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BTdoT'iEadiiHB i 

California State Library 

Accession No. 

Can jVo. qc\p££<Q >? TttllU 





Mining and Scientific Press 

July to December, 1 920 


cme Motor Truck To 

dam, H. R. . . .Resume of literature on the theory of 

flotation 765 

Advertiser anil the editor A correspondence. . . . 408 

Ditto Editorial..., 103 

advertising ethics P. B. McDonald. . . . 545 

Aerial mail Editorial .... 402 

Agnew, John A Editorial. ... 327 

Alaska Gold Mines Co Editorial. . . . 898 

Alaska Treadwell Editorial. . . . 475 

Alderson. Victor C Editorial. ... 441 

Ditto Oil-Shale Industry, book review. . . . 473 

leer. F. R. . .Underground prospecting at Joplin. ... 109 

Ulen. A. W Science and industry. . . . 161 

Hen. C. A Signaling mine-hoists from moving 

cages 232 

•Ulis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 64 5 

Copper converters 145 

Lluminum, manufacture of 15 

Amalgamation, steaming of plates 20 

\merican Lubricants, book review . L. B. Lockhart. ... S23 

kmerican-made gold-dredge for New Zealand 324 

Operations of Consolidated Gold Fields of South 

Africa 881 

American Mining Congress 747 

Ditto Editorial 752, 790, S26 

\merican Smelting & Refining Co 215 

American Steel & Wire Co 218 

Americanization Editorial .... 3 

\naconda company and taxes Editorial. ... 470 

Enterprise in Chile 698 

Apex litigation John J. Presley. ... 81 

Application of the Bradford flotation process to mixed 

sulphide concentrates 

W. D. Green and Wm. Fagergren . . . . 455 

Vrizona. mineral production of: 664 

Arnold. Ralph, J. L. Darnell, and others. . . .Manual for 

the Oil and Gas Industry, book review 33 

\ssaving methods at the Globe & Phoenix mine 

H. R. Edmands. ... 451 

Association of Accountants 10S 

Australian treatment of American low-grade copper 

ores 419 


Bacon, John Lord Forge Practice and Heat-Treat- 
ment of Steel, book review 3 3 

Bad language Editorial .... 39 

Bailey, F. J. . . .First-aid and mine-rescue contest. ... 241 

Baking 'gold' ore Paul T. Bruhl. ... 479 

Ditto B. L. Gardiner .... 89 

Ball-granulators 645 

Barber-Greene bucket-loader 930 

Barrett Company 929 

Barrows. David P Editorial .... 29.3 

Bastin, Edson S., and H. D. McCaskey Work on 

mineral resources by U. S. G. S 166 

Beck, E. G. . . .Structural Steelwork, book review. ... 473 

Belmont Shawmut Mining Co., mill 

Henry Hanson. . . . 793 

Mine and mill A. B. Parsons. . . . 619, 659 


Belt-conveyors 399 

Joining, new booklet on 217 

Selection am! treatment of E. J. Black.... 34 

Benedict, W. deL Concerning silver. . . . 329 

Benguet Consolidated, milling practice at 

C. M. Eye and M. F. Dodd .... 805, 84J 

Benitez. A. T Interviews with Governors of 

Zacatecas and Durango 667 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation 323, 474 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation 218 

Bingham decision Editorial. . . . 721 

Bishop. Thomas Carlton Structural Drafting and 

the Design of Details, book review 33 

Black. E. .1 Selection and treatment of 

transmission belts 34 

Black. N. Henry, and James Bryant Conant. .Practical 

Chemistry, book review 575 

Blast-furnaces at Copper Cliff 45S 

Fired with coal H. C. Robson. . . . 409 

Slag, use of 664 

Blessing. George F., and Lewis F. Darling. . .Elements 

of descriptive geometry, book review 823 

Blinn. Leroy J Tin. Sheet-Iron, and Copper-Plate 

Worker, book review 473 

Boiling-points of water under reduced pressure 646 

Bolivian silver-tin ores M. G. F. Sohnlein. . . . 384 

Books written in a hurry. . . . M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 43 

Borzynski. F Case oil-fired assay-furnace. ... 42 

Bosworth. T. O Geology of the Mid-Continent 

Oilfields, book review 435 

Bounty on gold Editorial. . . . 684 

Bourne, F. J. .Human factor in mine management. . . . 831 

Boyer, L. R A new track-scale. ... 107 

Bradford flotation process on mixed sulphides 

W. D. Green and Wm. Fagergren. ... 455 

Branner. John Caspar 581 

Brannt. William T., and Dr. George Langbein . .Electro- 
Deposition of Metals, book review 435 

Brass Check Editorial .... 753 

Brazil, geology of F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 581 

Brinsmade, Robert B Wages, profits, and social 

ethics 151 

Broken Hills Silver Corporation Editorial. . . . 222 

Brown, G. Chester Electric detonators. ... 81 

Bruhl, Paul T Baking a gold ore. . . . 479 

Ditto Engineering education. . . . 615 

Bull-pen in the Coeur d'Alene T. A. Rickard. . . . 335 

Bullard, E. D Gas-masks. . . . 546 

Bunker Hill Enterprise. . T. A. Rickard. .195, 227, 335, 413 

Ditto S. F. Shaw. . . . 185 

Burch, Albert Editorial .... 295 

A western engineer T. A. Rickard. . . . 299 

Burma Corporation Editorial .... 327 

Burro Mountain concentrator 285 

Business Man and His Bank, book review 

William H. Kniffin . ... 473 

Outlook Charles T. Hutchinson. . . . 755 

Butler. H. G Distribution of power in 

California 688 

Butte and the election Editorial. . . . 719 

Butte it Superior Mining Co., company report 3 66 

Mining methods at A. B. Parsons. . . . 513 

Butters, Charles Concerning silver. ... 5, 185 


Vol. 121 


c ...... ••:.••:: • ". 

C. T. H Three hours with t'he;Qeid6oratV.'. : .\" 6i' 

Caetani, Gelasio Editorial. ... 860 

Calderwood, James P., and Andrey A. Potter. . . .Ele- 
ments of Steam and Gas Power Engineering, 

book review 435 

California Metal Producers Association 304 

Call to arms A. E. Zeh .... 41 

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., curtailment at 813 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 719 

Camp Bird, Mr. Agnew, and Mr. Spurr 

John A. Agnew. ... 79 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 

R. C. Wallace 773 

Care of rock-drills Howard R. Drullard. ... 310 

Case oil-fired assay-furnace F. Borzynski. ... 42 

Centrifugal pumps Editorial. ... 76 

Ditto Robert S. Lewis. ... 83, 479 

Cerro de Pasco, pulverized coal as fuel 

Otis L. Mclntyre. ... 55 

Chauvenet, Regis, obituary 856 

Chile Copper Co. report 103 

Chile, mining nitrates in P. A. Raymond. . . . 257 

China, copper 'i 82 

Chloride volatilization Editorial. ... 2 

Chloridizing roasting M. G. F. Sohnlein. . . . 384, 688 

Chomley, W. B Price of gold. ... 617 

Chromiferous iron ore 738 

Chuquicamata Robert Clarke .... 405 

Mines at 280 

Clark, Charles W 811 

Clarke, Robert Chuquicamata. ... 405 

Clawson, Spencer W., obituary 321 

Clennell. J. E Early days on the Rand. ... 51 

Coal, production per man 421 

Cobalt 560 

Silver producers Editorial. . . . 859 

Code of ethics Editorial .... 4 

Ditto A. T. Parsons .... 42 

Collins, Henry F Record for cheap mining. ... 373 

Colorado School of Mines Editorial. ... 369 

Combinations of gold J. H. Mockett, Jr. . . . 6 

Company reports. . . .Butte & Superior Mining Co. . . . 366 

Ditto Dome Mines Co. . . . 366 

Conant, James Bryant, and N. Henry Black. .Practical 

Chemistry, book review 575 

Concentrator of Belmont Shawmut Co 

A. B. Parsons. . . . 659 

Concerning shift-bosses Editorial. . . . 752 

Silver W deL. Benedict. . . . 329 

Ditto Charles Butters. ... 5, 185 

Ditto Frank L. Sizer. . . . 298 

Conditions in Mexico 

An Occasional Correspondent. ... 345 

Conference on standardization 395 

Contreras, Adriano, and Ramon Oriol Spanish 

Mining Directory, book review 473 

Conventions Editorial. ... 77 

Conveying hot material by belts 108 

Co-operation and reciprocity 785 

Copper converters at Clarkdale, Arizona 145 

Deposits of Lake Superior S. S. Lang. ... 408 

In China 82 

Industry of British Columbia 889 

Output, January to June, 1920 213 

Production Editorial. . . . 403 

Production in U. S., 1913 to 1919 383 

Production statistics 641 

Copper Canyon mine 566 

Copperopolis fire 737 

Corless, C. V Editorial. . . . 827 

Ditto Labor the holder of the nation's 

wealth 829 

Cornish mining Editorial. ... 295 

Coronado mine operations 469 

Cottrell treater, flue type A. B. Young. . . . 273 

Cox, James M 62 

Crescent Belt Fastener Co , 108, 217 

Cripple Creek and Pikes Peak Editorial. ... 149 

Crocker, Wm Question and answer. ... 80 

Crossing the bay Editorial. . . . 510 

Crowell & Murray. . . .The Iron Ores of Lake Superior, 

book review 473 

Cubore, a new type of ship 218 

Curves for ore-valuation K. K. Hood. ... 270 

Cutler Hammer Mfg. Co 110 

Cutting a 44-in. riser 682 

..•••••. Page 

Cyanide, -practice at Benguet Consolidated 

: •" • • '•' CM. Eye and M. F. Dodd. . . . 805, 841 

Cyaniding concentrate at Belmont Shawmut property. . 

A. B. Parsons. ... 659 
Flotation, concentrate Henry Hanson. ... 793 


Danger from explosives fume in metal mining 

D. Harrington and B. W. Dyer.... 308 
Darling, Lewis F., and George F. Blessing. .Elements 

of Descriptive Geometry, book review 823 

Darnell, J. L., Ralph Arnold, and others .... Manual 

for the Oil and Gas Industry, book review. ... 33 

Dawson and gold production 570 

Day, David E Oil-shale industry. . . . 298 

Day, David T Editorial. . . . 442 

Dayton, Nevada, dredge 464, 474 

Decision in Deister patent suits 400 

Deepest mine Editorial .... 477 

Deister Machine Co 400 

de Laschmutt, Ivan 819 

Democrats, three hours with the C. T. H. . . . 61 

Denver Fire-Clay Co 681 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co 257, 787 

Design of Highway Bridges, 2nd edition, book review. . 

Milo S. Ketchum.... 575 

Determination of molybdenum 343 

Dings magnetic separator 218 

Distribution of power in California. .H. G. Butler. . ... 688 

Dividends from metal mines in North America 365 

Divining rod Editorial .... 721 

Ditto W. A. Middleton. . . . 863 

Ditto William Pryce. . . . 733 

Ditto Forbes Rickard. . . . 863 

Ditto Grant H. Smith 863 

Dodd, M. F., and C. M. Eye Milling practice at 

Benguet Consolidated Mine 805, 841 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co 824, 895 

Dolbear, Samuel H Enlarging maps. ... 374 

Dollar, Capt. Robert Editorial. . . . 790 

Dome Mines Co., company report 366 

Dorman & Co., W. H 610 

Drainage of swamps to reduce pumping 496 

Dredging in New Zealand A. C. Ludlum. . . . 479 

Drilling contest at Jerome 133 

Drullard, Howard R Care of rock-drills. . . . 310 

Dust in metal mines 3 52 

Dwight-Lloyd roasters at Port Pirie smelter. ...:.... 

Gilbert Rigg. ... 90 

Dyer, B. W., and D. Harrington Danger from 

explosives fume in metal mining 308 

Dynamobile 681 


Early days on the Rand J. E. Clennell. ... 51 

Edison Lamp Works 217 


Americanization 3 

Bad language 39 

Bingham decision 721 

Bounty on gold 684 

Brass Check 753 

Burma Corporation 327 

Code of ethics 4 

Colorado School of Mines 369 

Concerning shift-bosses 75 2 

Conventions 77 

Copper production 403 

Cornish mining 295 

Crossing the bay 510 

Deepest mine 477 

Divining rod 721 

Election 684 

Electrolytic zinc 792 

Engineering education 223 

Examination of mines 223 

Federal Trade Commission 114 

Federal Trade Commission and Minerals Separa- 
tion 262 

Flotation conference 790 

From Leadviile to Cyprus 685 

Geologic fallacies 182 

Great steel strike 371 

Grievance 404 

Harding's acceptance 150 

Immigration 900 

Vol l'-M 



impending labor crisis 862 

Impressions or the Mining Congress B61 leadership 4 1" 

In.lusiriul relations 511 

Japanese In California f>4 3 

l.lndley. I'urtis H 791 

Metal quotations 112 

Mining finance 476 

New mineral 580 

News (roni Mexico 78 

Oil-shale industry 441 

Our national responsibility 613 

Ownership of mine water 612 

Pike's Peak anil Cripple Creek 149 

Polish muddle 261 

Question of ethics 403 

Rising tide of color 648 

Salting of mines 183 

Smelting lead-zinc ores 113 

Speakers and speeches 826 

Stores in mining communities 649 

Struggle at Klo Tlnto 326 

Western engineer 295 

Work ol Congress 40 

Yankee engineer 899 

Edmands. H. R Notes on routine assaying at the 

Globe & Phoenix mine 451 

Education of engineers Editorial. . . . 223 

El Tlgre. geology of R. T. MIshler. . . . 583 

Election Editorial. . . . 579. 684 

Electric detonators G. Chester Brown. ... 81 

Furnace at San Francisco mint 865 

Furnace voltage regulator 507 

Electric Steel Co 474 

Electricity at the Bunker Hill property 

T. A. Rickard 195, 227 

Electro-Deposition of Metals, book review 

Dr. George Langbein and William T. Brannt. ... 435 

Metallurgy of manganese ore 132 

Electrolytic separation of copper from a copper-cobalt- 
nickel matte R. G. Knickerbocker. ... 45 

Zinc Editorial. . . . 792 

Zinc methods Herbert R. Hanley. . . . 795 

Elements of Descriptive Geometry, book review 

George F. Blessing and Lewis F. Darling. . . . 823 
Of Steam and Gas Power Engineering, book review 

Andrey A. Potter and James P. Calderwood. ... 435 
Elliott, Charles G. . . .Engineering for Land Drainage, 

book review 33 

Elliott. Edward Federal Reserve system. . . . 699 

'Engineer' Power resources. . . . 480 

Engineer and national prosperity 

George Otis Smith.... 243 

Engineer mine 923 

Engineering Council E. H. Leslie. . . . 704 

Engineering education Paul T. Bruhl. . . . 615 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 223 

Ditto P. B. McDonald 329 

Engineering for Land Drainage, book review 

Charles G. Elliott. ... 33 

Enlarging maps Samuel H. Dolbear. . . . 374 

Enriquez, Ignacio Editorial. . . . 578 

Esperanza, Ltd 752 

Ethics, a code of Editorial .... 4 

Ditto A. T. Parsons .... 42 

Professional Robert Hawxhurst, Jr. . . . 79 

Examination of mines Editorial. . . . 223 

Exploitation of manganese deposits 23 7 

Explosives fume, danger from 

D. Harrington and B. W. Dyer. ... 308 

Handling of 242 

Exporter's Gazetteer of Foreign Markets, book review 

Lloyd R. Morris.... 4 73 

Eye, C. M., and M. F. Dodd Milling practice at 

Benguet Consolidated mine 805, 841 

Fagergren, Wm., and W. D. Green ...'. Application of 
Bradford flotation process to mixed sulphide 

concentrates 455 

Fagergren flotation machine 457 

Fairbanks Co., E. & T 107 

Fans for mine ventilation Walter S. Weeks. ... 11 

Farnsworth, Philo Taylor, obituary 178 

Farrell, J. H Tonopah Divide report. . . . 709 

Federal Reserve system Edward Elliott. ... 699 

And crops Editorial .... 578 


Federal Trade Commission Editorial. ... Ill 

And Minerals Separation 

Ditto Editorial 262 

Federated American Engineering Societies 290, 783 

Ditto Editorial. .. . 761 

Field. Charles K Editorial. ... 683 

Ditto Hoover's biography. . . . 688 

Fighting mine tires H. J. Rahllly. 

Finance, some principles of Robert S. Lewis. . . . 487 

Fires In mines of the South-West 

Charles A. Mltke. . . ,166, 187 

Fire-walls made of gunlte 3 5 

First-aid and mine-rescue contest. . . .F. J. Bailey. ... 241 

Flotation conference Editorial. . . . 790 

Controlling factors in Ralph D. Nevett. . . . 349 

Mechanism of surface phenomena of 

Irving Langmulr. . . . 913 

Mill-runs v. laboratory tests 

Frederick G. Moses. ... 238 

Of graphite 624 

Oils 929 

Processes, 'The Mining Magazine' 279 

Resume of literature on theory of . .H. R. Adam. . . . 765 

Tests James M. Hyde. . . . 481 

Flue type of Cottrell treater A. B. Young. . . . 273 

Food-draft system of the American Relief Administra- 
tion Edgar Rickard .... 739 

Foote. Arthur DeW Editorial 899 

Dftto T. A. Rickard. . . . 901 

Forge Practice and Heat-Treatment of Steel, book 

review John Lord Bacon. ... 33 

Fort Norman, oil at Editorial. . . . 721 

Foster, William Z Editorial. . . . 370 

Freight-rates in Utah 316 

Increases on ores 503 

To Nabuska 920 

French loan 434 

French, Thomas Price of gold. . . . 115 

Fresnillo mine and mill 76 4 

Friend, J. Newton Text-Book of Inorganic 

Chemistry, Vol. IX, Part 1, book review 33 

From Leadville to Cyprus Editorial. . . . 685 

Fuller's earth 23 

Fulton, R. E. . . .Motor trucks at freight terminals. . . . 108 

Fume from explosives Jeffrey Schweitzer. ... 408 

Fundamental principles of industrial employment rela- 
tions 437 


Garrison, F. Lynwood Geology of Brazil. . . . 581 

Gas-masks E. D. Bullard . . . . 546 

Gavin, Martin J Oil-shales and 

their economic importance 193 

General Electric Co 217, 438 

Geologic fallacies Editorial .... 182 

Geologists as expert witnesses F. L. Ransome. . . . 666 

Geology at El Oro S. J. Lewis. . . . 527 

Of Brazil F. Lynwood Garrison. ... 581 

Of El Tigre district R. T. Mishler. . . . 583 

Of sundry districts in Mexico S. J. Lewis. ... 16 

Of Zacualpan district S. J. Lewis. . . . 379 

Geology of Mid-Continent Oilfields, book review 

T. O. Bosworth. . . . 435 
Geology of the Non-Metallic Deposits Other Than Sili- 
cates, Vol. I, book review" 

Amadeus W. Grabau.... 823 

Gilsonite 244 

Gold bounty Editorial. ... Ill 

Committee, report to Secretary of the Treasury. . . . 705 

In India Editorial .... 898 

Price of W. B. Chomley. ... 617 

World's production of 168 

Gold, its Place in the Economy of Mankind, book review 

Benjamin White. ... 823 

Goldfield Development Co 778 

Goodsprings, Yellow Pine mill at 239 

Grabau, Amadeus W.... Geology of the Non-Metallic 

Deposits Other Than Silicates, book review. ... 823 

Grabill, C. A Japanese in California. . . . 617 

Ditto Umpire assays. ... 615 

Grass Valley mines Editorial. . . .899, 901 

Great steel strike Editorial. ... 371 

Green, W. D., and Wm. Fagergren .... Application of 
Bradford flotation process to mixed sulphide 

concentrates 455 

Grievance Editorial .... 404 

Gross, John. . . .Recovery of gold from black sand. ... 770 

'Gunite' for fire-walls 3 5 


Vol. 121 

Hadley. Isaac B., obituary 

Hague, James D Editorial .... 

Handling of explosives 

Hanley, Herbert R Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Electrolytic zinc methods. . . . 

Hanson, Henry Belmont Shawmut mill. . . . 

Harding's acceptance Editorial .... 

Harrington, D., and B. W. Dyer Danger from 

explosives fume in metal mining 

Hatt, William Kendrick, and H. H. Scofleld. . . .Labora- 
tory Manual of Testing Materials, book review. 

Haulage underground, safety in 

Hawxhurst, Robert, Jr Professional ethics. . . . 

Hazen, Allen, and Gardner S. Williams 

Hydraulic Tables, 3rd edition, book review. . . . 

Herron, David, A., obituary 

Hill, James M 

Hines, P. R Recent metallurgy at Trail. . . . 

History of mine-fires in the South-West 

Charles A. Mitke. . . .155, 
Hoisting equipment at Tonopah Extension mine 

Signaling from moving cages C. A. Allen. . . . 

Hollinger Consolidated 

Holt Manufacturing Co 

Hoochite Editorial .... 

Hood, K. K Curves for ore-valuation. . . . 

Hoover's biography Charles K. Field 

Ditto Max von Bernewitz .... 

Ditto H. E. West .... 

Human factor in mine management. .F. J. Bourne. . . . 

Ditto Sam A. Lewisohn .... 

Side of Bunker Hill enterprise. .T. A. Rickard. . . . 
Hutchinson, Charles T Business outlook. . . . 

Ditto Pinch of salt ... . 

Hyde, James M Testing ores for notation. . . . 

Hydraulic Tables, book review 

Gardner S. Williams and Allen Hazen .... 
Hydro-electric power Editorial .... 


. 820 

. 899 

. 242 

. 792 

. 795 

. 793 

. 150 









Immigration Editorial .... 541, 900 

Impending labor crisis Editorial. ... 862 

Impressions of the Mining Congress 861 

Improved stretcher J. c Williams, . . . 109 

Improvements in bulk-cargo handling 436 

India, economic conditions in Editorial. . . . 898 

Industrial Accident Commission Editorial.... 325 

Industrial leadership Editorial. ... 440 

Relations Editorial. ... 512, 827 

Ingalls, W. R Editorial. ...543, 612, 827 

Ditto Labor the holder of the nation's 

wealth and income 558, 592, 628 

Ingeniero Minerals Separation in Chile. . . . 724 

Interest rates and deflation 143 

Interesting experiment Physicist. ... 226 

Ditto Thomas T. Read. . . . 116 

Ditto Martin Schwerin. . . . 116 

International Association of Silver Producers 

Blarney Stevens. ... 864 

International Motor-Car Co 3 23 

International Nickel Co. report 215 

Interviews with Governors of Zacatecas and Durango. . 

A. T. Benitez. ... 667 

Iron and steel in India E. F. O. Murray. ... 654 

Iron Ores of Lake Superior, book review 

Crowell & Murray. ... 473 

Japan, lead and zinc in 27S 

Japanese in California Editorial .... 543 

Ditto C. A. Grabill .... 617 

Jayne, Joseph L Editorial. . . . 511 

Jones. Franklin D., and Erik Oberg Shop 

Mathematics, book review 435 

Judge Mining & Smelting Co Editorial. . . . 614, 650 

Judge on experts r 665 


Kelsey, George O., obituary S92 

Ketchum, Milo S Design of Highway 

Bridges, 2nd edition, book review 575 

Kimberly, Nevada, sinking of Alpha No. 2 shaft 

H. S. Munroe. . . . 871 

Knee Lake district in Northern Manitoba 306 

Knickerbocker, R. G Electrolytic separation of 

copper from a copper-cobalt-nickel matte 45 

Kniffin. Wm. H Business Man and His Bank, 

book review 473 

Labor policies Editorial. . . . 440 

The holder of the nation's wealth. C. V. Corless. . . . 829 

The holder of the nation's wealth and income 

W. R. Ingalls. .. .558, 592, 628 

Troubles at Bunker Hill property 335 

Laboratory Manual of Testing Materials, book review. . 

William Kendrick Hatt and H. H. Scofleld. ... 823 

Testing for flotation James M. Hyde. . . . 481 

Lake Shore mine, operations at 394 

Lang. S. S Copper deposits of Lake Superior. . . . 408 

Ditto Method of blasting. . . . 374 

Langbein, Dr. George, and William T. Brannt 

Electro-Deposition of Metals, book review. ... 435 

Langmuir, Irving Mechanism of the 

surface phenomena of flotation 913 

Largest mines Editorial. ... 261 

Las Chispas mine in Sonora, Mexico 

Fernando Montijo Jr. . . . 5 8 

Laschmutt, Ivan de 819 

Latour. C. C Editorial .... 898 

Lead and zinc in Japan 278 

Production, first half of 1920 383 

Smelting at Port Pirie Editorial. ... 76 

Smelting practice at Port Pirie. . .Gilbert Rigg. ... 90 

Zinc ores, smelting of Editorial. ... 113 

Leadville, A. DeW. Foote at T. A. Rickard. ... 901 

Leighton, M. O National Department of 

Public Works 758 

Leslie, E. H Engineering Council. . . . 704 

Lewis. Robert S Centrifugal pumps. . . .83, 479 

Ditto Editorial .... 476 

Ditto Some principles of finance. . . . 487 

Lewis, S. J Ore deposits of Mexico. . . .16, 375, 521 

Lewisohn, Sam A Editorial .... 440 

Ditto Human factor in mine management. . . . 651 

Leyner, John George, obituary 396 

Lighting drafting-rooms by electricity 217 

Lindley, Curtis H Editorial .... 791 

Obituary 784 

Liquid oxygen Editorial. ... 612 

Lockhart, L. B.American Lubricants, book review. . . . S23 

Lorenz, Fred H Salting of mines. ... 546 

Loring, W. J Editorial .... 752 

Ditto Re-opening of the Plymouth mine 

and the results 771 

Ditto War Minerals Relief. . . . 653 

Ludlum, A. C Dredging in New Zealand. . . . 479 

Ludlum dynamobile 681 


MacNaughton, James Editorial. ... 1 

Magnetic separators P. R. Hines. ... 44 

Magnetite ore, concentration of 122 

Main Belting Co 399 

Management at the Bunker Hill property 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 413 

Manganese deposits, exploitation of 237 

Manning, Van. H. Scope of work of the 

Bureau of Mines 21 

Manual for the Oil and Gas Industry, book review. . . . 

Ralph Arnold. J. L. Darnell, and others. ... 33 

Marsh, Jr., Robert Steam-Shovel Mining, 

book review 575 

Mason, F. H Recent metallurgy at Trail. ... 151 

Ditto Two suggestions on a 

national problem 373, 724 

McCaskey, H. D., and Edson S. Bastin Work on 

mineral resources by U. S. G. S 166 

McCone, Alexander J., obituary 678 

McDermid, C Sulman and the medal. . . . 297 

McDermott, Walter Editorial. . . . 183 

McDonald, P. B Advertising ethics. . . . 545 

Ditto Engineering education .... 329 

McFadden bill 564 

McFadden, Louis T Editorial. . . . 684 

McGarraugh, Robert Mine Bookkeeping 

book review 5 75 

Mclntyre, Otis L Pulverized coal in 

metallurgical furnaces at Cerro de Pasco 5 5 

McRae, Hector Oil-shale and shale-oil. . . . 616 

Vol. l-M 


Mechanism of ili<> surface phenomena of flotation, 

irviiiK Langmulr , 

Mori Baal marina 

Nordstroni ping valve 

Ueri lam, J"iui C Editorial. . 

Merrill Company 

Metal mining In California daring lirsi hair .>r 1910. . . S44 

Metal prloea unil iiilnluK in Mexico. II Q Nichols. . . . 6S6 

Quotations Editorial.... 112 

Metallurgy of copper »t Fredrlektown. Missouri 

It. Q. Knickerbocker. ... 45 

Metculf. Henry C, anil Onhvay Tend 

Personnel Administration, book review 576 

Method ol blasting S. S. Lang.... 374 

Of ore-sampling In Montana. H. B. Pulsifer. . . .866. 907 

Mexican Corporation Editorial. . . . 789 

Mexican peon 736 

Revolution 7 

Mexicans, who and what they are 

Occasional Contributor. . . . 443 

Mexico Editorial .... 38 

Condition! in Occasional Correspondent. . . . 345 

News from Editorial .... 78 

Ore deposits of S. J. Lewis 16. 3 7". 521 

Miami Copper Co Editorial .... 898 

Middleton. \V. A Divining rod. ... 863 

Midvale Minerals Co 

\Y D. Green and Wm. Fagergren . . . . 4SG 

Milling practice at Benguet Consolidated mine 

C. H. Eye and M. F. Dodd. . . . SOB. S41 

Milling talc 738 

Mine and mill of the Belmont Shawmut Mining Co. . . . 

A. B. Parsons. ... 619. 659 

At Chuqulcamata 280 

Fires Editorial .... 182 

Fires in the South-West. .Charles A. Mitke. . . . 155, 1ST 

Locomotive headlight with spring suspended case. 438 

Rescue medals Editorial .... 112 

Water, ownership of Editorial. . . . G14 

Mine Bookkeeping, book review 

Robert McGarraugh. . . . 575 

Mines Handbook, book review 

Walter Harvey Weed. ... 33 

Mineral Industry, 1919. book review. .G. A. Roush. . . . 823 

Minerals Separation Editorial. ... 114. 790 

Before the Federal Trade Commission 263 

In Chile Ingeniero .... 723 

Litigation 289 

Ditto Editorial .... 898 

Objectionable practices of George L. Nye. . . . 873 

Position under the laws. .Gilbert H. Montague. . . . 833 

Mineralogy, course in 213 

Miner's safety hat 474 

Mining Congress, impressions of Editorial. . . . 861 

Mining finance Editorial .... 476 

Ditto Robert S. Lewis. . . . 487 

In the Ketchikan district Joseph Ulmer. . . . 493 

In the Potosi district 192 

In Queensland 200 

Methods at the Butte & Superior 

A. B. Parsons. . . . 513 

Near Joplin Edgar Z. Wallower. . . . 297 

Nitrates in Chile .P. A. Raymond. . . . 257 

Mining Laws of the British Empire and of Foreign 

Countries, Vol. I, Nigeria, book review 

Gilbert Stone. ... 575 

•Mining Magazine', flotation processes 279 

Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Co 220 

Mishler, R. T. . . .Geology of the El Tigre district. . . . 583 

Missouri Cobalt Co., operations of 

R. G. Knickerbocker. ... 45 

Mitke, Charles A History of mine-fires in 

the South-West 155, 187 

Mockett, Jr., J. H Combinations of gold. ... 6 

Molybdenum, determination of 343 

Montague, Gilbert H Minerals Separation's 

position under the laws 833 

Montijo, Jr., Fernando Las Chispas mine 

in Sonora, Mexico 58 

More books written in a hurry 

Max von Bernewitz. ... 297 

Morris, Lloyd R Exporter's Gazetteer of 

Foreign Markets, book review 4 73 

Moses, Frederick G Flotation mill-runs 

v. laboratory tests 238 

Motor trucks relieve congestion at freight terminals. . . 

R. E. Fulton. ... 108 

Moving Sacramento hill 847 

Mu, i.i. Seeley W Editorial. . 

\n.l copper luin iiik III Cyprus T. A Rlckard, . . 

Multiple-cylinder anunonla-aompressor 824 

Munroe, n S Sinking of Alpha No I 

Mhufi at Kiini.eriy. Nevada 

Murray, E. F. o iron and tteel In India. 


National Compressed Mr Machinery Co 14*; 

National Department ..i Public Works 

National responsibility, our Editorial 818 

Neva, la Consolidated Co Editorial.... 649 

Neveit, Ralph ii Sum.. .■ni:ir. .1 1 1 Mu factors 

Is flotation 349 

nv» sir shafl ol Davis-Daly Co 880 

automatic control-panel for motor-generator sets. . 1 Hi 

Hoisting equipment at the Tonopah Extension mine . 277 

Mineral Editorial. . . . 580 

Track scale L. R. Boyer. . . . 107 

X.w Cornelia co-operative store at Ajo 591 

New York Engineering Co 324, 681 

News from Mexico Editorial. ... 7 s 

Nichols, H. G. .Metal prices and mining in Mexico. . . . 655 

Nickel Plate mine 745 

North Star mine 929 

Norwalk Iron Works 323 

Notes on routine assaying at the Globe & Phoenix mine 

H. R. Edmands. . . . 452 

On the Salmon River mining district 

Charles E. Prior. ... 51 S 

Novel dredge-light 323 

Nye, George L Objectionable practices 

of Minerals Separation 873 


Oberg, Erik, and Franklin D. Jones Shop Mathe- 
matics, book review 435 

Objectionable practices of Minerals Separation 

George L. Nye. ... 873 

Obregon, Gen. Alvarp 8, 347 

Oil-engine generator unit 895 

Oil-pipe lines 706 

Oil-Shale Industry, book review 

Victor Clifton Alderson. . . . 473 

Ditto David E. Day. . . . 298 

Ditto Editorial. ... 441 

And shale-oil Hector McRae. ... 616 

And its economic importance. .Martin J. Gavin. ... 193 

Ontario's mining industry in 1920 451 

Opening kegs of blasting powder 698 

Ore deposits of Mexico S. J. Lewis. . . .16, 375, 521 

Ditto F. L. Sizer. . . . 794 

Reserves of the Rand 627 

Sampling in Montana, methods of 

H. B. Pulsifer. . . . 

Oriol, Ramon, and Adriano Contreras Spanish 

Mining Directory, book review 

Orizaba mine 

Osmoridium in Tasmania 

Our national responsibility Editorial. . . . 

Ownership and Valuation of Mineral Property in the 

United Kingdom, book review 

Richard Redmayne and Gilbert Stone. . . . 

Ownership of mine-water Editorial .... 

Oxweld Co 


Oxy-acetylene cutting 




Paaswell, George. . .Retaining- Walls, book review. 

Paddy Pride mine 

Parker, R. L Rod-mill . 

Parsons, A. B Mine and mill of 

Belmont Shawmut Co 

Ditto Methods of mining at 

Butte & Superior 

Ditto. . . .Zinc-oxide plant of the Utah Zinc Co. 

Parsons, A. T Code of ethics . 

Parsons, L. A United Verde smelter. 

Personnel Administration, book review 

Ordway Tead and Henry C. Metcalf. 

Physicist Interesting experiment . 

Pickard, B. O 

Piez, Charles Editorial . 

Pike's Peak and Cripple Creek Editorial. 

Pinch of salt Charles T. Hutchinson. 

Pittman Act, sale of silver under 










Vol. 121 


Platinum 561 

Ditto S. Skowronski. . . . 840 

Plymouth mine W. J. Loring. . . . 771 

Polish muddle Editorial .... 261 

Political and Commercial Geology and the World's Min- 
eral Resources, book review. . . J. E. Spurr. ... 823 
Popular Oil Geology, book review. .Victor Ziegler. ... 435 

'Porphyries' 319 

Port Pirie, lead smelting at Gilbert Rigg. ... 91 

Potosi district, mining in 19 2 

Potter, Andrey A., and James P. Calderwood 

Elements ot Steam and Gas Power Engineering, 

book review 43 5 

Power resources 'Engineer'. ... 480 

Practical Chemistry, book review 

N. Henry Black and James Bryant Conant .... 

Presley, John J Apex litigation. . . . 

Price of gold W. B. Chomley. . . . 

Ditto Thomas French .... 

Ditto P. A. Robbins .... 

Prior, Charles E Notes on the Salmon 

River mining district 518 

Problems in mine ventilation. . . .Walter S. Weeks. ... 117 

Production of zinc 272 

Professional ethics Robert Hawxhurst Jr. . . . 7 9 

Pryce, William Divining rod. ... 733 

Ditto T. A. Rickard .... 459 

Pulsifer, H. B Methods of ore-sampling 

in Montana 866, 

Pulverized coal in metallurgical furnaces at Cerro de 

Pasco Otis L. Mclntyre. ... 55 

Pumps, centrifugal Robert S. Lewis. ... 85 

For elevating tailing 918 

Pumping by electricity T. A. Rickard. . . . 227 

In Rand mines 421 

On the Rand 912 

Purington, C. W., and G. Toderovich. . . .Vocabulary of 
Russian-English, English-Russian Mining 
Terms, book review 473 



Question and answer Wm. Crocker. ... 80 

Of ethics Editorial. ... 403 

Quicksilver 80 

'RF' adjustable-speed motors 438 

Radium 563 

Rahilly, H. J Fighting mine-fires. ... 625 

Railroads 179 

Financing 717 

Rand, early days on J. E. Clennell. ... 51 

Economics of gold mining on. . .* 142 

Ransome, F. L Geologists as expert witnesses. ... 666 

Ray Consolidated 693 

Raymond, P. A Mining nitrates in Chile. . . . 257 

Read, Thomas T Interesting experiment. ... 116 

Recent metallurgy at Trail, B. C P. R. Hines. ... 44 

Ditto F. H. Mason .... 151 

Record for cheap mining Henry F. Collins. ... 373 

Recovery formulae Hallet R. Robbins. . . . 422 

Of gold from black sand John Gross. ... 770 

Redmayne, Richard, and Gilbert Stone. ... Ownership 
and Valuation of Mineral Property in the United 

Kingdom, book review 473 

Redmond Consolidated Co 356 

Reduction of wages in Arizona 883 

Reinforced concrete highways 218 

Re-opening of the Plymouth mine and the results 

W. J. Loring 771 

Report of special Gold Committee to Secretary of the 

Treasury 705 

Resume 1 of literature on theory of flotation 

H. R. Adam 765 

Retaining-Walls, book review. . .George Paaswell.... 435 

Revolution, the Mexican 7 

Rhodesia Broken Hill 757 

Rice, Geo. Graham .• Editorial. . . . 222 

Rickard, Edgar Food-draft system of the 

American Relief Administration 739 

Rickard, Forbes Divining rod. . . . 863 

Rickard, T. A. . .Albert Burch, a Western engineer. . . . 299 

Ditto Arthur DeW. Foote of Grass Valley. ... 901 

Ditto The Bunker Hill 

enterprise 195, 227, 325, 413 

Ditto Seeley W. Mudd and copper 

mining In Cyprus 689 


Ditto Some Cornish mining terms. ... 459 

Ditto Testimony before Federal 

Trade Commission 263 

Rigg. Gilbert Editorial 76, 113 

Ditto. . . » Lead practice at Port Pirie, 

South Australia 90 

Rio Tinto, the struggle at Editorial. ... 326 

Rising tide of color Editorial. ... 649 

Road-wear from big trucks 323 

Roasting and chloridizing of Bolivian silver-tin ores. . . 

M. G. F. Sohnlein. . . .384, 688 

Lead-zinc ores at Port Pirie Gilbert Rigg. ... 90 

Robbins, Hallet R Recovery formulae. ... 422 

Robbins, P. A Price of gold. . . . 794 

Robson, H. C Smelting with bituminous 

coal in blast-furnaces 409 

Rock-drills, care of Howard R. Drullard. . . . 310 

Rod-mill R. L. Parker. . . . 794 

Roehling's Sons Co 399 

Root, Elihu Editorial. . . . 613 

Roush, G. A The Mineral Industry, 1919, 

book review 823 

Royal School of Mines Editorial. . . . 542 

Ruth mine, rich ore in Editorial. . . . 509 


Safety in underground haulage 4 4 

St. John del Rey Co Editorial. . . . 477 

Salmon River district, notes on. .Charles E. Prior. . . . 518 

Salting of mines Editorial. . .". 183 

Ditto Fred H. Lorenz. . . . 546 

Sampling Editorial..., 860 

In Montana H. B. Pulsifer. ... 867 

Of mines H. R. Sleeman. . . . 407 

On large mine-examinations. . .Morton Webber. . . . 233 

San Francisco Bay, crossing the Editorial. . . . 511 

Mint adopts electric furnace 865 

Schwab, Charles M 927 

Schweitzer, Jeffrey Fume from explosives. . . . 408 

Schwerin, Martin Interesting experiment. . . . 116 

Science and industry A. W. Allen. ... 161 

Scofield, H. H., and William Kendrick Hatt. . . .Labora- 
tory Manual of Testing Materials, book review. . 823 

Scope of work of the Bureau of Mines 

Van. H. Manning. ... 21 

Selection and treatment of transmission belts 

E. J. Black. ... 34 

Shaw, S. F Bunker Hill enterprise. . . . 186 

Shields, Alex., obituary 820 

Shift-bosses, concerning Editorial. . . . 725 

Shop Mathematics, book review 

Erik Oberg and Franklin D. Jones. ... 435 

Signaling mine-hoists from moving cages 

C. A. Allen 23 2 

Silver, book review Benjamin White. ... 435 

Silver and the Pittman Act 363 

Concerning Charles Butters. . . .5, 185 

Under the Pittman Act 29 

Silver Reef Consolidated Mines Co 568 

Sinclair, Upton 745 

Sinking of Alpha No. 2 shaft at Kimberly, Nevada. . . . 

H. S. Munroe. . . . 871 

Sizer, Frank L Concerning silver. . . . 298 

Ditto Ore deposits of Mexico. ... 794 

Skowronski, S Platinum. . . . 840 

Sleeman, H. R Sampling of mines. . . . 407 

Smelting at the United Verde plant. .L. A. Parsons. . . . 547 

Charges are increased 361 

Lead-zinc ores Editorial .... 113 

Some observations on C. W. Tandy. ... 41 

With bituminous coal in blast-furnaces 

H. C. Robson. . . . 409 

Smith, George Otis Engineering and 

national prosperity 243 

Smith, Grant H Divining rod ... . 863 

Sohnlein, M. G. F Roasting and chloridizing 

of Bolivian silver-tin ores 384, 688 

Some controlling factors in flotation 

Ralph D. Nevett 3 49 

Cornish mining terms T. A. Rickard. . . . 459 

Observations on smelting C. W. Tandy. . . .41, 186 

'Sonic' transmission of power 609 

Principles of finance Robert S. Lewis. ... 487 

Spanish Mining Directory, book review 

Andriano Contreras and Ramon Oriol. . . . 473 

Spassky Copper Co H. C. Robson. ... 409 

Speakers and speeches Editorial. . . . 826 

Vol l-i 



Spurr. J K Polliical and Commercial Geology 

and the World's Miners] Resource*, book re 


Stamlardliatlon in mining 

Of mine work 813 

Status of gold F. A. Wright 898 

Steam-elect rlc project In South Afrlcn 

Steam-Shovel Mining, book review 

Robert Marsh Jr. . . . 676 

Steaming amalgamating plates - 11 

Stevens. Blame; International Association 

ol Silver Producers 864 

Stiff hats for miners 116 

Stoddard. Lothrop Ddltorlal. . . 648 

Stone. Gilbert. . . .Mining Laws of thp British Empire, 

Vol. I. Nigeria, book review 675 

Ditto and Richard Redmayne Ownership and 

Valuation of Mineral Property in the United 

Kingdom, book review 473 

Stores in mining communities Editorial. . . . 649 

Stoughton. Bradley 851 

Structural Iir.iftlng and the Design of Details, book 

review Carlton Thomas Bishop. ... 33 

Structural Steelwork, book review. . . .E. G. Beck. . . . 473 

Struggle at Rio Tlnto Editorial 326 

Suggestion Harry H. Townsend. . . . 479 

Sullivan Machinery Co 109 

Drill-sharpener 610 

Sulman and the medal C. McDermid. . . . 297 

Sumner. Rutherford B., obituary 678 

Superior & Boston Copper Co 461 

Superpump. Traylor 219 

Sure-shot mine-car coupler 4 74 

Systematizing large mine examinations 

Morton Webber. ... 233 

Talc, milling of 738 

Tandy. C. W. . .Some observations on smelting. . . . 41, 1S6 

Tax litigation in Arizona 495 

Tead, Ordway. and Henry C. Metcalf Personnel 

Administration, book review 575 

Ten-Minute Talks With Workers, book review 575 

Testing and application of ventilating-fans 

Walter S. Weeks. ... 11 

Centrifugal pumps Robert S. Lewis. ... 86 

Of fans Walter S. Weeks. ... 120 

Oil-shale 681 

Ores for flotation James M. Hyde. . . . 481 

Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. IX. Part I, book 

review J. Newton Friend. ... 33 

Thomas, Chester A., obituary 748 

Thornley 'coalometer' 787 

Three hours with the Democrats C. T. H. . . . 61 

'Through the meshes' Editorial. . . . 368 

Tin. lead, and zinc mining in Great Britain 311 

Mining Editorial .... 1 

Tin. Sheet-Iron and Copper-Plate Worker, book review 

Leroy J. Blinn. . . . 473 

Tintic Standard mine 429 

Toderovich, G., and C. W. Purington . . . .Vocabulary of 
Russian-English, English-Russian Mining 

Terms, book review 473 

Tonopah Divide report 709 

Tonopah Extension mine, new equipment at 277 

Top-slice mining A. B. Parsons. . . . 623 

Townsend, Harry H A suggestion. . . . 479 

Traylor superpump 219 

Treatment of American low-grade copper ores 

An Australian. . . . 419 
Trent replacing machine. C. M. Eye and M. F. Dodd. . . . 844 

Tri-State district Edgar Z. Wallower. . . . 297 

Tube-milling C. M. Eye and M. F. Dodd. . . . 842 

Turnover of labor 165 

Two suggestions on a national problem 

F. H. Mason 373, 724 

Ditto Max von Bernewitz. . . . 225, 545 


Ulmer, Joseph. . .Mining in the Ketchikan district. . . . 493 

Umpire assays C. A. Grabill. ... 615 

Underground haulage T. A. Rickard . ... 195 

Prospecting at Joplin F. R. Alger. . . . 109 

United Eastern 694 

United Verde smelter L. A. Parsons. ... 547 


it. ill metal production 249 

Public utilities and freight-rates .... Editorial ... . 3«8 

Utah Apex v. Utah Consolidated 736 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 721 

It. ill Consolidated Co. v. t'tah Apex Co. .Editorial. . . . 721 

Utah Copper Co 888, 779 

Milling practice 419 

Utah Zinc Co Arthur B. Parsons. . . . 769 

Valuation of Arizona mines 169 

Of ore, curves for K. K. Hood. . . . 270 

Vanadium Corporation 810 

Vehicular tunnel Editorial 295 

Ventilating-fans, testing and application of 

Walter S. Weeks 11 

Ventilation at Davis Daly mine 880 

Of mines 186 

Problems in Walter S. Weeks .... 117 

Vocabulary of Russian-English, English-Russian Min- 
ing Terms, book review 

C. W. Purington and G. Toderovich. . . . 473 

von Bernewitz, M. W. . . .Books written In a hurry. ... 43 

Ditto Hoover's biography. . . . 794 

Ditto More books written In a hurry. . . . 297 

Ditto Two suggestions on a national 

problem 225, 545 


Wages, profits, and social ethics 

Robert B. Brinsmade. . . . 151 

Reduction in Utah 922 

Wall, Enos A., obituary 72 

Wallace, R. C Canadian Institute of Mining and 

Metallurgy 773 

Wallower, Edgar Z Mining near Joplin. . . . 297 

War Minerals Relief W. J. Loring. . . . 653 

Washing coal 848 

Waugh rock drills 929 

Turbo drills 824 

Webber. Morton 405 

Ditto Editorial .... 223 

Ditto. .Systematizing large mine examinations. . . . 233 

Weed. Walter Harvey The Mines Handbook, book 

review 33 

Weeks, Walter S. . . .Problems in mine ventilation. . . . 117 

Ditto Testing and application of 

ventilating-fans 11 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 436 

West, H. E Hoover's biography. . . . 864 

Western engineer Editorial. . . . 295 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co 438, 507 

Wetherill process Arthur B. Parsons. . . . 760 

What she thought 658 

White, Benjamin. .Gold: Its Place in the Economy of 

Mankind, book review 823 

Ditto Silver, book review. ... 435 

Williams, Gardner S., and Allen Hazen. .. .Hydraulic 

Tables, 3rd edition, book review 575 

Williams, J. C An improved stretcher. . . . 109 

Williams, Whiting Editorial. . . . 827 

Wire-rope slings for industrial plants 399 

Women as geologists Editorial. . . . 510 

Work of Congress Editorial .... 40 

Work on mineral resources by the U. S. G. S 

Edson S. Bastin and H. D. McCaskey. ... 166 

Wright, F. A Status of gold. ... 298 

Yankee engineer 899 

Yellow Pine mine at Goodsprings 239 

Young, A. B Flue type of Cottrell treater. . . . 273 

Zeh, A. E Call to arms .... 41 

Ziegler, Victor. .Popular Oil Geology, book review. . . . 435 

Zinc and lead in Japan 278 

Electrolytic methods Herbert R. Hanley. ... 795 

Mining industry Editorial. . . . 751 

Oxide plant of the Utah Zinc Co 

Arthur B. Parsons.... 759 

Production of 272, 679 

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. A 

I lliiUUi 
ill II 




Serviceand Quality 

made these houses 


■■■ ■ ■ =»* 


Manufacturers of 

Va Ives 
Pipe Fibtin^s 

jteam Specialties 



CRANE nonT«e»i, Toronto. Vancouver. Winnipeg, iwdon. ENO„ 
Limited Sydney, h 4 w. QUEBEC. Halifax. Ottawa. CALGARW 


Julv 3, 1920 



: II I 

iiuntetitifl i Bi 




July 3, 1920 


Douglas Fir 


July ::. 1920 




Distribution Systems 

The factor which counts for most in a distribution system is dependability — it must 
be dependable under all conditions of service. 

The pipe used must withstand extra heavy demands as in the case of a fire. 

The pipe used must withstand sudden overloads without bursting. 

The pipe used must carry maximum loads continuously without failure. 

The pipe used must remain unaffected by electrolysis. 

The pipe used must remain free of tuberculation and scale. 

The pipe used must ALWAYS CARRY AS MUCH WATER as when originally laid. 

The pipe used must supply water at all times without interruption for household, 
commercial and industrial uses. 

The ONLY PIPE that meets all these demands is Western Wire Wound Wood Pipe. 

It is made in sizes from 2 inches up to 32 inches inside diameter and for any pressure 
required up to 175 pounds per square inch — and higher pressures on special order. 

The wide range of sizes makes it possible to select just the size of pipe needed for each 
particular section or district. 

By specifying Western Wood Pipe a pipe of smaller than customary diameter can 
be selected for a given service because this pipe has the greatest carrying capacity and al- 
ways will have it — the capacity does not decrease as the length of service increases. 

Its adaptability and ease of laying permits the rapid completion of a system. 

Bends, turns and connections can be made with standard fittings supplied by the wood 
pipe manufacturers. 

The advice and assistance of our expert engineers, widely experienced in the planning 
and building of efficient, dependable distribution systems at lowest consistent costs, are at 
your command. 

Let us tell you why Western Wood Pipe is the best pipe obtainable for the distribu- 
tion system you may have in mind. Address us by wire or mail. 


Address all inquiries for details and prices to the following: Redwood Manufacturers Company, San Francisco; Pacific 
Tank & Pipe Company, San Francisco; Continental Pipe Mfg. Company, Seattle; American Wood Pipe Company, Tacoma 


Douglas Fir 




July 3, 1920 
















G aSoline fljo Co mo t i 

Moves 400 Tons of Coal Daily 

C. M. Wolf, superintendent of the Morrell 
Coal Company writes: "Skilled labor is unness- 
ary to operate your Plymouth Gasoline Loco- 
motive. It picks up a heavier load more 
quickly and easily than any other system I 
have found. We pull a heavier load than is 
understood to be possible, due to the Ply- 
mouth's full power at slow speed. 

In coal, iron or zinc mines, or wherever 
earth or mineral demand big haulage, the Ply- 
mouth is complete master, with increased ton- 
nage at lower cost and fewer men. Whether 
underground or on the surface, it multiplies 
production and profit. 

Write for special bulletin on Plymouth 
service in mines. 

THE FATE-ROOT-HEATH CO., Plymouth, Ohio 

July 3, 1!I2U 





SlNCE 1682 

me* priA/na/ \ 
ne>/Sr/r?c///7A Va/ve 



have firmly established their unparalleled 
merit by the successful results they have 
given through many years < of satisfactory 

The metal to metal seat — ground to a 
tight fit, forms the ideal seating surface to 
resist the wearing action of steam at high 
velocity. And the fact that the seating 
surfaces can be reground (and inexpensive 
operation easily accomplished) makes the 
renewal of parts wholly unnecessary. 

Their extreme durability due to correctly 
proportioned parts, high quality materials 
and expert workmanship insures economy 
in maintenance. 

Globe, Angle and Cross Valves with 
Inside Screw and with Outside Screw and 
Yoke; and Horizontal, Angle, Vertical and 
Swing Check Valves for 200 and 300 
pounds working steam pressure. 

Specify Liunkenheimer and insist on 
their installation. Distributors of 

Lunkenheimer Products situated in every 
commercial centre. 

Write for descriptive Booklet No. 



Largest Manufacturers of 

High Grade Engineering Specialties 

in the World 


New York Chicago Boston London 




July 3, 1920 

Half a Crucible 

couldn't be sold at all — and 
yet poor quality crucibles 
which render only half ser- 
vice are just as absurd. 

The measure of a crucible's 
value is the number of heats 
it will survive. 


Victory B-42 


have set new standards of 
crucible endurance. 

The "Lawton Process" has 
increased materially the 
number of heats it is possible 
to obtain. 


Don't buy "half a crucible 

Buy Bartley Victory B-42 and get full measure in 
crucible value. 

Write for complete data. 

Jonathan Bartley Crucible Company 






July 3, 1920 



•The Waugh Way Win," 

A Perfect 

THE Tonopah Extension Mining 
Company, speaking through its 
Master Mechanic, Mr. H. A. Reid, says 
of the Waugh Model 8 Drill Sharpener: 

"AS we have been using one of your Waugh 
D. S. 8 drill sharpeners at the Tonopah Exten- 
sion in Tonopah, and one at the White Caps 
mine in Manhattan, for a period of over three 
years with most gratifying results, I wish to 
state that we consider it the best sharpener on 
the market today. 

"WE have used several different types of ma- 
chines, changing makes to keep abreast of 
improvements as they came up. ***** 

' 'TO date we have purchased no repairs for any 
of the equipment, and we consider the Waugh 
D. S. 8 to be the best machine we have ever 
used from every standpoint, as to low upkeep, 
durability, low air consumption, and efficiency." 

TRIBUTES of this sort not only point the way 
to contentment and efficiency in the mine black- 
smith shop, but afford further proof of the well- 
known fact that 

"The Waugh Way Wins" 

l^t Vwy ^ SX^wTV^^ tWya^ Q. 

Denver, Colorado 

San Francisco 
El Paso 

Toronto, OnL 

Lob Angeles JopUn Lima 

Seattle Wallace Santiago 

Salt Lake City Birmingham Mexico City 

Canadian Rock Drill Company, Limited 
Sole Agents in Canada 

Cobalt, Ont Nelson, B. C. 


New York City 




Vancouver, B. C. 



July 3, 1920 


Agitator Motors 

Unexcelled in Economy of 
Operation and Endurance Qualities 

When a motor has been designed by Westinghouse Engineers (or a 
special operation and those same engineers select the materials from the 
large Westinghouse storerooms, this motor, judging from all earlier records, 
will prove to be the finest motor available for the operation for which it 
is designed. 

The Westinghouse Agitator Motor is an example of the ability of 
Westinghouse Engineers to design a motor fitted in every detail for the 

operation it is to perform. This special type of motor is sturdy, extra 
heavy, and will resist vibration. The bearings have a special oiling 
system and the shaft and guide bearings are proportioned to'withstand the 
thrusts that are apt to be encountered. The lower bearing sleeve is of 
non-corroding alloy. 

The thousands of these motors in successful operation today stand 
as justification of our claims. 


-I ill v- 3, 1!H*0 







Two of 
The Victor American Fuel Co.'s 


Referred to below 

Read What Our Customers Say: 

Denver, Colorado, March 18, 1919. 

The Denver Engineering Works Co., 

Denver, Colorado. 
Dear Sirs: 

On March 24, 1913, we purchased two of your electric 
mine hoists, one having a single drum with a capacity of 
14,000 pounds and the other a double drum with a capacity 
of 12,000 pounds rope pull. 

Tests made on the single drum machine show that we 
are developing 18,600 pounds rope pull on the peak of 
the load, which is equivalent to an overload of 23%. 

Both of these machines have been in continuous 
operation for six years and our records show that it has 
never been necessary to make any repairs on either 

Yours truly, 


Sold in California by 



447-449 East 3rd St, Los Angeles, Cal. 229 Rialto Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 




Air Compressors 
Ball Mills 
Aerial Trams 

Oil Engines 
Rock Drills 
Tube Mills 

Pumps ■'■'•'<'■■ 



Welding-SCALE FREE Pipe 

Made by a welding-scale removing process which leaves the pipe surfaces smooth and clean 

A new and higher 

Standard of 

Butt-weld pipe 


Ask for "NATIONAL" Bulletin No. 7— 
Manufacture, and Advantages of "NATIONAL" Welding-SCALE FREE Pipe 



General Sales Offices : Frick Building 


Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Detroit New Orleans New York Sa' t Lake City Philadelphia Pittsburgh St. Louis St. Paul 

PACIFIC COAST REPRESENTATIVES: U.S. Steel Products Co. San Francisco Los Angeles Portland 8eattle 

EXPORT REPRESENTATIVES : V. S. Steel Products Co. New York City 

July 3, 1920 




a better pump for any 



The SUPERPUMP-A New Product Of An Old Company 

A Company known the world over as Designers and Builders of Mining, 
Milling, Smelting, Crushing and Cement Making Equipment of excep- 
tional merit, including the Bulldog Jaw and Gyratory Crushers, Traylor 
Heavy Duty Crushing Rolls with Automatic Lateral Adjustment and 
Traylor Patented Water Jackets having the Tuyere an integral part of 

the Firesheet. 

Bulletin P-101 tells you why your next should be 

Traylor Engineering & Mfg. Co. 


30 Church Street 

1411 Fisher Building 


211 Fulton Bldg. Citizen* Bank Building 


Mohawk Block 



July 3, 1920 


ore cars on Hyatt Roller Bearings 
and get the savings in lubrication, 
power, wheels, axles, etc.that hundreds 
of operators are getting every day. 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Company 

Industrial Bearings Division 
New York, N.Y. 

July 8, 1020 



A complete air power unit for mines 

and prospects 

JkT MINES where fuel oil is easily procura- 
Z\ ble, the Chicago Pneumatic Oil Driven Air 
Compressor is replacing less efficient air 
power units. 

This machine supplies a complete air compress- 
ing plant in one unit. The power and air cylinders 
are direct connected. There are no bothersome 
chains or belts. The unit operates dependably 
and economically on low-cost fuel oils. Simplicity 

and automatic operation are other advantages 
contributing to high operating efficiency. 

These units are readily adaptable in batteries to 
large air power requirements. When so installed 
they eliminate all possibility of complete shut- 

Stationary, skid and truck-mounted types are 
built in several sizes. Ask for bulletin. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company 

' Chicago Pneumatic Building ' 6 East 44th Street • New York 

Sales and* Service Branches all over the World 








The Compressor with 


the Simplate Valve 



July 3, 1920 


Above is shown an Empire Gold Dredge under construction in Mambulao Bay, Luzon, P. I. This dredge was de- 
signed, built, shipped and erected by the New York Engineering Company. The difficulty of transportation and 
burning tropical wood was overcome in this case by installing a steam-electric power plant on the dredge; a bad 
clay condition was successfully combatted by special apparatus and many other special features substantiate the 
claims of superiority for the Empire Dredge. 

A Gold Dredging Problem? 

Put it up to us! 

From the rime when dredge recovery of gold and tin from Placer 
ground was first proved practicable we have specialized in that field 
and made the solution of its problems our sole aim. 

We make a special study of each particular problem, and from our 
experience design a dredge to meet the condition. That's the reason 
why no Empire Dredge has ever had to be redesigned — and they 
are in operation in all parts of the globe. 

We have originated many of the improvements in dredge con- 
struction which have greatly added to their efficiency; among them 
were the first steel hull, the first self-contained steam-electrically 
driven dredge, the first solution of the clay problem, and many others. 

Empire Dredges are built in our own plant, ideally situated in the 
heart of the district producing the special steels used in their con- 
struction, and with the most excellent shipping facilities. 

Bring the problem direct to us. We'll find the solution and 
carry the work through from start to finish. 

Have you our catalogue? 



July :;. 192C 



Right from the Beginning 

Cameron Centrifugal Pumps meet every speci- 
fied condition as soon as they are placed in 
operation. There is no juggling of parts or 
adjustments to be made. Every pump is 
given a thorough running test before ship- 
ment, duplicating service conditions to insure 
the fact that the pump will exactly fit the 
service for which it was specified and con- 




A. S. Cameron 
Steam Pump Works 

11 Broadway, 


• t 

J6 • 



July 3, 1920 

NO matter how big the job, the customer can 
count on getting steel from us as he needs it. 
Years of experience brought our organization to the 
point of expert efficiency, and we have established a 
reputation for prompt deliveries and good work. 

We a*re favorably located for making shipments to 
the West and Northwest. Our shops are equipped to 
handle every size and every kind of fabricated steel 
jobs, and are at your service. 


AND MACHINERY COMPANY, Minneapolis, Minn. 

BRANCHES: Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Co., Salt Lake City, Utah; Spokane, Wash.; Denver, Colo.; Great Falls, Mont.; 1S4 Nassau St., New York Cty 

July 3, 1920 



Handle all Mine and Mill 
Figure-^rk Mechanically 

The Monroe takes the burden of intricate Mine and Mill 
figuring just as your crusher takes the load of ore you feed it. 

DAILY problems, routine figuring, 
complicated calculations, special 
reports, records and determina- 
tions — "feed" them all to the Monroe 
Calculating Machine. 

The Monroe has the same capacity 
for "run-of-mine" figuring as the big 
crusher has for "run-of- 

-mine'' ore. 

Pad-and-pencil methods of figuring are just 
as out of-date and wasteful as crushing ore by 
hand-and-arm power. 

Would you change your gyratory for a gang 
of men wielding sledges. 

The Monroe two-way mechanism 
is simplicity itself— a turn of the crank 
forward to add or multiply — backward 
to divide or subtract. 

Since there is no obligation, send for 
complete details. Fill out and mail the 
coupon today. 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Woolworth Building, New York, N. Y. 

Offices in Principal Cities 



Have you ever carefully considered the reasons for the absolute necessity of 
having your ore properly tested by a reliable firm before deciding upon the design 
of a treatment plant, and the fundamental rules that must be born in mind and fol- 
lowed out by those entrusted with such important work ? 


It has been said that "No two individuals are exactly alike", and the same is 
true of ores, therefore it must be a good investment to eliminate chance and decide 
on the correct treatment for an ore by tests entrusted to competent and experienced 
engineers, before the mill is designed, rather than to guess at the flow sheet and then 
have to re-design and re-build the mill after it has gone into operation and found to 
be unsuited to the ore. It is better to invest a few hundred in test work rather than 
lose thousands of dollars for lost time, re-building and poor results. 


Metallurgical Honesty 

Be sure the engineers employed by you have established such a reputation that 
their results can be relied on, so that the anxiety to obtain for their clients a favor- 
able showing may not lead them to over-state the results. 

Practical Results 

Tests that are obtained in a laboratory or testing plant by methods that could 
not be duplicated in practice are of no value ; the testing engineers must therefore be 
men of wide and varied practical experience, to be able to judge of such matters, 
and the reports gotten up in such shape that a clear decision can be arrived at. 

Metallurgical Balance 

A close cheek should be obtained when closing up a test report. In a test report 
the sum of all the several products should check closely to the value in the heads, 
otherwise an error has been made in the assays or weights of the various products, 
which if not corrected would vitiate the results, and therefore the conclusions. 

Self Explanatory Results 

Test results should be submitted in a clear concise form with graphic illustra- 
tions as to the method employed to obtain the results. These should be clear to the 
lay-man as well as the metallurgist. 

For sixteen years we have operated one of the best 
equipped and most widely known ore testing plants, 
treating ores from all parts of the world. Our increas- 
ing business demonstrates the confidence the mining 
public has in us and the reliance they place in our results. 



J. M. CALLOW, President 
159 Pierpont Street, Salt Lake City, Utah, U. S. A. 

July 3, 1920 



Synchronous motors and condensers have made America's 
electric power go further without increasing generating or 
transmission equipment. 

400 h.p.~l$0 r.p.m. Synchronous Motor- 
driving Compressor at copper mine 

When synchronous motors should be used 

WHEN your power factor is low 
and you need greater gener- 
ator, transformer or feeder capacity. 

When you are paying for power at 
a rate which is now, or shortly may 
be, dependent upon the power factor 
of your load. 

When your voltage regulation is poor 
on account of an existing induction 
motor load and production falls off in 
consequence, synchronous motors will 
raise the average voltage and help 
keep it constant. 

When continuity of operation is 
imperative and dirty operating condi- 


General Office f*\ ^^ 

tions make a small motor air gap 

The General Electric Company has 
designed complete lines of synchro- 
nous motors covering a wide range of 
speeds and capacities which are in 
extensive use throughout many in- 
dustries driving rolls, compressors, 
pumps, grinders, crushers, blowers, 
fans, conveyors and jnills. Some of 
these motors have been in continuous 
service for a score of years. 

Our experts will be pleased to select 
suitable synchronous motors for vour 



Schenectady, N. Y 



Deane Works, Hotyoke, Mass. 

Blake 8C Knowles Works ^ 

East Cambridge, Mass, <^ 

Worthington Works ^ 

Harrison, N. J. 

LakUaw Works, Cincinnati, Oh 

Hazleton Works, 

--- ■'':" 

Gas Engine Works, Cudahy, Wis, 
^^ Power BC Mining Works 
||j5> Cudahy, Wis, 

fes^ Snow-Holly Works 

^ Buffalo, N, Y. 

Epping-Carpenter, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

July 3, 1920 



The FEATHER Valve Compels 

(REG. U.S. I" AT. OFF.) 

Dependable Air Service 

AIR Compressors and Compressed Air 
l Services have been rendered sure, safe and 
reliable by Worthington "FEATHER" Valve. 
This valve has but one moving part, weighs less 
than one ounce and functions without friction or 
hammering action. It is a strip of ribbon steel — 
strong and long lasting — that seats tightly on 
ground face slotted seats and allows air or gas 
to pass by bowing against slotted curved guards, 
the ends remaining in contact on seat at all times. 

All Worthington Air Compressors are 
"FEATHER" Valve equipped, and are built by 
Worthington, whose service has attained world 
dimensions through 80 years' building, designing 
and improving Pumps and Pumping Machinery 
for all uses and purposes. 


Executive Offices: 115 Broadway, New York City 

Brunch Offices in 24 Large Cities 

_Jj^E±\ Mining Machinery \ 

Worthington 7" x 10" Tube Mill 
Direct Motor Driven 

IZ±\ Mining M achinery | gk 



36" Worthington Superior ^SCcCully 
Gyratory Crusher 

I Mining Machinery ~| 

54> x 24' Worthington Garfield Roll with 
Built-Up Steel Plate, Small Pulley; Steel 
Plate Web, Fly. Wheel Rim, Large Pulley 



Deane Works, Holyoke, Mass. 

Blake 8£ Knowles Works 

East Cambridge, Mass. 

Worthington Works 

Harrison, N. J. 

Laidlaw Works, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Hazleton Works. 

Gas Engine Works, Cudahy, Wis. 

Power 8: Mining Works 

Cudahy, Wis. 

Snow-Holly Works 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Epping-Carpenter, Pittsburgh, Pa. 




July 3, 1920 

Occupies less floor 
space than any other 
filter on the market. 

,wmt; i 

Has no wire windings 
and cloth remains more 
open and pliable at all 

Can be redressed in 
lees time than any 
other filter. Individ- 
ual sectors can be 
changed in two min- 
utes. A unit of 400 
sq. ft. area can be re- 
dressed in less than 
two hours time. 


Produces a cake ap- 
proximately 50% 
thicker than any other 
vacuum filter operat- 
ing on ordinary metal- 
lurgical slim< 


One user of an "American" Filter writes: 

"We have in operation here suction niters of two other 
types of the cylindrical pattern, and the work done by your 
machine and its popularity with the operators compare very 
well, and in some particulars exceed that of other types. We 
prefer the machine because of its compactness, the close 
filtering work done by it, and particularly because of the 
ease of renewing the filtering medium. 

"The machine seems to be standing up remarkably well, 
and promises to continue to give indefinitely the same satis- 
factory service which has been secured from it since its 
first run." 

This company has purchased a second "American for 
another operation. 

Mininf! men find (he "American" j'usl riflltl for Iheir requirements. Wrile hrllhe 
ea'alofiue and tell us your specific problem. *• 



Sweetlandjand Kelly Filters, American Continuous Filters, I" UNITED" 

Filter Presses and Sweetland's Patent Me allic Filter Cloth 





When used for filter- 
ing and washing the 
cake shows a constant 
extraction of 98% and 
more of the original 
moisture values left in 
the cake. 



July 3, 1920 



Style "A" Main Troughing Roller with 20° Trough for 20" 
to 24" belts. Style "S" Main Return Roller. 

Style "C" Main Adjustable Troughing Roller with 10°. 15° 
and 20° Trough. Style "R" Main Return Roller. 

Style '•£' 

Main Flat Carrying Roller. Style "R" Main 
Return Roller. 

Style "A" Main Troughing Rollers with 15° Trough for 12* 

to 14" belt, and 15° or 20° Trough for 16" to 18" be" 

Style "S" Main Return Roller. 

Rollers that Really Lengthen 
the Life of the Belt 

THE following suggestions for lessening the 
wear of conveyor belts are based on over 
thirty years' experience in installing scien- 
tific conveyor systems. 

The Style "C" roller illustrated admits of in- 
stant adjustment to meet special conditions in 
any plant. Styles "A" and "E," while not ad- 
justable, are perfectly finished and have the same 
high conveying qualities as the Style "C" roller. 
The Style "C" Main Adjustable troughing 
roller has the following points of advantage, some 
of which may be found in other equipment, but 
no other one roller contains them all. 

<1) MAXIMUM ANGLE OF TROUGH IS 20°— The troughing 
pulleys are adjustable to 3 positions: 10°, 15° and 20° horizontal. If 
the troughing pulleys are put in their lowest position, a belt of much 
heavier ply may be used than would ordinarily be possible. 

Experience shows that the maximum angle ct which a belt may be 
troughed without finally cracking is 20° and it should be troughed 
only so much as is necessary to keep the material from spilling. This 
is why adjustability is so desirable. 

The slight gain in the carrying capacity of a belt troughed at 35° 
over one troughed at 20° is obtained at the price of the premature de- 
struction of the belt, and a belt which is troughed excessively also has 
a decided tendency to run off the rollers. 

OVERLAP — The troughing pulleys overlap the edges of the end pul- 
leys on the center roll. The inside edge of the troughing pulley is 
considerably under the top line of the center roll pulleys, and all possi- 
bility of the belt coming into contact with the edges of any of the pul- 
leys is absolutely eliminated. 

(3) SELF-ADJUSTING BEARINGS— The shaft of the flat roller 
is suspended in dustproof babbitted swivel bearings. The bearings 
are not rigidly fixed to their supports, but are suspended in them and 
are free to adjust themselves to accommodate any warping of the 
stringers. Hence the possibility of the shaft binding in the bearings 
and ceasing to revolve is eliminated. 

(4) FLAT ROLL CARRIES THE LOAD — Maximum support is 
given to the belt in the center, where the load is carried, by com- 
paratively long central pulley or roll. 

FACE — Each bearing surface is provided with an individual compres- 
sion grease cup effecting positive lubrication. 

(6) CORRECT MECHANICAL DETAILS— Rollers are ample 
in every respect. 

Rims of the troughing pulleys are reinforced, making it impossible 
for the rim to wear away and leave a sharp edge to cut the belt. 

Shafting is 1 3,ic in. in diameter for all sizes. 

Pulleys are 6 in. in diameter, with faces lathe-finished absolutely 
true with bore, making a true running smooth roll that will not wear 
the surface of the belt. 

Grease cups on troughing pulleys are placed well within pulley rim, 
thus protected from injury. Set screws are all of ample size and easily 

The experience of Superintendents in hundreds 
of plants points to Leviathan -Anaconda belts, 
carried by Main Belting Rollers, as the ideal 
combination for efficient conveying of all classes 
of material. 

We have prepared two interesting booklets on 
belting — "Transmission Belts," and "Conveyor 
Belts." We shall be glad to mail either, or both, 
on request. 


New York Chicago Pittsburgh Atlanta San Francisco 



July 3, 1920 

6000 tons in 8 hours 

Hoisting four tons per trip from 
a depth of 275 feet, this Nord- 
berg Hoist at American Coal 
Mining Co., Bieknell, Indiana, 
raises 600 tons of coal in eight 
hours. The hoist is direct con- 
nected to an 800 H.P. motor 
which operates in conjunction 
with a motor-generator set. 

As the mine buys its current 
from a public utility company, 
it was not desirable to run -the 
motor-generator set except dur- 
ing the coal hoisting period. At 
'other times a 300 H.P. induction 
motor is connected to the hoist 

through reduction gears, thus 
enabling the hoist to be operated 
at slow speed for handling men 
and materials. A jaw coupling 
permits disengagement of the 
small motor when the large one 
is being used. This is the first 
time this arrangement has been 
used on a mine hoist. 

Nordberg engineers have solved 
many visual hoisting problems 
in both the coal and metal min- 
ing fields. Their wide experi- 
ence makes their advice ex- 
tremly valuable. Consultation 
with them may be arranged by 
appointment ; just write. 




Steam Eofiaci 
Oil Enginei 
Mine Hoiits 
Air Compreuo n 

Blowing Engines 



July 3, 1920 



Rubber Goods for the Mining Industry 

Giant Belt 

4810 Air Hose 

Rainbow Steam Hose 

Rainbow Packing 

r PHE mining salesmen and 

A the practical factory men 
of the United States Rubber 
Company are qualified 
through study and experience 
to recommend the right me- 
chanical rubber goods for any 
condition existing in this 

They are ready to assist mine 
operators by advising as to 
the best application of me- 
chanical rubber goods in order 
that the greatest possible ser- 
vice may be obtained for 
every dollar invested. 

Take advantage of this Com- 
pany's facilities and experi- 
ence when in the market for 
mechanical rubber goods. 
Through our nearest Branch 
you can obtain the fullest co- 
operation of our organization 

Rainbow Belt 

F. S. Elevator Belt 

■573 Hydraulic Packing 

United States Rubber Company 

The World's Largest and Most Experienced 
Manufacturer of Mechanical Rubber Goods 





Transmission" "RainbouXPtlof 

"Shawmuf-Giant Stitched' 


Elevator ."Matchless'Granite: 

**• "Grainsler" 

Iractor " _ Sawyer Canvas' 

(Little Giant Canvas" 

Agricultural "Rainbow^Bengal" 

Air '4810: 'Dexter" 

Steam "Rainbow'VianQafected" 
Water "R_ainbow}4ogul'}erJeckd" 
Suction "Amazon". "Giant" 
Garden "RainbowTMogul. lakeside' 

AlsoHose for Acetylene.Oxygen.Acid. 
Air Drill, Auto Radiator. Car HeatinP.^^! 
Air Brake.Gasoline .Oil. Hydraulic, x^tflkt 
Vacuum, Sand Blast. Spray, c- 

Sheet "Rainbow"' \!inda'"Paramo" 

Rod "Wizani','Rainbesto"'Peerless~ 
"Honest John". "No. 573 " 
and hundreds of other styles 
in coils, rings, gaskets and 
diaphragms — 

JJsco Valves — 


Mats.Matting and Flooring.* 
Plumbers" Specialties. 
Rubber Covered Rolls. 
Friction Tape, Splicing Conqf0.\ 
Dredging Sleeves, 
Hard Rubber Goods, 
Printers' Blankets .Tubing, a 
Soles, Heels. Jar Rubbers;] 
Moulded Goods 



July 3, 1920 

Section through Neill Jig as Bet In a Hlulce-way. The paddle shown In the middle of its swing — 
dotted lines show its swing-limit 3% Inches total. If the Jig Is shut down for any reason, the action 
of the sluice Is not Interfered with — the Jig bed Alls and merely forms a larger riffle. 

The Great Efficiency of the Neill Jig 

in the recovery of fine values, otherwise lost, is due to the fact that it has twice 
as much screen area per square foot of floor space as the plunger type of jig. 

There's nothing complicated about the Neill Jig — nothing 
to get out of order. The pulsion caused by the oscillating 
paddle causes an alternate upward and downward flow of 
water through the screen-floor of the jig and the fines 
which have settled upon it. A layer of shot covering the 
Bcreen acts as a self-cleaner and permits the passage of 
fine values but not other coarse material. 

Remarkable results have been obtained by 
the use of Neill Jigs in connection with 
dredging operations. It absolutely takes 
care of the fine values so often lost in the 
sluices — and pays for itself in the savings 
it makes. 

Write for information and 
descriptive literature 


Union Drills -;- Neill Jigs -;- Union Dredges 
604 Mission St., San Francisco 


HARRY G. PEAKE, Vice-Pre*. and Geo. Her. 

Shows outside bearings for the rocker-arms which 
carry the paddle. This Is a steel casting. The 
stub-end Is for connection with the eccentric. Dis- 
charge pipes fitted with cast caps perforated with 
V4.' holes. 

July ;:. 1920 



Angle Compound Compressors 

and Vibrations 

In a vertical compressor vibration of the moving parts shakes the 
machine up and clown. 

In a horizontal compressor, this vibration shakes it back and 

In a cross compound compressor, the connecting rods and crank- 
shaft form a couple which causes still other vibrations. 

In these older types, heavy construction and massive bed plates or 
foundations are necessary to absorb the vibrations. But these 
exist, and cause wear and strain on the moving machine. 

The perfect balance of the vertical and horizontal moving parts of the Sullivan Angle 
Compound Compressor, assisted by a slight counter weight, practically neutralizes the 
up and down and back and forth vibration. There is no twisting strain, because the 
two connecting rod boxes seat cheek to cheek on the crank shaft. 

This balance, smooth running 

Sullivan Angle Compound 
Air Compressor 



Sectional View of Sullivan 

Angle Compound Air 


and practical freedom from 
vibration are responsible for 
Angle Compound superiority 
as shown by: 

Smaller foundations and floor 

Reduction in horse power per 
unit of air compressed 

Reduction in wear and break- 

Smaller and lighter units can 
operate safely at greater 
speeds, thus reducing initial 

Other Angle Compound Ad- 


Flexible driving arrangements 
"Finger" plate valves 
Removable Cylinder liner 
Aluminum Intercooler tubes 
Inlet unloader with high pres- 
sure relief valves 
Capacity single units 400-1300 

Twin units 900-2700 feet 



123 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago 
580 Market St., San Francisco 



New York 

San Francisco 



r.ondon. En?. 

Paris, France 



El Paso 



St. Louis 

Turin. Italy 


Nelson. B.C. 

Salt Lake City 

Santiago. Chile 

"\ ancouver. B, € 

Christian! a 


Sydney, N. S. W. 

Wallace. Idaho 



July 3, 1920 

The OLIVER is fast | 
replacing other filters— I 


The continuous automatic principle is right; 

Designed and built for mill conditions; 

Operating cost is lower than any other filter; 

Both skilled and common labor are greatly 
reduced ; 

Net returns per ton are at a maximum. 




Oliver Contihi 

501 Market Street, SAN FRANCISCO 

33 West 42nd Street, NEW YORK 

July 3. l!i 


For More Than Thirty Years— 

REMCO sswood pipe 

Has maintained the REMCO 
standard of quality and has 
proven its superiority in all 
parts of the world. 



1611 Hobart Building, San Francisco 



July 3, -1920 

From Prospector to General Manager 

— We meet the needs of Mining Men 

WHATEVER the activities of the min- 
ing man, he rightly insists upon de- 
pendable equipment and tested ma- 
terials with which best to do his work. 
Starting with the prospector, we attend 
each step of the individual engaged in min- 
ing and metallurgy, promoting his effi- 
ciency by providing for his exact needs. 

To render successfully these diverse serv- 
ices demands the inventive skill and manu- 
facturing capacity of a long-established in- 
stitution like ours. Specialized needs can 
only be filled by a house that has grown up 
with mining and metallurgy and produced 
the utilitarian factors required by the in- 

Whether for the field work of the pros- 
pector or the indoor pursuits of assayer 
and chemist, we furnish what the opera- 
tion requires. We maintain a glass blow- 
ing department in connection with our 
business and are prepared to make any 
special apparatus as per sketch or blue 
print furnished. 

To meet instant needs, we carry large 
stocks at our headquarters and in our 
warehouses. In our special display rooms 
you may inspect Brown Pyrometers and 
Recording Thermometers, Braun special- 
ties for the assayer, laboratory equipment, 
glassware, c.p. chemicals, etc., for the assay 
office. We are inventors and manufac- 
turers of 





"We Know How To Pack For Export 






576-584 Mission Street Los Ange'es House 






July 3. 1920 




FIRST to make 
Chrome Vanadium 
Steel and many other 
alloy steels commer- 

FIRST to specialize 
in the manufacture of 
alloy steels. 

FIRST to introduce 
heat treated alloy 
Steel Grinding Balls, 
Grinding Rods, and 
Stamp Shoes and 

many essential pro- 
cesses in the manufac- 
ture, of alloy steels. 




Blast Furnaces. 

By-Products Coke 

18 Large Open 
Hearth Furnaces. 

3 Large Steel Mak- 
ing Electric Furnaces. 

Complete Rolling 

Mills. ; 

Cold Drawing De- 

Forge Shop con- 
taining Hydraulic 
Presses and Hammers. 

Heat Treating De- 
partment including 
Automotic Furnaces. 



Address all Inquiries to our Western Sales Agents 



San Francisco 


Portland, Oregon 

Salt Lake City 

Shanghai, China 



July 3, 1920 




" ; L 

' „ \ l| 

^ I 

Class "PRE" Compressors are found tn 

all industries where large direct connected 

compressors are desired. 

1. Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co., Cliffs 
Shaft Aline, Ishpeming, Mich. 

2. Sun Shipbuilding Co., Chester, Pa. 

3. In a Pennsylvania Foundry. 

4. Erie Forge, Erie, Pa. 

5. Presbrey & Copyendale, Barre, Vt. 
0. In a large railroad shop in Penn- 

Send tor Bulletin 3146 


fir ' JMw %Sm 

July 3, 1920 



Ingersoll-Rand Preference 

Users of Ingersoll-Rand Compressors know these units to be extraordinary in their 
simplicity of operation, overall economy and sturdy construction. Their power bills 
show a less cost per cubic foot of air delivered, while their repair part record is 
convincing evidence of low upkeep cost. 

These are only a few of the reasons for Ingersoll-Rand popularity witnessed by 
countless installation? in all parts of the world — they possibly explain the number 
of repeat orders and duplicate installations. 

Ingersoll-Rand Compressors are built for steam, direct connected, electric or belted 

The Class "PRE"-2 Compressors shown in the illustration is fitted with Ingersoll- 
Rand Plate Valves, has automatic lubrication and is regulated by 5-stage Clearance 
Control. The motor is direct connected to the shaft of the compressor. 

A study of these machines will give you the reasons for Ingersoll-Rand preference. 

Let us send you a copy of Bulletin 3126. 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 





July 3, 1920 

Pacific Products //yfAe Field 

A Pacific Redwood Pipe Line Carries 
Water to the City of Oroville, California 

The illustration shows part of a 20-inch Pacific Machine-banded 
Redwood pipe-line which was laid in 1911. It supplies water 
for the city of Oroville and has given uninterrupted service since 
its installation. 

Pacific Redwood pipe is unequalled for carrying water, acid or 
alkaline solutions. Its long life, satisfactory service and adapta- 
bility to extremes of climate have made it the standard wood 
pipe for mining use. 

Write for information and prices 



General Offices: 302 Market St., San Francisco 


Los Angeles 902 Trust & Sayings Bide. New York 2605 St. Paul Bldr. 

Salt Lake City 329 Newhouse Bids. Philadelphia 423 Liberty Bldg- 


Ill lllllllllllllllltlllllllllllllltlimillllllllll, MHl.lllllI Ill Mill iiiiiiiiiininiiiiiilllllllllllllHlllilliiillnilllllllllllllllllllllllllluilllllllll.illlllii' 


L. A. Parsons, associate editor 

iirKiiiiHihiiitmimiiiimtiilillimilllllllllimtllimmiliiliniminiii minium 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


JPtiblisfied at UO Market St., San Francisco, 
bv the Deuxu Publish ino f'ompntiv 


E. H. LESLIE. 600 Fisher Bos.. Chicago = 


iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini iimiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiminiiiiimiiiiiiitiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiimiiiimiiir 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 3, 1920 

{4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 






Immigration necessitates Americanization. The 
making of Americans. Education. The fusion o£ 
diverse peoples into the American nation. The need 
tor sympathetic contact with the alien. The harm 
resulting from various propaganda tor or against 
different European peoples. Origin must be for- 
gotten in the warmth of allegiance to their adopted 
country — America. 


The code should be brief and to the point. Some 
suggestive criticism. Replacing a fellow-engineer. 
The engineers' relations with the technical press. 
Make certain of the ground before promulgating a 
new code. 



By Charles Butters 

The utility of silver coins abroad. American dol- 
lars in Mexico. The romance of freshly minted 
coins. Dividends paid in coin. The banker takes 
the bullion and makes "two for one". Re-estab- 
lish the mints — and keep them busy! 

By J. H. Mockett Jr . . 
An inquiry answered. 



By An Occasional Correspondent 

Carranza never popular in Central and Southern 
Mexico. Government under the Carranza regime. 


The impending election. Gonzales and Obregon. 
Intrigue in favor of Bonillas. The revolt. The 
Plan of Agua Prieta. The present outlook. 



By Walter S. Weeks. 


How a fan-test is conducted. The equipment re- 
quired. Calculations. Door-regulator. Problems. 
High-pressure fans. 


By S. J. Lewis , 16 

Deposits in limestone, but not of direct igneous 
origin. The Cabrillas group. Mitra mountain. 
Theory of origin. Antimony deposits near Wad- 
ley. Cola de Zorra; Catorce Real. The identity 
of two main types of ores. 


By Van. H. Manning 21 

Law prohibits doing work for the exclusive benefit 
of a private concern. Graphic diagram showing 
activities of the Bureau. Illustrations of various 
classes of work. 












Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining: and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Frar Cisco post-office as second-clasB matter. Cable 
' Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdg\: New York, 3514 Woolworth 
Bdg\: London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico. S4: Canada. $5: other countries. $6. ..v. 



July 3, 1920 

The W\r Department of 





<$xxwi*fiutyim& <i*+ 

aided materially in obtaining victory for the arms' 

of the United States of America in the war with 

the Imperial German Government and the Imperial 

and Royal Austro -Hungarian Government 


$£CX£MP.r Of WaaJ 

Another O. K. on a Good Product 

FOR making prompt deliveries and otherwise co-operat- 
ing with the Construction Division of the Army." 

So runs the citation for which this award was made. 

The great Oxweld organization which kept Uncle Sam stead- 
ily supplied with welding and cutting apparatus during 
traffic- tied days of war is once more devoting its entire ener- 
gies to the needs of welders and cutters throughout America. 

It is, indeed, amplified, improved and of greater scope be- 
cause of its war experience. 

In peace as in war, Oxweld has but one standard of product 
and service. 



World's Largest Maker of Equipment for Oxwelding and Cutting Metals 

July 3, 1920 



:m:i I ■ i- ■ Hi ir II 

CECRETARY PAYNE, of the Interior Department, 
^ has announced tliat plans are afoot for the greater 
development of Alaskan resources "through policies that 
will attract new capital and improve transportation con- 
nections with the United States". It is proposed to con- 
solidate the two American shipping lines now serving 
Alaskan ports and likewise to consolidate the Federal 
supervision of Alaskan affairs, both proposals being ex- 
pected to conduce to economy and efficiency. 

T. A. H.ICKARV, .... Editor 


the price of tin is maintained consistently in the neigh- 
borhood of £325. 

PREPARATIONS are complete to start removing 20 
■*■ million tons of worthless overburden that will permit 
the mining of 5 million tons of rich copper ore in the 
mine of the United Verde Copper Company at Jerome. 
The work will be done by steam-shovel, this plan being 
resorted to after repeated attempts to remove the burn- 
ing sulphides in the 'fire-stopes' by other methods. Fire 
first started in the sulphide ore in 1894 and has been 
burning in certain parts of the mine ever since in spite 
of efforts to extinguish it by means of steam, water, and 
carbon dioxide. The project includes the building of a 
new town adjoining the present site of Jerome, on the 
'made' ground that will result from filling the gulch 
below with waste-rock excavated from the mountainside. 

r PIN MINING in Cornwall is facing a crisis. Two of 
■*■ the largest companies, Grenville and Dolcoath, are 
reported to have given provisional notice to 1000 of their 
employees that operations will be suspended immedi- 
ately unless definite promise of assistance from the Gov- 
ernment be forthcoming, or until the market and operat- 
ing conditions alter materially. At the present quota- 
tion, which is around £270 per ton, the mines are losing 
money. The operators take the attitude that government 
regulation during the War reduced by some £500,000 the 
profits that would have accrued in an open market, and 
on this contention the plea for a government subsidy is 
based. Cornwall was the training-school for many of 
the miners who helped develop the industry in our own 
country and Dolcoath is one of the most remarkable of 
the old mines. From its upper levels it produced £1,250,- 
000 in copper ore prior to 1787. The copper was then 
exhausted, but on sinking deeper tin ore was developed, 
from which £3,572,17«was-i-ealized. At a depth of 3000 
feet the tin content of the ore became too low for profit- 
able mining, but lateral work has opened other veins the 
exploitation of which is expected to produce dividends if 

T> ELATED discovery of previously unsuspected wealth 
-*-* has more than once brought admirers, flatterers, and 
ready favor where none had been before. Even in Ne- 
vada where the people pride themselves on measuring a 
man 's worth by what he is, not what he has, this trait of 
human frailty is being displayed. There is, it seems, a 
stray wedge of land in the north-east section of Town- 
ship 13 N., Range 34 E., Mt. Diablo Base and Meridian, 
a forlorn outcast that until lately had never been given 
more than a passing thought by anyone. Recently three 
counties, Churchill, Mineral, and Nye, suddenly de- 
veloped an affectionate regard for the erstwhile friend- 
less vagabond, and now are competing with each other to 
establish the closest kinship. Moreover each county 
brazenly concedes that its earnest solicitude is occasioned 
simply and solely by recent developments in the mine of 
the Broken Hills Silver Corporation whose property 
happens to be situated in the disputed area. Within a 
short time high-grade silver ore has netted $60,000, and 
$100,000 worth of ore is said to be blocked out in work- 
ings only 150 feet deep. In view of the taxes which will 
accrue to the county that wins, if the mine develops into 
the bonanza it promises, it is easy to sense the deeply 
sympathetic attitude of the contending counties. 

"1%/TR. JAMES MacNAUGHTON, general manager for 
•*-*-*- the Calumet & Hecla company, is quoted as saying, 
in effect, that if it were certain that conditions in the 
copper industry of Michigan would continue as they are 
today most of the mines in the district would suspend 
operations immediately. Ahmeek, Isle Royale, and some 
of the conglomerate-lode enterprises are exceptions to 
the general rule ; they are returning a small profit. But 
there is little immediate comfort in the situation except 
the fact that the physical condition of the mines is not 
essentially changed. There is plenty of 'rock' of a grade 
that has been profitably treated in years past, and there 
is a prevailing optimism that sees a readjustment not far 
in the future that will enable the mines again to be 
operated on a profitable basis. Some of the factors that 
haTe helped put the Michigan companies in this unfavor- 
able position are shared equally by all of the copper pro- 
ducers, but in some respects they have fared worse than 
their friends in the Western States. The proximity of 


July 3, 1920 

the automobile-manufacturing districts with their highly- 
paid jobs has made it possible for the minor to get -lucra- 
tive and agreeable employment with little difficult}'. 
These high wages have attracted the best miners and have 
made it difficult to maintain a reasonable degree of in- 
dividual efficiency among the men who remained at the 
mines. Another handicap which is being felt more than 
ever is the dependence in a large measure upon steam 
for prime motive power, and the unusual amount of hoist- 
ing and hauling of large quantities of low-grade ma- 
terial. The copper companies burn annually more than 
a million tons of coal, so that an increase of $5 in the 
price per ton at once adds $5,000,000 to the operating 
costs. The stock of Calumet & Hecla. that has often sold 
for $1000 and has paid its holders 152 millions in divi- 
dends, is now quoted at $320 per share, the lowest level 
reached in 40 years. A dividend of $5 recently posted 
came out of surplus, while the Quiney company, always 
reputed as being one of the reliable dividend payers, has 
just found it advisable to pass its regular payment. 
Nevertheless Quiney is completing the erection of the 
largest hoisting engine in existence. It weighs, com- 
plete, 900 tons and it is designed to hoist ore from a 
sloping depth of 12,500 feet. The other companies are 
going ahead too; they have confidence in the future. 
They feel sure that the price of copper will go up and 
that the cost of production will come down ; that it will 
be possible again to make a profit from ore that contains 
only a little more than one per cent copper. 

"TlISCUSSION on the status of silver has almost 
*-* pushed the gold problem to one side, for the mo- 
ment. We take pleasure in publishing a letter from 
Mr. Charles Butters, who needs no introduction. It will 
be noted that Mr. Butters was uncertain whether his 
letter ought to be published ; that adds to the interest 
of it, for communications that are so frank as to verge 
upon indiscretion are just the ones most of us like to 
read. Mr. Butters, of course, writes as the owner of 
silver mines in Mexico; his study of the subject is 
prompted by enlightened self-interest, to which none 
can take objection. He makes a plea for the greater use 
of silver, insisting that the countries of Europe have 
almost abandoned the use of the metal, and hope that 
we shall be driven to do likewise". Among the Mexicans 
there is a great and insistent demand for silver coins, 
and we can fill that demand to our advantage, and theirs, 
if we awaken to the opportunity. American silver coins 
are welcome in South America also, and in the Orient, 
for the world is nearly bare of white money. Mr. But- 
ters proposes to pay his current obligations, to trades- 
men and others, in silver ; he would like the silver-mining 
companies to pay their dividends in units of their own 
metallic product. It is a pious idea, but we anticipate 
that those receiving silver dollars would deposit them in 
the bank, preferring to use cheeks or Federal Reserve 
bank-notes. Something may he done with the peoples 
among whom the credit system has been undeveloped, 
but those used to the exchange of notes do not care to 

fill their pockets or their safes with the heavy discs of 
the Mint. Indeed- in- a perfect world all settlements 
would be made by exchange of I. O. U.s ; it is only in a 
world rendered imperfect by folly, hysteria, and dis- 
honesty that a hard basis of metal is requisite. At this 
time when the folly, hysteria, and dishonesty of man- 
kind, as individuals and as nations, are particularly in 
evidence we find the need for something safer than a 
signed paper, and that is why we are so anxious to en- 
large our metallic base, which is the shock-absorber of 
our commerce. 

'T'HE Exploration Company, which acts as the agent, 
■*■ in London, of the Treadwell group of mining com- 
panies, has issued a circular summarizing the position 
of these companies at the end of the financial year. The 
information is taken directly from the reports of Mr. 
F. "W. Bradley, who is president of the three companies 
operating on Douglas island, Alaska. The premier en- 
terprise, the Alaska Treadwell, made a profit of $17,500 
from commercial business and interest on investments. 
A surplus of nearly $2,000,000 of assets over liabilities, 
exclusive of property and plant, places the company in 
a strong position to carry out its policy of acquiring 
new mines in Alaska, thereby establishing the continuity 
of the enterprise. The Alaska United shows a deficit of 
$78,900, the operation of the Ready Bullion mine, which 
is the only one not drowned by the caving at the surface, 
having been rendered unprofitable by the excessive cost. 
Mr. Bradley suggests that two courses are open, either 
to suspend work "until after the purchasing power of 
gold becomes greater", or to gouge the mine as quickly 
as possible. He recommends, and the directors have ap- 
proved, the second plan of action. The Alaska Mexican, 
which is flooded, made a loss of $21,250. It has realiz- 
able assets worth $177,900. Working. options on three 
gold and silver properties in Alaska have been secured, 
and examinations are being made. It is sad to contem- 
plate the condition of this famous group of mines, and 
it is much to be hoped that their good tradition will be 
perpetuated by the transfer of their remaining capital 
to some new and promising venture in Alaska. 

'pHLORIDE VOLATILIZATION' has been success- 
^"* fully applied in the treatment of low-grade copper 
ore by the Pope-Shenon Mining Co. at its property near 
Salmon, Idaho. Two comparatively simple operations 
are involved in the treatment by which the metal in the 
oxidized ore is recovered in the form of high-grade bullion. 
The process, developed by Dr. Robert H. Bradford, con- 
sulting metallurgist for the company, is a departure from 
the ordinary methods of smelting. The ground ore, 
mixed with pulverized calcium chloride in proper pro- 
portion, is treated in an oil-fired revolving roaster in 
which the metal is volatilized and driven off as a fume 
of copper chloride. The fume is passed through a Cot- 
trell electric treater that functions perfectly in separat- 
ing the precipitated particles of copper chloride from 
the gaseous constituents of the smoke. The dust is col- 
lected, mixed with lime and charcoal, and fused in a 

July 3, i;>20 



melting furnace in which oil is likewise used as the fuel. 
'I'lic molten copper is tapped into bullion-molds as a 
marketable product, while the slag, which is impure 
Calcium chloride, is crushed and reverted to the original 

roaster to supply tile ehloride for subsequent operations. 
Several features of the process appeal to the metallurgist. 
The only raw materials required arc charcoal and lime, 
in addition to the necessary fuel-oil. A unit as small as 
BO tons is economically practicable; the machinery is not 
■omplicated; and the success of neither the roasting nor 
the fusion depends upon delicate chemical reaction or 
precise regulation of temperature. Sufficient bullion has 
been made to demonstrate the success of the process, but 
the most advantageous mixtures of material and exact 
degree of roasting for the best results are yet to be de- 
termined. The satisfactory performance of the new - plant 
emphasizes the possibilities in combining the operations 
of modern metallurgy in novel ways and is a credit to 
the ingenuity and resource of Dr. Bradford. 


Last week we discussed immigration, and the proposal 
to restrict, if not to stop entirely, the entry of foreigners. 
During the decade from 1909 to 1918 inclusive there were 
admitted into the United States 6,958,034 immigrants, of 
whom. 21% could neither read nor write. In 1910 half 
of those living in California were foreign-born or the 
children of the foreign-born. Here admittedly are hard 
nuts to crack, or, shall we say, tough morsels to digest. 
Those who oppose the placing of an embargo on immigra- 
tion as. being contrary to the American idea, and as being, 
in large measure, the shirking of a national responsibil- 
ity, are compelled to face the duty, of making the best of 
the foreign elements in our population; in short, they 
advocate systematic Americanization. 

Americanization is the making of Americans ; that is the 
bringing of men and women into sympathy with the ideals 
of the American republic. As those born in this country 
are Americans in fact, the term Americanization implies 
the conversion of aliens into American citizens. To do 
this effectively it is necessary to employ two processes, 
education and naturalization. The latter process, which 
is a legal formality, is of no avail in making an alien into 
a real American citizen unless he has been so educated as 
to understand and love the traditions and ideas that have 
made a nation out of the diverse population living in the 
United States. This nation consists of men and women 
who themselves or whose progenitors came from foreign 
countries. They have become united and assimilated by 
sharing the same experiences ; they have fought for their 
freedom ; they have battled among themselves over great 
principles ; they have developed their own ideas of liberty, 
of law, and of government ; they have been fused, by liv- 
ing and working together, by sorrowing and rejoicing to- 
gether, by thinking and dreaming together, into one na- 
tion, separate from any other and unlike any other. This 
unlikeness is the essence of Americanism, to it the people 
of the United States owe their identity, upon it they base 
their ways of living, that is, their civilization. In order 

to maintain and develop this civilization, this American 
way of living, with all that it connotes in the conduct of 
domestic, civic, and national affairs, it is imperative that 
the incoming foreigner — the immigrant — shall not re- 
main an outsider, alien to the spirit of the country. As 
Roosevelt said, this must not be "a polyglot boarding- 
house"; it must be a home in which all those under the 
same roof shall understand each other and work together 
in harmony for the good of all. Therefore the newcomer 
must be taught the habits and imbued with the aspira- 
tions of the American citizen. First of all, he must learn 
our language, for without that no complete understand- 
ing is possible ; next, he must acquire some knowledge of 
the history of the country, so that he may appreciate its 
past ; then he must become reasonably well informed con- 
cerning the constitution, laws, and system of government 
under which he expects to live. The success of this edu- 
cative process will depend not only upon him, but also 
upon those who undertake to teach him. There must be 
mutual sympathy. The foreigner must want to become 
Americanized and we must make it evident to him that 
we desire to help him to his graduation as a citizen. In 
short, Americanization is a sympathetic process whereby 
the foreigner, ceasing to be an alien, becomes a fellow 
citizen with the direct inheritors of the American tradi- 

The foregoing is, we believe, a fair statement of a 
subject that is vital to the welfare of this republic. 
Emphasis must be placed upon the need for sympathetic 
contact with the alien. This means neighborly inter- 
course between American men and women on the one side 
and foreign men and women on the other. The children, 
if let alone, will follow the instinctive sociability of un- 
sophisticated youth. Colonies of alien people should be 
disintegrated, not by force, but by kindness, through the 
establishment of American social settlements intended to 
win the goodwill and understanding of those about them, 
by mingling with them unaffectedly and naturally. They 
will have to overcome the opposition of political bosses, 
bigots, labor contractors, and hyphenated bankers, all of 
whom profit from the social detachment of whole groups 
or even communities of foreigners. To be effective in 
this work of Americanization the social worker must learn 
the language of those whom he desires to befriend. Un- 
digested alien communities are a menace to the health 
of our body politic ; they must be assimilated by kindness 
if we are to escape chronic political dyspepsia. It is a 
condition that confronts us, not an economic theory. The 
War and its aftermath have greatly aggravated the harm- 
fulness of the un-Americanized elements in our popula- 
tion, because the War made calls upon the devotion of the 
Europeans in our midst and those calls were not all in 
accord with the national purpose as it was finally defined 
by our own participation in the conflict. Since hostilities 
were formally stopped by the Armistice we have been 
plagued by various propaganda in favor of different 
European peoples, all tending to elicit sympathy with 
one or another of them, and thereby superimpose some 
sort of European sentiment on top of American patri- 
otism. A German, an Irish, a British, or any other propa- 


July 3, 1920 

ganda that draws the citizen away from his proper alle- 
giance to the United States by developing an un-American 
point of view on matters of national concern is more than 
objectionable, it is pestilential. Dislike of it necessitates 
neither a frothy provincialism nor a sloppy international- 
ism. All appeals for, or against, any propaganda based 
upon European sentiment have a disintegrating effect on 
the national spirit, because they serve to accentuate 
prejudices that are non-American. If the alien elements 
in this country are to be Americanized, it must be done by 
developing sympathy with American ideals and not by 
making calls upon an allegiance that has been surrender- 
ed to the United States. Hearst's campaign, for example, 
may make people anti-British or pro-British, but it does 
not help in the least — on the contrary, it hinders — the 
Americanization not of the British alone, but of the 
Germans or Irish or any others to whom his propaganda 
makes any sort of appeal. Most Americans object to the 
repeated compulsion to align themselves for or against 
such schemes, which serve merely as an irritant entirely 
subversive of the sincere effort to cause the diverse Euro- 
pean elements to forget their origins in the warmth of 
their allegiance to the country of their adoption. Amer- 
icanization assumes the existence of a genuine American- 
ism, which, while not lacking intelligent sympathy with 
other countries and desiring friendly intercourse with 
them, is determined to follow its own ideals and achieve 
its own destiny. 

