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Mining and Scientific Press 









Abanearez Gold Fields of Costa Rica 34, 206, 358, 

511, 666, 

Company Report **2, 

Abbontiakoon Mines, Ltd., company report 

Abosso mine. West Africa 270, 

Acacia Mining Co., Colorado 

Accident prevention Editorial. . . . 

Rules, Copper Queen Co.'s mine, Arizona 

Accident Gold Mining Co., Subil mine, French Gulch, 


Accidents, coal-mine in United States 

Compensation for 

Workingmen's compensation Editorial. . . . 

Acid mine water 

Acidity, counteracting 

Acme mill. Sears' 

Adams, John Colt, death of 

Additon, A. Sydney . .Under-estimating the cost of mill- 
ing plants— I, II, III, IV 88, 138, 263, 301, 

Administration and Mexico 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Advertising results of company meetings. .Editorial. . . . 
Aerial tramway across Andes mountains. South America. 

Tramway, Irvinebank 

Tramway, one-rope Editorial. . . . 

Tramway, Saline Valley Salt Co., California 


Africa, copper In Central 

Phosphate , 

Agitation i; ■•,;,••.;,•,•;• ,11 ■■ ■ 

Slime H. B. Wright.... 

Agitator, Dorr John V. N. Dorr .... 

Symmes P- G. Spilsbury 

Ditto Whitman Symmes .... 

Trent Donald F. Irvin. . . . 

Ditto i Walter Techow .... 

Agricola: an apreciatlon. . . . . .F. Lynwood Garrison.... 

On fissure veins 

Ahmeek Copper Mining Co., Kearsarge, Michigan 

635, 791, 

Dividend 34, 

Alr-compressof, Sullivan angle-compound 

Fred D. Hold&worth .... 

Lift, design for an R. H. Shaw 

Pressure In smelting 

Ajax Gold mining Co., Colorado 

Mine, Victor, Colorado, electric mine-signal system.. 

Akin, A. D Olancho county, Honduras. . . . 

Alabama, mineral production 167, 

Alaska. Aleutian group 


Distances to new placer districts 

Fairbanks district output 1913 

Fairbanks distrtot sts^mp-raiUs 

Fineness of gold ati j 


Gold dredges 

Gold placer district, new 

Gold placer production 

Gold placers 

Coldstream, No. 17 u: •,• • •••••••■ 

Home rule In Editorial 

Hot Springs district output 1913 

Innoko and Iditarod districts 

Kovukuk-Chandalar region 

Lode mining in interior Editorial.... 

Matanuska coalfields 

Metalliferous mining in 1912 

Mining laws • . .Editorial, . . . 

Nelchina placer district 

Nome storm 588, 627, 699, 

Ditto Editorial 559, 710, 














Pioner electric locomotives in 

Proper outfitting for trails, and government super- 
vision Editorial.... 953 

Railway construction Editorial .... 86 

Rock-drilling contests 210, 2SS 

Rubv district output 1913 90fi 

Ruby, Innoko. and Iditarod districts 819 

Shushana district 236, 355, 391, 627, 94.t 

Ditto Editorial 329 

Shushana district. Canadian Geological Survey report 507 

Shushana district, distance to 1028 

Shushana district output S2S 

Shushana-Glacier trail 966 

Tanana valley output 906 

Wagon-roads and trails 1021 

Willow Creek district Editorial 330 

Willow Creek district, lode mining in 

Sumner S. Smith.... 335 

Winter work in A. E. Garvey, T. A. Rickard. . . . 110 

Alaska Free Gold Mining Co 336 

Alaska Gastineau Mining Co 116. 184, 391 

Ditto Editorial. ... 879 

Alaska Gold Mines Co 471, 541 

Ditto Editorial 879 

Preparatory Work of Grant H. Tod. . . . 184 

Suit regarding 906 

Alaska Gold Quartz Mining Co 336 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co Editorial. . . . 879 

Plans of the F. W. Bradley 880 

Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co. .199, 355, 627, 742, 868, 906 

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co 199, 355, 627, 

699, 868, 906 

Ditto Editorial 879 

Dividend 1028 

Electric locomotives 918 

Stamp-mill returns 742 

Alaska United Gold Mining Co 199, 355, 627, 784, 

868, 945 

Albert Oil Shales, Sussex, New Brunswick 826 

Aleutian group. Alaska 116 

Alex Scott mine, Butte, Montana 195 

Algeria, mining In 891 

Algomah Mining Co., company report 556 

Alice mine v. Anaconda Copper Mining Co 865 




Alkaline cyanides, electrolysis of aqueous solutions of 

the simple .927 

Solution, clarifying with basic lead acetate 515 

Alleghany district, California, geology of 22 

Allen, A. W Colloids In ore dressing. . . . 109 

Ditto Simplification of gold-ore treatment.... 254 

Ditto Solution control In cyanldation. . . . 448 

Allouez Mining Co., Allouez, Michigan 635, 743, 791, 991 

Alloy, elianite 170 

Osmium-platinum, a new F. Zimmermann. . . . 533 

Alloys, melting points of copper 890 

All-sliming mill 136 

Alluvial gold 46 

Alluvlals, successful salting of C. S. Haley.... 1000 

Alta Berta Gold Dredging Co., California 357 

Alta Consolidated Mining Co., Utah 547 

Capital stock increased 666 

Altman, Benjamin, legacy Editorial.... 674 

Aluminum 912 

H. D, Avis' patent for coating 306 

Industry 790 

Powdered 170 

Precipitation process 217 

Alunite 44 J 

Alvarado Mining & Milling Co., Mexico 988 

Amador Copper & Gold Mining Co., Montana 947 

Amalgamated Copper Co.. Butte, Montana 624, 865, 980 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay), Ltd 381 

Company report 706 

American canyon, Humboldt county, Nevada, placer camp 373 
Enterprises In South America, and American manu- 
facturers Editorial. ... 518 

American Electrochemical Society and American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers, New York section 

meeting 865 

American Fireproofing tc Mining Co., Wyoming, organ- 

American Plag mine, Utah 433, 437, 

American Institute of Mining Engineers and affiliation 
with Mining and Metallurgical Society of America 

Editorial 329, 

Butte meeting ...,-. Editorial.. 

Colorado section, meeting at Denver 824 

Ditto Editorial 797 

Iron and Steel settlon meeting 662 

Ditto . .' Editorial 518, 638 

Montana local section, meeting 825 

New Tork section, joint meeting with American 

Electrochemical Society 865 

Spokane and Montana sections 785 

American Lead & Zinc Co., Illinois 202 

American Mining Congress Editorial. . . . 365 

Philadelphia meeting 665, 696 

Resolutions J*y 

American Smelters Securities Co 431 

American Smelting & Refining Co 431, 471 

Arsenic limit on Cobalt ores "82 

Dividend 398 

El Paso smelter 522 

Garfield plant 666 

Hayden smelter 524 

In Mexico 662. 944 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co 197. 387. 4(4 

Amy-Matchless Mining & Milling Co., Arizona, organized 907 

Anaconda, briquetting cf slime at 

Leaching process Montana. . . . 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 

114, 166. 541. 542, 635, 786, 791. 824. 825. 980, 

Dividend 541 

Geologic notes underground 940 

Nettie silver mine ^xZ 

November copper production Editorial .... 8 1 1 

Smelter , 659 

Tropic shaft ; J'O 

v. Alice mine 865 

v. Butte-Ballaklava Copper Co., amicable adjust- 

v. Pilot-Butte Mining Co 

Washoe plant 597, 

Anakie sapphire fields of Queensland. .Lionel C. Ball. ... 

Analyses, dikes on Rand '?ll 

Of pyrrhotite ■ ■ ■ 126 

Analysis for constituents of zinc ores, combined method 

• of Frank A. Bird 1 ' 

Of black powder and dynamite *f 

Anantapur Gold Field, Ltd.. India "JJ 

An-Chi ironfield C. T. Wang. ... 311 

Anchor Tin Mining Co., Tasmania JiS 

Company report 

Andesite. Tonopah Belmont mine, Nevada - 

Aneroid barometer •' • 

Anglo-French Exploration Co., company repori..-. 

Annalist, New York Times Editorial 

Annealing of gold i;" 

Antelope Gold Mine, Ltd., Rhodesia ' *' 

Company report j°° 

Anthracite, mining cost and profit 

Production, Pennsylvania 


Imports into United States i'i'l 

Aqueduct, Catsklll .• ■ ' ' 

Aqueous solutions of the simple alkaline cyanides, 
electrolysis of 










Aramavo Francke Mines, Ltd.. Bolivia jy* 

Arba Tin Mining Co.. Tasmania WoV ,aJ? 

Ardmore Oil Co., South Dakota 1''25, 1031 

Are there jobs enough to go around? ;,• '. ' • ; il ' ' ' onn 

F. Sommer Schmidt. .. . 900 

Argentine, railways, federal ownership. ..Editorial ... . 25- 

Argonaut Mining Co.. v. Kennedy Extension Co 4i- 

Arizona metal production •»- 

Mining Industry 

Patent on mining claim ••• 

Arizona Commercial Copper Co., Globe, ^"^Pa^iik'siS 

I^in'e" 663. 

Arizona Copper Co., " Ltd., ' Morenci,^^AHzon^^^ 279. |44. ^^^ 

Inspection department Editorial 86 

Powder explosion ■,%% 

Smelter "^^ 



Vol. 107 






V. County of Greenlee ^^4^4 

Arkansas, Blue, and Magazine mountains '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 838 

Diamonds in 79 

Mineral products !!!!.!!!! 779 

Zinc ore deposits in Boone and Marion counties!!!! 

Klrby Thomas 

Arrastre. an old 

Arsenic in United States 250 

In Virginia ' ' ' 

Limit on Cobalt ores, American Swelling & Refin- 
ing Co 7g2 

Asbestos deposits, Urals 528 

Production in Canada ! 210 

Production in United States '. .'.'210 669 

Russia 362 

Virginia j5 

Ashanti mine. West Africa ! ! . ! ! 892 

Gold production 270 

Ashburton Mining Co., dredge. California !!!! ' 829 

Assay office. United States at Helena, Montana 659 

Assaying, iron-nail method 170 

Associated Gold Mines, Ltd., Western Australia, 235, 433 

^ ,. ,. ■ .. 594, 835, 911 

Cobalt properties 626 1032 

Company report ' 286 

Costs at 327 

Cyanidation "' 759 

Power-plant at M. W. von Bernewltz. ! ! ! 346 

Associated Northern Blocks, Ltd., Western AustraHa 

■■„ . , . ^ 235, 43,3, 835, 911 
Victorious leases, Oro Banda, 235, 425, 433, 469, 694 

626, 781 

Atbasar and Spassky copper properties, Siberia 580 

Athabasca Landing, Alberta, Canada, oil diacoverv.903, 1025 

Atkins. G. H Duty on cyanide salts 428 

Atla.s mine, Tuttletown, California 117 

Attorney's fees Editorial...! 481 

Auckland province. New Zealand, gold and silver pro- 
duction 494 

Australia, Bendlgo, gold production !!!!!! 296 

Compensation Act 105 

Copper production .78 729 

Deep mining in '.' . ' 693 

Mineral production .672 738 

Mines, ore reserves of ' ' 655 

Northern Territory, new mining ordinance ...!!!!!! 500 

Radium ores in 23' 

Syijney Stock Exchange, new rule !!'!'" 867 

Victoria, mining law lO'l 

Zinc smelting in !!!! 776 

Australian capital abroad ! ! ! 8J7 

Tin mine, Tasmania ! ! 616 

Austria coal mine fatality rate ! ! ! 876 

St. Joachimsthal, radium from pitchblende ! 403 

Automobile hoist 5 50 

Avis, H. D., patent for coating aluminum !!!!!!!!! 306 


Babcock & Wilcox boiler 575 

V. Stirling boilers Hervey GuIIck 864 

Baffles H. N. Splcer 429 

Inclined L. B. Eames 503 

Ditto H. G. Nichols 823 

Ditto John E. Rothwell 194 

With slime settlement 708 

Baja California, mining In !...! 943 

BalaKhat, Kolar, India 694 

Balaklala Copper Co., California 161. 318, 435, 742 

And Field process, smelter fume 829 984 

Hall process 628 

Balaklala-Trlnity-Vulcan mines, Shasta county. Cali- 

„ , 'ornia W. H. Storms 408 

Balance, hoisting in Editorial.... 920 

Baldwin-Westlnghouse locomotive 996 

Balkan mining Editorial 293 

„ War cost Editorial 213 

Ball, Lionel C. .Anakie sapphire flelds of Queensland. . . . 151 

Ball, Sydney H Sandstone copper deposits at Bent 

New Mexico 132 

Balllet, Letson Counterbalancing hoists.... 936 

Balliet system of counterbalancing Editorial... 920 

Baltic Mining Co., Michigan 59O 

Banket Editorial 637 

Banks and profits of mining railway and Industrial 

enterprises Editorial 954 

Banks, Charles A Dewaterlng tank 154 

Barnes, Corrin and E. A. Byler Relation of faulting 

and mineralization in Goldfleld 59 

Barnes-King Development Co., MontaiM, 118, 319 474, 

„ 543. 659, 90S 

Barometer, aneroid 126 

Barrows, D. P. and President's Mexican policy 

„ Editorial 797 

Barstow mine. Colorado 628 

Barytes In Missouri 493 

Production In United States In 1912 36 

Basic-lined converter B. P. Mathewson. ... 61 

Batopllas Mining Co., Chihuahua, Mexico, Company re- 

„ port 401 

Battery, cam-shafts for a 838 

Bauxite 126 

Beaver Consolidated Mines, Ltd., Cobalt, Canada.. 354, 739 

Company report 556 

Beaver Gold Dredging Co., resolling after dredging in 

California G. L. Hurst 719 

Beck Tunnel Consolidated Mining Co., Utah 29 

Bedford. Robert H. and William Hague. .. .Rock-drill 

testing at the North Star 179 

Belcher mine. Gilpin county, Colorado 165, 357 

Belgian furnaces In zinc smelting. . .George C. Stone. . . . 931 

Belgium, coal mine fatality rate 876 

Liege district coal mining 690 

Bell mine, Rhodesia 761 

Belt conveyors, material used in 978 

Belts, large driving 17 

Picking 750 

Bendlgo. Australia, sold production 296 

Ben Hur Leasing Co., Washington 867 

Bennett, Vyvyan C Lead salts fn cyanidation.... 154 

Bent, New Mexico, sandstone copper deposits at 

Sydney H. Ball 132 

Bering river coal, Alaska Editorial. . . . 481 

Berwind-WTilte Coal Mining Co., portable sub-station.. 1040 

Bewick, Moreing & Co., Western Australia 424 

Big business and industrial prosperity 

C. R. Van HIse 730 

Big Four Co.. High Grade region. California 661 

Big Pine property, Manhattan, Nevada 785 

Billingsley, Paul Georgetown mining district and^''^^ 

Bingham Mines ,^: ZT.^ St^h^ '''"^' ^°°'^"^- ' ' " lit 

l'-'' c^o^n^s"tl\u^n-tso?°zTn''iTes™.^.''^°<^ oV analysis ' fo; J' 

Bisbee^eopper ores, Los Angeles ChambeV of' Mines' "arid ^^ 

Bishop Cre4k' 'r^ine,' 'Cali'forn'ia! 'c'yaAide'piaAt inti 

Bismarck Consolidated Mines, Black HUls, sSuth'b'akoia * 

Bismuth in United States ^*'^' ^^"^ ^^5 

Tj, Tln-wolfrara ores from Tasmania' ! ! ! ?«? 

Black-damp 461 

Black Diamond, Alberta,' Canada! 'oi'l' discovery on? 

mn?s • ^""''^ °^'"'*^- '""'^'■'^' ProductfoX !!!!!!!! 826 

^^^"^ n°a ^'"^^ * ^'"" '^°'- Tuo'lumn'e' co'u'nty,' 'ciliforl ^^° 

Cyanidation !!!!!!!!! §28 

§!'^"^1' S?"^?- Western Austr'a'lii'.' .'.'.'.'.'.■ J' '594 ' 655"8'q'>;' q^i 

B ack Warrior Gila county, Arizona . . . . . . . ^^^- ^^^' HI 

ptnT r^p"on' ."!• Sl«-<=''^^te''. New Zealan'd.'co'm: ^"^ 

Blaine county, Idaho, 'geology' !!!!!!!!! HI 

I Ispfe ,^;?i^r,ng 'in' 'o'pe'n-'pi't' copp^i^f.?; ™'- ^ ' ' ■ 
il^ct"fin1f H^°, -Arizona".'.;'.'.' •'^'^^^>- S. Wrier!!!! 

Bluebell mine, British Columbia ...!!!! Ut 

Blue sky law. South Dakota ite 

Boicza Gold Mines, Hungary Aii 

Boilers, graphite useful in steam qi 

In reverberatory furnace flues, waste'lieat! !!!!!!!!!' 

cti.n-™ T> I, ■ o ,„;,••■• S. Severin Sorensen.!!! 575 

Stirling V. Babock & Wilcox Hervey Gulick 864 

Boleo,^Companie du Santa Rosalia, Baja California', 

Boleo Copper Co'.,' 'Mexico' !!!!!!!! *^^' ^'^' ??J 

Boleo copper mine. California ! ! ! ! iin 

Bolivia, Aramayo Francke Mines, Ltd gge 

Diamond-drilling at Poderosa mine. .C. L. Severy 338 

Mineral exports =<=.,.... ^ao 

Minerals In ; ; ; ; J^q 

Railroads and transportation problems iii! !!! ! 

„„„„ G. W. Wepfer!!!! 100 

Railway 1 (.<< 

Tin production !!!!!!!!!!!!! 417 

Transportation problems in G. W. Wepfer 694 

Bonanza King ' ' ' ' ]6i 

Bond, Marshall Prospecting by' the' Government! !! ! 582 

Borax Consolidated, Ltd., in Peru 75 

Borax production in 1912 324 

Boston & Idaho Mining Co., Boise basin, Idalio! !!!"!"' 590 

Boston & Montana Copper Mining Co 195 

Boston & Montana Development Co ' '' 388 

Railroad ' ' 543 

Boston -Butte Copper & Zinc Co., formed .!.!! 824 

Botallack mine 980 

Boulder No. 1. Western Australia !. 594 835 951 

Boulder Perseverance. Western Australia 594, 835! 951 

Bouse & McMahon mine, Arizona 

Boynton workmen's compensation act California! ! ! ! ! ! 

„ ^ „ Editorial 

Braden Copper Co., La Junta, Chile, 111. 315, 358, 624 
„, - 635, 791, 827, 988, 

pitto Pope Yeatman 

Improvements „„„ 

Operations at ! ! 646 

Revised figures Editorial.!.! 1 

Stock advance 505 

Bradley. F. W.. gift to University of California. College 

of Mining Editorial 954 

Plans of the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co 880 

Bradley process Editorial 213 

Brakpan Mines Co., South Africa 432 

Brazil, iron ores 750 

St. John del Rey mine gold output 679 

Brazilar y Anexas Co., Baja California 944 

Breitung Mines Corporation 120 

Brellch, Henry Geological survey of China. . . . 976 

Brick, silica 838 

Bridge, John M Steel ore passes at Broken Hill.... 773 

Briquetting of slime at Anaconda 838 

Brisels Tin & General Mining Co., Tasmania 615 

Company report 37 

Britannia copper mine 159 

British carat 327 

Employer's liability act, results in 1912 

Editorial 599 

British Australian Oil Co., New South Wales 1018 

British Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd., Company- 
report 248 

British Columbia, cost of removing silt from harbors.. 443 
Kootenai-Boundary district, dividends paid by com- 
panies 910 

Sibolla Creek placer goldfleld 697 

Slocan district 1032 

Smelting works at Grand Forks 733 

British Columbia Copper Co., Ltd., Greenwood, B. C... 

30, 591, 635, 791, 871, 910, 991 

Dividends 358, 910 

British Guiana diamonds 681 

Gold output 681 

Ditto Editorial 518 

British Western Isles, Ltd., and Trinidad Oilfields, Ltd., 

Editorial 41 

Brokaw. A. D Precipitation of gold by raanganous 

salts 149 

Broken Hill field. New South Wales 314 

Flotation at 381 

Metallurgy at J. Malcolm Newman .... 307 

Mining methods at 162 

Selective flotation at 334 

Steel ore passes at John M. Bridge. . . . 773 

Tailing and ore treatment at 104 

Zinc ores and flotation processes Editorial. .. . 175 

Broken Hill Gold & Copper Co., selenite ores 943 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co., New South Wales, 

Australia 149, 461, 626, 634. 1024 

Port Pirle plant JJo 

Broken Hill Proprietary Block 14 Co., Company report. . 442 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co., Australia.. 149, 661, 773 

Company report f»° 

Bromine and salt, production in United States 444 

Bromo-cyanide process litigation Editorial .... 407 

Bronze, tobln ■ • • • „„, 

Broomassie mine. West Africa ...J/u, s^^ 

Brown, F. G Pachuca tanks 976 

Brown process decision Editorial .... 292 







Vol. 107 

Browne C. A. . . .Combination specific gravity bottle and 

ailatometer 348 

Ditto. .... Cyanide from residue of sugar-mi'lis! ! ! ! 186 

Brunswick Consolidated G. M. Co., California 54.5 

Dividends , 906 

Brunton. D. W. ..Mining problems and tlie Min'ingCon- 

gress 815 

Bruslies for dynamos, graphite 918 

Bucket dredges and alluvial tin 623 

Excavator scraper 685 

Buckeye Belmont mine, Tonopah 288 

Drill efflclency 350 

Hoisting [][ 93g 

Buckhorn Mines Co., Nevada !....!.!!!.. 831 

Progress at 452 

Buckhorn Mining Co.. Idaho 28 

Buena Tierra mine, Mexico 666 

Buffalo Mines. Ltd., Ontario, British Columbia 

243, 395, 548, 788, 948 

Company report 287 

Dividends 477 948 

Buffalo Star dredge, Victoria, Australia .' 94 

Building a reduction plant Herbert Lang 4 

Bujun coal mines Editorial 841 

Coal mines in Manchuria Reiji Kanda.... 856 

Bull Moose Mining Co., Colorado 628 

Bullfinch Proprietary, Ltd., "Western Australia, 2.15, 433, 

468, 594, 655, 835, 911 

Company report 247 

,„ Mill 217, 626 

BuUwhacker Copper Co., Butte. Montana 212 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co , 

Idaho ; 241 

Dividend 34, 246, 358, 398, 546, 743. 908 

V. Caledonia Mining Co.. extralateral rights. 201, 629, 986 
Bunker Hill Consolidated Mining Co., Amador, Califor- 
nia, dividend 700 

Burbanks Main Lode, Western Australia, 235. 433 594, 

T, ,, ..^ . „ 655, 835, 951 

Bureh, Albert Prospecting bv the Government.... 349 

Burchard, Ernest F. ..Iron production in United States 

In 1912 58 

Bureau of Mines, Ontario 112 

Bureau of Mines, United States, and explosives 65 

And mine safety Editorial 954 

Hoisting cage, new 172 

Mine sanitation 106 

Portable electric mine lamps ', 328 

Safety electric switches for mines 262 

Burners, portable 952 

Burrage. A. C v. Louis Ross suit ! 866 

Bush Tick Mines. Ltd., Rhodesia 390 

Business and industrial prosperity, big 

^ ,. . C. R. Van Hi&e. .. ! 730 

Conditions in United States 1026 

Butler. B. S. ..San Francisco district, Beaver county, 

Utah 547 

Butte chalcocite. origin of Reno Sales! '. '. '. 453 

District, Montana, electricitv in 597 

Meeting, American Institute of Mining Engineers 

„. , , Editorial 292 

Miner s union and Houghton strike 389 

Mines rich in depth 470 

Ores, genesis of Editorial! ! ! ! 446 

„ Strike 315 320 

Butte-Alex Scott Conner Co., Butte, Montana 28, 542 

Butte. Anaconfla & Pacific railway 659 

Electrification 83 

Butte & Ely Copper Co ...79, 543 

And Consolidated Coppermines Co. merger ' 195 

And Giroux 5O6 

Butte ft London Copper Development Co., Biitte, 

Montana Hg 

Butte Xr Pensacola Copper Mining Co., Cascade county, 

Montana 8'>5 

Butte & Superior Copper Co., Butte. Montana! 29. "leV, 
, ^ „, „ 195. 474, 543. 630, 669, 

And Elm Orlu Mining Co., extralateral rights 24, 

And Minerals Separation 


Flotation !..!..!!!!!!!!!!!' 

V. Minerals Separation, Ltd ' ' 237 

„ P'tto Editorial. . . .' 

Butte Ballaklava Copper Co., Butte. Montana 659. 

V. Anaconda Copper Mining Co., amicable adjii.stment 

Butte Central Copper Co 386 388 ., .., 

Reorganization 788 

Butte Daryumsu. Ltd.. Deer Lodge, Powell county, Mon- 
tana '. . . 

Butte-Duluth Mining Co., Butte, Montana.. 29, 659, VsV, 
Butte M»in Range Mining Co., Butte, Montana. 

And Tuolumne Conner Co 

Butte. Wisdom & Pacific Railway Cn • 388' 

Butters. Charles Filter leaf natent. . . .' 

v. Golden Cvcle Mining Co.. suit Editorial 

-Butters Salvador Mines. Ltd., Santa Rosa, Salvador 

Buxton mine. South Dakota 315 

Bwana M'Kubwa cooper mine. Northern Rhodesia. .276. 585 
Byler, E. A., and Corrln Barnes. .Relation of faulting 

and mineralization in Goldfleld 59 

Byler, E. A., and Lee W^. Davis Topographic model 

of Cripple Creek district 144 

Byrnes, Eugene A., death of ! ! ! ! 531 

Caetani. Gelasio Human side of milling 800 

Ditto Professional ethics. . . . 429 

Cage, new hoisting 172 

Calaveras Copner Co 785 

Caledonia Mining Co. v. Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & 

C, Co.. extralateral rights 201, 629, 986 

California copner 779 

Tlrertelng at Natoma M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 1017 

Dredging at Pnelling 1002 

East Fork mining district 472 

Geologv and TTnlted States Geological Survey 544 

High Grade district 661 

Industrial materials of 207 

Mineral production , 592 

Ditto Charles G. Yale 516 

Mineral resources. State Mining Bureau 

Editorial 251 

Mother Lode of W. T. Robinson .... 65 

Oil fields 356 

Oil operations 906 

on production 199, 544 

Oil production for 1913 J. H. G. Wolf 579 

Oil resources Editorial. . . . 559 

Quicksilver production 210 



„ Page. 

Resoiling after dredging in G. L. Hurst. . . . 719 

Searles Lake potash deposits H. S. Gale.... 56 

Smelting at Campo Seco . . . .M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 897 

Trinity county mineral resources 1029 

California Nevada Exploration Co., Chloride, Arizona... 784 
Calumet & Arizona Mining Co.. Warren, Arizona, 71, 199, 

■ 508, 635, 683, 791, 904, 945, 991 

New Cornelia copper property, AJo, Arizona, 471, 527, 585 

Smelter 525 

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., Calumet, Michigan, 586, 

590, 635, 743, 785, 791, 908, 991 

Accident compensation 226 

And American Federation of Labor 624 

Calumet dredge 818 

In California 508 

Lake Superior strike Editorial .... 174 

Mining Costs 82 

One-man drill and two-man drill 692 

Calumet & Sonora of Cananea Mining Co., Mexico, 30, 75, 

316, 359 

Cam shafts, breakages in 838 

Shafts for a battery ; 838 

Cam & Motor, Rhodesia 381, 390, 761, 1027 

Camanche dredge, California 940 

Ditto C. G. Leeson 933 

Cambridge v. Commonwealth generator 626 

Camp Bird, Ltd., Nicaragua 1033 

Camp Bird, Ltd., Ouray, Colorado 118, 237, 907 

And its reinvestments Editorial.... 998 

Campo Seco, California, smelting at 

M. W. von Bernewitz.... 897 

Canada as an iron producer Editorial. ... 406 

Athabasca Landing, Alberta, oil rush 903, 1026 

Coal mining in western Editorial.... 599 

Mineral production 874 

Ditto Editorial 709 

Ontario, Accident statistics 746 

Dredges, new An occasional contributor. . . . 460 

Iron and steel industry of Editorial. . . . 174 

Mt. Royal tunnel drilling 327 

Zinc smelting investigation Editorial.... 213 

Canada Iron Corporation, Montreal, Canada 389 

Canadian Consolidated Mining Co., dividend 548 

Canadian Copper Co.. Canada 215, 238 

Canadian Klondyke Mining Co 460, 871 

And Yukon Gold Co., dredge on Klondike river 988 

Canadian Mining & Exploration Co. endowed prospect' 

ing Editorial.... 842 

Canadian Nickel Corporation, Ltd 238, 471 

Canal, Panama, excavation work at Cucaracha slide... 977 

Panama, concrete laid in locks and works 978 

Cananea Consolidated Copper Co.. S. A., Cananea, Sonora, 

Mexico . ; 53. 238, 276. 471, 635, 667, 791, 827, 991 

Cananea, cost of reverberatory smelting at 522 

Smelter 526, 833 

Cancellation of patent 949 

Cape Colony diamond production 642 

Capital for mines and prospects, securing 

H. C. Cutler 822 

Carat, British 327 

Caribou-Cobalt Mines Co 623 

Carlsbad oilfield 119 

Carn Brea & Tincroft mine, Cornwall 430, 505, 979 

Tailing 352 

Carnegie Coal Co. mine locomotives 996 

Carnotlte in Colorado 838 

Carpatliia tin mine. New South Wales 867 

Carpenter, Jay A.. .Operation of West End mill, Tonopah 191 

Casamajor, Dr. Louis, manganese poisoning 

Editorial 42 

Case gasoline melting furnace 82 

Castle Dome. Arizona 781 

Catskill aqueduct 846 

Cement production in United States in 1912 167 

Centennial Copper Mining Co., Calumet, Michigan. 246, 

635. 743, 791. 991 

Central states metal output 78 

Central Mining & Investment Corporation, Rand, South 

Africa 515, 597 

Company report 513 

Surface operating costs 708 

Central Red. White & Blue Co., Bendigo, Australia, Com- 
pany report 993 

Central Zinc Co.. Ltd., Company report 595 

Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., Cerro de Pasco, Peru, 635. 

791, 991 

Ceylon plumbago 249 

Chaffer.s, Australia 468, 655 

Chalcedony, Nevada 793 

Chalcocite, origin of Butte Reno Sales.... 463 

Original 134 

Chalmers & W^llliams. tube-mill adjustable discharge. .. 1040 

Chambers-Ferland and Northern Concentrators, Ltd.... 826 

Champion lease, Benton, Wisconsin 982 

Champion Copper Mining Co., Michigan 590 

Champion Reef Gold Mining Co.. Kolar, India 694 

Charcoal to precipitate gold In cyanide solutions 762 

Chartered & General mine. Rhodesia 209 

Charters To^wers, Queensland 372 

Gold and silver production 864 

Goldfield 527 

Mineral production 1018 

Chase, Charles A Mining schools and politics.... 427 

Chemical, Metallurgical, and Mining Society of South 

Africa Editorial.... 753 

Chemical reactions, role of pressure in 

John Johnston .... 501 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co., Utah 119, 249 

Company report 325 

Chihuahua, mining conditions in western 936 

Chile, iron ore deposits of Carlos Vattier 893 

Nitrate Editorial 482, 518 

Nitrate fields of Walter S. Tower 495 

Nitrate lands, sale of 36 

Northern Longitudinal railway Editorial 997 

Chile Copper Co 827, 866 

Ore reserves Increased 903 

Chilean mill data, slow-srveed ... .Erich J. Schrader.... 136 

Mills V. Hardinge mills Robert Franke 223 

Chillagoe Co., Ltd., Queensland, Australia, Company re- 
port 993 

China, An-Chl Ironfield C. Y. Wang 311 

And India, currency problems in the Orient 

Editorial 754 

And Japan, coal mining in 35 

As a tin producer 646 

Coke-making in 1013 

Geological survey of Henry Brelicli . . . . 9TR 

Ditto , .'F. Lynwood Oarrlson .... 735 

Vol. 107 


Gold mining in 227 

Launching a republic Editorial.... 519 

Mining and metallurgical industries. . . .Editorial. . . . 998 

Transportation in 268 

Transporting coal in 973 

Chinese mine, hoisting at a 137 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 193 

Chinese Engineering & Mining Co., coal sold 1021 

Chino Copper Co., Santa Rita, New Mexico, 65, 74, 119, 

521, 522, 635, 791, 827, 903, 991 

Bonds 904 

Company report 325, 831 

Dividend 398, 944 

Christmas Gold Mining Co. v. John T. MlUiken » 870 

Chrome ore, consumption 813 

Chromic iron ore in United States 334 

Iron ore production In United States 79 

Chuquicamata, metallurgical plant at Editorial.... 43 

Cia. Metalureica de la Baja California 943 

Cienguita Consolidated Mines 237 

Cinco Mlnas mining camp and rebels, Mexico 911 

Cinderella Deep mine. Rand, South Africa 198 

Closed 905 

Cinematograph and mining 904 

Cinnabar, Nevada 29 

Citizens Alliance and strike. Lake Superior region.... 

Editorial 878 

City & Suburban mill. Rand, precipitation of gold from 

cvanide solutions on zinc wafers 557 

Clark. H. H Portable electric mine lamps. . . .62, 328, 934 

Ditto — Safetv electric switches for mines. . . . 362 

Clark. Senator William A 866 

Classifiers and sorting column 515 

Clay, plasticity of 750 

Clerc. F. L Psychology of zinc. ... 63 

Cliff Mining Co., Michigan 90S 

Clifton tin mine, Tasmania 616 

Coal. Alaska 742 

And lignite deposits, Idaho 590 

Area, Queensland 210 

Belgium. Liege district 690 

Bering river. Alaska Editorial.... 481 

Canada, mining in western Editorial 599 

China and Japan, mining in 35 

China, transporting 973 

Colorado 28 

Dutch East Indies, and oil' and gold production 310 

Dust explosions, localizing 618 

Exports, Newcastle, New South Wales 901 

India, production 578 

Japan, situation 31 

Kentucky 939 

Manchuria, mine In. Bujun Kanda,... 856 

Mine accidents and fatalities In United States, 652, 

864. 876 

Ditto Editorial 954 

Mines fatalities rates In foreign countries 8J6 

Mines, sampling .• 580 

Mines, use of gasoline motors In A. F. King.... 463 

Montana 28 

New Mexico 74 

New Zealand 819. 1023 

Oklahoma, production In 1912 340 

Pennsylvania 404, 990 

Picking belts, Mitsui Co., Japan 750 

South Wales production 536 

Strike, Colorado 545, 864, 700. 740. 869, 907 

Ditto Editorial 445 

Strike, Colorado, and editors' resolution 

Editorial 797, 842 

Strike and referendum vote 946 

Strike and Sherman anti-trust law Editorial.... 954 

Submarine mine In Nova Scotia 288 

Taiwan production 898 

Texas, mining 698 

Virginia 15, 898 

Virginia, mining situation In western . .Editorial. .. . 43 

Washington, Cowlitz River valley resources 548 

Cobalt as a steel alloy 940 

Bullion shipments 987 

In Virginia 14 

Oxide. Ontario 1001 

Ontario. Wlllet G. Miller Editorial. . 754 

Desulphurizing sliver ores at.. James J. Denny.... 484 

District, metallurgical research Editorial.... 214 

District. Ontario, Canada 024 

Milling at Eraser Reid 216 

Mines, royalties collected by Ontario Government... 944 

Ore shipments 739, 910 

Ores, arsenic limit A. S. & R. Co 782 

Ores, desulphurizing Editorial.... 483 

Ontario. Canada, production 112, 120, 163 

Ontario, sliver, cobalt, and nickel, gold mines 662 

Silver Industry. Canadian Mines Departments, inves- 
tigation 903 

Silver shipments 321 

Cobalt Lake Mining Co 871 

Dividend 317 

Cobar copper and gold field. New South Wales 300 

Coeur d'Alene mine-car Ulysses B. Hough.... 805 

District. Idaho 201. 241, 907 

District, ore deposits, genesis of Editorial.... 518 

District production of important properties 546 

Origin of lead, zinc, and silver In — I. II 

Oscar H. Hershey 489, 529 

Coeur rt'Alene-Cresoent Mining Co., Idaho 986 

Coeur d'Alene Development Co. property valuation 241 

Coinage at United States Mints 21 

Coke. A Inbama production 103 

In Illinois .379 

Making in China 1013 

Production In United States In 1912 88 

Production of West Virginia 135 

Colbath, James S.. . .Solution control In cyanklation. . . . 582 

Colburn. E. A., Jr Electric mine-signal system 340 

Coleman. A. P.. Nickel smelting by the Mond process 413 

Collier. A J Coal resources, Cowlitz River valley, 

Waiihlngton ••; ^J; 

CoUlerv disaster. Cardiff. Wales Editorial 599 

Colloidal matter in ores, lime action on 876 

Colloids and their Importance .Editorial 8. 

In ore dressing A. W Allen 10? 

Colombia, emerald fields of F. P. Gamba 34n 

Mining concessions 98« 

Mining news v;i.V ■ '■■ l' " ' ' lin 

OH In Editorial .... 559 

oil tprritorv • lU-t-s 

Orovllle Dredging Co.. Ltd.. 84, 475, 510, 614, 910. 948, 980 

Colorado. Alma district »J| 

Carnotlte In 

Clear Creek county mines 240, ^^1^9 

Cripple Creek,' depth of' shafts' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 70! 

Cripple Creek district mines VsY 907 

Cripple Creek district ore production . 24l' <i')2 

Eagle district ' ' ' ' ' Vjy 

Georgetown district, ore value in earljf'days '. 200 

Gold discoveries near Collbran ' " ' sqq 

Gold production at Cripple Creek 70 

La Plata mountains Rensselaer H. Toll 849 

Leadvllle, unwatering Fryer hill underground work- 
ings 905 

Mine production in 1912, by counties ] 

,, . Charles W. Henderson. '.'.'. 554 

Mine taxation In 394 

Ditto Editorial! '. '. '. 797 

Mineral production 930 

Mines 357 

Ouray, costs of driving Sunrise adit .....'.'.' 399 

Platoro. new townsite ' ' 595 

Radium in !..!!!!*''' 838 

Silverton district shipments . . s'i'd' 473 

Strike of coal miners, 545, 589, 664, 700, 740, 830, 869' 907 

Ditto Editorial 445, 518! 673 

Strike and editors resolution Editorial. . . .797 84 ■> 

Strike and referendum vote ' 945 

Strike and Sherman anti-trust law. .. .Editorial. .. ! 954 

Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., Grant county. New Mexico... 119 

Annual report 545 

Rouse mine payroll , _ _ 754 

Colorado Gold Dredging Co '. 869 

Colorado Mining Co., Company report 209 

Colorado State School of Mines Editorial.... 131 

Columbia Copper Co m 

Columbia University, mining In Connecticut 

Editorial 877 

Combination specific gravity bottle and dllatometer. . . . 

C. A. Browne. . . . 348 
Combined method of analysis for constituents of zinc 

ores Frank A. Bird. ... IS 

Combustion of liquid fuel ..Editorial.... 42 

Commerce Mining & Royalty Co 739 

Commercial failures in United States 951 

Commodore, Western Australia 594, 835, 951 

Common sens'? of the fume question .' 

Herbert Lang 341. 539 

Ditto Charles L. Paige 539 

Commonwealth Gold Mines. Ltd., Ontario 741 

Commonwealth Mining & Milling Co., Cochise county, 

Arizona 116 

Mine 434 

Commonwealth v. Cambridge generator 626 

Companla Minera Chontalpan y Anexas, Mexico, Com- 
pany report 37 

Companle du Boleo, Santa Rosalia, Baja California, 

Mexico 635, 791, 991 

Company reports: 

Abangarez Gold Fields of Costa Rica 442 

Abbontiakoon Mines, Ltd 595 

Algomah Mining Co 556 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's), Ltd 706 

Anchor Tin Mining Co 993 

Anglo-French Exploration Co 287 

Antelope Gold Mine (Rhodesia) Ltd 286 

Associated Gold Mines of Western Australia, Ltd.... 286 

Batopllas Mining Co 401 

Beaver Consolidated Mines, Ltd 556 

Blackwater Mines Ltd 555 

Briseis Tin & General Mining Co., Ltd 37 

British Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd 248 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co 836 

Broken Hill Proprietary Block 14 Co 442 

Buffalo Mines. Ltd 287 

Bullfinch Proprietary (W. A.), Ltd 247 

Central Mining & Investment Corporation 513 

Central Red. White & Blue Co 993 

Central Zinc Co., Ltd 595 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co 325 

Chlllagoe Co., Ltd .- 993 

Chino Copper Co 325 

Colorado Mining Co 209 

Companla Minera Chontalpan y Anexas 37 

Consolidated Gold Fields of New Zealand, Ltd 555 

Corbin Copper Co 402 

Dalv-Judge Mining Co 360 

De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd 706 

El Oro Mining & Railway Co., Ltd »36 

El Paso Consolidated Gold Mining Co 401 

Federal Mining & Smelting Co 247 

Franklin Mining Co 743 

Giant Mines of Rhodesia, Ltd 70b 

Giroux Consolidated Copper Co . • . . . . ■ 285 

Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co 37, 206, 363, 744 

Great Boulder Perseverance Gold MlTiIng Co 442 

Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, Ltd 401 

Great FIngall Consolidated, Ltd 670 

Hampden Cioncurry Copper Mines, Ltd l«a/ 

Horn Silver Mining Co *^( 

Houghton Copper Co ;5» 

Hutti (Nizam's) Gold Mines, Ltd 44J 

Iron Mountain Tunnel Co "^ 

Isle Royale Copper Co "» 

Jupiter Gold Hfining Co.. Ltd Ifg 

Kalgurll Gold Mines. Ltd »36 

Kerr Lake Mining Co *{» 

Kyshtim Corp.. Ltd "=;' 

Lahat Mines, Ltd ,|X 

Lake View & Star. Ltd 1|» 

Lonely Reef Gold Mining Co °" 

Mass Consolidated Mining Co ''° 

Mavfiower Mining Co "hi 




intyre-Porcupine Mines, Ltd »i 

ftiexico Mines of EI Oro, Ltd «" 

Mines Company of America ■■■■■•■■-,■■,■ ■■A- •■■■ ■ 9J0 

Montgomery-Shoshone Consolidated Mining Co ^" 

Mount Bishoft Tin Mining Co »^2 

Mount Elliott, Ltd. ...•••■ V ' ' V/.,' 1036 

Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., Ltd i"^^ 

Mt. Morgan Mining Co., Ltd ;^^g 

Muro Magnetic Co., Ltd. 07 = 

Nevada 'Wonder Mining Co. ..•■■• ■•„■„' SA, 

North Broken Hill Mining Co., Ltd 360. »J^ 

North Butte Mining Co ^^^ 

Oflln River Gold Estates ■•,•.• j^j^ 

Orovllle Dredging Co., Ltd .- 6'"' '^gj 

Otavi Mines & Railway Co ..... gg 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines of Brazil, Ltd ^°'^ 

Poderosa Mining Co., Ltd g^g 

Prestea Block A., Ltd 


Vol. 107 

„ Page. 

Company reports: 

Prince Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co 556 

Progress Mines of New Zealand, Ltd 555 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co 326 

Rhode Island Copper Co 555 

Rooiberg Minerals Development Co., Ltd 993 

St. John del Rey Mining Co., Ltd 360 

St. Mary's Mineral Land Co 513 

Scottish Gympie Gold Mines, Ltd 993 

Shamva Mines, Ltd 286 

Shannon Copper Co 325 

Siamese Tin Syndicate Ltd 837 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co 168 

Simmer Deep, Ltd 286 

South Utah Mines & Smelters 442 

Spassky Copper Mine, Ltd 125 

Stewart Mining Co 478 

Superior & Boston Copper Co 993 

Talisman Consolidated, Ltd 325 

Tanalyk Corporation, Ltd 837 

Taquah Mining & Exploration Co., Ltd 993 

Tekka, Ltd 125 

Transvaal Gold Mining Estates, Ltd 670 

Trl-Bullion Smelting & Development Co 402 

Troitzk Goldflelds, Ltd 595 

Tronoh Mines, Ltd 80 

Utah Copper Co 326 

Village Main Reef Gold Mining Co 478 

West End Consolidated Mining Co 209 

Winona Copper Co 556 

Yukon Gold Co 80 

Zeehan-Montana Mine, Ltd 287 

Zinc Corporation, Ltd 168 

Compensation Act, Australia 105 

For accidents 226 

Law, workmen's, West Virginia Editorial .... 517 

Workingmen's Editorial 755 

Comstock-Phoenix Mining Co., Virginia City, Nevada.. 357 

Comstock Pumping Association 119 

Comstock, pumping at A. M. Walsh 305 

Concentrate in collecting boxes drained .876 

W^est End mill. Tonopah 2l0 

Concentrating plants, Missouri .' 196 

Concentratioji 479 

And power for the Mt. Morgan mine . . . . 296 

Edison process Editorial 482 

Concentrator, McQuisten tube 195 

Concrete laid in Panama canal locks and works '. 978 

Condenser, Jet and surface results 671 

Coniagas mine. Ontario 982 

Conservation Congress, Fifth National. .. .Editorial. .. . 753 

Consolidated Arizona 783 903 

Consolidated Copper Min^s Co., Ely, Nevada, 29, 11], 163', 

„ . 635. 745, 791, 991 

nonsolidated Copper Mines Co. and Butte & Ely Copper 

Co. merger .' I95 

And Ely Central Copper Co ' ' ' 741 

Ccnsolidated Gold Fields of New Zealand, Ltd.. Com- 

pany report 55.5 

Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa 237 

Company report 883 

Selective mining H.H.Webb 860 

Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., British Columbia. . 158 

^ Dividend •••.••■,• 34. 910, 1032 

Consolidated Virginia property, Comstock, lowering 

water-level Editorial 953 

Consolidated Willow Mining Co., California 829 

Continental Mining Co. and Tonopah Mining Co 114 

Continuous replacing machine 172 

Converter, basic-lined E. P. Mathewson 61 

Practice, development of Herbert Haas 653 

Co-operation and formation names 819 

Copper 92 

Alaska 355 

Alloys, melting points of 890 

And flotation processes in United States 

Editorial 175 

And gold field. Cobar, New South Wales 300 

And wet assay 793 

Belt, Shasta county. California .'..'. 408 

Blister, cost of producing, Mt. Lyell, Tasmania 1021 

California 779 

Deposits at Bent, New Mexico, sandstone .........'. 

„ „ „ . Sydney H. Ball 132 

Deposits, Russia 623 

District. Lake Superior ....'. 126 

Exports Editorial 798 

Exports of United States 363 

Famine 7S.3 

From mine water 854 

In Central Africa ."JSS 

In Germany 3g6 

Leaching at the Nevada-Douglas propertv 127 

Market Editorial 329 

Market and Lake Superior strike 246 

Market, New York 122 505 

Matte and base bullion from an electric spelter fur- 

. . nace E. W. Hale 974 

Mines, Lake Superior 112 

Mines, Lake Superior region map 275 

Mining, blast-hole drilling in open-pit 643 

New York and Lake Superior strike 195 

Ore oxidized, leaching with sulphuric acid 523 

Ore, treatment by leaching at Chuquicamata 

Editorial 43 

Ores, Bisbee, Los Angeles Chamber of Mines and Oil. 946 

Ores, electric smelting of 355 

Ditto Editorial 675 

Ores, electric smelting of 

Dorsey A. Lyon, Robert M. Keenev. . . . 976 

Ores, furnaces for smelting Editorial. . . . 517 

Ores In 1912 707 

Ores, leaching of John Rooke-Cowell. . . . 294 

Placer deposits 135 

Production, Australian 729 

Production in TTnited States In 1912. .. .Editorial. .. . 954 

Production. .Tuly 246, 285 

Production. June 77, 16'7 

Production, monthly 834, 791, 991 

Production of Arizona 78 

Production of Australia '78 

Production of Nevada 313 

Production of Ontario 982 

Production of Taiwan 898 

Production of Utah In 1912 665 

Production of the world 123, 260 

Situation ; 285 

Ditto Editorial 639 

Smelting, slag losses In Editorial .... 330 


Smelting practice in the Southwest 

Thomas T. Read 521 

W^orld production in 1911 and 1912 915 

Copper Hill mine, Colorado, incorporated 829 

Copper King, Chewelah district, Washington 832 

Copper Mountain Mining Co., Vancouver Island hold- 
ings 832 

Copper Producers' Association report, 77, 284, 439, 476, 

594, 790, 950 
Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co., Bisbee, Arizona, 

635, 663, 791, 945, 991 

Accident rules 634 

Gas trouble at Holbrook shaft 160 

Pension system 868 

Reverberatory furnaces, dust-chamber 978 

Smelter 526 

Smelter, handling flue-dust at the 

James Douglas. . . . 929 
Copper Queen Mining & Milling Co., Ltd. and Reindeer 

Copper & Gold Mining Co., Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. . 72 
Copper Range Consolidated Mining Co., Palnedale, 

Michigan 590, 635, 743, 786, 791, 991 

Corbin Copper Co 659 

Company report 402 

Gambrinus claims 908 

Core-drilling, use of steel points for 194 

Corinthian North, Western Australia 626, 655, 781 

Mill 235, 469 

Cornish mines, Nissen and ordinary stamps 695 

Mining, Geevor tin mine discussion by Horace G. 
Nichols, London Institution of Mining and 

Metallurgy 979 

Cornwall, electric smelting of tin ore 578 

Coronation Mines, Ltd., British Columbia 277 

Corporation tax, decision of Supreme Court 

Editorial 877 

Cortez Associated Mines Co 666 

Cost at Associated mine, Kalgoorlie 327 

At Buckeye Belmont mine, Tonopah 288 

At El Oro mine, Mexico 693 

At the Great Fingall mine 732 

At HoUinger mine. Porcupine 554 

At Lake View & Star mines 181 

At the Oriental Consolidated Mines 932 

At the Oroya Black Range mine. Western Australia, 934 

At the Standard Consolidated, working 

Edward H. Nutter 312 

At the Yuanmi mine. Western Australia 892 

Average working on Rand 182 

Balkan war Editorial 213 

Keeping, mine C. M. Eye 261 

Milling, at the Chino 522 

Milling, Nevada Wonder mine 940 

Mining, at West End, Tonopah 210, 272 

Of driving Sunrise adit. Mountain Top Mining Co., 

Ouray. Colorado 399 

Of electric power, Spain 126 

Of handling slag. Grand Forks smelter, British 

Columbia ""» 

Of milling plants, underestimating, I, II. Ill, IV 

A. Sydney Addlton 88, 138. 263. 301, 620 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar. . . . 777 

Ditto Editorial 291 

Ditto Charles T. Hutchinson. ... 349 

Of mining deep leads. Victoria, Australia '79 

Of operating. North Broken Hill mine 940 

Of power at Kalgoorlie • 235 

Of producing blister copper, Mt. Lyell, Tasmania... 1021 

Of removing silt from harbors, British Columbia. . . . 443 

Of residue disposal, Kalgoorlie 902 

Of reverberatory smelting at Cananea 52^ 

Of shaft sinking. Nevada Wonder mine 902 

Of stope filling Simmer & Jack mines. Rand 902 

Of sulphur production ■ • • • „„2 

Surface operating Central Mining & Investment Co.. 1O8 

Zinc Corporation, Ltd ;;•••_•-•„•; ;A' •,-•,•>" 

Costa Rica, Abangarez goldflelds, 34, 206, 358, 442. 511, 

606, OOO, lUoJ 

Cottrell electrical precipitation process 557 

Counterbalancing hoists 936 

Cox. Jennings Stockton, Jr., death of 476 

Crescent mine, Manhattan, Nevada »2-^ 

Cripple Creek district, Colorado, depth of shafts at 734 

^rtnpq 357 

Ore production ".'.■ 241, 392, 589, 907 

Leasing and low-grade milling at 

Stephen L. Goodale.... 297 

Topographic model of V ' •.;^' 't^" " '. iia 

E. A. Byler and Lee W. Davis. . . . 144 
Crosslev suction gas-engines at Central Red. White & 

Blue mine, Bendlgo • ,■• 1"^^ 

Crown mill, Karangahake, New Zealand, cyaniding on 

commercial scale *J? 

Mine. New Zealand 4»i 

Crown Mines Co., and Kimberley system of mining. 



Equipment at .|J 

Crown Point Mining Co., Gold Hill. Nevada 357 

Crown Reserve. Cobalt, Ontario. Canada • ■ ■ • i"" 

And Porcupine Crown property -.v.- •.-•,• iXn iS? 

Dividends 195, 354, 431, 702, 825 

Crusher, sampling ore from a rock | '* 

Crushing underground, ore °^J 

Cuba, mining iron ore in *;»* 

Cucaracha slide, Panama, work at j' ' 

Culebra cut, flooding Panama canal ui;/ •••;•••• Jff 

Currency problems In the Orient Editorial.... 754 

Cutler. H. C. ..Securing capital for mines and prospects 822 

Cuyuna iron range, Minnesota °70 

Cyanldatlon, lead salts In Vyvyan C. Bennett.... 154 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewltz. . . . 757 

Nlpisslng mill. Cobalt 484 

Of Cobalt ore •.• • Wr' ' ;„■ ?:i 

Solution control In A.W.Allen 448 

Ditto James S. Colbath 582 

Cyanide from residue of .-iugar-mllls. .C. A. Browne.... 186 

Plant, TIntic district, Utah 163 

Plants, design for an air-lift R. H. Shaw.... 861 

Precipitate, smelting '93 

Salts, duty on G.H.Atkins 428 

Solutions, electrolysis of Edward F. Kern.... 577 

Solutions, retardation phenomena in the solution of 

gold and silver In aqueous 889 

Cyanides, electrolysis of aqueous solutions of the sim- 
ple alkaline 927 

Of potassium and sodium on free list. .Editorial. . . . 517 
Cyaniding on commercial scale. Crown mill. Karanga- 
hake, New Zealand 978 

Vol. 107 


Daly-Judge Mining Co., Company report 360 

Dividends , 987 

Daly Mining Co. and West Ontario Consolidated Min- 
ing Co • 746 

Dan Creels Mining Co 699 

Davey, William R., death of '.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 631 

Davis, Lee W. and E. A. Byler — Topograpiiic model of 

Cripple Creek district 144 

Davis-Daly Copper Co.. Montana 114, 281, 866, 980 

Day, David T Petroleum production in 1912 633 

Daylight Mining Co., Missouri 830 

Dayton Petroleum Co 119 

Deadwood assay office, transportation charges on bul- 
lion 826 

Deadwood Business Club and Heidelberg Business Club 353 

De Bavay v. Minerals Separation process 

Wilton Shellshear 21 

De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., Company report... 706 

Decimals and gold value Editorial.... 842 

Deep mining in Australia 693 

Delster No. 3 slime tables speed 902 

De Kalb, Courtenay — Revision of the United States min- 
ing laws 778 

Del Mar, Algernon — Underestimating the cost of mill- 
ing plants 777 

Denny, H. S..An English view of Mexican conditions 735 

Ditto Selective mining and future outlook. . . . 383 

Denny. James J Desulphurizing silver ores at 

Cobalt 484 

Denver & Salt Lake Railroad Co., Moffat tunnel 740 

Departments, mining and the Editorial 842 

Depth of shafts at Cripple Creek 734 

Desert Power & Mill Co., and Tonopah Mining Co., y. 

Joseph A. Vincent Editorial.... 292 

Design for an air-lift R. H. Shaw 861 

Desulphurizing Cobalt ores Editorial.... 483 

Process in cyanidatlon 217 

Silver ores at Cobalt James J. Denny.... 484 

Detonator, preparation of primers 975 

Detroit Copper Mining Co., Morenci, Arizona, 160, 635, 

„ , 791, 991 

Smelter 524 

Development of converter practice. .Herbert Haas. . . . 653 

Dewaterlng tank Charles A. Banks 154 

Wheel for pulp 339 

Diamond drilling at Poderosa mine, Bolivia 

C. L. Severy 338 

Production, Union of South Africa 642 

Diamonds and other gems mined in United States 94 

British Guiana r 581 

Cutting 82 

In United States 79 

Dilatometer and specific gravity bottle, combination.. 

0. A. Browne 348 

Directors, dummy Editorial.... 85 

Disease and sanitation in new countries. .Editorial. .. . 877 

Dislodging slime cakes from filter media 935 

Dividend disbursements Editorial. ... 42 

Diving apparatus. Neptune 128 

Divining rod in Germany Editorial.... 842 

Doak, Ferguson, deatli of 244 

Doctor-Jack Pot Mining Co., Colorado 907 

Doe Run Lead Co. and St. Joseph Lead Co., consolida- 
tion 17, 686 

Dolcoath Mine, Ltd., Cornwall, England 352, 430, 505 

Moving pictures 904 

Dolores mine 164 

Dome Lake Co., Ontario 197, 388, 431, 504, 624 

Change of owners 

Controlled by Temiskaming & Hudson Bay Mining 



Dome Mines Co., Ltd., Porcupine 159, 780, 825, 982, 

Dominion Nickel Co ' 238 

Donaldson, Francis. . . .Sinking and lining of shafts 844 

Dorr agitator 94 

Dorr, John V. N Dorr agitator 193 

Dos Estrellas, Mexico, cyanidatlon 759 

Doubtful leadership of labor Editorial. . 798 

Douglas, James. .Handling flue-dust at the Copper 

Queen smelter 929 

Douglas Copper Co 196 

Dow, .Stephen R., case 74I 

Drag line scraper bucket ggs 

Dredge, Alta Bert Gold Dredging Co., California 357 

Australia 156 

Buffalo Star. Victoria, Australia 94 

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co 818 

Camanche, California 94O 

Ditto C. Q. Leeson 933 

Disposal of gravel, soil, and sand from 876 

Mining, Victoria, Australia 479 

Orovllle Dredging Co., California and Colombia, 34, 

475, 610, 910, 945, 948, 980 

Philippine Islands 120 

Sumpter 119 

Timber members of 876 

Tin Cup Gold Dredging Co., Gunnison county, Colo- 
rado 117- 

Dredges 688 

Gold. Alaska 876 

Gold Coast of West Africa 890 

New Canadian An occasional contributor. . . . 460 

New Zealand goldfields 479 

Paracale district, Philippine Isalnds 780 

South Island. New Zealand 729 

Dredging, Alaska 71 

At Natoma, California. .. .M. W. von Bernewitz 1017 

At Orovllle 669 

At Snelllng, California 1002 

Breckenridge district, Colorado 869 

By hand in Siberia John Power Hutchins 813 

Colombia 475 

Companies. Orovllle merger 663 

Gold, South Island. New Zealand 1023 

In California, resolling after G. L. Hurst.... 719 

Operations, prospecting gravel for 902 

Orovllle. California 279, 700 

Panama canal 48, 288, 306, 977 

Philippines by Australian companies 1033 

Resolling after, Australia 494 

Shasta county, California 280 

Victoria in 1912, Australia 628 

Drill efficiency at Buckpye Belmont mine 350 

Jafk Augur, Mesaba Range, Minnesota , 1024 

New 918 





One-man ^^eai 

■^ .Testing machine at North Star' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ??, 

nL^?J,°"'^^^^^^,•, 29, 108, 210, 288, 'isf,' '4V9, 515 

Contests, machine Editorial ? 

Equipment at Mt. Royal -^"^'toriai. ... 3 

In mid-air c M 'Hansen 212 

In open-pit copper mining, blast-hole . ." ." 64^ 

Drills in the Witwatersrand, hammer . 619 

Stoping at Sudbury, Ontario Albert E.'il'a'l'l 310 

Drumlummon interests and St. Louis Mining Co iid 

Drummond Fraction, Cobalt Slo 

Dry lake theory of salt deposition '.'.'.'.'. 175 

Ditto • • . Editorial! '. ". '. 173 

Dummy directors Editorial. ... 85 

Duncan patents, treatment of slime in cyanide mills 
Dunn, Russell L., Revision of mining law, protest. ..'.'.'. 

T^ i ., V, . Editorial.!!! 

Dust chambers, recovery of dust 

Dutch East Indies, Sumatra, Ketahoen mine'wages „,„ 

Oil, gold, and coal production ' ' ' 310 

Tin exports \ 210 

Dutch Guiana, gold in Surinam ! ! ! 1020 

Dutch mine. Quartz, California 628 

Duty on cyanide salts G. H. 'Atkiiis! ! ! ! 428 

Dynamite and black powder, analysis of 65 

Frozen \ 1021 

Dynamos, ga^phite brushes for !!!!!!!!. 918 


Eagle & Blue Bell Mining Co., Utah 547 

Dividend ' 

Eagle district, Colorado II7' 

games, LB... Inclined baffles'. . . '. 

Earth, infusorial 

East Butte Copper Mining Co., Butte, Montana,' 24l! '3'l'7', 
„ , „ , 320, 431, 635, 659, 791, 824, 

East Fork raining district, California 

East Rand Proprietary mines 

Ebner property, Alaska Editorial . . ! ! 

Ecuador, sanitation loan for Guayaquil. . .Editorial. .. . 

Edison process of concentration Editorial 

Edna May, Western Australia 594, 655, 835 

Educating the public regarding mining. .Editorial. .. . 

Education that educates Editorial . . 

Edwards, W. W Steel sluiceway linings 

Eldorado Banket mine, Rhodesia, milling operations at. 

Eldorado Canyon area, Nevada 

Eldorado mine, California 


Electric blasting Charles S. Hurler .... 

Furnaces, possible applications to Western metallur- 
gy Dorsey A. Lyon, Robert M. Keeney . . . . 

Hoist. Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co 

Lamp, portable 

Lighting, reduced watt, use Editorial.... 

Locomotives in Alaska, pioneer 

Mine lamps, portable H. H. Clark.... 62, 328, 

Mine-signal system E. A. Colburn, Jr 

Power, Spain, cost in 

Smelting of copper ores 

Ditto Editorial 

Ditto Dorsey A. Lyon, Robert M. Keeney. . . . 

Smelting of tin ore 

Spelter furnace, copper matte and base bullion from 
an E. W. Hale .... 

Switches for mines, safety H. H. Clark .... 

Time fuse E. Le Roy. . . . 

Traction, Italy 

Electricity In Butte district, Montana 

Electrolysis of aqueous solutions of the simple alkaline 

Of cyanide solutions Edward F. Kern. . . . 

Electrostatic separation of ores. Huff method 

El Favor Mining Co., Jalisco, Mexico 



Elkton Consolidated Mining & Milling Co.. Cripple 

Creek, Colorado, dividend 357, 743, 

Elm Orlu Mining Co., Montana 470, 

And Butte & Superior Copper Co 

Extralateral rights 

Elmore and Minerals Separation litigation 

El Oro Gold Dredging Co., California 829, 

El Oro Mining & Milling Co., Colorado 201, 743, 

Carbonate Queen claim 

El Oro Mining & Railway Co., Ltd., Mexico. .. .359, 548, 

Company report 

El Oro mine, Mexico, costs at 

Mill, cyanidatlon 

El Paso Consolidated Gold Mining Co., Victor, Colorado, 

Company report 

V. R. A. C. Peterson 

El Paso Extension Gold Mines Co., Colorado, incor- 

El Tigre Mining Co., Sonora, Mexico 592, 


Ely, Fred B Mining experts and practical men.... 

Ely Central Copper Co. and Consolidated Copper- 

Emerald fields of Colombia F. P. Gamba.... 

Empire Mines Co. endowed gold mine 

Empire Zinc Co., Cleveland claims, Plnos Altos district. 

New Mexico 

Energite Explosives Co., suit for damages 

Engineering Congress, International Editorial.... 

Engineers and geologists again Editorial.... 

Engineers' Club. San Francisco, new quarters 


English view of Mexican conditions. . . .H. S. Denny. . . . 

Enterprise property. Trinity county, California 

Equipment at Crown Mines 

Ernestine Mining Co., New Mexico 

Esperanza, Ltd., Mexico 

Company report 


Ethics, professional G. Caetani.,.. 

Ditto Victor G. Hills 

Ditto J. M. Lilligren 

Eucalyptus oil, manufacture of 

Eucalyptus Oils, Ltd., New South Wales 

Eureka T. & T. hook 

Evje nickel mine, Norway 

Excav.ator, Shearer & Mayer . 

Excur.sion to North American smelting works 

Ferdinand Heborlein .... 
Experiments on basic lining. Great Falls plant 



















Vol. 107 

Exploration Co., Tomboy mine, Colorado, and share- 
holder 905 

Explosions, localizing coal-dust 618 

Explosives and Bureau of Mines 65 

Frozen 1021 

Mine, liquid air and liquid oxygen in Germany 210 

Exposition, mining and the big J. Nelson Nevius 502 

Extension mine, Tonopah 665, 702 

Extinguisher, J-M Fyro, Are 1040 

Extralateral rights G. H. Stone 820 

And the courts Editorial .... 85 

Decisions 211 

Montana suit in 281 

Eye, CM Mine cost keeping 261 


Fairbanks district, Alaska, output 1913 


Falcon mine, Rhodesia 381 761 

Fault phenomena Editorial 

Faulting and mineralization in Goldfleld. relation of . . . . 

Corrin Barnes and E. A. Byler.... 

Federal workmen's compensation law. .. .Editorial. .. . 

Federal Lead Co., No. 11 mine, Myers-Whaley shoveling 


Federal Mining Co., Gem, Idaho '..".'.'. 

Federal Mining & Smelting Co., Wallace, Idaho, 358, 386, 


And McQuisten tube concentrator 

Company report 247, 

Dividend '. . .' '. . 


V. Headlight Co .........'. 

V. Washington Water Power Co 

Federated Malay States, tin and wolfram exports 

Feldspar, Virginia 

Fenian mine. Western Australia, 235, 433, 594, 655, 'sVs, 


Ferrochrome !..*!.*.*!!!!!!! 

Fertilizer, sulphur as !..!!.!!!!.! 

Fidalgo-Alaska Copper Co 

Field process, smelter fume and Balaklala Copper Co.! ! 

Filter leaf patent Charles Butters. . . .' 

Media, dislodging slime cakes from : 

Patent, bought by Charles Butters 

Patents Editorial .... 

Presses, wet-crushing treatment plant 

Fineness of gold at Fairbanks, Alaska 

Flnlay, J. R Output of gold 

Fire extinguisher, J-M Fyro 

Fireplace, a good J. D. Hubbard. . .' '. 

Fires, preventing the spread of flames 

First National Copper Co., California 236, 

And Hall sulphur process Editorial. . 

First National Gold Mining Co. organized 

Fissure veins, Agricola on % 

Flame-test apparatus, Haldane 

Flaxie mine, Nevada 

Flooding Culebra cut, Panama canal 

Florence mine, Goldfleld, Nevada 59, 

Florida, phosphate in 

Flotation at Broken Hill '.'. 

Discussion, Mining and Metallurgical Society 

Mineral Wilton Shellshear 

Of sulphides from ores 

Plant, Zinc Corporation, Ltd '. 

Process, oil 

Processes Editorial '. '. 

Processes and Zinc Corporation 

Selective Editorial 

Selective, at Broken Hill, New South Wales 

Flue-dust at the Copper Queen smelter, handling 

James Douglas. . 

Mixed with converter slag Editorial. . 

Fluorspar production in United States in 1912 

Forest Service H. TV. Reed .... 

And the miners Editorial. . . . 

Forestry Service E. A. Sherman .... 

Forests, national, timber sale, Lawrence county. South 

Dakota , 

Formation names and co-operation 

Fourth of July Editorial 

Fox, H. W. and H. F. Lunt Hillabee gold mine, 


France, coal mine fatality rate 

La Lucette mine, passing of Editorial. . . . 


Franke. Robert. .. .Hardin ge mills v. Chilean mills.... 
Franklin Mining Co., Demmon, Michigan, 281, 635, 791, 

Company report 

Franklin Furnace zinc mines. New Jersey, production.. 
Erasers mine. South Cross, Western Australia. 70, 235, 
Free, E. E. ..Progress in potash prospecting in Railroad 

Valley, Nevada 

Free Coinage Gold Mining Co., Colorado 

Fremont Consolidated, California, dividend 

French Flag mine, Colorado 742, 

Frenier pump 

Frue vanners 

Fuel, gas, liquid, solid Editorial.... 

Utilization, progress in Editorial .... 

Fuller's earth 793, 

Fume question, common sense of. Herbert Lang.... 341, 

Ditto Charles L. Paige 

Question, smelter Editorial .... 

Sumitomo copper smelter 

Furnace, copper matte and base bullion from an electric 
spelter E. w. Hale 

Flues, waste heat boilers In reverberatory 

S. Severin Sorensen.... 

Herreshoft roasting 

Furnaces, electric, possible application to Western metal- 
lurgy Dorsey A. Lyon, Robert M. Keeney. . . . 

For smelting copper ores Editorial.... 

In zinc smelting, Belgian George C. Stone.... 

Oil-burning in Herbert Lang.... 

Rotary roasting 

Fuse, electric time B. Le Roy. . . . 


Preparation of primers 

Fushun coal mines Editorial.... 

Fyro, J-M, fire-extinguisher 


























870 . 





. 42 












Gale, H. S. Searles lake potash deposits. ... 56 

Gale, Hoyt S., and Charles G. Yale Borax production 

in 1912 324 

Gamba, F. P ' Emerald fields of Colombia 

Gambrinus mine, California 

Garrison, F. Lynwood. .. .Agricola: an appreciation!!!! 

Ditto Geological survey of China.... 

Gartrell, H. W. Workmen's compensation problems.... 

Garvey, A. B Winter work in Alaska... 

Gas engine, Crossley suction, at Central Red White 

& Blue mine, Bendigo 1021 

Low 150 

Natural, consumed in Pennsylvania 720 

Natural, price of 634 

Natural, production in Oklahoma 851 

Natural, production in United States 707, 942 

New Yorli production in 1912 .' 73s 

Trouble, Holbrook shaft, Copper Queen 160 

Gasoline motors in coal mines, use of. .A. F. King 463 

Gatun lake, Canal Zone 978 

Gaumus company, dredging in Philippines 1033 

Geduld Proprietary Mines, Far East Rand 314 

Geevor tin mine, discussion by Horace G. Nichols, In- 
stitution of Mining and Metallurgy, London 97» 

Gems, mined in United States 94 

General Chemical Co., Herreshoft roasting furnaces.... 684 

General Development Co. and HoUinger Reserve 696 

General Petroleum Co. reorganization 905 

Under control of Britisli syndicate. ... Editorial ... . 878 

Generator, Commonwealth v. Cambridge 626 

Genesis of Butte ores Editorial.... 446 

Of Coeur d'AIene ore deposits Editorial.... 51S 

Geologic formation names 819 

Notes underground. Anaconda Copper Mining Co. . . . 940 

Work on the Mother Lode 890 

Geological Congress at Sudbury Editorial.... 215 

At Toronto, International Editorial.... 330 

Geological Society of America, Princeton, New Jersey 

meeting Editorial.... 842 

Geological survey of China Henry Brelich. . . . 976 

Ditto . P. Lynwood Garrison .... 735 

Geological Survey, United States, production statistics: 

Antimony 250 

Arizona metal production ; 78 

Arsenic 250 

Asbestos in United States 669 

Barytes In 1912 36 

Bismuth 250 

Borax in 1912 324 

California geologji 544 

California minerals : 516 

Cement in United States in 1912 167 

Central States, metal output 78 

Chromic iron ore in United States 334 

Coal In Colorado ■. 28 

Coal in Montana 28 

Coal in New Mexico 74 

Coal in Oklahoma 340 

Coal mining in Pennsylvania 404 

Coke in 1912. manufacture of 480 

Diamonds in Arkansas 79 

Gems in United States in 1912 94 

Gypsum 250, 533 

Idaho, metals in 208 

Iron in 1912 58 

Mineral paint 399 

Mineral products of United States in 1912 914, 954 

Montana metals 208 

Nevada metals 313 

New Mexico mines 65 

North Carolina mineral production 404 

Oregon metal production 480 

Oil in 1912 552 

Potterv imports. LTnited States in 1912 619 

Pyrite in United States in 1912 149 

Quicksilver in 1912 16T 

Salt and bromine in United .'States 444 

Sand and gravel in United States 444 

Selenium 250 

South Dakota metal 404 

Sulphur in United States In 1912 126 

Talc and soapstone 250 

Wyoming, metal production 404 

Geological Survey, United States: 

General geology still work of Editorial.... 481 

Glaciers in Alaska 361 

Public lands reopened for entry 208 

Recoverv of quicksilver from ores 348 

Work of 939 

Geologists and engineers again Editorial. . . . 921 

And mining engineers in the field, means of loco- 
motion 902 

State, geological correlation discussed. .Editorial. . . . 637 

Geologv of Alleghany district, California 22 

Of Kalgoorlie Editorial 43 

Of Kalgoorlie Goldfleld — I, II, IIL IV, V 

Malcolm Maclaren and J. Allan Thomson. . . . 

45, 95, 187, 228, 374 

Georgetown district. Colorado, ore value in early days. . 200 

Mining district, Montana 546 

Georgia, mineral production 167 

German mine. Gilpin county, Colorado 155 

German workingmen's insurance 774 

Germany, coal mine fatality rate 876 

Copper in 386 

Divining rod Editorial.... 842 

Imports 1037 

Iron -production 103 

Mineral production in 1912 1035 

Pig iron production 217 

Potash field 210 

Gerrv. C. N Metal output of Idaho 208 

Giant Mines of Rhodesia, Ltd 209. 659 

Company report 706 

Gilmore district. Idaho 907 

Gllmore mine, Idaho 870 

Giroux Consolidated Copper Co 285, 358 

And Butte & Elv 506 

Glacier trail to Shushana 966 

Glaciers. Alaska 361 

Glad.stone tinfield, Tasmania 616 

Glas.'i, grinding, and furnace sand production 480 

Glenn Consolidated Mining Co., California 906 

Globe Consolidated Mining Co S69 

Globe & Phoenix, Rhodesia 79, 209, 381, 390, 1027 

Gnamma holes and soaks. Western Australia 515 

Vol. 107 


Goepner-Witter patent Editorial ^^fo7 

Goerz group. Rand 3J4 

Goetlials, Col. George W Editorial... 

Gogo juice, in panning gold-bearing sand, Philippines. 


Gold accretion jq3 




And copper field, Cobar, New" South Wales '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 300 

And silver bullion, Salvador, Central America 580 

And silver e.xports, New Zealand 1022 

And silver in aqueous cyanide solutions, retardation 

phenomena in the solution of 889 

And silver in 1912, production 848 

And silver, Japan ' 512 

And silver mines listed in United States ..'.','.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 838 

And silver, Pixley and Abell report 166 

And silver production, Auckland province, New Zea 



And silver production, Cliarters Towers, Queensland. 854 

And silver production of United States 477 

And silver transactions .• 398 

Annealing of 720 

Bank of England ! ! . 704 

Bars, sales from New York Assay Office '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 276 

Black 671 

Discovery, Isaac's Harbour, Nova Scotia 982 

Dredge recovery 94O 

Dredges, Alaska ' ' ' ' 876 

Dredging, South Island, New Zealand ......' 1023 

Fineness at Fairbanks, Alaska 347 

From cyanide solutions, precipitation on zinc wafers! 557 

Hoarding in East Editorial 560 

Hydraulicking in New Zealand 772 

In a specimen stone, estimating 708 750 

In Honduras 49 

In orebodies, precipitation of !!.!!! 309 

In Surinam ,] 1020 

In world's banks ' 183 

Industry in 1912, Witwatersrand. .W. L. Honnoid!!!'. 182 

Milling in China 227 

Mining in Hungary '' 102I 

Mining, large scale Editorial..!! 879 

Mining regulation, Russia Editorial.... 673 

Movements. Great Britain 951 

Oil. and coal production of Dutch East Indies 310 

Ontario 459 

Ore treatment, simplification of A. W. Allen..!! 254 

Ditto John B. Stewart 466 

Ores, cyanldatlon 757 

Placer district, Alaska, new !! 627 

Placer production, Alaska 835 

Placers, Alaska g76 

Precipitation by manganous salts.. A. D. Brokaw!!!! 149 

Production J. R. FInlav 536 

Production and industrial conditions. .Editorial. .. . 174 

Production in Arizona '78 

Production, Bendigo, Australia 296 

Production, British Guiana 581 

Ditto .-...Editorial...! 518 

Production, Cripple Creek, Colorado 72 

Production, Kolar, India ...584, 694 

Production, Nevada 313 

Production, New South Wales ! 581 

Production, New Zealand 581 

Production, Ontario 825, 982 

Production. Queensland 58l! 774 

Production. Rand 982 

Production, Rhodesia 209, 390, 581 

Production, Taiwan 898 

Production, Transvaal ,581 

Production, Utah In 1912 665 

Production, Victoria 581 

Production wrest African mines 17, 270, 581 

Production Western Australia, 48, 125, 235, 581, 594 

«18. 835, 951 

Reserves, India 1037 

Returns. Kalgoorlle, Western Australia 433 

Stealing, Rand 126 

Supply, quest of Editorial 754 

Value in decimals Editorial.... 842 

Yield of West African mines 892 

Gold Bullion mine, Alaska 336 

Gold Dollar mine. Cripple Creek, Colorado 299 

Gold Hunter Mining & Smelting Co. property valuation. 241 

Gold Ore mine, Arizona 9O6 

Gold Reed Mining Co., Arizona 984 

Gold Road mine, Arizona 11$, 356 

Golden Butterfly. Western Australia 594 

Golden Cycle Mining Co.. Colorado, accidents 907, 946 

Dividend 241, 509, 743, 907 

Mine, Colorado 986 

Mill, cvanldatlon 760 

V. Charles Butters suit Editorial. . . . 877 

Golden Eagle Mining Co.. Washington, cyanldatlon 909 

Golden Gate mine. California 983 

Golden Horse-Shoe Estates. Ltd.. Western Australia, 235, 

321, 433, 468, 594, 626, 655, 835, 951 

Condition 943 

Dividend 943 

V. London & Hamburg Gold Recovery Co.. Ltd 

Editorial 407 

Golden Reward mill. Black Hills, South Dakota 1031 

Mine 15S, 826 

Golden Ridge. Western Astralla 235, 433, 594, 835, 951 

Golden Springs mines. New South Wales 1024 

Goldfleld district, Nevada 59 

Cloudburst '....Editorial 445 

Geology of Kalgoorlle I. II, III, IV, V Malcolm 

Maclaren and J. Allan Thomson. . . .45, 95, 187, 228, 

Relation of faulting and mineralization In..._ 

Corrln Barnes and E. A. Byler.... 
Goldfleld Consolidated Milling & Transportation Co. v. 

Sandstorm Annex Gold Mining Co 701, 

Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Co., 59. 118, 242, 590, 701, 


Buckhorn mine 436, 

Company report 37, 206, 363, 552, 744, 

Cyanldatlon 757 

Dividend 398 

Goldfields, Kalgoorlle Editorial 43 

Ooldflelds Rhodeslan Development Co 762 

Goldstream, No. 17, Alaska 627 

Good flreplace J. D. Hubbard 426 

Goodale, C. W.. Horace WInchell, M. L. Requa. .Revision 

of United States mining laws 57! 

Gould Consolidated, Canada ?"•! 

Seneca Superior vein 903 





Government, business of Editorial ^^ifzli 

Control of strikes Editor tl ' ' ' Kflo 

Prospecting ! ! !Marshau' Bond! ! ! ! ttl 

n Uto :... Albert Burch.... 349 

n|H° ■■ Editorial.... 331 

g!*J° R. P. MacLaughlin 465 

Granby Consoii'daVed Mining.' Smelting & Powe°r"'co' *^* 
Ltd., Phoenix and Hidden Creek, British Columbia 

llo, 163, 243, 275, 437, 624, 635, 733, 783, 791, 991 

Anyox, employees cottages 571 

Anyox, analyses of orebodies 70s 

Company report c-in 

Dividend ". .".■.'.".■.sVs, ' 'sii, 910 

Hidden Creek mines 691, 1026 

Midas mine 663 828 

Phoeni.x mines -jnx 

Smelter, Grand Forks, British Columbia, "206, " '3'2'l', 

630 708 871 QS7 

Snowshoe Gold & Copper Mines, Ltd., properties...! 1026; 

Grand Junction, New Zealand 49* 

Cyanldatlon '_]'_' 75^ 

Grand Prize placer mine, Oregon !!!!!!!!!!! 78S 

Graphite brushes for dynamos !.!'!' 91s 

Use in steam boilers 38 

Graphitic schists, Kalgoorlle 51 g 

Gravel plant in Nevada ! ! ! ' 58 

Prospecting for dredging operations ....!.!!!!!!!" 902 
Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, Ltd., Kalgoor- 
lle, Western Australia 235, 655, 835, 951, 1024 

Alaska option 626 

Company report ! 401 

Mine 433, 469,' ViV, 594 

Operation of 373 

Great Boulder Perseverance Gold Mining Co.," Com- 
pany report 442 

Great Britain, coal mine fatality rate ! ! ! ! ! 876 

Gold movements 951 

Great Cobar Copper Co., New South Wales 78, 262 729 

Great Falls plant, experiments on basic lining 61 

Great Fingall Consolidated, Ltd., Western Australia. . 

235, 433, 468, 594, 655, 835, 951 

Company report 670 

Costs at mine 732 

Cyanldatlon 758 

Great Fltzroy Mines, Ltd., Queensland, Australia. .729, 977 

Great Lakes, storm, life and property loss 870 

Great Victoria mine. Western Australia 942 

Great Western Copper Co us 

Old Mammoth mine 27 

Great Zeehan Dundas Sliver Lead Mining Co., N. L., 

Tasmania 314 

Green Mountain Mining Co., Idaho, organized 986 

Greene Cananea Copper Co., Mexico 196, 315, 541 

Dividend 103S 

Grinder, Lovett 372 

Grinding pan practice John Randall. .. .233, 737 

Ditto M. G. F. Sohnlein 900 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewltz 234, 737, 901 

Grondal-KJellin Co. of London, tin reduction experi- 
ments In Cornwall 818 

Guamos Placer Co., Philippine Islands 120 

Guanajuato Consolidated, cyanldatlon 759 

Guayaquil, Ecuador, sanitation loan Editorial.... 841 

Guggenheim Exploration dividend 944 

Gullck, Hervey. . .Stirling v. Babcock & Wilcox boilers. 864 

Gwalla Consolidated mine. Western Australia 249 

Howe volatilization process 535 

Ditto Editorial 518 

Gwalia Consols mine. Western Australia, abandon- 
ment 942 

Volatilization of gold 781 

Gypsum 210 

In Virginia 15 

Production in United States 250 

Production in 1912 250, 533 

Haas, Herbert. . .Development of^converter practice.... 
Hague, William and Robert H. Bedford Rock-drill 

testing at the North Star 

Haldane flame-test apparatus 

Hale, E. W Copper matte and base bullion from an 

electric spelter furnace 

Hale & Norcross lessees 

Haley, C. S Successful salting of alluvlals. . . . 

Haley, Charles S. and C. A. Rodegerdts Prospecting 

conditions in Peru, I, II 922, 

Hall, Albert E. ..Stoplng drills at Sudbury, Ontaria.... 

Hall, R. G Psychology of zinc .... 

