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Full text of "Mining and Scientific Press (Jan.-June 1879)"



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California State Library 



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Extract from the JP'olitical Code* 

Suction 2296. Books may be taken from the Library 
by the members of the Legislature, during the sessions 
thereof, and by other State officers at any time. 

Sec. 2298. The Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
that any officer has failed to return books taken by him 
within the time prescribed by the Rules, and after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of such 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value of 
the books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to the 
Librarian. 

Sec. 2299. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
the value thereof. 

No person shall take or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
period than two weeks. Books of reference shall not bk 
taken from the Library at any time. — [Extract from the 
Rules. 

■GSrThe foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced."®* 



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An Illustrated Journal: of 



BV DEWEY .V CO. 
}Pul)1 1 fliers. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1879. 



VOLUME S3CS1VIII 
Number 1. 



A Practical Traction Engine. 

[Written fur the Truss.] 

The subject of transportation by means of 
the road-locomotive, or traction-engine as it is 
call «il, has occupied the attention of engineers 
in all parts of the worhl. It is believed that 
California has produced a machine that stands 
among the best forms of the road-locomotive ; 
from late tests it appears to be one of the most 
practicable engines of this class that has ever 
been introduced. 

The accompanying engraving represents one 
of these machines, on three wheels, all of which 
are propelled by beveled gearing. 

The following are the principal dimensions : 
Boiler — length over all, 10 feet ; boiler, diame- 
ter of shell, 48 inches ; boiler, thickness of 
shell, i inch ; boiler, tire box sheets, § inch; 
load on driving wheels, 2,300 pounds; steam 
cylinders, diameter, 8 inches; stroke of pis- 
tons, 12 inches; revolutions of crank to one 
of driving wheels, 10; driving 
wheels, diameter 72 inches; 
driving wheels, breadth of tire, 
12 inches. 

The boiler is a new and pe- 
culiar multitubular arrange- 
ment, which makes steam as 
fast as required, from a com- 
paratively small amount of 
water, doing away with con- 
siderable bulk and weight. 
There are two engines mounted 
on top of the boiler; the crank- 
shafts are coupled and the 
cranks are set quartering to 
avoid the possibility of ever 
stopping on the center; the 
bed plates have the cross-head 
guides cast solid with the bed; 
and the cylinders are secured 
in sliding bearings fastened by 
flanges to boiler-brackets; by 
this means the expansion and 
contraction of the boiler is ac- 
commodated, avoiding a con- 
siderable strain on the en- 
gines. The driving-gears or 
angle-shafts, are on each side 
of the machine as shown, and 
are driven by the beveled 
pinions on each end of the 
engine shaft. The angle-shafts 
run in angle bracket-boxes, so 
that one pair of shafts having 
beveled pinions run the for- 
ward wheel-gears, and the other 
pair of angle-shafts also have 
beveled pinions that drive 
beveled wheels secured* to the rear traction 
wheels. The forward driving gears are keyed 
to the outer ends of the forward axle, or 
driving Bhaft, more properly speaking, 
as the latter drives the forward or steering 
wheel, but at the same time allowing it to be 
moved in an arc of a circle sideways at any 
angle desired for steering the machines. This 
is accomplished by means of a ball and socket 
joint in the hub of this wheel. 

This ball and socket joint is the most ingeni- 
ous part of the whole machine, and to accom- 
plish the work of driving the wheel in all posi- 
tions, a number of steel keys are fitted in the 
ball, and projecting to work in slots cut in the 
shell or casing of the ball. 

This casing has projecting faces with revolv- 
ing rings on each side of the wheel, and to 
these rings are bolted arms on each side run- 
ning back to a gear segment, operated by a 
pinion on the end of an upright spindle or shaft 
with a hand-wheel at the top, just in front of 
the steersman's seat; here the man piloting the 
machine has control of the throttle valve and 
reverse lever. 

This is the first instance in which the steering 
wheel has been made to propel the machine; 
and it can be made to do the work independent 
of the hind wheels, in case of necessity; as for 
instance when both hind wheels become mired, 
or get into quicksand, or deep ruts in the road. 
This is accomplished by having self-adjustable 
clutches on the hind wheel shaft, also for back- 
ing, etc. 

In all of the traction engines heretofore built, 



only two wheels have been employed to propel 
the machine, but in this invention all of the 
wheels on which it runs are traction wheels, 
and more than three may be employed if de- 
sired. This machine was used for a consider- 
able length of time in the State of Nevada, 
hauling ore and other freight from mines to 
mills, etc., running np mountainous roads 
(where mule teams had been used); the grade 
being in some instances 530 feet to the mile, 
and hauling ten tons on wagons at a speed of 
two and one-half miles per hour. After work- 
ing for one company until their mines gave out, 
the machine was brought to Sacramento, where 
it was employed in house moving and other 
heavy work. 

The Sacramento AVood Co. have recently 
bought a Pacific coast interest in this invention, 
and have put the machine to a very severe 
test, showing its ability to haul heavy freight 
in a successful manner. Capt. J. Roberts, the 
leading spirit of the company, took this ma- 
chine up the Sacramento river on one of their 
steamers, and landing in Colusa county, where 



elusions: A traction engine, or road locomotive, 
may be constructed upon this plan, so as to be 
easily and rapidly manceuvred, hauling a long 
line of freight wagons on the ordinary roads, 
and turning without difficulty on a circle such 
as are common at all cross-roads. 

A locomotive weighing six tons is capable of 
hauling 25,000 pounds up a grade of 525 feet to 
the mile at a speed of 3A miles an hour. The 
traction-power of the machine tested was equal 
to 30 horses. 

The coefficient of traction was shown to be 
about 0.5 ; the weight that could be drawn on 
a perfectly smooth and level road was 175,000 
pounds; this is exclusive of the" weight of the 
engine, and the amount of fuel required is esti- 
mated at 500 pounds a Tday. In handling the 
machine the most experienced and Bkillful men 
are required. The difference between the per- 
formances of the same engine in different hands 
was 12%. 

It is estimated that the expense in heavy 
hauling by steam is 25% less than the cost of 



The Bodie Claims. 

The Bodie mines were taken up under United 
States law, and held as from the United States. 
But now it transpires that tho United States 
did not own the land occupied by many of the 
chief mines ; on the contrary, the State owned 
them, and the United States could not allow 
any one to hold them either by yearly work or 
by purchase — in fact, had no claim on them 
whatever. The State owns the 16th and 36th 
aections of every township. She was granted 
them for school purposes. Owning them Bhe 
has a right to sell them. This Bhe has done in 
the present case, and there was no stay in her 
proceedings, because the 16th section of one 
township contained some of Bodie's richest 
mines. The plat of survey of the land in ques- 
tion was filed on March 16th, 1878. At that 
horBe-power on an ordinary road. A much time those who were located on the 16th sec- 
they run regular trips back into the country, a I larger and more powerful machine is now being | tion might have known how they were situated. 

From that date they were al- 
lowed the refusal of the land 
for six months. Those six 
months have passed. The lo- 
cators have not purchased from 
the State. Others have taken 
advantage of this negligence, 
and have bought the land and 
hold a State title to it. The 
title seems to be good, and all 
that Bodie can do is to compro- 
mise. The interested mines 
are: Bodie, South Bodie, South 
Standard, Bed Cloud Consoli- 
dated, Belvidere, Bodie Tunnel 
and Mining Company, Summit, 
White Cloud, Goodshaw, Au- 
rora Tunnel, Maybelle, Con- 
cordia, Noonday, Richelieu, 
Champion, Sigourney, Mono, 
Mono and Cross Consolidated, 
Bodie Hydraulic, LaJy Alice 
Tunnel and Mining Company, 
Relief Consolidated, South 
Bulwer, part of the Bulwer 
Rustler, Dudley, Requizon, Re- 
public, Booker, Humboldt, 
Double Standard, Jupiter, 
Glynn, Daily, South Belvidere, 
and the placer claims of Wm. 
Irwin, John F. Boyd, G. S. 
Morton and others. The South 
Bulwer has compromised. 

Bodie stock has been sur- 
prisingly low for some weeks 
past. It has exhibited a 
deadness which grew, _ per- 
haps, out of some premonition, 
if not positive knowledge, of this trouble. It 
will be a great pity if this flourishing town is 
to receive a setback here on the very threshold 
of so promising a career. Mining towns in the 
first few years of their growth are particularly 
liable to such disorders. But perhaps non« 
other ever received such an aggravating blow 
as this that has been dealt Bodie. 




AN IMPROVED EOAD LOCOMOTIVE, OR TRACTION ENGINE. 



distance of 16 miles, taking freight from the 
steamer, and bringing wheat back, they loaded 
six Bain header wagons with 300 sacks of grain, 
also hauling one extra Bain header wagon con- 
taining a tank in which they took 615 gallons 
of water, besides Ih tons of coal, making over 
24 tons total freight in wagons; the machine 
also carried tanks secured at each side of the 
boiler, these holding 250 gallons of water. 
Five miles of the road was very dusty, and full 
of ruts, we had several sloughs to cross, making 
a very severe test of the traction power of the 
machine. But if the roads are level, hard and 
free from ruts, the machine ia capable of haul- 
ing 35 tons at a speed of three miles per 
hour. 

The machine works admirably as to pulling 
or traction qualities. The machine weighed 
on the scales — having steam up and 250 gallons 
of water in the tanks, also coal in the cab — 11£ 
tons total weight. 

Capt. Roberts' Company has plenty of work 
for a large number of these machines, as they 
haul freight from various points throughout the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys to their 
steamboats and barges on the rivers. 

This traction engine will run over any kind 
of ground; it can enter any farmer's field, plow 
his ground, and at the proper time haul away 
his grain or other freight, running in any direc- 
tion without reference to depots or tracks that 
at present are so necessary for the transporta- 
tion business of the country. 

From the recent trial of this engine, the con- 
structing engineer deduced the following con- 



built for the company by Root, Neilsou & Co. , 
Sacramento. The inventor is Mr. R. R, Doan, 
who commenced many years ago to study the 
problem of substituting steam power for animal 
power on the highways and for farm use. 
After years of toil and the expenditure of a 
large amount of money, building the machine 
in several styles, he has profited by the expe- 
rience, and we believe that he has accomplished 
the desired result, in the road locomotive 
represented by our engraving. C. W. M. 



Boswell Fruit Drier. — We call attention 
to the advertisement of the Boswell heater 
company on page 16 of this issue. The princi- 
ple of deflected heat as applied to drying fruit 
seems to be worthy the attention of all inter- 
ested in that branch of industry. The com- 
bined apparatus for cooking, baking, heating, 
drying, etc., is a great auxilliary to the econ- 
omy of housekeeping, and the apparatus is also 
claimed to be the most economical as well as 
the best arrangement for drying fruit, etc., 
that is now before the public. Mr. E. L. Sulli- 
van, an old and well-known citizen of the State, 
is at the head of the company. 

The Salt River Herald says: Messrs. I. N. 
Cohen & Co. have received 30,000 pounds of 
copper from the Longfellow company during the 
past week; shipping 20,000 to the railroad du- 
ring the same time. 

Work progresses favorably at the Black 
Jack, Idaho. 



Pacific Coast Postal Changes.— Following 
are the postal changes for the week ending Dec. 
29th : Offices Established— Novelty, Kings 
county, Washington Territory, George B. 
Boyce, Postmaster. Ashley, Wasatch county, 
Utah, Wm. H. Wallis, Postmaster. Offices 
Discontinued — Laplays, San Luis Obispo 
county, California. Name Changed — Willow 
Forks, Umatilla county, Oregon, to Pettysville. 
Postmasters Appointed— Charles Crandall, Al- 
toona, Trinity county; Karl H. Plate, Tyrone, 
Sonoma county, California. Henry Williams, 
Sweetwater, . Esmeralda county, Nevada. 
David Somniers, Summersville, Union county; 
Joshua Pullen, Zion, Clackamas county, Oregon. 
Samuel Egesley, Silver Spring, Salt Lake 
county, Utah. 

The Little Emma, Democrat mountain, Col- 
orado, was discovered in May, 1877. It haa 
since produced §22,853.09 net. 



The Tiptop company, at their mill, Gillett, 
are produoing silver bullion at the rate of $60,- 
000 a month. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



CJD 



Correspondence. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds. 



Scenes in the High Sierra Back of 
Tosemite— Continued. 

[Written for the Press by J. G. Lejimon.] 
No. 2. Mount Lyell and its Glaciers. 

"Who has not heard of the lofty Lyell group 
of peaks, and of their system of still living 
glaciers?" The dignified Prof. Whitney has 
ably described them in the cold exact terms of 
science, and the Bonny Scot, Johnny Muir, has 
set them forth in warm, glowing language, that 
is just as truthful, and ten times more readable 
for the average mind. "Who would not visit 
them from a distance, if able, especially, who 
would not make a desperate effort if he hap- 
pened fco be in sight of the glistening pinnacles, 
even though his back was nearly broken ?" Thus 
I reasoned as I looked off from the dizzy crown 
of Tis-sa-ack, and studied the approaches to the 
wondrous group lying about 20 miles distant, 
as the bird flies, but with many miles of bald 
ridges and tortuous, wooded, dark valleys 
between. But resolution and ability were not 
in accord this time. The next morning I was 
unable to saddle my horse, and the next after, 
found me too weak to venture the chances of a 
toilsome, dangerous excursion, especially as I 
was alone. But to acquire strength I moved 
painfully about the woods near Anderson's 
cabin, securing among other rare plants, the 
Bokindra CaU/ornica, Gray, the type of a genus 
composed of a single species, and dedicated to 
Prof. Bolander, who, with the founder of Jthe 
genus, are the only botanists that are reported 
to have met with the plant. The curious plants 
belongs to the saxifrages, very singularly com- 
bining in itself the characters of four or five of 
the genera. 

Another striking plant growing here in a 

frassy bog, was discovered by Bolander, in the 
lariposa station meadows, and named lay him 
Senecia Glarhianus, in honor of Galen Clark, the 
genial pioneer of this region, and the present 
guardian of Yosemite valley. 

The third morning found me on the Mono 
trail leading my burdened horse up the pass to 
Cathedral valley. The trail was in places 
obliterated by roving bands of sheep, causing 
much delay in searching for it, for attempting 
to proceed by any other way was fruitless. It 
was late in the eve when, after treading the long 
valley skirting the curious Cathedral, crossing 
spurs and winding around glacier lakes, I 
began to descend into a deep and broad valley, 
upon the farther side of which a column of 
smoke beaconed the way to Soda spring and to 
Lambert's cabin, a warm supper and a rude 
couch — the latter all too poorly supplied with 
blankets for my weak, dispirited condition. 

The Tuolumne meadows carpet the floor of 
the deep, even-sided nearly straight valley of 
the upper Tuolumne, for a space of eight or ten 
miles long by a half to a mile wide. 

This valley is the track, the wallowing trail 
of an immense glacier of the olden times, and 
every tough, rounded rock appearing on the 
floor or sides, shows the grinding action of the 
crawling monster, many of the silicious rocks 
shining like glass. 

Avalanches. 

The sides of the valley are clothed with the 
luxuriant Pinus contorta (miscalled "Tama- 
rack"), save where broad gaps of one-half to a 
mile, show where from the snow-gathering 
crests along the lofty rim avalanches of snow and 
rocks thundered down, carrying the forest with 
them out into the valley. Some of the 
avalanches occurred at recent date, how recent 
might be easily approximated by cutting trees 
upepringing in their track and counting their 
rings of annual growth. Others cleared the 
timber off their pre-emption so long ago that 
the forest is nearly restored, but the precise 
width and comparative violence of the slide can 
be determined by noting the hummocks of rocks 
and earth lying in interrupted bands along the 
center of the valley — telling where decayed the 
uptorn trees. ^ 

Above Soda spring a mile or two, the 
Tuolumne river, clear, cold and singularly des- 
titute of fish, divides into two branches. The 
east branch comes from circling around the 
bases of Mounts Dana and Gibbs, 11 miles 
distant ; the south branch, called Lyell Fork, 
comes gliding alone a valley similar to the 
meadows, but with still more interesting 
evidences of snow and rock-slides. At the south 
end the walls close in and the water comes from 
two sources, cascading down a precipice half 
a mile high. Leaving my faithful Stanley here 
securely tethered with a long rope where he 
could eat and drink at will, I prepared to climb 
the precipice in the early morning of a fine 
August day. The vicissitudes of a long, peril- 
ous exploration had endeared us to each other, 
and it was with poignant sorrow that I shouted 
in reply to his neighing entreaties sent lovingly 
after me as I clambered up the precipice. 
Climbing Mt. Lyell 

As I neared the top of this precipice, I 
looked expectantly for the peaks of Lyell, only 
to find a broad, bush-covered bench, back of 
which a mile away, rose another precipice a 
half mile high. Climbing wearily up this, aided 
by the spirea and gooseberry shrubs clinging to 
the crevices of the rocks, I was encouraged by a 
most enchanting view of the peaks five miles 
away. Between lay an alpine plateau, destitute 



of trees, covered as late as July with snow, now 
partially exposed, revealing dozens of small 
placid emerald lakes imbedded in steep grasBy 
banks, brilliant with rare flowers and butter- 
flies. 

The lakes with all their decorations were 
arranged in lines, between which rose long 
ridges of snow. Mounting one of these, I saw 
that they led back a mile to still another preci- 
pice, on the brow of which loomed the rounded, 
front-face of a semi-circular moraine. The re- 
gion of living glaciers was near, and joyfully I 
hurried over snow ridges and around lakes, 
only occasionally snatching a flower and crowd- 
ing it into my portfolio, or pinning a butterfly 
to my hat. X must not stop to study these 
wonderful phenomena now, for the noontide 
sun is shining hot, and the grand arcana is but 
entered. 

"Will precipices never end," I exclaimed 
while pulling myself up the slippery, moss- 
grown rocks by laying hold of clumps of 
Bryanthus Breweri, prettiest of California 
heathers, so charming that I must be pardoned 
for stopping to observe. One bluff several hun- 
dred feet in extent, was all ablaze with crimson 
and orange, the blended colors of this heather 
and another exquisite relative, Cassiope Merten- 
siana. 

At last I encountered the sharp, steep-piled 
rocks of the moraine. Twice in my eagerness 
to get up, I displaced rocks and with them 
tumbled to the bottom. When at length I 
reached the crest, tired, bruised and torn, 
a scene appeared tliat stirred my being to its very 
deptlis ! A still, azure lake, its farther shore 
being filled in with a vast semi-circle of angu- 
lar rocks, which was curled around the front of 
an immense precipice of solid blue ice 40 feet 
high, and reaching from wall to wall of the 
canyon, its steel-blue upper edge along its en- 
tire rainbow curve burdened at intervals with 
toppling rocks, some of them as large as dwell- 
ing houses, while beyond and over all towered 
the snow-striped pinnacles of Lyell. 

I could not shout this time, for I was think- 
ing of far-away friends. I could only murmur 
the names of each and fervently wish them 
there at that supreme hour ! 

But we must not linger here. Other start- 
ling phenomena are at hand, and we will try to 
study them in proper connection at the close. 
Now, our business is climbing. We are yet to 
surmount formidable and unexpected difficul- 
ties. 

Turning the flank of this barrier I was soon 
on the back of the glacier. The snow of sev- 
eral seasons lies on the top, blown by the wind 
into ridges and melted between by the sun. 
Here and there evenly scattered over the sur- 
face lie rocks of all sizes and shapes, torn, as 
we shall see, from the pinnacles above. Hurry- 
ing over the drifts and through the streams of 
water partially filling the furrows, I struck out 
for the nearest peak. At its top a sweeping 
curve of sharp rock led to a higher one, and 
this to another. On and up I pressed, my in- 
jured back complaining sharply and almost com- 
pelling a return. The flora was singularly 
abundant on these extreme bights, but I could 
only pause for a few rare species. By mistake 
I first ascended Mt. McClure nearly to the top, 
when, by chance, I angled a little to the left, 
and there, a mile away to the south, across a 
deeply furrowed ice-field, rose the loftier peak 
of Lyell. My watch told me it was 1:30 p. m., 
and I knew I was at least 10 miles from my 
bivouac. But my resolution was immediately 
taken. I slid down an incline of splintered 
rocks to the ice-field, climbed over rib after rib 
of the hard snow nearly to the base of the 
shining pinnacles, before I came upon the 
widest crevasses of this ice-field. [One I discov- 
ered too late for my comfort. In my haste I 
ran up the side of a rib and sprung over to slide 
swiftly but without injury to the bottom of a 
crevasse about 12 feet deep and four wide. 
Here was an adventure ! However, I was glad 
that chance thus gave me an opportunity to in- 
spect the bottom of a glacier, after which with 
my ever-ready botanical pick I dug holes in the 
inclined lower side of the crevasse for fingers 
and toes, and was soon on the way again. As 
I gazed up the culminating peak, and saw bar- 
riers innumerable with beetling crags surmount- 
ing almost vertical walls, I became well-nigh 
discouraged. But' around to the south side 
appeared a heap of talus (broken rocks), and I 
judged a passage of some kind must be there; 
so I hastened around to see. There was a pass- 
age to be sure, but what a fearful one ! A soft 
stratum of slate rock had crumbled away from 
between two vertical cleavage planes of granite 
about six feet apart. At intervals huge blocks 
of granite were lodged corner-wise in this open 
cut, while on the bottom piles of debris formed 
nearly horizontal landings, where temporarily 
arrested a few rods apart. I at once entered 
this chasm, for this Appian Way was my only 
hope to reach the summit. But the situation 
was frightful, and my nerves which never 
blanched before, not even when charging a 
battery of belcbing cannon, now caused a ting- 
ling sensation from head to foot. I think it re- 
sulted from the injury to my back. I almost 
recoiled from passing under boulders that, it 
seemed, only a touch might dislodge. 

Once the landing of debris gave way beneath 
my feet, and I was precipitated wildly down to 
the next landing, which, luckily, was strong 
enough to resist the shock. Having reached the 
top of my narrow-gauge, I found myself still 
several hundred feet below the summit. I had 
read in "Whitney's Guide," that when Clarence 
King climbed this peak, he was stopped when 
within about 150 feet of the top by a horizontal 



knife-edge of 12 feet long. I hoped that my 
short-cut came out above this barrier, but in a 
few minutes climb, I came upon the forbidding 
"knife-edge," with a sheer precipice of 1,000 
feet on each side. 

Resolutely clambering to it, I clasped my 
gloved left hand over the sharp edge, and with 
my pick in my right, dug niches in the side for 
the edge of my nailed boots, six such cuts en- 
abling me to cross the frightful barrier. Ten 
minutes afterward I swung my hat triumphantly 
in the breeze from the highest pinnacle of Lyell, 
13,217 feet above the sea 1 

The views on every side from this peculiarly 
central station are unexcelled on this coast, but 
as nearly the same are presented from Dana, 
which I am next to explore, description is 
omitted here to give room for promised studies of 
glaciers and their work, which will be the sub- 
ject of my next article. 

A Snake River Debate. 

Saving* Fine Gold. 

Gold has, for years, been known to exist on 
the Snake river, but so fine is the gold that it 
is only very lately that a successful method has 
been applied there. "This method," says a 
Park City correspondent of the Salt Lake 
Tribune, ' ' is not generally understood, even by 
old placer miners, who have mined for coarse 
gold, unless they have also worked in gold 
quartz mills. From the knowledge I have of 
Snake river, I am satisfied there is very little 
chance of hydraulicking. There is not fall 
enough, nor is the material of a nature to re- 
quire that kind of force to tear the cement, 
clay and other tough material found in gravel 
diggings. So that I shall describe the process 
as though the water was to be pumped into the 
sluices : 

" 1. You place a line of sluice boxes, long 
or short, according to the nature of the mate- 
rial that carries the gold; if it is sand without 
clay or sticky material, a few boxes will be 
sufficient. In the lower box, before any plates 
are used, there should be a sheet iron lined box 
or long-tom, from which all the rock must be 
forked out, so that nothing but muddy water 
and fine sand passes down over the plates to 
be placed below. 

" 2. Place the boxes which contain the plates 
as flat as you can, and have the water and sand 
pass over them without clogging; the slower it 
passes the more gold will atop. No coarse 
gravel should be allowed to pass over them or 
the amalgam will be scratched off. If it is not, 
it is because it is too hard and not in proper 
condition to catch fine gold, or coarse either. 

" Old mill men will tell you the softer the 
amalgam can be kept on the plates and not 
break and pass off, the better its condition to 
save gold. It is obvious, then, that coarse ma- 
terial should not be allowed to pass over them, 
and that the line of sluice boxes above should 
be long enough to wash clean and fork out all 
but the water and sand. 

"3. The boxes containing the plates shouldibe 
stout, and placed one below the level of the 
other with a drop of six or nine inches. This 
keeps the sand stirred up, turns it over and 
presents new surfaces, 

"4. The length necessary to be plated can 
only be ascertained by actual practice. If the 
gold is easily amalgamated, a few feet would be 
sufficient. The only safe rule would be to keep 
adding plates below as long as any gold stops. 

"5. Much has been written about silver plat- 
ing. While I admit that they are the least 
.trouble, they are not absolutely necessary. Take 
Bheet copper, say an eighth of an inch thick, 
and scour it bright and smooth. This may be 
done with rotten stone, ashes and soap, or 
other material that will not scratch or indent the 
plate. Finish off with dilute acid, either sul- 
phuric or muriatic, by three parts of water to 
one of acid. This should be kept in a porcelain 
kettle, to apply to any spot where the amalgam 
rubs off and the copper shows through. Add 
to the above solution a little cyanide of po- 
tassium. 

"6. Now, to amalgamate your plates, get 
some good silver or gold amalgam, which does 
not contain much base metal. You can tell this 
by the feel — if base, it will be greasy and stain 
the fingers,if pure,it will squeak when pinched, 
and will not soil the hands. Soften this with 
quicksilver, and rub once over the plate at first 
quite softly. When the surface shows like a 
silver plate, add more dry amalgam and go over 
again until a coating adheres that can be rubbed 
off with a piece of belting, either leather or 
rubber; and, by the way, this is the only 
Bcraper that should be used until the plate is 
thoroughly and permanently amalgamated. 

"If the above directions are followed, a plate 
will be produced that no speck of gold on Snake 
river can tell from a silver plate, and will not 
pass over it to meet one. Sheet copper can be 
found almost any place where quartz mills are 
operating, and can be prepared by miners them- 
selves. The delay and expense of sending for 
silver .plated ones is beyond the means of most 
prospectors. A well amalgamated copper is as 
good and will save as much gold as a silver 
plate.. The difference is, that the amalgam 
comes off of copper in spots where much splash- 
ing or friction exists, as in the inside of bat- 
teries, et(C 7 but in sluice boxes, with a uniform 
body of water passing over them, and close 
watching to keep them amalgamated, I think 
they will be found good enough." 

In the columns of the same paper, "Snake 
Bite" thus challenges " '49er. " The latter, he 
says, is correct in stating that silver-plated cop- 



per plates are not absolutely necessary in sluice 
mining. He is "open to correction, however, in 
regard to the instruction he gives for making 
the necessary appliances, setting the boxes and 
preparing the copper plates. 

"1. It is not necessary in the new machine, 
to fork out the coarse rock, as he states, it 
would cost too much. - 

( '2. He is in error when he directs to 'place 
the boxes as flat as you can' to catch fine gold. 
The finer the gold the steeper the boxes should 
be set, as the sand will pack in a box with little 
inclination, and the fine gold will not work its 
way to the bottom. 

"3. While I agree with him that silver plat- 
ing is leBs trouble,it is not absolutely necessary, 
but his directions for amalgamating will produce 
the very results that silver plating is designed 
to prevent, to wit: the oxidation of the copper 
and the consequent discoloration of the plates. 
No acid should be used; and the plates can be 
amalgamated without it if you know how (there 
is the rub), and be as efficient as if plated with 
silver. 

"Miners are beginning to realize that placer 
mining can be improved upon as well as mill 
processes, and the new mode of working, I have 
no doubt, will result in the output of millions 
of dollars in the region of country along and 
near Snake river. 



Gold Sands. 



The following paper was read before the Cal- 
ifornia State Geological Society: A short time 
ago a gentleman having a patent for the use of 
petroleum as fuel in making iron and for the 
smelting of lead and other ores, called at the 
rooms of this society for information as to the 
situation, extent and richness of the iron mines 
of this State. Our worthy Secretary, Mr. 
Heydenfeldt, after having put him in possession 
of the required information, gave him a letter 
of introduction to me. At the time he called to 
deliver it, I was reading Mr. J. H. Godfrey's 
paper on the geology of Japan, published in our 
Quarterly Journal, August 1st, 1878, wherein 
he says: "About two-thirds of the whole pro- 
duction of iron in Japan is derived from the 
treatment of the sand of magnetic iron ore. 
The principal deposits of this iron sand are f jund 
along the eastern and southern shores of the 
main island (Nippon), and usually they appear 
to have been derived from the decomposition of 
the neighboring granitic rocks." 

In another place he says: "Sand of magnetic 
iron ore undoubtedly derived from the adjoin- 
ing volcanic and metamorphic rocks, is fre- 
quently met with along the seashore and 
largely used for manufacturing an excellent 
quality of iron, as for instance at Nakayama, 
Province of Gueshin." Having the facts in my 
mind, I suggested to Mr. Eames to make a trial 
of the magnetites, in our gold sands, which are 
to be found in such quantities on this coast, the 
condition of such ore being, as 1 conceived, so 
well adapted for the flame from petroleum. 
Mr. Eames, I am pleased to say, is now erect- 
ing a trial furnace at old Sauceiito, and I feel 
very sanguine as to the results. I make no 
doubt but what he will be able to manufacture 
the shoes, dies, etc., required for our quartz 
mills direct from the ore." If the ore is obtained 
from our gold sands two dollars per ton should 
pay for concentration, leaving the gold for 
profit. Manufactures of this kind, giving em- 
ployment to so many, ought to receive every 
encouragement. The fuel and ore exist in 
abundance on this coast, and also the best mar- 
ket for the manufactured article, which in 
reality only requires labor to psoduce it. 

I have had a number of samples of sand sent 
to me from the beach near the Ocean house. 
The first I tried yielded at the rate of $5 per ton 
for gold, and contained about 25% of magnetite, 
with some chrome. The others gave about 50 
cents per ton for gold, and from 15% to 65% of 
magnetite. The concentration, I imagine, would 
be a very simple affair, but the ore should be 
made as clean as possible, and ought to contain 
at least 90% of magnetite. Two of Bunton's ore 
dressing frames would, I think, do the work of 
concentration very well. The prepared canvas 
of the first frame should revolve more rapidly 
than when used in dressing lead ore, and have a 
slight percussion movement added to it, the 
strength of the blow from which ought to be so 
arranged that the person attending the frame 
could vary it to suit the work. The second 
frame should have the prepared canvas covered 
at intervals with silvered plates, and be worked 
slower than the other frame, and so placed that 
the partially dressed ore from the first could 
pass over it. 

Mr. A. exhibited drawings of two gold-wash- 
ing machines which were used 200 years ago 
with direction of how they were worked ; also, 
a diagram and description of Brunton's ore 
dressing frames, published in the London Mining 
Journal, in 1846, and ore by himself for treating 
lead and copper slimes, also published in the 
London Mining Journal, 1S43, and one cut out 
of the Mining Press of San Francisco last 
week. 

The use of petroleum as a fuel bids fair to 
revolutionize all our smelting operations, and it 
will not be long before it will take the place of 
coal in the treatments of copper, silver, lead, and 
other ores, even in the calcination and distilla- 
tion of zinc; but by far the most important will 
be in iron making, particularly in the puddling 
furnace. Where a constant and high tempera- 
ture under perfect control is required, it will 
take the place of everything else — indeed, the 
only limit to its use, I think, will be its cost. 



BT. i l 



January 4 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 




Iron in Car Construction. 

Much thought and labor has been expended 
in the construction of railroad cars, to obviate 
the necessity of carrying such a large proportion 
of dead weight, as has hitherto been considered 
necessary, whether for passengers or freight ; 
any improvement which will bring about a 
favorable change iu the ratio between dead load 
and carrying capacity must be of proportionate 
value. Mr. Albert F. Hill, of Cincinnati, 
recently read a very interesting paper on this 
subject, at a meeting of the Master Car Build- 
ers' Association, from which we extract as 
follows : 

Remembering that the same mechanical 
principles which govern the design and con- 
struction of a bridge hold equally good in the 
construction of a roof or a warehouse tloor, etc., 
there can be no impropriety in considering a 
freight car-body as a perambulating bridge, or 
a bridge on wheels. Conceding this view of the 
subject to be tenable, it will not be ditlicult to 
determine the proper principles which should 
govern and the proper materials which should 
enter into the construction of freight cars. 

The tendency to substitute iron for wood in 
engineering and architectural structures has of 
late years steadily increased, until at the present 
time the wooden railroad bridge has become the 
exception and the iron bridge the rule, and it 
will not be long before steel will supersede the 
iron in large spans. In our cities, iron build- 
ings or stone buildings with iron doors supersede 
every year more and more brick and wood. 
Durability, strength, lightness and elegance of 
construction, as well as true economy, are the 
principal qualities by which metallic structures 
commend themselves. 

Applying this to car construction, I think the 
point of greater, in fact considerably greater, 
durability will be readily conceded. Unfortu- 
nately, no reliable or rather positive information 
as to the life of freight cars seems obtainable, 
under our present system of freight service, and 
the continual interchange of cars over the dif- 
ferent lines. Still, barring accidents of course, 
it will be safe to assume the life of a car-body 
to vary from eight to ten years at the moat. 
There are Borne few instances of greater dura- 
bility on record, but mostly on roads which 
have but little freight traffic and less interchange 
over other roadB. The life of a metallic car, on 
the other hand, may safely be estimated at from 
35 to 40 years. 

In order to illustrate his views, Mr. Hill in- 
stituted a minute comparison between the best 
constructed ordinary wooden-box freight cars, 
and the iron car which he proposed. He dissect- 
ed the wooden car piece by piece, giving the 
weight and strength of each, and then rebuilt 
the same car with iron wherever that metal 
could be introduced. We have not the space 
to go into the particulars of this illustration, 
and can only give his conclusions, which were 
summed up as follows: 

I have made a rough calculation of the 
weights in that car, and I get the following re- 
sults (some of these are accurately calculated 
and others only approximately, but near enough 
for all practical purposes): 1 get two trusses 
weighing 1,680 lbs, ; rolled and wrought iron, 
1,760 lbs.; cast iron, 300 lbs.; wood, nearly 
4,000 lbs. I think I might be able to do it 
with considerably leBS wood yet, but I have 
assumed the same floor system that is in this 
car, and that, with the end oak timbers and 
buffer blocks, and some inside lining, runs up 
to 4,000 lbs.; and of sheet iron, 2,260 lbs., 
making a total of 10,000 lbs. Now this car 
stands thus: Approximate weight of body, 10,- 
000 lbs. — and the weight of the car will fall 
within that; it can be constructed with less; 
then for two trucks, 8,700 lbs., making a total 
of 18,700 lbs. for the whole car ready for use, 
with a carrying capacity of 20 tons. The 
wooden car which has served in its general 
dimensions and general arrangements as a model 
for this metallic car has a carrying capacity of 
12 tons, and a total weight of 22,000 lbs. 
Granting that this wooden car when new and in 
good condition, can carry 15 tons, though I 
think that this is the maximum that ought to 
be put iu that car, we have increased the carry- 
ing capacity 25% and reduced the dead weight 
nearly the same amount. 

That a metallic car constructed as this is, will 
effect such savings as indicated here, is open to 
the calculation of every one of you. There is 
no difficulty in calculating these strains and iu 
getting the amounts of metal that are necessary 
for those Btrains. 

The above-mentioned of gain in weight and 
capacity, it will be observed, is calculated for a 
car of the ordinary size of wooden cars; but Mr. 
Hill proposes to add greatly to the length of the 
cars when made of iron — or what would be still 
better, of steel. His ideal metal car would be 
at least 45 feet long, built upon the principle of 
the truss bridge. Indeed he calls hi3 car "a 
bridge on wheels." 

Where the real saving in metallic cars will 



oome in will be by lengthening them out, and 
lengthening them out considerably. With 
every foot that you add, you will not only in- 
crease your carrying capacity, but, if you will 
go far enough, you will not only increase your 
carrying capacity for that foot, but you will de- 
crease dead-weight iu still greater proportion. 
This car [the umall metal car built of the 
same dimension! with the wooden box car 
of which he had been speaking] is altogether 
too light a car to employ steel in builiciently 
large quantities in it; but get a truss 4. r > feet 
long and give that car a carrying capacity of at 
least 40 tons, and yon can take advautage, in 
almost every member of that truss, of the 
greater tensile and compressive strength of 
steel. 



Testing Boiler Iron. 

The following is from a late report of a Gov- 
ernment official on the important matter of 
boiler inspection. It is evidently necessary 
that a positive and generally accepted rule be 
established for deciding this important matter. 
It is believed that the efforts now being made 
by this office, and supported actively by manu- 
facturers generally, will introduce into the 
market iron of American manufacture for ma- 
rine boiler use, equal if not superior to that 
made in any part of the world, but whatever 
the quality of the iron the eccentric manner of 
its wear under steam is not yet explained. 
Some plates oxidize as soon as used ; others of 
identical texture and position, wear for years 
without material deterioration, while others 
again, after wearing for several years without 
apparent damage, suddenly oxidize and are de- 
stroyed in a few months. This last condition 
was forcibly illustrated by the steamer Magenta, 
which exploded the outer shell of her steam 
chimney on March 23d, near Sing Sing, on the 
Hudson. He refers at length to the Magenta 
explosion and Bays: Such disasters can be avoided 
by frequent and careful inspection. There are 
places, however, in all boilers where personal 
inspection is impossible and where a hydrostatic 
test must be relied upon. I recommend to all 
steamboat owners the importance of demanding 
such tests frequently, especially when, after a 
season of inactivity, work is resumed ; for ex- 
perience proves that boilers deteriorate more 
rapidly while idle than when continuously used. 
He says that in all his efforts to improve the 
service he has had the cordial support of steam- 
veBsel owners. It is true they complain that 
some statutes are unjust to them while afford- 
ing no advantage to the public, and they are 
naturally opposed to being compelled to pur- 
chase worthless patents. It is not appropriate 
for him to discuss their wrongs, but he hopes 
justice may be done them, for as a class they 
are ready to comply with every wholesome pro- 
vision of the law. Of the total number of ves- 
sels inspected, 260 belong to the Pacific coast, 
with a tonnage of 108,532; 1,820 to the Atlantic 
coast, with a tonnage of 46G,757; 880 to Western 
rivers, with a tonnage of 1S6,932 ; S57 to the 
northern lakes, with a tonnage of 186,378, and 
311 to the Gulf coast, with a tonnage of 68,831. 

What is Steel ? — Difficulties such as these 
have hitherto prevented the adoption of any of 
the proposed nomenclatures, says Dr. Siemens, 
and have decided engineers and manufacturers 
in the meantime to include, under the general 
denomination of cast-steel, all compounds con- 
sisting chiefly of iron which have been pro- 
duced through fusion and are malleable. Such 
a general definition does not exclude from the 
denomination of steel materials that may not 
have been produced by fusion, and which may 
be capable of tempering, such as shear steel, 
blister steel and puddled steel, nor does it inter- 
fere with distiuctions between cast-steels pro- 
duced by different methods, such as pot steel, 
Bessemer steel, or steel by fusion on the open 
hearth. 

Machine for Measuring Superficial Area. 
— Mr. J. H. Williams exhibited this fall, at the 
Mechanics' fair, in Boston, a very ingenious 
machine, which he invented, which is capable 
of indicating six to eight times per minute the 
superficial area of surfaces, however irregular, 
where the surface does not exceed twenty-five 
square feet. It can compute in less than ten 
seconds the square contents of a circle without 
reference to mathematical rules, and it is cer- 
tain to 6nd practical application in many de- 
partments of trade. It will specially be of use 
to leather dealers and manufacturers, for mea- 
suring exactly the superficial area of hides and 
skins. 

The process of Dr. de Haen for preventing 
incrustation in steam-boilers, which consists in 
the treatment of the feed-water with the proper 
amount of baric chloride and milk of lime, as de- 
termined by quantitative analysis, is to be em- 
ployed for the 310 boilers of Krupp's steel 
fuuu Iry at Essen. 



Improvement in Soldering Irons. — A novel 
soldering iron, the invention of M. Paquelin, 
was recently described before the Academy of 
Sciences, Paris. Its distinctive feature is a 
platinum receptacle, in which heat is instanta- 
neously generated with air and petroleum vapor 
or air and coal-gas. 

Correction. — In our note last week, in re- 
gard to the wire traction rope employed by the 
California Street railroad, the length was given 
1,800 instead of 18,000 feet, as it should have 
been. 



I c 



CIENTIFIC 



ROGRESS. 



Experimental Determination of the Ve- 
locity of Light. 

Albert A. Michelson, of the U. S. Navy, 
read a paper before the American Association of 
Science, at its late meeting, on "The Experi- 
mental Determination of the Velocity of Light." 
The paper was pronounced one of the most im- 
portant read before its appropriate section. Mr. 
M. said that but three scientists, Foucault, Fi- 
zeau, and, more recently, Cornu, have sought to 
experimentally ascertain the distance of the sun 
from the earth. Foucault used the method 
known as that of " Wheatstone's Revolving 
Mirror," the application of which was first sug- 
gested by Arago. Fizeauand Cornu both used 
another methed, known as that of the "toothed- 
wheel." In Foucault's experiments the dis 
tance traversed by the light was 20 meters. The 
result obtained by him was 185,200 miles per 
second. Cornu's stations were about 14 miles 
apart. The result obtained by him was 1S6,- 
G00 miles, which exceeds the former by 1,400 
miles. The objection to Foucault's method is 
that the displacement, which enters directly in 
formula, is very small, and therefore difficult to 
measure accurately. The objection to Fizeau's 
is that the total disappearance of the light was 
necessarily uncertain. 

The object of Mr. Michelson's experiments is 
to increase the displacement in the first method. 
This can be done in several ways: (1) By in- 
creasing the speed of the mirror; (2) by in- 
creasing the distance between the two mirrors; 
(3) by increasing the radius of measurement, i. 
e., the distance from the revolving to the scale. 
In Foucault's experiments the speed of the 
mirror was 400 turns per second; the radius of 
measurement was about one meter, and the dis- 
tance between the mirrors was about 10 meters. 
The % displacement obtained was about 0.8 milli- 
meters. In Mr. Michelson's experiments the 
speed of the mirror was but 130 turns per sec- 
ond, but the radius of measurement was from 
15 to 30 feet, and the distance between the 
mirrors was about 500 feet. The displacement 
obtained varied from 0.3 of an inch to 0.63 of 
an inch, or about 20 times that obtained by 
Foucault. With a greater distance between the 
mirrors and a better apparatus he expected to 
obtain a displacement of two or three inches 
and to measure it to within'one- thousandth part 
of an inch. Tables of observation of the velocity 
of light in air were given by Mr. Michelson, 
the mean reBult being 185,508 miles per second. 



Cast Manganese. 

A late number of the Chemical News says 
that M. Jordan has presented to the French 
Academy a specimen of cast metal, obtained by 
treatment of the ores of manganese in the blast- 
furnace. The composition of this metal is: 

Mangaueae 84.96 % 

Iron 8 .55 % 

Carbon 5.70 % 

Silicon . 66 % 

Sulphur 0.035% 

Phosphorus 0.005% 

Total 90.910% 

In subsequent operations the percentage of 
manganese has been carried as high as 87.4%. 
The specimen laid before the Academy had been 
preserved for six months without having under- 
gone any sensible alteration. There was noticed 
a considerable loss of manganese in the furnace, 
amounting sometimes to as much as 10%, which, 
with certain other facts, appears to warrant the 
Opinion that this metal is somewhat volatile at 
elevated temperatures. 

Vegetable Albinism. — At a late meeting of 
the London Chemical Society, Prof. Church 
read a paper entitled "A Chemical Study of 
Vegetable Albinism," in which numerous ex- 
periments were described and analyses pre- 
sented, the conclusion arrived at by the author 
being that the white leaf is parasitic upon the 
green. Whilst the author did not give any de- 
cided opinion as to the cause of the whiteness, 
he remarked that white leaves are usually 
weaker and thinner, and that albino cuttings 
cannot be "struck." Some attempts have been 
made to stimulate albino foliage, but without 
any decisive results. 

At the same meeting an interesting paper was 
read by Dr. Carnelly, on the "Relation be- 
tween the melting points of the Elements and 
their co-efficients of expansion." Certain the- 
oretical considerations led the author to the 
conclusion that the co-efficient of expansion of 
an element by heat would .be the greater the 
lower its melting point. This conclusion the 
author has tested in the case of 31 elements, 
and finds that, with five exceptions, the co- 
efficient of expansion increases as the melting 
point diminishes; the five exceptions are, As, 
Sb, Bi, Te and Sn. A table and a graphic 
curve aocompany the paper, which the author 
promises to supplement by a communication on 
a simple relation existing between the heat 
evolved by a chemical reaction and the melting 
points of the reacting and resulting bodies. 



Barcenite— A New Antimonate. 

A heavy, nearly black mineral, which has 
been discovered at Hitzuco, Mexico, by Senor 
Barcena, and to which his name has been given, 
has proved to be an antimonate of hitherto un- 
described character, mixed with finely-divided 
mercuric sulphide and antimonic acid. Heated 
alone before the outer blowpipe flame, the min- 
eral decrepitates slightly, turns white or nearly 
■o, and becomes rounded (with some difficulty) 
on the edges, giving off a little white fume ; in 
the reducing name the fume becomes more 
abundant from reduction of metallic antimony, 
followed by volatiLz i ion and burning in the 
outer edge of the llame, which is colored 
greenish -blue. A fngment heated in a closed 
glass tube giveB off vvater, metallic mercury, 
black mercuric sulphide and a very little oxide 
of antimony ; in a tube open at both ends the 
whole of the mercury is deposited in the metal- 
lic state, the sulphur being burned off, and in a 
good draft of air through the tube more oxide 
of antimony is carried along and depoaited. A 
well-marked white antimomal sublimate is pro- 
duced by heating on charcoal, and if sodium 
carbonate be added the antimony is easily re- 
duced to little metallic beads. The mineral in 
powder is largely dissolved, in the oxidizing 
flame by borax or microcosmic salt to a 
clear, colorless glass, which become turbid 
in the reducing flame. The mineral, 
even when finely pulverized, is insoluble 
in hydrochloric or nitric acid, though this be 
concentrated and at the boiling temperature. 
It is very slightly acted on by boiling solution 
of ammonium sulphide. On boiling with a 
strong solution of sodium hydrate, filtering, 
acidulating and passing in hydrosulphuric acid, 
an orange precipitate is obtained in no great 
quantity. Hydrogen passed over the powder at 
a red heat easily reduces metallic antimony, 
which can then be attacked by acids. The 
quantitative analysis was made by Mr. J. R. 
Santos, of Guayaquil, Ecuador. He obtained: 

Atom'c Ratios- 

Sulphur 2.82 .088 

Mercury. .*. * 20.76 .104 

Calcium 3.88 .097 

Antimony 50.11 .418 

Oiygtn (by difference) 17.61 1.101 

Water J oonititutional 3.60) . - g 

Water \ lost below 130' C. . . .1.23 J 4 " 73 

Silioa 10 

100.00 

Disease op Chestnut Trees. — The Comptes 
Rendu8 of the French Academy of Science con- 
tains an interesting note by M. Planchon on the 
subject of the disease at present prevailing 
among the chestnuts of the Cevennes, and 
which is probably identical with that noticed 
in the Basses-Pyrenees and in upper Italy. The 
ohief symptom visible outwardly is the decay 
of the extremities of the branches, sometimes 
one after another, and sometimes all at once, in 
which latter cases the tree quickly dies, though 
in others it may last in a more or less diseased 
state for two or three years. This gradual or 
sudden death of the branches, M. Planchon 
found to be consequent on an alteration of the 
roots. If these be laid bare parts of the wood 
and bark of the larger and middle-sized oaes are 
seen to be softened as if by a kind of gangrene, 
and a fluid exudes from their tissues which, 
owing to its containing tannin, forms an 
ink with the iron in the soil, and stains the 
earth round about for a considerable distance. 
The roots thus affected, from the smallest radi- 
cles to the largest trunks, are characterized by 
the constant presence of a mycelium or fungus 
which assumes varions forms, but which always 
appears subsequently on the trunk of the tree 
in the same form that it was present on the 
underground portion of it. It generally pre- 
sents itself in the form of more or leas ramified 
whitish -yellow strings, and is probably closely 
allied to the Agaricus melleus, which plays such 
havoc with fir trees. 

Heat-Conducting Power of Rocks.- — Some 
time ago Prof. Herschell and M. Lehour made a 
series of experiments on the heat-conducting 
power of recks. Twenty-eight specimens were 
reduced to uniform circles of live inches diameter 
and one-half inch thick, but of six specimens 
that had been tried, slate plates cub parallel to 
the plane of cleavage transmitted the heat 
faster than any of the others. Where the flow 
became uniform the water was raised 1° Fahr. 
in 32 seconds ; with marble, sandstone, granite 
and serpentine, about 39 seconds were required 
to raise it by the same amount. The greatest 
resistance to the passage of heat was offered by 
two specimens of shale, gray and black, from 
the coal measures in the neighborhood of New- 
castle, which occupied 48 to 50 seconds in rais- 
ing the water one degree, or half as long again 
as that taken by the slate. 



A Quartz Therm > meter. —Quartz, by its 
rotary power, M. Jou urt asserts in the Comptes 
Reridus, constitutes a Uu-rmometer of extreme 
sensibility, fulfilling th : essential condition of 
every thermometer, cu nparability. When once 
the apparatus is fitted up it is merely needful 
in order to find a temperature to read off an 
angle, and refer to a table calculated once for 
all. It may therefore be honed that science, 
and even industry, may find in this new ther- 
mometer an instrument comparable to the mer- 
curial thermometer for the simplicity of its use 
and the certainty of its indications. The au- 
thor's experiments extend from — 20 degrees to 
plus 840 degrees, or perhaps 1,500 degrees. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



Table of Highest and Lowest Sales in 
S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Name of 
Company. 



Alpha 

Aita 

Andes 

Alps 

Argenta 

Atlantic 

Aurora Tunnel 

Baltimore Con 

Belcher 

Belmont 

Beat* Belcher 

Bullion 

Bechtel 

Belle Isle 

Bodie 

Benton 

Bulwer 

Boyle 

Black Hawk. 

Belviclere 

Booker 

Caledonia 

California... ■• 

Challenge 

Chollar-Potosi 

Comanche 

Confidence 

Con Imperial 

Con Virginia 

Crown Point 

Con Washoe 

Champion 

Concordia 

Dayton 

DeFrees 

Daney 

Day 

Eureka £on 

Exchequer 

Endowment — 

Gen Thomas 

Grand Prize 

Gila 

Golden Chariot 

Golden Terra 

Goodshaw 

Gould & Curry 

Hale ft Norcross. . . , 

Hillside 

Highbridge 

Homestake 

Hussey 

Independence 

Julia 

Justice 

Jackson 

Joe Scates 

K K Con 

Kentuck 

Kossuth 

Keystone 

Lady Bryan 

Lady Wash 

Leopard 

Leviathan 

Leeds 

Lee 

May Belle 

Modoc 

Manhattan 

Martin White 

McClinton 

Meadow Valley 

Mexican 

Mides 

Morning Star. 

North Con Virginia. 

Hew York 

Northern Belle 

New Coso 

Navajo 

Occidental 

Ophir 

Oriental 

Overman 

Panther 

Phenix 

Phil Sheridan 

Prospect 

Raymond ft Ely 

Richer 

Rock Island 

Rye Patch 

Rough ft Ready 

Savage 

Seg Belcher 

Sierra Nevada 

Silver Hill 

Silver King 

Silver Prize 

Succor , 

Summit , 

Scorpion 

Solid Silver 

South Bodie 

South Standard 

Star 

St. Louis 

Syndicate 

Tioga Con 

Tiptop 

Trojan 

Union Con 

Utah 

Vermont Con 

Ward 

Wells-Fargo 

Woodville 

White Cloud. 

Yellow Jacket 



10 8 

7i 5i 

65c 40c 
25c 

2.60 2.40 



Week 

Ending 
Dee. IS. 



Week 
Ending 
Dec. 19. 



m 35 



2.90 
15c 



20c 15c 



35c 30e 

37 ah 

i.10 ^1 

30c 10c 



85 
25c 15c 



6 53 

50c 30c 

8| 7 

12 10 

% 2 

2j 2.1 

15 ... 

40c 30 

L.30 1 

1.60 2 

4f 3.9 

it e 



2.10 
H 

1.20 
50c 

H 



43! 31 



55c 45c 
'9J n 



11 9£ 

20 18 
51) 39 



85c 65c 

li 1.10 
l! 

50c .. 



Week j Week 
Ending Ending 
Dec. 26. Jan. 2. 



50c 40c 

li . 

1.10 3. 

45c 30c 

18f 17 

5 41 

60c 50c 

30c 20c 
134 



30c 
50c 
2 
9] 
1.40 
33 



1.40 

3 



20c 15c 



30c 25c 

36 34 

3.90 3J 

20c 10c 



82 7; 



30c .... 

1.45 1.3f 

,80 2.90 

4J 3.9( 

9i 7 



1.95 

1.10 

H 

40c 

1.20 



10* 

30c 25c 



1.05 
90c 



1} 1.101.60 

li 1.30 li 

30c 25ci 30c 

60 38i: 61 

l&i 13 15 



12- 



lj 50c| 75c 55c 
35c 25c; 25c 20c 

25c 20o. 25c 20c 



15 llgi 16 13i 



13J 93 11 10! 
5i 5J 5* 5 
50c 40c I 50c .... 



3i 2.702.90 2.6 



343.80 
10c 60c 
17i 18ft 



70c 

7 l 

3.60 



15c 



25c ... 

334 32 

1.40 3.60 

40c 10c 



35c 30c 

1.30 11 

3 2.90 

4 34 
9j 84 



4i 3.70 
20c " 



1.05 

1 



50c 

i!is 

6 
50c 

314* 



104 



95 83 

20 18 

48 441 

1.65 li 



40c 
1.15 
1.15 

50c 



U 1-35 
30c 25c 
595 55J 



60c 50c 
20c 10c 
25c . 



75c 


Sflr 


60c 


MIc 


2.55 


2* 


Wi 


aj 



1.70 1.60 
«i 381 



9} 9 

80c 70c 

8) 7i 

3.65 3.45 

46c 30c 



30c 
32 
1.40 



8J 7J 



1.20 
2! 



8! U 

50c 40c 



10J 9| 

18 17 

434 37! 

12 1.30 

10 .... 



2.5c 



11! 



1) 50c 
20c 15c 
25c .... 



148 13i 



Sales at S. F. Stock Exchange. 



FrMnj- A. M. 

260 Alta. 



AFTERNOON SE.3ION. 



-~ S4 740 Argenta 

Alpha..„... jllCSlOJI 100 Bechtel 70c 



180 BeBti Belcher.. 17J(Sl7S 20 Bodie.... 

035 Bullion 4i@4.65 730 Belmont '.".".lOc 

520 Belcher 3.60@3t! 300 Belle Iile 20c 

300 Benton 3i@3.10 115 Bulwer 15 

480 Con Virginia 7i 4S0 Booker ."lOc 

485 California sml\ 100 Champion. 30c 

20 Chollar 39 200 C Pacific IS 

J!? S 10 "? Pomt 3 - 60 40 ° Caledonia (B H). . .1IW1J 

2840 Con Imperial 80S70C 1 400 Day ... 30c 

310 Caledonia 2J(S!2.5S 1300 Dudley ""i'i6@l 

100 Confidence SCSfli 1 225 Eureka Con * ' 31 

100 Challenge i.go; 750 Endowment .'.""'35c 

,200 Dardanelles 1 350 Goodshaw 40@35c 

1170 Exchequer 4@4.05' 200 Hussey... 35c 

460 GouldSCurry 9J@9 1000 Highhridge... " 

80 HaletNor 11| 50 Hamburg . . 

150 Justice 3.60, 830 Independence. 

170 Julia.. 2.9O8J2.85I 15 Jackson 7 



»c 

El 



750 Kentuck 3.80@3.90 

400 Kossuth 15c 

50 Lady Wash 80c 

1650 Lady Bryan 50c 

650 Leviathan 35@40c 

620 Mexican 2Si@2fl 

50 North Con Vir .7,q 

805 N Bonanza 80(3750 

235 New York C5c 

160 Overman 9i@8J 

315 Ophir 354(^35 

15 Seg Belcher 18 

600 Succor 

400 Sierra Nevada. . . ,42@4li 
j!5 Savage 94 



100 Leopard.... 

75 Leeds 

50 Manhattan.. 

50 Modoc 

150 McClinton . . 

200 Mono 

41 1345 Navajo...... 

' 575 Paradise. . 



295 Silver Hill 

100 Solid Silver.... 

110 Scorpion 

400 Trojan 

870 Union Con .... 

115 Utah 

300 Wells-Fargo... 

100 Woodville 

65 Ward 

410 Yellow Jacket.. 



..11 



?0c 

40c 

2A0-.a-2l, 

.40" 45c 
2 



725 Raymond & Ely....7i®8 

100 Richer 50c 

235 Summit 90@80c 

60 S Standard .725c 

100 Syndicate U 

100 Star 50 C 

50 Silver King 10 

185 Tiptop 1.40(911 

300 Tioga Con 1.20@lJ 

Saturday A. M.. Dec. W. 

230 Alpha 10r@10| 

..54^55 330 Alfca 51@5i 

1H@111 630 Argenta 2 60 

20c 370 Buatft Belcher. ..170174 

1010 Bullion 5(&4 95 

100 Belcher 3.60(^3.55 

145 Bodie g 

605 Beaton. 3@2,9Q 



...1.30 
50i 



25c 

. .55">;-0c 
.144^144 



140 Con Virginia 7 

585 California 9 

30 Confidence 9 

20 Chollar 38 

170 Crown Point 3.55 

1150 Con Imperial 75@70c 

265 Challenee 1.60 

150 Caledonia 2J@2.40 

95 Con Pacific 1.60@1* 

140 Dudley 1 

250 Exchequer 4 

285 Eureka Con 31J@31 

200 Endowment 30c 

170 Flowery 15c 

405 Gould ftCurry 85@8f 

315 Grand Prize 8(97J 

100 Goodshaw 30c 

210 H ft Norcross .... 10!@10fl 

100 Highbridge 2.40 

100 Hillside 2 

200 Independence 1.25 

460 Justice 34@3.60 

990 Julia 2}@2.80 

200 Jackson 71 

50 Kentuck 3.70 

50 Leeds 14 

055 L Bryan 70@90c 

225 Leviathan 40c 

1590 Mexican 28@29J 

250 May Belle 50c 

40 Mono 24 

25 Modoc 60c 

100 New York 55c 

110 NConVir 44 

180 N Bonanza 75c 

100 Navajo 40c 

660 Ophir 35@36 

320 Overman 94@9j 

100 Phil Sheridan 30c 

St Paradise 2 

5v0 Raymond &E £ 

300 Savage 9J@9J 

130 Succor 30c 

10 Seg Belcher IS 

2445 Sierra Nevada,... 39@37i 

50 Solid Silver 50c 

270 Scorpion. 1 

100 S Standard 25c 

25 Tiptop l.SC 

2355 Union Con 52<ffi55i 

60 Utah 11J@11| 

100 Ward 55c 

100 Wells-Fargo 20c 

330 Yellow Jacket. . .13j@13, 
Holiday A. M.« Dec. 30. 

250 Alta 54 

200 Andes 50c 

120 Alpha 10j(gl] 

75 Best 4 Belcher 171 

310 Belcher 3i@3.6t 

1270 Bullion 5@4.90 

130 Benton 2i@«.6( 

220 California tt(@9f 

305 Con Virginia 7§<g7 J 

340 Crown Point 3J@3.4f 

130 Con Imperial 80< 

285 Chollar 39@41j 

270 Challenge 1.70 

120 Caledonia 2.40@» 

100 Confidence ? 

585 Exchequer 4(344 

lf-0 Flowary 15r 

310 Gould k Curry 8!@8* 

70 Hale&Nor 1] 

440 Justice 3i@3.6l 

2695 Julia 4JQ4.8J 

200 Kossuth 15t 

240 Kentuck 3.70@3.9( 

400 Lady Bryan. 65@55t 

200 Leviathan 40i 

855 Mexican 30i<a29< 

500 N Sierra Nevada 5( 

170 North Con Vir £ 

100 N Bonanza 75< 

250 New York. 65@60c 

625 Ophir 36(9341 

100 Overman 9J<£t9i 

100 Solid Silver 50c 

80 Scorpion 1 

140 Savage 93 

525 SierraNevada....394@38J 

350 Silver Hill 1.40@1.£" 

300 Senator. 10<&20i 

270 Utah 103(311 

665 Union Con 54@54J 

500 Wells Fargo 15c 

2820 Ward 1@1.05 

390 Yellow Jacket. . .135@134 

AFTEENOON SESBION. 
700 Argenta 2.65(tf<23 



105 Bodie 8@7S 

160 Bulwer 14| 

|205 Belvidere 50c 

f50 Belmont 60c 

1030 Becbtel 50@60c 

300 Belle Isle 20c 

i60 C Pacific 14 

1220 Dudley 1 

i219 DeFrees 10c 

5220 Eureka Con 31(3314 

650 Endowment 35(330c 

p00 Golden Terra 5j 

il50 Grand Prize 7j 

200 Goodshaw 40c 

100 Hillside 2i 

450 Highbridge 2.30(321 

520 Independence 11 

300 Manhattan 4@4.10 

140 Mono 24 

135 Martin White 5 

50 Meadow Valley 20c 

895 Navajo 40c 

100 Oriental 65c 

1570 Paradise 2@1.90 

195 Raymond & Ely 8 

100 Richer 40c 

150 Summit. 1(31.05 

200 South Standard 25c 

100 Tiptop 1.30 

1090 Tioga 11@1 

Tnrsflay A. 91., Dec. 31. 

360 Alpha 1K310J 

385 Alta 51@5 

890 Argenta 2.70@2.6o 

400 Best Ss. Belcher. . .17S@181 

140 Belcher 3.60(33.70 

2355 Bullion 5|{35| 

180 Benton 2.90@3 

80 Belvidere 75c 

285 Bodie 7J(37i 

JOOBechtel 60c 

100 Booker 50c 

600 Belle Isle 15@20c 

50 Belmont 60c 

50 Champion '. 40c 

100 CPacific 2.40 

410 California 10(3101 

310 Caledonia 2.40(32.45 

380 Con Virginia 7|@8 

800 Con Imperial 80(375c 

410 Chollar 47@474 

830 Crown Point 3.60@34 

145 Confidence 9 

300 Challenge 1.65(31.60 

200 Dardanelles 1.10 

350 Dudley 1 

385 Exchequer. . . . .4.40(3-4.35 

110 Eureka Con 314(332 

150 Endowment 36c 

50 Flowery 25c 

570 Gould&Curry 9(39J 

905 Grand Prize 8@Si 

280 Highbridge 21 

460 H & Norcross. . . .114@12| 

100 Hillside 2.10 

110 Independence ...1]@1.30 

800 Justice 3J@3.60 

»95 Julia mH 

10 Kentuck 3.90 

300 Kossuth 20c 

735 Lady Bryan. 70(365c 

900 Leviathan 40@45c 

160 Leeds 1.30(314 

150 Mono ....24@2! 

535 Mexican 304<330i 

350 McClinton 40c 

220 Manhattan 4j 

500 Northern Belle.... 93(310 

200 New York 60c 

250 N Bonanza 75c 

530 N Con Virginia 54@5 

715 Ophir 353(335 

135 Overman 9J 

620 Paradise 2@1 .95 

100 Phil Sheridan 30c 

70 Raymond & Ely 81 

650 Sierra Nevada.... 43@434 

1(H«104 

Belcher 18 

560 Senator 10@30c 

100 Solid Silver. 50c 

160 Scorpion 50c 

530 Silver Hill H@1.40 

200 Succor 25c 

140 Summit 1.30@11 

300 Trojan .30c 

295 Utah 10f@ll 

395 Union Con 57i<357i 

100 Ward lj 

220 Yellow Jacket 14 



SALES OF LAST WEEK AND THIS COMPARED 



Thursday A.M., Dec. 37. 

610 Andes ...40@5Cc 

100 Alta 53 

145 Alpha 12i<3134 

160 Best& Belcher. .174(317:' 

785 Bullion 5J@5i 

160 Belcher 3.80(33.90 

375 Benton 3 

100 Caledonia 2J 

1680 Con Imperial 95(390c 

275 California 9S@10 

200 Challenge. 1.70@15 

850 Con Virginia. 73@T 

20 Confidence 9: 

65 Chollar 39i 

195 Crown Point... 3. 70(33. 8( 

960 Exchequer 4.15^4.40 

400 Gould k Curry 9ji 

120 Hale & Nor Ugd 

135 Justice 3.90 

80 Julia 2.90 

200 Kentuck .4(341 

100 Lady Wash. 90c 

45 L Bryan 75(380c 

195 Mexican .304@3O3 

270 New York 60065c 

200 N Bonanza 70@80c 

1060 Ophir 374@37 

120 Overman 9J@10 

990 SierraNevada....*"^ 

510 Savage 

25 Silver Hill 1.35 

85 Succor 25@35c 

300 Solid Silver. 59c 

175 Union Con 574@58 

110 Utah 12J(3I23 

150 Wells-Fargo 15c 

250 Ward 60c 

600 Yellow Jacket. . . .14J@15 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

650 Amenta. 2.65(323 

300 Belle iBle 20c 

145 Bodie 84 

250 Black Hawk 40c 

900 Booker. 

100 Bulwer ^144 

50 Champion 15c 

25 CPacific 2 

230 DeFrees 15c 

500 Dudley 1 

145 Eureka Con 31@31} 

600 Endowment 35c 

440 Grand Prize 73@8 

450 Goodshaw. 35@40c 

50 Hussey 30c 

50 Hamburg. 1 

950 Highbridge...... 2J@2. 30 

370 Independence lj 

200 Jackson 7@7J 

160 Manhattan, 4 

250 Modoc , 

440 Martin White . 
180 Mono , 

50 Northern Belle 94@9J 

300 Navajo 46c 

300 Oriental 6&370c 

500 Paradise '.. .2 

430 Raymond & Ely 8(394 

145 Summit 90c 

50 Syndicate. . . 
100 Sitting Bull. 

100 SBodie 

200 S Standard. 

25 Tioga 1.05 

590 Tiptop H(3J..40 

900 Tuscarora 10c 

100 University 75c 



.13 

,50c 
..25c 



Tlmrsd'y A. M., Jan. 2, 

110 Alpha. 10* 

605 Alta 5@5J 

90 Best & Belcher 18 

390' Belcher 3J(33.80 

2145 Bullion 4.80@5 

295 Benton 2.90(33 

1790 California 10jt(310i 

1185 Con Virginia. 7£@8J 

360 Crown Point... 3. 60(33. 65 

80 Chollar 44(345 

75 Con Imperial 80c 

310 Confidence y 

40 Caledonia 2.40 

100 Challenge. 1.65 

300 Dardanelles 1.10 

225 Exchequer 4.20 

95 Gould & Curry 9(391 

155 Hale* Nor ill 

585 Justice 3.65 

2110 Julia 4.70(34. 

20 Lady Wash 70c 

100 Lady Bryan 70c 

1075 Leviathan 45@50r 

100 Morning Star 24 

355 Mexican 304@31 

400 New York 60c 

850 N Bonanza 30@50c 

100 North Con Vir 54 

190 Ophir 35@35} 

130 Overman 94 

1200 Phil Sheridan 25c 

305 Sierra Nevada 41@42 

415 Savage 9j@10 

200 Succor 20c 

5 Seg Belcher 17 

500 Senator 15c 

1580 Silver Hill li(3lj 

350 Scorpion. 50c 

140 Solid Silver 50c 

200 Trojan 30c 

350 Union Con 574@58 

60 Utah 11 

1335 Ward 95c@l 

260 Walls-Fargo 36c 

30 Yellow Jacket 13J 

AFTERNOON SESBION. 

1229 Argenta 2.65(32.70 

1230 Bulwer 14 

310 Bodie 73@7J 

850 Bechtel 60c 

100 Belmont, 60c 

200 Booker 50c 

100 Belvidere 50c 

25 CPacific li 

100 Day 25c 

100 Dudley 1 

350 DeFr«« 15i 

365 Eureka Con 32 

660 Goodshaw 35@40c 

630 Grand Prize 8J(37| 

5 Golden Terra 6 

100 Hussey 25c 

350 Highbridge 21 

175 Independence..l.l0@l.l5 

150 Jackson 18 

210 Leopard 60c 

500 LeedB 1} 

900 Mono 2f 

^00 Manhattan. 4i 

45 M White '-1 

100 Modoc 55c 

235 Northern Belle. ...9fi@9J 

230 Oriental 65@76c 

600 Paradise 2 

100 South Standard 20c 

400 Summit... H(31.35 

100 Sitting Bull 50c 

100 Star 50c 

250 Tioga Coo 1.10@1,20 



MINING SHAEEH0LDEKS' DIKECT0RY. 



Compiled every Thursday from Advertisements' in Mining and Scientific Press and other S. F. Journal 
ASSESSMENTS-STOCKS ON THE LISTS OF THE BOABDS. 



Company. 


Location. 


No 


Aia 


Levied 


Delinq'kt. Sale. 


Secretary. 


Place of Business 


AltaSMCo 


Nevada 


13 


1 00 


Dec 10 


Jan 13 


Jan 31 


W H Watson 


302 Montgomery st 


Aurora T & M Co 


California 


2 


20 


Dec 7 


Jan 10 


Feb 15 


C V D Hubbard 


312 California st 




Nevada 


Id 


50 


Nov 27 


Jan 3 


Jan 27 


J W Pew 


310 Pine st 


Belvidere M Co 


California 


2 


2(1 


Dec 7 


Jan 20 


Feb 20 


CVD Hubbard 


312 California st 


Benton Con MJCo 


Nevada 


1 


50 


Dec 11 


Jan 15 


Feb 3 


W H Watson 


302 Montgomery Bt 


B'lllion lrtCo ~* "^ 


Nevada 


X 


1 CO 


Dec 3 


Jan 7 


Jan 29 


Joseph Grass 


418 California st 


CaledoniafS M Co 


Nevada 


25 


50 


Nov 15 


Dec 20 


Jan 10 


R Wegener 


414 California st 




California 


1 


25 


Nov 22 


Dec 27 


Jan 16 


Jno Crockett 


203 Bash Bt 


Crown Point G & S M Co 


Nevada 


:« 


1 00 


Dec 12 


Jan 16 


Feb 6 


James Newlanda 


203 Bush st 




Nevada 


a 


25 


Nov 21 


Dec 30 


Jan 21 


R H Brown 


327 Pine st 


Equitable T & M Co 


Utah 


m 


05 


Nov 7 


Jan 2 


Jan 21 


S Healy 


45 Merchant's Ex 


Gila Con M Co 


Arizona 


3 


03 


Oct 17 


Nov 18 


Jan 9 


WJPettigxew 


419 California st 


Gould k Curry S M Co 


Nevada 


■M 


1 50 


Nov 18 


Dec 23 


Jan 14 


A K Durbrow 


309 Montgomery st 




Nevada 


m 


50 


Dec 10 


Jan 15 


Feb 7 


J F Lightner 


58 Nevada Block 


Martin White M Uo 


Nevada 


!) 


1 50 


Dec 14 


Jan 21 


Feb 21 


J J Scoville 


59 Nevada Block 




Arizona 


•/. 


50 


Oct 22 


Jan 16 


Feb 15 


H A Whiting 


211 Sansome st 


Modock Con M Co 


California 


■1 


50 


Nov 14 


Dec 23 


Jan 13 


JWPew 


310 Pine st 




Nevada 


1 


50 


Dec 6 


Jan 10 


Jan 28 


W W Stetson 


309 Montgomery st 


North Con Virginia M Co 


Nevada 


14 


1 00 


Nov 21 


Dec 27 


Jan 17 


G C Pratt 


309 Montgomery Bt 


Real del Monte M Co 


Nevada 


4 


1 00 


Oct 15 


Nov 25 


Jan 6 


CVD Hubbard 


312 California st 


Savage M Co 


Nevada 


m 


1 00 


Dec 4 


Jan 7 


Jan 27 


E B Holmes 


309 Montgomery st 


Scorpion S M Co 


Nevada 


4 


10 


Dec 3 


Jan 18 


Feb 10 


G R Spinney 


310 Pine st 


Succor M & M Co 


Nevada 


21 


50 


Dec 19 


Jan 21 


Feb 10 


W H Watson 


302 Montgomery st 


Tioga Con M Co 


California 


4 


20 


Dec 20 


.Jan 21 


Feb 13 


W H Lent 


327 Pine Bt 


Tuscarora M & M Co 


Nevada 


2 


05 


Nov 13 


Dec 19 


Jan 13 


M E Sperling 


309 California st 




Nevada 


a 


15 


Dec 7 


Jan 9 


Jan 29 


E F Stone 


306 Pine st 


William Penn M Co 


Nevada 


4 


03 


Nov 22 


Jan 23 


Feb 9 


O J Humphrey 


328 Montgomery Bt 


OTHER COMPAKIES- 


NOT ON THE LISTS OP THE BOARDS. 




Nevada 


4 


1 00 


Dec 9 


Jan 13 


Feb 3 


W Willis 


309 Montgomery s£ 
306 Pine 6* 


Black Hawk G M Co 


California 


4 


25 


Dec 10 


Jan 11 


Jan 28 


B S Kellogg 


Buckeye G & S M Co 


Nevada 


19 


50 


Nov 25 


Dec 27 


Jan 16 


C A Sankey 


331 Montgomery sj 


Carmelo Bay Coal Co 


California 


2 


25 


Dec 20 


Feb 20 


Mar 20 


John£reif 


636 Washington s c 


Challenge Con M Co 


Nevada 


1 


20 


Nov 22 


Dec 23 


Jan 14 


WE Dean 


203 Bush st 


Cherokee Flat Blue Grav Co 


California 


411 


05 


Dec 20 


Jan 28 


Feb 18 


R N Van Brunt 


318 Pine st 


Colorado River C & G M Co 


Arizona 


3 


50 


Nov 29 


Jan 2 


Jan IS 


H A Whiting 


211 Sansome st 




California 


1 


10 


Oct 31 


Dec 5 


Jan 7 


G A Holden 


310 Pine st 


Dudley M Co 


California 


1 


25 


Nov 1 


Dec 5 


Jan 6 


ECMasten 


22 Nevada Block 


Eagle S M & M Co 


Nevada 


11 


10 


Nov 30 


Jan 7 


Jan 28 


R H Brown 


327 Pine st 


Father DeSmet Con G M Co 


Dakota 


2 


1 00 


Nov 13 


Dec 18 


Jan 15 


T Widmann 


404 Montgomery st 


Florence B G M Co 


Cali forma 


2 


03 


Nov 12 


Dec 17 


Jan 7 


FA McGee 


32 Merchants' Ex 


Hazard Gravel M Co 


California 


2 


06 


Dec 9 


Jan 8 


Jan 24 


J T McGeoghehan 318 Pine st 


Lodi MCo 


Nevada 


1 


25 


Nov 20 


Jan 7 


Jan 27 


O J Humphrey 


328 Montgomery st 


Loyal Lead G M Co 


California 


2 


60 


Deo 18 


Jan 20 


Feb 11 


P M McLaren 


31S Pine st 


Maybelle Con M Co 


California 


I 


15 


Oct 31 


Dec 5 


Jan 7 


G A Holden 


310 Pine st 


Magalia G M Co 


Calif orma 


1 


10 


Nov 22 


Dec 27 


Jan 16 


T A White 


113 Leidesdorff st 


McClinton M Co 


California 


2 


25 


Dec 24 


Jan 28 


Feb 18 


W H Lent 


327 Pine st 


McMillen S M Co 


Arizona 


1 


25 


Nov 22 


Jan 12 


Jan 29 


A C McMeans 24 Safe Deposit Build 


Mineral Fork M & S Co 


Utah 


I 


02 


Oct 31 


Dec 7 


Jan 30 


Otto Metchke 


328 Montgomery st 


Nevada Gravel M Co 


California 


.1 


05 


Dec 12 


Jan 15 


Feb 5 


J Penteeost " 


511 California st 


Oriental Con G & S M Co 


California 


1 


50 


Nov 19 


Dec 23 


Jan 13 


F C Mosebach 


327 Pine st 




California 


4 


25 


Dec 12 


Jan 13 


Jan 28 


P Conklin 




Pleiades G & S M Co 


Nevada 


2 


05 


Dec 21 


Jan 24 


Feb 18 


WL Oliver 


328 Montgomery st 


Queen Bee M Co 


California 


1 


25 


Dec 2 


Jan 6 


Jan 27 


T A White 


113 Leidesdorff st 


South Utah M Co 


Nevada 


1 


05 


Nov 18 


Dec 21 


Jon 7 


C S Healy 


45 Merchants' Ex 




California 


ti 


05 


Nov 19 


Jan 6 


Feb 4 


J W Clark 


318 Finest 




California 


1 


50 


Nov 27 


Jan 6 


Jan 28 


W H Lent 


327 Pine st 




Arizona 


i 


1 00 


Oct 21 


Dec 10 


Jan 20 


W H Lent 


327 Pine st 


Wall Street Q M Co 


California 


4 


10 


Nov 23 


Dec 28 


Jan la 


D K Tripp 


401 California s 

t 




MEETINGS TO BE HELD. 


Name of Company. 


Location. 


Skcretarv. 


Office in S. F. 


Meeting. 


Datb 




Nevada 


K H Brown 


327 Pine st 


Annual 


Jan 13 


Bullion M Co 


Nevada 


Joseph Grass 


418 California st 


Annual 


Jan 9 


California M Co 


Nevada 


C P Gordon 


309 Montgomery st 


Annual 


Jan 15 


Con Virginia M Co 


Nevada 


A "W Havens 


301 Montgomery st 


Annual 


Jan 9 


Eagle C & 8 M Co 


California 


FW Utter 


112 LeidesdorS st 


Annual 




Eldora G & S M Co 


Nevada 


A C Hammond 


401 California st 


Annual 


Jan 7 


GilaS MCo 


Nevada 


W W Parrish 


328 Montgomery st 


Annual 


Jan 13 


Griffith Con M & M Co 




<! M Condee 


330 Pine st 


Annual 


Jan 7 


Henrietta Gravel M Co 


California 


F Klosterman cor Kearny & Post sts 


Annual 


Jan 10 


Iowa M Co 




J H Leonard 


607 Kearny st 


Annual 


Jan 14 


LidaG&SMCo 


Nevada 


A C Hammond 


401 California st 


Annual 


Jan 7 


Manhattan Coal M Co 




Henry Jung 


306 Market st 


Annual 


Jan 14 


Mastadon G & S M Co 


Nevada 


A C Hammond 


401 California st 


Annual 


Jan 7 






H P Livermore 


531 Market st 


Annual 


Jan 21 


Nevada Chief G & S M Co 


Nevada 


A C Hammond 


401 California st 


Annual 


Jan 7 


Nevada Gravel M Co 


California 


J Pentecost 


511 California st 


Annual 


Jan 14 


Northern Light G&SMCo 


California 


F S Monroe 


419 California st 


Annual 


Jan 6 


Peacock Mountain S M Co 




E B Partridge 


306 Clay st 


Annual 


Jan 9 


Raymond & Ely M Co 


Nevada 


J W Pew 




310 Pine st 


Special 


Jan 28 


Sierra Nevada S M Co 


Nevada 


W W Stetson 


309 Montgomery st 


Annual 


Jan 15 


LATEST 


DIVIDENDS- WITHIN 


THREE MONTHS 


Name op Company. 


Location. 


Secretary. 


Office ij 


S. F. 


Amount. 


Payable 


Bodie G M Co 


California 


W H Lent 


327 Pine st 


1 00 


Dec 14 


California M Co 


Nevada 


C P Gordon 


23 Nevada Block 


1 00 


Dec 16 


Excelsior W & M Co 


California 


G P Thurston 


315 California Bt 




Dec 20 


Eureka Con M Co 


Nevada 


W W Traylor 


37 Nevada Block 


300 


Dec 20 


Golden Star M Co 


Arizona 


J W Morgan 


318 Fine st 


25 - 


Dec 9 


Indian Queen M & M Co 


California 


A K Durhrow 


69 Nevada Block 


25 


Dec 17 


Independence M Co 
New York Hill G M Co 


Nevada 


R H Brown 


327 Pine st 


25 


Nov 20 




F J Herrmann 


418 Keamy st 


25 


Oct 24 


Silver King M Co 


Arizona 


"W H Boothe 


320 California st 


50 


Oct 22 


Standard G MCo 


California 


W Willis 




309 Montgomery st 


1 00 


Dec 12 





California Board— Latest Sales. 



Tuesday A. ]H., Dec. 31. 60 

40 Alpha 11 70 

55 Alta 5i@5| 315 

500 JEtna 5c 50 

50 Alexander Hi 10&0 

200 Argenta 2.80 100 

100 Almaden Q 1} 150 

900 Atlas 12Jc 500 

115 Belcher 3$@3i 100 

100 Best SBelcher... .17(3171 50 

65 Bullion 5|<a5il 10 

10 Bodie 



85 Calif ornia 9&@10 

100 Coao Con 5c 

80 Con Virginia 7|@7S 

300 Con Imperial. ,.? 80c 

50 Crown Point 3£<3>f * 

60 Exchequer H@i 

100 Enterprise 1 

140 Goodahaw 30c 



Gould & Curry BJ<5 

Hale ft Nor 10f|@ 

Julia 5<ffii 

Mexican 31(33! 

Mint 18<319c 

North Canon l2*c 

New York 62jc 

North Sierra Nev 5c 

N Scorpion 30c 

Ophir 36@3« 

Savage 9| 

Sierra Nevada.... 41@41i 

Senator 25c 

Silver HilL lj@1.35 

Tiger 50c 

Trojan 23^27c 

UFlag lc 

Union Con 56@561 

YeUow Jacket 13 J 



Pacific Board— Latest Sales. 



Tuesday A. 91., Dec. 31. 

95 Alta H 

20 Alpha It 

50 Benton 31 

300 Best &Belcher...I8@JR* 

260 Belcher 3.70<a>3. 

150 Bullion 58@5.40 

120 California IOJ@10i 

10 Chollar 46i 

60 Con Virginia 8 

100 Con Imperial 77c 

300 CrownPoint.:...3.65@3g 

315 Exchequer 4J@3.35 

170 Gould k Curry 9@9& 

40 Hale & Norcross. lli@llj 
270 Justice 3.70 



290 Julia. 51@5.20 

50 Kentutk 3.90 

80 Mackey... li 

90 Mexican 31<g3ll 

50 N Con Virginia 6 

300 Ophir 35i@351 

10 Overman 9} 

40 Savage 10@10J 

110 Sierra Nevada.... 43@43* 

85 Silver Hill 1* 

40 Trojan 25c 

30 Union 571 

240 Utah 1H@I1 

370 Ward 1.15@I1 

60 Yellow Jacket ...13jj@l3 



Assistant Treasurers of the United States 
have been instructed to make no distinction be- 
tween coin and legal tenders after January lBt, 
1879. 



The loss in wages by the Oldham strike, now 
terminated, amounts to £G0,000, besides the 
expenditure of Union funds, and a loss to cap- 
ital by the stoppage, of 4,000,000 spindles. 

A further enormous depreciation of Turkish 
paper money has occurred. 

Over 10,000 bales of cotton burned at 
Charleston, S. C. 



Mining Share Market. 

There are decided symptoms of recovery in 
the market, especially in the Comstock shares. 
The Bodie stocks may remain rather low for 
some little time to come, particularly those 
fated ones whose mines are in that unfortunate 
section 16, township 4 north, range 27 east. 
Taking the market as a whole, it has been 
prophesied that the new year's activity will 
far excell that of the old year ; the prophet 
basing his plan for the future, partly upon 
bonanzas, which have hardly kept the market 
alive for the last month or more, partly upon 
the greater depth attained, and more complete 
developments made in old mines, and partly, 
which is the most sensible of all, upon the new 
discoveries in Arizona and Utah. Meanwhile, 
instead of prophesying, let us review the solid 
work of the year. The gross bullion yield 
from our mines, west of the Missouri river, 
has been (as far as Weils-Fargo's books show) 
§78,276,167, againBt $95,811,582 in 1877— a 
falling off of $17, 535,415. Dividends paid at 
San Francisco during the past year have 
amounted to $26, 649, 300, of this, two- thirds was 
paid by mining companies, amounting to S18,- 
234,700. It is the mines of California, Nevada, 
Utah and Arizona that pay their dividends at 
San Francisco. These four have produced, ac- 
cording to the same authority, 662,455,004. 
Taking from this the dividends, we have §44,- 
220,304, or about five-eighths of the products of 
the mines returned into them. This, of course, 
takes no cognizance of assessments nor of cap- 
ital already invested. 



The Betchel and Sitting Bull have consoli- 
dated, the company taking the name of the 
former. 



The distress among the poor in England 
seems to have reached its crisis. 



January 4, 1879. "| 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC t>RESS. 



jjjJlNING JUMMARY. 

Hi« following ii moetly eoudcused from journals pub- 
lished in the iuurior, In proximity to the minw* mentioned. 



CALIFORNIA. 
ALPINE. 

The Minis. — Bodie Chronicle, Dec. 21 : Lewis 
Chalmers, Manager of the new London com- 
pany—the Isabella — has arrived at Silver 
Mountain and it making preparations to com- 
mence work on the tunnel, the location of 
which is being surveyed by V. S. Deputy Sur- 
veyor L. L. Hawkins. Heavy maehiuery is on 
the way to drive the tunnel at the rate of '200 
feet per montlu H. (.'. Ginn has contracted to 
build a bridge across Silver creek, near the site 
of the proposed tunnel. Arrangements for re- 
suming work on the Tarshish are progressing 
favorably. Considerable wood is being cut in 
the vicinity of Monitor in anticipation of an 
early resumption of work ou the Advance and 
Tarshish. It is reported that three shifts will 
soon be put to work in the Jones drift on the 
Advance. It is thought by experts who have 
examined the mine that the Jones drift will 
soon tap an immense ore deposit. 

AMADOR. 

Volcano Items. — Jackson Ledger, Dec. 28: 
Stewart's mill has got fairly started on Downs' 
rock agaiu. The mill is now in tine condition 
for work. A crushing of quartz from Jones 
and Robinson's claim, at the Stewart mill, 
yields an average of $11 per ton. Moyle & Co's 
claim in Volcano basin ia all ready for the com- 
mencement of operations. The lack of water ia 
the only thing that prevents active mining. The 
works have been fixed up at a vast outlay to 
raise the pay dirt to a hight of GO feet, thereby 
ensuring a sufficiency of fall and pumping facil- 
ities. All the workmen have been discharged 
with the exception of two. The Rising Sun 
mine is at a standstill. The owners went to con- 
siderable expense in fixing up the mine and 
erecting a mill, only to meet with disappoint- 
ment. At the Tellurium, sinking operations 
are being pushed ahead, through rock of the 
hardest character. 

Moure Mine. — Jackson Dispatch, Dec. 18; 
The ditch will be completed this week, and 
iron pipe is being hauled to those places where 
piping will be necessary. It will require but 
little time and labor now to render the ditch 
ready for the reception of water. 
BUTTE. 

A Good Prospect. — Chico Record, Dec. 28; 
A few days ago, John Allen, of the Junction, 
went up to Butte creek prospecting, and at 
various points on the creek, tested the richness 
of the ground by panning. At one place he 
secured about five dollars from four pans of 
dirt, one piece alone weighing almost four dol- 
lars. John has a strong idea of turning honest 
miner. 

Gone to Mining. — Oroville Mercury, Dec. 27; 
A. E. Brittin, recently in the furniture business 
in Biggs, has forsaken that pursuit, and in com- 
pany with Mr. H. Carrington, of the same place, 
embarked in mining near Powelton. Both gen- 
tlemen are experienced miners and prospectors, 
and will, we believe, do well. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

JuDSONViLLE. — Antioch Ledger, Dec. 28 : 
This town is situated about five miles south of 
Antioch, and about three and one-half mileB 
from Somersville. Coal was discovered near 
this place as early as the year 1852, but none of 
the most valuable mines were discovered until 
1868 to 1870. The Teutonia mine was located 
in the year 1868. This is the pioneer coal dis- 
trict of the Golden State. The Teutonia faces 
the location of the Judsonville Coal M. Co. 
The present owners began operations here about 
three years ago. The depth of the slope is now 
900 feet. The company have expended a great 
deal in machinery and in building a narrow- 
gauge railroad from Antioch to the mine. The 
quality of coal is something similar to the Som- 
ersville coal. The coal is shipped to Sacra- 
mento and Stockton, and considerable quantity 
of it is consumed for domestic purposes in San 
Francisco. The company are shipping some 
2,000 tons per mouth. 
INYO 

A Process Wanted. — Independent, Dec. 
21: Some 35 or 40 miners and prospectors 
are now engaged on the small rich gold mines 
of Alabama district, to the northwest of Lone 
Pine. Two reduction works are in operation, 
the yield of fine gold proving the work very 
profitable. At present, however, the Orion or 
Schulte mine, one of the largest and first 
worked, is shut down, owing to the practical 
impossibility, so far, of separating the fine gold 
from the iron sulphurets, which seem to be a 
peculiarity of the mine. Experiments are^going 
on to determine some method of handling them, 
and it is probable that a small roasting furnace 
will be put at work. Were the Beveridge and 
the Alabama gold fields anywhere near such a 
rush as Bodie, there would be thousands of 
men at work in them the coming summer. 

Items. — The Brown Monster ore bodies are 
developing well. The mill was not started on 
time on account of tho ice in the mill-race. 
The expenditures of the Rex Montis up to 
December 12th, amounted to §161,869.18, $68,- 
912.79 of which was paid from bullion. The 
assets, exclusive of the valuation of the mines, 
foot-up $75,571.20, giving a surplus over 
liabilities of $48,572.92. The long tunnel and 
tHe shaft of the Modoc, are progressing favor- 



ably. The Emigrant Company, Lee district, 
ships bullion every week. The Custer, under 
the management of J. S. Gorman, has good 
prospects. 
PLACER. 

Iowa Hill.— Auburn Herald, Dec 2S: The 
Homing Star company are preparing for a blast 
of 225 kegs of powder. They are laying down 
railroad iron rifiies in their tail sluices. Mr. 
W. W. Anderson, of Gold Run, has been 
elected superintendent of the Orion claim, Iowa 
Hill. This company will begin to wash about 
the middle of January. 

Canada Hill. — Canada Hill is 25 miles up 
the divide from Iowa Hill. It is on the North 
Fork of the Middle Pork of the American. 
There are now about 20 miners residing at that 
camp. There are three tuuuel claims, and one 
hydraulic claim, with a water ditch of four miles 
in length. One of the miners, now on a trip 
below, says that the camp is in a prospermia 
condition. The same may also be said of the 
mining camp at I^ast Chance. 
PLUMAS. 

Eukeka Mill.— Quincy National, Dec. 21: 
The new quartz mill which the Plumas Eureka 
company have been building, started up tho 
other day, and runs satisfactorily. It runs by 
water power and adds 40 stamps to the large 
number already at work. The mill is probably 
one of the most costly in the State, having all 
the modern improvements, and has been fitted 
mp regardless of expense. Our old and valued 
correspondent, "Alioth," promised us a full 
description of the new mill when it was com- 
pleted, and we shall look for his letter in a 
short time. # 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Prospects for Coal.— San Jose Mercury, Dec. 
27: Ever since the survey of the South Pacific 
Coast railroad and the commencement of the 
work of piercing the mountains with a number 
of tunnels, it haB been believed that valuable 
discoveries would be made and mineral- secrets 
long hidden beneath the crags of the Santa Cruz 
mountains would be brought to light. Especially 
has it been a matter of interest as determining 
to almost a certainty whether or not there are 
in these hills any considerable beds of coal. 
Some time ago we published a statement that 
the tunnel was then progressing through a 
species of rock greatly resembling coal, which 
was in an inferior degree combustible, and 
which gave out gases very similar to coal gas. 
While these were not to be taken as evidences 
of the existence of coal in these hills, it did 
prove a condition of things at one time which 
rendered it very probable that the conditions 
necessary to the production of coal here had 
also been perfect. This probability has now 
become a certainty, as the workmen in tunnel 
No. 3, working at the south end, have discovered 
and penetrated a vein of excellent bituminous 
coal about eighteen inches in width, and inter- 
secting the tunnel from east to west. 
SIERRA. 

Machinery for Plum Valley. — Downie- 
ville Messenger, Dec. 28 : Twenty tons of ma- 
chinery for Culver & Co.'s mine at Plum valley, 
above San Juan, has been received here, says 
the Nevada Transcript. The lot includes boiler, 
engine, quartz crusher, etc. The mine is said 
to have good prospects, and will be worked 
quite extensively as soon as the mill is com- 
pleted. 
TRINITY. 

Taylor Flat,— Weaverville Journal, Dec. 
28 : Mr. Walker, another San Francisco mining 
expert who visited Taylor Flat this week, ex- 
presses himself aB highly pleased with the pros- 
pects of that section. He thinks it one of the 
richest gravel deposits in the State. 

Cinnabar District. — Mr. J. F. Dolliffe, 
from the above district, called on us this week, 
and from him we learn that the Altoona com- 
pany has lately struck a new vein of ore of ex- 
ceeding richness; also that a new superintend- 
ent has been placed in charge of the mine. Mr. 
Dolliffe further informed us that he had found 
some very encouraging prospects in his own 
mine recently. 
TUOLUMNE. 

Chapman. — Sonora Independent, Dec. 28 : 
The Chapman mine, near the Confidence mine, 
promises to be good property. The vein is 33 
inches wide and shows free gold and large 
quantities of rich sulphurets. Two or three 
shafts have been sunk along the lode, as far as 
water would permit, and for lack of pumping 
apparatus work has been suspended for a time. 
Here is a good chance for enterprising capi- 
talists. 

Confidence. — The miners in the Confidence 
are gaining on the water, and also running a 
drift in No. 5 level and. raising good ore. 



NEVADA. 

Our usual summary of Washoe mines did not 
come to hand on time. The following regard- 
ing Nevada mines is taken from letters: 

Savage. — Letter of 31st says : There is noth- 
ing new in the mine to report. Working along 
as usual in crosscut and drift. Everything 
working well, 

Silver Hill.— Letter of the 28th says: We 
have run the St. Louis drift 34 feet since last 
report, and the 1100 level crosscut 10 feet. Our 
new pump is running first-rate, also our new 
bob. 

Chollar. — Letter of the 28th says: At the 
Chollar-Norcross-Savage shaft during the past 



Grand Prize.— Letter of the 30th says: 
Ledge in crosscut on 500 level looks very well. 
The ore is rich; will mill over $200 per ton. 
Water continues very strong in face of cross- 
cut and progress will be slow for a few days 
until the ledge drains out. 

Manhattan. — 'Letter of the 27th says: Du- 
ring the past week the mill reduced 144 tons 
and 290 pounds of ore of the value of $28,944.- 
54. Of this amount, $9,301.03 was from cus- 
^bm ores; $5,916. G3 from tiibute mines; and 
013,726.83 from the Frost and Curtis shafts. 

Hale & N0RCROS8.— Letter of the 30th says: 
Our east drift on the 2000 level has been ad- 
vanced 81 feet since last report and is now SI 1 
feet. No material change in the character of 
the ground, 16 sets of timbers have been set up. 
The water stands to-day 54 feet below tho 2000 
level. 

AitiiENTA,— Letter of the 27th says: East 
winze No. 1, 200 level, is down 28 feet. Sample 
of ore from bottom to-day assayed $1,700 per 
ton. The face of east drift, 200 level, looks as 
well as usual. East drift, 200 level, is looking 
better than at last report. Stopcs are all look- 
ing well. 

Raymond & Ely.— Letter of the 23d says: 
During the week nothing new has transpired. 
Crosscut on 1400 level measured 66 feet yester- 
day. The last 10 feet in quartz heavily charged 
with pyrites and quite hard. Have started 
drifts east and west in hanging wall and will 
soon make two other crosscuts. Tenth level 
about the same as last report; looking a little 
better in the east end and not quite as well in 
the west, where the formation seems more 
broken than heretofore. Old levels are turning 
out a little good ore all the time. The mill has 
commenced working low-grade ore and tail- 
ings. 

Utah. — Letter of the 28th says : Our main 
incline has been sunk and timbered 16 feet the 
past week and is now 180 feet below the 1350 
level. The bottom is in good working rock ; 
the flow of water continues about the same. 
We are making some repairs in the incline. Our 
improvements on the surface are progressing 
rapidly. 

Hamburg. — Letter of the 29th says : There 
is no special change to note in appearance of 
ore in north drift 40 feet below 250 level. 
South drift, same level, shows a material im- 
provement, the vein of ore having widened and 
continues to be of extra good quality. North 
drift 80 feet below 250 level was continued 
22 feet, making a total from winze of 84 feet ; 
near the end of this drift we have started an 
upraise on the vein to connect with the ore in 
bottom of north drift 40 feet above. West 
crosscut from end of south drift, 600 level 
was advanced 20 feet, face still in favorable vein 
matter. We have shipped to the furnace du- 
ring the week 75 tons of first-class ore, 

ABIZONA. 

We condense the following from the Prescott 
Miner, of Dec. 13: 

Occidental. — Marshal Duke, interested in 
this gold mine on Lynx creek, thinks favorably 
of the prospect. The mill, now in order, will 
Boon start up on first-class ore. Development 
is carried on by ten men. 

McCrackin.— In the Bateman tunnel, 900 
feet below the surface, a very rich strike has 
been made. Twenty men are developing the 
mine. 

A New Finb in the Jctniper Range. — 
Messrs. Cooney, Burns and Waters, have lo- 
cated some very rich silver ledges near the 
headwaters of Sycamore creek, a tributary of 
the Santa Maria. The discoveries are in a belt 
of slate. Assays go up into the thousands. 
COLORADO. 

General Mining News.— Boulder News and 
Courier, Dec 20: The Terrible mine at George- 
town is being again profitably worked. It is 
estimated that 100 feet square of the Little 
Pittsburg deposit is worth, in round numbers, 
§1,000,000. The Long and Derry mine at Lead- 
ville has been bonded for 60 days by Mr. Teats 
of Gilpin county, in behalf of Senator Teller, for 
$260,000. Some ore from a new discovery near 
Twin lake, in Lake county, assays 22,000 
ounces to the ton, of horn silver. The ore re- 
sembles black lava, and appears in large quan- 
tities. Ten-mile district, near Leadvifle, will 
be a famous locality before another winter rolls 
around. Recent assays have returned 1,800 
ounces of silver per ton from heavy deposits of 
mineral. In Summit district, a rich strike has 
been made in the Little Annie mine, showing 
much free gold. This class of ore is sacked and 
sent to New York. It fairly bristles with gold. 
The mine has kept its 10-stamp mill busy the 
entire season. We learn from the Chieftain 
that a new excitement has arisen in Pueblo over 
the discovery of a rich silver mine in Dry creek, 
about three miles north of town. Specimens 
of the mineral were assayed at the lixiviation 
works, and gave large returns. The Little 
Chief mining property, at Leadville, was sold 
Tuesday to Chicago parties for $360,000. A 
good strike has lately been made in the Dun- 
kirk lode, belonging to the Herman mining 
company, of New York. 

IDAHO. 
Snake River. — Boise Statesman, Deo. 21 : 
Mr. Miles Burston who resides on the Snake 
river bottom a few miles below Salmon falls, 
was in town yesterday, and from him we learn 
that there are several companies now organized 
and at work on the bars of that section of the 



week we have been working on pumps which 1 river. The numerous large springs which gush out 
are nearly finished. We have eased and re- 1 from the banks of the river for several miles on 
paired 45 feet of the shaft. | the north side afford an abundant supply of 



water, which will now be utilized in working 
the bars, where prospects as good as those of the 
great Bonanza bar have been found. Mr. Burs- 
ton says that parties have been prospecting the 
river as far down as the mouth of the Bruueau, 
and have found gold in quantities that will pay 
well by the new process, which they are also 
preparing to introduce. 

Kutii District. —Boise Statesman, Dec. 24: 
Mr. John Atwell came in on Saturday from 
Ruth district, Weiser mines. He has beon 
engaged in quartz mining in this district for 
four years past. Work has gone on very slow 
and only a few men have been engaged in the 
mines— only five men on them now. Mr. 
James Ruth will have his quartz mill in opera- 
tion early in the spring. The battery is put up 
in its place, and the rest of the inside work will 
be put in this wiuter. The Indian troubles put 
them back a good deal last summer and summer 
before, but a few men have been there all the 
time, and they havo several well-defined leads 
opened, and they are very sanguine that another 
year will put some of these mines into a prosper 
ous and paying condition. 

MONTANA. 

Rich Strike in the LEXiNGToN.^Helena 
Independent, Dec. 19: New and very rich bodies 
of ore havo recently been developed in the Lex- 
ington mine ou Ten Mile. At the present time 
the shaft is 160 feet deep and the lode is four 
feet in width. There are streaks of ore running 
through the lode that assay $5,000 to $20,000 
per ton. The mine has always paid expenses, 
but never before had such a bonanza. 

Items. — The Bluebird hoisting works have 
been destroyed by fire. Christ, King, Fred 
Muller & Co., have good pay in Central district. 
The Benson bonanza, New York gulch, will no 
doubt pay well when experienced men take hold 
of it. The suit, at Helena, of King vs. the 
National Mining Co. for $500,000 damages by 
trespass, has been decided for the defendant. 
Eleven tons of Bercaw ore yielded by arastra 
$226. It is reported that there is enough ore 
in sight at the Penobscot to keep 10Q stamps 
running for a year. The Hope mining company 
at Philipsburg, are still taking out ore. The 
Northwestern company have laid in immense 
supplies of wood and salt. From three to four 
feet of the lode tapped by Murray & Durfee in 
the Sharktown tunnel samples 130 to 200 ounces 
per ton. The whole lode, over nine feet wide, 
carries paying quantities of silver. 

NEW MEXICO. 

Georgetown and Silver Cnx — Quartz 
writes to the Salt River Herald from George- 
town, under date of Dec. 11th: Most of the 
miners are doing well. Kennedy & Harper are 
constantly taking out ore. Deller & Webster 
have taken out some 25 or 30 tons of $200 ore 
during the last two or three months. John 
McGregor has a lease on a large streak of rich 
ore. Lemon & Kite, lessees of the McNulty, 
have struck a rich streak. The Naiad Queen, 
Meredith & Ailment, keep six hammers busy 
on ore which yields from 100 to 2,000 ounces per 
ton. The Commercial and Satisfaction are 
turning out a great deal of ore. The mines 
about Silver City show equally hopeful signs. 
In the Legal Tender and the New Issue it is 
estimated that there are at least 2,000 tons of 
ore in sight, which may pay from 20 to 500 
ounces per ton. Their ores principally consist 
of gray carbonates, sulphurets and chlorides 
and some beautiful specimens of horn silver 
may be seen at all depths, as far as they have 
be£n worked. In fact one can scarcely break 
open a piece of quartz that does not show more 
or less horn silver. 

OREGON. 

Mining Items. — Jackson vUleSentinel, Dec. 25: 
T. L. Beck, of Willow Springs, last week picked 
up a gold nugget weighing $18. 75 while cleaning 
up the bedrock on his claim. McKnight & 
Goldworthy qf Foot's creek are now ready to 
begin hydraulicking, Bybee, Hawkette & Co., 
near mouth of Slate creek, have suspended on 
account of the freezenp. All the hydraulic 
miners in this county are ready to commence 
work as soon as they have water. It is now 
feared that the season will be a dry one, as the 
winter rains during a wet season generally begin 
about the middle of December. Last winter, 
however, very little rain fell before the middle 
of January, and still the miners had a long and 
prosperous run. It is hoped that it will be the 
same this year. 

UTAH. 

Park Citv. — Salt Lake Tribune, Dec. 24: 
McCormick & Co. yesterday received 22 bars of 
bullion from the Marsac mill in Park City. It 
is base, but runs high in silver, being about 260 
fine. This makes the second shipment, the 
first having been received on the 17th inst. in 
12 bars. That, however, went low in silver. 
Mr. Ferry, who has the running of the mill, is 
adopting means to increase the grade of bullion, 
and save all there is in the tailings at the old 
Marsac, from which these bars are being made. 
Weekly shipments may be expected now while 
the tailings last. 

Ore from Nevada. — Ores from Nevada still 
come to the Salt Lake market to be disposed 
of. The last lot came from the Jersey and 
other mines at Battle Mountain, and was con- 
signed to McCormick & Co., by J. A. Blossom. 
This ore consisted of three carloads in seven 
lots of various grades, ranging from 50% to 60% 
in lead, and from 50 to 150 ounces in silver. 
Lead ore is just what our smelters need at the 
present time, and they must have it in order to 
run. 



6 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



Mines and Works of Almaden — No. 16. 

Translated for the Press from "Annales pes Mikes."] 

Is the condensation effected in a sufficient 
manner either in the aludels or in the conden- 
sers ? If it is badly accomplished, we should 
assuredly find mercurial vapors in the gas 
which escapes by the extreme chimneys. 

M. Lucas deAldana, to-day Inspector-General 
of Mines, made, in 1851, a series of experiments 
upon this subject; he looked for the mercurial 
vapors by placing a leaf of gold (unefeuille d'or) 
at the upper part of the chimneys. Let us see 
the account rendered of his experiments 
(Revisito minera t. II., p. 378). 

The leaf of gold placed during 12 hours, at 
the end of the second day of work, upon the 
extreme chimney of a Bustamente furnace, had 
not presented after these 12 hours anything but 
a deposit of small drops of water condensed. 

After 32 hours of the period of roasting, and 
24 of cooling, the gold plate presented a white 
spot in the center. 

After 16 hours of the period of cooling, 
nothing. 

After 24 hours of the period of roasting over 
the worst of the furnaces, the spots were a 
little increased. 

After 25 hours, another time, very slight 
traces. 

After 94 hours, they were sensibly amalga- 
mated. 

What do these results prove ? That there is 
an amalgamation of the sheet of gold, by con- 
sequence of a loss of mercury, it is true. But 
not that this loss is elevated. If the loss was 
30% there would escape by the two chimney? 
about 350 kilograms of mercury; let us even re- 
duce this figure by half, admitting that one- 
half escapes by the cracks, there would still be 
87.5 kilograms which would escape by each of 
the chimneys during the two periods of firing 
and of roasting; the amount of amalgamation 
seems very small for a pHte of gold one deci- 
meter square, over which had passed S7.5 kilo- 
grams of mercurial vapor. 

These experiments have rtlso proved that the 
amalgamation seems more u moult in the pres- 
ence of the vapor of water. 

All these contrary considerations would leave 
us in complete indecision, without the exact ex- 
periments to which we have already alluded. 
We think advisable, in order to show under 
what exact conditions these experiments have 
been made, to recount briefly their history. A 
French engineer, M. Emile Pellet, had presented 
to the Council of Mines (Junta de minas), iu 
1867, the plan of a new furnace for the distilla 
tion of the ores of mercury. The council gave, 
April 10th, 1867, a report favoring a trial of Pel- 
let's system; the royal order was given June 5th 
of the same year. The Pellet furnace was buill 
in 1868 and the experiments were begun in 1869 

Let ub see the principles of the new method: 
1st. Calcination is still adopted; the fuel is coke 
mixed in thin alternating layers with the ore. 
2d. The condensation is accomplished in five 
chambers of which the last four are divided into 
two compartments by a median wall pierced 
with holes. In these chambers falls a continu- 
ous rain of fresh water. The bottom is covered 
by a bed of water which ordinarily isolates each 
chamber from the preceding; the vapors can 
not pass from the one to the other, except 
when the bed of water is agitated in such a 
manner as to disclose the opening. This agita- 
tion is produced by the action of a ventilator, 
which draws the gas and the vapors. 

The consumption of water, considerable for 
an establishment which has at its disposition 
only that which is extracted from the mines, 
the necessity of men constantly occupied with 
the charging and discharging, the necessity of a 
motor for the ventilator, the need of watching 
the level of water in the chambers, the impos- 
sibility of remedying serious accidents without 
first cooling off the fire, and, finally, the diffi- 
culty of treating the fine ore, were certainly 
grave inconveniences of the new system ; they 
might assuredly be neglected without hesita- 
tion, if the furnace had been able to realize the 
hopes of its inventor, viz. , absolute, or at least 
nearly absolute, suppression of the losses of 
mercury, economy in the costs of treatment, 
suppression of the mercurial vapors, so injur- 
ious to the health of the workmen. 

Iu case of success, M. Pellet required that 
they should give him, as a reward, the benefits 
resulting from the application of his system dur- 
ing one year. These benefits were estimated to 
be 3,730,000 francs. The assays were begun 
April 4th, 1869, under the direction of M. 
Monasterio, Inspector- General of Mines, and 
Director of the School of Mines at Madrid. 

M. Pellet first made a preliminary assay of 55 
tonB of ore ; 54, 952 kilograms of ore, containing 
4,501.523 kilograms of mercury, gave: 

Kilograms. 

By direct distillation 2,899.10 

Batido de cabezas 508. 20 

80% of mercury of the residues 348.54 

Total 3,255.84 

Loss, 1,245.677 kilograms, which is 2,266% of 
ore treated, or 27.672% of mercury contained. 
They proceeded then to a comparative test be- 
tween the Pellet furnace and the Idria furnace. 
The results of this trial are of great interest, 



not so much for the Pellet furnace, as that is no 
longer a question to-day, as for the Idria fur- 
nace, which is still in use. In order to give to 
M. Pellet all the guaranties of equity and im- 
partiality that he could desire, the following 
arrangements were exactly observed : 

The ores divided into 10 classes remained ex- 
posed to the air at the disposition of M. Pellet 
for all the observations which he wished to 
make during the month of April. M. Pellet 
declared himself entirely satisfied with the 
classification. 

The two furnaces to be compared were each 
separated by a wall in such a manner as to per- 
mit an exact control of the materials. Three 
watchmen were detailed by day and three by 
night. The charges were weighed exactly, and 
they were made identical for each furnace, 
both as to weight and as to contents. Assays 
were carefully taken from each weighing, and 
were made both by the engineers and by M. 
Pellet. All the products were accurately 
weighed. All other work in the neighborhood 
of the two furnaces was prohibited. 

M. Pellet himself recognized the high senti- 
ments of justice which inspired M. Monasterio, 



Harlan's Buzzard. 

Our engraving shows Harlan's buzzard which 
was added to the fauna of the United States by 
Mr. Audubon about the year 1830, and by him 
called after Dr. Richard Harlan, of Philadel- 
phia. He speaks of two specimens only, which 
were captured in Louisiana. They had bred in 
the neighborhood of the place where found for 
two seasons, but their nests were not seen. 
Their young are said to appear of a leaden-gray 
color at a distance, but to become as dark as the 
adult birds at the approach of winter. These 
birds were successively seen perched on the top 
of a high tree, standing in an erect attitude, 
and appeared so like the black hawk {Falco 
niger) of Wilson, as to be at first taken for it. 
They were hard to approach, and when severely 
wounded and captured they proved tierce, 
courageous and intractable, and died refusing 
food. They were considerably smaller than the 
red-tailed hawk, to which they are allied, but 
superior in daring; their flight is rapid, pro- 
tracted, and so powerful as to enable them to 




HARLAN'S BUZZARD. 



the character of which was a guaranty of the 

most perfect impartiality of the experiments. 

[To be Continued.] 



A New Indicator. — The Gold Hill News 
thus describes a valuable invention of Hans 
Behr, a machinist at the Foulton foundry, 
Gold Hill: "It is an indicator by which the 
engineer is to determine the exact location of 
the cage when moving up and down the shaft, 
and thus enable the prevention of many of the 
accidents that still occur from time to time, 
with the best patented indicators now in uBe. 
Behr's indicator consists of a simple, upright 
spiral screw, having a direct positive connection 
and action with the hoisting engine. To this 
screw is attached a hand or indicator which 
moves up or down as the cage is hoisted or 
lowered in the shaft, marking with the utmost 
precision and unerring certainty on a dill plate 
representing the shaft and its stations, no mat- 
ter how many in number, the exact position of 
the cage. The attachment is so direct, simple 
and positive, that if the engineer pays attention 
to the indicator it seems impossible for an ac- 
cident to occur. This indicator has been chosen 
for the works of the North Con. Virginia shaft, 
an argument much in favor of the invention. " 

It is calculated that £2,000,000 a year of 
property is destroyed by the London smoke. 



seize their prey with apparent ease, or to effect 
their escape from the red-tailed hawk, which 
pursues them on all occasions. They have not 
been, observed to fall on hares or squirrels, but 
at all times evince great fondness for common 
poultry, partridges, and the smaller species of 
wild ducks. 



Coagulated Petroleum. — If powdered soap- 
wort (root of Saponaria officinalis, L. ), previ- 
ously wetted with water, be added to petroleum, 
no matter how light its density, the two sub- 
stances form a thick mucilage ; so that the vessel 
containing the mixture may be inverted without 
any of it flowing out. On adding a few drops 
of carbolic acid and stirring, the mucilage 
becomes clear in a few minutes. 



Mr. George Wyld, M. D., says: "Although 
I have always held that electricity, sooner or 
later was destined to become the light of the 
future, still my faith in gas is so strong, that I 
have doubled my stake in gas shares since the 
scare began. Coal gas is destined to become 
the cooking and heating power of the future." 

Linen and woolen fabrics are entirely incom- 
bustible if impregnated with a solution con- 
taining five per cent, of alum and five per cent, 
of phosphate of ammonia. They lose this qual- 
ity by washing. 



\\E tfiqiMEEF^. 



The Effect of Brakes On Railway Trains. 

At a recent meeting of the Institution of Me- 
chanical Engineers, at Manchester, England, 
" The Effect of Brakes on Railway Trains" was 
the subject oE a paper by Capt. Douglas Galton, 
G. B., in continuation of a paper read by him at 
the Paris meeting of the institution. He de- 
scribed minutely the results obtained by exper- 
iments on the London, Brighton and South 
Coast and Northeastern railways. Recapitulating 
what appeared from these experiments to be the 
essential conditions of a good brake, he said the 
pressure with which the brake-blocks were ap- 
plied to the wheels should be as high as pos- 
sible, short of the point which would cause the 
wheels to be skidded and slide on the rails. In 
practice, and as a question of safety, it was of 
the greatest importance that, in the case of a 
train traveling at a high rate of speed, that 
speed should be reduced as rapidly as possible 
on the first application ot the brakes. For in- 
stance, a brake which reduced the speed from 
60 miles an hour to 20 miles an hour, in say six 
seconds, had a great advantage as regarded 
safety over a brake which would only reduce 
the speed from 60 to 40 miles an hour in the 
same time. The maximum pressure should be 
applied to the wheels as rapidly as possible, and 
uniformly in all parts of the train. The skid- 
ding of the wheel, so that it slid on the rail, was 
altogether a mistake, so far as rapid stopping 
was concerned; in addition to this it must clear- 
ly cause a deteriorating effect in tending to force 
forward the rails and sleepers; whereas, so long 
as the wheels continue to rotate, no such effect 
would be produced. Railway companies, in 
considering what form of brake was best suited 
for traffic, must, whilst they gave full weight 
to the mechanical conditions discussed in this 
paper, also ascertain the durability and facilities 
for maintenance and repair presented by the 
various systems. It was further clear, from the 
present series of extents, that the universal ap- 
plication of continuous brakes would raise many 
questions as to the strength of the rolling stock 
now in use, much of which was constructed 
originally to meet other conditions of traffic. 



Improvements on the Kanawha. 

The Government improvements of the naviga- 
tion on the Kanawha river, by dams and locks, 
now under way, will tend to develop the 
resources of this most wonderful region. The 
American Manufacturer says : Ten locks and 
dams will furnish slack-water navigation from 
the Ohio river to Cannelton, a distance of 85 
miles, the cost of which will be about $250, 000 
for each dam with lock. Of these ten, there 
will be three above and seven below Charleston. 
These locks and dams are being constructed of 
hewn stone, and in the most workmanlike 
manner. In nine of the dams, however, there 
is to be an "open pass," 250 feet in length. In 
this "open pass" there is to be a wooden and 
iron structure, so arranged that it can be 
elevated in low water, and thereby furnish 
seven feet of water in the shallowest places in 
the river, and can be lowered during high water, 
and thereby furnish free and unobstructed 
navigation during the rises in the river. Hence 
these dams are called "movable dams." The 
first nine dams from the Ohio river are to be 
movable dams, which will furnish seven feet of 
water from Paint creek to the Ohio river during 
low water, and an open river during high water. 
The locations and lifts of the dams will be as 
follows : At or near the mouth of the Kanawha, 
eight feet lift ; at or near Debby's Ripple, seven 
feet lift ; at or near Gillespie's Ripple, six feet 
lift ; at or near Red House Shoals, six and one 
half feet lift ; at or near Johnson's Shoals, seven 
feet lift ; at or near Newcomer's Shoals, six and 
one half feet lift ; at or near Island Shoals, 
seven feet lift ; at Brownstown, seven feet lift ; 
at Cabin creek, seven feet lift ; at or near Paint 
creek, fifteen feet lift ; total "lifts," 77 feet, in 
a. distance of 85 miles. 



Improvement in Onr Ship-Building In- 
dustry. 

So much is said about the impossibility of a 
revival of the ship-building industry in this 
country under the present tariff, that we are 
glad to pick up every item bearing on the sub- 
ject. The foUowing statistics will be interest- 
ing in this connection: 

During the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1878, 
32 iron vessels were built, with a tonnage of 
25,960.29 tons. This record is second to the 
best record the country has yet made, which 
was in 1874, when the tonnage aggregated 33,- 
097 tons. The next best record in tonnage was 
in 1873, when it amounted to 26,548 tons. The 
number of iron vessels built during the pa&t 
year was greater than in any other year, the 
year which most favorably compares with it be- 
ing 1873, when 26 were built. Of the vesselB 
built during the past year, 9 were ocean pro- 
pellers, varying in tonnage from 1,156 tons to 
3,548 tons; 1 was a lake propeller of 306 tons; 1 
was a stern-wheel river steamer of 1,028 tons; 7 
were side-wheel river steamers, ranging from 
128 to 1,285 tons ; 13 were steam tugs, the 
largest of which measured 180 tons; and the re- 
maining vessel was a yacht. 

The number of vessels and the tonnage will, 
this year, probably exceed that of any previous 



January 4, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



year in the history of the country. One of the 
latest launches was the fine Bteamer St, Johns, 
for ocean and river travel, from the yard of the 
Harlan & Hollingsworth Company, at Wilming- 
ton, DeL The St. John* is for the Charleston, 
Savannah & Florida Line, and her measurement 
is as follows: Length, 2t>0; beam, 38 feet; beam 
over all, G4 feet. Her cylinder is G<> inches in 
diameter, with 12 feet length of stroke. 

At the yard of John Hoach, Chester Pa., the 
double turreted monitor Miantonomah, Govern- 
ment vessel, is in hand, receiving her machinery 
and finishing touches. Two other vessels are 
on the stocks, and a large number of men have 
recently been added to the working force in the 
yard, giving it a more lively aspect than it has 
worn for some time. 



Bridging the Bosphorus. — Capt. James B. 
Kads, the well-known engineer of the iron 
bridge at St. Louis, who has long been con- 
nected with the jetties at the delta of the Mis- 
sissippi river, has recently prepared plans for 
bridging the Bosphorua, thus connecting Pera 
with the Asiatic shore. Capt. Eads was as- 
sisted in his calculations and surveys by A. O. 
Lambert, a civil engineer. The bridge will be 
6,000 feet long and GOO feet wide. It will have 
fifteen spans, and will be almost entirely built 
of iron. The bight of the roadway above the 
surface of the water will be 120 feet, SO feet less 
than the elevation of the Brooklyn bridge. 
The center arch will be a span of 7")0 feet, one 
of the longest spans ever contemplated. The 
central piers or main portion of the structure 
will be 50 feet thick, built of solid granite 
blocks fastened together with iron braces. The 
main tiers are 270 feet high from foundation to 
summit. The cost of the entire structure is 
estimated at between $18,000,000 and §25,000,- 
000, and six years are given as the time to com- 
plete it. Excellent granite is near at hand, 
and as the iron work will probably be done in 
France and Belgium, there will be no delay. It 
is also thought that cheap labor can be em- 
ployed. The increase in the value of property 
that will necessarily follow the completion of 
the work, it is believed, will amply repay the 
cost of the project. The construction of the 
bridge will doubtless do much towards the com- 
pletion of the Euphrates Valley railroad, mak- 
ing it the preferred route to India. 



The Gibraltar Tunnel. — The proposed 
tunnel between Spain and Africa is still before 
the public. This tunnel, according to the plan 
at present contemplated, is to extend from 
withiu a abort distance of Algeciras, on the 
Spanish side, to between Tangier and Ceuta on 
the African side. The length of the submarine 
tunnel will be nine miles, with an inclination of 
one foot per hundred, aid the approaches will 
have an extent of six or seven miles. The 
greatest depth of the see is 3,000 feet ; and, as 
it is intended to have a thickness of some 300 
feet of rock left between the roof of the tunnel 
and the sea bottom, tie greatest depth of the 
tunnel will thus be 3,300 feet below the level of 
the aea. — Am. Architect. 




How to Do Up Shirt Bosoms.— Take two 
tablespoons best starch, add a very little water 
to it, rub and stir with a spoon into a thick 
paste, carefully breaking all the lumps and par- 
ticles. Add a pint of boiling water, stirring at 
the same time; boil half an hour, stirring occa- 
sionally to keep it from burniug. Add a piece 
of "enamel" the size of a pea; if this is not at 
hand use a tablespoonful gum arabic solution, 
(made by pouring boiling water upon gum ara- 
bic and standing until clear and transparent), 
or a piece of clean mutton tallow half the size 
of a nutmeg, and a teaspoon of salt will do, but 
it is not as good. Strain the starch through a 
strainer or a piece of thin muslin. Have the 
shirt turned wrong side out; dip the bosoms 
carefully in the starch and squeeze out, repeat- 
ing the operations until the bosoms are thor- 
oughly aud evenly saturated with the starch; 
proceed to dry. Three hours before ironing dip 
the bosoms in clean water; wring out and roll 
up tightly. First iron the back by folding it 
lengthwise through the center; next, iron the 
wristbands and both sides of the sleeves; then 
the collar-band; now place the bosoniboard un- 
der the bosom, and with a dampened napkin 
rub the bosom from the top towards the bottom, 
smoothing and arranging each plait neatly. 
With a smooth, moderately hot iron, begin at 
top and iron downward, and continue the oper- 
ation until the bosom is perfectly dry and shin- 
ing. Remove the bosomboard and iron the 
front of the shirts. The bosoms and cuffs of 
shirts, indeed of all nice, fine work, will look 
clearer and better if they are first ironed under 
a piece of thin old muslin. It takes off the 
first heat of the iron and removes any lumps of 
starch. 



Banger from Lubricating Oils.— From a 
paper read by Prof. John T. Ordway, at a recent 
meeting of the T»Jew England Cotton Manufac- 
turers Association, it appears that many of the 
oils used for lubricating machinery may be 
classed as dangerous, because when heated to a 
sufficient degree they throw off an inflammable 
vapor. In this respect it is claimed that some 
of the animal and vegetable oils are even more 
hazardous than those which are partially mixed 
with earth oils, and that the higher price of an 
oil is by no means a guarantee of safety. An 
account was given of a fire last summer in the 
Bates Mills, Lewistown, Me., at which the 
flames, on reaching the weaving room, shot 
across it in all directions on a level of about five 
feet from the floor, and with sufficient heat to 
melt the lead connections to a gas meter located 
on the same plane of hight — from which the 
gas had been fortunately shut off — while a 
towel hanging two feet below this level was not 
scorched. This would seem to show that there 
was a body of inflammable vapor hanging in the 
air, cast off by the oil used on the machinery. — 
Scientific American. 



