulted in a 
demand from them that Tintic shipments be curtailed. 
The large producing mines will probably confine their 
shipments to the better class of ore. The Eagle & Blue 
Bell was first forced to reduoe shipments from 150 to 
100 tons daily, and later to 50 tons. The Mammoth and 
Chief Consolidated have also had to curtail. Many min- 
ers have been laid-off, but as many as possible are being 
employed on additional development work. The Cen- 
tennial-Bureka, owned by the United States Smelting 
company, will continue to ship at a maximum rate. 

Shipments from Big Cottonwood canyon arc still cur- 
tailed owing to the slowness of contractors in improving 
the road. It happens that the part that is causing de- 
lay was a typical mining operation, so that an effort to 
do the work cheaply has delayed transportation and 
hampered the mining companies unnecessarily. It is 
evident now that it would have been better for the min- 
ing companies to do this portion of the work themselves. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1H16 

Blasting Practice at Chuquicamata, Chile 

By Howard W. Moore 

The disseminated ore at this mine is found in coarse 
grano-diorite. The mineralization is chiefly along the 
planes of fracture, but it has impregnated the entire 
country-rock. The important minerals are : chalcanthite 
(CuS0 4 ) 5ELO; brochantite (CuSOJ 3Cu(OH) 2i 
krohnkite ( _'uSO l .N'a,S0 4 .2H 2 ; pisantite (FeCu) S0 4 . 
7H 2 : and atacamite t'u..ClH. : 0. 1 . The average copper 
content of the ore is 1.65%. Steam-shovel benches 40 to 
100 ft. high have been laid out parallel with the long axis 
of the orebody on a 3% grade. 

The first method of breaking the ore involved the use 
of vertical churn-drill holes, set in rows that were 40 to 
50 ft. apart, with the holes in each row about 25 ft. 
apart. These holes were drilled to a depth a few feet 
below the grade of the shovel-bench and 'sprung' five to 
seven times with 60%, or sometimes 75%. dynamite. A 
chamber 6 to 8 ft. diameter was formed by this spring- 
ing, ami the chambers were then loaded for the final 
shot. The cost of this drilling proved so excessive that 
it was abandoned, and blasting is now done by means of 
tunnels,' a method found more successful and econom- 
ical than the original practice. The churn-drilling cost 
about $9.80 per foot, while the tunnel-work, including 

sinking, cross-cutting, and driving, is costing only $5 
per foot, and all of this work is accomplished by hand- 

The tunneling is done with considerable precision. 
Shafts are sunk in several well-chosen parts of the ore- 
body, to a depth of 3 metres below the grade of the 
shovel-bench. From the bottom of these shafts, cross- 
cuts are run parallel with the short axis of the orebody, 
and drifts are extended from the cross-cuts parallel with 
the long axis of the orebody, and about 15 metres apart. 
These drifts receive the charges of explosive ; the method 
of loading is represented in Fig. 1. Beginning at a face 
of the drift, 10-metre centres are measured for the 
powder chambers, aud the charges are calculated for 
each chamber by means of cross-sections through these 
centres, as shown in Fig. 2. By plotting the cross- 
aection to scale, and drawing the line of least resistance, 
it has been found by practice that approximately 46:! 
lb. of black powder should be used for every metre as 
measured on this line of least resistance. For dynamite 
of 60% strength, this figure should be divided by 2.64. 

The powder is loaded in sacks of 100 lb. each. It may 
be loaded in cans, but is naturally more compact if 

-Shovel Bench 

-Broken Rock, well Tamped. -* 
,- Ponder. 

j.'»;o7 olfc: 

' '-\ -4 ti. Concrete Wall 

4, a."^'-^-. f --■, Broken Rock, well tamped. - N 
^''i°&:° : ^i. /,- Powder. ) r -Powder 

y-,-. a ::;<k.^ ■'.-; . , , . .■- . , -.- o.. .,-■,.-- _-: ■■-.- .■ , ,, < 

rig. /. 

Plan or Tunnel Blcrsflncj, Chuquiccrmcrr-cx, Chile . 

- 1916 

MINING tod Scienlin< I'KI SS 


ii>* 493 m p*' ***** .M wn^ *» . * *ft*ma* ngj 

********* *** &*c* r>r**i*r 

Ufe yr '•* *"' '"* ,r + ^***»**ww 

-r *r 4C%P^ ■ 

4**rwf* a****** of 9»mc* •******■ »*+,*• A Jf*> 
p*r tufrt m*fr* 
On* cu*< m*tr* roc* - t&J **» 
4v*rag* mmcunt Btock to*Kl*e ***** p*r fpn - 04S. 

■J* ** ■ r S 

.■.-**.-»«• Ami '■ 

"^ ' 

rig 2 

--*> * If Ultras " 

Mftftoa of Calculating f^atyc/er Charae 


Method of Loading TUnnmt for Blasting 



At $t**>*rfr\L>r - [ ' J''. '• "'. '- v 

i)I »w rt 


~VV> -.7"'"V 

60%Dynamite. I 


Transformers . - I tin - Alternating Current. Single Phase -110 Volt. 

Caps: in Series Tero Series 

Wire, SV/S or 14 B.&S Gauge Rubber Insula tea 

Amperage require** for 20 Caps, — 0*75 Amp 

Volts required for 20 Caps,- 110 rolls. 

Ohms resistance of I Cap ana 9 metres of fuse erire- 2.00 Ohms 

Diagram for Tunnel Blasts 

Fig. 4-. 

IKw Nil. 

IKrr. «f! 

loaded in sacks. The interstices between the saeks are 
filled with sand or any kind of convenient packing. In 
the centre of the charge, two boxes of 60% dynamite are 
placed, which Berve as the 'primers.' One electric cap 
is carefully connected with each box of dynamite, and 
tin- lead-wires are carried from the primers, along the 
floor of tin- drift, in grooved stringers ( 2 by 3-in. ma- 
terial with i-in. groove) provided with J-in. covers care- 
tolly nailed-down after the wires are in place. A cross- 
sect inn through the centre of the charge is shown in Fig. 
:i. The lead-wires and stringers are cut long enough to 

reach from '» harge to the next, and after the chamber 

has received its charge of powder, broken rock is filled-in 
closely from wall to wall and from floor to roof. Charg- 
ing of tie- other chambers is done in a similar manner. 

It will In- noticed that two separate series are carried. 
This is done to prevent a misfire, which might result 
from a broken circuit in one or the other series. Each 
Belies is on a different transformer. Prom careful ex- 
periments it was found that for a series of 20 caps, a 
current carrying 0.75 amperes under 110 volts should 
be used for a successful 'fire.' Each cap showed a re- 
sistance of about 2 ohms, that is, the cap plus about 30 
ft. of fuse-wire. The present practice of wiring a charge 
is shown in Fig. 4. 

After the drift is loaded, the cross-cut leading from 
this ilrift back to the other workings, is filled with 
broken rock to within 4 metres of the first drift back. 
At this point a solid concrete bulk-head is put in, not so 

much because of the resistance it affords, as to seal her- 
metically the workings back of the shot, for preventing 
the filtration of gases after the explosion. The handling 
of such large quantities of explosive is somewhat haz- 
ardous, but the work is so systematically and carefully 
superintended that, to date, no accidents have occurred 
through carelessness. 

[The first method tried and discarded, that of vertical 
churn-drill holes, is used successfully at the Nevada 
Consolidated copper mines, where the ore is softer than 
at Chuquicamata. — Editor.] 

Iron-ore mined in the United States in 1915 amounted 
to 55,526,490 tons, worth $101,288,984 for the 55,493,100 
tons shipped. This is the greatest output in any year 
save 1910 and 1913, and 14,000,000 tons more than in 
1914. The average value was $1.83 per ton, according 
to the U. S. Geological Survey. There were 27 produc- 
ing States, some of them for flux only. Minnesota led 
with 33,464,660 tons, Michigan produced 12,514,516 
tons. Alabama 5,309,354 tons, Wisconsin with 1,095,388 
tons, and New York with 998,845 tons. Taking the dis- 
tricts, Lake Superior produced 85%, and Birmingham 
8.5%. Seven mines — including the Mahoning, Hull- 
Rust, and Red Mountain — yielded over 1,000,000 tons 
each. 2.311,940, 2.307.195, and 2,138,015 tons respec- 
tively. The ratio of pig-iron to iron ore was 53.15%. 
The output of iron was 29,916,213 tons, worth $13.21 
per ton at furnaces. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. line 


Readers of the MIXING and Scientific PRESS are invited (o ask questions 
and iive information dealing trilh technical and other matters pertaining to the 
practice o/ mining, milling, and smelting. 

Brass as now made for cartridges contains from 67% 
copper and 33% zinc to 71% copper and 29 r 7 zinc. 

Water-power of the world is estimated at 700,000,000 
horse-power; 21% in Africa, 21% in North America, 
14% in South America. 32% in Asia, 2% in Australia, 
and 10% in Europe. 

Cost of development in the Hollinger mine, Ontario, 
is as follows : diamond-drilling, $1.60 per ft. ; cross- 
cutting, $6.40; shaft-sinking, $42.32; driving, $10.10; 
raising, $16.17, and winzing, $39.20. These costs are 
low for the district, notably those for diamond-drilling 
ami cross-cutting. 

Nails driven in wood that is exposed to alternate 
wetting and drying are likely to work out. The wetting 
swells the wood and moves the nail, which does not re- 
turn to its original position when the timber dries. It is 
for this reason that timber structures bolted together 
and exposed to weather require screwing up at intervals. 

Silver ore at the Rosario mine, Honduras, averaged 
16.97 oz. per ton in 1915. In recovering 87.45% of this 
there was used 3.93 lb. of sodium cyanide, 0.211 lb. of 
lead acetate, 35.5 lb. of lime, 3.58 lb. of tube-mill pebbles, 
and 0.98 lb. of zinc-dust per ton of ore treated (323 tons 

Five hundred and two feet of advance in one month 
was made last January in the Tiger adit (8 by 9 ft.) 
of the Burma Mines Corporation by Chinese miners, 
under white shift-bosses, using three Leyner-Ingersoll 
drills at the face and mule traction up to a length of 6000 
ft. The rock is rhyolite. 

Manganese steel, as the term is used commercially, 
is a hard, tough, ductile steel. But sudden cooling from 
a heated condition is apt to make this steel too ductile, 
while slow cooling makes it brittle. It is used for such 
purposes as parts for rock-crushers and dredges, but is 
not suitable for the largest castings. The proportion of 
manganese is about 12%, with carbon 1£%. 

Electric hoists of two types are used by the Cleve- 
land-Cliffs Iron Co. They are the direct-current hoist 
operated by the Ilgner system, and the induction-motor- 
driven hoist. Induction motors* directly geared to the 
hoist, are used where the ore can be hoisted in loads as 
small as three tons, at a speed as low as 1000 ft. per 
minute. Where a greater product is required, the Ilgner 
system is employed. With a larger generating-station, 
however, greater induction motors could be used. It is 

stated that in designing hoists for electric drive it is 
desirable to make the rope speed as low as possible, 
rather increasing the weight of the live load as necessary, 
than going to high speeds with light loads. at the Calumet & Hecla will be in 
operation during July. The process involves the use of 
ammonia supplied by the Semet-Solvay company of 
Syracuse, which makes the liquor from by-product coke 
manufacture. Two thousand tons of tailing is to be 
treated daily, the cycle of operations to occupy 96 hours. 
Eight vats 54 ft. diam. by 12 ft. high, holding 1000 tons 
each, are part of the plant. 

Stronger detonators than formerly are being used, 
because the slight extra cost is many times repaid by 
the better explosion obtained in the charge. Suppose, 
for instance, that three sticks of powder in a hole are 
fired by a weak detonator, No. 3. The detonator will un- 
doubtedly cause sufficient impulse to explode the first 
stick. The explosion of this will be communicated to the 
second, and thence to the third, and the whole charge 
will apparently explode. Yet among the resultant gases, 
there can probably be detected fumes such as are caused 
when an explosive burns rather than entirely detonates. 
The miner speaks of the powder as having 'burnt.' If 
instead of a No. 3 detonator, a No. 8 were used, the in- 
itial impulse would be transmitted right to the extreme 
end of the charge, instead of being passed from cartridge 
to cartridge. When the explosion has to be passed from 
cartridge to cartridge, it is possible that toward the end 
of the charge the impulse is so diminished in force as not 
to create that instantaneous transformation which is 
necessary for the best result. Detonation in such a case 
approaches the nature of combustion, and unexploded 
sticks of dynamite may be left in the holes. 

Eucalyptus is a genus of tree indigenous to 
Australia, and called there 'gum-trees,' by reason of 
their resinous leaves and fibrous bark. One species, 
eucalyptus globulus, or blue gum, was brought to Cali- 
fornia over 50 years ago, and it has also been introduced 
into southern Europe, northern Africa, India, and the 
islands of the Pacific. The eucalypti are rapid in growth, 
straight, with few branches, and generally reach a great 
height, as much as 500 ft. on the Dandenong range, in 
Victoria. An oil of eamphoraceous odor is obtained by 
aqueous distillation of the leaves, and this has been used 
in the making of perfumes and varnish, as well as for the 
flotation process in metallurgical plants. In Australia, 
several species of the timber are employed extensively 
for mining purposes. The jarrah and karri are well 
liked for head-fames, mine-timbering, and for building 
mills. The wood is hard and heavy. Jarrah is nearly 
double the weight of Oregon pine, so that a disadvantage 
is found in paying freight for a long haul, and it is 
likely to be short-grained. The eucalyptus in California 
has not as yet been used much for timber in mines, as 
other woods of lighter weight and less resin are available. 

Juh t) 1916 

MI\IV. ud Sdentlh. |'|<1 SS 


Ai awn ui nV MNrld'i frwl mining cMUra 


AXOTUES LaBOI DlAJKAQI Sillnu -KmI'IIii. Zim a\i> \Vi-iiii\ 

i w.v DOW s T„\\ \ Qhu i 

What Is considered to be the greatest mining venture ever 
nndertakn in the Leadville district is non under way at the 

i>< » Mikado sh.ui on Iron hill, as was briefly mentioned In 
tin- Pm o( June M. George 0. Armiii. manager ol the Iron 
Silver Mining Co. has organized one of the strongest combina- 
tions that have entered the district, and has secured control of 
a large tract of valuable territory extending through Graham 
park to Stray Horse gulch, and along the foot of Iron hill. 
The tract Includes eight full claims; the R. A, M., Pyrenees, 
Devlin, and Cyclops of the Marlon group, and the Sawtooth, 
Keystone. Venus, and Young America comprising the Mikado 

lopment of the property Is to be carried on through the 
Mikado shaft, which is 1206 ft. deep. At present it is in poor 
condition, both Inside and on the surface, requiring the in- 
stallation of a new surface plant and re-timbering throughout 
the entire depth. Water stands at the SOO-ft. mark In the 
shaft, making it necessary to install good machinery as soon as 
the shaft has been repaired to the water-level. Mr. Argall an- 
nounces that he Is prepared to fully equip the property with 
first-class machinery, and make all the necessary preparations 
in the shaft, an undertaking that is estimated to cost over 

Construction work at the Mikado has been under way for 
two weeks under the direction of the contractor, Kenneth 
McLean. The largest head-frame in the district is being 
erected over the shaft. It is of four posts, 60 ft. high, with a 
31 ft. base. It Is being constructed of the best Oregon fir. The 
tirsi and main bent of the frame has been hoisted into posi- 
tion: the work of assembling the secondary bent and supports 
is progressing rapidly. The completed frame will weigh more 
than 20 tons. 

Expensive hoisting machinery has been ordered for instal- 
lation as soon as construction work is finished. It is stated 
that the engine alone will cost $10,000. Following the comple- 
tion of the surface work, shaft timbering will begin. Several 
carloads of Oregon fir square-sets and lagging have been 
delivered at the property for this work. 

Drainage of the working and the surrounding basin from 
the 800-ft. level to the bottom of the Mikado shaft will be the 
most difficult point of the undertaking. Many great old stopes 
in the sulphide zone exist throughout this area, and draining 
will be comparatively slow. Excellent machinery has been 
ordered for the work. Sinking of the shaft an additional 100 
ft. is also planned. 

The ore-belt which is to be explored through the Mikado 
shaft is one of the most extensive in the district. Several 
years ago this was the productive centre of Leadville. At that 
time such properties as the Maid of Erin, Adams, Mahala, 
Robert Emmet, Wolftone, R. A. M., and Greenback were 
operating below 1000-ft. depth, and were shipping a large 
quantity of lead-silver ore. The decrease in the value of silver 
and the low metal market which prevailed for several years 
following, caused these properties to suspend operations in the 
sulphides, and those that had no other ores were forced to 
close entirely. Many of these famous old mines have been 

Idle for >cai». and II || (Mill Ull lit KVlTSj In the luelal 

marl. el thai has Opened another period cif activity l,,r 

The lame orebodlea formerly abandoned are now very valu- 
able and should produce millions of dollar* under a oontlnua 
tlon of the , : irable conditions. 

The Empire Zinc Co.. which recently purchased the i 

K el and other properties from the Bmall-Hopes-Boreel 

Wining Co.. has undertaken extensive work preparatory to de- 
veloping the Immense bodies of sulphide ore Known to exist 
In Its holdings. This territory adjoins the Mikado project on 
the north-west. The old .McCormick shaft on the Result claim 
is being re-timbered and a new surface plant has been In- 
stalled, while extensive work is being done through the 
Emmet shaft. 

The Western Mining Co. is draining the Wolftone shaft to 
the 1000-ft. level, planning to get into the sulphide ores again. 
The Greenback is also active again, and as soon as the water 
has been taken out of the property through the Mikado and 
Wolftone, work will be done in the rich stope that has stood 
idle for a number of years. 

All the preliminary work, with the exception of the Mikado, 
will he completed during the summer, and there is no doubt 
that the tonnage of the district will be doubly Increased by the 
production from these properties. There are thousands of tons 
of valuable ore now opened and blocked-out in these properties, 
and the development that will be carried on at greater depth 
will uncover much additional ore. 

The draining of the Down Town basin through the Penrose 
shaft is now complete to a depth of 875 ft, the lowest level 

Penrose Shaft 

onate Hill rault 

rnrhnnnfit H,ll 


/ ffiriTT *"7"»' and Sand 


—(""TV 1 

Oram t e f^^ Gram t e^^^^***»a» 


in the property. The unwatering of the Down Town section 
was started on May 8, 1915. At that time the water stood at a 
point just 230 ft. below the collar of the shaft. The water was 
drained from the property to the full depth of the shaft on 
June 14, 1916. Pumping has been done by two electric centrif- 
ugal sinking pumps of 1500 gal. capacity, and two relief pumps 
of the similar capacity. 

Work is now underway preparing the bottom station for the 
installation of a 2000 gal. four-stage motor-driven centrifugal 
station pump recently delivered by the Providence Manufac- 
turing Co., maker's of all the pumps used at the property. The 
pump is a vertical machine, and requires greater height in the 
station than the old steam pumps that formerly were operated 
there. The new pump will be propelled by a 650-np. motor, the 
largest that has even been in use at Leadville. The motor is 
a new type patented by the General Electric Co. in June of 
last year. The station machinery will be in place by the end 
of the coming month, and immediately following an extensive 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

mining campaign will be taken up in the upper workings of 
the property where immense bodies of carbonate of zinc and 
high-grade manganese and iron ores have been uncovered. 

The most important discovery of ore made in the district 
since the early 80's has been made in the Valley adit in Pros- 
pect mountain, in charge of Warren F. Page. At a depth of 
150 ft. below the adit level, as mentioned in the Press of July 
1, an immense body of oxidized iron, containing good values 
in silver and manganese, has been opened. The ore is identical 
with that found in the first contact of Carbonate. Fryer, and 
Breece hills, and is regarded as conclusive evidence of the 
continuation of the regular Leadville formation into the vast 
and undeveloped area of Canterbury hill and Prospect moun- 
tain. The property is now being equipped with large ore-bins 
and necessary buildings for the handling of a large output. 
Electric power is available in the adit, and is used for hoist- 
ing at the interior shaft, a distance of 1700 ft. from the portal. 

Prospect mountain, lying immediately north of Big Evans 
gulch and on the trend of the strong ore-shoots developed in 
Fryer, Breece, and Carbonate hills, comprises an area of un- 
limited possibilities that for years has been neglected. Mining 
men have long been convinced that the Leadville formations 
known south of the Big Evans to Iowa gulch did not exist 
north into Prospect mountain, and looked on this territory as 
absolutely barren. It has only been recently that attention 
was turned in that direction, due undoubtedly to the success 
of the Valley, Silver Spoon, and New Monarch properties in 
Big Evans gulch. Drill-holes driven from the lower workings 
of these mines into the mountain disclosed remarkable re- 
sults. It is stated that one of these holes from the Valley cut 
40 ft. of ore. 

The driving of the Valley adit was immediately undertaken 
by Mr. Page following the drilling, and the finding of ore in 
the interior shaft is the result of several months' continuous 
work. It occurs in the blue lime and porphyry' that form the 
first contact throughout the now developed sections of the 
Leadville district. Huge bodies of rich ore have been mined 
in this zone throughout Carbonate, Fryer, and Breece hills 
and there seems to be no doublt that deposits equally as ex- 
tensive will now be uncovered in Prospect mountain. Deeper 
development will also open the continuation of these ore-shoots 
into the second contact. 

The importance of the opening of this vast and new terri- 
tory can hardly be estimated. Should the formations hold as 
great a store of wealth in Prospect mountain as they have in 
the other parts of the district, Leadville will enjoy a great 


Notes on the Principal Properties. 

The Oatman district continues to be the centre of attraction 
in the south-west. Etienne A. Ritter has made an extensive 
study of the area, and in commenting upon the conditions pre- 
vailing there considered that it will prove to be a great gold 
producer. James G. Ray has just completed a long geological 
survey of the Esperanza Mining Co.'s ground. This is the 
most complete investigation which has been made of any 
property in the district, and is an exhaustive study of the 
geology, petrology, and mineralogy of the southern section of 
the field. Mr. Ray's recommendations as to further mining of 
the property will be carried out as rapidly as possible. 

Persistent rumor continues to the effect that a fine develop- 
ment has been made on the new 1400-ft. level of the Tom Reed. 
Officials of the company will not •confirm or deny this report. 
Ellis Mallery has started preparing a complete geological map 
of the Tom Reed company's holdings. The annual report of 
the company for the year ending March 31, 1916, has just been 
issued. It shows that during the year 571S ft. of work was 
done. There was 29,916 tons of ore milled, the average value 
being $22.12. The extraction was 98.6%. The yield was $661,- 

S71, against an average of $739,690 for the preceding seven 
years. Total production is $5,833,702. Dividends paid during 
the past year amounted to $163,720, or 18% on the par value 
of the outstanding shares. It was estimated that 11,000 tons 
of ore was blocked-out in stopes at the end of the year. 

The Gold Ore continues to ship 30 tons per day to the Gold 
Road mill, lie extraction being better than $20 per ton. De- 
velopment of new ore continues. 

At the Big Jim 35 men are at work, and drifts are being 
driven in both directions on the vein on the 400 and the 485-ft. 
levels. The faces of the four drifts are said to be in ore aver- 
aging $35, $150, $30, and $100 per ton, respectively. The first 
two values are for the drifts at 400 ft, which have been car- 
ried in farther than those on the deeper level. 

Developments in the Ivanhoe property are the centre of in- 
terest in Oatman. At a depth of 500 ft., and a distance of 395 
ft. from the shaft, and after cutting through an intrusive dike 
of quartz-porphyry, the main vein, which was the objective, 
was cut. On June 27 it had been penetrated 27 ft. beyond the 
foot-wall, with no hanging wall in sight. The vein filling is 
quartz, with some calcite and adularia, considerably stained 
by limonite, and highly oxidized. 

Steady work continues in the Arizona Tom Reed, both in 
shaft-sinking and in lateral work on the 400-ft. level from the 
Pioneer shaft. Development in the Pioneer property, adjoin- 
ing, overshadows in interest the work in the Arizona Tom 
Reed property. The two companies are developing the same 
main vein systems, it is estimated that the strike of the ore- 
shoots being developed in the Pioneer carry them into the 
adjoining property, so development of the one is considered as 
development of both. 

In the Boundary Cone, driving operations on the 750-ft. level 
have not yet reached the zone where the downward continua- 
tion of the ore-shoots opened at 550 ft. are to be expected. The 
formation is promising. 

In the United Eastern, blocking-out ore continues. Concrete 
foundations for the 200-ton mill will soon be completed, after 
which actual erection of the mill will be rushed. 

The Black Range is steadily driving in ore on the 300-ft. 
level. Gold content is spotted, above $30 for a few feet, and 
then dropping to very low-grade material. 

Although a number of companies that entered the Oatman 
district and commenced operations on a 'shoe-string' are in 
financial straits, and some of these operators are sending out 
pessimistic reports, optimism among those who entered the 
field prepared to withstand a long development siege is higher 
than ever. Mining activity, backed by ample funds, is greater 
than at any previous time. 

It is reported that the head of the Burro Creek Electric 
Company, George A. Thayer, was at Oatman during the last 
week, seeking to get contracts from the larger companies and 
mills in this district. Mr. Thayer visited the managements 
of the Tom Reed, Big Jim, Gold Road, United Eastern, Oat- 
man, Paramount, Arizona Tom Reed, Golconda, and Boundary 
Cone mines, and will visit some of the smaller properties as 
they get ready to use power. The company has received a 
permit from the Arizona Corporation Commission to sell 
power here. The Burro Creek company generates its power 
at Burro creek, about 65 miles away, and will build a line into 
Oatman, which is expected to be completed within the next 12 
or IS months. 

The present rate for current here is from $12.50 to $14 per 
hp., but the rate quoted by Mr. Thayer will reduce this to 
about $5 per hp.-month. This reduction of electric current will 
have a material effect in stimulating development in this 

There are 125 properties being worked in the Oatman dis- 
trict. In the Black Range mine, 5 miles south-east, 3 ft. of $29 
ore has been cut at 300 ft. depth. Another note on this prop- 
erty appears in the above column. 

•lulv B, 1916 




I hi newt of (hi- uwt us rold by our sprriul i-urr<*ponuYiit« and compiled from thr toriit preu. 


Tin- Alaskan minin g imlustiv will have I prosperous season 

in mc, according to ■ ttatement bj Alfred n. Brooks, or the 
i s Geological Burrey, eoTarlng Um operation! daring the 
tlrsl six months of the year Copper mining will probably 
ihon th.- greatest idvanoea. About 16 Alaska copper mines 
ere non thinning ore, end developments are being piiBhed on 
others. indicating the! they may become producers before the 
end of the year. The gold lode mines of Alaska will also make 
a larger production this year than last, but It Is not now ex- 
pected that the placer mining will show any marked Increase. 
The shipment of antimony from Alaska continues, and some 
tungsten ores have already been shipped from the Fairbanks 

J Al 

May yields of the mines on Douglas Island were as follows: 
Alaska Alaska Alaska 

Mexican Treadwell United 

Stamps dropping 120 540 300 

Ore crushed, tons 16,667 82,082 44.33S 

Gold from all sources $17. 228 $135,306 $S2,691 

yield per ton $1.02 $1.65 $1.80 

Operating expenses $24,347 $96,420 $70,643 

Construction charges .... $3,542 $17,255 $11,020 

Profit $20,278 $200 

Loss $10,833 

Other income $3,730 $11,200 $3,730 


Boone County 

The need of a custom mill at Harrison is felt considerably, 
as both carbonate and sulphide zinc ore are mined, which is 
dumped for future treatment. 



(Special Correspondence.) — Unwatering of the old Eureka 
mine is progressing satisfactorily. About 130 ft. of the north 
shaft has already been drained, and the timbers repaired for 
60 ft. The old timbers were found to be solid, and many of 
the sets would not have to be changed had it not been for the 
settling of the ground around the collar of the shaft, which 
caused the sets to move slightly out of place. A cooling-tower 
has recently been erected near the compressor-house for cool- 
ing and re-utilizing the water used in pipes as a water-jacket 
for the working parts of the large air-compressor. This con- 
trivance is something new for Mother Lode mines, as hereto- 
fore the mines in this part have wasted the water, except where 
it could be utilized as battery water. 

Sutter Creek, June 30. 


A large diamond was found in the Cherokee district last 
week by J. Hufford. 

Into County 

At a point 800 ft. from the portal of its Buena Vista adit, 
the Cerro Gordo Mines Co. has picked up the lower extension 
of its orebody. It is 25 by 30 ft., with 115 ft. of backs. Some 
of the zinc-lead ore is high grade. Zinc ore shipments to Al- 

tOOna, Kama,, aiv 10 tons dally. Lead on will I" 

soon. Copper ore lias I n opined In the Bine Jaj claim. All 

machinery Is motor driven. Recent Improvements cost $50. ooo. 
Oold-sllver-lead-copper slag from past smelting i 1869) ll belni 


shipped at the rate of 60 tons per day. About 25,000 tons of 
this material is available at low cost. An aerial tram delivers 
ore, etc., to Keeler, 5000 ft. below, and S miles by road. A 
mill to $250,000 is contemplated. J. C. Climo is superin- 
tendent, and Louis D. Gordon is general manager, in charge 
of 75 men. 

Nevada County 

For the purpose of hauling ore to the Golden Gate mill from 
the Narrow Gauge railroad, a 900-ft. tramway is soon to be 
constructed. It is said that the Pacific Western Commercial 
Co. is to treat tungsten and other ore from its mines in other 
districts at this 30-ton mill. 

As 30 miners employed at the Spenceville copper mine were 
not paid for several months they have gone on strike. 

Plumas County 

The Engels Copper Co., near Taylorsville, is paying an 
initial dividend of ljc. per share, equal to $22,000, on July 20. 
Monthly distributions are to follow. Net earnings for the past 
6 months were $275,000. Of this, $137,000 was set aside for 

San Bernardino County 

(Special Correspondence.) — On the California side of the 
Colorado river, around Vidal, there is growing activity. The 
Bendigo Mines Co. of Los Angeles, which has shipped 450 tons 
of gold-copper-silver ore netting $45 per ton during the last 
few months, is preparing another lot. Several individual 
operators near-by are also preparing shipments of ore. which 
as a rule go to the Hayden smelter in Arizona. One notable 
find of high-grade silver-lead ore has been made in the dis- 
trict during the past week, while on another property an 8-ft. 
vein of copper-silver-gold ore has been opened, yielding ship- 
ping ore at several places on the surface. 

On the Parker side of the Colorado river in Arizona mining 
activity is increasing, and so much ore is being shipped that 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

several interests are considering building a custom smelter on 
the Colorado river near Parker, where it may be reached by 
mine operators on both sides of the river. 
Vidai. June 28. 

Shasta County 

Regarding the electrolytic plant to be erected by the Mam- 
moth Copper Co. at Kennett, the general manager, G. W. Met- 
calfe, states that the plant will cost $350,000. There is 25,000 
tons of bag-house dust to treat, and more is being caught each 
Jay the blast-furnaces run. One thousand horse-power will lie 
required. The chief element of cost is electric power. The 
company will build the plant on Backbone creek, a mile above 
the smelter. The process was developed at Winthrop by the 
Bully Hill Copper Co., which has spent S years experimenting. 
The Mammoth Copper Co.'s chemists spent four months last 
winter and spring at Bully Hill elaborating the process, which 
is something almost entirely new. Twenty-three per cent of 
the bag-house dust is zinc. It contains also gold, silver, and 
copper, as well as cadmium, bismuth, and antimony. The 
plant when at work will give employment to 50 or 60 men. 

On Boulder creek, four miles west of Gibson, chrome and 
molybdenite deposits are being mined, 30 and 10 men, respec- 
tively, being employed. A car of chrome ore is to be shipped 
twice a week. 

At French Gulch. 30 stamps are crushing 100 tons daily at 
the Gladstone mine. Ore is extracted from below 1000 ft. 


Boulder County 

Work is being rushed on the new 100-ton Degge-Clark tung- 
sten mill in Boulder canyon. It is hoped to have the plant 
ready by July 15. Crushers and rolls are part of the equip- 
ment. Mr. Degge has been purchasing ore right along. He 
says: "I have absolute confidence in tungsten, and am con- 
vinced that there will soon be a steady market at $30 to $50. I 
expect to be a constant buyer at the market price, and as in- 
dependent producers It is to our interest to keep the price up, 
and we shall do all in our power to do so." 

When leases on the Primos company's properties expire on 
Tuly 1 they will be permitted to be renewed. Two hundred 
lessees will be benefited, t'nder the present Primos schedule, 
lessees are paid $12 per unit for ore containing up to 44%, and 
50c. additional for each additional 1% of tungstic acid up to 

Chaffee County 

A copper-bearing sandstone, in the Badger Creek district, a 
few miles east of Salida, is attracting much attention. The 
formation has been seen for years, but never prospected. The 
Badger Creek Copper Syndicate (J. Hamilton, D. H. Craig, 
S. V. V. Zabriskie, and others), have shipped a carload of ore. 

Gilpin County 

The Pittsburg mine in lower Russell gulch continues to be 
the largest producer of high-grade ore in the county. The vein 
shows persistence with depth. The Iron City mill recently- 
treated 4 cords (36 tons) of ore for 16 tons of concentrate con- 
taining 1.62 oz. gold and 4.38 oz. silver. Two shipments of 
ore assayed 4.07 and 7.57 oz. gold. S and 10 oz. silver, and 7.35 
and 7.59% copper. 

In Leavenworth gulch the Bezant mine has a good streak of 
pitchblende (radium ore) on the 160-ft. level. It is expected 
soon to cut the uranium belt. Some copper-iron ore, contain- 
ing 10 oz. gold per ton, also occubb on this level. 


Blaine County 

The Federal Mining & Smelting Co., which recently acquired 
the North Star-Triumph mines, near Hailey, has begun the 
erection of a 300-ton daily capacity concentrator at the prop- 

erty, according to Frederick Burbidge of Wallace, general man- 
ager for the Federal company. The plant will be equipped 
with a flotation annex and electric separator, and is being 
designed and fitted especially for treatment of the North 
Star-Triumph ores. 

l.i Mill County 

i Special Correspondence.)— Development by hand has been 
discontinued at the Goldstone mine at Baker, and machine- 
drills are working in the lower workings, where it is expected 
that the upper ore-shoots will be cut. In the meantime the 
mill is being re-modeled. H. F. Riebling is manager. 

Baker, June 23. 

Owyhee County 

The well-known De Lamar mine near Silver City has been 
sold to J. B. Duncan, W. R. Heim, and others. The manager, 
E. V. Orford. has formally turned over the property to the new 
owners. The property will be worked under a leasing system. 

Shoshone County (Coeur d'Alene) 

The sale of the Independent mine, near Kellogg, to P. Gearon 
and others for $300,000, is considered one of the most impor- 
tant for some time. Machinery for 600-ft. depth has been or- 
dered. A wide lode shows on the surface. 

Thirty-six tons of ore. assaying 2S5 oz. of silver, and 9% 
lead, recently returned $3001 net to the Big Creek Leasing 
Co. of Kellogg. Prospects for more rich ore are good. 

Large reserves have been developed in the Federal company's 
Morning mine at Mullan. and the daily output is to be increased 
from 1000 to 1500 tons. 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company, at Kellogg, which 
has a lease on the Alhambra mine, is erecting a mill of 25-ton 
capacity. The mine has been opened by three adits. 

At the National copper mine there are 60 men employed. 
The mill is worked five days per week. Ore on the 1200-ft. 
level is of better grade than on the upper levels. 

For the sum of $111,200 the Nipsic Mining Co. has sold its 
property to the Interstate-Callahan company. The claims are 
north of the new owner's mine. 

The Constitution Mining & Milling Co., of which Judge 
George Turner, former United States senator from Washington, 
is president, has decided to build a mill on its property, the 
Constitution group, near Kellogg. The plant will be of 100 
tons' daily capacity, and will cost between $30,000 and $35,000. 
The Constitution ore is complex lead-silver-zinc, and for the 
last three months the management has been making tests to 
determine the best concentrator that would be required to 
treat the ore. A mill-site has already been selected 1000 ft. 
from the main workings, at a point where adequate water can 
be secured from Pine creek and a small tributary stream. 

Pine Creek notes are as follows: 

In the lower adit of the Douglas mine of the Anaconda 
company the ore-shoot is 3 ft. wide and 850 ft. long. The adit 
170 ft. above is also in good ore. Average metal-contents are 
2S% zinc, 12% lead, and S oz. silver per ton. A hoist and com- 
pressor are to be installed for shaft-sinking. 

The Highland-Surprise mill is crushing 40 tons daily, and 
is being doubled in capacity. There are 50 men employed. 

Regular shipments of zinc ore are being dispatched from 
the Constitution. 

The Star Antimony mine has yielded 25 to 30 tons of 55% 
antimony ore during the past few weeks. The mine is de- 
veloping well. The Star ore is hand-jigged, there being three 
machines, two running steadily. Water for the jigs is sup- 
plied by pumping it from the creek 700 ft. below, through a 
2-in. pipe. The hill is steep and the ore is delivered at the 
wagon-road on a go-devil. It is the plan of the company when 
No. 3 adit is extended under the present workings to make a 
raise to No. 2, when all the ore will be taken out through No. 
3. A gravity tramway will then be constructed that will de- 
liver the ore from that level to the wagon-road, and this will 

.lulv 8, I91fl 



meet the r«tjulr«mrn(ii until a fourth mitt opens the i 

at the lowest practical depth Fourteen ma en employed, 

workltiK throe shifts 

Other praiHTlle* on the I'rwk report snconraglng reeulta. 
lie Star mine a pout-office niiil store have heon opened, 

A 300-ton flotation itnm \ will be worklnt; within 60 days nt 
the Interstate t'allal. at. mill. It will treat concentrate tad 
re-treat .iic.iiin.l.ited tailing. Mill feed averages U 
and ' : lead. A »arj favorable ore contract has been made 
with sine). 

The Vienna 'IntiTiiiiilomil Mining Oo.1l lead mine on Placer 
.reek. 8 mllaa from Wallace, oloaed since 1910. Ib to be re- 
opened by y. c. italley and others of Spokane. K. Mack Is 

Tin- Com .. Couirai 

The Calumet & Hecla and subsidiaries are paying employees 
an additional bonus of 25c. per day. Under certain condi- 
tions the Court has denied restraint of sale of the Tamarack, 

as asked by ('.. M. Hyains. 


.U-i'kr County tJon.iN) 

The ore market last week was peculiar. Choice products were 
just as firm as In the previous week; intermediate grades were 
weaker and brought $2 to $3 per ton less; inferior grades were 
stronger and brought $5 more than the previous week. The 
decline In spelter to 11.75c. helped bear the ore-market, which 
under ordinary conditions would have been strengthened 
through the fact that production was considerably curtailed 
by heavy rains, according to the News Herald. Calamine found 
a ready market at $52.50, for 'jag' lots, up to $55 for carload 
lots at Joplin, and $65 for carload lots at Granby, basis of 40% 
metallic zinc. Lead ore was $3.50 weaker per ton, selling for 
$77.50. The Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma output was 6040 tons 
of blende, 194 tons of calamine, and 1037 tons of lead, averag- 
ing $7S, $53, and $76 per ton, respectively. The total value 
was $564,495. 

The output for the first half of the present and past years 
is as follows, according to the Globe: 

1916 1915 

Blende, pounds 349,724,764 226,472,350 

Blende, value $16,842,369 $9,221,951 

Calamine, pounds 1S.745.720 21,973,102 

Calamine, value $698,408 $462,469 

Lead, pounds 54,119,082 40,420,100 

Lead, value $2,422,349 $1,025,982 

Total value $19,963,126 $10,710,502 


Lincoln County 

According to E. G. Mellander of Libby, a San Francisco firm 
is to construct a dredging plant at a cost of $410,000. Gravel 
is 22 ft. deep to bed-rock. A steam-shovel will load the gravel 
to a car, which is lifted and discharged to a 4 by 28-ft. revolv- 
ing screen. The fine material passes through sluice-boxes, and 
the boulders go to the dump. 

Silverbow County (Butte) 
According to The Anode, published by the Anaconda com- 
pany, conditions at the Washoe smelter are steadily improving. 
With the completion of improvements under way, copper con- 
ditions will be considerably exceeded in the near future. Two 
steam, oil-burning locomotives have been added to the local 
tramming and weighing department equipment. The men 
who are to handle these engines have taken the examination, 
and as soon as the large storage-tanks are completed the supply 
of fuel-oil will be ready and the new engines assigned to serv- 
ice on the hot-metal run. The addition of this power will 
greatly increase the efficiency of the local tramming depart- 

ment ri.e ..,■« changi bou ■ undei conat ruction aaai the 

oil .flotation plant. Is nearlni; completion It will be I modal ol 

convenience, Ore-proof In every particular, equipped with uteoi 
bowla and shower-baths The building 
is of brick, concrete, and steel construction. The light 
brick used— the product or tailing from the oil notation plant 
nro Int. I In dark brown mortar with receding Joints. Klin 
hulidtiiL; an .irtistie appearance. The research laboratory, also 
under construction, will soon be completed. This str 
win be up-to-date In averj particular, and will embody man] 
m-\s features in laborab was a marked ds 

crease in Incapacitating accidents during the month of May. 
This may be attributed to the improved condition lii a Dumber 
of departments In Which heavy construction work and other 
alterations have been completed. When the Ham reaches 
normal working condition, the record already established foi 
a low accident rate, no doubt, will be lowered materially from 
the present report. 

At the 1600-ft. level of the Butte ft London two 20 by 66 n 
stations have been cut. Two 1250-ft. cross-cuts are now to be 
driven to cut 20 veins running east from Anaconda hill. 


Clark County (GooDSPRTNdS) 

In the Goodsprings zinc-lead district there are now over 40 
producers, averaging over 5000 tons per month, employing 
over 1000 men. The town is growing steadily. 
Esmeralda County (Goi.dfield) 

Daily shipments from the Jumbo Extension are 150 tons, 
averaging above $30 per ton. Over a week's dispatches assayed 
$42 per ton. Some lower grade dump ore has also been mar- 
keted. Development continues satisfactory. 

Humboldt County 

Plans are completed and work begins at once on the enlarge- 
ment of the Rochester Mines mill to 180 to 200 ton capacity. 
The announcement is made by L. A. Friedman, president and 
general manager. The additional equipment is made necessary 
by the increased ore reserves in the mine at Rochester. 

A new mill, to cost in the neighborhood of $100,000. is being 
planned for the near future by M. Byllesby ft Co. of Chicago, 
purchasers of the Ragged Top tungsten claims, heretofore 
known as the Beeson property. They will receive custom ores. 
Headquarter offices are at Lovelock. During the 60 days the 
new owners have been working the property they have ex- 
tracted and shipped 550 tons of ore. Thirty-five men are 
employed. The mill will be erected at Toulon on the Southern 
Pacific, an 11-mile haul. 

According to J. Q. Brown, manager of the Nevada Valleys 
Power Co., the increase in use of electricity in the Lovelock 
valley and mining districts is 400% greater than a year ago. 

A mill is probably to be erected by the Chicago-Nevada 
Tungsten Co. at Toulon on the Southern Pacific line, 20 miles 
south-west of Lovelock. The plant will be on the shore of 
Humboldt sink, the only available water-supply. 

At National, of which little is heard nowadays, the National 
mine is producing gold regularly. Development on the Indian 
Valley claim adjoining is satisfactory; so is that at the No. 2. 
On the south end of the Auto Hill property Maney brothers are 
opening antimonial-silver ore. Mines at Buckskin are giving 
good results, but treatment facilities are lacking. 

At a depth of 1660 ft. the main vein of the Seven Troughs 
Coalition has been cut in the Bird winze. The value across 
18 in. is $300 gold per ton. 