Hall desulphurizing process 161, 408, 435, 

Ditto Editorial. . . .2, 

Process and ISalaklala Copper Co 

Hamilton Power & Mining Co., Nevada 

Hammer drills 

Drills In Witwatersrand 

Hampden Cloncurry Copper Mines, Ltd., Queensland, 


Company report ■ • • . . ■ ■ ■ 

Hand-drilling contests Editorial 

Handling flue-dust at the Copper Queen smelter 

James Douglas. . . . 

Ore from stock pile at Miami 

Hannan's Star mine, Kalgoorlle ■ ■ • • 

Hansen, C. M Drilling in mid-air.... 

Harbors in British Columbia, cost of removing silt 

from • • ■;,'■"■, 

Hardlnge mills v. Chilean mills Robert Franke 

Hardsocg Wonder Drill Co., a new drill 

Harron, John O., death of a- ■ ■ i; ' ' ' ',; ' ■," ' '.i" ' ' 

Hartley & Riley Beach Dredging Co., New Zealand... 

Hatch, F. H Rand banket 

Hauck portable fuel burner ^- ;,v " ■ ' 

Hazel Gold Mining Co., Shasta county, California, 

dividend • 200, 

Headlight Co. v. Federal Mining & Smelting Co. ...... 

Heberlein. Ferdinand. .An excursion to North American 

smelting works 

Hecla Mining Co., Idaho ■^-^■ 

Hedley 'dSld Mlnlng'Co!.' British' 'c'ol'umb'la'.'.. .159. 630, 
Dividend 358. 475, 910. »»u. 

Heidelberg group. South Dakota, development by Dead- 
wood Business Club .•".■■.■■■.;'■'■ 

Weikes V C Metal production of Arizona.... 

Ditto ' Metal production of Montana 

Ditto Metal output of Nevada 



























Vol. 107 


Helena, Montana. United States Assay Office 659 

Helium, geologists' time recorders 939 

Henderson; Charles W Mine production of Colorado 

in 1912, by counties 554 

Hercules Mining Co., Shoshone county, Idaho 241, 509 

Dividend 358 

Herresiioff roasting furnace 683 

Hershey, Oscar H Origin of lead, zinc, and silver in 

the Coeur d'Alene — I, II 489. 529 

Herzig, Charles S Ore 427, 537 

Hess, Frank L..... White arsenic In United States in 

1912 622 

Hidden Creek copper mines, progress at 691 

High Grade district, California 661 

High voltage direct-current locomotives 83 

Hlllabee mine, Alabama, reopening 10.7 

Hill City M. & D. Co 660 

Hills, Victor G Professional ethics 976 

Hog Mountain Gold Mining Co., Alabama 107 

Hoist, automobile 150 

Leadville drill column 328 

Hoisting at a Chinese mine 137 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewltz 193 

At North Butte mine, Montana 975 

Cage, new 172 

In balance Editorial 920 

Men in mines 978 

Hoists, counterbalancing 936 

Holde's method 170 

Holdings of the Hollinger Reserve Mining Co., Ltd 732 

Holdsworth, Fred D Sullivan angle-compound air- 
compressors 795 

Hollinger Gold Mines, Ltd., Porcupine, Ontario, 197, 

321, 542, 780, 948, 982 

Costs at 554 

Dividend 475, 1032 

Hollinger Reserve Mining Co., Ltd., Porcupine, Ontario, 

542, 630, 780 

And General Development Co 696 

Holdings of ; 732 

Holmes. J. A Lessons of the year In our mining 

Industry 680 

Home made self-loading and dumping water skip 

H. B. Wharton 461 

Rule in Alaska Editorial 41 

Homestake mine, California ; 589 

Homestake Mines Finance Co 741 

Homestake Mining Co., Lead City, South Dakota, 

Christmas present 909 

Cyanidation at 757 

Dividend 157, 168, 354, 913, 1031 

Dividend rate 1025 

Improvements 826 

New hoisting equipment 1031 

Production 826 

Property valuation 475 

Slime plant, pulp transportation 515 

Sunday rest 506 

Honduras, minerals in 50 

Olancho county A. D. Akin .... 49 

Honnold, W. L Witwatersrand gold Industry In 


Hooper, Speak & Co.. mining on the Suan concession. . . . 
Hoover, .H. C. and Lou C, gold medal of Mining and 

Metallurgical Society of America. . . .Editorial 

Horn Silver Mining Co., Frisco, Utah 119 

Company report 402 

Hornsilver Mining Co.. Nevada 787 

Horse Mountain Mining Co., Colorado, incorporated.... 869 
Horwood, C. Baring. .. .Iridosmlne from New Randfon- 

tein mine. South Africa 494 

Ditto Rand banket I, II, III, III cont., IV, V, VI, 

VI cont., VII 563, 604, 647, 676, 721, 

763, 779, 806, 956, 1003 

Horwood's proces In flotation 334 

Hot Springs district, Alaska, output In 1913 906 

Hough. Ulysses B ..Coeur d'Alene mine-car.... 805 

Houghton Copper Co., Company report 555 

Howe process, volatilization at Gwalla Consolidated 

Mine, Western Australia ,..235, 535 

Ditto Editorial 518 

Volatilization process, collapse of 942 

Huanuco goldfleld, Peru 511 

Hubbard, J. D A good fireplace.... 426 

Hudson Bay, Cobalt. Ontario 746, 910 

Huerta's message. President Editorial.... 520 

Huff electrostatic plant. United States Smelting, Refin- 
ing & Mining Co 

Method of electrostatic separation or ores 664, 

Human side of milling Gelaslo Caetanl. . . . 

Ditto Editorial 

Hungary, gold mining In 1021 

Huntoon, Archie Mining law and the pros- 
pector 694 

Hurst, G. L ResolUng after dredging In Callfor-.... 

nia 719 

Hurler, Charles S Electric blasting 734 

Hutchins, John Power. .Dredging by hand In Siberia. . . . 813 

Hutchinson. Charles T Underestimating the cost of 

milling plants 349 

Huttl (Nizam's) Gold Mines, Ltd., Kolar, India 694 

Company report •. . 442 

Hyde, James M.. v. Minerals Separation, Ltd 270, 903 

Hyde process at Butte & Superior, and Minerals Sepa- 
ration, Ltd.. suit 237 

Process of mineral flotation at Butte & Superior 

Court's decision Editorial 173 

Hydro-electric power, Japan 403 

Hynes, D. P. Microscope In mining.... 110 

Iceland, water-power In 361 

Ida H., Western Australia 235, 433, 594, 655, 835, 951 

Idaho, Blain county geology 629 

Coal and lignite deposits 590 

Coeur d'Alene district 241, 907 

Gilmore district 907 

Lead In 1030 

Metal output 208 

Mineral production in 1912 1030 

Origin of lead, zinc, and silver In the Coeur d'Alene 

I II Oscar H. Hershey 489, 528 

Idaho-Bride M. & M. Co., Colorado 743 

Iditarod-Innoko placers, Alaska 819 

Idora Hill Mining Co. and Tuscumbia Mining Co 785 

Illinois, coke in 379 

Mineral production in 1912 733 

Immigrants and mines Editorial 710 

Imperial mine, Oregon 987 

Imperial Reduction Co. 868 

Import statistics. United States Geological Survey, 

potash salts 12 

Improved automatic water gauge 290 

Improvement of miners' surroundings 106 

Inclined baflles L. B. Eames. . . . 503 

Ditto H. G. Nichols 823 

Ditto John E. Rothwell.... 194 

Increasing the capacity of sllme thickeners 554 

Inde Mining Co., Mexico 988 

Index numbers 793 

India and China, currency problems In the Orient 

Editorial 754 

Coal mine fatality rate 876 

Coal production 876 

Gold reserves 1037 

Kolar goldfleld 38, 584, 694 

Kolar goldflelds power transmission 327 

Standardization of weights and measures 972 

Tungsten and tin, 691 

Indiana, mineral production 935 

Industrial materials of California 207 

Prosperity, big business and C. R. Van Hlse.... 730 

Infusorial or diatomaceous earth 250 

Ingliston Consols, Western Australia 235, 594, 655, 951 

Innoko-Idltarod placers, Alaska 819 

Inspection In mines Editorial .... 86 

Inspiration and Mines Company of America 904 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co., Miami, Arizona, 

160, 279, 506, 588, 984 

Mine 522, 903 

New test-mill 866 

v. New Keystone 391 

Institute and the Society Editorial 366 

Ditto A member of both. . . . 538 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy of London 113 

Ditto Editorial .... 129 

Geevor tin mine discussion 979 

Insurance companies, mutual among coal operators... 

Editorial 86 

German worklngmen's 774 

International Coal & Coke Co. dividends ..^.......^ 358 








International Engineering Congress Editorial 

International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation 

Editorial. . . . 
International Geological Congress at Toronto, persist- 
ence of ore deposits In depth Editorial. . . . 

International Safety and Sanitation Congress 

Editorial. . . . 

International Smelting & Refining Co Ill, 119, 

New copper smelter 

Iowa, mineral production 9*0 

Ipoh Tin Dredging Co., Federated Malay States 623 

Iridium steel, analysis .................. 940 

Iridosmlne from New Randfontein mine. South Africa. 

C. Baring Horwood .... 494 

Iron and steel Industry of Canada Editorial 174 

And steel output of Italy 528 

And steel production statistics 707 

And steel, use of copper to Improve quality.... 

Editorial.... 709 

Canada as a producer Editorial. . . . 406 

In Norway and Sweden 35 

In oxidizing -• • v 

Mine, Loussavaara-KIrunavaara, Kiruna, Lap- 

land ^ 

Nail method of assaying 170 

Ore, chrome. In United States ••••■•;•••••■•.•, Hi 

Ore deposits of Chile Carlos Vattler 893 

Ore, Lake Superior region |70 

Ore, mining In Cuba " J 

Ore traffic 4|" 

Ores, Brazilian ^J? 

Ores, brown, In Texas •••■•,; cJA 

Ores of the United States, titanlferous 570 

Pig, production In United States 210, 616 

Pig production of Germany f" 

Production in Germany i"J 

Production of United States In 1912 »| 

Rails in ore-bins g'* 

Ranges of Minnesota **J 

Wrought, and soft steel ■ • • • '\i 

Iron Blossom, Utah H'. » J ' 

Dividend ii,' • V,' • •/ ooS 

Iron Cap claims. Chewelah district, Washington . . .... 8S„ 

Iron Cap Copper Co., Arizona ....275, 828, sb* 

Iron Mountain Tunnel Co., Company report 44^ 

-Krine 4U8 

Ironfleld. An-ChI ,1,- • -C- ^- ,^»^"f • • ' ' 11} 

Irvin, Donald F -Trent agitators. ... 821 

Irvlnebank Mining Co., Ltd., North Queensland 382 

Aerial tramway ■ • JgJ 

Isaac's Harbour. Nova Scotia, gold discovery 98^ 

Isabella mine. Cripple Creek. Colorado • - • • . ■ ■ ■ Z5» 

Isle Royale Copper Co., Houghton, Michigan, 590. 63|, ^^^ 

Company report J J* 

, electric traction J^J 




Ivanhoe Junction 

Iron and steel output • : li • Vni' ' ic c " WqV '^' 

.nhoe. Western Australia, 235, 433, 468, 594, 655, 781, ^^^^ 


J-M Fyro fire extinguisher J* JJ 

Jack-augur drill, Mesaba Range. Minnesota i"^* 

Jamestown Consolidated Mines Co., Chllano mine iii| 

Japan and China, coal mining In ^* 

Coal mine fatality rate °'J 

Gold and silver »12 

Hydro-electric power '"J 

Picking belts, Mitsui Co '»" 

Japanese coal situation ^J 

Contemporary 'Miners' Friend' J"J 

Oil production •••• ;■,•■■ ^''' 

Jarvls. Royal P... Revision of United States mining 

laws ^"^ 

Jerry Johnson Gold Mining Co., Cripple Creek, Colo- 

j.Q^Q 509 

Jim Butler mine, 'fonopah, Nevada 665, 871, 1030 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co., report 909 

Jo Dandy mill. Raven Hill. Cripple Creek, Colorado 2:19 

Jobs, are there enough to go around? x.-:-';^: ««» 

F. Sommer Schmidt. . . . 900 

Vol. 107 



Johnston, John Role of pressure in chemical 

reactions 501 

Joke, possibly a 852 

Jones-Chamberlain bill, railways in Alaska 

Editorial 86 

Jones. Dwight A St. Joseph Lead Co 16 

Joplin district, Missouri, delinquent taxes 940 

Minerals 1021 

Ore deposits 126 

Prospecting at 738 

Shovelers' pay 940 

Ore market 35, 387, 1026 

Josephine mine, California 200 

Journalism, yellow Editorial.... 214 

July copper production 246, 285 

June copper production 77, 166 

Juneau, large scale gold mining Editorial. . . . 879 

Junta Consolidated Gold Mining Co 118 

Jupiter and Pearl Lake 112 

Bond issue 903 

Jupiter company, Porcupine 159, 780 

Jupiter Gold Mining Co., Ltd., company report .■ 125 

Jupiter mine. Rand, closed 905 

Jupiter Mining Co., bonds to raise indebtedness 982 

Kaeding. Henry Barriohlet, death of 438 

Kalgoorlie, Hrst-aid 327 

Geology of Editorial 43 

Gold production 48 

Gold returns 433 

Goldfleld. geology of— I, II. Ill, IV, V Malcolm 

Maclaren and J. Allan Thomson 45, 95, 187, 228, 374 

Graphite schists 516 

Grinding-pan practice John Randall. .. .233, 737 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz 234, 737 

Mines, various 70 

Ore formation and country rock 733 

Ores, cyanidatlon 759 

Power cost 235 

Residue disposal 902 

Tellurides 375 

Kalgurli Gold Mines, Ltd., Western Australia 

235, 433, 594, 626. 655, 835, 943 

Company report 836 

Mill, cyanidatlon 759 

Ore formation and country rock 733 

Kampong Kamunting Tin Dredging Co., Federated 

Malay States 623 

Kanda. RelJI Bujun coal mine In Manchuria.... 856 

Kansas-Missouri-Oklahoma zinc-lead ore prices 1026 

Ore production 543, 866, 889 

Kauri gum. Auckland province. New Zealand 1023 

Keane Wonder property, California 783 

Keeney, Robert M. and Dorsey A. Lyon Electric 

smelting of copper ores ; 976 

Ditto. .. .Possible applications of electric furnaces 

to Western metallurgy 686 

Kelvin-Sultana 904 

Kemp. J. F Water In veins.... 938 

Kennedy Extension Mining Co. v. Argonaut Mining 

Co 472 

Kennedy mining district, Nevada 242 

Kentucky, coal in 939 

Kentucky Lead & Zinc Co.. Incorporated 786 

Kern. Edward F.. .Electrolysis of cyanide solutions.... 577 

Kerr lake, draining 317. 746 

Kerr Lake Mining Co., Company report 478 

Ketahoen mine, Sumatra Island, Dutch East Indies, 

wages paid 940 

Keystone Mines Co., Amador City, California, report. . . . 1028 

Kleselguhr, fuller's earth 793 

Kimball. J. P., death of 703 

Kimberley Reed. Rhodesia 761 

KImberly Consolidated Mines Co. and Philadelphia 

Western Mining Co 510 

King. A. F. . . .Use of gasoline motors in coal mines. , . . 463 

King's Quicksilver Mining Co., Canada, in California. . . 906 

KIrkland Lake 159 

District 317 

District discoveries 197 

KIrkland Ijike Proprietary Ltd., organized 1032 

Kleinfontein and tube-mills 55 

Knob Hill, dividends 278, 358 

Knox. Henrv H Rand banket 899 

Knoxville. Tennessee, National Conservation Exposi- 
tion BMltorlal . . . . 365 

Kny-Shecrer Co., new stretcher 795 

Kolar goldfleld, India 38, 584, 694 

Power transmission 327 

Komata Reefs, New Zealand 682, 1023 

Kootenai district, British Columbia, production of 

mines 437 

Korea, mining concessions 423 

Mining on the Suan concession 256 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., 164. 321, 611, 630, 

871, 988, 1033 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., work of 

Alf Welhaven 857 

Seoul Mining Co 552 

Transportation In 269 

Koyukuk-Chandalar region. Alaska 160 

Kreuger & Co.. Rudolf Wolff spelter report 834 

Krusch. P Primary and secondary ores considered 

with especial reference to gel and rich heavy 

metal ores • • • • ■ • • • Jlj 

Kyara. Western Australia 594, 835, 951 

Kyshtim Corporation, Ltd., company report 247 

Labor, doubtful leadership of Editorial 798 

Lackawanna Belle Gold Mining Co., Colorado 946 

Lackawanna railroad. Supreme Court decision.. 

Editorial 920 

La Dura mine. Mines Company of America 741 

Mine closed ■ • • •■■■ 833 

I>ady Rolle mine, Colorado 117, 156, 280, 743 

Lady MillPr. Western Australia 433, 594 

La Grange Mining Co 829 

Lahat Mines. Ltd.. Company report JO 

Lalst copper precipitating method at Anaconda....... 830 

Lake Copper Co ., : .«9. 388, 471 

Lake Superior district copper companies 285 

District strike. 162. 241. 275, 319. 352. 393. 436. 473, 

506. B09. 646. 586, 690, 664. 785, 870, 986, 1026 

niptri' t. <-'>pper mines map 275 


District, iron ore shipments ^^f7®n 

n^tliiS^ ""4^ rescue and safety organizations:::::: 1025 
District, underground timbering rules ... 901 

StrSkl and- Butte- -miners -uni^A" -■^^''''^'^^■- • -"V. 674 

Strike and Citizen's Alliance : qqs 

Ditto Edi-toriai S7S 

Strike and dividend curtailments . . . ' ; ; *''>"0"ai . . . . 878 

Strike and New York copper iVs" 046 

Strike and shareholders loss in dividends.....'.-.'....' 
ot ,, , Editorial. . :: 

Str ke and women . Editorial. . . . 

Strike, one-man drill 

Strike, picketing Edltorial.-.'.'.-s'l's, 

Lake View & Star, Ltd., Western Australia 

^ 105, 235, 249, 433, 594, 626, 655. 83-5, 911 
Company report . oou, jii 

Costs at :.;:::::::: Hi 

'-'^H?,,y'^^ Consols, Western Australia 835,- '»U 951 

Mill, cyanidatlon ygj 

La Lucette, passing of -Editor-Iai: : : : 330 

Lampazos mine, Mexico 940 

Lamps, portable electric mine H. H. Clark. . .-.'6-2: -sfs 934 

Lancefleld mine, abandonment 01? 

, Closing ;::'- iix 

Land law revision, plain talk on. .George Otis Smith. . . 640 

Lands reopened for entry, public 2O8 

Landslides, causes ' ' 597 

Lane slow-speed Chilean mill data :..:"- 136 

Lang, Herbert Building a reduction plant 4 

Ditto Common sense of the fume question. . . .341, 540 

Ditto Oil burning in furnaces. ... 64 

Lapland, Loussavaara-Kirunavaara iron mine 720 

La Plata mountains, Colorado Rensselaer H. Toll. . . . 849 

La Rose Consolidated Mines Co., Cobalt, Ontaria, 195, 

^. ,, , 354, 739, 903 

Dividend 548 

Mine 982 

Large scale gold mining Editorial .... 879 

Largest mine locomotive 996 

Launching a republic Editorial 519 

Law — -see mining revision 

Law, Alaska mining Editorial 252 

And mining in West Virginia Editorial. ... 43 

And the prospector, mining. .. .Archie Huntoon.... 694 

Blue sky. South Dakota 826 

Federal workmen's compensation Editorial.... 920 

Mining, Victoria, Australia 1024 

Revision of mining Editorial 998 

Revision of mining, a protest 601 

Revision of mining, a critique. .Robert M. Searls. . . . 1014 

Laws, revision of the United States mining 

Courtenay De Kalb 778 

Ditto Royal P. Jarvis 862 

Leaching copper ore, oxidized with sulphuric acid.... 523 

Copper ores John Rooke-Cowell. . . . 294 

New plants 903 

Sulphuric acid Editorial 252 

Trouble 162 

Lead 912 

And zinc district, Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma 

and zinc production. Missouri 

Concentrator, Zinc Corporation, Ltd 

In Idaho 

Ore production in 1912 

Production of Arizona 

Production of Nevada 

Production of Utah in 1912 

Salts in cyanidatlon Vyvyan C. Bennett.... 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 

Silver mine. Magnet, Tasmania P. G. Talt.... 

World production In 1911 and 1912 

Zinc, and silver In the Coeur d'Alene, origin of — I, 
II : Oscar H. Hershey. . . .489, 

Zinc district, Missourl-Kansas-Oklahoma 

Zinc district. Wisconsin 

Zinc field. ' Wisconsin 

Leadville. Colorado, unwatering workings of Fryer 

Drill column hoist 

Leasing and low-grade milling at Cripple Creek 

Stephen L. Goodale 

Leeson, C. G Camanche dredge, California. . . . 

Lemhi county, Idaho ■ • • • • • ■ •,• 

Lena Goldflelds. Ltd.. Siberia 425, 527, 684, 

Lennan Mining Co., T. F.. Oklahoma 

Le Roy No. 2, Ltd., British Columbia • • 

Dividend • • • -358, 

Le Roy, E Electric time fuse.... 

Ditto Miners v. technical men. . . . 

Lessons of the year in our mining industry 

J. A. Holmes. . . . 
Letcher. Owen. . .New treatment plants in Rhodesia. . . . 

Lett, Stephen J Rand banket 

Levant Company, Cornwall, England 

Lewis & Sons, James, copper report . . • 169. 

I>ltto Copper situation In Europe. . . . 

Liberty Bell mine. Colorado, cyanidatlon 

Lignite and coal deposits, Idaho . ..... . . ..... • . • 

Lllllgren, J. M Professional ethics 

Llllooet district, British Columbia 

Lime, action on colloidal matter in ores 

Production In United States 

Lindley's definition of mineral 'and . . .^. . . . ^ . . - 

Linings, steel sluiceway W. W. Edwards 

Little Bob Mining Co.. Missouri 

Little Mattle mine. Colorado 

Localizing coal-dust explosions ;•." \' " I 

Locke, Ernest G Re-awakening of an old placer 

camp .• • • • '. 

Locomotives, high-voltage direct-current 

In Alaska, pioneer electric 

Largest mine ,• V4i;/ ••••••■• 

Lode mining In Interior of Alaska. ...... .Editorial 

Mining In Willow Creek district. Alaska....... 

Sumner S. Smith.... 
London & Hamburg Gold Recovery Co., Ltd.. y. Golden 

Horse-Shoe Estates Co., Ltd Editorial 

London-Arizona Consolidated Copper Co 

London, Salisbury House 

Lonely Reef Gold Mining Co., Ltd., company report... 

Mine ^• 

Mine, treatment i' w,i ' '-ri,' \: 

Los Angeles Chamber of Mines and Oil, Blsbee copper 

ores • 

Lost Packer Mining Co » 


Louisiana, rock salt 





















■ 407 






Vol. 107 


Sulphur in 859 

Loussavaara-Kirunavaara iron mine, Lapland 720 

Lovett grinder , 372 

Lucas property, Colorado 869 

Lucky Tiger-Combination Gold Mining Co., Mexico, 631, 

783 911 

Lundberg, Dorr & Wilson, Soutli Daltota .' 315 

Mill, closing Editorial.... 291 

Lunt, H. F. and H. W. Fox Hlllabee gold mine, 

Alabama 107 

Lyon, Dorsey A. and' Robert M. Keeney Electric 

smelting of copper ores 976 

Ditto. .. .Possible applications of electric furnaces 

to Western metallurgy 686 


MacDonald, William Vacuum filtration at Waihl 

mine 617 

Machine drilling contests Editorial.... 3 

Machinery trade in Switzerland 558 

Transported by mulebaclc, sectionalized 838 

Maclaren, Malcolm. Ore formation and country rock.... 733 
Maclaren, Malcolm, and J. Allan Thomson. . . .Geology of 

Kalgoorlie goldfleld— I, II, III, IV, V 45, 95, 

187, 228, 374 
MacLeod, W. A Metallurgical tendencies in West- 
ern Australia 424 

MacNamara Mining Co., Tonopah, Nevada 665 

Cyanidation 758 

Magma mine, Arizona 199 

Magnet silver-lead mine, Tasmania P. G. Talt.... 102 

Magnetite, Montana 403 

Main Reef West Rand, Transvaal 114 

Maine, Mt. Katahdin 876 

Majestic Mines Co., Utah 74 

Malaguit Dredging Co., Philippine Islands 120 

Malaria, its effect on work and workmen 

H. G. F. Spurrell 884 

Malay States, tin 570, 1001 

Mammoth mine, Maricopa county, Arizona 663 

Mammoth-Collins mines, Schultz, Arizona 116 

Mammoth Copper Co 408, 985 

Smelter fume suit 869 

Mammoth Mining Co 119 

Manchuria, Bujun coal mine in Reiji Kanda.... 856 

Manganese alloys, output of 750 

Ditto Editorial 709 

Poisoning by Editorial. ... 42 

Virginia 14 

Manhattan Big Four 10-stamp mill shut down '. . 947 

Manufacture of coke in 1912. .. .Edward W. Parker.... 480 

Of eucalyptus oil 382 

Mararoa, Western Australia 235, 433, 594, 835, 951 

Marion Henry Mining Co., Colorado 985 

North Dakota mine, Colorado 829 

Marsh Mining Co., Idaho 436 

Marvel Loch, Western Australia 594, es? 

Mary McKinney Mining Co., dividend 241, 664 

Mary Murphy Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Colorado 155, 508 

Maryland, mineral production 167 

Mineral production in 1912 973 

Mason Valley 983 

Mason Valley Mines Co., Terington, Nevada, 320, 636, 

787, 792, 992 

Montana-Yerington property 871 

Report 908 

Smelter 317 

Mass Consolidated Mining Co., Company report 478 

Massachusetts, mineral production i^n 1912 972 

Mathewson. B. P Basic-lined converter 61 

Mayflower Mining Co., Company report 513 

McCune-HaggIn interests in Huanuco goldfleld, Peru... 511 

McDonald, M. Jaster, death of 747 

McDonald, P. B Mining in Northern Ontario. . . . 459 

Ditto Stoping methods in Michigan mines.... 9 

McDougall roasting plant, dust chambers 978 

McEnaney mine. Porcupine 395 

Mclntyre, Cobalt, Ontario 910, 982 

Mclntyre-Porcupine Mines Ltd., Porcupine, Ontario, 780, 825 

Company report 37 

Mill 52 

McKinley-Darragh-Savage Mines Co., Cobalt... 112 395, 

548, 702, 870 

Dividend cut 431 

McLaughlin. R. P Government prospecting.... 465 

McMahon, John, death of 949 

McQuisten tube concentrator 195 

Mechanical shoveling underground 840 

Mein, Robert M., death of 703 

Melanochalcite 38 

Melting points of copper alloys 890 

Menzies Consols. Western Australia 433, 594, 835, 951 

Merton & Co.. Henry R., lead and zinc statistics 989 

Mesabi iron range, Minnesota 916 

Messina copper mine, Transvaal 941 

Furnaces Editorial. . . . 517 

Messina Development Co., Ltd., Transvaal 237, 430 

Metal, composite prices 793 

Market review, New York. .'. . , .32, 264, 396, 550, 704, 912 

Production, Arizona 78 

Production. Central States 78 

Production, Idaho 208 

Production, Mexico Editorial.... 252 

Production, Montana 208 

Production, Nevada 313 

Production, Oregon 480 

Production, South Dakota 404 

Production, Wyoming 404 

Metalgesellschaft statistics 915 

Metallurgical and mining terms, standardization of.... 

Editorial 673 

Research, Cobalt Editoriad .... 214 

Tendencies in Western Australia 

W. A. MacLeod 424 

Metallurgy at Broken Hill.... J. Malcolm Newman.... 307 

In Rhodesia 381 

Mefalurgica de la Baja California, Cia 943 

Met.Tls, addition to free list Editorial 405 

Mexican conditions, an English view of 

H. S. Denny 735 

Policy. President's and D. P. Barrows. .Editorial 797 

Mexican Development Co 948 

Mexican Gold & Silver Mining Co 394 

Mexican Metals Co 316, 471 

Mexican mill, and Symmes agitator 92 


Mexico, administration and 386 

Ditto Editorial 366 

And students Editorial.... 446 

Conditions in 75, 202, 203, 243, 548, 666, 696, 936 

Ditto Editorial 42. 173, 599, 997 

Conditions in and investors 195 

Conditions in and President Huerta's message 

Editorial 520 

Conditions in, coin silver v. bar silver. .Editorial. . . . 841 

Conditions in currency Editorial.... 405 

Guanajuato dstirict ore shipments 910 

Imports and exports Editorial.... 637 

Metal production Editorial 252 

Metal production for July 1913 Editorial.... 954 

Mineral exports through Agua Prieta 833 

Ore shipments through Agua Prieta 1032 

Railways 25, 203 

Security on investments Editorial.... 213 

Wireless telegraphy Editorial 291 

Mexico Mines of El Oro, Mexico 548, 911 

Company report 916 

Cyanidation 759 

Miami Copper Co., Miami, Arizona, 315, 351, 522, 636, 

699, 784, 792, 868, 992 

Flotation 865 

Handling ore from stockpile at Miami 685 

Miami Royalty Co 739 

Mica, Virginia 15 

Micarta, Westinghouse company 838 

Michigan, Lake Superior strike, see Lake Superior — 

Mine fatalities 708 

Mineral production of 819 

Mineral production in 1912 1035 

Mines, stoping methods in P. B. McDonald .... 9 

Microscope in mining D. P. Hynes. . . . 110 

Midas copper mine, Alaska 199 

Sold to Granby Con. M. S. & P. Co S2S 

Mile, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 45 

Mill, all sliming 13$ 

Concentrating, Magnet Silver Mining Co., Tas- 
mania 103 

Sears' Acme 128 

Wet-crushing and efficiency 838 

Miller, Willet G., and Cobalt, Ontario Editorial 754 

Milling, Agricola's De Re Metallica 671 

And mining at the Vulture property 

W. M. Wood 1018 

At Cobalt Eraser Reid 216 

At Republic, Washington 278 

Cost at the Chino 522 

Hardinge mills v. Chilean mills. .Robert Franke.... 223 

Human side of Gelasio Caetani.... 800 

Ditto Editorial 798 

In China, gold 227 

Low-grade and leasing at Cripple Creek 

Stephen L, Goodale.... 297 
Operations at the Eldorado Banket mine. Rhodesia.. 684 
Plants, underestimating the cost of — I. 11, III. IV. . . . 

A. Sydney Additon 88, 138, 263, 301, 620 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar. . . . 777 

Ditto Editorial.. 291 

Ditto Charles T. Hutchinson .... 349 

Mills, Thomas Station, Missouri 738 

Milne, John, death of 244 

Mine car, Coeur d'Alene Ulysses B. Hough.... 805 

Cost keeping C. M. Eye 261 

Examination in far countries Editorial.... 920 

Lamps, portable electric 62, 328, 934 

Ditto H. H. Clark 934 

Locomotive, largest 996 

Production of Colorado in 1912, by counties 

Charles W. Henderson. . . . 554 
Rescue and safety organizations. Lake Superior 

district 1025 

Rescue stations and cars. United States Bureau of 

Mines appropriations 942 

Rescue telephone equipment, new 39 

Rescue work 642 

Safety and United States Bureau of Mines 

Editorial 954 

Signal system, electric E. A. Colburn, Jr 346 

Taxation in Colorado 824 

Ditto Editorial 797 

Taxation, Supreme Court decision 944 

Water, acid , 876 

Water, copper from 854 

Mineral claims, patent on 902 

Exports, Bolivia 467 

Flotation Wilton Shellshear 622 

Land in United States, patenting 597 

Land, Lindley's deflnition 557 

Land taxation, held by railroads, Montana 980 

Or an ore, value of 793 

Paint production 399 

Production, Alabama 1018 

Production, California 592 

Ditto Charles G. Yale 516 

Production, Colorado 930 

Production, Eastern Appalachian states 167 

Production, Germany 1912 1035 

Production, Idaho 1912 1030 

Mineral production, Indiana 935 

Production, Michigan 819 

Production Michigan 1912 1035 

Production, New Mexico S23 

Production, New York 310 

Production, Isorth Carolina 404 

Production, northern Russia 584 

Production, Peru in 1911 79 

Production, Philippine Islands 79, 304 

Production, Quebec 554 

Production, Texas in 1912 1035 

Production, United States 1016 

Production, United States 1912 Editorial.... 954 

Production, Virginia in 1912.. Thomas L. Watson.... 89S 

Production. Wyoming in 1912 1035 

Products, United States 1912 914 

Products, new tariff on 656 

Resources of Virginia III 

Thomas Leonard Watson. ... 14 

Specimens, free determination of 902 

Mineral Points Zinc Co., Illinois 202 

Mineralization and faulting in Goldfleld. relation of.. 

Corrin Barnes and E. A. Byler.... 59 

Minerals in Honduras 50 

In Persia .- 4d2 

Vol. 107 













Minerals Separation, Ltd., and Butte & Superior, Hyde ^^^' 

process suit 237 

And Elmores, litigation , 941 

V. Butte & Superior 903 

V. De Bavay process Wilton Shellshear 21 

V. James M. Hyde 270, 903 

Process. Braden Copper Co .' 20 

Process, Brolten Hill, New Soutn Wales 26, 

Minerals Separation American Syndicate and Hyde pro- 
cess of mineral flotation at Butte & Superior.... 


Minerals Separation & De Bavay's Processes Australia 
Proprietary, Ltd., dividend 

Miners and the Forest Service Editorial.... 

Miners Friend, Japanese contemporary 

Miners' safety lamps, use of James W. Paul.... 

V. technical men E. Le Roy. . . . 

Mines and moving pictures 

And prospects, securing capital for..H. C. Cutler. . . . 822 

Hoisting men in 978 

Immigrants and Editorial.... 710 

Sampling coal 580 

Tonnage in United States and railroads 1021 

Unremunerative Rand 574 

Mines and Methods, publication suspended 

Editorial 405 

Mines Company of America 506 

Company report 360 

La Dura mine 741 

La Dura property closed 827, 833 

Mexico trouble Editorial.... 173 

Mines Department, New South Wales, receipts 314 

Mines Leasing & Development Co., Canada, Rea mine. . . 739 

Mining and big exposition J. Nelson Nevius. . . 

And milling at the Vulture propert.v 

W. M. Wood . . . 

And departments Editorial . . . 

And law In West Virginia Editorial... 

And metallurgical terms, standardization of 

Editorial. . . 

And newspapers Editorial . . . 

Are there jobs enough to go around? 

F. Sommer Schmidt... 

Balkan Editorial . . . 

By wholesale Thomas T. Read .... _ , . 

Claim patents 1028 

Columbia University lease Editorial.... 877 

Concessions, Colombia 980 

Conditions in western Chihuahua 936 

Costs at West End. Tonopah 272 

Educating the public regarding Editorial.... 560 

Engineers and geologists in the field, means of 

locomotion 902 

Equipment, real and personal property 597 

Exhibition, South Africa Editorial 753 

Experts and practical rhen Fred B. Ely. . . . 583 

In Algeria 891 

In Australia, deep 693 

In Gold Fields mines, selective H. H. Webb.... 860 

In Mongolia 232 

In Morocco 411 

In northern Ontario P. B. McDonald .... 459 

In Pennsylvania 990 

In Sweden 681 

In Western Australia 618 

Industry, Arizona 627 

Industry, lessons of the year In our 

J. A. Holmes. . . . 680 

Industry, revival Editorial 481 

Iron ore In Cuba 534 

I..arge scale gold Editorial 879 

Law and the prospector Archie Huntoon .... 694 

Law, revision of the United States. .Editorial. . . .560, 998 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb 

Ditto C. W. Goodale 

Ditto Royal P. Jarvis 

Ditto M. L. Requa 

Ditto..... George Otis Smith 

Ditto Horace V. WInchell 

Ditto, a critique Robert M. .Searls 

Ditto A protest 

Ditto, a protest, Russell L. Dunn Editorial.... 

Ditto, again Editorial 

Law, Victoria, Australia 1024 

Laws, Alaska Editorial.... 252 

Methods at Broken Hill 152 

On the Rand, deep 905 

On the Suan concession 256 

One reason for languishing. .. .J. Nelson Nevius.... 273 

Ordinance, new. Northern Territory, Australia 500 

Problems and the Mining Congress 

D. W. Brunton. . . . 
Railway and Industrial enterprises, profits and the 

banks Editorial 

Reports Wilbur E. Sanders 

Schools and politics Charles A. Chase. . . . 

Ditto Editorial 

Some more reasons for languishing of .J. D. Vose.% . . 
Tin In Tasmania Peter G. Talt. . . . 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America and 
afnilatlon with American Institute of Mining 

Engineers Editorial. . . .329, 

Gold medal award to H. C. Hooved and Lou C. 

Hoover Editorial 

New York section meeting 

Mining Bureau, California, Industrial materials of 

California " 207 

Mineral resources of state Editorial.... 251 

Mining Congress, mining problems and 

D. W. Brunton 815 

Resolutions of 760 

Minnesota, Cuyuna Iron range 870 

Iron in 58, 553 

Mesabl Iron range 916 

Mineral land tracts ., Editorial.... 481 

Mint. San Francisco 324 

San Francisco, receipts 78, 990 

Mints, coinage at United States 21, 440 

Mlsslnslppian formation and co-operation In names.... 819 

Missouri, barytes in 493 

Concentrating plants 196 

Joplln district delinquent taxes 940 

Joplln district minerals 1021 

Joplln district, prospecting In 738 

Joplln district, shovelors' pay 940 

Kansas-Oklahoma zinc-lead field, 474, 543, 866, 889, 1026 

St. Francois county strike 281. 319, 393 

School of Mines Editorial.... 131 








Zinc and lead production a^i 

Mitsui Co., Japan, picking belts '.'. ?JJ 

Moctezuma-Arizpe (Mexican Metals) Development Co. 

Moctezuma Copper Co., Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico, lu, ^^^ 

Modderfontein government areas. Rand . . ^^*' ^®^' ?qs 

Model of Cripple Creek district, topographic. '. ]■.;'.:!'.;; 

m J , i , E. A. Byler and Lee W Davis 144 

Modern plant for building pumps i^avis 141 

Modoc mine, California gif 

Mogul Mining Co^ Black Hills, South Dako"ta.'.'.'.'.'.353 827 

M^};rN^ic^^rs?..''&d.'!'.°'^."".'!'.^'.'=.':i«."": '''• '''• 

Big Levack property ql f 

Levaek properties ii% 

Mond process, nickel smelting by A. P. 'cbiemaii; ! ' ' 412 

Mongolia, mining in oix 

Montagu & Co., Samuel, silver statistics,' Vosi '245' VsV " 

,, » „,,,,. 398. 551, 668, 748, 834', 913! 989 

Montana, Butte district, electricity in . . . . ?q? 

Coal in "Si 

Georgetown mining district and the" Southern 

Cross mine cig 

Hoisting at the North Butte mine '.'.'.'.'.'. 97? 

Magnetite ?n? 

Metal output ■.■.;". 2O8 

Nitre deposit !!.!!!!!!!! 361 

Ores in 1912 


Philipsburg quadrangle ^q'i 

Sapphires " 'VV 94 

Taxing mineral lands held by railroads .'.'.'.'. ' 98O 

Zinc output and Wyoming gasfields ' ' 824 

Montana Mining & Development Co 112 

Montana Power Co 315' 493 

Montana-Tonopah Mining Co., Tonopah, Nevada'.'.'.'."....' 665 

Commonwealth mine 355 434 

Cyanidation _' 758 

Montana-Terlngton property and Mason Valley Mines 

Co 871 

Montgomery-Shoshone Consolidated Mining Co., com- 

>, •,.P*"y report 248 

Monthly copp-sr production 635, 791, 991 

Morro Velho mill, Brazil, tube-mill liners at 423 

Mine 113, 403 

Temperatures at 380 

Morocco, mining in 411 

Mother lode of California W. T. Robinson...'. 65 

Geologic work on 890 

Motor trucks 672 

Motors in coal mines, use of gasoline. . . .A. F. King. . . . 463 

Mount Bischoft Tin Mining Co., Tasmania 1018, 1024 

Company report 836 

Mt. Elliott, Ltd., Queensland, Australia 729 

Company report 1037 

Copper production 78 

Mount Katahdin. Maine 876 

Mount Lyell, Tasmania 625, 729, 1024 

Cost of producing blister copper 1021 

Metal production 78, 149 

Ore minerals 939 

Strike 867 

Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., Ltd., Tasmania, 

company report 1036 

Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Queensland. 78, 

126, .625. 646. 729, 1024 

Ditto Editorial 251 

Company report 402 

Mine 327 

Mine, concentration and power for 296 

Mt. Royal, drilling equipment at 290 

Tunnel. Canada, drilling 327 

Mountain Copper Co.. Ltd., California 545 

Mountain Queen, Ltd., Western Australia, 235, 425, 433, 

594, 655, 835, 942, 951 

Mountain Top Mining Co., Colorado 357, 399, 545 

Moving pictures and mines 904 

Muntz-metal sheets 170 

Murex Magnetic Co 26 

Muro Magnetic Co., Ltd., company report 513 

Mutual Mining & Milling Co.. Mexico 910 

Myers-Whaley shoveling machine. No. 11 mine. Federal 

Lead Co 947 

Mechanical shoveling underground 840 

Mysore, Kolar, India 694 


Nacozari Consolidated Copper Co., Mexico 359, 592 

National Conservation Exposition, Knoxvllle. Tennessee 

Editorial 365 

National Copper mine. Mullan, Idaho 73 

National Railways of Mexico 541 

National tubing 172 

Natoma, California, dredging at 

M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 1017 

Natomas Consolidated of California 240. 545, 829, 907 

Cost and yield miscalculations Editorial.... 878 

Dredges 508 

Dredging 1017 

Moving pictures 90^ 

Reorganization 905 

Neal patent pebble-retalning outlet 515 

Nelchlna placer district, Alaska 699 

Nelson, William, death of 703 

Nenzel Crown Point Mining Co.. Rochester Mining Co., 

and Rochester-Weaver Mines Co. consolidation. . . 870 

Neptune diving apparatus 128 

Nevada. American canyon, placer camp 373 

Gravel plant in 58 

Kennedy mining district 242 

Metal output 313 

Progress In potash prospecting In Railroad Valley. . . 

E. E. Free 176 

Tellow Pine mining district 357 

Nevada-Anaconda Copper Co., Nevada 947 

Nevada Cinnabar Co 119 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., Ely, Nevada. 202, 358, 

636, 745, 783, 792, 827, 866, 871, 903, 992 

And oil-flotation process 243 

Blast-hole drilling in open-pit copper mining 643 

Bond 904 

Dividends 398 

Report 831 

Safety department 1031 

Nevada Douglas Copper Co.. Mason, Nevada, 73, 112, 

317, 636, 745, 787, 792, 871, 947, 983, 992 



Vol. 107 

Casting Copper mine 242, 320, 983, 1030 

Copper leaciiing 127 

Ludwig mine 831 

Nevada Hills Mining Co . 73,' '202', 394 474 744 

Cyanidation .. 759 

Nevada New Mines Co 243 

Nevada Wonder Mining Co., company report .........'. 875 

Dividends 787 

Milling costs ] . .' 940 

Shaft sinking, cost of 902 

Nevius, J. Nelson Mining and the big exposition.'.!! 502 

Ditto One reason why mining languishes.... 273 

New drill 9I8 

Stretcher 79g 

Tariff on mineral products 656 

Treatment plants In Rhodesia Owen Letcher 761 

New Arizona Copper Co. smelter 525 

New Canadian dredges... An occasional contributor.... 460 

New Canadian Nickel Corporation 215 

New Dominion Copper Co 35I 

New Pound Out, Rhodesia 761 

New Jersey, mineral production 167 

New Jersey Zinc Co 42, 981 

New Keystone mine, Gila county, Arizona 27 

New Keystone v. Inspiration, Arizona 391 

New Kleinfontein, Rand 114 

Ditto Editorial 44 

New Mexico, Bent, sandstone copper deposits at 

Sydney H. Ball 132 

Coal in 74 

Mineral production 823 

Mines in 65 

Stag Canyon disaster 702, 740 

New Randfontein mine. South Africa, iridosmine from.. 

C. Baring Horwood. . . . 494 

New Reliance mine, Black Hills, South Dakota 826 

New South Wales, Broken Hill, selective flotation at. . . . 334 

Coal mine fatality rate 876 

Cobar copper and gold field 300 

Gold production 581 

Mines Department 314 

Mining (amendment) Bill, 1913 625 

New tinfleld 1024 

Newcastle coal and oil 1024 

Newcastle coal exports 901 

New York, gas production in 1912 733 

Metal market review 32, 204, 396, 550, 704, 912 

Mineral production 167, 310 

New Tork, New Haven & Hartford railroad, history 

of Editorial 954 

New York Times' Annalist Editorial.... 798 

New Zealand, Auckland province, kauri-gum 1023 

Coal in 819 

Coal mines 1023 

Coromandel field 1022 

Gold and silver exports 1022 

Gold and silver production of Auckland province. . . . 494 

Gold dredging. South Island 1023 

Gold hydraullcking 772 

Gold production 581 

Goldflelds, dredges 479 

Government control of strikes Editorial.... 600 

Hauraki peninsula, North Island, gold and silver 

production 682 

Karangahake district 1022 

Labor troubles 1022 

Mines, prodijction 79 

Oil 1023 

South Island dredges 729 

State aid to mining 772 

Thames goldfleld 1022 

New Zealand Crown Mines Co., New Zealand 682, 1022 

New Zealand Oil Wells Co 1023 

Newcastle, New South Wales, coal and oil 1024 

Newhouse tunnel, Idaho Springs, Colorado 155 

Newman, J. Malcolm. ., .Metallurgy at Broken Hill.... 307 

News and news Editorial.... 756 

Newsboy Mining Co., Alaska 544, 699, 784 

Newspapers and mining Editorial .... 798 

Nicaragua, Camp Bird. Ltd 1033 

Railroad construction Editorial .... 674 

Nichols, Horace G., Geevor tin mine discussion, Institu- 
tion of Mining and Metallurgy, London 979 

Ditto Inclined baflfles 823 

Nickel in Norway 35 

In United States 838 

Ore district, Sudbury Editorial.... 215 

Production, Ontario 982 

Smelting by the Mond process. .. .A. P. Coleman..... 412 

Virginia 14 

Nickel Plate, British Columbia 395 

Niemann patent process for treatment of selenite ores. . 943 

Nigeria, northern, tin production 500 

Nipissing Mines Co 195, 216, 354. 365. 542, 630, 

782, 825, 982, 1032 

And New Tork as a silver market 506 

Cyanidation 759 

Dividends 591 

Desulphurizing Cobalt ores 484 

Ditto Editorial 483 

Nissen and ordinary stamps, Cornish mines 695 

Nitrate. Chilean Editorial 482, 518 

Fields of Chile Walter S. Tower 495 

Lands. Chilean sale 36 

Of soda, production decrease 874 

Nitre deposit, Montana 360 

Nitrogen atom, trailing Editorial .... 447 

South America 327 

Supplies Juan Blanquier. . . . 777 

Nitrogen Products Co., water-power in Iceland 361 

Noblett, R Simple smelting 820 

Nome, Alaska, gold find 355 

Shortage of water 160 

Storm at 588, 627, 699, 828 

Ditto Editorial 559, 710, 797 

Norseman district. Western Australia, mining 235 

North American smelting works, an excursion to. 

Ferdinand Heberleln 713 

North Annntapur Gold Mines, Ltd., Kolar, India. .. .694, 695 

North Broken Hill, Ltd., company report 993 

North Broken Hill Mining Co., company report 360 

Mine, operating costs 940 

North Butte Mining Co 196, 241, 242, 541 

Company report 744 

Mine. Montana, hoisting at . .. . 1 975 

North Carolina, mineral production 167, 404 

North Columbia Gold Mining Co., Atlin district, Brit- 
ish Columbia ' 614 

North Dakota, mineral production 1912 889 

North Dakota mine, Colorado 829 

North Lyell mine, Tasmania, fire and flooding. !!!!!!!!! 1021 
North Star Mining & Milling Co., Jarbidge, Nevada, 665, 

702 831 

North Star Mines, Grass Valley, California .. . ' 161 

Dividends ' 663 

Rock-drill testing !!.!!!!!!!!!!' 

Robert H. Bedford and William Hague!!!! 179 

Ditto Editorial 174 

North Washington Power & Reduction mill, Washing- 
ton, cyanidation 759 

Northern Ontario, mining In p. B. McDonald!!! 459 

Northern Concentrators, Ltd., and Chambers-Ferland. . . 826 

Northern Longitudinal Railway, Chile Editorial 997 

Northern Ontario Light & Power Co ; 782 

Northwestern Development & Mining Co.. endowed 

prospecting Editorial 842 

Norway, ore production 1912 35 

Sulitjelma company 618,' '7'32', 854 

Nova Scotia, coal mine fatality rate 876 

Isaac's Harbour, gold discovery !..!!! 982 

Nundydroog, Kolar, India !.!!!! 694 

Nutter, Edward H Working costs at the Standard 

Consolidated 312 

Oaks Co., New Mexico 

Ofiln River Gold Estates, company report 

Ohio, mineral production 

Ohio Copper Co., Bingham. Utah. 25, 112, 236 237 276 
510, 541, 586, 636, 666, 792, 904! 

Mill, Utah . 

Oil burning In furnaces Herbert Lang.... 

Discovery, Athabasca Landing, Canada 

Discovery, Black Diamond, Alberta, Canada 

Flotation process, Nevada Consolidated Copper Co... 

Gas, explosive characteristics 

Gold and coal production of Dutch East Indies 

In Alaska 

In Colombia Editorial .... 

New Zealand 

Operations, California 

Production, California 199 

Production for 1913, California J. H. G. Wolf 

Production from shale 

Production In 1912 

Production In Peru 

Production. Japanese 

Reserves discussion, SouthAustralla 

Resources of California Editorial,... 

Rush, Athabasca Landing, Alberta 

Territory, Colombia 

Wells, waste In 'coming in" 

Oilfield, Tayabas. Philippine Islands 

Oilfields, California 279, 

Oklahoma, coal production In 1912 

Kansas-Missouri zinc and lead district, ore product- 
ion 543, 866, 889, 

Mine telephones 

Natural gas production 

Olancho country. Honduras A. D. Akin.... 

Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co.. Globe, 
Arizona 636, 792, 

Improvements at 


Old Ironsides Mining Co 

Old Sandstorm Annex Gold Mining Co. v. Goldfleld 

Consolidated Co 

Oliver Iron Mining Co 

One man drill 

Reason why mining languishes. J. Nelson Nevius.... 

Ontario Bureau of Mines 

Ontario, Canada, accident statistics 

Cobalt bullion production 

Cobalt, Wlllet G. Miller Editorial 

Gold production 

Mineral output 

Mineral production 

Mining in northern P. B. McDonald. . . . 


Sudbury, stoping drills at Albert E. Hall.... 

Ooregum, Kolar, India 

Operation of the Great Boulder mill, Kalgoorlle 

Of the West End mill, Tonopah. .J. A. Carpenter. . . . 

Ophir Gold Dredging Co., California 357, 

Ophir Silver Mining Co.. Nevada, report 

Ora Banda. see Associated Northern — 

Orange Free State diamond production 

Ore Charles H. Herzig 427, 

Ditto T. A. Rickard 

Crushing underground 

Deposition Editorial .... 

Deposits, primary and secondary Editorial.... 

Deposits In depth, persistence of 

Horace V. Winchell 

Deposits In depth, persistence of. International Geo- 
logical Congress at Toronto Editorial. . . . 

Dressing, colloids in A. W. Allen.... 

Formation and country rock 

Gate, new Grant H. Tod. . , . 

Genesis Editorial .... 

In discovery, prospectors and 

Market, Joplin 

Mineral or, value of 

Passes, steel, at Broken Hill John M. Bridge.... 

Reserves of Australian mines 

Reserves of Rand mines 

Sampling from a rock-crusher 

Oregon, metal production 

Mining In eastern 

Ores considered with especial reference to gel and rich 

heavy metal ores, primary and secondary 

P. Krusch. . . . 

Desulphurizing Cobalt Editorial .... 

Electrostatic separation of. Huff method 

Enrichment in depth 

Genesis of Butte Editorial 

Orient, transportation in 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co.. Korea 164. 321, 

511, 630, 871, 988, 1032, 

Costs at 

Cyanide plants 

Spares used In mills 

Work of the mines Alf Welhaven 

Origin of Butte chalcocite Reno Sales .... 

Of lead, zinc, and silver in the Coeur d'Alene — I, 
II Oscar H. Hershey 489, 




















4 83 



Vol. 107 



Oriole mine, Oregon '^f^ri 

Oro Grande Gold Mining Co., incorporated' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 986 

Oro Mining Go. and Clio mine, California .... ' qik 

Oro Water Light & Power Co., California '.'.".' 868 

Camanche dredge q^o qjn 

Oroville dredges ........'. ' 760 

Dredging companies, merger ' 661 

Oroville Dredging Co., Ltd 34, 476, 510, 588,' VlV, 945 

Company report m'!? 

Dividend and debts 980 

Pato dredge Vi n' t,ii 

Oroville Dredging, Ltd '. . ' glS 

Company report !..!!!!!!!!! 670 

Statement of operations .'. ggo 

Oroya Black Range mine, costs at. Western Australia;; 934 

Oroya Leonesa mine, Nicaragua . . . . 788 
Oroya Links, Western Australia. 235, 433. 594'.'655,"sV5', 

„„, 911, 1024 

Mill 494 

Mines, cyanldation " ■j^n 

Orsk Goldfields, Ltd., Siberia '. .■.'.■.■.■.■.■." '. V/e 527 

Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., Osceola Michigan 285' 

^ J. . , „ „ 590, 624, 636, 743, 792! 992 

Osgood quartz mine, California 589 

Osmlridium in Tasmania ' ' " 'jsV 662 

^. Platinum, a new alloy F. Zimmerniann. .'. .' 533 

Otavi Mines & Railway Co., company report 556 

Ouray, Colorado, ore shipments 281 689 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines of Brazil, Ltd., company' re- 
port on 

Output of gold J. R. Finiay ; ; ; ; 636 

Pachuca tanks F C Brown 

Pacific Gold Dredging Co '^rown .... 

Pacific Mines Co., New Mexico 

Paige, Charles U Common sense of 'the fume 


Paint, mineral production ;;;;;;;; 

Panama Canal, dredging . . ' 48 288 


Expenditures ' ; 

Flooding cuiebra cut ;..;;;;;;;' 

Locks . . .'.'.190' 

Locks and works, concrete laid 

Progress at 

Work at Cucaracha slide ;;;;;;;; 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, engineering; ; 

Paracale district. Philippine Islands, dredges 

Paringa Mines, Ltd., Kalgoorlie '235' 

Park City district, Utah 


Parker, Edward W Coal mining in Peniisvl'vania; ; " 

Ditto Gas in New York in 1912 

Ditto Manufacture of coke In 1912.... 

Ditto Michigan mineral production 

Passing of La Lucette Editorial 

Patent, cancellation of 

Filter, Tonopah Belmont mill ;;;;;;;;;;;;; 

On mineral claims * * 's7e 

On mining claim, Arizona 

Patenting mineral land In United States 

Patents, filter Editorial ; ; ; ; 

Recent 873. 995 

Paterson strike Edkorial 

Paul. James W Use of miners' safetv lamps. 

Pazos y Saclo. Vincente Smelting In sha"ft furnaces 

at great altitudes 

Pearl district. Idaho, ores and treatment of ; ; 

Pearl Lake, Canada 

And Jupiter ;;;;'""; 

Pelican mill, Colorado 

Pond Oreille Mining & Reduction Co., ■Webster niiiie 

Penn Canadian 

Penn Mining Co., Campo Seco, California .;.;;;;;;;;;" 

Smelter, fume complaints 

Penn copper mine. Calaveras county, California, cop- 
per from mine water 

Pennsylvania, anthracite production 

Coal In 

Coal mining in i; ;;;!!;;;; 

Mineral production ;;;;!;*'" 

Mining in ;;;;;;;;;; 

Natural gas consumed ;;; 

Pennsylvania Gold Mining Co., California, De Bernadi 


Periodicity of the stock market ;;;'"; 

Perserverance, Great Boulder, Western Australia, 23'5', 


Mill, cyanidatlon 

Persia, minerals In ; ; ; 

Persistence of ore deposits In depth. International Geo- 
logical Congress at Toronto Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Horace V. Wlnchell 

Peru. Huanuco goldfleld 

Mineral production in 1911 

Mining claims 

Oil production In 

Prospecting conditions In — I. II 

Charles S. Haley and C. A. Rodegerdts. . . .922, 

Peterson Lake Mining Co 

Petrol imports into Great Britain 

Petroleum In Philippines 

Investigations. United States Bureau of Mines 

Production in 1912 of the United States and the 
world David T. Day .... 

Production in United States 124, 

Production, Taiwan 

Petrologic provinces 

Ditto Editorial 

Phalen, W. C Potash salts 

Phelps, Dodge & Co.. Inc 636 792, 

Extra dividend 

November copper production Editorial.... 

Stag Canyon disaster 702, 

Philippine Islands and independence Editorial.... 

Dredging by Australian companies 

Gogo juice In panning gold-bearing sand 

Mineral production 79, 

Mining news 

New government policy, affect of 

Order of Carabao and sentiment as to present gov- 
ernment policy Editorial.... 

Paracale district, dredges 

Petroleum In 

Tayabas oilfield 















Philippines Dredging Co ^fE«„- 

PhiUpsburg quadrange, Montana ,„, 

Phosphate, Africa ?;? 

Florida 501 

Phosphote, Tennessee . ; ; ; 2?^ 

Phthisis Prevention Committee',' Rand' ;:;;:;: llx 

Picking belts ^J» 

Pierce and Smith converter' ; ; ; ; ; '2? 

Pig iron production of Germany ...;;;; o?. 

Iron production United States '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'2'lo', 616 

Pioneer electric ioiimot'i'v'e's iii'Aiaska ;;;:;;; l]l 

Pilot-Butte Mining Co., v. Anaconda Copper ' Mi'nin'g 





Pinegrove Gold Mining Co., Nevada 

Pioneer Consolidated Mines Co., Nevada 

Pioneer Gold Mines Co «», 

Pioneer Tin Mining Co., Ltd., Tasmania' :;;:;;: gi^ 

Pitch-blende in Colorado ?r? 

Radium from, St. Joachlmsthal, Austria' ; ; ; ; 40? 

Uranium quoted in Germany iii 

Pixley & Abell report on gold and silver .;;;;;; irr 

Silver statistics -,«,? 

Placer camp, re-awakening of an o\i'. '.'.'.'..'.',.'.'.'. ['.',', 

„ ,» . Ernest G. Locke;;;; 373 

Deposits of copper ?o? 

Districts, Alaska, distances to new ;;;;;; 1028 

Goldfleld, Sibolla creek, British Columbia ; 697 

Gold production, Alaska ' ' " 535 

Miners and pork-knockers 1021 

Mines in New Mexico 35 

Mines, VMez Creek George' W. ' sias; ;; ; 729 

Mining In Siberia 405 

Placers, Alaska gold 876 

Innoko-Iditarod, Alaska ;;;;;; 819 

Plain tal|t on land law revision. .George Otis Smitli;;;; 640 

Plans of the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co 

_, , ^ „^, ^ , P. W. Bradley. .. ; 880 

Plant, building a reduction ..Herbert Lang.. 4 

For testing efflciency, simple A. T. Tye. . 53 

In Nevada, gravel 58 

Metallurgical, at Chuqutcamata Editorial; ; ; ; 43 

Plants, concentrating, Missouri 196 

New treatment, in Rhodesia Owen Letcher...; 761 

Underestimating the cost of milling — I. II. III. IV. . 

88, 138. 201, 263, 620 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar .... 777 

Ditto Editorial 291 

Ditto Charles T. Hutchinson. . . . 349 

Platinum-osmium, a new alloy F. Zimmermann. . . . 633 

Russian 581 

Platoro, Colorado, new townstte 508 

Plumbago, Ceylon 249 

Plymouth Consolidated Mine, California 700, 785, 945 

Poderosa Mining Co., Ltd., Bolivia, company report 287 

Diamond-drilling at C. L. Severy.... 338 

Poisoning by manganese Editorial.... 42 

Poles, telephone, telegraphic, and power transmission.. 978 

Political careers, American Editorial .... 214 

Politics and mining schools Charles A. Chase. . . . 427 

Porcupine. Ontario, gold production 825 

Stamp-mills 197 

Porcupine Crown, Cobalt, Ontario 739, 910. 982 

Crown Reserve Co 780 

Porcupine Syndicate . .> 782 

Pork-knockers 1021 

Portable burners 952 

Electric lamp 328 

Electric mine lamps H. H. Clark 62, 934 

Sub-station 1040 

Portland Canal Tunnels. Ltd 115 

Portland Gold Mining Co., Cripple Creek, Colorado.... 162 

Dividends 241, 629, 743, 986 

V. Stratton's Independence. Ltd 435, 506 

Portland Mining Co., Prosperity, Missouri 866 

Possible applications of electric furnaces to western 


Dorsey A. Lyon, Robert M. Keeney. . . . 686 

Possibilities of grinding pans 

John Randall, M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 234 

Possibly a Joke 852 

Potash deposits. Searles Lake H. S. Gale. ... S6 

Field, Germany 210 

Prospecting in Railroad Valley, Nevada, progress 

in E. E. Free 176 

Salts, Imports of 12 

Salts in United States, sources of 12 

Potassium and sodium, cyanide of, on free list 

Editorial 517 

Pottery Imports. United States In 1912 619 

Production, United States 404 

Powder, black, and dynamite, analysis of 65 

Powell, L. W., death of 703 

Power and concentration for the Mt. Morgan mine.... 296 

Available, Willow Creek district, Alaska 337 

Hydro-electric, Japan 403 

Plant at Associated mine, Kalgoorlie 

M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 346 

Transmission, Mysore. India 327 

Praetorlus, one rope aerial tram Editorial. ... 41 

Precipitate, white, in zinc boxes 793 

Precipitation of gold by manganous salts 

A. D. Brokaw. . . 

Of gold in orebodles 

Preparation of primers 

Preparatory work of the Alaska Gold Mines Co 

Grant H. Tod... 

President Huerta's message Editorial... 

Pressure In chemical reactions, role of 

John Johnston. .. . 501 

Prestea Block A.. Ltd., company report 670 

Preston-East Dome properties ,„ja 

Preventing the spread of flames 1040 

Prices and quotations Editorial 130 

Primary and secondary deposits of ores at Butte 463 

And secondary orebodles Editorial.... 920 

And secondary ores considered with especial refer- 
ence to the gel and rich heavy metal ores 

P. Krusch. . . . 418 

Primers, preparation of 9'» 

Prince Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co ^» 

Company report °°'' 

Production statistics: „,„ 

Antimony |°" 

Asbestos In United States J*" 

Arsenic •■•• ^SX 

Arsenic, white. In United States In 1912 632 

Bismuth •• f^T 

Cement In United States in 1912 167 





Vol. 107 


Coal in Kentucky a39 

Colorado, mineral production 930 

Copper ores in 1912 707 

Fuller's eartli 835 

Gas in New York in 1912 733 

Gas, natural 707 

Gas, natural, in Oklahoma 851 

Gold and silver In 1912 848 

Gold placers, Alaska 876 

Gypsum 250 

Idaho, metals - 208 

Idaho, mineral production 1030 

Iron and steel 707 

Iowa, mineral production 930 

Michigan, mineral production 819 

Michigan, minerals in 1912 1035 

Montana metals 208 

New Mexico, mineral production 823 

Ohio, mineral production 861 

Pennsylvania, mineral production 990 

Pyrite in United States in 1912 149 

Quicksilver in 1912 167 

Salt and bromine 444 

Sand and gravel ] 444 

Selenium 250 

Smelter and refinery products In 1912 598 

Talc and soapstone 250 

Texas, minerals in 1912 ' ' 1035 

Zinc and lead in Missouri 814 

Professional ethics Gelasio Caetani.... 429 

Ditto Victor G. Hills 976 

Ditto J. M. Lilligren 821 

Progress at Buckhorn mine 452 

Progress at the Hidden Creek copper mines 691 

In fuel utilization Editorial 638 

In potash prospecting in Railway Valley, Nevada... 

E. E. Free 176 

Progress Mines of New Zealand, Ltd 634 

Company report 555 

Prospecting by the Government Marshall Bond 582 

Ditto Albert Burch 349 

Ditto Editorial 331 

Ditto R. p. McLaughlin 465 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon 820 

Conditions in Peru — I, II 

Charles S. Haley, C. A. Rodegerdts. . . .922, 967 

Endowed Editorial 842 

Gravel, dredging operations 902 

Prospector, mining law and the. .. .Archie Huntoon.... 694 

Voice of the 682 

Prospectors and ore in discovery 838 

Prospects and mines Editorial.... 251 

Prosperity, big business and industrial 

C. R. Van Hise 730 

Providence Mining Co., Missouri, water pumped 830 

Psychology of zinc P. L. Clerc. ... 63 

Ditto R. G. Hall 273 

Ditto Frank L. Wilson 428 

Pulp, watering wheel for 339 

Pump, Frenier 7O3 

Use during shaft-sinking ,' 978 

Pumping at the Comstock A. M. Walsh 305 

Pumps, modern plant for building 212 

Pyrite in Norway 35 

In United States, production ' 140 

Synthesis of Alfred R. Whitman 928 

Pyritic smelting I47 

Pyrrhotite, analyses of !!!!!!!!! 126 

Quartette property, Clark county, Nevada 242 

Quebec, mineral production of 554 

Queen of the Hills, Western Australia 

235, 433, 594, 655, 951 

Queen Victoria mine, British Columbia 1032 

Queensland, Anakie, sapphire fields of 

Lionel C. Ball 151 

Charters Towers gold and silver production 854 

Charters Towers goldfleld 527 

Coal area 210 

Gold production . .581 774 

Quicksilver and lighthouse lights, Scotland .' 708 

Occurrence in United States 82 

Ores, treatment of 1021 

Production, California 161, 210 

Production in 1912 167 

Recovery from ores • . . 343 

Quicksilver Mining Co 315 

New Almaden mines 71 

Quilp mine, Washington 867 

Quincy Mining Co., Hancock, Michigan 

281, 590, 636, 743, 792, 992 

Quotations and prices Editorial .... 130 


Radium 403 

From pitchblende, St. Joachimsthal, Austria 403 

Geologists' time recorders 393 

In Colorado 838 

Ores in Australia 232 

Price 762 

Radium Hill mine. South Australia 232 

Railroad company freight decision of Supreme Court... 

Editorial ' 920 

Construction, Nicaragua Editorial 674 

Railroad Valley Co., Nevada 547, 630 

And potash deposits 176 

Railroad Valley, Nevada, progress in potash prospect- 
ing In E. E. Free 176 

Railroads and transportation problems of Bolivia 

G. W. Wepfer 100 

In United States mines tonnage 1021 

Montana, and mineral land taxation 980 

Railwav construction In Alaska Editorial.... 252 

In Mexico 25, 203 

United States 304 

Band banket — I, II, III, III con., IV, V, VI, VI con., 

VII C. B. Horwood 

563, 604, 647, 676, 721, 763, 779, 806, 956, 1003 

Ditto F. H. Hatch 1019 

Ditto Henry H. Knox 899 

Ditto Stephen J. Lett 899 

Ditto Editorial. T. A. Rickard 561, 711 

Conditions and future outlook H. S. Denny.... 383 

Deep mining on the 905 

Diseases, Colonel William C. Gorgas to study 

Editorial 710 


Future of mining 504 

Gold output 982 

Gold stealing 126 

Health conditions 504 

Labor in 390, 982 

Mines, cyanldatlon 757 

Mines, ore reserves 79 

Mines, unremunerative 574 

Phthisis Prevention Committee 219 

Scarcity of native labor 982 

Selective mining 249 

Ditto Editorial 365 

Selective mining v. working cost 384 

Strike 30, 114, 432, 504 

Ditto Editorial 44, 365 

Tube-mills 443, 479 

Wages on 311 

Rand Mines, Ltd 198 

Randall, John Grindlng-pan practice.... 737 

Ditto Possibilities of grinding pans.... 233 

Raven Copper Co., Montana , 114, 118, 543 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co., Ray, Arizona. .. .239, 398, 

522, 525, 636, 792, 827, 828, 903, 992 

Company report 326 

Dividend rate ■. 914 

Read, Thomas T Copper smelting practice in the 

Southwest 521 

Ditto Mining by wholesale. . . . 368 

Panama-Pacific Exposition, department of mines and 

metallurgy. Eastern representative. .Editorial. .. . 954 

Ready Bullion mine, Juneau, Alaska 945 

Re-awakening of an old placer camp 

Ernest G. Locke 373 

Recovery of quicksilver from ores 348 

Redding, California, fume trouble 200 

Reed, H. W Forest service .... 466 

Reid, Fraser Milling at Cobalt 216 

Reilly, J. J., v. Seneca Mining & Milling Co 906 

Reindeer Copper & Gold Mining Co., and Copper Queen 

Mining & Milling Co., Ltd 72 

Reindeer-Queen Mining Co., Idaho 509 

Reiner Mining Co., California 239, 946 

Relation of faulting and mineralization in Goldfleld.. 

Corrln Barnes and E. A. Byler.... 59 

Reopening the Hillabee mine, Alabama 107 

Republic district, Washington 591 

Republic, launching a Editorial.... 519 

Republic Mines Corporation 278, 320 

Dividend 358 

Requa, M. L., Horace V. Winchell, and C. W. Goodale.. 

Revision of United States mining laws. . . . 571 
Requa-Savage Gold Mining Co., Colorado, Beacon Hill 

properties 701 

Research and the university Editorial .... 753 

Reselling after dredging, Australia 494 

After dredging in California G. L. Hurst.... 719 

Resolutions of the Mining Congress 760 

Retardation phenomena In the solution of gold and 

silver in aqueous cyanide solutions 889 

Reverberatory-furnace (lues, waste heat boilers in 

S. Severin Sorensen.... 575 

Revision of the United States mining law 

Editorial. .. .560, 998 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb 778 

Ditto C. W. Goodale 571 

Ditto Royal P. Jarvis 862 

Ditto M. L. Requa.... 571 

Ditto George Otis Smith.... 640 

Ditto Horace V. WIncheil.... 571 

Ditto — A critique Robert M. Searls. . . . 1014 

Ditto — A protest 601 

Ditto — A protest, Russell L. Dunn Editorial. . . . 637 

Ditto — Again 600 

Rezende mine. Rhodesia » 1027 

Rhode Island Copper Co., company report 555 

Rhodesia, Broken Hill deposit 276 

Gold production of mines 79, 581 

Labor in 390 

Metallurgy in 381 

Mines, gold production 209 

Mining operations, 1913 1027 

New treatment plants In Owen Letcher 761 

Southern, gold output 390 

Southern, mineral production 660 

Rhodeslan Chamber of Mines, quarterly meeting 660 

Rice, George S Hoisting cage, new .... 172 

Rickard, T. A Ore 427 

Ditto Rand banket— Editorial 561, 711 

Ditto Water in veins. . . . 693 

Ditto Winter work in Alaska. . . . 110 

Rico properties. Colorado 946 

Rio Plata Mining Co., Chihuahua. Mexico 936 

Rio Tinto Copper Co., Spain, dividend 695 

Riverside Portland Cement Co 557 

Robinson, W. T Mother Lode of California. ... 65 

Robinson Deep mine. Rand 166 

Rocher de Boule Copper Mining Co., British Columbia, 

and Butte capital 980 

Rochester, Nevada, ore production 162 

Rochester Consolidated Mines Co.. proposed 870 

Rochester Hills Mining Co., Nevada 744 

Rochester Mines Co., Nevada 831 

And Guggenheim Interests 665 

Rochester Mining Co.. Rochester-Weaver Mines Co., and 

Nenzel Crown Point Mining Co., consolidation. . . . 870 

Rock-crusher, sampling ore from a 876 

Rock-drill testing at North Star Mines. .. .Editorial ... . 174 

Ditto Robert H. Bedford and William Hague. . . . 179 

Rock-drilling contests 29, 108, 210, 288, 437, 479, 515 

Rock, ore formation and country 733 

Salt, Louisiana 876 

Rodegerdts, C. A., and Charles S. Haley Prospecting 

Condition in Peru — I, II 922, 967 

Role of pressure In chemical reaction 

John Johnston.... 501 
Roolberg Minerals Development Co., Ltd., company re- 
port 99S 

Rooke-Cowell, John Leaching of copper ores. . . . 294 

Rope transmission 443 

Rosario mill, Honduras, cyanldatlon 759 

Rosas mine, Sardinia Editorial.... 41 

Ross Goldfields, Ltd., South Island, New Zealand 1023 

Ross, Louis, V. A. C. Burrage suit 866 

Rossland ore production 158 

Rotarv roasting furnaces 597 

Rothw-ell, John E Inclined baffles.... 194 

Round Mountain Mining Co., Nevada, dividend and liti- 
gation 202 

Ore crushing underground »n6 

Vol. 107 



Royal Basin Mining Co., Montana fei 

Royal Dutch-Sliell company and Trinidad Oilfields. Ltd. 

x> ■ o ., . . «,. Kditorial 41 

Royal bchool of Mines, England, appointments 505 

Royal Standard mine, Australia 655 

Ruby district. Alaska '' siq 

Output, 1913 ;;;; lol 

Ruby mine. Montana | igg 

Kuby Gulch Mining Co.. Montana, Are in cyanide plant 664 

Ruby Silver Mining & Development Co., Nevada 54 j 

Russia, asbestos 362 

Copper deposits "...*!!!!! 623 

Gold mining regulation Editorial . . . . 673 

Mineral production of Northern 584 

Orenburg district gold mines 681 

Platinm 58i 

Rutile (titanium). Virginia 15 


Safety and health first Editorial 955 

And Sanitation Congress. International. Editorial. . . . 955 

And banitatlon. International Exposition ot 

„, . . .. ^ , Editorial 214 

Electric switches for mines H. H. Clark 262 

In mining. Stag Canyon disaster Editorial 674 

In tunneling 1016 

Lamps, use of miners' James W. Paul. . . . 619 

Organizations and mine rescue. Lake Superior dis- 
trict 1025 

Signs, universal J. w. Stonehouse 503 

Secondary and primary orebodies Editorial.... 920 

St. Francis Lead Co., Potosi Lead Barytes & Mercantile 

Co.. and Potosi Miners Co 587 

St. Francis county. Missouri, .strike 281, 319, 393 

St. Joachimsthal, Austria, radium from pitchblende... 403 

St. John del Rey Mining Co.. Ltd., Brazil 

„ ,^ ^ , 36, 113, 209, 360, 380 

Gold production 679 

St. Joseph Lead Co Dwight A. Jones. '.'.'. 16 

And Doe Run Lead Co., consolidation 586 

St. Louis Mining Co., Montana 114 

St. Mary's Mineral Land Co., company report 513 

Sales, Reno Origin of Butte chalcoclte 453 

Saline \ alley Salt Co.. aerial tramway 210 

Salisbury House. London 113 

Salt and bromine, production In United States...!..!! 444 

Deposition, dry lake theory 176 

Ditto. Editorial 173 

In Mrglnla 16 

Rock in Louisiana !..!! 878 

Salt Lake Stock Exchange figures 74 

Salting of alluvials. successful C. S. Haley. . . . 1000 

Salvador. Central America, gold and silver bullion 580 

Sampling coal mines 580 

Ore from a rock-crusher 876 

Sand and gravel, production In United States ' 444 

Glass, grinding, and furnace, production 480 

Sand Queen mine. 'Western Australia 235, 433. 594. 

c ^ „,. «55, 835, 951 

Sanders. Wilbur E Mining reports 233 

Sandstone copper deposits at Bent. New Mexico 

Sydney H. Ball 132 

Sandstorm Annex Gold Mining Co. v. Goldfleld Consoli- 
dated Milling & Transportation Co 870 

San Antonio district. Baja California 943 

San Francisco district. Utah, geology of 547 

San Francisco, Engineers' Club, new quarters 

Editorial 798 

Mint, receipts 78, 324, 990 

Stock and Bond Exchange, report of business trans- 
acted 669 

Sanitation and disease in new countries. .Editorial. .. . 877 

And Safety, International Exposition of • 

Editorial 214 

Ijoan. Ecuador Editorial.... 841 

Mine 106 

San Juanes Reduction Co., Baja California 943 

San Poll Consolidated Co., Washington 867 

San Rafael y Anexas. Mexico, cyanldatlon 759 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd., Mexico 351, 358, 980 

Company report 948 

Sart Toy Mining Co., Mexico 511 

Sapphire fields of Queensland, Anakle 

, , Lionel C. Ball 151 

In Montana 79, 94 

Sapulpa mine. Missouri 830 

Sauerman Bros., excavator 685 

Schists, graphitic. Kalgoorlle 516 

Schmidt. F. Sommer Are there Jobs enough to go 

around? 900 

Schrader. Erich J Slow-speed Chilean mill data. . . . 136 

Schrader. F. C. discovers alunite 443 

Scottish Gymple Gold Mines. Ltd., company report 993 

Searls, Robert M Revision of the mining law — a 

critique 1014 

Searles Lake potash deposits H. S. Gale. ... 56 

Sears' Acme mill 128 

Sebeca Superior. Porcupine, Ontario 197 

Securing capital tor mines and prospects 

H. C. Cutler. . . . 822 

Selective flotation ! .Editorial! !! ! 445 

Flotation at Broken Hill 334 

Mining In the Gold Fields mines H. H. Webb 860 

Mining on the Rand 249 

Ditto Editorial 365 

Mining on the Rand v. working cost 384 

Selenium In gold ores 943 

In United State.s 250 

Seneca Mining & Milling Co. v. J. J. Reilly 906 

Seneca Superior, Canada 739 

Seoul Mining Co.. Korea 251, 553 

.■Seven Troughs Coalition. Nevada 908 

Severy. C. L Diamond-drilling at Poderosa mine, 

Bolivia 338 

Shaft-sinking. Nevada Wonder mine, cost of 902 

Sinking, pump use during 978 

Toe guards 978 

Shafts nt Cripple Creek, depth of 743 

Slnkine and lining of Francis Donaldson .... 844 

Shamva Mines. Ltd.. Rhodesia 381. 761, 1027 

Company renort 286 

Shamva mine. Western Australia 425 

Shannon Copper Co., Metcalf, Arizona. .. .111. 636. 702, 

904, 992 

Cnmnany report 325 

Smelter 5'i 

Sharp Leasing Co.. W.Tsliiiigton 867 

'JShasta county. California, copper belt 408 

J,''/,"L'*':^'^'^''1'^>- Vulcan mines . 


iiS^f t¥-^^ e^cava;o;-^<!^^ '':^^. '^^. ^::]^'^- ■■■ it 


ISerli= Porcupine Gold Mines, Ltd., Ontario !!:!:!! ?? I 

ihlrStS- A^ct ^! ! : ! ! ! ! ! ! ! \ ! ; ! ; ; : : ■. ■.^•"--'^^ — '- ■'■'■'■ \^ 





Shovelmg machine, Myers-Whaley. No.' 'ii mine,' Fed 

„. Underground, mechanical"!!!!!!!! til 

Shushana river district. Alaska. ..60, 236,' sVs'.'sgi,' 62V 



Canadian Geological Survey Vepirt '.'.'. ;^"'^""""" • ' "» 

Distance and routes to . . in,s 

Glacier trail to ait 

„. Output :::: i^i 

Siamese Tin Syndicate, Ltd., company report! ! ! ! 837 

l!hLi?^°i"Sf W- • • • ^- •„• ■ Valdez Creek placer mines. ! ! ! 729 

Siberia Atbasar and Spassky copper properties 530 

Dredging by hand In John Power Hutchins. ... 813 

Lena Goldflelds property csi si? 

Placer mining in .... *"■ |S? 

Sibolla creek, British Columbia, placer-goid Heid fiq? 

Sicily, sulphur Industry of ? = 

Sierra Nevada Mining Co., Nevada ! ! 74? 

Silica brick 4,2 

■Value and sale of !!!!!!! 838 

Silt from harbors In British Columbia, cost" of removing 443 

Oliver. Alaska ; 35c 

And gold bullion, Salvador, Central Americii.! ! ! ! ' ' ' sso 

And gold exports. New Zealand io'2 

And gold in aqueous cyanide solutions, retardation 

phenomena in the solution of 889 

And gold in 1912, production of '" 848 

And gold, Japan r,j9 

And gold mines listed in United States !.!!!! 838 

And gold, Pixley and Abell report 166 

And gold production, Auckland province, New Zea- 
land 494 

And gold production. Charters Towers. Queensland 854 

And gold production, United States 477 

And gold transactions 393 

Arizona, production 73 

Bolivia 100 

Cobalt, Ontario 321 459 

Coin V. bar, Mexico Editorial....' 841 

In 1912, sources of 374 

Industry. Cobalt and Canadian Mines Department 

investigation 903 

Lead, and zinc In the Coeur d'Alene. Origin of — I. 