Coating Boilers.— Mr. Franz Beuttgenback 
gives the following recipe for the preparation of 
a coating for the inside surface of boilers to 
prevent the formation of scale: Gradually dis- 
solve five pounds of a mixture of 25 parts of 
colophonium, two and one-half parts of graph- 
ite, and two and one-half parts of lamp black 
in 40 pounds of boiling gas tar, adding about 
one pound of tallow. The solution is diluted 
with about 60% of the petroleum and 
applied in a warm state. It has a pungent 
smell and should be put on rapidly, the precau- 
tion of using closed lanterns being necessary. 
Its effect is to cause the scale to come off in 
large flakes when picked. 

To Remove Ink from Carpets.— When 
freshly- spilled, ink can be removed from car- 
pets by wetting in milk. Take cotton batting 
and soak up all the ink that it will receive, 
being careful not to let it spread. Then take 
fresh cotton wet in milk, and sop it up carefully. 
Repeat this operation, changing cotton and milk 
each time. After most of the ink has been 
taken up in this way, with fresh cotton and 
clean, rub the spot. Continue until all disap- 
pears; then wash the spot in clean, warm water 
and a little soap, rinse in clear water, and rub 
until nearly dry. For ink spots on marble, 
wood or paper, apply ammonia clear; just wet- 
ting the spot repeatedly till the ink disappears. 

Straightening a Wooden Shaft. — Mr. D. 
A. Ammen, of Snowville, Va., sends the follow- 
ing : A wooden shaft can be straightened by 
taking hard seasoned wood and baking it in a 
stove or oven to get it to the smallest possible 
size. Dovetail it into the swagging side of the 
shaft, at the crookedest part. I straightened, 
perfectly, my bolt shaft, 22 feet long, in this 
manner, and have used it three years. 

Rusted Steel Grates.— First the rusted 
steel should be washed with a solution of half 
an ounce of cyanide of potassium in two ounces 
of water. Then it should be cleaned by brush- 
ing with a paste made of half an ounce of 
cyanide of potassium, half an ounce of castile 
soap, one ounce whiting, and water sufficient to 
form a paste of the whole. 

The Chinese make cracked porcelain by 
combining steatite with enamel. When put in 
the oven the mixture divides so as to show a 
network, as it were, of cracks. 



The St. Gotharj Tunnel. — The popular 
vote on the Gothard question, which will proba- 
bly decide the fate of the enterprise, is fixed for 
the second week in January. Meanwhile the 
Federal Council has passed the engineers' esti- 
mates for the seveith year of construction. 
Twelve million three hundred thousand francs 
have to be spent on the works during the pe- 
riod in question, an! it is calculated that by 
next October the tumel will have been bored to 
a length of 11,000 yards. 



Engineering. — We notice that Col. J. D. 
Schuyler has been jailed from his chair as local 
editor of the StocHon Independent, to take a 
position on thest*ff of State Engineer Hall. 
Col. Schuyler is well fitted for this branch of 
the State's work, both by talent and education, 
and we have hijix trust in his record in his new 
field. He hasai earnest zeal for developing the 
resources of theState, and we doubt not this 
will be the monng impulse in the important 
task which he assumes. 



Cost of Artesian Wells. 

The Bulletir extracts the following from the 
" Prospectus >f the Kern Valley Colony ; " 

Of iron pip*, double, 7 inches diameter, vari- 
ous depths : 

First 60 feet boing-, at 50 cents per foot 825.00 

50 feet pipe, at$1.00 per foot 50.00 

A 50-feet wel coats $75.00 

Second 50 feel boring, at 50 cents per foot 25.00 

60 feet pipe, * $1.00 60.00 

A 100-feet .veil coata 3160.00 

Third 50 fee- boring, at §1.00 per foot . . 50.00 

60 feet pipe, at $1.00 50.00 

A 150-fiet well coats $250.00 

Fourth 6J feet boring, at $1.50 76.00 

60 feet jipe, at $1.00 50.00 

A 2O0-feet well costs $375.00 

Tfce flow varies in different wells, but there 
are very few that will not irrigate 40 to 80 acres. 
The capacity may be stated at 40 to 200 acres. 
A flow of one and. a half inch over the pipe is 
estimated to give 6,000 gallons per hour, or sup- 
ply a town of 5,000 inhabitants, using 30 gallons 
each per day. The flow may be checked or con- 
trolled, to moisten or inundate. 



How to Smoke a Pipe. — A correspondent of 
the New York Sun gives the subjoined informa- 
tion: To those who are attached to the pipe, 
it may be a matter of interest to know how 
their last puff or draft of smoke may be as fresh 
as the first. It is well known that smoking in 
the usual manner the last portion of the tobacco 
becomes damp by presence of oil or nicotine 
drawn from the heated tobacco above, which 
causes a sickening and nauseating effect, bitter 
to the taste, unpleasant and unhealthy, as com- 
pared to the first half of a well-filled pipe. The 
following I have found to be effectual in giving 
me a good, fresh smoke from first to last: Place 
a small quantity of tobacco in the bottom of the 
bowl, light it, and when well afire, fill the pipe 
and before each draft give a light puff outward 
through the stem, which causes the tobacco to 
burn upward, all below being consumed. This 
is a sensible way of smoking the time-honored 
Pipe. - 

A Warning to Amateur Chemists. — A 
recent fatal explosion of an oxygen retort in 
London, calls out the fact that two other ac- 
cidents of the same nature have occurred within 
a few years. In both these cases binoxide of 
manganese was used as the source of the gas, 
and it was afterwards discovered that the oxide 
was adulterated, in one instance with soot, in 
the other with antimony sulphide, making mix- 
tures as dangerous as gunpowder under the con- 
ditions required in the manufacture of oxygen. 
As this compound of manganese iB very fre- 
quently used in the production of oxygen for 
experimental purposes, in the class room and 
elsewhere, it should always be tested before- 
hand for such adulterations. 



Qgod hJ E ^ L TH- 



How to Make and Use Beef Tea. 

An ordinary glass jar, such as is used in can- 
ning fruit, with the glass cover laid over the 
top, is very convenient, but like all other recep- 
tacles, must be thoroughly cleansed and aired 
after using before using again. Scrnpnlous 
cleanliness ia very essential. If in great h%ste 
the juiciest portion of the beef held over a brisk 
fire until heated, but not cooked, and then 
squeezed hard through a perfectly cleansed 
lemon-squeezer, is an excellent way, and makes 
a palatable article with the addition of a little 
salt. Salt is the only seasoning usually 
allowed, but tho patient's taste should be con- 
sulted, when not injurious. When the patient 
tires of these modes, scrape with a sharp knife 
enough lean, juicy beef to fill a pint bowl, add 
a little water, cover close and set in the oven 
and let it bake slowly. When about half done 
remove the cover and let it brown a little, then 
cover again and let it cook a while longer. Bgjf* 
tea made after this last mode has been accepted 
in cases where all other ways have failed. 

Never approach a patient with a spoon in 
the hand when about to give nourishment 
Put just what you winh taken, and no more, in 
the daintiest and prettiest teacup in the house. 
Have the tea of just the Kght temperature, 
and let the patient drink it from the cup but 
remove the cup from the room as soon as used* 
and, we would add, wash, scald and put it in 
its proper place. When more tea is needed 
take another and entirely different cup. This 
seem a little thing, but the comfort of the sick 
must depend largely on little things, and who 
shall blame them if sometimes fanciful or un- 
reasonable ? 



Making Pencil-Marks Indelible. — Paper 
marks are made indelible, says the Papier Zei- 
lung, on paper prepared as follows: Any ordi- 
nary drawing-paper is slightly warmed and then 
rapidly and carefully laid on the surface of a 
bath, consisting of a warmed solution of 
bleached colophonium in alcohol until the en 
tire surface is moistened. It is then dried in a 
current of hot air. The surface of the paper 
becomes smooth, but readily takes the impres- 
sion of a lead-pencil. In order to make the 
lead-pencil marks indelible, the paper is warmed 
for a short time on a stove. This method may 
prove valuable for the preservation of working 
drawings when a lack of time will not permit 
the draftsman to finish them in ink. 



Contagion in Caipets. 

Sewerage in these days is receiving a fair 
share of public and private attention, and the 
walls of houses, where contagious diseases have 
been, are very generally cleaned, whitewashed, 
or newly papered; but carpets are too often 
overlooked as the carriers of disease. The truth 
is that they, more than any article of furniture, 
more even than the walls of the room, gather 
and retain dust; and this dust, though chiefly 
inorganic and comparatively harmless, contains 
organic germs, which only need to be raised into 
the air and taken into the human economy to 
develop into active disease, creating, under 
favorable circumstances, an epidemic. Dust 
usually considered as comparatively harmless, 
is a most fruitful source of catarrh and con- 
sumption. The irritation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, throat and lungs, becoming 
chronic, leads to serious disease, that under- 
mines health and destroys life. 

Many women say: "If it were not for the 
sweeping of my carpets I could get along with 
housekeeping very well." Many women know 
from experience that sweeping is one of the 
great trials of the housekeeper's life, and that it 
causes much of "the weakness" among women. 
"Fore-warned is to be fore-armed." When we 
see the need of change, we are ready to accept 
the better methods. What shall these better 
methods be in relation to carpets and disease? 

How easy carpets may convey contagion was 
proved by a case quoted by Prof. Tyndall, when 
he showed that a case of scarlatina, which was 
supposed by the physicians to be sporadic, was 
not so, but obtained by contagion. He said: 
"The question arose, how did the young lady 
catch scarlatina? She had come on a visit two 
months previously, and it was only after she 
had been a month in the house that she was 
taken ill. The housekeeper at once cleared up 
the mystery. The young lady, on her arrival, 
had expressed a wish to occupy a nice isolated 
room. In this room six months previously a 
visitor had been confined with an attack of scar- 
latina. The room had been swept and white- 
washed, but the carpets had been permitted to 
remain. " 

The Value of Different Parts of Meat. 
Why is there so much difference in the nutri- 
tive value of the flesh of animals in different 
parts of the body? Answer— Flesh is composed 
of numerous bundles of minute tubes adhering 
together in a mass. These tubes are filled with 
the juices of the flesh. Now the quality of -the 
flesh depends much on the juices, while the 
tenderness or toughness depends largely on 
these tubes, and these vary with the age and 
condition of the animal. In old or ill-fed ani- 
mals the tubes are more than the juices, and 
the meat is tough. In youug animals it is the 
reverse. There is more nutriment in the flesh 
of animals not too young or too old, and neither 
too fat nor too lean. — Dr. Holbrooh 



Useful, if not New. 

The following simple rules for preserving 
health and for promoting personal comfort, if 
not new, are none the less important to every 
one : 

The object of brushing the teeth is to remove 
the destructive particles of food which, by their 
decomposition, generate decay. To neutralize 
the acid, resulting from the chemical change 
which such particles as are not removed under- 
go, is the object of dentifrices. A moder- 
ately Btiff brush should be used after every 
meal, and a thread of silk floss or India rubber 
passed through between the teeth to remove 
particles of food. Rinsing the mouth in lime 
water neutralizes the acid. 

Living and sleeping in a room in which the 
sun never enters is a slow form of suicide. A 
sun bath is the most refreshing and life-giving 
bath that can possibly be taken. 

Always keep the feet warm, and thus avoid 
cold. To this end, faever sit in damp shoes or 
wear foot coverings fitting and pressing clospJy. 

The best time to eat fruit is half an hour be- 
fore breakfast. 

A full bath should not be taken less than 
three hours after a meal. Never drink cold 
water before bathing. Do not take a cold bath 
when tired. 

Keep a box of powdered starch on the wash- 
stand ; and after washing, rub a pinch over the 
hands. It will prevent chapping. 

If feeling cold before going to bed, exercise ; 
do not roast over a fire. 



Starvation ik tucWurseey. — In an article 
headed "Starvation in the Nursery," the Lon- 
don Lancet calls attention to what it says is a 
fact established by daily experience — that large 
numbers of persona occupying decent positions 
in society systematically starve their children, 
in respect of that article of food which is the 
most essential to their nutrition. Even to very 
young and fast-growing children they give 
cocoa with water, and not always a suspicion of 
milk ; corn-flour with water just clouded with 
milk ; tea, oatmeal, baked flour, all sorts of 
materials, indeed, as vehicles of milk, but bo 
very lightly laden with it that the term is a 
sham. The consequence of this misplaced 
economy is, that there are thousands of house- 
holds in which the children are pale, slight, un- 
wholesome-looking, and, as their parents say in 
something like a tone of remonstrance "always 
delicate." Ignorance, no doul't, is often the 
cause. The parents do not know that, suppos- 
sin« there were no other reason, their wisest 
economy is to let their growing young ones have! 
their unstinted fill of milk, even though the 
dairyman's bill should come to nearly as much 
as the wine merchant's in the course of the 
week. But in many, the medical paper is of 
opinion, the stint is a simple meannes3, a pitiful 
economy in respect of that which, it is supposed, 
will not be open to the criticism of observant 
friends. 

Nuts. — Are nuts wholesome ? Nuts are very 
rich food, containing much oil, in such a state 
that it is not easily acted on by the gastric 
juice unless minutely divided before being 
passed to the stomach. Thoroughly chewed, 
however,. they are wholesome for persons with 
good stomachs. Children may eat nuts freely 
to advantage, but care should be taken to 
choose fresh ones. Stale, old, overdned nuts 
are very indigestible and injurious. 

Keep Active.— Never sit down and brood 
over trouble of any kind. If you are vexed 
with yourself or the world, this is no way to 
obtain satisfaction. Find yourself employment 
that will keep your mind active, and, depena 
upon it, this will force out unwelcome tbougnw, 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

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Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine St 



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The Scientific Press Patent Agency 
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G. H. BTBOKG. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
Saturday Morning, Jan. 4, 1878. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS. — A Practical Traction 
Kng ine; The Bodie Claims, 1. The Week; Arizona; The 
Metallurgy of Mercury in California; Automatic Rotary 
Oas Mixer, 8. A Kingdom for a Fro~»; The Great 
Gray Owl; Is there an Active Volcano in the Moon fig. 
Patents and Inventions; Notices of Recent Patents, 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— An Improved Road Locomotive 
or Traction Engine, 1. Harlan's Buzzard, 6. Great 
Gray Owl; A Volcano in the Moon, 9. 

MINING STOCK MARKET.— Sales at the San 
Francisco, California and Pacific Stock Boards, NoticeB 
of Assessments, Meetings and Dividends, 4. 

MINING SUMMARY from the various counties of 
California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, 
New Mexico, Oregon and Utah, 5. 

OUR CABINET.— Garnet, 9. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 12 and other pages. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Scenes in the High Sierra 
Back of Yosemite — Continued, 2. 

MECHANICAL PROGRESS.— Iron in Car Con- 
struction; Testing Boiler Iron; What is Steel? Machine 
for Measuring Superficial Area; Improvement in Solder- 
ing Irons; Correction. 3. 

SCIENTIFIC! PROGRESS— Experimental Deter- 
mination of the Velocity of Light; Cast Manganese; 
Vegetable Albanisui; Barcenite— A New Antimonate; 
Disease of Chestnut Trees; Heat-Conducting Power of 
Rocks; A Quartz Thermometer, 3. 

THE ENGINEER— The Effect of Brakes on Rail- 
way Trains; Improvements on the Kanawha; Improve- 
ment In our Ship-Building Industry, 6. Bridging the 
Boephoru3; The Gibraltar Tunnel; The St. Gothard Tun- 
nel; Engineering, 7. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— How to do up Shirt 
Bosoms; Danger from Lubrieating Oils; How to Smoke a 
Pipe; A Warning to Amateur Chemists; Making Pencil- 
Marks Indelible; Coating Boilers; To Remove Ink from 
CarpetB; Straightening a Wooden Shaft; Rusted Steel 
Orates, 8. 

GOOD HEALTH. —Contagion in Carpets; The Value 
of Different Parte of Meat; How to Make and Use Beef 
Tea; Useful, if not New; Starvation in the Nursery; 
Nuts; Keep A-Hivp J7 

MISCELLANEOUS. — a Snake River Debate; Gold 
Bands, 2. Miues and Works of Almaoen— Mo. 10; A. 
New Indi'yitor; Harlan's Buzzard, 6. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

jWBoswoll's Combined Heater, Cooker, Baker, Clothes 
and Fruit Drier. ^TCoin Silver Tableware Given Away, 
Kagle Gold and Silver Plating Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



The Week. 



Resumption of specie payments is now 
guarded by law. No great and exciting catas- 
trophe occurred on the day fixed for resump- 
tion. Some people seemed to think there would 
be a grand movement of some kind — of what 
kind it ia hard to imagine. Sherman was to be 
in New Y<«-k to see resumption commenced, 
rumored these visionaries. But here we are on 
a foundation of golden honesty, and people do 
not realize that anything startling has occurred. 
Nor will they until a year or « brings unknown 
prosperity, and the Btudents of economy begin 
to point back to January 1st, 1879, aa the be- 
ginning of the "golden era." Among the 
events of the week is another, which reflects 
more credit upon the popularizing, anti-specula- 
l?r policy of Sherman. Gold is to be purchased 
at Helena, Montana, directly from the miners 
and others who have it to sell, in exchange for 
greenbacks at par. The Department ia buying 
gold on similar terms at Charlotte, N. C, at 
Boise City, and Denver. The startling claims 
on the Bodie miniug property will be referred 
to in another column. As far as present de- 
velopments go, the whole affair ahows a rather 
astonishing carelessness and neglect on the part 
of men who have boen thought capable of taking 
vtx& of themselves. 



Thb recent diacoveriea of rich silver mines 
near Tucson ia oreating excitement among our 
miners. 



The Reno Journal reports encouraging news 
from the Mausanola mines. 



Arizona. 

The event which promises moat for the New 
Year is the opening of Arizona by the Southern 
Pacific railroad. The whole commercial world 
will be enlivened by it ; the mining industry in 
all its branches will be enlarged and strength- 
ened ; new problems will be brought more forci- 
bly than ever before our people— problems to 
teat the ability of our engineera, both those who 
bear the transit and leveling rod, and those 
who map out our courses in legialative halls. 

"Over-production" is the cry among our 
manufacturers tc-day. The spectacle of Eng- 
land, shutting down her factories and turning 
thousands of employees out into the cold of an 
unusually severe winter, is fraught with inevi - 
table lessons. And we all know that we do not 
have to go across the Alantic to be reminded 
that markets are stagnant. In the heat of com- 
petition, and the clatter of new labor-saving 
machines, men have made more than they can 
sell. And now every eye is straining to dis- 
cover some outlet, be it ever so small, through 
which to crowd the stock from bending shelves 
and overfull warehouses. _ 

And not a few faces are turned towards Ari- 
zona. Now Arizona is not a gigantic glutton, 
to swallow the surplus of the world. She is 
not yet developed sufficiently to send in lengthy 
orders to the merchants and manufacturers of 
her sister States and Territories. And were 
she so, her spirit is too plucky to admit of long 
dependence upon others. But these are facts : 
Arizona has vast territory unsettled, and great 
resources undeveloped. She has, moreover, an 
energetic population within her borders, who 
realize the richness of her possessions, and have 
a press through which they are not alow in pub- 
lishing them abroad. Add to this a railroad, 
pushing up one of her richest valleys, and 
symptoma of new wagon roada from the prin- 
cipal towns to join with it. Then we have all 
the requisites for a conaiderable demand upon 
outaide marketa, for at least a apace of 
several years. Arizona will soon stand 
alone. The few ^lormon ahuttles on 
the Colorado Chiquito will in short time 
grow into a woolen mill. Then no longer need 
the sheepraiaer pay freighta out on his wool, 
and freights in again on his shirts and stock- 
ings. Already the home product of Hour is 
sufficient to have established a reputation 
among the camps. It will not be a great while 
before the furnaces in the mountains will be 
made of Arizona brick; and who shall say that 
the mill-machinery shall not be forged with 
Arizona coal, if not made of iron mined within 
the Territory. But for the present, Arizona 
must draw largely from California, and through 
California from the East. San Francisoo foun- 
dries must do most of her iron work; California 
mills must grind her Hour; and houses in our 
cities must import most of her manufactured 
goods of all classes. This is how Arizona, with 
a railroad, will make herself felt in the commer- 
cial world. 

That the opening up of Arizona will enlarge 
and strengthen the mining industry, need not 
be enlarged upon. Arizona is thought of in the 
outside world as pre-eminently a mining coun- 
try. The fame of her mines has gone forth 
until it is almost forgotten that she has verdant 
valleys for agriculture and hillsides to support 
a large grazing industry. It is not necessary at 
this late hour to detail the silver and gold 
regions, the mines of copper, lead, iron, cinna- 
bar, and coal. What the people want to know 
now, is whether there will be food for the 
miners, and any reasonable supply of the com- 
forts of life. The Arizona press will do more 
good by attending now to these matters than by 
dwelling on the mineral resources, which are 
already widely known and undoubted. Assure 
the miner that he will not starve, and he will 
try his luck despite stories of desert and of 
hostile Indians. This assurance comes when 
Arizona is vitally connected with great centers 
of supply. Exploration of little-known dis- 
tricts may be now looked for. New discoveries 
will be reported every day, as they have been 
lately almost every week. And upon the track 
of discovery, capital may now follow with more 
confidence than ever before, bringing all the 
good things of capital, roads and smelting 
works and mills. 

The growth of Arizona will bring up many 
important problems before the United States. 
Immense engineering feats will be dwelt upon 
in council if not carried out. The irrigation of 
the "deserts" is a question that ia nearer the 
people to-day than ever before. But there is 
another question of more vital and general im- 
portance; it concerns our relations with Mexico. 
Mexico is attracting no little attention to-day. 
The excursion of Eastern traders shows both 
the fact and its significance. Mexico has re- 
sources, if they are almost entirely latent, and 
held back by revolutionary laws and all then- 
attendant evils. It will profit us to have closer 
relations with her. That is what the New 
Orleans excursion means. It is now settled 
that our trade with Mexico cannot grow with- 
out an international railroad. Is this railroad 
to go down through Texas, New Mexico or 
Arizona! We think the question is almost 
answered in the progress of the Southern 
Pacific. Our coast is more nearly related to 
Mexico than any other part of the country. 
Every effort should be made to turn the pros- 
pective trade into our channels. So Ariaona 
shall prove not only a desirable end in herself, 
but a means to an end as well. 



The Metallurgy of Mercury in California. 

We acknowledge the receipt from the author, 
M. Georges Rolland, Ingenieur au Corps des 
Mines, of an interesting monograph with the 
above title, reprinted from the publications of 
the Societe a' encouragement pour Vindustrie na- 
tionale. The article is the result of a tour 
through the quicksilver mines of California 
during the year 1S76. The author promises 
that he will shortly treat of the "Deposits of 
Mercury in California," in an article to appear 
in Annates des Mines. He promises at the same 
time to publish the statistics which he gathered 
in his trip, as to the phases of production in 
California, the consumption of it on the Pacific 
coast, its exportation to China, to Mexico, etc, 
and finally the fluctuations of the price of the 
article in San Francisco. 

The author gives to the Americans the credit 
of having invented a great number of new ar- 
rangementa, some of them very ingenioua. The 
reason of this is, of course, as the author claims, 
partly due to the great cost of manual labor, 
and also to the recent fall in price of the article 
itself, which requires the strictest economy in 
its production. He, however, very justly criti- 
cises the neglect of the cuatom of carefully taking 
samples and making aaaays of all the ores 
treated. New Almaden, as far as we know, ia 
the only mine at which this was ever attempted 
in anything like a systematic manner, and here 
we regret to say, it was not continued. Al- 
though the careful taking of samples, and the 
making of assays of an ore coata conaiderable 
care and money, without adding to its richness. 
stiU the exact knowledge of condition of the 
whole metallurgical operation which is thus 
obtained, the control it gives in case of other- 
wise undiscoverable losses from accident or 
theft, etc., is certainly worth more than 10 
times its cost. This is more particularly so in 
the case of a valuable metal like quicksilver. It 
is to be hoped that our quicksilver metallurgists 
will no longer thus work in the dark. There 
are maiy interesting and technically valuable 
questions that can be settled in no other way. 

In the article of which we speak the worka of 
only the three principal mines, are treated at 
any length : those of New Almaden, Red- 
ington and Sulphur Bank. As we have neither 
time nor room for the whole article, we can only 
speak of some of the principal points. 

Retort furnacea, in which cinnabar ia heated 
with lime, are generally abandoned in California, 
and are only uaed in the treatment of mercurial 
soots. The intermittent furnaces hitherto in 
use in California are generally replaced by 
continuous furnaces with improved ayatema of 
condensation. Continuous and automatic 
furnaces have been invented for fine ore, thus 
enabling the expeditious treatment of fine ore, 
without manufacturing it into bricks. 

For the treatment of coarse ore, the author 
speaks in the following terms of the improved 
iron-clad Idria shaft furnace in use at New 
Almaden : 

" The movement of the ore and the gases in 
the furnace in opposite directions, is a rational 
idea. The gases and vapors escape at the top 
at a low temperature. The roasting and the 
distillation of mercury take place at the lower 
part. The furnace, as its name indicates, is 
surrounded by a metallic casing." * * * * 

"It may be affirmed that the loss in the 
treatment of ores in this furnace, at New Alma- 
den, is less than that of any other establish- 
ment in California. " 

The furnace of Livermore, at the Redington 
mine, and that of Hutner and Scott at the New 
Almaden, are described in full. We would give 
the relative costs of treatment in the various 
styles of furnaces as furnished in the articles, 
except that such could not be made the 
basis of any comparison without a knowledge of 
the richness of the ores (treated), and the exact 
loss during the operation. 

The arrangements for condensation, particu- 
larly [those of New Almaden and Knox and 
Osborne, are described in full. The arrange- 
ments at New Almaden show the greatest 
amount of care and forethought in their con- 
struction. There are first large brick chambers 
to take the hot gases and vapors, and to allow 
their expansion and cooling. They then pass 
into the iron condensers of Fiedler, cooled by 
water upon the top, and by hollow partitions 
containing the same material. Thus cooled, the 
vapors pass into the condensers of wood and 
glass, invented by Fiedler & Randol, and thence 
by an extensive system of flues and chimneys, 
to the top of the neighboring hills. 

In 1876 the author states that the furnacea of 
the Sulphur Banks produced a greater quantity 
of mercurial soot than any other establish- 
ment in California. This amount was greater 
than 1.5% of the. ore treated. The cause was 
the imperfect drying of the ore before roasting, 
and the partial roasting. The soot contained 
not leBS than 40% of mercury on the average ; 
'contained much sulphur, partly fine, partly in 
the state of sulphide of mercury. The ore at 
the Sulphur Bank, very much broken, very wet, 
very bituminous, and above all supersaturated 
with sulphur, offers, it is true, special difficul- 
ties to the operations of drying and roasting, 
and its low contents hardly justify the expense 
of a preparation which would be very great. 

The Aqua Fria smelter has just turned out 
from Silver Belt ore seven tons of base bullion, 
worth perhaps $5,600. 



Automatic Rotary Gas Mixer. 

The electric light has so many chances of suc- 
cess, that attention is being called to all plans 
that may aid the gas companies in making use 
of their product for heating and cooking pur- 
poses. In 1875 an automatic rotary carbureter 
was patented by T. A. Stombs, through the 
Mining and Scientific Press Patent Agency, 
which in this connection demands Bpecial notice 
now. 

The machine consists of a cylinder divided 
into two apartments by a diaphragm parallel to 
the base. In each apartment is a fan wheel, 
which turns upon a shaft passing through the 
axis of the cylinder. The fans of the wheels 
are covered with blanket or other suitable ma- 
terial, when the machine ia to be used as a 
carbureter. The blanket is arranged on a frame, 
so as to pass from the circumference to the center, 
on one fan, and back to the circumference and 
over the next fan, and. so on. When making 
heating gas, no blankets are necessary, the 
bare fans being sufficient. Water, or, if the 
machine is to be used as a carbureter, gasoline 
or some other suitable material, is put into the 
larger apartment of the cylinder, which rests 
horizontally, and rises to a certain hight, regu- 
lated by an automatic valve. 

The air is admitted near the shaft, but is 
conducted by a pipe up to a point above the 
auface of the liquid, where it is discharged into 
the cylinder. The wheel revolving, the fans 
catch the air, and tend to force it beneath the 
surface of the liquid. However, the fans are 
slightly inclined on the shaft, so that as each 
fan comes around the edge nearest the inlet 
strikes the liquid first, and continuing to pass 
downward, pinches the air, and finally forces it 
out towards the diaphragm, near which is an 
outlet. 

The smaller apartment of the cylinder, on the 
other side of the diaphragm, contains the driv- 
ing wheel. This is a fan wheel arranged so 
that air or gas under pressure will revolve it, 
the gas being finally forced out through a pipe 
near the diaphragm, and parallel to that 
through which the afr escapes from the other 
apartment. 

Now it is suggested that this apparatus be 
used for mixing air with gas that is to be em- 
ployed for heating or cooking. The machine 
may be connected with the gas pipes between 
the meter and the joint of consumption, no 
changes being necessary in the present system 
of delivery. The amount of air necessary for a 
given amount of gas can be regulated by gov- 
erning the relative size, of the two apartments in 
the cylinder. It is clamed that gas taken into the 
driving apartment attvo inches water pressure, 
will run the machine. As the gas revolves the 
driver, the fan-wheel 11 the other apartment 
will suck in air and deliver it through the pipe 
parallel to the gas pipe, The air and gas in 
correct proportions will thus proceed in separate 
pipes to the point of consumption, where at the 
proper time they will mix. The machine, it is 
said, may be built to supply any number of 
burners, from one to 1,000, and at all times pro- 
ducing a mixture containing the desired pro- 
portions of gas and air. \ , 

And now as to the economy of using heating 
gas as a fuel, in the parlor grate or in the 
kitchen stove. Suppose the mixture is to con- 
tain four parts of air to cne part of coal gas. 
The cost of 1,000 cubic feet of the mixture 
would be as follows: 

1,000 feet coal gas at works I $2.25 

4,000 feet air at machine I, 

6,000 feet heating gas. I, 2.25 

1,000" " " \ 45 

The heating gas could, then, be delivered to 
the consumer at 45 cents per 1,000 feet. We 
will compare this now with tht coBt of coal as a 
fuel. 

To keep a fire in a grate fcr 6 hours in 24 
would require 10 lbs of coal. Jay that the coal 
used costs $9.00 per ton, or 45 cents per 100 lbs, 
10 lbs would coat 4£ cents. The fire would 
cost per month $1.35. 

In using gas suppose three 2-tyot burners were 
employed, consuming together '6 feet per hour, 
36 feet per 6 hours, or 1,080 f\et per month. 
This, at 45 cents per 1,000 feet, 1 would cost 4S£ 
cents per month. This shows a saving in favor 
of gas of 86J cents per mDnth peigrate, or 64%. 

The inventor says, that the gai| can be used 
to the full capacity of all the burners, or, of 
only part of them. The consunjption can be 
controUed just as it is in the ust of ordinary 
gas. There is no soot, ashes* dirt. The 
combustion is perfect, so no flues ite necessary, 
and in the place of them in a grate\ may be set 
a bright metal reflector, to send tfue heat out 
into the room. In the ordinary gnte 50% of 
the heat goes up the chimney with the smoke. 

With this machine, heating gas can, be made 
from gasoline, or even from heavy Unrefined 
coal oil at a still less cost. For instatce, one 
ton of coal worth $10 per ton will produce 10,- 
000 feet of gas. The same amount of gas may 
be produced by 50 gaUons of coal oil, which, at 
16 cents per gallon, would cost $8. One 
thousand feet of this gas would cost then 80 
cents. One thousand feet of heating gas made 
from it, by mixing four parts of air with one 
of gas, would cost 16 cents ; 10,000 feet would 
cost §1.60, which is a saving of $8.40 for every 
ton of coal used, 



January 4, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



11 



Metallurgy and Ores. 

Nevada Metallurgical Works, 

No 23 STEVENSON STREET. 
Near Fiml ud Market Strata. 

Oreo worked by any process. 

Ores sampled. 

AssAvrxo in all its branches. 

Analysis of Ores, Minerals, Waters, etc. 

WnuKINr, TESTS MADE. 

Plans furnished for the most suitable process 
lor working Ores. 

Special attention paid to Examinations of 
Uiixeaj plans and reports furnished. 

E. HUHN, 

C. A. LTJCKHARDT, 
Mining Engineers and Metallurgists 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO., 

Importer* of and Dealers in 

ASSAYERS' MATERIALS, 

CHEMICAL APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS, DRUG- 
GISTS' GLASSWARE AND SUNDRIES, Etc. 

612 & 518 Washington St., San Francisco 

We would call the special attention of Assflyera, Chem 
ima. Mil lint,' Companies, Milling Companies, Prospectors 
etc., to our stock oi Clay Crucibles, Mufllca, Dry Cups 
etc., manufactured by the Patent Plumbago Cruci- 
ble Co.. of London, England, for which wa have 
l.iL-i'n iii;i'!i: Sal,- A, fnts jo) tin' Hut-ifie Coaat. Circulars 
with pricOfl will be Bent upon application. 

Air o, to our large and well adapted stock of 

Assayers' Materials & Chemical Apparatus, 

Having been engaged in furnishing these supplies since 
the first discovery of mines on the Pacific Coast. 

Z-: I lur (•"!■ I .11 11I silver Tables, showing the value per 
ounce Troy at different degrees of fineness, and valuable 
tables for compulation of assays in grains and grammes, 
will be sent free upon application. 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO. 



A. J. Ralston, Pres't. Prentiss Sklbv, Supt. 

H. B. Undkrhill, Sec'y. 

Selby Smelting and Lead Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Lead Pipe, Sheet Lead, 

Drop, Buck and Chilled Shot, Bar Lead. Pig 

Lead, Solder, Anti-Friction Metal, Lead 

Sash-weights, Lead Traps, Block 

Tin, Pipe, Blue Stone, Etc., 

Office, 216 Sansome St., San Francisco 

Refiners of Gold and Silver Bars and Lead Bullion. 
Lead and Silver Ores purchased. 

Shot Tower, corner First and Howard streets. Smelting 
Works, North Beach. 

LEOPOLD KUH, 

(Formerly of the U. S. Branch Mint, S. F.) 

A?sayer and Metallurgical Chsmist, 

No. 611 COMMERCIAL STREET, 
(Between Montgomery and Kearny,) 

San Francisco, Cal. 



OTTOKAR HOFMANN, 
METALLURGIST and MINING ENGINEER, 

415 Mission St., bet- First and Fremont Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 
iJSTErection of Leaching Works a Specialty. 
iETLeaching Tests made. 



TKOS. PRICE'S 

Assay Office and Chemical 
Laboratory, 

624 Sacramento St., S. F. 






G. F. Dektken. Wm. E. Smith. 

PIONEER REDUCTION WORKS, 

No. 19 Channel Street, San Francisco, Cal 
G. F. DEETKEN, MANAGER. 

Hghest price paid for GOLD, SILVER and Copper Ores. 



METALLURGICAL WORKS, 

STRONG & CO., 10 Stevenson Street, 

ORES SAMPLED, TESTED, ASSAYED. 



GUIDO KUSTEL, 

MINING ENGINEER and METALLURGIST. 

P. O Address: ALAMEDA, CAL. 



San Lorenzo, December 6th, 1877. 
Messrs. Dewey & Co. — Gentlemen: I received the Let- 
ters Patent for my invention on the 5th inst., and beg 
to thank you for the gentlemanly and business-like man 
ner in which you have dealt with me from the beginning 
of my application. I shall always feel it a pleasure to 
recommend you to all I come in contact with who need 
Letters Patent. Respectfully, Wm. Dale. 



Ingersoll Rock Drills. 



In use in the largest and best 
Mines of the Coast. 

HAS AUTOMATIC FEED. 

Has less Repairs. 

Is Lighter and more Easily Ad- 
justed than any other Drill. 
Our DRY AIR COMPRESSORS are the most Economical Compressors in the Market. 

MINERS' HORSE-POWER. 





This Powur is especially adapted to working mines, hoist- 
ing coal or building material, etc. It will do tho work of a 
Steam Engine with one-tenth the expense. One Home ca_ 
easily hoist over 1,00(1 pound*, at a depth of 500 feet. 

The Power is mainly built of wrought irou, and cannot be 
aifected by exposure. The hoisting-drum is thrown out of 
guar by the lever, while the load Is held in place with a brake 
by the man tending bucket. The frame of the Power is 
bolted to bed- timbers, thus avoiding all frame work. When 
required these Powers are made in sections for packing. 



REYNOLDS, RIX & CO., 18 & 20 Fremont St., San Francisco. 



Geo!%'t' Spxildlng. 



Solon B. Williams. 

flu 




JVb. 414 CIjA.y- Street, 

$an %vanqi§qc. 



North Side, 

Above Battery, 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 
thus, 

•which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA cV* PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper, 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London? 
<5rv., csrv. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World, 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO.. San Francisco. 




MANHATTAN FIRE BRICK AND CLAY RETORT WORKS, 

ADAM WEBBER, PROPRIETOR. 
Office— No. 633 East 15th Street, New York 

CLAY GAS RETORTS, (Glazed and TJnglazed,) GAS HOUSE TILES, FIRE BRICK 
BLOCKS, ETC., FIRE CLAY ANT) SAND ALWAYS ON HAND. 

ASSAY MUFFLES AND FUKNACES. 

CCPOLA BRICKS FOR McKENZIE AND OTHER CUPOLAS. 
(Refer to the San Francisco Gas Light Company and to the Pacific Rolling Mills.) 



THE IMPROVED 0'HARRA 

0HL0EIDIZING FURNACE. 

Patented Sept. 10th, 1878. 

Now in Operation at the Extra Mining Co. 's 
Works, Copper City, Shasta Co., Cal. 

Two men and two cords of wood roast 

Forty Tons of Ore in Twenty-four Hours, 

Giving a full chlorlnation (100%) at a cost of 30 cents per 
on. Address, 

O'HAREA & FERGUSON, 
Furnaceville, Shasta Co. , Cal. 
Or CHAS. W. CRANE, Agent, 

Room 10, Safe Deposit Building, San Francisco. 



Bodie Richmond Mining Co. 

President, I. F. MILLER. Secretary, O. D. SQUIRE. 

Incorporated November 16th, 1878. 
Office, Room 28, Stevenson's Building, S F. 



DEFLECTORS, 
Or Perkins_vs. Hoskin. 

W. H. PERKINS has for nearly two years been threaten- 
ing orally and through the Press to prosecute all persons 
using my Patent Deflecting Nozzle, but for good reasons, ha3 
failed to come to time. I want miners to understand that 
Deflectors are still manufactured and sold, aud that I will 
defend all suits and assume all responsibility. Mr. P. will 
confer a favor if he will carry out his threat, as it will afford 
me the opportunity I desire to again try the case, and he can 
rest assured that professional (lodges will not again be allowed 
to temporarily thwart the ends of justice. 

I feel confident that the Supreme Court of the United 
States will ultimately decide in my favor. The superiority of 
my invention is shown by the means which Mr. P has resort- 
ed to in tryiug to stop my sales. Mr. P. has so degraded him- 
self as to circulate statements which he knows to ae false and 
malicious. Notwithstanding the great number of my De- 
flectors in use, I have heard of but one accident, and this wa3 
caused by the breaking of the iron lever from a defect in the 
material and great carelessness in use. This circumstance 
Mr. P. has magnified into several deaths and numerous acci- 
dents. I refer to the following owners and Managers for 
testimonials as to safety and efficiency. Some of them have 
used and discarded Mr. Perkins' device in favor of my much 
superior one. Messrs. Gould, Gold Rim, using 4; Spauldiug. 
Dutch Flat, on different mines, 12; Stone, Gold Run, 2; 
Morgan, Little York, 6. JJisbee, Iowa Hill, 2; Eriere & 
Wheeler, Bath, 2; Mr. Gillvaiy, Forest Hill, 4; Atkins, Weav- 
erville, 2. I could mention scores of others, but these are 
sufficient. 

Mr. Perkins' device is an infringement on a patent owned 
by Mr. Craig, who is about to institute legal proceedings to 
protect hiB rights, Miners are advised to stand from under. 
A word to the wise is sufficient. R. HOSKIN, 

Manufacturer of Machines for Hydraulic Mining. Address, 

No. 29 Garden Street, San Francisco, or Empire Foundry, 

Marysvllle, CaL 



Engraving done nt ihis office, 



JMachijiery. 



PACIFIC MACHINERY DEPOT. 
H. P. GREGORY & CO., 

Cor. California & Market Streets, S. P. Cal 
Importers of aud Dealers in 

MACHINERY of all Descriptions. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR PACIFIC COAST FOR 

J. A. Fay & Co.'s Woodworking Machinery, 

Bement & Sons' Machinists' Tools, 

Blake's Patent Steam Pumps, 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co.'s Rubber Goods 

Sturtevant Blowers and Exhaust Fans, 

Tanite Co.'s Emery Wheels and Machinery 

Payne's Vertical Engines and Boilers, 

Judson's Standard Governors, 

Dreyfus' Self Oilers, 

Gould Manufacturing Co.'s Hand Pumps, 

Piatt's Patent Fuse Lighters, 

Lovejoy's Planer Knives. 

A FULL LINK OF 

Belting, Packing, Hose, and Other 
Mill and Mining Supplies on Hand. 

ASTSend for Illustrated Catalogue. 



J. Thomson. c. H. Evakb. 

THOMSON & EVANS, 

(Successors to Thomson &Parkkr.) 

Engineers and Machinists. 




Steam Pumps, Steam Engines, Hoisting, 

Pumping, Quartz Mill, Mining, Saw 

Mill Machinery, Specialties. 

Plans and Specifications for Machinery furnished. Re- 
pairing promptly attended to. 

110 & 112 Beale St., San Francisco. 



Established 1844. 

JOSEPH C. TODD, 
ENGINEER 

—AND— 

MACHINIST. 

Flax, Hemp, Jute, Rope, Oakum 
and Bagging Machinery, Steam En- 
gines, Boilers, etc. 1 also manufac- 
ture Baxter's New Portable 
Engine of 1877, of one horse-pow- 
er, complete for $125; can be seen in 
operation at my store. Two horse- 
power, $225; two and a half horse- 
power, $250; three horse-power, 
$275. Send for descriptive circular 
aud price. 

Address J, C. TODD, 

10 Barclay Street N. Y.. or Patterson, N. J 





BERRYfcPEACE 

— - 'S AN TR ANC IS C 0, C A L . — '- 



CIRCULARS .SENT FREE TO I 



CAUTION 

To Hydraulic Miners. 

The public generally and Hydraulic Miners especially 
are hereby notified that any parties making or using the 
contrivance known as the HOSKIN DEFLECTOR will he 
prosecuted to the full extent of the law, said machine 
having been declared by the U. S. Circuit Court an in- 
fringement upon my patent, the 

Bloomfield Deflecting Nozzle. 

The public are also cautioned against using the Hoskin 
Deflector because of its danger to life and limb, this de 
vice having already occasioned several deaths and othe 
serious accidents. The BLOOMFIELD DEFLECTOR is 
entirely safe, its two and a half years use without acci- 
dent, as well as its construction, proves it to he a reliable 
contrivance. 

Any parties wishing to purchase the right to use these 
Deflectors can do so by applying to the undersigned, 

HENRY C. PERKINS, 
North Bloomfield, Nevada Co., Cal., Octo- 
ber 1st, 1878. 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyp- 
._ ing done at the office of the Mining 

and Scientific Presb, San Francisco, at favorable rat«a 

Send stamp for our circular aud Bamplea. 



Engraving.l 



12 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[Jamlarjr 4, 187^1 



News in Brie£ 

Taktar agitation in Russia. 

Troubles with students in Russia. 

The Oldham cotton operatives' strike is oyer. 

Virginia City shows further signs of settling. 

A question is being raised on the land titles 
of Bodie. 

Senator Sargent's health is rapidly im- 
proving. 

There are 6,000 unemployed persons in 
Geneva. 

The recent fatal epidemic has disappeared 
from Geneva. 

Two flouring mills destroyed by fire at Black 
Rock, near Bulfalo, N. Y. 

The final appeal of the Spanish would-be 
regicide is reported rejected. 

Greece is pleased with the action of the Porte 
in appointing a frontier Commission. 

Several arrests have been made of the 
Breathitt county, Ky., desperadoes. 

A well-known resident of Washington, died 
from the effects of the bite of a man. 

E. L. Pierce, of Boston, has been appointed 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States. 

A hotel keeper has been arrested at Copen- 
hagen for threatening to shoot the King. 

The Captain and officers of the steamship 
Pomerania have been acquitted of blame. 

A German paper suggests that 15,000,000 
marks revenue might be raised on petroleum. 

The Blaine Committee of Investigation has 
adjourned until the reassembliug of Congress. 

The German Fishery Verein will hold an in- 
ternational exhibition at Berlin in April, 1880. 

Great preparations are making at the City 
of Mexico for the reception of the American ex- 
cursionists. 

A change of management is about to occur in 
the branch of the Bank of British Columbia at 
San Francisco. 

The people of Ceara, Brazil, are dying at the 
rate of 600 daily of small-pox, and the distress 
is appalling. 

It is stated that 40% of the Bosnians who 
have returned home will perish before spring 
unless the weather moderates. 

Moncasi, who attempted to kill King 
Alfonso, has been finally condemned to death by 
the Supreme Court of Justice of Spain. 

Seven immense electric lanterns have been 
ordered at Paterson, N. J., by the Russian 
government, for use on men-of-war. 

Flood, of the bonanza firm, sent Christmas 
checks for $1,000 each to the San Francisco or- 
phan asylums, and of $500 each to the benevo- 
lent societies. 

A train was attacked by robbers between 
the City of Mexico and "Vera Cruz, who killed 
the baggage-master, wounded the conductor 
and escaped with &27..OO0 in silver. 



The Pig Iron Market. 

William Jeffray, metal and coal broker, 204 
California street, sends us his review of the 
year 1878, from which we extract the following: 
In January, Scotch, soft, was quoted at $30 to 
$31, the highest during the year.- The lowest 
quotations were in October, viz : $25 to $26.50. 
December quotations were, $26 to $27. English 
and American, white, show a constant falling 
off, from $28 in January, to $25.50 in October, 
November and December. American, soft, was 
$28 to $29, in January ; in November, it was 
$22 to $26 ; December, $24 to $26. 

I find the stock of pig iron on hand January 
1st, 1879, in all, 14,370 tons, as per statement 
given below, being 2,995 tons less than the stock 
on hand January 1st, 1878. 

Stock of pig iron on hand January 1st, 1878, 
17,365 tons. Importations of 1878 — Scotch, 
soft, 2,107 tons ; importations of 1878— Ameri- 
can, soft, 7,235 tons ; importations of 1878 — 

American, white, — ; importations of I87S 

— English, white, 1,705 tons ; total importations 
of 1878, 11,047 tons. Grand total, 28,412 tons. 

The above figures show a decreased consump- 
tion this year as compared with last of 1,521 
tins, viz: 3,312 tons of soft Scotch, and increase 
ol: 430 tons of white, and 1,355 tons of Ameri- 
can soft. 

The importations of 187S show a decrease of 
6,425 tons as against the importations of 1S77- 

Transmission of Heat by Steel and Iron 
Plates. — In a letter addressed by Mr. John 
Collins to jtfmjineermg, that gentleman gives the 
following data derived from experiments made 
to ascertain the relative heat conductivity of 
iron and steel plates. The apparatus consisted 
of exactly similar plates of steel or iron llg 
square, .23 in. thick, supported on glass legs, 
heated by a Bunsen burner consuming equal 
quantities of gas, maintained at 2 in. pressure 
constantly, and a basis 3 in. in diameter placed 
in the center of the plate, containing mercury 
in which a delicate thermometer was immersed. 
The temperature of the mercury was then raised 
from 20 C. to a 160° C, and relative times 
noted. The average gain in time of steel over 
iron plates of equal thickness is 13%. When 
the relative thickness of the plates as used in 
boiler building is taken, this gives an average 
gain of about 20%. In steam boiler trials, 
where boilers are similar in all respects, say 
thickness and material, the actual gain in work- 
ing 20 clays of 12 hours aach shows actual evap- 
orative power of 20% in favor of steel. In an- 
other series of a similar nature by Stucken- 
tholtz, the results gave 19.6% and 20.8% in fa- 
vor of steel. 



Improvement in Iron Smelting. 

The Horicon Iron Co., of Tioonderoga, N. Y. 
according to the Polytechnic Revkiv, Nov., 1878, 
is engaged in manufacturing, by a modification 
of the Catalan force process, blooms which are 
said to prove equal in uniform excellence to the 
Swedish and Norway irons. The peculiarities 
of the process are chiefly the two following : 
The ore, instead of being thrown cold upon the 
forge-fire, descends through a retort or chamber 
in the rear, into which it has been charged, 
mixed with charcoal braize. By the time it 
has reached the bottom of this chamber, and is 
raked forward into the fire, it is not only thor- 
oughly heated, but is also reduced to metallic 
sponge. The chamber is heated by the flame- 

Eroducts of the forge-fire, and also by the com- 
ustion of carbonic-oxide, generated from the 
forge and braize, and escaping through the ports 
in the wall, to burn in the surrounding flue. 
This arrangement is the first .peculiarity of the 
process. The second is the charging of the very 
fine ore-dust into another chamber where it is 
pre-heated, and then taken by a screw-conveyor 
and carried through a hollow journal and a 
small gas-pipe into the tuyere, which conveys it 
intc the forge-fire and deposits it upon the sur- 
face of the loup. In this way a great loss of 
fine ore is avoided, and a saving of fuel is 
efiected. There is still another peculiarity in 
these works, affecting the subsequent manipu- 
lation of the blooms. The loup is introduced 
into a Sweet's furnace, and thoroughly heated 
before shingling. In this way, it is claimed, a 
more complete removal of cinder, etc., is secur- 
ed. Certainly the blooms and billets which we 
saw treated exhibited great solidity and uni- 
formity under the hammer. The capacity of 
the four fires now in operation is about four 
tons daily — eight loups being taken out of each 
during the twenty- four hours. The works have 
been but a few days in operation on this plan, 
but the experiment promises to be successful, 
and, if commercial results warrant, the capacity 
will be at least doubled. The ore now used is 
the Bessemer magnetite of the Crown Point 
Iron Co. ; but the Horicon Co. possesses exten- 
sive deposits of its own, upon which it can fall 
back if necessary. 



Bullion Shipments. 

Since our last issue, we have noticed the fol- 
owing shipments of bullion : 

Arizona. — Mineral Park Mill, Mohave coun- 
ty, $4,400. Tiptop, $23,000. 

California.— Bodie, Deo. 23d, $12,300. Extra, 
Dec. 22d, $1,400 ; Dec. 25th, $1,660. Standard, 
Dec. 25th, $17,750.40. 

Colorado. — The Black Hawk Post says : The 
bullion shipment from Gilpin county by the 
Union Pacific express company, for the month 
of November, is as follows : From Hill's smelt- 
ing works, gold, $90,000 ; from th« mills, gold, 
$105,700, and silver, $103,800. 

Idaho.— Silver City, Dec. 15th, $9,830.27. 

Nevada.— Alexander, Dec. 24th, $9,556.02; 
California, Dec. 28th, $121,335.40; total to 
date, $638,806.72. Eureka— Sentinel, of Dec. 
25th, reports a shipment of $1,311.98. Hill- 
side, Dec. 31st, $5,219.00. Jefferson, Dec. 23d, 
$2,169.87. Leopard, Dec. 29tn, $8,300. Man- 
hattan, Dec. 23d, $11,000. Navajo, Dec. 25th, 
$5,267.7S. Northern Belle, Dec. 25th, $2,802.- 
58. Trojan, Dec. 27tk, $10,043.04; total this 
month, $18,221.24. Tybo Con., Dec. 25th, 
$3 947.31 

Utah.— Christy Con., Dec. 27th, $6,093; Ely 
Mill, Dec. 21st, $900; Dec. 24th, $1,100; On- 
tario, Dec. 20th, $2,568.57; Dec. 21st, $2,732.- 
25; Dec. 23d, $5,112.07; Dec. 24th, $2,348.83; 
Silver Reef, Dec. 20th, $5,526.31; Dec. 24th, 
$11,515.59; Dec. 26th, $4,399.92. The Miner 
gives the total shipments by Wells, Fargo & 
Co., for the week ending Dec, 21st, at $22,- 
073.80. 



Tempering Nickel. — Nickel, like iron, is 
magnetic, sufficiently ductile to be forged and 
drawn into slender wire. Its point of fusion is 
very high, and if melted in a brasque crucible it 
yields a homogeneous regulusof a silvery white- 
ness, containing carbon. M. Bossingault has 
examined whether nickel, like iron, when 
carbureted, is capable of being tempered and 
acquire elasticity, and whether it renders steel 
less susceptible of oxidation. The result was 
decidedly negative except that alloys of iron 
and steel, with large proportions of nickel, 30% 
and upward, resist the oxidizing action of air 
and water. 



The Highbridge mill works up the ore to a 
trifle over 95% and the yield per ton exceeds 
expectations. 

During this year 313 mining claims have 
been recorded in the Recorder's office of Bodie 
district. 



H. J. T. Scheel has taken out of his little 
gold vein in Gold Canyon, Lyon county, Nev., 
23 tons which has yielded$18,000. 



The strike in the Last Chance mine is one 
of the richest ever made in Silver Reef dis- 
trict. 



The Crosscut, in Humbug district, is develop- 
ing one of the largest and richest mines in 
Yavapai oounty. 



f 



1^ fn3 

AfENTSAND INVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

[From Official Reports for tub Mining and Scientific 

Press; DEWEY & CO., Publishers and U. S. 

and Foreign Patent Agents.] 

By Special Dispatch from Washington. D. C. 

For the Week Ending December 17th, 1878. 
Clips for Rope Tramways. — Andrew S. Hallidie, S. F. 
Breech-Loading Fire-Arms. — Julius Bluemel, S. F. 
Ore Stamps. — Stephen Kendall, Jackson, Cal. 
Wagon Jacks. — Harris H. Margeson, East Oakland, Cal. 
Windmills. — Thomas E. .Martin, San Jose, Cal. 
Bitters.— Trademark — Charles R. Barrage, S. F. 
Chocolate, Broma and Cocoa. — Trademark — Domingo 
Ghirardelli, S. F. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of special mention: 

Dredging and Ditching Machine. — Daniel 
Bridges, Yoncolla, Douglas county, Oregon. — 
Dated Dec. 3d, 1878. The invention is an im- 
proved dredging and ditching machine, and the 
improvements consist in a novel combination of 
mechanism by which the inventor is enabled 
to cut out and lift the earth by the vertical 
action of the dredging bucket; and in certain 
details of construction, the machine can be 
made on a small scale to be worked by hand for 
ditching purposes Or may be made large to be 
worked by steam power for reclamation pur- 
poses. It will operate in any earth stiff enough 
to hold together without falling between the 
forks of the grapple. For softer material a 
plate of metal is used instead of forks. The 
device is intended more particularly to con- 
struct ditches or dikes on marsh swamps, tule or 
tide lands where there is little or no fall to the 
ground, and where the marshy character of the 
soil is such as to preclude the use of horse 
power. The device is used to best advantage 
on a scow, being operated by hand or steam 
power. It has been practically and successfully 
tested in Oregon by the inventor. 

Spark Arrester. — J. H. Bartlett, "Wood- 
land, Yolo county.— Dated Dec. 10th, 1878. 
This invention relates to a novel apparatus to 
be applied to the smoke stacks of boilers and 
engines, whereby the inventor is enabled to ar- 
rest the sparks which would ordinarily be 
thrown out by the force of the exhaust steam 
or draft, and which are dangerous when used 
in the harvesting field or among stubble, or in 
any place where there are combustibles which 
are liable to become ignited. It consists in the 
employment of spiral or screw-shaped directing 
wings having their axis placed centrally in the 
stack, and these wings are bent over at the top, 
so as to form a sort of cup, into which the 
sparks, following the incline of the screw, will 
strike and be conveyed by pipes back into the 
smoke box. 

Pulverizing Barrel. — John C. Senderling, 
San Francisco.— Dated Dec. 3d, 1878. This 
invention relates to certain improvements in 
crushing and pulverizing barrels or that class of 
apparatus in which balls, rollers, shoes, ham- 
mers, etc., are employed to crush and pulver- 
ize rock within a rotating cylinder or barrel. 
It consists in the employment of a iron rotating, 
stationary or adjustable shaft, passing through 
hollow trunnions of the barrel, and having arms 
attached for the purpose of holding rollers or 
shoes in position. The said rollers or shoes may 
thus be held at a certain point, and as the ore 
is fed into the barrel it passes between the 
rollers or shoes and the inner periphery of the 
cylinder or barrel. The pulverized ore will 
escape through perforations or slots in the dies 
and from thence through the enclosing screens, 
while any particles not crushed sufficiently free 
will be returned to the cylinder. 

Light Weight Horse Fork. — Byron Jack- 
son, Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. — Dated, Dec. 
3d, 1878. This invention relates to certain 
improvements in devices, known as horse forks, 
such as are employed to handle headed grain, 
and hay or straw. It consists in a novel 
construction of the head in two pieces, and a 
light frame work haying as many bars as there 
are tines on the fork, the two outside bars being 
united at one end, and diverging from each 
other at the opposite end, to secure the outside 
tines. The other bars of the frame receive 
the inner tineB at one end, and are united at 
the other end to the outside bars. One 
end of each, of the bars of this frame is locked 
between the two head pieces, by the tinea pass- 
ing through them. The tines being shouldered 
on a light frame brace on one side, and a nut 
screwed down on the other. The braces are 
cast rolled to a bar of the frame, thus bringing 
the strain of each tine lengthways with each bar 
of the frame. There is then no twisting strain 
on any portion of the frame or head, as is the 
case in the old methods of using a single head 



piece and clamping the lifting arms to it by 
means of cast or wrought iron bands. By this 
construction the weight is reduced nearly one- 
half, while the same strength is retained. 

Air Valve Attachment for Sewer Traps. 
—P. F. Morey, S. F.— Dated November 19th y 
1878. — This valve is intended as a atop to pre- 
vent the return through the connecting pipe o£ 
sewers of noxious vapors. We illustrated and 
described it in detail in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press of March 9th last. It has been ex- 
tensively introduced here by the manufacturer, 
David Bush, 27 New Montgomery street. 



Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, amonir which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Settlerb and others wishing good farming lands for 
sure crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Ander- 
son/Shasta County, Cal, who has some 15,000 acrea for 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
appears from time to time in this paper. 



Examine the accelerative endowment plan, as originated 
by the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Co., of Newark, 
New Jersey. Assets, 830,633,429.94. Lewis C. Grover, 
President; L. Spencer Coble, Vice-President; Benjamin C. 
Miller, Treasurer; Edward A. Strong, Secretary; Bloom- 
field J. Miller, Actuary. Send for circulars to James 
Munsell, Jr., agent of insured, 224 Sansome St., San 
Francisco. 



Artesian Wells Wanted.— Parties who are prepared to 
contract for boring artesian wells are invited to send 
terms to Edward Frisbie, proprietor of the Reading Ranch,. 
Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



Model Maker and Machinist.— I. A. Heald, Nu. 514 
Commercial St., San FranciBco, (fourth floor.) 



A Flouring Mill is wanted at Reading, the head of 
railroad transportation in Shasta County. 

Chew Jackson's Best Sweet Navy Tobacco 



METALS. 

[wholesale. 

Wbdnkhdav m., January 2, 1878, 

Iron.— 

American Pig, soft, ton,,, 23 00 @26 00 

Scotch Pig, ton 26 50 @26 60 

American White Pig, ton 23 00 @ 

Oregon Pig, ton 26 50 (o> 

Refined Bar 2J(g 3 

Horse Shoes, keg , 5 00 <# 

Nail Rod ,. — <* 7J 

Norway, according to thicknesB , , 61@ 7 

Copper.— 

Sheathing, ft 34 @ 36 

Sheathing, Yellow 19 @ 28 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — @- 

Steel,— 

English Cast, ft 16 @ 17 

Black Diamond, ordinary fllzea Jti •>< 

Drill 16 @ 17 

Flat Bar 16 @ IB 

Plow Steel 8 @ 12i 

Tin Plates.— 

10i14IO Charcoal 8»@ 9 

10x14 I C Cote , 7 @ 7J 

Banca Tin 18 (eft— 20 

Australian , 15j@ 17 

Zinc— 

By the Cask 9 @ 

Zinc, Sheet 7x3 ft. 7 to 10, ft, less than caBk . . 9j@— 10 

Nails.— 
Assorted sizes. 2 90@3 00 



LUMBER. 



Tuesday m., December 31, 1878 



CAKGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 13 00 

Refuse BOO 

Clear 23 00 

Clear Refuse 13 00 

Rustic 23 50 

Refuse...., 18 00 

Surfaced 20 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Flooring 20 00 

Refuse 12 00 

Beaded Flooring 23 00 

Refuse 13 00 

Half-inch Siding 16 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Half-inch Surfaced 20 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Half-inoh Battens 16 00 

Pickets. Rough 11 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 50 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

Shingles 1 75 



PUGET SOUND PINE 

RETAIL price. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Flooring and Step 28 00 

Narrow 30 00 

2d quality 25 00 

Laths 3 50 

Furring, lineal ft # 

REDWOOD. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Refuse , 14 00 

Pickets, Rough 15 00 

Pointed 16 00 

Fancy 22 50 

Siding 20 50 

Surfaced & Long Beaded30 00 

Flooring 30 00 

Refuse 22 50 

Half-inch Surfaced 30 00 

Rustic, No. 1 30 00 

Battens, lineal ft 

Shingles M 2 00 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sdtro & Co.] 

San Francisco, January 2, 3 p. m. 



dla- 



Legal Tenders In S. F., 11 a. m., par. Silver, : 
Gold In New York, par. 

Gold Barb, 890@910. Silver Bars. 8@22 $ cent, 
sount. 

Exchange on New York, 35, on London bankers, 49}@ 
49J. Commercial, 50; Paris, five francs $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 88@90. 

London Consols, 94 7-16; Bonds, 108J. 

Quicksilver in S. F. . by the flask. & lb, 40@41o. 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco.— Week ending December 31, 1878. 



HIQBBMT AND LOWEST BAROMRTER. 

Dec 25 Dec 20 Dec 27 Dec 28 Dec 29 Dec 30 Dec 31 



30.12 
30.00 



52 

41 



51 
41.3 1 



63.3 | 47 | 



30.24 30.13 29.91 29.95 29.79 
30.15 29.93 29.85 29.84 29.72 

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THERMOMETER. 



E | 



51 I 60 
40 1 44.5 J 40.5 | 
MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 
01 | 40.7 | 53. S J 
PREVAILING WIND. 
NE I NW I NE I NE | 



WIND— MILES TRAVELED. 

131 | 123 | 98 I 159 | 129 | 172 | 
STATE OF WEATHER. 

Clear. | Clear. | Clear. | Fair, j Clear. | Cloudy | 

RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 
I I t I 1 .04 | 

Total miii during the season, from July 1, 1878, 2 



29.80 
29.72 

53 
46 

75.3 

NE 

279 

Rainy 

.31 
.98 in.' 



January 4, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



13 



Jtfipipg ajid Other Copipapie?. 



Persona Interested, in Incorporated shares 
will do well to recommend the publication 
of the official notices of their companies 
In this paper, as the cheapest appropriate 
medium for the same. 



Cherokee Flat Blue Gravel Company.— 

Location of principal place of bualneM. 8»n Hnwicinco, 

California. Loeatlun of work* Cherokee Flat. UutU- 

OomriK California. 

11 hereby gircn that at a meeting of the Board of 
Director*. held on Bus 30Ui ilaj of December, A. 1") . 1878, an 
aoarument IN... 40) of Ore cent* per share wua levied upon 
the capital *U>c\i of tin- corporation, payable immediately in 
United HtaU-* gold coin, to the Secretary, at the office of the 
Company, 318 Pine strvet. Room 8, Ban Francisco. California. 

Any stock upon which thin aaftcasuieiit shall remain nnnald 
00 the 28th day of January, 1871*. will '>■- < 1 < ■ I n » ■ 1 m «. 1 1 1 , and ad- 
TertUed for aafe at public auction ; and uule&B payment is 
made r<efom will Ik* aold on Tuesday, tin- 18th ilay of Febru- 
ary, 1879, to pay Ute delinquent anaesHinent, together with 
coat* of ad.iTtwing and cipense* of mile By order of the 
Board of Directors. R. N, VAN BKl'XT, Secretary. 

Office. 318 Pine Street, Boom 6, San Francisco California. 

Land Purchaser's Association. —Office, 

ETO. 818 M'.ntgnnury Sin it. S:ui Fnineisei-, CalifOTDlft. 

NOTICE -There are delinquent ui>oii tlio following dc- 
Kcribed stock, on account of assesyment (installment No. 
4.1) levied on the 5th day of November, 1878, the several 
amounts* set o|i|M>(*itc the names of tho respective share- 
holders, as follows: 

Names. No, Certificate. No. Shares. Amount 

Mrs Matilda Stohr. 88 1 $100 

James L Bcyea 43 1 4 00 

VChevaUler M 1 400 

Geo s Dickey 98 1 4 00 

W Q Koch 178 1 4 00 

Asa Fisk 2:20 1 . 4 00 

and in accordance with law, and an order of the Board 
Of Directors, nude on the 6th day ol November, 1878, so 
many shares of each parcel of said stock as mny be neces- 
sary, will be sold at public auctiou, at the office of the 
Secretary, No. 318 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Cal- 
ifornia, on Saturday, the fourth (4th) day of January, 
1870, at the hour of 10 o'clock a. m. of said day, to pay 
said delinquent assessment thereon, together with costs 
of advertising and expenses of tho sale. 

C. S. WRIGHT, Secretary. 



Mineral Fork Mining and Smelting Com 

puny. — Location of principal place of business, San 
Francisco, California. Location of works, Big Cotton- 
wood District, Salt Lake County, Utah Territory. 
NOTICE.— There arc delinquent upon the following de- 
scribed stock on account of assessment (No. 1) levied on 
tho 31st day of October, 1878, the several amounts set 
opposite the names of the respective shareholders, as 
follows: 

Niiiues. No. Certificate. No. Shares. Amount. 

OAreskog I5ti 50 $ 100 

G Arcskog 157 50 100 

W H Atwood 185 100 2 00 

W 1! Atwood 186 100 2 00 

W H Atwood 187 100 2 00 

WH Atwood 188 100 2 00 

W II Atwood 1S9 100 2 00 

Wm Atwood 190 100 2 00 

Wm Atwood 191 100 2 00 

Wm Atwood 192 100 2 00 

Wm Atwood 193 100 2 00 

Wm Atwood 194 100 2 00 

G Bearson 105 100 2 00 

G Bearson 115 100 2 00 

G Bearson 116 100 2 00 

G Bearson 117 100 2 00 

G Bearson 11% 100 2 00 

G Bearson 119 100 2 00 

Bearson 136 66 1 32 

H L A Culmcr 295 50 1 oO 

II L A Culraer 296 50 1 00 

HLACulmer 297 100 2 00 

H L A Culmer 298 100 2 00 

H LA Culmer 299 100 2 00 

Wm H Culmer 378 10 20 

Wm H Culmer 379 60 1 00 

Wm H Culmer 380 50 1 00 

Chs G Denicke 434 50 1 00 

ChsG Denicke 435 50 1 00 

Chs G Denicke 436 50 1 00 

Chs G Denicke 437 50 1 00 

ASEaston 4 75 150 

AS Easton 365 350 7 00 

EE Elliott 195 100 2 00 

E E Elliott 196 100 2 00 

EE Elliott 197 100 2 00 

EE Elliott 198 100 2 00 

E E Elliott 201 17 34 

EE Elliott 271 25 50 

EE Elliott 272 25 50 

EE Elliott 274 10 20 

EE Elliott 275 10 20 

E E Elliott 217 50 1 00 

EE Elliott 218 50 100 

EE Elliott 220 50 100 

E E Elliott 222 200 4 00 

EEElliott 224 200 4 00 

EE Elliott 225 200 4 00 

E E Elliott 226 200 4 00 

E E Elliott 228 200 4 00 

E E Elliott 229 200 4 00 

E E Elliott 230 200 4 00 

E E Elliott 231 200 4 00 

E E Elliott 233 100 2 00 

EEElliott 234 100 2 00 

EEElliott 371 50 100 

EEElliott 372 50 100 

EEElliott 373 50 100 

fi E Elliott 374 50 1 00 

E E Elliott 375 100 2 00 

E E Elliott 376 100 2 00 

E E Elliott 377 100 2 00 

E E Elliott, Trustee 503 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 504 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 505 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 506 10 20 

EEElliott, Trustee 507 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 508 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 509 10 20 

EEElliott, Trustee 510 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 511 10 20 

EEElliott, Trustee 513 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 514 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 515 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 516 10 "20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 517 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 518 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 519 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee -520 10 • 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 521 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 522 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 523 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 524 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 525 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 526 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 527 10 20 

E E Elliott, Trustee 528 25 50 

E E Elliott, Trustee 529 25 50 

E E Elliott, Trustee 530 25 "50 

E E Elliott, Trustee 531 25 50 

E E Elliott, Trustee 532 25 50 

E E Elliott, Trustee 533 25 50 



Names. No Certificate. No. Shares. Am't 

E E Elliott, Trustee 634 25 60 

K K Klliott, Trustee 535 25 50 

EE Klliott, Trustee 53d 25 60 

1. B Elliott, Trustee 537 25 50 

E F. EHiott, Trustee 638 60 1 00 

K 1. Klhoti, Trustee MO 60 1 00 

E E Elliott, Trustee 540 50 1 00 

E E Elliott, Trustee 541 60 1 00 

E B Elliott, Trustee 642 90 100 

E B Elliott, Trustee . . . "■<■■ 60 I 00 

B B BUI 'it , Trustee 644 60 1 00 

E E Elliott, Trustee MS BO 100 

K K Elliott, Trustee 546 60 1 00 

K|K Elliott, Trustee 547 50 1 00 

B E Elliott, Trustee SIS 10 20 

WW Klliott 208 100 2 00 

ff W Elliott . SQO 100 2 00 

W W Elliott. . . 'Jio 100 2 00 

Frank Poote 881 260 6 00 

HA UTrolsltfa 668 20 40 

B A M Truisith 680 20 40 

Edwin Gardner 202 100 2 00 

Edwin Gardner 203 100 2 00 

Edwin Gardner 204 VM> g 00 

Edwin Gardner 205 100 200 

Edwin Gardner SOS 100 2 00 

S J JnmuKoit 181 25 50 

S J .tonasson 1S2 26 50 

S J Jonas8on 184 67 1 34 

PeterJhonson 333 loo 200 

PeterJhonson 334 100 2 00 

PeterJhonson 886 100 2 00 

Peter Jhonson 888 100 2 00 

Peter Jhonson 840 100 200 

I'ctcr Jhonsoii 842 100 2 00 

l'eter Jhoiisuti :;.pi 50 1 00 

Peter .llioiison 348 50 100 

l'eter Jhonson 349 50 1 00 

Peter Jhonson 350 60 1 00 

PeterJhonson 3M 60 100 

Peter Jhonson 353 50 1 00 

Peter Jbousou 351 50 1 00 

PeterJhonson 865 50 1 00 

PeterJhonson 357 50 1 00 

Peter Jhonson 358 50 1 00 

Peter Jhonson 359 50 1 00 

TFNystrom 247 100 2 00 

T F Nystrom 248 100 2 00 

T F Nystrom 249 50 1 00 

T F Nystrom 250 50 1 00 

T F Nvstrom. 261 33 60 

R B Noyes 270 300 00 

Samuel Purdy 269 100 2 00 

W C Pease, Trustee 607 18 36 

W C Pease, Trustee 608 18 36 

G Peterson 75 100 2 00 

G Peterson 85 100 2 00 

G Peterson 87 100 2 00 

G Peterson 88 100 2 00 

G Peterson 89 100 2 00 

G Peterson 96 50 1 00 

G Peterson 100 50 1 00 

G Peterson 102 50 1 00 

William Russell 276 10 20 

William Russell.. 277 5 10 

William Russell 278 5 10 

P H Sumner 19 5 10 

P II Sumner 20 70 1 40 

P II Sumner 180 66 1 32 

Edgar Sheldon 291 250 6 00 

Edgar Sheldon 292 250 5 00 

Edgar Sheldon 293 250 5 00 

Edgar Sheldon 294 250 5 00 

F C Thompson 243 50 1 00 

F C Thompson 244 50 1 00 

F C Thompson 245 33 66 

Theodore Tangwell 328 50 100 

C F Winslow, Trustee 555 500 10 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 556 277 5 54 

C F Winslow, Trustee . . . . 5G1 50 1 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee .... 562 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 563 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 564 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 565 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 566 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee .... 567 50 1 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 570 250 5 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 571 250 5 00 

C F Winslow 237 5150 103 00 

C F Winslow 301 1000 20 00 

C F Winslow 308 1700 34 00 

C F Winslow 309 1000 20 00 

C F Winslow 310 1000 20 00 

C F Winslow 311 1000 20 00 

C F Winslow 312 1000 20 00 

C F Winslow 314 250 5 00 

C F Winslow 318 100 2 00 

CF Winslow 324 100 2 00 

Ronde N Walter 246 84 1 68 

A Winguist 56 100 2 00 

A Winguist 62 100 2 00 

A Winguist 66 50 1 00 

A Winguist 67 50 1 00 

A Winguist 68 50 1 00 

A Winguist 69 60 1 00 

A Wiuguist 70 50 1 00 

William Schade 24 50 100 

William Schade 25 50 100 

William Schade 53 100 2 00 

William Schade 54 100 2 00 

William Schade 55 100 2 00 

Otto Metchke, Trustee.... 609 14 28 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 31st day of October, 1878, so 
many shares of each parcel of such stock as may be neces- 
sary, will be sold at public auction at the office of the 
Company, Room 20, Safe Deposit Building, No. 328 Mont- 
gomery Street, San Francisco, California, on Monday, the 
thirtieth (30th) day of December, 1878, at the hour of 12 
o'clock m. of such day, to pay delinquent assessments 
thereon, together with costs of advertising and expenses 
of the sale. OTTO METCHKE, Secretary. 

Office, Room 20, Safe Deposit Building, No. 328 Mont- 
gomery St., SanFrancisco, California. 

POSTPONEMENT.— The above sale has been postponed 
until Thursday, the 30th day of January, 1879, at the 
same hour and place. By order of the Board of Directors. 
OTTO METCHKE, Secretary. 

Orion Mining Company. — Location of 

principal place of business, San Francisco, California. Lo- 
cation of works, Iowa Hill, Placer County, California. 
Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Board of 
Directors, held on the 12th day of December, 1878, an assess- 
ment (No. 4} of twenty-five cents per share was levied upon 
the capital stock of the corporation, payable immediately in 
United States gold coin, to the Secretary, at the office of the 
Company, No. 23 Sansomc- street, San Francisco, California. 
Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
on the 13th day of January, 1879, will be delinquent, and ad- 
vertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before will be sold on Tuesday, fchd 28th day of Janu- 
ary, 1879, to pay the delinquent assessment, together with 
cost of advertising and expenses of sale. By order of the 
Board of Directors. P. CONKLIN, Secretary. 

Office, No. 28 Sansome St. (up-stairs) San Francisco, Cal 

Summit Mining Company. — Location of 

principal place of business, San Francisco, California. 

Location of works, Mineral Point Mining District, Plumas 

County, California. 

Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Board of 
Directors, held on the nineteenth day of November, A. D., 
1878, an assessment, (No. 6,) of five cents per share was 
levied upon the capital stock of the corporation, payable 
immediately in United States gold coin, to tho Secretary, at 
the office of said Company, 318 Pine street, San Francisco. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
on the sixth (6th) day of January, A. D., 1879, will be 
delinquent, and advertised for aale at public auction, and un- 
less payment is made before, will be sold [on the fourth 



daj af f ehroary, \ D . I 1 1 

ment, together aitl hrertiafng and expenses of 

sale. By onler of the Board of Directors. 

1 W CLARK 
Office, Room C. No. 318 Pine Street San Fnuii 



rum 



Barlow J. Smith. M. D. 

Consulting Physician, 

Professor of Phrenology and 
Mental Hygiene. 

Proprietor of the Smithsonian Medical and Phrenologlca 
Institute, 635 California Street, above Kearny. 

Thin Institute, by combining medical hygiene with the 
various Water Cure treatments and the most powerful Elec- 
trized Horseshoe Magnet in the world, claims to cure speed- 
ily and permanently all forms of acute or chronic oorvo- 
vital derangements, Brain, Spinal and Heart diseases, St. 
Vitus Dance, I'ulsy, Epilepsy and nil Kheuniatie, Liver and 
Kidney troubles. Tho institution has for the past 20 years 
made n Bpeolalty of treating all forms of weaknesses and dis- 
eases peculiar to males and females. By the use of hygienic 
remedies and electro-niotorpathy the worst forms of impo- 
tency and seminal weakness in males and sterility in fe- 
males are speedily and permanently overcome. Hygienic 
board, with or without rooms. Terms moderate. Electro- 
thermal, Rosso Turkish and Medicated Baths given daily, 

Mrs. Dr, Smith as Matron has charge Of the female bath- 
ing deportment. 

Dr. Smith baa practiced Phrenology the past 30 years, 
and during the last 20 years has been constantly using the 
science Connected with Physiognomy, in examining or diag- 
nosing disease in this city, and claims to have made discov- 
eries in the SCIENCE of Phrenology tliat enables him, by an 
examination of the head, even blindfolded, to determine the 
disease to which the person is constitutionally subject, or 
whether the disease at the time afflicting the person, is the 
result of accident or hereditary weakness; whether Con- 
sumptive, Dyspeptic, Rheumatic, Apoplectic, Neu- 
ralgic, LEUCOiuuUKAL.or Sh.mina.1,. Especially does the 
form of the head indicate the strength of the uterine, geni- 
tal or reproductive --y.stciu. The bead in also an index of the 
natural strength of the lungs, heart, stomach, liver, kidneys, 
spleen, hack or vertebra, and it determines the power of the 
system in warding off and overcoming disease of all kinds. 

Ladies or gentlemen, desirous of obtaining a thorough and 
correct Phrenological examinations with Fowler ami Wells' 
harts, will meet with a respecful reception at his consulting 
rooms. Parties can depend upon a reliable delineation of 
the character of their intimate male or female friends, by 
presenting a clearly denned photograph. 

Phrenological or Physiognomical examinations without 
charts, $1.60 ; with charts, from £2 to S3. 

INVITATION TO INVALIDS 
And all persons who are in anyway out of health, who de- 
sire to know the nature and causes of their disease, may 
avail themselves of an examination through phrenology in 
regard to health free of charge, between the hours of 9 A. M. 
and 8 p. M, Sundays from 9 A. m. to 12 M. 



At the Old Stand, Market, head of Front Street, S. P. 



/lluuseineft 



BALDWIN'S THEATER. 

THOMAS MAUI'JKF. Manager 

'■ U«T«« Acting Manager. 

G li. CUIPHAB Treasurer. 

Open Every Evening with the Regular 
Company. 

Corner Market and Powell Streets. Open every 
evening ami Saturday nialinee. Box office open daily. 



BUSH STREET THEATER. 

Obab, E, Locke Lessee and Manager 

CALLENDER'S GEORGIA MINSTRELS. 

Open BVery evening and Saturday Matinee. 



CALIFORNIA THEATER. 

Barton & Lawlor Mana^i-r, 

Barton Hill Acting Manager. 

MIGHTY^DOLLAR. 

Hush Street, above Kearny, open every evening. Box 
Office open from 9 A. M. to 10 1\ M. Seats may be 'secured 
six days in advance. 

STANDARD THEATER. 

M. A. Kkxxkdv.. Sole Lessee and Manager, 

RICE'S SU RPRI SE PARTY. 

Bush Street, above Montgomery. Open every evening. 
Seats may be secured six days in advance. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Peacock 
Mountain Silver Mining Company will be held at the office 
of the Company, No. 306 Clay Street, Sun Francisco, at 
one o'clock r. si. on Thursday, the 'Jth day of January. 
1879, for the election of a Board of Directors for the 
ensuing year, and the transaction of such other business 
as may properly come before the meeting. 

ED. B. PARTRIDGE, Secretary. 

Office, No. 30(1 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal, 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The animal meeting of the stockholders of the Califor- 
nia and. Oregon Land Company, will be held on Tuesday, 
January 14th, 187ft, at '1 o'clock p. M-, at the office of the 
Company, Room 6, No. 318 Pine street, San Francisco, 
for the election of a Board of Trustees, and the trans- 
action of such other business as may properly come before 
the meeting. R. N. VAN BRUNT, Acting Sec'y. 



•Muck Obliged, Etc. 

Portland, Oregon, June 26th, 1877. 
Dewey Bs Co., Patent Solicitors, S. F.— Gents: I am 
much obliged to you for courtesy shown me, and am much 
pleased with the manner in which you have done my bus- 
iness, and assure you, will cheerfully recommend you to 
my acquaintance needing such services. Ho]>e to have a 
case again before lon£, of my own. I have been an inventor 
all my life, but let others reap the benefit, or had work 
stolen from me. Please have the extra copies of my pa 
ent, etc., mailed to me direct, and oblige 

Yours truly, J. H. W00DRDM. 



Prompt Attention to Business. 

Aurora, Nov., Dec. 7th, 1878. 
Messrs. Dbwby H Co., S. F. — Dear Sirs:— I acknowl- 
edge the receipt of my patent per express this morning, 
and am obliged for same. I do not know what to say to 
you regarding your prompt attention to busineas, but will 
Bay to my friends what I cannot say to you. Many thanks 
is what you will get from Yours truly, C. W. Lane. 



1 OUR $6,00 NEW-YEAR'S GIFT I 



A $6.00 NEW-YEARS GIFT 

OF 

COIN SILVER TABLEWARE 



AWAY! 

Consisting ofan Elegant Extra Cnln Sllvoi' PIntol Set of lca»|«loilB that retails 
al.»operset",iuiclan Eleaanl Extra Coin Silver Plateil B,i<lfi--» iiilc that retails at 
SI 50 Thus nuLkih" both tile Set or T(>a»poonR and Bulter-Kuilv a valuable and 
useful New- Yc.-ir'aWifl that all should secure at once. . 

The old established and reliable Ka c le «ol<l and Silver fUlllns €o.. Cincinnati 
I will supply this valuable Silver Tableware as a New-Year's Olft. t Ins eli-nnl !>e<. ol 

SILVER TEASPOONS AND BUTTER-KNIFE 

I E^i'S.faesW I 

seiitcd Iion't m-'lect 10 send vour initial or imme with orders to he engraved. 

Cut out Hie following premium order and send it to the F.amle (.ior.n and .Silver 
Pi.ativg iv... at Cinfinnnri, Cor redemption, mother with sullicient to pay boxing, pack- 
in- nnslii'M- or express diaries. Tliiw Silverware i)t lo cost yon notlmiK t'xi'i-pl 
the packing, posinpn, or express charges (one dollar,, which you are required to send, 1 
I and the. Silverware is then 

DELIVERED TO YOU FREE. 

Please cut out the following New- Year's tlift Premium Silverware order and send I 
I same to Eaolk GOLB and Sii.vkk Plating Co., 180 Elm Street, Cincinnati, O. 
KB- CUT OUT THIS OK»EB. AS IT IS WORTH jlfi-OP- ~g« 



A'eie-l'enr's Gift Silverware Premium Onler. 

On receipt of this Order »nd Sl-OO, to pay ponlaae, pncKinc or express charges, we will 
mull VOII FREE one Set of Extra Coll, Sdrer l'lale-1 Teas,,,,,,,,, worth St.'A also one J'.les.u, 
Iliuter-Kniff worth 31 .M, with your monogram mural engraved upon same ,u good style-thus 
making the Elegant Set of SG.IX1 

TEASPOONS AND BUTTEH-KNIFE 

n free New-Year's Gift to you. Send for [Silverware at once, together with 51.00, stating name 
in full, with post-orflce, county, and Slate. Address all orders to 

Eagle Sold A Silver I'lllling Co.. 180 Elm SI., tineinnali, O. 



t the ahove order and send for the Gift at onee, together with One Oollnr to 

nav'uostal and naeHing charges, so that the artieles can he delivered 10 yon tree ntsM 

Address EagU Cold * Sil ver Flaling Co., 180131m SI- Cincinnati, O. | 

I OURteloONEW-iEAn'S gTfT j 



14 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



Ifop apd JVachipe tyofe 

THOS. PENDEKGAST. HENRY S. SMITH. 

/ETNA IRON WORKS, 



MANUFACTURERS OP 



IRON CASTINGS 

and MACHINERY 



OP ALL KINDS. 



Fremont Street, Bet. Howard and Folsom, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 

SACRAMENTO BOILER WORKS, 

214 & 216 BEALE St., (rear of ^Etna Foundry) 

J. V. HALL, 

PRACTICAL BOILER MAKER, 

Marine, Stationary and Portable Boilers, Smoke Stacks, 

Hydraulic Pipe, Oil or Water Tanks, Ore and. 

Water Buckets, Gasometers, Girders, Bridges 

and Iron Ship Building. 

ALL KINDS OF SHEET IRON WORK. 

Repairing promptly attended to at the 
lowest possible terms. 



UNION IRON WORKS, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
ROOT, NBILSON & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

STEAM ENGINES, BOILERS AND ALL 
Kinds of Machinery for Mining Purposes. 

Flouring Mills', Saw Mills' and Quartz Mills' Machinery 
constructed, fitted up and repaired. 

Front Street, Between N and O Streets, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



PHELPS 
MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

Wharf and Bridge Bolts, Railroad Trestle 

Work. Car Frames and Bolts, Machine 

Bolts, Set Screws and Tap Bolts, 

Lag or Coach Screws. 

ALL STYLES OF FANCY HEAD BOLTS. 

HOT AND COLD PRESSED HEXAGONAL AND 

SQUARE NUTS, WASHERS, BOLT ENDS, 

TURNBUCKLES, ETC., ETC. 

13, 15 & 17 Drumm St., near California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Golden State & Miners Iron Works, 

Manufacture Iron Castings and Machinery 
of all Kinds at Greatly Reduced Rates. 

STEVENSON'S PATENT 

Mold-Board AMALGAMATORS, 
Golden State Pressure Blowers. 

First St.. between Howard & Folsom, S. F. 



Wm. H. Birch. John Arqall. 

California Machine Works, 
BIRCH, ARGALL & CO., 

119 Beale Street, San Francisco. 

^STGeneral Mechanical Engineers and Machinists. 
Steam Engines, Flour, Quartz and Mining Machinery. 
Sole manufacturers of Brodie's Patent Rock Crushers and 
Steel-Faced Tappits. Steam, Hydraulic and Sidewalk 
Elevators. Repairing promptly attended to. 



California Brass Foundry, 

No, 125 First Street, Opposite Minna. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

All kinds of Brass, Composition, Zinc, and Babbitt 
Metal Castings, Brass Ship Work of all kinds, Spikes 
sheathing Nails, Rudder Braces, Hinges, Ship and Steam- 
boat Bells and Gougs of superior tone. All kinds of Cocks 
and Valves, Hydraulic Pipes and Nozzles, and Hcse Coup- 
lings and Connections of all sizes and patterns furnished 
with dispatch. US.PRICES MODERATE 1ES 

J. H. WEED. V. 1UNGWELL. 

STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS 

Of all sizes— from 2 to 60-Horse power. Also, Quartz 
Mills, Mining Pumps, Hoisting Machinery, Shafting, Iron 
Tanks, etc. For sale at the lowest prices by 

J. HENDY, 49 and 51 Fremont Street, S. F. 



THOMAS THOMPSON. 



THORNTON THOMPSON. 



THOMPSON BROTHERS, 

EUREKA FOUNDRY, 

129 and 131 Beale St., between Mission and Howard, S. F 

MANUFACTURERS OF CASTINGS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



WIND Mil ! l One of the best made in this State 
11111ns itiiui.1 for sale cheap on easy terms. Ad- 
dress, W. T t> care of Dewey &, Co., S. F. 



GEORGE W. PRESCOTT. 



IRVING M. SCOTT. 



H. T. SCOTT. 



U nion J ron W orks. 

Office, 61 First St. | Cor. First & Mission Sts., S. F. | p. 0. Box, 2128. 



BUILDERS OF 



Steam, Air and Hydraulic Machinery. 

Home Industry.— All Work Tested and Guaranteed. 



Vertical Engines, 


Baby Hoists, 


Stamps, 


Horizontal Engines, 


Ventilating Fans, 


Pans, 


Automatic Cut-off Engines, 


Rock Breakers, 


Settlers, 


Compound Condensing Engines, 


Self-Feeders, 


Retorts, 


Shafting, 


Pulleys, 


Etc., Etc. 



TRY OUR MAKE, CHEAPEST AND BEST IN USE. 
Send for Late Circulars. PRESCOTT, SCOTT & CO. 



hawkhsts & c^3sra?K,ET_.Xj, 

MACHINE WORKS, 
210 and 212 Beale Street, bet. Howard and Folsom Sts., - - San Francisco. 

Manufacturers of 

IMPROVED PORTABLE 

XX oisting: 3H ngines f 

For Mining and Other Purposes. 

Steam Engines and all Kinds of Mill and Mining Machinery. 



Pacific Rolling JVTill Co., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

RAILROAD AND MERCHANT IRON, 

ROLLED BEAMS, ANGLE, CHANNEL AND T IKON, BRIDGE AND MACHINE BOLTS, LAG SCREWS, NUTS 
WASHERS, ETC., STEAMBOAT SHAFTS, CRANKS, PISTONS, CONNECTING RODS, ETC., ETC. 

Car and Locomotive Axles and Frames, and Hammered Iroi of Every Description. 

HIGHEST PRICE PAID FOR SCRAP IRON. 

t3" Orders Solicited and Promptly Executed. Office, No. 16 PIEST STREET. 



Fulton Iron Works. 

Hinckley, Spiers & Hayes. 

■ (ESTABLISHED IN 1855.) 

Works, Fremont and Howard Sts. | San Francisco, Cal. | Office, No. 213 Fremont St. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Marine Engines and Boilers, 

Propeller Engines either High Pressure or Com- 
pound Stern or Side Wheel Engines. 

Mining Machinery. 

Hoisting Engines and Works, Cages, Ore Buckets, Ore 
Cars, Pumping Eugines and Pumps, Water Buckets, 
Pump Columus, Air Compressors, Air Receivers, 
Air Pipes. 

Mill Machinery. 

Batteries for Dry < 



Engir 



Wet Crushing;, Amalga mating 



Pang, Settlers, Furnaces, Retorts, Concentrators, Ore 
Feeders, Rock Breakers, Furnaces for Reducing Ores 
Water Jackets, Etc. 



Sugar Machinery. 



Crushing Rolls, Clariflers, Vacuum Pans, Air Pumps, 
Concentrators, Bag Filters, Charcoal Filters, Blow-up 
Tanks, Coolers and Receiving- Tanks. 



Miscellaneous Machinery. 



Flour Mill Machinery, Saw Mill Engines and Boilers, 
Dredging Machinery, Oil Well Retorts, Powder Mill Ma- 
chinery, Water Wheels. 



nP*i Atld RflilpP^ of all kinds, either for use on Steamboats and made in accordance with the 
IICO ttiiu UU1ICI O Act of Congress regulating the same, or for use on land. Water Pipe, Pump 
or Air Column, Fish Tanks for Salmon Canneries of every description. 
Boiler repairs promptly attended to and at very moderate rates. 



PACIFIC IRON WORKS, 

First and Fremont Streets, between Mission and Howard, San Francisco, Cal., 
RANKIN, BRAYTON & CO., 

Manufacturers of 

ENGINES, BOILERS, MARINE AND STATIONARY. PUMPING, HOISTING, AND MINING MACHINERY 

INCLUDING BATTERIES, AMALGAMATING PANS AND SETTLERS, CONCENTRATORS, ORE FEEDERS, 

CRUSHING ROLLS AND ROCK BREAKERS. ALSO, WATER JACKET SMELTING FURNACES, 

FOR REDUCING LEAD, SILVER AND COPPER ORES, QUICKSILVER FURNACES, 

RETORTS AND CONDENSERS, ROASTING AND CHLORIDIZING FURNACES, 

SUGAR MILL MACHINERY, WATER WHEELS, Etc., ALL OF THE 

LATEST AND MOST IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION. 

Agents for the Allen Engine Governor, Bailey Air Compressor, Howell's 
Improved White Furnaces, Walker's Compound Steam Pumps, Etc. 



Western Iron Works, 

316 and 318 Mission Street, San Francisco, 
PERRY EDWARDS, Prop'r. 

Manufacturer of Wrought Iron Girders, Trusses, Prison Cells, Iron Roofs, Crest 
Railings, Finials, Fences, Weathervanes, Gratings, Iron Work for Models, Etc. 

Nickel Plated Railings. Bank and Store Fittings. Estimates given and Iron Work furnished lor Buildings 



Oewey & Co. {**£*} Patent Ag'ts, 



Drivinq Nails Under Water.— Stack's illustrated ad- 
vertisement appears once a month in this paper. 




f Corner Beale and Howard Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

W. H. TAYLOR, Pres't. JOSEPH MOORE, Sup't. 

Builders of Steam Machinery 

In all its Branches, 

Steamboat, Steamship, Land 

Engines and Boilers, 

HIGH PRESSURE OR COMPOUND. 



STEAM VESSELS, of all kinds, huilt complete with 
Hulls of Wood, Iron or Composite. 

ORDINARY ENGINES compounded when ad- 
visable. 

STEAM LAUNCHES, Barges and Steam Tugs con- 
structed with reference to the Trade in which they are 
to he employed. Speed, tonnage and draft of water 
guaranteed. 

STEAM BOILERS. Particular attention given to 
the quality of the material and workmanship, and none 
but first-class work produced. 

SUGAR MILLS AND SUGAR-MAKING 
MACHINERY made after the most approved plans. 
Also, all Boiler Iron Work connected therewith. 

WATER PIPE, of Boiler or Sheet Iron, of any size 
made in suitable lengths for connecting together, or 
sheets rolled, punched, and packed for shipment ready 
to be riveted on the ground. 

HYDRAULIC RIVETING. Boiler Work and 
Water Pipe made by this establishment, riveted by 
Hydraulic Riveting Machinery, that quality of work 
being far superior to hand work. 

SHIP "WORK. Ship and Steam Copstains, Steam 
Winches, Air and Circulating Pumps, made after the 
most approved plans. 

PUMPS. Direct Acting Pumps, for Irrigation or City 
Water Works purposes, built with the celebrated Davy 
Valve Motion, superior to any other Pump. 



Electric Model & Machine Works 

Inventors and others can fret First-Class 
Work at Moderate Prices. 

After 10 years experience with inventions and other 
mechanical work, I am fully prepared to execute draw- 
ings, working-models and fine machinery of any descrip- 
tion to entire satisfaction. 

Brass Finishing, Pattern Making, Gear Cutting, Tele- 
graphic and other Electrical Apparatus by competent 
workmen. 

TELEPHONES TO ORDER. 

F. W. FULLER, 415 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Main Street Iron Works, 

WM. DEACON, PROPRIETOR. 

Nos. 131, 133 as 135 Main St., San Francisco. 

Stationary and Marine Engines, 

Shafting, Pulleys, and General Machine Work. Jobbing 
and repairing done Promptly and at Lowest Rates. 
Screw Propellors, Propellor and Steamboat Engines. 

SAW MILLS and SAW MILL MACHINERY. 



5}xl2 
6x12 
7x12 
8x12 

^ U0xl4 



Au^tmi 



\3C1 




Market, head of Front Street, San Francisco. 



Steel Castings. 

From £ to 10,000 lbs. weight, true to pattern, sound an 
solid, of unequaled strength, toughness and durability- 
An invaluable substitute for forgings or cast-iron requir- 
ing three-fold strength. Send for circular and price iiBt Oft 

CHESTER STEEL CASTINGS CO., 



EVELINA STREET, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Diamond Drill Co. 

The undersigned, owners of LESCHOT'S PATENT 
for DIAMOND POINTED DRILLS, now brought to the 
highest state of perfection, are prepared to fill orders 
for the IMPROVED PROSPECTING AND TUNNELING 
DRILLS, with or without power, at short notice, and 
at reduced prices. Abundant testimony furnished of 
the. great economy and successful working of numerous 
machines in operation in the quartz and gravel mines 
on this coast. Circulars forwarded, and full infor- 
mation given upon application. 

A. J. SEVERANCE & CO. 
Office, No. 320 Sausome street, Room 10. 



San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 

Wc have just added a large amount of new machinery of 
the latcBt and most improved kind, and are again prepared 
to fill orders for Rope of any special lengths and sizes. Con- 
stantly on hand a large stock of Manila Rope, all sizes: 
Tarred Manila Rope; Hay Rope; Whale Line, etc , etc, 
TUBBS & CO., 
611 and 613 Front Street, San Francisco 



January 4, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



15 



RUSSELL'S AMALGAMATOR. 




I'.trnlci Juno 25lh, 1674 



SAYE ^TOTTIR, C3-OLID 
And Also SAVE YOUR QUICKSILVER. 

Theftbovo Wttuher and Amalgamator with new patent Wirt Bri.lce Quicksilver Boxes attached, can be worked 
ml ..r dry, either by baud, sieam, borec or water j>owur, ami i Lpurt and packed. Fur washinir Puln 

Earth, O ravel, Mill Tailing* or Black Sand, it is without iriVftL 

Has been Thoroughly Tested and given Complete Satisfaction. 

Tlio f ntiro Lining, Hanging Plutos, liilHcs and Boxes Amalgamated 

IS GUARANTEED TO SAVE THE FINEST OR FLOAT GOLD. 

Capacity, 30 to 60 tons per day, according to size. For further particulars apply to 

J. MORIZIO, Gen'l Agt., 

Room 24, Safe Deposit Building, Corner Montgomery und California Streets, SAN FRANCISCO 



ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

BRUSH PATENT. 
The Best, Cheapest, Cleanest, and Most Powerful Light in the World. 

In daily use at the Palace Hotel and the Union Iron "Works, S. P. 



\ iV»y 




For Lighting Mines, Factories, Mills, Streets, 
Theaters, Public Halls, Etc., It has no Equal, 
either for Brilliancy or Cheapness. 

For further particulars, Catalogues, Prices, Etc., 
apply to 

WILLIAM KERR, 

President S. P. Telegraph Supply Co., 

903 Battery St., San Francisco. 





Address, PRASER, CHALMERS «fc CO., Clxicaeo, 111 



1 IVEXJSICA.L BOXES 

Q_ 

£ For Holiday, Birthday and Wedding Presents. 



00 

X 

O 



u 



IMI. J". 



CO.. 



Manufacturers and Importers, 

No. 120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 






30 



EDISON'S ELECTRIC PEN and PRESS. 



I SrS?5BW^ j 




MAKES35.000ICOPIES FROM ONE WRITING. 

Requires no Prepared Ink, or Paper, no Skilled Expert to do Good Work 

From 5 to 15 Copies per minute by an Office Boy. 

Indispensable to Lawyers, Blinkers, Colleges and Schools, Music Dealers, Real Estate Men, and Business Finns 
m every department of trade. 

Costs but $2.50 Per Annum to run it. 



WHAT THEY SAT: 
"As gw>d as a full-grown lithographic establishment."— Baker & Hamilton. 
"Indispensable to the use of this office."— Fireman's Fl*.nd Inblrance Co. 
"Exceeds our most sanguine expectations."— Hv Bauer & Co. 

"I would not bo without it for five times its cost."— Geo. Lbvihton, Attorn cval-law. 
"Very useful and fully meets our expectations. "— W. T. Coleman* & Co. 

"Has become one of the most valuable appendages of the Academy."— Cal. Military Academy. 
"We would on no account dispense with it "— Imi-buial, London, Northern and Queen Insurance Co.'s. 
Call on, or send for Circular and Samples of work to 

E. A DAKIN, Gen'l Agent for Pacific Coast, 209 Sansome St., S. F. 



Elephant Ore Stamp. 



We beg to call your at- 
tention to this engraving 
representing the Elephant 
Ore Stamp. The advanta- 
ges claimed for this Stamp 
are as follows: 

C'ArAEiLiTi eh. — The 
"Elephant" is capable of 
crushing as much stuff as 
a 12-Stamp Battery of the 
present system, having 
crushed as high as 11 tons 
of tough copper ore in one 
hour, through a No. 4 
punched screen. The un- 
dersigned, however, will 
guarantee 20 tons per day 
of ordinary quartz through 
the same size screen. 

Wear.— The "Elephant' 
having only two pairs. 
Shoe and Dies, the wear 
in this ins-jance is equal 
to one-sixth ofal2-Statnp 
Battery- There beirg no 
Cam Tappets, Cam Shafts 
or Guides, the conse ueut 
wear on these parts is 
done away with; the 
leather thoroughbrace, 




uniting the lever with the 
spring, would only require 
replacing at most, once a 
year. 

Power.— The "Ele- 
phant only requires a 
seven horse-power engine 
to drive it. where a 12- 
Stamp Battery' wuM re- 
quire from 13 to 20 horse- 
power. 

Port ability.— The en- 
tire Battery, including 
Mortar, will weigh about 
bix tons, thereby causing 
an immense saving in the 
way of freight to such 
^_ places as Arizona, Mexico, 
.-' Cariboo and Bodie Afl 
no part of the Machine 
weighs more than 1,800 
pounds, the handling of 
the Machine is compara- 
tively easy, and in places 
where it would be neces- 
larytopack the Machine 
m mules, it could be 
easily made in pieces not 
to weigh over three hun- 
dred pounds. 



The above engraving shows the Machine in exactly the position it would be placed in a mine; the reader will therefore 
see that all wood work is done away with, and that once the Machine is on the ground it will take hut a few days to set it up 
and have it in full working order. The "Eiephnut" can be seen working every day from 2 to 4 p. sr. at No. 342 Main street, 
near Harrison, San Francisco. For particulars apply to 

EDMUND WHITE, Care of A. B. Grogan, 705 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

b . . ■■ ■ 

SANDERSON BROS. & CO.'S 

Best Refined. Cast-Steel. 

Warranted Most Supsrior for Drills, Hammers, Etc. 

A full and complete stock of this reliable and well-known 
brand of Steel, for mining and other uses, now in stock and for sale 

At No. 417 Market St, S. F., - H. D. Morris, Agent 



D. F. HUT0HINGS. 



D. 51. DUNNE. 



J. SANDERSON 



ZPZHZCElSriEIX OIL WORKS, 

HUTCHINGS & CO., 

OIL and COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

Manufacturers and Dealers in Sperm, Whale, Lard, Machinery and Illuminating Oils. 
517 FRONT STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 



San Francisco Pioneer Screen Works, 

J. \V. QUICK, Haotfactojier, 



HI 



Several first premiums received 
for Quartz Mill Screens, and Per- 
forated Sheet Metals of every 
description. I would call special 
attention to my SLOT CUT and 
SLOT PUNCHED SCREENS, 
which are attracting much at- 
tention and giving universal 
satisfaction. This is the only 
establishment on the coast de- 
voted exclusively to the manufac- 
ture of Screens. Mill owners' using Battery Screens exten- 
sively can contract for large supplies at favorable rates. 
Orders solicitedand promptly attended to. 

32 Fremont Street, San Francisco. 



Kcstel's Concentration ov Ores (of all kinds), inclu- 
ding' the Chlorination Process for Gold-bearing* Sulphurets, 
Arseniurets, and Gold and Silver ores generally, with 120 
Lithographic Diagrams, 1867. The most complete- treat- 
ise. Published at this office. Price, $7.60. Postage, 50 
cents extra 



THE AMERICAN 

TTTBBINE 

Water Wheels 



Ail sizes, 

and adapted to 

fro!" 

3 to 500 

feet head. 




THE BEST IN THE 
WORLD ! 

Send for our Circular 
and Prices. 

BERRY & PLACE, 

Market St., Head of Front, 

San Francieco, 



16 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



[January 4, 1879. 




Mining Machinery Depot, 

PARKE & LACY, 417 Market St. 

Mr Compressors, JBL Rock Drills. 

DEANE'S STEAM PUMPS 



HOISTING ENGINES, 

ALL SIZES, 

Double and Single, 
With Single and Double Reels. 




Bucket Plunger Pump. 



Vertical and Horizontal. 

Steam Plunger Pumps, 
BUCKET PLUNGER PUMPS. 




FressiaTQ Blowers. 

Compound Steam Pumps. 

burleigh bock drill, ' Yacht Engines. 

Does more work at Less cost Diamond Anti-Friction Metal. 

THAN ANY OTHER ROCK DRILL. — 

PUMP 

FIRE ENGINES, And AIR COLUMN. 
Babcock Chemical Engines, Hose Carts, 

Hook and Ladder Trucks, and Fire Extinguishers. ™J™™™i™- 



Champion. Mine Ventilator. 



BURLEIGH AIR COMPRESSOR 




Gives Better Results than any 
Compressor Known. 

PUTNAM'S 

Irrigating Pumps. Wood-Working Machinery. 



CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. 

Hand Pumps. 

SHIP PUMPS. 

Flexible Shafts. 



MACHINISTS' TOOLS. 

Lathe Chucks. 

FARMERS' BATTERY. 

Hill's Exploders. 



SEND FOR CIRCULARS. 



DEFLEGTED HEAT! 

Boswell's Combined Heater, Cooker, Ba- 
ker, Clothes and Fruit Drier. 





Combining the advantages of a Stove, Furnace, Oven, 
Dry House and Kitchen Range. An application of Scientific 
Principles to the economy of living, of labor, of health and 
of comfort. A handsome piece of Furniture adapted to the 
wants of every family. It equally economizes time, labor and 
fuel, and avoids exposure to heat in cooking as well as in 
baking. It hakes Bread, Cakes and Pies to any desired tint 
without turning or watching, or danger of burning. All 
odors produced in cooking are passed up the flue. Food 
cooked by deflected heat is improved in flavor, more easily 
digested, contains more nutriment, will keep fresh longer, 
and is also much improved in appearance. The stages of the 
cooking or baking can be seen without stooping or opening 
the doors of the oven. It will dry and bleach your clothes in 
from half an hour to one hour and a half, and heat your irons. 

Fruit dried in the Boswell will gain from tweniy to 

FORTY PER CENT, ifl WEIGHT, and THIRTY PER CENT, in 
QUALITY over that dried by any other process. It will suc- 
cessfully dry any kind of Fruit. Graphs, Berries, Meats, Fish, 
Vegetables, Coffee, Tobacco, Corn and Grain of all kinds. 



Boswell's Commercial Fruit Drier. 

Used exclusively for drying and heating purposes on a larue 
scale. 

— ALSO — 

BOSWELL'S CABINET HEATER, 

Of all sizes and capacity for heating Private Residences, 
'Hotels, Halle, School Houses, Churches. Offices, Stores, 
Railroad Cars, Hospitals, etc. 

All of which can lie operated successfully by a mere child, 
it is so simple in its construction, and with one-third the 
usual amount of fuel (coal or wood), ussd in any other heat- 
ing, cookiug or drying apparatus. 

Every farmer and economical housekeeper should use it. 
It will pay for itself in the saving of fuel; it will pay in the 
superior character of its fruit drying, of its cooking, 
roasting and baking; it will pay in its salubrious and 
healthful warm air; it will pay the rich and the poor alike. 

Address, for Price List and descriptive illustrated circulars, 

Boswell Pure Air Heater Co., 

No. 60C Montgomery Street, San Francisco, California. 
S. R. LIPPINCOTT, Secretary. 

EUGENE L. SULLIVAN, Pres't. 



Pocket Map of California and Nevada. 

Compiled from the latest authentic sources, by Clias 
Drayton Gibbs, C. E. This map comprises information 
obtained from the U. S. Coast and Land, Whitney's State 
Geological, and Railroad Surveys; and from the results of 
explorations made by R. S. Williamson, U. S. A., Henry 
Degroot, C. D. Gibbs and others. The scale is 18 miles to 
1 inch. It -rives the Judicial and U. S. Land Districts. 
It distinguishes the Townships and their subdivisions- the 
County Seats; The Military Posts; the Railroads built and 
proposed, and the limits of some of them; the occurrence 
of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, tin, coal and oil. It 
has a section showing the bights of the principal moun- 
tains. The boundaries are clear and unmistakable and 
the print good. 1S78. Sold by DEWEY & CO. Price, 
postpaid, $-2; to subscribers of this journal, until further 
notice, $1. 



Take the Paper that stands by your In 
terests. 



MANUFACTURED UNDER A. NOBEL'S ORIGINAL AND ONLY VALID NITROGLYCERINE PATENTS 

Nos. ONE, TWO and THREE. 

Stronger, Better and Safer than any other High Explosive. 

«PacLson Powder 

IS NOW USED IN ALL LARGE HYDRAULIC CLAIMS. 
It breaks more "round, pulverizes it better, saves time and money, and is superseding the ordinary 
powder wherever it is tried. dSTripto Force Caps and all Grades ol Fuse. 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO.. San Frar.oisco. 



VULCAN BLASTING POWDER. 



The strongest and 
most economical ex- 
plosive in use. 



Wherever it has been given a test, it has surpassed all other high explosives. 



Works at SA a ^ p ^8: « r £ ia ' I Office, 



No. 123 California Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



N. W. SPAULDING'S 




PATENT DETACHABLE TOOTH SAWS, 

Manufactory, 17 & 10 Fremont St., S. F. 



The "California Legal Record." 

The ONLY WEEKLY containing all the 

decisions of the Supreme Court 

of California, 

(The only complete continuation of the S. P. Law Jo v rnal.) 

Published every Saturday, inSvo. size— like the California 

Reports—contains every decision of the Supreme Court, 

as fast as rendered, with a syllabus and statement of facts, 

and other important legal matter. The volumes commence 

on the first of October and April each, and have a full index 

for reference and binding. 

REDUCED PRICE, only ^5.50 per year, or §3 per volume 
of six mouths. Remit by Postal Order or Registered Letter, 
specifying what date or number to commence. Baak m in i- 
bers funrislitM. Sample numbers sent free. Address, 

F. A. SCOFIELD & CO., Pubbshers and Prop's. 
No. 603 Washington street, San Francisco, Cal. 



California Steam Navigation Co. 

The Steamers 

ALICE GARRATT and CITY OF STOCKTON 

LEAVE SAN FRANCISCO 

DAILY (Sundays excepted) at 5 r. m. , from Washing-ton 

Street Wharf, near foot of Market street. 

LEAVE STOCKTON 

DAILY (Sundays excepted) at 4 p. m. 

T. C. WALKER, G. A CARLETON, 

President. Secretary. 




W. T. GARRATT'S 

BRASS and BELL FOUNDRY 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

'MANUFACTURER AND IMPORTER OF 

Church and Steamboat BELLS and GONGS 
BRASS CASTINGS of all kinds, 
"WATER GATES, GAS GATES, 
. FIRE HYDRANTS, 

DOCK HYDRA NTS , 

GARDEN HYDRANTS 

General Assortment ol Engineers' Findings. 

Hooker's Patent 
Celebrated 

STEAM PUMP 

jETThe Best and Most 
Durable in use. Also, 
a variety of other 

PUMPS 

For Mining and Farm- 
ing Purposes. 

ROOT'S BLAST BLOWERS, 

For Ventilating Mines and for Smelting: Works. 

HYDRAULIC PIPES AND NOZZLES, 

For Mining Purposes. 

Garratt's Improved Journal Metal. 

IMPORTER OF 

IRON PIPE AND MALLEABLE IRON FITTINGS. 

ALL KINDS OF 

WORK AND COMPOSITION NAILS, 

AT LOWEST RATES. 



O 504 ^ ^ Washington St., . 

SAN FRANCISCO. J 

CO ^napilB ENGINE*. tWINB,„ ^J < 

Jg -— ^wmi .sswra a wETta>"" as L --^ r- 

The Explorers', Miners' & Metallurgists' Companion, 

672 pages. S3 Illustrations. (2d. Edition.) Price.. $ 10.50 

The Prospector's Patented "Wee Pet" Assayer... 100.00 

The Testing machine for Gold, Silver, Lead, Etc. . 40.00 

Cabinet of Fluxes etc., for these machines 20.00 

Pocket Laboratory for Blowpipists 50.00 

Vest Pocket Blowpipe 3.00 

CHARGES.— Asm ayikg. §3; Testing, §2 per metal. 



A. S. HALLIDiE, 

.nia^StreeV 



Office, No. 6 Ca 

^AN 




iron and Steel Wire Rope, 

Flat and Round, for Mininz^hipping, 
Hoisting and G^mar^mposes. 

Having theXnioSfc cMploto JeatT extensive 
Wiia-fHfap Vrorks id thcMfaited States, I am 
preptfS«iHo maWfactare Wire Ropo and Cablet! 
of anAjengta or size at short notice, and guar- 
antee the quality and -workmanship equal to 
»ny made at home or abr/o»d?"V 

iron, Sfeel^w^Gah/aJized Wire 

Of all feiies ok han^orfSado to order. 

BartjechTence 

Sole Eropriej 

HallidMs -rEifiles^ xtjopeway, 

<3TSenowr atJircrJar. 

A. S. HAIXIDIE. 
Office, No. 6 California. St., San Francisco. 



GARDNER'S 

Celebrated 

owner 

These Steam Governors have long 
been known as THE BEST, and 
as lately Improved and Per- 
fected, they have no Rival. 

THE SAFETY STOP 

On these Governors is alone worth double the price of 
the Governor. We have sold over six hundred, and 

Never one has Failed. 

They are Bold at the same price (or less) as ordinary 
Governors. Send for Circular. 

BERRY & PLACE, 

Market, head of Front St., San Francisco 



HEMORRHOIDS OR PILES, 

A treatise on their scientific treatment and radical cure, 
by E. J. FRAZER, M. D., San Francisco. Price, 25 cents; 
for sale at the bookstores and by the author at 221 Powell 
street. Sent by mail to any address on receipt of the 
price in coin, currency or postagestamps. 

This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia & 59 GoldJSt.,[N. Y. 





An Illustrated 



of Mining, 



BY UEWEY A 



SAN FEANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 1879. 



VOLl/ME 3XXVIII 
rffuxnber 3. 



Walled Lakes. 

During the explorations this season of Prof. 
Hayden's parties in the Yellowstone National 
park, many mountain lakes were found to exist, 
beside Yellowstone lake, the largest and best 
known among them all. They aro beautiful 
sheets of water, and Burrounded as they are 
by the quiet grandeur of the mountain scen- 
ery, their loveliness is very impressive. When 
one has gratified himself with admiration of 
their picturesque beauty, and comes to give 
them more detailed examination, he discovers 
among their interesting features — the existence 
upon their Bhores of those peculiar embank- 
ments which have been called " walls." These 
are especially observable upon the shores of 
Heart lake, one of the tributaries of Snake 
river, and in one of Mr. Jackson's Hue photo- 
graphic views of that lake the wall is clearly 
shown. 

The position of these embankments is upon 
the gently sloping shores, and at or near the 
high water level, which at the time of low water 
is often some rods from the margin. Similar 
embankments exist upon the shores of 
the numerous Bmall lakes of northern 
Iowa and southern Minnesota, and in other 
northern States, and their origin was the sub- 
ject of much vague speculation, until a few 
years ago, when it was clearly explained by 
Dr. C. A. White, in his report on the geology 
of Iowa, as follows: 

" The water is usually lowest in late autumn, 
and when winter comes it is frozen to the bot- 
tom over a wide margin from the shore. The 
ice, of course, freezes fast to everything upon 
the bottom, whether boulders, sand, gravel or 
mud, and the expansive power of the water in 
the act of freezing is exerted upon them, acting 
from tho center of the lake in all directions 
towards its circumference. Those who are fa- 
miliar with the expansive power of ice in theact 
of forming, will readily see that under such cir- 
cumstances it would be more than sufficient to 
move the largest boulder up the gentle slope of 
the bed of the lake. It is true that the motion 
resulting from one winter's freezing would be 
hardly perceptible, but the act repeated from 
year to year, and from century to century, would 
ultimately move everything upon the bottom 
beyond the reach of the ice. The tracks of 
boulders thus moved have been observed, being 
as unmistakable in their character as those 
which the river muBsel leaves behind it in the 
sand. 

"Thus it will be seen that whatever was 
originally upon the bottom of the lake, within 
the reach of the ice, whether boulders, sand, 
gravel or mud, has been constantly carried 
towards the shore, where we find them collected 
in perfectly natural disorder, and forming a 
ridge juBt where the expansive power of the ice 
ceased. Below the line of freezing, the same 
kind of material would of course remain 
unmoved upon the bottom, because there is 
nothing to disturb it. 

"The embankments vary in hight from 2 
to 10 feet, and from 5 to 20 or 30 feet across the 
top, their size and outline varying according to 
the materials which compose them. If boulders 
were numerous upon the bottom, the adjacent 
embankment is largely composed of them ; if 
sand prevailed, a broad, gently rounded embank- 
ment resulted, just such as might be expected 
from that material ; and if mud, filled with the 
fibrous roots of water plants and sedges were 
brought out by ice, a steep, narrow embank- 
ment was formed, because such material will 
atand more erect in a ridge or embankment 
than sand or boulders will. 

" This description was applied especially to 
the so-called walled lakes of northern Iowa and 
southern Minnesota, the embankments of which 
were formally believed by many to have been of 
artificial origin, but it applies equally well to 
the mountain lakes of the Yellowstone National 
park." 

The third-class ore from the White & Shiloh 
Con., Battle Mountain, Nevada, produces crude 
bullion that goes from $11,000 to $12,000 per 
ton. The first and second] class ores are 
shipped,, 



Barnes' Foot-Power Lathe. 

Messrs. Osborn & Alexander, of 628 Market 
street, in this city, dealers in hardware, lathes, 
scroll saws, etc., are also agents for Barnes' 
improved lathe, which is illustrated on this 
page. This No. 5 lathe is a strong and power- 
ful engine lathe, having all the necessary appli- 
ances for rapid and accurate execution of heavy 
or light work. The size will best accomodate 
the requirements of those wishing a lathe for 
general work within the range of foot work, for 
manufacturing or repairing purposes. It is 
substantially built of iron, steel and brass, each 
used where they will best serve. Every part is 
in true proportion and all arranged for conve- 
nience, strength and durability. 

The tail stock can be instantly set at any 
desired point, or 
taken altogether 
from the lathe bed 
andwithout wrench 
or removing bolts. 
It can also be set 
over for turning 
tapers. The spin- 
dles of both head 
and tail stock are 
of cast steel with 
positively true taper 
holes for the recep- 
tion of the centers. 
The center of the 
tail stock is self- 
discharging. . 

The tool carriage 
is a model of con- 
venience and accur- 
acy. The tool can 
be set to the work 
at any position or 
angle desired, also 
to bore a taper hole 
or turn a ball, fea- 
tures not in ordi- 
nary movements of 
tool carriages. 
The carriage 



BARNES* FOOT-POWER LATHE. 



is fed positively either to the right or left, as 
desired, by screw feed. The feed can be stopped 
or started instantly at the will of the operator 
while other parts may be in motion. All these 
parts are securely protected from chips and dust, 
thus ensuring long wear and durability to the 
most costly and vital parts of the lathe. The 
gearing furnished can be combined to make 
some 500 different leads of threads. As a screw- 
cutting lathe it is perfect. The reverse motion 
used renders it practically impossible for the 
tool to change its cut when being returned. 
The are no cast gears used in the gearing of 



other lathes, from the fact that it will drivo 
stronger and never casts from the cones. This 
lathe with its back gearing and differential pul- 
leys has a greater range of speeds than has 
ever been before offered in a foot-power lathe 
for the price. The seat hinges at one end, al- 
lowing the operator to pass between it and 
lathe to be seated. The price of the lathe is 
$115, a lower figure than for other lathes, and 
all necessary wrenches and belting with face 
plate and centers are furnished. 

MacMne-Shop Rambles. 

Edwards' Western Iron Works. 
We have lately visited the works of 
Perry Edwards, 31G and 318 Mission street, and 
learned much there that is of general interest. 
At these works a specialty is made of what 
| may be termed the fine art of iron work. All 
have noticed and 
admired the artis- 
tic ironfencing that 
surrounds many of 
our moat attractive 
residences. The 
crestings upon the 
roofs of our houses 
are none the less 
attractive, and dis- 
play in many cases 
great ingenuity and 
taste in plan and 
execution. 

There is another 
sty le of work 
which, if, not artis- 
tic, makes upon the 
mind a stronger im- 
pression than does 
that which is tru- 
ly beautiful: we 
speak of the iron 
workaboutprisons; 
the ominous grat- 
ings, the heavy 
bolts and bars and 
doors. It is work 
of this class that 
is done at he West- 
Mr. Edwards has just fin- 





ELTERICH'S SCREW CUTTING TOOLS, 

this lathe. All the gear wheels are cut in the 
best machinery known for gear cutting, from 
solid metal and are positively true and as noise- 
less as it is possible for metal gear. This lathe 
weighs 225 lbs., and except the balance wheel of 
30 fts. the weight is all in its working partB, 
which is a great consideration when compared 
with the lathes arranged with the old faulty 
foot-power motions, the balance wheels of which 
often weigh 200 lbs., or more than all the bal- 
ance of the lathe. This great weight is entirely 
useless except to overcome faults in a defective 
foot motion. 
Angular belting is used on this as well as on 



tern Iron Works. 

ished an order for 250 feet of 

Iron Fencing- 
For parties in Napa. Most of his work in this 
line is for orders out of the city. He has on 
hand now a job of 400 feet of fencing and crest- 
ing. He furnished the new Hall of Records 
with iron doors and shutters, and has lately 
finished a large iron 

Hot- Air Drier 
j For the Magdalen Asylum. This drier is 16 
feet long, 12 feet wide and 3 feet high. A fire 
is built under it. The air circulates throngh 
the drier, becoming heated and passing off up 
the chimney. The clothes are hung above the 
drier after washing. 

Perhaps the most interesting department of 
his work is 

Model-making 1 . 

In this line the most notable job that he has 
lately done is the making of the iron work for 
Russell's amalgamator. This machine has ac- 
quired some little notoriety as being the pat- 
tern used at the ocean placers, which a few 
months ago attracted so much attention. 

In addition to the classes of work we have 
mentioned, Mr. Edwards advertises to do all 
kinds of house iron-work, including the manu- 
facture of wrought-iron girders, trusses, nickle- 
plated railings, and bank and store fittings. 

Pacific Coast Postal Changes. — The fol- 
lowing are the changes for the week ending 
Jan. 4th: Offices Established — Little Stony, 
Colusa county, California; James R. Davis, 
Postmaster. Home, Baker county, Oregon; 
Wm. S. Glenn, Postmaster. Greaterville, 
Pima county, Arizona; Thos. Steele, Post- 
master. Grouse Creek, Box Elder county, Utah; 
Mrs. S. H. Kimball, Postmistress. Postmas- 
ters Appointed — Hiram Lush, Jacob City, 
Tooele county, Utah; R. O. Shirley, Logan, 
Cache county, Utah. 

The Ruby Hill (Nevada) Mining Report urges 
the erection, by some well-disposed capitalist, 
of a $5,000 sampling works for the accommoda- 
tion of that district, 



Three More Railroads. 

The aignB of the times have shifted. Let us 
see what we see: 

In Arizona it is evident that they are build- 
ing the Southern Pacific railroad from the West 
End. It is well known also that both the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande and the Atchison, Topeka & 
Pacific Railroad Companies, which have been 
building energetically southweBtward, have, 
both of them, vitality enough to reach the 
western boundary of New Mexico in due time. 
The connecting route is the present freight route 
from the East to Tucson. It will continue to 
be such only a very short time, for San Fran- 
cisco will tap the Tucson trade and will have 
all of it, until the Eastern people reach out for 
it, just as we are doing, with an iron road. 

The Northern Pacific people have let contracts 
for building a section that will bring them up 
speedily to the Rocky mountains from the east 
end. The great wheat plains of eastern Wash- 
ington, which shipped the past year more than 
their million bushels of wheat, are well known 
to be rapidly extending their plowed acreage, 
but the country has no railroad. The Northern 
Pacific survey runs through those wheat fields 
for several hundred miles. Does anyone imagine 
that the Northern Pacific Railroad Company is 
so dead, at the present time, as not to be able 
to build that part of their road under such con- 
ditions ? If so, he will probably live to learn 
that a portion of the grain crop for the present 
year, and all of it for the next in the upper 
Columbia country, will be moved by the Northern 
Pacific railroad. The route surveyed last season, 
between the Upper Columbia and the Wilkeson 
branch to the Mt. Rainier coal region, was found 
satisfactory ; and that connection will be made 
as the next step, taking the statement of 
Superintendent Black as our evidence of the 
intentions of the company. 