Lincoln County 
The Comet district, out from Pioche, is attracting attention 
on account of its gold, silver, lead, and tungsten deposits. Lack 
of easy transportation militates against rapid work. Auto- 
trucks are to be used. The Silver-Comet company has a mill 
at work in charge of E. D. Smiley. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

Nye County 

Tonopah mines produced 9093 tons of ore valued at $189,934, 
during the last week of June. The Tonopah Mining Co. pays 
15c. per share, or $150,000, on July 21, and the Jim Butler 10c, 
equal to $171,852. During May the Extension yielded 159.86S 
oz. of bullion from S055 tons of ore, with $56, SIS profit. 

An option has been secured on the Jefferson Gold & Silver 
Mining Co.'s Kanrohat property in Jefferson canyon, 7 miles 
northeast of Round Mountain, by C. S. Sprague. Considerable 
lb velopment is to be done. 


The output of New Mexico mines in 1915, as reported by the 
V. S. Geological Survey, had a value of more than $19,000,000. 
The detailed figures reported by Charles W. Henderson, of the 
Denver office of the Survey, give the production as $1,461,005 
in gold, 2,005,531 oz. of silver, 76,788,366 lb. of copper, 4,542,361 
lb. lead, and 25,404,064 lb. of zinc (in terms of spelter and zinc 
in zinc oxide). These figures show an increase of $289,309 in 
gold, 228,086 oz. of silver, 17,480,411 lb. of copper, 2,778,720 lb. 
of lead, and 7,000,672 lb. of zinc. The value of the metals, ex- 
cept silver, was higher than in 1914, the total being $19,279,368, 
against $11,049,932 In 1914, an increase of $S,229,436. 

During the first half of 1916 gold and silver increased 
slightly, and considerably in copper, lead, and zinc. 

Grant County 

The old Carlisle gold-silver-copper-lead-zinc mine, 13 miles 
from Duncan, in the Steeplerock district, is to be re-opened 
after 27 years' idleness. New York capital controls the prop- 
erty, which is said to contain 500,000 tons of ore blocked out. 
H. K. Welch is manager. 

Socokro County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Socorro company's clean-up 
for the last half of May yielded 25 bars of gold-silver bullion 
weighing over one ton. A 1% dividend was paid June 1. the 
third of like amount disbursed since January 1. First half of 
June yielded 23 tons of bullion and rich concentrate. 

Preparations are under way by the Ernestine company for 
sinking the main shaft another 100 ft. or more. A hoist from 
the Maud S. mine has been moved to this plant as an auxiliary 
in the underground work. The mill is treating 125 tons of ore 

At the Pacific mine the main shaft has been square-setted 
from surface to adit-level, and ore extraction will begin at an 
early date. Terminal towers for an aerial tramway to the 
Socorro company's mill are in place, and ore-bins at each end 
of the line will be erected as soon as lumber can be secured. 

The Oaks company's work at the Eberle mine is at present 
confined to two headings, both of which are yielding ore that 
is being sent to custom mill. At the Clifton mine, adjoining 
the Eberle, developments were recently started and after 
driving 5 ft. a 15-in. shoot was encountered which has indica- 
tions of opening into a large orebody. Shipments to the 
Socorro company's mill were begun June 13. 

A cross-cut adit at the Iron Bar has just been completed, 
encountering contact 400 ft. from the portal. The vein is 7 
to S ft. wide and pans well on the foot-wall. Driving on the 
vein will be started at an early date. 

The Socorro Power & Lumber Co. has a saw-mill on Mineral 
creek, and has been delivering lumber to the divide above 
Mogollon by a board flume several miles long. A Canadian 
capitalist and a representative of the Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
have just visited the property and made definite arrangements 
to utilize the waste water in generating power. A pipe-line 
will be extended from the end of the flume down to Mineral 
creek, and will have a head of over 1000 ft. and develop 250 
hp. for which there is a ready market. It is expected to have 
the plant in operation by the end of the year. 

Mogollon. June 20. 


Lane County 
The Champion Consolidated Mining Co., with a capital of 
3,000,000 shares at 10c each, has been organized by Olaus Jeld- 
ness of Spokane and associates to take over and operate three 
groups of claims in the Bohemia district, near Champion, 35 
miles from Cottage Grove on the Southern Pacific, at a reported 
price of $500,000. Mr. Jeldness is president, J. S. Lewis, vice- 
president and treasurer, C. V. Bobb, managing director, and 
H. C. Mahon of Portland, Oregon, secretary. The claims were 
located in 1858. The gold output totals $2,200,000. Consid- 
erable development has been done. The 30-stamp mill is to be 
enlarged by 20 more. Flotation will be used for some refrac- 
tory ore. An 800-hp. hydro-electric plant is available. About 
60,000,000 ft. of Oregon fir is growing. 


Brewster Countt 

(Special Correspondence.) — Preparations are proceeding for 
re-opening the Big Bend and other cinnabar mines in the 
Terlingua district, 90 miles south of Austin, and adjacent to 
the Rio Grande, despite the unsettled condition of the border 
region. The Colquitt-Tigner quicksilver mine in that district, 
which was operated for a time several years ago, has been 
placed in working order and is again producing considerable 
quantities of cinnabar. The property is equipped with, a 40-ton 
furnace. Marlow Wells is in charge. Terlingua is now well 
protected by detachments of soldiers, and the Mexican em- 
ployees do not seem to be at all disturbed by the war excite- 
ment that pervades along the border. 

John Harvey, an experienced mining man who recently came 
to the upper border country of Texas, has discovered an ancient 
abandoned silver-lead mine, three miles west of the well-known 
Shafter silver mine, in Presidio county. The antigua promises 
to be a rich producer. A large body of ore that assays 45% in 
lead, with enough silver and gold to pay for milling, has been 
found by exploration. Mr. Harvey is preparing to develop the 
property on a large scale. 

Austin, June 26. 

During the recent raids of Mexican bandits upon Texan 
towns the names Tramway and Terminal have been mentioned 
several times. According to the monthly publication of the 

M F X I C 


Leschen & Sons Rope Co. these places are where an aerial 
tram crosses the Rio Grande from Mexico to the United States, 
as shown in the accompanying sketch. Glen Springs was one 
of the towns raided. The tram was erected in 1910 for the 
purpose of shipping zinc ore from the Puerto Rico mine to 
American smelters. There are three divisions in the system. 
The first consists of a short line from mine to wagon-road, a 
good difference in elevation. This tram and the road are 5 
miles long. The gravity-line across the river is 31.500 ft. long, 
starting 2} miles from the border. The track ropes are 1-in. 
diam. on the loaded side, and 3-in. on the empty side. Ninety 
buckets of 600-lb. capacity each travel at 300 ft. per minute. 
The ore then goes by road to the railroad at Marathon. Karl 
Halter is mine superintendent. In case of war with Mexico 

.Inly ft, I9ia 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

lhl« tram OOUld In- n — .- . 1 tfl b) t In* United 

u run 

,lr mi CODirn 
' ■■( the ambarte of the melton the tron Blawon 

Pintle has 600 tons of on tied up In cars at Silver 
-The Eagle £ Hot Ball .an only send BO tons dully to 
the smelter Steady work continues tt the Gemini and Bul- 
lion 1: 

Bal i I. iki Ooi mi 

Work la to commence during July on a 2500-ton leaching 
plunt tor the 1'tiih Copper ("o. The capacity will gradually 
be increased Alioul 10,000,000 tons of K'c ore Is available for 
Mil B \ Wall has transferred his three quarter In- 
terest In the Kangaroo claim at Bingham to the company in 
consideration of $30,000. The ground will be used for dump- 
ing purposes. It was originally the basis of a big damage suit, 
and the transfer settles the litigation between Wall and Utah 
Copper that has been waged for years. The company's mills 
are now treating over 30,000 tons of ore dally, with a copper 
yield at the rate of 17.000,000 lb. per month. 

Development In the South Hecla. In the Little Cottonwood, 
continues good. Shipments last week were 300 tons averaging 
$:'.'• to $30 per ton. 

I 'riving of the 4000-ft. 7 by 9-ft. drainage and transportation 
adit by the Wasatch Mines Co. In Little Cottonwood has been 
started. Two 480-cu. ft. I.-R. compressors will supply air. Ex- 
ploration of a large area will be facilitated by this work. 

On June 20 the Utah Copper Co. loaded 41,800 tons of ore 
at the mine at Bingham, a record. The daily tonnage treated 
in June is approximately 34,000. It is said that plans are to be 
prepared to increase the mills to 50,000 tons per day. 

Summit Count* 

The Big Four Exploration Co. at Park City has over 100 men 
on additions to its tailing plant, which is being enlarged to 
750 tons per day. A steam-shovel has been ordered to facilitate 
handling the tailing. 

Sub-lessees at the American Flag mine are extracting $40.91 
gold-silver ore from the 500 and 700-ft. levels. Some ore con- 
tains up to 40.5% lead. The Park City Mines Co. is the lessee. 


For the first 6 months of 1916 the mines of Washington 
promised increased production in the five important metals 
for the year. The industry generally seems to be in better 
condition than for several years past. 

Ferry County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Republic Consolidated Mines 
Corporation is employing 40 men in the Lone Pine mine, ship- 
ping 200 tons of good ore per week. The company proposes to 
extend a drive into the Pearl ground on the Pearl-Surprise 

vein. The Knob Hill mine is yielding 100 tons of ore per 

week, with five machine-drills and 20 men. A new compressor 
has been installed in place of the old one, recently damaged by 

fire. The San Poil mine is employing 22 men on the first 

and second levels, and dropping the ore to the adit-level for 
exit to the shipping bins. The company is planning to sink 
the main shaft deeper. Work has been temporarily sus- 
pended in the adit on the Copper Butte mine, Orient district, 
because of trouble with the compressor. The Laurier Min- 
ing Co., Orient district, proposes driving an adit for lower 
working and cheaper ore extraction. The mine is producing 
and shipping a good grade of copper ore. 

It is reported that the miners of Republic will strike for $4 
per day, in place of $3.50, as now paid. On June 22 the Repub- 
lic Mine Operators' Association was organized, with S. H. Rich- 
ardson as chairman and D. M. Drumheller as secretary. There 
are between 110 and 125 men employed. 

Republic, June 24. 

lion nl thfir 

QroRuc W. Pool leal N' « York. 

T. vv. Qat 1 1 n i! is a< the Empire hotel, Ban [Tram 

iv l! i.w,i\a\ la here from Kiy. Nevada. 

II. ('. PSBKUIB and Hinmn jEMIIHOa are :il Ti euclwell. 
Bdwih Bl. Chasi and Bon have gone Cram Denver t» Butte 

for two weeks. 

William Uotbi avn 1 1 has returned to Colorado Springs from 
Pachuca. Mexico. 

Robert A. Ki\/ik has gone to Juneau and will be in that 
region for about six weeks. 

linw L. Aiiin passed through San Francisco on his way 
from Salt Lake City to Blsbee. 

Samuel Fischer has been appointed assistant foreman at 
the Great Falls smelter of the Anaconda company. 

Gkokge E. Farish, of New York, has moved his western 
office from Denver to the Nevada Bank Bdg., San Francisco. 

V.viiim-s, McNiiTT & HUOHES, petroleum and mining geolo- 
gists, have moved their Oklahoma office to the Mayo building, 
at Tulsa. 

Victor C. Ai.derso.v, formerly president of the Colorado 
School of Mines at Golden, was recently in the Wlnnemucca 
district, Nevada. 

E. W. Bullard, safety engineer of San Francisco, is spend- 
ing two months studying the manufacture and use of safety 
equipment in the Eastern mining districts. 

Malcolm Maci.aren is now returning to London by way of 
Siberia, having completed his geological investigations in 
Korea. He is due in London about the middle of July. 

N. C. Whitten, foreman in the oil-flotation plant at Great 
Falls, Montana, has resigned his position to go to Peru, where 
he will be connected with the Cerro de Pasco Copper Com- 

Carl J. Trauebman has resigned the position of mill-super- 
intendent to the August Mining Co., at Landusky, Montana, 
and is inspecting the Beaver Creek mines at Zortman, in 

Bernard MacDonald has moved his office from Los Angeles 
to the Mills building, El Paso. With the Alvarado Mining & 
Milling Co. he is designing an increase in capacity of its 
mill at Parral, Mexico. 

Thomas Wolfson, vice-president of the United Metals Sell- 
ing Co., and president of the Raritan Copper Works, Perth 
Amboy, New Jersey, was recently on a brief visit to Great 
Falls, Montana, for the first time in 27 years. 

L. L. Wittich, for several years correspondent of the Press 
and several other well-known journals for the Joplin district, 
Missouri, and mining editor of the News Herald at that centre, 
died on June 26 at the age of 34, leaving a wife and two 
children. Mr. Wittich was one of the best informed of writers 
on matters pertaining to the zinc region of south-west Missouri. 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers of New 
York with its 32 sections and 54 branches throughout the 
country, has a membership of 8212. This is a net increase of 
15S during the year ended April 30, 1916. The revenue was 
$111,199, and expenditure $109,999. The surplus is $614,013. 
John J. Carty is president. The Institute has its quarters 
with other engineering societies in the United Engineering 
building, New York, and with them is aiding the Government 
in its national preparedness scheme. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 


BaD Francisco. July 5. 

Antimony, cents per pound 15 

Electrolytic copper, cents per pound 29 

Pig lead, cents per pound 7.25 — 8.25 

Platinum: soft metal, per ounce $75 

Platinum: hard metal. 10% Iridium, per ounce $79 

(Quicksilver: per flask of 75 lb $80 

Spelter, cents per pounil 15 

Tin, cents per pound 43 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 30 


San Francisco. July 5. 

Antimony: 50% product, per unit (1% or 20 lb. I 11.00 

Chrome: 40% and over, f.o.b. cars California, per ton. 12. 00 — 14,00 
Manganese: 50% product, f.o.b. cars California, ton. 12. 00 — 20.00 

Magnesite: crude, per ton 7.00 — 10.00 

Molybdenum: 50% and over, per pound 0.60 — 1.15 

Tungsten: 60% WO,, per unit 25.00— 35. 0(1 

New York, June 28. 
Antimony: The nominal quotation is $2 per unit, but there is 
little doing. It is reported that ocean-freight arrangements 
are more difficult to make, and that South American ore is not 
easily obtainable. 

Tungsten: Inquiry is a little more brisk, and several small 
ileals have been put through at $30 to $32 per unit, spot de- 
livery. More business probably could be done were it to- 
ners of the concentrate are holding for $35 to $40. It is 
expected that the market will be more active In July, when 
tie- makers of tool-steel and ferro-tungsten will seek their 
id-half requirements. 


(By wire from New York.) 
July .".. — Copper is dull and unchanged: lead Is steady but 
quiet; spelter is neglecte.l. 

Owing to a mistake, some of the June 24 prices were given for 
those of the Issue of July 1: the averages for the latter have 

1 m corrected. 


Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 


28 66.25 May 

29 65.87 

30 65.00 June 

1 65.00 

2 Sunday 

3 65.00 

I Holiday July 

5 63.87 

Monthly averages 
1915. 1916. 
48.85 56.76 

Average week ending 

23 71.14 

31 70.81 

6 66.35 

13 64.58 

20 63.62 



Jan 57.58 

Feb 57.53 

Mch 58.01 

Apr 58.52 

May 58.21 

June 56.43 




July 54.90 

Aug 54.35 

Sept 53.75 

Oct 51.12 

Nov 49.12 

Dec 49.27 


Advice from London states that China and Indian sales are 
the cause of weakness In silver, but from a statistical point of 
view the future is favorable. 

A shipment of silver from San Francisco to china on June 
28 was worth $832,000, say 352,000 ounces. 

Prices in New Y'ork, 


Jan 37.85 

Feb 39.76 

Mch 38.10 

Apr 36.10 

May 33.29 

June 30.72 


In cents per pound. 
Monthly averages 
















July 31.60 

Auk 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 

34. 37 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 

open market, according to quantity. Prices, in dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds: 

Week ending 

Date. I June 20 68.00 

June 6 72.50 " 27 B5.00 

13 68.00 I July .", 80.00 

Monthly averages 

Jan 39.25 

Feb 39.00 

Mch 39.00 

Apr 38.90 

May 39.00 

June 38.60 




1915. 1916. 



Julv . 

. . .37.50 

95.00 „ .... 
93.75 * 



Aug. . 

. ..80.00 



Sept. . . 

. . .76.25 




Oct. . . 

. ..53.00 




Nov. . 

. ..55.00 




Dec. . . 

.. .53.10 


N't'w fdria will pay $1 per share on June 30. 

Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 





. .20.75 








r es 

age wet 

k end 



. .28.00 




1915. 1916. 
13.60 24.30 
14.38 26.62 
14.80 26.65 
16.64 2S.02 
18.71 29.02 
19.75 27.17 

. .26.54 






. .14.46 


. .14.11 


. .14.19 

, ,13.97 
. .13.60 

Anaconda has declared a dividend of $2 per share; North 
Butte. 75c: and Mohawk, $10. 

From January 1, 1915, to March 31. 1916. Braden sold 46,822.116 
lb. of copper at 19.356c. per lb. The net balance after paying 
for operation and interest, etc., was $2,249,977. 
Lead is quoted In cents per pound, New York delivery. 
Date. Average week ending 
6.80 May 23 











June 6. 

" 13. 

■' 20. 

" 27. 

Julv 5. 


Monthly averages 




. 4.11 

. 1.02 

Mch 3.94 

Apr 3.86 

May 3.90 

June 3.90 

5.7 5 




July 3.80 

Aug 3.86 

Sept 3.82 

Oct 3.60 

Nov 3.68 

Dec 3.80 


On July 3 the Bunker Hill & Sullivan paid two dividends Of 
$81,750 each. The total to date is $17,754,000. 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard "Western brands, New York 
delivery, in cents per pound. 


June 28 11.75 

" 29 11.62 

" 30 11.50 

July 1 11.25 

2 Sunday 

3 11.25 

4 Holiday 

5 11.50 

Monthly averages 

1915. 1916. 

6.30 18.21 

9.05 19.99 

8.40 18.40 

9.7S 18.62 

17.03 16.01 

22.20 12 BE 

Average week ending 

May 23 15.27 

" 31 11.52 

June 6 13.20 

" 13 13.64 

" 20 13.12 

" 27 12.12 

Julv 5 1 1.40 


Jan 5.14 

Feb 5.22 

Mch 5.12 

Apr 4.98 

May 4.91 

June 4.S4 


Julv 4.75 

Aug. 4.75 

Sept 5.16 

Oct 4.75 

Nov 5.01 

Dec 5.40 


Zinc ore at Joplin, Missouri, averaged $78.12 per ton for 10 
product during June. The range was from $60 to $90. 

The reduction of 8c. per lb. on three of the New Jersey Zinc 
Co.'s brands, mentioned here last week, referred to oxide prod- 
ucts. On July 10 the company pays 10%. and on August 10, 
1% dividends. Including these, the disbursements this year 
total $52 per share, equal to $18,200,000. 

,lul\ 8, 1916 



Eastern Metal Market 

New York. J. 18, 

Copper eonUnrnt dull, with aacond-handa making what mar 
ket there la. 

Zinc has continued to decline, and the trade Is wondering 
whin (he present trend will Ik' checked 

Lead had a better tone based on moderate export baring 
last week, but It has turned easier again. The present level 
of prices is dependent on renewed foreign baying. 

Tin Is lower, with the supply unusually large. Hanca tin 
offerings ut roiuvssl,ni« have bel|>ed to upset the market. 

Antimony shows no Improvement, and its price Is lower. 

Aluminum Is weaker by la, following u lighter demand. 

With the urgent war buying past, nnd new buying for the 
belligerents conducted on a conservative basis, there are 
many reasons for considering that extremely abnormal war 
prices have gone for good. The question now is. at what point 
above normal levels will prices settle? In the metals, as in 
many other commodities, It is beginning to be realized that 
prices which are far In excess of values tend to strangle busi- 
ness. In steel-construction work, for Instance, many ventures 
of an Investment nature are being indefinitely postponed be- 
cause between 2.50 and 3.50c. per lb. is asked for structural 
shapes. All building materials are proportionately high. 

Export buying of steel and pig Iron is a supporting phase of 
the situation, while the prospect of large Government pur- 
chases of steel is another. The strike of iron miners in the 
Lake Superior district is growing in proportions, and may 
have a serious affect on the ore market. There are also fears 
that the transportation facilities may be Inadequate to carry 
the season's output. 


The market continues very dull and weak, with scarcely 
enough drift to show the exact level at which any considerable 
business might be done. Such prices as are quoted are those 
established by the offerings of second-hands. Electrolytic can 
be had today without difficulty at 26.50c. cash, New York. The 
purely nominal price of Lake is 27.25c. cash, but it is so neg- 
lected that one price is about as good as another. That the 
producers are not looking for business at reduced prices is 
evidenced by the fact that most of them are holding to 29.50 
to 29.75c. for August, whereas second-hands would be glad to 
sell at 2G.50 to 27c. The brass mills are shading their quota- 
tions for brass rods, indicating that they are catching-up on 
deliveries. Brass sheets are still difficult to procure inside of 
six or eight weeks. Copper sheets are easier to get than they 
were a few weeks ago, the price being 37.50c, and some of the 
mills are looking for future business. Of course, all have 
enough to keep them busily employed for many weeks to come. 
The foreign demand for finished brass and copper products is 
fair, but not to be compared with that of even a few weeks 
ago. The London quotation for electrolytic yesterday was 
£130. Exports, June 1 to 27, totaled 29,256 tons. In the first 
four months of this year the exports of brass products, such 
as bars, plates, etc., totaled 29.591 tons, against 11,281 tons in 
the same period of last year. The National Brass & Copper 
Tube Co., commenting on the market, in its house organ, 
Copper Gossip, says: 

"Business in copper is on a much more moderate scale than 
a few weeks ago. and apathy regarding the situation, on the 
basis of current quotations, gives evidence of the change in 
tons. The diminishing rate of activity is not surprising, how- 
ever, after the aggressive buying earlier in the year when con- 
sidered in connection with the hesitation over the outlook. 
The enthusiasm that accompanied the remarkable buying 
movements of a few months ago has evaporated. There is 

mora conservatism In all quarters. the Impression in In 
tlnential circles Ik that the price advani u overdone, 

and that a moN normal market Is m > Imparl COB 



The trend of prices continue! downward, buslaeea ih almost 
at a standstill, and authorities In the trade are frankly (lis 
appointed, A tew weeks ago they thought the turn had come. 
when there was a little business during which prices advanced 
about }c. Then quiet came again, and it has lasted without a 
break. The New York quotation yesterday was about 11.76c. 
for spot zinc, with St. Louis around 11.50c, but it Is reported 
that at least one sale of a round lot was made at 11.871c 81 
Louis. July can be had at about lie, New York, and August 
at 10.50c Students of the market do not believe that the bot- 
tom has yet been reached. They hold that the trade should be 
satisfied if the market steadied at or near the existing levels, 
provided buying became active. It is notable that the pre- 
mium for brass-mill special has about disappeared and that it 
can be had at very near the quotation for prime Western. If 
the decline can he checked, good buying by the sheet galvan- 
izers probably will ensue. Exports keep up fairly well, those 
of the month, including June 27, amounting to 4078 tons; but 
they are not sufficient to absorb enough of our output at the 
present time. In Great Britain, consumption is being cut 
down by the shortage of labor, while another influence detri- 
mental to our producers is the sale abroad of Japanese spelter. 
The output of Japan is reported to have been considerably in- 
creased, and that of France also. Despite the disposition of 
the British government to assist smelting in England it is 
hampered by the difficulty of getting ore from Australia. In 
France, large quantities of prime Western, purchased in the 
United States, has been re-refined for brass purposes. The 
London quotation for spot yesterday was £65. 

Sheet zinc is quoted at 18c, f.o.b. smelter, carload lots. 

The crux of the lead situation lies in the export demand. If 
it is good, quotations here probably will be maintained, but if 
it becomes light, prices almost to a certainty will decline. 
About the middle of last week several thousand tons were 
taken by foreign buyers and the market stiffened a little, 
rising from 6.G2c, New York, to 6.85c, but after the activity 
tapered off the market weakened again, and yesterday inde- 
pendents were eager for business at 6.80c, New York, and 
6.65c, St. Louis. The A. S. & R. Co., meanwhile adheres to 
7c. New York, and 6.92Jc, St. Louis. The London spot quota- 
tion yesterday was £29 15s. Existing demand runs chiefly to 
desilvered lead, said to be superior for some munition's pur- 


The market is weak and unsettled, partly because of the 
offerings of Banca tin at concessions of * to lc from the price 
for Straits, and because of the large arrivals. From June 1 to 
27 these aggregated 5420 tons, with 2237 tons afloat. June de- 
liveries into consumption promise to be large. There has been 
some quiet buying of futures by consumers, but not a great 
deal, and no real activity is expected until the market becomes 
steady. Spot Straits was quoted at New York yesterday at 
39 cents. 


Conditions are but little changed, and the market continues 
dull and listless. Lots of 5 to 10 tons can be had at 17.50c, 
with about 18c asked for smaller quantities. Competition is 
so keen that the situation is in the buyers' hands. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8, 1916 

Scrap Metals Recovered in 1915 

The value of the copper, lead, zinc, tin, aluminum, and an- 
timony recovered in the United States from scrap metals, 
skimmings, and drosses in 1915 was $114,304,930, against 
$57,039,706 in 1914, a 100% increase. The incentive of high 


(Copyright, International Film Service, Incorporated.) 

prices caused all metal wastes to be more carefully saved, 
segregated, and refined. The output of secondary metals was 
as follows: copper, including brass and alloys, 196,000 tons; 
lead, 79,000 tons; zinc, 92,575 tons; tin, 12,447 tons; antimony, 
3102 tons; and aluminum, S500 tons, all large increases over 
the recovery in 1914. 

Manganese in 1915 

Production of manganese ore in the United States in 1915 
was 9651 long tons, the largest since 1901, and more than three 
times the production in 1914, which was 2635 tons. This out- 
put was made by 34 operators in 10 States, of which the four 
most important, in order of output, were Georgia, California, 
Virginia, and Arkansas, according to figures compiled by the 
U. S. Geological Survey. In addition, Alabama, Arizona, Colo- 
rado, Tennessee, Texas, and Utah produced small amounts of 
ore. Imports of manganese ore in 1915 were 313, 9S5 tons, 
compared with 283,294 tons in 1914. Of the ore imported in 
1915, 268,786 tons, or 85% of the total, came from Brazil- 
more than twice the quantity received from Brazil in any 
preceding year. Imports from India were 36,450 tons, or about 
one-fourth the average of the preceding 10 years. No ore was 
received from Russia. 

The production of manganiferous iron and silver ores in 
1915 was 798,404 tons, almost twice the output in 1914. Most 
of this ore was used in making high-manganese pig-iron, but a 
large quantity was used as a flux by lead smelters; 66,530 tons 
contained more than 15% manganese and a large part of this 
was used to make low-grade ferro-manganese. 

The priee% offered for manganese ore adapted to the manu- 
facture of ferro-manganese rose during 1915 to the highest 
figures that have been recorded for 30 years. In August, East- 
ern alloy makers offered $22.50 per ton for 50% ore, compared 
with $12.50 per ton, the average price for the preceding five 
years. In March, 1916, it was reported that $32.50 per ton 
was paid for such ore. This great rise in prices was due 
largely to the advance in ocean freights caused by the short- 
age of vessels in which to move imported ore. There is good 
reason for expecting a further increase in domestic produc- 
tion during 1916 as a result of the high prices offered, but it 
is doubtful whether more than 10% of the domestic demand 
can be met by domestic production. 

The shortage of high-grade manganese di-oxide ores caused 
by cessation of exports from Russia has become a serious 
menace to the dry battery and flint-glass industries. Prices 
as high as $85 per ton are freely offered, but as only a few de- 
posits in the United States can supply ore of this grade, little 
domestic ore has come to the market. There is record of a 
marketed production of 550 tons from mines in Arizona, Cali- 
fornia, Colorado, Utah, and Virginia during 1915, whereas the 
annual demand ranges from 20,000 to 25,000 tons. Ore of this 
grade was imported from Japan and Cuba during 1915. 

Gold and Silver Production in the United States 

The Bureau of the Mint and the Geological Survey have 
issued the following joint statement as to the final figures on 
the production of gold and silver in the United States during 
the calendar year 1915: 

Fine Oz. 

Alabama 247 

Alaska 808,346 

Arizona 220,392 

California 1,090,731 

Colorado 1,089,928 

Georgia 1,684 

Idaho 56.62S 




Montana 240,825 

Nevada 574,874 

New Mexico 70,632 

North Carolina . . . 8,258 

Oregon 90,321 

Philippine Islands. 63,898 

Porto Rico 34 

South Carolina.... 174 

South Dakota 358,145 

Tennessee 329 

Texas 87 

Utah 189,045 


Virginia 24 

Washington 22,330 

Wyoming 672 


Fine Oz. 




































































Total 4,887,604 $101,035,700 74,961,075 $37,397,300 

At the average price of silver per fine ounce for the calendar 

year 1915, $0.49889. 
These figures compare with the production of 1914 — $94,531,- 

800 in gold and 72,455,100 fine ounces of silver. 

.lulv 8, 1916 

MINING and S.rntih. I'KI SS 



18 one of tbe lumen! > onsolldaUoni on the Hand, In 
"i a. J. Brett, with W. J. Pitehford and T. Bimpaon as 
Joint num. i. 
During IMS there eras employed 1761 white ami 16,298 
i men, a irood Increase, whose wages totaled £489,466 
and (469,612. respectively. Development In the mine* amount- 
ed to 18,800 ft., ol which 16,680 (t. was in 'reef Formation. 
The Mam Reel Lender tor 11.580 ft. averaged 19 In. In width, 
assaying 181.60 per ton; while the South Bent for 14,030 ft. 
: in., worth $10.30 per ton. Reserves total 9.938,000 tons 
of |6JS ore. There wan mined 8316,481 tons, of which 10.7% 
The pumps have a capacity of 880,000 gal. per 

The 660 stamps and :'6 tube-mills reduced 2.497,000 tons, 
yielding 768,061 tine or., gold by amalgamation and cynnida- 
tlon. The actual recovery was 96.791 of the gold-content. 
Operating revenue was £8,187,968, and profit 81,170.161. 
ure 18.88 per ton. Dividends paid amounted to £611,- 
069. The balance from 1914 was £1.146.552. and that carried 
forward to 1916, £1,099,196. 


In its Angelo. Angelo Deep, Cason. Comet, Iniefontein, and 
Hercules mines last year this great concern did 52,475 ft. of 
development. In the 40.438 ft. sampled the average width 
in., averaging $10.40 per ton. Reserves totaled 4,800,- 
000 tons, also 9.SOO.000 tons of $2.20 ore. Development in the 
Angelo and Comet was almost completed, restricting future 
work to the other mines. Unpayable zones have been en- 
countered, but these are expected to improve later. The water 
pressure on No. 2S level is 210 lb. per sq. in., a decrease of 
195 lb. The quantity pumped was 919.000,000 gal. Sand- 
filling put into the mine was 320,000 tons. 

From the 2.127.026 tons extracted 9.4% was discarded. The 
sun stamps and 25 tube-mills crushed 1.983,600 tons of $6.41 
ore. The cyanide-plant treated 1,962.816 tons of $3.01 ma- 
terial, with SN.S7' ; extraction. Total recovery was 94.78%. 

The revenue was £2.495,086 (£1.397,S53 by amalgamation). 
Costs were $4.58 per ton, and operating profit was £636,277. 
Dividends paid were £275,163. The balance brought forward 
from 1914 was £161.313, and that carried on to 1916, £193,354. 

In charge of the superintending engineer, \V. T. Anderson, 
and the manager. E. C. J. Meyer, were 1727 whites and 17.19S 


The 35-page report of this company, which operates in 
Chosen (Korea) is for the period July 1 to December 31, 1915. 
All monetary values are given in Japanese currency, namely 
tbe yen, equal to 50 cents United States. The general manager 
Is James J. Martin, with J. S. Bradford as general mine super- 
intendent, and R. B. Elder as metallurgist. In the president's 
report (J. R. Geary) is a summary of results as follows: 

Development amounted to 4222 ft., a decrease of 3040 ft. 
through a lack of explosives due to the War. Ore reserves are 
estimated at 100,887 tons in the 4 mines, averaging ¥14.44 per 
ton, and 5290 tons of ¥19.88 in bins. Prospecting of the con- 
cession was carried on by tributers, who sent 2907 tons worth 
¥44,811 to the mill. There were from 1403 to 2194 men em- 
ployed in this outside work. The property was surveyed to 
comply with the new mining law. There will be 16,000,000 
tsubo of quartz and 6,000,000 tsubo of placer claims (1 tsubo = 



of an acre). 

tons of VI". 61 ore In tin- '. months, I leldlng I total Ol Vf>61,676. 

I to- rw ..[ N I r. r too for milling, 

and 90 8 len 1 1 908 I lor oysnldlng, 

The net profli * .■! which * •". wus dimrit d, 

equal i" vi per -hare tor the bah 

■ a ti dredge is t <> be -hipped from America by July. 

It will be electrically driven, and early In 1911 should 
ho at work. 


According to the manager of this Ontario company. C. II 

Polrler, development during 1916 covered 17U9 ft., also r. u t it 

of diamond-drilling, a vertical two-compartmenl winze was 

sunk L'.'o ft. below the 300-ft. level. Reserves show a good In- 

■ ■. almost double, to 90,000 tons broken and developed. 


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Car Scales I 

Crustier I""" 

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Consiom Co »„ j,**— j— I 

'eeetioM p« 

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frt*n>er /L/rjp 

ickenerl Tnple* 

recvjio*<>toi n ;y,' 

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< ■, i ■'Gold Solution 


' I Automatic i. 

Tailings to tVasle 

The Yangdei reduction and cyanide plants treated 31,561 


The mill capacity was increased from 3000 to 4000 tons per 
month by adding a 6-ft. Hardinge ball-mill, in place of a 4J-ft 
machine. The plant treated 35,899 tons, averaging $7.51 per 
ton. There was extracted 11,979 oz. gold and 1455 oz. silver, 
with 92.1% recovery. All costs amounted to $5.47 per ton, a 
reduction of 97 cents. The net profit was $196,919. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 8. 1916 


English and American Tool Builders. By Joseph Wick- 
ham Roe. P. 315. Index. Yale University Press, New Haven, 
Conn. For sale by Mining and Scientific Press, San Fran- 
cisco. Price, $3. 

This is a historical work, dealing especially with the careers 
of the great builders of tools. It is a presentation of the 
human side of the evolution of machine-tool design and con- 
struction, and cannot fail to interest members of the engineer- 
ing profession who can appreciate the human as well as the 
materialistic side of their work. The European War has 
created an immense demand for machine-tools of every de- 

Cartridge Manufacture. By Douglas T. Hamilton. P. 167. 
Index. The Industrial Press, New York. For sale by Mining 
and Scientific Press, San Francisco. Price, $1.50. 

Shrapnel Shei.i. Mam i actfbe. By Douglas T. Hamilton. 
P. 296. Index. The Industrial Press, New York. For sale by 
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco. Price, $2.50. 

The War has brought about what might be termed an in- 
dustrial upheaval in the United States. The demands made 
upon the American manufacturer by the belligerents in Europe 
for munitions of all kinds in quantities beyond precedent have 
practically created in the United States a new industry over 
night. The manufacture of cartridges and other munitions is 
a highly specialized industry, calling for the use of special 
tools and jigs not ordinarily applicable to other lines of manu- 
facture. The publication of Mr. Hamilton's works is especially 
appropriate since the American government seems fairly com- 
mitted at this time toward a policy of preparedness. The 
engineering-society work in the preparation of an industrial 
census should make every manufacturer of iron and steel 
products in the United States interested in learning how he 
may adapt his own equipment to munition-manufacturing in 
case of emergency. These works are up to the minute and 
go thoroughly into detail in regard to all of the requirements 
incident to the manufacture of cartridges and shrapnel and 
should find a place in the reference library of every machine 
shop operator. 

Modern Starting. Lighting, and Ignition Systems. By 
Victor W. Page. P. 509. 111., index. Norman W. Henley 
Publishing Co., New York. For sale by Mining and Scientific 
Press, San Francisco. Price, $1.25. 

The strides that have been made in the development of the 
mechanical details of motor cars have been so phenomenal 
that it Is difficult even now to say whether or no the last word 
has been said on the subject of starting, lighting, and igni- 
tion. Nevertheless, the opinion is general that these phases 
of automobile design have been fairly well standardized. It 
is a far cry from the simple coil and battery ignition that 
was one of the chief causes of perplexity for the pioneer 
motorist of a few years ago, to the nearly lOOcj-reliable light- 
ing, ignition, and starting units in use almost universally on 
the motor car of today, regardless of price. The automobile 
has proved to be a great educator to the layman, insofar as 
the operation of the motor, transmission, and differential are 
concerned, but the electric features still remain to a greater 
or less extent, a sealed book to the average motorist. Here, 
then, is an opportunity for those" interested to understand the 
why and the wherefore of the electrical section of the automo- 
bile power-plant, an opportunity that should be taken ad- 
vantage of by every motorist. The book is well written, in 
such a way as to be readily understandable by the average 
man. It is replete with illustrations that will facilitate a 
ready understanding of the text. 

Quarry Lease — Abandonment 

A 99-yearV lease of a granite quarry required an annual 
rental, not to exceed $25 when the quarry was worked, and 
a nominal rental of $1 per year when the quarry was not 
worked. The lessees failed to work it for 14 years, and then 
after a dispute with the lessor persisted in their refusal to 
work it for an additional three years. Held, this inaction on 
the part of the lessees constituted an anbandonment of the 
lease entitling the lessor to cancel it in a suit to quiet title. 
Ellis o. Swan (Rhode Island), 96 Atlantic, 840. March 
22, 1916. 

Placer Locations of Phosphate Rock 

The act of January 11, 1915, authorizing the completion 
under the placer mining laws of placer locations of lands con- 
taining deposits of phosphate rock, applies only to placer 
locations upon which the assessment work has been annually 
performed: and the Land Department is without authority to 
extend the remedial provisions of that act to locations upon 
which annual assessment work has not been performed. 

San Francisco Chemical Co. (Land Department), 44 Land 
Decisions, 356. August 26, 1915. 

Extra-lateral Rights Below Junction of Veins 

The Supreme Court of Montana on re-hearing, modified its 
previous decision in the Anaconda Copper v. Pilot-Butte case- 
by awarding to the plaintiff an extension of the temporary in- 
junction theretofore granted, so as to include the portion of 
an extra-lateral right below the junction of a discovery and 
a secondary vein, which was properly tributary to the second- 
ary vein. Previous decisions that as against a hostile claim- 
ant who owns no part of either apex, the boundary planes of 
the senior vein will control the right below the point of junc- 
tion were affirmed. 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. v. Pilot-Butte Mining Co. 
(Montana), 156 Pacific 409. March 29, 1916. 

Boundaries — Monuments — Extra-lateral Rights 

The general rule that monuments mentioned in a descrip- 
tion of land prevail over courses and distances written in a 
conveyance thereof does not permit of the curtailment of the 
1500 ft. of vein and 20.45 acres of a lode claim plainly called 
for in the patent, to a vein length of 1364.5 ft. and proportion- 
ately smaller area bounded by some stakes found 19 years 
after the patent was issued and not mentioned or described 
therein, there being no conflict between the courses and dis- 
tances and the monuments named in the patent, and the posts 
in dispute being described solely in the field notes of the sur- 
vey. The amendment of 1904 to Section 2327 Revised Statutes 
held not applicable to land patented prior to that date. Where 
a locator seeks protection of the provision of law giving him 
an extra-lateral right within side-end lines where he has by 
mistake located his claim across instead of along his vein, he 
must establish by a preponderance of evidence that the vein 
in question was actually the discovered vein and the location 
made in error. He will not be allowed after a lapse of 25 
years after patent to claim an extra-lateral right through his 
end-lines on the basis of the newly discovered fact that there 
was a cross-vein apexing some 400 ft. away from the original 
discovery cut and that no length-wise veins exist. 

Conkling Mining Co. v. Silver King Coalition Mining Co. 
(Utah), 230 Federal, 553. February 12, 1916. 




Volume I 1 3 Niuiilm I 

Edited hi 

JULY 15, 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 

*mj m 




7t It&v 


50I MAR.KXT St. 1 

San Francisco.Cal* 

Two points to remember 
in selecting mill equipment 

First: An Oliver Continuous Filter does better work 
for less money than any other filter made. 

Second: An Oliver Filter can and is doing work that 
has never before been done on a filter. 

These two points mean that, ten chances to one, an 
opportunity exists in your work for the application 
of an Oliver that will result in many a dollar saved. 

Whether you mine gold or silver, copper, lead or zinc, 
there is an Oliver to fit the need and an experienced 
engineer ready to show you how. 

Oliver Filters have replaced other filters or dewatering 
systems in 80 mills. There's a reason. It lies in auto- 
matic, continuous, efficient operation and the sturdy, 
simple construction. 

The Oliver will show a saving in your mill. Want 
to know how? Write us, giving details of your case. 

No royalties to pay on ANY work of an Oliver 

mirouu si wi 


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Uau«d Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 15, 1916 

13 per YMr — 10 Cents p«-r Copf 




Tin Unn »s Fno u 7ti 

Facta that must he faced by those responsible for the 
ruinous conditions iii Mexico. The limbo of Indeci- 
sion railed 'wnlchful waiting.' 

I'm Mir & Hm i .\ 77 

The senil centenary of this copper-mining company 
Is the occasion of some authoritative notes on the 
discovery of the famous conglomerate lode by Edwin 
J. Hullnrt. as related by the Kdltor. 

Kim: Ciiimhm,: Stamps ami Bai i -M 1 1 i ~ 

By W. E. Cahill 

The stamp-mill gives a finished product in one op- 
eration, and In making a comparison, of stamps with 
rolls and tuhe-mills. it Is well to consider the cost of 
the finished product. 

Sunday Work at the Mink. 

By Henry S. Reed, Jr 

Seconding the appeal of F. C. Brown, in our issue of 
June 17, for a six-day working week at Western 
mines. The necessity for substituting wholesome 
amusement for the Sunday debauch. 


Sirkhtal Indications of Copper — IV. 

By Frank H. Probert 81 

Considerations affecting the deposition of copper ore 
at Rio Tinto, Spain; also in Arizona and Montana. 
An attempt to leach the oxidation product from sul- 
phide ore at Morenci, Arizona. 

Conditions in Mexico. 

By Our Oicn Correspondent 

The miserable financial conditions in Mexico, the 
scientific grafting of various factions, and the in- 
capacity of the Carranza government. 


1 u~. ki PANCIS8 in ll vmdu'IOX. 

By Edmund Shaw 92 

•s of differences between theoretical and actual 
extraction by the cyanide process. Theft Is suspected 
more often than is warranted. Errors In Bampling 
and assaying. 

Tin: California Qaboline Industry. 

By W. R. Hamilton 95 

That the shortage of gasoline will extend Into 1917 
is predicted, but "the future has generally cared for 
itself." The economic features affecting the price of 

Silver 97 

Predictions by London authorities indicate that the 
price of silver will continue high. Heavy demands 
are likely for coinage in China, Egypt, India and 


Concentrates 98 

Review of Mining 99 

Special correspondence from Butte, Montana; Platte- 
ville, Wisconsin; Toronto, Ontario; Sutter Creek, 

The Mining Summary 102 

Personal 106 

The Metal Market 107 

Eastern Metal Market 108 

Company Reports 109 

Mijnbouw Maatschappij Redjang-Lebong ; Mt. Lyell 
Mining & Railway Co.; Mclntyre Porcupine Mines. 

