(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Mining and Scientific Press (Jan.-July 1909)"

1* 






w 



*fi 



V \ 







rstf- 



f M 



ri&feidn 




fiSlffig 



-; 



j^y< 



!fl 




40 U gQQ7 1500*11,? L >-x^ 

California Stf to L7b r ary bd b 'Y. 

■*««««« .*■<, 14.S077 

™ 991 



INDEX 



148077 



TO VOLUME XCVIII, 



Fron January to June, 1909, 








L'a.uv. 



Accounts for the Superintendent Mi 



Acetylene Mtne-Lamps A. 

Adams, \v. j The 

Ditto 

Adjustable Pyrometer Stand 

Agitator For Cyanide Tests 

A greement of Assays 

Alaska and the Yukon 

And the Yukon, Transportation F 



larold "Wilson. . 
essy Morrison. . 
saster In Italy. . 
hat Is an Ore?. . 
L. W. Bahney. . 

H. Clevenger. . 

. . .E. R. Rice. . 
T. A. Rlckard. . 

llities in 

W. M. Brewer. . 



fred H. Brooks. 



. Editorial. 



Building. A.-Y.-P. Exposition. 

Mexican Gold Mining Company 

Progress in 

Yukon Exposition 

Alaskan Coal Lands 

Alderson, Matt. W Thr^Legged Trestle 

Alluvlals, Nature of Gold in. . . .F. ilwood Garrison 
Aluminum, Uses of Bertram Hunt 

Ditto J 

Ditto 

Amalgamating Plates. Silver Coati 



Amalgamation, Electrolytic 

Electricity as an Aid in. 

Electro-Chemical 

Methods JLucius S. Pierce . 

American Institute of Mining Engfiers. .F. L. Clere. 



W. Echevarri. . 
Edmund Shaw. . 

of 

iV. A. Caldecott. . 

J. H. Jory.. 

ElmefSllsworth Carey. . 

D. F. McGraw. . 



Institute of Mining Engineers, 



fleers of 

Editorial. 

Editorial. 



Securities Abroad 

Smelting & Refining Company. 

Ditto Company Report. 

Amount of Principal and Interest. . 
Amparo Mining Company, Etzatla.. 

Amur Region, Steam-Shovel in til 

Andrews, E. C Brok i Hill Silver Mine . 

Anthropomorphism in Petrograph ,. Edward K. Judd. 

Anvil Blocks 

Appelbaum, M. E 

Arteaga District, Chihuahua, Mes 
Ashanti Goldfields, West Africa 

Ashley, Harrison Everett 

Settlement of Slime 

Asia Minor, Opportunities In,.. 

Assay-Ton 

Assays, Agreement of 

Assessment Work 

Aubury, L. E California 

Austin, L. S Blst-Furnace Tuyere 

Ditto .Cost$t the Osceola Mine 

Ditto Costs of La 

Ditto Furnaces 

Ditto . . „ 

Australian, Deep Lead Mining 1 



Copper Outlook. 
. .W. B. Winston. 
Company Report. 
Theory of 



.Editorial. 



.E. R. Rice. 



p,te Mining Bureau. 



Superior Smelting, 
ir Melting Calcines. 
. . .Lake Copper. 
. .D, H. Browne . 



686 
155 
114 
5 IS 
629 
759 
348 
15 

485 
793 
177 
193 
493 
464 
393 
760 
515 
424 
656 



445 
249 
891 
216 
346 

166 
805 

73 
360 
411 
139 
731 
158 
700 
144 

91 
829 
162 

831 
805 
612 
348 
179 
347 
392 
893 
592 
750 
582 
445 



B 



Bahney, L. W Adjust 

Baker-Burwell Dry Chlorinatio 
Ballot-Sulman-Plckard Flotati< 



Bantjes Consolidated, Johanne 
Consolidated Mines Compan 

Bassett, L. P 

Beam Recrudescent 

Bean, George L I 

Cast-iron Pipe 

Bearing Metals 

Becker, Arnold The Er 

Benito Juarez Mines Company 



e Pyrometer Stand. 

Process 

Process 

...Edward "Walker. 

urg 

Company Report. 
. . .Smelter Fume. 

Editorial. 

Discharge Formulas for 



neer as a Financier. 



629 
241 

62 
375 
635 
381 
498 

666 

418 

414 

78 



Page. 
Bergstrom, O Knudsen Process of 

Pyritic Converter Smelting 858 

Bingham, Utah, Boston Consolidated 

Courtenay De Kalb 553 

Black Diamond, Crescent City, California 

Oscar H. Hershey. . . . 147 

Blast-Furnace Tuyere L. S. Austin 392 

Blasting and Preparing the Shots. .Dennis H. Stovall 699 

Boiling Test for Cement. . . . 144 

Bosqui, F. L. ■ Short Zinc 47S 

Boston Consolidated Mining Company 

Company Report. . . . 526 

Bradford, Robert H Mineral Resources of Utah, ... IS" 

Bradley, F. W Protection of Investors. ... 85 

Bradley, "Walter W., and Roberts, F. C Mule-Back 

Transportation of Sectionalized Machinery 751 

Brewer, W. M Transportation Facilities 

in Alaska and the Yukon 485 

British Broken Hill Company Report 833 

Columbia Copper Company Company Report.... 360 

Columbia, Progress in George A. Ohren. ... 36 

South Africa Company Company Report. . . . 460 

Broken Hill Proprietary Company Report. . . . 763 

Hill South Silver Mining Company 

Company Report. ... 595 

Boston Consolidated, Bingham, Utah 

Courtenay De Kalb .... 553 

Broderick & Bascom's Tramway 163 

Broken Hill Silver Mine E. C. Andrews 158 

Bromo-Cyanogen Process, Chemistry of. .S. H. Worrell. . . . 356 

Brooks, Alfred H Progress In Alaska 193 

Brown, R. Gilman . .Electric Counter-Balanced Hoist.... 282 

Ditto Tailing-Wheel v. Pump 478 

Brown, T. A Mechanical Elevator in 

Hydraulic Mining 613 

Browne, D. H Deep Lead Mining in Australia. . . . 445 

Browne, R. Stuart Short Zinc 718 

Buckland, Arthur C Dredging Industry in 

New Zealand 758 

Bumsted, E. J Mining Cost in Mexico. . . . 583 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Company Report. . . . 162 

Bureau of Mines, National Royal P. Jarvis. . . . 113 

Byron, E. L Special Machinery for Placer Mining. . . . 12S 



Calabacillas Gold Mine Charles Walter Geddes .... 689 

Calcines, Furnaces for Melting L. S. Austin 750 

Calculation of Heat Conductivities Carl Hering. . . . 357 

Caldecott, "W. A Precipitation of Gold 

by Carbonaceous Matter 828 

Ditto Silver Coating of Amalgamating Plates. ... 92 

Ditto The Vacuum Pump in 

the Cyaniding of Sand 316 

California and Nevada, Eight-Hour Legislation in 559 

Historical Geology of William Forstner. . . .853, 891 

State Mining Bureau L. E. Aubury 347 

Ditto James M. Hyde. ... 214 

Calumet & Hecla and the Osceola 359 

Dominant Editorial 364 

Cameron, D. P Cost of Electric Pole-Line. . . . 113 

Cam-Shafts, Cushioning Vibrations of 

Thos. N. Miller 180 

Carbonaceous Matter, Precipitation of Gold by 

W. A. Caldecott 828 

Carey, Elmer Ellsworth Electricity as an 

Aid in Amalgamation 249 

Carr, Henry C Vein Structure in the 

Monument Mine 557 

Carter, T. Lane.. How It Strikes an American (I, II). 447, 481 

Castillo, J. Ciceron Geology of the Platinum 

Deposits of Colombia 826 

Cement, Boiling Test for 144 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRES 



.John L. Howard. 



.V. V. Messt/ 



Page. 
630 
698 
375 
696 
195 
S14 
667 
213 
581 
479 



Portland 

Production in 1908 

t Vntralization of Gold-Recovery 
Centrifugal Pump Efficiency. . . . 

Cerro de Pasco, Sintering at 

Chalmers. Alex. Power in Stamp-Milling 

Chance, H. M Contingent Fees 

Ditto The Engineer as a Financier 

Ditto Panama Canal 

Chances for the Prospector H. H. Edgerton, Jr 

Chapman, R. H Symmetric Structure in 

Limestone and Lava 622 

Chase, Chas. A Finger-Chute.... 314 

Chemistry of the Bromo-Cyanogen Process 

S. H. Worrell 356 

Chihuahua, Mexico, Arteaga District. .W. B. Winston. . . . 829 

Santa Eulalia Mines F. J. H. Merrill. ... 37 

China, Coal Mining in Thomas T. Read. ... 44 

Mining in Northern F. L. Cole. . . . 584 

Chlorination of Sulphide Ores, Dry. . . F. W. Traphagen. ... 522 

Churn-Drill Sampling Carney Hartley. . . . 549 

Ditto W. E. Thorne 358 

Chute, Finger Chas. A. Chase.... 314 

Cinderella Deep Company Report. . . . 701 

City Ghosts W. R. Lawson. . . . 432 

Clark, J. E Re-Setting Tappets 748 

Classification of Pulp for Tube-Milling 140 

Clerc, F. L American Institute. . . . 346 

Clevenger, G. H Agitator for Cyanide Tests. . . . 759 

Cloverfield Company Report. . . . 763 

Coal in the Philippines 286 

In Rogue River Valley, Oregon 661 

Lands, Alaskan Editorial. . . . 464 

Lands, Federal Editorial. . . . 598 

Mining in China Thomas T. Read. ... 44 

Output in 1908, Utah's S9S 

Volatile Matter in 634 

Coalfield in Kent, England 106 

Coalinga District, Oil Measures in the 

William Forstner 3S6 

Ditto R. P. McLaughlin 548 

Coating Cyanide Vats R. H. Fraser. . . . 214 

Cobb, W. L Fighting Fire With Snowballs 688 

Cogswell, C. V. R Cyanidation in Guanajuato.... 656 

Coke, Moisture in Editorial .... S04 

Cole, F. L Mining in Northern China. . . . 584 

Ditto Mining in Siberia. . . . 654 

Colima and Jalisco W. A. Scott. ... 254 

Collins, Henry F Cornish Pumps 

and Pumping Engines (I, II) 289, 317 

Collins, W. F Occurrence of Gold in Placers. . . . 850 

Collins, W. H Montreal River District. . . . S95 

Colombia Editorial. . . . 201 

Economic Conditions in F. Lynwood Garrison.... 550 



Emerald Mines in 

Geology of the Platinum Deposits 

J. Ciceron Casti llo . . . . 

Gold Mining in F. Lynwood Garrison .... 

The Real Eldorado in F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 

Travel in Courtenay De Kalb .... 

Colombian Health Conditions J. R. Farrell. . . . 

Colorado Days, Early George W. Maynard. . . . 

In 1908 Forbes Rlckard 

Tartuffe in Editorial 

Colvocoresses, G. M Mixed Geography. . . . 

Company Report American Smelting 

& Refining Company 

Ditto Ashanti Goldfields, West Africa 

Ditto. Bantjes Consolidated. . . . 

Ditto Boston Consolidated .... 

Ditto British Broken Hill 

Ditto British Columbia Copper Company.... 

Ditto British South Africa Company. . . . 

Ditto Broken Hill Proprietary. . . . 

Ditto. .Broken Hill South Silver Mining Company.... 

Ditto Bunker Hill & Sullivan 

Ditto Cinderella Deep ... . 

Ditto Cloverfield. . . 

Ditto Coniagas 

Ditto Consolidated Mining & 

Smelting Company of Canada 

Ditto ,. Copper Range .... 

Ditto Crescens .... 

Ditto Daly- Judge 

Ditto Esperanza, Ltd 

Ditto Ferreira .... 

Ditto First National Copper .... 

Ditto Goldfield Consolidated. . . . 

Ditto Greene Cananea. . . . 

Ditto Guggenheim Exploration Company.... 

Ditto Kargurli Gold Mines, Western Australia. . . . 

Ditto Knight Central 

Ditto Liberty Bell. . 

Ditto Mamma Hills. . . . 

Ditto Mines Company of America .... 



Ditto Mount Boppy. . 

Ditto Mount Morgan . . 

Ditto Mysore Gold Mining Company . . 

Ditto Nipissing Mines. . 

Ditto, North Butte . . 

Ditto Nundydroog . . 

Ditto Ooregum Gold. . 

Ditto Phelps, Dodge & Company. . 

Ditto Pioneer Company . . 

Ditto Pittsburg Silver Peak. . 

Ditto Poderosa Mining Company . . 

Ditto Prestea Block A, Ltd. , 

Ditto Rio Plata Mining Company. . 

Ditto Robinson. 

Ditto Round Mountain . 

Ditto Shwell Dredging . 

Ditto Skidoo Mines Company. 

Ditto South Kalgurli Gold Mines. 

Ditto Standard Consolidated . 

Ditto Stratton's Independence. 

Ditto Tonopah. 

Ditto United States Smeltii 

Refining & Minig Company 

Ditto United Zinc. 

Ditto Utah Copper . 

Ditto Village Deep . 

Ditto ogelstruis Consolidated Deep. 

Ditto Waihi Gold Mining Company. 

Ditto Witwatersrand Deep. 

Ditto Yukon Gold . 

Competition, Smelter Editorial. 

Comstock, Theo. B Protection of Investors.... 

Concentrate in Wester Australia, Treatment of 

Specific Gravity of Edgar B. Van Osdel. 

Coniagas Company Report . 

Concrete in Mine Suppit W. R. Crane. 

Conductivities, Calculaon of Heat Carl Hering. 

Confidence, Financial Editorial . 

Conflict of Placer withluartz Claim 

Consolidated Mining &. melting Company of Canada. 

Company Report . 

Contingent Fees H. M. Chance. 

Ditto. .Mining & Me llurgical Society of America. 

Conversion Table of Mires to Feet Lee Fraser. 

Converter Smelting, Kndsen Process of Pyritic 

O. Bergstrom . 

Cooling Towers Samuel K. Patteson. 

Coon Butte 

Co-Operative Topograph Surveys 

George Otis Smith. 

Copper Editorial . 

District of Teringtor Nevada 

In Low-Grade Ores, stimation of 

Mine, The Utah Courtenay De Kalb. 

Mining at Ely, Nevad Courtenay De Kalb. 

Mining Methods of H. Lipson Hancock. 

Outlook M. E. Appelbaum. 

Production in 1908 

Range Company Report . 

River, Alaska 

Situation James Douglas . 

Smelting at Lake Supdor, Costs of. .L. S. Austin. 

Smelting Process, Fint 

Statistics Editorial . 

Tendencies Editorial. 

Corkhill, Fred The Nevada Meteorite. 

Cornish Pumps and Puming Engines (I, II) 

Henry F. Collins : 

Cost Sheet for Mines Algernon Del Mar. 

Costs at the Osceola L. S. Austin. 

Milling R. S. Handy . 

Of Dredging 

Of Lake Superior Smelng L. S. Austin. 

Crane, W. R Concrete in Mine Support. 

Crater, Meteor John B. Hastings. 

Crescens Company Report . 

Creston Colorada Mining Cmpany, Sonora 

Cripple Creek in 1908 W. W. Travell . 

Creek, Ore Washing at S. A. Worcester. 

Crown Mines, Ltd., Consollation 

Crucible Assays A. A. Steel . 

Cullinan Diamond 

Cupelling, Simple Control i G. N. Pfeiffer 

Cushioning Vibrations of Cm-Shafts. Thos. N. Miller 

Cyanidation at Mercur, Uta Leroy A. Palmer 

In Guanajuato C. V. R. Cogswell 

Lead Acetate in C. M. Eye 

Of Parral Silver Ores H. T. Willis 

Of Silver Ores S> Theo. P. Holt 

Ditto D. Mosher 

Progress in ,. . Alfred James. . . .47, 

Ditto Francisco Narvaez 

Cyanide, Loss of Dana G. Putnam 

Poisoning 

Cyanide Tests, Agitator for G. H, Clevenger 



283 



635 
360 
595 
701 
701 
526 
635 
162 
162 
460 
701 
833 
526 
866 
701 
866 
526 
262 
800 
595 
833 

83.3 

866 

7 63 

S66 

635 

800 

701 

294 

4 

, 182 

342 

667 

. 162 

. 320 

. 357 

. 66 

. 319 

. 262 
. 667 
. 457 
. 394 

. S5S 
. 668 
. 523 

. 85) 

. 333 

. 665 

. 261 

. 516 

. 58 

. 730 

. 91 

. 865 

. 833 

. 53 

. 10 

. 592 

. 189 

. 266 

. 431 

. 93 

l, 317 
. 782 
. 893 
. 156 
. 556 
. 592 
. 320 
. 523 
. 866 
. 375 
. 41 
. 291 
. 306 
. 819 
. 155 
. 750 
. 180 
. 616 
. 656 
. 82 
. 488 
. 546 
. 691 
380 
182 
115 
562 
759 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Page. 

Vats 179 

Vals, Coating K. H. Fr.is.i-. ... J II 

Cyaniding of Sand, The Vacu In the 

\V. A. Caldecott... 816 

Silver Ore in Honduras George F.. Drlscoll, ... 388 



Daly-Judge Company Report. . . . 

Ore 

Darwin and Lincoln 

Dawson. Yukon Territory 

Decision, The Washoe Editorial. . . . 

1 p Lead Mining In Australia D. H. Brown. ... . 

Level Mines. The Surface Equipment of 

H. H. Johnson and II. F. Roche.... 

Metal Mining Editorial.... 

Deepest Bore-Hole 

De Kalb, Courtenay Boston Consolidated, 

Bingham. Utah 

Ditto Copper Mining at Ely, Nevada. . . . 

Ditto Ely. Nevada 

Ditto The Engineer as a Financier. . . . 

Ditto Geologic Essentials of a Mine Report. . . . 

Ditto Smelting Conditions at Salt Lake. . . . 

Ditto Travel in Colombia 

Ditto The Utah Copper Mine 

1 >■-! Mar, Algernon Cost Sheet for Mines. . . . 

Ditto The Engineer as a Financier.... 

Denny, G. A Kami Milling Practice. . . . 

Depreciation of Gold Editorial.... 

Designing Mine Equipment P. Schreiber. . . . 

Ditto Max J. Welch 

Destination of Transvaal Gold Editorial.... 

1 letonators, Methods of Testing Electric 

William W. Nicoll 

Diamond Making, Researches in F. H. Mason.... 

Manufacture D. Mosher. . . . 

I>lk.-s, Spheroidal Weathering of I. F. Kemp. . . . 

Ditto J. R. Villars 

I disaster in Italy W. J. Adams. . . . 

Discharge Formulas for Cast-Iron Pipe. . . .G. L. Bean .... 

Disposal of Gold from the Rand T. Kirke Rose. . . . 

Ditch, The Yukon T. A. Rickard.... 

Ditches Douglas Waterman. . . . 

Dome Creek, Yukon Territory 

Dominian, Leon Mineral Resources 

of the Turkish Empire 

Dos Estrellas Mine, El Oro 

Douglas, James The Copper Situation .... 

Drake, Francis How It Strikes an American 

Dredge for Placer Mining E. L. Byron 

Dredging at Oroville Douglas Waterman 

Costs of 

In the Kelantan 

In Victoria 

Industry in New Zealand Arthur C. Buckland. . . . 

Revival of Gold Editorial 

Drill Sampling, Churn W. E. Thorne. . .. 

Drilling, Note on C. R. Gent. . . . 

Drill-Steel K. Noblett 

Driscoll, George E . .Cyaniding Silver Ore in Honduras. . . . 
Dry Chlorination of Sulphide Ores..F. W. Traphagen . . . . 



360 

171 

26S 

IS 

200 

l 15 



:;a\ 
515 

553 

58 
115 
145 
625 

23 
350 
516 
782 
615 
SS4 
130 
654 
818 
232 

530 
381 
282 
443 
443 
114 
666 
560 
148 
352 
19 



10 
784 
128 
785 
556 
S96 
859 
758 

65 
358 
283 
114 
388 



Early Colorado Days George W. Maynard. . . . 

Earthquake Forecasts Editorial. . . . 

Ditto G. K. Gilbert 

Italian Editorial ... . 

Eaton, Lucien Unwatering an Old Mine. . . . 

Echevarri, J. T. W Uses of Aluminum. . . . 

Economic Conditions in Colombia 

F. Lynwood Garrison .... 

Edgerton, Jr., H. H Chances for the Prospector. . . . 

Editorial Alaskan Coal Lands.... 

Ditto American Institute of Mining 

Engineers, Officers of 

Ditto American Securities Abroad. . . . 

Ditto Beam Recrudescent .... 

Ditto Calumet & Hecla Dominant. . . . 

Ditto Colombia. . . . 

Ditto Copper. . . . 

Ditto Copper Statistics .... 

Ditto Copper Tendencies. . . . 

Ditto Deep Metal Mining. . . . 

Ditto Depreciation of Gold .... 

Ditto Destination of Transvaal Gold. . . . 

Ditto Earthquake Forecasts .... 

Ditto Eight-Hour Legislation .... 

Ditto Eldorado. . . . 

Ditto Farmer v. Miner. . . . 

Ditto Federal Coal Lands. . . . 



789 
168 
1S3 
64 
749 
424 

550 
479 
464 

166 
805 
498 
364 
201 
333 
266 
431 
398 
130 
232 
16S 
533 
6 
566 
598 



Page. 

Ditto Financial Confidence 66 

Ditto Financial Prospects. . . . 672 

1 'Itto Geological Hlerophants. . . . :;ps 

I 'Hi" Golddeld Consolidated Report 232 

I ''it" Go North 6 

Dlttc Graft Prosecution 869 

niit Investment In Mexico.... 869 

Ditto The Italian Earthquake 64 

Ditto Lanyon Zinc Failure. . . . 566 

Ditto Magmatlc Segregation.... 430 

Ditto Metal Markets 7 

Ditto The Mexican Outlook 533 

Ditto Mine Inspection and Geological Surveys. . . . 735 

Ditto Miner's Lien. . . . 868 

I 'ill" Mining Claims on Private Land Grants. . . . 767 

Ditto Moisture In Coke.... 804 

1 'itto Nickel, a Canadian Monopoly. ... 767 

Ditto Opportunities in Asia Minor. .. . 805 

Ditto Panama Canal 99 

Ditto The Pearce Process. . . . 365 

Ditto Phosphate on Public Lands.... S36 

Ditto Price of Silver. ... 4 

Ditto Protection of Investors. . . . 399 

Ditto Railroad Rates 334 

Ditto Rand Milling Practice. . . . 704 

Ditto Regulating Copper Production. ... 641 

Ditto Revival of Gold Dredging 65 

Ditto Rights of Shareholders.... 499 

Ditto Tariff on Oil S37 

Ditto Theodore Roosevelt.... 332 

Ditto Siberian Placers.... 705 

Ditto Smelter Competition .... 4 

Ditto Smelter Smoke. . . . 673 

Ditto. State Mine Inspection . . . . 131 

Ditto State Mining Legislation.... 9S 

Ditto Steel Prices.... 298 

Ditto Transportation and Coal Mining. . . . 640 

Ditto Transportation and the Far East. . . . 674 

Ditto William Morris Stewart 599 

Ditto Tartuffe in Colorado 267 

Ditto An Undemonstrated Process. . . . 673 

Ditto Valuation of Coal Land. . . . 766 

Ditto Washoe Decision 166, 200 

Ditto What's in a Name?. . . . 465 

Ditto Yukon Gold 268 

Eight-Hour Legislation Editorial. . . . 533 

Ditto Lewis T. "Wright 613 

Hour Legislation in Nevada and California 559 

Electrical Energy, Systems of Charging for 

W. T. Ryan . 

Electro-Chemical Amalgamation D. F. McGraw. 

Elevator, Mechanical T. A. Brown. 

Ditto E. D. F . 

Ditto J. Wendle . 

Eldorado Editorial . 

The Real F. Lynwood Garrison . 

Electric Counter-Balanced Hoist... R. Gilman Brown. 

Pole-Line, Cost of D. P. Cameron. 

Steel Refining 

Electricity as an Aid in Amalgamation 

Elmer Ellsworth Carey . 

Electrolytic Amalgamation J. H. Jory. 

Refining of Gold T. Kirke Rose. 

Elevator, Mechanical T. A. Rickard. 

Elffner, Anthony Mining Law in Nevada. 

Elizabeth Lake Tunnel 

Elmore Flotation Process 

Vacuum Plant 

El Oro Mines 

Ely. Nevada Courtenay De Kalb . 

Ditto F. F. Thomas. 

Nevada Copper Mining at Courtenay De Kalb. 

Emerald Mines in Colombia 

Engineer as a Financier Arnold Becker. 

Ditto H. M. Chance . 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb . 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar . 

Ditto J. R. Finlay . 

Ditto Chas. R. Gent . 

Ditto Tom L. Gibson . 

Ditto V. G. Hills. 

Ditto Lewis T. Wright . 

Ezperanza, Ltd Company Report. 

Ethyl Chloride, Refrigeration With 

Explosives and Safety-Fuse, High Edgar Taylor. 

Eye. C. M Lead Acetate in Cyanidation . 



.. 694 
.. 897 
.. 613 
.. 583 
. . 514 
6 
. . 29 
. . 282 
.. 113 
.. 223 



.. 249 
.. 445 
. . 890 
. . 415 
. . 250 
. . 57 
.. 62 
.. 391 
. . 440 
. . 115 
. . 114 



.. 792 
. . 414 
. . 213 
. . 145 
. . 615 
. . 80 
.. 312 
.. 514 
. . 312 
. . 247 
. . 800 
.. 525 
.. 726 



Failures in Spuds Howard D. Smith .... 728 

Fairbanks, Alaska 17 

Farmer v. Miner Editorial. . . . 566 

Farrell, J. R Colombian Health Conditions. . . . 613 

Federal Coal Lands Editorial 598 

Feed-Water Heater, Multi-Current 495 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Fees, Contingent , H. M. Chance. . 

Ferreira Company Report . . 

Fighting Fire "With Snowballs W. L. Cobb. . 

Financial Confidence Editorial.. 

Prospects , Editorial. . 

Financier, Engineer as a Arnold Becker. . 

Ditto H. M. Chance. . 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb . . 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar . . 

Ditto J. R. Finlay . . 

Ditto Chas. R. Gent . . 

Ditto Tom L. Gibson . . 

Ditto V. G. Hills. . 

Ditto Lewis T. Wright . . 

Finger-Chute Chas. A. Chase. . 

Fink Copper Smelting Process 

Process James W. Neill. . 

Finlay, J. R The Engineer as a Financier . . 

Fire- Assaying, Reducer in E. J. Hall. . 

Firebrace, W. E. Gordon Suchez de Boliv 

Hydraulic Mine 

First National Copper Company Report. . 

Flotation-Process Litigation Edward Walker. . 

Fluorspar F. Julius Fohs . . 

In 190S 

Fohs, F. Julius Fluorspar . . 

Forecasts, Earthquake Editorial. . 

Ditto G. K. Gilbert.. 

Forest Reserve and Mining A Forest Officer. . 

Ditto Douglas Waterman . . 

Service and Mining Claims Gifford Pinchot. . 

Formulas for Cast-Iron Pipe, Discharge 

George L. Bean. .. 

Forstner, William Historical Geoloj 

Ditto Oil Measures in the Coalinga District . . 

Fox, James H Protection of Investors. . 

Franklin, Benj Panama Canal.. 

Fraser, Lee. . .Table for Conversion of Metres to Feet. . 

Fraser, R. H Coating Cyanide Vats. . 

Fraud in Mining, Prevention of W. C. Wynkoop. . 

Fraudulent Association Placer Claim 

Furnaces for Melting Calcines L. S. Austin . . 



Page. 

. . 667 

. . 866 

.. 688 

. . 66 

.. 672 

. . 414 

.. 213 

.. 145 

. . 615 

. . 80 

.. 312 

.. 514 

.. 312 

. . 247 

. . 314 

.. 1S9 

. . 380 

.. 80 

.. 282 
ia 

.. 287 

. . 360 

. . 62 



168 
183 
180 
61 
756 



386 
346 
580 
394 

214 
146 
558 
750 



G 

Gamba, F. Pereira. .Small Cyanide Plants in Colombia. 

Garrison, F. Lynwood Economic Conditi 

in Colombia 

Ditto Gold Mining in Colombia. 

Ditto Nature of Gold in Alluvials . 

Ditto Ores Formed by Magmatic Segregation. 

Ditto Panama Canal . 

Ditto The Real Eldorado. 

Geddes, Charles Walter Calabacillas Gold Mine. 

Gent, Charles R The Engineer as a Financier. 

Ditto Note on Drilling. 

Geologic Essentials of a Mine Report 

Courtenay De Kalb . 

Note on Liberty Bell 

Geological Hierophants Editorial . 

Ditto Norm. 

Ditto F. L. Ransome . 

Survey, Money for the 

Surveys, Mine Inspection and Editorial. 

Geology of California, Historical. Wililam Forstner..! 

Of the Platinum Deposits of Colombia 

J. Ciceron Castillo . 

Gibson, Tom L The Engineer as a Financier. 

Gilbert, G. K Earthquake Forecasts. 

Gillette, Cassius E Panama Canal 

Gold and Silver Production Frank A. Leach. 

Depreciation of Editorial. 

Destination of Transvaal Editorial. 

From the Rand, Disposal of T. Kirke Rose. 

In a Quartz Specimen, Weight of 

Losses in Melting 

Mining in Colombia F. Lynwood Garrison . 

Of the Rand, Origin of John W. Gregory. 

Pump Sluicing for H. Herman. 

Region of the Strait of Magellan 

R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. 

Solubility in Cyanide Solution 

Standard in England 

Goldfield Consolidated Company Report. 

Ditto Editorial . 

Ditto j. h. Mackenzie. 

Consolidated Report Editorial. 

Go North Editorial. 

Graft Prosecution Editorial. 

Granby Smelter Robert Keffer. 

Gravels, Testing Dredgeable William H. Radford. 

Greene Cananea Company Report. 

Greeting T. A. Rickard. 

Gregory, John W Origin of the Gold of the Rand. 



53, 



550 
217 
760 
451 
581 
29 
689 
312 
283 

625 
793 
298 
379 
412 
484 
735 
891 

826 
514 
183 



130 
232 
560 
345 
246 
217 
662 
252 

153 
411 
246 
262 
499 
513 
232 

6 
869 
256 
721 
701 

1 
662 



Page. 



Tates. 



Grinding Efficiency, Screen Analysis and 

Arthur 

Guanajuato Amalgamated Mines Company 

Cyanidation in C. V. R. Cogswell . 

Guggenheim Exploration Company. .Company Report. 



H 

Haas, H Power in Stamp-Milling.... 

Haggott, Ernest A Price of Silver .... 

Hall, E. J Reducer in Fire Assaying. . . . 

Hancock, H. Lipson Methods of Copper Mining. . . . 

Handy, R. S Milling Costs 

Hanson, Henry , Mines and Plants 

of the Pittsburg Silver Peak 

Hartley, Carney Churn-Drill Sampling. . . . 

Hastings, John B Meteor Crater. . . . 

Hastings, J. H Wind River Placers. . . . 

Haupt, Lewis M Panama Canal. . . . 

Hayes, C. Willard. .Iron Ore Supply of United States. . . . 

Heat Conductivities, Calculation of Carl Hering. . . . 

Hering, Carl Calculation of Heat Canductivities. . . . 

Herman H Pump Sluicing for Gold. . . . 

Hershey, Oscar H Black Diamond, 

Crescent City, California 

Hewett, D. Foster Vanadium Deposits in Peru. . . . 

Hierophants, Geological Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Norm. . . . 

Ditto F. L. Ransome.... 

High Explosives and Safety-Fuse Edgar Taylor. . . . 

Hills, Victor G Engineer as a Financier. . . . 

Ditto What Is an Ore?. . . . 

Historical Geology of California. .William Forstner . 853, 

Hixon, Hiram W Tailing-Wheel v. Pump. . . . 

Hodges, Jr., A. D Almarin B. Paul. . . . 

Hoepfner Zinc Process 

Hoist, Electric Counter-Balanced. . .R. Gilman Brown.... 

Holbert H. H, Mine Surveying Hints. . . . 

Hollis, I. N Low Pressure Steam Turbines. . . . 

Holt, Theo. P Cyanidation of Silver Ores. . . . 

Honduras, Cyaniding Silver Ore in. George E. Driscoll. . . . 

Hostotipaquillo District, Jalisco 

How It Strikes an American (I, II). .T. Lane Carter. .447, 

Ditto Francis Drake .... 

Ditto Edward Walker .... 

Howard, John L Portland Cement. . . . 

Hunt, Bertram Short Zinc ... . 

Ditto Uses of Aluminum .... 

Hyde, James M California State Mining Bureau.... 

Hydraulic Horse-Power 

Mine, Suches de Bolivia. . .W. E. Gordon Firebrace. . . . 



624 

77 

656 

360 



210 
214 
282 
730 
156 

657 
549 
523 
864 
580 
798 
357 
357 
252 

147 
619 
298 
379 
412 
726 
312 
582 
891 
515 
248 
817 
282 
687 



140 
481 
784 
687 
630 
718 
515 
214 
311 
287 



Inspection, State Mine Editorial. 

Institution of Mining & Metallurgy Editorial. 

International Smelting & Refining Company 

Investment in Mexico Editorial. 

Investors, Nevada Statute for Protection of 

Protection of S3, 121, 190, I 

Ditto Theo. B. Comstock. 

Ditto Editorial . 

Ditto James H. Fox . 

Ditto J. Volney Lewis. 

Ditto F. J. H. Merrill 84, ! 

Ditto F. C. Roberts 

Protection of Mexican F. J. H. Merrill. 

Iron Ore Supply of the United States 

C. Willard Hayes . 

Italian Earthquake Editorial. 

Italy, The Disaster in W. J. Adams . 



131 
299 
542 
869 
594 
493 
182 
399 
346 
47S 
614 
413 
490 

798 

64 

114 



Jalisco and Colima W. A. Scott. . . . 254 

James, Alfred Progress in Cyanidation 47, 283, 380 

Ditto Vacuum-Pump in Cyaniding. . . . 688 

Jarvis, Royal P National Bureau of Mines. .. . 113 

Jenney, Walter P The Nevada Meteorite 93 

Jewel, A ' Titular Prefixes 381 

Johnson, H. H., and Roche, H. F The Surface 

Equipment of Deep-Level Mines 575 

Jones, Martin "Weight of Stamps 748 

Jory, J. H Electrolytic Amalgamation ... . 445 

Judd, Edward K. .Anthropomorphism in Petrography. . . . 700 
Junior and Senior Location 653 

Location 144 



Kalgurli Gold Mines Company Report. 

Keffer, Robert The Granby Smelter. 



162 
256 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 






Kelantan, Dredging in 

Kemp, James !•' Spheroidal Weathering of Dikes.... 148 

Ditto What is mii Ore? 119 

Kennedy Mine, California 10 

Klondike i ;, 

Line us 

Knight Central Company Report.... 70] 

Knudsen p Pyrltii Converter Smelting 

O. Bergstron 858 

Kolar Goldfleld i m 



Lake Copper L. s. Austin. . . . 

Superior Smelting, r.,sts of L s. Austin.... 

Lanfleld, J. B Photography In Mining 

Lanyon Zinc Failure Editorial.. . . 

Law, Modified Provisions of the Mexican Mining 

C Slickensidi s. ... 

Lawson, W. R City Ghosts.... 

Lawton. N. Oliver Makushin Sulphur 

Deposits, rjnalaska 

Leach, Prank A Gold and Silver Production. . . . 

Lead Acetate In Cyan Ida t ion CM. Eye. . . . 

in (ires. Determination of 

Production in 1908 

Leadvllle, Manganlferous Sliver i Ires at 

Legislation, Bight-Hour Editorial 

In Nevada and California, Bight-Hour 

state Mining Editorial 

I..- Rol -Mining Co., Ltd 

Lewis, J. Volney Protection or Investors. . . . 

Liberty Bell. Geologic Note on 

Bell Gold Mining Company. . . . . . . < lompany Report. . . . 

1.1 in.- for Coagulation 

Lloyd. Lewis A Valued Subscriber. . . . 

Location, A Junior 

London Mining Market During 190S 

Loss of Cyanide Dana G. Putnam 

Low Pressure Steam Turbines I. N. Mollis. . . . 

Luna County, N'ew Mexico E. McCorraick. . . . 



M 

McQraw, D. F Electro-Chemical Amalgamation. . . . 

McLaughlin, R. P Oil Measures in 

the Coalinga District 

McMurtry, E. P Unwatering an Old Mine. . . . 

Mackenzie. J. II Goldfield Consolidated. . . . 

Magellan, Gold Region of the Strait of 

R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. . . . 

Magistral 

Magmatlc Segregation Editorial. . . . 

Segregation, Ores Formed by 

F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 

Magnetic Concentration Process, Murex 

Magulre. Don A Successful Tramway. . . . 

Makeever, J. L Valuation of Mining Stocks. . . . 

Makushin Sulphur Deposits, Unalaska 

N. Oliver Lawton .... 

Malay States, Mining in the E. Seaborn Marks. . . . 

Malcolmson, James W Zinc Ore from Mexico. . . . 

Manta 

Market During 1908, London Mining 

Markets. Metal Editorial.... 

Marks, E. Seaborn Mining in the Malay States.... 

Mason. F. H Rectification of 

Natural Sulphur Waters 

Ditto Researches in Diamond Making. . . . 

Maynard, George W Early Colorado Days. . . . 

Mazuma Hills Company Report. . . . 

Mechanical Elevator T. A. Brown. . . . 

Ditto E. D. F 

Ditto T. A. Rickard 

Ditto J. Wendle 

Mercur, Utah, Cyanidatlon at Leroy A. Palmer. . . . 

Merrill, F. J. H Protection of Investors. . . .84, 281. 

Ditto Protection of Mexican Investors. . . . 

Ditto Santa Eulalia Mines, Chihuahua.... 

Messer, V. V Centrifugal Pump Efficiency. . . . 

Messina Mine, Transvaal 

Metal Distribution in the Veins of Scandinavia 

Hjalmar Sjogren .... 

Markets Editorial. . . . 

Production in 1908 

Resources of the Philippines 

Metals, Bearing 

Meteor Crater John E. Hastings .... 

Meteorite, The Nevada "Walter P. Jenney. . . . 

Method of Plotting Mine-Assays. . .Edward H. Nutter. . . . 

Methods of Copper Mining H. Lipson Hancock.... 

Metres to Feet, Conversion Table Lee Fraser. . . . 

Metric Equivalents John (J. Trautwine, Jr. . . . 



;,xj 

592 

S!U 

566 
90 

217 
188 



S34 
316 
533 
559 

98 
2U9 
47S 
793 
460 
192 
281 
144 

11 
115 
893 
328 



548 
749 
513 

153 
653 
430 

451 
757 

163 
818 

259 

31 

582 

224 

11 



527 
381 
789 
360 
613 
583 
415 
514 
616 
614 
4 90 
37 
696 
107 

159 
7 
116 
22R 
418 
523 
93 
727 
730 
394 



Mexican Investors , ,,f ].'. J, H. Merrill. 

Mining Law, Modified Provisions of 

Outlook E.li 

[nvei i in Editorial. 

Zinc Ore from I v Malcolmson. 

Mexico's Mineral Output 

Miami Copper .Mine, Arizona 

Middle West. Mining Industry ■•{ the 

.Miller, Thos. X.. Cushioning Vibrations of Cam-Shafts . 
Milling Costs u. s. Handy. 

Practice. Rand Editorial . 

.Mill-Sites. Law of 

Mine Accounts for the Superintendent. . Harold Wilson. 

Assays, Method of Plotting.... Edward n. -Nutter. 

Equipment, i leslgnlng Max- J. \\ elch . 

Inspection ainl ileolo^ieal Surveys Editorial. 

Ditto Reformer. 

Inspection. State Editorial. 

Lamps, Acetylene A, Cressy Morrison. 

Report, Geologic Essentials of a 

Courtenay De Kalb. 

Signals In California 

Suchez de jBolivia Hydraulic 

W. E. Gordon Firebrace. 

Supports, Concrete in W. R. Crane. 

Surveying Hints H. H. Holbert . 

Ditto Edmund D. North. 

Unwatering an Old Problem. 

Waters 

Mineral Production of New York in 190S 

Resources of the Turkish Empire. .Leon Domlnlan . 

Resources of Utah Robert H. Bradford. 

Miner's Lien Editorial . 

Mines and Plants of Pittsburg Silver Peak 

Henry Hanson . 

Company of America Company Report. 

Mining & Metallurgical Society of America 

83, 121, 190, 225, • 

Ditto Editorial. 

Bureau, California State L. E. Aubury. 

Ditto James M. Hyde. 

Claims, Forest Service and. . .. . . .Gifford Pinchot. 

Claims on Private Land Grants Editorial. 

Costs in Mexico E. J. Bumsted. 

Deep Metal Editorial. 

Forest Reserve and Douglas "Waterman. 

In Australia, Deep Lead D. H. Browne. 

In the Malay States E. Seaborn Marks. 

In Northern China F. L. Cole. 

In Siberia F. L. Cole . 

Ditto Chester W. Purington . 

Industry of the Middle West 

Law in Nevada Anthony Elffner. 

Methods in the North (II, III, IV) 

T. A. Rickard 86, 3 

On the Mother Lode H. W. Turner. 

On Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. . . .W. A. Scott. 

Photography In J. B. Lanlield. 

Mixed Geography G. M. Colvocoresses. 

Modern Milling Plants 

Modified Provisions of Mexican Mining Law 

Moisture in Coke Editorial. 

Monel Metal 

Montreal River District. . W. H. Collins. 

Monument Mine, Vein Structure in . . . .Henry C. Carr. 
More Thought About Silver. . .Theo. F. Van Wagenen . 

Morrison, A. Cressy Acetylene Mine-Lamps. 

Mosher. D Cyanidation of Silver Ores. 

Ditto Diamond Manufacture. 

Mother Lode, Mining on the H. W. Turner. 

Mount Boppy Gold Mining Company 

Company Report . 

Mount Morgan Company Report . 

Mule-Back Transportation of Sectionalized Machinery 

F. C. Roberts and Walter W. Bradley. 

Murex Magnetic Concentration Process 

Mysore Gold Mining Company Company Report. 



J'.il:, 
lie, 
'.Mi 

869 
582 

I.",' 
316 

en 

I XII 

l.-.li 

,e 
4 92 
686 

727 

SIX 

7::,". 



N 

Name? What's in a Editorial .... 

Napoleon & Maghera Copper M. & R. Co's Tramway 

Narvaez. Francisco Progress in Cyanidation.... 

National Bureau of Mines Royal P. Jarvis. . . . 

Natural Gas 

Nature of Gold in Alluvials. . . .F. Lynwood Garrison.,.. 

Neal, "Walter Treatment of Gold and Silver 

Precipitate at Dos Estrellas 

Neill, James W Fink Process. . . . 

Ditto Smelter Smoke. . . . 

Nevada and California, Eight-Hour Legislation in 

In 1908 J- H. G. Wolf 

Meteorite Walter P. Jenney. . . . 

Mining Law Anthony Elffner. . . . 

Statute for Protection of Investors 



4 65 
163 
182 
113 
194 
760 



380 

81 

559 

12 

93 

250 

594 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Page. 

Nevada's Metallic "Wealth 152 

New Mexico, Luna County E. McCormick. . . . 328 

New Zealand, Dredging Industry in 

Arthur C. Buckland 75S 

Nicaragua, Mining in 143 

Nickel, a Canadian Monopoly Editorial. . . . 767 

Nicoll, "William "W Methods of Testing 

Electric Detonators 530 

Nipissing Mines Company Report. . . . 701 

Noblett, K Drill-Steel 114 

Nome, Alaska 20 

Norm Geological Heirophants. . . . 379 

North .Butte Company Report. . . . 701 

North, Edmund D Mine Surveying Hints. . . . 261 

North, Go Editorial.... 6 

Mining Methods in the (II, III, IV) 

T. A. Rickard 86, 382, 587 

North Star Mine, Grass Valley 345 

Nundydroog Company Company Report. . . . 526 

Nutter, Edward H. . .Method of Plotting Mine-Assays. . . . 727 



. . ."W. F. Collins. 



Occurrence of Gold in Placers. . 

Ochre 

Ohio Copper Mine 

Ohren, George A Progress in British Columbia. 

Oil Measures in the Coalinga District 

William Forstner. 

Ditto R. P. McLaughlin . 

Ooregum Gold Mining Company ... .Company Report. 

Opportunities in Asia Minor Editorial. 

Ore-Washing at Cripple Creek S. A. Worcester. 

Ore? What Is an W. J. Adams. 

Ditto V. G. Hills. 

Ditto James F. Kemp. 

Ditto Nescio . 

Ditto F. C. Smith . 

Oregon, Production of Coal in 1908 

Ores Formed by Magmatic Segregation 

F. Lynwood Garrison . 

Origin of the Gold of the Rand John W. Gregory. 

Oroville, Dredging at Douglas Waterman. 

Overflow from Dredge Pits at 

Osceola Mine, Costs at L. S. Austin . 

Outlook, The Copper M. E. Appelbaum. 



S50 

512 

474 

36 

386 
54S 
635 
805 
291 
548 
582 
419 
445 
614 
S97 

451 
662 
785 
326 
S93 



444, SS 



Pachuca, Filter Plants at C. G. Patterson. 

Paint on Concrete 

Palmarejo Mine, Chihuahua 

Palmer, Leroy A Cyanidation at Mercur, Utah . 

Panama Canal H. M. Chance. 

Ditto Editorial . 

Ditto Benj. Franklin. 

Ditto F. Lynwood Garrison . 

Ditto Cassius E. Gillette .... 

Ditto Lewis M. Haupt. . . . 

Ditto John C. Trautwine, Jr. . . . 

Patterson, C. G Filter Plants at Pachuca. . . . 

Patteson, Samuel K Cooling Towers. . . . 

Paul, Almarin B A. D. Hodges, Jr. . . . 

Pearce Process Editorial .... 

Peele, Robert Tailing-Wheel v. Pump. . . . 

Penrose, Jr., R. A. F Gold Region of the 

Strait of Magellan 

Perils of a Professor 

Peru, Vanadium Deposits in D. Foster Hewett.... 

Peruvian Mining Claims 

Peterson, Bert Obituary .... 

Pfeiffer, G. N Simple Control in Cupelling.... 

Phelps, Dodge & Company Company Report. . . . 

Philippine Islands, Mining Developments in the 

Philippines, Coal in the 

Metal Resources of the 

Phosphate Claims on Public Lands 

On Public Lands Editorial .... 

Photography in Mining J. B. Lanfield. . . . 

Pierce, Lucius S Amalgamation Methods. . . . 

Pinchot, Gifford. . .Forest Service and Mining Claims. . . . 

Pioneer Mining Company Company Report. . . . 

Pittsburg Silver Peak Company Report 

Silver Peak, Mines and Plants of. . .Henry Hanson. 
Placer Claim, Fraudulent Association 

Mining, Special Machinery for E. L. Byron. . . . 

With Quartz Claim, Conflict of 

Placers, Siberian Editorial .... 

Platinum Deposits of Colombia, Geology of 

J. Ciceron Castillo 

In Borax Glass 

Pneumelectric Coal Puncher 



42S 
359 
541 
616 
581 
99 
580 
581 



I 



580 
5S1 
428 
668 
248 
365 
248 

153 
594 
619 
311 
270 
750 
162 
175 
286 
228 
862 
836 
894 
216 
756 
162 
460 
657 
558 
128 
319 
705 

826 
418 
494 



Page. 

Poderosa Mining Co., Ltd 73 

Ditto Company Report.... 701 

Poisoning, Cyanide 562 

Pole-Line, Cost of Electric D. P. Cameron 113 

Portland Cement John L. Howard 630 

Potassium, Volumetric Estimation of 357 

Powder, Thawing of w. P. Rogers 248 

Power in Stamp-Milling Alex Chalmers 314 

Ditto H. Haas 216 

Precipitate at Dos Estrellas, Treatment of the Gold and 

Silver Walter Neal 327 

Precipitation of Gold by Carbonaceous Matter 

W. A. Caldecott 828 

Prefixes, Titular A. Jewel 381 

Prestea Block A., Ltd Company Report 833 

Prevention of Fraud in Mining W. C. Wynkoop. . . . 146 

Price of Silver Editorial. ... 4 

Ditto Ernest A. Haggott 214 

Prices in 1909, Silver Theo. F. Van Wagenen. ... 54 

Of Metals During 1908 100 

Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, Mining on 

W. A. Scott 885 

Problem Unwatering an Old Mine.... 655 

Production, Gold and Silver Frank A. Leach 9 

In 1908, Metal 116 

Of Coal in Oregon in 1908 897 

Of Mexico, Metallic 154 

Of Nevada, Metallic 152 

Professor, Perils of a 594 

Progress in Alaska Alfred H. Brooks 193 

In British Columbia George A. Ohren 3 6 

In Cyanidation Alfred James 47, 283, 3 80 

Ditto Francisco Narvaez.... 182 

Prosecution, Graft Editorial. . . . 869 

Prospector, Chances for the H. H. Edgerton, Jr. . . . 479 

Protection of Investors 83, 121, 190, 225, 493 

Ditto Theo. B. Comstock 182 

Ditto Editorial 399 

Ditto James H. Fox 346 

Ditto J. Volney Lewis. . . . 478 

Ditto F. J. H. Merrill 84, 281, 614 

Ditto F, C. Roberts 413 

Of Investors, Nevada Statute for 594 

Of Mexican Investors F. J. H. Merrill. . . . 490 

Protective Alkali 224 

Pump Sluicing for Gold H. Herman. . . . 252 

Pump v. Tailing-Wheel R. Gilman Brown. . . . 478 

Ditto Hiram W. Hixon 515 

Ditto Robert Peele 248 

Pumps, and Pumping Engines, Cornish (I, II) 

Henry F. Collins 289, 317 

Purifying Smelter Smoke 689 

Purington, Chester W Mining in Siberia. . . . 251 

Putnam, Dana G Loss of Cyanide. ... 115 

Pyrometer Stand, Adjustable L. W. Bahney. . . . 629 



Q 



Quartz Claim, Conflict of Placer With. 



E 

Radford, William H Testing Dredgeable Gravels. 

Radio-Activity 

Radium 

Railroad Rates Editorial . 

Ralston, W. C Mr. Ralston and the Institute. 

Rand, Disposal of Gold from the T. Kirke Rose. 

Rand Metallurgical Practice 

Rand Milling Practice Editorial. 

Ditto G. A. Denny . 

Ransome, F. D Geological Hierophants. 

Ray Copper District, Arizona. . .William H. Truesdell. 

Read, Thomas T Coal Mining in China. 

Real Eldorado F. Lynwood Garrison . 

Rectification of Natural Sulphur Waters. . . F. H. Mason . 

Reducer in Fire-Assaying E. J. Hall. 

Refining of Gold, Electrolytic T. Kirke Rose . 

Reformer. . . .Mine Inspection and Geological Surveys. 

Refrigeration with Ethyl Chloride 

Regulating Copper Production Editorial. 

Report on Goldfield Consolidated Company. .Editorial. 

Rescue-Work in Mines . ; 

Re-Setting Tappets J. E. Clark . 

Revival of Gold Dredging Editorial. 

Rice, E. R Agreement of Assays . 

Rice, George S Transportation and Coal Mining. 

Rickard, Forbes Colorado in 1908, 

Rickard, T. A Alaska and the Yukon . 

Ditto Greetiifg. 

Ditto Mechanical Elevator . 

Ditto. .Mining Methods in the North (11,111, IV).. 86, 

Ditto Salt Water in Stamp-Mills. 

Ditto The Yukon Ditch. 

Rights of Shareholders Editorial. 



. . 721 

. . 727 

.. 79 

.. 334 

.. 37S 

. . 560 

. . 241 

.. 704 

.. 8S4 

.. 412 

.. 794 

.. 44 

. . 29 

.. 527 

. . 282 

.. 890 

.. 783 

.. 525 

. . 641 

.. 232 

.. 349 

.. 74S 

.. 65 

. . 34S 

.. 7S3 

. . 26 

.. 15 
1 

. . 415 
82, 587 

.. S60 

7, US 

. . 499 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Rio Plata MJnlng Company Company Re t . ... 626 

Rio Tinto Company c , , 

Roberta, P. C, and Bradley, Walter \V... ....'. 

Transportation of Sectlonallzed U ::.\ 

Roberts, F. C r of Investors IIS 

Robinson Company Report 

M. P., and Johns.. n. II. H xii.- Surface 

Equipment of I p-Lovel Mines 

Rock Determinations \_ 'p^ t v .. :, is 

Rocker, A Douglas Waterman 298 

Rogers, W. P Thawing Powder 2 is 

Rogue River Valley, I tregon. Coal In 

Roosevelt. Tl lore i .,,,■ i 

f Kirk,- Disposal ,,f Gold fi thi i I 

l """ Blectrol tic B Id 

I ;..ss. H. w Sintering at i i ....... si'. 

Round Mountain Company Re t vol 

Rutllc Deposits of Virginia s:ir, 

Ryan. W. T Systems of Charging for 

Electrical Energy gg | 



s 



Safety-Fuse, High Explosive: ind Edgar Taylor. .. 

Salt Deposits 

Water In Stamp-Mills T. A. Rlckard. 

Salt Lake, Smelting Conditions at 

Courtenay De Kalb.... 

Salting, A Case of H. Vincent Wallace 

Sampling, Churn-Drill Carney Hartley. . . . 

Ditto w. E. The 

San Rafael Mill. Pachuca 

Santa Eulalla Mines. Chihuahua F. .1. II. Merrill,... 

Santa Rita Copper Mines Editorial. . . . 

Scandinavia, Metal Distribution in the Veins of 

Hjalmar Sjogren 

-■■ relber, P Designing Mine Equipment...: 

Seott. W. A Jalisco and Colima 

Ditto. . .Mining on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. . . . 

Screen Analysis and Grinding Efficiency 

Arthur Yates. . . . 

Screening in Utah Copper Co.'s Mill 

Sectlonallzed Machinery, Mule-Back Transportation of.. 

V. C. Roberts and Walter W. Bradley. . . . 

Segregation, Magmatic Editorial. . . . 

Self-Hardening Steels 

Settlement of Slime, Theory of 

Harrison Everett Ashley . . . . 

Shaft Sinking at Tombstone. Wet. . .Elton W. Walker. . . . 

Shaking Plates 

Shareholders, Rights of Editorial. . . . 

Shaw, Edmund Uses of Aluminum 

Shockley, William H Simplified Spelling. . . . 

Short Zinc P. L. Bosqui. . . . 

Ditto R. Stuart Browne . . . . 

Ditto I Bertram Hunt 

Ditto H. T. Willis 

'Shoveling in* Method of Mining 

Shweli Dredging Company Report.... 

Siberia, Mining in F. L. Cole. . . . 

Ditto Chester w. Purington. . . . 

Siberian Placers Editorial.... 

Railway, Trans 

Silicates, Classification of. . 

Silver Coating of Amalgamating Plates 

W. A. Caldecott 

Detection of 

Islet Vein 

King Coalition Mines Company 

Mine, Broken Hill E. C. Andrews. . . . 

More Thought About Theo. F. Van Wagenen. . . . 

Ore in Honduras, Cyaniding. . . .George E. Driscoll. . . . 

Ores, Cyanidation of Theo. P. Holt. . . . 

Ditto D. Mosher. . . . 

Ores, Cyanidation of Parral H. T. Willis. .. . 

Peak, Mines and Plants of Pittsburg 

Henry Hanson. . . , 

Price of Editorial 

Ditto Ernest A. Haggott. . . . 

Prices in 1909 Theo. F. Van Wagenen 

Production, Gold and Frank A. Leach 

Simple Control in Cupelling G. N. Pfeiffer. . . . 

Simplified Spelling William H. Shockley. . . . 

Sinking a Wet Shaft at Tombstone... Elton W. Walker. . . . 
Sintering at Cerro de Pasco 

Ditto H. W. Ross 

Sixteen to One Mine Du Ray Smith. . . . 

Sjogren, Hjalmar Metal Distribution in 

the Veins of Scandinavia 

Skidoo Mines Company Company Report. . . . 

Slickensides Andrew C. Lawson.... 

Sluicing for Gold, Pump H. Herman. . . . 

Small Cyanide Plants in Colombia. . .F. Pereira Gamba. . . . 
Smelter Competition Editorial .... 

Fume L. F. Bassett . . . 



521 

Mill 

23 

688 
549 
358 
7S 
37 
673 

159 
664 

j:, i 
885 

624 
530 

75) 

430 
690 

831 
284 
112 
499 
656 
180 
478 
718 
7 is 
656 
19 
866 
654 
J 51 
705 
562 



653 
729 
542 
158 
Sol 
3S8 
546 
691 
4SS 

657 

4 

214 

51 

9 

750 

180 

284 

195 

819 

720 

159 
526 
247 
252 
850 
4 
■VS1 



■ Iranby i: , r | Keller 

Editorial. . . 

Ditto lames \V. .Will... 

Smok.-. Purifying 

Smelting Conditions at Sail Lake. .Courtenay De Kalb. . . 

Costs of Lake Superior L. S. Austin . . . 

Smith, Du Ray Sixteen to On. 

Smith. George Otis Co-. Iperatl 

Topographic Surveys 

Smith. Howard D Failures In Spuds... 

Smoke, smelter lames w. Nelll. . . 

south Australian Mining in 1908 

Kalgurll Gold Mines Company Repoi I 

Spi cial Machinery for Placet Mining E. L. Bj 

Specific Gravity of C titrate.. Edgar B. Vi sdel . . . 

Spelling, Simplified William n. si kli j 

Spelter Production for 1908 

Spheroidal Weathering of Dikes ...Ji a p. Kemp... 

"lit" I. R. Vlllars. . . 

Spuds, Failures in Howard D. Smith . . . 

Stamp Duty, High 

.Milling, Power in \l,s Chalmers. .. 

Ditto H. Haas. . . 

Stamps, Weight of Martin Jones. . . 

Standard Consolidated \ .Company Report . . . 

Starr, George W Protection of Investors. . . 

State Mine Inspection Editorial. . . 

Mining Bureau, California James M. Hyde... 

Mining Legislation Editorial. . . 

Slaver. W. H Unwatering an Old Mine. . . 

Steam-Shovel in the Amur Region 

Turbines. Low Pressure ■ I. N. Hollis. . . 

Steel, A. A Crucible Assays . . . 

Steel Prices Editorial. . . 

Refining, Electric 

Steels, Self-Hardening 

Stewart, William Morris Editorial... 

Ditto Theo. F. Van Wagenen. . . 

Stovall, Dennis H.. Blasting and Preparing the Shots... 

Stratton's Independence Company Report. . . 

Stream Tin 

Structure in Limestone and Lava, Symmetric 

R. H. Chapman . . . 

Suchez de Bolivia Hydraulic Mine 

W. E. Gordon Firebrace . . . 

Sulphur Deposits at Makushin, Unalaska 

N. Oliver Law ton. . . 

In Wyoming 

Waters, Rectification of Natural F. H. Mason. . . 

Surface Equipment of Deep-Level Mines 

H. H. Johnson and H. F. Roche. . . 

Surveying Hints, Mine Edmund D. North. . . 

Switch, Mine-Track R. H. Toll. . . 

Symmetric Structure in Limestone and Lava 

R. H. Chapman . . . 

Systems of Charging for Electrical Energy 

W. T. Ryan . . . 



Pagi 

. . 2.".; 

. . 673 

. . si 

. 698 



s:.,, 
72s 
si 
sr,s 
262 
128 
661 
ISO 



Tailing-Wheel v. Pump R. Gilman Brown. 

Ditto Hiram W. Hixon. 

Ditto Robert Peele. 

Tajo Mine, Sinaloa 

Tantalum 

Ditto 

Tappets, Re-Setting J. E. Clark. 

Tariff on Oil Editorial. 

Tartuffe in Colorado Editorial. 

Taxation of Mining Property H. W. Turner. 

Taylor. Edgar High Explosives and Safety-Fuse. 

Testing Dredgeable Gravels. ., . .William H Radford. 

Thawing Powder W. P. Rogers. 

Theory of the Settlement of Slime 

Harrison Everett Ashley. 

Thermit Welding Douglas Waterman . 

Thomas, F. F Ely, Nevada. 

Thorne, W. E Churn-Drill Sampling. 

Three-Legged Trestle Matt. W. Alderson. 

Tide Land as Public Lands 

Tin, Electrolytic Refining of 

Tin in Nigeria 

Titanium, Test for 

Titular Prefixes A. Jewel. 

Toll, R. H Mine-Track Switch. 

Tombstone, Sinking a Wet Shaft at. ..Elton W. Walker. 

Tonopah Company Report. 

Towers, Cooling Samuel K. Patteson . 

Tramway, A Successful Don Maguire . 

Transportation and Coal Mining Editorial. 

Ditto George S. Rice . 

And the Far East Editorial. 

Of Sectionalized Machinery, Mule-Back 

F. C. Roberts and Walter W. Bradley. 

facilities in Alaska and the Yukon . .W. M. Brewer. . 



I 13 
I 13 

7:s 
111 
::i l 
216 

7IS 
SIM. 

s:, 
131 
214 

98 
720 
731 
893 
819 
298 
223 
690 
599 
719 
699 
595 
144 

622 

2S7 
259 



261 
393 



622 
694 



478 
515 
24S 
373 
450 
512 
748 
837 
267 
46 
7 2H 



831 
721 
114 
358 
3112 
79 
62S 
348 
493 
381 
393 
284 



668 
163 
640 
7S3 
674 

751 
485 



MIXING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Page. 

Transvaal Gold, Destination of Editorial. . . - tti 

Traphagen. F. W. .Dry Chiorination of Sulphide Ores. ... ' __ 

Trautwine, Jr., John C Panama Canal. . . . 5S1 

Ditto Metric Equivalents. . . . £0 

Travel in Colombia Courtenay De Kalb. ... '.' 

-11. W. W Cripple Creek in 1908 41 

Treatment of tbe Gold and Silver Precipitate at Dos Es- 

trellas Walter Xeal 327 

Trestle 7 iree-Legged Matt. W. Alderson 

Traesdell. "William H — Ray Copper District, Arizona JJM 

Tungsten, Determination of 

From Silica, Separation of -5 2V> 



Ore 



Tunnel Driving 1 , Record Progress 

Turkish Empire, Mineral Resources of the 

Leon Dominian 

Turner, H. W Mining on the Mother Lode 

Ditto Taxation of Mining Property. . . . 

ere, Blast-Furnace L. S. Austin 

Tyf-. A. T Rock Determinations. . . . 



u 



Undemonstrated Process Editorial. 

United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Company. 

Company Report . 

United Zinc Company Report. 

Unwatering an Old Mine Lucien Eaton. 

Ditto E. P. McMurtry. 

Ditto Problem. 

Ditto W. H. Staver. 

Uses of Aluminum J. T. W. Echevani. 

Ditto Bertram Hunt. 

Ditto Edmund Shaw. 

Utah Copper Company Report . 

Copper Company's Mill. Screening in 

Copper Mine Courtenay De Kalb . 

Mineral Resources of Robert H. Bradford. 

Utah's Coal Output in 1908 



Vacuum Plant, Elmore 

Pump in tbe Cyanidation of Sand. . .W. A. Caldecott. 

Pump in Cyaniding Alfred James. 

Valuation of Coal Land Editorial. 

Of Mining Stocks J. L Makeever. 

Vanadium and Iron. Estimation of 

Deposits in Peru D. Foster He wen. 

Van Osdel, Edgar B.. Specific Gravity of Concentrate. 
Van Wagenen, Theo. F...More Thought About Silver. 

Ditto Silver Prices in 1909. 

Ditto..." William Morris Stewart. 

rueture in the Monument Mine. -Henry C. Carr. 

Veins of Scandinavia. Metal Distribution in 

Hjalmar Sjogren. 

Vibrations of Cam-Shafts. Cushioning. .Thos. X. Miller. 

Victoria, Dredging in 

Village Deep Company Report. 

Villars. J. R Spheroidal Weathering of Dikes. 

Virginia, Rutile Deposits of 

Vogelstruis Consolidated Deep Company Report. 

Vulcan Steam Shovel Co.'s Dredge E. L Byron . 



17! 



- 
46 

' 



673 

833 

866 

74 

74<- 

65a 

"_ 

424 

515 

656 

763 

530 

516 

: ■- 

B9S 



391 
316 
688 
766 
818 
423 
619 
667 
851 
5! 



159 
180 
859 
866 
443 
896 
635 
128 



w 



Page. 



Waihi Gold Mining Co.. Ltd Company Report. 

Walker, Edward Flotation Process Litigation. 

Ditto How It Strikes an American. 

Walker, Elton W. .Sinking a "Wet Shaft at Tombstone. 

Wallace, H. Vincent A Case of Salting. 

Washoe Decision Editorial. . . .166, 

Smelter-Smoke Litigation 210, 

Waterman, Douglas Ditches . . 

Ditto Dredging at Oroville. . 

Ditto Forest Reserve and Mining. . 

Ditto A Rocker. . 

Ditto Thermit Welding. . 

Ways Pocket Smelter 

Vei gl ' of Stamps Martin Jones. . 

"Welch, Mas: J Designing Mine Equipment. . 

Welding, Thermit Douglas "Waterman.. . 

Wendle, J Mechanical Elevator . . 

What Is an Ore? W. J. Adams. . 

Ditto V. G. Hills.. 

Ditto James F. Kemp . . 

Ditto Xescio . . 

Ditto F. C. Smith . . 

"What's in a Name Editorial. . 

Willemite in Xew Mexico 

Willis. H. T Cyanidation of Parral Silver Ores. . 

Ditto Short Zinc . . 

Wilson, Harold Mine Accounts 

for the Superintendent 

Wind River Placers J. H Hastings. . 

Winston, W. B. . .Arteaga District. Chihuahua, Mexico. . 

Witwatersrand Deep Company Report . . 

Wolf, J. H. G Xevada in 1908 . . 

"Worcester, S. A Ore "Washing at Cripple Creek. . 

Worrell, S. H Chemistry of the 

Bromo-Cyanogen Process 

Wright. Lewis T Eight-Hour Legislation 

Ditto The Engineer as a Financier 

Wynkoop, W. C Prevention of Fraud in Mining 

"Wyoming. Sulphur in 



687 
- 

6SS 
200 

310 
352 
:■' 
61 
283 
724 
661. 
74- 

724 
514 

548 

582 

41S 
445 
614 
465 
426 
488 
656 

686 
S64 
829 
701 
12 
291 

356 
613 

247 

145 
665 



Yates, Arthur Screen Analysis and 

Grinding Efficiency 624 

Yerington Copper District; Xevada 665 

Yukon, Alaska and the T. A. Rickard. ... 15 

Ditch T. A. Rickard 117. 14 S 

Gold Company Report.... 29) 

Ditto Editorial 2SS 



Zinc Dust 411 

Failure, Lanyon Editorial.... 566 

For Gold Precipitation 246. 

Lead Concentrating Plant. A New 793 

Ore from Mexico James W. Malcolmson. . . . 5S2 

Short F. L. Bosqui 47S 

Ditto P.. Stuart Browne. . . . 718 

Ditto Bertram Hunt.... 71S 

Ditto H. T. Willis 656 



YEARLY REVIEW NUMBER-PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 




Whole No. 2528. V0 V2£U? c 1 vm SAN FRANCISCO. SATURDAY. JANUARY 2. IW. "S ^* 5 fS'ctt! 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. PAGE 90. 



professiosa: DIRECTORY. PACES 22-40. 



BUYERS- DIRECTORY. PACE SS. 




"ASK THE MAN, HE KNOWS." 



■■---- ^---- 



■^— 



WE DESIGN, EQUIP AND ERECT " , 4sMfF 




COMPLETE PLANTS 

OF ALL KINDS 

AND CAN FURNISH ALL 

NECESSARY MATERIAL 

MORE QUICKLY THAN 

ANYONE ELSE 

BECAUSE WE 

HAVE IT IN STOCK 



POWER PLANTS 
ELECTRIC PLANTS 
IRRIGATION PLANTS 
HOISTING PLANTS 
MILLING PLANTS 



SEND FOR OUR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 
STOCK SHEET TO-DAY. TO 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co. 



DENVER, COLORADO 




%W "ASK THE MAN, HE KNOWS. 










WJH-. 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 






WHY 



THE TREMAIN STEAMS STAMP MILL 



IS THE 
BEST MILL FOR SMALL MINES 



BECAUSE 



It requires no engine, shafting, pulleys, belting, gears, cams, or tappets. 

Not being dependent upon cams for raising, or gravity in dropping, the speed and capacity per 
stamp are more- than double. 

Capacity varies from eight to sixteen tons per twenty-four hours, depending upon character of ma- 
terial crushed and fineness of screen. 

Has no superior as an amalgamator and possesses large screening capacity. 

On account of large screen area produces small amount of slimes. 

Uses the steam expansively and is very economical in fuel. 

Owing to compact construction can be easily carried on muleback over mountainous roads. 

Can be erected in less time than any other mill and is entirely self-contained, requiring no frame 
work other than a mortar block. 

Is the ideal prospector's mill, and its use will enable the quartz miner to provide a complete milling 
outfit for development or permanent work at one-half the amount required for any other ore milling 
plant of equal capacity. It may be operated under a simple shed or entirely independent of any building. 

Additional ' capacity can be quickly and economically added. 

SKILLED MECHANICS NOT REQUIRED 

80 of These Mills in Successful Operation in South Africa by Native Labor. 



WRITE FOR OUR BULLETIN NO. 1408, ADDRESSING 

General Offices, Milwaukee, Wis. or Any of Our District Offices. 



I'll III. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




Chalmers & Williams 



STAMP BATTERIES 



The mortars, especially designed, rest on solid concrete, the 
most enduring construction for heavy stamp batteries. We 
also build mortars designed to rest on heavy cast iron blocks. 
We use Chrome steel boss heads, cams and tappets. 

STAMP MILL REPAIRS; CAMS, TAPPETS, SHOES, DIES, Etc. 
WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

115 ADAMS STREET, CHICAGO 

New York Office: 120 Liberty St. Salt Lake Office: 201 Dooly Block. 

San Francisco Agents : Hewitt Machinery Co. 



EFFICIENT- RELIABLE-ECONOMICAL 






For Hydraulic-Mining and Water-Supply-Lines 

Easy to transport and install. Connections with our forged steel flanges or forged steel 
bolted joints are quickly made and are absolutely tight. 



New Eighty Page Catalog sent on request. 
Boston Bdg, Denver AlRCriCan Sp^l PipC WOflCS 



Office and Works : Chicago 




CYCLONE DIAMONDITE CORE DRILLS 

GIVE SURE RESULTS 

I lROSPECT work of any character is handled with 

•*- Cyclone Drills at the Minimum of Cost. 

Our Combination Machines, handling core and churn 
tools, enable the prospector to meet any condition and get any 
desired result with the same machine, using churn tools down to 
the mineral, then take out solid sections of the rock without 
Diamonds. These machines are virtually two machines in one. 
Our BIG NEW CATALOGS will be sent on request, covering 
core, cable, hollow rod and rotary drills. 

THE CYCLONE DRILL COMPANY, 

ORRVILLE, OHIO. 




GOLD DREDGE CABLES 

FOR 

Electrical Power Transmission 

We have manufactured a variety of Steel Armored Dredge Cables for a number of years. Our "Safety" 
Insulated Cables in the Oroville field have given as much as four years continuous service under the severest 
conditions, attesting the superiority of their construction. 

We will be pleased to give any dredge manager the benefit of our experience and invite correspondence. 

PACIFIC COAST DEPARTMENT 

THE SAFETY INSULATED WIRE AND CABLE CO. 

RALPH L>. PHELPS. Manager 
804-5 BALBOA. BLDG. SAN FRANCISCO 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



wide movements of thought receive interpretation 
varying with latitude, but the meaning is the same. 
Mankind is striving to make the most of its heritage 
and to turn each possibility into golden opportunity. 
The individual desire is the national hope, whether 
in Venezuela or Germany, in Japan or Great Britain. 
The units refuse to be ciphers; the evolution of the 
race demands the adjustment to a new environment 
created by an extraordinary industrial development. 
To this dispensation the engineer belongs, in this 
drama he plays a leading part. It is for him to be 
an interpreter, not a supernumerary ; to be an actor, 
not merely a scene-shifter; to prove that the recog- 
nition of fact does not forbid a noble faith ; that he 
can industrialize his life without commercializing his 
soul. 

| *T. A. RlCKABD. 

January 1, 1909. 



^ AN FEANCISCO, but lately lifting an ashen face 
*^ from amid the ruins of a great disaster, gives 
the hand of sympathy to sufferers from the earth- 
quake that has overwhelmed Calabria and Sicily. 



REVIVAL of interest in West African gold min- 
ing has followed from favorable reports made 
by Mr. W. Broadbridge and confirmed by Mr. J. H. 
Curie, who has recently returned from the Gold 
Coast. In consequence of these reports the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields of South Africa has agreed 
to provide capital for three of the companies in 
that region. 

COR THE PUBLICATION of this issue there are 
* needed 110 reams of paper, weighing alto- 
gether not less than 5 tons. This consumption of 
wood pulp and rag is required to make the 11,000 
copies that will be promptly distributed to the four 
quarters of the earth, for we have subscribers on the 
Arctic tundra and in the tropical jungle, at the Uni- 
versity of Tientsin and at Columbia University, in 
Tierra del Fuego and in London. 



»TpHE PRESIDENT used a club to hit a carrion 
* fly when he devoted a message to Congress to 
the denunciation of The World and its slanders. In 
such matters the impetuosity of Mr. Roosevelt car- 
ries him beyond the necessities of the ease. But in 
denouncing the irresponsible periodicals that have 
made a byword of the American newspapers, he is 
doing a service. In time the public will recognize 
the mistake of surrendering their intelligence every 
morning to the ignorant and vicious scribblers of a 
debased form of ephemeral literature. 



13RITISH mining companies have a plucky way 
*-* of preferring re-construction to liquidation. 
When the mine shows signs of exhaustion the man- 
agement begins scouting for a new mine on which 
to apply its unexpended capital and its unabated 
energy. Thus the Oroya Brownhill Company, own- 
ing one of the Kalgoorlie bonanzas, has sent en- 
gineers all over creation in the search for an attrac- 
tive mining undertaking and has selected the La 
Leonesa mine in the highlands of Nicaragua. This 



gold mine was first examined by Mr. Edmond N. 
Skinner and has now been recommended after in- 
spection by Mr. C. S. Herzig. The profit assured 
from ore available is said to exceed the price for 
which the property is optioned. We are glad to 
see West Australian companies purchasing mines in 
the Americas. 



REPORTERS, like kings, occasionally bestow the 
accolade of knighthood with impartiality, if 
not recklessness. Thus The Spectator, of London, re- 
cently spoke of Sir Winston Churchill, and even more 
recently The Evening Post, of New York, dubbed Mr. 
Moreton Frewen with a prefix that does not belong 
to him, although Sir Moreton seemed not unnatural, 
seeing that the Western press for years has so, incor- 
rectly, entitled him. Neither Mr. Frewen nor Mr. 
Churchill is either knight or baronet, although both 
are clever men, well worthy to adorn the chivalry of 
the modern world. 



/** OAL, like iron, is so basal an element of indus- 
^^ trial development that any facts concerning the 
distribution of deposits of this mineral fuel are im- 
portant. On another page Mr. Thomas T. Read, pro- 
fessor of mining in the University of Tientsin, gives 
the latest information regarding the known coal- 
bearing areas of China. Should the Celestial King- 
dom wake up to modern progress and utilize its in- 
dustrial possibilities, then these coalfields will be- 
come a decisive element of commercial growth and 
profoundly affect industrial conditions on the west- 
ern coast of America. 



WE CAN IMAGINE how soothing Mr. Car- 
negie's Scotch stories must have been to the 
Committee of Ways and Means when examining the 
spelling reformer on the subject of the price of steel 
rails. The Chairman might ask him what it cost to 
make steel and Mr. Carnegie would be reminded of 
a canny chield whom he met on the golf links at 
Skibo. The laird of the last mentioned castle would 
be smiling smugly at his own humor while the com- 
mittee on the tariff would be yearning to throw a 
chunk of unprotected iron at the self-satisfied old 
Scotchman's head. He wrote magazine articles and 
then declined to testify on the facts. 



ANYTHING coming from the pen of Mr. James 
Douglas is sure to be interesting, and when he 
tells us of the factors controlling the copper mining 
industry he will hold the reader's closest attention. 
Among other important matters he refers to the 
Producers' Committee, which is to be re-organized 
and come into active existence late in January or 
early in February. Incidentally, he explains the 
kind of combination this is to be — not in restraint of 
trade, but in establishment of sound business on a 
basis satisfactory to a maximum number. We are 
reminded of the Smelter Clearing House established 
at Denver about 15 years ago. Mr. Franklin Guiter- 
man was the efficient secretary, and though a loose 
organization it served to distribute various classes of 
ores where they were needed, to the better attain- 
ment of an economical mixture at all the smelters. 



January J. 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



3 



The Producers' Committee will do a similar service 
for the copper mining companies, keeping them in- 
formed of the trade conditions and of the varying 
demand for the metal, so that the marketing of cop- 
per may be [>nt on a safe and sane foundation. 



I ITIGATION over patents is always regrettable 
■— < because it impedes the development 6f pro- 
cesses by throwing doubl upon the validity of the 

license under which a royalty is collected or ex- 
clusive privilege claimed. We note with pleasure 
that Mr. Edward Walker, our London correspondent, 
announces the conclusion of one stage, at least, in 
the legal controversy over the patents controlling the 
use of oil in the concentration of ores: As metal- 
lurgists well known to us are interested in both 
sides to this litigation we can take no pleasure in 
the victory of either, unless it leads to a compromise 
or a combination helpful to all concerned. 



F^VIRING the year 1908 ample evidence has been 
*-' given of the gullibility of the greedy. Opera 
bouffe performances on the Stock Exchange, on the 
Curb, in the Press, testify to the attractiveness of 
tin' old lures and to the effectiveness of the old lies. 
Lawson. Goodwin, and Hawthorne have been the 
stars in the financial vaudeville of 1908. One of 
them was by profession an actor and made the most 
of the notoriety of the stage to entice pla.v-goers 
into Nevada schemes for turning water into golden 
wine ; another of these was by way of being a littera- 
teur and lent a facile pen to ineritricious descrip- 
tions of mines that were to make men rich over 
night ; the third of the trio needs no description, he 
has been adequately exposed by his own impudent 
confession. In the advertisement of their schemes 
these spoofers have been aided by an irresponsible 
press that preaches morality weakly on one page and 
offers gold bricks luridly on another page. An old 
story truly, and the iteration of it is wearisome. 



A REVIEW of progress in cyanidation, written 
■*» by Mr. Alfred James, will be welcomed as the 
utterance of one who knows the details at first hand 
throughout the world, who is frankly committed to 
the introduction of patented devices, but who is 
broad enough to admit the merits of other s.ystems 
and to bestow deserved compliments upon compet- 
itors. It is a pleasure to accord opportunity of 
speech through our columns to a man who gives 
freely from his own store of knowledge for the benefit 
of others. It is also pleasing to observe the growth 
of liberalizing tendencies in the metallurgical art. On 
this side of the Atlantic is Mr. James Douglas stren- 
uously insisting upon the open door and free ex- 
change of data among the smelters ; from England 
comes the plea of Mr. Alfred James for co-operation 
among cyanide specialists, to the end that waste of 
effort may be obviated, so that many may not be 
found groping where the right road has been discov- 
ered. On the technical side, the most significant 
statements made by Mr. James refer to the abandon- 
ment of sand-leaching and the tendency to cease 
amalgamation, relying upon extraction from all- 
slimed ores. The prediction of 2000-pound stamps 



reveals the tendency to reduction of costs through 
attention to mechanical details. This has long been 
the weaker end of gold-milling. Important also is 
his concession of the supremacy of the plain table as 
a concentrator for gold-bearing slime. It seems prob- 
able that tin- perfection of this method may receive 
increasing attention as a means for improving con- 
centration of slime from all kinds of ore. 



CROM NEVADA we have heard that Mr. Charles 
* M. Schwab made some violent remarks con- 
cerning mining engineers who advised him to buy 
mines that failed to prove profitable. That was a 
year ago. He ought to have known better. "Like 
master, like man." We read that when examined 
by the Ways and Means Committee, now investigating 
the tariff, he was shown a letter written by himself 
nine years ago in which he advised Mr. II. C. Prick 
that the Carnegie Steel Company could make steel 
rails for $12 per ton in defiance of foreign competi- 
tion. Mr. Schwab, whom the daily press label a 
magnate, explained that he wrote that letter when 
youthful and sanguine. He said: " I wrote it at Mr. 
Prick's request, when he was preparing to sell out, 
and I wrote it entirely from the point of view of the 
manufacturing department." There were other 
items of cost that he had omitted, and these now, 
with the tariff endangered, he would be glad to add 
to the $12. And this is the man who fumed and 
fussed when some of his supposed expert miners, 
themselves interested in the mining deals, were un- 
fortunate enough to give him reports that proved 
too rosy in tint for the dry air of the desert. 



A MONG the many useful actions of Mr. Charles 
■*»■ E. Hughes, the Governor of New York, has been 
his appointment of committees to investigate alleged 
abuses in the administration of public organizations, 
such as banks and tramway companies. Even more 
timely has been the recent appointment of a commit- 
tee of experienced men to examine into the methods 
of the Stock Exchange. Our readers will remember 
that a few months ago the brokerage firm of A. O. 
Brown & Co. failed dishonorably, and the members 
of the firm lost the privileges of the Exchange, be- 
cause they created fictitious evidence of demoraliza- 
tion by selling blocks of shares having a value far 
exceeding their financial resources. They were ex- 
pelled for trading when insolvent, but the authori- 
ties of the Exchange failed to make any comment 
on the case as a flagrant example of practices sup- 
posed to be frequent among brokers, namely 'wash' 
sales: an appearance of abnormal activity on the 
stock market is created by giving simultaneous 
orders for the buying and selling of shares of the 
same description in big amounts but nearly equal, 
so that on balance no large sum of money is involved. 
The semblance of excited business inveigles the out- 
side public to come and buy, at rising quotations. 
By sales between brokers, by 'matched orders,' the 
transactions of the Stock Exchange are used as a 
lure to entice those who buy on a "bull movement" 
and to intimidate those — the same kind of simple- 
tons — who always sell on a "bear raid." During 



4 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



the Morse trial there was plenty of testimony in re- 
gard to such dealings in lee stock and it was re- 
corded that a syndicate of millionaires was formed 
in 1901 to create an artificial market for the Steel 
shares. There is ample ground for suspecting that 
the Stock Exchange is used by some of its members 
for chicanery of a base sort and that the National 
Bourse is sometimes only a casino where crooked 
games are played. Unfortunately, the Exchange 
plays a prominent part in the social organism of 
America and the least that we can ask is that it per- 
form its necessary functions honestly, even honor- 
ably. 

Price of Silver. 



Silver mining has fallen upon evil days ; the proph- 
ets and reformers find corresponding opportunity for 
the exercise of their respective talents. Mr. Theo- 
dore F. Van Wagenen, in this issue, ventures upon 
the dangerous function of forecast, promising a com- 
fortable average price for the metal during 1909. No 
one is better equipped with knowledge on this diffi- 
cult subject than Mr. Van Wagenen. Therefore it 
is interesting to observe that he is not befuddled by 
monetary theories, does not insist upon conspiracy 
among the Western nations to make the Oriental 
'sink of silver' insatiably swallow more, nor does he 
propose to undo the work that cost Sefior Jose V. 
Limantour, the brilliant financial minister of Mexico, 
so many years of patient labor in his endeavor to 
give to Mexican currency the stability needful in a 
modern medium of exchange. He shows where the 
normal output of silver will be consumed, and on the 
simple principle of supply and demand, without arti- 
ficial restrictions or subventions, deduces a price suf- 
ficiently high to sustain the existing producers at 
least. We hear nothing from Mr. Van Wagenen of a 
proposed change in the monetary standards of the 
East. China and India have their silver exchanges 
as we have ours for dealing in cotton and grain, and 
the flow and ebb of the great tide of brokerage is not 
unaccompanied by noises that sweep around the 
world. Just now the 'bears' have it their own way, 
but to think they wish to wipe out the trade on which 
they subsist is to misinterpret the Orient. The com- 
mon people of the East know nothing of all this, and 
care nothing. They have their immemorial customs, 
i and have not thought to question whether they be 
good or bad. Moreover, the Chinese tael is not a 
national coin; the Imperial Government does not 
monopolize the money-issuing function of sover- 
eignty. Each Province strikes its own coin, so that 
no uniformity of weight or fineness exists. Each 
Province distrusts the others ; all unite in distrust of 
the central Government ; and the council of foreign 
powers profoundly distrusts the Chinese political 
machinery in its entirety. It must be observed that 
China could not, if she would, undertake a monetary 
reform without the consent and direction of the 
Western nations. It is brutal but true — the West 
holds China in its grip, as a creature to absorb its 
surplus products. 

Constant rumors of declining demand from India 



are not borne out by the facts. During 1908 the 
group of Indian principalities embraced under Brit- 
ish rule imported a quantity of silver 4.3 per cent in 
excess of that absorbed in the previous year. The 
value of these importations, measured by Western 
standards, shrank 16.7 per cent, but it seems quite 
certain that the actual consumer was sweetly uncon- 
scious of this circumstance when he added the coin 
to his glittering hoard. The silver miner should bear 
in mind that he is to a large extent open to raiding 
by brokers on the exchanges of London and the East, 
with New York and other centres participating ac- 
cording to their ability. If Mexico also lay open to 
the spoiler, the fluctuations would be even more ex- 
treme and spasmodic. The market would surely rest 
on shifting sands. More is to be gained from national 
prosperity in that Republic, from internal improve- 
ments, and the growth of industrial stability, than 
from a temporary elevation of price through the free 
coinage of silver, which could not long endure. In 
short, we may persist in exploiting the Orient, but 
we can not continue exploiting Western nations that 
have enlisted in the cause of modern progress. 



Smelter Competition. 



In this issue we publish an article describing the 
conditions controlling the smelting industry in Utah. 
The author of the article, Mr. Courtenay De Kalb, 
was commissioned by us to make a special investi- 
gation into the factors that have brought about a 
crisis in the ore market of the West. For the situa- 
tion at Salt Lake has more than local bearings ; it 
has brought to a focus the irritation freely expressed 
for several years against the big smelter consolida- 
tion dominated by the Guggenheim family. The 
failure of the American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany to make a satisfactory contract with the Utah 
Consolidated Copper Company evidently hastened 
the decision of the Amalgamated people to enter the 
smelting business on a large scale. It has been an- 
nounced recently from Boston that Mr. John D. Ryan, 
president of the Anaconda Copper Company, and Mr. 
Thomas F. Cole, president of the Greene-Cananea 
Copper Company, had joined with others in organiz- 
ing the International Smelting & Refining Company, 
with a capital of $50,000,000, which was largely over- 
subscribed. With Messrs. Cole and Ryan are William 
Rockefeller, of the Standard Oil Company, U. H. 
Broughton, who is son-in-law of H. H. Rogers, and 
president of the Utah Consolidated, W. E. Corey, of 
the United States Steel Corporation, and H. C. Frick, 
of Pittsburg. Heretofore, the Cole-Ryan coterie has 
engaged in speculations confined to copper mining en- 
terprises, notably the Amalgamated group at Butte, 
the Greene-Cananea mines in Sonora, the Calumet & 
Arizona and other mines at Bisbee, and a number 
of smaller undertakings. They have avoided tres- 
passing upon the preserves of the American Smelting 
& Refining Companj' or the other concerns controlled 
by the Guggenheims. Now we are told it is to be a 
fight to a finish ; the new company is to build a 
smelter in Utah at once, and is prepared to erect 
or buy other plants as its business may require. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Thereupon, Mr. Daniel Guggenheim comes out with 
an interview stating that the Cole-Ryan people are 
welcome to any copper smelting that they want, the 
American Smelting & Refining Company has only 
one exclusive copper smelter in the United States, 
and looks upon copper smelting as "an extremely 
annoying business," preferring copper refining and 
lead smelting. Mr. Guggenheim adds that 90 per 
cent of all the lead ores available in the United States 
and Mexico is covered by ownership or contracts, 
and, therefore, any new smelting corporation will 
find it diflicult to get this class of ore. Finally, it 
may be mentioned that the United States Smelting, 
Refining .& Mining Company, controlled by Messrs. 
R. D. Evans, A. P. Holden, Edwanj Clark, and other 
energetic Bostonians, together with financial support 
from the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, 
is doing well, having expanded its business both in 
Mexico and California. This, briefly summarized, 
is the smelter situation today. It invites further 
comment. 

The Amalgamated company, controlled by the 
Standard Oil group, has done but little custom 
smelting in its Washoe plant, at Anaconda, or in its 
Boston & Montana smelter, at Great Falls. The 
Cananea smelter and other less important plants 
owned by this coterie, have been devoted to the treat- 
ment of copper ores and such gold and silver ores 
as made a suitable mixture. No lead smelting has 
been undertaken; the Guggenheim plants have had 
almost a monopoly of that field. Modifications and 
improvements in copper smelting, especially through 
cheaper roasting and better handling of every kind 
of furnace material, have lowered costs of copper 
smelting and increased the use of this kind of fire 
metallurgy as a basis for treating gold and silver 
ores that do not carry copper or lead. While lead 
was the usual collector for the precious metals in 
ores that were smelted twenty years ago, nowa- 
days the scope of copper smelting in this regard 
has been enlarged. Moreover, the supply of cop- 
per ore has been enormously increased by the dis- 
coveries at Ely, Bingham, and Globe, while the 
source of lead ore has dwindled rapidly at Lead- 
ville, the great lead district of the past 25 years, 
leaving the mines of Missouri and the Coeur dAlene 
as the principal producers. These are largely under 
the thumb of the Guggenheims and assure them a 
dominant position in lead smelting; in fact, the Gug- 
genheim purchase of the Selby, Everett, and Tacoma 
smelters in 1905, was largely prompted by the desire 
to secure the contracts with such important producers 
of lead ore as the Bunker Hill & Sullivan, the Her- 
cules, and the Federal group of mines, at Wardner, 
Idaho. To us it has always seemed a tactical blunder 
however advisable as a method of controlling the ore 
market, for the Guggenheims to have grasped the 
smelters on the Pacific Coast. As long as they were 
independent, the mine owners of the West could feel 
that they had an alternative market for their ores, 
and, having this idea, they were not restive under 
the domination of the Smelter Trust, as the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Company, controlled by the 
Guggenheims, had gradually become labeled. Fur- 



ther, as long as the Smelter Trust was doing a strictly 
smelting business, there was no marked irritation, 
but when under the various aliases of the American 
Smelters Securities Company, the Guggenheim Ex- 
ploration Company, M. Guggenheim's Sous, and so 
forth, this powerful group, reinforced by other 
shrewd financiers, began to purchase mines and to 
make contracts for the smelting of the ore produced 
by such mines, using such production as a means 
for further control of the metal market, then the mine 
operators, especially of the smaller defenceless type, 
began to growl in earnest. And who shall blame 
them? The American believes in freedom of oppor- 
tunity and the career open to talent, but he is like 
any other intelligent human being in hating a 'cinch,' 
in objecting to a tyranny, whether political or com- 
mercial. Most of the time he is subject to both, but 
the subjection is nicely veiled and rendered as pleas- 
ant as circumstances require or as the Standard Oil 
Company, the Southern Pacific, or the Smelter Trust 
permits. So now the time seems ripe for competi- 
tion, the conditions are ready for another big smelt- 
ing company that shall smite the Guggenheims hip 
and thigh, and deliver the down-trodden, brow- 
beaten mine operator of the Great West ! It sounds 
fine, but it is bitter irony. 

Messrs. Rockefeller, Rogers, Broughton, Ryan, 
Cole, and the other Sunday-school teachers in that 
group of beneficent and patriotic citizens must smile 
at the outcry against the Guggenheims, and the use 
they have made of it for bearing Smelter stock, 
thereby making enough money to build their own 
smelter. The mine operator who expects the Stand- 
ard Oil to do better for him than the Guggenheims 
is a simpleton. The Guggenheims may have made 
their yoke heavy, but the little finger of the Standard 
Oil shall be thicker than the loins of the present 
Smelter Trust. To paraphrase further from Hebrew 
history, the Guggenheims chastised the mine opera- 
tors with contracts, but the Standard Oil will chas- 
tise them with rebates. The evidence given in the 
recent Federal prosecutions of the Standard Oil 
people has shown them to be the mildest mannered 
men that ever cut a throat financially or scuttled a 
ship commercially. No relief lies there. Competi- 
tion may sober some of the men on the Guggenheims' 
staff who have been intoxicated by speculation on 
Wall Street, including several of the seven brothers,, 
and the threat of reprisals from another powerful 
corporation may abate a little of the arrogance that 
unconsciously has crept into their late treatment of 
possible customers, but in the end any such fight as 
seems in prospect will end either by one predatory 
group gobbling up the other or a truce highly detri- 
mental to the poor mine operator. Two courses are 
left to him : One is union for defence, the various 
individuals and companies that have ore to sell 
joining in an alliance for their general protection, 
with the intention of remaining loyal even at some 
sacrifice ; the other is to watch the actions of the 
smelter corporations, and to invoke both State and 
Federal interference whenever acts in restraint of 
legitimate trade are suspected, to the end that they 
may be prevented and punished. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



Go North ! 

When the world was startled by the output of gold 
from the North ten years ago, and when that output 
gave signs of dwindling, the question was asked : 
What is the outlook for mining in the interior region 
of the Yukon and Alaska? Mining engineers and 
geologists knew that the wonderful gold-bearing- 
gravel of the Klondike, of Fairbanks, and of Nome 
were the result of a process of natural concentration 
that had been at work for thousands of years. They 
asked: Are the miners simply skimming the golden 
cream that can never be re-made, and will the mining 
operations soon end, leaving nothing but the 
skimmed milk of low-grade alluvial deposits? The 
answer is: While the geological dairy operates so 
slowly that its products cannot be made within the 
lifetime of the sons of men, it has been at work so 
magnificently in the past that even though the rich- 
est of the cream has been collected, there still re- 
mains a vast amount of wholesome milk. The allu- 
vial deposits of the North are not worked out, nor 
will they be during the life of those now living. 

This is an important fact, if true. Discussing the 
future of Alaska with an official who had good rea- 
son to take a friendly interest in the subject, the 
present writer was informed, last summer, that the 
placer camps were necessarily ephemeral, and that 
the future of the country depended upon the devel- 
opment of its copper and coal resources. Our in- 
formant had never been 'inside', that is, across the 
coast range into the spacious region drained by the 
Yukon, the Tanana, the Innoko, and the Kuskok- 
wim ; he was one of those to whom Alaska meant the 
southeastern province, from Ketchikan to Seward; 
to him the vague and vast tracts beyond the barrier 
of glacier and peak were the scene of an excited 
kind of nugget-hunting such as could not last ; it had 
no industrial future; it was but the arena wherein 
adventurous spirits risked life and money in a search 
for rich patches of gold-bearing gravel that were 
soon garnered and never sown. He was hopelessly 
wrong. 

To the traveler wishing to see a part of the world 
wholly unlike the beaten tracks, to be with men wag- 
ing a fierce and cheerful fight with great natural 
obstacles, to live for a while with human-kind on 
the farthermost frontier of civilization, where man 
in the unit dwarfs man in the aggregate, there is no 
more interesting journey than the tour from San 
Francisco to Skagway, over the coast range, down 
the 2000 miles of the Yukon, up to Nome, and thence 
homeward through the Aleutian archipelago. But it 
is no journey for a mere tourist; the time and the 
cost are wasted by anyone not in touch with mining 
or unable to appreciate the industrial conditions. 
The tourist wisely sails amid the lovely islands of the 
inland sea along the coasts of British Columbia and 
southern Alaska, and then goes by train from Skag- 
way to the summit of the White Pass, getting a 
glimpse of the 'inside' from the mountain top, and 
then returns to his proper habitat. To the men of 
our profession, on the other hand, these northern 
mining regions must be intensely interesting, both 



from a scientific anu a commercial standpoint. The 
frozen condition of the ground and the factors modi- 
fying the arctic geology present problems new to 
most of us. The intelligent application of technology 
in overcoming regional difficulties, the wide distri- 
bution of gold in deposits of peculiar character, the 
labor problems arising in isolated communities, and 
the bending of every energy to overcome the delays 
and expense of transport — these are all tasks for the 
most adaptable of men, the modern engineer. And 
he can go there knowing that not only will he not 
risk his health, but he may even upbuild a physical 
system injured by the miasma of the tropics or the 
unwholesome life of a crowded city. The climate of 
the interior of Alaska is superb. Again we find that 
the average man gets his notions of the country as a 
whole from seeing a small and easily accessible por- 
tion of it. Southeastern Alaska, as typified by Ju- 
neau or Sitka, is a wet, misty, and rainy tract along 
a coast that catches all the humidity of the west wind 
from over the sea. This excessive moisture brings 
verdure and a scenic beauty that have particular 
charm; but it is not bracing to the physical part of 
man, and it feeds those glaciers with which even the 
well informed associate the name of Alaska. The 
southeastern coast is cinctured with rivers of ice ; 
they are splendid spectacles ; but once across the 
range the traveler sees no more glaciers ; he is in an 
arid region, where the air is as it is at Tucson at 
4 a. m. in March — that is, it is the air that creation 
breathed at the dawn of time, as free from microbes 
as interplanetary space, as stimulating as hope, as 
invigorating as youth, when "the world was young 
and life an epic." 



Eldorado. 

In this issue Mr. F. Lynwood Garrison intro- 
duces his discussion of the new mechanical sub- 
jection of Eldorado by a retrospect of the old days 
of adventurous conquest, which cost the lives of 
men, instead of the mere out-wearing of dumb en- 
gines and pumps and chains of buckets. He re-tells 
the story of the gilded chieftain of the Chibchas, 
and the golden treasure thrown, as a propitiatory 
offering to demons, in the lakes upon the plateau 
of what is now Colombia. That gold was actually 
cast into the lakes has been demonstrated by the 
recovery of many ornaments, but whether .these 
were offerings to fancied demons of a supernatural 
order, or sacrifices made in preference to being 
looted by invaders from across the sea, is wanting 
in final confirmation. Some choice examples of 
aboriginal art in gold, which would have been of 
enormous value to archeology, were surreptitiously 
exported from Colombia several years ago and ruth- 
lessly sent by the ignorant discoverers to the melt- 
ing pot in New York. The legend of another gilded 
chieftain and ceremonial lake finally blended into 
that of the fabled Lake Parima and its golden city 
of Manoa situated on an island in the centre. So 
persistent was belief in the story that the maps 
for centuries showed such a body of water in the 
northern part of South America. Formerly it was 



January 2. 19(19. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



large enough t" dwarf Lake Superior, and extended 
Ear up into Colombia; as exploration narrowed the 
limits in which imagination might play, the lake 
shrank and retreated eastward, resting finally in 
Brazilian Guiana. There ii remained, even upon the 

SCl 1-inaps of England ami America, until about 

Win. when the age of credulity hail been so far 
swept away by devotion to fact thai the simple 

word "unexplored" tool; the place of the dream- 
lake and its tempting city. Stories of the lake, of 
'white' Indians, and of the gilded man persisted. 
however, in spite of incredulous geographers. It is 
interesting to find that usually some basis of fact 
underlies a persistent legend. This is a case of 
genuine folk-lore, all the more interesting because of 
its comparatively recent origin. Jules C'reveaux pene- 
trated the district in 1880, and then the truth was 
given to the world by a reputable and accomplished 
scientist. The 'lake' is a basin like the Tensas 
basin, for example, in the .Mississippi valley, subject 
to annual inundation; the 'white' Indians are the 
Roueouyenues. a pale tribe, remarkable in having 
children born almost white, similar to the tribe of 
Ahuarunas in the upper Amazon valley, long known 
to ethnologists: and the 'gilded man' was found in 
the person of the chieftain, religiously daubed with 
(day, and sprinkled with brilliant mica scales obtained 
from a highly micaceous schist outcropping in the 
southern foothills of the Tumac-humac mountains. 
This rite was performed at the time of the approach- 
ing flood. Thus resplendent he would take his cere- 
monial bath. Even the propitiator}' element was not 
lacking. News of these events filtered to the outer 
world through repetition from tribe to tribe, and 
kept alive vain hopes long after the real Eldorado 
had been spoiled of his golden store. 

Metal Markets. 



During the year 1907 the copper market suffered 
from violent fluctuations culminating in a low price 
for the metal early in 1908. Thus, Lake copper sold 
for 13 cents per pound in February, and for 12 1 /; 
cents in March. With the exception of small varia- 
tions, the market evidently was unable to lift itself 
until August, in which month general conditions be- 
came much brighter. Meanwhile, the general busi- 
ness of the country suffered tremendously. The steel 
industry had to bear the brunt of the depression, and 
early in the year the larger plants were being oper- 
ated to hardly 35 per cent of their normal capacity. 
At this time the railroad traffic also decreased so 
greatly that 400,000 cars were idle. At every junc- 
tion these cars stood like ghosts of dead business. 
The depression affected every trade throughout the 
country, and so many people in the United States 
were thrown out of employment that for the first 
time in its history the steerage accommodations of 
steamers leaving New York were overcrowded with 
emigrants returning to Europe. This exodus con- 
tinued up to the last quarter of the year, when the 
tide of travel turned. It was only natural that the 
copper industry should bear its share of the general 
depression, particularly as the capital needed for 



larger electric installations was no longer available. 
Conditions changed as the year advanced, and by 
October marked improvement was noticeable. This 
improvement culminated after the Presidential elec- 
tion, and a satisfactory business has ensued since 

November. Various circumstances, however, inter- 
fered with the further progress of this movement. 
and during the month of December there was a 
shrinkage, the closing prices of copper being about 
11 's cents for Lake and 14 cents for electrolytic, 
with, however, a brighter outlook for healthy de- 
velopment of the market in the coming year. 

Production was much curtailed last winter, but 
from May onward a great many of the mines that 
had been operated at a reduced rate gradually in- 
creased their production. New mines became active, 
mainly in Utah and Nevada, and at the moment, the 
production of copper is probably as large as it has 
ever been. There is every probability of this con- 
dition continuing during 1909, for there are no great 
fears of stocks accumulating. It is true, in Europe, 
the visible supplies, which about two years ago were 
below 10,000 tons, are now about 55,000 tons, but 
that is not at all a menacing quantity when one con- 
siders that this is the only reserve in the whole 
world. 

Lead was one of the first metals to advance after 
the heavy reduction in prices during the panic. The 
year opened at about 3.50 to 3.60 cents per pound 
at New York ; with an excellent demand, especially 
for white lead purposes, the market improved by 
leaps and bounds, until in July, when 4.60 cents was 
reached. The improvement, wdiich was accelerated 
by a greatly reduced production, especially in the 
Western camps, could, however, not be maintained 
when during the year the mines were again operated 
in full, and from that time prices gave way from 
month to month. Since the hearings of the tariff re- 
vision have been resumed in Washington, with the 
probability that the duty on lead and lead ores may 
be reduced, buyers have become rather scarce, and 
this helped the declining tendency, the market clos- 
ing barely steady at 4.10 at New York. 

Manufacturers of spelter have had to go through 
a trying period. During last winter prices fell to 
about 3y§ cents per pound at St. Louis and ruled in 
the first half of the year between 4 and 4*4 cents. 
Heavy stocks had accumulated, and while they were 
mainly in good strong hands and not pressed on the 
market, they exercised a depressing influence. At 
the same time ores were rather scarce, as it did not 
pay Western or Mexican producers to sell their pro- 
duct at the ruling prices, and in consequence the 
smelters had to pay more for the zinc in the ore than 
they could realize for the finished metal. Matters 
drifted along until late in the year, when the de- 
mand became much more active, and spelter ad- 
vanced to about 5 cents at St. Louis. The stocks, 
which were estimated at the beginning of the year 
to be between 35,000 and 40,000 tons, are now re- 
duced to about 12,000 to 15,000 tons, and as the pro- 
duction is still curtailed it is more than likely that 
the reserve will disappear entirely within the next 
few months. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



Personal. 



Professional men are invited to send news of their engage- 
ments and travels. Such news is interesting to friends. 



Latest Market Reports. 



local metal frioes— December 30. 

Antimony 12@16c| Quicksilver (flask) S46@46 

Casting Copper (scrap). ..8%@13%c Spelter 6%@7c 

Pig Lead 4.46@6.40c|Tln 



Lionel Lindsay is at Denver. 

D. V. Buknett is in the Transvaal. 

J. R. Finlat has returned to New York. 

Fred. J. Siebert is at Las Vegas, Nevada. 

Ben. S. Revett spent Christmas at Denver. 

R. Gilman Brown was in Germany recently. 

J. M. Cairns has accepted an appointment in Chile. 

John A. Porter is expected at Coronado, California. 

T. A. Rickard went to Pasadena on New Year's day. 

Thomas R. Barbour was in San Francisco this week. 

D. C. Jackling has returned to Salt Lake from New York. 

Harry S. Paul has returned to Alameda from Nevada 
City. 

J. H. Curle was in Switzerland recently; he goes to Java 
soon. 

J. W. Sutherland, of Kalgoorlie, was in Scotland re- 
cently. 

P. A. Saton has returned to London from the Malay 
States. 

F. W. Nobs, of Mexico City, spent the holidays in San 
Francisco. 

J. H. Batcheller went from Telluride to Boston for 
Christmas. 

Frank Elmore was married on December 12 at Kensing- 
ton, London. 

F. C. Crocker, of Hill City, South Dakota, was recently 
iii Oaxaca, Mexico. 

L. N. W. Ward has been appointed manager of the Attasi 
mines in West Africa. 

J. Henry Rickard is examining antimony mines at Lake 
George, New Brunswick. 

George A. Guess is smelter superintendent for the Ten- 
nessee Copper Company. 

R. Recknagel is consulting engineer to the Oceana Con- 
solidated Co. in the Transvaal. 

Percy Grave is mine superintendent for the, Jalisco Min- 
ing & Smelting Co., in Mexico. 

C. Noble Crowe is manager of the Lake George mines of 
the Canadian Antimony Company. 

H. C. Bellinger has been appointed manager of the Great 
Cobar smelter in New South Wales. 

N. O. S. Ford has opened an office in Oaxaca, Mexico, to 
engage in mining engineering work. 

Spurr & Cox are now at 165 Broadway, New York. Branch 
offices are at Denver and Mexico City. 

W. A. Carlyle has been appointed professor of metallurgy 
in the Royal School of Mines, London. 

J. H. Clemes has sailed for South America to examine 
the Choicas mine in Chile on behalf of John Taylor & Sons. 

C. W. Purington spent Christmas at Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts; he sails for London on January 5. 

David Goodale' and A. F. Hughes are examining mines 
near Carrville, in Trinity county, California. 

J. V. N. Dorr is acting as consulting engineer for the 
Golden Reward Mining Co. in connection with the re- 
modeling of their slime-plant. 

John Tait Milliken, of Colorado Springs, has been made 
consulting engineer to the Golden Cycle Company, and 
A. L. Blomfield has heen appointed superintendent of the 
Golden Cycle mill. 



ANOLO-AUEBICAN SHAKES. 

Cabled from London. 

Dec. 24. 

£. s. d. 

Camp Bird 16 

El Oro 1 7 

Esperanza 3 4 

Dolores 1 10 

Oroville Dredging 8 

Mexico Mines '. 5 5 

Tomboy 1 7% 18 9 ex. dlv. 

(By courtesy of W. P. Bonbrlght & Co., 24 Broad St., New York.) 



Dec. 30. 
£. s. d. 

16 

1 6 3 

3 6 
1 10 
8 

4 18 9 ex. dlv. 



SOUTHERN NEVADA STOCKS. 
San Francisco, December 30. 



Atlanta $ 18 

Belmont 78 

Booth 36 

Columbia Mtn 19 

Combination- Fraction 1.35 

Daisy 68 

Fairview Eagle 3& 

Florence 4.47 

Gold Bar (Bullfrog) 2 

Goldfleld Con 8.90 

Gold Kewenas 28 

Great Bend 26 

Jim Butler 18 

Jumbo Extension 24 



l.i 



Laguna 

MacNamara 32^ 

Manhattan Con 6 

Midway 19 

Montana Tonopah 72 

Nevada Hills 1.46 

Rawhide Queen 33 

Sandstorm 

Sliver Pick 

St. Ives 

Tonopah Extension , 

Tonopah of Nevada 6.50 

Tramp Con 10 

West End 32 



20 
11 
19 
60 



(By courtesy of W. C. Ralston, 353 Bush St.) 



COPPER SHARES — BOSTON. 



Closing prices. 
December 30. 

9% 



Adventure 

Allouez 36% 

Amalgamated 83% 

Arcadian 3 

Atlantic 16% 

Boston Con 1654 

Butte Coalition 26% 

Calumet & Arizona 118 

Calumet & Hecla 676 

Centennial..... 33% 

Copper Range SI 1 ., 

Cumberland Ely 8 

Daly-West 10 

Franklin 16% 

Granby 106% 

Greene-Cananea, ctf 12% 

Isle Royale 21% 

Mass... 6% 



Closing prices. 
December 30. 

Mohawk 69 

Nevada Con 19% 

North Butte 85 

Old Dominion 67% 

Osceola 134 

Parrot 29% 

Qulncy 95 

Rhode Island 6% 

Santa Fe 2% 

Shannon 17%" 

Superior <St PlttBburg 17 

Tamarack 81 

Trinity 17 

United Copper Con 14% 

Utah Copper 46 

Victoria 3% 

Winona 6% 

Wolverine 150 



Comparative Table of Stock Quotations. 

NAME OF STOCK. JANUARY 2, 1908. FOR THE YEAR. 

High. Low. High. Low. 

Amalgamated 48% 45% 88% Nov. 7 45% Feb. 19 

American Smeltlrg 73 69% 107 Aug. 7 65% Feb. 17 

Boston Con. 11 10% 18% Nov. 11 10% Apr. 13 

Butte Coalition 16% 15% 29% Aug. 4 15% Jan. 2 

Cumberland-Ely 6% 6% 10 Aug. 7 6% Feb. 11 

Dolores '6% 6 8% May 12 6% Feb. 26 

El Rayo (Jan. 3) 1% 1% *% Nov. 11 % May 20 

Glroux Con 2% 2% 7 Dee. 4 2% Jan. 3 

Greene-Cananea 7% 6% 13 Aug. 3 6% Jan. 2 

Indiana Sonora No sale. <% Feb. 20 4% Feb. 21 

La Rose (June 2) 4% 4% 7% Nov. 9 3% Aug. 31 

Miami (Apr. 3) 6% 6% 14% Nov. 9 4% Apr. 2! 

Nevada Con 8% 8% 20% Dec. 14 8% Jan. 2 

Newhouse 7% 7 9% Jan. 20 4% Oct. 22 

Nlpisslng 6% 6 12 Nov. 4 6 Jan. 2 

Ohio Copper (Jan. 17) 3% 2% 6 Nov. 30 2% Junel5 

Tennessee Copper (Jan. 3J...27 26 52% Nov 16 25% Feb. 17 

Utah Copper 21 20 62% Nov. 9 20 Jan. 2 

Yukon Gold (March 26) 9 8% 9 Mar. 26 3% July 1 

By courtesy of Trlppe A Co., 25 Broad St., New York. 



The revenues of Mexico for the fiscal year 1907-OS 
amounted to $111,771,867, and a surplus over expenditures 
resulted, reaching the sum of $18,594,426. The aggregate 
surplus over expenditures in the Republic during the 13 
yr. from 1895 to 1908 has been $130,000,000. Out of this 
$50,000,000 has been applied to internal improvements, and 
the remainder, or $80,000,000, constitutes a reserve in the 
treasury. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCTION. 



By courtesy of Mr. Frank A. Leach, Director of 
the Mint, we are enabled to give estimates of the 
gold and silver produced in the United States in 
1908. Surprise will be occasioned by the fact that 
the total output of gold is greater than in the year 
1907 by $5,878,200. The increase in California is un- 
expected but cheering; it is to be credited in part 
to the dozen additional dredges that have been put 



a gain, for Fairbanks has redressed the temporary 
decline at Nome, and outlying new mining districts 
have yielded contributions which in the aggregate 
constitute a respectable total. The TreadweU mines 
produced $500,000 more than in 1907. In South Da- 
kota there is a decided increase, traceable mainly to 
the Homestake's recovery from the fire underground, 
and to the improved methods of cyanidation. 

In silver, the total decrease is nearly $10,000,000. 
Nevada shows a notable gain in quantity, although 



GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

BY THE DIRECTOR OF THE MINT. 

i'i:MIMI\U;y ESTIMATE OK THE PRODUCTION" OF GOLD AND SILVER IN THE 



Source. 



190S. 



GOLD. 



Alabama $ 43,686 

Alaska 20,930,784 

Arizona 2,345,308 

California 19,582,464 

Colorado 22,811,784 

Georgia 48,918 

Idaho 1,450,830 

Illinois 

.Maine • 198 

Michigan 20 

Minnesota 1,265 

Missouri 

Montana 3,322,551 

New Hampshire 2,306 

New Mexico 240,756 

Nevada 12,089,968 

North Carolina 85,314 

Oregon 1,119,528 

Philippine Islands 306,708 

Porto Rico 642 

South Carolina 58,336 

South Dakota 7,690,294 



Tennessee . . 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 
Washington 
Wyoming . . 
Other States 



3,186 

545 

3,930,290 

4,321 

222,189 

1,773 

19,936 



190S. 
SILVER, 

Fine 
Ounces. 

1,815 

201,988 

3,046,137 

1,823,088 

10,161,318 

186 

6,289,585 

352 

316 

232,184 

9 

25,000 

11,518,913 

3,482 

372,950 

9,322,450 

16,090 

109,640 

3,700 

3 

102 

197,996 

59,876 

461,715 

7,718,434 

8,392 

68,175 

634 

152,207 



190S. 

SILVER, 

Commercial 

Value. 

$ 962 

107,053 

1,614,452 

966,236 

5,385,498 

98 

3,333,480 

186 

167 

123,057 

5 

13,250 

6.105,024 

1,845 

197,663 

4,930,898 

8,527 

58,109 

1,961 

1 

54 

104,938 

31,734 

244,709 

4,090,770 

4,448 

36,132 

336 

80,670 



United States. 
1907. 

GOLD. 

$ 27,400 

18,489,400 

2,664,000 

16,853,500 

20,897,600 

64,800 

1,255,900 



3,472,600 

330,000 

15,411,000 

78,700 

1,222,200 

64,700 

1,200 

58,100 

4,138,200 

3,800 

1,000 

5,121,600 

8,300 

262,300 

9,400 



1907. 

SILVER, 

Commercial 

Value. 

$ 400 

118,300 

1,916,000 

1,049,400 

7,587,000 

500 

5,206,300 

1,900 

218.700 

16,700 
7,345,500 

395,700 

5,465,100 

16,600 

63,400 

100 

100 

70,400 

38,500 

201,500 

7,528,500 

100 

55,400 

1,100 



Total $96,313,900 51,796,737 $27,452,263 $90,435,700 $37,299,700 

The commercial value of fine silver in 1907 averaged about 66c. per oz. ; in 1908, about 53c. per oz. 
The production of fine silver in 1907 amounted to 56,514,700 ounces. 



to work, in part to the cessation of the labor troubles 
that crippled mining on the Mother Lode in 1907, 
and finally to the additional gold recovered in the 
course of the enlarged copper smelting operations in 
Shasta county. The shrinkage in Nevada is easily 
accounted for, the rich group of mines controlled 
by the Goldfield Consolidated company having been 
in a condition of suspended animation pending the 
completion of the new mill. Moreover, the panic hit 
'wild-catting' severely, and while that is not a profit- 
able form of mining, it does contribute to the sum 
total of production. Alaska was expected to show 



the value is less than in 1907 on account of the 
smaller price commanded by the metal in 1908. The 
mines of Tonopah are responsible for the result. 

It is probable that the gold production of the 
world for 1908 was $427,000,000, or about $16,500,- 
000 more than the year previous. This increase is 
due mainly to South Africa, where the preliminary 
estimate shows $144,675,000, a gain of $12,000,000. 
The United States holds the second place. Russia 
and Mexico both exhibit a slight increase, and the 
shrinkage in Australasia was only about $2,000,000 
in the year just ended. 



10 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



THE COPPER SITUATION. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By James Douglas. 

The copper trade in the beginning of the year just 
closing had not commenced to recover from the shock 
it sustained in the previous October when the copper 
mining 'interests first became aware of what they 
should have known months previously — that the bot- 
tom had dropped out of the boom. Under the in- 
fluence of the shock most of the Butte mines, the 
Cananea mines and, in Canada, the Granby Consoli- 
dated, and nearly all the small concerns in the United 
States and Mexico, suspended operations, producing 
in the meantime a shrinkage of production that 
helped to bring about a return to what, let us hope, 
will be a normal condition. During the winter 
months Anaconda remained shut down, and Cananea 
did not resume active operations until September. 
As a result, the manufacturing trade on both sides 
of the Atlantic was enabled to absorb practically the 
whole of the somewhat restricted output, aud by the 
time these large concerns re-entered the market as 
producers, the gradual restoration of confidence, and 
corresponding healthy demand for copper, permitted 
these additions to the metal market being absorbed 
without disastrous effects upon the price. As the 
year closes, therefore, all the old large producers 
are again almost in full blast, and some new pro- 
ducers have entered the lists. The deficit from the 
suspension of some older mines has probably been 
fully met by contributions from Utah and Nevada. 

The year's statistics will probably show a produc- 
tion not widely different from that of 1907. The 
production of the large mines in southern Arizona 
has been maintained quite up to the normal. The 
only producer in that region, including northern 
Sonora, which has enlarged its capacity, and corre- 
spondingly increased its output, is the Moctezuma 
Copper Co. The concentrate made in the new mill, 
where the capacity is from 1500 to 2000 tons of ore 
per day, more than double the capacity of the old 
concentrating mill that is now out of commission, is 
shipped for metallurgical treatment to Douglas, 
Arizona. The Pilares mine of the Moctezuma com- 
pany may be expected to continue turning out about 
2,000,000 lb. of copper per month. The smaller mines 
in the Moctezuma district have not yet recovered 
from the shock of the crisis, and have produced 
nothing during the past year, and continue in a state 
of suspended animation. The Greene-Cananea Co., 
however, has resumed work under such improved 
conditions as to convert the old suspicion of failure 
into a practical certainty of economic success. The 
long period of suspension was the reverse of being 
a period of idleness. When work was resumed in 
September, not only was the old smelting plant re- 
built, upon the original site, but the general design 
of the furnaces and the methods of furnace-treatment 
were so improved that on starting, two-thirds of the 
old production was made with less than one-half the 
old plant in operation. A more important improve- 
ment than the reform of the blast-furnace and con- 
verting departments has been the success attending 



the reverberator} 1 - practice as applied to the smelting 
of flue-dust and concentrate. Using oil as fuel, half 
the heat is recovered in the generation of steam, and, 
by ingeniously feeding highly silicious ore in a 
steady stream through the roof in contact with the 
side-walls, it is fettled economically, reducing nota- 
bly the wear and tear while smelting a highly re- 
fractory ore. The bedding system, also designed 
under the management of Arthur S. Dwight, has been 
worked out to a practical success. Thus L. D. 
Ricketts. with the co-operation of Charles F. Shelby, 
is rescuing a great property from a dangerous posi- 
tion. In Arizona no metallurgical novelties or ex- 
periments, not previously under way, have to be 
recorded. 

Steps have recently been taken to revive the Cop- 
per Producers Committee, which for some years, un- 
der the secretaryship of the late John Stanton, served 
so useful a purpose. Gradually the old-fashioned 
principle of secrecy is being weakened, and public 
companies are being brought to recognize that, if 
the public endows them with certain corporate rights, 
they owe to the public certain corporate duties, and, 
among others, information as to the speed with which 
they are using up the national resources. To what 
extent they should divulge their financial as well as 
their technical operations is a matter upon which 
opinions necessarily differ ; but nearly all have come 
to admit that their interests are best subserved by 
taking the public to some extent into their confi- 
dence. Prices, for instance, would be more justly 
regulated by the common sense of the mercantile 
world than by any combination of manufacturing in- 
terests, if the actual facts of production and con- 
sumption were known and believed. As it is, the 
stock of copper, so far as brokers can trace it, is 
published ; but no one supposes that the published 
figures are absolutely correct, because copper stored 
by speculators, and the stock of crude material in 
the hands of the mills, is always a matter of uncer- 
tainty. 

During the summer before last, had the producers 
been aware that the demand for copper really fell 
off in the spring, with the suspicion of a short har- 
vest, they would not have gone on turning it out at 
maximum speed for some three months longer, dur- 
ing which period the mills were working off the 
stocks they had undertaken to buy at an exorbitant 
price. To escape such contingencies a system of con- 
tracting ahead would have to be modified, and more 
perfect harmony of information established between 
miners, smelters, manufacturers, and the public. 
This could not be done without the creation of some- 
thing that would bear a close resemblance to a 'trust' 
of the most extreme description, and yet, if such a 
system could be honestly and thoroughly carried out, 
in all the great branches of trade, it would eliminate 
those sudden and woefully disastrous shocks which 
every now and then tend to shatter with earthquake 
violence the whole industrial system of modern so- 
ciety. If the committee, to which reference has been 
made, can be re-organized and the result of the ac- 
curate information communicated to their statisti- 
cian be made public, one step at any rate will be 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



11 



taken toward the consummation of an ideal bureau 
which would act as a medium of perfectly reliable 
information between those producing crude and 

highly finished articles of commerce and tin- publie 

that consumes them. If th< ming year, therefore, 

should prove thai the motives, whatever they may 

be, that caused the suspension of the old committee, 
no longer possess men's minds, and a new committee 
should be organized, to communicate not only to the 
trade but likewise to the public the movement of so 
important an article as copper, and if this be done 
without any approach to a combination for govern- 
ing the price, it will mark a distinct impulse in the 
public mind toward general confidence. It is to be 
hoped that the large producers on both sides of 
the Atlantic will co-operate. If 1909 sees a resump- 
tion of mutual trust among the producers, may not 
1910 see an extension of the same feeling between 
the producers, manufacturers, and consumers? The 
tendency of co-operation as at present practised is 
inevitably leading to state socialism. State socialism 
means the obliteration of individualism, and all the 
stimulating influences, godd and bad, that are in- 
volved in competition. The only brake that can be 
put upon this undesirable consummation, at least 
according to the judgment of many men, is by the 
banishment of secrecy, and therefore of suspicion, 
between the great corporations and the public. 