It is not generally known nor understood that 
the Canadian Pacific railway is in progress of 
construction at Winnipeg, and that the Cana- 
dian ministry have procured a large loan in 
England, the object of which is understood to 
be the building of the railway. Every foot of 
the line has been located by location survey on 
a most advantageous route, after surveying some 
30,000 more miles on other lines, for making 
comparisons of routes and getting the best. 
The Canadian Premier, Sir John McDonald, 
represents the city of Victoria, and the policy 
of beginning construction immediately at the 
western end and carrying it on simultaneously 
with construction at the eastern end. 



Screw Cutting Tools in Sets. 

At Dunham & Carrigan's hardware store, in 
this city, they have a variety of improved screw 
cutting tools in sets, all packed in neat boxes 
ready for use. A representation of a set of 
Elterich's tools is shown on this page, showing 
a No. 3 set, in walnut box. No. 1 contains one 
die-holder, one tap wrench, and one tap and 
die each. Nos. 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 14, price in 
walnut case, $7. No. 3 (shown in the cut), 
contains a die-holder, tap wrench, and one tap 
and die each of Nos, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 14, 
and two each of No. 10 taps and dies. Price 
in walnut case, $10. 

These are furnished with standard machine- 
screw threads and plug taps. The dies cut 
rapidly, and furnish a perfect thread at one cut. 
They are made exact to size, but can be ad- 
justed for wear. The taps arehand-made, ground 
out and relieved, so that they can be backed 
out from the work without breaking. Every 
tap and die is warranted. The sets are put up 
in neat boxes, and are all good serviceable tools, 
well made and neat in appearance. 



Special Correspondent, Capt. Wm. H. Sea- 
mans, of Oakland, left for Prescott, Arizona, on 
Tuesday of this week. He will visit some of 
the northern and other mining districts of the 
Territory on private business, and has promised 
to take notes and send some letters to the 
Press from such places as are not visited by 
our general agent and correspondent. 



18 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January n, 1879. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. — Eds. 



The Search for Refractory Ores. 

Editors Press:— Let us understand each 
other. What do we moan by ' 'refractory ores?" 
I am aware that, by miners, the term is ap- 
plied, as regards gold, to all such ai cannot be 
satisfactorily treated by simple amalgamation 
in batteries and on plates; as regards silver, to 
such as cannot be worked raw in iron pans. 
Those ores which are made profitable by these 
simple means are denominated "free milling," 
even though, as at Virginia, there may be a 
considerable loss of precious metal. Among 
metallurgists, however, I opine that refractory 
ores are those which present considerable diffi- 
culty in their treatment by any generally 
known process, for of secret prooesses no ac- 
count can be taken. Refractory ores which 
defy the metallurgist then, are those which, 
though containing enough metal to pay the cost 
of the intelligent application of known methods 
of extraction, cannot be worked satisfactorily 
because of the failure of such methods to ex- 
tract the metal. 

A metallurgical success necessarily involves 
the element of profit; for metallurgy is a sci- 
ence applied to the wants of life, and an opera- 
tion which is conducted at a loss, however sat- 
isfactory in a purely scientific point of view, 
cannot be called a metallurgical success in any 
practical sense. 

On the other hand, however, the mere fact 
that a profit is made does not of itself justify 
the claim of a metallurgical success; for this, 
to my thinking, requires that the given ore 
shall be worked as closely as is possible by 
known means, consistently with the greatest 
profit, which again does not always mean the 
largest immediate return; for since mines are 
not inexhaustible, practically, economy of ore 
is to be considered. Thus I have never been 
able to consider the work done on the Comstock 
as a metallurgical success, because I have had 
reason to think that better work might have 
been done, with greater profit to owners; and 
so with the gold quartz milling, though often 
profitable, it cannot be called metallurgically 
successful if 30% of the gold is lost as some 
say; unless, indeed, the resources of science are 
inadequate to the saving of a higher percent- 
age, with equal or greater profit. I know of a 
large copper mine which is said to yield a 
profit, though only about half the copper is ex- 
tracted. This is not a metallurgical success, 
because, by the use of a better process, almost 
all the copper can be got, with increased profit. 
Poor ores which do not contain sufficient 
metal to pay the cost of manipulation, under 
the conditions of locality, etc., are not neces- 
sarily refractory. 

To sum up, refractory ores are those which 
are difficult to work; and refractory ores which 
defy the metallurgist, are those which cannot 
be worked. Poor ores, whether refractory or 
not, must await the increase of facilities, and 
improvement of machines and processes. 

Ores which can be worked by the O'Harra 
furnace are not refractory, for that furnace is 
nothing more nor less than a reverberatory fur- 
nace, with automatic stirring apparatus, and 
any ore which can he worked in it can be 
worked in the old reverberatory; the difference 
is in the cost, so that the ore, previous to the 
introduction of the O'Harra furnace, was in the 
oategory of poor ores, from which that furnace 
has redeemed it. 

With the Willard furnace the case is some- 
what different. It involves principles which, 
though not new, have not, I think, heretofore 
been so well applied. It presents two advan- 
tages: firstly, avoidance of dusting; secondly, a 
low temperature. Perhaps, I may add, abetter 
elimination of arsenic and antimony, etc. Its 
performance will be watched with interest. 

I have heard a great deal about the Meadow 
Lake ore, and intend to inform myself further ) 
about it. In the meantime I will observe that 
there are two classes of men who are very liable 
to fail in treating ores. One is the theoretical, 
laboratory man, who knows nothing of practical 
work or business, and is led away by scientific 
zeal. He may make a chemical success, but is 
apt to fail in the pecuniary point. The other 
is the self-styled, self- sufficient "practical 
man," who, having picked up, without having 
comprehended, the routine of operations in one 
place, finds himself, under new conditions, 
utterly helpless; unable to succeed in any sense 
and equally unable to give an intelligent reason 
for failure. 

If the owners of ores which are thought to be 
refractory will come forward with a few facts, 
some among us may be enabled to assist them 
with mutual benefit. In order to elicit this in- 
formation I will take the liberty of asking 
these gentlemen a few questions: 

1. What are the valuable contents of your 
ore, kind and quantity per ton? 

2. What is the price of fuel, labor, lumber 
and freight from point of supply; or where is 
the mine? 

3. What methods have been tried, and with 
what results? 

4. What is the matter with your ore? Why 



is it refractory? What makes it so? 

With the answers to these questions before 
us we can think intelligently about it, and if 
light appears to some one of us, a sample of the 
ore can be sent for and experimented on. 

I will conclude with a proposition upon 
which I have heretofore enlarged in your col- 
umns. Any chemical operation which suc- 
ceeds on a small scale, will give the Bame result 
on a large scale, if all necessary conditions are 
maintained. It is only by a rigid regard of this 
rule that metallurgical experiments on a small 
scale can be relied on. Any ore which can be 
worked with profit on a small scale can be 
worked with more profit on a large scale, if the 
supply of material to work on, and to work 
with, is adequate. C. H. Aaron. 

Defects in the Mining Laws. 

Editors Press: — Having noticed an extract 
from your paper, published in the Miner here, 
I am induced to say something further. The 
article had relation to the U. S. mining laws of 
1866 and 1S72. I think we feel the injustice 
here, probably more than any other State does, 
of these acts. They doubtless were framed by 
men who knew nothing about a mine, or what 
the miner needed to protect him from fraud and 
robbery. Your remarks are true, here, "that 
the miner himself enacted local laws which 
were far better suited to his requirements than 
any law yet passed by Congress or Legislature. " 
The trouble is we send politicians to represent 
us who know nothing of, and care les3 for, the 
interest of the miner. 

This State perhaps is peculiarly situated, 
differing from any other mining State in its for- 
mation. Our veins or lodes (which we call 
lodes), will average probably one for every acre 
of surface in a mining camp, say 10 miles square. 
Of course nine-tenths of these are nothing but 
feeders and spurs from the main vein. Hence, 
in nine cases out of 10, locations and discov- 
eries are made on these spurs, and the main 
fissure vein is liable to be left undiscovered, as 
generally in this -country the main vein is deeply 
buried in the drift or slide. 

These locations (utterly worthless except as 
occupying the ground to prevent the prospector 
from coming anywhere in the neighborhood), he 
holds on speculation to sell. It is for the pub- 
lic interest that the fullest latitude should be 
given to the prospector, for to him alone is the 
public indebted. There is one instance in this 
county where flow of the richest quartz, worth 
from 1*1,000 up to $10,000 per ton is found, but 
the lode has not yet been found, and probably 
will not for years to come, as all the ground is 
taken up by these worthless discoveries, which 
in many cases are held by patents. The pros- 
pector is warned off and is considered a tres- 
passer; hence he seeks other fields for explora- 
tion. 

Another objectionable feature we find in the 
law here. For instance, A makes a prior loca- 
tion of 1,500 feet in length by 150 feet in width, 
(as our local law is here). B makes a subsequent 
location and crosses A's claim at a point so as 
to take in A's discovery or location. B makes 
application for his patent for 1,500 feet long 
and 150 feet wide, and, by the terms of the 
law, A must lose not only the strip across him 
150 feet wide which B is claiming, but his 
whole claim 1.500 feet long, unless he ad verses 
B at the land office, and show the facts in the 
case. What harm has A done that he must 
pay from $200 to $500 to prosecute this adverse 
suit ? 

I could continue to cite many more objections 
to this law of 1872. It is very true, I think as 
you intimate, that the men who made this law 
knew nothing of .what they were legislating 
about. The member from Mississippi I guess 
was about right. We send men from these 
mining States, not J for what they know of our 
interests, but for the amount of money they 
can command to .purchase votes at the election, 
no other qualification is requisite. 

This State's richness in mines is but begin- 
ning to be known, we have had to learn every- 
thing by practical experience. If Congress 
can let us alone Colorado will soon prove to the 
world that she stands second to none "of her 
mining sisters. Yours respectfully, S. 

Georgetown, Colorado, Dec. 22d. 

Cost of Artesian Wells. 

Editors Press: — I see in a late number of 
the Press an article giving the cost of artesian 
wells. It seems too high. The regular price in 
this county is as follows: Boring first 100 feet, 
$50; each additional 50 feet, 50 cents per foot 
more. Pipe, No. 14 sheet iron, joints two feet 
long and lapping half way, S5 cents each ; No. 
16 iron, 70 cents each ; diametor, seven inches. 
A larger diameter would cost more, but not a 
great deal. The strata commonly met with are: 
Quicksand, blue clay, black clay, cement, gravel, 
boulders, etc., alternating; no bedrock. 

The farmer or person on whose land the well 
is bored, boards the hands that bore the well, 
and generally moves the tools from the last well 
to his place. WeUs in this county are of all 
depths, from 70 feet to 400 feet, and flow from 
one inch to seven inches over the top of the 
pipe, and sometimes more. Well Borer. 

Westminster, Los Angeles Co., Dec, 24th. 



Refractory Ores. 

Editors Press: — I see published in your 
columns an inquiry from C. H. A. , asking where 
to find refractory ores. I have several lodes 
containing gold, silver and copper — no lead. 
The assays run from $10 to $600 in gold, from 
$14 to $400 in silver, and from 10% to 60% in 
copper. The mines are situated at Caribou, 
Oneida county, Idaho, not far from Soda Springs* 
The best route is by way of Corinne, Utah. If 
anyone who wishes to inspect the mines will 
come about the first of May, I will accompany 
him to the mines. I have men at work there 
all winter. None of the mines are well devel- 
oped. The most fully developed so far is the 
Oneida. They are down 80 feet on this mine. 
The assay is $720 fio the ton, all gold. As yet 
no capital has taken hold. 

There are good placer mines in the vicinity, 
about 15 miles from Snake river. The miners 
are all doing well. The formation is granite 
and porphyry. The gold is fine flour. The dirt 
seems to pay very evenly from top to bottom. 
There is plenty of wood and water. 

Anyone can see samples of the different ores 
by calling on me at Corinne, Utah. The dis- 
tance from this place to the mines is about 140 
miles. Part of the way may be traveled by 
rail. It is possible to go from here by teams in 
five days. Hiram House. 

Corinne, Utah, Dec. 24th. 

[Mr. House does not say whether the ore can 
be worked or not. It would be well for him to 
send us some account of any attempts that have 
been made at working the ores ; also more com- 
plete analyses of the same. — Editors Press.] 



Snake River Again. 

"Forty-niner," writing again to the Salt Lake 
Ti'ibune, joins issue with " Snake Bite " on the 
gold-washing question. 

I say again, place the boxes containing the 
plates, as flat as you can, and have the sand 
wash off, and not clay the plates. I take issue 
directly with the Biter's idea that the "finer 
the gold the steeper the plates should be set." 
It will not stand the test of practice or experi- 
ence, and I have had over 20 years of both, in 
saving gold, from the old arastras up to the 
latest styles of batteries, plates and pans. 

The slower the gold can be made to pass over 
the plates, the more will adhere to them. A 
single trial of five minutes in front of batteries 
mining rich rock, will convince anyone of this, 
holding a plate at different degrees of pitch so 
that the pulp passes over it. , 

If they are too steep, or too much water, 
when a swift current passes over them, much of 
the gold goes also. This is too well known to 
need argument with those who are posted. I 
now quote the crooked one: " 1st. It is not 
necessary in the new machine to fork out the 
coarse rock, as he states ; it would cost too 
much." I did not state anything of the kind. 
I said it must be done. If this labor can be 
avoided by placing perforated iron plates over 
the amalgamated plates, and have everything 
carried over but fine sand and gold, 1 have no 
objection, only that it will be more expensive in 
the outfit, and some saud and gold will pass 
with the coarse material. 

I now add to the directions given before: If 
there is tough clay or other material holding 
and mixed with the gold, which requires a good 
head of water and swift motion, spread the last 
sluice out like a pan or table, and divide the 
current of water with cleats and stops, so that 
the water and sand spread out evenly and wash 
slowly over the plates. 

I will say for the process stated of amalga- 
mating the plates that it has given good results 
for 25 or 30 years on the coast. I have used 
plates so amalgamated until they were worn 
out and replaced by new ones, the old ones be- 
ing sold for $1 per pound, and melted for the 
gold they contained. On plates inside of the 
batteries, the amalgam will sometimes get very 
thick and hard, and adhere so firmly that it has 
to be chipped off with a chisel, and on the same 
plate perhaps (where violent splashing occurred) 
there would be spots where the amalgam was 
washed off through to the copper. But outside 
of the batteries where the plates can be seen, 
and a little quicksilver applied when such spots 
appear, no difficulty will occur in keeping them 
amalgamated. 

As before stated, on the bowl of quicksilver 
used for this parpose, keep a solution of cyanide 
of potash. Some millmen assert that the weak 
solution of acid is no benefit, others as stoutly 
insist that it is. I always found the quicksilver 
more effective in the pans when it was used. 
Try both and use your own judgment. This is 
anybody's process, and has stood the test of 
long years of practice with practical amal- 
gamators. 



Our Solar System. — Exclusive of comets, 
there are now 224 members of our solar system 
known. There are now 190 asteroids known, 
unless others have been discovered since Octo- 
ber 1st. In 1S75 there were 17 discovered, the 
greatest number in one year. Prof. C. H. F. 
Peters, of the Litchfield observatory, Hamilton 
college, has discovered the greatest number, 31. 
Prof. Watson follows him in the list, having 
discovered 23. 



Why the Sierra Nevada is Larger than 
the Coast Range. 

A Legend of the Yokuts. 

Stephen Powers, in his "Indian Tribes of 
California," relates occasional legends of the 
strange peoples he visited. Many of these tra- 
ditions are in themselves silly, child's fables, 
but viewed from the standpoint of ethnology 
they possess peculiar interest. The tribe of the 
Yokuts lived, or rather their remnants still live, 
about the northern half of Tulare lake, reach- 
ing as far north as the bend to the eastward of 
the San Joaquin, and extending to the east and 
west as far as the Sierras and the Coast Range 
respectively. The following legend belongs to 
this tribe. Powers entitled it the 

Origin of the Mountains. 

Once there was a time when there was noth- 
ing in the world but water. About the place 
where Tulare lake is now there was a pole 
standing far up out of the water, and on this 
pole perched a hawk and a crow. First one of 
them would sit on the pole awhile, then the 
other would knock him off and sit on it himself. 
Thus they sat on top of the pole above the 
waters for many ages. At length they wearied 
of the lonesomeness and they created the birds 
which prey on fish, such as the kingfisher, eagle, 
pelican, and others. Among them was a very 
small duck, which dived down to the bottom of 
the water, picked its beak fuU of mud, came up, 
died, and lay floating on the water. The hawk 
and the crow then fell to work and gathered 
from the duck's beak the earth which it had 
brought up, and commenced making the moun- 
tains. They commenced at the place now 
known as Ta-hi-cha-pa pass, and the hawk 
made the east range, while the crow made the 
west one. Little by little, as they dropped iu 
the earth, these great mountains grew athwart 
the face of the waters, pushing north. It was 
a work of many years, but finally they met to- 
gether at Mount Shasta, and their labors were 
ended. But, behold, when they compared their 
mountains, it was found that the crow's was a 
great deal the larger. Then the hawk said to 
the crow: "How did this happen, you rascal? 
I warrant you have been stealing some of the 
earth from my bill, and that is why your moun- 
tains are the biggest. " It was a fact, and the 
crow laughed in his claws. Then the hawk 
went and got some Indian tobacco and chewed 
it, and it made him exceedingly wise. So he 
took hold of the mountains and turned them 
round in a circle, putting his range in place of 
the crow's; and that is why the Sierra Nevada 
is larger than the Coast Range. 

This legend is of value, says Powers, as show- 
ing the aboriginal notions of geography. In 
explaining the story, the Indian drew iu the 
sand a long ellipse, representing quite accu- 
rately, the shape of the two ranges ; and he had 
never traveled away from King's river, 

Further, it may be added, this legend and all 
of similar origin, are of value in correcting the 
ideas of "city folks" with regard to the Califor- 
nia Indians. Those who have seen only the 
" Digger" in his debauched indolence, as he 
hangs about some stage station, have no right to 
form an opinion, based upon their own experi- 
ence, of those unfortunate people. They do not 
deserve the approbrium attached to the term 
"Digger." They are interesting tribes, that 
have a history. They are falling before the 
advance of a people far better than themselves ; 
but not so much better, that the uncivilized 
cannot point to the civilized as the hasteners of 
the Indian's destruction. "We shall all die 
sopn," wails the Yokuts Indian in his dance for 
the dead. " We were a great people once. 
We are weak and little now. Be sorrowful in 
your hearts. O, let sorrow melt your hearts. 
Let your tears flow fast. We are all one people. 
We are all friends. All our hearts are one 
heart." 



Buying Gold at Boise. 

Gold bullion is now purchased at the United 
States Assay office at Boise, Idaho, and paid for 
at its coining value in U. S legal tender notes 
at par, subject to the following deductions: 

1. One- tenth of oue per cent, for melting and 
assaying, with a minimum charge of ten cents 
for any deposit of less value than $100. 

2. When the character of the bullion is such 
as to require toughening, a charge for that opera- 
tion will be made of from one half to two cents 
per ounce gross, according to the condition of 
the deposit, and on any such deposit of less 
weight than five ounces the charge will be im- 
posed as if the weight was five ounces. 

3[ A deduction wiU be made from each pur- 
chase at the rate of $10 per $1,000, to pay for 
the cost of expressage to the mint at San Fran- 
cisco. 

4. When the bullion contains silver to the 
amount of 50 cents over and above the expense 
of parting it from the gold, a charge of eight 
cents per ounce gross will be deducted, and the 
balance of the silver paid for at the rate of 97 
cents per standard ounce (900 fine), but if after 
deducting the parting charge, less than #0 cents 
remain, no allowance will be made for it to the 
depositor. When partable bullion contains over 
100 base metal, an additional parting charge of 
one cent per ounce gross will be imposed. 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



19 



Dry Graphite for Steam Cylinders. 

Mr. W. J. Williams, a prominent engineer 
of Philadelphia, has called attention to the sue- 
cewful use of dry pulverized graphite for lubri- 
cating stoam-cylindere. He applies 137 grains 
twice a day, introducing it iuto the cylinder 
through the usual form of tallow- cup. six 
months of continuous use, in a horizontal 
engine, Working to its full capacity, proves this 
lubricant superior in every way to oils or tallow, 
both of winch he had used for years. No oil 
whatever is introduced with the graphite. lie- 
sides satisfying all the lubricating needs of the 
cylinder, the joints, where gum is used, last 
longer and show less of leakage. 

After a run of four months, Mr. W, says : 
" I took off the cylinder-head of my engine to 
examine the interior. I found the piston per- 
fectly clean, with no appearance of wear or 
abraeion, on account of plumbago being used as 
the lubricator. I feel very positive that if I 
had been using animal or vegetable oils, the 
parts would be in a much worse condition to- 
day. The cylinder has been scored for several 
years. It is in no better or worse condition 
now than it was before I quit using oils (about 
14 months.] The working part of the cylinder 
is everywhere covered with a uoat of plumbago, 
readily soiling the fingers. 

"I touched the cylinder in the same place three 
times, cleaning tho fingers previous to each 
tonoh, but they wore soiled each time. 

I "Tho conclusion I have oome to about the 

choking up of passages is, that plumbago alone 
will not do it ; but wherever there is friction of 
one or more moving parts, some of it will adhere 
to them. 

"1 have never heard a noise in the cylinder 
since I have been using plumbago, except when 
the steam is entirely shut off at the stop-valve 
for the purpose of stopping the engine ; and 
then it would be heard during one or two strokes 
of the piston before the engine would stop, and 
this not oftener than usually occurs when using 
any kind of lubricator. * 

"I increase the quantity of plumbago some- 
times to 180 grains twice a day ; 134 is the 
minimum and usual quantity." 

Looomotives Without Fire. 

Machines on the above-named principle are 
now at work on the tramway from Rued to 
Marly, near Paris, and with satisfactory results. 
The system in use .is one introduced by M. 
Francy, an engineer, and is based on the fact 
that water boils at a lower temperature pro- 
portionately to the reduction of the atmospheric 
pressure. It is well known that water requires a 
temperature of 212" Fahr. to boil at the sea level ; 
but at a higher altitude, or where the atmos- 
pheric pressure is reduced artificially, as in a 
partial vacuum, it boils and produces steam at 
a much lower temperature. 

Acting upon this principle, M. Francy takes 
a reservoir of thin steel, we cannot call it a 
boiler, for it has neither fireplace nor fire, and 
introduces water at a temperature of 200° Fahr., 
and then covers up hermetically. The steam 
it gives off at once fills the superincumbent 
space, and produces a pressure of 15 atmos- 
pheres. As soon as any of the vapor is turned 
on for moving the machine the pressure is re- 
duced, and the water then begins to boil, pro- 
ducing a fresh supply of steam. Of course that 
process is but of limited extent, as, at the com- 
mencement, the liquid only contained a certain 
amount of heat, which is gradually diminished 
as the reproduction of steam takes place at 
lower temperature by the exhaustion of the 
superincumbent pressure. So far a machine of 
thia description would be obviously totally in- 
adequate to any prolonged journey. But for 
short transits it has been found extremely ser- 
viceable. As the amount of pressure required 
to work the engine is only five atmospheres, a 
series of valves are so arranged as to prevent a 
greater amount of force issuing from the reser- 
voir than is neoesBary, and thus retaining as far 
as possible the heat originally contained in the 
water. The driving part of the machinery is 
nearly identical with that of ordinary locomo- 
tives, with a few modifications, with the purpose 
of guarding against the useless waste of the 
heat originally introduced into the reservoir. — 
Oali'jnani's Messenger, 

A Magic Car.— Mr. Blackburn, of 14 Vic- 
toria Road, Kensington, has invented a remark- 
able vehicle, which requires no horse to draw it. 
The body is in the form of a dog-cart, and the 
arrangement of wheels like a tricycle. The 
motive power, concealed in the body of the 
vehicle, is obtained by the combustion of ben- 
zoline, a small jet of which is admitted into a 
burner about the size of an ordinary chimney- 
pot hat. The steam passes into the cylinders of 
a small torpedo engine, which rotates a hori- 
zontal shaft. There is no steam given off, for it 
is recondensed and passes back into the tubular 
boiler. The weight of the steam power is about 
180 fibs. On lighting the benzoline the steam 
requires no attention from the driver during a 
ride of many hours. The driver, by applying 
his foot to a pedal, can regulate the speed, and 
power of draft. It travels at the rate of about 
eight miles an hour, and is easily directed in its 
course. 



By the variouscheaponing processes which have 
of late years been introduced into the manufac- 
ture of steel, that article is fast supplanting the 
use of iron in the various industries, and notably 
so for railroad purposes, Bessemer steel rails 
are now produced nearly as cheap as iron. It 
now appears to be only a matter of time, and 
short at that, when llesseiner and Seimeus- 
Martin steel will be so cheap that they will 
tuke the plaoe of Vfonght-iron for almost every 
purpose. The latwit new proposed use of steel 
is for tiu plate makers, who, it is said, are 
about to abandon iron for that purpose. 

The Bessemer steel trade, which had its 
origin in Kngland rather more than 20 years 
ago, still continues to be followed more largely 
in that country than any other. Of about 
2,000,0000 tons of Bessemer steel now annually 
produced throughout the world, Kngland fur- 
nishes 7.">0,000 tons; the United States, 525,000 
tons; Franco. 201,874 tuns; and Germany, 242,- 
2fil tons. No industry in modern times has 
sprung up so suddonly into importance, nor has 
any other caused greater changes in the way of 
setting aside an old and introducing a new 
order. To this industry in supplanting the um 
of iron is due the fact that thousands of fur- 
naces have been closed up and tens of thousands 
of workingmen either thrown idle or trans- 
ferred to other occupations. The age of iron 
has become the age of steel. A new departure, 
long threatened and greatly feared, has been 
actually accomplished. 

Composition of Bronze for Machinery. 

Much industry and research has of late 
been bestowed in determining what mixture 
of bronzes is best suited for the various portions 
of machinery, and to meet the requirements of 
each special case and purpose. We give the 
following as the composition of alloys approved 
of and used by prominent French mechanics: 

MillNi !l M \kl.\i:. 

Copper. Tin. Zinc. 

Tough bronze for rods, valves, cocks, etc. .8ts 12 2 

Very tough bronze for eccentric straps.etc.90 10 2 

Bronze fur plumincr blocks 86 14 2 

Hard bronze 84 16 2 

Very hard bronze for shgavo brass cocks. .82 18 2 

Bell bronze 78 22 

Anti-friction bronze (with eight parts 

antimony) 4 90 

FRENCH ItllLROADS. 

Car pillows 82 18 2 

Locomotive and tender oil boxes 84 16 2 

" slide valves 82 18 2 

Cocks 88 12 2 

The bronze composed of 80 copper, 14 tin and 
2 zinc is least porous, and therefore is most 
suitable when pressure is to be resisted. 

The Iron and Steel Product of the 
World. — A French statistician has furnished 
an estimate of the world'a iron product, which 
shows that in 1870 the whole amount footed up 
at 15,785,730 tons of 2,000 pounds. The coal 
miued is about 20 times the weight of pig iron 
produced. The ratio of production in the lead- 
ing iron-producing countries is nearly as follows: 
Great Britain, 4G£; United States, 17; Germany, 
5&; France, 10 1-5; Belgium, 3 2-5; Russia, 3; 
Austro-Hungary, 2 4-5; Sweden, 2^. The iron 
product of the United States for 1876 was 
2,000,550 tons, or about 125 pounds for every 
inhabitant. The estimate gives the total prod- 
uct of all countries of Bessemer steel for 1S76 
at 2,323,436 tons, of which one-fourth was made 
in the United States, a little over one-third in 
Great Britain, not quite one-fifth in Germany, 
and one-tenth in France. The total steel made 
in 1876 would lay 22, 11G miles of railway track, 
allowing 20 pounds to the foot of rail. The 
present rate of production would put steel rails 
upon all the railways in the world, in leas than 
10 years. 

Preservation of Timber for Mining and 
Railroad Purposes. — It is remarkable that so 
little has been done in this country with the 
view of preserving timber, particularly for use 
in mines and for railroad purposes. The mat- 
ter is certainly one of great importance, and has 
an important bearing upon the expenditure of 
enormous sums of money every year, both in 
railroad construction and repairing and in mines. 
A very elaborate series of experiments upon 
the effect of various preservatives has re- 
cently been made in France, the result of which 
we hope soon to give. These experiments have 
been made with particular reference to pre- 
serving timber to resist the heat and dampness 
of deep mines. 

A New composition of iron and steel is de- 
scribed in the Revue fndi/ sir telle. A cast-iron 
mold is divided into two sections by means of 
a transverse plate of thin sheet iron. The two 
metals are then poured into the respective 
compart men te. The sheet-iron partition pre- 
vents the mixture of the metals and facilitates 
the welding by itself being brought into a state 
of fusion. It is said that the product is well 
adapted for safes, and that it resists drills. 

Weaving slag wool is spoken of by an English 
paper as a thing accomplished in that country 
by Messrs. Jones, Dale & Co. Strips and sheets 
are made of it which, it is claimed, do very well 
for wrapping steam pipes. 

Eighty-two hundred feet of track were laid 
on the Southern Pacific railroad in Arizona, 
January 3d, 



iCIENTIFIC 



ROGRESS. 



The Alleged Dissociation of the Elements. 

\\ a made some reference, in our issue of De- 
cember 28th, to the reported discovery by Prof. 
Loekyer that at least some of the bodies known 
as elements arc in reality compound bodies.' 

The announcement was made by the Professor 
in the following words: "Reasoning from anal- 
ogies furnished by the behaviors of known com- 
pounds, I have discovered, that, independently 
of calcium, many other bodies, hitherto consid- 
ered elements, are also compound bodies." 

Iu alluding to this alleged discovery, a Lon- 
don paper, Iron, evidently well informed in re- 
gard to the character of Mr. Lockyer's investi- 
gations, ami the general subject matter, says 
that it is perfectly easy to form a plausible 
spectroscopic theory to the effect that complex 
spectra are really built up of simpler spectra, 
and that therefore, the elements giving complex 
spectra are probably built up of the elements 
giving the simpler ones. Moreover, the atomic 
weights can be so treated as to corroborate this 
view. Considerations of this kind might easily 
give rise to the idea of the dissociation of the 
elements; of the transmutation of one into 
another, especially within certain groups of re- 
lated elements. Such, for instance, as calcium, 
strontium and barium; lithium, sodium and 
potassium; sulphur, selenium and tellurium, etc. 
So much interest has been manifested in regard 
to Prof. Lockyer's announcement, that we have 
ventured to devote a large space in this depart- 
ment to a brief review of past speculations in 
this direction by scientists of acknowledged 
eminence. 

It is well known that Faraday, nearly 30 
years ago, intimated the probability of such a 
discovery — even without the hints in that di- 
rection lately given out by the spectroscope, an 
instrument which that noted chemist never 
lived to see. Possibly that scientist is thought 
by many to have adopted the theory far more 
fully than he really did; but fortunately we 
have quite a full record of what his speculations 
and investigations ip this direction really were, 
in the Chemical Record of July 12th, 1851, in 
an interesting paper read before the meeting of 
the British Association of that year by Mr. Du- 
mas. That gentleman was introduced and en- 
dorsed by Prof. Faraday, who, in his introduc- 
tion, in alluding to the reported discovery of a 
new metal, remarked that he was almost sorry 
to welcome any more new metals, as his hopes 
were in the direction of proving that bodies 
called simple were really compound. The re- 
marks which were to follow, by M. Dumas, the 
Professor said, were on certain curious relations 
between volume and simple weight, which ren- 
dered it probable that certain bodies, called 
atomic, were really compounds. 

M. Dumas commenced by remarking upon the 
difference in solubility in water of lime, baryta 
and magnesia. Each was sparingly soluble, 
but magnesia the least so; while in the form of 
sulphates, magnesia was the most soluble. Why 
this difference? The same facts were true in re- 
gard to the two chlorides of mercury. 

Again, chemical agency is the result of force, 
which force was at once indicated and measured 
by combining or atomic numbers; which were 
in inverse ratio to their power of chemical 
agency. Thus the atomic or combining num- 
bers of chlorine, bromine and iodine, were re- 
spectively 35, 80, 125. Of this triad, chlorine 
would displace bromine; bromine would dis- 
place iodine. The three bodies, too, displayed 
other symmetrical gradations. Thus chlorine 
was most volatile, and iodine least; bromine 
being intermediate; and, as a consequence of 
the last deduction, chlorine was least dense, 
iodine most, and bromine intermediate. 

Thus we have a triad or series of three bodies, 
displaying under three several aspects a symme- 
trical gradation. As chemistry becomes better 
developed it subjects itself to the scrutiny of 
mathematical investigation. Can mathematical 
investigation be applied to the triad of chlorine, 
bromine and iodine? And, when applied, does 
it give a result accordant with incipient specu- 
lation? The atomic numbers of chlorine, 
bromine and iodine, evidently supply us with 
the fairest data on which to exercise our calcu- 
lations. Now, if there be any truth in these 
speculations, the atomic or combining numbers 
of the three bodies in the triad being taken, 
half the sum of the extremes should be equal to 
the mean; or half of 35, the atomic number fox 
chlorine, plus half of 125, the atomic number 
for iodine should equal 80, the atomic number 
for bromine. And this indeed is the result, as 
will be evident on reference to the following 
simple arithmetical sum: 

Atomic weight of chlorine 35 

Atomic weight of iodine 125 

Sum 160 

Half of 160=80, the atomic weight of bromine. 
"Thus it follows," to use the beautiful ex- 
pression of M. Dumas, "If we could by any I 
means cause the union of half an atom of chlo- I 
rine with half an atom of iodine, we might hope - 



to get, to form, to create an atom of bromine!" 
Leaving the triad of chlorine, bromine and 
iodine, M. Dumas next took up a second triad, 
of sulphur, selenium and tellurium; bodies 
which all chemists know to be isomeric— or ca- 
pable of replacing each other iu compounds, and 
to be endowed with properties mutually aual- 
agons. Of the three, sulphur is the must vol- 
atile, selenium ne\t, tellurium least of all. As 
to their decomposing power, .sulphur replaces 
selenium; selenium, tellurium; in short, tho 
remarks already applied to tho triad of chlorine, 
bromine and iodine will apply- lure. 

Do tho generalizations of M. Dumas apply? 
We will see. 

The atomic or combining weight of sulphur is 
16; of tellurium, 04; the half of tho sum of 
these extremes is the number, 10 —and this ix 
the exact atomic weight of the middle term of 
the triad — the atomic weight of selenium! 

Take, again, the triad calcium, strontium and 
barium. Without stopping to indicate the va- 
rious analogies of these bodies, it will sutlicc to 
point out their general chemical similarity. In 
this scale of analogous qualities, calcium and 
barium are the extremes, strontium is the mean. 
The atomic weights of the three are as follows: 
Calcium, 20; strontium, 44; barium, OS. 

It will be evident at a glauce that there is here 
also a harmony between tho chemical qualities 
and mathematical exponent of their combining 
proportion as before; for G8 plus 20 divided by 
2 is equal to 44, the atomic number of stron- 
tium. Thus, to again use the expression of M. 
Dumas, if by any means we could effect the 
union of half an atom of barium with half an 
atom of calcium, we should have as a resultant 
one atom of strontium! 

Let us take another triad: Lithium, 7; So- 
dium, 23; Potassium, 39. The similarities be- 
tween the properties of these bodies is too evi- 
dent to be pointed out; of the three, lithium is 
the least individualized alkaline metal; potas- 
sium the most individualized; sodium, as all 
know, stands intermediately between the three; 
and here again, as the most casual examination 
will demonstrate, tho same purity of chemieal 
and mathematical symmetry holds good. 

Now, so extraordinary a symmetry of chemi- 
cal qualities with mathematical exponents can 
scarcely be assumed to be a matter of chance; 
still less can it be said that the atomic figures 
on which these deductions are based have been 
strained to suit the opinions of M. Dumas. 

M. Dumas followed his line of investigation 
from inorganic triads into those of organic rad- 
icals, as follows: 

Hitherto we have been confined to inorganic 
triads. We will now look further still into the 
recesses of chemical philosophy. It will be 
familiar to most of our readers that many 
chemists have regarded certain bodies of com- 
pound nature as analogous in many properties 
to the metals. Of this kind are the three or- 
ganic radicals : C2 H3 O ; Ci H5 0; Ce H7 ; 
which may be regarded as three several oxides 
of an isomeric triad,* bearing analogy to those 
already adverted to in the inorganic world. 
Now, the slightest examination here will prove 
again that the law hitherto applied holds good 
in this case. Omitting the oxygen in the three 
preceding substances, half the sum of the ex- 
tremes will be equal to the mean. 

From the above M. Dumas suggests as a gen- 
eral law: " When three bodies having qualities 
precisely similar, though not identical, are 
arranged in succession of their chemical powers, 
there will be also a successive arrangement of 
mathematical powers, indicated by the respec- 
tive atomic numbers of the substances, and 
amenable to every ina*hematical law." 

In regard to these illustrations and facts, Mr. 
Dumas further remarked: "That this sym- 
metry of chemical with mathematical function 
points to the possibility of transmutation is un- 
questionable — yet not transmutation in the 
sense of the old alchemical philosophy. Chem- 
ists see no manifestatii 11s of a tendency of being 
able to convert lead into silver, or silver into 
gold. These metals are not chemically con- 
formable. One cannot take place of another by 
substitution. Thev do not form an isomeric 
group. The probability is that our first suc- 
cessful transmutaticn as regards the metals will 
effect the change of phj sical state merely, with- 
out touching chemical composition; thus already 
we have carbon, which, as the diamond and as 
charcoal, manifests two widely different states. 
Sulphur also assumes two forms, as also does 
phosphorus. Then, why not a metal ?" This 
sort of effect Mr. Dumas suggests will be among 
our first triumphs in the way of dissociation or 
transmutation. 

We may here remark that in a lecture deliv- 
ered soon after before the Koyal Institution, 
Prof. Faraday, after similarly describing these 
curious arithmetical relationship, said: "We 
seem here to have the dawning of a new light, 
indicative of the mutual convertability of 
certain groups of elements, although under con- 
ditions which as yet are hidden from our 
scrutiny. " 

Discovery of a New Mineral. — In exam- 
ining a specimen of ore from the Silver Islet 
mine, on the north shore of Lake Superior, 
recently, Prof. Henry Wurtz discovered that it 
was a mineral unknown to the scientific world. 
He analyzed it and found it contained large 
proportions of silver and arsenic mixed with 
iron, zinc, cobalt and sulphur. He exhibited 
specimens of the new mineral, at a reoent meet- 
ing of the New York Academy of Sciences, and 
gave to it the name of Huntilite, in honor of Dr. 
T. Sterry Hunt, of Montreal. 



20 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January n, 1879. 



Table of Highest and Lowest [.Sales 
S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Name or 

Company. 



Week Week Week Week 
Ending Endins Ending Ending 

Dec. li>. Dee. 'Mi. Jan. «. Jan. 



Alpha 

Alta 

Andes 

Alps 

Argenta 

Atlantic 

Aurora Tunnel 

Baltimore Con 

Belcher 

Belmont 

Beat A Belcher 

Bullion 

Bechtel 

Belle Isle 

Bodie 

Benton 

Bulwer 

Boyle 

Black Hawk 

Belvidere 

Booker 

Caledonia 

California 

Challenge 

Ohollar-Potosi 

Comanche 

Confidence 

Con Imperial 

Con Virginia 

Crown Point 

Con Washoe 

Champion 

Conoordia 

Dayton 

DeFrees 

Daney 

Day 

Eureka Con 

Exchequer 

Endowment.... — 

Gen Thomas 

Grand Prize 

Gila 

Golden Chariot 

Golden Terra 

Goodshaw 

Gould&Curry 

Hale& Norcross — 

Hillside 

Highbridge 

Homcstake 

Hussey 

Independence 

Julia 

Justice 

Jackson 

Joe Scates 

KKCon 

Kentuck 

Kossuth 

Keystone 

Lady Bryan 

Lady Wash 

Leopard 

Leviathan 

Leeds 

Lee 

May Belle 

Modoc 

Manhattan 

Martin White 

McClinton 

Meadow Valley 

Mexican 

Mides 

Morning Star 

North Con Virginia, 

New York 

Northern Belle.... 

New Coso 

Navajo 

Occidental 

Ophir 

Oriental 

Overman 

Panther 

Phenix 

Phil Sheridan 

Prospect , 

Raymond & Ely 

Richer 

Rock Island 

Rye Patch 

Rough & Ready 

Savage. . 



50c 

4.10 
45c 

18J 

5 

60c 
30c 
131 

4.10 
16 

50c 

7. r >e 
80c 

2.80 
101 

1.65 



30c 
36 
3.90 



Sag Belcher 

Sierra Nevada 

Silver Hill 

Silver King 

Silver Prize 

Succor 

Summit 

Scorpion 

Solid Silver 

South Bodie. 

South Standard. . 

Star 

St. Louis.. ....... 

Syndicate 

Tioga Con 

Tiptop 

Trojan 

Union Con 

Utah 

Vermont Con 

Ward 

WellB- Fargo..... 

Woodville 

"White Cloud 

Yellow Jacket. . . 



3.90 3S'3.80 3i 
30c 10c, 60c 10c 



7i 
65c 
4 

31 

2.10 
15c 



1.30 

2.90 

3.91 

7 



11 
51 
50c 



31 2.702.90 2.60 



175 ISi 
41 ' 5S 
50c - 



17 
4.65 



75c 50c 

60c 

2.55 2i 

105 9i 

1.70 1.60 

471 381 



70c 

7:' 

3.61 



4.40 
35c 



5J 
40c 30c 

125 

21 

2.40 



3.90 3.70 
20c 15c 



1.05 

1 



311 271 



4 51 

60c 85c 

91 10 

25c 25c 

45c 50c 



361 



Ml 



50c 
1.05 

90c 

'46c 
25c 



1.60 
1} 
30c 
61 
15 



40c 
1.15 
1.15 

50c 

30c 
50c 



1.35 
25c 
551 
12? 



I 16 1311 15 



70c 50c 
15c 



11} 10! 
51 5 
65c 50c 



1.40 11 

',.30 3.80 

60c .... 

18, 175 

7 5J 

60c 50c 

70c .... 

9 75 

31 3 

15 10 

30c i6c 

60c .... 

50c 45c 

2.95 2.40 

111 10s 

2 lj 

46 411 



.?* 



10! 9 

85c 75c 

9* 81 

3.90 3.60 

3.10 2.10 



"J 
14S 
2.10 



30c 15c 

1.10 1.05 

4.15 31 

41 3.90 

9 7S 



101 95 

18 17 

431 375 

l! 1.30 
10 



25c 

1.30 

1 

50o 

25c 
50c 



20c 



1.40 
30c 
58 
Hi 



25c .... 
321 31 
51 41 



7} 5j 
25c 15c 



5S .... 
40c 30c 



4.85 3.95 
50c 20c 



75c 50c 

11 65c 

50c .... 

65c 50c 



4$ 4 
40c 25c 



90c 75c 
SI 84 



35J 33 

U 80c 



13} 10} 



1.20 
1.30 
60c 



75c 70c 
20c 15c 



16J 13} 



Sales at S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Friday A. M., Jan. 3. 

50 Alta 5@5$ 

150 Andea. 60@55c 

55 Alpha 10S@10S 

10 EeBt & Belcher ^17j5 

1390 Bullion 6@5£ 

160 Belcher 3.80 

J330 Bantou 3@2.85 

600 Baltimore Con 11 

885 Con Virginia 8k*Si 

900 California lOltail 

85 Chollar 42@41J 

475 Crown Point... 3. 65@3. 60 

310 Con Imperial 75c 

510 Caledonia 2.40@2.4E 

45 Confidence 9 

10 Challenge 1J 

260 Exchequer 4i@4.30 

740 Gould&Curry 9\<.<1' 

330 Hale & Nor 12t@12j 

575 Justice 3 . <Mh < l 

2435 Julia 4.15(«4 

40 Kentuck 4.85 

600 Kossuth 25c 

100 Lady Wash 6§c 

375 Lady Bryan W«u\m 

260 Leviathan 50c 

170 Mexican 32!® 33 

70 North CouVir.... 

145 N Bonanza 

1620 New York <.o,"7.V 

25 Overman Pi«'i>.' 

265 Ophir 3;V<:i.v 

265 Phil Sheridan 25i<V;uie 

1B5 Sierra Nevada.... i:.'.i"4;( 

275 Savage 11(/<K,: 

705 Silver Hill 2@2J 

75 Solid Silver 50o 

650 Trojan 30;.<::;>r 

285 Union Con 53(r<5-S| 

75 Utah 11J 

200 WellH-Fargo 20c 

950 Ward 75<",M«j 

200 Yollow Jacket 14 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

340 Argenta 2.70@M 

50 Albion 



250 Bechtel 60c 

215 Bodie 7?@S 

45 Belmont 60c 

670 Bulwer u 

360 Booker 50c 

90 Black Hawk 30c 

80 C Pacific lj 

100 Caledonia (B H) 1 

100 Day 25c 

35 Enreka Con 32 

900 Endowment 30@35c 

500 Goodshaw 40c 

640 Grand Prize 71@7i 

715 Hussey 30c 

200 Hillside 2.10 

600 Highbridge 2i@2.20 

500 Independence 1.10 

210 Jackson 8@7J 

10 Leopard 60c 

95 Manhattan 41(ffi4.35 

100 McClintoa .".25c 

230 Mono 2.90ta2.S0 

880 Martin White 4i 

50 Meadow Valley 20c 

100 Navajo 45 

20 Northern Belle 92 

310 Paradise 1.90@2 

360 Real Del Monte 2 

520 Raymond & Ely 8(2>7E 

515 Summit 1J@1 . 45 

50 Star 50c 

200 Tiptop 1.30(5)11 

20 Tioga Con 1.20 

Salimluy A. 11., Jan. 4. 

130 Alpha 10f@101 

260 Alta. 5i@5| 

90 Andes 60c 

50 Albion u 

600 Argenta 2.65(f'2.60 

560 Best & Belcher.. 184@1S| 

1315 Bullion 04(i*6i 

400 Belcher 3 . 85(^3 .SO 

15 Bodie 8£@8i 

900 Baltimore Con.. .1.40011 

125 Benton 308.10 

165 Bulwer 14i@15 

150 Black Hawk 10c 



1299 Con Virginia 9*©9 

665 California lli@Ul 

105 Confidence 9 

60 Chollar 450441 

235 Crown Point. ..3.6003.55 

800 Con Imperial 75080c 

330 Challenge 1.6501.70 

1065 Caledonia 2102.40 

50 Con Pacific 

100 Dudley .... 

260 Exchequer 4.30@4.40 

20 Eureka Con ^32$ 



'.iiwiiV 



5J 

.i3i@i3^; 

30c 



670 Gould&Curry. 

1025 Grand Prize... 

235 Gila 

80 Golden Terra.. 
610 H& Norcross.. 
40 HusBey 

1140 Highbridge.... 

110 Hillside 

80 Independence 1 . 10 

690 Justice 4i@4.20 

1380 Julia 404.05 

125 Jaokaon 8109 

5 Kentuck 3.95 

500 Kossuth 50c 

390 L Bryan 55050c 

900 Leviathan 55050c 

100 Lady Wash 80c 

120 Leopard 50c 

300 Mexican 32J032 

220 M White ,...404* 

160 Mono 2, " 

250 Modoc 

100 McClinton 25c 

1030 New York 75085. 

80 NConVir 5J051 

420 N Bonanza 50055c 

50 Northern Belle. 

80 Ophir 

305 Overman 9£ 

2200 Orimtal. 
110 PhilSheridan 30040c 

1075 Savage 120123 

50 Succor 20c 

160 Sierra Nevada. . . .420411 

1490 Silver Hill 1, 

50 Solid Silver ...50c 

150 St Louis 50c 

200 Star 50c 

635 Summit li 

100 S Bodie 25c 

125 Tioga Con 1.10 

1400 Trojan 40035c 

150 Union Con 57057' 

90 Utah 11; 

675 Ward 75@70c 

800 Wells-Fargo 15@20c 

745 Yellow Jacket... 14}013J 

Monday A. III., Jan. G. 

435 Alta -. 5i 

50 Andes 65c 

470 Alpha 103011 

310 Best & Belcher. . .1810181 

1200 Baltimore Con 1.40 

1140 Belcher 4J@4i 

2260 Bullion 7063 

870 Benton 303.05 

630 California 114 

1350 Con Virginia 9109^ 

1570 Crown Point 3303.90 

170 Con Imperial 80075c 

1800 Con Washoe 3.10 

275 Chollar 46044 

215 Challenge 1.6501.70 

120 Caledonia 2 . 8002 . 90 

300 Dardanelles 1 .15 

1600 Exchequer. 5(34. I__ 

775 Gould & Curry. . .10i@10| 
735 Hale & Nor m 

295 Justice , 

170 Julia 4J04.O5 

150 Kossuth 20c 

50 Kentuck 3.90 

400 Lady Bryan 55c 

1500 Leviathan 55@60c 

135 Lady Wash 90c 

345 Mexican 311032 

165 North Con Vir 5l@5£ 

765 N Bonanza 9Oc01 

250 New York 80c 

100 Occidental 

115 Ophir 351(c 

460 Overman 9J< 

100 PhilSheridan 

60 Solid Silver 50c 

115 Savage ldi@13: 

125 Sierra Nevada.... 413041* 
905 Silver Hill 1. 8501. 90 

1330 Trojan 55@50c 

160 Utah IV 

210 Union Con 57-L 

450 Wells Fargo 20015c 

145 Ward 75c 

35 Yellow Jacket 

AFTERNOON SESSION, 

100 Aurora T 40c 

205 Argenta 2.45021 

1050 Bodie 8109 

15 Bulwer 15 

200 Bechtel 60c 

200 Belle Isle 20c 

300 Black Hawk 20015c 

50 Booker 50c 

200 Caledonia (B H) 1 

75 C Pacific 1.70 

250 Dudley 90c 

750 DeFrees 10c 

100 Eureka Con 320321 

620 Endowment 35030c 

490 Grand Prize 6g 

250 Gila 25c 

860 Goodshaw 3O04Oi 

1000 Highbridge 2.4502; 

50 Hussey 25c 

405 Independence..". 1,05 

50 Leeds 1 

170 Leopard 50c 

20 Manhattan 4 

380 Mono.. 

30 Modoc 50c 

570 McClinton 25030c 

20 Martin White 4.10 

300 Northern Belle 9J 

350 Navajo 40045c 

800 Oriental li 

600 Paradise 2 

450 Raymond & Ely 605 

10 Silver King 8 

60 SXavier 1 

810 Summit 1 jftei .40 

810 Star „\50c 

350 Tuscarora 10c 

125 Tioga Con 1 

Tuesday A. '.!.. Jan. 7. 

110 Alpha 113 

215 Alta 5i@5i 

50 Andes 50c 

500 Baltimore Con 11 

295 Best & Belcher... 1810181 

850 Belcher 4.2004.30 

2490 Bullion 7063 

370 Benton 3.2003 

845 California lli@llj 



300 Caledonia 2.95@2.90 

1025 Con Virginia 9J@91 

610 Con Imperial 80@85c 

170 Chollar 45@45i 

710 Crown Point 3.90@3J 

200 Confidence 9 

70 Challenge 1.70 

1605 Exchequer. 43@4-65 

460 Flowery 50c 

905 Gould & Curry. . . ,10@10i 

970 H & Norcross 14@13| 

145 Justice 4.15 

610 Julia 3.95 

200 Kentuck 3.90 

475 Lady Bryan 55(a65c 

150 Lady Wash. 80c 

2105 Mexican 31<^30J 

6ti0 New York 80@90c 

2330 N Bonanza 1<»11 

155 N Con Virginia 55 

360 Ophir 33@33j 

410 Overman 10f<*9S 

225 Occidental 75@65c 

50 Phil Sheridan 35c 

145 Sierra Nevada 41 

900 Savage 13i@13i 

270 Silver Hill 12@1.80 

200 Sucpor 20@25c 

3320 Trojan 60(a50c 

55 Utah lli@lli 

165 Union Con 56 

200 Wells-Fargo 15c 

1745 Ward 75c 

570 Yellow Jacket... 145@14g 

AFTERNOON SESSION, 

1000 Argenta.. - -2.40 

125 Albion 50c@l 

390 Bodie S2@S£ 

30 Bechtel 50c 

1100 Belle Isle.. 20c 

165 Black Hawk 20c 

240 Belvidere 60c 

370 Booker 50(ff45c 

90 CPacific 1$ 

20 Dudley 90c 

365 Eureka Con 32J@321 

150 Gila 20c 

1010 Grand Prize 5g@5g 

600 Goodshaw 35c 

230 Hussey 25c 

75 Hamburg li 

800 Highbridge 2J@2.30 

550 Hillside 2@2.10 

575 Independence.. 1.05(Q>1. 10 

340 Jackson 9@S1 

25 Leopard 50c 

600 Leeds 1 

435 Mono 3@2.90 

170 Manhattan 4@4i 

250 McClinton 30(®40c 

50 MWhite 4.05 

40 Northern Belle 9J 

980 Navajo 45@35c 

1170 Oriental li@1.15 

150 Paradise 2@2.05 

370 Raymond&Ely....5iJ@5i 

500 S Standard 25c 

695 Summit U@1.40 

300 Tiptop li 

170 Tioga Con 1.10 

Wt'd'sdiiyA. M., Jan. 8. 

15 Alpha llj 

510 Alta 5J@5 

50 Audee 50c 

675 B&B 18£@18i 

1490 Bullion 63@6? 

535 Belcher 4<W3.90 

790 Beuton 31@34 

500 Baltimore Con. ..1.40iroli 

1 10 Chollar 44 

210 Con Virginia 85(^8* 

315 California ll@10i 

485 Crown Point... 3. 70<a3. 60 

590 Caledonia 23<afl2.80 

820 Con Imperial 8tKj»75c 

150 Con Washoe 2.10 

20 Confidence 9 

150 Challenge 1.70@1.6O 

1220 Exchequer 4£(£4.60 

200 Flowery 50c 

300 Gould & Curry 9f 

155 Hale & Nor 13@13j. 

175 Justice 4.05tff4 

1725 Julia 3.40@3i 

5 Kentuck 4 

100 Kossuth 20c 

100 KStar 2J 

860 Lady Bryan 70@65c 

55 Lady Wash 1 

1450 Leviathan 60@65c 

475 Mexican 31(g303 

2370 N Bonanza li@lj 

250 New York 75c 

210 North Con Vir 63@6 

425 Overman 9J@9i 

115 Ophir 33j 

150 Occidental 65c 

360 Phil Sheridan 40c 

200 Succor 25o 

50 Solid Silver 50c 

170 St Louis 40@50c 

200 Sutro 20c 

215 Savage 123 

675 S Nevada 42J@43| 

400 Silver Hill U@1.60 

2200 Trojan 50@45c 

490 Utah Hi 

285 Union 56i@56J 

700 Wells-Fargo 15@20c 

380 Ward 70c 

290 Yellow Jacket. . . .145(515 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

900 Argenta. 2.20@2i 

325 Albion 1 

760 Bodie S|j@Sl 

380 Bechtel 60@55c 

250 Black Hawk 20c 

100 CPacific 1.80 

50 Dudley 85c 

25 Eureka Con 32@31 

600 Endowment 30c 

100 Golden Terra 59 

635 Grand Prize. 5g 

300 Goodshaw 35c 

50 Gila 15c 

150 Hussey 15c 

150 Hillside 2.10 

450 Highbridge 2J@2.20 

100 Jackson 8i@8 

300 Leeds 1 

250 Martin White 4 

120 Modoc 50c 

30 Manhattan 4i 

250 McClinton 40c 

320 Northern Belle 9@8£ 

400 Navajo 40c 

640 Oriental 95c@1.05 

100 Paradise 2.10 

350 Raymond & Ely...6i@6g 

300 Summit li 

440 Star 50c 

500 Tuscarora 5c 

70 Tioga Con 1.20@1.15 

250 University 1 



SALES OF LAST WEEK AND THIS COMPARED 



Tlmrsd'y A. M., Jan. 2. Thursday A. M 

110 Alpha 101 "~" 

605 Alta 5@bl 

90 Best& Belcher 18 

390 Belcher 33@3.80 

2145 Bullion 4.80@5 

295 Benton.... 2.90@3 

1790 California 103@10i 

11S5 Con Virginia 7g@8i 

360 Crown Point.. .3. 60(^3. 65 

80 Cbollar ' 

75 Con Imperial... 
310 Confidence 

40 Caledonia 2.40 

100 Challenge 1.65 

300 Dardanelles 1.10 

225 Exchequer 4.20 

95 Gould&Curry 9(S9; 

155 Hale & Nor ill 

585 Justice 3.65 

2U0 Julia 4.70@4.90 

20 Lady Wash ....70c 

100 Lady Bryan 70( 

1075 Leviathan 45@50i 

100 Morning Star. . , 
355 Mexican 



Jan. 9. 

405 Alta 5i@5S 

220 Alpha 12(a>ul 

985 Best& Belcher.. 20i<*2K 

1535 Bullion 7i@7g 

350 Belcher 4.10(«4.15 

400 Benton 33@3.90 

1275 Caledonia 2|@2.60 

860 Con Imperial 85(&80c 

285 California 10i@10i 

835 Challenge 1.90(ff2 

1285 Con Virginia 81@S£ 

160 Confidence MftClOg 

90 Chollar 45 

240 Crown Point... 3. 80@3. 90 
300 Dardenellea 1.15 

1105 Exchequer 5@5i 

400 Flowery 50@40c 

1225 Gould&Curry. ...ll@Hfi 

485 Hale & Nor 141 

245 Justice .4.15@4i 

1595 Julia 3i@3.70 

275 Kentuck 4 

515 LadyWash. 1.20@11 

320 L Bryan 75(5)70c 

650 Leviathan 



MINING SH AREHOLDERS' DIRECTORY. 

Compiled every Thursday from Advertisements in Mining and Scientific Press and other S. F. Journal 
ASSESSMENTS-STOCKS ON THE LISTS OF THE BOARDS. 



Company. 

Alta S M Co 
Aurora T & M Co 
Belmont M Co 
Belvidere M Co 
Benton Con M(Co 
Best & Belcher M Co 
Bullion M Co 
Caledonia S M Co 
Champion M Co 
Crown Point G & S M Co 
Endowment M Co 
E.|iiit;ibleT&M Co 
Gould & Curry S M Co 
Hale & Norcross S M Co 
K K Consolidated 
Leopard M Co 
Lady Bryan M Co 
Martin White M Co 
McCrackin Con M Co 
Modock Con M Co 
Mono M Co 
North Bonanza M Co 
North Con Virginia M Co 
Panther M Co 
Resolute T & M Co 
Savage M Co 
Scorpion S M Co 
Silver Hill M Co 
Succor M & M Co 
Tioga Con M Co 
Tuscarora M & M Co 
Vermont Con M Co 
William Penn M Co 



Location. No. 

Nevada 13 

California 2 

Nevada 19 

California 2 

Nevada 1 

Washoe 13 

Nevada 8 

Nevada 25 

CaUfornia 1 

Nevada 36 

Nevada 2 

Utah 19 

Nevada 34 

Nevada 60 

Nevada 7 

Nevada 9 

Nevada 1 

Nevada 5 

Arizona 2 

California 

Bodie 

Nevada 



7 
2 

1 
14 
Nevada" 10 

California 1 
Nevada 36 
Nevada 4 
Nevada 5 
Nevada 21 

California 4 
Nevada 2 
Nevada 2 
Nevada 4 



Amt. Levied. 

1 00 Dec 10 

20 Dec 7 

50 Nov 27 

20 Dec 7 

50 Dec 11 

1 00 Jan 3 

1 00 Dec 3 

50 Nov 15 

25 Nov 22 

1 00 Dec 12 

25 Nov 21 

05 Nov 7 

1 50 Nov 18 

50 Dec 10 

1 00 Jan 3 

50 Jan 3 

50 Jan 2 

1 50 Dec 14 

50 Oct 22 

50 Nov 14 

50 Jan 8 

50 Dec 6 

1 00 Nov 21 

10 Jan 2 . 

10 Dec 28 

1 00 Dec 4 

10 Dec 3 

50 Jan 3 

50 Dec 19 

20 Dec 20 

05 Nov 13 

15 Dec 7 

03 Nov 22 



Delinq'nt. Sale. 



Jan 13 
Jan 10 
Jan 3 
Jan 20 
Jan 15 
Feb 6 
Jan 7 
Dec 20 
Dec 27 
Jan 16 
Dec 30 
Jan 2 
Dec 23 
Jan 15 
Feb 6 
Feb 6 
Feb 2 
Jan 21 
Jan 16 
Dec 23 
Feb 12 
Jan 10 
Dec 37 
Feb 6 
Feb 3 
Jan 7 
Jan 18 
Feb 6 
Jan 21 
Jan 21 
Dec 19 
Jan 9 
Jan 23 



Jan 31 
Feb 15 
Jan 27 
Feb 20 

Feb 3 
Feb 26 
Jan 29 
Jan 10 
Jan 16 

Feb 6 
Jan 21 
Jan 21 
Jan 14 

Feb 7 

Mar 5 
Mar 28 
Feb 24 
Feb 21 
Feb 15 
Jan 13 

Mar 4 
Jan 28 
Jan 17 
Feb 28 

Mar 3 
Jan 27 
Feb 10 
Feb 28 

Feb 10 

Feb 13 
Jan 13 
Jan 29 

Feb 9 



Secretary. 
W H Watson 
C V D Hubbard 
J WPew 
CVD Hubbard 
W H Watson 
W Willis 
Joseph Grass 
R Wegener 
Jno Crockett 
James Newlands 
R H Brown 
S Healy 
A K Durbrow 
J F Ligbtner 
B B Minor 
R H Brown 
C V Hubbard 
J J Scoville 
H A Whiting 
J WPew 
W H Lent 
W W Stetson 
G C Pratt 
J WPew 
J L Fields 
E B Holmes 
O E Spinney 
WE Dean 
W H Watson 
W H Lent 
M E Sperling 
E F Stone 
O J Humphrey 



Place of Bcbin&ss 

'302 Montgomery at 

312 California at 

310 Pine at 

312 California st 

302 Montgomery at 

309 Montgomery Bt 

418 California st 

414 California Bt 

203 Bush at 

203 Bush at 

327 Pine st 

45 Merchant's Ex 

309 Montgomery st 

58 Nevada Block 

310 Pine at 

327 Pine Bt 

Cosmopolitan Hotel 

59 Nevada Block 
211 Sansome st 

310 Pine at 

309 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery at 

309 Montgomery st 

310 Pine st 

240 Montgomery at 

309 Montgomery at 

31U Pinest 

203 Bush st 

302 Montgomery Sfc 

327 Pine s t 

309 California b> 

306 Pine s t 

328 Montgomery st 






OTHER COMPANIES-NOT ON THE LISTS OF THE BOARDS. 



Arizona S M Co 
Black Hawk G M Co 
Buckeye G & S M Co 
Catawba M Co 
Carmelo Bay Coal Co 
Challenge Con M Co 
Cherokee Flat Blue Grav Co 
Colorado River C & G M Co 
Eagle S M & M Co 
Father DeSmet Con G M Co 
Hazard Gravel M Co 
Lodi M Co 
Loyal Lead G M Co 
Magalia G M Co 
Mayflower M Co 
McClinton M Co 
McMiUen S M Co 
Mineral Fork M & S Co 
Nevada Gravel M Co 
Noonday M Co 
Oriental Con G & S M Co 
Orion M Co 
ru-ia-les G & 8 M Co 
Queen Bee M Co 
Summit M Co 
Summit G M Go 
Tiger M Co 
Wall Street Q M Co 



Nevada 4 

California 4 

Nevada 19 

California 1 

California 2 

Nevada 1 

California 40 

Arizona 3 

Nevada 11 

Dakota 2 

California 2 

Nevada 1 

California 2 

California 1 

California 2 

California 2 

Arizona 1 

Utah 1 

California 5 

California 1 

California 1 

California 4 

Nevada 2 

California 1 

California 6 

California 1 

Arizona 2 

California 4 



1 00 Dec 9 

25 Dec 10 

50 Nov 25 

20 Jan 3 

25 Dec 20 

20 Nov 22 

05 Dec 20 
50 Nov 29 
10 Nov 30 

1 00 Nov 13 

06 Dec 9 
25 Nov 20 
60 Dec 18 
10 Nov 22 
15 Dec 7 
25 Dec 24 
25 Nov 22 
02 Oct 31 
05 Dec 12 
10 Jan 2 
50 Nov 19 
25 Dec 12 
05 Dec 21 
2» Dec 2 
05 Nov 19 
50 Nov 27 

1 00 Oct 21 

10 Nov 23 



Jan 13 
Jan 11 
Dec 27 
Feb 6 
Feb 20 
Dec 23 
Jan 28 
Jan 2 
Jan 7 
Dec 18 
Jan 8 
Jan 7 
Jan 20 
Dec 27 
Jan 4 
Jan 28 
Feb 10 
Dec 7 
Jan 15 
Feb 6 
Dec 23 
Jan 13 
Jan 24 
Jan G 
Jan 6 
Jan 6 
Dec 10 
Dec 23 



Feb 3 
Jan 28 
Jan 16 
Feb 24 
Mar 20 
Jan 14 
Feb 18 
Jan 18 
Jan 28 
Jan 15 
Jan 24 
Jan 27 
Feb 11 
Jan 16 

Feb 4 
Feb 18 
Mar 6 
Jan 30 

Feb 5 
Feb 27 
Jan 13 
Jan 28 
Feb 18 
Jan 27 

Feb 4 
Jan 28 
Jan 20 
Jan 15 



W Willis 

B S Kellogg 

C A Sankey 

B S Kellogg 

John Greil 

W E Dean 

R N Van Brunt 

H A Whiting 

R H Brown 

T Widmann 

J T McGeoghehan 

O J Humphrey 

P M McLaren 

T A White 

J Morizio 

W H Lent 

A O McMeana 24 

Otto Metchko 

J Penteeoat 

G A Holden 

F C Mosebacb. 

P Conklin 

WL Oliver 

T A White 

J W Clark 

W H Lent 

W H Lent 

D K Tripp 



309 Montgomery at 

306 Pine st 

331 Montgomery at 

306 Pine st 

636 Washington st 

203 Bush sf, 

318 Pine st 

211 Sansome at 

327 Pine Bt 

404 Montgomery et 

318 Pine st 

328 Montgomery st 

318 Pine Bt 

113Leidesdorffsb 

'328 Montgomery at 

327 Pine st 

Safe Deposit Build 

328 Montgomery st 

511 California st 

310 Pine Bt 

327 Pine st 

28 Sansome st 

328 Montgomery at 

113 LeidesdorrT st 

318 Finest 

327 Pine st 

327 Pine st 

401 California st 



MEETINGS TO BE HELD. 



Name of Company. 

Argenta M Co 
Aurora Tunnel M Co 
California M Co 
Gila SM Co 
Iowa M Co 
Jefferson M Co 
Kossuth M Co 
Manhattan Coal MCo 
Natoma W & M Co 
Nevada Gravel M Co 
Oriental Con M Co 
Raymond & Ely M Co 
Raymond & Ely S M Co 
Sierra Nevada S M Co 



Location. 
Nevada 
Nevada 
Nevada 

Nevada 

Nevada 
Neyada 

California 

California 

Nevada 

Nevada 

Nevada 



Secretary. 
R H Brown 
C V Hubbard 
C T Gordon 
W W Parrish 
J H Leonard 
A Sankey 
E F Stone 
Henry Jung 
H P Livermore 
J Pentecost 
H C Hinnian 
J W Pew 
J W Pew 
W W Stetson 



Office in S. F. 

327 Pine st 

Cosmopolitan Hotel 

309 Montgomery st 

328 Montgomery st 

607 Kearny st 

331 Montgomery at 

306 Pine st 

306 Market st 

531 Market st 

511 California st 

327 Pine st 

310 Pine st 

310 Pine st 

309 Montgomery st 



Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Special 
Annual 
Annual 



LATEST DIVIDENDS— WITHIN THREE MONTHS 



Namb cf Company. 

Bodie G M Co 
California M Co 
Excelsior W & M Co 
Eureka Con M Co 
Golden Star M Co 
Indian Queen M & M Co 
Independence M Co 
New York Hill G M Co 
Silver King M Co 
Standard G MCo 



Location. 

California 
Nevada 

California 
Nevada 
Arizona 

California 
Nevada 

Arizona 
California 



Secretary. 
W H Lent 
C P Gordon 
G P Thurston 
W W Traylor 
J W Morgan 
A K Durbrow 
R H Brown 
F J Herrmann 
W H Boothe 
W Willis 



Office in S. F. 

327 Pine st 

23 Nevada Block 

315 California st 

37 Nevada Block 

318 Pine at 

69 Nevada Block 

327 Pine st 

418 Kearny at 

320 California st 

309 Montgomery st 



Amount. 

1 00 
1 00 

3 00 
25 
25 
25 
25 



Date 
Jan 13 
Jan 20 
Jan 15 
Jan 13 
Jan 14 
Jan 23 
Jan 20 
Jan 14 
Jan 21 
Jan 14 
Jan 21 
Jan 28 
Jan 28 
Jan 15 



Payable 
Dec 14 
Jan 16 
Dec 20 
Dec 20 
Dec 9 
Dec 17 
Nov 20 
Oct 24 
Oct 22 
Jan 13 



400 New York 60c 

850 N Bonanza 30@50c 

100 North Con Vir & 

190 Ophir 35@35 

130 Overman ft 

1200 Phil Sheridan 25c 

305 Sierra Nevada 41@42 

415 Savage 9i@10 

200 Succor 20c 

5 Seg Belcher 

500 Senator. 15c 

1580 Silver Hill 1£@1} 

350 Scorpion 50c 

140 Solid Silver 50c 

200 Trojan 30c 

350 Union Con 57i@58 

60 Utah 11 

1335 Ward 95cC" 

260 Wells-Fargo 35c 

30 Yellow Jacket 133 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

1229 Argenta. 2.65(32.70 

1230 Bulwer 14 

310 Bodie 7j@7[ 

850 Bechtel 60c 

100 Belmont 60c 

200 Booker 50c 

100 Belvidere 50c 

25 CPacific U 

100 Day 25c 

160 Dudley 1 

350 DeFrees 15c 

365 Eureka Con 32 

660 Goodshaw 35@40c 

630 GrandPrize ""' 

5 Golden Terra 

100 Hussey 25c 

250 Highbridge .21 

175 Independence.. 1.10@1. 15 

150 Jackson 18 

210 Leopard 60c 

500 Leeds 11 

900 Mono 2f 

200 Manhattan 4c 

45 M "White 4[ 

100 Modoc .55c 

235 Northern Belle. . . " 

230 Oriental 65@75c 

600 Paradise 2 

100 South Standard 20c 

400 Summit lj(a>l .35 

100 Sitting Bull 50c 

100 Star 50c 

250 Tioga Con 1.1""" 



85 Mexican 

150 Mides 50c 

100 Morning Star 3 

100 New York 70c 

230 N Con Virginia 6@fiJ 

815 N Bonanza 1J@1.45 

165 Ophir 34@335 

100 Overman 9| 

100 Occidental 70c 

260 Sierra Nevada 43 

325 Savage 13^132 

10 See Belcher. 20 

1330 Silver Hill 2@1.55 

100 Succor 30c 

680 Solid Silver 59c 

1020 Trojan 50c 

65 Utah 133<ttl3jt 

360 Wells-Fargo 20@15c 

750 Ward 75@80c 

300 Yellow Jacket.... 16@16i 

AFTERNOON BEHSION. 

2475 Argenta 1.30@1.60 

300 Belmont 55c 

125 Belvidere 50c 

100 Belle Isle 15c 

340 Bodie 8j 

50 Black Hawk 25c 

20 Booker 40c 

10 Bulwer 14i 

100 Bechtel 55c 

170 C Pacific 13@1.80 

200 Dudley 75c 

640 Eureka Con 311 

485 Grand Prize 5J@5i 

350 Goodshaw 35@30c 

600 Highbridge 12@2 

50 Hillside 2.10 

510 Independence 1.05 

90 Jackson 8 

325 Modoc 50c 

430 Martin White . . . .3.90@4 

80 Mono 24 

25 McClinton 40c 

225 Northern Belle 8@8i 

50 Navajo 45c 

300 Oriental 75c 

600 Paradise 2.20 

10 Raymoud&Ely 63 

300 Summit 1.60 

300 Star 50c 

225 Tioga U 

500 Tuscarora 5c 

300 University 1 



California Board —Latest Sales. 



Wcd'silny A. M M Jan. 8. 

30 Alta 5J 

130 Andes 50c 

400 Atlantic .80@81Jc 

HOOOAtlas 124c 

100 Almaden Q 30c 

60 Best & Belcher . .18g@18£ 

45 Belcher 4.10 

90 Bullion 6fl@6.60 

50 California ll@lli 



20 Chollar 43 

30 Con Virginia 93 

200 Cosmopolitan 20c 

200 Con Imperial 75c 

55 CrowuPoint 3.65@3{j 

15 Caledonia 2B 

190 Exchequer 4.30@4.40 

20 GrandPrize 5i 

50 Gould & Curry 93@9g 

55 Hale & Norcross. 13J@13g 



70 Justice 4.15(S4| 

30 Julia 3i@3.40 

150 Koaauth 20c 

200 Leviathan .....' 65c 

400 Mint 19(320c 

50 Mexican 31i<ep3I 

200 Mt Hood 1210150 

130 New York 80c 

300 N Sierra Nevada 5c 

200 North Carson 21c| 

30 Ophir 33* 

20 Overman 93 

30 Savage 12j| 

400 S Europa 90c<3>l 

400 Santiago Kai* 1 

1200 Trojan 40«?46c 

1200 UFlag 2c 

150 Ward 70c 

100 Wash Bon 20c 

30 Yellow Jacket 14J 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

105 Alexander 11@111 

1800 Atlanta 14c 

1075 Atlas 121c 

30 Alpha Hi 

225 Almaden Q 20@15c 

50 Alt* 5 

50 Bullion 7@7S 



Best & Belcher. . . 18i@18i 

Belcher 4@4.l0 

Benton 3! 

Con Virginia H@ty 

Crown Poiiit...3.85@3.80 

Con Imperial 80c 

California 11@114 

Challenge H 

Chollar 44 

Caledonia 2J 

Exchequer 43^4.60 

Gould & Curry... 10>> 10/. 

Hale & Nor 13^13$ 

Julia 3J(*3.40 

Justice 31 

Kossuth 19c 

Mexican 32 

Mono 21 

Mint 19c 

North Carson 24c 

NScorpion 25@15c 

Ophir 341 

Savage 13j 

Sierra Nevada 44 

Silver Hill 1.55(618 

Trojan 400:50c 

Union Con 57(357} 

Yellow Jacket 14| 



Pacific Board— Latest Sales. 



VFcd'sday A. M., Jan. 8. 

120 Alpha Ill 

100 Alta 5. 

255 Belcher 3.95 

425 Best & Belcher. ..18ji®18f 

540 Bullion tijj<a& 

220 Con Virginia S^@8j 

550 Caledonia 2j@2.80 

1320 Con Imperial 8l@79c 

130 Crown Point 3.70 

215 California ll@10g 

330 Exchequer 4.55@4j 

20 GrandPrize 5 

250 Gould & Curry. . . .10@101 

370 Hale&Nor 12J@133 

610 Julia 3.30@3g 

40 Justice 

310 Mexican 303(5 . 

20 New York 75c 

25 N Bonanza lj 

460 Ophir 34@34 ! 

90 Overman 10@9i 

150 Savage 12g<£13 

25 Seg Belcher 20 

140 Sierra Nevada.... 43@43j 

15 Silver Hill 1.55 

800 Trojan 45c 

120 Utah llg@lli 

20 Union Con 57 

75 Yellow Jacket... 1450151 



A FTERNOON SESSION. 

70 Alta 5i@54 

20 Andes 55c 

15 Belcher 4j<*4.10 

10 Beat & Belcher 191 

200 Benton 3J03J 

30 California 11 

5 Con Virginia 9 

75 Con Imperial 79@80c 

55 Caledonia 2.80@2.85 

55 Exchequer 4J@4.85 

30 Eureka Con 321 

50 Flowery 50c 

80 Gould & Curry lOg 

10 Hale& Nor 14 

20 Justice 4.05 

230 Julia 3i@3.45 

100 LadyWash 1.10 

50 Mackey 1J 

55 N Bonanza 1.45 

55 North Con Vir 6 

10 Ophir 311 

60 Overman 101@10 

100 PhilSheridan 50c 

50 Savage 131 

20 Sierra Nevada . . . .44@43J 

150 Silver Hill 1.65@1.70 

270 Trojan 47@48c 

120 Ward 74(*75o 

55 Yellow Jacket 151 



The Times- Review describes the late exceed- 
ingly rich strike in the 500 level of the Grand 
Prize. 



January it, 1879. 1 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



21 



INING SUMMARY. 



The Bodie Mine Owners Probably Safe. 

Geo. A. Notirse writes to the ButUiin on the 

■ubiect of the Bodie land titles. It has been, 
■"J I Tlie fulluwuij; iw mostly condensed (rum Journals i>ub- 

he says, many years a question in the land offices llahed in the interior, in proximity to ihoininujmentiuawJ. 
and eourts whether the United States act grant- 
ing the 10th and 36th scutum of each township 
to the State for school purpose?, would hold 
good when those sections included mineral lauds. 
In Higgina \». Houghton the Supreme Court 
of California duriug the April term of 1804 held 
emphatically that the 10th and 36th sections 
went to the State under any circumstances, 
whatever their character. The case of Sherman 
vs. Burch has been cited as affirming this decis- 
ion. That is a mistake, for in this case the 
laud in dispute was agricultural, not mineral 
Our legislature has claimed, in accordance with 
the Higgina and Houghton decision, in the "act 
regulating the sale of mineral lands belonging 
to the State," approved March 28th, 1874. 

The case moat in point is thus stated by Mr. 
Nourse. 

This question came up in the United States 
Land i imce, in the matter of the application of 
thu "Keystone" and other mining corporations 
for patents from the Uuited States for their 
mines and mining claims. These were in Ama- 
dor county, on a section 36. 

One Henry Casey had applied to purchase 
from the State the half of the section 3C, which 
embraced these mines, and the State of Califor- 
nia, through him and his counsel, opposed the 
issue of patents to the mining companies on the 
ground that the title of the whole section had 
already veated in the State of California by the 
school land grant of all sections lb* and 36. No 
means were left unemployed to impress this 
view upon the United States land officers. 

As attorney for the mining companies, I 
claimed, among other points, that mineral lands 

in sections 16 and 36, do not pass by virtue of 
that grant, but remain the property of the 
United States. After a contest of great bitter- 
ness the decisions of the Land Department of 
the United States, sustained this view. 

The United States Register and Receiver at 
Sacramento, the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office of the United States, and finally, 
the Secretary of the Interior, sustained the 
claims of the mining corporations, after full and 
elaborate argument at each stage of the proceed- 
ings, adopting this view of the operation of the 

school land grants. 

After the mining companies had obtained 

their United States patents, the grantee of 

Cary D. W. Gillett, armed with a State patent 

for the half section, brought suit against the 

"Keystone Con. M. Co.," in the Twelfth Dis 

trict Court, for the possession of their mine, 

which had been in possession of themselves and 

their grantees for over 20 years. 

Theaction was transferred to the United States 

Circuit Court (the plaintiff being a citizen of 

New York), and was tried during the past year 

before the Hon. Lorenzo Sawyer, Judge of that 

court, without a jury. It was elaborately 

argued in printed briefs, and considered by 

Judge Sawyer with even more than his usual 

thoroughness — the amount of stake being very 

large. He rendered an oral opinion thoroughly 

discussing the matter, and, as one of the grounds 

of his decision in favor of the Keystone Co., he 

held that the school landgrant of March 3d, 1853, 

was not intended to embrace, and does not 

embrace any sections 16 or 36 which are mineral 

lands. 

As yet there has been no writ of error sued 

out in this case. If it Bhall go to the Supreme 

Court of the United States, we shall probably 

have a final decision of this mineral land ques- 
tion. I cannot doubt for a moment that Judge 

Sawyer's decision will be sustained. 

Mining Share Market. 

The stock market continues dull and heavy, 
not the slighest animation being apparent. This 
state of affairs is in strange contrast with the 
excitement existing a few months ago, when 
everybody was going to make a fortune in 
shares. How the brokers make both ends meet, 
it is difficult to say, but it is not probable that 
we shall have any very sharp rises or falls for a 
while yet. 

As far as the Comstock is concerned the work 
of development continues, more particularly in 
the direction of pumping, however, and draining 
mines, with no present startling results in the 
way of dividends. The flow of water is very 
strong in most of the principal mines. The 
lightning drift of the Hale & Norcross will con- 
nect with the Combination drift in a couple of 
days more. After that it will probably take 
some time to get everything in readiness, when 
it will take but a very short time to rid the 
flooded mines of water and give a chance to get 
at and develop the ore prospects known to exist 
on the lower levels of both the Savage and Hale & 
Norcross mines. 



ination and survey of all outcroppings show a 
most favorable result. There are three dis- 
tinct veius — the east, center and west vein — 
;iv._r;tLing from four to nine feet in thickness. 
The quality of the coal is equal, if not superior, 



Spanish brigands have been troubling France. 
Ex-Governor Bravo, Mexican revolutionary 
leader, has been killed. 

It is semi-officially reported in Vienna that 
Russia has promised to evacuate Bulgaria and 
Roumelia the first of April. 

The plague in Astrakhan has lately increased 
in virulence. 



CALIFORNIA. 

AMADOR. 

PLYMOUTH.— The Jackson Di*j»ttrh of Jan. 
4th reports that the Empire mine is still pan- 
ning out her regular returns of $20,000 i 
000 each run. 

MajelblK QUAKRY. — LvU'jvr : The machinery 
has been thoroughly overhauled, new saws put 
in, T railroad iron laid for the cars to run on 
(which is a great improvement upon the old 
style of sheet-iron track), also new blocks and 
tackle rigged for the hoisting apparatus. On 
account of the lack of water, the saws are at 
present run by steam. The quarry, under the 
supervision of \\\ H. Coleman, is steadily 
improving, the marble beiug softer and whiter, 
according as the quarry is developed. There 
are now hundreds of tons of excellent marble in 
sight. 

Coney Mine. — Jackson Dittpatch, Jan. 4 : 
This mine, which has been lying apparently 
dead for about nine years, we understand will 
certainly be started up in a very short time. It 
is said that excellent new machinery has already 
been engaged and will likely be here in a few 
days. A mill site has also been located just 
below the mine, where an excellent water power 
can be obtained from the Moore mine ditch. 
The working of this mine, which our people 
have so long expected and desired, will prove of 
much importance to Jackson, as it will doubt- 
less give employment to quite a number of 
miners and workmen. The mine is principally 
owned by Dr. Zeile, of San Francisco, a man of 
immense wealth, and one of great mining experi- 
ence. The mine, we believe, is hereafter to be 
known as the Zeile mine. 

Other Mines. — The shaft of the Good Hope 
is to be enlarged and retimbered. The Moore 
mine ditch is now nearly ready for the laying of 
the pipe, most of which is now on the ground. 
It is reported that the Seaton mine, near Dry- 
town, has been bonded for five years, by the 
English company that own the Original Amador. 
Parties have been negotiating for some time with 
a view to purchase the Crown Point and Bonanza 
mines, at Drytown. Good rock is being taken 
from the 1100 foot level of the Oneida. Sul- 
phurets from this work are being hauled from 
this, mine to Garland's works, at Sutter Creek. 
CALAVERAS. 

The Upper Country. — Chronicle, Jan. 4: 
Six tons and a half of ore from the Buffalo mine 
near West Point, owned by Reed & Robinson, 
crushed in Harris' mill at Sandy Gulch, yielded 
35 ounces of gold. That is an average of about 
$100 per ton; 13*tons were taken out altogether 
and the rock divided between the two partners. 
We did not learn bow much the other portion 
of the ore paid. Nine tons of rock from F. 
Costa's mine, located near the North Fork of 
the Mokelumne, near West Point, yielded 61 
ounces — an average of about $121 per ton. 
Seven tons of ore taken from Bill Deryer's mine, 
in the same district, paid 42 ounces. 

EL DORADO- 

Kelsey. — Placerville Democrat, Jan. 4: An 
expert has lately examined the Gold Deposit 
mine. The tailings from the mill assayed $44 
per ton, and the sulphurets "went way up," 
some samples reaching the enormous sum of 
$24,000 per ton. It has been decided by the 
company to let the mill stand inactive until the 
concentrating works are up, as* it is evident 
that all the sulphurets are very rich, and so 
long as there is any loss of them there will be a 
corresponding loss of gold. In the meantime 
the sinking of the shaft will be prosecuted as 
fast as heretofore, so as to bring as large a 
body of ore in sight as possible. The Estrella 
mine will probably be placed on a working basis 
in a short time. From the well-known richness 
of this mine it is quite strange that it should 
have lain idle so long. The lode is one of the 
largest in this section. It has been prospected 
to a depth of 50 feet, with good prospects. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Gold in our Streets. — Herald, Jan. 4 
Some excitement was created in Los Angeles 
New Year's day by the discovery, on Olvera 
street, near the Hotel di Roma, in the public 
roadway, of placer gold, of a very promising ap- 
pearance, by Councilman John Shaffer. That 
gentleman's attention was attracted to some 
Bpecks of free gold which was made apparent 
by the wash of the late rains. He procured a 
shovel and pan and went to work. From a 
single shovelful he washed out wire gold to the 
value of 25 cents. Later in the day other pros- 
pectors started in, and one amongst them 
washed out a nugget of virgin gold which 
weighed $1.25. Claims have been staked out 
in the neighborhood of the discovery, and our 
very streets are liable to be uprooted in the 
eager quest for gold. Mr. Pelanconi says that 
when he was making the excavation for his cel- 
lar, free gold was frequently seen by the work- 
men. In every case actual washing out re- 
sulted in a yield of from three to ten cents a 
pan. It is just possible that the rocker and 
pan of the old mining days may soon become a 
familiar spectacle in our streets. We shall 
await future developments [with an absorbing 
but kindly curiosity. 
MONTEREY. 

Mount Carmel Coal. — Salinas Valley Index: 
The latest developments and a thorough exam- 



to any in the California market. It sells for 
$10 per ton in San Francisco, and the screen- 
ings brine >•>. which is better than Australian 
coal. It burns with a strong, steady tlame and 
is an excellent steam generator. At present 
the facilities for getting the coal to market are 
very primitive; but a railroad has been decided 
upon, which will better matters greatly. 
MONO 

The Bodie Chronicle of Dec. 28th reports as 
follows on the mines: 

Stani>ak». — Latest official report is that the 
crosscut east from the main shaft is in 85 feet; 
progress for the week 22 feet. At a point 70 
feet from shaft a ledge was cut which is three 
feet wide. The south drift from this crosscut 
has been advanced during the week 13 feet, 
total length, 63 feet; ledge four feet wide. The 
east crosscut being run on the 300 level 
south of incline is in 112 feet. Raise north of 
incline on same level is up 05 feet. The ledge 
is three feet wide and looks well. The stopes 
continue to look well, and yield the usual 
quantity of ore. Mill is running steadily. 

CON. Pacific. — The south drift in No. 1 is in 
30 feet and ore improving. Drifting for stations 
to take out ore. Commenced sinking this week 
in No. 2; down five feet. Main shaft down 159 
feet; progress this week, 12 feet. Work pro- 
gressing satisfactorily. 

Mono. — Shaft down 370 feet; bottom shows 
seams of quartz and much clay, and works well. 
The crosscut is in 130 feet; the face shows some 
small streaks of low grade ore, lying very regular, 
and dipping to the east. Indications are favor- 
able for nearing the vein. Everything is work- 
ing in excellent order, and a six months' supply 
of timbers, lumber and fuel is on hand. 

University. — Shaft down about 143 feet; 
drift in 145 feet. Good ledge which assays well, 
and the prospects are good. A whim will soon 
be erected. H. E. Ashley has been appointed 
Superintendent. 

Booker. — Shaft down 335 feet; rock hard and 
little water. 

Jutiter. — This mine is east of, and joining 
the Bodie. The shaft is down 136 feet, and is 
two compartment, 4x4L At 126 feet a fine 
looking vein of three feet, with promising 
assays indicating a valuable mine, was struck. 

Tioga. — Shaft down 360 feet in favorable for- 
mation; vein nice-looking, 13 inches wide in 
bottom, with fair prospects. West crosscut in 
38 feet; cut a six-inch seam of quartz, low assay. 
East crosscut in 45 feet; also have a seam in 
this cut, with low assays. The hoisting works 
are in good condition, and everything goes well. 

South Bodie. — Shaft, double, down 381 feet. 
At 351 feet past ledge; drifted 10 feet, then 
resumed sinking to crosscut at 500 feet. Pro- 
gress this week 15 feet, the rock being hard. 

California. — Shaft down 140 feet; east drift 
in 36 feet; west, 24 feet. 

Bulwer, — Ledge in south drift is two and a 
half feet wide and continues to look well. The 
Stonewall stopes also present their usual good 
appearance. Have shipped to date 405 tons of 
ore of good quality to the Bodie mill. 

NEVADA. 

Jacobs and Sargent. — Nevada Transcript, 
Jan. 3 : The shaft of the Quaker hill claim is 
down 200 feet, and a drift has been run along 
the bedrock in a westerly direction for 250 
feet. From the end of this an upraise is to 
reach the gravel. A few hundred feet from the 
present shaft, large quantities of gravel, paying 
as high as $5 per ton, have been taken out. 

Plum Valley. — A tunnel has been run 100 
feet ; a shaft sunk 80 feet. The ledge in the 
tunnel is two feet wide ; 100 tons of very good 
rock has already been taken out. All this has 
been done Bince June last. 

Items.— The Herald says, that it is not 
unlikely that the whole property of the Empire 
M. Co. will go to the hammer on the 18th inBt. 
The Nevada County Mining Association have 
leased the North Star mine, and will promptly 
resume work in spring. In 1871 this mine 
divided $76,500 among its shareholders. The 
Swiss American company will soon start up 
work again on the Victor, Massachusetts hill. 
The Pacific mine is being worked on tribute, 
the lessees paying 55% of the mill proceeds. 
There is no new development from the New York 
hill mine. The Rocky Bar is still taking out 
rich rock. The Scadden Flat M. Co. has com- 
pleted the erection of its extensive machinery, 
and will push ahead vigorously. Mr. John 
Pattison has gone [up near Omega to select a 
suitable place for starting a tunnel, on the 
ground of the Nevada B. G. Con. M. Co. The 
new mine on Little Deer creek, the Lincoln, has 
a ledge from 10 to 12 inches thick ; and will in 
a short time have ample water power. Four 
pans from Shearer & Co.'s claim in the Round 
Mountain mining district, lately yielded $1.50. 
It is said that signs of richness and permanency 
in this district increase daily. The Yuba River 
M. Co. have run a tunnel 300 feet under the 
river, at Long's Bar, and struck gravel that 
pays $3 to the pan. 

Mining Under Yuba River. — Herald, Jelti A: 
The following claims are located along the river, 
the object of whose owners is to reach the beds 
of the present river channels: Yuba, Long Bar, 
West Point, Nichols' claim, Olmsted, North 
Star, Sand, Flat, Ohio and Tennessee. These 
companies are all corporations, and the larger 
part of the stock is held in Grass Valley. There 
are many places under the late river channels 



which have never been worked, the tailings 
from the larger mining operations above coming 
down and covering them up. Formerly miners 
tried working these places by wingdams and 
other contrivances to turn the water when it 
was low, but the debris has become so deep 
that it took nearly all Bummer to get down 
where the good pay was, and then the high 
water would come and wash away the dame and 
fill up the holes so that the same work would 
need to be repeated each summer, and the 
grave] lias become so deep in the modern river 
beds that it made the season too short to enable 
advantageous work. Now a shaft is sunk on 
the bank and tunnels are run under the river 
bed, in search of pay graveL 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Placeb Minks. — San Luis Obispo Tribune: 
In the eastern portion of township No. 30 south, 
range No. 16 east, Mount Diablo meridian, 
about five miles S. \V. of the La Pansa ranch 
house, well up, and contiguous to the highest 
peaks of the Pansa mountains, on the headwaters 
of a creek emptying into the Estrella creek a 
couple of miles to the south of Pansa, the San 
Luis Obispo placers are located. They were 
discovered in last September by a man named 
Trujillo. As yet gold in paying quantities 
has been found only in Trujillo gulch and one 
tributary. From the forks of the creek where 
the discovery was made, gold has been found 
and claims staked off extending down the ravine 
a distance of three quarters of a mile, and up 
the north and south forks each, for perhaps 
half a mile near their sources where they de- 
bouch from the main sierra. The character of 
the gold is what is generally termed coarse, 
ranging from a color up to chunks of $20 and 
$25. A nugget weighing $25, with some parti- 
cles of quartz attached, and containing perhaps 
#20 of pure gold was found. There is, however, 
some mystery clingingto this nugget. The quartz 
ledges from which this placer gold has been 
washed have probably not yet been discovered, 
though some good looking rock has been located. 
On Dec. 16th a district was organized, to bo 
known as the San Jose and La Pansa; headquar- 
ters at La Pansa, Messrs. Carroll, Garcia and 
Lopes were appointed to draft rules and regula- 
tions. Says the Salinas City Index: The San 
Jose valley above referred to is situated on the 
headwaters of the Salinas river, 20 miles in 'a 
southeasterly direction, from Santa Margarita, 
ensconced between the La Pansa mountains on 
the north and east, and the Santa Lucia or 
Coast Range on the south, with the main branch 
of the Salinas river running through the south- 
erly and westerly portion. Surveyor E. K. 
Harris, of San Luis Obispo, says: "There are two 
routes leading to the new placers, either by the 
way of San Jose valley, where wagons will have 
to be abandoned, and horse or foot resorted to 
over the rough mountain trail already described; 
or the more roundabout way, by the Rocky 
canyon, Mitchell's and La Pansa. Those travel- 
ing in wagons I would advise to take the latter 
route, as a pretty fair wagon road leads to with- 
in one mile of the mines. 
SHASTA. 

Furnaceville. — Reading Independent, Jan. 
2: Clark & Co. have commenced work on the 
"Homestake" claim. This claim was the first 
location made in this district, several y?ars ago 
— then known as the "Silver Creek Ledge" — 
and, of course, as the district went down, the 
claim was abandoned. The mill or furnace then 
constructed (burned down in 1871 by mountain 
fires) was supplied with ore from this mine, the 
assays being favorable. The ore obtained is 
richly argentiferous galena; but the company 
used what they called a "water blast," and pro- 
duced a heat so intense that the valuables es- 
caped in the form of vapor. 

NEVADA. 
WASHOE DISTRICT. 

Con. Virginia. — Gold Hill News, Jan. 8: 
The southwest drift at the 2150 station of the 
C. & C. shaft is now in IIS ft., and is advanc- 
ing 4 ft. per day, the face still in blasting por- 
phyry. On the 1900 level the station in the 
joint east crosscut on the Best & Belcher line is 
completed, and sinking the winze to connect 
with the level below has been commenced. This 
crosscut will now be continued to the eastward 
to better define the eastern limits of the ore vein 
in that direction. 

Ophir.— Daily yield, 70 tons of ore. The ore 
stopes on both the 1900 and 2000 levels continue 
to show well and yield rich ore. The severe 
freezing weather still continues to interfere very 
materially with the operations of the Carson 
river mills. 

California.— Daily yield, 340 tons of ore. 
This ore is being reduced at the California mill 
as fast as it is extracted, and gives good re- 
turns. The UBual monthly dividend of $1 per 
share, aggregating $540,000, was declared yes- 
terday. The ore stopes still continue to look 
well. 

Julia Con.— But little progress has been 
made during the week in the main southwest 
drift on the 2000 level. The flow of water from 
the face is yet both strong and hot. The water 
as it flows from the drill holes shows a tempera- 
ture of 75° to S0°. The last set of holes fired 
in the face of the drift threw out quartz show- 
ing fine veins of ore which give excellent assays 
in both gold and silver. The flow of water is 
so strong and hot that the pumps are kept busy 
to prevent flooding. 

Sierra Nevada.— The stone foundations for 
the new air compressor are rapi dly nearing com- 

Continued on page 28. 



22 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January n, 1879. 



Mines and Works of Ahnaden.— No. 17. 

Translated for the Press from " Ankales des Mines." 
The results obtained from the Idria furnace 
have been already given. We will only recall 
that the loss of mercury was definitely proved 
not to go beyond 5.59% of the mercury con- 
tained. 

The Pellet furnace gaveforll4 tons of ore, of a 
contents of S.30%, containing 9,466.134 kilo- 
grams of mercury: 

Kilograms. 

Mercury coming: directly to the storehouse 7,0130.55 

80% of mercury from residues 470. 714 

Total 8,135.264 

Loss, 1.330.S72 kilograms, which is 1.16% of 

the ore, and 14.05% of the mercury contained. 

The expense of treating 114 tons of ore were: 

In the Idria furnace 371.80 fra. 

In the Pellet furnace 1,518.60 " 

The Pellet furnace was much inferior also to 
the Idria furnace from the point of view of 
hygiene; 35 workmen fell ill, attacked by ul- 
cerations of the throat, the first results of mer- 
curial vapors during the running of the new 
furnace in May and June, 

Condemned a first time, M. Pellet did not 
acknowledge himself beaten; in spite of the 
considerable expense of the first trial, in spite 
of the inutility of attempts to prevent a loss 
which did not exist, he obtained in 1872 a new 
series of comparative tests under the direction of 
MM. Luis de la Escosura, Inspector-General of 
Mines, and Federico de Botella, Engineer in 
Chief. The tests had two objects: First, to 
judge of the value of the Pellet system, which 
was once more, and this time irrevocably con- 
demned, and then to study for themselves the 
methods of treatment with the Idria and Bus- 
tamente furnaces. 

The details of these tests have not been 
communicated to me, they will make the 
object of an approaching publication of M. Luis 
de la Escosura : I know only that they havfe 
been made with a most minute attention, in 
order to determine with the utmost exactness 
the contents of the charges, their weight, the 
weight of the products of all kinds, that they 
have determined with precision the temperature 
of the gases and the rapidity of the current at 
different points of the entire apparatus ; finally 
that the losses of treatment have been found as 
5^% for the Idria furnace, and 4.95% for the 
Bustamente furnace. 

This last figure does not, it is true, represent 
the exact loss in the current operations, it was 
obtained in the experiments under conditions 
therefore of particular exactness ; but it indi- 
cates that which may be, that which should be 
demanded of the Bustamente furnace, without 
modifying either the treatment or the furnace. 
Not being able to reason upon the figures of 
the tests of 1S72, we return again to those ob- 
tained in 1869 by M. Monasterio. We can ar- 
rive with him at a deduction not only of the 
loss from the metallurgical treatments, as com- 
pared with assay values, but also by a sort of 
Bynfchesis, the loss as compared with all the 
mercury really contained in the ore. 
Let us see in what manner: 
The ore is a quartzite more or less impreg- 
nated, or a schist more or less spotted with cin- 
nabar. It contains carbonaceous matter (in the 
schist and in the black quartzite), a little iron 
pyrites, of native mercury, and of horn quick- 
silver. According to the manner in which 
these substances behave in the roasting, we may 
divide them into fixed and volatile substances, 
(mercury, sulphur, water, eiu). 

The residue of the roasting at the Idria fur- 
nace has given for 114, 0U0 kilograms of ore, 
102,336 kilograms of slag, or S9.768% of fixed 
matter and 10.232% of volatile matter. 

Or, if in the assays of the laboratory, the de 
termination of the richness in mercury is dif- 
ficult to obtain with a very great precision, it is 
not so with regard to the fixed matters, and we 
can from this last weight deduce that of the 
volatile matter. 

We will neglect in this calculation the pos- 
sible presence of a small quantity of native 
mercury and of chloride of mercury; we admit 
that all the sulphur disengages itself in the 
state of sulphurous acid; we do not take ac- 
count either of the sulphur of the iron pyrites, 
partially replaced by oxygen during the roast- 
ing, or the carbon of the ore; these two last 
simplifications will have for a single effect the 
augmentation to a small amount, the figure 
which calculation will give us for the mercury. 
We suppose then, in short, an ore reduced to 
these essential elements: 

Fixed matter, cinnabar, water. We can not 
take the water which is contained in the ore as 
it comes from the mine, and which exposure to 
the air in winter and in the times of rain can 
not but augment. The memoir of M. M. Ber- 
naldez and Figueroa gives upon this subject the 
following figures: 

Contents in Water. 

0.03% 

0.08% 

0.15% 

0.20% 

0.25% 

, 0.50% 

0.70% 

The proportion of water is the greater, the 
smaller the amount of mercury there is present, 
because the poor ores are argilaceous, and there- 
fore retain better the moisture than the rich and 
quartzose ore. Now the roasting of the ore in 
the muffle at a temperature gradually increasing, 
with a strong fire at the end of the operation, in 



such a manner as to expel all the volatile matter, 
has given for the different assays taken : 

Fixed Matters. Volatile Matters. 



, 1st Class 


70.90 


29.10 




80.09 
82.75 


19.91 




17.25 




89.29 


10.71 




93.40 


6.00 




96.00 


4.00 




97.00 


2.40 



China, 2nd Class. 

" 3d 

" 4th 

" 5th 

" 6th 
7th 

If now we subtract from the figures giving the 
total volatile matters the ones just given for the 
water, there remains for contents in sulphide of 
mercury: 

Sulphide of Mercury. 

Metal and China, 1st Class 29.02 

China, 2d Class 19.83 

3d " 17.10 

" 4th " 10.51 

" 6th" 6.35 

" 6th " 3.60 

" 7th" 1.95 

Solera 1.70 

And as the sulphide of mercury contains 
86.29% of mercury and 13.61% of sulphur, the 
different classes of ore contain : 

( 25.00 

17.00 
14.75 | • ,mle ln " 14.66 
9.07 

6.4S 



Metal and China, 1st Class 25.04 
China, 2d Class 17.11 

" 3d ■•.... 

" 4th " .... 
5th " .... 

" 6th " .... 

" 7th " 

Solera 1.46. 



While the 
I assays at the_ 
[laboratory 
have given: 



4.99 



1.03 
0.80 



We shall return to these last figures in an 
instant, in order to draw from them some con- 
sequences from this point of view with regard 
to the essays of cinnabar in the laboratory. 

Let us calculate now from the preceding 
figures the complete composition of the 114,000 
kilograms employed in the experiments in ques- 
tion. We find then: 



^«HU)^< 



* O O -K O 
3 CO lO O O 



,-tCMOOOOOO 
v, -z 1- n ?] O O -* O 



ocoo 



;~ T. V.' ?! SO rH r-t CO C» 



*;\~-; 



■fl <# 1Q IN CD 



z z z z ; z z z 

-' i /j r. h -ji -t C- ^ 



- •' :- ^_<"r. 3 i~ r. 



l3t class . 



Metal and China i 
China of 2d class 

" '* 3d " 

" ■' 4th " 

" " 0th «« 

" " eth " 

" " 7th " and solera 



The practical operation gave a residue of 
102,336 kilograms of slag, 368.92 kilograms 
more, consequently than calculation would 
indicate. 

Proportion of slag 1 produced 89.768°^ 

" calculated 80.444% 

Admitting even the most exact weighing of 
the slag, we might explain this very small 
difference, by the small amount of mercury 
retained in the slag. We can then with fear 
of being deceived in the least, take the figure 
of 9, 939. 048 kilograms as representing the 
maximum of mercury, contained in the 114 tons 
of ore. The loss from the assays would then be 
at most, 0.41% of the ore, or 4.75% of the 
mercury contained. Finally, the loss of the 
metallurgical treatment would be 1,002.264 
kilograms, out of the 9,939.048 contained, or 
10.08%, at a maximum. There is besides the 
amount of the loss determined by the contents 
as given by the assays, here 5.59%, which is 
truly entitled to be taken into consideration in 
an industrial operation. 

Let us return for a moment to the contents 
given by the assays, at the laboratory, in order 
to compare them with the results of the preced- 
ing calculation. The following table gives the 
absolute, A the relative loss from the assays ; 
we should not forget also, that these figures are 
the maxima. 



the method employed, was the distillation of 
ore mixed with iron filings. The assay marked 
B, was made at the laboratory, at Almaden, by 
mixing the ore with itB volume of quicklime, 
and one-tenth of its volume of carbonate of 
soda. The figures of the fourth column, are the 
result of the two preceding ores. We have 
always taken the higher figure, as the one 
approaching more nearly to the truth. The 
fifth and the sixth columns, show the losaes 
absolute, as well as relative, they increase as 
the richness of the ore assayed diminishes. 
This result is in accordance with that of the 
experiments of M. Glowaky, at Idria, cited by 
M. Huyot, in a memoire in the Annates des Mines 
in 1854, (Fifth serie, stome V.) and in general 
with the results of all assays, which give 
contents more and more inexact in the same 
ratio, as the ore becomes poorer. 

The reasoning which leads to this- conclusion 
is, it is true, not very convincing for the poorer 
ore, which may contain other volatile matters, 
as well as sulphur, mercury and water, in 
quantities hardly to be neglected in comparison' 
with the small quantity of mercury which the 
ore contains. 

Without then wishing to give to this discus- 
sion a weight which it in reality does not pos- 
sess, we limit ourselves by repeating in resume: 

1st. That the average contents of the ore at 
Almaden does not go beyond 8% to 9%. 

2nd. That the loss of mercury indicated by 
the assays does not go beyond 6% in the Idria 
furnace, and 5% in the Bustamente. 

3d. That the loss of mercury contained, in 
calculating this from the most elevated figure, 
does not go beyond 10%; and in conclusion, 

4th. That with regard to the apparatus in 
use at Almaden, while we cannot assuredly 
wish to call them less irrational, at the same 
time they do not present to such a high degree 
the defects with which they have been credited, 
or at least they have been much exaggerated, 
and that conducted with care, they give with a 
rich ore excellent results. 



E E,NQiNEgE\. 



The Strength of Locomotive Boilers. 



>n 



© © © ©1 00 00 t- 



tp 'ft t. ~ r. \z -: ; 



©©©©©©©© 



- -*> CO ■* <M rH © 



.ft to to co ci © m © 
^©o55©-^ooo 



© C. © -* C; C3 -* ' 



•> in t«- oo n oo o 



.-.^ CO ■*■ K 



Is this 3aying, for that matter, that they 
should give up attempts at improvement, or 
that other works as those of Idria should obey a 
prejudice in abandoning them for a long time 
back 1 We do not think so. The difference in 
the nature of the ores treated at Idria or in 
California, can suffice to explain the difference of 
the results obtained and the abandonment of 
the apparatus of Almaden at Idria and else- 
where. 

In the presence of the actual change of 
opinions of the Spanish engineers, upon the pro- 
cesses at Almaden, it is certain that a long time 
will pass before they dream of introducing any 
innovation of considerable importance; the great 
expense caused by the relative experiments of 
the Pellet system has put off for a long time 
all desire to make new trials. They do not 
give up, however, the idea of improvements 
which may be some time introduced' into the 
treatment. 

The following are some of the principles 
which M. Monasterio would have been in favor 
of applying when the opportunity offered to the 
solution of the problem: 

1st. Continuous roasting. 2d, Absolute 
separation of the gases of the fire from those 
coming from the ore. 3d. Condensation with 
the aid of water in tubes of iron lined on the 
inside in such a manner as to protect them 
against the action of sulphuric acid, and bathed 
on the outside with water. 4th. Artificial draft. 
5th. Separate treatment of the residues in re- 
torts of iron or clay. 

It is possible that some of the ideas of M. 
Monasterio may be applied when the results of 
the processes in use in America, on which they 
are actively engaged, are sufficiently known at 
Almaden. 

But it is not my intention to extend myself at 
length upon the reforms which exist only as 
projects, and whose trial consequently will not 
be made for a long time. 

[To be Continued.] 



The assay marked A, was made at the assay 
laboratory, of the school of mines, at Madrid ; 



The Clifton Copper Mines. — On the east- 
ern frontier of Arizona, at the town of Clifton, 
Yavapai county, near the New Mexican line, 
500 miles east of Yuma, is one of the richest 
copper mines on this coast. So easily worked 
and so rich are the ores that it ijays to transport 
them by team several hundred miles across New 
Mexico to Trinidad, Colorado, whence they are 
shipped by rail to Baltimore. The mine is in 
the hills some distance from the town, and the 
ore is carried in sacks on mule-back to the re- 
duction works, some nine miles by the circuit- 
ous trail. The proprietors of the mine are 
about to build a railroad of 20-inch gauge for 
the purpose of saving this expense. The road 
will be five miles in length and will be the first 
narrow-gauge railroad in the Territory. Capt. 
N. S. Davis, a pioneer Calif ornian and a well- 
known civil engineer, started shortly before the 
holidays to make the surveys and begin the 
construction of this road. He is under engage- 
ment for one year. 



Postmasters of the fourth class have been 
allowed commission on stamps sold. They will 
now be allowed commission on stamps cancelled 
on letters instead. It is believed that this 
change will increase the postal revenue about 
§900,000 per annum. < 

The Mexican government has made arrange- 
ments for the payment of the third instalment 
of $300,000 indemnity to American citizens, due 
this month. 



In view of the recent explosion of a loco- 
motive boiler on the Central Pacific railroad, 
near the Summit, the following extract in re- 

fard to the sources of weakness in locomotive 
oilers, will be read with much interwt by 
mechanics and engineers. The extracts are 
from a very suggestive article in the RaiWoad 
Gazette of Dec. 20th: Of late;years, owing partly 
to the increase in the size of looomotive boilers, 
and partly to the numerous explosions that 
have occured, the thickness of boiler plates has 
been materially increased. Tw»nty-five years 
ago there were few, if any, used thicker than 
5-16 in. Now, for the larger sizes of locomo- 
tives, plates are always g and in some cases 
7-16 in. thick. Double- riveted seams were sel- 
dom found in the older boilers, whereas, now, 
it is the rule for horizontal seams, and in some 
cases for all others; and in the larger 
engines now in process of construction 
on the Louisville & Nashville railroad 
the former are treble-riveted. The object 
of this increase in the thickness of the ma- 
terial and in the method of fasteni ng it togeth- 
er is to increase the strength of the structures; 
but a boiler is like a chain, the strength of 
which is only equal to that of the weakest link, 
and the misfortune has been that in attempting 
to increase in resisting capacitv of boilers, some 
of the links have been very much neglected. A 
house painter who should fall from a scaffolding 
by the breaking of a rope would quite naturally 
get a stronger one if the survived the fall; but 
the strong rope would be of little service unless 
it were securely fastened. Without knowing 
any confirmatory facts it is safe to venture the 
opinion that many more accidents of persons 
falling from scaffolds are caused by insecure 
fastenings than by insufficient strength in the 
members of the structure. The unfortunate 
man who undertook to lower his wife from the 
window of an upper story of the Southern 
hotel at the time it was burned was not mis- 
taken about the strength of the pieces of bed- 
ding which he tied together, but he had not the 
knowledge nor the skill to fasten them, and 
his knots slipped and his wife was killed. 

The weakness of boilers arises generally not 
from insufficient material, and perhaps not as 
often from inferior quality, as it does from the 
weakness of the attachments of the various 
parts. Unless there is some reason for a contrary 
opinion, it may be assumed that riveted work 
will always be done badly. The chief defects 
of such work are out of sight, and to a great 
extent undiscoverable after it is finished. Mis- 
matched and unfilled holes cannot be seen after 
the heads of the rivets are formed, and there- 
fore such work is less subject to criticism and 
inspection, and consequently there is little 
rivalry or pride of excellence in doing it among 
mechanics. Without the very closest inspec- 
tion it is always possible for a workman to hide 
his blunders and his carelessness. Then, too, 
there is no strong sense of the necessity of good 
work of this kind. There is generally a lack of 
what might be called mechanical moral sense in 
this respect, and an engineer who should insist 
upon having first-rate work would find it no 
easy task to have his orders executed. 

In the construction and attachment of the 
braces, there is more carelessness and ignorance 
displayed than in any other part of boiler con- 
struction. These are seldom carefully designed, 
and are nearly always left to workmen to ar- 
range. They are seldom deficient in the amount 
of material of which they are made, but very 
often in the methods of attachment to the shell 
of the boiler. 

In the attachment of steam domes there io 
more disregard of the laws which govern the 
strength of locomotive boilers than anywhere 
else. In order to give access to the inside of 
the boiler a hole from 24 to 30 in. in diameter 
must be cut into the shell. To make up for this 
there is the flange which is formed on the base 
of the dome, and, in some cases, another flange 
which is turned up on the plate which forms the 
shell of the boiler. Both of these are cut away 
by the rivets so that their sectional area is 
diminished thereby. What is needed here, and 
what is used in Europe, is a heavy wrought-iron 
ring around the hole at the baBe of the dome. 
This can be riveted either to the boiler shell or 
to the dome, and in this way it will reinforce 
the strength of the boiler which has been dimin- 
ished at this point. 

Broken stay-bolts we have always with us. 
Our present knowledge of the subject has not 
thus far supplied a remedy for the evil. All 
we can do is to supply such means as will en- 
able us to discover the breakage as soon as it 
occurs. Hollow stay-bolts plugged on one side 
are the surest safeguard. 

It is a little singular that more effort has not 
been made to overcome the effects of unequal 
expansion in locomotive boilers. If we reflect 
for a moment on what occurs when a fire ia 
built in a locomotive boiler filled with cold 
water, it will be seen that there must be enor- 
mous strain exerted on it before the whole of it 
becomes heated. The first effect of the fire is 
to heat the fire-box plates and tubes. These 
must expand before the outside shell is even 
warmed. The expansion due to a rise of tem- 
perature from say 70° to 400° is about 0,002 of 
the length of the tube, which if 10 feet long 
would therefore be increased in length nearly 
a quarter of an inch. This pressure must be 



January n, 1879. 1 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



23 



exerted against the front and back tube-sheets 
and transferred to the shell of the boiler. The 
front tube-sheet cannot yield excepting to an 
almost inappreciable amount. The outside 
■he!! will be stretched and tin- tubes compressed 
somewhat under the strain, bat after making 
allowance for these effects it will be seen that 
the greater part of the strain, due to the elonga- 
tion of the tube**, must !><■ exerted on the back 
tuW-sheet, and this in turn \* transmitted to 
-iheots and stay-bolt of the tire-box. h 
in no vender they are broken. 

It in remarkable that no one has devised any 
method of compensating or permitting this om- 
pansion of the tnbes without rabjecti 
other parts of the boiler to excessive sti 

It teems as if there were some grave di 
the prill imotiveboilere. 

Whether they can be remedied tt is too early to 
answer, but it is certain that much of the work- 
manship and the design of the details could be 

immensely improved without any increase of 

knowledge on the part of those who ha* e charge 
of their construction, excepting that whioa 
ood mechanic should have, and which 
can Ik: found in elementary books. 



Boulder County Ore Product for 1878. 

The .V ' r of l N comber 27th, is 

authority for the following: < >n account of the 
many channels for the disposal of ore, especially 
the smaller lotti of the higher grades— which in 
the Sggreate amount to no mean sum — it is 
somewhat difficult to arrive at the ore product 
Of a given section. Below, we give an approxi- 
mation of the larger amounts which have been 
purchased, or treated within the county and 
bandied as bullion, for the year just closing: 
lUiliion stttppsd bj agpiess up so tbs BOtb lD8t,93M,fil9.00 

touted la end at wiiO lo.ouu.uo 

Purchased '■> Boston .^ t Solorado Kuductiun 

Oompanjra works a( Black Hawk, fur 10 

months ending with October: Gold, 9178,- 

" 250,000.00 

Bsmei ut Argo works tor diquUib o( November 

and December (estimated) 50,000.00 

Paid i.\ Golden Smelting Company up to 23d 

Inst., net 40,123. r>o 

Add deduetioos fur loss mid treatment (esti- 
mated) 8,000.00 

Small lots of rich ores shipped to Omaha and 

Newark, soy 10, 

On 9 Shipped t.. other points, Buy 10,000.00 

Bullion sent out of the county other than by 

express, any 20,000.00 



UsEfdL lfJpO[\f«\JION. 



-The JUaiutfaciurer aw/ 

calls the at tout ion of manufacturers 

who cast heavy pieces of glass, and also uf 

millers, to a recent '■■ inian diseoveiy, that the 

line it Boux ia produced by those miUstonea 
which have tl -y texture and com- 

[»Hit ion, and the consequent discovery that 
ined in the same way aa the 
French burr, and similarly grooved on their 
surfaces, will grind better than the burr mill- 
stones. The oonseqneneA of this discover} hai 
been the invention of the glass miUstou 
made bj om, and used in Germany 

and Borkendorf with great satisfaction, as it is 
found that they grind more easily and do not 

heat tlie Hour as mueh as is the cose with the 
French burr stone, in grinding grist they run 

perfectly cold. In order to make such stones, 
blocks of glass id from six to twelve inches Wide 

ii' casl in a shape .similar to the French burrs, 
but more regular and uniform. They are con- 
nected with Dement in the same way, and dressed 
and furrow cut with picks and pointed hammers; 
but it is believed that' diamond-dressing ma- 
chines might be profitably applied. It is said 
that these millstones, made of Lumps of hard 
glass, do not wear away faster than the burr 
stones. Stones of four and a half feet in dia- 
meter, driven by six-horse power, ground 220 
pounds of Hour an hour, and did it remaining 
cold. The grist is drier, looser, and the hull 
more thoroughly separated from the kernel than 
ia the case with other stones. 



Total 8718,64£ BO 

This will probably be rather under than over 
the actual yield. The Trenton works at Colden 
are supposed to have purchased some ores in the 
early part of the season, and probably some of 
the Denver works bought small lots. The 
shipments to Omaha and Newark have fallen 
off largely of late years, but we are assured 
that they still receive occasional lots. Boyd's 
product all goes into the express company's 
shipments. But private individuals are often 
intrusted with small lots of bullion which are 
not thus accounted for. We are indebted to 
Prof, Cregory Board, of the Golden works, and 
to Mr. H. R. Wolcott, of the Black Hawk 
works, for some of the figures herein given. 

Silver Cuff. — Carl Wulsten, in a letter to 
the Denver Tribune, dated, Rosita, Custer county, 
Dec. Sth, says : Silver Cliff to-day is as good a 
mining camp as Colorado can show, and its horn 
Bilver deposits will yield millions before they 
play out, if they ever will. I declare that they 
will turn into good silver bearing veins when 
properly developed. I have found horn silver 
with the same rock as at the Cliff eight miles 
from the Cliff and have traced the belt- for 14 
miles now. I have sauntered along the obsidian 
belt and made several valuable discoveries since 
1 was last in the Cliff four weeks ago, and I am 
more than ever satisfied that the Silver Cliff 
mines will hold out, and that their belt extends 
southeast 14 miles. How does it happen that 
this same obsidian formation shows such regular 
extent and upon a straight southeast course 3" 
Is that evidence of a mere deposit or of a strati 
tied volcanic dike in regular extension ? 



To Prevent Rust. — Prof. Olmstead, author 
of "Olmstead's Natural Philosophy," gives the 
following as a preventive of rust: For farm 
implements of all kinds, having metal surfaces 
exposed, for knives and forks, and other house 
hold apparatus, indeed for all metals likely to 
be injured by oxidation or "rusting:" Take 
any quantity of good lard, and to every half 
pound or so, add of common resin ("rosin") an 
amount about equal to the size of an egg or less 
—a little more or less is of no cononsequence, 
Melt them slowly together, stirriug as they cool, 
Apply this with a cloth or otherwise, just 
enough to give a thin coating to the metal sur 
face to be protected. It can be wiped off nearly 
clean from surfaces where it will beuudesirablej 
as in the case of knives and forks, etc. The 
resin prevents rancidity, and the mixture pre> 
eludes the ready access of air and moisture. A 
fresh application may be needed when the coat- 
ing is washed off by friction of beating storms 
or otherwise. 



i 1 1 1 1 Luin, -Tins substance, though pre- 
pared by Mr. Hyatt, an American, as long ago 
as 1869, has only lately Wen turned to much 
practical account. It is prepared by subject- 
ing ordinary paper to the action of a mixture of 
uitric and sulphuric acids; washing this till all 
trace of acid disappears; drying the product, 
powdering the same, and mixing it with Cam- 
phor; drying ami repeatedly pressing this mix- 
ture, at last applying heat, when the celluloid 
appears in the form of transparent, elastic rods 
or slabs. As it is hard and not easily broken 
at ordinary temperatures, susceptible of high 
polish, and capable of being cut into extremely 
thin plates, yet elastic, and, at high tempera- 
lures, malleable, plastic and even fusible, it has 
become extensively used in the manufacture of 
the rims of eye-glasses, cheap ornaments, cigar 
cases, etc., and, when colored, as a means of 
imitating ebony, lapis lazuli and malachite. It 
has also been employed in making elastic belts, 
trusses, etc., and some of its applications in 
dentistry were patented as early as the year of 
its discovery. — Sfomtmr dea Prodttiia Chim. 

Uinsim; Wish Bottles. — Bottles, afterbcing 
some time in use, are apt to acquire a crust or 
coating very difficult to remove by ordinary 
rinsing. The Bohmisehe Hi •Thru hat gives tho 
following methods for removing such impurities: 
1st, soak them in permanganate of potash ; 2d, 
rinse the bottles out with a solution of equal 
parts of muriatic acid and water ; 3d, chloride 
of lime and water in the proportion of one ounce 
of the lime to two pints of water, and allow the 
bottles to lie in the solution for three or four 
days ; 4th, strong sulphuric acid may be put 
into the bottles, which may then be corked and 
allowed to stand for a day or two. This should 
remove the strongest crust. Either of these 
four methods requires great care. The chemi- 
cal should in all cases be carefully rinsed out 
with clean water, and it should be borne in 
mind that all acids are extremely injurious to 
clothes, etc. 

Cellulose Washers. — For the purpose of 
packing joints which are to be hermetically 
sealed, as retort-connections, couplings, etc., 
where vulcanized rubber has usually been used, 
cellulose appears to be even a better material. 
It is very cheap, readily absorbs water at first, 
thereby becoming pliable, and adapts itself 
more accurately to the surfaces it is intended to 
make tight. If a joint is exposed to steam, 
and is to be frequently opened, the cellulose 
should be soaked in oil. 



Si QAfi, — Is not sugar an objectionable article 
bf food? Ans. — No. Sugar is a carbodiydrate, 
and bears a close relationship to fat, only the 
latter contains about two and a half times as 
much force-giving quality. It is objected to 
sugar that it deranges digestion, obstructs the 
liver, spoils the teeth, and in many ways does 
harm — no doubt of it. Taken on an empty 
stomach, and in great quantities, sugar is injuri- 
ous; but as a part of our food, and used in 
moderation, sugar is not only harmless but very 
beneficial. Children should be allowed a 
reasonable amount of sugar as a part of their 
meals, but candies, as generally sold, made 
partly of sugar or glucose, and many poisonous 
ingredients, should never find their way into 
the stomachs of our little ones. So, too, the 
syrups made by the action of sulphuric acid on 
corn-starch, or the refuse in curn-stareh fac- 
tories, making a beautiful golden-drip syrup, is 
a very dangerous article, spoiling both stomach 
and teeth. In using sugar or syrups, choose 
only the purest and best sorts, otherwise mueh 
harm will come from them. As you value teeth, 
stomach, aud health, never use those articles of 
food manufactured in the chemist's shop; if you 
do, you must expect to sutler the consequences. 
Half the ills of life Mould lie avoided by careful 
attention to the wise choice and adaptation of 
food to daily needs. — Dr. Holbrook. 



Singular Occurrence. — The fishing smacks 
along the coast of Florida, report a stream of 
fresh or poisonous water along the coast, that 
kills all the fish in its range. They report sail- 
ing for 200 miles through dead fish, covering 
the sea as far as the eye could reach with all the 
varieties. Immediately on the shore the water 
is salt and natural, while leas than a mile off it 
appears of a red brick color. 