Book Reviews HO 

'Mechanical Engineer's Hand Book,' by Lionel S. 
Marks; 'Microscopical Determination of the Opaque 
Minerals,' by Joseph Murdoch; 'The Engineer in War,' 
by P. S. Bond. 
Mining Decisions 110 


Buyer's Guide 32 

Index to Advertisers 38 

Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Presa; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York. 1308-10 
TVoolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico. $3; Canada, $4; other countries in postal union, 
21s. or $5 per annum. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 




Your work will be Easier, 

Your efficiency Higher, 

Your costs Lower, 

if you use 


Placer Equipment 


Gold, Tin and Platinum 

JBas fc 

~» ■ "HE 

July 15, 1916 




Union Dredge No. 18, operating on Mastodon Creek, 
near Circle City, Alaska. This 3*-ft. dredge has made 
an enviable record of 1900 cubic yards per day under 
adverse conditions. 

We invite your correspondence. 
Ask for Catalogues. 



604 Mission Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 


Prospect your dredging ground with 
Union Drills. Made in two types. 
Above is shown the steel-frame type 
in operation. Union Drills are simple, 
easy to operate, low in cost, and can 
be transported over any ground. If 
necessary they can be knocked down 
and carried mule-back. Bulletin 15. 


Eight Neill Jigs on one dredge have 
paid for themselves in 60 days, mak- 
ing a commercial success of jigging a 
product running 2ft cents per ton. 
The Neill Jig has double the screen 
area of other jigs requiring the same 
floor space. All parts are easy of access. 


July 15, 1'Mi; 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


T. A. RICKARD. Editor 

t 'ARRANZA'S credit ia measured by the sale of an 
^-* ice-cream oone for $-' in Bat ourrenoy al the bridge 
.spiiiiniiiir the Rio Grande between Kl Paao and Juarez. 

npilK index for volume 112, January to June 1916, ia 
-*■ 1 1 1 > w ready, and may be obtained by writing to this 
office. The uumber 11- indicatee that this paper Ikis 
i its ."ititli birthday. 

EMittM consular reports and other sources of informs- 
- 1 - tion. it appears that the amount of American capital 
invested in Mexico makes a grand total of $1.2:">, nou, 

nut nt' which (225, .in" 1 is invested in mines, $26,- 

500,000 in snirlti-rs. and •* IT"). 000.000 in the oil business. 

44TNVESTING American lives to recover American 
■*• money" is what the Evening Scream calls interven- 
tion. But the Brerbrigade risks life to save property and 
so does the policeman who attacks an armed burglar. 
Ifoal of us think it honorable to protect our property 
and our rights. 

OlN'i'K 1890 the pun-hasing power of a dollar has de- 
k -' creased ■'•'', . but the purchasing power of labor has 
nut decreased in the same proportion. The rise in wages 
is tin- economic recognition of the higher cost of living, 
due not only to the enhanced price of necessaries but 
also to the expanding consumption of luxuries. 

TJJ7IIAT will happen to the Mexican employees of the 
*™ copper companies in the South-West in the event 
of war is a question rightly asked at this time. The 
population of the CJnited States includes 120,000 Mexican 
men of adult age, of whom 10$ only are naturalized. 
The opinion of the mine managers is that there is little 
probability of their Mexican employees returning to the 
country of their origin in order to take up arms against 
us. because they were never so well paid as they are now 
and the political tangle has diminished any natural 
patriotic impulse. 

"FEELINGS engendered by the horrors of the War 
■*- have caused many thoughtful men to break from 
their mental moorings. We note with regret that Mr. 
Francis W. Hirst has had to resign the editorship of The 
Economist, in many respects the most trustworthy and 
influential financial paper in the world. He has used his 
position to express his personal convictions in regard to 
the great struggle and its baleful consequences to such an 
extent as to impair his efficiency in the more prosaic work 
of a commentator on commercial affairs. He was a fearless 

and able editor, of a kind rare anywhere. To mining 
matters be gave much useful and incisive criticism. We 
hope he may tind scope lor his unusual ability ami high 

character in some other post of duty. 

f OW costs ol' producing copper are being Spoiled by 

*-* the hurry to take advantage of the abnormally favor- 
able market. During the 16 months to April 1, 1916, 
the cost at Braden averaged 9.67 cents per pound, as 

against the estimate, made in January L915, of til cents. 
However, the profit per ton is the main item in mining. 
not the cost. 

TVlSCIKSloN this week starts with a thoughtful de- 
■■-' fence of the stamp-mill by Mr. \V. 10. t'ahill, who 
writes from a locality where I lie stamp -mill is being 
used on an enormous scale. This letter may he read 
in conjunction with the editorial article on 'Rolls and 
Ball-Mills v. Stamps' appearing in our issue of October 
16, 1915. Mr. Henry 8. Reed writes feelingly on the 
subject of Sunday labor and voices the views, we be- 
lieve, of many of our readers. We are always glad to 
give space to matters of human, as well as technical, in- 

/CALIFORNIA has a great variety of useful minerals, 
^-* but the value of them is not enhanced by such ignor- 
ant advertisement as is given in our local press. On 
the front page of a recent issue of the Morning Howl 
we find a lot of childish nonsense about a discovery of 
barytes, or barite, that is to yield "poisonous volcanic 
vapors" and "promises to become a menace to the 
Kaiser's armies fighting in Russia," And all because 
barite is a sulphate from which, it is stated, sulphuric 
acid is to be made. As a matter of fact the chief uses 
of the mineral are in the manufacture of paints, the 
coating of linoleums and oil-cloths, enameling iron and 
steel, besides adulterating sugar and making poker chips. 

COPPER smelting and refining is being considered as 
the subject of taxation, says our Washington cor- 
respondent. The proposed Tariff Commission is ex- 
pected to take the matter in hand, the impost suggested 
being 1% on annual receipts between $25,000 and 
$1,000,000; 2% up to $10,000,000; and 3% on $10,000,- 
000 or more. Under such taxation, a number of com- 
panies would pay $1 per share per annum and others 
from 50 to 80 cents per share, but this would be less 
than the daily fluctuation in the stock quotation and 
could hurt nobody. The Calumet & Hecla would pay 
$5.50 per share, when copper sold at 25 cents per pound, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 15, 1916 

bul even tliiit should not break the heart of a patriotic 

1V/HAT the zinc market owes to foreign trade is sug- 
"" gested by the statistics of export. During the first 
six months of the current year 1(18.500 tons of spelter 
was exported, as compared with 111,000 tuns during the 
•orrespondiug period of last year and only 1500 tons two 
years ago. What profits have accrued from the rise in 
spelter is indicated by the dividends paid by the New 
Jersey Zinc Company, which has distributed $52 per 
$100 share on its capital of $35,000,000 during the past 
8 months. One shareholder has received $1,675,128 and 
another $1,566,448 in dividends, while three others have 
each received over $900,000 (one might call it a million 
for short!) during the same period, and among them we 
are glad to Bee the name of Mr. J. P. Wetherell, to w bom 
the metallurgy of xi n<- is so largely indebted. 

ANACONDA makes a fine showing in the report for 
■^*- the twelve months to June 1. The net profit is $14,- 
363,881 after expending $8,715,881 on improvements. 
What these improvements are and how they have in- 
creased the efficiency of this splendid metallurgical 
establishment was made clear to our readers recently in 
the articles by Mr. L. S. Austin and in our own comment. 
Owing to the facl thai Anaconda does a large custom and 
refining business, it is not the company's habit to give 
information concerning the cost of operations. It has 
been estimated that the total cost is 10 cents per pound 
of copper. Mr. John I*. Ryan has been quoted assaying 
that he could make copper for 5 cents per pound for 5 
years if he cared to gut the mines, but his policy is ex- 
actly the opposite of that, namely, to operate the mines 
so that the enterprise will approach the character of an 
investment. It is probable that a cost of less than 9 
cents per pound of copper will be attained when all the 
improvements have come into effect. The company's 
mines at Butte have penetrated below 3000 feet in ver- 
tical depth without noteworthy impoverishment. 

T^ XPLORATION among old workings continues to be 
-*- J the main feature of mining at Leadville. The first 
enterprise of this kind, that of unwatering the Penrose 
shaft in the Down Town area, was completed in June, 
after 13 months of continuous pumping to a depth of 
874 feet. The search for ore can now proceed. The 
next scheme was to unwater the Harvard shaft in the 
Fryer Hill district. This is being done by the United 
States Smelting. Refining & Exploration Company, a 
subsidiary of the well-known corporation having a nearly 
similar name. Then the Empire Zinc Company began 
to drain the Wolftone shaft and its surrounding terri- 
tory. In our last issue our I>adville correspondent gave 
many details concerning the latest venture, that of 
draining and re-opening a large area through the Mikado 
shaft, which is 1206 feet deep. This venture promises to 
lie the most important. It is interesting to note that 
motor-driven centrifugal pumps are being used with 
great satisfaction. Sudden rushes of water and debris 

from old openings cause ' burn-outs' occasionally, but 
these have proved minor interruptions. The high price 
of lead and of zinc, and lately of silver, gave an impulse 
to the re-opening of these old properties, and even 
though, a* is confidently expected, extensive orebodies 
are uncovered, a further drop in prices will much dis- 
appoint those by whom capital has been subscribed for 
these plucky undertakings. Later in the current year 
we may expect to hear something about the first fruits 
of development in these abandoned portions of a famous 
mining district. The Valley adit, which penetrates Pros- 
pect mountain, another exploratory scheme, has disclosed 
iron-silvcr-manganese ore. and promises well. The 
Arkansas Valley smelter is crowded with ore. the West- 
ern zinc-oxide plant is being enlarged, and many promis- 
ing undertakings are in full swing, so that the future 
of Leadville seems brighter than for a decade. 

The Mexican Fizzle 

On another page we publish a long and interesting 

letter by the mining engineer who was our correspondent 
in the City of Mexico. He, like other Americans, had to 
flee the country when Messrs. Wilson and Carranza be- 
gan their exchange of explosive notes last month. We 
commend his description of the state of affairs prevail- 
ing in Mexico: it serves to indicate the ineptitude and 
corruption of the Carranza government. Mr. H. Lain' 
Wilson, formerly ambassador to Mexico, is a man for 
whose judgment we have no particular respect, as we 
believe that he contributed largely to the mistaken 
policy of Mr. Taft, when President, but we note with 
approval a recent remark reported to have been made 
by him: "We recognized a de facto government that 
has since become a de fun-cto government." And suffi- 
cient proof of it is to be found in the note from Wash- 
ington on June 20, in which the Secretary of State 
asserts that for three years "American lives have been 
sacrificed, American enterprises destroyed"; there has 
been committed "outrage after outrage, atrocity after 
atrocity;" and during "attacks on American territory 
Carranza soldiers took part in the killing, looting, and 
burning." Yet, during all this time, knowing all these 
things, the Administration at the head of our govern- 
ment has recognized that of Carranza and his followers. 
Finally, they were called to order, the civilian soldiery 
of the United States was called to arms, and a show of 
real resentment was made. Carranza replied by issuing 
insulting statements at his own capital, for domestic con- 
sumption, meanwhile postponing a formal reply to the 
peremptory demands from Washington. He released the 
Carrizal prisoners without disavowing the orders to 
General Trevino that caused that affair of outposts. Be- 
fore he replied to the note, the punitive expedition under 
General Pershing had been withdrawn nearly to the 
frontier, without having accomplished its object ; for 
Villa is again on the rampage, as impudent as ever. 
Carranza appears to have scored, for the American 
threat has rallied Mexican support to his side and di- 

.Inly 16, 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


I attention momentarily from the grim reality of 
famine; .Mr Wilson's eonaiatenl deain to preserve peace 
varied by a sharp note and a little prepared 
neither apparently meant to !><■ taken too seriously 
• s into Ji Sxxle. Don Venustiano i 

ranaa baa made g 1 hia blnff. We are where we wi 

in thai limbo of indecision called 'watchfnl waiting. 1 
i/' continues to epitomin the policy of the Admin- 
iatration. Again the relationa of the Qnited States and 
Mexico are in a state of flux; they drift on the logic of 
Brents, which is a current thai flows just as decisively in 
a definite direction as the meanderinga of the chief pro- 
tagoniata trend nowhere in particular. It is reported 
that the State Department will not hold itself responsible 
for the safety of any Americans remaining in Mexico, 
[s thai to hold good indefinitely 1 It' not, until when? 
Is the $1,250,000,000 of American capital to be jetti- 
aoned until such time as Senor Carranza and his 'con- 
stitutional 1 friends restore order? Apparently, that is 
the idea; no chance of friction with those amiable gen- 
tlemenl is to be risked by mentioning such little matters 
as the railways, oil-wells, and mines legally owned by 
Americans in Mexico. The United States has no moral 
right to interfere in a foreign country to defend its na- 
tionals resident there or the property they own there; 
so say the pacifists now dominant at Washington. The 
adventurer or concessionaire must take his chances; Ids 
country washes its hands of him. .So? Yet we hear that 
the Administration is in consultation with New York 
bankers with a view to furnishing financial aid, that is, 
lending money, to the bankrupt government of Carranza. 
Is the loan to be protected by the United States or is it 
to share the fate of the equally honorable capital already 
expended in Mexico by mine operators, for example? 
What is the distinction? Of course, if any large sum is 
loaned by the banks, it will be on good security and that 
security will be the backing of the Government of the 
United States, and, what is more, the assurance that the 
Administration will take measures to protect the bank- 
ers' mortgage on Mexico. Meanwhile, the border will be 
patroled by a large force, the boundary being 1300 miles 
long, with chances for complications continually pres- 
ent. Later, we shall have trouble with the European 
governments, when they have time to attend to this little 
affair, because they surely will not consent to the de- 
spoiling of their nationals, even if we are willing to see 
our own driven out of the country and dispossessed of 
their property. The problem will have to be faced ; no 
'watchful waiting' will solve it; it is a condition and not 
a theory that confronts us in Mexico, and no profes- 
sorial philosophy can wave aside the brutal fact. The 
Mexican tangle can be made smooth in two ways: either 
the Carranza party will restore order and constitutional 
government, or the United States government will in- 
tervene, by consent or by force, for that purpose. No 
promise of either is evident. In the note of June 22 
addressed to the representatives of the Central and 
South American republics, Mr. Lansing stated that even 
if hostilities ensued "this Government had for its object 

not intervention m Mexican affairs hut Hi. defence of 
American territory from farther invasion bj bands of 
armed Mexicans rims the Administration has 

pledged itself nol to intervene, In the sense of helping 
or enforcing the restoration of order In Mexico Hot 
ever, tins pledge is nol binding on the nexl Administra 

tion. and there lies the b.0] I ending this miserable 

farce. But whatever Mr. Wilson or Sefior Carransa may 
do, or not do, one thing is certain: the 'rough house' in 
Mexico cannol endure. < lur correspondent speaks of ti„. 
spiv:,, i of famine and of other factors that are bringing 
the COtUltry to utter misery iin.l ruin. If we had a 
humane reason forgoing into Cuba- and we had it we 

have many of them for going i MeXIOO. Bui apart 

from a condition that may be remedied, there is a greater 

force at work moulding the relations of the United States 
and .Mexico. When President lioosevelt acquired the 
Panama Canal zone he flung the strategic frontier of the 
United States 1600 miles southward To that latitude 

the United States will grow, not by annexation, let US 

hope, but by exercise of beneficent control. From the 
Great Lakes to the Panama Canal the United States is 
destined to exercise some sort of suzerainty. This fact 
must he faced by any man claiming to be a statesman, in 
Hie White House or at the National Palace. 

Calumet & Hecla 

On July 15 this great copper mining company cele- 
brates its semi-centenary, having begun operations in 
1866. The celebration arranged by the local manage- 
ment is meant to make the day memorable to the 5000 
employed on the mine. Mr. Rodolphe L. Agassiz, presi- 
dent of the company and the son of Alexander Agassiz, 
the naturalist, who was superintendent of the mine in 
1865, will share the honors with Mr. Timothy O'Shea, 
who has worked at the mine for 50 years and six months, 
having helped to dig the original pit excavated at the 
place of discovery. The actual discovery of the lode is to 
be credited to Edwin J. Hulbert, a local surveyor and a 
keen student of geology under such men as W. H. 
Stevens, Samuel W. Hill, and Charles Whittlesey. In 
1858 he was surveying a State road from Copper Harbor 
to Ontonagon when he noticed a violent deflection of the 
magnetic needle in Section 23 (T. 56, R. 33), near where 
Hecla No. 1 shaft was sunk subsequently. He found 
fragments of a brecciated conglomerate containing native 
copper, resembling 'float' that he had seen several years 
earlier on the banks of the Eagle river. At this time he 
uncovered, on Section 14, an 'ancient ' Indian pit, similar 
to others previously found on the Keweenaw peninsula. 
Upon examining the map he ascertained that the dis- 
covery was on Government land, whereupon, in Febru- 
ary 1860, he acquired a tract of 1920 acres, so located as 
to cover the ground he intended to explore for the lode, 
not yet disclosed. The Civil War, his own illness, and 
other hindrances prevented him from doing anything un- 
til 1864. We have the testimony of the late James D. 
Hague, who was then manager of the Albany & Boston 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1M6 

mine in the same district, that Hulbert was convinced, 
by the behavior of the magnetic needle, that a strong 
lode existed in this part of the country. He even showed 
his note-book to Hague, indicating the most likely lo- 
cality. A few months later the first exposure of the 
Calumet conglomerate was made, beneath a covering of 
soil and drift 8, feet thick, in a pit dug at a spot indi- 
cated by Hulbert himself. On September 17, 1864, his 
In-other John and Amos H. Scott, working under his 
direction, cut through the amygdaloid forming the hang- 
ing wall of the lode, into the copper-bearing conglomerate 
on Section 13. A barrel of the ore was sent to Boston on 
November 15, 1864. Earlier in the same year, by aid 
of the late Horatio Bigelow, he had formed the Hulbert 
Mining Company for purposes of exploration. In this 
company he held a quarter interest, 5000 shares. In De- 
cember the Calumet Mining Company, also with 20,000 
shares, was organized to acquire the land in Section 13, 
and in the same month the Hecla company was formed, 
with another 20,000 shares. In the spring of 1865 he 
went to Boston, where he arranged with the late Quincy 
A. Shaw for the loan of $16,800, wherewith to buy more 
land, which was deeded to the Calumet company. He 
received 5833 shares, making his holding 10,833 shares. 
Meanwhile the 'ancient' pit on Section 14 proved to be 
an Indian 'cache' or hiding-place, in which birch-bark 
baskets and a lot of oxidized copper was unearthed, but 
on sinking through the floor of this pit the lode itself 
was cut in February 1866. This was on ground belonging 
to the St. Mary's Mineral Land Company, and Hague 
endeavored to assist him in purchasing a large tract for 
$100 per acre, but his friends in Boston thought the evi- 
dence of mineral wealth too scanty, so the deal was not 
made and Hulbert made his arrangements with Bigelow 
and Shaw. Section 23, a square mile or 640 acres, which 
became the Hecla property, was bought early in 1866 
from the St. Mary 'a Mineral Land Company for $60,000. 
The rest of the property, as then acquired, cost about 
$100 per acre. Some of the first ore produced from the 
prospect-holes was milled at the Albany & Boston, where 
it yielded 14.5% 'mineral,' equivalent to 12% ingot 

It is fortunate that we have the testimony of such a 
scientific witness as James D. Hague on these historic 
events, besides the written record of the discoverer him- 
self. Therefore there is no question that to Edwin J. 
Hulbert belongs the credit for the discovery of the 
Calumet & Hecla, and also for the exploratory work that 
led to the event. It may be added that the present 
writer was able to discuss the subject with Mr. Hague 
12 years ago, and he also corresponded with Mr. Hulbert. 
at that time in retirement at Rome. In 1866, the shares 
of the Calumet company rose to $75, but before the profit- 
earning stage was reached there were many delays 
and much disappointment, causing financial embarrass- 
ment to Hulbert, among others. What with assessments 
and loans, about $1,200,000 was required before the mine 
was placed firmly on its feet and in the interval the 
original owners of the enterprise were put to a severe 

test. Hulbert lost a large part of his interest, becoming 
much embittered with Quincy Shaw and the Boston 
directors. In 1884, however, a settlement was made with 
him, whereby lie received $300,000 in Calumet & Hecla 
stock, whicfc was placed in trust, so that he lived com- 
fortably for the rest of his life. 

The Hecla paid its first dividend, of $5 per share, in 
December 1869 ; and the Calumet in August 1870. The 
two companies were consolidated in May 1871, absorb- 
ing the Portland and Scott companies at the same time. 
The Calumet & Hecla was then organized with a capital 
of $1,000,000 in 40,000 shares. At that date (1871) the 
dividends of the united mines had already amounted to 
$2,800,000. In 1874 the output was 230,000 tons yield- 
ing 4.28% copper at a cost of $7.40 per ton of ore. In 
1879 the capital stock was increased to $2,500,000 in 
100,000 shares of $25 each, this being the limit allowed 
by the laws of Michigan. By 1881 eleven shafts had 
been sunk and an estate of 1720 acres had been con- 
solidated. In 1883 the average width of stope was re- 
ported as 8 feet and the average yield 4.5% copper. 
The mine was then 3000 ft. deep on the dip, equivalent 
to 1950 feet vertical. In 1905 the charter of the com- 
pany was amended so as to allow it to acquire control of 
other mines and organize subsidiary companies, whereby 
it now controls the Ahmeek, Allouez, Centennial, Osceola, 
Superior, and a number of other properties in the cop- 
per region of Michigan. These are now helping to re- 
dress the exhaustion of the original mine. The deepest 
shaft, the Red Jacket, is bottomed at a vertical depth of 
4920 feet, cutting the lode at 3287 feet. As our readers 
know, the lode is cut on its dip in the adjoining Tam- 
arack mine, in which the ' C. & H. ' has a large interest. Up 
to date the company has paid $130,750,000 in dividends, 
or $1339 per share. The total production of copper is 
estimated at 1,342,500 tons. During the year 1915 the 
output of the Calumet & Hecla mine was 3,188,583 tons 
of ore yielding 71,030,518 pounds of copper, or 1.114%, 
at a cost of 9.33 cents per pound, as against an average 
price of 18.11 cents. The mine cost per ton of ore was 
$1.71. During last year the company paid $5,000,- 
000 in dividends, drawing $866,766 from its subsidiary 
companies. While the management was at one time 
both unprogressive and self-satisfied, it changed for the 
better about 15 years ago and is now highly respected. 
thanks measurably to Mr. James MacNaughton, the gen- 
eral manager, who was born at Calumet and has been in 
charge for nearly 20 years. Under its Boston control 
the mine has been worked as a source of copper and a 
legitimate investment, so that it escaped the stigma of 
chicanery that has marred the reputation of many other 
famous mines. To its proprietors, its employees, and the 
community around this big group of mines, the company 
lias been a fruitful enterprise. Calumet & Hecla may be 
regarded as the most successful mine on record. We 
join in congratulating the directors, the management, 
and the staff, and hope that under its policy of sagacious 
expansion it may long continue to make a large contri- 
bution to the copper supply of the world. 


MINING and Sirnlilu I'KI SS 


our nadtn anrimrittdn) uf ihfo dfporniwnl for th# diaciurfon ol technical and <>iiu-r mafunvpfr- 
mi n mi* in imimimii and nwfatturty. J lie Rdtfoi uwloomai (hi npratfion "I pI#m < <**> f r <*r >■ in tm own, !'»•- 
luxinii ifuii earvfal criUcisn Ei morv raluablf than cattial compliment. 

Fine Grinding: Stamps and Ball -Mills 

Tin- Editor: 

Sir In your issue nl" .May 18, Mr. Hanson's article 
contains tin 1 following statement: "At till' mill (if the 

Alaska Qold, at Juneau, a much nion- radical departure 
was nude from what was oonaidered standard practice 
in precious -metal ore-reduction. Here rolls and tube- 
inills. instcail of stamps, were installed and tliis within 

hearing distant f the roar of the falling stamps at 

Treadwell. • • • This departure from conventional 
practice has probably done more toward sounding the 
death-knell to any future stamp installation on a large 
scale than any previous attempt to break away from 
standard method. • • • That this method of reduction 
is more economical both as to initial and operating costs 
than stamps alone, or than stamps when working jointly 
with tube-mills and grinding to a like fineness, can no 
longer be questioned." 

It is well to ponder a moment. The stamps have 
served us so well that it is hardly fair to scrap them at 
one sweep. Granted that the initial cost of rolls and 
tubes is less than stamps, the stamp-mill has not been 
surpassed in economy to such an extent as to be un- 
worthy of further consideration. 

A point that is often overlooked is that the stamp-mill 
gives a finished product in one operation, whereas with 
rolls and tabes, etc., you will often hear of a certain ma- 
chine handling an enormous tonnage at a very low cost, if 
you look a little further you will find that a lot of other 
machines are used to complete the job. so that in terms of 
finished product the cost per ton is something different. 
To make a comparision it is wise to consider the cost of 
the finished product. 

Fortunately we have here, within the radius of a few 
miles, one mill, the Alaska Gold, using tubes and rolls; 
another, the experimental mill of the Alaska Juneau, 
using stamps as a primary crusher and finishing with 
Chilean mills ; and last, but not least, the old stamps at 

The actual cost, in operating, interest, and deprecia- 
tion, for the mills at Treadwell during the year 1915 are 
as follows: 

240 300 Ready 

Mill stamps stamps Mexican 700-ft. bullion 

Crushing $0,038 $0.03S $0,040 $0,037 $0,022 

Tramming 0.014 0.016 0.016 0.015 0.019 

Stamping 0.211 0.189 0.192 0.170 0.182 

Concentrating 0.066 0.059 0.058 0.052 0.070 

Total $0,329 $0,302 $0,306 $0,274 $0,293 

These data were kindly furnished by Mr. 8. B. C 

best, metallurgist for the Alaska Treadwell Company, 

The comparative cost, as near as can be obtained, at 
the Alaska Gold is '.i'i cents. That of the Alaska Juneau 
experimental mill, using stamps as a primary crusher, is 
;•_' cents per ton. 

Tin- Marey mill with "one easy step" is looked upon 
favorably as a solution of the problem. This type of mill 
is to be installed at the Alaska Juneau and the results 
will he watched with great interest. The plans for con- 
solidation and centralization at Treadwell include a new 
mill to replace the scattered units. What will it be! 

W. E. Caiiill. 
Treadwell, June 19. 

Sunday Work at the Mine 

The Editor : 

Sir — I hope that Mr. F. C. Brown in your June 17 
issue has started something, for this subject should pro- 
voke an interesting and instructive discussion. I am 
afraid, however, that the majority of men who turn to 
Trautwine or Rankin when in doubt will not so readily 
accept the authority quoted by Mr. Brown when it comes 
to mining and milling. 

You know, it is a generally accepted idea that any- 
thing can be proved by the Scriptures. Paul says: 
"Prove all things. Hold fast that which is good," and 
I believe this thing is susceptible of actual proof. I have 
always been an advocate of Sunday closing of the mine, 
though I have never found a board of directors willing 
to put it to the test. Like many other things in this 
life, it depends upon the point from which the view is 
taken. A great many mines do shut-down on Sunday, 
but it is usually because the mill can be kept running 
seven days by six days work underground. There are 
few who will not admit that a man is a better work- 
man for a weekly day off, except the poor unfortunate 
who comes back Monday morning chewing a dark-brown 
taste and feeling for his head at arm's length, and I 
respectfully submit that the one place in the world where 
a man of this class is not needed, be he mucker, miner, 
foreman, or superintendent, is underground, where the 
safety of all is so inter-dependent. 

"Whether the same be true of machinery or not, is 
another question, though many will state as a fact that 
it is. Certainly the mill that requires 52 days repair- 
work per annum is either poorly constructed or grossly 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15. 1916 

By far the majority of mining camps are isolated and 
their orebodies limited or uncertain, consequently there 
is little idea of permanency. Machinery merely to serve 
the purpose is installed: dwellings are cheap shacks put 
up without thought to sanitation or convenience, while 
culture of flower-gardens and trees would be the very last 
consideration; trails are used until road-building has be- 
eome an absolute necessity. All this has developed a 
class of men unsettled in habits and ideas — here today 
anil off tomorrow — packing a roll of blankets or at most 
a small cheap trunk. 

Among the real reasons, as I see them, for running the 
mine on Sunday are inadequate development, storage 
capacity, or transportation facilities to meet the de- 
mands of the reduction plant. Pumping or ventilation 
might be necessary and a watchman might be a dead 

I believe the mill should be kept running every minute 
possible for 365} days per year. Every hang-up, 
whether in amalgamation, eyanidation. or concentration 
means a loss not only of uncrushed ore but in the ad- 
justment of pulp and solutions. It is not necessary to 
speak of blowing-in a smelter-furnace every Monday 
morning. The regular mill-crew or a part of them could 
lay off Sunday, their places being taken by substitutes 
who act as a reserve and are preparing themse! 
become mill-men. getting their day on Saturday or Mon- 
day. But (and I emphasize the "but') if we turn a 
camp-full of 25. 50. or 100 men out on Sunday who have 
been accustomed to work on that day. we must substitute 
something else, for it is a true saying that an idle brain 
is the devil "s workshop. It makes no difference to the 
owner or manager how a man puts in his time; whether 
he goes to church or fishing, to a base-ball game or lolls 
about and engages in idle conversation, so long as he does 
not indulge in vicious practices that unfit him for his 
work ; for, after all. it is not his time that he is selling to 
his employer, but what he can accomplish during that 
time. And this is where true management comes in. 
There are manifold possibilities in the club, the base-ball 
team, the camp-band and dances, athletic contests, 
beautifying of cottage grounds, the up-building of the 
idea of "our camp," but the management must avoid 
paternalism, for tltis is the one thing above all else that 
the American will not tolerate. 

It requires taet and patience, but in time, by quiet 
elimination, a crew of men can be gathered who will 
gladly respond, and of whom any manager can be justly 
proud. I know one camp where before the end of the 
third day the new-comer would not think of coming to 
the dinner-table in his shirt-sleeves, and everything was 
quiet and orderly, even though the greater part of the 
men put their knives in their mouths. Needless to say. 
there were no flies in that dining-room, nor odors from 
the kitchen or swill-barrel. The superintendent had a 
tube built in the wall from his room to the dining-room 
down which he would occasionally send strains from his 
phonograph, and Saturday nights the tables and chairs 
were set back against the wall for a dance. I have not 

yet seen a neater tidier camp with a more substantial 
mill and other buildings away back in difficult country 
far from the railroad nor known a superintendent who 
obtained more hard willing work from his men. Very 
few men were discharged and there were no drones. 
They eliminated themselves. 

It might almost be said that each mine is in a class by 
itself, and that the rules applying to other camps and 
more especially to farming and manufacturing districts 
will not fit. 

The underlying and commanding principle is one of 
time. The owner lives in the city and demands returns 
on his investment as soon as possible, realizing that all 
mines eventually, from their very nature, must cease to 
produce. I am willing, however, to believe that if he is 
shown that the betterment of the condition of his men 
will produce better men and better and more work, con- 
sequently profit, he will be equally willing to give the 
manager a chance to prove or disprove any theory. But 
the manager must believe in it himself and make more 
than ordinary effort. The mine owner will tell us that 
all our big men. our successful men. were and are work- 
ers, putting in long hours and continuous days. True 
and well. They are so constituted and have an object 
and pleasure in their work, an aim for their effort. I 
was reading an article just a few days ago in which it 
was stated in effect that only about 10"^ of us are suc- 
cessful anyway. Of course, that calls for a definition, 
and I modestly offer that success is the attainment of an 
individual's ideals, and it is the part of civilization to 
the standard of ideals. 

So it resolves itself into a problem of sociology and not 
of religion, with perforce the dollar sign acting as a 

Henry S. Reed. Jr. 

Shawmut. Cal.. June 22. 

Arizona has a number of copper-mining companies, 
rivaling Michigan in that respect, and contrasting with 
the copper-mining industry in Montana. Utah. Nevada. 
Alaska, and New Mexico, where one or two large com- 
panies account for the bulk of the output. Of large 
mines Arizona has a full share. It is scarcely necessary 
to mention the Copper Queen and Calumet & Arizona at 
Bisbee, the Inspiration and Miami at Miami, the Ray 
Consolidated at Ray. the Old Dominion at Globe, the 
United Verde at Jerome, the Arizona Copper at Clifton, 
and the New Cornelia at Ajo. Among companies of 
more moderate size are the Shattuck-Arizona at Bisbe?. 
the Consolidated Arizona at Humboldt, the Arizona 
Commercial and Iron Cap at Globe, the Shannon at 
Metcalf. the Detroit Copper at Morenci. the Ray-Her- 
cules at Ray. the Magma at Superior, the United Verde 
Extension at Jerome, and several others less well known. 
The Shattuck-Arizona Copper Co., which produced 
11.154.211 lb. of copper in 1915. makes occasional ship- 
ments of lead ore. The Magma Copper Co. produced 
6.046.459 lb. of copper last year from 59.219 tons of ore. 
which is well over 100 lb. per ton. 




Surficial Indications of Copper IV 

By Frank 

IN rills article I *h"ll di g T o as somewhat from 1 1».- 
■equence of thoagfal followed in the throe preceding 
contribution! to the study of the forces, physical 
and chemical, thai determine the nature of the outcrop. 
In the discussion of the chemistry of the «>xi»lix<-«l sane, I 
explained briefly t U«- uature of the surface solutions and 
rmation of the several Lmportanl oxidised salts in 
the laboratory of the earth's crust. In the paragraphs 
thai follow I shall tirst describe 1 1»«- duplication of Na- 
i work in the l»-lt of leaching, as imitated by man 
in the treatment of tin- pyritia ores of Bio Tinto, and 
then compare the attractive gossan of the llui'lva depos- 
its with the insignificanl outcrops of the Butte vein- 
system, interpolating such aotes as are pertinent to the 
subject, gathered from other districts. I have visited 
and studied both the Spanish and .Montana mining dis- 
tricts, but acknowledge, and have abstracted from, the 
lucid descriptions of A. If. Finlayson'. and Reno SaleB*, 

For many years pyritic ores from the open-cuts at Rio 
Tinto were piled into heaps, fired, roasted sweet, and 
then washed with water. The copper sulphate liquor was 
passed through predpitating-tanks and sponge-copper 
obtained. This process was costly, the sulphur was 
burned off. all vegetation killed for miles around, and 
.•ndlcss trouble ensued. The 'natural cementation' 
process was developed from the chance ohservatiou of a 
colored liquor running from the base of an un roasted 
heap of ore. after a heavy summer rain. This contained 
copper. It was seen that roasting was unnecessary and 
that the time element could replace the effect of heat. 
This discovery led to systematic experimentation, the 
present method of treatment being devised about 25 
years ago. I shall not dilate on the relative advantages 
of this method and the old wasteful practice of heap- 

The ore from the pits is crushed in roek-breakers to 
'2J-inch ring, sized, and transported to the heaps. The 
ore. as laid down, contains about 2% copper, 52% sul- 
phur, and 4<5',* iron. The fine and coarse are mixed in 
varying proportions, according to the depth of the heap. 
At Rio Tinto. the ratio is 3 of fine to 7 of rough. When 
the heaps are too deep, the air will not circulate freely 
throughout the mass and the lower portions cannot be 
controlled. If not deep enough, aeration is too rapid, 
and the heap may take fire. Experience has shown that 
the most suitable depth is about 10 metres. The surface 
is covered with fine that serves as a filter for the wash- 
water. A simple irrigating system is arranged, the main 
canals feeding into furrows or shallow rectangular reser- 

'Economic Geology. Vol. 5, pp. 403-434. 
'^Trans. A. I. M. E„ Vol. 46. pp. 1555-1560. 

S. Probart 

TOirs BO that water can be distributed to any part of the 

heap, as required. 

The oxidation of pyrite is an exothermic reaction ; heat 
is liberated ami the mass will burn unless precautionary 
measures are taken to prevent it. Underground mine 
fires are not at all in miiion in pyritic masses, owing to 

the heat generated in oxidation. At Jerome, Arizona, a 
special force of men is maintained to keep the fire-zones 
under control. When last at the United Verde, I noticed 
a crystalline sublimate on the timbers and walls of the 
Openings near I he tire-areas, which, on analysis, proved to 
be arsenic trioxide, «■")'; pure. This came from the 

arsenopyrite associated with tl upriferoua sulphides. 

At the Coronado mine of the Arizona Copper Co., at 
Metcalf, when shrinkage stoping was first tried, a serious 
fire broke out and much valuable ore was lost. The 
trouble was in the size of the stopes. Peter B. Scotland, 
the mine manager, informs me that by working smaller 
slopes and drawing off the broken ore as quickly as pos- 
sible, the danger of fire has been minimized. 

Because of this tendency to burn, the temperature of 
the heaps at Rio Tinto has to be carefully regulated. It 
is found that the best results are obtained at about 
120° P. 

The washing of the heaps serves to keep the tempera- 
ture down, forming ferrous sulphate and free acid, which 
react to form ferric sulphate. This attacks the copper 
sulphides, the resulting copper sulphate being leached 
out and carried away by the effluent liquor. 

The amount of water used, per ton of ore treated, 
varies. At Tharsis it takes four cubic metres, half of 
which is required during the first year, one cubic metre 
for the second year, and one cubic metre to finish the 
leach. This quantity of water seems abnormal, but the 
spent liquor from the precipitatiug-plant is returned to 
the heaps to continue the work, so that the cycle is com- 
plete and the loss small. It takes about four years to 
extract all the copper. At both Rio Tinto and Tharsis. 
50% of the copper in the ore as laid down is extracted in 
the first 12 months; 25% during the second year, and the 
remainder in the next two years, but at the end of the 
time, the pyrite is to all intents and purposes unaltered. 
Examined macroscopically, if the heaps have been prop- 
erly regulated, it is difficult to distinguish between raw 
and leached ore. but the leached material has a more or 
less rusty appearance, due to films of iron oxide that 
have formed on inter-crystalline faces, and the mass is 
not quite so homogeneous. I have repeatedly observed 
that the periphery of pyritic orebodies, in the early 
stages of oxidation, presents this same appearance. On 
the 1000-ft. level of the Cole shaft of the Calumet & 
Arizona mine, at Bisbee, a cross-cut was run to the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 15, 1916 

Briggs shaft. It was in hard blue Devonian limestone, 
which, as an orebody was approached, became more 
blocky, the cleavages showed slight limonitic staining, 
and soon a mass of friable rusty pyrite was encountered, 
which ran like sand. When it was cleared, a partly oxi- 
dized orebody of cupriferous pyrite was opened up. The 
same condition was noted in the glory-hole and upper 
lewis at the United Verde, but here there was an appre- 
ciable increase in the gold content. I have seen it at 
Butte, at Metcalf, and in surface exposure at a number 
of other mines. It is due to the leaching of the minute 
grains of chalcopyrite rilling the inter-crystalline spaces 
of the pyrite. I consider it a favorable indicator either 
in surface exposure or underground development. It 
denotes the presence of cupriferous pyritie masses. 

On looking over the leached heaps, I found that any 
lumps of chalcopyrite were but superficially altered. 
Fineness of division promotes chemical change. So, 
too, in outcrops or the upper workings of mines exploit- 
ing copper deposits, chalcopyrite is relatively resistant 
to the attack of oxygenated waters, whereas, when the 
two sulphides are associated, as cupriferous pyrite, the 
copper readily oxidizes. Possibly this is a catalytic re- 

An analysis of the liquor leaving the heaps at Tharsis 
showed it to contain, at the time of my visit in 1900: 

Copper 2103 grams per cubic metre. 

Ferrous oxide 12252 grams per cubic metre. 

Ferric oxide 1710 grams per cubic metre. 

Sulphuric acid 1297 grams per cubic metre. 

At the Cerda plant of the Rio Tinto, the liquor con- 
tained 1445 grams of copper and 1570 grams of ferric 
iron per cubic metre. As pig-iron is used to precipitate 
the copper, there would be an inordinate consumption of 
this material if the ferric iron was not reduced before 
the liquors reached the precipitation-tanks. To effect 
this reduction, the liquors are made to filter through a 
small heap of fine material from richer ore. The -ic salt 
is reduced to the -ous stage with an increase of copper 
content, so that the liquor leaving the reducing beds con- 
tained 1583 grams copper and only 120 grams ferric iron. 
This means a reduction of 1450 gm. of the persalt to the 
protosalt — about 90%. I suggested, in my report to 
Phelps, Dodge & Co.. for whom the investigation was 
made, the possibility of using a ferric liquor obtained 
from the slow oxidation of a pyritie heap, for extracting 
copper from the low-grade oxide ores, of which they have 
such a large tonnage too low-grade to be worked profit- 
ably, in their mines at Morenci, Arizona. I subsequently 
conducted a series of tests along these lines, but had to 
record what Huxley termed a scientific tragedy, the kill- 
ing of a beautiful theory by an ugly fact, for, try as I 
would, I could not get a sufficiently strong ferric liquor 
by natural oxidation of the .Morenci pyrite. Ferric sul- 
phide is slowly reduced by copper carbonates and oxides, 
and the copper dissolved, although sulphuric acid is a 
much more ready solvent. The Arizona Copper Co. 
leaches the tailing from the rough oxide-ore concentrator 
by sulphuric acid, at a substantial profit, and the same 

solvent will be used at Ajo, Arizona, and at Chuquica- 
mata, in Chile. 

It is probable that the free acid formed by the attack 
of oxygenated meteoric waters on sulphide minerals is 
the most nptent factor in the early change of copper out- 
crops, and that as the supply of free air is diminished, 
the ferric solutions become more and more active. 

The rich blue liquor leaving the reducing beds at Rio 
Tinto is in striking contrast with the deep-green entering 
ferric waters. The copper is precipitated in an elaborate 
series of tanks, aggregating about three kilometres in 
length, the inclination of which increases as the copper is 
precipitated. For the first 409i of the copper, it is 1 in 
200; for the next 30%, 1 in 150; then 1 in 100, and for 
the last 10% of the copper, 1 in 50. For the first 80% of 
the copper, the tanks are 90 cm. deep, and for the rest of 
the run only 30 cm. If there is much ferric iron or free 
acid in the liquors, they are by-passed to tanks of greater 
slope. This prevents the throwing down of arsenic, the 
tendency of which increases as the quantity of copper is 
lessened and free acid rises. The upper tanks precipitate 
the bulk of the copper, 60% being taken out in the first 
700 metres. The spent liquors, leaving the tanks to be 
pumped back to the ore-heaps, show a complete reduction 
of the ferric iron, and a neutralization of 600 gm. of free 
acid per cubic metre. Over 70% of the copper precipi- 
tate assays better than 94% copper. 

The consumption of pig-iron at Tharsis is 1.25 lb. per 
unit of copper obtained. 

I have described this natural cementation process not 
only because it presents many novel features, but because 
the reactions are the same as those that occur in the nat- 
ural oxidation of ore deposits. Man substitutes heat for 
time, but Nature cannot be hurried. It may be ques- 
tioned by my readers why the rich copper sulphate liquor 
does not precipitate or form enriched sulphide, such as 
chalcocite. when it passes through the so-called reducing 
beds. This apparent contradiction to the theory of chal- 
cocitization is readily explained if we desist from think- 
ing of laboratory conditions when discussing geological 
processes. At Rio Tinto, the success of the method de- 
pends on the aeration of the heaps and the maintenance 
of special conditions of temperature, porosity, and flood- 
ing with solutions under control. In the confines of the 
earth's crust, free air cannot enter to any extent, and 
totally different conditions exist. 

The relative solubility and order of attack of the sul- 
phide minerals lias already been mentioned. 3 The effect 
of the association of the natural sulphides on the rate of 
oxidation has also been explained. 4 After four years 
oxidation and washing the iron pyrite of the Rio Tinto 
heaps is practically unaltered, but. geologically, four 
years is a negligible interval of time. The hematitic 
croppings of veins or masses are the result of the long- 
continued attack of chemical and physical forces. 

The pyritie copper deposits of Huelva, Spain, occur as 
a series of lenticular masses, showing marked variation in 

»M. & S. P.. Vol. 112, p. 894. 
<Op. cit., p. 895. 