H Oscar H. Hershey. . . .489, 529 

Lead mine. Magnet. Tasmania P. G. Tait. . . . 102 

Market, New York and Nlplssing 506 

Nevada, production 313 

Ontario, production 982 

Ores, cyanldatlon 758 

Ores, desulphurizing at Cobalt. .James J. Denny.... 484 

Statistics 208 

Taiwan, production 898 

Utah, production in 1912 665 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co., Utah, company report 168 

Dividends 987. 1031 

v. Silver King Consolidated Mihlng Co., attorney's 

fees Editorial 481 

Silver King Consolidated Mining Co.. Utah, dividend... 358 

Silver King Mining Co.. Arizona 544 

Silver Lake lead mine. Colorado 628 

Silver Mining & Leasing Co.. Nevada 787 

Silver Standard mine. Washington 437 

Sllverstream mine. New Zealand 1023 

Sllverton district. Colorado, shipments 319. 473 

Simmer & Jack mine. Rand, costs, stope filling 902 

Simmer Deep, Ltd.. Rand 905 

Company report 286 

Simple plant for testing efficiency A. T. Tye. ... 53 

Smelting R. Noblett 820 

Smelting In Arizona D. Thomas. . . . 503 

Simplification of gold ore treatment. .. .A. W. Allen.... 254 

Ditto John B. Stewart. ... 466 

Sinking and lining of shafts. .. .Francis Donaldson.... 844 

In wet ground Editorial.... 843 

Skip, home-made self-loading and dumping water 

H. E. Wharton 461 

Slag losses In copper smelting Editorial.... 330 

Slime agitation H. B. Wright 464 

Briquettlng at Anaconda 838 

Cakes from filter media, dislodging 935 

Collector, Daly-Judge mill, Utah 270 

In cyanide mills, treatment of. Duncan patents.... 29 

Tables. Delster No. 3. speed 902 

Thickeners, increasing the capacity of 554 

Slocan district. British Columbia, oroduction of mines. 437 
Slow-speed Chilean mill data. .. .Erich J. Schrader... 136 
Sludge from mining operations, law in Victoria, Austra- 
lia 9| 

Treatment. Missouri 196 

Sluiceway linings, steel W. W. Edwards. ... 852 

Smelter "fume Editorial 329 

Fume problem, California 391, 408, 43a, 984 

Smelting at Campo Seco, California 

M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 897 

Belgian furnaces In zinc George C. Stone.... 931 

Bv the Mond process, nickel A. P. Coleman. . . . 412 

Complex sulphide ores 974 

Complex sulphide ores to save all metals 

Editorial.... 953 

Copper slag losses in Editorial 330 

Cyanide precipitate 793 

Electric, of copper ores 355 

In A rizona. simple D. Thomas 503 

In Australia, zinc 776 

In shaft furnaces at great altitudes 

Vincente Pazos y Saclo.... Ho 

In Texas Editorial 41 

Of copper ores, electric Editorial. . . . 675 

Ditto Dorsey A. Lyon and Robert M. Keeney. . . . 976 

Of tin ore, electric • 578 

Practice In the Southwest, copper 

Thomas T. Read.... 521 

Pyrltic 14T 

Reverberatory, at Cananea, cost of 522 

Shasta county, California 280 

Simple R Noblett 820 

Works, an excursion to North American 

Ferdinand Heberleln. .. . 713 



Vol. 107 



Works at Grand Forks, British Columbia ^m 

Smith George Otis Geologic work on the Mother 

L,oae ggQ 

Ditto Plain talk on land law revision.' .' ." '. 640 

Smith, Sumner S. Lode mining in Willow Creek dis- 
trict, Alaska 335 

Smith and Pierce converter 61 

Smoke question, smelter, California '.SsVioS,' VsV 984 

Snake Creek tunnel, Utah 54S 

Snelling, California, dredging at lOO' 

Snowstorm Mining Co., Idaho ... ""941 

Dividend '. .■.'.■.■.■. yV 35^ 

Soaks and gnamma holes. Western Australia ..'....'.'. ' 515 

Soapstone and talc 250 

Sociedad Beneficiadora de Condoriaco, Ltd., Chile! 746 

Society and the Institute A member of both 538 

Socorro Mining & Milling Co., New Mexico 

c ^ ,. . . 316, 394, 510, 665, 787, 832 

boda, nitrate of, production decrease 874 

Sodium and potassium, cyanides of, on free lost 

o ,. , • ,, ^ „ Editorial. . . 

Sohnlein, M. G. F Grinding-pan practice. . . . 

Solution control in cyanldation A. W. Allen 

Control in cyanldation James S. Colbath... 

Some more reasons why mining languishes 

J. D. Vose ___ 

Sonoma Magnesite Co., California, railroad 946 

Sonora, Mexico, mines 75 23S 

Sons of Gwalia, Western Australia 235, 425 433' 

.^ „ 594, 655, 835, 911 

Cyanldation 75g 

Plant overhauled 739 

Sorensen. S. Severin. . .Waste heat boilers in reverbera- 

tory-furnace flues 575 

Socorro mine. New Mexico ] ' ' 909 

South Africa, mining exhibition Editorial! ! ! ! 753 

Union of, Diamond production 642 

Victoria Falls, Zambesi river ! ! ! ! 708 

South America, aerial tramway across Andes mountains 978 
American enterprises and American manufacturers. 

Editorial 518 

Mineral wealth unknown Editorial. ... 86 

South Australia, oil reserves discussion ' ' ' 1024 

South Banner Mining Co., California 544 

South Carolina, mineral production 167 

South Dakota, Black Hills, mineral production ..!!!!' 826 

Black Hills mines 660 

Deadwood assay ofHce, transportation charges on 

bullion g26 

Metal production .'.!!!!!!!!! 404 

National forest timber sales, Lawrence county ! ! 827 

New "blue sky' law 826 

South Eureka mine, California, dividend . . 
South Kaigurli Consols, Western Australia 


. . .235, 433, 

South mine. Broken Hill, Australia .'....'. ' 634 

South Mount Cameron mine, Tasmania ! 616 

South New Moon mine, Australia • • • • . ^^^ 

South Utah Mines & Smelters, Newhouse, Utah!636 792 992 

Company report 449 

South Wales, coal production ! ! ! ! 536 

Southern Cross mine, Montana 546 

Southwest, Copper smelting practice in the !!!!!! 

c .V, . ,.„ . , . , Thomas T. Read 521 

Southwestern Miami mine. Arizona 318 699 

Spain, electric power cost ' 126 

Spanish American Iron Co.. Cuba 543 

Spares used in mills. Oriental Consolidated ...!!!! 940 

Spassky Copper Mines, Ltd., and Atbasar copper proper- 
ties, Siberia 580 

Company report !..!!!!! 125 

Specific gravity bottle and dilatometer, combination!! 

„ ,, C. A. Browne 348 

Spelter 912 

World production in 1911 and 1912 !!!!!!!!'. 915 

SPJcer. H. N Baffles...! 429 

Spilsbury P. G Symmes agitator 467 

Spokane-Arizona zinc mines 160 

Springfield Tunnel & Development Co., Caiifornia.'.62S 1029 

Spurrell. H. G. F Malaria; its effect on work and 

workmen g84 

Stag Canyon Coal Co., New Mexico, disaster.'. .'.'.'.".'702 740 

And safety in mining Editorial 674 

Stamp-duty, Talisman mill. New Zealand 344 

Stamp-mill of the past 462 

Stamps, Nissen and ordinary, Cornish mines ! ! . ! 695 

Winona mill. Lake Superior, velocity cards 361 

Standard Consolidated Mining Co., Bodie, California 

cyanldation 759 

Working costs at Edward H. Nutter. . ! ! 312 

Standard Oil, dividend 440 

Standard Silver-Lead Mining Co., Ltd., British ' Colii'm- 

^. bia 243, 987 

Dividend 358, 910, 987 

Steel and iron industry of Canada Editorial.... 174 

And iron output of Italy 528 

Hardening in Germany 762 

Iridium, analyses 94O 

Ore passes at Broken Hill John M. Bridge. . . . 773 

Points for core-drilling, use of 194 

Soft and wrought iron 793 

Sluiceway lining W. W. Edwards 852 

Steel Corporation, unfilled orders 679 

Steptoe Valley Smelting & Mininpr Co., McGill, Nevada, 

Stirling and Babcock & Wilcox boilers 575 

Sterrett. Douglas B Gems mined in United States in 

1912 94 

Stewart, John B Simplification of gold ore treat- 
ment 466 

Stewart Mining Co., Idaho 586, 590, 664 

Company report 478 

Dividend 358. 1030 

Earnings 201 

Stirling boiler 575 

V. Babcock and Wilcox boilers. . . .Hervey Gullek. . . . 864 

Stock market, periodicity of 311 

Stone, George C. .Belgian furnaces in zinc smelting.. 

Stone, G. H Extralateral right 

Stonehouse. J. W Universal safety signs.... 

Stope filling, costs. Simmor & Jack mines. Rand. 

Stoning drills at Sudbury. Ontario. .Albert E. Hall.... 
Methods in Michigan mines. .. .jR R. McDonald.... 
Underhand, with square sety'Broken Hill Propri- 

etarv mine, Australia . .y/\ 

Storms. W. H Trinitv*Balaklala-Vulcan mines, 

Shasta county, Califorjiria 

Stratton estate v. United States 

Stratton's Independence, Ltd., Cripple Creek, Colorado. 

/ 118, 1030 
Cyanldation /. 760 





Mine taxation test case fii 

V Portland Gold Mining Co ■.'.■.'.'.■.'.■.'.■.'4'3'5' 506 

btretcher, a new 79R 

Strike, Butte '.".V ' '. ^15 320 

Colorado coal miners 545, 589, 664, 700,' 740 

T^.t. 830, 869, 907 

Ditto ........ ........Editorial 445, 518, 673 

Ditto, and editor's resolution Editorial 797, 842 

Ditto, and Sherman anti-trust law Editorial. . . . 954 

Ditto, and referendum vote 94$ 

Lake Superior ...162, 174, 241, 275, 319, 352, 393! '4'3'6', 

473, 505, 509, 546, 586, 590, 664, 785, 870, 908! 9S6! 1026 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 674 

Ditto, and Citizens' Alliance 998 

Slii° •• i Mt- •••;,•• •, Editorial! ! ! ! 878 

Ditto, and New York copper 195 246 

Ditto, and one-man drill 592 

Ditto, and picketing Editori'al'.'.'.'.'o'l's, 599 

Ditto, and shareholders loss In dividends... . 

^.^^ ^ Editoria'l . ! ! ! 954 

Ditto, and women Editorial 445 

New Zealand 1022 

Paterson, New Jersey 'Editorial!!!! 214 

Rand 30, 114, 432, 504 

Ditto Editorial 44, 365 

St. I? rancois county, Missouri.' 281, 319 393 

Strikes and fair demands Editoria'l ' 215 

Government control of ! Editorial 600 

Strontium minerals ,,[ 170 

Suan concession, mining on the !.!!!!!!! 256- 

Sub-station, portable ! ! ! ! 1040 

Success Mining Co., Idaho, dividend ! ! ! ! 358 

Property valuation 241 

Successful salting of alluvials C. S. Haley.... 1000 

Sudbury district, Ontario, Canada 948 

Geological Congress at Editorial.... 215 

Stoping drills at Albert E. Hall 310^ 

Suez canal, shipping in 1912 82 

Sugar beet, pulp residue 288 

Mills, cyanide from residue of C. A. Browne.... 186 

Sulietjelma copper mine, Norway 35, 618, 732, 854 

Elmore vacuum plant 373 

Sullivan angle-compound air-compressors 

Fred D. Holdsworth 795- 

Sullivan Machinery Co 795 

Sulman-Teed patent Editorial.... 407 

Sulphide ores, smelting complex 974 

Ores, smelting complex to save all metals 

Editorial 95S 

Sulphide Corporation, Broken Hill, Australia 493 

Sulphides, fiotation from ores 382 

Sulphur as a fertilizer S79 

Deposits, Wyoming 144 

In Louisiana 859' 

In smelter fume 341, 392 

Ditto Editorial 2 

Industry of Sicily 15 

Production, cost of 2 

Production, Taiwan 898 

Production. United States in 1912 12« 

Sulphuric acid cinder, utilizing 15J 

Acid leaching Editorial 252 

Acid leaching oxidized copper ore with 253 

Acid production 123 

Sumatra island, Dutch East Indies. Ketahoen mine, 

wages 940 

Sumitomo copper smelter, fume 150 

Sunflower Cinnabar Mining Co., Arizona, quicksilver... 699 

Sunnyside Mines Co.. Colorado 946, 701 

Sunrise adit, Mountain Top Mining Co., Ouray, Colo- 
rado, cost of driving 399 

Sunshine property. California 661 

Superior & Boston Copper Co., Arizona. .. .275, 508, 781, 906 

Company report 993 

Timbering 828 

Superior Copper Co., Calumet, Michigan 246, 393, 

590, 636, 743, 792, 992 

Surigao Gold Mining Co., Philippine Islands 120 

Surinam, gold in 1020' 

Surprise mine, Washington 591 

Swansea Consolidated Gold & Copper Co., Arizona. .160. 945 

Sweden, mining in 681 

Swindler. Frank P., death of 747 

Switzerland. Machinery trade in .^58 

Sydney, Australia, .'Stock Exchange, new rule 867 

Sydvarangar Iron Ore Co., Norway 35 

Symmes agitator P. G. Spilsbury. . . . 467 

Ditto Whitman Symmes. ... 92 

Synnott and others v. Tombstone Consolidated Mines 

Co.. Ltd 355 

Synthesis of pyrite Alfred R. Whitman 928 

Tailing and ore treatment at Broken Hill, Australia. . . . 104 

Placer county, California 280 

Question, decisions 169 

Treatment, Cornwall, England 210. 352 

Tait. P. G Magnet silver-lead mine, Tasmania. . . . 102 

Ditto Tin mining in Tasmania.... 61S 

Taiwan, mineral production 898 

Talc and soapstone 250 

Talisman Consolidated, Ltd., New Zealand. .494, 682, 890, 1022 

Company report 325 

Mill, stamp-duty at 344 

Tamarack Mining Co., Calumet, Michigan. .285, 636, 792, 992 

Tanalyk Corporation, Ltd., Siberia 623 

Company report 837 

Tanana valley, Alaska, output 906 

Tanks, Pachuca P. C. Brown. . . . 976 

Taquah Mining & Exploration Co., Ltd., West Africa... 892 

Company report 993 

Tariff on mineral products, new 656 

Protective Editorial 517 

Tasmania, bismuth-tin-wolfrara ores 461 

Hvdro-electric scheme 557 

Magnet silver-lead mine P. G. Tait. . . . 102 

Mineral production 170 

Osmiridium 156. 662 

Tin mining in P. G. Tait 615 

Taxation of mines. Supreme Court decision 944 

Of mining properties. South Dakota 157 

Technical men v. miners E. Le Roy.... 537 

Techow, Walter Trent agitators. . . . 385 

Teck-Hughes mine, Kirkland Lake, Canada, change of 

owners 903 

Tekka, Ltd., Federated Malay States, company report.. 125 

Telegraphy, wireless, Mexico Editorial.... 291 

Vol. 107 






Telephone equipment, new mine-rescue 3a 

Mine, Oklahoma 403 

Tellurlde ores, cyanldatlon 759 

Telluride Gold Mines, Ltd., Klrkland Lake. Canada. . . . 542 

Tellurlde Mining Co., Arizona 588 

Tellurides Editorial.... 366 

Kalgoorlie goldfleld 47, 375 

Temiskamlng & Hudson Bay Mining Co., Canada 739 

And Dome Lake 904 

Temperatures at the Morro Velho, Brazil 380 

Tennessee, mineral production 167 

Phosphate deposits 210 

Tennessee Copper Co., Copperhill, Tennessee .. 636, 741, 

792, 992 

Texas, coal mining 698 

Iron ores of, brown Editorial. ... 41 

Mineral production in 1912 135 

Thorn, W. T Mineral products. United States. . . . 914 

Thomas, D Simple smelting in Arizona. . . . 503 

Thomas, Kirby Zinc ore deposits in Boone 

and Marion counties, Arkansas 854 

Thomson, J. Allan, and Malcolm Maclaren Geology 

of Kalgoorlie goldflelds — I, II, III, IV, V 

45, 95, 187, 228, 374 

Tlgre Mining Co., Mexico 203, 359, 511, 911 

Company report 1032 

Timber, seasoning 978 

Timbering, underground, rules in Lake Superior district 901 

Tin, alluvial, and bucket-dredges 623 

And wolfram exports, Federatea Malay States 536 

And zinc ores, experiments in England and France. . 818 

Exports, Dutch East Indies 210 

In Bolivia 100, 417 

In Virginia 14 

Malay 570 

Malay States 1001 

Mining in Tasmania Peter G. Talt.... 615 

Ore dressing, Cornish mines, Nissen and ordinary 

stamps 695 

Ore, electric smelting of 678 

Producer, China as a 64 6 

Pig 912 

Production, Northern Nigeria 500 

Wolfram-bismuth ores from Tasmania 461 

World production. 1911 and 1912 915 

Tin Cup Gold Dredging Co., Colorado 117, 743 

Titanic mine. South Dakota 157 

Tltaniferous iron ores of United States 570 

Tobin bronze 82 

Tod, Grant H : New ore gate. . . 152 

Ditto. .Preparatory work of Alaska Gold Mines Co.. . 184 

Tode stone 

Toll, Rensselaer H La Plata mountains, Colorado.. 

Tom Reed mine, Arizona 116, 356, 

Tomboy Gold Mines, Ltd.. Tellurlde, Colorado 

201, 319, 545. 

Mill 876, 

Shareholders 905 

Tombstone Consolidated Mines Co., Ltd., v. Synnott and 

others S55 

Tomkins Cove Stone Co., New York 368 

Tonopah and Waihl deposits, comparison 941 

Tonopah district, Nevada 74, 119 2J2, 320, 344, 357, 

474. 510, 546, 630, 665, 702, 871, 947, 986, 1030 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co., Nevada 

289, 474, 590, 666, 702, 793, 871, 986. 1030 

Cyanldatlon 768 

Dividend 398, 947 

E.Trnings 68 

Filter patent 904 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co.. Nevsida 787 

Cyanldatlon 758 

Dividend 398 

Tonopah Merger Mines Co.. Nevada 210, 474, 665 

Tonopah Mining Co.. Nevada 202, 474, 702, 787 871 

And Continental Mining Co ' 114 

And Desert Power & Mill Co., v. Joseph A Vincent 

^, ,^ ^ Editorial 292 

Dividend jg.j;, 202 

■ Tonopah North Star Tunnel & Power Co., Nevada, frau- 
dulent certificates 237 

Tonopah Placers Co.. placer claims. Colorado 1026 

Tonopah Victor Mining Co.. Nevada 388 

Topographic model of Cripple Creek district 

„ , „ E. A. Byler and Lee W. Davis.... 144 

Tough Cakes mine. Klrkland Lake district, Ontario, 249. 

624* 788 

Tower. Walter S Nitrate flelds of Chile. . . .' 49?i 

Trailing the nitrogen atom Editorial 447 

Tramway, aerial, across Andes mountains. South 

America 978 

Irvlnebank aerial 389 

Transportation on Orient 268 

Problems in Bolivia Q. w Wepfer 694 

Transporting coal 4n China ' ' ' ' 973 

Transvaal, diamond production 642 

Gold production 581 

Mine operations 126 

Transvaal Gold Mining Estates. Ltd.. company' report ' " 670 
Treatment at Broken Hill, tailing and ore ... 104 

Tr»„ iJ^'tt '.1 ?o^''P'^', "*""•; Owen Letcher. . . ] 761 

Tree in United States, largest 87'". 

Tregidgo. Alfonso A., death of V4V «67 

Trent agitator gl' 126 

U\ll° • Donald F. irwin.'. . .' 821 

A 1 w ■ ;• riV ;,••• •■;. ^ Waiter Techow 385 

At West End mill. Tonopah .... 191 

Replacing machine *. •172 

Trethe;ney Cobalt Silver Mines Co., Ontarro'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'s^V 666 

Dividend 91 j 

Trl-BulMon Smelting & Development Co.. "cornpanv' re- 

„. port *^ ' 4no 

Tr mountain Mining Co.. Michigan Iqn 

Tr n dad Oilfields. Ltd EdiVoVlai ' ' 41 

rrlnity-Balaklala-VuIcan mines, Shasta co\inty. Cal'l- 

. .W. H. Storms. . . . 408 

Tularosa Copper Co., New Mexico 132 ■^^*^-' 

Tungsten filaments, drawn ' 

Ore production in United States and worid! !!!!!!! ! 890 



Tripoli ... r "• "• »'<"•'"«■ • ■ • J"X 

In Missouri .';.'.'.'.'.'..';.'.'.'.'! ! ?3? 

Tripnllte. fuller's earth .'i 70, 

Troltzk Goldflelds, Ltd.. company report .' kik 

Trojan mine. Black Hills ....... . 826 

T'lillllC'' *""•'■''• L'"!-. Malay peninsula, company report. . . 80 

Trucks, motor «7q 

Tuhp-mlll calculations .'.■.■; B8fl 

c "" Edit'oViai: ! : ; 919 

piBcharge ,040 

il'ner.s at the Morro Velho mill. Brazil 423 

KMnfonteln mine and j^t; 

Rand ViV 17q 

Tubing. National '.■.'.■.'.'.■.■.■.■.'.■.■.■.■.'...' 172 

Tunneling, safety in jou 

Tuolumne Copper Mining Co., Butte, Montana.* '73'," Vs, 

79 114 388 389 4^fi 
Tuolumne Deep Channel Mining Co., California...'. ' 628 

Turquoise, Arizona 391 

Tuscumbia Mining Co., Idaho, and Idora' Hi'li' Mining 



Twenty-One mine, California .'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 161 

Tye, A. T Simple plant for testing efficiency.' ." .' .' 53 


Underestimating the cost of mining plants — I, II, III, IV 

A. Sydney Additon 88, 138, 263, 301, 620 

JJJtto Algernon Del Mar.... 777 

Pftto Editorial 291 

, Ditto Charles T. Hutchinson 349 

Underwriters Land Co., Joplin, Missouri 866 

University of California, F. W. Bradley gift to College 

of Mining 954 

Uranium, geologists' time recorders 939 

Pitchblende, quote in Germany 973 

Union Sulphur Co., Louisiana 859 

Unit, definition of 1021 

United Copper Mining Co., Washington 278, 386, 987 

And Iron Horse claim 832 

Dividend 358 

United Verde Copper Co 984 

United States, business conditions in 1026 

Bureau of Mines, appropriations 942 

Coal mine fatality rate 876 

Geological Survey, mineral production, 1912 

Editorial 954 

Geological Survey, work of 939 

Gold and silver production 477 

Mineral production 1016 

Mineral products, 1912 914 

Nickel in 838 

v. Stratton estate '. . . 435 

United States Phosphate Co 119 

United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., 636, 792, 992 

Alaska properties 741 

Dividend '. .... . . 541 

Huff electrostatic plant 666 

United States Steel Corporation 42. 206, 440 

United Verde Copper Co., Jerome, Arizona. .636, 784. 792, 992 

Smelter 525, 526 

Universal safety signs J. W. Stonehouse. . . . 503 

University, relation to research Editorial.... 753 

Unremunerative Rand mines 574 

Urals, asbestos deposits 528 

Mineral development of Editorial .... 482 

Platinum 681 

Use of gasoline motors In coal mines. . . .A. F. King. . . . 463 

Of miners' safety lamps James W.'Paul. . . . 619 

Utah, metal production in 1912 665 

Park City district 591, 987 

San Francisco district. Beaver county, geology of... 647 

Utah Apex Mining Co.. Utah, company report 909 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co., Bingham, Utah. .636, 792, 992 

Dividend 74 

Utah Copper Co., Bingham. Utah 38, 320, 437, 

■ 610. 636, 662, 666, 792, 827, 903, 992 

Company report 326 

Dividend 398 

Magma mill 832 

Utah Fuel Co 7.'i4 

Utah Metals Mining Co.. tunnel 196 

Utah-Wyoming Consolidated Oil Co 910 

Vacuum filtration at Walhl mine 

William MacDonald. . . . 

Valdez Creek Placer Mines Co., Alaska 

Ditto George W. Slas . . . . 

Vancouver Island, metal mining 

Van HIse. C. R Big business and Industrial pros- 

Vanners, concentrate In collecting boxes, draining 


Vats, galvanized corrugated Iron, for cyanide plant. . . . 

Vattier, Carlos Iron ore deposits of Chile. . . . 

Veins, water In J. F. Kemp. . . . 

Ditto T. A. Rickard . . . . 

Venezuelan Oil Concessions, Ltd., Mr. D. E. Alves' ad- 
dress Editorial . . . . 

Vermillion Silver & Lead Mining Co., Montana 

Victor Mining Co., Cripple Creek, Colorado 

Victoria. Australia, cost of mining deep leads 

Dredging in 1912 

Gold production 

Mineral returns for 1912 

Sludge from mining onerations. law 

Victoria Copper Mining Co., Michigan 590, 

Victoria Falls, Zambesi river, South Africa 

Victoria State Coal Mine, Australia 

Victorious mine, Associated Northern Blocks Co., West- 
ern Australia. .235. 425, 433, 469. 594. 626, 781, 835, 
Village Main Reef Gold Mining Co.. Rand, company re- 

.^elective mining 

Vincent. Joseph A., v. Tonopah Mining Co.. and Desert 

Power & Mill Co Editorial 

Vindicator Con. Gold Mining Co.. Colorado, dividend. . . . 

241, 743, 

Virginia, mineral production 

Mineral production In 1912. . . .Thomas L. Watson. . . . 

Mineral resources of — TIT 

Thomas Leonard Watson. . . . 

Vogelstein & Co.. L., copper statistics 632, 789, 

Lead report 

Spelter report 33, 

Tin statistics 76, 245, 632, 749, 

Voice of the prospector 

Volatilization process, Gwalla Consolidated mine. West- 
ern Australia 249. 

von Bernewitz. M. W Dredging at 

Natoma, California 

Ditto Grinding-pan practice. . . .737, 

Ditto Hoisting at a Chinese mine. . . . 

Ditto Lead salts in cyanldatlon. .. . 

Ditto Possibilities of grlnding-pans. . . . 

Ditto Power-plant at Associated 

mine, Kalgoorlie 



















Vol. 107 

Vo.^"l°n S"'«ltins at Campo Seco, California. .. .^"m 

„, ,• • • •, : •, Some more reasons why 

mining languishes v. »co.owii» w.iy 

Vulcan-^Balaklala-Trlnity mines, Shasta 'county; ' Calil 

Vulcan coal, mine; Newcastle; Coio^adoT'e^los/'on'"* ' ' ' ' itat 
v^ f''" Mining, Smelting & Refining Co., Nevada ' " 745 

Vulture Mines Co., Arizona 7 07, Li% 

Mining and milling '.'.wVm.' wiod . . 1018 

Wages on 



the Rand , 

Wagner Azurite Copper Co., Arizona ■;:;;:;::;:::;;:;; a04 


Wagner Mining Co., California ,,, 

w^ hi ?."„1h^S"°p'"' deposits, comparison. ..;;;;;:;:::: iil 

^\aihl Gold Mining Co., Ltd., New Zealand. 

Walhi, New Zealand ""• "^' ««2- «|* 

Cyanidation ^^Ij 

Filter plant, sampling cakes .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ^?? 

V.M^''^ ^,- '"''"''• precipitation of gold from cj^al 

nlde solutions on zinc wafers ...7 r;r;7 

Virt%iT^,^ur\, filtration at. .William MacDoiiaid: : ! ! 617 

Victoria mill flow-sheet cic 

w L'l g'"and Junction, New Zealand. ;;;!;:; 682 "I'osV 1023 

Wa hi-Paeroa Extraction, New Zealand 494 682 1022 

W? it'^^'^i'it Gold Prospecting Co.. New Zealand '. .^.*.^.' loll 

Wa es, colliery disaster at Cardiff Editorial 599 

w» 'h"""? "?,'"*• Australia, copper production . . . : : ' ' 78 
^iJfaU- fining Co.Vcol^rTdS'"^ ^' "^^ Comstock.. 

wl?^n^r,^.- c.-.-.-.-.;.-.-.;.-.;.-.- • ■ •^"'g^.^wil^'^i^i^: ■ 

'*^''rowm?"H^*i°''*''^.'"'"'"^,'^''*'■'•''• mineral deposits.. 548 

Cowlitz River valley, coal resources 548 

Republic district cj? 

Sheridan camp 'ogi 

w»I^i^'J,'' i'^w"'. "' mines. Washingion' State Col lege: : 987 

Washington Water Power Co o«i 

V. Federal M. & S. Co txi 

^°^^?..^,''^„l„**'"'"«^ Co., Black Hills, South' 'Dakota.'. 506, 826 




353, 506, 1031 







Mill, belt-conveyors'::::: '"■ ""''• 'i,. 

Mine ::::::::: \ll 

Waste heat boilers In reverberatory furnace fliies 

Water, acid mine ^' '''^''"'" ^'>^'"^^^^'' '■ '■ 575 

Copper from mine ; oci 

Gauge, improved automatic : : van 

^^,.\a"^ ™ • J- ^^ Kenip: : : : 938 

"'"" / ■ •■ •, T. A. RIckard 693 

Skip, home-made, self-loading and dumping 

■nr_* mw , H.E.Wharton:::: 461 

Watson Thomas L Mineral production In 

Vlrglna in 1912 g^^ 

w ''wi'°;"x,' •.; Mineral resources 'of Virginia: : : : 14 

Wealth of Nations mill, New Zealand, cyanidation 758 

Weaver Charles E. . Cordova mining district. 

Washington, mineral deposits 54S 

Weavervllle quadrangle, California 589 

Webb. H. H... Selective mining In "t'h'e'Goid 

Fields mines ;.. . 

Welhaven, Alf Work of the Or'ientai 'consolidated 

mines . . . . , 

Wepf er. G W . . Railroad' 'and ' transportation 

problems in Bolivia 

_ Djtto . Transportation problems ' I'li ' Bolivia : : " 

West Africa, dredges on Gold Coast 

Mines, gold production ii 581 

West Australian Gold Mines. Ltd.. in Porcupine district ' 
West End Consolidated Mining Co.. Tonopah. Nevada 

„ , 474, 665. 745. 87l'. li. 

Company report ,nQ 

Concentrate \\[ " 

Costs ■ Via' 

Mill, cyanidation ' 

Mill, operation of . . . Jay A. 'Carpentei-: : : : i^ 

West Joplin district, mining In ... . 26 

West Mexico Mines Co.. Ba.1a California. : 944 

West Ontario Consolidated Mining Co. and Daly Mi'iil'n'e 

Co ^ 

West Virginia, coke production : : : : 

Law and mining in 'Edl't'o'r'lal : : : : 

Workmen s compensation law Editorial 

Western Australia, dividends paid by mining compani'e's 
Geology of Kalgoorlie Goldfleld — T IT ITT IV V 

Malcolm Maclaren and J. Allan Thomson ..'.. ..45. 

9. 5 187 ^28 

P,"'.'',?''"''"''''''" '"'• 125, 23.5. 581. R9i. BIH. 835' 

MetallureT'cal tendencies in W. A. MacLeod 

Mines returns ' ' ' ' 

Mining in : 

Western Federation of Miners and 'Lead "citv 'rnTners' 

union building ; " 

And ponular support '.'. ' Editorial 

W. B. W^ilson's speech at Seattle Editorial 

Western Mining Co., Lake county. Colorado 

Westinghouse comnany, Micarta 

W^estinghouse portable sub-station . . . . : 

Wet crushing mill and efflclency .... 

Ground, sinking in '/ Edltoriai 

Wettlaiifer Lorrain mine, Cobalt ' ' ' ' 


Wharton H. E. . Home'-Tna'd'e s'e'lf-l'o'adl'n'g 

and dumping water skip ;.. 

W^heel. dewatering. for pulo 

■White Caps nroperty, Manhattan. Nevada : 

Whitman. Alfred R . . . . . .Synthesis of p'y'r'ite: : : : 

^Vtlkinson. Arthur, death of 

Willow Creek district, Alaska ' Edltoriai 

Lode mining in Sumner S. Smith: : 











Wilson mine, Pinegrove, Nevada ... ^^^e 

wWlZ: t":" ".". ^ Gravri^^n'ii:"^'^' S' ^'"^ ' ' ■ • 

WUson; W. B.; Vpeech 'a{ Se^tul." ." ^" ' Edllorlll' ' " '" 

Wilson Mines Co., Missouri ^""'"^'^'-.v.- 

Winchell, Horace V Peraia't"B'n'».o UVA' " J ' " -. • 

in deptli ..... persistence of ore deposits 

Winchell, Horace' V.; 'c.' W. 'Go'o'd'al'e'.'M ' ij 'ueaua 

Revision of United States M „i^\^V^\ 







Winona Copper Co. a 

'<;<' States Mining Laws: 


nona Copper Co. and Lovett grinder ?7, 

Company report Jij 

Winona^^.stamp-mill. Michigan, dewaVe'ring ' Wheel ' for 

Velocity cards : : : ; 

Winter work in Alaska A "v 'KoV,;.;,',' ' ' 

f)itto ip Garvey . . . . 

Wireless teieg'rk'p'h'y.' M^iico ' ; : : : : y^- "^B'^nnH.I ' ' ' ' Ji? 
Wisconsin, districts of I'-ditorlal . . . . 291 

PlattevlUe Held, shipments ....::::: Ill 




Zinc-lead district 


zjiiiv-itrrtu uiaiiici ,.7 -07 70, „i, 

Witwatersrand gold industry in 1912...'.'.'.' • 

Hammer drills in 'VV- L. 'Honnoij: : : : 182 

Witwatersrand Gold Mining Co.. Ltd f}? 

Ore crushing underground ... 51^ 

Wolf. J. H. G California oil production 'f^riai i l?S 

Wolfram and tin exports. Federated Mala? I?ltes " 53s 

TIn-blsmuth ores from Tasmania "»^ '^'ates 535 

Wolverine Copper Mining Co., Kearsa'r'ge ' iviich'i'g'an 

Wood. W M Mining and m?f,!n|'it \?i'e '" 

Vulture property » "-^ i"c 

Work at Cucaracha slide. Panama 077 

Of the Oriental Consolidated mines: :::::: 

Working costs at the Standard Cons^idaYed .''.':'^^" : ; : : **^ 

Workingmen's compensation " Rrtitont^ ?ll 

Insurance. German "J-aiioriai 7SS 

Workmen's Compensation Act, British, "results' iii '1912 

Compensation law, FederaF Editorial" 

Compensation law. West Virginia. ..." Editor a ' ' 

Compensation problems H "W Gartr^n'' 

World banks, gold In ' ^a"^"*"- • • 


Copper production 'i'«',' 

Wright. H. B s'lim'i.' 'a.i-it«tl'n.'.,' 

Wyoming, metal production ..;......* »»"»"<>"•■■■ J" 

Mineral production in 1912 '....::::: 1035 


Yale. ChariM G.^and Hoyt S. Gale Borax produc- 

5!"° ii, Metai prod'u'c't'lon: ' Or'e'gon : : : : 

Ditto ... ...Mineral production of California. . . 

■iampa Fuel & Iron Co.. coalfields in Colorado. ...::: : 

Yard decision reversed Editorial "" 

Yeatmam Pope ... Bradeii'copper Co:;:: 

Yellow Dog mine. Missouri 

Yellow .racket Mining Co.. Nevada 

Yellow Journalism ' 'Edltoriai 

Yellow Pine miniijg district, Nevada . . 

Yosemite Dredging & Mining Co., California. . ' : 

Yuanmi. Western Australia 235, 433 594 S'e 835' 

Costs at '. . . ■ 

Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields, California : 

Yukon steamers, passengers carried 

Yukon Gold Co., Alaska Ill, ii6 200 

Company report ' . 

'Zeehan-Montana Mine. Ltd., company report 

Zimmermann, F Osmium-platinum, a new alloy. . : 

Zinc and lead production, Missouri 

And tin ores, experiments in England and France 

Box and hydrogen bubbles 

Butte & Superior mine : 

Concentrator, Zinc Corporation, Ltd 

F'ranklin Furnace mines, New Jersey, production . 

Industry, Butte 

Lead, and silver in the Coeur d'Alene, origin of— I. ii 
Oscar H. Hershev. . . .489. 

Lead district, Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma 866. 

Lead district, Wisconsin 587 

Metallurgy Editorial. . . .' 

Metallurgy, limitation.s 

Mines, Spokane-Arizona Co 

Ore deposits in Boone and Marlon counties. Arkansas 

Kirby Thomas. . . . 

Ores and flotation processes at Broken Hill. Aus- 
tralia Editorial 

Ores, combined method of analysis for constituents 
of Frank A. Bird. . . . 

Ores, sources Editorial .... 

Production from domestic ore 

Production of Arizona 

Production of Nevada 

Production, Utah in 1912 

Psychology of F. L. Clerc . ... 

Ditto R. G. Hall... 

Ditto Frank L Wilson 

Smelter. Wyoming gasflelds proposed 

Smelting. Belgian furnaces in... George C. Stone.... 

Smelting in Australia 

Smelting investigation. Canada Edltoriai.... 

Tailing, at Broken Hill, treatment of 

Trust and tariff commission Editorial .... 

Zinc Corporation. Ltd.. Bewick. Moreing & Co... 26, 104, 

Company report 



















" Science has no enemy save the ignorant.' 

Whole No. 2763 


San Francisco, July 5, 1913 

Single Copies, Ten Cents 




San Francisco 


EUGENE H. LESLIE \ . . . Assistant Editors 


New York 

THOMAS T. READ Associate Editor 

T. A. RICKARD - - . - Editorial Contributor 
EDWARD WALKER ... - Correspondent 

A. W. Allen. Charles Janln. 
Leonard S. Austin. James F. Kemp. 
Gelaslo Caetanl C. W. Purlngton. 
Coiirtenay De Kalb. C. F. Tolman. Jr. 
F. Lynwood Garrison. Horac« V. WInchell. 


Cable Address: Pertusola. Code: Bedford XcNelll (2 editions). 


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Bntered at Ban FraneUco PoHoJftee at 8eeand-aa»» Matter, 




Notes 1 1 

The Hall Sulphur Process ( 2 

Fourth of July \ 2 


Building a Reduction Plant Herbert Lang 4 

Stoping Methods In Michigan Mines, .P. B. McDonald 9 

Imports of Potash Salts 12 

Equipment at the Crown Mines , 13 

The Mineral Resources of Virginia — III 

Thomas Leonard Watson 14 

Sulphur Industry of Sicily IS 

St. Joseph Lead Co Dwlght A. Jones 16 

Large Driving Belts 17 

Gold Production of West African Mines In May 17 

Combined Method of Analysis for Constituents of Zinc 

„ Ores Frank A. Bird 18 

Braden Copper Company Pope Yeatman 19 

Mineral Production of Peru In 1911 35 

Ooal Mining In China and Japan 35 

Recent Metallurgical Patents on the Rand 36 

BarytPS Production, 1912 36 

Chilean Sale of Nitrate Lands 36 

A New Mlne-Rpseue Telophone Equipment 39 

The Haldane Flame-Test Apparatus 40 


Minerals .Separation v. De Bavay Process 

Wilton Shellshear 21 
A Correction Hardlnge Conical Mill Company 21 




.Schools and Societies 31 

PiTsional 31 

New Vork Metal Market Review 32 

Mctii 1 Markets S3 

Stock Markets 34 

Current Prires for Ores and Minerals 35 

Current Prices for Chemicals S5 

Decisions Relating to Mining S< 

Company Reports St 

Concentrates 38 

Recent Publications 89 


TJ^OLLOWINGr the articles on the 'Organization of 
■■■ Smelting Enterprises' printed in April, we pub- 
lish this week one on 'Building a Reduction Plant,' 
by Mr. Herbert Lang, who speaks from an experi- 
ence that lends much weight to his words. This 
will be followed in turn by some account of the pit- 
falls that have been met in actual construction by 
Mr. A. Sydney Additon, with especial reference to 
the building of plants of moderate size in remote 
and difficult situations. , 

"DRADEN Copper Company figures attract keen 
^-' interest in the United States where this great 
undertaking in Chile is considered the probable fore- 
runner of many profitable enterprises. We print 
this week the substance of a new report upon the 
property by Mr. Pope Yeatman. whose general ac- 
count of the deposit we published Decem^ier 16, 
1911. Mr. Yeatman 's revised figures of ore reserves 
show 44,000,000 tons containing 2.65 per cent copper, 
as against a previous 'estimate of 23,000,000 tons at 
2.50 p<!r cent. A broker's circular in New York says 
that this "shows the ease with which tonnage is 
added at the mine," which just raises the question 
whether Life is to have a rival. 

A DVERTISING the results of company meetings 
•^*- is common in England, but is sufficiently un- 
usual in the United States to warrant calling atten- 
tion to the announcement of the Minerals Separa- 
tion American Syndicate, Limited, appearing in this 
issue. In these days when company success depends 
upon public support, expenditure for publicity is fes 
legitimate as for raw materials. The danger to be 
guarded against is the placing of paid matter in the 
reading pages, the disguising of advertisements. 
That has been a common practice in the United 
States, though not, we are glad to say, one adopted 
by technical journals. The day for such misbrand- 
ing is rapidly passing. The great public service 
corporations find it better to take paid space and 
fill it with plain statements of fact, even in news- 
papers that editorially oppose their policies, than 
surreptitiously to own weak journals. The public is 
quick to detect and to discount tainted news. And a 
reputation for printing it kills the influence and 
therefore the income of a paper more swiftly than 
most violent, but evidently honest, partisanship. The 
advertising pages of a good technical journal afford 
a medium for reaching an especially thoughtful and 
influential audience, but to do so effectively the ad- 
vertiser must have a message of real import and 
must tell it plainly. To those who have such a 
message, we extend a welcome. 


July 5, 1913 

The Hall Sulphur Process 

Copper metallurgists everywhere, but especially 
in California, will be keenly interested in the Hall 
process for dealing with the sulphur in smelter fume, 
with which the First National Copper Company is 
about to undertake experiments upon a working 
scale at its smelter at Coram, California. Mr. Wil- 
liam A. Hall, who has devised the process, is a 
graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, and a chemist of distinction who has made 
notable successes in the field of industrial chem- 
istry, being a cousin of the chemist of the same 
name who devised the process for the production 
of aluminum by electrolysis of bauxite in a fused 
bath of cryolite. The Hall sulphur process is essen- 
tially a controlled oxidation ; the sulphide ore being 
roasted in a specially-constructed furnace in an 
atmosphere of reducing gases and steam at a tem- 
perature between 700 and 900°C. As a result, the 
metallic bases are oxidized, but the sulphur, owing 
to the dissociation of the steam, escapes without 
becoming oxidized and, passing off in the fume in 
the form of 'flowers of sulphur,' is easily collected. 
Careful tests made under the direction of Messrs. 
C. F. Chandler and A. L. Walker, indicate that the 
chemistry of the new process is sound, Mr. Walker 
finding that ore containing nearly 40 per cent of 
sulphur was roasted to a sulphur content of 3 to 
5 per cent at a rate which indicates that approxi- 
mately the same tonnage per square foot of hearth 
area can be handled in this way as is done in cur- 
rent practice with the ordinary type of McDougall 
furnace. No data have been made public as to the 
fuel consumption to maintain this roasting speed, 
exact information as to this critical point being 
one of the objects of the large-scale experiments 
about to be started at Coram. The collection of 
the sulphur will be done by the aid of the Feld 
washer, though the possibilities of collection by 
means oi .the Cottrell electric precipitation process 
are also to be tested. The process will at first be 
applied to the McDougall roasters. 

.The large question involved is. of course, the dis- 
posal of the sulphur to be produced. Application 
of the process to all the ore and operation at the 
rate maintained at Balaklala in 1910 will involve 
the production of about 250 tons of siilphur per 
day, or somewhat in excess of the present visible 
market, assuming that the sulphur can be laid down 
at points of consumption at a price which would 
enable it to supplant the pyrite now in use, as well 
as the rather limited amount of Japanese and Lou- 
isiana sulphur now being used in California. The 
estimated cost of sulphur production is placed at 
$5 per ton at a maximum, at which rate the sul- 
phur would easily be able to dominate the market 
and perhaps increase consumption, as a lower sell- 
ing price commonly does. In any case, any finan- 
cial loss, not to exceed y-2 cent per pound of copper 
produced, for example, incurred in the production 
of sulphur may properly be charged to the cost 
of smelting under the conditions obtaining in Shasta 
county. Under previous conditions of operating at 
Balaklala, a production cost of 10 cents per pound 
of copper produced was estimated, though operat- 

ing difficulties caused it to be somewhat exceeded 
in practice. The new process, if it proves feasible, 
will meet fully legislative restrictions, and if 
the cost of operation proves sufiBciently low, will 
solve the smelter-fume situation as far as the First 
National is concerned. It is proposed to spend con- 
siderable sums on the experimental work, under the 
direction of Mr. H. F. Wierum, who has had exten- 
sive experience with the Tennessee Copper Company, 
and the prospect of success seems decidedly favor- 
able. But, like the manufacture of sulphuric acid 
from smelter fume, the process is not one which is 
of universal application, as its general adoption 
would at once swamp the market on which depend- 
ence is placed for meeting the cost of operation. 
The foreign rights to the Hall patents have been 
acquired by the Sulphur Company, Ltd., and the 
American rights are controlled by the Federal Sul- 
phur Company, Ltd. We wish both companies the 
fullest measure of success in their efforts to meet 
a situation trying in the extreme to copper metal- 
lurgists throiighout the world. 

Fourth of July 

Once more the 'Glorious Fourth' is with us, and 
from the great cities of the United States to the 
borderlands of civilization, bunting is being hung 
on the outer wall and the American people are 
joining in the celebration of the Nation's birthday. 
Other holidays may come and go, but the one red- 
letter day of the year, the one from which time is 
dated in the mining camps, is the Fourth of July. 
It stands out as the oasis in the summer months 
when the miner can forget for 24 hours the stopes 
and can devote his entire energies to celebrating. 
Probably in no other type of community is Inde- 
pendence day more thoroughly celebrated than in 
the mining camp. Here the festivities are as various 
as the changes of the kaleidoscope, and the miner 
gives himself up to recreation which ranges all the 
way from an over-indulgence in "the cup that clears 
today of past regrets and future fears," to general 
picnics with the accompanying liberal garnishing of 
patriotic sentiment by the camp spellbinder. The 
nipper and the general manager, united by the ties 
of patriotism, rub elbows in 'setting-off' fireworks, 
and on common ground decide questions of su- 
periority in matters of marksmanship and athletics. 
Outside of the possible barbecue, the features of the 
day around which the greatest attention centres are 
the athletic games, which are planned to afford such 
a variety that everyone may participate regardless 
of their past performances on the athletic field or 
prowess in the recognized sports, for near-sports are 
given a prominent place in the order of the day, and 
the three-leg race and greased-pig events attract 
more attention than the 100-yard dash and the 
hurdles. Then there is the rope-climb, the shot-put, 
turkey shooting, and many another opportunity for 
each to shine. And always the band plays its 

The feature of the day's program, however, is the 
drilling contest, as it is this contest that carries with 
it, if not an olive wreath, at least a purse and a repu- 
tation. This is the one contest to which the mining 

July 5, 1913 


industry makes claim as its own, and the winning of 
the drilling contest is to the miner what the Mara- 
thon is to the runner, or the roping contest to the 
cowboy. No one knows how old the hand-drilling 
contest is, but every miner has watched with strained 
interest a^ the drill ate its way into granite while 
the umpire announces the passing minutes. We be- 
lieve the best record is that of the Amalgamated 
3-hand team, 59% inches in 15 minutes, made at 
Calumet, Michigan, in 1911. How widespread is the 
interest in such contests is suggested by the picture 
below of a Fourth of July celebration at one of the 
Oriental Consolidated mines in Korea. While the 
dress of the onlookers is unusual, the rest of the 
scene is natural enough, even to the five-gallon 

there will be 'three baggers' and close decisions that 
will provoke hot contention. Whether the Constitu- 
tion follows the flag is open to debate ; but there is 
no question that close behmd 'Old Glory' comes the 
baseball score. Wherever nine North Americans 
are gathered together there is a pitcher, a catcher, 
and a full complement of basemen and fielders. 
Japan's management of battleships was not more 
convincing of her Westernization than her enthusi- 
asm for baseball, and whether Stanford wins or loses 
at Tokyo today, sound friendships will be formed. 

It is always hard to leave a ball game, but we 
really must go to supper (never dinner at the mine), 
and besides there is the dance in the evening. If 
we are not ready and dressed in our best, who knows 


kerosene can converted into a water bucket. These 
Korean drillers, by the way, make good records, cut- 
ting their 30 inches and over in 15 minutes and con- 
testing as stoutly as any 'Peerless' man or 'Shad.' 
As hand-drilling is giving way to machine work, so 
are hand-drilling contests being displaced by com- 
petitions between machine drills. The first of these 
we believe was held on the Fourth of July 1902 at 
Idaho Springs, Colorado. The machine contests are 
longer but less dramatic. One misses the play of 
muscle and the display of brand new undershirts 
usually worn by contestants on such occasions. 

But we have lingered over-long perhaps at the 
drilling. There are still the hose-cart races to be 
run, the ladder-climbing contests, and the picnic din- 
ner. After that is the inevitable baseball game, 
between rival camps, where distances are not too 
great, and between mine and mill where geography 
must be considered. Today, we doubt not, from the 
Davis pyrites mine of Massachusetts, to Masbate 

but that Katie, the black-eyed waitress, may tire of 
delay and go on with Mike the 'mucker.' It will 
never do to be late. For those who do not dance, 
and even in a mining camp there are such, or per- 
haps as the sole attraction, there is that friendly 
glove contest between foundry and saw-mill. Seated 
expectant by the ringside there is a good evening's 
fun to be enjoyed, with many a pretty give and take. 
Always there is the half thought that a new 'white 
man's hope' may shine forth at the end. Tired and 
sleepy, we at last reluctantly go to bed, happily if 
with no head that hangs over on the morrow and 
makes food look repellant while the throat notes 
anew the dryness of the desert. The old custom of 
dedicating the Nation's birthday to drunkenness is 
gradually giving way to one of making it a day of 
healthy sport ; and in the turning away from routine 
thoughts and work, we trust that each will find time 
for a quiet bit of thankfulness to our forefathers 
whose sacrifice made possible our Country. 


July 5, 1913 

Building a Reduction Plant 

By Herbert Lang 

"When the plans and details of a proposed works 
are sufficiently advanced, the engineer sets about 
the preparation of drawings and specifications of 
the different articles required, with the view of ob- 
taining bids for supplying them. By far the greater 
number of such articles, being of ordinary manufac- 
ture, do not reqixire to be designed, while their speci- 
fication maj'' consist of the merest framework of 
words. Things of special manufacture, which should 
be as few as possible, require very exact drawings 
and specifications, and herein lies a great deal of 
work for the designer, all of which must be com- 
pleted before the plans are submitted to the build- 
ers. It is not well to ask bids from many firms. 
Scarcely ever is it advisable to call upon more than 
two or three, for reasons which will be more appar- 
ent to the experienced than to the casual reader. 
In such business iindertakings as the erection of a 
large metallurgical works, it is policy to avoid pub- 
licity as far as possible. The engineer himself, 
whose drawings may represent the fruit, perhaps, 
of years of study, feeling that they mark a distinct 
advance in the art, has a natural wish to withhold 
them from the sight of manufacturers who, like many 
that might be named, make a practice of copying 
(in effect stealing) all original drawings that come 
to their shops. Again, there is much time lost when 
a large number of firms are taken into the competi- 
tion, owing to the number of explanations that are 
required to be given, and to other causes. 

Choice of Contractors 

It is common for the inexperienced individual or 
company to express a preference for the work of 
some particular builder, especially some much adver- 
tised concern with whose name they have become 
familiar, but of whose work they may know abso- 
lutely nothing. Not infrequently they may propose 
to put the whole matter of constructing the machin- 
ery, and even of setting up the plant, in the hands 
of some favorite iron works. This is a situation 
that calls for extreme tact on the part of the engi- 
neer, who may feel the impolicy of employing the 
firm in question, without being able to communicate 
his views to his own employers. The policy of cer- 
tain large builders in the United States is often 
quite unfavorable to the interests of engineers and 
employers alike. Their practice frequently is to sug- 
gest and bring about changes in the plans, to urge 
heavier and more costly machinery, to pooh-pooh 
the ideas and work of rival concerns, and finally to 
cast discredit on the original designer of the plant 
under consideration, provided that by injuring his 
standing with his employers they may advance their 
own interests. All this has its effect upon tyros, 
already awestricken by the fame of the bidding firm, 
and it not infrequently happens that the plans upon 
which the engineer spent anxious months are dis- 
carded, and the manufacturing concern is practically 
given carte hlanche to construct the works. It can 

easily be seen that such proceedings are as little to 
the advantage of metallurgy at large as they are 
to the true interests of the machinery buyers. Aside 
from this, there is the natural and less reprehensible 
tendency on the part of all builders to increase the 
magnitude of the orders (and consequently their 
profits) at the expense of the purchaser, whom it 
is the duty of the engineer to protect. The firms 
most difficult to deal with are those which pose at 
once as builders of machinery and as original de- 
signers of plants. Such concerns produce only de- 
signs which embrace their own machinery as con- 
stituent parts, and as a rule will assume no responsi- 
bility as to the appropriateness of their designs, 
while at the same time they declare that they will 
not be responsible for the success even of their own 
machinery unless their designs also are accepted. 
This illogical stand cannot deceive the engineer, but 
appears sufficient to take in many of the more credu- 
lous sort of buyers, to the extent of giving a single 
order, never repeated, for machinery and plans. 

Making the Plans 

During the preparation of the plans and the con- 
struction of the works, there are times when it be- 
comes advisable for the engineer to call for outside 
assistance, especially in matters of mechanical engi- 
neering, in which he may not be sufficiently versed. 
At such times the resources in skill and apparatus, 
which well conducted and equipped iron works pos- 
sess, become of great use. When such a course be- 
comes necessary, it is well to use great discrimina- 
tion in the selection of a suitable house. With some 
an application leads simply to the handing over of 
every detail of construction to people who are not 
in every way fitted for it. As a general thing, the 
large machinery houses are acquainted with only 
the mechanical engineering side of the questions, 
there being rarely any real metallurgical skill with- 
in the concern, and it often happens that the qual- 
ity of brains which such concerns place at their 
customers ' disposal is of the most ordinary sort. It 
is far better to avoid such biased and incapable aid. 
The experience in this matter is that the smaller 
iron works, especially those making no pretense to 
extraordinary skill and ability in designing and 
building plants, are of far more assistance, chiefly 
because the problems are taken up by the principal 
officers of such works, who are apt to be men of 
high attainments in general engineering, and who, 
having no specialties of their own to uphold, have 
with more ability far less bias than the mediocre 
and prejudiced salesmen, draughtsmen, and what- 
not who perform that kind of task for the larger 
makers. No one but a metallurgist can ever know 
how the progress of the art has been hampered and 
delayed by the disposition of the larger makers to 
hang to their antiquated drawings and patterns; or 
by their employment of solicitors and clerks in the 
place of skilled engineers; or by their boundless 

July 5, 1913 


and absurd claims of improvement. Making the 
largest allowance for the credulousness and gullibil- 
ity of the mining piiblic, it is difficult to under- 
stand how such claims can bring business. 

Purchase of Machinery 

Speaking generally, then, it would seem that the 
preferable way to proceed in the construction of 
the reduction plant would be, after the plans are 
advanced sufficiently, to ask tenders from two, or 
at most three, iron works of fair repute and of 
known skill and versatility, and select as the maker 
of the desired apparatus that one which combines 
the advantages of a low, but not too low, price 
with a location not so far from the proposed works 
that repair parts for the machinery cannot be had 
quickly. By no means should the successful bidder 
be required or even asked to erect the works, for 
this can always be done better and cheaper by the 
purchasers, with the added advantage that the men 
who are to run the plant can generally be had to 
set it up, whereby they become acquainted with its 
peculiarities, much to the betterment of the run- 
ning. Let the greater part of the machinery be 
bought in the open market, and let it be set up as 
soon as it arrives, without waiting for other parts. 
By no means put off the purchase of portions that 
are certain to be required, but arrange the arrival 
on the ground of the different portions so that 
there will be no rush at any time, but that a crew 
of a certain number of men, working steadily and 
without hurry, may perform the whole of the work. 
To 'rush things' is a favorite phrase with some 
builders, but rushing is expensive when metallur- 
gical works are to be set up. 

As a general thing, the time required for plan- 
ning and building the reduction works is much 
underrated. It frequently happens that companies 
who have pursued a leisurely course of mining de- 
velopment, occupying perhaps years in work that 
could have been performed in as many months, sud- 
denly resolve upon the erection of reduction works, 
and demand that they be built and put in operation 
hurriedly. The effect of haste in this work is in- 
variably bad. Not only do the plans suffer, but 
the mechanical work is poorer and the expense far 
greater. I repeat with emphasis the first rule of 
construction, which is, take plenty of time. To this 
the reader who has read and appreciated the fore- 
going will add for himself the second rule, namely, 
take plenty of money. 

Value of Guarantees 

The ordinary guarantees by makers of machinery 
relate to the quality of material and workmanship 
furnished, and are quite conventional in words and 
form. There is never any difficulty in enforcing 
agreements of this sort, and buyers may rest secure 
in the quality if not in the design of whatever they 
may buy in the way of metallurgical apparatus. In 
addition to materials, some of the larger machinery 
houses profess to furnish advice upon metallurgical 
topics, especially in eases where their apparatus is 
about to be installed. This implies a responsibility 
not only as to the character of the machinery fur- 

nished, but also as to the process or method of treat- 
ment to be adopted. Hence it may properly be 
nominated in the bond that the process and the ar- 
rangement of plant are to remain on trial until 
proved to be correct and advisable, and that before 
the dealers are paid for their wares. Otherwise 
their position, it is easy to see, is better than that 
of the professional engineer who prepares plans and 
gives advice for which he in the nature of things is 
held to strict accountability. If the machinery 
dealers were also held responsible for the advice • 
they give, we should hear less unfounded boasting 
from them, and the condition of metallurgy would 
be much improved. 

Value of Professional Services 

The information upon which the engineer depends 
is furnished by maps, analyses, assays, and reports, 
but chiefly by personal inspection, of which nothing 
can take the place. No one, no matter what his 
qualifications may be, is justified in prescribing or 
planning without first having seen with his own eyes 
the ground of the future operations, and inspected 
thoroughly every part of it. This he owes both to 
himself and his employers. Nor can this inspection 
be slurred or hurried over. Time spent in such a 
careful reconnaissance bears excellent fruit in avoid- 
ance of mistakes, and in the improved character of 
the engineering. It is rare indeed that the engineer 
does not, with his trained vision, notice something, 
perhaps of great import, whose bearing on the prob- 
lems in hand had not been brought to the notice 
of the company. Such a fact, unexpectedly devel- 
oped, may result in an entire change of process; 
and whereas the company at first thought of putting 
in, let us say, a cyanidation plant, the light thrown 
upon the subject by the investigations of the engi- 
neer may result in the decision to use chlorination 
instead. Again, the original resolve may have been 
to use a concentrating process, in which case the 
recognition, on the part of the engineer, of large 
amounts of accessible fluxing ores previously un- 
noted by the projectors, has turned the scales and 
rendered smelting vastly more feasible. 

Selection of Millsite 

One of the most important duties which can fall 
to the lot of the engineer is the selection of the 
site upon which the works are destined to be built, 
and into the choice of which go a great deal of the 
experience and skill which he should possess. Chief 
among the considerations which govern the choice 
are those relating to the transportation of the ore 
from the mine to the works. The perpetual problem 
is how most cheaply to get the ore and other mate- 
rials to the works, and how to get the products 
away. As a rule, the question deals with the rela- 
tive merits of railways, overhead trams, and wagon- 
roads, according to circumstances. By no means can 
one solve these questions ofl'-hand; but the engineer 
must prepare himself with such aids as contour 
maps, drawings, and estimates of cost, which em- 
brace facts that cannot otherwise be taken into ac- 
count. In order to know accurately the ground upon 
which he stands, the surveyor's aid must be in- 



July 5, 1913 

voked, and a thoroughly reliable contour map made, 
embracing all the debatable ground. The 5-ft. eon- 
tours should be used, and the scale must not be 
cramped. On this map proceed to lay out, first, the 
transportation lines, particularly if railways are to 
be a part of the plan, and next, the actual location 
of the works themselves. Notice that it is impor- 
tant to begin with the railway. Almost all such 
works nowadays are connected with them, and it 
needs no argument to prove the desirability of so 
• arranging matters with reference to the different 
departments of the works that the handling of 
freight of all kinds will be facilitated to the utmost. 
This requires that the tracks be put down first. 
Herein may be noted the additional advantage that 
they may be used both in the erection and for the re- 
pair of the works themselves. In case that wagon- 
roads or overhead tramways be used for the means 
of transport, the necessity of their prior location is 
less obvious, but even then it will be found profita- 
ble to lay them out in advance of other construc- 

Handling Material 

The ideal method of handling materials about the 
works is by means of railways of the standard gage 
of 4 ft. 8% in. By the exercise of skill and judg- 
ment on the part of the designer, all the require- 
ments of freighting may be met by lines of this 
sort, penetrating to all parts of the establishment, 
whatever be its extent, and delivering all the mate- 
rials wheresoever they may be required. A narrower 
gage may answer, but not if connecting lines are 
of the standard gage. Good engineering demands 
that such lines should be laid out with extreme care 
in order to obtain the utmost benefit. The sharp- 
est curve should not be of less than 200 ft. radius, 
and there should be no grades whatever within the 
works, while if such are deemed advisable on the 
outside, they must slope away from and not toward 
the works, thus preventing damage by runaway cars 
and engines. Metallurgists should take care to fol- 
low the practice of the railway engineers in all this, 
not only as to the construction of the line itself, 
but also as to the character of the rolling stock 
which may be intended for use. Given a broad-gage 
road, it would be quite inadvisable to introduce 
miniature cars or locomotives, because by so doing 
would be forfeited the numerous advantages that 
flow from full-sized apparatus. The extreme advan- 
tages of the full-sized railway equipment are not 
appreciated or understood except by the regular 
transportation companies, who, as is well known, 
are always seeking to increase the size and weight 
of their engines and cars. This touches a principle 
that is universal throughout the whole domain of 
metallurgy. The superior economy of large furnaces, 
heavy stamps, powerful engines, and, generally, of 
the most powerful and heavy apparatus of all kinds, 
Avithin the limits of practicability, are undeniable. 
What the extreme limits in size of practicable appa- 
ratus may ultimately be found to be is not material 
to the question. For the present the tendency is 
toward increased sizes of machinery in every branch 
of metallurgy. This tendency is accompanied by 

another not less strongly marked tendency toward 
increased speed of driving. Whereas, in times not 
remote, and within the memory of persons still in 
active practice, stamps, for instance, weighed 700 lb. 
and fell 80 times per minute ; they now have reached 
double the weight and drop 100 times per minute. 
Instances might easily be multiplied. The case of 
the reverberatory smelting furnaces, which have in- 
creased from 16 to 100 ft. in length of hearth, may 
be cited ; the iron furnaces of Pittsburgh, whose in 
ternal capacity is ten times what it once was; the 
matting furnaces of Butte, whose capacity has in- 
creased twentyfold in 20 years, are further illustra- 
tions. In all this the principle is the same; that is 
to say, the economy of metallurgical devices de- 
pends, among other things, upon the size of those 

The designer should take plenty of room. The 
works, however limited in capacity, should not be 
cramped. Compactness, upon which many builders 
pride themselves, is not a merit in metallurgical 
plans, but, on the contrary, is a chief cause of blun- 
dering. The likelihood of future enlargements must 
always be faced, and the question of fire insurance 
is generally a live one. It might be supposed that 
the matter of cheap and rapid transit through the 
works would be favored by compactness of plant; 
but this is not always the case, inasmuch as it debars 
the engineer from the employment of the most rapid 
and economical means of transit when the different 
parts of the plant are huddled into a mass. Experi- 
ence shows that the separation of large or moderate- 
sized plants into departments has an excellent effect 
upon the success of the establishment as a whole, 
and should always be practised in laying out new 
works. All necessary study should be bestowed 
upon the plans while they are forming, there being 
no economy in hurrying this part of the work. The 
general drawings of the works should be finished 
and blueprinted before a single article is ordered, 
or a single shovelful of earth excavated. The site 
must be selected, and the location of all parts of 
the plant, including the corners of the buildings, 
staked out, if the fullest measure of economy in con- 
struction and running is to be achieved. It is well 
known that where these indispensable preliminaries 
are neglected the plant costs much more, especially 
in the two items of grading and excavating. 

Arrangement of the Plant 

Little is gained in general by extensive excavation, 
especially if it be in hard ground, since the improved 
methods of elevating and transporting render it in 
a measure unnecessary. The ideal metallurgical 
works should be so arranged that all parts may be 
accessible by the broad-gage railway line. This ne- 
cessitates laying out the plant alongside of the 
tracks, which must have been previously staked, with 
the longer axis of the buildings parallel to the 
rails, and not transverse, whereby the greatest con- 
venience in the matter of dumping room is secured. 
The plant, if at all extensive or complicated, should 
be divided into departments or sections, so as to 
have good ventilation with freedom of each sec- 
tion from the smoke, gases, and flying particles 

July 5, 1913 


from the others. By this disposition, the cost of 
buildings, and particularly of grading and of re- 
taining walls, may be much diminished. Where, on 
the contrary, the different parts of a plant are hud- 
dled together, not only is the cost of working greater, 
but that of subsequent additions to the works will 
also be greater. Further, the very compactness of 
a plant, which is so much valued by some designers, 
will invariably prevent the orderly and logical ad- 
ditions of parts that may be subsequently found nec- 

Most metallurgical works are built upon side- 
hills in order to get the benefit of gravitation, by 
which the substances undergoing treatment are as- 
sisted on their way. The practice of so building the 
works has become fixed by the habit of generations 
and centuries, and with some builders has become 
almost second nature. But with the improvement 
in machinery, by which a wealth of appliances for 
hoisting, transferring, and lowering the heavy and 
bulky materials of metallurgy now available, 
the arguments and reasons that formerly led to 
the side-hill have in good part lost their force, and 
a rival school, advocates of the so-called level site, 
has appeared. Their arguments relate chiefly to 
smelting, but have an important bearing upon other 
metallurgical processes. 

Sidehill v. Single-Level Sites 

A sloping or side-hill site is made up virtually 
of a number of terraces, upon each of which some 
part of the plant is placed ; there may be two, three, 
or more of these terraces, the result of excavation 
into the side-hill. The single level site, which osten- 
sibly is composed of but one level, virtually has 
quite as many, if by level is meant the elevation on 
which work is performed. For there must be, first, 
a lower dumping ground (called dump for short) 
on which the waste is deposited, and also several 
floors of greater or less extent, upon which the men 
stand to work at their tasks. Each of these floors 
may be entitled 'levels' with as much propriety as 
if they were the generally more extensive areas em- 
braced in the side-hill site. Thus there must be a 
space about the head as well as the base of cupola 
furnaces for their proper working; the use of ore- 
bins implies at least two levels ; and so for the usual 
arrangements of metallurgical works of all kinds. 
The conflict of opinion as regards one-level versus 
terraced sites was largely based upon a misappre- 
hension, and there is really not such a great differ- 
ence between the two opposed plans of construction 
as has been generally imagined. The greater differ- 
ences arise from the method of supporting the lev- 
els (floors) and their relative positions about the 
works. In the side-hill plan they are laid out in 
an orderly sequence from top to bottom ; while in 
the one-level plan they are scattered about the ter- 
race according to convenience or the views of the 
designer. In the former they rest upon the solid or 
filled ground; in the other they are supported, for 
the most part, on framework of wood or metal. The 
question, therefore, is narrowed down to a consid- 
eration of the relative advantages of floors or lev- 
els supported by posts, or by earth or stonework. 

It is necessary to consider the matter of installing 
and using the different classes of elevating and 
transferring machinery made advisable by the one 
or the other plan, together with the possibility of 
future enlargements and alterations— a matter that 
should always be kept in mind. 

One-Level Site 

There is no question but that the one-level site, 
with buildings somewhat widely separated, is the 
most favorable to enlargements; and while the ques- 
tion of convenience and economy of working is to be 
settled by the engineer on the spot, I am firmly con- 
vinced of the superior advantages of the one-level 
plant in those respects also. Doubtless, most 
builders will agree that ventilation is better, and 
that as a general thing the danger from the spread 
of fire is less. As a rule, there is greater economy 
of space in the one-level plan, as the room directly 
beneath the upper floors is not wholly occupied by 
the supports, and because the stowage spaces can 
be better utilized. Ore, for example, which it would 
be out of the question to transfer for storage from 
one level to another, may be moved on the same level 
to wherever convenience may dictate. Thus any 
given space on the terrace may be used successively 
for several purposes, while on the side-hill plan the 
engineer is rigidly held to one use for one space. 

In the case of stamp-milling, where the course of 
the ore is constantly downward, and where there 
are no materials of any moment that require to 
be returned from lower to higher levels, there is 
little opportunity to argue against the side-hill con- 
struction. But in processes like cyanidation, where 
the reelevation of the liquids forms an important 
part of the process, and which cannot be obviated, 
there is less reason for seeking a site upon slop- 
ing ground, as the pumping of the liquids from 
tank to tank cannot be much forwarded by differ- 
ences of levels between the tanks. 

Modem Iron and Steel Works 

In the larger iron and steel works, where the 
quantity of material to be handled reaches its maxi- 
mum, and the metallurgical engineering has ad- 
vanced to a perfect appreciation of the conditions, 
the works are invariably, of late years, placed on 
level ground, with abundant room for expansion 
and for the application of those approved means 
of transport that have attained such perfection 
in that work. There is no question there as to 
the proper site to be selected, other than as influ- 
enced by the favorable conjunction of lines of trans- 
portation, and the practicable nature of the founda- 
tions, which is vastly important to their ponderous 
apparatus. Thus at the Phoenixhutte in Germany, 
and the Lackawanna works in our own country, mil- 
lions were spent in the preparation of the unfortu- 
nately situated ground upon which the designers 
were seemingly forced to build. Fault may not 
be found "with the selection of these sites, but it is 
unfortunately true that an undue amount of money 
is almost always put into such constructions as pil- 
ing, filling, grading, and draining unsuitable ground; 
an expense which the merest change in transports- 



July 5, 1913 

tion lines frequently renders wholly useless. If one- 
half the perspicuity that is devoted to the subject 
of metallurgical processes could be occasionally 
given to the study of railway ov water transport, 
one-half the reduction plants would never be built 
where they are. 

Necessity of Several Levels 

Although the huge steel and iron plants of the 
day are regarded as the best exponents of the one- 
leyel plan of construction, the curious visitor will 
notice about them ample evidence of the universal- 
itv of the manv-level idea. He will observe a strict 
adherence to the custom of erecting the big furnaces 
on a platform of masonry, elevated some eight or 
ten feet above the general level of the works, de- 
signed very properly as the railway level. This is 
in order to admit of the use of the large slag and 
metal pots and ladles, which often have a capacity 
of 20 or more tons, and being mounted on wheels, 
and drawn by a small locomotive, transport their 
contents wherever required. This mode of transport 
renders it a matter of small moment that the slag 
dump may be at a distance, often of several miles. 
But although the dump may be so far away, it must 
still be a dump ; that is to say, the slag must even- 
tually be brought to repose on a lower level than 
the tracks. Since work is performed upon the 
top of the masonry platform, that also constitutes 
another level. Again, the top of the furnace, being 
the scene of more or less labor, forms a fourth level ; 
and so on. In taking the pig iron to the bessemer 
vessels, a locomotive is sometimes used, which with 
its train of several ladles is hoisted bodily from the 
railway level to a position so elevated that the con- 
tents of the ladles may be poured directly into the 
converters. This, then, involves another level still. 
It can be seen after some reflection that the terrace 
or side-hill system of laying out these works would 
not answer in such instances. 

Concentrating Works 

In the case of concentrating works, I have always 
considered it doubtiul if the advantages of gravity 
were not more than counterbalanced by the costs 
and inconveniences inherent in the form of con- 
struction which is now uniformly adopted. It would 
seem important to do away with the heavy and 
oftentimes costly retaining walls which this type 
usually requires; with the expensive and sometimes 
unsatisfactory wooden piers upon which rock-break- 
ers and other heavy machinery is generally sup- 
ported far above solid ground; and with the mas- 
sive buildings whose frames support the shafting 
by which power is transmitted to the various mech- 
anisms of such a works. Since the elevating and 
reelevating of the crushed material, often to con- 
siderable heights, is an unavoidable feature of this 
form of ore reduction, may it not prove to be the 
part of economy to extend the elevating system to 
such an extent as to allow the crushing apparatus, 
the shafting, and such other parts as require excep- 
tionally firm foundations, to rest upon the ground? 
Were this done, much money could be saved, par- 
ticularly in the cost of the buildings, which might 

be made much lighter, with large incidental reduc- 
tions in the danger from fire, the cost of insurance, 
and in replacements and repairs. 

The design and location of smelting works espe- 
cially have been much modified by the improve- 
ments in hoisting and carrying machinery during 
recent years. Formerly, when the muscular strength 
of man was depended on for the transportation of 
the ore to the furnaces, and the removal of slag 
and metal, and when the daily tonnage treated did 
not make such a grand figure, it was almost a mat- 
ter of course that the work was arranged so that 
the slag dump was close to one side of the furnaces, 
while the ore dumps were as near to the other. 
The hauling of slag in two-wheeled hand pots is 
still practised in some works, even of comparatively 
modem build, while the wheeling of ore from the 
heaps to the feeding-floors is also common. The 
excursion of the hand-pushed slag-pot with its 300 
or 400 lb. of slag between furnace and slag dump 
is being replaced by the locomotive with its huge 
tipping basin of fifty or one hundred times that 
capacity ; or bj' the granulating stream, whose ca- 
pacity has never been measured. 

Effects of Gravity 

The effects of gravity are many and indispensable 
in all metallurgical operations; yet it is easy to 
go too far in soliciting its aid. Under an exaggerat- 
ed idea of its usefulness, designers have been known 
to seek sites on distant hills, and to lay railway 
tracks for many miles in order to obtain the advan- 
tages of a drop of some few feet. These advantages 
are measurable, if at all, in terms of the cost of 
elevating the same materials an equal distance by 
mechanical means. If the cost of doing this by 
such means commonly used be considered, an ap- 
proximate idea of what such a drop is worth in 
dollars and cents will be gained, and many would 
doubtless be surprised at its small value. The actual 
cost of the power for raising weights is but a trifle. 
The power of one horse, as is well known, is suffi- 
cient to raise 33,000 lb. one foot per minute, at 
which rate he could in 24 hours elevate the whole 
of the material consumed in a thousand-ton smelter 
a distance of 22 ft., which is not far from the aver- 
age height of a copper or lead blast-furnace. If an 
allowance of 50% be made for losses from the in- 
efficiency of elevating and hoisting machinery, and 
assume that the horse be replaced by electrical or 
steam power at an expense of $50 per year, the 
daily cost of the power for elevating the above 
amount works out to 28e. Other elements which 
enter into such an estimate, such as the cost of at- 
tendance, repairs, and in particular the loss by in- 
terruption of the work, modify it considerably, al- 
though the result will always show the impolicy of 
going far to secure the assumed advantages of grav- 
ity. Further, the engineer should not lose sight of 
the fact that some means are always necessary to 
raise the ore and other materials to the summit of 
whatever eminence is to be chosen, this possibly in- 
volving the use of an extended line of railway, 
whose use would not commonly be thought of as 
pertaining to the reduction plant and process. 

July 5, 1913 


Stoping Methods in Michigan Mines 

By P. B. McDonald 

The choice of a mining method for an undevel- 
oped property is a matter which should receive care- 
ful attention, as it involves a problem of prime im- 
portance in the economic working of the property. 
As the supply of cheap timber has decreased during 
the past 20 years, making the square-set method of 
mining expensive, a wide variety of new methods 
has been advanced, each particularly suited to cer- 
tain local conditions. The object of the new methods 
has been to do away with the use of so much timber 
and to make mining safer, thus reducing the loss of 
life. The notable increase in the mining of large, 

The caving system is usually not suitable to a 
small or medium width orebody, but is a cheap 
mining method for a large massive deposit. At the 
Tobin iron mine of Corrigan, McKinney & Co. 
at Crystal Falls, Michigan, block caving is employed. 
A sub-level is opened 25 ft. above the main level, and 
a checkerboard of drifts and cross-cuts is driven on 
this sub-level, making a number of short vertical 
pillars in the ore, which are reduced to suitable size 
and then all blasted at once, thus undercutting a 
great block of ore 100 ft. high. As the ore slowly 
caves it racks and grinds itself into small pieces eon- 


Fig. 2. dry-wall method. 

irregular shaped, low-grade orebodies has been a 
favorable factor for the development of new 
methods, mainly because an efficient mining method 
is a necessity in the mining of low-grade ore. In 
most of the recent methods, shoveling of ore in the 
stopes is avoided as much as possible, on account of 
the high cost of this work. There are several mines 
paying dividends today that were failures before a 
system of mining was evolved which suited the local 
conditions at each property. 

Classification of Mining Methods 

Mining methods are usually classified as to 
whether the stoping is overhand or underhand or a 
combination of the two, but there is a better classi- 
fication having to do with the condition of the stope 
itself. The stope may be open, as in relatively nar- 
row veins of hard ore, with very little or no timber 
used in the process; the stope may be kept filled 
with broken ore or waste rock on which the miners 
stand to drill ; or the caving principle may be em- 
ployed in which a block of ore is undercut and part 
of it removed, the balance being allowed to settle 
due to the force of gravity. 

venient for loading into tram cars and is subse- 
quently discharged through chute-raises to the main 
haulage level and trammed to the shaft. The ore at 
this property is a medium hard, red hematite. 

Pewabic Mine 

In the Pewabic mine at Iron mountain no sub- 
level is driven, but blocks of ore 250 by 200 by 100 
ft. high are caved into the main level where pillars 
8 ft. square have been shot out. The block of ore is 
first undercut along the foot-wall and one end. 
When the pillars have been withdrawn the ore 
gradually settles to the floor, and in spite of the fact 
that it is rather hard ore, it is crushed so that 80% 
of it can be put through a 3-in. opening. This cav- 
ing process takes from 6 to 8 months. Timbered 
drifts and cross-cuts are then driven through the 
crushed ore, and the trammers shovel the ore into 
cars, beginning at the more remote headings, and 
pull down the timber sets as they retreat. The cost 
of mining by this method at the Pewabie is about 
50c. per ton. It will be noted that the cost of ex- 
plosives and timber are naturally low. It need 
scarcely be stated that caving methods of m'ining 



July 5, 1913 

render the overlying surface unfit for buildings, 
railroads, and the like. 

On the Mesabi range in Minnesota caving meth- 
ods suitable to soft ores are extensively used for 
mining large flat lenses of iron ore. On the Mesabi, 
and in some parts of Michigan, caving is accom- 
plished in sub-levels by drawing horizontal slices 
8 to 20 ft. high and extracting these successively 
from the top downward. The overlying rock or sand 
caves and is kept separated from the ore by a mat 
of timber and lagging; this overlying material fur- 
nishes weight which helps cave the few feet of ore 
over the 'room,' which is 8 ft. high, and is excavated 
by the miners underneath the block to be caved. 
Caving in horizontal slices by means of timbered 
sub-levels is a more careful method than the block- 
caving methods used at the Tobin and Pewabie, but 
is also more expensive in labor and timber and is 
better fitted for a high-grade ore. It is necessary to 

The levels are usually 100 ft. apart; when the stope 
is within about 20 ft. of the level above, the un- 
broken, material is left as a floor pillar as long as it 
is desired to maintain the level above, after which 
this floor pillar is drawn retracting toward the shaft. 
This method of mining is especially suitable for a 
steeply dipping vein from 8 to 12 ft. wide. It has 
been successfully used in the hard ore mines of the 
Michigan iron regions. Some operators object to 
mining on broken ore, because of the capital repre- 
sented in the large amount of broken ore which is 
necessary for keeping the stopes filled. 

Dry- Wall Method 

Pig. 2 shows the main features of the 'dry-wall' 
method used in some of the South Range copper 
mines of Michigan where the dip is suificiently steep. 
The main haulage drift is driven lengthwise of the 
lode and is widened out to the full width of the ore- 


shovel practically all of the broken ore, and nearly 
all the drifts and 'rooms' have to be carefully tim- 
bered. The 'caving' is not caused by removing the 
pillars, but by widening the timbered room 8 ft. 
high and caving the few feet of ore overhead. In 
some cases the slices are only 8 ft. thick altogether, 
so that practically none of the ore is caved. The 
term caving applies principally to the overlying 
rock and sand. 

Back Stoping 

Pig. 1 illustrates back stoping. By this method 
the stope is kept nearly full of broken ore upon 
which the miners stand when drilling into the back. 
The broken ore is removed by trammers on the haul- 
age level by prying apart the cross-lagging over 
their heads and letting the ore drop into the tram 
cars. The cross-lagging rests upon timbers laid 
lengthwise of the drift, which in turn are supported 
by heavj' timbers placed at intervals across the drift 
with their ends securely recessed in the walls. The 
miners climb to the back through ladder-ways or 
raises which are left at interval's. The level of the 
broken ore may be kept on a slope lengthwise of the 
orebody so that flat stope holes may be drilled and 
the ore broken in benches ; or the broken ore may be 
kept horizontal and 'uppers' drilled into the back. 

body, perhaps 20 ft., by ' breast-stoping. ' The broken 
material is carefully sorted and the waste rock is 
built into 'dry-wall's' (so called because no mortar 
is used) on each side of the track, perhaps 8 ft. 
apart. The miners are very skillful at building 
these dry-falls, and the finished walls, which are 
7 ft. high, are surprisingly straight and solid. The 
balance of the waste-rock is thrown behind the 
dry-walls. Heavy timbers are now laid across the 
drift, the ends resting on top of the dry-walls; 
these timbers are spaced at about 2-ft. intervals and 
planks or timber are laid on them lengthwise of the 
drift, thus making a tight roof to the haulage way. 
Overhand stoping is now started, the miners stand- 
ing on this platform and using it as a floor. As the 
stoping progresses, the broken material is sorted and 
the waste rock is kept to stand on, while the ore is 
thrown down chutes to the haulage levels. The 
chutes are built in the waste rock by the dry-wall 
method of stone laying, and are about 65 ft. from 
centre to centre. If there is not enough waste rock 
to make sufficient fill to stand on, a raise is driven 
to the level above or to the surface, and broken fill- 
ing is run into the stope until the men can stand on 
the waste and reach the back for drilling. The top 
of the fill is usually kept level and small ears may 
be used on it for handling the ore. If it is desired 

July 5, 1913 



to use horizontal holes to break the ore, a portion 
of the fill may be kept at an angle of about 40", 
upon which the miners can stand and drill and thus 
break the ore in benches; otherwise 'uppers' are 
used. This method of mining is obviously suited 
for ore that requires considerable sorting, and gives 
better results than going to the expense of hoisting 
all the broken material to the surface before sort- 
ing it. Native copper rock is easy to sort, especially 
when the surfaces are fresh, as is the case immedi- 
ately after blasting. This method of mining is also 

mining methods, the floor pillar can be drawn, re- 
treating toward the shaft, when desired. Workings 
left for a long time are apt to get dangerous. This 
method of mining is suitable to mines where a small 
daily tonnage is hoisted and where it is desired to 
obviate dead work and tying up capital. "Where the 
ore is variable and pockety, this method is especially 
suitable, as the poor material can be readily left as 
pillars in the mine. Some mines leave 40% of the 
vein material unbroken because of its poor showing; 
incidentally these pillars tend to make the workings 



safe, because the miners can watch the roof over their 
heads and see in advance any signs of caving. The 
cost of mining is usually over $1 per ton, but this 
refers of course to the sorted product which is the 
result of careful underground sorting, and should 
not be directly compared to a method which hoists 
both ore and waste before sorting. 

Open-Stope Method 

Fig. 3 shows an open stope method of mining 
which is used in various parts of the country with 
orebodies up to 30 ft. in width. This method is sim- 
ple, makes little 'dead' work and permits ore being 
stoped almost as soon as the shaft is sunk. It has 
the disadvantage of a high roof over the trammers' 
heads, which is dangerous in mining soft ores. The 
shaft may be sunk in the ore following the dip of 
the vein (as in sketch), or it may be a few feet back 
in the foot-wall and maintain a constant dip. Levels 
are usually 50 ft. apart measured along the dip. 
The drifts are kept small near the shaft, but, after 
leaving a suitable shaft pillar, a stope is opened 
about 30 ft. high. When the system is well started, 
driving along the vein takes place near the roof of 
the stope in what is called the 'heading.' this drift 
being later widened to the full width of the orebody. 
Stope holes are put in on the slope leading from the 
haulage level up to the heading; both down-holes 
and 'lifters' can be used, and when blasted they 
break the ore in large masses and chunks that may 
need sledging to handle conveniently. The roof is 
kept well trimmed or 'scaled,' ladders being used to 
occasionally inspect the older workings. As in other 

safer. The cost of mining by this method is usually 
less than $1 per ton. 