Defxh of Hoots. — Mr. Foote, in Massachu- 
setts, has traced out the tap root of a common 
red clover plant downward to the perpendicular 
depth of nearly five feet, Hon. J. Stanton 
Gould followed out the roots of Indian corn to 
the depth of seven feet, and states that onions 
sometimes extend their roots downward to the 
depth of three feet; lucerne, 15 feet. Hon. 
George Geddes sent to the museum of the New 
York State Society a clover plant that had a 
root four feet two inches in length. Louis 
Walkoff traced the roots of a beet plant down- 
ward four feet where they entered a drainpipe. 
Prof. Schubart found the roots of rye, beans and 
garden peas to extend about four feet downward; 
of winter wheat, seven feet in light subsoil, 
47 days after planting. The roots of clover one 
year old were three and a half feet long; those 
of two year old plantB four inches long. — Factory 
and Farm. 



Cement for Leather. — Of many substances 
lately brought very conspicuously to notice for 
fastening pieces of leather together, and in 
mending harness, joining machinery belting, 
and making shoes, one of the best is made by 
mixing ten parts of sulphide of carbon with one 
of oil of turpentine, and then adding enough 
gutta-percha to make a tough, thickly flowing 
liquid. One essential prerequisite to a thorough 
union of the parts consists in freedom of the sur- 
faces' to be joined from grease. This may be 
accomplished by laying a cloth upon them and 
applying a hot iron for a time. The cement is 
then applied to both pieces, the surfaces brought 
in contact, and pressure applied until the joint 
is dry. 



Q©OD hfE^tXH" 



Raw Onion (\s a Diurbwc. — Dr. G. W. 
Balfour, in the Edinburg Medical Journal, 
records three cases in which much benefit was 
afforded patients by the eating of raw onions 
in large quantities. They acted as a diuretic 
in each instance. Case first was a woman who 
had suffered from a large white kidney and con- 
striction of the mitral valve of the heart. Her 
abdomen and legs had been tapped several 
times, but after usiug onions as above she had 
been free from dropsy for two years, although 
still suffering from albuminuria. Case second 
suffered from heart disease, cirrhotic liver and 
dropsy. Case third had dropBy depending on 
tumor of the liver. In both of them the rem- 
edy had been* used with good results. Both 
had been previously tapped, purgatives and 
diuretics alike having failed to give relief. All 
other treatment having failed to give relief, re- 
course was had to the onions. Under their use 
the amount passed steadily rose from 10 to 15 
ounces to 7S or 100. — Herald of Health. 



Milk in Medicine. 

Milk and lime-water are now frequently pre- 
scribed by physicians in cases of dyspepsia and 
weakness of the stomach, and in some cases are 
said to prove beneficial. Many persons who 
think good bread and milk a great luxury ho- 
quently hesitate to eat it, for the reason that 
milk will not digest readily; sourness of the 
stomach will often follow. But experience 
proves that lime-water and milk are not only 
food and medicine at an early period of life, 
but also at a later, when, as in the case of in- 
fants, the functions of digestion and assimula- 
tion have been seriously impaired. A stomach 
taxed by gluttony, irritated by improper food, 
inflamed by alcohol, enfeebled by disease, or 
otherwise unfitted for its duties, will resume its 
work, and do it energetically, on an exclusive 
diet uf bread and milk and lime-water. A gob- 
let of cow's milk may have four tablespoonfuls 
of lime-water added to it with good effect. The 
way to make lime-water is simply to procure a 
few lumps of unslaked lime, put the lime in a 
stone jar, add water until the lime is slaked and 
of about the consistency of thin cream; the lime 
settles, leaving the pure and clear lime-water 
at the top. Great care should be taken not to 
get the lime-water too Btrong. Keep to the 
direction as to the consistency, and when the 
water rises pour it off without obtaining any of 
the lime. — Herald of Health. 



Profit on COINAGE. — After buying the silver 
for coinage, paying for the transportation, and 
allowing for wastage in the process of coinage, 
since the commencement of coinage of the 
standard dollar the Government has profited, 
between the legal tender value and the real 
value of bullion which it contains, to the 
amount of about $1,000,000. 



Cost of the Electric Light. —The cost of the 
16,000-candle power electric light at the Palace 
hotel, San Francisco, has been estimated as 
follows : Interest on the investment, wear and 
tear of the machinery, etc., is estimated at U5 
cents ; cost of coal, 40 cents ; carbon, 28 cents 
engineer, 10 cents ; oil, etc., 3 cents; total 
$1.25 an hour. 



A Locomotive in a Quicksand. — A locomo- 
tive went through a bridge on the Kiowa 
creek, 42 miles east of Denver, Col., last 
spring, and instantly disappeared in the quick- 
sand bed of the creek, baffling all attempts to 
recover it. For the past six months the search 
for the missing locomotive has been kept up, 
resulting in success a few days ago, when it 
was found buried 40 feet deep in the quicksand. 
The sand had been removed for a great number 
of yards around the scene of the disappearance 
of the engine, a hydraulic ram being used, the 
locomotive being found at last after a search of 
six months. The instance is one of the most 
remarkable on record. 






A number of horse cars were lately shipped 
to Calais, France, to be used in running' from 
that plaoe to the suburb of St. Pierre, over a 
road constructed with English capital. Orders 
are expected soon from other European cities. 



Electrical Test for Oils. — Prof. Palmieri, 
of Naples, has recently constructed an 
apparatus which allows the purity of oils to be 
judged of by the resistance that they offer to 
the passage of electricity. Olive oil — a poorer 
conductor than any other — is taken as the 
standard of comparison. The apparatus may 
also serve to reveal the presence of cotton in 
silk fabrics ; for a very small proportion of 
cotton in silk tissues greatly increases the 
conductivity of the latter. 



Ajitipicial Milk. — The American Journal 
of Pharmacy says the best substitute for 
mother's milk, according to Martiny, is the 
yolk of chicken egg, which weighs, on an aver- 
age, 231 grains, and when diluted with two 
ounces of water of about 100" and 76 grains of 
milk sugar, has nearly the same composition as 
the milk in the first period of lactation. Sub- 
sequently, the fat and protein decrease, and to 
one yolk may be added four ounces of water, 
and 100 grains of milk sugar. 



Weak Eves. — Bathe in soft water that is 
sufficiently impregnated with spirits of camphor 
to be discernible to the smell — teaspoonful of 
spirits of camphor to tumbler of water. For 
inflamed eyes use milk and camphor, adding a 
little more of the camphor than above. — Herald 
of Health. 

Raw Oysters are more digestible than cook- 
ed ones. It is believed by some that there is a 
true gastric juice in an oyster's stomach, which 
assists in digesting them. This, however, is 
not known with certainty. 

Turnips and carrots contain about 90^ of 
water. Their chief value is as a divisor of more 
nutritious food, to allow the gastric juice to act 
on it more readily, and as a relish, j 



Phosphorus a Cure for Sciatica. — It is not 
ordinarily wise to try remedies " for effecting 
cures which one finds in the newspapers. But 
where the ingredients are such that no harm 
can arise from their trial, and the source from 
which the prescription emanates is likely to be 
reliable, the afflicted will gladly try almost any 
remedy recommended. Dr. Volquardsen reports 
in Schmidt's Dictionary and the Pesth Medico- 
Charurg. Pres.se, both good authorities, from 
which the London Medical Record copies, a case 
of sciatica which lasted for two years and defied 
all treatment. He then arrived at the idea of 
trying the internal use of phosphorus, which he 
prescribed in doses of 15 milligrammes (about 
one-fourth of a grain) three times a day. Three 
days sufficed to obtain a marked improvement, 
and three weeks brought a complete cure. 



Brain Poisoned by Tobacco. — A peculiar 
case of metal hallucination has just appeared in 
Battle Creek, Mich., in the person of a young 
man about IS or 20 years old. He is a cigar- 
maker by trade, and has been in the habit of 
smoking from 10 to 30 "green" cigars daily. 
He has not drank liquor sufficient to produce 
delirium, and yet he is a raving lunatic, and 
suffers all the horrible phantasmagoria that per- 
tain to the fully developed tremens. He has 
worked in and used tobacco ever since early 
boyhood. Of late years he had used it exten- 
sively, principally in strong cigars ; and it is 
supposed that the nicotine has so poisoned and 
shattered his mind as to partly paralyze it, thus 
producing the disorder. He has been taken to 
the insane asylum at Kalamazoo for treatment. 

Deprivation of Solar Light. — It has been 
repeatedly claimed that depriving miners of 
solar light injuriously affects their health. This 
point has recently engrossed the attention of 
Dr. Favre at the Commentry collieries. He 
does not think that the mortality of miners must 
be attributed to the action of the deprivation of 
solar light upon the blood, and cites by way of 
confirmation that he examined the blood of 
certain of the horses which were kept under- 
ground all the year, and he found the normal 
number of corpuscles in the blood. 



Remedy for Color Blindness. — La France 
Meditate states that M. Delbceuf has found that 
if a person afflicted with Daltonism looks 
through a layer of fuchsiue in solution, his iu- 
firmity disappears. A practical application of 
this discovery has been made by M. Joval, by 
interposing between two glasses a thin layer of 
gelatine preyiously tinted with fuchsiue. By 
regarding objects through such a medium all 
the difficulties of color blindness are said to be 
corrected. 



A Man "who Burst. — A German medical 
journal gives an account of a man who literally 
burst from taking four plates of potato soup, and 
many (how many is not stated) cups of tea and 
milk, followed by a large dose of bicarbonate of 
soda to aid digestion. His stomach swelled 
enormously, and tore the diaphragm, causing 
immediate death. 



24 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January n, 1879, 






S'cMflFIGliRESf 



mm 



\V. B. EWER Senior Editor. 



DEWEY <5z CO., Publishers, 

A. T. DEWEY. W. E. EWER. 

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Our latest forms go to press on Thursday evening 

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DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DEWET. W. B. EWER. G. H. STRONG, 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
Saturday Morning, Jan. 11, 



1879. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITORIALS.— Walled Lakes ; Barnes' 
Foot-Power Lathe ; Machine Shop Rambles; Three More 
Railroads ; Screw Cutting Tools in Sets, 17. The Week ; 
The Silver Producers ; The San Francisco Chemical 
Works; The Annual Bullion Yield, 24, A Curious 
Water Elevator and Air Compressor ; Yokutsian Geo- 
logy ; An Improved Vertical Mining Pump, 25. New 
Incorporations; A Kingdom for a Process; Bullion Ship- 
ments, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Barnes' Foot-Power Lathe ; 
Elterich's Saw Cutting Tools, 17. Deane's Double Act- 
ing Vertical Mining Pump and Engine, 25. 

MINING STOCK MARKET.— Sales at the San 
Francisco, California and Pacific Stock Boards, Notices 
of Assessments, Meetings and Dividends, 20. 

MINING SUMMARY from the various counties of 
California, Nevada, Arizona, 21-28. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 29 and other pages. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— The Search for Refractory 
Ores; Defects in the Mining Laws; Cost of Artesian 
Wells; Refractory Ores, 18. 

MECHANICAL PROGRESS.— Dry Graphite fo 
Steam Cylinders; Locomotives Without Fire; A Magic 
Car; The Age of Steel; Composition of Bronze for Ma 
chinery; Preservation of Timber for Mining and Rail- 
road Purposes, 19. 

SCIENTIFIC; PROGRESS— An Alleged Dissoeia- 
tion of the Elements; Discovery of a New Mineral, 19. 

THE ENGINEER. —The Strength of Locomotive 
Boilers, 22-23. 

USEFUL INFORMATION— Glass Millstones; To 
Prevent Rust; Depth of Roots; Cement for Leather; A 
Lpcomotive in a Quicksand; Electrical Test for Oils; 
Celluloid; RinsingWine Bottles; Cellulose Washers, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Milk in Medicine; Artificial Milk; 
Weak Eyes; Sugar; Raw Onion as a Diuretic; Phospho- 
rus a Cure for Sciatica; Brain Poisoned by Tobacco; De- 
privation of Solar Light; Remedy for Color Blindness; 
A Man who Burst, 23. 

MISCELLANEOUS. —Snake River Again; Our Solar 
System; Why the Sierra Nevada is Larger than the Coast 
Range; Buying Gold at Boise, 18. Mines and Works of 
Almaden.— No. 17; The Clifton Copper Mines, 22. 
Boulder County Ore Product for 1878; Silver Cliff; Sin- 
gular Occurrence; Profit on Coinage; Cost of the Elec- 
tric Light, 23. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

itSTSilver Plated Copper Amalgamating Plates, San 
Francisco Plating Works, E. G. Denniston, Prop'r. flSTThe 
Frue Ore Concentrator, Adams & Caiter, Agents, S. F. 
iJSTPortable Engines For Sale, Joseph Enright, Jan Jose. 
jJSTDividend Notice— German Savings and Loan Society, 
S. F. flSTDelinquent Notice— Summit Mining Co. 



The Week. 

The week has shown us some little promise 
in the way of rain, but the envious north wind 
blew off the clouds before very much moisture 
was precipitated. Water is badly needed every- 
where except in the Comstock mines, where 
they have a surplus they would like to get rid 
of. Nothing startling has occurred in mining 
circles during the week just closed, nor have 
stock circles been at all agitated. S. P. Dewey 
has issued a pamphlet oa the bonanza mines of 
Nevada, in which he claims to expose gross 
frauds of the management. As far as we can 
see, from a casual examination of the pamphlet, 
it relates principally to a quarrel between the 
writer and the bonanza firm. It contains, how- 
ever, some diagrams of the mines, showing sec- 
tions of ore bodies, etc. A feature of the week 
we should all note with pleasure, as showing 
our standing as a nation, is the remarkable suc- 
cess of the funding scheme. In the first five 
working days of the new year, Secretary Sher- 
man sold .§28,000,000 of the 4% bonds, a fact 
unprecedented in the history of funding opera- 
tions. The banks which have 6% bonds on de- 
posit with the Treasury to secure their circula- 
tion, are withdrawing them to sell before the 
premium drops off, and replacing them |With 4% 
bonds. This exchange, which has just com- 
menced with regard to the series of 1867, will 
cause a demand of from $50,000,000 to $100,- 
000,000 of 4% bonds. 



The San Francisco Chemical Works. 

We have of late frequently called the atten- 
tion of our readers to some of the more deserv- 
ing technical industries which have grown up 
in our midst, and it is our intention to continue 
to do so from time to time, as we believe that 
it is to the interest of our readers and to the 
benefit of the coast that we should do so. 

In furtherence of this idea we recently paid a 
visit to the new establishment of the San 
Francisco Chemical Works, at Berkeley. These 
works are owned by Mr. Egbert Judson, well 
known to most of our readers as the inventor of 
the * 'Judson powder," and by Mr. J. L. N. 
Shepard. They were formerly situated in San 
Francisco, but as the city extended itself to the 
suburbs, it became necessary to find a more 
distant locality for them, and they were very 
wisely removed to Berkeley. The firm pur- 
chased what was formerly an island, about a 
mile north of the Berkeley landing, and is at 
present separated from the main land by a low 
and nearly swampy tract, but may be approach- 
ed either by the sandy beach or by a good 
wagon road. These works are upon the shore 
of the bay, and a good landing is obtained for 
sailing vessels by a wharf which runs out to 
deep water. 

The only products of manufacture at the 
present time are nitric acid, sulphuric acid and 
fine sulphur. Muriatic acid can be made at 
any time when it is called for, although there 
does not seem to be any very great demand for 
it on this coast, and the firm have already a 
quantity on hand sufficient to supply all the de- 
mand which may be made for a long time. The 
firm supply the U. S. Mint with the nitric acid 
for the separation of silver and gold in the bul- 
lion which they buy for coinage. The acid for 
this purpose is required at a strength of only 
38° B. (about 55% of HNO3 ), but it must be 
very pure and especially free from chlorine. 
The sulphuric acid which the mint requires is 
63° B. (about 82% of H2SO4.) Besides this 
they make stronger sulphuric and nitric acids 
for the manufacture of nitro-glycerine. The 
nitric for this purpose runs as high as 49° B. (a 
little more than 91% of HNO3 ), and the sul- 
phuric acid as 66° B. (89% of H2 SO* ). 

The Sulphuric Acid 
Is manufactured in the usual way by introduc- 
ing the vapors of burning sulphur, nitrous 
fumes and steam into condensing chambers of 
lead. The total volume of the lead chambers is 
150,000 cubic feet. The vapors after passing 
through these chambers escape through a coke 
tower through which water is constantly trick- 
ling. The diluted acid is concentrated in lead 
pans, which are economically heated by the 
burning sulphur, until the vapor of sulphuric 
acid begins to be given off, when the now par- 
tially concentrated acid is conveyed into a 
series of large glass retorts which are arranged 
upon a step-like furnace, so that the overflow 
from one retort may pass into the next succeed- 
ing by the action of gravity alone. The con- 
centrated acid finally flows from the last retort 
into a cooling apparatus, and finally from thiB 
into the reservoirs of lead, from which it is 
conveyed to the landing in pipes, thus avoiding 
expense in the handling of material. The 
fumes from the boiling acid pass into a special 
condenser made for the purpose, and are thus 
also utilized. The sulphur from which this 
acid is made was formerly obtained from Japan, 
it is now obtained in large quantities and in a 
state of great purity from Nevada. The acid 
at present made at the works is, we are in- 
formed by Prof. Rising of the University, of 
great purity for a commercial article, and con- 
tains hardly any traces of arsenic, the usual 
impurity of sulphuric acid. The method of 
concentrating the acid in use at these works is 
a continuous method, and is on this account a 
great improvement on the old one in use at 
most places, which necessitates loss of time and 
labor by the intermittent nature of the pro- 
cess. Mr. Judson, during a recent trip to 
Europe, bought in London at an expense of 
some §5,000 or $6, 000, a platinum still, made 
by a new method, in a solid piece of metal, 
without any of the usual jointings. By means 
of this apparatus, which will replace the last 
two of the retorts of glass, it is expected that a 
much more rapid concentration will be effected. 
The present capacity of the works is about 
1,400 pounds concentrated sulphuric acid per 
day. 

Fine Sulphur 
Is also manufactured from the Nevada sulphur, 
by a centrifugal mill, which produces sulphur 
almost as fine as flour of sulphur. This is 
largely used for the manufacture of ordinary 
black powder. 

The Nitric Acid 
Is manufactured from nitrate of sodium from 
Chile. The nitrate is kiln-dried by the waste 
heat of the furnaces, and the sulphuric acid 
used to set free the nitric acid is of 66° B., and 
consequently the nitric acid produced is much 
stronger than would be otherwise the case. 
Eight iron retorts, holding about 1,000 pounds 
each are used, and the nitric acid vapor from 
each retort passes first through a series of eight 
balloons of glass, then through 10 earthenware 
jars of 35 gallons capacity, and finally through 
another series of eight glass balloons before it 
passes out into the tall chimney and into the 
air. The distilled acid is then boiled until the 
chlorine is driven off. The nitric acid is not 
made by a continuous process as is the sulphuric 



acid, but a charge is run in each retort once in 
24 hours. The total amount of nitrate of soda 
used per day is about two and a half tons. 

The total cost of the entire plant for this man- 
ufacture is from $50,000 to $75,000, and in- 
cluding the land and other items represents an 
investmentof nearly $100,000. Thereare 12men 
employed in all. Mr. C. C. Judson is Superin- 
tendent. 



The Annual Bullion Yield. 

John J. Valentine, General Superintendent of 
Wells, Fargo & Co., has prepared the following 
annual statement of precious metals produced 
in the States and Territories 'west of the Mis- 
souri river, including British Columbia, and re- 
ceipts in San Francisco from the west coast of 
Mexico during 1878, which shows aggregate 
products as follows: Gold, $38,956,231; silver, 
$38,746,391; lead, $3,452,000. Total grosB re- 
sult, $81,154,622— being less by $17,267,132 
than for 1877. 

California shows an increase in gold of $2,068,- 
000, but a decrease in silver, etc., of $1,323,- 
000 — a net increase of $745,000. Nevada Bhows 
a total falling off of $16,398,341; the yield from 
the Comstock being only $21,295,043, as against 
$37,911,710 for 1877; a decrease of fe $16,616,667 
from that locality. The product of Eureka dis- 
trict is $6,981,406, as against $5,676,057 for 
1877; an increase of $1,305,349. Montana 
shows a marked increase, all in silver. Utah a 
falling of over $2,000,000, but nearly $1,000,- 
000 of it is caused by the reduced valuation of 
silver and lead bullion. Although Colorado 
shows $1,680,802 less than for 1877, the yield 
has been really greater, as reports to us for 1877 
duplicated the product of certain localities, but 
the duplication was not discovered soon enough 
to be corrected in our statement for that year. 






California 

Nevada 

Oregon 

Washington. 

Montana 

Utah 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Dakota 

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The bullion from the Comstock lode contained 
45% gold and 55% silver. Of so-called baBe 
bullion from Nevada, 30% was gold, and of the 
whole product of the State, 35% was gold. 

The gross yield for 1878, shown above,' segre- 
gated, is, approximately, as follows: 

Gold, 48% 838,956,231 

Silver, 48% 38,746,391 

Lead, 4% 3,462,000 



Total „ 881,154,622 

All probabilities now indicate that the, yield 
of gold and silver, from the sources named, for 
1879 will not greatly exceed 870,000,000. 

Following is the annual net product of lead, 
silver and gold, from 1870 to 1S79, of the States 
and Territories west of the Missouri river, ex- 
clusive of British Columbia and west coast of 
Mexico: 

Lead. 

1870 81,080,000 

1871 2,100,000 

1872 2,260,000 

1873 3,450,000 

1874 3,800,000 

1875 6,100,000 

1876 5,040,000 

1877 6,086,250 

1878 3,452,000 

The exports of silver during the present year 
to Japan, China, India, the Straits, etc., have 
been as follows: From Southampton, §29,000,- 
000; Marseilles and Venice, $1, 000,000; San 
Francisco, §9,000,000. Total, §39,000,000, as 
against $105,000,000 from the same places in 
1877. 



Silver. 


Gold. 


817,320,000 


$33,750,000 


19,286,000 


34,398,000 


19,924,429 


38,177,395 


27,4S3,302 


39,206,558 


29,699,122 


38,466,488 


31,635,239 


39,968,194 


39,292,924 


42,SS6,935 


45,846,109 


44,880,223 


37,248,137 


37,576,030 



An association offering homes in New Mex- 
ioo, along a line of projected railroad, isattract- - ~, . - 

ing some attention among Washington working- is authorized to act as agent for the Press, to 
men. I receive and receipt for subscriptions, etc. 



The Silver Producers. 

Resumption of specie payments by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States being an accom- 
plished fact, there is a propriety in asking afresh 
the question : Does the Government, in its coin- 
age enactments rob (as is alleged) the silver 
producers of a fifth of their hard winnings out 
of the bowels of the earth ? Or is the 20% dis- 
count on silver only the dropping of the value 
of silver in the market of the world, caused by 
over-production? 

These are questions of vital interest to every 
miner and stockholder in our great cordilleran 
industry. For if it be true that the consump- 
tion and demand for silver is actually in excess 
of its production at the present time, the Ger- 
man demonetization is to be considered as an 
adventitious drawback to our silver interest, 
which calls plainly for a remedy. Such there 
must, and is now, within the reach and power 
of our independent specie paying nation. 

A margin of one-fifth of the product, it will 
be seen, is equivalent to more than one-half of 
the net profit, which is thus lost, instead of re- 
warding the enterprising and energetic silver 
miner. 

For making the coin the United States pookets 
this fifth to the extent of its requirements for 
coinage. It matters little who gets the rest if 
the producer is robbed. Yet of the vitality of 
our silver interest there could be no better evi- 
dence than itB ability to bear up, as it has done, 
against odds. It would have shut down prob- 
ably, most of the copper, iron and coal mines in 
the country long ago. 

There are powerful conflicting interests rep- 
resented in trade, banking and mining, on the 
currency question. But the currency question 
is now a thing of the past. The voice of these 
conflictingjinterests has been heard so loudly and 
conflictingly through the press that to-day, 
when resumption is an accomplished fact, the 
currency question passes into history, leaving 
upon the minds of the people something like the 
impression of a muddle. It will be easier, per- 
haps, to deal with the silver question pure and 
simple. 

One of the prominent questions now before 
Congress — which met on Tuesday of the past 
week after its holiday recess — is the "ounce 
dollar" proposition, a remnant of the currency 
muddle. Probably it will be readily disposed 
ft if. It is based upon the assumption that sil- 
ver is not worth 412£ grains to the dollar of 
gold, but that it ought to be worth about 480 
grains, because 480 grains happens to be an 
ounce Troy. That, it is claimed, would make 
an "honest dollar." 

But the market determines what is an honest 
dollar; and tinkering legislation is not likely to 
improve its honesty. To have an honest dol- 
lar, the Government should make coinage as 
nearly free as possible; thereby allowing silver 
to find its own proper level, in relation to gold. 
Mr. Valentine's report on the production of 
gold and silver for the year 1878, does not bear 
out the assumption that the amount of the lat- 
ter is disproportionate to that of gold. 

Nor is it likely that the experience of the 
world for many centuries is to be set at naught 
touching the use of silver as a metal adapted to 
coinage, and for circulation as currency. Of 
the §300,000,000 of silver thrown out of circu- 
lation by Germany, only about a fourth now re- 
mains unabsorbed after three years' time. 

If all unnecessary and artificial restrictions 
in coinage, on the part of the American Con- 
gress were removed, the silver question would 
probably soon settle itself; and the silver pro- 
ducers would get what they most assuredly de- 
serve, their full and fair reward for engaging in 
an industry of the utmost importance to this 
Western country, and to the nation at large; 
beset at the same time with other than preju- 
dicial legislation in regard to coinage, and from 
its peculiar nature calling for the largest en- 
terprise, energy and capital combined. 

Our NexI 1 Decade. — Mr. Hittell divides his 
History of San Francisco into subdivisions em- 
bracing the "Indian Era," the "Spanish Era," 
the "Village Era," the "Golden Era," and the 
"Silver Era." It may be said that the same 
subdivisions apply to the coast at large, in a 
degree — only substituting "Hudson Bay Era'* 
and "Russian Era, " for Oregon and Alaska re- 
spectively. On the whole our coast is scarcely 
beyond the Village Era; but it is evident now 
that the Coming Era will be an era of towns. 
These towns will be built up by Railroads. 
Next week we will publish an original illustra- 
tion, showing to the eye at a glance the annual 
mileage of railroads built in this country, for 
the purpose of showing clearly, along with some 
supplementary facts, the coming era of the Pa- 
cific cost is an Era of Railroads and city build- 
ing separate and apart from San Francisco. 

Revisiting Bodie.— Jos. Wasson, well known 
to the readers of this journal in connection with 
Bodie district during the past year, returns 
there for the purpose of remaining for two or 
three months to come. He expects to note 
developments even more thoroughly than before, 
and furnish our readers with another series of 
letters. He is a hard worker — sees things for 
himself — and his observations concerning min- 
ing matters are accordingly trustworthy. He 



January IX, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



25 



A Curious Water Elevator and Air 
Compressor. 

Mr. John Patten, of this city, has recently 
obtained through the MiNih'i; ABU BoCKKTmC 
Pkk&s Patent Agency u patent on a device for 
compressing air and raising water. The air iB 
compressed by means of a descending column of 
water; the water is raised by the action of the 
air thus compressed. This is by no means a 
perpetual motion machine, although its work- 
ing is quite peculiar. The apparatus is divided 
into sections of two different kinds, one for 
compressing air and the other for raisiug water. 
Several sections of both kinds can be connected 
together in a series of short, independent com- 
pressors and lifts, and put in the form of a 
siphon, in which case the water will be raised 
to any desired bight by discharging it a little 
lower than where it is first taken from, and em- 
ploying more compression than lifting sections. 
In this case no water will be used but what is 
being raised by the apparatus. In localities 
where there is access of surface water, that can 
be used in connection with the water that is be- 
ing raised, the outlet will not have to be below 
the level of the inlet. The variation will de- 
pend on the amount of water used, and how far 
it descends while being used in the apparatus. 

For raising water out of rivers, etc., a certain 
amount of water will be raised a certain bight, 
by the descent of an equal amount of water 
through a greater distance than the ascending 
column is raised; or by the descending of a 
greater quantity through a less distance, and 
so on. No matter what form the apparatus is 
put in, the compressing sections will be put a 
certain distance apart, along the descending 
column of water; and the elevating sections 
will be put a little less apart, along the ascend- 
iug column. At each compressing section the 
water displaces its equal bulk of air, which is 
conveyed in an air-pipe to the elevating sec- 
tions, where the air displaces its equal volume 
of water; i. e., raises it from one section to the 
section above. The compressed air can be used 
tor running machinery instead of raising water, 
if desired. 

The air compressor consists of two chambers 
setting side by side, which rill and empty with 
air and water alternately. They are connected 
with supply and discharge water pipes at the 
bottom, and atmospheric air and receiving air 
pipes at the top. There is a Hoat in each cham- 
ber that regulates a set of automatic valves, 
situated at the bottom of the chambers, which 
allow one chamber to rill while the other is 
emptying, and as soon as one gets full and the 
other empty, they instantly reverse, causing 
the full one to empty and the empty one to till, 
and vise vwsa. At the top of the chambers is a 
set of ingress and egress valves (check valves). 
While one chamber is emptying, an ingress 
valve opens, which allows the chamber to rill 
with atmospheric air. When the action is re- 
versed, and the chamber begins to fill with 
water, the ingress valve closes and allows no 
air to escape into the atmosphere. When the 
air is compressed up to a pressure equal to the 
higbt of the column of water that is filling the 
chamber, an egress valve opens which connects 
the receiving air-pipe with the chamber, and as 
the water fills the chamber the air is displaced 
and forced into the air pipe, in which it is con- 
veyed to the elevating sections. 

The elevating section consists of two cham- 
bers, setting side by side, connected with sup- 
ply and discharge water pipes at the bottom, and 
supplying air pipe and the atmosphere at the 
top. There is a set of valves on top of the 
chambers, which alternately change the com- 
pressed air from one chamber to the other; 
while one chamber is connected with the atmos- 
phere, the other is connected with the com- 
pressed air, and vice versa. There is a set of 
ingress and egress valves at the bottom of the 
chambers, the former connecting with the sup- 
ply pipe and the latter with the discharge pipe. 
To illustrate the operation: Suppose one cham- 
ber to be filled with water and ^the other with 
air, the one that is filled with water to be con- 
nected with the compressed air and the other 
with the atmosphere; suppose the air to have a 
pressure of 50 pounds per square inch; this 
pressure on the surface of the water will force 
it downward through the egress valve, at the 
bottom, into the discharge pipe, in which it will 
be raised to a hight of 100 feet. While the air 
is thus forcing the water out of one chamber, 
the other will be filling from the supply pipe; 
as soon as one gets full and the other empty, 
the air valves instantly reverse, causing the 
same operation as just described. When the 
air has the above-mentioned pressure and the 
water is to be elevated to any very great hight, 
the elevating sections will occur once in every 
100 feet; if the pressure is less, they will occur 
oftener, the discharge pipe of one, forming the 
supply pipe of the one just above it. 

Persons desirous of obtaining further infor- 
mation on this subject, can address or call on 
the inventor, Mr. John Patten, 18 and 20 Fre- 
mont street, San Francisco. 



Yokutsiau Geology, 

The legends of all nations are verbal classics 
which often contain the substance of close obser- 
vation and intimate acquaintance with nature's 
phenomena. In this guise they are the aborigi- 
nal forms of science, without any separating 
line between the known and the uukuown. The 
aboriginal, the infantile, and tho uncultured 
mind alike find recourse and pleasure in a solu- 
tion of fancy. Theory is interwoven with nat- 
ual phenomena in a plausible way. 

"Why the Sierra Nevada is Larger than tho 
Coast Range," on our inside pages, is an amus- 
ing example of the manner in which our Cali- 
fornia valley Indians have bridged, with this 
ancient and time-honored bridge of fancy, a gap 
like the Yosomite valley which they found be- 
tween the known and the unknown. All the 
aboriginal nations have personified, in this 
manner, the mystery of the Great First Cause, 
and the origin of evil. Many of them deify the 
perfect man. For a people to have heroes and 
not to worship them, argues, indeed, a degree 



An Improved Vertioal Mining Pump. 

Among the great variety of Deane's patent 
steam pumping machinery for mining and other 
puposes, kept in stock by Messrs. Parke & Lacy, 
agents for mining machinery, No. 417 Market 
street, in this city, is the vertical mining engine 
and pump, shown in the accompanying engrav- 
ing. This machine is uuequaled for many situ- 
ations where water is to be taken from deep 
wells or from coutraoted shafts. 

The engine is usually placed over the mouth 
of the well or shaft, where it can be convenient- 
ly oiled and tiiuled, and is connected with the 
pump at the bottom by a properly guided rod. 
But one pipe is necessary in the Bhaft — that for 
discharging water. 

By a patented arrangement, the up stroke 
and down stroke, through the whole length, can 
be regulated with valves, which control the 
motion of the steam piston, but not by simply 
closing the ports, and compelling the engine to 
work against back pressure. 

These machines are made with any diameter 
of cylinders, from the smallest to the largest, 




<=■* JBWKIN.SC. 

DEANE'S DOUBLE ACTING- VERTICAL MINING PUMP AND ENGINE. 



The Post Office department has reduced the 
prices of stamped envelopes on an average 20%, 
the effect of which has been to largely increase 
the requisitions for the same. 

Cork refused to receive Gen, Grant. 



of stolidity and a lack of the capacity to appre- 
ciate adequately what is lofty and grand in 
character. 

Many are the pretty conceits of the Greeks 
accounting for the origin of the earth, and the 
heavens, and the waters around and under the 
earth. They were the results of the observa- 
tion and thoughtfulness of ancient philosophers 
intimate with nature. She led on to an abyss 
of darkness, and the poetic mind bridged it 
with a love story. 

Until the geologists, or the poets of the day, 

five us a better reason for the dominance of the 
ierra over the Coast mountains, the Yokutsian 
philosophy will hold. 

An Annual "Mining Summary" for the Pacific 
States and Territories, during the year 1878, 
will be published in the Mining Press shortly. 
There are not many persons in a position to 
realize what progress is really made in this vast 
region. 

By the time the Oriental mill, recently 
purchased by the Deadwood mining company, 
of Nevada county, is ready to commence work, 
the lessees will have a crushing of from 125 to 
150 tons ready, which, judging from past yields, 
should go as high as $40 per ton. 

Juan Mongasi would-be assassin of the 
Spanish king, has been executed. 



and with any desired length of stroke. The 
water valves and passages are easily accessible. 
These pumps work well when submerged. The 
engraving represents this double acting vertical 
pump and engine, 16-inch steam cylinder, 10- 
inch water cylinder, and 24-inch stroke. A great 
variety of these steam pumps are made, which 
we shall take occasion to illustrate from time to 
time. Any order can be filled by Parke & Lacy 
at short notice. 



Meteorological Summary for December. 
— The report of the U. S. Signal Service officer, 
of San Francisco, for the month of December, is 
summarized as follows: The mean hight of 
barometer for the month was 30.118; mean 
temperature, 51.6°; mean humidity, 59.4; pre- 
vailing winds, north; highest barometer, 30.477; 
lowest, 29.723; highest temperature, 68°; low- 
est, 40°; monthly range, 28°; greatest velocity 
of wind, 40 miles per hour; total number of 
miles traveled by wind, 5,529; total rainfall, .58 
inches. Rainfall in December during former 
years: 1871, 14.36 inches; 1872, 5.95 inches; 
1873,4.72 inches; 1874, .33 inches; 1875, 4.15 
inches; 1876, .00 inches; 1877, 2.66. 

The New York Sun speaks of the Sandwich 
Islands as having leaped, in the last half cen- 
tury, from barbarism to civilization. Queen 
Emma presents a greater advance over Kam- 
ehameha II. than Queen Victoria over William 
the Conquerer. 



Academy of Sciences. 

On the 6th inst. the annual election of the 
officers of the Academy took place. There was 
but one ticket in the field. All the old officers 
were re-elected, with the exception of Corre. 
sponding Secretary, in which position S. B, 
Christy succeeds A. B. Stout. The officers 
are: President, George Davidson; First Vice- 
President, H. W. Harkness; Second Vice- 
President, Henry C. Hyde; Recording Secre- 
tary, Charles G. Yale; Corresponding Secretary, 
S. B. Christy; Treasurer, Elisha Brooks; Libra- 
rian, Chas. Troyer; Director of Museum, W. 
G. W. Harford. Trustees— Wm, Ashburner, 
R. E. C. Stearns, Ralph C. Harrison. Geo. E. 
Gray, Thomas P. Madden, John F. Miller, B. 
B. Redding. 

In the evening the annual meeting was held. 
It was well attended. The President, George 
Davidson, occupied the chair. 

Mr. Ashburner chairman of the Board of 
Trustees, submitted a report, in which, after 
reviewing the sources of the finances and some 
other things, he took up the subject of 

The James Lick Trust, 
And said: "In March last the Judge of the 
Nineteenth District Court rendered a decision 
against the Academy in the suit pending against 
the Lick Trustees. An appeal has been taken 
in the Supreme Court, and the case is 
now Bet for hearing on the 16th inst., and so I 
confidently expect a speedy settlement of this 
question. A great deal of obloquy has been 
heaped upon your Board for the position it has 
taken in this matter, and the Trustees have been 
accused of throwing impediments in the way of 
an execution of an important trust, in which all 
the people of the State, and perhaps the world, 
are greatly interested. I trust you will all 
believe me when I assure you that this Board, 
under the guidance of its late President, has 
never been actuated by a spirit of captious 
opposition, but has always been united as one 
man in what we considered due to the Academy 
and ourselves as Trustees of its property. When 
the suggestion of a compromise was first made, 
we immediately recognized the propriety of 
such a step, and assisted in its being carried out, 
so far as lay in our power. But we did not con- 
sider it consistent with our duties as Trustees to 
relinquish on behalf of the Academy of Sciences 
a contingent interest in a property which we all 
hope will one day prove very valuable, without 
being authorized to do so by the Courts. The 
question at issue, therefore, is not whether a 
compromise shall be made, for this has already 
been assented to, but whether the money to 
effect this shall be paid out of the residuum of 
the estate after paying all other bequests, and 
in which the Academy jointly with the Society 
of Pioneers is interested, or by a pro rata upon 
the beneficiaries." 

The Finances. 

The Secretary reported as follows: Receipts 
for the year, .$8,668.35; disbursements up to 
December 31st, $7,171. 73; balance on hand, 
§1,496.62, wich two or three bills unpaid. How- 
ever, since the opening of the year, the society 
has been compelled to borrow money for several 
purposes, especially to square up a very heavy 
tax bill; so that the society is really in debt 
$3,027. 

The President's Report. 

President George Davidson, spoke of the 
effect of the hard times on the finances of the 
society. Notwithstanding, the ardor of the 
members had in no degree cooled. He referred 
with pleasure to the spirit of unanimity that 
had prevailed in all departments during the 
year. He hailed with satisfaction the advent 
of many new and energetic members. He 
spoke favorably of the action of the trustees in 
relation to the Lick Trust. All were waiting 
quietly for the legal settlement of the questions 
at issue; and meanwhile did not come before the 
public in discussions that could be of no avail. 
He spoke most feelingly of the late D. D. Col- 
ton, whose energy, sagacity and generosity, he 
so well knew from contact with him in the 
affairs of the society. Like reference was made 
to the late William Rulofson. 

B. B. Redding presented an interesting paper 
on the "Foothills of the Sierra Nevada," which 
we shall publish next week. 

Dr. Herman Baer was elected a life member 
as a recognition of his valuable services to the 
Academy. 

A vote of thanks was given to the Secretary, 
Charles G. Yale, who has for several years 
faithfully performed the duties appertaining to 
that office, as well as those of Secretary of the 
Trustees and Council, without any compensa- 
tion. S. R. Throckmorton, Edward Bosqui and 
Louis Sloss, were appointed a committee to 
audit the accounts of the society. 



Dr. Holdsworth has rich claims at Milton 
on the ridge 17 miles east of Forest City, and 
seven miles south of the Buttes and on the 
boundary lines of Nevada and Sierra counties. 
He has gravel claims and rock bearing gold, 
silver, and copper. The description of the 
claims in the Nevada City Transcript makes 
the Doctor look like a veritable Croesus. 



During the past six years the Bald Mountain 
Company, Sierra county, has paid dividends to 
the amount of 1664,000, which is $110,666 per 
year. Gold to the amount of $1,300,000 has 
been taken from the mine in that time, 



26 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January ii, 1879. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign PatentAgents 

OFFICE, 202 SANSOME St., N.E.Cor. Pink, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Rerjublic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws — agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
sooner than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free- 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaiuing a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gam. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
cany, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have uot only lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO. 
United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 202 Sansome St., N E. 
comer Pine, S, F. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 
thus, 



d£. 



o>l 



*t<ir*- r 2 U 



which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and 'without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA &• PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper, 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
&c, &C.; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO.. San Iranclsco. 



Boswell Pure Air Heater Company, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 
Eugene L. Sullivan, Pres : t. T. C. Winchell, Vice-Pres't. S. R. Lippincott, Sec'y. 

Authorized Capital, $100,000. Cash Capital, paid up, $32,000. 

o 

Manufacture and have for sale any size or capacity 

BOSWELL'S PATENT Combined Cooker, Heater and Drier. 

ALSO, BOSWELL'S COMMERCIAL FRUIT DRIER. 

ALSO, BOSWELL'S VENTILATING HEATER. 

Office, 606 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Patents for Mining and Farm- 
ing Lands. 

Having complete arrangements with compe- 
tent and reliable parties in Washington City, by 
which we are able to secure prompt and 
careful attention to law business there, we are 
prepared to assist Mill and Mine, Canal and 
Ditch owners in securing patents for their lands, 
mines and claims, in addition to our general line 
of patent business. 

Many who are acquainted with the manner 
in which this business has heretofore been con- 
ducted, (with or without assistance by local 
attorneys), will see at once the great advantage 
of patronizing an establishment that is thor 
oughly organized and has its representatives in 
Washington to look after and prosecute their 
applications before the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office. The business on this 
Coast will be attended to personally by a mem- 
ber of our firm, and satisfaction will be given in 
all respects. 

Correspondence from persons desirous of 
securing patents for Lands, Mines, Mill Sites, 
Canal and Bitch property, promptly attended to. 

Applicants for patents for mining and farm- 
ing land, whose claims have been delayed for 
any reason, will find it to their advantage to 
consult with us and' in case of necessity secure 
the services of our home and Washington branch 
agency. 

DEWEY & CO., 

Solicitors of Patents for Lands, Mines and In- 
ventions, Mining and Scientific Press 
Office, No 202 Sansome St., San Francisco 

Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 



Map of California and. Nevada ; The Public 
Lands; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall in Califor- 
nia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the State 
at Largo; 

Instructions of the IT. S. Land Commis- 
sioners.— Diffe rent Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions: Extending the 
Homestead Privilege; Lut One Homestead Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoining Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and' Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of Land Office and Commissions; Laws to Promote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Appeals; Returns otthe Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emption Benefit. 

Abstract from the U, S. Statutes.— The Law 
Concerning Pre-emption; Cbnce'r^ng'HomesteaXls; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous Provisions 
Additional Surveys; Land for Pre-emption; List of Calf* 
prnia Post Offices. Price, post paid, 50 cts. 

Published and sold by DEWEY & CO., S. F. 



Take the Paper that stands by your In- 
terests. 



DEFLECTORS, 
Or Perkins vs. Hoskin. 

H, C. PERKINS has for giearly two years be n threaten- 
ing orally and through the Press to prosecute all persons 
using my Patent Deflecting Nozzle, but for good reasons, has 
failed to come to time. I want miners to understand that 
Deflectors are still manufactured and sold, and that I will 
defend all suits and assume all responsibility. Mr. P. will 
confer a favor if he mil carry out his threat, as it will afford 
me the opportunity I desire to again try the case, and he can 
rest assured that projexsionul dodyes'VfUl uot again be allowed 
to temporarily thwart the ends of justice. 

I feel confident that the Supreme Court of the United 
States will ultimately decide in my favor. The superiority of 
my invention is shown by the means which Mr. P has resort- 
edto in trying to stop my sales. Mr. P. has so degraded him- 
self as to circular t; staU-inonts which he knows to ho false and 
malicious. Notwithstanding the great number of my De- 
flectors in use, I have heard of but one accident, and this was 
caused by the breaking of the iron lever from a defect in the 
material and great carelessness in. use. This circumstance 
Mr. P. has magnified into several deaths and numerous acci- 
dents. I refer to the following owners and Managers for 
testimonials as to safety and tlliuieucy. Some of them have 
used and discarded Mr. Perkins' device in favor of my much 
superior one. Messrs. Gould, Cold Kim, using 4; Spaulding, 
Dutch Flat, on different mines, 12; Stone. Gold Run, '2; 
Morgan. Little York, 6. Bisbee. Iowa Rill, 2; Briere & 
Wheeler, Bath, 2; McGillivry, Forest Hill, 4; Atkins, "Weav- 
ervillc, 2. I could mention scores of others, hut these are 
sufficient. 

Mr. Perkins' device is an infringement on a patent owned 
by Mr. Craig, who is about to institute legal proceedings to 
protect his rights. Miners are advised to stand from under. 
A word to the wise is sufficient. R. HOSKIN, 

Manufacturer of Machines for Hydraulic Mining. Address, 

No. 29 Garden Street, San Francisco, or Empire Foundry, 

Marysville, Cal. 



CAUTION 

To Hydraulic Miners. 

The public generally and Hydraulic Miners especially 
are hereby notified that any parties making or using the 
contrivance known as the HOSKIN DEFLECTOR will be 
prosecuted to the full extent of the law, said machine 
having been declared by the U. S. Circuit Court an in- 
fringement upon my patent, the 

Bloomfield Deflecting Nozzle. 

The public are also cautioned against using the Hoskin 
Deflector because of its danger to life and limb, this de 
vice having already occasioned several deaths and othe 
serious accidents. The BLOOMFIELD DEFLECTOR is 
entirely safe, its two and a half years use without acci- 
dent, as well as its construction, proves it to be a reliable 
contrivance. 

Any parties wishing to purchase the right to use these 
Deflectors can do so by applying to the undersigned, 

HENRY C. PERKINS, 
North Bloomfield, Nevada Co., Cal., Octo- 
ber 1st, 1878. 



South Pacific Coast Railroad. 

New Route (Narrow-Gauge.) 

Commencing Monday, September 30th, 1878, boats and 
trains will leave San Francisco daily from the New Ferry 
Lauding, foot of Market street, at 5:30 A. M.. 9:00 \. M., and 
4:00 P. M. for ALAMEDA, SAN JOSE, LOS GATOS, 
ALMA, and all way stations. 

.s tit-,'. ■* connect willi \KW \. W- train at Alma for Santa Cruz. 

EXCURSION TICKETS will be sola Saturday afternoons 
and Sunday mornings from San Francisco and Alameda to 
San Jose, Los Gates, and Congress Springs, and return, at 
reduced rates, good only until Monday evening following 
date of purchase, 

FEKIUES AND LOCAL TEAINS, DAILY. 

From San Francisco.— 5:30, t6:40, 9:00, 10:30 A. ar,; 1:30, 4:00, 

5:15, 6:30 P. w. 
From High Street, Alameda.— ,5:i0, 7:40, 9:04 a. m.; 12 m.; 
2:40, 4:00, 5:16, B;24r. m, 

iDaily, Sunday excepted. 
The Company are prepared to carry vehicles of nil kinds on 
the Ferry, to and from Sao Francisco, Alameda and Oakland. 
THOS. CAIITER, GEO. H. WAGGONER, 

Superintendent Gen'l Passenger Agent 



Prompt and Succkssful. — Messrs. Deioey <t" Co: — Qcv. 
tleincn: Your Circular letter, l'ith inst., informing me of 
successful termination of my application for patent re- 
ceived. Please accept thanks for the prompt and suc- 
cessful manner in which you have managed this business 
fours respectfully, J. H. Cavamaugh. 

Walla Walla, Dee. 24th. 



ijie$$; bpctojy. 



WSl. BARTLING. 



HENRY KIMBALL 



BARTLING- & KIMBALL, 
BOOKBINDERS, 

Paper Rulers & Blank Book Manufacturers. 

505 Clay Street,(southwest corner Sansome), 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Lewis Peterson. John Olsson. 

PETERSON & OLSSON, 

Model Makers, and Manufacturers of Em- 
blematic Signs. Models for the Patent 
Offl.ce, in Wood or Metal, a Specialty, 

NO- 328 BUSH STREET, 

Bet. Montgomery and Kearny, (up stairs), San Francisco. 
All kinds of tin, copper and brass work made to order. 



San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 

We have just added a large amount of new machinery of 
the latest and most improved kiud, and are again prepared 
to till orders tor Rope of any special lengths and sizes. Cou- 
3tautly on hand a largo stock of Manila Rope, all sizes: 
Tarred Manila RopeJ Hay Rope; Whale Line, etc , etc. 
TUBBS & CO., 
611 and 013 Front Street, San Francisco 



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Engraving done at Ihis office. 



MANUFACTURED BY 



H. ROYBR, 

Nos. 865, 867, S59 & S61 Bryant Street, Cor. Park Avenne 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



Mcdonald & Johnson's 

STYLOGRAPH, 

— OR— 

Rapid Letter Copying Books, 

Malting; Instantaneous Copying-same moment of Writing, 
without Pen, Ink, Pencil, or Copying Press, each com- 
plete, in all sizes, 

From 75 Cents to $4.50. 

Address. STYLOGRAPH CO., 

12 California St., San Francisco, 

Awarded highest prize at Centennial Exposition for 
fine chewing Qualities and txrdlrnce mid ku-ling char- 
acter of sweetening and flrtvnrlng. Tho best tobacco 
evor raado. As oiir hlite strip trade-mark is closely 
imitated on inferior poods, see that JacksOii's £est ia 
on every plug. Sold by all dealers. Send for sample, 
free, to 0- A. Jackson & Co., Mfra., Petersburg, wh 

L. & E. WERTHHBIMBR, Ag'tS, San Francisco 



January n, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



27 



Metallurgy apd Oreg, 

Nevada Metallurgical Works, 

No. 23 STEVENSON STREET. 
Near First and Market Streets. 

Ores worked by any process. 

Ores sampK-'l. 

Abbayihg id all its branohea. 

AnsJysu »<i" Oztoa, hdinenls, Waters, etc 

WOBMXRQ TB0tB UAIML 

Flans furnished fur the fnoet suitable process 
l«»r working Una. 

Special attention paid to Examinations of 
Mines; plans and reports furnished. 
E. HUHN, 

C. A. LUCKHARDT, 
Mining Engineers and Metallurgists 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO., 

Importer* of and Pim.1i.t-. in 

ASSAYERS* MATERIALS, 

CHEMICAL APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS, DRUG- 
GISTS' GLASSWARE AND SUNDRIES, Etc. 

512 & 518 Washington St., San Francisco 

\\V winiM .-ill the Rpecial attention of ASSsyelS, Ghent 
iHtrt, Mining Companies, Hilling Companies, Prospectors, 

■ '■ ,1 itocs "i Claj Crucibiea, Muffles, Pry Cups, 

etc , manufactured to the Patent Plumbago Cruci- 
ble Co., of London, England, for which we bave 
1 if Soli A gent* for t& Pacific Coatt. Circulars 
with prlosi will be sent upon application. 

Ah ■, to our Lir.'L' and well adapted stuck of 

Assayers' Materials & Chemical Apparatus, 

Having been engaged in furnishing these supplies since 

Un ant discover) ol mines on the Pacific Coast. 

ifcarour Gold and Silver Tables, showing tlic value per 
ounce Troj at dllferant degrees of Oneness, ami valuable 
I toll - tor Compulation ol sssayi in yraina and grammes, 
will bfl sent free upon application, 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO. 

A. J. Kalhtok, Prcs't. PrkntissSklhy, Supt. 

II. D. rxDKiuiiLL, Sec'y. 

Selby Smelt ing .and Lead Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Lead Pipe, Sheet Lead, 

Drop, Buck and Chilled Shot, Bar Lead. Pig 

Lead, Solder, Anti-Friction Metal, Lead 

Sash-weights, Lead Traps, Block 

Tin, Pipe, Blue Stone, Etc., 

Office, 216 Sansome St., San Francisco 

Refiners of Gold and Silver Bars and Lead Bullion. 
Lead and Silver Ores purchased. 

Shot Tower, corner First and Howard streets. Smelting 
Works, North Beach. 



LEOPOLD KUH, 

(Formerly of the U. S. Dranch Mint, S. F.) 

Assayer and Metallurgical Chemist, 

No. 611 COMMERCIAL. STHBET, 
(Between Montgomery and Kearny,) 

San Francisco, Cal. 



OTTOKAR HOFMANN, 
METALLURGIST and MINING ENGINEER, 

415 Mission St.. bet. First and Fremont Streets, 
SAN FBANCISCO. 
£2TErection of Leaching Works a Specialty. 
itST Leaching Tests made, 



TKOS. PRICE'S 

Assay Office and Chemical 
Laboratory, 

524 Sacramento St., S. P. 



O. F. Debtkbk. Wm. E. Smith, 

PIONEER REDUCTION WORKS, 

No. 19 Channel Street, San Francisco, Cal 
G. F. DEETKEN, MANAGER. 

Ugliest price paid for GOLD, SILVER and Copper Ores. 



METALLURGICAL WORKS. 

STRONG & CO., IO Stevenson Street, 

ORES SAMPLED, TESTED, ASSAYED. 



GU IDO KUSTEL, 

MINING ENGINEER and METALLURGIST. 

P. O Address: ALAMEDA, CAL. 



San Lorknzo, Dccomber (Jth, 1S77. 
Messrs. Dewby & Go. — Gentlemen: I received the Let- 
ters Patent for my invention on the 5th inst. , and beg 
to thank you for the gentlemanly and business-like man 
ner in which you have dealt with me from the beginning 
of my application. I shall always feci it a pleasure to 
recommend you to all I come iu contact with who need 
' Letters Patent. Respectfully, Wm. Dale. 



Ingersoll Rock Drills. 



In use in the largest and best 
.Mines of the Coast. 

HAS AUTOMATIC FEED. 

1 ias less Repairs. 

Is Lighter and more Easily Ad- 
justed than any other Drill. 
Our DRY AIR COMPRESSORS are the most Economical Compressors in the Market. 

MINERS' HORSE-POWER. 





■ This I'.iv. . idaptod to irorktnfl mines, hoi it 

Ing ooal or bonding material, etc, [twill fio the workol a 

SUmiii lint; >wMi..in In.- ..-xpL-usu. Onu 1 1,, rue uni 

. a .)> botat over 1,000 pounds at ndeoth uf 50» feel 

Tlie Power Is mainly built ol wrought Iron, and cannot be 
affected by exposure, The bolstlng-druiii Ea thrown out of 
geax by the lever, while the load la held in place with alirakn 
by the man bending buotet; The frame of the Bower is 
bolted to bed-timbere, thua avoiding all Cramc work. When 
required these Powers ore tnade In sections for packing. 



REYNOLDS, RIX & CO., 18 & 20 Fremont St., San Francisco. 



RUSSELL'S AMALGAMATOR. 




Patented June 25th, 1878. 



SAVE ITOTJtt GOLD 
And Also SAVE YOUR QUICKSILVER. 

The above Washer and Amalgamator with new patent Wire Bridge Quicksilver Boxes attached, can be worked 
wet or dry, either by hand, steam, horse or water power, and is easily taken apart and packed. For washing Pulp, 
Eartli, Gravel, Mill Tailings or Black Sand, it is without a rival. 

Has been Thoroughly Tested and given Complete Satisfaction. 



The entire Lining, Hanging Plates, Riffles and Boxes Amalgamated 

IS GUARANTEED TO SAVE THE FINEST OR FLOAT GOLD. 

Capacity, 30 to GO tons per day, according to size. For further particulars apply to 

J. MORIZIO, Gen'l Agt., 

Ruom 24, Safe Deposit Building, Corner Montgomery and California Streets, SAN FRANCISCO 



George Spaulding. 



Harrison Barlo. 



Solon H. Williams. 



fflachipery. 



PACIFIC MACHINERY DEPOT. 

H. P. GREGORY & CO., 

Cor. California & Market Streets, S. F. Cal 
[mportan <<i and Dealers in 

Machinery of all Descriptions. 

SOLE AGENTS FOB PACIFIC COAST Full 

J. A. Pay & Co.'s Woodworking Machinery, 

Bemeut & Sons' Machinists' Tools, 

Blake's Patent Steam Pumps, 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co.'s Rubber Goods 

Sturtevant Blowers and Exhaust Fans, 

Tanite Co.'s Emery Wheels and Machinery 

Payne's Vertical Engines and Boilers, 

Judson's Standard Governors, 

Dreyfus' Self Oilers, 

Gould Manufacturing Co.'s Hand Pumps, 

Piatt's Patent Fuse Lighters, 

Lovejoy's Planer Knives. 

A M'LL LINK OK 

Belting, Packing, Hose, and Other 
Mill and Mining Supplies on Hand. 

Jtarsend for Illustrated Catalogue. 



TH03IS0N & EVANS, 

(Successors to Thomson- & Parkrr.) 

Engineers and Machinists. 




BPAmmm, mm§ 




JVb. 4:14: CIjjlt Street, 



North Side, 

Above Battery, 



$an $vanei§qc* 




Address, JFR-A-SISIt 



01iiCi*uo» Xll. 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Eleetrotyping and Stereotyp- 
_ ing done at the office of the Mining 

and Scikntific Press, San Francisco, at favorable rates. 

Send Btamp for our circular and samples. 



Engraving. 



V OETA 



OBTAINED IN U. S. AND FOREIGN 

COUNTRIES; trademarks, labels and eopy- 

" i registered through DEWEY & CO.'S 

ng and Scientific Press Patent 

Agency, San Frauci&co. Send for free circular 



Steam Pumps, Steam Engines, Hoisting, 

Pumping. Quartz Mill, Mining, Saw 

Mill Machinery. Specialties. 

Plana and Specifications lot Machinery furnished. Re- 
pairing promptly attended to. 

110 & 112 Beale St., San Francisco. 

Established 1844. 

JOSEPH C. TODD, 
ENGINEER 



MACHINIST. 

Flax, Hemp, Jute, Rope, Oakum 
and Bagging Machinery, Steam En- 
gines, Boilers, etc. 1 ilso manufac- 
ture Baxter's New Portable 
Engine of 1877, of oneborse-jjow- 
er, complete for §125; can he seen in 
operation at my store. Two horse- 
power, §225; two and a half horse- 
power, §250; three horse-power, 
§275. Send for descriptive circular 
and price. 

Address J. C. TODD, 

10 Barclay Street N. Y.. or Patterson, N. J 



-V -STEAM ENCINES , "+- 



BERRY & PLACE:, 
— SAN FRANtlSCO.CAL — 

_ CIRCULARS SENT FREE TO ALL. _ 





THE IMPROVED 0'HARRA 

CHLOEIDIZING FUENACE. 

Patented Sept. 10th, 1878. 

Now in Opera.ion at the Extra Mining- Co.'s 
Works, Copper City, Shasta Co., Cal. 

Two men and two cords of wo jd roast 

Forty Tons of Ore in Twenty-four Hours, 

Giving a full chlorination (100 ) at a cost of 30 cents per 
on. Address, 

O'HARRA & FERGUSON, 
Fumacevillc, Shasta Co., Cal 
Or CHAS. W. CRANE, Agent, 

Room 10, Safe Deposit Building, San Francisco. 



Bodie Richmond Mining Co. 

President, I. F. M1LLEK. Secretary, O. D. SQUIRE. 

Incorporated November ICth, 1878. 
Office, Room 28, Stevenson's Building, S. P, 



28 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January ii, 1879. 



Continued from page 21. 



pletion. Repairing and retimbering and enlarg- 
ing the main south drift on the 1700 level is 
making the best of progress. Work is being 
pushed with great energy at all points. 

Savage.— The joint Hale & Norcross east 
drift, on the 2000 level, will complete a connec- 
tion with the Chollar- Combination shaft in two 
or three days more. 

Solid Silver.— The drift west from the 
winze below the main tunnel or adit level has 
cut through the east clay of the west ledge, and 
owing to a heavy seepage of water being encoun- 
tered, indicating that a strong flow of water 
might be tapped, it was deemed advisable to 
suspend further advancement in that direction 
until better preparations can be made for raising 
the water and sending it out through the tunnel. 

Morning Star.— The winze below the level 
of the south drift from the old tunnel is follow- 
ing down the east slope of the ore vein and is 
now down 44 ft. For several feet the winze has 
been cutting a fine character of quartz, carrying 
bunches and spots of rich ore. 

Sutro Tunnel. — Total length of the south 
lateral branch, 11S6 ft. Only about 200 ft. fur- 
ther will carry it through to the Julia shaft. 
The ledge formation passed through of late has 
been of the most favorable working character, 
allowing advancement at the rate of about 100 
ft. per week. 

Bullion. — The north drift on the 2400 level 
of the Imperial, which was re-started 80 ft. 
back from the face last week, is now steadily 
advancing in the west country rock on the west 
side of the vein, the face being perfectly dry. 

North Con. Virginia. — The foundations for 
the new machinery are all completed. The 
railroad track is also completed so that the new 
machinery can be unloaded as to need no second 
shipping or handling. 

Utah. — The surface improvements are mak- 
ing good progress. Sinking the main incline 
below the 1350 level is making the best of head- 
way, the bottom in good blasting ground. 

Ward. — The stone foundations are about 
completed ready for the reception of the new 
hoisting engines. 

Yellow Jacket. — The new shaft to-day is 
down 2129 ft. ; ground, hard blasting ledge 
porphyry, but working well, allowing of very 
good progress being made in sinking. , 

Union Con. — The repairs to the main north 
drift from the Ophir on the 1600 level are com- 
pleted. 

Hale & Norcross. — The progress on the 
lightning drift on the 2000 level was very 
materially interfered with by the rise of water 
during the first part of the week, occasioned by 
the breakage and stoppage of the Savage pumps. 
The water has, however, been drained. 

Best & Belcher. — The pumps are kept run- 
ning to their full capacity at the new shaft, and 
the flow of water is yet so steady and strong 
that but slow progress can be made with the 
sinking. . 

Mexican. — The main north drift on the 2000 
level is making steady progress, the face in 
somewhat softer ground. During the first part 
of the week strong indications of water were 
encountered in the face, and drill holes have 
been driven ahead to prevent the flooding of the 
mine should a large body be struck. 

Gould & Curry. — Sinking the new shaft has 
been very much impeded by a strong flow of 
water, which keeps the donkey pumps running 
to their full capacity. 

Chollar-Combination Shaft. — Laying the 
foundations for the new air compressor is mak- 
ing good progress. The flow of water is still 
quite strong, amounting to about SO, 000 gallons 
per day. 

Trojan. — The ore stopes recently opened at 
the top of the upraise on the second station 
level are opening out finely, the ore being of a 
good milling quality. 

Belcher.— The south drift on the 2360 level 
is steadily advancing, with very favorable pros- 
pects. Opening the new station at the 2560 
level is making good progress. As soon as the 
station and ore chutes are completed, prospect- 
ing drifts will be started on that level and sink- 
ing the main incline will be resumed. 

Silver Hill. — The east drift on the 1100 
level is now in 60 ft., the face in soft vein 
matter, streaked with good quartz, carrying 
strong indication of good ore when the main 
ledge is reached. 

Overman — Sinking the new shaft is making 
the best of progress. Sinking the vertical winze 
below the 1600 level is also making good head- 
way; it is now down 18 ft. 

Con. Imperial. — The east crosscut from the 
joint Alpha winze on the 2400 level is making 
good headway, the face in vein material. 

TEM PAHUTE DISTRICT. 

Mr. Young informs the Tybo Sun that the 
outlook is especially bright. The Wyandotte is 
pushing work rapidly in all their mines, under 
the supervision of Mr. G. C Bobbins of Eureka. 
A large amount of very high-grade ore has been 
extracted, and is now lying on the dump. 
There is ore enough in sight, in the company's 
mines, to run a 20-stamp mill for a year, and he 
thinks a mill will shortly be erected to reduce 
it. About 40 men are in the employ of the 
company, under the foremanship of Mr. John 
Killen. George Russell has gone to Philadel- 
phia to negotiate the sale of some of the mines 
.owned by David Service and himself. 
LODI DISTRICT, 

Lodi. — Grants ville Sim, Dec. 28: The Lodi 
mine is situated in Lodi district, about 27 miles 
from Grantsville. It is owned by J. E. Hol- 



man & Co. The company have sunk three 
shafts on their ledge, 140, 65 and 45 feet in 
depth, respectively, all in good ore. They have 
from 180 to 190 tons of ore on the dump, and 
can take out from 10 to 15 tons daily, or, in 
other words, could keep a good sized furnace 
running. This is one of the first mines located 
in the district. 

ARIZONA. 

Tiptop. — Arizona Miner, Jan. 3: The Tip- 
top mine, as work progresses, continues to 
widen and satisfy every person familiar with its 
history that it is a genuine fissure vein, and 
will run down even to the very roots of the gi- 
gantic mountains in which it is situated. The 
company's mill keeps steadily at work on ore 
from the mine, and is turning out on an average 
$45,000 per month. In fact, all the mine own- 
ers in the district who are working their vari- 
ous claims are more than satisfied with their 
prospects, and entertain none but the most san- 
guine expectations for the future of their bo- 
nanzas. 

Crosscut. — Jake Marks returned yesterday 
from Humbug district, where he has a gang of 
men drifting on the Crosscut mine, on jthe 100 
level, each way from the shaft, along the ledge, 
ar"iich is from six to twelve feet wide. One 
drift is in about 30 feet, and the other 20. The 
pay streak at the end of the 30-foot drift is 
eight feet wide, four feet of which assays $200 
to the ton. 

Bradshaw. — C. A. Luke returned from a 
trip to the various mines of Bradshaw yester- 
day. The Basin mill was ready to run on Gray 
Eagle ore, but was delayed on account of the 
pack-train being unable to deliver the ore on 
account of deep snow. At the Tiger work is 
progressing rapidly ; the prospect shaft, which 
is to be sunk 1,000 feet, is going down as fast 
as the skill and energy of man can devise. At 
the Oro Bonito everything is fast being put in 
shape to commence operations, the new mill 
being completed. A great many men are at 
work on the various ledges, taking out ore and 
making valuable improvements. Mr. Luke 
thinks the snow in the mountains averages 16 
inches, although at some places he found it over 
two feet. 

Bullion. — Beach's team loaded to-day at 
Wells, Fargo & Co.'s office, 7,500 pounds of bul- 
lion, recently taken out at the Agua Fria 
smelter, from Silver Belt ore. The bullion goes 
to Ehrenberg per team and thence per steamer 
and rail to San Francisco. 

Accidental. — The new shaft on the Ac- 
cidental mine, Lynx creek, is down 25 feet, and 
a good vein of very rich ore has been found. 
The arastras are about to start up and reduce 
the fine ore now being extracted from the 



New Incorporations. 

Fresno M. Co. — Intention: To operate in 
California. Capital, $5,000,000. Directors— 
H. T. Fairbanks, Oliver Merrill, W. A. 
Roberts, W. F. Meyers and Isaac Overton. 

Blunder G. & S. M. Co. — Location: Ne- 
vada. Capital, §10,000,000. Directors— R. P. 
Johnson, George L. Tucker, W. C. Walker, T. 

A, Talbert and C. S. Drew. 

Balbach Smelting and Refining Co. — In- 
tention: To operate in any of the States or 
Territories. Capital, $100,000. Directors- 
Leopold Balbach, C. F. Kirchner, C. L. Wel- 
ler, A. J. Bryant, 0. A. Chase, J. P. Allen and 
J. B. Crockett, Jr. 

California Ramie Machine Co. — Object: 
To manufacture, sell and erect machinery and 
works for the extraction of fiber from ramie 
and hemp. Capital stock, $500,000. Directors 
—•Thomas Trefall, Hugh C. Hinman, E. J. 
Barry, John J. French and Andrew Vance. 

Santa Rosa G., S. & C. M. Co. — Intention: 
To operate in the Trinidad district, Lower Cali- 
fornia. Capital, $10,000,000. Trustees— W. 

B. Stanly, C. H. Bumpus, A. S. Long, C. W. 
Frost and H. W. Fortune. 

Vulcan M. & M. Co.— Capital, $6,000,000. 
Directors — Charles Holmes, W. H. Smith, G. 
W. Fisher, Charles W. Fox and Alexander 
Brown. 

Western Electric Light Co. — Capital, 
$5,000,000. Managers— M. S. Latham, J. W. 
Coleman, George Ladd, J. M. Livingstone, S. 
Steinhart, E. F. Hall and Thomas Bell. 

Jennie JttneM. Co. — Intention: To operate 
in Shasta county. Capital, $5,000,000. Direc- 
tors— H. C. McClure, Alvin Potter, E. C. 
Locke, F. N. Delaney and F. H. McCormick. 



A New Industry. — A company has just been 
organized in this city for the manufacture and 
sale of Boswell's fruit drier, cooking and heat- 
ing apparatus, with an authorized capital of 
$100,000, about one-third of which, we under- 
stand, has been already subscribed. The office 
of the company is located in Sherman's building, 
corner Clay and Montgomery streets, where 
samples of the driers can be seen, and any in- 
formation relative to the operation of the com- 
pany may be obtained. Mr. Eugene L. Sulli- 
van, an old and well-known citizen of the State, 
is at the head of the company, and S. R. Lip- 
pincott, Esq., formerly an extensive manufac- 
turer in the Eastern States, is the Secretary. 

We call attention of parties interested to the 
advertisement in another column, of the Frue 
concentrator. 



Strikes among English coachmen and ship- 
wrights are reported. 



A Kingdom for a Process. 

In our last issue we gave some account of 
the work done, and the results arrived at in the 
Excelsior and Enterprise mines at Meadow 
Lake. We take first to-day, the 

Mohawk and Montreal. 

This mine was one of the very few that of- 
fered sufficient hopes to the owners to lead 
them to continue work, even through several 
severe winters. A shaft was sunk to a depth 
of 220 feet or more, and a tunnel run to meet 
it, so that the ore was carried to the mill on 
cars. Assays made at different times on ore 
from different parts of the works were as fol- 
lows: $65 gold; §159.23 gold; §2.83 silver; 
$176. 80 gold; §682 gold. How imperfectly the ore 
was worked may be judged from the results of 
a few runs. In August, 1866, 29 tons worked 
by Winton's mill yielded something over $800, 
or $27 per ton; this, however, without the sul- 
phurets, which were estimated at about $35 per 
ton. In September of the same year, 48 tons 
yielded $2,233.02, or $46 per ton; $600 of 
which came from the sulphurets. In Novem- 
ber, 28 tons, chlorinized, yielded $677.40, or 
$24 per ton. In December, 163 tons gave an 
average yield of $29 per ton. For 1867 we 
have account of the working of 54 tons (less 
the sulphurets), which yielded 65.50 ounces of 
amalgam, containing $1,082.56 gold, and $16.93 
silver; total, $1,099, or $20 per ton. In Octo- 
ber, 1868, the Mohawk and Montreal mill (the 
company built two mills, a five-stamp and a 
ten-stamp — probably the latter is referred to 
here) crushed 100 tons in seven days and 20 
hours. The yield from this was $3,524.49, or 
$35 per ton. At this time it is said, over 1,000 
tons of similar ore was in sight in the mine. 

This is sufficient to demonstrate the imper- 
fections of the processes used. The mine 
seemed to improve as depth was attained, the 
highest assays given above being from ore taken 
out at considerable depth. As stated above, 
two mills were built. There were also erected 
roasting furnaces, some, we believe, at the 
early stage in the development of the mine, and 
three more as late as 1869. These latter were 
large enough for a charge of from 20 to 25 tons, 
and were erected, it seems, in order to try the 

Burns Process, 
Or a modification of the same. In this process 
the ore was first roasted, and then plunged into 
a chemical bath (composition not stated) until 
cooled, The ore was then ready for amalgama- 
tion. It was thought that this process would 
cost about $S per ton. About the same time 
another process, Hartley's, appeared, which 
was, no doubt, merely a slight modification of the 
Burns, but which claimed to be much cheaper. 
Both have been consigned to the tomb so far as 
Meadow Lake is concerned. Both aimed by use 
of chemicals to prepare the gold for amalga- 
mation. 

The history of this mine is then, in brief, as 
follows: Large quantities of ore assaying from 
$65 to $700 per ton, yielding on an average $30 
or less per ton. 

The Green Emigrant. 

This mine was a comparatively late discovery, 
and was thought one of the richest in the dis- 
trict. The assays reached to $1,000 per ton. 
Above the ore was noticeably free from base 
material. The ledge was from five to eight 
feet wide, and was worked to a depth of 65 feet, 
perhaps deeper. The ore improved with in- 
crease of depth. A run of 50 tons from a depth 
of about ten feet yielded at the rate of $26 per 
ton. At this depth the foot wall was covered 
with a thin black layer rich in copper and gold. 
The rest of the ledge was white quartz, heavily 
laden with sulphurets and free gold. Mint re- 
turns from a run on Green Emigrant ore showed 
the yield to be about $27 per ton; 891 fine. A 
run of 120 tons yielded at the rate of $23 per 
ton. Other runs reached as high as $30 per ton. 
The U- S. Grant. 

This was another of the richest mines, one of 
those few on which work was continued through 
the winters. The mine was six mileB south of 
the town of Meadow Lake. The company own- 
ed a mill, which we find stated as having five 
stamps of 500 pounds each. The ledge was 5% 
feet wide, and was worked to a depth of at 
least 100 feet. At the beginning of 1867 the 
U. S. Grant was considered the moBt success- 
ful of the Meadow Lake mines. Up to January 
7th, 1867, the mill had crushed 271 tons of ore, 
the gross yield of which is stated at $13,398.57, 
or about $50 per ton. The cost of mining and 
hauling the ore is put down at $5.50 per ton; 
of crushing, $3.50 per ton; leaving, it is added, 
a nice little profit of $40 per tonj?) At some 
runs, the average yield was from $12 to $30 per 
ton. However, in other cases, if we can de- 
pend on the figures before us, they ran as high 
as $110 per ton. We have no facts regarding 
the later history of this mine. We would like 
to have a fuller account from some of our 
readers. 

Besides these mines that we have mentioned, 
there were numberless others that were noticed 
from time to time in the Meadow Lake Sun. 
Considerable work was done upon many of them, 
in sinking shafts or inclines. Copper veins 
were found and a company styled the Peacock 
Copper, Nickel & Cobalt Company was formed, 
with a capital of $675,000. 

Bullion Shipments 
Were for a time reported quite regularly. For 
August, 1866, they were as follows (how com- 



plete the reports are we do not know): Moun- 
tain Chief, $188; Mohawk & Montreal, $833.60; 
U. S. Grant, $1,559.40 (?}; Gold Run Phoenix, 
$698 ; total, $3, 279. September shipments 
(1866): Knickerbocker, $34.10; Mohawk & 
Montreal, $2,604.66; Enterprise, $1,210; Al- 
hambra, $260; Moscow, $82; Western Com- 
pany, $76.37; total, $4,367.13. For October, 
1866, the shipments were : IT. S. Grant, 
$4,750; Mohawk & Montreal, $1,294; Enter- 
prise, Wisconsin, Gold Run, Eclipse and Em- 
pire, together, $630; total; $6,674. 
The Processes Tried. 

Somewhere in the district an arastra was 
rigged. The ordinary mill process we have 
seen utterly failed. The chlorination and 
superheated steam process had each a trial. 
Then came the Burns process, which we have 
described as far as possible. This process, it 
was said, obtained from two tons of Wiscon- 
sin ore, which otherwise would yield nothing, 
three and one-fourth ounces, .917 fine, at a cost 
of $8 per ton. In connection with this process 
we find the names of Eagleson & Co. , Hartley 
and James Doling. The last-named gentleman 
asserted that by bis method he had taken from 
the ore never less than $8per ton, and had ob- 
tained as much as $36 per ton; cost of process, 
$8 per ton. Matman, of Nevada City, we 
believe tried his hand at the ores. A man 
named Crail had a plan for working them. The 
Fryer process was applied. Another (Gleann's) 
process is described as follows: The ore is first 
dumped upon a drying hearth or put through a 
calcining furnace; thence to batteries or pulver- 
izers. The pulp is then put into an oxidizing 
furnace. From the oxidizing furnace it is raked 
into an alkaline bath in vats. From the vats 
it goes to amalgamators and pulverizers. Mr. 
G. introduces a compound of his own to bring 
about amalgamation. He works ore up to 80% 
of assay, at a cost of $6.64 per ton. This 
method was talked of as late as Novem- 
ber, 1877. We may have made some errors in 
names; if so, we hope we will be corrected. 

In the present year, Willard's furnace, with 
which many of our readers are doubtless famil- 
iar, has been tried. We have seen it stated 
somewhere that Willard's furnace, in combina- 
tion with Gleason's amalgamation, succeeds in 
saving 92% of the assay value. Elsewhere we 
find the following description of the "new pro- 
cess :' ' ' 'The pulverizing process takes the 
place of stamps in a stamp mill, and will re- 
duce a ton of ore in one hour to the consistency 
of flour. The pulverized ore is then placed in 
the furnace and is mixed freely with saw dust. 
The powdered rock becomes intensely heated 
by means of the fires below, the strong air cur- 
rents and the burning saw dust. All the sul- 
phur, arsenic, antimony and refractory elements 
are consumed and driven away, and when the 
furnace cools off the pure gold remains. The 
gold is so fine and flourery that wet amalga- 
mation cannot be employed. The gold floats 
away and is lost. The Secor process of dry 
amalgamation, however, gives perfect success." 
In connection with this description it is an- 
nounced (on what authority we do not know) 
that "Mr. Frank Pauson will put up a $50,000 
mill at Carlysle early next spring, with four 
furnaces and two amalgamators." 

Bullion Shipments. 

Since our last issue shipments of bullion have 
been as follows: 

Northern Belle, Dec, 28th, $4,463.22; Grand 
Prize, Dec. 30th, $24,000; Leeds, Dec. 24th, 
$3,662.12; Tybo, Dec, 25th, $3,047.31; Hill- 
side, Dec. 31st, $5,119; Jefferson, Dec. 30th, 
$1,753.84; Indian Queen, Dec. 23d, $3,497.17; 
Alexander, Jan. 3d, $7,811.51; Star, De- 
cember, $35,743; Oriental Con., December, 
$9,075; Highbridge, Jan. 3d, $8,546.48; Pioche, 
for week ending Dec. 28th, $3,545; Manhattan, 
Jan. 6th, $11,202.16; Con. Virginia, Jan. 4th, 
$84,865.18; California, Jan. 4th, $143,078.97; 
Standard, Jan. 1st, $16,962.18; Bodie, Jan. 
1st, $12,347.54; Northern Belle, Jan. 1st, $3,- 
008.75; Hillside, Jan. 4th, $5,350; Martin 
White, Dec. 31st, $5,776.63; Black Jack, Dec. 
30th, $7,700; 2d, $5,035; Tybo Con., Dec. 
30th, $8,062. 

Shipments for week ending Jan. 4th at Salt 
Lake were $43,369. 

Shipments for week ending Dec. 28th, from 
Silver City, Idaho, were $18,000. 

The Silver Reef Miner thinks the January 
shipments from that camp amounted to $125,- 
000. 

The Bodie shipments for December were 
$180,206, of which $102,070 were from the 
Standard mine, and the balance from the Bodie. 



Making Artificial Feldspar Crystals. — 
Messrs. Foque and Levy, in a communication to 
the French Academy of Sciences, state that 
they have been successful in making feldspar 
crystals artificially — the varieties crystallized 
being obligoclase, labrador and albite. The 
process consists in fusing the feldspar in a plati- 
num crucible placed in a Schlcesing furnace, 
then placing the button before a Bunsen burner, 
which keeps it for eight hours at a temperature 
slightly below that of fusion. Under the influ- 
ence of that sort of annealing the vitreous mass 
changes in structure and crystallizes with all 
the details of form of natural minerals. 



In a trial of the electric light in Philadelphia, 
24 Brush lights did the work of 2,400 gas jets. 

Brooklyn's debt has increased $1,235,566 
during the year. 



January IX, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



29 



News in Brief. 



Justice ICoEbAV, of Utah, is dead. 
Sclleii Bros. , toUaeoomsts, have failed. 
Flood* ars doing much damage in France. 
Stbonu gales and heavy seas, on the Atlantic. 
BcKATOB SaSOnri is steadily improving in 
health. 

The Nevada Legislature met on Jan. o'th, at 
Carson. 

TutHE is a great stampede to Leadville, 
Colorado. 

Thk French elections resulted in a Republi- 
can victory. 

A SOU) mine has been discovered in eaat 
Tennessee. 

A PLAOUI has appeared among Cossacks of 
Astrakhan. 

DieTKKSA among Knglish poor seems to be on 
the increase. 

BitH w« <k will use his intluento in favor of 
protection. 

IU11.KUAH aoeident in New York; two looo- 
motivee exploded. 

Alonzo Garcellon elected Governor by the 
Maine Legislature. 

The gay season of visiting and entertainments 
at Washington has begun. 

Admiral Tosciiakd, a member of the French 
chamber of Deputies, is dead. 

Kmrsare threatened in Constantinople, ow- 
ing to the high price of provisions. 

Judge James B. McKean, ex-Chief Justice 
of Utah, died at Salt Lake Monday. 

The scarlet fever epidemic still rages in New 
York city, and diphtheria ia increasing. 

Resumption has hod a tendency to increase 
largely the subscriptions to the 4 , loan 

The Atchison, Topekaand Santa Fe Railroad 
Company have purchased the Denver and South 
I'ark railroad. 

Lard is being shipped in large quantities 
from Chicago to San Francisco, via New York 
and Cape Horn. 

France, watching Bismarck and Austria, has 
given one year's notice of the termination of all 
treaties of commeroe. 

Seven commercial banks of San Francisco, 
have refused to submit to inspection by the 
Bank Commissioners. 

A collision occurred on tho Michigan Cen- 
tral railroad Jan. 3d, near Kalamazoo, injuring 
a number of persons. 

Seventy-four Communists in New Caledonia 
have been pardoned because of their services 
against the insurgents. 

The Japanese government have*} agreed to 
grant a loan of §1,500,000 for the purpose of 
working the coal fields. 

A large pot of Spanish silver dollars, a 
number of them bearing date of 1743, has been 
unearthed on Staten island. 

Tile Irish executive is seriously considering 
the question of the release of O'Kelly, the only 
remaining Fenian prisoner. 

Naturalization papers have been refused to 
a Chinaman by the Clerk of the United States 
Circuit Court at New Y'ork. 

Virginia realized §110,000 last year from the 
operations of the Moffit liquor law in excess of 
the receipts from the old Bystem. 

During 1878 there were 34,400 through emi 
grants for California over the Union Pacific 
railroad; in 1875 there were 53,400. 

The number of miles of railroad constructed 
in the United States during 1878 was 2,688, ex- 
ceeding any previous year since 1873. 

Lignite and asphaltum are said to be so 
abundant between Jetfa and the Dead sea, that 
the Holy Land may supply Egypt and Syria 
with fuel. 

The profits accruing to the Government from 
the coinage of standard silver dollars for the 
three weeks ending January 4th, amounted to 
§575,000. 

The Harmony cotton mills, of Cohoes, New 
York, have reduced working time to three days 
a week, in order to reduce production and 
stiffen prices. 

It is officially announced that the Madrid 
government will in March next, contract for 
1,500,000 kilogrammes of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky tobacco. 

Twenty-acre farms are Baid to be offered to 
workmen, along the line of a projected railway 
in New Mexico, with cattle and farming imple- 
ments, for $200. 

It is said that since the year 1835, the forest 
area of the Western Hemisphere has decreased 
at the average yearly rate of 7,600,000 aoreB, or 
about 11,400 square miles. 

Word is received from the Superintendent 
of the Los Angeles Oil Company's well in the 
Seepe district, that a flow of 100 barrels per 
day has been struck. 

Cattle and hogs are dying at a fearful rate 
in Iowa, the former from smut in the corn- 
stalks, and the latter from cholera. Hundreds 
of farmers have lost every hog they possessed. 
San Diego county, during the year 1S78, ex- 
ported 1,490,240 pounds of honey; honey in 
comb, 954,480 pounds net; honey strained, 535,- 
860 pounds net, and 24,440 pounds of beeswax. 
The amount of gold paid out at the sub- 
Treasury, in New York, January 3d, for legal 
tender notes, was §80,000, and the amount of 
gold taken in for legal tender notes was §200, - 
000— a net gain to the Treasury of §120,000 in 
gold. 

The first bank in southern Arizona began 
operationa in Tucson on January 1st, under the 
name of the Bank of Pima County. The offi; 
oers are P. W. Smith, President, and L. M.' 
JaeobB, Cashier. The capital stock of the cor- 
poration is $100,000, with §50,000 paid in. 



Ice formed at Jacksonville, Fla., last Satur- 
day night, for the first time in 30 years. 

Two brakemen frozen to death on the Central 
New Jersey and North Pennsylvania roads. 

A TBHOUtlll passenger train for Chicago -tbe 
first since the 2ndinst — left Buffalo on Jan. 7th. 

Achtkia has lately bought £fi0,0U0 worth of 
bar silver, landed in London by a Chile packet. 

Tni: Ro»ebury ln3ep$ndnd tells of a meteor 
which lately struek and set fire to a hay stack. 

The Honore block, one of the finest edifices 
in Chicago, was destroyed by fire Saturday 
last 

Charles Francis Adams has resigned as 
Government Director of the Union Pacific rail- 
road. 

Wuioht & Kim;, Chioago representatives of 
tho Magic Paper Works, New York, have 
failed. 

Outdoor labor is interrupted in Scotland by 
the intense cold, and a railway blockade is 
feared. 

Navigation has been suspended on account 
of ice in the Columbia and Willamette rivers, 
Oregon. 

Thk .strength of the native army of India is 
about 125,000. It will soon be increased to 
140,000. 

Tuk certificate of Captain Howard, of the 
wrecked steamship Georgia, has been suspended 
for two years. 

Eastern banks Beem to be taking in more 
coin than they are paying out. So far, so good, 
for resumption. 



METALS. 

(WHOLESALE. 

Wkdswdat M.. January 9. 1578. 
Iims.— 

American Pig. soft, too 23 Dl 

Scotch Pig. ton 25 

American White Pig, ton 2;i 00 <« 

Oregon Pig. too Si &u «r 

Banned liar ajwr 3 

3ho«B, keg 5 00 t/t 

Nail Rod — <a 7| 

Norway, according to thickness 6)<g 7 

OOPPSB, 

Sheathing, th 34 (^ 35 

Mhottthirig, Yellow l<i '•< 30 

.Sheathing, Old Yellow - 

Steel.— 

EuglUh Cast, lb 16 (9 17 

Black Diiuuuiid, ordinary iLw« 16 a 

Drill 10 1 , 

Flat liar 10 9 19 

Plow Stool 8 ({? 121 

Tin Plates.— 

10x14 1 Charcoal 81<a> 9 

lUxU I C Owe 7 " 7; 

Bane* Tin 18 »— 20 

Australian 151<j» 17 

Z 1 Ne- 
lly the Cask 9 C<* 

Zinc, Sheet 7x3 ft. 7 to 10, tt>. leas than cask. . 0i@— 10 

Nails.— 

Assorted sizes 2 IKX«3 00 



OUR AGENTS. 

Ocr Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their tabors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and oncouraging favors. We intend to send 
none hut worthy men. 

J. L. Tuarp— San Francisco. 

B. W. Ckowbll — California. 
A. C. Knox — Pacific Coast. 

C. N. West— Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito 
counties. 

A. C. Champion — Tulare, Fresno and Inyo counties. 

W. D, White — San Bernardino county. 

J. W. A. Wright. — Tulare, Fresno and Kern counties. 

E. M. Denny. — Oregon. 

H. E. Hallrtt. — Stanislaus county. 

G. W. McGrew. — Santa Clara county. 

Richard Allen. — British Columbia. 

R D. Nunnally.— Siskiyou County, Cal. 

Dr. W. G. Alban.— State of Nevada. 

Edward Duoan. — Washington Territory. 

Mrs. Carrie F. Young.— Nevada and Sierra counties. 

A Looms. — Sonoma Counts'. 

L. L. Alexander.— Alameda County. 

J. T. Jackson.— Alameda and Contra Costa counties. 

John Michkls. — New York and adjoining cities. 

M. D. Shrader — Alameda County, Cal. 

Job. Dimmick. — Sonoma and Napa counties. 



TnE Duty of the Hoi'R. — Lest any reader should forget 
it, we mention tbe peculiar fitness of the season for re- 
newing old subscriptions and making new oaes to the 
Press. In going forward with our journal, we need the 
help of our patronB both with mind and money. Do not 
forget to send the printer his due, as the aggregate of 
small individual amounts will give him a force that wil 
make the types fairly dance into the lines. Wo trust that 
only a hint will be needed to rally tho dollars, for with 
them assured we have a thousand themes to occupy our 
columns. Let all step up promptly to the Captain's office 
and then we will go out on deck for another year's voyage 

January 1st, 1870. 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co. ] 

San Francisco. January 8, 3 P. M. 

Leoal Tenders in 8. F., 11 a. m., par. Silver, 2(&2|. 
Gold in New York, par. 

Gold Bars. 890@910. Silver Bars, 8@22 $ cent, din 
sount. 

Exchange on New York, 35, on London bankers, 49J@ 
49i. Commercis 1 , 50; Paris, five francs $ dollar; Muxican 
dollars. 872@89. 

London Consols. 94 7-16; Bonds, 1092- 

qn.'KMi.vhR in 8 F., by the flask. *( lb. 40@41c. 



Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Settlers and others wishing good farmiug lands for 
sure crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Ander- 
8on,'Shasta County, Cal., who has some 15,000 acres for 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
appeara from time to time in this paper. 



Examine the accelerative endowment plan, asoriginated 
by the' Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Co., of Newark, 
New Jersey. Assets, $30,533,429.91. Lewis C. Grover, 
President; L. Spencer Coble, Vice-President; Benjamin C. 
Miller, Treasurer; Edward A. Strong, Secretary; Bloom- 
field J. Miller, Actuary. Sond for circulars to James 
Munsell, Jr., agent of insured, 224 Sansome St., San 
Francisco. 

Artesian Wells Wanted.— Parties who are prepared to 
contract for boring artesian wells are invited to send 
terms to Edward Frisbie, proprietor of the Reading Ranch, 
Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



Experimental Machinery, drawings, patterns, models, 
all kinds of electrical and telegraphic apparatus to order. 
See ad. F. W. Fuller, 415 Market St.. second floor, S. F. 



Henry R. Ewald is our general oorrespondont and 
agent for Arizona. 



Chew Jackbos's Best Sweet Navy Tobacco 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco. — Week ending January 7, 1879. 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMRTER. 



30.02 
29.73 



80.18 

30.07 



30.14 
30.07 



30.15 
30.01 



30.21) 
30.20 



30.23 
30.12 



30.40 
30. 2S 



MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THERMOMETER. 
52 



54 
42. 8 



85.3 I 32. 7 



53 I 51 I 56 
51 J 47.5 I 4G.7 I 46 | 44 | 

MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 

55.7 I 59 I 81.3 | 73.3 | 75.7 | 

PKKVAILraO WIND. 

SE I E I SE I N I NE I NE I N 

WIND— MILES TRAVELED. 

S2S I 95 I 142 I 202 | 128 I 138 | 371 

STATE OF WEATHER. 

Fair. I Clear. [ Fair. | Clear. , Clear. | Cloudy | Clear 

RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 

I I I I I .04 ! .31 

Total rain during the season, from July l, 1878, 2.98 in 



(IlijiipgapilOtlierCoiiipapiej. 



Persons interested in incorporated shares 
will *io well to recommend the publication 
of the official notices of their companies 
in this paper, as the cheapest appropriate 
medium for the same. 



/\mlJ3ernejit5. 



BALDWIN'S THEATER. 

THOMAS UAGtHBE Manager. 

F. Lybtkr Acting Manager. 

Char. II. Goodwin Treasurer, 

J. P. Chapman Assistant Treasurer. 

Open Every Evening with the Regular 
Company. 

Gomez Market and Powell Streets. Open every 
evening and Saturday matinee. Box offloe open daily. 

BUSH STREET THEATER. 

Ciias. E. Lockk Leasee end Manager 

CALLENDER'S G EOR GIA MINSTRELS. 
Open every evening uul Saturday Matinee. 

CALIFORNIA THEATER. 

Barton k Lawlor Manager. 

BARTOH Hill. Acting Manager. 

MR. &. MRS W. J . FLORENCE. 

Bush Street, above Kearny. Open every evening. Box 
offloe "pen from 8 a. m. to 10 i\ 11. Seats may be secured 
six days in advance. 

STANDARD theater. 

M. A. Kennedy Sole Lessee and Manager. 

RICE'S SU RPRI SE PARTY. 

Bush Street, above Montgomery. Open every evening. 

Seats nia\ be sreured &ix days in advance. 



Cherokee Flat Blue Gravel Company.— 

Location of principal place of business. San Francisco, 

California. Location of works, Cherukee Flat, Butte 

County, California. ' 

Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Board of 
Directors, held un the 2Uth day of December. A. D., 1S78, an 
assessment (No. 40) of five cents per share was levied upon 
the capital Btock of the corporation, payable immediately in 
United States gold coin, to the Secretary, at the office of the 
Company, 31S Pine street. Room 6, San Francisco, California. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
on the 28th day of January. 1873. will be delinquent, and ad- 
vertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment iB 
made nefore will be sold on Tuesday, the 18th day of Febru- 
ary, 1879, to pay the delinquent assessment, tngetber with 
costs of advertising and expenses of sale. By order of the 
Board of Directors. R. N. VAN BRUNT, Secretary. 

Office, 318 Pine Street, Room 6, San Francisco California. 

Land Purchaser's Association. —Office, 

No. 318 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, California. 

NOTICE -There are delinquent upon the following de- 
scribed stock, on account of assessment (installment No. 
43) levied on the 5th day of November, 1S78, the several 
amounts set opposite the names of the respective share- 
holders, as follows: 

Names. No. Certificate. 

Mrs Matilda Stohr 38 

James L Beyea. 43 

VChevallier 64 

GeoS Dickey 98 

WGKoch 178 

Asa Fisk 220 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 5th day of November, 1878, so 
many shares of each parcel of said stock as may be neces- 
sary, will be sold at public auction, at the office of the 
Secretary, No. 318 Montgomery Btreet, San Francisco, Cal- 
ifornia, on Saturday, the fourth (4th) day of January, 
1879, at the hour of 10 o'clock a, m. of said day, to pay 
said delinquent assessment thereon, togethor with costs 
of advertising and expenses of the sale. 

C. S. WRIGHT, Secretary. 



No. Shares. 


Amount 


1 


84 00 


1 


4 00 


1 


4 00 


1 


4 00 


1 


4 00 


1 


4 00 



Orion Mining Company. — Location of 

principal place of business, San Francisco, California. Lo- 
cation of works, Iowa Hill, Placer County, California. 
Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Board of 
Directors, held on tbe 12th day of December, 1878, an assess- 
ment (No. 4) of twenty-five cents per share was levied upon 
the capital stock of the corporation, payable immediately in 
United States gold coin, to the Secretary, at tbe office of the 
Company. No. 28 Sansome street, San Francisco, California. 
Any steck upon which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
on the 13th day of January, 1879, will be delinquent, and ad- 
vertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before irill be sold on Tuesday, the 28th day of Janu- 
ary, 1879 to pay the delinquent assessment, together with 
cost of advertising and expenses of sale. Bv order of the 
Board of Directors. P, CONKLTN, Secretary. 

Office, No. 28 Sansome St. (up-stairs) San Francisco, Oal, 



Summit Mining Company. — Location of 

Principal place of business, San Francisco, California. 

Location of works, Mineral Point Mining District, 

Plumas County, Cal. 

Notice. — There are delinquent upon the following de- 
scribed stock, on account of assessment (No. 6,) levied on 
the 19th day of November, A. D. , 1S78, the several amounts 
set opposite the names of the respective shareholders, as 
follows: 

Names. No. Certificate. No. Shares. Amt. 

Boring, IC 32 

Bonn, John 150 

Lehmann.C 129 

Lehmann, C, Trustee 200 

Lchmann, C, Trustee 207 

Storer, J F, Trustee 58 

Schmitz, F 205 

Turner, J W 05 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board of 
Directors, made on the nineteenth day of November, A. D. , 
1878, so many shares of each parcel of such stock as may 
be necessary, will be sold at public auction, at the office 
of tho company, No. 318 Pino street, Room 0, San Fran- 
cisco, Ca]. ( on Tuesday, the fourth day of February 
A. D. , 1879, at the hour of three o'clock p. m., of said 
day, to pay said delinquent assessment thereon, together 
with ijusts of advertising and expenses >A the sale. 

" R, N. VAN BRUNT, Sec'y. 

Office, Room 6, No. 318 Pine Street. San Francisco, Cal, 



1200 


$00 00 


200 


10 oc 


27SO 


137 5( 


200 


10 OC 


200 


10 OC 


250 


12 5C 


400 


20 0C 


200 


10 00 






ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting' of the stockholders of the Califor- 
nia and Oregon Laud Company, will be held on Tuesday, 
January 14th, 1879, at 2 o'clock r. M., at the office of the 
Company, Room 6, No. 31S Pine street, San Francisco, 
for the election of a Board of Trustees, and the trans- 
action of such other business as may properly come before 
the meeting, R. N. VAN BRUNT, Acting Sec'y. 



—AND- 

COMmlSSIONJWERCHANT. 

The undersigned, after an experience of forty years in the 
Grucery Business, has opened an office at No 24 CALIFOR- 
NIA STREET, corner Drunim. for buying and selling all 
kinds of Goods. Parties throughout tbe States and Territo- 
ries wishing an Agent in this Market for the transaction of 
their business, by entrusting the same to me. lean havo 
snecial rates made, with full guarantee of satisfaction, or no 
charge for services. 

With twenty-five years' experience in this Market. I think 
I can suit one and all, both as a buyer and seller. All I ask 
Is a trial. I will also have a Ladies' Department, under the 
management of a lady of experience and taste, who will fill 
all orders for your wives and daughters. Orders for this 
tins Department should be endorsed: "For Lady Buyer." 

All parties ordering Mill be required to send funds with 
order or satisfactory reference. Respectfully, 

WHEELER MARTIN, 

24 California Street, San Francisco. 

REFERS BY PERMISSION. 

Rountree &, McCIure 401 Fwmt Street. 

J. M. Pike & Co 101 and 103 California Street. 

Marcus C. Hawley & Co Corner Market and Beale Sis. 

Cutting Packing Co 17 to 41 Main Street. 

W. W. Montague & Co 112 to 120 Battery Street. 

E. Martin & Co. 408 Front Street. 

Wellman, Peck & Co 416 and 418 Front Street. 

Wueaton & Luhrs 219 Front Street. 

Deming, Palmer & Co 202 and 204 Davis Street. 

Amies it Dallam 115 and 117 Front Street. 



FOR S^ILIE. 



SEVERAL SECOND-HAND 

PORTABLE ENGINES, 

FOR SALE CHEAP. 

Sizea, from eight horse-power to twenty-five horse- 
power. IN PERFECT RUNNING ORDER. Apply to 

JOSEPH ENRIGHT, 

San Jose, California. 




^Mining 

WW 



At the Old Stand, Murket, head of Front Street, S. F. 1 



Scientific and Practical Books 
on Mining, Metallurgy, Etc. 

Published or issued, wholesale and retail, by DEWEY & 
CO., Manna and Scientific Press Office, S. F. 

BY GUIDO KUSTEL, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

Roasting of Gold and Silver Ores, and the 
Extraction of their respective Metals without Quick- 
silver. 1S70. 

This rare book on the treatment of gold and silver ores 
without quicksilver, is liberally illustrated and crammed 
full of facts. It gives short and concise descriptions of va- 
rious processes and apparatus employed in this country 
and in Europe, and explains the why and wherefore 

It contains 142 pages, embracing illustrations of fur- 
naces, implements and working apparatus. 

ft is a work of great merit, by an author whose reputa- 
tion is unsurpassed in his specialty. 
Price, $2.£>0 coin, postage free. 

Concentration of Ores (of all kinds), including 
the Chlorination Process for Gold-bearing Sulphureta, 
Arseniurets, and Gold and Silver Ores generally, with 
120 Lithographic Diagrams. 1807- 
This work is unequaled by any other published, embrac- 
ing the subjects treated. Its authority is highly esteemed 
and regarded by its readers; containing, as it does, much 
essential information to the Miner, Millman, Metallurgist, 
and other professional workers in ores and minerals, which 
cannot be found elsewhere in print. It also abounds 
throughout with facts and instructions rendered valuable 
by being clearly rendered together and in simple ol- 
der. It contains 120 diagrams, illustrating machinery 
etc., which alone are of the greatest value. PRICE, $7.50 



30 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



[January 11, 1879. 



Irop and |K!achipe frofe 

TUOS. PENDERGAST. HENRY S. SMITH. 

/ETNA IRON WORKS, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

IRON CASTINGS 

and MACHINERY 

OF ALL KINDS. 

Fremont Street, Bet. Howard and Folsom, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



SACRAMENTO BOILER WORKS, 

214 & 216 BE ALE St., (rear of /Etna Fouudry) 

J. V. HALL, 

PRACTICAL BOILER MAKER, 

Marine Stationary and Portable- Boilers, Smoke Stacks, 

Hydraulic Pipe, Oil or Water Tanks, Ore and 

Water Buckets, Gasometers, Girders, Bridges 

and Iron Ship Building. 

ALL KINDS OF SHEET IRON WORK. 

Repairing promptly attended to at the 
lowest possible terms. 

UNION IRON WORKS, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
ROOT, NBILSON & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

STEAM ENGINES, BOILERS AND ALL 

Kinds of Machinery for Mining Purposes. 

Flouring Mills*, Saw Mills' and Quartz Mills' Machinery 

constructed, fitted up and repaired. 

Front Street, Between N and O Streets, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



PHELPS 
MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

Wharf and Bridge Bolts, Railroad Trestle 

Work, Car Frames and Bolts, Machine 

Bolts, Set Screws and Tap Bolts, 

Lag or Coach Screws. 

ALL STYLES OF FANCY HEAD BOLTS. 

HOT AND COLD PRESSED HEXAGONAL AND 

SQUARE NUTS, WASHERS, BOLT ENDS, 

TURNBUCKLES, ETC., ETC. 

13, 15 and 17 Drumm St., near California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Golden State & Miners Iron Works, 

Manufacture Iron Castings and Machinery 
of all Kinds at Greatly Reduced Rates. 

STEVENSON'S PATENT 

Mold-Board AMALGAMATORS, 
Golden State Pressure Blowers. 

First St.. between Howard & Folsom, S. F. 



Wm. H. Birch. John Argall. 

California Machine Works, 
BIRCH, ARGALL &. CO., 

119 Beale Street, San Francisco. 

jtSTGeueral Mechanical Engineers and Machinists. 
Steam Engines, Flour, Quartz and Mining Machinery. 
Sole manufacturers of Brodie's Patent Rock Crushers and 
Steel-Paced Tappits. Steam, Hydraulic and Sidewalk 
Elevators. Repairing promptly attended to. 



California Brass Foundry, 

No, 125 First Street, Opposite Minna. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

All kinds of Brass, Composition, Zinc, and Babbitt 
Metal Castings, Brass Ship Work of all kinds, Spikes, 
sheathing Nails, Rudder Braces, Hinges, Ship and Steam- 
boat Bells and Gongs of superior tone. All kinds of Cocks 
and Valves, Hydraulic Pipes and Nozzles, and Hose Coup- 
lings and Connections of all sizes and patterns, furnished 
with dispatch. ^PRICES MODERATE.^ 

J. H. WEED. V. 1UNGWELL. 



STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS 

Of all sizes— from 2 to 60-Horsc power. Also, Quartz 
Mills, Mining Pumps, Hoisting Machinery, Shafting, Iron 
Tanks, etc. For sale at the lowest prices by 

J. HENDY, 49 and 51 Fremont Street, S. F. 



THOMAS THOMPSON. 



THORNTON THOMPSON. 



THOMPSON BROTHERS, 

EUREKA FOUNDRY, 

129 and 13X Beale St., between Mission and Howard, S. F 

MANHFACTITRKRS OF CASTINGS OK EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



WIND Mill 0n0 of tllc bost m,lu0 '" '" is State 
II III V 111 1 1- U. for sale cheap on easy terms. Ad- 
dress, W. T„ care of Dewey & Co., S. F. 



GEORGE W. PRESCOTT. 



IRVING M. SCOTT. 



H. T. SCOTT. 



U nion | ron W orks. 

Office, 61 First St. | Cor. First & Mission Sts., S. F. | p. 0. Box, 2128. 

BUILDERS OF 

Steam, Air and Hydraulic Machinery. 

Home Industry.-All 'Work Tested and Guaranteed. 

Vertical Engines, 
Horizontal Engines, 
Automatic Cut-off Engines, 
Compound Condensing Engines, 
Shafting, 

TRY OUR MAKE, CHEAPEST AND BEST IN USE. 

Send for Late Circulars. PRESCOTT, SCOTT & CO. 



Baby Hoists, 


Stamps, 


Ventilating Fans, 


Pans, 


Eock Breakers, 


Settlers, 


Self-Feeders, 


Retorts, 


Pulleys, 


Etc., Etc. 



MACHINE WORKS, 

210 and 212 Beale Street, bet. Howard and Folsom Sts., 



San Francisco. 



Manufacturers of 



IMPROVED PORTABLE 

JEX. oistiiig: Engines, 

For Mining and Other Purposes. 

Steam Engines and all Kinds of Mill and Mining Machinery. 



Pacific Rolling Mill Co., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

manufacturers of 

RAILROAD AND MERCHANT IRON, 

rolled beams, angle, channel and t ikon, bridge and machine bolts, lag screws, nuts 
washers, etc., steamboat shafts, cranks, pistons, connecting rods, etc., etc. 

Car and Locomotive Axles and Frames, and Hammered Iron of Every Description. 

HIGHEST PRICE PAID FOR SCRAP IRON. 

IS - Orders Solicited and Promptly Executed. Office, No. 16 FIRST STEEET. 



Foilton Iron TV^orks. 

Hinckley, Spiers & Hayes. 

(ESTABLISHED IN 1855.) 

Works, Fremont and Howard Sts. I San Francisco, Cal. I Office, No. 213 Fremont St. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Marine Engines and Boilers, 



Propeller Engines either High Pressure or Com- 
pound Stem or Side Wheel Engines. 



Mining Machinery. 

Hoisting Engines and Works, Cages, Ore Buckets, Ore 
Cars, Pumping Engines and Pumps, Water Buckets, 
Pump Columns, Air Compressors, Air Receivers, 
Air Pipes. 

Mill Machinery. 

Batteries for Dry or Wet Crushing, Amalgamating 

PnninOC and Rnilar*C of all kinds, either for use on Steamboats and made in accordance with the 
Uliyillco allU DUIICI o Act of Congress reflating the same, or for use on land. Water Pipe, Pump 
or Air Column, Fish Tanks for Salmon Canneries of every description. 
Boiler repairs promptly attended to and at very moderate rates. 



Pans, Settlers, Furnaces, Retorts, Concentrators, Ore 
Feeders, Rock Breakers, Furnaces for Reducing Ores 
Water Jackets, Etc. 

Sugar Machinery. 

Crushing Rolls, Clarificrs, Vacuum Pans, Air Pumps, 
Concentrators, Bag Filters, Charcoal Filters, Blow-up 
Tanks, Coolers and Receiving Tanks. 

Miscellaneous Machinery. 

Flour Mill Machinery, Saw Mill Engines and Boilers, 
Dredging Machinery, Oil Weil Retorts, Powder Mill Ma- 
chinery, Water Wheels. 



PACIFIC IRON WORKS, 

First and Fremont Streets, between Mission and Howard, San Francisco, Cal., 
RANKIN, BRAYTON & CO., 

Manufacturers of 

ENGINES, BOILERS, MARINE AND STATIONARY. PUMPING, HOISTING, AND MINING MACHINERY 

INCLUDING BATTERIES, AMALGAMATING PANS AND SETTLERS, CONCENTRATORS, ORE FEEDERS, 

CRUSHING ROLLS ANUROCK BREAKERS. ALSO, WATER JACKET SMELTING FURNACES, 

FOR REDUCING LEAD, SILVER AND COPPER ORES, QUICKSILVER FURNACES, 

RETORTS AND CONDENSERS, ROASTING AND CHLORIDIZING FURNACES, 

SUGAR MILL MACHINERY, WATER WHEELS, ETC, ALL OF THE 

LATEST AND MOST IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION. 

Agents for the Allen Engine Governor, Bailey Air Compressor, Howell's 
Improved "White Furnaces, "Walker's Compound Steam Pumps, Etc. 



"Western Iron Works, 

316 and 318 Mission Street, San Francisco, 
PERRY EDWARDS, Frop'r. 

Manufacturer of Wrought Iron Girders, Trusses. Prison Cells. Iron Roofs. Crest 
Railings, Finials, Fences, Weathervanes, Gratings, Iron Work for Models, Etc. 

Nickel Plated Railings. Rank and Store Fittings. Estimates given and Iron Work furnished for Buildings. 



HpWPV Afln i r. 202 IPfltpnf Afl'ic I Driving Nails Under Water.— Stack's illustrated ad- 
ltgwigj w uu. ) Snusome St f raiCIH My l&i I verUsement appears once a mouth in this paper. 




f Corner Beale and Howard Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

W. H. TAYLOR, Pres't. JOSEPH MOORE, Sup't. 

Builders of Steam Machinery 

In all ITS BllANCIlES, 

Steamboat, Steamship, Land 

Engines and Boilers, 

HIGH PRESSURE OR COMPOUND. 

STEAM VESSELS, of all kinds, built complete with 
Hulls of Wood, Iron or Composite. 

ORDINARY ENGINES compounded when ad- 
visable. 

STEAM LAUNCHES, Barges and Steam Tugs con- 
structed with reference to the Trade in which they are 
to be employed. Speed, tonnage and draft of water 
guaranteed. 

STEAM BOILERS. Particular attention given to 
the quality of the material and workmanship, and none 
but first-class work produced. 

SUGAR MILLS AND SUGAR-MAKING 
MACHINERY made after the most approved plans. 
Also, all Boiler Iron Work connected therewith. 

WATER PIPE, of Boiler or Sheet Iron, of any size 
made in suitable lengths for connecting together, or 
sheets rolled, punched, and packed for shipment ready 
to be riveted on the ground. 

HYDRAULIC RIVETING. Boiler Work and 
Water Pipe made by this establishment, riveted by 
Hydraulic Riveting Machinery, that quality of work 
being far superior to hand work. 

SHIP WORK. Ship and Steam Capstains, Steam 
Winches, Air and Circulating Pumps, made after the 
most approved plans. 

PUMPS. Direct Acting Pumps, for Irrigation or City 
Water Works purposes, built with the celebrated Davy 
Valve Motion, superior to any other Pump. 



— AT tub - 



Electric Model & Machine Works 

Inventors and others can f?et First-Class 
Work at Moderate Prices. 

After 10 years experience with inventions and other 
mechanical work, I am fully prepared to execute draw- 
ings, working-models and fine machinery of any descrip- 
tion to entire satisfaction. 

Brass Finishing, Pattern Making, Gear Cutting, Tele- 
graphic and other Electrical Apparatus by competent 
workmen. 

TELEPHONES TO ORDER. 
F. W. FULLER, 415 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Main Street Iron Works, 

WM. DEACON, PROPRIETOR. 

Nos. 131, 133 & 135 Main St., San Francisco. 

Siaiionary and Marine Engines, 

Shafting, Pulleys, and General Machine Work. Jobbing 
and repairing done Promptly and at Lowest Rates. 
Screw Propellors, Propellor and Steamboat Engines. 

SAW MILLS and SAW MILL MACHINERY. 




m 

BERRY&PUCE 



Market, head of Front Street, San Francisco. 



Steel Castings. 

From \ to 10,000 lbs. weight, true to pattern, sound an , 
solid, of unequaled strength, toughness and durability 
An invaluable substitute for forgings or cast-iron requir- 
ing three-fold strength. Send for circular and price list to 

CHESTER STEEL CASTINGS CO., 



EVELINA STREET, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Diamond Drill Co. 

The undersigned, owners of LESCHOT'S PATENT 
for DIAMOND POINTED DRILLS, now brought to the 
highest state of perfection, are prepared to fill orders 
for the IMPROVED PROSPECTING AND TUNNELING 
DRILLS, with or without power, at short notice, and 
at reduced prices. Abundant testimony furnished of 
the great economy and successful working of numerous 
machines in operation in the quartz and gravel mines 
on this coast. Circulars forwarded, and full infor- 
mation given upou application. 

A. J. SEVERANCE & CO. 
Office, No. 320 Sansome street. Room 10. 



GOLD MINE WANTED. 

One now paying more than expenses. Address 

W. S. KEYES, M. B., 
No. 310 Pine St., Boom 42, San Francisco 



January n, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



THE NEVADA OVAL TOP RETORT. 



31 




The advantage oi this Retort over tUe 01. 1) FLAT 
PATTERN is, th.,t it can be filled full ,,.■ Amalgam, there- 
by holding more than the old atyle, beaidee avoiding all 
danger of an exploBion owing to the orown space in the 
eover which allowa for the i-tpausiou. They are made, 
extra heavy, WELL GROUND in the joints, and ;iru fur- 
rdahed with a strong Norway clamp, having a wrought 
iron key which can he driven in or out of place by a single 

stroke ol ;i hammer. 

The Annoying Thumb-Screws are Entirely 
Done Away With. 



We Make Seven Sizes, as follows: 

t or Tints 12 3 4 5 (i 10 

Mollis Pounds Quicksilver., I--' 25 ::s 50 ii:t ',:, 125 

Weight each lOlhu 15 IS 25 SI 4-1 05 

i 

Mortars and Pestles, 

GROUND INSIDE. 



ELECTRIC LIGMiT. 

BRUSH PATENT. 
The Best, Cheapest, Cleanest, and Most Powerful Light in the World. 

In daily use at the Palace Hotel and the Union Iron Works, S. F. 




size Quarts J 1 2 4 ti S 12 

Hight— Inches .. . :','. 5 7^ SJ 9 11 
Weight— Pounds . Oi 9 Mi 22 37 43 72 



Mi 



SO 



Bullion Ladle. 



Furyeil from one piece of Charcoal Iron, eight inches in 
liameter by four inches deep. 

Send for Circular and Prices- 



DUNHAM, CARRIGAN & CO., Agents, San Francisco 



^ZR^HSTCIS SIMZITIEI <Sc CO., 

MANUFACTUKEUS OF 

THE PATENT CHANNEL IRON WHEELBARROWS, 




The Strongest Barrow Made. These Barrows ure made by Superior Workmen, and of the best material. 
All sizus kept constantly on band. 

Lap-Welded Pipe, all Sizes, from Three to Six Inches. Artesian Well Pipe. Also, Gal- 
vanized Iron Boilers, from Twenty-five to One Hundred Gallons. 

Iron Cut, Punched, and Formed for making pipe on ground, where required. All kinds of tools supplied for 
making pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all size of pipes with a composition of 
Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

Office and Manufactory, 130 BEALE STREET, San Francisco, Cal. 



D. F. IIITTCIIINCS. 



D. M. Dl'NNU. 



J. SAKPEIiSON 



iFiHicEisriix oil ^ato:r,:k:s, 

HUTCHIMGS & CO., 

OIL and COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

Manufacturers and Dealers in Sperm, Whale, Lard, Machinery and Illuminating Oils. 
517 FRONT STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 



San Francisco Pioneer Screen Works, 

J. W. QUICK, Manufacturer, 

Several first premiums received 
for Quart/. Mill Screens, and Per- 
forated Sheet Metals of every 
I de.scri[ition. I would call special 
attc-ntiou to my SLOT CUT aud 
SLOT PUNCHED SCREENS, 
I which are attracting much at- 
I tention and giving universal 
I satisfaction. This is the only 
| establishment ou the coast de- 
voted exclusively to the manufac- 
ture of Screens. Mill owners using Mattery Screens exten- 
sively can contract for large supplies at favorable rates. 
Orders solicitedand promptly attended to, 

32 Fremont Street. San Francisco. 



wm- 



KusTKi/s Concentration of Ores (of ail kinds), inclu- 
ding the Chlorination Process forGold-bearing'Sulphurets, 
Arscniurets, and Gold and Silver ores generally, with 120 
Lithographic Diagrams, 1867. Trie most complete treat- 
ise. Published at this office. Price, $7.50. Postage, 50 
«ents extra 



THE AMERICAN 



All sizes, 

and adapted to 

from 

3 to 500 

feet head 




TURBINE 

Water Wheels 

THE BEST IN THE 
WORLD ! 



Send for our Circular 
and Prices. 

BERRY & PLACE. 

Market St., Head of Front, 

San Francisco. 



For Lighting Mines, Factories, Mills, Streets, 
Theaters, Public Halls, Etc., It has no Equal, 
either for Brilliancy or Cheapness. 

For further particulars, Catalogues, Prices, Etc., 
apply to 

WILLIAM KERR, 

President S. F. Telegraph Supply Co., 

903 Battery St., San Francisco. 



EDISON'S ELECTRIC PEN and PRESS. 




MAKES35,OOOrCOPIES FROM ONE WRITING, 

Requires no Prepared Ink, or Paper, no Skilled Expert to do Good Work 
From 5 to 15 Copies per minute by an Office Boy. 

Indispensable to Lawyer.-;, Cankers, Colleges and Sehools, Music Dealers, Real Estate Men, aud Business Finns 
ill every department of trade. 

Costs but $2.50 Per Annum to run it. 



WHAT THEY SAY: 
"As good as a full-grown lithographic establishment." — Bakkii & Hamilton. 
"Indispensable to the use of this office. " — FIREMAN'S Fc.N'D Insurance Co. 
"Exceeds our most sanguine expectations."— Hv BALZER & Co. 

"I would not be without it for live times its cost."— lino. Lkvlston. Attorney-at-law. 
"Very useful and fully meets oiirex|ieetations."— W. T. Coleman & Co. 

"Has become one of the most valuable appendages of the Academy."— Cal. Military Academy. 
"We would on no account dispense with it "— Imtkrial, London, Nortuhiin and Queen Insurance Co. 'a. 
Call on, or send for Circular and Samples of "work to 

E. A DAKIN, Gen'l Agent for Pacific Coast, 209 Sansome St., S. F. 



SANDERSON BROS. & GO.'S 

Best Refined. Cast-Steel. 

Warranted Most Superior for Drills, Hammers, Etc. 

A full and complete stock of this reliable and well-known 
brand of Steel, for mining and other uses, now in stock and for sale 

At No. 417 Market St, S. F., - H. D. Morris, Agent. 



1 MXTSICA.L BOXES 

S For Holidav, Birthday and i/Veddmg Presents. 



S3 

o 






Is/L. JT. PAILLARD &c CO., \ 

Manufacturers and Importers, 

No. 120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 



7 & 

30 
—I 
m 

SO 

V) 



32 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 11, 1879. 




Mining Machinery Depot, 



PARKE & LACY, 417 Market St. 

Air Compressors, JBL Rock Drills 



HOISTING ENGINES, 

ALL SIZES, 

Double and Single, 
With Single and Double Reels. 




BURLEIGH ROCK DRILL, 

Does more -work at Less Cost 

THAN ANY OTHER ROCK DRILL. 



Pressure Blowers. 

Compound Steam Pumps. 

Yacht Engines. 

Diamond Anti-Friction Metal. 

PUMP 

And AIR COLUMN. 



DEANE'S STEAM PUMPS 

Vertical and Horizontal. 

Steam Plunger Pumps. 



BUCKET PLUNGER PUMPS. 

Bucket Plunger Pump. BURLEIGH AIR COMPRESSOR 

Ch-ampion. Mine Ventilator. GiV68 c ^p e r r es! M^P any 

PUTNAM'S 

Irrigating Pumps. Wood-Working Machinery. 




FIRE ENGI2TES, 

Bahcock Chemical Engines, Hose Carts, 

Hook and Ladder Trucks, and Fire Extinguishers. c° p E and maxwell pump. 

w Substituting all Others. 




CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. 

Hand Pumps. 

SHIP PUMPS. 

Flexible Shafts. 



MACHINISTS' TOOLS. 

Lathe Chucks. 

FARMERS' BATTERY. 



Hill's Exploders. 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS. 



W. T. GARRATT'S 

BRASS and BELL FOUNDRY 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
MANUFACTURER AND IMPORTER OF 

Church and Steamboat BELLS and GONGS 
BRASS CASTINGS of all kinds, 
"WATER GATES, GAS GATES, 
FIRE HYDRANTS, 

DOCK HYDRANTS, 

GARDEN HYDRANTS 

General Assortment of Engineers' Findings. 

Hooker's Patent 
Celebrated 

STEAM,PUMP 

^TThe Beat and Most 
Durable in use. Also, 
a variety of other 

PUMPS 

For Mining and Farm- 
ing- Purposes. 

ROOT'S BLAST BLOWERS, 

For Ventilating- Mines and for Smelting Works. 

HYDRAULIC PIPES AND NOZZLES, 

For Mining- Purposes. 

Garratt's Improved Journal Metal. 

IMPORTER OF 

IRON PIPE AND MALLEABLE IRON FITTINGS. 

ALL RINDS OF 

WORK AND COMPOSITION NAILS, 

AT LOWEST RATES. 





©a^f 




CV^*mJE 



MANUFACTURED UNDER A. NOBEL'S ORIGINAL AND ONLY VALID NITROGLYCERINE PATENTS 

Nos. ONE, TWO and THREE. 
Stronger, Better and Safer than any other High Explosive. 

Judson Powder 

IS NOW USED IN ALL LARGE HYDRAULIC CLAIMS. 




WATER TANKS of any capacity made entirelj 
by machinery. Materials the best in use; construction not 
excelled. Pan Staves, Tuba and Oak Guides foi 
mining purposes a specialty. 

WELLS, RUSSELL & CO., 
Mechanics' Mills, Cor. Mission and Fremont Streets. 

The " California Legal Record." 

The ONLY WEEKLY containing all the 

decisions of the Supreme Court 

of California, 

(The only complete continuation of the S. F. Law Journal.) 

Published every Saturday, mSvo. Bize— like the California 
Reports-contains kvery decision of the Supreme Court 
as fast as rendered, with a syllabus aud statement of facts 
and other important legal matter. The volumes commence 
on the first of October and April ouch, ami have a full index 
for reference and binding. 

REDUCED PRICE, only *5.50 per year, or $3 per volume 
of six months. Remit by Postal Order or Registered Letter 
specifying what date or number to commence. Back num- 
bers furnished. Sample immbe.rs sent free Address 

-kt «vo ,/■ £* SCOFIELD & CO., Publishers and' Prop's. 

No, 603 Washington street, San Francisco, CaL 



It breaks more ground, pulverizes it better, saves time and money, and is supersedin 
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DIVIDE ND N OTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

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s 1. ■ , GEORGE LETTE, Secretary. 

aan Francisco, December 31at, 1878. 



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Market, head of Front St., San Francisco 



Prompt Attention to Business. 

Aurora, Nev., Dec. 7th, 1878. 
Mkssrs. Dbwkv & Co., S. F.— Dear Sirs:— I acknowl- 
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An Illustrate 



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Publlwh *«i*m. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1879. 



VOLUME 3C3C3LVIII 

Number 3. 



The Deane Mining Pump. 

Notwithstanding the fact that direct-acting 
pumping machinery for draining mines costs 
much lees than any other style, a prejudice 
exists against its employment on account of the 
concussion — so destructive to pipes and connec- 
tions — that attends the use of Improperly de- 
signed and constructed machines. This is 
claimed to be entirely obviated in the Deane 
mining pump, by applying a simple cushion (tirst 
used on these pumps) to the steam cylinder, 
compelling the piston to stop and start slowly 
at the end of each stroke, so that the water 
valves may have time to seat quietly, and cause 
no shock or jar. 

The Deane plunger pumps, recently intro- 
duced here by Parke & Lacy, 417 Market street, 
in this city, have two plungers working in op- 
posite ends of a water cylinder, divided in the 
center with valves of the most approved con- 
struction. They are intended for situations 
where the gritty nature of the water prevents 
the use of piston pumps. 

Fig. 2 of the accompanying engravings shows 
one of these plunger mining pumps with 14-iuch 
steam cylinder, 8-inch plunger, and 12-inch 
stroke. 