July 15, I91C 

MINING ..»d Sdcnbfi. 1'KI SS 

hi/i'. in ii metallographie province extending tor many 
:'niin the province <>f Seville, westward into Por 

tngal. Roughly speaking, these irregular musses of .up 
in pj rite in-.- from Iimhi to 8000 tt long, 100 to :uk> 

ft. wide, end of ■ depth consistent with the other two 

IMII'IIM Ml \l KVI 1/ W lo\ in' in III i.ltwiTE, 600-FT. 

dimensions of a lenticular mass. Denudation or erosion 
has been the all-important faetor in determining the 
present vertical extent of the orebodies now being 
worked, or such as are indicated at the surface by gossan 
outcrops. One lens may feather out a short distance 
below its outcrop, showing only the root of an eroded 

orebody, othen may apex «itli the tittle end up an 
tnaignineanl oatcrop may represent either the top or 
bottom of a leni ol ore li is doubtful if many of t li<- 
Huelva depoaita would !"■ known today bad il no! 
for long-continued erosion, The orebodies are of deep 

seated origin, formed during Per 

ii. inns lime, i if iiir :t:i known de 
posits, I are enclosed in porphyry, - at 

ti ontacl between slate and diabase, ii 

at the contact of slate and porphyry, 
while 16 are wholly within the nets 
morphosed sedimentary rocks. They can 
not be related genetically to any one group 

of igneous rocks. As I have already 

pointed out, an orebody may be, and 
often is. the result of cumulative pro- 
cesses of mineralization, the metallic 
emanations of one magma serving as a 
nucleus or locus of deposition for the 
heavy vapors from later iut rushes. The 
wall-rocks are impregnated with pyrite, 
u: i ._ enriched in places to form workable de- 

posits. The whole section of country has 
been repeatedly fractured and sheared, 
but the pyritic masses themselves do not show exten- 
sive alteration on account of their massive and resistant 
nature. Imperfect jointing has, however, been de- 

As a result of careful microscopic work, Mr. Pinlayson 
finds that the copper present in the ore is not chemically 

outcrop or quaktz pyrite vein in altered nRAMTE, butte. Montana. (Copied from Professional Paper No. 74, U. S. G. S.) 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 15, 1916 

combined with the pyrite, and that secondary chalco- 
pyrite followed by chalcocite in the narrow orebodies. 
and chalcocite in the Lean deeper ores, is the evidence of 
enriching processes. Be also states that the preliminary 
changes, dne to enrichment, extend far down into what 
is usually regarded as primary ore. The unenriehed ore 
is essentially a mechanical admixture of chalcopyrite and 
iron pyrite. 

The oxidized zone or gossan consists of massive hema- 
tite containing over 50$ iron. The average depth of it 
is about 100 ft. The depth of oxidation has been deter- 
mined in all cases by the topographic level of ground- 
water. The width of the outcrop and the boldness of 
its exposure depend upon the plane in the vertical scale 
to which erosion has advanced. The ore is mined by 
open-pi1 methods. To anybody standing at the edge of 
one of these large pits, the colors of the several zones 
appear most vivid; the deep red of the capping con- 
trasting strikingly with the pale bluish-green of the 
sulphides. Between the leached overburden and the 
pyritic ore there is a ribbon, several inches wide, of 
bright oehreous-yellow material containing the concen- 
trated precious metals of the oxidized zone. 

This ribbon, carrying the concentrated precious metals, 
\\ as formed by the precipitation of the dissolved gold 
and silver in oxygenated ferric sulphate solutions, as 
soon as the strongly reducing influence of the pyritic 
zone was reached. It is not a mechanical concentration, 
for the overburden of massive hematite, from 50 to 150 
ft. deep, dependent on erosion, is very compact. This 
yellow layer will assay $30 to $40 per ton. 

The npper zone of the enriched sulphides shows a 
slight impoverishment, and below this narrow belt the 
ore is richer in chalcocite, running as high as 6 and 7'," 
copper. This gradually fades into the cupriferous mass 
below. There is an abrupt change between the oxidized 
and enriched ore, but no sharp line of demarkation be- 
tween the enriched and primary pyritic ore. The zone 
of transition is variable in extent, but the average depth 
of enrichment is from 150 to 200 ft. below the gossan or 
25(» to 350 ft. below the surface. To this depth the ore 
has averaged about 3%. The relation between the depth 
of enrichment and the depth of gossan is particularly 
well emphasized in this district. There is no appreciable 
quantity of copper salts in the oxidized capping. The 
chemical processes of cementation have proceeded faster 
than the physical forces of denudation. The rainfall, 
about 25 inches per annum, has been sufficient to ensure 
deep alteration, but insufficient to cause rapid erosion in 
a country of gentle slopes and smooth surfaces. 

Mr. Finlayson summarizes his views concerning these 
deposits as follows: 

1. The pyijtic orebodies of the Huelva district consti- 
tute a metallo-genetic province accompanying a petro- 
graphic province; and the concentration of the ores has 
been due. in the first place, to a process of magmatic seg- 
regation of sulphides accompanying the differentiation 
ul' the igneous rocks, ami dependent, with this latter, on 
the Hercynian tectonic movements. 

2. The ores have been deposited from solutions that. 
after the cessation of the igneous outbursts, rose along 
gnat thrust-planes or shear-zones; and the deposit was 
effected by replacement of the sheared and crushed rock 
by the ores. 

3. Since the formation of the lodes, great denudation, 
with accompanying sulphide enrichment (by descending 
waters i has taken place, and to this enrichment the 
economic importance of the deposits as a source of cop- 
per, and the leading position of this locality among the 
great copper districts, is very largely, if not entirely, 

In Finlayson's comprehensive description of the 
pyritic deposits of Huelva. no mention is made of the 
influence on the alteration of the pyritic masses by a 
migratory water-level, nor am I able to find in the review 
of the literature of these deposits any comment on the 
relationship of structure to the oxidized zone. The ab- 
sence of faults, shearing, or prominent joint-planes, or, 
in other words, the general compactness of the gossan, 
anticipates a slow and complete oxidation of the mass 
to a definite horizon and accounts for the abrupt change 
from the leached material to the enriched ore. There is 
unquestionable evidence of great tectonic movements 
later than the ore deposits, but these only find expression 
in the surrounding rock or at the lode-walls. I have 
already pointed out that structural details have a great 
influence on the depth of oxidation and on the enrich- 
ment of ore below. The slow and continued solution of 
the copper contained in the upper part of the Rio Tinto 
deposits probably accounts for the complete extraction 
of the copper, and the general distribution of the en- 
riched ore along horizontal planes in gradually decreas- 
ing amount as depth is attained. This seems to be a 
general condition in all such pyritic masses that I have 
examined. At the United Verde mine, in Arizona, large 
pyritic masses have been explored, but none find surface 
expression. I noted there that, where the erratic bodies 
traversed by highly altered dioritic rock, along lines of 
structural weakness, the pyrite is locally enriched with 
secondary chalcopyrite. At the Copper Chief mine, a 
lew miles from the Tinted Verde, the outcrop of one of 
these pyritic orebodies shows as a loosely coherent, sandy, 
Iimonitic mass with little or no oxidized copper salts. 
Here, too, the zone of oxidation is limited by an approx- 
imately horizontal plane. Referring to the massive 
pyritic deposits of Ducktown, in Tennessee, W. H. Em- 
mons says 5 , "The secondary zone is less extensive verti- 
cally than most chalcocite zones elsewhere. The lodes are 
comparatively impervious to downward circulation, and 
it is believed that the reactions were brought nearly to 
completion before the descending oxidized solutions had 
moved downward great distances." 

At Fierro. in New Mexico, the sudden change between 
oxidized capping, which is shipped by the Colorado Fuel 
& Iron Co. as an iron ore, and the lean, compact, under- 
lying pyrite, is very noticeable. J. A. Reid has called 
attention to the effect of lateral pressure on the down- 

•Bulletin, U. S. G. S„ 470, p. 172. 

.lulv IS 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

ward passage of meteoric waters, ud In this way es 

plains the (it--., ii..- of ■ mae of enrichment in the « op 
peropolii depot 

.1 \v Pinch thus deaeribee the La Rofonna mine, in 
Qaerrero, Mexico "The topography is very rough, 
which pre-aappoaea rapid run-off. The orebodiea consist 
•>r massive pyrite, ehaleopyrite, and aaaoeiated sulphides. 
An imperfecl joinl structure has developed in the mass, 
lint do openings that would admil of widespread percola- 
tion of meteoric water*. Such fracturing aa there is. is 
apparently recent The capping is of the nana! gossan 
type, containing no copper, bnl gold, silver, and lead are 

ntrated above tin- pyrite tune. All the vain.- of the 

oxidized /"in- is residual. The pyrite mass was saturated 
with water held there by capillarity between crystal 
thus preventing the downward seepage of surface 
- ami consequent enrichment Such copper as was 
leached from the gossan capping Has been diverted let- 
erally and escaped with the run-off. The line between 
tin- zuiii-s ut' oxidation and enrichment is as sharp as that 
between two surfaces." 

While discussing pyritic masses, of which Rio Tinto 
is a type, it may interest my readers to know that these 
Spanish mines have been worked intermittently for over 
8000 years. They were successfully operated by the 
Romans and by the Phoenicians before them, Siculus, 
writing of the Spanish mines in the tirst century B. <'., 
.ays. "Sometimes at great depths they met greal rivers 
underground, but by art gave check to the violence of 
the streams." "They admirably pumped out the water 
with those instruments called Egyptian pumps, invented 
by Archimedes. By these, with constant pumping on 
turns, they threw up the water to the mouth of the pit 
and thus drained the mine; for this engine is so ingeni- 
ously contrived thai a vast quantity of water is strangely, 
and with little labor, cast out." "The re-opening of the 
mines at Rio Tinto in tin- middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury disclosed old Roman slopes in which were found 

several water-wheels. These wen- alioiit 15 ft. in diam- 
eter, lifting the water through a reverse arrangement 
to an overshot water-wheel. A wooilen A rchiiuedian screw 

was also I . mi in I in tin- neighborhood." 8 

Enormous slag dumps, undoubtedly of Roman time, 

are still to he seen at Rio Tinto. They an- bi-silicate 
BlagS, unaltered hy weathering during this long interval 
of time, and on analysis T round them to contain less than 
ti.2'; copper. Such metallurgical work we. with all our 
modern plant, can scarcely duplicate today. Several 
relics of tie- old Roman mining methods survive. Slave 
labor was used, and there is every reason to believe that 
"high-grading' was practised just as much in those days 
as it is now. The miners would steal a handful of the 
yellow material found between the overburden and the 
ore and. having accumulated sufficient for a charge, 
would melt it down in small scorifying furnaces made of 
adobe. The yield was in the form of plaques running 

"Economic Oeology. Vol. 2. pp. 3S0-417. 
m. & S. P., Vol. 101. p. 498. 
"Hoover. 'De Re Metallica.' p. 149. 

Km Several of iheaa were round while I was in 
Spain, cached away in some old workings 

Prom lluelva to Butte is a far cry. The climatic con 

tlitions are totally dissimilar, tl re deposits an- of two 

distinct typ'-. tin- one is worked hy open-cut mining and 

steam shovels at comparatively shallow depths, the other 


by shafts to depths of 3000-odd feet ; in one the ore oeeurs 
as massive lenses, at the other in definite veins; at Rio 
Tinto faults have played a minor role in the enriehment 
and have not interfered with the ore-lenses, at Butte all 
the veins are faulted and a most complicated structure re- 
sults; the Rio Tinto deposits have most attractive surface 
showings, while the Butte outcrops are inconspicuous to 
tin- degree almost of non-existence. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 

The Butte district has been studied exhaustively. It 
has, probably, received more attention from competent 
geologists than any other copper district in the world. 
All agree as to the rock sequence and the complex struc- 
ture, but there is no uniformity of ideas as to the age of 
the several ores bund there. Under the direction of 
Reno Sales and liis geological department, practically all 
>f the exploratory work of the Anaconda Copper Co. is 
planned. The value of the services of the economic or 
milling geologist in directing mining work has been rec- 
ognized and demonstrated in this field. On behalf of 
the D. S. Geological Survey. W. II. Weed investigated 
the district and presented his findings as Professional 
Paper No. 74. His unravelling of the fault-complex and 
deductions as to ore genesis served as a basis for the 
more complete investigation of Sales, the results of which 
were published in the Transactions of the A. I. M. E.. 
Vol. 40. pp. 1523-1626. The later work of J. C. Ray 
called attention to the sequence of sulphides in the Butte 

The Butte district, of which Anaconda hill is the cen- 
tre, is made up almost entirely of a highly altered quartz- 
monzonite or 'granite,' as it is locally called, which is a 
part of tin- great Boulder batholith. The productive area 
is about 1A miles long and 1 mile wide, although many 
mines have been opened up in the same granite mass 
within a radius of 30 miles of Butte. Differential cool- 
ing of the iri.initie magma resulted in the intrusion of 
aeid dikes of aplite. the economic significance of which is 
not apparent Later acid intrusions of rhyolite have 
probably a genetic connection with the copper ores. 

The copper output of Butte comes from vein mines. 
All the ore is confined to definite fractures; and while 
the granitic wall-rocks are pyritized, they are non-com- 
mercial. Several of the shafts have reached a depth of 
3000 ft. and as yet there is no indication whatever of 

Fissuring of the granite is a common feature through- 
out the batholith. In addition to the fissuring. profound 
faults of several periods of regional disturbance, both 
before and after vein formation or mineral deposition, 
have brought about a condition of intricate complexity, 
which has resulted in so much litigation. The fissures 
may lie divided into six distinct systems, of which the 
Anaconda or east-west system is the oldest, as well as 
the most solidly and continuously mineralized. The oldest 
fault fissures in which ore is found constitute the Blue 
system. Extensive rock alteration has taken place,' par- 
ticularly in Anaconda hill. It is closely related to the 
important vein-systems. The alteration has affected both 
the country-rock and the veins and faults. It is due to 
the effect of the early mineralizing solutions, to the in- 
fluence of descending waters, and to natural oxidation. 
These processes overlap. The greatest change is noticed 
in the oldest, or Anaconda, vein-system. The faulting 
and crushing of the Butte granite has been on a pro- 
found scale, and both chemical and dynamic agencies 
have combined to bring about present conditions. The 

'Economic Oeology. 1914, p. 463. 

granite is pyritized and nearly all the Eerro-magnesian 

minerals are obliterated; the feldspars develop sericite 
and secondary silica. In the upper levels kaolinization 
is advanced owing to the action of sulphate waters upon 
the sericitifced granite. 

The effects of hydro-metamorphism are more notice- 
able where vein-forming influences have been most active, 
that is, in the zone associated with the Anaconda vein- 
system. The most marked effects are kaolinization and 
chaleocitization. accompanied by greater porosity. The 
average depth of the oxidized zone is 300 ft. in the highly 
altered area. While chaleocitization is always accom- 
panied by kaolinization, the reverse does not hold good, 
and it is thought that sulphate waters have been active 
at depth, long after the last trace of their contained cop- 
per had been precipitated as ehaleocite. A distinction 
between 'sooty' ehaleocite of secondary origin and 'pri- 
mary' ehaleocite, which occurs in quantity, is important. 
The zone of secondary ehaleocite varies from 50 to 200 
ft. in the fault-veins to a maximum of 1200 ft. in the 
older veins of the Anaconda system. 

It is probable that surface waters have caused changes 
in the rock-mass beyond the depth readied by mine- 
workings. On account of the structure, the ground- 
water level is very variable. Present ground-water, 
even where found at great depth, is of meteoric 
origin and contains appreciable quantities of free acid 
and the iron sulphates. Secondary enrichment in the 
Butte district is dependent largely on the topography 
and the mineralogic and physical characteristics of the 
vein in which the sulphides occur. 

Ice planation, rock disintegration, erosion, and the 
Continental fault have determined the present surface 
contours and caused a mantel of wash to mask many of 
the intersections of the veins with the surface. Aside 
from this, the outcrops are indistinct and are seldom 
recognizable in the absence of shafts or pits. Butte has 
the least surface evidence of mineralization of any dis- 
trict I have studied. The highly colored oxidation prod- 
ucts of copper minerals are conspicuous by their absence, 
ami with the exception of local developments, no oxide 
ores are mined at Butte. Almost without exception, the 
copper veins are practically barren of copper at the out- 
crop and in the zone of oxidation. The outcrop of a 
typical vein of the Anaconda series is marked by altered 
granite, quartz, and iron oxides. The quartz sometimes 
exhibits honeycomb structure; infrequently there is a 
little clay that may be slightly copper stained. 

The fault-veins are similar, except that there is usually 
one or more well-defined fault clay-walls. "Taking a 
broad view of the entire copper producing area, it may 
be said with emphasis that there is but little if any evi- 
dence of a positive character to be found in the outcrops 
or the oxidized zones of the Butte veins to indicate the 
existence of copper in commercial quantities at greater 
depths." 10 

The manganese-silver veins, forming a crescentic arc 
to the north of the copper veins, outcrop boldly and may 

■ "Reno Sales, Trans. A. I. M. E„ Vol. 46, p. 1556. 

Jnh 15, 1916 

MINING mi Sokatific I'RtSS 

• r hundradi or even thousand on the 

nc veins, oloaelj associated with the man 
nilver aeries, show m quartz, or rfaodoohrosite ribs 
at tli. [ha /in.- blende being found 200 to 100 ft 


Tlic depth of the tone of oxidation at Butte is exceed- 
imrls variable It depends upon 1 1 1 • - nature of the reins 
and the wall ru.k. rather than on the topography. The 
quartx-pyritc reins ..t' the Anaconda system arc more 
deepl) oxidised than the fault-veins. The clayey ma- 
hinders percolation. Again, the fault-veins are not 
avily pyritised, hence the solutions are not as 
strong. The nridised sane shows but little change 
ally or chemically, from the surface t.i the sul- 
phide ore, but tin' change between them is very abrupt. 
In the Ana. on. In series enriched ore immediately under- 
lies the oxidised belt, whereas, in the fault-vein system, 
large areas of barren, unoxidized vein-matter often sep- 
arate ore-shoots. 
In areas of great rock alteration, the rocks and veins 
turated with water. The many periods of fault- 




Zia**L-] Or*. Slot* f\j'p'.yr_, 


(After A. M. Finlayson.i 

ing have, however, brought about local irregularities, 
and clay fault-dams will cause dry sections, alternating 
with more open wet zones. 

The continued crustal adjustments of the Boulder 
batholith, particularly that part that was first weakened 
by vein-forming influences, has contributed to the migra- 
tion of the metals and so been a vital factor in the eeo- 
nomic concentration of the lean primary material. 

The mineralogies! relations in the Butte veins do not 
suggest distinct and separate periods of mineralization, 
but rather one continuous process with varying degrees 
of intensity. 

Reviewing the evidence presented at Butte, the absence 
of outcrops can be readily explained, and there is 
nothing in conflict with the ideas I have already ex- 
pressed concerning the surficial indications of copper. 
All the ore occurs in one phase or another of a differen- 
tiated monzonitic magma. It is confined to definite frac- 
tures that have been re-opened subsequently to the pri- 
mary mineralization or dislocated by later earth-move- 
ments. This complex structure has either facilitated or 
retarded enrichment, dependent on increased facility for 
deep penetration of meteoric waters by openness of 
fissures or the damming back of such solutions by the 
development of fault-clay. 

The granite itself is intricate!) jointed and thi 
matio conditions are such that boulder-structure is 

qnicklj developed, rock disintegration pr Is rapidly, 

an. I erosion is adva I The granite is pyritised along 

the joints and in the ferro inaL'n. sian mineral BonstiUl 

ents The oxidation of this pyrite would of itself !»■ 
sufficient to upset the homogeneity of the mass, thus as 

listing erosion. By oxidizing pr ssea, the feldspars 

and mica become gericitized. The sulphate waters oon 
vert part of the Bericite to kaolin and quartz. The pus 
ent topography is vastly different to that of the n 

ali/iiiL' period, an. I it is probable that the typical irony 

outcrops of copper veins have long sin.-,, been removed 

by erosion. I have said that other than a rusty sta 

of the quartz, even limonite is but sparingly developed 

in the present surface exposure of the veins; this sug- 
gests the absence of iron in the ore represented by this 
remnant. Again, in the oxidized zone, cuprite ami some 
native copper are the most plentiful of the oxidized min- 
erals. These chemical facts, coupled with the physical 
condition of the district, point to the oxidation of sec- 
ondarily enriched ores. I consider it highly probable 
that many of the Butte veins are in the second cycle of 
oxidizing processes. 

Weed says," ''The quartz-pyrite veins are often .lis 
tincl, though not conspicuous, but the glanee-euargite 
veins in altered granite can rarely be determined in out- 
crop; where upraises have been driven to find their apex, 
it is found to consist merely of kaolinized granite ce- 
mented by stringers of quartz. Indeed, one may infer 
from the absence of limonite that the barren quartz 
found between the surface and the big orebodies is the 
result of oxidation of chalcocite and pyrite only. 

"The descending waters became charged with ferrous, 
cupric, and zinc sulphates and have an acidic reaction. 
All three of these salts are easily soluble in water and 
all three are carried by the moisture of the air circu- 
lating in the mine workings. Such air deposits its mois- 
ture by chilling, and as a result many of the old mine 
workings are coated by efflorescent deposits of zinc. iron. 
and copper sulphates." 

The metric system, as applying to American stand- 
ards of weights and measures, was discussed by Frank 
Richards in a recent number of the New York Evening 
Post. He argued against its adoption in this country. 
Regarding the tenet of the advocates of metric weights 
and measures, who assert that it would be a convenience 
to American manufacturers in securing trade with the 
metric countries, such as South America, he stated that 
the rale works both ways, and that German and French 
manufacturers are equally handicapped in making goods 
for our markets or England. Again the metric system 
was said to be not so scientific as it was claimed to be, 
because it failed in the facility of continued sub-division 
by two and three. The advocates of the metric system 
were stated to be largely college professors, and not the 
business people who would be affected by a change. 

"Professional Paper No. 74, U. S. G. S., p. 99. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15. 1016 

Conditions in Mexico 

By Our Own Correspondent 

In my letters, appearing on January 29 and June 10, 
I discussed something of Carranza 's extraordinary 
paper-money system, by which lie expected to "save the 
nation from a public debt and distribute the eost of the 
revolution equitably among all classes." It is not defi- 
nitely known, outside the inner governing ring, if the 
systematic counterfeiting which has been a regular prac- 
tice of the Carranza Hacienda (treasury) department 
has inured to the benefit of officials or of the Government 
itself. A favorite device lias been to ehange the original 
die. by erasing a line or two. and then to declare false 

all the previously printed notes from the altered die. 

Recently the only way I" be sure of the genuineness of 
any Carranza note was to have it officially re-scalcil. 
which not only involved a wearisome delay but the risk 
of having it destroyed as counterfeit. The unmoral state 
of Mexican society is well illustrated by the fact that 

many respectable Carranza partisans defend this official 

swindling on the plea that "it helps to amortize the 

public debt." 

After the discovery last summer of the wholesale 
counterfeiting of the p.">(i and 1*1()() notes — which cul- 
minated in the execution of General Gringas — the Min- 
ister of Hacienda. Cabrera, suddenly departed for Bu- 
rope, probably to escape awkward questioning, bu1 os- 
tensibly to secure a gold loan to back tip his new issue of 
f*500,000,000 'unfalsifiable' notes, which he hail jUSt or- 
dered printed in the I'nitcd States. Failing in Europe, 
he started for New York, where he hoped to work on the 
financiers the same game of diplomatic flattery thai Car- 
ranza had found so successful among Washington states 
men. Hut financiers have to pay their own way, ami 

thus, unlike statesmen, cannot afford to cherish any 
Quixotic illusions as to facts. So Cabrera, in spite of a 
skillful and arduous social campaign, found himself no 
nearer his goal of coin than at first, and was finally told 
that to persist would be useless, as his (iovernment was 

deemed both incompetent and dishonest, (in his return 

to Mexico in March. Cabrera carefully concealed from 
the populace the failure of his loan proposals, and soon 
announced that his plans for the issue of unfalsifiable 
notes had been perfected and would be put in operation 
on May 1. During the last week of April, he constructed 
a new Comision <h Cambios of seven members, as he 
deemed it prudent to have a screen of marionettes to 

protect himself from the popular odium that the publi- 
cation of his contemplated financial decrees would be 
sure to arouse. 

I luring the spring, the press had hinted that the new or 
Unfalsifiable notes would be exchanged for the old notes 
at par; but tile first decree in April announced a ratio 
of 2:1: while the final decree, by which the issue was 

begun on May first, fixed a redemption value of 111 cents 
(U. S.) per peso for the new notes and 2\ cents for the 
old notes, or a ratio of 4: 1. This promise of redemption 
of new notes in coin kept their value up for some days, 
but when it was discovered to be largely a bluff and was 
being hindered as much as possible at the offices of the 
Cotidsion iU Cambios in order to prevent the escape of 
real money, their quotation began to drop and was down 
to 7 cents during the last week of May. 

As the decree of May 1 had declared that the old notes 
should continue as full legal tender until July 1. and 
thereafter should continue for six months to he receiv- 
able for all taxes payable in paper, their holders slept 
tranquilly on the night of May 31, little dreaming of 
what would befall them on the morrow. Between June 
1 and 3 there was posted all over Mexico a decree that 
history will doubtless deem the most insane of all the 

extraordinary efforts of the Carranza regime. The gist 

of ils 14 articles was an abolition of the legal-tender 
quality of all 1*20. t*r>0. and 1*100 notes within three 
days, after which time such notes would only he receiv- 
able as money for a small number of public dues. Hut 
if deposited in the Treasury before July 1, they would 
in paid for on October 1 with gold certificates, which. 

within five years thereafter, would lie redeemed in coin 
at the rate of 5c. per peso. 

But an even worse fate than the nullification of their 
existing stock of big notes was in store for the merchants, 
because they were obliged to continue receiving the his 
notes during the three days following the publication of 
the decree. A few fortunate ones escaped lightly by 
closing their stores most of tile day and greatly increas- 
ing their prices, but many, whose stock happened to be 

attractive to Carranzista officers, like si or hat stores. 

found themselves beset on all sides and had Ilobson's 

choi I' either selling out for worthless notes while at 

liberty, or of going to jail ami having their stock 'in- 

But the financial tragedy was not yet over. I In June 
10 there appeared a new decree declaring that the old 
notes, which had been declared worth 24c on May 1. 
were now worth only lc. and this in future would be 
valued at only one-tenth as much as the new notes in- 
stead of one-fourth. Henceforth, the only remaining 
legal-tender old notes, those of 1*1. 1*2. t*5. and 1*10, 
would have only 40% of their previous value, so that 
the masses, who had already lost millions by the decree 
of June 1, found themselves left with practically uo 
money to spend at all. 

At first glance it would seem that only a madman 
could have issued these absurd decrees, which not only 
repudiated others issued barely a month previously, but 

.luiv 15, i-in; 

MINING and Scent.!,, I'M SS 

l universal indignAl mm m the Army i 

I' is plausil'lc : I'll .lime ."< the 

Innir note* fell to half tlmr rormer value, so thai any 
|ut> must..- »|iii happened t" have » balanee of HOO.OOO 
mid exchange H0,000 of it tor t» 1 1 h>.«mm> 
of big notea and have ■ difference of K0,000 free and 
clear for himaelf, ai the accounting rules required Ins 
balanee to be in legal money, but • 1 > < 1 not specify its de 
nomination <>n Jane 9 there issued forth, bright and 
early, from the offl, • - I Nicolas Zembrano, Treasurer of 
hfexii • clerks carrying satchels full of I'l and 

P*.' old notes. These eager youths circulated rapidly in 
the business centre of Mexico City, and offered to every- 
om 1*5 of thee. mall old notes in exchange for 

each 1*1 value of new notes, the market rate being only 
l'i Millions were thus quickly sold on June 9 at 5:1; 

man] empl have no gold with which 

.• tins purchase." "What do »■ id the 

Bureau of Labor, "you mny do n« you pleaai '"it re 

member: if you attempt to close down, a decree i* in 

providing for the intervention oi your plant and 

stock by the local prebottal lission, which will at 

once put it under the hammer, and from its pr ,!* 

pay "ut ■ quarter's advi e wages to all your patient 

employees, too long abused by bourgeois like you." 

Many of the shrewder merchants, discovering some 
months ago that they rarely would fall into bankruptcy 
if they continued business, and would inevitably be 
seized by the prebostal commission if they tried ■< 
pend operations, have been quietly selling their stock of 
merchandise. Eowever, this recourse is not open to the 
owners of mines or Factories full of valuable machinery, 

1 1- 

— ~ " ■■ ' n 

mmmmmkwv OFsT a*rin 

■ *•*- — ^A-taaaaa ' -J"**!*^ ■» ILaaW. iBSBaaaaaM- 

1 1 


these were as readily bought I k the next day, after 

the aforesaid decree had been posted, at half price or a1 
the new ratio of 10: 1. 

The strikes, in May. of all the workmen of the Car- 
ranza railroads and public utilities, for the payment of 
wages on s gold basis, had been quelled by first declaring 

martial law. to force the strikers to return to work, and 
then paying all their wages with new instead of old notes. 

Naturally, this sudden quadrupling of the pay of public 

servants made all other workmen dissatisfied, and hordes 
of them struck for 8 like change in their wage payments. 
Many employers offered to compromise by increasing 
the rate, hut continuing to pay in old notes until they 
eeased to he legal tender on July 1. Yet the strikers 
would not listen to this and Carranza's Bureau of Labor 
sustained them in their " righteous objections to such 
miserly treatment." "Ah," said the beset employers, 
"we have no new notes, for only the few used for paying 
the Army and Civil Service since May 1 are now in circu- 
lation." "Nonsense," retorted the Bureau of Labor, 
"the Cumixion <h Cam bios will sell you all the new notes 
you may need at the rate of 10c. (U. S.) per peso." 
"Then we shall have to close our business," answered 

and their only recourse is to have such a severe 'accidenl ' 
to their equipment that operations can he no longer con- 

The author of all this financial legerdemain, Luis 
Cabrera, was educated for the law, and started his 
career, like many another attorney of the Diaz regime 
in Puebla as a go-between for criminals who had money 
enough to purchase their release from a bench of easily 
corrupted judges. Later he went to Mexico City, and 
first entered the limelight about 1908, when he fought a 
ease concerning the water-rights of the Torreon cotton 
district, against the noted eicntifico lawyer, Vera 
Estafiol. Cabrera's remarkable gifts as an orator there- 
after kept him well in the public eye till the beginning 
of the Madero revolution in 1910, when he definitely 
took the Liberal side by the publication of three open 
letters against I hi' re-election of Diaz. 

When Madero was elected president in November 
1912. Cabrera became a member of the Federal House 
of Deputies, and made a creditable record as an advocate 
of the restoration to the Indians of their i ujidos (com- 
munal lands) of which they had been robbed by the Diaz 
ring. After Huerta usurped power in 1913, Cabrera 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 

hVd north in join Carranza, ami so gained the latter's 
Confidence thai In- appealed as his spokesman during the 
military convention at Mexico City in September 1914. 
About this time P. P. Villareal, the Minister of the 
Treasury, refuse. I to contintue Carranza 's policy of un- 
limited currency inflation, so he was dismissed and 
Cabrera appointed. Unlike his predecessor, Cabrera 
had neither a theoretical nor a practical knowledge of 
finance, but, too conceited to take expert advice and free 
from moral scruples, he has since persisted in maintain- 
ing a national monetary madhouse that has ruined a 
large part of tin- middle class, killed thousands of the 
proletariat by famine and its resultant pestilence, and 
bids fair, unless foreign relief soon arrives, to exter- 
minate the whole population. 

To illustrate what I meant in my June letter by stat- 
ing that many railroad-ears are the "personal per- 
quisite" of some local general. I will take the case of 
General Medina, long in charge of northern Puehla. in 
which State are tin- mine ami smelter of the TezuiHan 
('upper Co., both shut-down since 1913. The Medina 
boys, five in number, were horn near Matamoros on the 
Texas border, ami. entering tie' Carranza movement near 
its inception, had attained high military rank when Car- 
ranza came south in .July 1914 — all except one brother, 
who remained a civilian in order to manage the business 
interests of his military family. Controlling absolutely 
l In' city of Tczuitlaii and its railroad line from Oriental 
on the Inter-oceanic system, the Medina family now 
found itself in financial clover, for no freight could 
move cither in or out of the Tezuitlan district without 
paying them a generous toll. 

other examples of revolutionary patriots are General 
Luis Gutierrez, brother of the unfortunate president, 
Kulalio. last heard from as a fugitive in the mountains 
of San Luis Potosi, who up to 1911 worked by the day as 
an i.rlil i maguey fibre) laborer. This year General Luis 
was sufficiently Hush to advance 1*1.000.000 to a business 
partner. General Francisco Coss. who. before the Revo- 
lution was a small farmer in Coahuila, hut is now estab- 
lished at Saltillo as the ixtil 'king,' using a capital ob- 
tained chiefly from his profits for a year as Governor 
of Puehla. General Candido Aguilar. now Minister of 
Foreign Relations, was governor of Vera Cruz for some 
18 months, and. though just able to write his own name. 
has found his ignorance neither an obstacle to political 
preferment nor a hindrance to the rapid accumulation of 
a fortune of several million dollars, which is now safely 
hanked in the United States. 

Of all the Carranza leaders. Dr. Atl is probably the 
most intellectual; and for long after he first became 
prominent, in January 1915. his antecedents were a 
mystery to the public, for be goes under an assumed 
name. Since then his history has gradually been re- 
vealed Born in Guadalajara, at an early age he de- 
veloped talent and was sent to Paris to be educated as an 
artist. While in France, he became interested in syndi- 
calism, ami soon became an enthusiastic anarchist. On 
the fall of the Madero government he joined the staff of 

the Paris organ of the Mexican liberal party, and when 
Iluerta fled in 1914. Atl had just landed in Vera Cruz 
on his way to Mexico City, for the purpose, it is said, of 
assassinating the tyrant. Balked by Huerta's flight, Atl 
decided ti» join Zapata, hut on his way to C'uernavaca, 
he was captured by one of Zapata's generals and con- 
demned to be shot as a spy. Just before the sentence was 
to be executed. Atl gained :l parley with his jailer and 
such were his powers of persuasion that he not only ob- 
tained a pardon, but a safe conduct to Zapata himself. 
Soon he had become the confidential adviser of the wary 
brigand, and thus continued for several months until, 
convinced by his natural shrewdness that Carranza 
would he the final winner, he escaped to the lines of the 
First Chief. After various adventures, he finally ob- 
tained a job with General Obregon as organizer of his 
Mexican I. W. W. Atl has an all-around artistic tem- 
perament, and it is as orator and writer, rather than 
painter, that he has proved himself invaluable to the 
Carranza ring; for, in the exercise of his unusual talents, 
he is not hampered by any of those spiritual visions or 
moral ideals that have rendered so many of the world's 
geniuses of no earthly use to "practical' men. The de- 
pravity of the triumphal revolutionists is partly ex- 
plained by the fact that during the advance of the rebels 
against Huerta in 1913, it was their policy to open the 
jails of captured towns on condition that the prisoners 
enlisted as soldiers. And though this policy is not now 
recognized by the Carranzistas, it is still the custom of 
the Zapatistas. It is a curious fact that the followers of 
Villa, the bandit, generally paid for the forage and food 
they took from the ranchers, while the soldiers of Car- 
ranza, the statesman, seldom pay for their forage even 
now. In fact, the live-stock and poultry of the farms in 
southern Mexico were long ago declared to be by nature 
'Zapatistas,' and therefore liable to capture on sight. In 
1914 and 1915 many green crops were either cut for 
forage or trampled by pasturing horses, and were thus 
a dead loss to their cultivators. So this year, in spite of 
the high prices and the decree of 1915 (allowing anyone 
to cultivate land if the owners do not) only a fraction of 
the normal average has been planted. This is the case 
especially in the vicinity of towns garrisoned by cavalry. 

The use of Vera Cruz by Carranza as his capital from 
November 1914 till his re-capture of Mexico City in 
August 1915 is explained by its manifest advantages as 
the seat of custom duties and as the port for an easy 
escape in case his army was defeated by the Convention. 
But his fixing of his next capital at Queretaro, instead of 
accompanying his Federal departments to Mexico City, 
in September, is more of a mystery. It is probable that 
fear of a re-capture of the City by the Zapatistas and of 
assassination by some of his political enemies or the rela- 
tives of his victims combined to make him shun the 
Nation's capital as long as possible. 

Yet the merchants of Mexico City were told to prepare 
for Carranza's coining by erecting a line of triumphal 
arches st retelling for the league between the National 
Palace and the castle of Chapultepec. Where voluntary 


MINING «nd Scientific PRESS 


■obtcriptiona were not forthcoming to cover the 

tin- a: I iii I locember, 

Carranxa did ni until April, and even then li>' 

same into town secretly, foregoing a triumphant entry. 

ollowing week, 1 1»«- populace waa regaled at night 

lee trio illuminations and i afternoon bj a wel- 
coming proeeaaion of police, soldiers, and peons, collected 
in tin' suburbs, which Carranaa reviewed from a balcony 
in tin- Zocalo. Next 'lav tin- Qovernment preea an 
nonnced that Carranaa waa offended by the failure of 
tin' professional and commercial claaaea of the city to 

iiim with enthusiasm, ami that a merited castiga- 
ti'in waa in store tor them. Is it possible that the dread- 
ful financial decrees of Jane were issued in fulfillment of 

this threat 1 Sure enough, on June r>, rutin. i.nnn of 

genuine notes became practically worthless and thousands 
of artisans and middle-class civilians, as well as Boldiers 
ami servants, walked the sti ts of the capital with hands 

hod-growing capacity. Thuathen >i.n peopli 

to be fed from outside, and In the absence of foreign 
owned railroada to 'intervene,' the militarj satraps 
could not obtain a monopoly of produce transportation, 

M trer, the exportation of low-priced and bulky 

foods waa a slow affair when they bad to !»■ carried from 

the central plateau to the distant coast > lule-back; 

an.l. in the absence of a depreciating currency, there 

was little profit in exporting even the common prod 

of tli astal plains. With only coin in circulation, the 

purchasing power of money was never affected by revo 
liitmnary activity, and should tli" sustenance of one dis 
trict be depleted, it could easily be obtained in a neigh- 
boring district or country with tl tallic savings of 

the inhabitants. 

The export of last autumn's crop ha.s left the whole 
country practically bereft of food, and from the scanty 
acreage now planted there seems little hope of any les- 


full of hi"; notes that would no longer buy them even the 
cheapest food. The indignation against the Government 
among all elasses was intense ami the common feeling 
oieed hy this overheard remark: "Up to now I had 
some doubt if our terrible political condition arose from 

ignorance or dishonesty: hut this last decree ha.s con- 
vinced me that the ( 'arran/istas are simply hypocritical 
bandits." Yet there apparently were to be no reprisals 
or revolts against these bandits by the outraged people, 
for the simple reason that no Mexican dares to trust 
another. Thus conspiracies like the Ku-Khix clan of the 
South or the Vigilance Committee of the West are un- 
workable in Mexico, and we now find a population of 
15,000.000 disarmed and terrorized pficififus being 
starved and abused with impunity by less than 200,000 
Carranzista and Zapatista soldiers, who for years have 
been having a continual picnic at the expense of foreign 
investors and the native owners of property. It may be 
affirmed that no former revolution has ever caused in 
Mexico such widespread suffering as the present one, for 
in the old days, preceding 1876, there were no railroads 
or paper money. Then, the population was mostly rural 
and was distributed over the land in proportion to its 

seniug of the famine after this year's harvest, even 
should the nefarious export operation of the Casa La 
Garda be cut off entirely. In the country the great es- 
tates that are still in operation will manage to provide 
food for their peons, and the small farmers and the In- 
dians of egidos can raise onough for their own use. But 
the proletariat of the numerous cities is even now in 
desperate straits and, unless some arrangement can be 
made for their wholesale feeding by imported food dur- 
ing the coming year, they must soon begin to die like 
flies, of starvation. 

Why Carranza is now trying to provoke the United 
States to war is not exactly clear. In the light of his 
own record in particular, and of Mexican character in 
general, his base ingratitude to President Wilson, who 
may be said to be the creator of this political Franken- 
stein, is not at all surprising, but what has Carranza to 
gain by a fight? Unsupported by the masses, he appar- 
ently relies chiefly for safety on a union with Zapata and 
Villa. Can it be that the fates have relented, and that 
Mexico, like the Sudan, may now hope for a brighter 
future after the slaughter of all her banditti' has once 
been achieved at some western Omdurman ? 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

.Inly 15, 1916 

Discrepancies in Cyanidation 

By Edmund Shaw 

As sooX as crushing in cyanide solution became a 
common practice it was found difficult to click 
the theoretical extraction of the mill with the bul- 
lion actually recovered. Sometimes there was a super- 
recovery, but more often a shortage, for it is a weakness 
of human nature to estimate on the 'long' side, and one 
has always to contend with the innate depravity of 
things. A part of the difficulty must he laid to the new 
spirit in mining which demanded careful estimates based 
on observed and recorded fact in the place of guesses. 
A lot of new problems came up and ways had to be de- 
vised to find the answer; for example, the method of 
figuring tonnage from the specific gravity of the pulp. 
The mill-man found he had to become a metallurgical 
book-keeper, or hire one; and sometimes discrepancies 
persisted and experts had to be called in to find out why. 
In order to keep the mill-books straight, a practice has 
arisen of using what is called the 'bullion plus tailing' 
method. The sampling of the ore entering the mill is 
disregarded, the value per ton of the mill-headings being 
arrived at by adding the value of the bullion recovered 
to the value discharged in the residues, dividing by the 

estimated number of tons. Really this is DO Check "hat- 
ever upon the work. The only comment necessary is 
that one large mining company has admitted in a pub- 
lished statement that by using this method there was an 
unsuspected loss n( >t;r..niM> per year, that was not dis- 
covered until better methods of assaying, sampling, and 
id-keeping were introduced. 

The books of a mill should not differ essentially from 
the bonks of a manufacturing or mercantile business. 
The mill should be charged with the value of the ore 
received from the mine, as determined by the daily 
sampling, assay, and tonnage determinations, and cred- 
ited with whatever it produces in bullion and residue. 
Whenever a statement is made, account must be taken 
of the ore in the bin and in process of treatment, and of 
the value in solution and in the precipitation depart- 
ment, etc. and this account must be occasionally cheeked 
by stock-taking exactly as a factory cheeks up its finished 
and unfinished product on hand. As sampling and as- 
saying are not exact, there will be shown a slight differ- 
ence on one side or the other, which goes into an account 
Called Unaccountable Loss, corresponding to the Sus- 
pense Account of an ordinary set of books. The effort 
of the mill-man should be to_ keep this unaccountable 
loss at a minimum. 

The causes of any difference between theoretical and 
actual extraction will all be found under one of the 

(1) Theft. 

(2) Leakage and waste. 

(3) Errors in estimation of tonnage. 

(4) Errors in sampling. 

(5) Errors in assaying. 

(1) Theft is suspected more often than it occurs. In 
a great many years' experience in milling, I have aever 
seen a shortage that could be credited to theft, and in 
the cases of which I have knowledge the evidence of 
broken locks and tapped zinc-boxes was so plain that it 
could not be mistaken. The only places that need pro- 
tection are the precipitation department and refinery, 
and it is a simple matter to confine the responsibility 
for these places to a very few persons. 