Sub-Level Methods 

Fig. 4 shows the comparatively new sub-level 
stoping method in use in many of the smaller Michi- 
gan iron mines with ore of medium hardness in 
steeply pitching, tabular orebodies up to 100 ft. in 
width. A vertical shaft is sunk in the foot-wall and 
a cross-cut is driven on each 100-ft. level to the ore, 
where a main haulage drift is driven in each direc- 
tion, lengthwise of the deposit. If the orebody is 
wide, two parallel haulage drifts are sometimes 
driven and connected at intervals, making a con- 
venient track system for motor haulage. Chute 
raises are then driven 25 ft. above the floor and 
spaced 25 ft. centre to centre, being put in the cross- 
cuts if necessary. Main haulage levels are usually 
100 ft. apart ; and three sub-levels are driven, spaced 
about 25 ft. from floor to floor. The first sub-level 
(consisting usually of a single drift) intercepts the 
tops of the chute-raises. The sub-level drifts are 
hastily driven and do not resemble the carefully 
trimmed haulage drifts. Stoping is started on the 
first sub-level by putting in down-holes around the 
end ehnte-raise for blasting out a funnel shaped top, 
'uppers' being blasted next. The right-hand portion 
of the first level shown in Fig. 4 illustrates the start- 
ing of a stope, and below on the second level is 
shown an earlier stage of development with sub- 
levels partly driven. The second level on the left- 
hand side shows a stope well started, while above on 
the first level the stope is well advanced and the 



July 5, 1913 

floor pillar is being mined and is falling into the 
second-level chute-raises (thus connecting the first- 
level stope with the second-level stope). As the 
sub-levels are drawn back toward the shaft or to- 
ward the ladderway, both 'down' and 'upper' holes 
are used, as well as horizontal holes for widening to 
the walls. The walls should be firm so as not to cave 
and mix with the broken ore. The miners take care 
to keep the bottom sub-level back under the middle 
sub, and the middle sub-level farther back than the 
upper sub-level so they are protected by the un- 
broken ore over their heads from falls of ground in 
the stopes. The open stopes are of course dangerous 
places to enter, and no one is allowed in them. The 
sub-level stoping method of mining is notably a safe 
one, as the miners attack the ore in the stopes taken 
from the sub-levels where they are practically as 
safe as in the main haulage ways. The chute-raises 
are equipped on the haulage levels with ordinary 
wooden lip chutes for loading tram cars ; by raising 
the planks from the mouth of a chute the ore runs 
out, but occasionally blocks itself from some large 
chunk becoming wedged, in which case a stick of 
dynamite may be necessary to loosen the ore. 

Mining Wide Orebodies 

When the orebody is wider, the mining of the 
ore in the sub-levels is accomplished by maintain- 
ing a bench to the wall on each side which gives the 
miners a place to stand ; the middle portion of the 
ore (where the sub-level drift is) is kept drawn back 
ahead of the sides, giving a semi-circular effect to 
the edge of the stope. In some cases where the sub- 
levels are rather far apart vertically, all the ore be- 
tween cannot be reached either by the uppers from 
below or by one set of down holes from above ; it ' 
is then necessary to climb down from the upper sub- 
level to the bench remaining, when the first set of 
down holes was blasted, and drill another set of 
down holes. Should the ore be too soft to permit 
this bench to hold a man and a rock-drill, it would 
be necessary to space the subs nearer together and 
have more of them. The expense of driving the 
sub-levels is one of the disadvantages of the method. 
Where the orebody is long, it is customary to make 
the stopes about 250 ft. in length, separating them 
by ladder-ways protected by vertical pillars. It will 
be noted that this method of mining is an open stope 
method, in that the stopes are not filled with broken 
ore, waste, or caved material. The method has been 
adopted by mines that in the old days would prob- 
ably have used the square-set timber method, and 
is sometimes preferred to the method of back stoping 
on broken ore. 

The four methods of mining just described are ap- 
plicable to steeply dipping orebodies. When the 
vein has a shallow dip, say 20 to 40°, it is usually 
much easier to devise a cheap mining method, be- 
cause the miners can then stand on the foot-wall as 
they work up from one level to the next. It is pos- 
sible to drive the main haulage drifts to the property 
boundaries and commence stoping in a retreating 
system, holding the hanging wall by pillars or tim- 
bers so long as mining is in progress on that level. 
The Wolverine copper mine in Michigan has had a 

notably low mining cost, partly because of the shal- 
low dip of the lode, which makes mining compara- 
tively simple. In early days in the Lake Superior 
district miners tried to hold up the hanging wall 
indefinitely by timber stuUs, which was impossible 
below very shallow depths. In some of the older 
stopes of the Calumet & Hecla mines, timbers once 
10 or 15 ft. high can be seen which have been crushed 
down to 2 or 3 ft. by the slowly sinking hanging wail. 
It has been recognized that, since the hanging wall 
cannot be held up, it is better to devise methods 
which allow the hanging wall to come down, timber 
being used only for local purposes to prevent falls of 

Imports of Potash Salts 

The importation of potash salts for consumption 
in the United States during 1912 amounted to 622,- 
179,164 lb., valued at $10,692,285, according to W. 
C. Phalen, of the U. S. Geological Survey. This 
importation is only a part, however, of the potash 
salts entering the United States. To it should be 
added the importation of kainite and manure salts, 
including double manure salts. The imports of pot- 
ash salts of these classes amounted to nearly 700,000 
long tons, valued at more than $4,000,000. The im- 
ports for consumption of materials entering largely 
into the fertilizing industry, plus the domestic phos- 
phate rock, reached the total valuation of over 
$46,000,000. These statistics in detail, together with 
others showing the condition of the German potash 
and salt industry, are given in the Survey's report 
on potash just issued as an advance chapter of 
the volume 'Mineral Resources of the United States 
for 1912.' 

The investigations of the Geological Survey in 
1912 into sources of potash salts in the United States 
included a continuation of deep drilling in Nevada, 
begun in 1911 ; a continuation of the collection of 
samples of rock-salt brines and bitterns, and of 
the study of the salt industry of the United States; 
the examination of various dried or partly dried 
lakes, ■playas, flats, or marshes in several of the 
Western states, both within and without the Great 
Basin, including Arizona, California, Nevada, New 
Mexico, and Nebraska ; the investigation of deposits 
of potassium nitrate in California and Montana ; 
and the investigation of occurrences of alunite in 
Arizona, Colorado, and Nevada. Information on 
all these investigations has either been published 
or is in process of publication by the Survey. 

Mr. Phalen 's report contains abstracts of papers 
on sources of potash published by the Bureau of 
Soils and by private individuals during 1912, as well 
as sections on potash salts as a by-product in the 
manufacture of portland cement, and on the util- 
ization of kelp at Cardiff and Terminal Island, Cali- 

Anthracite production of Pennsylvania in 1912 
totaled 75,322,855 tons, valued at $177,622,626, 
against 80,771,488 tons, and $174,952,415 in 1911. 
There were 174,030 men employed, who worked an 
average of 231 days during the past year. 

July 5, 1913 



Equipment at the Crown Mines 

*The paper on 'Centralized Organization at the 
Crown Mines,' which was read by R. C. Warriner, 
the general manager, before a recent meeting of 
the South African Association of Engineers, is the 
most complete that has ever been prepared to de- 
scribe and illustrate the main features of the ore- 
handling operations of a mine upon the Rand. The 
following extracts are of special interest. 

Sorting and Cmshing Station 

At No. 5 shaft the ore is delivered from the skips 
to the grizzlies at the head-frame which consist of 
two sets; the upper set is spaced 3% in. and 8 in. 
apart, and lies at an angle of 22°. This upper set 
was put in, firstly to take the shock of the falling 
rock from the 'fines' grizzly, and secondly to re- 
tard the flow and so obtain better grading. The 
second set or 'fines' grizzly is spaced 2 in. apart, and 
lies at an angle of 45°. The grizzlies are placed im- 
mediately above the 'fines' bin, and the 'fines' ac- 
cumulated in this bin are loaded direct into the 50- 
ton hopper trucks for transport to the mills. The 
oversize from both sets of grizzlies is delivered into 
a coarse-rock bin, whence it is fed to the sorting 
belts. The ore is washed as it is fed to the sorting 
belts in a chute fitted with sprays, and having a 
bottom fitted with grizzlies of fire-bar section to re- 
move the coarse particles, slime, and water. The 
washing water for these sprays is delivered from a 
5-in. Enke high-lift centrifugal pump, which is sup- 
plied from the mine pump colunm. The washing 
water is run by launder to a revolving separating 
screen which removes all particles over Vi-in. size. 
It then runs to an 8-in. Robeson-Davidson sand pump, 
which delivers it to a conical separator at 'C mill, 
the overflow going direct to the slime-collecting 
tanks and the underflow to tailing pumps, and then 
to tube-mills. The oversize from the separating 
screen is delivered into a small concrete bin from 
which it is raised periodically by means of a small 
air winch and skip, and tipped into the 'fines' bin at 
the head-frame. By this method clean water is used 
for washing, the labor usually employed for cleaning 
settling sumps is saved, and other difficulties com- 
mon to this portion of a sorting station are over- 

Sorting Belts 

The sorting belts, four in number, are 36 in. 
wide, have an inclination of 14°, and are run at 
a speed of 150 ft. per minute. Each belt is driven 
by a 25-hp. motor, running at 500 r.p.m. through 
a 60-to-l reduction gear, fixed between the head pul- 
ley of the sorting belt and the pulley driven from 
the motor. To this pulley is attached a 'Benn' fric- 
tion clutch running in oil, and by this means the 
belts are slopped and started at will. This system 
is to provide for the thorough sorting of each por- 
tion of the belt. For example, a belt loaded with 
rock from the bin is run out and stopped. It is then 
the duty of each boy to pick the belt clean of waste 
immediately in front of him. As soon as the over- 

seer in charge is satisfied that all the waste has 
been removed, he places a chalk mark at the bottom 
end of the belt, which is then set in motion and 
stopped again when the above-mentioned chalk mark 
is opposite the foremost sorting-boy. The waste 
sorted is placed on the under side of the belt and 
is delivered into a waste-rock bin of large capacity. 
One boy is employed on each waste-rock belt sort- 
ing out any 'reef which may have been accidentally 
discarded. The waste is loaded from the bin into 
20-cu. ft. side-tipping cars, and these cars are ele- 
vated to the level of the top of the waste dump by 
a creeper chain-gear, the capacity of which is 6 tons 
per miniate. This chain ascends an incline of 20° at 
a speed of 60 ft. per minute. The system has proved 
most satisfactory, a considerable saving of labor be- 
ing efifected when compared with other types of ele- 
vators, and this is the first plant at which it has 
been installed on these fields. At the head of the 
creeper chain-gear, the cars are attached to a me- 
chanical haulage which conveys them to the dump- 
ing point. 

Tube-Mill Pebbles 

During the sorting operations, tube-mill peb- 
bles are also picked and deposited on a conveyor 
belt running diagonally across and under the 
sorting-floor in such a manner that the pebbles can 
be picked from either of the four sorting belts. The 
pebble conveyor delivers into a partitioned-off por- 
tion of the main bin under the crushers, from which 
the pebbles are loaded into the 50-ton hopper-shaped 
cars for transport to the tube-mill pebble bins at the 
various mills. The sorted ore is delivered at the 
upper end of the sorting belts into a distribution 
box or bin, which feeds three 12 by 30-in. Hadfield 
& Jack reciprocating jaw crushers, for reduction to 
li/^-in. diameter. The crushed ore falls directly into 
the main ore-bin and is loaded from there by pneu- 
matically operated doors into the 50-ton hopper 
trucks. The whole of the plant is electrically driven 
by separate motors for each piece of machinery, the 
crusher motors being 60 hp. each. The crusher sta- 
tion and bins are built of ferro-concrete, and the 
sorting station of steel. The plant was laid out for 
a crushing capacity of 6000 tons in 10 hours, but 
for individual hours the output has been as high as 
750 tons. The following table showing units of 
power consumed and cost of same for crushing and 
sorting should prove of interest: 

- Crushing.- 

• Sorting. - 



















































October 105,836 26,195 0.25 0.13 13,500 0.13 0.07 

November ..101,896 35,431 0.35 0.18 17,500 0.17 0.09 

December ..109,430 29,444 0.27 0.14 23,500 0.22 0.12 

January 135,940 27,675 0.20 0.11 29,500 0.22 0.12 

♦Abstract from Bouth African Mining Journal. 

Between 400 and 500 miles of 6, 8. and 10-in. 
pipe is being made by the National Tube Co., of 
Pittsburgh, for oilfields in Rumania, Europe. 



July 5, 1913 

The Mineral Resources of Virginia — III 

By Thomas Leonard Watson 

Virginia has more known deposits of manganese 
and has produced more manganese than any other 
state in the Union. Manganese ores occur in each 
of the three major geologic provinces of the state, 
namely, the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont province, 
and the Appalachian Mountains province. Of these, 
the Mountain province has yielded the principal 
production, with extensive operations and a large 
total production from the Piedmont province. Onlj' 
a small production has come from the eastern or 
Coastal Plain province. The beginning of mangan- 
ese mining in Virginia and perhaps in the United 
States was in 1857, when 100 tons of ore was report- 
ed taken from the lands of Joshua Robertson about 
five miles from Waynesboro, Augusta county. The 
principal productive manganese deposits in the state 
are : (1) those of the Piedmont region occurring 
chiefly in Campbell and Nelson counties, south and 
northeast of Lynchburg; and (2) those of the Val- 
ley region occurring along the west slope of the 
Blue Eidge. 

Only the oxides of manganese are of commercial 
importance in Virginia. Of these, pyrolusite and 
psilomelame greatly predominate with, in places, 
much of the earthy oxide, wad. These oxides often 
occur admixed in varying proportions. The ore is 
often partly or entirely crystalline, of a dark steel- 
blue color, and the nodular (kidney) type, which 
usually prevails, often displays a complete or partly 
layered structure. 

Ores of Manganese 

The manganese ores are usually found imbedded 
in the residual clays which overlie the rocks, from 
which the clays have been derived by the usual 
processes of decay. The underlying rock yielding 
the ore-bearing clays may be of sedimentary or 
igneous origin. The ore is distributed in clays in an 
irregular manner in the form of pockets or lenticu- 
lar masses, rarely as distinct beds; as veinlets and 
stringers cutting the clays in all directions; as sin- 
gle nodules and masses, ranging in weight up to 
500 pounds, assembled in the clays; as small dis- 
seminated grains scattered through the clays; as 
breccia ore in large masses ; and as probable replace- 
ment and cavity fillings in sandstone or sandy clay. 
In places, both in the Piedmont and Valley regions, 
the ore distribution conforms in a general way to 
the bedding of the inclosing clays ; frequently, hoAV- 
ever, this is obscured and the orebodies indiscrimi- 
nately cut the clays in all directions. 

The nature of the manganese ores mined in Vir- 
ginia is one of irregular distribution, in the form 
of nodules and pockets, through residual clays, 
which range in thickness from a few feet up to 
several hundred feet. The method of mining de- 
pends largely upon the situation of the deposits and 
their depth below the surface. Open-pit and under- 
ground methods are both employed. These methods 
are often used to advantage in combination. Un- 

derground timbering is necessary on account of 
the liability of caving of the clays. 


Though not a producer of tin, the existence of 
tin ore in Virginia, in the Irish creek area of Rock- 
bridge county, has been known for many years, 
and in 1883 and later the deposits were opened in 
several places. The Irish creek area is about four 
miles long in a northeast-southwest direction, and 
three miles wide. The tin ore (cassiterite) occurs 
principally in greisen veins, which traverse the gran- 
ite in all directions and have steep though varying 
dips. The Irish creek tin area was carefully exam- 
ined in 1885 by the late Jed. Hotchkiss, who con- 
cluded his report on the area as follows: "In con- 
clusion, this report is emphasized by the opinion 
that this Irish creek tin-bearing district, as above 
described, will prove abundantly productive in tin." 

Nickel and Cobalt 

The existence of nickel in Virginia has been re- 
ported from a numbei* of localities in the Piedmont 
region, especially in association with extensive pyr- 
rhotite bodies of the Floyd-Carroll-Grayson counties 
plateau in southwest Virginia, and in Amherst coun- 
ty east of Lynchburg. More recently nickel has 
been reported from near Broad Run station in Fau- 
quier county. In addition to the above occurrences, 
cobalt is found in association with some of the im- 
pure earthy manganese deposits of the Valley re- 
gion, especially along the western base of the Blue 
Ridge. Probably the most encouraging locality 
from which nickel has been reported is in the north- 
ern part of Floyd county, where the Virginia Nickel 
Corporation has done considerable exploratory work 
on Flat Run and Lick Fork. The ore is chiefly pyr- 
rhotite, with some chalcopyrite. 

The rocks immediately associated with the ore 
are, without exception, of igneous origin, and com- 
prise pyroxene syenite, diabase, and gabbro. These 
are intruded into the country schists and gneisses. 
The gabbro and diabase penetrate the pyroxene 
syenite in dike-like forms and are accordingly 
younger in age. The mica-gabbro is the ore-bearing 
rock. In some parts of the gabbro, the sulphides 
are sparingly present, in others they make up 50% 
and more of the total rock mass, with all grada- 
tions between. 


In 1903 the United States Arsenic Mines Co.. of 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, began the mining of ar- 
senopyrite (mispickel) at Rewald, in Floyd county. 
An extensive plant, erected for refining the product, 
was started in 1904, with a monthly capacity, after 
January 1905, of 90 tons of pure white arsenic. 
Operations were temporarily abandoned several years 
ago, but were resumed in 1911. 

The mines are 17 miles from Christiansburg, at 
Rewald, Floyd county. The ore is arsenopyrite, a 

July 5, 1913 



double sulphide of arsenic and iron, and occurs in 
'veins' (lenses) in quartz-sericite schist, which is 
closely associated with biotite gneiss, but the rela- 
tions of the two rock types to each other, and of 
the gneiss to the orebodies, are unknown. The prin- 
cipal orebody is reported to be 3 ft. thick at the 
surface and widens to a thickness of 14 ft. at a 
depth of 120. 

Rutile (Titanium) 

The Virginia rutile deposits are only known rutile 
deposits of commercial importance in the United 
States. Rutile is mined in the Tye River-Hat Creek 
area of Nelson county. The area is a large one, situ- 
ated in the foothills region of the Blue Ridge, and 
is about seven miles northwest of the main line of 
the Southern Railway. Recent detailed field stud- 
ies of this area by the Virginia Geological Survey 
indicate practically an unlimited supply of rutile, 
which can be concentrated to yield a high-grade 
product, mvich of it containing more than 99% of 
TiOj. Since 1902 the Virginia deposits have sup- 
plied all the rutile used in this country, and much 
of the product has been shipped abroad. With the 
development of new uses of titanium — the two 
most important being in the manufacture of fen'o- 
titanium for the production of special grades of 
steel, and in the manufacture of arc-lamp electrodes 
— and the consequent increasing demands for rutile, 
the prospect for the future of rutile mining in Vir- 
ginia seems decidedly encouraging. 

Two distinct types of rutile occur in the district, 
and each has been mined. In the first tj'pe, desig- 
nated syenite (formerly pegmatite) rutile, the rutile 
occurs as disseminated grains of various sizes and 
as wavy lines in a coarse-grained feldspar-quartz- 
hornblende rock. In the second type, designated 
nelsonite rutile, the rutile occurs in an even-granular 
rock, having dikelike characters, and composed nor- 
mally of ilmenite and apatite. The American Ru- 
tile Co. began mining the syenite (pegmatite) rutile 
in 1901 on the east side of Tye river near Roseland, 
and in 1902 a milling plant was built for concen- 
trating the ore. In 1907 the General Electric Co. 
exploited the nelsonite dikes, near Rose's Mill, for 

A second area of rutile has recently been discov- 
ered in Goochland and Hanover coimties, Virginia. 
The area is an encouraging one, and some prospect- 
ing work has been done near Peers in Goochland 
county, and near Waldelock and Gouldin in Han- 
over county. The rutile is found as an original 
constituent in acid pegmatite dikes which penetrate 
gneisses derived from granites by metaraorphism. 
Masses of nearly pure metal w^eighing many pounds 
are found in places on the surface admixed with 
Ihe residual rock decay produced by the processes 
of weathering. 

Mica and Minor Minerals 

Pegmatites containing commercial mica have been 
abundantly developed in many parts of the Virginia 
Piedmont counties, and many excellent surface in- 
dications occur. Up to the present time, however, 
prospecting and the mining of mica has been con- 
fined to only a few of the known deposits. Dikes 

of pegmatite containing feldspar as an important 
constituent are quite Mddely distributed throughout 
the Virginia Piedmont region. Feldspar, with the 
associated mica of the pegmatites, has been mined 
in a number of counties. In the years previous to 
1907, Virginia was a producer of asbestos, but since 
that time the mines have been inactive, although 
the mineral is known to occur in several counties. 
The mill for fiberizing the asbestos at Bedford Cit3' 
has been closed since 1906. The gypsum deposits 
occur associated with the salt deposits of Washing- 
ton and Smythe counties, in the valley of the North 
Fork and Holston rivers. , The date of the discovery 
of gypsum in Virginia was probably in the early 
part of the nineteenth century. The mines of the 
United States Gypsum Co. and the Southern Gyp- 
sum Co., which are situated northeast of Saltville, 
are the most extensive and the only producing ones 
at present. 

Salt mining has been an important industry for 
a number of years. In 1771, Jefferson mentioned 
in his 'Notes on Virginia' the occurrence of salt 
brine in the Holston valley, but it was not until 
1840 that rock salt was discovered. A large number 
of wells have been bored, ranging in depth from 
300 to 1400 ft., the greatest depth being 2380 ft. 
At the present time there are about 24 producing 
wells. The mining of rock salt has not as yet been 
attempted, the entire salt product being derived 
from the salt brines of the wells. Of recent years 
the brines have been utilized exclusively for the 
manufacture of sodium carbonate and caustic soda. 
The product has been of superior merit from the 
start, and because of this fact a large and growing 
trade has been acquired. 

Virginia is entitled to take rank among the chief 
coal-producing states. Many of the reserves have 
been made accessible recently through the construc- 
tion of new lines of railroads. The area of the 
southwest Virginia coalfield is estimated to be 1550 
square miles, with the original supply of coal placed 
at 22,500,000.000 tons, of which total but a small 
percentage has been mined to date. 

Sulphur Industry of Sicily 

There was nothing noteworthy in the trade of 
the year 1912, differences in exchange rates except- 
ed, prices remained practioally stationary. Ship- 
ments to Greece and Turkey showed a decline be- 
cause of the Balkan and Italo-Turkish wars. 

The total exports of crude and refined sulphur 
from the island of Sicily in 1912 amounted to 447,- 
590 metric tons, which was a slight decline from 
1911. The chief purchasers of Sicilian sulphur were 
as follows: France, 104,109 tons; Italy, 77,396 tons: 
Austria, 38,359 tons; Norway and Sweden, 34,850 
tons; Germany, 32,286 tons; Russia, 25,562 tons: 
England and Malta, 19,833 tons; Australia, 11,285 
tons; and United States and Canada, 2894 tons. 
Prices averaged, refined, -$20.94 per ton; refined- 
ground, $23.16; refined-rolled, $21.80; and sublimed, 
$26.63 per ton. The production was 357,547 metric 
tons; and stocks at the end of 1912 were 450,917 
tons. — Consular Report. 



July 5, 1913 

St. Joseph Lead Company 

By DwiGHT A. Jones 

*The production of lead from the smelter durin"; 
the past year has been 66,847 tons. Of this amount, 
32,109 tons was from purchased ores, 31,296 tons was 
produced from our own mines, and 3442 tons was 
from stock at Herculaneum. The average price re- 
ceived for lead at East St. Louis was 4.35, or approx- 
imately $87 per ton, there being some increase in 
the average price for the year. The net income from 
all sources, after the payment of all expenses and 
income charges, and after setting aside $75,626 for 
depreciation, was $637,910.37 in comparison with 
$598,082.52 in 1912. Dividends amounting to $597,- 
300 were paid during the year, being 6% on the out- 
standing capital stock. 

Influence of Industrial Situation 

In order that the stockholders may appreciate the 
situation that has existed with reference to the work 
and earnings of the Company during the last few 
years, it is desirable to recall the great change in 
the general industrial situation which occurred dur- 
ing and after the year 1907, as the lead industry 
was seriously affected by this change. In 1906 the 
net income was $1,256,545.68, and in 1907 it was 
$2,038,820.32. For the year 1906 the price of lead 
at East St. Louis was over $100 per ton, and for 
the year 1907 it was over $114 per ton. In the fol- 
lowing year, 1908, the price dropped to $88, and 
the net income fell to $657,446.89. While the Com- 
pany had, during the j^ears preceding 1908, taken 
many steps to increase its output and to improve 
its plants, which for the most part were built many 
years previous, it was suddenly confronted with a 
situation that demanded drastic action in all its 
widely separated departments. 

As the most essential and most beneficial posses- 
sion it could have was a strong and adequate lead 
reserve, much time had been devoted and much 
money had been expended in drilling adjacent lands, 
so that all the deposits that were available at low 
cost could be secured and so that other companies 
would not crowd upon its territory. In doing this 
it Avas realized that only a portion of the work 
had been accomplished, which was necessary for 
broad development into a thoroughly equipped min- 
ing concern with a modern power-plant, modem 
mills, and a modem smelter. A new mill, then equal 
to the capacity of any mill in the district, had been 
built in a new territory and was first in complete 
operation in the year that ended on April 30, 1905. 
Notwithstanding the improvements in the mining 
plants which had been made, it was realized each 
year, with the continuance of the low price of lead 
that has prevailed since 1908, that mining must be 
done on a large scale to make the work profitable 
under new conditions, and must be confined to as 

♦From report as president for the year that ended on 
April 30, 1913. Details regarding the difficulties of this 
company were given in the Mining and Scientific Press, 
November 9, 1912, and March 24, 1913. At the latter time 
a summary of the balance-sheet for the year was printed. 

few mines as practicable, and that mills to be profit- 
able in the district must also be capable of handling 
a very large tonnage with a minimum of loss, and 
that modern smelting plants must be equipped with 
every known method of saving lead to accomplish 
work economically and efficiently. On these ac- 
counts, it has been necessary for the Company to 
discard old power-plants, old mill methods and 
equipment, old roasting, smelting, and refining fur- 
naces, and as rapidly as large mines could be found, 
to abandon mining from scattered shafts, which had 
been the necessary practice for manj' years. 


During this period also various improvements in 
mining, milling, and smelting have been introduced, 
and even some of the later methods have been dis- 
placed by newly patented processes, especially in 
the smelting department, where this Company was 
the first in any country to use a large-size Dwight- 
Lloyd sintering plant. These considerations are 
brought to the attention of stockholders that they 
may understand the conditions that have prevailed 
since 1908 and may appreciate the necessity for a 
considerable expenditure of money. It has been 
the aim and desire to furnish all needed improve- 
ments as soon as plans could be perfected for such 
improvements. This policy has been necessary, and 
the ample and newly discovered ore reserves made 
this policy wise and practicable. The pig lead prod- 
uct from mines owned by the Company in the year 
that ended on April 30, 1900, was 12,196 tons, and 
in 1912 was 34,195 tons. The pig lead product from 
the Company's smelter in 1900 was 19,270 tons, and 
in 1912 was 62,922 tons. The net mcome in 1900 
was $231,294.60, and after reaching its highest point 
in 1907, was in 1913 $637,910.37, owing mainly to 
the reduced price of lead. Since 1899 the Leadwood 
district, now the main mineral reserve district, was 
acquired; the Hoffman, Hunt, Day, Eaton, Angel, 
and Prospect Lead Co. tracts, containing 1631 acres 
of mineral land, having been purchased from the 
owners. The new mill at Leadwood and the three 
shafts supplying it with ore, and the power-plant 
and other accessory plants, have been entirely con- 
structed. Other valuable tracts of land in the Bonne 
Terre district have also been acquired, and, by pros- 
pect drilling, large and valuable ore deposits have 
been disclosed. 

Financial Standing 

On April 30, 1900, the Company owed $292,319.99, 
after deducting its cash and bills receivable. In 
the period from this date until April 30, 1913, the 
Company expended approximately $4,400,000 in 
construction essential for its increasing product and 
operations, and it has written off for depreciation 
on property and plant over $2,500,000. No fixed 
amortization charge has been adopted because the 
value of the mines has been constantly increased 
by drilling, and it was not deemed advisable to 


take up this subject until a reasonable approxima- in securing lead reserves, and in rebuilding and re- 

tion to their full value could be made. Summariz- organizing the plants and mining operations, it is 

ing the entire indebtedness of the companies, it believed that the stockholders will in the future 

appears that the St. Joseph Lead Co. owes, less find much cause for satisfaction. Such improve- 

cash, notes, and accounts receivable, $1,982,307, that ments as have been made on the surface lands of 

the Mississippi River & Bonne Terre railway owes, the company have resulted in causing an increase 

less cash, notes, and accounts receivable, including in the value of other real estate held by it. 

its indebtedness on its equipment notes, approxi- n P t a n 

mately $800,000, and that the Bonne Terre Farming ^^ ^°- 

& Cattle Co. owes practically nothing except its ^'^^ ^^^ output of the Doe Run Lead Co. for April 

indebtedness of $244,450 to the St. Joseph Lead Co. ^^^^ ^^^ ^"^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ °* lead concentrate, valued 

It is, therefore, seen that the three companies, with ""^ approximately $179,000. The business of the St. 

assets conservatively valued at approximately $19,- Joseph Lead Co. as a lead producer and refiner, and 

000,000, less cash, notes, and accounts receivable. ^® ^^^ **^°^'" °^ ^^ industrial railroad necessary for 

have a total indebtedness of $3,000,000. ^^^ °^° purpose, is much more valuable with the 

large ore and concentrate product of the Doe Run 

Additions to the Property Lead Co. to handle, than without it. It is of great 

The total amount paid for lands bought by the importance that this business should be retained 

St. Joseph Lead Co. since 1899 has been approxi- and that the alliance with the Doe Run Lead Co. 

mately $300,000. After extensive prospect drilling should be continued in some shape. The smelting 

on properties acquired, large and valuable deposits contract between the St. Joseph Lead Co. and the 

were found. Ih the 3'ears 1902 and 1906 the values ^°^ ^^^ Lead Co. was approved by the board of 

of the Hoffman and Hunt mines were increased on directors of the St. Joseph Lead Co., and is a fair 

the books of the Company $5,500,000. That these contract. In Missouri it has been criticized as un- 

mines are even now far more valuable, recent drUl- ^air to the Doe Run Lead Co., while in New York 

ing has fully proved. Moreover, since 1904, lead '^ is criticized as unfair to the St. Joseph Lead Co. 

of a gross value of over $15,000,000 has been taken The contract was made for a period of 31/2 years, 

from the property. Additional exploration has ^^ which period one year has already expired. It 

greatly extended the territory in the neighborhood provides that the concentrates of the Doe Run Lead 

of these mines. Co. shall be purchased at the market price, with a 

In the entire period since its organization, the ^^^d charge of $6 for smelting and a deduction of 
net income of the Company has been $15,247,022, 10% for loss. It also contains a provision that an 
while its total cash dividends have been $8,717,486. average price for the year of not less than 4c. shall 
Many important improvements are yet under way. ^^ Paid for the lead in the concentrate. The aver- 
and it may be desirable for the Company to make age price of lead has not been below 4c. at East 
still further extensions to its plant, but when the St. Louis for over 12 years. The contract contains 
improvements now in process of completion are fin- a provision allowing for the alteration of its terms. 
ished. there is likely to be a great addition to the K a consolidation of the St. Joseph Lead Co. and 
net income, and before undertaking further expend- the Doe Run Lead Co. could be effected, there is 
itures it is deemed desirable to go over the whole ^o doubt but that a substantial reduction of ex- 
situation with respect to the ore reserves and plants, penses could be made, and that more freedom could 
The savings to be effected in the immediate future be obtained in carrying on the joint operations of 
include those resulting from the larger stopes in the companies. It is, therefore, to be hoped that 
the mines, the abandonment of old steam-plants, s"ch a consolidation can be brought about, 
and the introduction of Hancock jigs and other j -. . . n~u 
modern mill machinery at Bonne Terre, and also LEfge DnVlDg BeltS 
from the mine, mill, and power improvements at ^wo large driving belts were recently made in 
Leadwood. It ,s .also expected that from the many g^„ Francisco by the H. N. Cook Belting Co. for 
new and systematic methods and the recently erected ^j,^ American Beet Sugar Co., at Oxnard, Ventura 
large flue at Herculaneum and the new bag-house ^^^^^^y, California. Their dimensions are (1) 76 in. 
now m course of construction, material savings will ^-^^^ 4 pj^^ ^y 105 ft. long; and (2) 65 in. wide, 3 
be effected m the smeltmg department. , ^^^^ 157 j^. long. The hides of about 1000 

JUurmg the years since 1908 the price of lead re- ^ j • xi. • n j. 

, ,^ ^. -L ^ „ steers were used m their manufacture, 

cieved by the Company at East St. Louis has been . 

forfiscalyear8asfollows:1909, $81 perton;1910, Gold PfOduction of West Afrfcan MmeS 

$85; 1911, $84; 1912, $83; and 1913, $87 per ton. Jjj jyj^y 

Future Outlook 

Tons. Value. Profit. 

A normal increase in the consumption of lead has Ashanti 11,018 $177,000 $58,000 

taken place from year to year, and the great activ- Broomassl? 3,214 73,400 36,900 

ity in electrical work, both in Europe and this coun- Tarquah 4,910 67,200 12,400 

try, indicates that the price will advance. During ^''"^^ ^'^^" ''^'^ '"^ 1^'3«" 

September 1912 lead in London and in New York Sorting belts in the Coeur d'Alene region are pro- 
sold at practically $100 per ton, but has unfortu- tected from wear by cross-bars of flat steel riveted 
nately receded for a time. In view of these consid- to them ; at the Federal mines these turn up at the 
erations and of the work that has been accomplished ends, giving the effect of a trough. 



July 5, 1913 

Combined Method of Analysis for Constituents of Zinc Ores 

By Frank A. Bird 

Decompose 5 gm. of the ore in a No. 1 beaker and 
cover with water. If the ore is a light sulphide or 
oxide, add 10 c.e. of nitric acid and potassium chlo- 
rate at short intervals to oxidize the sulphur, if 
necessary. If the ore is a heavy sulphide, use from 
15 to 20 c.c. of nitric acid and sufficient potassium 
chlorate, or a saturated solution of potassium chlo- 
rate in nitric acid. The decomposition is effected 
as in any of the wet sulphur methods. A moderate 
heat will generally decompose the ore and prevent 
the formation of sulphur globules. Should sulphur 
separate out, transfer it to a No. beaker and 
decompose it with a little nitric acid and chlorate, 
then add this to the main portion, which will save 
time. "When all of the sulphur is in solution, evap- 
orate the solution to a pasty condition and add 5 
c.e. of water and 7 c.c. of hydrochloric acid, and 
reduce to dryness to expel the qitrie acid and de- 
hydrate the silica. Cool the residue and add 5 c.c. 
hydrochloric acid, heat to solution, and everything 
should then be decomposed. Add 20 c.c. cold water, 
35 c.c. ammonia solution,' and a precipitant for 
manganese ; 10 c.c. or more of hydrogen peroxide 
or bromine water. (Or ammonium persulphate salt, 
0.1 to 0.5 gm. when the sulphur is not determined.) 
Boil 5 min. and filter into a No. 2 beaker, using 
a 9-em. ashless paper. Label this 'Precipitate A.' 

Lime. — "Wash the beaker and paper alternately 
three times each, with hot water; reserve the beaker 
and place it under a funnel. Should the filtrate not 
smell strongly of ammonia, add a little more am- 
monia. Place solution on a hot-plate, and when 
boiling add sufficient ammonium oxalate solution^ to 
precipitate the lime as oxalate. Continue the boil- 
ing about one minute and then set aside until the 
precipitate settles.' Decant the solution through an 
11-cm. filter-paper, retaining the precipitate in the 
beaker, to which add a little ammonia after most 
of the solution is decanted, mix by shaking, and 
then pour into the filter. Wash the beaker 4 times 
and retain it; then wash the paper 6 times, both 
washings being very thorough. "With the paper still 
in the funnel, wash the precipitate back into the 
retained beaker. Dissolve the calcium oxalate by 
adding 5 to 7 c.c. of sulphuric acid which has jusl 
been added to two parts water; dilute to 200 c.e. 
with water of from 70 to 80°C. and titrate rapidly 
with potassium permanganate solution. Stop at the 
first permanent pink and add the filter-paper to the 
solution, after removing it from the funnel in such a 
manner as to collect any precipitate that has crept 
above it. Stir the paper in the solution a minute, 

^Prepared by mixing together 400 gm. ammonium 
chloride, 800 c.c. ammonia, and 1300 c.c. water. This 
amount fills a 5-plnt acid bottle. 

2For this solution, 40 c.c. of a 1:24 hot ammonium oxalate 
solution is sufficient for pure calcium carbonate = 56% 

3To be sure sufficient ammonium oxalate solution has 
been used, test a few drops of the clear solution with a 
drop of ammonia and some 10% solution of calcium chloride, 
a precipitate should form. 

and then cautiously continue adding the perman- 
ganate to a final permanent pink; about 1 c.c. more 
will be required. The volumetric method for 
ing is more satisfactory and accurate than igniting 
the precipitate, and where a series of estimations 
have to be made, it is more convenient and rapid. 

Sulphur. — After receiving the calcium oxalate pre- 
cipitate on the filter and washing the beaker in 
which the precipitation was made, remove the fil- 
trate receiving the paper washings in some waste 
vessel. Acidify the filtrate with hydrochloric acid, 
add 3 to 4 c.c. excess, and boil. While the solu- 
tion is boiling, precipitate the sulphur, as usual, 
with hot barium chloride solution,* filter, and wash. 
Label this 'Filtrate A.' 

Silica. — ^Heat 5 c.c. hydrochloric acid with 10 c.e. 
water and pour this over 'Precipitate "A,' to dissolve 
the iron, etc. ; change beakers, if necessary, running 
the solution through a second time or until every- 
thing dissolves. Notice that everything is dissolved 
in the decomposition beaker, and transfer all the 
insoluble material from it to a filter-paper. Wash 
the paper, ignite, and weigh as insoluble silica. 

Zinc. — To the filtrate from the silica add 35 c.c. 
of ammonia solution and manganese precipitant, as 
before, omitting the water, and repeat the operation; 
filter through a new paper. With this double pre- 
cipitation of the iron, all zinc will be in this solu- 
tion and in 'Filtrate A,' which are to be combined 
after acidifying the last with hydrochloric acid. 
Washing with an ammonium chloride-ammonia solu- 
tion is not necessary with two precipitations, and 
this method never fails. 

To the combined filtrates add granulated lead, 
and about 15 c.c. more of hydrochloric acid, if the 
titration is to be made using ammonium molybdate 
as an indicator. Boil 10 min. and determine the 
zinc as usual with potas.sium ferrocyanide. 

By decomposing the ore in a No. 1 beaker and 
throughout the operation avoiding excess of wash- 
M'aters, the total bulk by the time the zinc titration 
is reached can be held between 250 and 300 c.c. In 
standardizing the ferrocyanide solution, work with 
an equal bulk of solution. 

Iron. — ^Heat 5 c.c. of hydrochloric acid diluted 
with 5 c.c. of water and dissolve the iron precipi- 
tate, receiving it in the original decomposition 
beaker; boil the solution and reduce with stannous 
chloride. When cool, take up the excess with mer- 
curic chloride, and transfer the solution to a No. 4 
beaker, diluting to 400 c.c. with cold water; then 
add 10 c.c. of manganese sulphate solution'' and 

<Five cubic centimetres of a hot 10% barium chloride 
solution precipitates 0.506 gm. BaSO,, equivalent to 13.9% 
sulphur when working with 0.5-gm. sample. 

sZimmerman-Reinhardt's solution is composed of 160 gm. 
manganese sulphate dissolved in water to 1750 c.c, then 
330 c.c. thick phosphoric acid (85%) is added, and 320 c.c. 
sulphuric acid. If preferred, reduction can be made in the 
usual way with granulated lead, zinc, or sodium sulphate; 
some operators only add 5 c.c. of the phosphoric acid when 
reduction is made with either of these three. 

July 5, 1913 



titrate immediately with potassium permanganate 

The following scheme appears to answer every 
requirement for the technical determination of lime 
in ores or limestones. It is rapid and does away 
entirely with ammonium sulphide for the precipita- 
tion of manganese and zinc, which when employed 
always entails a tedious and long-drawn-out process. 

Treat 0..5 or 1 gm. of ore in a No. 1 beaker; if 
a sulphide, treat with 6 c.c. of hydrochloric acid, 
boil to about half the volume, then add 5 c.c. of 

nitric acid and reduce to a pasty state. If the ore 
is oxidized, both acids can be added together. 

When a pa.sty condition is reached, add 40 e.e. of 
water, 3 c.c. hydrochloric acid, 20 c.c. ammonia, and 
a precipitant for manganese, as in the above com- 
bined method. Boil 5 min. and filter through an 11- 
cm. paper, washing well with hot water. From here 
on, proceed exactly as in the combined method for 
lime: "Should filtrate not smell strongly of am- 
monia, ' ' etc. For all practical purposes, this method 
is equally as good as the longer ones. 

Braden Copper Company 

By PopK Yeatman 

•I have the honor to report that I have visited the not been much, for the reason that the development 
Braden Copper Co.'s property in April, and the work was done on only one level to prove the ex- 
following covers, in general, the impressions of my tent of the orebody in length and breadth, rather 
visit: than the actual volume, which would necessitate 

The plant has not been entirely completed, the driving of several more levels above the No. 1. 
but should be sufiBciently so before the end of the While not actually blocked, the Teniente No. 1 de- 
summer to be able to handle at least 3000 tons of velopment has determined an orebody of great ex- 
ore per day. The construction and operation of tent, 
the plant has been delaved, due, first, to the abnor- Developed Obe (l) 

mal weather conditions' of a year ago ; second, to ^ Ore.o<>-^ ^ -- -- Copp.. %. 

some difficulty in obtammg labor; and third, to the „ j^^ 3 3;983,843 2.66 

installation of the Minerals Separation process for « No. 314 6,412,456 2.50 

the concentration of the ores. The adoption of this " No. 4 100,000 3.32 

process was decided upon last August, but all the Teniente No. l iMO,su 2.75 

machinery has not yet been delivered on the ground. ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 2 55 

Nevertheless, progress has been much greater than Probable Obe (2) 

during previous years, and conditions are shaping orebody. Dry tons. Copper, %■ 

in a very satisfactory manner. Fortuna No. 2 ^ 175,545 2.65 

No. 4 2,045,000 2.32 

Development Work *• no. 5 105,000 3.20 

^ . , , , , , , , u u 1 Teniente No. 1 2,020,417 2.75 

Considerable development work has been done, „ no. 3 4,040,834 2.75 

and especially in the Teniente section, where the ■< No. 3 61,100 2.27 

main Teniente orebody has been explored for a dis- " No. 3 301,548 2.23 

tance of over 4000 ft., showing ore of excellent char- 

..,.,, J » 8,749,444 2.63 
acter; in fact, above the average grade. A connec- 
tion was made in the shaft, extending from Teni- ^^^^^^^_ ^""-"""-^ °"" ^^^^^^^^^ Copper, %. 

eute No. 1 to No. 2, and an ore-pass was completed, p^rtuna No. 2 625,500 1.84 

so that all ore taken out in development in the " No. 3 175,545 2.65 

Teniente orebody can be sent to the mill. A few " No. 3 625,500 1.84 

cross-cuts and raises have been driven, which still " No. 4 1,680,000 2.28 

. ^, . , •* J * +V, rr • * Teniente No. 1 6,300,000 2.7o 

further prove the magnitude of the Teniente ore- ^ ,. ^^ ^ 9 295 000 2.70 

body. The principal work in the Fortuna has been „ no! 3 ! 41^200 2.13 

on the No. 2 level, which is being extended so as 

to make connection by means of a winze with the 18,742,745 2.61 
Teniente tunnel, about 50 metres below. The faces Robert Marsh, Jr., the mine superintendent, in 
of Fortuna No. 2 and Teniente No. 1 are now about j^j^ report of April 28, 1913, with which I fully 
1000 ft. apart. The No. 2 Fortuna level has also agree, states: "Our greatest expectations lie in the 
shown considerable ore. A new level, Fortuna No. Teniente mine. Here we expect to develop a large 
214, was started in order to mine ore between levels, amount of ore above Teniente No. 1 level, and also 
it being found that the distance between levels No. between Teniente levels No. 1 and No. 3. The long- 
2 and 3 was too great to allow for carrying up the jtu^inal section through this property shows graph- 
pillars safely. Improvements at the mine consisted jpaHy what we can fairly expect. We still have 
of the erection of more dwelling houses, quarters for ^^out 400 metres of virgin ground to connect with 
the Chileans, and enlargement of the plant. Fortuna No. 2. Of this, 200 metres shows attract- 

Increased tonnage has been shown in the Fortuna j^.g outcrops. It may be possible, however, that 

orebody through the extensions of eros.s-euts. The Teniente No. 1 level, being over 1400 ft. deep here, 

increase of fully-developed ore in the Teniente has jg a little too low for the best results. 

•Report to the BtockholderTaTconsumng englnee7 "In addition, therefore, to the ore shown in the 



July 5, 1913 

above table, the following possibilities may be spec- 
ulated upon: 


Above Fortuna No. 2 and extensions 2,500,000 

Above Tenlente No. 1 10,000,000 

Between Teniente No. 1 and 3 (Doubtful, if any) 

Extensions of Teniente No. 1 (above level) 2,500,000 

"From this it dpes not seem unreasonable to 
expect that ultimately 60,000,000 tons of 2.50% cop- 
per ore may be developed." 

Though operating on a comparatively small ton- 
nage, the costs have been very satisfactory, and 
it has been shown that the method of stoping will 
prove an excellent one. The electric railway, which 
gave some trouble, is working at a low cost and 
satisfactorily in spite of the heavy grade. Owing 
to the extreme toughness of the ore and the neces- 
sity for finer grinding, it was decided to increase 
the capacity of the crushing plant, and this is prac- 
tically completed. During the past year a great 
deal of work has been carried on in the new mill, . 
principally in connection with the installation of 
the Minerals Separation process, which has necessi- 
tated the introduction of Hardin ge mills, Minerals 
Separation units, settling tanks for dewatering the 
pulp to a proper consistence for the Minerals Sep- 
aration process, classifiers, launders, etc., but this 
work is not yet completed. Operations have been 
conducted partly with the Minerals Separation proc- 
ess and partly with the old wet concentration 
method, but, during the installation of the Minerals 
Separation process, it has been necessary to operate 
under conditions satisfactory to neither method. 

Minerals Separation Process 

The experiments were made with the Mineral's 
Separation process, under the direction of the Min- 
erals Separation, Ltd., last June and July, the plant 
being situated iu the old mill. This test showed 
the advisability of the installation of the process, 
and it was arranged to change the method of con- 
centration so as to make use of the Minerals Sep- 
aration process and a greater profit per ton of ore 
treated. The first Minerals Separation unit was 
started in the new mill on November 14, treating 
material that would have otherwise gone to the vaii- 
ners, but carrying the pulp less suitable for the Min- 
erals Separation process than would be furnished 
when operating the plant with the proper installa- 
tion of Hardinge mills. The results with the in- 
complete installation have not, of course, equaled 
what has been obtained in that part of the plant 
which is more thoroughly equipped. The work has 
shown, however, that an extraction in the concen- 
trator of between 70 and 75% will be obtained. 
While these results may seem low, it must be re- 
membered that some of the copper in the Braden 
ore is in the oxidized form, not capable of high 
extraction, either by the Minerals Separation or by 
wet concentration methods. 

During the year, the second blast-furnace, 46 by 
180 in., was erected and also a second Pierce-Smith 
basic converter. The second blast-furnace was 
started in April, and all the concentrate so far pro- 
duced has been smelted. Owing to the stress of 
other work, the leaching plant had not been com- 

pleted at the time of my visit, though roasting 
experiments had been carried out for some time. 
Since I left South America, however, the leaching 
jtlant had been started for a test run. 

The production of sulphuric acid, owing to the 
small amount of conversion and absorption, has not 
been sufficient, and it has therefore been decided 
to add a lead-chamber to increase this. The narrow- 
gage railway between Eancagua and the plant is 
in very much better condition than at the time of 
my last visit, owing to the fact that a greater 
amount of ballasting had been completed, trestles 
filled, and substantial culverts put in, replacing 
wooden trestles, and a number of curves of too small 
radius have been removed. Last summer (the South 
American winter) the abnormal rains caused many 
delays from wash-outs, as was the ease with prac- 
tically all the railways in Chile. 

Power Station 

The electric power station is completed with the 
exception of a fourth unit, which will serve as a 
spare or for the operation of the present leaching 
plant. So far it has not been necessary to run more 
than two units, and neither of these at full capac 
ity, but Avith the increased production of the next 
few months, the three units will have to be run reg- 
ularly. The abnormal weather of last year also 
caused wash-outs on the canal and caused some de- 
lays last winter. Much of this should be obviated 
in the future. During the last year improvements 
have been made in the Avay of erection and comple- 
tion of staff quarters, store and warehouse, and 
single and married quarters, both for the Chileans 
and the foreigners. Probably the largest piece of 
outside work has been in the direction of the flume 
line and dam, to cut out the tailing, which hereto- 
fore had gone into the Coya river. 

The next few months will witness a decided in- 
crease in production. Enough has been done to 
prove that the cost for producing copper will be 
below the limit estimated some years ago, namely 
7.5c. The developments in the mine within the last 
year, coupled with work done in treating ores, gives 
added confidence in the future of the property and 
suggests the desirability of increasing the scale of 

Dredging the Cucaracha Slide, Panama 

A relay pumping station is being installed on the 
west side of the Culebra cut, near the bridge of the 
Panama railroad over the Rio Grande, in anticipa- 
tion of dredge excavation at the foot of Cucaracha 
slide. The plan as at present contemplated involves 
passing the discharge pipe-line of two suction 
dredges across the cut on pontoons, and up the west 
bank to the relay station; thence down the valley 
of the Rio Grande about 4000 ft., to discharge west 
of Cerro Luisa, the hill at the outer end of Pedro 
Miguel dam. It is probable that an earth dam will 
be thrown from the lower end of Pedro Miguel lock 
to the hills on the other side of the river, a distance 
of about 1500 ft., and the swamp west of the lock 
will be filled with spoil from the slide. — Canal 

July 5, 1913 




Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to 
use this department for the discussion of technical and other 
matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor 
welcomes the expression of views contrary to his own, be- 
lieving that careful criticism is more valuable than casual 
compliment. Insertion of any contribution is determined by 
its probable interest to the readers of this Journal. 

Minerals Separation v. De Bavay Process 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read with great interest T. J. Hoover 's 
book on flotation and also the article by Edward 
Walker in your January 4 issue. Having been close- 
ly connected for a number of years with both the 
Minerals Separation and De Bavay processes in 
Australia, where they . are being used on a large 
scale, I would offer a few suggestions as to a com- 
parison of these processes. 

In comparing the De Bavay process with the Min- 
erals Separation process as used on Broken Hill ores, 
many factors have to be taken into account. In the 
first place, the De Bavay company was the first 
to recognize that in the treatment of Broken Hill 
tailing it does not pay to treat the slime product, 
owing to the high percentage of lead that it con- 
tains. By rejecting this slime it has been found 
that not only a higher grade, and consequently a 
more profitable zinc concentrate is produced, but the 
slime itself is kept on hand as a valuable by-product. 

Mr. Walker remarks that experience gained dur- 
ing the past year has gone to prove the efiiciency 
of the Minerals Separation process over the De 
Bavay process. This certainly does not appear to 
be the case, judging by the enormous profits made 
by the De Bavay company, in spite of the fact that 
it paid higher prices for the tailing. Also, an in- 
teresting point in this connection is the fact that 
the South Mines, after various trial runs, decided 
that, from a commercial point of view at any rate, 
the De Bavay was the best process. This certainly 
does not point to the process being inefficient as 
compared with the other processes which are being 
worked on Broken Hill ores. From a profit-making 
point of view, the De Bavay process is ahead of 
any other process that is working on Broken Hill 
tailing at the present time. I do not refer to the 
slime. At the present time there is not much profit 
in the treatment of slime, but it is hoped that the 
experiments that are being conducted by the South . 
Mine.s, Amalgamated Zinc, and other companies will 
be crowned with success. Mr. Walker further states 
that, moreover, there is little likelihood of the De 
Bavay process. being applied anywhere else than at 
Broken Hill, as it is obviously of inferior efficiency 
to the Minerals Separation process. Why obvi- 
ously? In the first place. Broken Hill is not the 
only lead-zinc mining centre in the world, and also, 
with their present knowledge, the De Bavay people 
could greatly simplify the design of their plant, 
making it cheaper to erect. Mr. Walker would be 
greatly surprised if he knew the actual working cost 
of this I regret that professional etiquette 
prevents me from giving this information. The re- 
coveries are also his;h, higher than those given in 
Mr. Hoover's book, in which a crude value for the 
tailing is conveniently assumed, would lead one to 

believe. Both the De Bavay and the Minerals Sep- 
aration process have their scope, but on different 
types of ore. The De Bavay process will treat ma- 
terial through 30 mesh with 5 to 10% slime, which 
is much coarser than can be treated by the Minerals 
Separation process without crushing. For excep- 
tionally fine-grained ores, for which the Minerals 
Separation process is eminently suited, the De Bavay 
process is not so good. In experimenting with the 
De Bavay process, the method described by Mr. 
Hoover, in his book on flotation processes, is not 
suitable, as it will give bad results on any ore. Al- 
though I have personally conducted numerous ex- 
periments on the De Bavay process, I have never 
used or seen used anj^where the method referred 
to above. The stepped cone, or rough design shown 
in Mr. Walker's article, I have never seen on the 
De Bavay plant, as the engineering skill of the De 
Bavay company is more up to date and more orig- 
inal than the design would lead one to believe. The 
De Bavay process stands as a model of Australian 
management and metallurgical skill, so lightly 
spoken of by Mr. Hoover. 

In reference to the Minerals Separation process, 
it is not generally known that it is a development 
of the Cattermole process. The first plant erected 
at the Central mine was really a large Cattermole 
plant using Wilfiey tables. In observing the tailing 
from these tables falling into the tailing boxes, a 
froth was seen floating on the top of the boxes. Im- 
mediately the Central mine staff planned out the 
scheme of flotation boxes and the treatment was 
modified accordingly. It will be seen that the proc- 
ess was made commercially successful by the Cen- 
tral mine staff and that Australians had no small 
share in its development. Thousands of pounds 
profit were made by the Minerals Separation proc- 
ess on zinc tailing before Mr. Hoover's single-level 
apparatus, which is undoubtedly the finest mechan- 
ical feature of the present plant, was introduced. 
To Mr. Lavers, chief metallurgist of the Minerals 
Separation, litd., in Australia, is also due the rapid 
advance of this process in treating copper ores, 
owing to his brilliant research into the adaptability 
of eucalyptus and other oils to the treatment of 
these ores without the necessity of the use of acid. 

Wilton Shellsheae. 

Mt. Morgan, Queensland, May 8. 

A Correction 
The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of June 7, 1913, under 'General 
Mining News' for the state of Nevada, on page 875, 
you state that the plant of the Nevada New Mines 
Co. "consists of a crusher, ten stamps, tube-mill, 
agitators, and Oliver filter." This Company has a 
Hardinge conical pebble mill in operation, which 
we believe your correspondent has mistakenly called 
a tube-mill. Will you kindly correct this misstate- 
ment in your next issue, and oblige 

Hardinge Conical Mill Company. 

New York, June 13. 

Coinage executed at the United States mints dur- 
ing the year ended June 30, 1913, was valued at 
$37,147,000, of which $30,058,000 was in gold. 



July 5, 1913 

Special Correspondence 


Success op Tightnee Awakens an Old District. — ^New 
Roads Reduce Fbeight. — Geology and Obe Occubeences. 
— Many Mines Being Reopened. 

The success of the company operating the Tightner mine 
has aroused considerable renewed Interest In this district, 
as well as surrounding ones, of like character. The pro- 
posed new road connecting it with Nevada City by a better 
and shorter route, is also stimulating activity. This road, 
which has been surveyed and is now under construction, 
follows Kanaka creek down to a point below its mouth 
before crossing into Nevada county. It is largely due to 
the Tightner people that it is being built, as they have 
helped materially on the Sierra county end. It will reduce 
the distance from Nevada City from 39 to 24 miles, and 
should materially reduce the freight and passenger rates, 
the former now being Ic. per pound at the most favorable 
times of the year, and the latter by auto-stage flO one 
way, or fl8 the round trip. The fare by mail stage is $7 
each way, by the old Downieville line to Mountain House 
and thence to Alleghany by local stage. 

The numerous veins of the district strike from north- 
northwest, to nearly east, those striking nearly north hav- 
ing an easterly dip, and the east and west veins a north- 
erly dip, as a rule. The most common association of 
country rock with the veins seems to be in contacts of 
amphibolite and serpentine, but it Is dangerous to attempt 
to generalize much, as it seems to be the district of ex- 
ceptions. The fact that the bedrock series which makes 
up the country rock is not often clearly dellminated and 
its members merge into one another gradually, makes it 
difficult to define a contact, but the Tightner does appear to 
be on a well defined contact between amphibolite and ser- 
pentine, conforming in strike with the direction of lami- 
nation of the series, which is a little north of west. Most 
of the veins follow similar contacts, or are parallel to con- 
tacts and near lines of change of character of country 
rock, though the Gold Canon, near the southern end of the 
district breaks the rule by running nearly at right angles 
to a contact. It is strong in the amphibolite, and extends 
Into the serpentine for about 100 ft., where it dies out. So 
far, no veins of consequence have been found in serpen- 
tine, nor is this rock favorable to their formation. 

The veins are usually well filled with quartz and easily 
followed, except where disturbed by faults, but the distribu- 
tion of the gold seems to be extremely erratic. It cannot 
be called a pocket country, for the gold occurs within well 
defined veins, but it is a country of Irregular distribution 
in extremely high-grade bunches occurring in certain zones, 
perhaps in the vein areas. There Is nothing so far that 
resembles definite shoots, though it is claimed that with 
greater depth attained there is a more decided tendency 
for the ore to occur within certain better defined boun- 
daries, but it is likely that with more work and greater 
depth simply more Is known about the occurrences. There 
are many theories concerning the best indications to fol- 
low in searching for rich bodies, among the things most 
sought are the following- a hard strongly sHicIfied hanging 
wall, especially where accompanied by waves or rolls in 
the vein nearly vertical; the appearance of what Is locally 
known as 'Blue Jay,' a greenish blue rock resembling 
jasper, evidently a highly altered product; certain small 
seams, usually quartz filled, coming In from foot or hang- 
ing; small cross-faults. The work of H. G. Ferguson, of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, who has been studying these 
occurrences there recently, should aid greatly in solving 
the problem of ore occurrence. Any or all of the indica- 
tions mentioned may be found with no ore, however. "When 
a high-grade body has been found, it Is best to look for 
more on a line approximately on the dip of the vein, above 
and below on a line, indicated by the synclines of waves 
in the hanging wall. Where the hanging wall Is smooth 
and regular for long distances the chances of finding pay 
seem to be much less remote. The gold In the high-grade 

spots is free, usually is crystalline, and Is in masses of 
arsenopyrite. This, where separated clean, is often worth 
$50 per pound or more. This sort of occurrence naturally 
leads to "high-grading,' and the most watchful care on the 
part of those in charge is necessary to prevent It. No doubt 
considerable Is stolen in spite of the most rigid inspection. 
The ordinary iron pyrite of the ores is not of much value. 
The usual concentrate made at the mills of the district 
rarely assays over $50 per ton, and often as low as $30, 
which does not leave much margin for profit after ship- 
ment and treatment from such a remote point. The mill- 
ing is very simple, consisting simply of stamping with 
amalgamation on outside plates and concentration on van- 
ners without classification. The fact that the bulk of the 
ores are so low grade as hardly to pay for milling, while 
the bulk of the gold occurs in high-grade that really would 
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designed mills, does not offer much encouragement for put- 
ting in milling plants. The only excuse for milling much 
of the ore is that enclosed gold would be recovered that 
otherwise might be thrown away. Electric power is gen- 
erally available throughout the district, at reasonable 
figures, and is the form of power generally used. 

Taking up the properties in detail, from north to south, 
and from east to west, the North Fork, just north of Forest 
City, is developing the downward continuation of an ore- 
body which was worked originally from a gravel channel 
drift. The new works reach it through the old Uncle Sam 
Incline with a drift across the old channel, an underground 
shaft, and drifts from the bottom. It is operated by an 
Oakland company. The ore Is on an amphibolite-serpentine 
contact, similar at least to that of the Tightner, and pos- 
sibly the same contact. It Is too far. away to be at all cer- 
tain, with the Intervening country covered by andesite 

The Red Star, formerly worked under bond by L. P. 
Woodbury and associates, is now being developed by the 
Tightner people. It is some distance northeast of the 
Tightner, but probably on a vein of the same system. The 
property Is just to the southeast of Alleghany, and Is de- 
veloped by cross-cuts through amphibolite, and drifts both 
ways on the vein. H. L. Johnson Is said to have taken out 
over $600,000 from a shoot near surface, before the cross- 
cut was run. After it had been run, and considerable de- 
velopment done below, the present company bonded it for 
$600,000, and with a little more development discovered 
bodies of high-grade ore, from which has been taken prob- 

July 5, 1913 



ably more than that amount, with good reserves left. 
Drifts are now being driven both ways on the vein, raises 
are being cut at several points, and preparations are being 
made to sink on one orebody. There appear to be two 
pay zones discovered, each lying approximately with the 
dip of the vein, this being about 35° from the vertical. 
The mine is equipped at present with a 10 by 10-in. bell- 
driven compressor, from a 60-hp. motor, Waugh stoping 
drills, and several piston drills, side-dump ore cars of one- 
ton capacity operated by mules in trains of five or six cars, 
and a mil! of ten stamps, with rock breaker, vanners, and 
other machinery. The intention is to put in ten more 
stamps and to increase the air-supply by installation of 
larger compressor as soon as the new road is opened. Abe 
Hall, of Grass Valley, is superintendent. 

The Twenty One, below Tightner, on Kanaka creek, is 
being developed by San Francisco people, and is the deep- 
est mine in the 'camp.' It is said to have a strong vein 
and some good ore developed. The Sixteen to One, above 
the Twenty One, had a body of high-grade ore several years 
ago, and is still being developed. Rainbow, on opposite 
side of Kanaka creek, is working a downward continuation 
of an orebody discovered and worked in an old gravel 
channel above. It has a long adit from Kanaka creek 
cutting the lead at 1500 ft. below the Chips Flat placer 
diggings. It is said to have considerable pay ore developed, 
but suffered the loss of its entire plant in early May, as 
result of placing living quarters too close to the mill. The 
intention is to rebuild, this time with 20 stamps and more 
modern concentrating machinery. The compressor has been 
re-erected and development is proceeding. L. P. Woodbury 
is president and manager. The Plumbago is near the 
south end of the district. It is a famous mine with a tre- 
mendous amount of development work on a strong east- 
west vein, and is very regular, dipping 30° from vertical 
to the north. There is a great extent of low-grade quartz 
left, largely as plUats, with the greatest development on 
line of the so-called Robinson shoot, where the vein is 
8 or 10 ft. wide. A 20-stamp mill is in rather poor shape, 
but operating steadily. The place is taking on renewed 
life under active policy of the new superintendent, A. J. 
Pierson, lately from Phoenix, Arizona. This property has 
its own power plant on the Middle Yuba, about a mile 
and a half from the mine, whence compressed air is car- 
ried through a iS-in. line, while a separate generator fur- 
nishes current for mill power and for lighting. With in- 
vestment of more capital to put it in good shape and for 
deeper development, it may easily become a large producer 
again. The Gold Canon is on the Yuba, just below the 
Plumbago power-house. C. C. Derby is in charge as min- 
ing engineer, and is developing the downward course of 
an ore-zone evidently associated with the intersection of 
the vein and the contact which it crosses, as noted before. 
The property has a 5-stamp mill and is well equipped 
with compressor plant, etc., all operated by water-power 
developed with a high head. Sufficient ore of good grade 
has been found in development to keep the mill going with 
good results. 

The Oriental, toward the west edge of the district, is on 
an east-west vein and was extensively worked from a 
shaft on the outcrop in early days. Afterward It was pur- 
chased by people controlling the Plumbago, and was de- 
veloped by a cross-cut 4000 ft. long, tapping the vein at 
1400 ft. below the outcrop and 600 ft. below )he bottom 
of the old shaft, to which a raise was made. Little more 
seems to have been done, but considering its advantageous 
position, it would apparently warrant the considerable in- 
vestment necessary to further develop the lower portion 
of the vein and equip with a milling plant. The vein 
is said to be strong and productive in the upper portion. 
The Kate Hardie, still farther west, has been worked in- 
termittently for a long time, and is still being worked with 
fair results. The vein is narrow, but produces some high- 
grade ore. The Kenyon, on the creek below the Oriental, 
but on the opposite side, has a good record for production, 
but is now closed. Conditions in general in Alleghany coun- 
ty point to increased mining activity and the conduct of 
milling operations on a large scale. 


The Robinson Mine. — Concentration of Mining at Crown 

Among the richer mines on the Rand, unfortunately fast 
approaching exhaustion, the old Robinson is of especial 
notice. Last year's results were not by any means low; 
for, taking the year on the whole, the mine continued to 
earn the highest profit per ton of any mine on the Rand. 
The total revenue last year was £1,260,529, or an average 
of £2 3s. 8d. per ton milled. Working costs were £451,769, 
or 15s. 8d. per ton, leaving a working profit of £808,760, 
or no less than 2Ss. per ton. Satisfactory as are these 
figures, they do not compare well with the early achieve- 
ments of this mine. Starting milling operations In 1888, 
when ore-reduction methods on the Rand were crude com- 
pared with those of today, the recovery averaged no less 
than £12, the costs of working being at that date about 
.£3, thus leaving a working profit of £9 per ton. In two 
years the yield fell, however, to £5 per ton, and the work- 
ing costs to £2, while five years ago the yield was under 
£3 per ton. Since milling operations commenced at the 
Robinson mine, over 6,000,000 tons has been crushed, and 
4,115,137 07: of gold recovered, of a total value of £17,300,- 
000, or an average of 58s. per ton. Of this large amount, 
over £9,000,000 has been paid in dividends. The mine is, 
however, rapidly approaching exhaustion, and has already 
ceased to hold the reputation of having the highest yield 
of any mine on the Rand, that distinction at the present 
time being held by the Meyer & Charlton. Last year the 
development footage at the Robinson showed a marked 
decline, and only amounted to a total of 5823 ft., and 
soon the whole of the mine area will have been developed. 

The Crown Mines Co. may be regarded as the pioneer 
of what, for want of a better definition in Rand mining, 
is called the Kimberley system of mining, the chief fea- 
tures of which are to concentrate all underground oper- 
ations as closely as possible. To carry out this idea, a 
large main level is being driven, on the horizon of No. 13 
level, from one end of the property to the other, and 
which is now completely equipped and at work between 
No. 1 and 7 shafts. During the year, this level was driven 
984 ft., and is already 1567 ft. west of No. 7 shaft, but 
it has still 4500 ft. to be driven before it reaches the 
western boundary of the property. This level is equipped 
with an elaborate electric-haulage system, and is intended 
to deal with an output of 10,000 tons per day, and to 
supply both No. 5 and 7 shafts with ore. New crusher 
stations have been erected at the head of these two shafts, 
and a system of electrical transport of the crushed ore 
to the mills arranged in such a manner that all the mills 
are linked up with the system. Over £1,250,000 has been 
spent in this work, and when the whole arraugement is 
in full swing, lower costs and higher profits are looked 
for. AH the large amalgamated properties on the Rand 
are now adopting this system of main-receiving levels for 
the concentration of. underground operations, and in the 
face of the higher costs of working in general on the 
Rand, it is hoped that the system will bring about the ex- 
pected reduction in working costs. 


Collapse of Butte Central. — Butte & Superior and Elm 
Orlu. — Secondary Enrichment at Butte. — A. I. M. E. 
MEErriNG. — New Copper District? 

For the second time the old Ophir mine has proved dis- 
appointing to its owners. After a meteoric career in the 
stock market and in the newspapers, the Butte Central 
Copper Co. is rapidly dropping into oblivion, leaving its 
stockholders in a bad mood. The mine and mill are now 
closed and attached by unpaid employees. The former 
collapse came after a vain attempt to make a copper mine 
out of a typical manganese-silver vein. The present calam- 
ity results from imagining the existence of commercial 
silver-gold orebodies where none were to be found. Both 
failures were due to lack of conservative engineering ad- 
vice as against that of the old-time miner and practical 
man. It is one of the numerous cases where it is difficult 



July 5, 1913 

to fix the blame. The whole miserable fiasco can be ade- 
quately explained on the grounds of Ignorance and inex- 
perience In the executive side of mining. If the dlrectorss 
had been wise enough to take their money and mine to 
reputable engineers in this country or in Europe, and say, 
'Here is what we have, can anything be done with it?' they 
would have been told, after proper investigation, either 
to distribute their money or look for something else to 
invest in. But in such a promotion as Butte Central, the 
promotion and management of the enterprise usually get 
so badly Interwoven that the men who raise the money 
usually want to run the mine in person, partly from a sense 
of responsibility to their clients, it may be, but also, in 
many cases, because of the remuneration connected with 
such management. Such remuneration may be either 
direct in salaries, as in the promotions of Stephen R. Dow 
of Boston, or indirect, as inside Information useful in 
stock manipulation. 

It is rumored that the Butte & Superior Copper Co. 
and Elm Orlu Mining Co. have been considering consol- 
idation in order to avoid the troubles of probable litiga- 
tion over doubtful orebodies. W. A. Clark, of the Elm 
Orlu interests, denies this, however. It is at least cer- 
tain that both parties are doing everything possible to 
avoid bringing their differences into the courts, and the 
community at large wishes them success. In the mean- 
while, the Butte & Superior mill is doing good work 
■with the zinc ores, and the Elm Orlu is not pushing the 
construction of its much-heralded mill on Timbered Butte. 
All of which is food for thought. 

Butte can claim distinctions of many kinds — namely, 
largest mines, biggest copper productions, biggest mining 
town, strongest labor unions, ugliest appearance from a 
distance and possibly from nearby, worst moral reputation 
undeserved, etc. — but one of its unique distinctions is as 
a battle-ground for theorists on genesis of ore deposits. It 
certainly has them guessing, and they come in numbers 
to examine the 'strange' orebodies and speculate on their 
origin. The bone of contention is the copper-glance ore. 
According to all theories held heretofore, this should have 
been worked out long ago. But the mines are still in 
operation. ' Neither has the chalcocite cut out, which 
causes much comment. A big battle of geologists will 
probably take place in August, when the American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers meets at Butte. Some people 
think that the chalcocite did not form from descending 
sulphate solutions, with attendant secondary enrichment, 
and will be there to prove it. Others are equally con- 
vinced that that is the way it did form, and will also be 
there to prove it. The advance guard of some of the 
contestants has already arrived in the persons of L. C. 
Graton and their associates, who are here with apparatus 
for investigation. The Graton-Murdock idea of examining 
the ore relations microscopically is really something new, 
and worth while. Incidentally, these geologists will have 
one big advantage, in that their opponents will have to 
get micioscopes and polished sections, too, before they 
can dispute anything. Mr. Graton and his crew are out 
to clean up this subject of secondary enrichment of cop- 
per in general. They expect to spend several years at it. 
from Alaska to Mexico, and possibly elsewhere. They are 
a 'live bunch' of young scientists, and something should 
come from their endeavors. 

The geologists are not the only ones interested in the 
August meeting of the American Institute of Mining En- 
gineers at Butte. In fact, in point of numbers, the geo- 
logical papers are almost eclipsed by the metallurgical 
and mining papers. More than 40 papers have been pre- 
pared for this meeting, and nearly every phase of milling 
and smelting practice in Montana will be covered. These 
papers, and the resulting discussion, promise to be so 
instructive that no live metallurgist can well afford to 
be absent, and it is probable that very few of them will 
be. The thoughtful ones are already making hotel en- 
gagements for themselves and friends, and the local com- 
mittees are busy making things ready for the mental and 
physical needs of their fellow engineers. 

There is so much loud talk going the grounds about = 

'second Butte' in Flathead county, Montana, that we are 
beginning to think that some of the old Nevada expert 
boosters and 'wind-jammers' have invaded the land. Noth- 
ing is known here against the new camp except the talk 
and newspaper mining. It is hoped that it will prove 
ten times bigger and better than Butte, if only for the 
purpose of giving the Copper Producers' Association some- 
thing new to think about. It must be confessed that, so 
far, no intelligent coordinated description of the conditions 
has been forthcoming. These mysterious new bonanzas 


are said to be northeast of Flathead* lake, about 30 miles 
.south of the Great Northern railway, and of course in a 
densely wooded, out-of-the-way locality. 

The electrification of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific rail- 
way is nearly completed, and the electric locomotives will 
soon be displacing the steam-engines. The electrical en- 
gines are queer but powerful-looking affairs. They re- 
semble from without old stubby box-cars, such as section 
gangs inhabit on the sidetrack. They are not impressive 
and powerful looking like the big steam locomotives they 
are to displace. But looks are deceptive, apparently, as 
they can pull more than their predecessors, and cost more, 
too, $40,000 being the price of each in round figures. As 
the main ore line for Anaconda passes through the best 
residence section of Butte, the people are glad to see the 
change coming, in the hope that the new motive power 
will not be so noisy and dirty as the old steam-engines. 

The slime and sand from the concentrator at Anaconda 
are being made into tile and bricks at the Washoe brick 
plant. The product is experimental so far, but gives prom- 
ise of success. 


Bbaden Report. — Chile Coppeb. — Metal Pbices.' — Amalg.v- 
MATED Dividend. — Ohio Coppeb. — ^Mexican Conditions. 

The expected increase In the ore reserves of the Braden 
mine was announced in a report by Pope Yeatman, made 
at the stockholders' meeting June 23. The report is re- 
viewed on page 19. Earlier in the week Braden called for 
redemption $68,500 of its 6% bonds, and a few days later 
canceled the call on the ground that redemption might 
lead to dissatisfaction on the part of those bondholders 
who paid higher prices for the bonds than the redemption 
figure. Braden bonds sold as high as 210 when the stock 
was at lO^A, so that the present level of around 7 Is a 
poor one at which to effect conversion. There have been 
persistent rumors that some new financing of Braden will 
be necessary, but they have been as persistently denied. 
Thomas W. Proctor has been appointed a master by the 
Supreme Court in Boston to hear the suit of Louis Ross 
against A. C. Burrage to recover a share in the promotion 

Jiilv 5, 1913 



profits of the Chile Copper Co. As it is expected to have 
that Company at work within three years, producing cop- 
per at the rate of 300,000 lb. per day, at a cost of Cc. 
per pound, it looks as though the supply of cheap copper 
is in no immediate danger of exhaustion. At any rate, 
that is evidently the view of the consumers, for none of 
the big buyers have come into the market during the past 
week. Producers hope for a speedy resumption of buy- 
ing at the 15c. level, but meanwhile small lots have 
changed hands at as low as 14%c. European sellers are 
reported to be out of the market for .luly-August deliveries, 
indicating that they are sold out of spot. As much spot 
remains to be purchased, the sellers have the London spot 
situation in their hands. The A. S. & R. Co., on June 27, 
was quoting £69 in London. The Nichols refinery is still 
tied up by the strike, so Phelps, Dodge & Co. are entirely 
out of the market. Small sales of lake copper were made 
at IS^c. by a company which needed the money more 
than the copper. Consumers freely state that they are in 
no hurry to buy, expecting to get bargain prices later 
Exports of copper for the week ended June 26 were 5228 
tons, a total since June 1 of 25,341 tons. Exports during 
the same period last year were 21,930 tons. 

Reduction of the dividend rate of Amalgamated Copper 
Is rumored, and is evidently more than a possibility, since 
the copper metal market is so weak and is threatening to 
sag lower. Amalgamated is a peculiar stock; it sells now 
but little above A. S. & R., although it is paying 6% and 
the latter only 4%. It is quite possible that the decrease 
has already been discounted, just as the stock sold at a 
higher figure Just before the increase to 6% was announced 
last fall than it has at any time since. Giroux stockhold- 
ers have already deposited more than a majority of the 
shares of that concern for exchange in the new Copper- 
mines merger. By the laws of Delaware, 65% of the stock 

and until this work is finished no reorganization plans 
will be formulated. It has always been claimed that this 
coal property formed an exceedingly valuable asset, and 
the investigation of the value will be a correspondingly 
careful one. 

Mexican railways are in a nervous state. It was re- 
ported on June 27 that the National Railways of Mexico 
had been placed in the hands of a receiver, J. M. Gal- 
braith, the manager in Mexico City for the Waters-Pierce 
Oil Co. Following the announcement of the resignation 
of E. M. Brown from the presidency, this created some 
consternation, but the report is doubted by the banking 
houses concerned. The resignation of Mr. Brown is also 
denied. Nevertheless, it is evident that the situation of 
the railway is bad, and it would not be strange if before 
long the Mexican government has the obligations and 
the bankers have the railway. A report from the United 
States Consul at Chihuahua states that railway comm.u- 
nication has been shut off tor more than three weeks, and 
the latest reports from Chihuahua indicate that everything 
south of Juarez is in the hands of the Carranzistas, and 
Juarez may fall at any time. General Pedro Ojeda tried 
to force his way from Guaymas to Hermosillo, but was 
beaten back, and Guaymas is nearly in the hands of the 
state forces. On July 1 the bankers interested will offer 
for sale |8, 500,000 of the 6% Mexican government bonds, 
and $14,250,000 will be issued in France, and $7,250,000 
in England. It is reported that the French bankers are 
taking them at 89 and hope to sell them for 95 or better, 
so Mexico will have to pay well for her money. The A. S. 
& R. Co. has been having a hard time in Mexico during 
the past year, as the operations have only been on a 50% 
basis at times and are now about three-quarters of nor- 
mal, with one more furnace about to be blown in at 
Aguascalientes and two more at Monterey. Earnings are 


must bo exchanged in order to give the Coppermines com- 
pany "physical control" of the Giroux, and the deposit of 
shares is expected to reach that figure before long. It is 
stated that leading interests in the merger have agreed 
to underwrite a large part of the $3,000,000 7% bond issue 
which it Is proposed to float. 

After having been postponed four times, the annual 
meeting of the Ohio Copper Co. was held in Boston on 
June 25. The board, as elected, consists of W. O. Allison, 
F. A. Helnze, J. W. McKinnon, J. W. Pierson, Jr., W. C. 
Lewis, W. I. Badger, and Maurice Levy. Mr. McKinnon 
represents the Assets Realization Co., controlling 163,000 
shares of Ohio which formed part collateral of the $1,000,- 
000 loan negotiated by the United Copper. Mr. Lewis 
representF Walker Bros, of Salt Lake City, and Mr. 
Badger is said to have been elected because of large 
personal stockholdings, although he has acted as legal rep- 
resentative for Helnze for a number of years. It is said 
that Heinze no longer controls Ohio, and will probably 
not be elected chairman of the board at Its organization 
meeting. The United Copper is about to drill its coal 
property, held by the New York & Pennsylvania Coal Co., 

showing a decrease, but the company officials maintain a 
cheerful attitude. Rumblings of sf threatened suit by the 
Government for the dissolution of the 'Smelter Trust' con- 
tinue to be heard, so the stock market outlook for the 
'Guggenheim' issues is not as bright as it might be. 

JOPLIN, wnssouBi 

Unuekwihter!? Land Co. Acquires Yellow Jacket Leases. 
— Mining vro^i Flat-boats in Drifts of Yexlow Doo 
Mine. — Zinc and Lead Notes. 

The Underwriters Land Co., operators of the Priscilla 
mine in the West Joplin district, has acquired the fee to 
132 acres Of the McBee land in the Klondike camp, six 
niilos northwest of Jcplin, for a consideration of $50,000. 
J. H. McBee and associates owned the tract, which was 
not worth $50 an acre, so far as was then known, three 
years ago. Development by the Yellow Jacket Mining Co. 
disclosed good zinc and lead deposits, the former ore pre- 
dominating. O. W. Sparks opened the Yellow Jacket mine, 
which is a good producer of top-grade zinc sulphide ores. 
The faith of the Underwriters Land Co., which has operated 



July 5, 1913 

in the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma district for many years, 
in the future possibilities of the zinc and lead industry, is 
one of the best advertisements the district can have. 

While the Underwriters company is extending Its work 
in the West Joplin districts, work has been suspended in 
the formerly rich mines north of Webb City. The pumps 
have been withdrawn from the old Yellow Dog workings 
and the water has risen in the old drifts. Sub-lessees are 
working the rich old pillars that yet remain. They carry 
the ore from these pillars to the shaft with the aid of 
large flat boats. It Is hoisted to the surface and cleaned 
by hand jigs. The Yellow Dog is one of the famous old 
producers of the district. The removal of the pumps will 
make pumping operations much more difficult In adjoining 
properties to the south. A substantial concrete dam sep- 
arates the Yellow Dog drifts from the workings of the 
mines to the south. When the water rises over this barrier, 
which Is 27 ft. In height and about 75 ft. long, the workmen 
In adjoining mines will be working far beneath the water- 
level of this expansive underground lake, which will be 
scores of acres in extent. The pumps at the Yellow Dog 
were throwing 3000 gal. per minute, or 4,320,000 gal. per 
day. The concrete dam Is constructed at a depth of 200 ft. 
beneath the surface. 

Interest in large mining operation centres in the West 
Joplin district, at this time, where some big milling pro- 
perties are being opened. On the Rlseling estate, sheet 
ore is being blocked out In a number of drill-holes at a 
depth of approximately 200 ft. The surface is flat prairie 
and has not been mined extensively. It has only been 
within the past few years that mining operations of any 
importance have been carried on In this region. The ore 
as a rule shows a mill recovery of about 3.5% zinc sulphide 
with some lead. In places, the lead ore is especially rich. 
The sheet-ore district is being blocked out over an area of 
three miles east and west, and about two mil6s north and 
south. Among the operators that are active in this work 
are O. W. Sparks, J. M. Short, the Underwriters Land Co. 
and the St. Louis-Joplin Lead & Zinc Co. Work on the lat- 
ter's land is of unusual interest. In view of the greater ex- 
tent of the mineral formation. 

A new concentrating plant is being constructed by the 
Kansas City Mining Co. on a lease of the Rex land, east 
of Joplin. The shell of the mill was moved from the Duen- 
weg camp. Dirt from half a dozen small 'gouges' will be 
handled over the plant. Drilling for deeper pre is now in 


Zinc Corpobation and Flotation Processes. — Mubex Mag- 
netic CO.'S AlTAIRS. 