Fig. 1 shows a Dean pump, piston style, with 
12-inch steam cylinder, 7-inch water cylinder, 
and 12-inch stroke. The piston mining pumps 
are made from special patterns, and are de- 
signed for situations where the water is com- 
paratively free from grit. They are also de- 
sirable for temporary work, and for duty where 
Bpace is limited. They are lighter, more com- 
pact, and co3t less than plunger pumps of equal 
capacities. The linings, water valve plates, 
piston rods, stuffing-boxes, and water piston- 
heads are of solid composition. The packing is 
of fibrous rings, or leather cups, as desired. 
They run without shock or concussion. The 
working parts are all readily accessible. 

A very interesting little pamphlet has been 
published by the manufacturers of the Deane 
pumps, comparing in details the four promi- 
nent systems, viz. : Cameron, Dean, Blake and 
Knowles. These pumps are shown by diagrams, 
and their details of construction and operation 
compared one with the other. Those interested 
in pumping machinery for mines, will find it 
worth their while to send to the agents for 
this pamphlet, as it contains a great deal of in- 
formation not readily access- 
ible from other sources. We 
have only space for the con- 
cluding paragraph, which sums 
up the advantages of the 
Deane system as follows: 

The Deane system is the 
simplest; as the parts 
peculiar to it are less in num- 
ber than those of the Cameron, 
less than one-half those of the 
Knowles, and about one-third 
those of the Blake; is the most 
positive, as it has a straight 
mechanical connection between 
the main valve and the main 
piston; is the most durable, as 
the supplemental and the main 
are both flat side valves; is the 
least liable to breakage from ex- 
ternal causes, as it has no c >m- 
plicated valve-gear, and what 
it has is between the steam and 
the water cylinder; in a word, 
it combines the greatest sim- 
plicity with the greatest per- 
fection, both in theo ry and in 
practice. 

Wintery Weather Note. — The Nevada 
State papers all talk of cold weather and snow. 
The cold weather of the past few weeks at Ne- 
vada City, terminated in a snowfall on the 8th. 
In the foothills, as usual, delicate fruit trees are 
less injured than in the valleys. 



We have two correspondents in Arizona who 
will be heard from this week, probably. Al- 
though we are favored with occasional corre- 
spondence from all the outlying mining regions, 



Fictitious Capital Stock. — An effort has been 
made in the Constitutional Convention at Sac- 
ramento, to cut down the licti tious capital stock 
ao often put forward in the incorporations of 




PIG. 1. THE DEANE PISTON MINING , PUMP. 



our readers in Idaho, Montana, and Utah will 
bear in mind that their letters are always wel- 
come; and that a paragraph from a reliable cor- 
respondent often goes far- 
ther than a heavier article. 
Every good mining district 
has its problem to solve, 
and its comparisons to work 
out, metallurgically and 
otherwise. The character 
of the ore deposits should 
be understood. Specimens 
to illustrate these can be 
sent to the University and 




mining companies, to something like a reason- 
able limit, by means of a tax, preliminary to 
riling articles for record. The Convention de- 
cided that such a tax would not be likely to 
prevent any of the real "wild cat" schemes from 
being brought before the people, whom it 
was sought to victimize; while it was certain 
that it would prevent many honest and meri- 
torious companies from organizing, by placing 
unnecessary impediments in their way. No 
one can doubt the good intention of the mover, 
nor fail to see that it is the mining interest 
itself that suffers most from dishonesty in any 



Practice at the University. 

The literary societies of the University at 
Berkeley conduct a monthly magazine, by elect- 
ing from amongst themselves successive editors 
and assistants. The Bvrkeleyan is a portly in- 
dividual of 63 pages, about one-third advertising 
matter, printed on the University press. Noth- 
ing could be more creditable to the donors of 
the printing office, and to the University, than 
such an evidence of vitality, and of a practical 
literary training. If the young men who are 
studying at Berkeley can learn, in their four 
years' course, how to be thoroughly informed on 
any given subject in practical life; how to write 
what they know in good enough English for 
the printer; and how to deliver themselves 
verbaly, in good enough style to be tolerated 
by an audience of a dozen intelligent persons, 
they will have acquired the most useful part of 
the University training. In saying this, it is 
understood, of course, that the rudiments and 
the details of physics and the natural sciences, 
of chemistry and the arts, are a matter of life 
acquisition, in which the collegian is like the 
school boy and the man of the world who has 
never been to school, of course obliged to be 
"posted," if he would turn his efforts to any 
account. On the subject of training in the use 
of the pen, the retiring editor says several 
things which are the result of his experience, 
and which are equally applicable to the larger 
class of students of the world: 

"Students are more liberal with their purses 
than with their literary efforts in sustaining a 
publication. All want to read, but no one 
wants to write and be criticised. With all our 
requests for contributions, we have met with 
but little return; we were obliged to go directly 
to the individuals, and to ask for what we 
wanted. Few articles have been volunteered, 
and those only were contributed which were 
read in class, and approved of and recommended, 
by the Professor of Literature. As a conse- 
quence we have received either biographical, 
metaphysical, or critical articles, and of these 
the second class predominated. One of the 
most interesting departments of literature was 
never indulged in — interesting narratives, or 
something spirited and light to bridge over the 
monotony of continuous metaphysics. We must 
have something light, something amusing. A 
conversational style would be good. Dialogues 
occur daily with ua, which, with a little judici- 
ous trimming and polishing, would amuse 
others aB they amuse us." 

While wit and sentiment fill the brighter, 
yet they are only a small part 
of the field occupied by writers. 
Reports of investigations are 
the simplest form of writing; 
beginning with the simplest 
form of a letter. The art or 
industry requisite, however, in 
making out a perfect "brief," 
using the legal term — of cover- 
ing all the information that is 
extant or obtainable bearing 
upon the case — are not often 



FIG.CT2. THE DEANE PLUNGER PUMP FOB MINING PURPOSES. 



to the Academy of Sciences by Wells, Fargo & 
Co.'s express without charge; and any letters 
sent to us descriptive of such, will receive due 
attention. 



The great suit against the United States for 
11,000 square miles of land in Missouri and 
Texas was decided by the Supreme court ad- 
versely to the claimants. 



form, that may be practiced by mining opera- 
tors. 



The Giant Powder Works, half a mile south 
of Golden Gate Park, blew up on Monday, at 
two p. m., killing four persons. Loss, $55,000. 

A natural mammoth cave has been discover- 
ed near Columbia, Tuolumne county. 



The fact that good opportu- 
nities are given at the Uni- 
versity to persons who may 
desire to make original invest- 
igations in agriculture, chemis- 
try, mineralogy, metallurgy, 
geology and mechanics; that 
there are often excellent special 
topics suggested to be worked 
up, which have both a prac- 
tical bearing and interest ; 
that sections of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences, embracing 
mining among other branches, 
microscopical and other societies, havenowbeen 
organized within reach of the University collec- 
tions — these are all matters worth noting, in 
this connection, as it is evident that the Uni- 
versity is about to enter upon a more promi- 
nent career, in connection with the industrial 
and scientific progress of the coast. 

Jay Cooke, the ex-banker, is in Utah. 



34 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Scenes in the High Sierra Back of 
Yosemite — Continued. 

[Written for the Press by J. G. Lemmon. ] 

Glaciers and their Work. 

Nowhere else in California are glaciers more 
fully represented than here around the bases of 
this Lyell group of half a dozen peaks. It is 
not so surprising that the much loftier Whitney 
group to the south, nor the great domes of Dana 
and Gibbs northward, scarcely retain an active 
glacier, when we consider the character of their 
rock, reddish porphyry, greenstone and slates, 
all good absorbants of solar rays. The cold, 
gray granite and silvery quartz of Lyell, added 
to the interior location of the group, condense 
the moisture out of the over-blowing winds for 
a longer period of the year, to fall in copious 
showers of snow on their plateaus, then to crys- 
tallize to neve, soon hardening to fields of ice, 
called Mers de Glace, from whence glaciers 
emerge, grinding their way to the plain. 

First the Facts, Then their Origin. 

These Mers de Qlace are ribbed from upper to 
lower side with hard snow, the lowest end 
the largest between each ridge, in the warmest 
hours of summer days, there flows the daily 
melt of snow, filling the cracks that occur always 
in a mass of ice upon every change of tempera- 
ture. Down each canyon of every peak, where 
favored by shade, flows a frozen river, a glacier. 
On its back, regularly distributed, are rocks of 
all sizes, some partly covered with the ridges of 
snow. These glaciers move slowly down the 
canyons, which they exactly fill, to the level of the 
melting point at the present time in this region, 
at an elevation of about 11,500 feet. Arrived 
at the melting line the glacier abruptly ter- 
minates in a sheer precipice, semi-circular in. 
outline. Off from its edge, one after another, 
fall the rock passengers, forming a curved row 
of high-piled rocks, a moraine. These moraines 
are often one to two miles long in their sweep- 
ing curve and 50 feet high. 

Following down the ravine, it is found to be 
smooth on the bottom and sides, with no sharp 
angles in its course, nor yet the short bends pe- 
culiar to water courses. At intervals, deep, 
round or oval lakes are found in or near the 
center of the ravine. 

At every change of level, that is, every preci- 
pice down which this ravine-maker continues, 
just over the brow there is found a moraine. 

Farther on, when the plain is reached, the 
ravine joins with others to form a deep, narrow 
valley, strangely regular in contour, no sharp 
angles or bends, but at a few points curving 
gracefully from side to side, always bending 
away from a tributary, never towards one, as 
often do rivers. 

The Glacio-Aqueous Epoch. 

Before we attempt to interpret these phe- 
nomena, let us recall the glacio -aqueous epoch 
of the world's history, and note the configura- 
tion given to our globe by the universal ice 
mantle. The waters of the earth then flowed 
at an elevation far above the tops of the present 
mountains. In the lapse of time, as condensa- 
tion of the earth's elements took place, the 
waters were gradually drawn off into preparing 
oceans, at the same time ridges or undulating 
bilges of the earth's crust appeared, constituting 
the present mountain chains, with their com- 
plement of material, now removed. 

As the sea, with its immense blocks of ice, 
driven about by wind and tide, receded, the 
icebergs began to touch the earth's ribs, and at 
once the work of grinding and denuding com- 
menced. While age upon age elapsed, lower 
and lower sank the icy sea, and its ice blocks 
beat harder and harder upon the ribs. The 
weakest formed rock gave way first, and, it may 
be, that between now towering peaks there once 
existed much higher, but easier denuded rocks. 
At length the great icy sea receded until it 
became fenced into basins by the appearing 
mountain chains. In the weakest places chan- 
nels were formed, and as differences of level 
occurred, as respects the basins, the resistance 
of the sierra barriers caused tremendous pressure 
upon the sides of these channels, and the ice 
blocks squeezing through, often wrenched the 
toughest rocks from their ledges and hurled 
them upon the distant plain. Other rocks suf- 
fered the loss of crowns and angles and remain 
to-day as domes or bosses upon the flanks of 
the mountains, notably in the region of Yo- 
semite, where they may be counted by the score, 
their scratched and polished surfaces recording 
at once the hight, strength, and direction of 
the ice currents. 

At last the glacio-aqueous epoch was ended. 
The waters were gathered into their future 
home, the ocean. The dry land appeared, 
strewn with debris for hundreds and thousands 
of miles on each side of the mountain chains, 
while a warm atmosphere crept from the plains 
by degrees up the mountains, clothing them 
with vegetation. 

Next succeeded the wonderful phenomena of 
Glaciers. 

At first glaciers were developed on a scale so 
grand as to be scarcely conceived of now. 
Their work is denuding mountain ranges and 
sharpening domes into pinnacles, as did their 
parent, the icy sea, but they toil in a very dif- 
ferent manner, bIow as the cycles of ages, silent 



as the mold of the tomb. Their power is equal 
to the destruction of the highest mountains of 
the globe, and to the furrowing of the deepest 
Yosemites of the plateaus. 

It all begins with the Mers de Glace. 

These masses of ice, at first, stranded upon 
plateaus, afterward formed from snow falling m 
favoring localities, are fixed to the earth, in 
winter, thoughout their extent, by freezing. 
Certain points of greatest cold are developed, 
coinciding probably with the lowest places. 
At these points the rocks are clasped firmly 
by the ice and form a fulcrum for dynamic 
movements, which will be examined soon. 

First, let it be remembered that ice expands 
when forming, about one-ninth of its volume. 

Second, when crushed at a temperature be- 
low 22° it re-congeals, over and over again. 

Third, that the force of ice-expansion is one 
of the most powerful known, utterly irresist- 
ible. 

Now from the point of greatest cold under an 
ice-field, this fulcrum firmly clasped, the ice ex- 
pands by congealing, thawing, crushing and re- 
gelation, and pressed in every direction, 
wrenching off and taking the contiguous rocks 
with it, and rasping them upon those left in 
the matrix. 

The result is a spreading outward and up- 
ward of the mass of ice and consequently the 
excavating of the crater-like amphitheaters 
that are found, some of them now empty, on 
the sides of the mountains. This accounts also, 
for the holes along the glacier's track, once ice- 
wombs now filled with water-forming. 
Glaciers at Work. 

The upper edge of this powerful excavator 
impinges against the mountain, undermining 
rocks and earth, causing them to fall upon its 
back, to he carriedelowly down the frozen river, 
as seen. 

When glapiers are in operation on both 
sides of a mountain rim, they remove all the 
material between, and thus isolated peaks are 
formed at the side. 

The greatest amount of pressure will be suc- 
cessful in the direction of least resistance, hence 
the final downward flow of the frozen river. 
Glacier Lakes. 

The Modits operandi of lake-forming is so in- 
teresting that a few words of detail may be 
apropos. Anywhere that ice forms upon a 
plateau or mountain side, the work of excava- 
ting a basin may commence, so soon as the con- 
ditions are favorable, i, e., frequent thawings 
and freezings, which, as shown, are attended 
by expansion, crushing of ice and regelation, 
the latter of course attended with renewed ex- 
pansion. The fulcrum or fixed point would 
change from side to side of the bottom seeking 
the lowest place, from season to season, or rather 
from age to age. The result would be the 
scooping out of a crater of more or less depth, 
stopped only by the condition of unchanged, 
low temperature reached at the bottom, gener- 
ally several feet. When a change to warmer 
temperature occurs (which rise will soon show 
is sudden, and by several degrees at once), the 
ice is melted, and the ice-womb or fountain, 
becomes a deep clear glacier lake, or often, if 
in loose soil easily drained, remains empty. 

These lakes distributed along a ravine, show 
where glaciers had their origin, or where por- 
tions of a flowing stream fastened on the bot- 
tom, for a period, and proceeded to digging 
wells upon the most gigantic scale, and with 
the most powerful yet simple of mechanical 
agents, ice-expansion. 

The warmth of the atmosphere in a distinct 
stratum at the melting limit, causes an abrupt 
termination of the glacier, while its flow being 
unhindered in the center, is faster there and 
causes the outward curve to its front, and this 
rain-bow curve determines the shape of the 
moraine of rocks dropped from its brow, added 
to those disgorged from its mouth below. 

The regularity of form of the glacier bed re- 
sults from the power of ice to remove obstruc- 
tions, like an immense furrowing flow, and its 
graceful curves away from the entering tribu- 
tary glacier shows by the degree of deflection 
the size of the tributary — a phenomenon never 
exhibited by water currents. 

Trains of rocks often seen, longitudinally dis- 
posed upon a glacier, show the union of two or 
more such tributaries. Their rocks deposited 
upon the terminal moraine form nodules or 
heaps in the latter. When left in situ by the 
sudden melting of the glacier, they form medial 
moraines ; while those rocks carried outward 
to the side of the glacier form the third kind, 
lateral moraines. 

Terminal moraines being found deposited at 
the brow of every precipice in the glacier's 
course, prove that the heat of the atmosphere 
has increased by intervals of several degrees at 
a time, not gradually — a most important deduc- 
tion from the study of glaciers, bearing upon 
the subject of climatology, the sudden with- 
drawal and introduction of different species of 
animals, and plants, etc. If the increase of 
temperature was gradual no terminal moraines 
of immense size as now seen, would be formed, 
but the rocks would be scattered along the 
track of the receding glacier. 

The few rocks found on the back of a glacier, 
its very slow movement, the bottom of it only 
moving in summer, the swiftest recorded 
motion being a Swiss glacier that only traveled 
4,400 feet in nine years, together with the 
often, immense hight of the terminal moraines, 
50 feet or more, all prove the necessity of 
vast periods of time required for their forma- 
tion. 

Finally the long, deep, glacier-carved valleys, 



like the famous Yosemite, prove the prevalence 
of glaciers of prodigous size and power, plow- 
ing the plateaus of the middle region of the 
Sierra, down to a low point near the foothills, 
the melting line being met at their mouths at 
an elevation of only about 3,000 or 4,000 feet. 
Climate Becoming* Warmed. 

From this brief study of glaciers may be de- 
duced a theory of the positive increase of the 
earth's atmosphere as the ages have rolled by ; 
an increase which has advanced the melting 
point— 33 D Fah.—uptheSierra,7,000or8,000fee^ 
since the day of the great glaciers. At that 
period, such valleys as Sierra and its sisters, 
now decorating the flanks of the Sierra north 
and south, were either lakeB imprisoned with 
ice, or complete ice-wombs, the source of gla- 
ciers whose moraines have been scattered since 
by floods from higher basins as their contents 
were feed ; while the great valley of California, 
and the great basin of Nevada were cold, fresh 
water seas, their shores barely producing Arctic 
willows and sages. 

At present the warm strata of air are found' 
high up the mountains melting the few, short 
glaciers away nearly to their founts. When an 
increase occurs that shall melt them and the 
Mers de Glace all away, and there remains no 
more perpetual snow and ice to keep springs and 
rivers alive in summer; the parched plains being 
mantled by a torrid substratum of moistureless 
air, the poor inhabitants of earth, if living by the 
same means as we exist now, may sigh for the 
return of the almost unknown and totally un- 
appreciated boon — a condition of climate that 
admits of glaciers. 

Mines and "Works of Almaden — No. 18. 



FOURTH PART. 

Administration and History of the Mines 
and Works. 

Translated for the Press from " Annales des Mines." 

I. Administration. 

It remains, in order to complete this descrip- 
tion of the actual situation of the mines and 
works of Almaden, to explain the organization 
of the general administration of the establish- 
ment. 

The technical direction, or, as they say in 
Spain, facultative, pertains, under the control of 
the council of mines, to a certain number, 
actually of four engineers of the corps of mines* 
The eldest has the title of director ; of the 
three others, one has charge of the veins San 
Francisco and San Nicholas, the other of San 
Pedro y San Diego and also of the workmen, 
the third of the works, and at the same time the 
direction of the school of master-miners at 
Almaden. 

Each engineer has under his orders a certain 
number of capataces (master-miners). Those of 
the mine go by the name of officiates and of ayud- 
antes de mina. They are submitted to a rigor- 
ous hierarchy ; they come from the corps of 
timbermen, where they enter after three years 
study in the school at Almaden. Those of the 
works go by the name of officiale-s and ayudantes 
de dest'dlacion ; they come from the corps of 
auxiliairies de destiUacion, whose duty is the 
preparation of the charges ; the corps of auxili- 
aires is taken from the scholars of the school of 
master-miners ; as the watchmen of the mine, 
they are alternatively seven days on duty and 
seven days at liberty. 

The accounts, regulated on the same model as 
are the other accounts of the State, are confided 
to an interventor principal or contador, assisted 
by a certain number of clerks. A cashier has 
charge of the money vault. 

The chief superior of the mines has the name 
of super intendant ; he should be a brigadier 
(that is to say a brigadier general) of the artil- 
lery or engineers. He is supreme judge in 
technical matters, those of accounts, or of 
administration ; his authorization is always 
necessary ; he is responsible to the General 
Direction of the Domain ( Propriedades y Dere- 
chos), which Direction is itself placed under the 
orders of the Minister of Finance. 

The oflice of superintendent was suppressed 
in 1871, and replaced by the institution of a 
commissary general at the mines of Almaden. 
This commissary was M. Monasterio. A de- 
plorable riot occasioned — on July 4th, 1874 — the 
assassination of M. Monasterio and that of M. 
Buceta, engineer of the mines; after these tragic 
occurrences the office of superintendent was re- 
established October 20th, 1874.* 

The services of the mines and works are per- 
formed, some under contract, others under 
wages. The work done by contract, are, in the 
mines: the stoping, the building of the masonry, 

y The 4th of July, 1S74, should have heen the time of 
renewing' the contracts; the engineer, D. Isidro Sebastian 
Buceta presided at the public meeting' for awarding the 
contracts, when he was suddenly assailed from all sides, 
and quickly beaten to death. The workmen over-excited 
to the point of madness ran through the town to find M. 
Monasterio, who was not able to escape, and was massa- 
cred in the middle of the town. He .pa.yed with his life 
for the generous efforts which he had made for the im- 
provement of the mines, of which he had the chief direc- 
tion. All this was an unfortunate drama, of which the 
true causes have never been elucidated, and the most 
guilty authors of which have not bceu minished for want 
of proof; politics were uo doubt noteutirely unconnected 
with it, and it is to-day believed that this sad riot was 
fermented by certain socialistic agents, similar to the case 
of Carthagenia. After these events, the moBt absolute 
authority was given to the engineers over the workmen, 
who have, nevertheless, already retaken great liberties. 



the extraction and the introduction, the trans- 
portation interior and exterior, the hand pump- 
ing, the production of steam for the Watt en- 
gine, the repairing of tools, the purchase of 
wood for timbering, of lime, of sand, of bricks, 
of coal, of iron, of steel, of charooal, of lumber 
for carpenters; at the works: the manufacture 
of aludels, the repairing of furnaces, the ex- 
traction of slag, the furnishing of fuel for the 
furnaces, the purchase of frascos, of iron, of 
sand, and of bricks. 

The timbering, the distribution and the care 
of tools, the charge of steam engines, the work 
of the shops, the forge, the carpenter shop at the 
mine; the charging and discharging of furnaces, 
the roasting of ore, the luting of aludels, and of 
doors, the cleaning of the chambers and aludels, 
the washing of the soot or cabezaB, at the works, 
are, on the contrary, performed by contract. 

We have already stated by what means the 
workmen are able to render useless the guaran- 
ties which the awarding of the work by public 
contract would seem to offer; we will not re- 
turn to it. 

The following table shows the total number 
of workmen occupied in the different establish- 
ments during these last years, and the corre- 
sponding produotion. The figures correspond 
each to a oampaign; the campaign begins July 
1st and finishes the 30th of June following: 



-j -.i ~a ~i -i 

*■ Co to M O 



_N>NN>_tOJ3 

HO*. CO "to 
w ;■:, j- a -^ 

WOHMS 



fJCO CD*. (O 



fc. to l" ro to 

CO (5 -J t> CI 



en to tnosw 



w w ao oi_w 



Production. 
Years. Ore. Mercury. 

1870-71 14,051.0 tons. 1,186.00 tons. 

1871-72 15,527.8 " 1,135.00 " 

1872-73 13,509.3 " 1,155.23 " 

1873-74 13.T14.4 " 970.10 " 

1874-75 19,182.0 " 1,264.00 " 

The total number of workmen employed, 
compared with the figures showing the produc- 
tion, would be difficult to understand if we did 
not add some explanations. There is no one 
who is occupied in a continuous manner at any 
one of the establishments of Almaden; accord- 
ing to the kind of duty, the men work one day 
out of two, or one out of three, or even less; 
the rest of the time they are occupied with dif- 
ferent private works. This situation is due in 
part to a desire to furnish work to the greatest 
possible number of inhabitants; but it has a 
much more serious cause which would never 
permit a different organization. 

It is known, in fact, how the mercurial ema- 
nations are injurious to the health of those who 
are exposed to them. They produce first ptyal- 
ism (excessive salivation), loosening of the 
teeth, ulceration of the mouth; then penetrates 
little by little the entire organism, and then 
give rise to a particular trembling which a long 
sojourn at the establishment of Almaden does 
not allow any one to escape. This trembling 
is accompanied by an almost complete loss of 
powers, and a sad weakening of the intellect. 

The intermittance of work allows them to 
overcome, at least partially, this mercurial mal- " 
ady; and it is for this reason, much more than 
as a consequence of the ideas of inveterate 
socialists, that the State gives employment at 
Almaden to a number of workmen much greater 
than is strictly necessary to the execution of the 
different works. 

The workmen attacked by the malady have 
at their disposition a hospital established under 
excellent conditions. Those whose constitution 
has been strongly attacked by the malady in 
consequence of a long sojourn at the mines or at 
the works, can obtain the concession of a certain 
amount of land to cultivate in a domain of 7,000 
hectares, sailed the domain of Castilseras, 
which belongs to the establishment of Almaden. 
This domain does not yield anything, or scarcely 
anything, and the expense of keeping it up in- 
creases somewhat the cost of extracting the 
mercury. 

The financial service has been simplified 
somewhat since 1870, in consequence of a treaty 
concluded between the treasurer and the house 
of Rothschilds. 

In order to secure and re-imburse a loan of 

Continued on page 38. 



January 18, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



35 



ECHANICAL 



ROGRESS. 



A New Direct Process for Making 
Wrought-Iron and Steel. 

We liave already maie brief reference to 
some important experiment* in the way of a 

new process for making vroughtdnm aud uteel 
direct from the ore, whico have recently been 
made under the direction nf Mr. Charlee M. Dn 
Puy, of Philadelphia, 'his process \* essenti- 
ally different from all o tners heretofore either 
employed or proposed. A full description of 
the same, with practical exults, was given in a 
paper read by Mr. I Hi Par, before the meeting 
oj the Franklin IuBtitute,on the 20th of Nov- 
ember last. Wo regret tint we have room for 
only a brief synopsis of tlut paper. 
This Process ponslets 
First, in mixing and griming together in proper 
proportions the ore, coal, aid fluxes. The ground 
mass is then tilled into anntlar sheet-iron cases 
or rings without top or blttom. Any desired 
number of these cases, acceding to the capacity 
of the furnace, are then pl^ed therein side by 
side, and subjected to the Gradually increasing 
heat of a reverberatory furnace, and in about five 
hours the ores and their containing cases settle 
down and become weldedinto quite compact 
lumps of iron, which m£ be removed and 
wolded together, or Bqueeed aud sorted into 
11 muck-bar." 

It will be seen from the ,bove that this pro- 
cess is quite the reverse (J the blast-furnace 
method. In that, a tuyere onducts a stream of 
oxygen into close contact tith the ore in the 
presence of a high heat; whle in this, oxygen is 
excluded, as far as possibleUand the moderate 
heat— from 800 3 to 1 .OOO 3 Fan— pre vents the com- 
bination of phosphorus witlime iron. The work 
is done by reflected heat frcn the furnace roof. 
It may be termed a baking, hstead of a smelting 
process. 

Experiments -with Ms Process 
Have been made at the Crehent Steel Works, 
at Pittsburg, Pa., and alsojn Heading. Over 
50 experiments were made i the latter place 
during the month of Augut last, with most 
satisfactory results. Variouikinds of ores have 
been worked — magnetic orefrom West Point, 
ore from New Jersey, Cumprland Valley ore, 
hematite ore from Newar, besides several 
others. These ores were workd both separately 
and combined ; were reducd and forged to 
blooms, and the blooms related and drawn 
out smoothly under the hamier or rolls. Sev- 
eral crucibles of steel were nule from the iron 
and forged into planing tool which stood all 
the usual tests. 

The iron produced at t\ Crescent Steel 
Works was carefully tested ji the customary 
ways to determine the valuof iron for high 
grades of steel. The result sowed that it was 
equal to the most costly grad< of Swedish iron. 
Various fuels were employed in these experi- 
ments, and it was shown thai good tool steel 
could be made from iron prodied by anthracite 
coal dust! 

Further Experir mts. 

In addition to ores, experi ents were made 
in reducing the scale from rls — almost pure 
oxide of iron — which when sjrsely mixed with 
ground, ore and reduced b; anthracite dust 
forged readily into good blooi . The refuse of 
iron pyrites, from which the lphur had been 
extracted at the New Jersey hemical Works, 
and which has hitherto beei entirely useless, 
was also treated with anthrite dust, forged 
into blooms, reheated, piled ^ th one-third its 
weight of common muck-ba and plated out 
well into smooth sheets of N< 26 iron. 

Very little labor is requir; in the process, 
while the expensive fluxes, s h as soda, man- 
ganese, etc., are not used all. A proper 
mixture of aluminous and s cious ores with 
lime, to produce a non-flowii glassy slag, was 
all that was required. 

The Economy of th Process. 
These experiments prove at good steel can 
be produced by the De Puy ocess from iron 
deoxidized either with charct , anthracite-dust 
or coke-dust. Thus the ver cheapest of fuels 
can be used. It should also ; stated that all 
the experiments were condu id with ordinary 
furnaces, and such as we not specially 
adapted to the work; but ra :r with many in- 
conveniences and unsuitable nditious. 

A suitable furnace for the ork, from which 
half a ton of blooms may be 'oduced every 24 
hours, need not cost in Pitturg over §1,000. 
Only a little lime in eombition with waste 
coal slack — charcoal, anthrite or coke — fur- 
nishes all the accessories rmired. The most 
common No. 26 iron is aljsufficient for the 



itiee, as in Pennsylvania, where ores can be 
laid down for $3 per ton, and anthracite fuel 
obtained comparatively low, blooms, nearly 
freed from phosphorus, can be manufactured 
for from sis to s>o per ton, equally as good as 
those now producod at a cost of $38 to 
ton. 

The i-icta given above appear to bo put forth 
on the highest authority, and the experimental 
haw- been conducted on a working scale, and 
in the presence of numerous practical parties, 
well qualified to judge of the tacts. Is it not 
possible that this process may he made avail- 
able hen- in California ! May it not, with per- 
haps an iucreased degree of heat, and superior 
fluxes and fuel, bo made applicable for the re- 
duction of the iron sauds which are fouud in 
such immense quantities along the shore line of 
this State? At all events, if the foregoing 
facts are to be relied upou, thiB process must 
introduce an improvement into iron and steel 
making, such as has not been equalled since 
the introduction of the Bessemer process. 



Repairing Boilers. 

The following hints in reference to repairing 
boilers are taken from the American Marl>iniM : 

It is commonly noticed in boilers that have 
seams of rivets exposed to the action of the 
fire, that after being at work for some time, 
cracks begin to appear, running from the rivets 
towards the center of the plate. The cause is. 
that one lap being covered by another, prevents 
the water from getting to the one nearest the 
fire; consequently the lap nearest the fire be- 
comes hotter, and expands to a much greater 
extent than any other part of the plate, and its 
constant unequal expansion and contraction, as 
the boiler beoomes alternately hot aud cold, in- 
evitably results in a crack. These cracks may 
be temporarily repaired by drilling a hole in 
the bottom or extremity of them, so that the 
crack is completely drilled out; and, as a rule, 
this may be safely done if the crack is not more 
than three inches long, but if of greater length, 
do not tamper with it but have the plate out, if 
possible. 

If it is not practicable to take the plate out, 
cut out so large a piece that the seams of the 
patch shall be as far from the fire as possible. 
Let it be well borne in mind that, in addition 
to the two laps causing unequal expansion, the 
sediment or scale inside the boiler obstinately 
sticks in between the rivet-heads and under the 
edge of the lap, from whence it is seldom or 
never properly removed in cleaning the boiler. 
After drilling out the end of the crack, counter- 
sink the drilled hole, and also the hole in the 
seam above it; so that when rivets are again 
put in, they will meet each other, or nearly so. 
Let the heads of these rivets be as thin as pos- 
sible, so as not again to retain the heat, or at- 
tract or harbor dirt. 

Sometimes it will be observed that a crack in 
the seam is running from hole to hole between 
the rivets. This is always dangerous, an,d the 
cracked plate should be cut out and replaced by 
a new one as soon as possible. In putting 
patches on any part of a boiler, never cut a 
hole out with square corners, like the inside of 
a picture frame; but cut the holes which are to 
be covered with a patch, round, or as nearly 
circular as possible. But it is always better 
"not to put a patch on,'* but to cut out the de- 
fective plate and put in a new one, thus making 
the boiler as nearly as possible what it was when 
new. In putting a new plate in a very old 
boiler, it is advisable to have it a little thinner 
than the old plates were when new, say one- 
sixteenth of an inch. In putting on a new plate 
arrange it, if possible, so that the caulking shall 
be done on the new iron; but never place the 
edge of the laps toward the fire, unless a con- 
siderable distance from it. 



cases. Two men in 10 hou 
power engine, will grind at 



with a 15-horse 
mix and fill the 



cases for seven tons of blms. The furnace 
work is confined to chargj and discharging 
and firing — there being no cessity for manip- 
ulating the metal from the ne it is charged in 
the furnace until it is brofht to the hammer 
or squeezer. 

It is claimed as proven lithe experiments 
several hundred of whicj have been made 
upon a working scale — thajin favorable local 




New Alleged Discoveries in Petroleum. 

The"// and Drug /«V/'orVr has been shown 
specimens of what were claimed to be saponi- 
fu it petroleum. These specimens were shown in 
different forms — as emulsion, paste and cake. 
"Upon a close inspection," says the JReporier , 
"th. y appeared to be perfect specimens of sa- 
ponification, and we were assured that no oleag- 
inous matter, except petroleum oil, was intro- 
duced in their composition. These seemed to 
bo a practical contradiction of the theory that 
petroleum oil cannot be saponified in the very 
nature of things. Such has been our impres- 
sion, not from actual experiment, but based 
upon the statement of experts, who insist that 
petroleum can be rendered miscible only, and 
we know that it has been tested by various 
parties with great care and persistence. We 
confess our incredulity in the matter, but it is 
not safe in these days of discovery to doubt the 
solution of any scientific problem, and we can 
only say that we hope the enthusiastic author of 
this long-sought consummation is not deceiving 
himself. They are claimed to be applicable, to 
the purposes of scouring and finishing in textile 
manufactures; to domestic and toilet articles, 
and by reason of their antiseptic and healing 
properties, to medicinal preparations. But this 
is not all. We are assured by the same gentle- 
man that he had eliminated an aniline black 
from petroleum, which was at once dense, bril- 
liant and permanent; air and exposure to light 
serving to intensify and make it more firm. 
This, too, if it shall be assured, will prove an- 
other great achievement in industrial art." 

In connection with the above, Maj. Henry 
Howell, of Sornia. Canada, claims to have dis- 
covered a new process of refining petroleum 
without the agency of heat. A sample manu- 
factured from American petroleum of 45 gravity 
is stated to be a very brilliant and white oil of 
4S gravity and 122 fire test. The yield from 
the crude was 93%. But the most extraordinary 
claim for this process is not merely that the 
means used are entirely mechanical, bub also 
that there is no production of gasoline or ben- 
zine, and the entire product is standard white 
illuminating oil, superior to the oil refined under 
old methods. This new process, if what is 
claimed for it be true, is just precisely what the 
producers have been looking for. But how the 
fighter parts of crude petroleum can, by a mere 
mechanical process, be retained so as to stand a 
fire test of 122°, is something truly wonderful, 
and is simply equivalant to a mechanical de- 
composition of a chemical compound. 

What Science has Done for Productive 
Arts. — When gas was first made for illu- 
minating purposes, some of the substances pro- 
duced by the distillation of coal and the purify- 
ing of the gas, were considered unmitigated 
nuisances. But these disagreeable products 
did not escape the persevering investigations of 
the chemists, and the results are among the 
wonderful discoveries of science. A curious 
illustration of the economical value of the 
ammoniacal liquor is given in the report of the 
business of the gas works at Bradford, in 
England. For 10 years a contractor paid £800 
a year for this substance, now a new contract has 
been made by which the company receives £10,- 
359 per annum for it. Fifty one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety five dollars is a very pretty 
sum to receive for on article formerly regarded 
as having little value. The brilliant colors pro- 
duced from this liquid makes its great value. — 
Paint and Drug Reporter. 



Utilizing the Waste Heat of Exhaust 
Steam — Mr. James Atkinson, recently des- 
cribed before the American Society of Engineers 
a new apparatus for utilizing the waste heat of 
exhaust steam. This apparatus consists of a 
number of straight tubes screwed into a tube 
plate, which forms the base of an inclosed cylin- 
drical vessel containing the tubes and the water 
to be heated. These heating tubes are closed at 
their upper ends, but are open at the bottom to 
the exhaust steam, for which a short direct 
passage is provided. Small circulating tubes 
draw any air out of the heating tubeB which 
would prevent them being filled with steam. The 
latent heat of a portion of the exhaust steam is 
transmitted through the heating tubes -to the 
feed-water which is forced through the heater, 
and passes into the boiler at a temperature of 
from 210° to 212°. It is claimed that this heater 
is perfectly free from back pressure in the 
engine. 



A New Feed Pump. — A pump, which seems 
to have been working for almost two years suc^ 
cessfully, has been described recently by Chiaz 
zari, of the Alta Italia railway. It is used for 
feeding locomotive boilers with hot water heat 
ed to within a few degrees of the boiling 
point. It consists in bringing the feed-water, 
in a finely-divided spray, into contact with a 
portion of the exhaust steam during its pas> 
sage through the feed-pump, and of an automatic 
arrangement for shutting off the supply from 
the tender the moment the regulator is closed, 
thus preventing the admission of cold water to 
the boiler. 



The Third form of Carbon in Steel. — Mr. 
Henry G. Debrunner, in reply to Mr. Blodgett 
Britton's letter on the third form of carbon in 
steel, states that he is led to the belief that the 
latter's semi -graphitic carbon and his semi-com- 
bined form of that element are not identical. 
The product of the action of nitric acid (1.2 sp. 
gr. ) on an iron carbide containing what he has 
called the semi-combined modification of car- 
bon, is a black powder, which in no other but 
the mere physical quality of color resembles 
graphite, while its entire chemical character is 
similar to that of combined carbon. It dis- 
solves in nitric acid on heating, and causes steel 
to harden on being dipped at red heat in water, 
exactly like combined carbon, from which it 
only differs by the physical habitus of its prod- 
ucts on solution of steel in cold nitric acid. 



The Mound Builders' Unit of Measure 

Mr. J. W. Mdiill, who has been making a 
critical .study of the artificial mounds of north- 
eastern Iowa and contiguous parts of Wisconsin 
and Minnesota, finds considerable evidence of 
the employment of a unit of measurement in 
their erection, the possession of which would 
prove the mound builders to be tolerably 
advanced toward civilization when they entered 
the country. In the American Journal 
ena and Arta x for October, Mr. McGiU gi 
large number of measurements made by him in 
one of the most extrusive systems of mounds in 
northeastern Iowa, and arrives at the conviction 
that the linear unit employed by the builders 
was simply, or had grown out of, the pace or 
yard. 

The northern limit of the mounds of definite 
dimensions is not certainly known. Mr. Mc- 
GiU has sought vainly for evidence of the use 
of measurements in the most northerly of the 
mounds. His own examinations so far extend 
only to latitude 43° 30' N., and there the 
mounds are of constant or related dimensions. 
The most northerly of the measured mounds are 
undoubtedly within Minnesota. 

In conclusion Mr. McOill observes that if we 
assume a slow southerly migration to have taken 
place in the mound builders, it wiU explain the 
evident increase in geometrical knowledge at- 
tested by the various works found in passing 
across the United States from north to south. 
In the Northwest we find measurements of 
simple lines, but not of angles or areas. In 
Ohio, angles were correctly measured, the 
squares being accurate squares and the circles 
perfect circles ; and areas were measured, as 
attested by adjoining squares and circles being 
equal or very nearly equal in area, though there 
is no satisfactory evidence that the cardinal 
points were known. In the low p er Mississippi 
regions the cardinal points were known. The 
gradual modifications in the various arms and 
implements, and the striking improvements in 
pottery, together with many other important 
considerations, lend support to this view. 



Solubility of Phosphorus in Acetic Acid* 
— G. Vulpius reports that, by digesting phos- 
phorous for some time in concentrated acetic 
acid at a moderate heat, about 1- 100th of the 
weight of the latter is dissolved and kept in 
solution on cooling. If only a few drops of 
water are added, however, the solution becomes 
milky from deposited phosphorus, and when 
the addition reaches the volume of the solution 
used, no phosphorus at all will be retained in 
solution. — Archiv de Phar. 



Science in Nature. — "Everything," says 
Hugh Miller, "is writing nature's history, from 
pebble to planet. The scratches of the rolling 
rock, the channels of the rivers, the falling 
rain, the buried fern, the footprint in the snow, 
and every act of man, inscribes the map of her 
march. The air is full of sounds, the sky is 
full of memoranda and signatures which are 
more or less legible to every intelligent human 
being." 



Peculiar Behavior of Cast Iron. 

A peculiar phenomenon has been repeatedly 
noticed with cast iron long submerged in the 
sea. A gray, spongy, light mass is formed, 
which in several cases when brought to the sur- 
face ignited spontaneously. Thus, for instance, 
cast-iron cannon raised after 50 years from a 
man-of-war sunk near Cariscrona, were reduced 
one-third to the mass described above. After 
being exposed to the air for about 15 minutes 
the cannon became so hot that they could not 
be touched, and the water with which they 
were moistened waB converted into«team. Dur- 
ing a naval battle between the French and the 
English in the year 1545, an English vessel was 
sunk off Portsmouth. Three hundred years 
afterward the bronze ordnance of the man-of- 
war were raised by divers. In one of them 
there was a cast-iron baU, which, as soon as it 
came into contact with the air, was heated 
almost to redness, and then fell to pieces, which 
weighed together only 19 pounds, white to judge 
from its diameter the ball must have weighed 
originaUy about 30 pounds. Modern chemical 
science would find it easy to trace the causes of 
this phenomenon, while a 100 years ago some- 
what violent assumptions were deemed neces- 
sary to account for it. Thus a ship's physician 
has placed the following explanation on record : 
"It is probable that the cannon were sunk in 
the heat of battle, and therefore had not suf- 
ficient time to cool off." Thus the heat must 
have remained in suspense for along time, which 
may account for itB promptness in making itself 
manifest upon return to the outer world. 

The Microscopical Structure of Spiegel- 
eisen. — An interesting inquiry into the micro- 
scopic structure of speigeleisen, by Herr Mar- 
tens, appears in the November number of the 
Zeitsch, des Ver. Dent. Ing. He states that 
apiegeleisen consists of a mechanical mixture of 
the chemical combination between iron and 
carbon, and of iron without chemically com- 
bined carbon; and he finds that the two con- 
stituents of this mixture are placed together 
regularly, and according to determinable laws, 
the former constituent crystalling after the 
rhombic system, the latter after the quadratic 
system. The individual constituents assume 
the tempering colors at different rates, and so 
they can be sharply and distinctly recognized in 
grindings. . 

New Mode of Determining Molecular 
Weight. — In the course of some recent experi- 
ments Mr. Naumann has discovered indications 
of a new method of determination of molecular 
weight, which is specially applicable to sub- 
stances which, in the pure state, are not volatile 
without decomposition. In studying the dis- 
tillation of liquids, which cannot be mixed with 
water, by a current of aqueous vapor at con- 
stant boiling temperature, he has found that 
the quantities of two liquids passes in distilla- 
tion and estimated in molecular weights, are in 
the same ratio to each other as the tensions of 
vapor of these liquids measured at the constant 
temperature at which distiUation is effected. 

A New Mode of Obtaining Hydrogen. — 
Fire is generally used for producing hydrogen 
on a large scale; but recently a new method has 
been suggested by Dr. Kollman of the Berlin 
School of Mines. He states that the gas can be 
easily produced and at a lower price from ferro- 
manganese by treating it with sulphuric acid. 



36 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Table of Highest and Lowest Sales in 
S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Name of 

Company. 



Alpha 

Alta 

Andes 

Alps 

Argenta 

Atlantic 

Aurora Tunnel. . . . 

Baltimore Con 

Belcher 

Belmont 

Beat & Belcher 

Bullion 

Bechtel 

Belle Isle 

Bodie 

Benton 

Bulwer 

Boyle 

Black Hawk 

Belvidere 

Booker 

Caledonia 

California 

Challenge 

Ohollar-Potosi 

Comanche 

Confidence 

Con Imperial 

Con Virginia 

Crown Point 

Con Washoe 

Champion 

Concordia 

Dayton 

DeFrees 

Daney 

Day 

Eureka Con 

Exchequer 

Endowment 

Gen Thomas 

Grand Prize 

Gila 

Golden Chariot. . . . 

Golden Terra. 

Goodshaw 

Gould&Curry 

Hale & Norcross. . . 

Hillside 

Highbridge 

Homestake 

Hussey 

Independence 

Julia 

Justice 

Jackson 

Joe Scates 

KKCon 

Kentuck 

Kossuth 

Keystone 

Lady Bryan 

Lady Wash 

Leopard 

Leviathan 

Leeds 

Lee 

May Belle 

Modoc 

Manhattan 

Martin White 

McClinton 

Meadow Valley 

Mexican 

Mides 

Morning Star. 

North Con Virginia 

New York 

Northern Belle 

New Cobo 

Navajo 

Occidental.. 

Ophir 

Oriental 

Overman 

Panther 

Phenix 

Phil Sheridan 

Prospect 

Raymond & Ely 

Richer 

Rock Island 

Rye Patch 

Rough & Ready 

Savage 

Seg Belcher 

Sierra Nevada 

Silver Hill 

Silver King 

Silver Prize 

Succor 

Summit 

Scorpion , 

Solid Silver 

South Bodie , 

South Standard 

Star 

St. Louis , 

Syndicate , 

Tioga Con 

Tiptop 

Trojan 

Union Con 

Utah 

Vermont Con 

Ward 

Wells-Fargo 

Woodville 

White Cloud 

Yellow Jacket 



25c 
33i 
4.40 
40c 



Week Week Week i Week 
I,ih1 in K i;mliii£ Ending Ending 
Dec 2ti. Jan. £. Jan. it. Jan. 16. 



"8 

'3J 2.70 



3.90 
30c 
18 

55 

7CIC 
20c 
12 



3J3.80 
10c 60c 
17! 181 
4 5j 
- 70c 
20c 
8 
31 
15 



50c 



5J 
40c 

I 

21 

2.40 



30c 
1} 

■2.M 
31 



40c 
1.15 
1.15 

50c 

30c 
50c 



3J 
10c 
17 

4.65 
50c 
15c 
7f 

a 

Hi' 



50c 
50c 

2J 
9i 

1.60 

3S. 1 . 



70c 

7i 

3.45 



4.40 
35c 



84 n 



5* 

40c 
US 
14J 
2.10 



30c 
1.10 
4.15 

4! 



I! 

1.40 



lOJ! 12J Hi 
5 18 6j 
50c 



.65 2.601.35 50c 



1.40 
4.30 
60c 
18J 
7 

60c 
76c 
9 
3! 



Hi 2 

1.80 4.90 

....! 60c 

•a 11 

50c! 60c 



7j| 9J SI 
4j 3.20 
10 15 14 



45c 

2,46 
10; 

u 
m 



60c 50c 

60c .... 

40c .... 

1.20 24 

11* 9j 

2.95 2.40 
441 



25c .... 

% i 

35c 30c 



35c 30c 

161 10J 

20 144 

2.10 .... 

2.05 li 



15c 15c .... 

1.0511.30 1.05 

313.90 3.40 

3.90 4} 3.90 

7j 75 .... 



3.95 
20c 



75c 55c 
..30 1.20 



55e 50c 
1.10 1 



10; 



3 2i 

7i 5J 

75c 65c 

81 7J 

20c .... 

45c 35c 

1 30c 

36i 31 

70c 50c 



50c 40c 
'8} "j 



16 131 
21 20 
56 42 

1} 1.55 

50c *20c 

21 1.60 

1.60 55c 

1.80 50c 

'ioc '.'..'. 

50c .... 

70c 30c 



1.60 
1.20 

50c 

63 

22 



70c 75c 65c 
15c 20c .... 
....50c 20c 



141 131 161 13J. 20' '161 



Sales at S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Friday A. M„ .1. 

340 Alta 

90 Alpha 

460 Beat & Belcher 

1515 Bullion 

60 Belcher 

555 Benton 

50 Baltimore Con. . . 
1725 Con Virginia. . . 

650 California 

20 Chollar 

1135 Crown Point. . .3 
1595 Con Imperial.. 

175 Caledonia 

710 Confidence 

1020 Challenge 2 

995 Exchequer 

175 Flowery 

520 Gould & Curry. . 
45 Hale&Nor 

340 Justice 

515 Julia 

315 Kentuck 

400 Kossuth...-. 

50 Lady Wash 

600 Lady Bryan 

300 Leviathan 

100 Morning Star. . . 

130 Mexican 

390 North Con Vir. 

350 N Bonanza 

50 New York 

120 Overman 

225 Ophir 

250 Phil Sheridan.. 

150 St Louis 

125 Sierra Nevada. . 

640 Savage 

290 Silver Hill 1 

2140 Solid Silver 

50 Succor 

1950 Trojan 

540 Union Con.... 

130 Utah 

150 Wells-Fargo 

1110 Yellow Jacket... 



n. 10. 

.-■6:;'t<7 

llj 

.I'J.'jSJo 
■-■63*7 

4| 

i.'j.»3.20 
.lj 



..71*7 

1U!<"HI.' 

«; 

33(«3.95 
,S5ici.75e 

.?;>"2.3'.l 

..14IOS12.'. 
,20<'2.4 : i 
....43*5 

15c 

..HJiitUl 
141.7 14, 
..4.10*4 
.3.40*3.'. 
....5OT4J 

20c 

1.20 



.50c 
3 

....29; 



3i;.".;i 

40c 

70c 

. .42*13 

131*13; 

5."," 1.60 
.50*S0c 

25c 

50c 

.57C3>56| 

.'.'.'.'.'20c 
1GJ@17! 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

1090 Argenta 1.30@14 

125 Alhion i 

100 Bechtel 60@50c 

195 Bodie 9(3)91 

120 Belmont 160 C 

50 Bulwer J5 

120 Booker 40c 

100 Black Hawk '50c 

750 Belle Isle 20c 

175 C Pacific 1.80(^12 

™V, lMe! 75 ®« 5 ' 

200 Day 25c 

175 Eureka Con 30J@31 

500 Endowment 35c 

300 Goodshaw "35c 

1705 Grand Prize 51(354 

600 Golden Terra....;!. .. 5 
150 Hussey i5 c 

1050 Highbridge 2@2.05 

580 Independence .1.05(d>l 10 

30 Manhattan .', 41 

580 Mono 21(31$ 

130 Martin White 4 

305 Modoc "hop 

120 NewCoHo.... 

320 Navajo 

125 Northern Belle. 

330 Oriental 65@70c 

1000 Paradise „..3 

150 Raymond & Ely... 71 

200 SStandard 10c 

50 Summit { 60 

200 Tioga Con llfaiUo 

Saturday A.M., Jan. II. 

370 Alpha 135 

300 Alta 7@6? 

50 Andes 5Q C 

75 Albion 1 

2230 Argenta 1.35 

250 Belmont 60@70c 

900 Best &, Belcher... 22io22i 

260 Bullion „ 7J 

680 Belcher 4.80(ffi4.90 

370 Bodie 9i@9i 

500 Baltimore Con... 1.60(c«H 
630 Benton - ,.4 



20c 

.45@40c 



25 Bulwer 15 

100 Belvidere 60c 

500 Champion 40c 

845 Con Virginia 7g@7f 

630 California 10jj@l0J 

885 Confidence 14g@15 

35 Chollar 46@45i 

655 CrownPoint 4.30@5 

640 Con Imperial 95@90c 

345 Challenge 2.80@2.90 

1210 Caledonia 3@3J 

900 Dudley 75@70c 

955 Exchequer 54(35} 

160 Eureka Con 30J<331 

300 Flowery 25c 

1245 Gould&Curry...:"" 

1265 Grand Prize 4£05 

20 Gila 15c 

200 GoodBhaw 

95 H&Norcross 14£@15 

600 Highbridge 2.05 

75 Hillside 2.10 

5S5 Justice 4(34.10 

850 Julia 3J@3.40 

50 Jackson 7i 

195 Kentuck 5@5j 

150 L Bryan 65(«60c 

450 Leviathan 55(ja50c 

220 Lady Wash... .1.10@1. 55 

260 Mexican 30i@31 

160 Morning Star 3@2: 

500 Meadow Valley 20i 

50 Manhattan < 

50 Mono 2 

100 Modoc , 

50 McClinton 35c 

100 New York 70c 

170 NConVir "" 

1280 N Bonanza.... 1.! 
20 Northern Belle.... 

400 Navajo 

165 Ophir 32i332J 

225 Overman 10J@11 

100 Occidental 1 

650 Ori :ntal .60c 

1610 Paradise 3, " 

100 Raymond & E 7* 

1070 Savage 13*@13i 

80 Succor 20@25c 

215 Sierra Nevada. . . .43J@44 
825 Silver Hill 1.70C»1." 

1520 Solid Silver 80@75c 

50 Star 50c 

150 Summit 1.65 

100 South Standard 10c 

160 Tioga Con U@U 

1410 Trojan 50c 

130 Union Con 57i(358J 

300 Utah 14£@15 

100 University 1 

1935 Ward 70c 

200 Wells-Fargo 20c 

2220 Yellow Jacket. . . .19i@20 

.Holiday A.M.. Jan. 13. 

650 Alta 

170 Alpha 12: 

1440 Best & Belcher.... 2! _ 

400 Baltimore Con lj(&2 

125 Belcher 4J@4.65 

890 Bullion 7J@78 

140 Benton 4j@4i 

630 California 114 

470 Con Virginia 7B@7£ 

490 Crown Point 5]|@5i 

1290 Con Imperial 90@35c 

100 Con Washoe 2.10 

65 Chollar 45i 

440 Challenge 2i@2i 

465 Caledonia 3.15(^3.05 

365 Confidence 131@13J 

840 Exchequer. 5J(35 

100 Flowery 40< 

1900 Gould & Curry. . .13|@i3i 

200 Hale & Nor 14j@15 

705 Justice 4.1(K<e3.90 

500 Julia 3i(33.40 

485 Kentuck 5@5J 

590 Lady Bryan 55@60c 

650 Leviathan 55(a?60c 

565 Lady Wash 1.20 

910 Mexican 304 

100 Morning Star 3 

110 North Con Vir 6<§<5J 

750 N Bonanza lj(31.60 

400 New York. 70c 

155 Ophir 32&332J 

615 Overman 105(311 

50 Occidental 1 

1300 Phil Sheridan 45@50c 

2000 Solid Silver 80@75c 

475 Savage 13J 

475 Sierra Nevada 45@443 

630 Silver Hill 1.60(^1.70 



..50c 

45c 

50c 

. .l.^lt, 
.58;ii57i 



. .65070c 
20c 

..IS!" IS', 



100 St Louis 

350 Succor 

50 Trojan 

100 Utah 

105 Union Con 

100 Wells Fargo... 

850 Ward 

100 Woodville 

1185 Yellow Jacket. 

AFTERNOON SESBION 

240 Argenta 1.20(01} 

350 Belmont 60c 

550 Bodie 8J@9 

380 Booker 35c 

25 CPacific 1.80 

1000 Chieftain 10c 

L00 Day 25c 

1330 Eureka Con 301(326! 

100 Endowment 30c 

1685 Grand Prize 5(34.95 

340 Goodshaw 35@30c 

400 Hamburg 1}(31£ 

300 Highbridge 2.05@2 

370 Independence..l.l0@1.15 

2o Leeds 1.10 

130 Manhattan. 

30 Mono 2.20 

110 Modoc 50c 

500 McClinton... 40c 

260 Martin White..,. 

435 Northern Belle 8@8} 

380 Navajo 40c 

470 Oriental 60c 

515 Paradise. 

300 Richer 75c 

130 Tiptop.... 

2000 Tuscarora 5c 

480 Tioga Con 1.60@U 

Tuesday A.M., Jan. 14l 

125 Alpha 123(312} 

215 Alta B/»7i 

300 Baltimore Con. . . 

1460 Best & Belcher. . .^„u, , 
240 Belcher 43@4.65 

1450 Bullion 81(38 

230 California 103@10S 

370 Caledonia 3.20@3i 

535 Con Virginia 8@8J 

1205 Con Imperial 90(385c 

70 Chollar „ 4rf 

905 Crown Point 5J@5J 



480 Confidence 13@12? 

1235 Challenge 24@2j 

1080 Exchequer. 5f@5J 

1805 Gould & Curry. . . .15(316* 

615 H&Norcross 15J 

480 Justice 4}@4.35 

1500 Julia 34@3.55 

275 Kentuck. 4,95(a4.85 

900 Lady Bryan 70(360c 

520 Lady Wash 1.20@11 

740 Mexican 324.(3322 

425 Ophir 34j@34 

935 Overman 11}'3U2 

2450 Phil Sheridan . . . .40@45c* 
830 Sierra Nevada... .534(356 

445 Savage 13J@14g 

10 Seg Belcher 20 

825 Silver Hill H 

300 Succor. 50c 

470 Utah 20@21 

675 Union Con 60i@63 

310 Woodville 20(325c 

700 Yellow Jacket 19} 

A.FTEKNUOM SESSION. 

50 Andes 5Cc 

180 Argenta 1.05(31 

25 Bulwer. 14 

210 Bodie 8i 

150 Booker 40c 

130 Belmont 50c 

1300 Benton 4J(34.9Q 

200 Champion 10c 

140 CPacific 1.70(31.80 

600 Dudley 1 

100 Day 25c 

50 Endowment 35c 

570 Eureka Con 27£@27} 

700 Flowery 40@50c 

910 Grand Prize 44 

65 Hamburg 1} 

420 Highbridge.... 1.90@2. 05 

125 Hillside 2i 

300 Independence.. 1.15(31. 20 

225 Leeds 1 

300 Leviathan 55@50c 

170 Mono 2 

40 Manhattan 4@3.90 

120 Morning Star 3} 

1910 N Bonanza lg@1.7U 

475 North Con Vir 6}(37 

145 Northern Belle 8 

250 Navajo 40@35c 

730 Oriental. 55c 

650 Paradise 2J@2S 

510 Raymond & Ely 8@7 

100 Sitting Bull 40c 

850 Summit 1J@2 

50 Star 50c 

2130 Solid Silver 8C@90o 

250 St Louis 30c 

200 S Sierra Nevada 5c 

100 Scorpion 55c 

700 Trojan 60®50c 

2250 Tuscarora 5@10c 

50 Tiptop 1.20 

440 Tioga Con 1}®U 

500 University 1 

1350 Wells-Fargo 20c 

1080 Ward 70c 

Wed'sduy A.M., Jan. lb. 

290 Alpha 124.@12! 

595 Alta 8(372 

1010 B&B 244@24 

1620 Bullion 8J@8} 

1215 Belcher 4J(*4.60 

350 Baltimore Con 2 

90 Chollar 52@51 

1245 Con Virginia 84@8S 

225 California :....llj 

850 Crown Point 53 

540 Caledonia 3}@3.10 

*)60 Con Imperial 95c(31 

645 Confidence 14(3134. 

855 Challenge 2J@2.95 

200 Dardanelles 1.30 

1395 Exchequer 53(354. 

2180 Gould &. Curry. . . , 16i@16 

1725 Hale & Nor 18(320 

825 Justice 4j@4 j 

2660 Julia 3.85(33.80 

870 Kentuck 5}@5g 

410 Lady Bryan 75(365c 

630 Mexican 34(3334 

400 New York 70(375c 

1190 Overman 12}(glli 

645 Ophir 35@3«i 

470 Succor 30@35c 

940 Savage 15(^154 

445 S Nevada 56^55 

790 Silver Hill 13@1.65 

10 Seg Belcher 21 

530 Utah 22(321 

465 Union 62@63 

1800 Yellow Jacket. . . .195@20 

AFTERNOON SESBION. 

S25 Argenta 506680c 

345 Albion.... 
20 Andes 



20c: 305 Benton. 



..50(360c 

55c 

. .42(34.65 
50c 



...20c 
...40c 

..s;;<;o 

,.60c 



300 Belmont 

160 Bulwer 

500 BeUe Isle . . 

200 Booker 

270 Bodie 

50 Black Hawk. 

30 CPacific 1 

1140 Dudley 101.05 

275 Day 25c 

475 Eureka Con 282(328} 

280 Flowery 50c 

2025 Grand Prize 4}@4 

110 Goodshaw 30c 

120 Hillside 2}<32 

1400 Highbridge lj(31.90 

1370 Independence .1.2001.30 

100 Leeds 1.05 

90 Lady Wash l}@lj 

670 Leviathan 50c 

200 Modoc 50c 

300 Manhattan 3.35(33.45 

110 McClinton 25(340c 

110 Mono 2}@2.15 

150 Morning Star 3} 

130 N Con Virginia. . . .72(373 

820 NBonanza 120L65 

55 Northern Belle 73@8 

850 Navajo 40@35c 

350 Oriental 50c 

1260 Paradise 2.60@2j 

1005 Phil Sheridan 50@40c 

10 Raymond & Ely 81 

300 Summit 202} 

175 Star 50c 

300 Sitting Bull 45c 

2750 Solid SUver. 95080c 

975 Scorpion 1.60014. 

150 Tuscarora 5c 

700 Tioga Con 14 

100 Tiptop 1.15 

850 Trojan 50c 

50 University 1 

50 Woodville 30c 

700 Wells-Fargo 



20c 

1410 Ward 75030c 

SALES OF LAST WEEK AND THIS COMPARED 

1 !fc ,, !?* la y A " M -< Jnn - 9* Thursday A. M„ Jan. 16. 

205 Alpha. lL'liniL". 

1105 Alta 



405 Alta 5405S 

220 Alpha l20iU 

985 Best& Belcher.. 204021' 
1535 Bullion... 

350 Belcher... 

400 Benton 

1275 Caledonia 

860 Con Imperial., 

285 California 

835 Challenge 

1285 Con Virginia. . . 

160 Confidence 
90 Chollar .... 

240 Crown Point. 

300 Dardenelles. . . , 
1105 Exchequer 

400 Flowery 

1225 Gould & Curry 

485 Hale & Nor.... 

245 Justice 

1595 Julia 

275 Kentuck 

515 Lady Wash. 

320 L Bryan 75070c 

650 Leviathan 60@65c 



....7}07| 
.4.1004.15 
...3303.90 

..2302.60 
...85080c 

..1O101OF 

...i-.9o@: 

.-..84081 
...9301OJ 

45 

3.80<n'3.y0 

1.15 

5051 

...50@40o 

...'.110113 

141 

..4.1504} 

-.34.03.70 

i.'.i.': 



100 Andes 60c 

395 Best& Belcher.. ,22}022i 



700 Belcher.. 

905 Bullion 

205 Benton 

700 Baltimore Con 

755 California 

650 Con Virginia. . 
690 Crown Point. 

80 Chollar 

4010 Con Imperial. 

230 Confidence 

780 Caledonia 

675 Challenge 

700 Exchequer.... 
10 Flowery 



4304 

....SJ@8j| 
..4.10041 
....1>2J 
....9|@9S 

7308 

....5i@53 
....49(350 
...900956 
- . . 135014 
3.0"w"^.10 
..2i(r.2.S0 
. . . .5 8 @5} 
..50c 



^n £ 0Ul< \ l \ T Currv ■ • • ■ 15(3i51 

440 Hale & Nor 174018 

olO Justice 4.3504 45 

1700 Julia 3.7003.80 

655 Kentuck 53 

120 Lady Wash 1}@;L30 

410 Lady Bryan 70c 



MINING SH AKEHOLDEKS' DIBEOTORY. 

Compiled every Thursday from Advertisements in Mining and. Scientific Press and other S. F. Journals. 
ASSESSMENTS-STOCKS ON THE LISTS OF THE BOARDS. 

Place of Business 



Company. 

Alta S M Co 
Aurora T & M Co 
Belmont M Co 
Belvidere M Co 
Benton Con M Co 
Best & Belcher M Co 
B'llh'on M Co 
Crown Point G & S M Co 
Endowment M Co 
Equitable T & M Co 
Hale & Norcross S M Co 
Justice M Co 
K K Consolidated 
Leopard M Co 
Lady Bryan M Co 
Martin White M Co 
McCrackin Con M Co 
Mono M Co 
North Bonanza M Co 
North Con Virginia M Co 
Panther M Co 
Resolute T & M Co 
Savage M Co 
Scorpion S M Co 
Silver Hill M Co 
Succor M & M Co 
Tioga Con M Co 
Vermont Con M Co 
Ward G & S M Co 
William Penn M Co 



Location. 

Nevada 13 

California 2 

Nevada 19 

California 2 

Nevada 1 

Washoe 13 

Nevada 8 

Nevada 36 

Nevada 2 

Utah 19 

Nevada 60 

California 27 

Nevada 7 

Nevada 9 

Nevada 1 

Nevada 5 

Arizona 2 

Bodie 2 

Nevada 1 

Nevada 14 

Nevada 10 

California 1 

Nevada 36 

Nevada 4 

Nevada 5 

Nevada 21 

California 4 

Nevada 2 

California 3 

Nevada 4 



No. Amt. Levied. 

1 00 Dec 10 

20 Dec 7 

50 Nov 27 

20 Dec 7 

50 Dec II 

1 00 Jan 3 

1 CO Dec 3 

1 00 Dec 12 

25 Nov 21 

05 Nov 7 

50 Dec 10 

1 00 Jan 10 

1 00 Jan 3 

50 Jan 3 

50 Jan 2 

1 50 Dec 14 

50 Oct 22 

50 Jan 8 

50 Dec 6 

1 00 Nov 21 

10 Jan 2 

10 Dec 28 

1 00 Dec 4 . 

10 Dec 3 

50 Jan 3 

50 Dec 19 

20 Dec 20 

15 Dec 7 

30 Jan 10 

03 Nov 22 



Delinq'nt. Sale. 
Jan 13 Jan 31 



Jan 10 
Jan 3 
Jan 20 
Jan 15 
Feb 6 
Jan 7 
Jan 16 
Dec 30 
Jan 2 
Jan 15 
Feb 15 
Feb 6 
Feb 3 
Feb 2 
Jan 21 
Jan 16 
Feb 12 
Jan 10 
Dec 37 
Feb 6 
Feb 3 
Jan 7 
Jan IS 
Feb 6 
Jan 21 
Jan 24 
Jan9 
Feb 14 
Jan 23 



Feb 15 
Jan 27 
Feb 20 

Feb 3 
Feb 26 
Jan 29 

Feb 6 
Jan 21 
Jan 21 

Feb 7 

Mar 5 

Mar 5 
Mar 28 
Feb 24 
Feb 21 
Feb 15 

Mar 4 
Jan 28 
Jan 17 
Feb 28 

Mar 3 
Jan 27 
Feb 10 
Feb 26 

Feb 10 
Feb 13 
Jan 29 

Mar 6 

Feb 9 



Secretary. 
W H Watson 
C 7 D Hubbard 
JYPew 
C7D Hubbard 
WH Watson 
W Willis 
J(seph Gruss 
Jones Newlands 
RH Brown 
SHealy 
J F Lightner 
RE Kelly 
BB Minor 
RH Brown 
CV Hubbard 
J J Scoville 
F A Whiting 
VHLent 

V W Stetson 
( C Pratt 
JW Pew 

JL Fields 
J B Holmes 
( R Spinney 

V E Dean 

■V H Watson 

V H Lent 
F Stone 

■ acnb Stadtfeld 
J J Humphrey 



302 Montgomery st 

312 California st 

310 Pine st 

312 California st 

302 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

418 California st 

203 Bush st 

327 Pine rt 

45 Merchant's Ex 

58 Nevada Block 

419 California st 

310 Pine Bt 

327 Pine at 

Cosmopolitan Hotel 

59 Nevada Block 
211 SanBome st 

309 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

310 Pine st 

240 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

310 Pine st 

203 Bush st 

302 Montgomery st 

327 Pine s t 

306 Pine at 

419 California st 

328 Montgomery at 



OTHER COMPANIES-NOT ON THE LISTS OP THE BOARDS. 



Advance M Co 
Arizona S M Co 
Black Hawk G M Co 
Brilliant M Co 
Catawba M Co 
Carmelo Bay Coal Co 
Cherokee Flat Blue Grav Co 
Colorado River O&GMCo 
Eagle S M & M Co 
Hazard Gravel M Co 
Lodi M Co 
Loyal Lead G M Co 
Mariposa Land & M Co 
Mayflower M Co 
Mayflower Gravel M Co 
McClinton M Co 
McMillen S M Co 
Mineral Fork M & S Co 
Nevada Gravel M Co 
Noonday M Co 
Orion M Co 
Pleiades G & S M Co 
Queen Bee M Co 
Summit M Co 
Summit G M Go 
Tiger M Co 



Calif >mia 2 

Nevada 4 

California 4 

Nevada 1 

California 1 

i 'alif'umia 2 

California 40 

Arizona 3 

Nevada 11 

California 2 

Nevada 1 

California 2 

California 15 

California 2 

California 3 

California 2 

Arizona 1 

Utah 1 

California ' 5 

California 1 

California 4 

Nevada 2 

California 1 

California 6 

California 1 

Arizona 2 



50 Djc13 

1 00 Dec 9 

25 Dec 10 

05 Jan 13 

20 Jan 3 

25 Dec 20 

05 Dec 20 
50 Nov 29 
10 Nov 30 

06 Dec 9 
25 Nov 20 
60 Dec 18 

1 00 Jan 10 

15 Dec 7 

10 Jan 15 

25 Dec 24 

25 Nov 22 

02 Oct 31 

05 Dec 12 

10 Jan 2 - 

25 Dec 12 

05 Dec 21 

25 Dec 2 

05 Nov 19 

50 Nov 27 

1 00 Oct 21 



Jan 28 
Jan 13 
Jan 11 
Feb 17 
Feb 6 
Feb 20 
Jan 28 
Jan 2 
Jan 7 
Jan 8 
Jan 7 
Jan 20 
Feb 12 
Jan 4 
Feb 20 
Jan 28 
Feb 10 
Dec 7 
Jan 15 
Feb 6 
Jan 13 
Jan 24 
Jan 6 
Jan 6 
Jan 6 
Dec 10 



T ft£\ ww^ m Californ-ast 

Iti B^Sogg 3WM0 1B¥SS 

fSS n^Brunt ™ W « 

ft?g JTMcGeoghehan 3 8Pnt 

J F?bfl PM H MXS y ^ M -*P-^ 
Mar 12 Leander Leavitt 

J Morizio 

J Morizio 

W H Lent 



Feb 4 
Mar 12 
Feb 18 
Mar 6 
Jan 30 

Feb 5 
Feb 27 
Jan 28 



318 Pine 9fc 

309 Montg'y st 

8 Montgomery st 

328 Montgomery st 

327 Pine st 



n.F I ?. cl ?W' 1 2i SaSe Deposit Build 
Utto Metchke 328 Montgomery st 



J Penteeost 
GAHolden 
P Conklin 
Feb 18 WL Oliver 
Jan 27 T A Wbite 
Feb i J W Clark 
Jan 28 W H Lent 
Jan 20 W H Lent 



MEETINGS TO BE HEL>. 



Name of Company. 
Aurora Tunnel M Co 
Belcher M Co 
Jefferson M Co 
Kossuth M Co 
Natoma W k M Co 
Oriental Con M Co 
Paciflc M Co 
Raymond & Ely M Co 
Raymond & Ely S M Co 
Twin Peaks M Co 



Location. Secretary. 

Nevada C V Hubbard 

Washoe Jno Crockett 

Nevada C A Sankey 

Neyada E F Stone 

H P Livermore 

California H C Hinman 

California R N Van Brunt 

Nevada J W Pew 

Nevada J W Pew 

Nevada T W Colburn 



Office in S. F. 

Cosmopolitan Hotel 

203 Bush st 

331 Montgomery st 

306 Pine st 

531 Market Bt 

327 Pine st 

318 Pine st 

310 Pine st 

310 Finest 

414 California st 



Mef.tinq. 

Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Annual 
Special 
Anuual 
Annual 



511 California st 

310 Pine st 

28 Sansome st 

i28 Montgomery st 

113 Leidesdorff st 

318 Pine st 

327 Finest 

327 Pine st 



Date 
Jan 20 
Jan 28 
Jan 23 
Jan 20 
Jan 21 
Jan 21 
Jan 23 
Jan 28 
Jan 28 
Jan 27 



LATEST DIVIDENDS-WITHIN THESE MONTHS 



Name of Company. 
Bodie G M Co 
California M Co 
Excelsior W&M Co 
Eureka Con M Co 
Golden Star M Co 
Indian Queen M & M Co 
Independence M Co 
New York Hill G M Co 
Silver King M Co 
Standard GMCo 



Location. 
California 

Nevada 
California 

Nevada 

Arizona 
California 

Nevada 

Arizona 
California 



Secretary. 
W H Lent 
C P Gordon 
G P Thurston 
W W Traylor 
J W Morgan 
A K Durbrow 
R H Brown 
F J Herrmann 
W H Boothe 

w wuhs 



Office in S. F. 

327 Pine si 

23 Nevada Block 

315 California s- 

37 Nevada Bloc! 

318 Pine ff 

69 Nevada Bloc] 

327 Pine a 

418 Kearny s 

320 California s 

309 Montgomery s 



3 00 
25 
25 
25 
25 
50 

1 00 



Payable 
Jan 20 

Jan 16 
Dec 20, 
Dec 20 
Dec 9 
Dec 17 

Nov 20 
Oct 24 
Oct 22 

Jan 13 



85 Mexican 30i@30J 

150 Mides ;.50c 

100 Morning Star 3 

100 New York 70c 

230 .N Con Virginia 6@6j 

815 N Bonanza lj@1.45 

165 Ophir ... 
100 Overman 

100 Occidental 70c 

260 Sierra Nevada 43 

325 Savage 13i(t?13i| 

10 Seg Belcher. 

1330 Silver Hill 2@1.55 

100 Succor 30c 

680 Solid Silver 50c 

1020 Trojan 50c 

65 Utah 13£@13g 

360 Wells-Fargo 20@15c 

750 Ward 

300 Yellow Jacket. . . .16@16J 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

2475 Amenta l.30@1.60 

300 Belmont 55c 

125 Belvidere 50c 

100 Bellelsle 15c 

340 Bodie 

50 Black Hawk 25c 

20 Booker 40c 

10 Bulwer I4J 

100 Bechtel 55c 

170 CPacific lS@l.i 



. .50i.»55c 
.33J,(rf33J 
..70@75c 

343 

;ii.'i'(hi* 
.lien. 45 

..5Uia53 
..!'.(.- 15| 
. .20t«30c 

1.60 

1@1.10 



200 Dudley 
640 Eureka Con 

485 Grand Prize 5i(«5i. 

350 Goodshaw 35@30c 

600 Highbridge ICC" 

50 Hillside 2.10 

510 Independence 1,05 

90 Jackson 

325 Modoc 50c 

430 Martin White.... 3. 90@4 

80 Mono 2i 

25 McClinton '....40c 

225 Northern Belle 

50 Navajo... 45c 

300 Oriental 75c 

600 Paradise 2.20 

10 Raymond & Ely 6J 

300 Summit 1.60 

300 Star 50c 

225 Tioga H 

500 Tuscarora 5c 

300 University 1 



500 Leviathan 

445 Mexican 

525 New York .... 

160 North Con Vir 

80 Ophir 

1045 Overman 

975 Phil Sheridan 

585 Sierra Nevada 
1365 Savage 

440 Succor 

750 SUver Hill.... 

850 Solid Silver. . . 

300 Trojan 50c 

575 Union Con 60@61i 

190 Utah 18<£183 

450 Ward 75c 

50 Woodville 30c 

235 Yellow Jacket... 19£@19J 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

5200 Argenta 60@70c 

90 Bulwer 15 

1110 Bodie 8i@84 

50 Bechtel 1 

150 Belmont 50c 

300 Bellelsle 20c 

975 Booker 30@35c 

20 Belvidere 60c 

20 Black Hawk 60c 

750 Chieftain 10c 

290 Caledonia (B H)..l@l. 15 

1140 Dudley 1.05@H 

410 Eureka Con 



300 Golden Chart 10c 

100 Hale& Nor 19 

90 Justice 4.65@4 60 

250 Julia.. 3.90@3.95 

245 Lady Wash lg(*lj 

100 Mackey lj 

35 Mexican 34@331 

200 N Sierra Nada 3c 

125 N Bonanza 1 j@Ui 

140 New York 70c 

120 Overman 113011 5 

260 PhilSheridi 50c 



50 Prospect 

200 San Pedro 

700 SUtah 

20 Savage 

20 Sierra Nevada. 

30 Silver Hill.... 

150 Trojan 

5 Utah 

820 Ward 

50 Wells-Fargo... '. 
160 YeUow Jacket. 



20c 

....1.10 
.20® 10c 

16 

54A 

....1.70 



.20 

80c 

20o 

.19J@20g 



Califomi Board— Latest Sales. 



75c 300 Endowment '. .30c 

400 Gila 20c 

950 Goodshaw.. 35®30o 

3320 Grand Prize... 3. 95(«4.10 

500 Highbridge 1J 

500 Hillside 2.10@2i 

1900 Independence.. 1.35@1. 40 

50 Jackson 7i 

300 Leeds 1 

315 Manhattan 3j@3jJ 

315 Modoc 50@55c 

100 McClinton 30c 

220 Navajo 35o 

110 Northern Belle. .. .7i@7g 

655 Oriental 50iff75c 

525 Paradise 2.60(^2.70 

360 Raymond& Ely...7i<&8i 

1060 Summit 2J(S2j 

2700 Star 50@60c 

1300 Tuscarora 5c 

400 Tioga Con U@1.30 

210 Tiptop 1 



Pacific Board — Latest Sales. 



Wed'srtay A.M.,. Ian. 15. 

80 Alpha 13 

20 Alta 8, 

560 Belcher 4g@4; 

155 Best&Belcher...24J@24 

345 Bullion 8L 

125 Con Virginia Si@Sjj 

130 Con Imperial 97(S98c 

210 Crown Point. ..5.6505.60 
110 California lift 

CO Chollar 54 

225 Exchequer 5.40@5j| 

220 Gould&Curry 162 

185 Hale & Nor 19i@19j 

145 Justice 4.60(*4.55 

140 Kentuck 5* 

250 Mexican 33J@33£ 

200 Ophir 3ti@36i 

30 Overman 

40 " 



110 Sierra Nevada 55@54J 

530 Silver Hill 1.70@lft 

20 Union Con 62 

220 Yellow Jacket.... 20^20] 
A FTFRNOON session. 

60 Alta 8@8J 

2620 Argenta 90<a55c 

90 Alpha 13i 

10 Belcher 4| 

260 Benton 4.80(^4.70 

130 Bullion 8i 

40 CrownPoint 5.65 

25 California 11 

10 Cou Virginia 8J 

300 Con Imperial 95c 

200 Caledonia 31 

20 Exchequer 5} 

10 Eureka Con 25 

10 Grand Prize 4J 

50 Gould & Curry 16 



Wcd'Mda) A.!,. Ian. 15. 

50 Alpha 13@13i 

40 Alta 84 

150 Atlantic 70c 

2000 ^F.tna 8c 

500 Atlas I2jc 

100 Atlanta 7c 

65 Best & Belc:r . . ,24@24i 

60 Belcher 4g@4 70 

50 Bullion g@8A 

85 California ll@lli 

50 Chollar 48 

90 Con Virgim 8i(a8i 

750 Con Imperii 95@97c 

60 CrownPoin;...5.40@5i 

170 Caledonia 31<0>3. 30 

400 Enterprise l(all 

70 Exchequer 5£(j?5i 

70 Gould i Cur. . ,15ji(al5i 

300 Globe _.3i 

50 Hale&NorosB 17 

7(i Justice 4.60(34: 

150 Julia 3.60(63.65 

5 Kentuck 5 

40 Mexican 33 

1700 N Sierra Neda.. . .4w3c 

300 North Carso .21c 

65 Ophir 34£@34J 

300 Phil Sherido '. . 50c 

65 Savage 14i014g 

300^ Europa 95c 

150 Senator 25c 

110 Silver Hill 1.70 

310 Santiago 1<&-Ii 

300 Trojan 50c| 

500 U Flag 2c 

50 Union 61@61i' 



220 Ward 7() c 

55 Yellow Jacket ...19J@20 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

60 Alexander 11@103 

1800 Atlanta 5("4c 

11O0 Atlas mc 

120 AlmadenQ h 

60 Alta 8«r8i 

130 Andes 60c 

75 Argenta 1.05 

100 Bullion 8i@8i 

60 Bests Belcher... 24itrt24S 

90 Belcher 4J(&4 70 

60 Con Virginia 8j@8* 

40 Crown Point 55 

250 Con Imperial 95c 

50 California 111@11 

130 Challenge U 

40 Chollar 53 

175 Caledonia 3i@3.10 

300 Coso Con 5 C 

50 Exchequer. 5i(35|| 

120 Gould & Curry. . . . 16i(«d6 

70 Hale & Nor 19JW19* 

80 Julia 4d@3.95 

90 Justice 4.70(<i-4| 

40 Mexican 34 

1000 Monumental 4c 

350 N Mouumeutal 3c 

40 Ophir 36J 

30 Savage I6f 

20 Sierra Nevada 56 

100 Trojan 50c 

50 Union Con Q2W 63 

100 Ward ;.75c 

50 Yellow Jacket 20 



EJlion Shipments. 

Since our la issue shipments of bullion have 
been as follow; 

Raymond &Ely, Jan. 7th, $6,193; High- 
bridge, Jan. l(h, $10,055 ; Grand Prize, Jan. 
13th, $23,000; forthem Belle, Jan. 8th, $3,527; 
Jan. 11th, $5,(4; Standard, Jan. 9th, $14,774; 
Eagle, Jan. 7th$9,2Gl ; Tybo, Jan. 10th, J3,- 
827 ; total 1871 $746,552 ; Hillside, Jan. 14th, 
$6,700; MartirWhite, Jan. 8th, $11,070; Star 
Mine, Jan. 13tl $7,500; Con. Virginia, Jan. 
$28,000; Leed Jan. 11th, $3,549; Indian 
Queen, Jan. 6th$4 ( 868. 



January 18, 1879. J 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



37 



Mining Share Market 

The mining share market during the past 
week has been without special features with 
regard to fluctuations in price. The brokers 
have, however, had plenty to talk about. lu 
the first place, both "bucket shops, "as the pub- 
lic stock exchanges were called, have closed up. 
We have before referred to these inattentions, 
and it is a matter of congratulation to know 
they have passed out of existence. 

The meetings of California, Con. Virginia and 
Sierra Nevada, were held this week ami the 
annual reports read. California and Con. Vir- 
ginia, elected the old officers. Sierra Nevada, 
elected John Skae (President). C. M. I'ish, \V. 
8. Lyle, lie©. Congdon and It. N. Craves, as 
TrtUrteet. Tin- < huifomia mine produced last 
year .<HI.!U'.i.07>*, ami paid nut in dividends, the 
sum of ?7,<>20,000. The total receipts and 
expenditures were 911,246.589. 

Business is improving somewhat in the 
boards. The sales of the San Francisco stock 
board from January 8th to 14th, aggregated 
$1,480,000. 

Our usual weekly summary of news from the 
Comstock, failed to come to hand this week for 
some unexplained reason, and we are therefore 
compelled to go to press without it. 

News in Briefl 

There is about 15 inches of snow at Tahoe 
City. 

Six United States prisoners escaped from the 
jail at Proscott, A. T. 

The French government proposes to pardon 
all Communists, except 400 ringleaders. 

Will S. Fenton, a soldier, was found frozen 
to death Saturday, near Salt Lake. 

The British ship Alley iance has gone ashore 
at the mouth of the Columbia river. 

The production of pig iron in the United 
States during 1S7S was 2,382,000 tons. 

The Belcher is now claimed to be the deep- 
est mine in America, having a depth of 2,640 
feet. 

Lands on Salt river, iu Arizona, have been 
set apart for a reservation of the Pima and Mari- 
copa Indians. 

Henry Thomas was shot and killed by Jack 
Epperson, Thursday night, at Geyserville, 
Sonoma county. 

An accident occurred at the Con. Virginia 
mine Saturday morning, causing damage to the 
amount of §10,000. 

Madame Anderson has completed her task of 
walking 2,700 quarter miles in as many quarter 
hours at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Indians White Owl and Quit-Ti-Tumps 
were executed recently at Pendleton, Or., for 
the murder of George Coggan. 

The Military Court of Inquiry into the re- 
sponsibility of Major Reno for the Custer mas- 
Bacre, is in session at Chicago. 

A desperate affray has occurred at Piedras 
Negras, Mexico, in which one Mexican officer 
was killed and another badly wounded. 

At last accounts, 40 of the Cheyennes who 
escaped from Fort Robinson had been killed, 15 
wounded and 40 to 50 recaptured. 

Arrangements have been made to extend 
the Utah Southern Railroad from York to 
'Frisco, a distance of 155 miles. 

The first water ever pumped into the Sutro 
tunnel was sent through Sunday by the pumps 
at the C hollar- Norcross -Savage shaft. 

J. Williams of Roseburg, while at a party at 
Looking Olass, lost his speech, and has only 
been able to converse since, at great intervals. 

The overland stages from Eureka, Humboldt 
county, to San Francisco, have ceased running 
for the winter. The maii is now carried on 
horseback. 

Orange trees raised in Sacramento from the 
seed appear to stand cold weather quite well, 
but those imported from the south have suffer- 
ed in the loss of their foliage, and present a 
great contrast to the Sacramento raised trees. 

Following is a statement of the number of 
flasks of quicksilver shipped by the several 
mines named, during the past year: Sulphur 
Bank mine, 9.44S; Great Western mine, 5,027; 
Napa Consolidated mine 3,050; American mine, 
119. The total in pounds is 1,359,9404. 

The track of the Southern Pacific railroad is 
laid to a point 38 miles east of the Colorado 
river, and is progressing at the rate of a mile 
and a half daily. Grading is completed 10 
miles beyond the end of the track. 

The North American Review. — Friends of 
good, solid literature will be pleased to hear of 
the continued prosperity of the veteran publica- 
tion, the North American Review. After 63 
years' existence as a quarterly and bi-monthly, 
the Review, with the January number, com- 
menced life anew by becoming a monthly. This 
change will produce a much greater degree of 
timeliness in the treatment of topics, and will 
add largely to the amount of matter presented 
in a year. The managers state that they have 
secured as contributors for the coming year the 
most eminent statesmen, scholars, literateurs, 
and men of science, on both sides of the At- 
lantic. In addition to articles on political, lit- 
erary and other themes, the January Review con- 
tains an essay on the preservation of forests, by 
Felix L. Oswald, which will be read witn interest. 
The North American Review is published by D. 
Appleton & Co., 551 Broadway, New York, 



[INING NUMMARY. 



Tim following; BflDOUlj condensed from journals pub- 
lished in the interior, in proximity to the mines BMattonod. 



CALIFORNIA. 
ALPINE. 

I X L ami K\« iheqi -kk. — Bodie Chronicle, 
Jan. 4: Lewia Chalmers returned to this town 
leveiflj weeks ago, and now has a boarding 
house started at the I X L mill, and eight or 
Urn men employed building a bridge across Sil- 
ver creek, between thi- I X L and Exchequer, 
and grading a road and place For building at the 
mouth of the tunnel just back and a little be- 
to* the I X U 

Takmiisii.— The Tarshish, at Monitor, will 
start up again under the name of Colorado No. 
2 Gold it Silver mining company, with the fol- 
lowing well-known gentlemen as Directors: 
Judge Theruu Reed, of Kern county, B. E. 
Hunter, Judge Griffith, Treasurer Cronkite 
and Supervisor Morrill, all of Alpine county. 
The capital of the new company is $4, 000,000, 
in 40,000 shares. 
INYO 

From Benton.— "Saxe," in the Inyo Inde- 
pendent Jan. 4: Mr. J. H. Badger recently re- 
turned from San Francisco, where he had made 
an amicable settlement with the defunct Co- 
manche M. & M. Co., and states that if a set- 
tlement can be accomplished with all the cred- 
itors that the company will soon resume opera- 
tions, and Benton will be itself once more. 
The Diana mill has been crushing some very 
rich ore from the Laura and Modock mines. 
The Mammoth M. & M. Co., at Lake district, 
under the superiutendency of Jim Cross, is 
running the mill to its full capacity, with very 
satisfactory results and without sorting the 
ore. Supt. Adams, of the Indian Queen, an- 
nounces his intention to provide the bullion for 
another dividend on the first of the coming 
month, or'soon thereafter. Morris Burke lately 
returned from San Francisco, where he incor- 
porated the East Mammoth mine. Mr. P. W. 
Bennett was here last week. He and L. E. 
Tubba have taken numerous claims and filed 
many'liens for laboring men on the Comanche 
property, of which they propose to collect 100% 
on the dollar. 

Lake District. — Esmeralda Herald, Jan. 4: 
Several parties are now in town from Lake dis- 
trict, having come in to spend the winter. 
They report about 40 men employed at and 
around the Mammoth mine and mill — the lat- 
ter running day and night. 

Lord Byron. — Parties who have been doing 
assessment work on the Lord Byron mine, on 
Last Chance hill, struck some rich rock last 
Thursday. The shaft of the Lord Byron is 
down 40 feet, and it was in the bottom the 
strike was made. Some of the rock shows free 
gold abundantly. 
MONTEREY- 

Coal. — Monterey Californian: The building 
of the Carmelo railroad from the coal mine to 
Strader's landing has been commenced, and its 
early completion is now an absolute certainty. 
We were informed recently that another very 
large and promising vein of coal had been 
found in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. 
Mr. Dougine has entire charge of the company's 
property, including the building of the rail- 
road. The Mai Paso tunnel, in the Mai Paso 
canyon, is to be continued for a depth of 2,000 
feet, which will be the means of tapping and 
draining all of the three veins now being worked 
at the Carmelo coal mine. The tunnel at pres- 
ent worked by the company is also to be con- 
nected with the railroad by means of a tram- 
way, which will be 3,700 feet long. The rail- 
road when finished will be a little over four 
miles in length — a three-foot gauge. 
MONO 

Bodie. — Inyo Independent, Jan. 4: Prospect- 
ing is about suspended for the season, so that 
the many little wild-cat locations wedged in and 
around claims of real merit may preserve their 
reputations for the time being. The new field 
that will attract attention is in the vicinity of 
the placer diggings at Dogtown. That point is 
undoubtedly a break or the tail end of the rich 
mineral belt of Bodie. 
NAPA. 

Quicksilver. — Cor. Napa Register, Jan. 11: 
The Napa Consolidated mine, better known as 
the Oat Hill mine, is situated in Napa county 
about 10 miles southeast of Middletown. Thirty 
men are employed, 20 of whom are Chinamen. 
These latter do all the underground work. The 
minimum product of the mine is 300 flasks of 
quicksilver per month, 76 lbs each. M. G. 
Rhodes is the superintendent. The entrance is 
by a perpendicular shaft. In oompany with the 
foreman, Mr. Partrigan, I got into the iron cage, 
and the steam engine let us down to the 400 
level. Good working ore gives about two per 
cent, of quicksilver. The best sometimes runs 
as high as 12%. The furnaces and retorts of 
this mine are not equal to the task of reducing 
all the ore which might be produced, so a small 
force of men is employed. The Great Western 
mine is situated north of Mt. St. Helena, and 
about three and one-half miles southwest of 
Middletown. The tunnels are run straight into 
the side of the mountain, and trains of small 
cars, each drawn by a horse with a lantern on 
his breast, carry out the ore 2,200 feet. The 
tunnels and caverns are here much more capa- 
cious, and the temperature lower than the 
former mine. Two hundred men are employed 



— 180 of them Chinamen. Work never ceases 
at the mines, but is prosecuted night and day, 
Sundays and Christmas. The Great Western 
turns out about 500 Haska of quicksilver pur 
month. The furnaces, retorts and condensere 
are all of the improved patterns. Two litttle 
streams of mercury as large as goose quills come 
out in jets, representing the result of the.entire 
labor of the mine. Itseems ridiculously 'small, 
but it counts. 
NEVADA. 

Gb isa \ Mi. i.v District. — Grass Valley 
Union, Jan. 10: Taken altogether the year 
1678 lias been a good one for quartz mining in 
the Crass Valley district. It has witnessed a 
renewed interest iu that character of mining, 
and during the time several new enterprises 
have been inaugurated, or old organizations 
remodeled, that are gettiug fairly upon their feet 
as remunerative properties. And during the 
present year they should pay back to their 
owners compensation for their investments, as a 
reward for their pluck and confidence in the 
resources of the district. A large amount of 
money was paid out in 1S7S, in the way of 
assessments to carry on these enterprises, and 
principally from our own citizens. Prospect- 
ing, which generally succumbs to the rains that 
saturate the ground, has continued without 
interruption, and by that means many miners 
iu the district have been enabled to continue 
regular work, who otherwise would have been 
compelled to be idle or at best put in but broken 
time. In consequence of this the custom mills 
have been kept constantly busy, which is un- 
usual for the winter season. While the elements 
have thus favored quartz mining, they have 
been unpropitious to the greater and more 
important gravel mining interest and for the 
agriculturists, and make enforced idleness in 
gravel mining that is discouraging to those 
whose capital and labor is locked up in such 
investments ; and the winter is now so well 
advanced that none can hope for a water supply 
that will give the usual complement of a good 
season. 

Idaho Mine.— The new shaft, below the lOfch 
level, is now down 132 feet, having been sunk 
20 feet during the month. The yield of the 
mine for December was $G4,000, an increase of 
$7,000 over the previous month. The regular 
monthly dividend (No. 113) of §7.50 per share, 
amounting to §23,250, was declared on Monday, 
payable immediately. This is a large dividend, 
when taking into consideration the necessary 
payment of the annual taxes and other large 
outlays outside of the regular working expenses. 
With the payment of the above dividend the 
entire amount of dividends paid by the mine is 
$2,557,500. 

Centennial. — The 3d or 420 level, is being 
driven north and south, and . opens out finely. 
Of late the company have been doing consider- 
able dead work, preparing the mine for greater 
production of rock than heretofore. The tribu- 
ters of late have been taking out very fine rock, 
and will make first-class wages. 

Mt. Zion Gravel. — Nevada Transcript, Jan. 
10: A San Francisco company have recently 
purchased the Mount Zion gravel claims which 
have beon owned and worked by the ' 'George 
boys" and others for nearly 20 years past. It 1 
is one of the oldest pieces of property in the 
county, and is situated on the ridge road be- 
tween Eureka and Bloomfield, about seven or 
eight miles above the latter place. The claim, 
which is a very large one, fronts on the South 
Yuba, and extends back to the center of the 
ridge. A tunnel 1,800 in length has been run 
in it by the former owners. 

Eureka Gravel. — The Eureka Gravel min- 
ing company, at Relief Hill, has been paying 
dividends for eight years past, the claim being 
good for from $5 to $16 per day for each man 
working in it. The proprietors consist of a 
number of Americans, Germans and Banes. 
John Hickman, one of the owners, has held the 
position of foreman ever since pay dirt was 
first struck. 

Blue Banks. — Nevada City Herald, Jan. 7: 
W. F.Cummings, the banker at Moore's Flat, 
brought down $30,000 in gold dust from that 
place on Sunday last. This was obtained from 
the clean-ups of the Blue Banks and other 
claims in the vicinity made last week. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Lead and Silver Ore. — Lompoc Record, 
Jan. 4: Considerable excitement prevailed for a 
time last Thursday morning, over the display 
of a rich specimen of lead ore, containing a 
quantity of silver, reported to have been first 
found on the Lompoc rancho by Dr. H. C. 
Dimock. The locality of the discovery is yet 
unknown, except to the discoverer. An inter- 
view with the Doctor elicited the statement 
that he first discovered the ore while prospect- 
ing with a friend, which he is willing to testify 
to under oath. Ke further thinks that this 
section, to-day, is richer in mines, chrome not 
excepted, than San Luis. Messrs. Sirrine and 
Anglin are still working up the Bear creek 
mines, and we may expect to learn something 
ere long. Specimens from the Dimock and 
other mines may be seen at this office. 

SHASTA- 

Coffer City. — The Extra company keep up 
their lick day and night, and the regularity 
with which they ship the silver bricks is the 
best proof of what is being done, also of the ore 
produced from our mines. At the Potter mine 
the deeper they sink the larger they find the 
ledge, which carries its rich ore with most re- 
markable uniformity from top to bottom of 
main shaft. This mine has more good ore in 



sight than the mill can reduce in the next 12 
months. At the Bully Hill South or No. 2, 
they have a five-foot vein of good milling 
ore, which resembles very closely that of the 
Potter mine. There are three claimB on the one 
vein for a distance of over 4,000 feet, with ore 
exactly alike in all of them, showing this vein 
to be an immense bonanza, with ore enough to 
run 100 stamps. The Winthrop company are 
driving their tunnel day and night. They 
have encountered very hard rock. The new 
tramway is being pushed along at a lively rate, 
and will be completed to Bully Hill in a few 
weeks, when the expense of hauling ore will be 
reduced nearly $75 per day. It looks very gay 
to the old residents of Copper City to see a 
train of cars come spinning down the mountain 
from Bully Hill to the company's mill. 

Apterthouoht Mill.— Beading Independent, 
Dec. 20: At the Afterthought mill, upon the 
the success of which everything depends, we 
had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Campbell, the 
Superintendent; A. J. Loomis, Dan Feit, who is 
superintending the construction of the mill, and 
D. J. O'Harra, the inventor of the process by 
which the ore is worked. The mill, when com- 
pleted, will be one of the best and most conve- 
nient ever put up in any mine. Their machinery 
will all be run by water power, which will be a 
saving of money. 

Puck Mine and Copper City. — In company 
with Superintendent Campbell and Mr. O'Harra 
we visited the Peck mine, lately purchased by 
them from another company. It is located so 
conveniently to the mill that if the company 
desire to do so, a chute could be made to carry 
the ore right into the mill ; but for the present 
they intend to haul the ore, and for that pur- 
pose have constructed a fine wagon road. The 
value of the ore varies, say from almost nothing, 
in the way of silver and gold, to $40 and even 
$80 per ton, while that which carries but little 
in the&e metals is rich in copper. Practical 
miners talk about this as an enormous ledge. 
This mining district is, without a doubt, a con- 
tinuation of the one at Copper City, and as the 
bullion already shipped from the latter place 
shows that it pays, the mines on North Cow 
creek must also pay. 

South Fork District.— The new mill is in 
fine running order, with its concentrators, roast- 
ers, pans and settlers, all doing their part night 
and day, and turning out the bullion in good 
shape, under the constant supervision of Mr. 
Peck, one of its owners. The latest discovery 
of the country is giving new life to this whole 
section: O. Engle is the lucky man ; a two-foot 
ledge widens out to ten feet in thickness a little 
lower down the hill, and still other fine claims 
are being opened above this by W. Brummett 
and others. 

NEVADA. 
WASHOE DISTRICT. 

Our usual weekly summary of Washoe mining 
news having failed to come to hand, we take the 
following from the letters of Superintendents, on 
file in the offices of the respective companies 
mentioned: 

Chollar. — Letter of the 11th says: During 
the past week we have eased and repaired 28 
feet of the C. N. S. shaft. Have timbered 15 
feet at north end of 1593 level and finished 
putting in pipe to convey water to the Sutro 
tunnel. The pump shaft has been cleaned down 
and pump work completed, and the pumps are 
now ready to start up. On Thursday we broke 
the rope in south hoisting shaft and to-day are 
putting in new ropes. Shall have everything 
running again to-night. 

Overman. — Letter of the 11th says: During 
the past week the north crosscut has been ex- 
tended 28 feet and the north lateral drift 20 
feet, and the face is in quartz showing a little 
metal. The excavation for machinery for ver- 
tical winze is about completed, and we will com- 
mence putting machinery in place by Monday. 
The new shaft has been sunk and timbered 30 
feet. The ground continues very hard with a 
little seepage of water. 

Ophir. — Letter of the 11th says: Ship this 
day five bars of bullion, Nos. 19 to 23, value, 
$19,459.46. 

Best & Belcher. — Letter of 12th says: The 
joint east drift, 1700 level was advanced 58 feet 
during the week, and is now in 300 feet from the 
lateral drift. Joint east crosscut 1900 level was 
run 26 feet through hard porphyry, and the ver- 
tical winze from this drift sunk 10 feet. At the 
Osbiston shaft there has been much trouble with 
water, so that only 15 feet was sunk, making a 
total depth of 400 feet. 

Gould & Curry.— Letter of the 12th says: 
Crosscuts Nos. 2, 3 and 4, 1900 level, have made 
slow progress during the week, for the reason 
that each showed signs of water, and we had to 
stop them to ascertain the extent. I am now 
satisfied that it amounts to nothing, and work 
is resumed in all of them. Joint east drift 1700 
level was advanced 58 feet and is now in 300 
feet from the lateral drift; good progress will 
be made at this point hereafter. The repairing 
of the main shaft progresses well, 12 new sets 
having been put in place. It will require 10 
sets more of new timbers to complete the work. 
There is still a very heavy flow of water at Os- 
biston shaft, but we are still sinking, having 
made 15 feet during the week; total depth, 400 
Uet. 

Caledonia.— Letter of the 11th says: Since 
last report the east drift, 1600 level, has been 
extended 40 feet. The ground in the face is 



Continued on page 44. 



38 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Continued from page 34. 



42 millions of piecettes (the piecettes has sen- 
sibly the same value as the franc), agreed to in 
1870 by the house of Rothschild's, and to re- 
imburse them for thirty annuities of 3,750,000 
francs, the government conceded to them the 
monopoly of the sale of the products of the 
mines of Almaden, under the following condi- 
tions: 

The Spanish government engages itself to 
deliver each year, at least 32,000 frascos (bottles 
of 34.507 kilograms, or 75 Spanish pounds), that 
is, 1,104.224 tons. The value of the mercury 
furnished to the Rothschilds is fixed according 
to the course of metal in the English market. 
The minimum admitted is six pounds sterling 
(151.20 franca, or about that); if the price of 
the metal should descend below this figure, the 
government would not receive less than six 
pounds sterling per frasco. 

From six to eight pounds the profits are shar- 
ed equally between the two contractors. Above 
eight pounds, the Rothschilds receive one-third 
and the treasurer two-thirds. 

Thus, the price of mercury being, for ex- 
ample £14, the Spanish government would 
receive per bottle : 

1st. £6 as a minimum. 2d. £1 from the first 
profit of £2. 3d. £4 from the second profit of 
£6, in all £11. 

Thus the mercury enclosed in bottles is placed 
at Almaden itself in the hands of a representa- 
tive of the house of Rothschilds and the Admin- 
istration, and the establishment finds itself 
discharged from all care and all expenses of 
selling, consequently of all operations which are 
little in harmony with the true functions of a 
government of any kind. The treasury profits 
likewise, at reasonable rate, by any elevation of 
the price, an elevation which it is without 
doubt not in condition either to produce or to 
maintain. 

Nothing is more variable in fact than the 
price of mercury in the London market, sup- 
plied almost entirely by the mines of Almaden. 
Idria does not produce more than 370 tons, while 
1,200 comes from Spain; and America whose pro- 
duction is nearly equal to that of Almaden, 
consumes itself its products. This is not to say, 
that the production of the New World does not 
powerfully influence the value of mercury ; one 
may, nevertheless, regard as certain that a nota- 
ble part of the variations in the price is due to 
operations purely commercial. It was in fact, 
in 1873, 1874, 1875, very far from the old price 
of £6. 

The average prices in the London market 
have been the following : 
Years. 







W © ffl g> g ^Exploitation H {J* 








§? i 

•a . 


Extraction an 
^General expe 
tillation and b 

ops 

ndries 

spital and chap 
main of Castils 
tra Expenses.. 


sense of office. 

Timbering an 

Drainage 

Ventilation.. 


i 

H 

PC 
HI 

O 

"*1 


Ml 

a 


w 

ei- 




o - 






8 






M> 














M 






13 

■ ::;;;: o 

■ ;;;;;;« 




5 




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00 
H 
CO 


3 

. o 
































B 




M 




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M bo to M to CO -^ -JCO© © V 

0-.l©^coln©tOWM — 1»*.03 










? 








s> 






©©OOOO©©©©©©©©" 










n 




t* 


Franc 

114 

4 

324 

205 

73 

3 

73 

149 

348 

14 

20 

22 

14 




l 


B 






o 












—1 © 




to 


H 




M 


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a 








lo 


o 






Mlfi-030il"W01*-tOOl!003lfc.tO^ 


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■3 










-» o 


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tf 














fad 




o 






hOfOM M tOCO mH 
MtOMCOOoiOM OMU to Z 

o-jto--Jtooico©tocritooi*-co — 


r 

2 


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s 










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3 
281 

59 
1 

216 
320 
23 
7 
17 
12 


r 


y 






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Let us see also what have been the quantities 
of ore treated and of mercury produced in the 
same time : 



Ore Treated. 



1865.. 
1866.. 
1867. 
1863. 
1869.. 
1870.. 
1871.. 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1876.. 





Prices. 






£. 


sh. d. 


per 


frasco 


7 


19 4 






7 


5 8 






6 


17 li 




" 


6 ' 


17 " 




" 


6 


17 " 




" 


7 


18 8 






10 


9 9| 




" 


11 


11 2} 






15 
21 


2 7 
6 10J 




« 



Average ...10 9 5 " 

The lowest price from 1865 to 1876, was £6 
(Dec, 1865); the highest, .£26, in Nov., 1874. 

Let us now place in comparison to the price 
of selling, the complete cost of producing the 
ton and the frasco of mercury during the last 
five years. This cost results from the following 
table : 



1879-71 
1871-72 

1872-73 
1873-74 
1874-75 



Tons. 



15,867.039 
15,835.340 
16,094.436 
16,379.750 
18,815.680 



Mercury Produced. 



In tons. 



1,185.007 
1,135.046 
1,155.280 
976.104 
1,264.365 



In frascos. 



34,341 
32,893 
33,479 
28,287 
36 640 



Average 

yield. 

Per Cent. 



7.47 
7.17 
7.18 
5.90 
0.72 



We give in the following table the relative 
amounts of the production of the principal 
countries which produce mercury ; one can 
easily get from it an exact idea of the relative 
importance of Almaden to the general produc- 
tion. * 

Austria. 



Spain. 



Hungary. Italy. 



United 
States. 

Tons. 
1,638.6 
1,928.8 
1,606.3 
1,276.9 
1.170.7 
1,103.3 
1,019.6 
1,100.0 
1.045.S 

986.8 
1,182.0 
1,853.1 

We will finish this study of the deposits of 
mercury at Almaden by a rapid exposition of 
their history. This retrospective view cannot 
but aid in a better comprehension of the actual 
situation of the mines. 

*From M. Von Lindheim, Kohle und Eisen im Welt- 
handel, Vienna, 1877. 

To be Continued.) 



1864 
1365 


Tons. 
1,057.6 
1,078.3 


Tons. 
291.1 
192.3 
183.5 
271.S 
286.8 
316.6 
309.6 
375 7 
383.4 
377.1 
372.1 
309.7 


Tons. 
32.4 
42.7 
55.7 


1867 


1,095.1 


60.9 
42.7 








1870 

1871 

1872 

1873.... 

1874 

1875... 


1,345.3 
1,157.0 
1,262.0 


25.6 
18.0 
15.3 
14.0 
13.2 
18.0 



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IC-J©0 



In consequence of the improvements in ma- 
chinery and the increasing richness of the mine, 
they can easily in a year or two, be in a condi- 
tion to produce annually 40,000 frascos {1,380 
tons) of mercury, at a cost which will not exceed 
42.50 francs per frasco. 



Ostrich Fepsine. — M. Alfred Ebelot, in an 
article in the Revue dea Deux Mondes, on the 
means employed in the Argentine Republic to 
protect settlers in the Pampas from the Indians, 
gives some curious statements with regard to 
ostrich pepsine. The soldiers never could resist 
an ostrich hunt when they saw a male ostrich, 
as is the custom of that bird, taking out its 
young brood for food and exeroise. The parent 
bird generally escaped, leaving its young in the 
hands of its enemies. When other food was 
scarce they ate the young ostriches. Some 
portions of the flesh of these birds, when young 
and fat, are reckoned dainty by the Indians. 
Whilst eating the ostrich the Indians always 
carefully put aside the stomach in order to col- 
lect the pepsine which it contains. *'The 
stomach of the ostrich," says M. Ebelot, "is 
celebrated for its incredible powers of digestion. 
The abundance of pepsine, to which it owes this 
faculty, has created among the Indians a curious 
commercial fraud. They dry it and sell it literal- 
ly for its weight in gold. It is used for the 
purpose of restoring worn-out stomachs." 

The idea is too ' ' good to be lost sight of, ' ' 
and we shall no doubt even hear "ostrich pep- 
sine" added to the innumeral number of "patent 
medicines," with which the world is afflicted. 

A Novel Wall Covering. — Engineering 
states that of late, great improvements have been 
made in the preparation of wood for wall cover- 
ing. The wood is cut to the thickness of paper, 
and by a peculiar process stuck on the paper, 
which serves as a protection against the influ- 
ence of the walls on the graining and color of 
the wood. The delicacy of the machinery 
employed in cutting so thin a veneer may be 
gathered from the fact that the leaves are cut 
out of an inch of white maple wood, and 125 
out of wood with every open grain, such as oak 
and walnut. 



An Allotrope of Lead. — It was but recently 
announced that a German scientist, Schnetzen- 
berger, had discovered an allotropic condition 
of copper. It is now announced that the same 
scientist has discovered an allotrope of lead. 
Both discoveries were made by eleetrolysis. 

Prof. Daniel C. Oilman, formerly President 
of the University of California, has been elected 
President of the American Social Science As- 
sociation. 



Foothills of the Sierra. 

[Read before the California Academy of Sciences by B, B. 
Redding. J 

Geologic Formation. 
The western base of the Sierra Nevada bor- 
dering the Sacramento valley, is known in this 
State as the foothill region. Theae foothills 
extend from Reading at the northern end of the 
valley to Caliente at the southern extremity, a 
a distance of 350 miles. I am indebted to Mr. 
A. Bowman, formerly of the State Geological 
Survey, for the following description of the for- 
mations of this portion of the State. He says: 
"Generally speaking, there are gradually rising 
low outliers of upper tertiary gravels, sands 
and clays all along the western base of the 
Sierra. They are often capped with volcanic 
matter and cut through by erosions. The dry 
winding arroyos through the flattish foothills 
are familiar to every one who has followed 
along the edge of the Sacramento and San Joa- 
quin plains. These erosions in some places cut 
down into the middle tertiary and even into 
the cretaceous beds; but there is little surface 
area of the latter. Down on the plains all is 
covered up by the Recent. 

"Patches occur of middle tertiary and upper 
tertiary where denudation has removed great 
masses of tertiary country with, these excep- 
tions; for example, at Millerton on both sides 
of the San Joaquin. A patch of middle ter- 
tiary hills about three by ten miles is there 
seen; and at lone valley, several miles square 
of steep hills of this period are laid down in 
slightly pitching beds. The tertiary formations 
reach away up into the Sierra in the shape of 
ancient river deposits. They change at from 
300 to 1,500 feet altitude into fluviatite depos- 
its; although a large portion of the plains 
tertiary, to below the present sea level, is also 
fluviatite, interbedded with lacustrine or marine, 
sometimes (apparently) in alternate order. 

"The surface areas may be said to change, 
going eastward, from recent to upper tertiary 
(pliocene), as the soil belongs above or below 
the volcanic outflows; and then to the slate and 
granite formations of the Sierra, extending to 
the Summit. 

"The cretaceous formation shows scarcely 
any surface area along the base of the Sierra 
except in Shasta county; although from Folsom 
north, the ravines and canyons expose its 
edges; especially north of Oroville, at Reading's 
ranch, and from there north to Pit river, the 
flat country is all cretaceous, the tertiary being 
mostly removed by denudation. The same is 
true of patches between there and Oroville. 
The patch between Fort Reading and Pit 
river is about 20 miles square. The foothill 
cretaceous of Butte and Shasta counties is over- 
laid by the Shasta coal measures, which are, I 
think, middle or upper tertiary; and these 
again by the upper tertiary formation of the 
ancient river gravel period and by the volcanic 
outflows from the Lassen volcanic chain. No 
cretaceous rocks have been identified interme- 
diate between Folsom and Tejon pass. Litho- 
logically, the cretaceous beds are much more 
silicified and compacted than the tertiary. 
They are the shales and conglomerates found 
in these regions; while the tertiary are often 
loose and fragile, and scarcely worthy of classi- 
fication in the harder category. Both are very 
regularly bedded and only moderately tilted 
here; while on the opposite side of the valleys 
of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, they are 
both tilted and altered — remarkably so in com- 
parison with those on the east side, and in pro- 
portion to their age, generally speaking. 

"The older rock formations of the Sierra 
foothills are, in the main, granites south of 
Fresno river, and slates north. The slate re 
gion contains patches of granite, often several 
miles square; and there is between Folsom and 
the Central Pacific railroad a large patch, 
eight or ten miles square at the least, extend- 
ing from the valley to near Auburn. 

"The granite region at the south has also 
patches of slate. Opposite Visalia, at the edge 
of the valley, are two isolated patches 10 by 12 
and 10 by 15 miles. 

"It remains only to trace the boundary be- 
tween the slate north of Fresno river and the 
tertiary of the valley. Along this line, begin- 
ning at the south, are the Buchanan copper 
mines, Indian Gulch and Snellings near the 
western Mariposa county line; Lagrange, 
and Knight's Ferry near the western Tuolumne 
line; Telegraph City, Campo Seco, Michigan 
Bar and Mormon Island near the edge of Cala- 
veras, Amador and El Dorado — in short, a line 
separating these mountain counties from the val- 
ley counties, or very nearly. Farther north the 
f ramers of the counties did not study the soil. In 
Placer county, Rocklin on the west and Auburn 
on the east mark the granite limits; and from 
there north in Yuba to Oroville in Butte 
county the first steep foothills of the Sierra are 
of the slate formation. 

The flat-bedded, unaltered formations of 
the foothills described as upper tertiary, rise to 
very different altitudes in different places. The 
Oroville Cherokee mesa is, if I remember 
aright, considerably over 1,000 feet above the 
sea at the Cherokee end. Similar isolated 
middle and upper tertiary (miocene and plio- 
cene) hills are found left as remnants, all along 



the base of the Sierra south of Oroville, while 
to the north they are plastered up against the 
Sierra with a cretaceous base and preserved 
by a volcanic capping covering nearly the whole 
country. 

"The slates and granites extend to the sum- 
mit of the Sierra, the line between the granites 
of the south and the slates of the north running 
slantingly from the point mentioned on Fresno 
river through the heart of Mariposa county 
towards Lake Tahoe in a tolerably direct line." 
Climate. 
From Reading in the northern end to Sumner 
at its southern extremity, as has been stated, is 
a distance of 350 miles. The mean annual aver- 
age temperature of Reading is 64. 14°. The lowest 
point to which the thermometer haB fallen since 
a record has been kept, was 27°, in December, 
1876. Its annual average rainfall is 48. 05 inches. 
Sumner, at the southern end of the valley, has 
an annual average temperature of 68.29° and 
an average rainfall of four inches. The lowest 
point to which the thermometer has fallen at 
this place waB also 27° on the same day in De- 
cember, 1876. There is a remarkable uniformity 
in the climate throughout the Sacramento valley. 
In it a difference of five degrees of latitude, 
between 35° 30' and 40° 30', only lowers the 
annual average temperature 4.15°. The differ- 
ence of the annual average temperature between 
corresponding degrees of latitude in the Atlantic 
States, at an equal distance from the ocean, is 
more than eight degrees. 

It has been found that the foothills of the 
Sierra, up to a hight of about 2,500 feet, have 
approximately the same temperature as places 
in the valley having the same latitude. It has 
also been found that, with increased elevation, 
there is an increase of rainfall over those places 
in the valley having the same latitude ; as, for 
illustration, Sacramento, with an elevation above 
the sea of 30 feet, has an annual mean tempera- 
ture of 60,48°, and an average fall of rain of 
18.75 inches; while Colfax, with an elevation of 
2,421 feet, has an annual mean temperature of 
60.05°, and an average annual rainfall of 42.72 
inches. This uniformity of temperature and 
increase of rainfall appears to be the law 
throughout the whole extent of the foothills of 
the Sierra, with this variation, as relates to 
temperature, namely, as latitude is decreased 
the temperature of the valley is continued to a 
proportionally greater elevation. To illustrate, 
approximately, if the temperature of Reading, 
at the northern end of the valley, is continued 
up the foothills to a hight of 2,000 feet, then 
the temperature of Sacramento, in the center 
of the valley, would be continued up to 2,500 
feet, and that of Sumner, in the extreme southern 
end of the valley, up to 3,000 feet. 

The increase of rainfall on the foothills in the 
latitude of Sacramento due to elevation is about 
one inch to each 100 feet. South from Sacra- 
mento the proportion decreases, until, at Sum- 
ner, the increase due to elevation is but half an 
inch to each 100 feet. This is shown by the 
record kept at Ft. Tejon, in the Tehachipi 
mountains near Sumner, at an elevation of 
3,240 feet, where the annual rainfall is 19.53 
inches. There is no record kept at any point 
in the hills above Reading, but probably, in this 
latitude, the increase due to elevation is about 
one and a half inches to each 100 feet. 

The increase of precipitation on the hills at 
the northern end of the valley gives greater 
density to the forests, and permits them to 
grow at lower elevations than in the southern 
end of the valley. At the same time the differ- 
ence in temperature is so small that the char- 
acter of the vegetation of the hills at each end 
of the valley is not dissimilar. The trees that 
are found in the vicinity of Reading, at the 
northern end of the valley below an elevation 
of 500 feet, are not found at the southern end 
until we pass Caliente, at an elevation of 1,300 
feet. 

It would seem that the temperature of the 
valley prevails up the Sierra to an elevation 
that equals the average hight of the Coast Range 
mountains. If a line were drawn parallel to 
the surface of the ocean, from the top of the 
Coast Range east until it met the flanks of the 
Sierra, it would mark a level on the Sierra, 
below which the temperature would not ma- 
terially differ from that in the Sacramento val- 
ley. This fact is probably to be ascribed to the 
prevailing southwest return trade-wind, which 
blows over the State from the ocean for more 
than 300 days in the year ; passing the summits 
of the Coast Range, but small portions descend 
into the valley, the remainder reaches the sides of 
the Sierra at about the level of the summits 
they have passed. 

Arborial Vegetation. 

At the northern end of the valley, at an ele- 
vation of 500 feet above the sea, of the Cali- 
fornia oaks are found Quersw lobator, Sonomen- 
sis chrysolopis and Wiselzenu; of pines, only the 
nut or digger pine, Pimts xabiniana; the buck- 
eye, JEscuius Cal{fornioa; and chemisel Adenos- 
toma fasiculata. This is the characteristic ar- 
borial vegetation throughout all these 350 miles. 
Its presence everywhere shows increased rain- 
fall over the valley, and similarity of tempera- 
ture to that of the valley. Our pasture oak 
(Qiiercw lobator) is found at lower elevations 
in the valley, but always on moist land or near 
river courses, proving that it demands, in addi- 
tion to temperature, the increased moisture. 
In the southern end of the valley this vegeta- 
tion prevails at higher elevations, because it 
there finds the proper temperature and moist- 
ure. Wherever on the foothills any of the 
trees named constitute the predominant ar- 
borial vegetation, it is evidence that the tern- 



January 18, 1879. "] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



39 



perature U the same as that of the valley, and 
that plants that can be successfully grown iu 
the valley can be grown to as high an elevation 
on the hills as these trees abound. If one tree 
were to be taken as the evidence of this uni- 
formity of temperature, it would be salmis (the 
nut or digger) pine. It fa never seen in the 
valley or on the hills below an elevation of 
about 400 feet It is not found at a higher ele- 
vation than that in which the temperature is 
the same as that of the valley. It is never 
found in groves, but singly among other trees; 
yet it prevails throughout these 350 miles of 
foothills. 

While the vegetation is more dense on the 
hills at the northern end of the valley, due to 
increased precipitation, there are also local 
difference*, where there is similarity of soil, due 
to exposure. Throughout all the lower hills 
the greatest number of trees is found on gently 
sloping eastern, northeastern and northern hillB, 
which necessarily are more moist and cool. The 
southern aspects contain less trees, because ex- 
posed to the direct rays of the euu and to the 
lull force of the prevailing winds. 

Area of Foothill Region. 
On the line of the Central Pacific railroad, the 
foothills commence at Roseville, which has an 
elevation of 103 feet. From this point to Col- 
fax — elevation 2,421 feet — in a direct line, is a 
distance of 32 miles. To allow for all possible 
errors, it would be safe to estimate that the 
width of the foothills, where the valley tem- 
perature, prevails, is 20 miles. This region, 
therefore embraces a tract of country from 
Heading to Sumner 350 miles long and 20 milos 
wide, or 4,430,000 acres, The principal towns 
in this part of the State are Oroville, Ne- 
vada, dross Valley, Colfax, Auburn, New- 
castle, Georgetown, Placerville, Coloma, Jack- 
Bon, Sonora, Columbia, Mariposa and Havalah. 
In the vicinity of these towns and also near the 
line of the Central Pacific railroad the land is 
occupied by settlers. It would be using a large 
figure to state that half a million acres of these 
foothills have been pre-empted. If we esti- 
mate that another million is composed of lands 
granted to the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, ravines, river-beds and lands too rocky 
or precipitous for cultivation, there would re- 
main nearly 3,000,000 acres of land, all of it 
timbered, all having abundant rainfall, in a 
Bemi-tropical climate and to which title in 1G0 
acre tracts cah be acquired by settlement and 
complying with the rules of the United States 
Land department. Throughout the whole re- 
gion overliving springs are numerous, and in 
those parts where there has been placer min- 
ing, there are many canals from which water 
by purchase can be obtained for irrigation. 
The immense precipitation that takes place 
during the rainy season along the western face 
of the Sierra, passes through this region in 
streams that are tributaries to the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin. Within this distance there 
are 54 of these principal streams, whose waters 
are perpetually adding to the volume of the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin. 

Adaptation to Cultivation. 
Every agricultural product that can be grown 
in the valley, including the semi-tropical fruits, 
can be grown with equal facility in these foot- 
hills. Ordinarily the land has to be cleared of 
the trees found upon it, and cultivation must 
be continuous, for on the whole western face of 
the Sierra, the native trees when cut, or burned 
down, are rapidly replaced by a new growth of 
the same kinds. 

These lands are found to have all of the re- 
quisites for the successful growth of orchards. 
Fruit trees thrive better upon them than on 
the lands of the valley. None of the many 
theories advanced as to "the cause of the treeless 
condition of many plains and prairies, having 
ample rainfall, seems to be entirely satisfactory, 
but experience has demonstrated that orchards 
grow best and thrive with less artificial aid on 
lands that in a natural condition are covered 
with trees. 

The increasing exports of small fruits, such 
as strawberries, blackberries and raspberries, 
from the vicinity of Newcastle and Auburn, 
and their superior size and quality, prove that 
this region is better adapted to their culture 
than any place yet found on the level lands of 
the valley. The peaches of Coloma have a stall 
reputation for flavor and size. The apples of 
Nevada and Georgetown are equal in size, taste 
and keeping qualities to the best imported from 
Oregon. The Oroville oranges have been pro- 
nounced equal to the best Los Angeles. The 
vine grows with luxuriance and bears abun- 
dantly wherever it has been planted throughout 
all this region. The wines of Coloma have 
more than a local reputation. Persons com- 
petent to judge assert that wine from grapes 
grown on the foothills is free from the earthy 
taste that characterizes much of the wine of 
the flat land of the valleys. They also express 
the belief that if ever wine is to be made in 
California as light as that from the Rhine, and 
as free from alcohol, the grapes will be grown 
in the higher elevations of the foothills, where 
snow falls and remains on the ground a few weeks 
each season. It is said that the long summers and 
great heat of the valleys develop the saccharine 
matter in the grape, which, by fermentation, is 
converted into alcohol. 