LONDON MINING MARKET DURING 1908. 



By Our London Correspondent. 

The year 1908 has been a discouraging one alto- 
gether, whether you look at it from the point of view 
of the mining engineer, shareholder, or promoter. 
During the last eighteen months, the general indus- 
trial depression has caused a slackening in the de-. 
mand for metals and the consequent fall in price 
has adversely affected the profits of existing com- 
panies and prevented the formation of new ones. 
The first half of the year was much worse than the 
second, for during the last few months it has occa- 
sionally been possible to place new schemes before 
the public. For the purposes of this article I have 
looked up my file of prospectuses of new companies 
issued during the year ; it is a very small file, the 
smallest that I have collected during the 15 years 
that I have been keeping records of new companies. 

The two most interesting flotations have been the 
Russian mining enterprises, one the Lena Goldfields 
and the other the Kyshtim Corporation. The former 
had been on the stocks for a long time awaiting a 
suitable time for flotation. It was organized by the 
Venture Corporation in conjunction with the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields of South Africa, and the Con- 
solidated Mines Selection. This is one of the frozen 
gravel properties of northeastern Siberia and un- 
doubtedly will prove profitable, but the public sub- 
scribed for only a small portion of the issue and the 
promoters had no easy work to bring the flotation 
to a success. The other company, the Kyshtim, is 
a copper company in Perm that promises to do well. 
Siberia has also won prominence during the year 
by the re-organization of the Siberian Proprietary 



with its subsidiaries, the Orsk and Troitzk. These 
originally commenced operations under conditions 
reminiscent of wild-catting, but during the pasl year 
the responsibilty has been put in the hands of a re- 
liable firm of mining engineers. The operations a1 
the Spassky mine in Akmolinsk have not progressed 
rapidly of late, owing chiefly to retarding local con- 
ditions. The controllers of the company have intro- 
duced to the London public recently another copper 
property oot far away, the Atbasar. which I de- 
scribed only a few weeks ago. 

There is an inclination among promoters to turn 
their attention to South America, and if times were 
only of a more booming kind, no doubt we should 
hear a good deal about Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. 
The only companies publicly floated for handling 
South American enterprises have been the Poderosa, 
a copper mine in Chile, and the Queen Gold Dredging 
Co. in Tierra del Fuego. As regards Cornwall, the 
only two advertised prospectuses were the Boscas- 
well and the Wheal Fortune, the first of which was 
a bad failure, and the second only a moderate suc- 
cess. In other ways a good deal of money has been 
put into Cornwall during the year, notably at Clit- 
ters and South Crofty, where additional capital has 
been subscribed. 

North America has been represented by two pros- 
pectuses, the Van Roi and the Canada Iron Corpora- 
tion. The Van Roi was floated by Le Roi No. 2, to 
acquire the Vancouver silver-lead properties, and the 
Canada Iron Corporation was formed to consolidate 
the Canadian Iron & Foundry Co., the Canadian 
Iron Furnace Co., John McDougall & Co., the An- 
napolis Iron Co., and the controlling interest of the 
Londonderry Iron & Mining Company. 

During the year, the public has been invited to 
invest in two companies of technological interest. 
The Tungsten Metals was formed to treat wolfram 
ores from Cornwall, and Steelite Explosives was or- 
ganized to manufacture a new mining explosive. 
During the last few weeks people interested in oil 
and bitumen properties on the east coast of Africa 
have been active and the prospectuses of the Gold 
Coast Oil & Bitumen Co. and of the British Colonial 
Petroleum Corporation have been circulated. There 
is a generally accepted opinion that these oilfields 
will become of importance before long. 

As I have already said, the efforts of the directors 
to raise additional capital for previously established 
companies have necessarily been strenuous during 
the past year. In more palmy days, the new shares 
of a company that had proved its property could be 
issued at considerable premiums. In many cases 
during the year money could only be obtained by 
issuing convertible debentures of preference shares 
that carried a right to nearly all the future profits. 
Notable examples of this were the Zinc Corporation 
and Stratton's Independence. Another difficulty in 
conection with the raising of new capital has been 
the decision in the courts defining , the rights of 
minority shareholders not agreeing to re-construc- 
tion and assessment. All sorts of devices have had 
to be invented for circumventing this difficulty. 



12 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



NEVADA IN 1908. 



Written tor the Mining and Scientific Press 
By J. H. G. Wolf. 

The past year's mining in Nevada presents a sub- 
ject of many-sided interest. What is considered Ne- 
vada 'mining' by the general public is merely a con- 
tracted view of a broader subject. Nevada 'stocks' 
have depreciated in value within the period in every 
camp, and save in the cases of a very few companies 
the depreciation has been from 50 to 500, and even 
1000%, while numerous mines have been proved, and 
are on the road to an early production. This is grati- 
fying to the discriminating investor ; it is also a con- 
dition fraught with gloom for the mere stock-seller, 
and the irresponsible promoter. 

The chief instrument in producing the change has 
been the money stringency following the panic of 
1907, thus shutting off the supply of funds that sus- 
tained ventures of no merit ; another factor was the 
construction of mills in most of the camps, providing 
means for testing ground that was assumed to be 
valuable — but was not. Incidentally, in this testing 
process a few reputations were blasted, and some 
spectacular figures in Nevada mining were with- 
drawn. Chas. M. Schwab found that gold and steel 
would neither amalgamate nor alloy. Mr. Schwab 
found gold in steel originally, but learned that win- 
ning it from mere earth and rock was a more elusive 
matter. He was unfortunate in interpreting the rec- 
ommendations of his advisory engineers. Mr. George 
J. Oliver, also famous in the steel industry, has been 
more successful, as may be assumed from the results 
at the Pittsburgh-Silver Peak mine. 

Through the agency of mills constructed during 
the past year the foundations were laid for an as- 
sured and continued production of increasing pro- 
portions. The cost of mill construction, of complete 
plants doing fine-grinding and slime-filtering, has 
remained about $7000 per stamp. The bulk of the 
production of the precious metals came from the new 
camps in the southern part of the State. These will 
continue to attract money for exploration. In the 
vast expanse of the southern desert it is hardly rea- 
sonable to suppose that all the Tonopahs and Gold- 
fields have been discovered. Development in the new 
camps has revived activity in the old camps. The 
improvement in modern methods has resulted in suc- 
cess where nothing could be done before, as at Pioche. 

On the economic side, the development of the min- 
ing industry made a gratifying advance. Tonopah 
and Goldfield were given a new outlet to the south- 
west in the completion of the Tonopah & Tidewater 
railroad. The Western Pacific railroad construction 
in Nevada advanced materially, and the eastern part 
of the State, through White Pine county to Ely, is in 
railroad communication with Salt Lake, thus giving 
a shipping outlet for ores from that district. The 
railroad has also made possible the development of 
the great copper deposits at Ely, which are among 
the greatest in the West. In a new schedule just 
published by the railroads in southern Nevada, the 
freight rates on all classes of ores are reduced 50% 
to meet the competition engendered by augmented 



milling facilities. The Nevada-California Power Co. 
has completed its three-step development of Bishop 
creek, on the eastern slope of the Sierras, and is now 
prepared to furnish all the power southern Nevada 
can use for some years to come. The Company has 
built a duplicate transmission line to Millers, near 
Tonopah, to ensure uninterrupted service. It has 
begun an extension of its lines from Millers up 
Smoky valley to Manhattan and Round Mountain, 
unaided by guarantees from the mining interests. 
The length of the transmission line to Round Moun- 
tain from Bishop creek will be 142 miles. The labor 
conditions of the camps have been bettered by the 
organization of a State police force to maintain order 
and to prevent rioting in time of labor disputes. 
Goldfield is unquestionably the leading district, in 
population, in production, and in breadth of mining 
activity. The year has seen no widening of the pro- 
ductive area ; the development has, on the contrary, 
limited it more closely to the zone heretofore proved. 
This does not augur well for ' outside ' properties, but 
it does not necessarily condemn them; their shares 
have steadily declined as •geological conditions have 
been deciphered. The shares of the two large com- 
panies, the Consolidated and the Florence, are now 
fairly firm at $9 and $4.50, respectively, representing 
valuations on their outstanding stock of $32,500,000 
and $5,500,000, respectively. It seems questionable 
whether they will be able to pay the anticipated 20% 
dividends on such capitalizations. The mills of these 
two companies have just begun to drop stamps. The 
Consolidated mill was designed under the supervision 
of J. H. Mackenzie, the general manager, by the fol- 
lowing staff: J. B. Fleming and G. B. Shipley, me- 
chanical engineers, and F. L. Bosqui, metallurgical en- 
gineer. The successive steps of treatment in the new 
mill are (1) stamping, (2) plate amalgamation, (3) 
tube-milling, (4) secondary amalgamation, (5) con- 
centrating on Deister slime-tables, (6) agitation in 
Pachuea tanks, (7) vacuum-filtration, (8) precipita- 
tion with zinc dust. Under the direction of the gen- 
eral manager a sub-plant has been installed to treat 
the concentrate on the ground, using the sulphuric 
acid process, first neutralizing the base metal con- 
tent, followed by cyanidation. The various mines of 
the Consolidated are connected by a standard gauge 
electric railroad with a mill on Columbia Mtn. On 
December 26 the new 100-stamp mill, with cyanide 
annex, was started. The capacity of the plant is 
estimated at 600 tons per day, and the cost of the 
plant is estimated at $760,000. With the railroad, 
concentrate plant, and water system, the total ex- 
penditure will be $900,000. The mill feed is expected 
to average $35 to $40 per ton, of which 94 to 95% is 
to be extracted. The total costs of mining, develop- 
ment, and transport are expected to aggregate $3.25 
per ton, while the cost of milling is put at $2.75, so 
that the total operating cost is estimated to be $6 
as soon as the mill is in full operation. During 1908 
the mining operations on the Consolidated properties 
have been mainly of an exploratory character, ship- 
ments of ore being curtailed. The total profits for 
the eleven months ending September 30 have 
amounted to $552,329. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



13 



The Florence mill consists of 20 stamps, with pro- 
vision for 20 more, and follows in a general way the 
methods of other successful plants. The mill is not 
of a unified design, and has been under construction 
for a year and a hall'. With the phenomenally rich 
orcbodies opened within tin; year by the numerous 
lessees on the company's ground, added to the ore 
opened in the earlier operations, the Florence should 
be able to establish a record within a few years. Sum- 
ming up the Goldfield situation, if the reports in cir- 
culation as to the ore reserves be accepted, the highly 
productive era of the camp should be only dawning, 
but the future will in all likelihood repeat the his- 
tory of so many districts, where the rich ore near the 
surface has been quickly extracted, followed by 
periods of depression and slow search for additional 
ore at greater depth and under harder conditions. A 
mark of the progress of the times was shown in the 
settlement by arbitration of the dispute between the 
Jumbo Extension Co. and the Consolidated, and be- 
tween the Combination Fraction and the Consoli- 
dated. This sensible method was also used at Tono- 
pah to settle the contentions of the West End and 
the MacNamara companies, which had been in the 
courts for some time. The basis underlying the com- 
promise was the limiting of bounds to vertical planes. 

At Tonopah, conditions have been seriously af- 
fected by the continued depression of silver. Tono- 
pah is the oldest of the new camps, and is the greatest 
producer of the white metal in the State. Silver 
recently dropped to 48 cents, at which price it re- 
quires rich ore to make mining profitable. The 
shares of the Tonopah companies have dropped to 
depressing figures, despite the better facilities that 
now exist for milling the ore. The limits of the pro- 
ducing area have been known for some years, and the 
leading mines have but lately resumed exploratory 
work for additional ore below the dacite intrusion. 
The Tonopah Mining Co. 's 100-stamp mill at Millers, 
13 miles below the town, has been reducing 13,000 
tons of ore monthly, having a reported average assay- 
value of $21 per ton. The 60-stamp mill of the Bel- 
mont, also at Millers, has extended its sphere of 
operation to custom work for other Tonopah mines. 
The Montana mine has built a 40-stamp mill in the 
camp ; it is doing excellent work on a complex silver- 
sulphide ore, using the following treatment process: 
(1) stamping in solution, (2) primary concentration 
upon Wilfley tables, (3) tube-milling, (4) secondary 
concentration upon Frue vanners, (5) agitation in 
Hendryx agitators, (6) vacuum-filtration, (7) pre- 
cipitation on zine dust. An extraction of 90% is re- 
ported. The monthly ore output of the Tonopah 
mines has averaged about 24,500 tons. 

The Bullfrog district is the railroad centre of 
southern Nevada. Cheapened transportation, with 
electric power, has hastened mill construction ; half 
a dozen plants have been erected. The ores are prov- 
ing lower in grade than was expected, compelling 
some of the mills to shut down. Gold is the predomi- 
nant metal in the ores. The Montgomery-Shoshone, 
the largest mine in the district, is opened to 600 ft., 
and is producing $40,000 to $50,000 monthly. 

Manhattan has made progress toward bettering its 



condition during the year. Four mills have been 
erected, and do custom work ; one is equipped for fine 
grinding and slime-filtration. The mills await the 
advent of electric power to cheapen working costs. 
The mines generally are without capital to do deeper 
work, hence the leasing system prevails. Litigation 
over title has tied up much property that is believed 
to be valuable, especially at the east end of the dis- 
trict; consolidation of holdings would materially im- 
prove the situation and attract capital to make the 
better prospects into mines. Manhattan stocks have 
suffered much in the general depression. Favorable 
placer possibilities now appear in the main gulch be- 
low the camp. 

Round Mountain, yielding gold ore that is exceed- 
ingly easy to treat, has made a record in production 
from its four or five small mills, greatly enhancing 
the output of Nye county. The camp has held its 
own through panics and through stress of adverse 
conditions, such as the lack of cheap power and 
transportation. Meamvhile the principal mine has 
been proved to a depth of 700 ft. The hydraulicking 
operations, following the good results obtained by 
dry-washing the year before, were hampered by lack 
of water. The small seams of gold, so abundant in 
the rhyolite country along the mineral zone, have cre- 
ated excellent possibilities for placers. 

The Blair mine, 'of early days at Silver Peak, sit- 
uated 30 miles west of Tonopah, was taken over by a 
Pittsburg syndicate, which has developed it into a 
mine of importance. For the quick and economical 
development of the property, a standard gauge rail- 
road, 18 miles long, was first built to connect the 
mine with the Tonopah & Goldfield railroad. A mill 
of 100 stamps was erected and put in operation in 
April ; the reported production has been $750,000 to 
date. The treatment used is stamping, amalgama- 
tion, followed by cyanidation, leaching the sand, and 
treating the slime in the Merrill filter, of the type 
used at the Homestake mill in South Dakota. The 
mine, embracing 8000 ft. of lode which outcrops 
along the Silver Peak range near its'erest, is at an 
elevation of about 2000 ft. above the town and the 
mill, with which it is connected by an aerial tram- 
way 2% miles long. 

Fairview and Wonder have been quiet during the 
past year. The Nevada Hills, the producing mine 
of the former district, has confined its operations 
principally to development work, though some ore 
has been shipped. Lack of transportation and cheap 
power are obstacles here as well as at Wonder. These 
camps yield chiefly silver, and the price of that 
metal has been a deterrent upon operations. The 
Nevada Wonder has been developed to 500 ft., and 
the ores are being tested on a large scale to deter- 
mine the best methods of treatment. A mill will 
probably be built during the ensuing year. 

Rawhide is the newest of the Nevada camps to 
bid for favor and support. It is situated about 100 
miles southeast of Reno. A mineral showing of prom- 
ise is found in eruptive rhyolite and andesite, out- 
cropping on the low summit of the range dividing 
Gabbs valley from Walker lake. In April, at the 
height of the boom, 7500 people found shelter there ; 



14' 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2. 1909. 



the fire in September swept away the business centre 
and caused an exodus. The camp has been opened 
by the leasing system, to the exclusion of company 
operations, and the work done to date gives promise 
of proving the worth of a number of mines. The 
shipment of ore has helped materially to pay for fur- 
ther exploration. The ores contain both gold and 
silver, the former in the rhyolite on HeLeod hill, 
while gold and silver are found together in the siliei- 
fied breccias forming ore-zones in the later rocks. No 
reduction works of importance have been erected: a 
railroad is projected, and the grading partly done, to 
connect Rawhide with the Southern Pacific tracks at 
Walker lake, where the conditions are favorable for 
cheap milling. Barring the trials that beset all new 
camps from the evil effects of misrepresentation in 
the effort to sell stocks, Rawhide has a favorable 
chance of winning an assured position. 

The copper district of Yerington. in Lyon county, 
has been the scene of energetic development, in the 
course of which shipping ore has been steadily mar- 
keted. The projected smelter has not been built. 

The promise of Ely, the camp in the eastern part 
of the State which was explored in the early days for 
gold, has been realized in the great work carried to 
completion by the Guggenheims. Twenty million 
tons of copper ore available, assaying about 2%, have 
been proved, and a reduction plant of large capacity 
is now in operation in the Steptoe valley, 22 miles 
distant. The first mill-unit of 1500 tons was started 
in July. With practically unlimited capital and the 
best engineering and metallurgical talent in the coun- 
try at the command of the enterprise, it stands today 
as Nevada's greatest mining enterprise. 

The review of mining in Nevada for the year is 
not complete without referring to the Comstock and 
Virginia City. The present yield from that famous 
locality may not be important, but it is significant 
of energies not wholly decadent, and also of what 
may yet come from the famous Lode if success fol- 
lows the efforts of those seeking to rehabilitate these 
famous mines. The record of the Comstock 's produc- 
tion of the precious metals in the past is enormous — 
greater than the present annual output of all the min- 
ing districts of the Western States. The production 
for the year will be roughly $750,000, taken princi- 
pally from the Ophir, and the Chollar, and the Tel- 
low Jacket croppings, which, while small compared 
with past yields of $2,000,000 per month when the 
mines were in bonanza, is still important. It does 
not, however, present a favorable appearance, in view 
of the $800,000 collected annually in assessments. The 
outcry against the Comstocks is not because of the 
mere fact of levying and collecting assessments, but 
is against the want of faith in the disposition of the 
money, and the small amount of mining actually per- 
formed on many of the properties. With but five 
shafts remaining open (that are not caved) along 2% 
miles of the Lode, down to the deeper workings be- 
low the Sutro Tunnel, there is little hope of an early 
general resumption of mining on the deep levels, 
where commercial ore is most likely to be found. One 
of the above shafts is filled with water to the Sutro 
Tunnel level, and in a second shaft the water is about 



300 ft. below that level. The sum of all the assess- 
ments collected in a year will not suffice to reclaim a 
single lost shaft, nor restore to good condition the 
Sutro Tunnel with its branches, upon the mainte- 
nance of which the possibility of deep mining de- 
pends. A favorable element in the work of rehabili- 
tation is the broad treatment given the difficult prob- 
lems by the engineers in charge. The Lode with its 
200 miles of mine workings, much of which, however, 
has collapsed, must be treated as a whole to accom- 
plish anything effective. The works planned with the 
machinery already installed are of such character 
and capacity as will suffice for almost any situation 
that may arise on the resumption of deep mining. 
The Reidler pumps, at the C. & C. shaft, having a 
capacity of 1500 gal. per min., and the Deane pumps 
of 3300 gal. per min., at the Ward shaft, working 
against a 1500-ft. head, represent the latest and best 
installations of their kind. Both are electrically 
driven. One of the Deane pumps is now set tempo- 
rarily on the 2475-ft. level, but both are intended to 
be placed permanently on the 3100-ft. level. Sink- 
ing from the 2550-ft. level is ready to be resumed at 
this shaft, but with a pressure of 400 lb. per square 
inch against the restraining works holding back the 
waters on the Gold Hill side. The status on the Com- 
stock might be disturbed beyond the mere drowning 
of the pumps if the Gold Hill flood were let down 
upon them. The present dependence for ore is upon 
the north end. The Con. Virginia opened during the 
summer a lens of ore on the 2150-ft. level, but it has 
not afforded a large tonnage. The Ophir stopes from 
the 2000 to the 2200-ft. levels continue to yield good 
ore at the rate of $10,000 to $12,000 per week. The 
character of the ore, and the ratio of 45 to 55 be- 
tween the gold and the silver continues as in the up- 
per levels. Ore of comercial grade has not yet been 
found on the 2300-ft. level. In the Mexican, ore has 
been found in driving northeast from the north line 
of the Ophir on the 2200-ft. level. With the changing 
character of the weekly assay-report it may be as- 
sumed that the drift is being run on the apex of a 
lens. Prom the position of the ore in neighboring 
ground, there is warrant for the belief that an impor- 
tant orebody will be found in the vicinity. This is 
the one mine on the north end that has not yet pro- 
duced ore. Reform the Comstock ? It is an idle and 
an unnecessary suggestion. It is for the stockhold- 
ers — the mine owners — to combine their properties 
for economical working, to support the measures laid 
out for rehabilitation, wherein lies the possibility for 
an early resumption of mining on a scale at all com- 
parable with the expectations which its past history 
has fostered. 

The immediate hope of Nevada lies in several 
small gold camps, any one of which may develop to 
greatness. At Seven Troughs, two or three mills 
have started; Chafey looks cheerful, although the 
ore is low-grade. Old camps like Pioehe, Search- 
light, and Silver City are being resuscitated. Aside 
from these is the outlook for a great revival of lead 
mining in the vicinity of Las Vegas, and the de- 
velopment of new impregnated copper deposits like 
that at Ely is predicted. 



January 2. 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



15 



ALASKA AND THE YUKON. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By T. A. RicKABD. 

The history of ','old mining in the extreme north- 
western corner of the American continent divides 
into two periods: one characterized by the discov- 
s near Juneau, with the development of the 
Treadwell lode, and the other by the uncovering of 
rich placers at Dawson, Nome, and Fairbanks. The 
first period started with the finds made by Juneau 
and Harris on Gold creek, in 1880; the second and 
more important series of events began with George 
Carmack's discovery on Bonanza creek in 1897. Be- 
tween these two dates some desultory prospecting 
was done along the coast, and a little placer mining 
at Forty-Mile. Circle, and elsewhere in the watershed 
of the Yukon. During this interval the Alaska- 
Treadwell gave fame to the region, encouraging the 
hope that other large ore deposits might be discov- 
ered. Indeed, some rich mines were found on Ber- 
ners Bay and elsewhere in the 
Juneau district, but the vast in- 
terior of the country, now the 
scene of such productive activ- 
ity, remained unknown and dis- 
regarded. 

Since 1897 the alluvial depos- 
its of the Yukon and Alaska 
have yielded fully $200,000,000. 
This has been extracted at a 
profit unusual in mining, as it 
was derived from superficial 
concentrations of gold-bearing 
gravel, comparable in their rich- 
ness to the deposits that excited 
the world in the early days of 
California and Victoria. The 
feverish production of gold 
from the Klondike and Tanana 
valleys, and from the beaches of 
the Seward Peninsula, lasted for 
two or three years. Since then 

there has been a decline in the yield. The decrease has 
led to the query whether, after all, this phase of min- 
ing must not necessarily be short-lived, being depend- 
ent upon small and shallow deposits of extraordinary 
richness, rather than immense accumulations of gold- 
bearing material such as have afforded the basis for 
long-continued operations in older mining districts. 
I confess that when I started last June to make a 
journey of observation through the North, it was 
with the expectation of finding evidence of an ephe- 
meral industry. Men who ought to have been fairly 
well informed had told me that the placers were 
showing signs of exhaustion and that for an assured 
future Alaska must look to her copper and coal re- 
sources. That view, moreover, accorded with expe- 
rience elsewhere. But it was wrong. 

Leaving San Francisco, the traveler goes by sea 
for 1700 miles before he reaches Skagway ; there the 
railroad of the White Pass & Yukon Route takes him 
over the coast range to White Horse, a distance of 
112 miles : then he descends on the upper waters of 



the Yukon river to Dawson, another 450 miles. From 
Dawson the journey down the Yukon, now a lordly 
river, is 1600 miles to Bering Sea, with 110 milts 
more to Nome. From Nome to San Francisco direct 
the voyage is 2730 miles. Thus, after crossing the 
coast range by the White Pass, at an altitude of 
2880 ft. above tide-water, and only 20 miles distant 
from the wharf, the traveler descends the Yukon 
for 2144 miles before he reaches the sea again. These 
figures are cited for the purpose of emphasizing the 
extent of the region. The District of Alaska covers 
580,000 square miles, and the Yukon Territory, 200,- 
000. Until some notion of the immensity of the area 
is obtained, it is impossible to realize the difficulties 
of transport, the relative insignificance of the popu- 
lation, and the limitless possibilities for further dis- 
covery. 

Dawson and the Klondike. 
Dawson is the first important mining centre 
reached by the traveler. It is true that there are 
some promising copper mines at White Horse, and 




Map Showing Relative Size of Alaska. 
After V. S. Geological Survey. 

on the Stewart, White, and other tributaries of the 
Yukon work is in progress, but as I purpose making 
a broad review of the country and of its future pros- 
pects, we shall land mentally at the mouth of the 
Klondike, where Dawson spreads itself along the 
river front. It is not necessary to recite the tale of 
first discovery, the stampede that amazed the world, 
nor the evolution of mining methods, each of which 
would form matter for an interesting story. Let us 
see Dawson as it is today. Until three years ago 
the mining operations of individuals, syndicates, and 
small companies sufficed to exploit the rich claims 
that had been located on the various creeks flowing 
into the Indian river and the Klondike, both of 
which are tributaries of the Yukon. The creeks are 
thus divisible into two principal groups: (1) those 
draining northward into the Klondike river, includ- 
ing Bonanza. Hunker, and Eldorado, and (2) those, 
on the south side of the Dome ridge, flowing into the 
Indian river, such as Dominion, Sulphur, and Quartz. 
While the second group has yielded a good deal of 



16 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



gold (about $25,000,000), the bulk of the' output (or 
$100,000,000) has been derived from the first group. 
At the present time mining is proceeding in a desul- 
tory manner on the south side of the Dome, but an 
enlargement of the scale of operations is likely nest 
season. The main centre of activity is on Bonanza 
and Hunker creeks, where a large consolidation of 
property has been effected. After individual min- 
ing in a sporadic manner had proved the richness of 
the creek deposits and had led to the discovery of 
important bench gravels, an English promoter named 
A. N. C. Treadgold succeeded, by persistence and 
obstinate good sense, in obtaining options on enough 
claims to form the nucleus for a big mining enter- 
prise on the Klondike watershed. He succeeded in 
enlisting the financial participation of the Guggen- 
heims and the technical assistance of the engineers 




employed by that enterprising family. Thus the 
Yukon Gold Co. was created. 

In the creek-beds of the narrow valleys are fluvia- 
tile deposits of extraordinary richness. Most of the 
claims have been worked already, and the tailing 
from the first operations is rich enough to be re- 
worked. But some of the ground is virgin, and will 
yield as much as $2 per cubic yard through a depth 
of 15 to 20 ft. In addition to these creek deposits, 
there are bench gravels of Pliocene age. These con- 
stitute the celebrated White Channel, an older de- 
posit, through which the present valley has been 
eroded, with enrichment of the creeks by concentra- 
tion of the gold from that older deposit. The bed- 
rock of this White Channel is 195 ft. above the sur- 
face of Bonanza creek; the greatest vertical thick- 
ness of the deposit is 110 ft., and the biggest hori- 
zontal width of gravel is 1200 ft. Several of the 
hillsides expose gravel-beds 800 ft. wide for a verti- 
cal height of 40 to 45 ft. The longest face on any 
one hill is 4000 ft. Each lateral gully and tributary 
entering Bonanza has cut into the White Channel, 



enriching Bonanza creek at that point, but cutting a 
hole in the bench gravel. The engineers estimate 
that they have 47,000,000 cubic yards in the White 
Channel, and the yield is estimated at 32 cents per 
yard. Actual tests have given returns ranging from 
30 cents to $2.30 per cubic yard. The deposit is easy 
to disintegrate when once thawed; when hydrau- 
licking begins, with ample water under heavy pres- 
sure, a duty of 5 cu. yd. per miner's inch may be 
expected. In order to obtain room for the tailing 
discharged from these hillside operations, it was 
necessary to control the creek claims. This has been 
done ; and as they become worked out, by dredging 
and other methods, the tailing from the White Chan- 
nel will be discharged upon them, until the hillsides 
and valleys are a gray desolation, on which the Arc- 
tic moss will eventually spread a protecting cover, as 
before the irruption of man into this 
northern wilderness. 

The Yukon Gold Co. now controls the 
ground made famous by the Klondike 
rush, and is ready to conduct operations 
on a large scale. About $11,000,000 has 
been spent in equipment and purchase 
of ground during the last three seasons ; 
an electric power-plant, a 70-mile ditch 
system, seven dredges, sundry reser- 
voirs, several pipe-lines, and all other 
requirements for alluvial mining in a 
systematic manner have been completed. 
Next year will see the beginning of 
large operations, which are certain to 
be productive and profitable. This im- 
portant enterprise has suffered from 
being associated with a disreputable 
trickster at Boston, but it is in the 
hands of clever people, and the tech- 
nical direction has been given to profes- 
sional men of recognized ability, so that 
there is every prospect of results of 
far-reaching importance. The failure 
of the Yukon Gold Co. would be a dis- 
aster to the mining industry of the North; the suc- 
cess of it will stimulate other operations on a large 
scale. Success seems assured. 

While the Yukon Gold Co.'s work is much the 
most important undertaking in the district tributary 
to Dawson, it must not be supposed that these opera- 
tions include all the local activity. On the south side 
of the Dome, and even on the northern watershed, so 
largely dominated by the Guggenheim holdings, the 
alluvial mines are producing gold and they will con- 
tinue to do so, but it must be confessed that the 
possession of water-power and the control of the 
major portion of the room available for tailing will 
give the Yukon Gold Co. an opportunity to acquire 
most of the rich ground on the north side of the 
Dome. This has annoyed, and will further annoy, 
many good people who dislike the too complete domi- 
nance of a single concern. However, it will enable 
many claim-holders to dispose of their property at a 
good profit, and it will distribute money among men 
who will thus become equipped for further explora- 
tion in the surrounding wilderness. Every large 



January 2, L909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



17 



mining company arts as ■, feeder for local enterprise 

by affording the capital i ded by the individual 

operator, whether that capital take the form of 
large sums received for claims, or wages paid to 
workmen, or money transferred to local merchants 
in exchange for supplies. 

Outside of the Dawson district, there is activity 

in dredging on the stew-art and the Forty-Mile rivers. 
Some of the dredges have done well during the past 
season and there is encouragement for an extension 
of this kind of mining; but such favorable comment 
must lie accompanied by a warning lest it lead to 
misunderstanding. The old blunders, of using ma- 
chines of light construction, of attacking ground 
that is partly frozen, of insufficient drill-testing be- 
fore dredging, and inadequate equipment afterward, 
are repeated, needlessly and scandalously. There 



successfully in the washing apparatus on the dredge. 
Another feature of the work done during recent 
years has Keen the discovery that along many 
streams the channel is not frozen, so that dredging 
can proceed with but little hindrance. This has 
been the experience in the Klondike valley and on 
the lower reaches of the Forty-Mile river. It must 
he remembered that all the early alluvial mining 
was done in frozen ground, for thawed gravel meant 
pumping, timbering, and other expenditures anxious- 
ly avoided by the Alaskan or Yukoner. Owing to the 
difficulty of testing thawed ground in the ordinary 
way by shaft-sinking, the exploration of the deposits 
most suitable for dredging was delayed until churn- 
drills w r cre employed intelligently. Drilling is now 
in progress at many points and a large amount of 
systematic information is being collected. This will 




Map of Alaska. 

After U. S. Geological Survey, with additions. 



is no excuse for these childish mistakes, the experi- 
ence now available should obviate the repetition of 
them, and all who speculate in this form of mining- 
should take pains to apply the lessons of the past 
for the better illumination of the future. One lesson 
learned during the last two or three seasons is the 
hopelessness of trying to dredge in frozen ground — ■ 
that way lies destruction of the dredge and disaster 
to the enterprise. On the other hand, the work done 
by the engineers of the Yukon Gold Co. has proved 
that thawing with steam is not as costly as was sup- 
posed; in ground 20 to 25 ft. deep the expense is 15 
to 20c. per yard, and by stripping the overburden 
of moss and 'muck' this figure can be reduced one- 
half, so that the method is vastly cheaper than blind 
butting into a solid mass of frozen gravel, which, 
even if it be dug by the buckets, cannot be treated 



prepare the way for the intelligent application of 
dredging, elevating, or any other form of placer 
mining deemed suitable to local conditions. 

Fairbanks and the Tanana Valley. 

The three great mining centres of the North are 
Dawson, Fairbanks, and Nome; they are so situated 
as to serve as distributing points for separate regions. 
Dawson, being just east of the American-Canadian 
boundary, is a point of departure for the miners in 
the Yukon districts on the one side and also for 
Circle, Eagle, and other camps that are in Alaska 
but near the boundary and down-stream from Daw- 
son. Fairbanks is on the Tanana river, at a point 
275 miles above its confluence with the Yukon; this 
town is the supply point for the entire Tanana val- 
ley, and also for the prospectors going up the tribu- 



18 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



tary streams. Being in the heart of interior Alaska, 
Fairbanks is steadily gaining in importance ; some- 
day it will be a division point on a railroad from the 
Lynn Canal to Nome — at least, that is what some of 
its intelligently optimistic citizens assert. Nome, of 
course, is the port of entry for the Seward Penin- 
sula and the extreme northwestern corner of Alaska, 
as well as for the Siberian coast opposite. 

The first discoveries of gold in the Tanana region 
were made in 1902. In 1905 the output of gold was 
$3,750,000 ; in 1907 it was $7,500,000 ; and in 1908 it 
is estimated to have been $9,000,000. 

The region tributary to Fairbanks consists of a 
number of contiguous districts traversed by differ- 
ent creeks possessing alluvial deposits varying 
greatly in dimensions, depth, and richness. For the 
most part the gold-bearing channels occupy the beds 
of open valleys sunk about a thousand feet below the 
ridges separating them. The gradient is slight, 
averaging aboiit 100 ft. per mile. 

The first discovery was made on Pedro creek, a 
tributary of Gold Stream. During the last two years 
this gold-bearing channel has been traced for eight 
miles down Gold Stream and up the lateral gulches. 
Cleary creek was the scene of the first big finds and 
yielded fortunes to many operators : since then the 
channel has been followed into the Chatanika valley, 
where deeper mining, by 'drifting,' is required. 
Similarly, Esther, Dome, Vault, Treasure, and Fair- 
banks are the names of small creeks flowing along 
valleys in which gold mining has been undertaken, 
with varying success. Esther creek in 1908 was one 
of the best. Thus the name of Fairbanks represents 
a goldfield covering fully 200 square miles and a 
score of known alluvial channels containing gold in 
profitable proportion. 

The bedrock is schist and quartzite-sehist ; it is 
usually soft, shattered, and easily mined. The gold 
lies within the crevices of the bedrock and in the 
bottom layer of the fluviatile deposit. The 'gravel' 
consists of angular and sub-angular fragments of the 
prevailing country rock. Most of the gold that is 
extracted comes from the sediment lying upon the 
bedrock and from the uppermost portion of that 
bedrock, at least two feet of it being removed and 
washed in the sluice-boxes. A yield of $1 per square 
foot of bedrock uncovered is a fair return for a 
'drift' mine that is 14 to 15 ft. deep. Profitable 
mining has been done, by 'drifting,' as deeply as 
150 ft. On No. 4 and No. 5 Below on El Dorado, 
for example, the pay-gravel is 80 to 90 ft. wide. The 
portion removed includes 4 ft. of alluvium and 2 
ft. of bedrock. I saw pieces of gold weighing over 
two ounces that had been taken from this ground in 
July. The local unit is the gravel lying upon a 
square foot of bedrock. A fair return is $1.50 per 
square foot, at 25 to 60 ft. deep; the thickness of 
material extracted is usually 6 ft. and a pay-channel 
80 to 100 ft. wide is considered excellent. The gold 
is coarse, sometimes very coarse. On No. 5 Little 
El Dorado on August 3, 1908, the clean-up yielded 
296 oz. gold, not one-half of which would go through 
a sieve having apertures of Vio inch. The largest 
nugget weighed 10y 2 oz. Naturally, the cheapest 



mining, and therefore the most successful, is done 
where the ground is shallow and completely frozen. 
In the upper valley of Cleary, for example, at No. 
1 Below, the bedrock is found at a depth of 18 ft. A 
vertical section shows 2 ft. of moss, 10 ft. of over- 
burden, 5 to 8 ft. of pay-gravel. Since 3 ft. of bed- 
rock is mined, the total thickness of profitable ma- 
terial is 7 to 12 ft. This ground is stripped with 
scrapers and then removed by self-dumping buckets. 
The Discovery claim, a short distance farther up- 
the valley of Cleary, has yielded over $1,000,000 in 
four seasons and the bench claim adjoining has given 
$500,000. On the latter J. C. Smith and his asso- 
ciates took out $20,000 in 32 hours. The remnant 
of ground remaining is 33 ft. deep and is worked by 
'drifting.' Thawing with steam-points at night is- 
followed by pick-and-shovel work in the daytime, 
aided by a self-dumping bucket, which carries the 
gold-bearing stuff to the sluice-boxes. 

Mining has been confined mainly to 'drifting, ' that 
is, sinking a shaft in the frozen ground to bedrock 
and then extending galleries underground on top- 
of bedrock. Only recently has there been any at- 
tempt to employ the open-cut method systematically. 
As a rule the bedrock is too deep to permit of open- 
cutting. Dredging has not been attempted, as yet. 

Distance down-stream does not necessarily mean 
additional depth to bedrock ; there are many curious- 
changes of level. A shaft in the Chatanika valley, 
below the confluence of Vault creek, went down 315 
ft. in frozen ground before bedrock was reached. 
Twenty miles farther the valley narrows and bed- 
rock outcrops in the bed of the stream. For miles- 
the bedrock is then only 8 to 10 ft. deep. On Gold 
Stream, near the confluence with Moose creek, the- 
depth to bedrock is 35 ft., while above, at the mouth 
of El Dorado, a shaft was sunk 186 ft. to bedrock. 
The existence of small lakes, and the low divides- 
between some of the valleys, suggest that erosion 
and elevation have made important changes in the- 
hydrography of the region. 

On several creeks the bedrock is so deep as to- 
tax the miner severely. The bedrock of Dome creek 
is 60 to 170 ft. deep ; on Vault the shallowest mines 
are 100 to 175 ft. deep ; on Treasure, the depth is- 
180 ft. Even rich ground is unprofitable under 
such conditions. On Esther creek No. 6 Above shows 
bedrock at 22 ft., No. 3 Below gets into bedrock at 
45 ft., and No. 8 Below at 92 ft. ; but the gradient- 
is not regular. 

The important fact remains that there is much' 
ground that is 40 ft. deep or less : on Cleary, from- 
3 Above to 4 Below ; on Fairbanks, as far as 10 Be- 
low; on Pedro, all the way from Twin creek to 10' 
Below, where it joins Gold Stream ; on Gold Stream 
as far as 9 Below. More ground of this character 
is likely to be found when the region is carefully 
prospected. There are scores of creeks on which no 
hole has been sunk to bedrock, because the ground 
is not wholly frozen and is therefore not adapted to 
mining through shafts. Such tracts have not been 
tested even by drilling, as yet. A ride on horseback 
along the dividing ranges in late summer, when such 
an expedition is practicable by reason of the drying. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



19 



.of the mossy covering of the ground, will suggest to 
.any observant engineer that there remains a wide 
stretch of untried possibilities within the heart of 
this almost untrodden wilderness. According to 

Lueien S. Robe, a resident engineer, there is a spa- 



region is badly situated. The creeks drain no lofty 
mountain range; their watersheds are low hills, on 
which the snow does not rest in summer. The catch- 
ment areas are small. During the summer the creeks 
are fed by ground-water, derived from the melting 




On Dome Creek, Yukon. 



cious region 60 to 125 miles south of Fairbanks 
where dredgeable gravel 15 to 40 ft. deep is spread : 
this gravel runs $3 "per shovel," that is, the quan- 



of tundra iee. The run-off per square mile of drain- 
age-area was unusually low this year, from 25 to 
35% lower than in 1907. Any shower is at once 




Rudimentary Alluvial Mining in Masks. This Method is Known as 'Shoveling In.' 
Photograph loaned by U. S. Geological Survey. 



tity a man with a No. 2 shovel can move in a shift 
of 10 hours — about 6 to 7 cu. yd. Such statements 
are, at least, suggestive. There is a splendid scope 
for intelligent prospecting in behalf of experienced 
operators. 

From a hydrographic standpoint, the Tanana 



felt in the increased volume of the creeks, because 
the tundra is in a saturated condition from the thaw- 
ing of the sub-soil ice. The effect of a shower is 
temporary. There is no natural storage : the sparse 
growth of trees is unfavorable to economy of snow 
or rain, no high mountains furnish resting places 



20 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



for snow, and the low gradient of the valleys pre- 
vents any hydraulic head being available for mining 
operations. Under such conditions hydraulic mining 
is impracticable, and even the construction of long 
ditches is not to be encouraged. In order to obtain 
head it is necessary to go up-stream; in going up- 
stream the flow available decreases rapidly, because 
the supply comes from ground-water, not from snow- 
fields at the source. Transmission of power as elec- 
tricity is practicable, the application of the dredge 
and the mechanical elevator is worthy of investiga- 
tion, and the conservation of water is imperative. 
I shall return to this part of the subject again; the 
facts to hand emphasize the richness of the Fair- 
banks region, and the wide area of fluviatile de- 
posits containing gold. If situated in a country less 
large and less remote than Alaska, Fairbanks would 
be recognized as one of the great goldfields of the 
world. 

Nome and the Coastal Plain. 

Descending the Yukon we reach Bering Sea and 
cross Norton sound to the southern shore of the 
Seward Peninsula, where Nome looks westward to- 
ward Asia. The first mining was done on Ophir 
creek in 1897 and the first beach discovery was made 
in June 1899. Gold had been found by white men 
as early as 1888, but no mining resulted. The rush 
to Nome was due to the finding of gold in the sea- 
beach during the sumer of 1899 ; the following year 
saw the stampede. The output of gold from the 
Seward Peninsula during the ten years since 1898 is 
estimated at $50,000,000. The maximum was reached 
in 1906, when the Third Beach proved so productive. 
Of the total output fully $22,000,000 has come from 
the sea-beaches, present and ancient. In 1908 pro- 
duction suffered from a scanty water-supply, the 
precipitation being half the normal, so that only 
$5,000,000 was extracted. 

This is an enormous tract of mining country; the 
Peninsida includes 20,000 square miles, the major 
portion of which is mineral-bearing. For the pur- 
pose of description the gold-bearing areas may be 
divided into creeks and beaches. No vein mining 
of any consequence is being done, the one important 
mine (the Big Hurrah) having closed down. On 
the creeks the methods of mining and the conditions 
of gold occurrence resemble other parts of Alaska, 
except that limestone and lime-shale often consti- 
tute the bedrock, alongside the schist. This harder 
bedrock modifies the concentration of the gold and 
influences the cost of mining. On Anvil, Glacier, 
Dexter, Ophir, and other streams extraordinarily 
rich placer deposits have been found and exploited 
successfully. The rudimentary methods of the first 
prospectors have been followed by open-cutting, the 
use of the hydraulic elevator, and finally by dredg- 
ing. An enlargement of the water-supply has been 
ensured by the construction of several long ditch- 
systems, such as the Miocene, Seward, Penny, 
Pioneer, Cedrie, Topkok, and Paragon, all of which 
are fed from a watershed in the high mountains in 
the central portion of the Peninsula. By aid of this 
water the stream and bench deposits of gravel have 



been mined successfully, if extravagantly. The yield 
has discouraged economy and it is only lately that 
technical efficiency and businesslike administration 
have replaced the flamboyant ways of the boom 
period. 

From the fluviatile deposits along the bottom of 
the gold-bearing streams of the Peninsula there will 
be much gold extracted, even by re-working ground 
already exploited by the hasty methods of the first 
operators, but the chief interest centres on the possi- 
bility of mining the coastal plain behind the town 
of Nome. To understand the character of this de- 
posit, it will be necessary to outline the story of the 
beaches. 

Gold was found in the sand of the shore border- 
ing Bering Sea in 1899 and fortunes were dug by 
mere washing of the detritus that the tides had con- 
centrated into a fringe stretching for many miles 
between Cape Nome and Point Rodney. In 1902 
gold was found on the edge of the tundra back of 
the beach and the continuity of a rich deposit of 
similarly concentrated particles of gold, garnet, and 
magnetite was proved. This was traced across the 