On many occasions I have given records of the doings 
of the Zinc Corporation, which was formed in 1905 by 
Bewick, Morelng & Co. for the purpose of treating the 
great stacks of zinc tailing at Broken Hill. The early 
days were occupied In accumulating expensive experience 
in connection with the many flotation methods then at- 
tracting attention. Engineers with varied experience at- 
tempted to apply the rival processes, the action of which 
was little known. Eventually the Elmore vacuum plant 
came to the rescue of the almost bankrupt company; but 
In 1910 the improved Minerals Separation process asserted 
itself as by far the cheapest in first cost and in working, 
besides having a wider scope as to material. During the 
past two months two subsidiary processes have been adopt- 
ed, of which details are given later. In the middle of 
1911, it was decided to acquire the South Blocks mine, 
and thus become a mining company. Instead of depend- 
ing on dumps and tailing produced by other companies. 
A further venture in this direction is to be chronicled in 
the acquisition of the control of the Sunny Corner mine 
in New South Wales, floated as a separate company called 
'Zinc No. 1.' The South Blocks mine contains two lodes 
outcropping on the surface, in which lead and zinc pre- 
dominate, respectively. Development has been centred on 
the lead lode. On the first seven levels, this lode has 
proved to average about 10 ft. wide, but on the eighth 
It is no less than 80 ft. wide. An inspection of the 

mine plans leads to the conclusion that the zinc lode also 
is a spur of this deep wide lode. As the ore disclosed 
on No. 8 level is higher in quality than the average of 
the mine, it is obvious that the outlook is excellent. As 
regards the two new processes mentioned above, the first 
is the invention of the mill foreman, James Lyster. Its 
object is to float the galena out of the slime produced in 
the lead-concentration plant that treats the ore from the 
South Blocks. The second is E. J. Horwood's roasting 
process intended for the treatment of the zinc slime that 
comes from the zinc-concentration plant. Mr. Horwood's 
process consists in giving a roast at a low temperature suf- 
ficient to coat the galena with sulphate, but not affecting 
the blende. Thus, In subsequent flotation, the blende 
rises and the sulphated galena sinks to the bottom. I 
should add that the notation business, since the erection 
of the Minerals Separation plant in 1910, has been in the 
hands of Theodore J. Hoover, first as engineer to Min- 
erals Separation and subsequently as managing director 
of the Zinc Corporatiofi. During the year 1912, 138,284 
tons of South Blocks ore was treated, averaging 15.3% 
lead, 9.16% zinc, and 2.57 oz. silver, from which 25,227 tons 
of concentrate was recovered, averaging 67.3% lead, 6.2% 
zinc, and 9 oz. silver. The zinc-concentration plant treated 
the zinc tailing from the lead plant, and tailing from 
the various purchased dumps, the total being 345,425 tons, 
averaging 14.41% zinc, 5.5% lead, and 6.94 oz. silver. From 


this, 85,354 tons of zinc concentrate was obtained, averag- 
ing 47.2%) zinc, 7.4% lead, and 12.5 oz. silver, and 10,881 
tons of lead concentrate averaging 57.9% lead, 14.8% zinc, 
and 32.2 oz. silver. The sale of concentrates brought an 
Income of £644,428, and £206,433 was distributed in div- 

Mr. Hoover has recently extended his interest In flota- 
tion by becoming consulting engineer to the Murex Mag- 
netic Co. This Company provided one of the Stock Ex- 
change booms four years ago, and the shares were rushed 
to absurd prices. The people behind it were connected 
with the Shell oil group. As has often been recorded, 
the process consists of adding oil and magnetite or other 
magnetic mineral to the crushed ore, and removing the 
agglomerated magnetite and sulphide by means of mag- 
nets. The advantage is that, as no acid is used, the proc- 
ess can be applied to ore that contains much calcite or 
other carbonate. The process is in use at Corboda copper 
mine in the South of Spain, at the Whim Well copper 
mine In the northwest of Western Australia, and at mines 
in France and Germany. But the board and control have 
proved to be inefllcient in business instincts. A bad mis- 
take was made in connection with the terms under which 
the South Blocks Extended mine was financed by Murex 
funds, and the whole of the money thus advanced has 
been lost. The Company is at the end of its financial 
tether, and is to be reconstructed with the object of raising 
a few thousand pounds in order to continue its existence 
until such time shall arrive that substantial royalties are 
received. The shareholders have done well In putting 
things in the hands of an expert with good connections 
like Mr. Hoover. Under the old regime, engineers all 
over the world were inclined to regard the Murex com- 
pany dubiously. They will be more ready to investigate 
now that a reliable engineer is at the helm. 

July 5, 1913 



General Mining News 



The Alaska Mexican stamp-mill crushed 20,286 tons of 
ore in May, producing |54,052 from amalgamation and 
concentrate. Operating expenses were $23,591, and con- 
struction $2180, leaving a profit of $28,280. 

The Alaska Treadwell stamp-mills crushed 71,512 tons 
of ore, producing $190,072. Operating expenses were $85,486 
and construction $8197, leaving a profit of $96,389. 

The Ready Bullion and 700-Pt. Claim mills of the Alaska 
United crushed a total of 36,672 tons of ore in May, yield- 
ing $84,452 from amalgamation and concentrate treatment. 
Operating expenses were $56,430, and construction $2181, 
leaving a profit of $24,841. 


Cochise County 

The Mascot Copper Co., three miles from Dos Cabezas 
and about 17 miles east of Wilcox, the nearest railroad 
point, promises to begin shipping shortly. 

Ore-bins are being built at Wilcox, and auto-trucks will 
be used to haul ore and supplies to and from the mine. A 
steam hoist of 1000-ft. capacity has been installed. Two 
drills arc in operation, and one hole was put down 1500 
ft. In Dos Cabezas mountains, good vanadium ore has 
been discovered. 

Gila County 

(Special Correspondence.) — At the New Keystone mine, 
retiraberlDg of all the drifts has been completed. As there 
has been no work In the way of development performed 
during the past year, the ore reserves are still estimated 
at 2,500,000 tons of 2.25% copper ore. The delay in treat- 
ment of Keystone ore is accounted for by the existence 
of 80 much oxidized ore in the property, rendering treat- 
ment by the usual methods uncertain. R. C. Canby, who 
Is experienced in low-grade ore treatment, will subject 
the Keystone ore to thorough tests during the coming 
months. It is probable that his experiments will include 
the erection of a small experimental mill on one of the 
extra foundations laid down when the Miami mill was 
built, especially so, as the experiments to be conducted 
by Mr. Canby will be valuable to the Miami company, 
with its large tonnage of oxidized ores which must be 
treated by leaching. Mr. Canby laid out a program of 
tests here in March, and since then has been investigat- 
ing the recent developments at Anaconda and other large 
plants throughout the country. He was in charge of the 
old ferric-chloride process tested by Hunt and Douglas 
twenty years ago. 

The position of the Iron Cap is improving every day. 
The cross-vein found recently has been cut in both 
directions until the width of the orebody at this point 
is 30 ft. The face of the main drift continues in rich 
copper ore, and has straightened out again to its main 
easterly course. On the 800-ft. level the same vein is 
being followed from a point about 78 ft. east of the shaft. 

Miami, June 25. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Apache group of claims, 
situated in Richmond basin, and owned by Pfeister Bros, 
of Globe, has resumed shipping ore to the Old Dominion 
smelter. The ore averages 25% copper and is high in iron 
content. It occurs in a contact of lime and quartzite. 
Transport over 12 miles la done by mule-teams. 

Miami, July 1. 

Improvements at the Ray mill at Hayden, consist of three 
more settling tanks to take care of overflow water from the 
16 concentrate bins; the return water pipe-line is finished; 
and two more Green chain-grate stokers are being installed 
at the power-plant. 

The Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co., at 
Globe, M'ill place in operation additional electrical equip- 
ment, including two 815-kva. alternating-current genera- 
tors; two 100-kva. synchronous motors; one 150-hp., six 75- 
hp., one 50-hp., one 20-hp., and three 10-hp. motors, and 

switchboard panels. This apparatus has been ordered 
from the General Electric Company. 

Mohave County 

The Gold Road mine produced $80,000 in gold during 
three weeks of June. 

A cross-cut on the 250-ft. level of the Silver Hill mines 
at Chloride, disclosed a body of ore ranging from five to 
&even feet, the average value of which is said to be in ex- 
cess of $70. This mine has been idle the past 25 years 
and the ore was only found on the property by accident. 

A large orebody has been opened in the New Jersey mine, 
at Chloride. The drilling plant for the Kingman Copper 
Mining & Milling Co. will soon be ready for Installation. 
The Tennessee mine shaft, at Chloride, Is being sunk deeper. 
Good ore is being opened on the 900-ft. level. 
Pima County 

(Special Correspondence.)— The Empire Zinc Co. is 
working about 40 men on the old San Xavier claims in 
the Pima district, some 20 miles south of Tucson, and is 
shipping about 50 tons of ore per day. The ore contains 
silver and gold. The copper-bearing portions of the claims 
will soon be worked again. 

Tucson, June 26. 

The Old Mammoth mine, which has produced a great 
deal of gold, has been bought by the Great Western Copper 
Co., represented by W. J. Young and brother, for a con- 
sideration said to be about $150,000. The deal was closed 
In Detroit with the previous owner, named Fletcher. The 
Great Western Copper Co. has had engineers testing the 
ore for the past two months. Development will be started 
on the 700 and 800-ft. levels. Below the former level thera 
is said to be a large shoot of ore carrying gold, $9 per ton, 
and 4 to 6% copper. 

Yavapai County 

(Special Correspondence.)— The Hull tunnel has been 
driven more than one mile, and is to be cut right through 
the mountain. A winze is being sunk 5000 ft. from the 
entrance to the tunnel, on a promising vein opened by 
the tunnel at that point. The tunnel will connect under- 
ground with claims on both sides of the mountain. 

Jerome, June 26. 

Ample capital has been provided for the development 
of the Harqua Hala mine of the Yuma-Warrior Mining Co. 
This mine has produced a good deal of gold in the past. 

The Hidden Treasure Mining & Development Co. is sink- 
ing the winze from the adit of the Monte Cristo mine. The 
bottom of the winze shows 10 to 14 in. of rich gold and 
silver ore. 


Kern County 

The Midway Gas Co. will increase its delivery this week 
from 7,000,000 to 15,000,000 cu. ft. per day, following the 
bringing in of new gas wells in its territory. The Asso- 
ciated Oil Co. has recently brought in two new gas wells, 
and the Honolulu Oil Co. another. The new production 
within the past few weeks will amount to nearly 100,000,- 
000 cu. ft., open measurement, which will be reduced to 
15,000,000 to 20,000,000 ft. under pressure sufficient to 
carry to Los Angeles. 

Sierra County 

A stamp-mill may be erected at the Red Ledge mine, 
7 miles west of Alleghany. J. B. Moulton is in charge. 
The 3-stamp mill at the Kate Hardy, at Forest, is work- 
ing again. Mine development is encouraging. A. D. Grant 
Is In charge. 

Trinity County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Enterprise is the only 
mine being worked in the Helena district. It is operated 
under lease by R. H. Skinner, J. D. Day, and F. C. Meckel. 
The 10-stamp mill is working one shift, but as there is 
plenty of ore opened, another shift will be started. Other 
properties are being prospected, and generally the posi- 
tion is encouraging. 

Helena, June 20. 

Tuolumne County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The water in the Dutch 



July 5, 1913 

mine, at Quartz, has been lowered 250 ft. since the work 
of unwatering to bottom began. It Is estimated that the 
pumps must continue In operation for at least two months 
longer to finish the work. It is the intention to open 
much new ground in the lower portion of the mine by 
driving. Work has for a long time been confined to the 
upper levels of the property. The Columbia Basin mine, 
a deep gravel property, situated near Columbia, is to 
be reopened for the resumption of mining work. During 
the last period of activities at the property, a fine sur- 
face equipment was put in and extensive development work 
was done. Preparations are being made by John Segale 
to begin mining operations in the bed of the Tuolumne 
river above the Clio mine. The stream will be diverted 
from its natural course by constructing a dam and large 
ditch. It is expected that the shaft at the Experimental 
mine, above Columbia, will cut the vein within a few 
days, when driving will begin. It has almost reached the 
depth of 300 ft. A mill-test is to be made of ore from 
the Sonnet mine, in the Columbia district. A large new 
pump has been installed at the Shawmut mine at Jack- 
Sonora, June 28. 


Colorado is the most important coal-producing state west 
of the Mississippi river, and ranks seventh among all 
the states. The coal mined in 1912 was 10,977,824 short 
tons, an increase of 820,441 tons over 1911, according to 

-. * o*Oi.OOiC*L SURVtr 


E. W. Parker, of the United States Geological Surve.v. 
The value increased from $14,747,764 to $16,345,336. The 
total area underlain by coal in Colorado is estimated at 
17,130 sq. miles, and about 00% of that entire area is 
believed to contain coal that is workable under present 
conditions. The state contains areas embracing over 4000 
sq. miles, about which little is known, but which may 
contain workable coal, and nearly 3000 sq. miles in which 
the coal lies under heavy cover and Is therefore not work- 
able at present. In point of production, the most Impor- 
tant area is the Trinidad field, underlying considerable 
portions of Huerfsno and Las Animas counties, which In 
its southern extension into New Mexico as the Raton field 
is also the most important producer In that state. The 
coal of this field is a high-grade coking coal, probably the 
best coal of that grade In the Rocky Mountain states. 

The San Juan 

During May the Tomboy mill worked 29 days, crushing 
12,000 tons of ore yielding $25,000 and $59,000 from 1550 
tons of concentrate shipped. The profit amounted to 


BoNNEB County 
The Buckhorn Mining Co. is building a 5-3tamp mill on 
the east fork of Deer creek. The development of this 
mine consists of 2000 ft. of adits. Assays run from $16 
to $40 per ton. A wagon-road has been constructed to 
this mine and the crew employed at the mine consists of 
18 men under the charge of William Johnson. It is ex- 
pected that there will be water enough to be used to run 
the mill when ready for operations. 

Cleabwateb County 

A gold nugget weighing 19.6 oz. and worth $290 wis 
found by G. V. Friedman at his placer claim on Snake' 
creek. The gravel here averages 60 to 70c. per yard, and 
the nugget was found at a depth of 10 feet. 

Idaho County 
The Moscow mine is changing hands. Mill equipment 
is of a crude type to treat the low-grade ore mined. 

Shoshone County 
The Big Creek Leasing Co. has been incorporated at 
Kellogg with a capital of 5000 shares of $10 each. Its 
object is principally leasing work. The Interstate and 
Callahan mines are now connected by a 5400-ft. tunnel, 
which is being extended 2000 ft. to the Amazon-Manhattan. 
This property is under option to the Interstate for $160,000. 
A 300-ton mill is operated by the latter. Ore from the 
mine is conveyed to the plant by an aerial tramway of 
1000-ton dally capacity. The orebodies in the various prop- 
erties are rich in lead, silver, and zinc. The silver yields 
as high as 50 oz. per ton, 76% lead, and 59.7% in zinc, 
and the new mill is making an extraction of 95% of the 
mineral content. 


The production of coal In Montana in 1912 was 3,043,- 
495 short tons, valued at $5,342,168, according to E. W. 
Parker, of the United States Geological Survey. This is 
the first time that the output of the state has passed 
3,000,000 tons. The coalfields of Montana are widely scat- 
tered and their output ranges in quality from lignite to 
a bituminous coal of fair grade. Nearl.v all of the east- 
ern third of Great Plains portion of the state is under- 
lain by lignite and low-grade sub-bituminous coal. Toward 
the mountainous district the coals pass into high-grade 
sub-nituminous and true bituminous coals. These occur 
for the most part in relatively small and much scattered 
areas. In the valley region of the western part of the 
state the coals grade again Into lignite, but unlike those 
of the eastern part, they are widely scattered and at pres- 
ent are not of economic Importance. 

Lincoln County 

(Special Correspondence.) — J. J. Hibbard and P. S. Rose, 
who recently leased the Peterson-Bergstrom gold mine 
about 25 miles south of Libby, have received returns from 
a mill-te&t of the ore which they say is very satisfactory. 
The test showed that 90% of the contents could be saved. 
The ore vein carries on an average gold to about $20 per 
ton. It is the intention of the lessees to erect a stamp- 
mill and concentrator on the property. 

Libby, June 22. 


The Iron Mask Mining Co. has 10 mining claims, two 
millritos and two water rights, in the Spring Gulch dis- 
trict, near Keystone. Mining Is mostly done by adits, and 
has been under way since the beginning of 1907. It '>s 
Intended to erect a mill in the near future. 

SiLviiBBOw County 
(Special Correspondence.) — The new mill of the St. Louis 
Mining Co. has been placed in operation. It has a capacity 
of 200 tons per day, and. according to Information given 
out, it Is giving general satisfaction. It is being oper- 
ated by electricity, and those in charge say that this power 
Is much more satisfactory than steam. The Butte-Alex 
Scott, during the year ended June 1, earned over $81,000 net 
as compared with $19,000 for the same period last year. 


The mine is the best paying independent property in the property, which has proved the Prince iron-ore deposits 
district at the present time, and as depth is being attained. as large and valuable as in the older mine 

the mine is making a much better showing than ever bo- m r> 

fore. A. B. Wolvin, of the Butte & Duluth company, savs „. mineral County 

that he will have his enlarged leaching plant in oper- ^^nnabar has been opened near Mina, and samples re- 

ation within the next two months, and at the present time *"™ ^-"^^ mercury. The Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. 

he is treating 100 tons of 4% copper ore per day, from ,1^'"®''^''"^ ordered from the General Electric Co. a new 

which he is receiving a return of 98% pure copper. Mr. ^^^'^^- '""J^ction motor.^ 

Wolvin says that when the enlarged plant is completed, he ^^^ County 

will handle 500 tons of ore per day. The force of miners (Special Correspondence.)— G. A. Duncan, of Nelson, 
has been increased for the purpose of getting out a large Nevada, has sold his live patents pertaining to the treat- 
supply of ore. According to reports given out by the '^^^^^ °' ^'™6 li cyanide mills. As the purchase was 
Davis-Daly people, the Colorado mine is fast becoming a ™^''^ ^'^ ^ consolidation of the milling companies of 
producing property. The Hesperus orebody, cut on the Tonopah and Goldfleld, the active agent in the transaction 
1400-ft. level over. eight weeks ago, was picked up a few ^'^''^^ Albert Burch, manager of the Wingfleld interests, 
days ago in No. 2 cross-cut, 125 ft. farther east than where ^^ }^ possible that questions as to rights and royalties 
the orebody originally was found. Development has dis- '"'hich were supposed to be settled by the court decision 
closed an orebody 14 ft. in width, averaging about 4% cop- *° *^® Moore-Butters case, may be reopened. In an article 
per with some silver. The Hesperus orebody has been Published in the Mining and Scientific Press on June 6, 
proved for a distance of 325 ft., 200 ft. of which, west ^^^^' *^® statement was made that Mr. Duncan was the 
from No. 1 cross-cut, shows a shoot, the average width ^^^^ '° "^® ^'^^ patent the internal water-pressure for 
of which Is 17 feet. tailing discharge, and the perforated-pipe filter-cell frame, 
Butte, June 28. , which features displaced the internal air-pressure for tail- 
During the first three weeks of June, the Butte & Supe- Jj^ discharge, and the wooden cell-frame, used by Mr. 
rior mill averaged 650 tons of ore dally, with 1% sections °°^^' 
in commission. The concentrate assayed 49% zinc, and re- Tonopah, June 27. 
covery was 89 per cent. Storey County 

The Belmont shaft at the Butte is down 2400 ft., and Comstock minirg companies report the following during 

connections havf been made with other mines of the Ana- ^^^ ^^"^^^ ended June 28: The pumps at the C. & C. shaft 

conda group. Underground wiring for electric traction worked without trouble, and on the 2500-ft. level the north 

Is underway. A 5000-ton ore-bin is being built and will ^'^^^^ ^^^ ''^®° repaired a total of 865 ft. to date. The 

be provided with modern appliances for loading ore into OPhlr 2500-ft. level raise produced 96 tons of $35.53 ore. 

cars for transport to the Washoe smelter. At the Butte '^^^ cyanide plant treated 549 tons of tailing, and bullion 

& Zenith 500-ft. level cross-cut, a well defined vein has '^'a'ued at $5400 was shipped. The Mexican mill treated 

been cut. An electric pump has been installed, and the ^^^ '"^^ "^ Mexican ore, averaging $47.70 per ton, with 

electric hoist is ready for operation. ^^^ extraction. 

.^^ Washoe County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Granite Hill copper 

CiABK County mine, 14 miles northwest of Reno, operated by the Warner- 

(Special Correspondence.)— The Eldorado mining district, Nelson Co., has shipped 51 tons of ore averaging 15% cop- 

of this county, better known as the Eldorado Canon area, P®"" ^""^ *^^ P^"" *°° ^°^ ^°^'^ ^°d silver, 

is enjoying a revival of activity. From 25 to 30 years ago Reno, June 23. 

its surface ores produced several millions of dollars. The White Pine County 
district was practically abandoned seven years ago. O. A. Work to be undertaken by the newly formed Consoli- 
Duncan has been developing a large group of prospects, dated Copper Mines Co., at Ely, includes the following: 
which he afterward purchased, and has been urging the Development to block out more ore in all the properties 
Importance of the district on others who were seeking concerned; the remodeling of the Giroux mill at Kimberly 
mines. Four good mining companies are now pushing de- f°^ experimental purposes, especially as to the adaptation 
velopment work on as many different groups of claims, of the oil-flotation process to recovering the metals from 
with good cause for encouragement. low-grade ores; unwatering of the big Giroux shaft, and 
Nelson. June 27. further development of the Alpha ore deposits, and, pos- 
E.sifEBALDA County slbly, the sinking of a deep working-shaft on the Chain- 
On July 4 there will be drilling contests at Goldfleld. ""'* group. for double and single work will be $500 and $200, OREGON 
and $150 and $75, respectively, for flrst and second places. Bakeb County 

Eureka County A gold nugget weighing 80.4 oz. was found last week 
(Special Correspondence.)- The work on the Buckhorn ^V Armstrong & Stuart at their placer claim, three miles 
mill is going ahead at a good rate. The framework, is from Galena. The district is fairly active. The diamond- 
up for the crushing plant, the tube-mill foundations are drill in operation since spring, prospecting for dredging 
in, and the concrete work for the cyanide plant is abour ground, was taken last week to the Granite district. The 
completed. The haulage adit has been connected with the bench land near Sumpter has been drilled, and it is re- 
mine workings, and about 15 miles of the poles for the ported that another dredge will be erected there. The 
transmission line are already up. The power plant is situ- Sumpter dredge is having new lips fitted to the buckets, 
ated at Beowawe, on the main line of the Southern Pacific, *ud is also operating the plant for about 12 hours per day. 
some 30 miles north of Buckhorn. TTTATT 
Buckhorn, June 28. UlAil 

Humboldt County J"^« Bounty 

Sulphide ore has been opened at a depth of 200 ft. in , ''Tu "''''°'' "f/^^Beck Tunnel Consolidated Mining Co. 

the Big Four mine. Rochester. The vein is 9 ft. wide, *°\ "' ''^' '''^'^ '"°" '' ''''' ^'"'^ '''' '°"°^'"^ *"'°'- 

averaging $35 per ton. Diamond-drilling will be done at "^^pment feet 1.252 

< he Seven Troughs Coalition mine. „ j », . 

Ore production, tons 6,419 

Lincoln County Oo,^ content, ounces 7S5 

The Prince Consolidated is shipping 200 tons of ore per Silver, ounces 110,890 

day. Tailing shipments from Bulllonvllle to the Tooele Lead, pounds 1,880,706 

amelter have been curtailed. It Is stated that there is Value $72,488 

600 ft. of unprospected ground In Prince territory, between Total income 94,500 

the south end of its workings and the Virginia-Louise Expenses 94„500 



July 5, 1913 

Sai.t Lake County 

The long tunnel of the Utah Metal Mining Co. was com- 
pleted on June 23, according to Information from E. P. 
Jennings. This drive has been made through the moun- 
tains from the Middle canon side to the Bingham side of 
the range, and is 11,474 ft. in length. It took 2% years 
to complete. With the single exception of the Ontario 
drain tunnel at Park City, which is 3% miles in length, 
this is the longest adit used for mining purposes In the 

Ferby County 

The Surprise mine produced 1160 tons of $12 to $20 ore 
during the first half of June. This comes from stopea 
on the 400, 500, and 700-ft. levels. The ore Is seat to 
the Greenwood, British Columbia, smelter. 
Okanogan County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Engineers from the Trail 
and the British Columbia Copper Co.'s smelter, at Phoenix, 
British Columbia, have been examining the Copper World 
and Copper World Extension mines, on Palmer mountain. 

Republic, June 27. 

Stevens County 

A cross-cut in the Butte-Chewelah property, near Che- 
welah, has cut a 20-ft. vein at a depth of 100 ft. About 
5 ft. of the shoot carries gray copper and some silver. A 
winze is to be sunk 300 feet. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The United Copper Co. is in- 
stalling four new batteries, of three stamps each, and will 
double the capacity of the mill. Holes have been dug, and 
the poles have been distributed for the transmission line 
from Myers Falls. 

Chewelah, June 26. 



(Special Correspondence.) — The Pelican Portage gasfield 
and other localities in central Alberta are being examined 
for the City of Edmonton by L. G. Huntley, of the Asso- 
ciated Geological Engineers of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Edmonton, June 23. 

British Columbia 

(Special Correspondence.) — Ore production for the third 
week in June in the Kootenai and Boundary districts 
is reported as being 47,212 tons, making a total for the 
year of 1,207,712 tons. One hundred thousand dollars will 
be spent by the British Columbia Copper Co. in the erec- 
tion of a concentrator at the Voight properties, near Prince- 
ton, according to a report from Greenwood. The action is 
prompted by results obtained from diamond-drilling and 
other investigations during the past two years. 

Spokane, June 27. 

The Granby company has acquired the claims of Moult, 
Hartley, and associates near Portland Canal. The ore 
opened will be used for fluxing. The British Columbia 
Copper Co. is employing 110 men on Copper mountain, near 
Princeton. Recently the Lucky Jim shipped from the 
Slocan 17 cars of zinc ore to the United States, upon which 
the duty amounted to $17,000, and may shut down until 
the tariff is lowered. The streak of high-grade ore in 
the Dynamo claim has widened to six inches. During the 
last six years Partman Bros, have expended $20,000 devel- 
oping this property. 

In the Flathead valley, at the junction of Sage creek 
and the Flathead river, on the British Columbia side of 
the line, a company composed of Victoria and Vancouver 
capitalists is now engaged in drilling a well for oil. A 
contract has been given to California oil-well drillers to 
sink several holes to a depth of 2700 ft, and, if necessary, 
4000 ft. The first well is already down several hundred 
feet. During the past 100 years or more, Indians have 
skimmed oil from the seepages on the surface. 


(Special Corresponednce.) — During April, 240 stamps of 
the Oriental Consolidated Mining Co.'s mills worked 26 
days and treated 26,236 tons of ore, yielding $163,812. 

Operating costs were $85,280, development and improve- 
ments, $2815, leaving a profit of $75,716. The Kuk San 


Dong mill was shut down during the past month on ac- 
count of shortage of ore. 

New York, June 23. 


During May the 40-stamp mill of the Mexico Mines of 
El Oro worked 30 days, treating 13,400 tons of ore yield- 
ing $138,530. The profit was $82,780. The 100-stamp mill 
of El Oro Mining & Railway Co. worked 30 days, treating 
23,830 tons of ore and 14,190 tons of tailing, yielding 
$227,360. The total profit was $92,950, including $5680 
from tho railway. 


(Special Correspondence.) — The Calumet & Sonora of 
Cananea Mining Co., whose property is about two miles 
northwest of Cananea, and which recently resumed oper- 
ations after being shut down for almost three months, is 
now working with practically a full force. One hundred 
and sixty men are now being employed. Before the shut- 
down but 60 were working. In fact, conditions are better 
at the property than they have been for some months, and 
the production is at the rate of 7000 tons of ore per month. 
Both the wet and dry mills are again working, two shifts 
being employed, and it may be only a short time before 
the mills are working 24 hours each. The ores being 
handled at present come from the 400 and 500-ft. levels. 
The new crusher and picking belt which were installed 
early In the year are giving good results. Fifty per cent 
of the material passing over the belts is thrown out as 
waste. W. H. Tangye, the superintendent, reports that 
development work Is being done only on the 400-ft. level, 
where results are highly satisfactory. The management 
states that, in the near future, operations will be conducted 
at full capacity, as a large orebody which was found 
shortly before the shut-down, three months ago, promises 
to furnish sufficient ore to run the plant for an indefinite 
time. An output of 40 tons per day, which will average 
$30, is figured. This gives a monthly earning of $36,000 
at an expense of $12,000. The company has shipped its 
concentrate which was stored awaiting the end of El 
Paso smelter's labor trouble. There were six cars whi-ih 
netted $12,000. 

Cananea, June 28. 


A strike has broken out In the Rand district which 
threatens to tie up the entire gold-mining industry of 
South Africa. The dispute arose from a simple question 
about working hours in the new Kleinfontein mines, and 
from there gradually spread until the situation became so 
serious that troops were called out to protect property. 
The leaders of the unions have called a general strike, 
and the men have promised to respond. The closing also 
of some coal mines has aggravated the situation, and the 
railway employees threaten to come out. Meanwhile, the 
electricians appear inclined to shut down the power sta- 
tions, which have therefore been occupied by the military. 

July 5, 1913 



Schools and Societies 

The Uxiversitt of Wisconsin held its sixtieth commence- 
mem on June IS, Charles R. Van Hise delivering the 


The Unb'ebsity of California, at Berkeley, opened its 
summer school on June 23, with over 2000 students, and 
will continue for about six weeks. 

A PARTY of seventeen students of mining from the Case 
School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio, has been in- 
specting the mines and mills of the Coeur d'Alene. They 
are also doing some practical work. 

The Massachusetis 'Tech' held its commencement on 
June 10, and about 300 students received degrees, of which 
21 received the degree M.S., and 269 the degree B.S. Chas. 
Ransom Hill presented a thesis, the title of which was 
'Cyanidation of Low-Grade Silver Ore from Utah.' 

The Universxtt of Illinois summer session opened on 
June 16, and will close August 16. Courses offered are 
arranged primarily for the needs of teachers, principals, 
and superintendents. Many of the regular university in- 
structors will offer instruction during this special summer 

The University of Virginia, at Charlottesville, held its 
commencement exercises, finishing the eighty-eighth con- 
secutive session, during the week ended June 21. There 
were 116 graduates. A gift providing for 10 scholarships 
of $300, or 5 of $600, per annum, to be awarded to young 
Virginians was announced. 

Harvard University held its annual commencement start- 
ing June 14. Work Is practically finished on the new 
Coolidge laboratory for the department of chemistry. The 
new bulldlns, which will be in active use with the open- 
ing of college In the fall, is a memorial to T. Jefferson 
Coolidge, '84, whose family subscribed $50,000 for its con- 

Announcement is made that the first work in which co- 
operation between the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nologj- and Harvard University is to be effected has been 
outlined, and the confirmatory votes have been cast by the 
members of the two corporations. It is an arrangement 
whereby the students in public health, biology, and sanitary 
matters may have the benefits of corresponding courses. 

Columbia Univebsitt will have about 4000 students at 
tending the six weeks' summer school which opens early 
In July. There are to be 243 Instructors and 38 assistants. 
Students planning to spend the summer or the remainder 
of the year in Germany have been aided by a new depart- 
ment In the Deu^sches Haus. It is called the Bureau of 
Academic Information, and is open daily, except Saturday, 
from 9 until 5 o'clock. It contains the announcements of 
the various German universities and scientific schools, as 
well as many books and pamphlets pertaining to higher 
education. Under the Joint auspices of Columbia's Maison 
Fraunaise and the Paris Sorbonne, a students' tour of 
France is also planned for the summer. 

Arrangements for the twenty-fourth general meeting of 
the American Electro-chemical Society, to be held at 
Denver, September 9 to 11, are progressing well. Offers 
of papers for the meeting have Increased to twenty-one; 
four papers are already at hand, and one has been dis- 
tributed. Several more will be ready for distribution with 
the July Bulletin. Those having papers to present at this 
meeting should btar in mind that In order for them to 
be printed and distributed in advance of the meeting, the 
manuscript should reach the secretary not later than July 
15. If the title of the paper has not been sent in. it should 
be as soon as possible. Joseph W. Richards is secretary, at 
the Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

Profeasional men are invited to send news of their engage- 
ments and travels. Such news Is Interesting to friends. 

J. W. Finch Is in the East. 
W. A. Hall has gone to Europe. 
Thomas F. Cole is in New York. 
Joseph W. Richards is in France. 
James Douglas has gone to Europe. 
Barton Sew all has sailed for Europe. 
P. D. BUBTT has gone to Seward, Alaska. 
F. G. CoTTRELL was in New York last week. 
H. F. Wierum Is expected in San Francisco. 
Thomas T. Read was in Boston early in the week. 
F. C. Alsdorf is visiting Cobalt and neighboring districts. 
A. B. Willard is president of the Republic Mines Cor- 

Thomas Jay is superintendent at the Frisco mine, Mul- 
lan, Idaho. 

Herbert C. Enos is now at Ediflcio La Mutua, Na 200, 
Mexico, D. F. 

Henry Bishop is superintendent at the Last Chance mine. 
Coeur d'Alene district. 

Harry J. Wolf has been examining a property in Cala- 
veras county, California. 

W. L. Anderson is local manager for the Mother Lode 
Sheep Creek Mining Company. 

C. F. Rand and Bradley Stoughton attended the recent 
meeting of the American Society for Testing Materials at 
Atlantic City. 

T. R. WooDBBioGE, who has been visiting sampling works 
in the interest of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, was in San 
Francisco this week. 

J. A. Holmes and a party of engineers from the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines will sail from Seattle on the Admiral 
Sampson today to investigate the Matanuska coalfields. 

H. Foster Bain will leave for Denver and the East, 
Tuesday. He will attend the International Geological Con 
gresa at Toronto In August as a representative of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers. 

Japanese Coal Situation 

The Imperial Government of Japan has placed an order 
for about 150,000 tons of Fushun coal for the railways for 
the current year. The aggregate annual consumption by 
the whole of the service is figured about 1,200,000 tons per 
year, and Fushun coal now comes in for the supply of one- 
eighth of the total consumption. The appearance of this 
coal on the field at home little disconcerts the suppliers of 
home coals. Such is stated to be the case by a good au- 
thority, who ascribes it to the rapid growth of Industrial 
enterprises all over Japan. The demand for coal is rising 
year by year, and the Import of Fushun coal in consider- 
able quantities is no longer looked upon as a trespass upon 
the legitimate market for home coals. Two shafts have 
been sunk on Shltnoputago Islet, Japan, the work marking 
an important development of the Takashima collieries, 
which are owned by the Mitsu Blshi Co. It is estimated 
that 34,000 tons of coal will be obtained from the new 
shafts this year and that a monthly output of 30,000 tons 
will be possible when the preparatory work is complete. 
The colliery will be known at Putagoshima. The coalfield 
tapped by the shafts is called Nakanoshima and contains, 
according to experts, 11,520,000 tons of coal. The yield is 
estimated to last 34 years. Another coalfield lies between 
Nakanoshima and Takashima and will be reached in the near 
future. Its area is far greater than the dimensions quoted 
above and 70 years is estimated as necessary to exhaust the 
reserves of both fields. The daily outputs of Takashima 
and Hashima mines, which up to now have supplied all the 
famous Takashima coal, are about 300 tons and 500 tons, 



July 5, 1913 

New York Metal Market Review 

Copper declined steadily in June, the concessions being 
made principally by second-hands; various influences both 
at home and abroad being held accountable, in addition to 
lack of demand. Lead, despite the absence of any really 
good demand, held up well, but the course of the metal in 
London and the consequent effect on the New York market 
was disappointing. Spelter was uniformly dull and declined 
steadily. Antimony was without any interesting feature 
beyond the continuance of low prices. The demand for tin 
was not heavy, prices declined, and London, always irregu- 
lar, was unusually erratic. Aluminum was lower at the 
end of the month and much affected by tariff possibilities. 

The Waterbury average for May was 15.87%c. The early 
days of June were almost completely devoid of demand, not 
even re-sale lots of electrolytic at around 15.25c. cash, New 
York, inducing consumers to enter the market. At no time 
was there much betterment. When the month opened, the 
large agencies were holding to their prices of 15.75c. cash, 
New York, for electrolytic and 15.87% to 16c. for Lake, 
■with the latter scarce for early delivery. At this time it 
was freely admitted that consuming mills were receiving 
fewer orders, though they were busy on those previously 
booked. In Liondon the market weakened in the early days 
of June. About June 7 there were some sales of electrolytic 
by second-hands at 15.37y2C. cash, 30 days delivered, equal 
to 15.25c. cash, New York. London continued to decline. 
In the second week of the month there were additional 
sales of electrolytic, also by second-hands, who accepted sub- 
stantial concessions according to report. One of the large 
agencies did not deny on June 18 that its price abroad had 
been reduced to 15c. Many rumors were rife in the second 
week of the month, and the situation was rather unsettled 
in consequence. An added cause of uneasiness was a strike 
at the Laurel Hill, L. I., refinery of the Nichols Copper Co., 
which to some extent curtailed production. In the third 
quarter of June the quiet continued. Lake copper of a good 
grade, but not equal to prime Lake, was offered at 15c. cash. 
New York, but no takers came forward. For actual prime 
Lake, an offer of 14.75c. was made, but holders would not 
sell at this figure. In fact, practically no business was stir- 
ring, and producers saw no incentive for reducing their 
prices. Some re-sale lots were sold at 14.50c. cash. New 
York, but the quantities were not great. Four reasons were 
advanced for the quiet which prevailed: the fact that con- 
sumers were comfortably well supplied for their June 
needs, the falling off in new business, fears of tariff changes, 
and unsettled finances abroad. Toward the latter part of 
the month the American Brass Co. reduced the price of 
sheet copper and copper bottoms one cent, making the new 
base price for sheets 20c. and that for bottoms 26c. per 
pound. Near the end of June the price of electrolytic cop- 
per was weak at 14.50c., and that of Lake almost as weak 
at 15c. In Lake, especially, prices were largely nominal. 
Up to June 27 exports amounted to 23,858 tons. 

In the latter part of May there was a little flurry in lead, 
though no buying that might be called heavy. Early in 
June interest died out, but the metal remained firm at 
4.35c. New York and 4.20c. St. Louis. Approaching the 
middle of the month, an interesting situation developed 
because of the price advances in London. The foreign 
quotation June 11 was £20 7s. 6d, equal to 4.36c. New York. 
It was foreseen that if the foreign price went up a few 
points more to cover freight to London, English buyers 
could come to the New York market. A week later, June 
18, the London price was £21, equal to 4.48c. New York. 
Subtracting 15c. per 100 lb. for freight left 4.33c., the price 
at which London could buy in New York. This was within 
two points of the New York price. The situation greatly 
strengthened the market, although New York quotations 
did not advance. Still another supporting influence was a 
fire which damaged the plant of the St. Joseph Lead Co., 
Herculaneum, Missouri, and which interfered with deliver- 
ies by that Com.pany. The situation resulted In 4.22%c. St. 

Louis being asked by some interests. Expectations of any 
large business from abroad were quashed when it developed 
that the high London price was the outcome of a corner 
not strong enough to stand. The foreign price declined and 
the incident was closed. Domestic consumers at the end of 
the month were buying only in a hand to mouth fashion. 


The market at the beginning of June was about 5.30 
New York and 5.15 St. Louis, very quiet and weak. It was 
reported that the demand of the galvanizers had fallen oft. 
As the month progressed there were repeated declines, and 
the only demand that might be called even fair was for 
future metal. Toward the end of June the metal was 
quoted at around 5.16c. New York and 4.95 St. Louis and 
sellers were not inclined to press sales at these prices. It 
came to light that about 2000 lb. of spelter which had been 
smelted in bond from Mexican ore had been shipped to 
Europe. In the last few days of the month a little better 
demand developed and better buying was expected to soon 
materialize because of the fact that consumers had been 
out of the market so long that their stocks were low. 

Throughout the month antimony was dull and without 
sufllcient business to fully test prices. Hallett's was quoted 
at from 8.15 to 8.25c.; Cooksons at from 8.60 to 8.70c; and 
Chinese and Hungarian grades at from 7.50 to 7.75c. 


The month opened quietly following the heavy buying in 
the last days of May referred to in the last report. The 
buying in that movement was caused by heavy unloading 
by one London house. Early in June the price dropped to 
46.60c. New York, a decline of several points under what 
purchasers had paid a few days previously, and they 
naturally were much disappointed. On June 9 about 300 
tons was sold for delivery in various months, the spot 
price being 45.37% to 45.60c. At this time the supply was 
pretty well concentrated in a few hands. London had shown 
a persistent declining tendency. Toward the middle of 
June the market was very dull, so much so that 100 tons 
of Banca tin was re-shipped to London. Straits tin is al- 
ways preferred in the New York market, though Banca is 
acceptable in times of shortage. The London market was 
very erratic in the third and last quarter of the month. 
June 17 London declined £3, which was attributed to finan- 
cial conditions abroad unfavorable to speculation and to 
the poor demand from this country. On June 18 the Lon- 
don price touched £203 5s. for spot, which up to that day 
was the low point of this year, but there was a rally after 
this low figure. In the last part of the month the market 
was very dull, and for much the same reasons as were men- 
tioned in the copper report. In London there was much 
liquidation, forced, it is imderstood, by the withdrawal of 
loans to Vienna operators by the bank which was financing 
them. The result was a decline of £12 in four days, which 
was followed by a recovery of £6 in two days. On June 23, 
spot tin was down to £193 in London. On June 27 the metal 
suffered another decline in London, falling £3 10s., the 
cause being reports from the United States that tin-plate 
mills might curtail consumption. These reports were not 
borne out by statements which followed here. The ten- 
dency throughout the month was a declining one, the month 
opening at 46.60c. and prices standing at 44.10c. on June 26. 
Arrivals up to June 27 totaled 3000 tons and there was 
afloat 875 tons. 


In June aluminum declined by easy stages from 25- 
25.50 to 23.50-24.50c. The most interesting feature of the 
month was the proposal of the United States Senate to fix 
the duty on aluminum Ingots at a flat rate of 2c. per pound, 
instead of the duty of 25% ad valorem proposed by the 
Underwood bill as passed by the House of Representatives. 
The present rate on ingots Is 7c. per pound. Authorities 
have pointed out that the cost of foreign aluminum is at 
present 18% to 19c. per pound c.i.f. New York, which, with 
a 2c. duty would make it 20% to 21c. per pound. This com- 
pares with the present price of 23.50 to 24.50c. to the dis- 
advantage of the American product, as can be seen. 

July 5, 1913 



The Metal Markets 


San Francisco is not a primary marlcet for the common 
metals except quiclcsilver. Tlie prices quoted below tliere- 
fore represent sales of small lots and are not such as an 
ore-producer could expect to realize. Ore contracts usually 
call for settlement on the basis of Eastern prices, less 
freight and treatment charges. The prices quoted are in 
cents per pound, except in the case of quicksilver, which is 
quoted in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 
San Francisco, July 3. 

Antimony 12— 12Jc 

Electrolytic Copper „ 16— 16}c 

Pig Lead 4.60— 6.55c 

QulcksUver (flask) ?4l 

Tin 60— 61}c 

Spelter 7— 7io 

Zinc dust, 1400 lb. casks, per 100 lb., small lots 19.50—9.75; large {7.50— 8.50 

(By wire from New York.) 
NEW YORK, July 2. — Copper remains unchanged, though 
small lots have been sold at a slight concession. In gen- 
eral, buyers are waiting, and the Copper Producers' figures 
are anticipated with much interest. Lead is steady, the Are 
at Herculaneum having made no impress on the market. 
Spelter is beginning to show the effect of curtailment of 
production, and prices are firm, though no higher. 


Below are given the average New 
cents per ounce, of fine silver. 

June 26 58.12 

•' 27 58.12 

" 28 58.37 

" Sunday 

30 58.37 

1 68.12 

2 68.12 


York quotations, in 

Average week ending 




21 60.66 

28 60.08 

4 59.99 

11 59.75 

18 69.08 

25 58.12 

2 68.20 

Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan 56.25 63.01 

Feb 59.06 61.25 

Mch 68.37 67.87 

Apr 69.20 69.26 

May 60.88 (0.21 

June 61.29 69.03 


July 60.67 

Aug 61.82 

Sept 62.96 

Oct. 62.16 

Nov 62.78 

Dec 68.38 



Lead is quoted In cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds. New York delivery. 





4 33 


4 S3 


4 33 

22 Sunday 

4 33 


4 33 


4 33 


Average v 
4 33 


4 33 





June 26. 

" 27 

' •• 28 

29 Sunday 

" 30 

July 1 


week ending 







Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan 4.43 4.28 

Feb 4.03 4.33 

Mch 4.07 4.32 

Apr 4.20 4.36 

May 4.20 4.84 

June 4.40 4.33 





Nov 4.91 

Dec 4.20 




Zinc Is quoted as spelter, standard 
Louis delivery, in cents per pound. 

Western brands, St. 

June 19. 
" 20. 




" 25. 






Average week 

June 26. 




29 Sunday 




















Monthly averages. 






June 6.88 

. 6.42 
. 6.60 
. 6.67 
. 6.63 
. 6.68 









. 7.12 

. 6.96 

. 7.46 

. 7.S6 

. 7.28 

. 7.09 


L. Vogelstein, in a trade letter dated June 27, points out 
that consumption of spelter has., as yet, been but little re- 
duced. It Is the decrease in future orders for Iron, steel, 
and brass goods that makes buyers nervous and which has 
affected prices. The Senate proposes to raise the tariff from 
10 to 15%, and on ores from 10 to 12%%. Assuming that 
spelter abroad goes as low as £20, and that the Senate rates 
stand, 5.25c. would be the lowest New York price for im- 
ported spelter, and this would constitute no menace to Amer- 
ican producers. It is well known that there has been in- 
sufHclent spread between prices of ore and metal, and that 
new works have been buildins. Present conditions discour- 
age the builders from firing up, and mines are closing. It 
is worth remembering, however, that the present financial 
storm has been foreseen and largely discounted. While, 
therefore, immediate prices may be low, it may be but a 
short time before good conditions return. 


Quotations on copper as published in this column rep- 
resent average wholesale transactions on the New York 
market and refer to electrolytic copper. Lake copper com- 
mands normally from 1-5 to l-4c. per lb. more. Prices are 
in cents per pound. 

June 19 14.60 

20 14.50 

21 14.60 

" Sunday 

" 23 14.40 

■' 24 14.43 

25 14.43 

Average week 

May 21 16.60 

28 16.43 

June 4 16.18 

11 14.79 

June 26 14.43 

27 14.43 

" 28 14.43 

29 Sunday 

•' 30 14.43 

July 1 14.43 

2 14 43 


June 18 14.70 

25 14.47 

July 2 14.43 

Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan 14.09 16.54 

Feb 14.08 14.93 

Mch 14.68 14.72 

Apr 16.74 15.22 

May 16.03 16.42 

June 17.23 14.71 


July 17.19 

Aug 17.49 

Sept 17.56 

Oct 17.32 

Nov 17.31 

Dec 17.37 



Figures showing the visible supply of copper at the be- 
ginning of each month are now widely available. Below 
are given the amounts, in pounds, known to be available at 
the fli-st of each of certain months. The flgures are those 
of the Copper Producers' Association supplemented by Mer- 
ton's flgures of foreign surplus. 

U. S. European. 

July 1912 44,336,004 107,817,920 

August " 60,281,280 113,285,760 

September " 46,701,376 112,743,680 

October " 63,065,687 107,396,800 

November " 76,744,967 103.803,840 

December " 86,164,059 96,949,440 

January 1913 105,311,360 96,859,840 

February " 123,198,352 100,067,520 

March " 122,302,198 96,642,720 

April " 164,269,270 106,565,760 

May " 75,649,108 102,664,720 

June " 67.474,225 93,378,880 

July " 85,565,760 

United States Pboddction and Consumption 

Production. deliveries. Exports. 

May 1912 126,737,836 72,702,237 69,485,945 

June " 122,315,240 66,146,229 61,449,650 

July " 137,161,920 71,093,120 60,121,600 

August " 146,628,521 78,722,418 70,486.160 

September" 140,089,819 63,460,810 60,264,796 

October " 145,405,453 84,104,734 47,621,342 

November" 134.695,440 69,369,795 55,906,650 

December" 143,363,280 68,490,880 65,712,640 

January 1913 143,479,626 65,210,030 60.383,845 

February " 130,948,881 59,676,402 72,168,623 

March " 136,251,849 76,585,471 77,699,306 

April " 136,333,402 78,168,837 85,894,727 

May " 141,319,416 81,168,800 68,286,007 

The fortnightly statistics of copper show that the Euro- 
pean stocks. Including Hamburg and Rotterdam, on June 
30 decreased 1727 tons, while copper supplies afloat de- 
creased 50 tons, making a total decrease in the visible sup- 
ply of 1777 tons to 38,199 tons, as compared with 39,976 tons 
on June 14 last. 


The primary market for quicksilver Is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, being the largest producer. The price Is fixed in the 
open market, and. as quoted weekly In this column, is that 
at which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the car- 
load can usually obtain a slight reduction, and those want- 
ing but a flask or two must expect to pay a slightly higher 



July 5, 1913 

price. Average weekly and monthly quotations, In dollars 
per flask of 75 lb., are given below: 

Week ending 

June 5 41 

•' 12 41 








Jan 43.75 

Feb 46.00 

Mch 46.00 

Apr 42.25 

May 41.75 

June 41.30 

Monthly averages. 



July 43.00 

Aug 42.50 

Sept 42.12 

Oct 41.50 

Nov 41.50 

Dec 39.75 



New York prices control In the American market lor tin, 
since the metal is almost entirely Imported. San Francisco 
quotations average about 5c. per lb. higher. Below are given 
average monthly New York quotations, in cents per pound: 
Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan 42.53 50.45 

Feb 42.96 49.07 

Mch 42.58 46.95 

Apr 43.92 49.00 

May 46.05 49.10 

June 45.76 45.10 


July 44.25 

Aug 45.80 

Sept 48.64 

Oct 50.01 

Nov 49.92 

Dec 49.80 


The Stock Markets 


(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 
San Francisco, July 2. 

Atlanta t .15 

Belmont. 6.05 

Big Four 42 

Buckhorn 1.30 

Con. Virginia 06 

Florence 33 

Goldfleld Con 1.70 

Ooldfleld Oro 10 

Halifax 1.45 

Jim Butler T!l 

Jumbo Extension 11 

MacNamara 17 

Mexican 70 

Midway 43 

Mizpah Extension t .50 

Montana^Tonopah 1.00 

Nevada Hills .93 

North Star 87 

Ophlr .18 

Pittsburg Silver Peak 45 

Round Mountain 47 

Sierra Nevada 12 

Tonopah Extension 2.07 

Tonopah Merger .61 

Tonopah of Nevada 5.50 

Union 08 

West End 1.35 

Yellow Jacket 19 


(By courtesy of J. C. Wilson, Mills Building. 
July 3, 


Adventure t IJ 

Allouez 31 

Calumet & Arizona... 59J 

Calumet * Hecla 415 

Centennial 10 

Copper Bange 39J 

East Butte 10 

Franklin 5 

Granby 56 

Greene Cananea 5| 

Hancock 15} 

Isle-Royale 19 

Mass Copper 2j 


(By courtesy of E, 










Mohawk 8 

North Butte 

Old Dominion 




Superior & Boston 


U. S. Smelting 

Utah Con 





July 3. 
Bid Ask 














F. Hutton & Co., Kohl Building. 
July 8. 

Alaska Mexican. 
Alaska Tread... 
Alaska United.. 

Alaska G. M 

Braden Copper.. 

B. C. Copper 



El Rayo 

Ely Con 

First Nat 


Greene Can 


Kerr Lake 

La Rose 




18 y* 






Mason Valley... 5% 
McKinley-Dar. . 1% 

Miami 6s 168 

Mines Co. Am.. 2% 

Nlplssing 8% 

Ohio Copper.... % 

San Toy 18 

Sioux Con 2 

S. W. Miami 5 

So. Utah % 

S. O. Calif 170 

Tri Bullion % 

Tuolumne 1% 

United Copper.. .. 

Wettlaufer 11 

Yukon Gold 2% 







Copper production of the Utah Copper and Nevada Con- 
solidated companies in May was 9,834,894, and 5,933,275 lb., 

CoppEB CONCENTRATE produced by the Elmore process at 
the Sulitjelma mines, Norway, in May, amounted to 850 


(By cable, through the courtesy of Catlin & Powell Co., 
New York.) 

July 3. 

£ 8. d. 

Alaska Mexican l 17 6 

Alaska Treadwell 7 17 6 

Alaska United 3 17 

Arizona 1 17 

California Amalg 2 

California Oilfields 4 

Camp Bird 15 

El Oro 15 

Esperanza 17 

Granville 7 

July 3. 
£ B. d. 

Kern River Oilfields 5 

Mexico Mines 5 12 6 

Messina 1 10 

OrovUle 5 

Pacific Oilfields •26 

RloTlnto 71 17 6 

Santa Gertrudis 17 6 


Tanganyika. 2 

Tomboy 1 

July 3, 

£ 8. d. 

British Broken Hill 2 

Broken Hill Props 1 15 

Golden Horse-Shoe 2 12 6 

Great Boulder Props 13 9 

Ivanhoe 2 6 

Kalgurli 2 

July 3. 

£ B. d. 

Moimt Boppy 12 

Mount Elliott 4 10 

Moimt Lyell 15 

Mount Morgan. 3 6 

Walhl 2 2 

Walhi Grand June 17 


The Shattuck-Arizona Copper Co. has declared a dividend 
of 50c. per share, making $4 to date. During 1912 no pay- 
ments were made. 

The Ahmeek Mining Co. has declared a quarterly divid- 
end of $5 per share, as against $7 paid in the two pre- 
vious distributions. 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co., 
on July 3, paid dividend No. 190, amounting to $65,400. 
This makes a total to date of 114,369,550. 

The Federal Mining & Smelting Co. will pay a dividend 
of 75c. per share, on July 15, on the common stock. This 
is the first payment on this stock since January 1909. On 
the same date, the preferred stock will be paid 87%c. per 
share, the second during 1913. Total dividends declared 
to date amount to $10,399,750. 

The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., operating a 
smelter and a number of mining properties in British Co- 
lumbia, paid a semi-annual dividend of $220,000, on July 5. 
The disbursement is based 'on a rate of 8% per year on the 
issued capitalization, and will bring the total payments of 
the company to $1,234,061. 

In July a total of $263,419,305 will be paid to investors 
representing dividend and interest disbursements by rail- 
road, industrial, and traction corporations, banRs and trust 
companies, the national government, and New York City. 
This compares with $253,267,992 last year. This month 
the sum of $95,885,055 will be paid to stockholders in the 
way of dividends, or an increase of $3,430,263. 

The Abangarez Gold Fields Co. of Costa Rica reports the 
following results of operations at its mines: 

Four Four 

April, months months 

1913. of 1913. of 1912. 

Ore crushed, tons 5,221 17,353 15,116 

Tailing leached, tons 482 1,662 2,104 

Slime treated, tons 4,468 14,462 11,101 

Extraction by amalgamation $13,680 $39,781 $65,928 

Extraction by cyanide 30,956 113,843 67,520 

Total $44,636 $153,625 $133,449 

Less cost of operation, market- 
ing and administration (ex- 
clusive of betterments) 44,071 184,829 260,747 

Profit from operations $565 *$31,203 *$127,298 

Betterment expenditures. 18,187 36,339 115,436 


London advices report that the Pato dredge of Orovllle 
Dredging Co., Ltd., recovered $1550 from 11,200 cu. yd. in 
the week that ended on May 27, and $2560 from 21,400 cu. 
yd. in the week that ended on June 3. 

July 5, 1913 



Current Prices for Ores and Minerals 

(Corrected monthly by Atkins, KroU & Co.) 

The prices are approximate, subject to fluctuation, and to 
variation according to quantity, quality, and delivery re- 
quired. They are quoted, except as noted, f.o.b. San Fran- 
cisco. Buying prices marked •. 

Mln. Max. 

Antimony ore, 50<t, f* ton •J22.00 J25.00 

Arsenic, white, reflned, IS lb 0.04 0.04J 

Arsenic, red, refined, f) lb 0.08 0.08J 

Asbestos, according to length and quality of fibre 

^ ton 100.00 360.00 

Asbestos, lower grades, ?! ton 5.00 60.00 

Asphaltum, refined, -fi ton 10.00 20.00 

Barium carbonate, precipitated, |( ton 42.50 45.00 

Barium chloride, commercial, fi ton 42.50 46.00 

Barium sulphate (barytes), prepared, ^ ton .._ 20.00 30.00 

Bismuth ore, 10% upward, fi ton "TS-OO upward 

Chrome ore, according to quality, f) ton _ 10.00 12.50 

China clay, English, levigated, fi ton 15.00 20.00 

Cobalt metal, refined, f. o. b. London, fi lb 2.50 

Coke, foundry, fi 2240 lb 14.80 15.00 


Ballas according to size and quality, ft carat 70.00 

Borts, according to size and quality, y carat 2.00 15.00 

Carbons, according to size and quality, ?» carat .._ 55.00 90.00 

Feldspar, f ton 6.00 25.00 


Bauxite, fi M _ 175.00 

Magneslte, ft M 190.00 275.00 

Silica, -ft M 42.50 65.00 

Flint pebbles for tube-mills, » 2240 lb 19.50 22.50 

Fluorspar, ^ ton 10.00 15.00 

Fullers earth, according to quality, Igt ton _ „ „ 20.00 30.00 

Gllsonlte, 1« ton 36.00 40.00 


Amorphous, fi lb _ O.OH 0.02i 

Crystalline, ;> lb 0.04 0.13 

Gypsum, ft ton _ 7.50 10.00 

Infusorial earth, )« ton , 10.00 15.00 

Magneslte, crude, ?! ton _ 6.00 7.50 

Magneslte, dead calcined, fl ton _ 20.00 26.00 

Magneslte, brick (see firebrick). 

Manganese ore, oxide, crude, ft ton 10.00 25.00 

Manganese, prepared, according to quality, fl ton 30.00 70.00 

Mica, according to size and quality, fi lb „_ 0.05 0.30 

Molybdenite, 95» MoS,, H ton 400.00 460.00 

Monazltesand (5«thorta), V ton 160.00 200.00 

Nickel metal, refined, ft lb _ 0.46 0.80 

Ochre, extra strength, levigated, ft 100 lb 2.25 3.26 

Platinum, native, crude, f oz _ 30.00 46.00 

SIlex lining for tube-mUls f) 2340 lb 32.60 36.00 

Sulphur, crude, f, ton _ 30.00 25.00 

Sulphur, powdered, fl ton 36.00 46.00 

Sulphur. 80<l, ¥ ton 18.80 latO 

Talc, prepared, according to quality, ft ton __ 20.00 80.00 

Tin ore, 80<6, ft ton ISIIO.0O 60a00 

Tungsten ore, 66)1 _4aB.OO 460.00 

Lranium ore, 10» mln. „ 26.00 per unit 

Vanadium ore, IS^VjO,, H ton 160.00 180.01 

Wolframite (see tungsten ore). 

Zinc ore,.60 * up.* ton n^OO 20.00 

Current Prices for Chemicals 

(Corrected monthly by Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co.) 
Prices quoted are for ordinary quantities In packages as 
specified. For round lots lower prices may be expected, 
while in smaller quantities advanced prices are ordinarily 

charged. Prices named are subject to fluctuation. Other 
conditions govern Mexican and foreign business. 

Mln. Max. 

Acid, sulphuric, cora'l, 66°, drums, f( 1001b 10.75 fl.OO 

Acid, sulphuric, com'l, 66°, carboy, f: 100 lb 1.00 1.60 

Acid, sulphuric, C. P., 9-lb. bottle, bbl., » lb 0.13 ai8 

Add, sulphuric, C. P., bulk, carboy, V lb 0.09J 0.12 

Acid, muriatic, com'l, carboy, f, 1001b 1.80 8.00 

Acid, muriatic, C. P., 6-lb. bottle, bbl., ft lb 0.15 0.20 

Add, muriatic, C. P., biUk, carboy, fl lb O.IOJ 0.15 

Acid, nitric, com'l, carboy, ?« 100 lb 6.00 6.80 

Add, nitric, C. P., 7-lb. bottle, bbl., V lb 0.16 0.22 

Acid, nitric. C. P., bulk, carboy, ft lb.' 0.121 0.16 

Argots, ground, bbl., ft lb _ , 0.10 0.20 

Borax, cryst. and cone, bags, ft 100 lb 3.00 4.36 

Borax, powdered, bbl., f, 1001b 3.38 4.60 

Borax glass, gd. 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, ft 100 lb 10.50 13.60 

Bone ash, 60 to 80 mesh, bbL, ?( 100 lb 6.60 6.60 

Bromine, 1-lb. bottle, ^ lb 0.55 0.66 

Candles, adamantine, 14 oz., 40 sets, * case. 4.60 4.80 

Candles, adamantine, 14 oz., 80 sets, f, case. 5.25 5.46 

Candles, Stearic, 14 oz.. 40 sets, I* case 8.00 6.20 

Candles, Stearic, 14 ois., 60 sets, * case 6.70 8.90 

•Rxtra charge for packing nitric acid for shipment to conform 
to regulations. 

Clay, domestic Are, sack, ft 1001b 1.50 

Cyanide, 98 to 100%, lOO-lb. case, ft lb...., !!....!!."..!!...! 0.20J 

Cyanide, 98 to 100*, 20O-lb. case, f, lb ."....'. 0.20 

Cyanide, 129», 100-lb. case, ft lb ..............I 0.27i 

Cyanide, 129*, 200-lb. case, ?* lb ....II!!"..!.I 0.26J 

Lead acetate, brown, broken casks, ^ 100 lb 9.60 

Lead acetate, white, broken casks, ft 100 lb 10.50 

Lead acetate, white, crystals, %i 100 lb i2.50 

Lead, C. P., test, gran., f( 100 lb ..13.00 

Lead, C. P., sheet, f! 100 lb !!!!!!"...........,.15.00 

Litharge, C. P., silver free, ^! lOO lb 1................11.50 

Litharge, com'l, )) 100 lb _ 8.00 

Manganese ox., blk., dom. In bags, ft ton 20.00 

Manganese ox., blk., Caucasian, In casks, ^ ton _ 36.00 

(85* MnOj— J* Fe) 

Nitre, double refd, small cryst., bbl., ^ 100 lb 7.00 

Nitre, double refd, granular, bbl., ;p lOO lb 6.50 

Nitre, double refd, powdered, bbl., lf( 100 lb 7.25 

Potassium bicarbonate, cryst., |) 100 lb 12.00 

Potassium carbonate, calcined, )i 100 lb 7.80 

Potassium permanganate, drum, fi lb _ o.lOJ 

Silica, powdered, bags, ^ lb o.03 

Soda, carbonate (ash), bbl., |( 100 lb 

Soda, bicarbonate, bbl., |) 100 lb .'.... 2.25 

Soda, caustic, groimd, 98*, bbl., fi 100 lb „„i 3.15 

Soda, caustic, solid, 98*, drums, )» 100 lb .'....""..." 2.65 

Zinc shavings, 850 fine, bbl., |i 100 lb 10.55 

Zinc sheet. No. 9—18 by 84, drum, ^ 100 lb .."!..... 8.75 





Joplin Ore Market 

At the beginning of July, zinc sulphide ores brought $39 
to $43 per ton, assay basis of 60% metallic zinc, and spelter 
at East St. Louis was quoted at $5 per cwt. These figures 
compared with those of the corresponding period of 1912 
are discouraging, but conditions throughout the district 
nevertheless are fairly good. At this time a year ago zinc' 
sulphide ores brought $54 to $58, basis, with better grades 
selling for $61, and spelter brought $7. Shipments are less 
than 5000 tons per week, and the output is possibly a few 
hundred tons in excess of this, as a number of operators 
are holding for better prices. This indicates a gradual in- 
crease in the surplus reserves, which are now about 4500 
tons. Calamine brings $20 to $21 per ton, assay basis 40% 
metallic zinc. Lead ore is unchanged at $52.50 per ton, 
80% metallic lead. 

Coal Mining in China and Japan 

There Is a colliery at Huashihling, northeast of Chang- 
chun, with a coal seam said to 15 ft. thick. At present 
about 13 tons is produced dally. With the use of modern 
machinery the daily output will easily be considerably in- 
creased. The Chinese tax collector at Changchun resigned 
his office recently to assume management of the colliery. 
He has paid about $37,500 to the concessionaire as the price 
of the property and is said to have a similar amount to 
invest in the mine. Recent coal production of the Kalian 
mining administration's mines was as follows: 

Output, Sales, 

tons. tons. 

Week ended March 22 28,656 44,685 

Week ended March 29 39,686 40,352 

Week ended April 5 39,932 40,401 

Week ended April 12 36,101 50,597 

Norway's ore production in 1912 was as follows: pyrite, 
43,000 tons; iron, Norway and Sweden, 400,000 and 2,800,- 
000 tons respectively; and nickel ore, about 250,000 tons. 
The Sultijelraa copper mine produced 149,600 tons of ore, 
yielding 11,500 tons concentrate by the Elmore process. 
There are 11 Elmore machines in operation. A Wedge 
roasting furnace was installed to deal with the Elmore con- 
centrate. The Sydvarangar Iron Ore Co. will soon be in a 
position to produce 650.000 tons per annum. The Evje 
nickel mine produced 240,000 tons of ore, and the refinery 
produced 400 tons of nickel and 200 tons of copper. 

Pic-tKON I'BODUCTioN of Germany during 1912 was 17,852,- 
571 metric tons. 



July 5, 1913 

Recent Metallurgi cal Pat ents on the Rand Decisions Relating tO Mining 

Regulating Undebflow from Cone Sand Classieieiis 
The application of Cliarles William Dowsett is for the 
purpose of providing automatic means for regulating the 
underflow from cone sand classifiers. An outlet valve at 
the underflow aperture is made to open when the frictional 
engagement of the moving sand overbalances a weighted 
level which again comes into operation to close such valve 
when the sand is below a predetermined level so that the 
vertical surface supplied for the frictional engagement pre- 
sents a smaller area of contact. 

Regulating Undeeflow of Classifying Cones 
The application of William Arthur Caldecott refers to 
the means for regulating automatically the underflow of a 
classifying cone or similar apparatus, the main part con- 
sisting of a buoyant body or float which actuates a or 
equivalent device placed at or near the outlet of the cone, 
the said body of float falling or rising according to the depth 
of settled solids increases or decreases inside the cone and 
thus automatically opening or closing the outlet. This ap- 
paratus Is used in combination or otherwise with the dia- 
phragm forming the subject matter of patent No. 231 of 

Tube-Mill Dischakge 
The application of William Calder has reference to the 
discharge of ground pulp from tube-mills and consists of a 
perforated plate through which the pulp enters a lift cham- 
ber having means, such as radial arms, to elevate the pulp 
and discharge it into the discharge trunnion of the mill. 
Its usefulness lies In the free and rapid discharge of com- 
minuted ore from the mill, giving the effect of a peri- 
pheral discharge. 

Specially reported for the Mikino and Scientibic Press. 

Barytes Production, 1912 

The production of crude barytes in the United States in 
1912, according to figures compiled by J. M. Hill, of the 
United States Geological Survey, was 37,478 short tons, 
valued at $153,313. Compared with the production of the 
preceding year this was a decrease of 967 tons in quantity, 
but an increase of $30,521 in value, the average price per 
ton reported to the Survey in 1912 being $4.09, compared 
with $3.19 for 1911. At the close of 1912 there were 6262 
short tons of crude barytes mnsold at the mines. There 
was also 29,865 tons of barytes imported, having a value of 
$79,315, and $376,017 wortk of barium salts, including arti- 
ficial barium carbonate and blanc fixe. 

The greater part of the barytes produced in the United 
States is used as a pigment in the manufacture of mixed 
paints. It is also used in the manufacture of lithopone, a 
white pigment. Other uses for the mineral are in the manu- 
facture of rubber, wall paper, asbestos cement, and poker 
chips, and in tanning leather. A use of barytes reported 
from Italy is in the manufacture of gorgonzola cheese. The 
cheese receives a covering in the form of a thick heavy 
crust of the finely ground material which has the property 
of affording just suflicient protection from aeration. 

Chilean Sale of Nitrate Lands 

A decree has been issued fixing November 17, 1913, as the 
date of the next public sale by auction of nitrate lands 
belonging to the Government. The lands to be sold are 
known as the Santa Laura de Wendel property, and it is 
estimated to contain 15,000,000 metric quintals of nitrate 
(metric quintal, 220.46 lb.). It is situated in the province 
of Tarapaca. The Government reserves the right to divide 
the property into two lots if desired. The sale will be held 
before the Junta de Almoneda in Santiago under the usual 
terms and conditions. — Consular Report. 

St. .John Dei. Rey mine, Brazil, produced gold valued at 
$153,000 from about 14,000 tons in May. 

Oil Lease — Treated as an Option 
An oil and gas lease was held to be a unilateral contract 
which did not bind the lessor unless certain conditions were 
performed by the lessee. If the lessee failed to perform 
such conditions within the time prescribed, then the lease 
was to be treated as a forfeited option and the lessor re- 
leased from all obligations thereunder. 

Witherspoon v. Staley (Texas), 156 Southwestern, 557. 
March 12, 1913. 

Oil Placers — In.iunction Denied 
In an action to determine the ownership and right to 
possession of certain mining claims, a complaint alleging 
the hauling of lumber on the claim and the erection of a 
rig by defendants for the purpose of boring for oil failed 
to show irreparable injury such as would justify the issu- 
ance of a temporary injunction, where it did not show that 
defendants were extracting, or threatening to extract, oil 
from the ground. 

Martin v. Dunziger (California), 132 Pacific. 284. 
. March 25, 1913. 

Miner's Lien — Alaska Staitjte Construed 
Section 262, Civil Code of Alaska, giving a lien to per- 
sons performing labor on the construction, development, 
alteration, or repair of any building, flume, mine, tunnel, 
aqueduct, or other structure, limits the lien to work done 
in the development or improvement of a mine; and hence 
did not confer a lien for sluicing up the dump or for 
extracting gold therefrom, which was the ordinary work 
of a miner in the operation of a placer claim, having 
no relation to the development or improvement of the 

Noble V. Gustafson (Alafeka), 204 Federal, 69. March 
3, 1913. 

Coal Lease — Construction 
Where the lessor of a coal mine, through mere oversight 
on the part of Its employees and not from a consideration 
or interpretation of a mining lease, failed to demand an 
excess royalty to which it was entitled, this did not amount 
to a contemporaneous interpretation by the parties of a 
royalty clause in the lease. Such a clause will only be con- 
strued in light of the whole contract, and should be given 
such a construction as will not result in giving one party 
an unfair or unreasonable advantage over the other, though 
such construction violates the rules of punctuation and 

Hillside Coal & Iron Co. v. Sterrlck Creek Coal Co. 
(Pennsylvania), 86 Atlantic, 865. February 24, 1913. 

Potash production of German mines during 1912 was 
4,736,105 tons. 

Mining Co-tenants — Accounting 
Two mining companies were equal owners and tenants 
in common of certain mining properties. One of them 
secretly worked the properties, extracted a large quantity 
of ore and appropriated the proceeds therefrom without 
accounting to its co-tenant. Subsequently it sold its in- 
terest to another company, part of the consideration being 
that the grantee should assume the debts and obligations 
of the grantor. In a suit by the defrauded co-tenant 
against the grantee for an accounting and damages, it was 
held (1) that the grantee could be sued directly for an 
accounting by reason of its outstanding contract to pay the 
grantor's obligations; (2) that the measure of damages 
should be the value of ore taken less the cost of mining 
the same. The usual rule fixing the gross value of the 
ore as the measure of damages against a trespasser who 
wilfully and unlawfully converts another's ore to his own 
use does not aiiply to co-tenants because the taking in 
the latter case is lawful, although it may have been done 
with bad intent. It Is the refusal to account and divide 
the proceeds which gives rise to the cause of action. 

Silver King C. M. Co. v. Silver King C. M. Co., 204 
Federal (Utah), 166. April 5, 1913. 

July 5, 1913 



Company Reports 


This Company operates a gold mine at Porcupine, On- 
tario, and tlie report covers the work of the second year. 
The property covers about 148 acres, the largest portion of 
which is under Pearl and Gillies lakes. The available ore 
reserves are contained in not over 10 acres, which will sup- 
ply enough ore for several years. The two largest veins 
discovered were cut by a diamond-drill under Pearl lake. 
The rocks outcropping on the Mclntyre may be roughly 


divided into three kinds: (1) a dark fine-grained basic- 
schistose rock which has been called 'basaltic' schist, and 
which, on close microscopic examination, appears to be an 
altered and recrystallized diabase; (2) a crystalline pearl- 
gray acid-schistose rock, showing distinct and plentiful 
quartz phenocrysts which has been called 'quartz porphyry'; 
and (3) a massive igneous rock which has been called a 
diabase, and which intrudes the basaltic schist on the north 
boundary either as a stock or laccolith. Broadly speaking, 
there are two bands of this basaltic schist enclosing a body 
of quartz porphyry; one band on the south and the other 
on the north of Pearl lake. The lake bottom Itself is be- 
lieved to be lying in the porphyry. 

No. 1 and 4 shafts are down 300 ft. and levels have been 
driven at 100, 200, and .SOO ft., and at 200 and 300 ft. re- 
spectively. Ore reserves opened are estimated at 129,478 
tons, worth $1,470,522, while probable reserves total 371,250 
tons, worth $3,408,750. A mill of 150-ton capacity U In 
operation, and duplication is now under way. A de8cr!j> 
tion will appear In another part of this journal. Mining 
and milling costs total $4 per ton. 


During the month of May, according to the report of 
Albert Burch, the genera! manager, the total production of 
the mine was 31,047 tons, of which the mining realization 
was $43,767, and Milling & Transportation Co.'s profit and 
miscellaneous earnings were $175,677. Operating costs per 
ton were as follows: 

Mining, including stoping and development $3.31 

Transportation 0.09 

Milling 1.93 

Marketing 0.05 

Genera! expense 0.25 

Bullion tax 0.04 

Constniction 0.03 

Marketing ore shipped 1.46 

Total costs $7.16 

Miscellaneous earnings 0.02 

Net costs $7.14 

Development covered SSy** U. While this work did not 

result in the discovery of any new orebody of sufficient 
importance to deserve mention, it did open for stoping sev- 
eral small shoots, as is evidenced by the fact that the value 
of the ore obtained from development was more than 
sufficient to pay for this work, including the cost of the 
usual large amount of work done in barren ground. On 
the second level of the Combination, the 136 BX sill was 
extended, and produced 180 tons of ore averaging $12 per 
ton. The 414-D winze was sunk 86 ft. vertically below the 
bottom level preparatory to cross-cutting to the Reilly vein 
at that depth. 

The No. 3 R sill on the new No. 1 level of the Mohawk 
mine was extended, and produced 189 tons of ore averaging 
$16.50 per ton. On the old No. 1 level, about 600 ft. north- 
west of the shaft, the 170 BX sill was started and produced 
244 tons of $7 ore. The 345 A sill on the No. 3 level was 
extended, and produced 188 tons of ore averaging $9 per ton. 
Driving was continued during the latter part of the month 
on the narrow streak of high-grade ore reported last month 
in the 293 D raise. It has improved in grade, but has not 
developed an important orebody as yet. 

The 901 E sill on the intermediate of the Clermont-Jumbo 
below the No, 8 level, produced 432 tonS of $38 shipping 


The property of this Company, which is situated in the 
Zacualpam district of the state of Mexico, has been operat- 
ing almost continuously during the past year, according to 
the annual report which has just been issued. The Com- 
pany has experienced some trouble with the Zapatistas, 
who have been in this district for some time, but the loss 
to this source up to date has been small, not exceeding 
1*4000, which damage was done to the assay Office on one 
occasion. The concentration plant has been running with- 
out Interruption for the past year. Plans have been made 
for the construction of a cyanide plant and the machinery 
has been ordered. It was expected to have this plant in 
operation by the first of the present year, but owing to the 
difficulties of transportation to the mines, due to disturbed 
conditions, this work has progressed slowly. It is expected, 
however, to have this plant in operation some time in July. 
The Company is capitalized at ^^350,000 and its present 
position may be summarized as follows: 

Development work, feet 2,910 

Cost of development ¥■ 41,589 

Ore reserves, net value 420,900 

Total production during the year 355,498 

Expenditure in all departments 165,133 

Profit 190,365 

It was expected to begin the payments of dividends on 
March 15 of the current year of ?1 monthly. The condition 
of the business is reported to warrant larger dividends, but 
as the expenses of constructing the other new plant and 
other Improvements have not as yet been paid, the larger 
dividends which are expected will be deferred until a later 
date, when the present obligations have been met. 


This Company operates tin mines at Derby, Dorset county, 
Tasmania, and gold properties In northeast Victoria, Aus- 
tralia, being worked by hydraulicking and dredging, re- 
spectively. During 1912, the tin properties yielded 539 tons 
of black tin, equal to 391 tons of metal, realizing an average 
of $1033.44 per ton, a total of $404,075. The dredges handled 
1,547,600 cu. yd. of gravel averaging lie. per yd., or $170,230. 
Working costs were^ 5.5c. per yard. The total Income was 
therefore $574,305. The year's profit on all operations 
amounted to $297,600, while $216,000 was paid in dividends, 
and $101,000 carried forward. The original Briseis property 
is nearly exhausted of tin 'drift,' and production Will In 
future depend en the Krushka and Ringavoona sections, 
which will entail considerable engineering work. These 
sections are estimated to contain 800,000 .and 8,947,300 cu. 
yd. of 'drift' respectively, containiiiK 750 and 4'jf'S tons of 
black tin, which should be won at a cost of $908 per ton. 



July 5, 1913 


Moat of these are In reply to questions received by mall. 
Our readers are Invited to ask questions and give Informa- 
tion dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

Machine-dkiixs totaling 9018 are In commission In Rand 

BOBAX, M.\GKEsiTE, .^>i) ciiBOME production Of the United 
States in 1912 came solely from California, according to 
the State Mining Bureau. 

Buii.DiKG PERMITS Issued In San Francisco between April 
1906 and June 25, 1913, totaled $50,000, involving an ex- 
penditure of $225,227,000. 

QiAUTZiTE PEBBLES Suitable for tube-mills are being pro- 
cured from the Powder river. Baker county, Oregon, lor 
the Cornucopia Mines Company. 

The new 2co.\tPAnTMEXT shaft of the Commonwealth Ex- 
tension Mining Co., at Pearce, Arizona, was recently sunk 
206 ft., and timbered 196 ft., in 30 days. 

The Arthur mill of the Utah Copper Co. at Garfield 
originally contained 312 Nissen stamps. These were re- 
placed by twenty-six 16 by 3714-in. Garfield rolls, and a 
similar number of 6-ft. Chilean mills. The capacity of 
the plant was Increased from 3000 to 9000 tons per day. 

Fluorspar production in the United States in 1912 
amounted to 116,545 tons valued at $769,163. This came 
from Illinois, Kentucky, Colorado, New Hampshire, and 
New Mexico, in the order named. Analyses of gravel 
fluorspar show 71.65 to 92.31% CaFj, 4.15 to 28.33% SiO,, 
1.19 to 6.41% CaCO,, and 1.07 to 4.75% FeA- 

Coke prodi:ction of the United States In 1912 was 43,916, 
834 tons, valued at $111,523,336, an Increase of 8,365,345 
tons, valued at $27,392,487, over that of 1911. The output 
from by-product ovens is increasing, this being 3,200,000 
tons, compared with the previous year. In all, there were 
102,080 coke-ovens in operation. The avei'age quantity of 
coke made from coal was 67 per cent. 

Melakoch.\lcite is a copper oxide with SiOj, CO,, and 
H,0. It is massive, occurring as a pitchy black layer a few 
millimetres in thickness over a nucleus of cuprite, this 
kernel being surrounded by a banded green zone of chryso- 
coUa and malachite, and this again by quartz, the whole 
forming nodules having an average diameter of 120 mm. 
and of much beauty in cross-section. The black mineral 
when pure has a brilliant lustre and is very brittle. Hard- 
ness 4, and specific gravity 4.141. Analyses show the fol- 
lowing composition: SiO,, 7.80; CO,, 7.17; CuO, 76.88: ZnO, 
0.41; Fe,Os. 0.07; and HjO, 7.71. 

Bullion assays are made at the Perth (Western Austra- 
lia) mint in duplicate, one by weighing the cornets by a 
modification of Foord's compensating weight method, and 
the other by a direct-weight system. It has been found 
that under the conditions of work employed, there is the 
same difference in surcharge for equal dllferences in fine- 
ness, so that the surcharge of a cornet can be resolved 
into two parts: one a correction proportional to the fine- 
ness of the bullion, or proof, but constant for all fires, and 
the other a correction constant for all cornets in a fire, 
but varying in different fires. The first correction is made 
by adjustments applied to the weights and ordinary rider 
used, and the second by placing an extra 'surcharge' rider 
in the requisite position on the beam. The balance read- 
ing thus gives the fineness directly, corrected for surcharge. 

GrM'hite is useful in steam hollers to prevent formation 
of scale. The best and simplest way is to feed it into the 
feed-pump suction line. Feed about one pint (0.5 lb.) graph- 
ite into each boiler each day of 12 hours. For every 100 hp. 
above 250 hp. an extra one-third pint of graphite should be 
used. Boiler graphite forms a thin slippery film over the 

boiler linings, protecting them from the action of acids in 
the water and associates itself with the sediment which 
is formed. This prevents the formation of hard scale and 
keeps the solid residue thrown down by the evaporation 
of the water in such a soft condition that it can easily be 
ejected from the boiler by the process of blowing off. If 
the water is not blown off sufficiently often, this sediment 
forms in quantities large enough to necessitate cleaniDg 
the boilers. Any boiler using bad water should be blown 
off every 12 hours. After all the old scale has been re- 
moved, the daily injection of graphite may be decreased 
slightly. It is the continual Introduction of a small amount 
of graphite that brings about satisfactory results. In addi- 
tion to the above, put about two quarts of graphite into 
a boiler each time after cleaning. The water will aid to 
distribute the graphite evenly over the heating surfaces. 
Boilers of more than 250-hp. capacity require an extra 
pint of graphite for each additional 100 horse-power. 