The Lands Open to Settlement. 
There is but one Spanish grant in all this 
region — the Fremont grant in Mariposa. The 
land, therefore, oan only be obtained from the 
Government, in tracts of 80 and 160 acres. A 
monopoly of the land in large estates is conse- 
quently impossible. The character of the coun- 



try, being of rolling and rounded hills, prevents 
the possibility of very large farms. Experi- 
ments have shown that the soil is more pro- 
ductive than the dry plains of the valley, but 
of course it does not yield crops as largely as 
the deltas and bottom lands of the rivers. It 
is certainly better and more productive than 
lands similarly situated iu France, Switzerland 
and Italy, which now sustain a population of 
millions. Wood is everywhere to be found, and 
iu tins region north of Oroville there is an abun- 
dance of water in streams and springs not yet 
appropriated. These lands have remained open 
for settlement, because, up to the preseut time, 
suthcient government laud could be found in the 
valleys. The legislation by CoDgress has been 
and still is unfavorable to their appropriation 
for agriculture. The river bars and benches of 
this region originally contained the placer gold 
mines. Positive legislation by Congress forbid 
their survey for many years after the State was 
admitted into the Union. When surveys were 
ordered, the Laud Department at Washington 
was so fearful that they would be occupied by 
farmers to the injury of the miners, that more 
than 1,000,000 acres were reserved as mineral 
land. The placer mines of these foothills have 
ceased to yield gold, even at Chinese wages, for 
the past 10 years, yet the Land Department at 
Washington continues the mineral reservation 
on these lands. The effect of this is to increase 
the expense of obtaining title from the Govern- 
ment, and thereby settlement of this region has 
been retarded. Where a farmer settles on land 
that has been reserved as mineral by the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office, the ex- 
pense has to be borne by the settler, of show- 
i°g» by testimony, that his farm contains no 
mines, and that it is only valuable for agricul- 
ture. There are 2,000,000 acres of these lands, 
on which there is no mineral reservation, and 
which can be obtained by homestead and pre- 
emption as cheaply as were the lands in the 
valley. It cannot be but a few years before the 
unwise policy of reserving lands as mineral, 
that, in fact, are not mineral, will be abandoned, 
so that these lands can be obtained by settle- 
ment, pre-emption and homestead as cheaply as 
other lands. 

As I have ahown, there are more than 3,000,- 
000 acres of these lands open to settlement, 
fallow from the flood, waiting for occupants ; 
capable of supporting a population of 100,000 
people, if they will but cultivate them; situated 
in a semi-tropical climate, and, in all the higher 
regions, free from miasma. One need not be a 
prophet, nor a son of a prophet, to foretell that, 
before many years, the agriculture of California 
will become varied, and cultivation will not be 
confined to one cereal. Then the foothill region 
of the Sierra will be occupied by a prosperous 
and happy rural population. 



The Care of Shop Tools. 

The American Machinist has some important 
suggestions concerning the advantage of oare 
and system in the treatment of shop tools. 
First cost of tools seldom represents their ulti- 
mate cost, whether it becomes necessary to 
repair them or not. If a good mechanic makes 
a tool last a year in constant usage, while his 
careless neighbor uses up one of the same kind 
in six months, the cost of the latter should be 
accounted twice that of the former. When 
repairs are made their value must be added in 
computing the whole cost of the tool. 

One primary reason why some shops can show 
a greater profit on a given amount of work is 
because they get more service out of their tools. 
This is just as evident when the tools are cheap 
as when they are dear, for the products of me- 
chanical labor fluctuate the same as the first 
cost of tools; and if a large part of the income 
of the business goes for working tools and re- 
pairs to the same, balances on the right side of 
the ledger are likely to be diminutive, if indeed 
they appear at all. It is the first requisite that 
tools and machines should be adapted to the 
work to be performed. Fine tools should not 
be used on heavy, coarse work. They must 
also be kept in good working order, cutting 
edges well sharpened and bearing surfaces lu- 
bricated, shafting kept well aligned, pulleys 
balanced, belts kept clean and pliable and at 
the correct tension, rust prevented, emery 
wheels trued up, and dirt kept out of all wear- 
ing parts. 

Machines should be mounted on stable found- 
ations and run neitherabove nor below the proper 
speed required to do the work. Small tools 
demand as much care as large ones, and a care- 
less or inexperienced workman will often spoil 
more than the amount of his wages in files, 
drills, chucks, reamers, taps, dies, calipers, 
wrenches and the like, unless closely looked 
after by the master mechanic. It is therefore 
very essential, in order to insure proper care of 
tools, that workmen know just how to use them. 
All small tools should be laid away systemati- 
cally in a dry place, when not in use. In large 
shops a room should be set apart for this pur- 
pose, and a man detailed to take charge of it 
and keep the tools in good working order. 
There is no part of a large machine shop from 
which an outsider can form a better judgment 
of the general management than by an observa- 
tion of the tool room. The best economy is 
secured by securing none but the best tools at 
the outset, for in the long run they will be found 
the cheapest. 



As I-Nsolcble Cement. — A very valuable 
cement has been discovered by Mr. A-C.Fox, of 
which details are published in Dingier* a Poly- 
ttduii#ched Journal. It consists of a chromium 
preparation and isinglass, and forms a solid 
cement, which is not only insoluble in hot and 
cold water, but even in steam, while neither 
acids nor alkalies have any action upon it. The 
chromium preparation and the isinglass or gela- 
tin do not come into contact until the moment 
the cement is desired, and when applied to ad- 
hesive envelopes, for which the author holds it 
to be especially adapted, the one material is put 
on the envelope covered by the flap (aud there- 
fore not touched by the tongue), while the isin- 
glass, dissolved in acetic acid, is applied under 
the flap. The chromium preparation is made by 
dissolving crystallized chromic acid in water. 
You take : Crystallized cluomicacid, 2.5 gram- 
mes ; water, lii grammes ; ammonia, 15 gram- 
mes. To this solution about 1 drops of 
sulphuric acid are added, and finally 30 grammes 
of sulphate-of ammonia and 4 grammes of fine 
white paper. In the case of envelopes, this is 
applied to that portion lying under the Hap, 
while a solution prepared by dissolving isinglass 
in dilute acetic acid (oue part acid to seven parts 
water) is applied to the flap of the envelope. 
The latter is moistened, and then is pressed 
down upon the chromic preparation, when the 
two unite, forming, as we have said, a firm and 
insoluble cement. 

To Turn Oak Black. — According to the 
JRevue Iiulustr'udlt, Paris, oak may oe dyed 
black, and made to resemble ebony, by the fol- 
lowing means: Immerse the wood for 48 hours 
in a hot saturated solution of alum, aud then 
brush it over with a logwood decoction, as fol- 
lows: Boil one part of the best logwood with 10 
parts of water, filter through linen, and evap- 
orate at a gentle heat until the volume is re- 
duced one-half. To every quart of this add 
from 10 to 15 drops of a saturated solution of 
indigo. After applying this dye to the wood 
rub the latter with a saturated and filtered so- 
lution of verdigris in hot concentrated acetic 
acid, and repeat the operation until a black of 
the desired intensity is obtained. Oak stained 
in this manner is said to be a close as well as a 
Bplendid imitation of ebony. 

Unslaked Lime fob Blasting Purposes. — 
Unslaked lime compressed into cartridges, or 
used loosely and.well tamped down in the hole, 
using water or other liquid to saturate and ex- 
pand it, is now proposed for use in fiery coal 
mines. It is claimed that the advantages to be 
derived from its use are economy in the pro- 
duction of coal; making less slack than by using 
ordinary blasting powder; lives of colliers are 
in less danger; the breaking and shattering of 
coal back of the charge — which is especially 
characteristic of the use of gunpowder — is 
avoided; and the quality of the atmosphere is 
rather improved by its use than otherwise. 

Bleaching Feathers, etc. — The Moniteur 
Inclustrielle states that Messrs. Viol & Duplot 
have recently devised a method of bleaching 
feathers, which, if successful, will be welcome 
to many who have been unable to get at the 
carefully-guarded secret methods used hitherto. 
Their method rests on the fact that feathers 
immersed in resinous essences (such as turpen- 
tines and other hydro- carbureted oils from dis- 
tillation of resinous juices in general, or in like 
oils in lavender, thyme, etc., or in bituminous 
hydrocarbons) are decolorated under the action 
of light and heat. The feathers, especially 
ostrich plumes, are kept in the vessels a longer 
or shorter time, according to the degree of 
bleaching wished, and at about 86° F., while 
exposed to light as much as possible. In three 
or four weeks they are dried and prepared ac- 
cording to known methods. 

Marking Tools by Etching.— Warm the 
steel and apply a thin coat of white wax, and 
let it thoroughly cool, then take a sharp en- 
graver (a scratch awl will not answer) and run 
the point through the hair, in order that the 
point may be coated with the least possible 
amount of grease, and mark the device through 
the wax. Apply nitric acid and allow to stand 
for a few minutes, then wash off thoroughly 
with water, and heat the article; rub off the 
wax with a clean rag. By a little practice any 
one, who can form a shapely letter, will be'able 
to mark a tool very nicely. 

Green Ink. — Dissolve 180 grains bichromate 
of potassa in one fluid ounce of water, add 
while warm half an ounce spirit of wine, then 
decompose the mixture with concentrated sul- 
phuric acid until it assumes a brown color; 
evaporate this liquor until its quantity is re- 
duced to one-half, dilute it with two ounces dis- 
tilled water; filter it and add half an ounce of 
alcohol, followed by a few drops of strong sul- 
phuric acid; it is now allowed to rest, and after 
a time assumes a beautiful green color. Add a 
small quantity of gum arabic and it is ready for 
use. 



Qood H e A. l TH- 



To Make India Ink. — A German paper gives 
the following recipe for making a deep black 
india ink, which will also give neutral tints in 
its half shades: Rub thoroughly together eight 
parts of lampblack, 64 parts of water, and four 
parts of finely pulverized indigo. Boil the 
mixture until most of the water has evaporated, 
then add five parts gum arabic, two parts of 
glue, and otoe part of extract of chiccory. Boil 
the mixture again till it has thickened to paste, 
then shape it in wooden molds which have been 
rubbed with olive or almond oil. 



Why are we Right-Handed ? 

Investigations which were very recently car- 
ried through by a French physician, Dr. Fleury, 
of Bordeaux, have adduced facts showing that 
our natural impulse to use the members on the 
right side of the body is clearly traceable to 
physiological causes. Dr. Fleury, after examin- 
ing an immense number of human brains, as- 
serts that the left anterior lobe is a little larger 
than the right one. Again, he shows that, by 
examining a large number of people, there is an 
unequal supply of blood to the two sides of the 
body. The brachiocephalic trunk, which only 
exists on the right of the arch of the aorta, pro- 
duces, by a difference in termination, an in- 
equality in the waves of red blood which travel 
from right to left. Moreover, the diameters of 
the subclavian arteries on each side are differ- 
ent, that on the right being noticeably larger. 
The left lobe of the brain, therefore, being more 
richly hiematosed than the right, becomes 
stronger; and aB, by the intersection of the 
nervous fiber, it commands the right side of the 
body, it is obvious that that side will be more 
readily controlled. This furnishes one reason 
for the natural preferences for the right hand, 
and another is found in the increased supply of 
blood from the subclavian artery. The aug- 
mentation of blood we have already seen sug- 
gested; but the reason for it is here ascribed to 
the relative size of the artery, and not to any 
directness of path from the heart. Dr. Fleury 
has carried his investigations through the whole 
series of mamalia; and he finds that the right- 
handed peculiarities exist in all that have arte- 
ries arranged similar to those of man. At the 
same time such animals, notably the chimpan- 
zee, the seal, and the beavers, are the most 
adroit and intelligent. — The Electk. 



The Use of Tea. 

The following hints concerning the use of tea 
may prove useful. 

1. Whoever uses tea should do it in great 
moderation. 

2. It should form a part of the meal, but 
never be taken before eating, or between meals, 
or on an empty stomach, as is too frequently 
done. 

3. The best time to take tea is after a hearty 
meal. 

4. Those who suffer with weak nerves should 
never take it at all 

5. Those who are troubled with inability to 
sleep nights should not use tea, or if they do, 
take it only in the morning. 

6. Brain-workers should never goad on their 
brains to overwork on the stimulus of tea. 

7. Children and the young sliould not use tea. 

8. The over-worked and under-fed should 
not use tea. 

9. Tea should never be^drank very strong. 

10. It is better with considerable milk and 
sugar. 

11. Its use should at once be abandoned 
when harm comes from it. 

12. Multitudes of diseases come from the 
excessive use of tea, and for this reason those 
who cannot use it without going to excess 
should not use it at all. 



Food too Easily Digested. — The healthy 
adult requires food which will give the stomach 
work to do. The stomach requires work as 
much as the legs or arms. The nutriment of 
food for such should not be abstracted and 
ready prepared, as, for instance, it is in milk, 
eggs, meat; it is better that the stomach ab- 
stract it by the process of digestion from food. 
With the sick and the young, however, the case 
is very different. The stomach of a strong man 
is like a quartz crushing machine, capable of 
doing vigorous work. That of a dyspeptic is 
quite different, and may need great care to en- 
able it to do its work at all. Weak stomachs, 
however, may be trained by slow degrees to do 
their work well by giving them just the right 
food, properly chewed, and stopping the ex- 
penditure of nerve force in other directions so 
that the blood may go to it. By such a course 
half the dyspepsia might be avoided or cured. — 
Herald of Health. 



The Nails. — The growth of the nails is more 
rapid in children than in adults, and slowest in 
the aged ; goes on faster in summer than in win- 
ter, so that the same nail which is renewed in 
132 days in winter, requires only 116 in summer. 
The increase of the nails of the right hand is 
more rapid than those of the left ; moreover, it 
differs for the different fingers, and in order cor- 
responds with the length of the finger, conse- 
quently it is the fastest in the middle finger, 
nearly equal in the two on either side of this, 
slower in the little finger and slowest in the 
thumb. The growth of all the nails on the left 
hand requires 82 days more than those of the 
right. 

Pie for Dyspeptics. — Four tablespoonfuls of 
oatmeal, one pint of water; let Btand a few 
hours, or till the meal is well swelled. Then 
add two large apples, pared and sliced, a little 
salt, one cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of 
flour. Mix all well together and bake in a but- 
tered pie-dish; and you have a most delicious 
pie, which may be eaten with safety by the aick 
or weljl. 



40 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 




W. B. EWER Senior Editor. 



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Saturday Morning 1 , Jan. 18, 1879. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS. — The Deane Mining 
Pump ; Practice at the University, 33. The Week ; 
Mining in 1878, 40-41. Coal and Mining Lands as 
Agricultural Lands ; A Paper of General Interest ; The 
" Gold Mountain" and the Oranges, 41. Science Bear- 
ing on Rainfall, 44- 

ILLUSTRATIONS. —The Deane Plunger Pump for 
Mining Purposes ; The Deane Piston Mining Pump, 33. 

MINING STOCK MARKET. -Sales at the San 
Francisco, California and Pacific Stock Boards, Notices 
of Assessments, Meetings and Dividends, 37. 

MINING SUMMARY from the various counties of 
California, Nevada, Arizona, Oregon and Utah, 37 4 4 . 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 5 and other pages. 

MECHANICAL PROGRESS. — A New Direct 
Process for Making Wrought-Iron and Steel; Repairing 
Boilers; Utilizing the Waste Heat of Exhaust Steam; 
A New Feed Pump, 35. 

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS— New Alleged Discov- 
eries in Petroleum; What Science has done for Produc- 
tive Arts; The Third Form of Carbon in Steel; Solubility 
of Phosphorus in Acetic Acid; Science in Nature; The 
Mound Builders' Unit of Measure; Peculiar Behavior of 
Cast Iron; The Microscopical Structure of Spiegeleisen; 
New Mode of Determining Molecular Weight; A New 
Mode of Obtaining Hydrogen, 35. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— The Care of Shop 
Tools; An Insoluble Cement; To Turn Oak Black; Un- 
slaked Lime for Blasting Purposes; Bleaching Feathers, 
Etc. ; Marking Tools by Etching; Green Ink; To Make 
India Ink, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Why are we Right-Handed ? The 
Use of Tea; Food too Easily Digested; The Nails; Pie for 
Dyspeptics, 39. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Seenes in the High Sierra 
Back of Yoseinite— Continued; Mines and Works of Al- 
maden— No. 18, 34-38- Ostrich Pepsine; A Novel 
Wall Covering; An Allotrope of Lead; Foothills of the 
Sierra, 38-39. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— The Discoveries of Science 
in 1878, 44. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

flSTCaliiornia Root Tea. ^f Paul's Pulverizing Barrel, 
Almarin B. Paul, S. F. jJ^Palace Restaurant, Herman 
H. Horst, Prop'r. , S. F. flSTAssessment Notice— Mariposa 
Laud and Mining Co. 



The Week. 

The excitement of the week in mining circles 
has been the annual meetings of the California, 
Consolidated Virginia) and Sierra Nevada 
mines, elsewhere referred to. Another item of 
interest to the mining community is the re- 
election of Senator Jones, of Nevada, to Con- 
gress. Still another, is the fact that the first 
water from the Comstock has been run through 
the Sutro tunnel. The great pumps of the 
Chollar-Savage-Norcross shaft were started up 
and sent the water through the drift on the 
1593 level into the Sutro tunnel. This is the 
first water ever] pumped into the tunnel, and 
hence the significance attached to it. Hitherto, 
since the connection between this shaft and the 
tunnel was made, what water accumulated in 
the shaft above the 1593 level has been caught 
up and sent into the tunnel, but never has a 
drop been pumped into it before. The Gold 
Hill News says: "Not only is this fact im- 
portant in itself, but it is also significant when 
considered in connection with the situation. 
The fact that preparations have been for some 
time going on to drain the flooded minei 
through the lightning drift on the 2000 level of 
the Savage and Hale & Norcross to this shaft, 
is well known. The whole plan of operations 
becomes at once apparent, when the fact is made 
known that no pumps have been placed in this 
shaft above the 1800 level. The purpose is 
plain. Mr. Sutro must take not only the water 
encountered in the shaft, but also that from the 
flooded mines, as soon as the preparations for 
passing it through the lightning drift are com- 
pleted. " 

Delegate Gannon thinks the Mormons would 
be cravens and poltroons if they yielded their 
religious principles to the dictates of the 
Supreme Court. 



Mining in 1878. 

Condition, Progress and Production in the 
Pacific States and Territories. 
As usual at the commencement of each year, 
we present a cursory review of the mining in- 
dustries of the Pacific coast for the preceding 
twelve months. It has been the custom to 
accept the aggregate amount of bullion made 
each year as fairly indicating the condition and 
progress of our mining industries for that year. 
Measured by this standard, the year just 
closed could hardly be considered a prosperous 
one; that is, as compared with some of its 
immediate predecessors, its yield having been 
less than that of 1877 by more than $17,000,000, 
and less than that of 1876 by nearly $10, 000,- 
000. But the increased production of these 
two years was due, as is well understood, 
to the large output of ore from the Con. 
Virginia and the California mines on the Corn- 
stock lode, and beyond these two properties, 
could be said to have no special bearing on the 
mining interests of the coast. As this increase 
was due to the two mines mentioned, so also 
has the recent falling off in the aggregate bul- 
lion yield been due to a curtailment of their 
production, and not to that of the mines gen- 
erally, which, taking the country throughout, 
have more than kept np the ratio of advance 
that has now been maintained through a long 
series of years. There has been, of course, as 
there is every year, a decline in some localities 
and an increase in others. The countries to 
be credited with an increase for the year, as 
compared with 1877, are as follows, viz.: Cali- 
fornia, which shows an increase of $2,068,000 
in gold, with a decrease of $1,323,000 in silver, 
being a net increase of $745,000; Montana's in- 
crease equals $1,118,728, all in silver; Dakota's 
$715,804, all in gold; Idaho shows an increase 
of $35,627, three-fourths gold; Oregon, $21,- 
727, nearly all gold; Washington, $18,915, all 
gold; New Mexico, $74,803, two-thirds silver; 
British Columbia, $106,270, all gold. Colorado 
shows a slight increase, about equal parts gold 
and silver, the bullion receipts for the year at 
San Francisco from the west coast of Mexico, 
nearly all silver, showing an increase of $162,- 
003. The decrease has been, in Utah $1,049,- 
142, and in Arizona $100,639. The bullion of 
Arizona consists of about 85% silver, and the 
balance gold; that of Utah beiag composed 
90% of silver and lead, the decline in the value 
of the bullion here produced being largely due 
to the depreciation of these metals in the mar- 
kets of the world. 

Annual Production and Rates of Increase. 
In the foregoing estimates we have, as in 
former years, adopted the statements prepared 
annually by John J. Valentine, General Super- 
intendent of Wells, Fargo & Go. 's express, and 
which give the total product of bullion for the 
entire coast, receipts from British Columbia 
and Mexico included, during the years men- 
tioned below, as follows : 

Years. Amounts. 

1870 §54,000,000 

1871 58,284,000 

1872 62,236,959 

1873 72,258,693 

1874 74,401,045 

1875 80,889,057 

1876 90,S75,173 

1877 98,421,754 

1878 81,154,622 

By consulting the above table it will be seen 
that a steady progress was made in the bullion 
production of the coast during the seven years 
preceding 1878, the ad/ance, when sharply ac- 
celerated, having been caused by an unusually 
heavy output from some portion of the Com- 
stock lode. The aggregate gain made during 
these seven years amounted to $44,500,000, be- 
ing at the rate of $6,357,000 per year. It is 
needless to say that much fault is every year 
found with these estimates of Mr. Valentine, 
the local press and parties interested in each 
particular locality being apt to complain that 
his figures fail to fully represent the bullion 
there produced. While there may in some 
cases be cause for such complaint, the tables 
prepared by that gentleman constitute, as a 
whole, the most reliable data we have in the 
premises, and must be generally accepted until 
such time as something more full and authentic 
can be obtained. As regards the State of 
Nevada there was reason to anticipate some 
falling off in its gross production, the manage- 
ment of the two bonanza mines mentioned, hav- 
ing advised the public at the beginning of the 
year that such result was probable if not in- 
evitable. In the case of Utah, too, some de- 
cline was looked for, owing to the heavy dis- 
count on silver and the prevailing low prices of 
lead. Of Arizona, however, a better account 
was expected. It was universally thought that 
she would be able to maintain, if not make 
some advances on, her former largest annual 
production; and it may well be that more bul- 
lion has escaped from that Territory through 
Eastern channels of transit than Mr. Valentine 
has given her credit for. While Montana has 
rather exceeded, Colorado has hardly come up 
to general expectation; Dakota having failed by 
a good deal, to fulfill the promises made by her 
friends a year ago. Of particular localities, 
none has been able to make a better showing 
than the Eureka district in the State of 
Nevada, which has turned out for the year 
$6,981,406, as against $5,676,057 in 1877, be- 
ing an increase of $1,305,349. The Bodie dis- 



trict, Mono county, Cal., has also done notably 
well, as have also some of the hydraulic mines 
in this State; more especially several of those 
operating on the San Juan ridge, Nevada 
county* 

Relative Production of Gold and Silver. 

The fact that the two royal metals are now 
being produeed on this coast in nearly equal 
quantity should tend to allay the fears of those, 
who since the discovery of so many silver-bear- 
ing mines on American territory, have enter- 
tained a fear this metal would attain to an un- 
due preponderance as an element of the cur- 
rency. From the time that gold was discovered 
in California, followed soon after by like dis- 
coveries in Australia, the increase of that metal 
was for many years relatively much greater than 
that of silver, the disproportion having been 
maintained on this coast till the year 1877, 
when the silver yield was slightly in excess of 
that of gold; a condition of things that has ob- 
tained for that year only. 

Last year our domestic production of silver — 
receipts from Mexico being omitted — was $37, - 
248,137; gold, $37,556,030— excess of gold, 
$407,893. The Comstock bullion made during 
the year, consisted of 45% gold and 55% silver, 
the so-called base bullion of Nevada having 
contained 30% gold. The balance of it was 
nearly all silver, not more than two or three per 
cint. of the value consisting of lead. The/gross 
bullion yield of the coast for 1878 contained the 
several metals approximately as follows : Gold, 
48%; silver, 48%; lead, 4%; a proportion that 
is not likely to be violently disturbed in the 
near future, and which argues strongly in favor 
of a retention of our present bi-metallic cur- 
rency. Certainly the present aspect of affairs 
affords little warrant for imposing further re- 
strictions upon the coinage of silver, to say 
nothing of its demonetization, as contended for 
in certain quarters. So far as Australia and 
other recently discovered sources of bullion pro- 
duction are concerned, they will no doubt con- 
tinue to turn out more gold than silver. 

Sources of Production and the Sum Total. 

It is now just 31 years since the grand dis- 
covery of gold was made in California. During 
this period there has been produced in the 
States and Territories west of the Missouri 
river, bullion to the value of $1,985,527,939. 
Of this amount about $1,581,433,693 has con- 
sisted of gold, and $404,094,246 of silver. 
Besides this, there has been produced to date 
in the several Atlantic States something like 
$30,000,000, the most of it in North Carolina, 
Virginia and Georgia. 

If to the table of bullion production given on 
the next page, be added the entire yield of 
British Columbia to date, $33,000,000, San 
Francisco receipts from the northwest coast of 
Mexico, $9,000,000, and the product of the 
Atlantic States, $30,000,000, we have a total of 
$2,057,527,939 produced from the above sources, 
all but $42,000,000 being from mines within 
the limits of the United States, 
Mining in California— Hydraulic Operations. 

The business of mining for the precious 
metals in California during the year under re- 
view was, as already remarked, fairly pros- 
perous. Owing to a rather restricted water 
supply the returns from the hydraulic mines, 
now the principal source of gold production in 
this State, fell a little short ot what might 
otherwise have been expected. There was, 
however, not much ground for complaint, and 
with an average amount of rain the coming 
year will see a large crop of gold gathered by 
this class of miners, who employed the leisure 
affdrded by the last dry season to a good pur- 
pose, their claims having, as a general thing, 
been put in excellent shape for future opera- 
tions. Placer, Nevada, Sierra, Butte and Yuba 
counties, as heretofore, continue to be the most 
active and productive centers of hydraulic min- 
ing, although some very successful enterprises 
of this kind are being carried on in Amador, El 
Dorado and Plumas. In Trinity and Siskiyou, 
where this industry was introduced at a later 
period, it is also meeting with a gratifying suc- 
cess ; the conditions for prosecuting it profit- 
ably being in some respects better tihere than in 
any other part of the State. Water in these 
more northerly counties is more easily obtained, 
andfortheextentof the mines, is in better supply 
than in the older hydraulic districts. In the 
matter of outlet, absence of indurated gravel 
and barren material, unwieldly boulders, etc., 
they are also better situated ; and there is no 
doubt but these counties, more especially 
Trinity, offer just now the best openings for 
investment in this department of mining, to be 
found on the coast. It should be remembered, 
however, that these opportunities, even there, 
are not numerous ; the hydraulic deposits of 
Trinity being confined to the auriferous belt, 
that strikes centrally across the county, and to 
which all the mines there, including the bars 
along Trinity river, are indebted for their enrich- 
ment. Several of these bars afford the best 
possible chances for inaugurating permanent and 
paying hydraulic operations. Buckeye moun- 
tain, Brown's ridge and Oregon mountain, with 
one or two other similar elevations, also offer 
exceptionally good inducements for the invest- 
ment of money in this branch of mining. Ap- 
purtenant to some of these properties are fine 
water privileges that belong to the Buckeye 
Mountain Ditch & Mining Company, being one 
of the most valuable in the State. That these 
natural advantages have not been turned to 
a more practical account, has been owing to the 
fact that the most of these properties have been 
in the possession of the pioneer miners and j 
early residents of the county ; a class, not over- I 



ly ambitious or covetous of money, and who, 
so long as they could realize moderate wages 
working their claims with such water as the 
rains afforded, and in a small way, were averse 
to the exertion and bother necessary to outfit 
and insure from them a larger production. For 
many years, too, Trinity being remote and dif- 
ficult of access, was not much visited by capi- 
talists or their agents, or others desirous of 
finding good openings for the profitable invest- 
ment of money. Since the extension of the 
railroad to its borders, affairs in this county have 
begun to change. Experienced hydraulic 
miners from older localities have gone there, 
and appreciating the situation, have managed to 
acquire interests that under their skillful 
management have already become valuable ; and 
as the attention of our moneyed men is now 
being turned strongly toward Trinity and Siski- 
you, it may be expected that hydraulic mining 
will soon undergo a marked expansion in this 
northern section of the State. 
Drift Mining. 

The drift diggings of California have turned 
out well of late, considering how small a num- 
ber of claims have yet been opened up and 
placed in good working condition. The buried 
channels of the ancient rivers afford here a wide 
and profitable field for the prosecution of this 
style of mining; the only drawback to this class 
of ventures being that they require a consider- 
able outlay of labor and money before making 
any return. It consumes also, in most cases, a 
good deal of time to sink the shafts or run the 
tunnels necessary to reach and work these de- 
posits. Still, with the appliances for hastening 
this kind of work, now within easy reach, this 
objection becomes less formidable, while a 
better knowledge of the exact levels on which 
the exploratory tunnels should be run, enables 
the engineer to avoid the mistakes which form- 
erly proved fatal to so many of these enter- 
prises. The drift claims at Forest City, Da- 
mascus and Michigan Bluff, continue to yield, as 
they have done for many years, large amounts 
of gold dust. Many other claims, more recently 
opened elsewhere, are also beginning to make 
good returns; while others, having nearly com- 
pleted their shafts or tunnels, will most likely 
be producing in a very short time. 
Vein Mining-. 

This, by far the most important branch of our 
mining industries, has, as already observed, 
been attended during the past year with a full 
average measure of success. In California our 
gold-bearing quartz mines have produced fairly, 
and with their accustomed evenness. If in this 
department of the business we have but few 
startling ore-finds to note, so also are there but 
few disastrous failures to record. Throughout 
the entire southern section of the State, with 
the exception of Mono county, vein mining has 
made less progress than was at the commence- 
ment of the year hoped for. In Tuolumne 
county it has experienced some revival, and the 
outlook there may be said to have been much 
improved. In the more central and northern 
group of counties this industry has also made 
fair headway, the Idaho, Sierra Buttes, Plu- 
mas Eureka and the Black Bear mines having 
kept up their usual large production, while a 
number of other properties have developed 
promising ore bodies during the year. In a 
district named the Silverado, situated in Los 
Angeles county, a considerable number of ar- 
gentiferous lodes were discovered during the 
past summer, and some progress made in the 
work of their development. How rich or per- 
manent the deposits will prove remains to be 
determined. There seems to be a good pros- 
pect, however, of some paying mines being 
found there. 

Mono County. 

For the past year or more this county has 
been a central point of attraction by reason of 
the many rich gold-bearing lodeB that have 
been discovered and partially opened up in the 
Bodie district; a locality that for the preceding 
12 or 14 years had been almost wholly ne- 
glected. The mines here are worthy of atten- 
tion, not only on account of their large actual 
production, but also their great prospective 
merit, there being at least a score that promise 
to develop into as good properties as the Stand- 
ard or Bodie, thus far the most productive 
mines in the district. As the resuscitation of 
these mines was primarily due to the efforts 
made by the present owners of the Standard to 
outfit that property and place it on a paying 
basis, it may be worth while to relate briefly 
some of the circumstances connected with the 
history of that mine. The Standard was 
owned in the first instance by two German 
miners, who, up to the month of September, 
1876, had worked the ore with good results, 
but in a small way, arastras only being em- 
ployed for its reduction. At that time the 
Cook Bros, bought it for the sum of $67,500, 
and worked ,it with such effect that they were 
able by the next September to pay a first divi- 
dend from its net earnings of $1 per share, 
aggregating $50,000. A like dividend has been 
repeated every month since, and will probably 
be kept up for many years to come, it being 
estimated that there is now sufficient ore 
developed above the 450 level to yield $3,000,- 
000, with a prospect of its extending inde- 
finitely downward. Not less than six valuable 
ledges, varying from 15 inches to 15 feet in 
thickness, some of them of extraordinary rich- 
ness, have been opened up, or rather discov- 
ered, already, within the limits of the com- 
pany's claims, which are 1,500 feet in length 
by 1,200 in width, and not yet more than half 
prospected. More than one-half of the 50,000 



January 18, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



41 



shares of this company belong to Messrs. Seth 
and Daniel I. '00k of this city, who were asso- 
ciated with John F. Boyd and George Story in 

the purchase of the property. The balance of 
the shares is held in few and strong hands, this 
stock buiug rarely offered on the market. The 
entire width of the Standard ground, and for 
some distance on each side, including the 
Hulwer and Belvidere mines on the west, and 
the Summit on the east, appears to be com- 
posed of oue vast and continuous ore channel, 
tilled with a system of veins branching from or 
interlacing with each other; some of which 
carry very high grade ore, while others are of 
less value, but rarely do the assays fall below 
-JO per ton. The ore in all these veins 
is of a homogeoeooa character, beiug generally 
soft, stratified, free from sulphureta, and car- 
rying tine free gold well diffused throughout 
the vein; though containing seams very fre- 
quently of extraordinary richness - av-_- re ging 
seven] thousand dollars per ton. The ..re also 
contains ■ huge proportion of clay, which seri- 
ously interfered with milling, until this com- 
pany introduced the silver or pan process, 
which enables them to save fully 90% of its 
value. The company has a 20-stamp mill, 
which will be enlarged the coming spring, after 
which the dividends will no doubt be increased 
in a corresponding ratio. 

The monthly product at present is about 
$100,000, the average value of the ore worked 
being about $70 per ton. The company has an 
incline shaft following the ledge at an angle of 
about 40 degrees to the depth of 835 feet, 
through which the mine has thus far been 
worked. A new perpendicular three -compart- 
ment shaft is going down rapidly, having 
already reached a depth of about 800 feet, and 
will ultimately be carried to any depth re- 
quired for the future working of the mine. A 
suspended wire tramway conveys the ore at a 
nominal coat from the hoisting works to the 
mdl. From present appearances, the Standard 
mine will continue to pay dividends for a life- 
time. Happily all adverse claims have been 
settled, and the title is perfection itself, em- 
bracing everything from a United States patent; 
down to the recent school-section-State-title 
dodge. The total product of the Standard 
since it passed under its present management 
amounts to over a million dollars, of which 
§850,000 have been disbursed to shareholders 
in 17 consecutive monthly dividends, consti- 
tuting as good a record as attaches to any 
mine on the coast. 

The Bodie mine to date has also turned out 
considerably over a million dollars, a large pro- 
portion of which has consisted of net earnings 
and been paid to the shareholders in monthly 
dividends, none of which have yet been inter- 
mitted. Besides the liodie, two or three other 
promising mining districts have lately been 
discovered in Mono county, of which the Indian 
and Lake would seem to be the most important. 

In the State of N evada 
There is little calling for special comment ex- 
cept the shrinkage of bullion production on the 
Corns toek lauge, through the causes already 
alluded to. It may further be stated in this 
connection, that the year has failed to bring 
with it the ore developments elsewhere along 
that range hoped for at its commencement; and 
taken altogether, the mining outlook along the 
Comstock cannot be said to be just now par- 
ticularly encouraging. With a valuable ore 
find, however, in the Sierra Nevada, Ophir, or 
at other point of deep exploration, affairs there 
would no doubt speedily mend, and confidence 
be so far restored, perhaps, as to render a con- 
tinuation of active explorations still possible. 
The results of the current year will go far to- 
ward determining this latter question. The 
Sutro tunnel, after a period of nearly ten years 
spent in its construction, reached the Comstock 
lode, its objective point, toward the end of the 
year; the event having as yet been productive 
of no very marked results, though doubtless it 
will be of much service in aiding to drain the 
mines, as well as tend to promote their ventila- 
tion. 

Among: the New Mining Localities Discov- 
ered in thia State During the past Year 
The Pyramid aDd the Paradise districts are 
the most prominent. Both have attracted 
much notoriety, and for both a good deal of 
merit has been claimed. To what extent they 
deserve either, remains, however, to be seen. 
The former of these districts lies in the north- 
ern part of Washoe and the other in Humboldt 
county; the first has but poor and the latter 
only moderately good facilities for ore reduc- 
tion. About some of the newly-opened mines 
in this State a good deal has also been said. 
In this category is the Alexander, located at 
the westerly base of the Shoshone mountains, 
in Nye county. This may be a good property, 
though the neighborhood has, in times past, 
been less noted for its successes than its failures. 
In the Columbus district, the Mount Potosi 
group of mines has been opened under promis- 
ing conditions, the ore developments being 
already large and the management an excep- 
tionally good one, being the same that engi- 
neered the Noithern Belle, lying near by, to its 
great success. 

Work has been Resumed 
During the year on several of the old mines in 
the State, upon some of which it had for a long 
time been suspended or been prosecuted without 
system or energy. In this list we have the 
Highbridge, at Belmont, which an Eastern 
company, after an expenditure of nearly a mil- 
lion dollars, disposed of to a party of practical 
miners for less than a tithe of that sum. Since 



Table Showing: the Annual and Total Yield of Bullion in the States and Terri- 
tories West of the Mlesouri River. 



California, 



IM-i . 
L8S0, 
185'.'.. 

1861.. 

1856.. 

■ 

■ 

1863 

1- i 
I 

. 
I 
1861., 

18T0 

1*71 

IV,'.' 

1879 . 
1874 

LSI ... 
1870.. 
1877 . . 

ih;.s.. 



23,000,000 

59,000.000 
60,000,000 
90,000.000 

64,000,( DO 

■ 

b3.UU0.OUJ 

yi.ouo.ooo 

61,600.000 

J6.O0U.000 
3o,UUU,UU0 

■ 

22.uuu.uoo 
28.000.000 

19,000,000 

18 000,000 

17.7UO.OOO 

iy.uuu.uoo 

I- 174,716 
[8,990 LSI 



- 160,000 

12,600.000 
10.800,000 

16,000,000 

U,5UU,U0*i 
16,000,000 

25,01)0.000 
36,300.000 

■lu.Ouu, uuu 
19,300, 000 

■ 



Idaho Colorado vjjjjj^j ' *h Arizona 



I 600,000 

M.OUU.OOO 

ls.uou.ouu 

15,000,000 
10.000,000 

9,000.000 
6.000,000 

...INKI.UUU 

6.000.000 
3,500,000 

2.8uu.000i 
2,644,912 



- 500.0DQ 

6,500,000 
8,000,000 

6,600.000 

7.0UO.UU0 

7,1 I 

t;.iou,uu) 

6,000,000 

■ 

■ 

2,000,000 

1,700,000 
1,832, I 15 

1 M L22 



s 100,000 

1,000,000 
2,000,000 

3,100.000 

1,000,000 
3. '200. OOO; 
4,300.1.100' 

4,100,000 
5.000,000 
&400lOOO 

7.000.000 

6,234747 



< 500.000 
600,000 
600.000 

600. 0OU 

600.000 
500,000 

7u0,0u0 
1,500,000 
2,000,00c 

2,300,000 

2,000,000 
2,000,000 

3,000,000 

4.000,000 

3; 000,0001 

3. 000. UNi 



Vu 



8 lm.uu.1 

aoo.000 

150.000 

150.000 

1*00.00.1 .... 

200.000 

300.000 

500,000 

l.ooo.oon 

800,000 ... 

KOU.IHHI .... 

600,000 .. . 

500,000 

500.000! 

500.000 

1,400,0008 600,000 

2.3J!t.>22 1, '.1 U.O00 
1.267.03:- O.i-i. 1. hi;: ■„'.:'*;. '.*$3 2,215.804 



W.V.K 

inv. 



1,501 i,lNi,i 

800,000 

1,300,000 

1,300,000 

1.264,223 



!.i. 0,01 

7,000,000 

5,600.0 
7,113.755 



100,000 .. 
500,0008 
500,000 

500,000 

:111.1,111m 
500,000 
500,000 
000,000' 
500, 0U0 
370,010 



453.813 



150,000 

I:\imiim 

|;-.(Hi,i(J 

150,0(10 

100, 

100,000 

100,000 

lcn.uoo 

1I...MHHI 

100, ' 



Tolal.. 1,184.095.177 431,762,230 1 I ".717 50,846,296 (5,271.258 40,218,368 12,570,705 4,315,804' 5.032.823 1.200.000 



resuming operations there the present owners 
have recovered the faulted lode and are in a 
fair way to realize a fortune from their pur- 
chase At the town of Aurora, in the Esme- 
ralda district, a shaft is being sunk to explore 
a series of the more promising lodes iu that 
locality, which, after some superficial prospect- 
ing, was abandoned many years ago. As the 
parties who have engaged in this enterprise 
have ample means and design making a 
thorough job of it, it may be expected that 
something determinate of the merits of this 
once noted district will be reached before long. 
With this revival of work at some points, is to 
be coupled its suspension at some others. In 
the unfortunate White Pine district, the Eng- 
lish company, about the only live institution 
there, have, after keeping up the struggle for a 
long time, ceaseil operations, but whether per- 
manently or temporarily we are not advised. 
In the Mineral Hill and in the Grant districts, 
where also English capital was interested, 
operations drag slowly or have come to a dead 
stop. As cause for both surprise and regret it 
is to be observed that some Nevada companies, 
which for a series of years had conducted their 
affairs to the satisfaction of the shareholders, 
have lately fallen into disfavor, the Manhattan 
being an example of those that have most 
recently passed under the cloud. There has 
also been much murmuring at the manner in 
which some of the mines in the Tusearora and 
the Ely districts have been managed of late, 
and it is to be hoped that with the incoming 
year such reforms will be instituted both in 
this State aud[elsewhere,as will leave less cause 
for these complaints in the future. 
Of Arizona 

It may be said, that while she has not quite 
made good the predictions of her more sanguine 
friends, she has still done much during the past 
year to Bustain her good fame as a mining 
country. Besides making a very creditable 
production of bullion, she has added consid- 
erably to her population, increased her live 
stock of all kinds, as well as her farming pro- 
ducts. A large extent of new mining territory 
has been explored and some important mineral 
discoveries made ; and what is of more conse- 
quence still, the Southern Pacific railroad 
which had before reached her western border, 
has again been started ahead, and is rapidly 
advancing centrally across the Territory. With 
this road once extended to her more important 
mining districts, as it soon will be, all her vital 
interests will be greatly quickened and Arizona 
begin to realize something of that prosperity, 
which though often predicted for her, has been 
long postponed. 

Of our Other Pacific States and Territories 
It will suffice to say the mining outlook is 
everywhere full of encouragement. Utah, dis. 
pite the drawbacks already mentioned, is 
believed to be entering upon a year of renewed 
prosperity. Colorado, also, seems on the eve of 
a new and better era in her mining industries ; 
great gains having been made in the methods of 
treating her refractory ores, and some very 
important mineral discoveries having recently 
been made within her borders. Montana, 
having lately taken a forward step, will not be 
likely to come at once to a dead halt in her 
progress. The extension of the Northern Utah 
narrow-guage railroad is beginning to tell with 
good effect on the mining interests of both 
Montana and Idaho. Gold mining in Oregon is 
in a very healthful condition, the production this 
year promising to be much larger than ever 
before. According to the accounts from New 
Mexico, that Territory is almost sure to do 
better this year than she did last; while Dakota, 
if the newspapers there speak truely, is going to 
speedily exalt herself as a gold -producing 
country. 

Wave Power. — Mr. Filmer, the foreman at 
Painter's Type Foundry, has constructed a cost- 
ly model of a machine invented by him to util- 
ize wave power, which can be seen at Mr. How- 
land's office, No. 401 California St. He employs 
a float about 24x4 feet, which rises and falls 
with each wave, working a lever, and in that 
manner pumping water to any desirable alti- 
tude. 



Coal and Mineral Lands as Agricultural 
Lands. 

While the Interior Department and the War 
Department are disputing about Indian bu- 
reaus and surveys, a special agent has been sent 
to Colorado, from the General Land Office, who 
haBjust reported' (says the Washington Land 
Owner), that a large number of fraudulent en- 
tries have beeu made of coal lands, as agricul- 
tural lands. The Secretary of the Interior, on 
the 5th inst., submitted his reports on the sub- 
ject to the Attorney General; and the question 
now is, whether the patents shall be cancelled 
through the courts '! 

The law and the precedents in such cases, are 
simply intended to prevent great tractB of coal 
or mineral lands from getting locked up in the 
hands of speculators, who will do nothing with 
them. But miUions of acres of coal underlying 
whole counties of agricultural lands, have been 
settled upon, all overthe United States, and have 
never been known as anj'thing else than farm- 
ing lands. If the Attorney General understands 
the matter therefore, in cases of this kind, 
where there has been no intentional fraud or 
subverstion of the law, he will refer the whole 
question back to the Interior Department with 
a note. 

It might run to this effect; That the only 
way for the Department to avoid being " de- 
frauded of large sums of money" by pre-emp- 
tions of coal or mineral lands, will be to insti- 
tute a segregation of the lands by geological 
survey. It would not be difficult for the De- 
partment to obtain, from the maps of such a 
survey, areas in which the surface is most valu- 
able, separated from others where the coal or 
material under the surface, is the most valuable. 
How else can the matter be determined equit- 
ably ? 

The Land Office plats ought to show what the 
Government is selling. It is not fraud to buy 
agricultural lands as such, from the Govern- 
ment, merely because the seller afterwards dis- 
covers some accessory value attaching to it, or 
because he suspects that the buyer knew it be- 
fore him. The Land Office is holding out a pre- 
mium for perjury, without preventing coal land 
monopoly in the slightest degree. 

In the organization of the geographical and 
geological surveys hereafter, the wants of the 
Land Office, if not placed foremost, should cer- 
tainly not be overlooked. It is nearest to the 
material wants of the people; and its surveys 
and maps are most directly concerned with the 
development of the soil and of the mine. The 
Pacific States and Territories are more inter 
ested even in the coal land question than is 
commonly supposed. 



Bathing House and Swimming School.— 
There is a laudable movement on foot to estab 
lish a first-class bathing house and swimming 
school at North Beach, S. F. The plans include 
a handsome building with swimming circle, 
dressing rooms, private baths, etc., below; and 
furnished apartments above. A prospectus has 
been issued by E. M. Morgan and J. L. Sanford 
as managing agents, in which those seeking 
enterprises for the investment of money, are in- 
vited to subscribe to the stock of this institu- 
tion. The agents are at No. 80 Nevada block, 
where full drawings and proposed details of 
plans, prospects, etc., can be had by those 
interested. 



Automatic Grip for Wire Tramways. — 
Mr. John Samson, C. E., of this city, has invented 
a grip for wire rope tramways for mineral traffic. 
The novelty consists in that the cars are rapidly 
attached to the rope and may be detached at 
any,.point on the road required, by simply 
putting a stop to touch a trigger on the connect- 
ing bar. Thus the necessity of conductors on 
the cars is avoided, and cars loaded with mineral 
or grain can be dispatched in frequent succession 
without trouble or attendance. 



An American bank is about to be established 
at the city of Mexico. 



A Paper of General Interest. 

We invite attention to our "Annual Mining 
Review" published in this issue of the Press. 

While it is impossible to speak of particular 
localities or properties with much detail, where 
such a great extent of country has to be gone 
over, there will be found in this article much to 
interest the mining public, as well as matter 
calculated to command the attention of the 
respective advocates of a mono -metallic, a bi- 
metallic aud a non-metaUic currency. Through 
the several tables presented in this report much 
light is thrown upon tho question of bullion 
production, the annual and the total yield of 
gold and silver, as well as the comparative 
increase of these two metals; both upon this 
coast and throughout the entire country being 
thereiu set forth. These tables have been com- 
piled from the most trustworthy sources, and 
may be accepted as containing the most author- 
itative figures on this subject extant. By con- 
sulting them it will be seen that the opinion so 
generally entertained that the production of 
silver has of late been largely in excess of that 
of gold is not well founded. Only in a single 
year has this occurred, the aggregate value of 
the gold produced in the United States having 
beeu nearly four times as great as that of silver; 
and it is probable that nearly the same ratio of 
increase has during the past 25 or 30 years held 
good the world over. When the Comstock lode 
was_first discovered the most exaggerated reports 
as to its L'reat wealth, spread rapidly over the 
world, the impression everywhere obtaining 
that it was purely a silver-bearing lode. This 
having been followed soon after by equally 
exaggerated reports of like discoveries elsewhere 
on this coast, the above erroneous impression 
was intensified to a degree that filled the nations 
with apprehensions of an immediate silver glut; 
hence thecrusadeagainst this metal and its partial 
demonetization by some of the leading nations 
of Europe. It subsequently transpired that the 
Comstock ores carried nearly as much gold as 
silver, aud that the rumored discoveries of this 
latter metal in other parts of the country had 
but little to justify them. But it took years to 
bring these facts home to the knowledge of peo- 
ple abroad, and eradicate from the popular 
mind these false impressions. With these mis- 
taken notions corrected, it may be expected 
that more just and enlightened opinions upon 
the subject of the currency will prevail, and 
that both of the royal metals will continue to 
be employed for effecting exchanges and measur- 
ing values. 

The "Golden Mountain" and the Oranges. 

Mr. Kedding's paper on the "Foothills of the 
Sierra," on our inside pages, gives original facts 
of importance in regard to that interesting re- 
gion. First, the geological formations are de- 
scribed, furnishing the foundation on which the 
horticulturist has to build. The curiouB fact 
that the climate of the foothills is more even 
day and night, and less marred by frosts inju- 
rious to semi-tropical fruits, than the valleys of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin, is precisely 
and authentically stated; and the cause thereof 
is clearly explained. 

Nothing is wanting to make the foothills one 
of the most beautiful, and the richest of horti- 
cultural regions in the world, but making use 
of the provisions for irrigation which the Sierra 
Nevada so abundantly afford, and directing 
them so that the individual land holder may 
derive a fair benefit from them. Examples of 
what can be done in this respect are not want- 
ing; but the work is scarcely begun. 

Corporations will not monopolize the water 
rights and the rainfall, when the day arrives 
for the foothills to be prosperous. The people 
who undertake to make homes there, will have 
an interest in the bounty that comes from 
heaven. As it has to be impounded, however, 
in reservoirs, and led long distances in ditches, 
the corporations that have done the work so far, 
are the first to reap the benefits. 

If the land holder can be protected from un- 
reasonable exactions, while he is furnished with 
only a little water to irrigate, his home in the 
foothills of the Sierra will be blest with such 
rare advantages that the combination seems 
certainly unequaled, in most other parts of the 
world. 

The Presidio Railroad Company, of which 
Messrs. A. E, Baldwin, A. S. Hallidie, A. W. 
Bowman, Albert Miller and others are direct- 
ors, has issued a circular with a fine map, 
showing the route of their proposed double 
track wire cable railroad along New Mont- 
gomery and Union streets. It is expected that 
North Beach and Fort Point real estate will 
be greatly enhanced, and that the road will 
pay well; propositions that can hardly be 
doubted. That portion of San Francisco has 
the best outlook. 



A double size issue of the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press, containing eight extra pages, with 
an article and map of Sonora, Mexico, will ap- 
pear on the 25th inst. Other original articles, 
of scientific as well as industrial importance, that 
have been prepared for the Press, will be pub« 
lished at the same time. 



42 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



v &&^ * Co-;© 
Scientific Press 




Our U. S. and Foreign Patent 
Agency presents many and im- 
portant advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by rea- 
son of long establishment, great 
experience, thorough system and 
intimate acquaintance with the 
subjects of inventions in our 
new community. All worthy in- 
ventions patented through our 
Agency will have the benefit of 
a description or an illustration 
and explanation in the Mining 
and Scientific Press or the Pa- 
cific Rural Press. We trans- 
act every branch of Patent busi- 
ness, and obtain Patents in all 
civilized countries. The large 
majority of U. S. and Foreign 
Patents granted to inventors on 
the Pacific Coast have been ob- 
ained through our Agency. The 
files of cases and official records 
in our office, our patent law and 
scientific library (already the lar- 
gest west of the Mississippi), are 
constantly increasing. These fa- 
cilities, with the accumulation of 
information of special importance 
to our home inventors, by the 
experience of its proprietors in 
an extensive and long continued 
personal practice, gives them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 
DEWEY & CO., 

Patent Solicitors, 

No. 202 Sansome St., S. F. 



UNITED STATES 
Mineral Land Laws, Revised Statutes 

AND INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS 
UNDER THE SAME. 

We have just issued a pamphlet containing the General 
Mineral Land LawB of the United States, with instructions 
of the Commissioner of the Land Office. The contents of 
this pamphlet comprise all of the Government laws with 
relation to mineral lands of interest to the mining com- 
munity, as follows: Mining Statute of May 10th, 1872, 
with Instructions by the Commissioner of the Land Office; 
Mining Statute of July 26th, lSGn; Mining Statute of July 
9th, 1870. Forms required under Mining Act of May 10th, 
1872, as follows: Notice of Location; Request for Surveys; 
Application for Patent; Proof of Posting Notice and lW 
gram of the Claim; Proof that Plat aud Notice remained 
Posted on Claim during Time of Publication; Registers' 
Certificate of Posting Notice for Sixty Days; Agreement of 
Publisher; Proof of Publication; Affidavit of §500 Im- 
provements; Statement and Charge of Fees; Proof of 
Ownership and Possession in Case of Loss or absence of 
Mining Records; Affidavit of Citizenship; Certificate that 
no Suit is Pending; Power of Attorney; Protest and Ad- 
verse Claim; Non-Mineral Affidavit; Proof that no Known 
Veins Exist in a Placer Claim, etc. There is also given 
the U. S. Coal Land Law and Regulations thereunder. 
The work comprises thirty pages, and will he sold, post- 
free, for 50 cents. It should be in the hands of every 
one having any mining interests. DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers of the Mining and Scientific Press," S. F. 



— IN A — 

FAVORABLE LOCATION, 

GUARANTEEING- 

Sure Crops Every Year. 

The Reading Ranch, 

In the Upper Sacramento Valley, originally em- 
bracing over 26,000 acres of 

Choice Grain, Orchard and Pasture Land, 

Is now offered for sale at low prices and on 
favorable terms of payment, 

In Sub-Divisions to Suit Purchasers. 

The ranch was selected at an early day by 
Major P. B. Reading, one of the largest pioneer 
and owners in California. It is situated on 
the west side of the Sacramento River and ex- 
tends some 20 miles along its bank. 

The average rainfall is about 30 inches per 
annum, and crops have never been known to 
fail from drouth. 

The climate is very healthful and compar- 
tively desirable. The near proximity of high 
mountain peaks gives cool nights during the 
"heated terms" which occur in our California 
summers. 

Soft well water — remarkably sweet, pure and 
healthy — is obtainable at a depth of from 15 to 
35 feet. 

Wood is plentiful and easy to get. 

Figs, Grapes, Peaches, Prunes, Almonds, En- 
glish "Walnuts, Oranges and other temperate 
and semi-tropical fruits can be raised with suc- 
cess on most of the tract. Also, Vegetables, 
Corn and all other cereals ordinarily grown in 
the State. 

A considerable amount of the rich bottom 
land has already been cultivated. 

Deep Soil With Lasting Qualities. 

The soil throughout the tilled portions of the 
ranch proves to be of great depth and enduring 
in its good qualities. It is quite free from foul 
growths. The virgin soil among the large oak 
trees on the bottom land is easily broken up 
and cultivated. 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses 
nearly the entire length of the tract. There 
are several sections, stations and switches, be- 
sides depots at the towns .of Anderson and 
Reading — all of which are located within the 
limits of the ranch. 

Land suitable for settlers in colonies can be 
obtained on good terms. 

Are offered for sale in Reading, situated on the 
Sacramento River, at the present terminus of 
the railroad. It is the converging and distrib- 
uting point for large, prosperous mining and 
agricultural districts in Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town o 
Anderson, situated more" centrally on the 
ranch. Lots in" both these towns are offered 
at a bargain, for the purpose of building up the 
towns and facilitating settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are invited to come and see the 
lands before buying here or elsewhere. Apply 
on the ranch, to the proprietor, 

EDWARD PRISBIE, 
Anderson, Shasta Co.. Cal. 



The " California Legal Record." 

The ONLY WEEKLY containing- all the 

decisions of trie Supreme Court 

of California, 

(The only complete continuation of the 8. F. Law Journal.) 

Published every Saturday, in 8 vo. size— like the California 

Reports— contains every decision of the Supreme Court, 

as fast as rendered, with a syllabus aud statement of facts, 

and other important legal matter. The volumes commence 

on the first of October and April each, and have a full index 

for reference and binding. 

REDUCED PKKJK, only $5.50 per year, or S3 per volume 
of six months. Remit by Postal Order or Registered Letter, 
specifying what date or number to commence. Back num- 
bers furnished. Siimph! numbers sent free. Address, 

F. A. SCOFIELD .V CO., Publishers and Prop's. 
No. 603 Washington street, San Francisco. Cal. 



The Large Circulation of the Min- 
ing and Scientific Press extends through- 
out the mining districts of California, Nevada, 
Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Idaho, Montana- 
British Columbia, and to other parts of North 
and South America. Established in 1860, it 
has long been the leading Mining Journal of 
the continent, its varied and reliable contents 
giving it a character popular with both its 
reading and advertising patrons. 



Important to Contractors 



SUBMARINE BUILDERS. 

William Stack, 
of Oakland, has 
recently patent- 
ed through the 
Miking ahd Sci- 
entific Press 
Patent Agency, 
an apparatus for 
driving nails or 
spikes under wa- 
ter, an engrav- 
ing of which is 
here shown. It 
is well-known 
that it is ex- 
tremely difficult 
to drive nails or 
spikes under wa- 
ter, even if it is 
only submerged 
a few inches. 
These difficulties 
are completely 
obviated by Mr. 
S tack's device, 
which has been 
put in thoiough 
practical opera- 
ion in the con- 
itruction of 
_^ vharvea and 
IHig^^lips in the Oak- 
land side of the 
>ay. 
Fig. 1 shows 
ggj t h e application 
if the device, 
nd Fig. 2 shows 
he construction. 
= __^f A is a metal tube 
Hfp^ of suitable 
length, the foot of which may be serrated as shown, so 
that the points will engage with the wood when the tube 
is pushed or driven against it. The rod or driver, C, has 
a recess or cavity, D, at the lower end so as to rest on 
top of the nail or spike shown in Fig. 2. Where the tube, 
A, is pushed against the timber in the desired position, 
the spike or nail is dropped in at the upper end and slides 
down against the timber. The rod, C, is then slid down 
on top of the nail, and by alternately drawing out and 
forcing the rod into the tube, the rod serves as a driver; or 
by hammering on the upper end of the rod the nail is 
driven into the wood. The tube answers both as a guide 
for the nail and driving rod. The tube can also answer as 
a guide for a screw-driving device on the end of the rod, 
by which lag screws may be put in place under water as 
well as nails. Of course the tube may be set in any posi- 
tion desired, so that nails may be driven at an angle if 
necessary. The appliance, as simple as it is, will be found 
very useful in many cases for bridge building or similar 
purposes. Address, 

WM. STACK, 

N. E. Cor. Fifth and Harrison Sts., OAKLAND, Alameda 
County, California. 





Barlow J. Smith. M. D. 

Consulting Physician, 

Professor of Phrenology and 
Mental Hygiene. 

Proprietor of the Smithsonian Medical and Phrenologies 

Destitute, 635 California Street, above Kearny. 

This Institute, by combining medical hygiene with the 
various Water Cure treatments and tbe most powerful Elec- 
trized Jlorseshoe Magnet in the world, claims to cure speed- 
ily and permanently all forms of acute or chronic nervo- 
vital derangements, Brain, Spinal and Heart diseases, St. 
Vitus Dance, Palsy, Epilepsy and all Rheumatic, Liver and 
Kidney troubles. The institution has for the past 20 years 
made a specialty of treating all forms of weaknesses and dis- 
eases peculiar to males and females. By the use of hygienic 
remedies and electro-motorpathy the worst forme of lmpo- 
tency and seminal weakness in males and sterility in fe- 
males are speedily and permanently overcome. Hygienic 
board, with or without rooms. Terms moderate. Electro- 
thermal, Russo-Turkish and Medicated Baths given daily. 

Mrs. Dr. Smith as Matron has charge of the female bath- 
ing department. 

Dr. Smith has practiced Phrenology the past 30 years, 
and during the last 20 years has been constantly using the 
science connected with Physiognomy, in examining or diag- 
nosing disease in this city, and claims to have made discov- 
eries in the Science of Phrenology that enables him, by an 
examination of the head, even blindfolded, to determine the 
disease to which the person is constitutionally subject, or 
whether the disease at the time afflicting the person, is the 
result of accident or hereditary weakness ; whether Con- 
sumptive, Dyspeptic, Rheumatic, Apoplectic, Neu- 
ralgic, LEUCORRHC3AL,or Seminal. Especially doe3 the 
form of the head indicate the strength of the uterine, geni- 
tal or reproductive system. The head is also an index of the 
natural strength of the lungs, heart, stomach, liver, kidneys, 
Bpleen, back or vertebra, and it determines the power of the 
system in warding off and overcoming disease of all kinds. 

Ladies or gentlemen, desirous of obtaining a thorough and 
correct Phrenological examinations with Fowler and Wells' 
harts, will meet with a respecful reception at his consulting 
rooms. Parties can depend upon a reliablejdelineation of 
the character of their intimate male or female friends, by 
presenting a clearly denned photograph. 

Phrenological or Physiognomical examinations without 
charts, $1.50 ; with charts, from $2 t'o $3. 

INVITATION TO INVALIDS 
And all persons who are in any way out of health, who de- 
sire to know the nature and causes of their disease, may 
avail themselves of an examination through phrenology in 
regard to health free of charge, between the hours of 9 A. M. 
and 8 P. M. Sundays from 9 a m. to 12 M. 



Prompt and Successful.— Messrs. Dewey & Co:— Gei. 
tlemen: Your Circular letter, 12tn inst., informing me of 
successful termination of my application for patent re- 
ceived. Please accept thanks for the prompt and suc- 
cessful manner in which you have managed this business 
Yours respectfully, J. H. Cavabaugh. 

WaUa Walla, Dee. 24th. 



Engraving done at this office, 



Wm Rectory. 



WM. BARTLING. HENRY KIMBALL 

BARTLING & KIMBALL, 
BOOKBINDERS, 

Paper Rulers & Blank Book Manufacturers. 
505 Clay Street, (southwest corner Sansome), 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Lewib Pbtehson. 



Joiin Olsson. 



PETERSON &. OLSSONi 

Model Makers, and Manufacturers of Em- 
blematic Signs. Models for the Patent 
Office, in wood or Metal, a Specialty, 

NO- 328 BUSH STREET, 

Bet. Montgomery and Kearny, (up stairs), San Francisco. 
All kinds of tin, copper and brass work made to order. 



San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 

We have just added a large amount of new machinery of 
the latest and most improved kind, and are again prepared 
to fill orders for Rope of any special lengths and sizes. Con- 
stantly on hand a large stock of Manila Rope, all sizes: 
Tarred Manila Rope; Hay Rope; Whale Line, etc , etc. 
TUBBS & CO., 
611 and 613 Front Street, San Francisco 



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Zv3c\w*k: 



MANUFACTURED BY 



ZE3I. ROYEB, 

Nog. 855, 857, 859 & 861 Bryant Street, Cor. Park Avenuo 

SAN FRANCISCO, 



Mcdonald & johnsofs 

STYLOGRAPH, 

— OR— 

Rapid Letter Copying Books, 

Making Instantaneous Copying-same moment of Writing, 
without Pen, Ink, Pencil, or Copying Press, each com- 
plete, in all sizes, 

From 75 Cents to $4.50. 



Address, 



STYLOGRAPH CO., 

12 California St., San Francisco, 




Awarded highest prise at Centennial Exposition for 
fine chewing qualities and excellence, and touting char- 
acter of sweetening and flavoring. Tho best tobacco 
ever made. Aa oar blue strip trade-mark is closely 
imitated on Inferior poods, see that Jackson's Best Ifl 
on QTory Plnp. Sold by nil dealers. Send for sample, 
free, to C- A. JACK90N & Co., MfrS., Petersburg, uh 

L. & E, WERTHHEIMER, Ag'tS, San Francisco. 



January 18,51879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



43 



(fetalllirgy apd Ore?. 



Nevada Metallurgical Works, 

No- 23 STEVENSON STREET. 
.Vur First and Markul Slrceta. 

Ores worked by any proceea. 
Ores sampled. 

Assaying in all its branches. 
Analysis of Ores, Minerals, Waters, etc. 
WtihKI.Mi TsWTB U 

Plans furnished for the most suitable process 
ior working Ores. 

Special attention paid to Examinations of 
Mines; plans and reports furnished. 
E. UUHN, 

C. A. LUCKHARDT, 
Mining- Engineers and Metallurgists 



JOHN TAYLOR & CO., 

Importers of and Dealers In 

ASSAYERS' materials, 

CHEMICAL APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS, DRUG- 
GISTS' GLASSWARE AND SUNDRIES, Etc. 

512 & 518 Washington St., San Francisco 

We would call the special attention of Assayera, Chem- 
ists, Mining Companies. Milling Companies, Prospectors, 

BO . ' ir stock "I Clay Crucibles, Muffles, Dry Cups, 

etc, manufactured by the Patent Plumbago Cruci- 
ble Co., of London, England, for which we have 
been made Sol Agmtajoi the Pacific C»at>t. Circulars 
with prices will be sent upon application. 

Also, to uur large and well adapted stock of 

Assayers' Materials & Chemical Apparatus, 

Having been engaged in furnishing these supplies since 
liscovery of mines on the Pacific Coast. 
i3rOur Gold and Sliver Tables, showing the value per 
ounce Troy at different degrees of fineness, and valuable 
tables for computation 0! assays in grains and gTummes, 
will he sent free upon application. 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO. 



A. J. Ralston, Prea't. Prextiss Sklby, Supt. 

H. B. Undrrhill, Sec'y. 

Selby Smelting and Lead Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Lead Pipe. Sheet Lead, 

Drop, Buck: and Chilled Shot, Bar Lead. Pig 

Lead, Solder, Anti-Friction Metal, Lead 

Sash-weights, Lead Traps, Block 

Tin, Pipe, Blue Stone, Etc., 

Office, 216 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

Kenners of Gold and Silver Bars and Lead Bullion. 
Lead and Silver Ores purchased. 

Shot Tower, corner First and Howard streets. Smelting 
Works, North Beach. 



LEOPOLD KUH, 

(Formerly o! the U. S. Branch Mint, S. F.) 

Assayer and Metallurgical Chemist, 

No. 611 COMMERCIAL STREET, 
(Between Montgomery and Kearny,) 

San Francisco, Cal. 



OTTOKAR HOFMANN, 
METALLURGIST and MINING ENGINEER, 

415 Mission St,, bet. First and Fremont Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 
iJSTErection of Leaching Works a Specialty. 
jtSTLeaching Tests made. 



TK0S. PRICE'S 

Assay Office and Chemical 
Laboratory, 

624 Sacramento St., S. P. 



O. F. Dektkbn. Wm. E. Smith, 

PIONEER REDUCTION WORKS, 

No. 19 Channel Street, San Francisco, Cal 
G. F. DEETKEN, MANAGER. 

Hghest price paid for GOLD, SILVER and Copper Ores. 



METALLURGICAL WORKS, 

STRONG & CO., 10 Stevenson Street, 

ORES SAMPLED, TESTED, ASSAYED. 



GU IDO KUSTEL, 

MINING ENGINEER and METALLURGIST. 

P. O Address: ALAMEDA, CAL. 

San Lorenzo, December 6th, 1S77. 
Messrs. Dewev & Co.— Gentlemen: I received the Let- 
ters Patent for my invention on the 5th inst, , and beg 
to thank you for the gentlemanly and business-like man 
ner in which you have dealt with me from the beginning 
of my application. I shall always feel it a pleasure to 
recommend you to all I come in contact with who need 
Letters Patent. Respectfully, Wm. Dale. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

■which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perriin 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 
thus. 



aZeasc&Lr. 



which is placed on eve*y bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 
Ask for LEA & PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, II 'orccster ; Crosse and Black-well, London 
&c., &c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throfhout the Wo Id. 

To be obtained of flROSS & CO.. San PranciBco. 



SAVE YOUR GOLD ! 



Highly Important to Miners and Quartz Mill Men! 



SILVER PLATED COPPER AMALGAMATING PLATES. 

The BEST PROCESS yet discovered for SAVING FINE GOLD. Extensively uaed in 
Mines and Quartz Mills. Over five hundred orders have been tilled for these Plates. 

SAN FRANCISCO GOLD, SILVER, NICKEL AND COPPER PLATING WORKS, 

Nos. 653 and 655 Mission Street, San Francisco. 

E. G. DENNISTON, PROPRIETOR. 




Solon B. Williams. 



JVb. 4 Id CLA.Y- STUEJJEJT, 



North Side, 

Above Battery. 



D. F. HUTCHINGS. 



D. M. DUNNE. 



J. SANDERSON 



PHCB2STIX OIL WORKS, 

HUTCHINGS & CO., 

OIL and COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

Manufacturers and Dealers in Sperm, Wbale, Lard, Machinery and Illuminating Oils. 
517 FRONT STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 



DEFLECTORS, 
Or Perkin s v s. Hoskin. 

H. C. PERKINS has for nearly two years be n threaten- 
ing orally and through the Press to prosecute ail persons 
using my Patent Deflecting Nozzle, but for good reasons, has 
failed to come to time. I waut miners to understand that 



Deflectors are still manufactured and sold, and that I will 
defend all suits and assume all responsibility. Mr. P. will 
confer a favor if he will carry out his threat, as it will afford 
me the opportunity I desire to again try the case, and he can 
rest assured that praft'ssitHuil <lt/tl( r t:s will not again be allowed 
to temporarily thwart the ends of justice, 

I feel confident that the Supreme Court of the United 
States will ultimately decide in my favor. The superiority of 
my invention is shown by the means which Mr. P has resort- 
ed to in trying to stop my sales. Mr. P. has so degraded him- 
Belf as to circulate statements which he knows to be/aloeand 
malicious. Notwithstanding the great number of my De- 
flectors in use, I have heard of but one accident, and this was 
caused by the breaking of the iron lever from a defect in the 
material and great carelessness in use. This circumstance 
Mr. P. has magnified into several deaths and numerous acci- 
dents. 1 refer to the following owners and Managers for 
testimonials as to safety and efficiency. Some of them have 
used and discarded Mr. Perkins' device in favor of my much 
superior one. Messrs. Gould, Gold Run, using 4; Spaulding, 
Dutch Flat, on different mines, 12; Stone, Gold Run, 2; 
Morgan, Little York, 6. Blabee, Iowa Hill, 2; Briere & 
Wheeler, Bath, 2; McGillivry. Forest Hill, 4; Atkins, Weav- 
erville, 2. "I could mention scores of others, hut these are 
sufficient. 

Mr. Perkins' device is an infringement on a patent owned 
by Mr. Craig, who is about to institute legal proceedings to 
protect his rights. Miners are advised to stand from under. 
A word to the wise is sufficient. R. HOSKIN, 

Manufacturer of Machines for Hydraulic Mining. Address, 

No. 29 Garden Street, San Francisco, or Empire Foundry, 

Marysville, Cal. 



South Pacific Coast Railroad. 

New Route (Narrow-Gauge.) 

Commencing Monday, September 30th, 1878, boats and 
trains will leave San Francisco daily from the New Ferry 
Landing, foot of Market street, at 5:30 A. M., 9:00 A. M., and 
4:00 p. M. for ALAMEDA, SAN JOSE, LOS GATOS, 
ALMA, and all way stations. 

Stages connect with 9:00 A. M. train at Alma for Santa Cruz. 

EXCURSION TICKETS will be sold Saturday afternoons 
and Sunday mornings from San Francisco and Alameda to 
San Jose, Los Gatos, and Congress Springs, and return, at 
reduced rates, good only until Monday evening following 
date of purchase. 

FERRIES AND LOCAL TRAINS, DAILY. 

From San Francisco.— 5:30, f6:40, 9:00, 10:30 A. M.j 1:30, 4:00, 

5:15, 6:30 p. m. 
From High Street, Alameda— f5:40, 7:40, 9:04 A. M.; 12 M.; 
2:40, 4:00, 5:16, 6:24 p. m. 

tDaily, Sunday excepted. 
The Company are prepared to carry vehicles of all kinds on 
the Forryi to and from San Francisco, Alamedaand Oakland. 
THOS. CARTER, GEO. H. WAGGONER, 

Superintendent Gen'l Passenger Agent 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyp- 
_ frig done at the office of the Mining 

and Scientific Press, San Francisco, a-t favorable rates. 

Send stamp for our circular aud samples. 



Engraving.l 



CAUTION 

To Hydraulic Miners. 

The public generally and Hydraulic Miners especially 
are hereby notified that any parties making or using the 
contrivance known as the HOSKIN DEFLECTOR will be 
prosecuted to the full extent of the law, said machine 
having been declared by the U. S. Circuit Court an in- 
fringement upon my patent, the 

Blootnfield Deflecting Nozzle. 

The public are also cautioned against using the Hoskin 
Deflector because of its danger to life and limb, this de- 
vice having already occasioned several deaths and other 
Berious accidents. The BLOOMFIELD DEFLECTOR is 
entirely safe, its two and a half years use without acci- 
dent, as well as its construction, proves it to be a reliable 
contrivance. 

Any parties wishiDg to purchase the right to use these 
Deflectors can do so by applying to the undersigned, 

HENRY C. PERKINS, 
North Bloomfleld, Nevada Co., Cal., Octo- 
ber 1st, 1878. 



Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 



Map of California and Nevada • The Public 
Lands; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall in Califor- 
nia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the State 
at Large. 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners. — Different Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; Extending the 
Homestead Privilege; But One Homestead Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoining Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of Land Office and Commissions; Laws to Promote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Appeals; Returns of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emption Benefit. 

Abstract from the U. S. Statutes.— The Law 
Concerning Pre-emption; Concerning Homesteads; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous Provisions 1 
Additional Surveys; Land for Pre-emption; List of Cal'* 
ornia Post Offices. Price, post paid, 50 cts. 

Published and Bold bv DEWEY & CO., S. F 



Take the Paper that stands by your In- 
terests. 



(Aacnipery. 



PACIFIC MACHINERY DEPOT. 
H. P. GREGORY & CO., 

Oor. California & Market Streets, S. F. Cal 
Importers ol and Dealers la 

Machinery of all Descriptions. 

SOLE AGENTS KOK PACIFIC COAST FOR 

J. A. Fay & Co. 'a Woodworking Machinery, 

Bement & Sons' Machinists' Tools, 

Blake's Patent Steam Pumps, 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co.'s Rubber Goods 

Sturtevant Blowers and Exhaust Fans, 

Tanite Co.'s Emery Wheels and Machinery 

Payne's Vertical Engines and Boilers, 

Judson's Standard Governors, 

Dreyfus' Self Oilers, 

Gould Manufacturing Co.'s Hand Pumps, 

Piatt's Patent Fuse Lighters, 

Lovejoy's Planer Knives. 

A PULL LINK OP 

Belting, Packing, Hose, and Other 
Mill and Mining Supplies on Hand. 

aarSend for Illustrated Catalogue. 



THOMSON & EVANS, 

(Successors to Thomson & Parker.) 

Engineers and Machinists. 




Steam Pumps, Steam Engines, Hoisting, 

Pumping, Quartz Mill, Mining, Saw 

Mill Machinery, Specialties. 

Plans and Specifications for Machinery f urniBhed. Re- 
pairing promptly attended to. 

110 & 112 Beale St., San Francisco. 



Established 1844. 

JOSEPH C. TODD, 
ENGINEER 

—AND— 

MACHINIST. 

Flax, Hemp, Jute, Rope, Oakum 
and Bugging Machinery, Steam En- 
gines, Boilers, etc. I also manufac- 
ture Baxter's New Portable 
Engine of 1877, of one horse-pow- 
er, complete for Sl25;canbeseen in 
operation at my store. Two horse- 
power, $225; two and a half horse- 
power, §250; three horse-power, 
§276. Send for descriptive circular 
aud price. 
Address J. C TODD, 

10 Barclay Street N. Y., or Patterson, N. J. 





-T" ,- STEAM ENGINES . 7- 



BEKRY& PLACE, 

.-— SAUFRANCiSCO.CAL.— 



THE IMPROVED 0'HARRA 

0HL0RIDIZING FURNACE. 

Patented Sept. 10th, 1878. 



Now in Operation at the Extra Mining Co.'s 
Works, Copper City, Shasta Co., Cal. 



Two men and two cords of woad roast 

Forty Tons of Ore in Twenty-four Hours, 

Giving a full chlorination (100%) at a cost of 30 centB per 
on. Address, 

O'HARRA & FERGUSON, 
Furnaceville, Shasta Co., Cal 
Or CHAS. W. CRANE, Agent, 

Room 10, Safe Deposit Building, San Francisco. 



Bodie Richmond Mining Co. 

President, I. F. MILHEE. Secretary, O. D. SQUIRE. 

Incorporated November 16th, 1878. 
Office, Boom 28. Stevensonjs Building, S P, 



44 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[ January i8, 1879,1 



Continued from page 37. 



quite soft, showing considerable clay in the 
seams of the rock. The north crosscut has 
been extended 4S feet. The formation is the 
same as last week. Will probably commence 
cutting station for the deep winze to be sunk 
from this drift by the last of the week. 

Mexican. — Letter of the 11th says: On our 
1600 level the joint Union Con. winze has been 
sunk and timbered to a depth of 151 feet on the 
slope, 12 feet having been made during the past 
week. Material encountered coutinues hard 
blasting porphyry. On our 2000 level the main 
north drift has been advanced 41 feet; total 
length from our south line, 145 feet. The ma- 
terial passed through has changed to hard blast- 
ing porphyry. 

Belcher.— Letter of the 11th says: The 
east drift from station on 2560 level is in 33 
feet. The short station sets are all in and one 
set of timbers in the station proper has been 
pnt in place, a chute has been cut out and one 
length of track laid. All this work, together 
with the drift mentioned above, has been done 
during the week. The south drift on the 2360 
level is now in 504 feet, having been driven and 
timbered 35 feet during the week. The sink- 
ing of the main incline has been resumec 1 to- 
day. 

Bullion.— Letter of the 13th says: Our in- 
cline shaft has been sunk 18 feet during the 
past week, making total depth on slope below 
2050 level of 222 feet, material penetrated has 
been a mixture of porphyry and quartz of a 
softer nature than heretofore encountered, and 
which admits of better progress. The incline 
is now 10 feet below the 2158 level, or 2000 
level of the Imperial; 2000 level, north drift, 
has been advanced a distance of 20 feet during 
the past week; material has been soft porphyry 
which admits fair progress; 2400 level, branch 
drift, has been advanced 20 feet, making total 
length of same 37 feet. The ground penetrated 
has been hard vein porphyry, carrying occa- 
sional streaks of quartz. The water in main 
drift is gradually decreasing. 

Hale & Norcross. — Letter of the 13th says : 
On the morning of the 9th inst., connection was 
made with the Chollar-Norcross shaft. The 
total length of the 2000 east drift is 894 feet. 
We are now engaged in cutting out for a station 
on the west side of the shaft, which will be 
completed in a few days. The water stands to- 
day 22 feet below the 2000-foot station. The 
pumps at the 0. N. S. shaft were started up 
yesterday pumping water into the Sutro tunnel. 
The machinery moved off splendidly, giving per- 
fect satisfaction. All of our machinery is run- 
ning well. 

Julia. — Letter of the 11th says : Owing to 
the increase of the flow of water discovered in 
the fore part of this week, but little progress has 
been made in the southwest drift 2000 level. 
Water shows no signs of diminishing ; as soon 
as it is possible the work of advancing the drift 
will be resumed in order to develop the favor- 
able vein material which it shows in its face. 
Have repaired 806 feet on 1800 level south 
drift, cut drain and laid car track. Company's 
main pump as well as the donkey pump are in 
excellent order, notwithstanding their increased 
working speed. 

EUREKA DISTRICT. 

Charter Company's Mines. — Cor. Eureka 
Sentinel, Jan. 8: Their mines are located in the 
center of Eureka district. The main tunnel of 
the company — now 630 feet in length — is so sit- 
uated as to develop nearly all the claims. It 
lies on a level 800 feet below a point where the 
company are now sinking a shaft in high-grade 
ore, on the Needle mine. Mr. Chas. Dehman, 
one of the present owners, located nearly all 
the claims of the company during the years from 
1870 to 1875, and has held uninterrupted pos- 
session of them ever since. The tunnel is being 
pushed forward night and day, by contractors, 
in a southeast direction. A body of ore, giving 
assays from $9 to $44 per ton, and showing a 
crevice of 15 feet, has just been cut through. 
The State Pride series, embracing in width 1,000 
feet from north to south, embracing 11 loca- 
tions, are now being pierced by the tunnel. As- 
says of ore taken from these mines have ranged 
from $20 to $894 per ton. The Fire-Fly, ex- 
tending north and south, shows well-defined 
croppings five feet wide, and will be reached by 
the tunnel after it has passed through the State 
Pride series. The Monogram tunnel is 40 feet 
long, and prospecting shafts have proven the 
v-due of this claim, which is next in the aeries 
to be developed by the tunnel and crosscuts at 
a depth of 200 to 300 feet below the surface. 
The Altai runs north and south, and shows 
large and well-detined surface croppings. It 
lies 600 feet west of and parallel with the well- 
known Grant mine, and adjoins the Needle. 
A shaft is being sunk on the Needle mine, and 
very tine ore is being taken out, which is of the 
same character as that found in the Grant, which 
joins it. A sample taken at the time of our 
visit gave an assay value of $549, and ore from 
this mine has assayed as high as $1,907. The 
Dehman mine is 500 feet north of the Needle, 
and shows the same character of ore. The 
Plummet series lie 2,000 feet south of the Grant 
and comprise four parallel claims. A tunnel is 
now being run into this portion of the property, 
and very fair results have been shown from 
assays made of the ore. Adjoining the Plum- 
met series, on the side next to the Charter tun- 
nel, is the Peer mine, showing large, well-de- 
fined, contact croppings, lying between the 
limestone on the .east and quartzite on the west. 
The Andalusia lies west of the Peer, and shows 



croppings over 15 feet wide, yielding very satis- 
factory assays. Eight hundred feet west is the 
Premium. Assays from workings on this prop- 
erty show from $40 to 1500 per ton. A tunnel 
50 feet long and a shaft 50 feet deep are run on a 
well-defined ledge of the Premier. The Coro- 
net, near Prospect Mountain tunnel, has a shaft 
sunk 184 feet, showing at the bottom a crevice 
10 feet wide, from which assays of $500 per ton 
have been obtained. Already more than $25,' 
000 in money have been expended. 

PIOCHE DISTRICT. 

Pioche.— Record, Jan. 4: The Hillside com. 
pany shipped on the 29th of December 20,000 
pounds of base bullion, the assay value of which 
was $537 per ton. Yesterday they also shipped 
20,000 pounds, of about the same assay value. 
Nearly all the men employed at the Meadow 
Valley mine were knocked off Monday. We 
believe it is the intention of most of the men to 
go to work chloriding, on shares, in this mine. 
The Hillside furnace is still running success- 
fully and turning out bullion. Work continues 
at the mine with unabated vigor. The bullion 
product from the Pioche mines for the year 
1878 amounted to $609,S41.75. The Christy 
Mill and Mining Company shipped from Silver 
Reef on the 25th and 26th of December two 
bars of bullion valued at $3,531.30. Bullion 
valued at $6,785 was> shipped from this place 
during the past week. 

ABIZONA. 

Castle Dome. — Arizona Sentinel, Jan. 4: A 
remarkable cave has been found in the Railroad 
mine. It is as large as an ordinary room, and 
adorned with stalactites and stalagmites which 
are completely encrusted with yellow crystals 
of lead molybdate. This cave is at one side of 
the vein. The Arkansaw shaft is now down 
about 350 feet, in excellent ore. 

Picacho. — The new 15-stamp quartz mill was 
started up on New Year's day. Some 250 tons 
of ore are on hand at the mill, and as much 
more is on dump at the mine. The reserves 
already developed are inexhaustible. A con- 
tract has been made with Mr. Clark, of San 
Bernardino, to haul 4,000 tons of ore from mine 
to mill at $1.80 per ton. His teams are due 
here on the 15th. The quality of the ore was 
fully tested by the old five-stamp mill at work 
there last year; it was found to yield from $15 
to $40 in free gold. 

Mule Pass. — W. S. Edwards is now out 
there to make surveys and to have the neces- 
sary work done on the mines recently bought by 
Corbin & Co. It is expected that the Eastern 
company referred to will soon erect machinery 
and go to work in earnest. 

Aztec. — At the Aztec, under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Hunter, a large number of men 
are at work erecting the mill and it is expected 
that it will before many weeks be in successful 
operation. 

Arivaca. — The mill owned by the St. Louis 
company that is being erected on the Arivaca is 
approaching completion. The Waterbury com 
pany, of Connecticut, has recently started work 
on several mines under the management of Mr. 
Kirkpatrick. 

OREGON. 

The Steamboat Quartz Mine. — Jackson- 
ville Sentinel, Jan. 1 : Says Richard Cook, one 
of the owners: A large vein of gold-bearing 
quartz has just been discovered, assaying from 
£22 to $90 per ton. Messrs. Cook & Herd have 
done about $500 worth of work during the past 
season. An effort is now being made to organ- 
ize a stock company to work the ledge. 

The Lucky Queen Rented. — Independent, 
Jan. 1: The Lucky Queen mine has been 
rented for a period of one year to a Mr. Rode- 
baugh, an experienced miner, who, after prac- 
tical tests, is satisfied he can work the ore with 
profit. 

UTAH. 

Silver Reef. — Eureka Sentinel, Jan. 8, quot- 
ing Cor. Ward Refiexx Speaking of San Fran- 
cisco district, the writer says : "The distance 
from Ward is about 135 miles. The miners in 
Frisco were mostly idle, but said they would 
soon be on again in a few days. Merchandise 
is about five per cent, less here than in Ward, 
and costs the merchants from 10% to 20% less 
to lay it down here than in Ward. Business 
appears to be good, but chloriders say the mill 
companies get away with all the profits." 

Salt Lake Tribune, Jan. 8: J. E. Clayton 
has returned from Silver Reef, where he has 
been examining the silver- sandstone grindstones. 
The Professor regards it as a rich and interest- 
ing country. 

Frisco.— Cor. Salt Lake IVibune, Jan. 8 
Everybody seems to be awaiting a change of 
ownerB of the big mine. Both smelters shut 
down during the holidays. Campbell, Cullen & 
Co. started up on the 1st. Godbe & Co. are 
making some very needful improvements and 
relining. They will start up on the 10th of the 
p resent month. 



The Phylloxera in Portugal.— The tele- 
graph announces that the Portuguese govern- 
ment, in alarm at the ravages of the phylloxera 
in the province of Douro, has directed local com- 
missions to make careful investigation and 
instruct vineyardists in the best modes of resist- 
ing the attacks of this foe. 

The ice blockade in the Columbia and Willa- 
mette rivers, Oregon, still continues. 



The Discoveries of Science in 1878. 

[From our Regular New York Correspondent.] 
The closing days of the year 187S naturally 
suggest a retrospective glance at the many no- 
table events in the realm of science, which must 
forever mark it as one of the most important 
eras in which man has made wonderful advances 
in his knowledge of nature. 

With the dawn of the year came the double 
announcement of the discovery of the liquefac- 
tion of oxygen by the great French scientists, 
Pictet and Cailletet, who curiously both arrived 
at the same results by processes perfectly dif- 
ferent. If any priority should be given for the 
softition of this problem, it must be awarded to 
M. Cailletet, who recorded the fact on the 2d 
of December ; but being a candidate for a seat 
in the Academy of Science, he consigned the 
account of his discovery to a sealed packet, 
which was opened at the academic session of 
December ■ the 24th, the very day M. Raoul 
Pictet's letter arrived, announcing his success. 

On the opening day of the year 1878, M. 
Cailletet accomplished the liquefaction of hy- 
drogen, nitrogen and atmospheric air ; and, but 
a few days after this, January 11th, M. Pictet 
effected the solidification of hydrogen, which 
proved to be a metal, a fact that was foreshowed 
40 years ago, by theoretical calculations, by M. 
Dumas. 

As a sequence to these important discoveries, 
the close of the year brings with it the recent 
discovery, by Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, that all 
the 64 so-called elements are merely condensa- 
tions of, or modifications of a single primitive 
form of matter, that being hydrogen. It is yet 
early to predict the full effect of Mr. Lockyer's 
discovery, for as yet it has not been confirmed 
by others. In some of Mr. Lockyer's last ex- 
periments with the spectroscope, he appears to 
have even effected the transmutation of the 
metals, and thus accomplished the wildest 
dreams of the alchemist; for he found that the 
result of the decomposition of copper gave the 
spectrum of tin. It yet remains to be proved 
that the interpretations of the spectroscope 
were correct, but even if no error is discovered 
and Mr. Lockyer's discoveries are, in reality, 
what he represents them, the limit to which the 
results can be carried should be clearly under- 
stood. It may be possible to reduce gold and 
other precious metals to hydrogen, but it will 
never be possible to make g\>ld from hydrogen, 
although such a result might appear to follow, 
the reason being that one of the factors in the 
formation of metalB is not within the control of 
the chemist. As an example, it has been sug- 
gested that it is easy to reduce coal to ashes, 
but to reconstruct coal from ashes is not to be 
accomplished. 

The year 187S will ever be associated with 
the name of Thomas A. Edison, for during this 
year the introduction of old, and perfecting of 
new inventions of a scientific character, has 
attracted the attention of the whole civilized 
world. It would be a waste of time on my part 
to describe the phonograph (now much im- 
proved), megaphone, phonometer and the aero- 
phone, and the three great achievements of his 
genius, the improved carbon telephone, the 
tisimeter and the electric lamp. Of the latter I 
shall probably speak in detail in my next letter. 

Of the discovery of an intro- mercurial planet 
by Lewis Swift and Prof. Watson, but little can 
be said, as probably the astronomical world will 
wait further confirmation of their existence, 
before finally accepting their presence as a fact. 
Not from any want of confidence in the observa- 
tions of Messrs. Swift and Watson, but from 
the recognized difficulties under which the 
observations were made, permitting the possi- 
bility of error. 

Space will not permit a more extended survey 
of the scientific work of the year 1878, the 
details of which will be found in the usual 
annual works published for that purpose. But 
among the names of those workers whose work 
justly entitles them to honorable mention, may 
be mentioned with pride, our countryman Prof. 
Graham Bell, in perfecting his telephone ; Mr. 
Stearns, in "duplexing" the Atlantic cable ; of 
Prof. Alfred M. Mayer, in illustrations of the 
atomic theory by floating magnets ; of Sir J. 
D. Hooker and Paul Bert, in their discoveries 
in vegetable chemistry ; of Prof. Leconte, in his 
discovery of a new element j of Profs. New- 
lands, Wilde and others, in their ingenious 
classifications of the elements by periodic laws ; 
and of Loutin, Rapieff, Jablochkoff, Werder- 
mann and Sawyer. 

On taking a general survey of the scientific 
work of the year now closing, all interested in 
real progress must view with satisfaction the 
marked change in the tone of scientific com- 
munications and work. No longer the discussion 
of remote and wild hypotheses claim the atten- 
tion of the scientific world; those who rack their 
brains trying to solve the probabilities of 
impossibilities* appear to have fallen to the 
rear, while au contraire, the laboratory and the 
work shop, are once more proving their utility, 
and give a healthful tone to scientific inquiry 
and discovery. John Michels. 

New York, Dec. 30th, 1878. 

The Carson papers report ex-Governor L. R. 
Bradley as seriously sick with hemorrhage of 
the lungs. 

The Japanese are apprehensive that Russia 
intends to annex Yesso. 



Science Bearing on Rainfall. 

Mr. Lemmon, in his article describing "Scenei* 
in the High Sierra, back of Yosemite," thial 
week {page 34), speaks lovingly of the glaciei%) 
and of the ice, the sight of whose cool green 
edges has done good to his, and to many another 
mountain tourist's eyes. Studying the retreat i 
of the glaciers, he sighH at the thought of the 
torrid and moistureless air melting still furthffli 
away the few short glaciers that are left in the < 
Sierra, to their sources. 

Which brings up the question whether we 
have not turned the corner in the cosmic ecom 
omy, and are already having an increase of rain- 
fall, and, of course, snowfall, in the mountain™ 
with its accompanying neve, and its ice pack- 
ing, where the conditions for glaciers exist. 
This matter came up before the Geological Seal) 
tion of the Academy of Sciences, at its lam 
meeting, on Saturday, the 11th inst — a full re- 
port of which will appear in the Mining anm 
Scientific Press— and was very ably discussej 
by Joseph Le Conte; Clarence King's foundm 
tion for believing in that hypothesis being ciAedl 
along with other interesting facts, by the pan 
ticipants in the discussion. 

In our next issue Mr. Samuel Purnell begins 
a series of several articles in which he will tell 
our readers what is known about the sun-spo» 
cycle of II 1-9 years, in connection with the 
rainfall of the coast. Geological and astronom- 
ical science have both established in these linen 
of investigation, a most practical bearing. 

Life Insurance. 

The John Hancock Mutual Life Insurand 
Company of Massachusetts, has lately estaH 
lished an agency for the Pacific coast at 41] 
California street, under the management of J. 
Byington. This gentleman is highly recon 
mended to us by trustworthy friends at 
East, and we call the attention of those seekii 
life insurance to his company. It will doubfi 
less obtain its share of the business done : 
this line on this coast. It is well known that 
the Massachusetts laws governing life insurances 
in certain important features, are in advance of 
those of other States, as for instance in protect- 
ing the insured against unjust forfeiture of 
policies. The following quotation from the 
circular of the John Hancock Co. , in a measure 
explains this feature : 

"The theory of the Massachusetts law ia to give each 1 
policy-holder the Benefit of thiB overpayment, without arrim 
action on his part, and as a matter of right secured M 
law, by continuing the policy in force beyond the date an 
lapse, until the annual cost of insurance has exhausted thw 
reserve accumulated while the policy was in force. Id 
other words, insurance is guaranteed by the laws of thffl 
State at natural, term t or actual cost-rateB, for all thl 
money paid on any policy issued by a Massachusetts comT 
pany. 

"In practice, 20% of the net reserve at date of lapBe ia 
withheld, by the law, as a fair allowance for the future 
expenses chargeable to the policy; and the remainder, or 
80%, is applied to pay for the continuance of the insuranol 
at term rates. If death should occur during the tern 
over winch the policy is continued in force, the wholl 
amount insured at the date of lapse, less 'the amount at 
6% per annum of the premiums that had been fnrebornl 
at the time of death,' and all dividends accrued on thl 
policy, are paid the heirs. It is better than a contract! 
because the language of the Statute is clear and explicit! 
and not liable to judicial construction adverse lo thl 
rights of the policy-holder." 



The Duty'of the Hour.— Lest any reader should forgefl 
it, we mention the peculiar fitneas of the season for re- 
newing old subscriptions and making new ones tothM 
Press. In going forward with our journal, we need tlie 
help of our patronB both with mind and money. Do mil 
forget to send the printer his due, as the aggregate of 
small individual amounts will give him a force that wil 
make the types fairly dance into the lines. We trust thai 
only a hint will be needed to rally the dollars, for with 
them assured we have a thousand themes to occupy oul 
columns. Let all stop up promptly to the Captain's officfll 
and then we will go out on deck for another year'a voyagm 
—January 1st, 1879. 



Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, amona; which is Prof. Gruber's greaft 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases} 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more populafl 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder*] 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Settlers and others wishing good farming lands fow 
euro crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Ander-f 
son/Shasta County, Cal,, who has some 15,000 acres fo» 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. Hia advertisement! I 
appears from time to time in this paper. 

Examine the accelerative endowment plan, as originated'*! 
by the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Co., of Newark. 
New Jersey. Assets, $30,533,429.94. Lewis C. Gfover,'; I 
President; L. Spencer Coble, Vice-President; Benjamin C. 
Miller, Treasurer; Edward A. Strong, Secretary; Bloom** 
field J. Miller, Actuary*. Send for circulars to James* 
Munsell, Jr., agent of insured, 224 Sansome St., San> 
Francisco. 

Artesian Wells Wanted. —Parties who are prepared to 
contract for boring artesian wells are invited to send* 
terms to Edward Frisbie, proprietor of the Heading Ranohf 
Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



Experimental Machinery, drawings, patterns, models/ 
all kinds of electrical and telegraphic apparatus to order. 
See ad. F. W. Fuller, 415 Market St., second floor, S. F. 

Hbnry R. Ewald is our general correspondent and J 
agent for Arizona. 



Chew Jackson's Best Sweet Navy Tobacco* 



January 18, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



45 



piping and Oilier Copipapie$. 



Cherokee Flat Blue Gravel Company.— 

Locution of principal place of fauaine**. San Pr&odaco, 

California. Location of worka, Cherokee Flat. Butt? 

County, California. 

ig «t the Board of 
Director* 

■1 share waa levied upon 
the capital stock : 
I'nited S1 . 
■ 

Any »tock up-u which tni* &UL«sm^nt «li 
on the 28th -lay <>f January. 1879. will U : deli 
TertUcd fur s*k >t public auction: and unlw 
made be fu Lay. the 18lh day of Pebru- 

..i-i.t. tugetbei with 
cati of adTertlxiug and eipeumJof nale. Ity order of the 
BoapIofIlir.Kt.tr* K N VAN BRUNT. Secretory 

Office. 313 l'n.' ■ San FraDclaco California 



Mariposa Land and Mining Company of 

California I iriiiuf j>riiu-i|al (ilace of l.u 

Frauci. Location of works, Mari|..i Coiin- 

». California 
. itan, that m a meeting of the Board of 
Directors, held hi tin tenth day of January. 1879, an aaacas- 

i >n. ii li.ir par anan w,u* k-vi.-.i upon the 

capital atock of ihe corporation, payable mini. Uateh in r. s 
ciuTcurj to tlu- Sv,'r,-ury. at thn ottir >f r 1 j . - ' 'mupany. Room 
33. Ncra-la Hlock, No. 30S Montgonitrrj- Bt . San Francisco, 
Cal.. i ir the Aasistant Secretary at the offlofl cTo. ii Nttasau 
Ht , New Sola, N V 

Any atock upon which this aafiensuient shall remain unpaid 
on the twelfth day of Feliruary, 1879. will be deliuini.int, iwi.l 

fareejj ..' public auction; and unless pavmenl la 
made beftm, will be told on Wedneaday, the bwelfui day ol 
March. 1879. to pay the delinquent MMm amni null, together with 
coat of advertising sud expena I of sale By order of the 
Koard .,f i'ir, - I. KAN MI; LEAVljTT, BeeY 

Office. Room 33, Nevada lilock. No. 3(W Moutgnmery St. 
San Franciace, CaL 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
66 
50 
60 
100 
100 
100 



50 
50 
60 
75 
350 
100 
100 
100 
100 
17 



60 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
100 
100 



100 
100 
100 
10 



1 00 
1 00 



2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
•J do 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 32 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 

20 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 50 
7 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 

84 



20 



Mineral Fork Mining and Smelting Com 

Piny. — Location of principal place of business, San 
rancisco, California. Location of works. Big Cotton- 
wood District, Suit Lake County, fjtab Territory. 
NOTICE. — There are delinquent upon the following de- 
scribed stock on account of assessment (No. 1) levied on 
the 31st day of October, 1878, the several amounts set 
opposite the names of the respective shareholders, as 
follows: 
Names. No. Certificate. No. Shares. Amount, 

G Areskog 156 

G Areskoy 157 

»' H Atwood 185 

W 11 Atwood 186 

W U Atwood 187 

W H Atwood 188 

w 11 Atwood 189 

Wm Atwood 190 

Wm Atwood 191 

Wm Atwood 192 

Wm Atwood 193 

Wm Atwood 194 

G Bearson 105 

G Bears, ill 115 

G Bearson 116 

G Bearson 117 

O Bearson 118 

G Bearson 119 

G Bearson , 136 

HL ACulmer 295 

HL ACulmcr 296 

H L ACulmcr 297 

H L A Culmer 298 

H L A Culmer 290 

Wm H Culmer 378 

Wm II Culmer 379 

Wm II Culmer 880 

Cha G Denicke 434 

Chs G Denicke 435 

Chs G Denicke 436 

Chs G Denicke 437 

A S Easton 4 

A S Easton 365 

E E Elliott 195 

E E Elliott 196 

EE Elliott 197 

E E Elliott 198 

EE Elliott 201 

EE Elliott 271 

EE Elliott 272 

EE Elliott 274 

E E Elliott 275 

EE Elliott 217 

EE Elliott 218 

EEEIliott 220 

EE Elliott 222 

E E Elliott 224 

E E Elliott 225 

E E Elliott 226 

E E Elliott 228 

EE Elliott 229 

EE Elliott 230 

E E Elliott 231 

E E Elliott 233 

E E Elliott 234 

E E Elliott 371 

EEEIliott 372 

EE Elliott 373 

E E Elliott 374 

EEEIliott 375 

EEEIliott 876 

E E Elliott 377 

E E Elliott, Trustee 503 

E E Elliott, TruBtee 504 

E E Elliott, Trustee 505 

E E Elliott, Trustee 606 

E E Elliott, Trustee 507 

E E Elliott, Trustee 508 

E E Elliott, Trustee 509 

E E Elliott, Trustee 510 

E E Elliott, Trustee 511 

E E Elliott, Trustee 513 

E E Elliott, Trustee 514 

E E Elliott, Trustee 515 

E E Elliott, Trustee 516 

E E Elliott, Trustee 517 

E E Elliott, Trustee 518 

E E Elliott, Trustee 519 

E E Elliott, Trustee 520 

E E Elliott, Trustee 521 

E E Elliott, Trustee 522 

E E Elliott, Trustee 523 

E E Elliott, Trustee 524 

E E Elliott, Trustee 525 

E E Elliott, Trustee 526 

E E Elliott, Trustee 527 

E E Elliott, Trustee 528 

E E Elliott, Trustee 629 

E E Elliott, Trustee 530 

E E Elliott, Trustee 531 

E E Elliott, Trustee 532 

E E Elliott, Trustee . , 533 

E E Elliott, Trustee 534 

E E Elliott, Trustee 535 

E E Elliott, Trustee 536 

E E Elliott, Trustee 537 

E E Elliott, Trustee 638 

E E Elliott, Trustee 539 

E E Elliott, Trustee 540 

E E Elliott, Trustee 541 

E E Elliott, Trustee 542 

E E Elliott, Trustee 543 

E E Elliott, Trustee 544 

E E Elliott, Trustee 646 

E E Elliott, Trustee 546 

E|E Elliott, Trustee 647 

E E Elliott, Trustee 512. 



Nanus 

WW Elliott 
WW Bill 
W W I ill 
Frank Vsootc 

1! A _M If 

BA M Tr..i-i>h 

1 htrdnec . 
Edwin Gardner. . 
Edwin Gardner 



No Certificate 

203 

.... 209 

aio 

. ... 3S1 
. ... 5118 
.... 609 
. .. . 90! 
. .. 203 
204 



No. Shares. Am't 



I. SI 

100 

100 

20 

■Jo 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
25 
25 
.:: 
Inn 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
60 
50 
50 
50 



I 00 
2 00 
2 00 
6 00 
10 
10 
2 00 
2 00 
■J ... 
2 00 
2 00 
50 
50. 

1 31 

2 00 
! is. 
g no 

2 oil 

1 HO 

1 00 

1 llll 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

I oo 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



/.pili$epiept$. 



1 00 
1 00 

1 00 
4 00 
4 00 
4 00 
4 OO 
4 00 
4 00 
4 00 
4 00 

2 00 
2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 



206 

SM 

B J I 181 

B i i inasson 182 

5 .1 .1 inasson 1-i 

Pi t r. Iln m. in 333 

If ' i- . 1 1 . ■ , .i, 

Pal i J 330 

honson 

i'.-ter .11 ion 

l'eter J lion. on 342 

Peter 'l na 346 

l'eter Uiiin-i.ii ::l- 

I'eter Jhonaon 849 

l'eter jDOOJOn 350 

Peter Jnonson 351 50 

Pe-tor. .Hi.. ii. i, ii 353 50 

l'eter Jnonson 50 

Petal Jfaonspn 36G 50 

p. in Jhonaon 60 

b n son 358 50 

PeterJhonBon 359 50 

T F Ni.trom 217 100 

TKNystrom 24* 100 Jin 

T t Nvstrun 2411 50 1 00 

TI'Nvstr.mi 260 50 100 

TFNrstmni 251 83 66 

HHNoves 270 300 6 00 

Samuel Furdy 259 100 2 00 

W Pease, Trustee 607 18 36 

W C Pease. Trustee 008 18 36 

6 Peterson 76 loo 200 

G Peterson 85 100 2 00 

GrPetcrSon 87 100 2 00 

G Peterson 88 100 2 00 

1 1 Peterson 89 100 2 00 

G Peterson 96 50 1 00 

G Peterson 100 50 ' 1 00 

'I Peterson 102 50 100 

William Russell 276 10 20 

William Russell 277 5 10 

William Russell 278 6 10 

P H Sumner 19 5 10 

l' 11 Sumner 20 70 1 40 

1' II Sumner 180 66 1 32 

Edgar Sheldon 291 250 5 00 

Edcar Sheldon 292 260 5 00 

Edgar Sheldon 293 250 6 00 

Edgar Sheldon 29-4 250 5 00 

F C Thompson 243 60 1 00 

F C Thompson 244 50 1 00 

F C Thompson 245 33 66 

Theodore Tangwell 328 50 1 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee .... 555 500 10 00 

C F Winsiow, Trusteo 556 277 5 54 

F Winslow, Trustee 561 60 1 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 562 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee .... 563 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 504 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee 565 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, TruBtee 566 100 2 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee .... 667 50 1 00 

C P Winslow, Trustee .... 570 250 5 00 

C F Winslow, Trustee .... 671 250 6 00 

C F Winslow 237 5150 103 00 

CF Winslow 301 1000 20 00 

F Winslow 308 1700 34 00 

C F Winslow 309 1000 20 00 

CF Winslow 310 1000 20 00 

CF Winslow 311 1000 20 00 

CFWinBlow 312 1000 20 00 

C F Winslow 314 260 5 00 

CFWinslow 318 100 2 00 

C F Winslow 324 100 2 00 

Rotiilc N Walter 246 84 168 

A WinguiBt 56 100 2 00 

A Winguist 62 100 2 00 

A Winguist 66 50 1 00 

A Winguist 67 50 1 00 

A Winguist 68 50 1 00 

A Winguist 69 50 1 00 

A Winguist 70 60 100 

William Schade 24 50 100 

William Schade 25 50 1 00 

William Schade 53 100 2 00 

William Schade 54 100 2 00 

William Schade >. 55 100 2 00 

Otto lletchke, Trustee 609 14 28 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 31st day of October, 1878, so 
many shares of each parcel of such stock as may be neces 
sary, will be sold at public auction at the office of the 
Company, Room 20, Safe Deposit Building, No. 328 Mont 
gomery Street, San Francisco, California, on Monday, the 
thirtieth (30th) day of December, 1878, at the hour of 12 
o'clock m. of such day, to pay delinquent assessments 
thereon, together with costs of advertising and expenses 
of the sale. OTTO METCHKE, Secretary. 

Office, Room 20, Safe Deposit Building, No. 328 Mont- 
gomery St. , SanFranciseo, California. 

POSTPONEMENT.— The above sale has been postponed 
until Thursday, the 30th day of January, 1879, at the 
same hour and place. By order of the Board of Directors. 
OTTO METCHKE, Secretary. 



BALDWIN'S THEATER. 

THOU \n Mai. I IKE Manager. 

F. Lvbtkk. Acting Manager. 

i'ims H.-QeoDwui Treasurer. 

.1 !' t.'mnu'. ■. -iii.it Treasurer. 

Open Every Evening; with the Regular 
Company. 

I .fin' Market ami Powell Streets. Open every 

mil .Saturday matinee. Box office open daily. 

""bush street the"aterT " 

Ciiab, K. Loom Lasso, and 

CALLENDER'S G EOR GIA MINSTRELS. 
Opan every evening and Saturday Matinee. 



CALIFORNIA THEATER. 

Barton ft Latuti Manager. 

Barton hill. Acting Manager. 

JOHN T.~RAYMOND. 



Hush Street, above Kaarsj 
alfica "i'«n from D a. m. to 10 i 
nix data in advance. 



en every evening. Box 
Scats may be secured 



10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


10 


20 


25 


50 


25 


50 


25 


60 


25 


50 


25 


50 


25 


50 


25 


50 


25 


50 


26 


50 


25 


50 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 oo 


50 


1 oo 


50 


1 oo 


50 


1 oo 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 oc 


10 


20 



STANDARD 

M A Ki.NNr.IJV 



THEATER. 

. .Sole Lessee and Malinger. 



RICE'S SU RPRI SE PARTY. 

Bush Struct, above MonCgomery. Open every evening. 
SeatH may be secured six days in advance. 



W. T. GARRATT'S 

BRASS and BELL FOUNDRY 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

MANUFACTURER AND IMPORTER OF 

Church and Steamboat BELLS and GONGS 
BRASS CASTINGS of all kinds, 
WATER GATES, GAS GATES, 
FIRE HYDRANTS, 

DOCK HYDRANTS, 

GARDEN HYDRANTS 

General Assortment ol Engineers' Findings. 

Hooker's Patent 
Celebrated 

STEAM PUMP 

itSTThe Best and Most 
Durable in use. Also, 
a variety of other 



For Mining and Farm- 
ing Purposes. 

ROOT'S BLAST BLOWERS, 

For Ventilating Mines and for Smelting Works. 

HYDRAULIC PIPES AND NOZZLES, 

For Mining Purposes. 

Garratt's Improved Journal 



DEFLECTED HEAT! 

Boswell's Combined Heater, Cooker, Ba- 
ker. Clothes and Fruit Drier. 




Metal. 



LMroRTER OF 



IRON PIPE AND MALLEABLE IRO.'J FITTINGS, 

ALL KINDS OF 

WORK AND COMPOSITION NAILS, 

AT LOWEST RATES. 



Summit Mining Company. — Location of 

Principal place of business, San Francisco, California. 

Location of works, Mineral Point Mining District, 

Plumas County, Cal. 

Notice. —There are delinquent upon the following de- 
scribed stock, on account of assessment (No. 6,) levied on 
the 19th day of November, A. D. , 1878, the several amounts 
set uppositc the names of the respective shareholders, as 
follows: 

Names. No. Certificate. No. Shares. Amt. 

Boring.IC 32 1200 §tiO 00 

Bohn, John 160 200 10 00 

Lehmarm, C 129 2750 137 50 

Lehmann, C. Trustee 206 200 10 00 

Lehmann, C, Trustee 207 200 10 00 

Storer, J F, Trustee 58 250 12 50 

Schmitz, F 205 400 20 00 

Turner, J W 65 200 10 00 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board of 
Directors, made on the nineteenth day of November, A. ; D. , 
1878, so many shares of each parcel of such stock as may 
he necessary, will be sold at public auction, at the office 
of the company, No. 318 Pine street, Room 6, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., on Tuesday, the fourth day of February, 
A. D., 1879, at the hour of three o'clock p. m., of said 
day, to pay said delinquent assessment thereon, together 
with costs of advertising and expenses of the sale. 

R. N. VAN BRUNT, Sec'y. 

Office, Room 6, No. 318 Pine Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



DIVIDE ND N OTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of THE OBRMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
seven and one-half (7j) per cent, per annum, and on Ordi- 
nary Deposits at the rate of six and one-fourth (6$) per 
cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on 
and after the 16th day oi January, 1879. By order. 

GEORGE LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, December 3lHt, 1878. 



NATURE'S TRIUMPH! 

CALIFORNIA 

t^OOT TEA 

Is without a parallel in medicine. The most important dis- 
coveiy ever made in any age or country. It is the only per- 
fect Liver and Blood Medicine ever known, has a powerful 
and heretofore unheard of influence on the circulation, and 
is extremely desirable in all forms of debility, local or general, 
and weakening and wasting diseases, effecting many aston- 
ishing cures wbeu all else fails. It effects permanent cures 
of Blood Diseases which all the old Blood Medicines and the 
most powerful drugs fail to touch. A continuous uuiux of 
testimonials are daily pouring in from all sources. 
Mrs. Lydia Read's Cure. 

San Francisco. January 13th, 1879. 

Dear Sir:— I feel it my duty to inform you what the Cali- 
fornia Root Tea has done for me, and think yon ought to 
Eublish it for the benefit of others. I had been failing in 
ealth for years, and in spite of all the different treatment I 
underwent and medicines I swallowed had sunk so low that 
I could hardly walk across the floor, and felt that my time 
had come. When in this condition a few weeks ago the Cali- 
fornia Root Tea was recommended to me by a friend and I 
began its use. Its effect was mo3t astonishing; it seemed 
to actually build me upirom the start, and I am now as strong 
and hearty aB ever. I am confident and ao are my friends 
that had it not been for the California Root Tea I should 
now be in my grave. [Signed] Mrs. Lydia READ, 

1843 Howard Street. 

Note.— Mrs. Read's complaint was impoveriitliment of the 
blood, feeble circulation and a steady and persistent decline 
that defied tin/ best physicians. For many such complaints 
there is no possibility of cure with anything heretofore|kuown 
in medicine. Mrs, Read has resided at her present home for 
years, and is well known throughout the city as a lady of 
(■dnrrir.ioii :ind liifdi standing. 

The CALIFORNIA ROOT TEA is sold in packets, in its 
vegetable form. Each 50 cent packet makes a pint of balsam ; 
dose, 2 spoonfuls 3 times daily. Any child prepares it in 10 
minutes. Directions inside each packet. 

All respectable DruggiBts and Grocers throughout the 
country sell it. 



R PALACE T 1 
ESTAURANl 



218 Sansome St. 



This elegant and spa- 
cious Restaurant has 
been re-opened, with 

Good Living 

superior bill of fare dai- 
ly, at 218 _x Sansome 
Street, S. dl F., and 
is now the best and 

Reduced Prices 

most popular dining sa- 
loon on this Coast. 
Resident business men and visi- 
in giving this place an early 




1'liiin i u ..■:,■. .i.!. '.■:■ -mi" a Store, Furnace. Oven, 

Drji ii' .ii-.' and Kitchen Range An application ,,f Scientific 
Principles to the economy of living, of labor, of health ami 
of comfort. A handsome piwv of Furnitwri.' adapted to the 
wants of every lamiiy. it equally eoonoml&aa time, labor and 
fuel, and avoids einosttre to heat In qooking as well as in 
baking, It hakes Bro:id, Cukes and Pies to any desired tint 
without turning or watching, or danger of burning. All 
odors produced in cooking are passed up the flue. Food 
cooked by deflected heat is improved in flavor, mure easily 
digested, contains more nutriment, will keep fresh longer, 
and Is also much improved in appearance. The stages of the 
cooking or baking can be seen without stooping or opening 
i be duurs of the oven. It. will dry and bleaeh your clothes in 
from half an hour- to one hour and aha!/, andheut your irons. 

Fruit dried in the Boswell will gain from twenty to 
FORTY FKft CENT, in WEIGHT, and THIRTY TER CENT, in 
quality over that dried by any other process. It will suc- 
cessfully dry any kind of Fruit. Grapes, Berries, Meats. Fish, 
Vegetables, Coffee, Tobacco, Corn and Grain of all kinds. 



Boswell's Commercial Fruit Drier, 

Used exclusively for drying and heating purposes on A LARGE 
SCALE. 

— ALSO — 

BOSWELL'S CABINET HEATER, 

Of all sizes and capacity for heating Private Residences, 
Hotels, Halls, School Houses, Churches, Offices, Stores, 
Railroad (.'ars. Hospitals, etc. 

All of which can he operated successfully hy a mere child. 
it is so simple in its construction, and with one-third tho 
usual amount of fuel (coal or wood}, used in any other heat- 
ing, cooking or drying apparatus. 

Every farmer and economical housekeeper should use it. 
It will pay for itself in the saving of fuel; it will pay iu the 
superior character of its fruit DRYING, of its cookinh. 
ROASTING and BAKING; it will pay in its salubrious and 
healthful warm air; it will pay the rich and the poor alike. 

Address, for Price List and descriptive illustrated circulars, 

Boswell Pure Air Heater Co.. 

No. 60t> Montgomery Street, San Francisco, California, 

S. R. LIPPINCOTT, Secretary. 

EUGENE L. SULLIVAN, Pres't- 



[Lunch ready at 10 A. 

tors from abroad will . 

call. Examine biU of fare and prices. 

HERMAN H. HORST, Prop'r. 



N. W. SPAULDINGr'S 




PATENT DETACHABLE TOOTH SAWS, 

Manfuactory. 17 & 19 Fremont St., S. P. 



FOR S-A-ZLLIE. 



SEVERAL SECOND-HAND 

PORTABLE ENGINES, 

FOR SALE CHEAP. 

Sizes, from eight horse-power to twenty-five horse- 
power. IN PERFECT RUNNING ORDER. Apply to 

JOSEPH ENRIGHT, 

San Jose, California. 




%MNG 

ww 



At the Old Stand, Market, head of Front Street, S. F. 



HEMORRHOIDS OR PILES, 

A treatise on their scientific treatment and radical cure, 
by E. J. FRAZER, M. D., San Francisco. Price, 25 cents; 
for sale at the bookstores and by the author at 221 Powell 
street. Sent by mail to any address on receipt of the 
Price in coin, currency or postageatampB. 



46 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Iron and IVIachipe IWofte. 



THOS. PENDERGAST. 



HENRY S. SMITH. 



iETNA IRON WORKS, 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

IRON CASTINGS 

and MACHINERY 

OF ALL KINDS. 

Fremont Street, Bet. Howard and Folsom, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

SACRAMENTO BOILER WORKS, 

214 & 216 BE ALB St., (rear of jGtna, Foundry) 

J. V. HALL, 

PRACTICAL, BOILER MAKER, 

Marine, Stationary and Portable Boilers, Smoke Stacks, 

Hydraulic Pipe, Oil or Water Tanks, Ore and 

Water Buckets, Gasometers, Girders, Bridges 

and Iron Ship Building. 

ALL KINDS OF SHEET IRON WORK. 

Repairing promptly attended to at the 
lowest possible terms. 

UNION IRON WORKS, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
ROOT, NEILSON & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

STEAM ENGINES, BOILERS AND ALL 
Kinds of Machinery for Mining Purposes. 

Flouring Mills', Saw Mills' and Quartz Mills' Machinery 

constructed, fitted up and repaired. 

Front Street, Between N and O Streets, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



PHELPS 
MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

Wharf and Bridge Bolts, Railroad Trestle 

"Work, Car Frames and Bolts, Machine 

Bolts, Set Screws and Tap Bolts, 

Lag or Coach Screws. 

ALL STYLES OF FANCY HEAD BOLTS. 

HOT AND COLD PRESSED HEXAGONAL AND 

SQUARE NUTS, WASHERS, BOLT ENDS, 

TURNBUCKLES, ETC., ETC. 

13, 15 and 17 Drumm St., near California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Golden State & Miners Iron Works, 

Manufacture Iron Castings and Machinery 
of all Kinds at Greatly Reduced Rates. 

STEVENSON'S PATENT 

Mold-Board AMALGAMATORS, 
Golden State Pressure Blowers. 

First St., between Howard & Folsom, S. F. 



Wm. H. Birch. John Arqall. 

California Machine Works, 
BIRCH, ARGALL & CO., 

119 Beale Street, San Francisco. 

itaTGeneral Mechanical Engineers and Machinists. 
Steam Engines, Flour, Quartz and Mining Machinery. 
Sole manufacturers of Bredie's Patent Rock Crushers and 
Steel-Faced Tappits. Steam, Hydraulic and Sidewalk 
Elevators. Repairing promptly attended to. 



California Brass Foundry, 

No, 125 First Street, Opposite Minna. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

All kinds of Brass, Composition, Zinc, and Babbitt 
Metal Castings, Brass Ship Work of all kinds, Spikes, 
sheathing Nails, Rudder Braces, Hinges, Ship and Steam- 
boat Bells and Gongs of superior tone. All kinds of Cocks 
and Valves, Hydraulic Pipes and Nozzles, and Hose Coup- 
lings and Connections of all sizes and patterns furnished 
with dispatch. ^PRICES MODERATE."®* 

J. H. WEED. V. KINGWELL. 



STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS 

Of all sizes— from 2 to CO-Horse power. Also, Quartz 
Mills, Mining Pumps, Hoisting Machinery, Shafting, Iron 
Tanks, etc. For sale at the lowest prices by 

J. HENDY, 49 and 51 Fremont Street, S. F. 



THOMAS TIIOMreON. 



THOHNTON THOMPSON, 



THOMPSON BROTHERS, 

EUREKA FOUNDRY, 

129 and 131 Beale St., between Mission and Howard, S. F 

MANUFACTURKR8 OK CASTINGS OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 



WIND MILL. 



One of the best made in this State 
for sale cheap on easy terms. Ad- 
dress, W. T„ care of Dewey & Co., S. F. 



GEORGE W. PRESCOTT. 



IRVLNG M. SCOTT. 



H. T. SCOTT. 



I* 1 



{J nion | ron foRKS. 

Office, 61 First St. | Cor. First & Mission Sts., S. F. | p. 0. Box, 2128. 



BUILDERS OF 



Steam, Air and Hydraulic Machinery. 

Home Industry.— All "Work Tested and Guaranteed. 



Vertical Engines, 


Baby Hoists, 


Stamps, 


Horizontal Engines, 


Ventilating Fans, 


Pans, 


Automatic Cut-off Engines, 


Rock Bkeakees, 


Settlers, 


Compound Condensing Engines, 


Self-Feeders, 


Retorts, 


Shafting, 


Pulleys, 


Etc. , Etc. 



TRY OUR MAKE, CHEAPEST AND BEST IN USE. 
Send for Late Circulars. PRESCOTT, SCOTT & CO. 



HAWKINS & C-A-IsTTIS/IEXjIj. 
MACHINE WORKS, 

210 and 212 Beale Street, bet. Howard and Folsom Sts., - - San Francisco. 



Manufacturers of 



IMPROVED PORTABLE 

Dieting: Engines, 

For Mining and Other Purposes. 

Steam Engines and all Kinds of Mill and Mining Machinery. 



Pacific Rolling Mill Co., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

RAILROAD AND MERCHANT IRON, 

ROLLED BEAMS, ANGLE, CHANNEL AND T IRON, BRIDGE AND MACHINE BOLTS, LAG SCREWS, NUTS 
WASHERS, ETC., STEAMBOAT SHAFTS, CRANKS, PISTONS, CONNECTING RODS, ETC., ETC. 

Car and Locomotive Axles and Frames, and Hammered Iron of Every Description. 

HIGHEST PRICE PAID FOR SCRAP IRON. 

S£- Orders Solicited and Promptly Executed. Office, No. 16 FIRST STREET. 



Fulton Iron Works, 

Hinckley, Spiers & Hayes. 



(ESTABLISHED IN 1855.) 



Works, Fremont and Howard Sts. | San Francisco, Cal. | Office, No. 213 Fremont St. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Marine Engines and Boilers, 



Propeller Engines either High Pressure or Com- 
pound Stern or Side Wheel Engines. 



Mining Machinery. 



Hoisting Engines and Works, Cages, Ore Buckets, Ore 
Cars, Pumping Engines and Pumps, Water Buckets, 
Pump Columns, Air Compressors, Air Receivers, 
Air Pipes. 

Mill Machinery. 

Batteries for Dry or Wet Crushing, Amalgamating 



Pans, Settlers, Furnaces, Retorts, Concentrators, Ore 
Feeders, Rock Breakers, Furnaces for Reducing Ores 
Water Jackets, Etc. 



Sugar Machinery. 



Crushing Rolls, Clarifiers, Vacuum Pans, Air Pumps, 
Concentrators, Bag Filters, Charcoal Filters, Blow-up 
Tanks, Coolers and Receiving Tanks. 



Miscellaneous Machinery. 



Flour Mill Machinery, Saw Mill Engines and Boilers, 
Dredging Machinery, Oil Well Retorts, Powder Mill Ma- 
chinery, Water WheelB. 

PnninPC anfl RflltoPC of all kinds, either for use on Steamboats and made in accordance with the 
QliyillCo allU DulltsI O Act of Congress regulating the same, or for use on land. Water Pipe, Pump 
or Air Column, Fish Tanks for Salmon Canneries of every description. 
Boiler repairs promptly attended to and at very moderate rates. 



PACIFIC IRON WORKS, 

First and Fremont Streets, between Mission and Howard, San Francisco, Cal., 
RANKIN, BRAYTON & CO., 

Manufacturers of 

ENGINES, BOILERS, MARINE AND STATIONARY. PUMPING, HOISTING, AND MINING MACHINERY 

INCLUDING BATTERIES, AMALGAMATING PANS AND SETTLERS, CONCENTRATORS, ORE FEEDERS, 

CRUSHING ROLLS AND ROCK BREAKERS. ALSO, WATER JACKET SMELTING FURNACES, 

FOR REDUCING LEAD, SILVER AND COPPER ORES, QUICKSILVER FURNACES, 

RETORTS AND CONDENSERS, ROASTING AND CHLORIDIZING FURNACES, 

SUGAR MILL MACHINERY, WATER WHEELS, Etc., ALL OF THE 

LATEST AND MOST IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION. 