f \ & 




^ 


V / P V 




J 






") \ 


s. r / < ^>) / 


f 














No 


) TMRD^A BCACH f .K^^P e * ,t 


\- 




~~~~~-~. ,'""% [J )1>^.f^ 






/=bOT?^£^=t£S**o r^J? JiWi. ^ 


Ksv r 




Rodney ^^ i *4J^-'^c^. t V-^ — "f tr )?Tv 


' ( >i i 




^^^SsM^n 


^t j 




BER lu G W 8 ^-^ 




""^LX* 5 


Jfca/a <S '-4*-j 




^^*L X 


O J MJMILES ■*■? 










Nome 



The Beaches of Nome. 

tundra for 9 miles in a line nearly parallel to the 
present. shore and was called the Second Beach. A 
low escarpment covered by the tundra indicates the 
origin of the deposit, which was worked profitably 
in a number of mines for a distance of 2 to 3 miles. 
The gold lay on a false bottom of clay 37 ft. above 
present tide-water. This stimulated further search, 
which was now aided by the preliminary reports of 
the TJ. S. Geological Survey. In the fall of 1904 the 
Third Beach was discovered, through the accident of 
a shaft being sunk in a creek where the beach de- 
posit crossed. This Third Beach lay on a false bot- 
tom at 70 ft. above tide-water and an average of 
45 to 60 ft. below the present surface. It followed 
a flat crescent, the horns of which were near Cape 
Nome and Point Rodney, and thus it marked the 
line of a former shore. The distance from the pres- 
ent beach to the Third Beach through Nome is 3 
miles and the rise is 68 ft. Subsequently an inter- 
mediate beach was found, about 1% miles inland, 
and 22 ft. above sea-level, but on bedrock. Other 
deposits of the same nature, but less continuous, have 
been found. Thus it has been demonstrated that the 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



21 



coastal plain stretching east and wart from the town 
of Nome is underlain with a series of old marine con- 
centrations of gold-bearing gravel. Of these, the 

Third Beach has yielded about $i:>.000,000 and has 
contained s wonderfully rich spots. From a lit- 
toral fringe (now 50 ft. underground) 25 ft. wide 

as liim.li as $3000 per running foot has been taken 
for a distance of 110 ft. While the ground was ex- 
tracted for a depth of 3 ft., the rich pay consisted 
usually nf a couple of inches of the bottom and an 
inch nf the overlying sediment. These beaches cross 
the present creek-valleys and gullies, cutting across 
the tundra from the coast range to the sea. Thus 
Hastings, Dry, Bourbon, and Anvil creeks have been 
mined, and also the 
Nome, Snake, and 
Penny rivers, in all of 
which placer depos- 
its have been formed 
by the concentration 
of gold from the hills 
to the north and by 
the concentration of 
the gravel constitut- 
ing the coastal plain 
itself. The question 
then arises whether 
the whole coastal 
plain is not a work- 
able gold-bearing al- 
luvial flat. 

The coastal plain 
is an immense talus 
spread along the 
shore of Bering Sea 
and extended south- 
ward as the land has 
been slowly elevated. 
Of this geological 
fact there is ample 
proof. The source of 
the tundra gold is 
the mineralized 
schist of the foot- 
hills that rise above 
the flats at a distance 
ranging from 3 to 

Z 1 /* miles due north of Nome. This is at the centre 
of the sweeping curve made by the old coast between 
Cape Nome and Point Komney. The creeks that 
cross this plain on their way to the sea are richer 
than the mass of the deposit simply because the 
amount of gravel has been diminished one-third, 
while the gold from the third that has been washed 
into the sea has settled to bedrock. Owing to the 
clean character of the overburden, the gold has 
settled, until finally a layer of clay has arrested fur- 
ther descent. Thus it is found on a false bottom at 
some distance above bedrock. Vertical sections of 
the deposit have been obtained from bore-holes and 
shafts. While most of the gold is concentrated to- 
ward the bottom, there are enrichments at 10 ft. 
and at 20 ft., as well as at other horizons. In the 
creeks a return of 50 to 70 cents for a thickness of 




Vegetables Grown in the Summer of 1908 af Fairbanks 
Latitude 6*° 51 ' Worth. 



!"i in 40 ft. is recorded by numerous drill-holes; ou 

the tundra the depth is 40 to till ft. and the sampling 
indicates a more variable yield, from L';3 to 40 cents 
per cubic yard. Even in the deepest holes the par- 
ticles id gold are sufficiently numerous to suggest 
that the whole mass mighl be worth exploiting. 

The richest portion of this coastal plain is from 
Nome river to Snake river, a distance of 9 miles. 
Here the maximum width is 3% miles. At a rough 
estimate there is here I'.") square miles of gold-bear- 
ing territory. The depth may be averaged at 50 ft. 
I shall not make any calculation as to the millions 
of cubic yards of material existing within these 
limits, because any of my readers can perform this 

s im p le arithmetical 
exercise for them- 
selves; moreover, it 
is not likely that the 
entire area is equally 
gold-bearing, nor in- 
deed is all of it likely 
to be rich enough for 
profitable mining op- 
erations. My purpose 
is simply to draw at- 
tention to a most im- 
portant stretch o f 
gold-bearing eon n- 
try, known to be rich 
enough to invite sys- 
tematic prospecting. 
The facts available 
at this time warrant 
the expenditure of 
money in drilling 
and in other methods 
of testing; the infor- 
mation at hand as 
yet does not justifj r 
the launching of big 
schemes of operation. 
Any plans to ex- 
ploit this most inter- 
e s t i n g deposit . of 
gold-bearing detritus 
must have reference 
to the flat slope of 
the bedrock, the frozen condition of portions of 
the deposit, the thawed condition of other por- 
tions, the covering of moss, and the disposal of 
tailing. The tundra can be ground-sluiced for the 
removal of the covering of moss for a cost of about 
$2500 per acre. If the ground is then drained and 
the warm summer rain allowed to percolate through 
the exposed gravel, it may be possible to thaw .with- 
out using steam-points. In any event, hgr.e. is a 
problem and a possibility well worthy of the atten- 
tion of technical skill and speculative energy. ... 

Mining in the North is hindered by the high, .cost 
of transport. The freight rate to Fairbanks. from 
Seattle or San Francisco ranges from $75,^0 $150 
per ton by the, two companies that control the river 
traffic. To Nome the rate is $12, one-third of > which 
is charged for lighterage. In consequence of the high 



Alaska, 



22 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



cost of transport, the wages paid workmen range 
froin $4 to $6 per day, plus board, which costs from 
$1.50 to $3, according to locality. The operators 
complain of the high wages and the workmen in the 
mines complain of the small margin left after paying 
for the necessaries of life, and the cost of getting 
into and out of the country. Most of the men mi- 
grate at the end of the summer season. This entails 
economic waste. At Nome it is not so bad, but at 
Fairbanks the coming and going consume an amount 
of money and time that is a severe tax on the in- 
dustry, which pays it indirectly. The cost of mining 
at Nome is sure to be diminished shortly, for both 
'abor and supplies are certain to be cheapened by the 
facility of ocean transport, but at Fairbanks no 
marked decrease is likely so long as the two trans- 
portation companies unite in controlling rates and 
maintaining them at a prohibitive figure. A rail- 
road from Lynn Canal to Fairbanks would change 
the entire economic aspect of the interior of Alaska. 
Lack of water is another drawback. The interior 
■of Alaska is an arid region. Most people are so ac- 
customed to thinking of the country as covered with 
snow arid ice that they do not realize the dryness of 
the climate. Southeastern Alaska, to 'which most 
tourists go, is abnormally wet, the precipitation .at 
Juneau being from 95 to 100 in, per year. In 14 
years the rainfall at Juneau averaged 93.7 in. At 
Fairbanks the rainfall in 1906 was 10.63 in. At 
Tanana in four years it averaged 15.45 in. ■ and in 
1907, 14.10 in. At. St. Michael the average is be- 
tween 16 and 20 in. At Nome in 1907 it was 16.69 
in., and in the first six months of 1908 it was only 
3.49. No wonder the placer miners are short of 
water, or that it sells for $1 per miner's inch per 
day. And yet the Alaskan often uses his water 
wastefully, employing it in hydraulic operations of 
low efficiency. In many cases it would be more 
economical to transform the energy of the stream 
into electricity and transfer this power along a cop- 
per wire for use in machinery, such as the dredge 
or the mechanical elevator. In some cases power can 
be obtained from the ditches, at their upper end, 
without severe curtailment of the pressure available 
at the mine ; under such conditions the water, after 
use on a wheel, could be returned to a lower ditch, 
undiminished in volume. In a region presenting un- 
usual difficulties to the building and maintenance of 
ditches, it is cheaper to transmit power as electricity. 
A wire can be stretched farther and more easily than 
a ditch can be dug or a pipe laid. The small trees 
growing in the interior of Alaska will usually pro- 
vide sufficient poles close to the place where they are 
to be erected and the climatic conditions are favor- 
able to the maintenance of such a pole line. The 
average cost of an electrical transmission line con- 
ducting 30,000 volts is $1000 per mile, while the 
average cost of a ditch able to deliver 5000 miner's 
inches (7500 cu.ft.permin.) of water is $20,000 per 
mile. At Nome oil is delivered for $2.75 per bbl. By 
burning this comparatively cheap fuel, transmitting 
the power to scrapers, mechanical elevators, and 
dredges, while using the water for washing the 
gravel, an economic operation is practicable. 



The purpose of mining is to make a profit, which 
is measured by the difference between yield and cost. 
It matters but little whether the cost is high if the 
yield be proportionately large. The tendency is to 
look most favorably on large low-grade deposits, 
operated at a small cost and returning a steady in- 
come ; they are preferred to rich deposits because 
their persistence as ore deposits ensures the life of 
the industrial undertakings for which they afford a 
basis. Men have learned that rich mines are short- 
lived, usually; therefore they anticipate the brevity 
of an enterprise founded on bonanza ore, until actual 
proof of big reserves is forthcoming. This is a sen- 
sible attitude, for it is justified by experience. On 
the other hand, low costs do not always spell suc- 
cess, nor do high costs necessarily entail failure. It 
may be more profitable to use 'steam-points' and 
dredge at a total cost of 25 cents per cubic yard in 
one locality than to dredge easy ground for 5 cents 
per yard in another place ; everything depends upon 
the amount of gold extracted as a result of these 
operations ; a yield of 80 cents in the one case gives 
a profit of 55 cents, while a return of 15 cents affords 
only 10 cents per yard in the other case. If this 
result be applied to the amortization of capital, it be- 
comes possible to appraise the economic attractive- 
ness of the two enterprises. 

To those accustomed to other mining regions in 
which alluvial mining is' predominant the richness of 
the gravels of the North is an insistent fact. The 
ground worked by drifting has averaged $4 per yard 
of material excavated, the ground worked by open- 
cut methods has averaged $2, the ground removed by 
the hydraulic elevators has yielded $1.25 per yard, 
and the dredges have averaged nearly $1 per yard; 
thus the gravel exploited in the North during the 
last ten years must have yielded $3 per cubic yard. 
And not more than one-half of the gold was ex- 
tracted. This is a large statement, but fully war- 
ranted. I could quote many eases of ground worked 
twice, even three times, that yielded as much at the 
second as it did when attacked in its virgin condi- 
tion. The yield has been astonishing, but the 
methods have been crude and incomplete. There is 
going to be much profitable working of ground 
deemed valueless under the expensive and extrava- 
gant ways of the boom period. To engineers and 
operators possessing capital, in the form of experi- 
ence and money, there is offered a splendid field for 
intelligent endeavor. The mining industry of Alaska 
and the Yukon is about to enter a new stage. 



To deposit copper upon glass, one part of freshly 
distilled phenylhydrazine is heated in two parts of 
water until the solution is clear. A warm solution of 
cupric hydroxide in ammonia is added, followed by a 
hot 10% solution of caustic potash until a slight pre- 
cipitate of cuprous hydroxide occurs. If the solution, 
in this condition, is brought in contact with a clean 
glass surface, a bright, perfectly reflecting deposit of 
copper forms upon it. The copper thus deposited is 
washed in an hour with water, then with alcohol, and 
finally with ether, in order to dry it without rupture. 
It is then coated with lacquer or varnish. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



23 



SMELTING CONDITIONS AT SALT LAKE. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By Courtenay Ue Kalb. 

.Mutual distrust between the smelters and the ore- 
producers in the West lias never been so great as at 

the present time. The miner has invariably a< pted 

the smelter as a necessary enemy, instead of an ally. 
The basis for settlement between ore-shipper and 
smelter is unavoidably complex. In the application 
of sliding scales, penalties, bonuses, discounts, and 

dii t charges, lie opportunities for over-reaching, 

which the shipper is prone to call by a harder name. 
Abuses have been common, buf it is certain that they 
were far more frequent in the old days of cut-throat 

petition than they are under existing conditions 

when, speaking broadly, no open market exists. 
Strenuous efforts to obtain a wide patronage led to 
such cutting of rates that only by resort to sharp 
practice was it possible iu many cases to win a profit. 
The miner is disposed to believe that the habit has 
been transmitted to the great corporations controll- 
ing the i>re market today. On the other hand, the 
smelters are forced into greater caution in dealing 
with the public. They feel themselves under the ban, 
along with every other great combination of capital. 
They realize that they are regarded as legitimate 
prey by all who can benefit through harrassing them 
in the courts or by adverse legislation. On their side, 
they believe that the public has acquired the habit 
of persecution. 

The day of the small smelting plant, however, may 
be said to have passed. With the increase in costs 
of labor and supplies, metals are necessarily pro- 
duced on a lower margin of profit than formerly. 
Only by conducting operations on a vast scale can 
economies be introduced to meet the changing indus- 
trial situation. The spasmodic opening and closing of 
small plants reveals the practical impossibility of com- 
petition with the larger establishments; not only are 
costs relatively increased, but refining in a small way 
is economically impracticable. This applies with spe- 
cial force to copper. Before the metal is ready for 
market terms must be made with the giant corpora- 
tions. It is a repetition of the ancient story of escap- 
ing Scylla to fall into Charybdis. 

If the shipper distrusts the large operator, he dis- 
trusts the small one even more. He must secure a 
steady market for his ore in order to prepare for 
cheap mining; he hesitates to tie himself to an enter- 
prise that may succumb at any moment, and leave 
him embarrassed for means to meet his obligations. 
The powerful company always exercises the greater 
attraction ; though it may drive a harder bargain, it 
can be relied upon to fulfil its engagements. Great 
combinations of capital for smelting can be fought 
only with the weapon of combination among the mine 
operators, and such organizations have so far proved 
ineffective. They have lacked cohesion ; perhaps 
they have lacked competent leadership ; they een- 
tainly have never been inclusive of a formidable 
majority, partly because of wavering conviction 
among the mine-operators, and partly because the 



large smelters from necessity have tied many pro- 
ducers by long-time contracts. Moreover, the smelter 
is a self-perpetuating enterprise, while the lives of 
mines arc usually uncertain. The smelting situation 
is not unique; it is merely one phase of the indus- 
trial revolution taking place in every department 
of human activity throughout the civilized world. 

Salt Lake City has become the most interesting 
smelting centre in America, and the battle wages 
there more hotly than elsewhere. It is centrally 
situated ; it is at the cross-roads of commerce in the 
Middle West; it is surrounded by mineral districts 
of phenomenal reliability, yielding a great variety 
of ores, and offering opportunities for mining on a 
stupendous scale as well as for working profitably 
with modest capital. Both lead and copper are pro- 
duced, the same districts containing mines of both 
metals. Basic ores predominate, and this extends 
the zone of attraction to Nevada, affording a market 
for the abundant silicious ores of that State. Large 
shipments are also made from Colorado to Salt Lake 
City, and from almost every mining camp in the 
Rocky Mountains. The conditions for economical 
smelting are ideal. In addition to the advantages 
already enumerated, enormous resources of coking 
coal exist only 125 miles away. Carbon county alone 
produces more than a million and a half tons of 
coal per annum, and the output for the State is 
approximately 2,000,000 tons. Run-of-mine coal laid 
down at Salt Lake City, Murray, Bingham Junction, 
and Garfield costs about $3.25 per ton, and slack is 
available at $2.75. As a result of these exceptional 
conditions smelting can be conducted at lower cost 
in the vicinity of Salt Lake City than at any other 
point in the Western States, and the smelting charges 
are actually lower than elsewhere. It has been 
asserted by representatives of both the American 
Smelting & Refining Co. and the United States 
Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., that the average 
net profit on the treatment of ores at their respective 
Utah plants does not exceed $1 per ton. If this be 
true, it represents an inadequate return upon the 
capital invested. There has been active competition 
between these corporations, which has inured to the 
advantage of the miners. In spite of this rivalry, 
complaints are wide-spread, and a friendly under- 
standing between these two companies is generally 
believed to exist. The circumstance that the United 
States company ships its silicious ores to the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Co.'s plant at Garfield is 
given as one evidence of such an understanding. At 
the beginning of the year 1908 great dissatisfaction 
prevailed throughout the State; it was freely as- 
serted that a working alliance respecting smelter 
contracts had been arranged between the two domi- 
nant concerns. In the nature of things, operating 
as they were upon a narrow margin of profit, the 
terms offered on either side could not be materially 
different. Harrassed as they were by suits for dam- 
age from smelter fume, they declined uncontracted 
shipments, and this spread the discontent. Damage- 
claims from farmers against the United States com- 
pany, now in court, exceed $300,000, and similar 
claims against all the smelting companies in the 



24 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



Salt Lake valley aggregate fuUy $1,000,000. The 
American Smelting company distributed the sum of 
$40,000 to the farmers as bonuses in consideration 
for the privilege of operating the lead plant at Mur- 
ray. The United States company offered to distrib- 
ute similarly the sum of $90,000 for a like privilege 
at Bingham Junction; this was declined. A situa- 
tion is thus revealed that calls for no comment or ex- 
planation. It was an important factor in deciding 
Judge John Marshall of the Federal Court to hand 
down a decree suspending the injunction against 
the Bingham Junction plant. He referred in his de- 
cision to this difference in the attitude of the farm- 
ers toward the two companies. He pointed out that 
the conditions in the voluntary agreement with the 
American company were less severe than those which 
the United States company offered to accept. The 
Court restricted the smelter to 0.75% sulphurous 
acid (S0 2 ) in the gases issuing from the stack, and 
required the complete removal from the fume of all 
arsenic, antimony, copper, lead, and sulphuric anhy- 
dride (S0 3 ). This decision was hailed with wild 
enthusiasm by the citizens of Bingham Junction. 
Whistles were blown, bells were rung, and the popu- 
lation turned out on parade headed by a brass band. 
The suspension of this injunction meant work for 
750 idle hands, and a monthly distribution in wages 
of $75,000. 

Under these terms the Bingham Junction plant 
lighted the fires in its lead furnaces, but the copper 
plant, consisting of six blast-furnaces, five stands of 
converters, and a large reverberatory furnace, re- 
mains closed. The warfare against smelter fume hits 
the copper industry with particular severity. The 
Murray plant of the American company is also treat- 
ing lead ores only, and the Highland Boy smelter of 
the Utah Consolidated company is abandoned. The 
building of the great plant of the American company 
at Garfield was the direct result of the agitation 
against the smoke nuisance. 

Garfield lies 25 miles west of Salt Lake City, at 
the southern end of the Great Salt Lake. It is fairly 
remote from the older farming communities. The 
company purchased large areas in order to form a 
buffer zone against the agriculturists. The works 
are sheltered behind the northern spurs of the 
Oquirrh range of mountains, and the prevailing 
winds were expected to obviate difficulty with the 
farmers in the valley. But the "prevailing winds" 
proved unreliable, and difficulties have arisen. The 
company maintains a close watch upon the agricul- 
tural districts ; a force of men detailed for this spe- 
cial duty is constantly observing the condition of 
vegetation, and taking samples of air for analysis. 
The region surrounding Garfield looks sufficiently 
barren to discourage agriculture, but no place seems 
desert enough to afford a safe asylum for a smelter. 
The farmer follows, attracted by the ready market, 
and, according to the smelters, by the hope of extra 
gains from 'smoke-money'. 

The Utah Consolidated, driven out of the valley 
by the farmers, has sought a retreat on the western 
side of the Oquirrh range, in Tooele valley. A novel 
arrangement has been made to avert a clash with the 



agriculturists. Instead of acquiring 'smoke-ease- 
ments' on the surrounding lands, the company has 
bought 1200 acres in the immediate vicinity of the 
smelter site in Pine canyon, and in addition has 
secured options on large outlying areas, aggregating 
over 20,000 acres, which might be subject to damage. 
Ten per cent of the contract price is paid down, and 
the company may exercise its options and take title 
in future by paying the remaining 90%. If the 
options are not exercised the original payment is 
forfeit to the owners of the land. This enterprise has 
been heralded as a new competitor in the Utah field. 
It manifestly represents an invasion by the Amalga- 
mated Copper Co., headed by John D. Ryan and 
Thomas F. Cole, and that, of course, means the Stan- 
dard Oil Company. The construction of the works 
will be under the direction of E. P. Mathewson as 
consulting metallurgical engineer. It has been 
hinted that this is but one link in an extensive chain 
of contemplated operations throughout the West, in- 
cluding an agreement with Phelps, Dodge & Co., and 
that it is in opposition to the interests of the Guggen- 
heims. Whatever of truth or falsehood may lie in 
this, the immediate purpose apparently involves little 
more than a relief for the Utah Consolidated. This 
company now transports its ore from the head of 
Carr fork, in Bingham canyon, by aerial tramway 
12,000 ft., to a loading station on the Bingham branch 
of the Denver & Rio Grande railway. Thence it 
costs approximately 30e. per ton for freight to the 
Garfield smelter. The new works across the range 
will be only 15,000 ft. distant by aerial tramway, so 
that a large saving in transportation will be effected. 
In addition, it is claimed that the reduction in smelt- 
ing costs will be 67e. per ton, yielding a total advan- 
tage of nearly $1. The new smelter will be owned 
and operated by a corporation organized separately 
from the Utah Consolidated. 

The entry of Standard Oil capital into Utah smelt- 
ing, however, undoubtedly marks the beginning of 
energetic competition. Whether advantage to the mine 
operator will accrue, beyond the mere enlargement 
of his market, is doubtful. It is hard to see how the 
rates can be much further reduced. The inadequacy 
of plant sufficient to handle the ores offered is gener- 
ally conceded, but the large producers are cared for 
under contract, and the small mines are not to be 
relied upon for a steady supply. At the beginning 
of the year a so-called "independent smelter move- 
ment" was started by F. Augustus Iieinze. This was 
part of an elaborate scheme to extend the Mascotte 
adit to the Ohio copper mine, in Bingham canyon, 
which would then serve for drainage and transpor- 
tation ; to build a concentration works, and smelter ; 
and to construct an electric railroad from Salt Lake 
City to Bingham, utilizing the Mascotte adit as part 
of the route. Funds were secured by a bond issue 
of the Bingham Central Railway Co., underwritten 
by the Metropolitan Trust Co. of New York. The 
issue was for $3,000,000, in 40-year 6% bonds, re- 
deemable in 1912, at the option of the company, at 
105. The Mascotte adit has just tapped the work- 
ings of the Ohio mine, and the concentrating mill is 
being built, but Mr. Heinze has not become a factor 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



in the smelting situation, [n January the Utah Mine 
Operators' Association, with John Dern as president, 
and Lafayette Hanchette, W. C. Alexander, George 
W. Etiter, ami Ernest Bamberger, as the executive com- 
mittee, passed resolutions Favoring the independent 
movement, and as the Association represents 90% of 
the operating mines of Utah, Mr. Heinze apparently 
had a fair field. At the same time the Tintic Smelt- 
ing Co. was busily engaged in the construction of a 
plant at Tintic, with a capacity of 400 tons of lead 
ore daily, ami promises were made of a 4S by 108-iu. 
copper furnace later. The plant was erected at a cost 
of $250,000; was blown in during the first week of 
August; and after a brief campaign of two months 

was blown out, owing, it was claimed, to defects in 
construction. The Independent Smelting Co. also 
was organized, and rehabilitated the small Ogden 



having available such avenues to market as lead 0U1 
of the Salt Lake valley, is not easily touebed by any 

metallurgical argument but the 0] 1' golden coin. 

II.' can raise alfalfa ami make a good living, and he 
knows it. The shortage of smelting facilities in Utah 
today is due primarily to difficulties over smelter 
fume. The damage done has been grossly exagge- 
rated; but the erection of smelting works in the cen- 
tre of a rich agricultural region was certain to lead 
to trouble. The metallurgical industry of past years 
in the Salt Lake valley, however, was insignificant 
beside that which is growing up today. Bingham 
canyon has within the year taken its place in the 
ranks of the greatest persistent copper-producing 
districts in the world. Shipments of ore from that 
district now exceed 12,000 tons per diem. The vast 
areas of monzonite impregnated with ehalcopyrite 




Smeller of American Smelting & Refining Co., af Garfield, Utah. 






smelter, which was blown in early in July. This is 
being operated as a custom plant. The Yampa 
smelter, in Bingham canyon, began the installation 
of a two-stand converter plant last summer. It is 
now treating about 700 tons of ore per diem, of 
which 200 tons represent silicious ores from Nevada. 
The Tampa Smelting Co. is a subsidiary corporation 
of the Tintie Mining & Development Co. The plant 
comprises two blast-furnaces, and three reverberato- 
ries, with converter equipment now in operation. 
The construction of the third reverberatory furnace, 
and of the converter plant, was undertaken in the 
face of an increasing number of damage suits by 
farmers. Complaints were filed affirming injury 
from fume 10 miles distant from the works. 

The Utah rancher enjoys an independent position. 
He was there before the smelters ; and while he 
appreciates in a measure the active demand for his 
products that increased local population causes, he 
could exist without the smelters. Any man in the 
arid West owning good land and water rights, and 



and bornite, lying close to the surface, and available 
by steam-shovel excavation after stripping a small 
amount of overburden, have introduced entirely new 
conditions. The Utah Copper Co. alone is sending 
concentrate to the Garfield smelter yielding 4,000,000 
lb. of copper monthly. The Boston Consolidated, 
with a mill little more than half completed, is turn- 
ing out concentrate representing nearly 2,000,000 lb. 
of copper monthly. These merely mark the begin- 
ning of the new order. Under the aggressive and 
brilliant leadership of Samuel Newhouse, who has 
been the leading spirit in the Boston Consolidated, 
the Newhouse Mines & Smelters Co. is enlarging the 
copper industry of the State by developments of 
great magnitude in Beaver county, where a smelter 
will soon be erected. 

The re-opening of the Ontario drainage adit, which 
was closed by caving in March, 1905, has given a 
new impetus to lead mining at Park City, which will 
become a more important producer than ever before. 
This adit, started in 1888, intersects the No. 2 shaft 



26 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



of the Ontario mine at the 1500-ft. level, 15,494 ft. 
from the portal. It extends thence under the Daly 
West property, attaining a total length of 25,000 ft. 
The mines benefited by the adit are the Ontario, 
Daly, Daly West, Silver King, and American Flag. 
Developments in the neighboring Alta district indi- 
cate that it will soon yield an enormous tonnage of 
lead ore and concentrate. 

In addition to normal growth in the Utah field, 
through increasing activity in the development 
locally of great mines, the restriction of operations 
at the Selby smelter on San Francisco Bay through 
injunctions obtained by the authorities of Benicia, 
and the abandonment of the plans for the construc- 
tion of a great smelter at San Bruno, also on San 
.Francisco Bay, have diverted business to Salt Lake. 
Opposition by the citizens of San Bruno to the erec- 
tion of a smelter caused the American Smelting & 
Refining Co., after expending fully $1,000,000, to 
remove the machinery and equipment that had been 
.delivered on the ground, to the Garfield plant, where 
it is now in service. Thus have many circumstances 
.contributed to augment the importance of the metal- 
lurgical industry in Utah. The year just past has 
been one of prosperity for the State, despite the 
■financial stringency, and no other period in its his- 
tory has been characterized by such activity in the 
■erection of huge plants and in preparations for such 
enormous production as the year 1908. This is a 
tribute to the marvelous natural advantages in min- 
•eral resources and superior geographical position 
which this favored State enjoys. The work of the 
last two years has demonstrated possibilities that 
only those of keener vision had foreseen. It is now 
possible to look ahead far beyond the span of a gen- 
eration. The opportunities for industrial achieve- 
ment here seem endless. The attention of the lead- 
ers in American finance is being centred upon this 
field. It bids fair in its way to become for the West 
what Pittsburg is for the East. But a serious prom- 
lem demands solution. The obstructive tactics that 
:have embarrassed enterprise must cease. The future 
dominance of the Salt Lake valley as a smelting cen- 
tre depends upon fostering conditions. If persecu- 
tion continues, a limit will soon be set to the expan- 
sion of enterprise. Smelting cannot be conducted 
without the production of sulphurous gases, and the 
utilization of sulphuric acid in such quantity as to 
-consume all that would result from complete con- 
densation of the fume is impossible. Extraction of 
-the sulphur by washing the gases would yield enor- 
mous amounts of acid liquors, for which an outlet 
would have to be provided. This might be done, 
and the State could afford to grant the free use of 
'the Great Salt Lake as such a receptacle. It would 
seriously injure no one, unless it might be the manu- 
facturers of salt, and to compensate them would be 
: a smaller matter than for the State to lose the benefit 
of a normal development of its more magnificent 
opportunities. To a disinterested observer it appears 
that sympathetic co-operation is needed. If this 
spirit shall rule, nothing can prevent the Utah field 
from becoming the controlling influence in American 
■smelting. 



COLORADO IN 1908. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By Forbes Rickaed. 

While superlatives are not needed in recording 
the history of Colorado's mining and metallurgical 
achievements for the year 1908, this year witnesses 
a steady effort toward progress in the face of ad- 
verse conditions, such as low metal prices, lack of 
new discoveries, and a generally lower grade of ore 
production. 

Statistics will show a decreased production in the 
last two years of from 30 to 35% in the tonnage of 
smelting ore handled from local points in the Colo- 
rado smelters ; the figure is now 52,000 to 55,000 tons 
monthly, as compared with 80,000 tons smelter con- 
sumption in 1906. The Cripple Creek ore supply 
tends more and more to go to the mills, primarily on 
account of a lower tenor in gold ; in part to better 
milling methods and the lower treatment charges 
brought about by the rate war that has been waging 
among the big mills for some time past. 

The tonnage from Cripple Creek this year is prob- 
ably the largest in the history of that district, 
though the increasing proportion of mill ore and 
consequently lower ton-value just about maintains 
the balance of production at $12,000,000 to $13,000,- 
000 for the year. 

Preliminary figures for Cripple Creek's output in 
1908 are : 

Gold. Silver. 

United States Mint $10,071,867 $14,843 

A, S. & R. Co 2,015,490 11,667 

Totals $12,0S7,357 $26,510 

Sales of gol ' and silver bullion made through any 
other agencies will only fractionally increase this 
total. 

The United States Zinc Co. 's spelter production for 
1908 is 6,147,000 lb., at 4.58c., or $281,532. 

The diminishing output of silicious ores of a 
smelting grade from Cripple Creek accentuates an 
already serious shortage, which obliges the Colorado 
smelters to look to points outside of the State — 
notably Deadwood, in South Dakota, and Cobalt, in 
Ontario — for the silica required in the smelting mix- 
ture. Creede and Cripple Creek have been the main- 
stay for silicious ore since the production of the 
mines of this State began so largely to take the form 
of sulphide concentrates resulting from mill treat- 
ment. Mining of the silver ores of Creede is pro- 
ceeding upon so narrow a margin of profit that a 
decline of two or three cents per ounce in the ruling 
price of silver might suffice to stop the operation of 
its principal mines. 

The foregoing conditions, added to the fact that 
Utah and Mexico take care of their own ore produc- 
tion, are reflected in an unsatisfactory smelting sit- 
uation in Colorado, a situation not attributable en- 
tirely to the evils of a monopoly that has grown out 
of the combination of the individual smelters into 
the so-called Trust. Some blatant Denver newspa- 
pers have attacked the American Smelting & Refin- 
ing Co. and its methods, but this attack (semi-polit- 



January 2. Until. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 















k. st 


-KB 1 "^3 


MLLa*-7^ 


jBff- i - JR. -i 


»*- 






" 










Aspen 


and lV?sf Aspen Mountain, Colorado. 









Leadville, Colorado. 



28 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



ical in its inception) has been made in sueh a way as 
to distort the facts, and it misrepresents the cause of 
the mine-owners and mine-operators of Colorado in 
their relations with the smelting interests. 

A notable improvement that has grown out of the 
necessity for cheaper fuel comes through the erec- 
tion of a modern and thoroughly up-to-date coal 
washing and coking plant by the American Smelting 
& Refining Co., at Cokedale, near Trinidad. With 
278 ovens in use, the capacity of this plant ranges 
between 600 and 700 tons of coke daily. In point 
of construction this plant embodies several new fea- 
tures connected with the use of concrete. 

Of the State as a whole it can be said that there is 
yet no indication of new districts coming into promi- 
nence, though that is always held as a hopeful possi- 
bility. While prospecting is being done all over 
Colorado, it seems that the old-time prospector is 
gradually disappearing, as the frontier moves north- 
west. 

Concurrent with the exploitation of the mines in 
the well known districts of Colorado, there has unfor- 
tunately been practically no new prospect work 
going on. As a result the mineral resources of Colo- 
rado have been largely impaired ; that is, as respects 
the better grade of mineral. 

In the carrying out of the exploitation work of the 
mines which have been worked for the last thirty 
years, it has come to be almost a universal practice 
when the mines fail to pay under the operation of 
the mining companies themselves that the ground has 
been sub-leased, and it has been due to the ener- 
getic work of such lessees and their willingness to 
take large chances that new orebodies have been 
brought to light which, however, as a rule have been 
of markedly lower grade than were those which were 
produced under company management. In order 
that these lower grades might find a market, and 
driven by dire necessity to make use of every mineral 
resource which the State might furnish, the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Co. has consistently worked 
to the end of bettering its plants so that it might 
handle the lower-grade ores and still leave a profit 
for the producer. The history of smelting charges 
for the last ten years in Colorado will consequently 
point to an unwavering and continuous reduction in 
treatment charges which has enabled the production 
of low-grade material which under other conditions 
could not have been marketed, especially in view of 
the concurrent lowering of metal quotations. 

Railroad extensions that are active in connection 
with the Denver, Northwestern & Pacific Railroad, 
popularly known as the Moffat road, and the Den- 
ver, Laramie & Northwestern, are greatly benefiting 
coal and land interests throughout the country tribu- 
tary to them. The Tampa coalfields particularly 
welcome the advent of the Moffat road, which affords 
them an outlet to the market, for which they have 
for years been waiting. 

Considering the mining districts separately, the 
one new development of importance is that of the 
Frank Hough Mining Co. 's mine, on Engineer moun- 
tain, in Hinsdale county, where an old mine pro- 
ducing in the years from 1877 to 1885 is being re- 



opened with successful results after long abandon- 
ment. The ore shipments carry the extraordinarily 
high average of 25 to 35% copper, with substantial 
silver assays, besides gold and lead contents. At 
Leadville the Ibex company, through lessees, is main- 
taining the production of last year. The district 
generally is waiting on the Yak Tunnel extensions 
under Breeee hill. In the San Juan region the Tellu- 
ride mines are doing well; while from Silverton 
comes a steady yield of gold and concentrates evin- 
cing the usual activity of this district. The Aspen 
output has been fluctuating widely with the variation 
in the Smuggler production, which the low silver 
quotation is holding in check. 

The following gives the metal production of the 
Colorado plants of the American Smelting & Refin- 
ing Co. for the last three years : 

1906. 1907. 1908. 

Tons smelted, 829,426 795,849 555,313 

Gold, Ounces, 466,358 357,558 262,247 

Value, $9,639,620 $7,390,724 $5,420,646 

Silver, Ounces, 11,345,793 10,749,688 8,398,646 

Value, $7,576,721 $7,029,221 $4,437,845 

Lead, Pounds, 89,379,381 79,465,000 54,596,000 

Value, $5,049,935 $4,245,025 $2,298,525 

Copper, Pounds, 8,020,703 9,737,149 12,281,178 

Value, $1,533,959 $1,947,430 $1,596,553 

METAL PRICES. 1 

1907. 1908. 

Silver, cents per ounce 65.39 52.84 

Lead, cents per pound 5.34 4.21 

Copper, cents per pound 20 13 

The rare-mineral resources of this State have for 
several months been attracting much attention, less 
to tungsten than to vanadium. From the fact that 
the Boulder county tungsten production has in recent 
years taken so prominent a place as to account for 
nearly 80% of the production of the United States, 
and approximately 30% of the world's tungsten 
product, this mineral resource has been well adver- 
tised ; the vanadium mineral resources are compara- 
tively undeveloped and but little known. The ex- 
tended use of vanadium in high-grade steels is 
prompting the development and suggesting the utili- 
zation of certain deposits of vanadiferous sandstone 
in the southern part of the State, which, once that 
the commercial question is successfully solved^ repre- 
sents an ore supply of no small proportions. 

This State's resources in the production of rare 
metals, in tungsten, vanadium, and uranium, is an 
asset that is destined to figure more prominently in 
the future than it has in the past. 

The stone industry, particularly in the past year, 
has been making great strides ; in the Yule and the 
Turkey Creek quarries, respectively, there is being 
mined marble and sandstone that is fast supplanting 
importations of building stone from parts foreign 
to Colorado. 

Cost of diamond-drilling in the mines of the Brit- 
ish Columbia Copper Co., in the Boundary district 
of British Columbia, during 1906 and 1907 was 
$1,705 per foot. The average depth of holes was 
81.3 ft., and the diameter of the cores was % m - One 
carat of diamonds, the average cost of which was 
$66.46, drilled 111.9 feet. 



January J. l'.lll!). 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



■J!) 



THE REAL ELDORADO. 

Written for the Mixing and Scikmhic Pkess 
By B\ LTNWOOD Gauiii-hn. 

The word 'Eldorado' lias become part of our Eng- 
lish vocabulary and is defined by the Century dic- 
tionary as "a country rich beyond all precedent in 
gold and jewels, which the early Spanish explorers 
believed to exist somewhere in the New World and 
which Orellana averred that he had found in his 
voyage down the Amazon in 1540-41. This was soon 
disproved, bul the search was continued down to the 
eighteenth century, and the name has become a 
synonym for any region said to abound in the means 
of easily acquired wealth." Probably lew persons 
are aware of the origin of the word, and that it is 
derived from substantial fact; that it is not a mere 
myth connected with the early history of South 
America. The following narrative, sketching the 
history of the Eldorado, will serve as a prelude to a 
description of the alluvial gold deposits of the C'auea 
valley in the State of Antioquia, Colombia ; these 
deposits constitute a part if not the heart of the dis- 
trict that furnished the gold which enabled the In- 
dians of the Bogota plateau to carry out certain 
curious ceremonies that originated the name 'Eldo- 
rado.' For the facts of this fascinating story I am 
indebted to A. F. Bandelier, whose little book, 'The 
Gilded Man' (Appleton & Co., New York, 1893), 
contains some of the most interesting data connected 
with the first Spanish settlements in America. Fact 
and fable are so often inextricably confused in the 
history of the Spanish conquest of South America 
that it is at times difficult to know what to accept 
as correct. The story of the Eldorado as related by 
Bandelier has evidences of truth, hence I venture to 
re-tell it for the purpose of introducing my own 
story. It must be explained in this connection, that 
the old Spanish name for the large country now 
known as Colombia was New Granada, consequently 
all the old writers refer to the country by this name. 

During the years 1525 to 1530 a story was current 
among the Spanish settlements along the Caribean 
coast of New Granada and Venezuela that a certain 
tribe of Indians living in the interior had such an 
abundance of gold that with it they powdered afresh 
each day the body of their chief. This legend of 
el hombre dorado, or the gilded man, embellished in 
the telling, became a kind of wayside yarn, a tavern 
story never too fantastic to find a host of believers 
in that age of superstition and ignorance. The word 
hombre was dropped in the course of time, and the 
term Eldorado as we know it was evolved. The 
legend was based on fact, but the word Eldorado 
has to this day been a gilded will-o '-the-wisp to lure 
the farmer from his plough, the mechanic from his 
bench, often to misery and destitution, and seldom 
to fortune. The very word ' gold, ' the sight and feel 
of the precious yellow metal, has for ages affected 
the mind of man like a potent spell, especially the 
improvident and shiftless, ever on the alert for 
riches easily and quickly acquired. 

The various efforts of the Spanish to plant colonies 



on the Isthmus and in western New Granada had 
Imi insignificant results until Balboa in 1511 assumed 
direction of the Colony at Darien. lialboa seems to 
have heard in some way of a wealthy Indian tribe 
that lived on the sea-coast to the south and used 
large 'sheep' as beasts of burden. Prescott assumes 
that Balboa learned in this way of the riches of 
Peru, hut Bandelier thinks it more probable that this 
notice refers to the semi-civilized trihes of central 
New Granada, that carried their salt over beaten 
mountain paths to the cannibal tribes of the Cauca 
valley, receiving gold in exchange. The centres of 
primitive trade were naturally among the more civi- 
lized tribes, for they had the greatest number of 
wants; they were agricultural, and consequently 
possessed fixed abodes, or villages; in New Granada 
such centres appear never to have been in a gold- 
producing district; the more civilized tribes accumu- 
lated, by both trade and war, the metallic treasures 
of the wilder regions about them. The locality where 
this rich tribe of Indians lived was eventually de- 
termined to be on the tableland of Bogota, in the 
Province (now State) of Cundinamarca, in the heart 
of New Granada. These people were known as the 
Muysca (Chibehas), who lived on the high temperate 
plateau of Bogota. As this upland plain could only 
be reached through narrow ravines, these people 
were more or less isolated from the surrounding 
savage cannibal tribes, with whom they appear to 
have been in frequent conflict. Yet these hostilities 
did not prevent an active reciprocal trade, and as a 
consequence gold was accumulated to superfluity by 
the comparatively civilized Muysca. These people 
appear to have understood the art of hammering 
gold and casting it into tasteful shapes, for they 
adorned with it not only their weapons and clothes, 
but the interior and exterior of their temples and 
dwellings as well. The numerous lakes of the 
plateau were regarded by the Indians as holy places, 
each one being considered the seat of some special 
divinity to be propitiated by throwing gold and 
emeralds into the water. One of these lakes, known 
as Guatavita, became thus famous as the spot where 
originated el hombre dorado, or the gilded man. This 
lake is north of Bogota, on the apex of a conical 
hill, probably the crater of a small volcano ; it is 
some 8 or 10 miles in circumference, and has a depth 
of 40 to 50 ft. The Indians living in the immediate 
neighborhood of this place at one time constituted 
an independent tribe, which upon the occasion of 
choosing a new chief observed an imposing cere- 
mony : the new chief being carried upon a chain 
hung with discs of gold, his naked body having been 
annointed with a resinous gum and sprinkled all over 
with gold dust. It does not appear from the narra- 
tive that the chief was dusted in this manner each 
day, or that he habitually wore such adornment. 
"When the chief and his attendants reached the shore 
of the lake, they stepped upon a raft (balsa), and 
proceeded on it to the middle of the lake. There 
the chief plunged into the water and washed off his 
metallic covering, while the assembled company with 
shouts and the sound of instruments threw into the 
lake the gold and jewels they had brought with them. 



30 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



The sacrifice completed, the chief returned to the 
shore and to the village, where the festival closed 
with dancing and feasting. This ceremony appears 
to have died out about the year 1740, when this tribe 
of Guatavita Indians was overcome and became trib- 
utary to the Muysca of Bogota. 

The search for the Eldorado in South America in 
the early Spanish days was energetic, and eventually 
led to the settlement of the Bogota plateau, which is 
now the capital and centre of civilization of the Re- 
jublie of Colombia. It is a singular historical fact 
that the first man seriously to undertake this wild 
adventure was the new German governor of Vene- 
zuela, Ambrosius Dalfinger, of Ulm in Swabia. It 
may not be generally known that the Emperor 
Charles V in 1529 leased the Province of Venezuela 
to the German house of Bartholomeus Welser & Co., 
of Augsburg, and that many Germans were among 
the earliest pioneers in South America. They were 
not then, as today, mere traders, risking little or 
nothing in the development of the country, but had 
among their numbers men of enterprise and courage, 
ready to embark upon expeditions promising adven- 
ture and booty. Dalfinger 's hunt failed of its quest, 
although he reached the edge of the plateau of Bo- 
gota. A number of subsequent Spanish and German 
expeditions were also disastrous. On the same 
search in 1536, the Spaniard Quesada started from 
Santa Marta on the Caribbean coast, and after en- 
during incredible hardships, and overcoming tre- 
mendous obstacles, succeeded in reaching the Bo- 
gota plateau in the early part of 1537. Quesada 
found the Indians here possessed of an enormous 
quantity of gold, which of course soon passed into 
Spanish hands. In August, 1538, he founded the 
present city of Santa Fe de Bogota, which conse- 
quently owes its origin to man's quest for gold, al- 
though it is far distant from any gold-producing dis- 
trict that could have been worked by the primitive 
inhabitants. With the conquest of the tribes occu- 
pying this plateau, was secured the last great treas- 
ure of gold that awaited the Spaniards in the New 
World. Their greed, however, was not satiated by 
this success, they thirsted for more ; then again, year 
after year, arose like an avenging spirit the legend 
of the Eldorado, leading other and less fortunate 
men to a bootless quest into the unknown regions of 
the interior. In 1534 Heredia started southward into 
the regions of San Jorge and Sinu, and in 1535 he 
reached the Cauca river. In this direction went also 
the expeditions of Cesar, Vadillo, and Eobledo, con- 
quering a great part of Antioquia and the upper 
Cauca valley. Heredia 's expedition is said to have 
yielded to each of his soldiers spoil equivalent to 
$70,000. 

Anyone who has had personal experience in the 
wilds of South America cannot fail to be impi-essed 
by the hardihood, courage, and perseverance of these 
old Spanish and German adventurers ; nothing 
daunted them; they had no quinine to check the 
awful fevers in jungle and swamp ; no netting pro- 
tected their bodies from the nerve-racking mo- 
squito; medicine and surgery were alike crude and 



rude in that early day; instruments of precision, 
preserved foods, and all the paraphernalia which we 
now think indispensable for expeditions of this kind 
were unknown to them ; they suffered, usually failed, 
often died of hardship ; some expeditions returned 
with less than half of their original numbers. These 
men of iron were brutal and avaricious toward the 
natives, killing and robbing them without stint ; their 
sins we hear much about, but it is impossible for any 
fair-minded man to withhold from them admiration 
for a bravery and steadfastness unsurpassed in the 
annals of gold-seeking; Success meant for them 
castles in Spain, but to few were such vouchsafed. 
After the accumulated stores of gold were taken 
from the Indians, the Spaniards naturally sought to 
find the source of these rich treasures ; this was soon 
determined to have been chiefly the alluvial deposits 
in the valleys of the Cauca river and its tributaries. 
To wash this gold required hard work, which the 
Spaniards themselves would not or could not do, 
hence arose a gradual enslavement of the Indians 
for this purpose. An overmastering desire to get 
rich quickly and leave the country was not com- 
patible with kind and humane treatment of the 
natives, hence they were literally driven to death 
by their masters. It is stated on good authority that 
so great was the mortality among the Indians that 
whole districts were depopulated, causing an aban- 
donment of the mines in many places and a rapid de- 
crease in the production of gold. For two centuries 
the Indian tribes were compelled to give one-seventh 
of all their able-bodied men to work in the Spanish 
mines in slave-gangs. Efforts were made to replace 
these Indians with negro slaves from Africa, but the 
experiment does not appear to have been successful, 
although unquestionably there was a large influx of 
negroes, as evinced by the present predominant type 
of inhabitants to be found in the lowlands of Col- 
ombia. 



The Copper Queen Co. is probably the lowest-cost 
copper producer in the United States today, which 
would indicate that its copper costs are not above 
7c. per pound. Its smelter is now producing at a 
rate of better than 8,000,000 lb. of copper per month, 
or 96,000,000 lb. per annum, though a portion of this 
production represents copper from its Mexican prop- 
erties. It has been the policy for some time to pay 
an annual dividend of $17 per share, which calls for 
the distribution, as profits, of $3,400,000 per annum. 
There are 200,000 shares in this company, par value 
$10, and there are but 14 stockholders, all connected 
with the Phelps-Dodge firm. The following is a com- 
plete list of the Phelps-Dodge companies: Copper 
Queen Mining Co. of Bisbee, Old Dominion Copper 
Mining & Smelting Co. of Globe, Detroit Copper 
Mining Co. of Morenci, Moctezuma Copper Co. of 
Nacozari, Mexico, Indiana Sonora Copper Mining Co., 
of Cananea, Mexico, Almagre Copper Mining Co., 
United Globe Mines of Globe, Arizona, Commercial 
Mining Co., Dawson Fuel Co., Dawson Eailway Coal 
Co., Stag Canyon Fuel Co., New Mexico Fuel Co., 
El Paso & Northeastern R. R., Alamogordo Lumber 
Co., and Southwestern Mercantile Company. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



31 



MINING IN THE MALAY STATES. 



Written for the Mi.vino and SCIENTIFIC Pbess 
By E. Skaborn Makks. 

The Federated -Malay States are situated in the 
southern part of the -Malay Peninsula, which extends 
from Lower Burma to Singapore. The country is 
little known to the world al large; nevertheless, it 
produces over 60% of the world's output of tin, be- 
sides export in- rubber, coffee, copra, and other trop- 
ical produce. Mining has been the staple industry 

For hundreds Of years, and ii|i to i'i nt times has 

been mainly in the hands of the Chinese pioneers. It 
is to this race that the prosperity of the Peninsula 
is clue, while even at the present time it is estimated 
that fully S'>% of the yearly production (amounting 
in round figures to $39,000,000) is contributed by 
Chinese enterprise and labor. 

The Federated States of Perak, Selangor, Negri, 
Sembalan, Kelantan, and Pahang are ruled by the 
rajahs of the original people, the Malays. The 
country is under British protection, the general 
policy being directed by the British Colonial Office, 
represented locally by a Kesident-General, residing 
at the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and under him there 
is a British-resident for each State. There is a 
Mines Department under the direction of F. J. B. 
Dykes and an efficient staff of engineers. This is a 
Federal institution; it controls the industry, safe- 
guards individual rights, and is the most important 
government office in the country. A rental of 56e. 
per acre is charged for mining land, for leases that 
are issued for a period of 21 years, but renewable 
in perpetuity. A tax of 10% is levied on the gross 
value of the tin produced; this also varies slightly 
with the market price of the metal. 

The funds obtained from this and other sources 
are spent entirely in developing the country by aid 
of roads and railways, besides generally advancing 
the interests of the community at large ; the surplus 
stands to the country's credit and at the present 
time amounts to about $50,000,000. There is a line 
of railway running from the northern end of the 
States to Singapore, the most southerly portion of 
the line through the State of Johore being under 
construction and nearly completed. The wagon- 
roads are well built and maintained ; this makes it 
possible to travel pleasantly by automobile. 

The climate is tropical, the temperature varying 
but little during the year, day or night, and the air 
is heavily laden with moisture. The thermometer 
stands as a rule between 80 and 90° F. in the shade. 
Rainfall is heavy, averaging 100 in. per year; in 
consequence, the country is covered with a thick, 
inpenetrable jungle, making it impossible to leave 
the roads or paths without cutting the underbrush. 
Under these circumstances, prospecting is both 
arduous and difficult; nevertheless, new mineral de- 
posits are continually being discovered. 

The native of the country is the Malay, formerly 
known as a pirate. Under British rule the natives 
now lead a quiet and peaceful life, in their kampongs 
or villages ; they never work unless it is to cultivate 



rice and grow a little fruit, besides fishing for their 
immediate wants. The Malay language is spoken 
universally by everyone and is the business language 
of the country. The Chinese, speaking different 
dialects, use it among themselves, and the European 
uses the language with either Malay or Chinaman. 
It is absolutely necessary, therefore, for anyone wish- 
ing to do business in this country to learn Malay; 

but this is easy. 

The Chinese now outnumber the Malays. The 
white population is small but slightly on the increase, 
with the introduction of more scientific methods in 
the general industries of the country. This is not, 
however, a white man's country, as fever and other 
tropical ailments are prevalent, but with a periodical 
change to more temperate zones the European can 
retain fairly good health. 

As has been previously stated, tin mining is the 
staple industry. The methods generally adopted by 
the Chinese are primitive, of course. Improvement 
is, however, evident. Today a mine worked on or- 




Federated Malay Stales. 

thodox Chinese lines may be seen side by side with 
the latest Australian mining practice. 

A little gold is found in Pahang and Kelantan, but 
it does not amount to much ; tin is practically the 
only mineral produced. It occurs in the form of 
cassiterite or tin oxide, which is found for the most 
part in alluvial deposits. Although placer mining 
predominates in the State of Pahang, the Pahang 
Consolidated operates what is probably the largest 
and richest tin lode in the world, the mine being 
equipped with an up-to-date stamp-mill and concen- 
trating plant; electrical power for all purposes is 
generated by water. One or two small lode mines 
also exist in this State; in fact, the whole of the 
eastern side of the peninsula divided by a ridge of 
mountains is reputed to contain deposits of tin- 
bearing rocks, which in the future will doubtless be 
prospected and worked. Reference is directed to 
the tin lode deposits in Sidney Fawns' book, 'Tin 
Deposits of the World. '* 

The main scene of activity is in the western States 



♦Published by the Mining Journal, London, 1907. 



32 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



of Perak and Salangor, where the mining is con- 
fined to placers. From time to time gash-veins have 
been opened up with a great flourish of trumpets, 
but no lode of persistent value has been discovered. 
Nor are the alluvial deposits uniform in character. 
Tin has been accumulated in the ordinary way in 
the river-beds. Lacustrine deposits also exist show- 
ing water-worn wash, and accumulations of angular 
to sub-angular detritus, besides alluvial clay that 
carries tin in places. 

Fawns, in his classification of the deposits, refers 
to alluvial 'deep leads.' In the true sense of the 
term, none of these has been found, there being no 
regular leads or runs of tin gravel. The nearest 
approach to a lead might be seen in the property of 
the Tronoh Mines, but this is probably a depression 
in the limestone about 150 ft. wide and 2000 ft. long, 
and from the shape alone this might be taken for an 
alluvial lead. 

Unfortunately no detailed geological survey of the 
country has been made, nor does there appear to be 
any definite theory as to the origin of the tin accumu- 
lated in the alluvial deposits. The predominating 
rocks are granite, schist, and limestone. The granite 
is locally reputed to have been the matrix, but there 
is no direct evidence of this, and it would appear as 
likely that the schist had furnished a considerable 
portion of the tin. 

The tin-bearing area of the two largest and most 
important districts, Kuala Lumpur and Kinta, have 
a bedrock of limestone exclusively. The huge holes 
and pockets, often 200 ft. deep, and the surface gen- 
erally of this limestone has been entirely covered 
with tin-bearing debris. The Kinta field, the larger 
and most important, is fully 12 miles wide and about 
double as long. Near the town of Ipoh small pipes 
of tin ore occur in the solid limestone itself. This 
is a rare occurrence. An article appearing in the 
Journal of Geology entitled 'The Tin Deposits of 
the Malay Peninsula, with Special Reference to Those 
of Kinta,' by R. A. F. Penrose, is worthy of refer- 
ence.! A few English companies within recent times 
have started operations, but it is only within the 
last few years that men of experience and talent 
have directed the work ; it has not been unusual to 
find a white man working with the same methods as 
the Chinaman. 

In the lowest rung in the scale of evolution of 
Malay mining, we have the interesting Chinese lorn- 
bong or open-cut, illustrated in Fig. 1. Everything is 
done by hand labor with the exception of pumping 
the water from the ground. In all cases steam- 
power or gas-producer plants are used for pumping. 
The method of mining the ground is as follows : An 
excavation is made and light bamboo trestle stag- 
ings are built at different heights and angles to the 
face of the ground in the direction in which it is to 
be worked ; the coolies travel backward and forward 
across these trestles, dumping the overburden on 
the ground already worked and carrying the harang 
or pay-dirt to the concentrators. The mode of car- 



fAbstraeted by the author in The Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal, June 20, 1903. 



rying the material is that usual to the Chinese : A 
pole borne on the shoulders, with a basket hanging 
at each end, enables the coolie to carry 30 to 40 lb. 
on each trip, the distance being about 150 ft. A 
mine worked in this manner resembles an ant-heap. 
The biggest mine thus operated carries a face 2400 
ft. long and 4000 coolies are engaged. Out of every 
hundred coolies employed, 60% carry, and 40% 
break the ground and load the baskets ; one tool only 
is used, called a clionlcal. It resembles a hoe and 
does the work of a pick and shovel. 

The method of concentrating is equally primitive, 
but more effective. The pay-dirt is dumped into a 
washing-box to which it is fed with a rake ; this 
box is called a land-chute, and is illustrated in Fig. 
2. The box when empty resembles a coffin in shape. 
It is from 10 to 14 ft. long and at the head would 
be about 2 ft., widening to 3 ft. 6 in. or even 4 ft. in 
the first 5 ft. of its length, and drawn in at the bot- 
tom to about 1 ft. 6 in. A riffle is placed every 
three or four feet, there being not more than three 
riffles to a box. A water supply is provided in quan- 
tities as required, and the grade is usually about 1 
in 20. To concentrate in this box as the material 
is raked in, a coolie keeps dragging the gravel 
against the current with a clionlcal, and as the con- 
centrate is collected in the riffles, it is dug out and 
re-treated in a similar box, but without any riffles. 
From 300 to 500 lb. of the rough concentrate is 
cleaned at a time. The operation when completed re- 
sults in an ore assaying from 65 to 72%; this is 
bagged ready for market. 

The Chinese are exceedingly clever in the manipu- 
lation of these boxes and the loss of tin is small. 
The tailing from the re-dressing was mostly black 
sand and was found on assay, from different mines, 
to yield from 1 to 5% tin. When the quantity of 
black sand remaining is taken into consideration, 
the loss in the operation is small. The mine and con- 
centrating works are under one manager, who sits 
most of the day in his office. He deputes his work 
to kapalas or foremen, each of whom has charge of 
an insignificant number of coolies. The mines are 
worked by Chinese companies or individuals, but 
principally by the individual, who is generally a 
rich and influential man. He is called a towlcay. 

The method of working is simple and primitive, 
but when it comes to paying for the work, the ar- 
rangements are intricate. The mines are worked on 
the 'truck' system, under which laborer and miners 
were sweated, in the first part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury and before, in England. It is a point which is 
being contested at the moment among the Malay 
States Government officials, as to whether Chinese 
mining would be equally prosperous and the coolies 
better off if this system were abolished by law. 

The Chinese employer settles with his coolies every 
Chinese New Tear and again in six months, there 
being therefore two pay-days per annum. All the 
coolies are housed on the mines in sheds suited to 
the climate and fairly clean. Each clan, or Chinese 
speaking a different dialect, is kept apart in what 



Jamiarv 2. l!)0!l. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



33 



are called kongsis or companies. This is to prevent, 
as far as possible, any tiiets. Kvuds generally ex- 
ist, but rioting is not frequent, although the die 

has a l"t nt' time on liis hands, only working six 
hours per day. Food is supplied in tin- shape of rice. 
and every six weeks there is a feast-day, when extra 
rations of pork and vegetables and perhaps some 
cakes are supplied. Pork is general!] eaten at one 




Fig. I, A Chinese Open-Cast Mine. 

meal each day, the coolie supplying the meat him- 
self. 

There are few day laborers, the work being 1 per- 
formed mainly on contract. On some mines indentured 
laborers are employed. Charles M. Rolker has pub- 
lished details of contracts.! A man takes 
a contract and has a party of coolies to 
work with him. The mine-owner deals 
with the one man only. Any coolie can 
draw an advance on account of his wages, 
which are due at the end of six months, 
but should he make a draw he has to pay 
interest. At the end of the first month 
he pays only 30% in other words, he re- 
ceives 70 cents and is charged with one 
dollar. In the fifth month the interest is 
reduced 5% ; thenceforth there is a reduc- 
tion of 5% each month. In the sixth 
month the towkay magnanimously pays 
him his money with no interest charged. 
Attached to all the mines there is a store 
(where all the coolies have to deal), opium 
dens, theatres, and houses of pleasure are 
all provided by the genial boss; in these 
places the coolie is further bled of his 
earnings. This sounds terrible to anyone 
who has not lived in the country. It is, how- 
ever, surprising to - find how happy and con- 
tented the coolies are ; their average earnings 
are about 25 cents per day, out of which some 
of them provide themselves with all sorts of lux- 
uries, and save money as well, and in their turn 



become (owkays. It is a rare occurrence that a prin- 
cipal fails to i t his obligations; when this has 

been known, the non-payment of wages creates little 
fuss or bother: the coolie stoically takes the posi- 
tion as he finds it, says it. is l'ate. in all probability 
burns a joss-stick or two to propitiate the evil 
spirits occasioning the bad luck and moves on to 

find work elsewhere. 

Should the towkay not wish to feed his 
coolies, this is done by the contractor, 
who, while working with the party, takes 
a small percentage of the money earned 
besides the share coming to him for his la- 
bor, and in turn looks after the catering. 
On the termination of the contract, an ac- 
count of the cost of living is prepared and 
the balance is divided among the workers. 
Should this plan be adopted, the contract- 
or, on taking his contract, receives the 
sum of $3 per coolie he is to employ. He 
has, however, to give a guarantee for this 
advance, and is charged no interest, the 
amount being taken into account as 
against the contract. The cost of mining 
under the foregoing conditions varies : a 
contract is let at a price per chang equal 
to 30 by 30 by 1% ft., or 50 cu. yd., an 
average price being $4.17 per chang for 
stripping and dumping 150 ft. back from 
the working face, or 8c. per cubic yard. The pay- 
wash is contracted at $5.25 per chang delivered 
at the land-ehutes. The cost of washing, etc., 
varies greatly, ranging from 10 to 20c. per yard. 
The expert coolie on the land-chute gets 50c. per day 




tTrans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XX. 
Siak, Sumatra.' 



'Alluvial Tin Deposits of 



Fig. 2. Chinese Sluice-box in Operation. 

and the ordinary laborer 25c. and rice. The value 
of the ground being worked in the big mine pre- 
viously referred to, is 4 lb. black tin per cubic yard. 
This mine has produced in the last three years 41,000 
piculs of 70% ore (16.8 piculs equal to one long ton) 
of a gross value of $895,000, the net profit being 
$366,000. The working cost, in this case, therefore, 
represents 60% of the gross value. 



34 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



A Chinaman estimates that with his methods of 
working he can treat ground 40 ft. deep from top 
to bottom, including 10 ft. of pay-dirt on the bottom, 
the 'pay' being worth 10 piculs per chang, equal to 
6.66 lb. per cubic yard, or an average from top to 
bottom of 1.66 lb. black tin per cubic yard. 

The foregoing describes a mine working with a 
free wash; when there is 'puggy' wash or clay, the 
primitive method of treatment is as follows : the 
overburden is carried and dumped as before ; the 
pay-dirt is puddled by hand on the bottom of the 
mine by coolies ; sufficient water is added from time 
to time to form a liquid paste, which is ladled up the 
face of the claim into troughs placed from four to six 
feet, one above the other, until it passes into the land- 
chute, where the contents are extracted in the ordi- 
nary way. A mine working on this principle is 
shown in Fig. 3. This mine produces about 200 
piculs of concentrate per month and the working 
costs are about 25c. per yard. 

The method adopted to ground-sluice a bank 15 to 
20 ft. high is amusing. .Fig. 4 illustrated this method, 
known as a lampan. From the photograph it will 
be noted that the face of the tin-bearing ground is 
cut in steps or else has an incline of about 70°. A 
row of coolies starts at the top of the incline and 
with a long broad-headed spear cuts steps about a 
foot deep to the bottom. The material broken in 
this operation falls to a tail-race below, is sluiced 
away, and the tin collected. On the return journey 
up the face the coolies destroy the steps they cut in 
descending ; on arrival at the top, the incline is again 
ready for a further series of steps to be cut, to be 
destroyed again, and so on, the process being con- 
tinued. The work is supervised by an overseer, who 
sits under an umbrella and smokes a water-pipe. 

Where a small head of water is obtainable, there 
a bamboo pipe-line, a canvas hose, and a brass nozzle 
will represent Chinese hydraulic mining. 

But there are also large hydraulicking plants, 
washing away the sides of the hills ; these have pipe- 
lines from four to ten miles in length, notably at 
Gopeng and Bruseh, which are English-owned mines. 
The latter is of interest; it is under the supervision 
of a Californian engineer and is the biggest hy- 
draulicking' mine in the Peninsula, and, when the 
conditions of working are taken into account, it 
ranks as a cheaply worked mine. A pipe-line seven 
miles long supplies water under a head of 350 ft. to 
three monitors using 3-in. nozzles. The hydraulick- 
ing ground is 300 ft. wide and 150 ft. deep. The 
formation is a tough and fine-grained sandstone, re- 
sembling a schist, in the bedding of which are segre- 
gations of quartz carrying tin ore. The formation 
looks like a lode. The face is T-drifted and three or 
four eases of dynamite exploded at the ends ; after 
each explosion the monitors get to work washing 
away the debris, while battering and breaking the 
lumps of rock against the face. • A ground-sluice 
leads to a sluice-box fitted with angle-iron riffles 350 
ft. long, 4 ft. wide, with a grade of 1 in 24. As may 
be imagined, much time is taken in cutting up the 
bottom ; the mine, however, produces 600 piculs of 



concentrate per month. The boxes are cleaned up 
every three or four days; this takes three hours. 
The greater portion of the tin is collected in the first 
40 ft. of the box, water being supplied at the rate of 
750 cubic feet per minute. The ground carries one- 
third of a pound of black tin per cubic yard ; this 
is equivalent to lie. The total working cost is 6e. 
per cubic yard. Added to the difficulty experienced 
in the hardness of the ground, there is not a good 
get-away for the tailing, which is raised by a hy- 
draulic elevator and carried farther down the val- 
ley, when the accumulation at the end of the boxes 
has become excessive. 

The first improvement in open-cut mining was in- 
troduced only within the last few years ; I refer to 
mechanical haulage. An inclined tramway operated 
by a steam-winch is run from the dressing-floors to 
the bottom of the mine. At the bottom of the mine 
tracks run to different parts of the face, where the 
trucks are filled by hand and pushed by the coolies 
to the station to be drawn to the surface. This 
naturally reduces the labor. With the improve- 
ment in the method of hauling we find a correspond- 
ing betterment in the dressing-plant. In free ground 
the wash is tipped into a hopper, and then passes 
to a long sluice-run fitted with riffles. . Should the 
wash contain clay it is dumped into steam-driven 
puddlers with bottom-discharge overflowing into a 
sluice-run. To expedite puddling with very stiff 
clay, a rotary machine treats the material before it 
passes into circular puddlers. The concentrate in 
either case is cleaned in a land-chute, and it is doubt- 
ful if this latter method could be improved upon 
locally. Working under these conditions, the costs 
vary from 15 to 20e. per cubic yard. 

In some of the rich placer deposits the Chinese 
have resorted to mining by shaft-sinking, but this 
method is not much in vogue, being slow and ex- 
pensive. The plan is to sink innumerable shafts side 
by side ; the Chinaman will not work away from his 
shaft, in drifts. The method is also wasteful, a con- 
siderable portion of the ground remaining standing 
between the shafts. In the early days of mining the' 
Chinese for the most part only worked with shafts, 
and localities formerly riddled with shafts are now 
being re-worked at a profit. More advanced methods* 
are now adopted in the Malay States, and each year- 
sees some slight improvement, it being recognized 
that the exhaustion of the richer deposits necessi- 
tates increased economy. 

In Kelatan there is a fleet of dredges, with buckets 
of 4!/2 cu. ft. capacity, of the New Zealand type, 
digging for gold. These machines are poorly de- 
signed and badly operated, according to all accounts, 
and the industry does not amount to anything. An; 
8-ft. bucket-dredge with a hull on the lines of an 
ocean-dredge is working the sea-bottom of the har 
bor at Tonkah; this plant is said to be doing good 
work, sea-water being used in the concentrating. It 
is a private enterprise and no details are forth- 
coming as to the results achieved. 

The most recent innovation has been the advent 
of a pump-dredge from Australia. The pump-dredge, 



Januai\ J. l!Hl!t. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



35 



that is, hydraulic elevating and alnioing with cen- 
trifugal pumps, was started some 15 years ago in 
Victoria, Australia, working for the most part such 
ground as could not be treated with a bucket-dredge. 
This has become an important industry in Australia 
on the old gold and tin placers. The device may be 
described as follows: There is a square-buill pon 
toon or barge of dimensions to suit the plant it has 
to carry. The structure requires to be strong and 
stiff enough to bear the machinery, and is braced 
accordingly. In this it varies from the bucket- 
dredge pontoon. On the barge at each forward 
corner are placed pumps, to raise water and gravel, 
respectively; each pump is driven by a separate en- 
gine of sufficient power to do the work required. 
Besides the engines and pumps there are the neces- 
sary boilers and accessories and a small electric-light- 
ing installation. This is all the machinery required 
on a steam-driven pump-dredge. The plant when 
at work always rests on the bottom or bedrock, and 



pump, the barge is floated up to them by flooding the 
pit; when a desired position is reached the water is 
pumped "lit and the dredge rests on a bed prepared 
for it. Work is then re-started and the ground pre- 
viously excavated is tilled in with tailing. Ground 
when worked iii this manner is left much in the 
same condition as it was before it was touched, and 
is not destroyed like that turned over by a bucket- 
dredge, for the reason that most of the fine and light 
sand remains on the surface; therefore, under this 
system there is no destruction of land, watercourses, 
or river-channels, as may be the case in other classes 
of hydraulic mining. The water can be filtered 
should it be desirable to run it away clear, or else, 
as is at times practised, is used over and over again. 
The cost of mining varies with local conditions, from 
6 to 14c. per cubic yard, the chief item being the 
power required to raise the gravel. The wearing 
parts are in the gravel-pump liners. These are made 
of manganese steel and have to be renewed from time 





Fig. 3. Working a Deposit of Clay-Wash. 



Fig. 4. Chinese Ground-Sluicing. 



is floated only when the position has to be changed. 
The intake of the gravel-pump leads to a sump in 
the bedrock, and the outlet or discharge is through 
a pipe to a series of sluice-boxes placed above the 
barge at such a height as may be required according 
to the depth of ground worked. The sluice-box is 
from 100 to 150 ft. long and has a fall of about 1 in 
20. Water from a ditch on the bank is conveyed to 
the monitor-pump and is forced through a pipe-line 
to monitors, which break down the ground, the 
water sweeping the materials along a flume to the 
gravel-pump, which elevates the gravel to the boxes, 
for washing; the tin is extracted and the tailing 
stacked behind the plant. Rough bouldery ground, 
with hard rock-bottom that a bucket-dredge could 
not touch, is successfully worked by this plant. 

While in operation, the plant rests on the bottom ; 
this helps when cleaning the crevices and scraping 
the bedrock. Big boulders are not handled, but may 
be turned over, so as to get at the surface under- 
neath. A dredge of this kind will work for six 
months at a time and continue in operation without 
being moved, stripping several acres. When the 
working-faces beeome too distant from the gravel- 



to time. In places, in very deep ground, pumps are 
worked in stages, one above the other, the lower 
pump lifting the gravel to another, which raises the 
gravel to the sluice-boxes. 

One of the largest plants in the States is at Tan- 
jong-Rambutan. This has a 15-in. centrifugal gravel- 
pump, taking boulders of 15 in. diam. It weighs 
18 tons and is capable of lifting 2000 yd. of gravel, 
plus the necessary water for washing, per day. The 
lift is 50 ft. A 12-in. monitor-pump is used and the 
compound-condensing engines develop 500 hp. The 
sluice-boxes are 120 ft. long, 9 ft. 6 in. wide, and 18 
in. deep, fitted with a riffle or block 6 in. high and 
lYn in. wide every 20 ft. This box has been found 
by experience in Australia to be more efficient than 
one fitted with riffles for its whole length. Coolies 
are kept in the box raking up the stuff all the time. 
The rough concentrate is cleaned in a land-chute ; 
in Australia, this is jigged. This ground is unsuited 
to bucket-dredging. The working cost, including 
all charges, is 8c. per cubic yard. 

The Teka plant has two 15-in. gravel-pumps and 
no monitor-pump. This plant was started recently 
and the working costs are claimed at 6e. per cubic 



36 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



yard. The pumps treat 4000 yd. of gravel per day. 

At Laliat there are three 15-in. pumps driven by 
electricity generated at a central station on the mine. 
The ground is 120 ft. deep and two lifts are used for 
elevating the gravel to the boxes. These plants have 
only started work within the last four months. 

The details herein given are offered as a descrip- 
tion of the various methods of mining in vogue in 
the Federated Malay States. There is little to be 
learned from the Chinese, unless it be perseverance 
and energy. English capital is being invested in 
the country and with it are coming more advanced 
ideas. The dark ages of Malay mining are past. 
The future prosperity of the country will depend 
upon the exploitation of the low-grade deposits on a 
large scale by mechanical methods. 



PROGRESS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



Written tor the Mining and Scientific Press 
By George A. Ohren. 

Looking back over the twelve months of 190S, one 
may easily discern that the mining industry in south- 
eastern British Columbia has progressed. The year 
dawned upon a dark outlook ; the copper mines of the 
Boundary were closed down ; there were rumors that 
the Le Roi mine, at Rossland, would stop work ; fur- 
thermore, the probability of the Dominion lead 
bounty ceasing in June did not encourage the owners 
of low-grade lead-silver mines. The work of the 
Granby Consolidated in the Boundary district, how- 
ever, cast a ray of light over the situation, and the 
slight rise in the prices of metals gave hope for much 
better conditions during the forthcoming months. 
The Granby company in January was working but 
half of its regular force, but week after week the ore 
shipments were augmented, until during the week 
ending March 22 a record of 27,288 tons was made. 
"While shipments have fluctuated to some extent, the 
Granby ore production has been steady, and the out- 
put for this year will exceed that of 1907 by 400,000 
tons. This company has expended $200,000 in im- 
provements in its mining, smelting, and converter 
plant, and is prepared for a heavy output during the 
coming year. Following the lead of the Granby, the 
B. C. Copper Co. resumed work at its mines early in 
the year, and, after putting in new ore-crushing, air- 
compressing, and smelter machinery, shipments were 
begun to the Greenwood smelter in May. The output 
of the B. C. Copper Co. 's Mother Lode mine this year 
shows an increase of 100,000 tons, while the ship- 
ments made by the Oro Denoro will offset the ore 
shipped from the Emma last year and exceed it by 
65,000 tons. The heavy fixed charges, economical 
method of mining and smelting, and the general ad- 
justment of conditions making it advisable for the 
two principal concerns of the Boundary to resume 
work, it naturally followed that the Dominion Cop- 
per Co. should fall into line. In June this company 
resumed operations at its mines, and a few weeks 
later blew in the large modern furnace at the Boun- 
dary Falls smelter, resuming shipments to that point. 
The coke shortage, subsequent to the Fernie fire, 
caused the Dominion Copper Co. to stop work at 



both mines and smelter. It became known that the 
company was short of money. Mining was resumed 
in an effort to keep things moving, but, money not 
being forthcoming to pay the miners' wages, work 
was suspended, and a little later on the affairs of the 
company were carried to the courts. Re-organization 
is now under way. With the exception of this com- 
pany, the Boundary mines have made notable head- 
way. The Consolidated Co. opened up the Snowshoe 
mine in August and began shipments to the Trail 
smelter in September; in November, there being a 
surplus of ore at Trail, this surplus was treated at 
the Greenwood smelter of the B. C. Copper Co. A 
compressor plant was installed by the same company 
on the Phoenix Amalgamated propertj'-, where active 
development has disclosed a good body of ore, some- 
what resembling that found in the Granby mines 
which are situated adjacent to it. 

The plan of work outlined by W. A. Carlyle for 
the Le Roi is giving good results, and the mine will 
show a profit this year, even though the shipments 
will be about 35,000 tons less than in 1907. The ore 
sent to the Northport smelter has been of a better 
grade than last year. The profit won by the Le Roi 
was greatest in October, when $50,000 was earned. 
Work on the Centre Star, War Eagle, Iron Mask, 
Idaho, and Enterprise claims of the Consolidated Co. 
has given gratifying results ; in consequence, the 
shipments for 1908 will exceed 1907 by over 50,000 
tons, and the profits will be proportionally larger. 
The property has been earning an average of $35,000 
or more per month. Two good strikes were made at 
the Le Roi No. 2 during the year, and that the com- 
pany has made money is shown by the payment of 
$1.44 per share in dividends. The development work 
on the Giant-California has not yet resulted in 1jhe 
finding of ore-shoots. While the Jumbo and White 
Bear have remained idle, it is expected that money 
will be available to start operations on these proper- 
ties early in 1909. 

At Nelson, the Silver King mine is once more 
active. The Queen and Nugget, on Sheep creek, have 
attracted attention by their profits. Continuance of 
the lead bounty has stimulated work among the small 
mines of the Slocan, and the showing this year will 
be better than for 1907, although the total shipments 
will show a decrease. This decrease is caused by the 
inactivity of the Sullivan, La Plata, and other heavy 
producers of low-grade ore. The Blue Bell mine has 
been improved to the extent of $200,000 during the 
year, and can now mine and treat a heavy tonnage 
of low-grade ore, of which there is a large quantity 
on the ground. The St. Eugene mine, at Moyie, has 
shipped 2000 tons more than in 1907, and there is a 
good lot of ore ready for stoping in the upper levels. 

Taking everything into consideration, the local 
mining industry has improved. The Rossland output 
will exceed that of 1907 by 10,000 tons, despite the 
drop in Le Roi shipments; the Boundary tonnage 
will surpass that of 1907 by over 290,000 tons. The 
mines are prepared for a heavy output during 1909, 
and now that the financial trouble and other disturb- 
ing factors have been adjusted, a prosperous future 
seems assured. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



37 



SANTA EULALIA MINES, CHIHUAHUA 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By F. J. H. Mebbox. 

This important group of mines is situated 17 miles 
southeasl from the city of Chihuahua, cm a moun- 
tain area about eight miles in exteut from north to 
south and six miles from east to west. 

It is traditional that the mineral deposits of Santa 
Eulalia were worked by the natives before the Span- 
ish invasion; but they were discovered by the Span- 
iards about 1591 and first opened about 1703. Offi- 
cial i -ds tell us that the older mines of the camp : 

the Vieja, Aguada, Santa Rita, Santo Domingo, Par- 
cionera, San Jos6, Dolores, and others, yielded an 

immense tonnage of rich silver ore; this was smelted 

in primitive adobe furnaces at Santa Eulalia and 

also ;it tl in of Chihuahua, which owed its early 

development to these important mines, and at one 
time supported a population of 70,000, siuce shrunk 
to 40,1 

Kimball quotes government records showing a 
production from 1705 to 1791 of 11.903.126 marcs, or 
95,225,008 Spanish ounces, equivalent to nearly $112.- 
000.000 ; and he estimates the entire production at 
one-fifth to one-half more than that reported to the 
tax collectors. The district supported a population 
of 6000. with 63 reduction establishments, besides 
several furnaces at Chihuahua. From 1795 to 1800 
this region was ravaged by hostile Apaches, and the 
camp was gradually abandoned. In 1810 began the 
revolution against Spain, which lasted 11 years, dur- 
ing which ilexican mining generally was at a stand- 
still. 

The ore, in the early days, was mainly taken from 
immense caves, one in the Parcionera, now closed 
by settling of the ground, being large enough to hold 
the Chihuahua cathedral. An important feature of 
these caves was that they afforded storage for the 
small amount of waste rock that was broken down ; 
so that the oldest openings show no dumps. An 
additional economy, in connection with the methods 
then in use, was that some of the old water-channels 
could, with little labor, be shaped into inclined 
planes, up which the ore might be carried from the 
lowest workings on the backs of peons, or even on 
burros or mules. It is claimed that some of the 
oldest workings, which were probably operated by 
natives before the Spanish invasion, were in the 
southeastern part of the area near the claims now 
known as La Carlota and El Chiribel. Here the ores 
contain some gold. It is needless to remark that 
the mining of those clays was on rich ore from the 
very surface. The first profitable discoveries were 
on rich shoots or chimneys exposed at the surface, 
and leading down to connect with the great cave- 
deposits that made the fortunes of the early mine- 
owners. These paid so large a revenue to the Govern- 
ment that the cathedral at Chihuahua, which cost 
$800,000, is said to have been built entirely with the 
tax money of 1 real (equal to I2V2C.) per marc (8 
oz.) of silver paid by the mines of Santa Eulalia. 

The Santa Eulalia mountain area consists geolog- 
ically of two principal formations. The lower is 



Cretaceous limestone, of which about 500 ft. is ex- 
posed j n canyon erosion and some 2000 ft. has been 
cut in the mine-workings. The upper is a clastic 

deposit, partly limestone-conglomerate and partly 

volcanic bn ia and luff with thin sheets of lava. 

This has hitherto been generally elassed as volcanic, 

but the base is of sedimentary origin. The limestone 

is elevated above the surrounding country in the 
form of a boss or dome of which the central axis, 
according to Kimball, is near the Vieja property. 
and from this axis the rock dips in all directions. 
beginning near the axis with an angle of about 5°, 
increasing to 30° and even to 45° on the outer slopes.' 
This brings the limestone below the breccia at the 
valley-bottom in Santa Eulalia village; on the lower 
slopes of the mountain no limestone has been seen. 

The mountain is deeply channeled by erosion and 
the ravines show many vertical escarpments, which 
are evidently due to extensive faulting of the lime- 
stone, the fault-planes then being worn down by the 





«5* 


24 




*"•-, v/ -^ 


m 

■ . ^s • ■ 

* 


> *\\ ■' *-*--»>\ <$/ r . . J, ,'% "... 






106" 



Showing Position of Santa Eulalia. 

drainage. While some writers have commented on 
the absence of faulting here, the evidence of a 700-f't. 
displacement in a faulted block near the Zubiate 
property seems conclusive, and one observer states 
that he has seen proof of a displacement of 1100 ft. 
This matter is of importance in its bearing on the 
interruption and displacement that would occur in 
the ore-bearing zones and orebodies in the faulting 
was subsequent to the mineralization. I have not 
yet observed any evidence on this point. 

The upper part of the limestone exposed in the 
Demoeracia shaft is a coarse conglomerate, with cal- 
careous cement, but, in freshly blasted surfaces 
close scrutiny is necessary to detect the real char- 
acter of this rock. Following down the ravine that 
leads past the Inglaterra property to the village of 
Santa Eulalia, in the low ground, the conglomerate 
is well exposed, the boulders, which vary from 3 in. 
to 3 ft. diam., weathering conspicuously. This epn- 
glomerate is composed of water-worn material, and 
is a true sub-aqueous sediment, although volcajiie 
action was taking place during the deposition of its 
upper portion. 

The base of the conglomerate passes gradually 



38 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



into the bedded limestone from which, its boulders 
were derived, with the re-erystallized dust that ce- 
mented them. On the ridge above the Inglaterra 
and Democracia properties and elsewhere, the upper 
part of the limestone conglomerate has for its 
cement a paste of volcanic rock-dust. This conglom- 
erate was not seen on the high ground near the 
Santo Domingo mine, and further study may show 
that it is limited in extent, and was formed as a 
beach-deposit on the flank of the Santa Eulalia up- 
lift when this lay as an island in the surrounding 
waters. Above the conglomerate and, where it is 
lacking, resting on the bedded limestone, are exten- 
sive deposits of tuff and volcanic breccia, about 300 
ft. thick, called by the Mexicans cantera, and by 
some Americans 'porphyry capping'. Intercalated 
with the breccia at some points, or cutting it hori- 
zontally, are thin sheets of lava. The breccia and 
.conglomerate form a deposit that is seen at many 
points in northern Mexico resting unconformably 
on Cretaceous strata. The few hundred feet exposed 
at Santa Eulalia are probably only a fraction of the 
original thickness, which at Sierra Mojada is esti- 
mated at 1800 ft. Some of the Sonora conglomer- 
ates have been described by E. T. Dumble under the 
name of Baucari, Nogales, and Trincheras beds. The 
Baucari beds were observed in the district of Ala- 
mos, and the Nogales and Trincheras beds in north- 
ern Arizpe, near the Arizona boundary, but strata 
comparable lithologically to the Nogales beds are 
widely developed along the Taqui river from Buena 
Vista to Tonichi. I called attention to a quartz- 
porphyry conglomerate, passing into a red sand- 
stone of wide extent, at Planchas de Plata in the 
northern part of the Magdalena district, Sonora, 
and extensive beds of conglomerate form the sum- 
mits of some mountain peaks in the Copete mining 
region of the Ures district of Sonora. Other con- 
glomerates have been observed on the mountains 
near the La Brisca placers at Magdalena. If these 
conglomerates were shown to be limited to small 
areas, they might be regarded as lake deposits, but 
insufficient geologic field-work has been done in 
Sonora to prove their areal limits, and the possibil- 
ity of marine submergence of this area during depo- 
sition cannot be denied with certainty. 

The limestone encloses the main orebodies, the 
breccia being, so far as known, entirely barren ex- 
cept for small stringers of ore in narrow fissures. It 
appears, therefore, that while the mineralization 
occurred subsequent to the volcanic action that re- 
sulted in the deposition of the breccia, the precipi- 
tation of the metals was essentially confined to the 
soluble limestone. The ore occurs almost wholly in 
caves and chambers, in close association with old 
water-channels, though it is evident that these caves 
and channels were formed by subterranean drainage, 
from the surface, subsequent to the mineralization of 
the limestone along its fissures, and contemporane- 
ously with the oxidation and alteration of the me- 
tallic sulphides with which the limestone was pri- 
marily impregnated, and by which it was in part 
replaced. The original ore deposits were replace- 
ments of the limestone, chiefly by galena carrying 



silver, the sulphide of lead having subsequently been 
oxidized and altered to the carbonate, or cerussite. 
In some mines pyrite is found, together with cala- 
mine and smithsonite as alteration products from 
sphalerite. Zinc ores are said to occur in the mine 
El Potosi at a depth of 1600 ft. The oxidation of 
the larger masses of ore extends as far as the lowest 
workings, but occasional nuclei and stringers of 
galena may still be seen. The native miners identify 
two principal classes of deposits at mantas and abras, 
the former being approximately horizontal sheets of 
ore replacing soluble layers of limestone, and the 
latter representing replacements along the walls of 
nearly vertical fissures. These phases obviously pass 
into one another. 

Philip Argall notes that the great caves, water- 
courses, and ore deposits occur along certain main 
fissures that have a general northerly direction, and 
are usually situated at points where the main fissures 
are intersected by cross-fractures. As the develop- 
ment of the district is extended it will be of interest 
to observe how far this generalization proves cor- 
rect for the whole area. The wide and deep fissure 
of the Zubiate property, in which are said to have 
been large orebodies, has a strike at the surface of 
about N.70°E. magnetic. Mr. Argall also makes an 
observation that is of importance if generally true, 
namely, that in the process of oxidation the lead 
and silver were leached from the upper deposits to 
the lower, so that the ore in caves at higher levels 
is lean and limited in volume, while in the deep 
mines the caves are full of rich ore. This may be 
true of a number of properties, but tradition tells 
us that when the region was first exploited rich ore 
was followed from the soil downward. 

Numerous dikes and sills of eruptive rock occur 
in the district, some of which were noticed near the 
Zubiate property, but whether all are of one variety 
has not been determined. In the southeastern part 
of the district they are abundant, and in the San 
Antonio property, orebodies are found at the con- 
tact of the limestone with a porphyry intrusion. 
These contact deposits are said to continue across 
the Enriqueta into the Carlota. The workings in the 
El Potosi mine have attained a depth of nearly 1800 
ft., and it is said that in this part of the district 
most of the large orebodies opened within the past 
few years are below 1000 ft. When and where the 
downward limit of secondary enrichment will be 
found is a question of great interest. 

In the early days of the district, many bonanzas 
were found containing chloride and sulphide of sil- 
ver, and some are found still, but the autput now is 
of moderate grade, probably not exceeding an aver- 
age of 20 oz. silver for the better class of ores, and 
there is a considerable tonnage assaying as low as 
6 oz. per ton. The lead content is said to average 
below 25%, with considerable amounts of iron and 
alumina. These ores, though relatively low in grade, 
are of special value to the smelters for their fluxing 
qualities. As far back as 1867 Lew Wallace wrote 
that the Santo Domingo and Dolores ores were 
chiefly valued as fluxes. 

The diseoverv of ore at Santa Eulalia is often a 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



39 



matter of chance. In the beginning ore was fol- 
lowed from outcrops in the limestone, and from the 
caves entered in the progress of this work 'leaders' 
were traced laterally into other chambers, the posi- 
tion of which was a matter of speculation. Hut the 
general richness and extent of the mineralization 
amply justified the search. The so-called 'leaders' 
are uarrow fissures in the limestone filled with Eerru- 
ius argillaceous matter, which contain traces of 
lead, but rarelj any important amount of silver. In 
following these fissures, small cavities and water- 
ahannels are frequently cut; these, in themselves, 
are of do value but suggest the existence of Larger 

channels and eaves in the neighborhood. 

As the district attracted attention, and the ground 
on which limestone was exposed at the surface was 
located by 'denouncement', it was necessary in seek- 
ing new deposits to sink through the 'porphyry cap- 



the facts have not been made public. In faulted 
ground, moreover, the displacement of ore-bearing 
horizons may lead to unexpected expense in find- 
ing ore. 

The present condition of Santa Eulalia is emi- 
nently one of prosperity. In spite of some failures, 
there are many successes. Whether the ore be high- 
grade and valuable for its silver content, or low- 
grade and esteemed for fluxing, it appears to find a 
ready market. Transportation facilities are excel- 
lent. The Chihuahua Mining Co. operates a railway 
from the outskirts of Chihuahua into the northern 
and central portions of the district, handling the 
output of the Santo Domingo, El Potosi. and other 
mines. The San Toy Mining Co., operating the Gal- 
deano and other properties, transports its ore by a 
wire-rope tramway to a branch of the Perrocarril 
Mineral. The newer mines of the eastern part of 




Mexican Miners at Work. 



ping' or beds of breccia. Shafts thus sunk were 
continued until ore was found or promising leaders 
were discovered, the latter being followed by drifts, 
winzes, or raises until an orebody was opened. The 
practice in this respect at Santa Eulalia is similar 
to that at Sierra Mojada, where sometimes a leader 
has been followed 300 metres in the search for ore 
before success rewarded the miner's effort. It is 
obvious that in a limestone, irregularly impregnated, 
a shaft may easily miss an orebodj r . Lateral explo- 
ration must then be resorted to. It is obvious that 
in ground like that of Santa Eulalia exploration 
should be backed by ample capital, and continued 
with rigid economy, as no one can estimate before- 
hand the cost of finding ore. This is exemplified in 
the Baltimore property, where a shaft was sunk 
1300 ft. without finding ore, although numerous 
leaders were intersected. Similar conditions doubt- 
less exist in many prospect shafts, concerning which 



the district have no railroad connection, but busy 
strings of burros carrying sacks of ore to the sta- 
tion at Santa Eulalia give proof of productivity. 
The transportation rates to El Paso are favorable 
for the shipment of low-grade ore, though some of 
this goes to the smelter at Torreon. Only a few 
miles from the camp, on the plain toward Chihuahua, 
is the new Guggenheim smelter. Labor commands 
about the same price as at other large camps in 
Chihuahua, though contractors have learned to make 
better profits. For sinking shafts less than 500 ft. 
deep ?50 per metre is a regular price. For depths 
greater than 500 ft. ?70 per metre is usual. To this 
should be added about f*30 per metre for expenses 
of hoisting, blacksmith work, and incidentals. Mine- 
timber costs about P60 per M. board measure, deliv- 
ered on the ground. A point of advantage at Santa 
Eulalia is that the mines are generally dry, so that 
little expense is incurred for handling water. 



40 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING ON THE MOTHER LODE. 



Written for the Miming and Scientific Press 
By H. W. Turner. 

The Mother Lode in California is understood to 
mean a belt of quartz veins in the Sierra foot-hills ex- 
tending from the American river on the north border 
of Eldorado county, southeasterly across Eldorado, 
Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne counties, and 
terminating near the town of Mariposa in Mariposa 
county, where the black slate, in which the greatest 
number of veins lie, is cut off by intrusive granite. 

To the north of Eldorado county, the black slate 
continues nearly to the town of Colfax, but this for- 
mation does not contain any notable mines north of 
the American river. The rich mines of Grass Valley 
are in the line of strike of the lode, but the veins of 
that district are separated from the great lode by a 
barren interval and belong to a different system, al- 
though probably of the same age. 

The Mother Lode represents a belt of shearing and 
faulting in relatively weak rocks (slate and schist), 
resulting in the formation of many nearly parallel 
fissures in a narrow zone. The veins or fissure-fill- 
ings are therefore not continuous. 

The lode is found within a belt of clay-slate (the 
Mariposa formation), but it is not. confined to this 
formation. Thus the main veins at Angels are in 
greenstone-schist to the east of the black slate belt, 
and in central Mariposa county, the largest veins, 
although poor in gold, are in serpentine or at the 
contact of serpentine or greenstone with slate. South 
of the town of Mariposa there is a tongue of schist 
extending southeasterly into Madera county and in 
this tongue there is a series of veins, some of which 
are productive, such as the Grub Gulch and Coarse 
Gold. This series is by some regarded as an exten- 
sion of the Mother Lode. 

The ores of the lode are all relatively free milling. 
The gangue in the clay-slate is chiefly quartz with 
very little calcite. Pyrite is always present and 
other sulphides occur in small amount, such as chal- 
copyrite, blende, and galena, the last two being usu- 
ally indicative of gold. 

In the amphibolite-schist, the gangue is chiefly 
quartz, but there is often considerable calcite. 
Pyrite is abundant and chalcopyrite, blende, and 
galena are present. In a number of veins tellurides 
of gold and silver occur; the tellurides of lead and 
of mercury .are rarer. 

In the veins within serpentine or near serpentine 
contacts, the vein-material is quartz, dolomite, and 
mariposite. The ordinary sulphide is pyrite, but 
others occur. Arsenopyrite is present in the Raw- 
hide mine, and in the Josephine in Mariposa county 
ilmenite or titanic iron ore. 

The ordinary reduction process on the Mother 
Lode is crushing by stamps, amalgamating on sil- 
vered copper plates, concentrating on vanners and 
tables ; in addition, canvas plants are used for fur- 
ther saving of the fine concentrate from the slime. 
The quantity of quicksilver consumed in the amal- 
gamation process is about 0.15 oz. per ton of ore. 
The bullion contains about 5 a /2 oz. gold to 1 oz. silver. 



The concentrate is shipped to the smelter, or, as at 
the Eagle-Shawmut and Lightner, is treated in a 
local chlorination plant. Formerly the pyritic con- 
centrate from the Amador county mines was treated 
mainly in the chlorination works at Drytown and 
Sutter Creek, but it is now cheaper to ship this pro- 
duct of the mill to the smelter; in consequence, the 
Amador county chlorination plants are now idle. 

In Calaveras county the main activity is on that 
portion of the lode extending from Angels south to 
Robinson Ferry. In this area 350 stamps are now 
dropping and a 20-stamp mill is being erected for 
the Etna-King. The famous Morgan mine, together 
with the adjoining Union and Kentucky claims, is 
being opened up by the trustee for the Fair estate, 




the litigation that has been pending for many years 
having been settled. The Morgan claim produced 
the largest single chunk of gold ever found in a Cali- 
fornia quartz mine and is credited with a total pro- 
duction of $3,600,000 within 400 ft. of the surface. 
The veins in this part of the lode are remarkably 
strong, standing out as huge white reefs along the 
crest of the ridges. In most cases the rich ore is 
found adjoining one of the walls of these large veins, 
which are often from 50 to ,75 ft. thick, the main 
mass of the quartz being poor in gold. At the mines 
at Angels much of the ore consists of mineralized 
schist with numerous quartz stringers. The Melones 
mine is being worked by the caving system in a 
great open-cut on top of Carson hill on the Reserve 
claim, the ore being dropped down a rock chute 
about 1000 ft. in depth to the adit, where it is run 
out to the 100-stamp mill at Robinson Ferry. 

The main producing counties of the Mother Lode 
are Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne, the first 
being the most important. In 1905 in these counties 
1,601,296 tons of ore were milled, chiefly from the 
Mother Lode mines, the average recovery per ton of 



January 2. l!K.i!i. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



41 



ore being $3.62. The average t • > i a l cost of mining 
ami milling, including management and depreciation, 
varies from $2 to $3 per ton, and it is claimed thai 
the total i-ost in the Melones mine is below $2 per 
ton. Nearly all the mines are worked through 
shafts, a prominent exception being the Melones, the 
main adit of which starts near the Stanislaus river 
and extends north to a point under the crest of 
Carson hill. Electric power generated hy water and 
direct water-power are mostly in use. but both wood 
and oil are also employed to generate steam. The 
ore is usually soft, allowing a high duty, often 4 tons 
pel- stamp per L!4 hours. The Bofl slate walls and 
wide veins eause the bills for timber to run high, fre- 
quently '!'»'. to Kle. per ton of ore extracted. Square 
timbers are use. I and also the local digger pine. Jn 

general, all mining supplies are cheap and labor is 
low. $2.50 to $3 per shift. 

During 1908 work has been going on at the Bunker 
Hill, Bay State, Keystone. Fremont, Oneida, South 
Eureka, Central Eureka, Argonaut, Kennedy, Zeile, 
and Amador Queen in Amador county; at the Gwin, 




Kennedy Mine, California. 

Lightner, Etna-King, Utiea, Gold Cliff, Angels, 
Brunei-, Chaparral Hill, Finnegan, and Melones 
mines in Calaveras county; in the Tarantula, Har- 
vard, App, Jumper, and Eagle-Shawmut mines in 
Tuolumne count}' ; and at the Josephine, Princeton, 
and Mariposa mines in Mariposa county. There has 
also been activity at the Mack mine at Big Oak Flat, 
but this is not strictly on the Mother Lode. 

Exploration to the depth of over 1400 ft. in the 
large mines on the Mariposa grant seems to indicate 
that while the veins remain strong, the gold de- 
creases with depth ; but with the Gwin, Kennedy, and 
many other mines the ore has not become impover- 
ished with depth, although, of course, the costs have 
increased. The Gwin has good ore on the 2400-ft. 
level and even deeper, and the Kennedy is said to 
have good ore 3000 ft. vertically below the surface. 
The Eagle-Shawmut is down 2600 ft. and better ore 
is reported on the lower levels than above, although 
heavy in sulphides. In the ehlorination plant at this 
mine there are two roasting furnaces — a 20-ton Hall, 
and a 10-ton Edwards. Oil fuel is used. The mill is 
run by water-power, and has 100 stamps of 1000 lb. 
each, and 40 Frue vanners. During the year over 
1000 stamps have been dropping on the Mother 
Lode, but many mills were closed down from lack 
of water in the late summer and early fall months. 



CRIPPLE CREEK IN 1908. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By \V. W. Tk.wki.i.. 

It must be admitted that the Portland mine now 
stands as the 1 ndependence did some four years ago, 
when the consulting engineers to that company ad- 
vised the I. Ion office to introduce the leasing 

system — that is, the Portland is very much of a shell. 

Its main orcbodies, like those of tin- Independence, 
are worked out. the average grade of the ore can- 
not be much more than $lt> per ton, and, although the 
Portland company has its own mill at Colorado City, 
the profits must necessarily be small, owing to the 
great amount of waste, large expense of timbering, 
lone tramming distances, and the very low grade 
of the ore. One must not, however, lose sight of the 
fact that in this mine the line of contact with the 




if. -f , I &«*$% ■■- ofiasiu'-t ••>. * 



fl Part of Colorado. 

granite, pitching as it does from the Independence 
north end into the Portland, will give pay-ore at a 
much greater depth than in the Independence. On 
the latter property Mr. Hammond carried the shaft 
down to the 1400-ft. level, and did much driving and 
cross-cutting at that depth, without finding any ore 
better than $3 or $4 per ton. The pay-ore below 1100 
ft. seems to have been cut off at the contact. The 
Portland may continue to do fairly well a little 
deeper than this, although, as before stated, the ore 
seems, on Battle Mtn., to become poorer in depth. 
The company undoubtedly has a valuable asset in the 
dumps ; these cannot be less than 1,500,000 tons, and 
remembering the fact that the Portland company, for 
years, never leased or washed the dumps, the aver- 
age value of the whole should not be less than $4 
per ton. This is a considerable item. It is known 
that the company has been experimenting on the 
dump ore for some time at Colorado City, and is now 
erecting a small plant (10-stamp mill) near the mine. 



42 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



They are proceeding carefully, spending probably 
not more than $15,000 on the outfit. The method will 
be to convey the ore automatically to the mill for 
•crushing, pass it over concentrating tables, and then 
•cyanide. The tailing will be put over a second table. 
It is reported that they are going to very little ex- 
pense in the matter and are obtaining the most up- 
to-date tables ; by 'reason of many years of experi- 
ence in milling their oxidized ores at Colorado City 
they should be able to devise, the best and cheapest 
means for treating the dumps. It would seem wise, 
judging by the experience of the Stratton's Inde- 
pendence company, to lease the upper levels of the 
property, instructing their superintendent to watch 
-the timbering and attend to the general supervision 
.of the lessees. Twenty or thirty sets of brains are 
better than one in following and discovering ore, 
and should the Portland company decide to lease the 
upper workings, I believe their experience would be 
even more gratifying than that of the Independence, 
which, after losing some $50,000 in one year on com- 
pany account, made a profit next year of $1,000,000 
—the mine making $500,000 and the lessees, $500,000. 
Four years ago the Stratton's Independence mine 
reached the condition in which I have described the 
Portland to be, and the consulting engineer wisely 
decided that the time for leasing had come. His 
•good judgment was only too well proved by the 
■splendid results, both to the lessees and company, 
■since then. Certainly not less than a million dollars 
'had been made by the company, and a similar amount 
'by the lessees during that time. There was much un- 
fair criticism by the press and public regarding sup- 
posed exorbitant charges for royalty, hoisting, air, 
,etc, but time proved that such was not the case ; 
•the lessees made an almost equal profit with the com- 
pany. It is common knowledge that a lessee can and 
does work 30% cheaper than a company, to say 
nothing of having some 30 or 40 alert miners looking 
-for ore. So that when a large mine like the Portland 
or Independence finds its main orebodies exhausted, 
with nothing but small stringers, an occasional 
pocket to find, and mainly development work to do, 
it is well to lease the workings. The Independence 
is now in its secondary stage, that is, where the 
lessees have practically cleaned out all the pay-ore, 
■ although there are still some fourteen sets of lessees 
making a little money for themselves, and a little for 
the company. It has been deemed wise to make a 
further change. There are many thousands of tons 
of ore running from $5 to $10 per ton in the mine, 
and undoubtedly much of better value would be ex- 
posed if a system of caving were adopted, for when- 
ever caves have occurred in the mine good ore has 
been opened up. Experiments having shown that 
refractory ores of low grades can be mined and 
milled at a profit, the management decided to build a 
•mill for this purpose. Moreover, after being most 
thoroughly sampted by George A. Sehroter, who put 
down some 25 shafts all over it, taking waste and ore 
just as it came from the shafts and crushing and 
sampling it, and reducing all assays to $6 per ton, 
the dump showed an average value of $3.75 per ton. 
•Some 700,000 tons of ore averaging not less than $4 



per ton must be on these dumps, and Philip Argall, 
who has spent some $300,000 on an elaborate mill, 
will now have an opportunity to show what can be 
done toward the successful treatment of this im- 
mense tonnage. From the data given by Mr. Argall, 
his cost of extraction should not exceed $2.75 per 
ton, so that if Mr. Sehroter 's figures are correct (and 
we have every reason to believe that they are) this 
would leave a net profit on the dump alone of about 
$700,000. As we understand that the company in 
London has, under a re-organization scheme, raised 
the necessary funds to pay off all machinery and other 
debts, leaving a handsome sum on hand to enable 
Mr. Argall to push his tests to completion, we may 
reasonably hope to hear of definite results within 
the next two months. Should the mill prove to be a 
success it will mean much for Cripple Creek, as there 
are immense tonnages of low-grade ore in most of the 
larger mines, and many of the smaller ones, and it 
will give a stimulus to the camp for many years, be- 
sides increasing the possibilities of opening up 
higher-grade ore while working on the poor stuff. 

The Golden Cycle mine has been one of the steadi- 
est and largest producers in the camp for many years, 
and the great help given to the Cripple Creek district 
by J. T. Milliken in building an 800-ton mill at Colo- 
rado City and treating (in addition to the Golden 
Cycle ore) custom ore, cannot be over-estimated. 
Their rate of $4.50 for freight and treatment on $8 
ore was the means of making the camp look like 'old 
times' again, for almost every property with any- 
thing in sight, commenced operations either under 
lease or company account, and everyone was looking 
for leases in the mines or on the dumps. The United 
States Reduction & Refining Co., to meet this com- 
petition, put down their rates even lower than the 
Golden Cycle, making a $3.50 rate on $8 ore (though 
they have since raised this twice during the last 
three months), thus more than ever stimulating de- 
velopment work all over the district. Unfortunately 
many lessees shipped thousands of tons of dump ore 
that ran close to $4, leaving the Reduction company 
but little margin for loss, hence their reasons for 
putting up their rates to discourage the shipment of 
ore running under $10 per ton. However, the good 
work done by the Cycle people is highly commend- 
able, and has been the means of bringing the camp 
back to a good monthly tonnage. The Cycle property 
is now working at a depth close to 1400 ft. and yields 
about 150 tons per day of ore averaging close to an 
ounce. This mine differs from the Portland and In- 
dependence in that much of its better grade of ore 
is found in the lower levels, having immense bodies 
of its highest-grade ore at 1200, 1300, and 1400 ft. I 
consider the Cycle good for a tonnage of 150 per 
day of ounce ore for many years, with great possibili- 
ties in their lower levels. The ownership of reduc- 
tion works is a feature that will enable this company 
to continue production when their ore becomes much 
lower in grade. 

The Elkton mine is producing about 2000 tons per 
month of good-grade ore, probably an average of $25 
per ton. I consider the Elkton one of the best prop- 
erties in the Cripple Creek district, with possibili- 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



43 



ties of a long life. Large bodies of ore of grade bet- 
ter than an ounce exist at the lower levels. At 900 
ft. (just about water-level) an excellent showing is 
being developed, and with the completion of the 
drainage adit large bodies of high-grade ore will 
be exposed that have been covered during the Last 
few years since pumping operations on the lower 
levels ceased. A large tonnage of good-grade ore 
will undoubtedly be shipped from this property for 
many years. The Cresson mine is also steadily yield- 
ing ore averaging close to an ounce. At present 
some development work is being done, so that the 
tonnage is not as large as usual, being in the neigh- 
borhood of 1500 tons per month. The Dante, Trilby, 
Blue Bird, Gold Sovereign, and their neighbors have 
excellent showings and are making a fair output. 
The Dante is the best of these, producing about a car 
per day of ore averaging $20 per ton. The Isabella 
is not doing quite as much as usual, but the cyanide 
mill seems to be successful with the dump ore, and 
as this property from the 100 to 700 ft. is in the 
oxidized zone, there should be no trouble in treat- 
ing many thousands of tons of ore too low to send 
to the reduction works. 

Work is progressing satisfactorily on the drainage 
adit, some 4000 ft. having been driven, and an aver- 
age of about 12 ft. per day is being maintained. 
With the completion of the adit, the El Paso, Elkton, 
Portland, Strong, and many other properties will 
undoubtedly be greatly benefited, so that, taken as 
a whole, the camp should be a producer for many 
years yet of, say, some 40,000 or 50.000 tons per 
month of ore of an average grade of $15 to $20 per 
ton. 

The Vindicator mine has been one of the large 
producers of the camp and, at present, is worked 
almost entirely by lessees. Some of the richest ore 
found in Cripple Creek has been taken from this 
property, and many of the lessees have done excep- 
tionally well. I consider it will be a steady shipper 
for many years yet, with possibilities of opening up 
additional orebodies under the leasing system. The 
main ore-shoots have been worked out, but much 
good territory remains undeveloped. A steel shaft- 
house and head-frame 80 ft. high are being con- 
structed at the No. 1 shaft, showing the company's 
confidence in the continued finding of ore. At pres- 
ent they are making an average production of about 
1600 tons per month, and four dividends, amounting 
to $45,000 each, have been paid since the first of the 
year. 

About the beginning of 1908 the El Paso Gold 
Mining Co. decided to lease its upper workings, 
which showed little or no profit under company man- 
agement, pending the completion of the new drain- 
age adit. Their good judgment has been proved by 
the majority of the lessees doing well and paying 
the company fair royalties. This one mine should 
become one of the most active producers when the 
drainage adit is completed, as undoubtedly large 
bodies of good-grade ore exist in the lower workings. 

The Strong mine is one of the steady producers of 
the district, the ore being almost entirely in the 
granite, near the contact. There is good ore at depth, 



and I anticipate production for many years. Sev- 
eral million dollars have been paid to the owners 
during the pasl ten years; it is a close corporation, 
having only three or four owners. Their present 
output should not be less than 2500 tons per month 
of *:!0 ore. During the period that the Gold < 
mine, now called the Granite, was owned by the 
Woods family it produced many million dollars 
worth of ore. It is, however, practically worked out 
and, although a few sets of lessees are working, their 
output is small, and I do not anticipate much from 
this property, until perhaps such time as the mills 
can treat the very low-grade ores at a profit. Al- 
though during the past twelve months the output 
from the Findlay has not been large, I understand 
that reserves are stored in the stopes and in the 
lower levels (1200 ft.) good ore is said to exist. 
Under vigorous management and development work 
the Findlay should be a steady producer for many 
vein's. The Hull City Placer main workings are 
merely a shell, but with territory well located and 
not yet tested. This min£ is under lease entirely 
and will probably produce a fair tonnage for sev- 
eral years. 

The Mary McKinney, one of the old mines, is now 
under lease to the Western Investment Co., which 
has sub-leased to several sets of lessees. A fair ton- 
nage of moderate grade is being shipped and with 
the development work now under way, this property 
should continue to maintain a steady output. The 
Doctor Jack Pot, Work, and adjoining properties 
are producing, chiefly under lease, with prospects of 
continuation. 

The entire Stratton Estate properties, such as the 
American Eagles, Lucky Gus, Specimen, Sacramento, 
are under lease and many of them are productive. 
Several new orebodies have been discovered on the 
American Eagles. The Lucky Gus, under lease to 
H. G. Moore and associates, has been one of the best 
operations in the camp, having paid each of the three 
lessees some $50,000 during the year, and they 
are still making a good production of high-grade ore. 
Generally speaking, with the necessary development, 
the properties of this estate should produce a fair 
tonnage during the next five years. 



The platinum output of Colombia is second only to 
that of Russia. This precious metal, washed from 
the gravels of the Choco, is found associated with 
gold, the platinum, however, predominating. Al- 
though platinum occurs to some extent in other parts 
of the Choco, the main sources are the Platina and 
Condota rivers, and a few tributaries, as well as the 
streams running into the Cajon, all being affluents 
of the San Juan river. The metal is also obtained 
from the Agua Clara river and portions of the Bebera 
river, both of which flow into the river Atrato ; it is 
obtained also from the Cartegui, the main affluent 
of the Quito river. Though platinum occurs in the 
wide areas of the Choco in the stream beds, and on 
the banks bordering the San Juan valley, it has not 
yet been found in veins. It seems to be a re-concen- 
tration from older gravels, deposited apparently in 
the Tertiary age. 



44 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



COAL MINING IN CHINA. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbbss 
By Thomas T. Read. 

Mining interest in China is at present chiefly cen- 
tred in coal. Indeed, this is likely to remain perma- 
nently the case, for in the list of the mineral re- 
sources of China coal easily takes first place. The 
present output of coal, something like 15,000,000 
tons per year, probably exceeds in value all the 
metallic products combined. 

The^ principal coalfields of China fall into three 
large groups. First and most important is the North 
China field, an aggregation of smaller areas. In vari- 
ous places in the provinces of Shantung, Chili, and 
Shansi, and also in Manchuria, valuable coal seams 
outcrop and are more or less actively worked. The 
larger part of the total production at present comes 
from these fields. Their detailed description will be 
given later on. The second, or southern field, centres 
about the southern part of the province of Hunan. 
One large mine is here worked by foreign methods, 
and there is also a large production from native 
mines. The third, or western field, is in the basin of 
the Ssu-chuan. I have not visited this field, and can 
only cite Von Richthofen, 1 who says, in substance, 
that coal is very generally worked throughout the 
province, the Mesozoic strata being extensively 
folded and cut across by rivers, thus conveniently 
exposing the seams for the native method of work- 
ing. The coal is not of so good quality as that of 
the southern field, so it is not shipped down the 
Tang-tze to compete with other coals in the markets 
of the lower river. The difficulties of navigation on 
the upper Yang-tze undoubtedly have much to do 
with this, as well as its quality. In the northern and 
western part of the province the quality is better. 
A foreign company has secured a concession at Wan- 
hsien and has installed foreign machinery, but I do 
not know how much they are producing at present. 

In the southern field the chief producer is the 
P'ing-hsiang colliery, owned and operated by the 
Han-Tang Iron Works. This mine is in the province 
of Kiang-si, just on the borders of Hunan, and on 
the northeastern border of the field. At present it 
has a production of something over a, half million 
tons per year, but this is steadily being increased, the 
limiting factor being the transportation on the Hsiang 
river, which is very shallow during a large part of 
the year. About three-quarters of the coal is made 
into coke at the mine, where there are six modern 
retort batteries, or 154 retorts in all. The remainder 
is shipped as lump coal to Hankow for the use of the 
iron works and for sale in the open market. There 
are two washing plants for washing the coal before 
coking. Electric haulage is employed underground, 
this being the only mine in China employing electric 
haulage. There are many native mines worked in 
the vicinity. Coke is also made in native ovens. A 
missionary writer speaking of coal in China has 
gravely said that the Chinese make their coal into 
coke because the coke is lighter and hence easier to 



"Die Kohlenfelder Chinas', p. 177. 



transport. ■ The real explanation is that the coals are 
generally so friable that they will not bear transpor- 
tation. From this point the coalfields extend south 
and west over a large area, and are worked in many 
places by the natives. Von Richthofen says that the 
coal becomes anthracite toward the south and is of 
much better quality, but because of the transporta- 
tion difficulties development has lagged. "When the 
Canton-Hankow railroad is finally in operation this 
portion of the field should also become important. It 
is impossible to estimate the amount now produced 
in this district. 

There are numerous companies under foreign 
supervision in the northern field. Of these the old- 
est, largest, and best known is the Chinese Engineer- 
ing & Mining Co., which operates at Tongshan and 
Linsi, in northeastern Chili. The total production is 
fairly constant at about a million tons per year. The 
mines are well equipped with modern machinery; a 
3000-kw. electric plant for hoisting underground, 
pumping, and for lighting having just been installed 
at the Tongshan mines, and a similar plant at Linsi. 
Another mine is about to be opened with Chinese 
capital, about half-way between these two mines. 
The work at this mine was fully described by Hoo- 
ver 2 a few years ago. 

In Shantung there are several fields. The Schan- 
tung Bergbau Gesellschaft is operating mines at two 
places, Po-shan and Fank-tze, and produces about 
200,000 tons per year ; native workings in the vicinity 
produce an indeterminate amount. The coal from 
the German mines is washed before being sold. The 
fields are not large, and the coal is not of the best 
quality. 

Farther to the southeast, near Yi-hsien, there is a 
larger and better field. Coal is worked here in native 
mines, and a short line of railroad is now being built 
to connect the producing district with the Grand 
canal, and will doubtless also connect with the Tien- 
tsin-Pukow railroad when the latter is finished. The 
short line should be in operation within a year, and 
the Tientsin-Pukow line is now under construction. 
Modern methods will be introduced with the advent 
of the railroad, and this district should shortly be- 
come an important producer. The mines here are 
entirely in the hands of the Chinese, and I have not 
heard whether they are to be under foreign super- 
vision. 

The largest, most important, and least developed 
field in north China is the great anthracite field of 
Shansi, which has an extent of nearly 200 miles north 
and south and 25 to 30 miles east and west. Various 
writers have described this field as a whole, or in 
part, and these accounts have recently been summar- 
ized by Willis. 3 The best account is that of Drake,* 
who estimates the average thickness of the workable 
beds as 22 ft. Richthofen has estimated its area as 
13,500 square miles, which corresponds to a total 
quantity of 350 billion tons in the whole field (Wil- 
lis). The quality of the coal is excellent, as shown 
by the analyses, but, as is not uncommon with Chi- 



2 Hoover, Eng. and Min. Jour., August, 1902. 
"Economic Geology, Vol. Ill, No. 1 (190S). 
'Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XXXI, p. 492 (1901). 



January ■_*. 1!H)!I. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



45 



nese coals, the ash is rather high. In contrast to 
the coals from many other localities, it yields a very 
large percentage of lump coal. The lack of transpor- 
tation facilities has been the restraining factor in 
preventing the development of the field. As yet it 
is only touched at three points by branch lines from 
the Peking-Hankow railroad. At the southeast edge 
of the field, in northwestern Ilonan. the Peking Syn- 
dicate has two shafts, but the work of exploitation 
does not seem to have been directed with a high 
degree of engineering skill, and the mines are only 
just beginning to make a small production after some 
years' work. The all-rail freight rales are so high 
that the company continued its branch line across to 
the hanks of the Wei river, and from that point the 
coal goes in native boats down the river to the Grand 
canal, and thence to the ports. 



of coal is produced by the natives, and there is one 
mine under foreign supervision at Ching-hsing 
(Ching-Ching). The working capital of this company 
has recently been increased and a German director 
appointed to act with the Chinese director, so the 
production will probably soon be largely increased. 
The high freight rates on these coals from the Shausi 
field makes them so expensive bv the time thev reach 
the ports that they are not used as much as their 
superior qualities might lead one to expect. The 
Imperial Railways are making such enormous profits 
that the}* could easily afford to stimulate the mining 
industry by lowering the freight rate, but apparently 
such a piece of foresight has not occurred to them. 

Twenty miles or more west of Peking there is also 
a large production of anthracite coal from native 
mines, but none of these is using modern methods. 




Railroad 

:,Aro3 prodrjc//) 
' of Coal 



Map of China, Showing Coal Ureas. 



Somewhat farther north, in Chili province, are 
mines at Lincheng, from which the eoal supply for 
the Peking-Hankow line is derived. These mines 
are only 10 to 12 miles distant from the main line, 
with which they are connected by a short branch. 
The mines are said to be worked under foreign super- 
vision, and the production must be of considerable 
importance, as they supply the general market as 
well as the 750. miles of railroad, but I have not been 
able to obtain accurate details regarding them. 

Still farther north, the northern edge of the field 
is tapped by a 160-mile branch line to Tai-yuan-fu, 
the capital of Shansi. This is a narrow-gauge road, 
and does not seem to be regarded with admiration 
by the foreigners who have been over it. who ques- 
tion its ability to handle any' great amount of traffic. 
In the district tributary to this line a large amount 



Drake 4 has described this field in detail. Still farther 
north, near Kalgan, at Hwai-lai, the Peking-Kalgan 
railroad proposes to open a mine to supply its line 
with coal; this will probably be in operation within 
a year. West of the Shansi anthracite field is a bitu- 
minous field that Richthofen thought to be as large 
as the former, but the transportation difficulties prac- 
tically remove this field from commercial considera- 
tion for the present. Farther west and north, coal is 
known to occur in various places, 
attention, but the only available details regarding 
them are to be found in the reports of the Japan 
Geological Survey. The principal fields are at Sai- 
ma-chi, Pen-su-hu, Wu-hu-tsui, and Yen-tai ; the last 
The coal mines of Manchuria have attracted much 



■'Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XXXI, p. 492 (1901). 



46 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



being the best known and most actively worked. 
The coal is anthracite, or semi-anthracite, rather high 
• in ash, and very friable, so that only a small per- 
centage of lump coal is obtained. All these mines are 
now completely under Japanese influence, and will 
be developed in the interest of the Japanese. 

TABLE OF ANALYSES. 

Analysis No. 
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

% % % % % 

Moisture 0.77 0.77 2.91 1.93 ? 

Volatile Hydrocarbon. 27.40 28.05 tot. c. 3.45 22.35 

Fixed Carbon 53.28 51.97 86.80 81.44 68.90 

Ash 18.59 19.18 9.SS 14.17 8.70 

Sulphur 1.11 0.88 0.41 0.35 0.10 

1. Tongshan Mines C. E. & M. Co. Average analysis, fur- 
nished by company. 

2. Linsi Mines C. E. & M. Co. Average analysis, fur- 
nished by company. 

3. Southern part of Shansi field. Average of 6 analyses 
by Shbckley. Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XXXIV, p. 840 (1904). 

4. Northern part of Shansi field. Average of 6 analyses 
by Drake. Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XXXI, p. 492 (1901). 

5. P'ing-hsiang bituminous. Average analyses, furnished 
by company. 

The foregoing table of analyses, gathered from 
various sources, illustrates the range of compo- 
sition of the coal from the bituminous and anthracite 
areas of the northern field and the bituminous part 
of the southern field. Analyses 1, 2, and 5 are aver- 
ages of a large number of daily determinations, and 
represent the average product with corresponding 
accuracy. Analysis 5 is of washed coal after drying. 
The coal as mined contains about 28% of ash. Analy- 
ses 3 and 4 are each averages of six analyses from 
different places in the same field, and may be taken 
as fairly representative. As may be seen from these, 
the coals are of excellent quality, except that the ash 
is at times undesirably high ; the coal is generally of 
coking quality in the bituminous fields. 

The accompanying map shows the general distri- 
bution of the coalfields. The map is taken from 
Richards' 'Geography of China', and in the areas 
assigned to the fields the map by Willis has been 
generally followed, although some necessary correc- 
tions have been made. The boundaries of all the 
fields are rather indefinite, as none of them have been 
studied in sufficient detail to fix their exact limits. 
In addition to the areas shown on the map, coal is 
known to occur in many other areas, Tun-nan, for 
example, but no attempt has been made to represent 
these, as the information regarding them is too 
indefinite. While the importance of individual fields 
has at times been overestimated by too sanguine 
observers, the estimates of the total coal resources of 
the Chinese Empire are generally below the amount 
available. It may be said that the coalfields of 
China have a large extent, the eoal is generally of 
good quality, and the fields are widely scattered, so 
that it does not require to be transported any great 
distance from the points of production to reach every 
part of the empire. Nearly every coalfield is seri- 
ously handicapped by inadequate transportation fa- 
cilities, but numerous railroads now building- in dif- 
ferent parts of the empire will soon provide markets 
and open the way to proper exploitation. 



TAXATION OF MINING PROPERTY. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By H. W. Tueneb. 

In the United States and its possessions generally, 
mining property is taxed in much the same way as 
other property; that is, the taxes are largely levied 
on the improvements. 

In British Columbia, in the State of Nevada, and 
in Mexico, on the other hand, the chief taxes are 
levied on the product. This method is a distinct ad- 
vantage to the mining industry, without decreasing 
the revenue from taxation. Mines that are producing 
can well afford to pay a reasonable tax, while those 
in the prospecting stage, or those that are tempora- 
rily shut down on account of low price of the pro- 
duet, or for other reasons, are not taxed, and hence 
debts are not piling up against them. 

In British Columbia the method of taxing mining 
property is as follows: "Mineral or placer claims 
when Crown-granted are subject to a year of tax 
at 25c. per acre, but if $200 is spent in work in a 
year this tax is not levied. A tax of 2% is levied 
quarterly on all ores and other mineral substances 
mined in the Province, based upon the net value of 
such ore at the mouth of the shaft or tunnel, but 
where ore-producing mines yield less than $5000 in 
a year, half the tax is refunded, while placer or 
dredging mines that do not produce a gross value of 
$2000 in a year are entitled to a refund of the whole 
tax. These taxes are in substitution for all taxes on 
the land, and for the personal property tax in re- 
spect of sums so produced, so long as the land is only 
used for mining purposes. By the 'Land Act' a roy- 
alty of 50c. per M, board measure, is levied on tim- 
ber suitable for mining props, a cord of props being 
considered as 1000 ft. board measure. ' ' 

In the State of Nevada, the mine tax law is as fol- 
lows : ' ' All the proceeds of mines, including ores, 
tailings, borax, soda, and mineral-bearing material, 
of whatever character, shall be assessed for purposes 
of taxation, for State and county purposes, quarterly, 
in the manner following: From the gross yield or 
value of all ores, tailing, borax, soda, or mineral- 
bearing material, or whatever character, there shall 
be deducted the actual cost of extracting said ores 
or mineral from the mine ; the actual cost of saving 
said tailings, the actual cost of transportation to the 
place of reduction or sale, and the actual cost of 
reduction or sale and the remainder shall be assessed 
and taxed at the same rate, ad valorem, as other prop- 
erty is taxed. ' ' 

There is no reason why a law based upon this 
principle should not be put into effect in California 
and other States. The attempt to deduct costs, in 
order to reach a net value of the output, is open to 
many objections. It encourages favoritism and falsi- 
fication. The original draft of the basal mining law 
of the United States, prepared by Senator Sherman 
in 1866, contemplated a tax of 3% on the market 
value of the product. The change would seem 
desirable. It can, however, only be effected by 
the organized effort of the mining community. 



Jauuary 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



47 



PROGRESS IN CYANIDATION. 

Written for the Mini.no and Scientific Press 
By Alfred Jaw s, 

Introductory. — In reviewing progress in this im- 
portant branch of metallurgy, 1 venture to remind 
my fellow-workers that only by mutual co-operal mu 
can efficiency be maintained. One man can only 
hope to achieve a certain amount (lei us term it x) 
nf work, but 100 kirn technical men putting their 
experiences together ought, by each proceeding from 
the other man's achievement instead of repeating 
the preliminary failures and troubles and costs 
necessary to attaining that position, to be able to ac- 
complish something more nearly approaching 100 a:. 
Let us realize what it means to make the same mis- 
take only onee, and proceed one step farther and 
realize what it would mean if the same mistake were 
made only once by one man out of the 100; then we 