Agricola, in 1556, wrote the following in 'De Re Metal- 
lica' regarding venae profundae, or fissure veins. The direc- 
tion in which the 'head' (outcrop) of the vein comes into 
the light, or the direction toward which the 'tail' extends, 
is indicated by its foot-wall and hanging wall. The latter 
is said to hang, and the former to lie. The vein rests on 
the foot-wall, and the hanging wall overhangs it; thus, when 
we descend a shaft, the part to which we turn the face is 
the foot-wall and 'seat' of the vein, that to which we turn 
the back is the hanging wall. Also in another way, the 
'head' accords with the foot-wall and the 'tall' with the hang- 
ing wall, for If the foot-wall is toward the south, the vein 
extends its 'head' into the light toward the south; and the 
hanging wall, because it is always opposite to the foot- 
wall, is then toward the north. Consequently, the vein ex- 
tends its 'tail' toward the north if it is an inclined vena 
profunda. Similarly, we can determine with regard to east 
and west and the subordinate and their intermediate direc- 
tions. A vena profunda which descends Into the earth may 
be either vertical, inclined, or crooked; the foot-wall of an 
inclined vein is easily distinguished from the hanging wall, 
but is not so with a vertical vein; and again, the foot- wall 
of a 'crooked' vein is Inverted and changed into the hang- 
ing wall, and contrariwise the hanging wall is twisted into 
the foot-wall, but very many of these crooked veins may be 
turned back to vertical or inclined ones. 

A PECULIARITY common to all the mines in the Kolar 
goldfleld; India, is the amount of mercury which is ex- 
tracted during treatment by cyanide. It was a distinct 
trouble to the chemist in charge, according to H. M. Leslie, 
and entailed a great deal of extra work at clean-up. The 
amount of mercury which was extracted from the pan 
slime was considerable, as much as from % to 1 oz. per 
ton being common. This mercury was deposited in the 
zinc-boxes, and materially and adversely influenced the 
quality of the bullion which was obtained. Its effect was 
to make the whole of the zinc exceedingly brittle, so that 
the contents of the first three or four compartments were 
amalgamated and formed a zinc sludge, the greater part 
of which was zinc. This had all to be removed at clean- 
up, together with a proportionately large amount of short 
zinc from the other compartments, in order to prevent a 
continual congesllon of the boxes. The extraction of gold 
by cyanide was always satisfactory, notwithstanding the 
presence of the mercury in the material. The average 
original assay was from 2 to 3% dwt. per ton, and the 
residue assayed from 8 to 21 gr. of gold per ton, as the 
weather and other conditions of treatment varied. A pre- 
caution which was found to be necessary in dealing with 
the 'leachings' from this class of material, was that the 
gold-bearing solution, before passing into the zinc-boxes, 
had to be freed of any slime which might have been drawn 
through the filter-cloths of the percolators. The most efB- 
cient type of settling-vat for this purpose was found to 
be one constructed after the pattern of a zinc-box, but of 
much greater depth, each compartment being packed with 
cocoanut fibre to which the fine panicles adhered. These 
were cleaned out at intervals. 

July 5, 1913 



Recent Publications 

Labor Legislation of 1912. Labor Laws of the United 
States, Series No. 1. Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Labor, 
•No. III. P. 263. Chart. Washington, 1913. 

Ret.mi. Prices, 1890 to 1912, Inclusive. Bulletin HZ. 
Cost of Living Series, No. 5. P. 162. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. Washington, 1913. 

Ansu.^l Report on the Mineral Production of Canada, 
1911. Compiled by John McLelsh. Department of Mines 
bulletin. P. 316. Ottawa, 1913. 

U. S. Geological Survey papers. Washington, 1913: 
Pboductiox of AcaisivE Materials in 1912. By Frank 

.1. Katz. Advance chapter from 'Mineral Resources of the 

United States, 1912.' P. 14. 
Reci'rkent TKOPinoLEPTus Zones of the Upper Devonian 

IN New York. By Henry S. Williams. Professional Paper 

79. P. 103. 111., chart, index. 

University of California publications, Department of 
Geology. Berkeley, 1913: 

Ski'll and Dentition of a Camel from the Pleistocene 
OF Rancho La Bre;.v. By .lohn C. Merriam. P. 18. 111. 

Petroohaphic Designation of Alluvial Fan Formations. 
By Andrew C. Lawson. P. 9. 

Notes on Scuteixa Norrisi and Scutasteb Andebsonl 
By Robert W. Pack. P. 7. 111. 

Western Australian Government Water-Supply papers. 
Perth, 1912-13: 

Water Supplies in Aoricixtubal Abeas. P. 52. Maps. 

Metropolitan Water-Supplt, Sewerage, and Drainage 
Departmfnt ok Perth, Annual Report 1911-12. P. 27. 
Plans, maps. 

GoLiiFiELDS Wateb-Supply ADMINISTRATION. Annual re- 
port, 1911-12. P. 31. Diagrams. This report deals with 
the operation of the water scheme, 353 miles long, supply- 
ing the Fiastern Goldfields of the state. 

Bureau of Mines publications. Washington, 1913: 
Flash Point of Oils. By Irving C. Allen and A. S. 

Technical paper 49. Petroleum Technology 10. P. 31. 



Belden. Bnllotin 54. P. 29. 111. 

Permissible Explosives. By Clarence Hall. Technical 
Paper 52. P. 11. This paper gives details of such explo- 
sives tested prior to March 1, 1913. 

RuLFS AND Regulations to Govern the Coal Mines at 
Gebo, Wyoming, leased to the Owl Creek Coal Co. P. 13. 
These mines have been leased by the United States to this 

Colorado State Geological Survey bulletins, Denver, 1913: 

Geology and Obe Deposits of the Alma District. Park 
County. By Horace B. Patton, Arthur J. Hoskin, and G. 
Montague Butler. Bulletin 3. P. 284. 111., maps, charts, 
table. Index. 

Gfoi.o<.v AND Ore Deposits of the Monarch and Tomichi 
Districts, by R. D. Crawford. Reconnaissance of the 
Gf/)i.ooy of the Raiibit Ears Region, by F. F. Grout, P. 
G. Worcester, and Junuis Henderson. Permian or Permo- 
Caruonifebols of the Eastern Foothills op the Rocky 
Mou.ntains in Colorado, by R. M. Butters. Bulletin 5. P. 
418. III., maps, charts, index. 

Common Minerals and Rocks. Their occurrences and 
uses. By R. D. George. Bulletin 6. P. 406. 111., map, 

chart. Sacramento, 1912. This Commission has been 18 
months investigating the natural resources of California, 
including forests, water-supply, irrigation, and flood-water 
control. The subject of irrigation is of great importance 
to the farming industry, and this covers 244 pages in the 
volume. The 'Irrigation Resources of Southern California' 
is discussed by C. E. Tait. Mineral lands, embracing 
dredging, oil, placer, and quartz operations, is given five 
pages, and a special report was made on dredging by C. 
B. Lipman, but the Commission's report seems to be rather 
antagonistic to this mode of mining. 

United States Geological Survey advance chapters from 
'Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912.' Washing- 
ton, 1913: 

Production ov B.vuxite and Aluminum. By W. C. Pha- 
!en. P. 16. 

Production of Fluor.spar and Cryolite. By Ernest F. 
Burchard. P. 9. 111. 

Prof.uction of Anthracite. By Edward W. Parker. P. 

Stailstics of the Pottery Industry. By .Tefterson Mid- 
dleton. P. 16. 

SuRi-ACE Wateb-Supply of the United States, 1910. 
Part XII. North Pacific Coast. Prepared under direction 
of M. O. Leighton by F. F. Henshaw. E. C. La Rue, and 
G. C. Stevens. Water-Supply Paper 292. P. 695. 111., index. 

Report of the Conservation Couhission of the Statk 
OF California. By Georgf- C. Pardee, Francis Cuttle, and 
J. B. Baumgartner, Commissioners. P. 502. 111., maps. 

A New Mine-Rescue Telet)hone Equipment 

The problem of devising ways and means for the pro- 
tection of human life in mines is probably the most Im- 
Itortant question before mine-operators and the United 
States Bureau of Mines today. The laws of practically 
every state in which mining operations are carried on, call 
for regular Inspections and also contain many safety regu- 
lations, not the least of which, in a number of states, is a 
section making compulsory the use of telephones under- 

During the past few years, the Western Electric Co. has 
furnished several thousand mine telephones for under- 
ground use. Through this intimate association with those 
Interested in mine-safety work, attention was directed to 
the urgent need for some means of instant and continuous 
communication between an advance or rescue party 
equipped with its oxygen apparatus and the rear party 
outside the mine. In the past, members of rescue parties 
have lost their lives where loss of life could have been 
prevented by a quick and reliable means for summoning 
aid. The demand for this type of equipment has been 
met by the Western Electric Co., which has succeeded in 
producing a light, serviceable, and extremely simple tele- 
phone equipment for use in rescue work. In developing 
the apparatus, the United States Bureau of Mines was fre- 
quently consulted, in order that every requirement of this 
severe service might be fully covered. 

A man wearing an oxygen helmet, which covers his 
mouth, cannot use the ordinary type of telephone trans- 
mitter, so that a special type of transmitter, known as 
the 'throat' transmitter, has been developed to meet this 
unusual condition. The transmitter is light and compact, 
and is provided with a soft rubber cup to adapt Itself 
to the curves of the throat. This throat transmitter has 
been found by actual test to transmit speech practically 
as well as the standard Bell instruments Both receiver 
and transmitter are held firmly in position in such a 
manner that they will not Interfere with any type of oxy- 
gen ai)p:!ratiis now on the market. The telephone equip- 
ment used by the man on the outside is a standard' switch- 
board operator's set consisting of a chest type transmitter 
and head-band receiver. 

The rescue party Is connected with the rear by means 
of a small TTlre cable consisting of two Insulated copper 
conductors covered with a stout linen braid Impregnated 
with moistura-resisting comiiound. This wire is In 500-ft. 
colls and Is carried In a leather case fastened to the 
helmet man's belt, paying out as he advances. As the 



July 5, 1913 

coils are light, weighing less than 3 lb. apiece, several 
of them can easily he carried, and as one is run out, 
another can be connected by means of a plug and jack 
combination. The wire Is so wound that it cannot become 
tangled and will pay out in whatever position the helmet 
man may have to assume. The total weight of telephone 
equipment carried by the helmet man, including one 
coil of wire, is a little over 5 lb. One end of the coil 
carries an aluminum-encased plug which connects with 
the head receiver and throat transmitter by means of an 
aluminum-encased jack. The other end is equipped with 
a similar jack connecting with a plug and cord running 
to a battery and apparatus box. This box is an essential 
part ot the equipment and must be situated at the point 
from which the rescue party is being directed. It con- 
tains eight dry batteries mounted in a Patterson screw- 
type battery-holder, and a key, two jacks, and a battery 
gauge mounted in a removable compartment. The oper- 
ator's telephone set is connected to the apparatus and 
battery box by means of a cord, plug, and jack. 

In many cases it may be found desirable to use cable 
for carrying the talking circuit down a shaft or to the 
edge of the danger zone. For this purpose a large box, 
including a cable reel, is furnished. The box holds 1300 
ft. of specially strong and flexible cable. A heavy ratchet 
and pawl are provided to prevent the reel from turning 
after enough cable has been paid out. Connections with 
the apparatus box and the coil carried by the helmet-man 
are effected by means of aluminum-encased jacks and 
plugs, while electrical contact with the Inside end of the 
reeled cable is made through collector rings and commu- 
tator brushes connected to a jack. 

The entire outfit has been designed and constructed with 
a view to iiroviding practical and serviceable telephone 
equipment for mine-rescue work. Service tests have proved 
that this object has been attained, and the telephone equip- 
ment should be of incalculable benefit to those engaged 
in rescue work. 

The Haldane Flame-Test Apparatus 

While the percentage of fire damp in mine-air can be 
readily estimated by means of the cap on a lamp-flame, 
no equally simple test has hitherto been available for esti- 
mating the amount of black-damp in the 'air. Black-damp, 
as ordinarily met with, is simply nitrogen mixed with 
from about .5 to 20% of carbon dioxide. It is the residual 
gas resulting from various oxidation processes in mines 
and the surrounding strata. It might, perhaps, seem 
simpler and more logical to discard the use of the term 
'black-damp' and refer only to the deficiency of oxygen 
and excess of carbon dioxide in the air. To the miner, 
however, black-damp is a real entity; and although the 
proportion of carbon dioxide in black-damp varies, black- 
damp is quite definitely characterized by its origin and by 
its effects on lights and on men. When air is mixed with 
black-damp, the oxygen percentage of the air is lowered 
in proportion to the amount of black-damp added. The 
percentage diminution in the oxygen is thus a measure 
of the percentage of black-damp, unless fire-damp or some 
other gas is present in appreciable amount, and helps to 
lower the oxygen. A flame-test can thus be graduated 
either to percentages of oxygen, or, as seems simpler, to 
percentages of black-damp. As the oxygen percentage in 
air diminishes, the flame of a candle or lamp is affected 
in two ways. In the first place, the light given steadily 
diminishes. Roughly speaking, the light of a candle or 
lamp diminishes by 30% with a tall of 1% in the oxygen 
percentage, and the flame will no longer burn when the 
oxygen has fallen from the normal (20.93%) to about 17.5%. 
A further effect is that the flame becomes less and less 
stable as the oxygen percentage diminishes; it is more 
and more easily blown out by any chance draught or 
movement. To those who work or move about in 'dull' 
air, this is painfully familiar: their light is constantly 
going out. It Is upon this latter fact that the test now 
to be described is based. 

The apparatus for the test consists of a piece of glass 
tube and some thin tapers. When a lighted taper is held 
inside the tube, an upward draught is, of course, produced 
by the heat- and this draught varies In strength, accord- 
ing as the taper Is held high up or low down in the tube. 
The draught tends, naturally, to blow the flame out; and, * 
according to the percentage of oxygen in the air, the flame 
is extinguished at a point lower down or higher up in 
the tube. The size of tube chosen as being convenient 
for the test Is one 7 In. long by 0.75 in. internal diam- 
eter. The main graduations are In percentages of black- 
damp, from up to 10% ; and there are subsidiary cor- 
responding graduations in percentages of oxygen, from the 
normal of 20.9 down to 18.8. Below about this percentage 
the taper will no longer burn in the tube; and when held 
upright, it will no longer burn outside the tube with less 
than about 18.2% of oxygen or 13% of black-damp; but, 
when held in a horizontal position, it will still bum until 
the percentage of oxygen has fallen to about 17.2, or 18% 
of black-damp. There is thus a wide range within which 
the proportion of black-damp can be estimated by the 
taper and tube. As the flame becomes very small when 
it Is just on the point of extinction, its position with 
respect to the graduations on the tube can be determined 
quite easily. The lighted taper should be first pushed up 
to a point where It burns easily, and then gradually low- 
ered. With a little practice, it is easy to find with con- 
siderable exactness the point at which it just extinguishes. 
If there is much black-damp in the air, it may be nec- 
essary to push the taper through the tube before lighting 
It, and then to lower it cautiously into the tube. The 
tapers used are 1/16-in. diameter, the thinnest that it 
was possible to obtain. Thicker tapers are much less 
convenient, and are apt to crack the glass. The tubes 
must, of course, be held vertically while the test is being 
made and to prevent the glass from cracking. The tube 
of the size specified has been graduated by experiments In 
an air-tight chamber, the black-damp being produced either 
by respiration or by allowing gas to burn in the chamber. 
The experiments showed that the tube Indicates the state 
of the air with surprising sharpness and accuracy. Ex- 
periments show that, under favorable conditions, the ac- 
curacy is greater than that ordinarily reached by a Hempel 
gas-analysis apparatus. Similar accuracy cannot, however, 
be expected In tests made underground, unless trouble- 
some corrections are Introduced for the varying percent- 
age of moisture in the air and the varying proportion of 
carbon dioxide in the black-damp, and unless great care 
is taken as to the exact point at which the flame is just 

It appears from these experiments that the method is 
sufficiently delicate to make It very useful In estimating 
the percentage of oxygen, or of black-damp, in the air of 
a mine. For ordinary practical purposes, it is greatly 
preferable to chemical analysis, as It gives the informa- 
tion at once, and the test can be repeated in as many 
places as may seem desirable. It does for black-damp 
what the cap-indications do for fire-damp, and with its 
help the proper distribution of air in a naked-light mine 
can readily be controlled. For instance, the return-airways 
may be tested at different points, and excessive leakage, 
or defective arrangement of regulators, can be detected 
at once. The tube method must not, however, be supposed 
to do more than it actually accomplishes. For instance, 
it does not, of course, detect carbon monoxide. Air con- 
taining after-damp, or fumes from explosives or an un- 
derground fire, might be excessively dangerous, although 
the tube test would show that the air contained less than 
8% of black-damp. Unless the tube gave practically no 
indications at all of impurity, one could not be sure from 
Its readings alone that dangerous proportions ot carbon 
monoxide were absent from the air of a mine. Of course, 
the tube would be far better than a lamp. Arrangements 
have been made with Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd., H. N. 
Elmer, Agent, 1140 Monadnock block, Chicago, to supply 
the whole apparatus complete, with metal case and an 
inner tube to hold the tapers, and a holder for use when 
a taper has to be held far up in the tube. 

" Science has no enemy save the ignorant." 

Whole No. 2764 


San Francisco, July 12, 1913 

Single Copies, Ten Cents 





- Assistant Editors 


San Francisco 



M. W. von BERNEWITZ / 

New York 

THOMAS T. READ Associate Editor 

T. A. RICKARD .... Editorial Contributor 
EDWARD WALKER .... Correspondent 

A. W. Allen. Charles Janln. 

Leonard S. Austin. James F. Kemp. 

Gelaslo Caetanl C. W. Purlngton. 

Courtenay De Kalb. C. F. Tolman, Jr. 

F. Lynwood Garrison. Horace V. Wlnchell. 


Cable Address: Pertusola. Code; Bedford McNeill (2 editions). 


CHICAGO — 734 Monadnock Bdg. Tel.: Harrison 1620 and 636. 

NEW YORK — 1308-10 Woolworth Bdg. Tel.: Barclay 6469. 

LONDON — The Mining Magazine. 819 Salisbury House, E. C. 

Cable Address: OUgoclase. 


United States and Mexico $3 

Canada [ .4 

Other Countries in Postal Union .21 Shillings or $6 

L. A. GREENE Business Manager 

inured at San f^aneUco Pottojflce at Seeond-aatt Matter. 

A GERMAN professor with a new divining rod 
■^*- has arrived in this country on the same steamer 
with a scientist who has a light that duplicates 
daylight. "We second the suggestion of the New 
York Svn that they get together and hunt turtles 
for the Friedmann Institute. 

"VTOME citizens are reported to have held a mass- 
^^ meeting to protest against the new mining law 
passed by the territorial legislature and to appeal 
to for its revision ; rather a sorrj- com- 
ment on the vociferous demand for home rule that 
has been coming from Alaska. 

"DEPORTS from Antwerp state that the control 
■"•^ of the Trinidad Oilfields, Ltd., has passed to 
the Royal Dutch-Shell company, unusual interest 
being lent to the transaction by the statement that 
the purchase was made jointly with the British 
"Western Isles, Ltd., a Rothschild company. The co- 
operation of two such large interests in the Trin- 
idad fields is strong evidence of their great probable 


EDITORIAL! ' p^gg 

Notes , J 

Law and Mining In West Virginia." '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 43 

Geologle of Kalgoorlle 4? 

The Rand Strike 44 


Geology of the Kalgoorlle Goldfleld — I 

r. 1 I Malcolm Maclaren and J. Allan Thomson 45 

Dredging at Panama 4g 

The Olancho Country A D ' Akiii 41 

The Mclntyre-Porcuplne Mill '" 52 

A .Simple Plant for Testing Efficiency A T Tva B3 

Kleinfontein and Tube-Mills ' 55 

Searles Lake Potash Deposits H S "oa'le S6 

Iron Production for 1912 B8 

Gravel Plant In Nevada 58 

Relation of Faulting and Mineralization in Goidfleid' 
Ti o . T . ^ ^ Corrln Barnes and E. A. Byler 59 

The Basic-Lined Converter E. P. Mathewson 61 

Improvements at the Old Dominion Mine, Arizona 01 

Portable Electric Mine Lamps H H Clark 6' 

The Analysis of Black Powder and Dynamite.. 6.S 

Metal Production In Arizona '' 73 

Australian Copper Production 70 

The San Francisco Mint t 78 

Metnl Output of the Central States '. 78 

PhllipDine Mineral Production 79 

MIncr.Tl Production of Peru In 1911 79 

Ore Reserves of Rand Mines 79 

HIgh-Voltage Dlrect-Cui rent Locomotives 83 


The Psychology of Zinc F. L. Clerc 63 

Oll-Hurninsr in Furnaces Herbert Lang 64 

The .Mother Lode of California W.T.Robinson 65 


GE»rERAL MIMNG NEWS ...........'. 71 


Personal 73 

Schools and Societies .'..', 75 

Metal Markets 76 

Stock Markets 77 

Company Reports : .'.'.'. 80 

Book Reviews 81 

Recent Publications ....','. 81 

Concentrates ' 82 

TTA'VING two trains pass on the same track has 
■*• ■*■ been frequently, if inadvertently, tried, but the 
experiment has been wholly without success. At 
the Rosas mine in Sardinia, Mr. E. Praetorius has 
found how to make two buckets on an aerial tram 
pass on the same rope ; and as usual, it is simple 
when you know how. This ingenious piece of en- 
gineering is described and pictured in the June 
number of our London contemporary, The Mining 

QHIPMENT of an initial consignment of East 
^ Texas brown iron ores from Galveston to Phila- 
delphia has been made as part of a contract to sup- 
ply 300 tons per day. The outcome of the venture 
will be a matter of interest to the "West generally. 
The brown ores of Texas, while low in phosphorus, 
are also rather low in iron, and shipments on a 
large scale can scarcely be expected to maintain 
a grade of over 32 to 35 per cent. Freight rates 
to the ore fields are heavy, and there seems to be 
a better opportunity for the development of iron 
smelting within Texas. There is a fair market for 
pig iron in that state, and a larger market for such 
steel products as cotton ties and fence wire, while 
the demand is brisk for the ammonium sulphate that 
is a by-product of coke-making. Plans are well ad- 
vanced for the beginning of smelting in Texas, and 
it is to be hoped that iron-making may take its 
way westward in company with 'the star of em- 
pire. ' 



■July 12, 1913 

■pOISONING from an unusual cause is reported 
■*■ by Dr. Louis Casamajor in a recent number of 
the Journal of the American Medical Association. 
The men affected worked in the mill of a large mine, 
of which zinc was the chief product, and after 
periods of from six months to three years developed 
a pathological condition of the central nervous 
system, affecting principally the mechanism of walli- 
ing and equilibrium. The ore was practically free 
from lead and arsenic, but contained quantities of 
manganese, to which Dr. Casamajor is inclined to 
attribute the effect produced. At the risk of seem- 
ing to treat a serious subject with undue levity, we 
venture to suggest that a similar effect is exhibited 
within a shorter period following the ingestion of 
spiriius frmnenti. 

OUGGESTIONS for a scientific non-partisan tariff 
*^ commission are met regularly at Washington 
by the statement that the members of Congress 
concerned in the revision, themselves constitute a 
commission directly chosen for the task in hand. 
An excellent side-light on their competence is thrown 
by the testimony of Mr. A. B. Fall, senator from 
New Mexico, to the effect that there is a 'zinc trust' 
and that it controls most of the zinc deposits and 
smelters of this country. In fact, the most impor- 
tant sources of zinc ores in the United Spates are 
the Joplin, Leadville, and "Wisconsin districts, and 
no company controls any one of these. The most 
important use of spelter is for galvanizing, and 
probably the largest user is the United States Steel 
Corporation, which controls the Edgar Zinc Com- 
pany, which, however, operates less than 10 per cent 
of the retorts in this country. The New Jersey Zine 
Company is the largest single concern and does 
dominate the zinc oxide business. In the mining 
of ore, however, or the making of spelter it plays 
only a minor part. The zinc business is particularly 
free from control, and it is a pity that matters so 
important as the tariff should be decided by those 
who are so ignorant. 

secured time loans, an unusually large margin, and 
one that should result in a good supply of ready 
money in the autumn. 

TULY brings dog days (elsewhere than in Cali- 
^ fornia) and also dividend disbursements. Ac- 
cording to the computations of the leading finan- 
cial journals, over $266,000,000 in dividends and in- 
terest on railroad and industrial securities was paid 
on July 1. This represents an increase of $12,000,- 
000 over Juh' 1, 1912. But what is more encourag- 
ing is the decrease in new securities issued. Rail- 
roads have placed $152,000,000 less of new securities 
in the first half of this year than they did in the 
corresponding period of 1912, while industrial cor- 
porations have issued $227,000,000 less. This shorf- 
ening of sale is most encouraging for the country 
at large, but leads to dull times in Wall Street. It 
is related that the junior partner of a firm of brok- 
ers that formerly did a large business was recently 
observed leisureh' taking a hearty hmch. To the 
question as to how he could afford to remain away 
from his office for so long a time, he replied, "Our 
customer is sick." Preparations to finance the mov- 
ing of crops next fall are already under way, and 
call money in New York during June commanded 
2.291 per cent, or over 3i/^ per cent less than well 

/CONDITIONS in Mexico appear to be growing 
^^ steadily worse regardless of the efforts which 
the present administration has made to stem the tide 
of revolution and brigandage which has swept the 
country from the Rio Grande to Guatemala. The 
latest reports from Mexico state that the Huerta 
government is bankrupt and on the verge of col- 
lapse ; Felix Diaz, the instigator of the revolution 
which resulted in the overthrow of the Madera 
regime, and who has been generally accepted as the 
next president, has sailed for Europe ; President 
Huerta is anxious to be relieved of the presidency; 
and Francisco de la Barra, Mexico's foremost diplo- 
mat, who will be remembered as the representative 
of Porfirio Diaz at Washington and who succeeded 
him as president, has resigned as Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. So it would appear evident that the present 
administration is facing a more serious situation 
at the present than at any time since taking up 
the reins of government. With the revolution gain- 
ing ground and the apparent inability of the federal 
troops to cope with it, a lack of funds and an ever 
changing personnel of the government officials, it 
would seem that there is no hope within Mexico 
for her salvation. However, to those who have 
tried and are trying to keep the mines and mills 
going in spite of the many handicaps and dis- 
couragements, while there is apparently no im- 
mediate solution, it is a long road that has no 
turning, and it is to be hoped that the pendulum 
will soon swing in the opposite direction. 

■pLSEWHBRE in this issue, Mr. Herbert Lang 
^ discusses the conditions governing the combus- 
tion of liquid fuel. An atomized liquid, which 
superficially resembles a gas, differs essentially from 
a true gas, and even more markedly from a solid 
combustible, in its method of burning. In the ease 
of a gas, it is easily seen that proper care must be 
taken to secure its thorough mixing with a suffi- 
cient quantity of air in order to provide the oxy- 
gen necessary for the heat-liberating reaction, avoid- 
ing arty undue excess, since air consists largely of 
nitrogen, which carries away heat without having 
been productive of any. In the case of solid fuel, 
this almost adjusts itself in any reasonably weU 
designed furnace, since the fuel and air move in 
contrary directions, the fuel burning away as fast 
as air is supplied for the piirpose. In an oil-fired 
furnace the fuel and air move in the same direction 
at nearly equal speed, cross-currents providing for 
the proper mixing. Careful regulation is necessary 
to constantly maintain the proper proportion of air 
and liquid. In addition, the minimum temperature 
of combustion must be maintained as well. A hot 
coal will continue to burn, though in contact with 
a cold surface, if supplied with air for combustion, 
because the coal keeps itself hot enough by the heat 
it liberates. A gas-air mixture, or an air-liquid 
mixture, will not continue to burn under such cir- 
cumstances, because it radiates heat so rapidly that 

July 12, 1913 



it quickly cools itself below the minimum combus- 
tion temperature. The solid fuel burns on its grate 
and radiates its heat to nearby objects; a gas or 
liquid burns throughout the combustion space, and, 
if allowed to radiate its heat too quickly, soon cools 
below the temperature of combustion. Hence it fol- 
lows that the proper mechanical construction of a 
firebox or furnace for burning liquids differs mark- 
edly from that which gives the most satisfactory 
results with solid fuel. 

■pUKTHER details are now available concerning 
■'• the huge metallurgical plant to be erected to 
treat copper ore by leaching at Chuquieamata, as 
discussed at some length in our editorial columns 
of June 21. The ore, which is mined by steam- 
shovels, will be subjected to a preliminary crushing 
in gyratories, crushers, and rolls, and then distrib- 
uted, by a system of belts, into concrete vats, lined 
with aeid-proof materials and holding 9000 tons 
each. It is estimated that one day will suffice for 
filling a vat, two to three days for acid treatment, 
and washing, and one day for discharging, each vat 
holding one day's ore supply. The extraction proc- 
ess might perhaps be more accurately termed soak- 
ing, rather than leaching, since it is not necessary 
to cause the solvent to percolate through the ore 
to the same degree as is required in cyaniding gold 
ores. The pregnant solution will be drawn off into 
solution tanks, preliminary to electrical precipita- 
tion. The leached residue will be excavated from 
the vats by clam-shell buckets operated from a trav- 
eling bridge, somewhat resembling the system used 
in reloading coal from stockpiles, and the residue 
will be piled upon the waste dump by a series of 
belt conveyors. The plant is to be built upon a 
side-hill having a 6° slope and of sufficient extent 
to provide ample storage room for the great quan- 
tity of tailing which will in time be produced. The 
contract for the construction of the electrical power- 
plant and transmission line has already been let to 
the lowest bidder, a German firm, for approximately 
.$3,000,000; the equipment including a 40,000-kilo- 
watt, oil-fired power-plant on the seacoast, a 100- 
mile transmission line to the mines, and the neces- 
sary auxiliary sub-stations and transformers. It is 
hoped to have the plant in full operation within 
three years, but construction work on so large a 
scale at so great a distance from headquarters may 
easily involve unexpected delays. 

Law and Mining in West Virginia 

We have so far refrained from comment on the 
coal-mining situation in West Virginia, for much 
the same reason that ar. onlooker might well hesi- 
tate to assess the blame in the progress of a Dbnny- 
brook fair. We can, however, agree heartily with 
Mr. Theodore Roosevelt in putting the blame square- 
ly up to the courts for the part they have played 
in a situation which in no phase evokes admiration. 
On the one hand, it has been charged that armed 
attacks upon labor camps were made by men who 
were presumably agents of the operators, that the 
declaring of martial law was unjustified, and "thi; 
employing operators have not only discriminated 

in utterly unjust . and anti-social fashion against 
labor unions, but have endeavored to keep the min- 
ers in a state of practical serfage by the use of 
company stores." On the other hand, it is alleged 
that demoralization of the profitable mining indus- 
try of West Virginia was incited by operators in 
other districts, who found a ready tool in labor 
leaders anxious to reap personal profit through stir- 
ring up trouble. Of the measure of truth in these 
counter allegations we profess no special knowledge. 
But it must be evident to any sober thinker that 
the courts of West Virginia, in declaring unconsti- 
tutional all the legislative measures intended to pre- 
vent the exploitation of employees through the aid 
of the company store and, on the other hand, in re- 
fusing to permit that degree of combination among 
operators which would preserve them from cut- 
throat competition, is in large degree to blame for 
a condition which is almost synonymous with an- 
archy. It is truly remarkable that the courts, sup- 
posed to be the guardians of the rights of the peo- 
ple, have developed into institutions of slow-witted 
legalism which seem to be chiefly effective in ob- 
structing the securing of the rights of labor and 
capital alike. That anarchy which is misnamed so- 
cialism by such organizations as the Industrial 
Workers of the World finds its chief justification in 
the manner in which the courts defeat the will of 
the people in attempting to adjust themselves to 
the ever-changing conditions of that social organ- 
ism which we call the American nation. Cannot 
.some effective means be devised to convey to the 
legal mind the fact that we are now living in the 
twentieth century? 

Geology of Kalgoorlie 

Kalgoorlie is one of the world's great goldfields, 
and to engineers it is of wide interest, not alone be- 
cause of the production, notable as that is, but be- 
cause of the occurrence of the ore, the presence of 
tellurides, and the marked advances that have been 
made in mining and metallurgy in the field. A de- 
tailed study of the mode of occurrence of the ore 
is well worth while. We are glad, therefore, to print 
this week the first of a series of articles written 
by Mr. Malcolm Maclaren, and describing the geol- 
ogy. The articles are taken by permission from an 
unpublished report upon the field made for three of 
the leading companies. They cover the main part 
in its scientific phases, except a most interesting 
chapter on petrology more appropriate for publica- 
tion elsewhere. The parts of the report dealing spe- 
cifically with the ore deposits, being the private 
property of the companies, cannot be printed at this 
time, but in the material now so generously made 
public, enough is given to enable the trained student 
of ore deposits to recognize the essential steps in 
the deposition of the ore. Those not already famil- 
iar with the district should read in this connection 
the admirable account of the ore deposits prepared 
by Mr. C. 0. G. Larcombe, and forming volume V 
of the Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers. While the nomenclature of the rocks 
differs in the two reports, in which particular they 
run true to form for geological reports on the pre- 



July 12, 1913 

Cambrian, the general sequence is the same. 

Except the quartz veins, here of minor import, 
and the alluvial deposits, which are aside from the 
general discussion, the ore occurs at Kalgoorlie in 
two forms : The first is the wonderful Oroya Brown- 
hill 'pipe*", a great body of ore outcropping in Brown- 
hill ground and dipping through the Brownhill Ex- 
tended, Associated Northern, and Oroya. It is found 
in what Mr. Maclaren calls the 'Older Greenstone' 
near the contact of the latter with his 'quartz- 
dolerite'. For these rocks Mr. Larcombe uses the 
terms 'metamorphic tuff' and ' quartz-andesite ', re- 
spectively. This orebody was formed by replace- 
ment in a position determined by intersecting fault 
planes. The bulk of the orebodies, however, occur 
in the quartz-dolerite (or quartz-andesite) along 
fissures or 'shear zones.' In this they resemble the 
veins at Cripple Creek. These fissures are only sig- 
nificant and only contain valuable orebodies when 
in the quartz-dolerite; presumably because it was 
the only rock that was sufficiently brittle to break 
in long fissures, thereby forming what Mr. C. R. Van 
Hise has called 'trunk channels' for underground 
circulation. Both Mr. Larcombe and Mr. Maclaren 
agree as to the ores being primary and intimately 
related to the quartz-dolerite. Mr. Larcombe sees 
no reason why the ore-shoots should not continue 
indefinitely in depth. Mr. Maclaren says that the 
value of a given lease is conditioned by the extent 
to which it covers the quartz-dolerite; plainly indi- 
cating a belief that the veins will be found of no 
value where they pass outside this especial rock. It 
is perhaps unfair to speculate more closely as to 
what Mr. Maclaren does or does not believe about 
the genesis and structural features of these ores, 
since the time is not ripe for full exposition of his 
views. That they are well founded will be certain 
to everyone who reads the part of the report now 
made public. 

It remains but to express here appreciation 
of the far sightedness of Mr. H. C. Hoover, who 
projected the work, and the liberality and broad- 
mindedness of Messrs. Bewick, Moreing & Co., who, 
charged with the management of the companies con- 
cerned, saw the value in and supported the making 
of a geological siu-vey of the district as complete 
and as scientific as any conducted elsewhere at gov- 
ernment expense. Science has no enemy save the 
ignorant, and the miner has no such helper as 
science. It is a pleasure to print in a mining journal 
a scientific report made by a distinguished geologist 
for a firm of engineers managing a 'group of mines 
of first magnitude. 

The Rand Strike 

Not since the days of the Jameson raid and the 
war of 1898 has Johannesburg been the scene 
of as much turmoil as has recently been experienced 
in that city as a result of the strike of the Rand 
miners. At the New Kleinfontein a dispute over 
working hours led to a strike, which was settled 
by the management granting the requests of the 
men. The next demand was for the dismissal of 
those strike-breakers who refused to join the union. 
The management was .obdurate and the workmen 

of mine after mine struck in sympathy with the 
New Kleinfontein men, the strike even spreading 
to the coal mines, and the railway employees threat- 
ened to go out. Only the presence of troops main- 
tained electric-power service. After several days 
of rioting, in which over a hundred lives were sac- 
rificed in addition to property being damaged and 
the losses due to the closing of the mines, a settle- 
ment of the difficulties was reached by a committee 
appointed by the Government and a committee of 
the strikers. The terms of settlement were that the 
strike should be declared off; the New Kleinfontein 
strikers are to be reinstated, and the Government 
is to grant suitable compensation to the strike- 
breakers, who are in no way to be victimized; the 
strikers in other mines are to return to their work 
and are to be taken back as mining operations are 
resumed; representatives of the workers are at lib- 
erty to lay any other grievances before the Govern- 
ment, which will inquire into them. While the strike 
is regarded by the miners as a victory for organ- 
ized labor, are the terms of settlement commensurate 
with the loss of life and property which has been 
occasioned, and could not the same results have been 
accomplished by more peaceful means? Like the 
disarmament of the nations and the much-talked-of 
universal peace, it seems to be a matter of theory 
rather than of practice, but it is to be hoped that 
by a closer relation and a better understanding be- 
tween employer and employee, such catastrophes 
as the present one may be avoided and the questions 
in dispute decided by arbritation, which is always 
the ultimate result, regardless of how much blood 
has been shed previous to the settlement. 

While most of the strikers have returned to work, 
the peace terms have not been generally accepted. 
Six thousand native black laborers from three of 
the large gold mines have refused to go into the 
mines unless granted an increase in wages, and a 
thousand in another property are reported to have 
broken out of their compound and were only made 
to return when forced to by the troops. Should 
this attitude of the native labor spread to the other 
250,000. which are employed in the district, the re- 
sult might be disastrous. 

The Government has recently ordered a cessation 
of recruiting native laborers in the district north 
of 22° south latitude, which will eventually cause 
the mines to lose 25,000 native laborers, and this 
fact has accentuated the difficulties experienced in 
handling the white workmen. Not a few observers 
consider that the gold production on the Rand has 
already reached its zenith, and if to the increasing 
operating costs and a decreasing return per ton 
milled are to be added the heavy burdens resulting 
from the exactions of labor unions, the repaid de- 
cline of the gold-mining industry on the Rand is 
not far in the future. The present outbreak must 
seem peculiarly ungrateful to Mr. R. W. Schumacher, 
of the Rand Mines, and the Central Mining & In- 
vestment Corporation, Ltd., who has been espe- 
cially active in securing for miners the opportunity 
to purchase homes on the easiest possible terms 
and also in securing them more favc- able terms for 
contract work. 

July 12, 1913 



Geology of the Kalgoorlie Goldfield — I 

By Malcolm Maclaren and J. Allan Thomson 

The geological and other data contained in the 
following pages form a portion of the results of a 
geological survey of the Kalgoorlie goldfield in 
Western Australia, extending from April 1909 to 
March 1910. The initiation of the survey is to be 
ascribed to H. C. Hoover, whose knowledge of the 
field had indicated the probable utility of a close 
geological examination. It was at first hoped that 
the leading companies of Kalgoorlie and perhaps the 

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Government of Western Australia would unite in 
sharing the cost of the survey. Finally, however, it 
was borne by the Ivanhoe Gold Corporation, Ltd., 
the Oroya Brownhill Co., the Lake View Consols Co., 
and in a certain sense by the authors. The burden 
of the work fell on the senior author. The petrologic 
work was largely left in the hands of the junior 
author, who also was responsible for much of the 
mapping of the northern end of the Kalgoorlie 
auriferous area. 

Situation and Topogfraphy 

The Kalgoorlie goldfield lies on the great inland 
plateau of Western Australia. The western boun- 
dary of this plateau is the sharply defined fault 
escarpment lying parallel to and only a few miles 
from the coast at Perth. Its main southern boundary 
is apparently the fault line that forms for so great 
a distance the, shore of the great Australian Bight. 
To the east the plateau probably reaches to the South 

Australian border, the surface then sinking to the 
Central Australian depression. Its northward ex- 
tension is somewhat indefinite, but it passes at least 
beyond the Pilbara goldfields. In the immediate 
neighborhood of Kalgoorlie the average height of 
the plateau above sea-level is some 1250 ft., while 
the maximum height is reached at Mt. Burges (1922 
ft.), nine miles north Coolgardie. No figures are 
available for the majority of the lake-beds, but that 
of Hannan's lake, 1060 ft. above sea-level, may be 
assumed to represent the average level of these. The 
physiographical feature of the region is thus its low 
Telief, Mt. Burges, Mt. Robinson, Mt. Hunt, Mt. 
Monger, and others, being merely semi-isolated 
mounds or the higher portion of short ridges, in a 
gently undulating plain. 

Physiographical Features 

In a region of long-continued erosion, physio- 
graphical features become inevitably the expression 
of the geological structure, and here is no exception 
to the general rule. The ridges are generally the 
harder greenstones, though at Kanowna, quartz-por- 
phyry, and at Kurrawang, coarse conglomerate rise 
to ridges. The valleys and lower land generally is 
occupied by sedimentary rocks or by porphyrite, 
which decomposes just as readily and to a very 
similar product. The general aspect of the region is 
one of broad shallow valleys with low comparatively 
narrow ridges. To the south of Coolgardie as far 
as the Londonderry, in the contact-metamorphosed 
amphibolite, ridges and valleys are narrower and 
the surface assumes a comparatively rugged char- 
acter. On the whole, the general trend of the ridges 
is north-northwest with the strike of the rocks, but 
low watersheds trending east-west have been occas- 
ionally developed, as between Coolgardie and Kal- 
goorlie, by the ancient drainage system of the area. 

The mines of Kalgoorlie itself are disposed along 
a low ridge some five and one-half miles in length, 
of which, however, only the southern portion has 
been as yet highly productive. This is ' The Mile ' of 
the inhabitants and 'The Golden Mile' of journalists 
and company promoters. The ridge strikes with the 
foliation of the country north-northwest and south- 
southeast, and is flanked on either side by a broad 
shallow valley. Its average height is only 100 ft. 
above that of the valley bottoms. Its highest point 
is Mt. Charlotte (1378 ft.), which has been utilized 
as the site of the reservoir from whence the water 
brought from the Darling ranges, near the coast, is 
distributed. The lowest point in the immediate 
neighborhood is, as already mentioned, the bed of 
Hannan's lake (1060 ft.), some two and one-half 
miles south of the principal mines. The total differ- 
ence in level is therefore only 320 ft., and the most 
striking features in the Kalgoorlie landscape are in- 
deed not natural, but are the great tailing dumps of 
the various mines. The valleys of the region occupy 
the lines of an ancient drainage system, now largely 




July 12, 1913 

filled and buried by wind-driven sand and debris. 
They contain no defined watercourses or thalwegs. 

History of the Kalgoorlie Goldfield 

The discovery of gold at Kalgoorlie may be re- 
garded as an indirect result of the impetus given 
to prospecting in Western Australia by the finding 
of gold at Kimberley in 1886, and at Yilgarn 
(Southern Cross) a year later. Western Australia 
had previouslj' been considered a country barren in 
gold, an illusion shaken by these discoveries and 
completely shattered by later reports, in rapid suc- 
cession, of gold from the Pilbara, Ashburton, and 
Murchison. Finds so widespread and so rich as some 
of these were, naturally attracted the attention of 
the vagrant prospectors of the eastern states, who 
searching for new fields, soon arrived in the colony, 
and pushing beyond the outposts of civilization, 
spread eastward with horses and camels into the dry 
and poorly watered inland plains. Previously the 
country had been known only to explorers, of whom 
the principal were Lefroy (1863), Hunt (1864), For- 
rest (1871), Giles (1875), and Lindsay 1891). Their 
attention was directed rather to the pastoral than 
to the mineral resources of the country. Hunt, in 
particular, with a large wagon train, had discovered 
and occupied the areas now held by the Hampton 
Plains Co. in the vicinity of the goldfields. His ob- 
ject was solely the acquisition of pastoral lands; to 
this end he selected the valleys and carefully avoided 
the poorer stony ridges on which Coolgardie and 
Kalgoorlie are situated. By so little, in view of the 
immense area taken up, was fortune missed. 

Hunt spent some time in the country digging wells 
and tanks to fit the areas selected for occupation by 
cattle, and had had more opportunity than other 
explorers for examination of the rocks. He noted 
numerous quartz outcrops, and it was perhaps the 
rumor of these that determined several prospectors 
to examine the country lying east of Southern Cross. 
Favored with good rains, two, Bayley and Ford, 
pushed eastward in June 1892, across the great gran- 
ite belt, following the track of Hunt's wagon wheels, 
not wholly obliterated after 28 years of desert dust 
and storm. They rested at the Gnarlbine 'soak,' and 
then moved northeast to a 'gnamma' hole, known 
to the aboriginals as Gulgurda, afterward to be soft- 
ened by the digger to Coolgardie. Camping on what 
is now known as Fly Flat, they soon detected gold 
lying on the surface, Ford picking up a slug weigh- 
ing half an ounce. 

Alluvial Gold 

Western Australia is one of the few auriferous 
areas in the world in which direct support is given 
to the vulgar belief that gold nuggets lie on the sur- 
face for the picking up. After rains and before the 
winds have had time to obscure the washed surface 
with the light desert dust, grains and nuggets of 
gold are readily seen by the trained eye, a method 
of search known as 'specking.' Three or four weeks 
dry-blowing and specking had yielded to Ford and 
Bayley 200 oz. of gold, when they were forced to re- 
turn to Southern Cross to replenish their supply of 
provisions. With the digger, shallow alluvial gold 
is merely the promise of great stores of vein gold. 

and the two prospectors on their return lost no time 
in examining, the adjacent quartz outcrops. They 
were more fortunate than the majority of pros- 
pectors who have acted on this assumption, for a 
short search disclosed the cap of a rich gold-quartz 
vein, from which they had by the end of the day 
and with the aid of a hatchet and pestle and mortar 
obtained more than 500 oz. of gold. They had al- 
lowed no inkling of their first discovery to escape, 
and it was not until the application for a reward 
claim was safely lodged, on September 17, 1892, with 
the warden at Southern Cross that the news of thi- 
great value of the discovery and of its locality was 
made public. 

A steady inrush to the new Eldorado naturally 
took place, but its magnitude was at first limited by 
the difficulty of transport, by the high cost of pro- 
visions, and most of all, by the great scarcity of fresh 
water. When all available auriferous ground had 
been taken up at Coolgardie, prospectors spread out 
from that centre scouring the country for many miles 
in search of new fields. When the discovery was re- 
ported, a wild scramble took place to peg out in the 
neighborhood of the original reward claim. In 
these 'rushes' every available means of transport 
was pressed into service, camels, horses, bicycles, 
carts, and even wheelbarrows being mingled with 
the throng that pressed forward on foot and carried 
their supplies on their backs. Most ended in disap- 
pointment, one or two in disaster. Kalgoorlie was 
discovered in 1893 and Londonderry, Black Flag, 
Kanowna (White Feather), and Bulong (I. 0. U.) 
in 1894. By the end of 1895 more than 10.000 people 
were collected in the various camps. 

Gold Discovery at Kalgoorlie 

Gold was discovered at Kalgoorlie on Saturday, 
June 17, 1893. The finders were Patrick Hannan, 
Thomas Flannagan, and Dan Shea, who were on 
their way from Coolgardie in response to a nebulous 
rumor of rich gold at Mt. Yule (perhaps Mt. Jewel, 
northwest of Kurnalpi). It proved an ignis fatns 
in the end, and the three had camped for the 
night on the western side of a ridge 22 miles east- 
northeast of Coolgardie, near the site of the present 
Hannan street railway station. The first-named seized 
the opportunity afforded by the halt to search for 
gold in the neighborhood of the camp and soon dis- 
covered ('specked' in local parlance) gold lying in 
small nuggets on the surface. All thought of the 
district of Mt. Yule was abandoned, and Hannan 
hastily returned to Coolgardie to secure a 'reward' 
claim. The following day, Sunday, June 18, the 
whole available population flocked to the new El- 
dorado of ' Hannan 's Patch.' as it w«s then called. 
The so-called 'alluvial' ground west and southwest 
of Cassidy hill and Maritana hill (Mt. Gleddenl 
proved very rich for a time, and occasional large 
nuggets were obtained, none, howe^'er, weighing 
more than 24 oz. These are. of course, small in 
comparison with the famous nuggets of Victoria and 
New South Wales, but the climatic conditions obtain- 
ing in the interior of Western Australia preclude the 
accretion of gold necessary for the growth on a large 
scale of alluvial gold. Other 'dry-blowing' areas 

July 12, 1913 



were soon discovered, the principal being in the 
neighborhood of Sing hill to the south of the present 
Boulder mines. So-called 'deep-leads' were also 
found both east and west of the main ridge, but the 
yield of surface gold was never important. 

Lode Mining 

The lack of alluvial gold turned the attention of 
the diggers toward the possibility of discovering the 
lodes from which the surface gold was assumed to 
have been derived, and claims were pegged out in 
all directions, but mainly north and south along the 
Kalgoorlie ridge. Most of the miners on the new 
lield had gained their experience in Victoria, New 
South Wales, Queensland, and New Zealand; it was 
therefore natural that the search for vein gold should 
be confined to quartz outcroppings. These had fur- 
nished the gold of the neighboring Coolgardie field 
and there was nothing to indicate that different con- 
ditions obtained at Kalgoorlie. It thus happened that 
the rich mines of the Boulder belt, two miles south 
of the original discoverj', were pegged out on ac- 
count of their worthless quartz veins. Capital from 
Adelaide and Melbourne was furnished to open up 
most of these mines, but development was for a long 
time exceedingly slow. It was known even then 
that the rich deposits of the outcrops of the ma- 
jority of "Western Australian lodes did not persist 
below the zone of oxidation ; it was therefore feared 
that Kalgoorlie lodes would form no exception to 
the general rule and there was, from market consid- 
erations, a rooted disinclination to pass into the sul- 
phide zone lying at an average depth of 180 ft. be- 
neath the surface. The Great Boulder mine led the 
way into this zone, and its success encouraged others 
to follow. 

The first real hope for the permanence of the field 
was, however, engendered by the discovery of tellu- 
rides of gold. An event of such importance warrants 
some description in detail, the more so as after the 
lapse of only 14 years there is now a conflict of 
opinion not only regarding the events that led up 
to the discovery, but even with regard to the iden- 
tity of the discoverers. With some trouble the fol- 
lowing sequence has been pieced together. . 

The First Tellurides 

The scene of the discovery was the Block 45 mine, 
now included in the ground of the Oroya Links, Ltd. 
The then manager, Richard Eades, had obtained rich 
assays from samples that showed little or no free 
gold. Repeated tests had proved that the gold was 
associated with or contained in a soft pale bronze 
mineral, and samples were therefore sent both to 
Kalgoorlie and to Coolgardie assayers. Eades in- 
dicated the mineral carrying the gold and asked for 
a determination of its nature. The assayers tenta- 
tively suggested one of the iron sulphides, but ^hc 
extreme softness of the unknown mineral at once 
showed that this suggestion was incorrect. On Sun- 
day, May 24, 1896, specimens were taken by Robert 
Gibson from the Block 45 mine to his 'camp' on 
Maritana hill and were there shown to Allen David- 
son and Erie Huntley as typical of the rich 'sul- 
phides' of the mine. The last-named had had some 

experience of telluride ores at the Mt. Shamrock 
mine in the Mt. Burnett district, Queensland, where 
gold is associated with hessite (silver-gold telluride), 
tetradymite (bismuth telluride), and frenzelite 
(bismuth selenide), and he suggested that the new 
mineral was a telluride of gold. This mineral was 
unknown to the others present and its very existence 
was indeed scouted, but the question was soon settled 
by a reference to a 'Dana' lying handy. Huntley 
tooled away fragments of the mineral and on the 
following day made blowpipe tests on them, confirm- 
ing the accuracy of his suggestion. That evening, 
in the course of conversation, he communicated the 
news of his discovery to Peter Maclntyre, then rep- 
resenting the company holding the rights to the cya- 
nide patents in Australia. 

Definite Proof of Discovery . 

On Wednesday, May 27, 1896, Eades forwarded 
two samples to A. G. Holroyd, of Holroyd & Tinley. 
These, on assay, yielded respectively 31 oz. 10 dwt. 
and 92 oz. 7 dwt. gold per ton. Following his usual 
custom, Holroyd 'panned off' some of the ore and 
was immediately struck by the discrepancy between 
the high assay value of the original samples and the 
meagre quantity of free gold in the pan. The first 
sample indeed showed none, while the second gave 
only 2 oz. 7 dwt. per ton of ore. The concentrate 
obviously contained nearly all the gold. As in most 
new mining camps, there was then a considerable 
interchange of ideas among members of the same 
profession at Kalgoorlie, and Holroyd showed sam- 
ples of the ore and of the concentrate therefrom to 
Peter Maclntyre, Mho informed Holroyd that Hunt- 
ley's tests already made had indicated telluride of 
gold. Tellurides of gold were then almost unknown 
minerals, although the great richness of the Cripple 
Creek mines in Colorado had impressed their im- 
portance on the mining world, and there was natur- 
ally some haziness concerning the nature of the 
tests for them. Maclntyre therefore lent 'Presenius' 
to Ilolroj'd and shared in the tests. The existence 
of telluride of gold was soon proved by blowpipe and 
wet tests. On Friday, May 29, Holroyd communi- 
cated the news of the discovery to the press, prob- 
ably to the Coolgardie Miner, for the first reference 
to the matter in the Kalgoorlie Miner is in the issue 
of June 1. where also it is stated that the priority of 
discovery was claimed by Mr. Hunter. Meanwhile 
Erie Huntley and A. J. McGeorge had been making 
further investigations and on June 2 they published 
the first complete analysis of a Kalgoorlie telluride 
of gold : gold, 42.6 ; tellurium, 54.1 ; silver, 0.7 ; iron, 
0.9 ; arsenic, 1.1 ; sulphiir, 0.4 ; total, 99.8. The iron, 
arsenic, and sulphur were obviously due to a frag- 
ment of mispickel that had not been separated from 
the ealaverite. 

Before the publication of the discovery Huntley 
and Maclntyre had discussed it in all its bearings, 
and naturally saw in it the solution of the problem 
that for three years had puzzled mining men at Kal- 
goorlie, the source of the rich deposits of 'mustard' 
gold and 'sponge' gold that were so characteristic 
of the oxidized zone of the Boulder mines. 

On June 1 the Block 45 mine was thronged with 


assayers and others in quest of specimens of the new methods become obsolete and uneconomical. At the 

mineral, and a vigorous search for it was commenced present day both in mining and in milling methods, 

at other mines. On June 4, J. Collet Moulden ob- Kalgoorlie stands well in the forefront of modem 

tained at the Croesus mine assays of 13 oz. 15 dwt. practice. The weak feature in the former branch is 

gold from telluride ore that had been lying on the the small size of shafts: this has not arisen from 

dump for months. A few days later Holroyd found lack of knowledge or of foresight, but from the fact 

rich telluride ore at the Australia mine (Associated that there has never been a time when the prospects 

Gold ilines), where it had been found in the shaft in depth warranted the enormous capital expendi- 

at a depth of 90 ft., but, having been mistaken for ture required for the substitution of the larger 

pyrite, had been thrown over the dump. Blocks of shafts. The greatest depth reached on the field is 

ore assaying more than 500 oz. per ton had been used at the 2650-ft. level of the Great Boulder mine; the 

as a fireplace in a miner's hut. Within a few months other six import-ant mines of the belt are working 

gold tellurides had been found at the Great Boulder, near or below the 2000-ft. level. 

Hannan's Star, Lake View Consols, Golden Horse- The yield of the East Coolgardie goldfield (which 

Shoe, and Kalgurli mines. The Ivanhoe, South Kal- has produced little gold outside Kalgoorlie) is shown 

gurli, Brownhill, and Oroya were the last of the im- in the following table. The gold yield of the state 

portant mines to find the ore. for corresponding years is attached to indicate the 

On November 13, 1896, more than six months after importance of the Kalgoorlie field, 

the original discovery, gold telluride was obtained at Kalgoorlie. Western Australia. 

a depth of 140 ft. in the Great Boulder Main Reef Year. Crude oz. Crude oz. Value. 

mine, then under the management of Modest Mari- J^^3 ............... ••••••••• 110,891 £ 421.385 

janski, a German mining engineer, who has, strange- ^ggg i i | ^ ' ^ . . ' . . i ....!.!.! 231513 879 748 

iy enottgh, been hailed by the German press as the jgge 281,265 1,068,808 

discoverer of telluride of gold in Kalgoorlie. 1897 296,764 674,993 2,564,977 

Throughout these notices there sounds a note of 1898 422,391 1,0.50,184 3,990,698 

,» i 1 X- J.V. 4. u ■ I. f I.- +i,«,.^ ™u 1899 ; 860,371 1,643,877 6,246,733 

self congratulation that by virtue of his thorough „ ' ' . ' 

~ .. ,. .,, , ,. Fineoz. Fineoz. 

German traming this engineer had made a discovery ^qqq 657,864 1 414 311 6 007 610 

that had escaped the notice of his British colleagues, 1901 856,749 1,703,417 7,235,653 

and also that the discovery had been made at a most 1902 941,436 1,871,037 7,947,662 

auspicious moment, .iust in time to prevent the con- 1903 1,062,898 2,064,801 8,770,719 

. , , ■, .,, , , c -c T -u -4. 1 * ™ +1, 1904 1,050,923 1,933,230 8,424,226 

templated Withdrawal of English capital from the ^^^^ gg,_^g3 ^'g^^^^g 33^5^5^ 

West Australian mining industry !* j90g 989357 1,794,547 7,622,749 

• 1907 937,238 1,697,552 7,202,411 

Later History j^gpg 8SS,4i5 i,648,505 7,037,579 

A very serious hindrance to progress in the earlier J^JJ ;;:;:::;:::::: .' .SSJ K^S SSS 

days of Kalgoorlie was the lack of fresh water both ^91^ 809 547 1,370,861 5,823,009 

for domestic consumption and for mining and metal- 1912 788.786 1,282,651 5,463,723 

lurgical purposes. The prompt assistance afforded 1913 (3 months) .... *180,000 303,461 1,289,019 

by the West Australian Government in building a 

., X -D- 1 r A 4.- 1 , • r Total fine ounces. 13,209,483 126,041,559 t£lll,621,168 

railway to Kalgoorlie and more particularly m lur- ,„ ^, , ^ ^„„ , , 

..■' 1.,^ T rr,. ^ e •Estimated. tOfficlal. 

nishmg an abundant supply of fresh water irom a . 

source near the coast and 350 miles away went far T^rpHcrincr at PiinQtrm 

to remove the most insistent discomforts naturally ^ ^ 

attendant on life in the midst of an arid desert, and ^j^^ ^^^^^ excavation by dredges during May was 
more important still from a mining point of view ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ p^^^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^-^^^ the 
materially reduced workmg costs. The history of beginning of canal construction. The total output 
the field has, on the whole, been one of contmued ^^^^ Atlantic and Pacific entrances was 1,522,102 eu. 
prosperity, mitigated during the past few years by ^^ q^ ^j^.^^ g^,^ ggg ^^ y^_ ^,^ ^^^^ ^j^^ Atlantic 
the exhaustion of the rich, easily accessible oxidized ^j^trance channel; a large part of it, however, was 
ores and by the restrictions in working the lower .^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^ previously excavated 
grade sulphide ore brought about by lack of cheap channel. About 300,000 cu. yd. of this relatively 
fuel and water, by distance from the seaboard, and ^.^^^ material was pumped out by the pipe-line sue- 
by the high wages and the correspondingly high ^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 4^ operating opposite the mouth of 
costs both of mine supplies and of living entailed by ^j^^ ^^.^^. ^.^^^,^ -^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^1^ ^^^^ Excavation in 
the current Australian canons of political economy, ^j^^ g^^^ ^.^^^.^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^-^^^ division, covering the 
In technical practice the principal difficulties en- p^^jg^ entrance channel and Balboa harbor, amount- 
countered at Kalgoorlie have arisen from the re- ^^ ^^ ^g^ glS cu. yd., about an average output for 
fractory nature of the ore, necessitating an enormous ^j^^; g^^^ .pj^^ ^jpp^^ ^^^^^ Cardenas established 
amount of experimental work with correspondingly ^ j^^^, ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ excavation in deep water. On 
lar ge expenditure on new mill plants, as the older j^^^ ^ -^ removed 1750 eu. yd. of hard rock from 

*Bergingenieur Modest Marijanski in Great Boulder Main a depth of 45 ft. below mean sea-level in 9% hours 

Reef bci Kalgoorlie eine Entdeckung gemacht, die fiir of actual workino- time. On account of the great 

Bergwerksindustrie der australischen Kolonie von der ■, , « ., i " , ^i. j j • t.i j. i 

grossten Bedeutung ist . . . Der Entdecker, von dessen depth of the channel, the dredge IS able to work 

Namen augenblicklich alle australischen Zeitungen voilsind, only between mean ebb tide and mean rising tide, 

hat . . ." Zeitschrift fiir praktische Geologie, February, , . , ,, . . , j> n i. -l. 

1897, p. 72. which allows two watches of five hours each. 

July 12, 1913 



The Olancho Country 

Bv A. D. Akin 

No miner has ever been down the 'Spanish Main' 
who has not heard of the fabulous washings of 
the Gnayape river, a stream in the mountains of 
Olancho, one of the departments of the Republic 
of Honduras. In this country, as well as the other 
little republics that make up the revolution-infested 
tail to the cornucopia of the North American con- 
tinent, placer mining can never be mentioned with- 
out some one putting in a word concerning the 
great wealth in Olancho and the Guayape. 

So when I was asked to go to Olancho, the gen- 
tleman who wanted some quartz reported on in that 

was generally left to the women and children, who 
only work for a few hours on Sunday mornings. 
Yet th« amount thus obtained and carried imto 
Jutiealpa in the year 1853 was valued at $129,600." 
Dr. Charles Doratt, who visited the region in the 
year 1853, wrote in private letters: "Among the 
rivers of Olancho, which we visited and prospected, 
the Guayape and Jalan are decidedly the richest 
in auriferous sands. We found gold in the alluvi- 
ons half a mile distant from the present bed of 
the river. Leaving Jutiealpa in a northeast direc- 
tion • • • there is not a streamlet over an area 


^^^^B ' ^^^^^^^^^^^^H 

^^^B^^^BMBUB|^^^^^^^^^^ ■ i^., ^BJ^ 


r'': -. 


^1 m^f > ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^r^ I 



district did not know what a favor he was confer- 
ring on me. In the interim I looked into the his- 
tory of the eountrj-. To one who investigates the 
old Spanish writers, and some of the modem ones, 
it is refrshing to see how calmly they can tear the 
heart out of the truth and present you with the 
remains ; but one can be charitable and suppose that 
they were assuming to give as first handed the tales 
that some one had told them. 

Ouayape Placers 

E. G. Squire, in his admirable work, the most 
valuable published in the opinion of many people, 
saj's: "There can, however, be but little doubt 
that the gold washings of the rivers Guayape and 
Mangualili and their tributaries are equal in value 
to those of California. The principal supplies of 
this metal in the state are from the gold washings 
of Olancho, which are exceedingly productive. The 
river Guayape has always enjoyed great celebrity 
for the amount of gold contained in its sands; but, 
since the early period of Spanish occupancy, wash- 
ing has not been carried on except on a small scale 
by the Indians, and^even with them the process 


twenty leagues long and ten broad, however insig- 
nificant, which does not contain gold in its sands 
and in the banks which border it. For the most 
part • • • these streams fall into the Guayape 
and Jalan." He also names the Sulaco, Cayminto, 
and Pacaya in Yoro as good placer ground, but I 
cannot agree with him as to the Sulaco, though 1 
have had good pans at certain points on that stream. 

Early Writers 

So one might quote dozens of writers : Wells, Her- 
rera, Juarro, Montifiore, Bailey, Bryne, Lombard, 
and others, but what is the use? They all are alike. 
So I will notice but one more, and that the hon- 
orable board of Frenchmen who formed a scien- 
tific commission from their Government to these 
regions, the results of their investigations being 
published by the Honduran Government in 1897. 
Among other things, they say: "The most famous 
rivers are the Guayape and Jalan, from where the 
Spaniards, during the colonial epoch, extracted fab- 
ulous c(uantities of gold. The quantity of gold 
exported, won in this manner (by haica.) varies an- 
nually I'rom 750 to 1,250,000 francs, according to 



July 12, 1913 

the rainy season being more or less copious. Nug- 
gets are frequently found weighing from one to 
seven or more ounces." 

Crammed with information in four languages, I 
went to Olancho and went up the Guayape, first 
visiting the aforesaid gold prospect. I did not see 
the maidens and little children frisk down to the 
river on Sunday morning and extract enaugh of 
the yellow metal to buy next week's frijoles and 
ioriilla-9, nor could I find that they had any par- 
ticular affection for the Guayape, but I did find 
that they went long distances from their homes to 
places on the tributaries of the river and stayed 
there for months washing gold to support them dur- 
ing the dry season. I found that the matter of 
washing was not confined to the women and child- 
ren, but is participated in by the men to the extent 
that they do their share of the excavation, the 
women doing the actual concentration and separa- 
tion. These women are wonderful in their skill 
with a great, clumsy, wooden pan, and their mus- 
cular development is almost unbelievable. 

Cost of Operation 

There is comparatively little ground on the Guay- 
ape proper that can be washed without extensive 
and costly preparation, and I am frank to say that 
T believe some parts of it are absolutely inaccessible 
within the bounds of reason in cost. The native 
washes some gravel along the Guayape, picking out 
the bars and detritus after a rain that raises the 
river to flood stage. He simply skims the top, and 
anything like deep washing is unknown to him, as 
the deepest I have ever seen them work was about 
shoulder deep. They dig holes to this depth under 
the water, scoop up as much gravel as they can, 
and pass it out to the washer on the bank. This 
manner of working is now generally abandoned for 
reasons that can readily be realized by anyone who 
has ever attempted to shovel auriferous gravel from 
under water. A great part of the Guayape, in com- 
mon with the other rivers of Olancho, is in a deep 
canon. It is probable that the bottom of this caiion, 
where the gold is concentrated, is in many places 
not less than one hundred feet below the present 
river bed. Without surmising or stating the whys 
and wherefores of this conditions and others re- 
lated, I will make a quotation which sums up the 
whole condition. A. T. Bryne, late engineer to 
the Government of Honduras, under date of Novem- 
ber 15, 1888, says: "The mountain ranges show 
volcanic origin, and are generally composed of ba- 
salt, trachyte, porphyry, and granite with frequent 
limestone outcroppings. The hills and flats are for 
the most part composed of detrital matter of the 
Pliocene, or more recent origin. The hills are cov- 
ered with clay and ferruginous loam; beneath this 
cap is the detrital matter, composed of conglomer- 
ates of fine sand, gravel, quartz, greenstone, shales, 
and all the metamorphic rock of the neighboring 
mountain ranges. Local stratification is frequently 
met, but there is no evidence of continuity of its 
bedding. The depth of the detrital mass is from 
20 to 300 ft., the layers becoming coarser as the 
depth increases, the lower ones being composed of 
large boulders and gravel cemented together into 

a hard and compact mass, resting directly upon the 
bedrock. This lower layer may properly be termed 
the paystreak. The bedrock varies in the different 
portions, being either chloritic slate, gametiferous 
mica schist, secondary granite, gneiss, diorite, por- 
phyry, and the various rocks of the Cambrian for- 
mation. The gold is found disseminated through 
the entire mass of these deposits." My personal 
observations accord with those of Mr. Bryne, and 
the individual supply is supplemented by the con- 
tributions of the streams that feed it. These ce- 
mented strata of detrital matter have always given 
me results sufficiently satisfactory to warrant the 

It is commonly said that placering is a poor 
man's business, but no poor man would do well to 
tackle it here. With sufficient money, properly ap- 
plied, the working of these placers would be a 
tremendous enterprise and worthy of the mettle of 
any mining man. However, Olancho does not have 
to depend on its placers to be a mining country, 
for the veins bearing gold are numerous, and some 
of them are of surprising richness. Copper is abund- 
ant in places. One day an Indian brought some 
bullets whittled out of solid chalcocite. He said 
there was a vein of about four feet of the same 
metal. Crossing a little river only a couple of 
miles from the Guayape, is a vein of bitumen which 
melts and flows under the heat of the tropic sun. 
A short distance from this point are beds of nitre; 
and nearby native sulphur is found. Silver, of 
course, is present, and some nickel. Undoubtedly, 
careful prospecting will develop other minerals, for 
the country is an unknown land a short distance 
from the traveled roads, except in a few instances. 

Evidence of Early Workings 

Ruins of ancient civilization are common, and 
some of them are interesting. Many evidences of 
the Spanish occupation before the revolt of 1821 are 
to be found, and when one of their old mines is 
found, one generally finds something worth while, 
for in those days of crude mining methods there was 
no time wasted on low-grade. I know one mine 
that has been idle ever since the Spanish owners 
threw down their tools and fled before the advance 
of the enslaved peons, until two years ago, when 
the owner of the land was out hunting cattle and 
stumbled on one of the old dumps. Following this 
clue, it was found that the mine had extensive work- 
ings. For 90 years people have passed within speak- 
ing distance and the lavaderos, or gold washers, had 
a thousand times washed the sand of the little creek 
that runs at the foot of the hill, a hundred yards 
away. There are many of these old mines yet to 
be found, for there is not a village or hamlet but 
what has a store of traditions of these old mines, 
but the native is too indolent to look for what he 
does not see. The mine referred to above is one 
of the historic mines of the country and was worked 
by the Church. 

The ruins of arrastres in- certain localities are 
numerous. I have found as many as six within a 
five-minute walk. Wherever these arrastres are 
found, ore good enough to work in them will gen- 
erally be found nearby. An old arrastre I know of 

July 12, 1913 



had no visible source of ore, but several hundred 
pounds lying beside it gave the key, and the lode 
was found, accidentally, a year later and over three 
miles away, but this was an exception, for the source 
of the ore is generally nearby. In some instances 
the arrastre was placed on the dump. I will ven- 
ture to say that if fifty per cent of the money that 
has been spent in attempting to placer on the 
Guayape had been spent in quartz mining, the dis- 
trict would today be better known than the Klon- 

Working Conditions 

Olancho is a poor man's country. Everything un- 
der the sun can be grown there and at all times of 
the year. Cattle are cheap, seven to eight dollars 
for a three or four-year-old with calf; timber is 
abundant and mainly pine, of which there are four 
varieties, including the long-leafed yellow; the tem- 
perature averages about 70°, and, ignoring solitude, 
all conditions are ideal, except accessibility for man 
and burden. Of course, man can ride in, but even 
as he comes in on muleback, the trip is a long and 
hard one as well as costly, but for those who un- 
dertake it properly and with sufiScient capital, it 
is certain that reward lies in the hills and streams 
of Olancho. 

The natives are, as a rule, friendly to 'gringoes, ' 
but occasionally one encounters a fanatic. I have 
found the people to be, with few exceptions, honest, 
obliging, and civil. With them the 'six-shooter' is a 
badge of gentility and station, and the eclat that 
it gives secures many accommodations and civili- 
ties that I have seen denied those who sneered at 
the 'gun-packer.' I have had my gun rust until 
it stuck in the holster, and half the time did not 
know whether I had a cartridge or not. On the 
whole, the gun is a very useful part of one's kit, 
sometimes, but the American one occasionally meets 
there who is always flourishing his gun and trying 
tO make an impression is an object of contempt 
to the native and pity to his better-balanced coun- 
trymen. He is the class of man who makes the 
I'ough places in the road for those who follow him. 

Americans as a rule have not been very successful 
in Olancho. A notable exception is Fred Bell. With 
placer, arrastre, and buying gold from the native 
washers, he has been extremely successful, while 
working on a very modest scale. What he has done, 
others can do, for his operations have been confined 
to a zone that is not by any means the only good 
ground in Olancho. 

Weight Standards 

Troy balances for weighing dust are not accepted 
in this country, as they only recognize the Spanish 
ounce, the subdivisions of which are represented 
by pebbles and coins. They standardize these 
weights by comparison with some that are re- 
puted to be correct, and as these are generally 
owned by the local dealer, who makes sure that 
the}' do not rob him, everyone is satisfied. 

To analyze the cause for failure of Americans in 
this field would require several reams of paper. The 
key to the real cause, without individualizing, can 
be summed up in a few words: ignorance of local 

conditions, ignorance of mining, graft, and rascal- 
ity; either, any, or all. The successful men have 
emphasized the truth of this, and it is hard to be- 
lieve that a well balanced, competent mining man, 
speaking the language, knowing the country, people, 
and conditions, backed by reasonable capital and 
with an honest desire to do a legitimate business, 
can fail in this country of opportunities. Every 
instance of failure that has come to my notice has 
had ignorance or graft behind it as the primal 

One man spent $20,000 on miles of ditch to bring 
an insufficient water-supply to sluice away 40 ft. 
of clay overburden, and after completing the work 
found that he not only did not have sufficient water 
to do anything, but that, also, he had no tailing 
ground. Another company spent thousands in bring- 
ing water and a fine outfit, to discover, when all 
was ready, that the entire equipment was valueless 
owing to plain physical conditions apparent to the 
most casual and non-technical observer. A dozen 
companies have gone broke because they tried to 
bring in machinery that no pack-mule in the coun- 
try could carry. They evidently knew nothing of 
the merits of sectionalized machines, and as a result 
the great pieces of iron lie rusting on the coast, 
unheeded warnings to many who have come after. 

I cannot understand the motive that leads men 
to believe that it takes less skill and experience to 
operate in these countries than at home, but it seems 
to be a popular idea. These men, predestined to 
failure, seem to have an idea that all that is nec- 
essary is to carry into the country a varied assort- 
ment of mining machinery, select a place to go to 
work, and success is certain. The results are natural, 
and they go away spreading detrimental reports in 
which they are ably abetted by the unfortunates 
who financed them. 

Natural Advantages 

The apparent mineral riches, the amenability of 
the greater part of the ores to treatment, the cheap 
water-power that exists within transmitting distance 
of most points, and a thorough understanding of 
the governing conditions prompts me in saying that 
I know of no district where there are greater pos- 
sibilities for intelligent and properly applied min- 
ing effort. It is practically untouched, for the na- 
tive, as a rule, knows the placer only and the large 
ma.iority of foreigners have followed his lead. The 
native's placcring is, of course, primitive, and the 
results he attains are commensurate. He is limited 
to what he can do with his hands and the batea. 
As an example, I might describe one outfit out of 
the many that I have seen. The party consisted 
of a man and four women. They had come forty 
miles, from Jutigalpa to the Lavaderas, there erect- 
ed huts to live in. They were removing a heavy 
overburden, carrying the pay-dirt to a water-hole 
in a ravine some 300 yd. distant, and washing it. 
They did not average over sixty cents per day to 
the person, but seemed to think they were doing 
well. As the stranger cannot live on what the na- 
tive hoards, he quickly pronounces the whole coun- 
try a farce. Disgustedly he classes the quartz with 
the placer and loaves the country. There is good 



July 12, 1913 

Quartz in Olancho, and intelligent prospecting 
will develop more, for aside from certain restricted 
areas, no one has left the highways to prospect. The 
native, as a rule, has no knowledge of hard forma- 
tions. I met some natives on the Mangualili grind- 
ing a soft honeycombed quartz on a metaie, or be- 
tween two rocks. The quartz was well filled with 
coarse gold. They said the vein was about two inches 
wide; but as to where it might be, I thought it 
impolitic to ask. Prospecting one day in the val- 
ley of the Panal, I came across some mounds of ore, 
dirt-covered and grass-grown. A little farther on, 
beside the creek, was a group of metates, half buried 
in the soil, most of them just as the workmen had 
left them, probably to take part in the revolution 
for independence from the Spanish oppressor. Just 
across the stream was an old arrastre. 
The Water Question 

The water question is an ever-present one in all 
districts. In most districts of Olancho, water is 
present in streams sufficiently available for aU pur- 
poses where capital is to be had to canal it to the 
workings, but many good placer grounds are too far 
away from a sufficient supply for operation by men 
of modest means. There is probably no locality in 
the department where ample water for milling pur- 
poses cannot be had, and there is no locality I know 
of but that is within reasonable distance of power. 
I visited one locality where it was reputed no power 
was available, but a short search proved that there 
was an available head of 500 ft., ample water for a 
dozen mines, with not over five miles to transmit 
the energy. This was an exceptional case, but as 
a rule, wherever a sufficient volume of water is 
found,' the rapid drop of the valleys quickly makes 
the head. The eroded channels make numerous, ex- 
cellent, short-crested dam-sites, with material for 
construction close at hand. A necessary warning 
to those contemplating entering the country is that 
they be sure that the stream they select is one of 
sufficient volume in the dry season, for many of the 
streams go almost if not entirely dry at certain 
seasons. The only way to be sure is by actual ob- 
servation, for the natives cannot be trusted in this 
particular. The difference between what is really 
necessary and their idea of it varies so that abso- 
lutely no reliance can be placed on their estimates. 
Generating power at a point away from the point 
of consumption and transmitting it in the form of 
electric energy is far preferable to attempting to 
put in steam-power at points where water-power is 
not immediately available. To be sure,. there is 
wood in abundance (the country is covered with 
forests), but getting in the heavy units required 
for a steam plant is almost prohibitive. 

Exports of iron and steel products from England 
during the first five months of 1913 amounted to 
$112,300,000, an increase of $25,270,000 over the 
same period of 1912. 

The Minster-Grenchenberg tunnel being driven 
under the Jura, in Germany, is givinc: considerable 
trouble caused by great pressure in the upper 
Miocene formation. 

The Mclntyre-Porcupine Mill 

The following description of the 150-ton plant is 
abstracted from the annual report of the Mclntyre- 
Porcupine Mines, Limited: 

The ore is hoisted into an ore-bin. From this it 
is fed to a 10 by 12-in. Blake crusher, over a grizzly 
with bars l^/i in. apart. The undersize joins the 
broken ore from the crusher and falls into a 12-in. 
elevator, which raises it to a hopper, from which 
it is automatically fed to a 16 by 36-in. set of rolls. 
The rolls discharge the ore to a 12-in. elevator 50 
ft long, and is then hoisted to a 500-ton storage- 
bin From there it is fed to a 6-ft. Chilean mill by 
means of a Challenge feeder. Four tons of cyanide 
solution, of a strength of II/4 ">. per ton, is added 
to the Chilean mill for each ton of ore ground. The 
Chilean mill discharges the ore through a six-mesh 
screen to a Colbath classifier, which then discharges 
all ore over 100 mesh to the tube-mill. Ore finer 
than 100 mesh flows over the end of the classifier 
to a 16 by 24-ft. thickener. The tube-mill discharges 
the ground ore to a Frenier pump, which elevates 
it to" a hydraulic classifier. This returns the free 
gold that may have passed through the tube-mill, 
and the sulphides, coarser than 100 mesh, are again 
returned to the head of the Colbath classifier, which 
is supposed to retain, in the closed tube-mill circuit, 
the free gold and the coarse sulphides which con- 
tain most of the metal content of the ore. 

The overflow from the hydraulic classifier joins 
the overflow from the Colbath classifier and flows 
to the thickener mentioned. The proportion of the 
cyanide solution to the ore, at this point, is five to 
one ; one ton of dilution being added at the Colbath 
classifier and tube-mill. The thickener discharges, 
over the top, three tons of clear cyanide solution 
to each ton of ore fed in. This solution contains 
about 75% of the total gold in the ore, and is sent 
to a 12 by 20-ft. clarifying tank, to remove any 
traces of slime which may escape the thickener. 
Each ton of ore, with the other two tons of cyanide 
solution, fed to the thickener, is then discharged 
at the bottom to a 16 by 24-ft. agitator, which dis- 
charges continuously to a 20 by 24-ft. thickener 
and slime-storage tank. At the bottom of this tank 
each ton of pulp is discharged with one ton of cya- 
nide solution, which then is elevated to a 16-ton 
tank at the top of the mill, from which the Burt fil- 
ters are filled. A cake, ranging from 2 to 5 in. 
thick, is formed in the filter, which contains about 
20% of the gold-bearing solution', and after extract- 
ing this the doors of the filters are opened and tho 
cake is discharged. The gold solution from the 
clarifying tank flows through five 7-compartment 
zinc-boxes, where the gold is precipitated on zinc 
shaving and the solution passes into two tanks to 
be used as barren wash for the Burt filters. The 
precipitate is cleaned from the zinc shaving and 
sent to a tank. All solutions go to a 20 by 30-ft. 
concrete sump under the Burt filters, and from 
there are returned, by two triplex pumps, to two 
16 by 20-ft. cyanide stortage tanks situated at the 
top of the mill, where they are tested for loss of 

July 12, 1913 



A Simple Plant for Testing Efficiency 

By A. T. Tye 

The Cananea Copper Co. maintains a sampling and 
testing plant at its concentrator at which any new 
ores may be tested as to concentrating qualities. 
These tests indicate clearly the relative economy of 
smelting or of concentration followed by smelting. 
As any number of carloads can be handled at the 
sampling plant, a representative sample of a 400 to 
600-ton lot can be secured without any additional 
expense or trouble. 

The crude ore crushed to one inch is first sampled 
by a bucket sampler with a ratio of 35 to 1. This 
sample is then crushed in 14 by 27-in. rolls and 
sampled by a second Snyder machine, ratio 5 to 1 ; 
crushed in 14 by 27-in. rolls, ground in a sample 

a tfu^^ei^ 

\/ \ 


N„ A 


grinder, and finally sampled by a Vezin sampler, 
with ratio 12 to 1. 

The final reject from the Vezin sampler is userl 
as the basis of the test, and the average assay is 
secured at once from the lot sample. The largest 
particle in the reject is about one-eight inch in 
diameter. For low-grade ore or uniform ores, mate- 
rial of this size would require a sample of about 20 
lb. The reject, however, from a 20-car lot will 
amount to several hundred pounds, which is quar- 
tered down aud crushed if necessary until a lot of 
100 kg. has been obtained for testing. 

Testing the Ore 

The reject from the sample mill after cutting 
down, is dried in a steam drier until all moisture 
has been expelled, and is then ground in a Braun 
pulverizer to pass 20 mesh. This fine material is 
carefully riffled down to obtain the general assay 
sample of the crude ore for analysis. One hundred 
kilograms of this sample is weighed and deposited 
in the hopper (A) over the feed-box of the Wilfley 
table. The ore is fed to the table at about the same 
rate as in regular mill work, depending on the 
amount of concentrate to be taken, the rate of feed 
being slower with a lower ratio of concentration. The 
coarse concentrate is discharged into tubs (C) and 

the water and slime from same delivered into tank 
(F) to be pumped to the vanner (I) together with 
the Wilfley tailing and slime. The concentrate is 
run low in silica if the mine is at a great distance 
from the smelter, or fairly silicious if the concen- 
trate contains considerable iron and sulphur and 
when the smelter is in close proximity to the con- 
centrators, as at Cananea. In every way, the tests 
are made to conform to actual milling conditions. 

Sand and Slime 

The coarse sand and slime are discharged at (B) 
and are delivered into tank (D), from which the 
coarse tailing is finally discharged at (E), dried, 
weighed, and sampled. The slime overflows from 
(D) into tank (F), from which it is pumped to the 
vanner (I) by a centrifugal pump (G) run by %-hp. 
motor (H). The slime is concentrated on an ordi- 
nary mill vanner and the concentrate collected in 
(J), and dried, weighed, sampled, and assayed. 
The tailing from the vanner is the only material not 
weighed directly, and it is determined by differ- 
ence. All the remainder of the products are care- 
fully dried, weighed, cut down, and assayed in du- 
plicate. The final vanner tailing is carefully sam- 
pled every three minutes, as this is a final check 
on all former weights and assays. Tank (D) is 
filled with water before starting, so that the coarse 
sand settles out and slime is at once discharged to 
the vanner feed. 