(2) Leakage in old and badly-built nulls may be a 
serious matter. Hut few instances are recalled in which 
this was not the ease. The worst was in an old mill, 
which had leaky mortars. The solution drained away 
in a dark place behind the mortars and ran into a creek 
that flowed by the side of the mill. The loss was thought 
to 1.,- insignificant until an assay id' the creek-water 
showed it to carry considerable value. Leaky launders, 
and launders that overflow from having insufficient 

grade, account for some loss ami a badly-built elevator 

that stops or breaks down will often cause considerable 
waste. Hut. taken as a whole, these are small mailers 
and ones that even the most careless of null-men will see 
and remedy. Perhaps the commonest waste about a 
cyanide mill is that which occurs in cleaning up and 
refining precipitate. This always amounts to something 
even where the work is carefully done, and it has been 
published that losses as high as 6% of the output have 
been traced to this source. 

(3) Errors in estimating tonnage are a frequent 
source of discrepancy. In large mills such errors can 
lie reduced by the use of automatic machines for weigh- 
ing and sampling, but the capital cost is too great fur the 
small plant. Weighing and sampling cars by hand is 
considered too expensive, so the usual method of estimat- 
ing the tonnage of ore delivered by the mine to the mill 
is to multiply the number of cars by a 'ear factor.' This 
car factor is obtained by weighing all the ears delivered 
to the mill-bin over a period of time and sampling them 
for their moisture content. From the weights and mois- 
ture determinations, an average figure is obtained that 
is henceforth used to determine the daily tonnage by 
multiplying it by the number of cars for the day. Where 
the ore is clean and fairly dry. and the mine-cars are all 
of the same capacity, this method gives reliable figures; 
but if the ore is wet and sticky, so that the moisture- 
content of individual cars varies greatly, and the cars 
do not empty cleanly, it will give unreliable results, 
especially if the estimation is further complicated by the 
use of cars of varying capacity. In the case of one such 

July 15 I'M.. 

MINING ...,d ScKni.hc PRESS 

re, tiif moisture-contents sve been found 

In \,ir.v from t> tn 17'. Tin- iimntiiitH left tn tin oui 
■Iter dumping varied from almost nothing to marly lixt 
pound* it has happened al the plant referred to, that 
tin ear-tonnage baa varied mora than li>', from the ton- 
■age thai had paaaed the mill during the month, aa de 
termined by fairly exact methodi 

Another method of determining tonnage, but little 
oaed in eyanide nulls (except in getting al the work of a 
particular machine, aueh aa a battery or tube-mill) is 
the five or ten seconds sample. All the pulp from a bat- 
terj for example is run into a tul> or other receptacle, 
fur five or ten sooondn. the time being taken by > stop 
watch The average of a Dumber of testa is taken to 
figure the tonnage per stamp-hour <>r other unit. Bare 
again the character of the ore baa everything to do with 
the accuracy of the method. It is accurate if the ore is 

all the tit if aixmt the same character, but if the mill 

is running part of the time on hard quarts and the real 
of the time on soft clayey ore thai washes through the 
screen with practically uo crushing, it cannot be relied 

The best method, and the one now in common use in 

plants, is that based on specific gravity. In this method 

the stream of pulp somewhere in its course is run into 
a tank of known dimensions, ajid measured and sampled 
for s determination of its specific gravity. Calculation 
or reference to a table gives the tons of dry solid in the 
volume measured. But even then there are opportunities 
for error. In many cases, the tank is not evenly agitated 
when the sample is taken. In the ordinary mechanical 
agitator used as a stock-tank for filters there will usually 
!»■ found a difference in the specific gravity of the pulp 
at the centre and at the outside of the tank. It is easy 
to make a mistake in filling the weighing-flask from the 
sample if the pulp is at all thin and contains sand. The 
tank in which the measuring is done will usually be 
found 'out of round' and allowance is necessary for this 
in making up the tables. Measurements should he made 
from water-level to water-level instead of to the bottom 
of an empty tank, which usually has an irregular bottom 
of sand. And. finally, care must be taken that slime does 
not 'build up' on the side of the tank so as to decrease 
its diameter. An inch coating on a 30-ft. tank repre- 
sents no inconsiderable amount, of dry slime. In a word, 
those who are in charge of this work must be taught to 
appreciate its importance and to do it carefully. Most 
errors in to- ".age determinations are cumulative; while 
small for a day. they may grow into large amounts in 
the course of a year or even a month. 

It is almost too elementary to point out. but it is a fact 
sometimes lost sight of. that there is often a difference 
between the car-tonnage and the tonnage passing the 
battery, and between the battery-tonnage and that which 
has passed the mill and been discharged as residue. 
Improper accounting of tonnage which disregards this 
fact has sometimes shown a serious shortage where none 
existed. Take the case of a mill that has been running 
with a short ore-supply for a considerable time. The 

mill inn is empty, storage-tanks and thickeners are 

'pulled down,' and everything in solution is precipitated 
so far .is possible. Now. if the supply of ore is suddenly 

Increased beyond the capacity of the mill to handle, the 
mill-bin "ill be filled, the stock tanks ami thickeners 

brought back to the normal running point, and tin- 
am t held in solution will he increased. If at this 

point a clean-up is made, a large shortage will be shown 
if the recovery is figured on the '"ir tonnage. Less short 

age if figured on the battery-tonnage, and least if figured 

on the residue tonnage ; and only a complete stock taking 
will show the true slate of affairs. Probably, every mill 

superintendent of much experiei has had to explain 

this at some time to a manager or a director. 1 know of 
a case in which a small mill was shut-down and every- 
thing about the plant dea l-up in order to satisfy a 

director that 'something was not wrong,' mere figures 
having entirely failed to convince him. 

A highly important tonnage determination is that of 
the solution passing the precipitation-department each 
day. But this presents no difficulty, as it can be accu- 
rately determined by one of several methods. The' best 
is the meter, which can be bought or made at the plant, 
the tilting-box being the usual form. A good way is to 
run the solution into alternate sumps of known capacity 
and keep a record of the levels of solution before and 
after pumping, and, if no other way can be used, a fairly 
good estimate can be made by measuring with the ever- 
useful five-gallon can, every two or four hours. In pass- 
ing, it may be noted that there is no more useful record 
than that of the quantity and assay-value of the solution 
going to be precipitated. Properly understood, it is a 
check on several things and a source of valuable informa- 
tion about the running of the plant. No plant should be 
run without this record. 

(4) The difficulties met in sampling are too thor- 
oughly discussed in the standard text-books to need 
much emphasis here. The head or feeder sample is the 
mill-sample that gives the most trouble. If Richards' 
law is followed, the resulting sample, from ore broken to 
the size of stamp-mill feed, is so large that the work of 
crushing and cutting-down appalls the assayer or who- 
ever has it to do. As a matter of fact, it is not necessary 
to follow this law. A smaller sample may give too high 
or too low a figure for a single day, but it will be bal- 
anced by too low or too high samples in the days follow- 
ing. This is said of mills that run steadily, and on ore 
that does not vary too much in value, as mills should 
run. At the same time it is not wise to leave too much 
to the law of averages; as big a sample as can be con- 
veniently handled should be taken. 

Sometimes a sample is taken from each car before it 
is dumped into the crusher, but this practice is to be 
condemned. It is impossible to sample ore accurately 
by grabbing a handful out of a car and if the fine carries 
a higher value than the coarse ore (as is usually the 
case), the result will be too high. 

Ordinarily, the sampling of the residue presents no 
difficulties, but I recall two instances in which bad resi- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15. 1916 

due sampling led to very serious discrepancies. The first 
was in a leaching-plant. The tanks were filled by a 
Butters distributer and no care was taken to keep a bead 
in the hopper. Consequently, the pulp classified, the 
coarse sand going to one side of the tank and the slime 
and fine sand going to the other. In leaching nothing 
was extracted from the slimy side of the tank, but a good 
extraction was obtained from the coarse sand. The resi- 
due was sampled by a split pipe made from an old 
vanner-roller. It gave a good core from the sand, but 
almost nothing from the slime. A residue was dis- 
charged, supposedly containing only forty or sixty cents, 
which really contained some three or four dollars. It 
would be hard to find such an exhibition of ignorance 
and carelessness in a cyanide-mill today. 

The other case was in a filter-plant. The residue- 
sample was taken by scraping off a little of the cake from 
a point about a foot below the head of the leaf. In in- 
vestigating the causes of a discrepancy, a leaf was pulled 
up and the adhering cake measured and sampled at the 
top, middle, and bottom. The bottom of the cake was 
found to be twice as thick as the top, and it assayed three 
times the value of the top. The information thus ob- 
tained went far toward explaining the discrepancy. The 
reason for this irregular cake-forming was that the 
crushing was very coarse for an 'all sliming' plant, and 
the sand in the pulp settled slowly during the cake- 
forming period. 

(5) Mistakes in assays are far commoner than is gen- 
erally thought, and discrepancies have often been traced 
to them. A persistent super-recovery has been noted in 
some silver-mills and explained by the fact that the 
proportion of loss in cupelling silver is much greater 
on a large button than on a small one, especially if the 
work is carelessly done ; hence, the head sample is re- 
ported too low. 

But, far greater discrepancies arise from trying to 
assay a pulp containing dissolved gold by 'drying down.' 
Assays made in this way are quite unreliable, a fact that 
was not generally known until a comparatively recent 
date. A good many puzzling discrepancies were then 
explained. If the dissolved value is very low, the loss 
will be negligible, but if it amounts to as much as 40 
cents, a 50% loss may take place during the assaying. 

It is the residue-sample that is principally affected by 
this loss, and there is only one way to avoid it; that is, 
to wash out the dissolved gold by filtration or decanta- 
tion, or both, and to assay the washed pulp and the wash- 
ings separately, and to combine the assays in proportion 
to the weights they represent. This looks difficult, but 
the work is not excessive if proper arrangements are 
made. Where connections can be made with a vacuum- 
line, the best way is to have a small filter made of tin. 
This filter has a receptacle for catching the wash drawn 
through. The residue-sample is mixed with water and a 
sample taken for specific gravity. To make sure of this, 
since it is most important to be certain of the proportion 
of solution and solid, a wide-mouthed bottle, such as a 
pickle-bottle, may be used for both mixing and weighing. 

The mixed pulp is poured on the filter and pulled dry, 
and the solution taken from the receptacle for assaying. 
Then the pulp on the filter is thoroughly washed with 
water, and if the bottle is used, it may be rinsed out with 
the wash-^vater. Since the pulp then contains no appre- 
ciable value in dissolved gold, it may be dried and 
assayed like any other ore-sample. To save time, it is 
usual to prepare a table showing the ratio of solution to 
solid for different specific gravities, and to use this in 
making the calculation. 

This method is now in use in many plants and has 
proved itself reliable. An alternative method is to pre- 
cipitate the dissolved gold with cuprous chloride or other 
reagent and then to evaporate to dryness. But, in my 
experience, this has not proved satisfactory. Any as- 
sayer can see reasons why it is difficult to cut down a 
sample containing precipitated gold, not to speak of the 
slight error that results from adding to the weight of 
the sample. 

Errors in the precipitation-record often come from 
improper assaying of the solution going to the precipita- 
tion-plant. The method of assaying by the use of zinc- 
dust and lead acetate is simple and in almost universal 
use, but some care has to be taken or it will give low 

It may finally be noted that discrepancies are usually 
found in old and badly-designed mills, and in mills that 
do not run regularly, either from break-downs or an 
irregular ore-supply. Steady running on ore of fairly 
even grade goes far to ensure good checking, as it goes 
far to ensure good milling in other ways. 

The RrJSSIAN Empire is the largest of all countries, 
having an area of 8,417,115 square miles, which is more 
than double the area of the United States with Alaska 
and all island possessions. In population Russia is sur- 
passed only by China and India. In 1913, Russia's popu- 
lation was 174,000,000. Siberia alone has an area twice 
that of the United States proper and a population of only 
10,000,000, equivalent to that of New York State or 
Canada. It is not generally realized that Russia's cereal 
and potato crops greatly exceed those of the United 
States ; Russia also has more horses, sheep, and goats than 
this country, although not so many cattle and hogs, the 
total of all live-stock being about the same. The Russian 
Empire has a larger forest area than any other country. 
Many commercial and business enterprises in Russia 
have been financed by French capital. 

Mining was discussed by A. A. Cole in his presidential 
address before the Canadian Mining Institute. He said : 
"Talk to the man on the street and you will be amazed 
in nine cases out of ten to find that he does not realize 
the basic difference between a mining and an industrial 
enterprise. He will tell you that a mining proposition 
should return twice the income of an industrial concern 
because it is more risky. He has, in fact, never thought 
of the extra profit as a sinking fund or return of 
capital. ' ' 


MINING ..,..1 Scientific PRESS 

The California Gasoline Industry 

IjW.IL Hamilton 

■ 'I'll.- knowledge of the existence of petroleum in south- 
ern California datea back t" the .lays of the in i - 

The preaan if u»| limit u in an. I semi solid bitumen was 

reported at Santa Barbara in 1792, but bo serious nt- 
tempt waa made to develop oil until Profeaaor Silliman's 
optimistic report in 1 >,, '>"> started California's Brat oil 
boom. Wells were drilled in many counties of the State, 
l.ut the equipmenl was nnauitable and the drilling diffi- 
.ult and in. production was obtained except in Ventura 
county. Bven there production waa of little importance 
commercially, and not until the early '80s 'li.l it become 
sufficient to again attract attention. In 1888 the pro- 
duction for the State had reached a total of about 7(H),. 
WO bbl. per y.-ar. practically all light oil produced in 
Ventura county, I'i.-u canyon, Los Angeles county, and 
in the Puente hills. The production of petroleum at- 
tain. -.1 the dignity of an industry in 1895 when the Los 
Angeles City and Coalinga fields were discovered. The 
subsequent development has been remarkable, and in 20 
years the production has increased from 1,000,000 to 
100.000,000 bbl. per year. 

The refining industry has kept pace with the produc- 
tion of oil. The Pacific Coast Oil Co.. the predecessor 
of the Standard Oil Co. of California, was the virtual 
pioneer refining company of the State, having built a 
refinery at Alameda about 1880. When purchased by 
the Standard Oil Co. about 1902. it was dismantled and 
the refinery at Point Richmond was built. The Rich- 
mond refinery is now one of the largest in the world, hav- 
ing a capacity in excess of 60.000 bbl. per day. A small 
refinery was built by the Union Oil Co. at Santa Paula 
in the early days of the industry and later many asphalt 
refineries were in operation in southern California. The 
Pacific Coast Oil Co. was then, as has been its successor. 
the Standard Oil Co. of California, the principal refiner 
and marketer of light products, the most valuable of 
which was kerosene. 

Before the opening of the twentieth century, gasoline 
of excellent quality was produced, though it was always 
a drug on the market and was produced for the simple 
reason that its presence rendered the flash and fire tests 
of the kerosene too low. The user of kerosene at the 
present time obtains a safer and better oil than he might 
receive had not the value of gasoline been increased by 
the increased demand. 

The phenomenal development of the California oil 
fields in the earlier years of the twentieth century was 
principally in oils of such heavy gravity that they were 

♦Consulting geologist. Insurance Exchange Bdg., San Fran- 

tPaper to be presented at the Arizona meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers, September 1916. 

ii the crude stat.- for fuel During the last si\ 
which has included the 'gusher' period of the 

Midway fields, the production of refinabl is has in 

oreased greatly, while, strunge us it may seem, tin- pro 
dnction of heavy non-refinable oils has decreased. Dur- 
ing this period, from the beginning of the present cen 
tun-, the introduction and perfection of the automobile 

has changed gasoline from a despised ami troublesome 
by-producl bo the most valuable and important product 
of the .-rude oil. The production of light oils did oof 

keep pi with the demand for gasoline and as a con- 

Sequence the price of gasoline increased from al t Kie. 

in 1904 to 25c. in 1910. The shortage was reflected in 
the prices paid for light crude. In the feverish de- 
velopment period which resulted, an enormous increase 
was shown in its production, until in 1914 the output of 
light oils capable of being refined was in the neighbor- 
hood of 50,000,000 bbl. The resulting gasoline being con- 
siderably in excess of the demand, prices began to fall in 
1911 and, aided by importations of gasoline from the 
Dutch East Indies, the price rapidly declined to a low 
level of lie. per gallon in the summer of 1915. 

The late increase in the price of gasoline is ascribed 
to the following causes: 

1. Decreased production of refinable oil. The decrease 
probably amounted to about 6,000,000 bbl. in 1915. 

2. Steadily increasing consumption. 

3. Discontinuance of gasoline imports due to increased 
European demand. 

4. Heavy exports due to European war. 

All of these conditions may reasonably be expected to 
exist for some months to come. There is no reason to 
expect a reduction in the rate of consumption. The ac- 
celeration of the growth of the automobile industry 
shows no decrease and, with the rapidly increasing mile- 
age of improved highways in California, an increase 
rather than a decrease may be looked for. It is unlikely 
that gasoline will be imported from the Dutch East 
Indies so long as it is possible to deliver it to the Euro- 
pean market. The serious shortage of oil in the Eastern 
and Mid-Continent fields, which developed in 1915, and 
which resulted in cargoes of gasoline being shipped from 
California to Europe, does not as yet show evidence of 
alleviation, and the only prospect of production reach- 
ing consumption seems to rest in the discovery of another 
phenomenal field such as Cushing, Oklahoma. Unless 
the Eastern fields can increase their production it is to 
be expected that further exports will be made from Cali- 

There is no doubt that, unless the year 1916 shows a 
considerable increase in the production of gasoline, which 
is unlikely, or unless a satisfactory substitute for use in 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 

motor vehicles is provided, we face a serious gasoline 
shortage on the Pacific Coast. 

Increased production of gasoline may come from one 
of the following causes: 

1. Increased production of light oil. 

2. Increased production of casing-head gasoline. 
.'J. Lowering the grade of market gasoline. 

4. Innovations in refining methods, such as the Ritt- 
nian. Burton, Snelling, Cosden, McAfee, "Wells, Kelsey 
and Washburn processes. 

1. There does not appear to be more than temporary 
relief to be looked for in increased oil production. All 
the principal fields have apparently nearly reached the 
height of their productiveness and while some may in- 
crease, the decline of the others will probably outweigh 
their gain. Unless I am greatly mistaken, the year 1914 
will long remain the banner year of California's oil 

2. The production of casing-head gasoline, which is 
based on the recovery of the lighter hydrocarbons usually 
lost in oil production by volatilization, is of recent de- 
velopment. At present it accounts for less than 10% of 
the gasoline marketed in the State. Owing to the low 
price in 1913 and 1914, the increase of gasoline produced 
in the gas industry has been retarded. Several new 
plants, however, are now under construction. The gas 
amenable to such treatment is limited, and it is unlikely 
that the new production of gasoline from this source can 
be expected to have any marked effect. 

3. By lowering the" grade is meant including higher 
boiling-point fractions in the gasoline as the cut is made 
at the refinery. Before the demand for gasoline was 
great, the gravity of marketed gasoline was about 65° 
and even as light as 72° Baume. The boiling-point of 
the 'last over' or the end-point of the distillation of snch 
a gasoline was little higher than 200° P. With dimin- 
ished supply and increased demand, the gravity has been 
gradually decreased until the present standard is from 
59° to 61° Baume with an end-point from 320° to 
380° P. The cut in the refinery distillation is, therefore, 
widened and the production of marketable gasoline pro- 
duced is thereby increased. If no other way is found to 
supply the demand, this cut can be widened still further 
while continuing to furnish the motorist a satisfactory 
fuel. The production can probably be increased from 30 
to 50% in this way. 

4. The processes mentioned show considerable promise. 
They depend for their success upon being able to break 
up the molecule of high boiling-point hydrocarbons into 
lower boiling-point molecules. The processes may he 
divided into two main classes, those which depend upon 
excessive heat or pressure or both and those which de- 
pend upon a catalytic agent. 

The most notable of the former are the Burton and 
Rittman processes. The Burton process, which was pat- 
ented by William M. Burton in 1912, is controlled by 
the Standard Oil Co. After many difficulties have been 
overcome and much money expended in experimental 
work, this process has been made successful and is now 

being installed in many Standard Oil refineries. Much 
difficulty was first encountered in producing an article 
that was of good color and odor. This has been overcome 
and the Burton process now gives the Standard Oil Co. 
an important advantage over its rivals. So far, it has 
not been successfully applied to California asphaltic 
oils where the presence of a large proportion of unsatu- 
rated hydrocarbons results in difficulties not experienced 
with the oils from the Eastern fields. 

The Rittman process is the result of the research 
work of W. F. Rittman of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
The process has already been successfully applied to 
the commercial manufacture of toluene and benzene. It 
differs from the Burton, Snelling, Cosden, Washburn 
and Wells processes, in that the action takes place after 
the liquid has been vaporized. By subjecting the vapor 
to pressure and heat, a re-arrangement of the molecules 
is effected, liberating carbon which is removed from the 
plant without difficulty. The process shows much prom- 
ise and, while much remains to be done before it can be 
considered a commercial success, it has created a pro- 
found impression among refiners. Under the rulings of 
the Government, a Federal employee may not profit in 
this country from any discoveries or inventions during 
his connection with the Government. The foreign rights 
will be controlled by Dr. Rittman. The Government 
proposes to allow anyone to use the process under license, 
and it is probable that the increased value of gasoline 
and the handicap confronting the 'independent' re- 
finers on account of the Standard's control of the Bur- 
ton process will result in an early attempt to perfect 
the process. It has been perfected as far as is possible 
in the laboratory stage and its future depends upon the 
results of its application on a practical scale. 

Of the processes making use of a catalytic agent, the 
McAfee process, which is controlled by the Gulf Re- 
fining Co., is the most promising. The catalytic agent 
is aluminum sulphate, and results from experimental 
work are said to be excellent. However, this process, 
like the Burton, will probably be unavailable to other 

The future has generally cared for itself and will un- 
doubtedly do so in the gasoline industry. While we 
shall probably have a gasoline shortage extending well 
into 1916 and perhaps into the early part of 1917, the 
result will be redoubled interest in the subject of per- 
fecting such ideas as have been brought to light in the 
experimental work done in the above-mentioned pro- 
cesses. The research work of Dr. Rittman and other 
able scientists who are working on the problem, bids 
fair to develop a practice which will revolutionize the 
refining industry. 

Government reports, it is suggested by R. E. Hore, 
would he more read if they were more concise. Verbose 
publications are likely to he thrown away or shelved. A 
considerable saving could be made by intelligent editing 
or even by changing the usual wasteful typographical 

Julj 15 1916 



Silver |" i ri v high, but those who watch the 

murk' i iiiiiv note by the fluctuations thai il is aenaitive. 
\ ling to Messrs Pixie) A Abel] ol London, china 

ami India are still tl anae of wea k n o aa, and sales from 

other "i" these quarters have been in evidence al- 
laily, with the reault that large baying orders for 
coinage have been easily Oiled. So much depends on the 
attitude of China toward tins markel that the immediate 
future is most difficult to forecast Looking farther 
ahead the prospects statistically seem favorable for the 
following reasons : 

1 The low level tlmt the stock of rupees in the cur- 
rency reserve of [ndia has reached, in spite of purchases 
■mounting to some millions sterling, a ix« >« >« 1 deal of which 
baa already passed into currency, points to a continuous 
drain on this reserve, and it seems probable that the In 

dian government will have to continu lining for some 

t i in*- to come 2 The British mint's requirements will 
probably continue. This year £2,200,000 has been ab- 
sorbed for coinage in England. 3 The demand for sil- 
jrer by the Allies is likely to be maintained so long as the 
War lasts. In spite of important purchases, the stock of 
silver in the Hank o£ France has been reduced by 
El ,000,000 during the past year. (4) The probability of 
the retention in the country of a large portion of the 

Mexican production for the purpose of re-establishing 

the currency. (5 It is questionable whether China, hav- 
ing already sold such large amounts of silver, is in a 
position to part with much more. According to latest 
advices the stock of 'sycee' (60-oz. bars) in Shanghai is 

reduced to 26, I, Muds (35,500,000 ounces). (6) The 

world's production of silver is decreasing. In 1915 the 
total production was estimated at 196.000,000 fine ounces, 
against 21 1.000,000 in 1914. For these reasons the fu- 
ture of the market, from a purely statistical point of 
view, seems favorable. 

Regarding Egypt as a factor in silver, the Egyptian 
correspondent of the Pioneer Mail, on March 10, wrote 
as follows : " Every year we have a silver 'crisis,' usually 
in the early autumn, when large numbers of laborers 
have to be paid daily throughout the country in connec- 
tion with the cotton crop: but the crisis usually is over 
by Christmas, being met by imports of newly minted 
coin that has to be obtained in the ordinary course. The 
War has. however, completely changed the situation. 
The increase in the army has necessitated the putting 
into circulation of far more nickel and silver currency 
than ever before, and the financial authorities took early 
steps to obtain the necessary extra supply. Things 
would not have been so bad if the shipments in the 
Persia and the Maloja had not been lost. During 1915 
new coin to the value of £720,000 was imported, whereas 
the average of the preceding five years had only been 
£140,000, and the previous recorded maximum annual 
import was £694.000 in 1896. when the system was re- 
modelled. The Sudan, it should be mentioned, uses the 
same currency as Egypt and a good deal of British gold 

mid Egyptian silver remains ever) year in the interior 
of thai dependency India appears to have been the 

only part of the Empire thai had any silver coin to 

and by special arrangement the Egyptian govern 
men) imported i it; uiantity of silver rupees, which, 

it is slut,-,!, have DOW been declared legal currency 111 

tl untry. Whether in order to facilitate trade be 

tweeu Egypt ami the Sudan, they will also be made legal 

currency in the latter dependency, is not known." Ab 
Street from weekly letter of Samuel Montagu & Co., 


The -ii. \ 1 1; pro, iii, -lion of the world has averaged about 
•jni i.i ii ii i.i ii ii i 02. per ,• um. worth approximately .+ 11111. ■ 

,000, sii 1900. This compares with an average 

annual output of gold during the same period of more 
than $400,000,000, or four times the annual value of the 

silver. The world's output of silver in 1915 is estimated 
:,t 196,000,000 "/.. of which the United States produced 

about one-third. Mexico. Central and South America 
another third, and Canada one-seventh, the remainder 
being contributed by Australia. Japan, and other conn- 
tries. The figures for the world's yearly production of 
silver since 1860, issued by the Director of the C. S. 
Mint, show that the increase has been gradual, from 
29,095,428 oz. worth $39,337,000 in 1860 to 211,339,749 
oz. worth + 116.849,900 in 1914. But from 189:! to 1906 
the output remained practically at a standstill; in fact, 
the production in 1893 was worth slightly more than 
that of 1906. the value being $129,119,900 in 1893 against 
+ 111.721,100 in 1906 for approximately 165,000,000 oz. 
in both years. This was due to the decline in the silver 
market. In 1912. when the production of silver reached 
224.310.654 oz. worth +137,883,800. the value was but 
little greater than in 1891, when the output of 137,170,- 
000 oz. was worth +135,500,200. The recent rise in the 
price of silver was explained in a nutshell by Samuel 
Montagu & Co. of London, as follows: "The quotation 
fell quite as heavily when silver was demonetized upon a 
large scale; now an exactly reverse operation is taking 
place. Silver is being monetized upon a large scale." 

JAMES J. Hill's comment on financial and national 
questions was always interesting and usually sound. In 
a letter written just before his death, and printed in the 
Annalist, he said, regarding the nation's banking system: 
"There should be one and only one Federal Reserve bank 
for the United States. This should be located at Chicago, 
the central city of the country, where it would be safe 
from danger of naval attack in ease of war. It should 
be the centre and directing influence in financing the 
business of the country, dealing of course only through 
other banks. There is much less danger of abuses from 
a single central bank than from a dozen local banks. The 
division of the country into districts, draw T n haphazard, 
was and is a mistake from every point of view." 

Exports from tin' United States to the extent of 10% 
in value, or 35 r 'r in bulk, are carried in American ships. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15. 1916 


Readers of the MINING and Scientific PRESS are invited to ask questions 
and give information dealing with technical and other matters pertaining lo the 
practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

German silver contains 60% copper, 21% nickel, and 

Locomotives on 40 railroads in the United States use 
oil for fuel. In 1915 there was 36,648,466 bbl. consumed 
in this way. 

Loss of copper in tailing and slime at Anaconda before 
flotation was introduced was about 16 lb. of copper per 
ton. Since the introduction of the flotation process, the 
loss does not exceed 14 Hi. per ton. 

Serbia has one good copper mine, the Bor. operated 
before the War by a French company that paid 60* , in 
dividends for several years. The ore resembles that of 
Butte and averages 6% copper. The output was 7500 
tons of metal per annum. 

Am AEROPLANE is used to make daily trips from tide- 
water to the Dolly Varden mine, 14 miles inland in Brit- 
ish Columbia, says a newspaper report. This is for send- 
ing supplies to the mine, and the service is said to be 
rendered by the California Aeroplane Co. for $600 per 

For tempering drill-steel it is good practice to have a 
wire netting several inches above the bottom of the tem- 
pering-tank. This prevents the bit. when being cooled 
in the bath, from standing in the accumulation of sludge 
in the bottom of the tank. Breakage of drill-steel used 
in hammer-drills is increased by continuing to use bits 
after they have become dull. 

Thk vix'ositv of different furnace slags is being in- 
vestigated by the U. S. Bureau of Mines at Pittsburg 
An apparatus has been devised to measure the viscosity 
of slags by a torsion method, the torque being indicated 
by a mirror and scale. Several surprising facts, contra- 
dictory to the ordinary properties observed by the eye. 
have been disclosed by the measurements. 

Pyritic smelting and its advantage was first sug- 
gested by John Hollway. who pointed out that copper 
ore from Rio Tinto. Spain, containing much iron pyrite, 
could be smelted by the heat mainly derived from the 
oxidation of the iron and sulphur. Later, in Tasmania. 
Robert <'. Sticlit applied pyrftie smelting to Mount Lyell 
ore. The Tennessee Copper Co. further perfected the 
practice, under the direction of W. A. Heywood. Only a 
small addition of coke to the ore is required, about 2 C ,', . 

'High-speed' tool-steel, so-called, containing tung- 
sten, chromium, etc.. is not as hard as ordinary high- 

carbon steel, and usually can be scratched with a good 
file. Its resistance to cold wear is less than that of beat- 
treated high-carbon steel. The special property of ' high- 
speed' steel, such as tungsten-steel, lies in the fact that it 
may be ua^d at a speed six times faster than ordinary 
carbon-steels, without being softened by the frictional 

Deterioration of an explosive comes from storage in a 
climate where rapid changes of temperature are usual. 
as hot days and cool nights. The explosive assumes a 
dark color and loses its elastic consistence. Nitro- 
glycerine separates from the compound and shows as an 
oily layer on the paper wrapper. When an explosive 
has been stored in a moist place, a fine salty powder of 
saltpetre becomes crystallized on the wrappers. Such 
explosive should not be used, as the uniform intermin- 
gling of the constituents has been changed. 

USE OF powdered coal for generating steam is still in 
the experimental stage. Steam can be efficiently pro- 
duced by this method, as regards combustion and evap- 
oration. The loss in the ash-pit and the flue is less than 
1%. The cost of fuel preparation, however, is high, and 
conditions have to be favorable for the practical use of 
powdered coal. The great success of powdered coal lies 
in its adaptability for metallurgical furnaces, as in the 
coal-dusl firing of large reverberatories at Anaconda and 
Garfield, and for the tiring of locomotive-boilers. 

Aerial tramways are well liked Eor transporting ore 

over rough country. The cost of moving ore by this 
method where the distance is 2 to 5 miles is usually not 
more than 3 or 4c. per ton-mile, say 8c, for moving the 
materia] 2 miles and 12c. for moving it -3 miles. For 
shorter distances the cost does not decrease much, as the 
expense is principally at the terminals. However, in a 
well-regulated tramway Less than a mile long, operating 
with self-dumping buckets, the cost may be as low as 
4c. per ton. Where only a small quantity is handled, 
say 100 tons per day. the cost becomes relatively high, 
because over-head expense is proportionately large. 

Boiler explosions in the United States during 1915 
totaled 404. There were 132 deaths and 236 injured 
persons therefrom. In California 9 explosions were re- 
ported, causing 7 deaths. Tentative boiler safety-orders 
have been prepared for this State. The code covers the 
subjects of inspections, ultimate strength of material 
used in computing joints, minimum thickness of plates 
and tubes, specifications of metals used in building boil- 
ers, construction and allowable working pressures for 
power boilers, riveting, calking, requirements for man- 
holes and wash-out holes, safety-valves, water and steam 
gauges, fittings and appliances, hydrostatic tests, etc. 
The boiler code of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers has been incorporated and made a part of the 
tentative orders, with a few changes affecting existing 
installations only. 

.I.ih 15, 1916 

MINING and Scwnt.hc PRESS 


As MVfl tit fJM SPOvM'l lifi-iit minim! OIRlFM I'v nur DfJBfl ii>rr,-\pnridtllt«. 

Zim Hutu vm> Paoaracn n Born, 

The following notes and map give a good Idea of the *lnc 
l>om<itillltlca of this well-known copper region: 

The Unite & Superior Mining Co. ( formerly the Unite k 

Bnperlor Copper Co.) is hoisting 68,000 tons of it-, sine ore 

pel month through Its Black Hock shaft. Tin- two Dew shafts 
that .lie tttlng sunk in the Black Hock Claim ale dOWD 700 11 
One of them has already bean raised from tin- I I"" I! lo ahove 
the 80"-ft. level. The remaining ground will In- taken out anil 
the shaft completed from the surface to Hun ft. by July 1". 
Foundations of the two mw electric hoists arc being prepared, 
tpected to have both new shafts In operation this year. 
With three shafts the company will have the hest hoisting 
facilities at Butte, and production of the B. & S. need never 
again suffer from inability to hoist ore or lower timber, More 
extensive development can also he carried on, as there will he 
better arrangements for transferring waste from one level to 
another. The mill is near the mine, and an extraction of about 
obtained by concentration and flotation. This recovery 
will lie improved by changes now being made. The monthly 
concentrate contains 16,500.000 lb. of zinc, 340,000 oz. of silver, 
ami 250,000 lb. of lead. The company has purchased the Mas- 
todon claim, north of the Butte-New York ground, which is 
controlled by the B. & S. No development is being done in the 
Butte-New York at present. The B. & S. was the first at Butte 
to develop a large quantity of zinc ore. The large block-quartz 
manganese outcrops were worked in the early days for silver. 
Later, the predecessors of the present owners organized a com- 
pany to explore the veins at depth in- the hope of finding copper. 
No copper ore was found, but large bodies of sphalerite were 
disclosed. It then became necessary to find a satisfactory 
method of treating the ore. The mill feed averaged 17% zinc, 
and smelters would not buy concentrate in which the percent- 
age of zinc was less than 50';. Development of the flotation 
process has been an important factor In the solution of the 
milling problem. Concentrate is still being shipped to smelters 
in Kansas and Oklahoma. In a recent interview, D. C. Jack- 
ling, managing director of the Butter & Superior, said: 

"Since acquiring the Butte & Superior property about five 
years ago. we have mined more than 1,250.000 tons from the 
upper levels and yet there is today more than double the ton- 
nage in sight on those levels than was calculated as fully 
developed when we toqk over the property. I refer particularly 
to the levels above the 16th. We have done much development 
work on the 17th and a limited amount on the 18th; and have 
opened on these levels in the east end of the property, in virgin 
ground, more ore than was in sight in the entire property when 
we first started operations. Orebodies of the Black Rock claim 
are extending east far beyond the boundaries of the Black Rock 
into the Four Johns claim. So large now are the ore reserves 
of the Butte & Superior that the company can go on producing 
indefinitely at the present rate of 180,000,000 lb. of zinc an- 
nually. Butte & Superior can produce metal at less than 4c. 
per pound, and even should the spelter market drop back to 
6c. the company can make a profit of 2c. and earn per share 
better than $12 annually." 

The Elm Orlu adjoins the Butte & Superior ground on the 
west. The same large lode extends through both properties. 
The ore is the same in character and grade as the B. & S. ore. 

ami tii- ; treatment mllar. The mill le situ- 
ated mi the opposite aide ol the cltj ami is handled In 

50-ton railroad cars. About 800 tons ol or* is hoisted dall) 
this quantity will i,e Increased materially when the Dew elec 
trie hoist is Installed. The new b is being i. 

steel and brick, and is practically half completed, 
The Elm Orlu Mining i !0 reports that it mined 20 

of zinc ore, averaging $18.62 per ton, The gross value was 
$8,717,498. Expenditure Included $1,011,687 for mining. $1,- 
788,862 for milling. $lus.s2:; for transport of concentrate to 
smelter, and $18,029 for construction. The net profit was 
$495,757, during the year ended June 30, 1916. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. is making 25 tons of high 
grade spelter per day by its new leaching process at Anaconda. 
The Lexington and Poulin mines are supplying most m the ore 
for this plant. The ore is graded up to 15'; zinc at the mines. 
180 tons being mined each day. The company has several other 
mines that will be called upon to furnish zinc ore for the large 
leaching plant that is being built at Great Falls. Occasionally 
cars of ore are sent from these mines to the Anaconda experi- 

.. ?htt\ ;.. 

(KAC/oy*. ■■-■ v ' ffi >V^ . 

; --J. • r 'MK£ Jnacona? 

'icxiNOTm '-•-.. I , 

.-' ' ', - PClJt!k'^nac?r I ■ 

•jple froduomg Copp- 

Oranjtt . - - ■ 
(Under Option To Anaconda) ."-_^— '-* ' 


mental plant for testing purposes. The ore is concentrated and 
then leached with sulphuric acid. Some of the iron and copper 
goes into solution also, but the lead and silver remain in the 
residue. The. iron is precipitated with lime and the copper 
with zinc-dust. The zinc in solution is then precipitated by 
electrolysis. The zinc is deposited in spongy form. The 
cathodes have knobs and irregularities on them, similar to 
those formed in the electrical precipitation of copper; cathodes 
are melted and cast into molds. Concentration of the zinc ore 
will be done at Anaconda, and the product shipped to Great 
Falls for leaching. If the ore could be milled at Butte it 
would eliminate 50 miles of railroad haul, but there is a 
scarcity of water here; for that reason the large copper works 
of the company were built at Anaconda. The Butte & Superior 
is obliged to buy water from the city water system, although 
all of the water that is pumped from the mine is used in the 
mill. The Timber Butte mill, in which Elm Orlu ore is treated, 
gets its water from artesian wells in the flat south of the city. 
The Alice is a famous old silver producer that was recently 
purchased, and it is now unwatered to prospect for zinc ore. It 
is on the same large lode that goes through the Butte & Su- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 15, L916 

perlor and Elm Orlu properties, and lis chances ol developing 
Into a large sine producer are ronaidered good. The shaft baa 
alread ed to the 600-ft, level. 

The Nettle, another old silver producer has been unwatered 

ami repaired to the 600-ft level, it is situated on the western 

id there hat been no deep development near it. 

however, will dfnbtleag pay for re-opening the 

mine, which has an excellent chance to become a sine pro- 

ducer when opened al depth. [for over two weeks the Nettle 

■ ii making regular slni nta Oi ore. Two ore-lilns are 

under construction at the mine. 

The Lexington mine waa formerly controlled by the late F. 
A Utilize. It has produced considerable Btlver and copper 
Exploration and development of zinc ore Is being carried on 
with satisfactory results. The Lexington is expected to be 
one ol the big zinc producers ol Butte. 

i ii. elicit will also be a zinc producer. This Fractional 
claim ol six acre's was purchased from the Pilot Untie com- 
pany for $1,125,000 cash. The claim is near the ltulte ft Su- 
perior, and contains both zinc and copper ore; but much of 
it was tied-up In the litigation that resulted In the sale of the 
property. There Is a three-comps haft down 211511 ft. 

Mining will i"' resumed as soon as the new hoist Is Installed, 

Among the Anaconda company's mines that have, been cop- 

reducers In the past and In which zinc ore is now being 
a-oul ma] be mentioned the East Colusa, Gray Rock, 

and I'onlln. They will be In a position to hoist ore when the 

Great Palls works are completed. 

The Emma belongs to the Butte Copper Zinc c.i. Inn is 
being opened by the Anaconda company. The shaft Is down 
-no it ., and development Is under way on that level and also 

:il mm. inn and c; 'mi i ■ 1 ■ - 1 aide '.inr ore lias alreaili lieell 

blocked out, bul it is a lower grade than that found in the 

northern pari of unite, and sorting will have to be resorted 

to If an average of 1 r.' , zinc is In be maintained. A cross-cut 

is being drive- i the 1600-ft level from the Gegnon, and as 

soon as it reaches s point under the Emma shaft raising will 

begin, A new hoist capable of hauling ore from a depth of 
8000 ft. has been installed, and the work of sinking the shaft 
in mi ,i the raise from 1600 It. will be begun immediately. The 
Unite Copper Zinc Co. has 500.000 shares issued. Anaconda 
took over inn. nnn shares al *l each cm April 5. It has a further 
option mi an additional 88,000 shares good mi 1 1 1 .Inly 10. and 

contingent on opening of the mine to the 1800-ft. level, in- 
cluding shares bought in the open market, it is surmised that 
Anaconda will have a majority interest in the Emma mine. 
The Anaconda and Unite ('upper Zinc companies share equally 
in the profits of the Emma for Ave years more, which virtually 
gives Anaconda 75'; of the profits, 

The Untie Del mil Copper ii Zinc Mining Co. was organized 
by Philadelphia. Boston, Detroit, and Canadian capital to take 
over the Ophir mine and mill from the Butte Central Copper 
Co. The Ophlr produced some silver ore. and a 150-ton mill 
was erected to concentrate and cyanide the low-grade ore. 
The mill is In good condition, is on the Butte, Anaconda & 

Pacific Hacks, and maj be opened as a custom mill. The 
equipment consists of a gyratory crusher, Chilean mill grind- 
ing to M mesh, and Bve Deleter tables. The tailing goes to 
Aklns' classifiers and the sand product to a tube-mill, then to a 
cone classifier, the underflow Feeding 8 Deleter slime-tables. 
The tailing is dewatered and sent to the cyanide plant, which 
consists of Aklns-Rotherwell continuous agitation tanks. Port- 
land tutors, and sine-boxes The three-compartment shaft was 
down 1066 Ft., is now being sunk unci will tie ultimately opened 
to a depth of 2500 ft, The vein will be thoroughly explored at 
depth in the hope of finding zinc or copper ore. The old hoist 
Is capable of working to a depth of 1500 ft. A station hoist 
win be put in at thai level ana later, if conditions warrant it, 

a new hoist will be installed. The Ophir contains a large. 

strong mill' zinc has been found on the upper levels. 

naconda continues to develop Its Douglas mine In Idaho. 


Zl\c, Li.aii, \mi Pvicmi: MiiikH's in .1 

Reports covering June operations In the Wisconsin zinc dis- 

iin i- show Intensifies activity in all departments. A gradual 
lowering ofcjthe price of zinc ore in no way discouraged o|>- 
matiirs. many of whom frankly admit the day of sky high 
prices for blende is over, and that the new adjustment of 
must be met with sense. Blende averaged Jss.i^ per 
ton in Ma] ; in June the average was $7N.12, but the drop of 
$ln per ton applied more nearly tn the prices ruling on stand 
nrd 6091 concentrate. On the lower-grade products discrimi- 
nation was so sharp that on the low values no offerings were 
submitted by ore-buyers, and the close of the month found 
8000 tons of concentrate unsalable, and likely to remain a 
drug on the hands of independent operators until by pre- 
arrangement this material can be diverted to separating plants 
doing custom work, and the ore converted into high-grade ma- 
terlal. The New Jersey Zinc Co., nevertheless, producing 
heavily from Its own string of mines In the field, offered an 
outlet lo much Independent production, and the National Zinc 

Ore Separating Co. and the Wisconsin Zinc Co. received low- 
grade ores from mines nol con ited with these corporations. 