A Code of Ethics 

A special committee of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers has prepared a tentative draft of a 
'Code of Ethics', which it is proposed to submit for ap- 
proval to all of the national engineering organizations, 
with the hope that, if generally adopted, it may become 
a universal code recognized by engineers in all branches 
of the profession. The 14 articles of the proposed code 
were published in our issue of June 19. To some it may 
seem futile to attempt to improve upon the familiar set 
of ten admonitions that were first promulgated on Mt. 
Sinai, and equally so to attempt to legislate morals into 
people either by imperial or democratic edict. Yet, if a 
formal code of ethics we must have, let it be brief and 
to the point. We venture the opinion that some of the 
articles proposed by the Mechanical Engineers are of 
too little importance and that some are either incon- 
sistent or not clearly expressed. If they be deleted or 
revised the essential parts will gain emphasis, and the 
value of the entire code will be increased. For example, 
Article 8 reads: "He should satisfy himself before 
taking over the work of another consulting engineer that 
good and sufficient reasons exist for the change". There 
can be but one "good and sufficient reason" for a change 
other than the voluntary resignation of the first engineer 
himself. That reason is the dissatisfaction of the client 
who is presumably the man that foots the bills. Few 
mining engineers would care to continue in the capacity 
of consultant to a company that wanted to get rid of 

them, but that was unable to do so because ethics, or 
etiquette, would prevent another engineer from taking 
up the work. Why engineer No. 2 should pass judgment 
on the motives of the employer or client in seeking the 
services of another consultant is hard to see, either from 
an ethical, or from any other codic viewpoint. Article 
9 declares that "He must base all reports and expert 
testimony on facts or upon theories founded only on 
sound engineering principles and experience". In the 
name of common sense on what else could an intelligent 
man base his expert opinion? Indeed, we must assume 
that all engineers have intelligence; and even if some 
lack it, the mere fact does not make them guilty of any 
breach of ethics. Certainly we cannot declare 'un- 
ethical', or heretical, one group of engineers because 
their conclusions based on the identical set of facts 
diverge widely from those of another group. Judged by 
that standard every lawsuit involving expert testimony 
from engineers would produce material for the consid- 
eration of the proposed Standing Committee on Profes- 
sional Conduct. Article 10 reads : " He must not regard 
as his own any information which is not common knowl- 
edge or public property, but which he obtained confi- 
dentially from his client or while engaged as an em- 
ployee. He is, however, justified in using such data or 
information in his own private practice as forming part 
of his professional experience." These two ideas are 
perhaps not flatly contradictory, but they read as if they 
were. If they mean anything it is that an engineer 
should not publish confidential information obtained 
during the performance of his professional duty without 
the consent of his client. Next is Article 11, which says 
"He should do everything within his power to prevent 
sensational, exaggerated, or unwarranted statements 
about engineering work being made through the public 
press. First descriptions of new inventions, processes, 
etc., for publication should be furnished only to the 
engineering societies or to the technical press." In view 
of the proclivity of the "public press", which presum- 
ably refers to the daily newspapers, to gather sensa- 
tional and exaggerated, if not unwarranted, statements, 
the engineer who fulfilled the letter of this mandate 
would have little time for his professional work. As 
to the second injunction, the impress of a spirit kindred 
to our own is manifest. We appreciate the motive, and 
are duly grateful; but is there any essential obligation 
for the engineer to do either of these things in order to 
be 'ethical'? Would the failure on his part to do either 
be a reasonable excuse for disciplinary action on the part 
of the national engineering society to which he happened 
to belong? We mention these things simply to illustrate 
the point that there has not been exercised enough care 
and discrimination in the preparation of what is ex- 
pected to be an enduring code. The various societies 
may well formulate a statement of essential principles 
governing the professional conduct of their members, 
but they should take time to decide just exactly what 
those principles should be. 'Die Decalogue was written 
on stone. 

July 3. 1920 




Concerning Silver 

The Editor: 

Sir — On account of the shortage of silver coin in 
France and Germany and England, travelers going 
abroad well supplied with silver coins find their way 
made easy. An American 25c.-piece represents some- 
thing like two francs, a 10c. -piece would be very welcome 
money, being about the size of a 50-centime piece. Amer- 
ican banking agencies in Paris would find a profitable 
business in shipping American coinage for their custom- 
ers. "We do thousands of dollars worth of business week- 
ly here at our mines in Mexico with American money. 
A Mexican silver coin is a great rarity. This has all 
happened within a couple of years. This change has hap- 
pened so rapidly that in the State of Sonora all prices 
are now quoted in American dollars instead of Mexican 
pesos. They call them "do-lars" and are very fond of 
them. They look pretty good beside a Carranza bill, 100 
to the 1. It would seem good business for the American 
mints to take any kind of fine-silver bars presented to 
them and return American silver coins worth per ounce 
anywhere from $1.29 to $1.38 for subsidiary coins and 
make this coin by taking in bars at $1 per ounce on any 
market-price below the coinage-value. Our mints could 
afford to run 24 hours per day on such business. 

The silver producer could surely afford to pay the mint 
charge, if any, and the express charges, and instead of 
sending out checks send real newly minted silver coin. 
People would soon realize that there was such a thing as 
a silver industry if they saw the real stuff come pouring 
into the channels of trade, piling up in the safes, like the 
old days of California. A new interest would be taken 
in silver mining by the very sight of the bright new 
money going from hand to hand; a greater tendency to 

[save would be instilled by the sight and ownership of 
coin as against paper or checks. Many a man would 
think twice before he counted out and parted with ten 
thousand new bright silver dollars in ten bags of a thous- 
and each. The bulk appeal of ten bags of bright coin is 
much greater than that of a cheque with ' ' Ten Thousand 
Dollars" written upon it. 

' . "We talk of interesting people in silver mining by tell- 
ing how much profit they can make. Profit can be made 
in rubber, bricks, automobiles, steel, hats, shoes, baking 
companies, street-car companies, etc., but that is not 
silver mining. Interest them in the metal itself. How 
many shareholders in a silver mine paying dividends ever 
see any of the company's product fresh from the Mint — 
new bright clean coin? Your own money straight from 

your own mines — great business! Does not every auto- 
mobile dealer get a big window on the principal street 
and gloat over his bright new shiny car, which, the min- 
ute it has been sold and once around the block, $1000 
comes off its value. While our bright new silver may lose 
its gloss in going from hand to hand, it still holds its 
value, good stuff to own ; get some, put it away in a safe 
deposit, always handy. Just about $5 apiece all around 
would be as much as the great Government storage before 
the "War. That storage is much safer, much more useful, 
and much more liable to be a source of political safety for 
the people in time of trouble, in their own pockets than in 
any great tempting pile represented by floating paper. 

How many officers of a silver mining company ever see 
an ounce of their product ? As a rule, none of the home 
officers, boards of directors, or secretaries. How many 
of the officers at the mine? Probably one or two — the 
melter and the local secretary. How many of the miners 
or mill-hands, or town's-people where the silver is pro- 
duced? Probably very few. How many silver dollars 
does the average shareholder of the Nipissing Silver 
Mines Co., of which there are 14,000 in America and 
Canada, carry about with him? I will venture to state 
you could not find 500 single American dollars on the lot. 
You will find some paper money and subsidiary coin 
made at a price of about $1.38 an ounce out of silver for 
which the Nipissing received about 60 cents an ounce. 
"What is the matter with giving these 14,000 shareholders 
their two million silver dollars in 14,000 packages marked 
' Nipissing Silver ' ? "Why, say, they would never want to 
spend one of them. It would be the greatest advertise- 
ment the silver-mining industry could possibly have, 
every shareholder receiving from a hundred to three 
hundred new dollars. "Where is your imagination if you 
cannot see the instantaneous effect of every silver-mining 
company paying out all its production in dollars, or 
halves or quarters or dimes if you want them, instead of 
offering bars like merchandise to people who are doing 
their best to knock their product. Everyone knows that 
if you have a $20 gold-piece and don't change it you have 
always got $20. Just change that $20 gold-piece into 
50c.-pieces and lOc.-pieces and walk down the pike with 
your girl — you will not find it intact after one turn ; in 
fact, you can't for the life of you square your account, 
try as hard as you can. Now, why do the producers de- 
cline to put their product into such small pieces that it 
scatters itself without effort? It will cost some trouble 
and about 2% of its value, but there can be no such thing 
as a point of saturation because you can always buy both 
supplies and labor with American silver coin and your 



July 3, 1920 

shareholders will never send your dividend package back 
and demand gold; so why don't we adopt this plan? Let 
someone tell me why. Why ? Because bankers and 
financiers can make more money out of the people's 
money by handling it for them. They can do as much 
with a little coin and a lot of paper as the individuals 
can with all coin. This process has been going on so long 
and so cleverly that most of the world at the present time 
sees absolutely no gold and they are getting it down so 
fine that shortly there will he no use for silver — paper, 
copper, nickel, and nickel and silver taking the place. 
This is not good for either the public or the gold or silver 

A gold miner is supposed to be doing what I have out- 
lined above, paying out for everything in his own prod- 
uct, but as a matter of fact, while he used to do this, he 
does it no longer. He is now using paper and his single 
dollar is stretched to about twenty dollars in paper 
credit. For this he gets no benefit. If everyone should 
demand gold payment in actual coin you would soon see 
the price of paper fall and the gold producer would come 
into his own. Formerly in California the gold miner did 
pay in gold coin. It would not suit the banker or finan- 
cier to see actual silver used and demanded in place of 
paper, because he could not make two into one. He 
would have to produce the coin for payments. The silver 
miner wants silver to circulate as coin everywhere and 
not see shinplasters and postage-stamps take its place. 
The producer is the one to start it. again. Do you sup- 
pose if the copper producer could pay in kind as easily as 
a silver produceer that he would ever try to force his 
bulk production on a world that can't pay for it in gold ? 
No, he would keep on paying in kind just as the gold 
miner is actually supposed to be doing. "Why, the lead 
miners, zinc miners, or producers of any kind, would 
never quit if they could do what the gold miner does. 
There is only one other who can do that — pay in kind — 
and that is the silver miner, who paid in kind in a rich 
and prosperous Mexico for three huundred years, and 
tli is was only stopped by absolute destruction of the pub- 
lic mints so that the gold standard could be established 
in order that bankers could enrich themselves by issuing 
paper, and finally between the bankers and the public 
officials the people of Mexico have been absolutely robbed 
of all their metallic wealth and'the credit of Mexico abso- 
lutely ruined. I say the metallic money is safest in the 
hands of the people. No country can be ruined by schem- 
ing officials if its people hold the actual coin. 

The logical conclusion of such a plan would mean that 
every convenience should be given to the silver miner for 
coinage and we should have local mints as they formerly 
had them in Mexico. For instance, every State produc- 
ing large amounts of silver, like Montana, Colorado. 
Nevada, should have a local mint for silver coin only. 
Imagine Anaconda paying out its total silver production 
in wages and for supplies, because, as silver is only a 
by-product, no doubt that these two items would absorb 
their production of about ten million ounces of silver. 
Nevada would become an exporter of silver coin ; Colo- 
rado also. Carry this plan out and the United States 

would soon realize that there was a real silver industry 
and she was a leader in this industry. There is a world 
of sentiment in this idea of actually seeing, having, own- 
ing, and handling masses of silver coin. This sentiment, 
which could be so easily aroused, is at present absent, 
from this silver question. We deal only in figures and 
hide our bullion in safes and banks. Silver is such a 
rarity that even the transfer of a truck-load of bare al- 
ways attracts crowds. Coin the bars, that's what I say, 
and distribute instead of hiding them away and hunting 
a customer for an article we produce but refuse to use 
ourselves, preferring to let other people carry the silver 
and we our paper. The West will wake up some day and 
find the East the real bankers of the world, because 
they are, and have been, accumulating real money — gold 
and silver. I hope these notes will not be misunderstood 
as having connection with the free coinage of silver. All 
we ask the Mint to do is to convert our bullion at the 
market-price into silver coin. If they will do this, and it 
surely would be a profitable business, I should like to 
know from Mr. Baker how much his present coinage ca- 
pacity is on a 24-hour basis with fine bars. The refining 
capacity of the United States is ample. Next, what is the 
coining capacity ? Is there any valid reason that would 
prevent the Mint from doing this business? If such a 
reason exists the producers should see, too, that such a 
reason should be promptly removed. It may be doubtful 
whether this scheme should be published, as it might 
arouse powerful enemies, whom such a plan would not 
suit at all. I am not sure of this, however. You would 
gain friends as well as enemies. 

Charles Butters. 
Copala, Sinaloa, Mexico, May 31. 

[We comment upon this interesting letter on another 
page of this issue. — Editor.] 

Combinations of Gold 

The Editor: 

Sir — On page 103 of the 'Mining Engineers' Hand- 
hook' in the paragraph entitled 'Gold-Bearing Minerals', I 
I find the following statement: "In some of these min- 
erals, when the ores are refractory, it may exist as an 
involved telluride, or as a bismuth compound (Richard 

Having frequently seen in print the statement that 
tellurium is the only element with which gold is found 
in chemical combination, the sentence quoted appears to 
me as unusual. The question is of particular interest to 
me as our ores carry a percentage of bismuth as well as 
gold. It appears to be also a subject of some general , 
scientific as well as economic interest. 

J. H. Mockett Jr. 

Red Cliff, Colorado, June 14. 

[Gold is found in combination with selenium as a | 
seienide, with silver as eleetrum, with mercury as amal- 
gam, with rhodium as rhodite, with palladium as an 
undetermined mineral. The combination with bismuth 
was found in Australia and is called maldonite. — Editor]. - 

.Inlv 3, 1920 




The Mexican Revolution 

By An Occasional Correspondent 

Within two months Carranza has fallen, just, when he 
was least expected to do so. Long ago in 1915, even just 
after the destruction of Villa's army in the C'elaya cam- 
paign, everyone was saying "Carranza can't last six 
months". And even more confident of speedy disaster 
for the Mexican "scourge of God" were the prophets of 
1916 as they saw rapidly pass into history the typhus 
epidemic, the wholesale repudiation of Carranza money, 
the ( 'arrizal massacre, and the looting of the State banks 
of issue. Yet undismayed by these Mexican Cassandras, 
Carranza proceeds in 1917 to boldly launch a brand new 
constitution and to exchange his uncertain post of 'First 
Chief' for the dignified office of national dictator or 

Carranza was never popular in Central and Southern 
Mexico, for he had treated this most densely populated 
part of the country like a conquered province ever since 
his triumphant entiw into Mexico City from the north in 
August 1914. His general unpopularity in part accounts 
for his inability to pacify the country and suppress the 
countless rebel or bandit leaders who under various 
designations as Zapatistas, Villistas, Felicistas, etc., kept 
up a constant turmoil in all the rural districts sufficiently 
fertile to lie self-sustaining for their troops. Even to 
guard the cities and railways, Carranza has had to main- 
tain an army of 150,000 men, the most expensive one in 
Mexican history, involving in 1917, even, an expenditure 
nearly thrice what Huerta's army, of a similar size, had 
cost. As Carranza paid them about the same wages as 
Huerta, and Mexican soldiers feed themselves, the dif- 
ference cannot be explained by the extra price for the 
limited quantity of munitions consumed, but only by 
graft on a colossal scale. 

Carranza's leadership of his party was always anal- 
ogous to that of a cowboy whose pony has managed to 
keep in advance of a stampeding herd of cattle, and his 
attempt to suppress graft well illustrates this. In 1917, 
Is an aftermath of the Mexican- American Peace Confer- 

ence, Carranza engaged Henry Bruere of New York to 
visit Mexico and revise his financial accounting system. 
One of the principal changes due to Bruere 's advice was 
the organization of a general purchasing agency for the 
army called Departamento de Establecimientos Fabriles 
y Aprovisionamiento Militar, which was not under the 
War Ministry but directly under the control of the 
President himself. Anyone selling merchandise to this 
new department had to furnish his bill in sextuplicate, 
so that it had to be approved by six separate officials be- 
fore a warrant could be issued for payment. When this 
excellent system had been guaranted a sincere trial by 
the naming of a (relatively) honest officer, General 
Murguia, as head of the department, it really seemed as 
if the days of wholesale military graft were numbered. 
And so they would have been, had not Carranza bark- 
ened to the pleas of his favorite generals, like Juan Bar- 
ragan, the "Mexican Adonis" and Chief of Staff, and 
allowed them to continue to make their own purchases as 

Thus, in spite of an increase in Federal and local 
taxation of three to eight times the rates prevalent under 
Porfirio Diaz, the Carranza regime was always hard up. 
It had no money to construct new streets or public 
edifices, or even to repair those already in existence. 
The minor bureaucracy had usually to accept part of its 
wages in bonds, while the pay of school-teachers was 
often in arrears and numerous schools were closed en- 
tirely for lack of funds. The few big cities were crowded, 
but not from normal growth, for their surplus popula- 
tion represented the refugees who had fled from the 
chronic disorder of their rural homes. All Mexico seemed 
slipping back into the barbarism of the early nineteenth 
century. The flow of foreign capital for investment had 
practically stopped in 1914, for who would risk more 
money in a country where vast sums previously planted 
had already been jeopardized, rendered unproductive, 
and even wiped out completely by brigandage on the one 



July 3, 1920 

hand and an unscrupulous anti-foreign government on 
the other. 

Such in brief was the situation last summer when can- 
didacies for the presidency began to be launched. Car- 
ranza's term ran until December 31, 1920, and the elec- 
tion to choose his successor was scheduled to take place 
the preceding July. From the very beginning there 
were only two noteworthy candidacies, those of Pablo 
Gonzales and Alvaro Obregon, the two generals of divi- 
sions who shared between them the command of the 
Carranza armies when they marched victoriously south 
in 1914. Gonzales is reputed to have spent five years as 
a youth in California, where he married his American 
wife. Later, he became a commander of Rurales (rural 
police) in Nuevo Leon, but was unknown to fame till 
he joined Carranza's forlorn hope to fight Huerta, in 
1913. As a field-officer he showed some talent for or- 
ganization but none for strategy, so that he doubtless 
owed his high command to the personal favoritism of 
the First Chief. Like most of the Carranza generals, he 
found revolution a profitable occupation and cleaned up 
perhaps the biggest fortune of the gang. In 1918 he 
possessed the huge sum required for planting and har- 
vesting nearly the whole State of Morelos, then just won 
from the Zapatistas, and his total reward from his 
patriotic labors is estimated to exceed 5,000,000 pesos. 

Younger by several years than his middle-aged rival, 
Alvaro Obregon hails from a small town in Sonora where 
he owned a farm and was mayor at the beginning of the 
revolution in 1910. He then raised a company of volun- 
teers and did some fighting for Madero, but did not 
attain distinction until Sonora rebelled against Huerta 
in 1913. It was the Sonoran army that first successfully 
defied Huerta and saved Carranza when he fled west 
from his early defeats. Exhibiting marked military 
talent, Obregon soon rose to the command of the Sonoran 
army, and in 1914 he marched south along the west coast 
and captured Guadalajara, while the ever-victorious 
army of Generals Angeles and Villa was breaking 
Huerta 's power on the central plateau. 

When Carranza was east off as First Chief by the 
military convention at Aguascalientes, in October 1914, 
and had to flee for refuge to Vera Cruz, it was Obregon 
who led his Sonorans to the rescue and reorganized the 
army during the following wiater. In his spring cam- 
paign against the Convention army led by Villa, Obregon 
re-captured Puebla in January, and by May had anni- 
hilated his opponents as a result of his victories between 
Celaya and Leon, where he lost his right army by a shell. 
Shortly after the transfer of the Carranza government 
to Mexico City, in September 1915. Obregon became 
Secretary of the Army and Navy, and held this post till 
his retirement from politics a year later, after his mar- 
riage to a Sonoran lady of large estate. 

Until this spring, the presidential campaign proceeded 
along peaceful lines. Obregon toured the country to 
greet his partizans, and both he and Gonzales subsidized 
newspapers in the State capitals as well as in the metrop- 
olis. In the latter place. Obregon 's friends started last 
sumnier 'El Heraldo' and this year 'El Monitor' as 

dailies, while Gonzales launched 'El Liberal'; all this in 
opposition to the old established dailies 'El Universal', 
'Excelsior', and 'El Democrats '. New posters an- 
nouncing a candidate's merits were struck off every little 
while and pasted on the billboards of every post-office 
town in the country. 

Carranza meanwhile remained, in his public utterance, 
quite neutral as between the rivals, and frequently an- 
nounced his intention to abide by the letter of the law, 
both by holding the July election and by retirement in 
December in favor of the successful candidate ; but sud- 
denly he changed his attitude and Mexico awoke one 
morning in March to see blazoned on every billboard the 
posters announcing the launching of the presidential 
candidacy of Ygnacio Bonillas, then living at Washing- 
ton as Mexican ambassador. Bonillas was born nearly 
60 years ago in northern Mexico and completed his edu- 
cation for a civil engineer at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, at Boston. Practising his profession for 
awhile in our South- West, he removed later to the north- 
west of Mexico, where he made a good income as an en- 
gineer. He joined Carranza's army in 1913 and so far 
gained the First Chief's favor that on the establishment 
of the Government at the capital in 1915. he was ap- 
pointed a cabinet minister in charge of the Department 
of Communications. Well educated and of fair admin- 
istrative ability, Bonillas, unlike the majority of his con- 
freres, had kept himself clear of graft. He was as ideal 
a candidate, from every personal standpoint, as could be 
found among the Carranzista leaders, and had his back- 
ing been of a less sinister character, he might have caught 
the popular fancy. As it was, everyone began to ponder 
as to Carranza's motives in proposing Bonillas, and ad- 
vertising him, regardless of expense, from Guatemala to 
the Rio Grande. Some said that he was booked for the 
role of the earlier Gonzales, the henchman of Porfirio 
Diaz, who held the presidential office after Diaz's first 
term, from 1880 to 1884. and amended the Constitution 
so that his master could legally get himself re-elected in 
1884 and continue as president indefinitely. Others be- 
lieved him to be a mere stalking-horse for Luis Cabrera, 
the Secretary of the Treasury and one of the most cun- 
ning hypocritical rogues of the Carranza gang ; they an- 
ticipated that the presidency, once gained by Bonillas' 
popularity, would shortly be resigned in favor of Don 
Luis, the most cordially hated man in Mexico but never- 
theless the right bower of the Carranza regime. 

At the beginning of April, the Bonillas backers be- 
came bolder and summoned Obregon from his political 
campaign in Nuevo Leon to Mexico City, where he was 
accused of conspiracy in connection with the trial of 
Cejudo. The latter — a famous Zapatista general for 
many years in Vera Cruz — was accused of fraud, in that 
his recent acceptance of amnesty from Carranza had 
been merely the favorite Zapatista trick for re-stocking 
the surrendered troops with money and munitions as a 
preliminary to again becoming rebels. Although the letter 
incriminating Obregon with the Zapatistas was declared 
by Cejudo to be a forgery, the former was detained in 
the capital under surveillance "'pending further investi- 

.Inly ::. 1920 


gation". Soon eluding liia captors, Obregon skipped to For several weeks the revoll progressed slowly. Car- 
Michoacan, and his escape was the signal for the revolt ranza prepared to invade Sonora from Chihuahua and 



De la Huerta to capture Sinaloa. The legal governors 
of Michoacan, Zaeateeas, and Guerrero declared for 
Sonora, as did also a number of rebel leaders; including 
the Zapatista, General Genevo de la 0. of Morelos, the 
Villista, General Pelaez of Vera Cruz, and the Oaxa- 
quenb, General Mexequiera. In later April, it looked as 
if the new war might continue indefinitely with Obregon 



'•'- ^i<a 





of Sonora, whose governor, Adolfo De la Huerta, pro- 
■claimed the Plan of Agua Prieta as the charter of a new 


holding the whole Pacific Coast region and Carranza the 
remainder of the country. 

In the first week of May luck deserted its erstwhile 
favorite, Carranza, for General Pablo Gonzales joined 
the rebels, with most of the army of the East, captured 
Puebla, and threatened Mexico City. After sending 



July 3, 1920 

General Murguia south with 5000 men to hold Gonzales 
at bay, Carranza loaded 15 trains with his chief officials 
and valuables and prepared to repeat his mancevre of 
1914 by retiring his government to Vera Cruz. Yet his- 
tory refuses to repeat itself on demand, so Carranza 
never reached Vera Cruz, but was overwhelmed by the 
enemy near the eastern edge of the central plateau and 
obliged to flee on horseback into the mountains of Puebla 
with a few followers. Here the end came suddenly on 
tlie night of May 22, when Carranza was shot by an 
attack on Ids tent by a body of supposedly friendly 
troops. Amnesty to leave the country was even then on 
its way from General Obregon, but it arrived too late to 
save the fallen dictator. 

Meanwhile the triumphant revolutionists had entered 
Mexico City with the semi-savage horde of Genevo de la 
O. and had domiciled Obregon in the Hotel St. Francis 
and Pablo Gonzales in the National Palace. Following 
the Plan of Agua Prieta, the Congress was called in 
session to elect a provisional president, and on May 24 
chose Adolfo De la Huerta to fill out Carranza 's unex- 
pired term of seven months. The election for the new 
President and Congress was also postponed from July 
till the first Sunday in September. Soon thereafter, all 
Carranza 's governors and generals, who had not already 
turned over or been captured, tendered their submission, 
so that the Obregon revolution was finally achieved by 
June first with a minimum of bloodshed and destruction 
and with scarcely any damage to civilians. 

Although nominally a Federal republic, under the 
Constitution of 1857 and even more that of 1917, the 
national President has found it easy to centralize the 
powers of the States in the Federation and to control the 
latter as he wished. In fact the recent imposition by 
Federal fiat of governors on the States of Queretero, 
Guanajuato, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi was one 
of the chief accusations brought against Carranza in the 
Plan of Agua Prieta. However much the President's 
arbitrary power may be criticized by his opponents, such 
power — equivalent to that of a military dictatorship — 
seems to be necessary if the barbarous masses of Mexico 
are to be kept within the bounds of a civilized order. 
The all-important public question then is the personality 
of the dictator, for upon his nod hangs the woe or weal 
of millions. As Pablo Gonzales has just withdrawn his 
candidacy, the election of Obregon is practically assured 
and his character thus becomes of supreme importance to 
everyone interested in Mexico. Will Obregon, like Car- 
ranza, continue to humor the brigand generals of the 
army and the grafting chiefs of the civil service; and 
will he likewise be helpless to restrain the bands of rebels 
who have infested every fertile rural district? Will 
Obregon also flout, foreigners, especially Americans, and 
deride their pleas for damages by a Claims Commission 
that carefully files every brief but never pays a cent ? 
Upon the answer to these questions depends the fate of 
Mexico as soon as the chief foreign sponsor for the Car- 
ranza government retires from office next March. 

As Obregon 's public career to date has been purely 
military data are lacking for any exact prediction as to 

his reaction when invested with the civilian power. Al- 
though his troops were probably no more respectful of 
private property when on campaign than those of other 
leaders, I have no evidence that he ever used them as 
looters for his personal enrichment as was the practice 
of many of his confreres. His retirement from his high 
office in 1916, just when the national harvest of graft 
was most bountiful, indicates anyhow that avarice is not 
his ruling passion. Of only a mediocre education like 
Carranza, Obregon is free from the petty jealousy that 
rendered the former so incompetent as an administrator. 
Carranza would have no one near him whose intellect 
surpassed his own, and was once heard to remark : "I 
don't want ministers in my cabinet, but just clerks who 
will do my will". On the contrary, Obregon realizes his 
own limitations and has made his success by his wise 
selection of the best talent available for aids. An ama- 
teur strategist, he was yet able to beat the semi-profes- 
sional army of Villa in the Celaya campaign by his prac- 
tice of never making an important move without a coun- 
cil of war. Of proved bravery as a soldier, Obregon 
should carry into the presidency the courage required to 
suppress any malefactor however powerful — a courage 
that Carranza never had. 

Since his recent triumph, Obregon 's public statements 
of policy have been reassuring. He not only sustains the 
Plan of Agua Prieta in guaranteeing the inviolability of 
private life and property, but has promised to forgive all 
his political and military opponents except those guilty 
of vulgar crimes. He tells foreign investors that they 
will be again welcome in Mexico and assures them that 
those paragraphs of the new Constitution which infringe 
their just rights will be eliminated by legal amendment. 
Toward the perennial rebel political movements he has 
adopted a conciliating policy and has thereby done more 
for pacification in a few weeks than Carranza was able 
to do in five years with a huge army. The rebel generals, 
Pelaez of Vera Cruz, Mexequiera of Oaxaca, Genevo de 
la. 0. of Morelos, and Felix Diaz of the south-east coast 
have already laid down their arms, along with many 
lesser lights, and Villa seems to be the only important 
rebel who is still recalcitrant. 

Free from avarice, competent as an administrator, 
courageous as a lion, friendly to foreigners, and con- 
ciliatory toward his opponents, Obregon offers every hope 
of being able to restore Mexico to the honored place 
among nations she held under Porfirio Diaz. 

Nickel-copper ore to the amount of 301,133 tons was 
mined and 238,700 tons was smelted in Ontario during 
the first quarter of 1920. Shipments of matte totalling 
10,168 tons were made to the refineries in Canada. United 
States, and Great Britain. The British America Nickel 
Corporation is producing matte at Nickelton and ship- 
ping to the refinery at Desehenes, Quebec. The latter is 
now in operation, although there was no output for the 
first quarter. A considerable part of the nickel oxide 
produced" at the Port Colborne refinery of the Inter- 
national Nickel Co. of Canada is marketed in that form 
in England. 

•lulv 3, 1920 



The Testing and Application of Ventilating-Fans 


Definitions. The efficiency of ;i machine is the per- 
centage of the power input that is recovered in useful 
work; it is the useful work thai it does in a given time 
divided by the power input. 

A ventilating-fan is given credit for the static head 
that it produces and for the veloeity-head that it pro- 
duces. The pressure that a pressure-fan maintains to 
overcome the mine resistance is called the static pressure, 
and the pressure corresponding to the veloeity-head 
which the air possesses when it leaves the fan is called 
the velocity-pressure. The sum of the two pressures is 
known as the total or dynamic pressure. The total 


pressure multiplied by the quantity per minute in circu- 
lation gives the useful work; this divided by 33,000 is 
the horse-power that 'shows up' in useful work in the 

Pan-Testing. In order that a fan may be tested, it 
must be operated at constant speed under varying con- 
ditions of resistance. Tests may be run at any speed. 
The resistance is obtained by interposing orifices of va- 
rious sizes in the duct leading from the discharge in the 
case of a pressure-fan ; and in the duct leading to the 
intake, in the case of an exhaust-fan. The orifice is 
placed at the end of the duct. With small fans a pipe 
serves as the duct, and with large fans an artificial drift 
must be constructed. A frame in which are placed any 
desired number of slats is a convenient type of variable 
orifice. Pig. 1 shows a model of such a frame. The 
duct should be long enough to smooth out the eddies and 
establish a steady flow. The length of a circular duct 
is usually made 50 times the diameter. 

In mining work the oyer-all efficiency of the fan and 

motor, or fan and engine, is obtained. To determine the 
efficiency of the fan itself a transmission dynanometer is 
necessary, or else the efficiency of the motor and trans- 
mission must be separately ascertained. In the follow- 
ing discussion I shall use the manometer readings in 
inches of water as a measure of head or of pressure. 

A fan may be operated as a pressure-fan, as an ex- 
haust-fan, or as a combination pressure-and-exhaust fan, 
so we must understand the methods of determining the 
total pressure under these conditions. Let us first con- 
sider the pressure-fan. 

The arrangement for the test is shown in Pig. 2. The 


adjustable orifice is at a. At 6 a tube is inserted with a 
pin-hole opening facing the side of the pipe. This tube 
is connected with a vertical manometer like the one in 
Pig. 3. The scale on the manometer is a flat 'engineer's 
scale' reading to decimals of an inch and arranged so 
that the bottom edge, which is the zero of the scale, may 
be set opposite the water-level in one leg of the manom- 
eter. The method of mounting the scale is shown in 
Pig. 4. 

The Pitot-tube readings for velocity should always be 
taken in the duct midway between the fan and the orifice. 
The manometer, under the conditions shown in Pig. 2, 
records the friction and shock losses that the air un- 
dergoes after passing the point b. We credit the fan 
with this static pressure. In addition we must credit 
the fan with the velocity-head in the air at the point 6. 
For example, let us suppose that the area of the pipe 
is one square foot and 3000 cubic feet per minute is 
flowing. The manometer reads 4 in.. The weight of 
one cubic foot of air is 0.08 lb. Let us determine the 



July 3, 1020 

total pressure and the horse-power in the air. 
The velocity is 50 ft. per second. 

0.08 X 2500 

Velocity-pressure = 

= 3.12. 

2g ' 64 

Velocity-pressure = 3.12 lb. per square foot. 

;-> 12 
Velocity-pressure in inches of water V5- =0.6 

Total pressure in inches of water = 4.0 + 0.6 = 4.6. 
Total pressure in pounds per square foot = 4.6 X 
5.2 = 23.9. 

23.9 X 3000 

Horse-power = 

= 2.2. 


Let us consider next the exhaust-fan arranged as in 
Fig. 5. The manometer is connected at a. The pressure 
at a will be below that of the atmosphere. Conditions 
are quite different from the case we have just discussed. 
In the ease of the pressure-fan, the pressure recorded by 
the manometer did not cause the air to flow; it did not 
impart the velocity-head to the air; the air received its 
velocity in the fan before it reached the manometer, so 
the reading did not include the velocity-head. 

In the case of the suction-fan, the atmospheric air is 
still. The fan produces a depression, and this depres- 
sion, or difference in pressure between the outside air 
and the fan-inlet, must not only overcome friction but 
it must supply the velocity-head to the still air when it 
enters the pipe. A manometer arranged on an exhaust- 
fan as in Fig. 5 records the total pressure produced by 
the fan. 

The fact to fix in the mind is this: if the pressure 
measured causes the flow, the velocity-pressure is in- 
cluded in the manometer reading. If we had a pressure- 
fan arranged as in Fig. 6, where the air is brought to a 
negligible velocity before entering the pipe, the manom- 
eter would record the total pressure, because the only 
source of velocity would be the pressure in the chamber. 
The usual arrangement of a pressure-fan is that of Fig. 
2, where the manometer does not measure the velocity- 
head. Now let us attack the problem of a combination 
pressure-and-exhaust fan. 

There are three subdivisions under this head that de- 
mand attention. The discharge-pipe is (a) the same size 
as the suction-pipe, (6) smaller than the suction-pipe, or 
(c) larger than the suction-pipe. Two manometers are 
necessary, one at the inlet and one at the discharge. "We 
must be careful that we do not cVedit the fan more than 
once with the velocity-head. Let us consider the condi- 
tion where both pipes are of the same size. The velocity- 
head in the diseharge-pipe is the same as that in the 
suction. The manometer on the suction gives friction 
and shock losses in the suction-pipe, and velocity-head in 
the suetibn-pipe. The manometer on the discharge-pipe 
gives friction and shock losses in the discharge-pipe, so 
the sum of the two manometer readings is the total 
pressure produced by the fan. 

If the discharge-pipe is smaller than the suction-pipe, 
there has been a gain of velocity-head. The fan must be 
credited with this gain. An example will illustrate: 
The suction manometer reads 3 in. and the discharge 
manometer 4 in. The size of the suction is one square 

foot, and that of the discharge is half that ; 3000 cu. ft. 
per minute is circulating. Weight of air is 0.08 lb. per 
cu. ft. Determine the total pressure. 

The sum of the water-gauges is 7 in. This includes 
friction in both pipes and velocity-head in the suction. 
The velocity-head in the suction is 0.6 in. The velocity 
in the discharge is twice that in the suction, so the ve- 
locity-head in the discharge is four times that in the 
suction, or 2.4 inches. 

The gain in velocity-head is 2.4 - 0.6 = 1.8. 

So the total head is 7 + 1.8 = 8.8 inches. 

If the discharge-pipe is larger than the suction-pipe, 
it is assumed that the fan has recovered some of the 
velocity-head of the suction-pipe, therefore the decrease 
in velocity-head is deducted from the sum of the two 
manometer readings. 

In all cases the horse-power in the air is computed by 
the formula : 

H P .: 



P = Total pressure in pounds per square foot. 

Q = Quantity in cubic feet per minute. 

In running a complete fan-test, the orifice is first en- 
tirely closed, and the pressure readings taken. Air is 
then admitted in stages, and at each stage the quantity 
is determined with the Pitot tube, and the pressure read- 
ings and power measurements are taken. With these 
data the working characteristics of the fan may be 

With cubic feet of air per minute as abscissae, we may 
plot curves of static pressure, total pressure, velocity- 
pressure, and efficiency. 

The Equivalent Okifice of a Mine. In the fan-test 
the resistances interposed are orifices of various sizes. If 
we know the pressure necessary to overcome friction in 
a mine when a given quantity of air is flowing, we can 
calculate the size of the orifice that will offer the same 
resistance. Such an orifice is called the 'equivalent' 
orifice of the mine. The conditions that exist when a 
fan is connected with an equivalent orifice may be repre- 
sented by Fig. 2. The fan will maintain some pressure 
in the pipe. Air will flow out through the orifice accord- 

ing to the law v = V 2 g h. The static pressure-head in 
front of the orifice is first converted into velocity-head 
and the air flows through the orifice. When it meets 
the still air outside, the velocity-head is destroyed by 
shock. The actual pressure that causes the flow through 
the orifice is the static pressure plus the velocity-pressure 
in the air as it approaches the orifice. This velocity of 
approach is ordinarily so small that it may be neglected, 
and the flow calculated as if it were due to the static 
pressure alone. 

Let A be the area of the orifice to be determined. 

v = Velocity in feet per second. 

g = Quantity in cubic feet per second. 

Av = q. 

When air flows through an orifice under a constant 
head, the area of the stream contracts so that the actual 

July 3, 1920 



amount flowing is only ti4' , of the theoretical amount. 
q = 0MA ^YgT. 

= 0.64 y'YJh 
I. it Q = quantity in cubic feet per minute. 
t = pressure in inches of water. 
0.075 lb. = weight of one cubic foot of air. 

0.0004 Q 

Then A = 

V i 

Fig. 2 

Example : It requires a water-gauge of 4 in. to force 
100,000 cu. ft. of air through a given mine. What is the 
equivalent orifice? 

A = 

0.0004 Q 

A = f = 20sq. ft. 

The principle of the equivalent orifice may be used to 
determine whether a fan will accomplish a given result. 
For. example, suppose that you wish to force 3000 cu. ft. 
per minute into a pipe in a drift and it requires 12 in. 
of water to do it. You have on hand a fan that you 
would like to use. Connect a pipe and orifice to the fan. 

Hard-wood Guide 

Glass Tube 

Close the orifice until the pressure rises to 12 in. (if it 
ever does) and measure the air. If 3000 cu. ft. or more 
is passing, the fan will do the work. If the fan when 
running at the maximum speed never gives a water- 
gauge of 12 in., or if when the water-gauge is 12 in. 
less than 3000 cu. ft. is passing, the fan will not do. 
Such a short-cut method would not be used in selecting 
a big fan because the efficiency of the operation must be 
considered carefully. 

The Door-Regulator. The approximate opening of 
a regulator in a mine-door is figured in the same man- 
ner as the equivalent orifice. It will be recalled that the 
resistance of a split must often be increased to prevent 
too much air from passing through the split. Let us see 
how the regulator destroys pressure. Referring to Fig. 
7, a given quantity of air is circulating in the drift with 
a velocity of V feet per minute. In a door a is an orifice 
the size of which is controlled hy a sliding gate. The 

velocity increases when the air passes through the orifice. 
This increase in velocity-head is accompanied by a de- 
crease in pressure-head. If this increase in velocity-head 
is then destroyed, we have thus destroyed a certain 
amount of static pressure. The velocity-head in the drift 
itself is usually so small that it may be neglected. That 
being the case, the size of the opening of a regulator 
necessary to destroy a given amount of static pressure 
may be computed with the equivalent orifice formula. 
0.0004 Q 



In this case i is the number of inches of pressure that 
we wish to destroy. After the air passes through the 
regulator at high speed it strikes the slow-moving air in 
the drift, and swirls and eddies until it finally slows 



Fig. 6 

down to the normal speed of the drift. This formula is 
used to determine the approximate size of the regulator, 
and then it is adjusted until the correct amount of air is 
shown by the anemometer. Example : the resistance of a 
drift when 15,000 cu. ft. per minute is flowing is two 
inches. ' The resistance must he increased to 4.25 in. with 
the same amount of air. Determine the regulator 

The regulator must destroy 2.25 inches. 
. 0.0004 X 15,000 

A = 4 sq. ft. 
Changes op Velocity. In the first article of the 
series* we studied the friction of the ventilating air and 
we saw that we must apply enough static pressure to 
overcome the friction of the circulating air. "We must do 
more than this ; we must supply enough additional pres- 
sure to account for such increases in velocity as may take 

*'M. & S. P.', April 24, 1920. 



July 3. 1920 

Consider Fig. 8. Suppose air is moving 500 ft, per 
minute in the drift A B. The area of B C is half the area 
of A B, so the velocity in B C is 1000 ft. per minute. This 
increase in velocity-head must come from the static pres- 
sure at a, so the static pressure at b will be less than the 
static pressure at a by an amount equal to the gain in 
velocity-head. Now, when the stream of air enters B C 
it contracts, so the speed at entrance must be greater 
than the speed after the air fills the whole drift. When 
an orifice such as the opening of a drift or shaft is fol- 
lowed by a duct of the same size, the coefficient of con- 
traction is about 0.82, so the velocity-head at the entrance 
will be 1.5 times the velocity-head in the drift after the 
air fills the drift. So half the normal velocity-head in 
the drift B C is lost in shock at the entrance. If the 

a- -b 


B C L 

Fig. 8 

1 in. 

2- in. 

Fig- 9 


change in size were made gradually, this shock loss would 
not occur. 

If the drift B C opens into a larger drift, the fast-mov- 
ing air in B C strikes the slow-moving air in C D and the 
difference in these two velocity-heads is lost in shock. If 
the change were made by a gradually expanding cone, 
part of the velocity-head would be recovered and the 
static pressure at d would be greater than the static pres- 
sure at c. In practice, however, no velocity-head would 
be recovered because no attempt is made to save it. So 
if the velocity increases we must add the increase in 
velocity-head to the mine resistance ; if velocity decreases 
we neglect it. Let us now take a short example of select- 
ing a pressure-fan for a small mine considering the 
changes of velocity. See Fig. 9. 

The fan situated at A is to force 50,000 cu. ft. of air 
through the openings as shown. The friction is first cal- 
culated, and this is given in inches of water below the 
drifts. The figures in the drifts indicate the velocity of 
the air in feet per minute. The problem is to determine 
the water-gauge at which the fan must operate. 

Assuming that an air current with a velocity of 4000 
ft. per minute has a velocity-head equivalent to one inch 
of water; 
Increase in velocity-head at B . . 1.5 X 0.063-0.016 = 0.078 

Decrease in velocity-head at C (neglect) 

Increase in velocity-head at D . . 1.5 X 0.076-0.01 =0.104 

Total increase in velocity-head 0.182 

Friction 3.75 

The fan for this mine must be able to supply 50,000 
cu. ft. of air per minute at a static pressure of 3.93 in. of 

If there are but few velocity changes, they may be 
neglected, but if there are many in series, their sum may 
be appreciable. 

Now let the fan be an exhaust-fan situated at E, with 
the air circulating as before. We must now maintain a 
slightly greater difference in pressure between the two 
ends, because it is now necessary to give velocity to the 
still air outside in order to make it enter the mine. The 
velocity in the first drift is 500 ft. per minute. This is 
equivalent to 0.016 in. of water. The velocity-head at 
entrance is j.g X 0.016 = 0.024 

Since the velocity-head outside is zero, this is the gain 
in velocity-head. 

The suction-fan must maintain at the fan-inlet a static 
vacuum, as it is called, of 

3.93 + 0.024 = 3.95 in. of water. 

A manometer at the fan-inlet of an exhaust-fan mea- 
sures friction and all the velocity changes that take place 
from the still air outside. A manometer at the discharge 
of a pressure-fan measures friction and all the velocity 
changes that take place after the air has passed the ma- 
nometer. It does not measure the velocity-head in the air 
in the first drift. The air possessed this velocity before 
it reached the manometer. 

High-Pressure Fans. Up to the present we have been 
dealing with fans that supply a large amount of air at 
low water-gauge. This sort of fan is adapted to mine 
ventilation when the ducts are the ordinary mine open- 
ings. There is another type of ventilation no less essen- 
tial, namely, the ventilation of drifts and tunnels while 
they are being driven. For such work, a pipe-line is run 
from the entrance to the breast and the air is either 
forced in through the pipe or sucked out through the 
pipe. Such a ventilating system demands a much higher 
pressure ; for instance, to force 2000 cu. ft. of air per 
minute through a 12-in. pipe 4000 ft. long requires a 
pressure of about 40 in. of water. 

Ordinary centrifugal blowers can be obtained that will 
deliver at pressures up to 1.5 lb. per square inch. To 
obtain pressures above this we must use a centrifugal 
compressor or a positive-pressure blower. A centrifugal 
compressor is built much like a high-grade turbine-pump 
with diffuser-vanes. A single-stage centrifugal com- 
pressor may be obtained to give pressures up to 4 lb. per 
square inch. 

In tunnel work it is often desirable to reverse the air 
current. By means of a 'four-gate system' either the dis- 
charge or the inlet can be connected to the pipe. With 
high-pressure fans or centrifugal compressors, a smaller 
water-gauge will be produced when the fan is exhausting 
than when it is blowing, provided the speed and quantity 
be he same. This is because the density of the air 
handled is less when the fan is exhausting. 

If the pressure that a fan or centrifugal compressor 
will produce when blowing is known, the suction-pressure 

July 3, 1920 



that tlii- machine will produce may be computed by 
Utilizing the simple nil<>. that with a given speed and 
quantity the ratio of the absolute discharge-pressure to 
the absolute inlet-pressure is a constant. 

Let /' be the absolute discharge-pressure. 

Let /', be the absolute inlet-pressure. 

Then £- = C 

Example : 

A tan blowing gives a pressure of 40 in. of water. 
AV hat suction-pressure will it create when exhausting 1 .' 
Let the atmospheric pressure be equivalent to 

407.2 in. of water. 
Conditions when blowing. 

P = 40 + 407.2 = 447.2 
P, = 407.2 
When exhausting. /' will be at atmospheric pressure, 
and P, will be determined. 

447.2 _ 407^ 
407. 2 X 

X = 370 
407.2 - 370 = 37.2 
So the suction-pressure is 37.2 in. below the atmos- 

A centrifugal compressor gives 4 lb. per square inch in 
blowing. What negative pressure will it create? 

Assuming that atmospheric pressure is 15 lb. per 
square inch, 

19 = 15 
15 X 
X = 11.8 

15-11.8 = 3.2 
The negative pressure produced when exhausting will 
be 3.2 lb. per square inch. 

[ This is the fourth of a series of articles by Professor 
Weeks on the ventilation of mines. The first article 
appeared in the issue of April 24, the second in that of 
•June 12, and the third was in the issue of June 19. — 

Manufacture of Aluminum 

The possibilities of manufacturing aluminum by hydro- 
electric means at The Dalles, Washington, is discussed 
in Bulletin No. 5 of the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion at the University of Washington by Charles D. 
Grier. The manufacture of aluminum requires two 
steps: the preparation of pure alumina, the oxide of 
aluminum, from the ore, bauxite, and the solution and 
electrolysis of this alumina in a bath of molten cryolite, 
resulting in the deposition of molten aluminum at the 
bottom of the bath. Bauxite, which is the natural 
hydrated oxide of aluminum, is never pure enough as 
mined to be used without purification. This is accom- 
plished by calcining the ore, dissolving in caustic soda, 
precipitating alumina from this solution, and calcining 
the resulting precipitate. This purified alumina is then 
fed at intervals into a bath of used cryolite which is 
contained in a box-like furnace or pot, the bottom of 

which acts as a cathode. The anodes are specially pre- 
pared amorphous carbon blocks suspended in the bath, 
and are gradually consumed by the oxygen liberated. 
The bath is kept molten by the heat generated by the 
passage of the current. The law materials required for 
tin' manufacture of aluminum are bauxite, coal, and 
caustic soda for purifying it, cryolite, and carbon in 
some form (usually as petroleum-coke) for making elec- 
trodes. There are no bauxite deposits of large size known 
in Western States. If domestic ore were to be used in a 
plant in Washington, it would be necessary to procure 
the ore from the Eastern deposits, those in Arkansas 
being the nearest and also of the highest grade. Large 
deposits of high-grade bauxite were being opened up in 
British Guiana before the War, and a considerable 
amount of this material has been used at the Soller's 
Point plant of the Aluminum Company of America, in 
Maryland. Permits for developments beyond those then 
licensed were not granted by the British government 
during the War, and it is said that operations in the 
future are to be governed by the policy of conserving the 
mineral wealth of the British Empire for itself. If these 
deposits become available they might be a very attractive 
source of raw material for an aluminum plant on the 
Pacific Coast. Deposits of bauxite are also found in 
Dutch Guiana. India produces bauxite of high grade, 
and ore from that source might also be available. These 
latter sources involve ocean transportation, however, and 
although this may be an advantage when the shipping 
industry becomes more nearly normal, it is thought best 
not to consider the use of these ores in this discussion. 
Cryolite is mined in Greenland, which furnishes the 
world's supply. It is possible to substitute an artificially 
made fluoride of aluminum and sodium; this is done to 
some extent by the European manufacturers. Coal and 
caustic soda for bauxite purification are readily avail- 
able both in Arkansas and in Washington ; purification of 
the bauxite at the mine would, however, save freight. Pe- 
troleum-coke is readily available from the oil-refineries ; 
charcoal could also be readily obtained if a steady and 
reliable demand for it were assured. 

The production of aluminum in the United States in 
1917 was estimated to be 200,000,000 lb., which is nearly 
triple the production in 1913. The average yearly in- 
crease since 1913 in the annual production was about 
34,000,000 lb. The 1917 production may be taken as a 
measure of the capacity, for all plants were working at 
full capacity. It is stated that this capacity will be 
doubled by the completion of the plants of the Cheoah 
Aluminum Co., a subsidiary of the Aluminum Company 
of America, thus making the producing capacity roughly 
four million pounds per year. It is difficult to forecast 
future consumption, but it is evident that the present 
American producer is providing ample capacity to take 
care of a great expansion of demand, and that any new 
company entering the American market would have 
strong competition. The conclusion is that the erection of 
a plant on the Pacific Coast at the present time is not 



July 3. 1920 

The Ore Deposits of Mexico— IV 

Ore Deposits in Limestone and Not of Direct Igneous Origin 


Introduction. In the foregoing articles I have dis- 
cussed Mexican ore deposits in sedimentary rocks in 
which a close association can be established with igneous 
intrusives. There is a large number of mines in Northern 
Mexico where such an association cannot be proved. In 
this class of deposits, confined exclusively to the base 
metals, nearly every condition is similar to those found 
in the other classes of orebodies, except for the lack of 
an igneous rock in contact with the mineralization or 
close to it. In this class the sediments are disturbed, 
broken, and highly altered in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the orebodies as by hot solutions and vapors. The 
ores themselves, with their gangue, are in all important 
respects similar to the products of mineralization in the 
cases of admitted igneous influence. Hot or tepid min- 
eral springs in the neighborhood of some of these deposits 
give evidence of expiring vulcanism, establishing the ex- 
istence in the locality of a deep-seated source of mag- 
matic emanations. While exploration in most of these 
will probably never go deep enough to prove such igneous 
connection, the inference is warranted that igneous in- 
trusives, buried under the sediments, are the ultimate 
source of the hot solutions that mineralized these de- 
posits, at least as regards the primary ores. In most of 
these cases, pay-ore has been made largely by oxidation 
due to secondary agencies. 

The Cabrillas Group. This group of lead-zinc-iron 
mines, comprising the Cabrillas, Palomas, and Higueras 
properties, besides adjoining prospects, are in the State 
of Coahuila, mid-way between Monterrey and Saltillo. 
They are of comparatively recent discovery, having risen 
to importance owing to the requirements of local smelters 
for fluxing ores. The ores are oxides of lead. iron, and 
zinc, the last occurring in large and profitable bodies in 
the Palomas. Unoxidized cores'of galena are common in 
specimens of the better ore. 

"The limestone ridge in which these orebodies occur 
has a general east and west axis, with spurs radiating 
northward into the valley. The mineralization is in a 
belt of black, shaly, badly-crushed limestone." 17 The 
ores were deposited in pipes or chimneys, in open or in 
partly open eaves, and as replacements of strata con- 
nected with the chimneys, all along the great fracture 
that goes through the mountain from the Cabrillas to 
the Palomas side and through to the Higueras mine across 
the next arroyo. This great fracture is the arresting 
feature of the deposits. From the Palomas side it shows 

■"Lewis, S. J., 'Cabrillas Lead Mines', 'E. & M. J.' 
p. 1071. 

Vol. 89, 

up well, with the heavily folded strata changing rapidly 
from the nearly horizontal position where undisturbed to 
the steep inclination into which the movement pushed 
them. It is a typical break like that with which similar 
deposits are so often associated in Northern Mexico, its 
special feature being great size. No intrusive igneous 
rock is known in the immediate neighborhood. The ad- 
jacent hills, which show no signs of fracturing, do not 
contain ore deposits, so far as known. The known ore is 
bottomed by a thick sheet of highly altered rock made up 
principally of gypsum, the full thickness of which has 
never been determined. When the deposits are followed 
down to this gypsum formation their richness diminishes, 
finally to extinction, the fracture meanwhile pinching to 
a small crack that cannot be followed. 

In every essential feature, except the visible presence 
of an eruptive or intrusive rock, the deposits are similar 
to typical contact orebodies in limestone such as those we 
have been discussing. We have a huge channel through 
the limestones, at high angles to the bedding-planes, with 
the sediments sloping away from the fractures on both 
sides. We have the oxidized ore deposited along this 
channel, replacing the lime strata in some places and fill- 
ing open spaces in others. We have the highly-altered 
"black shaly" limestone in the immediate vicinity of the 
orebodies. although the country -rock is the ordinary blue 
limestone of the Cretaceous. Such alteration is very sug- 
gestive, like the other conditions, of a deep-seated source, 
from which mineralizing solutions worked their way up 
and caused deposition in the fracture. As has been said 
in a somewhat different connection, "the cause is found 
at some point below the effect, pointing to a reaction be- 
tween an ascending mineralizer and the limestone"'. 18 
The only cause that could satisfy the conditions of the 
problem would seem to be a deeply-buried intrusive mass, 
whose forced entrance into the ground would be amply 
sufficient to cause the fracturing, and from which the 
mineralizers have since made their devious way upward. 
In no other way can this local break be explained: re- 
gional folding in the general course of mountain-making 
could hardly have made such a fracture system and left 
everything in the immediate neighborhood practically 
undisturbed. In shape, size, orebodies. and general fea- 
tures, the deposits belong to the contact group, except for 
the unknown intrusive. 

Mxtra Mountain. Similar low-grade lead-iron ores 
were found in considerable tonnage in Mitra mountain 
near Monterrey, some twenty-odd years ago and a good 

isprescott. Basil, 'Economic Geology', Vol. X. p. 61. 

July 3, li'L'O 



lea] of it lias been used by local smelters. The mountain 
gets its name from the striking resemblance its three- 
pointed crest bears to a bishop's mitre, when seen from 
tin- city. Monterrey stands on a little plain, hemmed in 
by liiirli mountains carved out of the limestone strata. 
Likr them, the Mitra rises almost sheer from the flat; on 
closer acquaintance, it turns out to be much longer than 
one would suppose in viewing it from the city, and to be 
approachable on the west side by small foothills that 
break the ascent. On the east it is all but insurmount- 
able for the average climber. As 
in all this region, the folding has 
been severe, and erosion has usu- 
ally cut through the upper parts 
or anticlines. The mitre-shaped 
crest is formed by blocks of the 
anticlines left as small spires; in 
most of the surrounding mountains, 
such spires have been removed, 
leaving only the sharply-tilted 
strata of the hillsides, with the 
domes cut off, so that the ends of 
the beds go down on the opposite 
sides like huge irregular steps. 
The Mitra is a conspicuous excep- 
tion ; it shows a gently-sloping 
dome on its longer axis, broken 
here and there by transverse frac- 
tures, and capped by the spires re- 
maining from the uppermost 
strata. Its summit is over 5000 ft. 
above sea-level. 

The ore deposits are of the red- 
dish-brown earthy oxide type, with 
a little lead, a few hundred 
grammes of silver, considerable 
iron, and a low percentage of in- 
soluble: hence 'neutral' or better, 
and desired by the smelter. The 

ore occurs in irregular bodies, fill- „ 

ing caves in the limestone along a 
line of fracturing, or replacing cer- 
tain strata. In the former case, 

the trail of mineralization can generally be followed, 
with patience and skill, from one cave orebody to the 
Enext ; in the case of the blanket deposits, the mineraliza- 
tion generally can be traced from one of the dominant 
fractures, as in the true contact deposits. The most 
important feature of the Mitra deposits is the fact that 
all pay-ore to date has been found in strata of dolomitic 
limestone near the crest of the mountain, where the 
fractures go through them. Above this dolomite hori- 
zon, only low-grade iron ores have been found, exclu- 
sively in the anticline. There is considerable dissemina- 
tion of galena crystals in the limestone above the ore- 
horizon. No heavy fracturing is visible at any point. 
Nevertheless, lines of weakness at the anticlinal folds 
have served as channels for mineralizers from below, 
where solutions could react with the wall-rock, widening 
the channels and depositing the mineral. See Fig. 15. 

The accepted theory for the origin of these deposits, 
based on J. E. Spurr's work in 1906 in the Diente de- 
posits on the other side of the city, shows that the metal- 
lic minerals were precipitated out of solution by the 
selective action of certain sediments in which fossils are 
especially abundant. A similar action will be shown to 
have influenced the deposition of antimony ores at Wad- 
ley, south of Catorce. The present paper is more espe- 
cially concerned with the origin of the mineral-bearing 
solutions that found their way into the favorable horizon. 

'isseminatvtf /finera/s 

'" t)/ac/r. 

Under-lyir?Q (iran'/fed') . , 

Fig. 15. la mitra 

In accord with the views herein expressed, their origin 
must be sought in deep-seated igneous bodies lying below 
the limestone. There is no intrusive structure visible 
anywhere near the deposits, and the lines of circulation 
in the anticlinal domes may have originated in the 
crumpling and folding of the sediments. The origin of 
the mineral that in one form or another found its way 
into these channels is, however, a more difficult matter 
to determine. 

The precipitation products of similar solutions will be 
similar ; if the ores of various deposits are closely alike, it 
would certainly seem that the original solutions from 
which they came could not have differed markedly. All 
of these lead-zinc deposits in Northern Mexico have much 
the same features of occurrence and mineralization as are 
found in the numerous lead-zinc deposits in the same 
region where the intrusive is known to exist. For ex- 



July 3, 1920 

ample, the principal structural difference between these 
Mitra deposits and those of the Santa Rosa range near 
Muzquiz, State of Coahuila, is that, in the latter, evi- 
dences of vulcanism are abundant, instead of being deep- 
ly buried as in the Mitra. The Cedral mine, for instance, 
in the Santa Rosa area, is on a fracture showing a strik- 



' of - 

P6E9 ^^Mtk "m,-^ i^dgjfc '• *ctbmi 


Fig. 16. wadley antimony mines 

ing resemblance to the Cabrillas fracture. At Topo 
Chico, a few kilometres from the Mitra, profitable de- 
posits of lead and zinc have been found in ground en- 
tirely like the Mitra formation ; with the difference that 
the mineral springs close-by suggest a connection with 
underground sources of mineralization. The fact is that 
in all these mines, the ore occurs either in fractures or 
close to them in the anticlines, not disseminated over 

The one visible structure of igneous origin in the dis- 
trict is the vast field of granite, which outcrops about 30 
km. north of Topo Chico and is such a prominent feature 
of the Bustamante and Villaldama topography. The in- 


fluence of this intrusive mass would be quite sufficient to 
account for the neighboring ore deposits; and it would 
seem entirely probable that similar occurrences of gran- 


Fig. IS. the santa mama 



undisturbed areas. The most satisfactory hypothesis of ite, related to the Bustamante rock, underlie the Monter- 
origin would allow for the existence during some bygone rey lead-zinc district and are responsible for the mineral- 
period of deep-seated mineralizing influences that be- izing emanations that made their way up to the limestone 
came effective through the dislocation of the strata. and deposited the ore. 

July 8, [920 



The antimony deposits near Wadley, in the State of 
San l.uis l'otosi. have been mentioned as showing the in- 
fluence of the organic remains due to fossils on ore depo- 
sition in adjoining strata. They furnish an interesting 
example of mineralization in limestone clearly to be 
ascribed to mineralizers Crom deep-seated sources, yel 
whirli cannol he connected directly with any near-by 
Volcanic mass. The district is 16 km. south of the Catorce 
Real, hence it is an outlier of the andesite-limestone con- 
tact district of Catorce. The only volcanic rock I have 
seen near the Wadley deposits is found in arroyos at the 
Southern end of the district, where dikes of reddish- 
brown doleritic rock appear crossing the formation. The 
antimony mineralization is entirely in the blue limestone 
high on the mountain wall, and shows no admixture of 
any common metal or of gold or silver. A little cinnabar 
is frequently found coloring tlte antimony crystals, and 
in certain veins carrying no antimony a little lead has 
been observed. As a whole it is strictly an antimony de- 
posit, the ore occurring chiefly as replacements in certain 
strata, but the mineralization nearly always proceeds 
outward into those strata from vertical fractures cross- 
ing the formation. 

The principal mines are at Tierras Prietas, near San 
Jose village, 8 km. east of the railway station at Wadley. 
In these the ore occurs in each of three parallel and 
nearly vertical fissures, running nearly north and south 
for a distance of over a kilometre, and cross-faulted in 
two places, the displacement being but a few metres east- 
ward. The strata are nearly horizontal at the top of the 
mesa, and at a short distance below the surface some of 
them have been extensively replaced by irregular bodies 
of antimony, usually in crystalline form, penetrating the 
limestone. The accompanying' photograph (Fig. 16) 
shows the two principal blankets, crossed by the Treinta- 
y-Uno cross-vein, all heavily ore-bearing. The principal 
lode, already mentioned, makes another set of crossings 
with these, as it runs parallel to the edge of the mesa. 

These deposits have been partly mined to a depth of 
100 m. below the outcrop, there being as yet no change 
observable in the ore in that depth. The ore is antimony 
oxide, chiefly valentinite, usually in fine crystal aggre- 
gates. Individual crystals are sometimes ten to twelve 
inches long. Stibnite is occasionally found, also cry- 
stalline, and nearly all the oxide crystals have a core of 
sulphide. A good deal of the product is in the form of 
amorphous mineral taken out as an earth of rather lower 
grade than the coarse ore. Oxidation has certainly been 
very thorough in these deposits, yet the evidence of the 
original sulphide deposition is indisputable. 

A striking and noteworthy feature of the deposits is 
the occurrence of especially good orebodies at the inter- 
sections of vertical fractures with certain strata having a 
favorable chemical reaction. The accompanying sketches 
(Fig 19) show the mode of occurrence of the ore under 
variants of these conditions. Several cases show fine 
bodies in the anticlinal folds where cut by a vertical frac- 
ture ; others in the syncline where cut in the same way ; 
and still others in practically level horizons. In every 

case, the richest ore is found in the vertical fissure, di- 
minishing in quantity and grade as it goes outward from 
the fissure mid penetrates the strata. It is evident that 
the ore deposition was principally from magmatic vapors 
under high temperature, which carried in the antimony 
in a state of volatilization, and which dropped their 
metallic burden under certain conditions of temperature 
anil reaction with the strata. Whatever the cause of the 
fracturing, the mineral must have come from a source of 
great heal and pressure, corresponding to some deeply- 
buried volcanic mass, in which the antimony minerals 

San Cristoba/ 

5anta Em'/W 

La Queirae/o. 

Fig. 19 

were differentiated at a late period of magmatic segrega- 
tion, and discharged in gaseous solution. 

At the Cola de Zorra mines of this group, at the north- 
erly end of the district, there has been a striking mineral- 
ization of the limestone strata adjoining a narrow belt of 
sandstone and clay, about 30 ft. thick, in which fossils 
abound, chiefly small clams. I have traced this fossil 
horizon south to the Tierras Prietas mines, always im- 
mediately above the mineralized strata; however, it is 
nowhere so clearly defined as at the Cola de Zorra. The 
photograph (Fig. 17) shows the string of mine openings 
in the strata immediately below the sandstone. The re- 
placement of lime by antimony is extensive through 
these strata, vertical fractures showing occasionally as in 
the Tierras Prietas deposits. The strong twisting to 
which the whole structure has been subjected, giving 
heavy folding of the limestones, makes the ore-occurrence 
very striking, with the sandstone beds on top, the ore- 
bearing strata below, and a stratum of black, hard, 
silicious limestone, highly altered, below that, all three 
formations following the regional folding faithfully. It 
is quite evident that here, as in the dolomite horizon at 



July 3, 1920 

the Mitra or in the lead-iron mines of the Diente, the 
organic remains contained in the sandstone exercised a 
precipitating influence on the solutions circulating in 
their vicinity. It seems equally evident from the testi- 
mony of the ore-occurrence in the vertical fractures, with 
enrichment at the intersections with certain strata and 
dying out with distance from the fissures, that the solu- 
tions and vapors carrying the primary mineral had an 
igneous origin. With metals so easily volatilized as anti- 
mony and the mercury that frequently colors it, it may 
he assumed that the primary deposition was effected from 
gases. The comparatively short distance of the deposits 
from the enormous igneous structure of the Catoree dis- 
trict : the presence of the dikes in the "Wadley arroyos, in 
connection with the important part played by the dikes 
of Catoree. all point to a regional relation to the Catoree 
deposits. In the last analysis, the antimony orebodies at 
Wadley, deposited in cracks made in the strata through 
the general processes of mountain-making of the area, are 
to be considered as evidence of dying vulcanism, which 
in its earlier stages made the lead-silver deposits of 
Catoree, and originated, like the latter, in the magmatic 
gases and waters discharged from the igneous rock-mass. 
Summary. In the foregoing examples, we have begun 
by considering true contact deposits, in which the igneous 
origin of the orebodies can be conclusively demonstrated, 
and have ended with others in which such igneous origin 
could only be deduced by analogy ; the most striking fea- 
ture of the study, as a whole, is the practical identity of 
the ores in the true contact class with those we have just 
reviewed. This feature seems to me of the greatest im- 
portance in its suggestion of a common origin for all 
these ores. 

Steaming Amalgamating Plates 

Under certain conditions the removal of amalgam from 
plates requires a good deal of labor, unless steam is used 
to soften the deposit. A plate which has a comparatively 
large amount of amalgam left on it will be capable of re- 
ceiving a liberal amount of mercury when dressing and 
will remain soft and in good receptive condition longer 
than a comparatively bare plate under the same condi- 
tions. To preserve this quality such plates will be 
scraped but lightly, and the result is an accumulation 
which produces a high steaming-return. The man who 
adopts this method will obtain a high return by amalgam- 
ation, but will probably be accused of holding gold back, 
and may be reckoned a culprit as far as advocating steam- 
ing is concerned. The next example may be taken where 
a similar, condition of plate is arrived at with a minimum 
of amalgam left. This will require more frequent dress- 
ing to prevent hardening, and hard scraping every day ; 
probably also a thorough scouring every other day. This 
will also give a high amalgamation return with a maxi- 
mum of labor and the conscious rectitude of a humani- 
tarian who does not advocate steaming. A variety of 
the foregoing is found where the plan is to scour less 
often, but make a big job of it once a month, in place of 
steaming. Another variety of method is adopted by one 

group where a decrease in mercury consumption is 
effected by the use of blankets. It is not proposed to go 
further into methods, because a difference of opinion 
exists as to whether a high extraction by amalgamation is 
desirable or not, in view of the labor required and the 
idle capital involved in laying out the plant. 

Variety exists in the ratio of water to rock crushed. 
On the one hand we have a plant with launders having 
insufficient grade, where the water-ratio is necessarily 
high. On the other hand, we have a more modern plant 
with probably excess launder-grade, but economic in 
plate-area. In the first case we may have a ratio of per- 
haps 8 : 1, and in the second as low as 2:1. These dif- 
fering conditions will affect the grade of the plant — 18% 
being necessary in the one case compared with 8% in the 
other. Apart from the overcrowding of the plate-area, 
this extra grade causes difficulty in control of the plate- 
condition. With a bare plate there is nothing to arrest 
the mercury in its tendency to roll off into the launder, so 
a choice has to be made as to leaving a deposit or very 
frequent dressing. In any case amalgam at the top of 
the plate will harden more rapidly and require removal 
with more labor whether by steaming or by other means. 
The degree of alkalinity of the mill-water affects accumu- 
lations on the plates in that an excess of lime hardens 
the amalgam. The fineness of the gold amalgamated is 
also a minor factor ; coarse gold particles do not accumu- 
late and are not difficult to remove, but the reverse is 
true of the finer particles. Dealing with the facts as they 
are interpreted by S. H. Pearce and T. E. Thomas, accord- 
ing to a statement quoted in the 'Financial Times', steam- 
ing can only be considered as a labor-saving device which 
enables plate-accumulations to be removed with the least 
difficulty, as otherwise, in the absence of a mechanical 
device to take its place a large expenditure of labor would 
be incurred in most instances. In the absence of medical 
evidence to the contrary, they do not consider, if proper 
precautions are taken, that steaming should not be con- 
tinued. The precautions advised are well known to 
everyone, and are : Provide ample ventilation for plate- 
houses; lead exhaust-steam from plates to the outside of 
the building ; select men for the operation who are known 
to be immune; divide the work as much as possible, to 
avoid over-exertion; provide wash-basins and mouth- 
washes for the workmen. 

JIanganese ore assaying 40% has been produced from 
the Three Kids property near Las Vegas, Nevada. The 
method of mining the orebody is simple. An overburden 
from 2 to 12 ft. thick which directly overlies the deposit 
is broken up and removed by horse-drawn scrapers; the 
ore is then mined by the open-pit method. The deposit is 
drilled from the top, and with each round of blasts a 
great quantity of ore is broken down. The fragments of 
ore are generally of large size. Large pieces may be 
handled with little difficulty because of the low specific 
gravity of the ore, but where necessary the fragments 
may be reduced by chopping with axes and streaks of 
sand that adhere to some of the ore may be scraped off 
with small hand-tools. 

July 3, 1930 



The Scope of Work of the Bureau of Mines 


Under the organic acl establishing it. the Bureau of 
nines is authorized to conducl investigations designed to 
Bnprove health and safety conditions in the mineral in- 
ilust iv and to promote efficient development and utiliza- 
tion of our mineral resources. The field of the Bureau's 
activity, therefore, begins with the commercial develop- 
ment of mineral deposits and ends with the production 
anil utilization of the final marketable product. 

In order to serve more efficiently the various sections 
of the country, the Bureau has established, in addition to 
its main offices at Washington. D. C. eleven field experi- 
ment stations, three field-offices, and several mine-rescue 
cars and mine-rescue stations. These field-branches are 
so distributed as to cover most of the mining districts of 
this country, including Alaska. 

The Bureau is prohibited by law from doing work ex- 
clusively for the benefit of any private company or indi- 
vidual. Generally speaking, the Bureau does no assay- 
ing, ore-testing, or similar service work for the benefit of 
private companies or individuals. In response to re- 
quests for work of this sort a list of assay and ore-testing 
laboratories is supplied. In referring inquiries to com- 
mercial laboratories or consulting engineers, care is taken 
to mention several names so as to avoid designating any 
one establishment or engineer. 

Samples are frequently brought- in to the Bureau sta- 
tions or received by mail with a request for identification 
or analysis. If identification requires only a few min- 
utes, the information is furnished by the station; sam- 
ples for analysis are sometimes referred to the State min- 
ing bureau, State university, or similar agency if they 
are equipped to do such work. An occasional chemical 
test or determination is made as a matter of courtesy; 
sometimes the facilities of Bureau laboratories are placed 
at the disposal of an individual desiring to make some 
test. These are the exceptions and not the rule, as this 
interferes with regular work and should be avoided 
wherever possible. In the matter of f urnishing informa- 
tion and professional advice, the stations and field-offices 
have, in addition to Bureau publications, technical libra- 
ries and catalogue-files which are available to the public. 
The main files of technical information regarding the 
mining industry are kept in the Washington office. In 
replying to requests for assistance or advice in regard to 
developing a property or carrying out some metallurgical 
experiment or operation, an effort is made to analyze the 
problem and indicate the scope and character of the work 
which is involved and the type of professional assistance 
which is needed. In other words, the endeavor is to sug- 
gest the means of obtaining the information or assistance 
desired. This practice applies particularly to eases 
where an opinion is desired in regard to a mineral deposit 

or metallurgical process and where the person making the 
inquiry has an incorrect impression as to the amount of 
work involved in a mine-examination or in determining 
the value of a process for ore-treatment. 

Under Bureau regulation, no regular salaried em- 
ployee is permitted to do private consulting work, except 
in some eases of arbitration ; he is expected to devote his 
entire time to the work of the Bureau, and in discussing 
the work of the Bureau staff, therefore, I am considering 
only the work of the organization. 

Apart from certain administrative duties specifically 
assigned to the Bureau by Congress, the function of the 
Bureau is regarded as essentially investigative and edu- 
cational. Prom this standpoint many of the projects 
undertaken are in the nature of pioneering; it is ex- 
pected that some of these which develop favorably will 
be taken up by private interests and carried forward by 
them to their ultimate completion or application. In fact 
the smallness of the appropriation for Bureau work as 
compared with the field which demands attention, makes 
it necessary to pursue a general policy of continuing any 
given activity only so long and to such an extent as is 
necessary to secure the active interest and co-operation 
of the commercial organizations or individuals most con- 
cerned. In other words, we aim to avoid duplication and, 
whenever possible, competing in any work that is being 
effectively handled by any private or governmental or- 
ganization. This does not mean, however, that the 
Bureau will not take an active part in matters which are 
receiving attention from private interests, as in all cases 
our fundamental purpose is to promote the rapid devel- 
opment of those things which will be of value to the min- 
eral industry. 

In the choice of subjects for investigation, the extent 
to which public interest is involved is a fundamental con- 
sideration. The way in which activities may be segre- 
gated on this basis can be illustrated by the following 
diagram : 

Governmental activities for benefit 
of the public 

Activities of companies and individ- 
uals for private benefit 

A. Clear Field 
1. Matters of public 
interest only, no pri- 
vate interest being 

2. Matters in which the 
public interest is 
paramount to pri- 
vate interest. 

B. 'Twilight Zone' 

1. Matters in which 
private interest is 
equal or subordi- 
nate to public in- 

2. Matters in which 
private ag-encies are 
not qualified or lack 
the necessary equip- 
ment and which 
have enough public 
interest to justify 

C. Clear Field 
1. Matters in which the 
public has no inter- 

Matters in which the 
public does not need 
to be considered. 

An illustration of matter falling in the first sub-divi- 
sion of class A is the testing and inspection of fuel pur- 
chases by the Government. The testing of fuel pur- 



July 3, 1920 

chased by many branches of the Government is carried 
on by the Bureau, as the volume of this work makes it 
possible to carry it on in this way much more cheaply 
than through the employment of private agencies. For 
example during nine months of the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1920, over 2900 samples involving roughly 38,- 
000 determinations were tested. 

As an illustration of work of the Bureau falling in the 
second group in class A may be mentioned improve- 
ments in health and safety conditions in quarries, mines, 
and metallurgical plants. This subject is a broad one in- 
cluding the work of the mine-rescue cars and stations in 
training miners in first aid and mine-rescue methods, the 
testing of explosives and equipment for use underground, 
the study of vocational diseases among miners, smelter 
men, etc., the study of mine sanitation, ventilation, and 
of a considerable number of problems related to safety 
devices and methods of safe operation underground. In 
the majority of these problems mining companies have a 
specific interest. In the nature of the case, however, the 
solution of these problems involves a study of conditions 
at many different points. Such a study can rarely be 
undertaken by any private or consulting engineer. 

A number of activities of the Bureau fall in class B. 
Before citing any specific examples under this heading 
it may be well to mention briefly certain fundamental re- 
quirements which govern the choice of problems for in- 
vestigation by the Bureau. In the first place the problem 
must be a real one, involving in its solution something 
more than mere routine work or the application of well 
known principles in a field where they have already been 
applied. In other words it is our aim to take up ques- 
tions which involve real laboratory or field research and 
which are beyond the range of the ordinary consulting 
engineer or commercial laboratory. As a further general 
requirement a suitable problem should be one common to 
a branch of the mineral industry or to some mining dis- 
trict. A problem peculiar to a single mine or metallur- 
gical plant, unless presenting some unique feature which 
might prove of general importance is not ordinarily con- 
sidered within our field. 

Recently the Bureau has carried on quite a little work 
in co-operation with private companies or individuals. 
There are two main reasons why this plan of co-operative 
investigation has been adopted: (1) The financial and 
other assistance furnished by the co-operative agency 
make it possible for the Bureau to do more work than 
would be possible under government appropriations 
alone. (2) Co-operation on the part of private company 
or individual in an investigation implies an active inter- 
est in the results of the work, and if the investigation 
turns out successfully, the results can at once be applied 
in a practical way, thereby leading to more rapid devel- 
opment and to an earlier realization of benefit than 
would be likely to occur if the investigation had been 
conducted independently by the Bureau. 

There are two ways in which this co-operation is car- 
ried out. By one method the Bureau assumes full re- 
sponsibility for the work, although the major part of the 

expense is usually borne by the co-operating agency. 
Work of this sort is undertaken under a formal agree- 
ment in which it is provided that all information and 
data secured shall be available to the Bureau for publica- 
tion and that any patents arising from the work shall be 
taken out in this country for the benefit, of the general 

Under the second form of co-operation the Bureau 
assumes no responsibility for the work, but merely places 
certain of its facilities at the disposal of a private indi- 
vidual or company with the understanding that the re- 
sults of all work performed with facilities of the Bureau 
shall be available to the Bureau. 

Generally speaking only subjects which fulfill the gen- 
eral requirements mentioned above will be taken up in a 
co-operative investigation. The same fundamental pur- 
pose applies to co-operative work as to strictly Bureau 
investigations, namely, the procuring of information 
which will be of value to the mineral industry. 

It is in connection with these co-operative investiga- 
tions that Bureau work approaches most closely the field 
of the private company or engineer. In some cases the 
initiative has come from the Bureau, but more frequent- 
ly co-operative work has been taken up at the request of 
an operating company or engineer. 

An illustration of a co-operative investigation, the 
study of the calcination of magnesite to be used in the 
manufacture of stucco, flooring, etc., may be mentioned. 
This work is being carried on at the Berkeley station 
jointly with the Northwest Magnesite Co., which is bear- 
ing practically the entire expense of the investigation. 
A number of other companies engaged in the same in- 
dustry are also co-operating to the extent of furnishing 
materials and information, and it is agreed that informa- 
tion in regard to the progress of the work is available to 
any of these companies at any time. 

The advantage from the standpoint of the company 
lies in securing the use of the laboratory facilities of the 
Berkeley station and a certain amount of scientific and 
technical assistance from the staff. From the standpoint 
of the public, the outcome of this work will be the same 
as though it were being carried on exclusively with gov- 
ernment funds. The assistance of the Northwest Mag- 
nesite Co. makes it possible, however, to get on with the 
work more rapidly than would otherwise be possible. 

Manganese ore accounted for 87% of the total quan- 
tity of ores exported from India during the fiscal year 
1918-'19. The quantity shipped decreased by 11%. to 
385,400 tons: 77% of the total exports went to the United 
Kingdom, and the remainder to France, Japan, the 
United States, Belgium, and Italy. Nearly 10.900 tons 
of ferro-manganese was exported from Bengal in the 
year under review. Wolfram ore was shipped entirely 
to the United Kingdom. The total quantity exported was 
4870 tons, of which 4799 tons was from Burma and 71 
tons from Bengal. The shipments of chrome-iron ore 
were 39.400 tons, as against a total of approximately 
15.000 tons in 1917- '18. 




July 3, 1920 




IE .' '' 


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Shoshone. — The Associated Oil Co. is preparing to 
ship several hundred tons of fullers earth monthly from 
one deposit bought from R. J. Fairbanks, and from an- 
other leased from the Tonopah & Tidewater Railroad 
Co., the latter to be paid on a basis of $1 per ton royalty. 

[A. B. Peekham, the engineer in charge, is now in San 
Francisco conferring with officials of the Associated on 

. the method to be used in mining the material. The beds 
vary greatly in thickness, but the average appears to be 
six feet. Mr. Peekham says steam-shovels may be used 
in removing the overburden and in mining the fullers 
earth, which will be shipped to Martinez, California, for 
use in refining lubricating oil. The Standard Oil Co., 
which secures fullers earth at Ash Meadows, has en- 
gineers at Shoshone, but it is not known that this com- 
pany has bought claims. Mr. Peekham says indications 
are that the surrounding region contains many useful 
minerals that have been neglected because prospectors 
lack knowledge of them. He says the entrance of the 
Associated into the district caused a rush for claims 
containing 'soap', as the fullers earth is called at Sho- 
shone, and that everything white was brought to him 
for examination. The Tecopa Consolidated is shipping 
1200 tons of silver-lead ore monthly and is treating 100 
tons monthly in an experimental concentrator. The mine 
is worked through a tunnel cutting the vein at a depth 
t»f 1000 ft. The Tecopa company was organized by John 
T. Overbury, who is now developing the nearby Paddy 
Pride, a promising prospect. In 1907, Overbury sold 
control to Nelson Z. Graves of Philadalphia, who built a 
17-mile railroad to the mine and started development on 
a large scale. The manager is L. V. Marshall, who built 
and now owns the Needles smelter. The Tecopa has been 
the largest silver-lead producer in California for the 
last three years. Two tunnels have been driven in the 
Paddy Pride, the first cutting the vein at a depth of 
180 ft. The vein in this tunnel is 10 to 12 ft. wide and 
two carloads of silver-lead ore have been shipped that 
gave net returns of $1270 an $1400. There is exposed a 
l$-ft. width of ore assaying $138. The second tunnel cut 
the vein at a depth of 500 ft. and it is being continued to 
the hanging wall of the vein, on which the ore was found 
in the upper tunnel. The Silver Rule and Blackwater 
have been sold by John Chambers to J. J. Jarmuth of 
New York for $200,000, and the new owner plans to drive 
a 1000-ft. tunnel. Tonopah men have organized the 

Death Valley Talc Refining & Manufacturing Co. to de- 
velop a huge deposit of talc three miles from the Paddy 
Pride. Tests have shown the material to be of market- 
able grade and the success of the company depends on 
what it will cost to haul the product to the railroad. 
Men who know the situation of the claims disagree as to 
whether this can be done. 



Cripple Creek. — Deep development has been under- 
taken by the Portland Gold Mining Co., and sinking is 
now in progress with two shifts at the main shaft on 
Battle mountain. The shaft, now 2300 ft. deep, is to be 
sunk an additional 500 ft. and with powerful electric 
pumps in operation at the Roosevelt Tunnel level, no 
trouble is anticipated from water. Ore worth about 
$1,000,000 has been mined from shoots developed between 
the 20th and 21st levels and the richest ore in the history 
of the mine is now coming from the 23rd level. It is esti- 
mated that production from between the 21st and present 
bottom level will reach $2,500,000 in value. In addition 
to this rich ore, the ore in old stopes near the Portland 
No. 1 shaft on the south end of the property, is being 
hauled through the 7th level of the Independence, and 
600 tons daily are delivered at the Independence mill. 
This ore will mill about $3 per ton. 

The Ocean "Wave Mining Co., that is leasing the Ocean 
Wave, adjacent to the Portland on the south-west, has 
resumed production and a car of ore, estimated at 2 oz. 
per ton, was shipped to the Golden Cycle mill at Colorado 
Springs recently. The Isabella Mines Co., having failed 
to secure satisfactory bids for sinking the Empire State 
shaft, is doing the work on company-account. Lessees on 
the property continue production. 

Leadvtlle. — An orebody opened in the Gertrude in 
Colorado gulch last fall is again being developed and ore 
assaying as high as 252 oz. silver, 41% lead, and 2£ oz. 
gold is coming to surface. Lessees on the property also 
hold leases on adjacent claims and are extending their 
work to hold their leases. South of the Gertrude, work 
has been resumed on the Golden Curry by lessees. The 
Tiger has been leased and lease-options are reported on 
the Venture; the Bartlett, Virginius, and Dinero tun- 
nels are under operation by lessees. The Ready Cash 
tunnel is to be extended by the National Development 
Co., a Chicago corporation, and the bore is planned to cut 
the Cora May, Big Chicago, and the Aurora No. 1 and 2 



July 3, 1920 

at depth, and explore the veins and dikes traversing this 
territory. The same company is also operating the St. 
Kevin of the Parker group held under hond and lease. 
Work is also in progress on the Collins and Clarke groups 
in the Bed Mountain section and on the Ruby, an old, but 
rich, producer. Other prospeects are active and in fact 
more properties are being prospected than for many 
seasons past. 

Breckeneidge. — An electric hoist and compressor is 
being installed at the Deep shaft on Shock hill by the 
Deep Shaft Mining Co., recently organized. This shaft, 
the deepest in the district except the Brooks-Snyder, has 
reached 700 ft. The property, on account of litigation, 
has been inactive for 15 years. The power-line of the 
Colorado Power Co. has been extended to the property. 
Lessees on the Barger are sinking a new shaft and the 
owner H. K. Barger, who recently returned from Cali- 
fornia, is also sinking a shaft west of previous develop- 
ment. Bulkeley Wells, who recently became interested 
in the Iron Mask, is sinking a deep shaft near the portal 
of the Iron Mask tunnel and further develpoment is 

Telluride. — All machinery for the mill of the Valley 
View Leasing Co. has been delivered at the San Bernardo 
mine, the tramway is ready, and, with large tonnage of 
ore blocked out in the mine, steady production will be 
made as soon as the mill is completed. A recent assay- 
test has shown higher gold content in the ore now mined. 
The plant will start on or about July 10. The Bay State, 
active 20 years ago, is under examination and it is 
thought the low-grade silver-lead ore may now be mined 
at a profit. The Tomboy and Smuggler mills ore oper- 
ating steadily and shipments of concentrate are going 

Silverton. — The Gold King mill is operating steadily 
and turning out two cars of concentrate daily. W. Z. 
Kinney, manager, has returned from Denver, where the 
contract for purchase of the Gladstone-Silverton railroad 
was signed. The mine-output shortly will be increased 
when transportation facilities are furnished. The West 
vein, reported 75 ft. wide, is to be explored by a drift at 
the 700-ft. level, a contract having been awarded local 
miners by the Pride of the West Mining Co. for 800 ft. 
of work. The property, a rich producer of the early days, 
is expected to 'comeback'. 



Hpughtox. — Arcadian Consolidated has entered good- 
looking lode material on the 500-ft. level of the New 
Baltic shaft. The formation is identical in general 
physical characteristics with the lode uncovered on the 
400-ft. level of the same shaft at the time operations 
were suspended during the War. When work was re- 
sumed this spring the shaft was sunk to the 500-ft. level. 
Drifting has started both north and south, but at this 
writing has not progressed any great distance. The shaft 
itself is in the hanging wall, so that there is a distance of 
20 ft. to reach the strike from the shaft. The formation 

is small mass copper. The width of the lode is not yet 
determined, but there is developed a length of at least 
100 ft. The skip-rails have been laid, the timbering com- 
pleted, and further openings will be made at once. In 
connection with the present exploration at the New 
Baltic shaft, it is significant that this shaft is 1000 ft. 
from the old Arcadian workings, and that the territory 
between has good possibilities as demonstrated by dia- 

Victoria will become involved in litigation with 
Gogebic county, if present threats of officials are followed 
by action. The Victoria mine is situated in Ontonagon 
county, but the source of supply and outlet of water 
for its hydraulic compressor is Lake Gogebic. Gogebic 
county and several residents own land on the shores of 
Lake Gogebic. When the mining company first began 
to use the lake-water the level of the lake rose six inches. 
Recently it has risen six inches in two weeks. The 
property owners claim that it will rise 60 in. more. 
They assert that this rise in the water is damaging their 
property. In recent years the Victoria compan.y has 
acquired considerable property on the lake shore, but 
not all of it. The supervisors of Gogebic county are 
holding a special session this week to determine upon 
legal action against the company. 

The tabulated statement of the output for May 1920 
is presented below. Seneca assumes its position among 
the permanent producers, and all of the larger producers 
show a decline in refined copper, due to the continued 
departure of laborers. 


Ahmeek 72.000 

Allouez 21.000 

Baltic 15.000 

Calumet & Hecla 196.831 

Centennial 4,950 

Champion 22.000 

Isle Royale 44.800 

Miehig-an 5.773 

Mohawk 29.302 

Osceola Con 44.050 

Quincy 62,000 

Seneca 5.611 

Trimountain 8,900 

Victoria 5.000 

Wolverine 18,879 

White Pine 8.791 

Copper content 
May April 

of refined copper 
































1.083.700 1 



1. 480.000 



Butte. — The Tuolumne Mining Co. reports rich silver 
ore on the 500-ft. level near its Main Range shaft. The 
discovery is on the Spread Delight vein, it is five feet 
wide and gives an average assay of 30 to 40 oz. per ton. 
Specimens taken from this ore run as high as 1100 oz. 
per ton. The Davis-Daly plans further sinking of its 
Hibernia shaft. The adjoining Nettie mine is said to 
have uncovered high-grade silver ore below the present 
workings of the Hibernia, where the lowest are at 400 

Helena. — The Lump Gulch mines continue active pro- 
duction and development work. The Little Nell is a con- 
sistent shipper of high-grade silver ore, the Free Coinage 
is making good progress in its sinking operations, while 

July 3. 1920 



tunneling ami drilling continue at the Muskegon and 
Mariner mini's. Development work is in progress at the 
Bunset and Baby Helena mines. Operations have been 

resumed at tlie King Solomon group. 

Nkiiiakt.— The Cascade Silver Mines & Mills, the 
Neihart Consolidated Silver Mines Co., Flohart Silver 
Mines ( (i.. and the London company have posted the fol- 
lowing notice: "The mine owners and operators of the 
Neihart mining district will pay the following daily scale 
of wages: miners $5. teamsters $5, topmen $5, black- 
smiths $6, blacksmith's helpers $5.50, carpenters $5.50, 
engineers I li rst mot ion ) $6, engineers (gear) $5.50, pipe- 
men $5, station tenders $5.50. Eight hours constitute a 
day's work. The I. W. W., O. B. U., and the Neihart 
Metal Mine Workers Union will not be recognized." The 
Neihart silver Mines Co. has entered into a partial agree- 
ment with the union covering several points. A daily 

i ,i;i it I' mis. — Control of the Whippoorwill Mining 
Co. lias been secured by F. Wright from Charles Wilkes 
of New York. The Silver Dyke properties a) Carpenter 
creek are being opened. These properties wwr recently 
purchased from Ilcidenseck & Erickson, and are now 
under option to a syndicate of New York and Boston 



Cactus. — Drifts are being driven on the 265-ft. level 
of the Cactus Nevada and ore assaying 12 to 15 oz. is 
being opened. The vein is cut by numerous faults that 
make it difficult to follow, but it is much less broken 
than on the upper level. The cross-eut on this level, 
which was being driven beyond the main vein to the 
'south' vein, has been discontinued 100 ft. from the 


wage scale of $5.50 is being paid as before the strike. 
The present silver market has served to make the position 
of the companies a little stronger, while the strikers have 
been weakened considerably. Many of the single men 
have left the district since the strike was called. 

Cut Bank. — The Black Chief mine has been taken over 
by local men. Operations on a large scale are planned as 
soon as a company is organized. Copper is the chief 
metal, with uranium an important secondary considera- 

Corbin. — L. S. Roper has leased the property of the 
Alta-Montana Mining Co. from Costin and Merritt. 
Cross-cuts will be continued on the 13th level. These 
cross-cuts are entering the hanging wall of the old Alta 

Cooke City. — The Republic Mining Co. is shipping 
machinery for use at its Mohawk property. The equip- 
ment includes compressors, engine, and drills. Shipment 
of ore will be started at once. 2000 ore-sacks to sack the 
ore mined during the winter have also arrived. 

shaft because of the extreme hardness of the rock. Ore 
assaying 75 to 100 oz. is being broken on the 100-ft. level. 
This is being shipped. 

Arrowhead. — The west drift on the 100-ft. level of 
the Arrowdiead has been advanced 100 ft. from the shaft 
and for 50 ft. it has been in ore If to 3 ft. wide and 
assaying $125 to $320. The existence of this ore has been 
proved 25 ft. below the 100-ft. level in a drift driven 
from a raise from the bottom level and the grade of ore 
at this point is similar to that on the 100-ft. level. The 
shaft is over 250 ft. deep and cross-cutting to the vein 
will soon be started. 

Divide. — The Victory has started shipping to the Mc- 
Namara mill at Tonopah at a rate of 400 tons per month, 
but a statement of the value of the ore cannot be se- 
cured. The ore, coming from a depth of 350 ft., is 
reached through a winze from the 200-ft. level, and it is 
now planned to resume sinking the shaft. 

Virginia City. — The United Comstock has completed 
repairs to the Belcher surface plant and repairing of the 



July 3, 1920 

shaft has been started. Two shifts of miners are em- 
ployed in sinking the Imperial shaft from the 400 to the 
700-ft. level, and in the other mines of the company 
work preliminary to starting the haulage-tunnel is under 
way. The cyanide mill, to be built at a cost of $1,000,000, 
will have a crushing and grinding capacity of 2500 tons 
daily, but the other equipment will at first have a car 
pacity of only 1000 tons, which can be increased to handle 
the output of the entire crushing and grinding-plants as 
the tonnage is gradually raised to the maximum. The 
mill will have a gyratory, or Symons disc crushers, ball 
and tube-mills, Dorr agitators, slime-tables, and precipi- 
tation by zinc-dust. It is estimated that the treatment 
cost will be $1 to $1.25 per ton. The mining cost is esti- 
mated at $1.50 per ton. 

Eureka. — Eight hundred tons of ore giving a net re- 
turn of more than $50 per ton has been shipped from a 
recently found orebody north of the main Dunderberg 
workings on the 400-ft. level of the Eureka Croesus. A 
winze has been started to prospect this shoot and several 
others in the immediate vicinity, and it is planned to 
reach a depth of 300 ft. below the level. This ore is in 
territory heretofore unexplored, as the early-day work at 
this depth in the Dunderberg was done in the south 
vein. The ore is 8 ft. wide in places and most of the 
value is in gold. Ore containing 30% copper carbonate 
has been found at a depth of 700 ft. in the Atlas claim. 
This ore also assays high in gold and silver. The Pros- 
pect Mountain tunnel of the Eureka King is 3200 ft. 
long and the Eureka tunnel is 2100 ft. long. These tun- 
nels are being driven from opposite sides of Prospect 
mountain. The Eureka tunnel reaches a maximum depth 
of 800 ft. and the greatest depth reached by the Prospect 
Mountain is 1300 ft. The latter is now nearing an impor- 
tant vein in the limestone. Cutting of a pump-station 
and sump has been started on the 900-ft. level of the 
Locan shaft of the Ruby Hill Development Co. and un- 
watering of the shaft to the bottom, at 1200 ft., is to be 
started in a few days. Shipments are being made from 
the 900-ft. level. The two 75-hp. semi-diesel engines of 
the Eureka Holly, one for the hoist and the other for the 
compressor, are now working, and other important im- 
provements have been completed. It is planned to de- 
velop the two main orebodies on a large scale, make con- 
nection with the Bullwhacker, where there is a good ton- 
nage of shipping ore broken, and sink the Holly shaft 
from the present depth of 400 to 700 ft. It is reported 
that an experimental ore-treatment plant is to be built 



Ophir. — Conditions at the property of the Ophir Sil- 
ver Mines Co., which recently resumed development 
work, are most promising, according to Sol Snider, su- 
perintendent. An average sampling of a rich streak in 
the upper claims assayed 173 oz. silver, 5.3%, lead, and 
7.69% copper. All of the seven main fissures of the 
district, from which millions of dollars worth of ore has 

been produced, should cross the property. The company 
has expended $30,000 in development work, and Snider 
states that shipping ore of high grade can be developed 
within ninety days. On the strike of the Buckhorn 
fissure, which crosses the company 's upper claims, and is 
some 40 ft. wide, with a length of more than 1800 ft., 
samples have been taken that run from 100 to 1000 oz. 
silver per ton, besides containing both lead and copper. 
In the lower working-tunnel, which is now in some 700 ft., 
a cross-cut has been discovered 75 ft. from the portal 
and 85 ft. long, which had been run by previous owners 
in the early days. This cut follows a vein which at its 
face widened to more than a foot and was strongly min- 
eralized. The company has a force at work in the lower 
tunnel, another in the upper workings, and a road- 
building crew. 

Park City. — An embargo by the Murray smelter of 
the A. S. & R. Co. held back shipments from local mines 
during the week ended June 19 and the preceding week. 
The embargo is a temporary one, due to labor conditions, 
which it is believed have now been relieved. The Silver 
King Coalition was unable to move ore during the week. 
Shipments totaled 1309 tons, of which the Judge M. & S. 
shipped 652 tons, the Ontario 501, and the Daly-West 
73. The Judge smelter shipped 83 tons of premium 
spelter during the week. 

L. R. Perry, president of the Iowa Copper Co., spent 
several days here recently. He stated that for more than 
15 ft. the face of the cross-cut on the 200-ft. level has 
been in pyrite, and the expectation is that it will lead to 
a body of ore. Mr. Perry leased the Mount Masonic prop- 
erty, north of this camp, to Harry Barnicott, who, it is 
reported, will commence operations in the near future. 

Eureka. — Between the embargo still in effect by the 
American Smelting & Refining Co., and the slump in 
price of silver, local mines are producing only the mini- 
mum amount of ore necessary to keep their organizations 
intact, with the result that shipments from the district 
for the week ended June 19 totaled 122 cars, as compared 
with 143 cars for the preceding week. The Chief Con- 
solidated shipped 36 cars ; Tintic Standard, 25 ; Dragon, 
19 ; Iron King, 8 ; Mammoth, 6 ; Iron Blossom, 6 ; Eagle 
& Blue Bell, 5 ; Victoria, 4 ; Grand Central, 4 ; Cornu- 
copia, 3 ; Gemini, 3 ; Centennial-Eureka, 2 ; and Colo- 
rado, 1. The Tintic Consolidated Mining Co. in the 
North Tintic district is making preparations to com- 
mence work, according to George Nicholes, manager, who 
has been at the property making the necessary prepara- 
tions. On account of the scarcity of labor at the present 
time, it may be late in the summer before development 
of the ground will be undertaken. A water-line is now 
being laid to the property. This property adjoins the 
Lehi-Tintic mine on the north. 

The development of the Empire Mines ground through 
what is known as the 'Lower Mammoth' shaft has been 
stopped temporarily, according to officials of the Knight 
interests. This company owns an exceptionally large 
tract of mineral land in the central part of the district, 
and during the last few years there has been a consider- 

July 3, 1920 



able amount of development, most of it through the 
lower Mammoth shaft. Jesse Knight has always had 
confidence in the Empire Alines, and it is with reluctance 
that he finally derided that it would he necessary for the 
present to suspend operations. 

Operations by the Dragon Consolidated Mining Co. 
were suspended on June 20. This action was decided 
upon by the directors at a meeting held shortly before 
that date at Provo. There is a market for the iron ore, 
but there is only a small amount of profit under existing 
conditions and it is deemed best to hold the ore until such 
time as it can be made to yield a better revenue. While 
definite figures are not available, it is generally under- 
stood that the iron ore from the Dragon property has 
been bringing the company about $3.50 per ton, from 



Stewart. — Claims have been located on Fish creek, 
six miles above Hyder, over which Henry Benson, a resi- 
dent of Victoria, B. C, and his sons are enthusiastic. 
They have a good vein and samples taken at the outcrop 
give returns of $120 per ton in gold, silver, and lead. 
No trace of zinc is shown. The Bensons have organized 
a syndicate in Victoria and Vancouver and propose doing 
development during the summer. 