Agents for the Allen Eng-ine Governor, Bailey Air Compressor, Howell's 
Improved "White Furnaces, "Walker's Compound Steam Pumps, Etc. 



^^Testem Iron "Wox-ls-ss, 



316 



and 318 Mission Street, San Francisco, 
PERRY ED-WARDS, Prop'r. 

Manufacturer of Wrought Iron Girders, Trusses, Prison Cells, Iron Roofs, Crest 
Railings, Finials, Fences, Weathervanes, Gratings, Iron Work for Models, Etc. 

Nickel Plated Railings. Bank and Store Fittings. Estimates given and Iron Work furnished for Buildings. 



Dewey & Co.{ BB 22£»}Patent Ag'ts. 



Driving Nails Under Water. — Stack's illustrated ad- 
vsrtiewnent appears once a month in this paper. 




|Corner Btale and Howard Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

W. H. TAYLOR, Pres't. JOSEPH MOORE, Sup't. 

Builders of Steam Machinery 

In all its Branches, 

Steamboat, Steamship, Land 

Engines and Boilers, 

HIGH PRESSURE OR COMPOUND. 



STEAM VESSELS, of all kinds, built complete with I 

Hulls of Wood, Irou or Composite. 
ORDINARY ENGINES compounded when ad- 1 

visable. 
STEAM LAUNCHES, Barges and Steam Tugs con- 
structed with reference to the Trade in which they are 

to be employed. Speed, tonnago and draft of water 

guaranteed. 
STEAM BOILERS. Particular attention given to ] 

the quality of the material and workmanship, and none 

but first-class work produced. 
SUGAR MILLS AND SUGAR-MAKING 

MACHINERY made after the must approved plans. 

Also, all Boiler Iron Work connected therewith. 
WATER PIPE, of Boiler or Sheet Iron, of any Bize 

made in suitable lengths for connecting together, or 

sheets rolled, punched, and packed for shipment ready 

to be riveted on the ground. 
HYDRAULIC RIVETING. Boiler Work and 

Water Pipe made by this establishment, riveted by 

Hydraulic Riveting Machinery, that quality of work 

being far superior to hand work. 
SHIP "WORK. Ship and Steam Capstains, Steam 

Winches, Air and Circulating Pumps, made after the 

most approved plans. 
PUMPS. Direct Acting Pumps, for Irrigation or City 

Water Works purposes, built with the celebrated Davy 

Valve Motiou, superior to any other Pump. 



— AT THE- 



Electric Model & Machine Works 

Inventors and others can pret First-Class 
Work at Moderate Prices. 

After 10 years experience with inventions and other 
mechanical work, I am fully prepared to execute draw- 
ings, working-models and fine machinery of any descrip- 
tion to entire satisfaction. 

Brass Finishing, Pattern Making, Gear Cutting, Tele- 
graphic and other Electrical Apparatus by competent 
workmen. 

TELEPHONES TO ORDER. 

F. W. FULLER, 415 Market Street, San FranciBco, Cal. 

Main Street Iron Works, 

WM. DEACON, PROPRIETOR. 

Nos. 131, 133 & 135 Main St., San Francisco. 

Stationary and Marine Engines, 

Shafting, Pulleys, and General Machine Work. Jobbing 
and repairing done Promptly and at Lowest Rates. 
Screw Propellors, Propeller and Steamboat Engines. 

SAW MILLS and SAW MILL MACHINERY. 




.10x14 

~ I 7x12 
S-( 8x12, 
S 9x14 
C( 1,10x14 



Market, head of Front Street, San Franeisco. 



Steel Castings. 

From T to 10,000 lbs. weight, true to pattern, sound and 
solid, of unequaled strength, toughness and durability. 
An invaluable substitute for forgings or cost-iron requir- 
ing three-fold strength. Send for circular and price liBt to 

CHESTER STEEL CASTINGS CO., 

EVELINA STREET, - - PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Diamond Drill Co. 

The undersigned, owners of LESCHOT'S PATENT 
for DIAMOND POINTED DRILLS, now brought to the 
highest state of perfection, are prepared to fill orders 
for the IMPROVED PROSPECTING AND TUNNELING 
DRILLS, with or without power, at short notice, and 
at reduced prices. Abundant testimony furnished of 
the great economy and successful working of numerous 
machines in operation in the quartz and gravel mines 
on this coast. Circulars forwarded, and full infor- 
mation given upon application. 

A-. J. SEVERANCE & CO. 
Office, No. 320 Sansome street, Room 10. 



GOLD MINE WANTED. 

One now paying more than expenses. Address 

W. S. KEYES, M. B., 
No. 310 Pine St., Boom 42, San FranciBco. 



January 18, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



47 



EDISON'S ELECTRIC PEN and PRESS. 




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WHAT THEY SAY: 
"Ai food u a fuH-gr-'wn lithographic esuhlishmeiit." — Bakkr k Hamilton. 
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"Exceeds our most sanguine expectations." — H» Balzkh A: Co. 

*'I would not hv without it fi>r live times its cost."— Gko. Lbyistox, At ton icy -at -law. 
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"We would on no account dispense with it "— Ijipbrial, London, Noktiikkk and Qubbn Inbikanck Co.'h. 
Call on, or send for Circular and Samples of work to 

E. A DAKIN, Gen'l Agent for Pacific Coast, 209 Sansome St., S. F. 



Ingersoll Rock Drills. 

In use in the largest and best 
Mines of the Coast. 

HAS AUTOMATIC FEED. 

Has less Repairs. 

Is Lighter and more Easily Ad- 
justed than any other Drill. 
Our DRY AIR COMPRESSORS are the most Economical Compressors in the Market. 

MINERS' HORSE-POWER. 





This Power is especially adapted to working mines, hoist- 
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required these Powers are made in sections for packing. 



REYNOLDS, RIX & CO., 18 & 20 Fremont St., San Francisco. 



SANDERSON BROS. & GO.'S 

Best Refined Cast-Steel. 

Warranted Most Superior for Drills, Hammers, Etc. 

A full and complete stock of this reliable and well-known 
brand of Steel, for mining and other uses, now in stock and for sale 

At No- 417 Market St, S. F., - H. D. Morris, Agent. 



San Francisco Pioneer Screen Works. 

J. W. QUICK, Manufacturer, 



mm 



Several first premiums received 
I for Quart/, Mill Screens, and Per- 
1 forated Sheet Metals of every 
I description. I would call special 
I attention to my SLOT CUT and 
I SLOT PUNCHED SCREENS, 
I which are attracting much at- 
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Orders sollcitedand promptly attended to. 

32 Fremont Street. San Francisco. 
Much Obliged, Etc 

Portland, Oregon, June 26th, 1877. 
Dbwbt & Co., Patent Solicitors, S. F.— Gents: I am 
much obliged to you for courtesy shown me, and am much 
pleased with the manner in which you have done my bus- 
iness, and assure you, will cheerfully recommend you to 
my acquaintance needing such services. Hope to have a 
case again before long, of my own. I have been an inventor 
all ray life, but let others reap the benefit, or had work 
stolen from me. Please have the extra copies of my pa 
ent, etc., mailed to me direct, and oblige 

Yours truly, J. H. Woodrum. 



THE AMERICAN 



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rights registered through DEWEY & CO. 'S 
Mining and Scientific Press Patent 
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RUSSELL'S AMALGAMATOR. 




Patented June 25th, lbTS. 



SAVE YOTTIR, GOLD 
And Also SAVE YOUR QUICKSILVER. 

The above Washer and Amalgamator with new patent Wire Bridge Quicksilver Boxes attached, can be worked 
wet or dry, either by hand, steam, horse or water power, ami is fusily taken apart and packed. For washing Pulp, 
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Has been Thoroughly Tested and given Complete Satisfaction. 

The entire Lining, Hanging Plates, Riffles and Boxes Amalgamated 

IS GUARANTEED TO SAVE THE FINEST OR FLOAT GOLD. 

Capacity, 30 to 00 tons per day, according to size. For further particulars apply to 

J. MORIZIO, Gen'l Agt.. 

Room 24, Safo Deposit Building, Corner Montgomery and California Streets, SAN FRANCISCO. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

BRUSH PATENT. 
The Best, Cheapest, Cleanest, and Most Powerful Light in the World. 

In daily use at the Palace Hotel and the Union Iron Works, S. F. 




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48 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC' PRESS. 



[January 18. 1879. 




BURLEIGH BOCK DRILL 

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THAN ANY OTHER ROCK DRILL. LADDEE 

Trucks. 



Mining Machinery Depot, 

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AIR COMPRESSORS and ROCK DRILLS. 

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Centrifugal Pumps for Irrigating. BURLE|GH A|R C0MPRESS0R 

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Compressor Known. 

Putnam's Wood-Working Machinery. 



FIRE E2TGX2TES, 

Babcock Chemical Engines, 
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The FRUE ORE CONCENTRATOR 7 

Adams & Carter, Agents. 




JOHN -M. ADAMS. 



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Testimonials as to the perfect 
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MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

Room 7, No. 109 California St., San Francisco. P. 0. Box '2.0IJS. 



VULCAN BLASTING POWDER. 



The strongest and 
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THE NEVADA OVAL TOP RETORT. 

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Holds Pounds Quicksilver. . 1LJ 25 3S 50 63 75 125 

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i. 123 California _ 
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M/nnl/e ■>♦ SAN PABLO, California, I fi,,ir>P No. 123 California Street, 

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The Explorers'. Miners' & Metallurgists' Companion 

672 pages, S3 Illustration*. (2d. Edition.) Price 8 10 SO 

The Prospector's Patented "Wee Pet" Assayer 100 00 

The Testing machine for Gold. Silver, Lead. Etc.. 40 00 

Cabinet of Fluxes etc.. for these machines 20 00 

Pocket Laboratory for Blov/pipists 5000 

Vest Pocket Blowpipe 300 

CHARGES.— Ashaylno. §3; TESTiNa,"s2per' metal. 



A. S. HALLIDiE, 

nia^Streetj 



Office, No. I 
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iron and Steel Wire Rope, 

Flat and Round, for Mining flipping, 
Soisting and Qv^Tymposes. 

Having the/'moSt ctVRplete Jtmlextensive 
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any made at home or abrj 

Iron, S 

Of all 



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Circular. 

A. S. HAIXIDIE. 

Offlcs, No. e California St., San Francisco 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia & 50 Gold; St., IN. T. 




Mortars and Pestles, 

GROUND INSIDE. 



Size— Quarts \ 1 2 4 6 8 12 16 

Hight— Inches .. . 3i 5 6 74 Si 9 11 1 
Weight— Pounds . 6J 9 16 22 37 43 72 86 



Bullion Ladle. 



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Send for Circular and Prices. 



DUNHAM, CARRIGAN & CO., Agents, San Francisco. 



ell Drilling, Boring, 

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lOgfaBBt Award nt rmt^nnlnl Exlill.illtm. The beat nnd most 
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California Artesian Well & Mining Co. 

302 Sansomc Street, San Fra nciscn, Ctrl: 
E. P. UILL, Jhmii S or. J. IV. R. HILL, Engineer. 

Dealers in Well-Angers, Boch-Vrills, Wind- 
Mills, Tumps and Hydraulic Machinery, and 
Contractors for Artesian {Flowing) Wells of 
any depth to 3000 feet. 

(Machine*! anil Wells can be seen in operation.) 

03-AQFXTS W.4JfTED "Bft 



Dewey &Co{ 2 s ° 2 me s | n ; 



PatentAg'ts 



Paul's Pulverizing Barrel. 

Almarin B. Paul.— Sir:— Your Pulverizing Barrel I am 
much pleased with. It seems to combine all the requi- 
sites fir cheaply reducing', quartz to auy degree of fine- 
ness desired. As a ma hine for preparing ore for the 
Lixiviatixg Process, it certainly ig a most perfect one, 
from the fact that it will deliver the ore, in granulated 
form, no matter how fine it may be desired to have the 
grains, thus allowing rapid percolation of the dissolving 
liquid. Working in connection with crushers as I have 
used it, it certainly is ahead of any stamping machinery. 
J. O. faTEWART. 
For particulars and circulars apply to 

ALMARIN B. PAUL, 
Room 20, Safe Deposit Building, San Francisco. 



Engraving done at this office. 




An I Hast rated Journal of 



BV DEWKY A CO., 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1879. 



VOLUME 3t3CXVlIX 
Number -1. 



The Little Wonder. 

We illustrate herewith a bo IE - calculating 
sample and button weigher, for prospectors and 
assayers* use, a patent for which has just been 
obtaiuud through the MINING AND SCIENTIFIC 
PjtflflS Patent Agency, by Mr. J. S. Phillips, 
the well known author and mining engineer of 
this city. It is a combination in one device, of 
weighing scales, balances, weights, forceps, cal- 
culating tables, or scales, by which the iuventor 
provides a simple and ready apparatus, with 
which the prospector can accurately determine 
the dollars per ton in gold and silver, as well as 
the fineness and percentage. It is well named 
"The Little Wonder." 

The stand or case i3 made of metal, and has 
an open top and ends. Across the center is an 
upright grippiug piece, in which is an inverted 
knife edge, on which the beam is balanced. This 
metal beam has at one end and forming a per- 
manent part of it, a conical platinum cup, and 
at the other end a small knife-edged crook, on 
which may be hooked a little pan. To balance 
this aluminum pan when attached to the crook 
by a hook and silk cord, a balance-clasp is put 
on the beam. This clasp is shown snapped on 
to the forceps ready for use. When balanced by 
the clasp the pan can be used for weighing the 
sample bullion, and buttons in the usual manner. 

Ou the back of the case arc two lugs, L, 
which hold the beam in position, when it is not 
in use. The knife-edge, on 
which the beam rests, extends 
to the back of the case; and by 
sliding the gear back and slight- 
ly springing the ends under the 
lugs, it is held Krmly in place. 
The gudgeon piece or inverted 
kuife action is shownin the center 
of the beam. The weights for 
use on this beam are made in 
the form of riders, and are kept 
in the weight case, W, which 
has a cover, a3 shown, to keep 
them in place. Ou the beam is 
fitted a permanent adjunetory 
or regulating paper disk weight, 
which may be slid back or forth. 
The riders or weights are of 
different colors, for easier dis- 
crimination. 

On the inside of the case, under 
the beam, is placed a scale, 
marked or printed on paper 
marked cross lines, which 
ation with the different colored and weighted 
riders, will give the value in gold or silver bul- 
lion in dollars and cents, without the necessity 
of figures or any calculation whatever on the part 
of the operator, who is not even required to read 
figures as Done are used. 

The front part of the stand is turned over to 
form a circular hollow side, inside of which is 
placed the large bar weight, used as a balance 
for samples of ore. The heavy beam is made 
semi-tubular at its center, and on its closed side 
is made a diamond-shaped slot (shown in en- 
graving) by which the beam is kept in proper 
position on the knife top when in use. Two 
large pans, P, are used with this beam and are 
suspended from its ends by hooka andsilk cords. 
This beam is used for weighing samples of aurif- 
erous quartz and large silver assays. These 
pans have only two sides, which when not in 
use tit under the stand or case, the sides pro- 
jecting upward as shown, so as to encircle said 
case. The three weights used with these pans 
are made of different siz':s and colors. They 
are made of wire rod bent into S shape, 
indicating that they are self-calculating weights. 
These are used for weighing the samples to be 
assayed, the resultant button being weighed on 
the other beam bythe other weightsasdescribed. 

By weighing a sample of bullion or base metal 
ore to equal either of the riders, or any other 
quantity, by a rider-shaped weight, the thous- 
andth fine of such metals, or percentage of such 
ores may be known at sight after cupellation or 
reduction, by simply placing each of the several 
resultant buttons in the cup, and sliding the 
ame rider to correct the balance upon the other 
ud of the beam opposite the appropriate scale. 



It will be readily seen that by taking suitable 
quantities as provided by the large yellow bar 
for gold, and the yellow S weight for silver, 
not only the percentage aud thousandths line 
may be obtained as above, but also the value 
in dollars per ton for gold and silver, the same 
scale being common to all fire methods of as- 
saying. 

This device is extremely portable, the beams, 
weights, pans, pliers, all fitting together, as 
shown, so as to be slipped in a small box and put 
in the pocket. It affords a portable, convenient, 
self- calculator, and exceedingly delicate weigher 
of minute buttons, and such assays may be 
made with very great accurracy. But it 
may also be used for furnace assay buttons, 
either by its self-calculation or the scale, or for 
those who may prefer it, by attaching the pan 
and weighing by any decimated weights in the 
pan itself, which may still be read under the 
self-caculating mode or by any more ordinary 
manner. 

Being entirely portable, delicate and efficient, 
this apparatus is of great use to prospectors as 
it does away with the necessity of expensive 
balances which occupy considerable room and 
require care and skill in management, This 
apparatus contains all that is required for such 
simple assays as prospectors need to make, and 
obviates the necessity of any calculations being 
made, the weights, as described, being self-cal- 
culating. Itis specially devised forblow pipists. 

The illustration is full size, and the price of 
the whole apparatus is $25. 



Pacific Coast Cone-Bearers. — We begin 
this week the publication of a series' of articles 



Copper Metallurgy, 

Mr. Tulio Ospina, a student of the College of 
Mining of the University of California, proposes 
a modification in the precipitation of copper, by 
means of iron, in its extraction by the wet pro- 
cess, to be applied when the precipitating iron 
is in the shape of filings or won sponge, for the 
purpose of avoiding the mixing of the fine iron 
with the copper precipitates. 

The process consists in packing the iron into 
bags before putting it into the copper solution. 
It is based on the principle that the precipita- 
tion is effected in an electrolithic way — a fact 
that Mr. Ospina has proved conclusively by the 
following experiments: 

He packed some iron in a linen bag, with a 
piece of copper wire, in such a way that only a 
part of the latter would project outside of the 
bag. This having been placed in a solution of 
sulphate of copper, a thick layer of copper was 
deposited on the copper wire. 

A similar arrangement, but in which the 
copper wire was isolated from the iron by a 
piece of glass tubing, remained in the solution 
till all the copper was precipitated on the linen, 
while there was none on the wire. 

The precipitation, when effected in the pro- 
posed way, takes of course longer time thau if 
it were effected by uncovered iron; but not so 
much longer as it would seem at first sight, on 
account of the precipitation being electrolithic. 

Experiments made with bags of different 
kind3 of materials gave the following results, as 




PHILLIPS' SELF-CALCULATING SAMPLE AND BUTTON WEIGHER, FOR PROSPECTORS. 



with properly 
combiu- 



on the cone-bearers of California, written for 
the Press by Prof. J. G-. Lemmon, of Sierra 
Valley. Prof. Lemmon is well known to our 
readers as a botanist of high standing, and as a 
writer whose love of nature, brilliant imagina- 
tion and warm heart lie near his pen point and 
give a glow to all his composition. The series 
which we now have in baud will be found of a 
more popular character than the essays on the 
subject, by Prof. Asa Gray, which we published 
ast summer. They will, however, be no less 
accurate as scientific reviews of the subjects 
advanced. Prof. Lemmon has lived for years 
among the trees which he presents to his readers, 
and has studied them as familiar faces. To be 
sure of his accuracy on scientific points, the 
series has been examined by Dr. Engelmann, of 
St. Louis, who leads the van in this branch of 
botany. We trust that all our readers who are 
interested in trees (and who is not?) will study 
this series of articles carefully and acquire an 
accurate knowledge of this division of local 
botany, which will be always of educational 
and practical advantage to them. Prof. Lem- 
mon rloes public service by his writings of this 
kind, and we trust his reward for his honest 
work will come in due time,«from the pockets, 
as well as the hearts of the people. 

The London and San Francisco Bank has re- 
ceived a telegram from its London correspondent, 
announcing that Lawrence 0. Hall, the abscond- 
ing clerk who got away with about §40,000 of 
the bank's money, was arrested on the steamer 
Oceanic, but whether at Yokohama or Hong- 
kong the dispatch does not state. 

The United States sailing ship Comillution 
went ashore the other day on the English coast. 



to the amount of copper precipitated inside of 
the bag, and the relative time of the precipita- 
tion: 



Number of 
Threads per Centi- 
meter of the 
Staff. 


Percent of Copper 

Precipitate 

inside of the 

Bag. 


Length of Time 

Required 
for the Precipi- 
tation. 


12 
18 
31 


3.1 
2.0 
2.3 


5h 45" 
6h 60' 
8h 2' 



The precipitation has to be made at a high 
temperature, and from a solution not exceeding 
12° B, in order to obtain a loose precipitate, 
that can be easily detached from the bag. To 
make this, a canvas made of well-twisted threads 
is to be preferred. 

The applicability of this process, as that of 
all the metallurgical processes, depends on lo- 
cal circumstances; but so far, we do not see 
why it could not be used in the localities where 
only iron sponge is to be had as a precipitating 
agent for copper, with the advantage of saving, 
by the use of some more time and fuel, the ex- 
pense and trouble of refining the copper when 
it is mixed with a large amount of iron. 



Our series of articles on the quicksilver mines 
of old Almaden are concluded with a showing of 
the total product from 1564 to 1875, amounting 
to 120,000,000 tons in weight. Apropos, is the 
present value of quicksilver, for a graphic rep- 
resentation of which we are indebted to a fluctu- 
ation profile prepared by Mr. J. B. Randol, cov- 
ering the period from 1850 to 1877. The price 
was lower in 1877 than ever before, during the 
period mentioned, except in 1861 and 1862, 
averaging between 40 and 50 cents per pound. 



Academy of Sciences. 

The regular-meeting of the Academy of Scien- 
ces was held on Monday evening last. Dr. 
Blake read a paper on "The Rainfall in Differ- 
ent Parts of the State." It was shown that 
nearly all points on the coast receive more rain 
than San Francisco. The largest fall last year 
was at Truckee, viz., 87$ inches. 

Dr. Kellogg read a description of a Japanese 
plant, purporting to be a superior substitute for 
asparagus, cooked and eaten in the same way. 
The seeds of this plant had been brought from 
Japan, but it had been cultivated here by Dr. 
Kellogg and Mr. Harford, successfully, and the 
specimen of the plant exhibited was that raised 
here. 

A paper upon the "Genesis of Cinnabar De- 
posits" was read by S. B. Christy. The pur- 
pose of the paper was to determine whether cin- 
nabar deposits were formed, as is usually sup- 
posed, by volatibzation or from solutions. In 
the first place, the most noted cinnabar mines 
were briefly considered, and that of New Alma- 
den was minutely described. Second, a brief 
statement of the chemical properties of cinna- 
bar, as at present known, was given, showing 
that the present state of knowledge was in- 
sufficient to explain the formation of cinnabar 
in the wet way. Third, the results of some 
original experiments made by the author at the 
University of California were described. These 
experiments were undertaken at 
temperatures of from 150° to 
250° Centigrade, and at pres- 
sures of steam of from 200 to 
500 pounds per square inch. The 
results showed that cinnabar was 
soluble in the alkaline sulphides 
under these circumstances. The 
author succeeded in producing 
artificial cinnabar similar to that 
which occurs in nature. Also 
from the New Alnviden Vichy 
water by addiDg sulphydric acid, 
in a similar manner, cinnabar 
was produced. Fourth and lastly, 
the author discussed the relative 
probabilities of the rival theories, 
and showed by a preponderance 
of evidence that the depositts of 
cinnabar, as they exist at 
present in situ, are undoubtedly 
the result of deposit from solu- 
tion in solutions of the alkaline carbonates. 

Prof. Davidson expected to have read a paper 
"On Instruments of Precision," but illness pre- 
vented his attending the meeting. The paper 
will probably be read at the meeting on the 
first Monday in February. 

Tricks that are Vain. 

We have been favored with another example 
—from Mr. J. S. Phillips, M. E.— where a 
peculiar method of salting had evidently been 
used. It consisted in dissolving an ordinary 
amalgam of silver and mercury in sulphuric 
acid, dipping porous sand-stones in the solution, 
and then disguising the excess of acid by am- 
monia. 

The suspicious character of the stones and the 
peculiarly precious story of a mile square of 
such high ($500) average rock, induced the in- 
tended victim to seek chemical aid, which 
exposed unnatural quantities of sulphur, quick- 
silver, and even ammonia. 

Subsequent examination of the so-called valu- 
able property led to its condemnation, as none 
of these substances were found on the extensive 
scale described, in otherwise similar natural 
formations. 



An organized raid has been made by the Los 
Angeles police on the Chinese opium dens, and 
for the first time a law is found to fit their case. 
These places will now probably be entirely 
broken up. 

Secretary Sherman, on Saturday, called for 
redemption $20,000,000 of 5.20 bonds of 1S65, 
consols of 1867. 



50 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



[January 25, 1879. 



Correspondence. 



We admit, imendoraed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds. 



About the Snake River Gold Mines. 

How to Save tlie Gold. 

"Editors Press : — In reference to the Snake 
river country I will give you what I know to 
be facts, partly from personal observation and 
from information gathered from reliable parties 
who have but recently returned, among them 
Prof. J. E. Clayton. You say that many peo- 
ple at the Bay think the Snake river reports a 
humbug, aud got up in the interests of traders, 
etc. This is quite an erroneous opinion. I have 
had men in my employ for years who were 
prospecting that stream in 1870, following it up 
from Taylor's bridge for 400 miles ; they 
reported then finding gold all the way up, but 
bo fine that they could not make wages with 
pan and rocker, but used amalgamated copper 
plates, then making high wages. They did not 
prospect then for lodes or veins bearing gold, but 
followed up the stream for coarser placer gold, 
that could be saved in the sluices. They were 
not prepared at that time, to try the plates as 
thoroughly as they are used now, but used 
quicksilver in riffle boxes. They reported find- 
ing bars where they could make four and five 
dollars a day to the hand on the average, and 
sometimes $30, $40 and §50 per day, but were 
much harassed and troubled by Indians attempt- 
ing to steal their stock. 

The whole valley and river bottom is fre- 
quented by the Snakes, Shoshones, and other 
tribes, for fishing purposes. The stream affords 
any amount of sturgeon, salmon, and various 
kinds of fish. The sturgeon are very large, 
some of them weighing 150 pounds. Though 
supposed to be friendly, the Indians of this 
region have always shown a disposition to annoy 
small, parties. 

The river bottom is not a continuous valley. 
In many places it runs through barren sage 
brush plains ; in other portions through beauti- 
ful fertile valleys. But little timber is found, 
except cofctonwoods upon the immediate banks 
of the river, until it turns north towards the 
Columbia, and above the first canyon. This is 
situated 30 miles or more above Taylor's bridge, 
and is 25 miles long. 

Most of the mining was done in '70 and '71, 
below the bridge. The bedrock there, is a lava 
rock ; and the gold on the bars is in sand with 
fine shells, but very little clay is found. Above 
the canyon there are extensive gravel beds 50 
feet high, showing cement gravel where the 
river has changed its bed, good gravel claims 
will no doubt be found. Above this the stream 
forks into the north, middle and east forks. On 
some of these good hydraulic claims were opened 
several years ago, and it is said coarser gold was 
found on some of the branches. 

That it is a gold country for 400 miles along 
Snake river, does not admit of a doubt. If 
there are any traders to be benefited by reports, 
they have established themselves lately, and 
since we passed through the country in '71. It 
is a good stock range and a great game country, 
ducks, geese, deer, antelope and hare are plenti- 
ful along the whole stream. That portion of it 
now being prospected, runs through several 
detached spurs of the Rocky and Blue moun- 
tain ranges. These canyons are steep, rocky 
and hard to penetrate with animals. Here of 
course, there is plenty of fall, but very little 
chance to get at the river bed. Outside of these 
gorges where the river spreads out and forms 
bars, there is but little fall and water. To get 
any considerable head, water will have to be 
brought long distances — if indeed that is 
practicable, on account of the sandy nature of 
the soil. Doubtless gold will be found in the 
vicinity of small branches and the canyons 
above referred to, where water may be obtained 
without pumping it from the river. 

The Present Method of Saving the Gold 
Is simply adapting the mill process of saving 
the gold outside of the batteries ; and parties 
succeed who copy this process as nearly as 
possible, provided always that there is plenty 
of gold to save. 

I read with much pleasure the opinions of 
Messrs. Attwood and Paul, on gold amalgama- 
tion, rusty gold, etc. They are both gentlemen 
of long practical experience, and their ideas 
tally with the settled convictions of a large 
majority of old miners and millmen. Ask them 
to explain through your columns, why it is that 
gold scraped from a retort- will not readily amal- 
gamate. Such is the fact; sometimes a little 
adheres to the bottom when the retort has been 
overheated; on chipping this off it is difficult to 
make the gold amalgamate with clean quick- 
silver. I often thought of trying to ascertain 
the cause, but never attempted to do so; and it 
is now several years since I have had the op- 
portunity. Mining in this section is confined to 
silver and galena ores. 

In conclusion, without going minutely into 
the details of gold amalgamation, I will say in 
general terms, the slower the gold can be made 
to pass over the plates, the more will adhere to 
them. It is scarcely necessary to say the more 
perfectly the gold is freed from clay, sand and 
all other sticky gangue matter, before it reaches 
the plates, the better; for the reason that if 
much remains you must either use a large head 
of water, or set the plates steep; either of which 
is against close amalgamation. In placer min- 



ing the gold is nearly always mixed with more 
or less clay. It is absolutely necessary to free 
the gold from this before its reaches the plates. 
To do this it often requires a large and swift 
head of water in the sluices. The sluices should 
be sufficiently long to have the clay forked back 
until completely torn to pieces, and dissolved, 
so that nothing but riley water passes over the 
plates. Before the rush of water reaches them, 
make a quicksilver trap; a box six or eight 
inches deep between the last sluice and the 
plates. In the center of this, crosswise of the 
sluice, a gate. Put an inch of quicksilver in 
the box and push the gate down close to it, so 
that everything goes down on the upper side of 
the gate, into the silver, and up on the lower 
side into the amalgamated plates — having taken 
a quicksilver bath. Below the trap a table 
should be used much wider than the sluices, 
and the water spread over it by stops and cleats, 
with just force enough to clean them of sand. 
Keep the amalgam as soft as it may be without 
breaking and running off the plate. Use rubber 
belting to scrape your plates, and do not scrape 
to clean at first; have plenty of amalgam on 
them, you will not lose by it. Trulv yours, 

'"49er." 
Park City, Summit Co., Utah, Jan. 1st, 1879. 

Undercurrent Wheels for Hoisting and 
Washing Gravel. 

Editors Press: — Much has been said and 
written in the Press about dip wheels and their 
uses. Such a wheel has been erected this sum- 
mer on Poverty Bar, on the middle fork of the 
American river, Placer county, California, by 
five workingmen, no other capital except their 
labor and brains, combined with indomitable 
will ; they deserve much credit for their energy 
and perseverance. The wheel is doing excellent 
service, and they are being amply rewarded for 
their labors by working a fine claim, which is 
paying well. 

The size of the dip wheel is 4S feet diameter 
and 8 feet breast. The buckets are 15 inches 
wide on each side of the wheel. It lifts 12» 
inches of water 48 feet, and discharges it into a 
ditch 500 feet long. This water is the power 
for hoisting the dirt with a derrick and pumps 
the water over 25 inches. The pit is 40 feet 
deep. 

The latter wheel is 29 feet diameter, 4 feet 
breast. They raise about 30 cars per hour ; 
each car weighs 1,400 pounds. This water is 
also used to wash the dirt, and there is plenty 
of water for all purposes. 

Now will any of your readers tell us how 
much water (miners' inches) it requires to run 
the big wheel, and lift from 125 to 175 inches 
of water 48 feet ? 

By giving this a place in your valuable paper 
you will much oblige a constant reader. 

John Hemsley. 



Cosmic Meteorology.— No. 1. 

[Written for the Press by Samuel Purnei>l.] 
Some of the readers of the Press may remem- 
ber that about a year ago a series of articles was 
published over my signature on "Trees and 
Rainfall," in which it was attempted to be 
shown how summer rains can be produced in 
California. The lapse of a year has further con- 
vinced me as to the soundness of the views 
therein expressed, to the effect that a consider- 
able rainfall could be induced during the hot 
months of summer by the maintenance of trees. 
In one of the articles some reference was made 
to the recently-arisen question of the relation of 

Sun-spots and EainfaU, 
And the extreme probability of the amount of 
rainfall upon the Pacific coast of the United 
States being dominated by the 11 years sun- 
spot period; also that, as the year 1877 was one 
of a minimum sun-spot group, I considered it 
probable that the ensuing winter would be 
what is locally known as "dry;" that is, a win- 
ter when the average rainfall throughout Cali- 
fornia is not sufficient to secure fair crops 
throughout the State. Inasmuch as nearly 
twice the annual average of rain actually fell, 
the failure of the prophecy hazarded, was so 
complete as to be almost ridiculous. The 
grounds of this supposition were, in brief, as 
follows: That as all terrestrial motion depends 
upon the sun, more or less activity of the sun 
will cause more or less activity in the motive 
powers at work upon the earth ; that after many 
years of observation it has been ascertained 
that the activity and dynamic qualities of the 
sun vary from year to year, and in a cycle aver- 
aging eleven and one-ninth years; and that 
thiB variation is coincident with, and more or 
less dependent upon, the increase and diminu- 
tion of the sun-spots; that when the surface of 
the sun is thickly covered with spots, its 
potency is enormously magnified, and the solar 
forces which govern all terrestrial phenomena 
are correspondingly exalted; that during the 
period of minimum suu-spots the activity of the 
sun is greatly lessened, as shown by the insig- 
nificance of the chromo- sphere, the prominen- 
ces, and the corona; that while the whole scope 
of the power and influence of sun-spots, or of 
that solar condition of which they are indica- 
tive, is not much understood, yet enough is 
known to strongly affirm that the potency of the 
leading terrestrial physical phenomena advances 



and recedes as does the quantity of the sun- 
spots; and that a cycle of magnetic declination, 
of aurora polares, of cyclones, of temperature, 
and of rainfall exists coincidently with, if not 
completely governed by, the sun-spot cycle; and 
that while the winter rainfall of California did 
not, as yet, exhibit exact accordance relatively 
with the sun-spot curve, it appears to be chiefly 
influenced by the varying solar state, the maxi- 
mum and minimum of rainfall generally occur- 
ring in the maximum and minimum sun-spot 
year-groups respectively; and that there can be 
little doubt of the truth of the broad assertion 
that, taking the entire surface of the earth, the 
totality of the rainfall is strictly variable rela- 
tively with the solar spots. 

But the time for prophecy has not yet come; 
knowing the law of the totality of rainfall, its 
local distribution is but feebly understood, and 
cannot be predicted. Why, in 1877-8, a year 
of the minimum sun-spot group, California 
should have received a maximum rainfall, I do 
not know, have no means of knowing, nor do I 
know of anyone who will venture a theory upon 
the cause. Evidently, there is much yet to be 
ascertained before the rainfall of any particular 
place can be confidently and scientifically pre 
dieted far in advance; but very much, indeed, 
has been accomplished when one is able to say 
that the totality of rainfall agrees with the va- 
riation of a well-known heavenly phenomenon; 
and 

The Day will Come 
When cosmic and terrestrial meteorology will 
each be so thoroughly understood that the local 
rainfall of California, or of any other State, can 
be accurately predicted many years in advance. 
When this, now intricate and insoluble problem 
is mastered, the coming man will have learned 
how to produce rain. 

Although the rainfall for 1877-S,upon the 
Pacific coast of America, was so largely in ex- 
cess of the indications, yet the influence of the 
minimum sun was remarkable in many other 
parts of the world, and the moisture that should 
have fallen upon their drouthy lands, was in- 
stead poured upon this coast. From Alaska to 
the equator the Pacific coast received, with some 
exceptions, from one and a half to three times 
its mean annual rainfall, and most of the entire 
continent of North America and western Europe 
is reported to have received more rain than 
upon the average. In contradistinction to this, 

Australia, 
In the summer of 1877-8,suffered a severe douth J 
the famine of India still continued; northern, 
China experienced a drouth and resultant famine 
that cost millions of lives; the Sandwich islands 
and other Pacific islands suffered from an un- 
precedented drouth; Brazil encountered her 
most disastrous drouth of the century; in the 
northern States of Mexico a drouth and famine 
prevailed to such an extent that provisions had 
to be imported; in New Guinea the natives 
suffered frightfully from a drouth; a drouth that 
caused the failure of crops prevailed on the 
western coast of South America; Persia and the 
central plateaus of Asia were also devastated by 
drouth; and, no doubt, when the returns shall all 
he made up, it will be seen that upon the whole, 
the rainfall of the last season was largely below 
the mean. Thus it will be seen that there were 
weighty reasons for the belief that California 
would, last season, meet with a " dry winter;" 
and why it did not, will in the future appear 
from the law of variation, to be discovered. 

It will be interesting to examine briefly the 
Literature of Sun-Spots 
And their correlative manifestations; to look 
into their cause, nature and character, their 
periodicity, the like and almost equal peri- 
odicity of magnetic variation, of cyclones, 
of aurora polaris, of hurricanes and marine 
losses, of epidemics, of disease, and of drouths 
and rainfall. 

The literature of sun-spots commences with 
the dawn of history. In very ancient times 
black spots upon the face of the sun were, of 
course, observed when large enough to be seen 
by the unassisted eye (?) They are supposed to 
be mentioned in the first Georgic of Virgil. The 
Chinese recorded the appearance of sun-spots 
A. I). 321; and Acosta says the natives of Peru 
told the Spanish invaders that the sun's face 
had, in former times, been marked with spots. 
In the year A. D. 807,alargespot wasseenonthe 
sun for eight successive days. In 1611 the first 
scientific observations upon the spots were made 
by Fabricius ; and sobn after Galileo began to study 
them, pursuing the subject with such diligence 
that he lost his eyesight. But no systematic 
observations were made till Hofrath Schwabe 
took up the subject in 1826, who, after about 12 
years' labor, first recognized their periodicity. 
It is almost needless to say that no one believed 
his report. He then labored on for 20 years 
more, till he had completed the observation of 
three complete oscillations from maximum to 
minimum and back again, during which time he 
made about 9,000 observations and discovered 
4,700 groups of spots. It was principally from 
a study of Schwabe's observations that Prof. Ru- 
dolf Wolf, of Zurich, deduced the periods of os- 
cillation as 11.11 years. Schwabe's observations 
were improved upon by Mr. Carrington, of 
England, and by Dr. De la Rue and Prof. Bal- 
four Stewart. Dr. Wolf has published a list 
of the mean relative number of sun-spots for 
each year from 1750 to 1S77. Although some- 
what inaccurate for those years prior to 1820, 
when Schwabe began his exact observations, 
this list exhibits 11 cycles of sun-spots, giving 
an average of 11 1-9 years to each cycle. 

These Cycles 
Of solar activity have been proved to be coin- 



cident and correlative with several well marked 
cycles in the atmospheric and other conditions 
of the earth, attention having been chiefly given 
to the correspondence in four particulars: 1st, 
periodical variations in terrestrial magnetism 
and electrical activity; 2d, -periodical variations 
in temperature; 3d, the periodicity of wind dis- 
turbances, hurricanes and cyclones; 4th/ the 
periodicity of the total rainfall. 

In the condensation of the facts of the several 
discoveries and publications upon these subjects, 
as given below, I am chiefly indebted to the ad- 
mirable resume of the whole subject by Messrs. 
J. N. Lockyer and Dr. W. W. Hunter, in a late 
issue of the Nineteenth Cenfatry. 

1. With regard to the 

Sympathetic Periodicity 
Of terrestrial magnetism and electrical activity. 
The magnetic needle, though seemingly still, is 
yet always in motion. Certain of these motions 
depend on the hour of the day; others on the 
rotation of the sun, moon, etc., but the magnet 
is liable to irregular and abrupt fluctuations 
which cannot be connected with the daily oscil- 
lations. Sir Edward Sabine found that such 
fluctuations are most frequent in years of high 
sun-spot activity, which relatively had been 
suggested as far back as 1785. Gauss made 
further discoveries between 1S34 and 1837. 
Arago's observations from 1820 to 1830, pub- 
lished in 1854, further established the relation. 
In 1851, Dr. Lamont published his long-con- 
tinued researches, indicating the existence of a 
cycle of magnetic variations, occupying, as he 
believed, on an average 10£ years. Sabine in 
1852 carried on the work still further, and he 
observed that the irregular fluctuations of the 
magnet were almost invariably accompanied by 
displays of the aurora polaris, and concluded 
that auroral displays occurred most frequently 
in years of maximum sun-spots, a conclusion 
which has since been completely verified. Dr. 
Wolf and M. Gautier had independently re- 
marked in 1852 the coincidence of the decennial 
magnetic period with Schwabe's period of sun- 
spots. In 1865, Prof. Loomis, of Yale college, 
supplied further evidence on the range of the 
magnetic declination and auroras in their rela- 
tions to sun-spots. He concluded that the au- 
roras observed in Europe and America exhibited 
a true periodicity, closely following the mag- 
netic periods. Signor Schiaparelli, in 1875, 
made important contributions to this subject, 
as did also Sophus Tromholdt in 1S75, and Dr. 
J. A. Brown in 1876. The latter gave the mean 
duration of the magnetic cycle at 10.45 years, 
and he supplied a valuable chart showing the 
decennial period of the diurnal range of the 
magnetic declination and the sun-spot area from 
1784 to 1876. The curves show the general co- 
incidence of the magnetic and sun-spot cycles in 
a clear light. In 1877, Prof. Balfour Stewart 
reviewed the whole question, and exhibited the 
sun-spots, magnetic declination, and auroras 
from 1776 to 1872 in curves which follow each 
other with indisputable coincidence. He 
further examined the connections of these three 
coincident cycles with the planetary configura- 
tions, the result of which will be stated further 
on. It has been observed in England that 
earth -currents disturbing magnetometers, and 
telegraphic instruments are in close relationship 
with auroras and sun-spots; and that magnetic 
storms occur most severely during periods of 
maximum sun-spots. "To sum up," says Lock- 
yer and Hunter, "magnetic observers now hold 
that not only do the spasmodic fluctuations of 
the needle follow closely, curves coincident with 
the sun-spots, but its diurnal oscillations are 
not less dependent on the state of the sun's sur- 
face." 

2. With regard to solar radiation and 

Thermometric Variations 
Many difficulties complicate this line of research, 
and the evidence is less complete than that 
which connects the other phenomena mentioned 
with the sun-spots. The reasons for this will 
be plain upon a little reflection. The tempera- 
ture range that must first be had, is that of the 
universal mean, and this, of course, cannot be 
obtained till there is a universality of thermome- 
tric observations and records. The mean 
temperature of one locality, or even the average 
mean of a hundred localities, it is plain can 
serve, but as a coarse approximation, to the 
mean total temperature. Unlike the instan- 
taneous and universal operation of terrestrial 
magnetism and atmospheric electricity, which 
can be nearly as well observed in one place as 
another, and almost as completely in one place 
as in a hurdred, heat is, as far as can now be 
said, altogether local in its appearance, power 
and duration, and, as is well known, the mean 
temperature of every locality is an individual 
quantity, varying from that of its neighbors. 

The atmosphere is the scene where the solar 
energies are incessantly in operation; and when 
most active, are most screened from the surface. 
There is evidence to show that the vapor of 
water, like the vapors of metals, exists in vari- 
ous molecular conditions, some of which are 
transparent and some are opaque to those rays 
which affect our thermometers ; and, according 
to Mr. Lockyer, there is evidence to suggest 
that the aqueous vapor produced at the period of 
minimum sun-spots would be more transparent 
to the heat rays than that produced at other 
times. The thermometric inquiry divides itself 
into several distiuct branches, such as the direct 
solar radiations, the calorific intensity of the 
sun's light, the daily temperature range, and 
the mean annual temperature, all of which must 
be passed by with slight notice, as this paper is 
more particularly devoted to the question of 
the relation of sun-spots and rainfall. 



January 25, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



51 



/^>V f ■ 

gECHANICAL ^ROGRESS. 



Dry Plumbago vs. Oil in Steam Cylinders. 

A correspondent of the American Machinist, 
has been experimenting with the ore of dry 
plumbago as a substitute fur tallow and oils lor 
steam cylinders. The correspondent, who is an 
engineer of some years' standing, writes as fol- 
lows: The engine upon which the experiment 
was tried wasau 1 lx3<i horizontal engine; piston 
s|M't_''l, 300 Feet |n;r minute, and was known aa 
tin? "West Poppet- Valve! Automatic Engine." 
It wxs worked np to its foil capacity, and, to 
insure a fair trial, the existing oil-cup was ex- 
changed for a goblet-ahaped tallow-cup with a 
lid, after which the piston-follower aud springs 
were taken out and cleaned. When ready to 
start the engine, one-third of an ounce of finely 
powdered Ceylon plumbago was placed in the 
cup. As soon as the engine was fairly under 
way, the valve of the grease-cup was opened 
halt' way. After running some time it Was 
opened all the way. When the engine was 
stopped at noon, the plumbago had all passed 
into the cylinder, of which there had been 
strong evidence, soon after starting, as the pis- 
ton-rod became coated with it. Upon starting 
up in the afternoon, one-third of an ounce more 
was placed in the cup, and the engine run until 
six clock, with a similar result. There was 
no noise in the cylinder, either in the starting, 
running, or stopping of the engine; and after 
18 months' use, with the above-named quan- 
tity applied twice a day, no noiso has been 
heard 111 the cylinder, except when the sttam 
was shut off for the purpuse of stopping the en- 
gine, when it would be heard during one or two 
Btrokes of the piston, just before the engine 
■topped. This occurred not oftener than 
would have taken place if tallow or oil had been 
medi Soon after beginning its use, a portion 
of the plumbago would be found remaining in 
the cup; to obviate this, about an ounce of wa- 
ter was poured into the cup, after the plum- 
bago had been put in, when a decided improve- 
ment waa observed, so much so, that it can now 
be fed iuto the cylinder as readily as oil or tal- 
low. After four weeks' use, the cylinder-head 
was taken off and the working part of the cyl- 
inder was found coated with plumbago which 
could not be easily rubbed off with the fingers; 
the interior of the piston was found as clean as 
when it left the lathe, so far as dirt of any kind 
was concerned, and such is the condition to this 
day. 

Gas ENGINES.— A successful gas engine is 
something that is greatly needed for many pur- 
poses, especially wnen but small power is re- 
quired, and particularly on crowded business 
streets in cities, where the presence of steam 
boilers are not desirable. Just at this time the 
Otto gas engine seems to be attracting much at- 
tention. At a recent meeting of the Franklin 
Institute, in Philadelphia, the chief attraction 
of the evening was the new "Otto sUent gas 
engine," which was placed upon the stage, and, 
after an explanation of its various parts, as 
shown upon a screen by the aid of stereopticon, 
was set to work. It was claimed that for per- 
sons requiring a moderate use of power, this 
motor is the best that could be devised. It is 
at all times ready for use, either continuouslyor 
iutermittently; can he started and stopped read- 
ily; burns not more than four and a half cents' 
worth of gas per hour per horse power; is en- 
tirely free from the danger of explosion, as no 
steam is used; there are no coals, ashes, dirt or 
smoke; costs nothing when idle, and but little 
when running, and is almost noiseless. The 
charge of gas (or petroleum) aud compressed air 
burns readily, and the combustion is automa- 
tically regulated with very little shock to any of 
the parts, in proportion to the power developed. 

HttAVY Rails Preferable. — English engi- 
neers are fast coming to the conclusion that 
heavy steel rails are economical. They enter- 
tained this belief long ago, and it was based 
upon scientific reasons. Now that steel is so 
very cheap, their scientific views are more than 
confirmed. The Phcenix Bessemer Steel Com- 
pany are now making exceptionally heavy rails 
for the Midland Railway Company, the weight 
being 85 pounds to the yard. A heavy rail like 
this ensures a smooth run, and adds to the 
safety of the train. Rails now in course of de- 
livery by the Dronfield Steel Works to the 
Great India Peninsular railway are 80 pounds 
to the yard. 

Iron and Steel. — In the course of his ad- 
dress to the Sosiety of Arts, recently, Lord 
A. Churchill called attention to the enor- 
mous development of the steel manufacture 
during the last two or three decades. So rapidly, 
he said, was it taking the place of iron, that an 
eminent engineer has said the days of iron arc 
numbered, and that 50 years hence it wouid be 
unknown. 



The steel product of the whole world 20 
years ago amounted to little more than 300,000 
tons, at an average cost of about $150 a ton. 
Last year the production went beyond 2,200,000 
tons, and its cost only showed an average of $60 
a ton, a falling off in cost of production of 60%. 

A New Combination Rail. — The latest de- 
vice for a rail consists of two outer steel plates, 
two inner iron plates, with a lead plate between 
them, and strips of paper between the iron and 
.steel plates, the whole united by bolts. 



Making Lumber from Straw. 

A person named S. If. Hamilton, of Bush- 
nell, Illinois, has been in this city for two or 
three days past, with samples of lumber, which 
has attracted much attention among the lum- 
bermen and which, if it possesses all the vir- 
tues that arc claimed for it, is one of the most 
Important inventions 6T its kind evi-r brought 
to notice. If it is a success it will form a new 
era in the art of building. To make hard wood 
lombei out of common wheat straw, with all 
effects of polish and finish which is obtainble 
on the hardest of black walnut and mahogany, 
at as little cost as clear pine lumber can be 
manufactured for, is certainly wonderful. Such 
are the claims of Mr. Hamilton for the straw- 
board lumber which he has been exhibiting in 
this city, and the samples which ho produces 
would go Ear toward verifying his claims. The 
process of manufacture, as explained by Mr. 
Hamilton, is as follows: Ordinary straw 
board, such as is manufactured at any paper 
mill, is used for this purpose. As many sheets 
are taken as aro required to make the thickness 
of lumber desired. These sheets are passed 
through a chemical solution, which thoroughly 
softens up the tlber and completely saturates it. 
The whole is then passed through a succession 
of rollers, dried and hardened during thepassage, 
as well as polished, and comes out of the other 
end of the machine hard, dry lumber, ready 
for use. Mr. Hamilton claims that the chemi- 
cal properties hardening in the fiber entirely 
prevent water soaking, and render the lum- 
ber combustible only in a very hot fire. The 
hardened finish on the outside also makes it 
impervious to water. The Bamples which Mr. 
Hamilton exhibits could hardly be told from 
hard wood lumber, and in sawing it the dif- 
ference could not be detected. It is susceptible 
of a very high polish, and samples of imitation 
of marble, mahogany, etc., were shown, which 
might deceive the most experienced eye. Not 
only does Mr. Hamilton claim a substitute for 
lumber in sash, doors and blinds and finishing 
stuff, but also as a substitute for black walnut 
and other woods in the manufacture of all 
kinds or fine furniture, coffins, etc., and also 
an excellent substitute for marble in marble-top 
tables, mantle pieces, bureaus, etc. He claims 
that it will not warp in the least. Mr. Hamil- 
ton is negotiating with parties here, with a 
view of establishing a manufactory in this city 
for making the various articles of building ma- 
terial for which his lumber is suitable. — Osh- 
kosh, Wis., Northwestern. 



Flint Bricks.— Under the title of "Improve- 
ments in furnaces and other building blocks, 
retorts, crucibles, and other fire-resisting ar- 
ticles" a patent has recently been taken by Mr. 
D. Selwey, of Bridgend, Glamorganshire, for 
bricks composed of pure flint, without the ad- 
mixture of alumina or any other substance to 
detract from the high refractory character of 
the material. The inventor treats the flints in 
such a manner as to produce from' them, when 
in a pulverized condition, bricks or blocks of 
great structural strength and durability, supe- 
rior in fire-resisting properties, it is said, to the 
best descriptions of fire-clay goods. His pat- 
ent also extends to the manufacture of arti- 
ficial stone for building purposes. The material 
when burned resembles a fine-grained freestone, 
and is sufficiently hard to resist the action of 
the weather. It is in furnace work and similar 
applications, however, that these bricks are ex- 
pected to be most successful. 

A New Rotary Engine. — Mr. Babbitt, the 
well-known soap manufacturer, of New York, 
has invented a rotary steam engine, which is 
said to develop extraordinary power, with a 
very small steam supply. A correspondent of 
the American Machinist reports having seen 
one, four inches in diameter, running 20,000 
revolutions a minute, with steam supplied by 
an one-eighth-inch pipe, which defied the 
efforts of the heaviest men to stop it by throw- 
ing their weight upon a good lever. 

Malleable Brass. — A German periodical is 
responsible for the following method of making 
malleable brass: Thirty-three parts of copper 
and twenty-five of zinc are alloyed, the copper 
being first put into the crucible, which is loosely 
covered. As soon as the copper is melted, zinc 
purified by sulphur is added. The alloy is then 
cast into molding sand in the shape of bars, 
which, when still hot, will be found to be mal- 
leable and capable of being brought into any 
shape without showing cracks. 

An Immense Locomotive. — An immense lo- 
comotive has recently been built at Philadel- 
phia for the Mexican and Southern Pacific rail- 
road. The engine weighs within a fraction of 
60 tons, has 8 driving wheels, and a pony 
(two-wheel) truck. The weight is so great that 
the Western railroads, over which it must pass, 
will not permit it to go over bridges, so it will 
be taken to pieces and carried over in sections. 
It passed over all the bridges of the Pennsyl- 
vania road without being dismantled. 

Edison's Mechanical Device.— One of the 
most interesting aud useful of the mechanical 
devices which Mr. Edison employs in his elec- 
tric light apparatus is his plan to prevent the 
wire fusing, and th\a it is claimed, has been 
accomplished by so applying a small bar that it 
will expand the instant the wire reaches the 
fusing point and intercept the flow of the 
current through the wire sufficiently to prevent 
fusion. 



Jl 



CIENTIFIC 



ROGRESS. 



Bioplasm. 

Among the recent discoveries in science, none 
perhaps will prove of more utility to man than 
those relating to bioplasm, because they throw 
light on physiological questions, particularly 
those concerning the construction and nutrition 
of the body and the causes of disease. It was 
formerly supposed that our bodies were alive 
from top to toe, inside and out ; but this is 
found to be a mistake. Only about one-fifth 
part is alive ; the rest is formed material. 
Everybody knows that a tree may become so 
hollow that only a shell is left ; yet the tree 
may grow and mature buds aud leaves and fruit. 
It is because the outside of the tree — the bark — 
is alive ; the wood is non-living ; it is simply 
formed material. Now the body is not like the 
tree — alive only on the outside ; but the living 
portion and the formed material exist together 
in every part — in every tissue, organ and ves- 
sel. 

A slight abrasion of the cuticle, or the rupture 
of a cell, is followed by particles of fluid which 
were formerly overlooked as of no account. But 
the microscope has revealed to us that this ap- 
parently useless, insignificant ooze is the vital, 
living part of the body ; it is bioplasm. 

This is the mechanic, the skilled artist, that 
constructs the cells, builds the organs, and per- 
haps, under the direction of a higher power, 
adapts each part to one harmonious whole. 

For the last 15 years, certain English and 
German physiologists have spent much time 
with the microscope, watching this little work- 
man. They have seen it forming tissue, muscle 
and nerve, changing food into blood, making 
the secretions; and, as parts of the body became 
worn aud effete, silently disintegrating and 
utilizing them, or removing the useless parts 
from the body, 

The first decided knowledge of bioplasm came 
by accident (if finding a thing we are searching 
for can be called accident ; is it not rather 
revelation ?), by ascertaining that when a piece 
of live tissue is immersed in a solution of car- 
mine the bioplasm is stained, and the formed 
material is not stained. This discovery has 
enabled observers to find and watch this little 
workman, while busy in constructing every part 
of the body. 

Bioplasm is the builder not only of the body, 
but of all animals and plants. To it every or- 
ganized form, whether animal or vegetable, 
owes its formation and growth. 

Bioplasm is a clear, colorless fluid, like thin 
mucus. Only microscopes of the highest power 
are of use in studying the substance; for the 
largest normal masses are not one- thousandth of 
an inch in diameter ; but such microscopes fail 
to detect in it the least sign of organization. 
Yet this apparently unorganized substance is 
the cause of all organization. It is a medium 
through which dead inorganic matter becomes 
living; organized. — Journal of Chemistry. 



Possible Effect of the Moon in Early Geo- 
logic Time. — Inanoteto Nature, Mr. VV. Davies 
writes: "In considering the climatic changes 
which have evidently taken place on various 
parts of the earth's surface, it seems to me that 
what may have been a very important factor 
has been rather strangely left out of calculation 
by physicists, never having been noticed hither- 
to, as far as I am aware. It is that of the heat 
which must at one period or the other have been 
transmitted from the moon. There can be 
scarcely a doubt that this must at one time have 
influenced the earth's climate to a very powerful 
degree, producing the effect of a second or addi- 
tional sun. In the absence of any perceptible 
marks of atmospheric or aqueous erosive action 
on the moon, it is at present impossible to arrive 
at an idea of its relative age, or at what period 
its heat may have been most abundantly radiat- 
ed; but if the much hotter climate which once 
prevailed in northern latitudes could be referred 
to this cause, it might give us some clue to the 
difficulty. Something also might be done in 
comparing the various changes of climate which 
have taken place in certain parts of the earth's 
surface, as indicated by geological evidence, with 
the actual course of the moon. The subject is 
at least worth entertaining, and may be recom- 
mended to the consideration of physicists.'' 



Safe and Convenient Method or Testing 
Dynamite. — The Chemiker Zeitung contains a 
description of a method of testing dynamite. 
The percentage of nitro -glycerine is determined 
by extracting it with ether, which dissolves it, 
bub leaves the infusorial earth unchanged. The 
difference in weight of the dynamite and of the 
infusorial residue, directly yields the percentage 
of nitro -glycerine. In order to ascertain whether 
the dynamite contains any other bodies solu- 
ble in ether, the ether extract is diluted with 
water, which precipitates any foreign substances 
present. 

A New Blasting Agent. — In Stockholm the 
following recipe has been gi /en for a new blast- 
ing agent: In wooden or gutta-percha vessels 
5 to 20 parts sugar or molasses are ground with 
25 to 30 parts nitric aeid, and 50 to 75 parts 
sulphuric acid. Of this mixture 25 to 50 parts 
are mixed with 15 to 35 parts nitrate of potas- 
sium and 15 to 35 parts cellulose. The agent 
is called nitrolin. 



Occlusion of Hydrogen by the Metals. 

In his notes of interesting things seen at the 
Paris exposition, Professor B. Silliman writes 
tothe Engineering and Mining Journal of the 
occlusion uf hydrogen by palladium: "The late 
I>r. Graham, of London, the distinguished 
chemist and Master of the Mint, first described 
what ho called occlusion of hydrogen in the 
pores of the most solid fused and coined palla- 
dium, a property in virtue of which palladium 
can imbibe, so to speak, more than a thousand 
times its own volume of hydrogen gas and hold 
it with great permanence at ordinary tempera- 
tures. This is not a fact of merely curious 
scientific interest; nor is it peculiar exclusively 
to palladium; for Dr. Graham found that some 
meteoric irons, especially that of Lenarto, 
which he specially studied, held also many oc- 
cluded volumes of hydrogen gas which had ac- 
companied the meteor from the realms of space. 
Considering the enormous condensation of hy- 
drogen occluded in palladium, Dr. Graham was 
led to the not improbable suggestion that this 
element, which others before him had suggested 
might be a metal in vapor, must exist in palla- 
dium as an alio;/, and he was thus led to pro- 
pose for the metal the name "Hydrogcnium." 
This class of facts had quite recently received 
great expansion by the researches of Dr. Wright, 
of Yale, who has followed the subject into the 
domain of astronomy, and drawn important in- 
ference respecting the tails of comets and ne- 
bula? as connected with the occlusion, not only 
of hydrogen, but other gases in meteoric stones 
and irons. 

Increased Weight and Volume of Metal by 
such Occlusion. 
This curious subject, so full of scientific 
interest and fertile of speculation, has 
a magnificent illustration in the present ex- 
hibit of Messrs. Johnson, Mathey & Co., 
who show a disc of palladium within which 
one thousand volumes of hydrogen gas are con- 
densed by occlusion, a volume of gas which 
would be repiesented by a column of 2,000 
millimeters in hight and 100 millimeters in 
diameter. The original palladium disc had 
exactly 100 millimeters- diameter, and a thick- 
ness of precisely two millimeters. It was, be- 
fore imbibing the enormous volume of hydrogen 
which it now holds, perfectly flat; and it was 
gauged by a ring within which it exactly fell. 
Now the disc is a concave mirror, the new form 
being occasioned wholly by the molecular dis- 
placement due to the hydrogen it has absorbed; 
it no longer enters its gauge ring, for its 100 mil- 
limeters diameter are now enlarged to 102-5 
millimeters, and its original weight of 187-3775 
if now increased to 188-2SS2 grams. This re- 
markable absorption of hydrogen has no visible 
effect upon the luster, color, or tenacity of the 
palladium- alloy of hydrogen, if indeed it be an 
alloy. The hydrogen absorbed by paUadium 
enters this metal, when it is made part of the 
circuit of a voltaic battery the gas usually 
evolved at the positive pole being then taken 
into the substance of the solid metal." 



Uniform Time for Germany. — The ques- 
tion of establishing one uniform time for the 
whole German empire is being just now much 
discussed in various circles in Germany. Many 
persons regard the existing condition of things 
as very inconvenient, especially in connection 
with telegraphic communication. Metz, in the 
extreme west, is about an hour and seven min- 
utes later than the extreme eastern frontiers. 
Opinions are agreed that taking into account 
the geographical position of Berlin, which is 
not very far from the central meridian of the 
whole country, the metropolitan time will be 
the most suitable for selection as the normal 
time for the entire empire. This will involve 
the least departure from astronomical exact- 
ness which is compatible with general unifor- 
mity. The difference between Berlin and the 
eastern frontier is little more than thirty-seven 
minutes; between it and Metz is less than thirty 
minutes. It is understood that the matter has 
already engaged the attention of the several 
federal governments, and that it will be most 
carefully considered in all its bearings before a 
decision is arrived at. 



"Dendritic" Spots on Books. — Few persons 
familiar with old books have failed to observe 
dark specks here and there upon, or rather 
within, the substance of the paper, which, upon 
close examination, especially with a lens, are 
seen to have the same dendritic appearance 
that we find in moss-agates, and upon the nat- 
urally-fractured surface of other compact rocks. 
It is well known that such markings on the 
stone, are generally produced by an oxide of 
manganese; and the similar markings upon the 
paper are doubtless due to the same cause. 
The following is suggested as an explanation: 
Binoxide of manganese is sometimes used in 
some of the processes of bleaching the pulp. 
Minute portions of the mineral would naturally 
remain in the manufactured paper, which by a 
slow reaction would be restored to an oxide 
again, in the process of which it would assume 
its characteristic dendritic form. 



Delicate Reagent for Copper. — Dilute so- 
lutions of copper salts, it is well-known, give a 
deep blue with ammonia. F. Weil, of Paris, 
announces a still more delicate test for copper, 
namely, to add to any copper solution double 
its volume of pure hydrochloric acid, which pro- 
duces, especially on boiling, a yellowish-green 
color, even when the quantity is too small to be 



52 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



[January 25, 1879. 



Table of Highest and Lowest Sales in 
S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Name or 
Company. 


Week 
■Sliding 

Jail. 2. 


Week 
EimUiik 
Jan. !>. 


Week 
^ii.liiiu 1 
Jan. in. 


Week 
Ending 
Jan. 24. 


Al ha 


11 101 

51 5 
50c .... 

2!il6 2'.60 

3!s6 "hi 

60c 10c 
184 17 
55 4.65 
70c 50c 
20c 15c 
8 7i 
Si 2 
15 1*3 

75c 50c 

60c 50c 
2.55 2j 

10i 93 
1.70 1.60 

471 331 

"9J "9 

80c 70c 

84 71 

3.65 3.45 

40c 30c 

10c .... 

30c .... 
32 31 
4.40 4 

35o 30c 

84 n 


65c 
2!65 

i'.io 

4.30 
60c 

? 

60c 
70o 
9 
31 
15 

30c 
60c 
50c 

2.95 

46 

'io» 

85c 

3.90 

3.10 

10c 

25c 
32S 
54 

J* 
25c 

si 

40c 

11s 
14-; 
2.10 

2.45 

30c 
1.10 

4.15 

f 

50c 

75c 

11 
50c 
65c 

1 

60c 

II 

40c 
20c 
33 


101 
5 

50c 

i'.ib 

"ii 

3.80 

"5! 
50c 

"is 
3 
10 

10c 

'45c 

2.4( 
10| 

4!. 

"9' 

75c 

81 

3. El 

2.10 

'3T 
41 

61 

15c 

'360 

1 

2{ 

15c 

1.115 
31 

3.90 
73 

3M 

20c 

50c 
65c 

'50c 

50c 

i 

i 
25c 

'30! 

"») 
75c 
81 

35c 

33 
80c 
9! 

25c 
5 

10} 

'«' 
1.40 

20c 
lj 

1 
IJ 

30c 
56 

iii 

70c 
15c 

. 13J 


12} Hi 

8 6j 

i!35 '56c 
"2 "ii 

4.90 41 


15 12} 


Alta 

Andes 

Alps 


81 71 
60c 45c 

G0o 80c 


Atlantic 

Aurora. Tunnel 

Baltimoro Con 


"ii "ii 

51 4.40 




60c 50c 60c 50c 


Best & Belcher 


24.V 195 222 2IJ 
85 6J. 9 7i 


Bechtel 

Belle lale 

Bodie 

Benton 


60c 50c 
20c .... 
91 61 
4} 3.20 

15 14 

60c 50c 

60c .... 

40c .... 
3.20 2j 

Ul 9j 
2.95 2.40 

52 44! 

'15' 12! 

95c 75c 

8j 7! 

5! 3.95 

2.10 .... 

40c 10c 

25c 

31J 263 
51 43 
35c 30c 

51 4 

5 .... 
35c 30c 
161 101 

20 141 
2.10 .... 
2.05 U 

15c .... 

1.30 1.05 

3.90 3.40 

4i' 3.90 

7! .... 

"51 "ii 

20c .... 

75c 55c 
1.30 1.20 

55e 50c 
1.10 .1 

50c .... 
4} 3.35 
4 .... 

40c 25c 

20c .... 

34 292, 

3 • 23 

7S 52 
75c 65c 

81 73 
20c .... 
45c 35c 

1 80c 
361 31 
70c 50c 
1U 93 

50c 40c 
81 7 

16 131 

21 20 
56 42 

12 1.55 

50c 20c 

21 1.60 

1.60 55c 

1.80 50c 


1 75c 
20o .... 

9 74 
4.90 4} 
15 14 

75c 70c 
70c 50c 


Booker 

Caledonia 


30c 25c 

3.20 3 

98 91 




3.05 2! 


Comanche 

Concordia 


501 47 

ii' '145 

1.15 95c 

s» n 

6 5 
'iOc '.'.'.'. 

15c 5o 
30c 20c 




29 26 




68 51 
30c 25c 

6| 3.90 
20c 15c 




5| .... 
40c 30c 

94 8g 

124 log 

2} 2 
2.40 2J 

35c .... 
li 1.20 
52 23 
3§ 31 
7| 7 

20c 15c 

90c 50c 
80c 70c 
1 .... 
50o 35c 

li u 

60c .... 
4i 4 
5 .... 

40c .... 

20c .... 

31 28 


*35c '30c 


Hale & Norcross — 

Hillside 

HighbridRe 


Ml "I 
ISJ 16! 

i'.W i!55 

20c .... 




1} 1.40 
44 3.45 




4! 4 
7J 7 




KKCou 

Kentuck 


"8' "5! 




75o 60c 
11 1 
























33 35 
5? 5 








Morning Star 

North Con Virginia. 


11 .... 
31 3 

71 51 


A '"4 

65c 55c 

10 93 

45c 40c 

36 333. 
65c .... 

n 91 

30c 25c 

3g 71 
50e 40c 


6} 
90c 
95 

45c 

353 
li 
10 

40c 
61 


Northern Belle,... 


7 6 




1 50c 
351 331 






121 10j 

45c 25c 
7 53 


Raymond & Ely 








101 93 
18 17 
431 371 
13 1.30 

25c 20c 

1,30 80c 

1 50c 

50c .... 

25c .... 
50c .... 

i| .... 

1.40 11 
30c 25c 
58 52 
111 MS 

H 50c 
20o 15c 


13} 

20 
43 
2} 

30c 
« 

50c 
25c 

'50c 

1.20 
1.30 
60c 
581 
13J 

75c 
20c 




Seg Belcher 


23 20 
491 44 
2.40 1.70 






1! 50 






l! ii 
1 70c 
25o 20c 


Solid Silver 

South Bodie 

South Standard 




50c .... 
70c 30c 

1.60 U 
1.20 1 
50c .... 
63 56} 
22 13! 

75c 65c 
20c .... 
50c 20c 

20 i6i 


80c .... 
55c 40c 
85c .... 
1.70 11 
1.20 1 
50c 40c 
60! 50 
183 161 

95c 75c 
20c 15c 
50c 35c 

223 19 










Union Oou 

Utah 


"Ward 

Wells-Fargo 




iii is* 


iei 



Sales at S. F. Stock Exchange. 



Friday A. III., Jan. 17. 

860 Alta 7fl@8 

255 Alpha 14@141 

350 Andes 60c 

290 Bestfc Bfiloher...22.rt21 : 

2235 Bullion 9@8: 

705 Belcher f-Vn 

460 Benton 4;>^i'.o0 

950 Baltimore Con l\«i<l! 

335 Cou Virginia sk^Si 

515 Caliiornia . . ; 9S(*9j 

130 Chollar 5U>^).. 

2875 Con Imperial lcl.iu 

775 Caledonia 3\<ii\\ 20 

495 Confidence 17 V" '"17 

1310 Challenge 3.()><>2.' : >.~> 

200 Con Washoe 11 

250 Dardanelles 1.30 

1870 Exchequer 6tji 6] 

175 Flowery 15< 

450 Grand Prize 6g@6( 

655 Gould &, Curry. . .144.<a>l4j 

315 Hale & Nor IS. 1 .- "16 

260 Justice 4. ioVii 

2880 Julia 4.2Lli"i.4:"i 

695 Kentuck 7@8 

2)0 Kossuth 15c 

105 Lady Wash if 

125 Lady Bryan 70:" 70c 

550 Leviathan 55@&0c 

250 Mexican 3J >' 34 1 

100 Mt Hood 50c 

900 N Sierra Nevada. 

170 North Cou Vir 7k<*7 

930 NBonanza 1 .'.(«■ ljj 

360 New York 70i.<75c 

750 Overman 12W'U-l 

165 Ophir 35'>.'35 

570 Phil Sheridan.... 45'»:.jn c 
470 Sierra Nevada.., ■1:1; '"IS 1 . 
910 Savage h)>u>iC<!, 

1005 Silver Hill 1.80i«i.7b 

1180 Solid Silver 90c»-l 

300 Sutro 20c 

1480 Succor 50<rt55c 

20 Scorpion 1.40 

700 Trojau 50c 



260 Union Con 601 

105 Utah isi<wl8i 

1700 Wells-Fargo 15@20c 

790 Ward 95@90c 

1275 Yellow Jacket 22@22J 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

8090 Argenta 60@65c 

100 Albion 50c 

310 Bechtel 1 

880 Bodie SA@83 

100 Belmont .^50c 

330 Bulwer 14@143 

1160 Booker TT.wl 

200 Black Hawk 70@75c 

140 Belvidere 50c 

500 Dudley. 1 

100 Day 25c 

300 DeFrees 10c 

425 Eureka Con 29@283 

300 Endowment 30@35c 

250 Goodshaw 30@35c 

740 GrandPrize 4@3.90 

2a0 Gila 15<&20c 

50 Hamburg u 

100 Hillside 2*10 

1250 Highbridge lj@l,80 

315 Leeds j 

60 McClinton 50@40c 



. .3j@33 



50c 

. .35i.«-Jiic 



2. of, 



130 Manhattan 

20 Mono 

100 Martin White. 

1050 Modoc 

1050 Navajo 

150 Northern Belle. 

2040 Paradise 2.6' 

730 Raymond & Ely v 

770 Summit 21 

200 South Bodie 20c 

600 S Bulwer. 90@80c 

450 Tuscarora 5c 

400 Tioga Con U@1.40 

700 Tiptop ,..., 1 

Saturday A.M., Jan. IS. 

100 Alpha 123©12i 

370 Alta, .71 

140 Andes 55@50c 

400 Albion 50c 



..l.uat'i 

..2.70@2J 
, . .3@3.05 



1210 Argenta 

750 Belmont ,_.50c 

360 Best & Belcher. .21j 

1515 Bullion (__ 

150 Belcher 5 

1280 Bodie 81@9 

600 Baltimore Con...l.35@lJ 

950 Benton 4J@43 

910 Bechtel 1 

50 Bulwer 15 

100 Belvidere 50c 

100 Champion 40( 

425 Con Virginia 8jl@8i 

670 Calif oruia 9a@9J 

435 Confidence 14i@15 

80 Chollar 

280 Crown Point. 

3265 Con Imperial 

1040 Challenge....- 

245 Caledonia 

20 Con Pacific 

1200 Caledonia (BH). 

250 Day 25c 

755 Exchequer 5J@6 

150 Eureka Con 282 

1220 Gould & Curry. . . .14@13j 
845 Grand Prize... 4. 40^4. 30 

720 H &Norcross. 161 

100 Hussey j .20c 

450 Independence la@l» 

125 Justice 4i@<4,20 

1635 Julia 4?" 

320 Ketituck ._ 

100 L Bryan 70c 

20 Leopard 70c 

25 Leeds juHP 

300 Lady Wash U@1.3f 

210 Mexican 34:. 

50 Mt Hood 50c 

50 Morning Star 3i 

200 Manhattan 31 

200 McClinton 40c 

90 New York 70@75c 

745 N Bonanza H@1.35 

250 Northern Belle 7@6 

200 N Sierra Nevada 5c 

400 Navajo 30c 

140 Ophir 35J@35 

820 Overman lli@H a 

10 Occidental 50c 

640 Phil Sheridan 35c 

750 Paradise 2.40<»2A 

255 Raymond &E 6(*5J 

365 Savage 14j@14 

1420 Succor 50c 

320 Sutro 20c 

280 Sierra Nevada.... 4S1@49 

845 Silver Hill 1.80@1.70 

220 Solid Silver 90c 

355 Scorpion 1.45@1J 

50 Star 80c 

100 Summit 21 

1300 SBulwer 85c 

255 Tioga Con 1J@1 .45 

1100 Trojan 50@45c 

450 Tuscarora... 

50- Tiptop 

75 Union Con . 

405 Utah. 18@17£ 

750 Ward 90«*80c 

1040 Wells-Fargo 15c 

210 Woodville 50@40c 

660 Yellow Jacket.... 19J@20 

Monday A.M., Jan. 20. 

160 Alta 7|<&7i 

105 Alpha 13 

50 Andes -55c 

195 Beat & Belcher, 

400 Baltimore Con 1 ' 

485 Belcher 51@5J 

1045 Bullion 81(£fi3ii 

630 Benton 4&@4f 

390 California 9j@9; 

300 Con Virginia 8fi(<*S. 

625 Crown Poiut 51@5| 

3100 Con Imperial 1 

40 Chollar 48f 

495 Challenge 2j. 

420 Caledonia 3.05<<t3.1O 

165 Confidence 15J@16j 

470 Exchequer 6(S)5l 

850 Gould H Curry. . . .14@13$ 

200 Geo Douglas 50c 

560 Hale & Nor 173@18* 

475 Justice 4R*4.05 

1395 Julia 4(^3.90 

100 Kentuck 6» 

500 Kossuth 15c 

350 Lady Bryan 75c 

2695 Leviathan 75@90c 

130 Lady Wash li 

85 Mexican 33J@321 

100 MtHood 50c 

10 North Con Vir 7 

675 NBonanza lj 

260 New York 70(S 1 75c 

55 Ophir 35 

105 Overman llUmiij 

50 Occidental 1 

250 Phil Sheridan .35c 

1400 Solid Silver.... 

435 Savage 14g@141 

445 SierraNevada 48J@48 

875 Silver Hill 2 

200 St Louis 40c 

950 Succor 1&1.10 

35 Scorpion 1, 

450 Trojan 40i 

250 Utah 18J@18 

145 Union Con 59i(rt59J 

100 Wells Fargo I5c 

1050 Ward 75c 

50 Woodville 40c 

825 Yellow Jacket 20@21 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

6075 Argenta 70(#80c 

220 Albion 50c 

295 Belmont 50@60c 

250 Bulwer 15W143 

150 Bodie 72@S 

""" Bechtel 75c 



.. 33(^33 j 

. .50(«»45c 

."',5i@51 

.1.30iffU 
..35i>t'3-4i 
..H*iI10? 



1200 Booker 

200 Belvidere 

1600 Belle Isle 

150 Black Hawk.. 

100 Champion 

40 C Pacific . 



. . .25@30c 

60c 

20c 

70c 

40c 

.1.70(«1:; 



3U(>'2:>c 

. . . .30c 
....20c 



.1.61 



110 Dudley 1.10@1 

60 Day 25c 

135 DeFrees 

65 Eureka Con... 
1500 Endowment... 
1105 GrandPrize... 

250 Goodshaw 

100 Hussey 

100 Hillside 

210 Independence. 

200 Jackson 

30 Leeds 

200 Leopard 50c 

225 Manhattan 31 

170 Mono 21@2.10 

2000 Modoc 60@55c 

500 McClinton 35(c630c 

595 Northern Belle 61@6 

460 Navajo . 

435 Oriental 50c 

1200 ParadiBe. 

400 Raymond & Ely. . ,61@6i 

190 SEodie 25c 

2150 S Bulwer 90c(M 

250 Summit 2.15@2> 

50 Star 80c 

20 Tiptop 1.20 

300 Tuscarora 5c 

470 Tioga Con 1.70 

Tuesday A.M., Jan. 21. 

200 Alpha 123@13 

915 Alta ImSk 

120 Andes 50c 

285 Best & Belcher... 221<o)22J 
305 Belcher 42<n»4.85 



1380 Bullion S(a72 

815 Benton 4.65@4i 

720 California 9i@92 

435 Caledonia 3.10@3 

750 Con Virginia 8g@8| 

2580 Con Imperial... 95c@l. 05 

60 Chollar 474 

335 Crown Point 5g@5| 

495 Confidence 15J@15 

765 Challenge 2J@2.65 

250 Dardanelles 1.30 

355 Exchequer 5g@51 

920 Gould & Curry... 13J(<*13A 

200 Geo Douglas 50c 

490 H Si Norcross 17@16g 

440 Justice 4.10@i,15 

2375 Julia 3.60^3.45 

190 Kentuck 5i@5& 

640 Kossuth 20<£ 15c 

410 Lady Bryan 70@75c 

193 Lady Wash 1$@1 

2515 Leviathan l@80c 

240 Mexican 

250 Mides 

100 Morning Star. 

370 MtHood 

70 New York 

320 North Con Vir. 

1025 N Bonanza... 

90 Ophir 

305 Overman 

655 Phil Sheridan 35c 

470 Sierra Nevada. . . .46@451 

55 Savage 14^(rol4i 

10 Seg Belcher 20 

510 Silver Hill 2 

810 Succor 1.10@1J 

100 St Louis 50c 

425 Sutro 20c 

160 Scorpion li@ll 

1450 Solid Silver 80c 

300 Trojan 45c 

140 Utah 17@17i 

SO Union Con 58 

50 Woodville 35c 

460 Wells-Fargo 20@15c 

1380 Ward 70(S>75c 

1185 Yellow Jacket... 19i@20J 

AFTERNOON SEBSIOM. 

2300 Argenta 60C*55c 

100 A3bion 50c 

120 Bulwer 14j 

345 Bodie 8i 

650 Booker 30c 

225 Belmont 60c 

480 Bechtel l@75c 

30 Black Hawk 75c 

100 Belvidere 70@75c 

1000 Belle Isle 20c 

150 C Pacific 1.70(^11 

500 Chieftain J0c 

200 Dudley 1 

400 Day 30c 

535 Endowment 30@25c 

190 Eureka Con 26 

550 Goodshaw 30@35c 

200 Golden Chariot 15c 

1375 Grand Prize 4.40(*41 

700 Highbridge 1.70(gfll$ 

100 Hillside 2.15 

600 Independence., 1.65(^1. 55 

250 Jackson 7J(®7i 

70 Leopard 30c 

445 Mono 2@V} 

155 Manhattan 3.60 

1720 Modoc 60@50c 

600 McClinton 40@30c 

35 M White 5 

20 Northern Belle 6g 

2800 Navajo 30@25c 

100 Oriental 60@75c 

1250 Paradise 2(6?2.1Q 

50 Raymond & Ely 6^7 

100 Richer 75c 

620 Summit 2,10@2 

1200 Star 50c 

850 SBulwer 95@90c 

100 Tuscarora 5c 

230 Tiptop 1 

725 Tioga Con 1.70 

W cil'sday A.M., Jan. 32. 

205 Alpha 12J@I3 

330 Alta 8 

360 Andes 5Cc 

455 B&B 213@21S 

755 Bullion 7|@8 

640 Belcher 4J@4.40 

300 Benton 4f(£4.70 

50 Chollar 47 

1020 Con Virginia 8c«7J 

240 California 9i 

595 Crown Point 5 

485 Caledonia 3 

4270 Con Imperial 95c@l 

110 Confidence 14j($15 

430 Challenge 2J, 

1470 Exchequer 5J@5i 

450 Gould & Curry. . .13i@13i 

190 Geo Douglas 40c 

430 Halo &Nor 16g@16!| 

950 Justice 4&4.05 

325 Julia 3.30(^3.40 

1900 Leviathan 85@70c 

400 Lady Bryan 70@60c 

225 Lady Wash 1} 

65 Mexican 33@32| 

10 Morning Star 3 

100 North Con Vir 5i 

150 New York 70@75c 

445 N Bonanza ,11@1.30 

50 Occidental 1 

140 Overman lOjj 

170 Ophir 331@33i 

1395 Phil Sheridan 25@30c 

315 Succor 1.40@1.35 

245 Savage 14i(fi>143 

505 S Nevada 44(&45i 

50 Scorpion 1} 

700 Solid Silver 8Cc 

360 Silver Hill 2J@2.15 

200 Utah 16j@161 

50 Union 58 

80 Ward 80c 

1000 Wells-Fargo 20@15c 

985 Yellow Jacket. % . .19J@19 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

1100 Argenta 60@55c 

150 Belvidere 70(£65c 

150 Belmont 60c 

200 Bulwer 14? 

150 Bechtel 1 

540 Belle Isle 20c 

570 Bodie 8@72 

95 C Pacific li 

400 Dudley 1 

95 DeFrees 15c 

365 Day 25@20c 

100 Eureka Con 26i@26 

450 Endowment 30c 

1030 GrandPrize 4i@4.10 

1400 Goodshaw 30c 

100 Hamburg 14 

300 Hillside 2.10@1.80 

200 Highbridge 1 .55 

750 Independence ...li@1.40 

100 Jackson 7 

100 Leopard 40c 

100 Leeds 1 

50 Modoc 55c 

100 Manhattan 3.60@31 

180 McClinton 25@40c 

390 M White 5 

100 Mono 1.65 

220 Northern Belle 6@7 

120 Navajo 30@25c 

625 Paradise 21 

230 Raymond & Ely 6! 

800 Summit 1 . 60@l] 

100 Syndicate 2 

350 S Bulwer 85c 

100 Tioga Con 1.60 

50 Tiptop 1 



SALES OF LAST WEEK AND THIS COMPARED 



Tlmrsd'y A. M., Jan. 16. 

205 Alpha 12J@12i 

1105 Alta 6J@7i 

100 Andes 60c 

395 Best& Belcher. ..!"" " 
700 Belcher , 



Thursday A.M., Jan. 'Hi. 

200 Alba 81@Sjj 

820 Alpha 14SicC15 

200 Andes 45(ai50c 

250 Best & Belcher .' .22 

640 Bullion 8i@82 



MINING SH AREHOLDERS' DIRECTORY. 

Compiled every Thursday from Advertisements in Mining and Scientific Press and other S. F. Journals. 
ASSESSMENTS-STOCKS ON THE LISTS OF THE BOARDS. 



Company. 

Alta S M Co 

Aurora T & M Co 

Belmont M Co 

Belvidere M Co 

Benton Con M Co 

Best & Belcher M Co 

Bullion M Co 

Crown Point G & S M Co 

Florence Blue Gravel M Co 

Gila S M Co 

Hale & Norcross S M Co 

Hussey Con G & S M Co 

Julia Con M Co 

Justice M Co 

K K Consolidated 

Leopard M Co 

Lady Bryan M Co 

Martin "White M Co 

MaybelleCon M Co 

McCrackin Con M Co 

Modock Con M Co 

Mono M Co 

North BonanzaM Co 

Panther M Co 

PhilSheridanG&SCo 

Resolute T & M Co 

Savage M Co 

Scorpion S M Co 

Silver Hill M Co 

Succor M & M Co 

Tioga Con M Co 

Vermont Con M Co 

Ward G & S M Co 

William Penn M Co 

Yellow Jacket S M Co 



LOCATION. 

Nevada 13 

California 2 
Nevada 19 

California 2 
Nevada 1 
Washoe 13 
Nevada 8 
Nevada 36 

California 3 
Nevada 3 
Nevada 60 
Nevada 7 
Nevada 8 

California 27 
Nevada 7 
Nevada 9 
Nevada 1 
Nevada 5 
California 2 
Arizona 2 
Calfornia 7 
Bodie 2 
Nevada 1 
Nevada 10 
Nevada 8 

California 1 
Nevada 36 
Nevada 4 
Nevada 5 
Nevada 21 

California 4 
Nevada\ 2 

California 3 
Nevada 4 
Nevada 31 



No. Amt. Levied. Delinq'nt. Sale. 



1 00 Dec 10 
20 Dec 7 
50 Nov 27 
20 Dec 7 
50 Dec 11 
1 00 Jan 3 
1 00 Dec 3 
1 00 Dec 12 
03 Jan 22 
25 Jan 22 
50 Dec 10 
15 Jan 20 
1 00 Jan 21 
1 00 Jan 10 
1 00 Jan 3 
50 Jan 3 
50 Jan 2 
1 50 Dec 14 
10 Jan 21 
50 Oct 22 
50 Nov 14 
50 Jan 8 
50 Dec 6 
10 Jan. 2 
15 Jan 21 
10 Dec 28 
1 00 Dec 4 
10 Dec 3 
50 Jan 3 
50 Dec 19 
20 Dec 20 
15 Dec 7 
30 Jan 10 
03 Nov 22 
1 00 Jan 15 



Jan 13 
Jan 10 
Jan 3 
Jan 20 
Jan 15 
Feb 6 
Jan 7 
Jan 16 

Feb 25 

Mar 3 
Jan 15 

Feb 26 
Feb 27 
Feb 15 
Feb 6 
Feb 6 
Feb 2 
Jan 21 
Feb 25 

Jan 16 

Jan 13 
Feb 12 
Jan 10 
Feb 6 

Feb 24 
Feb 3 
Jan 7 
Jan 18 
Feb 6 

Jan 21 
Jan 21 
Jan 9 
Feb 14 
Jan 23 
Feb 19 



Jan 31 
Feb 15 
Jan 27 
Feb 20 
Feb 3 
Feb 26 
Jan 29 
Feb 6 
Marl5 
Mar 24 
Feb 7 
Mar 21 
Mar 19 
Mar 5 
Mar 5 
Mar 28 
Feb 24 
Feb 21 
Mar 14 
Feb 15 
Jan 30 
Mar 4 
Jan 28 
Feb 28 
Mar 17 
Mar 3 
Jan 27 
Feb 10 
Feb 28 
Feb 10 
Feb 13 
Jan 29 
Mar 6 
Feb 9 
Mar 19 



Secretary. 
W H Watson 
C V D Hubbard 
J WPew 
CVD Hubbard 
W H Watson 
W Willis 
Joseph Gruss 
James Newlands 
F A McGee 
Wm W Parish 
J F Lightner 
R. II Brown 
A Noel 
R E Kelly 
B B Minor 
R H Brown 
C V Hubbard 
J J Scoville 
G A Holden 
H A Whiting 

J WPew 
W H Lent 
W W Stetson 
J W Pew 
D[L Thomas 
J L Fields 
E B Holmes 
G R Spinney 
W E Dean 
W H Watson 
W H Lent 
E F Stone 
Jacob Stadtfeld 
O J Humphrey 

Mercer Otey 



Place of Business 

302 Montgomery st 

312 California sfc 

310 Pine st 

312 California st 

302 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

418 California st 

203 Bush st 

Merchants Ex 

323 Montgomery st 

58 Nevada Block 

327 Pine st 

419 California st 
419 California st 

310 Pine at 

327 Pino st 

Cosmopolitan Hotel 

59 Nevada Block 

301 Pine st 

211 Sansome st 

310 Pine st 

309 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

310 Pine st 

203 Bush st 

240 Montgomery st 

309 Montgomery st 

310 Pinost 

203 Bush st 

302 Montgomery st 

327 Pino st 

306 Pine st 

419 California Bt 

328 Montgomery st 

Gold Hill Nev 



OTHER COMPANIBS-NOT ON THE LISTS OF THE BOARDS. 



Advance M Co 
Argent M Co 
Arizona S M Co 
Black Hawk O M Co 
Brilliant M Co 
Catawba M Co 
Ciirmelo Bay Cual Co 
Cherokee Flat Blue Grav Co 
Eagle S M & M Co 
Godfrey Gravel M Co 
HaokK rry M & M Co 
Hazard Gravel M Co 
Lodi M Co 
Loyal Lead G M Co 
Mariposa Land & M Co 
Mayflower M Co 
Mayflower Gravel M Co 
McClinton M Co 
McMillen S M Co 
Mineral Fork M & S Co 
Nevada Gravel M Co 
Noonday M Co 
Orion M Co 
Pleiades G & S M Co 
Queen Bee M Co 
Slate Creek G M Co 
Summit M Co 
Summit GM Go 



Name of Com pant. 
Belcher M Co 
Imputable Tunnel & M Co 
Manhattan S M Co 
North Con Virginia M Co 
Raymond & Ely M Co 
Raymond & Ely S M Co 
Twin Peaks M Co 



California 2 

Nevada 4 

Nevada 4 
California 4 

Nevada 1 
California 1 
California 2 
California 40 

Nevada 11 
California 4 

Arizona 3 
California 2 

Nevada 1 
California 2 
California 15 
California 2 
California 3 
California 

Arizona 

Utah 

California 

©ali f oruia 

California 

Nevada 
California 
California 
California 
California 



50 Dec 19 
30 Jan 21 

1 00 Dec 9 

25 Dec 10 

05 Jan 13 

20 Jan 3 

25 Dec 20 

05 Dec 20 

10 Nov 30 

05 Jan 17 
50 Jan 17 

06 Dec 9 
Nov 20 
Dec IS 

1 00 Jan 10 

15 Dec 7 

10 Jan 15 

25 Dec 24 

25 Nov 22 

02 Oct 31 

05 Deo 12 

10 Jan 2 

25 Dec 12 

05 Dec 21 

2b Dec 2 

25 Jan 21 

05 Nov 19 

50 Nov 27 



25 
60 



Jan 28 

Mar 3 

Jan 13 

Jan 11 

Feb 17 

Feb 6 

Feb 20 

Jan 28 

Jan 7 

Feb 20 

Fob 24 

Jan 8 

Jan 7 

Jan 20 

Feb 12 

Jan 4 

Feb 20 

Jan 28 

Feb 10 

Dec 7 

■bin 15 

eb6 

11 13 

an 24 

Jan 6 

Mar 3 

Jaii6 

Jan 6 



Fob 21 
Mar 25 
Feb 3 
Jan 28 
Mar 9 
Feb 24 
Mar 20 
Feb 18 
Jon 28 
Mar 13 
Mar 14 
Jan 24 
Jan 27 
Feb 11 
Mar 12 
Feb 4 
Mar 12 
Feb 18 
Mar 6 
Jan 30 
Feb 5 
Feb 27 
Jan 28 
Feb 18 
Jan 27 
Mar 31 
Feb 4 
Jan 28 



B Lengley 309 California st 

R H Brown 327 Pine st 

W Willis 309 Montgomery st 

B S Kellogg 306 Pine st 

Wm A Van VanBokkelen 309 Cal 

B S Kellogg 306 Pine st 

John Greif 636 Washington sb 

R N Van Brunt 318 Pine st 

It H Brown 327 Pine st 

J M Buflington 209 California st 

N C Walton 324 Pine st 

J T McGeogbehau 318 Pine st 

( > J Humphrey 328 Montgomery st 
P M McLaren 318 Pine st 

Leander Leavitt 309 Montg'y st 

J Morizio 328 Montgomery st 

J Morizio 328 Montgomery st 

W H Lent 327 Pine at 

A O McMenns 24 Safe Deposit Build 
328 Montgomery st 



Otto Metchke 
J Pentecost 
G A Holden 
P Conklin 
WL Oliver 
T A White 
J L Fields 
J W Clark 
WHLeut 



MEETINGS TO BE HELD. 



Location. Secretary. 

Washoe Jno Crockett 

Utah Cbas J Collins 

Nevada John Crocket 

Nevada G C Pratt 

Nevada J W Pew 

Nevada J W Pew 

Nevada T W Colburn 



Office in S. F. 

203 Bush st 

227 Montgomery st 

203 Bush st 

309 Mongomery st 

310 Pine st 

310 Pino st 

414 California st 



. Meeting. 
Annual 
Special 
Annual 
Annual 
Special 
Annual 
Annual 



511 California st 

310 Pine st 

28 Sansome st 

328 Montgomery st 

113 Leidesdorrl st 

240 Montgomery st 

318 Pine st 

327 Pine st 



Date 
Jan 28 
Jan 31 

Feb 5 
Feb 5 
Jan 28 
Jan 28 
Jan 27 



LATEST DIVIDENDS-WITHIN THREE MONTHS 



Namb op Company. 
Bodie G M Co 
California MCo 
Ex.vlsiur W & M Co 
Eureka Con M Co 
Golden Star M Co 
Indian Queen M ii M Co 
Independence M Co 
New York Hill G M Co 
Silver King M Co 
Standard G MCo 



Location. 
California 

Nevada 
California 

Nevada 

Arizona 
California 

Nevada 

Arizona 
California 



Secretart. 
W H Lent 
C P Gordon 
G P Thurston 
W W Traylor 
J W Morgan 
A K Lturbrow 
R H Brown 
F J Herrmann 
W H Boothe 
W Willis 



Office in S. F. 

327 Pine st 

23 Nevada Block 

315 California st 

37 Nevada Block 

318 Fine st 

69 Nevada Block 

327 Pine st 

418 Kearny st 

S20 California Bt 

309 Montgomery st 



Amount. 
1 00 
1 00 

300 

25 

25 

25 

25 

50 
1 00 



Jan 20 
Jan 16 
Dec 20 
Dec 20 
Dec 9 
Dec 17 
Nov 20 
Oct 24 
Oct 22 
Jan 13 



905 Bullion 81@83 

205 Benton 4.10(aj4; 

700 Baltimore Con 11^2. 

755 California 9a(rt>9| 

650 Con Virginia 7j@i 

690 Crown Point 5J@5g 

80 Cbollar 49@50 

4010 Con Imperial 90@95c 

230 Confidence 13S@14 

780 Caledonia 3.05(f*3,io 

675 Challenge 2£@2.80 

700 Exchequer 54@5i 

10 Flowery 50c 

800 Gould & Curry.... 15^151 

440 Hale & Nor 17i<»18 

510 Justice 4.35@4.4S 

1700 Julia 3.70@3.80 

655 Kentuck 53 

120 Lady Wash 1J@1.30 

410 Lady Bryan 70c 

500 Leviathan 50@55c 

445 Mexican 33S@333 

525 New York 70@75c 

160 North Con Vir 7J 

80 Ophir ' 34; 

1045 Overman llj(ftll: 

975 Phil Sheridan ...1J@1. 45 
585 Sierra Nevada. . . .511(^53 

1365 Savage 15C*15J 

440 Succor.. 20@30c 

750 Silver Hill 1.60 

850 Solid Silver 1@1 . If 

300 Trojan 50> 

575 Union Con 60©61 L 

190 Utah 1S<£*18S 

450 Ward 75c 

50 Woodville 30c 

235 Yellow Jacket... 19J@19g 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

5200 Argenta 60(J»70c 

90 Bulwer 

1110 Bodie 8J- 

50 Bechtel 

150 Belmont 50c 

300 Belle Isle 20c 

975 Booker 30@35c 

20 Belvidere 60c 

20 Black Hawk 60c 

750 Chieftain 10c 

290 Caledonia (B H)..l@1.15 



1140 Dudley 1 .05@1J 

410 Eureka Con 28J@29 

300 Endowment 30c 

400 Gila 20c 

950 Goodshaw 35@30t 

3S20 Grand Prize...3.95@4.10 

600 Highbridge If 

500 Hillside 2.10@2J 

1900 independence.. 1.35@1. 40 

50 Jackson 7i 

300 Leeds 1 

315 Manhattan 3i@3i 

315 Modoc 50(*55t 

100 McClinton 30c 

220 Navajo 35< 

110 Northern Belle, ...7i@7i 





..41(^4.80 


200 Baltimore Con 


li 


1100 Benton 


4.85@4.9C 


340 Caledonia 


3.05(i<3.1( 


1250 Con Imperial. 


l.lOyel.15 




..2.60@2:i 




360 Con Virginia. . 


7S@i 




...16J@H 


40 Chollar 


4J 


290 Crown Point. . 


....5$@5f 

....6K(v6f 


1365 Exchequer.... 


480 Gould & Curry 


..B|@13| 


100 Geo Douglas. . 


50c 


325 Hale & Nor... 


..17i@17| 




4.3C 






150 Kentuck 


6 


100 Kossuth 


20c 


70 Lady Wash.... 


U 




...75®70c 




...70i.".75c 




..34J(n?342 




11 


300 New York.... 


75c 


195 N Con Virginia 


6@61 


400 N Sierra Nevada 5c 


200 N Bonanza... 


..11«"1.45 




-.343 




...ioS@n 


1960 Phil Sheridan 


...25(*30c 


590 SierraNevada. 


..46i(rt471 




..14^rtl4i 


40 Seg Belcher... 


23 


750 Silver 'Hill 


2.35@2.40 




..1.40@lj 






30 Scorpion 


li 








55c 


















1120 Yellow Jacket. 


..20.V20I 


AFTERNOON SESSION. 


L330 Argenta 


...70@75c 


750 Belmont 


...COnitoc 












65c 


400 Booker 


. . .40@50c 


75 C Pacific 


li 








25c 


15 Eureka Con... 


. .27@27i 


600 Grand Prize. . . 


..4.15(241 


100 Golden Chariot 


20c 


300 Goodshaw 


30c 


200 Hussey 




.100 Highbridge.... 


.li@l.70 


120 Hillside 




200 Independence.. 


1.40 








..S&nSOc 




60c 


125 Martin White . 


5 














265 Northern Belle 

















655 Oriental 50@75c 

525 Paradise 2.60(^2.70 

360 Raymond & Ely...73.<&8J 

1060 Summit 2iC*2$ 

2700 Star 50(tf60c 

1300 Tuscarora 5c 

400 Tioga Con li@1.30 

210 Tiptop '..1 



70 Raymond & Ely 6J@7 

100 SBulwer. 70o 

1280 Summit 14 

130 Syndicate 2@2$ 

5 Silver King \7 

600 Tioga 1.35 

150 Tiptop 1.10 

500 University 1 



Pacific Board— Latest Sales. 



Wcd'sOay A.M., .fan. 22, 

50 Alpha 13 

175 Alta 8i 

70 Belcher.... 41 

100 Best & Belcher 22 

170 Bullion 7S@8 

120 Con Virginia S@7? 

2750 Con Imperial ltai.05 

90 Crown Point 5J05.2O 

150 California 9fl 

340 Caledonia 3@2.9 

115 Exchequer 5.80(*5S 

240 Gould & Curry... 13i@13fi 

40 Hale & Nor 17@17i 

60 Justice H 

440 Julia 3.55@3.45 

20 Kentuck *3 

60 Mexican 331 

180 Ophir 333@34 

340 Savage 14i@14J 

70 Sierra Nevada.... 44J@45 
290 Silver Hill 2.20 

40 Utah 16$ 

200 Yellow Jacket... 19i(ofil9g 

- A fternoon session. 

10 Alta 88 



35 Argenta.... 55c 

110 Alpha 133@13S 

ISO Benton 4.80(344 

70 Bullion 81@8| 

60 California 9g 

4335 Con Imperial.. 1. 05@1. 10 

110 Exchequer 6 

20 Gould & Curry. , .13i(3U3S 

100 Geo Douglas 50c 

20 Httlefc Nor 174 

70 Justice 4i@4.20 

290 Julia 3.80@3.90 

170 Kossuth 20c 

50 N Bonanza 1.30 

75 New York 80c 

10 Ophir 34i 

100 Phil Sheridan 30c 

300 SUtah 18c 

610 St Louie 60c 

500 S Bulwer 85c 

15 Sierra Nevada 45 

220 Silver Hill 2J@2.3f> 

50 Trojan 40o 

350 Ward 90c 

20 Yellow Jacket... 19 j@19J 



California Board— Latest Sales. 



Wcd*8f1ay A.M., Jan. 22. 

30 Alta 75 

150 Atlantic 75c 

600 jEtna 75c 

300 Atlas 12c 

100 Atlanta 9c 

200 Belmont 65c 

80 Best & Belcher . . .22@21i 

40 Belcher 4J 

110 Bullion 7B@8 

70 California 9J@9B 

40 Con Virginia 8 

300 Con Imperial 98c@l 

40 Crown Point..... 51 

135 Caledonia 3.05 

60 Exchequer 54 

110 Gould & Curry... 13i@13j 

500 Globe 3c 

200 Golden Chariot 15c 

60 Hale & Norcross. 16S@16i 

40 Justice 4ft 

445 Julia 3i@3.30 

650 Kossuth 18c 

100 Leviathan 85c 

50 Mexican 33j 

200 Mackey U 

180 MtHood 40c 

200 NMouuniental ...3e 



40 Ophir 34 

30 Savage 144 

.40 Sierra Nevada. . . ,42@42ft 

100 StLouis 75c 

100 Trojan 44c 

200 Twin Peaks 2c 

100O UFlag lc 

30 Yellow Jacket ' 19g 

AFTERNOON 3KHBION. 

30 Alpha 131 

750 Atlanta 25o ( 

325 Mtva 75c 

500 Atlas 17c 

60 Alta 8g(d8j 

30 Bullion 8j 

60 Best & Belcher... 21 J@212 

50 Belcher 4.60 

100 Black Hawk 85c 1 

190 Belmont 60c 

70 Con Virginia 8@8i 

50 Crown Point 5ft 

1000 Con Imperial 1 . 05 

50 California 9S<P94 

50 Caledonia 3.20 

500 Coso Con 5c j 

70 Exchequer .51(36 

100 Enterprise 1 I 

90 Gould & Curry. . .13i@13| 



January 25, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



53 



50 GoMen Chari X 

8M Jujrtiw «. 06^41 

50 Kcutuck... t 

300 I.«riattuu 80c 

130 L Bry«. 70c 

H Kaxteu 33i"3J| 

1 Vli 

sou North Ouwd Lfe 

- ■■ N Sierra Ncfada. . .TQffa 
3U U[.h!r 11 



100 Phil Sheridan 30c 

■ 

TOSaTBfie H. |1« 

30 Sierra Xer*U 

220 Silver Hill. 

400 Santla*-. 1 "U 

3U) Trujan 13 U 

Q OoQ M 

115 Wales 

100 War. I 
'.'0 Yrlluw Jacket VH 



Mining Share Market 

The market during the past week has run 
pretty even, with some improvement shown in 
the shares of leading I'uinstock mines. This 
improvement has not been due to Any actual 
developments mule meantime, but to a grow- 
ing belief, or rather hope that such would soon 
occur at Homo point along the line of the deep 
explorations DOW in progress there. There 
soems also to be a growing conviction in the 
public mind, that these mines are likely to be 
administered with more economy hereafter, 
than has in times past characterized their man- 
agement. That the burdens heretofore imposed 
upon this class of shareholders will be some- 
what lightened, for a time at least, may reason- 
ably be hoped for, as most of the prominent 
companies have now got their working and 
prospecting shafts sunk to great depths, have 
these shafts well outfitted with powerful hoist- 
ing and pumping machinery, some of them 
being also supplied with extensive reduction 
works, their current expenses ought not to be 
very heavy for some time to come. Besides 
these costly equipments, much dead work has 
been done, further diminishing necessary pre- 
liminary expenditures in the future. The Corn- 
stock mines have now been put in easy com- 
munication with the outside world, and with 
the fuel and lumber supplying woodlands, as 
well also as with many of the larger reduction 
works, through the construction of railroads, 
securing to them great advantages. Then it 
may be expected that some gains will accrue to 
the various companies prosecuting deep explora- 
tions through the completion of the Satro 
tunnel, now sufficiently advanced to be of 
service to a portion of them. During the week 
a couple of the so-called "bucket shops" operat- 
ing iu this city, which had before been partially 
strangled, have been effectually choked to death. 
If there are any more of these swindling con- 
cerns left, it is to be hoped that they will in 
like manner undergo speedy strangulation. As 
our mining shares are being extensively listed 
on the New York Stock Boards, there seems a 
probability that they will meet with consider- 
able sales in the East, provided that these 
offerings embrace only stocks of solid merit. It 
will be to the interest of companies intending to 
avail themselves of this new opening for the 
sale of their shares, that it be not deluged with 
the stocks of "wildcat" concerns, of which we 
have such a super-abundance on this coast. 

The Fire-Boat. 

Messrs. Dickson, De Wolf & Co. have sent 
the following handsome compliment to the Har- 
bor Commissioners, touching the powerful fire- 
boat Governor Irwin. 

To the Honorable, the Board of Harbor Com- 
missioners, San Francisco — Gentlemen: In the 
name of the owners of the ship River Nith, we 
have to give you our sincere thanks for your 
great politeness and promptitude in tendering us 
the use of the fire-boat Governor Irwin, on Sat- 
urday last, when the cargo of the River Nith 
was discovered to be on fire. The efficiency of 
the Governor Irwin in extinguishing fires is un- 
doubted, aud the quiet, unostentatious and 
active exertions of the Captain and his crew be- 
yond praise. Though in business here for a 
number of years, it has been very seldom that 
we have had the pleasure to be so thoroughly 
satisfied with any occurrence as that in the as- 
sistance rendered to us by yourselves and the 
Governor Irwin. We have the pleasure to re- 
main, gentlemen, your most obedient servants, 
Dickson, De Wolf & Co. 

The fire-boat alluded to, we described in de- 
tail a short time since. She has two of the 
well-known type of Honker patent steam 
pumps, manufactured by W. T. Garratt. These 
pumps have 15^-inch steam cylinders, 9-inch 
water cylinders, and 24-inch stroke. When at 
work they throw a deluge of water, about equal 
to what would be thrown by eight of the best 
steam fire-engines. The fire-boat has been a 
great success, its efficiency being universally 
recognized wherever it has been used. 



iining Nummary. 



TYie following la mostly condensed from Journals pub- 
lished in the Interior, in proximity to the mint* mentioned. 



Bullion Shipments. 

Since our last issue shipments of bullion have 
been as follows: Standard, Jan. 14th, $14,- 
679.40; Northern Belle, Jan. 13th, §3,184.40; 
Alexander, Jan. 18th, $6,000; Tybo Con., Jan. 
13th, $7,914.78; Grand Prize, Jan. 20th, $23,- 
000; California, Jan. 18th, $94,259.02; Bodie, 
Jan. 17th, $17,000; Northern Belle, Jan. 15th, 
$2,574.52; Hillside, Jan. 20th, $5,950; Christy, 
-Jan. 20th, $6,481; Con. Virginia, Jan. 18th, 
.■ $29,288.42; Tybo Oon., Jan. 14th, $4,045.16; 
Standard, Jan. 18th, $15,561.58; Ophir, Jan. 
18th, $20,789.19; Tybo Con., Jan. 17th, 
$4,064.60; Argenta, Jan. 19th, $5,847.3S. 



CALIFORNIA. 
AMADOR. 

TiiKM.iMKF;iriiAi:i».-.A'-/-iA7i, Jan. IS: The 
sinking of the last one hundred feet in the 
Monterichard mine will probably be completed 
nine — making the mine now about 360 
feet in depth. Some of the rock from the bot- 
tom of this shaft has been brought into 
our ottice, which, indeed, has a very Mattering 
look. It appears to be of a much butter quality 
than that taken from nearer the BUrfaoe, be- 
sides being very rich with black BUlphureta, 
which has heretofore been very scarce in the 
developed portion of the mine. The lead COH- 
tiuues its width of from two to three feet, with 
no indication of narrowing. The miners think 
the rock will average a yield of $'-'3 per ton. 

The rumor of the caving of the Pennsylva- 
nia miuc, to which we referred last week, 
proves to have been well founded. The poorly- 
timbered shaft gave way, the mill was rendered 
useless and about fifty square feet of the sur- 
face caved in. It is wonderful that no lives 
were lost. A new shaft will have to be sunk 
and the mill have to be moved. Next timo it 
is to be hoped that the work will be done with 
a view to security and not for cheapness. 

The old Drytown, or Seaton, as it is better 
known, has been started up again by the own- 
ers of the Little Amador company, under the 
superinteudency of Mr. R. Johns. They are at 
present engaged in cleaning out the old tunnel. 
It is said they intend putting up new hoisting 
works some time next spring. 

The Centennial company are still running 
their mill of 20 stamps. It is rumored that the 
company have declared an assessment of ten 
cents per share. 

The mill for the Moore mine is nearing com- 
pletion, and will probably be ready for opera- 
tion by the time the necessary piping, etc., are 
completed for the conduction of water. A 
large quantity of splendid rock is now on the 
dump awaiting the readiness of the mill. 
BUTTE. 

An Old Mine Re-opened. — Mercury, Jan. 
17: Work was resumed Monday upon the old 
Banner mine, located across the river, four 
miles from the city, at the foot of Table moun- 
tain. At one time, in the days of old, when 
this was one of the most prosperous mining dis- 
tricts on the coast, the Banner mine was a 
bonanza, and was believed to be the richest 
mine in the State. In 1S60, a cave occurred on 
the claim and work was discontinued. Since 
that time it has lain idle. Prior to this mishap, 
the proprietors, Messrs. J. McSmith and E. M. 
Sparks, had made fortunes out of the property 
and therefore neglected to repair the damage 
done by the disaster and continue operations. 
Recently San Francisco operators and capital- 
ists have been negotiating for an interest in the 
mine, which they have now secured, and one of 
the principal owners, Mr. Kinney, informs us 
that the company intend to push the work and 
develop the resources of the claim to their 
fullest extent. The intention is to sink a shaft 
through the debris until the old workings are 
reached and then resume operations where the 
former operations ceased. Mr. McSmith re- 
tains an interest and will act as Superintendent 
of the work. A quartz mill will be erected as 
soon as necessary, and judging from the past 
record of the lode, there can be no doubt but 
what the company will reap a rich harvest. 
CALAVERAS. 

Inception of a Great Enterprise. — Chroni- 
cle, Jan. 18: Next Monday morning work will 
be commenced, by the Happy Valley Blue 
Gravel and Hydraulic M. Co., in prosecution 
of the great enterprise to which references have 
previously been made in this paper. To refresh 
the recollections of our readers, however, we 
will repeat that the company was formed for 
the purpose of working the well known Sport 
Hill and Happy Valley hydraulic mines, embrac- 
ing a large scope of rich gravel. The principal 
obstacle now in the way of profitably working 
the ground is the want of "dump" and the 
attention of the company wiU be first directed 
to supplying that deficiency. With that object 
in view a tunnel is to be run from the slope 
extending down to the Calaveras river through 
to the mining ground designed to be worked — 
starting at a point low enough to drain the 
deepest part of the "diggings" and to give the 
flume an abundance of "fall." The survey of 
the tunnel is just completed. The great bore 
will be 3,262 feet in length, five feet wide on 
the bottom and seven feet high. We under- 
stand that contracts have already been let and 
that ground will be broke next Monday morning. 
It is an undertaking of magnitude, but it is the 
opinion of miners generally that the enterprise 
will eventually prove a profitable one. 

Gwin Mine. — Everything continues to pro- 
gress favorably at the Gwin mine. All the 
stamps are kept in constant operation, the bat- 
teries being fed, principally, from the 1400-foot 
stopes. The ore mined is not especially high 
grade, but the quality of the rock is sufficiently 
good to permit of the declaration of handsome 
dividends monthly. The 1500 level is still 
being extended north and very fair ore is being 
taken from the higher stopes. The Gwin mine 
has been a steadily paying property for years, 
and while there is no probability that it will 
ever discontinue its golden favors, the indications 



are favorable to on enehanced yield in the near 
future. 

ELDORADO 

I "in. Minks. — Mountain Democrat, Jan. 18: 
The new pumps are at work in the Springfield 

mine. The shipments are the same as usual, 
and the rock looking well. The McNulty mine 
has been thoroughly prospected, and the .Super- 
intendent is confident of success. Accordingly 
a mill and hoisting works are in course of erec- 
tion at the mine. The German mine, near the 
McKulty, is being worked by a company from 
San Eranciseo, and is paying well. The rock 
taken from the Centra] mine, near the Spring- 
field, promises to pay well, and will be thor- 
oughly tested by the company in charge. The 
Pocohontas mill made a four days' run on rock 
from the Condo & Williams mine, and cleaned 
an $4,000. Work has been discontinued for a 
time in the Pocohontas mine, but the mill is 
kept running on rock from different mines. It 
lias made quite a lively little burg of Logtown. 
INYO 

Kkarsaroe.— Independent! Jan. IS: The 
work of deep mining on the south side of Kear- 
sargc hill, by means of a deep base tunnel, has 
been settled upon by the Kearsarge company, and 
the enterprise begun by laying in timbers and 
commencing the preliminary grading. The 
tunnel, as reported to us, is to be wide enough 
for a double track and will start into the 
mountain immediately above the mill. It will 
be from 1,500 to 2,000 feet in length, cutting 
known stratas and ledges from 400 to 1,100 feet 
in depth. The concern is backed up by fresh 
capital and the work in hand is to be speeded 
by all modern methods of power drills, etc. 

The Modock.. — Work on the tunnel is pro- 
gressing here as usual, though the power drill 
has got into soft ground, in which it does not 
make quite as rapid progress as in harder rock, 
where the concussion of the drill would more 
perfectly clear the hole of dust. Nevertheless, 
fair progress in the tunnel is being made, and 
never at such comparatively small cost in all 
departments as here of late — a result due in 
good part to an improved system generally, as 
well as in the use of improved machinery, par- 
ticularly the drill, which is a great institution 
itself. Week before last the total length of 
tunnel was S30 feet, and each week adds from 
43 to 50 feet to its length. This tunnel con- 
stitutes the 1000 level, and in about 250 
further, will reach the vertical line and point 
of connection with the shaft. At the time men- 
tioned the shaft was down a little over 900 feet. 
Within four or five weeks, according to indi- 
cations in both tunnel and shaft, especially the 
former, we may look for important develop- 
ments in the Modock. 
MONO- 

Bodie District. — Bodie Standard, Jan. 18: 
The work of development has advanced steadily 
and favorably the past week. The late rich 
strike in the Standard mine is turning out all 
that was expected. A good ore rind has been 
made in the Tioga. In the JSyudicate, Black- 
hawk, Dudley, Red Cloud, Noonday and Good- 
shaw the prospect improves daily. 

Bodie. — The new shalt is now down 349 feet, 
which is 42 feet below the second station. The 
second level is being advanced rapidly, and 
connection will be made with the old works in 
a short time. The south drift is in 350 feet. 
The ledge in the face is looking well. The 
drifts north and south at the bottom of the 
Bruce winze are each being advanced, and the 
ledge is as large as ever in both directions. Ore 
of a very rich quality is being taken from these 
drifts. The usual quantity of ore is being ship- 
ped to the Syndicate mill, and it is probable 
that the shipment of bullion this month will 
considerably exceed that of last month. 

Aurora Tunnel. — The shaft on the Silas B. 
Smith ground is down 170 feet. The last 30 
feet has been in an entire change of ground, 
having passed through the blue rock character- 
istic of the west side of Silver hill The bot- 
tom is dow in a most favorable vein formation, 
being full of seams of quartz. The Smith lo- 
cation is the oldest on Silver hill; and the 
course of the rich ledges in the Bodie mine in- 
dicates that they pass through this ground, and 
it is believed that the south extension of the 
rich veins mentioned, as yet undiscovered, will 
be found in the Silas B. Smith. Crosscutting 
will be commenced at a depth of 200 feet. 

Bulwer. — There has been no change worthy 
of note in the mine during the past week. The 
ledge in the south drift is 18 inches wide, and 
looks very well. The ledge in the upraise is 
two feet wide, and the ore at this point is very 
rich. The Stonewall ledge is looking as well as 
usual. There are now at the Bodie mill 700 
tons of ore. 

Goodshaw. — The shaft is now down 410 
feet. The formation in the bottom is porphyry 
mixed with stringers of quartz, and the indica- 
tions are considered favorable. At a depth of 
500 feet crosscutting will be commenced. The 
machinery works well. 

Mono. — In consequence of the great increase 
in the flow of water, it has been very difficult 
to work in the bottom of the shaft. The sta- 
tion timbers at 400 feet have been put in, and 
one set below. Will commence opening the 
station immediately. 

Bodie Tunnel. — The tunnel is now in over 
700 feet. The face of the tunnel is still in a 
favorable formation, and ventilation continues 
good. 
NEVADA. 

Milton M. Co. — Transcript, Jan. 19: We 
are in receipt of the annual report of the Milton 
M. & W. Co., for the year ending Oct 31st, 



1878. The net receipts were as follows: 

1 ranch lA'tmi nune $226,231 

l initio 81*730 

Water uak-s Q.086 

Rebate 00 powder 2,500 

Soles 822 snares' ol capital stock 38*200 

Uisoelhuieona. o,4S4 



T.Hal iiti tvedpta $399,230 

Nine dividends were paid during the yean 
amounting to $21.50 per share, the same aggre- 
gating 3270,748k The remainder of the pro- 
ceeds was applied to the reduction of the out- 
standing indebtedness, construction, etc. In 
December, 1877, the debt due on demand was 
$350,000. Of that amount, $300,000 was funded 
the 1st of January, 1878, in 300 bonds of 
$1,000 each, bearing 9% interest, of which 50 
are to be taken up each year, commencing Jan- 
uary 1st, 1880. The gross yield of the French 
Corral mine for the past fiscal year was $363,- 
070, and of the Manzanita mine $173,784, both 
amounts representing gold. Nothing has been 
done at the mines since October, 1S78, for 
want of water. 

Pleasant Valley Mines. — The Badger Flat 
Hydraulic M. Co., near Novey's rauch, have 
had five men at work fitting up for the rains, 
and are now all ready. Free water from the 
avine is used, it being conveyed by 2,000 feet 
of 11-inch pipe, and having 130 feet fall. The 
claim has been worked by the present owners 
for three years past, last year working off a 
piece of ground 128x12 feet, which cleaned up 
$4,000. The bank is about 20 feet high, and 
the pay dirt is from five to six feet deep. As 
soon as water can be obtained the mine will be 
started with full force. The Nigger Creek 
hydraulic mine, which has been worked the 
past four or five years by the same owners, 
giving employment to a number of men, is in 
good shape for the rainy season. It is located 
about one mile south of the Hudson mine, and 
has a supply of free water to rely on. The pipe 
is 11-inch, and something like 300 feet long. 
The fall is nearly 75 feet. There is a small bank, 
but the pay streak is thought to be deeper than 
the Badger Flat Co's. Nine thousand dollars 
is reported to have been taken out here last 
year. 

The Hudson Mine. — Supt. Skiff Murchie was 
in town yesterday. He says the snow is rapidly 
disappearing from the locality of the Hudson 
mine. Everything is working smoothly at the 
mine, with the exception that the water in the 
ditches freezes up and the mill can only be run 
half of the time. The ledge continues its usual 
favorable showing. The Boston Co. have just 
got through cleaning up. The result is reported 
to be very satisfactory. There is no water in 
any of the ditches, the frost and snow shutting 
off all the supply. 

Mines Shutting Down. — The continued cold 
weather is having the tendency to interrupt 
operations at some of the largest quartz mines in 
this district. The main trouble experienced is 
from the freezing up of water ditches connected 
with the batteries. At the Murchie more or 
less delay has been met with from this cause. 
The Wyoming shut down last week. Thursday 
the Providence and Merrifield followed suit. 
A large number of men are thus temporarily 
thrown out of employment. 
PLACER. 

Collins' Hill Quartz Lead. — Herala, Jan. 
18: During the last of 1878, a party of 21 men 
from Portland, Maine, came to California. They 
brought with them an invention for saving fiue 
gold from either sand or gravel. Five gentle- 
men of the company are now stopping in 
Auburn, while other members have gone to 
other parts of the State. They are stalwart and 
practical men, of precisely the kind and class 
who are needed to help the unbounded resources 
of the Golden State. There is room everywhere 
for such men. Immediately on their arrival 
here, the five new-comers commenced to pros- 
pect; and, it gives us pleasure to record the fact 
that they have uncovered a quartz ledge on 
Collins' hill, above the slaughter house, out- 
side the boundary of Mr. Collins' ranch, over 
which the people of Auburn have tramped for 
the last 20 years. On Tuesday last the com- 
pany pulverized a few pounds of their quartz in 
a hand mortar, and they obtained a splendid 
prospect. They are now vigorously at work, 
going down on their ledge. 

Ophir Items.— The St. Patrick mill will be 
again running on the 25th, when the whole 
gang of 24 men recently discharged will agaiu 
be put to work. Extra hands are already being 
put to work in the shaft. Mr. Shurtleff, of the 
Duncan Hill mine, has 50 tons Af rock at Pugh's 
mill ready for crushing, which is expected to 
yield good pay. The extension of the old Cra- 
ter mine is about to be re-opened. A good deal 
of prospecting is going on among the old claims, 
and \i sufficient water be had, Ophir will soon 
be one of the liveliest mining camps in the 
county. 
SHASTA- * __ 

Copper City. — Independent, Jan. 16 : W. 
B. Crane made a test at smelting some copper 
ore last Wednesday, and the result was very 
satisfactory ; and Mr. Crane will soon be turn- 
ing out copper in large quantities, as the new 
smelter when completed will be of 20 tons capa- 
city per day. Superintendent Charles Dunn is 
pushing work as fast as possible, with a good 
crew both day and night, in his new tunnel on 
the Northern Light. The bullion shipped from 
the Extra Co. 's mill the past week, has been 
much higher in gold than the average of the 
bullion heretofore shipped, two of the bricks 
containing about $1, 200 each ; and bemg pro- 

Continued on page 00. 



54 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 25, 1879. 



Mines and Works of Almaden — No. 19. 



FOURTH PART. 

Administration and History of the Mines 
and "Works. 

Translated for the Press from " Annales deb Mines.*' 

II. History. 
The Arabic etymology of the word Almaden 
(the mine) would give reason for the belief that 
the discovery of the mines of mercury in 
that region was hot anterior to the conquest of 
Spain by the Moors. But tradition attributes 
to them a much more remote origin, and puts 
back the time of their first exploitation as far 
as the Phoenicians. It is at any rate certain 
that the Komans knew of them. Theophrastes 
(522 B. C.,) affirms that they employed and 
held in high esteem the firm and fine grained 
cinnabar which came from Spain; and Pliny 
recounts that this cinnabar came from the 
. country called Sizaponensis. Other historians, 
naturalists and geographers state that of all 
the mines of cinnabar known to the ancients 
the most famous was that of the country of 
Sizaponensis — (Almaden). It was appreciated 
to the highest degree for the purity of its cin- 
nabar, which made it' unique from this point of 
view in all the Roman empire. It is known 
that they transported cinnabar from Almaden 
to Rome under the name of stone-metal, in 
chests (well made), and that each voyage they 
carried away 10,000 pounds. 

They ignore, indeed, the exact use to which 
the ore was put; and there is every reason to 
believe that the applications were less numer- 
ous than they are to-day. It is certain, how- 
ever, that they purified it, by a sort of mechan- 
ical preparation, no doubt, and that it was at 
times used by painters, and by the Roman 
ladies for the same purpose. Pliny says, how- 
ever, that they burned it and washed it, which 
seems to indicate that they extracted the mer- 
cury from it. 