On the lower grades the following list of prices obtained: 
66%, $7.",; .'.ii',. )46; 16%, 840; 40%, $86; 86%, $81, and 
80%, $25. BelOW 8091 no buying was recorded, and there are 
many producerB in the lielcl whose average grade falls below 
this figure. Some of the higher-grade ore was carried over 
as well, but this was clue to the belief that prices would re- 
cover, enabling operators to realize on their holdings to better 

Heavj rains prevailed at all points in the Held from the 
LOth to the 20th of the month, making ore deliveries to track 
almost impossible. Production was fairly well maintained, 
going over 40,000.000 lb. of crude concentrate, though cur- 
tailed output was manifest among producers who learned that 
no market was at hand for low-grade concentrate. Net de- 
liveries out of the field to smelter direct exceeded 20.000,000 
Mi, i In greater part of this being high-grade refined ore from 
the magnetic zinc ore-separating plants operating In the field. 
The Mineral Point Zinc Co. during the month of June shipped 
lo smelter at DePue 5,012,000 lb. of high-grade separator 
product; National Separating Co., Cuba, 4,020,000 lb.; Wis- 
consin Zinc Co.'s roasters at Benton and Galena. ::,f>3K,00i> Hi.; 
and Galena Refinery Co.. 1,100.000 lb. The Frontier group of 
zinc- producers shipped 1,581,000 lb. out of the Benton district 
in the Grasselll Chemical Company. 

The wage question arose during June, several leading op- 
erators claiming that lower prices for zinc ore will surely de- 
termine a lower wage-scale. Men of all classes in the field are 
in in well paid and no reductions have been intimated as yet, 
Inn agitation at times dwelt on this feature of the industry 
With prospects of probable trouble. Many new zinc mines 
were developed during the month. Several new power and 
concentrating plants were completed at different points, and 
given satisfactory trial-runs. More drilling machines were 
worked night and day than were reported a year ago when 
piicis were so high. Strikes of rich deposits were numerous, 
and leasing was again in great favor, more especially in the 

southern districts. 

Lead ore was In good demand at the beginning of the month 
ai prices running well up to $90 per ton. Here. too. appre- 
ciable declines were registered, and the price at the close of 
the- month stood below $S0 per ton for 809S ore. Sales and 
■ mis were light and a fair quantity was carried over in 

Shipments of pyrlte were the lightest of any one month for 
the year, namely. 2. 550. win lb, This all came from the Na- 
tional Zinc Ore Separating Works at Cuba. In this instance 
the Shipper was protected by a contract wisely drawn at a time 
when the fine pyrlte obtained as a by-product at magnetic sep- 

.Inly 16, 1916 

MINING and SoMtib I'KI SS 


aratliiK planta » .m Id Rood demand Al all of th< 

aratlnc planta to the n.-l.l |M» tg product wm carried over. 

anioiiiiiliiic .i! tli'- . ikI Dl Um month to millions 

wiih prices fur commercial sulphuric add h I k h . the in«-k of 

demand (or tin* rluna of mud-rial Btemed all the in.. 

plalnat.lp. and thr t.-n. ml munao-i ol OM «< Um 

planta almd »hat a|>|iearrd a ami Illation ' 1 1 ■ • ■ 

■ loua lutrraae In arldmakliiK .a|.,..lh In ihe United 
State-. •>• ulvrn a* one reaaon >"ii (In- mora plausible reaaon 
waa Klvrn In hlch prices (or a|M>t acid. Whil h DMlHi l< more 
profitable td DM native sulphur from lbs iiiiiihh of l-oiilal- 
ana and high-trade aulphur ore giving larger Mid r. 

Id 'I. -piirtiui-nl ..f Um Xi.» Jersey Zlne Co. 111 Mineral 
Point Increased lia capacity sufficiently in > i.lil oni 
tank-rar dally, which m promptly routed out to th<- United 
Statra Steal Corp. and other Eastern outlets. At the HUM HUM 

EiUC Co gave notice n( III. III. ell prices ill zinc 

■■. take effect .1 1 1 1 > 1 Heavy import:iiiotis of Mexlcnn 
ralamlne ore and Canadian carbonate of zinc ore were also re 
ported for the month at the oxide works of this company. 

Producers of carbonate of zlne ore in the northern districts 
of the field were favored by rain, and plenty of water tor 
outdoor washing plants increased local production. 


Cii|-|-IK AM" <*..'U> IN MAMI.illA. — III. Ml. H'.IIIM.IK imi Otiii:k 
I'oKiIIIM. .MlMv- Cilll.M I Al m lilts. — KlKKI AMI I.Vkl 

M i 1 1 i 11 K Is making great progress In Manitoba this season. 
A rush to the Rice Lake district has set-in, and numerous com- 
hare been organized to operate there. The copper area 
north of The Pas Is also attracting much attention. The dis- 
covery last year of valuable copper deposits, by .lack Haiimi ill. 
a well-known Toronto prospector, 110 miles north-west of The 
Pas, near the eastern boundary of Saskatchewan, has been 
taken over by the Guggenheim Interests of New York, who 
have commenced development. They have three drills at 
work, and have blocked-out ore estimated at $.15,000,000. The 
Tonopah Co. of Nevada is operating along the same copper 
ri.1;.'.-, farther to the south-east, and opening rich ore. The min- 
eralized ridge extends from the north-west part of the province 
in a south-easterly direction to Herb lake, 175 miles distant. 
where rich gold claims are being developed by a syndicate 
headed by the Hon. Hugh Armstrong, formerly provincial 
treasurer of Manitoba. But little prospecting has so far been 
done In the central part of this area, which is thought to be 
rich In copper. As In the case of the Rice Lake goldfields, de- 
velopment Is much retarded owing to the lack of railroad 
facilities. A mining exchange is to be operated for dealing In 
local share issues in Winnipeg early in July; probably at a 
later date it will obtain facilities for trading in Eastern stocks. 
It. ('. Wallace, provincial mineralogist, is making an inspection 
of the Rice Lake field; an official report will shortly be issued. 

The Dome company at Porcupine made a new high record in 
Hay, milling 39,400 tons, yielding $189,600, from an average 

grade of $4.80 per ton. The statement of the Hollinger for 

the 4 weeks ended May 19 shows gross profits of $154,369, from 
the treatment of 33,558 tons of ore, averaging $8 per ton. 
Working costs were $3.33 per ton. Considering the heavy- 
advances in the cost of materials, particularly explosives, the 

reduction of costs to this figure is considered excellent. 

The Niplsslng of Cobalt is taking over the Plenaurum property, 

in which some of its officials are largely Interested. The 

West Dome is improving with depth. At 250 ft. a shaft sample 
was taken from a width of 7 ft. G in., which gave $41.20 per 

ton. Two other veins have been cut in diamond-drilling. 

During May the Schumacher produced bullion to the value of 
$20,908, with net profits of $6060. Some 300 ft. of driving has 
been done on one of the new veins found on the 600-ft. level. 
It Is about 6 ft. wide and Is of good milling grade. A merger 

la belu( arratiKrd betwi ond and the Harontt 

Hi 1 hompson 1 li- 
mine bu no...! ore mi fiiur lorela, 1. ut bas been anal 

funds for 1 1 ..r ,< mill It la propoerd If the deal 

r.«u«h to enlarge the vlpond mill to a eai 
per day. 

silver mining al Cobalt is buey; man] propertlea thai had 
been eloaad (or sunn- time are again Ming worked. 

Work baa been started on tbt SS-mlls tranamlaelon-l it 

the Northern Ontario Llghl & Powei Co 1 1 Coball to Kirk- 

iiin.i Lake ii is expected thai thi c pan) will be able to 

deliver powei to the latter planta early in Beptamber, Thla 
win civ.- a greal Impetus to gold mining, 

Tin- Boston C k Gold Mines, Ltd., capitalized at $:. 

of which i-'. m. Richardson or New fork i« president, lias taken 
over the holdings of ih.- it. a i' Syndicate al Boston Creek, 
Including the townslte. H. D. Bymsa has been appointed 


Mm um 1 1 A. 1 1\ 11 res. 

Daily progress in unwatering and repairing the old E Its 

shall is -J" ft., and since Hie pumps began discharging BDOUl 
the middle of June, the water has been removed to a point 
240 ft. from the surface. The shaft-timbers are found to be 
in a good state of preservation, many of the sets simply re- 
quiring a little timber and a general lining up. This tact, 
coupled with the successful operation of the pumps, accounts 
for the good progress being made. 

The new mill at the Treasure mine began crushing on July 
5 and appears to be giving good results. The plain Is 
using Hardinge ball-mills Instead of stamps. The crusher is 
on a high reinforced concrete frame vertically above the mill 
ore-bins. Below the crusher Is a trommel. The trommel over- 
size goes to a ball-mill using large steel balls. The trommel 
under-size, together with the ball-mill discharge is screened on 
16-mesh. The screen over-size is ground In ball-mills using 
small steel balls. The flow-sheet of the lower part of the mill 
is much like that of the Plymouth. A shaking amalgamator, 
Wilfley tables, Delster-Overstrom tables and Frue vanners are 
used. It is stated on good authority that the ore-shoot cut in 
sinking the shaft last year has widened out to such an extent 
that there will be no difficulty in keeping the plant employed 
steadily on good-grade ore. This mine is situated between the 
Bunker Hill and Fremont properties, north of Amador City. 

Construction of the new Argonaut mill is well under way. 
a large part of the machinery having been installed and the 
buildlng near completion. Much of the iron-work for this new- 
mill has been made at the foundry of the Knight company at 
Sutter Creek. C. G. Cahill. one of the contractors, has been in 
Jackson for several days past, supervising installation of the 
crushing plant. While several new devices for saving gold 
will be introduced at this niijl, the company does not contem- 
plate the use of ball-mills nor of flotation. While the new 
equipment is being erected, the old 40-stanip mill east of the 
shaft continues to reduce some of the highest grade ore being 
treated in the county. The lowest levels of this mine are fully 
as valuable in ore reserves as the levels above. 

Sinking is in progress at the Kennedy mine, good progress 
being made from the 3750 to the 3900-ft. level, vertical depth. 
The 100-Btamp mill is in constant operation on ore extracted 
principally from the lower levels. The old north shaft is kept 
open in addition to the main east workings, thus affording a 
safety exit as well as better ventilation, and serving also as a 
supply channel for getting supplies to the working levels. Smith is still superintendent of this mine, which is 
paying its shareholders good quarterly dividends. 

.1. 0. Satler, well-known in mining circles in Amador county, 
and in Humboldt county, Nevada, lost his life in an automobile 
accident which occurred on July 2 near an antimony mine in 
which he was interested at Unionville, Nevada. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15. 1916 


The news of (lie week as (old by our special correspondents and compiled from the local press. 

In its mid-year reports on the mining industry the U. S. 
Geological Survey makes the following remarks: 

The mines and smelters of Arizona have been working at 
so high a pressure in 1916 that they are probably making 
record productions of all metals. If they continue to work at 
the present rate during the year they will make an output of 
over 600.000,000 lb. of copper, against about 450,000,000 lb. in 
1915. There is much greater activity in gold and zinc mining. 

There has been much greater activity in the mining in- 
dustry in California for the first six months of the year, as 
compared with the conditions in the first half of 1915, but it 
has been largely in the direction of the re-opening of old prop- 
erties which have been idle for years. Less gold, by $366,000. 
has been received by the Mint and smelters. Aside from gold, 
silver, copper, and lead mining there has been thus far in 
1916 a heavy demand for such minerals as chrome, tungsten, 
magnesite, manganese, antimony, etc., and a great many mines 
of this character have been opened and are shipping some to 
the East for the first time. There has been greater gold- 
mining activity in the Mother Lode counties than has been the 
case for a long period. Hydraulic mining has not been active 
outside of Trinity and Siskiyou counties, but some new mines 
have started up in central California. The gold-dredging 
industry continues in a flourishing condition. Copper mining 
has been very active owing to the high price of the metal. 

inning the first six months of 1916, according to returns 
received by the Survey, the output of Colorado indicates a 15% 
decrease in the yield of gold, little change in the production 
of silver, a small increase for lead, an increase of 30'. [or 
copper, and a small increase for zinc. 

Unusual conditions in Idaho make it impossible to estimate 
accurately the lead output of the State, but shipments are 
being made at the rate of about 360,000,000 lb. of lead per 
year. There will be a correspondingly large output of silver, 
and a great increase in the total value of the State's output of 
metals. Important changes are in progress in the metallurg- 
ical industry. 

The unusually high prices of metals in 1916 have stimulated 
mining to a marked degree in Montana, especially at Butte. 
At the present rate of production, there will be notable in- 
creases in the output of all metals, and a marked increase in 
the total value. 

Mine reports received by the JJ. S. Geological Survey from 
V. C. Heikes of the Salt Lake City field office indicate that 
during the last six months the mining industry in Nevada has 
experienced one of its greatest revivals. Gold will show 
little increase; silver may gain; lead, copper, and zinc will 
record big increases. 

The mines of New Mexico during the first half of 1916 show 
small increases for gold and silver, and appreciable increases 
in lead, copper, and zinc. 

No changes of moment in the mining situation in Oregon are 
noted by Charles G. Yale, of the Survey, for the period under 
review. The bullion receipts of the Mint and smelters at San 
Francisco show that the output of gold has increased $107,- 
000 and that of silver 14,000 oz. in the first five months of 1916 
over the output of the corresponding period in 1915. The in- 
crease in gold is due entirely to dredging operations. 

High prices of metals during the last six months caused 
Utah producers to employ all available miners extracting ore. 
In some of the snow-bound camps large quantities of ore were 

stored during the winter months, and when this was released 
to the buyers a curtailment was requested by the smelters of 
all producers exceeding contract limits. 

The mines of Washington, for the first 6 months of 1916 
promised increased production in the five important metals 
for the year. The industry generally seems to be in better 
condition than for several years past. 


In Professional Paper 9S-C. of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
Bertrand T. Johnson discusses the retreat of the Barry glacier 
near Port Wells, Prince William sound, during the years 1910 
and 1914. The total retreat was 8200 and 2500 ft. respectively 
along the eastern and western edges. 


The June output of the Alaska Gold Mines was 164,800 tons 
of $1.06 ore, compared with 175,215 of $1.40 in May, and 165,930 
of 94 cents in April. Recovery in June was 79.259c, with 22-c. 
tailing: the May extraction was 82.25%. None of the better 
grade ore from No. 5, 6, and 7 levels east reached the mill 
until June 17. On July 3 there was treated S700 tons, a record. 
Shares have receded to $16.75. 


An order-in-council by the Canadian government on March 
25 placed an embargo on the shipment of asbestos from Canada 
to other than British ports, but permitted shipments to the 
allied countries on special license. This looked like a great 
hardship on American manufacturers, but it means much to 
the owners of asbestos mines and prospects in Arizona, says 


the Arizona State Bureau of Mines. In 1915 there was a great 
increase in the production of high-grade asbestos in Arizona, 
most of the lower grade in the country coming from Georgia. 
The embargo creates a local demand and Arizona is one of the 
few States that can supply it. With the opening of the 

Juli IS 1916 

MINING tod Sdaatifc I'KI SS 

103 mines and tin- production ol asbeeto* i 
•(able ba»l*. Whell the .: u H iil l.«- 

abi. te with Canadlai vhleh heretofore baa 

nppll • ater part of the world'! supply, 

On > I a i 

Churn drilling hna been r. turned bj the Inspiration V 
pp*r Co. at Miami, eventually T drills will ba 

During tin- bwi weak ••( Ions than «.is laid i^"" ft ol Hn. 
■ •••r .pipe, whieb I I with ii»' pumping plan) ol th« 

Miami Southwestern. nn>l whleh »HI supply adequate a 
to the two ilium iiriiis now on tin- iroand aii lumber and 
material is ready tor the erection of mean ami boat 
bouse*, blaehsmlth-ahop, assay-onice, ami tin- general ..;■ 

of the i-oiii|ianjr. 

OB I laj last week the Inspiration Consolidated mine 

dneed 19 : is ol ore in 24 hours. The i.iv Oak section 

l» yielding high-grade slllclous ore. Preparations are under 
for construction Ol two more units at the mill. A Kansas 
<'lt\ firm has the contract for steel erection. 

\< Clobe the Old Dominion mine is producing 1200 tons of 

dally. The smelter Is treating a good deal of custom ore, 

Including some from the United Verde Extension at Jerome. 

Moll Wl Co] MY 

Correspondence.)— Announcement has been made 
that Oatman Is to have a custom mill Mr. Brush, superintend- 
ent of the Cold Dust, Is now In Los Angeles perfecting arrange- 
ments for the resumption of milling at this property, and It 
is Stated that the company would employ some of its stamps 
on custom ore The mill Is completed, and only needs a few 
repairs to allow starting within :S0 days. The pumping plant 
of the Cold Dust company will also be started If present plans 
materialize to bring the water from the Colorado river to the 
property for milling and domestic purposes. 

Dnrlng the past week the Big Jim mine had a visitors' day, 
being thrown open for inspection by the public. This prop- 
el t\ is a mine The developments are everything that was 
Claimed for them, particularly on the 400 and 485-ft. levels. 
•■ s were taken right across the fate of the drift at 400 ft. 
and gave 1668 and $333 per ton. The superintendent, Mr. 
Keating, said that this orebody would average around $400. 

Oatman, July 5. 

For the first time since last October 20 stamps are being 
operated In the mill of the Tom Reed company, Instead of ten. 
Pinal County 

In hole No. 43, 200 ft. north of No. 21, the Ray Hercules 
company at Ray has cut 51 ft. of 1.5% copper ore. The ore is 
extending north instead of to the fault. It has been definitely 
<lecided to erect a 1000-ton mill, employing flotation. 
Yavapai County (Jerome > 

The Hull and Cleopatra properties have been acquired by 
the United Verde Copper Co. for a large sum. The company is 
to increase Its mine and smelter force considerably. 

At 1400 ft. in the Cnited Verde Extension the orebody has 
been developed by 2000 ft. of lateral work and two raises up 
100 ft. A winze is being sunk 200 ft. below the level. There 
is blocked out 600,000 tons of 16% ore. A new two-compart- 
ment shaft for hoisting ore only, is to be sunk. The company 
is shipping to smelters in Arizona, at a considerable distance 
from Jerome, over 7000 tons of ore per month, averaging 20% 
copper, resulting in net profits of about $350,000 for several 
months past. These earnings are due in part to the prevailing 
high prices for copper. Cash on hand is $793,882; there is due 
from ore shipped approximately $1,000,000, making a total of 


Amadob County 
Mining of chrome ore in the vicinity of lone is increasing in 

Importance The Jniiu Barllll mine is b nmaaos shipping 

lit .ih 

•lamp mm. i rlj ■ Umax mint 


son In the same dlatl 

El INIIIUNI Col v m 

i ding to iiurr Brans 1 1 " miles ol 

river channels, containing gold-bearing gravel, in thla county, 

The> ii,. .,i .i depth "i a tea DO it. below iii. Mirfaca 

One is known as the 'Blue Lead;' the other the 'Bad' •■ 

i.e. iii ' The deposits ure. from :' to ::u ft. thick, with a grada ..i 

$2 to t'' per ton ol gravel, 

Ni \ loa Ooi \ n 

It Is now fairl> certain that the Munliie mine neai Ni 
City Is to be reopened. Prior to closing 7.'. nun were em- 
ployed. The Sultana mine, closed tor two years, is now 

employing 1" nun. in charge of A. W. Crase. 

On July I a first-aid contest was held at Crass Vail. 
suiting in the North Star winning with 95.5%, followed closely 
by the Empire team. 

Shasta Cm vn 

County assessments for this year will be $2,000,000 great t 
than they were In 1915. Nearly all classes of property had 
increases, including $250,000 extra on the Mammoth Copper 
Co.'s holdings, $40,000 on the Mountain Copper, and $25,000 
on the Balaklala. 


The Alleghany district, according to the Nevada City News, 
is more active than for many years. During 1915 fresh capital 
became available for mines. The Plumbago mine Is to add 5 
stamps to its present 15 head, making a daily capacity of up 

to 70 tons. At the Morning Glory, adjoining the Tightner, a 

compressor, hoist, and 5-stamp mill are to be erected. The 

Sixteen to One owners are installing a 75-hp. hoist, and are 

considering a mill. Joshua Hendy of San Francisco is to 

supply a 50-ton plant for the Twenty-One. In addition to the 

Lane mill now working. An Allis-Chalmers ball-mill is in 

course of erection at the Irelan mine. A compressor has 

been ordered for the Louise Consolidated, in charge of C. O. 
Jackson. These extensions of plant will raise the dally ca- 
pacity 100 tons, making a total of 350 to 400 tons, employing 

300 men in mines and plants. Results at the rich Tightner 

mine continue satisfactory. 

The Forest City district Is also to have a good year, judging 
by proposed work and prospects of the North Fork, Wisconsin, 
South Fork, Young America, Cincinnati, York-Finney, and 
other gravel and quartz properties. 

Electric power is available throughout these districts; roads 
are good, labor is satisfactory, wood is abundant, and mails 
are regular. 

Trinity County 

A 5-cu. ft. dredge, composed of parts from an old boat, is to 
be constructed on the Paulsen ranch, near Lewiston, by the 
Trinity Star Dredging Co. Fred Paulsen is a director of this 
concern, which Includes W. F. Davis, S. Keeler, and W. B. 
Winston of San Francisco. 

Tuolumne County 

For the Dutch-App mines a large hoist has been ordered. 
An option has been secured on the J. App ranch, west of the 
App mine, for dumping purposes. 


Lake County (Leauville) 

Drainage of the Harvard shaft and surrounding ground to a 
depth of 407 ft., by the U. S. S. R. & E. Co., is nearly com- 
pleted. In 94 days there was 175,000,000 gal. of water re- 
moved. A month will be required to clean-up the debris, lay 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 15, 1916 

track, and cut a pump-station. Sinking 300 ft. deeper will 
then be started. Prescott steam sinking-pumps are to be used. 

Teller Cov.nty (Cripple Creek) 

(Special Correspondence. I — Gold production for June, as 
reported by the mills and smelters, is as follows: 


Tons Value value 

Golden Cycle. Colorado City 39.000 $17.00 $663,000 

Portland. Colorado Springs 10,000 20.00 200,000 

Portland. Victor mill 18,1 18,375 

Portland. Independence mill 9,696 2.16 20.943 

Smelters. Denver and Pueblo 4.500 55.00 247.500 

Reid-Gold Sovereign mill 700 3.2o 2.275 

Worcester-Rubie mill 300 4.26 1.275 

Total S2.946 $14.26 J1.1S3.368 

The Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction Co. paid its regular 
monthly dividend at the rate of 2c. per share, or $30,000, on 
July 10. This makes a total of $210,000 for the present year. 

On July 25 the Vindicator Consolidated distributes $90,000. 

Cripple Creek. July 1. 


The State mine inspector. Robert N. Bell, has the following 
to say about the Wood River region: 

"This area is also experiencing a revival of mining interest. 
The recent transfer of the North Star mine to the Federal Min- 
ing & Smelting Co. is an indication of vital importance to the 
continued progress of the mining industry of the State at this 
time, from the fact that the orebody of the North Star mine 
presents what is probably one of the most refractory combina- 
tions of mineral elements ever discovered. Its valuable metal 
contents are silver, lead, and zinc: but these, in important 
average value, are locked up with a. combination of sulphur, 
arsenic, iron, and antimony in such a manner as to have re- 
sisted all previous efforts for their successful separation. The 
recent development in hydro-electric metallurgical science, 
which insures the successful and profitable treatment of these 
refractory minerals, about marks the limit in ore-treatment 
progress, and presents a wide field for its further application 
to Idaho mineral resources. Some most encouraging results of 
rich ore disclosures by deep development have recently been 
encountered in the Wood River district, and a decided revival 
is manifested in that region, which contains a wide distribu- 
tion of promising ore prospects in great variety." 

Boise Coi'nty 

Operations at some of the mines in this county are briefly 
as follows: 

The National Mining & Development Co. at Placerville. A. C. 
Gallup, manager, has a 10-stamp mill, employing amalgama- 
tion, concentration, and cyanidation. The Golden Age Jr. 

Mining Co. at Pioneerville. T. H. Sedina. manager, has a mill 

treating ore by amalgamation and concentration. The Diana 

Mines Co. is developing lead-copper properties. The Wash- 
ington. Sub Rosa, and Gold Coin properties, near Idaho City, 
were recently consolidated and taken over by Oklahoma peo- 
ple. Development was started on June 1. F. E. Johnesse is in 

charge. The Lucky Boy at Idaho City is developing its mine 

and enlarging the mill, also installing power-plant. F. E. 
Johnesse is manager. 

At the Nellie mine. Horseshoe Bend. 10 stamps are crushing, 
followed by amalgamation and concentration. M. E. Hopkins 

is manager. Several properties at Pearl are being re-opened 

but there - is no production at present. 


The Idaho-Continental mine. 26 miles from Porthill. has 50 
men repairing the road. The new 300-ton mill is expected to 
be producing 60Cr lead and 30-oz. silver concentrate by 
August 1. 


Development of the Chicago-Boston Mining Co.'s property in 
Lake gulch. It miles west of Wallace, has been so good that 
a 200-ton mill is contemplated. 

During the first quarter of 1916. the Federal Mining & Smelt- 
ing Co.'s pS-ofit from 31.844 tons of ore and concentrate shipped 
was $290,890. 



(Special Correspondence.) — The most encouraging feature 
about the Ahmeek mine is the increased amount of copper in 
the ore that comes from this northern end of the mine. This 
was not expected. Two stamps are crushing ore. 

When the Calumet & Hecla took over the Isle Royale along 
with the other Bigelow properties, the officials looked on the 
former as questionable. Lower openings did not look en- 
couraging, operations were conducted at an actual loss, and 
copper w-as none too high in price. Now earnings are at the 
rate of $1,000,000 per month; the second dividend in 50 years 
has been paid, and the mine is opening well. 

No work has as yet been done to re-build the Trimountain 
stamp-mill, as the mines' output of Trimountain, Champion. 
Baltic, and Lake is cared-for in the Baltic and Champion 
mills, which are at present saving a greater percentage of 
copper than expected. The re-grinding plant is working satis- 
factorily. The burned Trimountain mill is being cut-up and 
sold at better prices than expected, as a good deal of the steel 
is fit for use in other construction work. 

It is probable that the Centennial will pay a dividend. 
Richer ore is being developed. The treasury is accumulating 
a large surplus. 

Houghton. June 27. 


Jasper COUNTY (JoplinI 

Zinc-ore prices were weaker last week, easing off to $85 per 
ton for 6<y, product. The output of the Missouri-Kansas- 
Oklahoma district was 0290 tons of blende. 32 tons of calamine, 
and 937 tons of lead, averaging $68, $50. and $75 per ton. 
respectively. The total value was $511,915. 


Mineral County 

The east Coeur d'Alene district in western Montana, around 
Saltese. is more active than for several years. Good develoi>- 
ments are reported from the Last Chance, Monitor. Silver 
Cable, and Tarbox. A mill is planned for the Silver Cable 
zinc ore. 

Siiverbow County (BUTTE) 

TO improve ventilation on the lower levels the Tuolumne 
company is raising from 2600 to 2400 ft. A winze will then 
be sunk from 2600 ft. Daily shipments are 50 tons. The 
company is re-timbering 700 ft. of the Butte-Main Range shaft. 


Esmeralda County i Goldfield) 

Final figures of the Goldfield Consolidated's May output give 
a profit of $50,693 from 32,400 tons. Development covered 
2668 ft. at a cost of $5.59 per foot. This revealed little of 
importance. Net costs were $4.66 per ton. 

The estimated production of the Goldfield Consolidated com- 
pany for June is as follows: 

Ore mined, tons 29, 1 

Gross extraction $185, 

Operating expenses 145,000 

Net realization $ 40,000 

Interesting developments are expected at 1750 ft. in the 
Atlanta during the next 30 days. Drifts and raises between 

Jnh 15, 1916 



ihos lime quantities oi ln» crndv 
ir th.n will tw treated b) notation Imrr on Work 
i In tlir Jumbo Junior I* «l«o at an iiii.-i . 
anil at I1M ft in the Merger. hi - I'm BT1 

With a capital Ol I Mlldatsd Mining * Sin. |ltlH| 

Co. ha» been formed to ononis in the Prelburs. district, nsai 

W 1. 1 .eland of 8«n Francisco I* on* of the largest 

Ni i i ..I \ i> 

In the Jlin Battel r Went F.nd rail at Tono|>ah. the Buprsmi 

t'ouri of Nevada on July 3 uphold the iIitIsIoii Dl the lower 

court, which was In favor of the West End. Tin- original case 

BOaosrnsd ore alleged to ha\. inn wrongfully extracted b] 

randan) 1 1 lodgment win be discussed In in 

early Issue of this journal. 

A rciwri has been made on the propertj of the Kansas City 
Nevada Consolidated Co. at Bruner by A. E. Swain of Kansas 
i'lt\ Missouri The altitude Is MOO ft. anil nearest railroad 
station I* Liming. 55 mlle.s west of Bruner. Fair wagon-roads 
connect. In the Paymaster rlahns 1686 ft of work has been 
I'll.- viin Is a Assure along a contact of andeslte dike 
and rhyollte The Ml value of resorvoe is $86,162, after pay- 
ing for minlnj Ud treatment of the gold ore. The Big Henry 
claims are of promise. Not enough work has been done In the 
Silent Friend claims to determine anything. The Duluth 
group Indicates that considerable ore will be available. There 
is plenty of water for all purposes. A 50-ton plant, including 
a ball-mill, crusher, copiier-plates. classifier, retort, etc.. also 
pipeline and other equipment is contemplated, costing $75,000. 


Socorro County 
lal Correspondence. I — The Mogollon Mines Co.'s clean- 
up for the last two weeks produced 14 bars of gold and silver 
bullion and S tons of high-grade concentrate. Ore treated in 
the past week was 875 tons. The new 3-conipartment shaft is 
nan t" ft. below the 700-ft. level and Is being sunk at the rate 
nf 2 ft. per day. it is In commission for regular hoisting from 
-ft. level. This property is under the management of 
S. I. Kidder. 

The Socorro Mining & Milling Co. is constructing a con- 
veyor to dispose of tailing by elevating and ftuming onto a 
comparatively flat area near the mill, to avoid discharging into 
the creek, which has caused more or less inconvenience to 
ranchers in the lower valleys in past years. The plant treats 
230 tons of ore daily. 

Surveys and measurements by Earl C. Cleaveland during the 
past two years on West Fork creek have demonstrated the 
availability of a minimum of lOOn to 1500 hp. during the dry 
seasons. For its magnitude this is probably the most feasible 
of the unappropriated water-rights within a radius of 35 miles. 
and If developed will supply the greater part of local power 
requirements. The mines for a number of years have used 
crude oil. freighted about 90 miles by wagon, as a source of 
power, at a cost of around $150 per hp.-year. The rising price 
of crude oil Is turning the companies' attention to the possibil- 
ities of water-power development, which will generate cur- 
rent at a fraction of the present cost by internal-combustion 
engines. It Is understood the operators will contract for 
power at $100 per hp.-year with any outside interests under- 
taking the Installation. 

Mogollon. June 27. 

Baker County 

The E. & E. mine at Bourne is to be examined by C. O. 
l.indburg for the American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co.. which 
holds an option on it. The property has produced gold, but 
was closed since the early 90's. 


ilie Salt Ijike enhance during the find half 
of 1011 totaled -I 

III tile Whole .,1 I'll 

: shares and $1,668,(66 In the same period of 1916. 

in Hull. 'tin i.ii a ol the r. s Qsologtba] Burvsy, iicuh M. 
Robinson rtlimsssa the osoksrlta (mineral mm deposits in 
ceiiii.ii Utah (Utah and Wasatch Bounties). Thlsmlnsral was 
also described In this Journal of June 17. bj i. 0, Howard, 
pile Quantity ol otokerlte available tor future mining In the 
l'tah field <an hardly be estimated. The length and thli 
of the Assured and fractured tones containing osokerll 
variable, even within short distances, and for areas beyond 
the limits of prospected ground no Quantitative estimate can be 

made with safety. Many of the prospects and mines, however, 
showed ozokerite In place, ami the fact that It is Irregularly 
distributed should encourage more thorough prospecting. The 
price Is now up to 40c. |ier pound. 
The Wasatch Ozokerite Co.'s new mill at Soldier Summit Is 


now operating satisfactorily, according to A. G. Burritt, a local 
engineer who recently visited the property. The company Is 
making mineral wax. 

Juab County 

The Eagle & Blue Bell mine, now producing only 50 tons of 
ore dally on account or congestion at smelters, is to sink its 

shaft from 1700 to 1850 ft. The Colorado Consolidated shaft 

is down 1300 ft., the rate being 5 ft. daily. A two-compart- 
ment shaft is to be sunk at Homansville or East Tintic by the 
Chief Consolidated company. 

The Dragon Consolidated is shipping 400 tons of iron ore 
per day, divided among the A. S. & R.. I. S., and l'. S. S. R. & 
M. companies' smelters in Utah. 

Salt Lake Covntv 

In the American Fork district the Pacific company is to 
erect a 60-ton mill. Mr. Doolittle is manager. 

At the Utah Metal & Tunnel Co.'s property at Bingham there 
are 7 sets of lessees working in 7 old adits. The company's 

profit during the first half of 1916 was over $600. upper. 

Ore is being milled and shipped to smelters, while lead ore is 
also shipped. 

Summit County (Park Cityi 

June shipments from all mines totaled 8589 tons, and 44,322 
tons for 6 months. 

Dividends paid on July 1 were $1S7,500 by the Silver King 
Coalition. $120,000 by the Judge Mining & Smelting, and 
$63,750 by the Silver King Consolidated, a total of $371,250. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 


Okanogan Countt 

The new manganese mine near Omak has been leased by the 
Mlllroy company of Tacoma. One shipment contained 20% 

Stevens County 

At a depth of 242 ft. below the outcrop. No. 2 chimney' lias 
been cut in the Electric Point mine near Northport. For 18 ft. 
the galena averaged 75% lead, also mixed carbonate and crys- 
tals with 50%. lead. Silver is over 20 oz. per ton. The remark- 
able feature of the development is the presence of so much 
crystallized lead in the carbonate ore of No. 2 chimney as to 
raise the grade from an average of 22% in the first chimney to 
50% in the newly opened orebody. Galena is being shipped 
to Trail. 

The old Germania tungsten mine near Springdale has been 
sold to German interests, with W. Von Scheck to be manager. 
Development has cost $500,000. including the 200-ton mill, 
etc.. which was dismantled recently. Litigation closed the 
property, and it never produced. 

An effort is being made to revive the old Spokane Belle 
silver mine. 35 miles north of Spokane, near Clayton, one of 
the oldest mineral locations in this part. E. H. Belden. of 
Spokane, sole owner of the property, is arranging to form a 
syndicate to finance further development. 


Bkitish Columbia 

Net earnings of the Galena Farm Mining Co.. near Silver- 
ton, were $40,000 in May. From the 100-ton mill shipments 
aggregated 759 tons of concentrate that averaged 46.5'; zinc 
and 20 oz. silrer. which netted $25 per ton. and 237 tons of 
concentrates averaging B7.3% lead and 66.1 oz. silver, netting 
$125 per ton. 

During 158 days in 1915 the British Columbia Copper Co.'s 
smelter at Greenwood treated 122,514 tons of ore. The Mother 
Lode mine contributed 105.085 tons, averaging 0.8746% copper, 
0.037 oz. gold, and 0.21 oz. silver. The sulphur content was 
3.16%, The metal output was 1.734,385 lb. of copper, 23,003 oz. 
of silver, and 5417 oz. of gold. 

The new sulphuric-acid plant of the Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co. at Trail, which will produce acid as a by-product 
from smelter fume, the first plant of the kind to be erected in 
British Columbia, is in operation. The present daily output 
is 10 tons. • 

Ontario (Cobalt) 

The Buffalo company is to treat its own concentrate instead 
of shipping this product. A roasting-furnace and dust-cham- 
ber will be erected. The concentrate, 30 tons daily, is to be 
given a chloridizing roast. A large saving in freight and 
treatment charges will follow this installation. During its 
financial year ended April 30, 1916, the Buffalo Mines Co. pro- 
duced 37,152 tons of ore, yielding 705,055 oz. of silver by all 
processes. The revenue was $524,973, and operating expenses 
$266,206. Reserves of ore in the mine and on dumps amount 
to 18.000 tons, averaging 18 oz. per ton. There is awaiting 
treatment 300.000 tons of tailing containing 1,600.000 ounces. 

At Cobalt the Nipissing refinery was recently damaged by 
fire. The machinery was not badly damaged. On June 17 
cash in bank amounted to $965,534: bullion in transit. $553,352; 
and ore and bullion on hand at the mine. $330,026: a total of 
$1,858,912. A dividend of 5% is payable on July 20. 


Details of the Oriental Consolidated company's April results 
are just to hand. The plants treated 25,142 tons for bullion 
valued at $143,701. The Taracol and Maibong mills recovered 
93.6% and 92.4%, respectively. Tree planting for the season is 
over, the work including 175,000 acacias, larch, and pines. 


\<>te: Tlf Editor ilifiles mnuhers 11/ the profession t« srn'l fatttCUiOH "J their 
work firttrrtppointmeiit*. Tliis iii/irrmoiion is interesting to our readers. 

Newton B. Knox was at Denver last week. 

F. W. Bradley was at Kellogg. Idaho, this week. 

G. G. S. Lindsey has returned to Toronto from China. 
William \V. Mein is expected shortly in San Francisco. 
Edward H. Benjamin is president of the Bohemian Club. 
Howard W. Moore is engineer to the Calaveras Copper Co., 

at Copperopolis. 

F. L. Sizeb is making an inspection of mines in the Chloride 
district. Arizona. 

Ben. B. Lawrence, who was in Oregon last week, is expected 
in San Francisco. 

Nelson Dickerman is in New Mexico, but will be in San 
Francisco at the end of July. 

J. A. L. HENDERSON, from London, passed through San 
Francisco on his way to Los Angeles. 

Otto Sussman of New York was recently at Wallace, Idaho, 
inspecting the Interstate-Callahan mine. 

Harry Heine and G. L. Clark are at the Porcupine Vipond 
mine, and H. H. Lavery is at the Dome. 

R. W. Schultz, formerly with the Mond Nickel Co., has 
joined the staff of Minerals Separation, Ltd. 

Herbert W. Gepp, of Broken Hill, Australia, is visiting the 
Bully Hill smelter. Shasta county. California. 

Ross K. Macartney has been appointed manager for the 
Rhodesia Broken Hill company, South Africa. 

G. A. Denny is acting as technical advisor to the General 
Mining & Finance Corporation at Johannesburg. 

Percy Marmion, manager of the Swansea Vale zinc plant, in 
South Wales, is visiting zinc smelters in this country. 

T. Louts Welp has been appointed superintendent for the 
Gold Reed Mining & Milling Co., at Oatman, Arizona. 

Frank Merbicks has been elected president of the Mining 
& Metallurgical Club (London I. BEDFORD McNeill is vice- 

J. B. Tyrrell, of Toronto, is spending some time in British 
Columbia. His address while there is the Vancouver hotel, 

W. A. Paine, president of the Copper Range Consolidated, 
and his son. F. Ward Paine, are visiting in the Michigan 
Copper Country. 

Clyde T. Griswoi.d is heading the Associated Geological 
Engineers' field parties for extensive examinations in south- 
western Oklahoma. 

Robert Marsh. Jr.. general mine superintendent for the 
Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., is in military training camp 
;< t .Monterey, California. 

T. H. Gill, of the North Star company's Champion mine at 
Nevada City, has temporarily joined the staff of the Cali- 
fornia Accident Commission. 

Gilbert Rigg, formerly with the New Jersey Zinc Co. has 
been appointed consulting metallurgist in zinc smelting to the 
Broken Hill Associated Smelters, in Australia. 

Joseph H. White, sanitary engineer for the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines, has resigned to take a similar position, including wel- 
fare work, with the Braden Copper Co. in Chile. 

John D. Ryan, president of the Anaconda Copper Mining 
Co., has been taking a holiday with his family at their old 
home in the Michigan Copper Country. He is now in San 

James E. Dams, formerly superintendent of the Central 
Eureka mine at Sutter Creek, has been appointed superintend- 
ent for the Calaveras Consolidated Mining Co., at Melones, 

Jul) 18 1916 

MINING «nd Scientific \'l<\ SS 



mi: i \i nil. i s 

July 11. 

Platinum soft metal. 



7.00— 7.75 






■ mi: PBII i ~ 

July 11. 
Antliu.-: luet, per unit 11 11.00 

Chrome: 40^ and ovr. f .. t> can California, per — 14.00 
■ r.o.b. oara California, Ion. 11.00— 10.00 crude, par i"" 7.00 — 10.00 

Molybdenum lOH and over, p.-r pound 0.60 — 1.15 

Tungsten 10 WOw per unit 25.00—35.00 

Potash bulletin «»r the (J s. Geological Survey is now avail- 
able, ii eontalna 38 page* of useful Information. 

(wolframite) conoentratea from the Waap 
mine, Boutb Dakota, were settled at the following 


per unit 




\\. i 

per ton 





ber - 48.08 51.51 

March 1916 62.01 82 00 

- 35.34 82.00 

In 11 lota • •( 208 tons the vnlue was »24:i.* 

(By wire from New York.) 
July 11. — Cupper Is neglected and prices are nominal; lead la 
with re-sellers cutting prices: spelter Is also neglected, 
hut the bottom is near. 


Below are given the average New York quotations, In cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 

Julv 6 63.37 

7 >;:.7:. 

8 62.00 

9 Sunday 

" 10 60.00 

" 11 



Average week ending 

81 70.81 

6 66.35 

13 64.58 

20 63.62 

27 65.49 

5 65.16 

11 62.02 

Monthly averages 


Jan 57.58 

Feb 57.63 

Mch 58.01 

Apr 68.62 

May 58.21 

Jun.- .... 





July 54.90 

Aug 54.36 

Sept 53.75 

Oct 51.12 

Nov 49.12 

Dec 49.27 



The past week's quotations Indicate sudden fluctuations, prob- 
ably due to speculation. On page 97 of this issue are some in- 
teresting notes on silver, rather 'bullish' in tone. 

Exports of silver fr.mi San Francisco during the llrst half of 
1916 amount. -d to (211.388 as coin and $1,209,105 as bullion. 

The West End Consolidated at Tonopah Is paying 10c. per 



In New 


In cents 

per pound, 





1915. 1916. 

Jan. . . . 







Feb. . . . 







Mch. . . . 





















Tin Is easy at 38.87 cents. 


The primary market for quicksilver Is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price Is fixed In the 

Una, to Quantity. 

flask of 75 pounds: 

W.-.-k ending 
Date I Ju: 

Jan.. 13 If "" July 

10 68.00 I " II . 

Monthly averages 

li. dollar! per 


Jun 39.25 

Feb. . 

Mch 39.00 

Apr. . 

May 39.00 

Juno 38.60 

1915. I'l. 1914. 1916. 

Ill 00 July 37.50 96.00 

60.00 295.00 Aug 80.00 

78.00 219.00 Sept 76.25 91.00 

77.60 141.60 Oct 63.00 

75.00 90.00 Nov 66.00 101.60 

90.00 7 1.7" I :,3.10 123.00 

The quicksilver market Is tlrm. Willi k'<>>"l enquiries. 


Prices "i sleotrolytlc In New York, In cents per pound. 



7 26.26 

8 26.25 

9 Sunduv 

10 26.25 

11 26.00 



Feb 14.46 

Mch 14.11 

A|.r 14.19 

May 13.97 

June 13.60 


.ge week ending 
May u 28.26 

June 6 28.00 

" 13 28.00 

" 20 27.17 

" 27 

July 5 

" 11 26.25 

Monthly averages 

1916. 1914. 1915. 1916 

24.30 July 13.26 19.09 

26.62 Aug 12.34 17.27 

26.65 Sept 12.02 17.69 

28.02 Oct 11.10 17.90 

29.02 Nov 11.75 18.88 

87.47 Dec 12.75 20.67 

Anaconda produced 28.100,000 lb. in .lone. an. I riah Copper. 
18.100,000 pounds. 