The official announcement that the government of 
British Columbia plans the building of a road from the 
Premier mine, to which point there already is a fair road 
from tidewater, to Joker Flats has been received by 


which has to be deducted the cost of mining and freight 
to Silver City, but not to the smelter. All of the product 
has been going to the United States smelter at Midvale 
and to the plants of the American Smelting & Refining 

Alta. — At the Emma property, two teams are hauling 
ore from the mine-bins to the railroad siding at the 
Columbus Rexall property. Approximately 1000 tons 
of ore was accumulated. A new electric air-compressor 
is being installed at the property, which will be ample 
for the present needs of the mine. Work on the lower 
levels has been stopped for the present because of the 
heavy flow of water, which is about three times the nor- 
mal quantity. Ore averaging from $85 to $90 per ton 
has been followed continuously for a distance of 127 ft. 
on the 500-ft. level of the Woodlawn mine, according to 
W. N. Lawrence, general manager. A shoot of ore 18 ft. 
long and 2§ ft. wide, one of the objectives of the drift, 
has been cut. 

mining men with satisfaction. Among the enterprises 
affected are the Big Missouri, on which work has been 
in progress for more than a year, and_ on which it is 
intended to do some 12,000 ft. of diamond-drilling; 
Mineral Hill, on which work has been done for two years ; 
the Hercules, which is to be developed this summer ; the 
Silver Tip and Silver Crest, being opened up by Van- 
couver interests ; and the holdings of the Algunican De- 
velopment Co. The latter company controls through a 
subsidiary concern, known as the Northern Light Con- 
solidated, a group of claims situated adjacent to the 
Premier and diamond-drilling thereon is planned for this 
summer. The same company has the Spider group under 
option. This property, is situated on the west side of 
Long lake and is equipped with an air-compressor and 
other machinery. 

Sheep Creek. — A new concentrating mill, having a 
capacity of 50 tons per day, has been completed at the 
Emerald mine by the Iron Mountain, Ltd. i This mine has 



July 3, 1920 

been one of the steady producers of this section of the 
Province. During 1917 the mine-run averaged: lead, 
2T , ; zinc. 5 to 6% ; and silver, li oz. As originally de- 
signed the mill was to have a capacity of 30 tons but the 
addition of an extra set of rolls for the crushing aud some 
alterations in the process, principally in the direction of 
decreasing the proportion of product sent through the 
ball-mill, makes it possible to run through 50 tons, while 
the crushing capacity is 100 tons. The Nugget Mines. 
Ltd., has its property on a steady producing basis; the 
Mother Lode mill, remodeled and extended, is in opera- 
tion. It is giving entire satisfaction. The ore is being 
taken care of as quickly as it can be brought to the 

Nelson. — The annual meeting of the California Min- 
ing Co. was held recently at Nelson when it was reported 
that good progress was being made in the development 
work under way on the California mine as well as on the 
installation of new machinery in the Athabasca, mill, 
which is being put in shape for the treatment of the ore. 
Officers were elected as follows: John R. Cassin. Spokane. 
president ; J. B. Sehieger, of La Crosse, Wisconsin, vice- 
president: W. R. Orndorff, Spokane, secretary-treasurer; 
John Fraser. Nelson, auditor; W. H. Turner, Nelson, 
mine superintendent. 

Vancouver. — The town of Phoenix will soon be no 
more. It is gradually being dismantled. The Granby 
Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. has a crew of 30 or 
40 men dismantling its plant and shipping it to Grand 
Forks and elsewhere ; 20 or 30 cars having been forward- 
ed already. This work will not be finished before August 
when the Canadian Pacific will remove its steel. The 
depot now is being taken away. The Great Northern has 
been busy for the past month removing equipment. Sev- 
eral buildings in the town also are being taken elsewhere. 



Toronto. — The stamp-tax on the transfer of shares 
of stock, originally fixed at two cents per share irrespec- 
tive of the par value, has been modified and fixed at two 
cents on each $100 face-value of the stock transferred. 
It is stated that the change was made because there are 
so many low-priced mining stocks, on which the tax as 
at first proposed would have represented a large per- 
centage of their value. 

Porcupine. — An interim report of an encouraging 
character has been issued by the Hollister Consolidated 
covering the period from January 1 to June 2, during 
which the total income was $2,879,706, compared with 
$2,822,858 for the corresponding period of last year. 
The expenditure was $1,448,020, compared with $1,507.- 
060, and the net profit $1,431,685. as against $1,315,798. 
The average tonnage treated per day showed an increase, 
being 4056 tons, as compared with 3907. At the annual 
meeting of the Dome Mines company, held on June 18, 
it was announced that dividend-payments would be con- 
tinued at the present rate and that instead of increasing 
dividend disbursements, surplus earnings would be de- 

voted to the repayment of capital, as the $1,000,000 pos- 
sessed by the company in cash and bonds gives it all the 
working capital necessary. Reports as to the closing 
down of the mine were referred to by C. D. Keading. 
general manager, who stated that unless the miners quit 
work or demanded higher wages than they were now 
receiving there was no intention of shutting down. 

Kirkland Lake. — From present indications five mines 
in the Kirkland Lake district will be producing gold be- 
fore the end of the year. At present the Lake Shore, 
Kirkland Lake, and Teck-Hughes are treating an aggre- 
gate of nearly 300 tons daily, and producing at the rate 
of about $115,000 per month. With the Tough-Oakes 
mill again in operation, and the completion of the 
Wright-Hargreaves mill, the daily tonnage treated 
should approximate 600 tons with a monthly output of at 
least $200,000. The King Kirkland Gold Mines, with an 
authorized capital of $2,500,000, has been organized for 
the development of a group of seven claims having an 
area of 309 acres in the central part of Lebel township. 
Operations have been begun on a vein which has been 
uncovered for 150 ft. and contains visible gold. 

Skead Township. — This district is attracting in- 
creased attention and development is being carried on 
by a number of companies. The Wisconsin-Skead has 
installed a mining plant and has done considerable un- 
derground work at the 112-ft. level, where some good 
veins have been tapped by cross-cutting. Diamond- 
drilling has indicated a series of veins with good gold 
content. The shaft will be put down to the 300-ft. level. 
Surface work is being done on the Crawford-Skead, 
lying west of the Wisconsin. The Fidelity, which owns 
a group of 10 claims on St. Anthony lake, plans a dia- 
mond-drilling program. Many claims were taken up in 
this area as early as 1906, but the high cost of develop- 
ment and the difficulty of getting in supplies discour- 
aged operations. Now that conditions are more favor- 
able, work may be resumed on many of these properties. 

Cobalt. — With United States currency at a premium 
of around 15% in Canada, the producers of silver in 
Cobalt are able to market their metal in New York and 
receive the advantage of payment in American funds. 
The added revenue from this source alone is about 
$150,000 monthly. Cobalt mining companies have been 
approached on the subject of lending their support to 
two or more oil-prospecting syndicates which propose to 
carry on exploration work along the Abitibi river at a 
point less than 150 miles north from Cochrane where 
members of the Geological Survey announce the dis- 
covery of shale in which crude oil is contained. Activity 
in the South Lorrain silver-area is increasing. The As- 
sociated Gold Mines of Western Australia is operating 
the Keeley mine, and reports having opened a moderate 
tonnage of medium-grade ore in the lower workings. 
The company has acquired an option on the adjoining 
Beaver Lake property and is stated to have found ore 
extending across the boundary from the Keeley at a 
depth of about 230 ft. The Haileybury Frontier mine 
in South Lorrain is also being re-opened. 

.lulv ::. 1920 






For the benefit o£ the producers of silver ore who sell 
their product to smelters, samplers, custom concentrators 
or cyanide plants, or to refiners, the Director o£ the Mint 
has revised, with the approval o£ the Comptroller o£ the 
Treasury, the affidavits required in connection with the sale 
of silver at the rate of $1 per ounce as provided in the Pitt- 
man Act. A careful examination of these affidavits will 
make the conditions of such sales clear. The original pro- 
ducer should furnish the 'Miner's Supporting Affidavit' with 
each shipment of silver-bearing ore in order that he may 
get the immediate benefit of the fixed price. In order that 
the vendor, who is usually a refiner, may realize on silver 
for which he paid $1 or more per ounce, but which he has 
had in process for some months, provision is made for ore 
received at reduction-works since January 17, 1920. The 
form of the affidavits follows: 


State of "j 

County of j ss ' 

In order to make a sale of silver to the Director of the 
Mint in accordance with the provisions of the Pittman Act 
approved April 23, 191S, the undersigned hereby represents 

and certifies under oath that he is the of 

(Title of office) 

owner of certain silver to the amount 

(Name of vendor) 

of fine ounces more or less, forwarded to the 

United States Mint at on the day of 

1920, and delivered for sale to the Director of 

the Mint under the provisions of said Act for account of 
said vendor; that said silver is the product of mines situated 
in the United States and of reduction-works so located, being 
either (1) wholly without admixture of the product of for- 
eign mines or reduction-works, or (2) part of a mixture of 
foreign silver and domestic silver delivered to domestic re- 
duction-works since January 17, 1920, and within the pro- 
portionate part of such mixed product which represents the 
product of mines located within the United States and of 
reduction-works so located, delivered by such mines to such 
reduction-works since January 17, 1920, after taking into 
account sales heretofore made to the Director of the Mint 
under said Act; and that the vendor will forthwith file with 
the Superintendent of said Mint such statements and exhibits 
from its books of account and also such supporting affidavits 
and sworn statements of exhibits by itself and by the miner, 
smelter, and refiner, as may be demanded by the Director of 
the Mint under said Act. 

(Signature of vendor or duly authorized officer) 

Subscribed to and sworn to before me this day 

192. .. 

Notary Public. 


State of . . 
County of 

The undersigned, being duly sworn, deposes and says: 

That he is the of 

(Title of officer) (Name of mine owner) 

owner of the mine, situated in the County of 

(Name of mine) 

State of ; that the said 

(Name of mine owner) 

has sold and delivered to on the day of 

1920, at its smelting plant known as the 

smelter, situated in the County of State of 

fine ounces of silver, which was pro- 
duced at the said mine located as aforesaid and contained 
in certain parcels of ore as described in settlement or 

liquidation sheet No of said and 

that said silver was paid for at the rate of not less than $1 
per ounce, adjusted to the equivalent price of silver 999 fine 
and to the cost of delivery refinery to mint. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this day of 


Notary Public. 


Denver. — The dates for the first-aid and mine-rescue con- 
tests which, in a way, will be international in their scope, in 
that miners of Canada and Mexico, as well as those of the 
United States, will be invited to participate, has been 
changed to September 9, 10, and 11. Contests were held at 
Pittsburgh last year and teams from Colorado, Montana, and 
Washington were represented. The meet is held under the 
auspices of the Bureau of Mines. 

Mayday. — Lon Wigmore and associates have secured a 
lease on the Lucky Moon and have started a tunnel to cut a 
vein along a fault where some good ore was mined a few 

years ago. It is reported that lessees have taken over the 

Mountain Lilly, situated above La Plata, and have begun 
work there. This property, it is said, has produced a small 

amount of ore, but has been idle for some time. Thomas 

Welborn and Joe Clark are making an examination of the 
Tomahawk, with a view to taking a lease. They are also 
working the Idaho dump, and have shipped two cars of ore 

which assayed $40 per ton. Wm. Graflin has a force of 

men at work on the Copper Queen. 


Twin Falls. — Arrangements are being made for the erec- 
tion of a 100-ton mill at the Buhl-Jarbidge mine at Jarbidge. 
This announcement is made by J. C. Deemer, general man- 
ager of the property, who says the work will begin as soon 
as roads to the mine are in condition to use, which should 
be in about a fortnight. Power-drills, it is expected, will be 
in operation not later than September 1. Mr. Deemer states 
that the Windy vein, where it outcrops on top of the moun- 
tain, is only eight inches wide, while 640 ft. below the sur- 



July 3, 1920 

face, in the tunnel, this vein is 17 ft. wide, assaying $12 
per ton. 

Duluth. — Further curtailment of mining work on the 
iron-ranges, due to shortage of coal as well as hoats to take 
ore from the docks, is reported in many sections. Range- 
pits that increased the number of shovels at work re- 
cently have been again forced to reduce operations to a 
minimum. Shipping has been almost entirely discontinued 
and other work is being regulated by transportation facili- 


Joplin. — A record week's output of zinc has been made by 
the Chanute Spelter Co. from its mine one mile west of 
Baxter Springs. In six working days of 24 hours each the 
output was 458 tons of zinc and 14 tons of lead. The next 
highest record in this district was made by the Skelton mine 
near Douthat, which produced in one week 43 8 tons of zinc. 
Production figures for the district are: blende, 18,462,880 
lb., $408,358; calamine, 459,660 lb., $8050; lead, 2,009,730 
lb., $145,300; total value, $561,708. Average value per 
ton, blende, $44; calamine, $35; lead, $100. Twenty-four 
weeks: blende, 534,571,640 lb., $13,550,487; calamine, 
8,984,620 lb., $170,039; lead, 90,478,000 lb., $4,781,065; 
total value, $18,501,613. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co., of New York, have brought suit 
in the Supreme Court against National Zinc Co., to recover 
$873,342, alleged to be balance due plaintiffs for advances 
at different times to the Zinc company. It is alleged that 
demand for payment of balance alleged due was made June 
1 and was refused. 


American Pork. — Operations at the Globe mine in Amer- 
ican Fork canyon are being pushed steadily, according to 
John Cleghorn, manager. From four to six feet of progress 
per day is being made in the drift along a north-south fissure 
to its intersection with an important vein about 150 ft. 
ahead. At present the formation is well mineralized, with 

bunches of carbonate ore appearing at intervals. W. S. 

Cool, of Salt Lake City, owner of the Sierra patented claims, 
has been here recently, arranging to start work on his prop- 
erty. These claims adjoin the Miller mine, a big producer 
in early days. 

Vernal. — The Jeannette Copper Mining Co. will resume 
operation of its property in the Uinta basin about July 15, 
according to Wm. O'Neil. The mine has been idle since 
1916. The property consists of 34 unpatented claims, sit- 
uated about 35 miles south of Rock Springs, Wyoming, the 
nearest railroad point. Development consists of approxi- 
mately 1000 ft. of tunnel and shaft-work. It is stated that 
some rich copper ore has been developed, which the com- 
pany will start mining and shipping. 

Santaquin. — The Union Chief Mining Co. will ship three 
cars of high-grade lead-silver ore from its mines, according 
to Alfred Larson, superintendent. The company has recent- 
ly completed work on a road from the mine to the railway, a 
distance of three miles. Ore showings in the mine continue 
to improve, and a fair amount is being taken out from de- 
velopment work. 


Northport. — An orebody on the line of the Gladstone and 
Electric Point mines, opened in the Gladstone to a depth of 
50 ft., has been cut by the Electric Point in a cross-cut at a 
depth of 145 ft. At the new point it is on both sides of the 
line. It contains lead in carbonate and sulphide form. The 
Gladstone has opened six chimneys, four within recent 
weeks. The sixth has been followed by a shaft to a depth of 
43 ft. and is said to contain carbonates and some sulphides. 
The last carload weighed more than 43 tons. The ore con- 
tained 78.4% lead and the gross value was $4272, of which 
$4 per ton was in silver. 


The Editor invitee members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting- to our readers. 

H. S. Denny is returning to London from Montreal. 
S. E. Bretherton has gone to Seattle and Vancouver. 

F. Le Roi Thurmond is at Santa Barbara, Chihuahua. 
Fedor F. Foss, of New York, is at Rockville, Maryland. 
Arthur Feust is with Hughes & Dies, at 42 New St., New 


J. H. Forman, of Tonopah, Nevada, has moved to San 

J. B. Annear has moved from Panaca, Nevada, to Merced, 

Philip Wiseman, of Los Angeles, is in New York, on his 
way to London. 

William Compton has moved from Fairfield, Idaho, to Vir- 
ginia City, Nevada. 

Warren D. Smith is returning to the Philippines as Chief 
of the Division of Mines. 

Conway G. Williams has changed his address from Ajo„ 
Arizona, to Garfield, Utah. 

Edwin E. Chase, of Denver, has gone to Wyoming to ex- 
amine some copper mines. 

Charles E. Prior Jr. is engineer with the Premier Gold 
Mining Co. in British Columbia. 

G. O. Murray is still at Asanboni, India, being unable to 
go to London as he had intended. 

M. 3. Weller, superintendent of the Greenhorn mine in 
Shasta county, is in San Francisco. 

R. C. Warriner, formerly general manager of the Crown 
Mines, on the Rand, is visiting California. 

Alan M. Rodgers, of Washington, D. C, is now with the 
Moctezuma Copper Co., at Nacozari, Mexico. 

Lewis A. Levensaler has opened offices as consulting 
mining engineer at 902 Hoge building, Seattle. 

O. F. Brinton, general manager for the Western Utah 
Copper Co. at Gold Hill, Nevada, is in New York. 

Clarence A. Wright, of the Salt Lake City station of the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines, has gone to Trentino, Italy. 

Alfred Hunt has been appointed superintendent for the 
Angels Camp Deep Mining Co., at Angels, California. 

Homer Guck, for the past 15 years editor of the 'Daily 
Mining Gazette' at Houghton, Michigan, has resigned. 

Alan M, Bateman, professor of economic geology, at Yale 
University, has gone to British Columbia and Alaska on 
professional business. 

li. T. Buell has taken a position with the Phelps Dodge 
Corporation at Douglas, Arizona, after having spent several 
years in South America. 

Horatio C. Ray has resigned his position with the School 
of Mines, University of Pittsburgh, to become connected 
with the Keystone Consolidated Publishing Co., at Pitts- 

Glen D. Cook, mining engineer of Salt Lake City, who 
has been operating the Montezuma and Jersey mines in 
Pershing county, Nevada, has organized the Pershing County 
Mines Co. 

H. Hardy Smith arrived in San Francisco on June 23 on 
the 'Tenyo Maru' from Korea on his way to New York, 
where he will remain three weeks. He will return to San 
Francisco before sailing for Australia. 

R. Allison Purvis, of London, arrived on June 23 in San 
Francisco on the 'Tenyo Maru' from the East, having es- 
caped from the Bolshevists in Siberia, where he was im- 
prisoned by them from January until April at Krasnoyarsk, 
Irkutsk. He will sail for London from New York on the 
Mobile' on July 10. 

July 3, 1920 




is m f& 




San Francisco, June 29 

Aluminum-dual, cents per pound 

Antimony, cents per pound 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 

Lead, pig, cents per pound 8.25- 

Platinum. pure, per ounce 

Platinum. 10r* iridium, per ounce 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

8pelter. cents per pound 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 12.50 — 


(By wire from New York) 
June 28. — Copper is inactive but steady. Lead is dull but steady. 
is quiet and firm. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
999 fine. From April 23. 1918, the United States government paid SI per 
ounce for all silver purchased by it. fixing a maximum of SI .01% on 
August 15, 1918, and will continue to pay $1 until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5. 1919. all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25, 1919. on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10. 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 
pence per ounce (925 fine) calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 



New York 

22 93.00 

23 92.50 

24 90.00 

25 90.00 

26 90.00 

27 Sunday 

28 93.00 




Feb 85.79 

Men 88.11 

Apr 95.35 

May 99.50 

June 99.50 


Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

17 101.21 

24 100.12 

31 101.17 

7 98.23 

14 86.00 

21 87.07 

28 91.41 




July 99.62 

Aug 100.31 

Sept 101.12 

Oct 101.12 

Nov 101.12 

Dec. .' 101.12 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 




22 : . - .19.00 

23 19.00 

24 19.00 

25 19.00 

26 19.00 

27 Sunday 

28 1900 

Monthly averages 








Average week ending 






Jan 23.50 

Feb 23.50 

Men 23.50 

Apr 23.60 

May 23.60 

June 23.50 



July 26.00 

Aug 26.00 

Sept 26.00 

Oct 26.00 

Nov 26.00 

Dee 26.00 




Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery- 






27 Sunday 



Average week ending 






. , 6.85 

. . 7.07 

Mch 7.20 

Apr 6.99 

May 6.88 

June 7.59 

.. 8.15 

Monthly averages 
1919 1920 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery. 



July 8.03 

Aug 8.05 

Sept 8.05 

Oct 8.05 

Nov 8.05 

Dec 6.90 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 


m eei 




ts p 



er pound. 

. . 7.80 






Average week 
17 . . 






. . 7.90 

24. . 





14. . 



28. . 






. 9.58 
. 9.11 





. . 7.67 


.. 7.92 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being: 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according' to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date I June 15 85 00 

June 1 80.00 " 22 85.00 

8 90.00 I " 29 85.00 

Monthly averages 








July . . 

.. .93.00 


Feb. . . 

. . . 85.00 





Mch. . . 

. . . 85.00 






Oct. . . 



. . .100.01 




. . . 91.00 





Jan 128.06 

Feb 118.00 

Mch 112.00 

Apr 115.00 

May 110.00 

June 112.00 





July 120.00 

Aug 120.00 

Sept 120.00 

Oct 120.00 

Nov 120.00 

Dec 115.00 










Discussing the improvement in sterling exchange, the Anglo-South Ameri- 
can Bank of London analyzes the situation as follows: "In case of countries 
whose currencies are at a discount as compared with ours, there has been 
a fairly general contraction in the premium on sterling the past month or 
so. this improvement being particularly marked in the German quotation. 
Premium on sterling as compared with marks has fallen since the end of 
January from 1686% to 69%, while in ease of Paris the present premium 
in sterling of about 102% compares with 170% two months ago. 

"This recovery in value of depreciated foreign currencies compared with 
sterling, however, has not had any adverse effect on the position of sterling 
as compared with markets in which British currency is at a discount. In 
New York, discount on sterling is now about 20%. against 31% in Febru- 
ary, the extreme mark during the present year, and in most other markets 
in this group the experience has been the same. Presumably London, 
which previously was affected by its own indebtedness to New York, and 
indirectly by indebtedness of other countries for which it acted as inter- 
mediary in exchange transactions, is now benefiting not only from im- 
provement in our own exports but from the better trade position being 
established by certain continental countries. 

"How substantial has been the improvement in European trade position 
as against the United States the following figures show. During April 
value of United States shipments to Europe declined $135,000,000 com- 
pared with April of last year, but imports from Europe increased $68,000,- 
000 and practically $700,000,000 for. 10 months to April 30. Figures of 
United States exports to this country showed substantial reduction, and 
corresponding imports, almost as substantial an increase, while in ease of 
France, also, marked improvement is shown, value of French exports to 
United States for 10 months being $145,000,000. against less than $45,- 
000.000 the preceding year, while during the same period French imports 
from United States declined just over $200,000,000. It is true the balance 
of trade is still heavily in favor of America, but all evidence goes to show 
Europe has appreciated the need for lessening of consumption and increase 
in production, and is acting accordingly. 

"In these circumstances, improvement in the European exchanges as 
compared with the dollar is only natural, but the position has also been 
affected by definite decision of the British and French governments to re- 
pay the $500,000,000 Anglo-French loan at its due date in October next, 
by heavy gold shipments made to the States on this account, and also by 
large sales of government- owned wool, while another factor of more tem- 
porary character but of considerable importance is the definite postpone- 
ment until 1022 of interest payments on our debt to the American gov- 
ernment. This was disclosed by Austen Chamberlain in answering a 
House of Commons question on May 5, and incidentally he stated that 
approximately £23.000.000 was included in the debt charge for the current 
financial year in respect of interest on debt raised outside the United 
Kingdom, but that the amount due from this country to the American 
government alone would, at par of exchange, amount to £43,000,000 per 


Foreign quotations on June 29 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 3.95% 

Demand 3.96 % 

Francs, cents: Cable 8.40 

Demand 8.43 

Lire, cents : Demand 6.01 ' 

Marks, cents 2.75 



July 3, 1920 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, June 23. 

There is still an absence of demand for practically all the 
metals and prices of some have fallen. 

Demand for copper is very light but prices are steady. 

While buying of tin is light, values have been advancing 
and the market is fairly strong. 

Lead has declined quite decidedly and there is no urgent 

The zinc market is still lifeless and prices are lower. 

Antimony is a little easier. 


Iron and steel producers are still traveling in a circle, bet- 
terment in car and fuel-supply being quickly followed by a 
return of old conditions, says 'The Iron Age'. This week the 
breaking out of fresh railroad strikes at Philadelphia and 
Baltimore has crippled several Eastern steel-plants, and em- 
bargoes against the affected districts have been put in force 
at Pittsburgh. 

Fuel-shortage has driven some pig-iron producers to pay 
new high prices for coke and $17 has been reached in the 
dizzy ascent of that market. Basic pig-iron also tends 
higher. On the other hand are easier prices in plates and 
shapes; but with little promise of better than 75 or 80% 
production for many weeks, no significant readjustment of 
finished steel prices is looked for. 

The buying of steel cars by steel and coke companies goes 
on. In the past week such new inquiries involved 2700 cars 
and one car-works took orders for 15 00. 

The possibility of a sheet and tin-plate shut-down on June 
3 has led to recent re-sales of sheet-bars, some bessemer 
bars having been offered at $65 to $70 and open-hearth bars 
at less than $75, representing some easing-off. 

A new development in the coke market is the inquiry com- 
ing from South American and European sources, including 
one for 10,000 tons per month for 18 months. Owing, how- 
ever, to the shortage in this country and to the high prices, 
it is not expected that exports will be heavy. 


There is no change in the general situation — at least not 
for the better. A fresh outbreak of 'outlaw' railroad strikes 
in the East is not an encouraging sign, particularly in the 
Baltimore territory where there are large refinery interests. 
It may be necessary to shut-down one or two refineries there 
should the matter grow worse. Demand is very light and 
prices as a result are largely nominal. Large producers con- 
tinue to quote 19c, New York, for both Lake and electrolytic 
for early delivery and see no reason to change. Small pro- 
ducers and some outside interests are quoting as low as 
18.25c, New York, for electrolytic for early delivery. The 
large interests are booked up well ahead but difficulties of 
various kinds are limiting output and shipments. 


There has been a gradual advance in the quotation for 
spot Straits, New York, and it is believed that the low level 
was reached last week at 45.50c. Yesterday the quotation 
was nominal at 50c, New York. The higher trend is due 
largely to a strong London market. Yesterday spot Straits 
in London was quoted at £270 per ton. In the week on this 
side the market has been quiet on the surface but a fair 
record in sales has been made. These have been participated 
in largely by dealers though consumers have done a little 
buying. One large consumer inquired last week Thursday 
for 200 tons which is understood to have been closed. On 
Wednesday last week, on the New York Metal Exchange, 
sales of 225 tons were recorded as well as 50 tons on Tues- 

day. Of the 225 tons on Wednesday, 200 tons was Straits 
tin for July shipment and future shipment from the East, ! 
all at 45 to 45.25c. There was a 25-ton lot of Chinese tin : 
which was sold at 42.12Jc, the sale being forced because of 
the failure to protect a margin, according to reports. Last 
Saturday there was an active demand for future shipment 
but there was a lack of sellers, not much business being done 
at bids of 47.75 to 48c With London advancing, a buying- i 
movement on this side is expected soon. Arrivals of the ; 
metal to date this month have been 269 5 tons with 4430 . 
tons reported as afloat. 


A dull market here for several weeks as well as the slump 
in London a week ago have been the causes of two sharp re- : 
ductions in prices. Late last Tuesday, June 15, the Amer- 
ican Smelting & Refining Co. reduced its quotation Jc. to 8c, I 
St. Louis, or 8.25c, New York, and then on the next day re- I 
peated the operation, making the level 7.75c, St. Louis, or 
8c, New York, for early delivery. The outside market, 
which had been above the Trust price for some time, met I 
this and is now quoted at around 7.90c, St. Louis, or 8.15c, I 
New York. The fear of imports of the metal is also alleged 
as a cause for these reductions. It is a fact that lead is not 
plentiful for spot delivery or for early shipment from the 
West, neither is there any urgent demand. 


Extreme dullness still characterizes this market. There is '' 
no extensive buying and the general basic conditions men- ; 
tioned last week still prevail. Values fell to lower levels 
late last week when 7.35c, St. Louis, for prime Western i 
prevailed, but since then there has been an advance, due to 
a higher London market. Today prime Western is quoted at 
7.45 to 7.50c, St. Louis, or 7.80 to 7.85c, New York. Pro- 
ducers are still inactive sellers and are only taking care of 
customers' immediate needs. Galvanizers are not active | 
buyers, due to the uncertainty of the future. 


The market is dull and inactive. The metal is quoted at 
7.75c, New York, duty paid, for wholesale lots for early 


Quotations are unchanged at 33c, New York, from the 
leading interest and 31.50c from other sellers for whole- 
sale lots for early delivery. 


Tungsten: There are no transactions recorded and the 
market is flat. The last quotation, which was nominal, was I 
$6.50 per unit for Chinese ore with other grades correspond- I 
ingly higher. Until general business conditions improve no 
life to the market is likely. 

Ferro-tungsten is unchanged and nominal at 85c to $1.15 
per lb. of contained tungsten. 

Molybdenum: This market is also dead with quotations 
nominal at 60 to 65c. per lb. of MoS = as the foreign quota- 
tion and 7 5c as the local. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys : There continues to be an absence 
of inquiry for both prompt and last-half delivery. Prices are 
firm at $225 to $250 for prompt and $200 for last half. The 
only inquiries are about 3 00 tons for last half. Spiegeleisen 
is firm at $75, furnace, but the market is quiet. 

Kerosene export quotations in New York have declined 
twice since June 1. A drop on June 7 from 15c. to 14.25c. 
per gallon for standard water-white, in bulk, was followed 
by a second on June 12, from 14.25c to 13.50c 

July 3, 1920 



Book Reviews 

Structural Drafting and the Design of Details. By Carl- 
ton Thomas Bishop. Pp. 33S. ill., index. John Wiley & 
Sons. Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific 
Press . Price, $5. 

This is a textbook for students and apprentices and a ref- 
erence book for structural draftsmen. It is divided into 
three parts. Part I is introductory and gives a general dis- 
cussion of the organization of a structural-steel company 
and of the manufacture and fabrication o£ structural steel. 
Part II is devoted to drafting-room practice. The discussion 
is complete, from the mechanical details of the use of trac- 
ing-cloth and ink-erasers to the laying out of beams, gird- 
ers, and columns. Part III deals with the design of details 
In a similarly thorough manner. An appendix contains the 
usual data regarding properties of standard structural 
shapes as well as a number of other tables and diagrams 
nseful in this class of work. 

Manual for the Oil and Gas Industry. By Ralph Arnold, 
J. L. Darnell and others. Pp. 176. 111., index. John Wiley 
& Sons, Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific 
Press'. Price, $2.50. 

Whatever we may think of the various provisions of the 
internal revenue laws relating to corporation taxes, the fact 
remains that corporations must make returns under these 
i laws. The present volume was originally issued as a bulletin 
of the Internal Revenue Bureau, and is designed to assist 
members of the accounting departments of companies pro- 
ducing oil in making the calculations necessary for prepar- 
ing the proper tax return. The scope of the book is indi- 
cated by the titles of the various chapters, which are Ampli- 
fication of the Law and Regulations, Estimate of Deprecia- 
tion of Equipment, and Estimate of Recoverable Under- 
ground Reserves of Oil. While the hook, as already noted, 
is primarily designed for those preparing Federal tax re- 
turns on behalf of oil companies, it will he useful to anyone 
interested in the valuation of oil properties. 

Text-book of Diorganic Chemistry. Vol. IX. Part I. By 
J. Newton Friend. Pp. 366. Index. Charles Griffin & Co., 
London. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $6. 

The general plan of this series has been to devote one 
volume to each of the groups of elements according to the 
periodic classification. In this instance iron has been treat- 
ed separately in Part II so that this particular book deals 
only with nickel, cobalt, and the palladium and platinum 
groups. For the research student, as the author points out, 
fuller details are necessary than can be included in a text- 
book of this scope. Accordingly copious references are 
given to the original memoir. While the past two decades 
have marked rapid strides in the development of the chem- 
istry of the metals and their compounds, there is still a 
I deal of unchartered territory yet to be explored. This work 
is new and is based upon the present state of our knowledge 
of inorganic chemistry. The hook is of course designed for 
the use of the student and for that purpose it is well 
adapted. It appears to be comprehensive, clear, and well 

Forge Practice and Heat-Treatment of Steel. By John 
Lord Bacon. Third edition. Pp. 407. 111., index. John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price, $1.75. 

The author of this book was for some time instructor in 
forge practice at the Lewis Institute at Chicago, and the text 
is based on notes prepared for courses given there. In the 
third edition the subjects of hardening, tempering, and an- 

nealing are treated at considerably greater length than in the 
previous editions. The first chapter is devoted to a general 
description of the blacksmith's forge and tools. Welding in 
the forge is next discussed, and then the making of all kinds 
of hand forgings, including the calculation of stock, and the 
methods of actually doing the work. Steam-hammer work is 
then considered, also the use of dies to produce duplicate 
parts. The remainder of the book is mainly devoted to tem- 
pering, hardening, annealing, and casehardening, and dis- 
cusses both the equipment used and the methods of doing the 
work. The treatment is non-technical and practical through- 
out, theoretical discussion being eliminated as far as possi- 
ble. It will be of value not only to the apprentice and 
mechanic but also to the engineer who either uses or has 
charge of the manufacture of forgings. 

The Mines Handbook. By Walter Harvey Weed. Pp. 
1976. W. H. Weed, New York. For sale by 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price $15. 

The latest issue of this valuable publication is just to 
hand. It covers the years 1918, 1919, and the first quarter 
of 1920. Much of the information is brought down to April 
of the current year. The present volume contains 70 pages 
more than that issued in 1918, and the number of companies 
listed has increased by 1000, making the total 7400. It 
would he well if all the advertisements could be placed at 
the hack of the volume; also the index. The geographical 
arrangement by countries. States, counties, and districts is 
advantageous. As usual, the volume contains a glossary 
and a brief description of the principal copper minerals. It 
is evident that there has been some difficulty in getting in- 
formation concerning certain mining enterprises, but this is 
the usual experience of statisticians and compilers of in- 
dustrial data. As this volume becomes a public institution, 
it ought to receive increasing support, not only by its sale 
but also by a greater willingness on the part of mining com- 
panies to assist the editors by giving them the needed in- 
formation. The new districts, in Nevada and British Colum- 
bia, for example, are creditably complete. Consolidations, 
absorptions, and liquidations are carefully recorded. No 
less than 460 pages are devoted to mining companies in 
foreign countries, particularly those to which American en- 
ergy and capital are being diverted. The collection of geo- 
logic and metallurgic data gives technical value to the 
volume. The various statistical tables have been brought up 
to date. This handbook is the successor to the one started 
by Horace J. Stevens in 1900. It is fortunate that a man so 
well informed as Mr. Walter Harvey Weed should have 
taken up the work when Stevens died. We are frank to say 
that we find the 'Mines Handbook' of great use to us in our 
editorial work, and we can surmise how useful therefore it 
must be to others requiring prompt information concerning 
the organization, personnel, and production of mining com- 
panies in various parts of this country and also abroad. It 
is extremely difficult to compile so large a mass of informa- 
tion without introducing errors, but the marvel is that there 
are so few. Without question, the 'Handbook' is perform- 
ing a highly useful function, and we hope that Mr. Weed's 
enterprise will meet with public support. — T. A. R. 

Engineering for Land Drainage. By Charles G. Elliott. 
Pp. 353. 111., index. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 
For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $2.50. 

This is the third edition of a book which, appearing orig- 
inally in 1902, has come to be regarded as a standard trea- 
tise on the subject. Comparing it with the second edition, 
we find several changes and additions, including a revision 
of the discussion of the hydraulics of flow in underdrains, 
new tables for computing the discharge of tile-drains, and 
additions to the discussion of drainage by pumps and of 
drainage of irrigated lands. 



Jul}- 3, 1920 






By E. J. Black 

The right and wrong ways of lacing belts are shown in the 
accompanying illustrations. The top and bottom views show 
a belt which has been properly laced. The holes were 
punched evenly and the lacing was done smoothly, leaving 
no loose ends which might catch and injure the belt. The 
middle view shows a belt improperly laced. The holes were 
punched in some instances so close together that the lacings 
tore through. A belt laced like this cannot be expected to 
give the maximum amount of service. The following de- 
tailed instructions as to the proper way of lacing may well 
be studied. 

(1) Cut the ends of the belt absolutely square. Do not 
depend upon your eye or use an ordinary ruler. If the end 
is slanted in the least degree all the pull will come on one 

side of the belt and the consequences are likely to be dis- 
astrous. (2) Make the holes as small as practicable. Use 
an awl rather than a punch, wherever possible. (3) Leave 
a sufficient margin at the edge of the belt without holes so 
as not to impair its strength. In belts 2 to 6 in. wide, the 
holes should not be nearer to the edge than J in., in belts 
6 to 12 in. wide not nearer than f in., and belts 12 to 18 in. 
wide not narrower than J in. (4) Make two rows of holes, 
in parallel lines straight across the width of the belt, and 
stagger the holes, so that the strain comes upon different 
portions of the belt. (5) Be sure that the holes in the two 
ends to be joined match exactly. Otherwise there will be a 
'jog' in the belt, and this is likely to result in tearing the belt 
lengthwise. (6) Use flexible lacing, being careful to have it 
proportionate to the size of the belt. A heavy lacing is likely 
to cause trouble. (7) In lacing the belt, make the pulley 
side as smooth as possible. Rough places and ends should 
be turned away from the pulley. ( 8 ) In using metal f asten- 

Table for Finding the Horse-Power of a 

Speed in feet per minute 

Width Ply 

4" 4 


5" 4 


6" 4 


8" 4 


10" 4 


12" 5 

14" 5 

16" 6 

18" 6 

20" 6 

24" . .' 6 

30" 6 


30" 10 

36" 8 


42" 8 


48" 8 














































































































































































































































































































































































. 818.4 











«rs select those which place the strain on the length-wise 
strands of the bolt. The cross-wise strands are not as strong 
as those which run length-wise. 

Besides improper lacing, there are many other abuses 
which shorten the life of belts. Shafting that is out of line 
may cause an undue strain upon the belt and make it run off 
the pulley. Oil may be allowed to drip upon the belt and 
ruin it. The belt may be applied with an initial tension so 
great as to produce an unnecessary strain. Many complaints 
regarding unsatisfactory belt performance can be traced to 
the fact that the wrong belt was used on the job. No mat- 
ter how good a belt is or how good treatment it receives it 


Correct and Incorrect Methods of Lacing Belts 

"will fail to give satisfactory service if not adapted for the 
use to which it is put. 

In deciding upon the right belt for any particular service 
there are eight factors to be considered: (1) distance be- 
tween pulley centres; (2) diameter of the pulleys; (3) width 
of the pulleys; (4) use of idlers, cone pulleys, quarter turn, 
half turn, etc.; (5) speed; (6) horse-power to be trans- 
mitted; (7) character of the load (jerky or constant); and 
(8) conditions such as contact with moisture, oil, or other 
deteriorating influences. 

Over these factors the belt-man usually has little or no 
control. His problem is to take the conditions as he finds 
them, and apply a belt that will give the best service possible 
under the circumstances. Yet he may sometimes perform a 
real service by calling attention to a faulty arrangement, 
when the conditions are such that the fault may be cor- 
rected. Real economies may sometimes be effected by 
lengthening the distance between pulley centres, increasing 

the width of the pulley face, or by changing the arrangement 
of a vertical belt so as to give a certain degree of slant. 

The factors which are under the belt man's control are 
these: (1) The kind of belt to be used, such as rubber, 
leather, canvas, etc.; (2) the grade, whether cheap, medium, 
or high; and (3) the weight of the belt, such as 4 or 6-ply, 
single or double. 

In determining the kind of belting to be used, the merits 
of rubber belting should receive full consideration. It is 
economical in first cost, extremely efficient in service, and 
frequently outlasts other constructions. On the other hand, 
in places where constant contact with oil is unavoidable, a 
rubber belt will not give good service. The constant use of 
shifters is also injurious to a rubber belt. 

In deciding upon the right grade for a particular service, 
the points to be especially considered are the size of the pul- 
leys, the presence of idlers or other unusual conditions, and 
the speed. Small pulleys, operated at high speed, necessi- 
tate a high-quality belt. The reason for this is the internal 
wear between the various plies of fabric, and even between 
the fibres in each ply, as the belt rounds the pulleys. A 
high-grade rubber friction is the best possible protection 
against this internal wear, because it protects each fibre 
with an elastic coating which remains uninjured and which 
indeed retains its life and elasticity longer when in use than 
when lying idle. 

In this connection, it should not be forgotten that the 
value of a particular rubber friction cannot be determined 
merely by the test showing 'pounds pull*. If the plies were 
fastened together with glue, this test would show a very 
high-grade belt, but we all know that such a belt could not 
give service. The most valuable property of rubber friction 
is that intangible quality called 'life'. There Is no known 
test for this but length of service. In specifying the proper 
ply for the installation, the determining factors are the size 
of the pulleys, width of the belt, speed, and the horse-power 
to be delivered. The belt itself should be at least one inch 
less in width than the face of the pulley. 


Some months ago the architects of a large factory in the 
East decided to use as a 'fire-wall' a hollow wall with 'gunite' 
sides two inches thick, with an eight-inch air space between, 
and with the side walls connected with gunite studs at from 
5 to 7-ft. intervals. The outer walls were reinforced and 
the studs had two J-in. round rods as vertical reinforcement. 
This construction was refused. 'Fire-wall' in insurance par- 
lance is distinguishable from 'fire stop', in that the latter 
means a wall that will act as a temporary retardent to pre- 
vent the spread of fire, while a 'fire-wall' is supposed to be 
a wall that will actually prevent the spread of fire from one 
portion of a building to another portion. Inasmuch as the 
only material which had ever been classified as a 'fire-wall' 
construction, and the only construction that had been used 
in this connection, had been a brick wall not less than 12 in. 
thick and increasing in thickness due to the height and 
character of the partition, the architect was faced with the 
quandary of getting a decision in favor of the gunite con- 
struction or of delaying the erection of the plant for an 
indefinite period, on account of the scarcity of both brick 
and brick-masons. The insurance company was sufficiently 
interested to request that the Underwriters' laboratories 
make arrangements to test samples to be made in conformity 
with the scheme proposed. The final test was completed on 
June 3 and 4. 

The samples tested were reproductions of a section of 
wall, the studs being spaced with 7-ft. centres and side walls 
extending about 18 in. beyond each stud to their intersection 
with the brick frame. The walls were 'shot' about April 20, 
and had cured since that time. To avoid excessive damp- 
ness, they had been surrounded with tarpaulins for the last 



July 3, 1920 

ten days, and two salamanders were kept burning under 
this cover. The laboratory and the underwriters' regulations 
tor testing a ' fire-wall' provide that the sample shall be sub- 
jected for lour hours to a heat ranging from 1000° within 
five minutes after the test is started to 1600° at one hour, 
and up to 2000° at four hours. The curve of the readings 
made in this test followed this theoretical curve closely. In 
addition it also provided that the face of the wall away from 
the flames shall not become hotter than 300°. When the 
first sample had been under heat for about IS minutes a 
considerable spalling of the face occurred between one of 
the studs and the abutment about 18 in. away, but this had 
been expected as previous experiments had shown that gunite 
slabs demanded considerable opportunity for expansion be- 
tween fixed points. In fact a hole about 15 in. diameter 
was opened up through the side toward the fire, but even 
with this handicap the sample was subjected for four hours 
and fifteen minutes to the heat above indicated without any 
sign of breaking. The heat was withdrawn at this period 
because of the fact that one of the outside thermometers 
showed a little more than 300°, although all the other four 
thermometers read considerably less. Strange to say the 
thermometer that showed the high reading was farthest 
away from the hole that had broken through the inner wall. 
The second test made on June 4 called for a similar sample 
to be subjected to heats up to 1600° for one hour, at which 
time the frame was removed from the furnace and the sam- 
ple swung over so that it could be subjected to a stream of 
water through a lj-in. nozzle at 50 lb. pressure for five 
minutes. This sample at about the same period as the first 
sample showed similar spalling and a hole at almost exactly 
the same spot. The general impression was that the great- 
est initial heats were at the end of the furnace, and that 
when the stress on the short span was once relieved no 
further trouble occurred. When the water was thrown 
against the wall considerable cracking occurred, and after 
cooling it was seen that the slab had split for some distance 
hack from the slabbing-point due to a lamination along the 
plane of the wire mesh. None of the material fell, however, 
nor was there the slightest spalling of the gunite. This led 
to the recommendation that the mesh be placed as near the 
centre of the slab as practicable in a wall of this kind, in 
order to allow for a considerable thickness of undisturbed 
material behind the wire if such lamination should occur. 

It is uncertain pending the issuance of the official report 
exactly what the ruling will be, but inasmuch as all of the 
gentlemen present seemed to be satisfied, and in view of 
the statement made by one of them that he considered this 
wall "better than a 12-in. wall", it seems certain that gunite 
walls will be accepted as self-supporting 'fire walls' under 
certain conditions in steel or reinforced-concrete strutures. 
No tests have ever been made to show the value of concrete 
walls under similar conditions, but tests that have been 
made on concrete have indicated' that gravel concrete will 
stand only a small amount of heat; that granite concrete 
breaks down under the water-test; that trap-rock and gravel 
concrete fuses and flows at 1800° to 2000°; but that a high- 
grade limestone concrete will withstand these heats. Off- 
setting this, however, is the fact that most of the limestones 
obtainable are not suitable. Also it is noted that, if limestone 
or slag screenings were used as the aggregate in gunite, 
even better results still would probably have been obtained, 
as the sand used in these tests was highly silicious. Gunite 
is much used for fire protection in the larger mines through- 
out the United States where timbers in shafts, stations, and 
other more or less permanent working passages are coated 
with a layer : ] to } inches thick. 

Bulletin L 531-B. issued by the Worthington Pump & 
Machinry Corporation, describes Laidlaw 'feather-valve' air- 


The C. L. Best Gas Traction Co. announces the establish- 
ment of its sales and display room at 730 Van Ness Avenue, 
San Francisco. The product of the company will be on dis- 
play and full information regarding Best 'tracklayer' trac- 
tors may be obtained. 

B. V. E. Nordberg, son of the pioneer engine and hoist- 
builder. B. V. Nordberg, has been appointed sales manager 
for the Nordberg Manufacturing Co., Milwaukee. H. W. Dow, 
former sales manager, recently resigned to become vice- 
president and engineer for the Forest Products Chemical Co. 
at Memphis. 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. held at East Pitts- 
burgh on June 9, the following directors were unamiously 
re-elected for three years: Guy E. Tripp, chairman, Joseph 
Marsh, president of the Standard Underground Cable Co., 
H. H. Westinghouse, chairman of the board, Westinghouse 
Air Brake Co., Albert H. Wiggin, chairman of the board of 
the Chase National Bank, and George W. Davison, president 
of the Central Union Trust Co., was selected to succeed 
James N. Wallace, deceased, for the term expiring in June 

Recent advertisements of the Westinghouse Union Bat- 
tery Co., Swissvale, Pennsylvania, have, unfortunately, led 
many to assume that the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co. was entering the storage-battery field. In 
order to clear away any misunderstanding, the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Co. authorizes the state- 
ment that the Westinghouse Union Battery Co. is owned 
and controlled by the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Wilmer- 
ding, Pennsylvania, and the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co. is not in any way connected with the manu- 
facture, sale, distribution, or service of the product of the 
Westinghouse Union Battery Co. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., New York, announces 
the election of Allan E. Goodhue as vice-president in charge 
of sales. Mr. Goodhue since May 1, 1919, has been manag- 
ing director of the company's English subsidiary, the Con- 
solidated Pneumatic Tool Co., London; also director of 
European sales for the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. Mr. 
Goodhue was formerly for a number of years connected with 
the sales department of the Midvale Steel Co. and Midvale 
Steel & Ordnance Co. in Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston, 
leaving that company in March 1918 to enter the service of 
the Government. From that time until January 1, 1919, 
when he became connected with the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Co., he was assistant manager of the steel and raw ma- 
terial section, production division, of the Emergency Fleet 

The General Fireprooflng Co. in the May issue of its pub- 
lication points out that the most important part of any in- 
dustrial operation is the human part — the men who run it. 
Machines are important. Buildings are important. But 
they are useless without the men; whereas men could, in a 
pinch, make progress without either the machines or fac- 
tories, as was the case before the invention of machinery. 
The house is one of the most important factors in shaping 
the true growth of the individual. Ramshackle dwellings 
cannot fail to impress their character upon their inmates, 
and ramshackle workers cannot fail to impress their char- 
acter upon their work. The company believes that the ques- 
tion of proper 'industrial housing' is one of the most im- 
portant considerations of the employer today and recom- 
mends permanent fire-resisting construction. Cement stucco 
on metal lath over reinforced concrete frame, produces a 
construction which is not only rigid and permanent, but pos- 
sesses the insulating qualities so essential in exterior wall- 
work by having dead-air space, thereby keeping the building 
warm in winter and cool in summer. 

July 3, 1920 



Two-ton White operated by the Cananea Consolidated Copper Co., at Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. This owner says 
that White Trucks have given long, satisfactory service at a low cost of operation 


THE real merit of a motor truck is strongly reflected in its 
owners. The Annual Roll Call of White Fleets in actual 
service is graphic proof of the most remarkable truck ownership 
in America, as remarkable for the quality of that ownership as 
for its extent and steady growth from year to year. 

The Roll Call, including only owners of ten or more White 
Trucks, lists 350 concerns with a total of 12,674 Whites. All 
together there are 3,691 White Fleets comprising 40,919 trucks, 
exclusive of single-truck installations. 

Behind it all there is one decisive reason : White Trucks do the 
most work for the least money. 



White Trucks 



July 3, 1920 

Justinian Caire Company The Calkins Company 

—Established 1S51 — 


Gas Combination Furnace Outfits 

The firing in these furnaces 
is done on a tangent to the fire 
box, with the result that the 
flame does not impinge on the 
crucibles but surrounds and en- 
velops them. This great ad- 
vantage will be appreciated by 
experienced assayers and re- 
finers who know how destruc- 
tive it is to the crucibles to 
have the flame strike directly 
against them. 

The crucible chamber is cir- 
cular, which is the proper and 
natural form of a fire box, as 
such a form offers less corners 
and edges for the fire to act 
upon, as well as being the best 
form for proper combustion. 
Access to this chamber is to be 
had from either side of the fur- 
nace through covered apertures. 

The cold furnace will be at a 
good working heat twenty min- 

utes after starting the burner, 
and the muffle will be ready for 
use before the first melt is com- 
pleted. The muffle capacity is 
equal to the melting capacity 
and will easily cupel all the 
melts possible to be made. 


The gas burner used in this 
outfit is a simple, inexpensive, 
long lasting cast-iron burner; 
this operates equally well on 
either illuminating or fuel gas. 
Gas supply is controlled by 
valve in burner, while air sup- 
ply is regulated by six-point 
regulator which is furnished 
with motor, this way of regu- 
lating air is much better than 
the usual way employed in the 
majority of outfits of this kind 
where they use a damper in the 
air pipe. 



Are Not Affected by | 

Muddy, Gritty Water I 

The cylinder has large clearance and I 

the plunger is outside packed at the | 

top. The suction and discharge valves 1 

are fitted with bronze taper seats and \ 

are easily exchanged by removing bon- | 

nets. The Jack Head works altogether | 

on the down stroke; the pump rod is | 

made to weigh just half the amount of 1 

pressure exerted on the plunger so that 1 

the load is equal and uniform at all | 

times whether on down or up stroke. I 

In this way | 

Balance Bob is Eliminated 

3^ thereby increasing the efficiency and | 

?3£ materially reducing cost of installation. | 

' These pumps are made with capacities 1 

of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute 1 

and for elevations up to 600 feet. \ 


Established 1850 X 

299 Fremont St. San Francisco, Cal. 1 

nllimilllMiiiimimiiiM mini iiiimiiimimiimmiij tiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii minimi tun m 

Protect Your Lamps 

^g. From Breakage^Theft 

m| ^Your Property from Ere 

Inexpensive Security Against 
Danger — Losses — Delays 



MARK I ■ ■ ^^^k U IHTOfl 

Lamp Guards 

Mechanically Perfect 
Easiest to Put On — Best in Service 

Flexco-Lok Steel Lamp Guards are of expanded sheet 
steel heavily plated with non-corroding tin. Very simple 
in adjustment. Halves open on riveted hinges in base; 
close over lamp locking screws in collar. Strongly rein- 

All Sizes — Locking or Plain 

Flexco-Lok Steel Lamp Guards are made for all sizes of 
lamps for either standard brass or weatherproof sockets. 
Self-retaining lock screws in Flexco-Lok Guards lock with 
a key preventing unauthorized removai. We make also 
Flexco Steel Lamp Guards exactly the same construction, 
types and sizes but with plain round head screws. 

Ask Your Dealer— or Write Us 

Write today. We will send you prices, sample 40 watt 

Siard and full details regarding Flexco-Lok Steel Lamp 

Jobbers — Get these excellent products for your trade. 

S26 Sooth Clinton Street Chicago, Illinois 

July .:. 1920 




1-5x4 Ball Mill (Hendy) 

2-4x3 Ball Mills (Hendy) 

1-16x10x16 Sullivan 
Class WH2.500' Straight 
Line Compressor 

1-50 HP. Type H Western 
Engine, 38° Fuel 

1-35 HP. Type G Western 
Engine, 38° Fuel 

1-20 HP. Type Y Fair- 
banks-Morse, 27-K Oil 

1-36 HP. Meitz 6 Weiss, 
Two Vertical Cylinders, 
27+ Oil 



Condition: EQUAL TO NEW = 

We Welcome All Inquiries SS 








July 3, 1920 


Under this heading: announcements may be made of new and 
second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The cost 
is five cents per word, including- address. Minimum charge one 
dollar per insertion. Remittances MUST accompany order. Copy 
must be received by Saturday for the following: week's issue. 

FOR SALE — One gold dredge, flume type 3% cubic feet buckets of 
nickel chrome steel with manganese lips: completely equipped with 90 H.P. 
"Western Gas Engine, separate engine and dynamo for lighting plant, 60- 
foot flume with riffles, 14-inch Byron Jackson pump, blacksmith's outfit, 
etc. All new. never used: can be purchased for much less than present 
cost of manufacture. AdoVsss Straub Mfg. Co.. 5th and Chestnut Sts.. 
Oakland. Cal. tf 

OPPORTUNITY — Diamond drilling on a new basis of cost, saving you 
one-half to one-quarter over present methods. Guaranteed work with best 
up to the minute equipment, efficient and experienced help. Long ex- 
perienced and enthusiastic customers. Write for information. H. D. Staley. 
229 Lick Bdg., San Francisco. tf 

WANTED — Wood pipe, second hand, four to ten inch; telegraph quan- 
tity, location and price to O. H. Fairchild, Richfield. Utah. 7-17 

HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT FOR SALE — 23,000 feet double riveted drive 
pipe, 11 in. to 30 in., with elbows, tapers, tees and gates; 3 Campbell ele- 
vators; complete inventory upon request. Address Opp. 392, Mining and 
Scientific Press. 7-24 

FOR SALE — One 4-in. Empire prospecting drill, regular equipment, com- 
plete with horse-power sweep, spring attachment, 60 feet of rods. 90 feet 
of casing and many extras: in use only four months: original cost S1400; 
bargain. Address Star Machinery Company, 1731 1st Ave. South, Seattle. 
Wash. 7-17 

WANTED — Right parties to develop best copper prospect in Arizona; 
will consider lease or sale. Address Box 134, Jerome, Arizona. 7-10 

WILL give controlling interest in group of claims at Ray. Arizona, for a 
certain amount of development work. Copper-silver, prospect stage only, 
but fine ground in proven district; close to railway; plenty of water. Ad- 
dress McKee Investment Co., Ray, Arizona. 7-3 

FOR SALE — An electric traction shovel, Vulcan type, one and one-quarter 
yard dipper. For particulars address S. P. Colt, Hereford, Oregon. 7-24 

WANTED — Compressor, two to four-drill capacity, together with suitable 
oil or gas engine; also drills and equipment; price must be right for cash. 
Address P. O. Box 772, San Jose, California. tf 















We manufacture Dragline Scrapers 
all sizes and capacities, with special 
heavy sheave blocks. 
Sizes— K-yard to 5-yard capacity. 

Send for Cuts and Data 

Manufacturers and Dealers in New and 

Rebuilt Machinery 

Your Inquiries Solicited 


| 115-125 Main St., San Francisco, Cal. 

^iiiiimimmiiiiimmiimiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiMiiimmiiimiiiiimiimm iiiiimr ummmmmt uiiiiiiiHimiiiiMiiimnimiiic- 




211 Pages 

Price $3.75 


ib I ! 

For Sale by 


420 Market St., San Francisco, California 

= nllMllllltl1ll1lllllll1l|]lllll1l[lllllllllllll[ll[1lllll]|lll[IIMIIIIIIMIMI|][ll[ll[llllll11ll[lllllll[l1ll]ll]llllllllllllllllltll>lllllTtri]IIHIIIII 

1 MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 

= resentative in every mining' community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address The Manager, Mininr and Scientific Press. 


•nujitJitiiiiiiiitiitiiiiiii tin iiu niiiitiiii jitiiiiimit i r i tntjiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii intiiii iiitu tiitiiLiminuiJ ti i tn iiiniijiimi in m tn tu tinii n [■iiiitiiuintii eii tiiimi tin iMiiiiiiiiiiiiitiitniJiiiiniiiiiiiutv 

': ; ::-:- 








July 3, 1920 




The cost of advertising- for positions wanted is 2 cents per word, 
including' address. Minimum charge 50 cents per insertion. Replies 
forwarded without extra charge. Remittances must accompany 
order. Copy must be received Saturday morning 1 for the following' 
week's issue. 

CHEMIST AND MILL SUPERINTENDENT, at present employed by large 
corporation, wants change: technical graduate; expert in flotation and 
leaching. Address Box 1067, Phoenix. Arizona. 7-24 

SAFETY ENGINEER — Graduate engineer with eleven years general min- 
ing experience, at present engaged in safety and welfare work, wishes larger 
ppport unity with corporation definitely pledged to this line and endeavor; 
torganizer. capable and tactful; married; age 36. Address PW 391, Min- 
ing and Scientific Press. 7-3 

DRAFTSMAN open for engagement; three years with mining, milling 
And smelting machinery companies. Twelve years with mining, milling and 
smelting companies. Address PW 375. Mining and Scientific Press. 7-3 

MINE CHIEF CLERK wants position; available after July 1; age 45: 
single: years of experience; able to handle all office work, including monthly 
«ost sheets, all by himself, for mine employing 50 to 100 men; speaks 
Spanish; good references; minimum salary to start, S225. Address PW 
rS88, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-3 

POSITION WANTED — Master mechanic, mine, mill, power house con- 
struction; 20 years experience: references from past employers. Address 
PW 390, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-3 

MINING ENGINEER, experienced and efficient superintendent and man- 
ager, open for engagement: age 43; references A-l. Address PW 384. Min- 
ing and Scientific Press. 7-17 

MINING ENGINEER open for engagement; 20 years executive experi- 
ence in the Southwest and Mexico: thoroughly conversant with both tech- 
nical and business end of mine and mill operation; fluent Spanish; highest 
references. Address PW 383, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-17 

MINING ENGINEER available for exploration work or mine and mill 
management anywhere except Mexico. Salary $300; single: speak Spanish. 
Address PW 382. Mining and Scientific Press. 7-10 

MILL FOREMAN OR SHIFTEOSS: first class all around millman: ex- 
iensive experience both flotation and cyanide; can do assaying; good 
mechanic; speak Spanish; go anywhere. Address PW 381, Mining and 
Scientific Press. - 7-3 

MINE FOREMAN OR SHIFTBOSS at present employed desires position 
with a responsible mining company in the western United States; have had 
9.5 years good practical experience as miner, timberman, etc.; four years 
as shift boss and foreman; thoroughly understand the care and operation 
of pumps, compressors, etc: 45 years of age; married: will be available 
on the first of July. Address PW 377, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-3 

COLUMBIA E. M., ten years experience in both operation and engineer- 
ing as mine foreman and chief engineer respectively; speak Spanish. Ad- 
dress PW 371, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-3 

SUPERINTENDENT gold mine and mill: 25 years experience; thorough 
assayer, machinist and millwright; mill planning and construction; have 
well-equipped assay outfit. Address PW 336, Mining and Scientific Press. 


MILL SUPERINTENDENT of wide experience desires employment: just 
completed five-year job; go anywhere: know how to handle men and 
machinery. Address PW 367, Mining and Scientific Press. 8-7 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 
resentative in every mining community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address The Manager, Mining and Scientific Press. 


1 Portland Filters | 

| The following rebuilt filters in our Denver § 
1 stock ready for immediate delivery. | 

I 1—12x7^' 4—12 x 9' | 

I 2—12x8' 1—12^x14' | 



| Concentrating Tables, Flotation Apparatus, Classifiers, | 
= Screens, etc 

W. A. BUTCHART. 1326-1330 Eleventh St.. Denver. Colo. 
| A. P. WATT. Eastern Repiwentotife, Room 1903. 52 Vaodeifailt Ave., New York | 


| IMew 4x4 Ball IVIill 1 

| Latest heavy pattern. For immediate delivery at a | 


I Spokane, Wash. 

5 7-10 = 



{classifiers I 

I IS — 45" Akins, complete with tanks, j 

| 3 — Dorr Duplex, with steel tanks. 

1 Immediate delivery from Denver stock § 


1 Denver, Colorado 1 

I 9-18 § 





| 403 pp. $3.00 Fabrikoid 1 

Arranged in four parts: 

Arithmetic with Applications 

A concise treatment of the subject with checks of 
progress, degree of accuracy possible in solutions, and 
contracted processes. 

Geometry with Applications 

Facts and principles involved in the Bolution of 
geometrical problems are thoroughly discussed, bring- 
ing into play the devices and methods used by prac- 
tical men. 

Algebra with Applications 

Considers graphical methods and the application of 
equations to practical problems. 

Trigonometry and Logarithms 

Giving many applications and emphasizing those 
parts that may be applied directly to practical prob- 



420 Market St., San Francisco 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find $3.00 for which send me 
one copy of Palmer "Practical Mathematics for Home 


Denver, Colorado 

9-18 | 

I Name 

| Address 


MC 7-3-20 = 



Jul}' 3, 1920 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-opera- 
tion of many of the largest mining* companies in the United States. 
Advertisements under this heading will he inserted two times without 
charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of 2c. per word, 
including address. 

WANTED — Young man who has taken partial or full university mining 
or mechanical course: preferably one who has spent his vacation period in 
employment in metal or coal mine. Desirable permanent position with ad- 
vancement opportunities is offered to one who is a business student and 
with live commercial spirit. Applications are invited from young men 
graduating this year or those who have been out one or two years. Please 
give personal description, educational details, and three references. Answers 
will be held strictly confidential and full information concerning position 
open will be given to those whose application letters warrant it. Refer- 
ences are asked to establish applicant's standing, and will not be communi- 
cated with until negotiations have been opened with applicant. AddresB 
PA 374, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-3 

CHEMIST wanted for Western smelter: thoroughly familiar with in- 
organic determinations. Give experience, references and salary expected. 
Address PA 385. Mining and Scientific Press. 6-26 

WANTED MINERS — Two first-class practical miners with modern ex- 
perience in drilling, timbering and pumping, for gold company in Ecuador. 
South America, forty-five miles from coast, altitude 2500 ft.; climate good; 
salary $150 per month, commencing from date of arrival at mine to re- 
turn in New York, together with traveling expenses from port of sailing 
both ways, provided two years contract is completed; also board and quar- 
ters furnished; knowledge of Spanish desirable: only those with best ref- 
erences as to ability and character need apply. Address J. W. Mercer. 922 
Equitable Bdg., Denver. Colo. 7-3 

POSITIONS SECURED PROMPTLY for well qualified men in all branches 
of mining and metallurgical work; 17 years established clientage with the 
largest companies in the industry. Wanted immediately: zinc smelter su- 
perintendent. Arkanass. S225: junior chemists, Utah. Tennessee, Illinois. 
$140; flotation operator, northwest. S175; 2 cyanide shift bosses. Nevada. 
$165; coal mine surveyor, Colorado, $175; mill draftsmen. Arizona. Min- 
nesota, $225-$275. Apply Business Men's Clearing House. Denver. Colo. 7-3 

OPENING for experienced mine foreman and shift-boss with large min- 
ing company in Mexico. A knowledge of Spanish essential. Address J I 
Kane. 1112 Mills Bdg.. El Paso. Texas. 7-3 

-_']iiii!immim[iiPiiriiiniNi muni 



§ Our New Catalogue of Technical Books is now 1 
| ready for distribution. Write for your copy. 1 

| 420 Market St. Mining and Scientific PreSS San Francisco | 


Guaranteed Machinery 


300 H.P. Rust Vertical Water Tube, 150 lb. pressure. 

250 H.P. Heine Water Tube, 115 lb. pressure. 

100 H.P. Heine Water Tube. 

Horizontal Tubular Boilers, all sizes from 20 to 125 H.P, 

Vertical Boilers, sizes from 20 to 40 H.P. 

Locomotive Type, sizes from 10 to 25 H.P. 


160 H.P. Reynolds (closed type). 
100 H.P. Sims. 
80 H.P. Wainright (closed type). 


16 x 42 Allis-Corliss. 
16 x 36 Allis-Corliss. 

15 x 36 Hamilton -Corliss. 

16 x 24 Atlas Side Crank Automatic. 

14 x 20 Atlas Side Crank Automatic. 

15 x 15 Armington Simms. 

14 x 18 Woodbury Side Valve. 


9 x 14 x 10 x 12 Smith-Vaile Duplex, outside packed. 
10x6x12 Jeanesville Duplex, outside packed. 

10 x 4 x 10 Snow Duplex, outside packed. 
14x8Vj x 12 Snow duplex, piston pattern. 
14xl0M> x 12 Knowles Duplex, P. & R. pattern. 
16x8x10 Knowles Single, piston pattern. 

14 x 10 x 10 Deane Duplex. P. & R. pattern. 

2Vi>" Krogh. 4 stage, vertical centrifugal sinking pump, with 35 

H.P.. vertical G. E. motor. 3 phase. 60 cycle. 440 volt. 
No. 11 Cameron Sinker. 
No. 9B Cameron Sinker. 
No. 5 Cameron Sinker. 
8" Morris Centrifugal Sand Pump, direct connected to a S x 5 Morris 

twin vertical engine. 
(>" Wheeler. 2' stage centrifugal, has extension base for motor. 
4" Worthington Single Stage Turbine, extension motor base. 


16x42x36 Guild & Garrison Blowing Engine. 
No. 7 Green Rotary, 67 cu. ft. per rev. 
No. 6 Connersville. 57 cu. ft. per rev. 
No. 5 Baker, 25 cu. ft. per rev 


16x25 Nelsonville. double cyl., dbuble drum. Link motion. 

14 x 18 Lidgerwood. single drum. Link motion. 

1JS% xl5 Lidgerwood. double cyl., double drum. Link motion. 

11 x 15 Gates Iron Wks., double cyl.. single drum, Link motion, 


3% cubic foot MARION Elevator Dredge, electrically equipped with 

3 phase, 60 cycle, 440 volt motors. 
Write for specifications of this dredge. 

This is only a partial list of equipment which we have in stock. 
We can give immediate delivery on all of the above equipment. 

Write Us Your Requirements 

Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 



= Renewed screw casing costs one-half to two-thirds less than stand- 

= ard pipe. Large savings on standard pipe, fittings and valves; 

1 special fittings made to order. Pacific Pipe is thoroughly tested and 

= guaranteed for 150 pounds working pressure; asphaltum dipped; 

= serves every purpose. Let us save you money. Write! 

| PACIFIC PIPE CO., ii 3 N H F <KXfc R ckt T d 



I 1 — 20" and 12"xl6" Ingersoll-Rand Air Compressor (type SB-2). = 

= 084 cubic feet per minute. - 

1 1 —150 H.P.. 2000 V.. 580 R.P.M., Western Electric Induction 1 

| Motor, complete with starting panel, etc. 

I 1 — 4.8"xl2' Air Receiver. | 

1 Above unit complete with belt, pulley, etc. Excellent condition. 5 

= Available in San Francisco for inspection. Can make immediate = 

= delivery. = 


= 90S Insurance Exchange Bldg. t San Francisco, Caf. 7-3 =} 


July 3, 1920 





1 — Ingersoll-Rand Compound Air Compressor, 3000 
cu. It. air per minute. Direct connected to 460-hp. 
Synchronous motor, complete. 

1 — Nordberg Manufacturing Company Compound Air 
Compressor, 1500 cu. ft. air per minute. Belted to 
200-hp. Westinghouse Type "C", 3-60-440 motor, 

1 — 16x10x12 Fairbanks Compound Air Compressor, 
476 cu. ft. air per minute. Belted. 

-10x10 Clayton single cylinder. 

1 — Clayton single cylinder, 16x10 Air Compressor. 

1 — Ingersoll-Rand duplex low pressure, 13x10 Air 


3 — 7x8 Gould Triplex Belt Driven Pumps. 
2 — 4x6 Gould Triplex Belt Driven Pumps. 
1 — 4x4 Gould Triplex Belt Driven Pump. 
1 — 6x7 Aldrich Triplex Belt Driven Pump. 


1 — 100-hp. Fairbanks Type "R" vertical two cylinder 
Distillate Engine, complete with outboard bear- 
ing, friction clutch and air starting set. 

1 — 16x24 Allis-Chalmers, two cylinder horizontal full 
Diesel Heavy Duty Oil Engine, complete with start- 
ing set. 


1 — 7} Gates Gyratory Crusher. 

6 — 6x16 Allis-Chalmers Tube Mills. 

3 — Model "C" Dorr Duplex Classifiers, 20J-ft. x 4J-ft. 

1 — Akins Classifier. 

3 — 500-kva. General Electric Transformers, 56000/ 
47500-440/2200 volts, outdoor type, water and air 

1 — 640 K.W. Motor Generator Set. 

Lot Redwood Tanks. 

1 — 15 H.P. Fairbanks Gasoline Hoist. 

1 — 25 H.P. Fairbanks Gasoline Hoist. 

1 — 6 H.P. Bull Dog Gasoline Hoist. 






If you grind ores or any other material 
you should investigate the merits of — 

tue simplest and strongest 
macuine on tue market 


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--< ■— iFisfflE IM1®IB£3IE ©CS©S 

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Our Portland factory is located in the heart of the 
Douglas Fir Forests where the best of tank woods is 
always at hand; we also make tanks from California 
Redwood. Our tanks are manufactured according to 
our own special process and are guaranteed to give the 
most satisfactory wear. We make all kinds and all 
sizes of wood tanks and can serve you promptly and 

The United States government has used carload 
after carload of our tanks as well as some of the 
largest mines in the country. You will be pleased 
with them. Get our prices and specifications. 

NATIONAL TANK & PIPE CO. l 7 i?R?Ki?f ore 

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Rocks and Rock Minerals I I Economic Geology 

| By L. V. PIRSSOX 1 

414 Pages 3G Full Page Plates Cloth | 

| Price $3.00 | 


| 430 Market St., San Francisco | 

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: 85C Pages Cloth Price $5.00 | 

§ This volume is the standard treatise on Economic Geology. It is = 

= divided into Two Parts: Non-Metals and Ore Deposits. § 

1 Sold by | 


430 Market St., San Francisco --. 




July 3, 1920 




1 — 7"x 12" 7-TON FOUR DRIV T ER SADDLE TANK "VULCAN" LOCOMOTIVE, 24" gauge, 46" wheel- 
base, equipped with steam brakes, 2 — J" "Monitor" injectors, "Hammel" oil burner. No. 9 "Bulls- 
eye" lubricator and 65-gal. fuel oil tank. Working pressure 165 lbs. Extra set o£ new brake shoes 
and heads included. 


1 — 6-TON, MODEL BL "PLYMOUTH" GASOLLNE LOCOMOTIVE, 24" gauge, with 5"x 6", four- 
cylinder, 50 H.P. "Pittsburgh Model" engine, friction disc and roller chain transmission, brakes on 
all four wheels, "WestinghouEe" two-inch starting and lighting system, "Bosch" magneto, "Strom- 
berg" carburetor, and 25-gal. gasoline tank. Speed 0-10 miles per hour; drawbar pull, 2400 lbs. 
at 5 miles per hour, or 1200 lbs. at 10 miles per hour; wheelbase 46i"; length over all 144"; 
height over all 78"; width over all 56". 


1 — "MARION" MODEL 28 REVOLVING STEAM SHOVEL, with %-yd. dipper and traction wheels. 

Working weight about 183 T.; length of boom 16' 6"; length of dipper handle 11' 6"; type of 
boiler, vertical; size of boiler 42"x 96"; working pressure 125 lbs.; size of engines: hoisting 5}x6", 
crowding 4*x5", rotating 4ix5"; capacity of water tank 200 gals.; width over traction wheels 
8' 3"; diameter of traction wheels 33". Boiler has just been retubed. Two extra sets of dipper 
teeth and four new rotating rollers included. 


850 New Fish Plates for 20-lb. rails. 
15 kegs (about 3000 lbs.) New a"x3%" Track Spikes. 
2 kegs (about 370 lbs.) New}£"x2" Track Bolts with square nuts. 
1400 Second-hand "Koppel" Pressed Steel Ties for 24" gauge track, 32" long, 5" wide, % " deep. 


20S-207 IV. 



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| Structural Steel 1 

| We have over two thousand tons of Structural Steel of 
| all shapes and dimensions. This is secured from mill 
| buildings we are dismantling. 

| Write or wire us your requirements. 

| We have one item of 200 tons of 24" 100 lb. I Beams 

| in 50 to 5 5 foot lengths. A large number of columns, 

| girders, channels, I beams, angles, etc. 

| 20 Complete Steel Buildings 


= Denver, Colorado 


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- Consulting, Mining and Metallurgical Engineers | | 



I Mill Tests by Flotation and Cyanide | | 






Most extensive and successful manufacturers. 
Old plates replated — made equal te new. 


1349-51 Miuoo St., San Francisco E. G. DENNISTON, Prop. 

Get our prices. Catalog" sent 

Telephone: Market 2916 


Julv ;:. L920 



Send -for 
Bulletin 180-A 


Is "Every Mines' Compressor" from 
prospect to the largest developed property. 

You can't carry a Jackson Rotary 
Compressor around in your pocket, but 
you can do the next thing to it. 

It is so compact, that it can be lower- 
ed down the smallest shaft. 

It is 'light enough to be readily 
portable; it is self-contained, of course. 

Whether underground or on the sur- 
face, the Jackson Rotary is one of the 
mojt effective, useful appliances made for 
mining operations. 

Send for Bulletin 1 80- A 


233 So, Cherokee St., Denver, Colo. 


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120 to 3300 

600 •«> 3000 SHAFT H.K 



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= Birmingham, Ala.— Box 908. Chicago, HI.— 5 1 2 I jl Nut. Bk. Bl dg = 

I CoInmbiB. Ohio— 607 New Hayden Bldg. DaUiu, fre*.— 1217 Praetorian Bldg. 5 

I Minneapolis, Minn.— 712 Plymoth Bldg. Kansas City, Mo.— 716 Scanitt Bldg. = 

1 New York City— No. I Broadway San Francisco, Cal.— 71 1 BalboaBldg. 1 

Los Angeles, Cal.— 339 Citizens' National Bank Bldg. = 

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| Backed by a record of 25 Tears 
5 of dependable service 

Tapes and 

CATALOG ON request Saginaw, 







Allis-Chalmers Co. Steams-Roger Mfg. Co.- = 

Milwaukee, Wis, Denver Colo. = 

Harron, Rickard & McCone, San Prancieco = 

Prank R. Perrot. Sydney and Perth. Australia = 

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| "Mechanize Underground" with the 1 

a practical mucking machine | 
| Lake Superior Loader Cp. DulutK, Minn. I 





Jul}- 3, 1920 


To meet any condition of capacity or head. 
Self-contained, provided with extra large water- 
cooled thrust bearing, driving shaft being car- 
ried through this bearing, and connected by a 
solid coupling to a motor, so that thrust of 
rotor is also taken up. 

Pump is multi-stage, with solid or split casing 
as preferred. Ball-bearing motor with spatter- 
proof hood. Submit your problems to our 
engineering department. 

Ask for catalogue No. 71. 




A Drill for Every Purpose" 

Write for Prices and Catalogs 


Made in all sizes 
750 to 5000 feet 
to 2-inch cores 


Branch Office, Tucaon, Arizona MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 

July 3, 1920 




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The Dow Chemical Company --t--*-^. 

Sm midland, micmioan.u.i.a < ~^-^3-^* : - 

J«.r.u»ry 19th 1920 
■ortitrcn Lubricated Plus Cock*. 

a. C. whita 

The Merrill Co. 
131 Seoond Street, 
San Frar.ciaco, Gal. 


In conformity with my letter of Nov 19th 1919 
and your reply of Not 34th 1919 beg to aubmlt the f oil. lowing 
report on one of your 2" plug oooke Installed on one of 
our etrong Sulphuric Aold linee. 

Installed 11-21-19 open 




8" wrench 

1-16-20 10" 
1-17-20 10 

uelng lstlok of lubricant & 

10" wrenoh. 
10" wrench 

You will note that only once since the installation 
of this oook have we needed to put lubricant into it to nake 
work. We are very muoh pleased with the results we have 
had go fax with this oook as any other kind of valve we 
have used had to be moved at least once in 24 hours to keep 
It free, or at least to be positively sure it would work 
when wanted. 

fould it be possible for you to furnish ub with 
a lubricant that will stand 180 degrees Cent.? We have one 
other plaoa where we would like to try one of theee oooka 
but the material passing thru the line frequently rises to 
the above mentioned temperature. 

Kindly let the niter hear from you at your early 

Calcium-Magnesium Products Div. 


'Any other kind'' 

of valve caused some trouble for the 
Dow Chemical Company— 

But the 


PLUG VALVE quickly demonstrated 
its superiority. 

No matter how corrosive the solution, 

the MERCO Nordstrom valve always 

turns easily and smoothly. 







Chicago Office: JUonadtiock Bldg. 


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!i() foot head PELTON Turbine connected through speed, increasing gears to 
11G ft. head PELTON Pump. 


Very satisfactory savings 
can be made in pumping 
costs by the installation ot 
all-hydraulic pumping equip- 

First costs are kept at the 
lowest point as only one 
power unit is necessary. The 
water wheel or turbine de- 
velops the power and trans- 
mits it direct to the pump 
shaft. Operating costs are 
practically zero as there are 
no power nor fuel bills to 

The maximum amount of 
water can be pumped. Xo 
loss occurs between the 
power unit and the pump. 
Both are designed to oper- 
ate with high individual effi- 
ciency. When speed changes 
are necessary, high efficiency 
gears are installed to pro- 
vide proper ratios with very 
small losses of power. 

Lei us give you details. 


1986 Harrison St., San Francisco, Cal. 
86 West St., New York, N. Y. 



July 3, 1920 

Practical Oil Geology 



Flexible Fabrikoid 

253 pp. 




This new edition, with consider- 
able new material added, contains 
the following chapter headings: 

1 — Origin and Accumulation of 

3 — Physical and Chemical Prop- 

3 — Stratigraphy 

4 — Structural Geology 

5— Prospecting and Mapping 

6 — Locating Drill-Hole Sites 

7 — Oil Well Drilling 

8 — Oil Production 

9 — Water 

10 — Natural and Casinghead Gas 

11 — Oil Shales 

12 — Geological Field Methods and 
Instruments in Use 

13 — Cautions 



420 Market Street, San Francisco 

Gentlemen: Please send me one copy of "Practical 
Oil Geology" by Hager, for which I am enclosing $3.00. 



It is understood if the book should prove unsatis- 
factory, I am at liberty to return it within ten days 
and refund wHl be made of the purchase price. 

Mc 7-3.20 

Waterbury Wire Rope of iron, crucible 
cast steel, extra crucible cast steel and im- 
proved plow steel is made in all lays and 
standard sizes. Let us help you to select 
the right rope for your work, so that 
satisfactory sendee will be doubly sure. 
Waterbury quality in even 7 grade is with- 
out a superior. 

1 60,000 buy- 
ers of rope 
are using the 
Wa terbury 
Rope Hand- 
book as a 
guide. A copy 
will be sent on 



Makers of Wire, Armored, Fibre, and Fibre- 
clad Rope, also Music Wire 

CHICAGO 609-613 North La Salle St. 

SAN FRANCISCO 151-161 Main St. 

NEW ORLEANS 1018 Maison Blanche Bldg. 

DALLAS, TEX A. T. Powell & Co. 


July 3, 1920 



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I have found nothing to equal 
SMOOTH-ON for leaky steam-pipe 
joints. It does the trick every time. 
Robt. Tomlinson, 
MacFadden Sanatarium, 
Battle Creek, Mich. 

We *av e h J ^~*^ =S=a===== ^^ 

5tf s to 

shi Pi 

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Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by | 


35 Runyon Street Newark, N. J. | 


Hundreds of Letters 
Like These — 

have been coming in for 24 years. They come 
from big engineers and business men, who are glad 
to let us know their appreciation of 


Many of these letters are instructive to any man 
interested in plant operation, since they tell in de- 
tail how to save time and money on repair work. 

The best of them have been collected into a big 
free instruction book which will be sent to you 
on request. 

Write for your copy now. 


570-574 Communipaw Ave., Jersey City, N. J., U S. A. 

Chicago Office: 
221 N. Jefferson St. 

San Francisco Office: 
56 Sacramento St. 





July 3, 1920 

Simple Practicable ■ Economical 

Type 1-B Callow Screen without hous- 
ing is adapted for coarse screening, large 
capacities and heavy duty. The feed soles, 
undersize hoppers and undersize gutters 
have increased slopes, are lined with re- 
newable liners, and are capable of taking 
care of large quantities of feed without 
banking. You'll find satisfaction in a 

Callow Traveling Belt Screen 

If the mill water in your district is charged with acid which eats out im- 
portant parts of your screening machines, we'll submit designs for your ap- 
proval, on a cast iron Callow Screen that is acid proof. 

Bulletin 100 contains information of interest to you — it will help solve your 
screening problems. Write for it. 





Handles all Dry Ores Successfully 

For working all kinds of Concentrating Ores in Quartz or Placer. 
Saves the fines as well as the coarse. No dust. Utmost simplicity. 

Write for Catalog B 


423 Wesley Roberts Bids.. Los Angeles, CI. 



Manufacturers of 


Barrett Nos. 4, 609, 633, 634, 635 


Alpha-Napthylamine Xylidin 

( Crude and Refined) (Crude and Refined) 


or combinations of the above 

17 Battery Place 
New York City 

Salt Lake City 

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| Flotation Oils ] 

Six Standard Pure Oils From Pine 

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SampUl Graf*, i 



Jnlv !. 1920 



Electric Hot Plates 

and Renewal Parts 

£ Jmfy 



-wGbbd 1 BHB9B 







The Denver Fire Clay Co 




ijiiiiiiiiinmimiimimiinimii iiiiiiiiliiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiliiiii(iiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiuiltillliiliiiiiiiiL : 

Screens while it grind* | 

Simplest Cheapest § 

Best | 



Interchangeable peripheral = 

or end discharge = 

Wet or dry | 

Pat. March 23, 1916 | 

10 tons to 40 slot... S 550 1 

2D " " " " ... 750 | 

40 ' 1000 1 

TO ■ " ... 1500 | 

110 2000 | 

3 ton laboratory Iran = 

mill (175 | 

Repeat orders shew merit 1 







Write tor new BooHant 
General Neva! Store. Co, 90 West Street, New York j 

iiiiiiitiiiiiiHiiiiHin iiiiiiiiitiimiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiimi mi; 

liliniiiiiiiHH iiiiiiiiniiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii minimi MMMiiiiiimMimmimmiiiiiiMMiiiMMH 



Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER, Puna. 

iiiiHiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiii i 

Gtjll Podit, Fla. I 


Save Haulage Money 

Many dollars leak away between mine, 
quarry or pit and railroad, mill or fac- 
tory because of costly or complicated 
haulage systems. 

B & B Aerial Tramways 

mean simpler equipment, lessened labor, 
steadier output, lower upkeep, minimum 

Catalog 45 will interest you. Get it. 


New York 



July 3. 1920 

HATES: One-half inch, tts per year, subscription included. Combination rate with The ifinino Magazine (London) one-hcdj inch in each, tttOpervear, wbecription included i 
■MrnituiimmiimHmiminmMniiiliimiminniMiuniuiiiiiiminjnNnmn^ I 



Specialty. Texas Geology and Appraisals 
802 Texas State Bank Bdg., Port Worth, Tex. 

ADUICKS, Lawrence 

61 Maiden Lane. New York City 
Cable- Galie, New York 

BEAM, A. Mills 



807 Central Savings Bank Bdg.. 

Denver. Colorado 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

25 Broad St., New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable: Granitic 

Burch, Hershey & White 
BUROH, Albert 


Crocker Bdtr . San Francisco 

Cable: Burch Usual Codes 

BURCH, H. Kenyon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation. 

Copper Queen Branch 

Bisbee. Arizona 


■lamination, valuation and development of 
mines in Bolivia 
Casilla 178. Oruro. Bolivia 

Hamilton. Beauchamp. Woodworth. Inc. 


Specialty: Flotation 

410 Embarcadero, San Francisco 


71 Broadway, New York 

ALD RIDGE, Walter H. 

BO East 42nd St.. New York 

BELL, J. Mackintosh 

Office with Messrs. Bain. Bicknell & Co. Lums- 
den Bdg.. Toronto. Can. London Address % 
Bk. of New Zealand. 1. Queen Victoria St.. B.C. 


Citizens National Bank Bag.. Lob Angela* 



Petroleum and Metals 

417 Burton Bdg., Forth Worth, Texas 


% Chile Exploration Co., 
120 Broadway, New York 

CHANCE & CO., H. M. 


839 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip 



First National Bank Bdg.. Denver 

Cable: Argall Code : Bedford McNeill 

BENEDICT, William de L. 

19 Cedar St., New York 


61 Broadway, New York 

ARNOLD, Ralph 


Union Oil Bdg.. Lob Angeles, Cal. 

120 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Ralfamoil Code: Bedford McNeil] 


Specialty: Smoke and Other Industrial Injury 
to Vegetation. 14 years experience in America 
and Europe. 2625 Hilgard Ave.. Berkeley. Cal. 

CHASE, Charles A. 


825-826 Cooper Bdg.. Denver 

Liberty Bell G. M. Co., Telluride. Colo. 

B. C. Austin G. E. Gamble W. V. Wilson 


Chronicle Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable- Austin Usual Codes 

BOISE, Charles W. 

Foreign Exploration 
Room 1507. 14 Wall Street.. New York 
Cable : Mukeba 

CHASE, E. E. and R. L. 


207 Colorado Nat. Bk. Bid*.. 

Denver, Colo. 

BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 

Oable: Alhasters Rogers, Mayer & Ball 


Francis L. 



90 WeBt St 

64 New Broad St.. 

New York 

London. B.C. 

COHEN, Samuel W. 


Dominion Express Bdg.. Montreal, Canada 

BANCROFT, Howland 


408 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Caailla No. 216, Oruro. Bolivia 

Cable : Ho w ban Code : Bedford McNeill 











7 and 9 Hanover St., 


New York 



BRAYTON, Corey C. 

2937 Magnolia Ave.. Berkeley. Cal. 

BRODBE, Walter M. 

47 Cedar St.. New York 

BROWN, R. Gilman 


Pinners Hall. London, B.C. 2 

Cable: Argeby Usual Codes 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H. 

Seoul, Korea 

COLLINS, Edwin James 

Mint Examinations and Management 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg., Duluth, Minn. 

COLLINS, George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
414 Boston Bdg.. Denver 
Cable: Colcomac 


H. L. 


616 Pender St. W. 




BROWNE, Spencer Cochrane 

118 West 57th Street. New York 
Cable: Spenbrowne. New York 

COLLINS, Henry P. 

66 Finsbury Pavement. London. E C. 

July 3, 1920 





Cable: Collins. P.-kink- Peking. China 

SUE, J. A. 

La Salle. Illinois 

GARREY, George H. 



Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

CRANSTON, Robert K. 


1213 Hobart Bdg.. 682 Market St. 

Ban Francisco 2 Rector St.. New York 

Cable: Reerans 

Code: McNeill 1908 



icon Hobart Bdg. 
San Francisco. Cal 

408 State Bank Bog. 
Tonopah. Nevada 

GEPPERT, Richard M. 


2200 27th Ave.. South. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

DARLING, Harry W. 

Field Engineer for Crown Reserve M. Co., Ltd. 
30 North Chapel St.. Alhambra. Cal. 

H. W. Evans J. C. Ballagh 


P. O. Box 1155. El Paso. Texas 




Specialty: Electric Furnaces 

701 Claus Sprcckles Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

DAVIS, Leverett 


Examination, Development. Management 

011 Foster Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 

EYE, Clyde M. 


% Wells Fargo Nevada Nat. Bank, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Cable: Eyecon Codes: Western Union 








Hobart Bdg., 582 Market St., 




Bedford McNeill 



818 North Third Avenue 

Phoenix, Arizona 



Casapalca, Peru 

e /e Sac Min. Backus y Johnston del Peru 

GREENAN, James O. 

Mina. Nevada 

DEL MAR, Algernon 


Specialty. Mill Operation and Construction 

1424 Alpha St., Los Angeles 

DENNIS, Clifford G. 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable : Sinned Code : McNeill 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 




The Insurance Exchange 



Cable: Deernodor 


McNeill 1908 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 


1415 Merchants National Bank Bdg., 

San Francisco 


John V. N. Dorr, President 
Denver New York London. E.C. 


704 Lonsdale Bdg;., Duluth. Minn. 

Lindsay Duncan Curtis Lindley, Jr. 


849 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

DWIGHT, Arthur S. 

29 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Sinterer 

Code: McNeill: Miners & Smelters 

EASTON, Stanly A. 


Manager Bunker Hill St Sullivan Mining & 

Concentrating Co., Kellogg, Idaho 

PARISH, George E. 


v'iret National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 

25 Broad St., New York 

PARISH, John B. 

Office. 58 Sutter St.. San Francisco 
Apt. 608 Stanford Court. San Francisco 
Cable: Farish 

Rowland King Chas. Mailhot 




209 Wall St., Spokane, Wash. 




Deister Machine Company 

Fort Wayne. Ind. 


Room 1410, 170 Broadway New York 


Eureka, Utah 


1st Nat. Bk. Bdg., Denver. 423 Broad St., New 
York. 826 Great Southern Bdg., Dallas, Tex. 
Cable: Calfishoil Usual Codes 

FOWLER, Samuel S. 


Nelson, British Columbia 
Cable: Fowler Usual Codes 



Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1209 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco 






Equitable Bdg., 



David X, Greenberg Frank A. Humphrey 

Kingman, Arizona 
Mine Reports and Examinations 


Old National Bank Bdg.. Spokane, Wash 



Specialty: Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ore* 

419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 

HANSON. Henry 


Specialty, Gold and Silver Ores 

Plant Design and Construction 

Hobart Bdg-., San Francisco. Cal 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 

234 Holbrook Building. 
68 Sutter St., San Francisco. Cal. 
Cable: Hawxhurst 

Burch, Hershey & White 
HERSHEY, Oscar H. 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable : Herahey Code : McNeill 





312 McPhee 





1, London Wall Buildings, London E.C. 2 

Usual Codes 



% General Development Co., 

Code: McNeill 1908 61 Broadway. New Yorl 


228 Ferry St., Oakland, Cal 
Cable: Siberhof 



1025 Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago 



July 3, 1920 

HOOVER, Herbert 

120 Broadway. New York 

KIRK, Morris P. 


General Manager Yellow Pine Mining Co., 

Goodspringe, Nevada 



Andagoya. via Buenaventura. Colombia. 
South America 

HOOVER, Theodore J. 

1 London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 
and 634 Mills Bag.. San Francisco 
Cable: Mildaloo 






Bdg.. Salt 





Non-Ferrorjs Metallurgy 
•12 Broadway. New York 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 



13 Emmett St., Limehouse. London. E.C. 

Cable: Neolithic Code: McNeill 


C. B. 







% Burma Mines. Ltd., 

Jamshedpur. India 

HOSKIX, Arthur J. 


Mining. Metallurgy. Geology. Oil Shale 


401 Kittredge Bldg.. Denver. Colo. 

LEHMAXX, Charles 


Examination and Management of Properties 

Casilla 1364. Santiago, Chili. S. A. 

McCarthy, e. t. 

10 Austin Friars. London 

HOYLE, Charles 

Apartado 8. El Oro. Mexico 


Suite 902 Hoge Bag.. Seattle. Wash. 



Rakka Mines P. O. District. Singhbkom. 

Chota Nagpur. India 


207 Alaska Commercial Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cable: Haruston 


, H. Allman 




The Berenguela Tin Mines 



logenio, Potosi 

Code: McNeill 1908 

McGregor, a. g. 


Design of Metallurgical Plant* 

Warren. Arizona 


John Power 



3700, 120 Broadway. 

New York 


Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 30 Broadway. New York 
Cable : Ricloy Code: McNeill 

MEI>\ William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place. New York 
Cable: Mein. New York 

Dudley J. Inskipp 


A. Bevan 


1 Broad St. Place. London. 
Cable: Monazite 

Usual Codes 

Bewick, Moreing & Co. 


62 London Wall, London. E.C. 2 

Cable : Ringlo Usual Codes 

MERCER, John W. 


General Manager South American Mines Co, 

Mills Bdg.. Broad St.. New York 

JAXEV, Charles 


T16 Kohl Bdg 







JEXKS, Arthur W. 

2601 Hillegass Ave.. Berkeley, Cal. 






Sun Life Bdg.. Toronto. 



Bewick. Moreing & Co. 


62. London Wall. London, and 

614 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable: Wantoness Usual Codes 

MERRILL, Charles W. 


121 Second St., San Francisco 
Cable : Lurco Code : Bedford McNeill 



121 Second St.. San Francisco 

Cable : Lurco Usual Code* 



Goldneld Consolidated Mines Exploration Co. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

KEEXE, Amor F. 

233 Broadway, New York. 
Cable Address: Kamor. New York 

E. H Kennard E. C. Bierce 



Mill Design and Construction. Filtration 

Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal 

RTXZIE, Robert A. 

EllSt National Bank Bdg.. San Francisco 

KIRBY, Edmund B. 


918 Security Bdg., St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 

and metallurgical enterprise* 



Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking 


Manufacturers of Diamond Drills and Supplies 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bdg.. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cable: Longco Code: McNeill 


P. E. 











LUNT, Horace F. 

Commissioner of Mines for Colorado 

Denver. Colo. 

No professional work undertaken 

MAJOR, Chas. Edward 

P.O. Box 474. Ppeseotl. Arizona 



The examination of mining properties for 

investors a specialty 

721 S. Hope St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

MILLS, Edwin W. 

75 Yamashita-cho, 
Yokohama. Japan 
Telegrams : Edmills 1 

MtXARD, Frederick H. 


21 East 40th St.. New York 

Cable: Frednard Code: McNeill 

MITKE, Chas. A. 


Mine Ventilation — Mining Methods 
Bisbee. Arizona 



1057 Mooadnock Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable : Fredmor Code : McNeill 

July 3, 1920 

M Vim, Seeley W. 

120« Hollinraworth Bdg . Los Angels*, 0*1. 

MV1K, N. M. 

1024 Mills Bdg.. San Fran&BCO 

lttTNRO. C. H. 


Ipoh. Perak, Federated Malay States 

Cable: Ornum Code: McNeill 

Ni;n.L, James W. 


159 Pierpont St.. Salt Lake City, Utah 
Pasadena, Cal. Spelling. Cal. 

NEWBERRY, Andrew W. 

66 Broadway, New York 


Union League Club, San Francisco. Cal 

NOWLAND, Ralph C. 

Eobart Bdr-, San Francisco 
In charge Exploration Dept. of D. C. Jacklinr 

PAYNE, Henry M. 


1870 Hudson Terminal. 

50 Church St.. New York 

Cable: Macepayne Usual Codes 

PEARSE & CO., Arthur Ii. 


Coal and Shale Treatment 

Worcester House, Walbrook, London, E.C. 

43 Exchange Place, New York 

PERKINS, Walter G. 

587 Mills Bdr., San Francisco 


Avenida Juarez 83, Mexico City, Mexico 
Cable: Keringpic 

PLATE, H. Robinson 


Examination, Development and Management 

Hobart Bdg„ San Francisco. Cal 

Howard Poillon C. H. Poirier 


83 Wall St.. New York 


Casilla 489, Santiago da Chile 

Cable: Kivapo, Santiago. Chile Code: McNeill 



% Oroville Dredging, Limited, 

Mille Bdg., San Francisco 

PROBERT, Frank H. 

University of California. Berkeley, Cal. 



5 Sodonsky Pereuiok, Vladivostok 
8, Copthalt Ave.. London. E.C. 2 



Examination ami Development of Properties 

730 Granville St.. Vancouver, B. C. 

Stewart. B. C. 

RAY, James C. 


865 Hamilton Ave., 

Palo Alto. Cal. 

RICE, John A. 

625 Market St., San Francisco 

Robert H. Richards Charles E. Locke 



Tests for design of Flow Sheets 

69 Massachusetts Ave.. Cambridge, Mass. 


120 Broadway, New York 

RICHARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building, Denver 


42 Broadway, New York 



Mining investigations carefully made In 

responsible intending investors 

525 Market St., San Francisco 

HITTER, A. Etienne 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

ROBERTS. Milnor 


The Pacific Northwest 

British Columbia and Alaska 

University Station, Seattle, WaBh. 


1108 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

Allen H. Rogers Lucius W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 


42 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
Cable : Alhasters 

ROGERS, Edwin M. 


32 Broadway, New York 

Cable : Emrog Code : McNeill 

ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of lining Prop- 
erties with a view to Purchase 
Copper Cliff, Ontario. Code : Bedford McNeill 


ROYER, Frank W. 


1213 Holltngs worth Bdg-. Lob Angele*. Cal 

Cable: Royo Code: McNeill 


Consulting' Metallurgist. Ore Smelting- Con- 
tracts Investigated. Smelting and Milling of 
Copper and Lead Ores. Design and Construc- 
tion. 120 Broadway, New York 


Reports. Consultation and Management. Spe- 
cially, Manganese. Stow Bedon. Norfolk, Eng. 
Codes: A. B.C., 5th Ed.: Bedford McNeill 


Chem. and Met. Eng'rs.. 217 Broadway, New 
York. Designing and Building - Furnaces and 
Kilns: Lime, Magnesite, CO- Plants and Gas 
Producers. Exp. Lab. for Mineral Products. 

SCOTT, Archibald B. 


First National Bank Bdg., Denver, Colo. 

W. H. Seagrave W. E. Dunkle 


Ii. C. Emith Bdg., Seattle 

SEARS, Stanley C. 

Reports, Consultation and Management 
705 Walker Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 
Usual Codes 

SHAJLER, Millard K. 


66 Rue do Colonies, 
Brussels. Belgium 



Amos, Quebec, Canada 

fnndicion de Los Atcob, Toluca, Max. 

P. O. Box 160, Cobalt, Ontario 


1006 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

SMITH, Howard D. 


60 Broadway, New York 
Cable : Diorite Code : Western Union 

Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Ziesemer 

Bisbee, Ariz. Code: McNeill 


214 O'Neill Bdg 1 ., Phoenix, Ariz. 




15 Broad St. 

New York City 




814 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

STEVENS, Arthur W. 

Atlanta, Idaho 



July 3, 1920 

STEVENS, Blarney 

Triunio, Baja Gal., Mexico, 
% S. A. de Minaa y Monies 


aoniNG and metallurgical engineer 

Yancouver Block, Vancouver. B. C. 

STINES, Norman G. 

4, Moorgate Street, London, E.C., 3 
Codes: McNeill (both Editions) and Bentley'a 
f '*Me: Nurmstinen. London 

TURNER, Scott 

1511 Bank of Hamilton Bd«., 
Toronto, Ontario. Canada 


534 Confederation Life Bete.. Toronto, Canada 
208 Salisbury House. London. E.C. 2. England 

TYTLER, Maynard Fitzroy 

Consulting, Mining & Metallurgical Engineer 

% Holte Mining Co., Burgdorf. Idaho 
Cable Address : McCall. Idaho Code: Bed. McN. 

WICKS, Frank R. 


Ore Treatment. Test Work. Plant Supervision 

Office and Laboratory: 1006 South Hill St., 

Los Angeles 

wtley, w. h. 

Palm Drive, Glendora. Cat. 

J. H. Devereux W. B. Devereux, Jr. 


120 Broadway, N. Y. 7, Victoria Ave., London 
Cable: Eenreux Code: Bedford McNeill 

STRAUSS, Lester W. 



Caeilla 514, Valparaiso 

Chile. S. 


Cable: Lestra-Valparaiso 





Mgr. Bluestone Mining & Smelting Co.. 

Mason, Nevada 

SYMMES, Whitman 


PreB. and Mgr. Con. Virginia. Ophir. Mexican, 

Union Consolidated, etc. 

Virginia City, Nevada 

Arthur F. Taggart B. B. Yerxa 


Operation and design of ore treatment plants 
Laboratory. 165 Division St.. New Haven, Conn. 


Contractors and Engineers 


1108 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

Geologic Maps, Examinations, Reports 
315 Judge Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah 





Engineering Works 
Denver. Colorado 



45 Exchange Place, New York * 



*> Bopp Tin Ltd., P. O. Naraguta, 

N. Nigeria. W. Africa 

Codes: McNeill, both Editions 


% A. Chester Beatty, 


26 Broad St.. New York 
Code: Bedford McNeill 




Mills Bdg.. 

San Francisco 

Gable: Latite 

Code: Bedford McNeill 


Goldfleld, Nevada 

VAN LAW, Carlos W. 

% Sinclair Consolidated Oil Corp.. 
120 Broadway. New York 

WALLACE, H. Vincent 


329 Central Building 

Los Angeles. California 


42 Exchange Place, New York 


14 Copthall Ave., London, E.C. 2 
And Peking. China 
Cable: Natchekoo. London 

WEBBER, Morton 


165 Broadway, New York 

O'Souke Estate Bdg., Butte. Montana 

WEEKES, Frederic R. 

233 Broadway, New York 

WEIGAJLL, Arthur R. 


•«neral Manager The Seoul Mining Co. 

Tul Mi Chung (Nantei) 

Whang Hai Province. Chosen (Korea) 

WESTERVEI/r, William Young 


552 Fifth Ave.. New York 

Cable : Casewest Code : McNeill 

WHITE, Charles H. 

788 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 


Botkin Bdg.. Santa Barbara. California 

Burch. Herehey & White 
WHITE, Lloyd C. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 


Underground Programmes. Orebody Problems 

43 Exchange Place. New York 

Haileybury. Ontario (Cobalt District) 

WH3TMORE, Claude C. 



3216 Bayard St., Butte, Montana 

WEVCHELIa Horace V. 