can appreciate how even details of difficulties and 
failures are of value — it may be as examples of what 
to avoid — as well as triumphant records of difficul- 
ties smoothed out, losses eliminated, costs lowered, 
and extractions raised. 

My notes of last year were necessarily hurried and 
cursory. They were written at sea, far from my 
records. Since then I have had an opportunity of 
visiting two of the greatest and most advanced 
mining regions, Mexico and South Africa. Such 
personal contact with local problems is of immense 
service, for the greater and wider an individual's 
experience the more he finds to learn. 

Slime Processes. — Once more progress seems to 
have centred mainly in the production and treatment 
of slime. All-sliming may certainly be a moot ques- 
tion for certain ores, when the sands may be treated 
cheaply by percolation and do not yield a greatly 
higher extraction by total-sliming, but nevertheless 
all-sliming certainly seems to have 'come to stay,' as 
anyone cannot fail to believe who sees already 
scrapped the huge nearly new Blaisdell equipments 
at El Oro and Dos Bstrellas; scrapped not for any 
fault of the apparatus, but because all-sliming with 
cyanide solution through the mortar-boxes has taken 
away the very reason for the existence of these labor- 
saving appliances. Anyone who has studied J. C. 
Butler's (Guanajuato) curves showing the amount 
of gold coming into solution in the battery against 
that dissolved in the sand-vats must find considerable 
food for thought ; indeed, one is tempted to wonder 
whether the natural result of such a curve is not to 
indicate the desirability of abandoning the sand- 
plant entirely, delivering the pulp, properly pre- 
pared, into the slime-vats. Even in the chief gold- 
field of Mexico (El Oro) copper plates are already 
disappearing, but in spite of their having been 
ripped out at the El Oro and Dos Estrellas mills, the 
gold extraction obtained does not appear to have 
suffered either in cost or percentage, but rather the 
reverse. 

As a result of the general inclination to sliming, 
increased attention has been given to means of fine 
crushing. Tube-mills have more than held their 
ground. We no longer hear of "pans v. tube-mill" 



tests. Tube-mills are being installed almost every- 
where with the exception of Australia and India. 
New types of mills have been advertised, but the old 
long cylindrical form still holds the field, with an 
established preference in big plants for a mill of from 
4 ft. to 5 ft. 6 in. diam. by 19 to 22 ft. long. In tin- 
matter of certain tube-mill details, and of air-agita- 
tion, and of the wide-spread adoption of vacuum- 
filtration, Mexico has certainly been setting an ex- 
ample to the older cyanide regions, except New Zea- 
land, which for the last two years seems to have led 
the way in tube-mill liners, air-agitation, and basket 
vacuum-filtration. 

Other factors in Mexican practice are the large 
quantities of lime and lead acetate used for treat- 
ment purposes. It is a matter for serious question 
whether the use of lime is not carried to extremes, 
and whether some of the difficulties met with in 
the slime-treatment do not arise from an excess of 
lime. Thus at Guanajuato one of the companies 
feeds in 22 lb. of lime per ton of dry slime treated. 
At El Oro 15 lb. is used and at Dos Estrellas the 
practice is nearly the same. One of the results of 
this large consumption and solution of lime is the 
ever-present necessity of immersing the absorbent 
vacuum filter-leaves in dilute acid to restore their 
permeability. 

Caldecott shows that lead acetate acts as a car- 
rier, the eventual result being that the sulphur re- 
acts on the cyanide to form sulpho-cyanide, leaving 
the PbO free for further action. I seem to remember 
investigating this matter in the laboratory some 
twenty years ago and coming to a somewhat opposite 
conclusion — based on the small amount of KCNS 
formed — but whereas in Australia very small quan- 
tities of lead acetate are used (say 2 lb. to a charge 
of 50 tons of roasted ore) in Mexico 16 lb. is used 
per ton of slime at Guanajuato, compared with % 
lb. per ton at El Oro, where crushing to 25 to 30 
mesh takes place, with heated 0.03% KCy solution 
passing through the battery. Contrary to the Calde- 
cott equation, Mexican chemists state that the 
amount of lead salt required equals the correspond- 
ing amount of sulphur present in solution from the 
silver sulphide dissolved. 

In central and south Mexico they are blessed with 
cheap power; effective horse-power costs from £10 
per annum at one district, to lOd. per day in an- 
other — less than %d. per hour. A feature of prac- 
tice at El Oro is the provision of well-designed, 
roomy, neat extractor-houses which are better than 
those I have seen in any other part of the world. 
The extractor-boxes are raised some little distance 
above the main floor, which is cemented with drains 
running to a pump-sump. All precipitate is sieved 
through a 60-mesh screen, and thus 'shorts' are 
kept out of the bullion, and acid treatment is avoided. 
The shorts, or roughs, are placed on trays in a special 
extractor-box and become fine at the next clean-up. 
Press precipitate is briquetted before fusion and 
makes a remarkably clean and neat product. Oil 
furnaces are in use, but tilting furnaces do not yet 
appear to have been adopted. 

At Guanajuato large values have been carrieu 



48 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



away in the slime-residue. During my visit residues 
containing 45 grams silver per ton, most of it in solu- 
tion, were being run to waste down the creek. This 
does not mean that the men in charge were not 
keenly alive to what was being lost. The develop- 
ment of vacuum-filtration is recent, and though its 
spread has been remarkably rapid in Mexico it is 
not yet universally adopted. These residues when 
put through a Ridgway filter were impoverished to 
13 grams silver, no dissolved silver remaining. 

In Africa attention has been mainly devoted to 
lessening working costs, and the extraordinary spec- 
tacle is now presented of mines running at prac- 
tically half of their former outlay, and of mines that 
are the richest as well as the largest in that terri- 
tory,, and in the world, running at working costs, in- 
cluding mining, handling, and treatment, of only 
12s. per ton. In mechanical details there is still that 
keen rivalry between the two leading groups which 
has done so much for the advancement of the Rand. 
The 'Gold Fields' lead in their now universally 
adopted development of huge mills and heavy stamps. 
Already the output is stated to have grown to 9 tons 
per day per stamp (Luipaards Vlei, 'Gold Fields' 
group, 1650-lb. stamps) and the limit is not yet 
reached. The Simmer Deep mill of the same group 
lias 1670-lb. stamps, capable of being weighted to 
1800 lb., and it looks as though it would not be long 
before a falling weight of 2000 lb. will be reached. 
On the other hand the mechanical genius of the Rand 
Mines group has been evolving some interesting re- 
sults on peripheral discharge with tube-mills, and has 
been displacing the wellnigh universally adopted 
tailing-wheel by centrifugal pumps of special de- 
sign and local manufacture. Metallurgically the 
Gold Fields people have also done exceedingly well. 
Caldecott's forecasts of tube-mill results, as I have 
previously pointed out, were confirmed most remark- 
ably in practice, and now he seems to be hard at 
work evolving a filtering process for the treatment 
of -slime. 

In Australia interest has centred on flotation pro- 
cesses for concentration, rather than on improve- 
ment in gold-ore treatment. . Kalgoorlie seems to 
have reached its zenith, and to have settled down to 
steady practice. The treatment-costs given in detail 
in my. review of 1906 still apparently hold good. The 
Ivanhoe costs for August, 1908, are 7s. 6d., as against 
9s. in 1906, and those of the Great Boulder for the 
same periods are lis. 6d., as against lis., but, on the 
other hand, the other companies then mentioned — 
the South Kalgurli, the Great Fingall, and the Sons 
of Gwalia — show higher costs on the same basis. This 
reference to the Ivanhoe brings to mind the old con- 
troversies over roasting as against bromo-cyaniding 
(now dead), and pans as against tube-mills, in which 
this mine formerly figured prominently. It now ap- 
pears, from local records, to have been at that time 
making particularly poor extractions — which tends 
to discount the low costs published — and a local 
metallurgist from Oroya-Brownhill, E. S. King, has 
recently sustained his claim at law for a large sum 
as recompense or fee for helping them out of their 
difficulties. 



American practice seems linked with that of Mex- 
ico (largely controlled by Americans), and so the 
last year has been chiefly a chronicle of air-agitation 
and vacuum-filtration, as in Mexico, with much news- 
paper fulmination and advertising of rival nitration 
processes, and with the local success of the Merrill 
pressure-filter in South Dakota to offset the work of 
the Burt at El Oro. 

Agitation. One of the features of the year has 
been the success of the Brown system of agitation, 
originally brought out at Komata, New Zealand, and 
adopted by the Waihi company. The latest and lar- 
gest plants in Mexico and in the United States have 
adopted this system, which has now penetrated into 
Africa and South America. Daue has recently writ- 
ten a remarkable comparison in the Mexican Mining 
Journal for October, and shows at the San Francisco 
mill at Pachuca a consumption of only one twentieth 
of the horse-power used at the mechanically agitated 
Loreto mill, the Brown agitator showing consider- 
ably better extraction with a cheaper plant and giv- 
ing a much shorter cycle of operation. The whole 
article is worthy of .careful perusal. It seems abun- 
dantly proved that a charge of 80 tons (dry) of slime 
can be kept in a condition of efficient agitation for a 
consumption of 1% horse-power. 

Much time has been spent in Mexico in endeavor- 
ing to improve the mechanical agitator by the use of 
footstep bearings with mercury seals and other de- 
vices, but the mercury seals in practice have proved 
unreliable and have manifested a considerable tend- 
ency to the formation of base amalgam, as one would 
anticipate from the behavior of this metal in amal- 
gamating pans. Owing to the well known refractori- 
ness of silver sulphide ores, the agitation periods are 
much longer in Mexico than elsewhere; indeed, 48 
hours of mechanical agitation is not uncommon — a 
practical impossibility in any country where power 
is not extraordinarily cheap. Daue, in the article 
mentioned, shows that at Loreto the ore requires 84 
hr. of agitation, whereas, with the same class of ore 
at the San Francisco, the period of agitation is re- 
duced by the use of air-agitation to 24 hr., for a less- 
ened cyanide consumption. 

Vacuum-Filtration. Undoubtedly the feature of 
the year has been the success of vacuum-filtration. 
With such a combined host of talent as Nichols, 
Thompson, Moore, Barry, Ridgway, Brown, Nutter, 
Cassel, Butters, Hunt, Parrish, Argall, Ogle, Leslie, 
and Caldecott, and I know not how many others, 
vacuum-filtration could scarcely have failed to ac- 
complish great things, and already five continents 
are eagerly investigating it with a view to adopting 
the practice in one form or another. 

Even if we assume only 1,000,000 tons of slime 
handled by this process during the last year, it would 
still be a remarkable figure for a new method, but, 
on the data given, the Ridgway and Barry machines 
alone must have handled over half this amount, and 
therefore the total tonnage treated by the various 
methods, notably the Butters, must considerably ex- 
ceed this. But in addition to the two methods first 
mentioned, the Butters filter can fairly claim to be a 
great factor in present-day practice. That it has 



January 2. 1«J09. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



411 



achieved this position is surely a tribute to the 

energy, push, skill, and remarkable engh ring inge- 

nnity of the mail at the helm and of his associates. 
So attractive and bo simple does the filter look that 
nothing seems easier than to run in the slime al one 
end, turn a handle, and have the pulp running away 
at the other end, with the gold solution pouring into 
the precipitation-boxes. Ridgway, in Australia, not 
content willi Hi.' siirr.-ss of his Hat-plate machine, 
has been trying to make a larger unit by substituting 
a basket for a flal plate, thereby largely increas- 




Liberty Bell Mine. 

ing his filtering area. I am not sure, however, 
of the soundness in practice of his later idea, of 
which one hears most laudatory accounts from disin- 
terested sources in Australia. The principles govern- 
ing; the discharge of a flat-plate and of a vertical 
plate are not entirely the same, and it looks as if the 
combination type must sacrifice something of the 




Camp Bird Mill. 

rapidity of the Ridgway and of the elasticity of the 
basket type for the sake of the greater capacity per 
unit. 

For automaticity can only be gained at the ex- 
pense of elasticity, and hence it happens that the 
prettily running, apparently ideally simple Ridgway, 
with its perfect wash and its huge output per unit of 
filtering surface, needs for its effective working a 
strict adherence to the principle on which its design 
is based. The duty of a filtering machine is based on 
the amount of water or other fluid drawn through. 
The cake formation of residue is a sequel or a by-pro- 
duct, although for us it may be the all-important mat- 



ter of tonnage treated per diem. Now. in a rapid- 
working machine like the Ridgway, it is evident thai 
the amount of solution drawn through is mainly a 

function of time of immersion and not of amount of 

'clog' or lessening permeability of cake. 

Assuming, then, that a standard Ridgway lias a 
solution-drawing daily capacity of 50 ions plus wash. 

then when treating the 50$ pulp lor which the Ridg- 




Slime Plant at Homestake Mill. 

way was designed, it follows that 50 tons of solution 
drawn through leave as a deposit on the plates 50 
tons of residue. If, however, a pulp of 66 or 75% 




Experimental Plant at Taracol, Korea. 

moisture is being handled, then 50 tons of solution 
drawn through leave behind only 27 or 17 tons, re- 
spectively, of slime-tailing as a daily output. 

It has become evident that for the successful work- 
ing of automatic machines it is necessary to adhere 
rigidly to the condition of pulp thickness. With 
semi-automatic filters such as the Barry, Butters, Cas- 
sel, and Moore types this is not of so much moment. 
Here flow is a function of 'clog', as the cakes must 
be thick enough (four to eight times thicker than 
the Ridgway) to strip off a vertical frame. Possibly 
the last Ys in- of cake deposited takes 64 times as 
long to form as the first portion or section of similar 



50 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909', 



thickness, and thus if the solution is dilute one merely 
allows the cake a longer period of formation — it may 
vary from five minutes to one hour or even more — 
and adds a few more frames to make up for the 
greater time taken. The moral of this appears to 
be that if one wishes to use an automatic machine 
one must either have a 50% pulp or provide a suit- 
able thickener, such as the Dorr, or settling-vats for 
this purpose. In "Western Australia they find no dif- 
ficulty in handling a pulp containing 55% solids; this 
is obtained by a constant flow from the first line of 
pointed boxes and an intermittent flow scraped down 
by a shovel from the second and third lines. In Af- 
rica in their settling-vats a pulp of similar thickness 
is encountered, but does not run with the same readi- 
ness. The more flocculent a pulp the greater percent- 
age of moisture necessary to make it mobile. At 
Guanajuato we obtained a slime pulp by settlement 
so thick that it would stand up in ridges — like cus- 
tard — after being stirred, and would not flow freely, 
and yet it contained 66% moisture. 
■ Again, there is weathered slime so full of acid salts 
that gelatinous precipitate is formed on the addition 
of the alkali necessary to economical cyanide treat- 
ment. Success may scarcely be expected with this 
pulp from any of the automatic or semi-automatic 
methods employing filtei'-cloth, unless such salts are 
first removed by washing. Sand-filters such as the 
Hunt might be more successful, owing to the con- 
stant removal of the upper sand surface and the con- 
sequent automatic maintenance of an unclogged fil- 
tration surface. 

Of the other methods, Moore 's would probably have 
been more widely adopted but for the claim of patent 
rights over all submerged filters. When were filters 
not submerged? But more active business methods 
have during the middle portion of the year led to the 
securing of some contracts at Pachuca, Guanajuato, 
and Chihuahua. The process is necessarily more ex- 
pensive to install than the Butters, but it has equal 
elasticity of treatment and the advantage of deposit- 
ing on the dump nothing but washed tailing. 

Barry avoids many difficulties by his special frame 
made of pressed corrugated sheet metal. There is no 
absorbent material inside the cloths, nor has he dis- 
tance-pieces of wood on the face of his frames to 
offer resistance to the stripping of the cakes. His 
method is similar to the Moore, but differs in not 
necessitating a reversal of flow for discharge, and in 
permitting efficient agitation of pulp in the filter-vat. 
Then there are the pressure-filters of the Merrill 
and Burt types. I understand the former is still 
reeling off records merrily under its special condi- 
tions in Soiith Dakota, but it is said to have been a 
failure in Mexico during the early part of this year — 
possibly the fault of local conditions. Burt is taking 
advantage at El Oro, as Merrill did in Dakota, of a 
gravity feed for his suspended-frame type of pres- 
sure-filter. It is difficult to understand how such a 
filter can wash its product prior to discharge. It was 
admitted to be discharging an unwashed output at 
both the mines at which it was installed in Mexico at 
the time of my visit. 



Roasting. No improvements in roasting furnaces 
seem to have been made. The new Edwards furnaces 
have apparently given considerable trouble at the 
Laneefield, and they have been modifying the posi- 
tion of the auxiliary fire-boxes. The increased length 
seems to have tended toward the production of an 
unhandy unit. 

Crushing. In Mexico the demand for an installa- 
tion without stamps is continually heard. At one- 
well known mine the Huntington mills installed were 
unjustly damned. Elsewhere poor success with Fer- 
raris ball-mills is reported, and so the cry is for a 
simple installation using wet-crushing rolls. At Pa-- 
chuca Capt. Narvaez is running Chilean mills, 8 ft. 
diam. by 16-in. face, with some success. These ma- 
chines are of the slow-running type, making 10 rev. 
per min. ; each wheel was stated to weigh 10 tons. 
For a consumption of 10 hp. each mill crushed 15- 
metric tons per diem from iy 2 -in. cube to a pulp 80% 
of which will pass through 200-mesh, at a cost, includ- 
ing 10% depreciation, of 70 centavos, or 17i4cv. per 
ton; but I noted that this was on soft ore ('fines') ; 
the hard rock was fed to ball-mills, and then to a: 
tube-mill and crushed dry. 

Reference has already been made to the installa- 
tion of heavy stamps on the Rand. Mr. R. G. Frieker 
of the Gold Fields group, presiding at the recent 
Simmer & Jack meeting, showed that, largely as the' 
result of using tube-mills, they have increased their 
profit on 7.6 dwt. ore from 12s. 9d. to 16s. Id., or 
the addition of 3s. 4d. per ton, which shows a remark- 
able gain, attained entirely by increased extraction 
and lessened costs. He added that the introduction 
of tube-mills had had a marked effect on the mining- 
conditions of the Rand, second only, perhaps, to the" 
application of the cyanide treatment many years ago, 

The following are some of the early tube-mill re- 
sults: Redjang Lebong, without tube-mills, screen 
35 mesh, output 2.85 tons per stamp per diem, extrac- 
tion (sand) 79% ; with tube-mills and 16-mesh screen- 
ing, output was raised to 3.6 tons per stamp per diem,, 
or 27% increase, for an 85.3% extraction. This ore" 
is very hard. 

Robinson Deep, with two tube-mills per 200 stamps,, 
increased the output by 10%, and the profit by Is. per 
ton milled. These examples of early results are given 
because they were obtained prior to the period of the 
use of lode-matter in place of pebbles for crushing" 
and for liners. This later practice, modifying as it 
does both the power and the output, tends to compli- 
cate comparisons. Generally the tendency is to re- 
duce the larger outputs per tube-mill obtained in 
1906, and to use more power, so that already on the- 
Rand the point has been passed where it is cheaper 
to increase output by tube-mills instead of by stamps. 
Ninety horse-power is now used for a 5 ft. 6 in. by 
22 ft. tube-mill for an output of 140 tons per day, 
crushing through 60 mesh. But the increased extrac- 
tions and the much lower residues, which have been 
reduced from 0.4 to 0.15 dwt., are tangible evidences 
of the claim for the present practice that the higher 
extractions obtained by the greater power employed 
are also the cause of higher actual profits. They do 
not appear on the Rand to have improved on the 



January 2, 190«. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



51 



costs of •"> . 7 1 <i . per ton of ore tube-milled, given in 

this review two years ago. 

At El Oro, at first sight the impression is that the 

tube-mil] is not being pushed to its full capacity, and 
that the horse-power consumed is high in proportion 
to the output of 1.1 to 1.2 tuns per hp.-day. These 
figures do not shine in comparison with those of the 

Waihi, which also lias a wry lianl ore. given in these 

notes tor 1906, namely, an 18-ft. mill grinding 77 tons 




The Ridgway Filter in Plan. 



150- 



of 20-mesfa sand per diem so that 93% passes 
mesh, with a consumption of : 37 1 i; hp., but on closer 
comparison it appears that the classifying at Kl Oro 
was more thoroughly done than at Waihi. so that less 
actual slime is fed in the sand to the mills; that the 
standard of crushing at El Oro is somewhat finer; 
and that El Oro has done away with the use of peb- 
bles and crushes with ore-lining entirely. Moreover, 
the El Oro policy of having a strong reserve of tube- 
mill capacity makes not only for comfort in manage- 
ment but in the ability to cope with the unexpected, 
and elasticity in treatment-method is probably res- 
ponsible for the many accepted improvements in 



* ' VvltttMULf "ViAOtl k.i 



Zinc-dust Precipitation Presses. 
Showing part of cake In place at time oi clean-up. 

tube-mill practice which have come to us from El 
Oro. These are referred to later. They certainly 
have taken nothing for granted there, but have 
worked out their practice for themselves. At no 
other mill probably can be seen such a variety of 
tube-mills as at El Oro. In addition to two tube-mills 
of a make not preferred, they have five tube-mills of 
n well known make, three No. 3, one No. 4, and one 



No. 5, the size preferred being the No, ■>, 4-ft. diam. 
by 19 ft. Long. The Waihi tube-mills are 5 ft. diam. 
by 18 ft. long. and. like those ;it the Knights Deep 
(Consolidated Gold Fields), are smaller than the 
usual Kami Mines standard of 5 ft. 6 in. diam. by 22 
ft. long. 
At El Oro for some time they used a special self- 




rube- mill in the New Plant of the Goldfield Consolidated. 

filling east-iron liner, previously mentioned in these 
notes, into which the flint pebbles jammed. This 
liner, however, is not so suitable for the use of vein- 




The Ridgway Vacuum -F.lter. 

matter, which has not the same jamming capacity as 
flint pebbles, and I therefore anticipate a modifica- 
tion of El Oro practice in this respect, as rough 
'cubes' or otherwise irregularly shaped pieces of rock 
are not so amenable as pebbles for this purpose. 
About 53 lb. of rock in the form of 3-in. cubes is 
fed into the mill per ton of sand ground, and this 
abrades 0.2 lb. of cast-iron liner, the chips and frag- 



52 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



ments of which are separated from the slimed sand 
by a 20-ft. blanket-strake. Silex linings were found 
to have a life of 2% months. 

An ingenious device has been used at El Oro and 
Dos Bstrellas, called the Neal discharge, which prac- 
tically maintains an open end, through which the 
cubes, and at Dos Estrellas the rocks, are fed by belt, 
by chute, or by hand, as desired. The device is re- 
markably simple, and consists of an internal annular 
ring, or baffle, around the orifice, with or without a 
reverse-worm. This retains all pebbles, while permit- 
ting the egress of slimed pulp. I have referred be- 
fore to the Barry lining, the cost of which at Waihi 
(fine sliming of hard ore) is 0.72 pence, or 1.4 cents, 
per ton of sand slimed. In Africa they appear to be 
still using local or imported silex at an apparent cost 
for coarse sliming of only three times this amount. In 
a recent paper Mr. Graham refers to "the set of 6 by 
6 by 4-in. silex blocks put into our Davidsen mill 
with diamond cement, that has now run 165 days," 
which shows a vast improvement over former wear. 
They use a feed of 4-in. cubes, and Mr. Graham main- 
tains that 8-in. lumps would reduce the effective life 
of the smaller lumps. 

Not much has been heard of peripheral discharge, 
of late, but in Africa I was shown' some remarkable 
results of tests made by the Crown Reef, using a Dan- 
ish (peripheral discharge), German (ordinary trun- 
nion discharge), and a local-type mill. At the first 
trial the local mill gave the lowest results, and was 
not further compared, but three tests were made of 
the peripheral mill against the ordinary trunnion- 
discharge, with the following results : 

Trial No. 1. Peripheral. Trunnion. 

Size of nozzle, inches 1% 114 

Rev. per min 26 28 

Peripheral speed, ft. per min 408 425 

Feed, tons per diem 251 260 

Percentage of water 44 47 

Discharge, decrease of + 60 43 31.5 

Discharge, increase of — 90 42.2 25.4 

Trial No. 2. (The nozzles of the two mills were changed.) 

Size of nozzle, inches 114 lVi 

Rev. per min 26' 28 

Peripheral speed, ft. per min 40S 425 

Feed, tons per diem 260 ' 251 

Percentage of water 47 . 44 

Discharge, decrease of +60 67.7 45.9 

Discharge, increase of — 90 49.3 41.8. 

Trial No. 3. 

Size of nozzle, inches 1 '/,„ 1 

Rev. per min 26 2S 

Peripheral speed, ft. per min 408 425 

Feed, tons per diem 278 259 

Percentage of water 35 35 

-Discharge, decrease of +60 59.9 48.5 

Discharge, increase of — 90 51.4 44.5 

Thus is shown both a greater tonnage and finer 
grinding for the pheripheral discharge. 

I understand that a further test of a year's dura- 
tion has been made at the Ferreira, and that, as a 
result, it has been placed beyond doubt that peri- 
pheral discharge gives better results than the ordi- 
nary straight-through trunnion-discharge. It will be 
noted tliat in the above tests no mention is made of 
flint charge or power taken. Peripheral discharge 
involves a loss of 4 to 5 ft. in height, and thus will 



necessitate re-elevating for all mills laid down on 
straight-through lines which may be converted to 
peripheral discharge. 

Concentration. The flotation methods appear to be 
causing a great amount of litigation. First we had 
Potter v. Delprat, and now we have the Elmore v. The 
Mineral Separation Co. The latter companies both 
claim success at Broken Hill on lead-zinc ores, but at 
Avino in Mexico, and at Cobar in Australia the El- 
more process has not, under the local conditions 
prevalent, proved successful in practice. Of the me- 
chanical concentrators, the Wilflejr table still appears 
to hold the field, though I noticed a growing prefer- 
ence in Mexico for the Johnston vanner. Nothing- 
appears to have yet been introduced capable of sup- 
planting the plain table, whether of boards, canvas, 
or cement, for concentrating gold-bearing slime. 

Slime Treatment. As under the heading of vacunm- 
filtration this subject has already been discussed, I 
may here summarize the present position by stating 
that in Africa decantation is still almost the universal 
method, but it is becoming evident that the days of 
this process, hugely expensive to install and incom- 
plete in results, are drawing to a close. The recent 
admission that 7d. to 8d.. or more, of dissolved gold 
per ton was being run away with the slime tailing, 
has promoted investigation into other methods of 
treatment. Define filter-presses, the Eidgway filter, 
and one or two other schemes have been put into 
practice or set to work on a practical scale, and in 
addition another method, known as the Adair-Usher, 
has been largely before the public eye. In America 
vacuum-filtration bids fair to completely throw out 
decantation and all other methods, though two advo- 
cates of pressure-filters are making a fight for it. In 
Australia filter-pressing still holds the field, but the 
Ridgway has some installations of considerable mag- 
nitude in operation, and the Cassel method has also 
been introduced at the Lake View. In India it has 
become obvious that the old method of taking advan- 
tage of the climate to deal with the sand and -slime 
mixed must give place to some direct means of treat- 
ment, and the Ridgway has been installed on two 
fields for experimental investigation. 

In eastern Asia a large Ridgway installation has 
been laid down where previously filter-pressing held 
the field, and another similar plant has also been 
acquired by another group, previously wedded to 
filter-pressing. It looks, therefore, as though decan- 
tation on the old lines, and even filter-pessing, is 
doomed to disappear, though in a less expensive guise 
decantation may still remain to form a portion of a 
more thorough process. 

Adair-Usher. I looked into this process during my 
visit to Africa, in view of the great amount of pub- 
licity given to it by the technical press, and the great 
success and general adoption advertised. I have al- 
ready referred to the lack of success attending up- 
ward percolation of solution and wash-water, as 
investigated by Holms in Mexico, Ward at Kalgoor- 
lie, and Hunt in Costa Rica — did not Godbe patent 
this several years ago in the United States of Amer- 
ica? At the first mine to which I was taken on the 
Rand I saw dirty solutions coming off from the vats 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



53 



— surely evidence of poor work. At another mine, 
however, the Perreira, I found a much better condi- 
tion of affairs. There the metallurgist had appar- 
ently realized the impossibility of obtaining good 
extractions or of running off clean solutions by con- 
tinuous upward percolation, and consequently he 
treated the process as merely an adjunct to the de- 
cantation process, to save a final transfer. He 
pumped Ins slime into collectors in the ordinary way. 
settled, decanted tile water, and then transferred 

with dilute cyanide solution to the agitator-vats. 
After agitation for five hours the pulp was trans- 
ferred to the Usher va1 (an ordinary vat provided 
with a radial system of perforated pipes along the 

bottom), weak solution being fed through the per- 
forated pipes during the charging, and indeed until 
the charge is G in. from the top of the vat or the 

decanter. The charge was then settled until the 
upper portion was quite clear, and then the solution 
was turned on through the radial perforated pipes at 
the rate of in to 12 tons per hour: this is for a 150- 
ton charge. This flow of solution was maintained 
for 36 hr. out of a total treatment time of 72 hr. The 
solution was then cut off and the charge allowed to 
settle, the solution being decanted to the agitator- 
vats. The Adair-Usher process thus becomes merely 
a method, not of solution, but of avoiding, with the 
aid of deeantation, a final transfer. It has the advan- 
tage of saving the cost of one transfer ('ZY^d., or 5 
cents), and of leaving the washing-vat free for other 
use. But as a matter of practical economics it is pos- 
sible only in such a process as South African deeanta- 
tion with its huge plant, heavy pumping charges, and 
necessity for treble handling. It largely increases 
the bulk of solution to be handled — 5 or 6 of solution 
to 1 of dry slime — and sends to the dam an amount 
of solution carrying not less than 4 to 6 grains of 
dissolved L'old per toil, at least equal to the weight 
of the tailing discharged. From careful enquiries I 
could find no gain in extraction or decreased value 
of tailing resulting from the use of the Adair-Usher 
wash, but a saving of time and of vats from the 
avoiding of the final transfer and wash. In a word, 
as a solution-process the Adair-Usher seems to be no 
more feasible than the upward percolation tried else- 
where, and to have the same liability to mingle rather 
than to displace, and the same necessity for the em- 
ployment of much solution, all taking up KCy and 
gold. Actual displacement indeed has not yet been 
recognized. On the contrary, alteration in 'head' or 
the slightest increase in heat of the solution pumped 
into the Adair radial pipes, causes an ascending 
stream through the pulp. 

Clean-Up. I have referred elsewhere to the neat- 
ness of the Mexican clean-up plants based on abso- 
lutely the old safe lines of fine sieving and avoiding 
acid treatment and roasting. I am rather surprised 
that no one has tried T. K. Rose's method of purify- 
ing base bullion, and even precipitate, by introducing 
oxygen or air into the melt through a pipe-stem. Full 
details of this method were given in a paper pre- 
sented to the Institution of Mining & Metallurgy, and 
from a demonstration in my presence it seemed that 
this process was most simple, even on base metal. 



COPPER RIVER, ALASKA. 



The U. S. Geological Survey issues the following 
interesting notes: 

Active prospecting in the < Jopper River region was: 
carried on in 1908 at the head of Nahesna river, on 
Cross creek (or Copper creel;, as it it now called), 
and on White river. The White river prospects are 
situated in two areas — one at the head of the river, 
in the vicinity of Skolai glacier, the other near the 
international boundary line, partly, it is supposed, 
in Yukon Territory. 

Prospecting in the region northeast of the Wrang- 
ell mountains is restricted almost wholly to the 
search for copper, although gold has been found at 
a number of places. The best known copper pros- 
pects on Nahesna river are near the foot of Nabesna 
glacier, in the vicinity of Orange hill, but develop- 
ment work is not yet sufficiently advanced to give 
an idea of their extent. At a gold deposit on Jack- 
sina creek a small stamp-mill was erected in 1906 
and about 60 tons of surface ore were crushed. 

The copper minerals on Copper creek are found in 
lavas and consist chiefly of the sulphides, chalcopy- 
rite and chalcocite, but include also cuprite and na- 
tive copper. The copper deposits of White river con- 
sist of copper sulphides and native copper in lava 
flows. Native copper is found in greatest amount 
near the boundary line. 

Prospecting in the Chitina valley was discouraged 
during 1908 by the low price of copper and the. con- 
sequent difficulty of obtaining financial backing, but 
some effective development work was done. At the 
Bonanza mine the season was spent in erecting a. 
sawmill, ore bunkers, buildings for various purposes, 
and an aerial tram from the mine to the camp. De- 
velopment work was done 'on the extension of the 
Bonanza in the upper part of McCarthy creek by the 
owners of the Mother Lode claim and by the Hough- 
ton Alaska Exploration Co. The largest operations 
in the remainder of the field were those of the Alaska 
Consolidated Copper Co. on Nugget creek, the Hub- 
bard Elliott Copper Mines Development Co. on 
Elliott creek, and the Great Northern Development, 
and Alaska Kotsina Copper companies on the Kot- 
sina river. 

Probably the most important work affecting the 
future of the Copper River region is the construction! 
of the railroad from Cordova to the interior. During: 
1908 more than 50 miles of track were laid, bringing: 
the road to the bridge over Copper river' betweeni 
Childs glacier and the lake in front of Miles glacier- 
This road will establish steamboats on the river- 
above Abercrombie rapids and it will be possible to 
carry freight from the coast at Cordova to Copper- 
Center on Copper river or to. the mouth of Lakina 
or Nizina river on the Chitina. Construction work is 
also being pushed on a short piece of road connecting- 
the Bonanza mine with Chitina river, and its com- 
pletion will make it possible to carry supplies to;the> 
mine or to ship ore to the coast before the whole- of 
the railroad up the river is completed. A branch, 
line to the Bering River coalfields is also underway. 



54 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



SILVER PRICES IN 1909. 



Written tor the Mining and Scientific Peess 
By Theo. F. Van Wagenen. 

The prospect for any large recovery in the price of 
silver in the near future is not bright, but there seems 
to be warrant for expecting a moderate advance 
within the next sixty or ninety days. In forming an 
" opinion, or endeavoring to make a forecast, in this 
matter, perhaps the first step is to discharge from 
the mind the numerous stories afloat on the subject 
in the financial columns of the daily and weekly 
press. All such are doubtless set in motion through 
interested motives, and are not entitled to credence. 
Undoubtedly speculators' are able occasionally to 
cause temporary abnormal fluctuations in the price 
of a commodity, but they must work with the actual 
ebb or flow of the tide to attain success. The next 
step is to examine the statistics of silver, its produc- 
tion and consumption, and apply to the problem the 
natural and well known laws of trade. The final ele- 
ment to be considered is the political one, for wars 
of any size, or conditions of unrest that generally 
precede them, by altering the rates of production or 
consumption, become factors in the determination of 
prices of staples. 

The world's production of silver in 1907 was 6634.4 
tons of 2000 avoirdupois pounds. This was an in- 
crease of 384 tons above the output of 1906. Seventy- 
eight per cent of the production originated in North 
and South America, 10% in Europe, 9% in Aus- 
tralia, and 3% in Asia (mainly Japan). From the 
best information at my command, not less than 85% 
of the whole amount arose as a by-product in the 
working of copper, lead, and gold ores. As the de- 
mand for these is strong, it may safely be inferred 
that there will be at least no material reduction in 
the quantity of silver produced during 1909. So 
much for the matter of supply. Now as to demand. 

For scores of years past, Asia, mainly Hindustan 
and the Malay peninsula, has continuously absorbed 
fully 50% of the world's output. About 35% has 
of late years been bought by European and Ameri- 
can governments for the production of new subsid- 
iary coins, and th'e remainder has been consumed 
in the arts. There seems to be no probable call for 
any large amount of the metal from any other direc- 
tion. India and Malaysia are as capable as ever of 
absorbing silver. The former, in fact, is advancing 
notably in commercial strength, and tin, which is the 
mainstay of farther India and the Straits Settle- 
ments, is firmly in demand. Throughout the civil- 
ized, world (by which is meant Europe, North and 
South America, Egypt, South Africa, Japan, the 
Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand), the popu- 
lation is increasing, and new coinage is constantly 
needed. For a like reason the consumption in the 
arts is steadily growing. Hence, other things re- 
maining the same, there is reason to believe that the 
•demand during the coming year will be equal to the 
task of absorbing the supply, even if the latter 
should show an increase. 

The problem then is reduced to the query : Will 



other things be equal? Are the conditions during 
1909 liable to be normal? Here enters the political 
element. What unusual thing may happen in inter- 
national politics during the next twelve months? 
One important factor is certain. Wars not only cost 
vast sums of money, but they involve the destruction 
of an enormous amount of propertj', and in these 
days, when the financiers of the world are interested 
in commercial ventures almost everywhere, they be- 
come the real rulers; these are the men who decide 
whether wars shall or shall not take place. If Eng- 
land had needed to borrow money outside of her 
own people, she would not have been able to sell 
bonds to carry on the enterprise of South African 
conquest. If the Russo-Japanese conflict had been 
elsewhere than in distant Korea or Manchuria, 
where few foreign interests were affected, neither 
combatant could have raised the necessary money in 
Europe or America. There will be no wars in Eu- 
rope. India, though full of unrest, will not be 
allowed to lapsa into rebellion. Trade is King, 
wherever international trade exists. The business 
men of all the commercial nations insist upon its 
protection. . Meantime the millions of Asiatics must 
live and consume, and to do so thej r must toil and 
export, and their exports must largely be paid for 
in silver. Normal political and social conditions 
may be anticipated during 1909, and the Orient will, 
as usual, absorb from 2500 to 3500 tons of the white 
metal. 

The financial prophet has one more oracle to 
consult. That is the record of past fluctuations in 
the price of the commodity under consideration. 
Complete and accurate statistics as to silver for a 
number of years are available. These are embodied 
in the ' accompanying diagrams. Fig. 1 gives the 
average annual price of the metal since 1840. Fig. 2 
gives the average monthly price during the last 
seven years. An inspection of the first seems to 
show that, after the tremendous depreciation caused 
by demonetization in 1873, production and consump- 
tion came again into approximate balance about the 
years 1894-97, since which time the fluctuations, 
though occasionally severe, have been due to normal 
variations in the general conditions of international 
trade. During the last 15 years the mean value of 
the metal, as shown by this table, has been 60.6 cents 
per fine ounce, with extremes of 52.16 and 66.8. The 
second shows a mean of 59.23c. per oz. for the last 
7 years, with extremes of 47.5 and 71. The two 
exhibit close agreement, and it seems a proper con- 
clusion that the normal value of silver, under inter- 
national conditions as they have existed for the past 
15 years, is about 60c. per ounce. As the year has 
closed with quotations ranging under 50c, an ad- 
vance in the near future should occur. The advance 
during 1909 should be quite rapid, approaching 60c. 
before its close, with the promise of fairly steady 
prices during 1910-11, and a spurt toward top fig- 
ures of 70 to perhaps 75c. in 1912. Beyond 75c. as 
an extreme, I see no chance for the white metal until 
the opening of China to the commerce of the world 
becomes effective, unless meanwhile, as would be 



January J, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



55 



most wise, the chief commercial nations, acting to- 
gether, should standardize their silver coinage, so as 
to prepare themselves for the coming day when the 



The Occident has it, and to spare. It would look 
then as if it might be good policy for the latter to 
consider ways and means for strengthening the sell- 



Phce 

1.30 

1 25 

120 

1 IS 

1.10 

105 

1 00 

95 

030 

85 

0.80 

0.75 

070 

065 

060 

055 

050 
c 
( 

1 












































































: r zfc 


■ 


































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































:e 


























































































































































1850 
I860 
1870 
1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 



Fig. 1. 



Price of Silver from 18W to 1908. 



Price 

Cents 



&: 




'V 



<*\ 



fv* 



f- 5 




& 



¥ 



B 



&i 



Fig. 2. Price of Silver from 1902 to 1908. 



East will awake in earnest and begin to produce, 
and to force its products upon Western markets. 
The Orient wants silver, and will take nothing else. 



ing price of a commodity that it would be glad to 
dispose of in large quantity, and for which it is 
likely soon to have a buyer. 



56 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING INDUSTRY OF THE MIDDLE WEST. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By an Occasional Contbibutok. 

A distinctly hopeful tone pervades the mineral in- 
dustry of the Middle West at the close of what has 
been admittedly a bad year, although not so bad as 
was expected twelve months ago. In fact, a gain has 
been made in many lines ; others have held their 
own; only a few have fallen behind. Business has 
been steadily improving. During the first week in 
December more cars and fewer empties were han- 
dled in and out of Indianapolis than for the corre- 
sponding week of either 1907 or 1906, and, as com- 
pared with any but 1907, the year 1908 has been 
regarded as extremely satisfactory. Pittsburg re- 
ports the pig iron production of the country for No- 
vember to have been 1,580,444 tons, with 10 more 
furnaces in blast than in October, and 7 more about 
to start. 

In Illinois, for the year ending June 30, 1908, the 
coal production was 49,272,452 tons, as compared 
with 47,798,621 tons for the year ending June 30, 
1907. For the calendar year, the output has been 
maintained, if indeed a slight gain was not made. 
This, in the face of the prevailing business de- 
pression, is worthy of remark. It is doubtless due 
to the enormous expansion that our coal industry is 
undergoing, amounting during single years to a 
growth of over 25%. This year the natural growth, 
largely in sales of domestic coal and fuel for heating, 
lighting, and traction plants, offset the decrease in 
demand for railway and manufacturing purposes. 
In Iowa, where factories take a still smaller portion 
of the output, the depression was felt even less. 

The year has seen the opening of more coal 
mines in southern Illinois despite the present excess 
of capacity over market. The new plants are ex- 
cellently designed, steel top-works now being the 
rule, and the permanent plants being of much higher 
grade than those installed a few years ago. This is 
necessary owing to the larger outputs handled — 
2000 to 3000 tons in 10 hours — and the greater depth 
of the mines. Unfortunately less attention has been 
paid to adapting underground systems to the new 
conditions. There is entirely too much of a disposi- 
tion to use the same methods and men as in the 
shallow outcrop mines, despite the greater risk of 
fire and explosion. As a result, an increasing num- 
ber of serious accidents has occurred. In November, 
within one week, in a single district not more than 
a dozen miles across, the Rend mine exploded and 
killed four men, the accident being followed by an 
underground fire ; the Zeigler mine had a serious fire 
which, because of the absence of a panel system, 
spread so rapidly as to require sealing of the mine ; 
and finally, the Benton mine blew up. Now, within 
a mouth, a second explosion has occurred in the 
Rend mine, due, it is stated, to escape of gas from 
the sealed off burning part of the mine. Evidently 
better skill is needed in this field, and not unlikely 
the Legislature will be asked to modify the mining 
law to meet the new conditions. 

In the meantime arrangements have been made 



for the U. S. Geological Survey to establish at the 
University of Illinois a branch rescue station for 
training men and furnishing apparatus for service 
at explosions and mine fires. Messrs. Paul and Rice, 
of the Pittsburg station, assisted at Zeigler and 
Rend, using the Draeger oxygen helmets. Their 
services were so valuable that a demand has been 
made for a branch station to serve the Illinois, In- 
diana, Michigan, and western Kentucky coalfields. 
It is understood that the University will furnish the 
building, including a gas chamber for practice train- 
ing, and the U. S. Geological Survey will furnish 
the portable apparatus and detail a mining engineer 
to take charge. The Operators' Associations will 
furnish two men per week from the various mines 
to receive the training and to assist in case of an 
emergency call. It is expected also that all Mine 
Inspectors will become familiar with the work, and 
that ultimately all the larger collieries will be 
equipped with rescue apparatus. 

G. W. Traer, president of the Illinois Coal Oper- 
ators' Association, has resigned his position as re- 
ceiver of the Illinois Collieries Co. This ill-fated con- 
cern will be remembered as one of the creations of 
Robbins, of Pittsburg, who, during a boom period, 
bought out the Jones and Adams and a string of 
other nearly exhausted collieries in central Illinois. 
To these were added large coal-land holdings be- 
longing to Minneapolis people. The attempt was 
made to pay interest on bonds representing the 
whole property and to get into the Northwestern 
market. The attempt was a failure, in part because 
of the natural competition in this market of the 
higher-grade coal of Mr. Robbins' other mines in 
the Pittsburg district. The management was 
changed, and Mr. Traer took hold, first as president, 
and later as receiver. He has made a good fight to 
maintain the property, but in the absence of railway 
affiliations a coal mine in the Middle West has a 
hard time. Mr. Traer brought suit before the Inter- 
State Commerce Commission and obtained a ruling 
compelling a much fairer ear distribution than has 
prevailed. His presentation of the case was so com- 
plete and accurate that the railways made no de- 
fense and the Commission entered the ruling asked 
for. None the less, the time is too early for a large 
independent coal company to be successful in reach- 
ing the Northwest market, and it is understood that 
in future the Illinois Collieries Co. will be operated 
mainly for the local market. 

Among miners, interest centres now upon the elec- 
tion of an international president of the United Mine 
Workers, in the place of John Mitchell. Tom Lewis, 
who followed him, seems not to have been success- 
ful. There has been open rebellion in Indiana and 
Pennsylvania, and serious trouble in Arkansas and 
in other States. It is said he has systematically tried 
to eject Mr. Mitchell's friends, and to create a per- 
sonal machine within the organization. However 
that may be, he is regarded by operators as being 
demagogic and inclined to promise for effect more 
than he can accomplish. Since the United Mine 
Workers, including 350,000 of the 600.000 coal min- 
ers of the country, is the largest single interest in 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



57 



the industry next to the anthracite coal operators, 
the election of an executive chief is a matter of wide 
moment. Mr. Lewis' opponent is John Walker, of 
Illinois, who is regarded as th.- true heir to the 
Mitchell policies and following. While Mr. Walker 
is an avowed socialist he is. singularly i*ii,iii vh. tin- 
wiser and more conservative leader of the two. As 
One operator phrases it: '•.!(. lm doesn't let his so- 
cialism interfere with his common sense." He is 
everywhere r gnized as hones! :nn\ fearless. Pres- 
ent indications point to his election. 

It is probably fortunate that no unusual demand 

for eoal urred this fall in view of the shortage of 

water. The washeries were mostly compelled to close 
and many mines could keep up steam only by haul- 
ing water. All tank-cars were put in service, and 
gondolas lined with rubber blankets were used. 
Freight and even passenger service was crippled, and 
I'm, .motives limped along from tank to tank, taking 
a small drink here, a smaller one there, and a good 
one uowhere. Any kind of water was at par, re- 
sulting in numerous breakdowns, and in joy only 
for the makers of boiler compounds. In some towns 
the water was held by the Board of Health and 
given out under police regulations. The drought has 
been broken, hut there is still a shortage in places; 
this raises serious questions as to what will be done 
when, as statisticians tell us will happen inside of a 
century, we have four times as many people to 
supply. 

In one direction the water shortage was some- 
thing of a blessing in disguise: it practically stopped 
drilling over much of the oilfield. Since tanks are 
full, and pipe-lines are taking over 60% of the oil 
offered, it manifestly is folly, collectively, to bring 
in new wells, regardless of the individual advantage. 
Only the widespread and rather unusual spirit of 
co-operation that has obtained in the Illinois oilfield, 
and the skill and energy of the local Standard Oil 
officials, have permitted the situation to be handled 
without a break in price. As it is, there have been 
only 15 days (early in June, 1908) since the field was 
opened when all oil offered was taken. This brought 
it out at the rate of about 3,000,000 bbl. per day, 
and the output for the year, despite all efforts to 
decrease production, will run 35,000,000 bbl., or bet- 
ter. The oilfields continue to expand. Within the 
year production has begun, at least in a small way, 
at Sparta, in the western part of the State. At Cen- 
tralis an 18-bbl. well is being pumped in a wholly 
new district, and favorable showings are being ob- 
tained in other 'wild-cat' areas. It is reported that 
the Indian Refining Co., which has previously 
shipped to its plant at Georgetown, Kentucky, will 
build a large refinery at Lawrenceville, Illinois, near 
its wells. The Pure Oil Co. is completing an inde- 
pendent pipe-line eastwardly. On the whole, the 
Illinois oil industry is in a prosperous condition. 

The lead and zinc smelters of the Mississippi val- 
ley have suffered throughout the year. The mines 
have kept up production fairly well, but it is don bt- 
ful whether they have made much money. The 
most significant change in the Wisconsin district has 
been the entrance of the U. S. Mining, Smelting & 



Refining Co. Interests affiliated with this company 
have bought the famous Empire and other good pro- 
ducers and have erected a large mill for treating the 
ore bj a new magnetic process. It is noted, how- 
ever, that they are also building mills of the old type 
with roasters. The Empire, by the way, on an initial 
investment of $30,000, distributed approximately 
$250,000 in dividends, and is said to have gone into 
the new combination on the hasis of +100,000 in cash 
and 15',; of the stock of the new concern. 

The cement industry, closely dependent as it is on 
building operations, has languished throughout the 
year. The Sandusky Portland has taken up the con- 
test with the North American over the Hurry and 
Seaman patents. This will be watched with interest, 
since the only possibility of monopolizing the cement 
industry seems to lie in the ownership of basic pat- 
ents. It will he remembered that the Pennsylvania 
case was settled out of court on the basis of payment, 
of royalties by the contestants. 



Record progress in driving hard-rock tunnels was 
discussed in our issue of June 6, and it was there 
stated that the American record for machine-drilling 
was made in the Gunnison tunnel. That record of 
449 ft., made in January, 1908, has now been ex- 
ceeded in the Elizabeth Lake tunnel, a part of the 
Los Angeles aqueduct. For the 31 days ending at 
midnight, October 31, the south heading was driven 
a total of 466 ft. The Elizabeth tunnel is the opening 
by which the waters of the Los Angeles aqueduct 
will be carried through the crest of the Coast Range. 
The tunnel is to be 27,215 ft. long, of which 355 ft. 
is in open-cut, giving 26,860 ft. from portal to portal. 
It is about 60 miles north of Los Angeles, and the 
south portal is 24 miles from a railroad. The Eliza- 
beth tunnel is 12 by 12 ft. in section and is driven in 
granite rock. It is interesting to note that the Eliza- 
beth tunnel and the Gunnison tunnel were driven by 
day labor, under the direct charge of engineers of 
the Government and of the municipality. The Eliza- 
beth tunnel was driven full size by the lower heading- 
method with Model 6-A water Leyner rock-drills. 
The mucking was done by hand and the dirt trans- 
ported by electric motors. The face, October 31, was 
2508 ft. from the portal. The base rate in the bonus 
system employed is 8 ft. per day, or 248 ft. for a 31- 
day month. For each foot in excess of this amount 
each man working in the tunnel continuously during 
the month is paid 40c. Including the payment of 
the bonus, the month's run was made at a cost of 
$35.81 per foot, and at the rate of 15 ft. per day. The 
run of 466 ft. was made with modern tunnel equip- 
ment, consisting of two 520 cu. ft. Franklin two- 
stage air-compressors, each belt driven by a 100-hp., 
440-volt A. C. induction motor which supplies air for 
the rock-drills and other equipment; one Fairbanks- 
Morse 100-kw. motor-generator set, supplyng direct 
current at 220 volts for operation of one six-ton elec- 
tric locomotive, used in tunnel traction, and one No. 
7 Root blower. This equipment is duplicated at the 
north portal. The work is in charge of J. B. Lippin- 
cott, assistant engineer to the Water Works, and W. 
C. Aston, tunnel superintendent. 



58 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



COPPER MINING AT ELY, NEVADA. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Peess 
By Courtenat De Kalb. 

The name of Ely was not transferred from Ver- 
mont to Nevada. The classic little copper mine in 
the Green mountains, never large, hut never ex- 
hausted, had nothing to do with naming the spot in 
the Steptoe valley that has risen suddenly to fame. 
Many years ago, the abundant water and excellent 
pasturage in this valley led to the establishment of 
a cattle ranch by one Ely from "down in Maine," 
and Ely's Eanch became simple Ely. In course of 
time, minerals were discovered. First came lead ore, 
containing silver. Lead is still mined in the district 
and is shipped to Salt Lake City. Next gold at- 
tracted notice. The Chainman mine once gave prom- 
ise of acquiring a reputation, but the mill, dragged 
140 miles from the railroad, has succumbed to rust 
instead of wear. This is at Lane City, on the road 
up the gorge to Copper Flat, the scene today of mag- 
nificent operations in the gigantic modern way. 
Close to this great open-cut is the Keystone copper 
mine, memorable only for a tragedy in which a mine 
manager shot four menacing workmen several years 
ago. This mine, like others around it, was a failure. 
A large dump betokens extensive workings under- 
ground ; to the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. this 
dump of gray slacking monzonite is commercial ore, 
and will one day go to the mill, when the excava- 
tions extend that far ; to the Keystone capitalists it 
was 'waste,' and typified discouragement. It de- 
pends on the point of view what kind of an enterprise 
is set in motion. The disseminated ores of Ely to 
the first group of miners signified the possibility of 
enriched veins, from which they hoped a product 
might be obtained that would pay the enormous costs 
of old-time methods. The second group, urged by the 
courage and inspired by the foresight of Mark L. 
Requa, instead of seeking ore to match a method, 
adapted a method to the ore available, and the result 
is one of the greatest copper enterprises in the world. 
The shares of the Nevada Consolidated, which could 
he bought during the late panic at $6, are now close 
to $20. The capital stock consists of 1,600,000 shares, 
of a par value of $5 each. So clearly was the future 
greatness of the property proved that the capital 
stock and other securities realized a sum of $3,122,- 
710 in excess of par value for the benefit of the com- 
pany's treasury. The total capital liability on the 
books today is charged at approximately $14,400,000. 
This finds its warrant in a body of developed work- 
able ore of 20,000,000 tons. The reserves blocked at 
present represent only a fraction of the area avail- 
able. Prospecting by Keystone drills is proceeding 
rapidly; this is a swift and exceedingly economical 
method of prospecting. The ordinary drill, such as 
is used in testing auriferous gravel, is employed ; the 
prospect holes extend to 300 and 400 ft., according 
to the topography, but the hole is usually started 
with a diameter of 10 inches, so as to finish at 6 in. 
The speed varies from 25 to 40 ft. per diem, and the 
cost ranges from 75c. to $1.25 per foot. This work 
is locally called 'scouting'. The testing already 



done shows an average copper content for the 20 mil- 
lion tons developed, of 1.9%, this being the figure 
stated officially by Pope Yeatman, the consulting 
engineer for the company. 

The earlier testing of these deposits was done by 
the ordinary methods of shaft-sinking and level- 
driving. This was mainly at the Ruth mine, on the 
eastern side of the mass of impregnated monzonite. 
An account of the tests, and the vindication of the 
churn-drill method by its faithful agreement with 
sampling in many lots of several hundred tons in the 
Ruth mine, will be found in an article entitled 'Ex- 
perimental Mill of the Nevada Consolidated Copper 
Company', by M. L. Requa, published in the Mining 
and Scientific Press of July 18, 1908. 

The area of the ground owned by the Nevada Con- 
solidated Copper Co. is 850 acres, consisting of 63 
claims. Closely related for purposes of operation 
and treatment is the Cumberland-Ely, where 12 
claims have been partly developed. The orebody 
there is narrow, and of higher grade, yielding from 
3 to 4% copper. Associated with these companies 
are the Steptoe Valley Smelting & Mining Co., with 
magnificent works, still being enlarged, at the new 
town of Smelter, 22 miles away. Here water is abun- 
dant, and ample precautions have been taken not to 
become involved in legal embarrassments over fume. 
Finally, the Nevada Northern Ry. Co. was organized, 
and a line was built to the Southern Pacific at Cobre, 
140 miles north of Ely. A ramification of shorter 
lines around Ely opens up the ore-producing terri- 
tory and gives access to the works at Smelter. Each 
corporation is operated on entirely independent lines. 
Bej'ond these corporations lie other financial intrica- 
cies, the American Smelters Securities Co. holding 
indirectly a controlling interest on behalf of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co. Thus the enter- 
prise constitutes a notable enrichment of the holdings 
of the Guggenheims. 

The geology of the ore deposit was studied by 
Andrew C. Lawson, professor of geology in the Uni- 
versity of California; a monograph entitled 'The 
Copper Deposits of the Robinson Mining District, 
Nevada', was published in 1906, as a bulletin of the 
Department of Geology in the State University. No 
preceding studies had interpreted the interesting 
phenomena presented at Ely. Under conditions that 
were practically those of a reconnaissance Mr. Law- 
son has done work that has stood the test of subse- 
quent development, so that his report on this prop- 
erty has been a splendid example of the practical 
importance of the economic geologist. In brief, a 
mass, or batholith, of monzonite porphyry is found 
intruding Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, the 
latter consisting of limestone. The intrusive rock 
appears upon the surface at Copper Flat and at the 
Ruth mine. The area between is overlaid with lime- 
stone, and this covering exists continuously around 
the porphyry, portions of which are also overlaid by 
a more recent flow of rhyolite. This has raised the 
question as to the probable extension of the copper 
in workable amount beyond the limits of the exposed 
area, especially under the rhyolite capping. A con- 
centration by secondary enrichment has resulted 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



59 



from leaching where the monzonite has lain open to 
meteorological influences. The enrichment has been 
feeble, to be sure; nevertheless it lias made all the 
difference between ore ami valueless rock. The 
upper port inn of the porphyry lias been impoverished 
\>\ Leaching, ami constitutes an overburden from 50 
to 70 ft. thick, containing o.7.v, or less oi copper. 
The re-precipitation < orred at a former water- 
horizon which has since been lowered. Eence Hie 
change from the overlying oxidized lean rock, with 
its prevailing yellowish tinge, to the bluish-gray en- 
riched ore below, is as abrupt as if the tun had been 
artificial!} severed. Below ibis line of division, how- 
ever, the copper content presently shows a decrease 
in depth, and the quantity gradually sinks to about 
1 per cent. The depth to which extraction may con- 
tinue depends, in consequence, upon the price of cop- 



was early foreseen, and it has fulfilled the expecta- 
tions nf these who lathered the enterprise. The cost 
of the ore in the cars ready for transportation to 
Smelter is aboul 40c. per ton, including its propor- 
tion of the cost of stripping overburden. The actual 
digging ami loading costs only about lie. per ton. 
One 70-ton and three 95-ton Bucyrus steam-shovels 
are used, The larger shovels, with 3% eu. yd. dip- 
pers, equal to 7 tons of ore per dipper, will dig as 
much as 800 eu. yd. per day. A shovel-crew com- 
prises an engineer a1 $175 per t ith, a crane-man 

at -1-125. a fireman at $90, and li pitmen at .+2 per daj . 
The cost of explosive used on the overburden will 
not exceed 4e. per enbie yard. A shovel will com- 
fortably lead 2500 tons in 9 hours, and it can lill one 
car of 55 tons in 4 minutes. The banks worked in 
the overburden are at present about 50 ft. high, and 




Mining With Steam-Shovel at Ely. 



per and the extent to which mining and reduction of 
the ore at Ely can be cheapened. An interesting phe- 
nomenon at Copper Flat is the vertical division of the 
deposit by an almost dike-like zone of silicious ore, 
out-cropping on the surface and cutting the deeper 
orebody. This contains copper to the extent of 3%, 
and even 4%, in the form of silicate and cai'bonate. 
It was originally suggested that this so-called 'car- 
bonate' ore would need to be treated by a leaching 
process, but the metallurgists of the Steptoe Valley 
S. & M. Co. have done better than that. The propor- 
tion of silica is so high, being about 80%, that in this 
material, donated by Nature as a bonus with the 
mine, they have an ideal converter-lining. This cu- 
priferous silica, available at certainly no more than 
65e. per ton laid down in the works, is an important 
assistant in the economical treatment of these ores. 

The method of mining adopted at Copper Flat is by 
steam-shovel. The adaptability of the steam-shovel 



in the ore 40 ft. The open-cut is 800 ft. long by 400' 
ft. wide, and is being excavated in two benches, with 
railroad track making a loop around the head of the 
out, so that trains always make the circuit, thus 
obviating loss of time from switching in and out of 
the loading places. Much of the ore is soft and re- 
quires little or no blasting, but the overburden is 
hard and needs shattering by heavy blasts. Holes 
for this purpose are drilled with Keystone churn- 
drills, using a 6-in. bit. No casing is required. The 
holes are placed from 25 to 30 ft. from the edge of 
the bank, and 30 ft. apart. The hole is first ' sprung '. 
or chambered, with dynamite, from y% to 2 boxes of 
40% grade being used, according to the hardness of 
the rock. If the ground is relatively loose the hole 
is then charged with 60 kegs, of 25 lb. each, of Du- 
pont FF black powder; if the rock is firm and dense, 
the hole is loaded with 15 to 20 boxes of 40% dyna- 
mite. The volume moved by such a blast is approxi- 



60 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



mately 2400 cu. yd. Work had been abandoned dur- 
ing the financial crisis, but stripping overburden was 
resumed in March. Since that time, approximately 
300,000 tons of sulphide ore have been mined and 
shipped to Smelter. This applies only to Copper 
Flat, and is exclusive of tonnage shipped from the 
Veteran mine of the Cumberland-Ely. Drilling is 
proceeding westward to establish the persistence of 
the orebody in that direction. In horizontal dis- 
tance these tests have shown its continuance 1800 ft. 
beyond the present open-cut, and the cut will have 
several banks or terraces below the existing floor. 
This will give an idea of the magnitude of the opera- 
tions. It was hinted that banks 100 ft. high might 
be attempted, which would, of course, be in disre- 
gard of occasional mishaps, when a shovel and crew 
might be buried by a slide. No extraction of ore is 
taking place at the Ruth mine. The amount cheaply 
available at Copper Flat is enough to feed the mill, 
as it now stands, to its full capacity, and concentra- 
tion of work and traffic at one point naturally affords 
superior advantages in regard to economy. 

The Veteran mine, which is practically part of the 
same general scheme of operations in spite of per- 
taining to a company having a separate corporate 
existence, is an underground working. The over- 
burden here is too thick to admit of stripping. That 
form of caving known as 'top-slicing' is being intro- 
duced. Enough has been done to demonstrate its 
applicability to local conditions. The ground is laid 
out by cross-cuts and lateral drifts in blocks 50 ft. 
square. Raises are then driven to the overburden 
at the four corners of the blocks. The slicing is 
carried across each 50-ft. block, and a floor of boards 
laid as the work progresses, to serve as a mat to hold 
the overburden when it settles, and to keep it from 
mixing with the ore below. The height of face on the 
upper slice is 8 ft., but the subsequent lower slices 
will be 10 ft. The next slice will be worked care- 
fully under the broken overburden, the mat being 
caught and held in place by timber sets of 12 in. 
square caps, and round stulls of Oregon fir. As the 
system had only been introduced experimentally, no 
data concerning costs were available. Fifty experi- 
enced, cave-miners had just been brought from Min- 
nesota. The output of the Veteran is intended to be 
1500 tons daily. Four of the 12 claims on the ore- 
body will be worked from this one shaft. The charge 
made by the railroad on ore from the Veteran mine 
to Smelter is 30c. per ton in 300-ton lots. 

A vertical 3-compartment main shaft, with man- 
way, serves the Veteran mine. The compartments 
are 5% by 6 ft., with one compartment 5% by 9 ft. 
for convenience in lowering timbers. The shaft is 
surmounted by a wooden head-frame 110 ft. high, 
with 12-ft. sheaves over which run l^-in. steel 
cables. The total height of lift is 600 ft. Hoisting- 
is done in automatic-dumping 5-ton skips made by 
the Atlas Car & Manufacturing Co. of Cleveland, 
Ohio. A cage is also used for raising and lowering 
men ; this is operated by a special steam hoisting- 
engine, designed and built by the Exeter Machine 
Works of Pittsburg. The ore-skips are operated by 
a 300-hp. General Electric Co.'s induction motor, 



rated as 3-phase, type 1-14, form M, 60 cycle, for 290 
amperes and 550 volts. The hoist itself was built by 
the Denver Engineering Works and has 6-ft. drums, 
working in counterbalance. A current of 40,000 
volts is transmitted from the power-house at Smelter, 
and is stepped down to 600 volts for the hoist. 

The geology of the region is of great interest, but 
the details are accessible in Mr. Lawson's published 
report, and will not be reviewed here. Attention, 
however, may be called to the fact that indications 
are favorable for the existence of contact copper de- 
posits between the porphyry and the limestone ; these 
possibilities have not been developed. It is expected, 
however, that ore available for blast-furnace smelt- 
ing will be found. The limestone contains many large 
masses of silver-bearing limonite, which would fur- 
nish valuable flux for silicious copper ore. That the 
silver-lead and gold ores will be locally utilized in 
time seems probable. Developments are disclosing 
larger amounts of galena than had been previously 
suspected. These deposits constitute a distinct belt 
north of the monzonite, and lie in the Ruth lime- 
stone, which is the upper member of the Carbonifer- 
ous rocks occurring in this district. The Ruth lime- 
stone is 500 ft. thick, and is underlaid by 1000 ft. of 
Arcturus shaly limestone, succeeded downward by 
1500 ft. of Ely limestone. Thus there may be possi- 
bilities for lead-mining at considerable depths below 
the present known occurrences in the Ruth limestone. 
Some deposits of lead-ore are also being worked in a 
small way on the great ridge that separates Steptoe 
from Duck Creek valley. These small mines, . which 
are now shipping ore to Salt Lake City, are almost 
directly above the reduction works at Smelter. The 
gold deposits are confined to the Paleozoic rocks, 
which are represented by 1000 ft. of White Pine 
shale, on which the Ely limestone rests conformably. 
Below this comes the Nevada limestone, at least 1000 
ft. thick. These are of Devonian age. The gold ores 
are often basic, and to some extent may be used as 
flux if blast-furnace smelting should develop at this 
point, and it has been hinted that some concentrating 
gold ore exists. 

Surrounding the great mines are others of vary- 
ing promise. The Giroux Consolidated is well known, 
having been long before the public. Underground 
mining is practiced here, and it would seem that the 
policy of the company has been too much to insist 
upon the importance of its rich ore rather than to 
face the larger elements of the problem presented in 
the utilization of masses of low-grade ore by the 
cyclopean methods that are now changing the char- 
acter of copper mining in so many parts of the world. 
The Giroux undoubtedly has rich ore, but it seems 
unfortunate that no energetic effort is being made 
to open what may prove so large a mine that the 
high-grade masses will only be looked upon as some- 
thing to sweeten the output. Many prospects are 
being worked, as always happens around every enter- 
prise of magnitude. Despite their reputation, the 
Guggenheims have not taken everything in sight at 
Ely. Combinations of outlying properties may lead 
to the creation of important neighbors for the Ne- 
vada Consolidated and the Cumberland-Ely. 



January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



61 



Discussion. 



Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to 
use this department for the discussion of technical and other 
matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor 
welcomes the expression of views contrary to his own. be- 
lieving that careful criticism Is more valuable than casual 
compliment. Insertion of any contribution is determined by 
its probable Interest to the readers of this journal. 



Forest Reserve and Mining. 
The Editor i 

Sir — The administration of the Forest Service, in 
bo Ear as ii relates to the miner and home-seeker, 
has been the subject of much adverse criticism: Mr. 
Gilford Pinchot, in his reply to an editorial in the 
Denver Evening Post, says: "The Forest Service 1ms 
always invited candid criticism and co-operation of 
the people of the West in its attempt to give them a 

steadily more helpful adininistrat inn of the National 
Forests, but it insists that criticism, to be helpful. 
must have sume relation to the facts." Having made 
an examination of many of the claims in Plumas 
county, California, that have been contested by the 
Forest Service. I feel qualified to meet the conditions 
that the Forest Service imposes upon those who offer 
criticism. 

Mr. Pinchot states in his reply that "the Forest 
Service has never denied a patent to any mineral 
claim in any National Forest, nor declared the same 
invalid, for it has no right to do so. But it is the 
duty of the Forest Service under the law to report 
to the Department of the Interior, upon its request, 
the actual facts on the ground concerning any claim 
or location within a National Forest, to enable the 
Department of the Interior to form a judgment as to 
the validity of such claim, or location. The Depart- 
ment of the Interior forms that judgment and acts 
upon it — the Forest Service merely reports such 
facts as it finds. It is not the judge, but merely a 
witness in the case. ' ' This is merely an attempt to 
shift the responsibility. The Forest Service has been 
most active in its efforts to exclude the miner and 
home-seeker from the Reserve. The Forest Service 
seems to consider that its principal duty is to de- 
populate the country in favor of timber-culture. 

Before the creation of the National Forests the 
prospector in California was free to locate and re- 
cord mining claims ; to prospect and develop them in 
his own way, and at a time best suited to his inter- 
ests ; and he remained in possession as long as the 
requisite amount of assessment work was performed 
each year. This was the law. Many a farmer has 
occupied his idle winter months in 'drifting' for a 
back channel that might require years of his work 
to reach, his only justification for the work being his 
faith in the existence of such a channel. 

The Use Book of the Forest Service expressly 
states that the miner and home-seeker shall be ac- 
corded the privileges they formerly enjoyed before 
the creation of the National Forests. But there is 
an unwritten law : that the prospector must be able 
to prove the mineral character of the ground he has 
located at any time the Forest superviser or his ran- 
gers see fit to question the validity of his location. 
It is not sufficient that the ground shows encourag- 



ing prospects, or that there is every indication of an 
ancient channel; it must In- shown to be profitable 
mining ground, "more valuable for the mineral than 

the timber." This virtually means a cessation of all 
prospecting within the Forest Reserve. Xo miner 
cares to risk either time or money in prospecting a 
claim when the right to continue the work may be 
denied him at any moment. 

The methods employed by these Government ex- 
perts in determining the character of the land are 
interesting: In one instance a pit was dug to the 
depth of five feet ; a surface inspection sufficed in all 
other eases. It is true that where bedrock is ex- 
posed on steep hillsides and ridges, the character of 
the land may be determined by a superficial exam- 
ination, but can it be foretold what lies beneath the 
surface of the soil, gravel-bank, or lava-cap, with- 
out recourse to shafts, drifts, or bore-holes? Yet 
the prospecting work of these experts who declared 
the contested Yard claims to be non-mineral, was 
limited to a few pans taken from the surface. 

While the miner is merely denied the right to pros- 
pect and hold claims within the Forest Reserve upon 
the testimony of the Government officers, the home- 
seeker is subject to arrest and imprisonment. I 
refer particularly to the contested case of William 
H. Beatty. The property known as the Beatty home- 
stead, situated in Butterfly valley, six miles from 
Quiney, Plumas county, California, was filed upon 
as a homestead by John Brinker in 1887. The im- 
provements were bought by William Maxwell in 
1892, who afterward sold them to Beatty, and there- 
after the place was continuously occupied by him and 
his family until after application was made for pat- 
ent, which application was granted in March, 1905. 
Beatty remained in undisturbed possession of the 
property, and it was finally sold by him, no patent 
yet received. 

Last winter Beatty was placed under arrest by a 
United States marshal and, refusing to give bail, he 
was transported to Alameda county and placed in 
the Oakland jail, and there confined for a consid- 
erable time, until bail was furnished by residents of 
Quiney. His arrest and subsequent indictment on 
the charge of perjury in having sworn falsely to a 
homestead affidavit was brought about by the testi- 
mony of Edward Doyle, Frank H. Smith, G. A. Hall, 
and LeRoy A. Moore. The charging part of the in- 
dictment reads as follows: "As he, the said William 
T. Beatty, thus and there well knew, the said land 
was then and there mineral in character, and as he, 
the said William T. Beatty, then and there well knew 
had been successfully mined for gold, and that large 
quantities of gold had been taken out of said land; 
and whereas, in truth and in fact the said William 
T. Beatty then and there well knew that a large por- 
tion of the said land had been heretofore and was 
then and there worked for mineral and that the said 
land was then and there essentially mineral instead 
of non-mineral, whereby he, the said William T. 
Beatty, did then and there commit wilful perjury." 

From a personal examination of the property, I 
can state that the contested portion of the homestead 
is not profitable mining ground ; that the land was 



62 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2, 1909. 



thoroughly prospected and abandoned years ago, 
until Frank Smith, now a Forest ranger, and his 
brothers resumed operations some three years ago, 
long after Beatty had made his homested entry; 
that the amount of material washed by them did not 
exceed 2700 cu. yd., and that it could not have 
yielded over 40 cents to the man per day; that they 
have for some time suspended operations, and re- 
moved their sluice-boxes from the propert3 r . 

The remaining ground within the confines of the 
property available for mining purposes is less than 
one acre. Any person would have been justified in 
considering the land more valuable as a homestead 
than for its mineral content. 

Beatty is highly respected; he has the sympathy 
of the entire community against the Forest Service 
in his struggle for justice. 

There is a general feeling of dissatisfaction among 
the residents of Plumas county in the present admin- 
istration of the Forest Service. 

Douglas Watbhman. 

San Francisco, December 19. 



Flotation-Process Litigation. 
The Editor: 

Sir — As your London correspondent I have, from 
time to time, referred to litigation in the English 
courts between the owners of the Elmore and Ballot- 
Sulman-Picard patents, for concentrating ores by 
means of oil. The decision given in the Court of 
Appeals on December 2 bids fair to end this long 
dispute, and to place the control of the oil-flotation 
process in the hands of the Elmores. The judgment 
reversed the decision of the Court below given by 
Mr. Justice Neville five months ago. The Court of 
Appeal consists of three judges, one of whom in this 
ease was Lord Justice Fletcher Moulton. This judge 
is prominent as a lawyer with a special training in 
scienee. He was senior wrangler at Cambridge, and 
has always been noted for his grasp of technical de- 
tails. He prepared the judgment of the Court, in 
which his colleagues joined unanimously. The de- 
cision was not rendered hastily ; two weeks were 
taken for preparation and consideration. The de- 
fendants may appeal to the House of Lords for final 
argument, though that court is not likely to differ 
in opinion from an eminent judge thoroughly fa- 
miliar with his subject. An interesting point in con- 
nection with this trial is that Fletcher Moulton, be- 
fore becoming judge, advised in his capacity as at- 
torney on the original Elmore specification. When 
he found this ease on his list of trials he notified both 
parties that this fact would prevent him from sitting 
in judgment. Both parties, however, assured him of 
their confidence in his fairness and freedom from 
bias ; in fact, they both specially desired the case to 
go before him on account of his familiarity with the 
subject in hand. The point was a small one, for he 
had given his professional opinion on the original 
Elmore specification before the existence of that 
taken out by Ballot, Sulman, and Picard. 

The question in dispute was whether the Minerals 
Separation Limited, operating the Ballot-Sulman- 
Picard patent, were infringing the Elmore patents of 



1898 and 1901. These describe the old oil-flotation 
process, which has since given way to the improved 
form known as the vacuum process. The 1898 patent 
claimed ' ' separating the metallic from the rocky con- 
stituents of ore by mixing the pulverized ore first 
with water in considerable quantity, then adding to 
the mixture an oil, consisting of a thick tarry residue 
of mineral oil after some of the -volatile constituents 
have been driven off, the said oil adhering to the 
metallic constituents but not to the rocky constitu- 
ents, allowing the water carrying the rocky material 
to subside while the oil carrying the metallic con- 
stituents floats above. ' ' The specification of the 1901 
patent claims the ' ' addition of a small proportion of 
acid to the mixture of ore, water, and oil, such slight 
aeidulation greatly enhancing the selective action 
of the oil." In the Ballot-Sulman-Pieard patent of 
1905 reference is made to small quantities of light 
oil and acid, which are energetically beaten into 
contact with the mixture of ore and water so as to 
produce an aeration of the mixture. The patentees 
argued that of the three known physical reasons why 
oiled metallic particles are enabled to float, they de- 
pended solely on surface tension and aeration, while 
the Elmore patents of 1898 and 1901 relied solely on 
the third, namely, the specific gravity of the mixture 
of ore and attached oil. Lord Justice Fletcher Moul- 
ton quoted on this point the maxim that an inventor 
did not have to explain the scientific principle on 
which his process acts, and he also urged that at best 
our knowledge of the rationale of the flotation pro- 
cesses is incomplete, so that he was unable to base 
a judgment on this conception of pi'inciples utilized 
in the various inventions. He found that the 1898 
invention was the valid one, but that, as the patentee 
expressly mentions a thick oil, the defendants ' patent ' 
of 1905 did not infringe it, seeing that they specially 
claim a thin oil. On the other hand, he held that 
the use of small quantities of acid in assisting the 
selective action of the oil was undoubtedly first dis- 
closed in the Elmore 1901 patent, and therefore the 
Ballot-Sulman-Pieard patent of 1905 infringed it as 
far as the use of acid in conjunction with oil is con- 
cerned. The result of this judgment is that the El- 
mores may claim priority in all processes where oil 
and acid are used. After this decision it would seem 
to be reasonable to effect a consolidation of interests 
at stake. The Elmores are blocked by Ballot, Sul- 
man, and Picard in the use of thin oils ; on the other 
hand the Ballot-Sulman-Pieard patent is practically 
stripped of its value by the ruling as to the use of 
acid. The concentration processes using oil and acid 
are thus brought under the master patent of 1901. 
From a broadly economic standpoint it is well that 
the oil-flotation process is now freed from the em- 
bargo of legal disputes. Metallurgists may now de- 
velop the practical possibilities of the method with- 
out fear of disastrous lawsuits. It is noteworthy 
that no mention is made of the buoying action of gas- 
bubbles generated by the acid, but this was not the 
matter in dispute, although it is a phenomenon that 
plays an important part in all modern flotation pro- 
cesses. Edward Walker. 
December 10, 1908. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



PLACER DREDGE MACHINERY 




BUCYRUS PLACER GOLD DREDGE, "THREE FRIENDS No. 1.' 

Owned and Operated by the Three Friends Mining Company, 
Solomon River, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. 

EQUIPPED WITH 5 CU. FT. BUCKETS 



The Bucyrus Company has furnished 6 Dredges of this type for Alaska 
and the Yukon and 50 others for the gold fields of California. 



STEAM SHOVELS FOR MINING WORK 

THE IRON MINES OF SWEDEN, THE COPPER MINES OF SPAIN, 

THE TIN MINES OF SIAM, 

AND THE GOLD FIELDS OF AUSTRALIA 

ARE BEING WORKED BY BUCYRUS STEAM SHOVELS. 



THE BUCYRUS COMPANY 






South Milwaukee, Wis. 



1206 METROPOLIS BUILDING 
SAN FRANCISCO 



1274 FULTON BUILDING 

50 CHURCH ST. 

NEW YORK CITY 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



AIR OUTLtT 
TO^ORIER 



Roasting Problems 

THE WEDGE MECHANICAL ROASTER 

to stack is THE RESULT OF THE SUCCESSFUL SOLUTION OF A 
DIFFICULT ROASTING PROBLEM WHICH FACED THE 
PENNSYLVANIA SALT MFG. CO. IN THE TREATMENT 
OF A SPANISH ORE CONTAINING SULPHUR, ARSENIC, 
IRON, COPPER, GOLD, SILVER, LEAD AND ZINC. 
WEDGE FURNACES CONSTRUCTED FIFTEEN YEARS 
AGO ARE STILL IN OPERA- 
TION, WITH THE ORIGINAL 
ARCHES IN GOOD CONDITION. 
THEIR PERFECT MANIPULA- 
TION, ECONOMY OF OPERATION, 
AND THEIR WIDE SCOPE OF 
ADAPTATION ARE SURE TO 
ELICIT MOST FAVORABLE COM- 
MENT FROM METALLURGISTS 
WHO HAVE CONFRONTED DIF- 
FICULTIES OF THEIR OWN IN 
ROASTING. 

IF YOU ARE FACING A ROAST- 
ING PROBLEM IN A PROPOSED 
INSTALLATION, OR YOUR PRES- 
ENT ROASTING PLANT IS NOT 
GIVING THE BEST RESULTS, 
INVESTIGATE THE MERITS OF 
THE WEDGE FURNACE . WE 
OFFER ROASTING EXPERIENCE 
OF 20 YEARS IN AIDING YOU IN 
SOLVING YOUR PROBLEM. IT IS 
WORTH YOUR WHILE TO ASK 
QUESTIONS AS TO OUR ABILITY 
TO ROAST YOUR ORES WITH 
BETTER RESULTS THAN YOU 
CAN OBTAIN FROM ANY OTHER 
SYSTEM. 

WE HAVE FACILITIES FOR 
PRACTICALLY TESTING ORES 
AT OUR PHILADELPHIA 

THE WEDGE SEVEN FLOOR PYRITES ROASTER. WORKS. 

THE SPECIAL FEATURES ARE : 

ECONOMY IN USING A LARGE UNIT. 

PERFECTION OF DETAIL SUGGESTED BY MANY YEARS OF OPERATION - 
ACCESSIBILITY OF ALL PARTS. 

Constructed in Sizes from 9 ft. to 32 ft. Diameter. 

Capacity from 10 to 120 Tons in 2k Hours. 

SEND FOR CATALOG. 

PENNSYLVANIA SALT MANUFACTURING CO. 

115 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U. S. A. 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE LARGEST MINING MACHINERY HOUSE IN THE WORLD 



EHIXHI :lil mm 



SOLEOWNERSandNANUFACTURERSoftheWILFLEYCOHGENTRATINGTABLEandSLINER 



WHERE IS THE 

WILFLEY CONCENTRATING TABLE 

TO BE POUND? 
In Use in Every Up-to-Date Concentrating Mill. 




554 IN ONE MILL 
450 IN ANOTHER 
342 IN ANOTHER 
312 IN ANOTHER 
247 IN ANOTHER 

AND OVER 

12,000 IN USE IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



Other Concentrators in Use? 
Ask the Mill Man. He knows. 






MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE WONDER ROCK DRILL 




Simplicity of construction is the greatest feature of HARDSOCG WONDER DRLILS. 
They have only one movable part, making repairs practically nothing. 

One man can easily operate any WONDER DRILL. They are light and convenient, 
yet strong and durable. 

Different patterns meet perfectly the various requirements of mine work. 

Every Wonder Drill is Fully Guaranteed to Do 

Satisfactory Work. 

WONDER 



For Sloping We Recommend Our 
Numbers 5, 19 and 22 Drills. 




No. 5 is a light machine, weighing 35 lbs. No. 19 is a heavier machine— weight 50 lbs. 

No. 22 is designed exclusively for drilling up-holes — valveless, and therefore 
not complicated and having no sensitive parts. 



HARDSOCG WONDER DRILL CO. 



OTTUMWA, 
IOWA. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



STOPING DRILL MOUNTED 




THIS SHOWS THE No. 19C STOPING DRILL MOUNTED. WEIGHT 145 POUNDS. 

DRILLS 

The Wonder Bit Sharpener 




Bits may be sharpened, gauged, and tempered at one 
heat with absolutely no hand work on them. 
Skilled labor not required to operate the machine. 

This will soon pay for itself, if more than three or four drills are used. 

No hand work is necessary on the drills, and better service will be obtained. 



HARDSOCG WONDER DRILL CO. 



OTTUMWA, 
IOWA. 



10 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



BRAUN'S ASSAY and CHEMICAL 

Automatic Cupel Machine 

Operated by a boy. Will turn out 600 perfect cupels an hour. The 
product is always uniform and accurate, with perfect faces, unbroken 
edges, and great power of absorption. We also make wall and table 
patterns, hand fed, with a capacity of 200 cupels per hour. 

Braun's Bullion Furnaces 

Are the highest type of furnace construction. The one shown hero 
takes either No. 100 or No. 125 Crucible, and requires 2 Cary Hydrocarbon 

burners, using gasoline fuel. We also furnish 
crude oil or distillate burners if desired. 




These two pages show but 
a small part of our line. 




Let Us Tell You All About Our 
LABORATORY LABOR SAVERS. 

Braun's Standard 
Combination Furnace 

Over a thousand users of this type of furnace testify as to its merit. Its construction is such that 
melting and cupellation can be carried on at the same time, while, being operated with a Cary Hydro- 
Carbon Burner, consuming gasoline, makes it automatic and requires but very little attention. Its melting 
compartment will hold four "F" crucibles, and its muffle chamber is 4x6x9". Various other types and 
sizes are also made. 

HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Assayers' Supplies, Chemicals, 

WRITE FOR CATALOG R9 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 



576-584 MISSION STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO, U. S. A. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



11 



LABORATORY LABOR SAVERS 




DISC PULVERIZER. 




Braun's 

Chipmunk Crusher 

Is the strongest laboratory crusher 
made. It has steel frames, malleable 
iron jaws and fittings, and babbitted 
bearings. The vibratory jaw moves for- 
ward and downward, and impels a dis- 
charge. Made in two sizes, 300 and 500 
pounds per hour. Readily adjusted for 
coarse or fine crushing. Easily cleaned. 




J 



Braun's Disc 

Pulverizer 

Is the only power machine that will 
pulverize an entire ore sample to any de- 
gree of fineness up to 200 mesh powder 
with one grinding. Its record : one pound ; 
one minute; one mesh; one grinding. It 
is invaluable as a labor saver in the mod- 
ern laboratory. Eliminates the buckboard. 



f 




Braun's Products 
have a world-wide 
reputation. They 
set a standard of 
excellence equaled 
by none. 




Braun's 
Hand Sample Grinder 

Is intended to be operated by hand power ; ball bearing ; light running, 
and easy to keep clean. One grinding is sufficient to secure a uniform 
product. All drudgery connected with the buckboard is dispensed with. 

FLUXES, CYANIDE, ZINC STsheet 

WRITE FOR CATALOG R9 

F. W. BRAUN 



411 EAST THIRD STREET 



LOS ANGELES, U. S. A. 



12 MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



HUNT 

Continuous Filter 



HAS THE FOLLOWING POINTS OF SUPERIORITY: 



1st. IT IS CONTINUOUS IN OPERATION. 

2nd. IT DOES AWAY WITH ALL CLOTHS AS FILTERING MEDIA. 

3rd. BEING CONTINUOUSLY RENEWED, THE FILTER NEVER CLOGS OR BECOMES 
INCRUSTED; THEREFORE, IT REQUIRES NO ACID TREATMENT. 

4th. THE FILTER-BED BEING HORIZONTAL, AN EQUALLY PERMEABLE CAKE IS 
FORMED FROM ANY MIXTURE OF FINE AND COARSE MATERIAL, AVOIDING CHANNEL- 
ING OR CRACKING. 

5th. THE PULP REQUIRES NO MECHANICAL AGITATION WHILE FILTERING. SINCE 
THE BED IS HORIZONTAL HEAVY SAND AIDS, INSTEAD OF HINDERS, THE FORMA- 
TION OF CAKE; ALTHOUGH THE MACHINE WORKS PERFECTLY ON A FINE (200 MESH) 
SAND-BED. 

6th. OWING TO THE EASE AND RAPIDITY WITH WHICH THE CAKE IS WASHED, 
DIFFUSION LOSSES ARE NEGLIGIBLE. 

7th. THE HUNT FILTER IS ABSOLUTELY SELF-CONTAINED, FILTERING AND WASH- 
ING ALL THE PULP DIRECTLY, THEREBY ELIMINATING AUXILIARY PUMPS, TANKS, AND 
AGITATING APPLIANCES. 

8th. NOT REQUIRING AUXILIARY PUMPS, ETC., THE HUNT FILTER REQUIRES MUCH 
LESS POWER THAN ANY OTHER FILTER. 

9th. THE COST OF INSTALLATION IS ONLY FROM 25% TO 50% THAT OF OTHER 
STANDARD FILTERS. 



A Standard Size Machine is Operating in 
San Francisco for Demonstration Purposes* 



HUNT FILTER COMPANY 

General Offices : 1311 Metropolis Bank Bdg. Works and Laboratories : Second and Minna Sts. 
Telephone Kearny 4483. Telephone Kearney 2880. 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

TELEGRAPH 'HUNTFILTER/ SANFRANCISCO. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



i ; 



PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNT FILTER 




14 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



The Solving of Tough 




Virginia City, Nevada, Plant ot Chas. Butters & Co., 

Where the peculiarly difficult metallurgical problem obtaining remained un- 
solved until the first box of 100 leaves of BUTTERS PATENT VACUUM FILTER 
was installed and started, in September, 1904. 

It is almost beyond possibility to suppose that this plant, or any one of the 
many installations of THE BUTTERS PATENT VACUUM FILTER, will apply 
to your case, but the same experienced engineers who successfully solved this 
difficult problem are at your service. 



THE BUTTERS STAFF 



Metallurgists : 

CHAS. BUTTERS 
E. M. HAMILTON 
H. F. JULIAN 
G. H. CLEVENGER 
L. N. B. BULLOCK 
G. L. GUTHRIE 



Mechanical Engineers: 

C. G. PATTERSON 
S. SIMPSON 
HANS SAAK 
JAMES FRIER 
JAMES JOHNSTON 






NOTE. — The use of filter cells comprising open frames with filtering mediums thereon, an outlet, and a non- 
metallic pervious filling adapted to support the filtering medium while permitting a free passage for the filtered liquid, 
is the subject of the Butters Patent Vacuum Filter Co. patent, and also patent SS5,047 owned by Hendryx Cyanide 
Machinery Co. and Butters Patent Vacuum Filter Co. jointly. 



OFFICES: 

The Butters Patent Vacuum Filter Co., inc. 

333 KEARNY ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
30 Church St., New York. Cable* "butters." Cadena 2, Mexico, D. F. 



54 Broad St., London, E. C. 

Cabte: "ARMISONUS." 



USUAL CODES. 



* 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



15 



Metallurgical Problems 

BUTTERS FILTERS 
Mean I ncreased Ex traction 

OVER 4000 OF THESE MATS IN USE 




ACTUAL SLIME CAKE ON A BUTTERS FILTER MAT 



INSTALLATIONS: 
Ecuador, 30 Leaves Costa Rica, 120 Leaves 

Honduras, 70 Leaves Salvador, 230 Leaves 

Mexico, 1600 Leaves United States, 2070 Leaves 

THE FILTER PLANT OF THE GOLDFIELD CONSOLIDATED MINES CO. WILL BE RUN- 
NING BY JANUARY 1, 1909. THIS IS THE LARGEST VACUUM FILTER PLANT IN THE 
WORLD, CONTAINING 336 BUTTERS LEAVES, AND WE HAVE GUARANTEED A CAPACITY 
OF 600 TONS OF SLIME PER DAY. 



WRITE US. WE ARE SPECIALISTS IN CYANIDE PRACTICE. 

THE BUTTERS PATENT VACUUM FILTER CO., Inc. 

333 Kearny St., (Macdonough Bdg.,) San Francisco, Cal. U. S. A. 



Cable: "BUTTERS' 



APARTADO 1578, MEXICO, D. F. 



Usual Codes. 



16 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Telegraph "MACHINERY," San Francisco, for 




DUPLEX, STEAM-DRIVEN, SINGLE-STAGE, AIR COMPRESSOR. 



GIANT 



AIR COMPRESSORS 
ROCK DRILLS 
ARMORED HOSE 
HOSE COUPLINGS 




Giant Drill on Arm on Double 
Screw Column. 



Giant Drill on Single 
Screw Column. 



STEAM 

BOILER FITTINGS 



BOILERS 
ENGINES 
HOISTS 



gas :;:;■"■ oil 

ELECTRIC HOISTS 



BURNERS 
PUMPING SYSTEMS 



MACHINE TOOLS 



COMPRESSED AIR MACHINERY CO. 

MANUFACTURERS & MACHINERY AGENTS. Stevenson and Ecker Sts. (One Block south of Market, est 1st s 2d), SAN FRANCISCO 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



HARDINGE PATENT CONICAL MILL 

(A TUBE OR PEBBLE MILL.) 

For Fine or Coarse, Wet or Dry Grinding. 



A STUDY OF THE FOLLOWING CUT WILL EXPLAIN SOME OF THE REASONS FOR ITS 

REMARKABLY HIGH EFFICIENCY. 



Comparative 


< 


t 


Speed al 


£ 


. 


Different 


k 


o 


Sections of 


D 


«! 


Mill. 


o 

10 






Comparative Size of 
Crushing Pebble to 
Particle to be 
Crushed. 

Pebbles Assume Zones 
According to Size — 
The Largest at 
Greatest Diameter. 



ADVANTAGES: 



COSTS LESS THAN ANY OTHER MACHINE OF EQUAL CAPACITY. REDUCES COARSER 
MATERIAL THAN ANY TUBE MILL AND FOR EQUAL CAPACITY REQUIRES ONE-THIRD 
THE HORSEPOWER. IT IS ADJUSTABLE FOR COARSE GRINDING, FOR FINE GRINDING, 
FOR CEMENT GRINDING, FOR SIZING WHILE GRINDING. REQUIRES LESS SPACE. FOR 
CYANIDING WHILE GRINDING GIVES THE GREATEST POSSIBLE AERATION. IS CONTIN- 
UOUS IN ACTION, AND SELF-CONTAINED. ITS VERY FORM (TRUSS) IMPLIES STRENGTH 
REQUIRES NO "SPARE PARTS" FOR REPAIRS OR COMPLICATED FEEDING MECHANISM. 
IT IS THE SIMPLEST AND MOST EFFICIENT GRINDING DEVICE EVER PRODUCED. THE 
TRUE CAUSE FOR ITS SIZING ACTION IS A SCIENTIFIC PUZZLE. 

We now have a Mill for Testing Purposes in Operation near New York. 
If Interested, Write for Information. 



Hardinge Conical Mill Company 

43 EXCHANGE PLACE, NEW YORK, U. S. A. 

Cable Address: "Halharding New York." Code: Bedford McNeill. 



18 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE OLD RELIABLE 

Ajax Drill Sharpener 




A Few Figures that Speak for Themselves: 

The first Ajax Drill Sharpener installed by the great Homestake Mines at Lead, South Dakota, on 
July 16th, 1902, running continuously up to January 16th, 1909, with an average number of drills sharp- 
ened per day of 1,000, will have sharpened 2,372,500 drills. An average saving of $39.25 per day shows 
a saving in 6% years of $93,120.62. 

Why not let one of these old reliable machines do your drill sharpening? They are easily operated, 
do not require skilled men to run ; they have a special die for each size of drill, and make every drill to 
an accurate gauge. Two men can run one machine at one and the same time. With a third man to temper 
the drills, as many as 750 drills per day are sharpened. 

Drills made in this machine are equal to the best hand made, and will drill more rock than the hand 
sharpened drill. It is hammered from four to five times as much as in hand sharpening. 



SEND FOR CATALOGUE 



X. H. RROSKE 

DENVER, COLORADO, U. S. A. 



THE ADVERTISER WANTS TO KNOW WHERE YOU SAW THE ADVERTISEMENT. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



19 



Gold Dredges 



In the design of our Gold Dredges 
each detail is determined after care- 
full consideration of the nature of 
the ground and other conditions 
attending operations. 

For Inaccessible Ground in Tropical or Foreign 
Countries, we build our 

ALL STEEL DREDGE 




The dredge hull, gantries, and superstructure are 
built of structural steel, while the machinery is 
of our regular well known standard California 
type. 
This ALL STEEL form of dredge effects. a large 
saving in the cost of lumber, freight, transportation, and labor in erect- 
ing, thus securing a modern and efficient dredge, complete and ready 
for operation AT A VERY LOW COST. 



SEND FOR DESCRIPTION AND INTERESTING DATA ON DREDGES 
AND PROSPECTING DRILLS. 



NEW YORK ENGINEERING COMPANY 

2 RECTOR STREET, NEW YORK CITY 






20 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Hendryx Cyanide Machinery Co. 

1738 BROADWAY, DENVER, COLO. 




OUR AGITATORS 

COMBINATION AGITATORS AND 

FILTERS AND DEWATERERS 

ARE IN GENERAL USE 

■f THE HENDRYX AGITATOR 

will agitate both sands and 
slimes equally well. Violent 
agitation and thorough aera- 
tion of solutions are obtained 
with least expenditure of 
horsepower. Agitation can 
be started immediately after 
settling of sands. 

ORES TESTED AND 
PLANTS DESIGNED 



Hendryx Combinafion Agitator and Filter. 



THE HENDRYX COMBINATION 
AGITATOR AND HLTER 



accomplishes the dissolution of the 
gold and silver from both sands and 
slimes together, the filtration of the 
solution and the washing of the tail- 
ings in one machine. 



No Vacuum Pumps 



No Pressure Tanks 




Hendryx Agitator. 



I 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE NO. 5 C 

Apparatus and Process Patents in U. S. and Foreign Countries 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



21 



RISDON WINS 

U. S. Circuit Court sustains "Postlethwaite Gold Dredg- 
ing Apparatus" Patent, securing to the Risdon Iron Works 
of San Francisco 

THE SOLE RIGHT 

to use this most vital part of modern Gold Dredge Equip- 
ment. 




7 CD. FT. ELECTRIC RISDON DREDGE DIGGING 35 FT. OF GRAVEL. 

Risdon Gold Dredges were the pioneers in this great industry and have always 
been the leaders in every important dredging district throughout the world. 

We shall rigorously protect our patent rights and shall continue our earnest 
policy to always furnish 

THE BEST GOLD DREDGES 



Risdon Iron Works 



301 Steuart Street 



San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY. 

ENGINEERS, METALLURGISTS AND GEOLOGISTS. 

See Pages 24-26-28-30-32-34-36-38-40. 



UNITED STATES 



ALABAMA. 

Phillips, Wm. B. & Co. 
ALASKA. 

Hampton, Wm. Huntley. 
Kennedy, E. P. 
Lanagan, W. H. 
Munro, C. H. 
Robe, Lucien S. 

ARIZONA. 

Alexander, Wm. B. 
Alsdorf, F. C. 
Blauvelt. Harrington. 
Clements, J. Morgan. 
Defty, W. E. 
Dennis, G. Clifford. 
Lament, Eugene M. 
Merrill, .Frederick J. H. 
Smith & Laird. 
Treadwell, Wilbur. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Abadie, Emile Rector. 

Abbott, Harry S. 

Adams, W. J. 

Additon, A. Sydney. 

Beardsley, G. F. 

Becker, Arnold. 

Borrowe. G. W. 

Bosqui, Francis L. 

Bradley, Fred W. 

Bretherton, S. E. 

Burch, Albert. 

Campbell. Donald F. 

Carpenter, Brennon & Ryan. 

Cobb, W. L. 

Cummins, H. Oren. 

Dakin, Fred H., Jr. 

Darrow. Wilton E. 

De Kalfo, Courtenay. 

Demarest. D. C. 

Derby, Chas. C. 

Dikeman, J. M. 

Dozier, -Putnam & Co. 

Emery, Percy M. 

Erman, Joseph C. 

Farrell, J. R. 

Ferrier, W. F. 

Fleming, John B. 

Forstner, William. 

Franz, Elisha J. 

Gassaway, A. D. 

Goodale, David. 

Haggott, Ernest A. 

Hall, Leon M. 

Harvey, F. H. 

Hoffman, John D. 

Hoffmann, Ross B. 

Hohl, L. J. 

Holmes, Howard! W. 

Holmes & Black. 

Hunt, Bertram. 

Huntley, Dwight B. 

Janin & Smith. 

Jones, Charles Colcock. 

Kerr. Mark B. 

Kislingbury. George. 

Kline, R. C. 

Landers, W. H. 

Lewis, Charles B. 

Merrill, Charles W. 

Morris, F. L. 

Morton, R. F. 

Mudd, Seeley W. 

Nourse, C. F. 

Noyes, William S. 

Packer, O. H. 

Parrish, S. F. 

Probert, Frank H. 

Rainsford, R. S. 

Reid, John A. 

Richards, H. DeC. 

Rickard, Edgar. 

Rickard, T. A. 

Robbins, Frank. 

Ross, G. McM. 

Ross, John, Jr. 

Sanders, Wilbur E. 

Scott, Robert. 

Shaw, Richard C. 

Shaw, S. F. 

Shockley. W. H. 

Simonds. Ernest H. 

Smith. Howard D. 

Stebbins, Elwyn W. 

Stevens, Arthur W. 

Stevens, W. A. 

Stines, Norman C. 

Symmes, Whitman. 

Thompson & Gilliam. 

Thorne, W. E. 

Trent. L. C. 

Turner, H. W. 

Van Norden, Rudolph W. 

Waterman, Douglas. 

Welch. Max J. 

Wiley, W. H. 

Williams, Percy. 

Wynkoop. W. C. 



COLORADO. 

Becker & Travell. 
Brandes, Juan Felix. 
Carpenter, F. R. 
Chase, Charles A. 
Chase, Edwin E. 
Collins, George E. 
Davenport, Geo. N. 
Dickerman, Alton L. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
Fairchild, O. H. 
Farish, John B. 
Finch, John Wellington. 
Fueller, C. M. 
Hartley, Carney. 
Hastings, John B. 
Hills & Willis. 
Hunt, Ellery W, 
Lamont, Eugene M. 
Lang-ridge, B. A. 
Lefevre. Henry F. 
Marks, John H. 
Minai'd, Frederick H. 
Parker, Richard A. 
Pritchett, C. W. 
Purington, Chester Wells. 
Reid. George D. 
Revett, Ben Stanley. 
Rickard, Forbes. 
Scbroter, Geo. A. 
Spicer. H. N. 
Spurr & Cox. 
Swain. S. R. 
Toll, Rensselaer H. 
Townsend, Arthur R. 
Van Wagenen, Theo. F. 
Vidler, Rees C. 
Warwick, A. W. 
White. E. L. 
Worcester. S. A. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Adams, Henry. 

IDAHO. 

Easton, Stanly A. 

ILLINOIS. 

Bagg, Rufus M., Jr. 
Hollis, H. L. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Long, Frederic H. 
McCoy, J. -W. 
Nichols, Ralph. 
Nicholson, Hudson H. 
Roberts, Albert. 
Staver, W. H. 

3IASSACHUSETTS. 

Packard, George A. 
Richards, Robert H. 
Wenstrom. Olof. 
Winslow, Arthur. 

MICHIGAN. 

Austin, L. S. 
McCormick. E. 

MINNESOTA. 

Winchell, Horace V. 
MISSOURI. 

Church, L. C. 
Kirby, Edmund B. 
Nicholson, Frank. 

MONTANA. 

Bard. Darsie C. 
Lang, H. H. 
Leggat, Alexander. 
Sizer, F. L. 
Word, William F. 

NEVADA. 

Abbott, Charles W. 
Abbott, James W. 
Adamson, W. G. 
Boyle, Emmet D. 
Brown-Tolman Eng. Co. 
Collins, Edgar A. 
Collins. Edwin James. 
Crawford. Walter Howard. 
Cutler & Wilkinson. 
Del Mar, Algernon. 
Eldredge. F. O. 
Ferguson, Donald. 
Gillies, Donald B. 
Hershey, Oscar H. 
Jenney, Walter P. 
Kirby, A. G. 
Lakenan, C. B. 
Miller. Bernard P. 
Pembroke, Earl R. 
Perkins. Walter G. 
Plate, H. R. 
Rotherham, G. H. 
Seagrave. W. H. 
Siebert, Frederic John. 



NEW MEXICO. 

Brown, Cony T. 

NEW YORK. 

Atwater, Linton & Atwater. 
Bailey, J. Trowbridge. 
Beatty, A. Chester. 
Benedict, William de L. 
Blow, A. A. 
.Brodie, Walter M. 
Channing, J. Parke. 
Clements, J. Morgan. 
Constant, C. L. 
Crawford. Walter Howard. 
Del Mar, Alex. 
Devereux, W. B. & Sons. 
Dufourcq, Edward L. 
Dwight, Arthur S. 
Fearn, Percy L. 
Finch, John Wellington. 
Finlay, J. R. 
Franz, Elisha J. 
Hammond, John Hays. 
Hardinge, H. W. 
Horsiall, H. A. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Hutchins, J. P. 
Klepetko, Frank. 
Lawrence, Benjamin B. 
Lefevre, Henry F. 
Leggett & Hellmann. 
Lloyd, R. L. 
Maynard, George W. 
Mercer, John W. 
Minard, Frederick H. 
Olcott & Corning. 
Palmer, Cortlandt E. 
Pearse, Kingston & Browne. 
Perry, O. B. 
Raymond. Rossiter W. 
Ricketts & Banks. 
Riordan, D. M. 
Rogers, Edwin M. 
Schwerin, Martin. 
Sharpless, Fred'k F. 
Simonds & Burns. 
Spilsbury. E. Gvbbon. 
Spurr & Cox. 
Stonestreet, Geo. D. 
Sussmann, Otto. 
Thayer, Benjamin B. 
Townsend, Arthur R. 
Von Rosenberg. Leo. 
Weed, Walter Harvey. 
Yeatman, Pope. 

NEW JERSEY. 

Messiter. E. H. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Lyon, Edw. W. 



Crawford, John, Jr. 
Greenley. L. A. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Carr & Hibbs. 
Chance, H. M. 
Clapp, F. G. 
Dubois & Mixer. 
Garrison, F. Lynwood. 
Hixon, Hiram W. 
Pittsburgh Testing Labora- 
tory, Ltd. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Dorr, John V. N. 

TEXAS. 

Cook, Edward H. 
Fishback, Martin. 
Gaylord, M. D. 
Rice, John A. 
Welsh, Norval. 

UTAH. 

Bates, Mowry. 
Ellis. Henrv Rives. 
Fisher, Wm. B. 
Forrester. R. 
Gemmell, Robert C. 
Humphreys, Llewellyn. 
Jennings, E. P. 
Juessen, Edmund. 
Kelley, Fred G. 
Neill, James W. 
Niven & Price. 
Overstrom, Gustave A. 
Raddatz, E. J. 
Saunders, Howard P. 
Sussmann, Otto. 
Talmage, James E. 
Winwood, Job H. 



WASHINGTON. 

Armstrong, L. K. 
Bacon, W. S. 
Clarke, Roy H. 
Ingalls, A. O. 
Jenks, Arthur W. 
Juessen. Edmund. 
Lancaster, Joseph. 
Linney, W. H. 



FOREIGN 



Cole, F. L. 
Drucker, A. E. 
Eveland, A. J. 
Samwell, N. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Chappie, A. J. 
Diggles, J. A. 
Loring, W. J. 
Mitchell, Deane P. 
Power, F. Danvers. 
Smith. J. D. Audley. 

CANADA. 

Aldridge, Walter H. 
Brewer, Wm. M. 
Claudet & Co.. Hayman, 
Fowler, Samuel S. 
Gracey, A. H. 
Hardman, John E. 
Keffer, Frederic. 
Moore, Phil H. 
Nichols, Horace G. 
Tyrrell, J. B. 
Wilson, Alfred W. G. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Hartley, J. H. & Z. B. 
Semple, Clarence Carlton. 
Stanford, Richard B. 

EUROPE. 

Brandes, Juan Felix. 
Brown, R. Gilman. 
Charleton, Dickinson & Co. 
Collins, Henry F. 
Crawford, Walter Howard. 
Curie, J. H. 

Hawxhurst, Robert Jr. 
Herzig, C. S. 
Heywood, William A. 
Hooper & Speak. 
Hoover, H. C. 
Hoover, Theodore J. 
Knox, Newton Booth. 
Leggett & Hellmann. 
Pearse, Kingston & Browne. 
Purington, Chester Wells. 
Rathbone, Edgar P. 
Scott, Herbert Kilburn. 
Weatherbe, D'Arcy. 
West, H. E. 
Woakes, Ernest R. 

MEXICO. 

Anderson, Robert Hay. 

Auw & Clarcke. 

Babb, Percy Andrus. 

Botsford, C. W. 

Bradley, D. H„ Jr. 

Brodie, Walter M. 

Bumsted. Edward J. 

Burrows, R. H. 

Burt, Edwin. 

Carpenter, Brennon & Ryan. 

Colbath, James Sollitt. 

Grothe & Carter. 

Hardy, J. W. 

Heberlein, C. A, 

Hillary, G. M. 

Hobson & Co., Francis J. 

Hoyle, Charles. 

Jacobs & Posado. 

Kline, R. C. 

Lamb. Mark R. 

MacDonald. Bernard. 

McCausland. Ross D. 

Nahl. Arthur C. 

Ordonez. Ezequiel. 

Paul, W. H. 

Pomeroy, Wm. A. 

Prichard, W. A. 

Raymond. Robert M. 

Rickard, Harold. 

Roberts. F. C. 

Spurr & Cox. 

Tays, E. A. H. 

Timmons, Colin. 

Treadwell, John C. 

Tweedy, Geo. A. 

Warwick. A. W. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Hawxhurst. Robert, Jr. 
Mather, T. W. 
Strauss, Lester W. 
Vautin, Claude. 



(CONTINUED ON PAGE 24.) 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



23 



Robins Conveying Belt Co. 



GENERAL OFFICES AND WORKS: 

Passaic, N. J. 




ROBINS 



PATENTS OWNED BY 
THIS COMPANY 



Conveying Belt 

Vertical Plane 

Self-Lubrcating 

Idler 

Automatic 
Reversible Tripper 

Conveyor 
Accessories 



Branch Sales Offices: 



NEW YORK CITY, 30 Church Street. 

CHICAGO, Railway Exchange Building. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Western Engineering & 
Construction Company. 

LOS ANGELES, Blaisdell Company. 




24 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 22.) 



ABADIE, EMILE RECTOR, 

Mining Engineer. 

114 Bonlta Ave., Piedmont, Cal. 

Cable: Brabad. CodeB: Bedford McNeill. 



■RABB, PERCY ANDRUS, 

Mining and Metallurgical 

Engineer. 

Edlflcio La Cia. Banearia, Mexico, D. P. 

Avenida 6 De Mayo No. 32. 



JJOTSFORD, C. W. 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 
Apartado 9, Guanajuato, Mexico. 



^BBOTT, HARRY S., 

Mining Engineer. 
Nevada City, Cal. Santa Barbara, Cal. 



BACON, W. S., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
115 ProBpect St., Bellingham, Washington. 



BOYLE, EMMET D., 

Mining Engineer. 
U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor. 
48-50 Gazette Bdg., Reno, Nevada. 



ABBOTT, JAMES W., and CHA8.W. 

Mining Engineers. 
Ploche, Nevada. 



BAGG, RUFUS M. Jr., Ph.D. 
Consulting Mining Geologist. 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Valuation of Mining Properties. 



BRADLEY, D. H., Jr., 

Mechanical Engineer. 
Specialty: Mining and Milling Machinery. 
Examination and Equipment of Mexican 
Properties. Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico. 



ADAMS, HENRY, 

Mining Engineer. 
Twelve years In Spanish America. 
33 Fremont St., New London, Conn. 



BAILEY, J. TROWBRIDGE, 

Mining Engineer. 

United States Express Bdg., 

2 Rector St.,New York. 




BRADLEY, FRED W., 

Mining Engineer. 
Crocker Building, San Francisco. 
Cable: Basalt. Coae: Bedford McNeill. 



ADAMS, W. J., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist, 
Examinations, Exploitation, Management, 

237 Sansome St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Adwim. All Codes. 



BARD, DARSIE C, 

Mining Engineer. 
Care Globe Mines Exploration Co. 
Butte, Montana. 



BRANDES, JUAN FELIX, 
~" Consulting Mining Engineer. 
221 Equitable Bdg., Denver. Paris. 

14 Broad Street House, E. C, London. 



^DAMSON, W. G., 

Consulting Mining Engineer 

and Metallurgist. 

P. O. Box 69, Wlnnemucca, Nevada. 



BATES, MOWRY, 

Mining Geologist. 
229 South West Temple, Salt Lake City. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



BRETHERTON, S. E M 

Metallurgist and Manager. 

422 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

General Manager Great WeBtern Gold Co. 



A^DITON, A. SYDNEY, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
Specialties: Cyanide Treatment 

Mill and Plant Construction. 
318 Market St., San Francisco. 



BEARDSLEY, G. F., 



Metallurgist. 

Specialty: Pyrltic Smelting. 

1315 East 14th St., Frultvale, California. 



BREWER, WM. M., 

Consulting Mining Engineer 

and Geologist. 

P. O. Box 701. Victoria, B. C 



^LDRIDGE, WALTER H., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer 
Canadian Pacific Railway. 
Trail, B. C. Banff, Alberta. 



BEATTY, A. CHESTER, 

Mining Engineer. 

71 Broadway, New York. 

Cable: Granitic. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



BRODIE, WALTER M., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
Mexican Address : P. O. Box 219, Chihuahua. 
New York Address : 45 Broadway. 
Will carry out or contract for work in Mexico. 



ALEXANDER, WM. B., b. s., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Suite 2, Steinfeld Bdg. 
TucBon, Arizona. 



BECKER, ARNOLD, 

Geologist and Consulting Engineer. 
Montecito Park, Santa Barbara, California. 



RROWN, CONY T., 

Mining Engineer. 
Socorro, New Mexico. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
New Mexico School of Mines. 



A^SDORF, F. C, 



Mining Engineer. 
Globe, Arizona. 



^NDERSON, ROBERT HAY, 
Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Apartado 866, Mexico City. 
Cable: Anderson, Mexico. 



ARMSTRONG, L. K., 

Mining Engineer. 
615 Hyde Block, P. O. Box 14, Spokane. 

Codes: Lieber; Bedford McNeill. 



ATWATER, LINTON & ATWATER 

Mining Engineers. 
62 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
R. M. Atwater, Jr. Robert Linton. 

M. W. Atwater. R. de Salller. 



AUSTIN, L. S., 

Consults with Mining Engineers only on 
Concentration and Reduction of Ores. 

Professor in charge, Department of Metal- 
lurgy and Ore-DSssing, Michigan College of 
Mines, Houghton, Mich. 



AUW & CLARCKE, 

Min. Engineers, Assayers, Chemists. 
Reports on Mines. Ore Shippers' Agents. 
Apartado 17, Velardefia, Durango, Mexico. 
Code: A. B. C, Fifth Edition. 



Charles M. Becker. William W- Travell. 

BECKER & TRAVELL, 

Mining Engineers. 

Mine Examinations and Managements. 

Eight years Smuggler Union and Stratton 

Ind. Ltd. Mines. 

337 Majestic Bdg., Denver, Colo. 



BENEDICT, WILLIAM DE L., 

Mining Engineer. 
43 Cedar St., New York. 



BLAUVELT, HARRINGTON, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
Prescott, Arizona. 
Mines examined and reported upon. 



BLOW, A. A., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
MIIIb Bdg., New York. 



BORROWE, G. W., 

Mining Engineer. 
813 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 



BOSQUI, FRANCIS L M 

Consulting Metallurgical 

Engineer 

Mills Building, San Francisco. 

Cable: Franbo. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



BROWN, R. GILMAN, E. M., 

Consulting Engineer. 
28-29 St. Swlthln'B Lane, London, E. C 
Cable: Argeby— London. 

Codes: McNeill, Moreing & Neal, Liebers. 



■RROWN-TOLMAN 

° ENGINEERING CO. 

Successors to Stone & Brown Inc., 

Mining Engineers. 

Searchlight. Nevada. 



BUMSTED, EDWARD J., 

Mining Engineer. 
Manager San Francisco Mine. 
Tavlehe, Oaxaca, Mexico. 



BURCH, ALBERT, 

Mining Engineer. 
Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 



BURROWS, R. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Mine examinations and reports. 

Guanajuato, Mexico. 



BURT, EDWIN, 

Metallurgical and Cyanide 

Engineer. 

El Oro Mining and Railway Co., Ltd. 

El Oro, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. 



(CONTINUED ON PAGE 2«.) 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



25 



GOLD DREDGING 

IS A METALLURGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROBLEM 

SUCCESS OUR SPECIALTY 



in this, as in other engineering 
lines, depends largely upon 
efficient construction. 



is to design, construct, and in- 
stall equipment best suited to 
the ground to be worked. 



THIS DREDGE DUG 



281,000 



THE FIRST MONTH 



CUBIC YARDS 



BUCKETS 
131 cu. ft. 
CAPACITY 




FOLSOM 

DISTRICT 

CALIFORNIA 



"NATOMA No. 1." 

EIGHTEEN GOLD DREDGES 

HAVE BEEN DESIGNED AND BUILT BY 

YUBA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

THE LARGEST EXCLUSIVE DREDGE-CONSTRUCTION PLANT IN THE WEST. 
MARYSVILLE, CAL., U. S. A. 

Pacific Coast Freight Terminal on S. P., W. P., and N. E. Railways. 

Cable: "Yubacon." "W. U." and "Bedford Mc^Erix" Codes. 



26 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 



(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 24.) 



CAMPBELL, DONALD F., 

Examinations. 
Redding, California. 



PARPENTER, F. R., 

Arthur Howe-Carpenter. 
508 Equitable Bdg., Denver. 
Mining Reports. Pyrlte Smelting. 
Cable: Carpenter. 



CARPENTER, BRENNON & RYAN, 

Mining Engineers. 
519 La Mutua, City of Mexico. 
505 Union TruBt Bdg., Lob Angeles, Cal. 



Henry C. Carr, E. M. Job. G. Hlbbs, PH. D. 

CARR & HIBBS, 

Mining Engineers, Assayers and 
Chemists. 

Geological Examinations. Reports on mines. 

Ore treatment Determined. 
(Chemically, Physically and Optically.) 

Surveys, Draughting and Assaying. 

References anywhere In United States on 

application. 

M. A; I. M. E. 

Penn Mutual Building, Philadelphia. 



CHANCE, H. M., Coal. 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
837 Drexel Bdg. Philadelphia, Pa. 



CHANNING, J. PARKE, 
Consulting Engineer. 
11 Broadway, New York. 



CHAPPLE, A. J., 

Mining Engineer. 
Bradley St., Cobar, New South Wales. 
Cable: Chappie Cobar. 



CHARLETON, DICKINSON & CO., 

Consulting Mining Engineers. 

353 ManBlon House Chambers, London. 

Australia, Sydney, C G. Warnford Lock. 

U. S. Rep., Prank H. Probert, Los Angeles. 



CHASE, CHARLES A., 

Mining Engineer. 

921 Equitable Bdg., Denver. 

Liberty Bell G. M. Co., Telluride, Colo. 



CHASE, EDWIN E., 

Mining Engineer. 
932 Equitable Bdg., Denver, Colorado. 



CHURCH, L. C, 

Consulting and Mining Engineer. 
Joplln, Missouri. 
Lead and Zinc a Specialty. 



CLAPP, F. G., 

Geological Engineer. 
Specialties : Coal, Gas, Oil and Artesian 
WaterB. 
610 Fltzsimons Bdg., Pittsburg, Pa. 



CLEMENTS, J. MORGAN, 

Economic Geologist and Mining 
Engineer. 
15 William St., New York. 
Box 1183 Bisbee, Ariz. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



COBB, W. L., 

Mining Engineer. 
632 MerchantsExchange Bdg., San Francisco 
Code: Bedford McNeill. 



COLBATH, JAMES SOLLITT, 
Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineer. 
Santa Barbara, Chihuahua, Mexico. 
Care El Rayo Mining Co. 



COLE, F. L., 

Mining Engineer. 
Tientsin, China. 
Cable, Cole. 



COLLINS, EDGAR A., 

Mining Engineer. 
Superintendent Montana Tonopah Mg. Co. 
Tonopah, Nevada. 



COLLINS, EDWIN JAMES, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Tonopah, Nevada. 



COLLINS, GEORGE E., 

Mining Engineer. 
Mine Examinations and Management. 
420 Boston Bdg., Denver. 
Cable : Colcamac. 



COLLINS, HENRY F., 

Mining Engineer. 
Manager Cerro Muriano Mines, Ltd., 
Cerro Muriano, Provincla de Cordoba, Spain. 



CONSTANT, C. L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
61 Beekman St., New York. 



COOK, EDWARD H., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Room 3, Thorne Bdg., El Paso, Texas. 

Code: Liebers. 



CRAWFORD, WALTER HOWARD 



Consulting Mining Engineer. 



Consulting Engineer to the Bisbee Copper 
Mining Co., Bisbee, Arizona. 



Life Member American Institute Mining 
Engineers. 



Reno, Nevada. New York. 

London. 



H. C Cutler, E. M., C. D. Wilkinson, E. M. 
Con. Eng. Nixon Chief Eng. Goldfield 

& Wingneld. Con. Mines Co. 

CUTLER & WILKINSON, 
Mining Engineers. 
Reports, Advice, Consultation. 
Goldfleld, Nevada. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



DAKIN, FRED H., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 
410 Studio Bdg., Berkeley, California. 



JJARROW, WILTON E., 

Metallurgist. 
Specialty: Concentrating Slime. 
Sutter Creek, Cal. 



DAVENPORT, GEO. N. 



Fining Engineer and Mill Expert. 
536 Empire Block, Denver. 



HEFTY, 


W. E., 

Mining Engineer. 
Phoenix, Arizona. 




Cable: Wed 


Codes: Leibers, 


McNeill. 



DE KALB, COURTENAY, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
Associate Editor 
Mining and Scientific Press. 



DEL MAR, ALEX., 

Mining and Consulting Engineer. 
(Formerly Consulting Engineer to the U. S. 
Monetary Commission.) 
64 West 23rd St., New York. 



DEL MAR, ALGERNON, 

Mining Engineer. 

Rawhide, Nevada. 



DEMAREST, D. C, 

Mechanical Engineer. 

Plans and Specifications for Mining 

Machinery. 

503 Market St., San Francisco. 



DENNIS, CLIFFORD G., 

Mining Engineer. 
Manager Colonial Mining Co., 
Ehrenberg, Arizona. 

Code : Bedford McNeill. 



DERBY, CHAS. C, 

Mining Engineer. 
New Almaden, California. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



DEVEREUX, W. B. & SONS 
Consulting Mining Engineers. 
15 WUliam St., New York City. 
Cable: Walbush. Code: Moreing & Neal. 



DICKERMAN, ALTON L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Colorado Springs, Colorado. 
Cable: Dickerman. 



CLARKE, ROY H., 

Mining Engineer 
502 Hyde Block, Spokane, 


Wash. 



CUMMINS, H. OREN, 

Mining and Civil Engineer. 
Redding, California. 



DIGGLES, J. A., 

Mining Engineer. 
With Bewick, Moreing & Co., 
Manager Broken Hill South Blocks, Ltd. 
Broken Hill, N. S. Wales. 



CLAUDET & CO., HAYMAN, 

Assayers, Metallurgist 
and Mining Engineers. 
Ore Testing, Mills Designed and Erected. 
Elmore's Vacuum Process. Rossland, B C. 



CURLE, J. H., 

Mine Valuer. 
62 London Wall, London. 



DIKEMAN, J. M. 



Mining Engineer. 

2511 Dwlght Way 

Berkeley, California. 



(CONTINUED ON PAGE 2S.) 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




Requires but Half a 



Entirely Dustless 



This machine has a capacity 
of 8 to 15 tons a day, is dura- 
ble, portable, and will recover 
80 to 90 per cent of values. 

Can be satisfactorily oper- 
ated by an inexperienced 
workman and has a wider 
range of ores and minerals 
than can be covered by any 
other concentrating system. 

As a clean-up machine in 
placer work, recovering the 
black sand, gold, and plati- 
num, it is unquestionably 
superior in efficiency, econo- 
my, and convenient operation. 

Makes clean separation of 
zinc and lead sulphides. 
Works equally well on all 
concentrating ores, sized from 
8 to 100 mesh, and saves the 
slimes. 

Descriptive Pamphlet, Full Details 
and Estimates on Request. Write 




The Behrend Dry Concentrator Co. 

Office : 10 Wall Street, Room 308, New York. 

Test Plants: 

61 Pearl Street, New York. 48</< Inspector Street, Montreal, Canada. 

Henry E. Wood & Co., 1735 Arapahoe Street, Denver, Colo. 



28 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 2«.) 



T)ORB, JOHN V. N , 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
Specialty: Cyanldatlon. 
The Dorr Classifier. 
846 Equitable Bdg., Denver. Pluma, S. Dak. 



JTBARN, PERCY L., 

Mining engineer. 
36 Wall St., New York. 



QASSAWAY, A. D., 

Mining Engineer. 
1931 Parker St., Berkeley, California. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



C. T. Dozler. B. R. Putnam. 

DOZIER-PUTNAM CO., 

Assayers, Chemists and Engineers. 
602 California St., Bedding, California. 



£)RUCKER, A. E., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

With the Oriental Con. Mg. Company, 

Taracol, Korea. 



H. W. Dubois C. T. Mixer 

Philadelphia, Pa. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Dubois & mixer 

Mining Engineers. 
302 Harrison Bdg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cable: Mixerdubos. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



DUPOURCQ, EDWARD L., 

Mining Engineer, 
Produce Exchange Bdg., New York. 
Cable Address: Dufourcq. Code: McNeill. 



£)WIGHT, ARTHUR B., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

26 Broad St., New York. 
Cable: Sinterer. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



EASTON, STANLY A., 

Mining Engineer, 

Manager Bunker HU1 &. Sullivan Mining A 

Concentrating Company, 

Kellogg, Idaho. 



ELDREDGE, F. O., 



Mining Engineer. 
Box 527, Ely, Nevada. 



ELLIS, HENRY RIVES, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Office and Testing Plant, 148 Plerpont St. 



EMERY 


, PERCY M., 




Mining Engineer. 


Specialty: 


Dry Washing and Concentrating 


961 E. 16th St., Oakland, Cal. 



ERMAN, JOS. C, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
208 Citizens Nat. Bank Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



EVELAND, A. J., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

JM anil a P T 

Late Geologist, Mining bureau, Philippine lis. 

Examinations, Reports, Surveys. 



FAIROHILD, O. H., 

Consulting, Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineer. 
Examinations and Reports. 

Mills Designed and Erected. 
202-3 Exchange Bdg., Denver. 



PARISH, JOHN B., 

Mining Engineer. 
617-620 Cooper Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Parish. 



pARRELL, J. R., 



Mining Engineer. 
3850 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 



FERGUSON, DONALD, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Pittsburg-Nevada Mining Co., Arizona and 
Eastern Mines Co., Nevada Queen Mines Co., 
Congo Tunnel, Frances Group Mining Co., 
Hombre MineB Co., Rlalto Mining Co., Bally- 
moor Mining Co. 

P. O. Box 644. Goldfield, Nevada. 

Codes: Moreing & Neal; Bedford McNeill. 



TTERRIER, W. F., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Mammoth, Shasta Co., Cal. 

Mining Geologist, IT. S. Smelting, Refining & 

Mining Co. 



FINCH, JOHN WELLINGTON, 

Geologist and Engineer of Mines. 
Room. 617, 71 Broadway, New York. 
812 Ideal Bdg., Denver. 



piNLAY, J. R., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 1310, 2 Rector St., 

New York. 



piSHBACK, MARTIN, 

Mining Engineer. 

Guaranty Trust Bdg., El Paso, Texas. 

Cable: FisJiback. Code: Western Union. 



JTISHER, WM. 


B., 




Mining Engineer, 




318 Herald Bdg. 


Salt Lake City, 


Utah. 



FLEMING, JOHN B., 

Mechanical and Metallurgical 
Engineer. 
Specialty: Mill and Power Plant Design 
and Construction. 

75 Fremont St., San Francisco, Cal. 



FORRESTER, R., 



Geologist and Mining Engineer. 

Suite 212-216 Brooks Arcade 

Salt Lake City, Utah- 



FORSTNER, WILLIAM, 
Mining Engineer. 
1600 Waller St., San Francisco. 



FOWLER, SAMUEL 8., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
Nelson, BrltiBh Columbia. 



FRANZ, ELISHA J., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
120 Broadway, New York. 
Greenville, Cal. 



FUELLER, C. M., 

Mining Engineer. 

Consultations, Examinations and Mill 

Installations. 

1627 Vine St., Denver, Colorado. 



GARRISON, F. LYNWOOD, 

Mining Engineer. 

760 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia. 

Cable: Ci-aigdrex. Codes: McNeill. 



(JAYLORD, M. D., 

Mining Engineer, 

El Paso, Texas. 
Mine examinations and reports. 
Mines In New Mexico and Arizona. 



QEMMELL, ROBERT C M 

Mining Engineer. 

General Superintendent Utah Copper Co. 

McCornlck Building, Salt Lake City. 



QILLIES, DONALD B., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Tonopah, Nevada. 



(JOODALE, DAVID, 

Mining Engineer. 
Berkeley, California. 



QRACEY, A. H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty : JPree Gold Mining and Milling, 

Nelson, B. C. 



fJREENLEY, LOUIS A. 
^ JOHN CRAWFORD, Jr., 

General Manager and Superintendent 
Imperial Mine, Cablevllle, Oregon. 



QROTHE & CARTER, 

Mining, Civil, and Mechanical 

Engineers. 

Specialty : Latest Improvements In Cyanide 

Plants. Patented System of Pneumatic 

Agitation. 

Calle de Tlburclo No. 22, P. O. Box 2554, 

Mexico, D. F. 



HAGGOTT, ERNEST A., 
Mining Engineer. 
635 I. W. Hellman Bdg. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



HALL, LEON M., 

Consulting Engineer 
In Mechanics, Electricity & Mining. 
Room 814 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco.. 



HAMMOND, JOHN HAYS, 

Consulting Engineer. 
71 Broadway, New York 

CodeB. Bedjord McNeill. 



HAMPTON, WM. HUNTLEY, 

Ratal la, Alaska. 

Mines Examined. Hydraulic Elevating. 

Large elevators designed to fit conditions. 



HARDINGE, H. W., 

Mining and Metallurgical 

Engineer. 

43 Exchange Place, New York City. 

Cable : Halharding. Code : Bedford McNeill. 



HARDY, J. W., C. E., E. M., 

332 La Mesa, Cananea, 
Sonora, Mexico. 



HARDMAN, JOHN E., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
112 St. James St., Montreal, Canada. 



(CONTINUED ON PAGE 30.) 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



29 



fttMDO IRONWORKS COMPANY 



ORE SMELTING 
EQUIPMENTS 






ORE MILLING 
MACHINERY 



I860 



DENVER, COLO., U. S. A. 



1909 



MILLS 



Our line of milling machinery is large 
and varied, embodies all the advantages 
arising from long experience, and includes 
many machines and devices superior to all 
others for like work. We are fully abreast 
of the latest developments in the treat- 
ment of ores by all processes and design 
and erect complete plants which reflect 
the most approved practice. 



AND 





SMELTERS 



Pioneers in the building of 
blast furnaces and complete 
plants for smelting copper, lead, 
silver, and gold ores, we have 
made this a specialty for many 
years. Intimate knowledge of 
the metallurgical requirements 
and a sustained effort to excel 
in this line have caused our pro- 
ductions to stand pre-eminent 
as the most advanced examples 
of this class of equipment. 



C010.IRON WORKS CO. 



Colorado Iron Works Co. 



Office and Works, 33d and Wynkoop Sts., 



DENVER, COLO., U. S. A. 



30 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 

(CONTINUED PROM PAGE 28.) 



JJARTLBY, CARNEY, M. E., 

Placer Mining Engineer. 
Equipment Designed and Installed. 
204 Empire Bdg., Denver. 



JJOHL, L. J., 

Consulting Engineer. 
1834 Delaware St., Berkeley, Cal. 



HUTCHINS, JOHN POWER, 
Mining Engineer. 
62 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Jakuch. 



HARTLEY, J. H. & Z. B., 

Mining & Metallurgical Engineers. 
San Jose, Costa Rica. 
Assays, Surveys, Examinations and Reports. 
Cable: Hartlo. Code: Libers. 



HOLLIS, H. L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer 

and Metallurgist. 

1417 FlrBt National Bank Bdg., Chicago. 



TNGALLS, A. O., Ph.D.E.M., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examinations and Economic Geology. 

Investigations of ore bodies and ore treatment 

428 New York Bdg., Seattle. 



HARVEY, F. H M 

Mining and Consulting Engineer. 
Gait, California. 



HASTINGS, JOHN B M 

- Mining Engineer. 
316 Boston Bdg., Denver, Colorado. 



HAWXHURST, ROBERT, Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 
Gen. Mgr. Poderosa M. Co. Collahuasl, Chile. 
10-11 AuBtln Friars, London, E. C, England. 
Cable: Hawxhurst. Usual Codes. 



HEBERLE1N, C. A., 

Consulting Engineer and 

Metallurgist. 

Santero No. 6, Zacatecas, Mexico. 



HERSHEY, OSCAR H., 

Mining Geologist. 
Reno, Nevada. 



HERZIG, CHARLES, 

Engineer op Mines. 
4 & 6 Copthall Avenue, E. C, London, Eng. 
Cables: Herzig, London. All Codes. 



HEYWOOD, WILLIAM A., 

Consulting Metallurgist. 

4 Broad Street Place, 
London, E. C, England. 



HILLARY, G. M M 

Mining Engineer. 
Examinations, Reports and Surveys. 
Apartado 262, Chihuahua, Estado de 
Chihuahua, Mexico. 



Victor G. HillB. Frank G. Wlllia. 

HILLS & WILLIS, 

Mining Engineers 
Cripple Creek, or 318 McPhee Bdg., Denver. 
Cable : Hillwill. Codes : Usual Codes. 



HIXON, HIRAM W., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
The Normandle, Philadelphia, Pa. 



G. L. Holmes, a.s.m.e. R. H. Black, a.i.e.e. 
HOLMES & BLACK 

Engineers. 
McNutt, Kahn Bdg., First and Folsom St., 

San Francisco. 



HOLMES, HOWARD W., 

Mining Engineer. 
U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor. 
1590 Pacific Avenue, Alameda, Cal. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



Edward Hooper. 
HOOPER & SPEAK, 



S. J. Speak. 



Mining Engineers. 
Salisbury House, London, E. C. 



HOOVER, H. Cm 

Mining Engineer. 
62 London Wall, London, E. C. 
Cable: Bewick, London. 



HOOVER, THEODORE J., 

Mining Engineer. 
62 London Wall, London, E. C. 
Cable: Mildaloo. 



HORSFALL, H. A., 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer. 
69 Wall St., New York. 



HOYLE, CHARLES 

Mining Engineer. 
Apartado 8, El Oro, Mexico. 



HUMPHREYS, LLEWELLYN, 

Mining Engineer. 
Gunn-Thompson Co. 
Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



HUNT & CO., ROBERT W. 
Bureau of Inspection, Tests & Consultation. 
66 Broadway, New York. 
1121 The Rookery, Chicago. 
Monongahela Bank Bdg., Pittsburg. 
Inspection of Ralls and Fastenings, CarB, 
Locomotives, Pipes, etc., Bridges, Buildings 
and Other Structures. Chemical and Physical 
Laboratories. Reports and estimates on Prop- 
erties and Processes. 



G. B. Jacobs. Julio Posada. 

JACOBS & POSADA, 

J Mining and Metallurgical 

Engineers. 
Mines reported on. Plans and Specifications 
furnished for Metallurgical Plants. 

P. O. Box 229, Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Code : Bedford NcNettl. 



JANIN & SMITH, 

Consulting Mining Engineers. 

619 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 

Cable: Diorite. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



TENKS, ARTHUR W., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
Room 606, Alaska Bdg., Seattle, Washington. 
Cable: Jenks y Seattle. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



JENNEY, WALTER P., 

Consulting Geologist 

and Mining Engineer. 

Cable: Quartz. Box 696, Tonopah, Nevada. 



JENNINGS, E. P., 

•* Mining Engineer. 

Salt Lake City Utah. 
Cable: CJialcocitc, Salt Lake. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



JONES, CHARLES COLCOCK, 

Consulting Mining Engineer 

and Metallurgist. 

306 Henne Bdg., Los Angeles. 



fUESSEN, EDMUND 

Mining Engineer. 

Spokane Club, Spokane, Washington. 

Alta Club, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



]£EFFER, FREDERIC, 

Consulting Engineer and Geologist. 
With the British Columbia Copper Co., Ltd. 
Greenwood, B. C. 



]£ELLEY, FRED G., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
Examinations, Reports and Metallurgical 
Construction. 
BrookB Arcade Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 



KENNEDY, E. P., 



Miming Engineer. 
Treadwell, Alaska. 



HOBSON & CO., FRANCIS J., 

Mining Engineers and Metallurgists 
Apartado 42, Guanajuato, Mexico. 
Cable: Hobson. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



HUNT, BERTRAM, 

Consulting Chemist and Metallurgist. 
Room 709 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 



KERR, MARK B., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Expert Examinations. Maps and Models 

Prepared for Mine Litigation. 

Room 626 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 



HOFFMANN, JOHN D., 

Mining Engineer. 
319 First National Bank Bdg., Oakland, Cal. 
Cable: Tundra. 



HUNT, ELLERY W., 

Civil and Mining Engineer 

U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor. 

Sllverton, Colorado. 



TTIRBY, A. G., 

Metallurgist. 
Ore testing, mill design and construction- 
Specialty— Concentration and eyanidation. 
Rooms 19-20, Gazette Bdg , Reno, Nevada. 



HOFFMANN, ROSS B., 

Mining Engineer. 
319 First National Bank Bdg., Oakland, Cal. 
Cable: Rosshof. 



HUNTLEY, DWIGHT B., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
31 Bella Vista Ave., Oakland, California. 



KIRBY, EDMUND B., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
701 Security Bdg., St. Louis. 
Specialty: The expert examination of mines 
and metallurgical enterprises. 



ICOjVTIjMJED ON PAGE 32.) 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS :;i 



OIME OF THE 

MANY "GOOD WORDS" 



ABOUT THE 



WORD DRILL MAKER 



AND 



SHARPENER 



OFFICE LE ROI NO. 2, LTD. 

Rossland, B. C, 6th January, 1908. 
Messrs. Word Bros., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Dear Sirs : — 

The Drill Sharpener which we bought from you recently has enabled us to turn out considerably 
more drill steel, and of a better quality, than was possible with hand work. Other drill sharpeners have 
not been a success in this camp hitherto, on account of the extremely hard ground and the necessity for 
very fine difference in gauge of drills. 

Your machine seems to have established itself at the principal mines here, and we ourselves are 
using it to sharpen all kinds of drill steel, from plug drill, or Murphy size, up to 3%" starters. 

Faithfully yours, 
(Signed) PAUL S. COULDEY, Manager. 



IF YOU WANT TO "TURN OUT CONSIDERABLY MORE DRILL STEEL, 
AND OF BETTER QUALITY," ORDER A 



WORD BROTHERS 

Drill Maker and Sharpener 
60 CASTRO STREET SAN FRANCISCO, U. S. A. 



32 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 30.) 



JJISLINGBURY, GEORGE, 

Mine Examination and Reports. 
343 "Wilcox Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Cable: Kislingbury. 



TEGGAT, ALEXANDER, 

Mining Engineer. 

Examinations and Surveys. 

Butte, Montana. 

Code : Bedford McNeill. 



HJERCER, JOHN W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Mills Bdg., Broad St., New York. 

Gen. Mgr. South American 'Mines Co. 



TTLEPETKO, FRANK, Copper. 

Consulting Engineer. 
1311 West St. Bdg., New York. 
90 West St. 
Cable: Klepetko. 



]£LINE, R. C, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Modern Cyanide Practice and Mill Design. 

Specialty : 

The Treatment of Silver Ores. 

La Jolla, San Diego County, California. 

Temporary address 

Guanacevi, Durango, Mexico. 



J£NOX, NEWTON BOOTH, 

Mining Engineer. 
Care Bewick, Moreing & Co., 

62 London Wall, London, E. C. 



LAKENAN, C p.. 



Mining Engineer. 
Ely, Nevada. 



LAMB, MARK R., 

Milling and Cyaniding Engineer. 
Mexico, D. F. 

P. O. Box 1421. 
Cable: Mdrklamb, Mexico. Usual Codes. 



T AMONT, EUGENE M., 

Gen. Mgr. The Arizona Gold Mines Co., 
Kingman, Ariz. 
. Raymond Con. Mines Co., Ohio City, Colo. 
408 Ideal Bdg., Denver. 



LANAGAN, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Nome, Alaska. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



LANCASTER, JOSEPH, 

Mining Engineer. 
17 and 18 Exchange National Bank, 
Spokane, Washington. 



LANDERS, W. H., 

Mining and Consulting Engineer. 

Standard Consolidated Mining Company, 

Bodle, California. 



LANG, H. H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Superintendent Kendall Gold Mining Co. 

Gen'l Mgr. North Moccasin Gold Mining Co. 

Kendall, Montana. 



LANGRIDGE, B. A., 

Consulting Mining Engineer 

State Geologist of Colorado. 

Cable Langrid. Boulder, Colo. 



LAWRENCE, BENJAMIN B., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
60 Wall St., New York. 



LEFEVRE, HENRY F., 

Mining Engineer. 



Boston Bdg., 
Denver. 



Empire Bdg. 
New York. 



LEGGETT & HELLMANN, 

Consulting Mining Engineers. 
15 Broad St., New York City. 
Salisbury House, London, E. C. 
Cable: Legmann. 



LEWIS, CHARLES B., 

Consulting Mining and Mechanical 
Engineer. 
264 Wilcox Bdg., 
Los Angeles, California. 



LINN^EY, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
502 Hyde Block, Spokane, Washington. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



LLOYD, R. L., 

M ETALLtfB G 1ST , 

25 Broad St., New York City. 



LONG, FREDERIC, H., 

Consulting, Mining and 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Schiller Bdg., Chicago. 



LORING, W. J., 

Mining Engineer. 

Representative Bewick, Moreing & Co., 

Equitable Bdg., Melbourne, Australia. 

Cable: Loring. Usual Codes. 



LYON, EDW. W., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 



Specialty: 



Gold, Copper and other Southern 
formations. 



276-278 Benbow Arcade, 
Lock Box 73, Greensboro, North Carolina. 



JflACDONALD, BERNARD, 

Guanajuato, Mexico. 
Specialty: Cyanldation of Silver Ores, 



MARKS, JOHN H., 

Hydraulic and Mining Engineer. 
504 Empire Bdg. Denver, Colo. 

Code: Bedford McNeil . 



RATHER, T. W., 



Mining Engineer. 
Superintendent South American Mines Co. 
Guayaquil, Ecuador. 



MAYNARD, GEORGE W. 

Consulting Mining and 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
20 NaBSau St., New York. 



]V[cCAUSLAND, ROSS D., 

Mining Engineer. 
Apartado 299, Chihuahua, Mexico. 



JJcCORMICK, E., 

Mining Engineer. 

Calumet, Michigan. 

Examinations, ReportB, Management. 



M cCOY » J. W., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
520, 125 La Salle St., Chicago. 



MERRILL, FREDERICK J. H., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

(Late State Geologist of New York) 

Nogales, Arizona. 



MERRILL, CHARLES W., 

Metallurgist. 
143 2nd St., San Francisco. 
Precious Metal Ores Tested and Processes 
Devised. Mills Designed, Installed, and Op- 
erated. Licenses Issued for Merrill classifi- 
cation, Treatment and Precipitation Patents. 



MESSITER, E. H., 

Engineer. 
Care Robins Conveying Belt Co., Passlac, N.J. 



MIDLER, BERNARD P., 

Mining Engineer. 
P. O. Box 1160, Goldfield, Nevada. 



MENARD, FREDERICK H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Trinity Bdg., Ill Broadway, New York. 
Equitable Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Frednard* N. Y. Code: B. McNeill. 



MITCHELL, DEANE P., 

Mining Engineer. 