The habit of adulterating it with minium 
from Spain (from Carthagenia and from Lin- 
ares, probably) shows that from this period it 
was an article of merchandise of high value. 

The word Sizaphoue, generally employed in 
the ancient chronicles to designate the region 
where Almaden is found to-day, leaves not a 
doubt whence the Romans obtained their cinna- 
bar. They have also discovered in the old 
works numerous antique remains, and particu- 
larly a great number of Roman coins. 

But the exploitation of the mines of Almaden 
did not begin to be developed until the dis- 
covery of America had opened to their product 
a large field for the treatment of silver ores. 
Previous to this the mines of Almaden, follow- 
ing the vicissitudes of the country in which 
they were, changed their proprietorship several 
times, either owing to conquests or as the con- 
sequence of royal gifts. Thus, in 1161, king 
Alphonse VIII. granted to Count Nuno, and 
the Chevaliers of Calatrava, the towns and the 
mines of Chillon and of Almaden. In the 14th 
century the mines paid a tithe to the Arch- 
bishop of Toledo. Prom 1499 to 1512 it was 
again the royal treasury which exploited them 
on its own account. 

The annual production at this epoch was not 
more than 23,000 kilograms of mercury. Then 
the treasury, embarrassed by several debts 
which it had contracted to the German bankers 
Fugger, decided to abandon to them, in 1525, 
the ownership of Santiago, Calatrava, Alcan- 
tara and the pasturage and mines of Almaden, 
for three years. But at the expiration of this 
term, the contract was renewed and the mines 
remained in the hands of the Fuggers or 
Pucares until 1563. At this last date they had 
entire charge of the exploitation, for which 
they furnished to the treasury annually a quan- 
tity of mercury which varied from 46 to 200 
tons. The situation remained the same until 
1624. 

It is not known exactly what was the pro- 
duct of the mines during the first 38 years 
(1525-1563) of the administration of the Fug- 
gers; in the 61 other years (1562-1624) the 
average annual product was 140 tons of mer- 
cury. 

In 1625 the Fugger contract was prolonged 
for 20 years, with the obligation of furnishing 
each year to the treasury at Saville 184 tons of 
mercury and 6,900 kilograms of vermilion. 

In 1646 the treasury resumed the exploita- 
tion on its own account (Real Hacienda), with 
an administrator who had the name jurisdic- 
tion as the Counts Fugger, who was placed 
under the direction of the Council of Finance. 
Later, from October, 1708, to January, 1717, 
it was under a special council la Junta de A%- 
ogitesj then from 1717 to 1735 the council or 
Junta de India. In 1735, by decree of Don Jose 
Coruego y Ybarra, there was established a tri- 
bunal called "General superintendence of mer- 
cury, " to which was given the decision of all 
questions relative to the mines of Almaden. 

The "superintendence" retained these pre- 
rogatives during more than a century,, till 1845; 
it then lost these general and judiciary powers, 
and only retained the administrative, which the 
superintendent still exercises at the present day. 

The collection of documents belonging to the 
mines of Almaden gives some details of the ex- 
ploitation of the mines of Almaden since the end 
of the 15th century. 

In the manner of the Romans, who, in- Spain, 



generally employed a series of vertical cuts or 
shafts, at small distances from each other; dur- 
ing this period numerous excavations were 
made which were known under the names, San 
Sebastian, Mineta Alta, Mineta Baja, Furriaga, 
Contramina, Antigua, Mina Del Pozo, etc., 
rather badly arranged and seeming to be placed 
in the vicinity of the shaft at present existing, 
the San Aquilino. 

The old mine of Pozo, abandoned between 
1590 and 1615, had arrived, they said, at a 
depth of 209 meters; at this level it finished by 
being no longer exploitable, on account of the 
increase of the expense, and of the difficulties 
of drainage and of supporting. It is even be- 
lieved that the works attained, in certain points, 
a depth of 250 meters, and a length of 500 
meters. 

On leaving the old mine, they directed them- 
selves towards the actual mine of Pozo (they 
call by this name the western part of the veins 
of Almaden and particularly the veins of San 
Pedrojy San Diego.) 

In September, 1697, they discovered speci- 
mens of cinnabar in a house near Castillo del 
Eetamar, at the upper part of the town of 
Almaden ; in the same year a shaft called the 
San Antonio, was opened here, and massive ore 
was found there, toward the end of 1698. This 
part has received the name of mine del Castillo. 
They commenced in 1703, the crosscuts of the 
first level, called socavon del Castillo j at 207 
meters from its beginning, they came across the 
shaft San Antonio, in 1706. 

At this period they employed slaves for 
draining the mine by hand ; the supporting 
was all accomplished by timbering. In 1755 a 
fire took place in the mine, the wood burned 
during 30 months ; this caused great trouble, 
and gave rise to numerous accidents ; finally 
the mine was flooded, and its future seriously 
compromised. Some engineers were then called 
from Germany, who succeeded in getting things 
nearly into condition again towards 1760. In 
1791, the steam engine of Watt, of which we 
have previously spoken, was established for 
drainage, and this in 1873, was still the only 
steam engine at Almaden. 

Towards 1800, the engineer of the mines, Don 
Diego Larranaga, proposed and adopted the 
present method of exploitation. The works at 
that epoch, in 1803, attained a depth of 200 
meters. It is evident then, that in 73 years they 
have descended only about 90 meters, and 
certainly they have furnished a considerable 
quantity of mercury, as is seen in the following 
table, with which we finish this work : 
The Amounts of Mercury Furnished by the 

Mines of Almaden from 1564 to 1875. 
Years. Weight in tons. 

1564-1625 8,633.282 

1625-1645 3,680.000 

1646-1651 757.364 

1652-1653 199.099 

1653-1655 405.402 

1655-1656 54.513 

1656-1665 724.988 

1665-1668 339.071 

1668-1672 465.124 

1672-1673 188.410 

1673-1677 458.254 

1677-1680 265.693 

1680-1682 200.807 

1682-1685 128.132 

1685-1689 392.554 

1689-1696 587. 64G 

1696-1700. . . .- . . 363.381 

Total from 1564 to 1700 17,863,720 

Or on an average per year 130.391 

Years. Weight in tonsS 

1700-1709 1,905.848 

1709-1726 3,689. 124 

1726-1729 ; . . nothing. 

1729-1734 1,707.617 

1736-1742. . . . , 1,562.289 

1742-1743 417.623 

1743-1749 2,629.532 

1750-1767 2,305.018 

1757-1773 7,299. 182 

1774-17S1 6,365.036 

1781-17S6 2,960.000 

1787-1789 1,641.327 

1789-1798 7,727.085 

179S-1799 999. 48S 

1799-1800 844.331 

Total from 1700 to 1500 42,149.501 

Or on an average per 421.495 

Years. Weight in tons. 

1800-1805 3,129 053 

1805-1810 2,548 825 

1810-1815 1,753 275 

1815-1820 3.497.70S 

1820-1825 3,527.247 

1825-1830 4,448.900 

1830-1835 5,774.697 

1835-1840 4,873.580 

1S40-1S45 4,596.480 

1845-1850 4,433.981 

1850-1355 3,503.031 

1855-1860 » . . . 3.798.371 

1860-1865 4,179.269 

1865-1870 5,387.322 

1870-1875 ■ 5,714.640 



Total from 1800 to 1875 60,166.379 

Or on an average per year 802.218 

The production during the three centuries 
has been, in resume: 

From. Ton a. 

1564-1700 17,867.320 

1700-1800 42 149.501 

1300-1875 60 166.379 



Total , 120,179.600 

When we attempt to determine the value of 
this enormous quantity of mercury we find it 
rather difficult to estimate. The price of mer- 
cury reached 12 to 15 francs per kilogram before 
the discovery of the mines of California— New 
Almaden and others. At 12 francs per kilo- 
gram, the value oreated would be 1,440 mil- 
lions of francs. At the actual average rate, 
about 6 francs, it still represents the sum of 
720 millions of francs. These figures are elo- 
quent enough to need no other commentary. 
Concluded. 



The Cone-bearers, or Evergreen Trees of 
California.— No. 1. 

[Written for the Rural Press by J. G. Lemmon.] 

General Description. 
Few orders of plants can be named which are 
of more importance to man, whether in reference 
to furnishing food or building materials, than 
this of the conifers, included in and forming the 
most of the great class of Gymnospermai, or 
naked-seeded plants. In general character they 
are resinous- juiced trees, mostly evergreen, 
cone-bearing (though often greatly modified) 
with needle-shaped or scale-like leaves, very 
easily distinguished at sight, and inhabiting the 
cold or temperate regions of the earth. Except 
our yew, which may be poisonous to horses and 
cattle, as is its English congener, not a species 
of them all is either noxious or useless. The 
most of them are very valuable, and among 
them are the most beautiful trees in the world. 
It is beyond the scope of these papers to present 
even briefly the various uses and values derived 
from the pine, spruce, fir, cedar, cypress, and 
juniper families of our forests. They contribute 
three-fourths of the material for our houses, 
mines, bridges, roads, wharves, vessels, etc., 
and the Aborigines, especially of the Southern 
hemisphere, depend largely upon their fruits for 
food. 

Habitat or Locality. 
Found almost exclusively in the cold regions 
of the earth, the cone-bearers form necessarily 
two great zones across the extreme land surface 
— one at the north and the other at the south. 
In these zones the conifers outnumber the other 
trees of the broad-leaved, non-resinous class (as 
oak, ash, etc.), ten to one. Great disparity is 
found between the trees of these extreme re- 

fions ; those of Australia, New Zealand and 
outh America can scarcely be recognized as 
relatives of the more abundant and typical trees 
of Northern America, Europe and Asia. Some 
entire genera # and one large sub-order, very 
numerous in the northern, are entirely absent 
from the southern zone, though in the southern 
regions there are found a great many genera and 
but few species. 

Again, the two continents have widely differ- 
ent forms, amounting often to generic distinc- 
tions, and very frequently to difference of 
species. All the drear northern regions of Asia 
and the more humid northern portions of Europe 
are forested with this class of plants. Immense 
forests of pine and spruce abound in northern 
Russia and in the Scandinavian peninsula. 
These noble forests extend down as far as Ger- 
many and Switzerland, but below this locality 
the evergreens are outnumbered by the broad, 
deciduous-leaved trees, oak, ash, beech, etc. 

In the northern part of North America exist 
the most extensive and noblest pine forests of 
the globe; being often, as in the eastern United 
States, 300 to 500 miles in extent. The Amer- 
ican conifers, though possessing many species 
peculiar to the region, are destitute of 25 entire 
genera of Asiatic and Australian species. 

Here on this continent are found, also, wide 
distinctions in respect of character between the 
two coasts, Atlantic and Pacific; species of 
each coast being generally confined to each. 
There is one notable genus of two monster 
species that inhabits exclusively this Pacific re- 
gion — the coast redwood and our famous Sierra 
"big tree." 

The last climatic, or rather regional effects to 
be noticed are found by comparison of our two 
mountain ranges — the Coast and the Sierra. In 
the lower, fog-fostered Coast Range is found the 
redwood; while in certain groves of the inland, 
lofty Sierra Nevada, tower up the grand, col- 
umnar kings of the vegetable worlds. 

Wide differences in species (termed varieties) 
are detected by comparison between trees of 
the two ends of these ranges. The Douglas 
spruce, of the Oregon coast, with its large 
trunk and small cones, two inches long, becomes 
in San Bernardino, a poor deformed tree, with 
enormous cones one foot long. The red fir of 
the Oregon Cascade Range, with its medium 
cones having exserted bracts, becomes (accord- 
ing to Prof. Brewer and John Muir, but not 
Englemann) in the high Sierra the large coned 
fir with concealed bracts. 

Class Characters. 

This great class of cone-bearers, called scien- 
tifically Gymnospermai, or naked-seeded plants, 
i. e. } plants with seeds not enclosed in a peri- 
carp, but lying naked at the base of the scales 
of a strobile "or cone, is the last grand division 
of the phcenogamous plants, and comes next to 
the endogens or inside-growers, with which it 
shares the character of (chiefly) parallel-veined 
leaves. 

The other class characters are resinous juice, 
mostly more than two cotyledons or parts to the 
seed, pitted cells in the wood fiber (detected 
only with a strong magnifier) and the absence of 
ducts. The latter fact accounts for the resis- 
tance to decay generally presented by conifer 
trees ; but fir trees form a remarkable excep- 
tion, rotting as soon almost as poplar. The 
flowers are always imperfect and diclinous of 
both descriptions, i. e. , monozcious, with the 
male and female flowers on different branches 
of the same tree ; or 'dioecious, L e, , with male 
flowers on one tree and female on another. The 
fruit is a strobile or cone (e. g., the pines, spruce, 
etc. ), sometimes reduced to a cup (e. #., the yew), 
and even to a closed, berry-like object, called a 
galbulus, {e. g., juniper). The leaves are mostly 
long and slender, as in the pines, sometimes 



reduced to pointed scales, as in the cypress 
family. 

Obscurity of the Gynmospermee. 

Except the greatly modified family of orchids, 
no class of plants is more studied and is less 
understood than the Gymnosperms. Their 
mixed characters, resembling the great classes 
on each side of them, and the extreme modifica- 
tion of organs, but more than all the few or 
poor specimens collected of such an unwiedly 
class of plants, have rendered research formid- 
able to most scholars and mostly fruitless, except 
by a few specially qualified scientists, of whom 
mention may be made of Tournefort, Link, 
DeCaisne, JLindley, Endlicher, Hooker, both 
father and son, Torrey, Gray and Engelmann. 

Even unscientific observers often speak of the 
resemblance between the flat, expanded limbs 
of fir trees and the usual forms of the stems or 
.fronds of ferns. This resemblance also led the 
master of botanical science, Linnfeus, to errone- 
ously classify them together. Their resemblance 
to the palms is also very marked. Both form 
generally a single stem. All the leaves of the 
palm die and fall away as the stem arises ; so 
the side limbs of the conifers generally become 
dwarfed or fall off as the tall, straight shaft 
towers heavenward. The leaves, mostly in 
fascicles or bundles (e. #., pine, tamarack), are 
regarded as abortive shoots. They are usually 
persistent (deciduous in tamarack), remaining 
on the tree from 4 to 12 years. . 
(To be Continued.) 



TtfE EMqtNlEEE^. 



Is the East River Bridge a Failure ? 

Notwithstanding an expenditure of nearly 
$13,500,000, says Every Saturday, the great 
East River bridge between Brooklyn and New 
York will undoubtedly be abandoned. Mr. 
William H. Webb, an engineer, states that the 
bridge is wholly incapacitated to facilitate 
either passengers or business traffic; that it is 
insecure and cannot withstand the violent 
storms it will be subject to; that it will not 
bear the enormous weights that may be ex- 
pected; and that the cost and delay in taking 
down and replacing the top masts of vessels 
necessary to all that pass under the bridge, can- 
not be tolerated. It ia rather late in the day to 
find this out, but Mr. Webb says that it is only 
an experimental bridge. It is the highest and 
longest in the world, and probably the only one 
entirely unsupported by any form of stays. The 
history of suspension bridges in this country 
and in Europe shows their most dangerous ex- 
posure to be that to storms, producing oscilla- 
tions and ruptures. In view of these objections 
Mr. Webb insists that it would be foolish, if not 
wicked, to spend more money on a "bridge that 
is not called for, cannot be made to answer the 
purposes for which it was professedly built, 
very seriously damages a large part of the com- 
merce of the harbor, taxes the financial ability 
of these two cities to their utmost, and cannot 
fail either to be taken down by the mandate of 
the courts or demolished by the winds." 
Opinion of Another Engineer. 
S. B. Driggs, the well-known engineer, says: 
" It appears to me an unfortunate coincidence 
that the persons who made the original estimates 
were the contractors for constructing the bridge 
under the municipal authorities, politicians and 
others who sanctioned it. The engineering skill 
which built the bridge over Niagara Falls, as 
well as many others, with such entire success, 
had in the Niagara case only to provide for a 
span of 750 feet, which I believe is the largest 
that heretofore has ever been attempted. In 
the Brooklyn bridge the span is, at least, 1,600 
feet. Now, mark ; the deflection of the cables 
at Niagara Falls is more than double that, which, 
with the present kight of towers, it is possible 
to give to the Brooklyn bridge cables, and avoid 
interference with navigation even in a minor 
degree. To me it seems that the public mind, 
in the first place, was greatly influenced by the 
connection of eminent engineers with the 
scheme, men of whom it may be said that to 
attempt "was to accomplish. But when they 
permit their names to be used as a cover for a 
fraudulent scheme,' it is the duty of any and 
every intelligent and practical man to call at- 
tention to the extraordinary departure which 
has been made from well-known mathematical 
rules, as in the attempt to span the East river. 
"As I said before, the distance between the 
two supports for sustaining the bridge is a little 
over 1,600 feet, by far the longest span ever 
yet attempted, and therefore the deflection of 
the cables should be proportionate to the in- 
creased length of the span. Instead of this, in 
order to prevent lateral or swinging motion — as 
there can be no side stays — the supporting 
cables have been drawn taut. This. will accom- 
plish to a degree what is required, but at what 
cost ? Simply at the extent of their vertical 
sustaining capacity, which is largely wasted in 
longitudinal tension, for the double purpose of 
allowing such an inverted arch to be constructed 
at a sufficient hight above water, and to make 
the supports as rigid as possible. 
The Towers will not Support the Weight. 
"This leads me to remark that the periphery 
of an inverted arch must have the sustaining 
power of all that it is to support in its inverted 
condition. For it is well known that the prin- 
ciple of the arch must have its ends or abut- 
ments secured immovably, in order that the 



January 25, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



55 



necessary sustaining powers be obtained ; but, 
when the arc of the arch ia so rJat that the sus- 
taining power is almost wholly thrown upon 
the abutments, it is almost impossible for the 
ends to bear the weight brought upon them 
through the necessary powerful leverage. N v., 
the question is purely mathematical, and there- 
fore capable of oemonBteation, and viewed from 
a scientific point, it is evident that the decrease 
of every foot of deflection increases in corre- 
sponding ratio the force of weight that the sup- 
porting columns have to sustain; and thna the 
want of evqn 15 or 20 feet oi necessary deflec- 
tion represents many hundred tons of strain 
additional upon a cable, to increase the 
of the era. lie winch it should naturally have. 
Bence every large portion of cohesive power of 
tiie metal forming Huch cables is expended on 
what I cannot help calling impracticable tension. 
Thus I consider that it is quite hypothetical 
whether ■ bridge built on the principle of the 
Brooklyn affair would be Bate, and this being so, 
1 think it would be unwise to attempt its pas- 
sage. The only way to make the best of a bad 
bargain is to have a center pier erected. TIub 
would be far less in the way than the present 
cables, and it should be built higher than the 
side supports. On this the cables could rest, 
and at the same time they would be stayed, 
while the weight would be so divided that no 
disproportionate strain would be brought upon 
either of them. Trains and carriages, as well 
as foot passengers, might then make use of it, 
and it might— I won't aay would— prove profit- 
able." 



(JsEfdL [f<FOr\[4\J[ON. 



Determination of the Resistance Offered 
to Ships. 

In an article contributed to the Revieta Marit- 

luiv, Siguor A. Lettieri has described an appar- 
atus for the determination of the resistance of- 
fered to ships by experiments on their models. 
In experiments of this nature, the elements to 
be determined are two— the uniform velocity 
and the resistance encountered at that velocity. 
The first of these is obtained by the measure of 
the space passed through in a unit of time. It 
is, therefore, desirable to have an apparatus 
which shall graphically denote this velocity by a 
curve, and refer it to a measure of the resistance. 
To effect this, Signor Lettieri has designed a 
vertical cylinder (the drawing shows the length 
to be 14 times the diameter, but neither scale 
nor dimensions ar« given), which revolves 011 a 
fixed axis. The upper part of this axis sustains 
a pulley, and a second pulley is fixed beneath 
the cylinder, with a small drum on its axis. A 
line attached to the drum passes over the upper 
pulley and sustains a scale pan, to which is 
fixed a pencil, the point of which presses against 
the cylinder. The model is attached by a line 
to the lower pulley, so that the descent of the 
weight corresponds to the movement of the 
model through the water, while the weight 
itself is a measure of the resistance. Movement 
iB given to the vertical cylinder by means of a 
pair of conically-toothed wheels, one of which 
is attached to the cylinder itself. The motion 
of the latter being made thus uniform, and its 
velocity known, the curve traced on it by the 
pencil will indicate the relation between the 
movement of the model and that of the cylinder, 
and will form a regular spiral when both move- 
ments are uniform. The remainder of the 
paper is occupied by an algebraical investigation 
of the curves thus to be obtained, and by the 
relation between the weight placed in the scale 
pan and the resistance encountered by the model 
in its passage through the water. 



Korku ;n HoRSl HHOB8. — Mr. Alfred Longs- 
don, of Queen Victoria street, writes to the 
The exhibition in the streets of London 
of horses slipping and falling in all directions is 
pitiable indeed, and many ut tluin must be se- 
riously strained and otherwise injured. This 
can be so easily prevented that it is a mystery 
why it should not be dune, especially hi Eng- 
land^ where all in reference to the horse is sup- 
posed t<> be so well understood. I have just re- 
turned from Germany, and during the last fort- 
night the roads there have been far worse thau 
here, yet I have driven overthem with as much 
safety and OOmfortaS Over a newly-graveled road. 
The means used are very simple, and far pre- 
ferable to the English system of roughing, 
which always renders it dangerous to the horses 
in stable. In liermauy the smith, when finish- 
ing the shoe, punches a hole iu the two ends, 
and when the shoe is cold he taps in a screw 
thread and screws into the shoe, when on the 
horse's foot, a sharp pointed stud of an inch in 
length; and with shoes thus fitted the horse 
can travel securely over the worst possible road, 
and 1 have never known one slip either when 
riding or driving; and draft horses are shod 
in the same way. When the horse comes to 
stable the groom unscrews the pointed stud and 
screws in a button, so that no damage can hap- 
pen to the horse and the screw holes are pre- 
vented from tilling. When the horse is going 
out the groom simply takes out the button and 
screws iu the pointed stud, and there is no fear 
of the horse coming back with broken knees or 
strained sinews, and the public are spared the 
painful sight of horses down or slipping in all 
directions. 



SSDIO .in BULKQY Flocr. — A French 
chemist some few years ago conceived the idea 
that it would be practicable to compress Hour 
diminish the bulk and yet not injure 
its quality. An experiment was accordingly 
made. Flour subjected to a hydraulic pressure 
of 860 tons was reduced in volume more than 
24 . On close examination it was found to 
possess all the qualities it had, previously to its 
violent treatment. It was then put into zinc 
boxes and sealed up. At the same time other 
floor manufactured from the same wheat, but 
not Com pressed , was sealed up. About three 
months after several, boxes containing both 
kinds of Hour were opened and examined. 
The pressed was pronounced to be the best. 
Twelve months after this, another examination 
took place, and with the same result. The 
two kinds were kneaded into loaves and baked. 
The pressed Hour made the best bread. In 
another year the boxes were opened and ex- 
amined, and while the loose Hour showed 
moldincss, the pressed was sweet, and retained 
all its qualities. Made into bread the same 
difference was observable. 



An Improved Hoisting Plant. — Fr., Koepe, 
■of the Hanover coal mine, at Bochura, Germany, 
is the inventor of an improved hoisting plant for 
mines, founded upon the happy thought of 
replacing the two hoisting drums with its two 
separate ropes by a single sheave with one wire. 
The circumference of this sheave, which is 
much cheaper than the ordinary hoisting drums, 
is provided with a wedge-shaped groove lined 
with wood or leather. The weight of the two 
hoisting cages above will suffice to prevent slip- 
ping. Themachihe may either be placed directly 
above the shaft or it may be put up beside it. By 
the arrangement cited, one-half of the length of 
rope is saved and any overwinding becomes 
m impossible, .because when one cage .is at the 
pit s mouth, the second rests upon the bottom of 
the shaft, and any further winding would tend 
to make the rope in the shaft slack, which the 
■counter- weight of the cage rapidly puts an end 
to. If a rope is attached to the bottoms of the 
two cages and run over a pulley at the bottom 
of the shaft, complete counterbalancing of the 
weight of the rope is effected. 

The Maryland Ship Canal. — The Balti- 
more Sun has the following in regard to the 
ship canal across Maryland and Delaware : 
The lower routes seem more practicable, and 
probably the route commencing at the mouth 
of the Choptank is the most practicable of all. 
The temperature being higher, there is prob- 
ably no danger from ice, aud the Nanticoke 
river and Broadkill creek can be utilized so as 
to materially lessen the excavating. It is some 
distance down the bay, but comes out at Lewes, 
the most desirable point for the Delaware ter- 
minus, and its situation down the Chesapeake 
gives increased advantages to Norfolk, the 
Washington and other Potomac trade and 
steamers, the Patuxent, Rappahannock, etc., 
and offers to all those parts more direct com- 
munication with Philadelphia, New York, and 
the general outside world, 



The Advantage of Machine Tools. —For ma- 
chine tools there should be a growing demand, 
in exact proportion as the competition of foreign 
manufactures is disagreeably experienced. These 
tools have enabled our workers in metals to ac- 
complish the great things which, in steam ma- 
chinery, have distinguished the present genera- 
tion; they have, indeed, enabled the manufac- 
turers in whatever line of business, to largely 
dispense with the tiny tool wielded by the com- 
paratively unskilled workman. We direct at- 
tention to the sphere which is widening out be- 
fore those machine linns who are adepts in de- 
vising apparatus to cheapen the manufacture of 
domestic metal wares. The hardware makers 
will be growing customers to the mechanical 
engineer. The former will be utterly unable, 
by hand-made products, to continue to compete 
with foreigners who use machinery. The ma- 
chine-made goods will still continue to run 
down prices, and it may be attempted to meet 
the competition by a reduction in the remu- 
neration paid for manual labor. But already 
there are indications that pretty much the limit 
of endurance by handcraftsmen has been 
reached. Our work people have not abandoned 
all opposition to machinery, but it is every 
year less displayed. If the manufacturer of 
locks and tiles, and nails, are now customers to 
steel-tool making firms, the manufacturers of 
cutlery and kindred goods must begin to seek 
the help of mechanical engineers, if they are 
not to be jostled out of the many markets in 
which they have done profitable business. — The 
Engineer. ^^_ 

Improved Method of Managing Steam-Boi- 
ler Fires. — When the furnace-door of a steam- 
boiler is opened, there should be a simultaneous 
partial closing of the damper to prevent sudden 
chilling of the boiler and flues. To accomplish 
this, with certainty, for every opening of the 
doors, Mr. William Weightman, of Powers & 
Weightman, has had arranged and applied a 
system of levers and rods, connecting the fur- 
nace-doors with the damper, so contrived that 
whether there be one or more doors to one fur- 
nace, or to which one damper is supplied, the 
act of opening any one door will invariably 
close the damper. " Whether this application of 
simple and ingenious devices is new or not, 
every engineer will regard it as one of the good 
things for aiding the better management of 
steam-boilers. 

Milk in Thunderstorms. — In Erzgebirge.'in 
Saxony, where the cold water system is carried 
out in large dairies, an apparently effectual 
plan has been hit upon for preventing the milk 
" turning " suddenly in tempestuous weather. 
A thin iron wire chain is passed through the 
milk-pans, the ends of which are kept con- 
stantly in the cold water. Dr. Fleischman, of 
Baden, testifies to the practicability of this 
method, for, he observes, authorities on the 
subject maintain that milk is less sensitive to 
the electricity of the air than to the tempera- 
ture that surrounds it more immediately. The 
fact that milk kept in enamelled or tinned ves- 
sels is less liable to turn sonr in hot weather 
speaks well for this new theory. 



Indelible Ink for Zinc Labels. — A corre- 
spondent of the London Garden says: "Many 
years ago a friend gave me a simple recipe for 
ink for writing on zinc, which I have constantly 
used since. It is 12 to 16 grains bichloride of 
platinum dissolved in one ounce distilled water. 
If kept corked a small bottle will last many 
years. The zinc labels must of course be clean- 
ed before using. This is readily done by rub- 
bing, either with hue emery paper or with very 
dilute oil of vitriol. Then simply write the 
name and allow the ink to dry. I have used 
labels of this description for years, and have 
never lost a name since adopting them. They 
have been found equally suitable for the house 
or the open air. " 



QOOD t^E^LjU. 



Is Fat Injurious? 



An Artificial Tallow. — A patent for arti- 
ficial tallow was issued in October last to Senor 
Miguel de la Vega, of New York. The in- 
ventor states in his patent, that 100 lbs. of the 
tallow is produced by mixing together 60 lbs. 
of castor oil, 10 lbs. of animal tallow, 10 lbs. 
of vegetable oil, and 20 lbs. of wheat flour. 
These ingredients are boiled together for about 
30 minutes by steam heat. When the ..mixture 
cools it hardens, and resembles tallow. Cotton 
seed oil, orany other similar vegetable oil will 
answer the purpose equally as well as castor 
oil. 



Fats are very important elements of our f ood ; 
still, goose oil, lard, tallow, train oil, fish oil, 
and such varieties of diet, are wisely eschewed 
by all except lumbermen, aud those whose 
physical labor is very great, and who are almost 
constantly exposed to cold. While, therefore, 
the student and civilized worker wisely eschews 
the coarser forms of fat, he should not ignore 
it in some more refined-and delicate form. He 
should instead use such as are most suitable to 
his taste and needs. The brain is a great con- 
sumer of fat, combined with phosphorus. No 
phosphorus — no thought, is a modern phrase, 
expressing the importance of phosphorus in 
mental action. As yet we are in the infancy of 
knowledge on this subject, but it may be pre- 
dicted that'when we know the whole truth, the 
phrase will be something like this: "No phos- 
phorized fat, no thought." There is always 
some fat in most of our foods. The special 
forms best to make up any deficiency that may 
be in them are no doubt to be found in good 
butter and cream. There are, of course, in- 
stances in which they will not be tolerated, but 
these are exceptions. Fat is not digested in the 
stomach, but by the pancreatic juice in the 
intestines, nature having provided a .special 
juice to form it into an emulsion so it may be 
absorbed. In this state every atom of fat is so 
small that it requires a microscope to detect it, 
and in this state it may easily be passed through 
the walls of the intestines and carried into the 
circulation. We need no better evidence of the 
need of fat than this careful provision for its 
digestion in the system. The symptoms which 
attend a non-use of fats in some form are cold- 
ness of the extremities, a tendency to indiges- 
tion, lack of nervous energy and power to think. 
Emaciation, diminished muscular power, and a 
tendency to consumption. 

It may be true that many persons suffer from 
an inability to digest fats, and that sometimes 
they obstruct the liver and make much trouble. 
In all snch cases it would be advisable to use 
them wisely and judiciously, but rarely to avoid 
them altogether, except, perhaps, in corpulence, 
where they are best used in great moderation. 
Lean people should use fats rather more freely 
than fat ones. The amount of fat necessary for 
a healthy working person is about three ounces 
daily. Persons with extraordinary working 
power require more than this. The starch in 
our food is to a certain extent a substitute for 
fat, and may be converted into it. — "Eating for 
Strength. " 

The Lesson of a Sneeze. — is a rule, a 
sneeze is the warning nature gives that some 
part of the body is exposed to a cooler tempera- 
ture than the other parts, that the sneezer is 
"catching cold." Next to the warning, what is 
the use of a sneeze ? It throws open the pores 
of the whole body, and induces a gentle perspir- 
ation; in a word, it throws out the cold. A 
child rarely sneezes more than twice. Perspir- 
ation is readily induced. in a youth; an old man, 
on the contrary, sneezes half-a. dozen to a dozen 
times with a loud "catchogue." It is harder to 
set him perspiring. When one is sitting by an 
onen window, and finds himself sneezing, na- 
ture tells him he is taking cold. He should 
get up instantly, walk about, aud take a full 
tumbler of cold water to keep up gentle perspir- 
ation that the sneeze set in motion. If he does 
this, he will not be telling, an hour after, that 
he has a "cold in his head," or chest, or lungs. 
■ — Eastern Gazette, 



Keep Your Nails Clean. 

People differ much iu their nail habits. As 
au observer well remarks iu the Phrenological 
Journal: Some keep them long and pointed, 
like reminiscences of claws; others bite theirs 
lose to the quick. Some pare and trim, and 
scrape and polish up to the highest point of 
artificial beauty; and others, carrying the doc- 
triue of nature to the outside limit, let them 
grow wild; with jagged edges, broken tracts, 
and hangnails as the agonizing consequences. 

Sometimes you see the most beautiful nails — 
pink, transparent, filbert-shaped, with the del- 
icate, filmy little half-moon indicated at the 
base — all the conditions of beauty carried to 
perfectiou, but all rendered of no avail by dirt 
aud slovenliness; while others are yet pleasant 
to look at for the care bestowed on them, their 
dainty perfection of cleanliness being a charm 
in itself. 

Nothing indeed is more disgusting than dirty 
hands and neglected nads, as nothiug gives one 
such a sense of freshness and care as the same 
members well kept. But one of the ugliest 
things in nails is when they are bitten, which, 
to judge by what one sees, is a habit having 
irresistible fascinations for those given over to 
it. It is an action, by the way, that has more 
than one significance. It may mean considera- 
tion, doubt, hesitancy, or it may mean anger or 
annoyance. 

Iu Paris there are "manicures," who treat 
the hands of customers just as the chiropodist 
does the feet of people. It would be a profitable 
enterprise for some to start in America. Many 
persons are apparently too indolent or careless 
to keep their hands in a neat and proper condi- 
tion. 

Winter Clothing lor Children. 

The matter of winter clothing for children 
has not heretofore been a subject of much 
thought here on the Pacific coast; but in the 
midst of this exceptionally cold season the 
following hint may not be inappropriate: It is 
generally thought that a very proper article of 
winter clothing for children is a comforter 
swathed around the neck. ThiB is a great error. 
The feet and wrists are the proper members to 
keep warm; the face and throat will harden 
into a healthy indifference to cold; but that 
muffler, exchanged for an extra pair of thick 
socks and knitted gloves, would preserve a boy 
or girl really warm and well. Bronchitis and 
sore throat have declined nearly 50% since the 
absurd use of high collars aud twice round 
handkerchiefs went out of fashion, and if the 
poor would take better care of their children's 
feet, part of infantile mortality would disappear. 
It only costs a trifle to put a piece of thick felt 
or cork into the bottom of a boot or shoe, but 
the difference is often considerable between 
that and the doctor's bill, with perhaps the 
undertaker besides. 



Diphtheria of late has been prevailing to an 
alarming extent in every county, east and west. 
At the last annual meeting of the American 
Medical Association, it was urged: 1. That, in 
case of diphtheria occurring in a pupil attending 
school, the patient should be wholly separated 
from other children until two or three weeks af- 
ter his recovery; that those who had been spe- 
cially exposed should be allowed to attend only 
after careful medical examination; that, where 
several were afflicted, the school should be 
closed and as many of the children as possible 
removed from the place. 2. That all clothing 
used by a diphtheritic patient should be sub- 
jected to intense heat, either of dry air or hot 
water. 3. That the room should be thoroughly 
ventilated during the patient's illness and af- 
terwards disinfected. 4. That where the dis- 
ease is prevailing as an epidemic, it would be 
desirable in summer to erect a large hospital 
tent in an airy position, whither all the patients 
might be at once transferred, and in winter a 
house might be converted into a hospital for 
the same purpose. 5. That we should treat 
diphtheria as we do scarlatina and small-pox. 

Re-uniting of Pieces Separated from the 
Body. —Dr. Maas describes two cases in which 
pieces separated from the body were replaced, 
and had united. In both cases the nose was 
the portion injured, and in both the epidermis 
sloughed off, leaving the rete Malpighii ex- 
posed. The pieces were sewed on with fine 
sutures, between which strips of adhesive 
plaster were applied, and, over all, oiled silk 
or cotton batting, to prevent evaporation and 
maintain warmth. The two following rules are 
given: (1) The piece separated must be kept 
warmed to the temperature of the human body. 
(2) It must be replaced, whether with sutures 
or adhesive plaster, or both, directly the flow 
of blood ceases. The nutrition of the piece is 
supposed to -be maintained by the speedy re- 
establishment of Circulation through its vessels. 

How to Kill a Tapeworm in an Hour.— 
Dr. Karl Bettelheim, of Vienna, narrates, m the 
Deutsche* Archiv, a heroic method and nearly 
sure cure in the short space of time of three- 
quarters of au hour to two hours. It is this: 
He inserts a tube in the cesophagus, to the 
stomach, and pours down from 200 to 400 
grammes of a very concentrated decoction ot 
pomegranate root, having previously had his pa- 
tient fast for 24 hours. The worm is stupefied, 
and passed, head and all, to a certainty; the 
patient has no sickness of the stomach, and no 
nauseous swallowing to do; and the drug is 
cheap.— Med, and Surg. Reporter, 



56 



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Saturday Morning", Jan. 25, 1879. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— The Little Wonder ; Copper Metal- 
lurgy ; Pacific Coast Cone-Bearers ; Academy of 
Sciences, 49. The Week ; The Heat of the Comstock ; 
New Hoisting Machinery for the Comstock, 56-7- A 
Foe to the Lumberman, 57. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. —Phillips' Self-Calculating and 
Button Weigher, for Prospectors, 49. Cross-section of 
Cedar, Honey-Combed by Fungus, 57- 

CORRESPONDENCE.— About the Snake River 
Gold Mines; Undercurrent Wheels for Hoisting and 
Washing Gravel, 50. 

MECHANICAL PROGRESS.— Dry Plumbago vs. 
Oil in Steam Cylinders; Gas Engines; Heavy Rails Pre- 
ferable; Making Lumber from Straw; Flint Bricks, 51. 

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS.— Bioplasm; Possible Ef- 
fect of the Moon in Early Geologic Time; Occlusion of 
Hydrogen by the Metals; Uniform Time for Germany; 
"Dentritic" Spots on Books, 51. 

MINING STOCK MARKET.— Sales at the San 
Francisco, California and Pacific Stock Boards, Notices 
of Assessments, Meetings and Dividends, 52. 

MINING SUMMARY from the various counties of 
California, Nevada, Arizona, Oregon, Utah, Colorado 
and Idaho, 53-60. 

THE ENGINEER.— Is the East River Bridge a Fail- 
ure? Determination of the Resistance Offered t« Ships; 
An Improved Hoisting Plant; The Maryland Ship Ca- 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Foreign Horseshoes; 
The Advantage of Machine Tools; Improved Method of 
Managing Steam-Boiler Fires; Milk in Thunderstorms; 
An Artificial Tallow, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Is Fat Injurious? The Lesson of a 
Sneeze; Keep Your Nails Clean; Winter Clothing for 
Children; Re-uniting of Pieces Separated from the Body; 
How to Kill a Tapeworm in an Hour, 55. 

MISCELLANEOUS. —Cosmic Meteorology— No. 1. 
50. Mines and Works of Almaden — No. 19; The Cone- 
bearers, or Evergreens of California — No. 1, 54. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 61 and other pages. 

Business Announcements. 

Assessment Notice -Griffith Con. M. & M. Co. 
Paul's Pulverizing Barrel, Almarin B. Paul, S. F. 



The Week. 



The event of the week is the timely, wide- 
spread and soaking rain, which, commencing 
on Wednesday evening, has, at the time we 
write, been falling moderately but steadily for 
nearly twenty-four hours; being the most pene- 
trating, protracted, and in every way beneficial 
rainfall that has yet occurred at this point the 
present winter; Should it continue after this 
fashion for another twenty-four hours, it will, 
through the improved prospects imparted to our 
leading interests, do much to change the pre- 
vious feeling of despondency and gloom to one 
of cheerfulness and hope. While we require 
a great deal more rain than we have had to 
date, to amply supply the mines with water 
and make certain the cereal crops throughout 
the State, the gains insured by the present 
storm may be estimated by the million, so much 
at a critical period may our material prosperity 
be made to depend upon the fall of even a 
single inch of rain. Truly has it been said that 
much that is common to the eastern side of the 
continent has been reversed here in California; 
and in nothing has this maxim found so apt 
verification as through the peculiar conditions 
of the climate. A pleasant winter day with a 
clear sky and the promise of long-continued fine 
weather, would, on the other side, enliven busi- 
ness and put everybody in the best of spirits. 
Not so here. We dread these fine winter days. 
The practical business man sees in them only 
ruin and disaster. To the farmer they mean 
poor crops; to the miner, light clean-ups; to 
the laboring man low wages ; to the merchant 
dull sales and slow pay; to everybody, in short, 
stagnant business and hard times. Give us, 
\ however, a sodden earth and leaden sky, a 
\down-pouring rain with a good prospect of its 
\ong continuance, and business of all kinds is at 
nee inspired with new life. 



The Heat of the Comstock. 

In the year 1878 the Government of the 
United States commenced a work which it had 
too long neglected, and has since dropped only 
half completed. That is the careful examina- 
tion of the Comstock lode, the largest deposit 
of precious metals now known in the world, and 
one of the most remarkable exhibitions of the 
phenomena which the earth hides within its 
bosom. The work was done by Prof. John A- 
Church, of Columbus, Ohio, in connection with 
Wheeler's survey of the Territories. Prof. 
Church spent five months in the field, and as a 
first result of his labors, the annual report of the 
Chief of Engineers contains a discussion of the 
heat which makes labor in the Comstock 
so severe. It is a matter of first importance 
to know whether this heat is likely to increase 
rapidly in depth, for it has already reached a 
point at which it is almost unendurable. 

Hitherto nothing has been known of the cause 
to which this heat was to be attributed, and 
the only explanations given were those which 
had obtained authority in other parts of the 
world. They were two in number, both refer- 
ring to the fact that the rock of the Comstock 
region was once melted and poured out in a 
fluid state. According to one of these theories 
the erupted rock has never cooled down except 
near the surface. Kock does not transmit heat 
very readily, and when a layer a thousand feet 
thick has become cool it acts like a blanket to 
keep the remainder of the mass from losing heat. 

The other theory is that a mass of melted 
rock, or at least very hot rock exists at a com- 
paratively moderate depth in the Comstock 
neighborhood, and the heat from this intensely 
hot center of radiation is transmitted through 
the rocks of the lode, keeping them warm. The 
rocks there were poured out at quite a recent 
period, and this theory merely asserts that the 
original sources of the melted material are still 
very hot and keep the crust "above them at a 
high temperature. 

Both of these theories are old and were in- 
vented to account for the fact that regions con- 
taining eruptive rocks are often found to be the 
seat of hot springs, and to give other evidences 
of heating. The springs at Steamboat merely 
repeat the conditions which are found at Carls- 
bad, Franzensbad, and other European localities, 
and in Mexico; and when the Comstock first 
came under the observation of scientific men, 
one of the first points settled was that the hot 
springs burst out from an uncooled mass of 
eruptive rocks, or were the last phase of the 
aqueous eruptions which formed the lode. 
Since then nothing has been added to the facts 
or theories, except the assertion by Mr. King 
that the rock is heated by the water which 
penetrates it, leaving the origin of the hot water 
still unaccounted for. 

Prof. Church rejects all of these theories and 
brings evidence to show that the heat of the 
rocks is maintained by some cause that is in 
action now, and cannot be considered as a 
remnant of a fusion long passed. He calculates, 
for instance, that it is impossible for rock to 
transmit heat with such rapidity as the pro- 
pylite of the Comstock does, unless it has a 
very much higher temperature than anything 
known there. 

In the Yellow Jacket mine the rock at the 
2200 level was found to have an average tem- 
perature of 138° Fah., and as the increase of 
heat in the rocks is found to be about one de- 
gree Fahrenheit for 45£ feet of depth, the tem- 
perature of the rock on the 1732 should be 
about 1274° Fah. Therefore between the 2200 
and 1732 levels there is a layer of rock 468 feet 
thick, which has its under side 10£ degrees 
hotter than the upper surface. 

Upon these facts it is possible to base trust- 
worthy calculations concerning the source of 
the heat; for a third of a century ago Prof. 
Forbes, Director of the Calton Hill observa- 
tory, in Edinburg, Scotland, began a series of 
observations on the rate of heat transmission in 
rocks and soils. He planted thermometers in 
the trap rock of the hill at depths of 3, 6, 12 and 
24 feet, and the readings of the instruments 
have been taken patiently several times a day 
ever since. A few years ago they were sum- 
marised by the celebrated Sir William Thom- 
son, and it is on the results obtained by these 
two gentlemen that Prof. Church bases his as- 
sertion that no possible rate of heat transmis- 
sion could keep up the high temperatures 
found in the mines. 

Sir William Thomson found that a plate of 
trap rock one foot square and one foot, thick, 
would transmit in 24 hours, for each degree of 
difference between the top and bottom of the 
plate, enough heat to raise 24£ pounds of water 
one degree in temperature. The trap of Calton 
hill and propylite of the Comstock are both 
eruptive rocks, and it is not making a violent 
supposition to say that they probably transmit 
heat with about equal facility. Therefore the 
stratum between the 1732 and 2200 levels of 
the Yellow Jacket, having a difference of 10£ 
degrees between the temperature of its top and 
bottom, should transmit enough heat in each 
day to raise 24J x 10-^ = 255.7 pounds of water 
one degree, provided the distance between the 
levels were only one foot. But we have seen 
that it is 468 feet, and it is a known law that 
the rate of heat transmission diminishes with 
the thickness of the stratum. To obtain the 
amount of heat which the rock between these 
levels of the Yellow Jacket is actually capable 



of transmitting, we must divide the above 
quantity by 468, which will give the amount of 
heat the 1732 level would receive, provided it 
were heated entirely by transmission fr_om the 
2200 level. Dividing 255.7 by 468, we obtain 
0.55 pounds of water raised one degree in tem- 
perature, and the next step necessary is to as- 
certain how this compares with the actual state 
of things. 

Fortunately this can be done, and the circum- 
stances are an excellent example of the value 
which the pursuit of knowledge, even of the 
most abstract kind, will eventually have. While 
the labors of Prof. Forbes and Sir Wm. Thom- 
son have made an approximate theoretical cal- 
culation possible, the intelligent interest which 
Capt. T. G. Taylor, formerly Superintendent of 
the Yellow Jacket, took in his mine, has placed 
within Prof. Church's hands the means of com- 
paring these theoretical results with the amount 
of heat actually transmitted to the 1732 drift. 
Capt. Taylor .began in 1875 a series of observa- 
tions at several points in the mine, and though 
a few of the records have been accidentally de-. 
stroyed, enough remains to afford a valuable 
source of information. 

The Yellow Jacket is opened by a vertical 
shaft to the 1119 level, and an incline to the 
1531 level. From the 1531 two parallel 
winzes are sunk on the lode, inclining with it. 
They are 413 feet apart, and connected on every 
lower level by the main north and south drift. 
The mine is downcast, and the air current passes 
down the vertical shaft to the 1119 level, 
thence down the incline to the 1531 level, 
through a drift to the south winze, and thence 
down this winze to the 2200 level, the bottom of 
themine. On its way from the 1531 it sends a cur- 
rent through the 1732, 1935 and 2040 levels, 
these currents being reunited in the north 
winze, which is the upcast. The north winze 
does not reach to the surface, and no air rises to- 
day in the mine, the entire current flowing into 
the Imperial and Bullion mines, both north of 
the Yellow Jacket, and both of them exclusive- 
ly upcast. This simple arrangement, and the 
fact that the drifts are not worked in now, and, 
are therefore free from the heat of candles, men 
and other disturbing causes, make the Jacket 
one of the best mines known for observations on 
heat. 

Capt. Taylor has placed Fahrenheit ther- 
mometers of the common kind, with japanned 
tin cases, at the surface, foot of the vertical 
shaft (1119 level), 1732 south and north winzes, 
1935 north winze, and 2040 south and north 
winzes. 

Prof. Church says that the instruments, 
which are of ordinary construction, should be 
replaced by standards, and that the favorable 
circumstances of the mine will repay careful 
work upon it. According to his measurement, 
the mine receives about 18,000 cubic feet of air 
per minute, which divides into three splits in 
the south winze, one of which travels through 
the 1732, 1934 and 2040 levels respectively. 
The air gains in temperature in descending the 
south winze, aud also in passing the 413 feet of 
drift to the north winze. On the 1732 the 
amount of the gain in six months was — 

HEAT OBSERVATIONS, YBLLOW JACKET MINE, 1732 LEVEL, 
1877. 
South Winze. North Winze. Gain. 

January 75.62 80.60 10.88 

February 76.86 83.S7 7.02 

March 76.10 88.89 12.79 

April 77.48 88.23 10.75 

May 81.42. 91.11 9.69 

June 79.39 91.62 12.23 

Average for six months 10.56 

Eighteen thousand cubic feet of air, divided 
among three drifts, would give each one 6,000 
cubic feet, oi close on 400 pounds of air per 
minute. The amount of heat absorbed is 1,128- 
pound-heat unite in traveling 413 feet on the 
1732 level. This is equivalent to burning 216 
pounds of anthracite coal in that drift each 
day. 

A more striking way of stating the facts is 
by saying that if hard- coal fires were kept at 
distances of 100 feet in the drift, each one of 
them would have to burn 52£ pounds of coal 
daily to warm the air current as much as the 
drift does. There is not a household fire in 
San Francisco which could replace one of these 
hypothetical fires in the drift, unless it is in 
one of the largest furnaces used for warming a 
whole house. 

By combining the heating power of the drift, 
as found from Capt. Taylor's observations, with 
the transmission proved to be theoretically pos- 
sible, Prof. Church shows that the heat of the 
drift is at least six times what it could be by 
mere transmission. 

He also shows that the heat of the rocks 
cannot come from the water, for the rock of 
the Comstock is mostly quite dry, and the dry 
rock is as hot as the wet. Finally, by the mere 
statement that the 1732 level of the Jacket 
has not lost its heating power, after two years' 
exposure to a cooling air current, he shows that 
it cannot be referred to retention of the heat 
by which the eruptive rocks were originally 
melted. 

He maintains that the heat is constantly pro- 
duced by some agency that is now acting in the 
rocks, and that the agency involved must be a 
chemical one. 



Mrs. Josefa Livermore, wife of the late 
Robert Livermore, one of the oldest residents 
of Alameda county, died Thursday, last at Liv- 
ermore. Deceased was born in the Livermore 
valley in 1810. 

The steamship Oberon, from New Orleans for 
Liverpool, is ashore near Queenstown. 



New Hoisting Machinery for the Corn- 
stock. 

Prescott, Scott & Co., of the Union Iron 
Works, in this city, have just completed, ready 
for shipment to the North Consolidated Virginia 
mine, on the Comstock, the largest direct acting 
hoisting machinery yet built on this coast. It 
was designed by and built under the supervision 
of Mr. Wm. H. Patton, of the bonanza mines. 
This machinery, which is believed. to embody 
all the latest improvements in this class of work, 
was set up at the foundry this week, and we had 
an opportunity of examining it. 
Foundations. 

The foundations which are already laid for 
the reception of the hoist are of massive stone- 
work 24 feet deep, 38 feet wide and 56 feet 
long. In this, the foundation bolts for the 
frames of the engines have been set. The bolts 
vary from 2^ to 3 inches in diameter and are 20 
feet long. For the accommodation of the brake 
frames, hydraulic cylinders, crank plates, reels, 
etc. , the masonry is stopped off at the proper 
points, while the balance is carried up level to a 
horizontal plane of two feet below the bottom of 
the engine frames, which rest on a coping of the 
above thickness. 

The hoisting plant consists of two engines, 
connected together at the main pillow blocks, 
by a common crank shaft, with accompanying 
reels, clutches, brakes, wheels, indicators, rods, 
levers, hydraulic cylinder, overhead sheaves, etc. 
The Frames, 

The engine frame is of the style known as 
the Corliss, about 24 feet long between the 
front ends of the cylinder and where the 
frames join the pillow blocks. The engines are 
placed 28 feet apart. The pistons are of 28- 
inch diameter and have an eight-foot stroke. 
The cylinders are cast separate from the frames 
that carry the cross heads, guides, etc., but 
are bolted to them. These frames are bored 
out to a diameter of 35 inches, for the recep- 
tion of the cross heads. For convenience of 
shipping, these frames that join the cylinders 
to the pillow blocks are cast in two pieces and 
carefully bolted together. The piUow blocks 
are furnished with heavy side and bottom 
brasses, that are fitted for the crank shaft. 
The Pistons. 

The pistons carry spring packing. Both 
heads of cylinders project into the cylinder 
six inches, and are made concave to suit the 
piston. The back heads are heavily ribbed, and 
have a separate outside cover bolted on and 
turned and polished all over. The front heads 
form one end of the engine frame and are 
bored and fitted with separate stuffing 
boxes turned and bolted securely. All the 
glands of both engine and bottom of stuffing 
boxes are properly bushed with brass. The 
piston rods are of steel, six inches in diameter 
and about 14 feet long. The cross heads are of 
wrought iron, with braSB shoes to fit circular 
guides of frames. They are keyed to their re- 
spective piston rods and are provided each with 
pins for connecting rod. These latter are of 
wrought iron, 10 inches in diameter at the 
middle and 23 feet long. 

The cranks are of usual form, but carry crank 
plates that are cast in two pieces and bolted to- 
gether, after being carefully fitted to the crank. 
These crank plates are carefully turned off at 
the rim for the brake straps, that are operated 
by the engineer through a series of levers, 
rods, etc. 

Valve Motion. 

The admission valves of the engine are of the 
Cornish pattern, nine inches in diameter. The 
exhaust valves are of the American double- 
disk pattern, driven by eccentric and combina- 
tion of rock Bhafts, levers and cams. The ex- 
pansion of steam is controlled by the Cross 
variable cut-off, made to adjust by levers held 
by quadrants. The steam and exhaust chests 
are cast on the cylinder, the steam chest 
being on top at each end and connected to- 
gether by a 10-inch pipe with a branch for the 
throttle; the valves being directly over the 
steam ports. The exhaust chests are on the side 
of the cylinders. The steam and exhaust valves 
are of brass. The ends of the valve lifters are 
supported on turned, polished columns, bolterr* 
to flanges projecting from the steam chests and 
the side of the cylinder. 

Both steam and exhaust valves are worked 
from one rock shaft placed above the cylinders 
equi-distant from each other. This rock shaft 
is four and a half inches in diameter, working in 
bracket boxes, bolted to the tops of cylinders. 
Motion is given to the rock shaft by a connecting 
rod, from an intermediate rock shaft, working 
in a box bolted to a foot, cast on the engine 
frame near the forward end of the guides. This 
rock shaft is 4 inches in diameter, and 14 feet 
long, fitted with brass boxes. 

There is a 10-inch Cornish valve on each en- 
gine for the throttle, fitted with a jjass-over 
valve in the side of the valve chest, and fitted 
with shaft, lever and quadrant, all of bright 
work. " The pistons are 12 inches deep on the 
periphery, and 14 inches at the centers, both 
outsides being convex. The cross heads are all 
bright. The cross-head pins are of steel 6£ 
inches in diameter and 9 inches long in the 
bearing. 

Reversing- and Cut-off Gear. 
The two reversing links are connected direct 
to a pin on the arm on the inside end of the in- 
termediate rock shaft, and are of solid wrought 



January 25, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



57 



iron, 18 inches between the centers of eccentric 
rot I pins. The- links are case-hardened and 
work in a solid wrought-iron link block with 
steel gibs. The link motion is all complete 
with suspending links, tumbling shafts, balance 
levers and weights, double quadrants, hand 
tevet and shafts, with connection from lever on 
fomhling shaft to the hand lever. There are 
fimr eccentrics fitted to the crank shaft, two for 
each engine, for working the links, and con- 
nected to the same by rods, fitted with journals, 
keys and gibs, these rods being all bright finish- 
ed. There are two separate eccentrics (one for 
each engine), for working the cut-olf gear con- 
nected to it by rods and levers, with intermedi- 
ate rock shaft. There is a quadrant with lever 
Cor adjusting and holding the cut-olf gear in 
place, with eounectious of the aame descrip- 
tion and finish as the reversing gear. 

The crank shaft is of wrought-iron turned, 
and a little over 1*7 feet long, and 18 inches 
in diameter. The wrought-iron cranks are 
four feut from center of shaft to center of 
crank pin, the hubs beiug .'It! inches in diameter 
■nd 17 inches thick. The balance wheels are 
13 feet in diameter aud 14-inch face. The con- 
necting rods are 22 feet long, b' inches diameter 
at necks, and 10 inches at centers. 
The Reela and Brakes. 

There arc two reels which turn loosely upon 
the slut i, and are brought into action by 
clutches which slide upon the shaft where it is 
planed otF octagonally for greater strength. 
The reels are six feet in diameter where the flat 
rope begins to wind upon itself, and can coil at 
least 4,1)00 feet of rope, making 15 feet 
in diameter when the rope is wound up. The 
brake wheels are attached to the reels and are 
turned off on the rims for friction brakes. 
These brakes on each reel consist of two up- 
right wrought-iron trussed vibrating arms, 11) 
feet long, connected together at the top by a 
double-adjustable rod, and prepared to receive 
wooden shoes 11 feet loug and 1*2 inches thick. 
There are two sets of brakes for each of the 
reels, one for operating at each side, and one set 
at the bottom of the brake wheels. 

The brakes are operated by levers connected 
to hand wheels by rack and pinion, and fur- 
nished with ratchet and pawl for holding 
brakes in place. The bottom brakes consist of 
wrought-iron straps with adjustable screw 
ends, the brake straps being covered with hard 
wood. There are two brakes for the engines, 
one on each balance wheel, consisting of 
wrought-iron straps, operated through a combi- 
nation of levers and rods, by a foot pedal. The 
brake wheels are 13 feet in diameter and 12- 
inch face. 

Hydraulic Clutches. 

The clutches for throwing the reels into gear, 
fit on the octagonal part of the shaft. They 
are *29 inches long and with a hub turned 3G 
inches in diameter. These clutches are ope- 
rated by hydraulic power, under control of the 
brakeman. When the pressure of water is 
turned on to the piston of the hydraulic cylin- 
ders, it operates through suitable connections — 
a bell-crank lever which throws the clutch in or 
out of gear. There can never be any miss 
about the mechanism and no effort is required 
to connect or disconnect the clutches. 
The Indicator Gear. 

The indicator gear fitted to this hoisting ma- 
chinery is of a novel form, this being the first 
of the kind in use. It was recently patented, 
through the Mining and Scientific Press 
Patent Agency, by H. 0. Behr, of Virginia 
City. As the reels on this engine operate sepa- 
rately, there are two indicator drums, one for 
each reel. Each one consists of a metal drum, 
four feet in diameter, mounted on a vertical 
shaft. On this drum is a worm or spiral band 
of copper, made so as to hold upon it, by spring 
or screw, numbers indicating positions in the 
shaft. The revolution of the drum and helix 
operates two screw shafts which carry an indi- 
cating bar and pointer, said bar and pointer 
moving in a plane in the direction of the axis of 
the drum and following the helix, so as to point 
out the position of the cage on the end of the 
rope in the shaft. With the ordinary indicator 
it is impossible for the engineer to know with 
accuracy the position of the cage in the shaft, 
as the variation is so great. In this, the helix 
on the drum has the numbers upon it which in- 
dicate the eertain points in the main shaft. It 
is marked off in feet. As the drum is rotated 
by a pinion on the reel shaft actuating the 
drum, the pointer on the indicator bar moves 
vertically and the pointer indicates exactly the 
number of feet of rope out. The stretch of 
cable when out at great length may be calcu- 
lated for and the marks or numbers changed on 
the helix in accordance with the stretch. The 
accuracy of the device is such that the engineer 
can tell, to a foot, exactly the position of the 
cage in the shaft. These drums are four feet in 
diameter and six feet high. The coil or helix 
going around it 26 times. Each turn may be 
marked off in 20 numbers of five feet each for 
100 or 10 numbers of 10 feet each; so a whole 
2,600 feet may be marked off in five-foot sec- 
tions, with considerable space between. These 
numbers may be shifted at will to account for 
stretch of rope. On these engines there is a 
spur gear, secured to a follower on the brake 
wheel arms, to connect with a pinion keyed to 
the shaft carrying the worm that drives the 
gear on the vertical drum shaft. 

Operation of trie Hoist. 

The engines described are built to attain a 

maximum piston speed of 1,000 feet per minute. 

This will require about 60 revolutions of the 

cranks. The speed of the cages moving in the 



vertical shaft will vary, according to tho amount 
of rope wound upon the reels, from 2,000 to 
4,000 feet per minute. They are under the 
control of a single engineer and his brakeman, 
the former lauding the amendinfl rage and the 
latter the descending, continually. The engi- 
neer fixes his attention upon the indicator that 
registers the progress of the ascending cage, 
aud at the proper instant, cuts off his steam, 
applies his brakes to the crank plates, and stops 
the cage at the mouth of the shaft. Meanwhile 
the brakeman is lowering the other cage, watch- 
ing the indicator connected with its reel. When 
it approaches the station he throws out his 
clutch, by means of hydraulic power, applies 
hia brakes and brings his cage to a standstill. 
On the return run the positions are simply re- 
versed. 

Each man has, therefore, a simple duty to 
perform, one attending to tho hoisting aud 
the other to the loweriug of the cages, continu- 
ously. By this systematic and expeditious way 
of working, a maximum out-put of 1,200 tons 
per day can bo secured. 

All this machinery weighs about 400 tons, 
and is the largest of tho class on the coast. 
Most of the large hoisting machinery here is 
geared, hut this is direct acting. Four boilers, 
54 inches iu diameter and 16 feet long, have 
been shipped to accompany the machinery, 
these making eight boilers in alt at the shaft 
where these engines are going. Each pair has 



A Foe to the Lumberman. 



Scientific investigators are continually coming 
to the aid of practical workers with explana- 
tions of the evils which hedge about their work 
and endanger its results. These explanations 
we seek for publication, because often a knowl- 
edge of the evil suggests a remedy, and where 
this happy result does not follow, there is still 
the satisfaction of being acquainted with the 
occult agency which crosses the worker's path- 
way toward bucccss in his avocation. A very 
interesting case of timber destruction by a fun" 
gus, which penetrates the growing tree and 
honeycombs its heart without leaving any ex- 
terior markB by which the lumberman can tell 
the worthlessness of the timber beneath the 
bark, was brought to the attention of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, by Dr. H. W. 
Harkncss. As the case is of such wide practical 
interest to lumbermen and tree growers gen- 
erally, we have made engravings to show 
the way in which the fungus attacks the fiber 
of the tree. These engravings will be fully ex- 
plained in the course of the paper which Dr. 
Harkness read at the Academy of Sciences, and 
which we print herewith: 

During the past few years the study of the 




FIG. 1. CROSS-SECTION OP CEDAR, HONEY-COMBED BY THE FUNGUS. 



double steam drums. In the engine all the 
working pins throughout the valve gear are of 
steel, and the connections fitted with brasses, 
keys and gibs. All the levers, wipers, rods, 
rock shafts, journals, caps, connecting rods, 
quadrants, reversing levers, etc., are finished 
bright. The quadrants and levers are fitted up 
with spring and brass hand catches, like locomo- 
tive quadrants. All the principal eccentrics, 
slides, etc., are fitted with the Lonergan oilers. 




Section Cut "with the Grain. 



The machinery altogether is very handsome in 
appearance, and is substantially and carefully 
made, reflecting credit on both designer and 
builders. 

E. Gaugot, the well-known mining engineer, 
and one of the original members of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers, sailed on 
the steamer Belgic on the 21st inst., to assume 
the position of general superintendent and en- 
gineer of the coal mines [for the Japanese gov- 
ernment. 



fungoid diseases affecting vegetation has proved 
to be one of much importance, not alone owing 
to the scientific interest attached to the subject, 
but also to the farmer as well, whose best efforts 
are often thwarted by thejpresence of a pesti- 
lence he-is powerless to control. The Peronos- 
pora, affecting the potato, Puccinia and Ery- 
si])he amongst wheat, are capable of destroying 
the fairest fields in a single night, while the 
Sphieria morbosa, upon our fruit trees, and the 
Aferulius and Polyporus, amongst those of our 
forests, are but types of a large order of para- 
sites which are silently at work converting many 
of our forest trees into their original elements. 
In many instances it is probable that the tree 
has completed its growth before it is attacked, 
yet the external signs are so obscure as to mis- 
lead the observer, valuable trees being lost be- 
fore the appearance of disease is even suspected. 

A notable example in point is to be found in 
the Douglass spruce of our mountains; this is 
well known as one of our most beautiful trees, 
while for many purposes the timber is of great 
value. The lumberman suffers, however, a great 
loss from a form of dry rot which attacks the 
living trees, the presence of which disease he is 
often unable to detect until after much labor 
has been expended in preparing the lumber for 
market. The disease of this tree is owing to 
the presence of a new species ofDcedalia, for 
which I propose the name, D. vorax, which 
first finds lodgment beneath some dead limb. 
Following the course of the limb as it enters the 
heart-wood of the tree, the mycelium begins 
immediately to branch upward and downward 
along the line of the longitudinal cells. Rami- 
fying among these it saps the cell contents and 
destroys the vitality of the structure. On mak- 
ing a section of the tree the line of devastation 
may be easily traced by the minute channels 
filled with the decaying .wood. The tree once 
fallen, the work of the fungus does not cease, 
but, on the contrary, is greatly accelerated, 
owing to the greater amount of moisture it im- 
bibes when in recumbent position; and hence it 
is that our fallen spruces so soon disappear. 

But let us pass to another, the fir trees of our 
Sierras, for a still further proof of the work of 
destruction wrought upon our living trees by 
fungi. In the case of the fir, the fungus (with 
little doubt Polyporus revolutus — Cooke) at- 



taches itself to the bark of the tree; its mycel- 
ium soon penetrates to the cambium beneath; 
there it spreads over a considerable space, and 
begins to force its way directly through the Bap- 
wood toward the heait. The tree does not, 
however, readily yield to the influence of its 
foe, but commences to develop new tissue, in 
order to arrest the extension, or partially encyst 
the fungus. Layer after layer of new tissue is 
formed, until great bulbous expansions are pro- 
duced upon the trunk; the parasite all the while 
is eating its way like a cancer, slowly but 
surely, iuto^the heart, until finally, after years 
of contest, the tree falls a prey to its deadly 
enemy. So general is this disease amongst the 
firs that, as Mr. John Muir asserts, few, if any, 
die from any other cause. This fungus, like 
the one before mentioned, continues its work in 
the fallen trees. 

In the fungus I am now to speak of there is a 
marked exception, however, to this rule. I al- 
lude to the fungus which is at work upon our 
Libocedrtts decurrfnn, a tree of great value for 
timber, the consumption of which is constantly 
increasing as its good qualities are becoming 
better known. In Borne localities, as can be 
shown, one-half or more of the treea are 
diseased, and yet no external signs appear by 
which the lumberman may determine the dis- 
eased tree from that which is sound. The 
method, too, by which the fungus invades the 
tree is most singularly perplexing. If we ex- 
amine a transverse section of an affected tree, 
we shall find numerous small openings, as shown 
in the larger engraving (Fig. 1), and which 
create the impression of being the work of some 
animal. Frequently 50 or 60 such opening 
may be seen in such a section. These openings 
vary from one-half to one inch in diameter. A 
longitudinal section of such a tree reveals the 
fact that these openings are not continuous 
throughout the body of the tree, but are simply 
elliptical cavities of from three to four inches in 
length. These openings are shown in the 
smaller engraving (Fig. 2). 

These cavities are tilled with the dead wood, 
pervaded with threads of mycelium. The wood 
so afl'ected becomes contracted in the cavity, is 
very friable and easily powdered between the 
fingers; the medullary rayB and fibro- vascular 
bundles, together with the cell structures in 
general, maintaining their proper relations to 
each other. A singular fact must in this con- 
nection be noted, which is this, that along the 
line of this decayed wood, or in other words, 
the borders of these cavities, there seems to be 
no partially decaying or decayed wood. Be- 
tween any two such cavities there is a consideig 
able portion of perfectly sound wood, the myce> 
lium in some unaccountable manner, finding its 
way through the living wood, leaving behind 
not the slightest microscopic trace of its prog- 
ress. The cavities always appear in the dry 
heart-wood, and, though I have diligently 
sought for them, I have never yet seen one in 
the sap-wood. 

Under treatment with suitable reagents, the 
affected wood shows abundant branching 
threads of mycelium traversing the entire mass. 
Along with these are found a considerable 
number of zoospores. Thus far I have been 
wholly unable to detect the presence of any 
germspores. There is abundant evidence, in 
my judgment, however, that these spores must 
be sought for among the roots of the tree. Yet 
their discovery will depend, in a great measure, 
upon accident, as the germ may have developed, 
fruited and disappeared a century before its 
mycelium had finished its work. There is as 
yet no apparent law governing the distribution 
of this fungus among the trees of this genus. 
As I am informed by Messrs. Towles & Co., 
who have had large experience with the tree, it 
attacks equally well those trees which grow 
either in moist or in dry soil. Another striking 
peculiarity of this fungus, and one wherein it is 
an exception to those previously mentioned, is 
to be found in the fact that when the tree dies 
its ravages cease entirely. 

In the cases of fungi destroying the Douglass 
spruce and the fir tree of the Sierras, before 
mentioned, we have seen the fungus continuing 
its work after the death of the tree, and be- 
coming the most active agent in completing its 
destruction. In this instance, however, if the 
wood is not so far honeycombed as to crush 
under weight, it makes a durable railway tie. 
Again, if sufficiently sound to hold a nail, it is 
as durable as any kind of timber for the pur- 
pose of fence posts. Once fallen to earth, the 
giants of the forest bid defiance to every form 
of parasitic growth. 

The impression abroad that the damage done 
by the storm of December 31st to the Santa 
Barbara wharf, materially interferes with the 
loading of vesselc, is erroneous. But little in- 
convenience to the Captain, and none to passen- 
gers is experienced, as ships can come right up 
to the wharf inside of the break. 

The new overshot wheel at the Murchie 
mine, built by J. B. Flack, is 7 feet breast, 125 
feet in diameter, and runs, with 150 incheB of 
water, a 50-stamp mill. It cost $2,000, includ- 
ing housing; and as the company has its own 
water for eight months in the year, it will effect 
a saving of 825 per day. 

Mr. J. S. Phillips has fitted up offices, for 
instruction in the various departments of min- 
ing and assaying, at No. 702 California street, 
opposite the Academy of Sciences' building. 

On File.— Letter, accompanying specimens, 
from S. A. L., Long Valley. 



58 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, 



[January 25, 187$, 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 202 SANSOME St., N.E.Cor. Pine, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously j Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in "Washington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, antl long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
■ and popularity. 

Foreign Patents, 

In addition to American. Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 

. Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws— agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patentSj 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 

- some instances lower, than those of any other 
. responsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
SOONER than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
, this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free- 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which mil interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and eon- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO. 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 202 Sansome St., N E. 
oorner Pine, S. F. 



GOOD L^IfcTID 



FAVORABLE LOCATION, 

G-UARANTEEING- 

Sure Crops Every Year. 

The Reading Ranch, 

In the Upper Sacramento Valley, originally em- 
bracing over 26,000 acres of 
Choice Grain, Orchard and Pasture Land, 

Is now offered for sale at low prices and on 
favorable terms of payment, 

In Sub-Divisions to Suit Purchasers. 

The ranch was selected at an early day by 
Major P. B. Reading, one of the largest pioneer 
and owners in California. It is situated on 
the west side of the Sacramento Biver and ex- 
tends some 20 miles along its bank. 

The average rainfall is about 30 inches per 
annum, and crops have never been known to 
fail from drouth. 

The climate is very healthful and compar- 
tively desirable. The near proximity of high 
mountain peaks gives cool nights during the 

heated terms " which occur in our California 
summers. 

Soft well water— remarkably sweet, pure and 
healthy — is obtainable at a depth of from 15 to 
35 feet. 

Wood is plentiful and easy to get. 

Figs, Grapes, Peaches, Prunes, Almonds, En- 
glish Walnuts, Oranges and other temperate 
and semi-tropical fruits can be raised with suc- 
cess on most of the tract. Also, Vegetables, 
Corn and all other cereals ordinarily grown in 
the State. 

A considerable amount of the rich bottom 
land has already been cultivated. 

Deep Soil With Lasting Qualities. 

The soil throughout the tilled portions of the 
ranch proves to be of great depth and enduring 
in its good qualities. It is quite free from foul 
growths. The virgin soil among the large oak 
trees on the bottom land is easily broken up 
and cultivated. 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses 
nearly the entire length of the tract. There 
are several sections, stations and switches, be- 
sides depots at the towns of Anderson and 
Reading — all of which are located within the 
limits of tbe ranch. 

Land suitable for settlers in colonies can be 
obtained on good terms. 

Are offered for sale i* Reading, situated on the 
Sacramento River, at the present terminus of 
the railroad. It is tbe converging and distrib- 
uting point for large, prosperous mining and 
agricultural districts in Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town o 
Anderson, situated more centrally on the 
ranch. Lots in both these towns are offered 
at a bargain, for the purpose of building up the 
towns and facilitating settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are invited to come and see the 
lands before buying here or elsewhere. Apply 
on the ranch, to the proprietor, 

EDWARD FRISBIE, 
Anderson, Shasta Co., Gal. 



Pocket Map of California and Nevada. 

Compiled from the latest authentic sources, by Chas. 
Drayton Gibbs, C. E. This map comprises information 
obtained from the U. S. Coast and Land, Whitney's State 
Geological, and Railroad Surve3's; and from the results of 
explorations made by R. S. Williamson, U. S. A., Henry 
Degroot, C. D. Gibbs and others. The Bcale is 18 miles to 
1 inch. It gives the Judicial and U. S. Land Districts. 
It distinguishes the Townships and their subdivisions; the 
County Seats; The Military Posts; the Railroads built and 
proposed, and the limits of some of them; the occurrence 
of g-old, silver, copper, quicksilver, tin, coal and oil. It 
has a section showing the nights of the principal moun- 
tains. The boundaries are clear and unmistakable, and 
the^print good. 1S7S. Sold by DEWEY & CO. Price, 
postpaid, ij?2; to subscribers of this journal, until further 
notice, SI. 



California Steam Navigation Co. 

The Steamers 

ALICE GARRATT and CITY OF STOCKTON 

LEAVE SAN FRANCISCO 

DAILY (Sundays excepted) at 5 p. m. , from Washington 

Street Wharf, near foot of Market street. 

LEAVE STOCKTON 

DAILY (Sundays excepted) at A p. M. 

T. C. WALKER, G. A. CARLETON, 

President. Secretary 



IB TT Y IE IR, 

—AMD— 

COMMISSIONJERCHANT. 

The undersigned, after an experience of forty years in the 
Grocery Business, has opened an office at No 24 CALIFOR- 
NIA STREET, comer Drumm, for buying and selling: all 
kinds of Goods. Parties throughout the States and Territo- 
ries wishing an Agent in this Market for the transaction of 
then- business, by entrusting the same to me, I can have 
special rates made, with full guarantee of satisfaction, or no 
charge for services. 

With twenty-five years' experience in this Market, I think 
I can suit one and all, both as a buyer and seller. All I ask 
is a trial. I will also have a Ladies' Department, under the 
management of a lady of experience and taste, who will fill 
all orders for your wives and daughters. Orders for this 
this Department should be endorsed: "For Lady Buyer." 

All parties ordering will be required to send funds with 
order or satisfactory reference. Respectfully, 

WHEELER MARTIN, 
24 California Street, San Francisco. 

REFERS BY PERMISSION. 

Rountree & McClure 404 Front Street. 

J. M. Pike & Co 101 and 103 California Street 

Marcus C. Hawley & Co Coiner Market and Beale Sts. 

Cutting Packing Co 17 to 41 Main Street. 

W. W. Montague & Co 112 to 120 Battery Street. 

E. Martin & Co 408 Front Street. 

Wellman, Peck & Co 416 and 418 Front Street. 

Wheaton & Luhi-s 219 Front Street. 

Deming, Palmer & Co, 202 and 204 Davis Street. 

Amies & Dallam 115 and 117 Front Street. 




WATER TANKS of any capacity made entirely 
by machinery. Materials the beat In use; construction not 
excelled. Pan Staves, Tubs and Oak Guides foi 
mining purposes a specialty. 

WELLS, RUSSELL & CO., 
Mechanics' Mills, Cor. Mission and Fremont Streets. 



CAUTION 

To Hydraulic Miners. 

The public generally and Hydraulic Miners especially 
are hereby notified that any parties making or using the 
contrivance known as the HOSKIN DEFLECTOR will be 
prosecuted to the full extent of the law, said machine 
having been declared by the U, S. Circuit Court an in- 
fringement upon my patent, the 

Bloomfield Deflecting Nozzle. 

The public are also cautioned against using the Hoskin 
Deflector because of its danger to life and limb, this de- 
vice having already occasioned several deaths and other 
serious accidents. The BLOOMFIELD DEFLECTOR is 
entirely safe, its two and a half years use without acci- 
dent, as well as its construction, proves it to be a reliable 
contrivance. 

Any parties wishing to purchase the right to use these 
Deflectors can do so by applying to the undersigned, 

HENRY C. PERKINS, 
North Bloomfield, Nevada Co., Cil., Octo- 
ber 1st, 1878. 



FOB SALE. 



SEVERAL SECOND-HAND 

PORTABLE ENGINES, 

FOR S-ALE CHEAP. 

Sizes, from eight horse-power to twenty-five horse- 
power. IN PERFECT RUNNING ORDER. Apply to 

JOSEPH ENRIGHT, 

San Jose, California. 



Mining and Assaying Offices, 



504 



Washington St., 
SAN FRANCISCO. 




JHH^U- «S»YEA » METALLURGY 



The Explorers', Miners' & Metallurgists' Companion, 

672 pages, 83 Illustrations, (2d. Edition.) Price.. $ 10.50 

The Prospector's Patented "Wee Put" Aasaycr... 100.00 

The Testing machine for Gold, Silver, Lead, Etc. . 40.00 

Cabinet of Fluxes etc., for these machines 20.00 

Pocket Laboratory for Blowpipista 50.00 

Vest Pocket Blowpipe 3.00 

CHARGES.— Assaying. S3; Testing, §2 per metal. 



Prompt and Successful. — Messrs. Dewey & Co: — Gci- 
tlemen: Your Circular letter, 12th inst., informing me of 
successful termination of my applicatiou for patent re- 
ceived. Please accent thanks for the prompt and suc- 
cessful manner in which you have managed this business 
Yours respectfully, J. H. Cayahaugh. 

Walla Walla, Dee. 24th. 



dIi» bifectory. 



WM. BART&ING. HENRY KIMBALL 

BARTLING- & KIMBALL, 
BOOKBINDERS, 

Paper Rulers & Blank Book Manufacturers* 
505 Clay Street,(southwest corner Sansome), 

SAN' FRANCISCO. 



Lewis Peterson. 



John Olsson. 



PETERSON & OLSSON, 

Model Makers, and Manufacturers of Em- 
blematic Signs. Models for the Patent 
Office, in Wood or Metal, a Specialty, 

NO- 328 BUSH STREET, 

Bet. Montgomery and Kearny, (up stairs), San Francisco, 
All kinds of tin, copper and brass work made to order. 



San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 

We have just added a large amount of new machinery of 
the latest and most improved kind, and are again prepared 
to fill orders for Hope of any special lengths and sizes. Con- 
stantly on hand a large stock of Manila Rope, all sizes: 
Tarred Manila Rope; Hay Rope; "Whale Line, etc , etc. 
TUBBS & CO., 
611 and 613 Front Street, San Francisco 



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MANUFACTURED BY 



ZE3I. E/OYBE/, 

Nos. 865, 857, 859 & 861 Bryant Street, Cor. Park Avenue 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



Mcdonald & Johnson's 

STYLOGRAPH, 

— OR— 

Rapid Letter Copying Books, 

Making- Instantaneous Copying samo moment of Writing-, 
without Pen, Ink, Pencil, or Copying Press, each com 
plete, in all sizes, 

From 75 Cents to $4.50. 

Address, STYLOGRAPH CO., 

12 California St., San Francisco. 




Awarded highest prize at Centennial Exposition for 
jhie chewing qualities and excellence and lasting char- 
acter of sweetening and /favoring. The best tobacco 
ever made. As bur blue strip trHde-mnrk is closely 
Imitated on inferior goods, see that Jackson's Best la 
on every plug. Sold by all dealers. Send for sample, 
free, to O. A. Jackson & Co., Mfrn., Petersburg, m 

L. & E. WEBTHHEIMBB, Agr'ts.San Francisco. 



January 25, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



59 



Metallu rgy apd Dre g, 

Nevada Metallurgical Works, 

No 23 STEVENSON STREET. 
Near First *n<) Market Slroeta. 

Ores worked by any process. 

Ores sampled. 

Assaying in all its branches. 

Analysis of Ores, Minerals, Waters, etc. 

\\ 'uKKINii TKami MADE. 

Plana furni.-Oicil tor tlie most suitable process 
Id working Ores. 

BpeoiaJ Attention paid to Examinations of 
Mini -; plana and reports furnished. 

E. HUHN, 

C. A. LUCKHARDT, 
Mining: Engineers and Metallurgists 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO., 

Ini)">rU-rB uf ami Dealers In 

ASSAYERS' MATERIALS, 

CHEMICAL APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS, DRUG- 
GISTS' GLASSWARE AND SUNDRIES, Etc. 

512 & 518 Washington St., San Francisco 

Wo would call the special attention of Assayers, Chem- 
ists, Mining (-'Diiijiaiik-*, Milling Cuinpuiiius, ProMpectors, 
etc, to our slock of Clay Crucibles, Muffles, Dry Cups, 
etc., manufactured bj the Patent Plumbago Cruci- 
ble Co., of London, England, for which wo have 

been nutde Sol,' .l;/e/i[\/»r thn Pacific CotUt Circulars 

with prima «rfll be sent upon application. 
Also, to our large and well adapted stock of 

Assayers' Materials & Chemical Apparatus, 

Having' been engaged in furnishing these supplies since 
tliu firnt discovery of mines on the Pacific Coast. 

larOur Gnld and Silver Tables, showing the value per 
ounce Troy at different degrees of fineness, and valuable 
tables for computation of assays in grains and grammes, 
will be sent free upon application. 

JOHN TAYLOR & CO. 



LEOPOLD KUH, 

(Formerly of the U. S. Branch Mint, S._ F.) 

Assayer and Metallurgical Chemist, 

No. 611 COMMERCIAL STREET, 
(Between Montgomery aud Kearny,) 

San Francisco, Cal. 



OTTOKAR HOFMANN, 
METALLURGIST and MINING ENGINEER, 

415 Mission St., bet. First and Fremont Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 
£3rErection of Leaching Works a Specialty. 
jtSTLeachimr Tests made. 



TKOS. PRICE'S 

Assay Office and Chemical 
Laboratory, 

524 Sacramento St., S. F. 



G. F. Dkktkkn-. Wm. E. Smith, 

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G, F. DEETKEN, MANAGER. 

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GU I DO KUSTEL, 

MINING ENGINEER and METALLURGIST. 

P. O Address: ALAMEDA. CAL. 

Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
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Map of California and Nevada ; The Public 
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THE IMPROVED O'HARRA 

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60 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



[January 25, 1879. 



Continued from page 53. 



duced as it was from ore which was taken from 
the lowest levels of the company's mine, it 
proves that the deeper we eo the more gold the 
ore contains. The Winthrop company are 
pushing their tunnel into the mountain as fast 
as possible, and when they cut their ledge at 
this depth you may look for a general jubilee in 
Copper City, as it is well known that this mine 
contains the richest ore ever found in this dis- 
trict. 
TRINITY. 

Returned. — Journal, Jan. 17: E. B. Bar- 
num, of Taylor's Flat, accompanied by Archie 
McDonald and the latter's son, returned from 
San Francisco last week. Mr. Barnum thinks 
he will be able to dispose of his mining property 
to the company that has lately been contem- 
plating its purchase. 

Mining affairs are entirely frozen up and con- 
sequently stagnant. More storm and an old- 
fashioned January thaw are needed to make 
mining operations active. 
TUOLUMNE. 

, The Marks & Darrow Mine.— Independent, 
Jan. 18: We were recently shown some ex- 
ceedingly rich ore from this mine by one of the 
Darrow brothers, the gold being disseminated 
throughout the quartz; the quartz being a fine 
quality and taken from different parts of the 
mine. We have visited the property several 
times, and our opinion has never changed to 
disfavor, as it has all the indications of perma- 
nency and great wealth. The mine is located 
on the mother lode, well defined, with number- 
less rich feeders which will pay handsomely to 
work. It is not one of the mines of short con- 
tinuance, for Gen. Darrow aud his sons, who 
were the discoverers and locators, have worked 
it for many years; and when the old General 
wanted a political stake, or "grub" money, he 
would, with the assistance of the boys, go to 
pounding in hand-mortars, and in this manner 
they have taken out thousands of dollars. It is 
located in a rich mining section; the gulches, 
canyons, creeks and ravines have proven to be 
immensely rich in the region from the grinding 
down of these common carriers of gold. Tuo- 
lumne has been one of the richest placer mining 
counties in the State, and as it has been proven 
that quartz is the mother of gold, it therefore 
augurs well for our numerous quartz ledges. If 
capital would take hold of a few such mines in 
our county it would infuse new life to our 
camps and bring prosperity to every one. 

YUBA- 

Tunnels. — Nevada City Herald, Jan. IS: 
The Yuba River mining company have run a 
tunnel 300 fee^t under the river at Long Bar, 
and struck gravel which pays $3 to the pan. 
This is the pioneer mining enterprise of what 
promises to be a success in reaching the beds of 
the present river channels. The following 
claims are located for that purpose along the 
Yuba river : Yuba, Long Bar, West Point, 
Nichols' claim, Olmstead, North Star, Sand 
Flat, Ohio and Tennessee. These companies 
are all corporations, and the larger fpart of the 
stock is held in Grass Valley. There are many 
places under the late river channels which have 
never been worked. The tailings from the 
larger mining operations above coming down and 
covering them up. Formerly miners tried work- 
ing these places by wingdams and other contri- 
vances to turn the water when it was low, but 
the debris has become so deep that it took near- 
ly all summer to get down where the good pay 
was, and then the high water would come and 
wash away the dams and till up the holes so that 
the same work would need to be repeated each 
summer, and the gravel has become so deep in 
the modern river beds that it made the seasons 
too short to enable advantageous work. Now a 
shaft is sunk on the bank and tunnels are run 
under the river bed, in search of the pay gravel. 

NEVADA. 
WASHOE DISTRICT. 

Sierra Nevada.— Gold Hill News, Jan. 22: 
The foundations .for the new air compressor are 
completed ready for the machinery. The dia- 
mond drill in the face of the north drift on the 
2200 level has penetrated a distance of 250 feet 
without finding more than a very slight flow of 
water. The drill has been taken out and the 
drift again started up. It will be now pushed 
directly ahead to connect with the east drift 
from the 1700 level. Sinking the main incline 
is making steady progress, the bottom still be- 
ing in the same favorable character of cap rock 
heretofore described. It is now down 151 feet 
on the slope below the 2200 station, and will 
have only about 16 feet further to go to reach 
the 2300 level. 

Crown Point.— The east drift from the 
winze on the 2300 level is in to-day 462 feet 
the face still in very favorable vein matter. The 
vein at this point has great width, there being 
no signs whatever of the east wall as yet. The 
entire stratification of the rock lying next to 
and west of the ore vein on this level appears 
to be straightening up and assuming a more 
perpendicular strike. 

Con.- Imperial.— The south incline winze, 
below the 2400 level, has reached a depth of 
2600 feet, at which point a station is being 
cut out preparatory to running drifts both north 
and south on the ore vein. 

Gould & Curry.— Crosscuts Nos. 2, 3 and 4 
-east, on the 1900 level, are all making good 
headway, without any change of value to re- 
port. A joint crosscut west has been started 
from the bottom of the joint Savage winze. 

Best & Belcher.— Sinking the Osbiston shaft 



has made slow headway during the past week 
on account of the continuous flow of water. 
The new hoisting engine is working finely. 

Overman. — Everything in and about the 
mine is working finely. 

Ophir.— Daily yield, 75 tons of ore. The 
stopes on both the 1900 and 2000 levels con- 
tinue to yield rich ore. 

Justice. — A large supply of ore has been ex- 
tracted and delivered at the mill ready to crush 
when needed. 

California. — Daily yield, 340 tons of ore. 
This ore is being extracted from the 1750 and 
1650 levels. The ore is of a good quality, and 
the stopes continue to look well. Another 
large lift pump is being put in at the 2150 sta- 
tion. As soon as that is completed, which will 
be in six or seven days, sinking the C. & C. 
shaft will be resumed. 

Chollar^ Combination Shaft. — The new 
pumps have been running the greater part of 
the week pumping water into the Sutro tunnel. 
Everything working with the greatest perfec- 
tion. 

Belcher.— The south drift on the 2360 level 
is being pushed rapidly ahead. It is now in 
544 feet. The east drift at the 2560 station is 
being pushed rapidly ahead, the face in west 
country rock that blasts out and works well. 

Bullion. — The north drift on the 2000 level 
is making good, progress and will complete a 
connection with the main incline in three or 
four days more. The face is in a mixture of 
quartz and porphyry of a fine character. 

North Consolidated Virginia. — The new 
machinery for the mine is beginning to arrive 
by the car-load, and will all be on the ground 
ready to place in a very short time. 

Hale & Norcross. — The week has been 
mostly spent in putting in the connecting sta- 
tion at the combination shaft, running drifts 
and sinking a winze at that point to connect 
with the water tank 30 feet below the station, 
laying pipes and getting ready generally for 
sending a flood of hot water through the Sutro 
tunnel. 

Con. Virginia. — Daily yield, 80 tons of ore, 
which is being reduced as it is extracted. This 
ore is taken mostly from the 1500 and 1400 
levels. The west drift on the 2150 level is in 
147 feet, the face in hard blasting porphyry. 
A new lift pump is being put in at the 2150 
station. As soon as that is completed, sinking 
the main shaft will be resumed. 

Julia Con. — Repairing the main south drift 
on the 1800 level is making better progress, the 
drift being less caved, and the necessary re- 
pairs consequently much lighter. The heat in 
this drift is intense, being so great at times that 
it is all the most hardened of miners can do to 
stand it. 

Sutro Tunnel. — Owing to the great heat the 
progress of the south lateral branch toward the 
Julia shaft is somewhat retarded, but it ought 
to reach and connect with the shaft in the 
course of a week or 10 days. Nothing definite 
can be said regarding the use of the main tunnel 
as a drain for the mines until pending negotia- 
tions can be concluded between the mining com- 
panies and the tunnel company. 

Yellow Jacket. — The new shaft is now 
down 3192 feet; ground hard, but working well. 
No water to interfere. 

Savage.— On the 2100 level the south drift 
from the bottom of the north, winze is steadily 
advancing, with the face in a fine, favorable 
character of quartz and vein matter. 

Utah. — The new powerful hoisting engine 
will be in readiness to start in 15 days more, if 
no unusual delay occurs. 

ARIZONA. 

Coal. — Sentinel, Jan. 18: The discovery is 
reported of coal beds in the northwestern part 
of the State of Sonora, at no great distance from 
the southern boundary of Yuma county. We 
have before heard similar reports, but investi- 
gation proved the mineral to be obsidian in one 
case and cobalt in another. This time, how- 
ever, the discovery of genuine coal is announced 
by parties who are competent judges of the 
article, and who claim to have proved its char- 
acter by combustion. 

The Enterprise mine, Pinal mountain, owned 
by Tweed & Hale, shows a five-foot vein. The 
approximate value for the whole width is about 
$150; the assays from $40 to $500 per ton. The 
shaft is now down 43 feet. 

COLORADO. 

San Juan.— Leadville Eclipse, Jan. 2: One 
of the most successful furnaces in Colorado is 
that of the Norfolk &, Ouray company, at Ouray, 
in San Juan. The operations of the company 
were commenced in the summer of 1S76, by M. 
S. Corbett, who is Superintendent. A few 
weeks since the company purchased for $75,- 
000 the very valuable property, at Ouray, 
known as the Begole mineral farm. The con- 
struction of the furnaces were put under the 
charge of W. H. Strout. With 25 men at work 
on the mineral farm it is expected to run the 
entire winter with that ore and what is now on 
hand from the other mines of the company. 
The capital for the building of the furnace and 
the purchase of the mines has been furnished by 
parties at Norfolk, Va. It is expected that the 
profits for the first year in which the furnace 
will be run will be sufficient to reimburse the 
outlay. The mines and furnaces are valued at 
$2,000,000. 

Leadville. — In the first year of its existence 
Leadville yielded nearly £$4,000,000— from 30 
mines situated within a space of two miles 
square. A smelting company has organized in 
Illinois for the purpose of treating Leadville 



ores, and through an agent have secured six 
acres of laud on the Oro company's placer 
ground at the west end of the town, on which 
to erect buildings. 

IDAHO. 

Salmon Falls. — Cor. Salt Lake Tribune, 
Jan. 5: We have a 'district formed here called 
the Salmon Falls mining district, running from 
the mouth of the Malad to Payne's Ferry, tak- 
ing both sides of the river for four or five miles. 
Mr. Davis, who is superintendent of the Cave 
& Davis bar, at the falls, has his machine al- 
most finished, and expects to commence opera- 
tions about New Years. Morrow, of the Mor- 
row & Jacob's bar, is here getting things ready 
on their claim, and digging a ditch to put up 
plates as soon as the road opens in the spring. 
There are two other districts formed on the 
river, one above, reaching to the famous Sho- 
shone falls, and taking in that most wonderful 
canyon with perpendicular walls 400 feet high, 
and where men in 1869-70 made as high as 
$100 a day to the man with a rocker, a copper 
plate and a bottle of cyanide of potassium. The 
other district is the Eureka, below us, in both 
of which there are new locations made every 
day. By the way, there were men who made 
$9 per day to the man at Payne's Ferry, the 
upper end of our district, and Wickham and 
Donovan, with a small beach machine and a few 
sluice boxes, have been averaging $15 to the 
man ever since they started up last February. 

Florida Mine. — Idalto Avalanche, Dec. 28: 
The first crushing of unassorted rock made the 
handsome yield of $62 to the ton. 

Burnt River. — The placer mines are good 
on Chicken creek. They have completed a 
ditch eight miles long at a cost of $5,000. Ten 
claims are being prospected, and will pay $10 
per day to the hand. 

South Mountain. — J. M. Brunzell returned 
here from South Mountain on Thursday. He 
states that the place is alive with men who are 
locating new claims and relocating old ones. 

UTAH. 

Ontario Mine. — Salt Lake Tribune, Jan. 1: 
Last July a new shaft was started north of and 
about 310 feet from the old shaft. This has 
two hoisting compartments of 4^x5 feet each, 
and one pump compartment 5x7 feet, and is 
now down on a level aud connected with the 
500 level of the mine by a 247-foot crosscut. On 
the new shaft is erected the new hoisting and 
pumping works, 100 feet in length by 50 feet in 
width, and the hight above the gallows frame 
over the shaft is 65 feet. These works were 
designed by Messrs. Salkeld & Eckart, of Vir- 
ginia City, Nevada, and erected under the per- 
sonal supervision of Mr. Salkeld and James Mc- 
Millan, his foreman. As soon as the water is 
out of the mine this shaft is to be continued for 
100 feet more, and a level started east and west 
on the ledge. It is expected that the works 
will be completed and the extraction of ore 
commenced the latter part of this month. Al- 
though the old works of the Ontario company 
were destroyed by fire on the 19th of October 
last, they have continued paying dividends, as 
they happened to have on hand at the mill a lot 
of 2,500 tons of ore. The yield of the mine for 
1878 was $1,445,766.83. 




Old Probabilities. — The Eastern weather 
god has finally undertaken to fix up the 
weather for the Pacific coast. His first utter 
ances are as indefinite as the Delphian oracles, 
and will probably suit all cases. He begins by 
prognosticating for the coast in three divisions, 
lower, central and upper, which may, we pre. 
sume, embrace all the coast line from Aspinwall 
to Alaska; and thus having a wide mark, h 
may hit somewhere, as the boy thought when he 
fired at the barn. However this may be, we 
doubt not the Signal Service will localize their 
prophesies as fast as possible, and the difficul- 
ties of the problem they encounter will permit. 
It is true that our meteorological conditions 
seem so grouped in grand divisions that there 
will be a degree of monotony in the daily fore- 
casts, but there are certain periods when a 
foreknowledge of coming rain will be of great 
value to our agriculturists and warning of ap- 
proaching storms, will always help the mari- 
ners. One point of especial importance to the 
agriculturist, is "the coming of the October 
rains. At that season of the year, the raisins 
and other drying fruits are exposed, and a day's 
warning of rain would be worth thousands of 
dollars to the producers. As these interests are 
yearly increasing, the value of the warning will 
proportionately increase, and we trust that it 
may be forthcoming. There will doubtless be 
other practical and important applications of 
the information as soon as it assumes the de- 
finiteness attained at the East, and we are glad 
that our coast has been embraced in the system. 

A dispatch from Pendleton, dated 17th, via 
Walla Walla, the 18th, says: "Aps, the remain- 
ing Indian convicted of complicity in the mur- 
der of whites last summer, was hanged here 
to-day. The same precautions were observed 
to prevent trouble. A number of whites and 
Indians attended the execution. Several prom- 
inent Indians addressed the whites, assuring 
them of peace in the future. Two hours before 
the execution, ( Aps ' bid farewell to his people. 
He said he died as an innocent man ; he had 
killed no one ; abjured his people to profit by 
his fate, to always remain steadfast friends to 
the whites and not harbor ill feeling towards 
them," 



Id this column are printed all sensible inquiries relating 
to and connected with mining or relating to any matters of 
general scientific interest; also the answers to them as dictat- 
ed by individual experience, or as furnished by correspon 
dents. 



Practical Questions in Hydraulic Mining. 

S. S. H., of Leadville, Colorado, writes that 
he is in need of information on the following 
questions : 

"What is the heaviest grade per mile that 
can with safety be given to a ditch to carry 5,000 
miners' inches of water, running through firm 
gravel and loam ? (California experience pre- 
ferred). 

" How many cubic yards of light gravel would 
a four-inch giant move, having 100 feet heads, 
in 12 hours 1 

" Will you please be so kind as to give me 
the address of a few hydraulic mining engineers 
and mining superintendents of practical experi- 
ence in managing placer mines ?" 

In loam, you should not exceed eight feet to 
the mile. Gravel will bear almost any grade, 
depending upon its consistency. If uncemented, 
and containing' large boulders, the grade may 
be between 8 and 16 feet, or even more. Al- 
though data have been published in regard to 
the execution of water under similar circum- 
stances (see Waldeyer in Raymond's reports, 
about 1873. Bowman's report on the Califor- 
nia Water Company's operations in the George- 
town divide, and Bowie s treaties on Hydraulic 
Mining), the outlet grade, and Borne other 
particular conditions that may be implied in 
your questions, would have to be particularly 
stated. Hamilton Smith or Mr. Perkins, of the 
N. Bloomfield Co. ; Daniel McGanny or G. P. 
Thurston, of the Smartsville Co. ; Jos. McGil- 
livray or Herman Schussler, of San Francisco ; 
or either of the authors of the reports mentioned, 
will answer your questions correctly, if you will 
specify all the essential conditions. 



The Ice Bridge at Niagara. — Niagara river 
below the falls is spanned by a bridge of ice one 
mile long, and 60 feet wide. The river has been 
spanned in this way before, but seldom, if ever, 
so early as now. The other day the ice 
"jammed" beneath the upper suspension bridge. 
Says the Buffalo Courier: A vast quantity of 
water had accumulated behind the ice and made 
a desperate effort to get free. The enormous 
body of snow and ice was raised up by the 
water and tossed about in all directions. Large 
blocks, weighing hundreds of tons were lifted 
into the air. Boulders were torn from the shore 
and swept into the stream, and a solitary fir 
tree, which ordinarily stands three feet above 
high water, was carried away. The ponderous 
strength of the enraged waters was so apparent 
that it seemed as if they would rend the great 
gorge in twain, and in that way escape from 
their imprisonment. As they could not break 
the mile-wide dam in two, they lifted it bodily 
into the air and rushed away beneath it, leaving 
a span of ice above and behind them. The 
formation of the ice in this bridge is not the 
same on both sides of the river. On the Ameri- 
can side it is chiefly composed of snow formed 
into rounded boulder shapes, and looks like 
white coral. As one approaches the center of 
the river the ice fragments become larger, and 
near the Canadian shore huge cakes of water-ice 
are formed into a solid mass. In some places 
there are crevices 25 or 30 feet in depth, but 
water is not seen through them. 

In the District Court at Marysville Monday 
morning, Ah Ben, through an interpreter, 
pleaded guilty of murder in killing McDaniel 
in October last. Monday next is set to hear 
testimony and fix the degree of punishment. 
Ah Gee, charged with murder in killing a Chi- 
naman on Yuba River bridge, was arraigned, 
and Wednesday set to plead. 



F. E. Davis, of San Francisco, and F. W. 
Stone, from Australia, ran a 100-yard race for a 
puise of $1,000, in this city. Davis won in 10£ 
seconds. In Ukiah a 100-yard foot race was 
won by Bill Cramer, of that place, in the good 
time of 10 seconds, beating Joe Barbor, of Lake 
county, about 10 feet. 

Says the Dixon Tribune of Saturday: Most 
of the orange trees in town which were last 
week supposed to be dead, will come out all 
right. In fact, the orange trees appear to stand 
it better than the gum trees. 



The District Court, in Calaveras county, 
which meets the latter part of this month, will 
have to try five indictments for murder. Among 
the accused are four Chinamen, an Indian and 
one white man. 



Personal Adornment, -t- The number of 
people who have drawn upon the stock of 
Palmer Bros. , for their handsome clothing, 
underwear, toilet articles, etc., during the last 
few weeks, is beyond count. The firm, at their 
establishment 726 to 734 Market Btreet, have a 
splendid variety of goods to choose from, and 
one can hardly go amiss in seeking everything 
necessary for personal adornment and comfort 
at their store. 



January 25, 1879.] 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



61 



f A TENTS AND INVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



(Fa«'M Omeut Kirotro ,o» tint m,sin<» and Beunmric 
P»«i». DEWEY i i'o . Pi ilmiki a» U. & 

AMI mOH I'MTM .V.K.MM ] 

By Special Dispatch from Washington. D. C 

211. turn T. So.lt.S. F . Jul Jl-i 

U1.SM Con Pmm T. B 

211,i*>. AJUXOAKUTOR J- It. Hfvimlils, S. K.. Jan. 
"1.1 

PiKau Ruca HLW. Bdwuda,&L P., Jut. -l.t 

'jll,.!-; Brir Lasdu E. M. Uoiij.uiiin. :>. P., Jul. 
BH 

«.058.--TkA[>k«ark r\'K IfogrAJlD Ann Bncia IV Gliir- 
•.Mli.S F. Jam OA 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



RU* Joblilni. 

Kng Sundu.1 VthM. 5 d 31 

NVvllle 11- 
ll.ii.l Sct«1 22x36.. g a a 

2)i3ri -5- 

23i«0 



IWIIOL1HALI-1 

Weds t»OAr M.. January 22. 1S73. 



Piaster. Ciolduo 

llat* Milbj.... 3 00 (« 3 25 
l-»MPIa..Ur. In 10 

NAIU. 

Aaated ■!»». kef I 00 ® 3 00 



.AOlncOluoTiff- 



Flour Saclu, halrca. 

(Jiurtcrm ;.',</ tl] 

K.ighthi 3i(S 4 

Hessian. 60 inch.. 

45 inch 

46 Inch VM is 

WooISacka. 

Hand How,,1. 3, tt>..-t/WM 



News in Brie£ 

Tiik ice gOlgtta in the James river have broken 

UJ). 

Tin: charter of the Louisiana lottery has been 
repealed. 

rtiK distress among workingmen in England 
increases daily. 

The jail at I'ino Blu6F, Ark., was tired by a 
prisoner Saturday night and destroyed. 

Thkke were 103 deaths from scarlet fever in 
Ni-w Fork last week, against 274 the week be- 
fore. 

TnE popular vote in Switzerland gives a large 
majority in favor of a subvention to Alpiuo rail- 
ways. 

The Upper Columbia river is almost clear of 
ice, and boats will commence making regular 
trips. 

An attempt was made recently in Candahar 
to assassinate Major St. John, of the British 
army. 

The Zulu King expresses a willingness to ac- 
cede to some of the demands of the British ulti- 
matum. 

A Philadelphia dispatch announces the 
death of John B. Biddle, Dean of Jefferson 
college. 

Capt. John Irwin has been ordered to the 
command of the receiving ship Independence at 
Mare Island. 

An indictment has been found in Florida 
against Lieutenant-Governor Hull, on a charge 
of conspiracy. 

The Sub-Treasury building in New York, is 
being fortified against any raid upon its treasure 
in case of a riot. 

In a collision off the coast of Spain, the 
British sailing vessel Lancashire Witch sunk 
with all on board. 

The recent report relative to Germany's in- 
tended action towards the Samoan Islanders is 
denied from Berlin. 

The Directors of the City of Glasgow bank 
are on trial at Edinburgh, charged with fraud, 
theft and embezzlement. 

The indirect taxes of France during 1878 
yielded a revenue of 2,025,770,000 francs — an 
increase of 75,672,400 francs. 

Andre Christol, the wrestler, had his collar 
bone broken at Detroit, Saturday night, in a 
match with J. H. McLaughlin. 

Six cotton mills at Preston, Eng., running 
188,144 spindles, have given notice of a reduc- 
tion in wages of from 5% to 10%. 

John G. Compton, ex-postmaster of Colum- 
bus, Neb., has been sentenced to 10 years' im- 
prisonment for robbing the mails. 

A judoe of election in Baltimore has been 
fined S100 and four months' imprisonment for 
assaulting a Deputy United States Marshal. 

In sinking a well at lone, Amador county, 
recently, James Parkison struck a vein of coal, 
through which he has already bored six feet, 
without exhausting it. 

J. A. Johnson, Secretary of the Constitutional 
Convention, has tendered his resignation. It 
was accepted, and Ed. F. Smith was chosen as 
Secretary in his place. 



4 1.. .1.,. 

Machine Sewed 50 

SUndard t.uoui«-*....13 &14 

Mean Uwi 

4 4 MIMS. 

CryntalWax 17 «* - 

Kosle ...A': Q 

; ml, 3tX^- 

CANVED Loon-. 

AworU-d I'io Fruila. 

21 It. can* 3 00 @ - 

T»W«< do :i i.j ... 

Jama and Jilli.n. .,1 .Vt t,f 

Pickles, hf gal 3 15 (<* - 

Sardine*. i,r box..l 67|@1 90 

lit Hi.xt.-n 2 50 (52 75 

Preserved Beef, 

anxdoj 4 oo c* — 

do BeeJL4n\do*.6 50 <ef — 
Prourrea Mutton. 

1 H, doa 4 CO @ — 

Beo( Tongue 6 50 @ — 

l'i DHTTI '1 II ft in. 

2 It., doi 6 50 <3 - 

DoTiled Ham, lib, 

doi 5 50 <» — 

.I.. Hum. Jib doz. 3 00 <<* — 
««•!!. JnhhlliK. 

Australian, ton.. 8 00 «f 

Coos Hay B , r i0 (re 7 00 

Belihighan. Hay. 6 50 & 

Seattle 6 00 & 6 50 

Cumberland 14 00 t* 

Mt Diablo 4 75 (j* 6 00 

LebJgh 13 50 ra 

Liverpool 7 50 (ft 8 00 

West Hartley... 10 50 <j« 

.Scotch 10 50 @ 

Scrautoo 11 50 (ft 

Vancouver Id. . . 7 00 (<t 

Charcoal, sack... 75 <f$ 

Coke, bbl B0 <<« 

roi i i i . 

.Sandwich Id, lb. — @ 

Costa Rica 15 (ft 10 

Guatemala. 15 tS 16 

Java 23 (rt— 26 

Manila 17 &6 

Ground, In cs. . . 25 @ 

FISH. 

Sac'to Dry Cod.. 4!@ 5J 

do iii cases,. 5 (ft C 

Eastern Cod . . . . @ 

Salmon, bbla.. . . 8 00 & 9 00 

Hf bhlfl 5 00 <S 550 

1 lb cans 1 40 @ 1 45 

Pkld Cod, bbls..22 00 (<* 

Hf bbla U 00 ^ 

Mackerel, No. 1. 

Hf Bbla 9 50 @10 50 

In Kits 1 85 (ft 2 10 

Ex Meaa 3 25 @ 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 @ 3 50 

BoBtonSink.lH'g 70 @ 

LIME, Etc. 
Lime, st.ii Cruz, 

bbl 1 25 @ 1 50 

Cement, Roaen- 

dale 2 00 @ 2 25 

Portland 4 00 ® 



NeaUfoot, No 1.1 00 (S 90 

Cmstor. Nol 1 10 (A — 

do. No. 3 1 05 (ft — 

Bak«r-«A A 1 2D |l SO 

oiUf. riagniol....6 35 <?o 75 

Powel i 

Palm, lb 9W — 

Lltweed. Raw, bbl. 73 @ — 

BoUed 75 

Cocoanut 55 

Ohlna nut. ca 70 

S|«Tni 1 40 

Coa«t Whalos 40 

Polar 45 

Lard yo 

Oleopblnw 22 

Uevoe's Brtl't jQ 

PhoUilite — m 

Nouijarlel 31 M 

Kureka 18 & 

Barrel kerosene. . . 20 {<* 

Downer Ker 37i(f? 

Elaine 37i<3 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 8 & 

WhftliiK H& 

Putty 4 M 

Chalk H@ 

Pmrla White 2jWi 

Ochre 3p* 

Venetian Red 

Avert". Mixed 
Paint, gal. 

White A tinta. . .2 00 @2 40 
Green, Blue i 

Oh Yellow 3 00 <a*3 50 

Light Red 3 00 ft 3 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 yl 60 

RICE. 

I'hina, Mixed, lb.. 5 @ 5. 

Hawaiian 7 <j$ 7; 

SILT. 
Oal Bay, ton. ...15 00 (322 50 

Conunon 10 00 G$U 00 

Carmen Id 12 00 @14 00 

Liverpool tine ... 19 00 @ 

SOAP. 

Castile, tb 10 <• 

Common brands.. 4' 

Fancyhrands 7 @ 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, tt. 45 (» 50 

Cassia 22£<a 25 

Nutmegs 85 @ 90 

Pepper Grain 15 <§ 

Pimento 15 @ 

Mustard, CaL, 

i tt. glass 1 50 @ — 

SUGAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, lb 11J@ - 

Powdered lli@ — 

Fine crushed llj@ — 

Granulated 11 @ — 

Golden C 9£f§ — 

Cal. Syrup, kge... 70 @ — 
Hawaiian Alol'sscs 26 @ 30 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 27 @ 33 

Country pekd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 @ 60 

Hyson 30 @ 35 

Fooo-Chow 35 (* — 

Japan, 1st quality 40 @ — 
2d quality 20 @ 25 



LUMBER. 



105 



17 



Ladies and Gentlemen are both alike pro- 
vided for by Palmer Bros., in all things fitted 
to give satisfaction and comfort in the way of 
clothing, furnishing goods, laces, millinery, and 
the 1,000 articles neededinfitting up the "human 
form divine." You can supply your whole 
family at little expense, by consulting Palmer 
Bros., at 726 to 734 Market street, S. F. 



Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among- which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoo^rapliicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Settlers and others wishing: good farming lauds for 
sure crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Ander- 
Bon, Shasta County, Cal., who has some 15,000 acres for 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
appears from time to time in this paper. 

Examine the accelerative endowment plan, as originated 
by the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Co., of Newark, 
New Jersey. Assets, §30,533,429.94. Lewis C. Grover, 
President; L. Spencer Coble, Vice-President; Benjamin C. 
Miller, Treasurer; Edward A. Strong, Secretary; Bloom- 
field J. Miller, Actuary. Send for circulars to James 
• Munsell, Jr., agent of insured, 224 Sansome St., Sau 
Francisco. 

Experimental Machinery, drawings, patterns, models, 
all kinds of electrical and telegraphic apparatus to order. 
See ad. F. W. Fuller, 415 Market St., second floor, S. F. 

Henry R. Ewald is our general correspondent and 
agent for Arizona. 



Cfcew Jasksos's Best Sweet Navy Tobacco 



METALS. 

[wholesale. 

Wednrhday m., January 22, 1878. 

Tron.— 

American Pig, soft, ton 23 00 (f^26 00 

Scotch Pig, ton 25 50 (ftlG 50 

American White Pig, ton 23 00 @ 

Oregon Pig, ton 26 50 @ 

Refined Bar 2j@ 3 

Horse Shoes, keg 5 00 @ 

Nail Rod — fto 71 

Norway, according to thickness 6i@ 7 

Copper.— 

Sheathing, lb 34 @ 35 

Sheathing. Yellow 19 @ 20 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — @- 

Steel.— 

English Cast, lb 16 @ 17 

Black Diamond, ordinary Bizes 16 @ 

Drill 16 @ 17 

Flat Bar 16 @ 19 

Plow Steel 8 @ 12j 

10x14 IC Charcoal 8i<3> 9 

10x14 1 CCoke 7 @ 7i 

BancaTin 18 <@— 20 

Australian 15J@ 17 

Zinc— 

By the Cask 9 @ 

Zinc. Sheet 7x3 ft. 7 to 10, lb. leBs than cask. . 9i@— 10 

Nails.— 

Assorted sizeB , 2 90<$3 00 



LEATHER. 

rwnOLEBALH. I 

Wednesday, m., January 22, 1879. 

Solo Leather, heavy, lb 22 @ 29 

Light 20 @ 21 

Jodot, 8 Kil., doz 48 00 @5o 60 

Htol3Kil 65 00 <a>76 00 

14 to 19 Kil 80 00 <&9o 00 

Second Choice. 11 to 16 Kil 55 00 @70 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 10 Kil 57 00 @£7 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 {<*G7 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 @76 00 

Simon Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 @62 50 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 @70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 @74 00 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 @63 00 

20 Kil 65 00 @67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 @74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00 @40 00 

Kips. French, lb 1 00 @ 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 @00 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (ftl5 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 @ 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 @13 00 

For Linings 5 50 (ofilO 50 

al. Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 @ 4 50 

oot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 @ 

BGood French Calf 4 00 @ 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 5 00 @ 5 25 

eather. Harness, lb 35 @ 38 

LFair Bridle, doz .....48 00 @72 00 

Skirting, lb 33 @ 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 @50 00 

Buff, ft 18 @ 21 

Wax Side 17 @ 80 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange. Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sotro & Co.] 

SAN FranoISOO, January 22, 3 P. M, 

Silver. 2g@2J. Gold in New York, par. 

Gold Bars, 890@910. Silver Barb, 8@22 $ cent, dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New York, 35, on London bankers, 49i@ 
49i Commercial 50; Paris, five francs 'p dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 87i@89. 

London Consols, 94 7-16; Bonds, 109J. 

Quicksilver in 3. F„ by the flask* V 11?. 10@41c. 



OF I'ltKT HOIM> PI\K 

BKTAIL PRICE. 

„ I Bough. M 18 00 

i odng 1800 

. V 00 Filling and Stop 28 00 

.2300 Narrow 30 00 

.1300 2tl<iiuUity 35 00 

23 50Lfttlu! 3 50 

IS IX> Furring, lineal ft 1 



Wkuniwdav h . January 22. 1879. 

cargo ruins 

Itl'.IMtOOII. 

Rough, M 

Refuse 

Clear 

Clt-ar Refuse 

Rustic 

Refuse 

Siirf*ced 20 001 IIIIMHliili. 

K*''"* » "0' k rr a il trice. 

Flooring 20 00Rough, M 18 00 

Bvfuw 12 oo lU-fiu* 14 00 

Beaded Flooring 23 OOlPicket*. Bough 1.1 00 

Rffuse 13 00! Pointed 16 00 

Half-inch Siding 16 00| Fancy... 22 50 

Refuse 14 OOjHlding 20 50 

Half-inch Surfaced 20 00 Surf *ced * Long lteaded30 00 

Refuse 14 00 flooring 30 00 

Half inch BatU-us 16 00: Refuse 22 50 

Pickets R"ugli 11 00' Half inch Surfaced 30 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 SO ItuBtlc. No, 1 30 00 

Fancy. Pointed 1* 00 liatU-uit, lineal ft 

Shingles 1 75Sltlnelua M 3 00 



Signal Service Meteorological Report 

San Francisco.— Week ending January 21, 1870. 





BIOOK8T AND LOWEST nAROMITRR. 




Jan 15 


Jan 10 


Jan 17 


Jan 18 


Jan 19i 


Jan 20 


Jan 21 


30.313 


30.307 


30.434 


30.622 


30.408] 


30.194 


30.221 


30.271 


30.24.'. 


S0.297 


30.459 


30.217 


W. 132 


30.1S7 




MAXIMUM AMI MINIMUM rilKRMOMKTBR. 




49.3 


60 1 49 1 52 I 59 


50.5 


5(1 


a 


42.5 | 44 | 42 | 42.3 
MKAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 


45 


44 


07.7 


00.3 | 78 | 09 | 03.7 

PKKVAIUNO WIND. 


03 


73.3 


s 


N | N | E | N 
WIND— MII.KS TRAVRLKD. 


N 


I NU 


200 


151 | 137 | 152 | 102 1 
BTATB OF WKATURR, 


139 


132 


Fair. 


Clear. | Fair. | Clear. ] Clear. 


Clear. 


Fair. 




RAINFALL LN TWKNTY-FOUR UOURS. 




Total rain duri 


1C the Beaaon. from July 


1, 1878. 


4.37 In. 



We hare on hand Borne 400 to 500 Its. of brevier, in 
good condition, for sale at a bargain. Will sell apart 
only if desired. Second-hand cases to match. Also a font 
of bourgeois in first-rat e order, with cases. Also a cabi- 
net and upwards of twenty fonts of good display type, not 
very old and but little used. Some of the fonts are large, 



Printing Type For Sale Very Low. 

of modern style, and what might be termed good substan- 
tial display type for advertisements and job printing. 

A good proof press will also be sold at a greatly reduced 
price from cost. 

We can lit out a good country printing office nearly 
complete at a moderate cost. Call and see the material. 
DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers, Ne. 202 Sansome street, San Francisco. 



Patents for Mining and Farm- 
ing Lands, 

Having complete arrangements with compe- 
tent and reliable parties in Washington City, by 
which we are able to secure prompt and 
careful attention to law business there, we are 
prepared to assist Mill and Mine, Canal and 
Ditch owners in securing patents for their lands, 
mines and claims, in addition to our general line 
of patent business. 

Many who are acquainted with the manner 
in which this business has heretofore been con- 
ducted, {with or without assistance by local 
attorneys), will see at once the great advantage 
of patronizing an establishment that is thor 
oughly organized and has its representatives in 
Washington to look after and prosecute their 
applications before the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office. The business on this 
Coast will be attended to personally by a mem- 
ber of our firm, and satisfaction will be given in 
all respects. 

Correspondence from persons desirous of 
securing patents for Lands, Mines, Mill Sites, 
Canal and Ditch property, promptly attended to. 
Applicants for patents for mining and farm- 
ing land, whose claims have been delayed for 
any reason, will find it to their advantage to 
consult with us and in case of necessity secure 
the services of our home and Washington branch 
agency. 

DEWEY & CO., 
Solicitors of Patents for Lands, Mines and In- 
ventions, Mining and Scientific Press 
Office, No 202 Sansome St., San Francisco 



Watson ville, July 20th, 187S, 
Messrs. Dewey & Co. — Qents:—l was not expecting my 
patent so soon. You certainly kept your word when you 
said no time would be lost. I remain, yourstruly, 

W. T. Eabterdat, 



(nipipg and Other Copipapie?. 



Persons interested in incorporated shares 
will do well to recommend the publication 
of the official notices of their companies 
in this paper, as the cheapest appropriate 
medium for the same. 

Cherokee Flat Blue Gravel Company.— 

i of nrlndral ptiee Ol ! l-'ranciaeo. 

California, Location ol works, Cherokee. Plat Ituite 
OountK California, 

N.tir, u ban i>) [riven, timt at a meeting "f the Board or 

hirecton;. Ir-M ..n the 20th day of DecorulHT, A. 1» 1878 an 
■ |No *01offl?< cents per share was Levied open 
Mi- .-.iint:!! st.H-k <-t tlu corporation, payable Immediately In 
United Btates gold ooln. bo the Secretary, at the offleo of tlm 
pany, 818 Pirn street, Boom 4 San PrandBoo, California, 

Ajiy Stock Upon which this assi-ssnicnt shall remain unpaid 
on the 28th das ol January, 187ft will be delinquent, andad- 
rertlaed for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before "ill be told on Itaaday, the 18th day "f Febru- 
ary. 1879, to pay thi delinqiK'ut asst.-ssriii-iit. tu^cthar with 
costs ol adrertlslng and expanses of sala By order of the 
Board of Directors. R. N. VAN BRUNT, Secretary 

oaict-,318 Pine Street, Roma B, San Francisco California 

Griffith Consolidated Mill and Mining Com- 

pany.— Location of principal place of business, San Fran- 

i'isi'm, Ciiiif.iriiia Locati I works, Diamond .SiiritiK« 

Mining District, El Dorado County, California. 
Notice Es hereby given, that at a meeting of the Board of 
Trustees, held on the 21st day of January, 1879 an assessment 

(Nil l)ol tvvnu I'L-uta C^Jl) 1"_t share was levied upon the 
' 'ni'it-iil Mn.'k i.f tli..- rnrj">r;itiim, payable immediaMy tn tlic 
Sccrctair. at tho ()tric« of the Company, Room 48, 330 Pine 
Street, San Francisco, California. 

Any Stock upon which this Assessment shall remain un- 
pnitl on the 2t5th day of February, 187'. will be delinquent, 
and advertised for sale at puMi.i auction; mid unli'ns jiiij- 
ment is made before, will be Bold m Wednesday, March aotb, 
1879, to pay the delinquont asseBsnum, UtccthtT with coals 
of advertiainy and uxpenacti of sale. By order of thi Board 
of Trustees. CEO. M. CONDEE. Secy. 

oilier, I:..hiu 48, 3-SO Fiiu- Stro.-t. San Fruicisci.. Cidifornin . 

Mariposa Land and Mining Company of 

California.— Location of priucipnl place of business, San 
Fraueisro, California, Location of works, Mariposa Coun- 
ty, California. 

Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Board of 
Directors, held on the tenth day of January. 1S79, an assess- 
ment (No. 15) of One Dollar per share was levied upon the. 
capital stock of the coryorat ion, payable immediately In U. S. 
currency to the Secretary, at the office of the C. unpany. Room 
33, Nevada Block, No. 30y Montgomery St., San Francisco, 
CaL. or the Assistant Secretary at the office No. 9 Nassau 
St., New York, N. Y. 
Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
the twelfth day of February, 1879, will be delinquent, and 
advertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before, will be sold on Wednesday, the twelfth day of 
March, 1879, to nay the delinquent assessment, together with 
cost of advertising and expens* s of sale. By order of the 
Board of Directors. LEANDEK LEAVITT. Sec'y. 

Office, Room 33, Nevada Block, No. 309 Montgomery St., 
San Francisoe.tC'al. 

Summit Mining Company. — Location of 

Principal place of business, San Francisco, California, 

Location of works, Mineral Point Miuiiu? District, 

Plumas County, Cal. 

Notice.— There are delinquent upon the following' de- 
scribed stock, on account of assessment (No. G,) levied on 
the 19th day of November, A. D. , 1S"S, the several amounts 
set opposite the names of the respective shareholders, as 
follows: 

Names. No. Certificate. No. Shares. Anit. 

Boring', I C 32 » 1200 §00 00 

Bohn, John 160 200 10 00 

Lehmann, C 129 2750 137 50 

Lchmann, C, Trustee 200 200 10 00 

Lehmann, C, Trustee 207 200 10 00 

Storer, J F, Trustee 58 250 12 50 

Sclimitz, F 205 400 20 00 

Turner, J W 65 200 10 00 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board of 
Directors, made on the nineteenth day of November, A. ( D., 
1878, so many shares of each parcel of such stock as may- 
be necessary, will be sold at public auction, at the office 
of the compauy, No. 318 Pine street, Room (f, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., on Tuesday, the fourth day of February, 
A. D., 1879, at the hour of three o'clock p. m.