1212 First National-Soo Line Bdg., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable : Racewin 


Continental Bank Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

WISEMAN, Philip 


1210 Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles 

Cable: Filwiseman Codes: W. U.: McNeill 

WOLF, Harry J. 


42 Broadway. New York City 

Cable : Minewolf Code : Bedford McNeill 

WRIGHT, Charles Will 

28. Via Parlamento. Rome. Italy 

Code: Bentleys 

WRIGHT, Lonls A. 

Via Del Parlamento 28. Rome. Italy 
Cable : Lawright. Rome Codes : Bedford McNeill 
and Bentley's Complete Phrase 

WROTH, James S. 

42 Broadway, New York 

Pope Yeatman Edwin S. Berry 



Examination, Development and Management 

of Properties 

Room 706, 111 Broadway. New York 


Bedford McNeill 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg., Los Angeles, California. U. S. A. 

Examinations and Reports on all Mineral 

Deposits. Formations and Processes 

of Extraction 

20 years experience in the Western States, 

Pacific Coast States, U. S. A., Mexico 

and Central America 

ZEIGLER, Victor 

Examination of oil lands and mineral deposits 
Geologic and structural maps 
415 Empire Bdg.. Denver. Colo. ^^^^^ 

Julv 3, 1920 




.Mil tlllllllllllll Hi 

A Smith Hydraulic Turbine 

installed in a con- [ 

crete scroll case, | 

fulfills the re- | 
quirements of 



in the power and pump- § 

ing equipment | 

furnished the : 

u. s. i 


For SUNNTS1DE, WASH.. Plaal | 

as shown in accompany- | 

ing illustration I 


214 H. P., 225 R. P. M. | 


All tnnit caiily accessible for inspection and renewal, 
doe to action of till at certain seasons. 

Similar anil now betaf bail, lor Grand Valley Project In Colorado | 


S. MORGAN SMITH C0.,«k, P a. | 


76 W. Monro* St. 176 Fedml St 405 Power Bid*. 461 Market St. | 


Copper Steel 


Highest in quality and rust | 
resistance. Unequaledfor i 
Culverts, Flumes, Tanks, i 

Roofing, Siding, Spouting, and | 
all exposed sheet metal work, | 

= We maunf actnre Sheet and Tin Mill Products of every description— Black audi 1 
= Galvanized Sheets, Corrugated and Formed Products, Roofing Tin Plates, Eta | 


e Pacific Coast Reps: U.S. Steel Prodogts Co., San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle i 







EARLET C.BACON. Inc. engineers. 




j§ F.or twenty years metallurgists and assayera 
S have looked upon Thompson Balances and 
= Weights as the acme \A precision. Made in 
= a style and size for every purpose. 
Writ© for catalog 


Denver, Colo. 



the original stitched COTTON 
DUCK BELT, has all the 
strength of a steel cable with 
the tenacity, flexibility and 
longevity of specially processed 
cotton duck. 

GANDY is the standard 

belt of industry. 

Its enviable reputation is based 
on the performance of nearly 
40 years in the transmission and 
conveyor field. 

GANDY engineering service 
goes with every belt — power or 
conveyor — to insure the right 
belt — in ply and size — for each 
particular job. 

Orders filled promptly from 
mill supply house or direct. 


Main Office and Factory: 


549 W. Washington St., 

36 Warren St., 
New York City 

Chicago, 111. 

Look for the green edge 
Candy trademark 



July 3, 1920 


(F. W. Libbey) 

Afleayers, Chemists and Metallurgist! 


805-307 N. First St., Phoenix, Arizona 


Assayers, Chemists and Metallurgist* 


Flotation and Cyanide Testa 

1008 South Hill St., Los Angeles. Cal. 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 


(Successor to Bettles & Bard well) 

IBS S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



Technical and Chemical Analysis of Ore* 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

223 W. First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 


Chemical, electro-chemical, metallurgical and 

electro-metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

604 Balboa Bdg., San Francisco 


Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB, Douglas, Arizona 



El Paso, Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 


Special problems in ore treatment 
29 Broadway, New York City 
Cable Address : Sinterer 

ERMLICH & CO., Geo. J. 


Control and Umpire Work 

Ore Shippers Agent 

1726 Champa St., Denver, Colo. 

FROST, Oscar J. 

420 18th St.. Denver 

GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 
824 Washington St., Oakland 
Phone 8929 
Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analysis. Investiga- 
tions of metallurgical and technical processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau, General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring- St., Los Angeles. Cal. 

LAUCKS, I. F., Inc. 

Chemists. Assayers, Metallurgists 

Shippers' Representatives at Smelters 

99 Marion St.. Seattle. Wash. 



159 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City. Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



The 4th edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall be pleated U 

send it to you upon request 

New York Office, 120 Broadway, Room 2817. C. E. Chaffin, Local Manager 

Canadian Office. 363 Sparks St., Ottawa. Canada 

Australian Agent: F. H. Jackson, 22 Carrington St., Wynward Square. Sydney, N. S. W.. Australia 





Flotation of Copper, Lead. Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons 


Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 5266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union: Bed. McNeill 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard ' 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street, New York 


Telephone, Kearney 5951 


Sampling of Ores at Smelters 

63 Stevenson St. 

San Francisco 

SMITH, EMERY & CO. (Ore Testing Plant. Los Angeles) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills 

051 Howard Street. San Francisco 245 South Los Angeles Street, Lob Angeles 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering Full degrees, low cost, fine climate. -Mew 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write lor catalogue. 


HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

530 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision ol 
Sampling at Smelters 

Cable: Hanx 

Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 

PEREZ, Richard A. 



(Established 1S95) 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



1118 Nineteenth St., Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write lor terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 

Wm. P. Miller C. W. NeB 





Mines Examined and Reported On 

Processes Investigated. Mills Designed 

Laboratory. 28 Belden Place. San Francisco 


Fresno, Cal. 



wila. Hydrocarbons and Oil Shale Analysis 

169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 


Mining Engineers' Handbook 

ROBERT PEELE, Editor in Chief 

Fabrikoid Binding 2375 pages 4%x7 $7. 

Order today from 


420 Market Street San Francisco 

July 3, L920 



Old Drifts and Crass-Cuts Sealed 
up with GUNITE 

Are EASILY done and are out of 
the way permanently. 

The constant menace of abandoned workings 
can be easily removed. Fire risk can be thus 
reduced and your men protected from sagging 
roof or rotting timber. 


(SieJ&s simple 

All you have to do is to lay up a dry stone stopping and shoot on the Gunite 
to whatever thickness you desire. Then any floods, breaks, gas or fire that 
break out in the drift will be blocked and your men protected. 


Write lor Details 




904 Cham, of Com. Bldg.. Chicago, HI. 204 R, A. Long Bldg., Kansas City.'Mo. 

30 Church St.. New York City 612 Mohawk Block, Spokane, Wash. 

211 Fulton Bldg.. Pittsburgh. Pa. 812 Va. Railway & Power Bldg., Richmond. Va. 

Citizens Nat. Bank Bldg:.. Los Angeles General Supply Co.. Ltd., Winnipeg-, Manitoba 

Agencies In all Principal Foreign Countries 

am tini m inn urn urn mmmm m inmmmmiim iimiiimmimmimiimm mm y m urn m m m it mm t m in mmimmim mini i s 

I Deister-Overstrom Diagonal Deck Concentrating Table 








I A higher extraction of value*. A higher grade concentrate. | 

Minimum percentage of middlings. Greater capacity* | 


1 The Deister CONCENTRATOR Company 1 

£ Office, Factory and Test Plant: FORT WAYNE, IND. = 



L0C0M0TI«E8-CftR8 1 

Switches, Frogs and Equipment | 



Coast Equipment Co., Merchants Exchange Bldg. | 

^= Si -^r.^ San Francisco, and San Fernando Bldg., Los Angeles = 

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can be 6ectionalized for = 

mule packing. It ia par- = 

ticularly suited for use in = 

isolated places on account = 

of the long life of the = 

wearing parts and its = 

freedom from breakdowns. = 

Send for Catalog No. 0. | 



106 W. Third St., § 

Los Angeles. ObI. = 

niiiiiiiiiiii urn minium iiiiiiimiimiiiinii. 

277 PAGES PRICE $3.00 7 % "x 5 Yi " 

Pocket Size Flexible Fabrikoid Binding 

A practical handbook on the cyanide process, in- 
cluding the latest information and inventions. It pre- 
sents in convenient form the essential data having a 
practical bearing on testing an ore, planning the flow 
sheet and operating the plant when erected. 

All tables pertaining to the cyanide process as well 
as formulas and standardized tests, are given. 



| 420 Market St., San Francisco | 

= Gentlemen: Enclosed And $3.00 for which send me one copy of = 

| "Manual of Cyanidatlon", by E. M. Hamilton. = 

| Name = 

= Address = 

| Mc 7-3-20 | 




July 3, 1920 


Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 
Addresses will be found on the Sixth followinq Page — 
n If you do not find what you want communicate with Mining and Scientific Press Sehvice 

Acetylene Generators 
Bullard, E. D. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Dorr Co.. The 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co- 
Trent, Goodwin M. 

Air Receivers 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Ocean Shore Iron Works 
Reardon. P. H. n 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Amalgamating Plates 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Gibson. W. W. p 

Morse Bros. Machy. * SjiP- w»- 
San Francisco Plating Works 

WoSSfon An?* Mach. Corp. 

Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 
Angles, Boiled Steel 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Assayers' and Chemists' Supplies 

Bartley Crucible Co. Jonathan 

Braun Corporation. The 

Brauu-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Caire Co.. Justinian 

Calkins Co. rwr , _ 

Denver Engineering Works U>. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

(See Index to Advertisers) 

Axles, Car and Locomotive 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Axles, Mine Car 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Bubbitt Metals 

Finn Metal Works. John 


Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Balances and Weights 

Ainsworth, Wm. ft Sons. 
Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Caire Co.. Justinian 
Calkins Co. 
' Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 
Thompson Balance Co 

Balls for Ball-Mills 

Bacon & Matheson Forge Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. Ltd. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Hardinge Co. 

Hickok & Hickok 

Los Angeles Foundry Co. 

Mine Equipment & Supply Co. 

Pollack Steel Co. 

Ball-Mills (see 'Mills') 

Bars, Concrete 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Bars, Rolled Steel 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Gaxratt ft Co.. W. T. 
Belting and Lacing 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 

Gandy Belling Co. 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 

Main Belting Co. 

Marsh all -Newell Supply Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pioneer Rubber MillB 

United States Rubber Co. 

Belt Fasteners 

Crescent Belt Fastener Ce. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoft Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 

Blowing Engines 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. Ltd. 
Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 
Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Bolts and Nats 

Drake Lock-Nut Co. 
Books, Technical 

Mining and Scientific Press 
Brick. Fire 

Atkins. Kroll ft Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 

Briquettlng Machinery 

General Briquetting Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


Atlas Car & Mfg. Co 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 

Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Meese ft Gottfried Co. 

Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 


Atlas Car ft Mfg. Co 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Calculating Machines 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co. 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Cam Shafts 

Pollack Steel Co. 
Carbide Flare Lights 

Bullard. B. D. 
Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

Atkins. Kroll ft Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car ft Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Ottumwa Iron Works 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co. 


Dodge Sales ft Engineering Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Channels, Boiled Steel 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Barrett Co.. The 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Caire Co.. Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Du Pont de Nemours ft Co. 

Giant Powder Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roessler & HasBlacher Chem. Co. 

Chilean Mills (see 'Mills') 

Allis-Cbalmers Mfg. Co 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Chalmers ft Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dorr Co.. The 

Meese ft Gottfried Co. 

Pacific Tank ft Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Classifiers, Dry 

National Milling ft Refining Co. 
Clutches, Friction (see 'Transmis- 
sion Machinery') 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress ft McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Fail banks, Morse & Co. 

Gardner Governor Co, 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Compressor Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Norwalk Iron Works 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 

Rosenberg ft Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump ft Mach. Corp. 

Allis-Chalmera Mfg. Co. 

Butchart. W. A. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins ft Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Deister Concentrator Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Gibson. W. W. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 

Concentrators, Dry 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 
Concrete Mixers 

Worthington Pump ft Mach. Corp. 
Concrete Reinforcements 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Condensers, Low Level Jet 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Condensers, Surface 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Connecting Rods 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Contractors, Core Drilling 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 

Gandy Belting Co. 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. P. 

Main Belting Co. 

Meese ft Gottfried Co. 

Pioneer Rubber MillB 

United States Rubber Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Crank Pins 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Crank Shafts 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Crank Webs 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Cross Heads 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 


Albs-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bacon. Inc.. Earle C. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Buttress ft McClellan 

Caire Co.. Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Chalmers ft Williams 

Collins ft Webb, Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Hendrie ft Bolthofl Mfg. ft Sup. Oo. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump ft Mach. Cor*. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun -Knecht-Heimanu Oft. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joeeph 

Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 

American Cyanamid Co. 

Roessler ft Hasslacher Cham. 0*. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins ft Webb, Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Dorr Co.. The 

Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

National Tank ft Pipe Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank ft Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 

Trent, Goodwin M. 

Worthington Pump ft Mach. Corp. 

Chalmers ft Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Dorr Co.. The 

General Engineering Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 
Drafting Material 

Ainsworth, Wm. ft Sons 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Lietz Co., A. 

Dragline Excavators 
Collins ft Webb, Inc. 
Leschen ft Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Hickok ft Hickok 

Leschen ft Sons Rope Co., T. 

Morris Machine Works 

New York Engineering Co. 

Pollack Steel Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpener* 

Collins ft Webb, Inc. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Collins & Webb, Die. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Oo. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Core 

Dobbins Core Drill Co. 

(Continued on page 72) 

July 3. 1920 



immiimiiiiii imiiNiimiiiiiiMMiii 


limillllllllllilllilllllll II [III I IIIIIIHH i. ..■',., 

Perforated Steel Screens I Tube Mill Linings and Grinding Pebbles 

T® E<s®ffii©innin§@ U§@ 

and Grinding Pebbles 


Some users you know 

| Utah Copper Co., Salt Lake City, Utah 

| Gold Hill & Iowa Mines Co., Quartzburg, Idaho 

| Federal Mining & Smelting Co., Morning, Idaho 

| Cornucopia Mines Co., Cornucopia, Oregon 

| United States Portland Cement Co., Denver, Colo. 

| Ray Consolidated Copper Co., Hayden, Arizona 

| Hercules Mining Co., Burke, Idaho 

| Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co., 

| Kellogg, Idaho 

| Alaska Gastineau Mining Co., Thane, Alaska, and 

I many more. 

| In use in 34 States, Alaska, Canada, and Mexico. 

Write today tor prices and information 





Made for Service | 

The Harrington & King Perforating Co. i 

637 N. Union Ave., Chicago, III. | 

NEW YORK OFFICE: 114 Liberty Street | 




( Especially TheWhite Star Valv e) | 

Valves for Steam, | 

Water, Gas, Oil or | 

Air to meet every | 

mining requirement | 

Gate Valves with ris- | 

ing or non-rising | 

spindles. Screwed or | 

flanged ends, in brass, | 

iron or steel. | 

If your dealer cannot furnish = 

you with | 


"White Star" \ 

Gate Valves | 

write us. | 

The/^Wm. Powell Co. | 

HVdePENDABlE Engineering Specialties j 





1 I 


^* BELT 



HiifiifiSS 21 ^^H^^^b 


-or ask your local dealer. 






July 3, 1920 


iiiimiMimimi mitiitiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiitiii iiiiimmmmmii iiiiiitiiiimitiimtiiiitimim iiiiiiiimiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiimijmimmiiiiiiimimmmiiim iiiiimmilimmi iimmiimimiiummmuiummiiimmmMimmiiiiiuiiMiiirm 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co.. E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Longyear Co., E. J. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Traylor Eng, & Mfg. Co. 

Electrical Supplies 

AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. Co. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men'B Clearing Houoe 
Engineers (Designing and Contract- 
Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
General Engineering Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Steams-Roger Mlg. Co. 

Engines. Internal Combustion 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Fairbanks, Moree ft Co. 
Hendxie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. CO. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Novo Engine Co. 
Reardon, P. H. 
Western Machinery Co. 

Engines, Oil 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

MorriB Machine Works 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 


Gahfornia Cap Co. 
Du Pont Powder Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Pans. Ventilating 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 


Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Merrill Co. 

Moree Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

United Filters Corp- „ 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Filter Cloth, Metallic 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
United Filters Corp. 

filter Presses 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Merrill Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
United Filters Corp. 
Worthington Pump ft Mach. Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard, E. D. 
.Justrite Mfg. Co. 

First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard. E. D. 

Flotation Apparatus 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Butchart, W. A. 
Butters Co.. Ltd., Chas. 
Colburn Flotation & Eng. Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Engineering Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Southwestern Eng. Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 


Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 


Cambria Steel Co. 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Forglngs, Drop 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Forglngs, Heavy 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Forgings, Mine and Dredge 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Fuel Oil 

standard Oil Co. 

Furnaces, Assay (see 'Assayers and 
Cliemists supplies') 

t uruui'to, Uii 

Deliver U'ire Clay Co. 
ingersoll-Kand Co. 

Furnaces, Boasting and Smelting 

Aiu=-tUiiuitia jillg. Co. 
vviurauu li'uu Wui'Kb 
Aseuver Eng uieeriuif Works Co. 
Meuurie Ot JDOiinull Jlig. « Sup. Co. 
Mine oc smelter supply Co. 
Morse Bro». Aladiy. dc Sup. Co. 
Traylor -tug. dc Mlg. Co. 
Wortningtun Pump ft Mach. Corp. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dodge Sales & .Engineering Co. 
D'aweus machine vo. 
General Klectnc Co. 
Meese ft Gouined Co. 

Generators, Electric 

AiUs-CnalmerB Mfg. Co. 

.buttress & McClelian 

Collins & Webb, Dae. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & BoithoH Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & sup. Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft Mlg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraulic 
Alining Machinery') 


Gardner Governor Co. 
Graohlte Products 

Bartiey Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Grinders, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Hoists, Electric 

Aihs-Chaimers Mfg. Co 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Buttress & McClelian 

Collins ft Webb, Inc. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Ottumwa Iron Works 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. Co. 

Hoists, OH and Distillate 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Buttress & McClelian 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Western Machinery Co. 

Hoists, Steam or Air 

Albs-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Bagersoll-Rand Co. 

Lesehen & Sons Rope Co.. A 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Ottumwa iron Works 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 


Buttress & McClelian 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 

Bigersoll-Rand Co. 

Pioneer Rubber Mills 

Rix Compressed Air ft Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

United States Rubber Co. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works. 
GaiTatt & Co.. W. T. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Hydrocyanic Acid, Liquid 

American Cyanamid Co. 
Ice Machines 

Norwalk Iron Works 

Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Marshall-Newell Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Buttress & McClelian 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Union Construction Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Laboratory Supplies (see 'Assayers' 
and Chemists' Supplies') 

Lamp Guards 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 
Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners' 
Bullard, E. D. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Wolf Safety Lamp Co. 

Lining for Ball-Mills 
Chalmers ft Willi am a 
Hardinge Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Jasper Stone Co. 
Los Angeles Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


Paraffins Companies, Inc. 
Loading Machines, Pneumatic 

Lake Superior Loader Co. 
Lock Nuts 

Drake Lock-Nut Co. 
Locomotives, Electric 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Collins & Webb. Jjic. 

General Electric Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Compressed Air 
Porter Co.. H. K. 

Locomotives, Gasoline 
Fate-Root-Heath Co. 

Locomotives, Steam 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 
Porter Co.. H. K. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Standard Oil Co. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Marshall-Newell Supply Co. 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Machinery, Used 

Butte Machinery Co. 

Buttress & McClelian 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Jardine Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Nevada Engineering & Supply Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Rebuilt Machinery Co, 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Zelnicker Supply Co. 

Magnets, Lifting 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Magnetic Separators and Pulleys 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Smelters Securities Co. 

American Zinc. Lead 6 Smelt. Co. 

Atkins. Krol.l ft Co. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Grubnau. Bryant ft Grubnau 

International Smelting Co. 

U. S. Smelting. Bef. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Mills — Brill. Pebble and Tube 

A llis- Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. Ltd 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Buttress & McClelian 

Chalmers ft Williams 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hardinge Co. 

Herman. John 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Mine Equipment & Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Rosenberg ft Co 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp.- 

Hills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers ft Williams 
Collins & Webb. Die. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Quartz Mill ft Crusher Co. 
Lane Mill ft Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Grinding 
Gibson, W. W. 
Marathon Mill & Machine Works 

Mills, Stamps 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp, Ltd. 

Buttress & McClelian 

ChalmerB ft Williams 

Collins ft Webb. Die. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump ft Mach. Corp. 

Motor Trucks 

Garford Motor Truck Co. 
Mutual Truck Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress ft McClelian 

Collins ft Webb, Inc. 

Fairbanks. Morse ft Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft Sup. C*. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. Co. i 

Rosenberg ft Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. Co. 

Mucking Machines, Mechanical 

Lake Superior Loader Co. 
NoduUzers, Ore 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. . 
Office Supplies 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Marchant Calculating Machine Co. 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

OH and Grease Cups (see TLnbri- I 

Oil, Flotation 

Barrett Co., The 

Florida Wood Products Co. 

General Naval Stores 

Pensacola Tar ft Turpentine Co. 

Standard Oil Co. 

United Naval Stores 

Ore-Bnyers (see TMetal Buyers ani 

Ore Testing Equipment 
General Engineering Co. 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cuttrai 

Bullard, E. D. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard. E. D. 
Siebe, Gorman Co.. 



Diamond Rubber Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Marshall-Newell Supply Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
United States Rubber Co. 

(Continued on page 74) 

July J. 1920 





When your surveying instrument meets with an accident it warrants 
placing in reliable hands. Mechanics cannot be expected to intelligently put 
a scientific instrument in order, despite a conscientious effort on their part. 
A mechanician trained for years in this particular work can make the neces- 
sary repairs in shorter time and with the interest of the profession constantly 
in mind. 

We, with our factory facilities and trained workmen, can assure the 
profession of the utmost satisfaction in the repairing of all makes of sur- 
veying instruments, and we assume all responsibilities when this work is 
entrusted to us, for the work of our help is fully guaranteed. 

The necessary charges for such work represent nothing more than the 
time, carefully tabulated, and actually required by only skilled mechanicians 
to put the instrument in first class condition; this being supported by the 
integrity of a firm established in San Francisco since 1882. 

Delays may ensue, for we are at present entrusted with the repair of 
many instruments, but we solicit your work, assuring you that it will be 
handled as quickly as possible. 

Estimates are cheerfully made. 



Established 1882 

Main Office and Salesroom: 61 Post St., San Francisco, U.S.A. 

Factory 632 to 648 Commercial St, 


I Prospector's Field Book and Guide 1 

1 In the Search for and the Easy Determination of Ores and Other Useful Minerals m 

| By H. S. Osborn H 


S By M. W. von Bernewitz = 

I 4 5£ x 7 1,£ 400 Pages 57 Illustrations Flexible Binding Pocket-Book Style g 

Price . *322. 

Anew addition to this splendid book is 
a spirited introduction emphasizing 
the necessity of prospectors receiving some 
technical training. Discusses practical 
mineralogy, crystallography, the value of 
the blowpipe in prospecting, surveying, 
and chemical tests in the field. Separate 
chapters are given to the precious and base 
metals, also to the non-metallic metals. 



" prospectors 



An important guide and a suggestive aid 
throughout the new book are the many brief 
descriptions of ore deposits of all minerals 
occurring in scattered parts of the world. 
These have been abstracted carefully, and 
tell how certain minerals may be expected 
to be found. Another special feature is 
the lists of outfits, prices and the manipu- 
lation of the apparatus. In the appendix 
will be found numbers of useful tables, an 
explanation of the unit system of buying 
and selling ores, and a complete glossary 
of mining and mineralogical terms. 



420 Market Street, San Francisco 
Gentlemen: Enclosed And S3.00 for wUlch send me one copy of Osborn- 
Book and Guide. 


-Prospector's Field = 

J You will be interested in our 

1 latest catalogue which con- 

| tains a description of the best 

| and latest bookt on indus- 

I tries allied to the mining field 

I iiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i i i iii iii i iiiiiiiiii i i i n > i > • > > i m imiiiiii ' "mug i n 


It is understood, if the above book proves unsatisfactory I am at liberty to return it 
within ten days and refund will be made of the purchase price. 

HOB 7-3- fl 



July 3, 1920 


millllliliim i i i miiimiiimmimiiiiiiiJiiiiiimm imimiiiimin illinium m mi immiimmiiimiiiiiimmmuiri 

mi iiimtlillllllll niiffliinmimii i iiiiiiiiihh timiniuimiNiiKiiaa. 

Paint, Preservative 

Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co. 
Parafflrte Companies, Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. 

i'aper — Building, Insulating and 
Paraffine Companies. Inc. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Co. 
Jasper Stone Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harrington &. King Perforating Co. 
Ludiow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Covering 

Paraffine Companies, Inc. 

Pipe Fittings 

Diamond Rubber Co. 
Garratt & Co., W. T. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Lunkenheinier Co., The 
Marshall-Newell Supply Co. 

Merrill Co. 

Nor walk Iron Works 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Powell Co.. Wm. 
Sacramento Pipe WorkB 

Pipe, Cast Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Works. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe. Standard Wrought 

National Tube Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Placer Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works. 
Collins & Weub, Inc. 
Harrington & .King Perforating Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Pulleys, Magnetic 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers (sat 
'Transmission Machinery') 

Pumps, Air Lift 

Aldrich. Pump Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Proscott Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Pumps, Centrifugal 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Well Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. A. 5. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Frenier & Sons 

Garratt & Co.. W. T. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Iron WorkB. Byron 

Krogh Pump & Machinery Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

"orris Machine Worka 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Prescott Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Pumps, Reciprocating 
Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pumps Wks.. A. S. 
Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Prescott Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard, E. D. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Railway Supplies and Equipment 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Pollack Steel Co. 

Rods for Rod Mills 

Pollack Steel Co. 
Roller Bearings 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co. 
Rolls, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Bacon. Inc.. Earle C. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

ColoradG Iron Works . 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Roll Shells 

Cambria Steel Co. 


American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Paraffine Companies, Boo. 
Standard Oil Co. 

Rope, Manila 

Waterbury Co, 
Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Waterbury Co. 

Rubber Boots and Shoe* 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Safety Appliance* 
Bullard, E. D. 
Siebe. Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Box D-on WorkB Co., Wm. A. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Box D-on Works Co., Wm. A. 

Prescott Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm, A. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Collins & Webb, Die. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harrington & King Perforating Co. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Ludiow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Stimpson Equipment Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Screens, Mining, Etc. 

Ludiow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Screens, Rolled Slot 

Ludiow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Screens, Wire 

Ludiow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Shafting (see 'Transmission 

Shafts, Forged Steel 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Sheet Steel 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 

Shoes and Dies 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp, Ltd. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A 
Shoveling Machines 

Lake Superior Loader Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Co. 

Jasper Stone Co. 

Sintering and Agglomerating 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

U. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Collins & Webb, Lie. 

Colorado Iron Works 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Finn Metal Works, John 


American Spiral Pipe Works. 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Cary Spring Works 

Steel, Drill 

Buttress & McClellan 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Collins & Webb, Die. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Simpson Co,, A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Go. 

Steel, Structural 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Pollack Steel Co. 

Steel, Tool 

Cambria Steel Co. 

International Highspeed Steel Co. 

Williams Improved Stretcher Co. 

Surveying Instruments 
Ainsworth, Wm. & Sons. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Leitz Co., A. 

Tanks, Steel 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Digersoll-Rand Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Tanks, Wood 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Tapes, Measuring 

Lufkin Rule Co. 
Thickeners, Pulp 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Don Works 

Dorr Co.. The 
General Engineering Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Tires, Auto and Truck 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 

Tools, Blacksmith 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 


Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Pulley Co. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Prescott Co. 
. Rosenberg & Co. 

Tracks, Motor (see 'Motor Trucks') 

Tube-Mills (see) 'Mills') 

Tumbler Shafts, Heavy Forged 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Go. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Crane Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Marshall-Newell Supply Co. 
Merrill Co., The 
Norwalk Iron Works 
Powell Co., Wm. 

Water Wheels, Impulse 

Box L-on Works Co., Wm. A. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. : 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Well Drilling Machy. and SnppUaa 

American Wei! Works 
Union Construction Co. 

Wheels, Car 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 


Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Powell Co., Wm. 


American Steel & Wire Co. 
Anaconda Copper Mining Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wire Cloth 

Ludiow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Wire, Insulated 

Diamond Rubber Co., Die. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Zinc Boxes 

Colorado Don Works Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfra. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Zinc Dust and Shavings 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Finn Metal Works. John 

Merrill Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

U. S. Smelting. Ref. & Min. Co. 

July 3, 1920 



I II II II II 1111(111(11111111 II II I I II II II II II Mill 

AUrich Pumps | GARFORD 


Quintuplex Motor Driven Pot Chamber Pump, for general pump- = 

ing requirements such as water works, eteel mills, factories, etc.. = 

but is especially suited for mine service. Can be run with one or = 

two motors, mounted on top. Their range of operation is from 300 = 

to 4000 G. P. M. against lifts of from 500 to 1000 feet. | 

Write for a copy of our 1920 calendar | 


No. 5 Allen St., AUentown, Pa., U.S.A. 

McCormick Building 30 Church Street Keenan Building i 

EL PASO TEXAS. MUU Building 1 

Si" in iitiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiririiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiii!;. 






Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing, Pipe 

and Casing Fittings, | 


Valves and Brass Goods 1 












The Garfbrd Definite System 
of Service to individual truck 
owners has been fundamental 
in the accomplishment of 
Garford Low Cost Ton-Mile. 

Lima, Ohio 

Periodically during each year Garford 
expert service men go from our factory 
to every Garford owner. They thor- 
oughly inspect each truck, ride with the 
driver on the job, and make minor ad- 
justments. Written reports of these 
inspections are sent to factory for anal- 
ysis, and recommendations are made 
direct to owners by our Maintenance 

Siiiiiimimimiumiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiii iitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

1 1 j i j i f i r e 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 



July 3, 1920 


United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Company 



Gold, Silver, Lead and Copper Ores. Lead and Zinc 
Concentrating Ores, Matte and Furnace Products. 


Lead Bullion. 


Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper, Zinc, Zinc Dust, Arsenic, 
Insecticides, Fungicides, and Cadmium. 


912 Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 

nett, Cal.; Goldroad, Ariz.; Baxter Springs, Kansas; 

120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca (Real del Monte 

Co.), Mexico. 


United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co. 

For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, 55 Congress St., 
| Boston, Mass. District Offices, 130 Broadway, N. Y.; 1504 Hobart 
| Blag., San Francisco, Cal.: Newhouse Bids., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Immediate Shipment from Our 
San Francisco Stock 

JOHN FINN'S Air Separated Zinc Dust for Cyaniding. 

JOHN FINN'S Crank Pin and Empire Anti-Friction 
Babbitt Metals, universally used in tbe Mining and 
Cement Industry. Also manufacturers of all grades of 
Solder and Type Metals. 

Write or wire for prices on your requirements. 

John Finn Metal Works 

372-398 Second Street. San Francisco, California. 


Purchasers of 


Address: 1012 Pierce Building, St. Louis, Mo. 



55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 


New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



International Lead Refining Company, East Chicagro, Indiana 
Rariton Copper Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 


618 Kearns Building-, Salt Lake City, Utah 



ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco 









Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 1 


WORKS: Marmiile, Cat. SALES OFFICE: 433 California St. San Frandieo, CtL | 


American Smelters Securities Co. 
(Selby Smelting Works) 

Buyers or 


Consign all shipments to 



Address correspondence to 

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aiHiniiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiHiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin iiiiiiiiiiiimiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii imiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiMj 


Consulting Engineers 
1 25 Broad Street, New York J 

Specialists in the Briquetting of Ores, j 

Flotation Concentrates, Coals, Etc. \ 

aiiiiil ill iniiiiii minimum i im m minimum nil tin 

lllimimiiiiiimmmnmm «" iimmmmiimiiiiiiiiliimlimmiim iinmmmnmmmmimmn inim| 

The Empire Zinc Company j 
Buys Zinc Ores 

Address oar Offices: Or write to | 

160 Front SL New York NY H - L WILLIAMS. % 

mil rront m., new lore, n. i. ^ KEARNS BLDG § 

703 Symes Bldg., Denver, Colo. SALT LAKE CIT^ UTAH fl 

minimi iiiiiimmmmiim miiiilum inn miniii I Illlinii mm iiiiwhi.mmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii£ 

July 3, 1920 


lilimitu tun iinimmmiiijiimimiml limn 




Roessler & Hasslacher 

Chemical Company 

707-717 6th Ave., cor. 41st St., NEW YORK, N.Y. 


Cyanide of 
Sodium 96-98% 



Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 

each egg weighing 1 ounce. 

Cyanogen 51-52% 

Grinding Balls and 
Mill Liners 

What Was Your Liner Cost Last Year? 
Would You Like to Reduce That Cost? 


Is the Logical Answer. 


2444 So. Alameda 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

aw ' ' (mi i in in i iiiiinmiiiimi 

nT amimm I n in in in in i I < iimlll 

iiil uilllllinnninnnninnnnniiinnniiinniinniiinnninnniiinniininiiiiiniiniiinniiiiinnninniinniiinnnninliiiinnmiiiiniiiiiiii^ 

Grubnau, Bryant & Grubnau 

Buyers of 


Manufacturers of 
Zinc Oxide and Zinc-Lead Pigments 




900 First Ave. South, Seattle 624-646 Folsom St., San Francisco | 

487 Lovejoy St., Portland, Ore. 216 South Alameda St., Los Angeles § 

Office and Works : 

Waldo, New Mexico 


Smelters, Refiners and Purchasers of 

Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and 
Native Platinum 

Production of Proof Gold and Silver for AssayerB 


(ore: broker) 

1 20 years experience in marketing ores and | 
1 minerals. Tell me your troubles. 



| Tel. 276 New Dorp I 

nllllllimi miiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiimiiiiii iiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiif? 










| Sharon Bldg. San Francisco, Calif. | 





1009 17th Street 101 Park Avenue 16 South Street = 




July 3, 1920 

is ^ 

Dash • Indicates • Every- Other-WeeK-or- Monthly • Advertisement - 


Ainsworth & Sons. Wm.. Denver 75 

Aklrich Pump Co.. Allentown. Pa 75 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee, Wis 6 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co.. Birmingham. Ala. 55 

American Cyanamid Company. New York 3 

American Pulley Co.. Philadelphia. Pa — 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co.. Pittsburgh. . .67 
American Smelters Securities Co.. San Francisco. 76 

American Spiral Pipe Works. Chicago 78 

American Steel & Wire Co.. Chicago 59 

American Well Works. Aurora. Ill 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting- Co.. St. Louis. 76 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co.. Chicago — 

ABBayers. Chemists and Ore Testing Works. . . .68 

Atkins. Kroll & Co.. San Francisco 76 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co.. Cleveland. Ohio 69 

Bacon. Inc.. Earle C. New York 67 

Barber-Greene Co.. Aurora, 111 

Barrett Co.. The. New York 80 

Barlley Crucible Co.. Jonathan. Trenton. N. J. .16 

Beer, S.. Sacramento. Cal 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. San Francisco. . . 

Blake. Moffitt & Towne. San Francisco 75 

Books. Technical 51-58-69-73 

Box Iron Works. Wm.. A.. Denver. Colo 

Braun Corporation, The. Los Angeles. Cal 40 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co., San Francisco! '.'. ~40 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co.. St. Louis 61 

Bullard E. D.. San Francisco _ 

Bullen & Co.. San Francisco 

Bunting Iron Works. San Francisco; '.'.'.'.'.'.'" 

Buseh-Sulzer Bros.. St. Louis. Mo... 55 

Business Men's Clearing House. Denver 50 

Butchart. W. A.. Denver. Colo. . . si 

Butler. L. C. New York. . 77 

Butters & Co.. Ltd.. Chas. New York _ 

1SS? 8 Guide cC ! e " an : , Los . Aneelea -. ™;]^M 

Caire Co Justinian. San Francisco ... 48 

Cakins Co.. Los Angeles. Cal. IS 

California Cap Co.. Oakland. Cal __ 

Cambria Steel Co.. Philadelphia. 

Cameron Steam Pump Works, A. S. New' York' *>^ 
Cary Spring Works. New York *orK.-o 

Cement-Gun Co.. Allentown. Pa. '. '. «q 

Chalmers & Williams. Chicago Heights,' ill '. ' ' ' -1 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. Chicago 00 

rS^M R °v? k DriU c r °" Cleveland Ohio! '. ! '. [ ' 79 
Cochise Machine Co.. Los Angeles. Cal _ 

S En^*^ 1 ?^ & ^ Co - SaVi Francisco'. '.54 
Collins & Webb. Inc.. Los Angeles. Cal 19 

Colorado Iron Works. Denver . . 70 

Crane Co.. Chicago. PI Vn 11 

Crescent Belt Fastener Co.. New York.'.'.'.'.'. .71 

Deister Concentrator Co.. Fort Wayne Ind 69 

Deister Machine Co.. Fort Wayne Ind 80 

Denver Engineerimr Works Denver 

Denver Fire Clay Co.. Denver. ^7 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co..' Denver" ' " " — 
Sf?Z5* 5°<* ?n" & Mfg. Co.. Denver. ;'*17 
Detroit Graphite Co.. Detroit. Mich. tL 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Akron. Ohio 

Divnn ri!^V C ^ epa T rator Co - Milwaukee'. 'Wis! — 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph, Jersey City N J 7 

Dobbins Core Drill Co.. New York. ' ' -1 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co.. Mishawaka." Ind". '.'."' 8 

Dorr Company. The. Denver 77 

Drake Lock -Nut Co.. San Francisco.".'.".'; _ 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co.. Wilmington, Del! '. '.— 

Elmer. H. N.. Chicago 

Elsol Concentrating Co.. Los Angeles, Cal fin 

Empire Zinc Co., Denver. Colo ..... . .31 ;;;;;; 76 


Fairbanks. Morse & Co.. Chicago — 

Fate-Root-Heath Co., Plymouth Ohio 14 

Fawcus Machine Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa 59 

Filter Fabrics Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah — 

Finn Metal Works, John, San Francisco 76 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co.. Chicago 4S 

Florida Wood Products Co.. Jacksonville, Fla . . . 60 
Four Wheel Drive Motor Truck Co., Clinton- 

ville. Wis — 

Frenier & Son, Rutland. Vt 55 

Gahgher Machy. Co.. Salt Lake City. Utah 60 

Gandy Belting Co., Baltimore, Md 67 

Gardner Governor Co., Quinsy, HI — 

Garlord Motor Truck Co., Lima. Ohio 75 

Garratt & Co., W. T.. San Francisco 48 

General Briquetting Co., New York 76 

General Electric Co.. Schenectady, N. Y 29 

General Engineering Co., Salt Lake City. Utah. .28 

General Naval Stores, New York 61 

Giant Powder Co.. San Francisco — 

Gibson, W. W.. San Francisco — 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F.. Akron. Ohio — 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio.... — 
Grubnau, Bryant & Grubnau. Waldo, N. M 77 

Hardinge Company, New York — 

Harrington & King Perforating Co.. Chicago... 71 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co.. Denver. . 4 

Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del — 

Herman. John. Los Angeles. Cal 61 

Hickok & Hickok. San Francisco 41 

Holt Mfg. Co.. Peoria. Ill — 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co.. New York . . . 22 

Ingersoll-Rand Co.. New York 42-43 

International Smelting Co., New York 76 

Jackson Compressor Co.. Denver 55 

Jackson Iron Works. Byron, San Francisco. .. .56 

James Ore Concentrator Co.. Newark, N. J 59 

Jardine Mach. Co.. San Francisco 50 

Jasper Stone Co., Sioux City, Iowa 71 

Justrite Mfg. Co., Chicago — 

Kimball Co.. F. L.. Los Angeles, Cal — 

Krogh Pump & Mach. Co., San Francisco — 

Lake Superior Loader Co., Duluth. Minn 55 

Lane Mill & Mach. Co., Los Angeles, Cal 69 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. St. Louis, Ma 59 

Lietz Co., A.. San Francisco 73 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co.. New York — 

Linde Air Products Co.. New York • — 

Llewellyn Iron Works. Los Angeles — 

Longyear Co.. E. J,. Minneapolis. Minn 56 

Los Angeles Foundry Co.. Los Angeles, Cal. . . .77 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co., St. Louis, Mo 5 

Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw. Mich 55 

Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati, Ohio 15 

Main Belting Co.. Philadelphia. Pa 33 

Marathon Mill & Mach. Works, Chicago — 

Marshall-Newell Sup. Co.. San Francisco — 

McMyler-Interstate Co., Cleveland. Ohio — 

Meese & Gottfried Co.. San Francisco 80 

Merrill Co.. San Francisco 57 

Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co.. Philadelphia. . . — 

Mine & Smelter Sup. Co., New York 

Front Cover 
Minneapolis Steel & Mach. Co.. Minneapolis. . . .26 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co.. New York. . .27 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co., Denver 

Mutual Truck Co., Sullivan. Ind — 

National Tank & Pipe Co., Portland, Ore 53 

National Tube Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa 20 

Nevada Eng. & Supply Co., Reno, Nev 53 


New York Engineering Co.. New York Sfl 

Nordberg Mfg. Co., Milwaukee. Wis 34 

Norwalk Iron Works Co.. So. Norwalk. Conn.. — 

Novo Engine Co.. Lansing, Mich — 

Nuttall Co.. R. D., Pittsburgh. Pa — 

Ocean Shore Iron Works. San Francisco — 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co., San Francisco. . . . 38 

Opportunity Pages "jO-54 

Ottumwa Iron Works. Ottumwa. Iowa — 

Oxweld Acetylene Co., New York 46 

Pacific Pipe Co., San Francisco 52 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co., San Francisco 44 

Paraffine Companies. Inc.. San Francisco — 

Pelton Water Wheel Co.. San Francisco 57 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co.. Gull Point. Fla. 61 

Pioneer Rubber Mills, San Francisco — 

Pneumatic Process Flotation Co. New York... — 

Pollack Steel Co., Cincinnati. Ohio — 

Porter Co.. H. K.. Pittsburgh. Pa — 

Positions Available 52 

Positions Wanted 51 

Powell Co.. Wm., Cincinnati. Ohio 71 

Prescott Co.. The. Menominee. Mich 9 

Prest-O-Lite Co.. New York — 

Professional Directory 62-66 

Redwood Mfrs. Co.. San Francisco 39 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co.. San Francisco. — 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A.. Trenton. N. J. . . .77 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co.. New York. . .77 
Rosenburg & Co., Los Angeles. Cal — 

Sacramento Pipe Works, Sacramento, Cal 75 

San Francisco Plating Works. San Francisco. . .54 

Senn Concentrator Co.. San Francisco — 

Siebe. Gorman Co.. Ltd.. Chicago — 

Simpson Co.. A. H.. San Francisco 49 

Smith Co.. S. Morgan. York, Pa 67 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co.. Jersey City. N. J o9 

Southwestern Engineering Co., Los Angeles....— 

Standard Oil Co.. San Francisco — 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co.. Denver. Colo 50 

Stimpson Equipment Co.. Salt Lake City 2 

Straub Mfg. Co., Oakland. Cal — 

Sullivan Machinery Co.. Chicago 37 

Surplus Property Division (Quartermaster Gen- 
eral), Washington, D. C — 


Thompson Balance Co.. Denver 67 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.. Allentown, Pa 21 

Trent. Goodwin M., San Francisco 77 j 

Union Construction Co., San Francisco 36 

United Filters Corp.. Salt Lake City. Utah. . . .3- 

United Naval Stores. New York 60 

U. S. Iron Works, Seattle, Wash — 

United States Rubber Co.. New York 35 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co.. Boston. .75 

Wahl & Co.. H. R., Chicago, 111 — 

War Department (Surplus Property Division). 

Washington, D. C — 

Water-bury Co., New York o*> 

Western Machinery Co.. Los Angeles. Cal — 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co., Aurora. 111. . . . . — 
Western Wood Pipe Publicity Bureau, Seattle. 1 

Wash , 1-s-ltf 

Westinghouse Ele'c". & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh. 

Pa. 18 

White Co.. The. Cleveland, Ohio 47 I 

Whitney & Lass. Juneau. Alaska — 1 

Wildberg Bros.. San Francisco . - - - • -77 

Williams Imp. Stretcher Co.. Wheeling. W. Va. .54 , 
Wolf Safety Lamp Co.. Brooklyn. NY....... — I 

Worthington Pump & Machy. Corp.. New Y ™.-.,- j 

Yuba Manufacturing Co., San Francisco 76 

Zelnicker Supply Ca.. Walter A.. St. Louis — 

^mmiiunuiuuufuiiiiuiijiijiiitijiiiiitii tiiiiiiiiitiuiiiiiuiMiiiiiiiMiMifiiiiiiiitiitiiiiiiiiiitiiiiitiKiitiiiiniitiiiitiiiiiiiitiiiiit tiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiitiifinitiitutiiiiiiuiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinuiiiiRiiiiiJiui 

■ii iiiimiiimiiJiiiminiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiimimiimifiiiiim 

lumiiiiiiilliilimmiiiiiiiiim iimiiimimiiimiiimmm) 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

346 Pounds Pressure 

Incaoro Mines, near LaPaz, Bolivia, S. A. 

"The handling of all this material was particularly severe, aa It had 
to be transferred twice at New York, several times at the Isthmus of 
Panama, again at Mollendo, and many times more during- the inland 
journey, ending with a haul of 120 miles on the backs of mules. In 
all, there were more than twenty transfers of each shipment, yet the 
material was bo well packed, and waa itself so substantial (particularly 
the Forged Steel Flanges), that there was no loss by breakage. 

"Your pipe and your promptness in shipping, I can only Bay affords a 

great favor to anyone In a distant country, and I cannot recommend it 

toe highly. ,._ . , 

"Very truly yours, 

"(Signed) D. C. BRICKER. Gen. Mgr.. 

Catalogue and Special prices on request. "Incaoro Mines." 


Chicago, 111. 

iiimniiimiiimmiiiii 1 mi iiiiiiimim niitiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitii 


.lulv :;. 1920 



The Foremost Dewatering Device 

The Highest Development ol the Modern Filler 

The Portland Continuous Filter 

Filters heavy tonnages of flotation concentrates rapidly and inexpensively. 
Delivers concentrates direct to cars or bins with a moisture content frequently as low as 8 
or 10%. It pays for itself by reducing shipping costs and eliminating waste in handling. 

Every Portland Is a complete machine. Patented features 
give unequaled precision and ease of adjustment, even 
delivery of evenly dewatered cake, low upkeep and steady 

Used by the foremost mining companies, Smuggler- 
Union, Portland Gold Mining, Utah Copper, Timber Butte, 
American Zinc, Chino Copper, U. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min- 
ing, Butte & Superior, Nevada Cons., etc. 

There is a very strong probability that the Portland Con- 
tinuous Filter can make your mill earn additional profits. 
Send for a copy of new Bulletin 28-C and see. 

No anxiety about patent litigation, no royalty to pay. We 
guarantee that the Portland Continuous Filter does not 
infringe any legal rights of other patent owners. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Ore Milling Machinery and Smelting Equipment Since 1860 
30 Church St. n»nin>r Cnln 

new york, n. y. L»enver, ^OIO. 

Cleveland Products - ^ 

Are Built for Hard Work 

Cleveland "Pocket-In-Head" Rotators are quality 

products. Every detail in construction has been 

so perfected as to deliver the greatest service. Drop 

forgings have been used throughout. The steel is carefully 

selected, the machinists who make Cleveland drills are all 

experts in this line and the majority of them have been in the company's 

employ for years and take real pride in maintaining our high standard. 

The result is a product that will not fall down on the job but which 
will deliver a greater footage at a lower eost. 



Cleveland Rock Drill Company 

3734 E. 78th St., 



Guy Gregory. Mgr. 

Room 536. 39 Church St.. New York City. 


A. C. Most. M&r. 

570 Gas & Electric Bldg:., Denver. Colo. 


C. J. Albert, Mgr. 

515 Mission St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

Canadian Trade supplied by 

Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co. of Canada. Ltd., 

Toronto, Ont. 



July 3, 1920 ■ 




Deck Bearings are self-oiling 

Br Headmotion is entirely 
■ 7 enclosed and self- 


m The main channel m 
J frame is no longer ^^ 


Write (or Full Particular* of the 




East Wayne Street manufacturers of the well known Fort Wayne, Ind., U. S. A. 


E. DEISTER. Pio. ud Go. Mv. W. F. DEISTER. Vice Pro. E. G. HOFFMAN. Seer, mi Treu. 

Meeseco Drives 

A Perfect Short Center Silent Drive 

A system of belt driving at "short 
centers"superseding high speed 
chains or gears,- it is not a belt 
tightener that exerts strain on 
shaft and bearings, it is a drive 
scientifically designed to wrap 
a belt on a small pulley without 
straining shafts or bearings. 

JUmt kdottfriei dompanlj 





660 Mission Street 558 First Ave. Co 67 Front Street. San Pedro SE3n) ft 

m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii 1 1 1 1 n h 1 1 H 1 1 1 1 1 1 

illlNlllllllUMIIMMIIIIIIIIIIIIIlll 1 1 1 II II II II til 1 1 1 1 II I I II 1 1 1 1 1 It II II II II 1 1 1 Ml III M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II II 1 1 1 II II 111111 1 1 III 1 1 1 I II II 1 1 II I II II 1 1 ,1 III I II I II II 1 1 II II II 1 1 III II I II 


T. A. RlCKARD. Editor 
a.. Parsons, associate editor 
3. Parsons. Associate Editor 


Member Audit Bureau of Circulation* 
Member Auociated Buaioesa Pftpcra, Inc. 


Pubtithcd at ifo Markd St, Stan Francisco, 
by the Dctvey PulUWiino Own jot hi/ 


C.T. Hutchinson, manager 

E. h, Leslie, eoo fisher bos., chicaco 

F. A. WEISLE, 3514 wool. worth Bog.. N.Y. 

ii imiiiiiii iimitiiiriiinm iiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiin iiiiiniliiuitililltl in iiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiimmimnmii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiintiiiiiiiiiitiiitiimitiiiiiimiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiih' 


Iwued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 10, 1920 

$4 per Year — 15 CtsntB per Copy 






Bewildering terms used by a competent mining 
engineer in discussing the mining industry of Jop- 
lin. Not intelligible to average engineer. Ex- 
amples of localisms in various other districts. 
These corruptions sacrifice precision of scientific 


The Railroad Transportation Act and the Water 
Power Act. Bills of interest to mining fraternity. 
Proposed Department of Public Works. 



By A. E. Zeh 41 

A Non-Partisan party with Herbert Hoover at its 
head. Too much of the professional politician. 


By C. W. Tandy 41 

Smelting and melting. Flotation concentrate as 
a substitute for pulverized coal as a fuel. Semi- 
continuous operation of the copper-converter. 


By A. T. Parsons 42 

Why have a 'Code of Ethics' anyway? Double 
standard for professional and business men not 


By F. Borzynsky 42 

Comment on criticism of an article in the 'Press' 
of May 15. Improvements in new model of the 

By M. W. von Bernewitz 4 3 

'Herbert Hoover: The Man and His Work', by 
Vernon Kellogg. Inaccuracy as to material facts 
in the book. 


By P. R. Hines 44 

Dings magnetic separators. The applicability of 
these machines. 



By R. G. Knickerbocker 45 

Products delivered to the copper department. Sun- 
dry difficulties. The leaching-plant. Operation of 
the electrolytic department. Starting-sheet prob- 
lems; remedies. The furnace refinery. 


By J. E. Clennell 51 

Gold on the 'banket' first found in 1885. Found- 
ing of Johannesburg. Boom-days on the Rand. 
Difficulties of transportation. The Stock Ex- 
change. Newspapers. 


By Otis L. Mclntyre 55 

Preliminary work. Experiments with Dwight- 
Lloyd sintering machines. Pulverized coal in the 
blast-furnaces. Difficulties. Reverberatories. Re- 
sult of experiments is the equipping of all furnaces 
with coal-dust burners. 


By Fernando Monti jo Jr 58 

Situation of the mine. Geology. Habits of min- 
eralization. Mining methods. Local history of 
the enterprise. 


By C. T. H 61 

The Convention at San Francisco. First-hand im- 
pressions. The augmented brass band. 'Dixie'. 
Sundry quartettes. Proclaiming the merits of rival 
candidates. More 'Dixie'. The fate of Senator 
Reed. Keynoting of the permanent chairman. 
Republicans denounced and their platform demol- 











Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
'20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San E'rai Cisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
'address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdg\: New York, 3514 Woolworth 
Bdg.: London, 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico. S4: Canada. $5: other countries. S6. 


July 10, 1920 

Marcy Mills Are Made For Any Capacity Plant 

I T is worth your while to investigate the 
Marcy "One Easy Step" method of ore 
reduction, even though your plant be 

The same savings in crushing costs being 
made in large operations as at Inspiration, 
Braden and Kennecott, are possible in 
your own smaller mill. 

The Marcy patented discharge is only one 
of many features which distinguish the 
"One Easy Step" method. 



\Literature describing the Marcy Mill best 
suited to your requirements will be sent if 
you will write an outline of conditions. 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Company 

Denver Salt Lake City El Paso 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Headquarters for Mine, Mill and Smelter Equipment. 
Large Stocks in Denver, Salt Lake City, \El Paso. 

Julv 10. 1920 



T. A. K./CKMSD, .... Editor 



1V7"E take pleasure in publishing a description of the 
** structural geology of the Las Chispas mine, in 
Sonora, by Mr. Fernando Montijo Jr., the Mexican en- 
gineer in charge of the property. It is gratifying to 
see the native-born taking a proper part in the develop- 
ment of the mineral resources of the country ; it is also 
pleasant to find a Mexican 'technician so well able to 
express himself in our language. 

A T a time when the high, cost of everything, including 
-**- government, is impressed upon all of us, it is regret- 
table that fifty Congressmen, with their wives and fami- 
lies, should start oil a junket to the islands of the Pacific 
at the expense of the taxpayers. The transport 'Great 
Northern ' sailed on July 5 with this party aboard. It is 
to be "a long cruise" among the islands, including the 
Philippines. We would like to know who authorized this 
public extravagance and what excuse there is offered for 
it. One of our local Congressmen is in- the party; he 
should be asked to make an explanation. 

/~kN another page we publish an article on the eleetro- 
^-' lytic separation of copper from copper-cobalt-nickel 
matte as performed at Fredericktown, Missouri. The 
article is by Mr. R. G. Knickerbocker, who described the 
incidence of bolshevism on mining in Siberia in our issue 
of May 8. Mr. Knickerbocker is now smelter superinten- 
dent of the Messina Transvaal Development Company, 
for which Mr. A. B. Emery is resident manager, in the 
Transvaal. The results of experiments and investigations 
into the production of a suitable solution of nickel and 
cobalt are given frankly, and they should prove helpful 
to others in like difficulties. It is rarely that the record 
of such work is given for publication, yet it is exactly 
the kind of information that is most useful. 

T T is about time that San Francisco had a real morning 
■*■ newspaper. The Democratic convention adjourned on 
Saturday night at 11 : 40, after the 22nd ballot, yet the 
'Examiner' of Sunday morning had no news later than 
the 20th ballot, whereas the 'Chronicle' did tell its read- 
ers that the Convention had adjourned, but failed to give 
the figures of the last ballot. On the following Tuesday 
morning the 'Chronicle' on its front page announced a 
deadlock at the 41st ballot, although shortly after mid- 
night Governor Cox had been nominated. Of course, the 
people of this community know that both our morning 

papers go to press in the evening and are on sale soon after 
nine o'clock; both are belated evening papers: but the 
delegates from other cities must have remarked the pitiful 
lack of enterprise exhibited by both of them in failing 
to make an effort to record the doings of the Convention 
with some degree of promptitude. Owing to its geo- 
graphical position, San Francisco offers extraordinary 
opportunities to a wide-awake publisher, but unfortu- 
nately our miserable morning newspapers are as note- 
worthy for the lack of worthy enterprise as they are 
notorious for their meanness and untrustworthiness. 

CTATISTICIANS of the Department of Agriculture 
*-^ declare that the countiy-wide shortage of farm labor 
has been constantly increasing until now it is 28%. 
There is no reason to doubt that this figure is approxi- 
mately correct and it is entirely logical to conclude that 
unless there come a change the farmers will not be able 
to produce sufficient foodstuffs to supply the hundred 
million people in our own country. Even if the farmers 
could by extraordinary effort supply the deficiency, they 
would not do it ; nor should it be expected of them. With 
an under-supplied market the same amount of profit can 
be obtained from 75 bushels of potatoes or 75 hogs as can 
be realized from 100, and like the rest of us the farmer 
sees no reason why he should not take advantage of his 
position. That is one reason the prices of foods are not 
coming down with those of some other commodities. The 
only solution is a return of workers to the farms. This 
may be brought about by a further increase in the prices 
of farm products to a point that will influence more 
people to engage in farming for themselves, and attract 
laborers to seek work on the farms at higher wages than 
they are getting in the so-called industrial occupations, 
which now offer a number of agreeable advantages in 
addition to better pay. An alternative is a sudden de- 
pression in industrial activity that would force the work- 
ers to seek employment in agricultural occupations rather 
than be idle. Whether we are engineers or laborers, 
merchants or clerks, we are interested in the farmer and 
the farm as being the source of that first essential com- 
modity, food. Food we must have ; but we will have to 
pay for it at a rate such that after sundry retailers, 
wholesalers, brokers, and packers have taken a toll there 
is enough left to make it worth while for someone to 
produce it. There are many angles to the problem, but 
it is safe to say that hope for material gain, rather than 



July 10, 1920 

an altruistic sense of responsibility to a hundred million 
stomachs, will re-fill the places of the missing 28%. 

A CCORDING to the report of the third annual meeting 
■**■ of the Anglo- American Corporation of South Africa, 
that enterprise is making satisfactory progress. We note 
that Mr. Walter McDermott has joined the directorate, 
largely in consequence of the absorption of the Rand 
Selection Corporation, a subsidiary of the Consolidated 
Mines Selection Company, a successful enterprise with 
which Mr. McDermott has been identified from the start, 
in 1897. The Anglo-American has acquired the con- 
trolling interest in the Consolidated Diamond Mines of 
South-West Africa, which owns the diamantiferous area 
in the former German territory. A report was presented 
to the meeting by our friend Mr. W. L. Honnold, an 
American mining engineer well known in our West, and, 
as we recall, a graduate of the Michigan College of Mines. 
Mr. Honnold used to be manager of the Brakpan mine 
on the Rand. He gave an interesting description of the 
gravel from which the diamonds are washed, and quoted 
an estimate indicating that the diamond-field should 
yield 15 million carats. We note that the four principal 
diamond-producing companies in South Africa have 
agreed to restrict the production, each company being 
allowed a prescribed quota. The amount of annual sales 
is fixed at £12,000,000, of which De Beers is to contribute 
51%, South-West Africa 21%, the Premier 18%, and 
Jagersfontein 10%. The minor producers are left to 
their own devices, which must be a comfort to them. The 
Anglo-American Corporation also holds blocks of shares 
in mining companies on the Rand. Mr. B. Oppenheimer, 
the chairman of the meeting, and of the corporation, 
stated that the premium on gold has been entirely ab- 
sorbed by the increased expense, due to higher wages, 
the advance in the cost of supplies, the rise in banking 
exchange on London from Johannesburg, and the less- 
ened efficiency of labor. The corporation is capitalized 
for £4,000,000 and has paid a dividend of 5% on account 
of the first half of the current year. 

"DERHAPS the most ludicrous thing at the Democratic 
■*■ powwow was the speech of Mr. Charles F. X. 
O'Brien, who placed before the convention the name of 
Governor Edwards, banker, vestryman, teetotaler, but 
avowed champion of the 'wet' cause. The speech was all 
the funnier because Mr. O'Brien had an impressively 
pompous demeanor; he took himself with exceeding se- 
riousness — possibly to make up for the lack of it in the 
attitude of the delegates toward himself and his candi- 
date. If, 40 years ago. before even Kansas had given 
prohibition a serious thought, some foe of booze had hired 
a yeggman to break into the vault wherein the Constitu- 
tion reposes, and had in the middle of the night inscribed 
the 18th amendment on that revered document; and if 
the Supreme Court, upon discovering next morning the 
presence of this revolutionary addendum, had decreed, 
sapiently, that what has been writ could not be nnwrit. 
but must become the law of the laud ; if these remarkable 
events had transpired, the speech of Mr. O'Brien might 

then have been comprehensible. His contention was that 
the people should have had a voice in a question of such 
serious moment ; but that since by some mystic chicanery 
this amendment had been foisted on us, a candidate 
should be named for President who would make it his 
purpose to enable "the citizenry of the great and 
glorious, etc. ", to raise its voice in protest. We can appre- 
ciate the argument of those who believe that the amend- 
ment infringes upon their personal liberty ; we can 
sympathize with those who were wont to worship at the 
shrine of John Barleycorn ; but we have no patience with 
the man who is so stupid as to insist that prohibition was 
put over on the people by some exterior force without 
their knowing it. What about the 45 States that have 
collectively and individually ratified the amendment ? If 
the liquor people or anyone else want to continue the 
argument why not advance this line of reasoning : ' ' By 
an overwhelming majority we let ourselves in for some- 
thing. Having found out how it works some of us are 
sorry. Perhaps there are enough sorry ones to cany a 
vote for reconsideration." 

f^ OMPLYING with the order of Federal Judge Bour- 
^"* quin in the suit of Minerals Separation against the 
Butte & Superior company for alleged infringement of 
froth-flotation patents, the defendant has filed a complete 
record of operations since 1911 when its ore was shipped 
to the old mill at Basin, Montana, for the purpose of de- 
veloping a satisfactory scheme of treatment. A complete 
record of ore mined and milled, concentrates produced 
and marketed, costs, and earnings is included in these 
data and the • terms of the contracts under which the 
product was sold to sundry smelting companies are given. 
Some months ago the Butte & Superior filed an account- 
ing in which it calculated that approximately $400,000 
represented the difference between the actual proceeds 
from the company's operations and what could have been 
obtained if the patents of Minerals Separation as defined 
by the decision of the Supreme Court had not been in- 
fringed. This was not satisfactory to the owners of the 
patents. They obtained the order for the additional data, 
which have now been furnished, and from them the ex- 
perts doubtless will proceed to calculate supposed dam- 
ages running into millions of dollars. Last week Mr. 
Huston Thompson, of the Federal Trade Commission, 
opened hearings in San Francisco against Minerals Sep- 
aration, on the charge of using unfair and coercive 
methods in attempting to prevent legitimate use of the 
flotation process. 

'"PHE prospect in Mexico is less gloomy than for many 
-*- months ; in fact at the moment the outlook may con- 
servatively be described as cheerful. It is true that 
Pancho Villa has been entertaining himself at the ex- 
pense of Generals Jesus Guajardo, Ignacio Enriquez, and 
Joaquin Amaro, but General Eugenio Martinez and Col. 
Sandoval are about to take command and these sterling 
soldiers are expected to comb the mountains of Chihua- 
hua until Pancho is apprehended. We wish them well. 
General Jacinto Trevino. Secretary of Commerce and 

July 10, 1920 



Industry in the cabinet of Provisional President Adolfo 
l>c la llueita. lias not as yet agreed 1" nullify the objec- 
tionable restrictions regulating drilling tor oil that were 
instituted by the Carranza regime, hut he has shown a 
willingness to consider the contentions of the oil com- 
panies. This attitude has increased confidence among the 
American and other interests, and record production is 
being made. More than 11 million barrels was shipped 
during May and the Standard of New Jersey recently 
hnuight in a new well with a daily capacity of 100,000 
barrels. It is reported that trains are running without 
military escort, an unusual thing in the country south 
of the Rio Grande ; the Government has ordered the re- 
turn of property confiscated years ago ; and General 
Elias P. Calles, Secretary for War, has diverted the 
energy of many of the soldiers from plundering to road- 
building and other profitable work. Other indications 
of a return to normal are labor strikes at Puerto, in the 
State of Vera Cruz, and at Leguna, in Coahuila. Gen- 
eral Calles, upon being appealed to, ordered the release 
of union leaders, who had been arrested, declaring as he 
did so that "the right to strike is sacred". Reports from 
Sonora are to the effect that the outlook has stimulated 
mining activity. A number of mills have resumed opera- 
tion lately and several old mines are again producing, 
while at others unwatering has been started. At Nacozari 
the Phelps Dodge Corporation is planning to double the 
capacity of the Moctezuma concentrator, the project in- 
cluding the installation of seven new Diesel oil-engines. 
According to 'El Democrata', all of the political factions 
have agreed to support the candidacy of General Alvaro 
Obregon and he will presumably be chosen President at 
the general election, which has been set for September 5. 
Whether or not these favorable reports reflect the true 
state of affairs, and if so, whether this is simply a lull 
before another storm, is hard to say. It is difficult to 
believe that any radical change has taken place, and that 
the fundamental causes for turmoil have been removed, 
but if there is ever to be lawful order and peaceful in- 
dustry a start must be made some time. Let us hope 
that the time has come. 

Bad Language 

A few days ago we picked up a paper on the mining 
industry of Joplin presented before the recent meeting 
of the Zinc Institute at Chicago. We were impelled to 
read it because it bore the name of a man whom we knew 
' to be a competent mining engineer. After reading a 
couple of paragraphs we laid it down in despair, because 
we found ourselves unable to follow the author in his 
statements concerning the condition of mining in that 
Missourian district. The reason for our bewilderment 
was the use of terms to which a local meaning was at- 
tached. It is more than probable that other readers, 
even those familiar with the literature of mining in 
places in which the language of America and of several 
other countries is spoken, would have been non-plussed as 
we were. The author of the paper in question, in accord 
with local usage, wrote of "ores" when he meant 'con- 

centrates', namely, lead concentrate and zinc concen- 
trate. When he spoke of "blende ore" and "calamine 
ore", he meant the mill-products containing a high pro- 
portion of the sulphide and the silicate of zinc, respec- 
tively. It is not his fault, nor ours, that in Europe the 
name 'calamine' stands for the carbonate of zinc, ami 
that there the silicate is called 'smithsonite'. This is 
mentioned by the way, just to suggest the need for the 
adoption of a uniform nomenclature. Moreover, in Mis- 
souri, it appears, they talk of a "lead ore" and a "galena 
ore" interchangeably, although they differentiate be- 
tween a "zinc ore" and a "calamine ore". Again, the 
"ore" may be the crude, but selected, product from the 
mine or it may be the concentrated product from the 
mill. To tell the truth, we had intended to publish the 
Joplin article in this paper, because it was a good review 
of the progress of the industry in that district, hut we 
were not sufficiently confident of the meaning of the 
terms used to be able to translate them into correct tech- 
nical English, although we have been to Joplin and know 
something of the local lingo. Therefore we did not feel 
warranted in editing the paper for the benefit of our 
readers, who otherwise would have been unable to under- 
stand it. We ask, what chance had an intelligent reader 
at London, Melbourne, Shanghai, Vancouver, or Lima of 
understanding this paper as read before the Zinc Insti- 
tute at Chicago ? A plague on these localisms ! They 
are not even discriminating in their own way, largely 
because they reproduce the usage of the stope and mill. 
As we have said often, it is well for us to go to the miner 
and the mill-man for knowledge concerning the mining 
and milling of ore, because that is their special business, 
but wli3' in the names of Roget and March should technical 
writers, who are supposed to be specialists in their busi- 
ness, which, among other things, is to write intelligibly, 
go to the artisan and the mechanic for the terms they 
use in their writing or speaking? Joplin is not peculiar 
in its adoption of a half-baked terminology. At Central 
City, Colorado, it is the established custom to speak of 
the pyritic concentrate, containing gold and silver, and 
sometimes copper, as "tailings". There used to be a 
regular trade in "tailings", this mill-product being 
bought in small lots by brokers for the purpose of pre- 
paring a mixture upon which advantageous terms could 
be obtained from the smelters at Denver. Everybody 
spoke of "tailings", when they meant not the discard or 
refuse from the stamp-milling and bumping-table opera- 
tions, but the valuable sulphidic concentrate. Such 
usage beggars language. To say it is unscientific is not 
enough ; it is puerile. In Boulder county, Colorado, the 
miners speak of "hornblende", when they mean the 
dark agatized quartz, 'homstone'. Shall we copy that 
blunder and introduce it into the literature of mining, 
just because some excellent single-hand miners happen 
not to know what they are talking about 1 In the Michigan 
copper country they call their ore "rock" and their 
crushing-plant at the shaft a "rock-house". They do 
not use the term 'ore'. Only last week a distinguished 
engineer, formerly connected with the Calumet & Hecla, 
told us that it was his understanding that the word 'ore' 



July 10, 1920 

could not be applied properly to an economic mine- 
product containing metal in the native state, 'and that 
"copper rock" was as correct, for example, as "gold 
quartz". The answer is that both are technically in- 
correct, the verbal coinage of unscientific people unable 
to speak or write with discrimination. The "gold 
quartz" of California is a misfit, because the ore of the 
Mother Lode, for example, contains only a minor pro- 
portion of quartz, the preponderant constituent being 
slate. Gold is associated with quartz in most veins, all 
over the world, but not in all; the product of the mine 
usually contains some quartz and a minute proportion 
of gold, so that "gold quartz" is not accurately de- 
scriptive; moreover it ignores the economic factor, that 
is. whether the proportion of gold is sufficient to make 
the rock an 'ore'. This last is a term with which we 
cannot afford to play fast and loose ; it is defined as rock 
contaning a valuable mineral in such proportion as to 
constitute an economic product, that is, one that can 
be exploited, at a given time and place, profitably. The 
idea of profit is implicit, for mining is performed for 
the purpose of making money. 'Mineral', of course, 
includes native metal ; native copper is as much a min- 
eral as chalcoeite, native silver as argentite, native gold 
as ealaverite. "Copper rock", on the face of it, means 
a rock containing copper or made up largely of copper; 
but the idea of profitable exploitation is not there. 
"Copper ore" carries the essential significance of eco- 
nomic value. The test is to take such local vulgarisms 
as those we have quoted from Joplin, Central City, 
Houghton, and Sutter Creek, and ask persons well in- 
formed in mining affairs in other districts what they 
mean. The misleading character of these spurious terms 
will then become manifest, for their descriptive value 
will be found to be far below par; they pass current 
locally, like the token coinage of a depreciated currency. 
To some people exactitude in these matters is meticu- 
lous. They do not realize how spurious words get into 
use in consequence of a careless attitude on the part of 
those who ought to know better. It is common to speak 
of "slack lime" or "slacked lime", when, of course, the 
right word is 'slake' or 'slaked'. "Slack" means nothing 
in regard to lime; 'slake' is beautifully descriptive of 
the manner in which lime absorbs water with a sizzle, 
like a thirsty man on a hot day. The same people talk 
of a "larry", which is not a word in our language; they 
mean ' lorry '. They use such abstract terms as ' ' capping ' ' 
and "filling" in lieu of the concrete and precise 'cap' 
and 'fill'. They use "muck" and "dirt", which signify 
nothing. "Feldspar" came into use simply because 
Kirwan in his book on mineralogy failed to detect a 
typographical error, whereby a 'd' was inserted in 
'felspar'. A majority, it is sad to say, of technical men 
use 'data' as if it were a singular and as if it were a 
synonym for 'information'. Many miners speak of 
"stratas". Are we to be the unprotesting victims of 
such illiteracies? Is it not worth while to preserve our 
language from such corruptions for the sake not only 
of our literary inheritance from the great ones of the 
past, from Chaucer and Shakespeare, from Addison and 

Ruskin, but also for the sake of that precision of ex- 
pression upon which all scientific writing depends if it 
is to serve as a means of exact statement ? 

The Work of Congress 

Tradition was perpetuated by Congress in the session 
that began on December 1 and ended just in time for 
the Republican senators to participate in the 'delibera- 
tions' at Chicago last month. Much was said and little 
was accomplished in the way of passing bills. The 
Railroad Transportation Act, establishing the Railroad 
Labor Board, before which hearings are now being 
held in Chicago on the proposed increase in wages, and 
the Water Power Act, which should stimulate the de- 
velopment of hydro-electric projects for industrial power, 
were among the few important pieces of legislation 
actually accomplished. A number of bills of particular 
interest to the mining fraternity were introduced. The 
War Minerals Relief Bill, designed to permit appeal 
from the decision of the Interior Department to the Court 
of Claims or the Supreme Court, was passed by the Senate 
and reported by the Mines committee of the House, at 
which point progress was arrested. Representative Mc- 
Fadden's bill providing a premium on newly mined gold 
and at the same time placing an excise tax on gold used 
in the arts and industries, was the subject of a series of 
hearings before the House Committee on Ways and 
Means. It will repose there until next December. The 
Senate Committee on Finance reported bills previously 
passed by the House that provide a tariff of magnesite, 
tungsten, and zinc. Efforts to reach a vote on these 
measures were unavailing because of the pressure of 
multitudinous other affairs. Bills providing for duties 
on antimony, baryte, chromium, graphite, manganese, 
mercury, molybdenum, pyrite, and potash are pending 
before the Ways and Means committee of the House, and 
similar bills are in preparation dealing with mica, tin, 
and lead. A bill recently introduced provides for the 
creation of a division of mines and geology in the De- 
partment of the Interior with an Assistant Secretary of 
the Interior as the executive head. He shall be tech- 
nically qualified by experience and education to direct 
the affairs of the division, which shall undertake the pres- 
ent activities of the Bureau of Mines and the Geological 
Survey, together with such other work related to mining, 
metallurgy, and geology as shall be designated by the 
President. The purpose is to do away with the duplica- 
tion of effort, and to co-ordinate activities of the several 
offices. The creation of the proposed Department of 
Public Works, which would result in the partial re- 
organization of the various major departments of the 
executive branch of the Government to consolidate in a 
systematic way all engineering work, except the purely 
military, appears to be a more important project and 
deserving of attention first. The scheme to combine the 
Bureau of Mines and the Geological Survey might be 
found advisable later, but an overlapping of the work of 
these two offices is not of sufficient moment urgently to 
require attention. 





.lulv 10, 1920 



D I 3 

I or NF 


llll llll.lnl.lll. 

A Call to Arms 
The Editor: 

Sir — If you would help to save our country from tak- 
ing a perpendicular course straight down to hell, pull 
pff your coat and jump to it right now. There are sev- 
eral million people in the United States ready to help in 
this job. and several thousand in foreign countries who 
will gladly come home and help to muck out the dirty 
filth of politics which is scattered in heaps all over the 

This is the idea. In your paper from cover to cover, 
and in the heaviest black type, advocate the organiza- 
tion of a Non-Partisan Party and place at the head of 
it Herbert Hoover. Let your motto be : ' ' Our govern- 
ment must be run by the people, and not by a few pro- 
fessional politicians." Ring out the motto in clarion 
■ones across and up and down the land, and let it be 
known that such a party stands for honest government 
and will not be dominated by the stench of dirty politics 
as has been done in the past by both the great parties. 
Make it an open season on every kind of a politician, re- 
gardless of creed, color or age, in any place or spot from 
Town Constable up to Governor, frbm representatives in 
State legislatures, to members of Congress and the Senate. 
It certainly is high time something was done when two 
tiandfuls of grafting party politicians can force down 
)ur throats any candidate for President they may de- 
sire, and then make us like it, just as has been done at 
Chicago and will be done again at San Francisco. 

The only remedy is for the people to refuse to jump 
at the crack of the political whips and follow a selected 
eader like a flock of sheep. They must organize a Non- 
partisan Party, for elective offices, use lawyers very 
iparingly. but lots of business men, accountants, engi- 
leers. mechanics, doctors, and hard-headed farmers with 
>r without whiskers. Then there would be a show to run 
lur government on a business basis and put a stop to 
lolitical graft, which, at the present time, is without end 
ind growing worse all the time. 

There must be a change in our political system very 
oon and thinking people are demanding it. If this is 
lot forthcoming, for the sake of decency, let us throw a 
leavy mantle over the statute of Liberty so she cannot 
Be ns as we go gaily sliding down the chutes to hell. 

There, Mr. Editor, I feel a little bit better after get- 
ing this load off my chest, but still feel a trifle sad. 
lowever, I know a friend who has some raw and fiery 
squila with a kick to it like a mule, so I know I shall be 
inging like a mocking bird pretty soon, and by morning 

I will be completely recovered and joyously looking for- 
ward to another Mexican revolution. 

A. E. Zeh. 
Cananea, Mexico. 

Some Observations on Smelting 

The Editor: 

Sir — For the questionable enlightenment of ' H. H. S. ' 
I wish to contribute some of my own thoughts on this 
topic. His letter in your issue of June 19 was a real treat. 

First, smelting may be defined as a melting with chem- 
ical change producing liquids, separable by difference of 
specific gravity. Second, it is to be observed, even though 
high-grade material is added during converting, most of 
the matte is fed to the converter as a molten mass. In 
order to convert economically, a 40% to 50% matte is 
required. Smelting, instead of simple melting, must 
precede the converting; the progress of the ore being 
from the roaster to the reverberatory, then to the con- 
verter. The modern reverberatory is, as H. H. S. sug- 
gests, a "nielter" since the furnace atmosphere is neutral, 
or reducing, instead of oxidizing, as I was taught by my 
good professor in days gone by. 

The self -firing of reverberatories by blowing dry flota- 
tion concentrate through the tuyeres as a substitute for 
pulverized-eoal firing sounds reasonable, as most roasters 
are self-firing. Others have anticipated the process. J. 
H. Klepinger and Peter Thill (or J. H. Klepinger and 
Archie Wheeler) all formerly with the old Boston and 
Montana Reduction Works, at Great Falls, Montana, 
have letters of patent covering the principle of calcine 
(or concentrate) and pulverized coal being blown sepa- 
rately into a reverberatory. To my knowledge no experi- 
ments were ever made with the process. 

According to the present-day practice the heat of roast- 
ing finds a most important use, namely, in the drying of 
concentrate as it descends through the roaster. In this 
connection it should be observed that sometimes the heat 
of the burned sulphur must be supplemented by extrane- 
ous firing. 

H. H. S. is normal. He seeks to accomplish an object 
with the least effort. In the problem under consideration, 
the aim is to produce copper direct from the ore. This 
has been the ambition of a host of men. E. D. Peters in 
his 'Practice of Copper Smelting' dwells on the attempts 
to produce copper direct from the blast-furnace, without 
converting. In recent time we have a twin converter 
affair that was predicted to have possibilities. As I un- 
derstand it. one chamber smelts and the other converts. 



July 10, 1920 

For my part I see no way to eliminate the reverberatory, 
except to operate the converter semi-continuously instead 
of in batches like a concrete mixer. This is to utilize the 
surplus heat not necessary for liquidation to smelt the 
dried concentrate (or calcine) so added. The blister cop- 
per is to be drawn off from the bottom and the slag is to 
be poured off the top. 

This process once started would complete the cycle of 
operation in the following order : 

Drawing of copper. 

Charging of materials. 

Blowing for slag. 

Pouring of slag — that is the surplus. 

Blowing for copper. 

On the other hand the usual process, self-primed or 
rather reverberatory-primed, would complete the cycle of 
operation in this order : 

Charging of matte. 

Blowing for slag. 

Pouring of slag. 

Blowing for copper. 

Pouring of copper. 

It matters not with which foot you start. Either will 
take you to the same destination. This process would re- 
semble a blast-furnace and reverberatory practice in that 
the converter always contains molten material and differs 
from them in that the matte is not produced continuously. 
It differs from the ordinary converter practice in that the 
converter always contains molten material. 

C. W. Tandy. 

Garfield, Utah, June 25. 

A Code of Ethics 

The Editor: 

Sir— The '14 points' of the Code of Ethics of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers appearing in 
your issue of June 19 and the editorial comment thereon 
in your issue of July 3 have interested me, as, I suppose, 
they have other members of the engineering profession. 
The Code of the Mechanical Engineers is identical with 
that prepared by the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, which was, I believe, the first among our engineer- 
ing societies to go into competition with Moses. How- 
ever, making codes, like the influenza, is infectious, so we 
may expect the epidemic to spread to a number, at least, 
of the other societies before it runs its course. 

The objections raised in your editorial to specific pro- 
visions of the Code are well founded, but the more im- 
portant question, in my opinion, is. why have a special 
code of professional ethics, or, in fact, any special code of 
ethics ? 

In the first, place, what good does it do? The spirit 
behind these codes is doubtless excellent, but the ordinary 
upright member of the profession has always observed the 
spirit and will continue to do so, forgetting about the let- 
ter. The shyster in the engineering professions, where 
there is as yet no compulsion behind the adopted codes. 
will continue to disregard both spirit and letter whenever 
it appears to further his interests. In some of the other 

professions, where there are various forms of compulsion 
behind the written or unwritten codes, the shyster keeps 
the letter and violates the spirit. 

On the other hand all such codes are definitely harmful 
because they tend to perpetuate the outworn theory that 
certain classes of men are holier than the rest of human- 
ity and that upon them special standards of conduct are 
obligatory. That this theory has a bad effect upon both 
the elect and the unregenerate does not require proof. 

If an engineer violates the ordinary rules of public or 
private decency, throw him out of the Society, and. if it 
seems advisable, let the world know the reason why. It 
is not done now, to be sure, but no fancy Code of Ethics 
is going to make it any easier. If, on the other hand, he 
comports himself as any honest citizen should, leave him 
alone, or, if you must say something, tell him that the 
Society is proud of him. 

The sooner engineers and other professional men forget 
about special codes of ethics and get back to the Golden 
Rule and the ideal of Service, the better it will be for 
them and for the world in general. 

A. T. Parsons. 

San Francisco, June 30. 

The Case Oil-Fired Assay-Furnace 

The Editor: 

Sir — I wish to comment on the criticism of my article 
on this subject. 

Mr. Sherlock states that the turning of the front baffle 
so that the flame hits the broad side of it enables him to 
cupel with the door open. In previously trying this 
arrangement, I found that it took almost twice as long to 
complete the fusions as it did by the method described in 
my article. This was due to the smaller amount of fuel 
that could be fed into the furnace and secure perfect 
combustion. It is also evident that 33 cupellations would 
occupy only about 50% of the muffle-space even in the 
smaller sizes of Case furnaces. That comparatively small 
number of buttons may be satisfactorily cupelled with 
the muffle-door open, for they can be placed in the most 
advantageous parts of the muffle. However, not all 
assayers can afford to use only part of their equipment 
and very often the last row of cupels is only two or three 
inches from the front end of the muffle. Under this con- 
dition, cupelling with a door open is neither practicable 
nor possible regardless of any baffle arrangement. 

Mr. Sherlock further states that the gas or fume enter- 
ing the interior of the muffle through the cracks does not 
interfere. Oxygen is needed for cupellatiou and if the 
muffle is being continually filled with an inactive or re- 
ducing gas it is plain that the oxidizing atmosphere is 
partly or even entirely prevented from coming in con- 
tact with the molten buttons and so the cupellation is re- 
tarded, or ceases altogether. 

The opening or lifting of the upper part of the boss — 
opening of slots in some types — increases the amount of 
air available for combustion. This increase varies, hut it 
is about 10% of the amount of air passing through the 
burner. This extra amount of air is forced into the fur- 

July 10, 1920 



nan' by the difference in weight of the air-columns out- 
side and inside and by the vacuum created by the spray 
of oil and air entering into the furnace through a rather 
narrow opening. Any operator can satisfy himself in 
regard to the above statement by lifting the upper half 
of the boss and regulating the air, oil, and dampers so 
that only a small flame is visible above the top of the 
furnaee, then replacing the upper half of the boss and 
noting the flame and smoke that presently appears just 
B)Ove the dampers. 

I agree with P. L. Guppy on the desirability of a 
low-pressure air-flame for assay-work. There were no 
statements in my article which could have been construed 
as a criticism of the low-pressure air used in the Case 
furnaee. That the mechanical arrangement of the vari- 
ous parts was not all that could be desired is best proved 
by the extensive modification of the new Case oil-fired 


Como, June 20. 

Books Written in a Hurry 

The Editor: 

Sir — Looking over the latest publications for sale in a 
book-store in this city recently, I came across 'Herbert 
Hoover: The Man and His Work', by Vernon Kellogg, 
published in 1920 by D. Appleton & Co. of New York. 
'As I have watched Mr. Hoover's progress since he was 
at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, in 1900 or so, and 
really believe him to be the man most fitted for the Presi- 
dency of the United States, I became interested in this 
book, which, I believe is a reprint of a series of articles 
appearing in an Eastern magazine. ' I opened it at page 
105. and read the following: 

' ' His work took him back to Australia, the land of his 
first notable success, but this time into South Australia, 
instead of West Australia. Here he took personal charge 
of a large constructive undertaking in connection with 
the rehabilitation of the famous Broken Hill mines. 
These mines were in the inhospitable wastes of the Great 
Stony Desert, four or five hundred miles north of Ade- 
laide, the port city. The living and working conditions 
on the desert were a little worse than awful, but by his 
technical and organizing ability he brought to life the 
two or three abandoned mines that constituted the 
Broken Hill properties, and adding to them some ad- 
joining lower grade mines, converted the whole group 
from a state of great unrealized possibilities into one of 
highly profitable actualities. 

"An important factor in this achievement was his 
origination and successful development of a process for 
extracting the zinc from ores that had already been 
treated for the other metals, and then cast aside as worth- 
less residues. There were 14,000,000 tons of these residues 
on the Broken Hill dumps, and from them he derived 
large returns for the company that he had organized to 
purchase the property. He also introduced new metal- 
lurgical processes for the profitable handling of the low- 
grade sulphide ores that constituted most of the mineral 

body of the mines. Indeed, this work in South Australia 
did much to help prove to him what has long been one 
of his cardinal beliefs, namely, that the safe backbone of 
mining lies in the handling of large bodies of low-grade 
ores. When such great orebodies are given the benefit of 
proper metallurgical processes, and large organizing and 
intelligent building up of extensive plants, mining leaves 
the realms of speculation and becomes a certain and 
stable business. 

"All this successful work in South Axistralia occupied 
but seven months ..." 

'Ye Gods'! I ejaculated, and said to a person near-by 
that Hoover needed protection from his friends; also 
that the matter was a libel on Australians. I am certain 
that Hoover never read proof on this section of Kellogg 's 
book, as he would not have permitted it to pass. The 
only way to criticize the matter is to analyze each sen- 
tence : 

(1) Broken Hill is not in South Australia, but in New 
South Wales, although only a short distance over the 
border. Practically the only mining in South Australia 
is at Wallaroo and Moonta, and at Iron Knob, with the 

. great lead smelter at Port Pirie ; but Hoover had noth- 
ing to do with them. Adelaide is not the port city, it 
being 12 miles from its own port. Port Pirie is the out- 
let for the Broken Hill field. 

(2) Although the Barrier (Broken Hill) is in an arid 
region, it is by no means an inhospitable waste ; while the 
living and working conditions in a city of over 20,000 
people were not "a little worse than awful". I have 
been there. 

(3) Instead of there being a group of large mines con- 
tributing 10% of the world's lead, 5%, of its silver, and 
20% of its zinc (in concentrates), Mr. Kellogg would 
have us believe that there were only two or three aban- 
doned mines on the Barrier, with goats browsing on the 
dumps. His admission of 14 million tons of residues does 
not point to two or three mines. Why, at that time I 
know that the South and Central mines were estimated 
to contain over 4,000,000 tons of ore ; and ore that carries 
15% lead, 8 oz. silver, and 10% zinc is by no means low- 
grade. The Broken Hill Proprietary had by that time 
paid about £8,000,000 in dividends. 

I am not sure of the year in which Mr. Hoover was at 
Broken Hill, but it must have been about 1906, when the 
Zinc Corporation, which is the company referred to in 
this book, was trying new processes almost daily and 
spoiled the reputations of a number of reputable men for 
a time. The corporation was in. sore straits, and became 
the current topic in Australian and London papers. 
Eventually, after getting more money in London, local 
advice and that of Theodore Hoover — Herbert's brother 
— and absorbing the South Blocks mine, the Corporation 
passed through its troubles, and is now one of the big 
operators at Broken Hill. This rehabilitation occupied 
a long period. I have never heard of Herbert Hoover 
being responsible for the development of any of the flo- 
tation processes in use there. The metallurgists whose 
names are best known in this connection are Potter, 



July 10, 1920 

Delprat. Bradford, Shellshear, Courtney, De Bavay, 
Hebbard, Horwood, and Lyster. 

Anybody reading that "the safe backbone of mining 
lies in the handling of large bodies of low-grade ores", 
would think that this was something new, whereas in 
America and other countries such a theory has been in 
practice at many mines for many years, and Mr. Hoover 
expounded it in his 'Principles of Mining'. As you, 
Mr. Editor, have discussed mining as a speculation and 
as a stable business, I don't care to intrude. 

After reading the quoted page I did not go further, 
but some time I may look at the section on Kalgoorlie. 
where I spent nearly 12 years, up to 1912 ; yet I am 
afraid I may be tempted to peruse that critically also. 
It is a pity that in his admiration for Mr. Hoover, Mr. 
Kellogg was not more careful, and that the former did 
not edit the matter before going to press. I am now 
curious to know what my friends in Australia will say ; 
but I can guess. 

M. W. von Bernewitz. 

San Francisco. June 17. 

Recent Metallurgy at Trail, B. C. 

The Editor: 

Sir — Referring to the excellent article on this subject 
in your issue of June 12, by F. H. Mason, in which he 
makes note of the Dings magnetic separators: Mr. 
Mason has not made it clear as to the type of machine 
and operation. In fact it is a two-belt machine and not a 
one-belt machine as he states. It is also of the high- 
intensity type. This machine has to operate with an 
extremely large gap, because the magnets and belts can- 
not be submerged, consequently they have to use a high- 
intensity magnet to obtain sufficient pulling force to 
reach the material lying upon the belt and covered with 
water. Underneath the poles of this machine there is an 
intense boiling action, and the pyrrhotite, which is at- 
tracted to the poles, is washed by this boiling action, free- 
ing itself from the blende. 

In your issue of March 13 you have another excellent 
article on 'Magnetic Separation on Bismuth, Tin, and 
Tungsten in Tasmania'. The authors state, on page 380, 
in regard to the standard Wetherill separator, that 
"these machines are not suitable for slime, that is, a 
material passing through a 150-mesh sieve." Also, "For 
slimy ores a magnetic separator that will treat the wet 
material is required. ' ' This is practically my experience 
and opinion. Mr. Mason, however, has not pointed out 
that this new type B-W wet magnetic separator is sep- 
arating a pulp ground to pass through a 100-mesh screen. 
All through 100-mesh screen necessarily means at least 
75%, through 200-mesh. Consequently they are making 
a separation which has before been considered impossible. 
At the same time wet separating eliminates dust and 
dirt and the usual trouble in a dry plant, and removes 
the objections stated above. 

I have not exact information here regarding the pres- 
ent arrangement at Trail, but when there last, the roasted 

and ground ore was fed first to six machines, making a 
lead-zinc concentrate, going directly to the Deister tables. 
There was a second battery of six machines, re-treating 
the re-ground magnetic portion. This was followed by a 
third set of five machines and a final step of one unit, 
making eighteen machines in all, for 600 tons capacity. 

P. R. Hines. 
Milwaukee, June 24. 

Safety in Underground Haulage 

Some standard regulations governing the operations 
of underground haulage are included in a recent bulletin 
of the Colorado Bureau of Mines. Cars operated by hand 
should have a convenient handle so that it is unnecessary 
for the trammer to place his fingers inside or outside the 
car-body. Depending upon the system used, the capac- 
ity of a car should not be too great, nor should too many 
cars be hauled in one train. The body and running-gears 
of ears should be kept in good condition. Where neces- 
sary ears should be provided with adequate brakes so 
that the hazard offered by the grade of the tracks will be 
reasonably overcome. Grades should not be so steep that 
they offer danger from derailment of cars. Locomotives 
should be of an approved type with all necessary appli- 
ances for their safe operation. They should be provided 
with head-lights and gongs. Gasoline-locomotives should 
be used only by special written permission of the Com- 
missioner of Mines. Locomotives should be kept in good 
condition. The following minimum clearance should be 
provided : between top of ears and back, two feet ; be- 
tween sides of car and timber or rook sides of haulage- 
way, six inches ; between top of car and trolley, 18 inches. 
"Where electric haulage is used, shaft-stations must be 
electrically lighted and haulage-ways should have elec- 
tric-light bulbs at least every 200 ft. For animal-tram- 
ming a light must be carried on the first car of the trip 
or by the driver. For hand-tramming a light must be 
carried by the trammer or on front of car. Rails should 
be of such weight as to safely carry the maximum load 
that may be imposed at maximum speed. They should be 
firmly spiked, have suitable joint fastenings, and rest on 
a sufficient number of ties of adequate dimensions. Frogs 
and switches should be properly blocked on motor-haul- 
age roads. The track should be properly aligned and 
free from high joints, broken rails, defective switches 
and frogs. Chute lips should not project more than 
three inches over the nearest side of the cars. Jumping 
moving cars and uncoupling cars moving at a speed ex- 
ceeding four miles per hour should be prohibited. Cars 
without brakes should not be ridden on grades. Speed 
of trains should not be greater than the conditions of the 
track make safe — in no case over 15 miles per hour. 
Where mechanical haulage is used and there is not room 
to pass at all points, refuge or shelter places, affording 
space of at least two and one-half feet at each side be- 
tween the widest portion of cars or train and walls, 
should be provided not more than 50 ft. apart. These 
places must be kept open and clear at all times. 

July 1". ir.20 



Electrolytic Separation of Copper From a Copper- 
Cobalt-Nickel Matte 


Introduction. This article describes the operation of 
tho mpper department of the plant of the Missouri 
Cobalt Co.. at Fredericktown, Missouri, of which I had 
charge during: the first half of 1919. It should be re- 
membered that copper was a by-product, the principle 
object of the treatment being the production of a suit- 
able solution of the nickel and cobalt from which the 
copper had been entirely removed. Accordingly ther« 
will be some departure from standard practice in the 
electrolytic precipitation of copper on account of this 
special application of the process. A statement of the 
peculiar conditions and the measures taken to improve 
the results should be valuable. In order to simplify the 
discussion it is divided into four parts, namely, (1) the 
quality of the products delivered to the copper depart- 
ment. (2) the leaching plant, (3) the electrolytic plant, 
land (4) the furnace-refinery. The accompanying gen- 
eral flow-sheet (Fig. 1) shows the relation of the copper 
department to the scheme of treatment. 

Products Delivered to Copper Department. The 
analysis of the anodes from No. 2 blast-furnace averaged 
55% copper, 19% nickel, 6% cobalt, 9% sulphur, and 
10% iron. In the preliminary testing it had been de- 
termined that successful electrolysis required the sulphur- 
content to be below 3%. and the iron between 7 and 8%. 
It was. however, found impracticable to produce a matte 
.with this combination of low sulphur and high iron, be- 
• cause of the formation of sows in the blast-furnace. I 
ihave known this furnace to be blown in and out five times 
in one month. "We had to handle these high-sulphur 
(7 to 8%'i anodes very carefully, as they are extremely 
brittle and even with care they would break upon being 
immersed in the warm electrolyte. The high iron-con- 
tent was necessary to prevent loss of cobalt in the slag. 

The first anodes were cast with the "Walker side-lug for 
support in the cells, but the brittleness of the metal 
caused these lugs to crack and most of the anodes were 
without lugs by the time they reached the cell-room. 
iThen we tried the wire-loop type, in which heavy loops 
jof copper-wire are held in place by a slot in the anode- 
mold. The vertical lug that held this wire made a re- 
entrant angle with the body of the casting and 50% of 
the anodes cracked as shown in Fig. 2. The electrolyte 
entered this opening and dissolved the copper wire, 
thereby allowing the anode to drop to the bottom of the 
Jell, where it would cut a hole in the lead lining. Later 
this re-entrant angle was filled with metal, giving an 
ingle of approximately 45° with the body of the casting. 
The anode was also made thicker {2\ in. at the top to 
If in. at the bottom), and this type gave much better 

The method of casting the anodes was crude, and a 
poor separation of matte from slag was made. No settler 
was used, the furnace being tapped into a 6-ft. launder 
that discharged direct into the anode-molds. A wooden 
rake served to fill the corners in the mold as well as to 
skim off the slag. More than a quarter of the anodes had 
to be cleaned by hand. Besides the slag that was left 
sticking on the outside, and which was easily removed, 
there was the slag mixed with the metal in the interior 
of the casting. This occluded slag caused surprising in- 
creases of voltage in the cell-room. Another bad feature 
of the slag was the warping of the anode caused by the 
difference in conductivity of the two sides. This gave an 
anode that would touch the cathodes when placed in the 
cell, causing short circuits. An oil-fired tilting barrel- 
type of ladle in conjunction with an anode-easting wheel, 
operated by hand, was tried, but did not prove a success. 

The anode that gave the best results was light-gray 
and dense ; it had a close structure and was without gas- 
holes. These anodes were also tough and corroded evenly 
in the cell in case they were free from slag. The North 
American Lead Co., which preceded the Missouri Cobalt 
Co., made an anode in a reverberatory furnace that was 
tough, white in color, and resembled soft steel in physical 
characteristics. This was due to the larger proportions 
of copper, cobalt, and nickel, with small amounts of iron 
and sulphur. This was the anode that the Missouri 
Cobalt test-work called for, but the blast-furnace depart- 
ment was unable to turn it out. Such an anode would 
have been easy to electrolyze. 

The roasted and pulverized matte as delivered to the 
leaching plant, to be used for the making of the electro- 
lyte solution, was not quite so variable in composition as 
the anodes, but in physical condition and quantity it 
varied even more. Twelve to 14 tons of this matte came 
daily from No. 1 blast-furnace. The residue from the 
leach, amounting to 9 or 10 tons, was sent to the No. 2 
blast-furnace. The following are typical analyses : 

















Roasted matte ...20.0 





Leached residue. .12.0 











The leach was not made with the idea of a high extrac- 
tion, but only for the purpose of supplying the electro- 
lyte. If the roast was not carried to 4% sulphur or 
under, the cobalt sulphate seemed to act as a coagulator 
of the raw sulphides and this residue would set in the 
tank and would have to be taken out with pick and 
shovel. Even when the chemical conditions were ideal 
the residue could not be allowed to stand after the solu- 



July 10, 1920 

tion was decanted or it would cause similar trouble. Pro- 
vided tke roast analyzed below 3% sulphur and 10% 
iron, and would pass 20-mesh, we had little trouble in 
making the required 45 tons of 3.5% copper electrolyte 
from 12 to 14 tons of matte every 24 hours. 

The acid used in the leaching plant was of ordinary 
commercial quality, 60°B., and gave no trouble from 
chemical impurities. The water used was of poor qual- 
ity; it contained calcium and magnesium salts, which 
precipitated in the tanks and pipe-lines of our circulation 
system. Much time was lost in cleaning the pipe-lines. 
At the time I took charge there were no means for heating 
solutions in the storage-vats, and the difference in tem- 
perature of the cell-solution caused additional precipita- 
tion in the pipe-lines. Accordingly steam-coils were 
placed on the bottom of each vat and the solutions were 
kept at the same temperature throughout the plant. 
Similar crystals formed on the sides of the lead lining 
in the cells and were taken out in the sludge. The 
analysis of crystals obtained from sludge, in water- 
soluble metals, is as follows : 


Copper 4.86 

Cobalt 1.88 

Nickel 3.73 

At one time the lead in the matte was recovered by a 
chloride leach and considerable salt was left lying on the 
ground outside the leaching plant. Whenever it rained 
this salt was washed into our sumps and contaminated the 
electrolyte with an overcharge of chlorine. This had a 
bad effect on the cathodes and at one time entirely stop- 
ped the production of starting-sheets. 

The Leaching Plant. A general plan of the plant is 
shown in Fig. 3. A cycle of operations was as follows: 
the tank first received the wash from the last previous 
charge. The solution contained 8% sulphuric acid and 
was between 80° and 90° C, having been heated by a 
steam agitator during the night. The matte was dumped 
into the vat while the steam agitator was operating under 
90-lb. pressure. Three hours was required for introduc- 
ing the matte, and the agitation was continued only a 
little longer. The electrolyte was then decanted or 
siphoned to the storage-vat. Wash-water was added to 
the residue, and agitated 30 minutes, the liquor then 
being siphoned into the next vat, preparatory to another 
cycle. The residue was dumped through the discharge- 
cock and laundered into a tub from which it was wheeled 
to No. 2 blast-furnace. Under normal conditions one vat 
per day was leaehed. 

The vats were without lead lining, they had inferior 
pipe-fittings, and poor arrangements for dumping, and 
the work was hard on the men on account of the dripping. 
There 'was constant trouble. 

The Electrolytic Plant. As shown in the plan, Fig. 
4, there are four sub-divisions of the plant, namely: (1) 
starting-sheet division, (2) cathode division, (3) soft 
copper division, and (4) lead-cell division. The work of 
making starting-sheets was arranged as follows: two 
men spent 8 hours lifting the copper blanks from the 
cells and stripping off the sheets; they weighed and 

counted them, and carried them to the trimming and 
hanging-table; one man painted the necessary blanks 
and a boy hung the new sheets during the day-time. 

The anodes used in the starting-sheet cells were 8 in. 
longer than those in the regular cells. This was on ac- 
count of the length of the copper blanks used. In fact, 
we found that, on continued use of these blanks with the 
shorter anodes, the high-acid electrolyte would layer very 
readily in the space just beneath the short anodes and 
would tend to dissolve rapidly that portion of the copper 
blank upon which no deposition was taking place. 

The circulating solution for the starting-sheet rows was 
raised by an Antisdell pump which gave excellent service. 
We frequently wished that the other four pumps for the 
regular rows were also of this type. 

The quantity of acid in the electrolyte was determined 
by the foreman of the leaching plant, who, when I first 
went there, maintained the strength of the starting-sheet 
solution at 6%, free acid. This was then thought neces- 
sary to produce good starting-sheets but it was subse- 
quently shown that 3% acid would give a tougher prod- 
uct. When the change was made it was no longer neces- 
sary to return the solution, depleted in copper, to the 
leaching plant, and the result was the discontinuance of 
a troublesome pump and pipe-line. Under the old 
method of using 6%, sulphuric acid, the electrolyte that 
went to the starting-sheet cells contained at least 2% 
iron in solution ; the amount of ferric iron increased with 
the length of time that this electrolyte was used. The' 
current efficiency among the starting-sheets in February 
1918 under the old system was 84%. The time lost due' 
to power-plant delays or shortages of anodes or of solu- 
tion is not covered by this efficiency figure. The propor- 
tion of good sheets made under the old system averaged' 
about 60%,. This sheet was made in 24 hours and, 
weighed about 4J lb. Under the new system we used| 
twice as many cells, but only stripped at 48-hour inter-! 
vals, thereby making a sheet whose approximate weight; 
was 8 to 10 pounds. 