Equitable Building, Melbourne. 
Care of Bewick, Moreing & Co. 



MOORE, PHIL H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Micmac Mines. 

Lelpslgate district, Nova Scotia. 



MORRIS, F. L., 

Mining Engineer. 
1043 Monadnock Bdg. t San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable: Fredmor. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



MORTON, R. F., 

Mining Draftsman. 
Preparation of complete reports for engineers, 
from their maps, sketches and manuscript. 
Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 



MUDD, SEELEY W., 

Mining Engineer. 
1001-2 Central Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



MUNRO, C. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Nome, Alaska. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



jq-AHL, ARTHUR C, 

Mining Engineer. 
Triunfo, Baja California, Mexico. 



JJEILL, JAMES W., 

Metallurgist and Mining Engineer. 
159 Pierpolnt St., Salt Lake City. 



(CONTINUED ON PAGE 34.> 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



33 



A NEW CABLEWAY 




ANCHOR SECTION SUPPORT. INTERMEDIATE SUPPORT. LOOPED SECTION SUPPORT. 

The distance between an Anchor Section and a Looped Section Is about 600 leet with live or six Intermediate supports. 

Lawson's Patent Looped 
Section Cableway 

is an improvement on the old suspended bucket 
aerial tramway. It costs much less to install and is 
more convenient. 

The all-important feature, which enables the 
CARS to be run on TWO CABLES, is the 
LOOPED SECTION. The cable forms one "rail" 
of the track for 500 feet, passes around a sheave 
and returns, forming the other "rail." Thus the ten- 
sion is always the same and AN EVEN TRACK 
AUTOMATICALLY ASSURED. Cars can be 
run from cables to the ordinary tee-rail. 

WRITE FOR THE BOOK WHICH DESCRIBES IN FULL. 

THE CONSOLIDATED 
AERIAL TRAMWAY COMPANY 

45 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. ROANOKE, VIRGINIA. 



34 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 32.) 



NICHOLS, HORACE G., 

Mining Engineer. 
Manager The Ymir Gold Mines, Ltd. 
Ymlr, British Columbia. 



NICHOLS, RALPH, 

Consulting Engineer. 
Special attention given to designing and 
erecting plants for cyanide and slime treat- 
ment. 

94 North Lake Street, 
Aurora, Illinois. 



NICHOLSON, FRANK, 

Consulting Engineer. 
306-310 Miners Bank Bdg., Joplln, Mo. 



NICHOLSON, HUDSON H., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
1606 Borland Bdg., Chicago. 



J. C. Niven,A.R.S.M. Lyttleton Price, E. M. 
NIVEN & PRICE, 

Mining Engineers. 
228 Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



NOURSE, C. F., 

Mining Engineer. 
Room 416 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable : Canour. 



NOYES, WILLIAM S., 

Mining Engineer. 

819 Mills Building, San Francisco, Cal. 



OLCOTT & CORNING, 
(E. E. Olcott, C. R. Corning). 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 
36 Wall St., New York. 



QRDONEZ, EZEQUIEL, 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

2a General Prim. 43, Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 

Many years experience In Mexico. 



QVERSTROM, GUSTAVE A., 

Consulting engineer. 
University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 
Specialty: Concentration of Ores. 

Mill and Smelter Construction. 



PACKARD, GEORGE A., 

Metallurgist and Minjng Engineer. 
50 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 



PACKER, O. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Room 302 Mills Building. 
San Francisco. 



PALMER, CORTLANDT E., E. M., 

71 Broadway, New York. 
Cons. Engr. Guanajuato Development Co. 
Cons. Engineer American Smelters See's. Co. 
Vlce-Pres. & Cons, Engr. Esperanza Min. Co. 
Code: Bedford McNeill. 



PARKER, RICHARD A., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
404 Colorado Bdg., Denver. 



pARRISH, S. F., 

Mining Engineer. 
14th Floor, Union Trust Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Code: Bedford McNeill. 



PAUL, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
General Manager Dolores Mines Co. 
Madera, Chihuahua, Mexico. 



pEARSE, KINGSTON & BROWNE 

Consulting Mining Engineers. 

Worcester House, Walbrook, London, 

and 35 Wall St., New York. 

Cable: Undermined. Usual Codes. 



PEMBROKE, EARL R., E. M., 

Pioche, Nevada. 
Manager, Boston & Pioche Mining Co. 



pERKINS, WALTER G., 

Metallurgist. 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. 

Ely, Nevada. 

No outside work undertaken. 



pERRY, O. B., 

Mining Engineer. 
71 Broadway, New York City. 



PHILLIPS, WM. B. 6 CO., 

Engineers and Chemists. 
Birmingham Testing Laboratory. 
Birmingham, Alabama. 



PITTSBURGH TESTING 

LABORATORY, LTD. 

Foster Hewett, Mining Engineer. 
Economic Geology. Examination of Mines. 

Assays, Tests. 
Cable: Testing. Pittsburgh, Pa. 



pLATE, H. R., 

Mining Engineer. 

Present address Ely, Nevada. 

Examination and Management. 



pOMEROY, WM. A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Genl. Mgr. Lustre Mining & Smelting Co., and 

Com paiiia Mlnera " LuBtre." 

Magistral, Santa Maria del Oro, 

Durango, Mexico. 



POWER, F. DANVERS, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

National Mutual Chambers, 
Cor. Pitt and Bond Sts., Sydney, N. S. W. 



pRICHARD, W. A., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Apartado 1060, Mexico City. 
Cable: Parallel. 



pRITCHETT, C. W., 

Mining Engin^^t.. 

2736 Boulevard ir, Denver. 

Specialty: Examinations In Mexico. 



pROBERT, FRANK H., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

820 Central Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Codes: Western Union and Bedford McNeill. 



pURINGTON, CHESTER WELLS 

Mine Valuer. 
McPhee Bdg., Denver. 
20 Copthall Avenue, London, E. C, Eng. 
Cable: Paring ton. 



RADDATZ, E. J., 

Consulting Miner. 
Examinations and Reports. 
218 Atlas Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 



RAINSFORD, R. S., 

Mining Engineer. 

Jackson, Amador County, California. 

Manager Argonaut tuning Co. 



RATHBONE, EDGAR P., 

M. Inst. Min. and Met. ; A. M. Inst. C. E. 
Mining Engineer and 
Mine Valuer. 
Late Gov't Inspector of Mines, Transvaal. 
Salisbury House, London, E.C., England. 



RAYMOND, ROBERT M., 

General Manager El Oro Mining & 

Railway Co., Ltd. 
El Gro, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. 



RAYMOND, ROSSITER W., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
29 West 39th St., New York. P. O. Box 223. 



REID, GEORGE D., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 
Mine Examinations and Reports. 
238 Equitable Bdg., Denver, Colo. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



REID, JOHN A., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 
809 N. El Dorado St., Stockton, Cal. 



REVETT, BEN STANLEY, 

Mining Engineer. 

Alluvial Mining and Installations. 

Breckenrldge, Colorado. 



RICE, JOHN A. 

Mining Engineer. 
19 Mills Bdg., El Paso, Texas. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



RICHARDS, H. De C, 

Hydraulic and Mining Engineer. 

Cosmos Club, San Francisco. 

Economic Organization and Management. 



RICHARDS, ROBERT H., 

Ore Dressing. 

Massachusetts institute of Technology, 

Boston. 



RICHARD, EDGAR, 

Business Manager 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

Mr. Rlokard has entirely discontinued 

professional practice. 



RICKARD, FORBES, 

Mining Engineer. 
Equitable Bdg., Denver, Colorado. 



RICKARD, HAROLD, 

Mining Engineer. 

Apartado 90, 
Zacatecas, Mexico. 



RICKARD, 


T. A., 




Editor 


Mining 


and Scientific Press. 


No professional work undertaken. 


Cable Pertusoa 


Code: Bedford McNeill. 



(CONTINUED OX fAGE 3«.( 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



The Moore-Clancy Slime Process 

TO MINE OWNERS: 

Has it ever dawned upon you that infringers of the Moore Patents are 
asking you to pay $100 (which a number of you already have paid), per cell 
or leaf, instead of from $8 to S>2 2. SO, depending upon the size; and that 
they are asking you to take 999 chances out of lOOO of paying, a little later 
on, dollars in infringement damages, where we with absolute security ask a roy- 
alty of but a few cents? 

Detail drawings and specifications for plants of any tonnage furnished upon 
application without charge. 

Heretofore we have advertised the complete recovery of all the dissolved 
values from gold and silver ores by means of the thorough washing due to the 
"Perfect Displacement" attained by the Moore Process. 

NOW having acquired the exclusive right to all the John Collins Clancy 
Non-roasting Processes, we are prepared to guarantee complete extraction of the 
total contained values heretore insoluble in simple cyanide solutions, without either 
roasting or concentrating and in one continuous simple operation at nominal cost, appli- 
cable to any existing cyanide plant. 

This opens up the enormous fields for mines long dormant as well as vast 
quantities of very low grade dumps, and makes possible the profitable working 
of mines removed from railroads and coal centres. The fact that no concentra- 
tion is required will make it apparent that where water is a scarcity, mines can 
profitably adopt this process. 

ADVANTAGES : 

SAVING of large installation cost for Boasting Plant. 

SAVING of large installation cost for Concentrating Plant. 

SAVING conveyors and transit of ores to Roasters. 

SAVING of coal and coal storage, hoppers, and labor attendant on all above operations. 

SAVING of raw dust losses consequent to drying and dry crushing preliminary to roasting. 

SAVING of values due to volatilization, as also values converted into coarse gold during roasting 

— no poisonous fumes being a wet crushing method, the whole process is sanitary. 
SAVING time compared with simple cyanide processes, inasmuch as the whole operation of 

extraction and recovery of the precious metals is completed within twelve hour's. 
SAVING of tankage and floor space, buildings, etc. 
COMPLETE dissolution of the precious metals contained in even the most refractory sulphide 

and telluride ores. 
COMPLETE recovery of the solvents, with niuch less consumption of cyanide than in the ordinary 

cyanide process. 
RAPIDITY in precipitation of the values on zinc, no fouling of the mill solutions due to reducing 

agents. 
APPLICABILITY of the process to any existing cyanide plant. 

SAVING of investment tied up in large tanks and buildings compared with other known processes. 
Figure the saving per ton by this revolution in ore treatment. 
Basic Patents allowed and pending in all Gold- and Silver-producing countries of the world. 

SEE OUR ADVERTISEMENT IN LAST WEEK'S ISSUE. 

THE MOORE FILTER COMPANY 

Sole and Exclusive Owners of The Moore Patents and Pending Applications. 

Home Offices: Broadway=Maiden Lane Building, 170 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 

Cable Address— "Morefilter," New York. (Bedford McNeill Code.) 

Representative for British Colonies— BERTRAND C. HINMAN, M. I. M. M., Coventry House, South Place, London, E. C. 

Representative for Mexico— MARK R. LAMB, Apartado 1421 Mexico City, Mexico. 



36 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 

(CONTINUED PROM PAGE 34.) 






RICKETTS & BANKS, 

Mining Engineers and Metallurgists. 

104 John St., New York. 

Mines and Mineral Property Examined. 

Mining and Smelting Operations Directed. 

Complete Ore Testing Plant. 



RIORDAN, D. M., 

Consulting Engineer. 

Mining Investigations especially carefully 

made for responsible Intending Investors. 

42 Broadway, New York. 



gOBBINS, FRANK, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist 
14th Floor, Union Trust Bdg., 
Los Angeles. 



ROBE, LUOIEN 8., 

Dredging and Hydraulics. 
Fairbanks, Alaska. 



ROBERTS, ALBERT 

Mining Engineer. 
Representative Western Mines Dev. Co. 
767 Railway Exchange Bdg., Chicago. 



ROBERTS, F. C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Chavarrla, Durango, Mexico. 

Mr. Roberts has discontinued prof, practice. 



ROGERS, EDWIN M., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
32 Broadway, New York. 



ROSS, G. McM., 

Mining and Consulting Engineer. 
Yosemlte Club, Stockton, California. 



ROSS, JOHN JR., 

Mining and Consulting Engineer. 
Sutter Creek, California. 



ROTHERHAM, G. H., 

M ET AL LU KG 1ST. 

Mill Supt. Montana-Touopah M. Co. 
Tonopah, Nevada. 



CAMWELL, N., 

Mining & Metallurgical Engineer. 

Con. Eng. to the Burma Mining Bureau. 
Cable: Minemet. Rangoon, Burma. 

Codes: B. -McNeills, Liebers\ and BromhalV s 



SANDERS, WILBUR E., 

Mining Engineer. 
434 Douglas Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Code: Bedford McNeill 



CAUNDERS, HOWARD P., 

Consulting and Mechanical 
Engineer. 
Mill and Smelter Design a Specialty. 
Room 319 Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



gCHROTER, GEO. A., 

Mining Engineer. 
Ill Broadway, New York. Denver, Colorado. 
Code : Bedford McNeill. 



gCOTT, HERBERT KILBURN, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
46 Queen Victoria St., London, E. C. 
Cable : Jacutinga. 



SCOTT, ROBERT, 

Inventor and Builder of the 

Scott Quicksilver Furnace 

498 S. Eleventh St. 

San Jose, California. 



SJEAGRAVE, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
General Supt. Cumberland Ely Copper Co. 
Ely, Nevada. 



SEMPLE, CLARENCE C, 

Vice-President and Manager, 

Santa Rita Mining and Exporting Company, 

Bluefields, Nicaragua, C. A. 



SHARPLESS, FRED'K F., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
The Con. Mines Selection Co., Ltd. (London), 

52 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Fresharp. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



SHAW, RICHARD C, 

Mining Engineer. 
Berkeley, Cal. 



SHAW, S. F., 

Mining Engineer. 
Pasadena, Cal. 
, Mine and Mill Examination and 
Consultation Practice. 



SHOOKLEY, W. H., 



Mining Engineer. 
First National Bank, San Francisco. 



SIEBERT, FREDERIC JOHN, 

Engineer of Mines. 
P. O. Box 1655, Goldfield, Nevada. 



SIMONDS, ERNEST H., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
Room 416, Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 



SIMONDS & BURNS, 

Mining Engineers. 
60 Wall St. New York. 



SIZER, F. L., ' 

Mining Engineer. 

Helena, Montana. 

Specialty: Mine Examinations. 



SMITH, J. D. AUDLEY, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

Mount Perry, Queensland. 
General Manager Queensland Copper Co., Ltd. 



Franklin W. Smith. George A. Laird. 


SMITH & LAIRD, 




consulting Mining 


Engineers. 


Work In Mexico a 


Specialty. 


Bisbee, Arizona. 


Code 


Bedford McNeill. 



CPILSBURY, E. GYBBON, 

Consulting, Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineer. 
45 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Spilroe. 



gPURR & COX, (incorporated). 
Consulting Specialists in Mining. 
165 Broadway, New York. 

Branch (304 Boston Bdg., Denver. 

Offices, \ 32 Clnco de Mayo, Mexico City. 

Management and Operation; Exploration 
and Development; Geological and Topo- 
graphical Surveys; Metallurgical Engineer- 
ing; Mine Examination; Sampling; Drafting. 
Cable: Spurcox. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



STANFORD, RICHARD B M 

Mining Engineer. 

Manager Slempre Viva Mining Co. 

Bluefields, Nicaragua. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



STAVER, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Permanent Address: Freeport, 111. 



STEBBINS, ELWYN W. 

Mining Engineer. 
819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 



STEVENS, ARTHUR W., 

Mining Engineer, Chemist, 

and Cyanide Expert. 

1006 Wright & Callender Bdg., 

Lob Angeles, Cal. 



STEVENS, W. A., 

Formerly of Idaho, now operating In Nevada. 

401 Merchants Exchange Bdg., San Francisco. 



STINES, NORMAN C, 

Mining Engineer. 
Berkeley, Cal. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



STONESTREET, GEO. D., 

Mining Engineer. 
Gas Smelting a Specialty. 
45 Broadway, New York. 



STRAUSS, LESTER W M 

Engineer of Mines. 
Apartado 1227, Lima, Peru, S. A. 
Ca>ble:Lestra-Lima. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



SUSSMANN, OTTO, 

Mining Engineer. 
52 Broadway, New York. 

Judge Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 



SWAIN, S. R., 

The Swain Vanning Concentrator. 
No. 1520-1528 21st St., Denver, Colorado. 
P. O. Box 1615. 



SYMMES, WHITMAN 

Consulting Engineer. 
Mining, Metallurgical and Civil Engineering. 
1017-22 Balboa Bdg., San Francisco. 



fALMAGE, JAMES E., 

Consulting Geologist and 

Mining Engineer. 

Sharon Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 



SCHWERIN, MARTIN, E. M., 
49 Wall St., New York. 



SPICER, H. N., 

Consulting 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

434 Symes Bdg., Denver, Colo. 
Cable : Nospice. 



JAYS, E. A. H M 

Mining Engineer. 

San Bias, Distrito de Fuerte, 

Sinaloa, Mexico. 



(CONTINUED ON PAGE 3S.> 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



37 



KOPPEL 



ALL STEEL 
MINE 



CARS 



We Make 

AND ALWAYS HAVE 
IN STOCK 

RAILS AND FASTENERS 

STEEL TIES 

SWITCHES, FROGS 

TURNTABLES 

CROSSINGS 

PORTABLE TRACK 

WHEELS ANp AXLES 

SPARE PARTS 

STEEL MINE CARS 

DUMP AND PLATFORM CARS 

CHARGING CARS 

SHOP AND YARD CARS, 

SHOES AND DIES, Etc., Etc. 



Ask 
lor 
Cat. 
No. 

2109 




FIG. 5402 
Koppel All-around Dump Car, made 
entirely of steel, with frame made of 
Channel Steel. 



--■A 




Arthur Koppel's Portable Rail and 
Steel Tic Sections easily laid with 
the aid of a monkey wrench. 




The real TEST of the value of shoes 
and dies is the COST PER TON of the 
ORE crushed. Tried by this test the 
Arthur Koppel Shoes and Dies are the 
most economical made. 



ARTHUR 



KWLk 

WORKS AT KOPPEL. PENNSYLVANIA. 



COMPANY 



SAN FRANCISCO, 419-422 Chronicle Building 
NEW YORK, Cortlandt Building PITTSBURG, Machesney Building 

CHICAGO, Monadnock Block 
FRESNO LOS ANGELES REDDING TACOMA SPOKANE 



38 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Professional Directory 



(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 36.) 



THAYER, BENJAMIN, B., 

Mining Engineer. 
42 Broadway, New York. 



VAN WAGENEN, THEO. F., 

Letters, P. 0. Box 1346, Denver. 
Cable: Vanwagenen. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



WHITE, E. L., 

Mining Engineer. 

222 JackBon Block, Denver, Colorado. 

Residence: 1215 Emerson St. 



Lane C. Gilliam. 



C. Henrv Thompson. .Lane t 

THOMPSON & GILLIAM, 
Mining Engineers. 
410-in Citizens Bank Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Cable: Thogil. Usual Codes. 



THORNE, W. E., 

Mining Engineer. 
East Auburn, California. 
Member A. I. M. E. 

Codes: Bedford McNeill, Adams. 



JIMMONS, COLIN, 

Mining Engineer. 
Taxeo, Guerrero, Mexico. 



TOLL, RENSSELAER H., 

Mining Engineer. 
522 Mining Exchange, Denver, Colo. 



VAUTIN, CLAUDE, 

Consulting Metallurgist. 
Smelting, Concentrating, and Leaching. 
Postal Address: Casllla 1893, Santiago, Chili. 
Cable Address: Vaulin, Santiago, Chili. 
Codes: Moreing & Neal, Lieber's. 



yiDLER, REES C, 

Mining Engineer. 
Georgetown, Colorado. 



\TON ROSENBERG, LEO, 

Mining Work a Specialty. 

Examination of mines, reports, and ma pa. 

Cable: Porphyry. 42 Broadway, New York. 



^ALKEB, ELTON W., E. M., 

Mining Engineer. 
Superintendent Tombstone Cons. Mines Co., 
Tombstone, Arizona. 



•^ILEY, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 
367 So. Bonnie Brae St., Los Angeles. 



WILLIAMS, PERCY, 

Mining Engineer. 

Reports on Arizona and Mexican Mines. 

901 Security Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Code: Moreing & Neal. 



WILSON, ALFRED W. G., 

Consulting Geologist & engineer. 
Specialty: Applications of Geology to Engi- 
neering Problems. 197 Park Ave., Montreal. 
Code: Bedford McNeill. 



■\yiNCHELL, HORACE V., 

Consulting Geologist Amalgamated Copper Co. 

605 Palace Bdg., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Specialty: Copper and Iron, and Mining 

Litigation. 

Cable: Racewin. 



TOWN6END, ARTHUR R., 
Mining Engineer. 
Mines examined and reported on. 
52 Broadway, New York. Tellurlde, Colo. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



WARWICK, A. W., 

Mining Engineer. 

208 McPhee Bdg., Denver, Colo. 

Cholx, Slnaloa, Mexico. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



"^INSLOW, ARTHUR, 

Mining Engineer. 
131 State St., Boston. 



THEADWELL, JOHN C, 

Assistant General Manager 
Mexican Crude Rubber Co., 

Coahulla Mining & Smelting Co. 
VleBca, Coahulla, Mexico. 



WATERMAN, DOUGLAS 

Mining Engineer. 
339 Bash St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Waterman. 



\yiNWOOD, JOB H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Commercial Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Code: Bedford McNeill. 



TREADWELL, WILBUR, 



Mining Engineer. 
Phoenix, Arizona. 



"\yEATHERBE, D'ARCY, 

Mining Engineer. 
Rio Tinto Co., Spain. 
Address: Bank of Montreal, London. 



■\yOAKES, ERNEST R., 

Mining Engineer. 

Linares Lead Mining Co., Ltd. 

Linares, Province de Jaen, Spain. 



TRENT, L. C, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Manager California Mineral Land Co. 
East Auburn, California. 
Cable: Lamartine, Auburn, Cal. 



TURNER, H. W., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 
Management. Exploitation, Sampling of Mines. 
709 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



WEED, WALTER HARVEY, 

Consulting Geologist. 
42 Broadway, New York. 



WEL ;H, MAX J., 

Mechanical and Construction 
Engineer. 
Experienced in Mine, Mill and Smelter Im- 
provements. 321 So. Olive St., Los Angeles 



WORCESTER, S. A., 

Mechanical Engineer 
Specialty: Design of Hoisting and Ore-hand- 
ling Plants. Mill Design. 

Victor, Colorado. 



"\yORD, WILLIAM F., 

Mining Engineer. 
Helena, Montana. 



TWEEDY, GEO. A., 

Mining Engineer. 
Superintendent, Minas del Tajo. 
Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico. 



WELSH, NORVAL J., 

Mining Engineer. 
San Antonio, Texas. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



\yYNKOOP, w. c, 

Mining Engineer. 

632 Merchants Exchange, 

San Francisco, Cal. 



TYRRELL, J. B., 



ining Engineer. 
Explorations undertaken in remote districts. 
9 Toronto St., Toronto, Canada. 



W EN STROM, OLOF, Copper. 

Mining Engineer. 

113 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Cable: Olavo. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



YEATMAN, POPE, 

Mining Engineer. 

165 Broadway, New York. 

Cable: Ikona. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



VAN NORDEN, RUDOLPH W., 

Consulting Engineer. 

912-914 Mutual Savings Bank Bdg., 

San Francisco. 

Electric! ty-HydraullcB-Power Development. 



WEST, H. E., 

Mining Engineer. 
Le Chalet, Torquay, Devon, England. 



LYSLE, WALTER S., 
Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
800 H. W. Hellman Bdg., Los Angeles. 



FOR INDEX TO THIS PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 

SEE PAGE 22. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 39 



CONVEYING MACHINERY 



FOR 



MILLS AND SMELTERS 



In Mills and Smelters the handling of Ores and Concen- 
trates is frequently one of the large items in the cost of 
reduction. Our intimate knowledge of this work, together 
with a varied experience in the design of such systems, enables 
us to supply the machinery best suited to particular conditions. 

Write us concerning your material-handling problems and 
we will furnish, free of cost, drawings showing and prices cover- 
ing the necessary equipment. 

ROBINS NEW CONVEYING BELT 

WITH PUNCTURE=PROOF RUBBER COVER 

ROBINS GENUINE BALATA BELTING 

FOR WET SERVICE 

ROBINS LAMINATED LEATHER BELTING 

FOR ECONOMICAL POWER TRANSMISSION 



Write for our Belt Circular and our Treatise on 
the Belt Conveyor. 



ROBINS NEW CONVEYOR 

THOMAS ROBINS € 1 F ^1 M*^/Vj^ JL C. KEMBLE BALDWIN 

PRESIDENT ^ </ " i "** ^ ^ A ™ "*" CHIEF ENGINEER 

38 Wall Street, New York Old Colony Building, Chicago 

BELTING WORKS, 158 DUANE ST. 
NEW YORK 



40 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



ASSAYERS, CHEMISTS AND ORE TESTING WORKS. 



ARIZONA. 


Perez, Richard A. 


IDAHO. 


PENNSYLVANIA. 


Satchell, Edmund T. 


Smith, Emery & Co. 


Boise Laboratories Co. 


Petrological Laboratory. 


CALIFORNIA. < 


"Walker, Mark. 
Werner, George E. 


NEVADA. 


TEXAS. 


Baverstock & Staples. 
Palkenau Assay Co., Inc. 
Hanks, Abbot A. 
Irving & Co., James. 
The George A. James Co. 
King Metallurgical Labora- 
tories, 
liuckhardt, C. A., Co. 


COLORADO. 

Burton, Howard E. 
Frost, Oscar J. 
McLeod, J. N. 
Ogden Assay Co. 
Richards, J. "W. 
Wood & Co., Henry E. 


Marriage, E. C. D. 

NEW YORK. 
Ledoux & Co. 

OREGON. 

"Wells & ProebsteL 


Critchett & Ferguson. 

UTAH. 

Bird-Cowan Co. 
Currie, J. W. 
Union Assay Office. 



BAVERSTOCK A STAPLES, 

Assayers, Chemists and Metallurgists 

Rare Metals, especially: 

Tungsten. Molybdenum. Vanadium. 

223 W. First St., Los Angeles. 



Frank A. Bird. Charles S. Cowan. 

RIRD-CO WAN CO. 

Custom Assayers and Chemists. 

Agents for Ore Shippers. 

160 South West Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



a. H. Ward. Telephone Kearney 5951. Harold C Ward. 

C. A. LUCKHARDT CO., 

Sampling of Ores at Smelters. 



ASSAYERS AND CHEMISTS. 



53 Stevenson St., San Francisco 



Lochiel M. King, Consulting Metallurgist. (Formerly of Slmonds & King.) 

KING METALLURGICAL LABORATORIES, 

Metallurgists, Assayers and Chemists. 
8. E. Cor. Second and Minna StB., San Francisco. 

Complete Ore Testing. Assaying. Analysis. Sampling at SmelterB. 



E. C. Grice E. M. Busb. 

gOISE LABORATORIES CO., 
Assayers, Metallurgists, Chemists. 
227 South Tenth St., Boise, Idaho. 



SMITH, EMERY & CO., 

ASSAYERS AND 
Assays. 
Telephone Kearny 1747. 


METALLURGICAL ENGINEERS. 
Tests. Inspections. 

651 Howard Street 


San 


Francisco. 



gDRTON, HOWARD E., 

Assayer and Chemist. 

ill E. Fourth St., Leadville, Colorado. 

Specimen Prices: Gold, 50c; Gold and Silver, 

75c.; Gold, Silver and Lead, 81; Gold, Sliver and 

Copper, $1.50; Copper or Zinc, gl. Cyanide teats. 

Mailing Envelopes sent to any address. 



(Successors to HugheB & Critchett.) 

CRITCHETT & FERGUSON, 

Assayers and Chemists. 

El Paso, Texas. 

Umpire and Control a Specialty. 



QURRIE, J. W., 

Assayer. 
70 West Third South St., Salt Lake City. 



JTALKENAU ASSAYING CO , Inc., 

Louis Falfcenau, Pres. 

School of Assaying, Analytical 

and Technological Laboratory. 

918 Washington St., Oakland. Tel.. Oakland 8929 

Urn pure assays ana supervision of sampling a 

specialty. Instruction given In assaying and 

all branches of technical chemistry. Analysis 

of ores, metals, soils and waters, industrial 

products, foods, etc. Court expertlng In all 

branches of chemical technology. Working 

tests of oreB and Investigation of metallurgical 

and manufacturing processes. Consultation 

on all questions of applied chemistry. 



FROST, OSCAR J., 




Assayer. 




511 18th St., Denver, Colorado. 





HANKS, ABBOT A., 

Chemist and Assayer. 

Successor to Henry G. Hanks. 

Established 1866. 

425 Washington St., San FranclBco. 

(Opposite U. S. Custom House) 

The supervision of sampling of ores snipped to 

San Francisco a specialty. 



JRVING & CO., JAMES, 

Gold Refiners and Assayers. 

128 N Main St., Lob Angelea, California. 

Cash for Bullion and Ores. 



LEDOUX & COMPANY, 



Experts in Metallurgy, Mining 
Engineering, Assaying. 

99 John St., New York. 

Independent Sampling Works : 

New York and Jersey City. 

Representatives at all refineries and 
smelters on Atlantic seaboard. 



f HE GEORGE A. JAMES CO., 

ASSAYERS AND CHEMISTS. 

Supervision of Ore Sampling, Technical Analyses, Cement TeBting. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place, (off Bush, near Kearney) San FranclBco. 



MARRIAGE, E. C. D., & 

COSBY, F. NUGENT, 

Mining Engineers, assayers 

and Chemists. 

MlneB Examined and Sampled. Ploche, Nev. 



jLJcLEOD, J. N., Assayer and chemist. 
Graduate Colo. School Mines. 

Gold, sliver or lead, £0.60 I Gold, silver & lead, pi. 00 
Gold and silver . . .75 [ G'ld, silv. & copper 1.25 

Send for price list and mailing envelopes. 
1734 Glenarm St. Denver, Colo. 



QGDEN ASSAY CO., 

1540 Court Place, opposite Court House, 
Denver, Colorado. 

Reliable Assays -Gold, 75c ; Lead, 75c ; Gold 
and Sliver, 81 ; Gold, Silver, Copper, 81.50. 

Samples by mall receive prompt attention. 

Placer gold, retorts and rich ores bought. 
Send for free mailing envelopes and price list. 



pEREZ, RICHARD A., 

Assayer and analytical Chemist. 
120 N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



pETROLOGICAL LABORATORY, 

W- Harold Tomlinson. 
44 E. Walnut Lane, Germantown, Phila, Pa. 
All petrographic work. Rock sections made. 
Microscopic examinations of rocks. 



RICHARDS, J. W., 

Assayer and Chemist. 
1732 Champa St., Denver, Colorado. 
Ore Shipper's Agent. "Write for terms. 
With representatives at all Colorado smelters. 



SALATHfi, FREDERICK, Ph.D., 

Consulting Organic chemist. 

Specialist in the Refining of all 
Hydro-Carbons. 

Complete Laboratory for Research. 

822 E. Third St., Los Angeles, California. 



SATCHELL, EDMUND T., 

Chemist, Assayer and Metallurgist. 
Office, 130 Broad St. 
P. O. Box 1005, Globe, Arizona. 



M. S. Hanauer. J. V. Sadler. 

UNION ASSAY OFFICE, 

Assayers and Chemists. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 



^ALKER, MARK, 

Chemist and Assayer. 
211 W. First St., Los Angeles. 
Formerly Territorial Assayer, Arizona. 
Ores, clays, cements, waters, oils, gases, etc. 



Albert 8. WellB, B. S. C. L. Proebstel, B. S. 
\yELLS & PROEBSTEL 

Mining Engineers, Metallurgists, 
Assayers and Analytical Chemists. 
204^ "Washington St., Portland, Oregon. 



^f/ERNER, GEO. E., 

Assayer and Chemist. 

107 N. Spring St., Los Angeles. 

Mill Consultation. Engineers' and Umpire 

Work a Specialty. 



\yOOD & CO., HENRY E., 

ASSAYERS. 

1734 Arapahoe St., Denver, Colorado. 

Ores tested in carload lots. Amalgamation, 

concentration, cyanide, Wetherell magnetic 

separator, Blake electric separator. 

Send for Circular. 



AARON'S ASSAYING 

Part I— Gold and Sliver Ores— Sixth Edition 
— 11*00. 

PartB II and III— Gold and Silver Bullion, 
Lead, Copper, Tin, Mercury— Fourth Edition 
-51.60. 

These excellent works, the standard books 
on assaying for the past twenty years, are 
Just off the press, revised and re-written, and 
brought thoroughly up to date. 

Published and for sale oy the Mining and 
Scientific Press. 



AUSTIN'S FIRE ASSAY 

88 Pages— SI. 

There are many books on Assaying, but 
none are so well calculated to serve as a 
ready reference for the assayer seeking the 
more commonly recognized methods for the 
determination of Gold, Silver and Lead In 
Ores and Metallurgical Products as Prof. 
L. S. Austin's Fire Assay. 

PUBLISHED AND FOR SALE BY 

Mining 6 Scientific Press, 667 Howard St, S&a Francisco 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



41 



Established 1876 



SC0R1FIERS] 




Incorporated 1880 



MUFFLES 



CRUCIBLES 





THE FIRE CLAY MATERIAL 

used in the manufacture of our Crucibles, Muffles, and Scorifiers, and other clay 
goods comes from our own mine, and the analysis of same shows that it is the best 
Fire Clay in the world. It has taken first prize at Paris, Chicago, and St. Louis 
Expositions. 

We are Manufacturers, 
Exporters, and Importers 

of Assayers' and Chemists' Supplies. We carry a large and complete stock of 
Scientific Books, Chemicals, Cyanide, Zinc Shavings, Laboratory Supplies, Fire 
Brick, Outfits for Assayers and Prospectors, and School Apparatus. 

Case Crucible, Muffle, and 
Combination Gasoline Furnaces 

work just as would a clean coke fire, giving an even temperature throughout, and 
in the muffle furnace heats the muffle close to the mouth. The consumption of 
gasoline is small. The muffle has a damper by which a perfect oxidation draught 
may be obtained in the muffle when desired for the cupellation, etc. 



Case Laboratory Crushers 



FOR HAND AND POWER 

The adjustment for fine or coarse 
crushing is made by the use 
of special shims, which are 
inserted between the front jaw plate 
and the frame. This adjustment af- 
fords a variation of from y 4 inch to 
20 mesh, and does not alter the posi- 
tion of front and back jaw plates. 

Write for our No.j20 com= 
plete Catalogue today. 





Small Size — Hand or Power. 



Melting Furnace. 



THE DENVER FIRE CLAY CO. 

DENVER, COLORADO, U. S. A. 



42 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




DEWEY, STRONG & CO. 



PATENT ATTORNEYS 

Offices 1105 Merchant's Exchange, 
California St., near Montgomery, 
San Francisco. 



Complete legal and mechanical Equipment for ex- 
peditiously and skillfully handling Applications for 
Patents, Infringement Suits, and everything legally 
pertaining to Patents and Trademarks. 



Patents obtained in every Country in the World 
having Patent Laws. 



Write for our Handbook to Inventors containing over 
100 Mechanical Movements. Sent free on request. 




Attention is called to the Notices of Patents obtained 
through Us, which appear each Week in the Mining and 
Scientific Press. These Notices are inserted without Ex- 
pense to Patentees. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



43 



THE SLOGAN OF THE CAMERON-CHARACTER: THE GRANDEST THING." 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



In our advertisements in the first editions of January, 1908, we subscribed ourselves, "Let 1908 be 
a preparation for the biggest ever, and sane administration in 1909." 

Looking backward, we can now serenely trace the strenuous progress and development of the Old 
1908, and with joyful anticipation for the New Year 1909, "WELCOME THE COMING AND SPEED 
THE PARTING GUEST"; having the courage of our conviction that 1909 will be the Banner Year, and 
a determination to contribute all there is in us to make it so, with full time and full pay for all. 



CAMERON 
CONDENSING APPARATUS 

In view of the many and increasing number of inquiries and requests for prices of the various kinds 
of Condensing Apparatus, we have concluded to extend our line (which has heretofore included only a 
Combined Air Pump and Jet Condenser), to cover Jet and Surface Condensers for High Vacuum Steam 
Turbine Work. 

The object we have in view, in the introduction of this apparatus, is to meet the constantly increas- 
ing demand for Condensers competent for the production of high vacuum rendered almost indispensable 
in connection with steam turbines, as well as to cover fully the field for Condensers used in connection 
with steam engines. We are therefore prepared to offer the following : 

Centrifugal Jet 

Condensers, 

Barometric Jet 

Condensers, 

Surface Condensers, 

Dry Vacuum Pumps, 

Centrifugal 

Circulating Pumps, 

Hot Well Pumps, 

Combined fl/r and 
Circulating Pumps, 

Vertical Suction 
Valveless fl/r Pumps, 

Jet Condenser and 
Horizontal Air Pump 

mo 

Atmospheric Exhaust 
Relief Valves. 




Cameron Surface Condenser and Combined Air and Circulating Pump. 



We shall be pleased to have the opportunity afforded us to make quotations for complete condensing 
equipments, and to confer with you in regard to specifications and condenser requirements, as we hope 
to make our Condenser Department as satisfactory and successful in every way as our pumps are. 

A. S. CAMERON STEAM PUMP WORKS 

FOOT OF EAST TWENTY-THIRD STREET, 

NEW YORK, U. S. A. , M9 



44 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




m 



JACKSON 7-Step Electric 
Sinking Pump 

It will pay you to investigate these sinking pumps. They are 
fast replacing the old reciprocating pumps because they guarantee a 
much greater actual delivery of water, take up but one-third the 
space and save just half the cost. They are equipped with a REGU- 
LATING VALVE which allows the operator to instantly change 
the volume discharged. Hang anywhere and are ready for service 
wherever there is electric current. 

The following is an efficiency test of a 2-Step Electric Jackson 
Sinking Pump : 300 gpm., 240 foot head, 33 hp., 55% efficiency; 400 
gpm.. 227 foot head, 37 hp., 6iy 2 % efficiency; 500 gpm., 212 foot 
head, 40 hp., 66y 2 % efficiency; 600 gpm., 190 foot head, '42i/ 2 hp., 
68% efficiency. 

Jackson Steam Turbine Driven Centrifugal 

Sinking and Station Pumps Are 

Without Equal. 

By actual test their steam consumption is only i/ 2 to y 3 that of 
the ordinary type reciprocating steam pump. This difference in 
power is well worth saving and calls for further investigation. 

If steam power is available at your plant, we stand ready to 
make you an interesting proposition. Remember, our latest and im- 
proved Steam-Turbine Driven Pumps hold the highest efficiency 
record. Write' for full particulars. 



Manganese Steel Lined Sand 
and Gravel Pump with ring 
oiling bearings and water 
sealed gland; liners are re- 
movable and easily replaced. 
Runner oi solid Manganese 
Steel. 






WORKS: West Berkeley, Cal. 
BRANCHES: Los Angeles Chicago Portland, Ore. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



45 



Mine Pumps 



The World's Largest Head Centrifugal Pump 




10,000 

GALLONS PER MINUTE 

Is its capacity working against a head of 430 feet. It is driven by four 400 H. P. water-power turbines 
and is used for creating pressure in a pipe line supplying a number of giants for sluicing. During the 
four years it has been in operation, working 24 hours a day, it has not cost a single dollar for repairs. 
The only attention it requires is filling the oil cups when occasion demands. No valves to be re- 
ground or joints to pack. 

If we can build and guarantee such a pump as this, surely we are able to successfully solve all 
YOUR pumping problems. Write for our catalog of Station-Pumps and Mine Sinking Pumps. 




Illustration snows 5-Step Sta- 
tion Centrifugal containing 
all the advantages of an 
electrically driven pump 
over a steam pump. 



Iron Works 

MAIN OFFICE: San Francisco, Cal. 
Denver Salt Lake City Mexico City 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




Who builds the Rest M*M P"M f 

PRESCOTT 



2200 Feet Head in One Lift 

Largest Mine Pump in the World 

"Built by Prescott" 




\X7~E build the most 
" " complete line of 
Mine Pumping 
M a c h i e r y . 



ro.ESOT 



MACMHHK 



OUR Catalogue 20-G 
shows a pump for 
every conceivable pur- 
pose in or about a Mine. 
SEND FOR COPY 



FRtuM.Puestvrr Steam Tump Co. 















m 







W% 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



47 



V 










v 












'• * 


"*"~ • •'*&**&. 






l ffi 


it' 




1( ot!-i 


1 




i 


* ' / ,|W 


e V o,((i - i ... 




1 * i * 

> 




u / ft 


\ V": 



M 



DEMINQ 
I N E PUMPS 




Deep Well, 

Power Working 

Head. 




General Service 
Power Pump. 




Elect ic Driven Portable 
Mine Pump. 



All of our triplex mine pumps have the plungers with 
crossheads outside guided, thereby relieving the stuffing- 
box glands of lateral pressure due to the side thrust of 
the connecting rods. 

The main housings, or guide columns, of our geared 
pumps' (especially portable mine pumps) are of the box 
girder type, and contain two bearings of extra large dimen- 
sions, which support the crankshaft between the cranks. 
By having two main bearings only, it. is always easy to 
have them in line, while with a bearing on each side of 
the three cranks, or four main bearings in all, it is exceed- 
ingly difficult to maintain this alignment, because of the 
certainty of the bearings wearing unevenly. Without per- 
fect alignment it is obvious that the shaft will have to be 
sprung more or less during each revolution, with conse- 
quent loss of efficiency. 

This is but one of the reasons why Deming Triplex Power 
Pumps are in such universal demand. If you are consid- 
ering the purchase of any mine pumps, whether for general 
service or portable work, we can show you plainly why 
vou should purchase a "Deming" if you will but give us 
the opportunity. 

THE DEMING COMPANY 
SALEM, OHIO 

AGENCIES: — 

Hendkie & Bolthoff Mfg. & SUPPLY Co., Denver. 

Smith-Booth-Usher Co., Los Angeles. 

Harris Pump & Supply Co., Pittsburg. 

Henion & Hubbell, Chicago. 

W. P. Dallett, Philadelphia. 

Ralph B. Carter Co., New York. 

Chas. J. Jacer Co.. Boston. 

Henshaw, Bulkley & Co., San Francisco. 

English Iron Works Co.. Kansas City. 

Darling Brothers, Montreal. 



48 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Baldwin Acetylene Mine ;Lamps 
For Engineers and Surveyors 



NO SMOKE 

NO GREASE 

ACCURATE WORK 

CLEAN RECORDS 





• 


GIVES MORE 




PTir 


AND BETTER 

LIGHT. SAVES 

50 PER CENT. 







AMONG THE COMPANIES USING THE 
BALDWIN LAMP IN THEIR MINES ARE 

N. J. ZINC CO., 71 BROADWAY, N. Y. 

OLIVER IRON MINING- CO., DULUTH, MINN. 

REPUBLIC IRON & STEEL CO., . . . REPUBLIC, WIS. 
AMERICAN S. & R. CO., .... 165 BROADWAY, N. Y 

PANA COAL CO., PANA, ILL. 

TENNESSEE COPPER CO., .... COPPERHILL, TENN. 



JOHN SIMMONS COMPANY 



102-110 CENTRE ST., 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



19 



Why Use Triplex Rolls? 




We have a small testing plant for the con- 
venience of our customers. We can grind 
100 lbs. to one ton with No. 00 Sampson 
Crusher and set of 10x3 Triplex Rolls to de- 
termine the possibilities of concentration or 
amalgamation of ores treated. 

Write us. 




WHY? 

They have two grinding faces in place of one. 
This alone marks a new era in crushing rolls. 

What Advantage is that? 

Roll faces are kept true automatically. 

Grooves do not form in the shells. 

Less spring pressure is required on account of 
each particle of ore, as it passes between the faces of 
the Triplex Rolls, is subject to a twisting action, due 
to the cross directions that the opposing faces are 
moving in. 

Granular Product 

The twisting action produces a granulating effect 
upon the material crushed. 

Enormous Capacity 

The capacity of the Triplex Rolls is two to three 
times that of any other rolls of the same diameter 
and face, running at the same speed. 

The Workmanship and Material 

are the best to be had. The main rolls are mounted 
on cast-iron centers and secured by bolts. The shafts 
are of hammered steel. 



Fine Grinding 

We do not recommend Triplex 
Rolls for roughing work, but for fine 
and uniform grinding they are espe- 
cially adapted. 

THAT'S WHY WE RECOM- 
MEND AND WHY YOU SHOULD 
USE TRIPLEX ROLLS. 

Our catalogue No. 2 sent on re- 
quest. Write today. 



THE TRIPLEX ROLL CO. 



1650 CHAMPA STREET 



DENVER, COLO., U. S. A. 



50 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE DRAEGER 

LIFE SAVING APPARATUS 

FOR MINES 



THE HISTORY OF THE RESCUE APPARATUS TOLD IN FIGURES 

SALES MADE SINCE OUR FIRST APPARATUS WAS TURNED OUT IN 1904. 



Country. 

German Empire 

Austria ....*. 

France 

Russia 

Holland, Belgium 

England 

Spain, Switzerland, Scandinavia . . 

Mexico 

Japan 

Canada 



1904. 



89 
9 
8 
5 
1 



1905. 



112 



239 

13 

6 

19 

3 



1906/ 



580 

81 

57 

80 

16 

9 

2 

1 



1907. 



1908. 



426 
91 
10 
22 

9 
24 
11 
19 

5 
20 



ca. 

400 

80 

10 

20 

'5 

50 

5 

15 

5 

? 



281 



826 



637 



590 



Total. 



1734 
274 
91 
146 
34 
83 
19 
35 
10 
20 



2446 



*Courrieres Disaster, 1200 men killed. 

The Draeger Apparatus has been in Actual Use with Complete Success 

for a Number of Years and has Operated in the 

Following Big Mine Fires: 

PITTSBURG, WESTMORELAND COAL CO, Shoenberger Mine Fire, April, 1908. 
BOSTON & MONTANA CONS. C. & S. M. CO, Butte, Mont, 

Since December, 1907, nearly constantly. Leonard Mine Fire. 
ANACONDA COPPER MINING CO, Butte, Mont, 

Since July, 1908. Anaconda and St. Lawrence Mine Fires. 
PITTSBURG-BUFFALO CO, Pittsburg, Pa. Hazel Mine Fire. 
WASHINGTON COAL & COKE CO, Dawson, Pa. Washington No. 1 Mine. 
KEYSTONE COAL & COKE CO, Greensburg, Pa. No. 1 Mine. 
ZEIGLER COAL CO, Zeigler, 111. 

THIS RECORD SPEAKS FOR ITSELF. 

* 

If you consider an apparatus which is kept by some hundred European Mining Companies 

worth while YOUR investigation, write us and we will give you a 

FREE DEMONSTRATION. 



CATALOGUES SENT ON APPLICATION. 



THE DRAEGER OXYGEN APPARATUS CO., 

11 Broadway, Room 1167, New York. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



51 



Edwards Ore-Roasting Furnaces 



.PATENTED 




MECHANICALLY PERFECT 

Minimum Dust, Minimum Labor, Minimum Fuel, Minimum Repairs 

maximum Extraction 




NVESTIGATE 



If interested in the treatment of Gold, Silver, Copper, 
Nickle, Arsenic, Cobalt, Zinz, Pyrite and Sulphide Ores 
by Smelting, Cyanidation, Clorination or other methods 



Full particulars promptly furnished. Write 

CHISHOLM, MATTHEW & CO., agents 

Colorado Springs, Colorado 
T. EDWARDS, Patentee and Owner, Ballarat, Australia 



52 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE SUCCESSOR TO DYNAMITE 
AND BLACK POWDER 




The Best All-round Explosive. 

Made in All Grades of Disruptive Force. 

Does not Contain Nitro-Glycerine, Picric Acid 
or Gun-Cotton. 



Absolutely Non-Freezing in Cold 
Weather. 

No Exudation in Warm Weather. 

Cannot Explode on Impact or Jar. 

Any Drill Can Be Passed Through 
Trojan Without Danger of Ex- 
plosion. 



SAFE TO HANDLE UNDER ALL CONDITIONS 



The Twian Powder Co. 



(INDEPENDENT) 



BACON BUILDING, 

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA. 



COMMONWEALTH BLDG, 

DENVER, COLORADO. 



. 



„. TT ,„ f OAKLAND, CALIF. 

FACTORIES: \ 

{ PUEBLO, COLO. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 






8000 Feet Over the Waters 
of Lake Michigan 

Leschen Company's tramway engaged in transporting rock to 
shore from tunnel excavation for new waterworks intake, Chicago 

At rhe crib KUOO feet out the excavated rock is elevated to the tramway's 
loading terminal, received into automatically detachable buckets, carried 
to shore and automatically dumped at 73rd and Bond Sts., S. Chicago. 

_ SPECIALLY DESIGNED PASSENGER CARS TRANSPORT TUNNEL WORKMEN __ 




WHEN IN CHICAGO VISIT THIS TRAMWAY. ITS MANY EXPENSE REDUCING FEATURES WILL INTEREST YOU 

The solution of very many difficult problems in material transportation 
is found in Leschen's Aerial Wire Rope Tramways. We build and 
install several systems variable to the demands of all conditions. 



Wire Rope for all Wire Rope Purposes 

A. LESCHEN & SONS ROPE CO. 

(1857-FIFTY-TWO YEARS IN BUSSINESS-1909) 

920-932 NORTH FIRST STREET, ST LOUIS 

CHICAGO DENVER 



NEW YORK 
87-90 West Street 



137 East Lake Street 



1649-51 Wazee Street 



SEATTLE 
313 Pacific Block 



54 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 






Special Christmas Offer to 
Sunset Subscribers Only 

MAKE A PRESENT WORTH WHILE AND PAY FOR IT ONLY 



10 Cents a Day 




1908 EDITION 
of the NEW 



Americanized Encyclopedia 

Fifteen Massive Volumes. 10,000 Double Column Pages. 100 Superb Maps. 

Hundreds of Illustrations and Colored Plates. Bound in Half Morocco. 

HALE PRICE 



$39.00 Buys this Regular $75.00 Set and Two 
Years' Subscription to SUNSET MAGAZINE 

The Book Bargain of the Century, submitted for your ex- 
amination, then, $3.00 on acceptance and $3.00 a month 

10c a day pay* for these books. 




SUNSET MAGAZINE. throuKh a cash purchase of 5,000 sots, is able to make this un- 
paralleled offer to its subscribers for a limitod time. Each subscriber to SUNSET 
for two years is entitled to subscribe for one set of the Encyclopedia. Present sub- 
scribers can renew thoir subscriptions for two years. 

Such an opportunity will not occur again 

FILL IN COUPON AND MAIL TO 

SUNSET 
LIBRARY CLUB 

948 FLOOD BUILDING 
SAN FRANCISCO 








MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



55 




is as essential as 
good machinery. It increases the productive capa- 
city of your workmen by enabling them to work 
faster and with greater accuracy. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC 
ENCLOSED CARBON 

ARC LAMPS 

give a soft white, well-diffused light 
which is a perfect substitute for day- 
light. 



The "Hawthorn" Short Arc Lamp is one we have 
especially designed for use in mines. It is only 20 inches 
long and burns 100 hours with one trimming. 

Write for Bulletin No. 1W9 




mini iticrac 



c®K^UKrw 



EASTERN 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Boston 

Pittsburg 

Atlanta 



CENTRAL 

Chicago 
Indianapolis 
Cincinnati 
Minneapolis 



WESTERN 

Saint Louis 
Kansas City 
Denver 
Dallas 
Omaha 



PACIFIC 

San Francisco 
Los Angeles 
Seattle 
Salt Lake City 



Northern Electric and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Montreal and Winnipeg 

WRITE OUR NEAREST HOUSE 



56 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE PRECISION FACTORY 




TYPE T 

ANALYTICAL BALANCE 
6 inch Benin 
Capacity 300 grams, sensibility 
1-20 milligram. 

Fully described in Catalog A-9 of 
Balances. 



AINSWORTH 

BALANCES and TRANSITS 



have attained and maintained their high 
standard only through the development 
ot special and automatic machinery, 
tools, and instruments lor their manu- 
facture and adjustment, by the tool and 
experimental departments ol our factory. 




BUTTON BALANCE 
4 inch Beam 

Sensibility 1-200 milligram. 
Fully described in Catalog l 
Balances. 




TYPE BX 
PRECISION THEODOLITE 
5 inch limb 
Send for Catalog BX-9 for 
full description. 




L ICENSED MAN UFACTURER 
OF McADAMITE 

A new al- 
uminum al- 
loy equaling 
****snt u* 1 in strength 

all but the high-grade naval 
bronzes, and owing to its pe- 
culiar properties exceeding 
them in its adaptability for 
the cast parts of engineering 
instruments. 

Send for a sample of the 
metal for comparison with 
other alloys now used. 





TYPE BD 
PRECISION TRANSIT 

5 inch limb 
Send for Catalog BX-9 for 
full description. 



30 INCH 
AUTOMATIC CIRCULAR 
DIVIDING ENGINE 
which has just been completed and put in opera- 
tion, and which is the most accurate machine of its 
kind in the world today. This Is but one of the 
special machines in our factory, but its cost exceeds 
that of the entire equipment of many of the other 
factories engaged in similar work. 

Send for literature describing our lines. 

WM. AINSWORTH 6 SONS 

DENVER, COLO., U. S. A. 




4500 BRUNTON PATENT 
POCKET TRANSITS 
IN USE. 
It Is the most convenient 
compact and accurate pocket 
instrument made for prelimi- 
nary surveying on the surface 
or underground. 

Described in Bulletin B-9. 



THE PRECISION FACTORY 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




There's the Experience of 40 Years 

of Testing, Improving and Standardizing 
Behind The "American" Line of Machinery 

A C\ years of collaboration between experts in the field, in 

^TV/ nearly every part of the world, and our engineers in the office 

have developed "American" machines to a point where they are 

no longer experiments — every possible betterment has already been made. 

There's the reliability of perfected, standard machines that are 

dependable when you buy "American" Drilling Machines, Coring Machines, Plain Cen- 
trifugals, Sand and Dredge Centrifugals, Turbine Centrifugals, Deep Well Single and 
Double Acting Cylinder Pumps, Air Lift Pumps, Air Compressors and Gasoline Engines. 

"American" Deep Well Centrifugal Turbine Pumps 

The "American" Turbine Centrifugal Pump will deliver more water from a deep 
bore-hole than any other style of pump except the air lift and will attain an efficiency 
of 50 to 65 per cent, whereas that of the best air lift is only from 15 to 30 per cent. 

It is made to operate in 12-inch, and larger, bore-holes and delivers from 300 to 1200 
gallons of water per minute. 

It is propelled by direct connected vertical type motor or fitted with pulley, in place 
of motor, for belt power. 

"American" Centrifugal Turbines are described in Bulletin No. 108. 

500 Foot Heads with a 4-Stage Plain Centrifugal Pump 

"American" Plain Centrifugals are characterized by having the impellers 

perfectly machined to the casing with a perfect cut-off at the outlet, making it impossible for 
water to pass the runner and churn in the casing, and having no sudden change of direction of 
the water when passing thru the pump. These features give "American" Plain Centrifugals 

25 to 33^ Per Cent. Greater Efficiency 

than other makes of pumps of this class. 

Our single stage Plain Centrifugals ope- 
rate against heads up to 125 feet, our two 
stage up to 250 feet and our four stage up 
to 500 feet. 

Our single stage Plain Centrifugals are 
adapted for any kind of pumping where a 
large supply of water is required and the 
pump can be placed close to the water supply. 

Our multiple stage Plain Centrifugals are 
the most efficient yet devised for deep mine 
pumping and fire protection service. ■•American" Plain Centrifugal, are deicribed in Bulletin No. 7(14. 

Styles and Sizes of "American" Drilling Machines 

For every possible condition of deep earth 

and rock drilling and mineral prospecting we make a drill. 
Our line now comprises 69 regular styles and sizes and 
includes every method of drilling our experience, as the 
world's largest makers of this kind of machinery, has 
convinced us is best adapted for any kind of earth or 
rock drilling. 

Our driling machine slogan is; — "When all other ma- 
chines fail, we can furnish an 'American' machine that 
can be relied on to do the work." 

Our coring machines, operating in conjunction with 
our Adamantine Process, will remove a core of any size, 
any depth, thru any shale or rock formation at half the 
initial cost for the machine and half the expense of 
maintenance of a diamond drill. 

Our new 196-page catalog— the most complete "Drill Hole" catalog ever issued, fully explains 
every method of deep drilling. Ask for Bulletin No. 105. 

What Counts for Efficiency in "American" Air Compressors 

There's an individuality about "American" Air Com- 
pressors. They are made with adjustable, swiveled cross- 
heads which equalize any unequal wear in the couplings. 

The valves are an improved form of poppet type, very 
sensitive and unaffected by the wear of the machine. 

The couplings are adjustable by remova- 
ble shims to l-64th of an inch of the length 
of the cylinders, insuring a full stroke in 
the air cylinders even after years of service. A 

Made insingle cylinder, tandem cylinder 
and cross-compound cylinder types, in 
sizes to meet every requirement. 

"American" Air Compressors are described 
in Bulletin No. 101. 




AMERICAN' 








The American Well Works 



Chicago Office: 

First National Bank Bid?. 



General Office and Works, 

Aurora, HI., U. S. A. 



California Hydraulic Engine & Supply Co., 
523 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Zimmerman- Wells-Brown Company, 
2nd and Ash Streets, Portland, Oregon. 



Henshaw, Bulkley & Co.mpany, 
335 East Third St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



58 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



OTEIR 1MULOT1 



THE AMERICAN TUNNEL RECORD HAS AGAIN BEEN BROKEN WITH 
WATER LEYNER DRILLS — AT THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 




THIS IS THE DRILL. No. 9 HEAVY DUTY WATER LEYNER. 



466 FEET IN ONE MONTH 



12x12 ft. Tunnel. Three Drills on each shift. 

This is another project where they are getting the greatest returns from 
their expenditures. 

The ability of the Water Leyner drill to put in deep holes ; to start them 
at any angle; to bottom them accurately at a predetermined point; to drill 
them more rapidly than any other drill; to drill them without fitchering and 
without losing holes; to clean the holes of the cuttings while drilling; to 
drill them with less air and less repairs than any other drill — makes these results 
possible. 

THE 



J. Geo. Leper Engineering Works Company 

General Offices and Works: LITTLETON, COLO., U. S. A. 

BRANCHES OR AGENCIES IN PRINCIPAL MINING CENTERS 

Manufacturers of Rock Drills, Air Compressors, Drill Sharpeners, Oil and Coke Furnaces, Steam and Electric 

Hoists, Cars, Cages, Skips, Etc. 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



59 



LOS ANGELES 

TRUST BLDQ. 



SEATTLE 

MUTUAL LIFE BLDQ 



PORTLAND 

WELLS FARGO BLDG. 




SALT LAKE 

ATLAS BLDQ. 



NEW YORK 

FULTON BLOO. 



HOME OFFICE : 

SAN FRANCISCO 

99 FIRST ST. 




Mining and Ore Dressing Equipment Installed 

We will furnish and install complete equipment for 
Mining, Milling and Treating Ore by any recognized 
process. 

We will, if desired, handle such work from the 
grading of the site to the final adjustment on the 
smallest piece of machinery installed. 

Then we operate the plant 

and hand it over smoothly running. 

We do this without waste of time or material. 

We save you money. 



We are also dealers in Machinery for Mining and Ore Reduction, Pumping 
and the Generation of Power. 



The EVANS -WADDELL 
CHILIAN MILL 



IPATENTED I 




The only self-adjusting 
Chilian Mill is the Evans- 
Waddell. Write for de- 
scriptive bulletin. 

We are specialists in the 
manufacture of Milling, 
Smelting, Converting, 
Crushing and Cement 
Making Machinery. 



Power—Mining 
MACHINERY COMPANY! 



CHICAGO 

NEW YORK 

EL PASO, City National Bank Building. 



CUDAHY, WIS. 



SALT LAKE 

MEXICO CITY 

SAN FRANCISCO, Sheldon Building 



60 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




LINK-BELT COMPANY 



PHILADELPHIA 



CHICAGO 



INDIANAPOLIS 



NEW YORK- 29) Broadway 
PITTSBURGH— 1501 Park Building 
ST. LOUIS -Missouri Trust Buidlng 



SEATH.E-440 New York Block 
DENVER - Llndrooth, Shubart & Co. 
NEW ORIEANS-Wllmot Machinery Co. 



If I the ultimate disposition of the 
output is to be reckoned with profit, 
the necessity for proper Conveying 
Machinery explains itself. 




There is decided satis- ) 
faction in the use of 
LINK-BELT CONVEYORS 

Beginning At The Mine. 

DETAILS BY MAIL OR 
INTERVIEW 
















Have you a Problem in 
Po w er Transmission ? 




"llrtflf^Pn 


We have corps of skilled rope 
transmission engineers whose 
services are extended without 
cost to those contemplating the 
erection of new drives or the 
re-arrangement of old. We 
shall at all times be pleased to 
furnish you estimates, plans, 


jit— ^^36^3 


nHH 


w >y3 


■^■SS 




Let us hear from your problem 
offer valuable suggestions out of a lc 
ican" Transmission Rope has solvec 
transmission — economically and che 

The American Manu 

Manila, Sisal an 

No. 65 Wall Street 


and data for rope drives, 
in detail and we can undoubtedly 
»ng and varied experience. "Amer- 
1 many knotty problems in power 
aply. We solicit your inquiries. 

f acturing Company 

d Jute Cordage 

:, New York City 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESb 



til 



M. E. APPELBAUM, 

President and Treasurer. 



I. M. HAYS. 

Vice-President. 



THE 

New York 
Metal Selling 

Company 

2 Rector Street 
NEW YORK 



Ores and Mattes 



Copper 



Pig Lead 



Copper and Lead Bullion 



Spelter 



Antimony 



Telephone Calls, 160-161 Rector. 



Cable Address, Amri, N. Y. 



62 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



AERIAL TRAMWAYS 



afford an economical means of transporting 
ores, coal and other materials. The Blekhert 
System meets all conditions. No ground too 
rugged ! No grades too steep ! No bridges 
or viaducts ! Our PATENT LOCKED-COIL 
CABLES used on these lines are unsurpassed 
in durability. We are the sole manufactur- 
ers and licensees of this system in America. 
Illustrated book upon application. 



THE TRENTON IRON COMPANY, ™e»™. »• J 




SAMSON ROOFING 

THOUSANDS WILL TESTIFY TO THE LASTING 
QUALITIES OF SAMSON ROOFING 

Remains flexible for All Time. 
Better than metal for lining gutters, flashings, etc. 
Can be applied over old metal or shingle roofing. 
Samson Roofing is double coated with mineral rubber 

and will withstand heat of 250 degrees without 

deteriorating in any climate. 
Samson Roofing cannot fail to give Satisfaction. 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne 

AGENTS 

San Francisco 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



63 



Sullivan Diamond Drills 



DIAMOND DRILLS remove a solid core of 
all strata penetrated, at any angle and to any 
depth. With a Diamond Drill, the mining engi- 
neer can secure reliable knowledge of the pres- 
ence or absence of ores in his property, their 
location, extent and cost of development. 

The cost is only a fraction of that needed for 
tunneling, drifting, or sinking a shaft. 

SULLIVAN DRILLS have been the standard 
for thirty-five years. 

Catalogue 1355. 




Soiling Clui "K" (6,000 ft.) Drill in operation in South Africa. 



ROCK DRILLS 



AIR COMPRESSORS 



HOISTS 



COAL CUTTERS 



SULLIVAN MACHINERY CO. 



Birmingham, All. 


Denver, Col 


Batte 


EiPwo 


Caremoot, N. H. 


JopIlD. Ho. 


Cobalt. Oct. 


Knoxville 



CHICAGO, ILL. 

26 Fremont St., 
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIF. 



New York 


Salt Lake 


Parti, France 


Seattle 


Pittsburg 


Spokane 


RoaiUnd 


St. Loui* 



L. VOGELSTEIN 



BENJAMIN HIRSCH 
Special Partner 



E. G. HOTHORN 



L VOGELSTEIN & COMPANY 



lOO BROADWAY, NEW YORK 



AGENTS FOR 



ARON HIRSCH & SOHN 

HALBERSTADT, GERMANY 



GENERAL AGENTS FOR 

United States Metals Refining Co. 
Chrome, N. J. Grasselli, Ind. 



SELLING AGENTS FOR 



American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co. 
Caney and Dearing, Kansas 



Copper, Argentiferous and Auriferous Copper, 

Mattes and Bullion, Lead, Tin, Antimony, Spelter. 



64 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




TRADE HARK. 





TRADE MARK. 



There are about seventy-five pump builders in the United States. Of these but very 
few seriously attempt difficult mine pumping installations. Of these few nearly all 
have copied, as closely as possible, the JEANESVILLE "Anthracite" design, which 
is still another proof that JEANESVILLE leads. There is, however, something 
more than design necessary to make the most reliable mine pump. JEANESVILLE 
has also the know-how due to thirty-five years of practical experience. 



BRANCH 



New York City— Atwood-Rearlck Co., 30 Church St. 

Butte, Mont J. G. Graham, 48 E. Broadway. 

St. LouiB, Mo.— L. F. Mahler Co., 1208-1209 Chemical Bldg. 

Dallas, Tex Haynle Mach. & Con. Co., Wilson Bldg. 

San Francisco, Cal.— Joshua Hendy Iron Works, 63 Fremont St. 
Mexico City, D. F.— E. R. Dalby & Co., La San Francisco No. 7. 



OFFICES 

Denver, Colo.— Hampson & Fielding, 1711 Tremont St. 
El Paso, Tex.— E. R. Dalbey & Co., 309 St. Louis St. 
Chihuahua, Mex. -Mexican General Supply Co. 
Yokohama, Japan— A. 3. Hay, 74 Yamashlta-Cho. 

Halifax, N. S Austen Bros., 118 Hollis St. 

Sydney, N. S. W.— Gibson, Battle & Co., Ltd., No. 7 Bent St. 



WE ARE PREPARED TO FURNISH HEAVY CASTINGS. 
GET OUR ESTIMATES. 



THE ECLIPSE DRILL SHARPENING MACHINE MANUFACTURING CO. 



JOS. RETALLACK, 
Manager. 




VICTOR DRILL SHARPENER. 



D 

E 
IV 
V 
E 
R, 

C 
O 
L 
O., 

U. 
S. 
A. 

CATALOGUES. 




OUR COKE FURNACE. 



LANE SLOW SPEED CHILIAN MILL 

<K Reinforced Concrete Foundation. 

<|I Portable for Mule Packing. 

CJI Capacity 40 to 50 Tons per Day. 

CI Weight 17920 pounds. H.P. 12. 

CJ A Perfect Amalgamator. 

<H Will crush to 125 mesh if required. 

<| Repairs not over 4 cents per ton. 

LET US SEND YOU CATALOG AND MILL TEST EVIDENCE 

Lane Slow Speed Chilian Mill Co. Ks a&rcJ! 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



65 



300 IN ONE ORDER 

from one of the largest mining companies in the 
United States. Would YOU be interested in 
doubling the life of YOUR drill at a cost of 
from $5 to $7? If so 

SEND FOR BULLETIN NO. 5. 

The Western Lubricating Valve Company 

1416-18 WAZEE STREET, DENVER. COLO., U. S. A. 






ZINC BOXES MINING TANKS 

OIL AND WATER TANKS 

HAMMOND IRON WORKS 

WARREN. Pa, U. S. A. 

W. B. HAMMOND, Sales Agent, !9 Broadway, NEW YORK C1TT. 



DUPLEX, TWO-STAGE 
POWER - DRIVEN 

COMPRESSOR 

Rolling Mill Frame Pattern. 

Cincinnati Air Valve Gear. 

Motor Mounted on Crank Shaft. 

:CLASS 18. SIZE 32 x 20x30. 

Laidlaw - Dunn - Gordon Co. 

115 Broadway, New York. 

Laldla-w-Dunn-Gordon Co., Works, Cincinnati, Otolo. 




Minimum Maintenance Cost 



MORRIS CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 

have that enduring quality which is of 
such great importance where mining 
service is considered. Write for our 
catalog. It will interest you. 



MORRIS MACHINE WORKS 

Baldwinsville, New York, (I. S. A. 



66 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



CHROME STEELWORKS 

CHROME. N. J.. U.S.A. 



CHROMEIfllSTEE 

FOR STAMP MILL WEARING PARTS 

SHOES AND DIES Hydraulic Compressed 
CANDA SELF-LOCKING CAMS 

TAPPETS, BOSSHEADS 

rrx 

Canda cams are easily 
adjusted to the ordi- 
nary cam shaft. All 
cams interchangeable 
on the same shaft. Ab- 
solutely self-locking — 
will never work loose. 
Over 8,000 CANDA SELF- 
LOCKING CAMS NOW IN 
SERVICE. Send for 
pamphlet giving prac- 
tical reports on this 
cam. 

CANDA PATENT CAM. 
Our Pacific Coast Representative, Mr. Georffe W. Myers, has returned 
to his former quarters in the Kohl Building. San Francisco, Gal. 




QEORQE W. MYERS 

724 Kohl Building 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Represented by 
J. P. SPELLMAN 

202 CENTURY BLDQ. 

DENVER, COLO. 



•# NEAL s 

Publishing' Company 

PRINTERS and 
BOOKBINDERS 

PRINTING WORK DEMANDING CARE- 
FUL AND PAINSTAKING ATTENTION IS 
SOLICITED. 

WE RELY ON THE PRINTING EXPERI- 
ENCE OF A LIFE-TIME TO GIVE SATIS- 
FACTION. 

PAY ROLLS 
TIME CHECKS 
COST DATA BOOKS 
LETTER HEADS, Etc. 



MOST MODERN AND COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 

ONLY THE BEST SKILLED LABOR EMPLOYED 



66 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 





For a high grade though inex- 
pensive iron body valve, specify 

LUNKENHEIMER "CLIP" 
GATE VALVE. 

It is double seated, is very com- 
pact and can be closed, opened 
or taken apart quicker than any 
other valve on the market. Guar- 
anteed for working pressures not 
exceeding 1 00 pounds, and 
made in sizes from 1/2 to 6 
inches inclusive. This valve can 
also be had entirely of iron for 
handling cyanides. Our catalog 
is free. Write for a copy. 



':.- 



*^H 



^— ^— 



The Lunkenheimer Company 



Largest Manufacture 



General Offices and Works, Cincinnati, Ohio, U. S. A. 



New York, 66-68 Fulton St. 



London. S. E.. 35 Great Dover St. 



DU PONT 

EXPLOSIVES 



Hercules Dynamite Hercules Gelatin 

Atlas Dynamite Forcite 

Hercules Stumping Powder 

Black Blasting Powder 

Rifle and Shotgun Smokeless Powders 

Blasting Supplies 



E. L DU PONT DE NEMOURS 
POWDER COMPANY 

WILMINGTON, DEL. 
CHRONICLE BDC, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
SEATTLE, WASH. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

SPOKANE, WASH. PORTLAND, ORE. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



67 



HERCULES HOISTS 

ENCLOSED DUST-PROOF ENGINE 

STOCK SIZES 

17—22-32-45-60 H.P. 




THE HERCULES GAS ENGINE WORKS 

349 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Cable Address: "GASENG." vv. n. Code. 



UNION HOISTS 




15 H.P. "Union" Hoist, fitted to run on cheap distillate. 
Will raise 2500 lbs. vertically 125 ft. per minute. Drum 
will hold 700 ft. % wire rope. Fitted with safety latch. 

"UNION" GAS ENGINES 

are built in all sizes from 2 to 500 H.P. for 
marine, stationary and hoisting service. The 
leading goverments of the world are using 
them. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

UNION GAS ENGINE CO. 

500 MISSION STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



THE JEFFREY 

26-B "SHORTWALL" 

ELECTRIC COAL CUTTER 




It Cots Faster, 

consumes less power per cubic inch of coal cut, is more 
easily controlled, and has greater strength, motor power 
and endurance than any other make of side cutting 
machine. 

Complete Coal Mine Equipments. 

THE JEFFREY MANUFACTURING CO. 

Columbus, Ohio, U. S. A. 



New York 
Pittsburgh 
Knoxvllle 



hlcago 
Denver 

St. Louis 



Boston 

harleBton 
Montreal 




m 



TYPE "C" PELTON WATER MOTOR. 



For Light Power Duty Pelton 
Motors will be found Efficient, 
Reliable and Moderate as to Price 



A 12-INCH MOTOR DEVELOPS 4 H.P., OPERATING 
UNDER 210-FT. HEAD, AND COSTS 42 DOLLARS 



CATALOG AND ADDITIONAL PRICES FURNISHED. 

ADDRESS 

THE PELTON WATER WHEELCQ. 



a 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 
2223 HARRISON ST. 



NEW YORK.N.Y. 
87 WEST ST. 



ffi 



68 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



General Electric Company 



Electric Hoists for Heavy Duty 



) \ 



i^v- \ l 



\-v\^-- 



Double friction drum electric mining hoist with 
continuous current 500, 250 or 220 volt motors. 



Famous for economy and ease of operation. 

Most highly prized where absolute reliability 

is paramount. 



Principal Office : Schenectady, N. Y. 

San Francisco: Union Trust Bldg. Denver, Colo.: Klttredge BIdg. 

Salt Lake City, Utah: 417-18 Dooly Bldg. 



NOTHING DOING 

FOR 

MESSENGER BOYS 

WHERE THE 

STROMBERG-CARLSON 

M1NE-A-PH0NE 

IS USED 

Do away with unreliable 
service in your mine — con- 
sider this — 





No. 890 TYPE 



You can do without mes- 
sengers — reach all parts of 
your mine and works and 
give personal instructions 
without loss of time by in- 
stalling the Mine- A- Phone. 

In case of accidents thou- 
sands of dollars and hun- 
dreds of lives may be saved 
if relief is prompt. 

Practicable Economical 
Efficient 

Let us submit an esti-: 
mate and detailed specifi- 
cations. 

Now Reads —Bulletin No. 1000-B. 



PACIFIC COAST SALES AGENTS 

TELEPHONE AND ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT CO., San Francisco, Cal. 



LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



PORTLAND, ORE. 



STROMBERG-CARLSON TELEPHONE MFG. CO. 

Rochester, New York Chicago, HI. Kansas City, Mo. 




Single Acting 

STEAM ENGINES 

Junior, Standard, Compound 

5 TO 400 H.P. 




The single-acting, self-lubricating features insure 
the utmost reliability of service. A well estab- 
lished system of interchangeable parts renders 
occasional repairing inexpensive and free from 
delay. Tell us your conditions and we will mail 
you a catalogue describing the engine you want. 

The Westinghouse Machine Co. 

Designers and Builders of 

Steam Engines, Steam Turbines, Gas Engines and The Roney Stoker 

Denver: 512 McPhee Bldg., and all other Large Cities. 

For the Pacific Coast : 
Hunt, Mirk & Co., San Francisco. 




MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



69 



llEYfELLMA»-5EMR-M0RGAM CO. 

WEunAN ^""ENGINEERS AND MANUFACTURERS^f mtfSTo.t 




tNGIWE-tRING DIVISION J 




Manufacturers 



HARDINGE PATENT CONICAL PEBBLE MILL 




FOR WET OR DRY, FINE OR 
COURSE 

GRINDIING 

OF METALLIFEROUS ROCK 



REQUIRES LESS 

HORSE-POWER 

PER TON 

THAN ANY OTHER 

METHOD OF 

CRUSHING 



PERCENTAGE MATERIAL LEFT ON MESH 


THRU 100 
MESH 


Feed - - 
Product 


8 


14 


20 


30 


40 


60 


80 


100 


1.5 


51. 


11. 


21.' 


1. 


5.5 


2.5 


2. 


4.5 

















1.4 


10. 


1. 


87. 



TEST OF MILL 

GRINDING HARD SILVER ORE 

FROM COBALT DISTRICT 



General Offices : CLEVELAND, OHIO, U. S. A. 

Branches: NEW YORK. Hudson Terminal SAN FRANCISCO, Marvin Building MEXICO, D. F., Apartado 1220 



. 



SMELTER SPECIALISTS 




Our Engineers are prepared to design and 
superintend the installation of complete Metal- 
lurgical Plants for the treatment of ores. 

PROFIT BY OUR MANY YEARS' EXPERIENCE 



Showing the Matte Tapping Side of an Oil Burning Keveroeratory 
Smelting Furnace, Designed and Built by the Pacific Foundry Co. 



Mechanical Roasting Furnaces 

Blast Furnaces 

Oil Burning Reveberatory 
Funaces 

Matte Pots, Revolving Matte Pans, Slag Cars, 
Ladles, Water Jackets, Spouts, Turntables, 
Specialties and General Castings. 



Pacific Foundry Company 

METALLURGISTS, DESIGNERS and MANUFACTURERS 

18th and Harrison Sts. Cable: "Smelturgy" San Francisco, Cal., U.S. A. 



70 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE TOWNSEND CELL 




A 2500-Ampere Cell 



CONTINUOUS OPERATION FOB THREE YEARS AT NIAGARA FALLS 
FOR ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF CHLORINE AND ALKALI 

FROM BRINE. 2500, 4000, 6000 UNITS. 

ONE INSTALLATION HAS BEEN MADE AT GOLDFIELD, NEVADA. 
WE ARE PREPARED TO SUBMIT ESTIMATES and GRANT LICENSES 



LOW COST CHLORINE AVAILABLE FOR 

CHLORINATION 
OF ORES 



THE DEVELOPMENT AND FUNDING CO. 

40 WALL STREET, NEW YORK 

Works at Niagara Falls, N. Y. Bleaching Powder-Caustic Soda. 3 Years Operation 

London Agents, R. W. Greet! & Co., 20 Eastctaeap 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



71 



ECONOMY - ™- 
BEGINNING 



The "Hendy" triple discharge two-stamp mill is 
for pioneer development work ; small enough for 

prospecting; large e gh to be continued as a 

unit in the installation of additional mortars for a 

small mine. 

This mill is in all particulars as perfect in design 
and detail as the largest mills built. It affords 
opportunity to obtain results during the experi- 
mental stages of operations, and by the smallest 
possible outlay. Also, it is more easily trans- 
ported, which is a feature to be considered when 
opening mines distant from good roads. 

Mines starting with limited capital find the 
"Ilendy" two-stamp mill economical at the begin- 
ning, and effective as part of the larger equipment 
to follow. It is strong, simple, and substantial : 
costs little to transport and erect; is self-con- 
tained, and complete within itself; requires no 
skilled labor to erect, and less power to drive than 
other makes. 

Bulletin number 113 illustrates and describes this 
and other quartz and gravel stamp mills — cheer- 
fully sent on request. 



f 



fl 



<I 




JOSHUA HENDY IRON WORKS .Sole Manufacturer,, 



75 FREMONT STREET, 



SAN FRANCISCO 




XL-96 EJECTOR OR SYPHON 
A Marvel of Power 

FOR RAISING AND ELEVATING WATER 




This valuable little machine, known 
as an ejector, has a large field of useful- 
ness not yet appreciated by a great many 
users of steam. 

It is marvelously simple in construc- 
tion, requires but a small amount of 
steam — far less than a steam pump — and 
on account of its compactness and port- 
ability it can be placed near the work to 

Send for Circular. t> e done. 

Lifts 22 to 27 feet. Elevates 25 to 125 feet on 30 to 180 lb. pressure. 
Capacity — 240 to 1 3,800 gallons, according to size of ejector. 




MANUFACTURED BY 



PENBERTHY INJECTOR CO. 



349 HOLDEN AVE. 



DETROIT, MICHIGAN, U. S. A. 



72 MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Union Iron Works Comp'y 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 
CONSTRUCTORS AND BUILDERS OF THE FAMOUS BATTLESHIP OREGON 

Engineers, Manufacturers, 
Builders of 

Milling, Hoisting, Conveying, Milling, 

Concentrating, Smelting and 

Power Machinery 

COMPLETE PLANTS FOR TREATING ORES BY ALL APPROVED PROCESSES: 

Chlorination Plants 

Concentrating' Plants 

Copper and Lead Smelting 
and Refining' Plants 

Copper Converting Plants 

Crushing' Plants 

Cyanide Plants 

Gold and Silver Mills 

Lixiviation Plants 

Gold Dredges and 

Dredging Machinery 

LARGEST AND BEST EQUIPPED WORKS 
WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

correspondence: solicixed 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



7:5 



Mining Machinery 




Nissen Stamps 



Have demonstrated their merit to such an extent that over 450 are dropping 
today. Many mills are installing them as the result of a thorough competi- 
tive test of which two have since given repeat orders on the showing made 
by the first stamps. . 

SEND FOR CATALOG NO 639 N. 



Pumping Machinery 

We manufacture pumps for every service, from the smallest Boiler Feed 
Pump to the large Compound and Triple Expansion Pumps. 
SEND FOR CATALOG NO. 639 SP. 





Electrical Machinery 

We build a complete line of both A. C. and D. C. Electrical Machinery in our 
own factories. Our apparatus excels in sturdiness, strength and reliability. Our aim 
is to make it a little bit better than the kind you are used to. 

SEND FOR CATALOG NO. 639 EM. 



Hoisting Machinery 

Fairbanks-Morse Internal Combustion Hoists can do any work a Steam Hoist 
■will do, and are far more convenient. No expense when the engine is not run- 
ning, and the engine can be disconnected from the Hoist and used to operate 
other machinery. Operates on Gasoline, Kerosene or Distillate. We also manu- 
facture a complete line of Steam and Electrical Hoists. 





Fairbanks Scales 

R. R. Track Scales, standard or narrow gauge for wood or steel construction. 
Wagon Scales, all capacities. Special Ore Hopper and Dump Scales. 

Charging Scales designed to fit any ore handling system. 

Portable Platform and Moisture Scales. 

SEND FOR CATALOG NO 639 N. 



Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 



Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Louisville, K. y , 
Detroit, Mich. 



St. Louis, Mo. 


St. Paul, Minn. 


Indianapolis, Ind. 


Salt Lake City. Utah 


Kansas City, Mo. 


Skokane, Wash. 


Omaha, Neb. 


Seattle, Wash. 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


Denver, Colo. 


New York, N. Y. 


London, England. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Bakersfield, Cal. 
Santa Maria, Cal. 
Portland, Ore. 



74 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 







"2s***~*^S* 








RECENT CYANIDE 


Dredging for Gold 






PRACTICE 

EDITED BY 

' T. A. RiCKARD 


s 

T 
A 

N 


in California 

BY 






A compilation of the best and most trust- 
worthy articles on the subject by authors 
that are leaders In this particular branch 
of metallurgy. 


D'ARCY WEATHERBE 

Member of the Canadian Society 
of Civil Engineers. 






350 PAGES $2. 


-I- 




LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS: 
E, G. Banks Bertram Hunt 






F. I.. Bogqul Alfred James 








H. T. Brett H. Julian 








R. Gilman Brown A. P. Kennedy 


D 
A 








L. M. N. Bullock Mark R. Lamb 
Charles Butters William Magenau 
G. A. Denny E. H. Nutter 


Fully Illustrated with Diagrams, Drawings, 
and Photographs. 






A. 10. Drucker T. A. RIckard 


$L 






E. M. Hamilton E. A. H. Tays 


-■w 






Francis J. Hobson Carlos W. "Van Law 










R 
D 








Describing in detail the latest improved 
machinery and devices, and giving* invalu- 
able data concerning working- costs. Fully 
illustrated and well printed. 


mining practice has been prepared by an engi- 
neer well equipped for such work. Mr. "Weath- 
erbe is a conscientious writer, a graduated civil 
engineer, and a careful observer. To all those 
engaged or Interested In dredging this treatise 






Reprinted from articles appearing in the 


will prove Invaluable. There Is no book to com- 






Mining- and Scientific Press during 1906 




pete with it. 






and 1907. 


B 
O 






PUBLISHED BY 
THE MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 


PUBLISHED BY 
THE MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 


c 


'TAMHAnn B 


*: r\iP i txii rr\ 




wf i r\n LSr\K\LS £ 


>VJUIYv 

K 
S 


> Ur U 1 lLsl 1 l 




A Guide to 


Hints on 






Technical Writing 


Amalgamation 






T. A. RICKARD 


O 


AND 

The Care of Gold Mills. 






Editor Mining and Scientific Press. 


F 


By W. 1. ADAMS. 






727 PACES— $1. 


U 


NEW EDITION WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES. 






«3*> 


POCKET EDITION- 










FLEXIBLE LEATHER COVER. 






Pocket Size Bound in Buckram. 


T 


•* 






J- 




120 PAGES $2. 






"In this age the man of Science appears to he 
the only one who has anything to say, and he is 
the one that least knows how to say it." 

J- 


I 
L 


A reference book of actual Gold Mill Practice 
as determined by an experience of twenty years. 

Written in language that can be understood 
by all. 

J* 






Tills little book is intended to help those who 
wish to write clearly on technical subjects. The 
author Is one of the few men In America quali- 
fied to successfully produce a work of this kind. 


I 

T 
Y 


This book appeared in 1899. The first edition 
was soon exhausted. The constant demand for 
the book caused the Mining and Scientific PreBS | 
to obtain the rights for a new edition which now 
appears in a more pleasing and convenient form. 




PUBLISHED BY 
THE MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 


PUBLISHED BY 
THE MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 











MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



75 



AIR COMPRESSORS 

EVERYWHERE THE STANDARD 




The Increasing sales of Ingersoll-Rarid Air Com- 
pressors are thereBUlt— NOT of extravagant and 
unverllled claims for the highest volumetric 
efficiencies the largest valve and port areaB, the 
loweBt air velocities, the greatest cooling areas, 
the smallest clearances, etc., HUT— of the con- 
tinued production of compressors of 
the highest commercial economy, 
*k. representing the loweBt sustained 

cost per cubic foot of free air com- 
pressed and delivered, in continuous 
Bervlce, month after month and year 
after year, Including all proper 
charges. Thirty-seven years of pro- 
gressive development are crystal- 
lized In the present ty pe of Ingersoll- 
Rand Compressors, which are con- 
servatively Jbullt, conservatively 
rated, and backed by the guarantees 
of the oldest and largest compressor 
bullderB In the world. 



INGERSOLL-RAND CO. 

Butte Houghton si. Louis 11 Broad vva V Chicago Pittsburg El Paso 

Seattle, 1014 First Ave., So. «.„««, -..*._._» 1718 California St., Denver 

San Francisco, 461 Market St. NEW YORK Calle Cadena No. 2, Mexico City 

Salt Lake City. 221 S. W. Temple St. »■■«-. ww _ w_m-_ 164 N. Los AngeleB St., Los Angeles 



M96 




COPTRI0HTE0 ill t. I, 0U PORT 0E NEMOURS POHDER COMPART IBOI 



ROCKS 

AND 

ROCK MATERIALS 

A Manual 

of the 

Elements of Petrology 

■without the use of the 
Microscope. 



By LOUIS V. PIRSSON 



419 pp.. HI., $2.50. 

The work is a clear simple exposition o£ the leading facts 
concerning rocks and rock-forming minerals. Simple meth- 
ods for determining the mineral constituents of rocks are 
given; general characteristics of rocks, and their relation- 
ships; causes of texture, and its significance; inclusions; 
horder-zones; petrographlc provinces; and the like, are pre- 
sented lucidly; after which follow descriptions of the prin- 
cipal rocks, with their relations to each other, their eco- 
nomic significance, and their special uses when they them- 
selves possess economic application. It is a most useful 
treatise, and will be a great aid in field-study. 

For Sale by 

Mining and Scientific Press 

667 Howard Street 
San Francisco 



76 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE MACHINERY MARKET 



IN REVIEWING THE MINING MACHINERY AND SUPPLY 
MARKET FOR THE PAST YEAR, IT IS NECESSARY TO ADMIT 
THAT THE SALES HAVE NOT BEEN AS LARGE AS IN PREVIOUS 
YEARS. IT WOULD SEEM THAT THERE HAVE BEEN FEWER 
INSTALLATIONS OF NEW PLANTS AND THAT RENEWALS HAVE 
BEEN POSTPONED. THE MONTHS OF NOVEMBER AND DECEM- 
BER, 1908, SHOW A DECIDED IMPROVEMENT. HOWEVER, THERE 
MUST BE THOUSANDS OF ORDERS FOR NEW MACHINERY AND 
SUPPLIES THAT HAVE BEEN HELD UP PENDING A GENERAL 
REVIVAL OF FINANCIAL CONFIDENCE. THE MACHINERY 
FIRMS HAVE NOT BEEN ASLEEP DURING THIS TIME OF IN- 
ACTIVITY IN THEIR SALES DEPARTMENT. STANDARD MA- 
CHINES HAVE BEEN IMPROVED AND ENTIRELY NEW DE- 
VICES HAVE BEEN COMMERCIALLY PERFECTED. IN THE PAST 
YEAR MANY FIRMS HAVE FOUND THEMSELVES IN POSI- 
TION TO GIVE PROMPT DELIVERY, AND, FOR THE FIRST TIME 
IN MANY YEARS, THEY HAVE BEEN ENABLED TO ENLARGE 
AND IMPROVE THEIR MANUFACTURING PLANTS. 

THAT THIS PAPER IS NOW IN YOUR HANDS IS EVIDENCE 
OF THE FACT THAT YOU ARE INTERESTED IN SOME WAY 
IN THE GREAT MINING INDUSTRY, AS PROPRIETOR OR MAN- 
AGER, AS CONSULTING ENGINEER OR METALLURGIST, OR AS 
FOREMAN; IN WHATEVER POSITION OR CAPACITY, DO NOT 
LOSE SIGHT OF THE FACT THAT THIS IS AN ERA OF IM- 
PROVEMENT. NO MATTER HOW SMOOTHLY THE MACHINERY 
AT YOUR MINE OR MILL IS RUNNING, THERE STILL RE- 
MAINS A CHANCE TO DO BETTER. YOUR PROCESS OF RE- 
DUCTION MAY BE WELL ENOUGH, BUT THERE IS SURE TO 
BE ANOTHER SCHEME FROM WHICH YOU CAN ADOPT A 
SUGGESTION THAT WILL ADD TO THE VALUE OF YOUR 
OWN METHOD. IN THE ADVERTISING PORTION OF THIS 
PAPER, OF WHICH THIS PAGE IS A PART, YOU WILL PROB- 
ABLY FIND EVERY CONCEIVABLE MACHINE OR MECHANISM 
NEEDED, OR ARTICLE USED FOR CONSUMPTION, IN MINES 
AND MILLS. OUR READING PAGES RECOUNT THE EFFORTS 
TOWARD EFFICIENCY; OUR ADVERTISING PAGES FURNISH 
THE MEANS BY WHICH THAT EFFICIENCY IS ATTAINED. 

YOU WILL FIND VALUABLE INSTRUCTION IN STUDYING 
THESE PAGES, AND ANY INQUIRY YOU MAKE WILL BE 
TREATED WITH THE UTMOST COURTESY, FOR WE ADVER- 
TISE NO FRAUDS. SUCH INQUIRIES WILL BE APPRECIATED 
BY THE ADVERTISER, AND ARE CERTAIN TO PROVE OF 
VALUE AND ASSISTANCE TO YOURSELF. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



77 




CARY 

SPRING 

WORKS 

it. New Y 
Wire Springs 



(Tdrpfe*** 1343 Cb.ln. ) 

240 and 242 West 29th St., New York, U.S. A. 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 



Manufacturer! of all kindi of 
Round and Flat Wire, Tempered, and Uotenpered 
Springa for Machinery, Rollinf Shot ten, Motors, &c 

Mask Box and ^* M*. Wrile for &*> k - 



Faw Sprmi« 
Sp«oahT. 



»<^A 



ham msntlon thli 
paper. 




DRY PLACER 
MACHINES 

THE PNEUMATIC 
PROSPECTOR 

Size 6x11x14 
Weight only 10 lbs. 
NO WATER NEEDED Packed tor Moving 

Gives a clean prospect from Placer 
ground of free-milling ore by compressed 
air. The operation Is purely mechanical. 
No chemicals, no quicksilver; very little 
black sand remains with the gold. Will 
do work equal to careful panning. This 
machine is also a portable forge. Very 
useful for field work. 

THE PNEUMATIC SEPARATOR 

Weight 150 Lbs. 

Has a capacity of 20 to 30 cu. yds. of 
gravel per day. Will save fine and coarse 
gold and nuggets of any size, compara- 
tively free from black sand. Will save 
from 80 to 99% under favorable conditions. 
Indispensable for dry countries. 

Send for Descriptive Circular. 

PP* ril P I I IVf Inventor and 
• *• V/Urijir* Manulacturer 

ir. s. a. 



WEST BEXD, IOWA, 



MINING FILTER PRESSES 




w T m PERRINcom™, 

Chicago, U. S. k. Toronto, Canada 



OF ALL 

KINDS 




Switches, Frogs and Equipment 

THE ATLAS CAR & MFG. CO. cl ^? ND - 



Good Investment 

IS WORTH A LIFETIME 
OF LABOR. 

THE BEST INVEST- 
MENT THAT WILL 
PAY LARGE DIVI- 
DENDS IN THE LINE 
OF MINING MACHIN- 
ERY IS A "WOOD" ROCK 
DRILL. ITS PAST REC- 
ORD HAS SHOWN IT 
TO BE 



W 

o 



D 
D 



orthy of recog- 
nition. 

bvious in its 
make-up. 

utwears its com- 
petitors. 

esign and work- 
manship Ip ef- 
fect. 

eserving of a 
trial. 

Repairs at a mini- 
mum. 

Interchangeable in 
ail parts. 

Light in weight and 
most powerful. 

Lastly — GOOD 
SATISFACTION. 




Write for catalogue of drill that made the world's 
record of 330 feet for that size tunnel in one month on 
the C. M. & St. P. railroad tunnel at Taft, Montana. 

Wood Drill Works 

30-36 Dale Ave., Paterson, N. J. 



78 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE HAYWARD ORANGE-PEEL BUCKET 

shown in the illustration handled 
rock varying in size from an egg 
to pieces weighing from two to 
three tons. Hayward Buckets are 
unequaled in design, are made of 
the best materials, and will with- 
stand the hardest usage. 

SEND FOR COPY OF OUR 190S CATALOGUE. 

THE HAYWARD CO., 50 Church St.,N.Y. 




ATLANTIC STEAM SHOVEL 

A high class and powerful machine, 
absolutely reliable under all condi- 
tions of service. 

ATLANTIC EQUIPMENT COMPANY 

Railway Exchange, Chicago. 30 Church St., New York. 




WHY 



THE GOODYEAR "GOLD SEAL" 

CONCENTRATOR BELT 

IS THE BELT FOR WEAR 

EDGE is of patented torm, which will stand up in passing around drums, 
and relieve strain on edge, which prevents cracking. 

BODY of highest grade duck and rubber and cannot sep- 
arate from edge. 

Also made with Spiral Tempered Brass Wire 
Re-enforcement in top of edge. 

EDGE ABSOLUTELY CANNOT CRACK 

GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY S8 %^ 3 F$&?I^!« ee 

Write lor Prices Belting. Packing. Hose, Samples and Full Particulars. 




OUTING SUITS 




HUNTING 

FISHING 

YACHTING 

TENNIS 
GOLF 

Free Catalogues: 

MEN'S SUIT AND BOOT 

WOMEN'S OUTING 



THE WM. H. HOEGEE CO., Inc. 

LOS ANGELES, U. S. A. 




There's ORIGINALITY 
and IMPROVEMENT 

In the construction of an 

Avery 

Under-mounted 
Traction Engine. 

It is entirely dilferent from the ordinary engine with the cylin- 
ders and gearing mounted on the boiler. It was not built fast a 
little different and simply called by the name of a heavy hauling 
engine. It is a Real Heavy Hauling Traction Engine because its 
undermounted construction adapts it specially for grading, lumber- 
ing, ore hauling, etc. 

ABk for complete catalog fully explaining why It Is More Durable 
More Powerful, and Easier to Handle. 

AVERY COMPANY, 989 IOWA ST., PEORIA, ILL., II. S. A. 




FRENIER'S SPIRAL PUMP 

THE MOST DURABLE FOR 
SLIMES, TAILINGS, BATTERY SANDS, ETC. 

Agents 
Allls-Chalmers Co., Stearns-RogerB Mfg. 

Chicago, 111. Co., Denver, Colo. 

Harron, Klckard & McCone, San Francisco, Cal. 

FRENIER & SON, Rutland, Vt 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



79 



MOORE & SCOTT 
IRON WORKS 

MANUFACTURERS OF AND CONTRACTORS FOR 

Riveted Steel Pipe 
Light and Heavy Plate 

Construction 
ot Every Description 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 



IM. D. PHELPS 

EXCLUSIVE PACIFIC COAST AGENT 

MINING, CRUSHING AND CEMENT-MAKING MACHINERY, 

(Power & Mining Machinery Co.) 

MINE AND CONTRACTORS' CARS AND 
H. K. PORTER LOCOMOTIVES, 

(Wonham-Magor Car Worka.) 

CALLOW BELT SCREENS AND THICKENING TANKS, 

(Utah Mining Machinery & Supply Co.) 

CONVEYING AND TRANSMISSION MACHINERY, 

(Webster Mfg. Co.) 

HOISTING ENGINES AND BOILERS, 

(English Iron Works.) 



STEEL CASTINGS, 

(The Falk Co.) 



AIR DRILLS AND TOOLS, 

(C. H. Shaw Pneumatic Tool Co.) 



PORTABLE CRUSHING PLANT, 

(Acme Road Machinery Co.) 



MILTON 
MAGNETO. 



SHELDON BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO 



i First and Market Streets.) 



SMOOTH-ON 



IRON CEMENT No. 1 

STOPS LEAKS of STEAM, FIRE, WATER or OIL 



SMOOTH-ON MFG. CO., JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

Chicago Warehouse: 61-69 N. JeflerBon St. 

SELLERS & MADISON CO., California Agents. 
94 Market St., San Francisco. 



SOUTH AFRICAN MINING JOURNAL 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

The South African Mines, Commerce and Industries 

The only mining paper published In South Africa. Has a world- 
wide circulation. The official organ of the mlulng Industry and the 
Mine Managers' Association. Publishes all scientific and technical 
papers read before the Scientific Societies of South Africa. 
Best Advertising Medium Soutb of the Equator. 

SUBSCRIPTION £2 PER ANNUM. 
Proprietor : CLEM D. WEBB, 2nd Floor Corner House. 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Represented by De Golia 6 Atkins, Crocker Bdg, San Francisco. 



BLAISDELL COMPANY 

Main Office— Pacific Klectrlc Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
New York Office— 30 Church Street. 

BLAISDELL VAT EXCAVATORS AND 
SAND DISTRIBUTERS 



BLAISDELL SLIME FILTERS and AGITATORS 
ROBINS BELT CONVEYORS 



EL 0R0 TUBE MILL LINING 

The El Oro tube mill lining lasts three times as 
long as the ordinary smooth white iron or silex. 




Mound Tools 

For the Engine Room 

ThlB cut represents our new 
Bet of 20 toolB gotten up for use 
In the engine room. Strictly 
high grade toolB with all the 
good points of toolBmlthlng In 
their make-up. Conveniently 
arranged In finished oak case, 
and every tool is guaranteed. 

No. 20 Set ol 20 Tools, $4.00 

Hook, "Engineers' Chums," 
free. Address department S. 



Mound Tool & Scraper Co. 

1606-1608 N. Broadway, SI. Louis, V. S. A. 



Am to mat ic 
'. IrvjectOi\s 



The U. S. Automatic Injector isn't the •'Best" simply 

because the U. S. Government adopted it. 
The U. S. Government adopted the TJ. S. Au- 
tomatic because it is tbe Best* 
Scientific tests prove that the U. S. Automatic 
has 100 per cent efficiency, that it is 
ideally perfect, that there is absolutely 
no waste. 

Write for the Engineer's Red Book — 

sent free 1 This modest little booklet 
deals in facts— not theories. It has 
proved helpful to thousands of engineers. 
It may prove valuable to you. Fraaforlhe asmnq. 
AMERICAN INJECTOR CO., Detroit, Mich. 



PIERCE 


AMALGAMATORS 


have no equal for Dredge Boats and Placer 
Mines. They save the gold where all other 
devices fail. Have you used them? Are 
you interested? 
fc^~ Write today for Catalogue No. 10 


\^M 




- LS.PIERCE 

Sgslg&g^^ 1650 Champa 

■Outfit ' — W& strcc> 

■T - DENVER, 

wSSSwm W colo. 



80 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Assayers' and Chemists' Supplies, Engineering Instruments and Drawing Materials 




BAUSCH & LOME 

Standard 6-inch Transit 

¥S THE most perfect and complete high grade instrument of its 
kind yet produced, we doubt if it be possible to add to it any- 
thing which will materially enhance its value. 

flit embodies all those unique and convenient features which are 
the product of the ingenuity of our associate, Mr. George H. Saeg- 
muller, and are characteristic of OUR instruments ALONE. 
•5 Our new complete Engineering Catalog is now in press. We 
shall be pleased to send you a copy on request, 
fl PRISM is a little popular science monthly. Send for copy. 
IJ Our name on an Engineering or Scientific Instrument, a Photo- 
graphic Lens, Field Glass, Microscope or Laboratory Apparatus is 
our Guarantee. 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Company 

CARL ZEISS. JENA < ^b-i^ GEO: N. SAEGMULLER 

Of fice9:\ 7Tq /San Francisco 

New York\ / Washington 

BostonX /L ondon 

Chicago ^ Frankfort 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 




YOU WILL NEVER 
iKNOW 

how superior 

THE KELLER 

ASSAY 

BALANCE 



Is until you have tried It 
yourself. For Accuracy, 
Speed, and Durability it 
cannot be surpassed. 

SEND FOR CATALOG C. 



THE SALT LAKE HARDWARE CO. 



SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. 




Gold Bfadal Award at St. Louis. 

1 84(1 STANDARD OF 
10*U EXCELLENCE 



1904 



FOR OVER 60 YEARS. 

Troemner's 

No. 3 Assay Balance 

V ..■•> inch Beam. Sensibility Vioo Mg. 

Full, clear sweep across 
beam, no obstructions. Fall 
away beam and pan arrests. 
The most popular and. effi- 
cient Assay Balance. All 
agate bearings and edges. 
List jprice, $95.00. Price List on Application. 

HENRY TROEMNER, PHILADELPHIA, PA., U. S. A. 



Our New No. 5 

IS THE FINEST 
BALANCE 
ON EARTH. 

LET US PROVE IT 
■ ■' i" TO YOU. 

Style 6. 

THOMPSON BALANCE COMPANY, Denver, Colorado 




Save One Halt Your Assay Charges 

How many samples have you sent 
your assayer which showed values 
only in the "charges"? A test with 
Way's Pocket Smelter would cost 
you only five cents and could be 
made right in your office or in the 
field in less than five minutes. If 
your sample shows values, send it to 
an assayer, if not, waste no more 
money on it. 

This outfit will save you money, 
and we want you to know more 
about it. Write today for complete illustrated folder. 

Don't Delay. Write Today* 

WAY'S POCKET SMELTER CO. 

P. O. Box 946 SOUTH PASADENA, CAL. 




FOB THK ASSAYER 



The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 WILLIAM STREET, NEW YORK 

Works : Perth Amboy, N. J. 

CYANIDE 

98/99 Per Cent. 

CYANIDE OF SODIUM 

125/130 Per Cent. 
AND OTHER CHEMICALS FOR MINING PURPOSES 




SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS 

DRAWING MATERIALS 
BLUE and VANDYKE PAPERS 

THE BEST AT ANY PRICE 

EUGENE DIETZGEN CO. 

16-29 First St., SAN FRANCISCO 
NEW YORK CHICAGO NEW ORLEANS TORONTO 

New 8th Edition Catalogue 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



81 



Assayers' and Chemists' Supplies, Engineering Instruments and Drawing Materials 



EXTRA 
WATERPROOF 



POST'S 

* DRAWING INKS 



A high grade drawing ink made from the 
purest carbon. Flows freely — 
produces finest lines — colors are 
dense, true, brilliant. Indispensa- 
ble to the critical draughtsman. 

SEND FOR SAMPLE 

The Frederick Post Company 

New York Manufacturers Chicago 

135-137 Second Street. San Francisco 





rent Switchboard 

Ammeters. Milli-Ammeters and Voltmeters 
of the "SOFT-IRON" or "ELECTRO-MAGNETIC" 
type, but they posseu 10 many NOVEL and VALUABLE 
CHARACTERISTICS »s lo practically commute A NEW 
TYPE OF INSTRUMENT. 

Their COST IS EXCEEDINGLY LOW. but they are 
REMARKABLY ACCURATE. WELL MADE and NICELY 
FINISHED instrument! and are admirably adapted [or 
general use in SMALL PLANTS, the COST OF WHICH 
IS FREQUENTLY an IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION. 

Correspondence concerning these new Weston Instru- 
ments is solicited by the 

WESTON ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT CO., Waverly Park, Newark, N. J. 
New York Office, 74 Cortiandt Street. 



STRICTLY C. P. ACIDS 

(Black Label) 

AND AMMONIA — ALSO COMMERCIAL 

Manufactured by 

THE WESTERN CHEMICAL MFG. CO. 

DENVER. 
Buyers of Low Grade Zinc-Iron Sulphides. 



406 PAfiES.- 



-FOUR DOLLARS. 



Austin's 'Metallurgy of the Common Metals' 



ESTABLISHED 1859 

HERMAN KOHLBUSCH, Sr. 

1S4 SROADWAY, NEW YORK 

MANL'KAfTURKR OF 

Fine Balances and Weights 

For every purpose where 
accuracy Is required. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 




SEND FCR CATALOG. 



f UFKIN 



TAPES and RULES 

ARE THE BEST IN THE WORLD. 

«•■'«»* THE LUFKIN RULE CO. 

new YORK Saginaw, Mich., 

LONDON U.S.A. 

FOR SALE EVERYWHERE. 



i ^f™ j l THE PRECISION FACTOR Y!® ^^.^ 



The Finest Equipment In the World for the Production of 

BALANCES AND ENGINEERING INSTRUMENTS 

(See Page 56.) 
Send for Catalog A-9 of Balances ;' BX-9 of Engineering Instruments. 




^ePutman 
Boots 



The 
Worlds 
Standard I 



They art tbe 
best, became 
made by expert 
boot makers, in 
the only factory 
in the U. S. de- 
voted exclusive- 
ly to the 
of boots. 
Oar FREE CATALOGUE describes over 30 STYLES of boots 
adapted to the demands of Civil and Mining Engineers, Pros- 
pectors, Sportsmen, etc. We can famish YOU with practical 
boots for YOUR KIND OF WORK, and at a variety of prices. 
PUTMAN BOOTS are Hand Sewed, Water Proofed, Made to 
Measure, Cost no More than Others and delivery charges are prepaid in the U. S., Canada 
or Mexico. Send for Catalogue and Self-Measuring Blanks. 
H. J. PUTMAN & CO., 23 Bridge Square, Minneapolis, Minn. 




The "BUFF" 

is rarely sold by an owner. Ask 
him why. 

Send for Catalogue No. 31. 

BUFF & BUFF MFG. CO. 

Jamaica Plain Station, BOSTON. 
A. E. Fuller, Seattle, Agent for Northwest 



ISP 



SAN"..FRANS1SC< 



MINE TRANSITS 



and LEVELS 



C. L. Berger * Sons 
37 Williams Street 

C r C«TALOCUC. BOSTON, MaSS 




SAVE TIME 

Use Johnston's Improved 
Tape and Reel. Booklet is 
Interesting. 

MAY* / SEND IT? 

ROBERT JOHNSTON 

Wilkes- Barre, Pa. 





p, Denver 
Y Balance Co. 

{ Manufacturers of 

jjl, HIGH-GRADE 

I Balances 

1 Write for Catalog. 
SOOO Larimer St 

DENVER. COLO. 


Style R 
Portable 



Mine Bell Signals 

Adopted, Used and in Force in 
Accordance with Law. 

PRICE 50c. 

Mining and Scientific Press 



Silver Plated Copper Amalgam Plates 

FOR SAVING GOLD 

Oldest Established and Most Successful Manufacturers. 

Our plates have proved the best. 

Old plates replated and made equal to new. 

SAN FRANCISCO PLATING WORKS, 1349-1351 Mission St., San Francisco 



Get our Prices. 
Circulars sent. 



E. G. DENNISTON, Prop. 



Telephone Market 2916. 



INOUKnrUKA 1 .Ei 1IM AKIAOIM A Advantages are Worth Thousands 

No franchise tax in Arizona. No stock subscriptions required before incorpor- 
ating. Any kind of stock may be issued, and paid up in cash, services or property. 
Transact business anywhere. Stockholders exempt from company liability. No pub- 
lic statement required, and no books need be kept for public inspection anywhere, 
if incorporated in Arizona. President Stoddard, FORMER SECRETARY OF ARI- 
ZONA, was for years officially in charge of incorporating business, and is resident 
agent for many thousand companies. All blanks, law, by-laws, and particulars free. 
Companies incorporated on receipt of remittance, telegram stating name, capital, 
shares, names of directors, and authorized debt. 

STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, 

Reference: Any bank in Arizona. Box 8B, Phoenix, Arizona. 



82 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Douglas Copper Company 

42 Broadway, New York City 

Producers of D. C. C. Brand 

Electrolytic Wire Bars, Cakes, Ingots and Slabs 
Selling Agents — The American Metal Co., Ltd. 



WORKS 
Pacific Smelting & Refining Co. 

(Com pallia Metalurgica y Refinadora del Paclfico S. A.) 
Fundicion, Sonora, Mexico. 

Buyers of all ores and products containing Copper, 
Silver and Gold. 



TRADE XI SCO MARK 

Manganese Steel 

TO RESIST WEAR AND TEAR 

"TAYLOR MADE" STEEL CASTINGS 

STANDARD FOR DREDGES 

TAYLOR IRON & STEEL CO. 

HIGHBRIDQE, N. J. catalog 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO., 

SMELTERS AND REFINERS 

BUYERS OF 

Gold, Silver and Lead Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide 

Product, etc., Lead Bullion, Dore Bars, Gold Dust 

and Bullion. 

CONSIGN ALL SHIPMENTS TO VALLEJO JUNCTION, 
CAL, (P. O. SELBY) 

Assaying of hand samples has been discontinued. 

GENERAL OFFICES: 

MERCHANTS EXCHANGE BDG., SAN FRANCISCO. 

EIGHTH FLOOR. 



Peyton Chemical Company 

Purchasers and Smelters ol 

COPPER, GOLD and SILVER ORES, Etc. 

MANUFACTURERS OF ACIDS. 

Office: 657 and 658 MILLS BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Smelter and Works at Peyton, Contra Costa County, California. 
P. O., Martinez. 



BEER, SONDHEIMER & CO. 

FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN, GERMANY. 

BtiyCrS Of ZinC OreS Carbonates, Sulphides and Mixed 

— Ores, Copper Ores, Copper Matte, 

Copper Bullion, Lead Bullion, Lead Ores, Antimony Ores, Iron 
and Manganese Ores. 

Sellers of Spelter, Antimony, Antimonial Lead, Arsenic, 
Zinc Dust. 

Own Smelting and Refining Works. New York Office, 42 Broadway 



ELEPHAN 

M 


BftiNO. 


-THE PHOSPHOR B1ZES1ELTHIG CO.. Liiitel.1 


to ■ 


2200 WASHINGTON AVENUE, PHILADELPHIA. PA. 


yf. 


*flB 


ELEPHANT BRAND - 35^4- 3^y- ■■ 






INGOTS. CASTINGS. WIRE. RODS. SHEETS, Etc. 


y^C\ 




DELTA METAL 


/o t L 


1 A\ 


CASTINGS. STAMPINGS AND FORGINGS 

ORIGINAL ANO SOLE M.kers in the U. S, 


REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 



The American Metal Company, Ltd. 

52 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 
Branch Offices: 
St. LoulB, Mo- Denver, Colo. 

320 Security Building 420 Empire Building 



Ores and Mattes 



Copper and Lead Bullion 



Mexican Representatives : Companla de Mlnerales y Metales, 
Mexico City and Monterrey. 



SLJPP 

BUTLER 

CO. 

Ore and Metal 
Selling Agents 

52 Wall Street 
NEW YORK 



are expert Ore and Metal Sales- 
men and can make money for 
you. We have 

OPEN ORDERS 

for Bismuth, Tin, Vanadium, 
Arsenic and Zinc Ores, also 
Antimony Ores, containing 
Gold and Silver, Copper Matte 
and Bullion. Also many in- 
quiries for other ores and 
minerals. 



It Will Pay You to Write Us Now 

Cable Address, "SLIPBTJTLER." Any Code. 



THE BALAKLALA SMELTER 

CORAM, CALIFORNIA 
NOW READY TO RECEIVE ORES. 

PURCHASERS OF ORES, MATTES, AND CONCENTRATES. 

Best price paid for both medium and high grade SUlclous Ores. 
Every facility for accurate and economical sampling. Smelter located 
on main line of Southern Pacific Company at CORAM, SHASTA 
COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Write for Tariff Sheet to: 
BALAKLALA CONSOLIDATED COPPER COMPANY, CORAH, CAL. 




SULPHURIC 

NITRIC 

MURIATIC 

SAN FRANCISCO CHEMICAL CO. 



ACIDS 



WRITE FOR PRICES TO 



150 PINE STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. 



TO PROSPECTORS AND OPERATORS 

We are Dealers In ORES and MINERALS, MINES and MINERAL 
DEPOSITS. Special Requirements: Tungsten, Molybdenum and all 
Rare Ores. Foreign Shipments a Specialty. Advances Made on Con- 
signments. 

DeGOLIA & ATKINS, 1020 Crocker Building, San Francisco 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



83 



Baldwin Locomotive Works 




IDO INDUSTRIAL 




BURNHAM, WILLIAMS & CO., Philadelphia, Pa., U. 
Cable Address:- "BALDWIN, PHILADELPHIA" 
PACIFIC COAST REPRESENTATIVES: 

Williams. Dimond & Co., 310 Smsome St.. Sun Francisco, Col. 

William IViin Evans, till Couch Bids.. Ponland. Ore. 

314 Occidental Ave.. Seattle. Wash. 



S. A. 



LOCOMOTIVES 




For All Classes of Work. 

Any gauge and Tor any 
service, outside or Inside, 
our experience In this line 
will be of service to you 
and we will gladly advise 
as to your needs. 



Davenport Locomotive Works 

DAVENPORT, IOWA. 

562 HOWARD STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 



LIMA LOCOMOTIVES 




Pour-Wheel Saddle Tank Locomotive. Cylinders, S'x 10"— 16"x 24'. 
Weight on Drivers, 13,500 lbs. to 94,000 lbs. 
For mining, quarrying, etc., the small 4-wheel Saddle Tanks are 
especially designed. 

CATALOG L. 

LIMA LOCOMOTIVE & MACHINE CO. 

Ill W. SECOND ST., LIMA, OHIO. 



KOMINUTERS 

REDUCE THE COST OF 

GRINDING ORES 




F. L SMIDTH & CO. 

41 CORTLANDT ST. NEW YORK ClTY 



Standard Steel Works Co. 

HARRISON BLDG., Philadelphia, Pa., 



Railway Exchsr., Chicago. 111. 
Majestic Bide.. Denver, Col. 
Empire Bide, New York. N. Y. 



Flood Bids;., San Francisco, Cnl. 



U. S. A. 

Security Bids.. St. Louis. Mo. 
ill Couch Bids.. Portland. Ore. 
314 Occidental Ave. Seattle. Wash. 



u 



Standard" Roll Shells, 
Rings and Dies 

of tire steel. The same method is followed as in the 
manufacture of steel locomotive tires, thereby assuring 
solid, weldless material to correct sizes and of unsur- 
passed quality. 




PULVERIZERS 

are the most practical and Economical 
Mills on the Market for 



GRAPHITE, Sulphur. Borax. Feldspar. Baryles. Fuller's Earth. 
OCHRES. Kaolin. Chalk, Slate. Shale and Metal Oxides. 
GOLD ORES, Silver, Copper.Lead, Iron. Manganese & Zinc Ores. 
LIMESTONE. Marl. Phosphates, and other minerals. 

AIR SEPARATION MILLS 
A SPECIALTY. 

E. H. STROUD & CO., 



30 to 36 La SaUe St. 



Chicago, 111. 



U. S. A. 



John A. Roebling's Sons Go. 

WORKS: TRENTON, NEW JERSEY 



-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



Iron, Steel and Copper 
Wire and Wire Rope 



Bare and Insulated Electric Wires and Cables 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE WIRE 
INSULATORS, BRACKETS AND PINS 

Barb Wire Wire Nails 
Wire Cloth and Netting 

624-646 FOLSOM ST., SAN FRANCISCO 

Cor. Market and Alameda Streets, Los Angeles. 
900 First Ave., South, Seattle, Wash. 91 First St., Portland, Ore. 



Green Chain Grate Stokers 



Automatic 

Smokeless 

Labor 
Saving 

BURN THE HIGH VOLATILE COALS FROM PACIFIC STATES, 
GIVING HIGHEST CAPAOITY AND EFFIOIENOY. 

Green Engineering Co. 

115 ADAMS ST., CHICAGO. 

EXCLUSIVE agents: 

J. L. HERY ENGINEERING & SUPPLY CO., Monadaock Building. SAN FRANCISCO. 

SEATTLE HALLID1E.MACHINERY COMPANY SPOKANE 




The Mining and Scientific Press can supply you with any Book on Mining, 
Milling, Geology, and Metallurgy. 



84 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



1SI E W AND SECOND- HA NJ 



BIG SLASH IN 
MACHINERY PRICES 

Our large purchases and the excellent 
facilities we have for handling our busi- 
ness enable us to niake very low prices. 
It will be to your interest to get our fig- 
ures before placing your orders for ma- 
chinery or supplies. In order to make 
room in our warehouse for another plant 
which has just been purchased, we are 
slashing prices astonishingly. 

The following is a partial list of the ma- 
chinery we offer for sale: 
KZVqiNES. 
1 22x48 400-hp. Allis Corliss Engine. 
1 12x36 100-hp. Fraser & Chalmers Cor- 
liss Engine. 
1 15x14 150-hp. Automatic Engine. 
3 9x10 25-hp. Atlas Engines. 
1 10x16 Jackson Slide Valve Engine. 
3 14x16 Ball Automatic Engines. 
1 13x15 Ideal Automatic Engine. 
1 14x16 125-hp. Ball Automatic Engine, 
"with direct-connected Generator. 
BOILERS. 
150-hp. High Pressure Boilers. 
125-hp. High Pressure Boilers. 
100-hp. R. T. Horizontal Boilers. 
80-hp. R. T. Horizontal Boilers. 
40-hp. R. T. Horizontal Boilers. 
18-hp. Vertical Boiler. 
30-hp. Scotch Marine Boiler. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

3 Heaters. 

10 Boiler Feed Pumps. 

11 Centrifugal Pumps. 

4 High Duty Duplex Pumps. 
Single Acting Pumps. 
15 Stamp Mill, 1050-lta. Stamps. 
10 Stamp Mill, 900-lb. Stamps. 
5 Stamp Mill, 1000-lb. Stamps. 
7x10 Denver Eng. Co. Crusher. 
50x14 Challenge Crushers. 
No. 1 Gates Crushers. 
14x27 Davis Rolls. 
16x36 Krom Rolls, 
set Davis Sampling Rolls. 
Challenge Ore Feeders. 
4-ft. Frue Vanner. 
6-ft. Frue Vanners. 
6-ft. Sturtevant Blower. 
15-in. Sturtevant Blower. 
12-in. Buffalo Blower. 
2-in. Buffalo Blower. 
Colorado Iron Works Roaster. 
Chilean Mill. 



The Colorado Machinery & Supply Co. 

16S0-52 Wazee St., Denver. Colorado 



BUY AND SELL 

New or Second-Hand 
Equipment 

Mine, Railway, Contractors' 
Machinery 

Pacific Equipment Go. 

AGENTS FOR 

Fisher Hydraulic Artificial Stone 

Press Machinery 

National Brick Machinery Co. 

Hicks Locomotives and Cars 

The Best Concrete Mixers 

Stamp Mills Engines Boilers 

Pumps Drills 

Write for our list of second-hand machinery. 
24> California Street San Francisco 



For Sale. 



15 H.P. Fairbanks-Morse Horizontal Hoist, 
Buckets, Car, Sheave, etc. L. H. LAMBORN, 
1516 St. Charles St., Alameda, Cal. 



AUSTIN'S METALLURGY OF THE 
COMMON METALS. 406 pages. 84. 



MACHINERY BARGAINS 

ONE-HALF THE COST OF NEW 

Over 50 plants dismantled during the past year gives us the largest and most 
complete stock of Mining Machinery in the World. Our prices are lower than ever 
before, and we can fill your complete requirements. 



CONCENTRATING TABLES. 

16 Wilfley Tables. 

14 6-ft. Fraser & Chalmers Frue Vanners, 
plain belts. 
2 6-ft. Allis-Chalmers Frue Vanners, cor- 
rugated belts. 
2 4-ft. Allis-Chalmers Frue Vanners, 

plain belts. 
1 Cammett Table. 
1 Bartlett Table. 

6 Gilpin County Bumping Tables. 
1 New Century, 6 comp., single jig. 

1 New Century, 5 comp., single pig. 

2 New Century, 4 comp., single jig. 

SINKING PUMPS. 
2 12x12x7x12 Snow, Duplex, Compound. 
1 110x5x12 Snow, Duplex. 

1 12x6x16 Deane, Single. 

2 No. 9B, 14x7x13 Cameron. 

3 No. 7, 10x5x13 Cameron. 
1 No. 5, 7x3%xl2 Cameron. 
1 No. 5, Knowles. 

1 No. 4, Knowles. 

HOISTS. — Geared. 

14x16 Vulcan, Double Cylinder, Single 
Drum. 

12x16 Vulcan, Double Cylinder, Single 
Drum, Link Motion. 

2 8^4x10 Lidgerwood, Double Cylinder, 
Single Drum. 

8x10 American, Double Cylinder, Single 
Drum. 

5x6 Hendey & Meyer, Single Cylinder, sin- 
gle Drum. 

Friction. 

12x12 Hendrie & Bolthoff, Double Cylinder, 
Quadruple Friction. 

2 6x8 Davis, Double Cylinder, Double Fric- 
tion. 

6x8 Vulcan, Double Cylinder, Double Fric- 
tion. 

Belted. 

1 Single Drum Belted Hoist, Single Fric- 

tion, drum 14"x20", pulley 36"x8". 
AIR COMPRESSORS. — Steam Actuated. 
20x22x13 %x24 Norwalk, Compound. 
16x26x24x15x24 Cincinnati, Cross Com- 
pound. 
16xlSxllx22 Leyner, Compound. 
14x14x22 Rand, Straight Line. 
10x12x6 %.xl2 Norwalk, Compound. 
8x8x12 Rand, Straight Line. 
7x9x10x7x9 New York Air Pump. 
Belt Driven. 

2 12%xl4 Ingersoll Sergeant, Single. 
8%xl0 Leyner, Single Upright. 
7%x7 Montgomery, Single Upright. 

STAMP MILLS. 
40 1050-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 
30 1050-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 
20 1050-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 
20 950-lb. Single Discharge Mortars. 
20 850-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 
10 1050-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 
10 950-lb. Single Discharge Mortars. 
10 850-lb. Single Discharge Mortars. 
10 700-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 



5 850-lb. Single Discharge Mortars. 

5 700-lb. Single Discharge Mortars. 

5 700-lb. Double Discharge Mortars. 

5 650-lb. Double Discharge Mortars, 
CRUSHERS. 
9x15 Davis Blake. 
9x15 Colorado Iron Works Blake. 
8x12 Dodge. 
7x11 Dodge. 
7x10 Challenge Blake. 
No. 1, 4x6 Sampson. 

ROLLS. 
1 set 16x36 Davis. 
1 set 16x36 Stearns-Roger. 

1 set 14x30 Allis. 

2 sets 14x27 Davis. 

1 set 14x27 Colorado Iron "Works. 
1 set 12x20 Colorado Iron Works. 
1 set 12x12 Fraser & Chalmers. 
1 set 9x16 Fraser & Chalmers. 
1 set 6x10 MeFarlane. 

BULLS AND PULVERIZERS. 
1 5'x22' Allis-Chalmers Tube Mill. 
1 6'xl7» Abbe Tube Mill. 

3 5%xl2' Fraser & Chalmers Ball Mills. 
1 6'x9' Fraser & Chalmers Ball Mill. 

1 Elspass Mill. 

1 5' Huntington Mill. 

2 3%' Huntington Mills. 

1 No. 3 Wild Mill. 

2 No. 2 Wild Mills. 

2 No. 2 Davis Sample Grinders. 

3 No. 1 MeFarlane Sample Grinders. 

HOISTING PLANT — Consisting of 
1 6x8 Davis Double Friction Hoist. 
1 40-hp. Horizontal Tubular Boiler. 

1 No. 7 Cameron Sinking Pump. 

2 No. 3 Ore Buckets. 

1 36-in. Sheave Wheel, with shaft and 
boxes. 
40-STAMP MILL — Consisting of 
40 1050-lb. Rapid Drop Stamps. 
8 Double Discharge Mortars. 
S Suspended Type Challenge Ore Feeders. 
2 9x15 Blake Crushers. 
14 Wilfley Concentrating Tables. 

14 6-ft. F. & C. Frue Vanners. 

4 80-hp. Horizontal Tubular Boilers. 

1 14x20 Atlas Automatic Engine. 

1 12x18 Phoenix Automatic Engine. 

1 350-hp. Feed Water Heater. 

1 100 Light Plant, complete. 

20-STAMP MILL — Consisting of 
20 850-lb. Rapid Drop Stamps. 

4 Double Discharge Mortars. 

4 Challenge Automatic Ore Feeders. 

1 9x15 Blake Crusher. 

1 12x15 Nagle Slide Valve Engine. 

1 70-hp. Horizontal Tubular Boiler. 

1 4%x2%x4 Duplex Boiler Feed Pump. 
AIR COMPRESSOR PLANT — Consisting of 

1 20x22x13^x24 Norwalk Compressor. 

2 80-hp. Horizontal Tubular Boilers. 
1 42x10 Air Receiver. 

1 6x4x6 Duplex Boiler Feed Pump. 

15 2 V4 -in. Ingersoll-Sergeant Drills. 



Our Complete Machinery List, No. 50, will be mailed you on request. 

THE S. H. SUPPLY COMPANY 



2046 LARIMER ST. 



DENVER, COLO. 



FOR SALE 

AIR COMPRESSORS. 

20^x30x18x30 Straight Line Ingersoll. 
12x14x14x14 Tandem Rand. 
18x22x18x22x11x22 Simple Steam com- 
pound air Leyner. 
8x12x8x12 Straight Line Ran<L 

DRILLS. 

In stock at Denver, ready for early ship- 
ment, 50 drills, Rand, Ingersoll, and Sulli- 
van, ranging in size from 2^ to 3%", at 
one-third price of new. 

20-STAMP MILL, COMPLETE. 

Twenty 850-lb. rapid-drop stamps, 9x15 
Blake pattern crusher, 14x27 Krom rolls, 
6x30 Colorado Iron "Works rolls, 8 Wilfley 
concentrating tables, 4 Fraser & Chalmers 
Frue vanners, 125-hp. horizontal tubular 
boiler, 50-hp. Bay State slide-valve engine, 
15-hp. Allis-Chalmers engine. 

"Will sell above mill at less than one- 
half price, if taken complete. 

The Great Western Machinery Company 

1624 Blake Street 
DENVER, COLORADO 



Modern to toe Minute 



16x42 Corliss Engine 

Tangee Bed — Excellent Condition. 
Immediate Delivery. 



THE CENTRAL MACHINERY CO. 

18th and Blake Sts., Denver. 



WANTED — To examine placer proper- 
ties, with a view to determining their 
value and best method of developing; 17 
years' practical and successful experience 
in the operation of hydraulic gravel ele- 
vators. Inventor of the Davis Hydraulic 
Elevator. H. W. Davis, East Auburn, Cal. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



sr, 



MACHINERY FOR SALE. 



Machinery, Boilers, Engines, Etc. 



at Wrecking Prices 

We have in stock, ready for Immediate delivery, the following items on 
which we are prepared to Quote extraordinary low prices. 
1 75-hp. Internally Klr.nl BuUer. with Morrison Corrugated Furnace, triple 

i. butt strapped, good for 125 lb. steam pressure. 
l 125-hp, [nternally Fired Boiler, with Morris. in Corrugated Furnace, triple 
Riveted, butt strapped, good for 126 lb. steam preai 

15-ln. Morris Centrifugal Pump, direct connected to duplex engine. 
We have a complete stock or Engines, ranging from 1 to 1000 lip., in plain 
throttling, heavy duty and Corliss 

We i Boilers, ranging from 1 to 500 hp.. In the vertical, hori- 

zontal tubular, tire box and water tube type, also Internally Ilred boilers. 
Over 1000 pumps of all kinds In stock. 

CAR TANKS 

We have /era! hundred Car Tanks, coming off railroad tank cars, which 
are made of '4 -In, Steel. Heads are 6-18 in. thick and equipped with Standard 
dome, and have 15-in. screw manhole on top of dome. Range In capacity 
from 3000 to 8000 gal. each. All tanks are thoroughly tested prior to ship- 
ment and are made absolutely tight and are so guaranteed. We consider 
them as good as new. We have them located at Whiting, Ind.; Kansas City, 
Mo.; Lima, Ohio; Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo. N. Y.; Olean, N. Y. 

Radiation, Iron Pipe, Belting, Etc. 

5000 ft. steam radiation, in first-class condition; price per foot 13 cts. 

50.000,000 ft. of Iron pipe radiation, in slz.-s from % to 12 Inches. 

Complete stock of rubber and leather belting, shafting, hangers and mill 
supplies. Write for our prices on Lumber, Sash and Mill Work for factory 
construction. We are making low quotations on Structural Iron and Steel. We 
have a large stock of merchandise of every description, and can supply almost 
every want of the builder, contractor and purchasing agent. Send us a com- 
plete list of what you need for our estimate. We can save you from 30 to 75% 
on the entire bill. Write today for our special bargain catalogue 360, Illus- 
trating and describing thousands of astonishing bargains in merchandise con- 
stantly required about the Home, Farm. Field and Factory. Mailed free to 
all who request a copy. 

30 Long; DlNtnuce Telephones, all Yards 1000. 

Chicago House Wrecking Co., 35th & Iron Sis., Chicago. 



ASBESTOS 

Save FUEL by Covering Your 
PIPES and BOILERS With It. 

ASBESTOS MFQ.& SUPPLY CO. 

IS FREMONT ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Phone Kearney 730. 



LANE 

SLOW SPEED CHILIAN MILL CO. 



140 Ave. 34, Los Angeles, Cal., U. S. A. 
Cable: " I.ANKMii.." W. U. Code. 



GOLD DREDGES, PUMPS, and SUPPLIES 

YUBA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY " 

The LargeBt Exclusive Dredge 

Shop In the West. 

Marysvllle, California, U. S. A. 

Pacific Terminal on Three Railways. 

Cable : "Yubacon." W. U. and Bedford McNeil! Code. 



ATKINS, KROLL &. CO. 

IMPORT MERCHANTS SAN FRANCISCO 

French and Danish Pebbles. Belgian Sllex 
Lining. MagneBlte, Silica and Fireclay 
Bricks. Matte and Ore Bags. Black Oxide 
of Manganese. 



California PERFORATING SCREEN Company 




416 Harrison Street 



Manufacturers of Per- 
forated Sheet Metals of 
all kinds for Mining 
and Milling Machinery 
and other uses. 

San Franclaco, Cal. 




Frue Vanners, 
with Brownell 
"Patent Lip" 
Flange Belts 

Machines furnished with 
Iron Legs if desired 

Send for Descriptive Pamphlets. 

JAS. S. BROWNELL ESS FRUE VANNING MACHINE CO. 

47 JORDAN AVENUE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 




The New Woodbury 
Concentrator 



Improved 
Efficient 

and 

Economically 
Operated. 



Will compete 
with any other 
Concentrator. 




PR IE 

S400.22 



SEND FOR 

ILLUSTRATED 

CATALOGUE 



GEO. E. WOODBURY 

238 Townsend St., San Francisco, U. S. A 



86 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



The cost of advertising in this columnis 10 cents 
per line of sevemvords per insertion. Minimum, 
order 50 cents. Hep lies forwarded to any address 

without extra e/tf'ige. 



CHEMIST AND ASSAYER wishes em- 
ployment; 7 years' experience in United 
States and Mexico at mines and smelters; 
first-class reference. Address Chemist, 3719 
Page Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

CHIEF ELECTRICIAN or master me- 
chanic, a man of 45, of good habits and 
disposition and of long and successful ex- 
perience in the application of electric 
power in mining, d. c, a. c, high and low 
tension, wants, for good reason, change of 
position. First-class repair man, expert in 
electric haulage work, erecting, mainte- 
nance. Also understands well steam and 
compressed air, machine shop practice. 
Studied I. C. S. course of mechanical and 
electrical engineering with success. Good 
references. Address J. M., this office. 



CYANIDE SUPERINTENDENT and met- 
allurgist desires position as superintend- 
ent, assistant, or foreman; at present em- 
ployed in Mexico as assistant superintend- 
ent of concentrating and cyanide plant 
treating low-grade tailings and custom 
ores; reason for leaving change in man- 
agement; eight years' experience in Puebla, 
Durango, and El Oro, Mexico (silver ores); 
the Black Hills and West Austrilia (gold 
ores); married. Address 'Waihi,' this office. 



ENGINEER, M. I. T. graduate, desires 
position with mining company; 12 years' 
experience in Mexico and United States, 
from assayer, surveyor, mill and mine 
foreman to superintendent. Specialty gold 
and silver mining and milling, particularly 
cyanide treatment. Speaks Spanish flu- 
ently. Address "Mason," this office. 



METALLURGIST wants Position as 
manager, assistant to manager or superin- 
tendent of copper smelter. Eight years' 
experience in large and small plants, both 
in operation and construction. Good ref- 
erences. Will go anywhere and on short 
notice. Married. Age 35. Address Box 
201, Mining and Scientific Press. 

PRACTICAL MAN, with technical train- 
ing, desires position with live mining com- 
pany. Experience in cyanide treatment of 
refractory ores. Able to take charge of 
construction and can handle men. Have 
had thorough experience in assaying and 
mine surveying. Experienced in setting 
up mining and milling machinery, includ- 
ing electrical equipment. Address D. M. C, 
this office. 



MINING GRADUATE, with eight years' 
experience in California, Arizona, Mexico, 
and Central America, wishes position as 
assistant or superintendant with mining 
company; speaks Spanish; at present en- 
gaged. Address Box 252, this office. 




WANTED — Chemist to take charge of 
laboratory in shops of railroad company, 
St. Paul, Minnesota. Principal work, an- 
alyses of water, and testing materials, 
with occasional determinations on iron, 
silver, gold, copper, etc. ores and coal. Ad- 
dress Geological Department, 220 Great 
Northern Railway Bdg., St. Paul. Minne- 
sota, stating experience, references, and 
salary. 



WANTED — Young engineer, technical 
graduate, with at least 5 years practical 
experience in up-to-date underground 
practice and cyanidation, to act as resident 
manager of group of mines in Mexico; ex- 
cellent opportunity for advancement to one 
who can qualify. Address Box 256, this 
office. 



INCORPORATE IN ARIZONA 

Hold meetings and do business any- 
where, small fee pays total eost of incorpo- 
ration. No annual franchise or other taxes. 
No State supervision. No annual Statements. 
Stockholders exempt from corporate 
debts. Can make stock non-assessable, Book 
of forms for corporate instruments and pro- 
cedure by-laws, minutes, proxies, etc., fur- 
nished all clients. Will advise concerning 
all details ol organization and carefully 
examine instruments before filing to 
insure legal incorporation. Blank forms, 
copy of laws and full instructions on request. 
ReferJences to clients In your vicinity. 
F. W. BENNETT, Atlorney-at-Law. PHOENIX. ARIZONA 



NOTICES OF RECENT PATENTS. 

Among the patents recently obtained 
through Dewey, Strong & Co. "a Scientific 
Press United States and Foreign Patent 
Agency, the following are worthy of spe- 
cial mention: 

GAS REGULATOR.— No. 906,810; Decem- 
ber 15, 1908. O. W. Lutz, Petaluma, Cal. 
This invention relates to gas and heat reg- 
ulators and controllers, and pertains espe- 
cially to a thermostatic arrangement for 
regulating the heat for incubators and the 
like. It provides a practical gas controller 
for machines of any kind, and can be 
shipped and set up as a single bit of 
mechanism by an ordinary operator. 



PIPE HANGER.— No. 906,806; December 
15, 1908. J. C. Kortick and G. C. Eberhard, 
San Francisco, Cal. This invention is de- 
signed to produce a clamp composed of 
two semi-circular segments, with a novel 
means by which these segments may be 
flexibly united so as to open to the fullest 
extent to receive the full diameter of the 
pipe to be inverted and folded for packing 
purposes, and to be closely fitted and 
locked upon the pipe when in service. 



DETACHABLE HANDLE FOR PANS.— 
No. 906,801; December 15, 1908. E. Hickey. 
Sawyers Bar, Cal. The object of this in- 
vention is to provide a handle having 
clamps suitably disposed so that the han- 
dle may be readily affixed to any pan or 
utensil for the purpose of lifting or car- 
rying the same, and may be detached and 
removed whenever desirable. The device 
may be a two-part one, one portion being 
threaded with relation to the other, and 
the handle turnable so as to draw the jaws 
together, or separate them. 



METHOD OF MINING.— No. 906,765; De- 
cember 15, 1908. W. G. Anderson, Smug- 
gler, Colo. The object of this invention is 
to provide a system whereby in mining it 
is only necessary to take out the more 
valuable portions of the ore, using the 
refuse and waste taken from development 
to fill in the worked out stopes, thus doing 
away with the hoisting of a great quan- 
tity of worthless material to the surface. 
The invention provides an economical 
method of timbering, and also a cheap way 
of breaking out the ore and loading the 
cars. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN 

SOCIETY 

I Member of Associated Savings Ranks of 

San Francisco) 

32« California Street. 

Mission Rranch, 2572 Mission St., nr. 22nd. 

For the half year ending December SI, 
1908, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Saturday, January 2, 1909. Dividends 
not called for are added to and bear the 
same rate of interest as the principal from 
January 1. 1909. 

GEORGE TOURNT, Secretary. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 
THE SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 

4 Member of Associated Saving" Ranks of 

San Francisco) 

101 Montgomery St., corner Sutter St. 

For the half year ending December 31, 
1908, a dividend lias been declared at the 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Saturday, January 2, 1909. Dividends 
not called for are added to and bear the 
same rate of interest as the principal from 
January 1, 1909. Money deposited before 
Januarv 10 will draw interest from Janu- 
ary 1. 1909. WM. A. BOSTON, Cashier. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 
SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION 

(Member of Associated Savings Ranks of 

San Francisco) 
\. YV. Cor. California and Montgomery Sts. 

For the half year ending December 31, 
1908, a dividend has been declared at the 
rates per annum of four and one-quarter 
(4%) per cent on term deposits and four 
(4) per cent on ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after -Saturday. 
January 2, 1909. 

Depositors are entitled to draw their 
dividends at any time during the succeed- 
ing half year. A dividend not drawn will 
be added to the deposit account, become a 
part thereof and earn dividend from Janu- 
ary 1st. LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



DUMP WANTED. 

Ore or tailing, containing gold and sil- 
ver, suitable for cyaniding. Will lease and 
©rect reduction works. Mexico preferred. 
H. T. WILLIS, Champaign, III, 



Schools and Colleges. 



MICHIGAN COLLEGE of MINES 

Houghton, Mich. 
Located In the Lake Superior district. Mines 
and Mills accessible for College work. For 
Yearbook and Record of Graduates apply to 
president or secretary. 

F. W. McNAIR, President. 



South Dakota State School of Mines 

RAPID CITY, SOUTH DAKOTA. 

The State Mining School located In the 
Black HIIIb of South Dakota. Expenses low. 
Course In. Mining and Metallurgical Engi- 
neering, and special courses In Mining and 
Metallurgy Tor prepared Students. 

Catalog upon application to 

Charles H. Fulton, President. 



SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL MINING 

CIVIL, MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERING. 

Established I8(j4. 

51st and Telegraph Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, Assaying, 

Cyanide Process and Metallurgy. 

Assaying of Ores, S36; Blowpipe AsBay, S10. 

Full course of Assaying, §60. Send for Circular. 

Open all year. 

A. Van Der Naillev, President. 



THE 

Canadian Mining Journal 

PUBLISHED TWICE A MONTH. 

An Independent and authoritative exponent 
of mining and metallurgy In Canada, and the 
official organ of the Canadian Mining Institute 
The Journal has absorbed the Canadian 
Mining Review and Is now the only mining 
publication covering the whole Canadian 
field. Subscription price, $3.00 per year. Send 
for sample copy. 

The Canadian Mining Journal 

Confederation Life BIdg. Toronto, Canada. 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY 

A Seml-Qoarterlyjoofnal Devoted to discussions 
in APPLIED GEOLOGY. 

EDITOR: 
J. D. Irving, Yale University. 
Associate editors: Messrs. Llndgren, Rles, 
Lelth, Kemp, RanBome, Campbell F. D. 
Adams, and J. W. Gregory. 
Price: J3.00 a year In the United States, Can- 
ada, Cuba and Mexico, or (3.76, including 
Sistage to other countries, 
new subscription to Mining! AND 
Scientific Press to one address In the 
United States 84.00. 
Address W. S. BAYLBY, Manager, No. 41 
Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa., or Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 



/ Will Grubstake 

PROSPECTOR 

and develop the find, if showing warrants. 
Don't waste your time writing to me about 
ordinary opportunities; I'm deluged with 
such. J.B.SPERRY, 

18 Broadway, New York. 



A Guide to Technical Writing. 

T. A. RUKAKD. 

A valuable work for those who desire to 
write clearly on technical subjects- Just pub- 
lished by the Mining and Scientific PreBS. 
127 Pages-Price SI- 



W. B. KIBBEY, 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW. 

Crelghton Block, Security Building, 

Phoenix, Ariz. Los Angeles, Cal. 

MINING AND CORPORATION LAT. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



57 




IN THE ROUGH 

ANDALL KINDS 

MATRIXES 

WANTED. /<oy 



fat 



&y 



x 



<$, 



c> 



»v$ 



iC 



®/> 



>S 



As 



v*S 



> N 






»> 



O 



^/ 



^S 



J? 



%vV* 



<r/<a 



^ 



^ 



e 




rvs 



^ 



^ 



K 



E.SCHAAFREGELMAN. 



-O 



-^ii£IHYST 17 STATE ST., NEW YORK, N.Y. glSMUTH^Hp: 



EXCURSION 1 

TO 

Old Mexico 



B Y 




Land and Water 

COVERING CITIES HERETOFORE INACCESSIBLE TO 
THE TOURIST. 

THE NEW TWIN-SCREW 16,000 TON S. S. "CORSE" 

ELECTRICALLY LIGHTED THROUGHOUT, with large double and single cabins and excellent cuisine. 
Is scheduled to sail from San Francisco to Manzanillo direct on or about January 28th, 1909. From Manzanillo via the 
new branch of the Mexican Central Railway, passing through Manzanillo, Colima, Guadalajara, Irapuato, Queretaro, 
Mexico City, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Torreon, Chihuahua (and any number of small towns of interest), and 
El Paso, Texas. (A side trip may be taken to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, Arizona, via the Santa Fe.) 
Thence home, via either the Southern Pacific or Santa Fe. 



Round-Trip Rate 

SAN FRANCISCO to MEXICO CITY and Return 



$165 



Including Berth and Meals (including wine) 
on board Steamer; also Pullman Sleeping 
Car Berth from Mexico City to San Francisco 



For Full Information and Descriptive Matter Address: 

G. W. McNEAR 

A gent 
210 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

H. J. SNYDER 

Genera/ Agent National Railways of Mexico 
Flood Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

JULES CLERFAYT 

Passenger Agent 
22 Powell Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



88 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



YULGAN ICE-MAKING and 

REFRIGERATING 
PLANTS 

OF ANY DESIRED CAPACITY 

Vulcan iron works 

SAN FRANCISCO 

NEW CATALOG JUST OUT 




WELLS FARGO NEVADA NATIONAL BANK 

OF SAN FRANCISCO 

ISAIAS W. HELLMAN President 

I. W. HELLMAN, Jr Vice-President 

F. L. LIPMAN Vice-President 

FRANK B. KING Cashier 

GEORGE GRANT Assistant Cashier 

W. McGAVIN Assistant Cashier 

E. L. JACOBS Assistant Cashier 



STATEMENT OF CONDITION 

AT CLOSE OF BUSINESS NOVEMBER 27, 1908 

ASSETS. 

Loans and Discounts $14,352,027.76 

United States Bonds 6,535,282.82 

Other Bonds 2,955,311.09 

Customers' Liability on Letters of 
Credit 1,41^,791.33 

Bank Premises 1,041,048.97 

Money on Hand $5,489,683.97 

Due from Banks... 7,310,764.59 12,800,448.56 

Redemption Fund with U. S. Treas- 
urer 290,000.00 



$39,389,910.53 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital $ 6,000,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 4,785,996.41 

Sterling Credits, etc 1,415,791.33 

National Bank Notes 5,761,000.00 

Reserved for Taxes 32,380.05 

Deposits 21,394,742.74 



$39,389,910.53 



Customers of this Bank are offered every facility 
consistent with Prudent Banking. New Accounts are Invited 



STEEL 
PIPE 



LACY MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

STEEL PLATE WORK. 

RIVETED PIPE. 



BUYERS' DIRECTORY. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS, PAGE 90. 



Acetylene Lamps 

Aerial Tramways 33, 53, 62, 88, 

Air Pumps 13, 44, 46, 46, 47, 57, 64, 75, 90, 

Amalgamated Plates 

Asbestos 

Assayers' and Chemists" Supplies 

10 11, 41, 56. SO, 
Assayers. Chemists & Ore Testing Work! 

4, 29, 
Attorneys. Patent .4, 42, 



Balances, Assayers' 10, 11, 56, SO, 

Belting 39, 78, 

Boiler Cement 

Boiler Compounds 

Boiler Covering 

Boiler Paint 

Boilers 

1, 2, 7, 16, 29, 59, 69, 71, 72, 73, 84, 85, 

Bossheads 

Boots and Shoes 

Brass Goods, Cocks, Valves, Etc. 

65, 66, 71, 79, 

Buckets, Ore 1, 59, 69, 71, 72, 73, 84 

Burners, Gasoline 10, 11, 



53, 62, 



Cableways, Suspension 

Cars, Dump,' Mine & Ore .'l',' 37, 73, 77, 84, 

Castings 66, 69, 

Check Valves 66, 71, 79, 

Chemicals 10, 11, 41, 80. 

Chemists 40, 80, 

Chilean Mills 3, '59, 64, 69, 73, 

Chlorine Generator 

Chrome Steel 

Coal Cutters 63, 

Coal Handling Machinery 60, 63, 

Colleges, Engineering 

Compressors, Air. 16, 57, 58, 63, 65, 75, 84, 

Concentrator Belts 78, 

Concentrators 

1, 2, 3, 7, 27, 29, 59, 71, 72, 84, 

Condensing Apparatus 

Conveyors 23, 39, 60, 67, 

Copper Converters 2, 29, 59, 69, 72, 

Copper Producers and Dealers. .4, 61, 63, 

Corrugated Copper Gaskets .3, 

Cranes, Locomotive 78, 

Crossings 37, 44, 

Crucibles, Graphite, Etc 4, 10, 11, 

Crushers 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 

29, 41, 59, 67. 69, 71, 72, 73, 79. 84, 

Cupels 10 , Hi 

Cutting Machines ■ • ■ 

Cyanide 1". 11, *}■ 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery ... .3, 12, 

14, 15, 20, 29, 35, 59, 65, 79, 96, 

Cyanide Pumps 14, 15, 



.so, 



40 
S6 

81 
91 
.79 
.97 
.85 
.92 

98 
.66 
.81 

95 
9S 

41 

97 
.66 
94 
82 
95 
97 
97 
, 85 
.70 
66 
67 
67 
86 
98 
91 



Drafting Materials 

Drawing Inks 

Dredges 4, 5, 19, 21, 25, 72. 78, 89, 

Dredging Pumps 44, 45, 57, 65, 

Driers, Mechanical 82, 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 

18, 31, 58, 64, 

Drill Steel 58, 75, 

Drills, Core 3,63,75, 

Drills, Diamond 63, 

Drills, Electric 63, 67, 

Drills, Placer Mining & Prospecting 

3, 19, 57, 6S, 
Drills, Pneumatic 

S, 9, 16, 58, 63, 73, 75, 77, 84, 

Dynamite 52 > 

E 
Electric Hoists. 1, 55, 58, 59, 68, 69, 73, 84, 

Electrical Instruments 55, 68, 

Electrical Machinery Supplies 1, 55, 

Engineering Instruments ... -SO, 

Engineering Specialties. ... 65, 66, 71, 79. 
Engines, Gas, Gasoline and Oil. . .67, 91, 
Engines, Stationary Steam 

1, 2, 7, 29, 71, 72, 84, 85, 89, 

Engines Traction 

Explosives 



85 

.43 
92 
79 
82 
66 
90 
77 
41 

11, 
98 
41 

.91 
80 

13, 
97 
78 

81 
.81 
93 
92 
92 



Feed "Water Heaters and Purifiers 

Filter Presses • • • 

Fire Brick and Clay 10, 11, 41, 

Flanges 3 > 

Flexible Tubing 

Flint Pebbles - ■ 

For Sale • ■ ■%*■ 

Frogs and Switches 3(, 17, 

Furnaces, Assayers" .10. 11, 

Furnaces, Roasting 6, 29, 51, o9, 69 

Furnaces, Smelting 29, 59, 69, 72, 79. 

Fuse, Caps, Etc ', 

G 

Gas Power Plants 67, 91. 

Gasoline Hoists 67, 91, 

Gaskets 3 

Gems ■ 

Generators 55, 

Graphite 

Grease Cups 65, 66, 71, 79 



.97 
.77 
85 
66 
.89 
.85 
85 
94 
41 
72 



H 



Help Wanted 

Hose 

Hose Coupling . . . 
Hydraulic Giants 



S9 
.16 

.71 



24 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



89 



Indicators . . 
InJ.otors 
Iron Cement 



Pate 



....SI 
66. :i. 7», 95 



Lead. Pig 

Life Saving Apptirtitu* 

Mnk Belting > 

Locomotives. ; 

tmotlves, Bled rlc 68. 

Lubricants 4, 

Lubricators 6 

>l 

1 79, yl. 

Machine! y for 

Blagnealte Fire Bricks ' 

Uangani •■ Steel 

Ifecbanlcal Btokera 

Metal Dealers 4. 

Bllnlng & Mining Machinery & Supplies 
3. 7. If, 81, 28, 58, :■.'. 18, 71. 72, 7J. JS, 81 

Mining Schools 

Mining Telephones 

Uotora 

o 

Oil Cups 66. 71. 79, 

Oil Pumps 

Oil Well Supplies .:. 

Ore Purchasers l 

Ore Testing Works I, 21 

P 

Packing and Pipe Covering 

Paints 4, 

Pebbles 78, 

Perforated Metals 

Phosphor Bronze 66. 

Pipe 3. 6'J. 71'. B4, >j. 88, 88, 80, 

Pipe. Spiral Riveted 3. 

Pipe Threading and Cutting Machines. . 

Pocket Smelter 

Pneumatic Tools 

S. 9. 16. 58. 63, 73. 75. 77. 79. 84, 
Professional Directory 

22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 34. 36. 

Pulverizers 

Pumps .• 7. 43, 

45. 46, 47. 57. 59. 64, 65, 66. 73, 81. 90. 92. 
Pumps. Electric 45. 47. 57, 90, 

<l 

Quarrying Machinery 63, 

Quartz Mills 

1. 2. 3, 7, 29, 59, 61. 69, 71. 72. 73, SI, 

It 

Ralls 37, 84. S5, 

Railway Supplies and Equipment. 37, 77, 

Rare Metals 

Rings and Dies 66. 

Roll Shells 3, 49, 66, 82, 

Rolls, Crushing 

1, 2. 3, 10. 11. 29, 41. 19. 59, 69, 71, 84, 

Roofing and Building Paper 62, 

Rubber Goods 

S 

Sand Pumps 44, 45. 65, 7S. 

Scales and Balances, Assayers" 

10, 11, 41, 56, 80, 

Screens. Mining 67. 85, 

Second-Hand Machinery 84, 

Shoes and Dies 37, 66, 

Shovels, Electric 4, 5. 78, S9, 

Shovels, Steam 4. 5. 78, 89, 

Silex Lining 79, 

Silica Fire Bricks 

Sinking Pumps 

43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 57, 90, 92, 

Situations Wanted 

Slime Filters 12, 13, 14, 15. 20, 35, 79, 

Smelter Supplies 

1, 2, 7, 29, 51, 59, 69. 72, 79, 94, 
Smelting and Refining Works ....... .4. 

Springs. Steel 

Sorting Belts 39. 60. 67, S3, 

Stamp Stems 66. 

Steam Gauges 66. 71, 79, 

Steam Hoists 

1, 2. 7, 29. 59. 69, 71. 72, 73, 84, 89. 

Steam Specialties 65, 66, 71. 79. 

Steel 66, 75, 82, 

Steel Tapes 80, 

Storage Batteries 55, 

Surveying Instruments 56, 80. 

Switches 37, 77, 

T 

Tanks 65, 79, S8, 96, 

Tappets 

Tramways, Wire Rope 33, 53, 62, 88, 

Transformers 55, 

Transits 56, 80, 

Transmission Rope 

Traveling Link Grates 

Tube-mills 2, 17, 29, 59, 69, 

Tube-mill Supplies 29. 79, 

Tungsten Ores 82, 

v 

Vacuum Pumps 43, 

"Valves 65, 66, 71. 79, 

Ventilating Fans 55, 67. 

Voltmeters 55. 68, 

W 

Water Motors 67, 

Water Power Equipment. 3. 67. 88. 89. 90, 
Well Drilling Machinery & Supplies 

3, 57, 68, 

Whistles 

Wire Cloth 

Wire, Insulated 

Wire, Wire Rope and Cables 

33, 53, 62, 83, 88, 



Zins Dust and Shavings 10, 11, 41 




METAL HOSE 

FOR HIGHEST OF PRESSURES 
FOR STEAM, OILS, SUCTION PURPOSES 

CONTAINS NO RUBBER 

CANNOT COLLAPSE HAS NO EQUAL 

USED BY NAVIES OF THE WORLD. 

WRITE US FOR PRICES 

U.S. Flexible Metallic Tubing Co. 

450 E. Third Street Cor. Beale and Minion Sts. 

Loi Angeles, Cal. San Francisco, Cal. 




FLORY HOISTING ENGINES 

For Mines, Quarries, Contractors, Pile Driving, Tail Rope Haulage 
CABLEWAYS AND TRAMWAYS 
SLATE MACHINERY 

All Parts Made to Duplicate 

ASK FOR LARGE CATALOGUE. 

A. L. YOUNG MACHINERY CO., 26-28 Fremont 8treet, 
Sari FranclBco, Cal., SaleB Agents. 

S. FLORY MFG. CO., BANGOR, Pa. 




FRANCIS SMITH fit CO., 



Manufacturers 




FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation, and Power Plants. Well Pipe, Etc., All Sizes. 
Office, 9 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

Water and Oil Tanks— all sizes. Coating all sizes of Pipe with Aspnaltum. 




The Thew 
Steam 
Shovel 

FOR HANDLING 

Gravel, Clay, Broken Ores, 

Tailings, or Stripping into 

Wagons, Cars, 

or Sluice Boxes. 

Operated by One Man. 

Swings Through Complete 

Circle. 

WHITE FOK CATALOGUE. 

The Thew Automatic 
Shovel Go. 

LORAIN, OHIO. 



90 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 




BROWN LOCOMOTIVE CRANE 

WITH 

ORE GRAB BUCKET 

USED BY AMERICAN SMELTING AND REFINING CO., FRESNO COPPER CO., AND MANY OTHERS. 

Ore, Coal, Coke, Sand, etc., can be handled In a rapid and very 
economical manner with this equipment. 

THE BROWN HOISTING MACHINERY COMPANY 

Main OHice and Works, CLEVELAND, OHIO. Branch Offices, NEW YORK and PITTSBURG 




Gardner Steam Pump, 



Centrifugals from 1 to 10 Inches 



WOODIN 6 LITTLE 

PUMP HOUSE 

33-41 Fremont St., Telephone Kearny 1087 
San Francisco, Cal. 



PUMPS FOR EVERY SERVICE AND USE 



Pumps for Hand, Wind Mill, Power, Steam, Irrigating, 
Spraying, Whitewashing, Road Sprinkling, Wine, Ship 
Use, Air. Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps, Gould's Trip- 
lex Pumps ; All Sizes and Capacities. 



Gasoline Engines wind Mills and Tanks 

Pipe, Pipe Fittings, Brass Goods 




Gould'* Triplex Pomps, Direct Connected 
with Electric Motor — All Sizes. 



Union Air Compressor — All Sizes 



ELECTROLYTIC LEAD REFINING 

For Licenses in the United States, England, Germany, 
Australia, and Mexico, address 

ANSON G. BETTS, 16th Street, North, Troy, N. Y. 

For description see "LEAD REFINING BY ELECTROLYSIS," 
Published by John Wiley & Sons, New York. 




ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO 
ADVERTISERS. 



(— ) Indicates Every Other Week or 
Monthly Advertisement. 



If you are a Manufacturer, and Your Pro- 
duct Is Used In the Erection or Opera- 
tion of Mining? or Metallurgical Enter- 
prises, and Y'our Name or the Name of 
Your Firm is not on this List, You are 
not Utilizing the Most Direct Means of 
Effecting Sales and Obtaining New 
Business. 



Page. 
A 

Aetna Powder Co — 

Alnsworth & Sons, Wm 56, SI 

Allis-Chalmers Co 2 

American Injector Co 79 

American Mfg. Co , . . 60 

American Metal Co., Ltd 82 

American Spiral Pipe Works 3 

American Well Works, The 57 

Asbestos Mfg. & Supply Co S5 

Assayers Chemists & Ore Testing Works. 40 

Atlantic Equipment Co 7S 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co 77 

Atkins, Kroll & Co 85 

Avery Co 78 

B 

Bailie & Brandt Co — 

Baird & Co., Henry Carey — 

Balaklala Consolidated Copper Co 82 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 83 

Barnhardt, Geo. W 4 

Bartlett & Snow Co., CO 92 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co SO 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co 82 

Bennett, F. W 86 

Behrend Dry Concentrating Co 27 

Berger & Son, C. L SI 

Blaisdell Co 79 

Blake, Moffltt & Towne 62 

Betts, Anson G 9u 

Books — 

Braun, F. W 10, 11 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. ... . .10, 11 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co 97 

Brown Hoisting Machinery Co 90 

Brownell, Jas. S 85 

Bucyrus Company 5 

Buff & Buff Mfg. Co SI 

Butters Patent Vacuum Filter Co. . . .14, 15 
Buyers' Directory 88, 89 

C 

California Debris Commission — 

California Perforating Screen Co 85 

Cameron Steam Pump Works, A. S 43 

Canadian Mining Journal S6 

Cary Spring Works 77 

Central Machinery Co S4 

Chalmers & Williams 3 

Chicago House Wrecking Co 85 

Chisholm, Matthew & Co 51 

Chrome Steel Works 66 

Compressed Air 

Compressed Air Machinery Co 16 

Colorado Iron Works Co 29 

Colorado Machinery & Supply Co 31 

Consolidated Aerial Tramway Co 33 

Cuplin, P. P 77 

Cyanide Plant Supply Co 96 

Cyclone Drilling Machine Co 3 

D 

Davenport Locomotive Works S3 

Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works 07 

DeGolia & Atkins 82 

Deming Co., The 47 

Denver Balance Co 81 

Denver Engineering Works Co — 

Denver Fire Clay Co 41 

Development & Funding Co., The 70 

Dewey, Strong & Co 4, 42. 8G 

Dietzgen Co., Eugene SO 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 4 

Douglas Copper Co S_' 

Draeger Oxygen Apparatus Co 50 

Du Pont De Nemours Powder Co., E. I. . .66 

E 

Eclipse Drill Sharpening Machine Mfg. 