Profits of Inspiration for first half of 1916 are estimated at 
18.750,000. from 53,000.000 lb. of metal. Profits of Granby Con- 
solidated for year ended June 30 are estimated at 15,500,000. 

The United Verde Extension Co. pays an initial dividend of 
50c. per share on August 1. 

A 40-page paper entitled 'Comparisons between electrolytic 
and two varieties of arsenical Lake copper with respect to 
strength and ductility in cold-worked and annealed test-strips.' 
has been written by C. H. Mathewson and E. M. Thalhelmer for 
the Arizona meeting of the A. I. M. E. 


Lead Is quoted In cents per pound, New York delivery. 


9 Sunday 






Average week ending 










Monthly averages 



. 4.11 

. 4.02 

. 3.94 

. 3.86 

. 3.90 

. 3.90 










. 3.80 

. 3.86 

. 3.82 

. 3.60 

. 3.68 

. 3.80 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York 



in cents per pound. 

6 10.50 

7 10.00 

8 9.50 

9 Sunday 

10 9.50 

11 9.25 



Average week ending 

31 11.52 

6 13.20 

13 13.64 

20 13.12 

27 12.12 

5 11.40 

11 9.75 

Monthly averages 


Jan 5.14 

Feb 5.22 

Mch 5.12 

Apr 4.98 

May 4.91 

June 4.84 
















. 4.75 

. 4.75 

. 5.16 

. 4.75 

. 5.01 

. 5.40 


Trail, B. C. electrolytic plant of the Consolidated M. & S. Co. 
of Canada is producing 20 tons of zinc dally. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, July 5. 

All the metals are dull, and if quotations are not lower in 
each case, they at least are weak. 

Copper prices are fairly well sustained, considering the 
stagnation of the market. 

Zinc has continued to decline steadily. 

Lead is irregular and quiet. 

Tin is lower, and a dull month is predicted because of the 
large supply and heavy deliveries Into consumption. 

Antimony continues on the downward grade. 

Aluminum is easier. 

With the steel mills domestic business is lighter, as here- 
tofore mentioned, but specifications on the books are enough 
to insure activity to the end of the year and therefore main- 
tained prices, or at least, prevent substantial declines. Forg- 
ings for large shells constitute a large item with the larger 
mills. The total pig-iron production in June was 3.211.58S 
tons, or 107,053 tons per day, against 3,361,073 tons in May, 
or 108,422 tons daily. Furnaces are showing the effects of 
their forced operations. There is a heavy export demand for 
steel-making iron. Iron and steel exports in May totaled 
$72,918,000, against $26,536,000 in the same month of 1915. 
The total for 11 months ending May was $545,418,000, com- 
pared with $279,000,000 for the record period ending May, 1913. 

Munitions' makers who have finished their contracts are 
beginning to offer their machine-tools on the open market, 
but not to a degree which injures the industry. 


In the past week the situation in copper has undergone 
little change, and interesting features are almost entirely 
lacking. There is little demand, in fact, representatives of 
the trade say they do not see how the market could be more 
dull. Despite the quiet, prices are fairly well maintained, a 
situation which is attributed to the sold-up condition of the 
larger producers. As a matter of fact near-by copper is not 
nearly so easy to obtain as some of the daily papers assert. 
The nominal quotation for prompt electrolytic Is 26.50c. cash, 
New York, or about 26.37*c, 30 days, delivered, while Lake 
is nominally quoted at 27c. cash, for prompt. Just a trifle 
better tone is apparent, which is based on the present drive 
of the Allies against the Germans. It is argued that enormous 
quantities of ammunition are being used, and that a fresh 
demand for copper may be created. Exports in June reached 
the excellent total of 35,753 tons, a figure which has been 
exceeded in only one month since the beginning of the War. 
The London market is weak. On June 30. when the last 
cable quotation was received, electrolytic was quoted in 
London at £132. 


Quotations for this metal are weak the world over. In New 
York and at St. Louis prices have continued to decline, and 
to do so without exciting the interest of consumers. Today 
prompt zinc is easily obtainable at lie, New York, and this 
price probably could be shaded. It is equivalent to 10.25c. St. 
Louis. July delivery can be had at 10.50c, St. Louis, and 
August at 10c At London, July 3, the market dropped £10 to 
£51 for spot, and £8, to £45, f<)r futures. It is difilcult to tell 
just why the market continues to decline so steadily, al- 
though a good guess would be that new producers are eager 
to get business, while the old ones are determined to retain 
their hold on the field. Consequently there is no maintenance 
of prices, and the consumers, aware of the situation, can 
afford to stand by and see just how low prices will go. The 
market is being made by offerings. Exports last month totaled 

4275 tons* The quotation for sheet zinc is 18c, f.o.b. smelter, 
carload lots. 

Reports of the actual condition in lead are contradictory, 
inasmuch as some sellers declare they are doing a fair busi- 
ness, while others say there is nothing doing. One thing is 
certain, and that is the recent decline in the market was 
checked by some export buying, including one lot of perhaps 
5000 tons for Russia. Since then the New York quotation of 
independent sellers has been 6.85c, and that at St. Louis 
about 6.65c. although a good sale involving shipments cover- 
ing the last half of the year was made at substantial conces- 
sions from these prices. The A. S. & R. Co. continues to quote 
7c. New York, and 6.92JC. St. Louis. The London market is 
weak at a price equivalent to 6c, New York, and makes further 
export business improbable. Lower domestic prices are in- 
dicated. Exports in June totaled 2029 tons. 


The market has continued dull, and prices are lower. Aside 
from these basic features, interest is centred in the June 
statistics. These showed that the arrivals of the month 
totaled 5695 tons, and that the deliveries amounted to 6398 
tons, thereby demonstrating that consumption is heavy. Of 
the deliveries, 2198 tons came from the Pacific coast, a large 
part of which probably was Chinese tin. The heavy deliver- 
ies indicate a slow month for the brokers. The total of Amer- 
ican deliveries in the past six months was 28,621 tons, which 
compares with 22,217 tons in the first half of 1915, an increase 
of 6404 tons. In stock and landing. June 30. was 3963 tons, 
against 2468 tons, May 31, an increase of 1495 tons. The 
London market is weak. The New York quotation was easy 
at 38.87>c, July 3. but despite this low price, business could 
not be done. 


This metal is demoralized; the only question is where the 
decline in price will stop. It can be bought today at 16c, per 
lb. for spot, and 15c for futures, and it is asserted that a firm 
offer considerably below these figures would not be spurned. 
Should there be an influx of shrapnel-shell orders, the market 
would take a sharp turn upward, but such orders are not con- 
sidered probable. 


The quotation for spot No. 1 virgin aluminum, 98 to 99% 
pure is lower at 60 to 62 cents. 


Antimony: The quotation is unchanged and nominal at $2 
per unit. 

Tungsten: In a general way the situation is unchanged and 
the quotation remains unchanged at $30 to $35 per unit. No 
business of importance has been done, although there are 
several live inquiries. Some of these come from sources new 
to the sellers. The Tungsten Products Co.. Boulder. Colorado, 
has purchased a 3-ton Rennerfelt electric furnace, 150-kw. for 
making ferro-tungsten. One 3-ton electric furnace, and one 
6-ton, have been purchased by other parties, also for the manu- 
facture of ferro-tungsten. 

Melting brass and bronze with the electric furnace is not 
new in Europe, but has not been done very successfully here- 
tofore in the United States. Two Rennerfelt electric furnaces 
have just been sold by Hamilton & Hansell. New York, for 
melting these alloys. The Gerline Brass Foundry Co.. Kala- 
mazoo. Michigan, has bought a J-ton furnace for bronze, and 
the Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co., Niagara Falls. New York, has 
bought a similar furnace, also for bronze. 

Jul: i .-. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



This silver gold producing company's proper!] la lo Sumatra, 

Dutch Bsst ladles, a tan boon from Blnga] Tha report 

of tht leneral manager. K C Prey, is tor tha year 1916, 

lopmenl amounted in 1676 metres (6680 ft.) The ore- 
body was . in 00 Ni>. 7 level hi ilit' middle shall dunlin May, 

imt water makes Further work slow. PoaalbUIUea oi opanlns 
ore at depth are sufficiently encouraging u> warrant sinking 
the shaft in No. i" level; but with the electric power available 
this cannot be done yet Drought Interfered with operations 
ear. Two new power schemes have been Investigated. 
Mini- ventilation was improved, oui atopes were fllled with 

ions of waste. Ore reserves are estimated ai 220,000 
Dg $S gold ami 2 oz. B dwt silver per ton. During 


The Kedjang Li-hoim mine is in Sumatra, which Is also a 

BUllton Islands and the Malay Peninsula are large tin prod 
Burma has zinc-lead mines, also ruby deposits and. oil. In 
areas, and gold lodes. The Celebes have copper and gold n 
are well-known lode and dredging properties. New Guinea 

tbe year 13,094 tons of $9.50 gold and 2 oz. 17 dwt. silver ore 
was recovered from old stopes. This was formerly regarded 
as unprofitable. The value of the ore gets less with depth. 

There were 70 stamps operated 293 days, and 6 tube-mills 
248 days, crushing S3.329 tons of ore. This averaged 28.78 
gold and 2 oz. 15 dwt. silver per ton. There was no amalgama- 
tion done. Pulp was classified into 67.57r for slime and 32.5% 
for sand treatment. The slime plant gave 94.S3% gold and 
B4.699! silver recovery, and the sand plant 86.99% gold and 
76.649! silver. Cyanide percolates with ease through sand 
averaging 80%, passing 200-mesh. The total extraction of value 
was 90.69%. Metal recovery was 34.204 oz. of gold and 186,678 
oz. of silver, worth 1,951,500 florins (1 florin = 40 cents). The 
cost was $6 per ton. Dividends absorbed 431.250 florins or 
$172,500. Employment was given to 45 Europeans and 1747 
colored people. 

Among the experiments done during the year were included 
how to economize in cyanide and zinc, also the local treat- 
ment of slag. 


Tbe report "f Robert Btlobl fni tba adsd March 

21, 1916, uatsa that the supply id labor for tha minaa »»» In 
sufficient; ns» ft oi development was par formed; tha HI 
Lyell pyrltlc orebody was opened for 50 ft on Mo. 2 level, 
averaging 10 ft wide, which i d to ba a portion oi tha 

lowest extremity of tba deposit! favorable resulta attended 

ting a i ljiio it. in the North Lyell mine; ore n 
lu tba Mt. Lyell mine are i. 816, .10.1 Ioiib assaying 0.6891 copper, 
silver, and n. ni n/.. gold; in ibe North Lyell 1,140,841 
tons of 694 copper, L88 oz silver, and 0.005 oz. gold; In the 
South I. yell 164,362 ions of of, , upper. 0.2 oz. silver and 0.04 
0*. gold: tbe dotation plant was started on February 17. and 
in 182 hours treated 1 1 7 r, ions of Lyell Comstock ore oi 

grade for 444 tons of 8. S3", concentrate, a satisfactory 

the smelter reduced 170,992 Ions of ore, 190,375 from the Ml. 

Lyell and 69,497 from the North Lyell), flue-dust, matte, slag. 

etc.; converters produced 6,539,840 lb. of copper, 4682 oz. of 
gold, and 200,771 oz. of silver; the 
cost of producing blister-copper In 
Tasmania was $4.56 per ton of ore; 
Investigations were made on the 
recovery of sulphur from the blast- 
furnaces; and the hydro-electric 
power scheme gave complete satis- 

Owing to the good season through- 
out Australia the super-phosphate 
works at Melbourne, Adelaide, and 
Fremantle produced a large quan- 
tity of fertilizer. 

The revenue from metals, chem- 
ical products, and railroad traffic 
totaled £426,693 ($2,050,000). The 
20th dividend absorbed £80,575, 
making £3,056,492 to date. Taxes 
amounted to £65,054 (Federal, State, 
and War). The company has 
options on the Hercules, Tasmanian 
Copper, and Primose mines on the 
west coast of Tasmania. These 
ores are complex, and are being 
tested by flotation at Broken Hill. 
An average of 2.61 blast-furnaces 
was kept up. The coke works in 
New South Wales supplied the coke 
necessary. Rainfall at the mine 
was 35.67 Inches on 112 days. 
Production to date is 142,676 tons 
of copper. 11,521,543 oz. of silver, 
and 341,079 oz. of gold. 

II producer. Banka and 
ucers, also part of Siam. 
Borneo are oil. dredging 
ines. In the Philippines 
has mining possibilities. 


The financial year of this Ontario company ended on March 
31, 1916. The report of the manager, R. J. Ennls, contains 
interesting notes and three geologic plans. The property ad- 
joins the Hollinger, Schumacher, and Plenaurum mines, and 
includes most of Pearl lake. 

Development amounted to 6584 ft., also 5787 ft. of diamond- 
drilling. Payable orebodies are not found in the quartz-por- 
phyry of No. 1 shaft. Those at No. 4 are confined to an area 
of two acres of basaltic-schist. Ore reserves are estimated at 
201.920 tons, averaging $11.12 gold per ton. Mining cost 
$2.5116 per ton. 

The mill treated 105,758 tons, assaying $7,709 per ton. with 
95.6% recovery, at a cost of 96.18c. per ton. The ball-mill is 
entirely satisfactory. The plant now has a capacity of 450 
tons per day. 

The year's revenue was $775,821, of which $327,524 was 
profit. All costs were $4.2783 per ton. The balance at credit 
is $383,050. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 15, 1916 



Mm iiAMi.u. Engineer's Hanu Book. By Lionel S. Marks. 
P. 1836. Index. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. For sale 

by Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco. Price, $5. 

This work has been adapted from Hiitte. translated and re- 
vised by a large staff of specialists on various engineering 
subjects. Modifications from the original text have been 
made in order to adapt the subject matter to American use 
and conditions. It is, however, not merely a translation, as 
the greater part of the book, especially those portions deal- 
ing with engineering practice, is entirely new. Thirteen 
specialists prepared the text on the properties of engineering 
materials, while that on automobiles, aeronautics, illumina- 
tion, patent law, cost-accounting, industrial buildings corro- 
sion, air-conditioning, fire-protection, and prevention of acci- 
dents, has each been prepared by separate writers. Mr. Marks 
and his collaborators have done a splendid work in presenting 
this reference work for the benefit of the engineering pro- 

Microscopical Determination ok the Opaque Minerals. By 
Joseph Murdoch. P. 165. 111., index. John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., New York. For sale by Mining and Scientific Piu:s>. 
Price, $2. 

Three-quarters of this book consists of tables for the classi- 
fication and identification of minerals, arranged with thumb 
Indentations. The first quarter of the book treats of the his- 
tory, development, and technique of the microscopical deter- 
mination of minerals. In a preface, L. C. Gratton of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, remarks: "This scheme for determina- 
tion of opaque minerals does not require a specialized training 
for its intelligent use. Practically the only requirement is to 
follow the simple directions. The entire scheme may be mas- 
tered by anyone possessing common sense and a good eye." 
The problems that were solved in the Harvard laboratories 
by this method of investigation include: the relation of gold 
and silver in ores as affecting choice of treatment; the condi- 
tion of fine metal lost in mill tailing and in slag; the effect 
of roasting and leaching of sulphide-bearing tailing; the 
character of furnace matte; geological problems involving 
metal in pulp from drill-holes. 

The Engineer in War. By P. S. Bond. P. 176. 111., index. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. For sale by Mining 
and Scientific Press. Price, $1.50. 

This book is a revision and amplification of a series of ar- 
ticles that appeared recently in the Engineering Record. It is 
addressed mainly to the civilian engineer who is desirous of 
learning at least a little concerning the part he may be called 
upon to play in time of war. Any attempt, however, to write 
a complete treatise on military engineering is expressly dis- 
claimed. The first two chapters deal with the military policy 
of the United States and with the general duties of the mili- 
tary engineer. The various branches of military engineering 
are then discussed, emphasis being placed upon the fact that, 
whereas the civil engineer in general aims to build a per- 
manent structure at the lowest possible cost, the military en- 
gineer must build, in the least rjossible time and at whatever 
cost may be necessary, a temporary structure that will be 
serviceable. A chapter is devoted to the mobilization of ma- 
terial resources along the lines of the industrial preparedness 
census now being taken. The final chapter contains sugges- 
tions regarding ways in which engineers and contractors may 
fit themselves for military service in time of need, suggestions 
that will be much heeded by many engineers. 

M i n i no Contract — Abandon ment 

A mining contract obligated the option-holder to install cer- 
tain machinery and carry on development work. Abandon- 
ment of work for a period of six months was to operate as a 
forfeiture. Held, in a suit to quiet title and forfeit contract, 
that the obligation to commence work began with the Bignlng 
of the option, and not after the machinery was installed. 
Failure for more than a year to install the agreed machinery 
was sufficient grounds for forfeiture of the contract. 

Barandun v. Barandun Mining & Milling Co. (California 1, 
156 Pacific, 473. March 8, 1916. 

Oil Lands Claimed by United States — JURISDICTION 

A Court of Equity has jurisdiction to grant an interlocutory 
injunction in a suit brought by the United States to enjoin 
the taking of petroleum from land which the Government 
claims to own, and which constitutes its chief value, par- 
ticularly where the United States owns adjacent oil-lands 
which might be drained by the defendant's alleged illegal 

El Dora Oil Co. v. United States (California), 229 Federal. 
946. December 4, 1915. 

Oil Trespass — Damages for Conversion 

One who wilfully and intentionally takes ore, timber, or 
other property from the land of another must respond in dam- 
ages for the full value of the property taken, at the time of the 
conversion, without any deduction for the labor bestowed or 
expense incurred in removing and preparing it for the market; 
but if he commits the wrongful act unintentionally, or by 
mistake, or in the honest belief that he is acting within his 
legal rights, the measure of liability is the value of the prop- 
erty taken, less what it costs to produce it. This rule applies 
to trespass on oil-lands, and additional damages may be 
allowed for the withholding of compensation to the rightful 

Bryson v. Crown Oil Co. (Indiana). 112 Northeastern, 1. 
March 31, 1916. 

Petroleum Withdrawals — Effect Of 

The proviso of the act of June 25, 1910, saving from the 
force and effect of petroleum withdrawals the rights of bona- 
fide occupants or claimants of oil or gas-bearing lands who at 
that date were in the diligent prosecution of work leading to 
discovery of oil or gas, contemplates work of actual develop- 
ment with a view to discovery of oil or gas, and does not 
include efforts to secure capital to carry on work of develop- 
ment or to secure a purchaser to take over the property. An 
order of withdrawal has the same force and effect as an ad- 
verse claim asserted by any qualified person; and if a claim 
within a withdrawn area would have been subject to peace- 
able entry by an adverse claimant because of lack of diligence 
on the part of the prospector, it would be defeated by the 
order of withdrawal. Where an application for patent under 
the mining laws is based on a certain specified location, and 
proceedings by the government are instituted against the 
same, charging that some of the alleged locators are without 
interest, the applicant will not be heard, in the absence of 
publication and all other processes attendant upon an original 
application, to assert that in fact he bases his application on a 
different location of the same land. 

Pacific Midway Oil Co. et al. (Land Department). 44 Land 
Decisions. 420. April 21, 1915. 



t J.t»d by 


Volum* 113 
Number 4 





COPPER in three of its marketable forms is shown in the accom- 
panying photographs. Ingots usually weigh 60 pounds apiece 
and are used for casting purposes. Wire-bars are 3 to 4 inches 
square and 3 to 7 feet long, averaging 300 to 400 lb.; they are used 
for drawing wire. Cakes are cast square, in weights of 100 lb. and 
more, even up to 4000 lb. for special purposes. This form of copper is 
used for rolling into sheets. To the miner this picture will look good, for 
those lumps of metal are as truly bullion as gold. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22, 1916 

Which is your size? 

If yours is a flotation or cyanide mil! — if its 

capacity is 5 or 5000 tons — if you run gold or 

silver, lead, zinc, or coppei — you have 

use for an Oliver Continuous Filter. 

We Are Specialists 

Filters are all that we build. Their design, 
based on long engineering experience, and 
their performance in 320 mills have made 
the Oliver the filter. In 80 of the 320 instal- 
lations, the Oliver has replaced other filter, 
ing or dewatering systems. The first Oliver 
built is still in use. 

To the left are shown 
four of the types in 
which Oliver Filters are 
built At the top, the 
smallest — for handling 
two to three tons. At 
the bottom is the 12x12- 
ft. type. Between are the 
5x4-ft. and the 8x8- 
ft. types. Units even 
larger than these are 
in successful oper- 
ation. One of the 
types or sizes will 
fit your mill with 

By giving us details of your 
work, you can learn of new 
money - saving uses for a 
filter. No obligation — write. 

No royalties to pay on 
ANY work of an Oliver. 




4 ** 
hmtoum, n »►» 


H vi »aavCwTR • 
p. b. McDonald > 

0» J» 

Aim I* 

iltel£^" PlV-'-S' 

Mil HI 1 liMKIIII J 



1' JJWxl .( 410 WUsm » >« haii ■ . k» *» Dnn INJiJun u 
( 1 1 \KLES T. 1 ILTCHINSON. B^m. Muw< 

iMur ' if .la) 

Vivmr htU ri<> rr-it-inv MM In.- [fnomill 

San Francisco, July 22, 1916 

IS p«r Year— 10 Cent! per 




Amiiiiik vii\ Decision 11J 

Tin- uUeUnal arch as hih-x In the .llni Bntler v. West 
End esse st Tooopah. Comparison by the Editor 

with Australia and dOIDM in ' 

i Considerations beyond "thi hi of 

ITIOK AGAIN 114 on an address by the president of ill.' Case 
School of Applied Science, as abstracted In this Issue. 
A subject that Is undergoing much comment at this 


By Courtenay De Kaib 115 

Comment on the series of articles by Mr. Probert. The 
Importance ot alterations In rock undergoing miner- 
alisation by later invasions of heated gases or solu- 
tions. Cumulative intensity of alteration, 

Thi Discovsbi 01 Ci intdation. 

By Thos. Marshall 1 in 

The writer first introduced the discoverer of the 
cyanide process. John 9 MacArthur, to a Californian 
gold mine. No radical change in the cyanide process 
has since 1888, but mechanical methods o( 

operation have been Improved 

As Earthquake in Nevada. 

By Loring Sanson 11" 

Rumbles and shakes continue near Golconda, N< vada, 


By Harold French 117 

on, several prospectors working under the 
direction of a mining engineer, is recommended. An 
inti resting suggestion. 



By Howland Bancroft 119 

Of Bolivia's tin output. 409! comes from two con- 
tiguous mines. More than 26 other mines produce in- 
termittently. Mining methods are crude. Indian 
laborers average $1 per day. Prices charged for 
smelting Bolivian tin ores were $58 to $72 in England, 
$97 in United States, and $34 to $44 In Germany. 


By Charles 8. Howe 126 

The choice between a specialized technical course or 
a broad general training. An address delivered by the 

Pi, si, I, nt 

• land. 

"I the Case School of Applied Science, 

111 I. ROP8 VNi, 1 in Pbobpei tor. 

By William II. Storms 

The outcrop is discussed from the polnl ol view ol the 
prospector. Attractive outcrops that arc barren. In- 
different-looking outcrops thai covered rich orebodli 
Practical notes on how to recognize magneslte, 
initc cinnabar, and the tungsten minerals 

Cdstow Smelters and Shall Minis. 

By J. M. Turnbiill 133 

Most custom-smelters play the game fairly. Several 
small tricks of the trade explained to the shipper of 
ore. Economic considerations; loss in smoke: smelt- 
ers serve as selling agents and bankers. 

Gold-Schkelitb Obe in New Zealand. 

By C. »'. QuAgeon 136 

Gold-scheelite ore. after being hand-picked, is ground 
to 80-mesh, the coarse gold is amalgamated, the schee- 
lite separated on Willley tables, and the sand cyanided. 
The concentrate is roasted and treated by a magnetic- 
separation process. 

TlIK DEM v Nil FOB Ql li K8ILVK8 

The production of quicksilver in the United States 
during 1915 was $1 .S.26, 912. of wiiich $1,174,881 came 
from California. The average price was $86 
75-lb. flask. 

Tin: Bit; THREE 

Three copper producers show a net earning capacity 

of $ in. .ikiii on a 25-cent market. Anaconda. Kenne- 

COtt, and Utah Copper. 




Concentrates 138 

Review of 139 

Special correspondence from Plat River, Missouri: 
Wrangell, Alaska: Washington. D. C; Toronto. On- 

The Minim; Summary 141 

Pebsonai 146 

Tin: Metal Market 147 

Eastebs Metal Mabkei _ 14S 

Ci 'Mian v Reports 149 

Esperanza. Limited; Cordoba Copper Company. 

Hi i i-.r Publications 150 

Industrial Notes 150 


Buyer's Guide 26 

Index to Advertisers 32 

Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Pre**; name 
changed October 20 of the game year to Mining nnd Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-omce as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1308-10 
Wnolworth Bdg.: London. 721 Salisbury House. B.C. 

Price. 10 cents per copy. Annua] subscription: United States 
and Mexico, $3: Canada, J4; other countries In postal union. 
21s. or $5 per annum. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22. 1916 

Use either electrode at will, all ad- 
justments are automatically made 
by G-E Arc Welding Outfit 

Carbon electrode 

used for cutting or 

heavy current welding 

Metal electrode 

builds up or fills 

cavities when welding 

Welding Seams on Locomotive Firebox 

Cuts Repair Cost — Saves Time 

If shippers are busy elsewhere don't wait — let the G-E arc welder do its 
own chipping. Don't even take time to remove a flat wheel — the G-E arc 
welder will build it up while in place. You can control heat and building 
of metal, thus preventing distortion, uneven crystallization and cavities. 

The <i-E arc welder is used all over the world. It. has made good in 
China ; it is making emergency repairs for the Suez Canal and the rapid 
transit rolling stock of New York City is kept in shape by its help. 

Our nearest local office will be pleased to give you additional information. 

General Electric Company 

General Office : Schenectady, N. Y. 

District Offices in 

Boston. Mass. New York, N. Y. Philadelphia. Penna. Atlanta, 'la. 

Cincinnati. Ohio. Chicago, III. Denver. Colo. San Franeisc >, < al. 

St. Louis. Mo. Sales Offices in All Large Cities. 0120 



MINING ....J .S..c„i,h. |'KI SS 




T. A. RICHARD, Editor 

IK prosperity be measured by the purchase of Iuj 
then ill'' importation of diamond! and other precious 
i ti unmistakably. In the Bacal year end- 
ing .luii.- in the port hi' New York admitted $44,887,886 
worth gi nsl 114,760,847 in 1916 

• in 1914 

IN mir issue n!' July 6 we criticised the mid-year sum 
-*• inary of mining prog l by tin 1 Geological 

Surrey as being too general in it* statements. Since 
then «•■ hare received the resume 1 prepared by Mr. 
Charles G. Yale covering mining operations in California 
anil take pleasure in acknowledging thai it is an admir- 
able precis of information prepared by a trained journal- 
ist In reports of this kind it is necessary to give live 
details as well as embracing generalities. To do so effect- 
ively in a modicum "t' spa.,, requires something more 
than a bundle of statie 

/~V R friend the editor of the Canadian Mining Insti- 
^^ tute bulletin has tin- saving sense of humor that 
makes the wheels of lite run sweetly. What he had to 

Bay, in the July issue, on "the delieate subject" dis- 

cussed in our issue of July 1 is excellent. That "all the 
n-ally important mining undertakings in the United 

States are dii ted by Canadian engi rs" is manifestly 

true because to the Canadian only the undertakings so 
dii ted are of real importance. Joking apart, it is re- 
markable what a splendid group of metallurgists has 
been given to this continent by McGill University. 

TFTK Bad it necessary to refer again to the Canadian 
" Mining Institute's July bulletin, because it con- 
tain^ an article by Mr. David H. Browne, or what he 
explains as the joint effort of I imself and his friend Mr. 
Gilbert Rigg. who is now on Ids way to Australia, and 
therefore unable to disclaim the responsibility. It reads 
a good deal like our friend in New York, so we shall 
presume thai be and Mr. Kigg are equally thoughtful and 
sympathetic. Truly, such a splendid lay sermon is not 
often to be found in a technical publication, and we 
thank the editor, Mr. II. Mortimer-Lamb, for it. Canada 
has indeed found herself in this war; she is no longer 
merely a population, colony, or dominion, but a Nation. 

T^INC continues to cheapen. Undoubtedly the estimate 
*-* of production published by the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey seared the market, fur the decline in price followed 
immediately thereafter. The forecast of an output this 
year 130% higher than that of 1914 was enough to make 
the producers of spelter think furiously and dejectedly. 

Even though this official estimate erred in exaggerating 
the probable production, it bad the effect of a loud warn 
bag to tin- careless optimists in the metal market. If the 
Government forecast be discounted by 26%, there still 
remains more than enough sine for any risible demand. 
The price has fallen to !'| cents per pound, as compared 
with IT '. cents in January. 

T\1SCUSSI0N tins week starts with some interesting 

*-* comment by Mr. Courtenay De Kalb on Mr. Pro- 

bert's articles on 'Surficial Indications of Copper.* Mr. 
De Kalb dwells upon the part played by gases of mag 

malic origin in producing the alteration of mineralized 

rock. Mr. Thomas Marshall, now with the North Star 

Mines at Grass Valley, recounts liis early acquaintance 
with the discoverer of cyanidation and gives several in- 
teresting noirs concerning the first application of the 
process in California. Mr. Luring Hanson corroborates 
Mr. Berry's description of the earthquake in Nevada. 
Mr. Harold French writes as a mining engineer to sug- 
gest a new scheme of prospecting, giving details of the 
cost involved. 

QUICKSILVER has been the sport of artificial con- 
ditions, as our readers are aware. On another page 
we publish a timely summary of this branch of the 
mining industry as issued by the U. S. Geological Survey. 
The supply of quicksilver in this country has been 
coming from a few mines; in California the New Idria 
has contributed 75 to 80% of the output during the last 
decade, and in Texas the Chisos mine, in l lie Terlingua 
district, is the only important producer. In California, 
the New Almaden and Guadalupe mines, which are con- 
tiguous, are important, and quite recently the Oceanic 
has come into prominence. In Nevada, the output comes 
from a number of small mines. A discovery of high- 
grade cinnabar ore has been made recently near Morton, 
in Washington. 

"DEFERRING to the subject of a national engineer 
■*-*• reserve, discussed under 'Preparedness' in our issue 
of June 24. we are glad to state that the legislation 
authorizing the organization of an Engineer Reserve has 
been enacted by Congress and has become effective as 
from July 1, 1916. This Army Reorganization Act con- 
tains provisions for the formation of an Officers Reserve, 
including engineers. The War Department is issuing an 
invitation to the engineers of the country to apply for 
commissions in the Reserve Corps of Engineers in the 
several grades from Second Lieutenant to Major, and 
any of our readers desiring information concerning the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22. 1916 

method of procedure required to secure a commission 
should apply to the secretary of their respective national 
engineering society. 

QCHEELITB in gold ore may make the ore more valu- 
^ able for the tungsten than for the gold. Hand-pick- 
ing the scheelite and treatment of the ore for gold is the 
usual procedure, as noted by Mr. A. D. Cox in our issue 

.if January s describing praetiee at the Union Hill mine. 
Crass Valley. Fine crushing would usually make it im- 
possible to save both the gold and scheelite, as the latter 
is friable and makes a floury mess. In this issue we 

publish an article describing tin- method at gold-scheelite 
mines in the South Island of New Zealand. The ore is 
crushed to 30-mesh, alter being hand-picked, and the 
coarse gold is saved on copper plates. The pulp is 
classified before going to Wilfley tables, where the scheel- 
ite is separated, the sand being eyanided. As much as 
'>"<•, pyrite may accompany the 35% of scheelite and 
the 2i.oz. gold in the concentrate. Roasting of the con- 
centrate follows, with magnetic separation. 

r PIIE notorious I. W. W. is making trouble at the iron 
-*- mines of the Mesabi range in Minnesota. The 
initials 'I. W. \V.' officially mean 'Industrial Workers 
of the World.' and unofficially "I Won't Work.' In 
Minnesota, agitators from Chicago found support from 
only a small minority. Foiled in an attempt to eall a 
strike, the disturbers threatened the life anil property 
of the miners, forcing them to stop work. It is charged 
that they intimated, through the wife or other women 

of a household, that the husband or brother would be 

killed, or thai the duelling would be burned, unless the 
men of the family stopped work. Rather than live in a 
state of terror, many families quietly left the district 
and found employment elsewhere. This constitutes 
neither a strike nor a lock-out ; it is plain terrorism. As 
tlie Iron River Reporter exclaims, "Think of it! In 
these United States of America, where men claim the 
greatest freedom of any nation on earth, a few profes- 
sional agitators may invade a peaceful community and 
drive workingmen from their toil and homes." An in- 
teresting side-light was thrown on the Mesabi strike 
when a particular agitator from Chicago communicated 
to the mine-managers that if they wanted trouble 
stopped, they could "make arrangements" with him. 
Even this is nothing new. The worker has ever been the 
victim of irresponsible anarchists, for that describes the 
man that disregards all the laws governing an organized 

T^ROM the lengthy report of the Zinc Corporation 
■*■ meeting appearing in the Financial Times we gather 
that a concerted attack has been made on the manage- 
ment of that important company's affairs by Messrs. F. 
A. Govett and H. C. Hoover. At the meeting Mr. 
Govett, as chairman, made a full and frank statement; 
indeed he is habitually outspoken and ready to take 
shareholders into his confidence, to a degree exposing him 
to the charge of egoism. But it is a good fault, partic- 

ularly at a time when the difficulties due to the War 
have caused complications in the company's affairs and 
offered a chance tor malicious inuendo. In his speech he 
disclosed the extraordinary diversity of the company's 
financial participations and promotions. Business of 
this kiud dtmuot be conducted in public view; much of 
it must be kept secret from competitors; therefore, it is 
essential that those in control bold the complete con- 
fidence of the shareholders. If the latter are unwilling 
to place such confidence in their trustees, the business 
becomes impracticable. The necessary dealings and 
interplays of finance must be taken on good faith if any- 
thing effective is to be clone. We do not know why 
Messrs. Govett and Hoover should not be supported in 
their management ; it seems to us that the Zinc Corpora- 
tion would have been on the scrap-heap long ago if these 
two capable men had not co-operated strenuously to re- 
organize and administer it during bad times. The in- 
trusion of an old feud is deeply regrettable and can do 
no good to anyone. Leaving this unpleasant phase of 
the subject, we note Mr. Govett 's tribute to Mr. W. M. 
Hughes, now Prime Minister of the Australian Com- 
monwealth, who has shown a keen appreciation, so rare 
among British officials, of the importance of the mining 
industry and of I he necessity for protecting the metal 
production of the Empire. Apparently the idea of a 
bounty or preferential tariff on zinc is being advocated 
by him as the only means of helping the Australian zinc 
mines against foreign competition. Already a Zinc Pro- 
ducers Association has been organized to facilitate the 
sale of the concentrate produced at Broken Hill and 
schemes to build smelters are being planned with the 
hope that the Imperial Government will grant a bounty 
ensuring the price of spelter being maintained at £23, 
or $115 per long ton. equivalent to 5 cents per pound. 
There is talk of an electrolytic plant to be built in Tas- 
mania, where cheap hydro-electric power is available An 
experimental plant of this kind is being erected at New- 
castle in behalf of the Zinc Corporation and the Burma 
Corporation, which are under the same control. Mean- 
while, under the energetic leadership of Mr. W. S. 
Robinson, the Associated Smelters combination, which 
acquired the Broken Hill Proprietary's works at Port 
Pirie. is helping to take care of much of the lead con- 
centrate that used to be treated in Europe. Efforts to 
sell zinc concentrate in the United States were checked, 
says Mr. Govett, by the under-selling between the vari- 
ous Australian mining companies, leading to a reduction 
in ] i rice that spoiled the business. It seems to us that 
the import duty and the cost of frieght to this country 
would be enough to prevent the establishmment of such 
a trade. To bring spelter to the United States is like 
carrying coal to Pennsylvania ; any importation suffi- 
cient to affect the market for the domestic output would 
provoke the demand for a protective duty, in addition 
to the 10% now levied on the gross value. Evidently 
the future of the zinc industry at Broken Hill is not yet 
assured and unless artificial support is forthcoming, by 
tariff legislation, it is likely that hard times will ensue 
when War prices cease to be paid for spelter. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Another Apex Decision 

On July .i the Supreme Conii of Nevada affirmed the 

f it" 1 lower court in the Jim Butler i>. Waal 

End case, i Mm- readera «ill recall that in thiadiapute be- 
tween two mining eompaniea at Tonopah, the trial eourl 
had derided in favor of the Waal End Consolidated 
Mining Company, as reoorded in our>' of May i.\ 
at which time we pnbliahed soma detail! of the 
geologic itruetnre on which the oonflict was baaed. We 
ss that the opinion of the higher court, just aa orach 
as thai of the lower one, in so far as either defines and 
.lis.-us.scs the geologic features, is unconvincing, The 
aooompanying sketch is taken from the text of the de- 
cdaion. Two veins meal at />'. the north-dipping vein 
appears t.> extend upward to .1, where it reaches the top 
of the traohyte, which is then vend by a later flow of 


Iiiai.ii \ M in mi \ STH1 CTUBE. 

ami. -sit.-. In short, the point .1 marks a former surface, 
at which the vein is cut off. The West End claimed this 

as an apex that gave it the right to follow not only the 

north-dipping vein but also the one dipping south into 
the Jim Butler ground. The principal feature of the 
case was the introduction of a theory that the two limbs of 
tii is si ructure constituted an anticlinal arch. In the opin- 
ion of the Supreme Court the second of the two main 
questions of law submitted to it — the first dealing with 
irregularity of end lines — was "whether, within the 
meaning of the Aci of Congress, the crest or crown of a 
vein which is found in the form of a single anticline may 
he regarded as the top or apex of the vein, and extra- 
lateral rights exist upon such vein in opposite direc- 
tions." The Court decides that "if it be true that the 
law contemplates that every vein has an apex, then it 
necessarily follows, we think, that the crest of the anti- 
clinal roll is the apex." The lower court evidently was 
puzzled by a set of conditions so far outside the knowl- 
edge of the original framers of the law of 1872, and 
Judge Averill's opinion reflected his perplexity, for he 
did not accept the idea of a 'blanket' or 'contact' vein, 
while talking about "the anticlinal axis of the united 
main quartz bodies." No wonder that he confessed that 
"the condition described is one that escaped the fore- 
sight of Congress and is also exceedingly remote from 
the simplicity of the plan they chose to adopt ; yet the 

law must be applied to it " And the Ian la going to have 
a hard iim. m (tracking tins nut. The Supreme Court ..i 
Nevada baa i.e.. I the chief problem, whether eitra lal 

eral rights exisl upon a vein in the form of a sine! 

elinal fold and whether those rights extend over both 

limbs ..I' the structure or only over the having the 

same dip as the diseo\ery vein. It decides in favor of 

both directions, declining to hold that "end lines may 

I..- considered aa having only • direction," There 

fore there is "nothing in the statute which militates 
against extra-lateral rights upon such vein in opposite 

directions the same as though it were two veins with 
Separate apices, instead of one vein." A lot of spa.e iii 
the opinion is given to defining 'top' or 'apex,' hut there 

is lefinition of 'anticlinal fold.' Is any continuous 

deposition of ore along a contact or along two contacts 
that intersect to be considered an anticline if it has the 

shape of a fork, pent-house, or arch ? Does mil the term 

'anticlinal fold' suppose the bending of a continuous 
layer of material, not necessarily the ore that follows a 
beilditig-plane or sympathetic fracture, but the rock in 
which or the rocks between which the ore lies? The 
existence of such it structure in the disputed ground is 

assumed, although the lower court was decidedly hazy 
on the matter, if not averse from the idea. We may add 
thai the present writer went underground on the day 
when Judge Averill's decision was published and saw 
the chief evidence himself in the West End mine. If 
his opinion have any value, it is because it is unpreju- 
diced and is based upon an unusual familiarity with 
'saddle-reefs' in Australia and 'domes' in Nova Scotia, 
the two types of anticlinal structure pre-eminently asso- 
ciated with important deposits of gold ore. In the West 
End mine he saw nothing to remind him either of the 
Miches of quartz at Bendigo or of the domical formation 
at Waverley. Of course, those orebodies follow the hed- 
ding-plancs of sedimentary rocks, itself an important 
difference from the conditions at Tonopah. But the law 
is going to have other problems that "escaped the fore- 
sight of Congress." At Bendigo there is a series of 
anticlinal arches trending eastward, in accordance with 
the dip of the anticlinal axis. Which is the apex, the 
crest of each saddle or the anticlinal axis that skewers a 
whole series, a dozen or more, of them? Usually the rock 
at the highest point of the arch is cracked, and along the 
crack, or cracks, quartz has been precipitated, so that 
some sort of connection between the arches can be in- 
ferred geologically even if not proved legally. More- 
over, transverse cracks, now flatly dipping quartz veins, 
connect the vertical series of saddles; is the one on the 
hanging-wall side to be considered dominant and is the 
apex to be awarded to it? Here's a pretty kettle of fish 
for any court that tried to apply that belated ana- 
chronism the law of the apex to conditions so far be- 
yond "the foresight of Congress." And what of the 
domes? Given an orebody that followed the quaqua- 
versal dip or domical structure of a rock formation such 
as that of the slate-quartzite terrain in Nova Scotia, 
what is the apex? A dome culminates not in a line but 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22, L916 

in a point. Would not the extra-lateral right "flow 
downward" in every direction like the ruin on an um- 
brella I We leave the problem to our readers. 

Education Again 

This subject is again presented to our readers in the 
lengthy abstract of an address delivered by Mr. Charles 
S. Howe, president of the Case School of Applied 
Science, ;i technical college at Cleveland that is coming 
into honorable prominence We thought Dr. Howe's 
treatment of the question so much to the point that it 
deserved to be brought to the attention of the mining 
public through our pages. After all. few questions are 
more deserving of continued study than this. Education 
is on the operating table, as it were, and demands careful 
disseetion at the hands of the experts, such as the chiefs 
of our teaching institutions. Technical education is yet 
in a juvenile stage, in its recent phases it is still imma- 
ture, and every bit of earnest criticism helps. It lias 
become the '-are of the State and of the Nation, having 
passed out of the dangerous patronage of private endow- 
ment. The task of the educator is a big one and terribly 
restricted by the element of time. Most of the elaborate 
schemes for giving young men a training adequate for 
the needs ol' a professional career break-down for lack 
of time. The necessity for earning a living, for becoming 
an independent self-sustaining member of the com- 
munity, prevents most young men from remaining under 
special tutelage longer than three or four years after 
they have emerged from the high-school or other boy- 
hood instruction. Many of us, long in the field, would 
like to return to the lecture-room and laboratory if only 
life were not sn short. It is the old engineering problem 
of doing the best you can within a limited time and with 
limited means. And in the end we have to confess, with 
Dr. Howe, that "engineering education does not produce 
engineers." It only helps to make them. Some men are 
engineers by the grace of Qod, and education stimulates 
their natural faculties to the maximum of effective 
growth; others have no aptitude, they are innately fitted 
for other occupations or for doing nothing gracefully. 
We like the suggestion that one of the things that will 
circumvent old Father Time is to teach the young man 
where to find the information he may need in the course 
of his work. Not much can be given him in the way of 
in formation applicable to his daily requirements; in the 
short years of training he is taught to develop his facul- 
ties, rather than store his brain; and one of the most 
useful of those faculties is the ability to find information 
as occasion demands. In these days of voluminous pub- 
lication, in the form of books, transactions, and period- 
icals, it is highly important for the young engineer to 
leant how to extract from the, vast mass of printed mat- 
ter such portions of information as can serve him best. 
To know everything is impossible; to know where to find 
the necessary information is a first aid to successful 
technical accomplishment. And here we confess that we 
wish that indexes and bibliographies were better done. 