About March 15, the proportion of starting-sheet serapj 
increased rapidly, and owing to changes in the material! 
coming to the electrolytic department a serious conditionl 
developed. By the first of April we were unable to make 
a single sheet. The average analysis of the solution that! 
would not make starting-sheets follows: 6.5% acid, 3.0% 
copper, 2.0%, iron, 0.025% chlorine. The compositei 
analysis of the anodes in the cells at this time was 56.9% 
copper, 19.5% nickel, 5.5% cobalt, 2.5% lead, 9.3% iron 
7.0% sulphur. 

The difficulty was that the starting-sheet would breaii 
upon being bent 180° in one direction. We tried everj 
change possible, made solution from pure water insteac 
of old wash-water, cleaned all the sumps, storage-vats 
pipe-lines, and other places of possible contamination 
but with no beneficial result. We then started a series o! 
tests, the results of which are given below. The test! 
were conducted in a cell 20 by 15 by 15 in., with a solu, 
tion temperature of 50°C. The current density wai 
maintained at 10. 

July 10. 1920 



Tf.l No. 1 

To dati riiiim- if ihe trouble « i* in tin- water in iha leaohlnf plant. 

A.1>1 Qopper Chlorine Iron Number 
VOltafe % % * ot bends 
Matte and dn-tilled water. . 4-0.6 6.0 3.5 0.007 2.0 1 
Matte and leach-plant solu- 
tion 0.4-0.6 6.0 3.5 0.013 18 1 

This seemed to prove that whatever the impurity iu 
tlir electrolyte, it did not come from the water. 

Test No. 1 

Aetd Copper Chlorine Iron Number 

% % % of bends 

2.8 0.012 1.5 1 

Statu- and leach-plant water. 0.4-0.6 6.0 

Copper sulphate and leaeh- 

waler 0.3-0.4 6.2 

In order to be sure that the anodes did not contain the 
impurity that was causing brittle sheets, we ran a com- 
parative teal on the regular anodes and some old ones 
that were left by the North American Lead Co. The 
temperature iu these tests was approximately 45°C. The 
acid strength in both solutions was 6% and the cop- 

P er 3 %- Teat No. 

Sul- Num. 

Copper Cobalt Nickel Iron phur Lead ber of 












Regular anode ...0.0-0.7 








North American 

Lead anode ...0.4-0.5 








Run of Mine, 350 Tons daily 


2S Tons daiiy to Lead Smelter J 
Lead Concentrate f 60% Pb 

To Acid Plan t of Zinc Smelter 
Pyrlte Concert -are 

[ Copper, Nickel, Cobalt 


Sulphuric Add 




100^ Tons daily 





N9 1 BLAST- 

Flue- duet 

5 lag to Dump 

-J 1 


TO 37,5 

Ic ions daily 

•*. — 


Granulated Matte J 








t Stag 




{ Electrolyte 

Cast Anodes 




To Market 

^Sludge J g. 

Fectroiytic Solution 

Containing Sulphates ot 
Cobalt and Nickel 





Ingots toMarket ) 
Slag to Copper Smelter 

Shot- nickel to Market^ 

Cobalt Oxide to Market 


This showed that the water used in the leaching plant 
was all right, but that the impurity which caused the 
trouble either was in the matte or entered while the solu- 
tion was being made up from the matte. 

Tests with our leaching-plant acid and with C. P. acid 
gave us proof that there was nothing wrong with the 

Test No. 3 
The effect of reducing- the strength of the free acid was learned 

Acid Copper Chlorine Iron Number 
Voltage % % % % of bends 

Hirh acid 0.4-0.6 6.5 3.2 0.01 2.0 1 

Low acid 0.8-0.7 2.0 3.0 0.01 2.4 4 

Tost No. 4, 
A small amount of glue was added to the electrolyte. 

Acid Copper Chlorine Iron Number 

Voltage % % % % of bends 

High acid plus glue 0.4-0.5 6.2 3.0 0.01 2.0 3 

Low acid plus glue 0.8-0.9 2.3 3.0 0.01 1.0 7 

Test No. 6 

All conditions same is in Test 5, but glue was added to electrolyte. 

Copper Acid Number 

% % of bends 

Regrular anode 3.5 2.4- 10-12 

North American Lead anode 3.7 2.6 12—14 

"We decided to operate the leaching plant so as to pro- 
duce an electrolyte with 3% acid and to add the solution- 
pocket of the head cell of each row half a pint of warm 
glue solution (25% glue) every eight hours. After 
making this change the following results were obtained 
in a 45-day period; blanks placed, 2936; good sheets 
stripped, 5543; sheets hung, 4346; weight of scrap and 
trimmings, 6881 lb.; weight of sheets, 24,379 lb. This 
shows 6% of the total number of sheets scrapped. The 
remedies for the production of brittle sheets may be 
summarized as follows: 



July 10, 1920 

(1) The spring rains had washed a large amount of 
salt refuse into the leaching-plant sumps and this was 
the probable cause of our difficulties. The figures given 
below seem to show that the troublesome impurities in 
our starting-sheets were metallic chlorides. An analysis 


45' 'Angle 

First Type 

Second Type 
Fig. 2. anodes 

Third Type 

of bad starting-sheets gave copper, 99.517%; chlorine 
0.159; and insoluble, 0.144, as compared with 99.707%, 
0.017, and 0.094 for the satisfactory sheets. 

(2) The glue tended to overcome the activity of the 

(3) The lower percentage of total iron obtained with 
the low-acid electrolyte, as well as the lower percentage 
of other impurities extracted gave beneficial results. 
Ferric iron decreased from as high as 0.5 to 0.1%. 

The following data on current efficiencies are given 
by L. Addicks: 

eral tests I used thinner paint than usual on the starting- 
sheet blanks and found that even under the worst condi- 
tions a somewhat tougher sheet resulted. It was decided 
that more care must be used by the painter in giving the 
blanks a uniform coating ■£$ in. thick. The variation in 
thickness of this coat was sometimes due to a change in 
the viscosity of the oil. At times I have been convinced 
that some foreign impurity in the oil or graphite was 
causing part of our trouble, but I could find no proof. 
No more brittle starting-sheets, however, were produced 
after the acid was lowered to 3% and glue added. In 
connection with the character of the paint used, we found 
that it was impossible to make use of the standard paint 
(oil and lamp-black), as our voltage was so high that the 
copper burned through a thin paint and ruined the 
blanks for future use. Much thicker oil mixed with 
graphite was used as a coating and the oily graphitic 
surface was dusted over the flake-graphite. 

The methods of hanging starting-sheets are given be- 
low in Fig. 5. 

The following data are arranged to compare the work 
in the cathode-vats with that at Ajo as given by Henry 
A. Tobelmann and James A. Potter in Vol. LX of the 
Transactions of the A. I. M. & M. E. 

Ferric iron in electrolyte 

Current efficiency 


Electrolytic, per minute, gal 1055 

Copper, inflowing electrolyte, % 3.05 

Effluent solution, % 2.60 

The electrolyte used by Mr. Addicks in this test was 
5% acid, 2.5% iron, 3.0%, copper, temperature 48°C. 

Ferric iron, inflowing solution. 
Ferric iron, effluent solution, ' 
Current density 


Missouri Cobalt. 

average for 6 months 




High-acid Low-acid 

electrolyte electrolyte 

0.5 0.12 

0.60 0.16 

10 10 


Acid- tanks 

O Q» 


Fig. 3. leaching plant 

The low percentage of free acid permissible in our 
work was no doubt due to the soluble sulphates. The 
total of nickel, cobalt, and iron sulphates was at least 
20%. The ampere efficiency was not affected by the 
lowering of the free acid. 

(4) The use of thinner paint on the blanks. In sev- 

Voltage 1.97 

Weight of cathode, lb 117.0 

Number of cells 121.0 

Number of cathodes per cell 77.0 

Number of cells on starting-sheets. . . 23.0 

Total number of blanks 1925.0 

Starting-sheets scrapped. % 10.4 

Copper in cathodes. % 99.48 

Copper in sludge of cement. % 69.0 

Note. Chlorine in cathodes at Ajo. 0.05-0.35*7 







20.0 (6% after Apr.4) 

July 10, 1920 



In the operation of the cathode division, 14 men are 
■mployed on the day-shift and on eaeli of the others the 
force consists of a foreman, one circulation-man, and one 
contaet-man. At 7 a.m. the power is cut off for ten 
minutes to allow the vat-cleaning squad to cut out the 
ten cells that they are to clean in eight hours. The 
anodes and cathodes are removed from the two-head 
cells in the row to be cleaned, and are placed in racks in 

soluble copper, cobalt, and nickel that could be extracted 
by a simple water-wash was determined by a series of 
tests supervised by J. A. T. Robertson, metallurgist for 
the company. 

Anilyais of Soluble Soluble 

dry nlmlpe in 6% acid in water 

% % % 

Copper 51.35 1.24 0.60 

Nickel 2.83 1 „ .„ 2.02 

Cobalt 1.03) " 0.85 

Iron ... 2.80 

5luG$£ -drying 

Industrial Railroad Track 


Fig. 4. vat-house 

order to prevent them from breaking or warping. The 
solution is then siphoned out of the cells and allowed to 
flow down onto the floor and thence to a sump. When 
this sump is full, the solution is pumped to a storage- 
vat. After the solution is out of the cell, one man, with 


First Method Second Method Third Method 

Fig. 5. hanging starting-sheets 

The acid does not give any better extraction of cobalt 
and nickel than water; moreover the acid-wash contains 
much iron. It would be possible to recover 9.25 lb. of 
cobalt and 31.15 lb. of nickel per ton of dry sludge by 
means of a water-wash. Valuing the cobalt at $1 per 

i-h Air-pipe^ 

l-in. Pipe, O 


2-in. Lead Pipe 

Fig. 6. agitators 

rubber boots and gloves, gets into the cell and scrapes 
the sludge through a 2-in. hole with a wooden shovel. 
Each cell has two of. these holes plugged with lead stop- 
pers having rubber washers. The sludge drops into a 
launder, which leads to a box where the excess solution 
is drained into the sump ; the operator shovels it from 
this box into a wooden wheelbarrow and removes it to a 
wood-fired drying-pan. It takes 24 hours to dry two to 
three tons of sludge on this pan. The amount of water- 

pound and nickel at 25c. per pound, a saving of at least 
$17 per ton might be effected as well as a reduction in 
penalty of two units of cobalt and nickel. This had not 
been done up to the time I left the plant. 

The men who cleaned the vats removed the 40-lb. 
cathodes and placed the starting-sheets and the new 
anodes that were required. They left 10 cells at 3 p.m. 
in first-class condition as far as electrolysis was con- 
cerned. Bach vat was cleaned twice a month. If we 



July 10, 1920 

had been able to run continuously we would have made 
cathodes in 15 days and all 'pulling' of copper would 
have taken place when the vats were cleaned. 

The head circulation-man's duty was to go over all 
solution-pipes from the feeders to the overflows into the 
pump-boxes in order to keep the rate of circulation at a 
maximum. The contact-man watched the voltages and 
corrected irregular readings by shining contacts, remov- 
ing 'berries' and broken pieces of anodes or cathodes. 

The handling of anodes in the cell-room was done by a 
small i-ton crane with ordinary spider for moving anodes 
and cathodes. 

Under the new scheme the 3%-acid electrolyte was 
passed through the head cells of the starting-sheet rows 
and flowed from there to the A, B, C, and D cells re- 

Below are given typical analyses of the electrolyte as 
it flowed through the plant. 

Acid Copper Iron 

% % % 

Effluent from leach-plant 2.8 3.5 1.0 

From startinr-sheet cells ; 3.0 3-1 1.2 

A cells 3.2 2.7 1.39 

B cells 3.7 1.9 1.52 

C cells 4.0 0.07 1.73 

D cells 5.1 0.018 2.0 

The Antisdell pump lifting the starting-sheet solution 
could discharge into either No. 1 and No. 1A vat. The 
leveling-valve between the two was kept closed. The 
pump handling electrolyte for the four A rows dis- 
charged into 2A vat. The leveling-valve between No. 
2A and No. IB was left open,. The A cells were fed 
from No. 1A vat. The solution was pumped back to No. 
2A, leveled into No. IB and the B cells were fed from 
No. IB vat, pumped back into No. 2B. and leveled into 
1C. The C cells were fed from No. 1C, pumped back 
into No. 2C, and leveled into No. ID. The D cells were 
fed from No. ID and pumped into No. 2D. The solution 
entering 2D was ready for the cobalt-nickel department. 

The head cells of the C rows produced hard cathodes 
with a 3%, acid electrolyte. The agitators used are 
shown in Fig. 6. These agitators reached below the 
anodes and cathodes, and the results obtained were highly 
satisfactory. The proportion of soft copper was reduced 
from 35% to 8%, and although the agitators required 
considerable attention this was more than offset by the 
reduced handling of soft copper. Soft copper was pro- 
duced in the lower 18 cells. 

To increase the amount of electrolyte in circulation 
and the period of contact of. the electrolyte with the 
cathodes, pipes between the cells were replaced with 
open lead launders. 

The following comparative data show the results from 
changes made in the lead-cell division. 

December 20 April 1 to 

to April 1 July 1 

Acid in solution. % 6.4 4.0 

Copper in solution sent to the nickel-cobalt de- 
partment, % 0.04 0.01 

Iron in solution sent to the nickel-cobalt depart- 
ment, % 4.3 2.0 

Daily solution to nickel-cobalt department, tons. 10.0 20.6 

Nickel in solution. % 0.7 1.2 

Cobalt in solution, % 0.1 0.2 

These changes in the quality of the products delivered 
to the nickel-cobalt department were due to additional 

circulation, agitation, clean lead sheets, and vats free 
from sludge. The high-acid solution in these cells was 
hard on pumps. The D pump, for example, was re- 
paired at least once every 24 hours. 

From my experience in this plant, I suggest the fol- 
lowing improvements : 

(1) The use of Antisdell pumps for handling elec- 

(2) The use of solid bus-bars. 

(3) Protection of all wood vats and cells with anti- 
monial lead. 

(4) The washing of copper sludge for soluble metal. 

(5) The use of asphalt covering on cement floors and 
vat-bases where lead caps are not used. 

(6) The handling of sludge in lead-lined buggies 
from the discharge of the cells to the drying-pan. 

(7) Where circulation pipe-lines become clogged with 
crystals, the use of steam to keep all solutions at the 
same temperature. If this is not adequate the use of 
open launders, if possible. 

(8) The use of air-agitation and increased circulation 
in cells operating with electrolyte under 2% copper. 

(9) The use of insulators of the Ajo type on all lead 
anodes and cathodes. 

Furnace Refinery. Up to January 1919, the corn- 
pan}' had not made any refined ingot copper. However, 
I started a small 10-ton furnace, which was a relic from 
the North American Lead Co. 's operations and a good 
furnace considering its size. 

It was necessary to break-in an entire crew of furnace- 
men and ladlers. The only men that I had to draw from 
were farmers, whose lack of experience caused many 
expensive accidents before they became efficient. At 
first the furnace was equipped with oil-burners, but the 
use of oil, owing to the poor system of circulation, was 
expensive and gave poor results. Coal-firing, with a 
forced draft under the grate-bars, proved better. The 
copper was ladled with small 8-in. wrought-iron ladles 
requiring four men. It took about four hours to ladle 
six to eight tons of refined ingots. 

The ingot copper, containing 0.02% nickel and 0.001% 
cobalt, was medium-grade casting copper assaying about 
99.7%. The furnace operated only about 10 days per 
month, owing to the small production of electrolytic cop- 
per. During the first months the cost of brick and brick- 
laying amounted to one-third the cost of refining copper. 
For this reason, I discontinued the use of the smelter 
bricklayers and broke-in the furnace-men for this work 
with considerable saving. C. B. Underwood, who was 
then assistant superintendent of the furnace refinery, 
was responsible for a considerable reduction in the cost 
of the refining. 

My opinion is that a metallurgical method is available 
for the profitable treatment of this ore. Frankly. I be- 
lieve that the Missouri Cobalt Co. made the mistake of 
spending too much money and time on the extraction of 
nickel and cobalt, instead of first realizing on the copper 
and in the meantime working out, in a small test-plant, 
a scheme for the recovery of nickel and cobalt. 

Jub 1". 1920 



Early Days on the Rand 


It wat. in the year 1854 that the earliest recorded dis- 
covery of gold was made in this district. In that year 
it was announced that one Jan Marais had made a find 
at the Yoke-Skey river, a tributary of the Crocodile, or 
Limpopo, and had also observed the precious metal on 
the Witwatersrand, the range of hills which forms the 
main watershed of the country. Some nuggets were 
■exhibited at Potchefstroom, but there the matter seems 
. to have dropped, for we hear no more of gold being 
sought for in this part of the Transvaal until 1883, 

seldom remarkably rich. It was soon noted that these 
deposits were extensive, and that the gold was distributed 
in them witli remarkable uniformity. 

In November 1885 J. Bantjes began prospecting on the 
farm Roodepoort, and struck what was afterward known 
as the 'Main Reef, and in December Struben erected a 
5-staxup mill, with which he and Bantjes crushed 50 tons 
of conglomerate in March 1886. The Main Beef was also 
uncovered by "Walker on the farm Langlaagte and then 
Struben and Bantjes struck it again on Vogelstruisfon- 


nearly 30 years later. In December of that year, Fred- 
eirck Struben noticed the gold-bearing formation of the 
Witwatersrand, and in January 1884, he began pros- 
pecting on the farm Sterkfontein. In April of the same 
year he was led to suspect the probable presence of gold- 
bearing conglomerate, from the occurrence of water- 
worn pebbles on the highest parts of the range, but it was 
not until September 1884 that a lode was struck east of 
Sterkfontein, assaying 913 oz. gold and 362 oz. silver per 

The conglomerate formation now known as 'banket' 
was first noticed in March 1885. The word 'banket' 
(pronounced bon-ket, with the accent on the second syl- 
lable) is the Dutch name for 'almond-rock', a sweetmeat 
to which the rock in question bears some resemblance. 
It consists of hard white round or oval pebbles imbedded 
in a friable darker matrix, which carries the bulk of the 
gold. The banket sometimes shows visible gold, but is 

tein. These discoveries began now to attract attention, 
and many other persons started prospecting, some of 
them on the spot that became the site of Johannesburg. 
In May 1886 Col. Ferreira informed the Government 
of the presence of gold on the Gatsrand, a parallel range 
of hills, south of the "Witwatersrand. On July 18, nine 
adjoining properties were proclaimed by the Govern- 
ment as forming the Witwatersrand goldfield. About 
the same time the Ferreira and Natal camps, the nucleus 
of the present Johannesburg, began to spring up. The 
Main Reef was found to run through the ground occu- 
pied by Ferreira 's camp; the houses were accordingly 
demolished and fresh building-sites sold to the inhabit- 
ants in what is now Johannesburg proper. On Septem- 
ber 20, a plan of the new township was advertised by 
Captain Von Brandis, the Landdrost, or special magis- 
trate appointed by the Government, and on December 8 
of the same year the first sale of building-sites took place, 



July 10, 1920 

realizing £13,002. This may be considered to mark the 
foundation of the present eity of Johannesburg. 

The growth of the town from that date to the begin- 
ning of 1889 was probably without a parallel even among 
the annals of American and Australian mining settle- 
ments. At the time of my arrival, in March 1889, there 
were probably well over 20,000 inhabitants, whose dwell- 
ings of brick, iron, and wood extended over a mile from 
east to west and nearly as far from north to south. Little 
more than two years before, nothing would have been 
visible save a boundless expanse of green veldt, broken 
by ranges of rocky hills, with here and there a pros- 
pector 's tent, or a few miserable hovels of unburnt brick, 
rudely covered with thatch, canvas, or a sheet of corru- 
gated iron. 

Every day saw coaches, mule-carts, ox-wagons crowded 
with newcomers, nocking in from all quarters. The older 
towns of Cape Colony and Natal, and also Kimberley, 
Barberton, and other once flourishing mining centres 
were being rapidly drained of their wealth and popula- 
tion to swell the ranks of the goldseekers on the Rand. 
The difficulty experienced by newcomers in getting sleep- 
ing accommodation was incredible. A night or two in a 
bullock-wagon or on a billiard-table was no infrequent 
experience, and there were many who gladly paid 35 or 
40 shillings a week for a miserable truckle-bed in a tiny 
corrugated iron shed, with three or more others in similar 
plight for companions. Happy was he who, by a plenti- 
ful application of 'Keating', could secure immunity from 
the too-pointed attentions of the nimble tribe, and could 
also escape that other too frequent boarder who has won 
such renown in the recent war, and who has been aptly 
described as 'slow, but steady of purpose'. 

In the outlying townships, such as Doornfontein, 
Jeppestown, and Booysen's, suburban villas with some 
pretensions to elegance and luxury were springing up, to 
form pleasant retreats for those who should win fortune 
in the great gamble. A splendid general view of Johan- 
nesburg could be obtained from any of the heights to the 
north and east, and a most impressive effect was pro- 
duced by the immense variety of buildings with their 
metal roofs flashing in the sun, the spacious squares with 
scores of laden wagons, and along the southern edge of 
• the town, the headgear of numerous shafts, the battery- 
sheds, workmen's and staff dwellings, stretching in a 
continuous line along the course of the Main Beef. 

The life and activity of Johannesburg was mainly con- 
centrated in the neighborhood of the market-square, 
which in a South African town fills the role of the plaza 
in Mexico and other Spanish-American countries. Run- 
ning east and west, south of the square, was Commis- 
sioner street, the main thoroughfare, containing many of 
the principal stores, shops, and offices. The financial 
heart of the city, the Exchange, was accommodated in a 
somewhat imposing white stone building in a short street 
joining Commissioner street with the market-square, but 
much business was transacted in the open air 'between 
the chains' in front of this building, where an animated 
scene was generally to be witnessed as the excited crowd 
surged to and fro discussing the latest movement of 

'Kaffirs', while from time to time a stentorian voice would 
make some modest announcement such as "I'll sell 
'Cities' at 15!" 

To the east of the market-square, a large block of build- 
ings with a facade of white stone housed the Post and 
Telegraph offices and other Government departments, 
which at that time were much under-staffed. The tele- 
graph service was notoriously bad and important busi- 
nes with Capetown and Kimberley was frequently car- 
ried on by letter rather than risk a wire that might be 
cut at any moment by some enterprising speculator with 
reasons of his own for depriving the outside world of all 
knowledge of the existing condition of the market. 

In the centre of the Square was a large red-brick 
market-house, in which the sale of fruit and vegetables 
was conducted at prices that (before the War) would 
have turned a London or New York fruiterer green with 
envy. Many large produce-stores surrounded the square. 

Galvanized iron, that unsightly and uncomfortable 
building material, was everywhere much in evidence, but 
good building-stone had already been quarried at Doorn- 
fontein and a company had been formed for brick-mak- 
ing on a large scale. Masons and carpenters were paid 
30 shillings per day, which in those happy days was 
looked upon as an extravagant wage. 

Immediately before the date of my arrival, the Rand 
had experienced its first 'boom'. Speculation in stocks 
and shares presented far greater attractions than the 
legitimate development of the mines, and although many 
of the properties were already of proved merit, many 
others were placed on the market with nothing to recom- 
mend them except some attractive title, or the neighbor- 
hood of some well-known property. 

Soon afterward metallurgical difficulties began to de- 
velop, and on reaching the' pyritic ore it was found not 
only that the cost of crushing was increased but that the 
recovery of the gold by amalgamation was sadly dimin- 
ished. Many croakers began to despair of the future of 
the goldfield and the inevitable 'slump' set in, which be- 
came acute in 1890. Many deserted the camp, and it was 
mainly the introduction of the cyanide process that saved 
the situation by solving the problem of treating the ore 
from the lower levels. 

One of the chief difficulties with which this goldfield 
had to contend was the cost and delay of transport. The 
nearest point to which the railway extended was Lady- 
smith in Natal, some 250 miles from Johannesburg. 
Kimberley was about 300 miles away. An ox-wagon, 
with a load of ordinary merchandise, frequently took six 
weeks to perform the journey from the rail-head to 
Johannesburg. All heavy crushing machinery came from 
England or America, and as may be supposed, a long 
interval elapsed between an order and the delivery of the 
goods, though even in this respect, the Witwatersrand 
had an advantage over Barberton and other more remote 
districts. White labor at the mines received from £3 to 
£6 per week, while the Kaffirs got 10 to 15 shillings, and 
the cost of mining and milling was reckoned at consider- 
ably over £1 per ton. 

Another advantage that the Rand enjoyed was the 

July 10. 1920 



presence of large deposits of coal close to the banket 
formation, at Boksbnrg, 12 miles east of Johannesburg, 
and at other points in the neighborhood. Many rich de- 
posita in other parts of South Africa were unworkable 
for lark of fuel. The country round Kimherley had been 
denuded of trees to supply the WKQta of the diamond 
mines and in the rugged country about Barberton the 
transport of fuel was costly and difficult. A project was 
already on foot for building a light railway between 
Johannesburg and the coal mines. For political reasons, 
since the Boers dreaded the introduction of railways in 
Qie country, this line was always called the Rand Tram- 

The goldfield was further blessed with an abundant 
supply of water, since the Rand was the source of in- 
numerable streams that go to swell the Vaal or the 

The Main Reef Leader, a rieli but narrow deposit 
parallel to and south of the Main Reef, had been struck 
on the City & Suburban property, just east of Johannes- 

Situated at an elevation of nearly 6000 ft., with a 
fairly dry and bracing climate, with no great extremes of 
temperature, one would have expected to find Johan- 
nesburg a healthy spot. Nevertheless, a good deal of 
sickness prevailed, chiefly what was called 'camp fever', 
which was generally supposed to be a mild form of 
typhoid. The sanitary arrangements of the town were 
then, and for a long time afterward, in a disgraceful con- 
dition, and this, added to the frequent dust-storms of 
the dry winter, no doubt helped to spread disease. 

Frosty nights and cold windy days were quite usual 
during the winter, say, from May to August, and in the 


Limpopo. In some instances the mine-water sufficed for 
milling purposes; in many places were vleis, or marshy 
ponds, which gave no abundant supply, and large dams 
had been constructed, notably at Knight's, later known 
as the Witwatersrand mine, to conserve the natural flow. 
On the other hand, there was not sufficient fall to admit 
of the utilization of water-power for mining or milling 

Two small companies were working on alluvial gold, 
and a rich strike of ore, of a character somewhat different 
from that of the ordinary banket, had been made at the 
Black Reef, some eight miles south-west of Johannesburg. 

The largest battery on the Rand at that time was that 
of the Witwatersrand company, which had 100 Sandy- 
croft stamps, and a new 60-stamp mill, which was then 
considered a model of excellence and efficiency, had just 
been started at the Langlaagte Estate, erected by Fraser 
& Chalmers. 

summer a short spell of heat would be followed inevitably 
by frequent and violent thunderstorms. These were 
sometimes preceded by squalls of wind that filled the air 
with red dust, giving for some time a fair imitation of a 
genuine London fog. The dust penetrated everything, 
so that all objects in-doors and out would assume a uni- 
form reddish hue. It lay in drifts on the roads, filling 
the many holes and ditches. The effect after the heavy 
rain, which usually followed, may easily be imagined. 

Life in the Johannesburg streets, especially at night, 
was not altogether without its excitements, although the 
'tenderfoot' usually managed to acquire an exaggerated 
idea of the dangers awaiting him. At that time there 
were no street-lamps, but as there was usually a bar in 
full blaze at each of the four corners of every street- 
crossing, their absence was not such a serious incon- 
venience as might have been supposed. Burglaries and 
street robberies were not unknown, but in general the 



July 10, 1920 

streets were remarkably quiet, though no doubt many 
lively scenes were being enacted within the aforesaid 
bars. These establishments usually displayed the notice 
"All drinks sixpence except Three Star". Other liquids, 
however, were procurable, as the town had already been 
furnished with a good supply of water for domestic pur- 

Apart from the Stock Exchange and the bars, the chief 
place of entertainment was the race-course, within easy 
reach of the town, where the sport was carried on with 
much enthusiasm under the patronage of the Turf Club. 
North-east of the town the cricket-ground of the Wander- 
ers' Club was a great attraction. Two theatres had al- 
ready made their appearance ; this, of course, was long 
before the days of the 'movie', but the 'variety shows' of 
the music-halls was a more popular form of entertain- 
ment than the 'legitimate' stage. Occasionally, however, 
a good theatrical company would visit Johannesburg, 
and full houses was the rule. 

A project was on foot for establishing a free library 
and reading-room, and a number of clubs and masonic 
societies had their meeting-places. Churches had already 
been built for the following denominations: Church of 
England, Roman Catholic, Wesleyan, Baptist, Presbyter- 
ian, and Dutch Reformed. In the last the service was 
conducted in the Dutch language. Most of these churches 
had schools attached to them. 

A hospital had been erected on the northern heights at 
a little distance from the town, on what became known as 
Hospital hill, but the accommodation was already insuffi- 
cient and a new building was being planned, to be erected 
near the same site. 

Four seemingly flourishing daily papers made their 
appearance, namely, the 'Transvaal Mining Argus', the 
'Daily News', the 'Standard', and the 'Diggers' News'. 
The two latter became amalgamated. The 'Eastern Star' 
also rose every alternate day. These papers for the most 
part represented the interests of the 'Uitlander', or for- 
eign settler, as opposed to the 'Afrikander', or Boer ele- 
ment, between whom relations were none of the best al- 
ready. The conservatism and primitive habits of the 
Boers provoked the ridicule of the newcomers, whereas 
the old established settlers, mainly of Dutch descent, 
were animated by a spirit of arrogance engendered by 
their apparently easy victory over the 'rooi-nek' in the 
war of 1880- '81. A great and not altogether unjustifi- 
able opposition was displayed 'to the opening up of the 
natural resources, of the country by hordes of not very 
desirable immigrants. Yet as many of these brought 
much money into the country, the Boers were not slow to 
Teap what advantage they could, in the way of taxes and 
imposts of all kinds, and by heavy charges for transport 
and such agricultural supplies as the country afforded. 

The old Boer transport rider, with his long train of 
oxen (eight or nine pairs in a span), his great slouch 
liat, and formidable whip, was a most picturesque object. 
A long iron chain connected the pole of the wagon with 
the foremost pair of oxen, the wooden yokes being affixed 
.at intervals along this and secured to the necks of each 

pair by loops of rope or leather. A small Kaffir boy — 
the 'voor-looper' guided the movements of the foremost 
animals, and kept watch over them, usually lying for 
hours face downward in the dust of the market-square, 
while his master haggled over the disposal of his produce. 
The Kaffirs employed at the mines were of many differ- 
ent races, and tribal fights were by no means uncommon. 
I have myself witnessed several spirited combats of this 
kind. The opposing parties would establish themselves 
on neighboring mine-dumps, and after a prolonged 
period of mutual recrimination and vituperation, would 
make a simultaneous charge followed by a scrimmage in 
which 'knob-kerries' would crash unceasingly on un- 
yielding craniums. Zulus, Basutos, Shangaans, Fingos, 
Matabele, and other tribes contributed their numbers to 
supply the unskilled labor of the goldfield, attracted by 
the hope of earning, in a few months, the means of pro- 
viding themselves with such a supply of cattle and wives 
as would obviate the need for further work on the part 
of the lord and master. Needless to say, these dreams 
were not always realized, and many fell victims to drink, 
to insufficient shelter from the rigors of the climate on 
the high veldt, and to the many vices, and diseases that 
they acquired by contact with white 'civilization'. 

Thp Anakie sapphire fields in Queensland had a 
profitable year during 1919. Never before has the price 
of gem stones risen so high, and never have so many buy- 
ers been doing business on the fields. "While at the begin- 
ning of 1919 prices, generally speaking, were slightly 
higher than before the War, toward the middle of the 
year they steadily mounted, until the value of ordinary 
'parcel' blues had, on the average, doubled. For large 
corundum, for which there was a keen demand during 
war time, the price has not varied much. It is said that 
in the present chaotic state of some European countries 
many people, having lost faith in paper money and scrip, 
are converting their assets into gems as having an inter- 
national value. It is also stated that, since lapidarian 
workshops have been established in Great Britain during 
the War and the gem industry has assumed larger pro- 
portions in France, the cutting and distribution of sap- 
phires is no longer, as it was, practically a monopoly of 
the towns of Idar and Oberstein, in Germany, and that 
consequent competition between old and new establish- 
ments tends to increase the demand and raise the price 
of rough stone. There has been a gradual rise in the 
price of stones since 1900. 

Gold has been found in the beds of rivers rising in the 
Carpathians, but they have as yet not been prospected. 
Particles of gold up to 2.35 carats have, however, often 
been found in the washings of the Oltul. In the district 
of Ramnicu-Valcea workings of an experimental nature 
were begun in 1912. The ore gives from 15 to 30 gm. of 
gold per ton, but the known reserve of this grade is only 
3000 tons. These deposits present but a scientific inter- 
est, as yet no serious work having been undertaken to 
arrive at their practical importance. 

July 10, 1920 



Pulverized Coal in Metallurgical Furnaces at 

Cerro de Pasco 


•The Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation at La Fundi- 
eion. Peru, uses about 65,000 tons of coke per year, of 
Which about 85% is local coke made at the smelter, and 
]")' , is imported. This latter is very expensive, and of 
course both classes of coke enter largely into the smelting 
costs; consequently, about two years ago it was decided 
to determine what could be done in the way of using 
pulverized coal in the various departments of the smelter. 
The preliminary work consisted in determining the gen- 
eral combustibility of the local coals in pulverized form. 
These coals are obtained from two mines operated by the 
company and have the following general analysis : 

Ash, 26.8%; volatile material, 40.05%; and fixed 
carbon, 33.15%. 

This coal was dried by hand on steam hot-pans to less 
than 1% moisture, and then ground in a 4 by 4-ft. Marcy 
mill, the product being stored in barrels until a sufficient 
quantity had been pulverized to run a test. An average 
screen-test of this pulverized coal was about as follows: 
on 60 mesh, 8% ; on 100 mesh, 8%.; on 200 mesh, 14% ; 
through 200 mesh, 70%. 

The equipment used in the test is shown in Pig. 1-A. 
It consists of a coal-hopper, a 3-in. feed-screw driven by 
variable-speed motor, and a No. 2 Sturtevant blower sup- 
plying the air. The burner was a standard 6-in. pipe 
projecting about 12 in. into the furnace, which was ap- 
proximately 4 by 4 by 16 ft. and constructed of firebrick. 
A number of tests were run with this equipment and 
though no pyrometric measurements were taken, obser- 
vation of the furnace showed the results to be satis- 

The tests were first made with pure pulverized coal, 
and then with mixtures of coal and coke breeze, varying 
from 10 to 35% breeze, which gave practically the same 
results as did the pure coal. The lay-out was then 
changed, Pig. 1-B, to test the practicability of using more 
than one burner with a single feeder. This test was run 
with the 4-in. return pipe, first open and then closed, the 
results indicating that satisfactory operation could be 
obtained by either method with a properly proportioned 
system of pipes. 

The next test made was in the sintering of fine ores on 
a standard Dwight-Lloyd sintering machine. These ma- 
chines are oil-fired, and if coal could be substituted it 
would effect a considerable saving. The equipment used 
in this test was the same as shown in Pig. 1-A, except that 
a 1-in. screw-feeder, a smaller fan, and a 2-in. pipe 
burner were used. This test produced a satisfactory 

*A paper presented before the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers at St. Louis, in May 1920. 

sinter, though some trouble was encountered in the pri- 
mary ignition of the coal, and the standard oil-muffle 
proved to be too small. 

The next experiment was to test the feasibility of con- 
veying pulverized coal under direct-air pressure. The 
lay-out used is shown in Fig. 2. Pulverized coal was 
placed in the pressure-tank and air at 20 to 25 lb. was 
then admitted through the f-in. pipe at the top of the 

Fig. 1. 


tank. The 4-in. valve at the bottom was then opened and 
the coal passed through the 4-in. piping system to the 
coal-hopper. In this way 4000 lb. of coal was transported 
in from 1J to 2 minutes. The loss through the vent-pipe 
varied from 100 to 200 lb. This can be taken care of by 
using dust-collectors on the hopper, or an exhaust system 
which would return this waste coal to the main hopper. 

The foregoing tests were so favorable that it was de- 
cided to erect a larger experimental pulverizing-plant. 
There were available for this purpose one set of 18 by 
36-in. rolls, one 4 by 4-ft. Marcy mill, and two 6 by 4-ft. 



July 10, 1920 

Allis-Chalmers ball-granulators. The drier consisted of 
five passes of 16-in. by 12-ft. screw-eonveyor, mounted 
in a brick housing on top of the reverberatory flue, 
through which part of the flue-gases were by-passed. 

After completing this plant it was decided to make the 
first experiment on the blast-furnaces, so No. 5 furnace 
was selected for the purpose and was equipped on one 
side only, as shown in Fig. 3. The coal was ground at the 
experimental plant and transferred to the No. 5 furnace 
in a hopper-bottomed car, being weighed in transit. A 
number of tests varying from 8 to 12 hours were run with 
this equipment. The air-pressure in the furnace aver- 
aged 34 oz., and auxiliary air for injecting coal about 
22 lb. The charge of coke was reduced first 25% and 
then 50%. These tests were so encouraging that it was 
decided to equip the other side of the furnace with coal- 
feeders and run a test of several days' duration. This 
was done and the results were entirely satisfactory. Dur- 
ing these tests the auxiliary air was taken from the con- 
verter air-line, which varied from 12 to 16 lb. pressure. 
The following quantities will give an idea of the propor- 
tion of coke and pulverized coal used : 

Length of run. hours 14 50 

Normal charge of coke, lb 31.000 114.000 

Actual charge of coke, lb 17.000 61.800 

Pulverized coal fed to furnace, lb 8,900 41,000 

The analysis and screen-tests of the coal used were 
practically the same as noted above. The performance of 
the furnace during all tests was carefully observed and 
was found to be fully equal to that when operating on the 
normal coke charge. Two difficulties were experienced on 
the blast-furnaee test : namely, keeping some to the feed- 
ers in operation and keeping the tuyeres open. It was 
observed that in some of the feeders there was a slight 
back-pressure, due probably to partly blocked tuyeres. 
This did not affect materially the feeding, but forced 
some coal-dust into the feeder-bearings which mixed with 
the oil and finally bound the bearings so that it became 
necessary to shut-down that particular feeder and clean 
the bearings. This was easily done without stopping the 
other feeders, as the gears on the main shaft were 
mounted on feathers and provided with shifters. By 
using dust-proof bearings and a better-designed injector, 
we expect t. eliminate this trouble. 

Keeping the tuyeres open is absolutely essential to the 
safe and efficient operation of this process, and as it is a 
manual operation it must be handled by the operators. 
During these tests, tuyeres were 'punched' every 15 to 
20 minutes on signal. On one occasion a tuyere became 
badly blocked, the feed was cut off and the tuyere-cap 
opened. The blast from the furnace blew out a dense 
cloud of coal-dust and molten material. The dust was 
ignited and burned on the outside of the furnace for 20 
to 30 seconds with an intense flame about six feet long, 
the tuyere acting as an ordinary coal-burner. In view of 
the difficulty of keeping the tuyeres open and the connec- 
tions air-tight, it is probable that the most satisfactory 
place to inject the coal into the furnace would be through 
a separate opening in the jackets, between and preferably 
somewhat above the tuyeres. 

The No. 5 reverberatory was selected for the final test. 
All four reverberatory furnaces in use are identical : they 
are old-style, designed for hand-firing, and about 18 
by 58 ft. inside the bridge-wall. The coal was discharged 
from the last mill into a hopper and dropped into a 7-in. 
pipe where it was picked up by an air-jet and conveyed to 
the coal-hopper, a distance of about 80 ft. with a rise of 
about 30 ft. ; the top of the hopper was constructed simi- 
larly to a cyclone dust-collector. From the hopper a 6-in. 
variable-speed screw-feeder fed the coal into the suction 
side of a No. 9 Sturtevant Monogram blower ; this in turn 
discharged the mixture of coal and air into the feed- 
piping from which branched five 6-in. pipe-burners into 
the furnace, the excess air and coal returning to the 

The results of this test were disappointing, but when 
the following difficulties are corrected, the furnace will, 
beyond question, show a higher efficiency than the hand- 
fired furnace. First, the coal could not be dried suffi- 
ciently, the average moisture being in excess of 1.5%. 
This introduced difficulty in handling. The plant would 
not grind sufficient coal to the required fineness, the 
average screen analysis being: on 65 mesh, 22.8%; 
through 65 mesh, 8.5%; through 100 mesh, 25.6%; 
through 200 mesh, 42.4%. 

Furthermore the discharge from the hopper to the 
feeder was too small, and the coal continually caked and 
bridged. The screw-feeder was so short that the coal 
flushed badly at times ; also the discharge from the feeder 
was too far from the fan so that the coal accumulated in 
the suction-pipe and had to be removed with an air-jet. 
Under these conditions it was obvious that uniform feed- 
ing, which is essential to efficient operation, was im- 

This test covered nine days, and was run for two days 
with the return-pipe open. Some time during the second 
day the return-pipe was blocked, due to overfeeding, and 
it was decided to continue the test without opening the 
run-pipe, the only difference being an apparently heavier 
feed at the burner farthest from the fan. With a prop- 
erly designed piping system there seems to be no reason 
why a series of burners cannot be operated from a single 
feeder with or without a return. The last day's run of 
this test was made with a mixture of 75% coal and 25% 
coke breeze, which gave results equal to. straight coal. 

The following table shows a comparison between the 
average performance of reverberatories No. 2, 3, and 4, 
which were hand-fired, and No. 5 over the same period: 

, — Average of — ■ 

2-3-4 5 

Charge smelted per hour, tons 5.35 4.63 

Coal used per hour, tons 2.00 1.99 

Smelting ratio 2.67 2.33 

Duration of run, hours 262 225 

Time last, hours 37 

These results are really not so bad when the troubles 
experienced are considered and it is remembered that this 
furnace was not designed for pulverized coal, that it cools 
very rapidly dui'ing any shut-down, and that consider- 
able time is required to bring it up to the smelting tem- 
perature again. 

As accumulations of ash are an important factor in 

July 10, 1920 



- CoolHopptr 
, fc**ST 

Fig. 2. equipment for testing feasibility of convey- 

Pig. 3. experimental equipment for using pulverized 
coal on No. 5 blast-furnace 

reverberatory smelting with pulverized coal, close ob- 
servation was made of these accumulations, and the fol- 
lowing samples were taken : 

1. Ash and slag float on the bath : comes out when 
skimming in small and large pieces, sometimes has to be 
broken to pass the skiming-door, is easily handled when 
furnace is hot, but is tough and sticky when furnace is 

2. Ash in boiler cross-flue: spongy mass of ash and 
some slag accumulates in fairly large quantities in cross- 
flue between furnace and waste-heat boilers; is soft and 
easy to remove when first deposited, but if allowed to re- 
main, is difficult to remove. 

3. Ash on sides and roof of furnace: almost pure ash, 
lightweight and brittle when cold, appears to accumulate 
on sides and roof of furnace until too heavy to stick, when 
it drops and floats on the bath. 

4. Ash in reverberatory flue, similar to No. 2. 

Quite a large quantity of ash was deposited during 
each shift on the boiler-tubes, but was easily blown off 
by compressed air once or twice a shift. It was estimated 
that at least 50% of the total ash was disposed of in the 
manner described, while the remainder was deposited in 
the main flue and went up the stack. 

As a result of these experiments a modern 250-ton coal- 
pulverizing plant was designed and is now in course of 
erection. Blast-furnaces, reverberatories, and sintering 
plant will be equipped for pulverized coal, and the ex- 
periments will be continued to ascertain the equipment 
most suitable for local conditions, which will then be 
used at the new smelter now being constructed. In con- 
clusion, it may be of interest to note that these experi- 
ments and tests were carried out at an elevation of 14,200 

The Bering River and Matanuska coalfields in Alaska, 
according to a report of representatives from various 
government departments, contain high-grade bituminous 
coal much better than that on the Pacific seaboard, as 
well as some anthracite. The coal is closely folded and 
much broken, making it expensive to mine, and render- 
ing it in part unavailable for present profitable exploita- 
tion. There are, however, in both fields, high-grade coal 
that can be mined and these will find an export market. 
Until they have been more thoroughly prospected by 
underground exploration, it is not possible to predict 
their annual tonnage. The committee says the develop- 
ment of Alaskan coalfields is of first importance, and rec- 
ommends that it be encouraged by making the terms of 
leases as liberal as the law will allow ; that underground 
explorations in the Matanuska coalfields be conducted 
with vigor by the Government ; that companies engaged 
in prospecting the Bering River coalfield be encouraged 
to develop coal ; that the departments give immediate con- 
sideration to the desirability of establishing a coaling- 
station for commercial and naval use at a port in the 
Aleutian Islands suitably situated to serve Trans-Pacific 
shipping ; and that the Alaskan coal-leasing law be modi- 
fied so as to allow a prospecting period of four years be- 
fore a lease is signed. 



July 10. 1920 

The Las Chispas Mine, in Sonora, Mexico 


The Las Chispas mine is near the town of Arizpe, and 
about 40 miles from the railroad at Nacozari, Sonora, by 
pack-trail through difficult broken country. There are 
several roughly parallel veins in the same spur of the 
Sierra, none of which, except Las Chispas, and Guillermo 
Tell, has been explored systematically. 

Near the mine the surface shows old lavas, tuffs, and 
breccias, with an occasional patch of conglomerate. The 
Chispas vein occupies a fault-fissure that has a north- 
west-southeast strike. It has been explored by mine- 
workings through a number of layers of breccia and tuff, 
locally called mantos; these are closely related in mineral 
composition and about 600 ft. thick in all. Next the vein 
penetrates a light-gray dense rock, megascopieally felsite- 
porphyry, extrusive, followed by a pink felsite-porphyry, 
together about 200 ft. thick. Then comes less than 100 
ft. of No. 2 breccia, and No. 2 felsite, of unknown thick- 
ness and as yet unexplored except by a shaft outside the 
vein. These formations, throughout the length of the 
mine, occupy a gentle syncline. 

A basaltic dike, dark-green, with numerous small crys- 
tals of pyrite, cuts nearly vertically, through the forma- 
tions. This dike is anterior to the vein-fault. A number 
of minor cross-slips (crosswise in relation to the vein) 
and one major cross-fracture are posterior to the dike 
but anterior to the vein-fault. There is no evidence of 
further faulting posterior to the vein. The dike is first 
cut in cross-cut 619B (of the adit-level) at a distance of 
110 ft. north-east of the vein. At station 627 it was 
found at a distance of 15 ft. from the vein. At station 
629 the vein crosses the dike, both running together, how- 
ever, for a distance of 35 ft. The angle between dike and 
vein at the point of crossing is about 11°. From here the 
dike is not again cut until station 648, beyond the largest 
cross-slip, is reached. Here vein and dike touch tangen- 
tially for about 40 ft. Finally, the dike is met 28 ft. 
south-west of the vein in the 650 or Dolores cross-cut. 
These relations are shown in Fig. 1. The vein-fissure is 
continuous throughout its explored length ; the only ef- 
fect the dike has upon it is fo deflect its course at the 
crossing where both run together for 35 ft. and again 
where both touch tangentially for 40 ft. The dike is 
faulted by the small cross-slips, but not the vein. 

The economic minerals are native silver, silver chloride 
and argentite mainly in the upper breccia; argentite, 
polybasite, stephanite, and ruby silver in the felsites be- 
low. Interior shafts extend into the lower breccia and 
No. 2 felsite, but outside the vein. At the 800-ft. or 
deepest level we are near the lower contact of the upper 
felsites. in the zone of secondary sulphides. Besides the 
silver sulphides, the ore contains pyrite and a very small 
quantity of zinc, lead, and copper sulphides, besides anti- 
mony, of course, in the polybasite and stephanite. The 

gangue is quartz, clay, very little calcite, and fragments 
of eountry-roek. A typical analysis of shipping ore gives, 
the following proportions of metals: silver, 350 oz. per 
ton; gold, 2.75 oz. ; lead, 0.7%.; copper, 0.2%; zinc, 
1.4%.; iron, 4.5% ; lime„l%. 

Certain persistent habits of mineralization have been 
observed. The ore occurs along the vein in exceedingly 
irregular patches, or 'pockets'; these are irregular as to- 
size, shape, position, and quality of ore. However, dis- 
tinct shoots may be recognized with barren areas between 
them. These ore-shoots persist through the breccias into 
the felsites below, apparently with no change due to- 
change of country-rock. The quartz filling is continuous 
in the fissure independent of sulphides. The dike also- 
has no apparent influence on the mineralization. At the 
crossing of dike and vein there is no ore whatever, only 
fragments of dike and country-rock enclosed in clean 
quartz. At the point of tangential contact of dike and 
vein, the dike is again shattered, but, being along one of 
the recognized ore-shoots, there are sulphides with the 
quartz-enclosing fragments of rock. There is no ore in 
the cross-cuts reaching the dike, on either side. The vein 
cuts across the cross-slips at a constant angle of about 26° 
and in the areas of ore-shoots the ore invariably extends 
away from the vein for a few feet along the cross-slip. 
In the barren stretches there is no ore on the cross-slips. 
The 'caliche', or clay-filling, seems to play an important 
role in the mineralization. Usually the limits of an ore- 
pocket are defined by caliche completely filling the open 
spaces in the vein-fissure. Beyond the ore and caliche 
there may be up to a foot of open space between the 
quartz lining on either side but not an ounce of silver to 
the ton. The mineralizing solutions or emanations seem 
to have been confined within certain channels by the fill- 
ing of caliche. A diagrammatic sketch of the conditions 
would be as in Fig. 2. The caliche is derived from the 
feldspar of the wall-rock. The feldspar phenocrysts of 
the felsite-porphyry in the vicinity of the vein are so 
decomposed that they may be picked out of their molds 
with the point of a pin. Some of the caliche, however, 
is attrition gouge. The finding of caliche in mine-work- 
ings has always been taken as a sign of the proximity of 
rich ore. 

The mine may be considered young, as measured by the 
extent of mining operations to date. Only two leveb 
have been opened and not along the whole length of the 
vein, below the adit-level. Above there are four main 
levels, but the ore has not been stoped out altogether. 
The vein was reached near the north-western boundary 
by a cross-cut adit 1150 ft. long, continued by the main- 
level drift for 1250 ft. in a direction S. 42-T E. to sur- 
vey-station 629, or the point where the vein crosses the 
dike ; then in a S. 344/ E. direction to station 648, or the 

July LO, 1920 



point where the vein again encounters the dike and both 

touch tangential!?, for a distance of 750 Et. Near this 
point a stringer branches out. Finally, from station 648 
the main vein continues for 500 ft. more in a S. 54° E. 
direction to beyond station 054. From the cross-cut adit 
in the opposite, or north-west, direction there are further- 

division there are three roughlj defined ore^shoots: the 
first is between stations 610 and 615 and has yielded only 

second-class or mill ore, in small quantities; the second 
shoot, at the No. 1 interior shaft, has produced some lirsl- 
class ore in stopes immediately below the adit-level and 
has not yet been mined out completely. It has not been 




Fig. I. Relation of Vein, Dike and Cross-slips, in plan. 

Vein - Dike t8< 5SS5 Cross -slips — — "" 

Bar ren-+~^%%ie 

Fig. 2. A typical pocket. Horizontal section. 

Ore < » > ^ Caliche :-::\ : .:\ Quartz iVHW/SI Wall-rock I I 



■ A"-- 1 . 1 " ' ■■■ ■■ ' ' ■ ■■ ' 


to Shaft 




'■':■ ". ' ' " i 

Fig. 3-A. Ideal stope 

Fig. 3-B. 738 Stope 


"more 520 ft. of drift. All these general directions be- 
tween like points are the same on all levels above and 
below. There are thus four main divisions separated in 
a vertical plane by imaginary lines pitching 79° S. In 
the first division, north of the cross-cut adit there has 
been no ore found with the exception of a small and un- 
important pocket cut by the Locarno shaft. In the second 

found above the adit-level. The third and last shoot of 
the second division contains the discovery ore-pocket, 
which extends irregularly for about 150 ft. along the 
strike and which from near the surface to the 406-ft. 
level yielded several million ounces Of silver. This is in 
the region of Las Chispas shaft. From the 400 to the 
600-ft. level there is a break in the shoot, there being 



July 10, 1920 

practically no ore, but below the 600-ft. level the No. 2 
shaft shoot appears to be the continuation of the Chispas 
shoot. The stopes reached from No. 2 shaft have yielded 
well and are not yet worked out, but the shaft has had 
to be abandoned and the ore will have to be reached from 
No. 1 shaft. The third division includes the most im- 
portant part of the mine: within this there are two sub- 
shoots: the 38-39 shoot and the 43 shoot continue to the 
800-ft. or deepest present level with no sign of discon- 
tinuity below 800 ft. as far as is ascertainable. No. 3 
interior shaft is in the region of 43 shoot. The fourth 
and last main division contains the Tajo Chico called the 
53 shoot below the main level and practically continuous 
with the 56 shoot, and, finally, the rather small pocket. 
but one that yielded very rich ore, where No. 4 interior 
shaft was started from the main level. No continuation 
of this ore has been found in the level above nor in that 
below. The Central air-shaft is close to the Tajo Chico 
shoot and in this region on the old levels above there is 
known to be considerable ore. These levels may be re- 
covered by re-timbering. 

At present no work is being done except in the 38-39, 
the 43, and the 53-56 shoots in the 700 and 800-ft. levels. 
For the past eight months production has been well above 
normal and absolutely all the ore extracted has been from 
the felsite zone below the upper breccia. The richest ore 
is in 842A raise from the 800-ft. level on the 43 shoot. 
On the 800-ft. level itself ore has been developed for 135 
ft. in the north drift from No. 3 shaft and the end of the 
shoot has not yet been reached. This length of drift in 
ore on the 800 compares well with the longest drifts in ore 
in the breccia zone of the upper levels, thus exploding the 
theory that there are no important orebodies below the 
breccia zone! On the 800 the vein averages 6$ ft. in 
width and the ore from the north drift, after hand-sort- 
ing, has averaged as follows: first class, 20% of the total. 
360 oz. silver; second class, 35% of the total. 55 oz. ; and 
waste, 45%, with less than 3 oz. silver. The gold con- 
tent is about 5 of 1% of the silver. No sloping has been 
started from the 800 yet, but three raises have been just 
begun ; one of which will connect with the 738 winze for 
ventilation. The three are in ore. 

Mining methods will be described briefly: The wall- 
rock is firm throughout the mine and the vein nearly 
vertical. It is apparent that the best way of stoping 
would be to open a raise from one level to the next, and 
to underhand inclined slices into the raise, leaving open 
space above (see Fig. 3) . This method would be splendid 
but for the fact that if the ore-patch is of the form shown 
in Fig. 3 (an actual stope), the preparation of openings 
through waste for the underhand-slicing method would 
cost considerably more than overhand-stoping on stulls, 
following the ore. One cannot know beforehand what 
the shape of the ore-pocket is going to be. Both under- 
hand and overhand stoping are used as may be advisable, 
but in either case it has been found cheaper to extract 
all the waste instead of leaving it in the stopes on the 
necessary timbering. Timber is scarce, expensive, and of 
poor quality. Imported timber is not to be considered 
on acount of the cost. Openings between levels are 

started from both ends simultaneously, connection of 
raise and winze being made at about half-way. Many 
intermediate short drifts as well as intermediate blind 
raises, inclines, etc., are made for prospecting along 
signs of ore and to find the continuation of a known 
patch of ore. Almost no timbering is required except 
for shafts, chutes, and the stulls in raises and overhand 
stopes, necessary for convenience, but not to sustain the 
walls. All ore is trammed out through the adit-level. 
Four interior shafts serve this level, but at present only , 
one, the No. 3. is working. Bach car, after being filled, 
is marked with the number of the chute or face it comes 
from, in order to keep a record of the production of each | 
pocket of ore. This record has proved serviceable in 
prospecting for new pockets and more dependable than, 
hand-sampling of the faces and stopes. The kind andi 
grade of ore demand quality rather than quantity of ma- 1 
terial extracted, and mining operations are devised ac-i 
cordingly. The present compressor plant suffices fori 
only six machines, besides the interior hoist and the one< 
pump in No. 3 shaft, and the small column-hoist fori 
winzes. Hand-drilling is employed to supplement the, 
machines. Driving, sinking, and raising are generally 
paid by the foot of advance ; stoping by the day, with a 
premium for an extra footage of holes drilled. 

This article will end with a few remarks on recent local ( 
history : Political disturbances have greatly handicapped 
operations since 1911, by interrupting transportation and 
withdrawing security against labor troubles. In 1917 1 
the mine was confiscated by the local government and : 
handed back when all the rich ore exposed had been ex-| 
tracted. This confiscation followed a strike and favored; 
the strikers, who obtained all their demands, while the, 
mine was not operated by the company. Since then,; 
however, better guarantee has been obtained from the^ 
Government. One result of the confiscation was thej 
necessity for considerable unprofitable development work 
in the years following. Moreover, a flood swept away the 
pump-station on the Sonora river, leaving the mill with-; 
out water. The pump-line has not yet been repaired and 
rain and mine-water have been used in the mill. Rain-; 
water is available in limited quantities during the sum- 
mer. The mine makes enough water in three months to 
fill the reservoirs for a mill-run of 10 days. The mill 
has had five 10-day runs each year in the past two years,, 
producing about 35 tons of concentrate of about 500-oz 
grade per run ; head, 45 oz. ; concentration, 11 : 1. The 
tailing is being saved for re-treatment. From the above 
it will be clear that at present the business of the mine is 
to produce first-class ore. The small amount of mill-ore 
extracted is in connection with shipping ore, the rest 
being left in place. 


Safety, sanitation, lighting, and ventilation under- 
ground should receive proper attention and supervision 
Safety devices and proper directed safety supervision 
more than pay their cost in decreased loss of labor 
through lessened accidents and saving in compensation. 
At large mines a safety-engineer is as much a necessity 
as a mining engineer according to the Bureau of Mines. 

: ; 


Julv Id. l'lji' 



Three Hours With the Democrats 

By C. T. H. 

Tin' Convention was a wonderful thing I'm- San Fran- 
Bscans. For the first time in history, this great event, 
the selection of a candidate for the highest office in the 
land by one of the great political parties, has taken place 
west of the Rockies. We who, perforce, have had to be- 
hold similar events through the eyes of Samuel Blythe, 
or Irvin Cobb, have had an opportunity to get our im- 
pressions first hand. Accordingly, on the second day of 
this history-making event, we hied ourselves to San 
Francisco's Auditorium prepared to behold with awe the 
portentous deliberations, to listen with rapt attention 
to the greatest spellbinders from 48 States, and to follow 
the words of the keynoter as he "views with alarm", and 
"points with pride". 

After passing successfully the phalanx of police officers, 
ticket-takers, sergeants-at-arms, and other lesser digni- 
taries, we were conducted to a seat in the gallery, where 
we settled ourselves as well as possible on our aerie perch, 
and looked around at the rapidly augmenting throng. 
There was a glittering colorful panorama spread before 
is. On the main floor were the special seats for the dele- 
gates, each State section duly marked with its name on a 
placard erected on a stand. The ladies with their gaily 
colored hats and gowns added a pleasing touch of bright- 
ness. At one end of the great hall was the semicircular 
platform where the elect of the elect were seated. A 
husky table in front was provided to sustain the whacks 
of the chairman's gavel, while a magnavox sound-ampli- 
fier suspended from the roof and connected with the 
speakers' rostrum looked for all the world like a set of 
covered launders in a cyanide plant distributing pulp to 
a battery of Dorr thickeners from a central point. 

Back of the platform and just below the great pipe- 
organ was an oil portrait draped in flags purporting to 
represent the President ; at least we cannot imagine who 
else it could have been. Whoever the artist was, he cer- 
tainly took atrocious liberties with the physiognomy of 
the man who is trying to make the world safe for Demo- 
crats for another four years. There he was looking 
down upon his satellites with an expression at once 
sardonic and admonitory, his watchful eye upon all they 
do, assisted by a glittering array of cabinet ministers, 
and other Federal office-holders in the flesh, who, as they 
| flutter to and fro upon the floor, occasionally glance to- 
ward the portrait of their titular over-lord, as if in search 
of commendation and encouragement. 

To the left of the organ in the gallery was what is 
known as an augmented brass band; and it was some 
band. Its working pressure must have been 100 pounds 
or more, with the safety-valve in imminent danger of 
popping most of the time. It could play ' Dixie ' and, per- 
haps, one or two other things as alternatives during off 
periods. Then there was a mixed quartette, fully 

equipped with seven-passenger megaphones, through 
which the members shouted a medley of sounds, which 
were occasionally distinguishable above the band, the 
pipe-organ, and the cheering delegates. Below the plat- 
form, groaning beneath its weight of notables, were the 
press headquarters at which all sorts of special corre- 
spondents were busily grinding out the story of the con- 
vention by rounds for the edification of one hundred 
million free American citizens. Flags, and quantities of 
red, white, and blue bunting festooned the galleries, 
flanked by what might be called the 'house' banners of 
rival candidates. 

It was 12 : 45 p.m. and the hour set for the beginning 
of hostilities was 1. Suddenly there was a commotion at 
the far end of the hall. Thousands of necks craned for- 
ward to see. "It is Bryan", said someone in an awe- 
some whisper. The band played 'Dixie' and everybody 
yelled. It wasn't Bryan after all. It was just some- 
body or other with a bald head. The crowd sighed with 
disappointment and resumed their seats. A diversion 
was created by a quartette, this time unmixed, that 
essayed to shout a song about Palmer, the "peepul's 
choice", to the tune of 'John Brown's Body'. A rival 
quartette struck up something about Cox and his su- 
preme qualifications for the presidency, and nearly 
drowned out the Palmer quartette until the band played 
'Dixie', everybody yelled, and all were smothered. To 
show that they were not down-hearted, the Cox people, 
bearing banners proclaiming they were Cox's army, 
stamped around the aisles yelling themselves hoarse, ac- 
companied by boos and catcalls from the camps of rival 
candidates. A shrill crowing that sounded like McAdoo- 
dle-doo showed political bias in favor of the present 
dynasty on the part of a sizable group of lusty-lunged 
patriots. Oh, yes, the band played 'Dixie', and every- 
body yelled. 

Finally, at 2, a tall, imposing, bald-headed man ap- 
proached the rostrum, and whacked the husky table with 
his gavel. He said something or other about the meeting 
coming to order, but it took a lot of whacks before the 
roar subsided, and the delegates and spectators quit 
shuffling their feet, and the band played, not 'Dixie', but 
the National Anthem. Then came the invocation by a 
bishop of one of the assorted churches selected for the 
task. He prayed long and .earnestly, for the United 
States of America, the President, his official family, the 
Justices of the Supreme Court, Senators, and Congress- 
men, in fact for everybody except Republicans. He 
expressed the hope that those in authority would admin- 
ister their trust with skill and foresight, in which prayer 
everybody joined. At times when his vocal efforts co- 
ordinated perfectly with the magnavox, an effect was 
produced that was reminiscent of the renaissance of the 



July 10, 1920 

phonograph ; in fact one could almost hear that nasal 
" Columbia-a-a Ree-ord", with which the first of the 
disc records were wont to conclude their offerings. 

Another whack from the Chairman's gavel, and he 
read a telegram to be dispatched to the Governor of Ten- 
nessee commending him for calling a special session of 
the legislature to ratify the suffrage amendment. He 
asked a unanimous vote for authority to send the tele- 
gram in the name of the convention. He put the ques- 
tion, and got a bunch of ayes and a considerable sprink- 
ling of noes. "Unanimously carried", he blandly an- 
nounced. The steam-roller was on the job. Then came 
the report of the Credentials Committee. This promised 
to be interesting on account of the fight over the seating 
of Senator Reed of Missouri, who, though a Democrat, 
has been bucking the administration program at Wash- 
ington. The secretary of the committee took his place on 
the rostrum, and read his report. He turned down Sena- 
tor Reed cold. A spokesman from the Missouri section 
asked the privilege of the floor, and proceeded to the 
rostrum. He mildly objected to the action of the com- 
mittee as over-riding the action of the voters in Senator 
Reed's district, especially as that district was almost 
'chemically pure' Democrat, and rolled up whooping big 
majorities for the Party. The secretary, in reply, dis- 
played a little more vigor, and after calling Senator Reed 
a renegade Democrat, and stating that he wasn't elected 
by anybody at all. and that he couldn't have no seat, 
nohow, he sat clown, well satisfied. Another whack of 
the gavel, and the Chairman asked for the approval of 
the committee's report. Again came a lot of vociferous 
ayes, followed by some vigorous noes. "Unanimously 
carried", quoth the Chairman. The steam-roller was 
shooting on all six. 

Then came the piece ele resistance. With solemn voice 
the Chairman delegated three notables to escort the per- 
manent chairman to the platform. Three spotlights 
burst into view and focused their blinding rays upon the 
three escorters, as they wound their way around to 
where the great man sat, and trotted after him to the 
platform. He was Senator Robinson of Arkansas. With 
the assistance of the committee of three, he popped up 
through the trap door and landed safely on the platform. 
The Chairman whacked some more and introduced the 
permanent gavel-wielder. He was greeted with prolonged 
cheering, and the band playe'd 'Dixie'. Then, when the 
noise subsided, he stepped up to the rostrum, and began 
his keynoting. 

He singled out the Republican platform as the object 
of his scathing denunciation. He ripped it up. He tore 
it to pieces. He took it apart, plank by plank, and re- 
duced it to kindling wood amid the howls of his delighted 
audience, who viewed the destruction of that cherished 
structure with vociferous glee. He lambasted the Re- 
publicans. He called them names. He heaped upon 
them vitriolic vituperation. What a bully time he had, 
and how they all enjoyed it. "Why", said he, in effect, 
"have the Republicans failed to observe their time-hon- 
ored custom of declaring that a Democratic administra- 

tion is always synonymous with hard times. Because",; 
he paused with fine dramatic effect, "the American' 
people are enjoying a period of prosperity unparalleled 
in the history of our country". "Gee", remarked a by- 
stander, sotto voce, "I didn't know the Kaiser was a, 
democrat and started the War to drive all the business 
to this country. Anyway," he philosophized, "if the 1 
Democrats are responsible for $40 suits of clothes at $100, 
and $6 shoes at $20, I'll be doggone if I don't vote for 1 
Harding." He got up and went out. So did we. 

James M. Cox 



The career of Governor James M. Cox, Democratic) 
presidential nominee, began on a farm. He worked his 
way to be editorial writer for the Cincinnati 'Enquirer'; 
owner of the Dayton 'Daily News' and the Springfield! 
'Press-Republican', when he formed the News League ofl 
Ohio ; and thence to politics, being a member of the Sixty-I 
first and Sixty-second Congresses, and eventually be- 
coming, in 1913, Governor of Ohio, which office he now. 
holds. Cox was born on a farm near Jaeksonburg, Butler 
county, Ohio, on March 31, 1870, the son of Gilbert and 
Eliza A. Cox. As a boy he learned to know what chores 
were early in the morning and late at night. As soon as 
he was able he spent more time at work than at play. 

Cox as a boy attended country schools and later \va> 
graduated from the Middletown high-school. He always 
was earning money of his own by doing odd jobs. He was 
once a janitor in a rural church. Later he was a news- 
boy, working up to a printer on a Middletown weekly 
doing these things to help finance his way through school 
He never attended • college. After his graduation fron 
school, Cox taught in rural schools for several years, bu'! 
having a liking for the newspaper business he became a 
reporter on the Middletown 'News-Signal', then stil 
owned by John Q. Baker, his brother-in-law, remaining 
there until he obtained a place on the Cincinnati 'En I 

Cox purchased the 'Daily News' at Dayton in 1S9S 
The paper was at that time operating on a losing basis 
However, he finally succeeded in making it yield a profit 
Five years later he bought the Springfield 'Press-Repub 
liean', and today both newspapers are highly profitable ,: ''wi 
institutions. He was elected to Congress in 1908 and re| B N,k 
elected in 1910. In this capacity he attracted the atten! al for 
tion of State Democratic leaders, and in 1912, at the las' *.?«, 
nominating convention held in Ohio, became the party'* 4'>Bi 
candidate for Governor and won. His election in 191! ' ir t,i 
made him the only Democrat elected Governor threi 'Kti.j 
times in the normally Republican State of Ohio. 

Governor Cox is a lover of the out-of-doors, plays golf! 1!t «t. 
hunts and fishes, rides horseback, takes long hikes. Hi 1 ** ana 
is stockily built, with a strong neck, indicative of com .*».\' 
bativeness, and has remarkable physical endurance. Hi >%n 
is an eloquent campaign and after-dinner orator. Hr,, 

The Governor lives, when not at the executive hom<| 1'ffr 
in Columbus, in a beautiful country home at Trail's End. ^paijj 
near Dayton. 

(uly 10, 1920 







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Bisbee. — During the past year development has been 
■nducted by the Copper Queen branch of the Phelps 
Oodge Corporation in the Cochise shaft in Warren, to get 
i substantial water supply for the new 4000-ton coneen- 
•jator which is under construction. Within the last few 
lays a strong flow of water lias been met on the 1700-ft. 
evel. about 400 ft. south-east of the shaft in the Black 

ings. It is believed that good ore will be developed in 
the vicinity of the old works, and for the present mining 
operations in the new workings will be discontinued, and 
all efforts concentrated on opening up and re-timbering 
old drifts and stopes. Development work in the Night- 
hawk is progressing satisfactorily and it is expected that 
the main cross-cut on the 750-ft, or new, level should out 
the ore with about 70 ft. more of work. It is stated that 
the orebody has been cut 30 ft. in one direction and 35 ft. 
in the other, with the faces of the drifts still in ore. 


Bock section. So far the volume has not as yet been 
jauged, but it is believed that it will be more than suffi- 
iient for the needs of the mill. A conference of branch 
nanagers, assistant managers, and other officials of the 
Phelps Dodge Corporation was held at Bisbee. Confer- 
jnces of a similar nature are called periodically by P. G. 
Beckett, general manager for the corporation, for the ex- 
change of views and the discussion of matters of general 
uterest. Among those who will be present are the man- 
agers and assistant managers of the Bisbee, Morenci, 
Tyrone, Naeozari, and Globe branches of the corporation ; 
;he superintendent of the Copper Queen reduction works, 
;he general auditor, and all consulting engineers. 

The Wolverine Mining Co. is planning a prospecting 
iampaign in the neighborhood of old abandoned work- 

Drifting is also in progress toward the Boras side-lines 
with 350 ft. still to go before reaching the fracture be- 
tween the Boras and Nighthawk. It is believed that the 
Boras orebody extends to this fracture and therefore the 
prospects for opening good ore at this point are quite 
promising. A good body of ore was recently developed on 
the 600-ft. level. Ore is at present being shipped from 
the 500, 600, and 650-ft. levels. Mining operations are 
being conducted on a conservative basis to the end that 
future mining may be conducted as efficiently and profit- 
ably as possible. 

Jerome. — Claud Ferguson of the Consolidated Arizona 
Smelting Co. is now in charge of the Planet mine. He is 
opening the old workings and finding favorable orebodies, 
preparatory to shipping ore to the smelter. It is rumored 



July 10, 1920 > 

that the California Southern railroad will join the 
Arizona Swansea and will then extend the latter railroad 
from Swansea around to the Planet mine. Several en- 
gineers have already heen over the route, but no informa- 
tion is as yet obtainable as to when construction work 
will commence. 

The Swansea mine is operating with two shifts at 
work in the mine and one shift running the mill, where 
it is stated a saving of 99% is being made. Eleven teams 
participated in the machine-drilling contest held at 
Jerome on the Fourth of July; four from the- United 
Verde, four from the Extension, two from the Jerome 
Verde, and one from the Jerome Superior. There were 
six entries for the hand-drilling competition with double- 



Leadville. — Lead-silver ore assaying 38% lead and 
from 10 to 20 oz. silver has been opened up on the 
Chrysolite lease in a drift extended into virgin ground. 
The vein has been followed for 100 ft. and shows no 
sign of discontinuance. Two cars, about 60 tons, of zinc- 
silver ore were consigned to the A. V. smelter last week 
by Harry Schrader of Lake county, operating the Griffin 
property in the St. Kelvin district. The ore has an esti- 
mated value of $30 per ton, and was mined from a vein 
averaging more than two feet wide that was recently 
opened in new territory. 

High-grade ore averaging $100 per ton is coming from 
rich streaks in a fissure vein under development in the 
Dinero tunnel in the Sugar Loaf district. Second-grade 
ore shipped to the A. V. Smelter brought $40 per ton. 
Water is interfering with leasing operations on the 
Fanny Rawlins, and in excess of 100 tons of ore already 
broken will be delayed in shipment on that account. The 
ore contains gold, silver, and copper. Machinery has 
been installed and the shaft on the O 'Donovan Rossa has 
been re-timbered and made safe to a depth of 523 ft. 
The old caved drift at this level has been opened for 
200 ft., where work will now be started in expectation of 
opening an orebody dipping into the mine from adjacent 

Georgetown. — Many old properties in the George- 
town-Empire district are resuming and, while produc- 
tion is at present light, development undertaken should 
bring more ore to the mills. Th*e Seven Metals company 
is overhauling machinery at the Wilcox tunnel at Argen- 
tine, and work will be resumed after the holidays. H. M. 
Vincent has resumed on the East Argentine group 
owned by him and will shortly be shipping from a shoot 
of silver ore opened up before the property closed for the 
winter. Work is also to be resumed after the holidays 
in the Raymond tunnel, impending litigation having 
been satisfactorily settled. The Boston group in the Em- 
pire district is again active and development has been 
resumed by lessees. The Empress tunnel at North Em- 
pire is being re-timbered and placed in condition for de- 
velopment by the Randolph Gold Mining Company. 

Aspen. — An examination has recently been made of 
the properties of the Contact Mining Co. and Midnight 
Mining Co. in Queen's Gulch and Richmond hill and of 
the Fred Anderson group, in the Lake district of the 
Taylor river section, by mining engineers representing 
Eastern interests. The Fred Anderson group, if the re- 
port is favorable, will be purchased by the Cotoba com- 
pany, controlled by Kansas City interests, and the Con- 
tact-Midnight properties by Pennsylvania investors. 
Construction of a mill is planned by the Hunter Park 
Mining, Milling & Leasing Co., and with a plant in op- 
eration large bodies of low-grade ore under development 
will be milled at the mine. The Little Annie mill of the 
Richmond Hill M. & M. Co. is to be increased to 50 tons 
capacity. Ore is broken in the mine and awaits altera- 
tions to the plant. 

Cripple Creek. — Exploration on the 9th and 10th 
levels of the Rose Nicol mine adjoining the Portland 
estate on Battle mountain is being done by the Reva 
Gold Mining Co. that holds a long-time lease on the 
property. A drift and cross-cut is being carried on each 
level and, while the material in the drifts is low-grade, 
John Nicholls, the superintendent, expresses confidence 
in results. The diamond-drilling in the north-east end of 
the district is reported progressing, but beyond the fact 
that the drill is gaining depth no information of interest 
has been made public. 

Sheriff Von Phul has leased the Jefferson mine dump 
on Gold hill. The mine, once a heavy producer of rich 
ore, has long been idle and the dump has never been 
worked over. Labor is scarcer than at any previous 
time in the district and, due to the cutting-off of the 
electric-car service, difficulty is experienced by miners in 
getting to work. 



Houghton, — Shortage of coal continues to dominate 
the mining situation. Bluntly stated, the Michigan cop- 
per mines have not coal enough to supply them for more 
than two months. That is the outside forecast. Quincy, . 
the third largest of the Lake producers, has been operating 
on borrowed coal for a month. On June 23 it announced 
that it had a cargo afloat, but that it would have to pay 
back the greater portion of it to the Calumet & Hecla, so- 
even this cargo does not help Quincy. Copper Range 
announces that it has coal on the way, a cargo being 
loaded on June 23 at a Lake Erie port. Without this it is 
doubtful if the Champion, Baltic, and Trimountain mines 
and the Copper Range railroad could continue to operate. 
Some of the smaller mines, notably Seneca, Mayflower, 
and Arcadian Consolidated, have supplies for two to- 
three months. 

Metal shipments from the Lake district have been al- 
most negligible. Less than 1000 tons has been shipped in 
a fortnight by water. Calumet & Hecla is making rail 
shipments for foreign account. The company sold last 
week about 500,000 lb. to a European customer. It ob- 
tained fast delivery to seaboard on the Canadian Pacific- 

Julv Id. 1920 



I A recent French order, saiil to have 1 n 75.000 tons of 

kpper, was not participated in to any great extent by 
Michigan mines. In faol foreign orders will not be a 
factor in tliis district till Germany begins buying. Hit- 
many Formerly took as much as 36.000,00(1 ll>. of Lake 
copper per month. 

Committees arc making preliminary arrangements for 
the entertainment of the American Institute of Mining 
and Metallurgical Engineers, which meets in the Lake 
Superior district in August. John Knox, underground- 
superintendent for the Calumet & Hecla. is chairman of 
the Copper Country committee, and with him is associat- 

south, and west White Pine is now employing 150 men 
and is producing 450 tons per day. This mine is badly 
handicapped by lack of lahor. It could double its force 
in its present openings. While Michigan showed a pro- 
duction increase in May. as compared with April, it is 
bady hampered by lahor shortage. Its drifts in the Butler 
lode cannot do justice to themselves with the present 
working force, which is half below normal. Victoria, 
free from coal worry, with its hydraulic-compressor plant 
to furnish power for all operations, cannot do itself 
justice because of its small force. It is the most isolated 
mine in the district and does not attract new men. Mass 


ed the alumni association of the Michigan College of 
Mines. Tentatively the program includes trips by auto- 
mobile to the principal plants of the district, sessions at 
the College of Mines in Houghton, and social entertain- 
ment at the clubs and the college. The party comes to 
Houghton by boat and leaves by rail for the Michigan 
and Minnesota iron-districts. 

Mining news centres around the small mines and pros- 
pects. The bigger companies are doing nothing in the 
way of construction or exploration, with the exception of 
the Calumet & Hecla's re-grinding plant for Tamarack 
sands, and the Quincy's new hoist at No. 2. The Stanton 
mines have abandoned temporarily large plans for metal- 
lurgical operations. Mayflower continues extensive ex- 
ploratory and development operations with favorable in- 
dications appearing in each of the three directions, north. 

copper is helping materially in keeping up the Victoria 
yield. Seneca continues as a producer from its original 
Seneca shaft and at the Gratiot shaft has definitely 
identified the Kearsarge lode. For this reason Gratiot 
development is being pushed. 



Basin. — The Ruby group of claims, which is now being 
worked by lessees, is to be developed by driving a cross- 
cut tunnel from the mill for a distance of 2500 ft. This 
will serve to tap the vein known to exist at the 800-ft. 
level. Plans also include modernizing and enlarging the 
10-stamp mill now on the property. 

Elliston. — The Silver Pick Mining Co. has resumed 



July 10, 1920 

further sinking operations on the Julia claim from the 
350 to the 400-ft. level. The present owners have in- 
stalled complete up-to-date equipment, which shoul prove 
adequate for several years active work. Smelter assays 
show 63 oz. silver, 44% eopper, $11 gold, and 10% lead. 
Charles Riley is in charge of operations, on which 16 
men are being employed. 

Butte. — The North Butte Mining Co. reports satis- 
factory development oil the 3200 and 3400-ft. levels of 
the Speculator mine. The orebody on these levels shows 
no diminution either in size or in copper content. On 
the 3400-ft. level this orebody averages more than 4% 
eopper. Cross-cutting is now being undertaken on the 
3600-ft. level in the direction of the orebody. The pro- 
duction costs continue to hover around 14c. per pound. 

Clark's Fork. — A 16-in. vein of bornite has been un- 
covered on the Clagy- Verdun property at a vertical 
depth of 30 ft. Work on the property was started only 
recently. Owners of the Mike Horse mines, on the North 
Fork of the Blackfoot river, report that satisfactory de- 
velopment work is in progress. No. 3 tunnel is now 800 
ft, long. One vein of milling ore has been out by this 
tunnel. No. 1 tunnel exposed a 6-ft. vein of good ore. 
In No. 2 orebodies from 6 to 12 ft. wide have been ex- 
posed in three stopes. Archie McDonald is resident 



Goldfield. — The north drift from the west cross-cut 
on the seventh level of the Florence is 220 ft. long and 
that to the south is 170 ft. long. These drifts, 726 ft. 
from the shaft, are in a vein 20 to 25 ft. wide. They have 
been driven on the foot-wall and two raises have been 
driven short distances from them. Two cross-cuts have 
been started to the hanging wall and it is planned to sink 
a winze. The vein is a promising body of quartz and E. 
A. Byler, engineer for the company, says the possibilities 
have not been exhausted and that work will continue until 
at least one winze has been sunk. There are several other 
wide veins in the west cross-cut and if the work being 
done fails to open ore, as appears probable, these will be 
prospected. A short branch from the south-east cross-cut 
has connected with the Aurelia lease-shaft after a fight 
with caving ground that lasted two months. This con- 
nection is for air and the shaft is being cleared. The 
cross-cut is being continued from where the branch was 
started. The objective, a point under an outcrop, thought 
to mark the southern extension of the Jumbo vein, is 300 
ft. distant. A small quantity of ore has been sent to the 
Development mill from the Cracker Jack lease, but an 
important shipment has not been made from the Florence 
since April. The Florence management has two objects 
in the present work : to prospect veins west of the shaft 
and parallel to the main ore-channel, and to search for 
the main ore-channel south-east of the shaft. Maps show 
this ore-channel to extend through the Consolidated and 
Florence at a constant distance from the supposed Colum- 
bia Mountain fault, which in the southern part of the 

Florence has been thought to turn east into the C. O. D. 
The strike of the outcrop, that is the objective of the 
south-east cross-cut, indicates a possibility that after 
turning east the fault again extends south. This fault 
was not recognized in the west cross-cut, but it is sup- 
posed to exist from the depth at which the latite is found 
east and west of it. Some engineers say this fault, which 
has been discussed for many years, does not exist. J. K. 
Turner, a Goldfield mining engineer, W. J. Tobin of 
Pioneer, and others are preparing to start work on pat- 
ented claims owned by them near the Five to One tunnel. 
The tunnel, over 125 ft. long, is being advanced three 
feet daily. From the 125-ft. point it is lined with 6 by 
8-in. timbers and 3 by 8-in. lagging. The present depth 
is 235 ft. and in 75 ft. more the greatest depth, over 300 
ft., will be reached under the peak of the hill. The tun- 
nel will be continued through the hill to determine if 
there is a vein. Rich pannings are secured and the work 
has attracted attention because success would mean the 
opening of ore more than two miles south of the Florence. 
Negotiations between the Consolidated and Jupiter com- 
panies indicate that the former is to build a plant and re- 
treat the mill tailing. The Jupiter owns one-third of the 
ground covered by the tailing, which is in places 16 ft. 
thick. It was reported several years ago that the tailing 
had an average value of $4.10 per ton, but re-treatment in 
the mill, to which it was raised by a tramway that was 
costly to operate, did not give good results. 

Tonopah. — Ore 7 ft. wide and assaying $40 to $50 per 
ton has been opened by the Tonopah Extension in the 
Murray vein at a depth of 1760 ft., according to unofficial 
reports. The first mill clean-up in June was valued at 
$49,000. The first clean-up of the Belmont mill in June 
gave 76,000 oz. of bullion worth $83,600. The gross pro- 
duction during the first quarter was $419,000. The oper- 
ating expense was $318,450. The Surf Inlet in British 
Columbia, a subsidiary, gave a profit of $100,000. 

Divide. — Sinking of the Tonopah Divide shaft from the 
800-ft. level has been started and will continue at a rate 
of three feet per day until the water-level is reached. 
This work, as usual, is being done with an auxiliary hoist. 

Battle Mountain. — A carload of 100-oz. silver ore is 
being hauled from the Kattenhorn at Maysville for ship- 
ment. A number of lessees started work in the Katten- 
horn last summer and since then irregular shipments of 
rich silver ore have been made. The mine contains many 
narrow shoots of high-grade ore, ideal for development 
by lessees. It was at one time under option to George 

Arrowhead. — High-grade silver ore continues to be 
found in the Arrowhead shaft, now 270 ft. deep. Drifts 
will be driven at this depth. Ore 12 in. wide and assaying 
200 oz. is exposed. A heavy flow indicates that the per- 
manent water-level has been reached. The west drifts on 
the 100-ft. level and the intermediate level below continue 
to show 4-in. to 1-f t. widths of rich silver-gold ore, with 3 
to 4 ft. of low-grade material. 

Manhattan. — The ore on the 800-ft. level of the White 
Caps can be treated successfully by a process of flotation, 

,lulv 10, 1920 



toasting, and cyanidation, according to the result of tests 
hade for several months. The work on the sou. ft. level 
has been ilone east, of the shaft and after the ore to the 
uvst and above the level has been tested it is planned to 
add a flotation plant to the present equipment. 



Salt L\ke City. — Eight teams from Utah are expected 
to compete for the international championship in the 

first aid and mine-rescue contest, to be held at Denver on 
September 9, 10. and 11. according to Dr. Arthur L. Mur- 
ray, surgeon in charge of mine-rescue car No. 11. sta- 
tioned in this city. Several years ago. a team from the 
Utah Furl Co. won the world's first prize at San Fran- 
cisco. The car of which Dr. Murray is in charge will be 
at the disposal of any crews wishing to train for the 
championship match during the entire month of August. 
The teams, which compete at Denver, will be made up of 
five men and a captain. Not more than one first-aid and 
one mine-rescue team may enter from any one mine, 
smelter, or mill ; members of all teams must be bona fide 
employees. There is no limitation as to the number of 
teams which may enter from any State or district. The 
same team may enter for both mine-rescue and first-aid 
work. It is expected that teams from Park City, Eureka, 
Bingham, and from the coal mines in Carbon county will 
attend the contest. 

Assessment of the metalliferous mines in the State, for 
"taxation purposes, on the basis of three times the net pro- 
ceeds, fell off $29,295,402 in 1919 as compared with 1918, 
according to figures compiled by the State Board of 
Equalization, or a decrease of practically 50%. The 
assessed valuation of every other class of property in the 
State was increased, with the exception of water com- 
panies, but the increases were not sufficient to offset the 
reduction in revenue from the metalliferous mines. The 
real estate of metal mines, with the exception of ground 
owned for mills or townsite purposes, is assessed at a flat 
rate of $5 per acre. During 1918, mining real estate was 
assessed at $10,155,058, while during 1919 it was assessed 
at $13,596,864. Improvement and machinery at the 
mines of the State was assessed at $23,061,317 for 1919, 
as against $22,877,982 for 1918. 

Boxelder County. — At the property of the Vipont 
Silver Mining Co., near the Utah-Idaho line, 90 men are 
now employed and shipments of silver concentrate are 
being hauled by truck to Oakley, Idaho, 25 miles distant. 
East of the Vipont properties, Tony Scoro and others are 
driving a tunnel, while to the west the Utah-Idaho Min- 
ing Co. is driving a cross-cut in the hope of reaching. the 
same orebodies. At Rosette, it is reported that the Old 
Century and Suzanne properties will resume operations. 
At the property of the Salt Lake Copper Co. three lessees 
are now working. Seventeen miles north-east of Wend- 
over, three small properties are operating at the south 
end of the Silver Island mountains. 

\i r i ( Operations at the Cardiff property in Big Cot- 
tonwood canyon are being carried on at near capacity, 
and shipment of ore from the mine to the bins at South 
Fork has been started, the wagon-road now being in good 
condition. Fixe trucks are being used for ore-hauling, 
and a sixth kept in reserve. Forty men are now em- 
ployed at the property, and this number will be increased. 

At the annual meeting of the Big Cottonwood Coalition 
Mines Co.. the following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: W. G. Roniney, president ; E. J. Jeremy, vice- 
president; C. E. Robertson, secretary-treasurer: H. J. 
McKean, James A. Stanley, and W. H. Hurd, additional 


directors. A new compressor was recently installed at the 
property. During the past year the company purchased 
a controlling interest in the Copper King Mining Co. 
Robert Gorlinski, mining engineer of Salt Lake City, has 
been engaged to make a complete survey of the company's 
claims for patent. During the past year the main adit 
was extended 926 ft., making the total length 2680 feet. 
Park City. — Shipments of ore for the week ending 
June 26 totalled 2234 tons, as against 1309 tons for the 
previous week. This increase was due to the removal of 
the embargo at the Murray smelter, to which most of the 
local mines ship their ore. The Silver King Coalition 
resumed shipments with the lifting of the embargo; this 
company not being permitted to ship any ore the previous 
week. The Judge M. & S. Co. shipped 796 tons ; the On- 
tario, 718 tons ; Silver King Coalition, 502 tons ; and the 



July 10, 1920 

Daly-West, 228 tons. The Judge smelter shipped 108 
tons of premium spelter during the week. 

Larry Murphy and Malachi Maloney, miners, were 
severely injured in an accident in the Alliance tunnel, 
and have heen taken to Salt Lake City for surgical treat- 
ment. The men, who were doing repair work, were in- 
jured when an empty car, which had been set on a side- 
track for their use, was hit by swaying cars of ore on the 
main line and tipped over on them. Both men were in- 
jured internally, and also sustained fractured arms. 

Eureka. — Charles Zabriskie, manager, states that two 
drifts are being driven at the property of the Lehi-Tintic 
company in the northern part of the district. Owing to 
shortage of power, there is but one shift being worked in 
each heading. The drift which is following the north- 
south break is reported to be in a promising formation. 
The other drift, which is being driven for the purpose of 
cutting the Gold Blossom vein, is passing through a hard 
formation, and no change is expected for the time being. 

At the Copper Leaf property, in the eastern part of the 
district, but one drift, on the 1000-ft. level, is now being 
driven ; work on the 1200-ft. level having been suspended 
for the time being. Officials of the company feel con- 
fident that as soon as the lime formation is reached the 
drift should enter more promising ground. 

After sinking the Central Standard shaft to a depth 
of 490 ft., the work has been temporarily suspended in 
order that a reservoir may be cut on the 400-ft. level. 
This reservoir is needed to take care of water which was 
developed during the first 200 ft. of sinking ; the reservoir 
which was cut in the porphyry formation not being satis- 
factory. John W. Taylor, manager, states that sinking 
of the shaft will be resumed shortly, and with the water 
properly taken care of, better headway will be made. 
The first 400 ft. was in porphyry formation, then about 
40 ft. of shale was passed, while the last 50 ft. has been in 
decomposed lime, which carries iron. 

Walter Fitch Jr., mine contractor of this district, has 
returned from Pennsylvania, where he has had an im- 
portant contract in driving tunnels. Mr. Fitch brought 
with him a number of experienced tunneling men who 
will be employed in various pieces of work now under his 
direction in Utah and Nevada. Cecil Fitch, manager, 
states that a drift is advancing at a depth of 1750 ft. in 
the Plutus company's property. It is estimated that 200 
ft. of drifting will be required to cut an important system 
of faulting, and officials of the company consider this the 
most promising piece of development that has been taken 
up in the Plutus ground. It is being done through the 
Chief Consolidated shaft. About a year ago, ore was en- 
countered in the Plutus at a depth of 1000 ft., and since 
that time a winze has been sunk 750 ft., while consider- 
able prospecting was also done on the 1400-ft. level. 



New Denver. — After much steady development, a sub- 
stantial body of zinc-blende and galena ore has been cut 

by a raise between No. 4 and No. 6 levels at the Bosun 
mine. This mine is being operated by the Surprise-Rose- 
bery Mining Co., which owns also the Surprise mine, near 
Cody, and the Ivanhoe, near Sandon. The company has- 
moved its offices to New Denver. Except for a few miners, 
who are working on contract, the Standard mine, at Sil- 
verton, is being operated entirely by four groups of 
lessees, all of whom are doing well. Some unusually rich 
silver ore is being taken from the mine. Bodies of zinc- 
blende containing freibergite, granular chalcopyrite, and 
occasional films of ruby silver have been found closely 
associated with the lenses and dikes of porphyry, which 
have intruded into the zone between the vein walls. The 
lessees are in communication with several smelting com- 
panies with the object of trying to get more satisfactory 
treatment-terms for this class of high-grade silver ore. 
Considerable adverse feeling has, been aroused locally 
against the Silversmith Mines, Ltd., for its capitulation 
to the 'One Big Union'. The general opinion is that the 
members of this organization, who have done nothing for 
the workers and have been a considerable source of an- 
noyance to the mine-owners, should be run out of the 
camp. The other mines in the district, while running an 
'open shop', favor the International Mine Workers 
Union. When the O. B. U. called a strike many miners 
left the camp, and now are working at other camps, some 
at less than the Slocan scale of wages. 

Nelson. — The Granite Poorman mine has been taken 
under lease and bond from the Vincent Development Co., 
of Walla Walla, Washington, by a recently organized 
syndicate. The Vincent company has had the property 
under option for some time, but concentrated its energies 
at the Eureka mine, where it did considerable under- 
ground development. It constructed a tramway, too, I 
from the Eureka to the Granite-Poorman mill, and re- 
constructed the mill and added a flotation plant. The 
new syndicate will reap the advantage of all this work. 

Alice Arm. — The McLennan Silver Mines, Ltd., which 
recently acquired the Royal group, adjoining the Dolly 
Varden property on the west, has traced a vein for 400 
ft. on the surface, which is believed to be an extension of 
the No. 4 Dolly Varden vein. The vein is 12 ft. wide, and 
samples taken from it have run up to 320 oz. silver per 
ton. A tunnel has been started on the vein, 600 ft. below 
the summit of the hog's back. A semi-Diesel compressor 
is being put in place at the North Star mine. The Dolly 
Varden is running at least one train per day and some- 
times two. Each train carries about 90 tons of ore. The 
United Metals Co., Ltd., in the Alliance River district, has 
20 pack-horses taking supplies into the mine and bring- 
ing ore to Alice Arm. Unless labor troubles break out 
afresh, there is every promise of a successful season in 
this district. 

Hazelton. — The Kitselas Mountain Copper Co.'s con- 
centrator at Usk has been in operation since early in 
June. It is giving satisfactory results. A considerable 
quantity of ore is being treated and development is in 
progress at the mine. The ore carries gold, silver, and 

July 10, 1920 



The Silver Standard mine has been shipping steadily 
this year and important development also is in progress. 
A new tunnel is being driven which has reached two veins 
mill will continue until it cross-cuts the main lode. Trans- 
portation to the concentrator is furnished by a large 
motor-truck. It is used both summer and winter. Travel- 
ing in the winter is good after the snow becomes hard- 
ened, wires being wound about the truck wheels to ensure 
traction. Considerable high-grade ore is being shipped 
direct to the Trail smelter. Although the property is 
very promising it is yet in the development stage. 

Barkerville. — Placer miners are preparing for the 
season's work in the Cariboo district. John D. Galloway, 

prosperity, which momentarily passed when the mines of 
the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. were practically 
closed down, would return is about to be justified. The 
company's mines, it is stated, are to be put on a producing 
basis very soon, it being expected that shipments will be 
resumed early in July. The ore-bunkers have been re- 
paired ; ore from the Mandy mine, Manitoba, which the 
management likes to handle with the Rossland mineral, is 
being received. There is still some question as to labor. 
If the men are available there is no doubt that the mines 
will be operated without delay and that Rossland once 
more will be active. 

Trail. — Ore-receipts at the Trail smelter of the Con- 


government mining engineer, recently made a trip 
through a part of the section and, while it is impossible 
as yet to estimate the extent of the hydraulic mining to 
be undertaken, the prospect is good. Owing to the un- 
usually late spring and the heavy fall of snow there 
should be a plentiful supply of water and late-fall opera- 
tions appear assured. The old channel on Grouse creek, 
where the gravel is reported to be good, will be piped by 
the Waverly, and there will be operations at Lowhee and 
Stout's gulch. Generally it is expected that most of the 
old companies will be on their ground again and that 
some new leases will be worked. Notwithstanding lack 
of labor and high costs it looks as though the old Cariboo 
would see more placer mining, both hydraulic and indi- 
vidual, than it has for some years and that the gold out- 
| put will increase. 

Rossland. — The faith of the old-time residents of Ross- 
land, one of the oldest mining towns of the Province, that 

solidated Mining & Smelting Co. for the week ending 
June 14 totaled 6913 tons. For the week ending June 21 
there was received 6742 tons. Two new shippers appear- 
ed in the latter list, namely, the old Whitewater mine, of 
Slocan, and the Sunnyside, Rock creek. The total ore 
receipts at the smelter for the year up to date are 135,068 

Princeton. — "W. P. Tierney, the contractor in charge 
of the construction of a railroad to connect the Copper 
Mountain mine of the Canada Copper Co. and the Kettle 
Valley railway, has stated that rails will be laid within 
30 days. This 15-mile stretch of steel probably represents 
the hardest and roughest piece of construction under- 
taken in western Canada in recent years. The only work 
comparable to it is the road to the Dolly Varden mine. 
The contractor states that the cost totals $1,500,000. He 
describes it as having been heavy rockwork, bridges, and 
trestles all the way. 



July 10, 1920 



Toronto. — An important point in regard to the taxa- 
tion by municipalities of oil and gas wells has been set- 
tled by a decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, in the 
ease of the Union National Gas Co. v. the Township of 
Dover. The company appealed against the assessment by 
the Township of the income from two producing oil-gas 
wells at $62,376, being the amount of the returns for the 
year, less operating costs. The company claimed the 
right to deduct from the income, in addition to operating 
expenses, a deficit for the preceding year, and expenses 
for dry holes or unproductive wells, and rentals paid 
for oil and gas leases. The case was appealed from one 
tribunal to another, the original assessment being con- 
finned at every step, and the decision is again upheld by 
the Supreme Court of Canada, holding that the company 
could not make any deductions except for operating ex- 

Kirkland Lake. — The Lake Shore produced $41,187 
during May from the treatment of 1636 tons of ore with 
an average recovery of $25.18 per ton. Most of the ore 
now being milled comes from development work, but little 
being taken from the large orebodies blocked out. The 
management has decided to sink the shaft to the 800-ft. 
level At the Harvey Kirkland two more veins have been 
uncovered. Stripping is actively in progress. A survey 
party is at work on the line of the Canadian Light Rail- 
ways Ltd., which will run from Swastika through the 
producing area of Kirkland Lake and the new properties 
in Lebel township to the Larder Lake district. 

Gowganda. — Additional rich discoveries are reported 
on the Castle property of the Trethewey. The vein re- 
cently cut on the shore of the lake has been traced over 
the brow of the hill and close to the first shaft. A shaft 
is being sunk on it and at a depth of 20 ft. the vein is 
producing ore of excellent grade. A new vein has been 
found running directly under the office building.' Four 
shipments in all have been made since operations were 
started and the company has a large supply of high-grade 
ore sacked ready for shipment. 

Beaver House Lake. — The management of the Argo- 
naut has decided to sink to a depth of 500 ft. A 12-drill 
compressor and high-speed electric hoist have been in- 
stalled and plans for the construction of a large mill in 
the fall are being considered. 

Cobalt. — A decision has been handed down by the 
Supreme Court of Ontario in the dispute between the 
O'Brien and the La Rose companies, having to do with 
the correct location of the boundary between the O'Brien 
mine and the Violet property of the La Rose. The 
O'Brien is declared to be entitled to possession of all the 
territory lying west of a direct line running from No. 4 
post of the Colonial mine to the Shaw, thence to the 
Earle property. The La Rose is enjoined from trespass- 
ing beyond that line and damages are awarded. Cyril 
W. Knight, assistant provincial geologist, has commenced 

the work of making a re-survey of the geology of the 
Cobalt silver area. It is estimated that the Bureau of 
Mines will have the field-work completed by late fall. 
Silver production from Cobalt during the first half of 
1920 amounted to approximately $5,400,000, according 
to preliminary estimates. Cobalt metallics and cobalt 
oxides marketed as a by-product brought the total value 
up to about $5,750,000. The decline as compared with a 
year ago amounts to about $1,000,000. 

The Victory Silver Mines has increased its capital from 
500,000 shares of the par value of $1 each, to 2,000,000 
shares of similar par value. Plans are being made to 
commence mining operations. The Nipissing Mining Co. 
will disburse a 5% dividend, amounting to $300,000, on 
July 20. Total dividends from the Nipissing during 1920 
amount to $1,200,000, while the aggregate since 1906 
amounts to $21,540,000. The company has 1,200,000 
issued shares, distributed among 13,000 shareholders. 
Liquid assets, consisting of Canadian and United States 
war bonds, as well as cash, ore in transit, etc., amounts to 
slightly over $5,000,000. Production continues at the 
rate of well over $4,000,000 per year. A movement is 
under way with the object in view to induce the govern- 
ment of Ontario to set aside ten townships in Northern 
Ontario, the timber from which to be sold by tender and 
the proceeds to go toward the construction of a macadam 
road from North Bay to Cochrane, with branches to 
Porcupine and to Iroquois Falls, covering a total dis- 
tance of about 300 miles at an estimated cost of $3,000,- 
000. This would connect the mining, lumbering, and 
agricultural districts of Temiskaming with Southern 



White Horse. — The North West Corporation has 
assembled its dredge on Claim 20, Dominion creek. The 
dredge was hauled from the upper Hunker river during 
the winter. The corporation has secured a second dredge 
which will be worked on lower Dominion creek, near 
Grenville. The Yukon Gold Co. has a dredge working on 
Gold Run and another on the lower Hunker. Three of 
the company's dredges are still idle. The White Pass 
boat 'Reliance' has loaded 800 tons of ore on the Kan- 
tishna river from the Tom Aitkin mine, for smelters in 
the South. The Tukon Silver Lead Mining Co. has ship- 
ped 30 tons of high-grade silver ore from Lookout Moun- 
tain, in the Mayo district. The Dominion government 
will erect a radio station at Maj-o during this summer, so 
that the camp may not be so cut off during the long 
winters. The mail of June 1 — the first in six weeks from 
the Mayo camp — brought 120 applications for mining 
claims from that district. The greatest prospecting activ- 
ity was at Keno Hill and Lookout Mountain. Dr. Cock- 
field who is in charge of the Geological Survey field-work 
in this district, has arrived at White Horse. He is ac- 
companied by T. F. Armstrong, W. G. Cuttle, C. A. 
Merritt, and A. E. Pattison. The party will outfit at 
Dawson and then take the field. 