Co 64 

Economic Geology 86 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



91 



Pas*. 
'chemical and Metallurgical In- 
dustry — 

engineers, Metallurgists and Geologists, 

22. 2 i 28, 28 30 
Eureka Drill Steel «•.. — 

F 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co 73 

Flory, Mfg. Co., S 8y 

Foos Gas ESnglne (^o fts 

For Sale Si 

Frenler A Son ;s 

G 

i Electric Co us 

'•..-nt'iitl Eng. Co 4 

' I I'll, Perkins & Co 4 

Goodyear Rubber Co 7S 

Great Western Machinery Co si 

Green Engineering <•«. S3 

Gutta Perclia Rubber & Mfg. Co 

li 

Hammond [roil Works gg 

Hard Inge Conical Mill Co 17 

Hardsoc^ Wonder Drill «'<► :■:. ■< 

Harron, Rlckard & M.-Cmo US 

Hayward Co 78 

Help Wanted 3G 

Hendrlck Manufacturing • *<> 

Hendrle & Roithoft* Mfg. ft Sup. Co i 

Hendryx Cyanide Maehlm-iy Co i'0 

H'-tuly Iron Works, Joshua 71 

1 lercules Gas Engine "Works 07 

Hlcks-Hauptman Lumber Co 

Hoegee Co.. Inc., The Win. H 7R 

Hunt Filter Co 12, 13 

I 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 75 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co <)l 

J 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron II. in 

Jeanesville Iron Works 61 

Jeffrey Mfg. Co.. The 67 

Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W 

Johnston, Robert S 81 

K 

Keystone Placer Drill Co GS 

Klbbey, W. B 86 

Knowles Steam Pump Works — 

Kohlbusch, Herman SI 

Koppel Co., Arthur 37 

Krogh Mfg. Co 92 

Lacy Mfg. Co gg 

Laldlaw Dunn Gordon Co S3 

Lane Slow Speed Chilean Mill Co. ...64, p 5 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A 53 

Leyner, J. Geo 58 

Lletz Co., A 81 

Lima Locomotive & Machine Co 8:{ 

Link-Belt Co 60 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co 89 

Luf kin Rule Co SI 

Lunkenheimer Co 66 

M 

Machinery for Sale 81 

Mayer Boot & Shoe Co., F — 

Marlon Steam Shovel Co i 

Merrell Mfg. Co 91 

Michigan College of Mines S6 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co 7 

Moore & Co., Chas. C 59 

Moore Filter Co 35 

Moore & Scott Iron Works 79 

Morava Construction Co 4 

Morris Machine Works 65 

Mound Tool & Scraper Co 79 

Myers, Geo. W 66 

N 

National Belting Co 91 

National Wood Pipe Co 96 

Neal Publishing Co 66 

New York Engineering Co 19 

New York Metal Selling Co 61 

O 
Oil Well Supply Co 91 

P 

Pacific Engraving Co.. Ltd 4 

Pacific Equipment Co S4 

Pacific Foundry Co 69 

Continued on next page. 



STRENGTH 

ludiciously combined with good running and wearing 
qualities and low first cost give 

TEXTOL BELTING 

its marked superiority for conveyor service 
and severe driving duty. 

WRITE US FOR FULL INFORMATION. 

NATIONAL BELTING COMPANY 

LAWRENCE, MASS. 



POWER 

FOR ANY PURPOSE 

HOISTS and ENGINES 

7 to 600 HP. 

Use Gasoline, Distillate, 
Alcohol, or Gas. 

PRICES RIGHT 

WESTERN GAS ENGINE CO. 

LOS AMitl.ES. CAL. 
Branch: 22 First Si.. San Franciaco. Cal. 




MEN WRITE US 
AND SAY: 



"We've tried your machines alongside what we be- 
lieved was the best other Pipe Threading and Cutting 
Machines built. * * * Your machine proved much 
more accurate; It worked much easier; It required less 
attention (adjusting and tinkering) and It seemed bet- 
ter built. * * * Please enter our order for"— etc, etc. 

Here iB a Portable Hand Machine that will LAST. 
It can be operated by a mere novice— it's so simple. It 
is absolutely accurate ; It saves time — labor — and 
trouble Immeasurable. And this means it saves money 
immeasurable. Let us prove the truth of this claim by 
sending you this machine for 30 Days Free Ira 
Write to 

THE MERRELL MFG. COMPANY, 10 Curtis St., Toledo, Ohio 

Pacific Coast AgentB— Pacific Hardware & Steel Co., San Francisco 




COLUMBIA DRILLER 



Built of 
Iron 
and 
Steel 

Throughout. 




Greatest 
Universal 
Machine 
for Depths 
to 3000 It. 



Oil Well Supply Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 



DIAMOND DRILLS 

Ours is the most complete line made. 350 to 6000 ft. Hydraulic Feed, Screw Feed. Hand 
Power, Horse Power, Gasoline, Steam, Air and Electricity. SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

STANDARD DIAMOND DRILL CO., 134 Washington Street, CHICAGO. ILL. 



92 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



THE CO. BARRETT & SNOW CO. CLEVELAND, OHIO, U.S.A. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



COAL TIPPLES, ELEVATOR BUCKETS, ELEVATING MACHIN- 
ERY, MINING MACHINERY, PHOSPHATE MACHINERY, 
GARBAGE DISPOSAL MACHINERY, ORE AND CLAY 
DRYERS, COAL HANDLING MACHINERY, 
SHAKING AND REVOLVING SCREENS, MALLEABLE AND 
DROP FORGED CHAIN, GYPSUM MACHINERY, 
and are also exclusive manufacturers of 
THE GREEN SELF DUMPING CAR HAUL. 



KROGH TURBINE PUMPS 



FOR MINE DRAINAGE 




Built in capacities 100 gallons per minute upward and for heads up to 2000 feet. 

Our Turbine Pomps are fitted with an Automatic Balancing Device which 
prevents all end thrust on pump*. This device is frictionless and non-rotating, 
hence not subject to wear. Our Turbine Pumps contain many superior features. 

WRITE FOR CATALOGUE M-25. 

KROGH MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

133 BEALE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Malthoid 
Roofing 

The roofing that always makes good. No matter how 
big or little the job, Malthoid fits every condition and renders 
a roof service that is absolutely incomparable. If you want 
the roofing that is right— demand Malthoid. Made by the 
original' makers of ready roofing. 

The Paraffine Paint Co. 



Merchants Exchange Bldg. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



Paso. 

Pacific Tank Co = 96 

Paraffine Paint Go 92 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 67 

Penberthy Injector Co 71 

Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co . 6 

Perrin, Wm. R 77 

Peyton Chemical Co 82 

Phelps, N. D 79 

Phosphor Bronze Smelting Co., Ltd 82 

Pierce, L. s 79 

Post Co., Frederick 81 

Powell Co.. Wm 95 

Power & Mining Machinery Co 59 

Prescott Steam Pump Co., Fred M 46 

Professional Directory 

22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40 

Proske Co., T. H IS 

Putnam, H. J SI 

a 

Quaker City Rubber Co — 

R 

Redwood Manufacturers Co 97 

Risdon Iron Works 21 

Robins Conveying Belt Co 23 

Robins New Conveyor Co 3 9 

Roebling's Sons & Co., John A S3 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co SO 

Ruggles-Coles Engineering Co S2 

S 

Safety Insulated Wire Cable Co 3 

San Francisco Chemical Co 82 

San Francisco Plating Works 81 

Salt Lake Hardware Co 80 

Second-Hand Machinery 84, 85 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co 82 

Schaaf-Regelman, E 87 

S. H. Supply Co 84 

Simmons, John, Co 4S 

Situations Wanted 86 

Slipp-Butler Co 82 

Smidth & Co., F. L S3 

Smith & Co., Francis 89 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co 79 

South African Mining Journal 79 

South Dakota State School of Mines 86 

Southern Pacific Co 51 

Sperry, J. B 86 

Standard Diamond Drill Co 91 

Standard Steel Works Co 83 

Stoddard Incorporatin g Co 81 

Stromberg Carlson Tel. Mfg. Co 6S 

Stroud & Co., E. H S3 

Sullivan Machinery Co 63 

T 

Taylor Iron & Steel Co 82 

Thew Automatic Shovel Co 89 

Thompson Balance Co 80 

Trenton Iron Co 62 

Triplex Roll Co., The 49 

Troemner, Henry 80 

Trojan Powder Co 52 

Tyee Copper Co 4 

TJ 

Union Gas Engine Co 67 

Union Iron Works Co 72 

U. S. Flexible Metallic Tubing Co 89 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co 4 

Utah Mining Machinery & Supply Co. . . . — 

V 

Van Der Naillen, A 86 

Vogelstein & Co., L 63 

Vulcan Iron Works, S. F 88 

Vulcan Iron Works, Wilkesbarre, Pa. . . . — 
W 

Wagner Electric Mfg. Co — 

Wanted 84 

Way's Pocket Smelter Co SO 

Weigele Pipe Works 90 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 6!> 

Wells Fargo Nevada National Bank S8 

Western Chemical Mfg. Co , SI 

Western Electric Co 55 

Western Engineering & Construction Co. 93 

Western Gas Engine Co 91 

Western Lubricating Valve Co., The.... 65 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co — 

Westinghouse Machine Co 68 

Western Electrical Instrument Co SI 

Woodbury, Geo. E ....S5 

Woodin & Little 90 

Wood Drill Works 77 

Word Bros j . .31 

Y 

Tuba Construction Co 25, S5 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



93 



GOLD DREDGES 

COMPLETELY EQUIPPED 




Bow View, Showing Action of the Monitors in Breaking Down the Top Bank. 



"FOLSOM No. 6" 

8'.a Cubic Foot 

Electric Dredge furnished 
with New Type Double 
Bank Gold Saving Tables 
and Hydraulic Monitors. 

CAPACITY 
150,000 

CUBIC YARDS 
PER MONTH 

In the hardest ground 
known to the dredging 
industry, 75 feet deep 
from surface to bedrock. 




This picture shows "THREE FRIENDS," a 5 cubic foot steam dredge operating on the Solomon 
River, near Nome, Alaska, and the extent of ground dredged up to October 1st, J 908. This machine is suc- 
cessfully handling 6 feet of limestone b edroc k and treating 125,000 cubic yards of gravel per month. 

Hulls of the above dredges were designed and both plants installed complete by us. Excavating 
machinery furnished by The Bucyrus Company, South Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

We Are Consulting Engineers and Constructors 
of Complete Gold Dredges 

WESTERN ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

733-743 Monadnock Building, San Francisco, Gal. 

AGENTS ROBINS CONVEYING BELT COMPANY 



f Western Union. 
CODES -j Bedford McNeill. 



ORE, STONE. COAL AND DREDGE CONVEYORS 



94 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



FROGS, SWITCHES, 





Stands and all Special 
Track Work 



FOR 



SMELTERS 

MINE 
HAULAGE 



TRACK SYSTEMS 



Our Catalog upon request. Tells how we 
Reduce Maintenance. 

It would work well in your files. 

The LARGEST SMELTERS are Using Our 
QUALITY Work because IT PAYS 




THE INDIANAPOLIS SWITCH & FROG CO. 



SPRINGFIELD, OHIO. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



95 



Best Valve Made for Steam and Fluids 



Wheel lock nut 

P — Deep stuffing box nut can be re- 
packed under pressure with 
valve closed or wide open 



1)' 



a — Hexagon union swive 



and II — Faces on stem and bon- 
net make steam-tight joint 
permitting of repacking stem 
with pressure on and valve 
wide open^^^ 



-Removable disc carrier — protects 
the upper face of disc while 
lower one is in use^^ 



S — Disc lock nut easy to remove 



B — Body shell — note uniform thick- 
ness of metal with seat extra 
thick. 




Fjrm grip hand wheel — painted 
white 

j' — Drive gland follower, in 

P — Stuffing box, roomy for packing 

D — Stem with full acme thread 

I A — Valve bonnet, cone faced 

N — Patent beveled ground face 

L — Hole through stem and corre- 
sponding groove in' carrier R 
to insert pin for regrinding. 

— Reversible, regrindable white 
Powellium bronze disc 

— Face of beleved seat — note slope, 
no chance for grit to catch 



The Powell White Star Valve 



PACT ONE (1) 

The body shell is made of the best 
mlXtlire gtln metal composition — as also the 

trimmings, excepting the disc, which 
is of Powellium white bronze, with a melting point 
of 2000 degrees Fahr. 



FACT TWO (2) 

The Discs 



The discs are Reversible, Re- 
grindable and Renewable. When 
one face of the disc is worn out 
reverse it; when both faces are worn out you can buy 
the disc alone, without having to buy a new valve. 



FACT THREE (3) 

The disc can be reground to 
a bearing with the seat with- 
out the use of a regrinding 

machine. The guides in the body shell always keep 

it in a vertical position, no chance for an uneven seat 

when regrinding. 



Regrinding 



FACT FOUR (4) 

To regrind disc and 
seat, unscrew nut a — 
pin carrier R to stem 

through hole L, apply fine sand and rotate back and 

forth. 



How It's Done 



FACT FIVE (5) 
The patent beveled q i j i • , 

ground face connec- I5&VCI6C1 JOINS 

tion between bonnet and body neck secured by a 
hexagon union swivel nut insures an absolutely 
steam-tight joint under all pressures. 



FACT SIX (6) 

Stems and 
Threads 



The stems are packed with a 
drive gland in stuffing box, 
s with plenty of room for pack- 
ing. The long, full Acme 
threads are all in actual use, and when valve is closed 
prevent stripping in case of too strenuous use of 
wheel handle. 

FACT SEVEN (7) 
Stem can be repacked wide T D 1 

open under pressure. The 1 I\€paCK 
projecting face D 1 on the Q, 

lower end connects with the OlSHlS 

corresponding face H on the bonnet, making a steam- 
tight joint. You don't have to shut off the steam to 
repack a leaky stuffing box. 

FACT EIGHT (8) 
The projecting knobs 
on hand wheel give you 
a firm grip, even though your hands may be oily. 
The lock nut keeps it rigidly in place. 



White Wheels 



Manufactured Only at the Plant of the 

WM. POWELL COMPANY, CINCINNATI, OHIO 

For Sale by Jobbers Everywhere. 



96 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



- 




^Ptjt,; : 


...- -i- -. ■ : ;'i*r-r— waga== B 


*SSp|i: ■■- 


r r if — ■■»■ ii—P^r it - >i 


^^^^^"^MH 


mSBBKKm ■■■■1 i ,: "**gi 



NATIONAL WOOD PIPE CO. f 

{Address Nearest Office) I 



WOOD WATER PIPE 



in diameter for 

WATER WORKS MINING 
IRRIGATION POWER 

For Heads up to 400 Feet, 173 Pounds 
Per Square Inch. 

Prices, specifications, hydraulic data 
and general information furnished upon 
request. 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE— 318 Market Street. 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE — 404 Equitable Bank Building. 

NORTHERN OFFICE— Olympla. Washington. 

SALT LAKE CITY OFFICE— Dooly Block. 



PACIFIC TANK COMPANY 



Manufacturers 
of 



Cyanide and Slime Plants 



MINING and TAMWC 
STORAGE I iml^lIYO 



Write for our 
Mining Catalog. 



San Francisco, Cal. 
Olympia, Wash- 



Los Angeles, Cal. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 




January 2, 1909. 



MINING AND SC1EN 1 IF1C PRESS 



97 



DEARBORN SCIENTIFIC WATER TREATMENT 



IF YOU WILL GIVE US AN OPPORTUNITY TO TREAT YOUR 



Boiler Feed Water 

You can depend upon absolute relief from the troubles you are experiencing, whether SCALE, CORROSION, PITTING or 
FOAMING. Our knowledge of the subject of Water Treatment, years of practical experience, and thoroughly equipped lab- 
oratories, under the direction of expert chemists, all combine to place us far In the lead In this line of work. 
We would like to explain our methods to you and submit proposition. Will you not write us? 



JJPJ^^ 


ROBERT F. CARR, PRESIDENT 




^MBBS-^Tl 1 ^ i f iilTWI ^lILiilll^^liWfMSlHtF' 'P'o)/ ° 1 i S \ Tj !8 TfT' J M''^M it 4 tMrfilWWiWMr 


?nTO^Tfre^rf^^BjS||(|| 


i &a*&i&ii&a^s&«^ifcsiaa!as^ 


< '. "' -^^ -J-'MW^ 



'EDWOOD 
MANUFACTURER, 



TANKS and other EQUIPMENT 

FOR 

CYANIDE PLANTS 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE No. 3. 
916 BALBOA BDG. (Cor. Market and Second Sts.), SAN FRANCISCO. 



BRODERICK&BASCOM 
ROPE CO. 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 

NEW YORK AND SEATTLE 

WIRE ROPE FOR ALL PURPOSES 
AERIAL WIRE ROPE TRAMWAYS 




EACH TRAMWAY 

is built especially to fit the pecu- 
liar conditions existing where 
it is to operate. In many cases 
no power is required, the incline 
being so steep the loaded de- 
scending buckets hoist the emp- 
ties to the top of the grade. Our 
Patent Automatic Buckets save 
labor. They load, transport, 
dump and return automatically. 



This tramway transports 300 
tons every 10 hours and it 
can be doubled by simply add- 
ing buckets. 

ASK FOR CATALOGUE 45. 



98 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 2. 1909. 



| ST 



START THE NEW YEAR RIGHT 



-DECREASE YOUR OPERATING EXPENSES 
BY INSTALLING A 



FOOS GASOLINE HOIST 



Best Hoist on the Market 



ECONOMY IN EVERY STROKE 

15 to SO H. F». 




THE FOOS GASOLINE HOIST 

MSTINfTIVF FFATllRFS' Operator faces shaft when handling clutch and brake 
UiaiintllVL rtJUUBM. le ^ ers and gtands begide cylinders . The dutch is a Stand- 

and Friction Clutch. Coupling attached to the driving pinion. The gears are driven only 
when hoisting. The engine can be used for driving compressor, blower or pump when 
not hoisting, without wasting power doing idle work. Accelerator for increasing speed 
while hoisting. Lever convenient to operator. All bearings and parts of clutch and 
brake always open for inspection and adjustment. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Harron, Rickard & McConc 



461 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



164 No. Los Angeles 

LOS ANGELES 




Whole No. 2529. ^Jl?™"'- 



" Science has no enemy save the ignorant.' 



THREE DOLLARS PER ANNUM 
Sin* le Copies, Ten CcoU. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 

ESTABLISHED MAX M, i860. 

PUBLISHED AT 667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Telephone Kearney 4777. Cable Address: Pertusola. 



EDITED AND CONTROLLED BY T. A. RICKARD. 



ASSOCIATE EDITOR COURTENAY DE KALB 



SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS: 



Philip Aroall. 
Leonard s. Austin. 
Francis L. Bosqui. 
R. tiiLUAN Brown. 
Donald F. Campbell. 
J. Parke channing. 

J. U. I'l'KLK. 

J. K. Finlay. 

F. LVNWOOD GARRISON. 



H. C. Hoover. 
EC. Forbks Julian. 
James F. Kemp. 
C. W. Purinqton. 
John A. Reid. 
T. Kirke Rose. 
Horace V. Winchkll. 
Walter Harvev Weed. 
Lewis T. Wright. 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 9, 1909. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: 

United states and Mexico 83 

Canada 94 

All Other Countries in PoBtal Union One Guinea or S6 

BDOAR RICKARD ..... Business Manager. 

BRANCH OFFICES: 

New York— 600 Fifth Avenue. Denver— 420 McPhee Building. 
Chicago— 934 Monadnock Block. Telephone: Harrison 636. 
London— Edward Walker, 808 Salisbury House, E. C. 

PUBLISHED BY THE DEWEY PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Han Francisco Postoffice as Second-Class Matter. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIAL: Page. 

Notes 63 

The Italian Earthquake 64 

Revival of Gold Dredging 65 

Financial Confidence 66 

GENERAL MINING NEWS 68 

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE 73 

London Mexico 

New York Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 

Guanajuato, Mexico. 

CONCENTRATES 79 

DISCUSSION: 

Metric Equivalents John C. Trautwine Jr. 80 

The Engineer as a Financier J. R. Finlay 80 

Smelter Smoke Jas. W. Neill 81 

Lead Acetate in Cyanidation CM. Eye 82 

ARTICLES: 

Protection of Investors 83 

Mining Methods in the North (II)... T. A. Richard 86 

Modified Provisions of Mexican Mining Law 90 

The Copper Outlook M. E. Appelbaum 91 

Silver Coating of Amalgamating Plates 

W. A. Caldecott 92 

The Nevada Meteorite Walter P. Jenney 93 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL PATENTS 95 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Personal 67 

Market Reports 67 

Publications Received 96 

Commercial Paragraphs 96 

Catalogues Received 96 



EDITORIAL. 



I T IS a pleasure to record that Mr. Lewis II. Bea- 
* son, who has long served the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press as special correspondent at Salt Lake 
City, has become editor of the Pioche Record, at Pio- 
ohe, Nevada. We tender Mr. Beason our best wishes 
for success in his new venture. 



MINING MEN interested in northern Mexico 
will be glad that the Yaqui troubles in Sonora 
seem to be at an end. About 5000 of these Indians 
surrendered at Nogales on January 4 and signed a 
treaty of peace. Some of the tribe remain in the 
hills, but their chief Bulle has promised to aid the 
Mexican government in pacifying them. 



IRON statistics are said to furnish a barometer of 
trade. This is measurably true. Orders are 
placed so far ahead, however, as to modify the sensi- 
tiveness of this commercial indicator. The extent 
of the depression in 1908 is shown by the fact that 
the output of iron from the furnaces of the United 
States was only 15,486,606 tons, as compared to 25,- 
292,335 tons in 1907 and 24,749,984 tons in 1906. 



GOLD production in the Philippines made an 
extraordinary advance in 1908. From 64,700 
fine ounces the year before there was a sudden leap 
to 306,708. These are official statistics, representing 
receipts at the Mints of the United States and pur- 
chases by the American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany. Considerable quantities of Philippine gold 
are marketed in other countries, but no estimate of 
such contributions to the output is attempted in the 
figures given. The possibilities for mining in our 
eastern dependency are attracting the attention of 
capitalists. 



THIS is the season when the statistician takes 
himself seriously and the public absorbs col- 
umns of crude arithmetic in the fond belief that they 
express irrefragable facts. Of course, there are sta- 
tisticians and statisticians, from the serious but mis- 
guided scientific men who reduce order out of a 
numerical chaos to the irresponsible compilers of the 
local newspaper, anxious to boost its own habitat as 
the unfailing source of mineral, agricultural, or 
manufactured wealth. This is the season when daily 
papers publish annual reviews that cover anything 
from 60 to 170 pages devoted to weirdly inaccurate 
pictures of wonderful progress and strangely con- 
tradictory figures proving — just what they want to 
prove. Some of the performances are completed a 
week before the year is ended, as if to emphasize the 
fact that the editors hate to be harrassed by too 
many facts. To quote one amateur statistician when 



64 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



deriding his competitors, their premature New 
Tear's editions are "glaring products of inaccuracy, 
mendacity, and general slipshod methods." In the 
end the public gets more smoke than light, and car- 
ries away only a general idea of plethoric produc- 
tiveness, a small share of which each individual 
hopes will fall into his lap. Another effect is to 
throw doubt on all statistical statements and to war- 
rant a discounting that reduces their educative value 
to a minimum. 



F^ROM a brief report issued by Mr. E. D. George, 
* State Geologist of Colorado, we note with 
pleasure the earnest effort that has been made by 
him and his assistants to furnish Colorado with geo- 
logical investigations of practical value. This work 
was done in the summer of 1908, despite the failure 
of the Legislature to provide the necessary funds, 
so that the final reports and maps were delayed in 
publication. The State Geologist and Mr. R. D. 
Crawford lent their credit and gave their services 
to the State, hoping for reimbursement later. It is 
wholly discreditable to a mining region of such im- 
portance that the necessary work of its Survey 
should be hampered in this petty manner. We con- 
gratulate Mr. George on a notable exhibition of pub- 
lic spirit and scientific industry. 



ADOPTION of a new process at a new mine is one 
of the common indiscretions of the novice. He 
is easily persuaded that the ore is 'rebellious', and 
the promoter has ready the new-process man with 
his improved solution of the peculiar metallurgical 
difficulty as another means of wasting the new in- 
vestor's money. But it is remarkable that a great 
corporation such as the Tankanyika Concessions, 
Limited, should announce officially a program in- 
volving methods of copper metallurgy that lack the 
approving stamp of experience. It appears that the 
copper deposits at Katanga, in Central Africa, in- 
clude large quantities of- excessively silicious oxi- 
dized ore containing as much as 10 per cent copper. 
It is proposed to treat this class of ore by reducing 
the copper to the metallic state, followed by mechan- 
ical concentration. On a laboratory scale no doubt 
a process of this kind will yield the metal, but as 
concentration is practiced today this will entail a 
loss of 18 to 30 per cent, according to the fineness of 
the metallic particles. A large part of the metal 
resulting from the reduction of oxides and carbo- 
nates without fusion would undoubtedly exist in a 
fine state of subdivision. Perhaps the Tanganyika 
Concessions has developed a feasible process, but the 
failures attending such attempts elsewhere in the 
past would hardly recommend experiments of this 
nature in the heart of Africa. If it be a question of 
getting something at a profit from otherwise wholly 
unavailable ores, regardless of the percentage of 
loss, then as a matter of business it might become 
warrantable, but the announcement made bears the 
suspicious appearance of the 'new process', still want- 
ing its Q.B.D. Metallurgical inventions need to be 
put on probation near at home, where failures will 
not be damagingly expensive. 



The Italian Earthquake. 



The calamity that has befallen the communities 
dwelling on the Straits of Messina has elicited the 
understanding sympathy of the people of San Fran- 
cisco. While the earthquake of April, 1906, did less 
damage than the succeeding conflagration, the ter- 
rifying aspects of that mysterious natural disturb- 
ance are vividly remembered. With us the damage 
arose from the complexity of civilized ways of living, 
whereby the illuminating gas escaping from broken 
pipes was ignited by the short-circuiting of electric 
wires thrown out of place, and superadded to this 
prime factor was the destruction of the water con- 
dtrits that otherwise would have been instrumental 
in extinguishing a multiplicity of fires. On the Tyr- 
rhenian coastlands of Italy the loss of life was incom- 
parably greater because the population was con- 
gested in badly built dwellings. The ordinary 
Sicilian house is constructed of boulders loosely held 
in poor mortar, and it needs but a small earth-jar to 
bring such walls to the ground. Therefore an earth- 
quake of unusual severity plays dreadful havoc. 
Whether the estimated loss of life be exaggerated, 
and whether the dead be numbered by 100,000 or 
200,000, it is certain that the destruction of Messina, 
Reggio, and the neighboring cities constitutes one 
of the greatest catastrophes of history. If we do not 
feel the horror of it as much as we might, it is be- 
cause every day our newspapers devote pages to the 
sordid details of lesser tragedies; even our sense of 
the value of human life has been lessened by the 
frequency of accidents on railroads and in coal 
mines, on street railways, and in theatre panics. 
The emotions of the American are jaded with a 
daily iteration of horrors. All the more, therefore, 
is it remarkable that the fate of the Italian unfortu- 
nates should have awakened such instant sympathy, 
expressed promptly, by word and deed. More than 
money or message, the United States offers an asy- 
lum for the houseless people of Calabria and Sicily; 
we shall see a large influx of immigrants from south- 
ern Italy. Whether they be welcome or not, their 
coming will certify to the fact that for the oppressed 
and unfortunate of every country there is still a 
land where a new start can be made, and where a 
new home may be built. That, after all, is the great- 
est service America can render Italy in this dark 
hour. 

Another phase is presented when we recall the 
fact that the country devastated during the closing 
days of 1908 has been the theatre of seismic forces 
since the dawn of history. Etna has thrown a cloud 
over the battles of the Punic war, Vesuvius lighted 
the revels of the Romans, and Stromboli, the light- 
house of the Mediterranean, has been a guide alike 
to the Greek and to the Latin navigators. The idylls 
of 'Theocritus were written among the villages of 
Sicily; on her plains the Norman and the Saracen 
fought ; in her valleys was grown the wheat that fed 
Athens and Rome. For twenty-seven centuries this 
beautiful land has been the dwelling place of the, 
most advanced communities of the old world, despite 
the fact that it lay close to the edge of a volcano, 



January 'J, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



65 



and on the vibrating edge of a shifting portion of 
the earth's cruet Win do men continue to pitch 
their dwellings in such dangerous places 1 Because 
the intervals between great catastrophes are greater 
than the period of a generation, and therefore rarely 

befall more thai in the life of an individual. 

The last big Calabrian earthquake was in 1788, and 
undoubtedly it was to the well informed Sicilian of 
bul a remote scientific fact having no direct 
bearing upon Ids own happiness. Moreover, men 
think all men mortal l>ui themselves; if an earth- 
quake come, each expects to survive, and it' any 
house I"- ruined, it will be his neighbor's. Finally, 
where Nature is unkind with her left band, sin- 
is generous with her right. The barbor of Mes- 
sina brought wealth to thousands, and the plains of 
Sieih enriched generations; they were willing to 

take the risk in exchange for the advantages offered. 
And so for a period covering the written record of 
humanity the wheat of Sicily and the wine of Cala- 
bria have been gathered under sunny skies and be- 
side blue waters in defiance of the volcanic ashes 

thai might darken the heavens or the mysterious 

unrest that might waken the sea to deeds of horror. 
The harbor of Messina was the haven of the Medi- 
terranean after an earthquake, as before: the bay of 
San Francisco attracted the shipping of the Pacific 

before 190tj and after. Ideologic forces have not hurt 
Sicily so much as the clash of armies. Latin and 
Greek, Roman and Carthaginian, Norman and Sara- 
cei . Geologic faults have made less of a rift in San 
Francisco than the deeper fault of a lost sense of 
civic decency. We have overcome the effects of the 
first with triumphant energy and incomparable cour- 
age; we still cower under the morally emasculating 
agencies of an incivism that even the earthquake 
could not exorcize, that even the fire could not refine. 



Revival of Gold Dredging. 

Not long ago it seemed as if the application of 
the dredge to gold mining were destined to be re- 
stricted to one or two localities and to enterprises 
of small proportions. In the south island of New 
Zealand, in New South Wales, in the upper water- 
shed of the Ovens and its tributaries in Victoria, a 
number of small dredges were earning a profit for 
their owners, but the sum total of production and, 
fortunately, of capital invested was small. These 
enterprises continue to make fairly satisfactory re- 
turns, but taken collectively their yield is hardly 
equal to that of one big lode mine. In America, the 
dredges in Montana, in Colorado, in Idaho, and in 
other Western States have had an encouraging meas- 
ure of success. In more distant regions, such as Ti- 
erra del Fuego, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, West Africa, 
and Dutch Guiana the dredge has been digging la- 
boriously and with varying results. In Siberia and 
in British Columbia dredging enterprises on a large 
scale have been undertaken, but the profit has been 
nothing to boast of. Many have been attracted by the 
supposed absence of risk in dredging because of the 
certainty with which the ground can be tested, and 
this supposed certainty has been the excuse for care- 
lessness in prospecting such as would ensure failure 



in any form of mining enterprise. Nevertheless, the 
only region where the dredging industry assumed 
■ was in California: at Oroville, on 
the Feather river, first, and subsequently in the val- 
Lej of the Yuba, near Marysville, and on the Ameri- 
can river, near Folsom. These three localities may 
be grouped as parts of the central California dredg- 
ing region. At the present lime not less than 45 
dredges arc in operation in this region, producing 
$5,500,000 i»i- annum. One of these dredging com- 
panies, namely, the Yuba Consolidated, is much the 
most productive gold mine in California; in fact, it 
produces as much gold as the two richest lode mines 
in the State the North Star and the Kennedy. The 
Yuba Consolidated has 12 dredges at work, digging 
80 feet, of which fiS feet is below water and 12 feet 
above that level: the gross yield is $1,650,000 per 
year, the nel profit is $1,200,000; the gravel yields 
•_'l cents per cubic yard and is worked at a total cost 
of 5 cents per cubic yard; so that fully 75 per cent 
of the gold won represents dividends. This is a 
splendid mine. There are U dredges in other parts 
of California, notably at Redding and at Snelling, 
from -which good returns are expected. Thus there 
are 59 dredges in California, producing in excess of 
$6,000,000 per annum. These facts, now generally 
known, have stimulated the search for dredgeable 
ground. Prospecting and testing of alluvial flats 
have been undertaken in many corners of the world, 
especially in Alaska and the Yukon. In the North 
there are 12 dredges digging profitably, including 
the 7 operated by the Yukon Gold Company at 
Dawson. On the Stewart, the Forty-Mile, the Solo- 
mon, and other rivers near the Arctic Circle a season 
of four to five months is spent industriously in the 
extraction of gold from deposits of unusual rich- 
ness and occurring under exceptional conditions. 
Next season several new dredges will be started, and 
if they utilize the experience in method and ma- 
chinery now available they ought to do well. Dur- 
ing the past summer two or three expeditions have 
been sent to Colombia and the result has been that 
engineers of established reputation have recom- 
mended the construction of dredges to exploit 
ground already tested systematically with churn- 
drills. In Siberia several American engineers versed 
in this branch of mining have found areas suitable 
for dredging and English-Russian companies are pre- 
paring to make a start. Other countries might be 
specified, but the facts stated suffice to prove a gen- 
eral increase of interest in this branch of mining. It 
seems warranted. To the younger men of the pro- 
fession this expansion offers a new field for their 
energies. The use of the churn-drill in testing allu- 
vial ground and experience in making proper infer- 
ences from such bore-holes, have given a valuable 
tool to the engineer. Drilling affords a method for 
reliable sampling. Co-operation between the manu- 
facturers of machinery and the men that use it has 
resulted in the designing of dredges as much stronger 
and more efficient than the feeble digging-machines 
of ten years ago as a modern battleship is more 
powerful than the war-vessel of discarded type. 
The training of efficient dredge-masters renders it 



66 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



unnecessary to consign a complicated mechanism to 
the control of a farmer or of a book-keeper. 

In a recent article we referred to the fact that 65 
dredges had been built for the North and of these 
12 were successful enterprises. To those who think 
hastily, but not profoundly, this proportion, of about 
one success to four failures, looks discouraging. As 
compared to the average result of business enter- 
prise or industrial adventure, the proportion is high. 
To one who has investigated the conditions under 
which dredging was applied in the North and the 
low average of skill available in the efforts as yet 
made toward overcoming local difficulties, it is aston- 
ishing that so many successes should have been won. 
Assuredly, there is good augury for the future. 
When operators have learned that careful sampling 
with drills and shafts is as necessary in dredging 
as the breaking of assay-samples preliminary to vein 
mining; when they have been impressed with the 
fact that cheap machinery is often the most costly; 
that experienced dredge-masters are essential; that 
it is as profitable to bite a file as to dredge frozen 
ground — then the way will be clear for a proportion 
of success that may be augmented to a beatific 
maximum. 



Financial Confidence. 



It is an impressive fact that the annual output of 
mineral wealth in the United States has reached the 
magnificent value of two billion dollars. This is 
double the production of eight years ago. In the 
same period the value of farm products has increased 
at- a lower rate, the agricultural gain being about 65 
per cent. The relation between mineral and agricul- 
tural production in a country of imperial dimensions 
is an intimate one. At bottom the disparity between 
the two has probably been the chief cause of the 
rise in prices, so conspicuous a feature of the last 
decade. Mineral production is the basis of manu- 
facturing ; it calls for more workers, and that means 
more to feed and to clothe. If the supply does not 
come forth in proportion to the demand, the inevi- 
table result is higher costs of staple necessaries ; this 
is at once reflected in the costs of manufactured 
articles through an advance in wages to meet the 
expenses of living. Thus also is explained the 'land 
hunger' which is leading on the one side to pioneer 
enterprise in undeveloped territory, and on the other 
to reclamation projects and to more intensive meth- 
ods of agriculture. Instead of looking to artificial 
causes for an explanation of the recent financial 
stringency, or accusing the gold output of responsi- 
bility in the case, it is evident that in these simple 
relations between the primary additions to the 
world's wealth is found a fundamental reason. Ex- 
change, in the last analysis, is effected on the credit 
system; gold is only the conventional measure of 
value, and serves to settle the balances that consti- 
tute a trifling fraction of the total volume of busi- 
ness. The enormous areas of land being reclaimed 
in the South and West, and in Canada, and the great 
tracts just being opened to colonization in Mexico 
by the building of railroads, will exercise an impor- 
tant influence in providing means for taking care of 



the mineral output of this country at its present 
high level. 

The enormous industrial expansion, which has re- 
ceived a momentary check, began about ten years 
ago. This is so nearly contemporary with the evo- 
lution of electric appliances to a high state of eco- 
nomic efficiency that many have attributed the 
phenomenal demand for mineral products to the 
development of this new agent. The world had 
never before witnessed so large a growth of business ; 
such colossal enterprises had jnever before been 
undertaken; nor had mining ever played so large a 
part in the transactions of capitalists. It became 
less the sport and more the serious concern of busi- 
ness men. The extended application of electricity 
was unquestionably an important factor in the ex- 
pansion of the mineral industry; the call for one 
metal makes demand for others. No forms of 
human endeavor stand alone; they are intimately 
correlated. The advance in electrical appliances 
was matched by progress in every department of the 
mechanical arts. In short, the world stood ready, 
with improved machinery, and more highly per- 
fected methods, to utilize natural resources upon a 
grander scale. In view of this, the financial depres- 
sion of the past year is not comparable with those 
that preceded it. There were new causes operating, 
and the steady call for metals during 1908 is evi- 
dence of an enlarged consuming power. A pro- 
nounced feature of the year just ended has been the 
absolute indifference of the agricultural centres to 
the prevailing depression. They have been uncon- 
scious of its existence ; prices of food-stuffs have not 
receded. This shows that the mineral production 
had not surpassed the world's need so much as that 
the conditions of production had grown too costly. 
The inevitable result is to stimulate agriculture to 
bring about a truer balance. The London Economist 
index number in June, 1907, was 2601, the highest 
point reached in 30 years, indicating that the rela- 
tion between cost of living and earning power was 
abnormally strained. Under such conditions a reac- 
tion was inevitable, and greater conservatism in 
business would necessarily follow. This is reflected 
strongly in the diminution of failures by 25 per cent 
from the previous year. In line with this evidence 
of conservatism is the reflex of slackened trading 
shown in the 15 per cent reduction of bank clearings. 
The lesson to be deduced from the conditions ob- 
served in 1908 is that actual over-production of 
manufactures had not occurred; that the develop- 
ment of natural resources had proceeded at so rapid 
a pace under the stimulus of improved mechanical 
facilities as to overtax available supplies of the 
necessaries of life ; that artificial governmental inter- 
ferences with business affairs brought about re- 
taliations unsettling normal business relations, and 
accentuating distrust ; but that the expansion of 
industry had so enlarged the demand for supplies 
of every kind as to prevent collapse of enterprise. 
In fine, business is progressing in a conservative 
manner, and will continue to progress while the min- 
eral output leads the agricultural, unless overstrain 
be induced, as happened in 1907. 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Personal. 



Professional men are Invited to send news of their engage- 
ments and travels. Such news Is Interesting to friends. 

0. B. Perry is in London. 

W. P. Hammox is In Europe. 

Philip L. Foster is at El Oro. 

H. C. Hooves is at Monterey. 

Henry F. LEFBVBE is at New York. 

John Bats Hammond is at Augusta, Georgia. 

F. W. Bradley is on his way to El Oro, Mexico. 

H. W. Trit.NEit has gone to Lincoln county, Nevada. 

Howard D. Smith has returned from Grass Valley. 

H. T. Burls has left London, on a visit to Mexico. 

John J. Burke is examining mines at Paehuea, Mexico. 

D. C. Jackli.ng was at Los Angeles on New Year's day. 
A. C. Beatty has rented a house at Santa Barbara until 

May. 

H. A. Titcomd is now in Japan, on a voyage around the 
world. 

Percy L. Fearx has returned to Guatemala from New 
York. 

H. C. Cutler has returned to Goldfleld from Sonora, 
Mexico. 

Nicholas J. Martin was in San Francisco, on his way 
from Nicaragua to Seattle. 

A. Chester Thomas has returned from New York to 
Santa Barbara, California. 

J. S. Williams, Jr., is superintendent of the Moctezuma 
mine, at Nocozari, in Sonora. 

E. Nelson Fell has left London for Colombia, to exam- 
ine the Frontino & Bolivia mine. 

J. Gordon Hardy is now manager of the La Republica 
mine, near Ocampo, in Chihuahua. 

Edward H. Cook announces a change of residence from 
Tucson, Arizona, to El Paso, Texas. 

George A. Packard, of Boston, was in San Francisco, and 
has gone to Shasta county, California. 

F. W. Ridley has been appointed superintendent of the 
Allouez and Centennial mines, Michigan. 

Thomas Pascoe, superintendent of the South Mount 
Boppy mine, New South Wales, is expected in London. 

H. S. Munroe, of Joliet, 111., will be at Baca, Distrito del 
Fuerte, in Sinaloa, Mexico, during January and February. 

Edward H. Nutter has resigned as superintendent for 
the Liberty Bell Gold Mining Co., of Boston and Colorado. 

Pelham V. Cooper, assistant manager of the Black Butte 
quicksilver mine, Oregon, was in San Francisco for a few 
days. 

F. 0. Harvey has formed a partnership with A. G. B. 
Wilbraham, with offices at No. 2 Laurence Pountney Hill, 
London. 

Willard S. Morse has resigned as metallurgical engineer 
with the American Smelting & Refining Co., and will reside 
at Denver. 

Wilfred Rickard, formerly of Wisconsin, is manager of 
the Victoria Quartz mine, at Bendigo, the deepest gold 
mine in the world. 

Elton W. Walker has resigned as superintendent for 
the Tombstone Con. Mines Co., to take effect on February 
1, after which date he will be in consulting practice at De- 
troit, Michigan. 

T. C. Chamberlin, professor of geology in the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, accompanied by his son, R. T. Chamber- 
lin, sailed from San Francisco for Japan on January 9, 
on his way to make a study of the resources of China, in 
behalf of a special educational commission sent thither by 
the University of Chicago. 



Latest Market Reports. 

local mktai. prices — lauuary 7. 

Antimony... 120160 utuliksllver (flask) »46@46 

Casting Copper (scrap)...8%fi>13%c Spelter 6%@7c 

Pig Lead hm>&.40c!tui 



ANGLO-AMERICAN SIIAUES. 

fabled from London. 
I ISO. 30. 
£. s. d. 

Camp Bird 16 

El Oro 1 6 3 

Ksperanza 3 6 I) 

Dolores 1 10 

Orovllle Dredging 8 

Mexico Mines I 18 9 ex. dlv. 

Tomboy 18 9 ex. dlv. 

(By courtesy of W. P. Bonbrlght & Co., St., New York.) 21 



t. s. 

16 

1 6 

3 4 
1 10 
8 
5 



METAL PKICK8. 

By wire from New York. 
Average dally prices In cents per pound. 
Electrolytic Copper Lead Spelter 



18 14.06 4.20 

19 14.06 4.20 

20 Sunday. No market. 

21 14.06 4.20 

22 14,06 4.19 

23 14.06 4.19 

24 14.06 4.19 

26 .....Holiday. No market. 

26 14.06 4.13 

27 Sunday. No market. 

23 14.06 4.13 

29 14.18 4.13 

30 14.18 4.13 

31 14.18 4.13 

, 1 Holiday. No market. 

2 14.26 4.20 

3 Sunday. No market. 

4 14.31 4.20 

6 14.31 . 4.20 

6 14.31 4.20 

7 14.31 4.20 



5 14 
5.14 



0.14 
6.14 



6.14 

5.14 
6.14 
5.14 

5.14 

5.18 

5.18 
5.18 
5.18 

5.18 



18 9 
Broad 



SUver 

per oz. 

48% 

48J4 



48% 
48% 
48% 
49% 



50% 

50% 
50% 



50% 
60% 
51% 



MINING STOCK QUOTATIONS—NEW YOBK. 

Closing prices. 

Dec. 30. JaD.7. 

Amalgamated Copper 83% 84% 

American Smelting & Refining Co 82% 89 

Boston Copper 16% 16 % 

Butte Coalition 26% 26% 

Cumberland Ely 8% 8 

Dolores .". 6% 6% 

El Rayo 3% 3% 

Glroux 6% 7 

Greene-Cananea 12% 12^ 

Indiana Sonora 4% 4% 

La Rose 6% 6% 

Miami Copper 15 15 

Nevada Consolidated 19% 18% 

Newhouse 6% 6% 

Nlplsslng 9% 9% 

Ohio Copper 6% 6% 

Tennessee Copper 14% 47% 

Utah Copper <6 7 H 46% 

Yukon 4% 4% 

(By courtesy of Trippe, Thompson & Co., 25 Broad St., New York.) 



COPPER SHARES — BOSTON. 



Closing prlceB. 
January 7. 

Adventure 9% 

Ahmeek 140 

Allouez 37% 

Amalgamated 84% 

Arcadian 3% 

Atlantic 17% 

Butte Coalition 26% 

Calumet & Arizona 117% 

Calumet & Hecla 660 

Centennial 32% 

Copper Range 80% 

Cumberland Ely 8 

Daly-West 10 

Franklin 15% 

Granby 108 

Greene-Cananea, ctf 12% 

Isle Royale 24% 

Mass 5% 



Closing prices. 
January . 

Michigan 13 

Mohawk 70% 

Nevada Con 18% 

North Butte 84 

Old Dominion 56% 

Parrot 29% 

Qulncy 93% 

Rhode Island 5 

Shannon 17% 

Superior & Pittsburg 17% 

Tamarack 78 

Trinity 16% 

United Copper Con 16% 

Utah Copper 45% 

Victoria 3% 

Winona 6% 

Wolverine 161 

Yukon 4% 



Obituary. 

R. H. Harland, of Lombard Court, London, died on Ne- 
vember 25. He was a well known analyst and assayer, and 
was intimately connected with the cyanide process. 



68 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



General Mining News. 



ARIZONA. 

COCHISE COUNTY. 

Duffner Bros, have bonded the Duffner group of claims, 
between Paradise and Portal, to Homer Prickett and asso- 
ciates, of Douglas, who have already done the assessment 

work. The consideration is not stated. The Shattuck- 

Arizona Co. has resumed active operations and the first 
shipment of ore to the smelter since November 1907 has 
been made. The first consignment amounted to four car- 
loads, or nearly 200 tons. About 60 men are employed and 
the management expects to mine and ship from 80 to 100 

tons per day. At the new Powell shaft of the Pittsburg 

& Duluth Mining Co., being sunk on the dividing line of the 
Hope and Wagner claims, the steam for the hoists will be 
piped 1350 ft. from the old plant. The equipment consists 
of two 75-hp. Atlas boilers, a two-drum Hendrie & Bolthoff 
hoisting engine, a Sullivan air-compressor, oil pumps, and 
minor equipment. The Pittsburg & Duluth plant will be 
used for hoisting Powell ores and for this purpose the old 
head-frame is being re-built. 

MOHAVE COUNTY. 

A. L. Derbyshire is at Gold Flat preparing to work the 
Abe Lincoln mine, north of McConnico, upon which he has 




Sacramento Shaft of the Copper Queen Mine, at Bisbee. 

a bond. A shaft is to be sunk to a depth of 200 ft. at once. 

The Yucca Cyanide M. & M. Co. will start work soon 

upon its San Francisco mine. The new work will be done 
below the 600-ft. level. W. C. Merry, of Cedar, is assistant 

superintendent. Work has been commenced on the Cruz 

mine, near Cedar, by M. J. Ryan and others, of San Diego. 
A company has not yet been formed, but exploratory work 
is undertaken by nine business men of that city. It is the 
intention of the company to sink a shaft to a depth of sev- 
eral hundred feet. The surface ores were the richest ever 
taken from a property in that part of Mohave county. 

PINAL COUNTY. 

In the Ray-Kelvin district conditions are improving daily 
and the past month has shown a great increase in activi- 
ties. The Ray Consolidated Copper Co. is pushing its de- 
velopment and prospect work. The Madeline shaft of the 
Kelvin Calumet Co. has been leased and the Ray company 
is exploring some of its ground which lies directly in the 
rear through this shaft. The Ray company at present has 
eleven large churn-drills at work day and night; four of 
the machines are Keystone and seven Star, employing about 
75 men. There is also other development work being done 
over a large part of the property. The mill at Kelvin, six 
miles distant, which has been overhauled and re-modeled, 



will be in operation in the near future and will handle 350 
tons of ore per day. The plan of the company is to block 
out the entire property and eventua.iy erect a large plant 

for treating the ore. The Christmas Gift mines, near 

Saddle Mtn., are to be worked by a syndicate of British 
people, of which Capt. C. E. Birchman of Liverpool is the 
head. The property was located on Christmas day, 18S2, 
and the company now owning them paid $200,000 for it. 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

The shaft at the Pittsburg mine, in the Santa Rita moun- 
tains, is now down almost 200 ft. From the 160-ft. level a 
cross-cut was run north, striking the vein IS ft. from the 
shaft and cutting through S ft. of good concentrating cop- 
per ore. Sinking was continued and the shaft is now bot- 
tomed in ore of a good grade. The showing is so good that 
T. A. Cox, general manager for the Arizona Pittsburg com- 
pany, owning the property, has gone to Pittsburg to talk 
matters over with the directors of the company in regard 

to putting in heavier machinery. The Bland Mining Co. 

will start operations early in the spring on its property in 
the Harshaw district. W. M. Schwartz, of Kansas City, 
Missouri, will have charge of the mine. The Bland com- 
pany is composed of Kansas City people. The Douglas- 
Arizona & Sonora Development Co., of which L. M. Raines 
is president and P. J. Mclntyre is treasurer, has purchased 
from W. M. Murphy and associates and Robert Daly and 
associates two groups of mining claims adjoining the 
World's Fair mine, in the Harshaw district. It is under- 
stood that the purchasing company will at once do a large 
amount of development work on these claims, and will em- 
ploy a good force of men. 

YAVAPAI COUNTY. 

The Golden Ridge M. & M. Co. is working three groups 
of claims in the Weaver district and expects to increase the 
working force on each as soon as the camp accommodations 
are ready. E. A. Wing, who is general manager, has re- 
cently returned from Memphis, Tennessee, where he went 
to consult with stockholders. It is rumored that the Ari- 
zona Copper Belt Co., whose property is south of Constella- 
tion, expects to erect a 10-stamp mill. 

CALIFORNIA. 

NEVADA COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Donovan and Torpie & 
Schroeder claims, in the Rough and Ready district, have 
been bonded by H. M. Black, representing Eastern capital. 
A new 10-stamp mill and centrifugal pump with a capa- 
city of 200 gal. have been installed at the Golden Gate mine. 
An electric power line will be built to carry a direct cur- 
rent to operate the hoist and pump. A good reserve of 
milling ore has been developed. W. H. Martin is superin- 
tendent. A 200-ft. shaft has been sunk at the Weeks 

mine and a 4-ft. body of mineralized ore opened up by 
cross-cutting at this point. The owners are arranging for 

a test crushing of 100 tons. The unwatering of the shaft 

at the Yuba mine is progressing rapidly, and it is expected 
to have the lower levels clear within a few more days. 
This will be the first time in many years that the mine has 
been free of water. The mill is running one shift on ore 

from above the 400-ft. level. At the Grey Eagle, sinking 

is going on at three different points. Enough ore is being 
taken out in the course of developments to keep the 10- 
stamp mill in operation. The new shaft at the Alaska 

mine has nearly reached the level of the old workings, 
and a cross-cut will be driven to connect. As soon as this 
has been completed, operations on a large scale will be com- 
menced. The turbine pumps are handling the water easily. 
George St. John is superintendent. The mill at the Idaho- 
Maryland is running on good ore from the 500-ft. level. 
Driving for the vein has commenced on the 1000-ft. level. 
The drift on the 700-ft. level will be pushed ahead steadily. 

About seventy men are now employed. The North Star 

Mines presented the miners with $10, and the muckers 
and carmen with $5, on Christmas. The other mines pro- 
vided refreshments for their employees. 

Grass Valley, January 2. 



January 9, L909 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



(i!) 



BAM 111 BNABDINO i 01 \l V. 

Some time daring the c Ing week the Oro Belle Mines 

Co. will increase the lorce now employed in the north drift 
of Oro Belle No. 1. Two shifts are to be pul on, and the 
drift continued farther north. Before January 10 the com 
pan] to begin work on Its new shaft, which will 

be Bunk 300 ft The Atolla tungsten mine, near Johan- 
nesburg, has resumed with a Ian miners, and the 
development work will be pushed with energy. The closing 
of the mine last fall was due to the condition of the market, 
tungsten having taken a drop. Since then the price has 
graduall] ascended, and now large profits are again In Bight. 

-II vsi | COUNTY. 

The California Consolidated Co. is reported to have 
cleaned up (10,000 In theit November mill run al the Sold 
ball mine, near Sawyer's Bar.— The two blast-furnaces 
o! the Bulaklala smelti r have been reinforced the pasl week 
owing In of tli>- two converters, and blister copper 
is now a regular product of the big Coram plant. Little 
difficulty has been met In the reduction of the Balaklala ore, 
and such incidental problems as arc bound to come up from 

time I ae In the early days of a meat plant of this kind 

are yielding to solution and are being successfully met one 
after the ot her. 

BIERBA i 01 Ml 

The gasoline hoist al the No Better shaft, at Forest, is 
completed anil operation will soon lie started. It is ru- 
mored thai Mo' Finane brothers have bonded their quartz 
claim near Foresi to a company which will develop the 
ground. This vein is the south extension of the Eureka. 

and litis some good prospects. The gravel-mill at the 

Omega mine is steadily working, and is said to crush 75 
tons in 24 hours. Adam Keiffer has charge of the mill and 
.1. McCoy rims it on the opposite shift. There are 30 men 
employed, and as they live at the mine the place resembles 

a small town. A few more men were put on at the Tele- 

graph mine this week, and there are now ahout thirty men 
there taking out gravel which will he washed when the 
water starts. 

TRINITY COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Golden Jubilee mine, six 
miles above Carrville, is the most important producing 
property in the northern portion of the county. Lying in 
the heart of the famous Coffee Creek district, the property 
has been worked at various times, with varying success, 
with several years of idleness also marking its career. 
Under a former management the property was practically 
worked out. no provision being made to keep developments 
ahead of mill requirements. Some few years after the clos- 
ing of the property, due to the causes already indicated, the 
owners, principally Napa, California, investors, commenced 
operations on a more modern plan. New levels were run, 
improvements made to the reduction plant, and every en- 
deavor made to develop a good reserve of ore. That this 
change in affairs has been uniformly successful is attested 
by the position that the Golden Jubilee now occupies. The 
Golden Jubilee vein is apparently characterized by a per- 
sistent fissure. The strike is north and south, with an 
easterly dip of ahout 70°. On the surface the vein has been 
traced for 6000 ft. from Boulder creek in a southerly direc- 
tion. The vein varies from 20 in. to 16 ft., and assays 
from $10 to $40 per ton. The lowest level gives approxi- 
mately 1000 ft. of backs, with the vein showing about six 
feet wide at this point. Four upper levels have been driven 
for considerable distances and have disclosed the vein at 
several points. From No. 1 level connections have been 
made with the lower workings by means of a double-com- 
partment shaft. In all, approximately 4000 ft. of drifts 
have been extended. A new 10-stamp mill has been recently 
completed and will be placed in commission within a few 
weeks. It is several hundred feet below the old plant and 
is so situated that the lowest working level of the mine 
will be readily accessible. The cyanide plant is large 
enough to handle the pulp from 20 stamps, as it is intended 
to increase the capacity of the mill to 20, and possibly 30, 



stamps tit a comparatively early date. The mill is oper- 
atod bj water-power, approximately 500 miner's Inches fall 
Ing 150 ft. The mill is arranged to handle amalgamating, 
concentrating, and cyanidlng ores, in the case of amalga 
tiiatiuii, the pulp will pass front the stamps Into a plate- 

r ii. hut if concentrating ore is being treated the product 

from the stamps will be run through classifiers and dis- 
tributed to Willie) and Frue concentrators. The slime will 
be discharged Into agitators antl the goltl recovered in 
cyanide solution. The sand will he conveyed to the cya- 
nide plant and treated separately. In case the sand proves 
loo coarse, it will he first re-ground in the Huntington 
mills and then passed to the cyanide tanks. The old plant 
consists of two "'■_• -ft. Huntington mills and a 20-ton cya- 
nide plant. Although antiquated, ibis plant will be used as 
an auxiliary to the new mill, and is expected to be valu- 
able in many ways. Blocks have been set for 20 additional 
stumps, and it is likely that these will be added in the 
course of the next two or three years. The property com 
prises seven claims, and al the present time 65 men are 
employed. The remoteness of the mine from a railway 
mitigates against it to a certain extent, inasmuch as it 
renders the shipping in of supplies and machinery expen- 
sive. The sole means of freighting between the railway 
station of Delta, the nearest commercial point, and the 
mine, is by means of mule-teams. An abundance of excel- 
lent timber and water is found throughout the district, and 
the climate is good throughout the year, despite the high 
altitude. 

Weavervtlle, January 1. 

COLORADO. 

CI.KAI! CBEEB COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The task of installing the 
Sigafoos boring machine at the Georgetown adit on Colum- 
bian Mtn. is progressing satisfactorily. The grading has all 
been completed, and now the building for the housing of 
the machinery is being put together. A greater portion of 
the machinery has been delivered on the ground, the heavi- 
est piece of which weighs six tons. According to the terms 
of the contract, the machine must be ready to start by 
January 11, but it is possible that a few days delay will be 
experienced, owing to the fact that a pumping plant must 
be installed on Clear creek. This plant is to be installed 
at the expense of the Georgetown M. P. & T. T. Co., while 
other expenses incurred are to be borne by the American 
Rotary Tunnel Machine Co. It is understood that a large 
number of mining men from various parts of the State 
have signified their intention of being present to witness 

the tests that are to follow. William Rogers, manager 

for the Santiago M. & M. Co.. announces that he has in 
contemplation the construction of an aerial tramway which 
will start at the Santiago mine, in East Argentine, the 
terminus to be at the company mill in Georgetown. While 
the total length is not known definitely, as near as can be 
ascertained the distance will be 3% miles. With this tram 
in operation, the vast bodies of ore in the Santiago mine 
workings can be delivered to market at a reduced cost of 
from $2 to $3 per ton. The various lessees at the property 
are breaking a heavy tonnage of smelting ore worth more 
than $50 per ton in gold, silver, lead, and copper. Espe- 
cially is this true of the block of ground being operated on 
the second level by Rogers & Harper, where a body of ore is 
exposed in the stope that is five feet wide. It has been 
decided by the management to award no further leases, 
and as a result more men will be employed on company 

time. W. Collins has taken a lease on the upper level 

of the Wide West, and in sinking a winze, to a depth of 
12 ft., a streak of 500-oz. silver ore has been uncovered that 
is four inches wide. During the last 10 days from five to 
six sacks have been taken out daily, but as soon as the 
winze has been put down to the 50-ft. point driving is to 
be started. There is exposed alongside of the high-grade 
product a body of mineralized quartz. that assays SO oz. 
silver per ton. It has been decided to leave this standing, 
pending a rise in the price of the white metal. The 



70 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



Argentine-Montezuma M. & T. Co. has resumed work in 
the advance of the Vidler adit. A contract has been 
awarded to William Goetz for the driving of the bore 200 
ft., but it is understood that as soon as the work has been 
completed another contract will be given. The compressor- 
plant was started last week and the bore is going in at the 
rate of from six to seven feet per day. The Vidler tunnel on 
the eastern side of the range has been driven 3800 ft., while 
on the western side it is in 700 ft. The total distance to 
be driven is 7300 ft. before an outlet will be furnished for 
the ores of Summit county. There now remains less than 
2800 ft. of ground to be broken before the connection is 

made. The Hollingsworth M. Co. was organized this 

week, with a capitalization of $100,000. A group of claims 
on Sherman Mtn. will be developed upon a systematic 
scale, work having already been put under way. Orlando 

B. Smith of Silver Plume has been appointed manager. 

The compressor for the Linn Con. M. &. M. Co. arrived a 
few days ago, and now a force of men is putting it in place. 
Electric power will be used from the Two American Sisters 
plant. The new set of jigs for the concentrating plant has 
also arrived and is being put in place. Within 10 days 

everything will be in readiness for treating ore. Ed. 

Butts returned this week from an Eastern trip, made in the 
interest of the Key West group of claims, on Leavenworth 
Mtn. His mission was entirely satisfactory, and already 
an active campaign of development has been put under way. 
It is intended to drive the adit, which is now in 700 ft., for 
200 ft., for the intersecting of the Key West vein, which 
from shaft workings produced high-grade gold and silver- 
bearing ore. The reconstruction of the aerial tramway 

running from the Pelican mill to the Seven-Thirty dumps 
is nearly completed. This tram will now run to the Peli- 
can dumps, where large quantities of stuff are available 
that can be handled at a profit. W. A. Hood of Silver Plume 

is manager. J. G. Hite has started work upon the La- 

mont group of claims, situated on Columbia Mtn. The adit, 
now in 400 ft., is to be driven steadily forward, some ore 
being in evidence at the present time. Denver capitalists 
have become interested in the enterprise. A. B. Mont- 
gomery, of Denver, director in the A'stor-Stewart M. & M. 
Co., stated a few days ago that the Western Metals Co. will 
shortly start work upon a new mill, the process being 
electrochemical. The plant is to be erected at the East 
Griffith mine, on Griffith Mtn., and will be fed upon ores 
from that property exclusively. It is claimed by this pro- 
cess the gold, silver, lead, and copper can be extracted 
in bullion form. W. D. Hoover, of Denver, is owner of the 
mine. It is reported upon good authority that the New- 
house tunnel people, at Idaho Springs, will shortly start 
work upon the construction of a 500-ton milling plant. 
From what can be learned, it is the intention of the com- 
pany to reserve one-fifth of the capacity for its own ores, 
while contracts will be entered into with various operators 
for the milling of the ores. This big bore, which is now in 
17,400 ft., is being advanced, contracts having been entered 
into with the owners of property lying along its course 
that will necessitate its advance for another 4000 ft. It is 
a great boon for the district, as already a small army of 
miners has been given employment. W. H. Collins is man- 
ager. J. J. Culley, manager of the Accord M. & M. Co., 

this week increased the working force, and within a short 
time regular shipments of smelting ore will be started. The 
adit is being driven forward, while driving is in progress 

upon both the Clyde and Pineo veins. The Golden Glory 

T. M. Co. expects to increase the output during the present 
month from its Drummond mine on Columbian Mtn. Driv- 
ing is being carried forward, while the winze is being given 
another lift of 75 ft. Orebodies are exposed in both places 
and the product mills from $40 to $45 per ton in silver and 
lead. At the Golden Glory adit a force of men is being 
employed and the bore is being driven steadily forward. 
It is expected that the extension of the Bellevue-Hudson 
vein will be reached within 60 ft. J. L. Young, of Lawson, 
is manager. F. Percy, of Idaho Springs, this week re- 
sumed work upon the Chicago adit holdings, situated up 



Chicago creek. The bore will be driven steadily forward, 
as a large group of claims is controlled. The Gold An- 
chor mill, which has been re-modeled, was put into commis- 
sion this week and from this time forward will be kept 
running night and day. There are immense bodies of ore 
exposed throughout the various workings of the mine, all 
of which can be handled at a profit. 
Georgetown, January 2. 

LAKE COUNTY. 

Steady work has been maintained on the Matchless since 
the decision of Judge Cavender gave temporary possession 
of the property to the lessees. Operations are being car- 
ried on in the No. 7 shaft, through which the ore is hoisted. 
A promising streak of silver was opened there some time 
ago, and the present production is coming in the greater 
part from this vein. Several carloads can be shipped every 
week, it is thought, if the work is not further interfered 
with. Henry B. Stevens, T. M. Raney, and associates are 
temporarily in possession of the Matchless mining property 
on Fryer hill as the result of a decision rendered by Judge 
Cavender in the District Court, but Mrs. Elizabeth Tabor, 
the owner of the mine, threatens to bring injunction pro- 
ceedings restraining them from working it, on the claim 
that they have forfeited their lease by violating their con- 




Map of Southwestern Colorado. 

tract. The main point involved in the controversy, accord- 
ing to the opinion of Judge Cavender, is the terms of settle- 
ment between Mrs. Tabor and the lessees, of the smelter 
returns. Mrs. Tabor claims that she should be paid her 
royalty upon the gross smelter returns, while the lessees 
contend that the lease calls for her royalty, not before the 

hauling and switching charges have been deducted. 

Work on the Progressive property, which was opened under 
a new set of lessees during the early part of last week, is 
reported to be more than favorable. The old shaft has been 
almost completely drained. A good plant of machinery has 
been placed in commission. Work through the old drifts 
of the mine will be taken up at once. It is figured that the 

first ore shipments will he made before long. About 20 

men are now employed on the A. Y. & Minnie property, in 
California gulch. Shipping was started last week. The 
output goes to the chemical works in Denver. The work of 
cleaning up some of the drifts is not yet complete, and as 
soon as they are made ready, the working force of the mine 
will be increased. It is expected that the property will be 

running in full blast within two weeks. Thomas F. Gil- 

roy and associates, who are sinking a new shaft on the 
Across the Ocean group, in Big Evans gulch, have reached 
a depth of 50 ft. Progress is necessarily slow, as they are 
in hard ground. The property is below the Penn and Big 
Six mines and in territory which is considered valuable. 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



:i 



^ VN .11 V, I 1,1 Ml. 

The Mogul company is working a force of six men in 
prospecting on the group of claims above Gladstone owned 
by the luti- W. A. Walter. These claims were held for many 
years by Mr. Walter, who did a great deal of work and had 
good prospects. The Mosul company is operating thcui 
under a bond and is earnestly pushing the work to find the 

orebodies which the property is thought to possess. The 

Des Ouray, which lies in Poughkeepsie gulch, along the line 
between San Juan and Ouray counties, is to be worked as 
actively as circumstances will permit throughout the win- 
ter. A body of ore was cut some months ago In running 

a cross-cut from the main development adit. The San 

Antonio is well In the lead as the greatest shipper of crude 
Ore in the entire San Juan for the year 190S. The season's 
shipments from the San Antonio since the railroad was 
opened to Red Mountain in the latter part of June, until 
the end of December, will number 200 cars — approximately 
5000 tons of crude ore — of a net smelter returns value of 
about $100,000. This is a remarkable showing for a mine 
only in its second year; two years ago It was only a little 
prospect hole with but 35 ft. of development work. 

TELLEB COI'MY. 

The year's output of the Cripple Creek district is esti- 
mated to be $1G,230,525, representing a tonnage of 770,978. 
The maximum month's production was in August, when the 
tonnage was 68.886. The production for 190S exceeds that 
of 1907 by $3,155,533. The average value of all ore from the 

district was approximately $21. The Blue Diamond 

Mines Co., owning approximately 123 acres of patented 
properties in different sections of the district, has leased 
its Waterloo claim, on Ironclad hill, for a long term to 
Curtis J. Smith, president and general manager of the 
Michorado Gold Mining Co., owning the Seven-Thirty claim 
adjoining. A deep shaft is being sunk near the dividing 
line between the two properties, and both will be developed 
therefrom. Applications for leases on other holdings of 
the company have been filed with the secretary and will be 
acted on at the next meeting of the directors, to be held 

early in the month. Work will be resumed on the Rose 

Nichol Gold Mining Co.'s group of fractional claims, contain- 
ing 10 acres in a solid tract on Battle mountain and Bull 
hill. Charles S. Walden, the well known mining man of 
Victor, has formed a new leasing company to operate this 
group, and the lease from the company will be dated Jan- 
uary 1. The main shaft on the Rose Nichol group has been 
sunk to a depth of 600 ft, and in excess of 3500 ft. of lat- 
eral drifts and cross-cuts have been carried in the develop- 
ment of the mine, which has produced to date approxi- 
mately $12,000. Operations have been resumed after six 

years of inactivity, by the Cripple Creek Land & Mining Co., 
owning a large acreage north of and adjacent to the cor- 
porate boundary of Cripple Creek. A shaft is being sunk 
from the surface on the Emma Palmer placer. A depth of 
20 ft. has been reached and an electric hoist is to be shortly 
installed. In an old discovery shaft, sunk in the gulch sev- 
eral years ago, now caved and filled with mud and refuse, 
a strong vein was exposed at bedrock. W. P. Burns, who 
is manager of the owning corporation, is authority for the 
statement that ore from this vein gave returns of $16 gold 
and as high as 105 oz. silver per ton. The new shaft is to 
be carried to a depth of 100 ft. before lateral work is at- 
tempted, but at this depth a cross-cut will he carried over 
to the discovery vein. 

IDAHO. 

SHOSHONE COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The most significant feature 
of mining in the Coeur d'Alene throughout the past week 
has been the formal opening of the Idaho-Northern railroad 
December 30. The opening was the occasion for a great 
celebration throughout the whole of the North Side, and 
special trains were run from both Wallace and Spokane 
over the new line. It is expected that both regular freight 
and passenger trains will be put on the line by the middle 
of January. The Bear Top Mining Co., operating one of 



the biggest and most extensively developed properties 
the North side, is advertising for bids for 460 ft. of ralsi 
connect the No. 2 and 3 levels, and putting the mine in a 
position to commence shipments of ore as soon as the rail 
road facilities will permit, it is estimated that there is 
$360,000 of shipping and $200,000 of concentrating ore in 
sight at the present time. The mine is fully equipped with 
all necessary machinery and a water-driven concentrator 

of 100 tons capacity. The stockholders of the Charles 

Dickens .Mining Co. have no longer any interest in the prop- 
erly. The time allowed them for turning in their stock in 
the old company and receiving an equal number of shares 
in the Idaho-Knickerbocker Mines Co., in consideration of 
B payment of seven cents per share, has expired, and, as 
far as can be learned, in this district very few of the hold- 
ers appear to have taken advantage of this offer. The only 
means by which the stockholders in the old company can 
regain the property, which was sold to A. D. Gritman under 
a sheriff's sale, would appear to be by means of a volun- 
tary assessment to meet the indebtedness of the company 
to Mr. Gritman within one year. A meeting of the Idaho- 
Knickerbocker Co. has been called for next week, when the 
terms under which the new company wili acquire the prop- 
erty from Mr. Gritman will be discussed. A contract 

for 200 ft. of driving and cross-cutting has been let on the 
property of the Horn Silver Mining Co. It is expected that 
a depth of 400 ft. on the vein will be attained. It is the 
intention of the company to erect a concentrator in the 
spring, and nearly all of the funds necessary for this pur- 
pose have been secured. Samples taken from the face 

of the drift in the 50-ft. level of the Josephine mine, on 
which a good strike of ore was recently made, and where 
the vein has been proved to be about 12 ft. wide, give re- 
turns of $66 per ton, made up as follows: gold, $1; silver, 
$4; copper, $18; and lead, $43. Machinery for further sink- 
ing has been ordered. It is also the intention of the man- 
agement to drive a raise to the surface, a distance of 65 
ft. on the dip of the vein. It is believed that the Morn- 
ing mine, the big producer of the Federal company in the 
Mullan district, is to be equipped with a hoist similar to 
that in use at the Hecla mine at Burke, which was installed 
last winter at a cost of about $50,000. Engineers of the 
Federal company have been examining the plant at the 
Hecla mine and gathering data on its work. The hoist has 
a capacity of 2400 ft. for a lift of three tons of ore on one 
trip, and is driven by electricity. The manufacturers are 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. of Pitts- 
burg and the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., of Cleveland. 

According to statements issued by Morris H. Hayman 

and Edward Baer, of New York City, president and secre- 
tary, respectively, of the Golden Chest mine, in the Murray 
district, extensive improvements are to be made in that 
property this spring. It is the intention of the manage- 
ment to increase the capacity of the 20-stamp mill by the 
addition of another 30 stamps, and to install the necessary 
machinery for the extraction of tungsten. Advances have 
been made to the management for the tungsten output of 
the mine by both the United States Government and the 
Krupp steel works of Germany. It is believed that as much 
as $900 per ton can be gained from this ore. The company 
has also under consideration the advisability of installing 

a cyanide plant. A large amount of machinery is about 

to be installed at the Butte & Coeur d'Alene mine, on which 
a big strike of ore was made some time ago. The new 
equipment will consist of a four-drill compressor, a com- 
pressed-air hoist, electric light plant, and other machinery. 
The company proposes to both sink and raise on the ore- 
shoot and to make regular shipments of the ore extracted 
during development. J. E. Quinlan, of Mullan, is president. 

The estimated production of the Hecla mine at Burke 

for 1908 is 282,S00 oz. silver and 9,928,130 lb. lead, as com- 
pared with 550,342 oz. silver and 19,024.893 lb. lead for 
1907. The decrease for the present year is due to the fact 
that the mine was closed from January 1 to June 1. A 
force of men is now sinking a shaft from the 900 to the 
1200-ft. level. From two to four feet of ore carrying 



72 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



gray copper, lead, and carbonates o{ iron has been exposed 
in the property of the Rainbow M. & M. Co. The adit has 
been driven about 550 ft., but 100 ft. more is necessary to 
get under the surface showing. The men in the lower 
workings have been taken to the surface and are engaged 

in the exploration of the upper workings. The spring 

development of the Nipsic mine, operating the famous 
Father Lode claim, will include the letting of a contract for 
100 ft. of work on the No. 3 level and the construction of a 
wagon road to Dobson's pass, together with a tramway to 
the railroad in Nine Mile canyon. A large quantity of ore 

is sacked and ready for shipment. Active development 

has been resumed on the property of the Acme Mining Co., 
north of the Snowstorm mine. A contract for the contin- 
uation of the adit for 100 ft. has been let, and as soon as 
this has been completed another will be let. The man- 
agement of the Tucker M. & M. Co. has let a contract for 
100 ft. of work to H. O. Dahl and others. The adit has 
been driven 450 ft., and it is believed that the present con- 
tract will be enough to tap the vein at an approximate 
depth of 350 ft. It is the intention to install a four-drill 
compressor in the early spring and to enlarge all the com- 
pany's building's, with a view to engaging a large force of 

men. The HeCla mine at Burke has declared a dividend 

at the rate of three cents per share. This involves the 
distribution of $30,000, and is the 66th dividend paid by the 
company. A total of $190,000 has been paid this year, and 

a grand total of $1,710,000. A dividend of lii% has been 

declared on the common stock of the Federal Mining & 
Smelting Co. This is the first dividend on the common 
stock since this time last year. The total paid on the 
common stock since the incorporation of the company is 
$2,643,750, while on the $20,000,000 of preferred stock the 
company has disbursed this year $630,000, and a total in all 
of $3,934,250. It is believed that the declaration of this 
dividend has a considerable amount of significance for the 
stockholders of not only the Federal company itself, but 
for the stockholders of the American Smelters Securities Co. 
and the stockholders of the American Smelting & Refining 
Co. According to the rumors, the Securities company 
has not been earning its dividends, and has been forced to 
borrow from its parent. If this be so, the $45,000 which it 
will receive January 15 on Federal stock will help materi- 
ally to cut this indebtedness. Should the Federal company 
be in a position to increase its common dividends, it will 
go far toward liquidating the entire amount. The Federal 
company has on hand about $1,000,000 in cash, practically 
all of which may be considered as working capital, the lia- 
bilities, with the exception of its stock, being only small 
current items. 

Wallace, January 2. 

NEVADA. 

CHUKCHILL COUNTY. 

The sampler of the Western Ore Purchasing Co. at Hazen 
was destroyed by fire on the night of January 3. The blaze 
originated in the oil-burner used under the boilers. In- 
surance to the amount of $35,000 was carried on the plant. 
The business of the company will not be interrupted, as 
it owns the old Nevada Ore Sampling Works, at the same 
place, and that property will be used pending the re-build- 
ing of the destroyed structure. 

ESMERALDA COUNTY. 

W. B. F. Deal, of San Francisco, has purchased, at Sher- 
iff's sale, a group of mining properties at Candelaria, includ- 
ing the Holmes and Northern Belle. The consideration was 
$201,419. It is believed that the new ownership will mean 

a resumption of activities at this long abandoned camp. 

More than half of the 100 stamps in the mill of the Con- 
solidated company are now dropping regularly in the actual 
treatment of ore, and are working without a hitch. The 
number will be gradually increased until the entire battery 
is in operation, which it is believed will be accomplished 

early next week. The Combined Mining & Leasing Co. 

has secured a new IS months' lease on their old block of 
ground on the Velvet, beginning January 1, and work has 



been started in earnest once more, a contract having been 
let for 200 ft. of cross-cutting. The recent strike on the 
Ricker lease, adjoining the Combined lease on the west, has 

given a new impetus to the work. A discovery of rich 

ore at a new camp called Wilson has caused a small stam- 
pede from Goldfield, Tonopah, and near-by camps. The find 
was made by J. W. Wilson, on a claim on which he had been 
doing the assessment work. Numerous leases have been 
granted and a townsite is being planned. The re-organ- 
ized Johnnie Consolidated, of which Al. D. Myers is presi- 
dent and general manager, started up its mill recently. 
Twelve out of the 16 stamps are now in operation, and the 
rest will be put in commission as soon as the machinery is 
all tested. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. 

The Milwaukee group of claims, near Pioche, has been 
bonded to William C. Alexander and his Indiana associates, 

and development work is to be started at once. The 

Pioche X-Ray Co. has ordered a compressor-plant for use 
in driving the adit on its property in the Highland district. 
The bore has 400 ft. more to go before cutting the vein. J. 
W. Taylor is general manager. The Metals Exploration 




Eastern Nevada and Western Utah. 

Co., which recently took over the Point mine of the Pioche- 
Nevada Consolidated Mining Co., has completed several new 
mine buildings, including a boarding-house, bunk-house, 
and office. A force of miners, under Thomas J. Hooper as 
superintendent, is driving both ways on the 65-ft. level, the 
purpose being to decide on the proper place in which to 

start the working shaft. The Nevada-Des Moines has 

ordered a 40-hp. boiler and sinking pump and will resume 

sinking in its shaft at Pioche. William M. Wantland, 

of Salt Lake, has purchased the Weston group of claims, 
which lies between the Pioche King and the Abe Lincoln, 
at Pioche. He will organize a company to work it at once. 

WHITE PINE COUNTY. 

The Giroux smelter, at Ely, was destroyed by fire the 
last week in December. The building is a total loss, while 
equipment was damaged but not destroyed. The plant was 
completed last summer, but was not blown in, and hence 
the loss does not interfere with the continuous operations 

of the Giroux property. The construction of the third 

reverberatory furnace is progressing satisfactorily, and the 
fourth unit of the big plant will be completed by the time 
it is needed. The Veteran mines and the Giroux are em- 
ploying all the men who apply for work, and all Ely mines . 

are producing average outputs. The Kohinur Mining Co. 

has been incorporated by C. E. Millick and associates, of 
Osceola, Nevada. The purpose of the company is to erect 
a mill and install a mining plant at its property just across 
the range east from the Nevada Consolidated smelter. The 
ore is said to average $17 per ton. It is reported that Port- 
land, Oregon, capital is back of this enterprise. 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



; ; 



Special Correspondence. 



LONDON. 

Venture Corporation. — Poderosa in Chile. — Developments on the 
Rand. — Public Indifference. — Consolidations. 

One of the most Interesting notations of the year Is the 
I'oderoaa Mining Co.. Ltd., which has been formed in acquire 
the assets of a company of similar name registered in Chile. 
The present notation is not so much for the purpose of buy 
lng out the present owners or raising new capital as for the 
purpose of transferring the proprietorship from Chile to 
Kngland, and thus making a market for the shares. The 
mines are in the district ot Collahuasl, Tarapaca, and have 
been connected by a new branch line with the Antofagasta 
railway. Developments were started in 1903 and regular 
shipments of ore began In January, 190s. To the end of 
October 17.256 tons of ore averaging 25'; copper and 11 oz. 
silver per ton have been shipped. The profits for 1908 are 
estimated to have been sufficient to pay for the whole of 
the cost of machinery and plant and to pay £60,000 as divi- 
dends. The success that has attended the development of 
this mine is chiefly due to the mining and civil engineering 
skill of Robert Hawxhurst, Jr., who is well known in San 
Francisco. 

Some Important economic developments have been taking 
place in the Rand during the last six months or more, as has 
been mentioned from time to time by your Johannesburg 
correspondent. The curious part of it is that the news relal- 
lng to these matters Is not circulated to any great extent 
in London, and the interest taken in them seems to be 
mostly academic. The public in general is not attracted 
by any of these improvements in the conditions of Transvaal 
mining operations; this seems a pity, for there have been 
many more unattractive opportunities for getting a decent 
return on capital invested than the schemes put forward 
just at present. Briefly, these improvements have been 
caused by the plentiful supply of native labor to take the 
place of coolies, by the consolidation of organizations oper- 
ating groups of mines, and by the lowering of working 
costs all round. Many low-grade properties that have been 
lying neglected for years are being taken in hand, and in 
many of the more developed or older properties it has been 
possible to count the blocks of hitherto useless low-grade ore 
as useful reserves. An example of the indifference of the 
public was the failure to float the consolidated company to 
take over the Randfontein group, but Sir Joseph Robinson, 
the controller, nothing daunted by the coolness of investors, 
has come forward with a million pounds wherewith to effect 
the organization. 

I mentioned some months ago an example of the consoli- 
dation of the East Rand Proprietary and its subsidiaries. 
This week an equally important amalgamation has been 
announced by the Crown Reef people. 

With regard to the raising of additional funds by mining 
companies during the past year, it is hardly necessary to 
say that the stress of circumstances has forced many of 
the controlling houses to remodel their views as to what 
expenditure should he charged to capital and what to reve- 
nue. It has been the orthodox rule in many quarters to 
issue new shares for new plants. Owing to the inability of 
shareholders recently to take up new shares, the issuing 
houses have had no alternative but to provide for these 
additional expenditures out of revenue. 

In the domain of big public companies that undertake 
the promotion of mining enterprises, the most interesting 
event of the year has been the re-organization of the Ven- 
ture Corporation. For eight years this company financed 
on a razor-edge, without issuing a report or calling a meet- 
ing of shareholders, in itself a truly wonderful perform- 
ance; however, everything comes to an end at last, includ- 
ing the hidden troubles of this company, and accordingly 
a re-construction, with the subscription of new capital, was 
effected during the summer. Another interesting feature 
in the same connection is the broadening of its basis of 



operations by the t'onsulidated Gold Fields of South Africa. 
Originally intended for financing mines in the Transvaal, 
this company has in recent years gone farther afield, luu 
ing the last few weeks it has been announced thai the com 

pany is intending to put additional money Into B01 

the West African mines, and accordingly general attention 
once more been directed to that part of the world. 



NEW YORK. 

American Smellers.— Statement by Daniel Guggenheim.— New Com- 
petitive Company.— Anthracite Coal Reserves.— Newhouse Mines. 

Recent events in New York mining circles are likely to 
have an important bearing upon the American copper in- 
dustries. It will be remembered that, since the panic of 
1907, the shares of the American Smelting & Refining Co. 
advanced on the New York Stock Exchange erratically. All 
kinds of rumors have been started by the news bureaus 
operating in the Interests of powerful financiers, and many 
0( Mr. Lawson's advertisements in the daily press have re- 
ferred to them. The public has been led to believe that 
the control of the company passed from the Guggenheims 
to the Standard Oil group during the panic, and that it was 
to be annexed to the Amalgamated Copper Co. On the 
strength of these assertions the stock of American Smelt- 
ers advanced. Early in December, however, the informa- 
tion was given out in Wall Street, that very few shares in 
the company are held in the names of either the Guggen- 
heims or Rockefellers. Many shares are in the company's 
books in the names of Wall Street firms as trustees for the 
owners. The Standard Oil insiders were reported to have 
sold out their holdings in November. The result of these 
statements was a marked fall in the stock. Contempora- 
neously with this decline, the public was informed that the 
Standard Oil had again quarreled with the Guggenheims, 
and had determined to establish a rival concern, which 
would erect smelting plants wherever the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. has them. 

A prominent news bureau, identified with Amalgamated 
Copper interests, gave out the following: 

"The Rockefellers have sold out all of their holdings in 
the American Smelting & Refining Co., and have taken 
stock in a new combination. A smelters' war of big pro- 
portions appears imminent. 

"The copper companies have been for years dissatisfied 
with the charges of the smelting monopoly, but the break- 
ing point came about a year ago, when the Utah Consoli- 
dated Co. was unable to get a definite answer to a propo- 
sition to the Guggenheims for the renewal of its smelting 
contract. The Utah company then began the erection of an 
independent smelter, which will be ready for operation in 
the spring." 

These statements were published by several of the New 
York dailies and aroused much comment in mining circles. 
The following day, Daniel Guggenheim, president of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co., issued the following 
statement: 

"There is nothing new that I can see, or any change of 
policy, in the so-called Ryan-Cole development of the copper 
smelting business. The group of gentlemen known as the 
Ryan-Cole, and their following, have been for many years 
in the copper mining and copper smelting business. They 
are great believers, undoubtedly, in copper as a metal. So 
am I. They can see that a great deal of money can be made 
in this business, as can be when intelligently prosecuted. 

"They have interests in copper smelters and copper mines 
in various parts of the United States, and properties in 
various parts of the world. It is a business they have gone 
into, and whether or not they have now formed a large 
company for the purpose of taking in other interests, or for 
the purpose of building new smelters and buying new 
mines, it is nothing new, nor is it anything that the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Co.'s shareholders need look upon 
with any concern whatsoever, because the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. has not a single exclusive copper smelter 
in the United States. They have a few copper furnaces at 



74 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



some of their plants, which are simply used as auxiliary 
furnaces to provide for by-products and such ores as are 
contiguous to their locality. 

"The American Smelters Securities Co. has only one 
exclusive copper smelter in the United States. Neither of 
these companies is likely to have in the near future any 
more exclusive copper smelters, because they look upon 
copper smelting as an extremely annoying business, and if 
one is fond of litigation and likes it as a steady diet I 
strongly recommend building a copper smelter in a farming 
locality. 

"The American Smelting & Refining Co. is largely inter- 
ested in copper refining. I personally am very fond of, and 
believe in, copper mining as a highly profitable business, 
and copper refining as a very satisfactory business; but I 
would not go into the copper commission smelting business 
or advise any companies with which I am connected to go 
into the copper smelting business unless to smelt the cop- 
per ores from their own mines. By that I mean I do not be- 
lieve that the smelting of copper ores on commission for 
others is a business that, at present at least, is desirable. 
If one has copper mines and a smelter situated away from 
the farming district to treat the ores of those mines, this 
is an entirely different affair. 

"As regards the lead-smelting business of the American 
Smelting & Refining Co.: Fully 90% of all the lead ores of 
the United States and in the Republic of Mexico are now 
controlled by ownership of mines and by long-time con- 
tracts. These ores are either controlled by the American 
Smelting & Refining Co. or by its present competitors. And 
I wish to state further that the earnings of the smelting 
company at the present time, as well as of the Securities 
company, are considerably in excess of the dividends that 
are being paid." 

On December 21, a corporation, called the International 
Smelting & Refining Co., was registered under the laws of 
New Jersey, at Trenton, N. J. This company was incor- 
porated with a capital of $50,000,000, and its object, as 
stated in the incorporation papers, was to engage in the 
business of mining, milling, and smelting ores. 

"While the above events were occurring, meetings were 
held in the offices of Phelps, Dodge & Co., in New York, 
and attended by representatives of all the large American 
and Mexican copper producing companies, including repre- 
sentatives of the Amalgamated and A. S. & R. companies, 
with a view to reaching an agreement for improving copper 
mining conditions. The results of these meetings are offi- 
cially reported to have been satisfactory. While disclaim- 
ing any trust agreement, James Douglas, who presided at 
the meetings, stated that they were merely a repetition of 
a series called five years ago by the late John Stanton. All 
the prominent copper producers were asked to furnish their 
output-statistics, so that the amount of copper can be easily 
and properly ascertained at any time. This was agreed to 
by the producers, and in the future each company will be 
informed of the production of the others. This is the offi- 
cial account of the agreement reached. 

There is a strong impression in mining circles, however, 
that within the past three months a powerful copper trust 
has been formed in New York by interests closely con- 
nected with the Standard Oil and the United States Steel 
corporations. The trust will practically control the mining 
and smelting of American and Mexican copper ores, as well 
as the leading concerns manufacturing copper goods. It 
promises to have a greater control of the copper industries 
than the United States Steel Corporation has of the steel 
industries. It appears probable that the International 
Smelting & Refining Co. will be used to manage the Trust. 
It will be found later, doubtless, that instead of the Rocke- 
feller interests being at war with the Guggenheims, they 
have absorbed them, as they have absorbed many smaller 
producers. The copper market is not expected to feel the 
influence of the new combine until early in the summer 
months. The price of copper will then start to advance, 
and within two- years high prices are predicted for the 
metal. 



William Griffiths, a coal expert, in giving evidence at 
the Coal Trust hearing in Philadelphia last week, stated 
that he estimates the available supply of anthracite in the 
United States to be about 22,000,000,000 tons. The latest 
estimates made by M. R. Campbell for the United States 
Geological Survey were 21,000,000,000 tons. P. W. Shaef- 
fer, in 1S79, estimated the supply at 26,360,576,000 tons for 
anthracite, and 8,276,856,666 tons for steam coal in Penn- 
sylvania. A study of these estimates will show that the 
question of the exhaustion of the coal beds will not inter- 
est the present generation. Other witnesses at the hearing 
testified that the railroad companies either directly or indi- 
rectly controlled 96% of the coal lands of Pennsylvania and 
adjacent State. Most of the land was acquired by pur- 
chase nearly forty years ago. 

Robert S. Bradley, chairman of directors of the Ameri- 
can Agricultural & Chemical Co., and David A. Ritchie, 
president of Lamb & Ritchie, sheet metal manufacturers, 
Cambridge, Mass., have been elected directors in the United 
States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. It is officially 
stated that the earnings of the Newhouse Mines & Smelting 
Co. are not sufficient at present to justify the payment of 
dividends. The company is earning enough to pay its fixed 
charges, and a surplus which is going to the improvement 
account. There is a large amount of ore blocked out in 
the mine which can be profitably worked when copper again 
reaches 18 cents per pound. The present output is 800,000 
lb. of copper monthly, but the plant now being erected will 
have a capacity of from 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 lb., of ore. 
It is estimated that the copper in the ore already blocked 
in the mine amounts to 2,000,000 lb. Stocks on hand 
amount to 200,000 lb. The Boston Consolidated mine is 
producing 3000 tons of ore daily. A new plant, which will 
increase the capacity 45%, is in course of erection. It will 
be completed in February, 1909. 

Reports from Michigan state that there is at present no 
accumulation of copper in the Lake Superior district. Navi- 
gation is closed and the docks are quite cleared. Railroad 
shipments to New York and Boston have been commenced, 
and it is not proposed to allow any copper stocks to accu- 
mulate during the winter. The United States Circuit 
Court at Trenton, N. J., on December 19 dissolved the order 
to show cause for restraining the receivers of the Arizona 
Smelting Co. from the delivery of deeds for the prpperty. 
Everything is now arranged for the receivers to convey the 
properties of the Arizona Smelting Co. and of the Consoli- 
dated Arizona Smelting Co. to a new corporation. Hooley, 
Learnard & Co., of the New York Stock Exchange, have 
been appointed reorganization managers. They announce 
that the reorganization plans contemplate the formation 
of a new company to acquire, subject to an existing indebt- 
edness of $255,000, the properties purchased at the trustees' 
sale on November 10 last. The new company will issue 
1,840,000 shares of stock of a par value of $5 each, and 
$1,200,000, 30-yr„ 5% bonds, convertible at any time into 
stock at par. Each two shares of the old stock, on which 
an assessment of 50c. per share shall have been paid, will 
be exchangeable for one share of the new stock, and bonds 
at par to the amount of the assessment paid. Notes of the 
old company will be satisfied with 5% cash, 85 in stock, and 
10 in bonds at par. The company would thus resume busi- 
ness free from debt and with cash on hand of approximately 
$797,775. 

The Old Dominion Copper Mining Co. is expected to close 
the year 1908 with a December production of 4,000,000 lb. 
copper. Six furnaces have been running full time this 
month. The total production for the year is estimated at 
38,000,000 lb. The directors of the American Zinc Co. 
propose issuing new debenture bonds, amounting to $5,000,- 
000. All the shareholders on the company's books ou De- 
cember 22, between that date and January 1, 1909, will have 
the right to subscribe for the bonds in the proportion of 
one $1000 bond for each $4000 per value of stock held. 
Underwriters have agreed to take all the bonds not issued 
to stockholders in the company. The debentures are being 
issued to enable the company's plants to be enlarged. 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



MEXICO. 

Review of Conditions in 1908.— Progress Under Difficulties. — New 
Enterprises in Chihuahua. — Operations in Sonora. — Cyanide 
Process at Zacatecas. — Smelting in Durango. — Guanajuato. 

Quiet but not unsuccessful; thus may the condition of the 
mining and metallurgical Industries of Mexico for the past 
twelve months briefly be summarized. As mining Is nearly 
the most Important basis of enterprise in the country, and 
decidedly so considered in its International aspects, the year 
1908 did not open auspiciously for this Republic. The fall- 
ing metal markets, the financial troubles in the United 
States, and practically the entire cessation of the inflow of 
foreign capital, did not promise a bright future. Added to 
the setback that would naturally occur was the threatened 
increase in freight rate of 10. 20, and 30%, respectively, on 
ores of a valuation under 1*25, from 1*25 to 1*50, and over 
P50 per ton, and though it has not yet gone Into effect it 
has hung throughout the year like a black cloud over the 
head of the miner, who would have had to carry the burden. 
What that burden would amount to may be imagined when 
it Is stated that a close estimate shows that 4S% of the 
freight receipts of the Mexican railroads are from mining 
products and supplies. After six months of worry came 
the publication of the project for revision of the mining 



part of Chihuahua, but some of the prospecting 
>ous held by the Greene company will expire early 
In January, and it is expected that many new people may 
be drawn to the district. East of the city of Chihuahua 
the Chihuahua Copper Co. is opening a large property in 
the Chorreros mountains: good zinc continues to be devel- 
oped dear Picachos; and close to Presidio del Norte pros- 
pecting and development of the oilfields by Hearst and 
Keene has led to the organization of a large independent 
company reputed to have $10,000,000 capital, which will 
persist In the thorough prospecting of all eastern Chihua- 
hua, where a large concession is held. Both eastern and 
western Chihuahua are greatly encouraged by the building 
of the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient railroad, which is 
spreading out in both directions as rapidly as Its funds will 
permit. At Terrazas, about 30 miles north of the city of 
Chihuahua, the little old copper smelter of the Rio Tinto 
company, together with its mines, was taken over by Cor- 
rigan & McKinney, of Cleveland, Ohio, and the smelter has 
been almost wholly re-built and enlarged to a capacity of 
300 tons per diem. It will be blown in early in January. 
Just outside of Chihuahua, at Morse, the new plant of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co. has been completed and 
three furnaces are in operation, being supplied principally 
with low-grade ores from the company's mines in Santa 
Eulalia. This plant is producing a carload of lead bullion 




The Esperanza Mill and Mine, El Oro. 



law, placing restrictions on foreign operators in Mexico. 
Though the greater part of the objectionable features were 
eliminated from the final draft of the law before presenta- 
tion to Congress, the effect was to check new enterprises. 
A slight uneasiness was also felt by an increase in the 
tariff on iron and steel, and their manufactures, but of 
greater importance has been the recent move on the part 
of the railroads and the domestic coal producers, for an 
increased freight rate, or a protective tariff on imported 
coal and coke. This is still under consideration by the 
Government commission. From all sides, during the entire 
year, there has been a continual nagging at the heels of the 
miner. Though it has in truth been a quiet year, yet prog- 
ress has been made, and about thirty of the principal com- 
panies have paid in dividends $S, 500,000 gold on a total 
capitalization of $60,000,000. Perhaps the most marked 
progress has been in the State of Chihuahua. In the great 
old camp of Santa Eulalia the production has continued 
without interruption at the rate of 12,000 to 15,000 tons per 
month, and important discoveries have been reported from 
the Mina Vieja, the Velardefia, the Santander, and the San 
Toy group. In western Chihuahua the year has seen the 
completion of the mills and the placing on a good paying 
basis of the Republica and Rio de Plata companies, with an 
electric plant at the latter; the building of a large portion 
of the mill at the Lluvia de Oro, as well as its 500-kw. hydro- 
electric plant; and the enlargement of the mill and the 
completion of hydro-electric power plant for the Dolores 
Mines Co. All of these are using the cyanide process. Rich 
and important strikes have been made in Yoquivo and Urua- 
chic. The total collapse of the Greene Gold-Silver Co. and 
its allied companies has been a serious detriment to the 



per day. An aerial tramway is being erected by the A. S. 
& R. Co. for carrying ores from the mines to the Mineral 
railroad for transmission to the smelter. The Encinillas 
smelter, at Santa Rosalia, has undergone considerable 
alteration and addition, but still remains p closed. In the 
Parral and Santa Barbara districts, the Tecolotes of the 
American Smelters Securities Co. has had a most success- 
ful year, treating 18,000 tons per month of the complex 
lead-zinc-iron sulphides in its re-constructed mill; El Rayo 
Mining & Milling Co. has been developed into a great prop- 
erty, and as it yields principally gold, it has not been mate- 
rially affected by the metal prices; the San Francisco del 
Oro has given the flotation and the Sutton-Steele dry-table 
processes thorough tests, but without success, and the mill 
is now closed; the famous Palmillo of Pedro A'varado, has 
been taken over by Boston capital under a 15-year lease, 
and will be systematically developed below water-level as 
soon as an adequate pumping plant may he installed. West 
of Parral, at Roncesvalles, a number of rich strikes were 
made. 

In the State of Sonora affairs have been perhaps more 
quiet than in the other important mining States, owing to 
its principal producers being copper properties that have 
suffered from the unsatisfactory condition of the copper 
market. The Greene-Cananea, however, resumed operations 
in July with an almost entirely new smelting plant of 3000 
tons daily capacity. This resumption was urged by the 
Federal Government, that aided the company by granting 
a concession for the free importation of fuel oil from 
Texas. At Nacozari, the Moctezuma company, controlled 
by Phelps, Dodge Sc Co., completed the 2000-ton concen- 
trator in April, and the same is now in operation. The 



76 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



Cumpas and the Belen mining companies have each estab- 
lished small copper smelters on their properties in the inte- 
rior of Sonora. El Tigre (or the Lucky Tiger) has been 
developed into one o£ the largest gold mines in the Republic. 

Zacatecas is to be congratulated on the signs of progress 
there. Frequent reference has been made in these letters 
to what has been done in the old camps ot Guanajuato and 
Pachuca, and at El Oro, with the cyanide process. Attention 
has been called to similar possibilities with that process 
at Zacatecas, with its thousands of tons of low-grade dumps. 
To the El Bote Mining Co. may now be given the credit of 
being the pioneer in introducing into Zacatecas the cyanide 
process on a large scale, where it has replaced amalgamation 
and lixiviation. As was the case in Guanajuato and Pa- 
chuca, others will soon follow. 

In the State of Durango the year has seen the comple- 
tion of many improvements at the smelting plant of the 
Penoles Mining Co., at Mapimi, and that of the American 
Smelters Securities Co. (leased to the American Smelting 
& Refining Co.) at Velardefia. Both are in operation. There 
also appears to be likelihood of the old Durango Iron & 
Steel Co., owning the famous iron mountain — El Cerro del 
Mercado — resuming operations, after a shut-down of some 
8 years. 

In Guanajuato some new properties have been opened, 
and additions and improvements have been made in the 
established mines and mills; and the efficiency of sliming 
and filtering has been proved at the Pastita, the San Fran- 
cisco mill of the Guanajuato Consolidated M. & M. Co., rais- 
ing the total extraction to about 97%. The same method 
has been adopted by several other companies. The mills 
now operating in the Guanajuato district have a total of 
5S0 stamps and 13 tube-mills, and are treating 60,000 tons 
per month. In addition, there is an output of 12,000 tons 
per month of shipping ore. The total monthly production 
has a value of nearly PI, 250, 000. Among the most impor- 
tant works initiated in 1907 was the drainage tunnel, Por- 
firio Diaz, that has just been completed. The Mexican Cen- 
tral railroad is running its trains into Guanajuato, and 
the Mineral Belt railroad, while not completed, is furnish- 
ing a much needed railroad and switching service to many 
of the properties. 

The State of Jalisco has made rapid strides in the west- 
ern portion. Near Ayutla the Agua Blanca has been devel- 
oped into an immense low-grade copper property, and has a 
100-ton mill; in Ayutla the Carrizo Copper Co. has com- 
pleted an 80-ton smelter and is ready for operation. At 
Etzatlan the Amparo Mining Co. has proved the success 
of cyanidation and is obtaining good returns from its ores. 
In the Hostotipaquillo district the largest success has been 
attained. Here at least a dozen different companies have 
pushed development work in all parts of this complex 
cross-veined system, and no failure is recorded. Late in 
the year the Marcus Daly Estate acquired claims in the 
district, and in the coming year aid will be given by the 
rapidly approaching Southern Pacific railroad between 
Guadalajara and Guaymas. 

At El Oro, the Esperanza, Dos Estrellas, and El Oro con- 
tinue their remarkable production, with a combined 
monthly profit of over $300,000 from 60,000 tons of ore. 
An English company is working on the Victoria in the 
hope of finding the vein lost in the adjoining Dos Estrellas 
workings. 

Pachuca has added to the list of properties using the 
cyanide process, and the Real del Monte, the pioneer in 
using cyanide in that district, declared its first dividend 
of $100 per share on 2550 shares in March. 

In Oaxaca the smelting situation has not improved, and 
both plants are idle. Important prospecting is being car- 
ried on by the Oaxaca Coal & Iron Co. with promise of suc- 
cess. A number of the important mines have had a good 
year, others have resumed operation, and at the Ocotes 
mine of the Tezuitlan Copper Co., extensive development 
has opened large orebodies. The smelting plant of the lat- 
ter company at Tezuitlan, in Puebla, has been closed down 
since November, 1907, for the purpose of enlargement. 



KALGOORLIE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

Renewed Labor Troubles. — Discoveries on the Golden Mile. — Perse- 
verance and Kalgurli Developments. — Greaf Boulder Reserves. 

It would seem as if we were to have a repetition of the 
recent trouble with the firewood employees. So far, about 
500 men are on strike from the Kurrawang Firewood Co., 
demanding more money for handling the fuel. The great 
trouble is that nearly all the workers are foreigners, and 
early this week they adopted a menacing attitude, necessi- 
tating the despatch of a posse of mounted and foot police 
to protect loyal workers and the property. At this writing, 
the position of affairs is far from being quiet. 

The past month has been characterized by many good 
developments, and a buoyant share-market has resulted. 
Among the group of small mines at the south end of the 
'Golden Mile' — the Boulder Main Reef, Chaffers, and Han- 
nan's Star — much interest has been taken. Parties of trib- 
utors some time ago opened good ore in the Chaffers lease, 
and continue to get returns up to $60 per ton. The Hannan's 
Star also cut the continuation of this lode, and conditions 
in the Boulder Main Reef are rather encouraging. 

In the Perseverance mine, at 1750 ft., high-grade telluride 
ore was found early in the month, and there was an un- 
seemly rush to get shares, which appreciated considerably. 
So far, however, the output has not risen at all. The Kal- 
gurli found good ore in new ground at the 100-ft. level, and 
at 1500 ft. in the Horseshoe the east branch of No. 2 lode 
was cut, being 5 ft. wide with $5 assays. 

The ore reserves in the Great Boulder are now estimated 
at 701,165 tons, worth $17 per ton, this being an increase of 
50,000 tons since the end of 1907. Another ball-mill is at 
work in the Great Boulder plant, this making 4 No. S Krupp 
and 12 Griffin mills; following these are 12 Edwards' tilting 
type, 2 Edwards' duplex, and 8 Merton roasting furnaces, 22 
grinding-pans, 18 ordinary agitators for treatment of the 
mill-pulp, 13 filter-presses, and 10 Ridgway vacuum ma- 
chines. The re-treatment of the old dumps by mixing, agi- 
tation, and filter-pressing, at the rate of 11,000 tons monthly, 
has been suspended of late, owing to some metallurgical 
difficulty experienced in the largest of the tailing heaps. 

The October returns were as follows: 
Name. Tonnage. Output. Profit. Dividend. 

Associated Gold Mines. 10, 437 $112,000 $40,000 

Associated Northern . . . 3,760 38,500 14,000 

Golden Horseshoe 24,657 270,000 100,000 

Golden Ridge 2,220 27,000 13,000 

Great Boulder Persever- 
ance 1S,037 135,000 32,000 

Great Boulder Proprie- 
tary 16,806 248,000 130,000 ...... 

Great Fingall 22,240 135,000 20,000 $155,000 

Hainault 6,056 31,000 2,500 

Ivanhoe Gold Corpora- 
tion 19,618 215,000 105,000 250,000 

Kalgurli 10,945 150,000 82,000 185,000 

South Kalgurli 9,031 62,000 12,000 

Lake View Consols 7,846 60,000 10,000 

Oroya-Bi-ownhill 11,512 S0.00O 11,000 112,000 

Oroya Black Range 4,472 55,000 20,000 

Sons of Gwalia 13,401 92,000 27,000 

Sons of Gwalia South.. 1,995 22,000 750 



GUANAJUATO, MEXICO. 

la Luz. — Guanajuato Development. — 1000-Ton Mill Projected. — 
Guanajuato Amalgamated. — San Cayetano Mines. — Benito 
Juarez. — Dos Esfrellas. — San Rafael Mill, Pachuca. 

La Luz district, 10 miles southwesterly from Guanajuato, 
is attracting attention by reason of present and prospective 
operations and the building of the La Luz branch railroad 
by the Mexican Milling & Transportation Co. This is one 
of the subsidiaries of the Guanajuato Development Co., that 
also plans a main line from the Central yards at Guana- 
juato to the Pinguico, Peregrina, and Santa Rosa mines. 



January 9, l!t()9. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



77 



The La Luz branch is in course of construction. It starts 
from the Central yards and passes close to the San Prospero 
mill, winds over the hills above the San Cayetano to the 
Bolanitas group at La Luz. making a line II miles 
The track will cross the Santa Ana river over a dam that 
be constructed athwart that stream. The allied compa 
nles of the Guanajuato Development Co. have Ave mills in 
operation in the district, comprising the Pinguico of 4" 
stamps, the Peregrina of 100, the San Prospero of 10, Naval 
of 20, and the Central of 15 stamps. The San Prosper., is 
operated as a custom plant, treating 160 tons per day by 
concentration and .yanidation. Close to the San Prospero 
is the same company's new plant, designed for treating con- 
centrate by cyanidation. It has tanks for mechanical aglta 
tion, tube-mills which pulverize to limi mesh. Pachuca tanks 
in which agitation occurs in cyanide solution. The material 
from the latter is forced by centrifugal pumps to Biter 
presses, and through these the solution passes to zinc-boxes 
In the precipitation room. It is probable that the Merrill 
precipitation presses, involving the use of zinc-dust as a 
precipitant, may be installed. L. D. Mills, representing C. 
W. Merrill of San Francisco, has been making tests at the 
San Prospero plant, and reports satisfactory results. The 
new plant is to cyanide the concentrate made by the four 
or five other mills of the subsidiary companies, thus avoid- 
ing the expense of shipping and treatment charges at smel- 



crushers which reduce the ore to : ',in. size before it is car- 
ried bj bell iiuievyor to the battery-bins. There are 100 
Btampe ol 1060 lb. each, installed in two rows, back-to-back, 
i aeity is 300 tons per day through 40-meah screens. 
Amalgamating plates have been discarded and the pulp now 
passes from the batteries to three Dorr classifiers: the sand 
from these passes to 10 Willley tables, the tailing from the 



,_ „-^p^M ^^^r*i " -.j^^^^Kk™ 


-- 

■5 


~*- ffl |P§ 




"~"*' v *f ' r ^u 



San Rafael Will, Pachuca. 

ters. One of the main purposes of Mr. Mills is to aid in 
determining the methods to be employed in the proposed 
1000-ton mill, which is one of the projects under considera- 
tion by the Mexican Milling & Transportation Co. This mill- 
ing project is closely allied to the dis- 
trict railroad scheme of the company, 
the intention being to haul the ores of 
Pinguico, Peregrina, Santa Rosa, La 
Luz, and other widely separated mines 
to a central milling plant which can 
treat them at a low cost per ton. The 
low price of silver and the predomi- 
nance of that metal in these ores make 
it essential to reduce costs to the mini- 
mum. The La Luz ore, however, is pro- 
portionally higher in gold than most 
other ores of the district. One point 
claimed by those who would use zinc- 
dust and Merrill presses is that the 
cost of zinc would thus be reduced one- 
half and the time required for precipi- 
tation would be much shortened. 

The Guanajuato Amalgamated Mines 
Co. is working the La Luz and Plateros 
veins, near the town of La Luz. It has 

a main shaft 185 metres deep, surmounted by a modern 
electric hoist. A level runs 100 metres from the bottom of 
this shaft to the top of an inclined shaft which extends 200 
metres from that level on the dip of the vein. An electric 
hoist is installed at the incline. There are working levels 
from the 100, 145, 1S5, and 250-metre stations, most of the 
ore coming from the lower levels. The ore is hoisted in cars 
and dumped into bins at the mill. Here are three Gates 















^1 


r Pt A^S^B 
n a 

' -I- 1 



Brown -Pachuca Tanks, La Union Will. 

latter being re-concentrated on another group of 10 Wilfley 
tables. The concentrate thus made contains 3S% iron, and 
assays P120 silver and 1*350 gold per ton, the concentration 
ratio being 45 to 1. The final table-tailing passes to sand 




Will of Mexico Mines of £/ Oro. 

tanks, in which it is cyanided by a 0.5% KCy solution, with 
an average treatment of 12 days. Before passing to the 
sand tanks, however, this tailing goes to sand collectors 
with rim overflow, the slime discharging to settling cones 
and then to the slime plant. The slime from the Dorr classi- 
fiers passes to de-watering cones, dividing it into 4 parts of 
water to 1 part of thickened slimp. This is charged to con- 
ical-bottomed treatment tanks, and is given air-agitation. 



78 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



From these the solution is decanted and passed to the zinc- 
boxes. A 90-leaf Butters niter-press has been purchased 
and will soon be installed to treat the solution from the 
slime plant after agitation. The plant has 26 sand-tanks, 
•each of 90 tons capacity, and 20 slime-tanks, each of 15 tons 
capacity. The sand-tanks are filled by belt-conveyors and 
discharged into cars by hand-shoveling. The ore has a sili- 
cious gangue, but with a small percentage of lime. C. A. 
Lantz is mill superintendent, with Win. Northgraves as 
superintendent of the mine. The water for mill-work is 
jumped two miles through a 5-in. pipe to a reservoir above 
the mill, making an ascent of 600 ft. in two miles. Law- 
rence Adams is general manager of the property. 

The San Cayetano Mines, Ltd., controlled by New York 
people, and locally managed by F. H. Clark, has the group 
of mining properties between Guanajuato and La Luz which 
formerly belonged to the Mexican Mines Association of 
London. The former owners drove a level three kilometres 
long on the San Antonio vein, starting in a deep gulch 
where the old mill and other- buildings are situated, and 
Tunning toward La Luz. This level opened bonanza ore in 
the early days, and it is claimed that the present manage- 
ment has opened orebodies on the same vein by adits driven 
from higher points. The ore assays 350 grams silver and 5 
gm. gold. The most interesting work now in progress is 
that of making a raise of 100 metres from the old adit level, 
3 kilometres from the portal, to unwater the workings of 
the Mexia Mora, San Pedro, and Purisima mines. The first 
named belongs to the San Cayetano and the last two belong 
to the Guanajuato Reduction & Mines Co. By raising 20 
metres farther a connection will be made that will drain all 
these old workings through the San Cayetano adit. They are 
embarrassed by caving ground and the work is dangerous. 

The Benito Juarez Mines Co., in the State of San Luis 
Potosi, operating at Pinon Blanco, 10 miles south of Salinas 
station, has sunk its Eduwigis shaft to a depth of 500 ft. 
By driving a cross-cut 18 metres from the bottom a strong 
flow of water was opened, making the installation of pumps 
necessary before doing any further work. Triplex Aldrich 
electric pumps made at Allentown, Pa., are now being 
installed; these will be electrically operated. The mine- 
water is to be used in the mill. A new 75-hp. double-drum 
electric hoist has been erected. The mill will be ready 
for business by January 15. It has 20 stamps, of 1050 lb. 
each, to have a 7-in. drop, 102 drops per minute. The 
screens are 30 mesh, and the crushing will be in a weak 
cyanide solution. Following the batteries are' cone-classi- 
fiers, Wilfley tables, and an Allis-Chalmers tube-mill. The 
pulp from the tube-mill will be passed through a Dorr 
classifier to separate sand from slime, the sand passing to 
leaching tanks and the slime to cone-bottomed agitating- 
tanks. The ore is said to be mainly gold, the bullion con- 
taining only 30% silver. The gold is free, but is in finely 
divided particles, and the silver is present as bromide. At 
the greatest depth, however, the silver exists as sulphide. 
The gangue consists of quartz and calcite. John C. Bren- 
non and E. P. Ryan are directing the work. The company 
has installed an electric power plant at Salinas, the gener- 
ators being run by steam-power, oil being used as the fuel 
under the boilers. 

The Cia. Minera las Dos Estrellas, at EI Oro, for the first 
eleven months of 1908, treated 144,413 metric tons of ore at 
its No. 1 mill, and 166,532 metric tons at its No. 2 mill. 
The production of mill No. 1 was 1,504.S50 kg. of gold and 
15,119.513 kg. of silver; that of mill No. 2 was 1,674,963 kg. 
of gold and 11,059.785 kg. of silver. The gold production 
of both mills yielded 1*4,292,747, and the silver was valued 
at P785,37S, making a total of 1*5,078,126 for the eleven 
months ending November 30. Mill No. 1 is the old plant, 
which has 130 stamps; the new plant has 120 stamps. 

The Esperanza's oxidized ore comes from the San Rafael 
vein and its numerous branches. The sulphide ore comes 
frem a vein parallel to the San Rafael, occurring in the 
slate hanging wall of the latter. The oxidized ore contains 
about 90% silica, 3 to 4%Mron, and carries % oz. gold and 
3 oz. silver per ton. The sulphide vein has a width of 



5 to 30 ft., the ore assaying 2 to 6 oz. gold and 20 to 50 oz. 
silver per ton. The oxide and sulphide ores are milled 
separately, the former passing from the stamp batteries to 
the cyanide plant, in which the sand and slime are treated 
separately; the sulphide ore goes from the batteries to 
Huntington mills, thence to "Wilfley tables, making a high- 
grade concentrate that is shipped to the Aguascalientes 
smelter, the table-tailing being cyanided. The plant is 
treating 120 tons per day of the sulphide ore and 300 tons 
of the oxide. This relates to the work of the old plant; 
but a new cyanide plant is being erected and important 
changes are being made which will result in discarding all 
of the old plant except the batteries, Huntington mills, and 
Wilfley tables. Concrete blocks are to be built under the 
stamp batteries, Huntington mills and concentrating tables, 
all of which will be accomplished without entirely shutting 
down. The new cyanide plant, under construction, will 
have 10 Krupp tube-mills, 12 Pachuca agitating tanks, 15 
ft. diam. by 45 ft. deep; three Merrill presses for fine sand 
and two for the slime; and two Merrill precipitating presses. 
The new plant is situated on a site considerably lower than 
the old mill-dump. The dump contains half a million tons 
of material, and the intention is to treat the sulphide and 
oxidized ores as they come from the mine, and add to them 
about 300 tons per day from the mill-dump. The new plant, 
including the re-constructed part of the old mill, will be 
ready for operation next May. 

The north shaft of the mine is 1440 ft. deep. It is sunk 
in the foot-wall of the San Rafael vein, and is being 
equipped with new skips. This shaft will be used exclu- 
sively for hoisting ore from all the veins; the south shaft, 
990 ft. deep, will be used for men and timbers. The oper- 
ating staff consists of Cortlandt E. Palmer, consulting engi- 
neer; Charles Hoyle, general manager; R. A. Conrads, 
assistant manager; D. L. H. Forbes, superintendent of con- 
struction; P. A. Herivel, mill superintendent. 

In melting the precipitate at the El Oro plant crucibles 
of new design will be tried. They are made of graphite, 
and will have double the capacity of the No. 400 that has 
been in use. The new type is 29% in. high, 22 in. diam. 
at the top, 18% in. diam. at the bottom, and 25% in. at the 
middle. In the same mill they are using lumps of quartz 
in the tube-mills instead of the imported pebbles. The 
9 tube-mills require 25 tons of this quartz per day, the 
consumption of the pebbles having been 6 tons per day. 
The use of the hard quartz instead of the pebbles effects 
an important reduction in expenses of operating. 

The San Rafael mill at Pachuca is about complete, and 
it is expected to be in operation in January. It is equipped 
with 60 stamps, 40 of which weigh 900 lb. and twenty 1250 
lb. The ore is crushed through a 20-mesh No. 28 wire 
screen, in a weak cyanide solution, the pulp passing to 
classifying cones, the coarse product going to Wilfley tables 
and the fine to pulp-thickeners. The table-tailing is classi- 
fied in Dorr machines ; the sand from the latter, after being 
pulverized to 200-mesh in tube-mills, goes to the agitating- 
tanks, which also receive the slime from the Dorr thick- 
eners. The agitating tanks in this mill are the Pachuca 
tanks (Brown patent), cone-bottomed, air-lift style, giving 
continuous agitation and circulation of the pulp, affording 
aeration at the same time. The pulp after agitation is 
transferred partly by gravity and partly by pumping to 3 
pulp-storage tanks, in which it is kept from settling and 
packing by slow-moving mechanical agitators, which also 
at the same time provide an even flowing pulp for the 
Moore filter-tanks. The Moore filter installation consists 
of two independent units of 100 leaves each. The capacity 
of the mill is about 300 tons of ore daily. Zinc shavings 
are used for precipitation. Edmundo Girault is manager 
of the San Rafael mine and mill; J. B. Empson, lately of 
Guanajuato, is consulting metallurgist. The ore and dump 
material to be milled will average about 700 gm. silver and 
2 gm. gold per ton. The concentrate and high-grade ore 
will be shipped to one of the Monterrey smelters. The 
mine paid dividends of 1*1,000,000 in 1907 from high-grade 
ore that was shipped. 



January 'J, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



79 



Concentrates. 



Most of these are In reply to queatlona received by mall. 
Our readers are Invited to ask questions and give Informa- 
tion dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 



Gold-saving on the dredges at Oroville, under the 
best conditions, is estimated to reach 85 per cent. 

In dredging, labor usually represents less than 
t'i' of the total operating cost ; where power is high, 
the proportion declines to 30%. In ordinary min- 
ing, labor constitutes from 55 to 60% of the entire 
cost of winning the gold. 

Prospecting in frozen ground that is shallow is 
done with a single 'steam-point'. Tin' ground around 
the 'point' will thaw sufficiently to permit (he pros- 
pector to sink a hole 3 ft. diam. with a short-handle 
shovel to a depth of 15 or 16 feet. 

To separate iron from manganese pyridine may 
I"- added to FeCl 3 solution containing free IIC1, 
which precipitates the Fe 2 (OH) completely. Jin 

under thes nditions will not readily oxidize so as 

to be precipitated. Ni and Co are not precipitated. 
Al, Cr, and Zn are only imperfectly precipitated. 



The Great Boulder Proprietary, the deepest mine 
at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, is now 2350 ft. 
deep. On the 2250-ft. level a lode 5 ft. wide is yield- 
ing 29 dwt. gold per ton, the total working cost being 
a little over 5 dwt., or 20 shillings per ton. Three- 
ton skips are in use on the main or Edwards shaft, 
which is vertical. 



Radium emanation 'degrades' copper into lithium 
when the copper is in solution, and perhaps causes 
the 'degradation' of copper even into potassium and 
sodium. This was ascertained by Sir William Ram- 
say. The likelihood of some similar action of radium 
on gold was freely expressed a few months ago. It 
now appears that it is easy to exaggerate the trans- 
muting power of radium. E. P. Perman announces 
that radium bromide will not convert the one-hun- 
dred millionth part of its weight of copper into lith- 
ium per day when acting under the most favorable 
conditions, and similarly that it will not convert the 
one two-hundred millionth part of its weight of 
gold into lithium per day. No fresh proof has been 
adduced that any 'degradation' at all is effected by 
radium. 



Elevators for raising wet pulp, such as the tailing 
from stamp-mills, can be run at a belt speed of 9 ft. 
per second, and satisfactory results can be obtained 
at 4 ft. per second. The higher the speed, the better 
the discharge from the top, but the more strain upon 
the belt and buckets, if the material is scooped from 
the boot, so that with the high speed it becomes desir- 
able that as much material as possible be delivered 
into the buckets, instead of into the boot. A good 
inclination for a belt of this type is 22° from the 
vertical. Both head and tail sheaves should be large, 
the former so that there is more grip on the pulley 
and less liability to slip, the latter so that the surface 
of the pulp in the boot may be a good distance away 



from the bearings. In estimating the capacity of an 

.•levator, it is not safe to count on the buckets carry- 
ing more than One third their full capacity. 

In adjusting surveying instruments be careful not 
to strain the screws. It is a mistake to imagine that 
an instrument remains in adjustment longer if the 
screws be tightened beyond the point required for a 
snug tit. In this connection it may be well to remem- 
ber that the adjustments should not be changed more 
frequently than is absolutely necessary. It is better 
to manipulate the instrument so as to eliminate slight 
iir mis of adjustment than to depend entirely upon 
correct relations of the fundamental lines. Test the 
instrument frequently tor accuracy of adjustments, 
but before changing the screws determine precisely, 
by repeated trial, the amount of error, and remember 
that an instrument is rarely in absolute adjustment 
throughout. The same precaution as to straining 
should be observed regarding leveling screws. If 
one pair turns too hard, loosen the. other pair, and 
never tighten the foot-screws so much that they can 
not be easily turned. 

Lands below the line of ordinary high tide are not 
'public lauds' in the sense that they may be located 
under the placer mining laws, with the exception of 
such lands in a portion of Alaska. For Alaska, Con- 
gress passed a special act that provides for mining 
beach or tide-lands. By the common law, the title 
and dominion of all the lands below high-water mark 
were vested in the King. The common law of Eng- 
land upon this subject became the law of this coun- 
try, except as modified by subsequent State or Fed- 
eral enactment. The Supreme Court of the United 
States has decided many times that the title and 
dominion of the tide-waters and the lands under 
them, bordering on its territories, are held by the 
United States for the benefit of the whole people 
and "in trust for the future States." Upon the ad- 
mission of any State into the Union, absolute prop- 
erty in, and dominion and sovereignty over, all soils 
under the tide-waters bordering such State, passed 
to it, with the consequent right to dispose of the title 
to any part of said soils, in such manner as it might 
deem proper, subject only to the paramount right of 
navigation over such waters, which is under the con- 
trol of the Federal Government. This question of 
ownership of lands below the line of high tide has 
arisen in California in connection with boring for oil 
in the ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara county. 
The State Supreme Court held that an owner of land 
abutting on the ocean, could prevent interference 
with his right of access to the ocean, by the acquisi- 
tion of tide-lands beyond. The Secretary of War 
had granted a so-called permit, as was done in the 
early history of Nome, Alaska, but the Court held 
that "this at most was only a statement that, so far 
as the War Department was concerned, it would 
make no objection if navigation was not interfered 
with." Of course, as to lands bordering on the ocean 
above high-water mark, and which are still a part of 
the public domain, title may be acquired under the 
placer mining laws, provided such lands are valuable 
for the mineral they contain. 



80 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1903. 



Discussion. 



Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are invited to 
use this department for the discussion of technical and other 
matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor 
■welcomes the expression of views contrary to his own, be- 
lieving that careful criticism is more valuable than casual 
compliment. Insertion of any contribution is determined by 
its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 



Metric Equivalents. 

The Editor : 

Sir — Referring to a discrepancy between the 
equivalent of the metre in English measure, as given 
on pages 225 and 233, respectively, of our 'Civil En- 
gineer's Pocket-Book': 

On page 225 the value is given as 3.280S69 ft. 

On page 223 the value is given as 3.28083 ft. 

Difference 0.000039 ft. 

Concerning this, I quote as follows from page 217 : 
"The determination of the equivalent of the metre 
in English measure is a very difficult matter. . . . 
The United States Coast Survey (Appendix No. 22 to 
Report of 1876, p. 6) adopts, as the length of the 
metre, at 62° Fahrenheit, the value determined by 
Capt. A. R. Clarke and Col. Sir Henry James at the 
office of the British Ordnance Survey, in 1866, name- 
ly, 39.370432 in. (=3.2808666+ ft. =1.0936222+ 
yd.) ; but the lawful equivalent, established by Con- 
gress, is 39.37 in. (= 3.28083 ft. = 1.093611 yd.). 
This value is as accurate as any that can be deduced 
from existing data." 

In preparing our conversion tables (which include 
p. 233), we took, as a basis, the 'lawful equivalent', 
39.37 in. = 3.28083 ft.; (See table A, 'Fundamental 
Equivalents', p. 230). The table on p. 225 is an older 
one, based upon other determinations. The differ- 
ence, between the two values, 0.000039 ft., = 0.000468 
in., is apparently well within the inevitable differen- 
ces in determination of such a matter, so that both 
values may be said to be right, and either one of 
them, so far as we know, as nearly right as the other. 
It seems to us, therefore, that, in view of the expla- 
nation quoted above from p. 217, it is scarcely worth 
while to make a change in either value as printed. 

John C. Trautwinb, Je. 
Philadelphia, December 9. 



The Engineer as a Financier. 

The Editor : 

Sir — On my return to New York, after an absence 
of practically three months, I have looked over some 
of the copies of your paper which I had not seen dur- 
ing my absence, and note with interest your copy of 
October 17, containing Mr. Hammond's speech as 
President of the Institute, and your editorial com- 
ment thereon. 

This speech of Mr. Hammond's, together with your 
own opinion on the subject, contain the first public ex- 
pressions by engineers of prominence on the subjects 
that the Mining and Metallurgical Society of Amer- 
ica proposes to discuss, with a view to arriving at the 
real views of representative mining engineers upon 
these subjects, and while the Society has not reached 
the point of actually taking up the matters discussed 



by Mr. Hammond and yourself, I believe a large 
number of the members are preparing themselves 
for such a discussion. 

Candidly, I think Mr. Hammond has rather the bet- 
ter of the argument. He takes a view that a mining 
engineer's work is essentially commercial work, and 
that its value is simply commercial. He seems to 
assume that a man 's standing in the profession is not 
to be determined by anything except his personal 
character, and in this respect his standing as a pro- 
fessional man is gained, in the same way that his 
standing as any other kind of a man would be 
gained; that the value of his work is a question of 
the value of such work to his clients, who may or 
may not be able to judge his technical qualifications. 

In your editorial, on the other hand, you let the 
inference be made that a man's work as a profes- 
sional engineer should be quite divorced from his 
ideas as a business or financial man. It seems hardly 
probable that you really intended such a meaning. 
Let us take for example an outline of a purely tech- 
nical report on a coal mine. Mr. Smith, engineer, 
might say something as follows: "I have examined 
Mr. Jones' farm of 160 acres in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania. I find such and such openings and 
such and such drill-holes. I estimate that the coal 
seam on the farm will average 5 ft. 9% in. thick, and 
that the average analysis of the coal is 60% fixed 
carbon and 10% ash, etc.," with various elaborations 
and statements of the same kind. Now let me ask 
what use is such a report to the average business 
man, whether he is a technical coal man or not. 

Let us then suppose that Mr. Brown, another engi- 
neer, gets the same information as Mr. Smith, and 
adds to it his knowledge of business and makes a 
report that reads something as follows: "Jones' 
farm of 160 acres can be depended on, in my judg- 
ment, to produce a million tons of coal, which can 
be mined for $1 per ton and can be sold for $1.25 per 
ton. It can be worked out in 10 years, at a total 
profit of $250,000. I figure its present value at 
$125,000." 

As I take it, Mr. Hammond believes that a compe- 
tent engineer should be able to make the latter kind 
of a report, and I agree with him. 

As to an engineer investing in stocks or speculating 
in them, it seems to me that his activities in that 
direction should be no more limited than those of any 
other man of common sense. As an index of his char- 
acter, his investments show nothing except by their 
success or failure, and by their nature. If an engi- 
neer trades on margins and makes or loses his money 
in that way, he should be classed as a gambler, just 
as any other citizen would be. If he is successful, 
he is a good gambler; if he is unsuccessful, a poor 
one; and one's confidence in him would necessarily 
be effected by one's estimate of him as a gambler, 
just as much as on his accomplishments as an engi- 
neer. As a matter of fact, a man of ability and sta- 
bility is a composite character, neither abnormally 
reckless nor abnormally conservative, not altogether 
a gambler and not altogether unwilling to take legiti- 
mate risks. One can never find out what risks are 
legitimate and what are not legitimate until he stu- 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



81 



dies the subject and gains Ji>-> ideas from experience. 

Speaking as a man Of very moderate success ami 

attainments, I should say thai the average engineer 

.should be ''ii iraged t" invest bis money and take 

his elianees in his own line of business, rather than 
to keep out of ,t. I did not buy a share of stock in 
mining companies until I had been ten rears out of 
college. Now. 1 think I should have mad.' some in- 
vestment of that kind the first year I was out. I 
.should probably have lost my money, hut I could do 
that just as well and better with $100 when 1 was 2(1 

than I eould with $] 1 when I was 30, and a man 

must gain Ins experience somehow. He must have 
his attention called to necessary tacts and conditions 
in such a way that he will give them the attention 
that they require, and it is seldom indeed that a man 
gives matters real attention until he deals with actu- 
alities. A man with natural bent for financial affairs 
cannot In- kept from making financial ventures by 
any code of cthies. whether he is an engineer or not, 
but the man who is an engineer and who deals with 
financial questions should have some experience as 
a financier, or else he must be content to let other 

I |>le draw all the business conclusions that his 

•work warrants, and he must pay them to do it. The 
way he pays them is by getting less money for his 
services. 

There is no business that is free from speculation 
and risk. The farmer is just as much of a gambler 
as any other kind of a business man. The only thing 
he is sure of is that he owns his land. Every year 
he takes his chances on a dozen different dangers 
that may destroy his crops ; the conservative farmer, 
in order to hedge on some of his risks, plants a vari- 
ety of crops, hoping that the enemy that destroys 
one may not reacli the others. Mining too has its 
great speculative features, but they are of a different 
kind — fundamentally different. The miner gambles 
a certain amount of his money on his ability to find 
ore, but if the ore is there, it is not subject to any 
vagaries of the weather — it is always there — and for 
getting it out and making a profit on it he depends 
on conditions much more stable than those with 
■which the farmer deals. The mining engineer, to be 
really competent, must face and master these facts. 
He is a very poor one if he does not. 

I should not like to see it written in any code of 
ethics, or understood in any unwritten code, that a 
mining engineer should not be free to take a contin- 
gent fee. Granting that the doctor who makes a 
business of advertising that he will take pay only 