Most of them fail by being ^discriminating, giving so 
little hint concerning the reliability, scope, or timeliness 

of the information. We need an index of indexes, some- 
thing to guide the seeker alter trustworthy data on any 
given subject. No editor but is aware of the difficulty of 
searching for information in the jungle of non-deserip- 
live titles and incomplete references that are his only 
guide, outside personal memory, in such matters. A 
more contentious phase of the subject is instruction by 
means of laboratories and extensive equipment of plant 
in the technical colleges. We confess to philistinism in 
this regard. Many schools have a lot of elaborate ap- 
paratus on a scale so large that continuous demonstra- 
tion is impracticable on account of the labor required 
and the material consumed. We know of several mining 
and metallurgical plants that are white elephants for 
lack of ore to keep them going, not to mention the diffi- 
culty of obtaining experienced men to run them and to 
instruct the students intelligently in the use of them. 
The average exhibit of machinery in a mining school 
serves to advertise the manufacturers that were enter- 
prising enough to donate specimens of their products 
and affords the students a measurable amount of 
physical exercise indoors. In after life the least prac- 
tical men are apt to be those that have tinkered with 
such apparatus under an academic instructor. The bet- 
ter plan is to take the young men to the mine and mill, 
to put them in touch with actualities, and to teach them 
the purpose i'f it all by contact with working conditions. 
A wise compromise is to use not the full-seale exhibits 
of the manufacturer, but model plants on a scale so small 
that the machinery can be taken apart readily and 
studied conveniently. A small model will illustrate the 
essential principles just as well as a ponderous machine, 
it saves material and labor in the running of it, and it 
enables a variety of types to be studied without wasting 
the restricted space usually available for the purpose. 

In the discussion that followed the address of Dr. 
Howe, a reference was made to the standing of the 
lawyer and doctor as compared with the engineer, to the 
disparagement of the last. Is it not a criticism on his 
education that he should, as a citizen, fail to have the 
standing of those in the allied professions? In France 
and Germany the title of mining engineer commands 
respect because it presumes a good education, not only 
technical but humane. That is true of the lawyer and 
doctor, both of whom are equipped to take part in public 
life. It is assumed by many that the training for the 
work of engineering is so insistent that no time is left 
for a broad cultural education, that the bread-and-butter 
earning must lie assured and when that is done it is too 
late to become familiar with good literature, political 
philosophy, and a completeness of mental life. Never- 
theless, the education of the mining engineer will be a 
failure unless it equips him not only to win a wage when 
he graduates, but to take a leading part in the com- 
munity when he is twenty years older, to make him not 
only a successful technician but an effective citizen — a 
leader among men. 

Julj 22 1916 

MINING *nd Scmlific PRE5S 



Our ndtbfl iir,- blWMd ID ">. I'll. .l.ji.itlin.Ml /,,r liu- did ikm.hi ../ [, , lnn,,il ,in,| offtfT in.ill.ri |H-r- 

tauiinj to mlninj and iMtallursy. Mu- Editor «.i m \n* l ap ra s i l on • •{ n.-u> contrary to hb mm, i>. ■ 

Ufenid dial eanfHl erlrtdan b mora ratuoM* than oamal oompllnumf. 

Surficial Indications of Copper 


9 Mr Probert has presented a valuable aummarj of 
the prominent feature! of secondary enrichment, cover- 
ing .i wide !n-l<l with discriminating observation and 
simple statement His papers, however, seem to accentu- 
ate the paucity of our knowledge in regard to the can- 
neetion between kiml and character of outcrop and kind 
and importance of deposit beneath it. Whal the engi- 
neer is seeking, and whal tl apitalisl ex\ ts him to 

some body of rales which shall suffice to • 1 1 • - 
cipher from the superfieial record the history of the 
changes below the surface thai have made for the 
sis or otherwise of mineral deposits. Outcrops vary 
within the widest limits iii their character, even when 
there may be similarities in ore deposition beneath. 
Only mi 1 1 1 • ■ cycle of chemical reactions operative in 
producing secondary enrichment is there an approach to 
uniformity. The number of secondarily enriched de- 
posits in the world that has been studied has been in- 
sufficient for accurate reading of the lesson of the out- 
orop. A man passing from the Utah Copper to the 
Miami, and thence to the Kay. and the Ajo, meets with 
s of unlike superficial conditions, and the world 
knows the story of hesitant engineers in the face of these 
variant phases. 

This only serves to emphasize the importance of the 
discussion which Mr. Probert has initiated. After a 
mine has been proved, more attention is devoted to the 
underground disclosures than to a detailed study of 
why and how the outcrop may have indicated what lay 
below, but the knowledge of these relationships is pre- 
cisely what the world needs as a help for finding another, 
and yet another, mine. 

Mr. Proberl calls attention anew to the favorable e.on- 
ditions presented by prolonged mid intermittent vul- 
eanism. and by a succession of moderately basic intru- 
sions, followed by acid, and terminating in more basic 
eruptions. While generalizations are easily misleading, 
evidences such as these naturally induce to careful study 
of a region, particularly when indications of actual 
metallization are found in conjunction with them. Not 
infrequently the really valuable deposit presents fewer 
signs of metal at and near the surface than appear in 
the minor veins and zones of mineralization in the neigh- 
borhood. An investigation into the geological structure 
of a promising district is often the key to the discovery 
of an important mine. 

I nnection with conditions favoring ore deposition 

and the murks 1.1! on the surface it may not be amiss to 

call attention to our feature which is frequently valu- 
able as a means of interpreting the- more salient phenom 
ens. Primary ore. pre Bag concentration into second- 
ary enrichments, was not likely to present spectacular 
effects. Rare and striking examples of mineralization 

Were usually absent. The oulerop examined for evidence 
ol' the relatively feeble primary mineralization may, 
however, disclose significant indications in portions of 
the rock which have not participated in those katamor- 

phic changes thai favored the leaching of the early 
metallic sulphides. Here the microscope is an essential 
aid. Even the binocular will often afford nearly con- 
clusive evidence in the field in advance of the final 
revelations by laboratory study on thin sections. Min- 
eralization of extensive copper areas has usually taken 
place under conditions of moderately high temperature 
and pressure. The metallization, moreover, has ordi- 
narily been a product of replacement, accompanied by 
extensive alteration of the rock-minerals, even where the 
latter have not been involved in the metasomatic re- 
actions. Important quantities of magmatic gases, oc- 
cluded at high pressure in the original minerals of the 
rock, become liberated in this process of alteration under 
the influence of the later ore-depositing so-called 'min- 
eralizers, ' and these gases enter into the cycle of chem- 
ical changes. The carbonic acid gas, commonly the most 
abundant of the occluded gases, forms carbonates and 
sets silica free; while the hydrocarbons, also abundant 
as occluded magmatic gases in the rock-minerals of 
igneous rocks, perform their important function as re- 
ducing agents. The importance of the alterations 
throughout the mass of a rock undergoing mineraliza- 
tion by later invasions of heated gases or solutions as a 
result of the participation of the original occluded mag- 
matic gases, is very great. A cumulative intensity of 
alteration results, and where a wide extent of fairly 
uniform high-temperature alteration is accompanied by 
metallization, it has generally been assisted in no small 
degree by the earlier occluded gases. Remnants of 
denser rock masses in proximity to areas of mineraliza- 
tion, that have resisted erosion and decay by reason of 
their density, may throw light on the genesis of indicated 
ore-bodies, and help to confirm the indications when 
taken in conjunction with the structural features of the 
region. When the remnants of primary rocks still con- 
tain occluded magmatic gases at or near the outcrop, the 
conditions for original (primary) mineralization, and 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 22, 1916 

for the subsequent alterations which promote secondary 
enrichment, are relatively unfavorable. 

The milling world is awaiting, with keen expectations 
of the solution of many a riddle, the treatise on sulphide 
enrichment now being prepared under the general direc- 
tion of Mr. Graton. In addition to this it is to be hoped 
that Mr. Probert will include in the program of the 
University work under bis charge, a continuation of his 
interesting study of the outcrop-criteria of orebodies. 
until it bear fruit in a monograph which will become a 
valuable practical guide for the engineer in the field. 


Tucson, June 27. 

The Discovery of Cyanidation 

The Editor: 

Sir — It was my good fortune to be a contemporary 
of Mr. MacArthur in the Tharsis company's laboratory 
at Glasgow from 1872 to 1879, when I left to take a 
position with the Sierra Buttes company in Sierra 
county, California. We had always been 'chummy' 
while working for the Tharsis company, and the friend- 
ship was continued by frequent letters after I came to 
California. His told me of research work he was doing 
on the Tharsis ore, and mine told him of the simple 
methods of treating the auriferous sulphides at the 
Sierra Unties. 

In the early days of that mine no concentration was 
done because it was not necessary; but as depth was 
attained, and the quantity of unoxidized sulphides in- 
creased, something had to be done to recover the gold in 
them, and in the 'seventies Hendy 'jiggers' were put in. 
The i titrate saved on these was spread out on plat- 
forms below the mills, mixed with salt, and allowed to 
weather for several months, then re-ground in amal- 
gamating pans. This was the method I told MacArthur 
about and I am sun- it must have seemed very primitive 
to him against the eondensing-tower recovery practised 
by the Tharsis. As the proportion of ore crushed from 
the lower levels increased, the percentage of unoxidized 
sulphides increased also, and in the early summer of '84 
the first shipment of concentrate was made to the Pi- 
oneer Reduction Works at Nevada City. The returns 
were so satisfactory that along about '85 the Sierra 
Buttes company put up ehlorination works of its own 
below the Yuba mill, which was equipped with Frue 
vanners when it was built in 1883. 

Meanwhile MacArthur was "pegging away" at his 
cyanide process, and in the fall of '86 he asked me to 
send him a small sample of Sierra Buttes concentrate. 
This I did, and probably it was the first product of a 
California mine to be cyanided. 

In March '89 he wrote me that he was coming to the 
United States and that, after attending to his patent 
business at Washington, he would come to California to 
look over the ground and see what the prospect was for 
the adoption of his process in this State. It was with 
the greatest pleasure that T looked forward to meeting 

my old chum again'. As he came with gilt-edged cre- 
dentials, it was no trouble at all to fret the Sierra Buttes 
management in San Francisco to give him cart* blanche 
for experiments at the mine — and so I had the honor of 
introducing the discoverer of the cyanide process to a 

gold mine* 

In his tests at Sierra Buttes. and at the Plumas Eu- 
reka also, where we went later, he stuck resolutely to the 
custom he had established in the early days at Glasgow 
of " laying the gold on the table"; but. it need hardly be 
added, he didn't forget to assay the tailing. 

In his experiments at both mines the extraction was 
uniformly satisfactorj - . There was only one noteworthy 
fact the significance of which none of us saw at that, 
time. In the mill there was the usual system of boxes, 
below the concentrators, for saving the sulphide slime, 
which assayed away above the average concentrate, and 
the extraction was also very high. This indicated the 
advantage of tine grinding, but. as far as I know, none 
of us looked upon it as anything more than a splendid 
exhibition of the potency of cyanide to dissolve gold. 

The Sierra Buttes management was nothing if not 
practical, so that, without doubting the scientific truth 
of MacArthur 's claim for his process, they looked at him 
with indulgent incredulity when he spoke of its becom- 
ing a commercial success. At that time (188!); Mac- 
Arthur told me he knew quite well that the cost of cya- 
nide (it was then about 3 shillings per pound in Britain) 
was a serious obstacle to the general adoption of his 
process for the treatment of even moderately high-grade 
material ; and the problem he had set himself then was 
to find some process to cheapen the cost of manufactur- 
ing it. 

While in California MacArthur heard of the wonder- 
fully rich but refractory and rebellious ore of the 
Meadow Lake district and he commissioned me to visit 
that decayed camp, as soon as the snow was off the 
ground, and get some samples. When I got to Cisco. I 
inquired about a means of getting to Meadow Lake and 
incidentally told the hotel people the object of my quest. 
They looked at me rather pityingly as if they thought 
I was sent on a profitless mission, but arranged for a 
guide and saddle-horses. Capt. Hartley received me 
kindly, gave me lunch, which I needed, and let me take 
the samples I wanted, and I returned to Cisco well 
pleased with my day's work. I learned the meaning of 
the pitying smile of the morning when the proprietor 
told me that Capt. Hartley's usual reception of any un- 
accredited visitor who went to him for samples and in- 
formation about his property was to drive him off the 
premises at the point of a shot-gun. The samples were 
taken at random from shallow pits and open-cuts along 
the croppings without any attempt at system, the pur- 
pose being simply to find out if this rebellious ore would 
yield to cyanide solution. Some of the samples were - 
fairly rich, others quite poor, but they all yielded 
readily to cyaniding. Nothing came of the Meadow 
Lake business for the reason that Hartley wasn't buying 
processes and the Cassel company wasn't buying mines. 



MINING and llJMlifn l-KI » 


lii the fall "i -'' i n« in Colorado whan 

idvancc guard of li tampan) pitched its 

amp in lha United Statea At Creatone I met 1". 

n charge of the 
company '• exhibit at the Midwinter Pair in Ban 
Prenoisoo In tin- nimmi • - \ .ii 

North sinr tailing Cor a work- 
ing teat at tii. Caaeel company's experimental plant at 
tin- Pair. His report wai that tli<' North star tailing 
■ lo« grade t<> cyanide at a profit Now tin- North 

star opany is eyaniding thousands of tons profitably 

every month As Mai-Arthur statea in nil article, there 
■ n no radical ehange of, or addition to. the pi 

Nil "88, Inn improved mechanioal methods have made 

tin- difference between prutit ami loss. 

Tuns. M Misu vi.i. 
i iras.s Valley, Jane 89 

An Earthquake in Nevada 

Tli.- Editor: 

sir I have read the account of tin- earthquake at 
Kennedy by S. I.. Berry. It is also true thai we still 

have quakes and rumbles every (lay. At Winter's ranch, 

six miles below Mere wli.-re there are hot Springs, then- 
ar.- 15 ami 20 shakes a day right along since October 15 
last. Lately we have had unite a few rumbles an. I jerks, 
hut uol heavy enough to do damage: Kennedy is 30 
miles south of here. The earth is cracked all along the 
foot of this range on the north-west side of the Stoue 
II. his.- valley, two miles below here. It is also true that 
water is running in creeks and gulches where the old- 
timers have never seen it run before. 

Loring Hanson. 
Qolconda, Nevada, July 12. 

Prospecting: A Suggestion 

The Editor: 

Sir — What's Wrong with Prospecting?' has become 
a familiar caption in the mining press. "We have read 
the lamentations of those who mourn the passing of the 
old-time prospector until many mining men have come 
to feel that much of this vain yearning for 'the good 
old days' bespeaks negative suggestion. Yet the recent 
renaissance of mining has encouraged prospectors to re- 
sume their ancient and honorable calling. Exploration 
companies and syndicates had been setting the pace be- 
cause tiny alone knew the value of expert prospectors in 
their organization. Metallurgists, chemists, assayers, 
and other surface men, knowing the actual commercial 
values of ore deposits, have blossomed forth as 'pros- 
pectors' of the new school. The use of the mining en- 
gineer for directing explorations for small operators has 
not been emphasized. 

Let us consider a hypothetical mineral district worthy 
of exploration, such as the partly prospected and de- 
veloped mineral district in the Siskiyou mountains. Cali- 
fornia. This region has been skimmed over by pros- 

I OOppi r .iiel Lad during the past lilty 
hut their Work was d. siiltor> in character With 

[tension of motor trust transportation, considerable 
activity is being aroused. Prospectors an renewing 
then- efforts as individuals, but their explorations would 

■ more effective If co-ordinated This is the Bald 
in which the exploration syndicate could operate with 
good prospi 
Sere is bov. the old ami new methods of prospecting 

"'" ipare. Probably a s -,- of prospectors within a 

year will visil a particular portion of tin- Siskiyou noun 

tains, an area 20 miles from east to west ami I I miles 
from north to south. Several of tli.-m will undoubtedly 
follow Outcrops and locale a number of claims. Si 
that four or live men out of twenty locale claims that 

give promise of be ling paying mines. Of these, only 

one individual prospector succeeds in getting enough 

backing to develop his property, This 1 in I'll eha is 

a fair proportion. The other 1!» spend from $5000 '" 
$10.11011 i,. no purpose. Even the one lucky one has 
made a random hit. lie may have passed over dozens of 
richer deposils in his hurried wanderings. -Most of the 
unlucky 19 are backed by investors who have •taken a 
chance.' Some of these losers are not good losers and 
tiny seek solace in calling mining a 'losing game.' 

Co-operative prospecting, on the other hand, might 
be conducted in a radically different manner. Let us 
assume that this particular district is worthy of system- 
atic exploration for a summer. What would it costf 
Suppose that a group of 20 investors subscribe a total 
of $5000 to an exploration company and plan to devote 
that sum to a thorough reconnaissance of the district. 
They make a wise start by employing a mining engineer 
who is qualified to conduct a geological survey and to 
direct the efforts of prospecting parties in the more 
promising sections. He spends the month of June in 
traversing the ridges and canyons of the region with a 
skilled assistant and a handy man who combines the 
services of a packer and camp-cook. At the end of June 
he defines three zones, X, Y, and Z, as areas in which he 
proposes to confine the efforts of three experienced pros- 
pectors. Each prospector has a man to help him. and, 
besides a fair salary, has the additional incentive of a 
bonus of from $500 to $1000 offered him for the making 
of a 'strike.' A regular cook is then employed at a base 
camp, while a packer travels from camp to camp carry- 
ing provisions and supplies to each station as well as 
from the railway or stage shipping point. The engi- 
neers assistant helps in the field-work, in mapping, and 
in making assays at the base camp. 

By the end of July, prospecting in zones X and Z does 
not show results, but the prospector in zone Y discovers 
a series of outcrops trending in a north-westerly direc- 
tion from the middle fork of Creek B across the divide 
to the cast fork of Creek D, a distance of six miles. A 
distinct silicification is traced along the line of a fault 
traversing this favorable formation. The four men cov- 
ering zones X and Z are called in and set to work ex- 
ploring the vein system discovered in zone Y. Let us 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22, 1916 

assume that the original strike was made at the middle 
fork of Creek B. Subsequently, the prospector from 
zone Z discovers an extension a mile below the head of 
the North Fork and the largest and richest orebody is 
proved to exist there. Exploration work is then concen- 
trated there during August with the result that the 
driving of several hundred leet of tunnels and the sink- 
ing of shafts with cross-cuts demonstrate the existence 
of 150,000 tons of ore having an average value of $8 per 
ton. Prospectors Y and Z share ultimately in a bonus 
of $1000 paid them in the same way that salesmen work- 
ing on a salary and commission basis earn their bonuses 
for sales made. Prospector X is not so fortunate, but he 
may benefit by working into a steady job when the mine 
is developed. A number of claims are staked in zone Y 
and the exploration company has something to show by 
the end of August. Here is the cost sheet of this theo- 
retical reconnaissance: 

Labor and Superintendence 

June July Aug. Totals 

Engineer in charge $250 $250 $250 $750 

Assistant to engineer 100 100 100 300 

Cook and packer 75 ... ... 75 

Regular cook 50 50 100 

Regular packer 60 60 120 

3 prospector-miners at $90 270 270 540 

3 muckers at $70 210 210 420 

$425 $940 $940 $2305 

Provisions $50 $150 $150 $350 

Camp equipment 150 125 25 300 

Mining tools 25 75 50 150 

Powder, caps, (use 20 80 200 300 

Assays and assay equipment.... 50 300 50 400 

Transportation 150 100 100 350 

Miscellaneous expenses 50 75 75 200 

$495 $905 $650 $2050 

Grand total $920 $1845 $1590 $4355 

Balance in treasury $645 

Assuming that a bonus of $1000 is due prospectors Y 
and Z, the total cost of such systematized prospecting 
would, according to these convenient figures, amount to 
$5355, to say nothing of a tidy little bundle of stock cer- 
tificates in the re-financed company which the engineer 
ought to have coming to him. 

Of course this theoretical prospecting trip had to re- 
sult in the discovery and blocking out of an orebody that 
showed up 1 50,000 tons of $8 ore. Furthermore this ore 
must be supposed to yield a net profit of $3 per ton after 
an additional investment in surface equipment and work- 
ing capital is made. This figures out very nicely as a 
business proposition in which the original investors and 
their financial allies subscribe just $105,355. Even if 
they do not open up new orebodies and confine their op- 
erations to the proved deposit, there is the difference 
between $450,000 gross profit on ore extracted and the 
total investment of $105,355. a net return of $344,645 
on such enterprise. Tf it takes seven years to exhaust 

this orebody, there would be a net profit of 327%, or 
46% per annum, on the investment. Now, if the original 
20 men who raised $5000 for such systematic prospecting 
were to sell their mining land for what it would be 
reasonably worth, $75,000, they would clean up 1500% 
on their Speculation. As a business enterprise this beats 
'hogs and alfalfa' or 'bees and wild honey.' 

Mr. Doubting Thomas, taking a contrary view, may 
say: "Suppose the original reconnaissance party of 
three, after a June outing in these delectable mountains 
doesn't find any 'zones' like X, Y, and Z worth further 
exploration." They will be out of pocket, but only to 
the extent of $920. Divided between 20, the average loss 
would be $46. If these twenty had separately 'grub- 
staked' 20 different prospectors for the same amount, 
approximately $5000 in all, their loss would have been 
$250 per capita and their chance of sharing in the half- 
interest proposition of the old-time prospector relatively 

Harold French. 

Oakland, June 30. 

Rock-drill practice on the Rand usually works out 
differently than ill the United States. In the Transvaal, 
the miners are Kaffirs drilling exceptionally hard rock 
in flat narrow stopes. New devices arc apt to be looked 
at askance, as these miners do not take readily to com- 
plicated mechanisms. Recently the electric firing of 
blasts was tried on a thorough scale at the Meyer and 
Charlton mine where conditions were believed to be 
favorable. The experiment was unsuccessful, and the 
electrical equipment was removed. The blasting of so 
many holes simultaneously injured the hanging wall and 
misfires were common. The Smith African. Mining 
Journal reports that "interest has been aroused among 
engineers and mining men on the Rand regarding the 
application to rock-drills of the newly discovered method 
of transmitting power known as wave transmission." 
As yet this new method of applying power to drilling 
rock is said to be in the experimental stage, and details 
have not been made available. 

The Calumet & Hecla company, which recently cele- 
brated the 50th anniversary of mining on its lands, 
awarded gold, silver, and bronze medals to its oldest 
employees. Over 160 men have worked for the company 
from 40 to 50 years, and one man, Timothy O'Shea, has 
worked 50 years and six months. Several hundred have 
worked 30 to 40 years and nearly a thousand have 
worked 20 to 30 years. In an age when labor is restive. 
these figures are particularly noteworthy. Among the 
old employees are such Cornish names as Edyvean, 
Johns, Jory. Trevorrow, Thomas, Tonkin, Cuddihy, 
James. Nancarrow. Richards, Soddy, Trathen, Bennetts, 
Williams, and Penhall. Other nationalities among the 
veterans include Kelly. Doyle, Dooley, Carlson, Govette, 
Koch, Kjolso. Kruszka. McLean. MacNaughton, Ventur- 
ino. Swansea, Pyrrhus, Abramson, Jolieoeur. Marchetti, 
Salotti. Baranowski. and Campbell. 

i,.h 22, 1916 

MINING and ScienUhc I'KI SS 


The Bolivian Tin Industry 

By Howland Bancroft 

INTRODUCTION Mnti •• si in Bolivia as ■ - (urce of 
future supply of tin for the increasing of the 
United States began t" appear when production from 
Bolivia exceeded for the first time the combined produc- 
tion of Banka and Billiton. Prior t.> L906 the produc- 
tion of these Dutch colonies was second only to that of 
tin- Miilny straits. In 1905 the Bolivian production 
passed 16,000 metric tons of metallic tin 1 while the pro- 
duction from Banka and Billiton fell from the record 
figure of 20,000 metric tons in 1903 to 12,000 metric tone 
in 1905, siii.-i- which time their combined production has 
nut equaled the Bolivian output. In 1897 the Bolivian 
production first commenced to be an important factor, 
and this output lias persistently increased. 

Sim-.- my tirst trip to South America, 1 have s.-.-n 
many improvements accomplished in the railroad system 
of Bolivia, while outsi.i.- the Republic marked progress 
has heen made in the treatment of the ores by those in- 
terested in obtaining a clean product, in order that 
Bolivian ores might command as high a price in the 
market and be as suitable for use in the tin-plate in- 
dustry as those from other, and. I might say in this 
respect at least, more favorably known localities. 

The declaration of war in Europe caused some specu- 
lation in the United States in regard to the supply of 
tin for domestic consumption. As Great Britain con- 
trols a majority of the world's production, a possible 
embargo on the exportation of this metal was anticipated 
with a foreboding that proved correct. When the em- 
bargo was put into force by Great Britain, it became 
evident that Bolivian tin ores could not be safely shipped 
to Germany for reduction, and, to cap the climax, Brit- 
ish smelters raised their charge fully 80%. In conse- 
quence, a great hue and cry was raised in Bolivia as to 
who would smelt their tin ores. Much discussion fol- 
lowed and a great many communications were exchanged 
regarding the erection of a tin smelter in the United 
States. Several groups talked about undertaking this, 
hut to date, only one company has done anything toward 
actually building a smelter. 2 In 1915. the American 

•A paper read before the second Pan-American Scientific 
Congress at Washington, and revised subsequently by the 

'Throughout this paper references to productions of tin are 
to metallic tin, not to the concentrate or 'barilla' from which 
the tin is obtained. 

2It is to be remarked that four United States companies 
offer to treat Bolivian tin ores, two of which contemplate 
smelting these ores in electric furnaces. Furthermore, a 
French commission has studied the available hydro-electric 
power possibilities in Bolivia with a view to erecting smelters 
there. Also, a considerable amount of agitation is apparent 
in the Bolivian capital regarding bills introduced to Congress 

Smilting A Refining < lo, began constructing ■ tin smelter 
at Perth Amboy, New Jenej ; it wen! into operation hi 

March 1916. This plant has a .-.-ipa.-ity of Sllllll to 0000 

tons of metallic tin per year, or a little Una than two- 
fifths of Bolivia's present total output, the remainder 

of which will doubtless be i Ited in British furnaces 

until the end of the European war, after which Amer 
iean. English, or German tin contracts with Bolivian 
producers will depend largely on the prices offered. 

World's Production of Tin. Reference to Fig. 1' 
will show the production of tin from different countries 
of tin- world. It will he seen that the Malav States, Or, 

rays i nslnjclBd 
•way 3 surveyed 
K»sys rt constructor, 

as they are also known, the Straits Settlements, produce 
somewhat more than half of the total, while the combined 
production of tin in British possessions and protector- 
ates amounts to about 60% of the world's production. 
Next in importance is the Bolivian output, which in 

requesting special concessions for treating the Bolivian out- 
put in electric furnaces to be erected in the Republic. How- 
ever, as yet no announcement has been made of the erection 
of a plant to smelt tin ores electrically. 

3A11 generalizations regarding productions, values, and 
prices refer to normal, not war, conditions. 

<Frank L. Hess of the U. S. Geological Survey kindly con- 
sented to bring the figures 1 and 2 up to date from 1912, as 
I was not in the United States until a few days before the 
presentation of the paper, and such statistical information 
was not conveniently at hand in the field. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22, 1916 

1913, passed 25,000 metric- tons, or about 20% of the 
world's total. Banka is the only other country having 
a production that exceeds 5% of the world's total, and 
ni 1!H2 Banka was credited with a yield of about 1 
metric tons, or 13J% of the total. Cornwall, Australia. 
China, South Africa, and Billiton make up the remain- 
ing 17% of the world's output, and, as above stated, 
the individual productions of each of these countries if 
less than 5% of the tin production of the world. 

On the same diagram will be seen a curve representing 
the total amount of tin produced in countries other than 
British possessions and protectorates, a curve showing 
the consumption of tin in the United States, and also a 
curve illustrating the value, in millions of dollars, of the 
world's production of tin between the years 1897 and 
1915." Some notable facts are illustrated by these dia- 
grams. For example, the total amount of tin produced 
in countries other than British is less than the amount 
consumed in the United States, and has been less during 
the period covered by this diagram. Further, in the last 
few years the value of the world's production in millions 
of dollars has been about equal to the world's produc- 
tion in thousands of metric tons. In other words, during 
that period the value of a thousand metric tons of tin 
has been, in round numbers, one million dollars. In this 
connection Fig. 2 will be of interest; on this diagram is 
shown graphically the average monthly price of tin at 
New York during the period covered by Fjg. 1, namely, 
between 1897 and 1915. It will be observed that the 
price, with some exceptions, has risen steadily from 13 
cents per pound in 1897 to over 50 cents per pound in 
1912 and 1913, since which time it has fluctuated be- 
tween 50 cents and 30 cents." Between 1897 and 1915 
the world's production has increased from 75,000 metric 
tons to over 120,000 metric tons of tin. This continued 
increase in production, accompanied by a more or less 
constantly advancing price, is worthy of especial remark. 

United States Consumption. Since 1897, or, in the 
last 19 years, the importation of tin into the United 
States has increased from 25,000 metric tons to over 
50,000 metric tons, having passed this figure in 1912. 
The growth of domestic consumption has been due 
largely to the steady growth of the American tin-plate 
industry, although the large use of tin tetra-chloride in 
the silk industry has had a considerable effect on the 
amount of metal consumed. During the same period the 
British tin-plate industry has decreased proportionately, 
the protective tariff in the United States being not only 
responsible for the rapid growth of our own tin-plate 
industry, but also for the decline in that industry in 
Great Britain, from which country the United States 
purchases 90% of the pig-tin it consumes. The United 
States Steel Corporation is the largest individual con- 

This period is chosen for. the reason that prior to 1S97 
the Bolivian production was too small to be considered as 
important among the productions of other nations. 

"During August, 1914, tin was quoted at 65c. per pound in 
New York. However, this price was maintained only for a 
brief period. 

sumer of tin in the world, the American tin-plate in- 
dustry having been developed by this corporation. It is 
to be remembered that the available supply of tin from 
nations other than British possessions and protectorates 
is less than the amount consumed annually by the United 

Here follows a brief statement regarding secondary 
tin in the Tinted States. This industry has grown 
from a small beginning in 1900 to such proportions 
that the secondary tin recovered in 1913 equaled 
14,178 tons, valued at $12,567,379, and the recovery 
for the year 1914 was 12,447 tons, having a value of 
about $8,887,158. These figures represent respectively 
27.2% and 26.2% of the importations of tin into the 
United States and indicate a constantly increasing do 
mestic source of tin supply. J. P. Dunlop statist 
"The recovered tin includes the tin content of products 
made by several plants from tin scrap. These include 
some tin oxide, putty powders, etc.. but consist mainly 
of tin chloride, stannic and stannous salts. Stannic 
chloride is usually sold either as a water solution, called 
bi-ehloride of tin. or as an anhydrous sirupy liquid, 
termed tetra-chloride of tin, and is used principally in 
the silk industry. Stannous chloride is sold in the form 
of crystals and is used in dyeing and calico printing. 
Most of the tin oxide, tetra-chloride, and other products 
were made from clean tin-plate clippings, or from tin 
liquors left in dyeing and weighting silks. The dry 
chlorine process was used to recover the tin from the 
clippings in some places ; in others reverberatory fur- 
naces were used to remove the tin coating, and a large 
quantity of tin was recovered in the form of a tin pow- 
der by the electrolytic treatment of clean scrap, the 
powder being sent to secondary smelters. The largest 
recoveries of tin were made from the scruff and drosses 
that occur in making tin and terne plate, and amounted 
to over 5000 tons. The recovery of tin from block tin 
pipe, tin foil, and old tin cans was relatively small. 
Only one firm reported using old tin containers, from 
which the tin and solder were first sweated and the black 
plate re-melted to make sash-weights. The principal 
alloys in which secondary tin was recovered were babbitt 
and other bearing metals, bronze, solder, pewter, and 
electrotype metal." 

Bolivian Production. The production of tin from 
Bolivia in 1863 was only 493 tons, 8 while the following 
year the output was only 204 tons, and it was not until 
1888 that the annual production exceeded 1000 tons." 
The production from this date until 1898 fluctuated 
under 3000 tons per annum. Since 1898 the production 
has been almost continuously increasing until in 1913 it 
passed 25,000 metric tons. See Fig. 1. While a glance 
at this diagram would lead one to believe that the Bo- 

''Mineral Resources of the United States,' U. S. G. S., 1912. 

S A11 figures regarding production of tin refer to the amount 
of metallic tin contained in the ores produced and shipped, 
and do not refer to 'barilla,' in which form it is customary 
to refer to the production of tin in Bolivia. 

Mineral Industry. Vol. 1. p. 450 (18921. 

.luiv aa, 1916 

MINING and StK-nl. 


Uvian production represented norma] growth 

nary ti> know certain pertinent g the 

.. prodai tion from the individual mines 
eoming to any conclusions regarding tin- stability of the 
Bolivian tin industry u a whole Por example, ona 
nunc produoee roughly one-fourth of all Boliria'i "in- 
put A contiguous property eould easily prod another 

fourth, but the i ►» » 1 i<->~ of the management eeema to !»• 
rathrr to keep to ii nominal production of Il'.ihni quin* 
tals por month, this repreaanting 17.1', of the total 

output from Bolivia. Of the remaining 58.7%, tin - 

fifths aea Mom Huanuni, Compania Minora de Oruro, 

:. Aramayo Prank & Co., Souz, Bebin Brothers, 
ami the Avicaya properties. A huge proportion of the 
out put therefore comes from a comparatively iVw minea, 
over two-fifths from two contiguous 
mines in one district. Consequently, 
the increased production from Bolivia 
is traceable to the efforts of two ••i>ni- 
paniea, and if they Btopped operating 
the total output from Bolivia would 
drop to a third-rate place among tin- 
producing countries. The relatively 
small proportion of tin produced by 
the intermittent shippers, represent- 
ing a little over 20% of the total pro- 
duet ion. comes from numerous proper- 
ties, more than ii"> others, which are 
not continuously operated, and which 
ship from a few hundred to a few thou- 
sand pounds of concentrate per year. 

The reason that relatively few Bolivian mines pro- 
duce tin in quantity seems rather to be due to a general 
lack of foresight and enterprise on the part of the own- 
ers than to a poverty of ore. Owners of prospects not 
blessed with much in the way of worldly possessions 
are usually not only too poor to develop but are likewise 
unable to pay taxes. In consequence, these so-called 
owners keep on denouncing the deposits over and over 
again, either each succeeding year, or often enough to 
complicate the titles. Further, any deposit so rich that 
it can be worked with profit from the surface is gutted 
without regard for the future. The natural and obvious 
result is that when the rich ore-shoot is mined, or when 
the grade falls off to such an extent that profitable 
mining is no longer possible with the crude and waste 
ful methods in vogue, there is no ore developed, no 
money for development, and no money available for the 
purchaser of equipment. The same generalizations hold. 
with possibly two exceptions, even among the few mines 
that are contributing four-fifths of Bolivia's total pro- 
duction. In consequence, we have here to deal with a 
few productive properties, none of which have ore re- 
serves assuring a continuance of output for any consid- 
erable period. 10 In short, the Bolivian production has 

'"While the production of tin from Bolivian placer deposits 
is small at present, there exist placer deposits that have been 
practically unexplored, although one large American company 
has done some drilling with unsatisfactory results, so I am 

nl importance through the development 
of a n . "Inch lm\e praotioallj paid 

tin- gnaa-rooti Other properties an man pn 
and have no assured future However, to one who has 
studied practically all of the properies of oonunerciaJ 

Importance, and has at the same ti ixamined the 

region carefully, it is quite apparent thai the Bolivian 
tin industry in still in it s Infancy. However, l believe 
that this industry, if aided by the Bolivian government 
in the enactment of just mining laws, regulations, and 
taxes, so that the foreigner" will not want to keep out, 
is destined to expand to first importance. 

•lust now tin- Bolivian government, ii mmon with 

other South American republics, is financially hard 
pressed, and. as ,-i consequence, in attempting to mitigate 

..,■ .... ..,,, -jy ., ,. :■,,,.- ,,.,, J% , gg, ..,,,,, mfl 0M fM Jl:0 ^ ^,. ml mt mt 

Fig. 2. the prick of tin at new yobk. 

its troubles, it turns instinctively to the mining industry, 
which is really its backbone, although usually unappre- 
ciated. To raise money, Congress considered a law com- 
pelling all of the tin producers to buy 20% of their for- 
eign exchange drafts (in payment for barilla exported) 
through the National bank at the standard par value of 
the boliviano, which is fixed by Congress at 12.50 bo- 
livianos for one pound sterling. This is all very well 
when the exchange on bolivianos is at par. However, 
when the law was being discussed, exchange was any- 
thing but normal, and this order, if passed by Congress, 
would have amounted to an added export tax of $1,108,- 
510 U. S. currency, which would be an appreciable ad- 
dition to the export tax. To make lliis more clear: 
Under normal conditions the English pound sterling is 
worth $4.8665 U. S. currency, and has a value in bo- 
livianos fixed by the Bolivian government of 12. ."in 
bolivianos. This makes a boliviano worth 38.93 cents 
D. S. Taking, for illustration, the present value of the 
boliviano as being 30.3c, the difference in its purchasing 
value and the value at which mine-owners, according to 
this law. might be compelled to buy one-fifth of all their 
drafts amounts to 8.63c. 0. S. for each boliviano in- 
volved in the transaction. Now, the tin industry in 

nConsiderably less than 50% of Bolivia's tin production 
comes from Bolivian-owned mines, and of this portion. 31*% 
is produced from mines owned by a capable energetic Bolivian 
gentleman who lives in Europe: the rest of the Bolivian output 
is produced by mines controlled by men of foreign birth. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 22, 1916 

Bolivia has an annual gross value of roughly $25,000,- 
000. One-fifth of this is $5,000,000. At the value of 
the boliviano as fixed by Bolivian law. $5,000,000 U. S. 
equals 12,843,565 bolivianos. At the present value of 
the boliviano the same amount of money equals 16,501,- 
650 bolivianos, a difference of 3,658,085 bolivianos or 
$1,108,510 at present exchange. This would go through 
the Banco de la Nacion. The purchase of 20% of the 
drafts at the rate of exchange fixed by the Bolivian 
government would bring in an annual revenue of 
$1,108,510. Now, as the production of tin in Bolivia is 
at present roughly 50,000,000 lb. per annum, and this 
added exchange amounts to 110,851,000 cents, it is 
equivalent to adding an export tax of 2.21c. on each 
pound of tin contained in the barilla exported, which, 
added to the already existing export tax on tin (which 
ranges from 0.86c. per pound to 2.08c. per pound, ac- 
cording to the London quotation on Straits tin) would 
make a total export tax ranging from 2.77c. to 4.36c. 
U. S., figures that are appreciable, to say the least, and 
that would undoubtedly have the effect of hindering, if 
not stopping, the exploitation of some Bolivian tin 
mines, for the simple reason that 4 cents gold per pound 
of tin produced is perhaps the limit of profit in many 
of the operations. 

It is to be remarked that fortunately this legislation 
failed to become effective. However, the very fact that 
such a measure was proposed indicates an attitude on 
the part of the Bolivian government that is anything but 
conducive to the introduction of new foreign capital, 
and that appears rather hostile toward the investors 
already in the field. 

Ownership of Tin Mines. There are in Bolivia at 
present 9 or 10 mining companies producing tin concen- 
trate in quantity. Of these, two groups produce 48.8% 
of the total production. It will be interesting to note 
the nationality of the control in these companies. Two 
are Bolivian, two Chilean, two French, two English, and 
one Italian. The two companies that are distinctly 
Bolivian produce in the neighborhood of 15,750,000 lb. 
of tin per annum. The two Chilean companies con- 
tribute about 12,300,000 lb. The two English and one 
Italian 1 - mines produce about 7,150,000 lb., while the 
production of the two French companies is roughly 
3,600.000 lb. The total is 38,800,000 lb., or roughly 
four-fifths of the total Bolivian production. 

In considering the importance of this ownership to 
possible relations with smelters in the United States, it 
will be interesting to know that one American smelting 
company has contracted for the total output of the two 
Chilean companies for a period of one year, and has 
also contracted for the output of one of the companies 
classed as English. This represents contracts for about 
7000 tons of metallic tin per year, or 28.2% of the 
Bolivian production. 

Prior to the War the price charged in England for 

i=The production of the English and Italian companies is 
given as a total to avoid disclosing actual individual produc- 

smelting Bolivian tin ores of a rather impure character 
ranged from about $58 to $72 per ton of material 
treated, which price was advanced from $121 to $145 
when hostilities commenced. The American company 
offered a certain concern a two-year contract at $97.20 
per ton 9t material treated, but the offer was not ac- 
cepted. Before the War a German house smelted tin 
ores for a Bolivian-owned mine for $34.02 per ton and 
for a French-owned property for $43.74 per ton. the 
difference in smelting charges being due to the impurity 
of the ores from one of the mines and to the difference 
in the amount of material treated for the two companies. 

As long as the European war lasts the matter of get- 
ting Bolivian tin ores for American smelters should 
(barring adverse Bolivian legislation) be an easy one, 
and at present only 28.2% of the total output is under 
contract to Americans. By reason of the high smelting 
rate existing in England and the practical impossibilty 
of getting tin ores into Germany for reduction, it seems 
reasonable to suppose that the Americans will have no 
difficulty in obtaining as much of the Bolivian tin prod- 
uct as they desire. On the conclusion of the War, how- 
ever, the matter will be more serious, the American tin 
smelters will have to be prepared to stand strong com- 
petition, for the price of $34.02 per ton formerly granted 
by the Germans does not represent the lowest possible 
price at which the same house could smelt these ores at 
a profit, and when again entering the market, they will 
undoubtedly be willing to accept a smaller profit in 
order to regain the business they will have lost through 
the erection of one tin smelter in the United States and 
the completion of others now planned. 

It is my belief that the nationality of the owners of 
the mines will have nothing to do with the placing of 
their smelting contracts, except in the event of equal 
prices being offered, in which case presumably the con- 
tract would go to a house of the same nationality. How- 
ever, granting this, the English, so mixed up in tin 
smelting, and the Germans, though not so heavily in- 
terested, control but a small proportion of the Bolivian 
output through mine-ownership, while Italian, Bolivian, 
Chilean, and French custom smelters do not exist. 
Hence the conclusion seems justified that Bolivian tin 
contracts will go to the highest bidder, regardless of 

Mining and Milling Methods. In general, Bolivian 
tin-mining methods are crude in the extreme. This 
statement applies with equal force to all but a very few 
of the mines at present important. All of the proper- 
ties in Bolivia have been gophered in their upper and 
richer portions, and but few of the companies are at 
present attempting to mine along improved methods. 
Furthermore, in many instances, instead of following a 
vein on a comparatively flat dip, circuitous inclines are 
sunk entirely off the vein. Naturally, the lode is not ex- 
posed, and if ore is again encountered, it is impossible 
to say with any degree of certainty whether it is the 
same orebody worked above or not. This makes little 
difference to the owner, as he will mine any ore so long 

Jill) -■- 1916 

MINING an J Sasntfr I'RESS 

tillable However, I paining eiiii 

anefa nwlhi ing ninl unsatisfactory to the 

to-moath method of mining 
Intl.- in sight fur tin- future, and is » serious 
hindrance iii further exploitation of the mine after the 
richer portioni ■■■ mined out The propertiea 

will then remain idle until someone with a little more 
energy and mone) take