.July 10, 1920 




■■'\?J^~~ " ' ?yV?. • ""vv^'"-'--- ■■,--■:...■■>.-' 


The United States Circuit Court of Appeals has awarded 
John Tuppola possession of Alaskan mining claims valued 
at more than $500,000, property that heretofore had been 
claimed by the Chichagoff Mining Co. Tuppola, in 1914, 
became joint owner with the Chichagoff company of four 
valuable claims near Sitka. In order to gain complete pos- 
session, avers Tuppola, the mining company brought suit 
against him, charging insanity, had Tuppola tried and sen- 
tenced to an asylum. Later the claims were sold by a 
guardian for $1000. Subsequently Tuppola brought suit in 
the Alaska court and was defeated. His victory yesterday 
gives him possession of two claims and one-half interest in 
the claims held by the Chichagoff company. An accounting 
of all profits since 1914 also is ordered to be made to Tup- 


Anchorage. — Good reports come from the Willow Creek 
district on the government railroad less than 50 miles from 
here. Willow Creek promises to become one of the heavy 
gold producers of the Territory. 

Juneau. — The Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co. has 
taken a bond on twelve quartz claims on Nixon Fork on 
the Kuskokwim and is now busy prospecting the property. 

The Independent Mining Co. reports the discovery of a 

rich orebody six feet wide at the end of a 109-ft. tunnel on 

its property at Windham Bay. A contract for driving a 

tunnel 1000 ft. long has been let by the Admiralty Alaska 

Mining Co. which is operating at Funter Bay. The 

Alaska Endicott Mining & Milling Co. has resumed opera- 
tions at William Henry Bay where water-power is being 
developed for a saw-mill preparatory to the erection of a 

A syndicate has been formed at Juneau for the purpose of 
developing the Red Top group of claims on Bear Creek in 
the Portland Canal district. All the larger quartz mines of 
Alaska are operating full crews, and pre-war production has 
been resumed by the Alaska Treadwell, Alaska Juneau, 
Alaska Gastineau, Chichagoff, Kennecott, and Latouche com- 

Nome. — Regardless of almost prohibitive transportation 
costs, increased and renewed activity in placer mining is re- 
ported and no less than twenty big outfits are operating 
within fifteen miles of here. Extensive prospecting for oil 
is also reported. 

Valdez. — The Columbia Red Metal Co. has resumed oper- 
ations at Columbia Glacier near Valdez and is employing 50 
men. A railroad carries ore from the mine to where it is 

loaded on steamers for shipment to an outside smelter. 

The Valdez Gold Mining Co. has resumed operations and is 
assembling supplies and equipment necessary for driving a 
new tunnel. 


Jerome. — Smelter chemists have been taking samples of 
air. around the reduction works at Clarkdale and Clemenceau 
for careful analysis of the foreign gases contained. This has 
followed an investigation by State bee experts, who have 
found a sickly condition prevalent among the bee colonies 
of the Verde valley, with the total loss of many hives. The 

bee owners claim the trouble lies entirely with the smelter 

fumes. There is local belief that the great orebodies of 

the camp are pitching toward Mexico under the Don Luis 
section, where exploration is finding new orebodies at com- 
paratively shallow depth, though there is no expectation of 
striking continuations of the Bisbee lenses short of 2000 ft. 
The Boras mine has developed into a strong shipper and the 
adjoining Nighthawk is shipping about twenty carloads per 
month of 6}% ore from the 500, 600, and 650-ft. levels. A 
cross-cut now is being run on a new level at 750 feet. 

Miami. — By cutting its dividend from $6 to $4 per annum 
the Inspiration Copper Co. has eliminated the necessity of 
drawing further from surplus. Present earnings cover divi- 
dends at the new rate of $1 quarterly. The reduction will 
save $2,363,934 in dividend outgo. Last year a deficit of 
$2,905,174 resulted after paying the full year's dividends. 
Under the existing curtailment policy Inspiration's produc- 
tion costs have remained relatively high, the average being 
close to the 1919 figure of 13ic. per pound. Market condi- 
tions show no signs of material improvement in the near 
future and until the company's overhead can be apportioned 
over a greater production this cost cannot be materially 


Coeur d'Alene. — The Caledonia Mining Co. will disburse 
a dividend of $26,050 on July 5. This is at the rate of one 
cent per share. Quarterly payments hereafter will be at this 

rate. The Bear Creek Mining Co. has shipped ore, its 

first carload of concentrate containing 61% lead and six 
ounces silver per ton. Shipments will be made at the rate 
of one carload per week. 

Hailey. — The Silver Triumph Mining Co. has found a body 
of ore 6 to 15 ft. wide. One to two feet is galena rich in 
silver. The first samples assayed $140 in silver and lead. 
The ore was disclosed in clearing an old cave, and has been 
found to a height of 70 ft. above the upper tunnel and its 
dip indicates that it can be found in a raise of 200 ft. from 
the main tunnel. Three parallel veins lie in a zone 100 ft. 


Pioneer. — The new winze on the 200-ft. level south of the 
main shaft of the Mayflower has cut a full face of mill ore, 
with a streak of high-grade in the hanging wall. Drifting 
for the Starlight vein is proceeding and is expected to reach 
.the objective within 400 ft. W. J. Tobin, president, has 
gone to Denver to complete further financing of the corpora- 

Winnemucca. — Unwatering of the Nevada Harmony, six 
miles east of Winnemucca, has been completed and mining 
resumed. With the present pumping outfit the manage- 
ment expects to keep the mine clear by pumping five hours 
per day. G. R. Williams is superintendent. 


Pachuca. — The El Bordo shaft of the Compania de Santa 
Gertrudis, Mexico, which was partly destroyed by fire, has 
now been wholly repaired and the mine is producing about 
600 tons per day. The Santa Gertrudis company is enlarg- 
ing its mill from a capacity of 40,000 tons per month to ap- 
proximately 60,000 tons. 



July 10, 1920 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars oi then 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

W. H. Shockley has been examining a mine at Auburn, 

J. C. Pickering has opened an office as consulting mining 
engineer at Mexico City. 

George A. Packard, ot Boston, was in San Francisco last 
week, on his way to the Mother Lode. 

E. F. Orr has resigned as superintendent for the Simon 
Silver Lead Mines Co., at Mina, Nevada. 

Glenn L. Allen, mill superintendent for the Shattuck- 
Arizona Copper Co., is in San Francisco. 

Roy Hatch, superintendent of the Alaska Gold Mines Co.'s 
mill at Juneau, Alaska, is at Salt Lake City. 

A. E. Chodzko has closed his office in San Francisco, and 
is now at 1674 Long Beach avenue, Los Angeles. 

Charles A. Mitke has spent a few weeks at Morenci on 
professional business for the Arizona Copper Co. 

Rndolf Gahl, of Denver, is now with the Cerro de Pasco 
Copper Corporation, at 15 Broad Street, New York. 

F. B. Kirkbride has been elected president of the S. K. F. 
Industries, to take the place of B. G. Prytz, who resigned. 

John E. Bergh, of Salt Lake City, has gone to Chesaw, 
Washington, to start development on a gold prospect in that 

Henry H. Holden, of San Diego, California, has been in 
the Payson district, Arizona, examining the properties of the 
Atlantis Mining Co. 

Charles K. Barnes has been appointed to succeed Morris 
P. Kirk as general manager for the Yellow Pine Mining Co. 
at Good Springs, Nevada. 

Solon Spiro,. president of the Silver King Con. M. Co., at 
Park City, Utah, recently underwent a second operation in 
New York. He is reported as improving. 

H. C. Plummer, formerly assistant superintendent of 
mines for the Cananea Con. Copper Co., has accepted the 
position of general superintendent for the Arizona Com- 
mercial Mining Co., at Globe. 

Walter Lyman Brown, Director in Europe for the Ameri- 
can Relief Association, arrived in New York on June 26 and 
will return to London immediately after planning winter 
relief operations with Mr. Hoover. 

Albert Burch has resigned as manager for the Simon 
Silver Lead Mines Co., the Simon Sterling Mines Co., and the 
Simon Contact Mines Co., and, temporarily at least, is not 
acting as consulting engineer for any of these companies. 
Oscar H. Hershey and Lloyd C. White will continue to act in 
a consulting capacity. 

Utah, engaging in mining at Mercur, and in 1887 first be- 
came interested at Bingham, in property which later formed 
part of the Utah Copper Co. After selling the Brickyard 
mine at Mercur at a profit of $60,000, he developed the 
Yampa mine at Bingham, which property he later sold to 
Moore & Schley for $150,000, as against a cost to himself 
of $40,000. He held to his faith in the copper-bearing 
porphyry of Bingham, and in 1895, Capt. J. R. DeLamar 
secured an interest in the property, and in December 1902, 
D. C. Jackling succeeded in getting the present officials of 
the Utah Copper Co. interested in the project. In January 
1903, Col. Wall sold a half interest in the property to C. M. 
MacNeill, Spencer Penrose, and R. A. F. Penrose, for which 
he is said to have received $420,000 and a 20% interest in 


Col. Enos Andrew Wall, one of the most prominent pioneer 
mining men of the West, died at his home in Salt Lake City 
on June 29. Death was due to a cancerous growth and came 
after a long illness. Col. Wall was born at Richmond, 
Indiana, June 21, 1839, the son of pioneers from North 
Carolina. After a common-school education, he came West 
in 1860, settling in Colorado. There he became interested 
in mining, and in 18 63 went to Montana, where he continued 
his search for gold, but combined his activities as a miner 
with those of freighter and trader. In 1868 he went to 
Utah, remaining there for 14 years, after which he removed 
to Idaho, where he became superintendent for the Wood 
River Gold & Silver Mining Co. While in Idaho, he was 
elected to the upper house of the territorial legislature and 
served as president ot that body. In 1885 he returned to 

Col. Enos A. Wall 

the stocks and bonds of the new company. In 1906 Col. 
Wall started injunction proceedings against the Utah Copper 
Co. when it was proposed to increase the capital stock to 
$6,000,000 and to issue $3,000,000 worth of convertible 
bonds, with the disposal of 51% of the stock to the Guggen- 
heim interests. A restraining order was issued in this case, 
but later withdrawn. This was the beginning of a series of 
bitter legal battles between Col. Wall and the Utah Copper 
Co. over surface rights at Bingham. At the time of his 
death, Col. Wall owned approximately two-thirds of the out- 
standing shares of the Daly-West Mining Co. at Park City. 
On March 7, 1879, he married Miss Mary Mayer of Salt Lake 
City; this union being blessed with nine children, five of 
whom are living. Up to the time of his death, Col. Wall 
maintained an active interest in mining and Utah financial 
affairs, and was one of the wealthiest men in the State. He 
established and endowed the Wall Fellowship in Metallurgy 
at the Utah School of Mines at Salt Lake City. He was a 
man of great ability and enterprise, and kept abreast of the 
times in all the essentials and mining and metallurgy. 

July 10, 1920 






San Francisco. Jvily 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 65 

Antiraouy. cents per pound 9.00 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 18175 

Lead, pig, cents per pound 8.25 — 9.25 

Platinum, pure, per ounce $85 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce $118 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb S00 

Spelter, cents per pound 9.50 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 12.50 — 15.00 

(By wire from New York) 
July 5. — Copper is inactive but steady. Lead is quiet and firm. Zinc is 
dull but stronger. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
999 fine. From April 23, 1918, the United States government paid $1 per 
ounce for all silver purchased by it. fixing a maximum of $1.01% on 
August 15, 1918, and will continue to pay $1 until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
Kay 5, 1919, all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price fire times, the last being on March 25, 1919, on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10. 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 
pence per ounce (925 fine) calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 



New York 

29 89.00 

30 91.00 

1 90.50 

2 89.75 

3 89.62 

4 Sunday 

5 Holiday 




. . 88.72 

Feb 85.79 

Mch 88.11 

Apr 95.35 

May 99.50 

June 99.50 



Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

24 100.12 

31 101.17 

7 98.23 

14 86.00 

21 87.07 

28 91.41 

5 89.97 




July 99.62 

Aug 100.31 

Sept 101.12 

Oct 101.12 

Nov 101.12 

Dec 101.12 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents' per pound. 


29 19.00 

30 19.00 

1 19.00 

2 19.00 

3 19.00 

4 Sunday 

5 Holiday 

Average week ending 
May 24 


June 7 




July 5 

Monthly averages 





Mch 23.60 

Apr 23.50 

May 23.50 

June 23.50 




July 26.00 

Aug 26.00 

Sept 26.00 

Oct 26.00 

Nov 26.00 

Dec 26.00 



Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



IS Apr - 


I June 

4 Sunday 

5 Holiday 

, 6.85 
. 7.07 
. 7.26 
, 6.99 
. 6.88 






Monthly averages 

Average week ending 




14 , 














Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 

1919 1920 1918 

71.60 62.74 July 93.00 

72.44 69.87 Aug 91.33 

72.60 61.92 Sept 80.40 

72.60 62.12 Oct 78.82 

72.60 64.99 Nov 73.67 

71.83 48.33 Dec 71.52 


Jan 85.13 

Feb 85.00 

Mch 86.00 

Apr 88.53 

May 100.01 

June ..... 91.00 





Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery, 
in cents per pound. 












Average week ending 



. 7.92 




• • 











1918 1919 
8.72 7.78 
8.78 7.81 
9.58 7.57 
9.11 7.82 
8.75 8.12 
. 8.49 8.69 





.. 7.92 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, California being 1 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according' to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date I June 22 85.00 

June 8 90.00 " 29 85.00 

15 85.00 I July 6 90.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 128.06 

Feb 118.00 

Mch 112.00 

Apr 115.00 

May 110.00 

June 112.00 




July 120.00 

Aug 120.00 

Sept 120.00 

Oct 120.00 

Not 120.00 

Dec 115.00 










J. W. Powell, directing- head of the Bethlehem Ship Building Corporation. 
Ltd., characterizes the Jones merchant marine bill as a highly constructive 
piece of legislation, He says: 

"There has been a marked dropping-off of ship orders during 1 the last 
six months, and a discreet carrying' out of the spirit of its provisions should 
mean more contracts. The bill grants greater authority to the Shipping 
Board and permits it to put into effect various policies heretofore held in 
abeyance. Among these are a new sales program for the 10,000,000 gTOss 
tons of war-built, government-owned shipping. The Board is enabled to 
sell it at virtually whatever price it decides upon, with the proviso, how- 
ever, that all ships, save those not needed for our own commerce, must be 
sold to American men or corporations. 

"For ten years, owners of American shipping can deduct from their in- 
,come-tax return, the net earnings of Bhips engaged in overseas trade, pro- 
vided that the amount of exemption be applied, with an added amount to 
be decided upon by the Board, to new tonnage in American yards. New 
government construction of merchant ships is to cease, and an annual fund, 
for five years, of $25,000,000 is to be created through the sale of vessels 
by the Board, with which to provide loans to individuals or private cor- 
porations engaged in shipbuilding for the postal service and the naval re- 
serve. The postal authorities and Shipping Board are authorized to assist 
with adequate postal compensation to uphold such of our American trans- 
Atlantic companies which best serve the interests of American commerce. 
Marine insurance companies can amalgamate without fear of anti-trust 
laws. Bankers can do likewise for the creation of ship mortgag-es. To 
American Bhips is reserved the right of conveyance of all exports or im- 
ports which are granted preferential rates by American railroads.*' 


Increased discount rates can hardly be expected to do more than check 
further borrowing, according to the National Bank of Commerce, until the 
railroad situation improves so as to permit prompt liquidation of commercial 
and agricultural credits. In its money market discussion in the July num- 
ber of its magazine. 'Commerce Monthly', the bank declares that the present 
partial breakdown of transportation, by interfering with the movement of 
products, has prevented the liquidation of a tremendous volume of credits 
such as is normally effected at this season of the year. 

"During the period from May 16 to June 15. the money market has ex- 
perienced continued tension which, largely as a consequence of the traffic 
situation, had become pronounced during the preceding- month. The strain 
on credit facilities has been reflected in a further general advance in money 
rates. While some improvement of the traffic situation, mainly potential 
rather than actual, has been accomplished, it has not proceeded sufficiently 
to release and considerable part of the credit which had been locked up, 
and traffic conditions can be expected to improve only slowly. Meanwhile 
the credit requirements of a new crop movement will become pressing in 
the not distant future. 

"Until the railroad situation improves sufficiently to afford an adequate 
physical basis for the prompt liquidation of commercial and agricultural 
credits, the increased discount rates of many of the Federal Reserve banks 
can hardly be expected to do more than check further borrowing-; there- 
after, they should be a strong influence in effecting a curtailment of out- 
standing credit, in preparation for the heavy requirements of autumn." 

Foreign quotations on July 6 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 3.94% 

Demand 3.95 y 3 

Francs, cents : Cable 8.70 

Demand 8.71 

Lire, cents : Demand 6.25 

Marks, cents 2.70 




July 10, 1920 ; 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York June 30. 

The markets are inactive or only moderately active, de- 
pending on the metal. The vacation season is also having 
its effect. 

Demand for copper is a little better and prices are fairly 

The tin market is quiet hut moderately strong. 

There is but little demand for lead but prices are very 

The market for zinc is lifeless. Prices are steady, how- 

Antimony is quiet and steady. 


After two days conference at Columbus, Ohio, the pros- 
pects Tuesday night were that a shut-down of union sheet 
and tin-plate mills on June 3 would be averted, says 'The 
Iron Age'. Amalgamated Association officers notified the 
various lodges to continue at work pending further negotia- 
tions, and it was expected that an agreement would be 
reached Wednesday. The sheet and tin-plate mills of the 
United States Steel Corporation, in which the open-shop 
policy prevails, are not affected by the Columbus negotia- 

The week has brought the steel-trade no relief from the 
distractions of its railroad entanglements. Operations con- 
tinue at a fairly high rate, but with further additions to the 
unshipped stocks of finished product. Failure of coke sup- 
ply has stopped a number of blast-furnaces, and in eastern 
Pennsylvania six have been thrown idle on this account or 
for repairs, and in the Chicago district, two. 

Four inquiries from Western roads amount to 4750 cars, 
which will take 38,000 tons of plates, shapes, and bars. 
Eighty locomotives also will be ordered by two Chicago 
roads. The week's buying of cars by iron and steel and coal 
and coke companies has brought the total of such cars 
placed in June to about 6000. 


Sentiment may be pronounced a little better. This is 
probably due to improved demand for forward delivery, 
particularly last quarter. Sales of electrolytic have been 
made at the full price of 19c, New York, for delivery in, and 
through, the last quarter as well as for earlier positions, but 
demand is not heavy. There is also a heavier inquiry from 
foreign sources, England and the Continent, and substantial 
sales have resulted. Aside from these features basic con- 
ditions are unchanged, the industry being still more or less 
hampered by railroad and other troubles. The quotation 
of leading producers is firm at 19c, New York, for third 
quarter for both Lake and electrolytic copper. In the out- 
side market varying quotations are obtainable as low as 
18.25c, New York, for early delivery, but it is not believed 
that large quantities are involved. Exports of copper are 
on the increase, having been 39,415 tons in May. It is be- 
lieved that for the first six months they will average 30,000 
tons per month. In 1919 they were less than 1900 tons per 


The market has been an uninteresting one with no pro- 
nounced tendency. For the greater part of the past week 
it has been dull with consumers manifesting little desire to 
buy. Most of the transactions have been among dealers. 
About 300 tons was sold last week up to Saturday on the 
New York Metal Exchange, 2 00 tons of this on Friday. It 
was all for future shipment in various positions at prices 
ranging from 45.75c. on Friday to 49.50c last week Wednes- 

day. At the close of the week sellers were shy when demand 
was fairly good with 46.25c paid on Friday and 47c on 
Saturday. On both these days there were more buyers than 
sellers. This situation was also true early this week when | 
46.75c was bid and 47c asked for futures and 48.75c bid 
and 49c asked for spot. This bulge in spot tin over the 
future price is explained as probably due to a covering of 
short contracts for June delivery; when this is over, it is 
expected that the two prices will be more nearly on a level. 
Spot Straits yesterday was quoted in New York at 4S.50c. 
per lb. and at £260 per ton in London. A week ago the 
London price was £270. Arrivals to date this month have 
been 3280 tons with 4195 tons afloat. Spot Straits con- 
tinues scarce. 


The market is quiet but firm and featureless. It appears 
that consumers and buyers are comfortably supplied for' 
their nearby needs and perhaps further ahead and hence; 
manifest no interest in buying. Producers are believed to 
be catching up in production of the metal only slowly and 
hence are not pressing sales. As a result the market is stale 
and drifting. The leading interest's quotation is unchanged] 
at 7.75c, St. Louis, or Sc, New York, for early delivery.] 
That of the outside market is Sc, St. Louis, or 8.25c, New' 


The market continues inactive and devoid of features. If 
anything, however, it is a little firmer than a week ago. 
Demand is still confined to intermittent orders which pro- 
ducers are filling at prevailing quotations. Prime Western 
for delivery in the third quarter is quoted at 7.5 5c, St 
Louis, or 7.90c, New York. 


This market is quiet with wholesale lots for early delivery 
quoted at 7.50 to 7.75c, New York, duty paid, depending on 
the grade. 


Quotations for wholesale lots for early delivery are un- 
changed at 3 3c, New York, by the leading producer, with 
31.50c asked by other sellers. 


Tungsten: In the absence of any domestic buying, ever, 
at lowered prices, it is reported that sales have been made! 
for export at $5.75 per unit. Some interest is awakenec 
by these sales as well as considerable speculation. 

Ferro-tungsten is unchanged at 85c. to $1.15 per lb. 
contained tungsten. 

Molybdenum: Entire lack of interest characterizes this: 
market and prices are nominal at 65 to 75c per lb. o£ MoS 
in regular concentrate. 

Manganese: There is not much demand just at presen' 
and quotations are a little easier. About the best price tha> 
buyers would pay at present is 70 to 75c per unit for high 
grade ore for early delivery. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: Demand for ferro-manganese con 
tinues light. A sale of 185 tons for fairly early delivery a 
.$190, delivered, is reported, but special considerations an 
said to explain the low price. For last half the quotatioi 
of producers is regarded as firm at $200, delivered, witl 
$225 asked for prompt. Some British alloy is available foi 
shipment from August on at $195, seaboard. More demanc 
characterizes the spiegeleisen market; which is very firm a 
$75, furnace, for all positions. There are domestic inquirie: 
aggregating 1000 tons for fairly early delivery as well a 
one for 4000 tons for foreign shipment. 




HI II' I Hllllltll II II II 1 1 Illlll i I H II II II n Mi.lli.iiih 

n.minmmi inn iiiiiiiiiiiiiini 

III! Hllllllllllllllllllllimillll.illlllll 

llll! "Illl Illlll 


t. a. rickahd. editor 
Parsons, associate editor 
Parsons, associate Editor 


Member Audit Bureau of Circulation! 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 



PtilUiihrfi at ifo Market St., San FrancbOO, F. 

bv the Dcu'cv PuMUhino Comjxinv 



C.T. Hutchinson, manascr 

H. LESLIE, 600 FiSMCR Bos, Chicago 
. WEtGLE. 3514 WOOLWORTM BOS., N . V. 

ml I Ill limn t mi 

nullum imiimiii 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 17, 1920 

?4 per Year — 15 Cunts per Copy 






A detached criticism of the two political conven- 
tions. What were the best speeches. The plat- 
forms and their evasiveness. The candidates nom- 
inated. Political machines and their play. Orig- 
inal method of electing a President under the Con- 
stitution. The function of the electoral college. 

Recommendations of the Industrial Accident Com- 


By John J. Presley 81 

A word from the Coeur d'Alene. Ore deposits and 
'electric waves'. Care in staking out a location to 
accord with the strike of the lode. 



Cheerful outlook. The provisional government and 
its efforts to promote goodwill with the United 
States. Need for patience. The Mexican planks 
in our party platforms. What the miner wants. 
Villa and his brigandage. The restoration of in- 



By John A. Agnew 79 

I A letter of protest ignored by the editor of the 
'Engineering and Mining Journal'. Some past 
history. Camp Bird mine not shut-down. 
By Robert Hawxhurst Jr 79 

The 'code' of the American Society of Civil Engi- 

By Robert S. Lewis 

Mechanics of pumps. Plotting curves. Adapting 
the pump to its work. Testing centrifugal pumps. 
The selection of a motor for the pump. 


By Gilbert Rigg 

Need for improved roasting as a basis for better 
results. Some misconceptions regarding the in- 
fluence of zinc, and the handling of fine material. 
Experimental work. Pre-roasting on Dwight & 
Lloyd machines. Operation of the blast-furnaces. 
Zinc as a trouble-maker. Furnace charges. Possi- 
bility for recovering zinc from slag. 







By Wm. Crocker 

The applicability of the 'question and answer' 
method to writing books, and to an engineering 
problem. Be concrete! 


By G. Chester Brown 

The three-pole switch, delay-fuses, and misfires. 








Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific PresB: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Frai eisco post-office as second-claas matter, table 
address: PertuBola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdff.: New York, 3514 Woolworth 
Bdg.: London, 724 Salisbury House, E.O. Jf 

Price 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance; 
United StateB and Mexico, £4: Canada, $5: other countries, $6. 



July 17, 1920 

This Crew Is 100% Efficient 

The men are of uniform 
strength. Any one of 
them can finish a job 
begun by any other. 

This Crew Is Inefficient 

It averages the same as 
that above, but the little 
fellow cannot finish the 
big man's job. 

These Two Crews Show 
the Importance of Linde Uniformity 

Any one of the millions of cylinders filled with Linde Oxygen 
must be interchangeable with any other produced by Linde. 

For uniformity of oxygen is just as important to welders and 
cutters as is a high standard of quality. 

Expert chemists are constantly at work in Linde laboratories 
to prevent the slightest deviation from the extreme high purity 
of Linde Oxygen. 

Seventy-one Linde Distributing Stations make it possible to 
promptly supply welders and cutters everywhere with Linde 


30 East 42nd Street, New York 
Kohl Building, San Francisco 

The Largest Producers of Oxygen in the World 


July 17. 1920 


T. A. H.ICKARD. ■ ■ 


• • Editor 


THIIE Missouri School of Mint's and Metallurgy at Rolla 
•*- has issued a booklet that contains the records of 
Students and alumni who engaged in military service 
during the War. Of 273 American undergraduates en- 
rolled. 207 entered the military service, and 23 others 
were iu the Students Army Training Corps. Still others 
were engaged in work of production at which they were 
urged to remain in preference to enlisting. In all, 600 
Missouri School of Mines men were in active service. 

/~\N August 10 the Secretary of the Interior, Mr. John 
^-' Barton Payne, will hear arguments in behalf of 
claimants under the War Minerals Relief Act in regard 
to questions under dispute with the Commission function- 
ing under that Act. The hearing was granted at the re- 
quest of the American Mining Congress, following the 
receipt of hundreds of letters on the subject. Arguments 
on the following points will be submitted : request and 
demand, purchase of property, net losses, and commercial 
importance. The status of the Commission and its 
method of procedure will also be discussed. 

"D Y courtesy of the Director of the U. S. Bureau of 
*-* Mines we are informed that the Secretary of the In- 
terior has formally approved the transfer of the Mining 
Experiment Station that was established at Denver in 
1910, and moved to Golden in 1917, to Reno. This sta- 
tion will be known henceforth as the Rare and Precious 
Metals Station and its work will be conducted in co- 
operation with the Mackay School of Mines of the Uni- 
versity of Nevada, which is at Reno. This change seems, 
on the face of it, to be well considered ; it will be a source 
of strength to the Nevada School of Mines, and also a 
matter of convenience to those in the field most likely to 
derive benefit from it. 

TVTINETY mining companies, including practically all 
-*■ ' of the large producers of zinc and lead in the Tri- 
State district, which centres at Joplin, have agreed upon 
a plan of curtailment that is expected to force the price 
of 'ore' to $60 per ton. The first step is a complete shut- 
down for two weeks during the early part of July. This 
'is to be followed, so it is reported, by other periods of 
idleness, to the end that production may synchronize with 
demand and the price for the product may thereby be 
naintained at a higher level. While the operators point 
to the fact that their employees, who have worked steadily 

for several years, should appreciate a short vacation, and 
that at any rate those who desire can work on the farms 
where there is an unfilled demand for help, we are some- 
what skeptical as to the result of repeated unsought 
holidays on the attitude of the miners. There is the pos- 
sibility that the employees may assist in the curtailment 
and make temporary shutting-down unnecessary by the 
simple expedient of 'tapering off' wore frequently and 
persistently. They may reason that, since the demand 
for their labor is limited, the market can best be sup- 
ported by a co-operative plan of curtailing the rate of 
production per man ; and the operators would not have a 
particularly strong argument against such a policy. 

A MONG the documents received by us recently is the 
■^"*- annual report of President Butler on the work of 
Columbia University. Owing to our interest in that 
university and its distinguished head, we looked over the 
report, expecting to find something interesting. We did. 
Among the more prosaic items we note that full pro- 
fessors are now paid $6000 to $8000 per annum, "with 
the expectation of paying salaries of $10,000 to a limited 
number of teachers of unusual distinction". We like the 
use of the word 'teacher' in this context; every professor 
is not a good teacher; a "teacher of unusual distinction" 
is worth his weight in gold to a university, and to a com- 
munity. In 1919 the Carnegie Foundation paid $60,000 
to the Treasurer of Columbia University in retirement 
and disability allowances. Altogether the Foundation 
has given Columbia $405,439 in 13 years. The President 
reviews the changes in the university's chief interest: 
for fifty years the centre of gravity lay in the classical 
languages and literatures. "It then moved, with results 
that were not entirely satisfactory, to the natural and 
experimental sciences. From these it moved to the field 
of social and political science, and there perhaps it rests 
at the present time, although in a state of unstable 
equilibrium. ' ' This is as noteworthy as it is satisfactory. 
The first purpose of the university is to produce good 
citizens, the highest type of citizenship. For such the 
scientific study of economics is imperative. 

TN a report filed with the State Public Utilities Com- 
-*- mission of Utah, which is investigating certain special 
contracts under the terms of which the Utah Copper 
Company purchases its electric power, Mr. John M. 
Hays, treasurer for the company, gives some interesting 



July 17, 1920 

data. The company lias treated since 1907, when opera- 
tion commenced, 75 million tons of ore from which was 
recovered one and a half billion pounds of copper, 
416,000 ounces of gold, and 4,400,000 ounces of silver. 
The metal content of this ore averaged less than 1.5% 
copper. The company's property, which includes the 
Bingham & Garfield railroad, was appraised for taxation 
in 1919 at $58,000,000, or practically 9% of the assessed 
valuation of all property in the State. From January 1, 
1913, to January 1, 1920, the company purchased 900,- 
853,060 kilowatt-hours of electric power, for which it 
paid $4,034,426 to the Utah Power & Light Company. 
Indicative of the importance of the mining industry to 
Utah is the fact that of 72,740 wage-earners employed in 
the State in 1918, 22,022 or more than 30% were engaged 
in the mines, mills, and smelters. In 1917 the mines pro- 
duced metal to the value of 99 millions, and in 1918 the 
output totaled 86 millions, while the ore hauled in that 
year accounted for 85% of the total tonnage handled by 
the railroads. While Utah has other natural resources, 
she certainly can ill afford to hamper the mining industry. 

A NY machine whose motion is rotative has certain de- 
■*"*- cided advantages over one of the reciprocating type. 
It has fewer bearings, it is more compact, weighs less, 
requires lighter foundations, demands less attention, and 
costs less than a reciprocating machine designed for the 
same work. Steam-turbines, turbo-compressors, and cen- 
trifugal pumps are built on the rotative principle and 
for many uses are rapidly displacing older machinery. 
In spite of the fact that centrifugal pumps rarely have an 
efficiency of more than 75% the other advantages are so 
great that their use in mines and mills is constantly be- 
coming more general. For underground pumping, high- 
pressure multi-stage pumps are required, but these have 
been developed to such an extent that suitable equipment 
can be obtained for any service. Centrifugal pumps, 
however, are peculiar in that they work advantageously 
only under the conditions for which they are designed. 
The quantity lifted, the bead pumped against, and the 
speed of operation, each must coincide closely with that 
for which the pump is built, if a reasonable efficiency is 
to be obtained. The principles on which the pump per- 
forms are unusual. We happen to remember a large and 
successful mill where a standing order directed the 
operators to open the valves in the discharge-line before 
starting centrifugal pumps on the theory that otherwise 
the motors would be subjected to extra strain when start- 
ing. As a matter of fact the shut-off load, as it is styled, 
when the discharge-line is closed is the minimum and the 
facts directly contradicted the theory on which the mill 
superintendent based his instructions. In this issue we 
publish an interesting and valuable article on centrifugal 
pumps by Robert S. Lewis, Professor of Mining in the 
School of Mines at the University of Utah. 

T T is said of Jefferson that be did not think it ridicu- 
•*■ lous to state that were it left to him to decide whether 
they should have a government without newspapers or 
newspapers without a government he would not hesitate 

a moment to prefer the latter. Mr. Bryan's proposal to 
establish a government newspaper, for the avowed pur- 
pose of giving reliable news, reminds us of this saying of 
the father of the Democratic party. We were glad that 
Mr. Bryan's proposal was defeated at the recent Con- 
vention, all the more as we had read of Secretary Daniels 
disembarking at San Francisco from a warship to the 
salute of seven guns and in the company of Mr. George 
Creel. If there be a bete noire to American journalism, 
it is Mr. Creel. To think of a government paper edited 
and controlled by him would provoke mingled derision 
and resentment. In truth, most of us are tired of bureau 
cratic interference with legitimate industry and to have 
the Fourth Estate subjected to the unintelligent tyranny 
of such a man as Creel is unthinkable. The defects of 
democratic government are obvious enough, and the only 
hope of amelioration lies in the criticism of a free press. 
Even the license of a string of disreputable papers, like 
Hearst's, is preferable to the subordination of journalism 
to a petty official at Washington. Sane criticism is the 
best cure for the ills of maladministration ; upon the de- 
velopment of healthy public opinion rests the welfare of 
representative government in this, or any other, republic. 

T? LSEWHEBE in this issue we publish a particularly 
-*- J valuable article by Mr. Gilbert Rigg, metallurgist 
for the Broken Hill Associated Smelters Proprietary, 
Ltd., describing recent improvements in lead smelting as 
practised at Port Pirie, South Australia. The smelting 
of galena ore in the blast-furnace, following a prelimi- 
nary roast for the removal of part of the contained sul- 
phur, is comparatively old, the principal advance during 
recent years being the development of blast-roasting. 
Although the early edition of Hoffman's standard 
treatise on the metallurgy of lead antedates the use of 
Huntington & Heberlein pots, and the introduction of 
the Dwight & Lloyd sintering machine came still later, it 
seems fair to say that lead smelting bas been looked upon 
as being a rather commonplace operation, which depended 
for its success largely on plenty of flux and good furnace- 
men, and that, if not actually neglected by the metal- 
lurgist, it has at least not been studied as zealously and 
assiduously as have some of the newer processes. Mr. 
Rigg deals in a thorough and practical way with actual 
problems of a nature similar to those that present them- 
selves to every smelter superintendent. For instance, he 
says that a foreman in charge of the Dwight & Lloyd de- 
partment found that the sulphur content of the sinter lie 
produced varied, not directly but inversely, as that of 
the material received from the pre-roasters. This seems 
paradoxical, but it was true. It appeal's that the pre- 
roasting was done on a primary Dwight & Lloyd ma- 
chine, the product from which was crushed by rolls in 
preparation for the second treatment. The better the 
pre-roast, the harder was the sinter, and the greater was 
the proportion of coarse material in the crushed product. 
Less sulphur was then removed in the second roast and 
the sulphur content of the final sinter was accordingly 
high. The improvements made at the Port Pirie plant 

July 17. 1920 



illustrate the value of intelligent and painstaking re- 
search and experimental work and suggest in particular, 
as Mr. Rigg concludes, thai the "last word has not yet 

l n said in regard to the method of blast-roasting the 

ore and smelting the sinter in blast-furnaces". 

npilE effort to prosecute those responsible for the Bisbee 
-*- deportations of July 1917 seems unlikely to lead to 
any convictions. The Hist test case ended in an acquittal 
on April :i0 at Tombstone, as recorded in our issue of 
May 1"). The next ease is set for November, but we 
think it unlikely that it will come to trial, owing to the 
apparent difficulty in persuading any jury that a crime 
was committed, even if a blunder was perpetrated. On 
the other hand, it is pleasant to recall the fact that out of 
' the Bisbee trouble there has come one good result at least, 
namely, the adoption of the scheme ordered by the Presi- 

• dent's mediation committee, of which the Secretary of 
Labor, Mr. William B. "Wilson, was chairman. The man- 
agers of the mines and their employees were compelled to 
adjust their quarrels by means of a grievance committee, 

' the members of which had to be elected by secret ballot 
and on neutral ground. Any complaint from the em- 
ployees is referred to the grievance committee, which 

; either rejects it or takes it up with the manager ; in case 

'of disagreement the matter is then referred to a Federal 
mediator, who, although he has not the actual powers of 

mm arbitrator, is virtually enabled to act as such, because 
in every case so far his decision has been accepted by both 
sides. This arrangement will continue so long as a state 

• of war persists ; it holds good for all the copper mines of 
Arizona; and in effect it settled the labor controversy in 
the South-West for the term of the War. We hope that 
it may become established, for it works admirably. 
Among its minor features it is noteworthy that the men, 
by reason of the secret ballot, showed good judgment in 
the selection of their representatives, choosing both union 
and non-union men, much to the chagrin of the walking 
delegates but greatly to the satisfaction of those, man- 
agers and men alike, who earnestly desire to promote fair 
play in industrial affairs. 

The Conventions 

In a recent article Sefior Blasco Ibanez remarked that 
the people of the Latin countries are restrained by the 
fear of the ludicrous. He might have included the 
British ; their sense of humor likewise is largely per- 
verted into a dread of making themselves ridiculous. 
This is intimidating ; it is tyrannous ; Ibanez likens it 
• to the fear of the inquisition, and then proceeds to say, 
apropos of the suffragette picketing at the Chicago con- 
vention, that in a Latin country "it would be impossible 
to assemble a dozen ladies of respectable age and dimen- 
sions to dress themselves up like schoolgirls and parade 
in the streets. The thing would strike them as utterly 
preposterous". It would indeed, and that may be why, 
lacking the courage, the Spanish and Italian women 
have not won the vote. The conventions at Chicago and 
San Francisco proved our people indifferent to any fear 

of Beeming absurd; they made themselves intensely 
ridiculous by their antics and yet retained their self- 
respect. Macaulay's New Zealander or Butler's citizen 
from 'Brewhon' would have been moved to homeric 
laughter, not wholly good-natured perhaps, at the per- 
formances that preceded the selection of the next Presi- 
dent of the United States. Even to the sophisticated 
and comprehending spectator, to the thoughtful student 
of our political system, the antics of the political mobs 
that represented the two dominant parties in the nation 
affords cause for regret and chagrin. The organized ap- 
plause, the hired bands, and the paid yell-leaders were 
hardly worse than the opening invocation, which simu- 
lated a prayer to the Almighty while really only a speech 
to the audience, or the exploitation of the national flag 
and the national anthem alike in the interest of the in- 
dividual, candidate. Of the many speeches, most of which 
we read, for our sins, we recall only one that we would 
be willing to read again, and that was the opening address 
by Mr. Homer S. Cummings. The other key-note ad- 
dress, by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, left an unpleasant 
taste of personal rancor toward a stricken man and of 
narrow partisanship unrelieved by any touch of generous 
vision. Much the worst nominating speech was that of 
Mr. Charles S. Wheeler in support of Senator Hiram 
Johnson and the best that of Mrs. Douglas Robinson in 
seconding General Wood. The most effective nomination 
was that made by Mr. Frank B. Willis, who closed a 
short speech by saying: "Well, boys and girls, let's nomi- 
nate Harding." Mr. Willis, by the way, was the man 
who defeated Mr. Cox for the governorship of Ohio 
in 1914. Another felicitous recommendation was that 
made by Mrs. Jewel Brown, who said of her candidate, 
Mr. John W. Davis: "He is not a preacher but he prac- 
tises what the preachers preach." These were rare 
flashes amid the fog of platitudinous piffle. As for the 
platforms, both are a mass of evasive verbiage. The Re- 
publican contains 6396 words ; the Democratic is equally 
long. As Mr. Woodrow Wilson said during the 1912 
campaign, "A party platform is not a program". It is 
an elaborate gangway for stepping into power, a political 
posturing that deceives some and binds nobody. Both 
conventions were essentially political mobs that came to 
heel at the call of the bosses. That was inevitable ; with- 
out bossing they would still be mulling around in help- 
less confusion. At Chicago the crowd of politicians was 
moved scientifically by the old machine in the masterful 
hands of Senator Penrose. The reactionary element, rep- 
resenting a highly organized phase of predatory politics, 
won easily. A 'regular' was nominated, a colorless docile 
henchman was made the standard-bearer. Whereas the 
present incumbent of the presidential chair has assumed 
an autocratic power repellant to thousands of good citi- 
zens, his proposed Republican successor is a second-rate 
politician who is expected to be wholly amenable to a 
senatorial coterie. The pendulum will make a full swing 
if the Republicans succeed in electing Senator Warren G. 
Harding. In San Francisco the Presidential machine 
dictated the platform and ensured a tribute of praise to 



July 17, 1920 

the outgoing Chief Executive, but it declined to nominate 
a candidate recommended by Mr. Wilson. Here the 
bosses became effective by distributing the votes of the 
pivotal States, those of New York. Illinois, and Indiana, 
in such a way as to defeat the forces of the Administra- 
tion and after systematic delay compel the nomination 
of Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. He is a man of 
some character and considerable achievement, but it is 
unlikely that he will win the race under the handicap of 
the outgoing Democratic regime. To earnest men the 
forthcoming election presents no scope for enthusiasm, 
and yet we agree with Mr. Hoover that those of liberal, 
mind must do the best they can from within the existing 
parties. A third party would make for a confusion sub- 
versive of our political system. For the present the 
sanely progressive elements whom Mr. Hoover would 
have represented are submerged. They may make them- 
selves felt in the cabinet of the next President, for it is 
quite probable that a weak man will fortify himself by 
selecting strong men for his cabinet, in contrast to a 
President of strong character who filled the offices of 
State with weak men. Co-operation between the Bxecu 
tive and Legislative branches of the Government is essen- 
tial ; the experience of the last twelve months is eloquenj 
on that point. It even seems a pity that the selection of 
a President, who is the chief of a victorious party, is not; 
left to the members of that party in the House of Repre 
sentatives. Originally, under the Constitution, the elec 
tors were highly respected citizens chosen from eacli 
State with authority to select a President. Owing to the 
inability of men who were unknown to each other to 
concur in a choice, the arrangement broke down; so 
eventually the electors accepted a mandate from the 
electorate and became the mere recorders of the popular 
vote. This led to the party ticket, which is the expres- 
sion of a choice made at a party convention. Today, 
thanks to improved transportation and communication, 
the s.ystem as originally devised under the Constitution 
would work much better than it did a century ago and it 
would probably lead to the choice of men of a higher 
type. A thousand men in open assembly never did, and 
never will be able to function intelligently in the choice 
of a representative. In a multitude of counsellors there 
is only noise. So long as the present system survives, the 
nomination of a president will fall into the hands of 
those small groups of quick-witted men we call political 
machines. Sometimes they are, outwitted by Providence 
and we are given a Lincoln or a Roosevelt, but most of 
the time they give us the cigar Indians of the political 

News From Mexico 

Letters from Mexico bring cheerful news; there is an 
increasing confidence in the near prospect of a restoration 
of order and it would appear as if the provisional govern- 
ment of De la Huerta were being well established, in 
preparation for the general election of September, when 
General Alvaro Obregon is assured of election to the 
Presidency. Officials at Washington are watching the 

course of events closely with a view to determining when 
it will be proper to recognize the provisional government, 
which is the de facto successor of the Carranza adminis- 
tration. Senor Iglesias Calderon, a special envoy from 
Mexico, is now at Washington making every effort to 
persuade the Acting Secretary of State that his govern- 
ment is worthy of recognition and support. We hope 
recognition will be accorded soon, for it will help to con- 
firm the status of the existing order and facilitate the 
financial arrangements necessary to the rehabilitation of 
the railways and other industrial activities of a mining 
region in which our people have a large stake. Com- 
plaints reach us that the representatives of mining com- 
panies find themselves still facing many of the predatory 
officials appointed by Carranza; as yet apparently the 
new government has not been able to make a clean sweep. 
We would counsel patience ; give President De la Huerta 
a chance ; in the land of la manaiva it is necessary to 
allow for the element of time even when the best inten- 
tions actuate the policy of a government that has just 
jumped into the saddle. The resumption of order and 
the revival of industry in Mexico must be left to the 
Mexicans themselves; the recovery of the country must 
be brought about mainly by the forces from within, not 
by interference from outside. The Mexican planks in 
the platform of our two parties are humorous. The 
Democrats give credit to the Wilson administration for 
the recent improvement south of the Rio Grande, where- 
as, of course, the vacillating policy of Washington during 
recent years has served chiefly to aggravate the troubles 
of our so-called sister republic. The Republicans echo 
the truculent tone of the Fall resolution, and expect 
Mexico to amend her constitution to suit our desires, but 
if we can persuade oue neighbor in a friendly way not to 
give a retroactive interpretation to the clause national- 
izing the subsoil we shall have done as much as we can 
do in that direction. For the rest, all the miner asks is 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of his occupation under a 
civilized code, whereby the Mexican government will not 
discriminate against him so long as he obeys the laws of 
the country ; and in doing his legitimate work he asks for 
the protection of his own government whenever or wher- 
ever his just rights are invaded or suppressed by any 
other government. Several minor revolutionary out- 
breaks have been reported during the past month, but 
they represent, we hope, the crackling of vagrant sparks 
of unrest on the edge of the latest revolution. Villa is 
still at large and is trying to bluff the authorities into 
recognizing him as a political unit. He has ceased to be 
that, and if the new government is to receive recognition 
it devolves upon it to perform its proper function by 
extinguishing this vile ruffian, who has too long menaced 
life and property in the North. The rehabilitation of the 
railroads and the restoration of the school system are the 
two primary needs of Mexico. After that, and while 
these reforms are in progress, we may hope for a re- 
establishment of conditions favorable to industry. Not 
for ten years have the prospects been so good for ttae 
miner in Mexico. 

July 17, 1920 



The Camp Bird, Mr. Agnew, and Mr. Spurr 

The Editor: 

Sii v — I had occasion some little time ago to write to 
the editor of the 'Engineering and Mining Journal', 
New York, calling his attention to the incorrectness of 
sonic remarks published in that journal on 14th Febru- 
ary last. Since the date of that letter I have carefully 
sought for its publication, an acknowledgment of error 
on the part of the editor, or a reply direct to me, in each 
case without success. I conclude therefore that the 
editor of the journal in question intends to ignore my 
communication. I enclose herewith a copy of the latter 
and I shall be grateful if you can arrange to publish 
same in the 'Mining and Scientific Press', together with 
this explanation. 

John A. Agnew. 

London, June 14. 

Copy of letter follows. 

No. 1, London Wall Buildings, 
London, E. C. 2. 
10th March, 1920. 
The Editor, 

Engineering & Mining Journal, 
New York, U. S. A. 
Sir — My attention has been called to the paragraph in 
your issue of 14th February, relating to the Camp Bird 
deep tunnel. 

It is a matter for surprise that you should not have 
taken steps to ascertain the correctness of the statement 
to effect that the mine had been shut down before pub- 
lishing same. It is true that you mention it as being 
reported to you, but the deductions you draw therefrom 
and the peculiar satisfaction expressed, leave no doubt 
as to your belief in the report. 

As one of the technical advisers to Camp Bird Ltd., I 
may be permitted to reply to your remarks. Some years 
ago — to be accurate, in 1908 — Mr. J. E. Spurr was called 
on to advise the Camp Bird directors as to the policy to 
lie followed in further development work. In the east 
end of the mine the then lowest working was the No. 3 
adit-level. In the course of an exhaustive report, made 
no doubt after an examination of a similar character, 
Mr. Spurr advised the board that any further work be- 
low the No. 3 adit would be useless and unproductive: 
in spite of this adviee the board decided to sink No. 3 
shaft and between No. 3 adit-level and the ninth level — 
a vertical distance of about 1000 ft. — in a short shoot of 
ore in the vicinity of the shaft referred to, there has since 

been extracted ore which has actually yielded a profit of 
over £500,000. 

To sink below the ninth level would have meant en- 
larging No. 3 shaft and the installation of much heavier 
winding and pumping equipment: there was, moreover, 
the constant danger of the workings being flooded if any 
connection were established with certain water courses be- 
lieved to traverse the No. 1 shaft section, the latter being 
an extremely wet section. These factors caused the direc- 
tors, largely on the advice of the writer, to agree to the 
driving of the tunnel now referred to. It did not seem 
too much to ask that a moderate percentage of the profits 
won from the shoot of ore above referred to should be set 
aside to seek for its continuance in depth, especially 
when the then lowest level — ninth — appeared promising. 

Whether Mr. Spurr 's opinion was sought, in earlier 
years, in order that the directors might have the benefit 
of his advice on driving a low-level tunnel, I do not know : 
I do know, however, that it was not asked for when the 
question of driving the present one was under discussion. 

The Camp Bird mine is not shut down ; work is actively 
proceeding in the eastern section — the one referred to 
above, and a commencement is being made to extend the 
west drive on the vein, at the tunnel level, under No. 1 
shaft section. 

Am I right in assuming that the Mr. J. E. Spurr, men- 
tioned in the paragraph I have drawn attention to, has 
no connection with Mr. Josiah Edward Spurr, the editor 
of the 'Engineering and Mining Journal', or is it per- 
missible for one of them to seek a cheap form of notoriety 
while the other has a sneer for a body of men possessing 
what is often enough lacking today in mining — a little 
pluck and enterprise? 

Yours faithfully, 

John A. Agnew. 

[We know Mr. Agnew to be a distinguished member 
of the mining profession and a man of the highest char- 
acter. We are willing therefore to give him the space 
to make this protest. Why Mr. Spurr did not publish it, 
we are at a loss to surmise. — Editor.] 

Professional Ethics 

The Editor : 

Sir — Referring to your critical editorial upon the code 
of ethics proposed by the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, I would call attention to that adopted by the 
American Society of Civil Engineers in 1914, which 
reads as follows : 

It shall be considered unprofessional and inconsistent 



July 17, 1920 

with honorable and dignified bearing for any member of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers : 

1. To act for his clients in professional matters other- 
wise than as a faithful agent or trustee, or to accept any 
remuneration other than his stated charges for services 
rendered his clients. 

2. To attempt to injure falsely or maliciously, directly 
or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, or 
business, of another Engineer. 

3. To attempt to supplant another _ Engineer, after 
definite steps have been taken toward his employment. 

4. To compete with another Engineer for employment 
on the basis of professional charges, by reducing his 
usual charges and in this manner attempting to under- 
bid after having been informed of the charges named by 

5. To review the work of another Engineer for the 
same client, except with the knowledge or consent of such 
Engineer, or unless the connection of such Engineer with 
the work has been terminated. 

6. To advertise in self-laudatory language, or in any 
other manner derogatory to the dignity of the Profession. 

Article III, Clause 6 of the constitution of the society 
provides for the expulsion of a member for cause. Un- 
professional and dishonorable conduct would clearly con- 
stitute such cause. This code is simple and brief. Means 
of enforcement, or rather of punishment for breach, are 
not wanting and I believe have been exercised upon one 
or more occasions in the past. 

„ . _ , „ Robert Hawxhurst Jr. 
San Francisco, July S. 

Question and Answer 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your issue of June 26 you invite criticism of 
your book on technical writing. The following is not a 
criticism, but a suggestion. The suggestion I would 
make is based on the benefits I have received from a cer- 
tain work on mining, namely, Mr. J. E. Spurr's 'Geology 
Applied to Mining'. I have got more out of Mr. Spurr's 
book than all the books on mining I have ever read. I 
believe this is due to the manner in which the subject is 
presented, that of question and answer. The answers 
to questions are easier found and are easier fixed in the 
mind. I believe it would be an improvement if all sub- 
jects were presented in the same way, at least to the 
beginner. It may be that this method of presenting a 
.subject is not suited to addressing those who already 
know a great deal about it. 

Not only is it an advantage to present a subject this 
way, at least to a beginner, b- * it is, I believe, an advan- 
tage to a writer in preparing his subject, even if he 
doesn't present it to his readers that way. The following 
will illustrate what I mean. Just before the War I put 
in two years prospecting in Central Africa for a mining 
company ; and, for my own satisfaction, I worked out the 
best way of doing every part of my work. In this I was 
greatly assisted by using the method of question and 
answer. Following is an example. 

Cutting down the cost of prospecting. "What items 
enter into the cost of prospecting? What is practically 
a salary and expenses from the time a prospector leaves 
America until he returns, hrj food while in Africa, the 
cost of administration, the wages and up-keep of the men 
in his employ, his outfit and tools. What does all this 
amount to? I can't say exactly, but for the purpose of 
discussion I will say about $7000 for the term. How 
much time does a man spend in the field? About 19 
months r.t the most. Then according to these figures it 
costs at least $12 per day for the time a man is ;, tually 
prospecting in the field ? Yes. Are there circumstances 
nnder which it may cost more? Yes. What are they J 
Sickness and loafing. Then it pays the company for a 
prospector to pay considerable attention to his health? 
Yes. Does good management cut much figure in the cost 
of prospecting? Yes, a very big figure. In what ways 
can a man increase his effectiveness in the field ? By not 
doing anything more than is necessary in finding what is 
wanted; and by devising ways and means of doing 
quickly what is to be done. What do you consider the 
most desirable thing to find? Big enough bodies of ore 
and gravel of a grade that it will pay to put in railroads, 
etc., or reduction plants. Why not put in a great deal of 
time looking for small bodies of high-grade ore and 
gravel? Because the chances are greater to make more 
out of the big lower-grade bodies of ore and gravel. It 
is a law of mineral distribution that the amount of min- 
eral in rich veins and deposits is small as compared to 
the amount in lower-grade veins and deposits. This law 
is a very important factor in mining. Don't you think 
it would be profitable to pay more attention to the small 
high-grade ore and gravel deposits? It is not a question 
of what is profitable, it is a question of what is most 
profitable. If railroads or machinery were put in on . 
account of big low-grade stuff, the small rich stuff would 
then become more profitable. What do you consider 
unnecessary work? Accurate surveys of streams, trails, 
routes, or lodes, and the surveying of small streams un- 
less they are to be prospected to get more detailed in- 
formation. The sampling of small streams, or at least an 
extensive sampling of them, when the streams around 
them have not proved good. And sampling any stream 
any further than to draw comparisons with the best or 
until we wanted to know the amount of gold in it with 
the idea of exploiting it. The building of trails any bet- 
ter or putting any more time on them than the amount 
of travel warrants. Or building houses any better than 
the length of time they are to be occupied warrants. The 
cutting of plantations when it is possible to get food from 
the outside. The planting of anything that won't maturfl 
soon enough to be used. In what other ways can a man 
do prospecting cheaper and quicker? By employing out- 
siders to do all the work than can be done by outsiders, 
such as cutting trails, leaves for houses, sticks, clearings! 
plantations, porterage, etc., and using the services of 
various chefs de postes and commercial agents in arrang- 
ing for food and porterage. May not the employment of 
outsiders to do all this work cost more 1 It would- appear 

July 17. 1920 



so if we only consider the wages and up-kecp of one's 
own men without considering the cost of administration, 
the salary and expense of the prospector from the time 
he leaves America until be returns. But if we consider items it would have to Cost Considerably more than 
it does to be profitable for one to use his own men for this 
work. Kvery clay one loses in actual prospecting costs at 
least +1-. By employing outsiders we make a more 
affective use of the over-head expense — the constant ex- 

The method of question and answer can be employed 
to great advantage in working out the problems of any 
business. It is surprising how readily some pretty knotty 
problems can be solved by putting down questions as 
. they occur to you and then answering them. Every 
question when uttered seems to call forth an answer and 
every answer seems to suggest another question. Try it. 
The effect is a little surprising. By asking a question we 
give ourselves a definite task to perform, which helps 

At all times a writer, in discussing a subject, is an- 
swering questions, only he doesn't utter them or write 
them down. By writing down the questions or uttering 
them the writer gets a clearer and better idea of his sub- 
ject. He may afterward, in presenting his subject, omit 
the questions. 

¥m. Crocker. 

Prescott, Arizona, July 1. 

[It so happens that we drew attention to the useful- 
ness of Mr. Spurr's book, on the application of geology 
to mining, in our issue of June 26 (page 927) . We agree 
with Mr. Crocker that the value of this handbook is en- 
hanced by the method of question and answer. Undoubt- 
edly the written record of questions pertinent to any 
subject under discussion helps to fix the essential points, 
but most men try to accomplish this by making mental 
notes. — Editor.] 

Electric Detonators 

The Editor: 

Sir — The article on this subject in your issue of June 
19 is most interesting. However, the recommendation 
about a three-pole switch will not, in my opinion, elim- 
inate the most common causes of misfires. In the fourth 
paragraph of their conclusions, the authors of the paper 
suggest two objections to the use of delay-action ex- 
ploders in cut-holes, and recommend the use of instan- 
taneous exploders. While their suggestion is feasible, 
provided the three-pole switch be used as described, it is 
directly contrary to the recommendations of the mining 
division of the Industrial Accident Commission that in- 
stantaneous exploders shall not be used in the same circuit 
as delays. It is possible with a lighting current and a 
three-pole switch having one leg shorter than the other 
two, to use the instantaneous exploders in the same circuit 
&i the delays. If a lighting circuit is not used there is no 
way to use the combination successfully. Delay-action 
detonators as a rule are so made that the first delays are 

timed to pull the cut-holes satisfactorily, and they can be 
used with any kind of current, provided the wires are 
properly connected. 

The authors also make a point of the fact that misfires 
may occur by using delays in the cut-holes. There is no 
more of a chance of electrical failure in using No. 1 de- 
lays than there is in using instantaneous detonators. 

Again, referring to the three-pole switch discussed in 
this article, it should be borne in mind that this method 
is liable to cause trouble unless one of the poles is con- 
siderably shorter than the other two poles in the switch, 
and unless the contact is made very slowly at the time 
of throwing the switch. Moreover, users must be sure 
that they do not get a lead wire from the delays con- 
nected to the short pole. It is essential that the delays 
be ignited first, hence they must be connected to the long 
pole. All of these points are likely to be neglected by 
men who do not appreciate the need of care, with the 
result that men may be injured by accidents due to mis- 

G. Chester Brown. 

San Francisco, July 1. 

Apex Litigation 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have been a frequent reader of your paper. 
Your appeal for aid to help solve the apex problem no 
doubt will attract the attention of many mining men of 
this country. The time is most appropriate to make an 
attempt to correct the many mistakes made concerning 
the present procedure in apex cases in court. 

In response to that call you will please find enclosed a 
printed sketch or map showing the vein system of the 
Coeur d'Alene district with the Bunker Hill vein as the 
mother vein of the entire system. This map represents 
approximately thirty miles of the Bunker Hill vein, in- 
cluding the later veins of note that branch out from both 
foot and hanging wall. If there was an extension of 
thirty miles more added to this map it would then fail 
to reach either end of this great vein. There is nothing 
in connection with this map and the lines representing 
the veins of the Coeur d'Alene that has-been borrowed 
from anyone — not even from Germany. And, further- 
more, there is nothing I can borrow from geology as it 
is being taught in our higher institutions of learning con- 
cerning the structure and the power that have created 
all mineral veins and earthquakes. Strange as it may 
seem, the earthquake that occurred in Old Mexico a few 
months ago sent an electric wave through every vein in 
this Coeur d'Alene vein system. 

I have devoted a great deal of time and energy re- 
garding this nation-wide apex problem, which has been 
the cause of so many serious conflicts in the mining in- 
dustry. In many apex suits the testimony introduced by 
geologists has been so contradictory that no judge or jury 
could give an intelligent decision. In some cases the 
judge is accused both by the public and the defendants 
in the case as having shown some partiality in his de- 
cision. The general impression prevails that geologists 



July 17, 1920 

testify for the side that pays them. Such is not the ease. 
Geologists testify honestly, each for himself along the 
lines that he has been schooled and trained. It has been 
suggested in the last few years, why doesn't the judge 
employ a third set of geologists to testify for the Court, 
that he may arrive at a non-partisan decision. The re- 
sult would be that such a procedure would give the judge 
one more color to choose from, with no better results. 

The first serious mistake is made by the prospector 
who does not locate a claim properly along the trend of 
the vein or apex. There is no branch of mining that re- 
quires greater skill in mining than the developing of a 
prospect into a producing mine. There are a great many 
cases that I can refer to, two in particular, where the 
Federal Mining Company undertook to develop the 
Bunker Hill vein between Government gulch and Pine 
creek. After spending approximately $200,000 they did 
not touch that great vein at any point. On the Senator 
Clark vein on Sunset mountain, after spending an 
enormous amount of money in development work, they 
do not know whether the vein they should have developed 
is six feet wide or one hundred feet. Those are condi- 
tions that confront us today, that make mining such a 
hazardous risk. 

The time is near at hand when those who testify in 
mining suits, especially as to the apex of a vein, must 
prove it by some method. Theory has got to be such a 
vexed question in past years. If those that are interested 
in mining and the higher institutions of learning would 
recognize the great almighty power, electricity, that has 
created all things, then, and not till then, will this apex 
problem be solved. 

There is so much that can be written on this subject, 
other than that taught by high institutions of learning, 
that when the time comes that I must defend the apex 
of a vein in court the problem will be solved along the 
lines as expressed in this paper. 

John J. Presley. 

Kellogg, Idaho, June 28. 

[We publish this letter, although we are not in agree- 
ment with the writer's views in regard to the part elec- 
tricity plays in the formation of veins; as to that we 
plead ignorance; but we do wish to endorse Mr. Presley's 
suggestion that the locators of claims should take more 
care to ascertain the strike of the vein they desire to 
exploit. Much of the litigation is due to random locating. 
— Editor.] 

Copper in China 

In 1918 over 8000 short tons of copper ingots and slabs 
valued -at about $5,000,000 was imported into China. 
An increased amount was imported in 1919. The im- 
ports for the first three-quarters of that year amounted 
to over 14,000 tons, but final figures for the total year's 
importations are not yet available. Practically all of this 
copper came from Japan and was minted into coins. 
Recently some American copper has reached China 
through the Japanese dealers. Copper has been used in 

China since before the Christian Era; it forms a large 
part of the old bronze objects of those days. The metal 
has been produced in China for centuries, but never, so 
far as there are any records to show, in quantities which 
today would be considered of importance. Many occur- 
rences of copper ores are known, but so far no large cop- 
per mines have been developed. These ores are scattered 
throughout a number of the provinces of China and the 
copper produced is derived from these small properties. 
The production of copper in China now amounts to about 
2000 tons annually which does not nearly supply the de- 
mand. Copper probably has a relatively larger utiliza- 
tion in China than in other agricultural countries. Cop- 
per objects of art and brass utensils are quite common. 
The brass 'cash' pieces, 10 to the cent, and the large 
1-cent and 2-cent copper pieces which are, by the way, 
much larger than the coppers of the United States, are 
in use everywhere. The 2-cent piece is about the size of 
the American, silver half dollar and the 1-cent piece is, 
approximately, one-quarter of an inch less in diameter. 
According to the Chinese maritime customs, imports of 
copper bars, rods, sheets, plates, nails, and wire amounted 
to 1,276,266 lb. in 1916, 1,376,400 lb. in 1917, and 1,380,- 
933 lb. in 1918 ; imports of copper slabs and ingots total- 
ed 3,474,000 lb. in 1916, 3,687,733 lb. in 1917, and 16,- 
187,733 lb. in 1918. The final figures for 1919 are as 
yet unavailable, but the total tonnage for the first three 
quarters of the year was 28,973,200 lb., showing that a 
further large increase took place during that period. 
Japan furnished 3,206,800 lb. in 1916; 212,000 lb. came 
from the United States and possessions; 212,000 lb. was 
credited to Great Britain. The share of Japan increased 
to 3,647,866 lb. in 1917 and to 16,238,533 lb. in 1918. 
Changsha led all the rest in the volume of copper im- 
ported in 1918 and 1919. The reason is not difficult to 
find. Changsha is the capital of the Province of Hunan, 
which has been overrun by the armies of the North and 
the South and is now in a bad financial condition. In 
1918 the Southern troops were driven out of Changsha 
and the city was looted. It is now occupied by the 
Northern forces. Since the occupation, the mint has been 
coining copper. Approximately 30 tons of copper and 
3 tons of zinc are melted and cast into slabs each day. 
The melting at the Changsha mint is done in crucibles of 
Japanese make for most part, although a few new Eng- 
glish crucibles recently arrived. Approximately $800 
worth of crucibles are used daily, it is said. The cast 
slabs are then cold-rolled on old German rolls into strips ; 
many of which are defective, full of holes and cracks. 
These are then punched and stamped on small slow-work- 
ing German machines which punch two blanks at a time. 
The dies formerly made by the Japanese are now being 
made at the mint by Chinese workmen. Defective coins 
and other scrap are re-melted in small clay crucibles 
made in the mint, and re-cast. 

One-third of the average man's time is spent in 
recreation. Every mining camp, if it desires to progress, 
must recognize that wholesome and health-building facili- 
ties for recreation are a necessity. 





Centrifugal Pumps 


The first centrifugal pump built in the United States 
was in 1818. It was called the Massachusetts pump, and 
was of crude design. Evidently the early pumps were 
not considered a success, for the wide use of centrifugal 
pnmps has developed rapidly only during the last few 

Mechanics. The centrifugal pump depends for its 
art ion upon transforming the kinetic energy of a rapidly 
revolving mass of water into a pressure that forces the 
water through the pipe-line. A high velocity is imparted 
to the water by the action of the rotating impeller, the 
Correct design of which practically controls the efficiency 
of the pump. The effect that the shape of the impeller- 
vanes has on the velocity of the water, as it leaves the tip 
of the vanes, may be understood easily by studying 
Fig. 1. 

Let 1" = velocity of the water relative to the vane. 
U— peripheral velocity of the vane-tip. 

Then by vector addition W is the absolute velocity of 

the water as it leaves the impeller. The total head de- 

Wi V- V- , 
veloped by the pump is H~ y + ^ Y' wnere 9 1S 

the acceleration due to gravity. This total head, M, is 

made up of two parts : the velocity-head — , which may 

XT' — T" 
be converted into pressure-head, and — s- — , the pres- 
sure-head developed within the impeller. If the losses 
due to shock and friction be neglected, this formula holds 
for all pumps in which the water enters the impeller 
radially, and consequently applies to nearly all cen- 
trifugal pumps. 

In Fig. 1 it is evident that with constant speed of rota- 
tion. U is constant, but W is the resultant of U and V. 
The velocity, V, of the water relative to the vane in- 
creases with the amount of water delivered. In case the 
impeller-tip is at right angles to the tangent at the cir- 
cumference, that is, is radial, any increase in V must en- 
tail an increase in — , but — , is diminished. If the 

vane-tip is inclined forward, the increase in W is very 
rapid. If we substitute for W 2 its value in terms of V 
tand V, V- -f- U 2 + 2FZ7 cos 9, where © is the angle be- 
tween the tangent and the direction of the tip of the vane, 

m. • , „, „ v uv cos e 
the expression for H becomes H = — - + . 

As cos is positive for all values of © less than '90°, it 
is plain that for this type of impeller the greater the 
amount of water delivered, the greater is the head de- 
veloped. When 6 = 90°, cosine is zero. Therefore 

the head is constant for all deliveries and is equal to — . 

For backward-directed vanes is greater than 90° and 

cos is negative ; consequently the head developed de- 

creases as the delivery increases. A graphic, representa- 
tion of these different conditions is shown in Fig. 2, 3, 
and 4. 

A knowledge of these simple relations will go far 
toward ensuring a clear understanding of the apparently 
confusing behavior of different centrifugal pumps, and it 
emphasizes the fact that a centrifugal pump should be 
designed for the particular work it is to do. The effi- 
ciency of a well designed pump may be considerably 

Fig. 3 

Fig. 4 

diminished by using the pump under conditions different 
from those for which it was intended. 

Before a centrifugal pump can be properly adapted to 
its work it is first necessary to know how the capacity 
varies when the pump is operated at constant speed 
against different heads. The curve obtained by plotting 
the capacity or pump-discharge against the head is called 
the pump-characteristic. Fig. 5, 6, and 7 show the char- 
acteristics and efficiencies of the impellers illustrated in 
Fig. 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The efficiencies are taken 
from the same scale as the heads, but the figures are to 
be read as percentages. Brake horse-power curves are 
also given, but these curves are merely to show the 
general behavior of different pumps and not all are 
placed in exact position on the charts. The flatter the 
efficiency-curve at its highest part, the wider is the range 
of capacity without serious loss in efficiency. It is evident 
that the pump of Fig. 5 can maintain a high efficiency for 
a fairly large variation in discharge, but the pumps of 
Fig. 6 and 7 must be operated with nearly the discharge 



July 17, 1920 

for which they are designed in order to secure maximum 
efficiency. For a rising characteristic the delivery in- 
creases with increase of head and, consequently, the 
power required for driving the pump must increase. The 
more drooping the characteristic, the less will he the 
power required for increased delivery. Centrifugal 
pumps should be designed so that power-demand falls off 
sharply after the point of maximum efficiency is reached. 
Such a design makes it impossible to overload the pump- 
motor. A poorly designed pump might have a power- 
curve as shown by the dotted curve in Fig. 5. A break 
in the pipe-line near the pump would reduce the head 
nearly to zero, the discharge would be increased, and the 
increased power required might overload the motor so 
seriously as to burn it out. 

In a centrifugal pump the maximum energy is pos- 
sessed by the water at the instant it leaves the impeller- 
vane. Part of this energy is in the form of pressure-head 

TT- — v* 
and is — ^z — • The remainder is kinetic energy or veloc- 

lty-head and is^r . The ratio between these two quan- 
tities depends upon the shape of the impeller-vane and 
also upon the relation between the velocity, V, of the 
water relative to the impeller, and upon the peripheral 
speed, U, of the impeller. In general, the velocity of the 
water in a radial direction as it leaves the impeller is 
from 10 to 15% of the peripheral velocity. 
The efficiency of the pump as a whole depends upon 


the efficiency with which the impeller-pressure 

generated and the efficiency with which the velocity- 

head ^— , possessed by the water as it leaves the impeller, 

is converted into pressure. Efficiency within the im- 
peller is secured by correct surfaces, curves of large 
radius, and smooth finish. It is desirable to develop as 
much head as possible within the impeller, because the 
greater the velocity-head of the water as it leaves the 
impeller, the more unsuitable is the form of the head- 
characteristic curve. 

"With an impeller of constant diameter the following 
relations hold : 

The discharge of the pump varies as the speed of the 

The head developed varies as the square of the speed. 

The power required varies as the cube of the speed. 

If the speed is the same, impellers of different diam- 
eters have these relations : 

The discharge varies as the diameter of the impeller. 

The head developed varies as the square of the diam- 
eter of the impeller. 

The power required varies as the cube of the diameter 
of the impeller. 

The equation for the total head against which the 
pump must deliver is 

H = h s + h< + /i„ 
where h s = the static head or lift in feet 
h t = the friction-head in feet 

and h v = the velocity-head in feet, or the head re- 
quired to give the water the velocity it has 

in the pipe, and is j- where v = velocity 

in feet per second 
For long pipes the friction-head is usually the largest 
part of the total head. The friction-loss in pipes varies 
approximately as the square of the velocity, so the im- 
portance of keeping the velocity down to a reasonable 
figure is evident. The question of the make-up of the 
total head against which a centrifugal pump must work 
has an important bearing on the performance of the 


1 1 



" — 




40 ^-~ 




20 / 







Fig. 6 















/ l 






■Fig. i 

pump, that is, whether the head is all static, part static 
and part friction, or practically all friction-head. 

The volume delivered by a centrifugal pump increases 
directly as the speed, but the head developed increases 
as the square of the speed. If the head pumped against 
is entirely a friction-head, its value varies as the square 
of the velocity of the water in the pipe. The velocity 
varies with the delivery, hence the head must vary with 
the square of the delivery. Under these conditions prac- 
tically constant efficiency is secured for all deliveries and 
at all speeds. 

Should the head be partly static and partly frictional 
the efficiency would vary with the delivery and the pump 
should be designed to give maximum efficiency at one 
definite head and delivery. If the curve is flat, the effi- 

July 17. 1920 



mousy will not change greatly with moderate variations 
in head and delivery. 

These points may be made clear by explaining the 
method of testing a pump to determine all its character- 
istics and to learn whether it fulfills the guarantee of its 
maker. The details of testing will be considered later, 
but the general factors involved will now be considered. 

The pump is operated at constant speed. First, it is 
primed and started with the discharge-valve wide open, 
and the following data are noted or calculated: 

Discharge in gallons per minute 

Total head developed in feet 

Efficiency of the pump 

Brake horse-power 

Revolutions per minute 

The discharge-valve is closed slightly and a second set 
of readings is taken. Then the valve is closed farther 
and readings are again taken. This method is continued 
until the last set of readings is taken with the valve 
tightly closed. This point is called the 'shut-off', and is 
important in the selection of a motor for driving the 
pump. Table I shows the data derived from a test on an 
eight-inch pump. 

Gallons Revolutions 

per Head, Efficiency. Brake per 

minute feet % horse-power minute 

111.0 0.0 28.0 1420 

400 114.0 30.0 38.0 1420 

800 114.0 52.0 44.5 1420 

1200 110.5 65.5 51.0 1420 

1600 102.0 72.5 56.5 1420 

1800 95.0 73.2 58.5 1420 

2000 86.0 72.5 60.0 1420 

2200 76.5 70.0 61.0 1420 

These results are plotted in Fig. 8. The highest point 
on the head-curve is 114 ft. Therefore, the pump will not 
deliver against a greater head. The maximum that the 
pump will deliver is about 2400 g.p.m., but, as will be 
observed on the chart, the head at this capacity would be 
zero. With the discharge-valve closed, the usual condi- 
tion when starting a centrifugal pump, the shut-off 
horse-power is 28 and the head developed is 111 ft. The 
highest efficiency, 73.2%, is reached at a head of 95 ft. 
At this point the discharge is 1800 g.p.m. and 58.5 hp. is 
required. This is the service for which the pump is de- 
signed. However, the efficiency-curve is rather flat near 
this point, so that changing the head (with a correspond- 
ing change in delivery) through a moderate range would 
reduce the efficiency but little. 

The static head against which the pump works is 80 
ft. as marked by the horizontal line on the chart. The 
friction-head, which varies approximately as the square 
of the velocity of flow, or as the square of delivery in 
gallons per minute, is shown by the curved dotted line. 
The friction-head curve is so placed that any point on it 
gives the total head on the head-scale. Of course these 
two lines are independent of any characteristic of the 
pump. For this reason the point of intersection of the 
head-characteristic and friction-head curves gives the 
limit of capacity of the pump, approximately 1950 g.p.m , 
unless the head is reduced to zero, in which case the dis- 
charge will be 2400 gallons per minute. 

If the pump is to be used for a lower head than that 

for which it was designed, care should be taken that the 
motor is not subjected to an excessive overload. At the 
point of maximum efficiency the required horse-power is 
58.5. The maximum load that could be thrown on the 
motor is 61 hp. at zero-head. There is no danger of a 
serious overload here. But suppose that the pump was to 
discharge 600 g.p.m. The head would then be about 
114 ft. and the brake horse-power about 40. The effi- 
ciency would be too low for real working conditions, but 
this serves as an illustration. Let a 40-hp. motor be 
used to drive the pump. Should the pipe break close to 
the pump and the head be reduced to zero, the discharge 
would increase to 2400 g.p.m. and the power required 
would be 61 hp. This would mean a 53% overload on 









'w Head-Curve 






t S^ 

• — ■ 







* — . 



40 5 


















Gallons per Minute 

Fig. a 

the motor, which, if continued, would probably burn it 
out. The importance of using a pump under the condi- 
tions for which it was designed is apparent. 

The effect of reducing the capacity of a centrifugal 
pump by throttling will now be discussed. In Fig. 8 the 
conditions of maximum efficiency are: discharge, 1800 
g.p.m. ; head, 95 ft. ; brake horse-power, 58.5 ; and effi- 
ciency, 73.2%. If the capacity is reduced by throttling 
to 1200 g. p. m. what will be the result, considering the 
head as all static ? From the data of the test the pump, 
when throttled to 1200 g.p.m., will .develop a head of 
110.5 ft., will use 51 hp., and will have an efficiency of 
65.5%. However, this is not the useful efficiency as will 
now be shown. The useful or actual head remains con- 
stant at 95 ft., consequently throttling has developed an 
artificial head of 110.5-95 = 15.5 ft., as a result of the 
friction of the water passing the throttling-valve. The 

1200 X 95 

power to lift the water is 3960 — =28.8 hp., but the 

pump requires 51 hp. Therefore the useful efficiency is 
28.5 -h 51 = 56.5%. instead of 65.5%. Throttling pro- 
duces an artificial head and its effect on the useful effi- 
ciency of the pump should be understood to avoid mis- 
takes in operation. It is true that throttling also reduces 
the power required, in this example from 58.5 to 51, but 
the useful efficiency is not 65.5% l as it would be if the 
pump were discharging 1200 g.p.m. against a total static 
head of 110.5 ft. with no throttling. 

Suppose the original head of 95 ft. to be made up as 
follows: static head 50 ft. and friction-head 45 ft. The 
new capacity is to be 1200 g.p.m. as before. The fric- 
tion-head varies approximately as the square of the veloc- 



July 17, 1920 

ity, and so may be taken as varying with the square of 
the capacity since the velocity is directly proportional to 
the capacity. The new friction-head developed by throt- 

tling is, therefore, 


X 45 = 20 ft., and the new 

The wasted head is 
1200 x 70 


total head is 50 + 20 = 70 ft. 

110.5 - 70 = 40.5 ft. The water horse-power is 

= 21.2, but 51 hp. is required to operate the pump. The 
useful efficiency is 21.2-4-51 = 41.6%. This makes it 
plain that more efficient results are obtained when the 
head is nearly all static than when it is largely friction- 
head. Throttling may be used where the capacity is to 
be reduced, but the speed of the driving motor cannot be 
changed. A permanent reduction in capacity is more 
efficiently obtained by reducing the speed of the pump, 
provided the new speed is suited to the prime mover. 

Let it be required to reduce the capacity of the pump, 
under the original conditions, from 1800 g.p.m., to 1200 
g.p.m. by changing the speed. The problem is one of 
constructing a new set of curves from the old ones with 
the aid of the relations between speed, power, head, and 
capacity. In Pig. 8 determine the point C" correspond- 
ing to 1200-g.p.m. discharge and 95-ft. head. This is a 
point on the new head-curve. Draw the curve through 
this point parallel to the old head-curve. To determine 
the new speed the cut-and-try method must be used until 
a point is found that falls on the new curve. Assume 
1338 r.p.m. as the speed. The corresponding new capac- 
ity and head are found as follows: New capacity is pro- 

13 3 8 
portional to the speed, so 1800 14 „ = 1695 g.p.m., the 

new capacity. New head is proportional to the square of 

133 8 2 
the speed, so 95 jtjmS" = ^4-3 ft., the new head. This 

point, A', falls approximately on the new head-curve, 
consequently 1338 r.p.m. should give the desired dis- 
charge, 1200 g.p.m. A number of such calculations are 
usually necessary before a point is found that will fall 
on the curve. 

A new efficiency-curve may be drawn to be used in 
connection with the new head-curve. Thus, points on the 
original head-curve are selected and transformed into 
points on the new one by using the two speeds as in the 
problem just solved. The efficiencies corresponding to 
the points on the original curve are transposed to a new 
efficiency-curve by placing these respective values under 
the corresponding points on the new head-curve and then 
connecting them. In Fig. 8, A on the old head-curve 
becomes A' on the new. B is the efficiency under A, so 
this value is placed under A' and is a point on the new 
efficiency-curve. As an alternative method, the point 
C, through which the new head-curve was started, can 
be transformed into a point on the original head-curve. 
As C" corresponds to 1200-g.p.m. discharge and 95-ft. 

head, the new capacity would be 1200 ~^ = 1273 

g.p.m., and the new head would be 95 i||^ = 107.0+ 
ft. This gives the point C", which should fall on the 
original head-curve. The efficiency, D, for this point is 

also the efficiency under C" on the new curve. The value 
is approximately 68%. 

The brake horse-power for the point C" is „,. .„ 
= 42.4 hp. By making similar calculations for other 
points a new horse-power curve can be constructed. Since 
the brake horse-power for the throttled discharge of 1200 
g.p.m. was 51, and the corresponding efficiency was 
56.5%, there is a gain, both in power used and in effi- 
ciency, by reducing the speed instead of throttling the 
discharge, provided this lower speed can be efficiently 
supplied by the prime mover operating the pump. 

Testing Centrifugal Pumps. All large manufac- 
turers of centrifugal pumps have their own testing labor- 
atories, and each pump must be tested to determine its 
characteristics and to learn whether it answers speci- 
fications. Centrifugal pumps should be purchased under 
a guarantee, the substance of which is often as follows: 
' ' The efficiency of the pump under specified conditions of 
head, capacity, and speed shall be clearly and definitely 
guaranteed. The pump-builder shall conduct a test to 
determine head-capacity, efficiency, and brake horse- 
power characteristic curves, and a certified copy of this 
test is to be furnished to purchaser". 

The three points to be noted during a test are, total 
head against which pump works, discharge in gallons per 
minute, and power-input. The power-input is determined 
by using a driving-motor which has been carefully cali- 
brated, and whose efficiency is accurately known under 
all conditions of operation. The total head is determined 
by gauges placed in both suction and discharge-pipes. 
The discharge is measured by a weir, a calibrated nozzle, 
a Pitot tube, or by a Venturi meter. 

Measurement of Head. A vacuum-gauge, or mercury 
manometer, is placed in the suction-pipe about two 
inches from the pump-flange. A pressure-gauge, or 
mercury manometer, is placed at a similar point in the 
discharge-pipe. The mercury manometer is sometimes 
used up to pressures of 70 lb. per square inch, though a 
pressure-gauge is more common. The suction-gauge is 
usually a mercury manometer. Pressure in pounds on 
the gauge is reduced to head in feet by multiplying by 
2.31. Inches of mercury is converted into head in feet 
by multiplying by 1.132. When used thus, the pressure- 
gauge shows the static, friction, and velocity-heads in the 
discharge-pipe and the suction-gauge gives the static lift, 
friction-head, and head-loss due to entrance velocity in 
the suction-pipe. The suction and pressure-heads should 
be reduced to the axis of the pump-shaft as a basis for 
computation. In Fig. 9, D is the distance between the 
gauges, and should be added to the sum of the heads 
just found. Thus, if the pressure-gauge indicates 40 lb. 
per sq. in., the suction-gauge reads 20 in., and D is two 
feet, the total head will be 40 X 2.31 + 20 Xl-132 + 2 j 
=117.04 ft. In case the suction and discharge-pipes are 
not of the same diameter, a correction must be made for 
the difference in velocity in the two pipes. If the dis- 
charge-pipe is smaller, the velocity in it is greater than 
in the suction-pipe and the pump should be credited with 

July IT. 1920 



the difference. If the discharge-pipe is larger than the 
■action, the pump should be debited with the difference 

calculated in terms of velocity-head. Thus if the veloe- 
tty-head in the discharge-pipe is 2.5 ft. and in the suc- 
tion-pipe 1.5 ft. per second, the difference should be 
added to the head jus determined above; consequently the 
total head would be 117.04 -f 1 = 118.04 ft. The veloc- 
ity-head is V'-~2g, where V is the velocity in feet per 
second. In a centrifugal pump the water must have high 
velocity through the easing to obtain high efficiency so 
that the size of the opening of a properly designed pump 
is not always the best size for the discharge-pipe. The 
friction-head developed by the flow of water through the 
pipe, bends, and valves is the governing factor in select- 
ing the proper size of pipe. To prevent excessive fric- 
tion-loss the velocity in the pipe is often limited to from 
€ to 8 ft. per second. 

Measurement of Discharge. The rectangular weir is 
used for large flows of water, but the V-notch weir is 

i — r-0 S9u f e 

Fig. 10 

Fig. II 

more suitable for small quantities. For a rectangular 
weir with end-contractions, the formula of Hamilton 
Smith Jr. is as satisfactory as any. 

<? = C2/3V2g Iff/' 
where Q = cubic feet per second 

L = length of weir in feet 

H = head in feet 

C = constant (see table below) 

Table Showing Values of C 


ieet 0.66 

0.1 0.633 

0.2 0.611 

0.3 0.601 

0.4 0.505 

0.5 0.590 

0.6 0.587 

0.7 0.585 







Length of weir in feet 







For a V-notch weir, angle 90°, the formula 
Q = 2.544 E i/2 
where Q = cubic feet per second 




// = head in [eel 

Where the rectangular weir is used the edge should be 
of thin iron plate, sharply beveled. The depth of the 
water, a in Pig. 11. should not be less than one-third the 
length of the weir. The height of the water mi the crest. 
//. should be carefully measured by a hook gauge at a 
point several feet up-stream, where the water is quiet and 
its surface level. Free access of air should be allowed 
under the stream as it falls from the weir. 

In the displacement method, the water is pumped into 
a tank or reservoir where the volume can be accurately 
measured. This is an accurate method if the rise of the 
water during the test is sufficient to obviate small errors 
in measurement. 

The nozzle and Pitot-tube method of measurement is 
reliable if a correctly shaped nozzle is used. The nozzle 
should be placed at the end of a straight section of pipe 
to obtain a smooth jet. The velocity-head may be meas- 
ured by a column of water or of mercury. If the head, I, 
indicated by the tube is in feet of water, the velocity of 
the water leaving the nozzle in feet per second is ob- 
tained from the equation V = V 2(/ /. If the diameter 
of the nozzle is d inches the theoretical flow through the 
nozzle in gallons per minute is 19.63 dr yi. The actual 
flow through a well designed nozzle is from 98 to 99% of 
the theoretical flow. Fig. 10 shows the arrangement of 
nozzle and Pitot tube. The head produced must be 
measured from the level of the outlet of the nozzle. 

Centrifugal pumps may be divided into two classes, 
low-lift and high-lift pumps. Low-lift pumps are gener- 
ally of the volute type, and are designed to work against 
heads up to 150 ft. The pump-casing is in the form of a 
spiral or volute curve and serves to guide the water from 
the impeller into the discharge-pipe in such manner that 
the velocity-head is gradually converted into pressure- 
head. High-lift pumps are commonly known as turbine 
pumps. The impeller is surrounded by a circular diffuser 
with vanes so arranged as to offer gradually enlarging 
passages to the water. In this way the velocity of the 
water as it leaves the impeller is converted into pressure. 
These pumps are used for high heads. Single impellers 
can be made to work against a head of 350 ft., or even 
greater, but it is not usual to find pumps with single 
impellers working against more than 150 ft. High heads 
are obtained in multistage pumps or those which have 
more than one impeller. Each impeller draws its suction 
from the preceding one, and adds its increment of pres- 
sure so that the final pressure is attained only in the last 
stage. Pumps of the multistage type are made for heads 
as high as 250 ft. per stage, but modern mine practice 
indicates a tendency to keep the head per stage between 
100 and 150 feet. 

Theoretically there is no limit to the number of stages 
that may operate in one casing, but there is a practical 
limit that is imposed by the size of pump-shaft required. 
This depends upon the distance between bearings and 
the size of the casing. The number of stages in one cas- 
ing is usually not more than four; sometimes six are 
used. For high heads the pump is really a combination 



July 17, 1920 

of two separate multistage units working in series. Thus, 
an eight-stage pump is made up of two four-stage pumps. 

Separate centrifugal pumps, having the same capacity, 
may be connected in series to pump water against a head 
equivalent to the sum of the heads for which the pumps 
were designed. However, there is danger of splitting the 
casing of the second pump unless it is strong enough to 
withstand the additional pressure to which it is subjected. 

Motors for Centrifugal Pumps. The present prac- 
tice of manufacturers is to rate motors nearly at their 
maximum capacity. This means that motors Cannot be 
operated at an appreciable overload without danger of 
overheating. Where centrifugal pumps are to be motor- 
driven it is imperative that the approximate power re- 
quired by the pump be known beforehand and that the 
possibility of any marked change in operating conditions 
should be foreseen so that the motor selected will not be 
subjected to dangerous overloading. Conservative aver- 
age efficiencies of centrifugal pumps are given in the ac- 
companying table. These figures can be used for esti- 
mating the power requirements of pumps of good design. 

Normal ratine:. Efficiency, single Efficiency. multi- 
Size of gallons per stage ; head up stage pumps: head 
pump, inches minute to 150 ft., % above 150 ft., % 

2 100- 150 50 45 

3 200- 350 55 50 

4 400- 600 80 56 

5 650- 900 65 62 

6 950-1300 70 68 

8 1500-1800 72 70 

10 2000-3000 75 72 

12 3500-4500 76 73 

14 5000-6000 77 74 

16 78 75 

The horse-power required is found by dividing the 
water horse-power by the efficiency of the pump. How- 
ever, the motor selected should be one having from 10 to 
12% higher rating than that calculated in order to take 
care of wear in the pump, which reduces the efficiency, 
and to meet the contingency of any small unlooked-for 
increase in the power needed. 

In general, centrifugal pumps are easily started. The 
starting-power required is less than full operating-power, 
and this has an important bearing on the type of motor 
that can be used since the motor need not have a high 
starting-torque. Centrifugal pumps are nearly always 
started with the discharge-valve closed. Starting condi- 
tions are, therefore, the 'shut-off' conditions as described 
above. The power required at 'shut-off' is found from 
the pump curves. In Fig. 5, 6, and 7 the starting-power 
is given in percentages of power required under normal 
operating conditions. The percentages are 47, 36, and 
24 respectively. Should a motor be of such design that 
its starting-torque was just sufficient to start the pump 
of Fig. 7, 'shut-off' power being 24% of full operating- 
power, the motor would be unable to start the pump of 
Fig. 6 which requires 36% of full power for starting. 
In some pumps the 'shut-off' may be as much as 70% of 
the full operating horse-power. If a pump is started 
with the discharge-valve open the motor has to come up 
to full power at the same time that it comes up to full 
speed, which means that the motor must be thrown onto 
the line at full rating instead of at only a fraction. Some 
squirrel-cage motors, used under such a condition, have 

had their coils loosened by the heavy surges of current 
caused in this way. The motors that are suitable for 
driving centrifugal pumps are the squirrel-cage induc- 
tion motor, the slip-ring induction motor, the synchro- 
nous motor and, in some cases, the direct-current motor. 

The squirrel-cage motor is most commonly used for 
driving centrifugal pumps. Because of its simplicity, 
this type is used for nearly all small and medium-sized 
pumps. It is inherently a motor of low starting-torque 
and relatively large starting-current. The average 
squirrel-cage motor, if thrown directly on the line, takes 
from four to eight times normal current. Only in the 
case of small machines, 5 lip. and under, can the motor 
be thrown directly onto the line, as the rush of current 
resulting would cause too great fluctuations in voltage, 
excessive demand of current of low power-factor on the 
generating-station, and dangerous shocks to both pump 
and motor. There is a definite limit to the starting-torque 
that this motor can develop. The starting-torque varies 
from 100 to 150% of full-load torque for full voltage, 
and inversely as the square of the normal applied voltage. 
For motors of large size some form of starting-com- 
pensator is always used to reduce the starting-voltage. 
If this voltage is greatly reduced the starting-torque may 
be low. A reduction of only one-half in current would 
make the starting-torque one-quarter that of full-load 
torque. Motors of 150 hp., or even less, are generally of 
the slip-ring induction type. Such motors have the abil- 
ity to start smoothly against a large load and draw rela- 
tively small current from the line, thus minimizing fluc- 
tuations and the danger of shocks to motor and pump. 

Synchronous motors, especially of the self-starting 
type, are quite suitable for centrifugal-pump drives in 
cases where large-sized pumps are to be operated con- 
tinuously over long periods. The self-starting synchro- 
nous motor has auxiliary windings imbedded in its field- 
poles. Bars are placed in the pole-faces and are con- 
nected by rings, so that for starting conditions resemble 
those of the squirrel-cage motor. When it has attained 
full running speed as an induction motor it must be 
pulled into step or synchronous speed, after which it 
operates as a synchronous motor. A motor of this type 
can have a higher starting-torque than a squirrel-cage 
induction motor because a high starting-torque for a 
squirrel-cage motor means comparatively poor efficiency 
at full speed. The synchronous motor drops the induc- 
tion-motor characteristics as soon as it is at synchronous 
speed. Once up to this speed, the motor will run at con- 
stant speed independent of the voltage of the supply as 
long as it is within the limits of the pull-out torque. 
Most synchronous motors will carry an overload of 200 
to 300%, and, consequently, will continue to operate a 
centrifugal pump at full speed although the supply- 
voltage should drop to a point where there would be con- 
siderable drop in speed if an induction-motor were being 
used. A great advantage of the synchronous motor is 
that it can be adjusted to give a power-factor that will 
have a correcting effect on a bad power-factor in the 
supply-line. For this reason it is well adapted to heavy 

July IT, 1920 



duty where fluct nations of load would ordinarily pro-_ 
duce a low power-factor in an induction motor. How- 
ever, the synchronous motor is more costly than the in- 
duction type and is not to be recommended except in 
large sizes, say of 150 hp. or more. 

The induction and synchronous motors are essentially 
constant-speed motors, and the speeds are limited by the 
cycles used and the number of poles on the machines. If 
only direct current is available, or if speed-adjustment, 
is necessary, as in the case of a centrifugal pump that 
must operate against different heads, the direct-current 
motor is useful. The motors are either of the shunt or 
compound-wound type, depending upon the condition of 
voltage in the supply-line. There is less variation in 
speed due to irregular voltage in a compound motor than 
in a shunt-wound motor. A direct-current motor will 
run at a lower speed when cold than when hot, because 
of the lesser resistance in the field- windings when they 
are cold. From two to six hours is usually required for 
the shunt-fields to attain normal operating temperature, 
depending upon the size and characteristics of the motor. 
During the time of heating the motor will operate below 
normal speed and the capacity of the pump will be re- 
duced. In one case a pump did not deliver any water 
until the motor was up to full speed. The special field 
for direct-current motors for driving centrifugal pumps 
is city water-works, where water at constant head must 
be pumped in varying amounts. High pressure can be 
obtained for fire purposes. Direct-current motors have 
a high starting-torque and a more efficient method of 
speed-variation than either induction or synchronous 

I 'Baking' Gold Ore 

An interesting and successful method of treating the 
ore from the Connemara mine in Rhodesia is outlined in 
a communication to the Chemical, Metallurgical and 
Mining Society of South Africa by B. L. Gardiner. Mr. 
Gardiner sets forth the essential principles involved in a 
process which, for the sake of a better name, has been 
termed the 'baking process', and which consists merely 

fin subjecting the ore to the action of heat preparatory to 
treatment by cyanide. It differs from the ordinary 
roasting process, in that the degree of temperature to 
which the ore is raised is much lower than that necessary 
for the roasting, and, further, that the presence of air 
or oxygen is in no way essential to its success, the appli- 

*I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the DeLaval 
Steam Turbine Co. and to the Goulds Manufacturing Co. 
both in regard to their catalogues and to private communi- 
cations. The following articles have also been used as 
sources of information: 

'Horse-Power Requirements of Centrifugal Pumps.' T. M. 
Heermans, 'Power', May 20, 1919. 

'Induction Motors for Driving Centrifugal Pumps.' Fraser 
Jeffrey, 'Power', August 26, 1919. 

'Direct-Current Motors for Driving Centrifugal Pumps'. 
Nathan Wilkinson, 'Power', December 16, 1919. 

'Synchronous Motors for Driving Centrifugal Pumps.' S. 
H. Mortensen, 'Power', January 20, 1920. 

cation of a certain amount of heat being all that is 
necessary. The net result of the introduction of the 
baking system at the Connemara mine has been to in- 
crease the extraction from 68 to 86%, with little or no 
increase in the working costs. The ore belongs to the 
class known in Rhodesia as banded ironstone, and at 
present only the upper oxidized portions of the lodes are 
being worked, and it is only to this oxidized ore that the 
scheme applies. Besides the silica and iron oxides which 
make up the bulk of the ore, qualitative analysis shows 
the presence of combined water, magnesia, and sulphates. 
The original plant consisted of twenty 1250-lb. gravity 
stamps and one 5-ft. Chilean mill as crushing units, fol- 
lowed by sand-leaching and slime-decantation plants, the 
gold being recovered by amalgamation on copper plates 
and by precipitation on zinc shavings from the cyanide 
solutions. The best results were obtained by using 200- 
mesh screens on the mill. The average results over a 
period of 12 months were : 4000 to 4600 tons per month 
treated, 67.9% extraction. Re-treatment of the residues 
failed to recover further gold, and laboratory tests merely 
tended to show that the plant was doing all that could 
be expected of it. Without the addition of lime there 
is an excessive consumption of cyanide, and this has been 
attributed to the action of ferric sulphate or basic iron 
sulphates. The consumption of lime is high, being from 
6 to 8 lb. per ton of CaO. 

The tubular drier was then designed and constructed. 
So far only the fine, eliminated after the rock-breaker, 
has been subjected to baking, the balance of the ore going 
through the ordinary process of milling ore, amalgamat- 
ing and cyaniding. The separation of the fine and coarse 
is done on a shaking screen provided with l|-in. aper- 
tures. It is estimated that the fine ore passes through 
the drier in 30 minutes. The time of treatment in the 
cyanide vats averages ten days, and the total weight of 
solution is at least 1 J times that of the ore treated. The 
consumption of lime on the baked ore amounts to 10 to 
12 lb. per ton in terms of CaO. The fine ore in mass has 
the appearance of rather coarse gravel, some of the lumps 
being as large as walnuts, then grading downward. A 
liberal estimate of the average cost is about ls.lOd. per 
ton for the actual roasting, and including transport to and 
from the drier to about 2s.2d. per ton. The ore contains 
considerable proportions of hydrated oxides of iron, and 
when it is heated appreciable quantities of water are 
given off. This water, it must be understood, is not pres- 
ent as moisture, since it will not be driven off in a water 
bath at 100°C, but requires a somewhat higher tempera- 
ture, and it is evident that it exists in the ore as water 
of combination. Mr. Gardiner concludes by saying : "As 
a process likely to be applicable to the generality of gold 
ores, baking is not likely to hold a very important place, 
as its success depends upon an unusual peculiarity. At 
the same time there may be other ores of a similar nature, 
and with such as these the baking process may find a 
beneficial application." 

Two dredges shipped from Alaska by the Yukon Gold 
Co. have reached Siam to be used in mining tin. 



July 17, 1920 

Lead- Smelting Practice at Port Pirie, South Australia 


*In the present paper I wish to offer some account of 
the advances in metallurgical practice which have been 
made at the plant of the Broken Hill Associated Smelters 
Proprietary, Ltd., at Port Pirie, South Australia, during 
the past four years. I do not propose to enter into a de- 
tailed description of the plant itself for two reasons. In 
the first place there is still a good deal of reconstruction 
in progress and to be accomplished, so that auy detailed 
description would be out of date in a year or two, and in 
the second place, in general it follows the usual lines of 
plants carrying out the roast-sintering and blast-furnace 
treatment of galena concentrate, with subsequent, refining 
of the bullion. Specific references to equipment will 
therefore only be made in so far as they are necessary to 
make clear the operating methods. 

Early in 1916, it had become evident that considerable 
improvement both in plant and in practice had become 
highly desirable, and that serious experimental work on 
a large scale was necessary in order to provide data on 
which such improvements could be most economically 
carried out. The roasting operation was neither as thor- 
ough nor as efficient as could be wished, and this of course 
reflected seriously on the blast-furnace operations, which 
were giving a good deal of trouble. The increasing pro- 
portion of the very finely divided flotation concentrate 
(or slime concentrate as it is commonly called) was in 
part responsible for this, as at that time its treatment was 
not properly understood ; but the roasting practice, as a 
whole, needed a thorough revision, as until that was set 
in order good results could hardly be expected. It was on 
this department, therefore, that our attention was first 

The lead-sulphide concentrates of Broken Hill are 
divided into two classes, namely, granular concentrate 
(from jigs and tables) and slime concentrate (from the 
flotation-plants). The general average composition of 
these two classes is as follows : 

Granular Slime 

concentrate concentrate 
% % 

Lead :.. 63.0 57.0 

Zinc 7.0 11.0 

Iron 1 

I 4.7 4.3 


Sulphur 14.5 1S.0 

Lime 1.5 1.5 

Alumina 1.5 1.0 

Silica . . . '. 5.0 3.5 

A large proportion of the slime concentrate will pass- 
through a 200-mesh screen. 

These concentrates were formerly roasted in two differ- 
ent ways. 

*A paper discussed at a meeting of the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy on May 20, 1920. 

According to the first method, a mixture of the two 
grades, with a proportion of oxidized lead ore, mainly 
silicate, and also limestone and ironstone, was partly 
roasted in Ropp reverberatory roasters, after which the 
partly roasted ore was transferred to Huntington-Heber- 
lein pots and the sulphur brought down as low as pos- 
sible there. 

According to the second method, the mixture was pass- 
ed over a Dwight-Lloyd machine, operating as a pre- 
roaster, and the partly roasted sinter was crushed and 
passed over a second Dwight-Lloyd machine, where the 
elimination of the sulphur was carried as far as possible, 
this latter machine being the counterpart of the Hunting- 
ton-Heberlein pot in the first method. 

The first process gave the best results, the product from 
the second being uniformly poor; 5% sulphur in the final 
sinter was quite common, and the sinter lacked strength. 
Its behavior in the blast-furnaces was unsatisfactory. 
The Ropp roasters on the other hand took up a great deal 
of room and the combination of these reverberatories and 
Huntington-Heberlein pots did not seem to offer the same 
scope for economy as the double treatment with the 
Dwight-Lloyd machines. 