Table I. — Compositk Test No. 469 


Cu, 2.22%; SiOj, 71.2%; Fe, 9%; S, 9.7%; Ag, 1.10 oz.; Au, tr. 

Ore passed 20 mesh and run on Wilfley table. 

Pounds. Cu, %. Cu, lb. Ag, oz. Au, oz. 

Feed 2000 2.22 44.40 

Coarse cone. ... 470 6.20 29.14 3.20 0.03 

Coarse tall 705 0.36 2.53 

Overflow 825 1.54 12.73 

Overflow re-treated on vanner as follows: 

Pounds. Cu, %. Cu, lb. Ag, oz. Au, oz. 

Peed 825 1.54 12.73 

Fine cone 65 4.96 3.22 3.20 0.03 

Vanner tail. ... 760 1.25 9.51 

Ratio. Per cent. 

•Wilfley 4.25 Into 1 Saving 65.60 

Vanner ".' 12-60 " 1 " 25.20 

General 3.73 " 1 " 72.88 


Cone. Cu,%. 810,,%,. Fe,%,. S,%. Ag, oz. Au, oz. 

Coarse 6.20 19.2 31.8 36.0 3.20 

Fine 4.96 61.0 12.2 13.0 3.20 

General 6.04 ... ... • ■ 

One ton of this ore made: 

Pounds. Cu,%. Cu, lb. Ag, oz. Au, oz. 

Cone 535 6.04 32.36 

Tall 1465 0.82 12.04 

General ratio, 3.73 into 1. 

General tailing, 0.82% Cu. 

General saving, 72.88%. 

* Per cent. 

Copper lost in coarse tailing 5.69 

Copper lost in fine tailing 21.43 

Copper saved 72.88 

3.20 0.03 



July 12, 1913 

Table II. — Compaeison of Results with Actual Milling 


, Tailing. , 

Test No. Vanner. Coarse. General. 

394 0.86 0.32 0.53 

402 0.80 0.34 0.55 

Sections C and D 0.74 0.35 0.53 

0.75 0.37 0.55 

Sections A and B 0.85 0.31 0.55 

0.86 0.33 0.56 


, Tailing. — — — ^ 

Test No. Vanner. Coarse. General. 

408 0.40 0.40 0.40 

427 0.52 0.32 0.42 

439 0.70 0.38 0.53 

449 0.70 0.34 0.52 

Sections A and B 0.45 0.33 0.44 

0.47 0.39 0.40 

0.60 0.33 0.47 

0.56 0.37 0.45 

0.43 0.35 0.45 

0.52 0.32 0.53 

0.65 0.28 0.44 

The tailings represented are from a tonnage of 
500 to 1400 per day. At the Cananea concentrators, 
the ore comes from a great many different orebodies, 
so that nnless treated in a separate section, the feed 
nearly always contains a mixture of different ores. 
For this reason it is difScult to obtain tailing in 
actual ore-dressing, from one ore only. The copper 
in the feed may vary from a little over 1% to over 
3% ; the iron from 5 to 20 ; sulphur from 5 to 20 ; 
and insoluble 49 to 83%. But, as shown above, the 
tailing from entire sections of the concentrators 
agrees closely with that obtained in the tests, and 
this holds tme for other ores, when they have been 
concentrated without intermixture. 

Separate tests are made on each ore every month 
to credit the different mines with the amount of 
copper they have added to production and to deter- 
mine what grade of ore must be mined to pay all 
expenses of mining, transportation, concentration, 
smelting, and losses. Diagrams are constructed 
which show the actual profit above all expenses, so 
that the profit can be read off at once for whatever 
grade of ore is being mined. 

Composite Tests 

From every sample of crude ore brought to the 
concentrator, 15 kg. of the final sample is weighed, 
dried, and pulverized, and deposited in large dust- 
proof boxes. At the end of the month this ground 
ore is riffled down until 100 kg. remains, and this 
serves as the basis of the test of each separate ore. 
Table III. — Comparison of Results for January 

Smelter Concentrator Composite 
office, %. office, %. test, %. 
Moisture in concentrate. .. . 15.05 13.45 13.70 

Cu In ore 2.22 2.22 2.22 

Cu in concentrate 6.17 6.27 6.05 

Cu in tailing 0.83 0.76 0.82 

Extraction 72.31 74.85 72.88 

Ratio 3.84 3.77 3.73 

Besides these separate tests, a composite mill-test is 
made of all the ores milled during the month, mixed 
in the same proportion as milled. This is done for 
several reasons. It gives a criterion by which to 
judge the work of the concentrators. The results 
indicate in concrete form the general tailing, feed, 

extraction, etc., and show what extraction should be 
shown by the credits from the smelter receipts of 

January Results 

Eesults of comparisons for January 1913 are 
shown in Table II, based upon price of copper 17e. 
per pound with 96% saved in smelting, or 16.3c. per 
pound. The cost of smelting, including fuel, power, 
labor, supplies, repairs, salaries, general expenses, 
sampling, roasting, converting, fluxes, fettling, amor- 
tization, interest, transportation, refining, freight, 
and selling, is taken at $3.10 per ton. Ratio of con- 
centration, 5.6 into 1. Therefore, the cost of smelt- 
ing the concentrate per ton of crude ore is $0.55. 
Cost of concentration, $0.72 per ton. Cost of min- 
ing, $1 per ton. Total expenses per ton of crude 


















/.so /.^O '30 /20 //O / OO 
% C^/'/'f/f //Y ^£^05 

profit and extraction lines 

ore, $2.27. Crude ore assaying 1.48% Cu gives an 
extraction of 78.8%, or 23.32 lb. at 16.3c., equal to 
$3.80 less $2.27 expenses, leaving $1.53 profit per 
ton. Crude ore assaying 1% Cu gives an extraction 
of 68.5%, or 13.7 lb. saved at 16.3c. per lb., equaling 
$2.23, less cost $2.27, leaving a loss of $0.04 per ton. 
Therefore the critical point between profit and loss 
is at 1.03% Cu in the feed, as per diagram. 

It would require a great part of the time of an 
office man during the month to tabulate and calcu- 
late the tons of wet ore, tons of dry ore, tons of dry 
concentrate, and similar data from all the mines and 
concentrators, and to note all the various deductions, 
to determine the average of the ore, of concentrate, 
tons of copper in the feed, tailing, and concentrate, 
and the extraction. The same results can be deter- 
mined by a monthly composite test requiring less 
than two hours. 

It might appear that close results could not be 
obtained in this manner, that from only 100 kg. of 
ore the same results could not be determined as 
by actually milling 66,000 tons of ore per month. 
And yet it is the same comparison as between an 
assay-ton weight of pulp and a thousand tons of 
ore which it represents. If the ore has been prop- 
erly cut down and quartered, the assay of the few 
grams of pulp will indicate accurately the contents 
of the thousand tons of ore. Likewise the 100 kg. 
will give the same comparative results as the con- 
centration of thousands of tons in the various sec- 
tions of the concentrator. 

What a concentrator actually recovers is not nee- 


essarily the calculated total ; it is the tons of copper ing a really representative sample from the mine, 
the smelter actually credits it with. Therefore, com- and not the fault of the testing plant, 
paring the extraction shown by the composite tests Conclusions 
over several months with what is actually acknowl- 
edged by the smelter, as the tons of copper received ^- '^^^^ method of testing has been in use for sev- 
as in Table III, shows the accuracy of the composite ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Cananea. 

tests. There is a slight variation from month to 2. It has been successfully tried out on a great 

month, as all the concentrate produced some months variety 01 ores. 

ago may not be shipped and is credited to the fol- ^- Compared month by month with tonnage up to 

lowing months. 66,000 per month, it has given results within 1% of 

Table IV actual smelter returns. 

, Extraction. , 4. The machines used are full-sized standard Wil- 

Month. Composite. Smelter, flgy and vanner machines. 

S::i;-::::::::;::::::::::::::::::: S SS ^^^he machines employed in testing are those 

March 72.60 71.15 "^^*^ every day m regular mill work and in the aver- 

Aprll 76.60 77.50 age state of repairs. 

May 73.80 72.60 6. The testing plant can be fitted up at small ex- 

pense in almost any concentrating plant. 

'^^®"^* ''^■'^'^ ''*-°*' 7. New orebodies, or regular ores at greater depths 

The composite checks within 1% of the smelter re- can be tested and their behavior in large concen- 

tums, which difference is partly covered by loss in trators milling thousands of tons may be determined 

traJKsit and variations in concentrate moisture de- very closely. Even in large units the tailing and 

terminations. This is as close as can be calculated other products will vary somewhat from day to day. 

from the crude ores and concentrates with their vari- 8. These tests quickly give accurate data for re- 

ous assays and moisture determinations. In calcu- ports on mining property as to the probable be- 

lating the results, the percentage of moisture in the havior of an ore, and give valuable information 

concentrates delivered to the smelter is likely to be which maV serve as the basis of experiments in a 

the most prolific source of error, and the credits to large testing works. 

the concentrator vary accordingly. "With dissemi- Thanks are due to F. J. Strachan, superintendent 

nated porphyry ores, the average concentrate sample of the Cananea concentrators, for permission to pub- 

per shift or day can be accurately determined, which, lish the foregoing data. 

with the feed and general tailing, gives the neces- 

sary data for calculating the rates and saving. At Kleinfonteill and Tube-MlUs 

Cananea, however, with coarse bull-jig and fine con- 

centrate mixed, it is almost impossible to obtain -jhe annual report of the Kleinfontein mine for 
such a sample, and each carload of concentrate is the year 1912 contains some interesting features sup- 
sampled separately. plied by the consulting engineer on the results of 
Standard v. Miniature Machines development and the value of the tube-mill as an 

Possiblv the majority of mining men are of the ^^'J""^* *" ^he stamps. It is stated that the stamp 
belief that a concentration test on a new ore can- "°«i tube-mill combination introduced as an expedi- 
not bo made on a small scale, and if so, that the ^^^^^ ^^^^ y^*"" ^^« °«* ^«^° «"*=^ ^ «"<^«««« ^^ ^'^°- 
testing plant must contain miniature jigs, classifiers, ^'""'^^ supposed for the reduction of costs, which 
tables, and vauners. The difficulty with so many «5°«« ^^^ introduction of tube-mills, have increased 
small machines is the error incurred in starting and ^''O" ^s. 2d. per ton with stamps only, to 4s. 5d. 
cleaning-up afterward, and the additional doubt per ton with stamps and tube-mills combined, while 
whether, after all, the small machines do duplicate the percentage of extraction has fallen from 95.79 
the work of the larger machines in mills. For this *« ^^.eO. It need hardly have been pointed out that 
reason, at Cananea, the tests are made on a regular these unsatisfactory results of the introduction of 
full-sized Wilfley table and vanner which at other tube-mills are not the rule on the Rand, for gener- 
times are used in everyday work, and in the same ally the costs are lowered and the extraction per- 
state of repair as the general average. With these centage is increased by the addition of tube-mills, 
machines, the test gets under way rapidly and is One group by employing 15 stamps only to one tube- 
finished quickly. The greater part of the time the mill can handle the same tonnage as that at New 
machine is running as in ordinary millwork. The Kleinfontein at a shilling per ton less in cost, and 
Wilfley acts as a classifier, as also the settling-tanks, moreover are introducing tube-mills so as to attain 
The coarse grains of concentrate protect the finer this proportion with the direct aim of hanging up 
grains, and the latter are saved along with the stamps because they are less efficient and economical 
coarse, thus relieving the vanner of part of the load than tube-mills. The Bamato group, too, find that 
and making up in part for lack of classification and the addition of tube-mills last year added consid- 
stage-crushing. The Wilfley and vanner also get erably to the efficiency of the mill, using stamps 
more individual attention than in a concentrator, so solely, as well as to the extraction. 

that, on the whole, there is a series of compensa- " 

tions which about equalizes different conditions. If Expenditures on the Panama canal during the 

tests on small lots of ore have not been successful, year ended June 30, 1913, amounted to $41,741,000, 

it is probably on account of carelessness in not secur- making a total of .$318,229,000. 



July 12, 1913 

Searles Lake Potash Deposits 

By H. S. Gale 

•Searles lake, also known as Borax flat, is a dry 
lake basin and superficially much like many other 
desert basins of the "Western arid regions. It is a 
broad somewhat circular valley or depression lying 
between the Slate and Argus ranges in the extreme 
northwestern part of San Bernardino county, Cali- 
fornia, near the comer between that county and 
Kern and Inyo counties. The camp known as 'The 
Borax' is about 25 miles by road from Searles post- 
office, formerly Garden station, near the Mohave- 
Owenyo branch of the Southern Pacific railroad. 
Searles lake at present may be reached by the regular 
stage that runs from Johannesburg via Garden sta- 
tion, or Searles, to Searles lake, and thence on to 
Ballarat and Skidoo. 

Analysis of Brine 

The public announcement of Searles lake as a pos- 
sible source of potash was made as the result of the 
collection and analysis of a representative set of 
brine samples from this deposit early in March 
1912, by E. E. Free, then of the United States Bu- 
reau of Soils, and Hoyt S. Gale, of the United States 
Geological Survey. A notice was at that time given 
to the press stating that reports which had been re- 
ceived concerning the unusually high potash content 
of the brine in the deposit were apparently con- 
firmed by the results of these tests. Analyses of six 
brine samples taken at considerable depth in old 
wells at points distributed over the main salt flats 
showed that an average of 6.78% of the total dis- 
solved salts was potash, quoted in the form of the 
oxide (10.73% as potassium chloride). The indi- 
vidual results obtained were 7.63, 6.23, 6.89, 6.06, 
7.27, and 6.57%. The uniformity of these results 
was taken to indicate, although of course it did not 
prove, homogeneity in composition of the brine 
throughout the salt deposit. Based in part on the 
logs of the wells that had already been drilled, the 
statement was also made at that time that "existing 
data give reasonable assurance that the brine-satur- 
ated salt body is at least 60 ft. thick and covers an 
area of at least 11 square miles. Assuming the salt 
to contain 25% by volume of the brine, the total 
amount of potassium oxide available is estimated as 
over 4,000,000 short tons [equivalent to approxi- 
mately 6,000,000 tons as potassium chloride]. This 
estimate is based on incomplete data, but it is be- 
lieved to be conservative. At any rate it appears 
that this locality constitutes a very important source 
of potash in readily available [soluble] commercial 
form." Whether it will be possible to recover all 
of this potassium commercially, however, must re- 
main for practical experience to demonstrate. 
There seems to be good reason for the belief that 
the commercial operation of this deposit for potash 
and the other marketable salts that it contains will 
become a large and important enterprise. Probably 

♦From advance chapter on potash in 'Mineral Resources 
of the United States for 1912,' published by the United 
States Geological Survey. 

the first chemist to suggest that potash might be- 
come one of the profitable products of this deposit 
was Whitman Symmes, a mining engineer of Cali- 
fornia and Nevada, who in 1898 was superintendent 
of the California Borax Co., operating at Searles 

Nature of the Deposits 

The saline deposit at Searles lake resembles a 
typical playa, of which examples are common in the 
desert basin region. The salt^incrusted surface oc- 
cupies the lowest part of the valley or basin in which 
it is situated. The drainage basin tributary to it is 
without outlet, so that if the basin were fiUed the 
water would rise to a height of approximately 640 
ft. above the level of the present salt flat before it 
would find an outlet and overflow into the Panamint 
valley to the south and east. That the valley was 
thus flooded at some time in the past is attested by 
the series of shore lines to be seen encircling the 
basin, the highest clearly marked reaching the ele- 
vation of the present lowest divide on the southern 
margin with successively lower concentric shore 
lines, marking the recession of the waters as they 
evaporated and as the lake level subsided. The 
saline deposit in the lowest part of this basin is the 
residual product of the evaporation of natural drain- 
age waters. 

It appears at this time to be quite clear that the 
greater part of the water of the former higher level 
of Searles lake was derived by overflow from Owens 
lake and hence came chiefly from Owens river. All 
natural river waters contain some dissolved salts. 
By long-continued accumulation within a restricted 
basin from which little or no water is lost by over- 
flow and the water disappears by evaporation alone, 
the solutions become gradually more and more con- 
centrated with salts, and eventually if the lake ap- 
proaches complete dryness these salts are deposited 
as a more or less massive crystalline body. This is 
evidently what has taken place in the basin of 
Searles lake. The final evaporation of this large 
lake is supposed to have resulted from the failure of 
the principal source of its water supply, when pos- 
sibly with a general lowering of humidity of climate 
a slight decrease in the flow of Owens river caused 
Owens lake to cease to overflow the divide on its 
south side. 


The physical status of the main saline deposit ' 
in the bed of Searles lake today is revealed 
by a large number of borings that have been put 
down by private interests in various explorations of 
the salt beds and by the analyses that have been 
made from them. So far as has been determined, the 
main salt body appears to be a bed at least 11 or 12 
square miles in extent and having a depth of 60 to 
70 ft. A much greater quantity of salts doubtless 
exists beyond the central area of the more solid salt 
mass thus defined. This body of salts is chieflj' 
crystalline, in part compact, biTt in general is be- 

July 12, 1913 



lieved to be of cellular or open crystalline structure, 
being really a body of salts standing in the residual 
brine from which it has crystallized. Experiments 
in the wells that have been put down appear to 
show that this brine is in nearly all parts of the salt 
bed free to flow and that it stands high in the de- 
posit, approximately at the actual surface of the 
•salts. Thus the brine constitutes the ground-water 
level of this part of the basin, occasionally after wet 
periods flooding to a shallow depth over the surface, 
but generally dispelled by the rapid evaporation of 
this dry cliiriate until its level sinks below the reflect- 
ing white surface of the salt crust. Evaporation at 
this surface is presumably continuous, the body of 
the ground water being as continuously replaced by 
inward seepage from the marginal alluvial slopes. 
Little sediment other than wind-blown dust is ever 
spread out upon the main salt plain by the occas- 
ional floods, and the salt of the central part of the 
deposit appears white or tinged with pink and for 
the most part comparatively clean. 


Many analytical data as to the composition of the 
mass of crystallized salts of this deposit are in ex- 
istence. On the salt as distinguished from the brine, 
which will hereafter be discussed, the Survey has at 
present no original data, for they could be had onlj' 
from carefully collected samples obtained during the 
drilling in the deposits. There is good reason to be- 
lieve, however, that the salts as well as the brine 
contain a considerable percentage of potash. Some 
of the private analyses from this deposit have been 
made public in a recent article. Several analyses, 
chiefly of the brine, have been made by the govern- 
ment bureaus and should give accurate data as to 
the composition of this part of the deposit. The 
following are the more complete analyses of the 
brine made from the samples collected at Searles 
lake March 6, 1912, now published for the first time : 

salts that might be derived therefrom the following 
result is obtained. This is the approximate com- 
position of the anhydrous residue which results from 
the complete desiccation of the brine. 
Hypotheticai, Ato^ge Composition of Anhydrous Residue 
OF Brine from Searles Lake Basin 

Per cent. 

Sodium chloride (NaCl) 51.61 

Sodium sulphate (Na,SO,) 19.22 

Sodium carbonate ( NajCOj) 12.79 

Sodium biborate ( NajB.O,) 3.23 

Potassium chloride (KCl) 12.07 

Sodium arsenate (NajAsOJ 0.17 

The original brine contains a variable percentage 
of bicarbonate, which is converted to the carbonate 
form in the anhydrous residue and is so expressed. 

As is well known, the theoretical composition of 
salts in the brine, as shown by the calculations from 
the analyses, can be accepted as a working basis 
only with certain reservations. Doubtless most of 
the salts named in the conventional method of com- 
puting the analysis of a solution may be abstracted 
from the brine somewhat in the proportions given, 
provided that satisfactory chemical processes can be 
devised to accomplish the desired result. It is be- 
lieved that this has already been at least partly ac- 
complished experimentally. But it is also true that 
no practical process of extraction on a commercial 
scale will derive all these salts in the amounts shown. 

Working Plans 
Estimates of other available constituents similar 
to the estimate of the total available potash in the 
deposit can be readily computed on the basis of 
analyses of the salts and the brine. At present the 
plans for working the deposit contemplate the man- 
ufacture of the salts from the brine, which, as a 
liquid capable of being pumped from place to place, 
is more readily susceptible of manipulation than 
the solid salts. Preliminary estimates of quantity 


CoMPOsmoN OF Brine from 
(Percentage of Ignited residue. 

Searles Lake, California 

Walton Van Winkle, analjet.) 

Well Austin 

Well S.E. well 

W9. No. 8. 0. 

0.03 0.00 0.00 

0.06 0.05 0.06 

0.00 0.00 0.00 

0.00 0.00 0.00 

32.57 33.16 33.92 

7.27 5.98 5.54 

7.95 6.65 6.89 

12.49 13.41 11.89 

35.53 36.50 37.13 

1.58 1.77 2.03 

97.48 97.52 97.46 

33.94 33.30 32.96 
1.3045 1.2969 1.2935 


No. 7. 












No. 4. 











As .. 



Mg . 
Ca .. 

: 0.00 

00 ' 


Na .. 

33 37 


K .. 

.' 6 53 


CO, . 

7 37 


SO, . 

12 00 


€1 .. 

35 97 



3 07 



otal . 



3c gra' 

98 42 





residue, percentage of original 
33 48 




, 1 3002 


Each sample was collected by lowering a stop- 
pered and weighted bottle to a depth of 35 to 40 ft. 
in the brine and then, by means of a separate cord 
provided for the purpose, jerking out the stopper 
and allowing the bottle to fill. 

By recalculating the average results of these six 
analyses to a theorntical or possible combination of 

of production have been made on the basis of the 
composition of the brine and on an assured con- 
stancy of composition under continued pumping. 
As to the composition of the brine, the analyses 
here quoted are now available, and as to the con- 
stancy of the brine under pumping, there is oppor- 
tunity for experimental verification of hypotheses. 



July 12, 1913 

It is recognized that, in general composition, 
desert basin salines are quite distinct from salines 
that have been produced by the desiccation of ma- 
rine waters. The Stassfurt salts are similar to the 
deposits that would be left by the evaporation of 
normal sea-waters. They contain soluble magnesium 
salts as an important constituent, especially in con- 
junction with the potash-rich portions of the depos- 
its. Most of the desert basin salines in the United 
States are more or less of the Searles lake type — 
that is, they are composed largely of chlorides, but 
contain considerable proportions of sulphates and 
carbonates, chiefly of sodium with some potassium, 
and little or no soluble magnesium salts. The desert 
basin salts may be described as salines derived by 
the direct leaching of continental areas, as distin- 
guished from salts of direct marine origin. Ulti- 
mately both classes may be said to have had a com- 
mon origin. 

It is still too early to offer any general summary 
statement regarding the industrial situation at 
Searles lake. An immense mass of salts and an 
equally great volume of saturated residual brine 
exist in this deposit. The compositions of the salt 
and brine are fairly well determined. Several of 
the ingredients which could be extracted have an 
established value in the chemical markets generally, 
and some, like sodium sulphate, have potential value. 

Withdrawal from Entry 

The lands at Searles lake were withdrawn from 
entry by an order approved February 21, 1913. This 
withdrawal is not intended to interfere with any 
valid mining claims that existed prior to the with- 
drawal, a fact that is made clear in the express 
wording of the order itself: "This withdrawal is 
made subject to all rights lawfully initiated under 
any valid mining locations made upon such lands 
so long as such rights are maintained in full com- 
pliance with the law." In order to relieve the 
existing uncertainties regarding the validity of 'pot- 
ash' or general placer locations carrying saline de- 
posits in large area, a draft of a law has been pre- 
pared and submitted to the appropriate committee 
in Congress, which it is believed will provide a sat- 
isfactory title basis under which such lands can 
be worked. It is to be hoped that in the interest 
of a possible American potash production the mat- 
ter may receive due consideration and that enact- 
ment of a proper measure to this end may be ac- 

Iron Production for 1912 

The iron ore mined in the United States in 1912 
amounted to the great total of 55,150,147 long tons, 
compared with 43,876,552 tons mined in 1911, an 
increase of 11,273,595 tons, or 25.69%, according to 
an advance statement by Ernest F. Burchard, of the 
United States Geological Survey. The production 
for 1912 was second only to the output of 1910, fall- 
ing 1,864,759 tons below the record production of 
that year, which was 57,014,906 long tons. 

The Minnesota iron ranges are producing at pres- 
ent considerably more iron ore than is produced in 
all the rest of the states together, having furnished 

nearly 62.5% of the total for the United States in 
all the mines in Minnesota and Michigan and part 
of those in Wisconsin, mined 46,368,878 tons in 1912, 
or Jiearly 84.08% of the total. 

The total quantity of ore marketed in 1912, ac- 
cording to i-eports received by the Survey, was 57,- 
017,614 tons, valued at $107,050,153, compared with 
41,092,447 tons, valued at $86,716,575, in 1911. The 
marketed production, therefore, represents an in- 
crease in quantity of 15,925,167 tons, or 38.75%, 
and in value of $20,333,578, or 23.45%. The aver- 
age price per ton in 1912, according to these figures, 
was $1.88, compared with $2.11 in 1911. According 
to the reports of producers, many of which have 
been somewhat revised since the report for 1911 
was published, the total quantity of iron ore ia 
stock at the mines at the close of 1912 amounted 
to 10,241,287 tons, compared with 12,206,390 tons 
at the close of 1911, a reduction of 1,965,103 long 
tons, or 16.1%, which balances closely with the ex- 
cess of sales over quantity mined. 

Gravel Plant in Nevada 

The following is a description of T. Wilson's 
plant in operation in the main Manhattan gulch, as 
published in the Manlialtan Post. The main feature 
about the hoisting machinery is an endless double- 
chain elevator with shallow buckets every two feet, 
the two chains making an elevator about 20 in. 
wide. This hoists the gravel from a feed-bin of 35- 
cu. yd. capacity, at the bottom of the shaft, on bed- 
rock, 65 ft. below the collar of the shaft, up to a stor- 
age-bin which holds about 25 cu. yd. of gravel, this 
bin being about 25 ft. above the surface. From the 
storage-bin the gravel is sluiced whenever sufficient 
yardage has accumulated. Prom the chute of the 
storage-bin, the gravel falls into a revolving trom- 
mel made of heavy screen of sufficient mesh to allow 
rock of 1% inches in size to fall through, the over- 
size working out at the lower end into a chute and 
from there to the waste pile. A steady stream of 
water is played on the trommel, washing the loose 
clay from the rocks and gravel which holds the gold. 
Directly below the trommel is the shaker, a box 
similar to a sluice-box, but with deep riffles, cross- 
wise, every 2 in. of its 12-ft. length. By means of 
an ingenious system of pivots, this box is rapidly 
shaken, with a play of about three inches, endwise, 
and an inch up and down. At the lip of the shaker 
three small copper plates are fixed. The gravel falls 
from the shaker, passes over these plates, and any 
fine light gold which will not settle readily between 
the riffles becomes amalgamated with the quicksilver 
on the plates, and then is soon caught by the lower 
riffles. Below the plates a line of sluice-boxes, all 
eontaini7)g riffles, some cross and some lengthwise 
with the boxes, extends for about 150 ft. The small 
percentage of gold which escapes the shaker box is 
caught in the travel down these boxes. Mr. Wilson 
estimates that over 90% of the gold is caught by 
the shaker. The power for the elevator, trommel, 
and shaker is obtained from a 15-hp. Westinghouse 
motor. About 15,000 gal. of water is added to the 
supply each day. 

July 12, 1913 



Relation of Faulting and Mineralization in Goldfield 

By CoRRiN Barnes and E. A. Btlek 

That portion of the Goldfield mining district 
which has so far proved the most productive, in- 
cludes the Goldfield Consolidated and Florence 
mines, and it is here intended to point out the re- 
lation existing between the Columbia Mountain 
fault and this mineralization. 

System of Fissuring 

F. L. Ransome, in his report on the Goldfield dis- 
trict, suggested a relation between this fault and 


the ore deposits of this portion of the district, but 
while the extent and character of the fault were 
well demonstrated, there was not at that time 
sufficient development in the underground workings 
to determine its relation to the ore deposits. Later 
developments have furnished information from 
which this relation may be deduced, and the general 
system of mineralization outlined. 

This fault, as shown on the plan map, is traceable 
along the surface from its northern end near the 
Conqueror mine shaft, south a distance of some two 
miles to the vicinity of the Red Top, where it dis- 

appears beneath the dacite. It may be followed 
underground from here fairly close to its southern 
end, by means of the relative positions of the differ- 
ent formations, as disclosed in the underground 
workings. Its approximate position on the surface 
south of the Red Top is indicated on the map by a 
dotted line. 

Between the January and the Florence it makes a 
sharp bend to the east, and then again to the south 
to its southern extremity, where it ends at an east- 
west fault. At its northern extremity the manner 
of its ending has not been disclosed, but it appears 
here also to end at an east-west fault which prob- 
ably extends to Diamondfield. The dip of the fault 
is to the east, all that part north from the January 
having a regular dip, averaging about 28 degrees. 
From the Florence south the dip is much steeper to 
the east, the amount of which has not as yet been 
determined, but is probably about 60 degrees. 

Mr. Ransome has concluded that the main move- 
ment of the Columbia Mountain fault was prior to 
the dacite intrusion, and that it occurred in the 
andesite and in the underlying rocks. Then came 
the intrusion of the dacite through the latite, to the 
fault and across it, and into the latite-andesite con- 
tact, lifting up the andesite which has in places since 
been eroded leaving the dacite at the surface. This 
conclusion has been disputed by some, but there 
seems abundance of evidence to support it, and 
Ransome 's idea is now generally accepted. 

Situation of Fault Zone 

Section I, as shown in the illustration, is through 
the Mohawk, Grizzly Bear, and Merger Mines Co. 
shafts. This section furnishes data for a close loca- 
tion of the fault zone on its dip, and work now in 
progress on the Grizzly Bear and the shaft of the 
Merger Mines Co. will still further demonstrate it. 
The fault zone, shown in this section on its dip, is 
approximately the sloping fault-contacts of dacite 
with latite, and latite with shale, and at deeper 
workings probably the fault-contact of shale with 
alaskite. The downward throw on the east side of 
the fault has not been sufficient in amount to allow 
the approximately horizontal layers of latite and 
shale to entirely pass their corresponding layers on 
the west side; therefore, the fault zone in places 
passes through latite upon both sides, and similarly 
through shale. In consequence of the dacite intru- 
sion across this fault along a portion of its length, 
which practically obliterated it to a depth of some 
three hundred feet, it follows that the relative 
position of the geological formations caused by the 
fault do not properly show above or at this in- 
trusion, though they do below it. 

After the dacite intrusion, there has been a fur- 
ther small movement along this fault zone, and 
where the intruded dacite lies across the upward 
extension of the zone, no pre-existing fracture is 
present ; and the movement, while following in gen- 
eral the extension, has been recorded in irregular 



July 12, 1913 

fractures extending upward to the surface, having a 
steeper dip and connecting below with the fault as 
shown in section I. The mass of eruptives and 
solidified dacite intrusion has settled irregularly, 
due to the additional movement of the fault in its 
original position below, and we consequently find 
many irregular fractures extending from this fault 
zone to the surface. These fractures connect below 
and finally with depth merge with the original fault 
zone ; the foot-wall of which in effect forms the foot- 
wall of the mineralization. 


South of the January, where the fault makes a 
sharp bend to the east, there seems a probability of 
the existence of a cross-fault which would account 
for the difference in dip of the fault north and south 
of this bend. There is some evidence that this fol- 
lows the east-west contact between the dacite and 
andesite. There is, however, no conclusive proof of 
the existence of this cross-fault, as there are in- 
sufficient workings penetrating the latite, in which 
formation would be recorded the entire movement, 
while in the dacite above would only be recorded the 
later small movement subsequent to the dacite in- 
trusion, which may have been distributed in such a 
way as to make its existence not apparent. 

As shown in section I, a cross-cut west from the 
Mohawk shaft on the 450-ft. level penetrates a body 
of dacite, the position of which indicates that it is a 
dike, and while there are not workings enough at 
proper depth to the north to prove it all, the evi- 
dence supports the idea that this is a dike of dacite 
with a north-south direction with apparently greater 
width north of the Lagima, which is probably the 
source of a portion of the dacite intrusion. If this 
dike is as suggested, and wider to the north of the 

Laguna, it will be expected that the fault in break- 
ing its way upward through this dacite will show 
greater irregularity than would otherwise be ex- 
pected. Generalized section II illustrates this situa- 
tion and practically represents the conditions exist- 
ing as far north as the end of the dacite area, in the 
vicinity of the Berkeley property. 


The various orebodies of the Goldfield Consoli- 
dated and the Florence mines are directly connected 
with this Columbia Mountain fault zone; all of 
them being either in the zone itself or in the irregu- 
lar fractures extending from it upward. It seems 
reasonable, therefore, to conclude that this fault has 
been the connecting channel to the deep seated 
source of mineralization, and the path for mineraliz- 
ing solutions. 

"What is believed to be primary ore has already 
beeen found on the 1300-ft. level of the Grizzly Bear 
in this fault zone. The natural tendency, in a fault 
as flat as this, is a closing of the fracture by com- 
pression, and the consequent difficulty of the cir- 
culating waters to maintain their open channels. 
This accounts for the larger size of the orebodies in 
the upper and more nearly vertical and irregular 
connecting fissures than in the main channel below. 
It is reasonable to expect that the deposition of 
mineral in the channel itself as depth is increased 
will be of less thickness, while in the steeper inter- 
secting veins it will not be so much restricted. 

Relation of Mineralization to Faults 

The mineralization appears to depend entirely 
upon the system of fissuring, and there appears to 
be no essential relation between the ore deposits 
and the different kinds of eruptive rock in which 
they exist, and references to the different kinds of 
rock are made here for the purpose of exhibiting 
the system of faulting and fissiiring. There has 
been some cross-faulting both prior to and after the 
deposition of the ore, which has not been mentioned 
here, and has to some extent modified the uniformity 
of the fault and connecting fissures, but has not 
substantially altered the general scheme. 

To the north of the Berkeley property the condi- 
tions are somewhat simplified by the absence of the 
dacite intrusion. This situation is represented in 
generalized section III. Some ore has been found in 
the fault zone at the Conqueror mine, which leads 
to the inference that there are connections along 
the zone to the source of the mineral solutions, 
through which they have penetrated this far to the 
north. There may be a branch from this fault or a 
connecting fissure extending farther to the west, 
which has mineralized the area including the Sand- 
storm and Kendall properties. This system of con- 
nected faults and branching fractures is by no means 
unusual and many notable similar instances are 
found in raining camps throughout the country. It 
is not intended here to convey the idea that there 
are not other sources of mineralization for other por- 
tions of this district, or that there may not be many 
more connecting mineralized fractures extending 
from this system, which as yet remain undiscovere<l 
and which the future will reveal. 

July 12, 1913 



The Basic-Lined Converter 

By E. P. Mathewson 

•In a discussion of a paper on 'The Basic Process 
as Applied to Copper Smelting,' by Percy C. Gil- 
christ, read before the Society of Chemical Industry, 
London, January 5, 1891,1 W. C. Roberts-Austen 
asked Mr. Gilchrist whether he thought that the sub- 
stitution of a basic lining for acid lining in the 
Manhes process would afford anything like the serv- 
ice which it had been shown to render in the metal- 
lurgy of iron. 

Claude Vautin stated that he had experimented 
for over two years with basic linings for bessemer 
converters for copper mattes at Cobar, but had given 
up the attempt on the score of cost. Mr. Gilchrist 
in his reply stated that he did not believe in apply- 
ing any system of bessemerizing to copper. 

About the time of the presentation of the paper 
mentioned, Herman Keller, superintendent of the 
Parrott smelter, in Butte, was experimenting on a 
large scale with converters lined with magnesite 
brick. He gave up the idea on account of the cost 
of linings and because no particular advantage was 
observed. My belief is that his tuyeres and convert- 
ers were too small. 

Experiments at the Great Falls Plant 

A short time afterward, similar experiments were 
tried at the Great Falls plant of the Boston & Mon- 
tana company, and at the Old Works of the Ana- 
conda Copper Mining Co. at Anaconda. These were 
abandoned on the score of cost and the lack of ad- 
vantages. The same cause of failure, in my opinion, 
holds here. The Anaconda Copper Mining Co., how- 
ever, adopted the magnesite brick lining for its tilt- 
ing casting machines. 

E. A. C. Smith, while temporarily in charge of 
these casting machines, tried the experiment of blow- 
ing the copper in the casting machines, but the re- 
turn of the head of the department put a stop to the 
experiment, and Mr. Smith put the idea away until 
a more favorable opportunity presented itself. 

About 1903, Baggalley began his experiments of 
smelting ore in a basic-lined converter at Butte, Mon- 
tana, at the Pittsmont smelter. He was followed by 
Knudsen at the Sulitjelma plant in Norway, in 1907. 
About the year 1905 similar experiments were tried 
at several smelters, notably the plant of the United 
States Smelting Co. at Midvale, Utah. Mr. Smith, 
who was then with the Baltimore Copper Co., found 
his opportunity to experiment, and his superintend- 
ent and manager, Mr. Pierce, gave him all the help 
in his power, the result being the construction at 
Baltimore of a basic-lined converter for leady cop- 
per mattes, along the lines of the old tilting anode 
furnaces of Anaconda. The experiment gave prom- 
ising results, so that the American Smelting & Re- 
fining Co. took up the process and introduced it 
with success on leady copper mattes at its lead re- 

fineries at Perth Amboy and Omaha. Then Smith 
and Pierce persuaded the company to try it on 
straight copper mattes at the Garfield, Utah, plant. 

In the meantime the Anaconda Copper Mining' 
Co., at the "Washoe Reduction Works, Anaconda, 
lined a shell of the standard trough pattern with 
magnesite brick. The results were excellent, so they 
gradually replaced all the acid lining with mag- 
nesite brick. At Great Falls the same Company's 
experts developed a large converter along the lines 
of the upright shell, and, as this type is easier to 
build and keep in repair, it heis become the stand- 
ard dtiring the past year. Practically all the bes- 
semerizing of copper mattes in the United States 
is now done in basic-lined converters. The main 
points to be observed for successful operation of 
the basic linings are : not to exceed a temperature 
of 2100°P. ; not to have tuyeres smaller than ll^ 
in. (iy2 in. is the preferred size) ; to drive in punch 
rods the full size of the tuyere opening, immediately 
after pouring the copper; to maintain in the con- 
verter as large a mass of matte and slag as pos- 
sible to prevent sudden changes in temperature 
and overheating of the lining; to employ slag con- 
taining preferably about 25% of silica. 

A test was made with a view to finding out 
whether the cutting action of converter slag on a 
magnesia brick lining bore any relation to the silica 
content of the slag. Thirteen slags were selected 
from the daily samples sent to the laboratory. These 
varied in silica from 22.4 to 37.8%, and were care- 
fully analyzed for MgO. The results showed no 
relation between silica and magnesia content. 

To Smith and Pierce belongs the credit of taking 
a long-discarded idea and developing it into a suc- 
cessful process. The great advantages of the proc- 
ess are : decreased cost of lining ; the ability to use 
large units in converting, with consequent econo- 
mies in labor, power, and repairs; neatness and 
cleanliness of plant, abolishing the danger, from 
dust, to the health of the lining crew. 

Improvements at the Old Dominion Mine, 

•Abstract from advance copy of paper to be presented at 
the Butte meeting of the American Institute of Mining 

^Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Vol. X, 
No. 1, pp. 4 to 16 (Jan. 31, 1891). 

The steel erecting gang is working on the new 
sampling mill, adjacent to the big concrete concen- 
trating ore-bins. The main work is almost complete, 
but some riveting remains to be done. The steel 
work on the crusher plant has been delayed because 
of the late arrival of the steel building columns, 
but these are now at hand and the contractors will 
go ahead with the erection of the building immedi- 
ately. All the steel work is being done by the 
Darbyshire-Harvie Iron & Machine Co., of El Paso. 
All necessary excavation work in connection with 
the new concentrator has been completed, and 
forms are now being put in place to receive the con- 
crete. The foundations for the rolls are already in 
place. The steel work on the new concentrator will 
not be started before the crusher plant, sampling 
mill, and various conveyors are all complete. Plans 
are being made to double the present capacity of 
the custom ore-bins, which are above the A shaft, 
to give more storage room at that point. The 



July 12, 1913 

timbering and lining of the pockets at the 1200 and 
800 ft. levels has been completed, and a pocket is 
being cut for the concentrating and smelting ore 
.on the 1600-ft. level, the lowest level of the shaft at 
the present time. Several changes are being made 
in various stations near the shaft in connection with 
the new skip arrangements, and the tracks will be 
changed later. Ore production and development in 
the mine continues about normal. The sinking of the 
K shaft for a sump, below the 1400-ft. level, is fin- 
ished, and in a few days all timbering will be in 
place and the shaft will be ready for hoisting ore at 
any time. It is expected that the raise from the 
1200-ft. level of the Old Dominion to connect with 
the present bottom of the Gray shaft will hole 
through about July 5, and the shaft will then be 
timbered with sets down to the 1200-ft. level. A 
new slime pond has just been completed near Pinal 
creek on the old Hamm ground, and will be used 
for settling slime from the concentrator. There are 
no changes or improvements of note around the 

Portable Electric Mine Lamps 

By H. H. Clark 

•Portable electric lamps should first of all be safe ; 
that is, they should not be capable of igniting gas, 
and should not be so poorly constructed that a man 
will be left in darkness due to failure of any part 
of the lamp equipment. The lamp should give the 
proper amount of light for from 10 to 12 hours on 
one charge of battery. The lamp equipment should 
be as light as possible, sq that the burden of car- 
rying it and working with it may be reduced to 
a minimum. Some of these qualities are more or 
less apparent after a brief examination. There are 
other qualities that are not so easily determined, 
and I will mention just a few of them: 

A most important factor in the usefulness of 
portable electric lamps is the cost of repairs and 
upkeep; another is the trouble that is experienced 
from interruptions of service due to equipments get- 
ting out of order. The principal item of upkeep 
is the expense of replacing the lamp bulbs that 
have burned out. The life of the lamp is, therefore, 
an important consideration. The manufacture of 
miniature lamp bulbs does not seem to be very 
thoroughly standardized in this country. The lamp 
bulbs that the Bureau has examined have varied 
a great deal in their characteristics. These bulbs 
Tary in price from 17c. to over 40c., and it may be 
supposed that the higher-priced lamps have a longer 
life, but I cannot give any definite information as 
to that, although tests are now under way to deter- 
mine this fact. The candle-power that these bulbs 
will give is not a fixed quantity, as it varies with 
the voltage at which the lamps are burned. If a 
lamp, designed for two-volt service, is burned at 
less than two volts, it gives less candle-power and 
has a longer life. If, on the other hand, it is burned 
at 2^A volts, its candle-power would be increased 
and its life proportionately shortened. It is not 
•Address delivered before the Coal Mining Institute of 
America on June 18, 1913. 

always a good sign to see a lamp bulb glowing 
with extreme brilliancy, because it maj mean that 
the lamp is being used at too high a voltage and 
may last but a few hours at the most. 
Battery Plates 

Another item in the cost of upkeep is the decom- 
position of the battery plates or elements. This is 
most noticeable in storage batteries having lead 
elements. The natural depreciation of the plates is 
hastened by overcharging, overdischarging, or charg- 
ing at too high a current. Another trouble that 
is experienced with the acid batteries is the de- 
struction of the contacts by the acid from the bat- 
tery. Even in non-spillable batteries and batteries 
using gelatin electrolites, a certain amount of acid 
often g(!ts upon the contacts, and rapidly corrodes 
and destroys them. A good deal of this trouble 
may be eliminated by properly designing the bat- 
tery, but it may be prevented even more completely 
by exercising care to keep the batteries clean and 
the terminals occasionally wiped off with vaseline 
or some similar substance. Storage batteries that 
make use of other electrodes than lead and other 
electrolites than sulphuric acid are not materially 
injured by overcharging or overdischarging, and do 
not have trouble with the corrosion of the contacts. 
All the batteries that the Bureau has tested, how- 
ever, have shown a more rapidly decreasing voltage 
curve than the lead batteries, which means that the 
candle-power of the lamp when the battery is first 
charged will be a good deal higher than it will be 
near the end of the discharge. 

Candle-power of Lamps 
Another point that I wish to speak of is the mat- 
ter of candle-power ratings of portable lamps. Up 
to the present time, so far as I know, no standard 
candle power rating of portable electric lamps has 
been adopted. I want to call your attention to 
the different meanings that may be given to the 
word 'candle-power' as applied to portable electric 
lamps. If a man speaks of his lamp as having five 
candle-power, he may mean the candle-power of the 
lamp bulb used in connection with its reflector. In 
either case he may refer to the candle-power meas- 
ured at one point or the average of several points. 
The true candle-power of the lamp is, of course, 
the average candle-power that it gives over its 
illuminating range. Some lamps if measured from 
a point directly in front of their reflectors, will 
show" from 5 to 10 times the candle-power that they 
would have if their candle-power were measured 
from a point 30" on either side. An effect of this 
sort is, of course, to be expected, but the statement 
as to how the candle-power is measured should al- 
ways be made, because two lamps that really give 
the same amount of light have widely different 
candle-powers when measiired 'head-on.' 

As an illustration: Two lamps give the same 
amount of light, but the 'head-on' candle-power of 
one is more than twelve times that of the other, 
and the average candle-power is nearly seven times 
that of the other. 

A growth of scrub willow in Alaska is usually an 
indication that the ground below is not frozen. 

July 12, 1913 




Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to 
use this department for the discussion of technical and other 
matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor 
welcomes the expression of views contrary to his own, be- 
lieving that careful criticism is more valuable than casual 
compliment. Insertion of any contribution is determined by 
Its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 

The Psychology of Zinc 
The Editor: 

Sir — There was produced in the United States 
in 1911' more than 320,000 tons of metallic zinc, 
worth more than $43,000,000. To produce this 
amount of metal, over 100.000 little fireclay pots 
were constantly in use night and day. The aver- 
age life of these pots is only a few weeks, and 
when one is broken it must be replaced As a re- 
sult, the total number consumed was between one 
and two millions. For each of these pots in use, a 
smaller bottle-like vessel of fireclaj' is required ; the 
life of these smaller vessels is even shorter. The 
service required of these petty utensils is strenu- 
ous, and the handling they receive is neces-sarilj' 
rough, consequentl.v only the best obtainable cla.vs 
can be used in their construction, and great tech- 
nical skill is required to make them. A rigorous 
supervision must be exercised over every stage of 
their long evolution. They must be dried out gradu- 
ally during several months, and properly heated 
afterward, before they can go into a hot furnace 
to replace those which are broken. They must be 
handled like crockery, and yet be charged and emp- 
tied once every twenty-four hours with heavy iron 
tools which only a strong man can manipulate. It 
is a triumph of manual training which makes it 
possible to use them at all. Yet it is a.ssumed that 
they are indispensable with a resignation which may 
be truly Christian or merely fatalistic. 

The success in finding suitable clay, the care 
taken in preparing it. and all the little refinements 
in manipulation practised, and the slight changes 
in size and shape of the vessels adopted from time 
to time for economy, show to what extent the art 
of making them has been perfected. Most of the 
ore from which this zinc is smelted is mechanically 
concentrated out of material which contains less 
than 4% of zinc as it goes to the mill. From this 
material a rich concentrate containing between 50 
and 60% of zinc must be made before the smelters 
Avill look at it. The percentage loss in this mechan- 
ical concentration is very high. These two facts, 
the successful use of fragile vessels on a large scale, 
and the successful concentrating of lean ores, are 
taken .is evidence of an advanced stage of devel- 
opment in the art of zinc smelting. This 55% con- 
centrate is, however, not yet ready to be put into 
those precious vessels; it must be roasted to get rid 
of its sulphur. An incomplete roast will not suffice 
as in many other branches of metallurgy; practically 
ill! of the sulphur must be eliminated. Here comes 
in another evidence of the success achieved in zinc 
smelting, for the sulphur is reduced to less than 
1%, and this result is announced with pride. Still 
another evidence of acquired skill is to be found 
in the drawing and casting of the smelted metal, 
for each of the little bottles (condensers) attached 

to the pots (retorts) must be emptied from three 
to five times a day by scraping its contents into 
a ladle which holds perhaps twenty pounds. The 
metal in these ladles, after it is skimmed, is poured 
into a larger ladle, from which it is poured into 
the molds, after proper cooling. The skill shown 
in these operations is admirable. 

There is another side to the story cutlined above. 
It is a fact that enormous deposits of mineral con- 
taining from 6 to 20% of zinc are easily accessible, 
some of them opened by shafts and drifts, but they 
are not available because they are not amenable to 
the high concentration possible on some leaner ores, 
or because they cannot be roasted down to less than 
1% of sulphur. These masses of rich raw material 
are a nuisance where they are found, in working 
mines for other metals, and they are doomed to be 
irrevocably lost, when these mines are shut down, 
unless happily rediscovered by posterity and util- 
ized by a new order of zinc smelters. 

It might be supposed from the foregoing outline 
that zinc is connected with some particularly troub- 
lesome as.sociates. This is not the case. The ele- 
ments found with it are those with which every met- 
allurgist is familiar, and has to do with every day. 
There is little foundation for the suppositions that 
zinc has properties which make its separation from 
other metals difficult, or that there is some great 
difficulty in smelting. 

Zinc has indeed two properties which impose spe- 
cial conditions on its metallurgy: the temperature 
at which it is reduced by carbon is above its boiling 
point, and consequently as reduced it exists as a 
gas, in which .state it is easily oxidized. Both of 
these properties belong also to mercury, which is 
smelted from much leaner ores. On the other hand, 
zinc has properties which make it« smelting very 
simple. Isolated by volatilization, it is easily sep- 
arated from its metallic and earthy associates, and 
it is in fact the only metal which I know of, which 
is commonly used in the arts just as it comes from 
the smelting furnace. The temperature needed to 
reduce it is moderate, that is, about the same as in 
the simplest lead-smelting process, much less than 
is required to smelt iron, copper, nickel, or alumi- 
num, or than is constantly employed in working up 
iron and steel products. 

Smelters in other branches of metallurgy show a 
willingness to discard furnaces and machinery 
known to be obsolete. They experiment to find some- 
thing better. They are willing to build furnaces 
which they know are not perfect, but will have to 
be discarded or improved later to get the best re 
suits or to meet changed conditions. Change does 
not repel them. But zinc smelters cling to their 
precious pottery, to their petty charges, and skilled 
practices of a traditionary art, to their costly but 
])erfected roastings. and they shudder at any sug- 
gestion of change. It is said zinc sm.elting was in- 
vented in China several hundred years ago. It has 
been also said that the zinc industry is a backward 
one ; it is rather a perfected one. I am inclined to 
think that all of its skill and most of its technical 
knowledge is to be found with its manual workers. 
At a consultation held between its family physicians 



July 12, 1913 

and one or two outside specialists called in for the 
sake of appearances, mutterings very much as fol- 
lows would be heard from the several participants: 
"One of arrested development — congenitaJly defect- 
ive — unsanitary conditions — vocational disease — in- 
herited — incurable — hopeless— will live indefintely — 
no suffering — happy as a child — inherited wealth — 
sad case." The consultation will be secret, for 
everything connected Vv^ith zinc is done with decor- 
ous secrecy. It will be painstaking and detailed, 
for everything connected with zinc is in perfect 
detail, and everything is done with pains. 

I think there are no zinc smelters on the Pacific 
coast of this continent, and no friends of the family 
whose feelings might be hurt by the indiscreet ad- 
missions I am making to the Press, and China is n 
long way off fi'om there, whether one goes east or 
one goes west, and news travels slowly in the zinc 
world. These are feelings of traditional reverence 
which everyone should avoid shocking, intentionally 
or otherwise. I don 't want to be thought uncharita- 
ble or unkind. There are cases which are sadder 
than death ; they should be spoken of in private, and 
with hushed voices. I hope my voice is not too loud. 
Sorrow for the stricken must find a place in every 
bosom capable of human feeling, but the inevitable 
must be faced somehow. Reguiescat in pace. 

F. L. Clerc. 
Estes Park, Colorado, June 9. 

[The statement that zinc metallurgy is backward 
is frequently made. It is true that the recovery is 
less than in treatment of copper, gold, and silver, 
but we believe that this results from real difficul- 
ties and is not wholly a matter of tradition. Cer- 
tainly, the metallurgists that we know, who are 
working with zinc, are as capable and energetic as 
an}^ We hope to see treatment improved. In the 
meantime our correspondent's semi-serious pen pic- 
ture will serve as a protest and .stimulant. — Editor.] 

Oil-Burning in Furnaces 
The Editor: 

Sir — In mj' letter on 'Blast -Furnace Smelting 
with Crude Oil,' pujjlished in your issue of February 
8 last, I endeavored to emphasize the necessity of 
thoroughly consuming the oil before the entrance 
of the mixture of hot gases into the furnace. That 
such emphasis was needed is shown in a variety of 
ways. I have heai'd subsequently of two different 
attempts to utilize oil as fuel in cupola smelting, 
which came to naught, apparently by a neglect of 
this principle. Observation of oil-burning boiler fur- 
naces, so common now, will suffice to show the neces- 
sitj' of a thorough preliminary combustion. The con- 
ditions essential to complete combustion — which, by 
the way, never takes place under steam boilers — 
are these : There must be enough, but not too much 
air; the space within which the combustion takes 
place must remain at the highest possible tempera- 
ture ; the space must be ample ; and its forni must 
be such that there be no interference with or be- 
tween the gaseous currents. The ideal form would 
be tubular. The best construction would be cylin- 
drical, being composed, let us say, of a sheet-iron 

tube lined with firebrick of good thickness, and 
placed horizontally. The diameter should conform 
to the amount of oil to be consumed, and its length 
should be such that the gases would be thoroughly 
burned, and that no smoke, the sign of faulty com- 
bustion, should issue from the far end. The tempera- 
ture at the front (where the air and oil enter) will 
necessarily be less than at the back, but should be 
kept as high as possible, by cutting off the direct 
radiation of heat outwardly by means of baiile-plates. 
It is contrary to common sense to permit of open- 
ings at any point wherein the interior can be seen. 
The fire-chamber is, of course, connected to the 
furnace proper, and when thus connected to a blast- 
furnace would constitute a tuyere. Several of them 
would be provided for each furnace, spaced regu- 
larly about its periphery, and pointing radially in- 
ward, or having some inclination downward, ac- 
cording to the fancy of the designer. They must 
be contracted at the inner end, to increase the 
velocity of the entering gases and assume the cus- 
tomary effect. 

The application of oil-burning to the steam 
boiler is not scientifically made. The old-fashioned 
coal or wood-burning firebox is retained and made 
to do a duty to which it is not well adapted. The 
interior form of the fire-box is about the worst that 
could well be devised. Its faults for oil-burning are, 
first, its many rectangles, which produce conflicting 
gas currents and prevent the proper mixing which 
is essential to perfect combustion. Then the large 
useless space at the front, which cannot be kept hot ; 
but chiefly the presence of the immense bulging 
boiler immediately over the fire at its incipiency, 
which effectually keeps down the temperature, 
which, instead of reaching 3000° or more, as it 
should, can barely surpass the red heat. I do not 
mean that all the space is at this low temperature, 
but that it does not surpass the red heat as au 

When a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon burns, the 
tendency is for the hydrogen to be consumed first, 
as the carbon, requiring a higher temperature, may 
escape combustion in part, passing off in solid par- 
ticles and making a black smoke. A cold object 
introduced into the path of the burning gases ab- 
stracts heat and produces the smoky effect. The 
bulky boiler, relatively cool, is responsible for the 
great volume of smoke and soot which often defiles 
the atmosphere in the neighborhood of steam plants. 
The remedy is obvious: it is to burn the fuel out 
of contact with the boiler, and to heat the latter by 
contact with the fully burned and very hot gases. 
Smoke is so unnecessary that it is quite a wonder 
that legislative interference has not been invoked 
effectively; a proper 'blue-sky' law should be placed 
on our statute books. 

It is in reverberatory smelting that oil-burning 
has reached its ideal phase. In that furnace the 
whole interior forms practically a great combustion 
chamber, kept at a high temperature throughout its 
entire length (exceeding in some cases 100 ft.), into 
one end of which the air and atomized oil are in- 
troduced, while the fully oxidized gases are with- 

July 12, 1913 



drawn from the other. Being surrounded by brick- 
work, cunningly arranged to prevent the escape of 
heat by radiation and conduction, the whole inte- 
rior remains at a dazzling heat, the conditions being 
perfect for the development of the flame and the 
complete combustion of the fuel. This condition of 
affairs should be imitated so far as practicable in 
the other applications of petroleum as fuel, even 
if it involved the constniction of special combus- 
tion chambers. Such constructions are in the way 
of being realized. Several manufacturers of oil- 
burning boilers manifest, in their catalogues at least, 
a tendency to prolong their combustion chambers 
outwardly, or by extending an arch over the inter- 
nal combustion space, which comes to the same end, 
to give the fuel a chance to develop its flame un- 
hampered by the presence of the cold boiler surface. 

Herbert Lang. 
Oakland, California, June 6. 

The Mother Lode of California 
The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of June 21 appears an article 
on 'The Mother Lode of California,' by J. H. G. 
Wolf. I consider this an ably written article on 
the Mother Lode, especially in reference to Amador 
county, and in fact all other districts mentioned in 
this article except that part of Calaveras county 
between the Mokelumne river and the Utica mine 
at Angels Camp, a distance of about 26 miles on 
the Central belt of the Mother Lode. 

Mr. Wolf intimates that the productiveness of 
the Lode is lost. He omitted to mention the Gwin 
mine, about lYz miles south of the Hardenburg, 
which property has been a producer of several mil 
lion dollars and has been worked to the 2600-ft. 
level. Other mines south along the Lode are, The 
Hamby and Quaker City, that has produced gold 
as far as it has been developed; near San Andreas, 
the Gold Hill, Lookout, and Gottsehalk mines have 
been prospected and from all indications are the 
making of paying mines, and in all probability as 
good payers as the Kennedy or any of the Amador 
properties. They are not unlike the mines of Ama- 
dor county. 

South from San Andreas, and north of Altaville, 
are other good prospects. They are, the Ford, Fel- 
lowcraft, Illinois, Rathgib, Thorpe, and others that 
have been developed for several hundred feet with 
good rosults. The only trouble on this part of the 
central Mother Lode is the want of capital to de- 
velop the mines to the same extent as in Amador 
county. The Lode did not break its neck at the 
Mokelumne river. In time it will be found that the 
Lode south of the Mokelumne river will prove equal- 
ly as productive as in Amador county or at Angels 

W. T. Robinson. 

Mokelumne Hill, California, June 25. 

The number of productive mines in New Mexico 
in 1012 was 145, of which 26 were placers, against 
105 in 1911. of which 20 were placers, according t.) 
the U. S. Geological Survey. The average total re- 
coverable value per ton of ore produced decreased 

from $11.54 in 1911 to $6.29 in 1912, owing to the 
large tonnage of low-grade copper ore handled by 
the Chino Copper Co. A total of 1,352,286 short tons 
of ore from New Mexico was sold or treated in 1912, 
an increase over 1911 of 1,119,587 tons. Of this 
total, 106,198 tons went to amalgamating and cya- 
niding mills, 1,142,002 tons went to mills for con- 
centrating only, and 104,086 tons went crude to 

Analysis of Black Powder and Dynamite 

Bulletin No. 51, recently issued by the United 
States Bureau of Mines, outlines the methods of 
analysis that are used by the Bureau of Mines in 
the examination of certain classes of explosives. 
The present form of most of these methods has been 
worked out in the Bureau's explosives laboratory. 
The methods employed by C. E. Munroe have been 
taken as a basis, and were elaborated to meet the 
demands incident to the treatment of complicated 
mixtures and to the development of the explosives 
art. This bulletin presents the methods of analysis 
of 'ordinary' dynamite, and the ammonia, gelatin, 
low-freezing, and granular dynamites, and the com- 
mon grades of black gunpowder and black blasting 
powder. The bulletin is published by the Bureau 
for the information of all persons interested in ex- 
plosives and their safe and efficient use in mining 
work. It may be noted that the standard dynamite 
used at the Pittsburgh testing station is a good 
example of the 'ordinary' dynamite known in this 
country. This testing station dynamite has the fol- 
lowing composition: 

Composition of Pittsbuboh Testing Station Dynamite 

Per cent. 

Nitroglycerin 40 

Sodium nitrate 44 

Wood pulp I IS 

Calcium carbonate 1 

As most permissible explosives contain only the 
constituents found generally in the various types of 
ordinary dynamite, the chemist will usually find it 
possible to analyze such explosives either wholly or 
partly by following the general methods of analysis 
here given for the type of explosive that seems most 
closely related to the one under examination. The 
methods of extraction with ether, with water, etc., 
outlmed in the bulletin are general methods which 
are applied with equal success to all classes of ex- 
plosives, and therefore by the use of these general 
methods, following a thorough qualitative examina- 
tion, little difficulty should be met except with those 
classes of permissible explosives that contain large 
amounts of salts holding water of crystallization, 
such as alum and magnesium sulphate, or those con- 
taining an unusual number of uncommon constitu- 
ents. Even with such explosives, however, if the 
information desired is principally in regard to the 
percentages of explosive ingredients (nitroglycerin, 
ammonium, nitrate, etc.), the methods outlined in 
this bulletin may be satisfactorily followed. 

Corporation taxes during the year ended June 30, 
1913, yielded the United States government $34,- 



July 12, 1913 

Special Correspondence 


The Pearl District. — Checkmate Mine. — Lincoln. — Black 
Pearl. — Whitman. — Mistakes in Early Work. — Cya- 
NiDATioN Needed. 

In many districts the refractory nature of the ore has 
been the serious drawbaclv to the successful development 
of mines. In some respects this is true of the Pearl dis- 
trict, though the principal drawback appears to have been 
lack of method in determining the true nature of the ore 
and its adaptability to certain methods of treatment, pre- 
vious to the erection of milling plants. The valuable min- 
erals consist of gold and silver, intimately associated with 
pyrite, blende, galena, and small amounts of stibnite and 
chalcopyrite. In many of the veins the sulphides occur at 
the surface or within a few feet of it. Some gold occurs 
'free', but most of it is in the sulphides in the form of 
thin flakes deposited along the cleavage-planes of the 
mineral. The gangue is silicious, carrying a small amount 
of lime in the oxidized zone and some calcite both in and 


— -t 


i POX/I "f 1 

q 1 


/ 1 



-^^-r^-^ ' y 









X s-^^-^^-^^^^-^^ 




below this zone. In general, the ore from all the prop- 
erties is similar in character, at depth, the principal dif- 
ference being in the varying quantities of blende and 
galena associated with the pyrite. The arsenical content 
varies somewhat in the different mines, and even in dif- 
ferent parts of the same mine; this factor appears to 
have had an influence on the deposition of gold. In the 
Whitman mine the arsenical ore carries the highest gold 
and silver content, while in the Checkmate mine the re- 
verse appears to be true. The reason for this apparent 
Inconsistency has never been determined. 

During the early period of mining, the Checkmate com- 
pany erected a mill, including two 5-stamp batteries, van- 
ners, and canvas tables, and this mill was operated al- 
most continuously for more than five years. The orebody 
developed consisted of three shoots of fair length and 
width, which came together at depth, forming one shoot 
nearly 600 ft. long. A portion of this orebody was of 
shipping grade, the value never falling below $75 and 
often going as high as $150 per ton. Within the orebody 
the gold and silver content was consistent and quite uni- 
form, a fact which distinguishes the Checkmate from 

other properties in the same mineralized area. A fact 
also worthy of note is the occurrence of galena in appre- 
ciable .luantities. Invariably, where the amount of galena 
is high, the gold content is good, and this is true of all 
the mines. The ore sent to the mill yielded well to amal- 
gamation and produced a good grade of concentrate. Re- 
peated checks on heads, tailing, and the actual recovery 
in amalgam and concentrate showed an extraction of only 
62%. Undoubtedly a large part of the loss was due to 
sliming the lead sulphide. The mine was developed to the 
500-ft. level, but with the destruction of the mill by fire 
several j'ears ago, operations ceased. Later, lessees worked 
the upper levels at a profit. The property is credited 
with a production of between $500,000 and $750,000. 

The Lincoln mine has been opened by shaft to a depth 
of 400 ft. The vein varies in width from 2 to 30 ft., and 
at the widest point was heavily mineralized. This stope 
was opened from the inclined shaft before the vertical 
shaft was sunk, and some ore was taken out. This body 
of ore v.-as lost, however, because proper precautions were 
not taken in mining. The full width of the vein was 
mined and a kind of square-set timbering was used to hold 
the exceedingly heavy hanging wall. No filling was used. 
The vein-matter was soft and a six-foot auger hole could 
easily be made. The men were instructed to be liberal in 
the use of powder, and thoy were. The holes were charged 
to the collar and when blasted not only broke the ore, 
but the timbers also suffered severely, and as a result the 
hanging wall fell, taking everything with it. The swell- 
ing ground in the drifts caused trouble, and 1200 ft. of 
the second level, from the incline shaft through which the 
first work was done, was lost and never recovered. 

The treatment of the Lincoln ore was similar to that 
of the Checkmate, in that amalgamation and concentration 
were employed. The equipment consisted of a crusher, 
rolls, Chilean mill, plate, and Wllfley tables. Everything 
went through the Chilean mill, and as the mine, at times, 
was in condition to produce a good tonnage of ore, the 
Chilean was often crowded beyond capacity. Amalgama- 
tion followed immediately after grinding, and generally 
the stream of pulp over the plate was so thick and flow- 
ing at such speed that amalgamation was almost useless. 
An electro-amalgamation device was tried later, but the 
conditions necessary to good practice were ignored. Con- 
centration on the tables was somewhat more successful 
than amalgamation, this being due to the fact that the Wil- 
fley table is one of the most easily handled and under- 
stood of all concentrating devices. Some of the mill-ore 
was rich in free gold and at such times there could be 
observed a streak of the yellow metal traveling down the 
table above the pyrite. This helped to raise the grade of 
concentrate, but it certainly did not raise the efficiency 
in milling. The record of production is not complete, but 
the books show nearly $240,000 in shipments, of which 
$50,000 was bullion to the Boise assay office. Considering 
all the impediments to good work under which the mine 
and mill labored, the extraction would not exceed 50 per 

The Black Pearl mine is also developed by shaft to a 
depth of 400 ft., and is equipped with a complete mill, 
consisting of a battery of eight 1250-lb. Nissen stamps. 
Dorr classifier. Abbe tube-mill, Hendryx agitator, Kelly 
filter-press, Card concentrators, steam plant for heating 
solution, zinc precipitation, filter, and zinc press, melting 
furnace, and the usual tanks. From the standpoint of 
mechanical efficiency, the mill was up to date, but metal- 
lurgical troubles were experienced. Before these were ad- 
justed, the financial resources had been exhausted, and 
the property was closed. The final plant was not finished 
until after expensive and time-consuming experiments had 
been made on other methods of treatment, the first of 
which was the percolation process. Percolation could not 
possibly be successful with the heavy sulphide ore, owing 
to the nature of occurrence of the gold and the tendency 
of the pulp to pack when charged into tanks. 

The Whitman mine was being developed during the time 
that the other properties mentioned were producing, and 
should have profited by the experience of the pioneers In 

July 12, 1913 



milling. The mine is opened by an adit at a depth of 
nearly 200 ft., and for a distance of 1400 ft. on the vein. 
A Hathaway type of mill was built and operated with 
more or less regularity for two years. The capacity was 
limited, and the mine production had to be cut to con- 
form with mill capacity. Early in 1910 it was decided to 
increase the milling capacity, and the Hathaway mill was 
consigned to the dump. Rolls, jigs, trommels, tables, and 
vannrrs were installed in the former mitl building, which 
had been remodeled and enlarged. The equipment was 
placed in position, and in July milling operations were 
commenced. No one understood jigs, this being the first 
installation in the district, but finally, after considerable 
delay, a millman from the Coeur d'Alene district was se- 
cured to start the plant. The millwright had piped the 
jig water into the air vents of the plungers, and had merely 
placed the screens on the frame without even one little 
nail to hold down the cloth. The re-grinding rolls were 
directly under the trommels and some 12 ft. below, and as 
a result the product dropped, without a break, to the rolls. 
The fecd-spout from the feeder to the coarse-grinding rolls 
made :i right-angle turn and was flat enough to keep the 
milimaa continually poking the ore past the turn. The 
new millman found his suggestions for a few improvements, 
which would make the work easier and increase the efB- 
ciency, taken with little grace. Also, he found it difficult 
to satisfactorily explain Just why clean concentrate could 
not be made on the third screen and through the third 
hutch — the two Jigs were three-compartment. The middling 
was not returned for re-grinding, but was wheeled back 
and shoveled into the boot of the elevator and returned 
to the system. More could be given, but these points are 
enough to illustrate the lack of system in the matter of 
design and erection, and particularly in the knowledge 
of the ore and its concentration. 

The mill ran several months under very unsatisfactory 
conditions and milled a fair tonnage. The grade of con- 
centrate was lowered beyond a profitable point by allow- 
ing the pyritized wall-rock to go in with the regular ore. 
In places the hanging w^ll was well mineralized, but the 
pyrite contained low gold and silver content. An assayer 
was employed, but his principal duties consisted in run- 
ning the crusher, as assays were made about once, and 
sometimes twice a week. Mine assays were few and far 
lietween, and consequently of little value in a vein where 
the difference between profitable and unprofitable ore could 
be determined in no other way. A change in management 
the latter part of the year was followed by a general 
change in the operating force, as well as in policy, all of 
which resulted in benefit tfi the owners. 

In 1911 the mistake of attempting cyanidation in the 
Black Pearl mill, leased for the purpose, cost the owners 
about $10,000, and resulted in shutting down the property 
and settling with the crew on a basis of 757c of their 
wagcE. The data, on which the cyanide plant was started, 
consisted of several laboratory experiments, and nothing 
more. In this work the ore was concentrated in the Whit- 
.man mill and the concentrate hauled by wagon to the 
Black Pearl mill and dumped into a bin erected for the 
purpose. The equipment at the Black Pearl mill included 
a tube-mill, agitator, tanks, and zinc-boxes. The mill had 
been idle more than three years and was In bad condi- 
tion, so that considerable loss of gold solution as well 
as barren solution was unavoidable at the beginning. The 
first mill-runs did not, of course, check with laboratory 
work, s<) the entire plant was turned into an experimental 
mill. To conduct such an exi^eriment and at the same 
timo keep 35 or more men on the pa.yroil is exceedingly 
costly. The owners had not objected to paying for nearly 
5000 It. of development and the erection of the two mills, 
but this premature attempt at cyanidation v/as too much. 

While this did not result in commercial success, it was 
cf s,imc value in indicating what could be expected in 
the matter of treatment. A total of 598 tons of con- 
centrate was treated, the average value of which was $17 
per ton. Close concentration was not attempted in the 
Whitman mill, and for this reason the percentage of silica 
reducod the value of the material treated. The calculated 

extraction was 767^, amounting to $7727, and the actual 
recovery was $6174, which amounts agree fairly well, 
considering the loss from leakage and other causes. Pre- 
cipitation with zinc shavings was not very efficient, being 
only 89.567f- This low extraction was due, in part, 
to the u-se of old factory-made shavings and to lack of 
definite knowledge in the use of lead acetate. The cyanide 
consumption averaged 4 lb. per ton of ore, and the lime 
S lb. The record of zinc and lead acetate consumption 
is not complete, nor were other costs kept in shape for 
tabulation. The entire cost, including all alterations, re- 
pairs, supplies, labor, power, etc., amounted to $6.27 per 
ton. There is no question but that a good plant in charge 
of a competent metallurgist would reduce this cost to 
below $5 per ton, and at the same time increase the ex- 

The general conclusion to be drawn from observing con- 
ditions in this district is the fact that all companies, 
aside from the Checkmate, erected mills from hurriedly 
prepared plans, seemingly under the impression that any 
mill would answer the purpose. This error seems to be 
an inherent quality in the conducting of operations among 
smaller mining comr)anies. The building of a mill marks 
a critical point in the history of any mine. If the mine 
has lieen developed to the producing stage and the mill 
is not economically adapted to the ore, the final outcome 
is much the same as if a mill had been built with the 
expectation of later developing ore in the mine. The mines 
here have ore, but the general run of ore is not high 
enough in gold and silver to pay interest on capital in- 
vested in equipment necessary for concentration and ship- 
ment to smelters. Cyanidytion is the logical and inevitable 
solution of this district's problem, and when the demand 
for the precious metals becomes more insistent, this dis- 
trict will be a producer. 


Zisr-LE.\n Pbopui'tion di'bino Jtne. — Zinc Prices. — Ibox 
Pybite Pboi>vctiox. — Cabbo.nate of Zinc Ores and the 
MiNERAi Point Zinc Co. — Zinc Ore Opened at the 
Cbawhai.l Mine. — Principal Producing Mines. — Pros- 
pects OF the Districts. 

June reports at hand for the entire Wisconsin zinc-lead 
field show shipments to local ore-separating plants and 
smelters direct consisting of 288 cars of zinc ore, equal 
to 20,850,000 lb. Of this production, the Mineral Point Zinc 
Co. secured by purchase and production under company 
management, 4140 tons; Gra.sselli Chemical Co., of Cleve- 
land, 2625 tons; National Separating Co., owned and oper- 
ated by the Vinegar Hill Zinc Co., 990 tons; Illinois Zinc 
Co., Peru. Illinois, 675 tons; Matthiesen & Hegeler Zinc Co.. 
580 tons; Empire roasting plant at Platteville, 700 tons; 
Linden Zinc Separating Co., 450 tons; American Zinc Co., 
of Hlllsboro, Illinois (new smelter), 245 tons; and the Jop- 
lin Separating Co., Galena, Illinois, 45 tons. The latter was 
purchased during the last week of the month and shows 
that the plant had resumed operation after a shut-down of 
60 days. 

The gross production of zinc from mines during the 
month totaled 18,000,000 lb., and net to smelters of 13,345,- 
000 lb. Prices averaged from $40 to $43.50 per ton, on a 
basis of 607 zinc content. The wide latitude between high- 
grade and low-grade zinc ore in this field makes the in- 
tervening markets interesting. The average 307f grades 
of zinc ore brought $16.50 per ton; 40%, $20 to $24 per 
ton; and 507, $26 to $30 per ton. 

Iron pyrite fell off considerably as compared with the 
output for May. The Wilkinson mine, at Benton, shipped 
1,486,600 lb. to the General Chemical Co., Hegewisch, Illi- 
nois; to Grasselli Chemical Co., East Chicago, Indiana. 
1,600,000 lb.; the Linden shipped 500,000 lb., and the Na- 
tional Separating Co. delivered 465,000 lb., a total of nearly 
4,000,000 pounds. 

I^ead ore deliveries were made mostly to the Federal 
Lead Co.. N. H. Snow, buyer, securing six out of seven 
cars sold during the month. The price remained steady at 
$52 per ton on a basis of 80% metallic lead. Considerable 



July 12, 1913 

lead ore and zinc ore are held in reserve at several points 
in the field. 

Carbonate of zinc ore, locally termed 'dry-bone,' is being 
delivered at a good rate. The Mineral Point Zinc Co. paid 
as high as $22 per ton during the last two weeks of the 
month, a price never before reached in this district. This 
Company consumes about 200 tons of 'oxide-producing' ores 
each 24 hours, and is constantly in the market for this 
material. The carbonate of zinc ores are rich in oxides, 
and tor this reason the Eastern corporation has practically 
bought up everything in the two northern 'camps,' Center- 
ville and Highland. The Company now owns five mining 
plants fully equipped and will secure two more. In addi- 
tion, fee to more than 2000 acres of land has been pur- 
chased outright, and all of this is to be prospected and 
mined. Officials from the head office of the Company, in 
New York, personally inspected the new holdings in this 





both operated steadily, but stored their product in bins 
holding for better prices. At Cuba, the Burr mine pro- 
duced 4 cars, and the National Separating Co. shipped 9 
cars of roasted ores. At Benton, the Frontier, Fox, Fields, 
Indian Mound, Rowley, and Temple mines made good out- 
puts. Shullsburg witnessed a heavy production in the 
Winskill, Rodhams, and Milwaukee-Shullsburg mines. Hazel 
Green reported its usual fine showing out of the Kennedy 
and the Cleveland and Scrabble Creek mines. Galena re- 
ported heavy deliveries of ore from the Federal, North- 
western, Betsy, Vinegar Hill, and Indianapolis mines. 
Highland reported light shipments of carbonate of zinc 
ore, with only 4 cars. A good deal of ore is ready for de- 
livery here and at Centerville. No building is being done 
on the field, and drilling has lessened considerably since 
lower prices for zinc ore went into effect. Any improve- 
ment in the ore market will be reflected by an almost im- 
mediate increase in production. 


district during the last weeK ot June, and stated that oper- 
ations will be started all over the properties. This means 
that several hundred miners will be employed in the mines 
already developed; that a great deal of new machinery will 
be installed, and that several new buildings will be erected 
at once. These developments are leading to one of the 
greatest mining booms ever experienced in the northern 
half of the Wisconsin zincfield. 

R. W. Hunt & Co., engineers, for the Fields Mining & 
Milling Co.. recently made one of the best finds of zinc ore, 
in the Crawhall mine at Shullsburg, which has as yet been 
reported in this district. The discovery was made on the 
Thompson land adjoining the Crawhall farm, from which 
the owner has been drawing $5000 per month royalty. The 
Company has been paying monthly dividends of $28,500. 
The ore is declared by officials of the Company to exceed 
in richness and quantity the deposits proved with drill in 
the early stages ot development on the Crawhall land. 

The O. P. David mine was the principal producer in the 
Montfort district. At Mifflin, the Coker, Ellsworth, Rundel, 
Peacock, and Lucky Six mines furnished the bulk of the 
ore. At Linden, Ross Bros., Glanville, Optimo Vo. 1 and 
2, and the Hinkle and Weigle mines were the Active pro- 
ducers. The East End mine at Platteville maae the best 
showing; while the Klar-Piquette and Homestead mines 


CoppEB Situation and the Nichols Refinekt. — Earnings 
OF Federal Mining & Smelting Co. and Butte & Supe- 
rior.- — -Canadian Nickel Corporation Organized in 

A holiday on Friday in the summer reduces a New York 
business week to little more than three days. Early last 
Thursday the exodus began from the business districts, 
and on Saturday not even the department stores were 
open. Tills was not a matter of moment in the copper 
metal market, however, for no business had been done 
lor some time before, small lots of copper changing hands 
at 14% and 14'ric. per pound, and the large sellers hold- 
ing finn at 15c. without any offers. It is hoped now that 
buyers will come back into the market after the Copper 
Producers' Association reiwrt is out on Tuesday. Exports 
during June are given at 27,815 tons, as compared with 
26,457 tons during June 1912. The Nichols refinery has 
been out of the producing list ever since the beginning of 
the strike there, so that deliveries will be corresiwndingly 
decreased for this month. The foreign market, which has 
been chiefly responsible for the good statistical position of 
the metal, has struck a snag in the renewal of war in 
the Balkans, with an even better chance than before that 
the leading powers may become involved. Aron Hirsch 
& Sohn began offering September copper in London at 
lowered prices, though the cables do not give the exact 
figures. The report has been circulated that a Boston 
operator has formed a syndicate to engineer a slump in 
metal prices. The foreign statistics are good, the fort- 
nightly British report showing a decrease of 4,000,000 lb. 
in stocks. The visible supply in England, France, and 
afloat thereto was 28,142 tons on July 1, a new low level 
for recent years, and stocks at Hamburg, Bremen, and 
Rotterdam shrank to 10,054 tons. But no amount of favor- 
able statistics serves to alter the fact that consumers are 
not buying and do not seem to care what stocks are. 

The shut-down of the Nichols refinery means that about 
1,000,000 lb. per day Is being kept off the market, and the « 
management has at least room to congratulate itself that 
its difficulties coincide with a non-existant market, rather 
than one in which copper is in brisk demand at 16 or 
17c. per pound. Exports from the United States for the 
half year ended June 30 are given as 193,936 tons, a new 
high record which exceeds the figures for last year by 
over 21,500 tons. 

Net earnings of the Federal M. & S. Co. for its third 
quarter, ended May 31, are given as $204,000. the earnings 
tor the 9 months being $724,000, or $4000 above the sum 
required for a full year's dividends on the present 6% 
basis. Butte & Superior made earnings of over $60,000 in 
June, according to a report from Butte, where D. C. Jack- 
ling is quoted as saying that the mill recovery was slightly 
over 90% in June and that the second section will be com- 
pleted soon. Tonopah Belmont reports earnings of $481,831 
tor the quarter ended May 31, and a total net income of 

An Important new company which has been launched in 

July 12, 1913 



Montreal and London is the Canadian Nickel Corporation, 
Ltd., which has issued $10,000,000 worth of 6% debenture 
stock and $20,000,000 in common s'tock. The Company has 
acquired 17,500 acres of mining property in the Sudbury 
district, and announces that It will mine 540,000 tons per 
jear at a cost of $6.60 per ton for mining and treatment, 
extracting an average of 30 lb. of nickel, 12 lb. of copper, 
and $1 worth of precious metals per ton of ore, thus mak- 
ing a profit of $2,678,400 per year. This all reads very 
well, but it would be useful to know how many tons of 
ore are available and how certain are processes of treat- 
ment. It has been understood that the Hybinette proces.s 
was to be employed, but recent reports appear to be adverse 
to the success of this process, and the International Nickel 
Co., which has so far contnolled the nickel market, does 
not show any signs of worry as yet. 



Butte & Supekiob and Elm Oelu Extkalaterai, Rights. — 
Lake Copper Co. — Leaching Nevada- Douglas Ores. — 
Boston & Cobbin Compant. 

The principals of the Butte & Superior and Elm Orlu 
properties in the northern part of Butte are trying to 
avoid litigation over extralateral rights. W. A. Clark has 
had Walter Harvey Weed, and the Butte & Superior 
has had J. W. Finch examining the ground, with the view 
of reaching a basis of settlement. One report stated that 
the Butte & Superior company would buy the Elm Orlu 
property, but this was denied by the former interests. 
It is believed in Boston that, while the feeling between 
the two parties may not be any too cordial, there is a dis- 
position on both sides to avoid a lawsuit. 