when he makes a cure, is a quack ; and that the law- 
yer whose business is to take small cases on contin- 
gent fees, is apt to be a blackmailer and a shyster; 
and that the mining engineer who makes a business 
of reporting on properties to get paid only in the 
event of a sale, is apt to be a crook, we must never- 
theless admit that these persons are so adjudged 
only because they undertake habitually what to an 
honest man would be an exceptional occurrence. I 
would not blame the doctor for wishing to get paid 
if his patient eould afford to pay him but might not 
he able to pay unless he were cured ; nor would I 
blame a lawyer for interesting himself in a case for 



which his client might not adequately be able to pay 
him unless he won; nor would I absolutely prohibit 
a mining engineer- from taking his pay in shares of a 
property win.se owners might not be able adequately 
to pay him in any other way and at the same time 
take care of their requirements Nevertheless, this 
circumstance can only be an occasional one, and one's 
character is a guarantee whether the proceeding is 
honest or dishonest. 

Xow, regarding the duties of a mining engineer in 
the case of apex litigation, it seems evident that 
this is a case made important, not by the character 
of the profession, but by the character of the laws. 
Of course, the laws are absurd: but on that account 
it is not any more desirable that honest and compe- 
tent men should leave their clients to deal with dis- 
honest and incompetent men. It would indeed be 
better that expert witnesses should be appointed im- 
partially by the Court, but that provision has not 
been made by the law, and it is not the custom ; there- 
fore the mining engineer must do the best he can. 
Since the basic principle on which these cases are 
fought is a wrong one, and an absurd one, it cannot 
be denied that thousands of mistakes and inaccura- 
ries have been made in trying to make the best of it. 
It often happens that the competent man is led, after 
a week's investigation, to give his opinion on ques- 
tions that might legitimately take him a year to 
answer, but he may not be aware of the fact, and 
makes blunders innocently. 

The principal thing to be insisted upon in this con- 
nection, as in any other connection, is that a man 
should try to tell the truth, and should try to secure 
time for making a proper investigation as to what 
the truth is. 

J. R. FlNLAY. 

New York, December 15. 

Smelter Smoke. 
The Editor : 

Sir — The editorial in your issue of December 19 
on 'Smelter Smoke' is exceedingly timely, and should 
be spread, not only among the mining people, who 
are naturally your subscribers, but also among the 
farming communities adjoining the smelting centres, 
to endeavor to enlighten them on the subject, which 
they now can view only through the distorted lens 
of their own selfish interests. The ease that lately 
arose between the Federal Government and the 
Washoe smelter seems particularly aggravated, in 
as much as the matter has been heard by a Master in 
Chancery, and by him reported to the U. S. Court, 
and a provisional finding in favor of the smelting 
company made. In this hearing it was shown that 
the damage done is now small and not, as stated, 
irremediable, and it may readily be adjusted by 
appraisement. It is well known that the Washoe 
plant has put in operation one of the largest dust- 
chambers, smoke-flues, and chimneys in existence, 
and that from this they take large amounts of arse- 
nic, letting practically none escape. At the plant of 
this same company at Great Falls, Montana, similar 
improvements, costing nearly a million dollars, are 
now being completed. These evidences of good faith 



82 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



in the desire to abate possible nuisance should weigh 
heavily in the balance against mere statements of 
damage, past and future. 

As for the irremediable damage from the smoke 
and fume, I would like to call your attention to the 
country around the old copper smelting plant at 
Spenceville, where several hundred thousand tons 
of pyritic ore were roasted in heaps. This method 
is well known as being the most deadly to the sur- 
rounding vegetation, yet today, after the lapse of 
about 12 or 14 years, there is no sign on the sur- 
rounding hills of the former de-f orestation . 

Unfortunately, the entire trend of modern smelter- 
construction has been toward the concentration of 
all the gases, from roasting, reverberatory, and blast- 
furnaces, into one great flue and stack, instead of 
into several stacks, as in the older practice. This one 
great modern stack, therefore emits a vast volume of 
gases, of greater concentration, and this, driven by 
shifting winds, and owing to its great density not 
being readily dispersed by them, descends like a 
flail and lays low the vegetation on the particular 
spot which it touches. In the older plants the sul- 
phurous gases were delivered into the atmosphere 
at lesser altitudes, but through the orifices of many 
stacks, and therefore in more dilute form ; therefore 
the effect on the country surrounding the plant could 
not be as deadly as that from the big stack. 

In Utah the copper smelting plants have been 
closed down by injunctions of court, aud two at least 
will not be re-opened at the old locations ; I believe 
this situation might have been relieved by the instal- 
lation of the roasting furnaces near the mines, either 
in Bingham canyon itself or on the bench just out- 
side the canyon ; in either ease the gases from the 
roasting of the ores would have been delivered into 
the air at an elevation of 1800 ft. above the valley, 
and at a distance of 10 miles or more from it, and 
would have been harmless. This roasting operation 
would have removed four-fifths of the sulphur. As 
an offset to this operation the fact is well known that 
the smelting of cold roasted material is a much more 
expensive process than if the same material is trans- 
ported to the smelting furnace while yet hot from 
the. roasters. The financial equation can be readily 
calculated, for the respective properties, taking into 
account the erection of the necessary new roasting 
plant, as against the re-erection of the entire works 
at some new point. The works of the Tennessee Cop- 
per Co., and of the Mountain Copper Co., have each 
been equipped with a sulphuric acid manufacturing 
plant, and the product will be made serviceable in 
the shape of phosphates. Each of these plants is so 
situated that it has access to the market for these 
products, and also has readily available the erode 
phosphates from which they are made, but these con- 
ditions do not exist in most localities where the 
smelting industry is now established, and the freights 
on both products would be in many cases prohibitive. 

The lead smelting plant of the United States com, 
pany at Bingham Junction has recently been 
equipped with a bag-house, and in conjunction 
with this a patented method of neutralizing the sul- 
phurous acid by means of zinc-oxide has been in- 



stalled ; this is said to be cheap and efficient, but its 
applicability to copper smelting plants is doubtful, 
owing to the vast amount of sulphurous acid gas 
emitted. There is, however, a mechanical method 
by the use of which the copper smelting plants, even 
with their enormous amounts of gas, may hope to 
reduce the sulphurous contents to a point where they 
will be practically harmless, and come within the lim- 
its prescribed by the courts. This mechanical method 
may be applied to existing plants, and its operation 
can be made practically automatic, that is to say, it 
can be regulated and Operated by men of slight expe- 
rience. The discharge of electricity of high potential 
through the gases is also being applied, the resulting 
precipitated dust and acid being claimed as an econ- 
omy through recovery of by-products, though I do not 
hear that this method is claimed to reduce the sul- 
phurous acid to sulphuric acid. It is to be hoped that 
with better understanding of the situation, with the 
application of known remedies, and the invention of 
new ones, this question will be solved without the 
necessity of giving the smelting industry a blow 
similar to that administered to the hydraulic mining 
industry many years ago. Your editorial is all right ; 
get it re-printed. 

Jas. W. Neill. 
Pasadena, California, December 29. 



Lead Acetate in Cyanidation. 

The Editor : 

Sir — I should like to call the attention of other cya- 
nide workers, especially of those using lead acetate 
in their work, to a case where, in a mill in charge of 
the writer several years ago, litharge was substituted 
for that salt, to good advantage. The material being 
treated was a concentrated tailing re-ground to pass. 
50 mesh, the greater part of the slime being removed 
before treatment by agitation in vats 20 by 20 ft. 
Thus the material agitated was largely fine sand, 
containing much pyrrhotite and a little arsenopyrite 
and chalcopyrite. The stirring action was very 
strong. 

Soluble sulphides formed during treatment re- 
quired the addition of at least 2% lb. lead acetate 
per ton of solids in the charge. As this formed a 
heavy item of expense, William Magenau, the chem- 
ist of the mill, experimented with other lead salts 
and found that litharge, added to the charge in the 
proportion of 1% lb', per ton, was equally effective. 
As litharge cost only half as much as acetate, it 
effected a reduction in cost for this item to 30% of 
the former figure. Besides, it was easier to use, sim- 
ply requiring to be weighed and sifted into the agi- 
tating charge. 

This substitution may not be generally applicable, 
nor in some cases even possible, but it has occurred 
to me that it might be used to advantage in tube- 
mill work, adding the litharge with the feed. This 
would be the logical place to add the litharge when 
grinding in tube-mills with cyanide solution, which, 
in my opinion, is likely to be the practice of the near 
future. 

C. M. Eye. 
Taracol, Korea, November 26. 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



83 



PROTECTION OF INVESTORS 

The Minim,' and Metallurgical Society of America 
suggested the following questions for discussion 

among members : 

1. What are the essential items of information 
which should be contained in mine reports for the 
full protection of investors'.' 

2. How may mining companies be compelled to 
give such necessary items of information .' 

3. How often should such reports be published — 

monthly, quarterly, or annually I 

The Pacific I 'oast section of the Society has held 
two meetings, at which these questions have been 
ventilated: the first was on November lil and the 
second on December 19, 1908. The following tran- 
script of the discussion will prove of general interest. 

T. B. Comstock. — (Communication to the Secre- 
tary.) — First, in reports of active mining companies 
intended for perusal by average stockholders, itemiz- 
ing is a ready means of observing results. Those who 
may require the details of operations should always 
have easy access to such information, and no harm 
can come ordinarily from publishing this widely. 
But a knowledge of certain facts is necessary to a 
clear understanding of the conditions of a business at 
any given stage. The form of statement demanded by 
law from National Banks is a good model for finan- 
cial operations, although it is not, in every respect, 
what might be desired by individual stockholders. 

Mining and metallurgical establishments are not 
so simply operated, and the status of their affairs 
demands more flexibility in accounting. The great 
desideratum in summary mine accounts is the utmost 
possible generalization without sacrifice of perspi- 
cuity. Ordinarily, it is sufficient, for instance, to 
lump all improvements, without specifying the rela- 
tive costs of buildings, machinery, and other items. 
But it is important to make clear distinction between 
capital accounts and those affecting current loss and 
gain. Simple statements of actual resources and 
liabilities give all that is requisite, in the first 
instance, for determining the real financial standing 
of the company. However, it is rarely the case that, 
as with the banks, mining companies hold assets in 
such really tangible forms as currency and amply 
secured paper. There should be some recognized 
method of reporting mine resources in a manner to 
justify the estimates. The best and simplest proce- 
dure for this purpose would be the following of the 
financial statements with maps of workings and 
authenticated measurements and valuation of ore- 
reserves, accompanied with segregated costs of oper- 
ation, based on a definite unit of quantity (as the 
ton of ore) and on output within the capacity of 
available plant. 

Such details as cost of candles, explosives, labor, 
pumping, drilling, etc., are valuable, as statistics, 
and are necessary for capable and economical admin- 
istration. But their appearance in administrative 
reports is generally indefensible. They tend often 
to confuse rather than to elucidate the actual condi- 
tion of the business. Whenever, for exceptional rea- 
sons, this information may appear to be required, it 



is seldom necessary, in such reports, to give more 
than the general results, such as total average of 
costs per toii of all or a given part of the composites. 
Of greater significance is the very desirable compari- 
son of results, period by period. Thus, if it appear 
that total costs per ton. on the average, have been 
measurably different in successive periods, the cause 
of guch discrepancies should be plainly indicated, as 
higher labor rate, increased use of explosives, exces- 
sive inflow of water, greater proportion of waste, etc., 
or the reverse. 

I am unable to suggest any adequate plan for 
ensuring the rendering of proper reports by mine 

managers, except those that depend mainly upon out- 
side coercion. And these, under existing conditions, 
are of somewhat doubtful efficacy. Legal enactments 
will accomplish little unless they are of national 
application. To secure such scope is impracticable 
now. except by the almost hopeless achievement of 
equivalent statutes in all the States. The laws of 
England relating to the auditing of corporate ac- 
counts might be followed generally to advantage in 
this country ; but it is not probable that this could be 
done by the National Government in a constitutional 
manner. California and New York, perhaps other 
States, have made a beginning by licensing account- 
ants and thus giving permissive sanction, but with- 
out compulsion. Another method is feasible, though 
it lacks enforcing power beyond what prestige and, 
finally, custom might attach to it by way of influence. 
This is the adoption by our Society of a standard 
scheme, or skeleton administrative report, which 
would be announced as the basis upon which mem- 
bers of the Society would judge all offerings, and 
into which scheme, in some ways, all mining enter- 
prises must fit or be considered at least lacking in 
definiteness. 

This plan is not in any sense oppressive. It does 
not contemplate one whit more than is now exacted 
from any company which submits to examination of 
its status by an outside engineer. But it might enable 
the investor and his engineer to draw some general 
conclusions as to the investment value of the enter- 
prise. For some years past, I have endeavored by 
correspondence and personal interviews to arouse the 
engineering fraternity to action along these lines. 
It would seem that some practical results ought to 
accrue from the present discussion. My own con- 
clusion has been that too many have failed to realize 
how simple the scheme really need be to accomplish, 
the desired ends. 

As to the rate of periodicity of reports, varying 
conditions may possibly dictate diversity of perform- 
ance. My rule, when clothed with authority, has. 
always been to accumulate detailed records daily 
from every department, with daily summary reports; 
from heads of departments to the general manager's: 
office (or at. least as often as mail service will per- 
mit) ; the board of directors, through the secretary,, 
to receive weekly reports in some detail from the 
general manager, and monthly or quarterly progress 
reports to be issued to stockholders by the secretary. 
Sometimes these last reports are omitted as a regular 
issue. Monthly financial statements go from man- 



84 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, T909. 



ager to directors, with trial balance from general 
ledger. Usually stockholders receive statements, 
such as have been suggested, only at the annual meet- 
ing, and not in confusion of detail. But particular 
effort is given to classification of accounts and rec- 
ords in such manner that any director or stockholder 
can, at any moment, acquire the most accurate infor- 
mation concerning any point he may desire to investi- 
gate minutely. 

After all, the main-spring of all accounting is sys- 
tem. If this be expertly arranged and rigidly, 
enforced, there will be no difficulty in realizing all 
the benefits contemplated by this discussion. With- 
out system in daily practice, no reports can be made 
to adequately epitomize the business of mining or 
anything else. By properly instituted and operated 
sj'stem the whole histor}' is made self-recording and 
reports cannot go wrong, without discovery the 
moment any question is followed back along its 
proper course through the records. Simple state- 
ments similar to those emanating from Alaska-Tread- 
well are most satisfactory. Anyone familiar with 
accounts must recognize at a glance that these come 
not forth by guess or by crude computations from 
meagre data. They can only be made thus compre- 
hensive and simple, though explicit, by careful atten- 
tion to the amassing of details as they occur. By 
system, the mere stoppage of leaks that many mines 
disregard, yields the substantial dividends paid by 
the above mentioned and other well managed prop- 
erties. Guard the wastes and the reports will not 
need a pattern presented by law or institute. They 
will become models by virtue of their inherent per- 
spicuity. 

F. J. H. Merrill. — (Communication to the Secre- 
tary.) — The proceedings of the New York section 
contain an important discussion of fundamental prin- 
ciples of mining investment, by Mr. H. S. Munroe, 
and this discussion is made the basis of a forceful 
resolution recommending that mining companies 
include in their annual reports certain accurate state- 
ments for the guidance of investors. The discussion 
and the resolution constitute a concise and conserva- 
tive statement of information to which the investor 
is entitled in connection with established mines, but 
.for the protection of the vast mass of the public 
that is daily invited to help forward with its savings 
the business of mining, a much broader influence 
must be exerted so as to cover the mining business 
in the primal stages of its various enterprises. For 
every investment made in established mines, hun- 
dreds are made in the development of prospects, and 
these investments are for the most part a result of 
the efforts of those active members of society known 
as 'promoters'. 

The promoter is, essentially, a person who seeks 
profit by inducing others to invest. In the large 
majority of cases he knows little and cares less about 
the merits of the property on which he is selling 
stock, or which he wishes to capitalize. In a smaller 
number of instances he hopes, besides realizing a 
commission from the transfer or capitalization of a 
property to derive an income from future dividends 
or a substantial profit from appreciation of stock 



values. In a small minority of cases, he is an honest 
man with a merchantable proposition, striving to 
interest capital in a legitimate business. 

Some means might be devised to separate the sheep 
from the goats and protect the investor. Practically 
there stands in the way that weakness of human 
nature which the late P. T. Barnum recognized and 
cultivated to his profit — the willingness to be de- 
ceived by marvelous tales. Everyone who has lived 
among mines knows the commercial status of a pros- 
pect. The most moderately .well informed investor 
could acquire the general principles of the game of 
chance known as development. Yet, the human mind 
is such, that a good prospect, in a proved district, 
presented to the attention of investors in conserva- 
tive language, telling only the truth, will sometimes 
linger and die a commercial death. On the other 
hand, the shabbiest pretense of mineralization, with 
scarcely enough ore to load a shot-gun, or just enough 
highly colored oxide or carbonate on the surface to 
furnish pigment for painting a dog-kennel, may, with 
the aid of neatly printed literature telling in glowing 
terms the story of hastening fortune, be capitalized 
for millions and its securities floated into the coffers 
of a complacent and expectant public. Often the 
cloak of religion is lent to this phase of frenzied 
finance, and a pulpit failure of a temperance lecturer 
becomes the mouthpiece of benign fortune offering 
itself to pious investors. 

To my mind it is but a short step, ethically, from 
the highly cultivated art known as salesmanship, 
when applied to the distribution of manufactured 
articles, to the methods used in disposing of the 
stock of some mining companies. True, the manu- 
factured article usually has some value, while the 
mining stock often has none, and by promises of im- 
possible income persons are often led to invest their 
savings in mining stock to a larger extent than they 
could be in ordinary merchandise. But, the mental 
attitude of the salesman is often as cold-blooded in 
the one case as in the other and, so far as he is con- 
cerned, there may be no ethical distinction. He 
simply aims to make an income by inducing people 
to buy the wares he has to sell. 

Various remedies are proposed for this abuse of 
confidence, one of them being the filing of reports 
on the character of the properties. We see, however, 
that it is expensive work, even for the Federal Gov- 
ernment, to force corporations to tell all the truth 
about their business. Besides, unfortunately for the 
investor, the business of mining is of such a character 
that the promoter is often able to recite the mistakes 
of experts to stimulate hope among the ignorant. 
The history of Cananea is a favorite example. Turned 
down repeatedly by experts whose imagination could 
not foresee the possibilities of geological conditions 
with which they were unfamiliar, in the hands of 
men who fought for financial existence under the 
stimulus of hope rather than accurate knowledge, it 
became a great producer of copper. Under the super- 
vision of paternal influences guarding the investor 
from speculation in unknown quantities, Cananea 
would never have been developed. On the other 
hand, at Tombstone we have seen the new Consoli- 



Janu 



iry 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



dated Company organized under a maximum of ex- 
pert advice and with substantial assurance of success, 
crippled by an unexpected and unprecedented How 
of water, the pumping of which for several years has 
brought great expense upon the promoters of the 
enterprise and seriously delayed the development of 

the large drebodies which were expected at and 
below the 1000-ft. level 

In my judgment, il dy safety lies in the educa- 
tion of the public tn the point of realizing the ele- 
ments comprised in the mining risk. Commercial 
statistics show that of those who engage in business 
only about 2% succeed. This applies to the business 
of tlii rner grocery, cigar stand, and other every- 
day items of commerce. Probably the mining record 
is no worse than this. The danger in mining, above 
other branches of business, is. in credulous and hope- 
ful people being led to believe that unbusinesslike 
profits are certain and that ordinary business risks 
have been eliminated. The better way to protect the 
public is, therefore, to teach it that for one prospect 
that can be made a mine, many must fail ; that a mine 
may be a success for one or two men, and too small to 
bear the expense of operation by a company; that a 
mine may succeed, and yet not pay larger returns 
than some safer form of investment; and that unusu- 
ally large returns are, as a rule, only secured by tak- 
ing large risks. 

Another serious feature in mining, as in many 
other branches of business, is the fact that there are 
two separate and distinct elements, the quality of 
the property and the character of the management. 
A good mine may be unprofitable under careless 
management, and, on the other hand, a property of 
very low grade may, under economical and skillful 
management, be made to pay well. Many a group 
of investors has, to its sorrow, entrusted its money to 
a manager of the not uncommon type which takes for 
its guidance the motto: "A mine that needs careful 
management is no good." 

There is probably no mining district in the world 
that does not bear traces of the operations of some 
company which began by rioting in extravagance 
and spent all its ready money in buildings, machin- 
ery, and general improvements before developing 
any ore. Dishonesty and incompetency in manage- 
ment can be guarded against in mining by methods 
similar to those employed in other branches of busi- 
ness, although it is inherent to mining that distance 
of the seat of operations from centres of civilization 
often exposes a superintendent to temptations and 
to opportunities for dishonesty that might not occur 
in a different business. On the other hand, in many 
cases the bulk of the stockholders' money is spent 
in eity offices and salaries and never reaches the mine 
manager. 

The conclusion to be drawn from all this is that the 
question of protecting the public from pitfalls in 
mining by legislation or other supervision is com- 
plex, and not simple. Commercial education will be 
by far a more potent factor. 

F. W. Bradley. — While mine reports are generally 
elaborate as to working costs, and while information 
of that character is very fully given, they are shy 



on details as to the actual ore reserves. Detailed fig- 
ures as to values and t lage and the condition of 

tlie bottom of the mine are hardly ever found in such 
reports. 1 think that the full protection of investors 
calls for such details. I have in mind annual reports 
OD a certain mining property in Mexico : I have 
looked through these reports for several years past 
for a statement of ore reserves in order to get some 
idea of the life of the mine. While ore reserves are 
touched upon as a mere incident, there is a vast 
amount of material to be found in these reports on 
the cost of the trail and the difficulties of getting 
stuff over the trail, the telephone line, houses for 
natives, and the difficulty of securing native labor, 
fuel, mules, etc. The point I am trying to make 
is that, for the protection of investors, a mining 
report should not only state facts as to costs and 
receipts, but that instead of reciting all the difficul- 
ties in connection therewith and elaborating on those 
difficulties, it would be better to give more detail as 
to ore reserves. There need be no apology for costs. 
There are always conditions that affect the costs, and 
a good manager cannot get away from conditions 
that are responsible for his costs, unless he has devel- 
oped sufficient tonnage to justify him in going to 
the expense of changing such conditions as can be 
changed by creating better facilities. If there is any 
elaboration in a mining report it should be on the 
ore reserves and the developments as effects the 
future of the property. That is all that occurs to me 
in reference to the question : ' ' What are the essen- 
tial items of information which should be contained 
in mine reports for full protection of investors?" 

George W. Starr. — In other words, your idea is 
that in giving ore reserves you should give the value 
of those ore reserves : the number of tons of a certain 
value, and give it in such a way as to indicate the 
value of the mine, not to give the tonnage alone. 

F. W. Bradley. — Yes ; my idea is that most mining 
reports evade what there is actually ahead in ton- 
nage and value ; that is the most important item to 
the stockholder. They elaborate on a great many 
things not of special interest to the stockholder, even 
though they are to the manager because they recite 
his troubles or hopes. The thing of specific interest 
to the stockholder, and which he should know for his 
full protection, is the life of the property and its 
future chances. That information is not to be found 
in most mining reports today, and in order to evade 
it, they have to elaborate on something else. 

George W. Starr. — Don't you think it would be 
well in making reports to give the value of the ton- 
nage : in stating ore reserves for certain levels to 
give the value per ton as well as the number of tons? 

F. W. Bradley. — I think a manager should go on 
record at least once per year and make some kind of 
a guess as to the values and tonnage ahead of him. 
The nearer a manager can make his guess or estimate 
fit with the actual yield, the more valuable he is. 
Stockholders are entitled to truthful information, 
not only as to what a mine is doing, but as to what 
its future chances are, and they should not be de- 
ceived by reports that would needlessly elate or 
depress them. 



86 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING METHODS IN THE NORTH.— II. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By T. A. Rickabd. 

The frozen condition of the placers in Alaska and 
the Yukon seemed, at first, an insurmountable ob- 
stacle. In the end, it proved an aid to mining. To 
sink a shaft in the creek deposits of a warm climate 
means a persistent contest with water. Pumps are 
necessary, or a long and costly drainage adit. The 
lojse ground requires careful timbering. Some of 
the best portions of the channel may be unworkable 
because of an excessive influx of water. All of this 
would have checkmated the diggers of the North in 
the early days of discovery. Pumps were 1500 to 
2000 miles away, heavy timbers were scarcely to be 
obtained in most localities, a fight with water would 
have discouraged men unused to mining, as were 
most of those that rushed to Dawson, Fairbanks, and 
Nome. 

The frost, indeed, was the miner's friend. It en- 
abled him to sink a shaft even in the bed of the 
creek; it permitted him to dispense with timbering; 
it allowed him to burrow with safety and to follow 
the layer of golden gravel with impunity under the 
ice-bound surface. Moreover, it obviated work on a 
large scale. One man could, and sometimes did, work 
alone, descending the shaft, filling the bucket, ascend- 
ing to the surface, hoisting the load, and so forth. 
No machinery was needed save the simplest tools ; no 
organization was required, beyond a willing partner ; 
no capital, save muscle. 

Even today the prospector avoids the thawed 
areas. Such -exist along certain running streams, 
and in flats where the moss has been washed away. 
Evidence of a thaw is afforded by the vegetation, 
for willows will not grow where the gravel is frozen. 
In some cases a river valley may be partly thawed, 
partly frozen. In many instances the work of 'drift- 
ing' has to be confined to the sides of a channel, the 
centre being dangerous on account of caving, due to 
thawing. Thus Bear creek, a tributary of the Klon- 
dike, proved unsuited to drift-mining on account of 
water, and many rich spots in that valley remain 
virgin for this reason. Most of the pioneers were so 
inexperienced that they started work in the centre 
of the claim, instead of at the lower boundary and 
working upward, so as to utilize the gradient. Thus 
No. 38 Below Discovery on Bonanza was worked in 
the winter of 1897, and at intervals since, being 
finally sold for $3500. It was supposed to be ex- 
hausted. Yet last July the operations of 6 men per 
shift, or 12 altogether, merely by shoveling into 
sluice-boxes from an open-cut, cleared $1200 in two 
days. 

The method of shoveling into sluice-boxes is suited 
to shallow rich ground. This form of mining supple- 
ments ground-sluicing. The prospector first tests the 
gravel by washing a sample in a pan. A pan holds 
about 20 lb. of ordinary gravel. Next he may em- 
ploy a 'long-torn', essentially an inclined surface 
over which the gravel is washed. From 6 to 10 ft. 
of launder or sluice is set at an angle ; at the head 
of it a hopper or box serves to hold from 50 to 150 



lb. of material, which is then flushed, a littie at a 
time, down the slope, by the action of water thrown 
out of a scoop or small bucket fixed to a handle. To 
arrest the gold, cross-bars or riffles are nailed to the 
bottom of the launder. In addition, mercury may be 
employed, or even amalgamated copper plate. In 
such a case the plate is covered with wire screen or 
perforated sheet-iron, the effect of which is to size 
the gravel, causing the larger pebbles to slide down 
the slope, while the fine stuff sinks through the aper- 
tures and comes in contact with the mercury and 
amalgam. The 'long-torn' was familiar to the early 
Californian miners, and in its simplest form dates 
back to the very beginning of the world-wide search 
for gold. In order to facilitate the saving of gold, a 
shaking motion was imparted, merely by placing the 
inclined sluice-box or launder upon rockers. This 
constituted the 'rocker', which is shorter and more 
compact than the 'long-torn', the quicker separation 
of the gold rendering unnecessary a long surface. 
Much gold has been won by means of these devices. 
They are still in use. 

On the sea-beach at Nome the traveler can observe 
the simpler forms of gold-saving apparatus. In Au- 
gust, 1908, more than 100 men were employed in 
washing the 'ruby' sand concentrated by the action 
of the surf along the foreshore. The sand has a 
brick-red color by reason of the garnet it contains; 
this garnet is derived from the prevailing country 
rock of the region, namely, schist. Through the ero- 
sion of the schist the gold also was liberated from 
quartz veins and concentrated by the waves that in 
tidal sequence play upon the shelving strand. The 
arrangement employed to extract this gold is a form 
of long-torn, consisting of an inclined box or sluice 
with a false bottom of galvanized iron, or tin-plate 
from a coal-oil can. This is punctured with holes so 
as to act as a screen separating the fine stuff from 
the coarse ; the latter runs down the slope into the 
sea,, at the edge of which the apparatus is erected. 
The fine sand, including the particles of gold, drops 
through the" false-bottom on amalgamating plates. 
These are of copper, usually silver-plated. At the 
end of the copper-plate there is, ordinarily, a bit of 
carpet, matting, or wire netting to serve as a check 
on any gold or amalgam escaping from above. At 
the upper end of the box or launder, the sides are 
raised, or a regular hopper is constructed; into this 
the sand is discharged from a bucket, emptied from 
a wheelbarrow, or shoveled direct from the ground 
that is being exploited. While one operator attends 
to this part of the work, his partner is furnishing 
the water to wash the sand down the incline, stand- 
ing with gum-boots in the tide and swinging a ladle 
consisting of a bucket fixed to a long wooden handle. 
Sometimes, for convenience, a temporary dam is. 
made with bags of sand, forming a pool which is re- 
newed by the waves that break over it at intervals- 
Some of the contrivances that I saw were pathetic- 
ally crude ; in one instance, a small strip of old carpet 
and a few globules of mercury constituted the gold- 
saving device. In 1899, the beach-workers got as- 
much as $5 to $10 per pan ; and even with the rough- 
est contrivances, of the kind just described, some in- 






January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



87 



dividual* in one summer season of only four months 
took $30,000 to $40,000 from the diggings on the 

Shore. Today a man can still make $3 per day on 
thf Nome beach. Two partners told me that they 




A Rocker in Service. 

made $60 in 3 days. Another operator and his partner 
got 3% ounces of amalgam, yielding a little over 
an ounce of gold, on the day previous. Storms re- 
concentrate the sand repeatedly; the ap- 
pliances required are cheap and easily 
constructed. It is a poor man's mine. 

A more elaborate arrangement to be 
seen on the Nome beach is an extension 
of the long-torn, being an inclined series 
of sluice-boxes. From 6 to 10 of these are 
stretched end-to-end and lined with cocoa- 
nut matting, on which a screen of woven 
wire is spread. This is from 4 to 2 mesh 
and even coarser. Mercury is sprinkled 
on the matting by means of a bottle stop- 
pered with a cloth. The apparatus is set 
so that the refuse falls into the sea and is 
removed by the waves. A gasoline engine 
pumps the water needed for washing the 
gold-bearing sand. The intake of the pipe 
is in the sea, and is provided with a screen 
so as to keep out the drift-wood. Some- 
times the pipe rests on a runner, made of two wheels 
and a connecting axle, so that it can be withdrawn to 
safety in case of stormy weather, for tremendous 
storms occasionally smite this unprotected coast and 



smash all the machinery built by the men who are 
digging fortunes from the fringe of Bering Sea. 

Sampling with a pan was followed by extraction 
on ;i small scale by means of rocker or long-torn. 
Such washing was intermittent and did 
not require much water. If the creek de- 
posit warranted an enlargement of the 
operation, the next thing was to shovel 
into a longer sluice-box or series of sluice- 
boxes, and wash the gravel by means of a 
more nearly continuous supply of water 
conducted through a canvas hose. This 
hose is flexible and easily transported; it 
is usually 14 in. diam. and made of 12 to 
14 oz. duck, sewed with 3 seams. Such a 
hose will last for one season, of four 
months, the short life being due not to the 
effect of the water but of the dirt, which 
causes the thread to rot. In the accom- 
panying photograph this method of min- 
ing is clearly illustrated, although, as 
usual, the value of the illustration is less- 
ened by the posing of the workmen. The 
hose can be seen delivering water (say, 
one sluice-head or 50 miner's inches, equal 
to 75 cu. ft. per minute) into the sluice- 
boxes. These are four in number, each 
one being 12 ft. long and 12 to 14 in. wide. 
They are set on a grade of 8 in. per 12 ft. 
As the water courses down the inclined 
surface, the men shovel the gravel into the 
.current, which separates the light and 
valueless pebbles from the heavy and val- 
uable gold. The small particles of gold 
are arrested behind the riffles placed in 
the last two sluice-boxes. These riffles 
may be either simply cross-bars nailed to 
the bottom and retaining a sprinkling of 
mercury, or they may be solid blocks of wood 
placed along the bottom with small spaces be- 
tween, so as to make a pavement full of little traps 




On the Beach af Nome. 

for the gold. As the ground is worked out, the 
sluice-boxes are shifted so that the shoveling is facili- 
tated. If the deposit is wide, it becomes necessary 
to erect laterals or radiating sluice-boxes, feeding the 



88 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



main run-way. These are laid on a steeper grade 
and are narrower than the trunk line of sluice-boxes. 
As an example of this simple form of alluvial min- 
ing, I may instance the work done for Frank Gr. Man- 
ley on Thanksgiving creek, in the Hot Springs dis- 
trict. First, the moss is removed by means of mat- 
tocks ; most of it is piled up and burned ; the remain- 
der is washed away in the succeeding operations. The 
top gravel, which is nearly barren and 6 ft. deep, is 
then ground-sluiced, that is, it is washed with a 
nozzle under small pressure into sluice-boxes laid on 
the bedrock, which is one foot deeper than the 6 ft. 
of overburden. The bottom gravel, one foot thick, 
and the bedrock underneath, to the depth of another 
foot, are worked with pick and shovel. When loos- 
ened, this mixture of soft schist and gravel is shov- 
eled into the lateral sluice-boxes. These are 12 in. 
wide tapering 10 in., they are 10 in. deep and lined 
with pole riffles. Each riffle consists of three or 
four spruce poles 6 ft. long, 1 to 2 in. apart, held 
together at each end by being nailed to a transverse 
bar. These 'shoveling-in' sluices are not more than 
60 ft. long, and discharge into the main line of 
sluices, 18 in. wide, and lined for a length of 500 ft. 
with wooden blocks 8V2 in. square and 1 in. apart. 
The gradient is 2 */*>%, diminishing at the lower end 
to 1% ft. per 100. As the gravel is shoveled into the 
sluice-boxes, the men throw the large pebbles or boul- 
ders to one side. 

This deposit is from 8 to 35 ft. deep, being shal- 
lowest up-stream. It has been worked for a width 
of 100 to 140 ft. and is profitable for a length of 7000 
ft. The bedrock is flat, only slightly more than 
2%% ; the result is a difficulty in disposing of the 
tailing. This is overcome by the use of machinery, 
namely, a scraper of the bottomless type, made by 
the Washington Iron Works, Seattle. The move- 
ments, to and fro, of the scraper are directed by two 
reels, one of which hauls it forward while the other 
pulls it back by means of steel ropes. By the use of 
two ropes, attached to the rear end of the scraper, it 
is possible to shift it easily and cover more space. 
The nominal capacity of this mechanical shovel is 
1% eu. yd., but it actually moves one yard at a time. 
One engineer attends to the whole operation, the 
scraper digging into the tailing as it accumulates at 
the foot of the sluice-boxes. One cord of wood suf- 
fices to move 200 yards. At the time of my visit 
(August 12, 1908) 28 men (14 on each shift) were 
shoveling into the sluices, and the scraper handled 
the resulting tailing in 5 hours. A clean-up made 
on that date from the two feet of material covering 
4500 sq. ft. of bedrock, yielded 296 oz. gold, worth 
$15.50 per ounce. This included gold that had been 
in the 6 ft. of overburden. The effect of ground- 
sluicing is to concentrate, the gold sinking on the 
deeper stratum as the associated detrital material is 
washed away. Therefore the yield was $4588 from 
36,000 cu. ft. of alluvium, equivalent to $3.41 per 
cubic yard. 

A good example of mining on a small scale by an 
individual is afforded by Pappen 's'Bench, a patch of 
rich alluvium on the north side of Pioneer creek, in 
the district just mentioned. The gold-bearing mate- 



rial is 3 ft. thick, feathering to nothing at the lower 
limit; it is 200 ft. wide and perhaps twice as long; 
it contains gold at the rate of 35 to 50 cents per 
square foot. Henry Pappen, the discoverer, removed 
the top dirt and washed the foot or so of stuff lying 
on the bedrock. This is a slate. No large boulders 
exist in the deposit. Sedimentation is apparent. The 
overburden is a light dirt, such as would be washed 
down a side hill. The grade is 12 ft. in 100 ft. Pap- 
pen made $21 per day with a rocker, erected 200 to 
300 ft. below his 'mine'. He trundled 25 wheelbar- 
rows per day. Being short of water and far 
above the creek, he built a little reservoir on the 
hillside, making a brush fence to serve as a dam, 
behind which he caught the drifting snow. Not get- 
ting sufficient, he actually hauled snow on a sled and 
banked it behind his snow-fence or reservoir. The 
thaw yielded the water he required. But not for 
long. A wind-storm arose, having a contrary direc- 
tion, so violent as to blow away his reservoir ! 

This example of perseverance is worthy of a 'sour- 
dough', as the old timers are called. It reminds me 
of a scheme, credited to Henry Bratnober, of storing 
the equivalent of water by erecting snow-fences, such 
as are built to protect railroads. This idea was venti- 
lated last summer, but it was not deemed practicable. 
On the other hand, it has been suggested that artifi- 
cial glaciers would store water, the idea being to 
lead small streams to form large masses of ice during 
winter and early spring, so as to keep the water near 
the head of the watercourse, where it can be diverted 
in summer into the ditches of the miner. 

Thanksgiving creek illustrates many of the funda- 
mental problems of placer mining in the North. Or- 
dinary drifting operations, in the old way, by thaw- 
ing with wood fires, as already described, were ren- 
dered impossible by slabs of ice in the clay that con- 
stituted a large part of the overburden. This ice 
would melt so fast as to extinguish the fire before it 
could heat the gravel adjoining. Moreover, the de- 
posit was too shallow for 'drifting' except at its 
lower end. It was a strange locality for a placer 
mine. Thanksgiving creek is a creek only by cour- 
tesy; it is a gently shelving plain, almost a flat, a 
good deal like a tamarack swamp ; in fact, the lower 
end of the 'creek' is a morass devoid of a gravel bed. 
In 1903 several shafts were sunk (on No. 2 Above) 
to a maximum depth of 30 ft. These bottomed in a 
dense dark-blue mud or 'gumbo'. No gold-bearing 
gravel was found. A drill-hole put down in July, 
1908 (by a No. 3 Keystone traction drilling machine) 
went through the 'gumbo' and disclosed 8 ft. of 
clay' and gravel lying on a hard slate bedrock. This 
hole yielded gold at the rate of $4 per sq. ft. of bed- 
rock, the total depth being 38 ft. Most of the pros- 
pectors in this locality were misled by the 'gumbo'. 
Another trouble was due to the yellowish clay in the 
overburden, this made it difficult to arrest the gold. 
Some of the old tailing piles have been re-worked ; in 
one instance two men made $45 apiece per shift by 
shoveling into sluice-boxes. Later they themselves 
re-worked their own tailing and made $15 per day. 
This suffices to emphasize the poor gold-saving. Some' 
men take great pains to mice their ground and tli'ew 



January 9, L909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



89 



show strange carelessness in extracting the gold. 

As mi example of operations on a larger scale, I 
may mention What Cheer bar, another bench-deposil 

on the hillside above Pi r creek. This is pari of 

the large property controlled by Frank <;. Manley. 



the surface so as t<> tear the ni"ss and i«ull it oul by 
the roots. This moss is then gathered into heaps and 
burned. Finally, diagonal furrows are ploughed 10 
tn 12 ft. apart, wain- is turned into the furrow so as 
to deepen it and hasten the thawing of the ground. 




Shoveling into Sluice-Boxes. No. 1 Above, Anvil Creek. 




Thanksgiving Creek. Tailing Dump in Foreground. 



In preparing the ground for mining, the first step is 
to cut down the thin forest of small spruce, then the 
stumps (2% ft. high) are pulled out by horses. It 
costs from $250 to $300 per acre to clear the ground. 
Next a wing or solid-tooth harrow is dragged over 



The whole operation is directed toward exposing the 
frozen gravel to the action of the sun. "When the 
natural thawing has reached bedrock — only 7 ft. 
below the moss, which is 6 to 12 in. thick — the deposit 
is ready to be washed. 



90 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



MODIFIED PROVISIONS OF MEXICAN MINING 
LAW. 



*The new mining law, modified according to the 
action of the President and the Cabinet, has been 
submitted to Congress, and will become effective as 
submitted. It consists of 150 articles, embodying 
the present laws and the decrees and regulations that 
have been in force, with some important changes, 
mostly with the view of removing conflicts in the 
legal provisions which have been developed during 
several years. The advantage of a simplified code 
for mining is obvious and important, as those who 
have been concerned in the interpretation of the ex- 
isting statutes will admit. The regulation as to per- 
tenencias remains as now. In Article 3 it is provided 
that matters relating to mining property become sub- 
ject to the civil code of the Federal District, except 
as specifically determined otherwise in the law itself. 
This is of legal interest. The provisions relating to 
the restriction of mining rights to Mexican companies 
is absent from the draft submitted, and, what is also 
important, the restrictions which required the for- 
eigner to secure executive permission to locate claims 
in the border States is made to apply only to an 80 
kilometre zone on the boundaries. However, the con- 
ditions of the suppressed Article 144, disqualifying 
foreign corporations, is made to apply absolutely to 
this zone. This is likely to affect operations in some 
of the important districts of Sonora and Chihuahua. 
Of course, it does not apply to existing conditions of 
ownership, and there is alwaj's the fairly satisfactory 
expedient of a Mexican holding company with its 
stock controlled by a foreign corporation, as is now 
done in several cases. 

The articles bearing on these points are as follows : 

Article 134. No title-deed to mining property can 
be issued to foreigners denouncing claims in a zone 
80 kilometres wide along the boundary line with for- 
eign States, unless they previously obtain special per- 
mission from the executive of the Union. The same 
formality is necessary when the denouncement is 
made conjointly by foreigners and citizens. If the 
permission be refused, the ground denounced will be 
declared free. 

Article 135. The permission to which the forego- 
ing article refers will be necessary to enable foreign- 
ers to acquire by any other method mining proper- 
ties, or liens thereon, within said 80-kilometre zone. 

Article 137. Foreign companies are incapable of 
denouncing or acquiring by any means mining prop- 
erties or liens thereon, within the zone mentioned in 
Article 134. 

Article 138. All acquisitions in contravention of 
Articles 134 to 137 of this law are null and void. 
Suits for their nullification can be instituted either 
by a party in interest or by the Federal prosecuting 
attorney, acting under instructions from the Depart- 
ment of Fomento. 

Article 139. When by inheritance or judicial 
award, in payment of a debt, a foreigner acquires 
property coming within the scope of Articles 134 and 



♦Abstracted from the Mexican Mining Journal. 



135, he will be allowed a year to alienate such prop- 
erty, unless before the expiration of that time he 
shall have secured the permission referred to in the 
same articles. 

Article 140. When a foreign company is the bene- 
ficiary of the inheritance or judicial adjudication, it 
must perforce alienate the property within the period 
of one year. 

The law will come into effect July 1, 1909, except 
that the provisions as to prospecting permits, which 
are not recognized in the new law, become effective 
after the promulgation of the law. It is reported 
that the authorities have not found the results from 
these permits satisfactory, and that this is the reason 
for the action taken. The submission of the law and 
the generally satisfactory outcome of the matter has 
already had the good effect of restoring full confi- 
dence in the Mexican mining industry on the part of 
foreign investors, a condition which is made more 
and more evident each day. 

In the withdrawal of Article 144 from the new 
mining law the regulations for foreign corporations 
are in force as heretofore. The formalities to which 
foreign companies desiring to do business in Mexico 
are subject are as follows : Foreign corporations 
which desire to become established or to create 
branches in the Republic shall present and cause to 
be recorded in the Commercial Registry, in addition 
to a protocolized copy of their statutes, contracts, 
and other documents relating to their incorporation, 
an inventory, or their latest balance-sheet, if they 
have any, as well as a certificate proving that they 
have been organized and authorized to do business 
under the laws of their respective countries, said cer- 
tificate being issued by the Minister of the Republic 
accredited to each country, or, if there be no Minis- 
ter, by the Mexican Consul. 

The chief expense connected with this formality is 
the stamp tax on capital, which is one per mil for the 
first $500,000 ; 0.50 per mil on the second $500,000 ; 
and 0.10 per mil on the capital in excess of $1,000,000. 

The documents usually required are a certified 
copy of the charter, a certified copy of the by-laws, 
and the certificate of legal incorporation issued by 
the Mexican Minister or consul. These documents 
are placed in the hands of a notary-public, who pre- 
sents them to one of the civil judges, with an appli- 
cation for authorization to 'protocolize' them. The 
judge, if he finds the papers in order, and the trans- 
lations, on the faith of an expert's declaration, seem 
accurate, hands down an order for the protocoliza- 
tion of the documents, which for that purpose are 
returned to the notary. The notary makes a sum- 
mary of the documents and enters it in his 'protocol,' 
adding the original documents themselves to the 
appendix. He is bound to pay the stamp tax im- 
posed by law on the operation, and he then makes a 
transcript of the documents, or their translation, 
certifying to its exact conformity with the originals. 
This transcript is presented at the Commercial Regis- 
try for inscription and annotation. The 'testimonio' 
is delivered to the representative of the company in 
Mexico, to be held by him as evidence of the legal 
existence of the company in the Republic. 



Januarv 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



91 



THE COPPER OUTLOOK 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Piih-s 
By M. E. Arrhi.ii.vi \\i. 

The history of 'copper metal' daring the year 1908 
was featureless as compared with previous years, and 
especially with 1907. The market had its periods of 
weal i strength, according to the drift of 

business, but there was notable steadiness of price 
in the face of unsatisfactory statistics and reported 
accumulations of metals on the other side, and when 
we consider the fact thai not until near the close of 
this year did American consumers operate their 
works even to the extent of 70 to 80% normal, we 
must come to the conclusion thai statistics do not 
always enable us correctly to .judge the market. 

In vow of the extremely unfavorable conditions 
that ruled during the greater part of the year, taking 
into consideration that the production of 1908 has 
been a record one, and the consumption the poorest 
in years, and that in spite of it the metal had not 
again touched the low level established in October, 
1907. the conclusion is inevitable that the reported 
stocks on hand in this country or in Europe are 
grossly exaggerated. If, however, large stocks are 
held, it must be by producers who see such enor- 
mous consumption of copper in years to come as to 
be aide to dispose of it with handsome profits with- 
out disturbing the market as soon as an advance 
takes place. 

Some authorities claim that we start the year with 
a stock of one to two hundred million pounds. If 
that be true, it must certainly be that the copper has 
been carefully concealed beyond trace, and also that 
the stock on hand must be electrolytic copper only. 

One of the best illustrations as to how little copper 
is available for immediate delivery is the fact that 
in November, 1907, when navigation closed, about 
15 to 20 million pounds of Lake copper was shipped 
to Buffalo, which meant a saving to the producers of 
about Vi cent per pound, the difference between lake- 
and-rail and all-rail rates. This copper was on the 
market in December and for a few months after, 
until it was finally absorbed ; by that time, of course, 
new stocks of Lake copper had accumulated. I can 
state definitely that this year all the Lake producers 
did not ship to Buffalo more than about 2,000,000 lb. 
copper, and some of it had already been sold for de- 
livery at Eastern points during the month of Decem- 
ber, so that the actual stock was almost nil. 

Now, as to electrolytic copper: The independent 
selling companies have disposed of their output up 
to January 1, and therefore the accumulated stock, 
if any, must be in the hands of the largest selling 
company. If such were the case, it is difficult to 
understand why that company should withdraw 
from the market, as was the case in December, and 
allow the independents to take whatever orders they 
might choose. My opinion is, however, that none of 
the selling companies have any copper to speak of, 
outside of the material already in process of refining. 

There remains the European situation : It has 
been an acknowledged fact that Europe has always 
been willing to carry a few hundred million pounds 



of copper at about the level of 13 to 14 cents per 
pound. When copper began to advance several 
years ago, everyone in the trade suggested that a big 

advance was impossible because the Europeans were 
over-stocked. As a matter of fact, however, it proved 
that the copper was carried in Europe in the hands 
of strong consumers, who simply accumulate at low 
prices and consume it bj the time the market ad- 
vances; as the demand grows sharper, they again 
turn buyers, and the same course of events is likely 
to take place now. 

The reports received from Germany, Prance, and 
England are of an encouraging nature and such as 
to make one believe that the rate of exports estab- 
lished during the greater part of 1908 will be closely 
followed, if not fully maintained, and when one con- 
siders the enormous plans for the electrification of 
the railroads in the United States and Canada, and 
the fact that it is reasonable to expect a good busi- 
ness year, it is warrantable to suppose that the stocks 
of copper, if any, will be used up, and that before 
many months of good business, sharp advances will 
take place on account of the inability of the produc- 
ers to supply the demand. 

That the visible supply of copper at the present 
moment is large can best be answered by the fact 
that when copper was at 26c, and when everyone 
was predicting 30c. copper, the visible supplies were 
the smallest on record. Now, when copper is selling 
at a low level, and the visible supplies are large, 
everyone is predicting lower prices. A great deal 
has been said about the production and consumption 
in the United States; it is easier to estimate the for- 
mer than the latter. The total production of copper 
is about one billion pounds, and the consumption in 
this country is estimated at between four and six 
hundred million pounds, and if the large exports are 
added, I again fail to see where the large accumula- 
tion could have taken place in this country. 

The metal is in an exceedingly healthy state, espe- 
cially in this country, where the speculatively in- 
clined dealers, who make large commitments of cop- 
per, having during the last two months been disap- 
pointed with the rather quiet state of the market, 
sold out their large purchases made before the elec- 
tion ; in fact, some of them have been known to turn 
on the short side, both in London warrants as well 
as domestic copper. 

It is difficult to understand why, if there are large 
accumulations of copper in this country and in Eu- 
rope, one can dispose of reasonably large quantities 
of copper to American consumers at a concession of 
only 2V2 to 5 points, which has been the case during 
November and December when some of the dealers 
tried to realize on their pre-election purchases. An- 
other good feature is that the American consumers 
have been buying for near-by deliveries, indicating 
that they are supplying their wants as needed and 
are not buying copper simply on account of an ex- 
pected advance. Almost nine-tenths of the American 
consumers have bought very little copper beyond the 
first of January, and if business will continue to im- 
prove we should, by the middle of 1909, be back to 
a prosperous condition. 
I 



92 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



SILVER COATING OF AMALGAMATING 
PLATES. 



By W. A. Caldecott. 

*While electro-plated copper plates have never 
come into general use in the Transvaal, and while 
some of the virtues attributed to them may have 
little better foundation than the fond fancies of the 
old-time millman, there is yet do doubt that the per- 
centage recovery by amalgamation in the early 
stages of starting a new mill with plain copper plates 
is by no means satisfactorjr. When more stamps or 
tube-mills and shaking tables are added to a plant 
already in operation, a little amalgam can usually 
be spared from existing plates to 'set' the new plates, 
but even so, greenish stains and patches for some 
time offend the amalgamator 's eye and defer the day 
when he can view with satisfaction a uniform silvery 
surface persisting from one dressing till the nest. 

The use of silver amalgam for setting purposes 
has frequently been recommended, and I have ex- 
perimented upon it in various ways, dating from 
early but unsatisfactory attempts that involved 
much labor in filing silver coins into powder. The 
simple method finally adopted was based upon ob- 
taining a pure silver amalgam of buttery consist- 
ence containing the silver in the finest possible state 
of division. If such an amalgam is applied to plain 
copper plates after the usual scouring some two or 
three weeks before the plate is put into service, and 
the plate frequently dressed with the same amalgam 
during this period, the silver amalgam is given the 
opportunity to become thoroughly incorporated with 
the surface of the plate, with consequent benefit to 
amalgamation when the stamps or tube-mills are 
started. 

Silver amalgam is now commercially obtainable, 
but if preferred it can be prepared in the manner de- 
scribed by Louis,t as follows: 

"A sufficient quantity of silver coin (about % oz. 
per square foot of surface of the tables) is dissolved 
in dilute nitric acid in a porcelain basin with the aid 
of a gentle heat. The solution is evaporated to dry- 
ness very gently, preferably over a water bath, and 
then heated till the saline mass commences to fuse, 
and till all its bluish tinge is turned to grayish black, 
this change indicating that all the soluble cupric nit- 
rate is decomposed, insoluble cupric oxide being left 
behind. The salt is then dissolved in a small quan- 
tity of water and filtered into a jar or beaker. Pure 
mercury to the weight of about three times that of 
the silver used, is poured in, a few drops of nitric 
acid added, and a few pieces of bright iron floated on 
the surface of the mercury. The silver will at once 
commence to precipitate and be absorbed by the mer- 
cury forming silver amalgam, the process taking a 
few days to complete thoroughly. The silver amal- 
gam so produced should be of a pasty consistence. " 

In carrying out the foregoing method, it will be 
found that small silver coins dissolve more readily 
than the larger ones, and that small wire nails pro- 



*From advance proofs of the Chemical Mining & Metal- 
lurgical Society of South Africa. By courtesy of the author. 
t'Handbook of Gold Milling,' page 313. 



vide the iron required in 'a convenient form. In the 
process an iron-mercury couple is formed ; this serves 
to deposit the silver present in solution upon the sur- 
face of the mercury, which immediately absorbs it 
while a corresponding amount of iron is dissolved. 

If pure silver can be obtained, the evaporation of 
its solution in nitric acid, with subsequent heating 
to remove the copper, may be omitted and the pro- 
cess thus simplified, but if silver coin containing 
copper is used as a ready though somewhat expen- 
sive source of silver, and the copper not removed, 
the resulting silver-copper amalgam will show a 
greenish surface film soon after application to the 
plates, owing to oxidation of the copper present. 
The molecular state of fineness of the silver in the 
amalgam permits a much more perfect coalescence 
between the surface of the copper plate and the 
amalgam than when coarse particles of metallic sil- 
ver are present in the latter. To ensure, however, 
a silver amalgam coating that will not tarnish on 
exposure to the air, time for absorption must be al- 
lowed; for this reason the preparation of the plates 
some time before use is recommended. After milling 
has started, the coating of silver amalgam is gradu- 
ally removed from the plates as gold amalgam is 
scraped off, but by the time the former is all gone 
its purpose will have been served and its place taken 
by an equally efficient and permanent coating of 
gold amalgam. 

The cost of coating copper plates with silver in 
the manner described is relatively small as compared 
to the value of the amalgamable gold that other- 
wise passes away with the tailing in the early stages 
of crushing, and the allowance of half an ounce of 
silver per square foot of plate area is certainly lib- 
eral, as in my own experience a considerably less 
proportion than this has sufficed. 



Minerals that are deposited in veins of moderate 
depth associated with igneous rocks, and which are 
probably altogether primary in such deposits, ac- 
cording to W. H. Emmons, are : arsenopyrite, bis- 
muthinite, calaverite, cobaltite, fluorite, kalgoorlite, 
molybdenite, muscovite, orthoclase, petzite, rhodonite, 
stibnite, sylvanite, tellurides, tetradymite, and tur- 
quoise. Minerals that are secondary in deposits as- 
sociated with igneous rocks, but not known to be 
primary, are alum, amalgam, anglesite, antimony, 
apophyllite, arsenic, ataeamite, azurite, aurichalcite, 
bismuth, bromyrite, calamite, caledonite, calomel, 
cerussite, chaleanthite, chrysocolla, covellite, cuprite, 
goslarite, g3 r psum, Irydrozincite, lead, leadhillite, 
limonite, malachite, manganite, melaconite, mercury, 
molybdite, psilomelane, pyrolusite, pyromorphite, 
smithsonite, stromeyerite, tin, and turgite. Few sul- 
phides are limited to secondarjr deposits ; covellite is 
probably limited to this group, and most chalcocite is 
secondary. 



In the German Empire there are 60 cities having a 
population of 50,000 or more. Of these, 44 own and 
operate gasworks, 38 operate electric light plants, 
43 have municipal water works, and 10 have their 
own street railways. 



•January !). 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 






THE NEVADA METEORITE. 



Written for the .Minim; ami SCIENTIFIC Press 
By Walter P. Jehjtey. 

In the latter part of August of this year (1908) a 
prospector looking for borax in the Quinn Canyon 
range, in Nye county, Nevada, discovered and lo- 
eated a mass of metallic iron, which he found lying 
half-buried in the soil among the foot-hills of the 
range. Cutting off a few small pieces of the metal 
with a cold-chisel, he returned to Tonopah, where 
he sold out all his interest in the find and soon 
after left the country. The region where the 
meteorite fell is almost uninhabited save for a 
few sheep-herders and occasional wandering pros- 
pectors. The Quinn Canyon range, marked on 
some maps as the Grant mountains, bounds Railroad 
valley on the east and. by wagon-road, is nearly due 
east 110 miles from Tonopah. 

The purchaser placed the matter in my hands with 



It was lying partly embedded in the soil of a low hill 
of volcanic rock (andesite), on the westerly slope 
of the range. The foot-hills in the vicinity are tree- 
less and support a Bparce growth of sage-brush and 
grass. The gentle slope on which the meteorite lay 
faced northerly and the contour of the surrounding 
hills was such that, in falling, its course through the 
air, if at a low augle, may have been easterly, 
southerly, or southwesterly. It bears some resem- 
blance in shape to a great turtle, and when found 
was resting on its flat side, with the domed or pyra- 
midal upper surface projecting above ground. The 
longest dimensions, as it lay, were easterly and 
westerly, and the depth to which it was buried in 
the mantle of soil covering the hill did not exceed 
10 to 11 in. The eountour of the surface of the 
ground had resulted from extremely slow erosion; 
there was no evidence that the meteorite had ever 
been deeper buried, and subsequently exposed by the 
wearing away of the hillside. The deeply chan- 




ge Nevada Meteorite. 



instructions to find the meteorite, bring it to Tono- 
pah, and open negotiations with various museums in 
this country for its sale. 

Only a general and imperfect description of the 
locality had been obtained from the original dis- 
coverer and, in consequence, the first attempt to find 
the meteorite failed ; it was not until a second search 
was made that, with the help of a guide, it was found. 
These two trips by automobile made by me to find 
the meteorite covered 430 miles. Jjater a freight- 
wagon with six horses and three men, provided with 
a derrick and chain-pulleys went to Quinn Canyon 
and hauled the meteorite to Tonopah, the nearest 
shipping point on a railroad; the round trip con- 
suming eight days. Great care was taken that the 
polished surface of the meteorite should not suffer 
abrasion ; as soon as loosened from its bed, it was 
wrapped in sacking and reached the Tonopah Bank, 
where it is now stored, unimpaired. 

The point where the meteorite fell is 90 miles due 
east of Tonopah, 18 miles north of the Mount Diablo 
base line, and 100 miles west of the Utah boundary. 



neled and pitted upper surface of the meteorite was 
covered with a thin smooth skin of magnetic oxide, 
which had protected it from corrosion ; even the por- 
tion buried was little rusted. The outline, while ex- 
tremely irregular, is rudely oval, measuring on each 
diagonal of the ellipse, 44 in. ; the breadth is 34 in., 
and the circumference 132 in. It is 20 in. high and is 
estimated to weigh 4000 lb. A few small promi- 
nences were cut off by the prospector who found it, 
in order to determine the composition; the amount 
removed was not more than one or two ounces, so 
that the meteorite is practically as it fell. Analysis 
shows that this meteorite contains from 90 to 95% 
iron alloyed with 5 to 10% nickel. On etching a 
polished surface, the Widmannstattian figures appear 
as closely spaced brilliant lines an a dark ground ; in 
places the outer surface of the meteorite displays an 
octohedral crystalline structure in grouped equilat- 
eral triangles. However, the characteristic Wid- 
mannstattian pattern can only be obtained when a 
large surface of the meteorite is etched. 
All the evidence gained from an inspection of the 



94 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



meteorite before it was removed from its bed, seems 
to support the view that it is a comparatively recent 
fall, probably within the last 20 years. The won- 
derful preservation of the surface shows that it has 
not been long exposed to the weather. The deeply 
channeled surface, produced by the liquation and 
combustion of the complex metallic alloy, caused by 
the intense heat generated in its passage through the 
Earth's atmosphere, is evidence that the meteor 
traveled far, before coming to rest where found; 
that is, its path must have been nearly tangent to 
the surface of the Earth. This is confirmed by the 
shallow depth it penetrated the soil; further, it is 
possible that it, richotted on the flat side before the 
momentum with which it was traveling was finally 
arrested. 

This aerolite is supposed to have fallen in 1894. 
Eesidents of Candelaria, at that time, recall the 
passage of an immense meteor that traveled in an 
easterly direction and was seen to fall far to the east, 
beyond where Tonopah now stands. Articles ap- 
peared in the San Francisco Examiner and in other 
California papers, describing this meteor as entering 
the Earth 's atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, cross- 
ing the Coast range, the Sacramento valley, the 
Sierra Nevada mountains, passing nearly over Bodie 
(California) and Belleville and Candelaria (Ne- 
vada), to be lost in the desert to the east. Its fall 
was recorded by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Reno, 
Nevada. Several residents of Tonopah saw the 
meteor when it fell. Among them is Fred Corkhill, 
superintendent of the West End Mining Co. Mr. 
Corkhill, who at that time was living in Candelaria, 
states that on February 1, 1894, about 10 o'clock in 
the evening the residents of Candelaria observed the 
meteor, which passed directly over that place and 
was seen to disappear in the east. It gave an intense 
blinding blue-white light, so dazzling that you could 
not see the meteor itself. The illumination was so 
intense that the interior of rooms in the buildings 
that had shutters closed was lighted up as brilliantly 
as day. The rush of air after the passage of the 
meteor lasted a minute or more. After it had passed 
there was a loud explosion accompanied by a power- 
ful jar. Mr. Corkhill wrote an article on this meteor 
and it was published in the Mining and Scientific 
Pkess in the spring of 1894. The place where the 
meteorite was found is 130 miles due east from Can- 
delaria. 

[Here follows the account sent my Mr. Corkhill to 
the Mining and Scientific Press of February 10, 
1894.— Editor.] 

To the Editor : I send a description of the meteor 
that fell at this place on the night of February 1st. 
The thermometer registered 15 degrees above zero. 
At 10 o'clock 7 minutes a brilliant meteor appeared, 
coming from the southwest. It made a tremendous 
illumination, suddenly, as if a great flash light was 
thrown in well-lighted rooms, wherever a corner of 
window curtain or shade was not tightly drawn. So 
intense was it in brilliancy that those who were out 
of doors were dazed, and but few could tell whence it 
came or whither it went. It was of a dazzling electric 
blue, like •many arc lights had suddenly shot into 



existence. The illumination lasted about four sec- 
onds, disappearing in the northeast. The illumina- 
tion brought all who were awake to their doors, awe 
stricken, thinking some slumbering crater had burst 
into flame. 

Thirty seconds later a terrific explosion occurred, 
like tons of dynamite suddenly exploded, shaking the 
hills and echoing through the rocky caverns. 

It was like a huge bombshell had been hurled in 
our midst. There followed a boiling and sizzling 
roar, like an immense mass of red-hot iron cooling 
in water. The sound grew fainter and gradually 
died away. This lasted about fifteen seconds. 

Those who were sleeping and did not see the 
illumination were aroused and rushed out of doors, 



I 



ELKO 
HUMBOLDT ''pCoidCirclf*™™** 




Showing Position of Tonopah and Candelaria. 

supposing it to be an earthquake or that the crack 
of doom had come. 

When the snow melts and the focus of the ex- 
plosion is definitely located, a search will be made 
for the meteorite. 

None who saw or heard this meteor will forget it, 
and they will relate it in future years as a great 
event; nor will any one here desire to be nearer to 
those celestial bombs than he was this night. Some 
ducked their heads to let it go by and considered it 
a very close shot for a star. 

Fred Corkhill. 

Candelaria, Nevada, Feb. 4, 1894. 



On Claim 15 Above Discovery (at Lat. 64° 59' 
North) on Ophir creek, 85 miles from Nome, Alaska, 
four pans of dirt yielded 70 oz., or $1250, and one 
single pan gave 25 oz. of gold. 



January 9, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



95 



MINING AND METALLURGICAL PATENTS. 

Specially reported for the Misi.no and Scientific Press. 

CANDLESTICK.— No. 904,732. William Stephens, Iron- 
wood. Michigan. 

■ 




A device of the character described constructed of an 
integral sheet of metal and comprising a handle returned 
upon itself at its rear end and vertically enlarged at its 
other end to form a cross piece that is extended upwardly 
and returned upon itself to form a downwardly facing hook, 
a prong extended forwardly from the cross piece, laterally 
disposed strips extended from the cross piece above and 
below the prong and having their ends curved to form 
split rings constituting a candle socket, a cross bar con- 
necting the extremities of the strips, and a finger piece 
extended from the cross bar and passing between and be- 
yond the extended strips. 



PROCESS OP SMELTING ORES- 
erick L. McGahan, St. Louis, Missouri. 



-No. 891,630. Fred- 




The process of smelting ore, which includes heating the 
ore in contact with a combustible, so as to liberate gases 
and other volatile products, withdrawing said gases and 
other products, adding steam to said gases and other pro- 
ducts, subjecting the admixture to a temperature high 
enough to partially dissociate said steam, and returning the 
resulting aeriform body to the smelting zone of the furnace. 



TUNNELING-MACHINE.- 
Denver, Colorado. 



-No. 900,950. Olin S. Proctor, 




In a rotary tunneling machine, the combination of a sup- 
porting frame, a tubular shaft revolubly mounted on said 
frame, a rotary cutter head secured to one end of said tubu- 
lar shaft, a plurality of operative rock-drilling engines ar- 
ranged to cut the breast area of a circular tunnel, said cutter 
head having ports leading from said tubular shaft to said 
Tock-drilling engines, means including a motor for rotating 
said tubular shaft and cutter head, means for connecting the 
opposite end of said tubular shaft to a supply of suitable 
■drilling engine actuating fluid, a muck catching cylinder on 
said supporting frame surrounding said cutter head, and 



means for conveying the muck from said cutter head and 
cylinder to the opposite end of said supporting frame from 
said cutter head. 

ELECTRIC PICK MINING-MACHINE.— No. 903,508. Al- 
fred Sandstrom, Chicago, Illinois. 




In combination', a reciprocatory tool, a motor, means oper- 
ated thereby for producing a pneumatic drive and including 
a cylinder and piston movable relatively to each other, to 
the movable one of which parts the tool is connected, and 
releasable engaging means for the movable part adapted to 
allow the release and forward drive of the tool when the 
air pressure overbalances the hold of the engaging means. 



ATTACHMENT FOR MINERS' CAPS.- 
liam Firman, Ottumwa, Iowa. 

2 



-No. 905,682. Wil- 




A lamp holding attachment for miners' caps embodying a 
supporting plate, a match receptacle disposed upon the rear 
side of said plate, said receptacle being open at one end and 
closed at its opposite end and formed with upper and lower 
longitudinal flanges and an end flange at its closed end, 
such flanges bearing against the plate, and fingers formed 
upon the ends of the top and bottom flanges and bent into 
interlocking engagement with the side edges of the sup- 
porting plate. 



CONTINUOUS FILTER-PRESS.— No. 905,129. Alexander 
J. Arbuckle, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 





No. 905,12i) 



No. 9C3,94S 



In filtering apparatus, the combination of a vessel and a 
piston reciprocal therein, said piston carrying filtering 
means, means for removing the separated liquid from the 
piston and means for obtaining the flow of a portion of the 
separated liquid through the filter in a direction opposite to 
that of the filtering flow. 

ROCK-DRILLING MACHINE CHUCK. — No. 903,948. 
Lewis C. Bayles, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

In a rock-drilling machine chuck the combination of the 
head and U bolt with a half bushing positioned in the 
bore of the head and non-rotatably retained therein by longi- 
tudinal projections engaging corresponding longitudinal 
grooves, as set forth. 



96 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 9, 1909. 



Publications Received. 



Any of the books noticed in these columns are for sale by 
or can be procured from the Mining and Scientific Press. 



Reservoirs for Irrigation, Water-Power and Domestic 
Water-Supply. By James Dix Schuyler. 2d. Ed., revised 
and enlarged. Large 8vo., pp. 573, 111., Index. New York. 
John Wiley & Sons. 1908. Price $6. 

Mr. Schuyler's experience has been so large in arid coun- 
tries that he presents a particularly full review of the prob- 
lems of constructing and maintaining dams and reservoirs 
under the trying conditions so commonly met in the West. 
The book is not an engineering treatise, but a discussion 
of actual cases arising in practice, and the means adopted 
to deal with them. It thus supplies a need ielt by every 
engineer in giving such a bill of particulars as no theoretic 
consideration of difficulties can properly cover. In this 
book are collected details of more dams than will be found 
discussed in any other treatise, and the profuse illustrations 
elucidate the text. There are 387 cuts and plates, 234 of 
which the publishers' announcement declares to be new. 
The utilization of hydraulic methods for making fills is 
explained in great detail, as also are the methods of rock- 
fill construction, masonry, earthen embankment, and the 
more recent adaptation of steel in all-steel dams, and in 
reinforced concrete. Sedimentation in reservoirs is re- 
viewed, and the effects show that the difficulty is not as 
serious as had been anticipated, even under such severe 
circumstances as those existing at the Sweetwater dam in 
San Diego county, California. The total filling there has 
been 900 acre-feet since the work was completed in 1888. 
The solids deposited show an average of 1% for the total 
water passing through the reservoir, and the fact is adduced 
that the thickness of the deposit has varied almost directly 
with the depth of water. An interesting account is given 
of a mine-dam in the Curry mine at Norway, Michigan, 
which sustains a pressure of 277 lb. per sq. in., the static 
head being 640 ft. The work is one of great interest to 
engineers, and should appeal likewise to intelligent laymen. 



Handbook for Field Geologists in the United States 
Geological Survey. By C. W. Hayes. 8vo., pp. 159, 111., 
Index. Washington. Published by the Survey, 1908. 

This little pocket volume is something more than a mere 
list of what to observe, but even as such it is invaluable. 
It will serve as mnemonics to save the field geologist from 
omissions in collecting data. Beyond this useful function it 
undertakes to explain how to collect the notes needed to 
interpret the salient geologic features in an areal survey. 
For example, it details the kind and method of observation 
needed for determining the thickness of inclined strata from 
the outcrops ; how to observe and plot the position of a fault- 
plane; how to determine the character of volcanic phenom- 
ena, whether dike, laccolith, sill, or other form; and how to 
collect and record proper data concerning rocks. The book 
will be a great aid toward system and uniformity of method 
among field geologists. It should be in the hands of every 
man having to observe and interpret geologic fact in the 
field. 



Mineral Productions of California for 1907. Bulletin 
No. 53 of the California State Mining Bureau. A valuable 
feature of the pamphlet is the series of county maps, show- 
ing all railroads and stage-roads, with distances between 
stations. 



Preliminary Report on the Mineral Resources of OKLA r 
homa. By Chas. N. Gould, L. L. Hutchison, and Gaylord 
Nelson. Bulletin No. 1 of the Oklahoma Geological Survey. 



Mine Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Coals, tested 
at the U. S. Fuel-Testing Plant, Norfolk, Virginia. By 
John S. Burrows. Bulletin No. 362, TJ. S. Geological Survey. 



The Magnesite Deposits of California. By Frank L. 
Hess. Bulletin No. 355, U. S. Geological Survey. 



Commercial Paragraphs. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. ha& 
again become the property of the stockholders, after having 
been in the hands of receivers since October 23, 1907. The 
petition for the discharge of the receivers was made on De- 
cember 5, in Pittsburg, before Judge Young of the United 
States District Court of the Western Circuit of Pennsyl- 
vania, and was immediately signed by him. G. B. Gordon 
made the address to the Court, in which he gave a state- 
ment of the company's affairs prior to the receivership, 
explained the causes which led to the establishment of the 
receivership, presented a report of the operation of the com- 
pany during the tenure of the receivership, and finally led 
up to the great work which has been accomplished within 
so short a time by Mr. Westinghouse and the various com- 
mittees in bringing about the rehabilitation and re-organiza- 
tion of the company. He emphasized the fact that during 
the year the receivers had been in charge they had not 
only succeeded in paying off the interest on the bonds, as 
it fell due from time to time, but that they also kept the 
large factories of the company in operation during the 
entire time, doing an excellent business at a net profit of 
over $1,000,000. The action of 5000 employees subscribing 
for $600,000 of stock of the company was another feature 
presented to the Court. It was also brought out that the 
company under the re-organization would in every way be in 
a better condition than at any previous period in its his- 
tory, as it would start upon the new regime with cash on 
hand amounting to more than $15,000,000, with an indebt- 
edness of only about $200,000. 

The Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works announces that 
Herbert E. Stone has been made manager of sales in the 
Eastern department, with headquarters in New York. Mr. 
Stone was formerly president of the N. A. S. E., and recently 
manager of the Pittsburg office of the Chapman Valve Com- 
pany. 

The Wood Drill Works, of Paterson, N. J., has appointed 
the Harold L. Bond Co., of 140 Pearl street, Boston, Mass., 
as its exclusive agent for the sale of Wood rock-drills in the 
New England States. The Harold L. Bond Co. also has offi- 
ces at 42 Broadway, New York, in charge of Joseph C. Sealy. 

The Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. has recently closed a con- 
tract with the Stewart-Kerbaugh-Shanley Co. for a large 
compressor-plant to be used in connection with the latter's 
14-mile contract on the Catskill Mountain aqueduct to sup- 
ply water for New York City. 

Chalmers & Williams advise that they have recently re- 
ceived an order from the Socorro mines, Silver City, New 
Mexico, for a 30-stamp mill, including a 48 in. by 18 ft, 
tube-mill and two 48 in. by 25 ft. Burt rapid cyanide filters, 

The Fred M. Prescott Steam Pump Co., of Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, has opened a district office in the City National 
Bank Bdg., at El Paso, Texas, to cover the growing business 
of the Southwest and Mexico. 

White & Newcomb, of Mexico City, have the contract to 
erect the 12 Brown agitating tanks and 18 solution tanks, 
all of steel, for the Esperanza Mining Co., at El Oro, Mexico. 

The Hammond Iron Works, Warren, Pa., has opened an 
office in Mexico City, Mexico, at Cinco de Mayo 32, Francis, 
E. Pratt being in charge. 



Catalogues Received. 

The Fort Wayne Electric Works, Fort Wayne, Indiana,, 
has lately issued 'A Practical Guide for Transformer Test- 
ing', which should be a great help to those having such 
testing to do. 

The National Brake & Electric Co., Milwaukee, Wiscon- 
sin, has recently issued a pamphlet discussing 'air-compress- 
ors for industrial service'. It is called Publication No, 386. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. has recently pub- 
lished an attractive booklet descriptive of its Type S dis- 
tributing transformers. 



Whole No. 2530. V0l N ?.l?T"- 



' Science has no enemy save the ijjnorant." 



THREE DOLLARS PER ANNUM 
Sinflc Copies, Ten Cent*. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



KSTABLI8HED MAY 24, 1860. 



PUBLISHED AT 667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Telephone Kearney 4777. Cable Address: Pertusola. 



EDITED AND CONTROLLED BY T. A. RICKARD. 



ASSOCIATE EDITOR COURTENAY DE KALB 



SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS: 



Philip Aroall. 
Leonard 8. Austin. 
Francis L. Bosqui. 
H. Oilman Bbows. 
Donald F. Campbell. 
J. Parke Channing. 
J. H. Coble. 
J. R. Finlay. 
F. Lynwood Garrison. 



H. C. Hoover. 
H. Forbes Julian. 
James F. Kemp. 
C. W. Purington. 
John A. Rkid. 
T. Kirkk Rose. 
Horace V. Winchell. 
Walter Hakvey Weed. 
Lewis T. Wright. 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 16, 1909. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION : 

United States and Mexico 83 

Canada 84 

All Other Countries in Postal Union One Guinea or 85 

BDOAR RICKARD ..... Business Manager. 

BRANCH OFFICES: 
New York— 600 Fifth Avenue. Denver— 420 McPhee Building. 
Chicago— 934 Monadnock Block. Telephone: Harrison 636. 
London— Edward Walker, 808 Salisbury House, E. C. 

PUBLISHED BY THE DEWEY PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as Second-Class Matter. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIAL: Page. 

Notes 97 

State Mining Legislation ; 98 

Panama Canal 99 

GENERAL MINING NEWS 101 

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE 107 



Washington 

London 

Butte, Montana 



Joplin, Missouri 
Dawson, Canada 
Toronto, Canada 



CONCENTRATES ;.\ 112 

DISCUSSION: 

National Bureau of Mines Royal P. Jarvis 113 

Cost of Electric Pole-Line D. P. Cameron 113 

Drill-Steel K. Noblett 114 

The Disaster in Italy W. J.- Adams 114 

Ely, Nevada F. F. Thomas, Cburtenay Be Kalb 114 

Loss of Cyanide Dana O. Putnam 115 

ARTICLES: 

Metal Production in 1908... U. 8. Geological Survey 116 

The Yukon Ditch T. A. Rickard 117 

Protection of Investors 121 

Special Machinery for Placer Mining. . .E. L. Byron 128 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL PATENTS 127 

DEPARTMENTS : 

Personal 100 

Obituary 100 

Market Reports 100 

Publications Received 128 



EDITORIAL. 



r~\ UPLICATION of work and needless expendi- 
*-* tare of the public money is incurred by lack 
of co-operation between the departments of the Fed- 
eral Government. The Land Office and thC J 6reolog- 
ical Survey are both in the Department of the Inte- 
rior, yet the first sends a geologist to examine a dis- 
trict, in order to delimit mineral-bearing areas, after 
the Survey has had a corps of men in the same dis- 
trict for two years. Uncle Sam is an extravagant 
old gentleman. 



IN OUR LAST issue we published a letter from Mr. 
J. R. Finlay expressing disagreement with con- 
clusions appearing recently in these columns. It 
was a pleasure to publish Mr. Finlay 's letter ; for 
careful criticism is more welcome than casual -com- 
pliment. The views expressed by him will doubtless 
be shared by many other thoughtful men, and while 
they are contrary to the opinions we hold; the sub- 
ject is one well worthy of full discussion. We hope 
others will contribute, more especially those who dis- 
agree with the editorial appearing in our issue of 
October 17. Mr. Hammond ought to take part and 
defend his position. 



A LASKA owes much to the United States Geo- 
■**• logical Survey. The geological investigations 
have been exploratory in character and have been 
done under great physical difficulties; they consti- 
tute today the best source of information both for 
those resident in the country and for those having 
a financial interest in the mining operations. Fur- 
ther, the interim reports of progress and develop- 
ment, issued from time to time by Mr. Alfred H. 
Brooks and his assistants contain much valuable in- 
formation, the excellence of which is best appre- 
ciated by those who know Alaska. We trust that 
this good work will obtain cordial legislative support 
at Washington. 



HOW MANY people were misled by the adver- 
tisement of the Standard Oil Company, through 
its Assistant Secretary, protesting and warning the 
public against the imputation that the company or 
its controllers are interested in smelting, cotton, or 
other industrial schemes? The public is asked in 
this advertisement to give no credit "to any state- 
ment regarding the Standard Oil Company's views, 
acts, or intentions unless the same be duly vouched 
for by an executive official of the Company or by its 
designated attorneys." What an impudent notice! 
The records of the courts show that the Standard Oil 
Company and the predatory persons in control of it 
have for many years succeeded in killing competition 
by buying into subsidiary concerns ; under various 



98 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



guises they have tricked their competitors, fooled 
the public, and suborned railroad officials. No one 
is to believe that a clever and unscrupulous lot of 
men is interested in schemes of any kind unless the 
affidavit of an "executive official" is forthcoming! 
And yet a number of people will be impressed by 
this hocus-pocus. Among them our readers should 
not be found. 



ON ANOTHER page we publish the concluding- 
portion of the text recording the discussion 
held before the Pacific Coast division of the Mining 
& Metallurgical Society of America in November 
last. The account as now printed has value as the 
transcript of a serious conversation between experi- 
enced men; it may have the faults of an off-hand 
debate, but it has the merit of sincerity; and that 
outweighs all minor blemishes. In a technical society 
the one unpardonable sin is to "soliloquize under 
your sombrero" or "talk through your hat" — in 
plain English : to say, for the sake of effect, what 
you do not believe. The sequel to the discussion will 
be published in this journal at an early date. As far 
as can be judged, the result will be the crystallization 
of ideas on an important subject. 



TECHNICAL men can help themselves and those 
whom they address by using technical words 
correctly. It is a strange fact that engineers grad- 
uated from universities will speak of "stratas that 
prospect," of "this data," of a "lense of ore," and 
of "partially developed ore." Most of our readers 
will plead 'not guilty' and therefore will not feel 
hurt by the mention of such lapses. The one last 
quoted is frequent. We remember a man who an- 
nounced at the beginning of an article that it was to 
be a "partial" history of a Mexican mining district; 
that was not what we wanted; it was the unpreju- 
diced story for which we prayed. 'Partially' and 
'partly' perform separate services and signify dif- 
ferent ideas; let us add to the significance of lan- 
guage by using the right word in the right place. 



ONE of our local vehicles of misinformation, 
usually styled a morning newspaper, recently 
published a sensational account of "hot shot falling 
from the clouds." In a despatch imputed to the 
Associated Press, the reader was informed that 
"molten rain falls on the housetops of the peaceful 
town of Santa Cruz." A woman named Mrs. Burns 
is stated to have seen "little white threads of smoke 
rising from the roof where these little red-hot metal 
globules struck the damp boards. . . . This molten 
rain continued from about 2 o'clock to 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon." As a scientific explanation, it is 
suggested that "this molten precipitation is due to 
the condensed fumes from the Mt. Etna eruption." 
There is more of this childish twaddle, but what has 
been quoted suffices to illustrate the enlightened 
character of journalism in San Francisco. 



F^EDERAL aid to State mining schools has been 
* frequently urged, and was recently recom- 
mended by formal resolution of the American Min- 
ing Congress at Pittsburg. Weakness in educational 



facilities is a sad characteristic of many struggling 
institutions established under the impetus of the 
Land Grant Act some years ago. The United States 
has followed this by extending material aid and dig- 
nity to the agricultural colleges, which were also 
beneficiaries by the Act, through affiliation with the 
work of the Agricultural Department by the creation 
of Experiment Stations. Under the proposed new 
Mining Bureau something of like character may 
arise in connection with the mining schools as a 
convenient way of enlarging the technological activ- 
ity which the Bureau is expected to absorb from the 
Geological Survey. 



State Mining Legislation. 



At the last session of the California Legislature a 
bill was introduced in the Senate, known as Senate 
Bill No. 55, which had for its purpose the supplement- 
ing of the Federal mining laws, providing for the 
manner of locating and recording mining claims. After 
amendment in committee and elimination of certain 
objectionable features, to which we invited attention 
in our issue of February 2, 1907, the bill passed both 
houses and reached the Governor in the closing days 
of the session. It failed of approval by reason of 
the pressing nature of other matters requiring his 
attention. This bill, substantially in the form in 
which it passed the last legislature, has been re- 
introduced at the present session by Senator Henry 
M. Willis, and is known as Senate Bill No. 32. As 
we have frequently had occasion to point out in the 
columns of this journal, California is the only State 
in the Union possessing public mineral-bearing land 
that has not a code of laws governing the subjects 
embraced in the pending Willis bill. There is no law 
in this State providing for the manner of locating 
or recording mining claims. While the locators as 
a rule, through custom and habit, take the steps in 
perfecting locations provided for in the bill, there 
is no statutory sanction for them, and recorded 
notices have but little value as evidence before the 
courts. 

The Willis measure is little more than an effort to 
express in statutory form the practice common in 
the mining regions of the West. There are no rad- 
ical changes in the customary law, and the lines of 
the proposed legislation have their counterparts in 
every mining State in the West where public lands 
exist. 

Briefly, the subjects dealt with are: (1) The con- 
tents of the posted notice, the requirements being 
extremely simple.- (2) The marking of the bounda- 
ries without specifying the kind of stakes or monti- 
ments, in which respect the bill is simply a re-state- 
ment of the Federal law. (3) The recording of a 
copy of the posted notice with the County Recorder 
within thirty days after its posting, and making re- 
corded notices or certified copies evidence in all pro- 
ceedings. (4) The manner of making placer loca- 
tions on both surveyed and unsurveyed public lands. 
(5) The method of locating, marking, and recording 
tunnel and mill-sites. (6) The amendment of faulty 
or defective locations. (7) The privilege of having 



iry 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



99 



location boundaries surveyed by Deputy Mineral 
ireyors and making Buch survey prima facii 

de -. B) Providing for proving by affidavit the 

performance of annual work. (9) Procedure by a 
co-owner who performs the work, to secure contri- 
bution from his associates, and prescribing the 
method by which the interest of the delinquent co- 
owners ni;i\ be forfeited. 

Most, if not all, of these provisions have been in 
sueeessfnl operation in other States, they have re- 
ceived tin- sanction and approval of tile highest State 
and Federal courts and the Land Department, they 

.-I a simple and safe guide to the miner, and giye 

to his Location notice, when once pi rded, the value 

of a paper title, upon which all subsequent proceed- 
ings, either for patent or transfer, may be predicated. 

There are two provisions of the bill, however, that 
require modification. Section 14260 of the bill pro- 
vides: "The location of a placer claim shall be 
mad.- in the following manner: By posting thereon, 
upon a tree, rock in place, stone, post, or monu- 
ment, a notice of locators, date of location, number 
Of feet or acreage claimed, such a description of the 
claim by reference to some natural object or perma- 
nent monument as will identify the claim located, 
and by marking the boundaries so that they may be 
readily traced ; provided, that where the United States 
survey has been extended over the land embraced in 
the location, the claim may be taken by legal subdi- 
visions and no other reference than those of said 
survey shall be required." There is an ambiguity 
in this section. The Supreme Court of California 
has held that when surveyed lands are located under 
the placer laws, there is no necessity for marking the 
boundaries, and this is the rule followed by the Land 
Department. This section as it stands leaves room 
for doubt as to whether such a claim should be monu- 
mented or staked. The reference to the sub-division 
of the public surveys is stated to be sufficient as a 
matter of description in the notice without other 
reference. But nothing is said concerning the neces- 
sity for marking the boundaries. An amendment to 
this section is suggested, in order to remove the ambi- 
guity, by adding the following: "and the boundaries 
of a claim so located and described need not be 
staked or monumented. The description by legal 
subdivisions shall be deemed the equivalent of mark- 
ing. ' ' 

Section 1426r. is as follows: "The provisions of 
this act shall not in any manner be construed as 
affecting any mining district in the State of Cali- 
fornia, or as requiring a compliance with the provi- 
sions of this Act as to the location of mining claims 
within such district, where such district comprises 
one county, and the recorder of such district is the 
recorder of such county." 

There is a strong suggestion of unconstitutionality 
in this section. It has been intimated that it violates 
the provision of the Constitution that all laws of a 
general nature shall have a uniform operation. There 
are possibly two counties in the State, Tuolumne and 
Nevada, which for a great many years have consti- 
tuted separate mining districts. As such districts, 
they have rules and regulations providing for record- 



ing and other details of location, not. however, as 
we understand it. in serious conflict with the provi- 
sions of the Willis bill. By the act of the Legislature 
Of 1897, all mining districts in the State were abol- 
ished. While this Act was repealed, such repeal did 

not revive these district organizations. Be that as it 
may, this method of placing two counties in a class 
by themselves and exempting them from the opera- 
tion of a law which is of a general nature is not such 
a 'classification' as will overcome the objection of 
non-uniformity. It is possible that the unconstitu- 
tional features of this section might not destroy the 
entire bill, yet it is unwise to retain this feature, as it 
may afford ground for attacking the entire measure. 
With this provision eliminated, and there is no sub- 
tantial reason why it should not be, the measure is 
wholesome, is distinctly in the interests of the mining 
industry, and should be passed. 



Panama Canal. 



Congress recently appointed a special committee 
of its members to visit Panama, with some hint at 
duties of inquiry, investigation, or the like. These 
gentlemen, in obedience to a psychologic law, will 
henceforward take keener interest in all that relates 
to Isthmian affairs. So much of good conceivably 
may arise from junketing expeditions: they inocu- 
late the travelers with the virus of receptivity for 
information, and stir conceit to display' superior 
wisdom. Whether or not they discovered the 
financial distress in which the Panamanians are lan- 
guishing, they will be better able to appreciate and 
interpret to this country the formal protest by rep- 
resentative business men and bankers against the 
indiscriminate sale of supplies from the Canal Com- 
mission's stores, a practice which has nearly de- 
stroyed .the commerce of the toy Republic. Uncle 
Sam has played so carelessly with the toy that he 
has seriously damaged its condition. What Presi- 
dent Roosevelt will do with the protest remains to 
be seen. It deserves public answer, for back of it lies 
something more than a clamor for better opportunity 
to make money; the machinery of Government is 
said to be not satisfactory, and the restrictions upon 
free commercial intercourse with Colombia are detri- 
mental to Panama in high degree. Whether this be 
the conviction of a majority is of course open to 
question, but the rumblings indicate a large party 
favorable to re-absorption into Colombia, the mother 
country. A treaty of amity and commerce has just 
been negotiated between the United States and, Co- 
lombia, in which the independence of Panama is 
recognized. After this graceful act of a wronged 
nation, it would be a salve to our own honor and 
self-respect to authorize a plebiscite in the little Re- 
public to determine whether it should retain auto- 
nomy, or return to the old allegiance. Our inter- 
ests in the Canal Zone will rest as securely under 
treaty with Colombia as with Panama. We would 
not then be stultified by equivocal and farcical 
arrangements that give the lie to those^ principles on 
which our institutions were established. Now is the.' 
time for us to remove the blot from our escutcheon. 



100 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



Personal. 



Professional men are invited to send news of their engage- 
ments and travels. Such news is interesting to friends. 

H. C. Hooveb is here. 

Seeley W. Mudd is at St. Louis. 

Habbt H. Webb has gone to Carlsbad. 

A. C. Beatty has returned to New York. 

Ctjbtis H. Lindley is at Globe, Arizona! 

Spenceb Penrose and Ceabt.es M. McNeill are at Salt 
Lake. 

Allen J€. Rogebs is examining the Braden copper mine, 
in Chilg. , - , 

H. Fosteb Bain attended the meeting o£ State Geologists 
at Baltimore. ■■ :■ 

C. W. Liningeb is superintendent of the Amparo mine, 
in Jalisco, Mexico. 



Latest Market Reports. 



METAL PRICES. 

By wire from New York. 
Average dally prices in cents per pound. 



ite Electrolytic Copper Lead 

8 14.26 4.17 

9 ; 14.25 ' 4 17 

10 Sunday. No market. 

11 14.26 4.17 

12 14.18 ' 4.17 

13 , .....14.18 4.17 

14 14.12 4.17 



Spelter 

6 17 
6.17 

5.17 
5.15 
5.16 . 
5.16 



Sliver 
per pz. 

61% 
' 61% 

52% 
62% 

mi 

52% 



MINING STOCK QUOTATIONS — NEW YORK. 

CloBlng prices. 

Jan. 7. Jan. 14. 

Amalgamated Copper 84% 80% 

American Smelting & Refining Co.....;.. 89 84% 

Boston Copper i 16% 16% 

Butte Coalition ,. , 26% , 26% 

Cumberland Ely „.; 8 8% 

Dolores .*. :V 6% 6% 

El Rayo 3% . . . , 3% , 

Qlioux 7 8% 



Graphic representation of Average Weekly Prices of Silver, Copper, Spelter and Lead during 1908 

Compiled from Market Reports of Mining and Scientific Press. 



* 

eo 


'anuary i February \ 

1 II 18 2S\f 6 IS 22 2s\ ■ 


March \ April i 

f 14 21 28\ 4 It 18 2S\ * 


^ 


May 1 June i July \ 

16 233€\6 13 2027X4 II 18 2S\ 


Auyust peplemberx October xAfoHzmberi December • 

' 8 IS 22 2S\S 12 192613 tO 17 243IX 7 14 21 28\3 12 19 2631 „_ 










































































































S3 

sa 

S7 Ui . 
seQ 

ssS ' 

S4<Z> 

sa(t 
**% 

«5 

47 


, SB 


















































































































































































































< S6 

%ss 
s* 






























































































































































































































































































































































































































Q.^2 










































































































O«0 


































































































































































































































































































































































































































46 

45 


















































































































































































































bnuary i February t March i April i May i June i duly \ August speptemben October \1V0vember\December 

% II IB 2S\/ 8 15 22 23\7 14 21 28\4 tl 13 2S\2 9 16 2330\6 132027X4 11 18 2S\ 1 8 /S22 2s\s 12 19 26\$ 10 17 24 3/1 7 14 2/ 281S 12 19 2631 _ 


IS 
IS 




















































































































































































































is 






















































































































































































































IS 










































































































is 

14 Q 










































































































S* 




















































t- 


£W 


f* 


JS 


t- 














































JO i. 


£72 










































































































ct io 


















































































































































































































b 1 * 






















































































































































































































































































































































4J. 


'£1 


t 


~ 


ZZ 


~ 


_ 


__ 


~~z 
















^ 


= 


ffi 






TT- 


FT 


~ 


£ 


w 


'(* 


K 
















- 


— 
















~~ 


~~ 


""" 




- 


f 




TV 












— 




2 
1 
O 


... 


- 




... 


... 


" 


" 


... 


— 


... 


■"" 




















































































2 
1 
O 



























































































































































































































































































































Obituary. 

Fbank Taylob died in London on December 27, 1908. 
Since the retirement of his brother, John Taylor, a few 
years ago, he was head of the firm of John Taylor & Sons. 
He did not have much to do with mining operations, but 
gave his special attention to the business of the Sandycroft 
foundry, near Chester, which is owned by the firm. 

almabin B. Paul died in San Francisco on January 12. 
He was born at Bridgton, New Jersey, and was 85 years of 
age. A pioneer of mining in California, he made a specialty 
of the saving of fine gold. He built the first mill in the 
Grass Valley district and was an active mine operator on 
the Comstock. His last operations were in Shasta county. 
As a contributor to this journal, as a practical millman, 
and as a participant in all the early developments in Cali- 
fornia, he was a notable figure, and his passing is widely 
regretted. 



Greene-Cananea 12%' 

Indiana Sonora 4% 

La Rose „ 6% 

Miami Copper 15 

Nevada Consolidated 18% 

Newhouse 5% 

Nlpisslng 9% 

Ohio Copper ." 6% 

Tennessee Copper 47J4 

Utah Copper _ ii\i 

Yukon 4% 



■ *% 
6% 
14 
19% 

9% 
6% 
44 

46% 
4% 



(By courtesy of Trlppe, Thompson & Co., 25 Broad St., New York*) 



SOUTHKBN NEVADA STOCKS. 

San Francisco, January 14. 



Atlanta S 15 

Belmont 86 

Booth 25 

Combination Fraction 1.17 

Daisy 62 

Falrvlew Eagle 26 

Florence ....„ 4.87 

Goldfield Con...... 7.95 



Gold Kewenas S 24 

Laguna „ 1.1C 

MacNamara 37 

Montana Tonopah .....;.. 75 

Rawhide Queen 45 

Sandstorm 20 

Tonopah Extension 45 

West End 35, 



(By courtesy of W. C. Ralston, 363 Bush St.) 



Jauuarv 16. 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



101 



General Mining News. 



ALASKA. 

B. A. Chllberg and John Brower have purchased the 
King Solomon, Queen of Sheba, and Happy August claims 
on Newton gulch previously owned by August Homberger 
and Mike Young. The properties are those over which there 
was so much excitement during the past summer. They 
contain that wonderful decomposed ore which assayed so 
high and which gives such promise of being one of the 
greatest mines In Alaskaf The consideration for the sale 
of the claims was $200,000. The most Important part of 
the deal, and the one which means much to Nome and this 
district, Is the fact that the new owners of the property 
are now arranging for the establishment of a large mill on 
the ground and the installation of 20 stamps. All of it 
will be completed and In working order by the first day of 

next August. A discovery of pay gravel 500 ft. north of 

the third beach line at Nome, by Holt, Loveway & Ryan, 
is said to make the existence of a fourth beach practically 
certain. The streak is S ft. deep and pans run from three 
cents to three dollars. 

ARIZONA. 

UBAIIAM COUNTY. 

The Shannon Copper Co., which recently secured the 
Weaver mining claims, in the Greenlee district above Clif- 
ton, has established a camp and is now working a good 
force of men on the property. Several years ago Mr. 
Weaver struck good ore on the property, but the grade was 
not high enough to work on a small scale. Several mining 
engineers have reported on the property and the company 
is doing Its work upon first-class advice. The entering of 
the Shannon into that part of the district means a great 
deal for individuals owning property in that neighborhood, 
and if development work on the Weaver claims proves 
successful, there will be considerable activity in the upper 

country. The cable for the New England & Clifton aerial 

tram arrived last week and was immediately transferred 
to the mines. Construction work on the tram is progress- 
ing rapidly and it will not be many weeks until it will be 
in running order. 

MABICOPA COUNTY. 

The news of a sensational gold strike on Kirkland creek 
has been going about the last few days. It is reported 
that a vein of exceedingly rich ore has been discovered 
near the Rudy ranch in Kirkland valley and that a number 

of claims have been staked off. It is reported that R. C. 

Vincent, president of the Duluth-Arizona Mining Co., will 
soon arrive at the company's property at Black Rock and 
start work on that promising group. A compressor, pump, 
and drills will be installed. 

MOHAVE COUNTY. 

The work of sinking below the 200-ft. level of the Ellen 
Jane mine, on Music Mtn., is to be started soon. The 
property is owned by the Nevada-Arizona Mines Co., of 

which T. J. Grant is superintendent. All equipment has 

been placed on the Holy Moses mine by L. Hoffman and 
the work of timbering up the shaft is under way. Sinking 

will be commenced in a few days. Frank Hare, W. P. 

Eshom, and J. W. Cornelius have made a big strike on a 
mining claim in the neighborhood of Potts Mtn., near the 
old McCracken. The vein is 15 ft. wide, with a solid body 
of ore S ft. wide running through it. This ore runs high 
in copper, gold, and silver. Pannings from the shaft run 

from $50 to $100 per ton in gold. The Stockton Hill 

Mining Co. is arranging its affairs for the early resump- 
tion of work on the Cupel mine, at Stockton hill. It is 
probable that the shaft will be sunk several hundred feet 

deeper and the contiguous veins thoroughly explored. 

The Altata mine is to be taken over by a new corporation, 
recently formed in Chicago. Mrs. Anna Tofte, one of the 
principal owners in the mines, is in Chicago, conferring 



with the other corporators in the perfecting of arrange- 
ments for the early resumption of work on the mines. 

COLORADO. 

c 1.IJA11 CHEEK COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence). — The Bernhardt group of 
claims on Green Lake Mtn. was the scene of a rich strike a 
few days ago. In putting down a shaft to a depth of 15 ft. 
an 8-in. streak of galena ore was cut that carries 72% lead 
and 15 oz. silver per ton. A contract has just been awarded 
for the driving of an adit for 250 ft. to cut under the shaft 
workings at an increased depth of 250 ft. This property 
Is operated by a pool of Georgetown business men, headed 
by H. W. Kirby. The Sigafoos boring machine just in- 
stalled at the Georgetown adit on Columbian Mtn. ivas put 
into commission today. The machine seems to be breaking 
the rock at a good rate of speed, but until the tests have 
been continued for several days the complete results will 
not be known. A number of directors of the American 
Rotary Tunnel Machine Co. arrived in camp yesterday and 
all announce themselves as being more than satisfied over 
the results so far accomplished. Two weeks are to be al- 
lowed in which to demonstrate the worth of the machine, 
and if the work can be performed as claimed by the in- 




Wesfern Colorado. 

ventor, a contract will be entered into with the George- 
town M. P. & T. T. Co. for the breaking of 16,000 ft. of 
ground. A great many operators from various parts of 

the State are now on the ground witnessing the tests. 

H. J. Vancil, of Joplin, Missouri, president of the Joplin 
T. & M. Co., arrived in camp this week and is now making 
arrangements for starting work on the 150-ton chlorina- 
tion plant which is to be built on Clear creek near the 
portal of the Joplin adit. Plans are being drawn and 
within from 30 to 40 days actual work will be under way. 
The mill is to be fed upon ores from the Gambetta vein, 
where immense bodies of lead-zinc ore are exposed, while 
contracts will be made for the treatment of a good ton- 
nage of ore from the various mines lying in close prox- 
imity. B. J. O'Connell is manager. Within a short time 

development is to be started upon the holdings of the East 
Argentine M. M. P. & T. Co., in East Argentine. For the 
present the Sidney adit will be driven forward with hand- 
drills, but as soon as sufficient water is flowing the com- 
pressor plant will be used. The Sidney adit is now in 
Pendleton Mtn. 2300 ft., and from surveys the White, or 
Mother Lode of that section will be reached within from 
125 to 150 ft. Lessees at work on the Ontario vein, cut 
2125 ft. from the entrance of the adit, are sending out heavy 
shipments of smelting ore, worth from $55 to $70 per ton 

in silver and lead. M. Sidney is manager. The Toledo M. 

& M. Co. is pushing development work. The adit has now 



102 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



passed the 400-ft. point and from surveys just made the 
Toledo vein will be reached within from 40 to 50 ft. The 
management purposes driving upon a vein recently passed, 
as a streak of galena is exposed that is from 6 to 12 in. 
wide, which is said to assay more than $60 per ton in silver 
and lead. G. S. Redd, of Denver, is manager. This com- 
pany intends to install a plant of machinery in the early 

spring. Clapper & Co. has taken a lease upon a big 

block of ground in the Scepter adit, and the property is 
now being placed in position to permit of stoping. At the 
point where operations are being centred, a body of lead- 
zinc ore is exposed for 150 ft. that is 8' to 20 in. wide, while 
occasional streaks of smelting ore are found that carry as 
high as 406 oz. silver per ton. The lead-zinc is to be brought 

to Georgetown for separation at the custom mills. The 

Astor-Stewart M: & M: Co. has started work in the re-tim- 
bering, enlarging and reducing the grade of the Scepter 
adit. It is expected to have this undertaking completed 
within from 30 to 40 days. H. G. Houseman, of Denver, 
general manager, has been in the Bast for the last three 
weeks and advises that large funds have been pledged for 

the carrying of all plants to a successful issue. The new 

25-ton mill at the Black Eagle mine, situated up Chicago 
creek, will be started some time during the next two weeks. 
This is the first plant of its kind ever constructed in either 
Clear Creek or Gilpin counties, being equipped for chemical- 
electric extraction. The compressor just put in near the 
collar of the shaft is running night and day and a heavy 
tonnage of ore is being mined. The fourth and sixth levels 
are being driven eastward with the aid of machine drills, 
and as the ground is opened the showing continues to im- 
prove. The orebody on the sixth level is 8 ft. wide in 
places, and is worth from $5 to $22 per ton in gold. It is 
the intention of J. F. Puchert, who is manager, to shortly 
start work in deepening the shaft another 100 ft. The 
Black Eagle is developing into one of the heaviest pro- 
ducers of the Chicago creek district and effort is to be 
made during the present year for a record-breaking pro- 
duction. The St. Paul M. & M. Co., controlling a big 

group of claims on Green lake and Payne's Mtn., is car- 
rying on work in the last named region. The adit is being 
driven ahead and it is expected that another vein will be 
reached within the next few feet. Driving is to be started 
upon a vein recently passed, as a streak of galena is ex- 
posed that is from 4 to 6 in. wide. It is understood that 
this company will shortly resume work in the advance of 
the St. Paul adit on Green Lake Mtn. The bore is in 1400 
ft., and by continuing it for 500 ft. farther the St. Paul 
vein will be intersected. R. H. Blackman is resident man- 
ager.- 

Georgetown, January 9. 

f LAKE COUNTY. 

"Work on the Tenderfoot shaft is progressing steadily, 
and the lessees hope to have it completed to the desired dis- 
tance by the early part of the new year. It is now down 
120 ft., which, is 50 ft. short of the point to which it will 

be driven. The Fanny Rawlings has opened a new vein 

of lead ore that promises to make good with further de- 
velopment, This discovery is in a virgin portion of the 
property, in which extensive explorations are now being 
carried on. In addition to this work the Fanny , Rawlings 
is maintaining a steady outpu^ from the old workings, in 

which excellent gold ore was found in the year past. 

Thomas Gilroy, who has secured a long lease on the White 
Prince and Across the Ocean properties on Breece hill, is 
working three men. He is now sinking a new shaft, and 
is expecting to get ore in the near future, as the well known 
orebodies of the Penn and Nettie Morgan mines run through 

the ground. During the month of December the Yak 

tunnel broke all previous records for distance in the same 
length of time, cutting 358 ft.— about 11% ft. per day. The 
breast is now in the Resurrection property, and will soon 
be in a position to tap the old veins that have already pro- 
duced thousands of tons of good ore. During the present 
months the drills will be put to work to tap the old Resur- 
rection shaft, which is now partly filleii with water-. This 



will be a task requiring much care and accurate calculation, 
as it is proposed to allow the water to flow out gradually, 
so as not to flood the tunnel. After the old shaft is drained, 
development "work along the property held by the Resur- 
rection can be carried out.. 

OUBAY COUNTY. 

A deal has just been consummated whereby the Camp 
Bird, Ltd., secures a one-year option on eight valuable 
mining claims on and near the Ouray-San Miguel county 
line, the purchase price for the property being named at 
$10,000. 

TELLER COUNTY. 

The Portland Gold Mining Co. has declared a dividend 

of 4c. per share, involving the distribution of $120,000. 

The Jerry Johnson mine, on Iron Clad hill near Cripple 
Creek, hag been leased to Edward Gaylord and associates, 
of Denver. A hoist is to be installed and power for the 
air-drills will be obtained from the Western Investment 
Co.'s John A. Logan plant, on Bull hill. Operations will 
shortly be resumed at the W. P. H. mill, of which milling 
plant Mr. Gaylord is manager, and the low-grade ores from 
the Jerry Johnson mine will be treated therein. The higher 
grades of milling and smelting ores will be consigned to the 

valley plants as heretofore. An amicable settlement of 

the matters at issue between the Acacia Gold Mining Co. 
and the Findley Consolidated Mining Co. has been arrived 
at without recourse to litigation. By the agreement duly 
filed for record with the county clerk and recorder last 
week, the Acacia company is allowed exclusive and per- 
petual right to dump waste rock on a certain portion of the 
Shurtloff and Pauper lode mine cliams of the Findley com- 
pany, the Findley company to have the right to remove and 
dispose of said dump as their own property. It is further 
agreed that the Acacia company shall protect the two shafts 
on the north end of the Shurtloff claim from filling up and 
damage from said dumping of waste rock. By the terms of 
the settlement the South Burns Leasing Co., operating the 
South Burns mine, will, or has already received a satis- 
factory cash payment, representing the net value of the 
ore extracted from within the lines of the Burns claim by 

the Findley company. As a protective measure against 

fire a high-power fire-pump has been recently installed at 
the surface at the Henry Adney mine on Beacon hill, and 
similar pumps have been contracted for by other mining 
companies and lessees. The machinery at the Henry Adney 
is also being overhauled and it is understood that work on 
an extensive scale will be shortly resumed. 

IDAHO. 

SHOSHONE COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence). — With several strikes of im- 
portance and the declaration of dividends by the Bunker 
Hill & Sullivan and the Snowstorm mining companies the 
new year has opened most prosperously in the Coeur 

dAlene. After an idle period of almost a year, work is 

about to be resumed on the property of the Rhode Island 
Co, in the Osburn district. The property has been exten- 
sively developed and six feet of excellent ore opened up. It 
is .the intention to ,sink a winze and if the results are up 
to expectations shipments will commence.— — At the an- 
nual meeting of stockholders of the Hector Mining Co., held 
in Wallace about the beginning of the week, officers and 
directors were chosen for the ensuing year. John H. Nord- 
quist is president. The. report of progress is considered 
entirely satisfactory, contracts for 250 ft. of work having 

just been let. A strike has been made on the property 

of the H. E. & M. Mining Co., consisting of two feet of clean 
shipping galena carrying 80% lead and over 20 oz. silver 
per ton. In addition to the shipping there have been sev- 
eral feet of good concentrating ore opened up. The prop- 
erty is in the Revenue Gulch district and a considerable 
amount of excitement has been caused by the developments. 

After 18 years of steady labor J. Ward, an old-time 

miner of this district, has opened up an 11-ft. vein of free 
milling ore in the Ward's Peak district. The strike was 
made the . beginning of the week and samples of the ore.. 






January 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



103 



which have been brought down to Wallace have given re- 
turns of $220 in gold. The ore was found at the end of a 

: it. adit and at an approximate depth of 700 ft. The 

Copper King mine and concentrator in the Thompson Falls 
district has changed hands and after an idleness of sev- 
eral years it is expected that both mine aud mill will be 
started at full blast in the spring. The property, which was 
formerly owned by Fred M. Steele, of Chicago, has now 
passed into the hands of the Thompson Falls Copper & 
.Milling Co., the consideration being $100,000. The new 
company is financed by Eastern men. but S. A. Hurl- 
hint, of Thompson Falls, has been retained as general 
manager. The property is an old-time producer and has 
shipped much rich ore. It is believed that the machinery 

can be put in order at very little expense. -At the annual 

meeting of the Swastika Copper Mining Co.. held last week, 
Thomas M. Marlowe, of Missoula, was re-elected president 
and treasurer; George E. Marlowe, of Wallace, secretary, 
and ,1. W. McDonald, of Superior, Montana, vice president 
and manager. A contract for 300 ft. of work was given to 
Thomas M. and George E. Marlowe. This will be done in 
driving a lower adit to intersect the main vein. It was 
decided to make no further shipments of ore until the com- 
pletion of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad some 
time in the spring. One car was shipped during the past 
winter and netted about $49 per ton, but the expenses of 
hauling were considered too high. An attempt will be 
made to get sufficient funds to erect a concentrator in the 
spring. It is the intention of the company to increase the 
capitalization from $150,000 to $7,500,000 in the near future. 

The Pittsburg Lead Mining Co., which has been idle 

for the past three months, will resume work this week 
with a force of 20 men. The men will be used in driving 
on the 200-ft. level and in sinking the shaft another 200 ft. 
Work at the property will be superintended by Sidney L. 
Shonts, of Wallace, under the direction of Stanly A. Easton, 

manager of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan. An option on 

the stock of the Belmont Mining Co. has been given to a 
syndicate of Spokane capitalists. An inspection is to be 
made and, if present plans mature, work will be started 
at once. 
Wallace, January 9. 

KANSAS. 

CHESOKEE COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence). — The development of greatest 
importance to the Galena camp is the opening of a 500- 
acre tract by the Clermont Mining Co., south of Galena. A 
large amount of prospecting has been done. The twentieth 
drill-hole has been completed showing ore from 134 ft. to 
180 ft. The cuttings run from 9 to 10% zinc-blende with 
no galena showing. Prospecting was begun 16 months ago 
and has been kept up all through the panic. Several drill- 
holes penetrated a limestone bar and below this entered a 
rich deposit which continued to 300 ft. The ground is being 
leased, but the company will keep a 10-acre tract upon 
which the last strike was made for its own development. 
Shafts have already been started upon sub-leases and ore 

has been struck at 50 ft. in one shaft. A rich strike of 

zinc-blende was made by Page & Co. west of the Wyan- 
dotte land. The ore was reached at 100 ft. and a 12-ft. face 
has been opened. It was upon these tracts that the royalty 
was reduced last summer with favorable results as an in- 
creased demand for leases was made and several strikes 

have been reported. The largest and most important 

sale of ore in the Galena camp for the past year was re- 
cently made by Lynch & Williams. It consisted of 1000 

tons of ore sold to the Cockerill Zinc Co. A ventilating 

drift is being run in the Hartford mine to connect two 
shafts 325 ft. apart. The large new mill is being run only 
part of the time, as enough ore is not being produced. The 
new drift will furnish considerable ore and enable the plant 
to run longer. This is one of the largest mills in the Galena 
camp. The ore here is found at 170 ft. and is especially 

high grade. In the Baxter Springs camp the Hannibal 

& St. Joe mine Is being re-opened by George E. Ladd. A 
large pump has been installed! The Joanna mine has 



been procured by Starchman & Caulkins, who have begun 

operations. Extensive improvements are under way. 

At the Chicago-Quapaw mine a deep well is beink sunk, 
which is now down 61'B ft. It is to be used to supply ar- 
tesian water for the mill. During the drilling a large 
deposit of ore was penetrated from 02 to S5 feet. 
Galena, January 9. 

MISSOURI. 

JASPEB COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence). — Among the plants recently 
re-opened is the Church Mitchell mine in the Duenweg dis- 
trict. This is one of the largest plants in that district and 
has been shut down for seven months on account of low 
ore prices. A full force of men was put to work last week 
at advanced wages. The property is operating upon sheet 

ground. The Hayseed mine in the Carthage camp is 

again producing after lowering the shaft to 155 ft. The 
company is cleaning from 7 to 10 tons of ore per day. The 
drifts are being further opened up. This property has 
been under development for several years. The Plym- 
outh Rock mine in the Sarcoxie camp has been taken over 
by a new company and has been started again after a long 
idleness. The new owners have overhauled the plant and 
made thorough" preparations for steady production. Both 

day and night shifts will be run. The Highland plant, 

owned by the United Zinc Co., will be re-built. This plant 
was destroyed by fire some weeks ago. The building was a 
completed loss, but the machinery was slightly damaged. 

The San Gabriel mill, which was moved from the 

Matthes Bros, tract in Duenweg' to the same company's 
land in the Joplin camp, is now almost completed. The 
mill is now on the old John Jackson land, owned by 
Matthes Bros., and thoroughly developed by them during 
the past year. A shaft has been sunk and a good body of 
milling ore opened up. The plant has a capacity of 400 
tons. It will mean a considerable addition to that portion 

of the Joplin camp. W. E. Johnson has just completed a 

new tailing mill of 200 tons capacity on his land southwest 
of Joplin. It will treat the piles of tailing upon the land. 
A large amount of ore can be cleaned, as the mills for the 
most part were small and not equipped with sludge tables 
and the fine could not be saved. From 2 to 5% ore can be 
found in the tailing piles. Little lead is found, the ore 

being mainly zinc upon this land. The Lucky May mill 

in the southwest part of the city has become a steady pro- 
ducer. The 200-ton plant is comparatively new. Since its 
completion a large amount of development has been done. 
The prospect was operated by hand-jigs before the mill was 

built. The deposit is found at 150 ft. A new tailing mill 

of 200 tons per shift has been erected on the Cameron 
lease southwest of Joplin. Both tailing and sludge will 
be handled. The tailing of the Cameron mill will first be 
handled and later other tailing piles will be procured. The 
tailing of the Cameron mine runs from 2 to 5% zinc. The 
slime tables in the new mill are special devices for saving 
the very fine ore, usually lost on the ordinary concen- 
trating table. The best recent lead strike in the camp 

was made at Spring City in the U. G. Wilson shaft, which 
has been sunk 300 ft. from the old Argosy shaft. The ore 
is found at 130 ft. and the shaft and drifts are covered 
with the ore in a layer formation. The ground is not 
opened sufficiently to keep the mill running all the time. 

Development work is being hastened. The Yellow Dog, 

the largest plant in the district, has been closed down some 
time. However, underground work has been carried on in 
the meantime and rich ore was struck in a stope at 200 ft. 
The ore was galena of a very high grade. It has not been 
ascertained whether the ore is merely a pocket or a large 
deposit. During the shut-down, the Yellow Dog mill has 
been thoroughly overhauled and rumors are afloat that it is 

to re-open soon. Drilling on the Kelley land near the 

Frisco depot in Webb City has resulted in good strikes of 
sheet ore at the usual sheet-ore depth. The cuttings assay 

as high as 8 to 9% zinc-blende. A shallow strike of ore 

has been made in the Oronogo camp by the Oronogo Circle 
No. 2. The ore was found at 80 ft., while the usual run of 



104 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



ore occurs here at 150 to 200 ft. The 150-ton mill has only 
recently been overhauled. The plant will soon be operated 
with two shifts. A new revolving screen has been installed 
at this plant which has proved efficient in saving the fine. 

• A large centrifugal pump has been at work in the 

drifts of the Gock Robin mine in Chitwood and has drained 
the ground completely. The ground was worked several 
years ago and was a good producer, but has been filled so 
long with wat.er that the sides of the drifts are mud cov- 
ered and the extent of the ore cannot be determined. De- 
velopment work will now be done. rThe new .mill on the 

Norment lease is. completed and ready for pperatipn. The 
plant is a 10,0-ton structure. The, only drawback is the lack 
of, water for running the mill. , This is to be supplied from 
the old shaft and drifts of the Ready Money mine adjoining. 
A pump has been .installed for this purpose. , 

Joplin, January 9. - , , 

NEVADA. 

> . ., HUMBOLDT COUNTY. : 

The Cleghorn-Duke lease on the estate of the Seven 
Troughs Signal Peak Mining Co. is to be equipped with 
a full outfit ! bf machinery and an extensive campaign of 




The Advantages of Rapid Transportation. 

development is to be started. The equipment has arrived 
in Lovelock and is now being hauled out to the property. 
A 1400-ft. adit is to be started. John Cleghorn is general 

manager. Good headway is being made in the sinking 

from the 200-ft. point to a depth of 400 ft. of the shaft on 
the property of the Monnette M. & M. Co., which lies just 
north of the estate of the Seven Troughs Mining Co. Sink- 
ing was resumed about a month ago and the shaft is now 
down to the 290-ft. point. It is expected that the 400-ft. 
point will be gained within the next 60 days, when a cross- 
cut will' be" started to the west to strike the two big veins 
which have been opened up west of the shaft on the 200-ft. 
level. — ^The foundations for the Samuel Hains custom mill 
have been completed and the erection of the building 
started. Several carloads of machinery have arrived at 
Lovelock. C. S. Floyd, of Mazuma, is looking after the 

construction work. Julius Lesher, of Oakland, will, it is 

reported, build a $14,000 hotel at Mazuma. Stoping was 

begun last week on the rich shoot of ore that has been 
opened up in the north drift on the 200-ft. level in the 
famous Harris lease of the Seven Troughs Florence Mining 
& Leasing Co., on the property of the Seven Troughs Mining 
Co., preparatory to a test run of ore at the Kindergarten 
mill of the Seven Troughs Coalition Mining Company. 



LINCOLN COUNTY. 

The Copper King property, nine miles north of Search- 
light, owned by Peck & Pauff, will be equipped with new 
machinery and extensive development started. There is 

already a shaft down 65 ft. and an adit 50 ft. long. A 

new company, called the Lenape Gold & Copper Mining Co., 
has been incorporated under the laws of Delaware to work 
the Copperopolis group, directly south of the Philadelphia: 
Searchlight. J. Frank Allee, of Delaware, is president, and 
other officers are members of the directorate of Lawson's 
Bay State Gas. William B. Spitall promoted the deal and 
is authority for the statement that the machinery will be 
purchased and operations started in February. 

, , ii w -NYE: 430UNTY,, , . ■ ,-j 

The output of the Bullfrog district for 1908 is estimated 
to be $910,480, of which the Montgomery Shoshone pro- 
duced $685,763. Vandajs attempted to destroy the ore- 
bins at the Mizpah shaft of the Tonopah Mining Co. Thurs- 
day of last week. Two charges of dynamite were exploded 
on the foundations, but failed to do any material damage. 

The motive of the perpetrators is not known.- The mines 

of Tonopah produced during the year 1908 a total of 286,926 
tons of ore, estimated to be worth $7,433,585 (figuring the 
milling ore at $25 per ton and the ore sent to smelters at 
$60 per ton"). Of this total production the Tonopah Mining 
Co. produced more than half, or 169,090 tons. -The pro- 
duction of the mines of Tonopah for the week ending Jan- 
uary 9 amounted to 5518 tons, of an estimated value of 
$137,950. 

STOREY COUNTY. 

(Special Correspondence). — The Comstock lode is pro-, 
ducing at the rate of $20,000 per week, of which fully 
$16,000 is coming from the Ophir mine.. Most of the rest 

comes from the Consolidated Virginia, At the Ophir ore 

is being extracted from the 2100, 2200, and 2300-ft. levels. 
The Ophir shaft is being repaired below the 1465-ft. point. 
On the 2300-ft. level the northeast and southwest drifts are 
progressing satisfactorily.— — Ore running $41.31 per ton 
is being taken from the 2150-ft. level in Consolidated, Vir- 
ginia. Some repairing and development work is going on 
at different points. — : — Considerable low T grade ore is being 
developed in the Savage and is being stored on the second- 
class dump. The average content is about $4 per ton. It 

is coming from the Comstock Tunnel level. Tie 1200-ft. 

level is being opened up at the Yellow Jacket and the sur- 
face tunnel is being repaired. The mill is running on fair. 

grade ore from the Crown Point mine. jOn the 100 and 

200-ft. levels of Silver Hill some fair-grade ore is being 
opened up and considerable development work is under 
way. The lease on the Chollar croppings paid the com- 
pany $620 in royalties during November. A larger air- 
compressor and about 350 ft. of larger pipe has been placed 
on the 2475-ft. level of the Ward shaft to furnish a greater 
supply of air to the electric pumps. Several repairs to 
the shaft have been made during the past few days. Owing 
to irregularity of the electric power supply, mainly due to 
storms and the blocking of -the Truckee river by ice, re- 
sumption of sinking has been deferred. Rumors of a rich 

strike in the Confidence and of important discoveries at 
other properties are freely circulated here, but have not 

yet been officially confirmed/ At the present time the 

Comstock presents more scenes of animation than has pre- 
vailed for many years, due principally to the successful un, 
watering of the Ward shaft. 

Virginia City, January 9. 

WASHINGTON 

, FERRY COUNTY. 

The King Mountain M. & M. Co., of Spokane, operating 
claims on the State road near Boyds, is receiving a com- 
plete new outfit for the property. The company will resume 
operations at once with a force of 15 for the mines, together 
with a cooking outfit and a gang of men to make a road 
from the property to the State road, a distance of two miles. 
S. 'S. Bailey is president and general manager. The 



Januarv 10, 19011. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



103 



.Michigan Gold M. & M. Co., a close corporation, has pur- 
chased from Spokane men three claims, an extension of the 
First Thought mine, in the Orient district, for $30,000. The 
claims are known as the Climax, Moonlight, and Plutonic, 
and are on the extension of the famous First Thought lead. 
The property was purchased by capitalists of Michigan and 
Rosalia, there being 14 people In the corporation. No stock 
will be disposed of by the new company, which now has 
$15,000 deposited In a bank in Spokane to carry on develop- 
ment work. The property was sold by M. B. Grieve, John 
Argall, Frank Weatherwax, and William Moore, of Spokane. 
The company has ordered machinery to carry on its develop- 
ment work. This includes an air-compressor and two drills. 
An adit will be started as soon as the machinery is on hand, 
and will he run to strike the main lead, which is expected 
to be reached In about 200 ft. The company is planning to 
start work within 60 days. 

CANADA. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Phoenix, in the Boundary district, made a record for ore 
tonnage in 1908, despite the curtailed activity in develop- 
ment. This has been due to improved shipping facilities and 
increased tonnages from the Granby. Boundary mines 
shipped more than 1,500,000 tons of ore in 1908, as com- 
pared with 1,148,237 tons In 1907, and 1,161,537 tons in 1906, 
practically all of which was treated at Boundary smelters. 
Economy In mining methods now is shown in the fact that 
Phoenix mines, just before the slump in copper, were em- 
ploying 1000 men and shipping between 90,000 and 100,000 
tons of ore per month, while today from 750 to 800 men are 
employed in the camp and the tonnages are greater. Phoe- 
nix is the great copper camp of Canada, by reason of having 
the largest output of copper ore, and the Granby is the big 