Finally, while the product worked better in the blast- 
furnaces than the Dwight-Lloyd product it was not as 
good as we wanted. The final results of the investigation 
into the double Dwight-Lloyd method showed that at the 
outset we have been laboring under three serious miscon- 
ceptions. These were : 

(1) That the sulphur that is combined with the zinc is 
more difficult to roast-off than that combined with the 

(2) That the presence of coarse pieces of flux or pre- 
roast sinter are necessary in the charge in order to 'open 
up the bed'. 

(3) That the slime is intrinsically more difficult to 
roast than the granular concentrate. 

The first of these hypotheses received a rude shock 
when our attempts to blast-roast pre-roasted zinc concen- 
trate carrying 48% zinc, came to successful fruition in 
1917. Some data concerning recent developments of this 
method are given subsequently in this paper. At that time, 
however, our results showed that zinc concentrate of the 
above zinc content, that had been pre-roasted to 9%, sul- 
phur, could be rapidly roasted on a Dwight-Lloyd ma- 
chine to 1% sulphur. Under these circumstances the re- 
luctance of a charge carrying only 3% sulphur combined 
with zinc to roast to below 5% sulphur clearly needed 
some other explanation, and the zinc excuse was dropped, 
although I think I am safe in saying that the majority of 
lead metallurgists at that time would have concurred in 
it. As a matter of fact, if zinc does cause trouble it is 
due to the rapid evolution of heat which its roasting occa- 

July 17. 1920 



sinus, this causing a tendency to fuse the galena. I do 
not believe, however, thai this is sufficient to cause ap- 
preciable trouble. 

Our second fallacy, namely, t lint the presence of coarse 
(4 to f-in. ) pieces of ironstone or limestone or sintered 
Barge are necessary to render the charge on the machine 
• arvious to the blast, met a similar fate. This also may be 
reckoned as a common belief, or was at that time, but as a 
matter of fact it is not true. The shrinkage of the finer 
part, of the charge around these coarse pieces certainly 
does open fissures in the neighborhood, and allows the 
blast to pass, hut these openings are localized and render 
tile distribution of the blast through the charge uneven. 

that the air passes readily between them, and by diffusion 

reaches the inside of the aggregate and roasts it through. 
It is quite evident that pieces of free lime in the sinter 
have done no work during the roasting, and in conse- 
quence arc wasted, besides taking up room on the ma- 
chine to no purpose. Further, the crushing of the stone 
was an expense, and we lacked crushing capacity, and at 
the same time we had at our disposal a range of sand-hills 
composed of limestone sand (through 40 mesh), which 
was cheaper to obtain than quarrying solid limestone and, 
of course, needed no crushing. Our experiments were 
therefore directed to the substitution of limestone sand 
for crushed limestone in the roaster-charge, and the re- 


In the case of the limestone, the coarser pieces are to be 
iund embedded in the sinter, altered only on the sur- 
'ace, the bulk of the piece being simply burnt to lime. 
These pieces slake on exposure to the air, and cause 
jrumbling of the sinter in consequence, which is really 
mdoing the work done during sintering to a considerable 

As a matter of fact the notion that the air-blast finds 
ts way downward between the particles of a finely di- 
vided (through 40 mesh) charge is wrong. It is quite 
mpossible to roast such a charge dry, because the spaces 
>etween adjacent grains of ore are so small that too much 
esistance is offered to the air passing through. The 
'olume of air drawn through is in consequence too small 
o carry on the roasting operation. By damping the 
barge the particles cohere into larger or smaller aggre- 
gates, and by proper mixing and handling these aggre- 
;ates can be obtained of such a shape and size of grain, 

suits corresponded with what would be expected if the 
foregoing conclusions were true. The charges worked 
more evenly, and the final sinter stood up much better 
when exposed to the weather. 

The reduction in size of the ironstone to correspond 
with the limestone sand was not possible. In the first 
place we had not the crushing equipment necessary to re- 
duce all the ironstone to pass 40 mesh, and in the second 
place we were dealing with a hard ironstone, the crushing 
of which would probably have been more costly than the 
advantage to be derived warranted. With no limestone to 
be crushed, however, we were able to crush all the iron- 
stone through four mesh, which gave us distinctly better 
results, and later a further improvement, which enabled 
us to eliminate ironstone altogether from the charge, 
finally disposed of this problem. In the meantime the 
following experiment indicated clearly that our coarse 
ironstone was only a passenger. 



July 17, 1920 

Crushed through 4 mesh, the ironstone yielded a prod- 
uct of which 70% would pass through 8 mesh. A charge 
made up in the ordinary way was screened on an 8-mesh 
screen before going to the Dwight-Lloyd machine, thus 
eliminating all ironstone coarser than 8 mesh, and pro- 
portionately reducing the percentage of ironstone in the 
charge, as all the other constituents were fine enough to 
pass readily through the 8-mesh screen. 

This screened charge roasted just as well as the charge 
containing the whole of the ironstone. On the other hand 
it was impossible to get good results when the percentage 
of limestone in the charge screened through 4 mesh was 
brought down to the same point. The coarse ironstone 
was obviously therefore not paying for itself. 

Just how much of the work done by these added agents 
is physical and how much is chemical it is hard to say. 
They act as cooling agents, preventing premature fusion 
which would lock up sulphides in the fused charge, be- 
cause they dilute the sulphides which furnish the fuel, 
and similarly absorb some of the heat produced. They 
also appear to have some catalytic action which facilitates 
the oxidation of the sulphides. "We are preparing to make 
a; close study of the actual sequence of operations in the 
laboratory and try to ascertain as nearly as possible the 
exact part which each of the constituents plays. 

Much the same line of argument holds good as regards 
the size of the material which has passed through the in- 
termediate crushing between the first and second roasting 
on the Dwight-Lloyd machines. The foreman in charge 
of the machines used to hold that the better the ore was 
roasted (that is, the lower the sulphur content was re- 
duced) on the pre-roasting machines, the higher the sul- 
phur content of the final sinter. This sounded absurd, 
but it had nevertheless a substantial substratum of truth. 
The better the pre-roast the harder and more sintered the 
material, and hence the greater the proportion of coarse 
material after passing through the rolls, that is, material 
up to f-in. size. This coarse stuff upset the roasting on 
the final machines, and gave rise to the belief referred to 
above. By keeping the size of the pre-roasted material 
smaller than \ in. this difficulty may be avoided. 

As regards the prejudice against slime concentrate, this 
depended partly on the poor results which had been ob- 
tained in the past, and partly on a priori considerations 
based on its exceedingly fine state of division. As a 
matter of fact, as this slime concentrate is always obtained 
wet, and is subsequently dried, it is usually in the form of 
lumps and cakes, which, if they can be brought down to a 
size which will enable them to roast, without disintegrat- 
ing too much, so as to bring them back to fine powder, 
behave perfectly well on the machines. 

As mentioned before, it is necessary to damp the 
charge, and this naturally weakens the pieces of caked 
slime, and helps them to disintegrate into their original 
fine state. If now the charge is vigorously stirred the dis- 
integrated material works between the granules of the 
charge and fills up the spaces. On the other hand, if the 
lumps of slime are too coarse, the air cannot reach the 

Originally the charges were mixed and conveyed to the 

machines by interrupted-flight screw-conveyors, which 
were driven fast, and had a strong disintegrating action. 
These were taken out and belt-conveyors installed instead. 
In the meantime a set of bins had been erected for the 
different constituents of the charge, the bins delivering 
by belts to a main conveyor-belt, the different materials 
being therefore distributed in thin superposed layers on 
this belt. Provision was also made for breaking up the 
coarse lumps of slime. The conveyor-belt delivered into 
an elevator, and this in turn to belt-conveyors that dis- 
tributed the charge to the feed-hoppers over the ma- 
chines. These hoppers delivered to short conveyor-belts 
which fed the machines as described above. The damp- 
ing of the charge takes place during transit from bins to 

This system of mixing proved quite successful. The 
constituents of the charge were sufficiently blended and 
the slime granules remained so far undisintegrated that 
the charge remained evenly open. A gratifying feature 
of this improved distribution of the charge on the ma- 
chine was the evenness of the roasting mass. Blow-holes 
and other irregularities became more and more rare, and 
with this came a substantial diminution in the amount of 
metal lost by volatilization. In the roaster-charge there 
is always more or less of a roast reaction going on with 
production of metallic lead and a lead-sulphate fume. The 
more even conditions can be kept on the machine the more 
easy it is to control this, and consequently loss by volatil- 
ization has sunk to less than 1% of the lead on the pre- 
roasting machines. 

The next step was the elimination of the Kopp roasters, 
Dwight-Lloyd machines being used to pre-roast for the 
Huntington-Heberlein pots. The same precautions were 
used in both cases, and the work correspondingly im- 
proved. At this stage, then, the roasting of the concen- 
trate had become considerably simplified, the practice 
being : 

(1) All concentrate pre-roasted on Dwight-Lloyd ma- 

(2) All pre-roasted material crushed and the roasting 
finished either on another set of Dwight-Lloyd machines 
or in Huntington-Heberlein pots. 

The following figures will serve to illustrate the prac- 
tice which we had reached at this stage : 
■ Average composition of charge to pre-roasters : 


Granular concentrate 49.0 

Slime concentrate IS. 5 

Silicious ore 12.0 

Limestone 6.0 

Ironstone 14.5 

This charge after complete roasting gave a sinter, of 
which the following is an average analysis : 


Lead 44 to 45 

Zinc 5 " 6 

Silica 9 " 10 

Ferrous oxide 16 " 18 

Manganese oxide 3 " 4 

Lime 4 " 5 

Sulphur 2 " 3 

July 17. 1920 



In many respeota this sinter was satisfactory. Consid- 
ering its high metallic content its sulphur was low. and it 
gave good results on the lilast-furnaees. with DO additions 
except a little limestone, particularly thai which was 
finished on the Htintington-IIeberlein pots. That which 
was finished on the Dwight-Lloyd machines was still 
rather weak structurally. The output per machine was 
good, the pre-roasting machines, which measured 21 ft. 
by 3 ft. 6 in. over the wind-box, dealing with 130 tons of 
concentrate per 24 hours. 

There were, however, certain unsatisfactory features. 
In the first place the ironstone added passed into the 
blast-furnaee slag and became a total loss. So also did 
the lime and the zinc, the percentage of the latter metal 
in the slag being too low to render its recovery econom- 
ical. Further, attempts to raise the lead content of the 

work which has been done with a view to elucidate its con- 
stitution will be described biter in this paper. 

From the point of view of roasting, however, here was 
B material earning silica, lime, and iron-oxide, all of 
Which we were adding to our roaster-charges. From the 
results obtained when trying out the different sizes of 
material it looked as though these substances became 
active when actually in a state of semi-fusion with the 
sulphides in the charge. "Why, therefore, should not the 
slag act as substitute? True, the zinc content of the 
charge would rise owing to zinc brought into it in the 
slag, and this might possibly upset the blast-furnace run- 
ning. On the other hand, we had become by this time 
pretty thoroughly convinced that zinc is only detrimental 
when sulphur is present in serious amount, and we looked 
to the slag to give us as good a roast in respect to sulphur- 


sinter were not successful, because it was not found possi- 
ble to reduce sufficiently the percentage of sulphur in the 
finished sinter if the lead were seriously increased. By 
comparing the lead content of the sinter with that of the 
concentrate given above, it will be seen that the dilution 
is substantial. We were therefore on the lookout for some 
way of getting over these drawbacks, and the application 
of blast-furnace slag as an addition-agent in place of iron- 
stone appeared to be worth trying. 

The slag yielded by the blast-furnaces working on this 
class of sinter is rather a curious product so far as com- 
position goes, as the following analysis indicates : 


Silica 21.0 

Ferrous oxide 33.5 

Manganese oxide 4.5 

Lime 14.0 

Zinc oxide 13.5 

Lead 2.0 

Silver 0.75 oz. 

This highly basic mixture resisted all attempts to fit it 
into a formula which would satisfy any of the silicates 
usually postulated for lead blast-furnace slags, and the 

elimination as the ironstone charge. In any case, if it did 
not — that finished the matter. Lastly, we looked to the 
slag to increase the strength of the Dwight-Lloyd sinter 
owing to its fusibility. 

Trials with crushed slag were a failure. The stuff was 
hard to crush and gave us coarse pieces at one end of the 
scale and powder at the other, neither of which was de- 
sirable. Granulating the slag by pouring it into a stream 
of water yielded a mass of granules, these granules being 
much fissured and porous, and ranging from about 4, in. 
diam. down to ^V i n -> the majority of the stuff being 
around -J in. With this material we soon began to get 
results. Encouraging results were obtained on the small 
scale, and finally the following charge was sent to the 
roasting-machines. The old charge is shown beside it for 
comparison: glag QId 

charge, % charge, % 

Granulated concentrate 40.0 49.0 

Slime concentrate 25.5 18.5 

Silicious ore 10.0 12.0 

Limestone sand 8.0 6.0 

Ironstone 4.5 14.5 

Granulated slag 10.0 



July 17, 1920 

This charge yielded a roasted sinter of the following 

composition (the old sinter is shown again for com- 
parison) : 

Granulated Old 

slag sinter, % sinter, % 

Lead 44.5 44.5 

Zinc 7.5 5.5 

Silica 11.5 9.5 

Ferrous oxide 12.0 16.5 

Manganese oxide 3.5 3.5 

Lime 5.5 4.5 

Sulphur 2.5 2.5 

The sulphur content in both eases is good. The zinc 
has increased as was to be expected and the ferrous oxide 
has decreased. The blast-furnace behaved well on this 
sinter and we felt encouraged to go further. We ac- 
cordingly changed to the following charge: 


Granulated concentrate 47.0 

Slime concentrate 27.5 

Limestone sand 7.0 

Ironstone '. 4.0 

Slag 12.5 

Sand (silica) 2.0 

It will be noticed that no silicious ore was used, this 
constituent being temporarily unavailable. The charge 
roasted well and gave no trouble. The analysis of the 
sinter showed : 

Lead 47.5 to 48.5 

Zinc 7.5 

Silica S.O to 8.5 

Ferrous oxide 13.0 to 14.0 

Manganese oxide 3.0 

Lime 5.5 to 6.0 

Sulphur 2.5 to 3.0 

The lead content went up without causing trouble and 
later we had no difficulty in carrying it as high as 507c 
The blast-furnaces behaved all right, the slag showing : 


Silica 20.5 

Ferrous oxide 30.0 

Manganese oxide 4.5 

Lime 12.0 

Zinc oxide 19.0 

Finally, the whole of the ironstone was taken off the 
charge. No trouble followed, and the charge became 
simply a mixture of ores, granulated slag, and about 7% 
of limestone sand. All crushing of raw materials was 
eliminated and the whole process simplified until a steady 
practice has resulted with corresponding beneficial effect 
on the blast-furnace operation which follows it. 

Before leaving the subject of roasting, I should like to 
refer briefly to our more recent work on the blast-roasting 
of zinc concentrate. We were faced in 1917 with the 
urgent need of quickly increasing our zinc-concentrate 
roasting" capacity, while anything like prompt delivery of 
roasting equipment was out pf the question. 

Blast-roasting on Dwight-Lloyd machines or Hunting- 
ton-Heberlein pots of Broken Hill zinc concentrates was 
found to be out of the question owing to the high temper- 
ature generated and the fusibility of the ore, which 
caused it to melt and become impervious to the draft; 

and having regard to the fact that the roasted ore was to 
be treated in retorts no addition-agents were possible. 
Finally, the problem was solved by pre-roasting the ore 
from 30% sulphur to 9% in reverberatories, at which 
point the heat generated on the blast-roaster is not suffi- 
cient to cause fusion, and finishing on a Dwight-Lloyd 
machine. The product is a dry crumbly sinter, readily 
broken through a f-in. ring, at which size it is charged 
into the retorts where it works excellently, the sulphur 
content of the roasted ore being 1%. Recent work has 
shown that the capacity of a reverberatory furnace roast- 
ing our concentrate from 30% to 9% is rather more than 
double its capacity when roasting to 2%. Further, that, 
using a multiple-hearth muffled roaster, 5% of fuel is 
ample to bring the ore down to 9% sulphur. The blast- 
roaster requires not more than 1% of fuel to ignite the 
charge. Hence the consumption of coal by this method is 
reduced to a maximum of 6%. Further, an interesting 
relation has been established between the different factors 
concerned in roasting. These factors are three in num- 
ber, namely : 

( 1 ) Temperature. 

(2) Time. 

(3) Ventilation. 

By 'ventilation' I mean the maintenance of contact 
between the ore particles and the air. These factors are 
more or less interdependent. For example, by increasing 
the length of time a lower temperature can be used. Our 
more recent work has shown that the factor of ventilation 
is of enormous importance. 

In blast-roasting the air is drawn directly through the 
Charge, and in consequence has an excellent chance to 
come in contact with the ore-particles. When roasting on 
a hearth the air passes over the charge, and. in conse- 
quence the contact between ore and air is poor, and the 
interstices of the ore-charge are largely filled with a mix- 
ture of sulphur di-oxide and nitrogen. This is to some 
extent shaken out during stirring, but as the stirring 
mechanism does not work in between the grains of ore the 
effect is incomplete. Moreover sulphur di-oxide being a 
dense gas has a low diffusion rate. 

Consider first a furnace of the superposed-hearth type, 
namely, the M. & H., having two sets of hearths measur- 
ing 80 by 6 ft. The ore descends from hearth to hearth, 
and in general not less than the last two hearths will 
assist in eliminating the last 8 units of sulphur driven off. 
The capacity of the furnace is 40 tons of ore per 24 hours 
for the two sets of hearths. Consequently four hearths 
out of the fourteen are concerned with the elimination of 
the last 8 units of sulphur from 40 tons of ore. The 
hearths measure 60 ft. net between drop holes. Hence 
the total hearth area concerned in removing these 8 units 
from 40 tons of ore is 60 by 6 ft. by 4 = 1440 sq. ft. 8% 
of 40 tons = 7168 lb. sulphur. Hence amount of sulphur 
roasted off per square foot of hearth per day is five 

The Dwight-Lloyd roaster we are using has an active 
grate area over the wind-box of 16 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. = 40 
sq. ft. and roasts 60 tons of ore from 9% to 1% per 24 

.lulv 17. 1920 



hours. Hence the elimination of sulphur per Bquare foot 
per 24 hours amounts to 270 lt>. This is a remarkable 
result, mid illustrates strikingly the tremendous impor- 
tance of the ventilation factor. The ore passes over the 
machine in a layer from 4 to -H in. thick, and the time 
required to eliminate eight units of sulphur is 14 minutes 
as against 14 hours or mure Tor the M. & II. furnace, 

I feel pretty well convinced that the future of zinc- 
ixmcentrate roasting lies in a combination of multiple- 
hearth pre-roasters and finishing blast-roasters. The 
blast-furnace practice has undergone an evolution paral- 
lel t<> that of the roasting, and for the proper understand- 
ing of it some reference to the part played by zinc in lead 
blast-furnace troubles is essential. About seven years 
ago, I was engaged in an attempt to make use of a water- 
jacket blast-furnace for the production of zinc-oxide from 
low-grade zinc-carbonate and zinc-silicate ores. In the 
early stages of the work, before the conditions under 
which the zinc could be reduced and driven off from the 
charge were understood, from 70 to 80% of tbe zinc 
passed into tbe slag, which carried as much as 32% zinc 
oxide. In spite of the evil reputation which zinc pos- 
sessed for making slag viscous and sticky, this slag ran 
perfectly and gave not the slightest trouble. 

Zinc is only a trouble-maker when combined with sul- 
phur. In the ore referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
the sulphur content was less than 1%. But with tbe 
high-sulphur sinters, which were the rale at Port Pirie 
before the reform of tbe roasting-praetice, troubles due 
to zinc were serious and frequent. 

Briefly, tbe trouble caused by zinc in the presence of 
sulphur is the formation of a ziney matte containing 
about 14% of zinc. This matte is of a mushy consistence 
and lends itself excellently to the building up of accre- 
tions inside the furnace. There is considerable evidence 
that it is soluble in the slag but separates out readily if 
' the temperature falls. For example, it forms a crust on 
the surface of the slag in the slag-pots, having apparently 
separated from solution and come to the surface. Its con- 
stitution and properties need more thorough study than 
they have received in the past. 

The introduction of slime concentrate into the charge 
had increased the zinc content and at the same time, be- 
fore the roasting of the slime had been properly worked 
out, had brought up the sulphur content of the sinter 
likewise. Hence conditions were well adapted for trouble 
in the blast-furnaces. A rather curious practice had de- 
veloped. Large bodies of old slag running lower in zinc 
than tbe new slag were available on the dump. This ma- 
terial was quarried and charged into the furnaces. Enor- 
mous quantities w-ere used, the old slag being from one to 
{two times the weight of the other constituents of the 
charge. The furnaces were thus exposed to a tremendous 
flushing action by this mass of molten material passing 
through them, and in all probability, this slag also acted 
by dissolving the zincy matte produced from the high- 
sulphur sinter and carrying it out of the furnace. 

This practice had several obvious drawbacks. In the 
first place the cost of quarrying was an item of expense, 

and the disposal of this great volume of slag was another. 
Then again the melting of all this slag and its elevation 
to the temperature of the furnace consumed a good deal 
of coke, and the slag took up room in the furnace that 
could be more profitably occupied by sinter. 

On the other hand it was felt by all engaged on the 
work that the true solution of the problem lay in the im- 
provement of the roasting, and that no attempt should be 
made to seek out remedies for the blast-furnace troubles 
until sinter of reasonably low-sulphur content was avail- 
able. As improvement in roasting continued, the blast- 
furnace practice was modified until it became simplified 
down to its present, form. 

In the days of the returned-slag practice the charge 
was a complex one. consisting of : 

Dwight-Lloyd sinter, 

Huntington-Heberlein sinter, 




Returned slag, 

Slag shells. 

The last, item is the slag which is frozen in the pots and 
forms a shell or skull. The metal in the slag tends to con- 
centrate in these shells and they are consequently re- 
turned to the furnaces. 

Since the introduction of granulated slag into the 
roaster-charge the blast-furnace charge has become : 

Dwight-Lloyd sinter, 
Huntington-Heberlein sinter, 
Refinery drosses, 
Slag shells. 

Tbe simplification is obvious. Tbe furnaces are hot, 
run smoothly, and the slags are low in lead (1 to 2%). 
The surface of the slag in the pots is free from any crust 
of zincy matte. 

In this connection it may be pointed out that the 
Broken Hill ores contain less than 1% copper. Where 
copper in oxidized form is added to the charge, its high 
affinity for sulphur enables it to combine with this ele- 
ment to forai an easily fusible matte which separates 
readily from the slag, or, as the furnace-men say, the 
copper cleans the slag. Where copper is present in serious 
amount higher sulphur can be carried without trouble, 
but with our ores 2.5% sulphur in a sinter carrying 45 to 
50% lead is as much as can be allowed if perfectly smooth 
running of the blast-furnaces is to be assured. 

The slag presents some interesting problems. The fol- 
lowing analyses show the composition of the slag when 
ironstone to the extent of 14%, was used in the roaster- 
charge, and again after granulated slag had been sub- 
stituted for all the ironstone. 

Ironstone, Granulated 
% slag, % 

Silica 21.0 24.2 

Ferrous oxide 33.5 25.6 

Manganese oxide 4.5 5.3 

Lime 14.0 11.0 

Zinc oxide 13.5 20.0 


July 17, 1920 

In addition we have another one made when furnaces 
were running on a very zincy concentrate : 


Silica 18-3 

Ferrous oxide 20.3 

Manganese oxide 4.9 

Lime 90 

Zinc oxide 31.8 

The difference between the foregoing figures and 100 
is accounted for by alumina 5 to 6%, lead 1 to 2%, and 
sulphur 2 to 3%. 

The ratios of bases to silica are for the three slags re- 
spectively 2.7, 2.17, and 2.96. In the last example the 
zinc oxide alone is more than sufficient to form with the 
silica a metasilieate. A good deal of work has been done 
on this slag with the object of working out its constitu- 
tion. This is not yet complete but the results obtained 
so far are of interest. Unfortunately there are no means 
at our disposal for ascertaining the constitution of a slag 
at the really interesting stage of its career, namely, while 
it is still in the furnace. Once safely out of the furnace 
its practical interest has largely departed. Still a certain 
amount of information can be obtained from the frozen 

In thin slices under the microscope the slag is seen to 
consist of two distinct mineralogical types, namely, a 
clear and transparent ground-mass, with a black to 
brown, opaque to translucent, scattered constituent. In 
the former olivene (fayalite) and willemite (the ortho- 
silicate of zinc ) are present. The brown mineral has been 
provisionally determined as a zinc and iron-bearing 
spinel or ferrite. Crystals of the green zinc-alumina 
spinel are also present. 

The evidence in favor of the presence of iron-bearing 
spinel is as follows : In fine powder the slag is decidedly 
magnetic, and if kept melted for some hours at a temper- 
ature close to its melting-point it deposits a strongly mag- 
netic mushy material. The natural ferrite or f ranklinite 
is strongly magnetic. Its crystallization, though not very 
distinct, is apparently octahedral. It is well known that 
zinc ferrite is insoluble in dilute sulphuric acid. If the 
powdered slag is subjected to treatment with a substan- 
tial excess of this acid, only a part of the zinc is soluble, 
the remainder being retained in the dark-colored insolu- 
ble residue. Ferric oxide is present in the slag but its 
determination is difficult owing to the reducing action of 
sulphides in the slag. 

In many cases the brown mineral is found in fine paral- 
lel rods in the silicate base, these rods being oriented ac- 
cording to the crystallization of the silicate ground mass 
in which they are embedded. The appearance suggests 
that they have been rejected from solution in the silicate 
at the moment of freezing. It would appear that some 
zinc oxide is present in solution also. 

Provisionally then we regard the zinc as being dis- 
tributed between the silica as a silicate and the iron as a 
ferrite, and that while the slag is in the furnace the lat- 
ter is probably in solution in the former; and moreover 
that some part of the zinc is also in solution. That these 
compounds are perfectly fluid at the temperature of the 

furnace, the smooth operation is sufficient proof. 

It is hoped that as a result of the experimental work 
now going on we shall eventually be able to arrive at the 
true constitution of the slag. There is no doubt that the 
whole question of slags is worthy of more investigation 
than it has hitherto received. 

Before leaving this subject, the possibility of recover- 
ing part of the zinc in the slag needs a few words. It 
would appear that our slag in the future will carry about 
20% of zinc oxide, if not more. I have already referred 
to the fact that the earlier slags were too poor in zinc to 
make the recovery of this metal worth while. With 20% 
or more of zinc oxide, the question takes on a different 
complexion, and I believe that a large part of this can 
be economically recovered, either by blast-treatment or in 
a reverberatory furnace. 

Reference has been made, under the head of roasting, 
to two types of sinter, namely, that made entirely on 
Dwight-Lloyd machines and that made in Huntington- 
Heberlein pots after pre-roasting on a Dwight-Lloyd ma- 
chine. Just which of these methods will finally be used, 
or whether both will be retained, is a question that can- 
not be answered yet. The Huntington-Heberlein sinter 
is still stronger than the Dwight-Lloyd, but less porous. 
The Huntington-Heberlein is more massive and stands 
rough-handling better. There seems to be little doubt 
that the blast-furnaces run better on a mixture than on 
Dwight-Lloyd alone, and, provided this is borne out by 
further testing, it is probable that both methods will be 

The foregoing covers the main elements in the develop- 
ment of our roasting and smelting practice. In general, 
we have moved along the line of simplification of methods, 
and so far as our opportunities and abilities lay have 
aimed to progress by way of making the best use of our 
existing equipment rather than by radical changes in it. 
In fact the great difficulty of obtaining supplies of this 
kind practically forced us to adopt the lines we did. 

There is just one point I wish to make in this connec- 
tion. New processes and new appliances usually have the 
advantage of the concentration of a great deal of energy 
and trained brains on their development, while the older 
methods have a tendency to degenerate into rule-of- 
thumb practice. One sometimes asks oneself what would 
happen to these older things if they were laid hold of and 
studied with the some zeal that is devoted to the new 
ones. So far as lead-smelting goes I do not think that 
the last word has yet been said in regard to the method 
of blast-roasting the ore and smelting the sinter in blast- 

The owners of asbestos mines near Paotingfu. Peking 
district, are seeking capital for the development of their 
properties. It is said that if Americans do not evince 
an interest the holders of the concessions will have to 
turn to the Japanese for assistance. The available 
monthly output is estimated at between 100 and 200 
tons. Other deposits in the vicinity of Liangkochwang 
are for sale. The samples shown have a fibre of good 
length, of which about 30 tons monthly is available. 

ti 17. i!l2ft 





- V'CNJSl 










Cripple Creek. — Production during June from the 
Cripple Creek district totaled 38,867 tons, average assay- 
value $13; and gross bullion, $443,867. The Golden 
Cyele mill at Colorado Springs reported treatment of 
18,500 tons of $20 ore with value of $370,000. The Port- 
land company's Independence mill at Victor treated 
19,667 tons of an average value of $3.64, and the total 
bullion amounted to $71,765. Samplers shipped 750 
tons to smelters estimated at $75 per ton. The Portland 
Gold Mining Co. has declared the regular quarterly divi- 
dend of lie. per sfcare, payable July 20 to stock of record 
July 13. This amounts to $45,000 and will bring the 
total to $11,647,080. 

The Wilson lease is again shipping from the Ingham 
mine on Raven hill owned by the Doctor-Jack Pot Mining 
< 'o. The ore is milling grade. A new and rich ore-shoot 
has been opened on the 14th level of the Dexter mine on 
the south slope of Bull hill, on the Trail property of the 
United Gold Mines Co. by the leasing firm of Anderson 
& Benkelman. The vein, 4 to 5 ft. wide, is reported 
to carry rich ore. The extent of the shoot is not yet de- 
termined. Ore will be shipped from the War Eagle 
workings at the Moffat tunnel level, during the ensuing 
week. The ore will be hoisted through the Blue Flag 
shaft. Development at the 1200 and 1400-ft. levels of 
the Blue Flag continues. 

Dumps at the Index mine, Gold hill, are to be worked 
over and screened. Ore saved will be shipped to the 
Golden Cycle mill. Delay has arisen in starting up the 
Gasche process mill of the Lincoln Mines & Reduction 
Co., on Ironclad hill, because of the failure of the manu- 
facturer to ship minor parts of machinery. 

Idaho Springs. — Boston owners of the French Flag, 
closed down whem Col. Ripley, the manager, entered the 
coast-defense serriee during the War, are preparing to 
resume operations. The Roosevelt Mining & Milling Co. 
has resumed operations on its properties at Alice. The 
Metals Mining & Leasing Co. has" installed machinery at 
the Big Five tunnel and is cross-cutting to cut the ex- 
tension of the Coinstock shoot on the Sheffer claim. The 
Lincoln group is under development through the Big 
'Five tunnel by B. F. Zalinger of New York, B. F. 
Francis, and Denver associates. A flat vein 40 in. thick 
and of good ore is reported opened up on the Virginia 
B. oh Bellevue mountain. 

Empire. — The Golden Empire Mining Co., that is op- 

erating the Conqueror, Union, and General Harrison, in 
North Empire, and the Tennessee, Denver City, and 
Marshall-Russell groups on Covide mountain and Miller 
gulch, and that controls a large group of some 200 claims 
in the district, will shortly commence shipments. A 
modern mill has been constructed and is turning out con- 
centrate. Three other mills on the property are to be re- 
modeled. Shipment of a good grade of ore mined by 
lessees from the Bellevue-Hudson is being made regu- 
larly. The leasing firm of Nrlson & Co. is shipping to 
the Idaho Springs mill and Pueblo smelter of the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Co. from Silver Mountain prop- 

Central City. — Denver operators have taken over the 
Federal mine in Russell gulch under bond and lease and 
are preparing to develop it. The shaft is 400 ft. deep 
and produced rich ore when last operated. Water in the 
Coaley shaft in Silver gulch has been lowered several 
hundred feet. The shaft is 800 ft. deep and through long 
inactivity is in such condition that it must be re-timbered. 
The mine, now operated by the O. C. Reddick company, 
was one of the first silver producers in Gilpin county. 



Butte. — Six feet of silver ore has been cut by the 
Butte & Plutus company while sinking its shaft. The 
discovery was made 250 ft. from the surface and is be- 
lieved to be the Plutus main vein. Exploration of this 
vein will be continued from the 300-ft. level. When the 
shaft reaches the 400-ft. level, a cross-cut will be run 
toward the Norwich claim to intersect the. south-dipping 
Norwich vein. The orebody consists of silver sulphide 
with a pink manganese gangue. 

Cooke City. — A fleet of twenty 2 J-ton trucks is being 
used to haul the ore from this district to Gardner for 
shipment by rail. A temporary loading-station has been 
constructed until permanent ore-bins are built. The Re- 
public mines expect to ship 50 tons per day by truck. 
W. E. Renshaw has charge of the development work for 
the Republic interests. 

Neihart. — W. D. Murphy and HI Westgard have 
leased the Rochester mine from the Cascade Silver Mines 
& Mills Co. for a period of six months. A steam-plant, 
compressor, and other machinery have been installed to 
speed-up development work. A promising vein has been 

The Flohart Silver mines, which were closed down on 
account of the O. B. U. strike for four weeks, resumed 



July 17. 1920 

operations for one day, only to close down again the fol- 
lowing day. The men had agreed to a< pt the terms of 

the management, but the agitators succeeded in persuad- 
ing them not to. The scale agreed to was as follows: 
Blacksmiths, $6.50; compressor-men, $5.75; blacksmith 
helpers. .$5.50; machine-men, $530; carpenters, $5.50; 
shovelers, $5 ; and laborers, $5. The O. B. U. was not to 
he recognized, and there was to be no discrimination. 

Boulder. — High-grade copper ore has been found at 
the Shields and Ironside mine at a depth of 800 ft. The 
ore assays $42 per ton across the face of the vein. M. L. 
Leydig of Helena holds the property under lease and 



Quaetz Mountain. — The Goldfield-Quartz Mountain 
Mining Corporation has been organized to develop the 
Bell group of eight gold claims at Quartz mountain, 12 
miles west of Goldfleld. The purchase price is said to 
have been between $10,000 and $15,000. The company 
was financed in Los Angeles ami all of the officers are 
Los Angeles men. Corrin Barnes of Goldfield is consult- 
ing engineer. Air-drills will be used to extend a 160-ft. 
tunnel 65 ft. to cut the vein at a depth of 140 ft. The 
vein is 110 ft. wide, consisting of four bands: A 20-ft. 
width of iron-stained porous quartz; 40 ft. of pumiceous 
material ; 30 1't. of hard dense quartz ; and 20 ft. of iron- 
stained material. The ore is in the iron-stained and 
pumiceous hands, but pannings can lie secured over the 
entire width of .the vein. The following assays were 
secured: An 8-ft. width, $8; 18 ft., $17; 24 ft.. $5.20. 
The gold, yellow and high-grade, is in flakes embedded in 
quartz. The vein follows the general course of the Assur- 
ing in the district. The outcrop is 1500 ft. long, conform- 
ing to the curvature of the hill known as Quartz moun- 
tain, and the silicification becomes less intense from the 
top of the hill, the vein being composed of softer rock 
where it disappears under the wash of the slopes. Mr. 
Barnes says the surrounding formation is dacite and that 
the hill is "an effusive mass of material similar to the 
daeite and erupted at a slightly later time". He says it 
probably is allied to the dacite yitrophyre of Ransome's 
report on the Goldfield district. Some of the fissures are 
large and show the result of displacement. Some are 
completely filled with quartz and others are open, form- 
ing crevices. 

Tule Canyon. — A contract lias been let to sink 100 
ft., from the present depth of, 150, the Silver Hills shaft 
in Tule canyon. The Silver Hills is operating the Ingalls 
mine under option. The company will pay $20 per foot 
and furnish power. . . , 

Stonewall. — The Yellow Tiger, which is driving a 
tunnel at Stonewall mountain, near Goldfield, has levied 
assessment No: 2, at the rate of one cent per share, pay- 
able immediately and delinquent August 7. The com- 
pany collected $25,400 by assessment No. 1, levied De- 
cember 8, 1019, and to June 15, $20,450 was spent, leav- 

ing a balance of nearly $5000. There was spent for the 
erection of buildings at the mine, for road-construction 
and machinery $8300 ; a $3000 payment was made on the 
Red Lion claims at Goldfield ; office, corporation, and ad- 
ministration expense was $2600, and labor and supplies 
cost $2400. The clearing of old accounts, prospecting at. 
Goldfield. and the purchase of equipment for the tunnel 
and a motor-truck made the expenses heavy. 

Montezuma. — The Harmill has completed several 
buildings on the Monitor claims and has built a road to 
the shaft. A new hoist-house has been built and a 15-hp. 
hoist is to be moved from Divide, which has become a 
good field for the purchase of second-hand machinery, as 
Goldfield long has been for houses. During the height 
of the Divide boom there was never a day for months that 
there was not a house on the road from Goldfield to 
Divide and now all of them, except those at the Tonopah 
Divide and a few other places, have little more value than 
the claims on which they stand. 

Tonopah. — The Tonopah Extension has moved 10 
houses from Goldfield and has furnished them with mod- 
ern conveniences. They will be rented to employees at 
a low rate in an effort to solve the miner-shortage prob- 
lem, which has become acute in some southern Nevada 
districts. The labor turn-over in the smaller districts is 
heavy and the shortage of good miners is felt keenly. 
An engineer in charge of a dozen prospects in southern 
districts complains that he cannot secure good miners and 
says his experience in the last year leads him to believe 
the 'mucker' is entering the class of the dodo. 

Jungo. — Three leases have been let by the newly or- 
ganized Pershing Lead-Silver Mines Co. on the claims 
owned by the company at Jungo, in Pershing county, 
three miles from Antelope on the "Western Pacific rail- 
road. The Pershing Lead-Silver is sinking a shaft, now 
40 ft. deep, in ore from a few inches to three feet wide 
and assaying $35 to $40 in lead, silver, and gold. Jungo 
is one of several districts in or near the Jackson range 
that have attracted attention in recent months. The Man- 
delay is sinking a shaft in silver-gold ore near the Per- 
shing Lead-Silver. Work on a small scale for many years 
in the Jackson range has resulted in promising copper. 
gold, silver, and lead prospects, but important mines 
have not resulted. Several carloads of high-grade silver- 
sulphide ore have been shipped from the Mandalay and 
small shipments of rich silver ore have been made from 
the Duffner, 15 miles north of Jnngo. Twenty miles 
from Jungo, at the southern end of the Jackson range, 
the Craven company has shipped high-grade copper ore 
and has concentrating ore blocked oiat to a depth of 200 

Goldfield. — The Silver Pick has started shipping to 
the Development mill at a rate of 25 tons of $15 to $18 
ore daily. The shipments are being made from the 117-ft. 
level. The cross-cut at a depth of 271 ft. will have to be 
driven 80 ft. more to cut the same vein. All of this work 
is being done in ground sub-leased fuoni the Development 


Tolicha. — A 10-ton pan-amalgaiiaation plant has been 

July 17, 1920 



started at Tolicha to test ore from the Landmark claims, 

developed by Thomas Harnej of Chicago and asso- 

nates. Two of four wide veins 5 to 20 ft. n ide have been 

cut and tlic value and width of the ore, as reported un- 
officially, indicates that a mine of much possibility is be- 
insr developed. A tunnel is being driven and a 10-ft. 
width of ore assaying more than $100 is reported in the 
first vein out. A .'U-t't. width is said to assay more than 
Mr. Harney, who makes his headquarters in Gold- 
laid, lias consistently refused to make a statement re- 
garding the mine until further work has been done. 



Salt Lake City. In spite of unfavorable conditions, 
the metal mines of Utah showed a gain in the amount of 
dividend disbursements for the first six months of the 
current j'ear, as compared with the same period for 1919. 
amounting to $120,083. During the first half of 1919 
the Bingham Mines Co. and the Ontario Silver company 
paid dividends, whereas so far this year they have paid 
none. The Daly-West, of Park City, has been added to 
the list of dividend-payers this year, after a period of 
seven years. The following table shows the disburse- 
ments for the first half of 1920 and 1919 : 

First half First half 

of 1920 of 1919 

Bingham Mines Co. (Bingham) . . . .$ $75,000 

Chief. Con. Mining Co. (Tintic) ... . 176,846 169,004 

Daly Mining Co. (Park City) 45,000 52,000 

Daly-West (Park City) 100,000 

Eagle & Blue Bell (Tintic) S9.314 44,657 

Grand Central Mining Co. (Tintic) . 42.000 24,000 

Iron Blossom Mining Co. (Tintic) . . 25.000 25,000 

Judge M. ^ S. Co. (Park City) .... . 120,000 60,000 

Ontario Silver (Park City) 75,000 

Tintic Standard (Tintic) 234,540 187,952 

Utah Copper Co. (Bingham) 4.S73.470 4,873,470 

Total $5,706,171 $5,586,083 

In addition to this, the American Smelting & Refining 
Co. and the United States Smelting, Refining & Mining 
Co., both with extensive interests in the State, have paid 
dividends, part of which were earned in Utah. 

Eureka. — In spite of the railway embargoes, lack of 
miners, and unfavorable conditions that have prevailed 
at various times during the first six months of 1920, ore 
shipments from the Tintic district during that period 
totalled 3537 cars, as against 3632 for the same period 
in 1919, or a decrease of but 95 cars. Mining in this 
district was started in 1870, or exactly a half-century 
ago. The camp has been a steady producer during 
all this period, and shipments today are at the rate of 
about 600 cars per month. So far this year, five new 
shippers have been added to the list of producers. Ore 
shipments from the camp for the week ended July 3 
totalled 148 cars, or one less than for the previous week. 

Directors of the Chief C ona °lidated have declared a 
dividend of 10c. per share, payable August 2 to stock- 
holders of record July 10. This payment, the second 
quarterly for the current year; will call for $88,423 and 

will bring the grand total dividend disbursements by the 
company up to $1,783,094, A new co-operative leasing 

system is being tried oul by th rapany. Stopes of 

liberal size are turned over to a group of miners on a 

royalty basis, which ensures the company al t the same 

amount of money thai could be realized under the old 
system of 'company time' work, and at the same time 
gives the men employed a chance Tor a greater return 
for their labor. In a few places this plan is being tried 
out. below the water-level, where three shifts are required, 
and this means that as many as ten or twelve miners 
share in the revenue derived from a single block of 


ground. The regulations governing this system of leas- 
ing require that every miner who works on the block be 
interested, and when the work of any man becomes un- 
satisfactory, his partners in the lease have the right to 
vote him out and take in another miner. As the lessees 
have not been to any expense in searching out the ore, or 
in -putting it in shape for extraction, the company's roy- 
alty charges are necessarily larger than usual, but even 
so, there is more money to be made by. the lessees as extra 
compensation for efficient work, over and above regular 
daily wages. 

The Tintic Standard company shipped 100 carloads of 
ore in June, and this amount could be easily increased if 
men were available. The mine could use at least 100 more 
men. A part of the present output is from the deepest 
level (1450 ft.) where a large deposit was opened recent- 
ly. In the south end of the property, three headings are 



July 17, 1920 

being driven, two on the 1200-ft. level and one on the 
1000. One of the drifts on the 1200 is being sent over 
toward the big stopes, principally to help ventilation, al- 
though it should encounter ore. About 1200 ft. of work 
remains before the connection is made. E. J. Raddatz, 
president of the company, states that the claims of the 
South Lily Co. have recently been purchased by the 
Tintic Standard. The South Lily adjoins the Tintic 
Standard on the south. Excellent progress is being made 
on the new milling plant, and it is expected that the first 
unit will be ready for operation by fall. 

Park City. — Shipments for the first six months of 1920 
were about 50% larger than for the corresponding period 
of 1919, being 52,443 tons as against 35,368 tons. The 
high price of silver during the early part of the current 
year stimulated mining considerably, which accounts for 
the increased production. 

The Judge M. & S. Co. will open a company store that 
will be ready for business on August 1. The store will 
be conducted solely for the benefit of the employees of the 
Judge company and all other properties under the same 
management. All goods will be sold on the cost system. 
Coupon books will be issued to the employees, and if 
unused coupons are in possession of employees when con- 
nection is severed with the company, they will be re- 
deemed at full value. The store will be open every after- 
noon and goods delivered once eacli week, purchasers pay- 
ing pro-rata the expense of delivery. 

An important strike of high-grade ore was made recent- 
ly in a cross-cut on the 700-ft. level at the Naildriver 
property, according to J. D. Fisher, superintendent. The 
ore has been developed to a width of three feet, and assays 
run as high as 150 oz. silver per ton. Shipments have 
been started, and should average 200 tons per week dur- 
ing the present summer. Frank Fleishman, superintend- 
ent of the Ontario, states that development work at that 
property was suspended for a week on account of the 
compressor breaking down. Operations were resumed on 
July 6. At the Silver King Coalition property, 190 men 
are now on the payroll and at least 100 more could be 
used to advantage. Physical conditions at this property 
are excellent, and development work in new territory is 
reported as highly satisfactory. 



Notwithstanding the fact that offerings for zinc ore re- 
mained low and that the price for lead ore had dropped 
considerably, the Wisconsin districts maintained unin- 
terrupted operation all through the month of June, and 
good production resulted. High-grade zine ore recovered 
at magnetic separating-plants was in good demand at the 
beginning of the month, on a range of prices running 
from $48 to $51 per ton. Premium-grade ore commanded 
even higher figures, but a recession in price came the 
second week, the base holding flat at $48.50 per ton. At 
the close of the month, the base price for refinery blende 
stood at $49 per ton, and while complaint was general 
that the price was not high enough to warrant profit- 

taking operators held their working-forces together hop- 
ing for an upward turn. Low-grade zinc-ore producers 
received better offerings during the month and a consid- 
erable portion of reserve ore was sold but lean producers 
found it hard going and several mines were shut-down 
pending better market conditions. The mines in the 
Highland district operated by the New Jersey Zinc Co., 
were all shut-down and over 100 men thrown out of em- 
ployment. Many quickly, transferred to other parts of 
the field. The Blewett mine, in the Galena district, shut- 
down and several producers in the Livingston district 
gave up all hope of continuing production, assigning as 
the reason low prices for zine concentrate. 

Lead ore, which had reached $110 per ton prior to 
June, dropped at the beginning of the month to $100. 
This figure was destined to remain but a short time and 
the price current over the better part of the month ruled 
around $90. Many producers who had refused $110 for 
their ore, believing even better prices would prevail, held 
on after the drop calculating the price would recover but, 
when less than $100 was offered, a portion of the holdings 
was sold. The increased output of zinc ore aided ma- 
terially in an increased production of lead ore and the 
reserve in the field closely estimated at the close of the 
month, is in excess of 1000 tons. No competition was 
noticeable between buyers as had been the rule when lead 
ore ruled high and the major portion of lead ore sold 
through June went to the Federal Lead Co. Scores of 
lessees gophering old workings on a small scale met with 
poor success and sales of mixed lots for the month were 
negligible. The bulk of the lead ore recovered in the 
Wisconsin field will come in the future from the big zine- 
mine operators. 

Producers of carbonate-zinc ore, in the northern dis- 
tricts of the field, shut-down permanently. Prices for this 
class of ore have been steady and fair but the big deposits 
have been mined out and unless new exploration work 
determines new ranges in virgin soil this portion of the 
field will be abandoned. 

Deliveries of zinc ore and lead for June, by districts, 
follow : 

Districts Zinc, lb. 

Benton 10,360,000 

Cuba City 4,600,000 

Livingston 5,492,000 

Galena 3,558,000 

Day Siding S14.000 

Highland 760,000 

Hazel Green 806,000 

Platteville 716,000 

Shullsburg 664,000 

Linden 336,000 

Millbrig 132,000 

Lead, lb. 




Total 28,238,000 912,000 

The gross recovery of crude concentrate for the month 
at mills amounted to 13,949 tons. A small surplus of 
crude ore was disposed of during June but the reserve in 
the field at the close of the month ran up near 10,000 
tons, most of which was held at refineries and by one or 
two of the larger operating concerns. 

.inly 17. 1926 



shipments of high-grade blende from separating-plants 
were made for the month a« shown here, 

Company Lb. 

Mineral Point Zinc Co 5.670,000 

National Ore Separators 2.966,000 

Wisconsin Zinc Roasters 1,266,000 

Block-House Mining Co 540,000 

Bine Concentrating Co 532,000 

Total 10,974,000 

The total net deliveries of high-grade zinc ore from the 
field to smelters for June amounted to 5487 tons of 
blende, and 440 tons of carbonate-zinc ore. 

Raw-ore production was distributed as follows: to the 
Mineral Point Zinc Co., 5487 tons; Wisconsin Zinc Roast- 
ers. 5360 tons ; National Ore Separators, 2147 tons ; Zinc 
Concentrating Co., 685 tons. High-grade ore was divided 
mainly between the Prime Western Smelters, a subsidiary 
of the New Jersey Zinc Co., Depue, Illinois, and the Min- 
eral Point Zinc Co., so that practically all went one way 
for the month. It indicates that the buying-latitude in 
the field is more closely restricted than ever before. 

Labor conditions remain precarious. Shovelers espe- 
cially were in demand, although the pay is the highest 
ever known and the men employed earn as high as $10 to 
$12 on a single shift. Some accidents were reported, one 
at the Jefferson mine, near Hazel Green, following a cave- 
in of supporting pillars resulting in the death of three 
miners. Exploration work in the field has been reduced 
considerably and at the end of the month little construc- 
tion work was in progress in any of the districts. 



Windermere. — Construction of a second unit of the 
power-plant for the Florence mine, at Princess creek, is 
well under way. The company is employing 60 men, and 
working a double shift in the mine and a single one in 
the mill. About 150 tons of ore is being treated daily, 
and it is expected that over 300 tons of concentrate will 
be produced each month. The mine is in splendid con- 
dition, both the fissure and replacement veins yielding a 
good supply of ore. More miners are needed. 

The Laib Brothers, who are operating the Spokane 
group, are crushing the ore in an arrastre and running 
the pulp over amalgamated copper plates, and tables. 
Most of the gold is collected in the arrastre and on the 
plates and thesilver-lead concentrate is shipped to Trail. 
Transportation facilities are bad, the cost of shipping to 
the smelter running from $50 to $60 per ton. 

Princeton. — E. T. Hodge, late professor of mining 
at the University of British Columbia, has bonded the 
Emancipation group of eight claims, at Jassica, 15 miles 
from Hope. Some good ore was taken from this prop- 
erty in 1916 by C. H. Lighthall, who had an option on 
the property, 53 tons yielding $18,295. Later in the 
same year F. Merrick netted $2822 from eight tons of 
ore shipped to the smelter. D. C. Coleman, president of 
the Canada Copper Corporation, has announced that the 

railway from Princeton to Copper Mountain should be 
finished by September 1, and the corporation, expects to 
start milling on that date. The West Kootenay Power 
& Light Co. has nearly completed its 1 15-mile high-power 
branch to the property. 

Stewart. — It is declared that there is no mining boom 
in the Portland Canal district, but that there is much 
solid development. Nine diamond-drills now are in op- 
eration, two on the Premier, two on the Northern Light 
group, one each on the 49 group, the Big Missouri, the 
Mother Lode, Goose Creek, and the B. C. Exploration 
Co.'s property on Marmot river. It is stated that the 
snow is rapidly disappearing from the higher reaches 
and that there is still employment for good miners. 

Activity is apparent through the country contiguous 
t<' the Bear River valley. Men are engaged in putting 
the line of the Canadian Northeastern railway, owned by 
Sir Donald Mann, in shape for operation, and a gas- 
locomotive has been bought, together with some rolling 


stock, in order that the transport of supplies to the 
various camps may be undertaken as soon as the repairs 
to the road render it feasible. On the Q. & L. group, 
held under bond by J. Tretheway, of Cobalt, surface- 
stripping has exposed a vein and a tunnel has exposed 
ore containing galena, zinc-blende, and silver. 

Alice Arm. — The population of the town of Alice Arm 
is growing to such an extent that much building is in 
progress. A three-story hotel is under construction in 
addition to numerous cabins. The community radiates 
prosperity. Everyone is busy and the Dolly Varden 
railway is operating regularly. Reports are received re- 
garding the richness of the new ore being found in the 
Dolly Varden mine. It is stated also that the Royal 
group nearby is showing up well. Prospectors are going 
into the hills both up the Kitsault and the Illiance rivers. 

Use.- — High-grade copper ore is reported on Nicholson 
creek, near Usk, by Alexander Baxendale, a prospector. 
As a result the Crescent group of mineral claims has 
been staked. Stripping is said to disclose a fissure vein, 
one to six feet wide, for a distance of 700 ft. carrying 
bornite and chalcopyrite, much of which is rich enough 
to ship. 

Slocan. — That the Utica mine will be re-opened at 
once and put on a shipping basis is announced by C. F. 



July 17, 1920 

Caldwell, vice-president and managing director of the 
Utiea Mines Ltd. The old Sunset property, situated near 
the Utiea, also is to be developed. The latter has not 
been worked for tifteen years. During its operation over 
$500,000 worth of ore was shipped, some 2000 tons av- 
eraging over .$250 per ton at the former price of silver. 
It is proposed to continue the existing cross-cut to strike 
the vein at new depth. 

Nelson. — Another deal is reported in connection with 
the Granite-Poorman mine, on Eagle creek, it being 
stated that a syndicate has been formed to take over the 
property from the Vincent Development Co. As a result 
the Granite-Poorman property will resume operation 
immediately, a crew of men already having been put to 



Toronto. — An investigation which lias been for some 
time in progress into sales of timber by the former Pro- 
vincial administration has resulted in the discovery of 
extensive frauds, occasioning considerable loss to the pub- 
lie treasury. As until recently the Department of Mines 
was included in the jurisdiction of the former Depart- 
ment of Lands, Forests, and Mines, it is suspected that a 
laxity of administration, if nothing worse, may have re- 
sulted in similar abuses in connection with mining sales 
or leases, and Premier Drury has announced that a 
thorough investigation of the Department of Mines will 
be held. In view of the facts as disclosed by the timber 
investigation, no other course appears open to the Gov- 
ernment, and the action meets with general public ap- 

Porcupine. — The shareholders of the Hollinger Con- 
solidated have approved of the removal of the bead office 
of the company from Toronto to Timmins. A contract 
has been let for diamond-drilling the Miracle property 
south of Night Hawk lake, the work to be started as 
soon as possible. It is planned to tap the main vein at 
300 and 500 ft. The property, previous work on which 
yielded promising results, is equipped with a mining and 
a milling plant. 

Kirkland Lake. — At the Ontario Kirkland work has 
been started on the excavation for the mill. It is planned 
to have the foundations and perhaps the framework of the 
building completed before winter. Drifting on the 450-ft. 
level is being actively carried on, the ore being richer 
than on the upper levels. Operations at the Wright- 
Hargreaves have been handicapped owing to shortage of 
power. The main shaft was unwatered some weeks ago 
and work started, but it had to be abandoned through 
failure- of the Northern Ontario Light & Power Co. to 
deliver enough electric energy. Steam-power is being 
used on shaft No. 2, which has been straightened and 
timbered to a depth of 200 ft. The foundations of the 
mill have been completed and work started on the build- 
ing, which is expected to be finished and the machinery 
installed late this fall. The date for commencing mill- 
ing operations has been indefinitely postponed owing to 

the power shortage. A vein about 10 ft. wide has been 
opened on the "Wood-Kirkland in a dike of porphyry 
formation stated to be about 400 ft. wide. Several veins 
have been uncovered by surface work on the Moffatt-Hall 
claims near Mud Lake. Trenching is being carried on to 
ascertain the best point for sinking. At the Chaput- 
Hughes the shaft is down 40 ft. on a 5-ft. vein, the gold 
content of which shows an increase at depth. 

Sesekinika. — On the Russell claims, adjoining the 
Smith-Labine group, a discovery regarded as being of 
importance has been made. Trenching has revealed a 
scbisted zone, about 70 ft. wide, cut by numerous quartz 
stringers of low gold content. The quartz, which is 
highly enriched with pyrite, is blue in color and the 
stringers are usually narrow. The shaft on the Light- 
ning River Gold Mines properties, 2\ miles east of Sese- 
kinika Station, is down 20 ft., the vein showing improve- 
ment and maintaining its width. 

Cobalt. — During the first six months of 1920, the sil- 
ver mines of Northern Ontario produced approximately 
$6,372,000, according to preliminary estimates. This 
compares with $12,747,621 for the whole of 1919 and 
shows how production is being maintained. The total 
silver output since the first discoveries in Cobalt in 1903, 
up to June 30 of 1920. amounts to 309,011,136 oz. valued 
at $188,411,972. Dividends paid amount to some $1 
000,000. while the treasuries of the various companies 
contain upward of $] 5.000,000, the net profit realized ap- 
proximating 50% of the total production. The sixth 
high-grade ore-shoot to be opened since last fall is re- 
ported this week on the Beaver Consolidated. There is 
some promise of regular quarterly dividend disburse 

The regular- quarterly dividend of 5% declared by the 
Nipissing on July 20 is not accompanied with the usual 
lionus of equal amount. The company has quick liquid 
assets of over $5,000,000. the highest figure in its history, 
and the failure to pay a July bonus is interpreted as in- 
dicating the intention of the directors to yield to the re- 
quest of shareholders to distribute its surplus more 
freely among stockholders. It is believed this will take 
the form of a substantial capital reduction at intervals, 
in addition to regular dividends- 
Arrangements are being made to diamond-drill the 
Mohawk-Cobalt property in the Mud Lake district. An 
investigation of the possibilities of the Belle-Ellen mine 
in South Lorrain is being made by M. J. O'Brien, Ltd., 
with a view to recovering cobalt from the large veins on 
the propert}'. Another shipment of ten or eleven tons of 
high-grade ore has been made from the Castle property 
of the Trethewey company. The ore contains, on an av- 
erage, 2000 oz. of silver per ton. Current production is 
adequate to pay expenses, in addition to carr-y on nec-ps 
sary development work. Announcement is made that the 
Kerr Lake Mining Co. has arranged a contract with the 
Dominion Reduction Co. to treat between 75,000 and 
100,000 tons of low-grade mill-ore. The Kerr Lake com 
pany will itself continue to mine its medium and high- 
grade ore. "• •> i 

July 17. 1920 





The Chile Copper Co.'s report for 1919 emphasizes that in 
spite of world-wide economic and social readjustment since 
the Armistice, the finances of the company have been well 
husbanded and operations singularly successful, considering 
conditions under which Chile is working. 

"Upon signing of the Armistice," it adds, "large stocks of 
copper were left on the market and coincidentally sales for 
about four months practically ceased. This necessitated 
curtailment in production. For the year ended December 
31, 1919, your company produced 38,359 tons, compared to 
51,068 for 1918. Capacity of plant during 1919 was ap- 
proximately 60,000 tons, in spite of small production for 
1919 actual cash cost of producing this copper, including 
estimated cost of selling and delivering, was 13.01c. per 
pound, compared to 13.30c. for 1918. During 1919 Chilean 
exchange was more favorable than in 191 S, which helped to 
reduce the cost of production. On the other hand, it is esti- 
mated that nearly all other factors entering cost of produc- 
tion were considerably higher in 1919 than in 1918." 

For the year ended December 31, 1919, a deficit of 
$2,290,658 after all charges and taxes, against a surplus of 
$3,440,229 in 1918 is reported. The combined income ac- 
count o? Chile Copper Co. and Chile Exploration Co. follows: 


Operating revenue 810,350,167 

Oiierating costs 8.729.956 

Operating (rain 1.(120.211 

Miscellaneous income 868.877 

Total income 2.489.088 

Federal taxes and miscellaneous 395,556 
Interest charges 2.823,043. 

Deficit 729.511 

Plant superseded . . . ({5,(139 

Ore depletion 1.355.508 

Amount ot bond discount 140.000 

Deficit 2.290.658 



Bisbee. — The work of pouring concrete in the Dallas shaft 
of the Copper Queen branch of the Phelps Dodge Corpora- 
tion is now under way. Eventually this will be the main 
hoisting shaft for the entire Copper Queen mine, and will 
replace the Sacramento, through which the ore is hoisted at 
present. Owing to steam-shovel operations, in the course of 
time the Sacramento will have to be abandoned as an 
operating shaft. 

Maricopa County. — At the Mammoth mine, near Supersti- 
tion mountain, on the road between Mesa and Roosevelt, 
application has been made for the establishment of a post- 
office, and the changing of the name to Youngville, after the 
chief operator and owner, George U. Young, former Secre- 
tary of State. It is reported that new equipment is being 
purchased and development work is planned on an extensive 


Grass Valley. — With 80 stamps dropping on high-grade 
•mill pre from Empire and Pennsylvania mines, the Empire 
, Mines Co. is doing well despite high labor and operating 
costs. The mine force has been increased and development 
pf new territory below the 4500-ft. level is proceeding satis- 
factorily. Opening of ore in new ground has been attended 
with encouraging results during the past year. In the 



























Pennsylvania property good ore is also being opened at 
depth. The output is sent to the Empire mill over an elec- 
tric railway. Excellent developments are reported at the 

North Star, Alcalde, and Boundary properties. The Central 
mill of the North Star company is running steadily on good 
ore from deep levels. Shoots of bonanza quartz continue to 
develop in the Alcalde and Boundary properties, and both 
mines promise to be consistent producers. At the Allison 
Ranch drifting is proceeding along the new-found Hartery 
vein, with indications pronounced good for development of 
a large orebody in virgin ground. 

Portola. — Regular shipments of copper concentrate are 
going out from the flotation-plants of the Engels and Walker 
mines, with new developments adding to the present ore- 
reserves of both properties. Recent work in the Superior 
section of the Engels group has placed in sight some of the 
richest deposits ever found in this district, and the grade of 
ore going to the plant continues excellent. Activities at the 
Beardsley, Gruss, Trask & Coffer, Five Bears, Feather River, 
and several other properties continue. Practically every 
company reports development of additional ore, with new 
work materially extending the dimensions of the proved 


Couer d'Alene. — The mines of this district have paid in 
dividends in 35 years $95,082,316, nearly half of this in the 
last seven years. At the present rate of earnings the $100.- 
000,000-mark will be passed next year. Dividends in the 
first six months of the present year were $2,660,357, and 
will probably continue at about this rate. The individual 
companies paid: Bunker Hill & Sullivan, $981,000; Her- 
cules, estimated, $500,000; Interstate-Callahan, $373,300: 
Hecla, $350,000; Federal, preferred, $299,757; Caledonia 

A new vein of fine ore has been uncovered by the Colum- 
bus Mining Co. The vein is 13 ft. wide and its discovery 

follows continuous work for two years. Raising is in. 

progress from the main-tunnel level of the Nabob Consoli- 
dated mine. The raise has attained a height of 20 ft. and 
will be continued to the next level above; -which is-220-ft. • 
higher than the main tunnel. The work will be completed 

in six weeks. The Orogrande Gold Mining Co., near 

Stites, has increased the capacity of its mill to 500 tons 
daily. The designed capacity was 3 00 tons. Changes and 
improvements have been made in the method of ore-dressing. 

Workings of the Baltimore vein of the Silver Triumph 

Mining Co. have been entered for the first time in 3 years. 
Ore containing 3 9 oz. silver per ton, 2.0% lead, and 18% 
z'nc has been discovered 60 ft. from the surface. The old 
workings honeycomb the ground on two tunnel-levels. The 
orebody between the main-tunnel level and a point 150 ft. 
deeper is six feet wide and gives promise of a greater width. 

The Tamarack & Custer Consolidated Mining Co. is pro- 
ducing crude ore and concentrate at the rate of 3500 tons 
per month. The net value of the ore is said to range from 
$100 to $125 per tori. The purchase of a tunnel that pene- 
trates an adjoining property is under consideration. This 
tunnel attains greater depth than any on the Tamarack & 
Custer and is convenient to a mill. ; .Its use by the Tamarack 
& Custer will reduce the cost of mining. i 



July 17, 192» 


Joplin. — The Iowa Mining Co. is erecting a mill on its 
lease on the Gilniore land, two miles south of Baxter 
Springs, and expects to have the plant in operation by Sep- 
tember 1. The mill was formerly the old Oak Orchard, 
north of Joplin. It is of 150 tons capacity and is in good 
condition. It is equipped with gas-engines, which will be 
the motive power at the Iowa mine. Ben Hoskins, mill- 
builder of Baxter Springs, is in charge of the construction 
work. A feature of the plant is that the building will be 
covered with a new roof entirely of zinc. Zinc sheets will be 
used and so placed as to conform to the best methods of 
laying roofing of this kind, allowing for expansion and con- 

•The Iowa company has had many obstacles to overcome 
in the development of its mine. The lease is regarded as 
one of the richest in the district. Eighteen or nineteen holes 
were sunk in the prospecting and a fine body of ore blocked 
out. Spasmodic troubles with water delayed operations at 
times and just when everything seemed to be ready for a 
continuation o£ mine development a fire destroyed nearly 
everything at the plant. After re-building the engine-house 
and derrick, work was resumed underground and negotia- 
tions were started looking to the purchase of a mill. 


Searchlight. — A. S. Gaines and Charles Johnson have 
found srme fine ore on their lease on the 600-£t. level of the 
old Duplex mine. The find is said to be similar to that 
made about two months ago by Burdick and Perkins on the 
500-ft. level of the Duplex. Burdick and Perkins are still 
mining ore worth about $200 per ton and are shipping at 
the rate of a car every eight days. Gaines and Johnson 
expect to begin shipments at once. 


Grantsvillc. — Promising mineralization has been pene- 
trated in the adit being driven at the 'L' Marie property to 
open at depth a shoot of good ore previously opened by a 
shallow shaft. This property is situated in the Free Coin- 
age district, nine miles east of here. In the face of the tun- 
nel, which is about 75 ft. from the portal, four inches of 
high-grade silver-lead ore, containing manganese and spar, 
has baen cut. 

Bingham. — I'pper workings at the United States proper- 
ties here are to be turned over to lessees, according to D. 
D. Iiluir, mine manager. The United States properties in- 
clude the old Jordan and Galena mines, from which high- 
grade galena was mined in the early days. 

Alta, — Since June 15, the South Hecla company has been 
shipping an average of one carload of ore per day, according 
to George H. Watson, general manager. At present 57 men 
are employed at the property, and twice that number could 
be used to advantage, if they were available. A similar 
shortage of men exists in the other mines in the district. 


Stevens County. — The only mining company in Washing- 
ton that is now paying dividends is the Electric Point which 
has made two disbursements this year and expects to con- 
tinue its present rate of $23,790 per quarter. The North- 
west Magnesite Co. is making good profits but has not yet 
declared any dividends. The American Minerals Production 
Co., alsoa magnesite corporation, paid a dividend of $30,000 
in 1917 and may resume payments before long, in view of 
the present condition of the mine. 

A concentrating plant has been erected at the Lead Trust 
mine and has started operation. The plant is of 75 tons 
daily capacity and designed to dress lead ore. Operations 
have disclosed ore 6 to 14 ft. wide on two levels. One level 
is 200 ft. above the mill and the other 350 ft., both being 
opened with adits. 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of theti 
work and appointments. The information is interesting: to our readers. 

P. L. Sizer is in Arizona. 

J. Power Hutchins writes from Italy. 

W. Pellew-Harvey, of London, is at Vaneeuver. 

A. Campbell, of Anaconda, visited Globe recently. 
Algernon Del Mar, of Los Angeles, Is at Alamos, Mexico. 
Wilber Jndson is on his way back to New York from Sam 


Charles Janin left Penang, Straits Settlements, for Lon- 
don on July 7. 

E. O. Daue has returned to Blueflelds, Nicaragua, from 
Easton, Pennsylvania. 

William B. Bishop and P. L. Watson, of Lima, Peru, are 
visiting the South-West. 

Frederick F. Ransom is doing geological work in the oil- 
fields near Santa Maria, California. 

D. A. Lyon, supervisor of stations for the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines, was recently in San Francisco. 

John Davenport, formerly of Boston, is at Wausau, Wis- 
consin, in care of the Wausau Abrasives Co. 

Bobert M. Hampton, of Tonopah, is now superintendent 
for the Utah Boston Development Co., at Bingham, Utah. 

W. S. Hall, metallurgical engineer for the Chino Copper 
Co., at Hurley, New Mexico, is visiting metallurgical plants 
in Utah. 

Paul T. Bnihl has left Thomson, Georgia, and is now with 
the New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co., at San 
Juancito, Central America. 

M. J. Pinnegan, of Worcester, and E. L. Marsh, of Boston, 
who are interested in Nevada and Utah mining properties, 
were at Salt Lake City recently. 

W. Prouty, geologist for the Old Dominion company at 
Globe, has been appointed chief geologist for the Copper 
Queen branch of the Phelps Dodge Corporation at Bisbee. 

B. A. Sulliger has left the Estaca Mining Co., at Contra 
Estaca, Mexico, to take charge of the Delores Esperanza Co., 
at Delores. H. D. Hickie succeeds him as superintendent 
for the Estaca Mining Co. 

M. J. Gavin, refinery engineer for the V. S. Bureau of 
Mines, with headquarters at Salt Lake City, visited the San 
Francisco office of the Bureau during June in connection 
with oil-shale development. 

W. E. Dickson, assistant engineer, and R. B. Bowe, junior 
engineer of the U. S. Geological Survey at Salt Lake City, 
are at Wabuska, Nevada, installing a naw reeordlng-gauge 
station on the Walker river. 

T. H. O'Brien, for twelve years manager for the Stag 
Canyon Fuel Co., at Dawson, New Mexioo, a subsidiary of 
the Phelps Dodge Corporation, has been appointed general 
manager for the Inspiration Con. Copper Go. and also for the 
'"'"-national Smelting Co. 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend announce the entry of Capt. 
William A. Loftus, Thomas Cast berg, James M. Abbett, and 
John H. Herring into the firm, which will be known as 
Dewey, Strong, Townsend & Loftus, with offiees as hereto- 
fore in the Crocker building, San Francisco. 

J. M. Hill, of the U. S. Geological Survey, has been trans- 
ferred from Washington to the Survey's office in San Fran- I 
Cisco, where he will be associated with Charles G. Yale. Mr. 
Hill's field of geological studies will include the Pacific Coast 
States and to some extent also Arizona and Nevada. The 
desirability of having a geologist attached to the San Fran- 
cisco office has long been felt, for many requests for exami- 
nation and report are received that cannot be met by sending 
a Federal geologist across the continent. 



.InIt 17. 1920 






Ban Francisco. July l.'t 

Aluminum -dust, cents per pound 65 

Antimony, cents per pound 9.00 

Copper, electrolytic, ceate per pound i:i on 

Lead, piir, centa per pound 8.35 — 0.25 

Platinum, pure, per ounce |85 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce 5118 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 585 

Spelter, cents per pound 9.50 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 13.50 — 15.00 


(By wire from New York) 
July 12. — Copper Is Qulel and strong 1 , Lead ia inactive but firm. Zinc 
u dull but steady. 


Below are given official or ticker Quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
BfiO flnc. From April 33. 1918. the United States government paid 51 per 
ounce for all silver purchased by it. fixing 1 a maximum of 51-01% on 
August 15. 1918. and will continue to pay 51 until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5, 1919, all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the .British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25, 1919. on account of 
the low rate of sterling- exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10. 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 
pence per ounce (935 fine) calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 
New York 



« 90.00 

7 91.87 

8 94.50 

9 91.75 

10 93.12 

11 Sunday 

12 92.87 



week ending 






. .101.17 




. . 98.23 



. ..86.00 




. . 87.07 




. . 91.41 



. . 89.97 



. . 92.18 



Apr 95.35 

May 99.50 

June 99.50 








July 99.62 

- Aug 100.31 

l Sept 101.12 

' Oct 101.12 

: Nov 101.12 

Dec 101.12 



Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 


6 19.00 

7 : 19.00 

8 19.00 

9 19.00 

10 19.00 

11 Sunday 

12 19.00 


Average week ending 








Jan 23.50 

Feb 23.50 

Mch 23.50 

Apr 23.50 

May 23.50 

June 23.50 

Lead is quoted in 
July B 


Monthly averages 



July 26.00 

Aug 26.00 

Sept 26.00 

Oct 26.00 

Nov 26.00 

Dec 26.00 



11 Sunday 


Jan 6.85 

Feb 7.07 

Mch 7.26 

Apr 6.99 

May 6.88 

June 7.59 

cents per pound, 






. . 8.25 

New York delivery. 

Average week ending 







1918 1919 




Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 
1919 1920 1 
71.60 62.74 
72.44 59.87 
72.60 61.92 
72.50 62.12 
72.60 54.99 
71.83 48.33 


Jan 86.13 

Feb. 86.00 

Mch 85.00 

Apr 88.53 

May 100.01 

June 91.00 


July 93.00 

Aug 91.33 

Sept 80.40 

Oct 78.82 

Nov 73.67 

Dec 71.62 



Zinc Is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York delivery, 
in cents per pound. 




11 Sunday 












Average week ending 

3 7::::::::::::::::: 





Monthly averages 

























1918 1919 





The primary market for quicksilver 1b San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date I Jane *> 85.0* 

June 15 85.00 July « 90.0* 

22 85.00 1 " 13 86.0* 

Monthly averages 


Jan 128.06 

Feb 118.00 

Mch 112.00 

Apr 115.00 

May 110.00 

June 112.00 




Jnly 120.00 

Ang 120.00 

Sept 120.00 

Oct 120.00 

Nov 120.00 

Dee 116.00 










The New York market for silver and the operation of the Pittman Act 
have been followed with interest by bankers and bullion dealers in Europe. 
Under influences tending to depress silver in world markets, such as 
Chinese selling and Continental selling of silver coins, Europe watched the 
price decline in this market well below the dollar mark, with the Pittmaa 
Act ineffectual for the time being. Now that the Treasury has found a 
means of putting the Pittman Act into operation, and thus stimulating the 
price even for foreign silver, practicability of. the measure is still ques- 
tioned by foreign dealers. 

Advices to hand reflect views of foreign dealers on Information that the 
Director of the Mint had revised its regulations regarding tender of silver 
of United States origin, although mixed with alien-produced silver in refin- 
ing. Resultant stimulation of silver in New York by this means is re- 
garded as rather artificial and as tending to be against commercial interests 
of United States citizens in settlement of trade obligations with China, or 
where debts are to be paid in silver. 

Samuel Montagu & Co., bullion dealers, of London, say: "There are 
two good reasons, both touching the well-being of the people of the United 
States, why silver sold under the Pittman Act should not be purchased at 
a dollar the fine ounce. First, there is the prospect that if the dollar 
limit were removed their silver could be acquired at a substantial discount 
of 25% or more under the dollar per fine ounee. Second, the balance of 
trade with China was against the United States to extent of £14.684,000 in 
1914 and in 1919 had increased to 848.639,000 (nearly 3% times). 

"Any fall in the price of silver must have material effect in reducing to 
people of the United States the cost of commodities from the Far East. 
In the above figures a fall of 50% in the price of stiver would not only 
show an apparent gain of £5.000,000 to people of the United States, but 
it would really mean many times more, for trading and manufacturing 
profits connected with raw material imported from China would be. to a 
large extent, proportionately lessened by a redaction of wholesale and 
retail prices." 


Financiers of experience and vision continue to stress taxes and public 
debts as factors of the utmost importance financially. Otto H. Kahn thinks 
the excess profits tax ia the source of much economic evil and gives ex- 
cellent reasons for his belief. Another economist, who is not of the bank- 
ing fraternity, thinks there is great danger of the world's gold reserves 
becoming inadequate, and suggests that gilt-edge gold interest-bearing bonds 
be made the baaia of the currency by Congress if a great crisis ia to be 
averted owing to the deflation of credit Just when inflation is needed, or 
later will be needed, by expanding business in thiB country and in Europe. 

As to national debts there ia perhapa less awe of the great indebtedness 
piled up since 1913. Everything la relative. Ia Britain's present war debt 
any greater, relatively speaking than the four billions she owed at the end 
of the Napoleonic ware? It is not. Britain 1b a great many times richer 
than she was 124 years ago. If this is true of the English what is to be 
said of the war debt of the United States which country, equally rieh. 
though only half developed, hae a war debt of ¥30,000,000,000. 


Foreign quotations on July 13 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 3.93% 

Demand 3.94 F £ 

Franca, cents: Cable . 8.42 

Demand ^44 

Lire, cents: Demand , (J.«6 

Marks, cents ......,,.,. 2.84 



July 17, 1920 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, July 7. 
The three-day holiday has not been a stimulus to an al- 
ready rather lifeless market. Prices have, however, re- 
mained fairly strong. 

Buying of copper is only moderate but prices are steady 
and unchanged. 

Business in tin is confined to dealers and is light. 
Demand for lead is small. Prices are firm but nominal. 
The zinc market is stronger and prices are higher. 
Antimony is unchanged and quiet. 

Pig-iron output increased in June, showing that the net 
result of all the changes in the railroad situation was favor- 
able. At 3,043,540 tons for the 30 days the daily average 
was 101,451 tons, a gain of about 5000 tons per day upon 
the May output, which was 2,985,682 tons for 31 days. May 
in turn showed a gain of 5000 tons per day over April. But 
the industry is still nearly 7 500 tons below the peak reached 
in March when the daily average was 108,900 tons. The 
estimated capacity active at the opening of the month was 
101,500 tons per day, against 98,350 tons for 295 furnaces 
on June 1. 

The latest word from steel-producing centres, however, in- 
dicates a more unfavorable turn, within the week. The Com- 
merce Commission order that open-top cars be sent to coal 
mines and the renewal of the order directing box-cars to 
grain-producing sections have left steel-mills so short of cars 
ihat there is increased talk of a suspension of operations for 
ten days or two weeks to permit of a clearing up of the 
desperate congestion. 

While reports from the automobile industry have been un- 
favorable, two companies made records in June, one turning 
out 3 5 00 cars per day and another 6 25 cars. 

Cars bought by industrial companies have amounted to 
6 500 since May 1 and active inquiries will bring the total to, 

Conditions as to labor and transportation are not greatly 
altered. Demand continues light from domestic sources but 
buying for foreign shipment is good. There is more interest 
for forward shipment by domestic buyers, and sales have 
been made of both Lake and electrolytic copper, for forward 
as well as prompt and early delivery, on the basis of 19c, 
New York. Large producers are firm in their quotations of 
19c. for both grades. The outside market is believed to have 
been pretty well cleaned out of speculative and cheap lots 
and is quoted at around 18.50c, New York, for early de- 

Statistics regarding copper exports show that to June 1 
these have been at the rate of 3*0,906 gross tons per month 
and that the average for the half year will probably be 30,- 
000 tons per month. This compares with 19,000 tons per 
month in 1919 and 32,000 tons per month in 1913, the 
record before the War. Exports during the War were high- 
est at 41,000 tons per month in 1917. 
There has been no heavy buying in this market recently. 
Such as has been reported has been mostly on the part of 
dealers and has not exceeded 100 tons. Consumers are not 
interested. Dealers, however, appear to be optimistic about 
the future of prices and this is the reason for this activity, 
but there are, however, few sellers. Until Friday of last 
week there was almost no buying, but late that day a few 
dealers were buyers of future shipment at prices ranging 
from 47.75c to 49c. and at the close 49.50c was asked. Spot 
Straits tin is scarce and prices are nominal and fairly stiff. 

closing on Friday at 50.25c, New York. Yesterday, how- 
ever, the market was nominally lower at 48c, New York, 
due to a decline in London over the holiday from £273 per 
ton on July 2 to £259 yesterday. 

Tin arrivals in June are reported to have been 4730 tons, 
of which 900 tons came in at Pacific ports. The amount of 
tin delivered into consumption in June was 6500 tons, of 
which 5 600 was from Atlantic ports. The quantity in stocks 
and landing on June 30 was 35S6 tons. Imports to July 1, 
this year, have been 27,743 tons, of which 20,820 tons was 
Straits tin. To July 1, 1919, the imports were only 6341 

The market is quiet and quotations are nominal. The 
undertone, however, is strong. There is a marked scarcity 
for certain positions. It is almost impossible to purchase 
prompt-shipment metal and spot delivery is scarce. There 
is, however, almost no demand for either position. There 
has been no change in the quotation of the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co., which is 7.75c, St. Louis, or 8c, New 
York. An appraisal of the outside market is a guess, but it 
may be conservatively quoted as nominal at 8c, St. Louis, 
or 8.25c, New York. Quotations range up to 8.50c, New 

The market is stronger and prices are higher. This is 
due to three causes. One is the shutting-down of most of 
the mines in the Joplin district, due to labor troubles and 
the exodus of men to the farms. This will last a month at 
least and thus reduce the supply of ore. Another cause is a 
better inquiry from galvanizers and brass-makers, and the 
third reason is a stronger London market. Prime Western 
for early and third-quarter delivery is quoted at 7.85c, St. 
Louis, or 8.20c, New York, with fair inquiries reported. 


Quotations are unchanged at 7.50c to 7.75c, New York, 
duty paid, for wholesale lots for early delivery. 


Virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, is quoted in wholesale lots 
for early delivery at 33c, New Y'ork, by the leading interest 
and at 31.50c by other sellers. 

Tungsten: There is no life to the market and no features. 
Quotations are nominal at $5.50 to $15 per unit, depending 
on the "grade, the •quantity, and the delivery. 

Ferro-tungsten and tungsten powder is quoted at 8 5c. to 
$1.05 per pound of contained tungsten, f.o.b. makers' works. 

Molybdenum: Conditions are unchanged with prices nomi- 
nal at 75c to 85c per pound of MoS. in regular concentrate. 

Manganese: The market is strong at 70c. to 75c per unit 
for high-grade ore. A large consumer has contracted for 
20,000 tons per month of Indian ore, deliveries commencing 
last month to continue one year. Imports in May were 
5 6.5 86 tons, the largest for any month this year. The total 
for the 11 months to June 1 this year is 243,572 tons, against 
444,902 tons to the same date in 1919. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: Demand is light and quotations 
are firm at $200, delivered, for domestic alloy for last half, 
with $195, seaboard, for a limited quantity of British alloy. 
The spot quotation is $225, delivered. Imports of ferro- 
manganese in May were 3 981 tons, or the largest in a year 
and a half. The total for the 11 months to June 1, 1920. 
has .been 33.279 tons, as compared with 22.200 tons to 
June 1, 1919. The spiegeleisen market is strong but quiet I 
at $75, furnace. 


July 17, 1920 




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By L.. R. Boyer 

A new track-scale embodying many new and exclusive 
features has been developed by E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., St. 
Johnsbury, Vermont, manufacturers of the well known 
Fairbanks scales. This was occasioned partly by new speci- 

Newly-Designed Scale Beam 

fications adopted jointly by the American Railway Associa- 
tion, the American Railway Engineering Association, and 
other organizations. These specifications make necessary 
such changes in the design of scales on the market up to this 
time, that the new scales in accord with them are not inter- 
changeable -with, the old scales. While changes were being 
made that were sufficient to destroy the interchangeability 
of the new and old, it was decided to go further and remove 
incongruities in design that have been present in scales ever 

since the first were built nearly ninety years ago. The 
feature first noticed on looking at the accompanying illus- 
tration is the departure from the use of the customary I-sec- 
lion levers, and the consistent use of the double-web section 

The scale is built in two capacities for light-duty service, 
or service where only a relatively small number of cars is 
to be weighed. These have 60 
and 7 5-ton sections and lengths 
of 50 ft., 56 ft., and 60 ft. effec- 
tive weighing rail. For heavy 
service or where a large number 
of cars is to be weighed the scale 
will be built in 75 and 100-ton 
sections and in the same three 
lengths as above. The difference 
between the light-duty and heavy- 
duty scales is mainly in the load- 
ing per linear inch of knife-edge, 
this being 5000 lb. in the heavy- 
duty scales and 6000 lb. in the 
light-duty scales. The difference 
in allowable loading and the al- 
lowance of a higher multiple 
main lever in the light-duty 
scales serves to make somewhat 
lighter castings than are neces- 
sary in the heavy-duty scales. 

The beam in keeping with the 
other parts of the scale is novel 
in design. A close study will re- 
veal that this design includes 
well accepted principles essential 
to an accurate and durable mean 
and the difference in appearance 
from the conventional type of 
beam is due to a consistent use 
of these principles. It is Of cast- 
iron with cross-section of in- 
verted-U shape. This shape, be- 
sides giving the maximum rigid- 
ity, furnishes a housing over the 
balance-ball and 1 track for carry- 
ing the poise.' The notches are 
cut in a steel bar inserted in the 
bottom of the back web, which 
ensures that no dirt can fall and 
lodge in them. The type for 
printing weights on tickets is 
fastened on the bottom of the 
front web where it is protected from damage. 

The centre indicating poise suspended from three ball- 
bearing trolley-wheels runs smoothly upon a machined 
track housed inside the beam. Its exact weighing position 
is determined by a positive locking device of 30 or more 
teeth engaging the same number of notches of the beam. 
This locking device or pawl moves in vertical guides ar- 
ranged to be| always tight, to ensure a positive position of 
the poise. A convenient handle on the front of the poise 



July 17, 1921 

serves to operate the pawl when turned in one direction and 
to print the tickets when turned in the other direction. The 
heara stand is of the upright pillar type with compensating 
steel bearing-blocks machined in. 

Standard erection-plans have been drawn which incor- 
porate the best recognized practice as to all details of in- 
stallation. Wide pits afford ample room for installing the 
scale correctly as well as for convenient examination from 
time to time. The design of weigh-bridge, the mounting of 
dead-rail supports and fastening, the arrangement of 
weather guards, and all other details have been worked out 
carefully, with a view to obtaining the most economical way, 
consistent with accurate performance and at the same time, 
the lowest maintenance cost. 


Hy R. E. Fulton 

Freight congestion is, in reality, terminal congestion. The 
present railroad situation vividly demonstrates that the root 
of the much discussed railroad inadequacy lies more in the 
lack of proper terminal facilities than it does in the lack of 
freight-cars. It has further proved that the motor-truck, 
properly used in conjunction with railroad terminals, can 
relieve terminal congestion and increase the productivity of 
each unit of the railroads' rolling stock. 

Although it is estimated that the railroads of this country 
now need 500,000 more freight-cars, it is obvious that, if this 
number of cars were put into service under existing terminal 
•onditions, the confusion would only be increased. Unfortu- 
nately, the majority of railroad terminals were constructed 
in the days of horse-drawn highway transportation facilities, 
and no provision was made for the advent of the motor- 
truek. At that time it was necessary for the railroads to 
bring their freight within a radius of a day's team-haul of 
its final destination, a distance considerably less than can 
now be covered by a motor-truck. Cities have grown and 
traffic has increased, but the terminals have remained prac- 
tically unchanged as far as distribution radius is concerned. 
It Is a fact that the average freight-car travels only about 
six miles per day, and that this inefficiency can be attributed 
directly to wasted time through congestion at terminals. 
Considering that we now have over 2,400,000 freight-cars 
in nse, it can be seen that every mile per day added to the 
productivity of this total by increasing efficiency, is the 
equivalent of 400,000 cars. Thus it is obvious that if a con- 
tinuous movement of freight -cars to and from their terminal 
points can be obtained, a two-fold advantage will result; 
first, eliminating the delay and waste incidental to conges- 
tions, and second, releasing a vast number of cars for main- 
line traffic. 

To say that this can be accomplished by utilizing the 
motor-truck is not a mere prophecy; it is a proved reality. 
The few railroads that have applied the use of trucks in 
their limited way to this problem have met with remarkable 
suecess and should stand as uncompromising examples to 
every railroad now affected by terminal congestion. For ex- 
ample, figures compiled by the U. S. Railroad Administration 
show that in the Big Four yards at Cincinnati, the use of 
motor-trucks with demountable bodies has reduced the time 
required per ton-mile for transfer shipments from 12 hours 
and 18 minutes, to less than S minutes. This saving of time 
is accompanied by a reduction of fifty cents per ton-mile on 
the cost of the transfer shipments. The motor-truck is now 
a permanent supplement to the railroads and has proved its 
capacity to take the short-haul traffic that has developed to 
be time-wasting and unprofitable business for them. By 
'feeding' short-haul shipments to the main-line traffic, it has 
released thousands of cars for long-distance transportation 
and has done much toward relieving congestion at terminals. 


An unusual problem in the handling of hot cement 
clinker with a temperature of 200° and over, was recently 
solved at the plant of the Standard Portland Cement C«. 
at Leeds, Alabama. The method decided upon for moving 
the clinker was a rubber conveyor-belt, but the clinker 
could not be cooled sufficiently in the process previous tt 
conveying to prevent scorching of the belt and its rapid de- 
struction. The answer to this problem was found by run- 
ning the belt at an incline of 12°, so that the lower pulley 
dipped into a trough of water, thus carrying a film of cold 
water upon the belt, onto which the hot clinker from the 
loading hopper was deposited. At this point a new problem 
was met; namely, how to join the belt bo that the belt's full 
strength would be retained, and in a way which would with- 
stand the extremes of temperature, the wear on the pulleys 
and the abrasion of the clinker. For this purpose Crescent 
belt-fasteners were used, because they brought the belt ends 
tightly together in a snug joint, which made the belt prac- 
tically endless on the pulley-side, so there was no oppor- 
tunity for clinker-ash to get into the joint and abrade the 
belt-ends, and also because in this method of joining, n» 
metal came in contact with the pulleys to cause wear. More- 
over, exceptional strength of the heads of the Crescent 
rivets and the formation of Crescent plates prevented de- 
struction of belt-joint through abrasion by the clinker. 

In six months of operation, this conveyor has carried 
61,000 tons of clinker, and the Standard Portland Cement 
Co. credits the saving of $300 in belt-cost alone to this con- 
veyor. The belt used was Goodyear 'hy-temp', which is 
made particularly to withstand temperatures up to 200°, 
and is adapted for work on conveying jobs in mines, coking- 
plants, and cement-factories where heat resistance ani 
ability to withstand hard wear are prime requisites. Not 
alone on heavy drives, such as tube-mill, Griffin mill, crusher, 
and heavy conveyor units are Crescent belt-fasteners suc- 
cessfully used, but also on lighter drives of all kinds where 
dependability is an economic factor, as they assure con- 
tinuous production. The Crescent Belt Fastener Co. has 
just published a new hand-book illustrating Crescent belt- 
fasteners in use on many different kinds of belting an* 
under different conditions. 


The Industrial Cost Accountants Association was organ- 
ized in Chicago on June 18 by representatives of leading 
manufacturers in various lines of industry. The object of 
the new association is the standardization of accounting and 
cost terminology and the adoption of standard governing 
principles; the promotion of active co-operation and Inter- 
change of experiences between representatives of mainufac- 
turers engaged in similar activities; the education of the 
members and their business associates in the complex eco- 
nomic problems of industry; to assist standardization com- 
mittees in each line of industry in establishing uniform ac- 
counting and cost practices; to act as a clearing house i» 
distributing to all members the development in cost prac- 
tices to the end that uniformity, once established, may be 

M. F. Simmons, of Schenectady, New York, supervisor of 
costs for all General Electric Co. interests, was elected presi- 
dent of the association. C. H. Smith, of Wilmerding, Penn- 
sylvania, director of clerical operations of the Westinghouse 
Air Brake Co. interests, was elected first vice-president. 
Roland H. Zinn, of New York, was elected second vice-presi- 
dent. A. A. Alles, Jr., of Pittsburgh, secretary of the Fawcus 
Machine Co. and treasurer of the Schaffer Engineering & 
Equipment Co., was elected secretary-treasurer of the new 
organization. Headquarters of the association win be i» 
Pittsburgh, at the office of the secretary-treasurer, 1501 
Peoples Bank Building. 



1 D i 

I n 


! «j 

' lb 





Hy P. R. Algt-r 

For years there has been a need for some convenient and 
economical method of underground prospecting In the load 
and line mines in the Joplin or Tri-State mining district; 
and this has been especially urgent in the Picher-Miami sec- 
tion recently developed, it frequently happens that the ore- 
•ody Is worked out and the owners wish to locate, for oper- 
ation from the same shaft, other bodies of ore on their prop- 

coupling, sit Fig. 2, which lit" the and threaded 
female ends of the drill-steel, and makes a substantial and 
readily handled coupling. A particular advantage of the 

Fiff. 1. Sullivan Class FS-.'i Murk-Drill 

erty, without going to the expense of new openings from 
the surface. Often the presence of these bodies has been 
iadicated by drilling from the surface. Sometimes their 
location is roughly determined by the geological indications. 
It is a well known fact that the 'runs' of ore frequently fol- 
low water courses, spreading out at some points and dimin- 
ishing at others. 

Sometimes the presence of these runs of ore is indicated 
above the mine stope; frequently they are below the general 
level of the mine. For this class of work, even in the high 
stopes of the Joplin district, the use of a churn-drill under- 
ground is impracticable. Although diamond-drilling has 
keen demonstrated to be practicable the cost is high. 

A method has recently been employed which gives prom- 
ise of excellent success. This consists in the employment 
of a Sullivan 'Hy-Speed' rock-drill of large size, mounted on 
a tripod, and operated by compressed air. The machine em- 
ployed is the Sullivan Class FS-3 machine, see Fig. 1, with 
4j-in. cylinders, mounted on a Lewis hole tripod, having a 
planed and slotted front bar, such as is used in quarries for 
drilling parallel holes to split granite blocks. The FS-3 
machine is exceedingly substantial and powerful; it is equip- 
ped with a hollow piston and employs hollow drill-steel. 
With it, holes have been drilled in Joplin-Miami mines to a 
depth of more than 40 ft. and under favorable condition in 
this class of work the drill is capable of putting in 60-ft. 
holes. Round hollow steel of If in. diameter is employed. 
For lengths above 15 ft. the steel is jointed, the joint itself 
being similar to that used in churn-drill practice. The dif- 
ferent sections are connected by means of a double male 

I'lc. B, Cmiiillni: tin Drill s-l.'i'l 

FS-3 drill consists in the cushion valve at the front end of 
the cylinder. When running inio pockets, or caves, damage 
to the front head may be prevented by throwing a lever near 
the front end of the drill, which puts a front head cushion 
into effect and relieves the drill entirely of the shock and 
danger of breakage from pounding on the front head. This 
feature is also of value in freeing steel that has become 

This drill can put holes in any direction or at any angle. 
In the work already done, some holes were directed a little 
below horizontal, and others at an angle of about 60° above 
horizontal. The cuttings are preserved in the same manner 
as cuttings from a churn-drill hole, and provide a reason- 
ably accurate record of the orebody penetrated. The ad- 
vantages of this method of prospecting are obvious. In the 
first place the deep holes from the surface, running through 
150 to 200 ft. of worthless cap rock, are avoided. In the 
second place, the angle at which the drilling is done permits 
the orebodies to be cross-cut, thus furnishing a valuable 
check on any previous vertical drilling. Third, a large sav- 
ing in time is effected, as compared with other methods of 

By J. C. Williams 

A few years ago I made a litter or stretcher with a joint 
lengthwise through the centre through which ran a strap, 
which, when withdrawn, allowed the stretcher to separate 
like a door-hinge when the centre pin is withdrawn. At 
that time the care of injured employees took up but little 
time of the employer, who had not realized that a workman 
was an asset while he worked but became suddenly a liability 
when he was injured; the term 'first aid' was not yet coined. 
However, the largest industrial concerns suddenly woke up 
to the importance of caring for their employees, many States 
passed drastic laws to enforce care for injured employees 
and to guard against accidents. Today the large plant that 
has not a safety-engineer or first-aid superintendent is the 
exception and not the rule. We christened our stretcher 
from its inception 'Williams' Improved Stretcher', feeling 
sure that would include its' past, present, and future, for it 
has been a succession of improvements — and the end is not 
yet. The only features remaining unchanged today are, the 
use of white duck owing to the fact that it can be washed 
when soiled, while colored ducks cannot be; and the size of 
the cot which remains, 2 by 6 ft., thus assuring interchange- 
ability. Get a cot from us now and it will fit a stretcher 
bought of us two years ago. Practically all other stretchers 
are as alike as 'peas in a pod' — simply a strip of canvas, hem 
on each end, tacked to wooden handles with braces about 
one foot from each end for spreaders and iron legs riveted 
on, there are usually about seventy-five tacks to each side 
so it is out of the question to take the cot off to wash, in fact, 
this kind of stretcher is not intended to be washed, but to be 
thrown away when soiled and new stretchers bought. With 
our improved stretcher no two component parts are insepa- 
rable, for instance, the cot is in two interlocking parts, the 
rubber strap acting as lock, the spreader and legs are of one 
piece and easily slipped from the handles, the handles slip 
through a hem at each side of the stretcher, there are no 
tacks, no catches of any kind, so when it Is taken apart, we 
have two handles, two spreading-iron and legs, one rubber 



July 17, 1920 

strap, and one each right and left-hand cots. Any and all of 
these parts can be perfectly cleaned. We sell our stretcher 
in a dust-proof bag so it reaches the customer clean and can 
be kept clean, always ready for instant use. Naturally we 
do not compete in price with the old-fashioned stretcher any 
more than mazda lamps do with kerosene lamps. 


In mines and metallurgical plants where the direct-cur- 
rent supply is obtained from a motor-generator set, it is fre- 
quently advantageous to control the power equipment from 
some remote point, thus eliminating the necessity of an 

or the breaker may be left closed and the equipment oper- 
ated by means of the remote control-switch. The closing 
of the main circuit-breaker effects the closing of the phase- 
failure and reversal relay, unless one or more of the phases 
are open or reversed, in which case the abnormal condi- 
tion must be moved from the line before the relay will close. 
This relay has also the characteristics of a voltage-relay, so 
the equipment will not operate if the line-voltage is very 
low. After the relay closes, the automatic starter connects 
the motor through an oil-switch to the low-voltage taps of 
an auto-transformer. When the equipment has come up to 
speed, the oil-switch opens and a second oil-switch connects 
the motor directly to the supply-line, at the same time com- 
pleting a circuit to the closing-coil of the automatic re- 

Switchboard for Automatic Control of Miitor-tieneratnr Sets 

Rear View of Board, Showing A. C. Oil-Switeiies and Cireuit-Breaker 

attendant at the switchboard. Several mines are using 
with their motor-generator sets an automatic control-panel, 
shown in the illustrations, which has all the protective fea- 
tures used in the small modern switchboards, and may be 
controlled from any remote point by means of an ordinary 
snap switch. 

This automatic equipment, manufactured by the Cutler- 
Hammer Mfg. Co. of Milwaukee,, consists of the necessary 
circuit-breakers, switches, relays, fuses, and recording in- 
struments mounted on slate panels carried on a floor-type 
frame. The primary equipment of the control-panel shown 
in the illustration consists of a hand-operated oil circuit- 
breaker provided with inverse time overload attachments, a 
phase-failure and phase-reversal relay, and an automatic 
starter of. the auto-transformer type. This is to be used 
with induction motors, but the same general equipment with 
a few slight changes can be used with motors of the syn- 
chronous type. On the direct-current side a knife-switch, 
voltmeter, and ammeter with the necessary fuses, and an 
automatic re-closing circuit-breaker are provided. 

With the remote control-switch 'on' the controller may be 
operated by merely closing the main-line oil circuit-breaker. 

closing circuit-breaker, which immediately closes, establish- 
ing the generator voltage on the direet-current feeders. In 
case of an overload on the direct-current side, the circuit- 
breaker opens, and re-closes when the overload is removed. 
The oil-switches used on this equipment were described and 
illustrated in the January 10 issue ol 'Mining and Scientific 
Press'. These control-panels can be furnished in different 
capacities up to 300 kw. and, when desired, can be built for 
operating two motor-generator sets in parallel. 

The Worthington Pump & Machinery Corporation an- 
nounces the purchase from the Piatt Iron Works, Dayton, 
Ohio, of its drawings, patterns, jigs, templates, special 
tools, good-will, and came, in connection with the following 
products: (1) oil-mill machinery, suitable for the extrac- 
tion of oil from all sorts of nut and seed products, com- 
prising crushers, cookers, cake-formers', presses, filters, and 
pumps; (2) hydraulic turbine and water-wheels, including 
horizontal and vertical, high and low-head machines; (3) 
feed-water heaters, steel and cast-iron, horizontal and ver- 
tical; (4) high-pressure air-compressors ,for torpedo and 
other high-pressure charging, cleaning, and discharging. 


I" H It I I II Mull III I nil. 

'.<': uiihiiiiimnmii 



T. A. RlCKARO, Editor 

L. a parsons, associate editor 


Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


PiihtMmt at ISO Market St., San Francisco, 
hv ttu Detect) PabtUhfno Compan|i 


C. T. Hutchinson, manager 
E. H. LESLIE, 600 Fismer Bdc, Chicago | 
F. A. WEIGLE, 3514 WOOLWORTM Bdg,, N.V, | 

i n ii"! iiiiimiiiiiiiiuniii 

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Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 24, 1920 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 





. Ill 


Smeller .settlements based on a "guess". A true 
weighted average has never been available. The 
McGraw-Hill publications are absolved from collu- 
sion, and the editor of the 'Journal' given credit for 
bis frankness. A fake acknowledged at last. 


Discussion of Mr. Gilbert Rigg's paper by a num- 
ber of metallurgists. Peculiar practice in a Rhode- 
sian plant. The result of high-zinc and high-sul- 
phur content on blast-furnace operation. De- 
zinking slag. Mr. W. Dewar on roasting. A tend- 
ency to neglect the older processes, in enthusiasm 
for the new. 


.Mr. William B. Colver's statement of the reasons 
for the creation of the Commission. The hearing 
on the complaint against Minerals Separation. 
Procedure not adapted to eliciting the truth. Ir- 
relevant matter in a voluminous record. Sufficient 
evidence to warrant disciplining Minerals Separa- 
tion should appear. 



By Thos. French 115 

Issue is taken with a letter from Mr. A. Moline. 
British notes and gold coins. Reference to a 
speech by Mr. Francis A. Govett. 


By Thomas T. Read 115 

The experiment of Charles W. Gardner. Gold and 
quicksilver. Quicksilver wets gold as oil wets a 
lamp-wick. The solubility of gold in mercury. 

By Martin Schwerin 116 

Explanation of the phenomena described by Mr. 

Gardner: gravity, amalgamation, resistance of the 
gold, surface-tension of the mercury. A third ex- 
periment suggested. 



By Walter S. Weeks 117 

Characteristic curves. Effects of variation in 
speed. Operation of fans in series and in parallel. 
Economic size of airways; a concrete problem. 
Selection of an appropriate fan and motor, 
factors involved in a choice. 



By Charles T. Hutchinson 123 

"Once upon a time there was a promoter"; also a 
bank-president whose opulence had not overcome 
his cupidity. He visits a mine and takes some 
samples. Thereupon he lays a trap for the un- 
wary promoter. A publicity campaign. The 
grand opening of the mine and mill. The pro- 
moter departs for New York to take a deserved 
vacation. An engineer arrives on the scene in 
time to prepare an obituary — of the mine. 

Plant of Bilrowe Alloys Co. at Tacoma. Descrip- 
tion of the equipment. Analyses of ore treated and 
the alloy produced. 











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July 24, 1920 

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.lulv 24, 1920 



T. A. K.ICKARV, .... Editor 



OALES of copper during June were 52 million pounds, 
^ as compared with G2 in May and 1(11 in April, making 
a total "I' 215 million pounds fur the second quarter of the 
year, as compared with 639 millions during the first 
quarter and 753 millions in the last quarter of 1919. 
Thus in nine months 1607 million pounds has heen sold, 
besides 350 millions of copper refined in the other coun- 
tries. The refinery output in the United States has been 
ahoid 1250 million pounds during the nine months, in- 
dicating a reduction in world stocks of 357 million 
pounds. That is less than was hoped. At present the 
stock of refined metal in this country is about 400 million 
pounds, not counting the copper in course of treatment. 
The figures for the first quarter of this year show the 
effect of the crippled railroad traffic, which has been in- 
jurious both to production and consumption. It is ap- 
parent also that there has been a hitch in the arrange- 
ment for financing the export of copper to France. More- 
over, our legal state of war continues to militate against 
our commerce in metals as in other commodities needed 
by Europe. 

TN our last issue we mentioned tlie fact that the Mining 
■*■ Experiment Station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines has 
been moved from Golden, Colorado, to Reno, Nevada, be 
cause the trustees of the Colorado School of Mines de- 
clined to renew the contract whereby the Station was 
Quartered in a suitable building, but offered new quarters 
in an unsuitable building, and stipulated that all work 
done by the Bureau in Colorado should be done at 
Golden. This last proviso seems to have been prompted 
by jealousy of the University of Colorado, at Boulder, 
where oil-shale investigations are being conducted by the 
Bureau. The trustees, it seems, have made a blunder. 
The editor of 'Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering', 
Mr. H. C. Parmelee, says: "The transparency of this 
subterfuge will be evident to those who are familiar with 
the location of the mill in the creek-bottom and its unfit- 
ness for use in the delicate and exact work conducted by 
the Bureau ' '. This refers, of course, to the new site offered 
by the trustees. Mr. Parmelee knows whereof he speaks, 
for he was president of the Colorado School of Mines and 
had to resign, for reasons that do him no discredit. We 
are informed that the mining people of Colorado appre- 
ciate highly the work done by the Bureau of Mines at 
Golden and Boulder, and they ' ' deeply deplore the action 

Zinc Experiment Station of 1he Bureau of Mines is to be 
established at Rolla, and is to be conducted in association 
with the Missouri School of Mines at that place. 

FN the current 'Atlantic Monthly' Dr. Frederick Stair. 
-*• the anthropologist, describes Mexican politics for the 
benefit of the Boston intelligentsia. He finds many 
analogies between conditions Upon the opposite banks of 
the Bio Grande; for example, Carranza's effort to force 
Ignacio Bonillas upon the Mexican people as his suc- 
cessor in the Presidency was like Roosevelt's successful 
effort in forcing Mr. Taft upon the American people. 
In both eases, says Dr. Starr, the result was the disrup- 
tion of the party and war to the knife, but he overlooks 
the fact that the "war to the knife" in one case was 
figurative and in the other literal. He seems to think 
that fighting with ballots is much the same as fighting 
with bullets. Disregarding a difference that seems to us 
to be more than academic, he concludes that the American 
people is in no position to criticize the Mexican people. 
It is not the first time that an anthropologist has failed 
to understand the politics of his own day. We have more 
respect for the opinion of the small hoy who was asked 
by his teacher: "Now, Johnny, can you tell me what is 
raised in Mexico?" The bright boy replied promptly: 
"Aw go on, I know what you want me to say, but ma 
told me to cut out that rough stuff." 

of the trustees" 

Meanwhile we note that the Lead and 

AMONG the items of misinformation appearing on the 
editorial page of the 'Morning Howl' we note the state- 
ment that "Great Britain has found an effective mode of 
stimulating production in her South African mines in the 
shape of a disguised bounty to producers". The stimula- 
tion is due, of course, directly to the fall in exchange where- 
by more shillings have to be paid for an ounce of gold ; the 
cause lies as much in New York as in London. The article 
in which the misleading assertion appears is meant to sup- 
port the proposed $10 excise-tax on manufactured gold 
under the terms of the McFadden bill. The chief objec- 
tion made to this bill is that it is a piece of special 
legislation, in behalf of a relatively small industry. 
This, we must confess, is a valid objection, much as we 
may sympathize with the gold miner. Such legislation 
provokes log-rolling in Congress, after the fashion of the 
methods by which support is obtained for River and Har- 
bor Bill appropriations and tariffs in favor of various 
domestic products. It has heen suggested that a law be 



July 24, 1920 

passed forbidding the sale of gold by the Mint to manufac- 
turers, but any such provision would be avoided by taking 
Federal Reserve notes and converting them into gold coin, 
which could then be melted into bullion. Another idea is 
to prohibit the use of gold in manufactures, thereby re- 
stricting its employment to monetary purposes. All such 
legislation is objectionable because it destroys the free 
market for gold, on which in the long run we must de- 
pend for a correction of the existing abnormal conditions. 
The problem is one that has world-wide implications; it 
is not local nor even national. 

/~iN page 142 we give extracts from a speech made at 
^-' Johannesburg by Mr. Samuel Evans, the chairman 
of the Crown Mines company. Mr. Evans is a man much 
respected for his sagacity and good sense. He stated that 
the premium on gold produced from January to May 
inclusive this year had averaged 21s. Id. per ounce, which 
is equivalent to 25%. An ounce of gold is worth nor- 
mally 84.95 shillings. The premium, he said, repre- 
sented 7s. less than the increase in cost per ounce since 
1913, which therefore must have been 28s., or $6.75, per 
ounce produced. White wages have increased 69% since 
1915 ; the average earnings of European workers have 
risen 64.6%; stores cost 33% more, and other costs are 
36% higher than five years ago. The purchasing power o 
gold in South Africa, however, has not fallen as rapidly 
its in England, where it is half what it was in 1914. If the 
commodity price of gold had remained as it was in 1896 
the average cost of mining on the Rand would be, accord- 
ing to Mr. Evans, under 12s. per ton as against the actual 
average of 22i{s. last year and the higher figure this 
year. The banks of South Africa have been issuing 
paper money at an accelerating rate and they seem bent 
upon "plunging the country deeper into the paper- 
money bog". In this respect South Africa is no solitary 
sinner. The gold held by the 31 principal countries of the 
world is only two billion dollars more than before the 
"War, whereas the pile of paper money is larger by 43; 

WE can think of no act of courage more unselfish or 
" more splendid than to enter a burning or caving 
mine in an effort to save the life of fellow workmen 
The risk is not faced on the spur of the moment, it is 
taken knowingly and deliberately; it means entering a 
dark hole in the ground where the story of a valiant effort 
may be buried with the bodies of those in danger and 
their would-be rescuers, and even if successful there can 
be nothing of the spectacular in the performance; there 
is no glamor of heroic achievement before an admiring 
crowd ; often there is less chance of saving the lives of 
the imperiled ones than of losing those of the men that 
seek to aid them. It is an everlasting tribute to the 
miner that invariably when the emergency arises some- 
one quietly undertakes the task of rescue. On the 
occasion of the international first-aid and mine-rescue 
contest to be held at Denver next September Dr. Freder- 
ick G. Cottrell, Director of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, on 
behalf of the Joseph A. Holmes Safety Association, will 

present gold medals and appropriate diplomas to four 
miners, and to the nearest surviving relatives of three 
others, who lost their lives in their effort to succor fellow- 
workmen. Mr. John L. Boardman, wearing an oxygen 
helmet, single-handed saved three men who had been 
overcome by gas from a fire in the West Colusa mine all 
Butte. Mr. Daniel Bionvitch jeopardized his own life 
by running his electric locomotive three times into I he 
fire-zone at the Balkan mine in Bewalik, Minnesota, on 
each trip bringing out men whose lives were imperiled] 
At. the Gold Hunter mine, near Mullan, Idaho, two miners 
were entombed as a result of a fall of ground. Mr. James 
Collins and Mr. James Dillmark, while endeavoring to 
help their comrades, were themselves caught by caving 
rock. They were later rescued although buried to the 
shoulders in broken ore. Messrs. Michael Conroy, Peter 
Sheridan, and James D. Moore particularly distinguished 
themselves in the terrible fire in the Speculator mine at 
Butte, in which they and 168 other miners lost their 
lives. The heroism of these three, however, stood out 
particularly, and their relatives are now to receive the 
honors that the men so unselfishly earned. The other 
men named will receive their medals in person. There 
are doubtless others both living and dead who under 
similar circumstances have performed deeds equally 
worthy. To them, let us hope, has come reward no less 
than to these whose heroism is to have a public recogni- 
tion so richly deserved. 

Metal Quotations 

Great is truth and it will prevail, says a Latin proverb. 
We arc amused to read the naive and belated confession 
of the 'Engineering and Mining Journal', in an editorial 
appearing in the issue of July 10, acknowledging that ils 
metal quotations are merely approximations, of a char- 
acter unsatisfactory even to its editor. For many years 
we have insisted upon the absurdity of mine-operators 
selling their ore and basing their wage-scale on the guess 
of a trade-paper in New York. Heretofore our contem- 
porary has insisted upon the essential accuracy of its 
weekly guesses and it has suited the metal-buyers to 
accept its figures in the settlement of purchases from I he 
smaller mining companies. The big ones, of course. 
avoided doing anything so foolish; they sold their metal 
through their own agencies. We have insisted again and 
again that the price at which copper, for example, is sold 
by a given individual or company may be ascertained 
definitely, but the average price at which a variable num- 
ber of producers at varying intervals sell varying quanti- 
ties of copper cannot be determined by anybody, unless 
all the transactions are known accurately, that is, a true 
weighted average has never been available to the trade. 
Only recently the editor of the 'Journal', anxious to 
prove that the papers of the McGraw-Hill agglomeration 
were not "in collusion " as to metal prices, showed what 
discrepant quotations they have been giving their read- 
era Of course, he proved too much; we hastened to ex- 
cuse the 'Journal' from the charge of collusion and we 
absolved it also of the imputation of accuracy. So now 

Juh 24. 1920 



tin- editor rounds the inoidenl by confessing his quota- 
Ions i" In- "unsatisfactory" because they are mere "ap 
■roxiinations" of the truth. He deserves credil for Ins 
frankness; in future there can b<- no misunderstanding as 
to the real character of the 'Journal's' metal prices, 
■here will be do excuse for relying upon them; there 
lever was. Sellers of ore can, and should, settle on the 
price thai the smelter obtains for the metal in their ore; 
miners can. ami should, base their sliding scale of wages 
upon the price thai the company obtains for its metal for 
tin* month; as the metal is sold in advance, there need be 
no trouble in adopting such an arrangement. It is a clear 
Kin tn the industry that a fake should have been ac- 
know ledged at last. 

Smelting Lead-Zinc Ores 

Last week we published a paper by Mr. Gilbert Rigg 
in which he detailed recent improvements in the practice 
of roasting: and smelting lead-zinc ore from Broken Hill 
at the Tort Pirie plant. A number of well known metal- 
lurgists associated with smelting enterprises in other 
countries joined in the discussion of the paper and their 
remarks, together with an informal reply by Mr. Rigg, 
appear in the June bulletin of the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy. Mr. Rigg has recently completed a tour 
of the United States in the course of which he visited a 
Lumber of the big smelters, and his comments are doubt- 
less enriched by his observations in this country. The 
discussion therefore brought together ideas on modern 
practice in lead smelting from many parts of the world. 
Mr. S. J. Speak described briefly the blast-furnace smelt- 
ing of an oxidized lead-zinc ore in northern Rhodesia. 
The furnaces were run in a decidedly unusual way. The 
charge-column had a height of only 12 feet above the 
tuyeres, the blast-pressure was maintained at less than 8 
ounces, and the slag, which averaged 20.5% zinc oxide, 
contained 43% ferrous oxide and was extremely low in 
lime, the average analysis for lime and magnesia com- 
bined being only 2 to 3%. The capacity of the furnace 
was but two tons per square foot of tuyere-area, and the 
slag usually contained 7% lead. Obviously this remark- 
ably high lead content suggests faulty reduction and the 
iquestion arises why a higher charge-column and a corre- 
spondingly increased blast-pressure could not be used. 
Moreover, the necessity for a moderate proportion of 
lime to obtain good reduction is generally recognized. A 
query from Mr. Rigg, as to whether any attempt had 
been made to determine the particular form of the lead 
in the slag, was answered in the negative. Without in- 
tending any reflection on those in charge of the plant in 
Rhodesia, there appears to be a fruitful field for pains- 
taking and systematic experimental work with an excel- 
lent chance for revising the practice in such a way as to 
Jffect a decided decrease in the amount of lead in the 
ilag; but final criticism would be imprudent, as the eco- 
lomic conditions may have been such as to warrant the 
procedure described. While on the face of it the metal- 
urgy appears to be bad, it is certainly no more repre- 

hensible than, for instance, tin- practice formerly in 
vogue at Porl Pirie of feeding old slag, in proportion 
ranging from one in two times the remainder of the 

Charge, as a sort of physic to Hush the /inky matte 
through tin- blast-furnace. The cost of quarrying this 
slag, the additional fuel required, the reduction in effec- 
tive capacity of the furnaces, and the cost of the final 
disposal of the extra slag from the furnaces were obvious 

defects, and. as was later demonstrated, they were all 
unnecessary. The concensus of opinion was that a high 
zinc content in the sintered material causes trouble in 
the blast-furnace only when the roast has not been 
effectual in reducing the total sulphur to a. point con- 
siderably below what would be allowable were the zinc 
not prominent ; in fact, the prime essential for the smooth 
operation of the furnaces, when the analysis shows more 
than 15 or 16% of zinc oxide, is the removal of the sul- 
phur. At Port Pirie the sulphur in the sinter is kept at 
approximately 2.5%. In this connection Mr. J. ('. Moul- 
den pointed out that at Cockle Creek difficulty has always 
ensued if the silica content of the slag, containing 20 to 
22% of zinc oxide, is allowed to rise above 20%. Mr. 
H. C. Lancaster injected a novel suggestion. He had 
noted that, whereas slags containing 15 or 16% of zinc, 
oxide were generally conducive to trouble, slags running 
30 and 32%, in his experience, had been quite fluid and 
exceptionally low in lead. He inferred that there might 
be a critical point in the neighborhood of 20% beyond 
which the difficulties incident to the presence of zinc 
diminished. Mr. C. O. Bannister was impressed with the 
possibilities opened up for an alternative method of 
heneficiating a lead-zinc ore. The trend of metallurgical 
development has been in the direction of making two ex- 
ceptionally clean concentrates, one of lead and the other 
of zinc ; this result, of course, being facilitated by the use 
of flotation and fine grinding ; if, however, as seems prob- 
able, a lead concentrate containing a reasonable propor- 
tion of zinc can be smelted successfully and economically 
and the zinc afterward recovered from the slag, the older 
and more simple methods of concentration might be re- 
vived. Several schemes for de-zinking slag are available. 
At South Chicago two methods have been tried, namely, 
charging the slag in lumps, and feeding briquettes made 
of ground slag and pulverized fuel. The use of briquettes 
gives a higher extraction, but, of course, introduces a con- 
siderable extra expense. Blast-furnaces for de-zinking 
have been used in the United States and Germany, but 
the best success has been obtained in reverberatories, fed 
at the side. This last point is important because of the 
fact that the zinc-oxide fume is driven off before actual 
fusion occurs ; accordingly the fuel-ratio and the opera- 
tion must he regulated to avoid actual melting, or the re- 
covery will be poor. Reverting to the roasting process, 
Mr. W. Dewar agreed with Mr. Rigg that the three prin- 
cipal considerations in any roasting operation are tem- 
perature, time, and ventilation or contact of the ore 
particles with the air; and that the three are comple- 
mentary factors. In blast-roasting the third factor is 
emphasized and the time is consequently reduced. He 



July 24, 1920 

points out that the difficulty is to keep the charge from 
becoming hot enough to fuse before roasting is complete, 
and that this may be accomplished by the addition of 
limestone, iron oxide, and slag, and by damping the ore 
preliminary to the roasting process. Primarily, blast- 
roasting has the tremendous advantage of large capacity. 
Mr. Riggs' figures indicate that in 24 hours 270 pounds 
of sulphur is driven off per square foot of hearth-area as 
against only 5 pounds in a furnace of the superimposed- 
hearth type. However, the efficient utilization of Dwight 
& Lloyd machines or Huntington & Heberlein pots de- 
pends upon a careful study of the physical, no less than 
the chemical, characteristics of the material to be smelted. 
There seems to be a tendency, when a process has been 
developed to a point where good results are obtained, to 
subside to a vule-of -thumb practice. Perhaps also, metal- 
lurgists, like the rest of us. are prone to take up fads and 
to centre on them their entire attention while the more 
familiar methods suffer from neglect. Without advo- 
cating by any means a policy of metallurgical Bourbon- 
ism we venture to say that much may be gained by de- 
voting more time, talent, and energy to scientific research 
in some of our supposedly perfected processes. 

The Federal Trade Commission 

We have received a copy of a speech delivered by Mr. 
William B. Colver, a member of the Federal Trade Com- 
mission, at Atlantic City on July 8. We note that he 
says that "the Commission has been created to aid in 
keeping the channel of the River of Commerce free 
from obstructions and the Ships of Commerce moving 
freely without undue interference, one with the other". 
He says that the spirit of the legislation under which the 
Commission was created is expressed by the phrase : 
"Unfair methods of competition in commerce are here- 
by declared unlawful," and he proceeds to expatiate on 
this text by saying: "This declaration means that in 
commerce there shall not be trickery or chicane; that 
there shall not be the rule of might as opposed to right ; 
that unfairness, meanness, ruthlessness, and dishonesty 
have no place in American business." Which reminds 
us of Mr. Bryan's proposal to compel equality of punish- 
ment between the sexes in regard to infractions of the 
seventh commandment. However, if the Federal Trade 
Commission can help toward the much desired consum- 
mation of promoting clean and fair business methods all 
the way from New York to San Francisco, or from Cape 
Cod to Cape Nome, it will deserve, and obtain, the grati 
tude of all good citizens. We take an interest in Mr. 
Colver's remarks because we were present at, and even 
participated in, a recent hearing before the Federal 
Trade Commission in San Francisco when its representa- 
tives were taking evidence in the matter of the complaint 
against the Minerals Separation people. This slight ex^ 
perience of its methods and the reading of the volumi- 
nous record in this particularly interesting case prompt 
the remark that the procedure, like that of the courts in 
patent cases, seems curiously ill adapted to eliciting 

the truth. In the first place, counsel for Minerals Sep- 
aration understands the affairs of his company thor- 
oughly; he has himself testified that he is a director of 
the Minerals Separation North American Corporation, 
and a stockholder in that corporation, "or rather, a 
holder of voting-trust certificates". He holds the whip- 
hand over counsel on the other side, who do not under- 
stand the flotation controversy nearly as well, and are 
bent apparently on a general fishing expedition in the 
course of which they expect to catch some high-smelling 
game. The method is something like the old equity pro- 
cedure termed a 'bill of discovery'. The respondents 
have had to submit to a search among their papers and 
an investigation of their correspondence such as must 
have proved extremely irritating. We would not spare 
that irritation, remembering the high-handed and in- 
quisitorial methods that they themselves have adopted 
toward the operators of mines and mills, but we can 
readily see that the methods permitted under the law to 
the Federal Trade Commission are open to grave abuse! 
As the identity of the complainant and the period cov- 
ered by the actions of which complaint is made air uol 
disclosed to the respondents or to the public, it is impos- 
sible to appreciate how much or how little of the testi- 
mony is pertinent. One thing is sure, there will be an 
enormous mass of it to be digested by the members of the 
Commission before they can deliver a decision. The 
proceedings were started a year ago and the hearings 
began on April 7 last in New York. They are now being 
held in San Francisco, Salt Lake City, and Denver. 
Months must elapse before they are finished and more 
months before the record is corrected and revised for 
presentation to the Commission itself. A great deal of 
irrelevant matter has been put into the record, simply 
because it is impossible for the presiding officer, the 
Commissioner, to tell off-hand how much of it has a 
bearing on the issue. Opposing counsel engage in long 
and wordy debates, not to mention acrimonious squab- 
bles, over points that seem quite immaterial. The pro- 
ceedings in San Francisco, under the direction of Mr. 
Huston Thompson, seem to have been more orderly than 
they were in New York, so far as we can judge by the 
record, but even the Commissioner who presided here 
had to allow a wide latitude in regard to the discussions 
initiated by counsel on both sides. This does not impress 
the spectator as an efficient method of inquiry. It is, of 
course, an old-fashioned way of getting at the truth! 
but it is woefully clumsy. In so far as the inquiry runs 
parallel with the case now before the Court of Appeals 
at Philadelphia, it is regrettable, for the hearings before 
the Commission are quite unsuited to the ventilation of 
technical questions, apart from the unseemliness of tra- 
versing issues that are being tried elsewhere. The in- 
quiry will, we expect, elicit ample evidence of the queer 
practices of the Minerals Separation people and we hope 
that it may lead to their being disciplined for any in- 
fraction of the Clayton act, if they have been guilty 
thereof, but it will, we fear, fail in loosening the blight- 
ing tentacles of that patent-exploiting agency. 

.lulv 24. 1920 




The Price of Gold 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of June 26, Mr. A. Moline says that 
tin conclusions in my letter appearing in your issue of 
March 6 are based on a misconception. He states that, 
"when gold was quoted in London at £6 per ounce it 
meant that for an ounce of gold you could get six British 
notes or a negotiable instrument of equal face value, or 
the equivalent value in other goods, but six sovereigns 
could not be got for an ounce of gold under any conceiv- 
able conditions. " He then goes on to show that if one 
could get six sovereigns for an ounce of gold they would 
be immediately melted down, making an ounce and a half 
of gold, for which one would proceed to obtain nine sov- 
ereigns, and so on ad lib. 

The weak points in Mr. Moline 's argument are : 

1. That in Great Britain it is illegal to mutilate or de- 
stroy sovereigns. "When the price of gold rose in Eng- 
land during the War, the immediate effect was the viola- 
tion of the law, by certain of the public, in melting down 
sovereigns. The British government at once took steps to 
prevent this. 

2. A British note, or a negotiable instrument of equal 
face-value, is a promise to pay gold, in the ultimate. It 
is quite conceivable that if a person must have gold for 
an industrial purpose, he should give a promise to pay six 
sovereigns for an ounce of gold at some future time, and 
this was actually the case. 

In support of what I have said, I would recommend 
Mr. Moline and others to read and re-read the masterly 
address delivered by Mr. Francis A. Govett at the annual 
meeting of the Ivanhoe Gold Corporation, part of which 
was published in your issue of June 5. If you will allow 
me I shall quote Mr. Govett as follows: "For six years 
past, except nominally, the convertibility has been sus- 
pended, and, except in very small amounts, you could not 
get gold for notes; but the credit of the note — the cur- 
rency, either Bradbury or Bank of England — has not 
been damaged to the extent of a penny piece. The fact 
that prices have risen does not mean depreciation of the 
currency ; nor is currency inflated ; currency is not in- 
flated until the currency in circulation is in excess of the 
demand. At the present time more people with higher 
wages have been competing for scarcer commodities, more 
currency has been required, and paper internally has not 
depreciated in gold. Try it for yourselves. You can get 
probably 50 or 100 sovereigns from the bank, once at any 
rate, without being followed by a detective ; go and see if 
you can buy more commodities with your hundred golden 

sovereigns than you can with a hundred Bradburys. You 
cannot do it unless you sell your gold to an illicit buyer 
who proposes to melt it down." 

In view of this I regret that I cannot accept most of the 
five basic facts laid down by Mr. Moline. If No. 5 is cor- 
rect, that "bar gold of specific fineness and sovereigns or 
other gold coin are interchangeable on a fixed arithmetic 
basis only", then why should an illicit buyer of sovereigns 
want to melt them down ? No. 4, which states, ' ' The price 
is expressed in the unit of measurement in current use, 
and just now that is paper currency, not metallic cur- 
rency," is sufficiently well answered by the quotation 

from Mr. Govett. _, _, 

Thos. French 

Guelph, Ontario, July 8. 

[Mr. French is, we think, inconsistent. He takes issue 
with Mr. Moline when he says that ' ' six sovereigns could 
not be got for an ounce of gold under any conceivable 
conditions" and then immediately quotes Mr. Govett as 
saying "For six years past, except nominally, the con- 
vertibility [of notes] has been suspended. . ." Messrs. 
Moline and Govett in substance concur, although Mr. 
French apparently does not think so. — Editor.] 

An Interesting Experiment 

The Editor: 

Sir — The results of the experiment described in the 
communication from Charles W. Gardner, which appear- 
ed in your issue of June 26, are "remarkable and unex- 
pected" if the conditions of the experiment were exactly 
as described, namely that the outer end of the gold strip 
was above the level of the quicksilver in the vial. By 
substituting a lamp-wick for the strip of gold and water 
or oil for the quicksilver the forces involved remain the 
same. When the outer end of the wick is below r the level 
of the liquid in the vial, the liquid will drip from the 
outer end of the wick ; in other words, the wick will act 
like a siphon. Quicksilver wets gold just as oil wets a 
lamp-wick, and the so-called capillary attraction causes 
it to climb up. When it reaches the top and spreads over 
to the downward-hanging segment gravity helps to pull it 
down, so it accumulates at the lower end and finally drops 
off, drop by drop. 

The statement that in 30 days 1.9 grains of gold had 
been "dissolved" by the quicksilver needs further ex- 
planation. It cannot be literally true, for the solubility 
of gold in mercury is very low, certainly not over 0.1% 
at ordinary room temperatures. The exact quantity of 
quicksilver used is not given but was apparently about 
500 grains, which would suffice to dissolve only half a 



July 24, 1920 

grain of gold. Gold dissolves mercury, however, forming 
one or more intermetallie compounds, as I have described 
in some detail in Vol. XXXVII of the Trans. A. I. M. E. 
'This appears in the form of distinct crystals, first de- 
scribed by A. H. Chester in 1878, which seem to become 
detached and float about in the quicksilver. It is ap- 
parently for some such reason as this that the published 
data as to the solubility of gold in quicksilver vary quite 
widely, for Dudley found that the apparently dissolved 
gold could be partly removed by filtering the quicksilver, 
and my own results confirmed this. Our results indicated 
that the solubility of gold in quicksilver at 20°C. is not 
over 0.06%, and may be much less, the figure given repre- 
senting our limitations as to filtering media, rather than 
the actual solubility. 

Thomas T. Read. 
Washington, July 6. 

ment, performed in water, to which is added a liquid to 
sufficiently diminish its surface-tension, as for instance 
alcohol, yields results as in air. 

Martin Schwerix. 
Cave-in-Rock, Illinois. July 6. 

The Editor: 

Sir — The experiment described by Mr. Chas. W. Gard- 
ner in your issue of June 26 may be explained as follows : 

The affinity of gold for mercury caused the gold bar to 
act like a wick, up to the point of saturation. Upon sat- 
uration, gravity caused the mercury to accumulate on the 
lower outer end of the bar and drops to form. When the 
first drop began to form the forces acting were gravity, 
amalgamation, resistance of the gold to passage of mer- 
cury, and the surface-tension of mercury: that in the 
vial tending to force mercury up the bar and that en- 
veloping the drop tending to force mercury back along 
the bar toward the vial. The resultant coincided with 
that, of gravity. 

In the second experiment, conducted under water, 
there was a hydrostatic head in the vial and on the outer 
end of the bar, which exactly balance. In the vial its 
sides were wetted by water but the convex surface of the 
mercury was not wetted. Consequently the surface-ten- 
sion of the water in contact with the mercury caused a 
downward pressure, which the mercury transmitted along 
the bar. On the outer end of the bar and acting against 
the tendency toward the growth of a drop, there was 
likewise an unwetted mercury surface enveloped in a skin 
of water, the tension in which, per unit of surface, was 
greater than the surface-tension on the mercury in the 
vial, but acting in the opposite direction. This minute 
unbalanced force acting opposite to the resultant of all 
the forces in the first experiment sufficed to prevent the 
discharge of mercury from the vial in the second experi- 

If it be argued that this force is insufficient to suppress 
the formation of the mercury drop, one need but consider 
that 168 hours were required to form the first complete 
drop ; which proves that the resultant of the unbalanced 
forces in the first experiment, as measured by its effect, 
was exceedingly minute : therefore a like minute force 
acting in the opposite direction would restore equili- 
brium. In the second experiment this is exactly what 
. Proof of this explanation can be had if a third experi- 

Stiff Hats for Miners 

The -use of helmets during the War has accentuated 
interest in the use of stiff hats in mines to protect the 
miners against falling rock. About 40% of the acci- 
dents in mines result from this cause. A large number of 
these accidents could be prevented if the miners wore 
stiff hats or helmets. The use of protective devices for 
the head in mines is not new, for they have been in use 
for many years in Europe and in the Lake Superior dis- 
trict in the United States. In practically all of the 
mining districts in Europe stiff hats of some kind are 
required by the managers of the mines. George S. Rice, 
chief mining engineer of the Bureau of Mines, reports 
that in Germany, Belgium, and France stiff hats made of 
papier mache or felt rosin are in use. Similar hats are 
generally employed in the Lake Superior district. In 
building the subways of New York and Philadelphia it 
was the practice of engineers and workers to let the hair 
grow long and to wear a close fitting cap or felt hat. In 
Germany the hats are high, like the military helmets, 
whereas in France and Belgium they fit more closely to 
the crown. In England both kinds are worn. As a rule 
the miners use soft padded caps, but in Yorkshire many 
of the miners use tight-fitting caps of sole-leather made 
on a jockey pattern with the seam forming a little ridge 
down the middle of the cap. These hats are useful in 
low thin beds of coal, as in crawling one is likely to strike 
his head on a sharp piece of rock or on a timber. It must 
be admitted such hats do not stick on well, though this is 
usually due to their not being specially fitted. The 
German hat is unsuited to an American-shaped head. 

It is interesting to note that on the Continent tight 
cotton caps are generally worn over the hair and under 
the hard hat. This is a measure for cleanliness. In low 
beds of coal where much crawling on hands and knees is 
necessary the dirt and coal dust sift down, making the 
miner black and dirty. In metal mines stiff hats are of 
especial use in shaft-work; also in raises or high stopes. 
A small fragment of rock falling some distance either 
down a shaft or raise would kill a man if it struck him 
squarely on the head. A stiff hat or helmet may protect 
him and save his life. At a station in a shaft where men 
are loading a cage or skip, some kind of adequate head 
protector should be compulsory. A head-protecting cap 
which is also a good insulator should be worn where there 
is danger of striking one's head against a wire carrying 
an electric current. As a rule, miners are more willing 
to take chances than to wear a hat that is cumbersome or 
hot. The European miners have become so accustomed 
to the use of a head-protecting device that wearing one 
has become second nature to them. It would be desirable 
if stiff hats were in more general use in our mines. 

.Inly 24, 1920 



Problems in Mine Ventilation 


We have completed our discussion of the method of de- 
termining mine-resistanee. When the mine-resistance 
has been calculated, a fan can be specified that will be 
suited to the work. 

Another phase of the problem of ventilation is to pre- 
dict the amount of air that a given fan will circulate if 
the resistance is known. This type of problem occurs in 
tunnel-driving where the air is forced to the breast 
through an ever increasing length of pipe. We should 
like to know how much air the fan will deliver at differ- 
ent periods during the advance of the tunnel. 

Through the kind permission of the American Blower 
Co. I am able to use its chart showing the drop in pres- 
sure in air-pipe. See Fig. 1. 

Let us assume that a tunnel is to be ventilated with a 
16-in. pipe. The tunnel is to be driven 4000 ft. The 
static-pressure characteristic of the fan when operated at 
the rated speed is shown in Fig. 2, curve A. How much 
air will this fan deliver when the tunnel is in 2000 ft. 
and how much when it is in 4000 ft? From the pipe- 
chart we read the drop in pressure in a 16-in. pipe per 
100 ft. with amounts of air from to 6000 cu. ft. per 
minute in circulation. The drop in pressure for other 
lengths may be easily calculated, as it is proportional to 
the length. The resistance offered by the tunnel to the 
returning air after it leaves the pipe is generally negli- 
gible because of the low velocity. 

We may plot on the chart with the fan characteristic 
the pipe characteristic that shows the drop in pressure in 
a given length with varying amounts of air. In Fig. 2, 
B is the pipe characteristic for 2000 ft. and C, for 4000 
ft. The point where a pipe characteristic and a fan char- 
acteristic intersect shows the pressure and quantity at 
which the system reaches equilibrium. The quantity that 
will be delivered may be read vertically below the point 
of intersection. The same method might be used to de- 
termine how much air a large fan would circulate in a 
mine but the computation would be tedious. 

Effect of Variation in Speed. It is often desirable to 
have the pressure-volume characteristics of a fan for sev- 
eral different speeds. If the characteristic at one speed 
is available others may be computed. 

In Fig. 3, A is the characteristic of a fan running at 
1000 r.p.m. Let us determine the characteristic at 2000 
r.p.m. We know that if we double the speed we double 
the air and obtain four times the pressure if the condi- 
tions are unchanged. Select any point on the curve A 
and we obtain the combination of pressure and volume 
which occurs when the orifice is open a certain amount. 
If we were running a test at double the speed, at some 
time we should have this same gate-opening. When that 
happened the fan would deliver twice the air, at four 

times the pressure, that it did at 1000 r.p.m. So if we 
select any point on the 1000-r.p.m. characteristic and 
multiply the quantity by two and the pressure by four 
we shall obtain a point on the 2000-r.p.m. characteristic. 
Curve B is the 2000-r.p.m. characteristic constructed 
from curve A. The density of the air is assumed to be 
the same in both cases. By plotting a number of curves 
at different speeds on the same sheet as used for the pipe 
characteristics, a complete knowledge of a tunnel-venti- 
lating system may be gained. 

Operation of Fans in Series. When the limiting 
speed of a fan is reached and the pressure produced is 
inadequate, the pressure may be increased by connecting 
fans in series; that is, the discharge of one fan is piped 
into the suction of another. Any number of fans may 
be operated in series. The same result may be obtained 
by placing the fans at intervals along the line. If the 
fans are close together a high pressure is produced at the 
entrance of the pipe. Accordingly if the pipe-line is full 
of leaks much air will be lost. 

Fig. 4, A and Fig. 5 are the characteristics of two fans 
that are to be operated in series. To determine the result 
of such a scheme we plot a combined characteristic curve 
by adding the water-gauge readings produced by the two 
fans with the same given quantity. Curve B, Fig. 4, is 
the combined characteristic. Whichever fan is receiving 
air from the other produces a slightly higher water-gauge 
than when running alone because it does not have to 
accelerate the air at the inlet, and because it is handling 
air of a higher density, but consideration of the extremely 
slight difference is unnecessary. 

The smaller fan will be a help where the quantity is 
less than 30,000 cu. ft. per minute. At that point 
it is circulating its maximum amount of air and the 
static pressure produced is zero. If more air than this is 
circulated the smaller fan will be a hindrance because a 
part of the pressure produced by the larger fan will be 
consumed in forcing the air through the smaller, and so 
the two in series would deliver less air than the larger 
one alone. The combined characteristic curve may be 
treated as the curve of a single fan. 

The Operations of Fans in Parallel. The study of 
the operation of fans in parallel is somewhat more compli- 
cated. Let us assume for the purpose of exposition that 
conditions are as shown in Fig. 6. Fan No. 1 blows air 
through 300 ft. of 12-in. pipe to the point where 200 ft. 
of 12-in. pipe brings the air from fan No. 2. The ducts 
unite at B and the air is then conducted through 500 ft. 
of 18-in. pipe. In Fig. 7, curve A is the characteristic of 
fan No. 1 and in Fig. 8, curve C is the characteristic of 
fan No. 2. The problem is to determine the load that 
each fan will assume. First plot the pipe characteristic 




i iiitim 1 













t 1 1 u 













\ \ 





\ S 



( \ 




\ \ 


































< - 





A 3 






\ ^ 



\\ v 

* v^^ 



\ , 



/K y 




iA"\ " 









3^ 9^ 





\ ^3 







iS X, 



3 n. 

I s 









l* *^ 















"\ V 



-^ <■ 









s ^ 













^ \ 













^ \ 






N \ 












^^ "*■ 






\ f <? 


s \ 



■fi i i 

■1 ITf" 












4- 1 ' M 1 


■i i A| iriT 


























6 og 8S iSS° I2n *> ■? *>■?>-. °. *> o 2 2 00030°. 


of the 18-in. pipe on either chart. It is shown in Fig. 8, curve. Then on the chart of No. 2 fan plot its pipe char- 
curve E. acteristic. This is D in Fig. 8. The pressure at B (Fig. 
Next on the chart for fan No. 1 plot the characteristic 6) will he determined by the total quantity of air that 
of its pipe up to the junction. Curve B in Fig. 7 is this flows through the 18-in. pipe. The air that flows from 

July 24. 1920 



either fan must contain, when it reaches B, a pressure 
equal to the pressure at />' sn the amount of static pressure 
that can be consumed in the pipe from either fan before 
reaching /.' will be the static pressure produced by the fan 
when the air is flowing, minus the pressure at B. 

Assume the total amount of air and 'pick-off' with a 
pair of dividers the pressure at B from curve E, Fig. 8. 




1000 2000 3000 1000 5000 6000 


Fig. 2 

Place one point of the dividers on curve C with the other 
point vertically beneath. Keep the first point on the fan 
•characteristic and move the dividers along until the other 
touches curve D. Read the amount of air that the fan 
will then give. This amount subtracted from the total 
amount assumed must be what the other fan will deliver. 
Turning now to Fig. 7, without altering the dividers, 
place one point on the intersection of curve A and the 


lb- 3 " 


5000 10,000 


Fig. 3 

■quantity line just computed for fan No. 1. If, when the 
•other point is vertically beneath the first, it does not fall 
on curve B our first assumption of the total air was in- 
correct and we must make another and repeat the opera- 
tion. If the point does fall on curve B the assumption 
was correct and the division of the air will be as com- 

Example. Assume 4050 eu. ft. per minute as the total 




air. To drive this through the 18-in. pipe the pressure at 
B must be 2.6 in. We have then available for the pipe 
from No. 2 fan the water-gauge that it will produce minus 
8.6 in. When 1750 eu. ft. is flowing from fan No. 2 the 
drop in pressure in the 12-in. pipe is 1.5 in. With this 
amount of air the fan produces a water-gauge of 4.1 in. 
so there will be left 2.6 in. at B. The difference between 
4050 and 1750 is 2300, or the amount that the other fan 
will deliver. When 2300 cu. ft. is flowing from fan No. 1 
the drop in the 12-in. pipe from fan No. 1 is 3.9 in. The 

I 3 




Fig. 4 
fan produces 6.5 in. with this quantity, so the air when 
it reaches B will have the 2.6 in. of static pressure that is 
required. Of course it took several assumptions to solve 
this example. 

The Economic Size op Airways. The cost of driving 
air through a duct depends to a large extent upon the 
resistance offered by the duct. In selecting the best cross- 
section for an airway, the one having the smallest ratio of 
perimeter to area should be selected if possible. The 
reason for this may be seen by inspecting the formula 
for friction. Obviously the duct should be made as 
smooth as feasible. After the shape of the duct is decided 
upon, it becomes necessary to fix upon the size. In this 
matter the cost of transmitting the air is the arbiter. The 







Fig. 5 

question may be best discussed by using a concrete case. 
Let us assume that we are to sink a circular air-shaft 
1000 ft. to connect with the mine-workings. The shaft is 
to be in use for twelve years. It costs $20 per cubic yard 
of excavation and 100,000 cu. ft. of air per minute is to 
pass through the shaft. The efficiency of the fan and 
motor is 60%. The coefficient for friction is assumed to 
be 0.000,000,007,3. Power costs $150 per horse-power- 



July 24, 1920 

•Table I — Sinking-Fund Table 

Time Rate of interest 
At end 

olyear 2% 3% 4% 5% 8% 7% 8% 

1st ... 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 

2d ... 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 

3d ... 3.06 3.09 3.12 3.15 3.18 3.21 3.25 

4th ... 4.12 4.18 4.25 4.31 4.37 4.44 4.51 

5th ... 6.20 6.31 5.42 6.52 5.64 5.75 5.87 

6th ... 6.31 6.47 6.63 6.80 6.98 7.16 7.34 

7th ... 7.43 7.66 7.90 8.14 8.39 8.65 8.92 

8th ... 8.58 8.89 9.21 9.55 9.90 10.26 10.64 

9th ... 9.75 10.16 10.58 11.03 11.49 11.98 12.49 

10th ...10.96 11.46 12.01 12.67 13.18 13.82 14.49 

lllh ...12.17 12.81 13.49 14.21 14.97 15.78 16.65 

12th ...13.41 14.19 15.03 15.91 16.87 17.89 18.98 

13th ...14.68 16.62 16.63 17.71 18.88 20.14 21.50 

14th ...16.97 17.09 18.29 19.60 21.01 22.55 24.22 

16th ...17.29 18.60 20.02 21.58 23.27 25.13 27.15 

16th ...18.64 20.16 21.82 23.65 25.67 27.89 30.33 

17th ...20.01 21.76 23.70 25.84 28.21 30.84 33.75 

18th ...21.41 23.42 25.66 28.13 30.90 34.00 37.45 

19th ...22.84 25.12 27.68 30.54 33.76 37.38 41.45 

20th ...24.30 26.87 29.79 33.06 36.78 41.00 45.76 

21st ...25.78 28.68 31.98 35.72 39.99 44.86 50.43 

22d ...27.30 30.54 34.26 38.50 43.39 49.01 55.46 

23d ...28.8* 32.46 36.63 41.43 46.99 53.44 60.90 

24th ...30.42 34.43 39.10 44.50 50.81 58.18 66.77 

25th ...32.03 36.46 41.66 47.72 54.86 63.25 73.11 

26th ...33.67 38.56 44.33 51.11 59.15 68.68 79.96 

27th ...35.34 40.71 47.10 64.66 63.70 74.48 87.35 

28th . . 37.05 42.93 49.98 58.39 68.52 80.70 95.34 

29th ...38.79 45.22 52.98 62.31 73.64 87.35 103.97 

30th ...40.57 47.58 56.10 66.43 79.05 94.46 113.29 

31st ...42.38 50.01 59.34 70.75 84.80 102.07 123.35 

32d . . .44.23 52.51 62.72 75.29 90.88 110.22 134.22 

33d ...46.11 55.08 66.23 80.05 97.34 118.93 145.96 

34th . . .48.03 57.73 69.88 85.05 104.18 128.26 158.63 

35th ...50.00 60.46 73.67 90.31 111.43 138.24 172.32 

36th ...51.99 63.28 77.62 95.82 119.11 148.91 187.11 

37th ...54.03 66.18 81.72 101.61 127.26 160.34 203.08 

38th ...56.11 69.16 85.99 107.69 135.90 172.56 220.33 

39th ...58.24 72.24 90.43 114.08 145.06 185.64 238.95 

40th ...60.40 75.40 95.05 120.78 154.75 199.63 259.07 

41st ...62.61, 78.67 99.85 127.82 165.04 214.61 280.79 

42d ...64.86 82.03 104.84 135.21 175.94 230.63 304.26 

43d ...67.16 85.49 110.04 142.97 187.50 247.78 329.60 

44th ...69.50 89.05 115.44 151.12 199.75 266.12 356.97 

45th ...71.89 92.72 121.06 159.68 212.73 285.75 386.52 

46th ...74.33 96.51 126.90 168.66 226.50 306.75 418.44 

47th ...76.82 100.40 132.98 178.10 241.09 329.22 452.92 

48th ...79.35 104.41 139.30 188.00 256.55 353.27 490.15 

49th ...81.94 108.55 145.87 198.40 272.94 379.00 530.37 

60th ...84.58 112.80 152.70 209.32 290.32 406.54 573.80 
•From Trans. A. I. M. E.. Vol. XLI. Page 633. 

Table No. 2. Data on Fans 

Outlet Speed Mechanical Horse- 
No. velocity r.p.m. efficiency power Price 

1 4200 ,352 67.0 120 $1424 

2 3500 30S 65.5 115 1712 

3 3000 276 64.5 111 2024 

4 2580 254 60.0 116 2432 

Table No. 3. Yearly Charges Against Fans 

No. Capital Power Total 

1 5421 $19,950 $20,371 

2 456 19,200 19,656 

3 495 18,450 18,945 

4 545 19,350 19,895 

year. What should be the size of the shaft to transmit 
the ail - most economically ? 

Let us consider yearly charges. There will be two 
types of charges, namely, capital and operating. In the 
capital charge there will be interest and amortization. 
The money invested in the shaft will carry, let us say, 
an interest rate of 6%. Assuming that safe bank inter- 
est is 5%, an amount must be charged against the shaft 
each year, which, if placed in the bank at the end of each 
year, at compound interest, will at the end of twelve 
years equal the cost of the shaft. The only operating 
charge that varies with the size of the shaft is that for 
power so this alone must be considered in this group. We 
must now take a series of diameters and determine the 
yearly capital charge and the yearly operating charge. 

The sum of these will constitute the total yearly charge 
for transmitting the air. If we plot curves with the vari- 
ous shaft-diameters as abscissae we can determine which 
diameter will be the cheapest. To illustrate the method 
of making the calculation I shall give the computation 
for an 8-ft. shaft. 

An 8-ft. shaft 1000 ft. deep will have a volume of 1861 
cu. yd. Its cost at $20 per cubic yard will be $37,220. 
The yearly interest charge at 6% will be $2233. To figure 
the amortization we must have a sinking-fund table. 
Table No. 1 gives the amount which will accumulate in 
any number of years, if one dollar is placed in the bank 
at the end of each year with interest compounded annu- 

One dollar put aside each year at 5% will according to 
the table amount to $15.91. In order to have $37,220 at 
the end of twelve years we must put aside at the end of 
each year 37 ; 220 _ 

15.91 ~~ * zdds 

The total yearly capital charge will be 
$2233 + $2339 = $4572 

The amortization charge will be the cost of the shaft 
multiplied by jrr: or 6.29%. 

The total yearly capital charge then will be 12.29% of 
the cost of the shaft. 

The drop in pressure in the shaft computed with the 
friction formula is 2.78 in. of water or 14.46 lb. per sq. 
ft. The horse-power, assuming a 60% fan efficiency, is 

14.46 X 100,000 „„ 

0.6 X 33,000 ' 6 

At $150 per year 73 hp. will cost $10,950. 

The total cost for transmitting the air will be 
$4572 + $10,950 = $15,522 

Such a calculation must be made for a sufficient num- 
ber of diameters to determine which will be the most 
economical. The results for this particular problem are 
plotted in Fig. 9. The curve for total yearly cost is low- 
est with a 10-ft. shaft. So this will be selected. It will 
cost $10,744 per year to transmit the air through the 
shaft. If an 8-ft. shaft were selected by guess it would 
cost $15,522 per year and the owners during the twelve 
3'ears that the shaft is to be used would lose, unneces- 
sarily, about $57,000. This method of determining the 
cheapest airway should be applied to the pipes in tunnel 
ventilation as well as to mine-openings. 

The Economic Size op Fan. I shall discuss the selec- 
tion of a fan by means of an example. The shaft which *' 
we have selected connects with a mine. We have appor- 
tioned the 100,000 cu. ft. to the mine-workings and we 
have calculated the mine-resistance exclusive of the air- 
shaft and found it to be 1.22 in. The resistance of the 
shaft is 2.78 in., so the total mine-resistance is 4 in., and 
when 100,000 cu. ft. is flowing through the mine a water- 
gauge at the collar of the shaft would read 4 in. The 
area of a 10-ft. circular shaft is 78.5 sq. ft., so the veloc- 
ity of the air in the shaft will be 1275 ft. per minute. 
We decide upon the type and make of the fan and then 
ask the manufacturer to submit a list of different sizes 
which will give 100,000 cu. ft. of air per minute at a 

•lulv 24, 1920 



siiit ic pressure of 4 in., and at an outlet velocity greater 
than 1275 ft. per minute. The list that we receive is 

shown in Table No. -. The size of the fan increases with 
the manufacturer's number. We are told that No. 1 fan 
is operating at the high point on the efficiency eurve. 
Any one of these fans operating at the speed stated will 
deliver the prescribed amount of air at the designated 

Let us first see how this table illustrates some of the 


12- in. 


IS -in. 

7 300 ft. 
FAN No. I 

500 ft 

'-FAN No. 2 

Fig. 6 

principles that we have learned. No. 1 fan is operating 
at the peak of the efficiency curve, hence the ratio of 
stetic to velocity that is shown here will indicate to us 
the ratio at which this type of fan is most efficient. The 
outlet velocity is 4200 ft. per minute, so the velocity-pres- 

j^rz) X 1 or 1.1 in. of water. The ratio of static 

to velocity is r-j or 3.64. The larger fans, since they have 

larger discharge-openings, will have a smaller outlet- 
velocity with 100,000 cu. ft. of air. Since the static pres- 
sure in all cases is 4 in., the ratio of static to velocity in- 

W-J00 ft. 

of IZ-in. F 



^-Fan Nc 



O ' IOOO 2000 3600 4000 5000 6000 


Fig. . 7 

creases with the size of the fan and so we should assume 
that the mechanical efficiency would decrease. The table 
shows this to be the case. 

The table states that the No. 1 fan requires 120 hp. 
This should be checked. The velocity-pressure is 1.1 in. 
and the static pressure is 4 in., so the total pressure is 
5.1 inches. 

5.1 X 5.2 X 100.000 


The ratio 


33,000 X 0.67 u 

always appears 'in this type of calcu- 


The quotient is 6350. A person used to working such 
problems would at once express this equation for slide- 
rule computation thus: 

:, 1 ■ 100.000 
6350 ■ H.67 

In the calculation of velocity-heads a alide rule should 
lie used on which the top-scale figures are the squares of 
those on the lower scale. Using the outlet velocity for 
No. 1 fan as an illustration 1 will show how the velocity- 
pressure in inches of water is quickly determined. 

The velocity-pressure in inches of water is (t^j) X 1 
Let V. P. = velocity-pressure in inches of water 


V 4000 

On the lower scale of the rule divide 4200 by 4000. The 

of IZ-in. Pipe. 

500 ft of 
10 -in. Pipe 

IOOO zooo 3000 4000 


Fig. 8 

result is the square root of the velocity-pressure so the 
velocity-pressure is read directly on the top scale of the 

To return to the fans, the other horse-powers may he 
computed in the manner shown. The prices given are 
those of the fans delivered at the mine. Our next move 
is to consult the dealer in motel's. We are informed that 
a 150-hp. 3-phase induction motor will cost, with belt, 
$2000 at the mine. Its mechanical efficiency is 91% in 


Capital _ 


Fig. 9 
the range from three-quarters to full load. We are now 
in a position to select the fan in the same way in which 
we selected the proper size of airway. I shall make the 
calculation on No. 1 fan to illustrate. 

The cost of fan and motor is $3424, 

The yearly capital charge is 12.3%, of this, or $421. 

Using an efficiency of 90% for the motor and belt the 

1 9 

horse-power required will be ^-r =133. 

133 hp. at $150 per year costs $19,950. 
The total yearly charge is then $20,371. 



July 24, 1920 

Table No. 3 shows the yearly charges on all of the fans. 
Evidently No. 3 fan will do the work most cheaply, but 
how is it that a fan with a mechanical efficiency of 64.5 % 
will do the work more cheaply than No. 1 fan that has a 
mechanical efficiency of 67% ? The reason is this: No. 1 
is developing a total pressure of 5.1 in. of water while No. 
3 is developing a total pressure of only 4.56 in. ; so in 
spite of the fact that No. 3 has the lower mechanical effi- 
ciency, the power required to run it is lower. The speed 
of the air entering the mine is 1275 ft. per minute, which 
corresponds to 0.1 in. of water. The total head actually 
required for the mine is 4.1 in. If we could have all the 
conditions fulfilled and at the same time get the highest 
mechanical efficiency it would be ideal, but we cannot. 
As we go to the larger fans the velocity-pressure ap- 
proaches that demanded by the mine, but as the outlet- 
velocity decreases, the ratio of static to velocity departs 
more and more from 3.64, so the mechanical efficiency de- 
creases. After we go beyond No. 3 fan the increase in 
power due to the decrease in mechanical efficiency more 
than offsets the power saved by the lower velocity-pres- 
sure and the power to run the fan increases with the size. 

If the mine resistance is increased by the extension of 
the workings the speed of the fan may be increased to 
produce a higher pressure. If the same amount of air is 
circulated, the ratio of static to velocity will be still 
higher and so the mechanical efficiency will be lower. 

The velocity-pressure in the air as it leaves the fan is 
0.56 in. The velocity-pressure in the shaft is 0.1 in. Un- 
less we can recover this by a gradually expanding duct 
from the fan to the shaft 0.46 in. will be lost in shock. 
Using an outlet-velocity that is higher than necessary is 
uneconomical in the same manner that it is inefficient to 
compress air to 100 lb. per square inch and use it at 50 lb. 
per square inch. In the case of the fan we cannot help it. 

This problem illustrates the term 'commercial effi- 
ciency' which I used some time ago. No. 3 fan, although 
mechanically not the most efficient fan for our purpose, is 
from a monetary or commercial view-point the best fan 
that we could select. In closing this series I desire to 
thank Prof. B. M. "Woods, of the University of California, 
for his constructive criticism, and R. B. Guernsey, of the 
American Blower Co., for his interest and material aid in 
the preparation of these articles. 

[This is the last of a series of articles by Professor 
"Weeks on the ventilation of mines. The former articles 
appeared in the issues of April 24, June 12, June 19, and 
July 3. — Editor.] 

Concentration of Magnetite Ore 

The whole process of magnetic concentration as applied 
to the Eastern Mesabi magnetite ore is a good illustration 
of the manner in which the various machines can be made 
to work together so as to produce a high-grade furnace- 
product from an ore containing only 25% iron in the 
form of magnetite. The hard rock is first crushed to 
about 3-in. size and is then passed over a magnetic cob- 
ber. The field-strength of this cobber is so adjusted that 
all of the coarse material containing no magnetic iron is 

discarded as tailing. The concentrate from this cobber 
is still too low-grade to be useful, and is, therefore, crush- 
ed again to 2-in. size. This material is passed over a 
second cobber and the worthless gangue again discarded. 
This process of crushing, cobbing, and discarding worth- 
less material continues until the product has been re- 
duced to about i-in. size. "When this stage has been 
reached, approximately one-half the ore has been dis- 
carded as tailing and the other half contains practically 
all of the magnetic oxide that was originally present in 
the rock. This £-in. material, however, still contains too 
much gangue to be a desirable furnace-product. It is, 
therefore, crushed wet in ball-mills until it will all pass 
a 100-mesh screen. This fine material is concentrated by 
magnetic log-washers in which the final separation is 
made. The concentrate produced by these machines is 
then de-watered by the use of continuous filters in the 
tank of which the fuel for sintering is mixed. The filter- 
cake is conveyed directly to the sintering plant, where 
the ore is agglomerated. After being sintered the ore is 
screened in order to remove any fine material, and only 
the clean coarse sinter is shipped to the furnaces. It is 
apparent that in order to make this process a success 
financially, a large initial investment is necessary. The 
plant must be built in the most substantial manner, and 
only that machinery can be used which will operate effi- 
ciently and continuously under heavy loads and with 
little personal attention. At best, the profit per ton that 
can be made is small, and in order to make the proposi- 
tion attractive financially, a plant of large capacity is 
necessary. While this process is a success, from the 
metallurgical point of view, its financial worth must yet 
be demonstrated. 

The Mesabi Iron Co., according to a recent bulletin of 
the University of Minnesota, is now undertaking the last 
stage in the experiment, that is, proving the financial 
worth of the process. A plant is being built on the east- 
ern end of the Mesabi range, and it is hoped that within 
a year or two this plant will be in operation and will be 
contributing its share of ore to the yearly shipment from 
the district. It is extremely fortunate for the district 
and for the whole State that responsible individuals, who 
are willing to expend large sums of money in order to 
determine whether or not it is economically possible to 
produce a merchantable material from this low-grade 
ore, have become interested in this problem. 

It is apparent that the success or failure of this first 
attempt means much in the history of the Lake Superior 
region. Thoughtful men of the iron-mining industry are 
watching the progress that the Mesabi Iron Co. is making 
with the greatest interest. They recognize the fact that 
failure means a gradual decline of the district, while suc- 
cess means the awakening of a new period of activity. 
If the hard rock of the Eastern Mesabi containing only 
20 to 30% iron can be mined, crushed, and concentrated 
into merchantable product, it is not difficult to believe 
that the vast amount of comparatively soft hematite con- 
taining from 35 to 45% iron can first be rendered mag- 
netic by roasting and then concentrated magnetically in 
the same manner as described above. 

-Itilv 24, 1920 



Qi^ Charier T. \4ul'ch.vtv,fo»v' 

Those wlio, from the title of this article, expect to find 
herein either a learned treatise on chemistry or a recipe 
for some new viand that defies the H. C. L. will be dis- 
appointed. The writer is neither a chemist nor a cook. 
There is salt and salt. There is the chloride of sodium 
of commerce, without which popcorn and many stories 
lack a necessary something to make them satisfying, and 
again, in mining parlance, there is that ingredient with- 
out which many mines would fail of promotion, and 
many samples would assay of Au nothing, and of Ag 
even less. Let us then hasten to plunge into the subject, 
now that the preliminaries are over, and we are settled 
in our easy chairs and prepared for the worst. 

Some philosopher once remarked upon our debt to the 
great family of suckers, boobs, tenderfoots, and others of 
that ilk, who view with scorn the modest stock or bond 
that offers safety and a beggarly 7%, and who instead 
absorb like a sponge an unlimited quantity of gaudy 
stock certificates that have back of them nothing what- 
ever but the alluring -will-o'-the-wisp of something for 
nothing. These tender lambkins occasionally back a 
winner in spite of themselves, and the story of their rise 
to affluence through the 'investment' of a few paltry 
dollars furnishes bait for ensnaring new crops of easy 
marks for generations and generations. Without them, 
an occasional enterprise of real worth would languish 
and die; without them a lot of ingenious gents would 
have to go to work at honest labor. 

In the great world of mines and mining, there are 
names to conjure with, names which have become se- 
curely established by lives of honest square dealing, that 
any enterprise with which they are connected is assured 
of financial backing from the very start. Mining men of 
this stamp do not hawk their wares along the highways 
and byways; theirs are not the ornate, mahogany, and 
brass equipped suites of offices with thick velvet carpets ; 
they do not surround themselves with those sharp-eyed 
young salesmen whose eyes are generally too close to- 
gether and who never look you straight in the face. 

Many and devious are the ways of the fake mine- 
promoter. They would fill volumes if an attempt were 
made to describe them all, but, fundamentally the differ- 
ence is nil ; all are based upon certain elements of human 
psychology, greed, the gambling instinct, the desire that 
lies latent with all of us to get something for nothing, 
persisting in spite of all warnings of common-sense, and 
the touch of romance that with the human race begins 
at the cradle and stops only at the grave. Many men 

have made great fortunes by capitalizing their knowledge 
of these fundamentals, and many more have contributed 
their mites to the capacious maw of these predatory 
cormorants of finance. 

Once upon a time, there was a promoter. He has now 
gone to his reward, whatever it may be, but for more 
than twenty years he flourished, waxing fat or lean, ac- 
cording to the times and the necessity for changing his 
base of operations after each fresh onslaught upon the 
treasure-chests of the tenderfoots. He was a survival 
from the Bret Harte epoch, externally and internally, 
except that he did not wear a beard. Physically he was 
not large, but stocky in build, with a deep chest and an 
iron jaw that bespoke tenacity of purpose. 

He spoke two languages, Western United States and 
profane, the two being so thoroughly admixed as to cause 
one to think that the latter predominated, which, as a 
matter of fact, it did. Take the lurid diction of a mule- 
skinner's vocabulary, add the simple eloquence that 
would charm a bird off a tree, and you have an unbeat- 
able combination when directed against either the wise 
men of the Bast or the unsophisticated denizens of the 

Barnum said that the people like to be fooled, and 
especially do they like their doses of foolery coated with 
romance, flavored with glittering promises, and washed 
down with the hope of an affluence gained without exer- 
tion on their part. All of these things this mine-pro- 
moter furnished, again and again, with little if any 
variation in method, and with only an occasional change 
of base. California, Arizona, and Montana were the sites 
of his various Lost Peglegs, with an occasional incursion 
to Nevada by way of variety. His crops were harvested 
in the Middle- West, and even in Southern California, 
which the rich and idle Easterners make their play- 
ground, while the land of Harry Lauder furnished at 
least one batch of 'canny' Scots whose stock of 'siller' 
was reducit mair than a wee drappie by a venture in 

He was no wholesaler, this promoter. None of his 
stocks were hawked about either by salesmen or adver- 
tisements. He published neither house-organ nor mar- 
ket-letter. The New York curb knew him not, and the 
time-worn expedient of wash-sales as bait for the unwary 
■was regarded by him as the trick of a petty larcenist. 
As a matter of fact, he was an artist in his chosen calling. 
He was the Caruso of the mining game, a Corot in his 
masterful command of colorful profanity, an alchemist 



July 24, 1920 

in his transmutation of basic quartz into shining coin of 
the realm. 

Always, he was within the law — just within. "When 
the bubble was pricked, and the wails of anguish arose 
to high heaven from those whom he victimized, they 
found that they didn't have a leg to stand upon; there 
was nothing to do but write it off: to experience account 
and shut up. Again he was so very select, as a general 
rule, in the choice of those whom he invited to "join him 
in a mining venture ' ', that their very prominence worked 
against a bleat of any volume. Men of that stamp hate 
to admit that they have been done, and done brown, with 
plenty of gravy. Rather do they shut up, pocket their 
losses, and save their faces from the ridicule of their 
friends, and, what is even more important, save their 
reputations as shrewd men of affairs against the un- 
doubted business injury that would react upon them from 
too much publicity. 

How did he do it? Here is a story that is fairly 
typical. Up the principal street in the financial district 
of a certain city strode a man of the great outdoors. His 
tanned face showed exposure to the fierce desert sun- 
shine. His gnarled hands bespoke familiarity with the 
single-jack and shovel. Over his shoulder was an ore- 
sack, bulging with specimens. His clothes were well cut 
without being at all dandified, and he wore them with a 
vigor and a grace that indicated a muscular body inured 
to physical activity. Reaching a well-known banking- 
house, he walked in without hesitation, stopped before 
the desk provided for depositors, wrote out a check and 
cashed it. It was during a slack period, and compara- 
tively few people were about the room. Turning to one of 
the assistant cashiers, who called him by name, he 
growled, "I want to see the President; tell him I am 
here". Evidently he was a man who was at least suffi- 
ciently at home to command attention. 

After a brief period of waiting, he was ushered into 
the holy of holies. Still clutching his sack of samples 
he greeted the great man, not in the least overawed by 
the outward and visible signs of opulence, the oriental 
rugs, mahogany tables and chairs, and oil paintings of 
former financial dignitaries that graced the walls. 

"How are you, Mr. Promoter?" said the president, 
with the habitual air of reserve of the money lender, who 
hesitates to commit himself in advance, on even so trivial 
a matter as the state of the weather. 

"How ami?" growled the promoter, "I'm fine as silk, 
of course, and why not? Last week we were running a 
cross-cut on the 100-ft. level of the Horned Toad shaft 
calculated to cut the vein that made such a won-der-ful 
showing in the surface croppings, the one I told you 
about last month. Well, just look at this." With that, 
he up-ended his sack on top of the president's shiny 
mahogany table, and a veritable cataract of samples 
poured forth. Quickly p pocket magnifying-glass was 
produced, which, carefully freed from dust by rubbing 
on the leg of the promoter's trousers, was brought into 
requisition. Silence prevailed for several minutes. One 
could see the bank president 's eye glitter with cupidity. 

Here was money, even better, the real thing itself, gold,, 
free gold, sticking out all over. The samples were liter- 
ally riddled with it. Surely, that ore would go hundreds, 
perhaps thousands, per ton. 


After a short interval, the bank president brought him- 
self out of his beautiful dream, and his habitual caution 
struggled for recognition. 

"Have you opened this up at all?" said he. 

"Opened it up?" ejaculated the promoter. "Why I 
am in on this thirty feet already, and I haven't struck 
the foot-wall yet. It is a genuine fissure-vein, pitching 
about 10 degrees from the vertical, and, you know, a 
formation of that kind goes down all the way to China, 
and gets richer the farther down you go. Just as soon 
as I cut the foot-wall I am going to drift along the vein 
so as to prove it up, and then put in a raise so as to 
expose it on all four sides. I consider, from the showing 
so far, that the Great Horned Toad property is bigger 
and richer than the North Star or the Empire or any of 
those others which have been paying big for fifty years." 

"Well", said the president, with a sigh, "I suppose 
you will have to go out and raise some money in order to 
develop and put in a mill. ' ' 

"I don't know what I'll do", replied the promoter. 
"The P. D. & Q. people had one of their experts around 
the camp when the news of the great showing came out, 
and they want me to see them today, but I don't suppose 
they will give more than a half million for it as it stands, 
and I don 't see why I should let them have a mine that 
will be worth five million or more within a year or so for 
any such figure as that. . What I would prefer is to let 
some of my friends in on this and divide up with me, so 
we will all make money and tell that P. D. & Q. crowd 
to go to hell." 

The fly was dangling, and the trout was about to rise. 
' ' How much will it take ? ' ' asked the banker. 

"Well, now", replied the promoter, "I figure that I 
can enlarge and timber the working-shaft and sink it 
another hundred feet for about $8000. Then I must 
opi n up and develop about 50,000 tons of ore. which I 
can do easily with about 500 ft. of additional work under- 


July 24. 1920 



ground. Then, while that work is going on we can erect 
a 20-atamp mill and a cyanide plant, install about 
gallons in water-storage capacity, build a bunk-house and 
other necessary camp-buildings. I have made careful 
estimates of the whole business, and," here the promoter 
paused impressively, "you know I never make a mis- 
take: $2(10.000 will do the whole job." 

Now spoke the banker, the shrewd man of affairs. 
"Entirely too much", he snapped. "You ought to get 
along with about half that. A 10-stamp mill is plenty 
big enough, and you can add to it from the earnings of 
the property. Then, why do you have to do so much 
work underground for the present 1 Why not get your 
mill up. and mine as you go along? Make the property 
pay its own way from the start. ' ' 

"That's a good idea", replied the promoter. The fish 
was nibbling at the bait. "This ore is so rich that, even 
milling only forty or fifty tons a day we can net five or 
six hundred dollars right along, taking only the poorer 
rock and leaving the rich ore in place. 

"Five or six hundred dollars a day", mused the 
hanker. That was $15,000 per month, $180,000 per year. 
The investment was only $100,000. Truly, this was a 
toothsome morsel. Yet, doubt began to assail him. His 
habitual caution, struggling with the glittering promise 
dangled before his eyes, clamored for recognition. Then 
he spoke. 

"I suppose you would have no objection to having an 
engineer go over the property and make an examina- 
tion", he suggested, hopefully. 

"Engineer", snorted the promoter, contemptuously. 
"Engineer, hell. Old maids in lace-boots, that went to 
college and write a lot of dam-fool initials after their 
names, think they can learn about mines from books, 
spend their time chewing the rag- about pseudo-morphs 
while some goat is paying $100 a day and all expenses 
for their time. Then, after they are away a month they 
write a hundred-page report with ninety-nine pages about 
the weather, rainfall, and county politics, to say nothing 
about a lot of bunk on the geology of the district that 
nobody can make head or tail of, and then, in the last 
page they say 'Safety First' and turn it down, bill here- 
with for $3000, please remit. ' ' 

"Well", replied the banker, "I'll think it over and see 
what I can do." 

"I leave tonight for Boston", returned the promoter, 
shortly. "There is a friend of mine there whom I 

• promised to give the first chance whenever I struck any- 
thing good. He wants to put up all the money himself, 
and I have no objection to him, personally, as he is a fine 
fellow. The only reason I spoke to you about it at all 
was that I have taken a great fancy to you and would 

• like to put you in the way of making a lot of money for 
yourself. You could have taken the train back to the 
mine with me and looked everything over, taken your own 
samples and had them assayed anywhere you pleased. 

!Then you could have joined me in this venture and 
.looked after it yourself. Of course, you understand, I 
don't want any money for myself. You can put in your 

own book-keeper who will supervise all expenditures, and 
assure that every cent you put up actually goes into the 
mine and mill. We can organize a company and you 
and your friends can have 55% of the stock, which will 
give you control. I'll put in the mine for the remaining 
45%, and you sign a contract agreeing to put tip a mill 
and furnish the money for the additional development 
work. You don't take any risk at all on that basis. Well, 
I'm sorry to see you lose this chance." Picking up his 
samples and putting them back in the sack the promoter 
took his hat and started for the door. 

The banker struggled. One hundred and eighty thou- 
sand a year; 55% of the stock. Perhaps he could freeze 
this innocent, rough, uneducated miner out, and get it 
all for himself. He gulped a second in indecision, and 
then, down went the bait, hook, sinker, and all. 

"Hold on there a minute", said he. "I didn't say 1 
wouldn 't go into it. ' ' 

"Well, I haven't got any time to waste fooling around 
here", replied the promoter shortly. "You meet me on 
the 6 : 10 train tonight. So long." 

True enough, the banker met the 6 : 10 on schedule 
time. With him was a lawyer friend, well versed in the 
intricacies of legal chicanery. In due course of time, 
after leaving the main line, a 20-mile stage-ride brought 
them to their Golconda. It certainly was a picturesque 
camp. A few tents, with flies to fend off part of the 
fiercest rays of the midday sun, thatched on top with 
desert willow. In the centre a larger tent, similarly 
thatched, but open at the sides and end, served as what 
would now be known as a conference room. In the middle 
of the tent hung an olla, surrounded with moss, and filled 
with delicious cool water. In the corner were sundry 
cases of bottled goods, for snake-bites, probably. 


Excavated into the hillside was a storehouse, filled with 
choice cuts of meat, poultry, and groceries. Every day 
500 pounds of ice was packed in burlap, and carried by 
stage to the camp at a staggering cost. 

Hot, tired, and dusty from their long ride, the visitors 
were conducted to their quarters, where a cool shower 
and a change of raiment — to say nothing of a real old- 
time Scotch highball, tinkling with ice, the glass frosted 



July 24, 1920 

with the dew — restored good temper, good nature, and a 
feeling of physical well-being that prepared the stage 
for the second act in the little comedy, for in those days, 
the 19th hole was still one up on the eighteenth amend- 

His victims being now regaled and pleasantly relaxed, 
the promoter brought out his specimens, and for two 
hours entertained them with tales of the desert, the mines 
he had opened, the money he had made for himself and 
friends. He was a wonderful talker, which, coupled with 
his picturesque profanity, caused kaleidoscopic visions of 
roseate hue to chase themselves across the imagination of 
his listeners. Already, they felt themselves fingering the 
glittering gold-pieces, or shuffling the sheaves of crisp 
banknotes, all won from Mother Earth. 

After a dinner, or 'supper' as it is called, of unbeliev- 
able sumptuousness, excellently prepared by the com- 
petent cook at $150 per month, backed by an imported 
cigar and washed down with the Haig & Haig of our 
forefathers, the cold canny men of the money market 

such as this. The work took several hours. It had to be 
done carefully and painstakingly, not too much, nor yet 
too little. It would never do to have the assay too high. 
That would immediately suggest mining and shipping to 
a smelter. The mill was what was wanted to play the 
trick, and $20, $30, or $40 per ton was about right. There 
are many ways of 'salting', from gold-dust propelled into 
the face of the orebody with a shot-gun to manipulation 
of the sample-sacks after they have been taken to the sur- 
face, but this particular artist in mineralogical camou- 
flage preferred to plant it where it would do the most 
good, just like rows of potatoes. His work finally done 
to his own meticulous satisfaction, he, tired but satisfied, 
climbed the ladder to the surface, and, in turn, retired to 
his simple couch, there too, to indulge in his roseate 
dreams of the first stage in the shearing to take place on 
the morrow. 

Early the next morning, the captains of industry from 
the busy city were awakened from their glittering dreams 
by the musical clang of a triangle fabricated out of an 





took to their tents, and were lulled to sleep by the dron- 
ing of the night-roaming insects. 

That night, after all was quiet, our mine promoter took 
himself down the working-shaft, and then into the old 
drift and cross-cut. Candle in hand, he went over each 
inch of face with minute care. He did certain odd and 
curious things at regular intervals, taking something 
from his pocket, from a bulging ore-sack in his hand, and 
apparently planting — what ? potatoes ? No indeed, ' salt ', 
just salt, in grains and lumps, not the chloride of sodium 
of commerce, but the good old specimen-rock, obtained 
from somewhere or other in anticipation of an occasion 





old piece of drill-steel and beaten by the efficient Chinese i\ 
manager of the culinary department. "Bleakfass he 
leadv. Hot cakee all catchum cole. Hully up quick 

Jumping into their clothes, a quick lick and a promise i : -1 
in the tin basin, and the banker and his lawyer friend 'j; 
made their way to the cook-house with an unwonted 
spring in their step, a resultant of the fresh early-morn- 
ing air. Sitting on the rough benches, they did full 
justice to the grape-fruit, crisp bacon and eggs, followed j «n 
by hot cakes and syrup prepared by the hands of a 
master. Oh, the psychology of the full stomach, and the 

July 24. 1920 



■numerable men and women who, since the day of Esau, 
have sold their birthright for <i mesa of pottage 1 

Joined by the promoter, who had been up and about 
before them, their cigars lighted, they hied themselves 
to the collar of the shaft. There was the usual little head- 
frame, a 15-hp. gasoline hoist, and a 750-lb. bucket. The 
two tenderfoots looked askance at the bucket, dangling: 
just at the level of the opening, swaying a little and 
twisting back and forth. A slight shiver passed over 
them. Their cigars were suddenly bitter to their taste. 

"Do we go down in that thing?" asked the banker, 

"Of course you do", replied the promoter. "It is 
really very simple. Two of us go down at a time. Put 
your left foot on the edge of the bucket. Hold on to the 
rope with your hands, and fend off with your foot against 
the sides of the shaft as you go. I'll do the same on the 
other side of the bucket, and that balances the weight. 
Your lawyer friend will come down after us with Mike, 
the foreman. Come ahead now, let's get started, and 
you had better put these candles in your pocket." 

With many inward misgivings, the banker grasped the 
oily rope with both hands, and, with one foot, stepped 
gingerly upon the edge of the bucket. The promoter 
duplicated this action on his side, and gave the signal to 
lower. Down they went, the bucket swaying and twist- 
ing, the banker trying to recall his boyhood prayers, now 
long fallen into disuse. After a seemingly interminable 
period, the bucket fetched up gently at the bottom^ and 
they stepped off and lighted their candles to await the 
coming of the lawyer and the foreman. Again the bucket 
rose to the surface and returned, depositing its second 
cargo of human freight. "Come along", said the pro- 
moter, gruffly, "and I will show you the greatest ore 
deposit you ever saw. ' ' 

Picking their way gingerly along the drift, they plod- 
ded on, the fitful glare of the candles shedding a ghostly 
light upon their white faces. 

Now, from here on", said the promoter, indicating 
the wall with his candle-stick, "you can take your sam- 
ples. For 20 ft. this is all ore. It is all of good milling 
grade, with a rich seam running through it a few inches 
wide that will go hundreds of dollars to the ton. Now 
here", pointing to a series of irregular seams, "is that 
rich ore, and you don't want to bother with that because 
that is too high in value. Here are some sacks, and you 
3an take your samples now, or I will take some myself 
jnd pan them for you right here before your eyes, so you 
san see the free gold yourself. ' ' 

The banker and the lawyer exchanged glances. "We 
will take some samples and see you pan them now", re- 
plied the banker, "and then perhaps this afternoon or 
xxmorrow morning before we have to catch the stage for 
;own we can go underground ourselves and take some 
pies home for assay. ' ' 

That is perfectly satisfactory to me", said the pro- 
aoter; "go ahead and knock down your samples." 

Gingerly they turned toward the wall. Taking their 
landlesticks they made a . few gentle dabs at the rock 

and succeeded in loosening a little piece which fell at 
their feet. 

"Hell", snorted the promoter, "that's no way to take 
samples." He grasped his candlestick, and attacked tin- 
wall, apparently at random, with such vim. that in a 
minute or two, he had loosened enough fragments to make 
a sizable pile. He gathered it up in a sample-cloth, and 
carried it to a mortar, beside which was a pan, and a 
bucket of water. The tenderfoots looked on in rapt ad- 
miration. A vigorous pounding in the mortar soon pul- 
verized the fragments. Scooping up a few handfuls he 
filled the pan, plunged it into the bucket of water, and 
then the really interesting part of the morning's enter- 
tainment began. 


With that delicate undulating motion, the expert 
manipulator began to pan the sample. As if by magic, 
the coarser particles of ore came to the top and were dis- 
carded. Little by little the contents of the pan were 
lessened, until finally nothing was left but a few table- 
spoonfuls of fine particles. With a quick twist of the 
wrist, the sample feathered. There were a few shining 
grains, that even in the half-light of the candles were 
different from the rest. 

"Here you are", granted the promoter, holding the 
pan up to their view. 

The two tenderfoots craned their necks forward to see ; 
their mouths open in wonderment. Before their eyes was 
a little string of particles, perhaps an inch long, shining, 
glittering gold, the real thing. A sigh went forth from 
both of them. They licked their chops in eager anticipa- 

"How much gold is there?" asked the banker, the man 
of figures. 

"About a dollar and a half", replied the promoter. 
"This ore is worth about $100 per ton. I will pan some 
more. ' ' 

Quickly putting his thumb over the little thread of 
gold particles, he plunged the pan into the water with 
the apparent purpose of removing the result of his first 
panning before adding another batch, but the thumb over 



July 24, 1920 

the gold kept it in place, ready to 'sweeten' the result of 
the next test. His movements were so rapid that they 
were not noticed. 

Another sample was panned. The resultant gold was 
nearly twice as much as the first. More oh's and ah's. 
Again the performance was repeated with the same re- 
sult. Clearly, this was a marvelous mine. Evidently the 
promoter was too conservative in estimating its value. 
Quickly the thought chased itself across their minds. 
How could they get it all for themselves ? 

"I think we will get your foreman to help us to take 
some samples for assay now, while we are down below, 
so we won't have to come back tomorrow", suggested the 

"All right", acquiesced the promoter. "Mike, you 
help these gentlemen take all the samples they want. I 
will leave you now. Dinner will be ready in about an 
hour." With that he departed, leaving the embryo 
miners to their own devices. 

With Mike on the job, they delved deep into the sur- 
face of the orebody, carefully preserving the samples in 
the little canvas bags provided by a thoughtful host for 
the purpose. Each bag was tagged and numbered, al- 
though why was not disclosed, as they had no map, nor 
even a sketch upon which to locate the points from which 
the samples were taken. However, such is life. The 
doctor who essays to take his own legal advice, the lawyer 
who believes in his heart that he is a great architect, and 
the banker who makes his own mine examinations, are no 
better than the stage Rube who thinks he knows under 
which of the three little shells the nimble pea is reposing. 

After an hour of toil in the dank depths of the earth, 
the two tenderfoots, again wafted safely to the surface 
through the agency of the asthmatic coughing gasoline 
hoist, took their numerous sacks of samples to their tent 
for safe keeping until the time of their departure. They 
did not see the look of inquiry that passed from the pro- 
moter to the foreman, nor his solemn wink in return, in- 
dicating that all was well. 

After brushing the evidence of toil from their clothes, 
the investors again met the promoter at the conference 
table, where cool drinks of a refreshing nature were 
copiously applied where they would do the most good. 
Soon the stage arrived, and the promoter sent them on 
their way rejoicing. Why didn't he rush it through be- 
fore they got away? He was too good a general for that. 
Too great an eagerness to close* before the assays of their 
' own ' samples had been assayed would have curdled the 
cream. The time for the hurrah was not yet. 

A day. two days, three days elapsed, and then a wire 
came. ' ' Meet me at my office in two days. Assays satis- 
factory", read the wire, that brought a grunt of satis- 
faction from the promoter. Forthwith, he slammed a 
change of clothing in his bag. caught the next stage for 
the railroad where he took train for the city, arriving in 
due course and taking up his quarters in the hotel. Im- 
mediately tipon his arrival, he phoned the banker and 
made an appointment for the following morning. 

Tomorrow arrived on time, as it sometimes happens. 

and promptly the promoter was ushered into the banker's 
office, and the office boy was instructed that an important 
conference was to be held and that he was to be incom- 
municado until further notice. The lawyer, of course, 
was on the job also, and there in a leather brief case was 
a mass of imposing-looking documents. Cigars were 
lighted, and the banker leaned back in his easy backed 
swivel-chair, fitting beautifully into his surroundings. 
Here, he was in his element. 

"Well", began the banker, "we have had the assays 
made, and they seem quite favorable. The thing looks 
good", continued he, deliberately, "and Mr. Lawyer and 
I will go into the thing in accordance with the general 
terms you outlined, with certain modifications which I 
believe you will be wise to accept. Where are those con- 
tracts and incorporation papers?" 

The promoter took the papers and skimmed over them 
with apparent carelessness. Stripped of legal verbiage, 
parties of assorted parts, if 's, and's, and aforesaid 's, they 
contracted to furnish the sum of $100,000, to be placed 
in their bank for the purchase of machinery and supplies, 
subject to draft signed by the promoter and counter- 
signed by a secretary to be appointed by the banker. 
The banker was to O. K. the contract for the machinery 
and mill construction. A corporation was to be formed 
with a capital stock of $1,000,000, of which 45% was to 
be paid to the promoter in consideration of his deeding 
the mining property and all improvements thereon to 
the company. The other 55% was to be given to the 
banker, the lawyer, and two of their friends in return 
for advancing the $100,000 for equipment. This $100,000 
was to constitute a loan to the company, and was to be 
repaid to the banker out of the first earnings of the com- 
pany before any dividends were distributed to the stock- 
holders. This was a pretty tight agreement, and the 
banker was quite pleased with himself in consequence. 
He waited for the promoter's verdict. 

"Well", remarked the promoter, with a grin, "you 
certainly have this proposition sewed up in a sack. 
Now", he continued firmly, "there is one thing that I 
want thoroughly understood. I, and nobody else, am 
going to buy the mill and install it, and there is to be no 
interference from anybody. I don 't care whether any of 
you fellows have a nephew, or a son-in-law, or a friend 
in the machinery business or not. I know exactly what 
is wanted, and it goes in as I say, or this deal is off right 
now. ' ' 

The banker hesitated for a minute. "There is a man 
to whom the bank has advanced some money who has in- 
vented a new process for taking the gold out of rock by 
electricity, and I would like to give him a chance to put 
in this plant", he said slowly, "but if you are so set on 
having your own way, we will let it go. It is too bad, 
though", he continued regretfully, "for this is a very 
wonderful thing. There's nothing to it but some kind 
of a dynamo and some wire, and a magnet. You just 
crush the ore and then give it a little shock, and out 
comes the gold. I wish you would change your mind 
about it." 




r ! 








July 24. 1920 



"You leave that shook business to me", replied the 
promoter, grimly. "I will take care of all the shocks that 
go on around that mine. This mill is going to have ten 
good honest stamps, with plates and a nice little cyanide 
plant. We will have a power-plant, a good pump, and 
ji hoist with an automatic self-dumping skip, too. This 
plant is going to work, and work right, and any dam-fool 
inventor who wants to come around that property and 
shock my ore is going to take a long ride on the seat of 
his pants." 

That was final. The papers were signed, sealed, and 
delivered. The funds were placed to the credit of the 
promoter, and he started for the machinery district to 
dicker for his plant. One week later he had contracted 
for his machinery, lumber, cement, and other building 
material, and. what was even more important, had had 
himself interviewed by both morning and evening papers. 
He was a picturesque character, and always good for a 
stickful of copy. The interviews were corkers. The mine 
was painted in glowing colors, as being simply rotten 
with wealth. The reporters played it up with all the 
language at their command, as they were assured in 
advance that there was no stock for sale to anybody at 
any price. 

This done, the promoter hied himself back to the mine, 
and then began a period of feverish activity. Work be- 
gan on the mill grade, the construction crew was organ- 
ized. Up went a boarding-house, cook-house, and mine 
office, in which was installed an anemic-looking secretary 
selected for the post by the banker. Soon, the first car- 
load of equipment was hauled in, and the new mill began 
to take form. Quietly, the promoter left for the nearest 
town and insinuated himself into the graces of the local 
correspondents for the city papers. He invited them 
out to the mine. Took them all around, filled them with 
good things to eat and drink, regaled them with tales of 
his own prowess, and showed them assay report after 
assay report of the workings of the Great Horned Toad 
Mining & Milling Company. When they departed, each 
with a nice pocket piece of specimen ore, richly sprink- 
led with free gold, they had material for several Sunday 
Supplement feature stories. 

The promoter organized his publicity campaign with 
the skill of a master. Every week or ten days, he would 
drop into town, and feed boost talk to the correspondents. 
He had just come from the assay-office and would show 
them the results of the last 10 ft. in the south drift on 
the 100-ft. level, or he had just traced the outcrop of the 
rein for a thousand feet or so, and, just see what a won- 
ier-ful showing it makes, and similar yarns with the 
e single purpose. Weekly letters to the banker were 

the same import. He wafted them along on billowy 
ilouds of imagery; he filled them with dreams of afflu- 
ifice; their nights were replete with beautiful dreams, 
heir days with calculations of profits in six figures. 

They talked. They always do. At the club, at the 
'ffice, at their homes and those of their friends, at social 
gatherings, even at vestry meetings, there was nothing 
liscussed but that Horned Toad mine, and its wealth. 

They were importuned on all sides !>y friends and ac- 
quaintances to be allowed to participate. When the pro- 
moter came to the city he was the cynosure of all eves. 
He was dined, wined, and feted, and how he did bask in 
the limelight, and enjoy his brief period of adulation and 
flattery. Little by little the circle widened. The public- 
ity, advertising, or whatever one may call it was insinuat- 
ing its way through a constantly growing group of sheep, 
who were fast approaching shearing. The time was near- 
ly ripe for the grand coup. 

In a few months the mill approached completion. Then 
the day was set for the start, the launching of the enter- 
prise that was to be marked by glittering bars of bullion. 


As the time grew nearer, the promoter was adding many 
names to a little list in a memorandum book that never 
left his possession. It consisted of men prominent in the 
business affairs of the city where lived the banker, and 
the lawyer, and made up the circle of acquaintances, in 
one way or another made familiar with the progress of 
the enterprise, and who had been under the influence of 
the subtle campaign of publicity launched by the pro- 
moter with the unwitting co-operation of his associates. 
One short week before the time set for starting the mill, 
a confederate of the promoter called upon him at the 
mine. There, in the dark of the night, they conferred 
long and earnestly. On the following day, without flour- 
ish of trumpets, the confederate left for the city where the 
banker and lawyer resided. In his pocket was a copy of 
the promoters list taken from the little private memoran- 
dum book. Also there was a bunch of neatly engraved 
stock certificates, in small denominations, not more than 
one or two hundred shares in each. 

Upon his arrival at the city, he lost no time. One by 
one, the men whose names were on the list were approach- 



July 24, 1920 

ec". To each, the confederate told the same story. After 
swearing them to secrecy, he said that he was an old pros- 
pector, that he had assisted in locating the Great Horned 
Toad mine, that his share of the property was represented 
in so many shares of stock. Here, he exhibited a cer- 
tificate that had been duly endorsed over to him by the 
promoter. He was hard up, broke in fact, and, although 
he understood that it had turned out to be a great prop- 
erty, he simply had to sell. Wonderful opportunity, a 
chance to slip one over on a man hard up, and who would 
have to accept most anything that was offered. He was 
shrewd however, this innocent hard-up prospector. He 
stuck out for a fair price, and, in almost no case did he 
take more than 10% less than par. So well did he do his 
work, so quietly did he go from man to man on the list, 
that he was cleaned up a day or two before the time set 
for the starting of the mill. Then a wire, a few cryptic 
words to the promoter, and a visit to another bank, the 
purchase of New York exchange for the entire amount, 
and it was considerable, and he caught a train for Broad- 

The day of the grand opening had come. The stage 
was set. The mill finished, the banquet table arranged 
for the banker, the lawyer, and their friends who were 
approaching the mine in special stages chartered for the 
purpose. The table fairly groaned with good things. 


There were whole baked hams, cold turkeys, salads, 
relishes, superb hot biscuits prepared by the Chinese cook, 
a master of Ms profession. There at the side of the open 
tent, were tubs of bottled beer, surrounded by chunks of 
ice. In other tubs were pieces of cracked ice to add the 
necessary fillip to the famovfs Scotch, for which long 
glasses were provided. The table was set for forty, and 
as the first of the special stages rounded the turn, it ap- 
peared as if everybody had come. 

There was the new mill, clean cut and beautiful to the 
eye. There the head-frame, there the new power plant, 
with the business-like smoke pouring from the stack. As 
the last stage came into view, the whistle blew, a loud 
discordant note proclaiming the advent of the conquering 
heroes, to whom the perils of the desert were as nothing. 

Welcomed to the mine by the promoter, who was 
wreathed in smiles, they were conducted to the primitive 
wash-basins where they removed the stains of travel. 
Then the feast, that wonderful feast, that was like noth- 

ing else they had ever experienced. Filled to repletion, 
they lolled back on the benches, their cigars lighted, and 
listened to an impromptu address from the promoter. He 
told them lovely things about themselves, how great they 
all were, of the great debt that civilization owed to them, 
those pioneers of the waste places. He told them about 
the mine, as only he could, how rich it was, and how rich 
it would make them. Then he took them underground in 
batches and showed them around. He had put a round 
of shots in the roof of the drift making passage next to 
impossible. There they were, all dressed up. at times 
crawling on their hands and knees, and even tummies, 
candle in hand, down in the bowels of the earth, wishing 
they were safely topside once more. 

This finished, they were conducted around the mill. 
They admired the imposing battery of stamps, they in- 
spected the mysteries of crusher, automatic feeders, con- 
centrating tables, the rows of tanks the purpose of which 
was to them a profound mystery. Then, at a given word, 
a rumble, then a creak, then a hum was heard. The darn 
thing was running. The breaker began its crunch, crunch, 
and the broken rock began to fall into the bin. Then the 
roar of stamps was added to the din, and soon, a watery 
mud began to trickle through the battery screens and run 
down over the plates. Then the concentrators began to 
shimmy, the filter revolved, in short everything was a 
grand success. 

"I don't see any gold," anxiously remarked one of the 
guests. The promoter regarded him pityingly. ''We al- 
ways start up with waste until everything is running 
smoothly, and the adjustments are made," he replied. 
Satisfied, pleased at this exhibition of foresight, the guest 
retired. Taking the banker aside, the promoter said, 
"Tomorrow I will turn everything over to the superin- 
tendent you picked out, and who is due here iu the morn- 
ing. I am tired out with my hard work getting this mine 
started, and I am going to the seashore for a couple of 
weeks. ' ' 

Surely, he was entitled to a rest, this hard worked 
miner. The banker acquiesced with a smile. He re- 
membered his instructions to the new superintendent, 
"Run her for a week and then shut down for any reason 
you like. Then we will declare a series of assessments 
until we freeze that old duffer out." 

The guests departed. The next morning the new super- 
intendent arrived, and was met at the stage landing by 
the promoter, all packed, bag and baggage, ready to take 
the same stage out. "I am leaving everything for you 
with the book-keeper. You are in full charge and will 
report for instructions to Mr. Banker. I am going to the 
seashore for a rest. So long", and that was all. But, 
the promoter did not catch the train for the seashore. On 
the contrary he caught the Limited for the East. and. in 
course of time, at a well known New York hostelry, lie met 
the hard-up prospector, now miraculously metamorphosed 
into considerable of a dandy, who greeted him warmly, 
almost affectionately. 

The two retired to a room, where an interesting cere- 
mony took place. It consisted of a division of sundry 
bright looking documents, New York drafts aggregating 



Julv 24. 1920 



a sum of money running into six figures. Le1 us leave 
them fur the present, and return to the Qreal Homed 
Toad mine, and follow the new superintended around. 

This new saperintendent was a competent man. He 
teemed to ignore the beautiful oew mill, the mine office 
with its imposing sign, or the other surface indical ions of 
something, whatever it might be, at depth. He went 
immediately to his quarters, changed to his digging 
clothes, proceeded to the hoist house, and gave orders to 
be lowered. Candle in hand, accompanied by the fore- 
man, he plodded through the short drift, crawled over the 
material which had been broken from the roof in prepara- 
tion for stoping operations. Every few feet he stopped, 
looked, and listened for any explanation that the foreman 
might offer. None was forthcoming. Silently he con- 
tinued on his way, and reaching the end of the drift, he 
turned, retraced his steps, and was hoisted to the surface. 
Immediately he gave orders to shut down the mill. 

His lunch was eaten in silence. Then he sent for the 
foreman, and said, "We are going to sample this prop- 
erty immediately, as best we can. Get a couple of men 
with drills and get underground at once. I will show you 
where I want the shots put in." 

For three days, the men were busy putting in the holes. 
Then they were fired, and the result carefully hoisted to 
the surface, crushed, quartered, and delivered to the 
assayer. A day or two later came the reports. Assay 
after assay revealed the cold, pitiless fact that of Au there 
was from a trace to 49c, and of Ag there was nothing that 
could be determined. In order that no stone might be 
left unturned, the superintendent then sampled the crop- 
pings, as far as he could trace them. The result was the 
same. There was nothing there, nothing but just plain 
ordinary country rock. The dose was not palatable. It 
lacked the pinch of salt. 

Gathering up his documents, the superintendent caught 
the first train to the city. Upon his arrival he met the 
banker and the lawyer in the former's office, and there, 
quietly and in simple language, he told those two shrewd 
business men that they had been stung, that they had 
been bamboozled to the Queen's taste, that there had been 
nothing there, and that there was no indication that there 
ever would be anything there. 

Shock, followed by consternation, then wild rage 
against the promoter who had dared to assault these 
hitherto impregnable treasure chests, oh ! the language 
that rose to the high heavens, as they called him every- 
thing they could think of. They would have him arrest- 
ed ; they would send him to the penitentiary for life. 
Then the lawyer remembered that they had no grounds 
whatever for any action. He remembered that of all the 
crimes on the Penal Code, there was not one single one 
that they could pin on that wily promoter. They had 
been salted. Of that they were sure, otherwise how could 
those marvelous assays be accounted for, but of evidence, 
there was not one jot or tittle. They knew that the sam- 
ples that had been assayed could not possibly have come 
from the 'Great' Horned Toad, but prove it they could 
not. There was no more. Of that they were sure. 

Telephone calls from their circle of friends asking 

anxiously when the first clean-up would be made, first 

created suspicion, and then certainty, that the promoter 
had unloaded his stock at good prices through their own 
unwitting connivance. Little by little, as they began to 
recall the facts, all the circumstances reassembled them- 
selves in their minds, and they realized to the full, their 
folly, and how cleverly they had been done. Analyzing 
tin' whole scheme for flaws in their own procedure, the 
banker, some months after, was heard to remark, "Well, 
I suppose it would have been better for me to have sent 
an engineer to examine the property before we got in so 
deep, but, anyway," this to himself, consolingly, "I saved 
two or three thousand dollars in engineers fees." His 
friend, who had been listening, asked with a smile, "And 
how much did you lose without the engineers' services?" 
The banker, startled out of his calm, answered ' ' One hun- 
dred thousand". Then he saw the drift of the question. 
"Oh, go to hell," he snorted. 




The Ievinebank smelting works, in North Queensland, 
which were taken over by the Government last year for 
a period of 34. months, up to December 31 produced 35 
tons of tin valued at £11,770. The Government battery 
at Bainford treated during the year 1070 tons of tin ore, 
and 253 tons of ore containing wolfram, molybdenite, 
etc., and the recoveries were : black tin, 25 tons, valued 
at £3308 ; wolfram and bismuth, 44 tons, valued at £9783 ; 
bismuth, £112 ; or a total of 904. tons of concentrate, 
valued at £19,915. The plant is being further improved 
by adding to the storage capacity of the bins and by the 
addition of a magnetic separator for the purpose of sep- 
arating bismuth and wolfram. The plant worked two 
shifts during the greater part of the year. The report of 
the Secretary for Mines states that the acquisition by 
the Government of the Chillagoe smelters, railway, etc., 
has led to a great revival of industry in that locality, as 
well as at Mungana and Einasleigh. About 75% of the 
ore supply for the smelters is expected to be derived from 
the last-mentioned mine. It is expected that the regular 
output of the works will be at the rate of about 200 tons 
per month. The complete return for March was: 153 
tons of blister copper, containing 151.3 tons of pure cop- 
per, 7650 oz. silver, and 111 oz. gold ; also 280 tons lead 
bullion, containing 272 tons lead, 16,880 oz. silver, and 
39 oz. gold. 



July 24, 1920 

Electro - Metallurgy of Manganese 

Bulletin No. 5 of the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion of the University of Washington, 'Electro-Metal- 
lurgical and Electro-Chemical Industry in the State of 
Washington', by Charles Denham Grier. gives the fol- 
lowing brief description of the process in use at the 
ferro-manganese plant of the Bilrowe Alloys Co. at 
Taeoma. In this plant, manganese ores from Philips- 
burg, Montana, are mixed with sufficient coke for reduc- 
tion, limestone for fluxing, and a little metallic iron, and 
then smelted in six single-phase open-top shaft furnaces. 
Each furnace has a capacity of a little less than two tons 
per day when operating on the best ores. Pour of these 
furnaces are enclosed in shells of Win. boiler-plate, 77 
in. diam.. 69 in. high, flanged at the top, with a 6-in. strip 
of brass running from top to bottom to break the mag- 
netic circuit. The shells are cooled by a water spray 
from a perforated pipe that encircles the shell near the 
top. The other two furnaces are of reinforced concrete, 
7f ft. square on the outside with a circular central shaft 
79 in. diam. The lining of both kinds of furnaces is the 
same. At the bottom is a water-cooled cast-iron grid, 
which is embedded in and under the rammed mixture of 
ground carbon, graphite, and coal-tar that forms the 
bottom of the crucible. The side-walls of the crucible 
are made of California magnesite and extend up above 
the smelting-zone. Above this, the lining is of hard- 
burned firebrick, which will best withstand the abrasive 
action of the charge and of the poking necessary to ensure 
proper descent of the charge. 

The two concrete furnaces each have a guide, which 
extends from the sides and across the top of the furnace 
to hold the electrode in the centre of the shaft. The 
other furnaces lack this feature, and their electrodes are 
merely supported by steel cables from a car-truck over- 
head. In all except one furnace, 16-in. square, amor- 
phous carbon electrodes are used ; in that one 20-in. 
round electrodes of the same material are used. The 
electrodes have threaded recesses in each end and new 
lengths are joined to the electrode in place by means of a 
threaded plug screwing into both pieces. A paste of 
graphite and raw linseed oil is used between the surfaces 
to increase the conductivity of the joint. Putting on a 
new length requires from ten to, fifteen minutes with the 
concrete furnaces, but from one to two hours on the other 

The electrode-holders are in two parts, which clamp on 
the sides of the electrodes. They are water-cooled. The 
flexible water-connection required is an asbestos i-in. 
steam-hose. These holders have arms that extend past 
the side of the furnace where the clamps which make con- 
nections with the leads are bolted on. A counterweight 
balances this eccentric weight. Some trouble has been 
experienced with the holders, as the electrode faces are 
irregular and good contacts are not made over the entire 
surface. This results in hot spots, which eat away the 
carbon, sometimes producing an arc that attacks the cop- 

per, and frequently allows the suspended electrode to 
drop into the bath. 

The power required for each furnace is approximately 
350 kilowatts. The current is supplied to the terminals 
of the furnace at about 55 volts. The power factor is ■ 
said to be about 90%. The conductors to the furnace, 
which are $ by 6-in. bars, are placed close to each other 
to minimize reactions, and the magnetic circuit in the 
shell is opened by the strip of brass mentioned before. 
The energy required per long ton of product is said to 
vary between 4600 kilowatt-hours, which is the amount 
used when running on the best ores, to an average of 
5500 kilowatt-hours, which was the figure obtained over a 
period of four months while using the different grades 
of ore shown below. Power is purchased at rates varying 
with the load factor, and this is usually such as to earn 
a rate of from 3.31 to 3.52 mills per kilowatt-hour. Un^ 
der the power contract, the plant is subject to shut-down 
in ease of low water. During the past two years it has 
lost approximately ten days together with three or four 
minor interruptions. 

The following analyses represent the different grades 
of Montana ore used : 



Concentrate 40.1.3 

Washed ore 42.07 

Coarse rood ore 47.08 

Coarse poor ore 38.27 

The concentrate is fine and tends to pack in the fur- 
nace so tightly that the gases formed by the furnace re- 
actions cannot pass freely. The result is that gas ac- 
cumulates until the pressure is high enough to force a 
passage, which is usually along the electrodes, through 
which it 'blows' with considerable force, materially 
shortening the life of the electrode. To minimize this 
trouble, coarse ore is mixed with the concentrate in equal 
quantities. It is also found necessary to mix the ores so 
that the AL0 3 content does not exceed 4%. Ores ex- 
ceeding this amount yield a slag which does not separate 
well from the metal, which is entangled in, and clings to, 
the slag when cool. 

Typical analyses of the ferro-manganese and the slag 
produced are as follows : 




A1.0 S