producer, the other companies being the Consolidated Min- 
ing & Smelting Co. and the Dominion Copper Co. Total 
shipments from the Granby mines were 1,056,000 tons, as 
compared with 613,537 tons in 1907, and 801,404 tons in 1906. 
The smelter treated more than 1,000,000 tons last year, as 
compared with 637,626 tons in 1907 and 828,879 tons in 1906. 
The shipments from the Dominion copper mines, shipping 
to the Boundary Falls smelter, last year were as follows: 
Brooklyn, 5780; Rawhide, 10,740; Sunset, 3802; Mountain 
Rose, 530; Athelstan, 120. The smelter treated 22,666 tons. 
The Snowshoe mine of the Consolidated company, which 
resumed operations in August, is shipping 600 tons of ore 
daily. The greater part goes to the company's smelter at 
Trail and the rest to Greenwood smelter. Since resumption 
the Snowshoe has shipped 48,826 tons. The B. C. Copper 
Co. is the second big copper producer in the Boundary, and 
since resuming last June has been conspicuously successful 
in its operations. Mother Lode mine is the big shipper 
of this company, and now runs close to 2000 tons daily. 
Since resumption in June it has shipped 321,899 tons of ore 
to the company's smelter. The other mine is the Oro De- 
noro. three miles from Phoenix, which shipped 66,800 tons 
in the seven months. The company also owns the Lone 
Star and Napoleon mines, in Washington. The latter is 
shipping 100 tons daily. The B. C. Copper Co.'s smelter at 
Greenwood has had a successful seven months' run, the 
furnaces consuming 400,000 tons of ore. Other mines in the 
Boundary contributing ore shipments during 1908 are the 
Sally, 108 tons, and the Crescent, 53 tons, both high-grade 
properties. One car of 21 tons from the Sally mine netted 
$3175 after paying all shipping and smelter expenses. 

MEXICO. 

OAXACA. 

(Special Correspondence). — El Parian station, 60 kilo- 
metres north of Oaxaca, is the centre for a mining district 
of importance, there being some present activity. The Rio 
Seco, in charge of E. Chisholm, is preparing to erect a 10- 
stamp mill, with concentrating tables and cyanide vats. On 
this group are several parallel veins cutting through gneiss 
and schist, the ore. being a gold-bearing quartz, having oxi- 
dized iron near the surface and iron sulphide at greater 
depth. There is 2200 ft. of development on one of the veins. 



It is claimed the oxidized ore will average (*'," per ton, 
and that the sulphide ore will run 22 gm. gold In one vein, 
and 1S5 gm. in another vein. F. T. De Votie is president of 

the company. The Santa Sofia M. Co. has a mine close to 

Caterlna station, on the eastern slope of the Sierra Juarez. 
It is owned by two Boston men and is managed by Place & 
Elton of Oaxaca; the latter state that they have ore blocked 
out of the value of P200,000, that the ore carries free gold 
which occurs as an impregnation along the fracture planes 
of the country rock, which Is gneiss. Associated with the 
ore Is an iron sulphide. The mine is opened by adit levels. 
The plan is to erect a mill on the property this year. The 
proposed plant will probably have a crusher, rolls. Hunting- 
ton mills, amalgamating plates, concentrating tables, and 
cyanidlng vats. It is said the unsorted ore of the mine will 

average one ounce of gold per ton. The Santa Caterina 

adjoins the Santa Sofia and is developed by 2000 ft. of work. 
It has a 5-stamp mill in operation, the extraction being 
effected by amalgamation, concentration, and cyanide treat- 
ment. Arthur Buttner is superintendent. The Socorro, 

near Parian, is developed by a 200-ft. shaft and 1000 ft. of 
lateral work. The ore contains free gold that assays P10 
to PlOO per ton, and to treat it a 10-stamp mill is being 

erected, John A. Morris of Oaxaca being manager. The 

San Martin, controlled by Frank M. Leonard and associates, 
is situated 35 miles south of Oaxaca, on the Oaxaca & Ejutta 
railroad. In the course of development It is shipping ore 
that brings in. 1*5000 per month. The principal vein cuts 
through the diorite, and is S to 25 ft. wide. - The ore con- 
tains silica 85%, copper 1, lead 2, zinc 2, iron 6, sulphur 7%. 
The shipping ore averages 80 gm. gold and 4 kg. silver per 
ton. The silver is mostly argentite, and the gold associated 
with it. There is said to be some sylvanite in the mine. 

The work is carried on through a 300-ft. shaft. The Na- 

tividad, situated near the San Martin, is owned and oper- 
ated by Manuel Mimiaga of Oaxaca. He operates a 20-stamp 
mill, having amalgamating plates and pans, handling 50 
tons per day. It is reported that equipment will be installed 

for cyaniding the tailing. Los Ocotes mine, south from 

the San Martin, belongs to the Tezuitlan Copper Co., the 
development being in charge of Thos. Skewes Saunders. 
In the course of the development, however, a large tonnage 
of copper ore has been shipped to that company's smelter 
at Tezuitlan, in the State of Puebla. The Ocotes is opened 
through a vertical shaft 650 ft. deep, with much driving on 
the vein. It is reported that the workings expose 200,000 
tons of ore in the mine, running 5% copper and 200 gm. 
silver per ton. The equipment includes a steam-hoist, air- 
compressor, and a generator for electric light. The Co- 

nejo Blanco, in Taviche district, is in charge of Fred Whit- 
taker. It has a vein of great width, which assays well in 
silver and gold. It strikes through an andesite country and 
has a quartz gangue. It is said to be under bond to an Eng-» 
lish company. The San Francisco, in the same district, is 
owned by the Tehauntepec Silver Mines Co,, represented by 
Judd Bros, of Mexico City. On the property are several 
veins, 4 to 10 ft. wide, with high-grade silver ore. Some 
shipments of hand-sorted ore have been made, but only 
development is now being done. The property is managed 
by E. J. Bumsted, and it is reported that a mill may be 
erected. It is owned by Juan Baights of Oaxaca, who ships, 
regularly a sorted ore that assays 3 kg. of silver and 45 gm. 
gold per ton. The Escuadora is opened by a 40G>ft. cross- 
cut to the vein, on which there is 2000 ft. of development on 
one level. The ore is highly silicious, carries ruby silver, 
argentite, and some gold. The mine has been a producer for 
10 years and is shipping now a small tonnage daily. It is 
owned in Oaxaca, and is in charge of Santiago Guzman.— — 
The Oaxaca smelting plant is now in control of the Boston 
bondholders of the original company. It has one furnace 
for lead, and one for copper smelting, and is a well built 
plant. It is thought arrangements will be made to start it 
within a year. The Magdalena smelter, built for lead ores 
of the Magdalena mines in the Tlacolula valley, is under 
a receivership, the creditors being the Consolidated Metals 
Co. of Mexico City, having liens also covering the mines. 



106 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



Special Correspondence. 



WASHINGTON. 

American Association for Advancement of Science. — Quartz Gene- 
rated at Different Temperatures. — Geological Progress Meeting. 
— Study of Simple Sulphides. 

Last week the centre of local interest was in Baltimore. 
At the meeting of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, the Geological Society of America, 
and various affiliated organizations, approximately 1500 
scentific men assembled. Johns Hopkins University, most 
appropriately was the principal host, but the societies were 
scattered over the whole city, and many guests were enter- 
tained in Washington. The meeting was notable for geolo- 
gists especially. With Thomas C. Chamberlin as presi- 
dent of the association, J. P. Iddings, the retiring, and 
Bailey Willis, the presiding vice president of Section E, 
and Samuel Calvin, the president of the Geological Society, 
a good meeting was assured. A long list of papers was read. 
The principal feature of the meeting was a symposium on 
correlation, participated in by Messrs. Van Hise, Adams, 
Walcott, Grabau, Weller, Girty, White, Williston, Osborn, 
Stanton, Dall, Arnold, Knowlton, Salisbury, MacDougal, and 
Chamberlin. This is the first time a comprehensive dis- 
cussion of this subject has taken place since the 1891 meet- 
ing of the International Congress at Washington, and the 
papers presented served to show the greater growth of 
knowledge in the intervening time, while the great gaps 
were also brought out. 

Papers on economic geology were not much in evidence, 
though J. T. Singewald, Jr., presented a brief summary of 
the results of an investigation of Maryland iron ores car- 
ried on last season for the Maryland Geological Survey. 
F. E. Wright and E. S. Larsen, under the title, 'Quartz as 
a Geologic Thermometer,' presented results likely to be of 
large use in a study of ore deposits. In brief, they said: 

"Observations by Le Chatelier and Mallard in 1S89-1S90 
proved that at about 570° quartz crystals undergo a re- 
versible change, the expansion-coefficient, bi-refringence, and 
circular polarization all changing abruptly. O. Miigge 
(Neues Jahrouch, Festband, 1907, 181-196) has recently 
considered the problem again in detail, and by means of 
etch figures, combined with crystallographic behavior on 
heating, found that below the inversion point quartz crys- 
tallizes in the trapezohedral-tetartohedral division of the 
hexagonal system, while above 570° it is trapezohedral- 
hemihedral. The high form is similar to the low form, and 
differs chiefly in the fact of its common planes of sym- 
metry. A plate formed above 570° is trapezohedral-hemi- 
hedral, but on cooling it changes to the trapezohedral- 
tetartohedral division, thereby losing its common planes of 
symmetry, which may then become twinning planes. It is 
to be expected, therefore, that quartz crystals thus cooled 
will be irregularly and intricately twinned after (1010.), 
while low temperature quartzes are simple or regularly 
twinned. It is furthermore evident, on considering the 
genesis of quartz at different temperatures, that inter- 
growths of right and left-handed quartz are limited chiefly 
to quartz crystals formed below 570°. These two criteria can 
be used to distinguish quartz which has been formed or 
heated above 570° from quartz which has never reached that 
temperature. The object of the present investigation has 
been to test the general validity of the theoretical conclu- 
sions on a number of quartzes from different kinds of rocks 
and veins, as well as to determine more accurately the in- 
version temperature." 

Californians will be interested in the election of David 
Starr Jordan to the presidency of the Association, and the 
authorization given the council to arrange for a summer 
meeting in 1910 in Hawaii, if conditions prove favorable. 
A hearty invitation had been extended by Hawaii, a general 
committee haying been formed, representing all the com- 
mercial, industrial, social, educational, and scientific in- 



stitutions, with the Governor as chairman. The committee 
gave definite assurance of adequate halls, excellent hotel 
accommodations, and hospitable entertainment. The win- 
ter meeting is to be held in Boston. 

Following the Baltimore meeting a conference was held 
at the Cosmos Club at Washington regarding the present 
progress of geology in America. It was called by George 
Otis Smith, of the Geological Survey, and included repre- 
sentatives of the Federal, Canadian, and several State sur- 
veys, and of various museums and universities. It is un- 
derstood that the discussions were quite informal, and very 
frank. It is expected that much closer co-operation will re- 
sult. Another evidence of a change at Washington is seen 
in the estimates of the Geological Survey made public Janu- 
ary 1, of the production of copper, spelter, and lead in 1908. 
There was never any good reason why the Survey, rather 
than private individuals, should not compile these returns, 
which, of course, come from the various smelters. It had, 
however, never been done before. Waldemar Lindgren and 
E. W. Parker are to be congratulated, and it is hoped that 
figures for other materials may next year be given. It de- 
velops now that the damage from the fire a few weeks ago 
in the Survey building is less than was estimated. Con- 
gress is to make good the loss. Whether it will at the 
same time appropriate money for the needed fire-proof 
building is less certain. 

The geo-physists at the Carnegie Institution have taken 
up seriously the study of the simple sulphides. In view 
of the interesting results obtained from synthetical studies 
of the feldspars, and the great importance of the sulphides 
in ore deposition, mining engineers will doubtless welcome 
the news. Another piece of research, about to be under- 
taken, is a special study of calorimeters, which the Bureau 
of Standards is planning. This excellent institution is 
doing a large amount of good work which is too often over- 
looked. There are many problems relating to mining and 
metallurgy which it would doubtless be glad to study if the 
matter were properly brought to its attention. 



LONDON. 

Coal in Kent. — Messina Copper Mine. — Frecheville's Report. — 
Champion Reef. — Electrical Engineers. 

Your readers probably hear vague news every now and 
then relating to the coal measures that are being exploited 
on the coast of Kent, close to Dover. There is a common 
supposition that the coal found here does not belong to the 
Carboniferous period, but that it is some more recent forma- 
tion, such as lignite. The reason for this prevalent idea is 
that the workings are situated in a portion of England 
where the country consists of recent formations. In addi- 
tion, not far away, ironstone and lignite used to be worked 
in the Wealden series from time immemorial. These ideas 
are quite erroneous, for the seams are portions of the true 
coal measures, and lie under the Cretaceous and other Secon- 
dary formations. They are found at considerable depth, and, 
judging from borings, they occupy a small basin perhaps 
20 miles long and 5 miles broad. They have been traced 
under the English Channel, and it is probable that they are 
continuous with the coalfields in the north of France. It 
may be asked, why should these coal measures of problem- 
atical existence and at so great a depth through watery 
strata be so actively exploited. The answer is that the 
exploration was originally undertaken by Mr. Godwin Aus- 
ten, a land-owner in Sussex, who was also a geologist. He 
was impressed with the theory that the French coal meas- 
ures extended under the Channel and would be found in the 
southeast of England. His efforts were not crowned with 
success, for none of his borings ever passed below the Sec- 
ondary strata. Some twenty years ago the subject was re- 
vived by Professor Boyd Dawkins, who encouraged Sir Ed- 
ward Watkin, chairman of the South Eastern Railway, to 
utilize the abandoned Channel Tunnel works for the pur- 
pose. Sir Edward, seeing possible profit to his railway in 
the possession of a coalfield, supported the scheme and 
raised some capital. It is not necessary here to trace the 



January 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



107 



financial vicissitudes that overtook the venture after Sir 
Edward's death. Suffice it to say that two years ago an 
influential financial bouse pulled the scheme out of the 
mire, and the present board of directors includes a number 
of well known names in the coal world; for example, there 
are two of the directors of the Powell-Duffryn, which enjoys 
the reputation of being the most up-to-date colliery in Wales. 
At the present time the finances of the company are once 
more being put straight by the issue of new preference 
shares. The sinkings are on the seashore under the Shake- 
speare cliff, between Dover and Folkestone, and adjoining 
the line of the South Eastern railway between these two 
towns. There are two shafts, the first of which cut a coal 
seam at 1273 ft., and has passed through five others, the 
sixth being at a depth of 1614 ft. Bore-holes driven below 
this depth have intersected four other seams, the lowest 
being at 2221 ft. The other shaft is not down to the coal 
measures yet, and will be eventually used for hauling pur- 
poses. Driving has been done at the 1273-ft. level and some 
of the coal brought to the surface. It is a friable bitumin- 
ous coal. The seams are mostly thin ones, being from 1 ft. 
to 2 ft. 9 in., with the exception of that at 2221 ft., which is 
4 ft. thick. The intention of the company is to sink at once 
to this seam. Both of the shafts are circular, the first being 
14 ft. diam., and the second IS ft. They are tubbed with 
iron casing and concrete backing, the first shaft to 1600 ft., 
and the second as far as it has been sunk. Below 1600 ft. 
the first shaft is lined with brick and cement. Whether the 
venture will ultimately succeed or not remains to be seen. 
All that I can say is that the present board will make it a 
success if anybody can. A notice of this subject is not com- 
plete without reference to another company, which is also 
working on the coal problem near Dover, at Waldershare, 
Tilmanstone, and elsewhere, — but, as Kipling says, that is 
another story. 

A year ago I wrote about the Champion Reef mine, at 
Kolar, India, and mentioned how this famous gold-producer 
had fallen off during the last year or two. Since then the 
exploration work has brought no bright ray of hope in the 
way of new discoveries of ore. For years the average con- 
tent of the ore treated was well over an ounce per ton. 
Now they have fallen to 13 dwt. In addition, the amount 
of ore treated has been decreased and the ore reserves have 
been depleted. During the year ending in September, 172,- 
006 tons of ore yielding 10.8 dwt. per ton and 231,101 tons 
of tailing yielding 2.5 dwt. per ton were treated, and the 
total production was 122,562 oz. bullion, which realized 
£466,172. Three years ago, when the mine was at the height 
of its glory, 215,167 tons of ore and 177,000 tons of tailing 
yielded 216,802 oz. bullion, realizing £825,263. It has not 
been possible to reduce the costs of operation to make up 
for the decreased value of the ore, so that the working 
profits have been greatly reduced. During the past year 
the profits were £143,938, out of which £52,000 was distrib- 
uted as dividends and £65,000 written off capital expendi- 
ture incurred ill sinking new shafts and erecting new plant. 
The dividend looks small, compared with the £416,000 dis- 
tributed three years ago. The prospects of the Champion 
Reef mine do not look hopeful at present, but it need hardly 
be said that John Taylor & Sons, the managers, are not the 
people to be easily discouraged. 

The Institution of Electrical Engineers has just acquired a 
handsome building on the Thames embankment for its per- 
manent home. American visitors to London will probably 
remember the solid looking red brick building standing 
between the Savoy Hotel and Waterloo bridge. Its uses were 
never well known to the tourist or visitor, or for that matter 
to the Londoner himself. It belonged to the Colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons conjointly, and was chiefly used as 
an examination hall. In future it will become better known 
to engineers. The Institution of Electrical Engineers has 
hitherto been content with a suite of offices on Victoria 
St., Westminster; these have become far too cramped for 
the growing body with its membership of over 6000, and it 
is now following the lead of the two older institutions, the 
Civil and Mechanical Engineers, in securing adequate 



accommodation in a building of its own. The Institution 
of Civil Engineers has been domiciled on Great George St. 
for many years, and not long ago re-built its premises in a 
handsome style. The members of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers who visited this country two years ago 
will remember the building, as their joint meeting with that 
of the Iron & Steel Institute was held there. Unfortunately 
this building is to disappear before long, or to change hands, 
as the adjoining Government offices require the site for their 
own purposes. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers 
erected a building for themselves ten or more years ago, not 
far away, overlooking St. James Park. The Institution of 
Electrical Engineers was founded in 1S70 as the Society of 
Telegraph Engineers, and William Siemens was the first 
president. Electricity was an unimportant affair in those 
days, and at the end of the first year the membership only 
numbered 110. By 1S78 the numbers had grown to 1000. 
In 1881 the name of the Society was changed to the Society 
of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians, a change which 
was rendered necessary by the introduction of telephones, 
arc lights, and dynamos. Its present title was adopted in 
18S9. The list of presidents is a distinguished one, includ- 
ing as it does the names of Kelvin, Hopkinson, Swan, 
Crookes, Sylvanus Thompson. The Institution in its new 
home will continue to expand and flourish. One of these 
days, when the various English societies dealing with min- 
ing and metallurgy are amalgamated, as they should be, the 
mining interests of Great Britain will be represented by a 
strong institution with a handsome home of its own. 

Some months ago, when writing of the development of 
copper deposits in South Africa, I mentioned the Messina 
mine in the northern Transvaal and promised to give some 
information about it at an early date. The present time is 
opportune for doing so, as R. J. Frecheville has just re- 
turned from making an examination. His views and opin- 
ions are of great interest. Briefly, he says that though the 
mine is extensive and the ore rich, it will prove unprofitable 
to work until there is better railway communication and a 
smelter on the spot. The Messina mine is situated 130 
miles north of Pietersburg, which is at present the northern 
terminus of the Central South African railway. The com- 
pany owning the mine, called the Messina Transvaal De- 
velopment Co., of London, under the control of Chaplin, 
Milne, Grenfell & Co., is urging the Transvaal government 
to continue the line from Pietersburg to Messina, and 
thence forward another 100 miles to West Nicholson, where 
it would join the Rhodesia railway. For the last two years 
the ore has been hand-picked and mechanically concen- 
trated, yielding 120 tons of concentrate per month averag- 
ing 60% copper. This is shipped to England. A year ago 
with copper at £100 per ton a profit was made, but now- 
adays, when it is down to £60, even this rich ore cannot 
stand the cost of transport. Mr. Frecheville recommends 
that operations be suspended until a railway is built, and 
that the company provide £100,000 properly to equip the 
mine and build a smelting and converting plant. The ore 
deposit is interesting and has been worked along the sur- 
face for quite five miles at various places by pre-historic 
metallurgists. The formation consists of gneiss and granite 
traversed by basic dikes. The ore is found in veins occupy- 
ing fractures along a zone of shearing and crushing. The 
width of the mineralized belt is from 500 to 1000 ft. The 
lodes vary from 2 to 10 ft. in width. At the point where 
most development has been done, the old workings extend 
to 50 ft. below the surface. Further development by the 
present company has gone down to 300 ft. and has shown 
the existence of five defined lodes, nearly parallel, over a 
width of 600 ft. The orebodies are of irregular shape and 
consist of stringers, leaders, and bunches of chalcocite, 
bornite, and chalcopyrite in a gangue of crushed country 
rock with some quartz. From the beginning of operations 
up to the end of last September, 12,543 tons averaging 17.7% 
copper has been extracted from the mine, and from this 
2541 tons averaging 60% copper has been sorted out and 
shipped. Some of the tailing has been stacked for future 
treatment, also some middling, and further supplies of low- 



108 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



grade ore have also been placed on the dump. A concen- 
trating plant to treat 50 tons per day was started in the 
summer, and during July, August, and September, this pro- 
duced 344 tons of concentrate, averaging 59.5%, from 3441 
tons ot 10% ore. This is an extraction o£ only 60% of the 
copper content, but if it was not necessary to make so high 
a grade of concentrate, the extraction could be greatly in- 
creased. Mr. Frecheville estimates that the developed ore 
reserves are about 50,000 tons of 15% copper and he con- 
siders that there is every encouragement to expect further 
developments in depth and also laterally. He points out 
that the chalcocite and bornite are probably surface en- 
richments and will turn to chaleopyrite in depth, though 
there is no indication of this change so far as the workings 
have gone up to the present time. He is strongly of opinion 
that the rich ore should not be wasted in the present un- 
profitable manner, but should be conserved until such a time 
when it can be treated at a profit; therefore his recom- 
mendation to wait for railway communication, and in the 
meantime to develop the mine and erect smelting plant. 

The Sulphide Corporation, which owns the Central mine 
at Broken Hill, with smelting works at Cockle Creek, is now 
getting better results, the new mill erected over a year ago 
being operated more efficiently. During the first six months 
of the ^present year, 100,943 tons were treated, yielding 
18,591 tons of lead concentrate and 32,312 tons of zinc 
concentrate. The assay of the lead concentrate was 33'/, oz. 
silver and 61.2% lead and the extraction was 45% and 70.5% 
respectively. During the second half of 1907 the extraction 
was only 42.5% and 66.8%. The duty of the plant has been 
still further increased, for during the 20 weeks from July 
to November, 1908, the extractions have been increased to 
47.2% and 76%. The zinc concentrate produced during the 
first six months of the present year averaged 40.9% zinc, 
12.5% lead, and 17.8 oz. silver and the extractions were 
74.7% of the zinc and 72.3% of the silver. This is a con- 
siderable improvement over the previous half-year, when 
the extraction of zinc was 69,4% and the silver 61.8%. The 
extractions have been further improved, and during the 20 
weeks specified the extractions have been 85% and 76.5% 
respectively. In addition to the above production, which all 
came from mine ore, 54,254 tons of zinc tailing from old 
dumps were treated during the first six months of 1908, 
and 19,545 tons of zinc concentrate was produced, averaging 
14.4 oz. silver, 10.4% lead, and 44.2% zinc, the. extractions 
being 79.6% of the zinc and 71.9% of the silver. Since then 
the. extraction has risen to 82.3% of the zinc and 76.6% of 
the silv»r. The financial results for the year ending in 
June have been unfavorable, owing to the fall in the price 
of metals, and, the net profit was only £8549. As there was 
a, balance of £79,242 brought forward from the previous 
year, the directors have been able to pay £55,000 as 10% 
dividend on the preference shares. The ordinary shares get 
nothing. It is not quite clear how the company will be 
effected by the recent judgment against the Ballot-Sulman- 
Picard flotation process, which is used by this company for 
producing zinc concentrate. 



high mark of production was achieved in 1906 when the 
Butte mines produced 342,688,809 lb. of copper. The fol- 
lowing table shows the total copper production in pounds 
of the various companies during 1908, compared with the 
production of 1907: 



Companies. 1907. 

Boston & Montana 63,053,655 

Anaconda 64,154,636 

Butte & Boston 9,209,650 

Washoe 6,438,420 

Parrot 5,403,010 

Trenton 6,794,475 

North Butte 29,534,240 

Butte Coalition 24,971,800 

Original 17,296,940 

Pittsburg & Montana 4,785,090 

East Butte., 3,965,480 

La France 2,168,975 

Miscellaneous 3,111,145 



1908. 

77,010,800 

67,064,000 

10,349,640 

8,569,170 

6,281,080 

6,229,940 

38,526,480 

21,488,580 

24,936,700 

4,295,100 



4,414,150 



BUTTE. MONTANA. 

Copper Output in 1908. — Mine Ventilation. — The Snowstorm. — 
Raven. — Calumet-Corbin. 

During'the calendar year of 1908 the Butte mines pro- 
duced 269,165,640 lb. copper, an increase of 20,278,124 lb. 
over 1907. The height of the financial panic and depression 
in the copper industry was reached in the latter end of 
1907, and many of the Butte mines were closed and re- 
mained so until March 1, 1908, after which operations were 
gradually resumed. About June 1, when the industry in 
Montana was again demoralized by tremendous floods which 
did damage to railroads, mines, and smelters, and so crip- 
pled the smelter of the Boston & Montana Co. at Great 
Falls that it was not repaired and restored to full opera- 
tion until about November 1. Prior to that date the Boston 
& Montana Co. mined a limited amount of ore and shipped 
to the Washoe smelter at Anaconda for treatment. The 



Totals 240,887,516 269,165,640 

The problem of mine ventilation in the Butte district has 
for years been a serious one, and although it has been agi- 
tated in the press and by the miners, the State has not yet 
adopted a law making the introduction of proper, systems 
of ventilation compulsory. Whatever has been done in the 
way of improving conditions has been done through neces- 
sity in mining operations and not directly for the benefit 
of the miners. Some of the mines in Butte are insuffer- 
ably hot, and only the lower grade of foreign labor can 
be induced -to work in such places. The State mining in- 
spector urges a law compelling companies to sink inde- 
pendent shafts for air, separate for each mine. Ventila- 
tion in the mines of the Amalgamated has been greatly 
improved by a system of drainage tunnels through which 
the water from the mines is drained to a central pumping 
station, avoiding the necessity of pumping plants in the 
different mines, and thereby reducing the temperature. At 
the Leonard mine a new development shaft is being sunk; 
as soon as connections were made at the 1500-ft. level with 
the other workings the temperature of the mine was re- 
duced 20°. Similar, results followed a connection with an 
air-shaft of the Pennsylvania mine at the 1200-ft. level. 
The question is again being discussed in the Montana legis- 
lature. 

According to the annual report of the Butte Mining Stock 
Exchange, the only dividend-paying stock traded in on the 
exchange is that of the Snowstorm Mining Co. Not another 
stock is even within hoping distance of dividends. The 
Snowstorm has just declared another monthly dividend of 
3c. per share. It is the fourth monthly dividend paid since 
the company resumed after a long suspension of operations 
during the financial depression. The company is shipping 
between 600 and 700 tons of ore per day, the cost of mining 
and delivery at the railroad not exceeding $1.40 per ton. 
Its return on shipments during December and January have 
been from 8 to 10% copper, with about 6 oz. silver per ton. 
A number of diamond-drill tests have been made, and the 
big insiders have been buying tock on the market, paying 
as high as $2.35 per share for it. 

The Raven Mining Co., which is engaged in sinking a 
shaft, is cutting a station at the 1300-ft. point. The shaft 
is an incline, and the bottom has a vertical depth of 1100 
ft. The lowest level is at 1100 ft., but a winze 100 ft. deep 
has been sunk from that level. The shaft will be sunk to 
1600 ft. and another cross-cut driven to the veins. 

The Calumet-Corbin Mining Co. has been incorporated 
under the laws of Michigan by Butte and Michigan men 
for the purpose of taking over and operating the old Min- 
nesota mine in the Wickes-Corbin district. The company 
is capitalized for $1,500,000, divided into 150,000 shares of 
the par value of $10 per share. Twenty-five years ago the 
Minnesota produced considerable silver, lead, and gold. It 
is opened to a depth of 300 ft., where the ore shoot is 500 
ft. long and from 2 to 5 ft. wide. The company has started 
to sink a two-compartment shaft. 



Januarv 10. li»()9. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



Ul'i 



JOPLIN, MISSOURI. 

Production of lead 6 Zinc in 1908. — Extensive Deve/opmenf. — 
Kansas Field.— Great Orebodies in Oklahoma. 

The lead and zinc fields comprising the JopHn district, 
embracing a portion of three States, Missouri, Kansas, and 
Oklahoma, showed a small decrease in tonnage as com- 
pared with the year 1907, in both lead and zinc ores. The 
decrease in zinc ore was 27,000 tons, while the value of the 
zinc production for 1908 was $3,004,440 less than that of 
the production of 1907. The 1907 record for the output of 
lead ore was 2913 tons more than for 1908. The value of 
the ore for 1907 was $745,509 more than for 1908. The fol- 
lowing table shows the tonnage and value of both ores in 
the three States for the year 1908: 

Pounds Poun.ls Combined 

State. Zinc. Value. Lead. Value. Value. 

Missouri. 139. SS9.384 $7,625,370 67,771.722 $1,862,380 $ 9.487.746 

Kansas.. 57.803.725 1.009,203 6,996,087 195,928 1,205.131 

Oklah'ma 21,402,558 282,500 3.469,650 94.588 397.092 



519.095.667 $8,917,073 78.237,459 J2.152.S96 $11,069,969 

The average price of all grades of zinc ore for 1908 was 

$34.50 per ton, which was $9.2S less than the average price 

for 1907. The average price per ton for all grades of lead 

ore was $55.03, which fell below the 1907 record by $13.S6. 




Prospecting With a Drill Near loplin. 

From this it can be seen that zinc ore fell off 21%, while 
lead ore has fallen off 20%, from the prevailing prices of 
the previous year. During the same period the tonnage 
of zinc ore was decreased 9.4 and the tonnage of lead ore 
6.7%. During the latter part of the year a heavy increase 
in production from the 'sheet-ore' mines was noticed be- 
cause of the advance in the price of ore. These properties 
were idle during the period when zinc-ore sold below $38, 
but began activity as soon as the price reached $40. It was 
owing to this greater activity that the district was enabled 
to approach so closely the record for 1907. A number of 
mining centres increased their production for 1908, among 
which were Webb City, Carthage, Spring City, Sarcoxie, 
Carl Junction, and Zincite in Missouri, and Miami and 
Quapaw in Oklahoma. A notable feature of the increase in 
production was the greater tonnage of low-grade ore. The 
principal increase in Spring City and Sarcoxie was in sili- 
cate ore, while in the Oklahoma districts it was low-grade 
zinc-blende. In Miami the ores ran as low as 45% zinc, 
with an iron content of 6 to 12%. The increase in Carthage 
and Carl Junction was due to high-grade zinc-blende. Loss 
in tonnage was noticed in Alba, Joplin, and Duenweg in 
Missouri, and in Galena, Kansas. 

Missouri led in the production of both lead and zinc 
during the past year. A large addition of new mineralized 
territory was opened during the year, especially in the 



eastern portion of the field. A large amount of prospect- 
ing and development has been done at Sarcoxie and Carth- 
age, so that these two almost doubled their output during 
the year. The new territory extends the Sarcoxie belt east- 
ward to Wentworth and westward to Carthage. South- 
west of Sarcoxie during the latter part of 1907 a large 
amount of prospecting was done, demonstrating a great 
extent of ore-bearing territory. Development ceased with 
the panic, and it was not until the middle of the past year 
that active development was again begun. The most 
notable feature of interest at Carthage is the renewal of 
activity on the old Porter tract in the northwest portion 
of the city. Development has also extended across the 
river northwestward, where the largest production for this 
district was noted. These new properties are now well de- 
veloped and will be ready for new mills during the early 
part of the year. This territory was formerly considered 
outside the mineralized zone. Many drills have been at 
work at Alba and Neck City and these have found ore in 
all directions. Some of the best lead and zinc deposits of 
the district have been found here. Five miles south of 
Joplin lies Spring City, which largely increased its pro- 
duction during the year, and extended its territory through 
extensive prospecting and development. The district has 
been especially fortunate in its- large rich lead deposits 
recently opened. Five concentrating plants will be added 
here in the immediate future on prop- 
erties which produce high-grade lead 
and zinc. At the present time the 
principal production is zinc silicate. 
New developments have also been 
made at Granby and Seneca, still far- 
ther south. These will add a large 
tonnage to the output from the dis- 
trict in 1909. 

One of the most surprising in- 
creases during the year was the large 
production in the Webb-City-Carter- 
ville zone, which is the centre of the 
'sheet-ore' area. Most of the large 
mills in this belt were idle during 
the greater part of the year because 
they could not produce at a profit at 
the prevailing prices. For this rea- 
son a decrease in production was ex- 
pected, but during the latter part of 
the year, when ore passed the $40 
level, a number of the larger plants 
resumed operations, and when the 
statistics for the year were compiled 
it was found that the district had surpassed the 1907 record 
by 2000 tons. 

There was a decided decrease in production for the Kan- 
sas field during 1908, owing to the effect of the panic, but 
during this period a large amount of prospecting and de- 
velopment was done, extending the proved area in several 
directions. The principal addition to the Galena field was 
made by the Clermont Mining Co., south of the city, which 
has recently completed twenty drill-holes and has a number 
of shafts already well started on this virgin land. This 
company has added 500 acres to the productive mineral 
territory of Kansas. An important feature of the develop- 
ment has been the discovery of ore deposits at deep levels. 
North of the city an ore stratum was found lying between 
the 222 and 300-ft. levels. The ore-bearing rocks lie much 
deeper here than in the Joplin district. Extensive de- 
velopment is planned for the coming year in all these new 
fields. At Cave Springs an incline shaft is taking out ore 
at a deep level, the shaft being 440 ft. deep. The deep-ore 
levels have been demonstrated on about 120 acres north of 
Galena. In the Badger-Peacock district, lying north of 
Galena, the production fell off last year, but a considerable 
amount of development has been done extending the known 
mineral area. Two new plants have been added. 

The new lead and zinc fields of Oklahoma have made 
the greatest strides of any in the past year. The extension 



110 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



of the Miami field has been enormous. During the last 
three quarters of the year the production here was 6500 
tons of zinc-ore and more than 1000 tons of lead ore. There 
are at present nine concentrating plants actively at work 
here, while at least four others are being built, or will soon 
have let contracts for construction. The excessive richness 
of the ore so far opened is the explanation for the large 
production from so few mills. This ore runs from 10 to 
30%, greatly in excess of the 'sheet-ore' deposits in the Jop- 
lin and Webb City districts. 

The greatest difficulty in the new field has been the con- 
centration of the ores because of the oil and bitumen found 
In some strata , of the deposits. The difficulty in concen- 
tration decreased the grade of the concentrate, making it 
from 45 to 52% zinc, with an iron content ranging from 
6 to 12%. "When this ore, impregnated with oil and bitumen, 
was treated in the jigs it had a tendency to float off the 
fine in the overflow and to carry over the concentrate 
mixed with the bitumen and gravel into the tailing. Thus 
the tailing piles became rich in ore running from 6 to 20%, 
or richer than the original ore at many of the older mines. 
Much advance has been made in the milling practice by the 
later mills, and some of these now produce a concentrate 
running as high as 56%, with an iron content of only 2%. 
The loss in tailing has also been decreased. 



DAWSON, CANADA. 

Mild Winter. — Dominion Creek. — Method of Wording. — lost Pillars. 
— Quartz and Sulphur Creeks. 

Some of the mildest weather experienced in years has 
been the rule for the past month; this has had a tendency 
to retard winter work in some parts, but on the whole opera- 
tions are well under way. In traveling along the creeks, 
one sees here and there dumps gradually assuming consid- 
erable size; these bid fair to be up to the average of former 
years when the spring clean-up takes place. 

There is more work being done in the vicinity of Gran- 
ville, on the lower end of Dominion creek, than anywhere 
else in the Klondike. The creek at this point is half a mile 
wide, and pay is found from rim to rim. The gravel is 
known as White Channel, and consists chiefly of well 
washed quartz; there is so little other material in the 
gravel that the tailing gives one the idea of being entirely 
quartz. The gold lies on a false bottom composed of vari- 
ously colored clays; on this clay and for six. inches to one 
foot above, the gold is found. This deposit has a value of 
2% to 3 cents per pan, and the gravel that mustfnecessa- 
rily be removed is worth from $2.50 to J2.75 per cubic yard. 

The method of operation in this locality is distinctive, a 
shaft of the usual dimensions — 4 by 6 or 6 by 8 — is sunk to 
a depth of S ft. in the clay bottom, thus forming a sump 
below the general level of the pay-gravel ; this sump is filled 
with water, and is the source of supply for a pulsometer 
pump, placed slightly above the top of the water, which is 
kept warm by the steam necessary to run the pump. The 
water is delivered to the face of the drift, usually through 
canvas hose, where it is played against the frozen gravel, 
gradually thawing and caving the ground, in much the same 
way as similar work would be carried on above ground. 
When sufficient gravel has been caved and thawed, the 
pump is stopped, and men are put to work with pick and 
shovel; the gravel is then put into cars, run to the shaft, 
and there hoisted and piled in mounds at some convenient 
point on the surface to await the natural thawing of spring, 
when the gold will be extracted in the usual manner, 
namely, by sluicing. It is these mounds of dirt that we call 
'dumps'. The method just described is found particularly 
effective, for the reason that no steam is necessary in the 
drift, such as would cause continuous sloughing of the roof 
and the handling of quantities of waste; it is also found 
that it is an easy matter to keep the roof properly arched 
where it is necessary, as is frequently the case, because the 
fineness of the gravel and lack of moisture make this de- 
posit much more difficult to manage than the ordinary 
creek-gravels of this region. Practice has demonstrated 



that the gold extraction is clean, and the total cost of pro- 
duction is reduced to the lowest point yet attained in this 
district. 

At the upper end of Dominion creek, considerable winter 
work is under way, but not on as large a scale as at Gran- 
ville. Here are seen many small dumps, the work of one 
to three men, usually working with a hand-windlass. This 
kind of work is made necessary by the generally chopped- 
up condition of the creek. The claims have all been heavily 
worked in past seasons, so that the ground remaining that 
can be worked by the old method consists of pillars and bed- 
rock that has been carelessly cleaned. These pillars are 
usually rich, being in the middle of the pay-channel; they 
were left behind by former workers after they had served 
their purpose, and were surrounded by waste. Strange as 
it may seem, it is a rare thing to find a claim-owner that has 




Part of fne Yukon Territory, Canada. 

a positive knowledge of the position of such pillars; he only 
knows vaguely where they are, so that much money and 
time is frequently lost in finding such pieces of ground. A 
simple method of plotting each year's work when finished, 
would have been the means of saving money, time, and 
annoyance to most of the claim-owners of the camp. It 
would be well for those in the newer camps to adopt some 
such method, to avoid a repetition of this unsatisfactory 
state of affairs. Eldorado, Bonanza, and Hunker creeks are 
no exception to this failing, and the Yukon Gold Co. is 
going to reap the benefit; there is little doubt that these 
pillars will materially increase the value per cubic yard in 
all of the creek-bottoms that they control, beyond the esti- 
mate that they have placed upon them. 

Quartz creek at the upper end is also a busy place; many 
dumps are well under way, and good results can be relied 
on, when the spring wash-up takes place. Sulphur creek 
is also hard at it, and some particularly good dirt is being 
hoisted on claims numbering in the forties Below Discovery. 
A fair amount of prospecting work is going on, at the lower 
end of this creek, with encouraging results. Reports are 
in circulation regarding districts that are farther away, but 



January 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



111 



It Is too soon to form any opinion of their worth. Hag- 
gard creek is suppose J to be doing well; this is a tributary 
of the McQueBten river and bids fair to become a producer 
Of lmportanci >ture. General business Is good. 



TORONTO, CANADA. 

Farcical Enforcement of Hnti-Wild-Cat Laws. — Gowganda Withdrawn 
from Prospecting. — New Road. — Dividends and Developments. 

Apparently the stringent Ontario laws for the prevention 
of wild-catting by means of publicity are being enforced in 
much the same perfunctory fashion as the prohibitory laws 
in various States, where the fine occasionally or periodically 
levied on offenders after allowing them to run for a time 
with impunity, practically operates as a license to break 
the law. Provincial Secretary Hanna was loud in his prom- 
ises to make an example of offenders, a number of compa- 
nies were prosecuted, and the net result up to date is that 
four companies have been fined $200 each. These were the 
Crown Jewell, the Gifford, the Gifford Extension, and the 
Otisse. How easy the law-breakers have been let down can 
be understood when it is borne in mind that the penalty 
for false or defective prospectuses is a fine imposed upon 
each director of the defaulting company of between $50 and 
$400. The prosecution in these cases was instituted against 
all of the directors who could be reached, but aft,er the 
infliction of one fine in each instance, the proceedings 
against the other directors were dropped. It is hard to see 
how, by any stretch of the imagination, the prospect of a 
$200 fine can be supposed to act as a deterrent upon a con- 
cern that is daily raking in thousands from credulous in- 
vestors. It is petty as compared with the bulk of promo- 
tion expenses. The latest phase of the farce is the agree- 
ment between the Crown prosecutor and three of the compa- 
nies, to submit a stated case to the magistrate, and should 
he then make a formal conviction, to carry the matter to a 
higher court. In the meantime, though wild-cat advertise- 
ments have largely disappeared, for which perhaps the holi- 
day season and a break in the stock-market are responsible, 
the wild-cat promoters have taken to operating through the 
mails, and are sending out circulars, heedless of the warning 
that this is also against the law. "Whether it is or not, or 
whether the law has any effective force, may be known in a 
year or two, when the higher court and the Court of Appeal 
have rendered decisions. 

The Provincial Government of Ontario has issued an Or- 
der in Council withdrawing from prospecting a large area 
in the Gowganda district. This comprises, in addition to 
Haultain and Nicol townships, and two other unnamed 
townships, covering about 144 square miles, the bottoms of 
the lakes and a strip of land 66 ft. deep on the shores sur- 
rounding the lakes. This affects lakes Gowganda, Everett, 
Bloom, Miller, Le Roi, Wigman, and other bodies of water. 
A large area in the townships withdrawn has already been 
located by prospectors, and lakes Miller and Le Roi have 
also been covered, and some water claims made on Gow- 
ganda. All claims staked before December IS are exempted. 
The purpose of the Government is to offer the properties 
for sale subject to royalties, as in the case of Cobalt lake. 
The most urgent matter before the Government in connec- 
tion with northern Ontario mining interests is the opening 
of transportation facilities to Gowganda. The building of a 
wagon-road from Sudbury, 80 miles distant, has been under- 
taken by Mackenzie & Mann, of the Canadian Northern rail- 
way, on account of the Government, in conjunction with the 
town of Sudbury, that being the natural base of supplies 
for the district. Operations have already been commenced 
by a large force of workmen. The road is expected to be 
complete early in the New Year. Mackenzie & Mann have 
also in view the extension of the Canadian Northern Onta- 
rio railway into the Gowganda district from Burwash lake, 
and have put a survey party in the field. 

There has lately been a seasonable dulness in Cobalt 
stocks, varied by a slight revival during the last few days 
as the result of satisfactory dividend declarations, and the 
influence of the New York market. A considerable advance 



on present prices is anticipated early in the new year. 
NipisBing has announced its regular quarterly dividend of 
3','c and an additional bonus of 2%. Some new finds of an 
encouraging character have recently been made on the prop- 
erty. A new vein was found in cross-cutting at the 75-ft. 
level from the Fourth of July shaft; the vein is 3 in. wide, 
yielding high-grade ore. At the 145-ft. level of the Kendall 
shaft, a new cross-vein was found, from 3 to S in. wide. The 
La Rose No. 3 vein, on which a shaft is being sunk. lias 
widened to 4 in., yielding over 5000 oz. silver per ton. This 
vein has a length of 600 ft., and a portion of it has been 
developed by open-cut mining. A rich vein recently cut on 
the O'Brien runs into the La Rose parallel to the No. 3 vein, 
and will be worked by the latter company from No. 3 shaft. 
The new plant of the Temiskaming is on the ground, and 
partly erected. Two 100-hp. boilers are set up, and also the 




Map Showing Position of Cobalt and New Districts in Ontario. 

bed-plate of the new compressor, and it is expected that the 
plant will be in operation in two weeks, when considerable 
new ground will be opened. A new shaft has been started 
on the Duchess on the new vein near the Gifford Extension, 
and is now down 14 ft. The Kerr Lake Majestic will begin 
operations under the direction of William Powell, managing 
director, with an up-to-date plant, comprising a 12-drill air- 
compressor and boilers. The Cobalt Central is enlarging 
the capacity of its big concentrating mill, and will treat 
custom ore, having already made some contracts with adja- 
cent mines. Shipments of silver to New York amounting 
to two tons were made this week from the Coniagas smelter 
at Thorold, Ontario. 

The prize of $100 offered by J. B. Tyrrell, mining engineer 
of Toronto, for the best collection of Ontario minerals made 
during the past season, has been awarded to W. P. Battersby 
of the Kingston, Ontario, School of Mines. 



112 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



Concentrates. 



Most of these are in reply to questions received by mail. 
Our readers are invited to ask questions and give informa- 
tion dealing -with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 



The import duty on lead ore is 1% cents per pound, 
on pig lead it is 2y s cents per pound, and on white 
lead 2% cents. 

Graphite on the Pacific Coast would need to he of 
superior quality to find a market. Only crystalline 
graphite would be available; the amorphous variety 
not being in demand. 

Assessment work is not required on a mining claim 
for the year within which the location was made. It 
makes no difference whether the location was made 
on January 1 or December 31 ; the law is clear on 
this point. 



Molybdenum is present in the lead molybdate min- 
eral wulfenite with many gold ores in the desert re- 
gions of the Southwest. It does not interfere with 
amalgamation. Molybdenite is a quite stable sul- 
phide, not readily oxidizable, and is innocuous in 
gold milling. 



Shaking plates for amalgamation are advantageous 
with certain ores, but they do not necessarily give 
better results than stationary plates. They effect an 
even distribution of the pulp, and by checking the 
flow they facilitate the settling of gold upon the 
amalgamating surface. It has been claimed that 
shaking plates keep brighter and require less fre- 
quent dressing, but except in individual cases this 
does not seem to be borne out in practice. 



The statement that the Katanga ores contain a 
gangue "absolutely infusible at or near the melting 
point of copper ' ' is misleading. All that is meant is 
that the gangue is deficient in base. The so-called 
'reduction method', involving a treatment that will 
reduce the copper to the metallic state, after which 
it may be crushed and concentrated mechanically, is 
quite undeveloped in a practical way. Indeed it is 
wholly improbable that an economical separation 
can be effected by such a process. 



Timber in a flooded mine, even after 20 years or 
more, will be found intact and temporarily unim- 
paired, but after exposure to the air it is speedily 
affected by decay. The condition of the mine-work- 
ings will depend upon many factors. In general the 
processes of decomposition of the ore and bounding 
country will be arrested by the flooding of a mine, 
but if much soft ore, or clay and sericite, such as the 
miner includes under the misnomer 'talc', be present, 
it will often be found that it has softened and flowed 
in large quantities into the drifts. 



Failure to perform assessment work on a mining- 
claim for any year except the year within which the 
location was made leaves the ground open for re- 
location. The courts hold, however, that unless the 
title has been extinguished by adverse location by 



some other person, the original locator's title may be 
re-established by resumption of work. The alterna- 
tive of re-location is also open to the original locator, 
but if palpably done to avoid performing assessment 
work the title would be less secure against adverse 
claimants than it would have been by simple resump- 
tion of work. 

Many metals and alloys used in the industries owe 
their valuable properties to the fact that they are in 
a state of unstable equilibrium at ordinary tempera- 
tures. Hardened steel, for example, tends to revert 
to the condition of soft steel at all temperatures be- 
low 700° F., and block tin is slowly converted into a 
graj 7 powder, consisting of metallic tin, not a com- 
pound, at temperatures below 68° F. Polished cast- 
tin when inoculated with a little gray tin is rapidly 
changed and exhibits dull patches, which spread at 
the rate of several millimetres per day. The same 
rapid deterioration is shown by certain alloys of tin 
and aluminum, which also disintegrate into powder. 
These alloys break up after a few months, but the 
cause, is probably to be ascribed in part at least to 
oxidation. 



Where a junior location of a mining claim has been 
located across a senior location so that the junior 
claim is divided into two separate parts by the senior 
claim, it is now permissible for the junior claimant 
to maintain his title to the two non-contiguous seg- 
ments by virtue of a single location, and he may 
obtain a patent for such a claim, though the patent 
would necessarily reserve all property rights pertain- 
ing to the senior claim. Prior to the Del Monte deci- 




sion by the United States Supreme Court, the junior 
claimant was either compelled to elect which of the 
two disconnected parts he would take, or the entry 
was confined to that part containing his discovery. 
The Del Monte case decided that a junior locator 
might place his end-lines upon a senior claim, and the 
Land Department now permits a junior locator to lay 
his lines entirely across the senior claim, so as to 
include surface territory not covered by the senior 
location. 



January 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



113 



Discussion. 



Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to 
use this department for the discussion of technical and other 
matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor 
welcomes the expression of views contrary to his own, be- 
lieving that careful criticism Is more valuable than casual 
compliment. Insertion of any contribution is determined by 
Its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 



National Bureau of Mines. 
The Editor: 

Sir — In the issue of December 5 I see an article 
on this subject. A perusal of it shows that the 
author of it has been connected with some kind of 
government bureau in the past, and appears quite 
'•■intent to remain in such a bureau for the present 
or the future. This being the case, we find, in gen- 
eral with those who have become part and parcel of 
a bureau, that he considers the correct solution of 
every problem in any way affecting the welfare of 
humanity to be the work of a Government bureau; 
and that the answers to all these momentous prob- 
lems should be in the reports of such a bureau. 

The nine problems that were cited are doubtless 
of a more or less pressing nature wherever mining 
or metallurgical operations are carried on ; but a 
close analysis of many of those propounded is evi- 
dence to me that they are not from a trained 
engineer. Take, for example, the first problem: "A 
systematic investigation of underground methods 
of work carried on from camp to camp, with a view 
to a formulation of the exact conditions under which 
each method is applicable." Think of a Government 
bureau, constituted largely of a class to which in the 
West we apply the term "kid-glove miners," formu- 
lating plans for the successful operation of mines 
by a priori methods! These are problems that any- 
one familiar with the very rudiments of mining 
knows cannot be reduced to a formula. Mining is 
both a science and an art, and requires for its suc- 
cessful solution the application of both brains and 
experience. 

The second problem has still less to recommend it 
as a basis for erecting a Government bureau and 
publishing long reports on this subject. The prob- 
lems of hauling and hoisting have been exhaustively 
treated in three or four different languages, in books 
devoted to mining, and in many excellent period- 
icals. No tedious 'padded' Government reports from 
a Mining Bureau are necessary to enlighten those 
who are really interested in this phase of the ques- 
tion. 

As to the third problem, what great benefit would 
gold and silver metallurgists be likely to derive from 
a study of the subject as set forth in a Government 
report? I would say: less than he would easily be 
able to gather from one of a number of first-class 
publications on the subject, or what is better: a 
careful digest of recent literature such as will be 
found in the Transactions of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, and the files of your own val- 
ued paper, and others that could be cited. 

Thus we might go on; but the first three problems 
proposed, when examined, seem to be fundamentally 
wrong. Why ? Simply this : the successful solution 



of every mining and metallurgical problem (or auy 
other problem in engineering where man's intelli- 
gence must direct the forces of Nature to gain a 
desired end), involves the consideration of many 
factors, no two of which are likely to be the same in 
different places. If this were not so, engineering 
could not be called a profession, and the hundreds 
of young men who are today preparing themselves 
for work in engineering fields would have little to 
look fin-ward to, if the proposed aims of the Mining 
Bureau should be faithfully carried out. 

Whatever the specious pleas may be (and they 
are many and varied, as everyone knows) for the 
establishment of a Mining Bureau, we may rest as- 
sured that, if once established, few of the promises 
will be fulfilled. The great work of our mining and 
metallurgical world, the most important discoveries, 
the most useful applications of science, will continue 
to be made in the future, as in the past, by private 
and individual initiative, pluck, skill, and money. 
One Government bureau, more or less, will perhaps 
make little difference ; the money necessary to sup- 
port it will be drawn from so many that the in- 
creased burden is not felt ; the valiant ones who have 
fought to establish it will be rewarded by positions 
of one kind or another, and the results, in many 
cases of doubtful value to the public, will possibly 
afford valuable exercise to those engaged in getting 
out the reports. 

In my opinion, it is time the engineering profes- 
sion as a whole, and especially the mining and metal- 
lurgical branch of it, should resent any further 
encroachments upon its legitimate domains by the 
enlargement of present Government bureaus and the 
establishment of new ones. 

Royal P. Jaevis. 

Knoxville, Tennessee, December 15. 



Cost of Electric Pole-Line. 
The Editor : 

Sir — In answer to the request of your correspon- 
dent I am pleased to submit the following figures, 
showing the cost of constructing one mile of pole line 
in the Atlin, B. C, mining district, which was car- 
ried out by the Western Engineering & Construction 
Co., of San Francisco : 

42 poles are required for 1 mile. :. 

42 poles, 8 in. at top and 26 tt. long, delivered 

on ground $ 84.00 

Cross-arms, 3 by 5 in., 48 in. long 21.00 

Insulators and pins, 126 each 94.50 

3 lines No. 6 wire, 1152 lb., at 15c 172.80 

Engineering expenses 26.00 

Post holes; all tools furnished by the com- 
pany; average over a 10 mile line, includ- 
ing powder and drills for blasting many 

holes; holes 5 ft. deep 63.00 

Peeling poles and fitting cross-arms 31.50 

Setting up poles and tamping 42.00 

Stringing wire 42.00 

Parafflne for dipping pins and cross-arms. . . 7.14 

Distributing cross-arms, insulators, and wire 10.50 

Clearing right-of-way and road 52.50 



$646.94 
The line was transposed three times in the eight 



114 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



miles, for which 36-ft. poles were used. We employed 
a gang of five men, a water boy, and foreman. The 
men were paid $5 per day for 10 hours, water boy $3, 
and foreman $7.50. Cutting and delivery of poles 
and distribution of material was by contract. The 
men rendered good service, probably 25% better than 
could usually be had under similar conditions. The 
engineering expenses were higher than any other 
part of the work, but under the conditions this could 
not be avoided. Freight and other small expenses 
ran the cost up very close to $750 per mile net, and 
$1000 is the least any company should figure on, as 
poles are more liable to cost $5 each than $2, which 
was the price paid in this case. Local conditions 
must always be taken into consideration as to cost of 
construction. Freight to all northern inland points 
will be about $75 per ton on this class of material. 

D. P. Cameron. 
San Francisco, December 28. 



Drill-Steel. 
The Editor : 

Sir — I have received several letters asking for fur- 
ther particulars about the 'Spiral Drill Steel' sug- 
gested by myself in the Mining and Scientific Press 
of December 5. The exact amount of twist that the 
steel will stand must be determined by test. It is my 
opinion that a quarter turn to an 8-ft. drill will be 
sufficient to keep the hole clear of cuttings in all 
except the softest of rocks, where more turn would 
perhaps be desirable. The twist, or turn, is so magni- 
fied in the backward stroke of the piston by its rota- 
tion that each rib will offer a continuous lug for the 
full length of the drill-stock. Then too, when the 
drill is running in a 'free' hole, that is, not binding in 
the hole, the piston does not entirely stop rotating at 
the end of the backward stroke, but is still turning 
as it starts on its forward stroke ; thus the twist of 
the steel is likely to become a minus quantity. I am 
informed by E. A. Kinzie that a test of the steel is to 
be made at the Treadwell mine as soon as circum- 
stances will permit, and no doubt a report of the test 
will appear in this paper in due time. As to the effect 
this twist will have on the strength of the steel, I 
would be pleased to hear from others. This is a vital 
point, and the only one on which I have any doubts. 

K. Noblett. 

Treadwell, Alaska, December 20. 



The Disaster in Italy. 

The Editor : 

Sir — Though offering no scientific explanation of 
the cause of the late catastrophe, I would suggest 
that an editorial on the effect of it upon world poli- 
tics, would be welcome. We have had the dread of 
war for several years, which would ultimately in- 
volve the entire civilized part of the inhabitated 
areas'. First came the earthquake in this, our home 
town, and we felt immediately the throb of sympathy 
from humanity. Then followed Valparaiso, and 
Kingston to knit more closely the bonds between the 
various types of reasoning animals, all of whom car- 
ried red blood in their veins. Lately the rumors of 
war and the changes in the map of the inhabited 



portions of the globe have become more virulent (if 
I may use the term), and now how does the world 
feel? Every nation is vying with the other in ren- 
dering aid to our stricken brothers; Russian and 
Japanese, German and French, American and Span- 
ish are extending the hand of charity to our fellows, 
now suffering the worst that Dante ever pictured in 
his native land of Italy. It is a thought that has 
come to me, a pupil in scientific knowledge, that no 
matter how we may explain the material phenomena, 
the final result will be to increase the mutual respect 
of all nations for each other, reduce the friction that 
produces war, and makes us all akin, one nation, one 
people. To give and to take without the agency of 
the cannon and trfe battleship, and be able after a 
wordy discourse (from which each derives benefit) 
to shake hands, and generally to understand and be- 
lieve the old adage that a soft answer turneth away 
wrath, as well as that there are always two sides to 
a question. 

Such a disaster as has just occurred will do more 
to knit all of us together than any war with its sub- 
sequent resentment, any peace-meeting at the Hague, 
where each nation still tries to dominate, or any 
triumph of science in overcoming the forces of na- 
ture. I trust we can read something of moment 
from your pen should you consider the above sug- 
gestion of any value to the public, leaving the scien- 
tific discussion to the time when we have facts. 

W. J. Adams. 

San Francisco, January 2. 



Ely, Nevada. 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your issue of January 2, in an article writ- 
ten by Courtenay De Kalb on ' Copper Mining at Ely, 
Nevada, ' it is stated that ' ' The name of Ely was not 
transferred from Ely, Vermont, to Nevada. ' ' I wish 
to make a correction in the history of the now famous 
copper city and in memory of Smith Ely. I can do 
so with assurance, as the place was named by myself. 
Thomas H. Selby, nephew of the founder of the Selby 
smelting works, and myself were partners, by pur- 
chase or location, in nearly all the copper claims in 
the Eobinson district, Nevada, more than 30 years 
ago. We disposed of a half interest for $35,000 to 
Smith Ely, of Ely, Vermont, through his copper ex- 
pert, Joseph Long. We purchased a ranch on Mur- 
ray creek, containing some 320 acres; patent issued 
to George Lamb, but was claimed by a Mr. Cummins, 
to whom the judges of White Pine and Eureka coun- 
ties, with a third arbitrator, assigned the title on the- 
ground of fraud. This ranch covered the site of Ely, 
where the first copper smelter was erected. As we 
needed a postoffice at once it was necessary to name 
the place. Mr. Selby, Joseph Long, Lewis Williams, 
afterward for 20 years metallurgist at the Copper 
Queen in Arizona, and myself held a consultation in 
our cabin over a name for the new place and post- 
office. None of us cared to be immortalized in this 
connection, and so I suggested the name of Ely, as a 
compliment to Smith Ely. We all thought it was- 
just the proper name and that it would please Mr. 
Ely, as it did. I obtained the first postoffice, with 



January 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



115 



the privilege of a daily mail. For many years I lived 
near Steptoe valley, having been connected with va- 
rious mini's in the vicinity. I was well acquainted 
with the Mr. Ely of whom Mr. De Kalb speaks. He 
had nothing to do with the naming of Ely in White 

Pirn iinty. but his name survives in the Raymond 

A: Ely mine and the Ely district some hundred miles 
or more distant, in the neighborhood of Pioche, Lin- 
coln county. Williams and Long are dead. Thomas 
H. Selby is living in Mexico, and can corroborate 
what I have said. 

F. F. T mas. 

Berkeley, January i. 

The Editor: 

Sir — I am glad to have the correction communi- 
cated by -Air. Thomas. It is in a certain sense sig- 
nificanl of the creative energy, still a dominant char- 
acteristic of the West, that it is so absorbed in the 
work of developing natural resources as to lightly 
treasure its historic records. Earnest efforts were 
made to ascertain the very facts which Mr. Thomas 
now supplies, and as a result of correspondence with 
those long identified with the district the discordant 
opinions collected at Ely were reduced to what 
seemed to be the truth. It is interesting to note that 
a link does exist between the little Vermont mine and 
the great property in Nevada that promises to be 
famous as a gigantic producer of copper for genera- 
tions. Couetexay De Kalb. 

Sau Francisco. January 6. 



Loss of Cyanide. 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your issue of November 7, Rivers R. Bail- 
don asks for "some information regarding the me- 
chanical loss of cyanide incurred in operating such 
slime-filters as the Moore, Butters, Kelley, or Burt." 
The loss due to chemical decomposition is difficult to 
determine ; but cyanide consumption is due to chemi- 
cal loss and to mechanical loss. Each ore treated by 
cyanidation causes an unavoidable chemical loss of 
cyanide, which is constant for any given set of con-' 
ditions. The factors determining the chemical loss 
vary with the character of the ore, the loss increases 
with fine grinding, increases with strength of solu- 
tion used, depends upon the degree of alkalinity of 
solutions, and upon the amount of solutions used per 
ton of ore. 

Mechanical losses are due to leakages, and to loss 
of cyanide in the discharged residue. The following 
is an account of losses in the North Star mill, at Kofa, 
Arizona : The ore is a hard, compact, silicious rock, 
carrying much free gold. Losses from leakage are 
slight. Losses in residues from the Kelley filter-press 
vary from 0.04 to 0.7 lb. p^T ton of residue dis- 
charged, the amount being directly proportional to 
the cyanide strength of the wash solution, and to a 
lesser degree to the length of time of wash, and rate 
of wash. The ore, after coming from dry-crushing 
rolls and passing through a No. 16 mesh screen, is 
fed to an Abbe silex-lined tube-mill, and ground to 
slime, in a cyanide solution containing about 4 lb. 
potassium cyanide and from 2 to 4 lb. lime per ton. 



The ground slime receives an air-agitation in cone- 
bottomed vats, after which it goes to the Kelley press. 
An actual example of the working of the press and 
of the mechanical losses follows, the filter-press 
charge consisting of 1066 lb. : 

Minutes. 

Time filling press with pulp. sp. gr. 1.27 4 

Time loading frames 12 

Discharging pulp and re-filling with solution 5 

Solution wash 10 

Discharging solution-wash and re-filling with 

water-wash 4 

Water-wash 10 

Discharging water-wash 2 

Discharging cakes and returning frames 21 

Total time of cycle 1 hr. S 

The cake formed contained 28.4% moisture, was 
l 1 /! in. thick, and there were 410 sq. ft. of filtering 
area. The cyanide in the original pulp was 4.7 lb. 
per ton of solution, and the cyanide in the wash- 
solution was 3.8 lb. per ton. 

The water-wash began at 0.4 lb. KCy per ton and 
ended at 0.2 lb. per ton, due to the addition of fresh 
water during washing. The actual mechanical loss 
in this case was 0.0568 lb. KCy per ton of dry slime. 
No cyanide-solution is intentionally run to waste in 
this plant. For this reason, the wash-water is some- 
times dispensed with to prevent an accumulation of 
mill-solutions. Had a 20-min. solution-wash been 
given, instead of the solution-wash followed by the 
water-wash, the mechanical loss of cyanide would 
have been 1.07 lb. per ton of dry slime. The actual 
total cyanide consumption over a period of three 
months, calculated from tonnage of ore treated and 
the potassium cyanide used, was 2.23 lb. per ton of 
dry slime. 

The cyanide loss, per ton of dry slime, at the But- 
ters Devisadero mines, in Salvador, Central America, 
in the summer of 1906, was 3.38 lb. KCy per ton of 
dry slime. This plant was then all-sliming. The 
ore was slimed in cyanide solution in a tube-mill 
having a cast-iron lining ; the fine iron worn from the 
lining was accountable for the high cyanide consump- 
tion. A test made when the pulp carried 0.12% 
KCy per ton of solution, with wash-solution at 
0.058% and wash-water free from cyanide gave at 
the end of a 45-min. solution-wash 0.069% KCy in the 
discharged solution, and at the end of a 30-min. 
water-wash 0.039% KCy in the discharged solution. 
The moisture in a cake from the Butters filter runs 
from 28 to 40%. The mechanical loss of cyanide is 
from 0.21 to 0.55 lb. KCy per ton of dry pulp.* Cya- 
nide solution was never intentionally run to waste. 

Dana G. Putnam. 

Kofa, Arizona, December 18. 

The gold output of Rhodesia for September, of 
this year, was 48,573 oz., of which 26,540 came from 
Matabeleland, and 22,033 from Mashonaland. Since 
the commencement of mining operations in that 
colony the gold production has amounted to 3,061,- 
582 oz., having a value of £11,211,920. 



*'The Filtration of Slime by the Butters Method.' E. M. 
Hamilton, Mining and Scientific Pbess, June 29, 1907. 



116 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



METAL PRODUCTION IN 1908. 



The United States Geological Survey issues the 
following statistical review : 

Copper. — To the copper industry of the United 
States the year 1908 was a period of gradual recovery 
from the severe depression suffered in the last part 
of 1907. Many producers that had greatly curtailed 
or even suspended production in that year hegan 
again to increase their output at the opening of 1908, 
and in spite of the low price of the metal, nearly all 
the important producers were in operation through- 
out most of 1908, and a few new companies began 
production during the year. The rate of production 
has been steadily increasing, and is now greater than 
at any other time in the history of the industry. The 
production of copper in 1908 has been ascertained 
by L. C. Graton, of the Geological Survey, through 
personal interviews and telegraphic communication 
during the last days of the year. Except one small 
company, all producers of blister and Lake copper 
have furnished their latest exact figures, in most 
cases for eleven months, together with estimates 
of their production for the remainder of the year. 
If these estimates are realized, the production of 
blister and Lake copper in 1908 from ores mined in 
the United States will be greater by about 50,000,000 
lb., or between 5 and 6%, than that in 1907, which 
was 868,996,491 lb. It is impossible at this time to 
publish figures of State production, but it may be 
said concerning the three great copper producing 
States, that Arizona and Montana show large gains, 
while Michigan shows little change from 1907. Pro- 
duction of total refined new copper by works in this 
country hardly equals the output of 1907, which was 
1,032,516,247 lb. Based on records of the Bureau of 
Statistics covering the first 11 months, the 1908 im- 
ports of copper in pigs, bars, etc., are estimated at 
about 160,000,000 lb., and in ore. and matte at about 
53,000,000 lb. With addition for copper in pyrite, 
not included above, the total imports may be esti- 
mated as equivalent to about 210,000,000 lb. refined 
copper, a decrease of about 13% from 238,031,320 lb. 
in 1907. On a similar basis, the exports of metallic 
copper are estimated at about 660,000,000 lb., the 
largest ever recorded, and an increase of about 30% 
over the 508,929,401 lb. exported in 1907. Stocks of 
refined copper are still undoubtedly large. Domestic 
consumption of new copper will show a decline from 
the 485,000,000 lb., of 1907. The average quoted price 
of electrolytic copper at New York for 1908 was 
13.20 cents. The price at the close of the year was 
14.18. The prospect is bright at the present for a 
still larger copper production in the year 1909. 

Spelter. — The production of primary spelter from 
domestic and foreign ores in 1908 is estimated at 
208,000 short tons, worth at the average price $19,- 
656,000, as compared to 249,860 tons in 1907, 224,770 
tons in 1906, and 203,849 tons in 1905/ Imports of 
zinc ore comprised 26,000 tons of duty-free calamine 
(silicate ore), valued at $22,000, and 34,000 tons of 
dutiable ore (carbonate and sulphide), valued at 
$383,000. These imports, which were practically all 
from Mexico, show a decrease of nearly 50% over 



the quantities of the corresponding ores imported in 
1907, which were 81,973 tons, and 28,867 tons respec- 
tively. The exports of zinc ore also show an in- 
crease, being 26,108 tons, worth $877,745, compared 
to 20,352 tons in 1907. The imports of spelter show 
a decrease of 50%, being 894 tons worth $85,000, 
compared to 1778 tons in 1907. The exports of 
spelter show a marked increase, being 2500 tons, 
valued at $238,000, as against 563 tons in 1907. The 
exports of zinc dross were 8683 tons, in value $483,- 
000, compared to 9593 tons in 1907. Prices main- 
tained a uniform but very gradual ascent throughout 
the year. The average New York price of prime 
Western spelter for the year was 4.73 cents per 
pound, the extreme fluctuation in value ranging from 
4.32 to 5.15. The production of spelter from do- 
mestic and foreign ores, apportioned according to 
States in which smelted, was approximately as fol- 
lows: Illinois, 49,500 tons in 1908, as compared to 
56,056 tons in 1907; Kansas, 98,000 tons in 1908 and 
134,108 in 1907; Missouri, 10,000 tons in 1908 with 
11,732 in 1907 ; Oklahoma, 15,000 tons in 1908 against 
5035 tons in 1907; Western, Eastern, and Southern 
States, 35,500 tons in 1908 and 42,929 tons in 1907. 
These figures of production, prepared by C. E. Sie- 
benthal, of the Geological Survey, are based on re- 
ports received from all operating zinc smelters. 

Lead. — The total production of primary refined 
lead, desilverized and soft, from domestic and foreign 
ores in 1908 was approximately 391,000 short tons, 
worth at the average price $32,844,000, as compared 
to a production of 414,189 tons in 1907 and 404,699 
tons in 1906. These figures are exclusive of an esti- 
mated output of 12,000 tons of antimonial lead, as: 
against 9910 tons in 1907. Of the total production, 
desilverized lead comprised 287,500 tons, as against 
314,241 tons in 1907. The soft lead production in- 
creased to 103,500 tons, compared to 99,948 tons in 
1907. The increased output of soft lead accompany- 
ing a decrease in desilverized lead means apparently 
that Missouri retains the first place among lead-pro- 
ducing States. There was 50% increase in the im- 
ports of lead in ore and base bullion, which amounted 
to 105,000 tons, valued at $4,160,000, as compared 
to 70,538 tons in 1907. From this it may be inferred 
that the production of desilverized lead of foreign 
origin increased considerably over that of 1907, 
which was 67,423 tons. The imports of refined lead 
fell off considerably, being 3000 tons, with a value 
of $200,000, against 9277 tons in 1907. The exports: 
of foreign lead (lead of foreign origin smelted or 
refined in the United States) show a similar increase 
of nearly 50%, being 75,000 tons, valued at $3,024,- 
000, compared to 51,424 tons in 1907. The exports of 
lead manufactures remained practically stationary, 
with a value of about $600,000. The price of lead 
started in January with a minimum of 3.625 cents 
per pound, rising to the maximum figure of 4.60c. in 
August, then declining slowly to the close of the 
year. The average New York price for the year was 
4.2. These figures of production were prepared by 
C. E. Siebenthal, of the Geological Survey, from re- 
ports and estimates by the desilverizers and the soft- 
lead smelters. 



January lti. IWX 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



117 



THE YUKON DITCH. 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By T. A. Rickard. 

In order to facilitate the exploitation of gravel 
deposits situated Oil the Klondike river and its tribu- 
tary creeks, the engineers of the Yukon Gold Co. 
have built a system of ditch, pipe, and flume that has 
a total length of a little more (ban 70 miles. In July. 

l!H).s, it was my ; i fortune to observe the building 

of this conduit and to note some of the details of an 
engineering project as important as it is costly. 

The country traversed by this ditch is a rolling 
woodland indented by the alluvial flats of the Klon- 
dike, the Twelve-Mile, and other streams flowing 
into the Yukon river. As seen from a height the wil- 
derness stretches unbroken from the meandering 
shimmer of the Klondike, enclosed within high banks 
on which white scars mark bench-diggings, to the 
Ogilvie range, where, far to the north, the snow 
still lingers in token of the gift of water that shall 
enable man to win the gold from the deposits of 
gravel strewing the tortuous Valleys. The engineer 
who first planned the line of flume, ditch, and pipe 
had imagination — that kind of constructive imagi- 
nation which is the creative force behind all engi- 
neering work. He imagined the deed done, and then 
he calmly began to calculate how to accomplish it. 
As viewed from afar the panorama of wooded val- 
leys, and the distant range that serves as a water- 
shed, afford no suggestion of the natural obstacles 
to be overcome, but a closer acquaintance soon dem- 
onstrates that the forest is but a scant growth of 
small trees, just fit for telephone poles, not big 
enough to yield lumber, struggling to assert a stunted 
life amid the vast morass covering the face of the 
land. A soggy blanket of moss mantles the ground, 
which is held in the grasp of a perpetual frost. Under 
the moss is ice ; the moss forms an insulating blanket 
so that even the short warm summer does not thaw 
the frozen ground lying beneath this dark green cov- 
erlet. In places the ice melts slightly and pools of 
water form. Everywhere the surface is wet and 
sloppy. Our horses splashed through it. We stum- 
bled over the spongy mass. It is a dismal swamp, 
which becomes almost impassable when torn by traf- 
fic. Wherever a trail was worn by use, it became a 
quagmire and it was best to turn our horses to the 
untrodden moss alongside ; in this their feet woidd 
sink to a depth of 6 or 8 inches, for below that was 
the frozen ground; while in places, where the moss 
was cut and worn away, the thaw had reached deep 
enough to make progress impossible. And these con- 
ditions obtained not only on the flats, but on the 
slopes. The water is held by the moss as by a sponge, 
so that even over an undulating topography there 
were no running streams. 

Roads of the corduroy type have been constructed, 
moss being laid on the poles and dirt on the moss. 
The trails traverse the brush in straight lines. Horses 
and men, steam and muscle, have fought against the 
wilderness and subdued it. The big ditch looks like 
a Panama canal and the steam-shovels groaning aud 



digging in the deep cuts recall pictures of Culebra. 
Many of the laborers had worked on the isthmian 
canal, and assuredly the young engineers were as 
proud of the work they were accomplishing as if it 
were a national or even an international enterprise. 

The wilderness that bad laid in shivering silence for 

untold ayes, res] sive only to the footfall of the 

moose and the cariboo, hearing only the voice of the 
stream and crash of the tempest, has been invaded 
to the very threshold of the Arctic by insistant man, 
determined to use Nature to his purpose, to overcome 
her obstacles by turning her own energy and her 
own power to his good in the quest for gold. 

Several schemes for bringing water under pressure 




The Tombslone River at the Intake. 

to the placer mines on Bonanza and Hunker creeks 
have been considered during the last five years. One 
of these involved the use of the water flowing in the 
Klondike river, but it was ascertained by survey that 
the low gradient qf that stream would necessitate a 
ditch fully 85 miles long and an expenditure of about 
$7,000,000. A. N. O. Treadgold, the promoter of the 
enterprise now known as the Yukon Gold Co., made 
surveys along the tributary streams flowing into the 
Klondike and the Yukon from the north. Finally he 
applied for a right of way for a ditch to tap the head 
of the Twelve-Mile river. This enters the Yukon 18 
miles below Dawson, and has its source in the Tomb- 
stone range, a part of the Ogilvie mountains, which 
rise to an altitude of 7000 ft., and gather sufficient 
snow to furnish a constant siipply of water. It was 
estimated that a ditch to the mines near Dawson, 
with a capacity of 125 cubic feet per second, under 
a head ranging from 850 to 350 ft., would be 70 miles 



118 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 




long and would cost $3,000,000. It 
has cost over this amount to date 
and will require a further expend- 
iture to complete. The total dis- 
tance between the head of the 
ditch and Gold hill, the point of 
distribution, is 70.2 miles, the dif- 
ference in elevation between these 
points being 1112.8 ft. The effec- 
tive head along Bonanza creek, in 
the vicinity of Gold hill, is 375 ft. 
The construction includes 19.6 
miles of flume, 38 miles of ditch, 
and 12.6 miles of pipe. Owing to 
the nature of the ground trav- 
ersed, it has been necessary to 
modify the size and gradient of 
the ditch according to local con- 
ditions, but the standard is a 9-ft. 
bottom, with 3y2-ft. depth of wa- 
ter, and a gradient of 6 ft. per 
mile, ranging from a minimum of 
4 ft. to a maximum of 7 ft. per 
mile. In places the ditch is fully 
20 ft. wide. The standard flume is 
6 ft. wide and 4 ft. deep, with a 
gradient of 0.2841% or 14 ft. per 
mile. The pipe varies according 
to the engineering requirements 
and is variously built of steel and 
wooden staves, so as to have a di- 
ameter ranging from 42 to 54 
inches. The accompanying map 
shows the course of the water sys- 
tem and the distribution of the 
various forms of construction. 

Wherever practicable the water 
is conducted by ditch, for that is 
the cheapest and most durable 
conduit. A ditch is necessarily 
dependent upon the contour of the 
surface ; where depressions exist, 
a long detour is saved by building 
either a flume or pipe. If the de- 
pression is a deep ravine or a 
broad valley, it becomes impossi- 
ble to construct a flume, and re- 
course is had to a pipe in U-form 
(forming a so-called inverted si- 
phon), the loss of effective head 
being measured by the friction be- 
tween the water and the sides of 
the pipe. 

In constructing the flume, the 
sills of the bents are laid in good 
ground, that is, below the surface 
dirt, upon solid rock or else upon 
debris that' will not shift after 
thawing. In laying pipe along a 
declivity, the weight at the de- 
pression is taken by bents carried 
through the surface dirt to the 
gravel underneath. 

The completion of this ditch in 



January 16. 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



119 



three seasons, equivalent to one full year of 12 
months, is a feat highly creditable to the engineers, 




IfBCr 



Where Shovel No. 3 Encountered 'Frost'. 

Owing to the large amount of money paid for min- 
ing claims, and to the heavy investment of capital 
involved in the building of the 
ditch, it was imperative that the 
water be brought to profitable use 
as speedily as possible. The first 
thing was to obtain power for the 
dredges. A sawmill was built mi 
the right bank of the main Twelve- 
Mile on a site commanding the 
best supply of logs. This sawmill 
was operated by steam-power. 
Then a Hume 5% miles long, 3 by 
4 ft., was built on the stream 
known as the Little Twelve-Mile. 
and an electric power-plant was 
erected near the place where the 
main water-system would cross 
the valley and two miles above 
the sawmill. Meanwhile the sur- 
vey for a transmission line was hastened. This was 
in June. 1906, and it is interesting to relate that in 



in friendly competition; nor did the night crew com- 
plain .if any handicap through poorer light. At that 
season the night is only two hours 
long, for Dawson is at latitude 64° 
north. 

Electric transmission is effected 
over 36 miles of main line and 18 
miles of blanch high-tension line, 
with 8 miles of secondary lines 
from 4 sub-stations. The power- 
plant receives 60 eu. ft. of water 
per second under an effective head 
of 650 ft., the delivery from the 
flume being effected by a steel 
pipe gradating from 36 to 34 and 
then to 32 in. diameter. Two Pel- 
ton wheels, actuated by a 4-in. and 
a 3-in. nozzle, respectively, are 
harnessed to two Westinghouse 
generators of 625 kw. each. By a 
three-phase system 2200 volts are 
stepped up to 33,000 volts, at which tension the cur- 
rent is transmitted over a No. 5 copper wire. A de- 





Cribbed Ditch. 



making the survey for the pole-line the engineers 
worked both by day and night, the two shifts being 



Construction of Cribbing. 

fleeting-nozzle governor is an interesting feature of 

the Pelton wheels. 

While preparations were thus 
being made for the transmission 
of power, the work on the ditch 
was begun. As soon as the sur- 
veys were completed, the right-of- 
way was cleared. The small 
growth of forest was removed, and 
the moss stripped from the frozen 
ground for a width of one chain 
(22 yards). Then steam-shovels 
were put to work, and while they 
were digging the ditch, the saw- 
mill on the Twelve-Mile yielded 
the lumber needed for the con- 
struction of the flume and for 
other purposes. Seven million feet 
(board measure) of lumber was 
cut; this depleted the small forest 
available, but it proved sufficient. 

Electric power was employed in pulling the lumber 

up a tramway built from the sawmill to the site of 



120 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



the flume, this form of construction being confined 
largely to the first part of the conduit. 

Without the steam-shovel it would have been 
•hardly possible to dig the ditch in an economical 
manner, for manual labor at $4 per day, plus board 
at $2, or a total of $6 per day, is a costly instrument 
of engineering. Six shovels were employed. These 
make the cut, which is then beveled by hand, to be 
followed by the laying of moss on the sloping sides, 
with a little fine dirt as a finishing touch. 

On July 19 I saw the No. 1 Shovel at work on the 
Klondike Face. This shovel had then dug 8 miles of 
ditch. The machine was the Little Giant Shovel, 
made by the Vulcan Iron Works, of Toledo, Ohio. It 
weighs 36 tons and uses 45 hp. A 4-ft. extension on 
both the boom and dipper-handle affords 18 ft. of 
clearance from the centre of the track. The dipper 
is re-inforeed for this special work, and excavates 1% 
cubic yards at each swing. The machine is mounted 
on railroad trucks that run on a track of standard 
gauge. After 5 minutes of digging, the shovel is ad- 
vanced, the move being accomplished in 5 to 10 min- 
utes. The shovel was digging in soft silt requiring 
special treatment. Boughs of spruce were laid criss- 
cross upon the bottom of the cut so as to form a mat- 
tress, upon which the ties were laid, and on them the 
rails. The shovel dug an average of 300 ft. of ditch 
(9 ft. wide at the bottom) in 24 hours and had made 
as much as 365 ft. in a shift, the average being 1200 
cu. yd. per day, and the maximum 1600 yd. per shift 
of 10 hours. The fuel used in the boiler was small 
birch that had been dried in a forest fire. 

On July 21 I saw No. 3 Shovel at work on the Bal- 
larat Division. This machine is a Model No. 20, made 
by the Marion Steam Shovel Co., of Marion, Ohio ; it 
was making from 35 to 40 ft. in two shifts, but it had 
made a record of 680 ft. in one shift. The crew in- 
cluded three men on the shovel, namely, the fireman, 
craneman, and engineer. In the cut there were 6 men 
and a boss, all of whom joined forces when the time 
came to move forward. Two men attend to the lift- 
ing-jaeks and one to the blocks in the rear. The total 
cost of labor was $175 to $200 for the two shifts, this 
including a roustabout, who gathered wood, and the 
hauling of water for the boiler. The shovel was do- 
ing nicely in ground well adapted to a tight ditch. 
Progress averaged 200 ft. of ditch per shift, each foot 
of advance being equal, approximately, to 3% cubic 
yards. On the low side of the ditch the cut was 5 ft. 
deep. 

Shovel No. 5 was working on the Twelve-Mile Face. 
This machine was made by the Thew Automatic 
Shovel Co., of Lorain, Ohio. The State of Ohio is 
rich in the manufacturers of good machinery. The 
Thew shovel weighs 35 tons, it has a dipper of 1% 
cu. yd. capacity, and a clearance of 23 ft. Owing to 
the ample swing, the shovel was digging a ditch 20 
ft. wide at the bottom. The boom is made fast to the 
car-body, carrying the engine and boiler, so that the 
whole machine acts as a unit. It is swung on a four- 
wheel truck having an 8-ft. wheel-base. The shovel 
is not suited to soft ground, but does excellent work 
when digging a shallow wide ditch in moderately 
hard ground. The machine had made 75 ft. of ad- 



vance during the forenoon of my visit andwas aver- 
aging 200 ft. per day of 24 hours. 

As the map shows, the aqueduct is separated into 
divisions each having a name by which it is known 
to the engineers. A record of progress made on each 
division is kept by plotting the weekly advance in 
percentage of the total construction. 

Details of construction along successive portions 
of the undertaking are given herewith, as gathered 
on the spot, by courtesy of Messrs. O. B. Perry and 
Chester A. Thomas, the managers. 

Tombstone Creek. 

41,000 ft. of 4 by 6 ft. flume. 
Main intake at 3317.8 ft. 



Little Twelve-Mile. 








Intake of pipe 


at 


3199 


ft. 


Discharge into flume at 


3104 ft. 


Lowest point 


at 2459 ft. 


Details of Pipe. 








Length, Ft. 


Material. 




Diam., In 


399 


Wood 




49 


3,540 


Steel 




46 


429 


Wood 




49 



Slate Creek. 

32,000 ft. of 4 by 6 ft. flume. 

Less 800 ft. of ditch. 

Grade, 14 ft. per mile for flume, or 0.2841%. 

On the Twelve-Mile Face there is about two miles 
of ditch in bad ground. To protect the lower bank 
6000 ft. of cribbing was necessary. The grade is 4 ft. 
per mile. In the Nome region, where ditch construc- 
tion has been more vigorous than elsewhere in Alaska 
or in the Yukon country, and where frozen ground 
obtains, some of the ditches have a grade of 3 ft. only. 
In a flat country such as that of the Seward Penin- 
sula the upper bank of the ditch is not made steep 
and it is found best to use a ditch of wide cross-sec- 
tion, say 30 to 50 ft. in places. The ditch is cut to> 
30 ft., and becomes worn to 50 ft. As the frozen dirt 
thaws in concave form the moss droops over it. If 
the bank is not too steep nor too high the moss will 
hold together and eventually blanket the bank so as 
to hold the frost. The worst ground is that in which 
not only layers of ice but nearly vertical veins of 
ice extend through the moss and muck, so as to afford 
a channel for seepage as the ice thaws. These per- 
mit the water from the ditch to escape, and it will 
appear a hundred feet or more from the hillslope in 
the form of a geyser. 

(To Be Continued.) 



Next year, when the Bradley patents expire, the- 
manufacture of aluminum, which has until now been 
in the hands of the Mellons of Pittsburg, will be open 
to the public. Many deposits of aluminum ore (baux- 
ite) in this country have been waiting to be worked, 
and the chances are that the industry will take enor- 
mous strides within the next few years. The patents 
expired last year in Europe, and the metal is selling 
at about 13c. per pound, and the duty into the United 
States is 8c. per pound. Here aluminum has sold at 
about twice the price of copper, and is now about 23c. 
per pound, so the price should be halved in future.. 



January lti. liliiii. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



121 



PROTECTION OF INVESTORS. 



The discussion held by the Pacific Coast division 
of the Mining A: .Metallurgical Society ou November 
21. 1908, was published in part in our last issue. It 
is here continued. The trend of the discussion was 
mainly toward ascertaining what information was 
due to the shareholders and how it could best be 
given in the reports issued by the management. 

T. A. Rickard. — If you give tonnage without giving 
the yield per ton, you give no idea as to the value. 
In other words, you should not alone go through the 
motions of giving information, but you should give 
information in the way that you would give it to your 
own partner. 

George W. Starr. — Suppose a mine is producing 
very well, and that ore is taken from certain parts 
of the mine ; the manager is nursing certain parts of 
his mine and the investor does not know it. He gives 
his report out and states that he has got 500,000 tons 
of ore. If you don't give the value of that tonnage, 
it is misleading to the investors ; perhaps a great 
many tons of ore are actually worthless. 

Charles Butters. — At our mine at San Sebastian, 
in Salvador, the manager furnishes the secretary 
with a plan, and on that plan the mine is blocked out 
in small sections, and on every block is marked the 
number of tons and the value of the tons in that 
block. In the report he adds those blocks together 
and averages all the tons. A man who gets our re- 
port would find from it that we had so many tons of 
ore of a certain value ; that would be the only figure 
given. If he wished to refer back to the little plan 
furnished with it, he would find out how the total 
was determined. The detail is all there, and that 
detail is made up from assays. "We followed this 
system for about five or six years in this mine, in 
which the ore is high-grade. We found that the 
number of ounces of gold that we had estimated 
would always average as anticipated. 'As a rule our 
approximate grade has been lower than the blocks 
showed, but we got more tons. 

T. A. Rickard. — Of a lower grade ? 

Charles Butters. — Of a lower grade than we had 
estimated: Yes. The number of ounces of gold that 
we estimated was nearly always correct. 

T. A. Rickard. — Give us your views. What infor- 
mation do you think should be given to the share- 
holders? 

Charles Butters. — My idea is that the manager 
should make himself responsible for every block of 
ore in the mine. He must have determined the facts 
from his assays, and the stockholder ought to be able 
to look back over the reports and maps and be able 
to find the information he wants. That information 
should be so specific that if the investor wished, he 
could review the operations for a series of years. 
Prom our plan we could find out that the estimate 
of the manager at San Sebastian had come out pretty 
fairly. 

T. A. Rickard. — How soon should it be given? It 
might be a post mortem . 

Charles Butters. — It is given just as soon as may 
be, at the end of the year. We give it annually be- 



cause we only make an annual report, and we only 
make up our tonnage once a year. 

T. A. Rickard. — Then it wouldn't help the share- 
holder from a stock market point of view? 

Charles Butters. — We never sell our shares. 

Mark B. Kerr. — What should be considered ore 'in 
sight'? For instance, you are running a drift 
through an orebody, and you have ore in the face., 
and in a raise. The upper level may not be in so far 
as the lower level, yet you may have every reason to 
believe that ore will be cut there also. Of course, if 
you have a winze ahead of you from an upper level, 
the chances are that you could draw the lines straight 
through and give an approximate tonnage. That 
certainly would come under another clause ; that 
would be 'partly developed ore,' but here in Cali- 
fornia, at least from my experience, they do not like 
to give detailed reports as to reserves, especially on 
the Mother Lode. There the costs are down pretty 
low, lower than almost anywdiere else in the world. 
You cannot get the details of that cost. As a rule 
they are not published. 

T. A. Rickard. — How much do you think should be 
told to the shareholders ? 

Mark B. Kerr. — That is another point. I agree 
with Bradley on that point. Everything that a man- 
ager considers important should be published. As a 
rule the report of a manager is edited too much, that 
is, he gives a detailed report, and in that report are 
certain items that it might benefit the shareholder to 
know. If the manager can report partly developed 
ore — possibilities — that would give a better general 
idea of the value of the mine than just simply put- 
ting in ore that is actually exposed on four sides. I 
think that estimates of parity developed ore and of 
possibilities should be given to the shareholders. 

T. A. Rickard. — To what extent is it practical to 
do that? 

Mark B. Kerr. — I think it is practical to publish 
the greater part of the information. They can state 
the ore in reserve and the value of that ore, and the 
partly developed ore and its value. 

T. A. Rickard. — To what extent do the president 
and directors of companies here consult you with 
reference to giving such information to investors? 

Mark B. Kerr. — They don't want that published. 
The principal objection is to the publication of work- 
ing costs. Two or three years ago I was discussing 
with the directors of a mine on the Mother Lode; 
they said to me that they would prefer not to have 
the cost mentioned because if the men in the mine 
had an idea that this ore was being mined so cheaply, 
and that possibilities were so good, it might create 
trouble : they would assume that the company was 
able to pay them more wages. It might lead to a 
strike. So the management did not like to publish 
the amount of ore in reserve or the costs of operation. 

J. N. Nevius. — Is it not a question of affecting the 
stock? 

Mark B. Kerr. — In the case mentioned the reason 
given was sincere. The mine was not quoted on the 
market. The decision was based upon the labor con- 
ditions, without question. 

J. N. Nevius. — I had this in mind : We all, of 



122 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



course, have observed that the value of the stock of 
a mine quoted either on the listed exchanges or on 
the curb, does not reflect the intrinsic value of the 
mine. The price does not rise and fall necessarily 
with the change in the condition of the mine as rep- 
resented by the ore-values and probable life of the 
mine. Such a report as we are discussing — a care- 
fully prepared estimate of the actual condition of 
the mine — would affect the value of that stock. It 
would steady the market value of the stock by en- 
abling the public to buy and sell on an intelligent 
basis, instead of on the strength of rumors advanced 
by those interested only in manipulating the stock. 
It would tend to prevent such manipulation and to 
give to mining stocks a negotiable value they do not 
possess at present. I assume that it is the sense of 
this meeting to neglect the stock-values and to give 
consideration to the technical part of mining, and 
it seems to me that the manager and board of di- 
rectors of a mining company bear to a certain extent 
the same relation periodically to their stockholders 
as a consulting engineer bears to his client. If any 
of us as a consulting engineer is operating or direct- 
ing the operations of a mine, we are obliged to ren- 
der an estimate of ore reserves and cost-sheets. Now 
then, from a technical point of view — not the stock 
point of view — should not a mining company render 
to its stockholders, for the same reason that the con- 
sulting engineer renders to his client, a report show- 
ing the exact reserves of a mine and the cost-sheets ? 
I think it should be done once a year. 

Charles Butters. — In estimating ore reserves, Mr. 
Bradley, in a mine, from year to year, don't you find, 
if you look back over a series of years, that after all 
it takes a good deal of experience to project an esti- 
mate ? In other words, in order to make an accurate 
estimate that a man ought to be acquainted with 
the mine before his estimate has real value ; that a 
continuous knowledge running over some years in 
the same mine is important? 

F. W. Bradley. — I think that is very true; a 
stranger to a mine cannot make as good an estimate 
of the ore reserves and of the probable ore reserves 
as a man who has been long familiar with the mine 
•and who has worked it several years. A manager 
who carefully studies his mine by giving the under- 
ground work especial attention and who has worked 
it a number of years should know exactly what the 
mine is capable of producing. I am, of course, speak- 
ing of a producing mine and not of an uncertain 
prospect. For instance, one way of estimating the 
ore reserves would be to take the area of his orebody 
on a specified level ; he will know whether that area 
Increases or diminishes on the different levels and 
he will know what a particular area produces. An- 
other way of estimating ore reserves in a spotty mine 
where the orebodies are in kidney-shaped masses 
irregularly scattered throughout a mineral-bearing 
zone, would be to learn the gait of the mine and its 
production of tonnage per vertical foot of depth. 
He can in this way make a close estimate as to what 
the mine will produce, but in order to do that the 
•mine must have been worked for some considerable 
time. It would be difficult for an engineer who has 



no familiarity with the mine to make as reliable an 
estimate as the manager who* has actually been ex- 
tracting ore from the mine over a period of time. 

Charles Butters. — The reason I asked that is be- 
cause our Mr. Garthwaite in Salvador has been six 
or seven years estimating with great care the actual 
ore in sight and the probable ore in sight, and he has 
cut out now estimating the probable ore. He pre- 
fers now only to give actual ore, after six or seven 
years' experience. 

T. A. Rickard. — I suggest that it is almost impos- 
sible to define 'probable ore,' almost as difficult as 
to define a "reasonable doubt," for instance. It is 
entirely a matter of the personal equation. One man 
calls a thing 'probable' ore; another man calls it 
' assured ' ore ; another man, a little bit more timid, 
or it may be a little more cautious, calls it a 'possi- 
bility. ' It depends also upon the mine. In one mine 
'probable ore' is so reasonably certain as to be called 
'ore in reserve.' On the other hand, in a locality 
such as Georgetown, in Colorado, yoti can examine a 
mine that may be making a steady production, and 
yet you might not find one month's ore in a reserve 
in that mine, and you might cut up your mine in 50- 
ft. squares and yet not be able to estimate accurately. 
All the work in a mine of that kind is done by leas- 
ing, and yet in the aggregate, during the year, they 
get a great deal of ore. Then you would have to 
fall back upon this scheme that Bradley has men- 
tioned. In that way you can get an approximation. 
But in the end you will find that a man who is unac- 
quainted with a district like Georgetown is abso- 
lutely helpless when examining a mine there. 

Charles Butters. — Mr. Bradley, do you ever esti- 
mate 'probable ore' for your shareholders? 

F. W. Bradley. — I give 'partly developed ore' and 
'ore ready for stoping' as ore reserves. 'Ore ready 
for stoping' would be the manager's estimate as to 
the actual tonnage he can dig out at a profit and 
deliver to a mill or reduction plant. A manager 
could list as 'ore reserves' tonnage of a profitable 
grade that might have to remain in a mine as pillars. 
The term 'ore available for stoping' or 'for extrac- 
tion' would compel him to exclude all pillars or ore 
necessary to be left as pillars, which cannot eventu- 
ally be robbed. For instance, I would give as fully 
developed ore, ore that is ready for stoping. I would 
give as 'partly developed ore', ore partly blocked 
out but not available for stoping. For example, if a 
shaft were in ore and had been sunk from a level 
also in ore, there would result a block that I would 
call 'partly developed ore,' the dimensions of this 
block being made liberal or conservative according 
to one's knowledge as to the gait of the mine or as 
to how the mine had performed. 

S. B. Christy. — It seems to me that unless one takes 
into account and allows for the recognition of partly 
developed ore, it would kill many good mines in pro- 
cess of development. As Mr. Rickard has pointed 
out, if you insist on allowing only for developed ore, 
it would be fatal to many good mines in process of 
development. In such mines, all that there is is 
partly developed ore. This difficulty might be met 
by requiring the manager of a mine to distinguish, 



January it;. 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



123 



in his report, between developed and partly de- 
veloped ore, and to hold the manager responsible 
and criminally liable for misrepresentations in his 
reports. Thai is. if he represents to the stockholders 
thai the ore actually developed contains a given ton- 
nage and assay-value, which afterward proves to be 
a gross exaggerat ion, he ought to be criminally liable. 
It .seems to me that such a law would clarify the 
al mosphere i erj quickly. 

T. A. Rickard.— I would like to suggest that there 
has been a good deal of discussion as to ore in sight, 
ore in reserve, and the like, and that the term 'ore 
ready for stoping' describes it better than any other 
phrase. That moans ore that has been cut by drifts 
and raises. I don't know what the next step would 
be: Ore that has been 'partly developed'. There, 
again, you must define what you mean by 'devel- 
oped'; men differ in their notions. You don't w 7 ant 
to use a word that requires definition each time it is 
used. What you call partly developed another man 
might not think so. But 'ore ready for stoping' is 
pretty clear. When you sink a shaft or winze here 
ami drive a level there, you have got practically two 
si ties of a square. 

S. B. Christy. — 'Partly developed ore', or 'possible 
ore', or some such term might be used. The reasons 
for belief in the possibilities of the mine should be 
clearly stated ; that is the point. 

T. A. Eickard. — So, then, we start with 'ore ready 
for stoping'. That will express the idea to anybody. 
Then the next thing is to describe ore the existence 
of which is partly proved ; let the engineer or man- 
ager explain to what extent the existence of that ore 
is proved. 

George W. Starr. — The degree of probability. 

T. A. Rickard. — Tes ; in one case you may require 
a great deal of proof and in another very little. On 
the Rand the sinking of a shaft and the running of 
a drift would be all the proof that is necessary. In 
Goldfield you would have to do much more to estab- 
lish the existence of a body of ore that eould be con- 
sidered assured. 

George W. Starr. — In some eases the term 'ore 
ready for stoping' would be misleading for the rea- 
son that, in many mines, a good deal of stoping is 
done backhanded without any connection, and stop- 
ing would be carried on before connection was made. 
Whereas, if you would call it 'blocked out ore', or 
'ore in sight' — 

T. A. Rickard. — That is tabooed. 

George W. Starr. — We understand what 'ore in 
sight' means. It is as far as we can see it. 

T. A. Rickard. — We don't see it. 

George W. Starr. — We have got it assayed and 
blocked, and it is practically in sight. 

S. B. Christy. — Ore exposed on four sides. 

George W. Starr— But 'ore ready for stoping' is 
misleading. 

S. B. Christy. — I think so, too. 

T. A. Rickard. — In a mine where, as you say, you 
begin to stope from the back, the ore is so regular 
that you can assume that it continues upward. 

George W. Starr. — Suppose that you are running 
your drift, and you start stoping right from the back 



of that drift, you will carry a great breast right up 
through. You will lie running that before your drift 
is connected, and you can carry your ore across. 

T. A. Rickard. — We are all evading the question. 
The question is how to protect investors. 

Ernest A. Hersam. — It is important to define the 
terms we are using. 

George W. Starr. — I think that one of the most 
essential things in valuing your mine is the quantity 
of ore that there is in that mine that you can figure 
on, and thus give to the investors the value and the 
tonnage of ore ready to stope. And I would suggest 
that we confine ourselves for a while — that is, if it is 
acceptable to the others — to discussing that question, 
because I think that is one of the most vital points 
of a mine, and one of the points that a stockholder 
should know. 

Charles Butters. — I did not quite understand you, 
Starr. 

George W. Starr. — I think one of the most vital 
points for a stockholder to know is the amount of 
ore there is in a mine and- the value of that ore, so 
that in discussing this -question we should consider 
the form of report necessary. 

T. A. Rickard. — Yes, of course, we agree that that 
is important, but the practical question is as to when 
and how the shareholder is to get the information. 
If the information is given in an annual report, which 
gives the story of the mine up to the end of Decem- 
ber, and the report reaches the shareholder the first 
of June, he has got a graceful post mortem. It won't 
do him much good. 

George W. Starr. — It certainly will if he has ore 
that will last over that period. 

T. A. Rickard. — In some mines, yes; but in most 
cases he would be more interested in learning what 
had happened at the time than six months after the 
report was written, as affecting the value of his inter- 
est in the mine. 

S. B. Christy. — That is the important point ; for if 
the management had the information promptly, and 
the stockholders had it six months later, you can see 
what a chance there would be for speculation. It 
would be possible for those ' on the inside ' to do any- 
thing with the stock of that company. 

C. C. Derby. — I do not see why such information 
cannot be furnished the stockholders promptly, at 
the end of the fiscal year or for such periods as may 
have been determined. In several cases where I 
have heard complaint made by stockholders regard- 
ing the tardiness of the appearance of their reports, 
it was not the fault of the manager, as their informa- 
tion had been furnished promptly on the completion 
of the period to be reported on. At most mines it is 
possible to have all the data necessary worked up to 
the end of the last month, so that in a short time 
thereafter the manager can have his report ready to 
hand to his home office for distribution to the share- 
holders. It is then the duty of the main office to 
transmit the information promptly to those entitled 
to receive it. As a rule I think those in charge of 
the main offices are more at fault than the managers 
in direct charge of operations, for delay in furnish- 
ing reports to shareholders. In most instances the 



124 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



manager can, and should, submit his report in short 
order. The shareholders in a mine are the owners, 
and are certainly entitled to all the information re- 
garding their property that may be possessed by their 
employees, from the president down. 

S. B. Christy. — I think it would be better to confine 
ourselves to our text, and find out, first : "What are the 
general items of information that should be in a re- 
port ? I think we are all agreed on the fact that the 
tonnage of ore actually developed and its value, con- 
stitute the first essential item. Second, it seems to 
me that there should be in the report itself sufficient 
data for any investor to check the calculations and 
conclusions of the manager, and see whether or not 
they are borne out by the facts given. For example, 
it should be stated how many tons of ore are exposed 
on at least four sides ; then how many tons of ore are 
exposed on three sides ; how many tons on two sides ; 
and how much ore opened up on only one side. The 
distances at which the samples were taken, the 
method of sampling, the width of the vein at the 
points where the samples were taken, in detail or in 
averages for each block — these facts should be given, 
together with the dollar-feet, in detail or by averages, 
for each block of ore exposed. If this were done, and 
the manager were aware of the fact that each in- 
vestor had the material for analyzing and criticizing 
his report, either in person or through the employ- 
ment of a competent expert, it would do more than 
anything else to secure the proper and intelligent de- 
velopment of mining properties, and would be also 
an effective guarantee against fraud. 

C. C. Derby.— I think Prof. Christy's definition for 
'ore in sight', of 'ore exposed on four sides', is better 
than Mr. Bradley's term of 'ore ready for stoping': 
Take, for instance, our cinnabar ore, as it occurs in 
most of the mines, in this State ; as soon as ore is 
struck in a drift and the face can be advanced suffi- 
ciently beyond the point of encountering the ore to 
permit of stoping, stoping is begun. We do not at- 
tempt to develop the ore, for the reason that it occurs 
in such irregular bodies and masses that it is almost 
impossible to do so. So that the definition for 'ore 
in sight' of 'ore ready for stoping' would not convey 
the same meaning as 'ore exposed on four sides', 
when applied to the usual method of mining cinnabar 
ore. 

S. B. Christy. — In that case it would still be pos- 
sible to say it is exposed on two sides or on one side. 

C. C. Derby. — We would call any ore 'ready for 
stoping ' as soon as we cut it in a drift. 

J. N. Nevius. — You couldn't say how many tons. 

E. P. Kennedy. — The prime object in working a 
mine is to produce as large profits as possible, while 
not neglecting to exhaust the probabilities of finding 
ore. The dividing up of ore into blocks to accurately 
estimate its value may, or may not, conform to the 
most economical method of working the mine. I 
shall call attention to the fact that we are speaking 
of a mine and not a prospect, and therefore would 
•consider exposing ore on four sides for the purpose 
of accurately determining its quantity and value as 
an unnecessary expense. The history of the mine 
and an intimate knowledge of the vein, plus two 



exposed faces, and sometimes with but one, would, in 
some cases, give sufficient basis for estimating the 
value of a block of ground, and often would be a 
better basis for estimating than the mere sampling 
of four exposed faces. The accuracy of the estimate 
obtained from sampling four exposed faces of a block 
of ore depends largely upon the mode of occurrence 
of the ore, and the size of the block. 

The term 'ore ready for stoping' conveys the idea 
that the ore is ready to extract, the aim in all devel- 
opment work. We presume a mine is opened up to 
produce the best economical results, and in so doing 
the ore may be exposed on four sides, but the fact 
that the ore is not so exposed implies that this is not 
the most economical way to develop ore. The tons 
and value of 'ore ready for stoping' may be based 
on the assay and widths of samples taken from one 
or more drifts, together with the knowledge of the 
vein ; or may be based on the assay and widths of . 
samples taken from each of the four exposed faces 
of a block. The term 'ore read}' for stoping' ex- 
presses the practical conditions as they exist, in so 
far as it is within the ability of the manager to esti- 
mate. 

T. A. Rickard. — You get this contrast: On the 
Rand the running of a drift or the sinking of a shaft 
proves the ore, while in another case — the extreme 
case that I mentioned in Colorado — you might block 
it out on four sides, and yet you could not estimate 
it satisfactorily; so that the number of sides on 
which ore has been proved does not determine the 
amount of it with finality. 

J. N. Nevius. — You assume that there is ore there 
ready to stope. 

S. B. Christy. — It seems to me that the investor 
should have access to all the information that the 
superintendent has. For instance, in certain kinds 
of formations where there is known to be a well 
defined ore-shoot, we all know that the opening up of 
a block of ore only on one side may be sufficient to 
enable a reasonable estimate to be made of the value 
of the block of ore. Of course, the figures represent 
probable rather than assured values; but the man 
investing in the property gradually comes to know 
that, and he takes his chances on it. The point is that 
in estimating the value of ore in a mine, all the evi- 
dence necessary to form an estimate of the volume 
of ore and its richness ought to be given. 

E. P. Kennedy. — It ought to be the property of the 
shareholders. 

T. A. Rickard. — In other words, the report should 
be a sincere honest report, and the manager should 
give the information so that it conveys the maximum 
of information, just as if I were writing to you, and 
had to tell you what was in a mine, I would try to 
convey the information to you in as few words as I 
could. 

S. B. Christy. — What I have in view is not that you 
should force the manager, necessarily, to expose the 
ore on all four sides. But if he exposes it only on 
one or two sides, and then tells you that there are 
so many tons of ore 'in reserve', you ought to have 
the information that it is not really exposed fully, in 
order that you may understand that you are taking 



January 16, 1909. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



125 



certain chances as to what its value may prove to be 
in future. It would clearly be a mistake to foi every 

mine to be worked iu the same maimer; hut the 
investor ought to know the way in which it is actu- 
ally being worked. 

E. P. Kennedy.— I think there would be a lot of 
unnecessary development work if you had to block 
it out on four sides. 

Mark B. Kerr. — Very often you are running a drift, 
and you are way ahead in that lower strip, and you 
know your orebodies are strong. You make a 'stop- 
tng raise' — I have used that term many a time — that 
stope goes up 400 ft. before it connects with t In- 
level above, but that is just as much a part of the 
development of the orehody, and it. would be men- 
tioned as 'probable ore' just as much as if it were 
developed on four sides, and there would be only two 
sides developed, that is, the raise and the drift. 

S. B. Christy. — It has often been said that lan- 
guage has been given us for the purpose of enabling 
us to hide our thoughts; and it seems to me that 
many of the reports I have read on mines appear to 
have been written for the purpose of concealing the 
real condition of the mine from those asked to 
invest in it. What we want to get at is some form 
of statement that will force the manager to give the 
stockholder such information as will enable him to 
form an intelligent idea of the value of his invest- 
ment. 

Whitman Symmes. — If we do not try to elaborate 
too much, I think we can have a standard form for 
mining reports. There are certain questions that 
every mining report should answer, and Mr. Brad- 
ley's question is certainly one of them. The report 
should state the amount of ore actually developed 
in the mine and the amount partly developed. Where 
ore is partly developed, that is, where it is exposed 
on less than three sides, I think that the engineer 
should state his reason for including it in his esti- 
mates. It is not necessary for ore to be entirely 
blocked out before it can be considered as a reserve. 
For example, I was called upon to estimate the avail- 
able tonnage in a number of small limestone lenses 
that were to be used by a cement company. Very 
little development work had been done and they 
were exposed only on the surface, but it would have 
been mere sophistry to have stated that there was 
not a dependable quantity of limestone already ex- 
posed. It was an easy matter to determine the gen- 
eral geology of the district and to decide that the 
limestone extended to an average depth of at least 
100 ft. ; upon that basis a definite statement of the 
amount of limestone exposed in the deposits was 
made. But the depth assumed, and the reasons for 
the assumption, were clearly stated in the report ; 
and it would not have been fair to the stockholders 
to have given them a definite estimate without briefly 
stating the data and reasons upon which the esti- 
mate was based. I do not think that any standard 
definition can be framed which will in all cases fairly 
apprise the reader what is meant by 'partly devel- 
oped ore', but if the mining engineer gives briefly 
the reasons for his assumptions, then the whole mat- 
ter is made clear. In many cases, the reasons given 



will lie that on the levels where the orebody is partly 
developed the vein and chimney of ore are found In 
continue with the same strength of formation, and 

that the ore has the same habit and value, lint a 
standard form of mining report should be so framed 
that it is impossible to evade noting such points. The 
failure to give definite figures, and the definite 
assumptions upon which those figures are based, as 
to partly developed ore in a mine is one of the com- 
monest causes for personal loss in mining ventures. 

S. B. Christy. — It is a well known principle that 
always governs in the writing of all good scientific 
treatises that the author should give his feicts abso- 
lutely distinct from his conclusions, and that the 
facts should be so clearly and fully stated that any 
other competent person, looking over his work, 
should be perfectly able either to verify his conclu- 
sions, if correct, or, if they are incorrect, to draw 
opposite conclusions from the same facts. And this 
should always be possible in a mining report. The 
stockholder should not be forced to depend on the 
mere opinion of the mine manager; he should have 
the facts stated so completely that he can either 
judge for himself the value of the mine, from the 
report, or else have the report reviewed by some 
competent expert. While most of the stockholders 
may not be able or willing to go to this trouble, and 
might be willing to gamble on the opinion of the 
manager, the very fact that some one stockholder 
may be able to prick the whole bubble and expose 
the deception would be a good check on the unscru- 
pulous manager, as he would find ruin and State's 
prison staring him in the face if he misrepresented 
the facts. 

J. N. Nevius. — I think that is a very important 
point; in a mine report the facts should be given 
separately from the conclusions. 

T. A. Rickard. — The highest compliment you can 
pay a description is that it faithfully sets forth the 
facts. I remember a paper that Arthur F. Wendt 
wrote in the Transactions of the Institute years ago, 
and he gave the facts so faithfully that he gave all 
the evidence necessary to controvert his own con- 
clusions. As a rule the facts that people give are 
more valuable than their conclusions, if the facts 
are sufficiently complete to enable the other man to 
make his own conclusions. That was an excellent 
paper of Wendt because the conclusions did not take 
up much space. 

Ernest A. Hersam. — The report should contain a 
concise and definite statement of the manager's 
opinion, but there are possibilities and contingen- 
cies on either side. The probabilities have a definite 
value, either a positive one, or a minus one ; but they 
get their value from the element of chance. If the 
stockholders know the circumstances and the condi- 
tions, they can then decide for themselves what risks 
they are willing to take. 

S. B. Christy. — But there is another phase of the 
question which I think should be considered ; that 
is, the possible effect of a true statement of the fact 
that there was actually, at a given time, no ore 'in 
reserve' in a mine. The necessity of making such a 
statement would ordinarily, of itself, raise in ques- 



126 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16. 1909. 



tion the competence of the management ; and yet it 
may occasionally happen that the management of a 
pockety mine ma}' be honestly forced to make such 
a statement, though the mine still has a future before 
it. The publication of such a report might create 
a panic, and destroy the value of the stock ; but even 
supposing that it did happen, the result would be 
that the timid investor would sell out, lowering the 
value of the stock to a nominal figure. This, while 
unfortunate for the timid investor, may be the best 
possible thing that could happen for the public in 
general. It would enable the more far-sighted own- 
ers to buy the stock at a low figure and keep up its 
production. So far as the long life of the mine is 
concerned, it might be well to get the weak members 
out, and give those having faith in the future of the 
mine a chance to control and manage it. It should, 
however, be a criminal offense to misrepresent the 
condition of a mine for the purpose of "freezing out 
the outsiders. ' ' The very fact that previous reports 
of the manager were in the hands of all the stock- 
holders would do a great deal to prevent such swin- 
dles. In short, I believe that publicity is the best 
remedy for corruption and inefficiency in mine man- 
agement, as well as in other industries. Nothing 
develops honesty in a man more quickly than the 
realization that he is held responsible for his actions. 
It is a well known axiom of good government that 
power and responsibility must always go together. 
Nearly all of the corrupting influences of our modern 
corporation life are due to the fact that the mana- 
gers and directors of these corporations are able to 
escape responsibility for their acts. And this grow- 
ing evil will never be checked until those in power 
realize that criminal prosecution and punishment 
will certainly and swiftly follow all abuses of their 
powers and responsibilities. 

Mark B. Kerr. — I would think that any share- 
holder in a mine, after the facts are given to him, 
should have the possibilities and the probabilities of 
the mine also given to him, and then the conclusions 
after that. Otherwise there would be an advantage 
for those on the inside who have that information. 

E. P. Kennedy. — Men are apt to draw their own 
conclusions. The manager is in a position to draw 
the right conclusion. 

Mark B. Kerr. — Because after all there is a great 
deal of chance to be taken in a mine. These ore- 
bodies are not always straight and easy to mine. 
Sometimes they pinch out to a mere thread. Then, 
again, a fault xaay occur. Of course, all those things, 
if they are taken into account as probabilities and 
possibilities, will give a shareholder a fair chance 
to see what sort of a risk he is taking. The manager 
should help the shareholders to determine the value 
of their interest. Then it is a square deal, and if the 
shareholder gets timid and drops out, he at least has 
all the possibilities before him, and the directors 
have not the advantage of inside information. 

H. W. Turner. — I think that the point of view of 
the shareholder has not been brought out clearly in 
this discussion. In the first place, the manager has 
the confidence of the shareholders. He is appointed 
manager because they think he has good judgment, 



and can operate the mine economically, and they 
will accept his general conclusions in nine eases out 
of ten without investigating the details of the report. 
Of course, full information about the mine should 
be given for those investors who want details or who 
have engineers who can size up the details for them. 
But I feel pretty certain from my limited experi- 
ence that the investor depends chiefly on what the 
manager says. It stands to reason that if the man- 
ager is competent his estimate is worth the deduc- 
tions of all the shareholders put together. They 
would hardly care to vary much from his opinion. 
If the shareholders lost confidence in the manager, 
the3 r would drop him and get another. I think, there- 
fore, that the manager should be particular in his 
estimate of the developed tonnage in the mine, and 
its value at the time of his report, recognizing that 
his general conclusions will be taken by most of the 
shareholders as reliable, not only as to developed 
ore, but as to probable ore. 

S. B. Christy. — That is, the existing state of af- 
fairs? 

H. W. Turner. — Yes, and as to probable ore they 
would also consider him the best judge. 

S. B. Christy. — Do you think that the existing sys- 
tem is satisfactory? 

H. W. Turner. — You take a report like those of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan ; that is very satisfactory. 

T. A. Rickard. — "We might put it down as the sense 
of this meeting that we regard it as highly unpro- 
fessional for a mining engineer or a mine manager 
to give a report calculated to mislead the stock- 
holder, even though it be in favor of the Board of 
Directors. Some expression of opinion should be 
made. 

F. W. Bradley. — We have only discussed the first 
part of the question. We have only covered the first 
paragraph. 

S. B. Christy. — We consider it the duty of the 
management of a mining company to furnish the 
stockholders with the information in their possession, 
or sufficient information to enable them to have a 
knowledge of the mine and a knowledge of the aver- 
age value of the ore exposed in the mine, with the 
reasons on which the statement of fact is based. 

T. A. Rickard. — Yes, except that you have used 
the word 'management', which is general, and we 
are concerned more with the individual engineer 
than with the management. 

S. B. Christy. — Well, the circular says 'reports of 
the management', does it not? It is agreed that the 
reports of mining companies should contain suffi- 
cient information to inform the stockholders as to 
the amount and value of the ore exposed in the mine, 
at the time at which the report was written, together 
with the information upon which these calculations 
are founded. 



Earthquake shocks of violence are usually pre- 
ceded by fore-shocks over the epicentral region, that 
is, vertically over the point of greatest strain, accord- 
ing to demonstrations from studies made in Japan by 
F. Omori. 



.Januiii-v 10. lillti). 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



127 



MINING AND METALLURGICAL PATENTS. 

Specially reported for the Mining and Scientific Press. 



WATER-SPRAYING DEVICE FOR PNEUMATIC TOOLS 
-No. 905,387. Albert H. Taylor, Easton, Pennsylvania. 




A water spraying device for pneumatic tools, comprising 
a hollow rotating handle communicating with a water sup- 
ply, and an ejector carried by the handle, for spraying water 
onto the desired spot, said ejector having its discharge noz- 
zle in communication with the interior of the handle and its 
force nozzle in communication with the air supply. 



PROCESS OF EXTRACTING ZINC— Xo. 905,753. Ed- 
ward H. Shortman, Bloxwich. England. 




The improvement in the art of extracting zinc by distilla- 
tion which consists in passing the metallic vapors prior to 
condensation through a lead-intercepting medium consisting 
of anthracite or hard non-bituminous coal or hard coke in a 
condition that renders it chemically inert but active by its 
physical or mechanical properties. 



MINER'S SAFETY-CANDLESTICK.— No. 906,449. 
erick Muenger, Hill City, South Dakota. 



Fred- 




A miner's candlestick comprising a member provided 
with a spud at one end, and at match receptacle at the other 
end, an intermediate candle-holder at one side, a hook oppo- 
site the candle-holder, and a scrap-hook adjustably attached 
to the bottom of said hook, a rod attached to said hook and 
projecting toward the holder, an extinguisher slldably 
mounted on said rod, and a spring for moving said extin- 
guisher toward the holder. 



ORE-CONCENTRATING TABLE.— No. 906,464. Claude 
Sherwood, Black Bear, Idaho. 




The combination of a concentrating table, a series of sepa- 
rate pockets extending along the discharge side of the table 
and each having a series of distinct outlets, a series of sepa- 
rate troughs to receive different classes of material from 
the outlets of the individual pockets, and shiftable means 
with an opening to register with the respective outlets for 
directing the different materials entering each pocket 
through the outlets into separate troughs. 



METHOD OF MINING.— No. 904,021. 
Elizabeth, New Jersey. 



Martin Schwerin, 




The herein-described method of mining consisting in con- 
necting a drift and an open-ended waste-chute by succes- 
sively slicing on an incline a minable body which is be- 
tween the drift and chute, and in filling the space formed by 
the slicing operation whereby the minable material above 
said space is supported by the filling. 



LADLE FOR CARRYING AND TIPPING BLAST-FUR- 
NACE SLAG.— No. 906,117. John H. Dewhurst, Sheffield, 
England. 




A slag ladle consisting of two parts divided from each 
other vertically, means for holding the two parts together 
and trunnions, the joint between the two parts extending 
longitudinally of the ladle and in a plane and at right angles 
to the vertical plane in which the trunnions lie, substan- 
tially as described. 



CONCENTRATING APPARATUS.- 
E. Darrow, Sutter Creek, California. 



-No. 906,205. Wilton 




A concentrating apparatus comprising a plurality of cir- 
cumferentially disposed upright supports carrying inwardly 
projecting arms spaced apart in tiers, each tier carrying a 
circumferentially disposed inclined ring, a plurality of cir- 
cumferentially diposed trays flexibly connected with said 
rings and being adjustably supported by said rotating sup- 
ports, and pulp supply discharging on said trays. 



128 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 



January 16, 1909. 



Special Machinery for Placer Mining. 

Written by E. L. Byron. 

Many experiments have been made with different kinds 
of machinery for placer mining, and since the days of the 
one man and a pan, many successes have been made with 
improved devices, so that in this day of advancement, placer 
ground that a short time ago w£ts considered impossible, is 
now being worked at a profit. 

While it is undoubtedly true that the most common, and 
up to the present time, perhaps the most successful method 
of working placers, especially in the Western States, is by 
bucket-dredges, yet owing to the large cost of the plant, the 
small operator has been practically shut out from this form 
of mining enterprise. Again, there are many gravel depos- 
its to which a bucket-dredge is not adapted, especially 
where the bedrock is uneven. Most of the gold in this class 
of mining is bound to be found in the crevices in the bed- 
rock, so that the top crust of such bedrock must be re- 
moved to get the richest part of the deposit, and owing to 
the peculiar construction of the elevator-bucket dredges, it 
is impossible to remove all of the gold that lodges in these 
crevices. 

The accompanying drawing shows a special dredge, with 
gold-saving machine attachments, designed to fill the re- 
quirements stated. All the machinery is mounted on one 
boat and is compact in every respect; two men are needed 



that it can be 'knocked down' and hauled by teams through 
a mountainous country. 

The machinery for this new gold dredge is manufactured 
by the Vulcan Steam Shovel Co., of Toledo, Ohio. When 
used as a dredge, the boat is ordinarily built on the ground, 
and working drawings are furnished by the manufacturers. 
If, however, timber is not to be had in the immediate vicin- 
ity, all material for the boat can be framed at the works of 
the manufacturer, and shipped with the machinery in a 
'knocked down' condition, to be re-assembled on the ground. 



Publications Received. 



Any of the books noticed in these columns are for sale by 
or can be procured from the Mining and Scientific Press. 



Mechanical Engineering of Steam Power Plants. By 
Frederic Remsen Hutton. 3d. ed.; Svo.; 866 pp.; ill.; index. 
John Wiley & Sons. 190S. Price $5. 

The name of P. R. Hutton is so well known in the field 
of mechanical engineering, and his book on Steam Power 
Plants has so long been a standard of reference, that inter- 
est will be quickened by the announcement that the present 
edition is in effect a new work. It is not a mere revision; 
it has been entirely re-written, none of the old plates being 
retained. The points subject to elaboration in the new edi- 
tion are chiefly the steam-pipe, and the many auxiliaries 
which have become so important in the economy of modern 




when making an output of from 200 to 1000 cubic yards of 
ordinary placer ground per day of 10 hours. 

This outfit consists of a revolving shovel, that is, a power- 
shovel mounted on a pivot so that it swings through a com- 
plete circle, thus allowing it to dig and dump on all sides. 
The shovel is mounted on the front end of the boat; it digs 
the material in front and swings through a half circle, de- 
positing the gravel in the hopper fit the gold-saving device 
mounted on the rear end of the boat. 

The gold-saving part of the machine is built to take care 
of the material as fast as the shovel will dig it. The shovel 
excavates the material and delivers it into the hopper in 
the rear. All of the gravel not too coarse passes through 
the hopper into the revolving screen. This revolving screen 
has perforations through which the material passes, the 
gold particles passing into the shelves lined with cocoa- 
matting and the waste out into the sluices and up over the 
conveyor-belt to the dump. Rippers are provided in the 
sluice-boxes to recover any gold that may have passed 
through the matting. 

This machine can not only be used in wet placer mining, 
but all machinery can be easily removed from the boat 
and mounted on standard trucks or traction-wheels, and 
operated on dry placers. The change converts the machine 
into a standard revolving shovel for all classes of dry placer 
work, and the gold-saving machinery being mounted on 
trucks or traction-wheels and attached to the rear end of 
the shovel, makes it practically a duplicate outfit of the 
dredge machine. This machine is arranged for either steam 
or electric power. It is also constructed in such a manner 



plants; the steam-turbine also receives treatment appro- 
priate to its increasing importance as a factor in power- 
generation. 



Commercial Handbook of Canada. Heaton's Annual, for 
1909. Edited by Ernest Heaton and J. Beverley Robinson. 
Svo.; 418 pp. Heaton's Agency, Toronto. Price $1.10. 

This contains all that a national reference annual is sup- 
posed to cover, and some things besides. For example, the 
existing tariff schedules and regulations are given in detail, 
as are also the Provincial regulations affecting foreign cor- 
porations; trade-mark, patent, and copyright laws; fishery 
treaties; boiler regulations, and the like. There is included 
a mineral directory; and a trade register covering the prin- 
cipal towns of the Dominion. A resume of the mining laws 
would have ad