Thomas T. Read, associate editor of the Mining and Sci- 
entific Press, whose offices are in the Wool worth building. 
New York, has been in Boston during the past few days 
meeting a number of people connected with the Lake 
Superior copper mines. Much interest is expressed here 
in the forthcoming visit of Mr. Read to the Lake district, 
where he will make a study of conditions. Therrf are 
persistent rumors of a possible Lake Copper Co. and South 
Lake Mining Co. merger. Recently, on account of the 
slump in the former, the two stocks, with the regulation 
Michigan capitalization of 100,000 shares each, have sold 
within a fourth of a point of each other. J. R. Finlay, 
three years asio, gave the Lake mine a valuation of $3 
per share, and questioned the prospect of it ever paying 
a dividend. It is stated that a veteran mining magnate 
of Utah became so certain of the prospects of Lake when 
the stock was selling up in the eighties, that he bought 
$300,000 worth of It. One strong point in the Company's 
favor is that it still has $22 per share callable on assess- 
ments. But this is a had time to realize on assessments. 
In the fall of 1910, a banking house here underwrote 1000 
shares at a price which netted $26,990. Yet a big fuss 
was raised about the brokers getting the stock too 
cheaply. When the Lake Copper Co. was organized 
55,00U shares went to the original holders of the land, and 
15,000 shares were sold at $3 each. Later, rights to 10,000 
shares were awarded to stockholders at $6. Then, in order 
to continue development work, 2000 shares were sold at 
$25 each. Two thousand shares were afterward sold at 
$41, and 1000 shares at $51 to $53. Four years ago con- 
ditions at the Lake mine were such that the best Boston 
authorities were willing to commit themselves incautiously 
to extravagant statements about its prospects. Less than 
a year ago the leading financial paper here, in ans-wering 
a far Western correspondent, said: We believe that pur- 
chases of Lake Copper shares around 37 will prove to be 
profitable, provided that you have patience. The same 
paper pointed out in March 1910 that Lake had a chance 
of becoming the largest dividend-payer in Lake Superior, 
next to Calumet & Hecla. 

The neatness and dispatch with which the reorganiza- 
tion of Boston & Corbin has been effected Is still the sub- 
ject of comment In Boston. Notwithstanding dullness and 
distrust, 89,250 shares were taken over In the reorganiza- 
tion, leaving the underwriters with 10,000 shares. 

Revival of Metal Mining. — Ptarmigan Mine. — Tyee Smel- 
TKB TO Resume Operations. — West Coast Districts.— 
Coal Mining and Labor Situation. 

For the past several years the mining industry on Van- 
couver island has been confined to coal mines. Previous 
to 1908 the Tyee, Lenora, and Richard III properties were 
in active operation at Mount Sicker, and between the 
years 1900 and the fall of 1907 these three properties had 
produced about $2,500,000, the ore averaging about $3 gold, 
4 oz. silver per ton, and 5% copper. 

There are indications now that metalliferous mining 
will take a new lease of life on the island, and several 
of the partly developed prospects can and will be reopened 
by companies having ample capital and managed by min- 
ing engineers possessed of the experience and energy nec- 
essary. The resumption of work is being shown by the 
operations at present going on near the head of the Great 
Central lake on the Ptarmigan mining property, which 
is the same as that originally located as the Big Interior. 
When this property was opened in 1899, the facilities for 
transportation were different from what they are now; 


in fact, a rough prospector's trail about ten miles in 
length, over which a man had to pack all his supplies 
on his back, was the only means of approach from the 
Great Central lake, in the interior of the central portion 
of Vancouver island. From that point to Alberni, on the 
west c«ast, the means of transport were also of the crud- 
est, so that unless the ore had been of an exceptionally 
high srade, it was impossible at that time to undertake 
serious development. But today, with a good wagon-road 
connecting Great Central lake with Alberni, and an aerial 
tramway connecting the mining property with the head 
of the lake, warrants opening this property and shipping 
the ore, even though it be low grade. 

At Alberni the shipper has choice of two routes to 
the bmelter, either by water or by the Canadian Pacific 
railway. H. H. Johnson, manager for the Ptarmigan Mines, 
Ltd., of Victoria, is at i)rcsent at the property, and is 
arranging for the erection of the aerial tramway that 
served the Tyee Copper Co. in transiwrting the ore about 
four miles from the Tyee mine to the siding of the E. & 
N. railway, which was taken down some time ago. 

It is reported on reliable authority that, on the return 
of W. .T. Watson, manager of the Tyee smelter, from 
England, the plant will be blown in again in the near 
future. In fact, at the present time workmen are renew- 
ing the piling at the smelter's dock, and preparations are 



July 12, 1913 

being made in a quiet way to liave tlie plant in readiness 
for operation. It is proposed that ore from the Ptarmigan 
mine will form a nucleus for the supply to the smelter, 
and from reliable information it is figured this property 
should furnish a large tonnage of ore of medium grade. 

There are on the west coast of Vancouver island, in the 
mountains adjacent to Clayoquet, Kyoquot, Nootka, and 
Quatsino sound, quite a large number of occurrences of 
copper-bearing ore discovered in 1898 and 1899, that have 
never been developed beyond the assessment-work stage, 
suflBcient to 'crown grant' the properties. From several 
of these during that time I obtained samples from out- 
crops and shallow prospect holes, that carried from 5 lo 
10% copper. Because of lack of capital and transporta- 
tion, high smelter rates, and the further fact that, on 
the Alberni canal, two properties which had considerable 
capital expended In development, which did not result 
satisfactorily, that portion of Vancouver island has since 
been neglected, but really presents an attractive field for 
further prospecting. 

The situation with regard to coal mining for the past 
seven months has been anything but satisfactory. In the 
first place, a strike occurred at the mines of the Canadian 
Collieries (Dunsmuir), Ltd., and about two months ago, 
when this had become practically settled, and the com- 
pany was able to mine a normal tonnage from its Cum- 
berland mine with non-union men, the United Mine Work- 
ers of America called a strike at Nanaimo in the mines 
operated by the Western Fuel Co., notwithstanding that 
the majority of the miners working for the Company were 
not members of the U. M. W. A., and that they were all 
working on an agreement with this Company which does 
not expire until next September. To a disinterested per- 
son, it appears that the main result from these labor 
troubles has been to enable the operators in the state of 
Washington to work to full capacity in order to furnish 
the markets heretofore supplied by the Vancouver island 
collieries, and, besides, to place the miners in a position 
where they draw strike pay from the union instead of 
their regular wages from the collieries. Recently mem- 
bers of the Vancouver Board of Trade tendered their good 
services in an effort to settle the differences between the 
colliery companies and the miners. This attempt was 
futile because the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), Ltd.. 
was operating its Cumberland mines to the extent of min- 
ing about 2000 tons of coal per day, and, although the 
Company was not operating at the Extension mines ex- 
cept in a small way, it did not recognize the existence of 
any strike, while the Western Fuel Co. declined the serv- 
ices of the Vancouver men on the ground that the miners 
had broken their contract, and so far as the Company 
was concerned there was nothing to arbitrate. The daily 
papers announce that the Hon. T. W. Crothers, Minister 
of Labor in the Dominion Government, is on his way to 
Vancouver island to investigate the labor conditions, and 
it is earnestly hoped that his efforts to bring employers 
and employees together and settle the present difficulties 
will be successful. There has been almost an entire ab- 
sence of the scenes and acts of violence which usually ac- 
company labor troubles. In fact, when the strike was first 
called, opinion generally expressed was against the action 
of the men, and especially with regard to breaking their 
contract, when they acknowledged they had no cause for 
complaints against the Company. Apparently it was purely 
and simply a case of a small minority who were members 
of the U. M. W. A. influencing the majority who were non- 
members by the fear of being called 'scabs.' The latest 
report is that miners are coming from England, and 
almost daily new arrivals reach the works on the Canadian 
Collieries (Dunsmuir), Ltd., and start work. The mines of 
the Western Fuel Co. at Nanaimo, Pacific Coast Coal Co. 
at South Wellington, and the Vancouver Nanaimo Coal Co. 
at the Jingle Pot colliery near Nanaimo, which Includes 
all the collieries in that portion of the island except the 
Extension, are shut down, owing to the strike, while at 
the Extension a few men are working. Whether any at- 
tempt will be made to operate there with an increased 
force is not yet known. 


Feeling as Regabi..s ihe'Mi.nisg Ixdu.stbv — So.ns of Gwa- 
i.iA AND Great Fingall Mikes. — Frasers Group and 
Diamond-Drilling. — Bullfinch and Victoriou.s De%-el- 


W. J. Loring, head of Bewick, Moreing & Company, 
has just visited this state after an absence of three years. 
He was quite optimistic regarding the possibilities of gold- 
mining, and said that he could not understand why so 
many people were the reverse. He was enthusiastic re- 
garding the deep developments on the Sons of Gwalla and 
the Great Fingall Consols. At the former property he 
stated that, in addition to the $75,000 expended on new 
plant during 1912, another $50,000 would be spent during 
1913 and 1914. Wood-burning suction-gas generators had 
proved so economical at the Queen of the Hills at Meeka- 
tharra that his firm would gradually supersede steam- 
engines for driving treatment plants on all its mines. De- 
velopments at the Sons of Gwalia were highly satsifactory, 
and production and dividends could be maintained at their 
present rate for 'iVo years, while the alterations were being 
made. With regard to the Great Fingall, the equipment 
of the internal shaft at No. 13 level would be completed 
by September, when ore down to No. 18 level would be 
available for the mil!. The new ore-shoot at No. 17 and 
18 levels has been proved for a length of 400 ft. to be 
v.orth $10 to $12.50 per ton, averaging 8 ft. wide. Refer- 
ring to the volatilization process of gold saving introduced 
on the Gwalia Consols by Ben Howe, Mr. Loring was sat- 
isfied that it would solve the difficulty of treatment of re- 
fractory ore containing arsenical pyrite ami antimony, 
which has been the bugbear of the Gwalia Consols, Lance- 
field, and Transvaal mines, which have not been satisfac- 
tory for several years. 

While at Southern Cross, Mr. Loring took an option on 
the Frasers group of mines, which have been practically 
at a standstill for a dozen years. On the strong recom- 
mendation of the government geologist, Harry P. Wood- 
ward, backed by the Government mining engineer, A. Mont- 
gomery, the Minister for Mines, P. Collier, offered to sub- 
sidize any local syndicate and supply a diamonddrilliug 
plant and a supervisor to test the line of lode by a series 
of 10 bores to depths down to 1000 ft. This work was 
started in .January, and the first bore has been completed. 
The cores from 538 to 542 ft. assayed $21 per ton. and from 
958 to 976 ft. cut a second lode which showed visible gold 
at 968 ft., but assays have not yet been published. Mr. 
Collier has promised Mr. Loring that if the latter can raise 
the money to sink a shaft and develop at 1000 ft., the 
Government will subsidize the venture to the extent of 
$30,000. The mines have already produced $3,625,000 from 
325,000 tons, and the deepest workings are only 366 ft. 
deep, and little work has been done at that depth. There 
are three lodes in the property, but only one has so far 
been developed. The ore-shoot has yielded ore for a length 
of 4000 ft. and a width up to 20 ft. This seems to be a 
most promising venture, and may lead to this state being 
more exploited by capitalists in the future than in the past. 

Detectives have failed to find any clue to the robbers who 
stole $15,000 worth of retorted gold from the smelting-room 
of the Bullfinch mine. The carelessness of the management 
may be gauged from the fact that with nearly $75,000 of 
gold amalgam and precipitate to be treated, the three men 
held up by the robbers only earned $2.70 per day each. The 
mine is looking well, and development is being done on 
five different lodes, sloping covering a width of 15 to 60 ft. 
The plant is being increased by an additional 5 stamps and 
a tube-mill. Fred Morgan, the manager, states that he 
could easily provide ore for double the capacity of the 
mill. When the present plant is complete, 6000 tons per 
month will be treated, and a minimum profit of $50,000 
per month will be made. The winze in the Associated 
Northern-Victorious leases at Ora Banda are now down as 
follows: No. 1, to 45 ft., averaging $10.25; No. 3, to 49 ft., 
averaging $34; and No. 4, to 55 ft., averaging $33 per ton. 
At a depth of 25 to 30 ft., telluride was showing in both 
No. 3 and No. 4 winzes at the junction of the oxidized and 
sulphide zones, but did not continue. 

July 12, 1913 



General Mining News 



Though the chief object of the Alaska Gold Mines Co. 
is to ijrepare the mine for production, the woric has dis- 
closed some interesting developments. It will be recalled 
that the Alexander level is being continued east at an 
average depth of about 1500 ft. Cross-cuts from this, 
through the orebody, which are being driven every 200 
ft., continue to show that the Company will develop from 
a point about 2000 ft. east of the cross-cut, and for a dis- 
tance of at least several hundred feet, a body of ore, 
averaging higher in grade than the estimated average 
of the mine. Even a small body of ore of such a grade 
as indicated in these cross-cuts, that is assaying over $3 
per ton, as against the estimated average of |1.50 for tho 
whole mine, would do much to 'sweeten' the average of 
the whole. General construction work in all departments 
continues at a satisfactory rate. The cement for the dam 
is arriving by this lime; the cement work-house above 
the dam is practically built, and plans for the upper power- 
house are almost finished. On the Sheep creek divi- 
sion, work continues on the re-location of the railroad; 
bunk and mess-houses are practically completed; the tun- 
nel, which, it will be recalled, cuts the deposit about 700 
ft. below the Alexander level, and will be the main ex- 
traction way, keeps up its rapid driving of over 500 ft. per 


A new dredge of IVi-cu. ft. capacity close-connected 
buckets is being installed at the mouth of Peluk creek. It 
v.-iU be equipped with certain Improvements adapting it for 
beach dredging, and is the second to be erected here by the 
American Dredge Building & Construction Co. Probably a 
dredge will be erected this season on Hastings creek, above 
Saunders creek, and another on Sunset creek. A new in- 
terest is being awakened in this branch of mining. 


Cochise County 

At the Calumet & Arizona smelter the total production 
for June was 4,400,000 lb. of copper, a decline of more 
than 500,000 lb. During the latter part of the month the 
old smeller plant was entirely shut down and the second 
of the new blast-furnaces blown in. Both the furnaces are 
handling about 1400 tons of ore daily. Three converters are 
in use in the new plant. The work of clearing the ground 
around (he old plant, preparatory to dismantling it, has 
been started. 

Gila County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The men employed on the 
transmission line between the Roosevelt dam and Supe- 
rior by way of Miami, consisting of about 25 white men 
and 75 Indians, are now at the head of Queen creek box 
cafion, a mile from Superior. As the concrete foundations 
for the towers are laid, a road gang makes a four-foot 
trail at a wagon grade, and slight widening of the trail 
in the future will transform it into an excellent wagou- 
road. This will fill in the gap between Iron's ranch and 
the ttwn of Superior, thus placing Globe, Miami, Supe- 
rior, Florence, and all the intermediate towns and mining 
ramps on a direct line of communication, besides bring- 
ing Ray and vicinity into closer relation with the Miami 
mining district. When the electric transmission line 
reaches Superior, It may be considered feasible to build 
a branch line to the Calumet & Arizona property 2 Ms miles 
south, whence a transmission line leads to Winkleman, 
v,fhere the power is generated. With such an arrangement, 
temporary disability at either the Government plant at 
Roosevelt, or the Ray Consolidated power-plant at Winkle- 
man, could be relieved at the other end. A recent report 
of a discovery of great richness in Powers gulch seems 
not to be borne out by subsequent Investigation. Beaude- 
lalre, who brought the ore to Globe, where assays showed 
1700 oz. silver and $200 gold per ton, did not claim, as 

reported, that he had any quantity of the ore, which was 
a small picked sample. 

Miami, June 30. 

Pima County 

The Calumet & Arizona Mining Co. has purchased the 
Cornelia mine, which will probably be worked by steam- 

Yavapai County 

At the Arkansas & Arizona mine, in the Jerome district, 
three new 150-hp. boilers and a hoist with 2000-ft. capacity 
are being installed. The cross-cut on the 800-ft. level of 
the United Verde is near the point where it will be cut by 
the new shaft. Good orebodies have been opened recently 
in the Copper Basin mine, near Prescott. This is controlled 
by Phelps, Dodge & Co. New machinery is being erected 
for the mill at the Y-P mines, near Senator, and stamps are 
now ready to begin work. The 800-ft. tramway from the 
dump to the plant Is nearlug completion. About 10,000 tons 
of ore accumulated from former operations will be treated. 


Amador County 

At the Argonaut mine, a drift from the 3900-ft. level has 
been extended 300 ft. into rich quartz. The May clean-up 
was about $50,000. The Wildman-Mahoney property will 
probably be sold to an Eastern syndicate. 
BtTTTE County 

The Drexler dredge is doing good work near John 
Adams, and the White ranch is to be dredged shortly. A 
shaft Is being sunk to open gravel at the old Hendricks 
property at Thompson's Flat, near Oroville. A 15-hp. gas- 
oline hoist has been installed. 

Calavebas County 

Rich ore has been opened In the Tanner mine, and at- 
tention is being directed to the east side gold belt near 
Murphy's. The 60-stamp mill of the Lightner company is 
being overhauled. 

Nevada County 

F. M. Spauldtng, of IjOS Angeles, has completed arrange- 
ments for reopening the old Richlan gravel mine on Wet 
hill. The lease of the old company has been taken over 
by the Major Gold Mining Co. A new shaft will be sunk 
to open the channel, and it is estimated that it will have 
to be sunk about 150 ft. to reach the gravel. The new 
shaft will be near the old Empire shaft on the Ragon place 
through which $300,000 wag taken out. The new company 
owns about 7000 ft. along the Manzanlta channel. 

Pi,aci-:r Coi'nty 
Representatives of the Guggenheim interests have men 
at work at Poverty Bar, near Butcher ranch, to ascertain 
whether the gravel is sufficiently rich to warrant the pur- 
chase of the property. They have an option until August 
1. The company owning the property has stopped work 
on the gold dredge for the present. 

Santa Claba County 
(Special Correspondence.) — It is expected that changes 
In management of the Quicksilver Mining Co. will lead to 
a vigorous attempt to rejuvenate the famous old New Al- 
maden mines. C. A. Nones, who as president has been in 
control for several years, has been removed and W. H. 
Landers has been appointed manager. The Company has 
paid no dividends for some time, and it is now reported 
that It was kept going by sale of farm lands. A serious 
shortage in accounts is alleged against the old management. 
In the meantime, Mr. Nones has been declared bankrupt. 
Some months since, the stockholders formed an insurgent 
committee and, acting for them, a careful report upon the 
property was made by Mr. Landers, assisted by Clifford 
G. Dennis. The old mine has been worked to a depth 
of 2400 ft. and has yielded handsomely, though of recent 
years the grade has been extremely low; roughly Vi'/r. 
While extensive tracts of mineral-bearing land are owned, 
there has been little effort to develop new orebodies, and 
there is iiractically no ore in sight. About 4V1> miles 
north are old workings from which at one time quicksilver 
to the value of $60,000 was won, and In the ground be- 



July 12, 1913 

tween them are abundant evidences ot mineralization, and 
many small abandoned workings. Mr. Landers has recom- 
mended that serious e£forts be made to reopen some ot 
this ground. When the old workings were abandoned, 
]%% constituted the lower workable limit of ore, and it 
would certainly seem probable that since %% ore has 
paid a profit for some years, it is worth an effort to 
reopen the ground. One curious and exasperating diffi- 
culty is the presence of carbon dioxide, but it is expected 
that means will be found for meeting this difficulty and 
the mine will again become an important producer. 

San Jose, July 7. 

Shasta County 

The Noble Electric Steel Co. is employing 50 men, and 
the furnace is producing 25 to 30 tons of iron per day. 
Coke is now being used instead of charcoal. 
SiEBBA County 

Since the vein was cut in the North Fork mine, it ha.s 
widened from 2 to 13 ft., and is all payable. The drift 
will soon be under the rich shoot opened many years ago. 
At the Tightner, a shaft is to be sunk from the lower adit, 
on one of the rich ore-shoots. Active development is 
under way at the Wisconsin gravel property near Forest 

Siskiyou County 

It is stated that the Blue Ledge copper-gold property, 

near the Oregon line, has been sold to New York people. 

The Osgood quartz claims and the Nigger Boy mine, on 

Ash creek, have been acquired by Oregon and Ohio people. 

Trinity County 

The Trinity Consolidated Hydraulic Mining Co. is oper- 
ating a large force of men at both the Union Hill and 
Hupp hydraulic mines. 

Yuba County 

The Elks Gold Mining & Milling Co. has secured a two 
years' lease of the properties of the Red Ravine Mining 
Co., near Indian ranch. New machinery is to be installed 
and active work will commence early in August. 


Pueblo County 
The Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. will increase its equip- 
ment of electrical apparatus by the addition of 200-kw. 
and 300-kw. rotary converters, a 50-hp. motor, three 110- 
kva. and three 150-kva. transformers, and switchboard pan- 
els and accessories. The apparatus will be furnished by 
the General Electric Company. 

Teixeb County (Cbipple Cbeek) 

According to local statistics, the gold production was as 

Tons. Av. val. Gross val. 

Golden Cycle, Colorado City 34,000 $20.00 | 680,000 

Portland, Colorado City 9,950 22.00 218,900 

Smelters, Pueblo and Denver 3,850 65.00 250,250 

Portland. Cripple Creek 13,600 3.00 30,800 

Stratton"s Independence 11,800 2.36 27,848 

Colburn Ajax 4,245 2.59 11,674- 

Gaylord Dante 1,800 3.00 5,400 

Kavanaugh-Jo Dandy 1,500 2.30 3,450 

Wild Horse 1,300 3.20 4,160 

Isabella 625 2.00 1,250 

Total 82,670 $1,233,732 

El Paso company and lessees shipped 100 and 48 cars of 
ore, respectively. The Cresson mine, on Raven hill, pro- 
duced about 4000 tons. Eight sacks of ore, valued at $1000, 
were atolen from a freight car between Cripple Creek and 
Colorado Springs. Lessees at the Deadwood, Sitting Bull, 
Rising Sun, Vindicator, and W. P. H. properties are doing 
fairly well. An experimental cyanide plant is being erected 
at the Vindicator to treat dump ore. The flow of water 
from the Roosevelt tunnel is now 6735 gal. per minuto. 
The recession during June was about 72 in., and water- 
level is 30 ft. below No. 11 level of the Gold Coin shaft. 
The San Juan 
Ore and concentrate shipments from Ouray during June 

were as follows: Camp Bird, 650 tons; Wanakah, 650; 
Atlas, 325; Bachelor district, 168; Jumbo, 24; Haagsma- 
Hall, 25; Revenue, Lannon lease, 48; and American Nettle, 
23; making a total of 2011 tons. 

Shipments from Silverton were as follows: (1) concen- 
trate, Sunnyside, 818 tons; Iowa Tiger, 282; Vinyard & 
Co., 159; Frisco Tunnel, 232; and Gold King, 217; a total 
of 1708 tons; (2) crude ore. Gold Tunnel, 125; Celtic Leas- 


ing Co., 25; Dives, 132; So. Expl. & Mining Co., 306; Al- 
lerton, 65; Scotia, 44; Frank Hough, 40; Boston, 22; and 
Bazanella, 20; a total of 779 tons. 


Blaine County 

Good ore has been opened in the Plughoft & Reed claims 
at Glendale. At one place it was cut after driving through 
40 ft. of soft ground, and shows 7 ft. of silver-lead ore. 
Sixty feet west a shaft has opened more ore of a similar 
character. The vein is well defined, and so far is continu- 
ous for 70 ft., in granite country. 

Bonner County 

Nearly 100 men are employed now by the Idaho-Contt- 
nental Mining Co. and work of preparing the ground for 
the concentrator at the mine and the power-plant, 14 miles 
beyond Porthill, is being rushed as rapidly as possible. 

Shoshone County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The worst mine cave-in ever 
experienced in the Coeur d'Alene has resulted in an al- 
most complete shut-down of the Hercules. The collapse 
of the galleries took place on June 4, closing all the work- 
ings above the No. 4 adit. An effort is being made to 
resume operations in the levels from the winze, and some 
ore is being removed. 

Operations at the mill of the Idora Hill Mining Co.. on 
Sunset i)eak, in the Coeur d'Alene region, have begun. The 
mill is designed to handle 50 tons per day, but it is believed 
that the capacity will approach 100 tons when it is in 
full working order. The i;lant, and the tramway connecting 
the mill and the mine, are operated by electricity. Ar- 
rangements are under way for the consolidation of the 
Reindeer Copper & Gold Mining Co. and the Copper Queen 

Julv 12, 1913 


Mining & Milling Co., Ltd., whose respective properties 
adjoin, in the Coeur d'Aleue. It is proposed to organize 
a new corporation with a capitalization of 2,000,000 shares. 

Spokane, Washington, July 3. 

Fred T. Greene, an engineer for the Amalgamated Cop- 
per Co., of Butte, Montana, has made a report on the 
National copper mine, near Mullan. The report is as fol- 
lows: Below present adit level, partly developed, 883,990 
tons, valued at $910,066; probable ore, 875,400 tons, valued 
at $2,074,698; possible ore, 1,830,620 tons, valued at $4,338,- 
569; total, $7,323,333. Above adit level, partly developed, 
247,890 tons, valued at $587,499; possible ore, 207,520 tons, 
valued at $491,822; total, $1,079,321. This makes a total 
value of $8,417,890. A contract has been let for a 600-ft. 
raise from the adit, and should be completed by the time 
the mill is ready next February. A boarding and bunk 
house of 200 men capacity is being built. Charles McKin- 
nis is general manager. 

Early on July 4, somebody dynamited the flume of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan mill, tearing a hole 10 ft. wide on 
one side and causing a great loss of water. After an 
hour the water was shut oft at the intake. No arrests have 
been made. The Snowstorm Mining Co. paid a dividend 
amounting to $22,500 on July 10, making a total of $1,169,- 
617 to date. 

Lawrence County 

The Grasselli Chemical Co. has awarded contracts for 
drilling 300 acres of its land near Statts City. At one time 
this property produced a good deal of ore from shallow 
depths, and now the deeper levels will be prospected. 


JEFKEB.S0X County 

(Special Correspondence.) — A report is to hand that 
lessees at the Ruby mine, hear Basin, have shipped four 
carloads of ore valued at $120,000. This was mined by 
driving a short drift in new ground from old workings. 
This mine formerly was a good gold producer, and was 
bonded to P. H. DowUng by W. A. Clark about six years ago. 
The former soon paid off the bond of $75,000, and recently 
leased the property to some Butte miners, who opened this 
rich ore. 

Basin, July 5. 

SiLVERBOw County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The usual quarterly dividend 
of the Tuolumne Copper Mining Co. was not declared, as 
profits were not sufficient to justify paying out $80,000. 
The property Is a small one, but is surrounded by good 
mines. At a meeting of the directors the superintendent 
stated that a rich shoot had been opened on the 2200-ft. 
level. It Is 8 ft. wide and assays 7 to 12% copper. In the 
southeastern part of the district about 1100 acres of 
ground have been acquired by one of the leading companies 
at a cost of over $1,000,000. 

Butte, July 5. 

Churchill Codntt 

During May the Nevada Hills mill treated 4260 tons of 
ore averaging $12.45 per ton, with a residue loss of $1.56 
per ton. The total recovery was $46,403, at a cost of $28,345. 
leaving a profit of $18,057. There is $30,000 owing to the 
bank, while cash, supplies, concentrate, and absorption in 
plant are valued at $110,000. 

Elko County 

(Special Correspondence.) — At the Bluster mine, timber- 
ing heavy ground has been completed, and development Is 
again under way. At a point in the vein 225 ft. south of 
the main cross-cut adit the drift was driven on what was 
supposed to be the foot-wall. It was opened at this point 
and ore averaged $30 per ton across 3 ft. About 3300 ft. of 
work has been done in the mine. At the Flaxle a drift 
from a depth of 53 ft. in the winze is out 30 ft. in good ore. 
Specimen ore has been opened In the Buckeye. Fair de- 
velopments are reported from the True Fissure and Stormy 

Jarbidge, July 8. 

Lyon County 
(Special Correspondence.) — Reports from the superintend- 
ent of the Nevada-Douglas mine continue to be encouraging. 
The 700-ft. level in the south end of the Ludwlg has been 
driven for the last 50 ft. in ore which averages about 15% 
copper, and some specimens of metallic copper are being 
obtained at this point. On the sixth level a big tonnage of 
high-grade ore is being stoped, and it is hoped to open an 
extensive orebody at this point. On the 100-ft. level the 
drift which is being driven to the north beneath the wid« 
gossan outcrop is looking favorable; the last 20 ft. has been 
driven through leached gossan which widens out as the 
breast advances. There is every probability of finding a 
good-sized body of ore of a secondary nature below. A small 
force of men has been put to work in the Casting Copper 
adit, and shipments from there will be resumed. The pro- 
lK)sal to build a smelter for the Nevada-Douglas has been 
definitely abandoned, as the experiments with leaching 

■■~.^_^Jf_P_N l_ I_ D_ A _H O 



made by the staff have resulted so favorably that W. L. 
Austin was engaged to study the problem, as well as similar 
work elsewhere. Mr. Austin has reported tkat while me- 
chanical difficulties are being experienced in leaching work 
at the Bullwhacker and Butte-Duluth, there is every prob- 
ability that they will be successfully overcome and that 
leaching by means of sulphuric acid can be done on these 
ores at a cost not to exceed 10c. per pound. The ore, crushed 
to 16 mesh, will be leached with a 12% solution of sulphuric 
pcid, giving a 90% extraction, the copper being precipitated 
irom the solution by electrolysis. It is the Intention of 
the management to proceed with the construction of a 
leaching plant, and the ore in the Douglas Hill group will 
be treated In this way. 

Mason, July 3. 

During the week ended June 2, the Mason Valley smelter 
treated 4422 tons of ore, and shipped seven cars of matte. 
The Oakland Copper Bell has opened 5 ft. of ore. Ore on 
the dusnp averages 7'^:'r copper, 5 oz. silver, and $2.50 gold 
per ton. At the Yerington mountain, the shaft to connect 
No. 3 and 4 adits Is down 600 ft. Regular shipments are 
made to the smelter. A gasoline hoist has been installed 
at the Blue Jay. 



July 12, 1913 

NsE County 

The Tonopah Miner, which is now In Its twelfth year of 
publication and has always been optimistic about Tonopah 
mines, states that the gross production of the district tor 
the first half of 1913 was $1,210,889. During the week ended 
July 5 the output of eight mines was 11,715 tons valued at 
$259,345. On the 750-ft. level of the new shaft the Tonopah 
Extension has opened a new vein in the north cross-cut. 
So far it is of a low-grade character. The south cross-cut 
on the Montana-Tonopah 55-ft. level went through 12 ft. 
of quartz, showing good ore in places, and is thought to be 
a faulted portion of the south vein. The Halifax 1000-ft. 
level has cut some rich veins of sulphide ore. On the 1166- 
ft. level of the Belmont, the north cross-cut opened the 
western extension of the shaft vein 375 ft. west of the other 
shoot being developed on this level. 

At Manhattan the Big Four is producing about 100 tons 
per day, but this will be increased when the conveyor is 
Installed to handle the reject from a trommel working be- 
low the crusher. This will act as a sorting station and 
prevent waste going to the stamp-mill. The lessees at the 
White Caps are still shipping high-grade ore to Tonopah. 
The Earl claim of the Brady leases is improving on the 
350-ft. level. 

Storey County 

It is probable that a 50-ton plant consisting of Kinkead 
crushers, amalgamating plates, and concentrating tables 
will be erected on Cedar Hill to treat ore from the Sierra 
Nevada property. Walter Techow, of the Kinkead Milling 
Co. and Ophlr cyanide plant, will be in charge. 
White Pine County 

One round of shots in the Morris and Bunker Hill mines 
of the Giroux company, at Ely, is said to have broken down 
30,000 tons of ore. As a result the operating force was re- 
duced by laying off about 125 men. Until now, it is stated 
that while the mines have been producing 1000 to 1200 tons 
of ore per day, much of it has been taken out in further 
developing the ore deposit. Now the development has 
reached the stage where the best features of the caving 
system can be followed and cost of mining will be greatly 


The output of coal in New Mexico in 1912 was the larg- 
est ever made, according to the U. S. Geological Survey. 
The production increased from 3,148,158 short tons in 1911, 
valued at $4,525,925, to 3,536,824 tons in 1912, valued at 
$5,037,051, a gain of 12.3% in quantity and of 11.3% in 
value. In the Raton field, 11 mines produced over 100,000 
tons each, two producing over 400,000 tons. The San Juan 
River field, in the northwest, has an area of 13,000 square 

Grant County 

The Chino Copper Co. recently made an experimental 
shot In one of its open-cut mines at Santa Rita and the 
result was, it is said, entirely satisfactory. Three adits, 
some 10 or 15 ft. apart, were driven into the mine a dis- 
tance of 45 ft., each connected at the ends by a drift about 
50 ft. long. In this drift, near the end of each adit, 53,000 
lb. of high-grade powder was packed. The blast was fired 
by electricity. This method cost between $7000 and $8000, 
but is expected to simplify mining there, where 90% of 
the ore can be moved by steam-shovel work. 


Jackson County 

(Special Correspondence.) — A 20-ton mill is being erected 
at the Nellie Wright mine, in the Gold Hill district. It 
will be driven by electric power. The ore is worth from 
$9 to $18 per ton. The Blossom mine, in the same district, 
is opening well. The Cinnabar has been opened by two 
adits, driven to depths of 320 and 180 ft., respectively. 
Drifts from these have opened a large orebody, assaying 
high in mercury. The property is being examined by two 
engineers. After an idleness of 20 years the old Alice mine, 
on Kanes creek, is being reworked. 

Philomath, July 4. 


Beaveb County 
The Majestic Mines Co. owns, near Mllford, 25 claims con- 
taining copper and silver-lead ores. Monthly profits range 
from $3000 to $5700. The deepest shaft is down 600 ft., 
and has opened silver-lead ore 100 ft. below water-level. 
The shoot of copper ore in the Old Hickory is fairly ex- 
tensive and contains about 75,000 tons. Shipments total 
75 tons per day. 

Juab County 

For several months the Tintic Standard 1000-tt. level 
has been driven on a contact between quartz and lime, 
which was of an encouraging nature. Ore was cut, but 
gas drove the men out. The ore was rich in lead and 
silver. Similar ore has also been opened in a drift from 
a winze below the 1350-ft. level of the Eagle & Blue Bell 
mine. Work is to be resumed at the United Tintic, as the 
last assessment has been paid oft the Company's debt, leav- 
ing a surplus for further work. 

Salt Lake County 

During the half-year ended June 30, 1913, the Salt Lake 
Stock Exchange dealt with 3,499,979 shares, representing 
a value of $833,763. These included 62 listed and 22 un- 
listed stocks. 

High-grade silver-lead ore has been opened in the Gra- 
ham lease of the West Toledo mine at Alta. A cave had 
been driven into 175 ft. from the mouth of an adit, and 
six inches of ore was exposed, which is igured to be an 
extension of the Toledo vein. 

The Utah Consolidated Mining Co. has paid a dividend 
of 50c. per share, amounting to $150,000. The mine is 
opening well, and several new shoots of copper have been 
discovered. One is in the porphyry dike which divides a 
portion of the Highland Boy limestone. It is small but 
parts carry 10 to 15% copper. On No. 12 level, 2.4 to 3.4% 
copper ore is being mined. This mine is the largest lead 
producer in Utah, and lead ore shipments average 250 tons 
per day. The shoots, especially in Yampa limestone, are 
showing well. 

Summit County 

The Silver King Coalition Mines Co., Park City, will 
place in operation in its mines new 2Vi-ton and 3-ton 
electric locomotives and a 35-kw. motor-generator set or- 
dered from the General Electric Co. The report of Frank 
Anderson, engineer conducting surveys for the Silver King 
Consolidated through the Silver King Coalition's workings, 
to ascertain if the latter Company has trespassed on the 
former property, has been returned to the federal district 
court. The engineer says that, to the best of his knowl- 
edge, the Coalition's workings do not enter the Consoli- 
dated's ground. This report is believed to be the ending 
of the present $750,000 trespass suit. The Consolidated 
officials say that they will go further down into their own 
ground and try to discover if there is evidence of tres- 
pass there. This work will take many months, as about 
1800 ft. will have to be driven. 

During the first half of 1913, the Park City district 
porduced 41,095 tons of ore valued at $1,643,800. Eight 
roasting furnaces are working at the Ontario mill, and 
150 to 160 tons are being treated dally. 


Sti.vens Cov.nty 
The president of the Chewelah Copper King Co.. S. P. 
Domer, has denied that the mine has been sold for $350,000, 
but stated that negotiations are under way with the 
Granby company, of British Columbia. A recent shipment 
of ore to the Grand Forks smelter returned 8.65% copper 
and 41.6 oz. silver per ton. Electric power for the mine 
and mill of the United Copper Co., near Chewelah, will 
be available in about two weeks. At present, 100 men 
are employed. The adit being driven to cut the vein at 
a depth of 1000 ft., at a distance of one mile, is being 
pushed forward steadily. It is in 2500 ft., and 180 ft. 
was driven in June. The shaft is down 600 ft. An engi- 
neer for the Guggenheims has been examining the prop- 

July 12, 1913 





(Special Correspondence.) — The condition of the north- 
eastern states of Mexico, especially Coahuila, Tamaulipas, 
and Nueva Leon, Is as bad as could be. The federal troops 
are only holding the large towns and are trying to keep 
open a part of the railroads, meeting with indifferent suc- 
cess. A large percentage of the population of these states, 
especially the middle and lower classes, is against the pres- 
ent government of Mexico. Mining is almost at a stand- 
still. The Mazapil Copper Co., operating the Coahuila & 
Zacatecas railway from Saltillo to Concepcion del Oro, in 
the state of Zacatecas, has been shut down since May 1. 
This includes mines, two smelters, and railway, throwing 
out of employment between 3000 and 4000 men. Conditions 
are steadily growing worse. 

Saltillo, June 17. 


Mine shipments from Sonora during June came well up 
to the average, there being more than P2,000,000 worth of 
ore shipped into Arizona and Texas from various proper- 
ties. As shown by the statement of the collector of cus- 
toms at Agua Prieta, the June shipments were: Nacozarl, 
10,560 tons; Churunibabi, 1522; El Tigre, 92; Panama, 41; 
San Ygnacio, 21; Vaquero, 41; Sonora, 47; El Temblor, 22; 
and Alice, 27; making a total of 12,373 tons. El Tigre 
shipped 71 bars of bullion. Estimated values are as fol- 
lows: Gold, ?295,800; silver, ¥■587,300; and copper, ^,168,- 
900; a total of «,052,000. 

The wet and dry mills of the Calumet & Sonora mine 
are working two shifts. Ore is mined on the 400 and 500- 
ft. levels. The new crusher and sorting belt are working 
well. About 160 men are employed. 


(Special Correspondence.) — Ferrobamba Is shut down for 
the present. In the Department of Arequipa, many mining 
properties are of doubtful value, and difficulties in trans- 
port, labor, and laws are against good work. As far as 
the southern portion of Peru is concerned, a promising 
enterprise is the investigation of the great belt of Silu- 
rian slates, which extend from the west side of the main 
Andean range, to the' north and east, in the direction of 
the Inambarri and Paucartambo rivers, where there are 
gold deposits of a good character. 

Casilla, Arequipa. June 14. 

The Borax Consolidated, Ltd., of London, England, has 
petitioned the Peruvian government for certain concessions 
in the Republic, In return for which the Company agrees 
to do the following: (1) Construct a railroad or aerial 
tramway from the borax and salt mines in the province 
of Moquegua, department of Arequipa, to the city of Are- 
qui|)a; (2) install near the city or mines a plant to pro- 
duce 40,000 tons of borax and over, as the demand In- 
creases; (3) transport from the mines to Arequipa 1200 
tons of salt annually, and return with supplies for the 
employees of the Compafila Salinera del Peru; (4) erect 
telephone lines to the mines; (5) employ only Peruvians 
at their works; and (6) will spend £200,000 on the con- 
cession on these works. In return for these proposals, the 
Company asks that no export duty be placed on borax from 
the port of Mollendo for 18 years after work commences, 
all equipment to be imported duty free, and that the 
towns near the concession will not tax borax production 
for 18 years. 

Schools and Societies 

A number of students from the Kansas School of 
MiNE.s ASD METAti.iBOY, accompanied by B. L. Wolfe, E. C. 
O'Keefe, and A. W. Young, inspected the mines, smelters, 
and mills in the mining district around Joplin, Missouri, 
and in southeastern Kansas during the first week in July. 

instructors, and subjects include seven grades of mathe- 
matics, civil and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and 
metallurgy. Pees range from $4 to $15 per subject. It is 
proposed during the coming fall to have a short course 
in coal-mining. 


Professional men are Invited to send news of their engage- 
ments and travels. Such news is interesting to friends. 

Walter Orem is in New York. 
James G. Bekbyhill was in New York recently. 
Stephen Birch is at the Midas property near Valdez. 
Grant H. Tod is on his way to Seattle from Alaska. 

A. K. McDaniel is making examinations in Alaska. 

B. B. Thayer will leave New York for Butte on July 15. 
F. W. Bradley left Juneau for San Francisco on July 10. 
H. F. Fay has returned to Boston from the Lake Superior 


H. RoBfNso.N Plate is making a professional visit to 

Levi Holbbook is ill with pneumonia at Cambridge, 

F. G. Clapp sailed for Europe on June 24 for professional 
work in Hungary. 

KiRBY Thomas has returned from a professional visit to 
the Cobalt district. 

JoHX A. Thomson will leave Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, 
by way of Tamplco, for the United States. 

John Baoley has been appointed by Governor Lister 
inspector of mines for the state of Washington. 

E. J. Valle.n'tine is on a six months vacation and expects 
to arrive in San Francisco on July 21, on his way from * 
the Malay States to England. 

C. H. Fulton and J. Burns Read, of the Case School of 
Applied Science, who have been visiting the West, were in 
San Francisco last Monday. 

H. H. Abmstead, president of the Mexican United Co., 
has gone to Mexico to make an inspection of the Company's 
properties in Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Tepic. 

C. M. Eye has been appointed superintendent of the 
American Girl mine, at Ogilby, California. Until further 
notice his professional address will continue to be at 
Ocean Park. 

H. C. Ray, assistant professor of metallurgy at the Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is with the Butte & 
Superior Copper Co. of Butte, Montana, for the summer, 
in the experimental department. 

J. B. LiPPiNcoTT announces the opening of engineering 
olBces in the Central building of Los Angeles. With Mr. 
Lippincott will be associated Edward R. Bowen, who will 
specialize in steel and concrete structures. 

E. T. CoBKiLL, chief inspector of mines for Ontario, has 
resigned his position to accept an appointment as safety 
engineer with the Canadian Copper Co., at Copper Cliff, 
Ontario. He is succeeded by T. F. Sutherland, assistant 
Inspector of mines. 


The Colorado S< iiool ok Minks summer classes oiien on 
July 14 and will finish on August 23. There will be four 

Robert Pettiobew, one of the best known mining men in 
the state of Washington, died at his home at Roslyn on 
July 8. 

John A. Kibby, one of the pioneer mining men of Utah 
and Nevada, died at Providence, Rhode Island, recently. 
Mr. Kirby was one of the best known mining engineers of 
the West, having been superintendent of the old Bullion- 
Beck mine at Eureka, Utah; also of the Daly West mine 
at Park City and of the Montana-Tonopah at Tonopah. He 
was one of the original owners of the Nevada Hills prop- 
erty and was one of the directors of this Company at the 
time of his death. 



July 12, 191:{ 

The Metal Markets 

Antimony 12— 12Jc 

Electrolytic Copper 16— lejc 

Pig Lead 4.80— 6.55c 


San Francisco, July 10. 

QulcksUver (flask) $41 

Tin 50— 51Jc 

Spelter 7— 7}c 

Zinc dust, 1400 lb. casks, per 100 lb., small lots 89.50—9.76; large 87.60—8.50 


(By wire from New York.) 
NEW YORK, July 10.— Copper Is weak and in little de- 
mand. Sales reported are of little importance. The gr,eatly 
decreased stock reported by the Copper Producers' has had 
no immediate effect upon market conditions. Lead remains 
unchanged and but little business is being' transacted. 
Spelter continues dull with no change in the market. On 
July 9, cables from London report copper as easy with spot 
at £62 10s. and futures £62 15s. Lead is quoted at £15 7s. 6d. 
and spelter at £20 7s. 6d. The tin market is easy with spot 
at £177 5s. and futures £178 5s. 


Below are given the average New York quotations, In 
cents per ounce, of fine silver. 


July 3. . : 58.25 

4 Holiday 

5 58.25 

" 6 Sunday 

7 58.50 

8 58.12 

9 58.37 

Monthly averages 

Average week ending 



28 60.08 

4 69.99 

11 59.76 

18 69.08 

25 58.12 

2 58.20 

9 58.29 


Jan 56.25 

Feb 59.06 

Mch 58.37 

Apr 69.20 

May 60.88 

June 61.29 



July 60.67 

Aug 61.32 

Sept 62.95 

Oct. 63.16 

Nov. 62.73 

Dec 63.38 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds. New York delivery. 

July 3 










4.33 July 


Monthly averages 

Average week ending 




Jan 4.43 

Feb 4.03 

Mch 4.07 

Apr 4.20 

May 4.20 

June 4.40 




Sept , 

Oct , 

Nov 4.91 

Dec 4.20 



Zinc is quoted as 
Louis delivery. In cents per pound 

July 3 5.10 May 

4 Holiday June 

5 5.10 

6 Sunday 


spelter, standard Western brands, St. 



Average week ending 














June 6.88 

. 6.42 
. 6.50 
. 6.57 
. 6.63 
. 6.68 

Monthly averages. 









. 7.12 

. «.96 

. 7.45 

. 7.36 

. 7.23 

. 7.09 



The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, and, as quoted weekly In this column, is that 
at which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the car- 
load can usually obtain a slight reduction, and those want- 
ing but a flask or two must expect to pay a slightly higher 
price. Average weekly and monthly quotations. In dollars 
per flask of 75 lb., are given below: 
















3. .. 





41 50 



. .43.75 




. .46.00 


. .46.00 


. .42.25 



. . .41.50 




Quotations on copper as published in this column rep- 
resent average wholesale transactions on the New York 
market and refer to electrolytic copper. Lake copper com- 
mands normally from 1-5 to l-4o. per lb. more. Prices are 
in cents per pound. 


3 14.35 

4 Holiday 

5 14.23 

6 Sunday 

7 14.23 

8 14.23 

9 14.23 

Average w^eek ending 

May 28 15.43 

June 4 '...15.18 

11 14.79 

18 14.70 

25 14.47 

July 2 14.43 

9 14.25 

Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan. ...'. 14.09 16.54 

Feb 14.08 14.93 

Mch 14.68 14.72 

Apr 15.74 15.22 

May 16.03 15.42 

June 17.23 14.71 


July 17.19 

Aug. 17.49 

Sept 17.56 

Oct 17.32 

Nov 17.31 

Dec 17.37 


Copper Subflus 

Figures showing the visible supply of copper at the be- 
ginning of each month are now widely available. Below 
are given the amounts, in pounds, known to be available at 
the first of each of certain months. The figures are those 
of the Copper Producers' Association supplemented by Mer- 
lon's figures of foreign surplus. 

U. S. European. 

July 1912 44,335,004 107,817,920 

August " 50,281,280 113,285,760 

September " 46,701,376 112,743,680 

October " 63,065,587 107,396,800 

November " 76,744,967 103,803,840 

December " 86,164,059 96,949,440 

January 1913 105,311,360 96.859,840 

February " 123,198,352 100,067,520 

March " 122,302,198 95,542,720 

April " 104,269,270 106,565,760 

May " 75,549,108 102,654,720 

June " 67.474,225 93,378,880 

July " 52,904,606 85.565,760 

United States Pboduction and Consumption 

Production. deliveries. Exports. 

May 1912 126,737,836 72,702,237 69,485,945 

June " 122,315,240 66,146,229 61,449.650 

July " 137,161,920 71,093.120 60,121.600 

August " 145,628,521 78,722,418 70,485.150 

September" 140,089,819 63,460,810 60,264.796 

October " 145,405,453 84,104,734 47.621,342 

November" 134.695,440 69,369,795 55.906,550 

December" 143.353,280 68.490,880 65.712,640 

January 1913 143,479,625 65,210,030 60,383,845 

February " 130,948,881 59,676,402 72,168,623 

March " 136,251.849 76,585,471 77,699.306 

April " 135,333,402 78,158.837 85.894,727 

May " 141,319.416 81.158,800 68.286.007 

June " 121,860,853 68,452,572 68,067,901 

The fortnightly statistics of copper show that the Euro- 
pean stocks, including Hamburg and Rotterdam, on June 
30 decreased 1727 tons, while copper supplies afloat de- 
creased 50 tons, making a total decrease in the visible sup- 
ply of 1777 tons to 38,19? tons, as compared with 39,976 tons 
on June 14 last. 


New York prices control in the American market for tin, 
since the metal Is almost entirely imported. San Francisco 
quotations average about 5c. per lb. higher. Below are gives 
average monthly New York quotations, in cents per pound: 
Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan 42.53 50.45 

Feb 42.96 49.07 

Mch 42.58 46.95 

Apr 43.92 49.00 

May 46.05 49.10 

June 45.76 45.10 


July 44.26 

Aug 46.80 

Sept 48.64 

Oct 50.01 

Nov 49.92 

Dec 49.89 


July 12, 1913 



The Stock Markets 


(San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange.) 

Closing prices, 
listed. July 9. 

Associated Oil Ss 99i 

E. I. du Pont 4(8 83^ 

Natomas Con. 68....*. 90 


Associated OU Ist ref 80 

General Petroleum 68 59 

Closing prices. 
Unlisted. July 9. 

Natomas Dev. 6s 9* 

Pacific Port. Cement 6s 99 

Riverside Cement 68 77 

Standard Cement 6s 9lf 

Santa Cruz Cement 68 80 

So. Cal. Cement 70 


Closing prices. 
Listed. July 9. 

Associated OU 38J 

Amalgamated OU 

E. I. du Pont Powder pfd 

Pacific Coast Borax, pfd 90J 

do corn 

Pacific Crude on 35c 

Sterling O. * D 1.05 

Union OU of Cal 73J 

West Coast OU, pfd 90 

Closing prices, 
Unlisted. July 9. 

Mascot Copper _ U 

Noble Electric Steel 3 

Natomas Consolidated 

Pacific Coast Borax, old. 

Pacific Portland Cement 59 

Riverside Cement te 

Standard Cement 17 

Standard OU of Cal 

Santa Cruz Cement S7J 


(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 
San Francisco, July 10. 

Mlzpah Extension .1 .46 

MontanarTonopab 1.02 

Nevada HUls „... .92 

North Star .96 

Ophlr 18 

PltUburg SUver Peak 45 

Round Moimtaln _ 48 

Sierra Nevada 14 

Tonopah Extension 2.30 

Tonopah Merger 58 

Tonopah of Nevada 4.80 

Union 08 

West End „ 1.26 

Yellow Jacket 26 


t .15 



Big Four. 


Buckhom _ 


Con. Virginia 

Florence. „„ 

Goldfleld Con 




Goldfield Oro 




Jim Butler 


Jumbo Extension. 









(By courtesy of J. C. Wilson, Mills Building.) 

July 10. 
Bid Ask 

Adventure t li 

Allouez 31J 

Calumet A Arizona... S8( 

Calumet & Heels. 415 

Centennial 11 

Copper Range 39 

East Butte 10 

Franklin 6 

Granby „ 54i 

Greene Cananes___ 6] 

Hancock 15 

Isle-Royale 18^ 

Mass Copper Ij 


(By courtesy of B. 




July 10. 
Bid Ask 

Mohawk t 42 

North Butte 24^ 

Old Dominion 431 

Osceola 74i 

ftulncy 56] 

Shannon 6 

Superior 4 Boston 2^ 

Tamarack. 28i 

U. S. Smelting 36 

Utah Con 9 

Victoria. 1 

Winona ij 

Wolverine. 44 








F. Button Se Co., Kohl Bulldlns- 
July 10. 

Alaska Mexican. 
Alaska Tread... 
Alaska United.. 
Alaska G. M.. . . 
Braden Copper.. 

B. C. Copper 

Davls-Daly . . . . 


El Rayo 

Ely Con 

First Nat 


Green Can 


Kerr Lake 

La Rose 














Mason Valley... 6Vi 
McKlnley-Dar. . 1% 

Miami 6s 163 

Mines Co. Am.. 2H 

Nlpissing 8H 

Ohio Copper % 

San Toy ig 

Sioux Con 2 

S. W. Miami 5 

So. Utah ^4 

S. O. Calif 169 

TrI Bullion .... % 

Tuolumne 1 

United Copper.. .. 

Wettlaufer 12 

Yukon Gold.... 2^4 








Statistics cabled from Europe show decreased visible sup- 
plies ranging from 1600 to 1800 tons, according to L. Vogel- 
Btein t Co.'s report of July 1. The New Yoili Metal Ex- 
change makes the decrease 2609 tons. The difference !s 
due largely to the exclusion of Europe (other than Hol- 
land) from the Exchange figures, all tin going there (which 
in June amounted to 98.5 tons) being left out of considera- 
tion by the Exchange. It deducts shipments to the Conti- 

nent from the total shipments, and the effect is tantamount 
to enlarging deliveries correspondingly. The net result of 
the Exchange figures should harmonize closely with for- 
eign statistics, for the former shows supplies, exclusive of 
Straits' shipments to the Continent, of 4855 tons, and de- 
liveries of 6782 tons, an apparent decrease of 1927 tons in 
the visible, instead of 2609 tons. 

Prom whatever point of view considered, however, the 
position is not unfavorable. Doubtless the market would 
have made a better response were it not for many present 
uncertainties and the rather dubious future. To date. 
Straits' shipments are 2000 tons in excess of last year, and 
those for July are expected to increase this about 1000 tons. 
Also, while the falling off in American deliveries at the 
end of June amounted to only 550 tons compared with last 
year, the decrease at the end of July will amount to about 
1500 tons, by which time also the decrease in Europe, now 
734 tons, will amount to fully 1000 tons. These increased 
shipments on the one hand, and decreased deliveries on 
the other, are having a demoralizing effect, but, price and 
position considered, much that was unsound In the situ- 
ation has undoubtedly been discounted. 

On June 30 the visible supply was 11,101 tons, having a 
spot value in London and New York of £193 15s. per ton 
and 42.625c. per lb., respectively. 


The Copper Producers' Association statement, July 8, 
shows a decreased surplus. The details are as follows: 

Stock of marketable copper of all kinds on hand 
at all points in the United States, June 1, 

1913 67,474,225 

Production of marketable copper In the United 
States from all domestic and foreign sources 

during June 121,860,853 

Deliveries for consumption, June 68,452,572 

Deliveries for export, .Tune .' 68,067,901 

Stock of marketable copper of all kinds on hand 

and at all points in the U. S., July 1 52,904,606 

Recent changes In surplus have been as follows, In pounds: 



June 1912 

July 5,945.416 

August : 

September 16,364,213 

October 13,679,380 

November 9,419,095 

December 19,148,523 

January 1913 17,885,770 














Anaconda group 21,500,000 

Anaconda group (hklf-year's total) 136,050,000 

Baltic 1,814,000 

Braden (68,127 tons ore) 1,300,000 

Chino 3,094,286 

Copper Queen 6,292,480 

Copper Queen smelter 10,900,000 

Calumet & Arizona 4,400,000 

Champion 2,640,000 

Detroit 1,750,601 

Franklin 290,000 

Granby, from 104,508 tons of ore smelted 1,789,000 

Miami 2,612,600 

Moctezuma 3,438,793 

Mohawk 1,164,000 

Phelps-Dodge total 12,661,328 

Quincy 2,336,000 

Shannon 924,000 

Trlmountain 992,000 

Wolverine 856,000' 



July 12, 1913 

Australian Copper Production 

The following is from L. Vogelstein & Co.'s copper 
statistics for 1912: 

Production of the Vabious States in Tons 

1911. 1912. 

Queensland 20,521 23,157 

New South Wales 9,351 8,981 

South Australia 6,140 6,505 

Tasmania 6,042 5,370 

Western Australia 2,473 1,274 

Miscellaneous 128 181 

44,655 45,468 

Pboduction of the Most Important Mines in Tons 

1911. 1912. 

Mt. Morgan 7061 8990 

Great Cobar 6466 6650 

Mt. Elliott 5983 6692 

Wallaroo 6079 6290 

Mt. Lyell 5992 5058 

Mt. Lyell's normal production has been over 8000 tons; 
a strike in 1911 and a fire in the mine in 1912 explain 
the lower production in these two years. The production 
of the Wallaroo mine is shipped to Europe as refined ingot 
copper. Of the remaining production, about 17,500 tons 
are refined electrolytically in Port Kembla, and the balance 
is shipped to Europe and the United States in the form 
of blister, matte, and ores. The estimate of refined cop- 
per produced in Australia shows that about 1000 tons re- 
main in the country. England exported to Australia in 
copper manufactures, excluding brass, 3500 tons in 1911 and 
4161 tons in 1912. During recent years a large proportion 
of the Australian production has been refined in Australia 
and comes on the European market in the form of elec- 
trolytic copper. This enhances appreciably the importance 
of Australia as a copper-producing country, on the list of 
which she stands fifth. 

Metal Production in Arizona 

The total value of the mine output of gold, silver, copper, 
lead, and zinc in Arizona in 1912, according to V. C. 
Heikes, of the United States Geological Survey, was $67,- 
050,784, against 144,157,223 in 1911. This large increa,se 
in value was due mainly to the increase In the produc- 
tion of copper. 

The production of gold in Arizona in 1912 was 181,996.90 
oz., valued at $3,762,310, an increase in value of $331,807. 
Of this output, 2082.35 oz. came from placers, 112,067.77 oz. 
from dry or silicious ore, and 57,507.86 oz. from copper 
ore. From bullion recovered in gold and silver mills, 102,- 
244.72 oz. was produced, concentrate yielded 10,276.48 oz., 
and crude ore sent to smelters contained 67,086.88 oz. The 
largest production of gold was from Mohave county — 
$1,899,131 in 1912, against $1,547,663 in 1911. 

Arizona's silver production in 1912 was 3,490,387 oz., val- 
ued at $2,146,588, against 3,276,571 oz., valued at $1,736,583, 
in 1911. Of this output, 2,378,593 oz. came from copper 
ore, 373,255 oz. from silicious ore, and 599,110 oz. from lead 
ore. Bullion produced at gold and silver mills yielded 
45,660 oz. of silver in 1912, concentrate "produced 387,159 
oz., and crude ore sent to smelters contained 2,982,049 oz. 
Cochise county mines produced 1,962,644 oz. of silver in 
1912, against 1,946,319 oz. in 1911, and Yavapai county 
produced 748,872 oz. in 1912, against 764,744 oz. in 1911. 

Copper production increased in Arizona from 306,141,538 
lb., valued at $38,267,692, in 1911, to 365,038,649 lb., valued 
at $60,231,377 in 1912. Arizona continued to rank first 
among the copper-producing states in 1912. Concentrate 
produced 135,666,375 lb. of the output, and crude ore sent 
to smelters produced 224,141,378 lb. Cochise county, which 
includes the great Warren or Bisbee district, produced 147,- 
654,661 lb. of copper, against 132,290,007 lb. in 1911. Green- 
lee county, embracing the Copper Mountain and Greenlee 
districts of the Clifton-Morenci region, produced 76,848,299 
lb. of copper, against 70,926,330 lb. in 1911. Yavapai coun- 

ty, including the Verde district, produced 34,043,005 lb. of 
copper, against 36,103,649 lb. in 1911, and 40,824,556 lb. in 

1910. Gila county, including the Globe district, produced 
63,969,423 lb. of copper in 1912, against 49,226,341 lb. in 

1911. In Pinal and Gila counties the so-called low-grade 
schist and porphyry ores yielded 76,848,299 lb. of copper, 
against 30,666,515 lb. in 1911. The copper output of Green- 
lee county is largely from the same class of deposits. 

The production of lead in Arizona in 1912 was 6,806,443 
lb., valued at $306,290, against 10,274,562 lb., valued at 
$462,355, in 1911. Cochise county is credited with 3,776,867 
lb., valued at $169,959, the largest part of which was de- 
rived from the copper mines in the Warren district. Mo- 
have county followed with 1,937,031 lb. Increased output 
was made in 1912 from Yavapai county, but there was a 
decrease in Santa Cruz county. Concentrate yielded 1,731,- 
242 lb. of lead in Arizona in 1912, and 5,075,201 lb. was 
contained in crude ore sent to smelters. 

The spelter production of Arizona was 8,758,243 lb., val- 
ued at $604,319, in 1912, against 4,562,984 lb., valued at 
$260,090, in 1911. Mohave county produced mainly from 
the Union Pass and Chloride camps, 8,304,462 lb. of spelter 
in 1912, against 4,476,552 lb. in 1911. Productions of zinc 
were also recorded in Yavapai, Pima, Santa Cruz, and Co- 
chise counties. 

There were 444 mines producing gold, silver, copper, lead, 
or zinc in Arizona in 1912, against 397 in 1911, and the 
total quantity of ore sold and treated was 6,840,082 short 
tons, an increase of 2,272,943 tons. 

Metal Output of the Central States 

The value of the output of silver, copper, lead, and zinc 
in the states of Arkansas, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Okla- 
homa, Wisconsin, and northern Illinois in 1912 was $79,- 
675,814, an increase of $15,156,370 over the value for 1911 
and of $23,349,111 over that for 1908, according to the U. S. 
Geological Survey. The total value of the production of 
these metals for the years 1908 to 1912, inclusive, was $327,- 
385,994, of which $151,830,008 was for copper, $98,188,656 
for zinc, $76,217,618 for lead, and $1,150,512 for silver. 

Receipts at the San Francisco Mint in June were as 


Fine oz. 

Alaska 9,323.131 

Arizona 10,615.523 

California • 20,182.746 

Colorado • ^■'^^^ 

Idaho 37.282 

Nevada 3,848.297 

New Mexico 297.6 1 3 

Oregon 335.29 ■ 

Utah 26.376 

Philippine Islands 2,214.697 

Washington 5.353 

Refineries, Government offices, etc 177,648.121 

Mutilated United States coin 81.390 

Foreign coin 9,643.655 

Jewelry 849.33 1 

Mexico • 70.258 

Northwest Territory 7.368 

Total receipts 235,187.593 

Value of gold, $4,861,759.03. 

The special meeting of the Tuolumne Copper Co. stock- 
holders on August 18, is to increase the stock from 800,000 
shares to 1,500,000 shares, par value $1, to take over the 
mines of the Butte Main Range Mining Co. in the East 
Butte district. The promoters are trying to get Pilot Butte 
to join the combination, and there is also a possibility of 
the Colusa-Leonard coming In later. 

Imports of copper into Russia continue to grow smaller 
as the domestic production increases. The only copper 
imported in 1912 was electrolytic, of which the domestic 
production does not yet come up to requirements. 

July 12, 1913 



Philippine Mineral Production 

The following statistics of mineral production in the 
Philippine Islands for the year 1912 have been compiled by 
the division of mines, Bureau of Science: 

Ore Reserves of Rand Mines 

The tables compiled by the South African Mining Journal 
classify the ore reserves of the mines according to the 
various controlling houses or groups, and deal with only 


Metallic: Quantity. 

Iron, metric tons 73 

Silver, fine ounces 3,383 

Gold, fine ounces 9,190 

Copper, kilograms 1,100 


Coal, metric tons 20,000 

Clay products • 


Sand and gravel 


Salt, metric tons 18,333 

Mineral waters, litres 300,000 


^ 29,159 







J.U-- > 




P 49,272 















( + ) Increase. 

( - ) Decrease. 

Quantity. Value. 

-f 68 +¥= 20,113 

+ 3,738 + 5,058 

+18,392 + 760,518 

- 1,100 - 600 


+ 814 





Total P-2.826,410 

One peso Philippine currency is equal to 50c United States currency. 


Mineral Production of Peru in 1911 

According to the BoJetin 78, del Cuerpo de Ingenleros de 
Mlnas del Peru, the mineral output was as follows: 

Quantity, Value, 

Mineral. metric tons. Lp. 

Coal 324,000 194,155 

Petroleum 195,276 785,071 

Gold, fine 101,152 

Silver, fine 926,713 

Copper, fine 27,734 1,411,416 

Lead, fine 2,209 12,541 

Vanadium, ore 2,261 215,000 

Bismuth, fine 24.6 7,329 

Tungsten, ore 48.6 4,326 

Mercury 0.55 123 

Borax 1,923 16,922 

Salt ; 24,867 24,867 

Total value, 3,699,615 Lp., equal to fl7,760,000. 

New Zealand Mines under the control of the Consolidated 
Goldflelds of New Zealand, at Reefton, South Island, pro- 
duced as follows in May: 


Wealth of Nations 1,996 

Progress 2,725 

Blackwater 3,991 



Profit. costs. 


$5,000 $3.98 




11,000 4.46 

At a meeting of directors of the Tuolumne Copper Co. 
on June 30, It was decided, after a lengthy discussion, to 
iwstpone ordering the payment of the quarterly dividend. 
The Company has only $50,000 in the treasury. A report 
presented by the mine's superintendent stated that the 
company has Just opened a fine body of ore on the 2200- 
ft level. 

Application has been made for the appointment of a 
receiver for the Butte & Ely Copper Co. A restraining 
order baa also been asked for enjoining the Company from 
transferring shares of stock held by one Heilbronner to 
organize the Consolidated Copper Mines Co. A bearing 
will be given on July 26. 

The Consolidated Copper Mines Co. has extended the 
time for the exchange of the stock of the Giroux Consol- 
idated Mining Co., Butte Ely Copper Co., and the Chain- 
man Consolidated Copper Co. until July 5. Certificates 
have been deposited with the Guaranty Trust Co. by noon 
of July 2. 

'payable,' fully exposed, and fully valued tonnages, except 
In one or two special instances. The group aggregates are 
as follows: 

No. of 

Group. mines. Tons. 

Central Mining & Investment Corporation 15 38,563,916 

Consolidated Gold Fields of S. Africa. ... 5 8,655,403 

East Rand Proprietary Mines 1 9,013,000 

Anglo-French Exploration Co 1 1,687,101 

Consolidated Mines Selection 1 2,457,000 

Randfontein-Langlaagte 2 8,970,639 

General Mining & Finance Corporation.. 7 6,808,889 

.Tohannesburg Consolidated Invest. Co.. 8 6,740,909 

S. Neumann & Co 5 4,268,634 

A. Goerz & Co 4 2,721,500 

Independent Company . . .\ 1 500,471 



The Mt. Ross mine, New England district. New South 
Wales, produces tin and diamonds, a peculiar combination. 
The wash containing tin Is sometimes thin, but the doler- 
ite overburden is often 36 in. thick, and contains the dia- 
monds. A six-day run in May resulted In the treatment 
of 64 loads of wash, yielding 280 lb. black tin, and 201 
carats of diamonds worth $4.80 per carat. 

The following is the gold production of Rhodesian mines 
in May, 1912: 

Tons. Value. Profit. 

Eldorado 7633 $ 88,300 $ 48,000 

Globe & Phoenix 6420 207,000 139,000 

Lonely Reef 4900 83,000 

Diamonds worth $1475 were mined in the United States 
in 1912. They are mostly found in Arkansas. The Ozark 
Diamond Mines Corporation has erected a plant capable of 
washing 100 'loads' of 16 cu. ft. daily, according to the U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

The PBiNorPAi gems mined In the United States in 1912 
were the sapphires from Fergus county, Montana. These 
were worth about $195,505, while the value of about 40 
various gems and stones, was $319,722. 

Chbomic-iron ore production In the United States during 
1912 was 201 long tons valued at $2753. This came from a 
mine near Dunsmuir, Siskiyou county, California. Imports 
were 53,929 tons valued at $499,818. 

Imports of chromate and bl-chromate of potash into the 
United States In 1912, were 32,913 lb. valued at $3085. 

Cost of mining the deep leads of Victoria, Australia, aver- 
ages about $10.35 per fathom of wash. This fields $16 
per fathom at the Great Southern, Rutherglen, and $11.20 
at the Duke Consols, Maryborough. 



July 12, 1913 

Company Reports 

The report of this Company, owning the premier tin 
mine of the Malay Peninsula, shows that 496,495 cu. yd. 
of ground was washed, yielding 2776 tons of concentrate, 
which sold for $1,680,000. The average yield was 12.5 lb. 
per cubic yard. During 1911, the output was 3856 ton.^ 
of concentrate, worth $2,110,000, the yield yer yard being 
21 lb. For several reasons, the 1911 output was abnormal. 
The accounts show a profit of $758,000, out of which 
$576,000 was distributed as dividend, being at the rate of 
75%, and $144,000 was written off the property account. 
Mr. GrifBths has recommended the adoption of bucltet- 
dredging for a portion of the ground, and A. C. Perkins 
has confirmed his view. This ground is too irregular in 
content to be suitable for the present methods used in 
the richer parts of the Company's property. 

This Company is nearly allied to the Tronoh, and was 
formed in 190G to acquire tin-bearing ground at Lahat, 
in the Kinta district of Perak, Federated Malay States. 
The capital is $576,000, and dividends at the rate of 2%, 
10, 15, and 17y2% have been paid for the years 1909 to 
1912, respectively. The report for 1912 shows that 270,927 
cu. yd. of karang was treated, and 441 tons of cassiterite 
concentrate recovered. This sold for $264,000, the price 
received averaging $6096 per ton. The ground let on trib- 
ute brought an income of $23,000. The mining cost was 
$149,000, and after the payment of London expenses and 
Income tax, and allowing for depreciation, a balance of 
$115,000 remained. Out of this, $112,800 was distributed 
as dividend, being at the rate of 17%%. Additional prop- 
erty has been acquired connecting the old property with 
the granite hills to the west. O. S. Dawbarn is the man- 

The balance sheet of this company, as shown by the re- 
port for the year that ended on December 31, 1912, was as 
Assets : 

Property and Investments $12,026,120.72 

Equipment 6,935,801.29 

Deferred charges (including stripping) .. . 441,279.15 

Advanced royalties 340,604.44 

Supplies and materials 879,292.04 

Accounts collectable 502,965.16 

Cash 97,350.98 


Capital stock $17,500,000.00 

Guggenheim Exploration Co 2,524,972.21 

Bills and accounts payable 202,272.45 

Depreciation 586,893.45 

Surplus 409,275.67 


Details regarding the operations of the year were given 
June 28. Since the report was issued it has been an- 
nounced that the Company has leased important dredging 
grounds on the American river in California and will at 
once place in operation there a 7iA-ft. Bucyrus dredge. 
This, with the new work at Iditarod, adds materially to 
the probable profits of the concern. 

This Company was formed by John Taylor & Sons in 
1884 to acquire the Passagem gold mine, Minas Geraes, 
Brazil. Arthur J. Bensusan is superintendent. The report 
'for the year 1912 shows that 68,486 tons of ore was treated, 
yielding gold worth $508,000. The working cost was $432,- 
000, and royalty $17,700; $43,000 was allowed for depre- 
ciation and $17,700 was distributed among preference 
shareholders, being at the rate of 10%. The 100,000 ordi- 

nary shares received no dividend; In fact, only $1 per 
$4.80 ordinary share has so far been paid. Labor short- 
age continues to be one of the troubles at this mine, and 
efforts are being made to obtain workmen from Europe 
and elsewhere. Development during the year has not 
given good results, and the ore reserve has decreased' 
30,000 tons, and on December 31 were approximaiely 2V2 
years' supply. The lode is flat and has hitherto been 
worked by incline shafts. A main vertical shaft was'start- 
fcd two years ago, calculated to cut the lode at 2000 ft. on 
the dip. Owing to the water troubles, sinking has been 


This Company has a capital of 325,000 £1 shares, of 
which 271,007 have been issued, and 53,993 are in reserve. 
The property consists of 234 claims, water rights, etc., in 
the Bubi district of Rhodesia, 50 miles north of Bulawayo 
The report of the general manager, Francis Drake, covers 
the year ended December 31, 1912. Mr. Drake, till re- 
cently consulting engineer, is now manager, and A. W. 
Allen is metallurgist. 

Development in the mine covered 3701 ft., besides 1459 
cu. yd. of stations, winze chambers, and sumps. The main 
shaft is 1050 ft. deep. Stoping has been done at several 
points between the No. 2 and No. 7 levels. More ore was 
broken than was milled, the excess amounting to 11,544 
tons, and the total quantity lying in the stopes at the 
end of the year was calculated to be 13,074 tons. Almost 
all of this is in shrinkage stopes, which are the most 
economical to work in certain portions of the mine. An- 
other advantage of this method of stoping is that the 
mine is independent of fluctuations in the supply of native 
labor. Two additional levels, the eighth and the ninth, 
were opened during the year at depths of 895 and 1020 ft., 
respectively. On No. 8 level, 626 ft. was driven, of which 
604 ft. was in ore; and 398 ft. was driven on No. 9 level, 
of which 166 ft. was in ore. These levels have not yet 
been extended to the full length of the ore-shoot, and 
driving is being continued in pay-ore. Shaft-sinking was 
suspended toward the end of the year, owing to the fact 
that the ore-shoot showed signs of trending again to the 
south, as it does In the upper levels of the mine. To 
determine this trend, a winze has been sunk from No. 9 
level. This is now down 104 ft. in rich ore, without hav- 
ing reached the northern limit of the ore-shoot. The 
length sampled in this winze is 73 ft. Of this, the first 
23 ft. averages 12.16 dwt. over 48.83 in., the next 25 ft. 
averages 29.31 dwt. over 50.25 in., and the last 25 ft. aver- 
ages 37.36 dwt. over 36.8 in., the reef not having been 
fully exposed in places. This winze is the deepest point 
yet reached in the mine, being now 1124 ft. from the sur- 
face. Arrangements have now been made for the sinking 
of an incline shaft below the No. 9 level for the develop- 
ment of the deep ground in the mine. The new hoisting 
station and ore-bins for this inclined shaft are being pre- 
pared, and sinking will be started as soon as possible. 
The additional plant required for the purpose has been 

The ore reserves at December 31 last were estimated 
at 174,529 tons, of an average assay value of 22.40 dwt. They 
show an Increase, after deducting the 37,655 tons sent to 
the mill, of 24,185 ■ tons compared with the estimate of 
140,344 tons at December 31, 1911. The present reserves 
represent approximately a 3Vj years' supply of ore for 
the reduction plant, calculated on a working capacity of 
4000 tons per month. The average assay value of the 
reserves is slightly less than that shown in the previous 
year, owing to the inclusion of some blocks of lower-grade 
ore at the southern end of the ore-shoot. The results of 
operations were as follows: 

Ore trer.ted, tons 37,655 

Old slime treated, tons 6,331 

Total gold production $768,000 

Mining, milling, treatment, etc 245,000 

General, office, directors, taxes, etc 139,000 

Profit 384,000 

Dividends paid 259,000 

Capital expenditure, development, equipment 134,000 

July 12, 1913 



Book Reviews 


George. P. 406. Maps, diagrams, index 

The main purpose of the bulletin is to describe the 
commoner minerals and rocks, and furnish the nxeans of 
recognizing them and of knowing their use. Many valu- 
able geological materials lie unused for lack of knowledge 
of what they are and how they may be used. It is hoped 
that this work may stimulate an interest in and a search 
for the valuable geological products. In this book the au- 
thor has endeavored to present a handbook of rocks in a 
form which will be comprehended by everyone interested 
In the important facts regarding the materials of geology. 
Emphasis has been given to the Important minerals and 
rocks, unimportant species being described only where their 
intimate relationship to the more important types has 
made It necessary, or where the possibilities of economic 
uses have made It desirable. The work includes a dis- 
course on crystallography, showing with illustrations the 
various crystal forms as found in nature. It also discusses 
cleavage, fracture, hardness, specific gravity, color, lustre, 
streak, and other i)hysical features by which the various 
minerals may be recognized. It then describes in detail 
the rock-making minerals, non-metallic minerals, gem min- 
erals, and the metallic minerals, giving the various char- 
acteristics of each and the method by which they may be 
recognized. The characteristic reactions of the important 
elements are given. The common rocks are described under 
the heads of igneous and sedimentary, and the subject of 
metamorphism and the metamorphic rocks is also included. 
Building stones, the materials of cements, limes, and plas- 
ters are also covered by this work. A glossary of geolog- 
ical terms is included. 

TiJE Men Who Blaze the Trail. By S. C. Dunham. 
P. 126. Barse & Hopkins. New York. 

This little book of verse is one of the charming by-prad- 
ucta of mining in the Far North. In it Mr. Dunham voices 
the thoughts and feelings of the Alaska 'sour-dough' as 
Mr. Service has done for his brothers in the Yukon. The 
modest little volume is intensely photographic; the verses 
are word pictures of things as they are, or at least as 
they were In the early years at Nome. Incidentally, Mr. 
Dunham has phrased, and excellently, the feeling of help- 
lessness and hopelessness that has come to the sturdy, 
self-reliant pioneers of the North who face new conditions 
that they neither approve nor understand. Thus: 
"We're too slow for the new breed of miners, 

Embracing all classes of men, 
Who locate by power of attorney 

And prospect their claims with a pen — 
WIio do all of their fine work through agents. 

And loaf around town with the sports. 
On intimate terms with the lawyers. 
On similar terms with the courts." 
Mr. Dunham has caught the brooding spirit of the North, 
but be also knows the desert, and his later poems, in which 
he depicts life In Nevada, are equally Interesting. Thus 
he sums up the campaign of 'Lem Allen of Churchill' for 
the position of lieutenant-governor in 1903: 
"And If Lem keeps on talking and treating 
In the extra dry way he's begun. 
He will turn down the traitors to Silver 
By a ratio of sixteen to one." 

PsYriioLOGY and iNrmsTHiAt Efficiency. By Hugo Miins- 
terberg. Pp. 321. Index. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston. 
For sale by the Mining anrl Scientific Press. Price fl.50, 

Some one has said that lately no publisher has consid- 
ered his list complete unless it contained at least one book 
upon .scientific management or efficiency engineering. That 
may be onlv another way of saying that far loo many 
books nave been written upon this new but really impor- 
tant science. The book under review does not come under 

the heading of those which were written as a sop to the 
vanity or' the author or as an advertisement of his pro- 
fessional qualifications. It is, on the other hand, a real 
contribution to the science, and one that will go a long 
way toward clearing up much of the general distrust of 
so-called scientific management methods. It is written in 
a simple and readable style, free from unusual technical 
terms. After a general introduction on 'Applied Psychol- 
ogy,' the author discusses 'The Best Possible Man,' 'The 
Best Work,' and 'The Best Possible Effect.' A tew of the 
chapter headings, selected at random, will give a good 
general idea of the contents: 'Vocation and Fitness. Sci- 
entific Vocational Guidance. Experiments in the Interest 
of Electric Railway Service. The Adjustment of Tech- 
nical to Psychical Conditions. The Economy of Move- 
ment. Experiments on the Effects of Advertisements. 
Buying and Selling. The Future Development of Economic 

"The book has a message for everyone interested in 
either industrial or human efficiency, even though its 
human efficiency message may chiefly concern one's own 

Recent Publications 


Jimenez. Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del 
Peru. P. 80. Lima, 1913. 

M.AONETic Iron Sands of Natashkwan, Quebec. By Geo. 
C. Mackenzie. Department of Mines Bulletin. P. 57. III. 
maps, charts. Ottawa, 1912. 

Biennial Report of the State Geologist. North Caro- 
lina Geological and Economic Survey. Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
geologist. P. 118. Raleigh, 1913. 

W00D-U.SINO Industries or Virginia. Compiled by Roger 
E. Simmons. Department of Agriculture and Immigra- 
tion. P. 88. 111. Washington, 1912. 

P1-I1I.ICATI0N.S. This is a catalogue of publications issued 
by the Bureau of Science, Manila, Philippine Islands. The 
papers listed cover a wide variety of subjects connected 
with this territory. 

West Virginia Geological Survey. Part I, 'The Living 
Flora of West Virginia,' by C. F. MUlspaugh; and Part II, 
'The Fossil Flora of West Virginia,' by David White. I. C. 
White, state geologist. P. 491. 111., Index. 

Contribution a L'^tude Geolooique de la Partie cen- 
TBAI.E du Congo Belge. By Sydney H. Ball and Millard 
K. Shaler. Extralt des Annates de la Socigte gfiologlque de 
Belgique. P. 51. Map. Liege, Belgium, 1913. 

The Mining Industry in Northern Ontario served by 
THE Ontario Government Railway. By Arthur A. Cole. 
.Temlskaraing and Northern Ontario Railway Commission 
publication. P. 78. 111., plans, index. Toronto, 1913. 

University of Illinois publications. Urbana, 1913: 
The Properties of Saturated and SupEaiHEWED Ammonia 
Vapor. By G. A. Goodenough and Wm. Earl Mosher. Bul- 
letin 66. P. 94. 111., charts, tables, bibliography. 

Preliminary Report on Organization and Method of In- 
vestigations. Coal-mine investigations by the State Geo- 
logical Survey, University of Illinois, and the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines. P. 71. 111., maps, charts. 

PoTA-iii Salts, Sujimary for 1912. Compiled by W. C. 
Phalen. Advance chapter from 'Mineral Resources of the 
United States, 1912." U. S. Geological Survey. P. 36. Mr. 
Phalen has brought together in this little pamphlet, not 
only the statistics of consumption and imports, but such 
data as are available bearing on the problem of possible 
local production. He has given a brief summary of the 
Investigations now being conducted by the U. S. Geological 
Survey and the Bureau of Soils, and Indicates several 
promising fields. Mr. Gale's statement regarding the Searles 
lake doi)osits is quoted elsewhere. In it important data 
supplementai-y to the brief announcements made by the 
Sun-ey last year are imblished. 



July 12, 1913 


Most ot these are in reply to questions received by malL 
Our readers are invited to asli questions and give informa- 
tion dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

Idle kailway cabs In the United States in May totaled 
50,294. There were 10,000 new cars bought during the 

Concentration of 390,473 tons of ore, by 14 mills, at 
Cobalt during 1912, resulted in 10,527 tons of concentrate, 
a ratio of 37 to 1. 

Standard rack and pinion ore-bin gates are of the fol- 
lowing sizes: 18 by 24, 20 by 28, 24 by 30, and 30 by 36 in., 
with their respective weights of 225, 250, 275, and 325 

Shipping through the Suez canal in 1912 totaled 5373 
ships of 20,275,120 net tons. Receipts were $27,005,068, and 
dividends paid 116,847,540. This should be something to 
compare with the Panama canal when in full operation. 

HoBSE-powEB of turbines on the German steamer Impe- 
rator, the largest in the world, totals 60,000 hp. Her di- 
mensions are: length, 919 ft., and beam, 98 ft., 9 decks 
above water-line, 36 water-tight compartments, and 50,000 

'TiMBEBiNG' in the main shaft of the Lonely Reef mine, 
Rhodesia, has been done with wood to 795-ft. depth, and 
with steel sets the remaining 255 ft. Although more ex- 
pensive in first cost than the wooden timbers, the steel is 
practically indestructible. 

Crushing equipment at the Miami mill, Arizona, is being 
increased by the installation of two sets of 16 by 42-in. 
Miami heavy-type rolls of Traylor make, and two sets of 
screens. This increase of plant will produce %-in. size of 
ore for further treatment. 

Treatment of the Lonely Reef mine, Rhodesia, consists 
of twenty 1250-lb. stamps each; two tube-mills 5 by 14 ft., 
and one 5% by 16 ft.; four 20-ft. diam. Dorr thickeners; four 
8 by 32-ft. Pachuca agitators; and ^hree Dehne filter- 
presses, with 50 chambers 40 in. spuare. 

Gold and silver expobts from New York from Janua^jy 1 
to June 21, 1913, totaled gold, $60,179,782, and silver, $25,- 
016,845, against $22,483,762 and $24,984,679, respectively, in 
1912. Imports totaled gold, $8,516,135, and silver, $4,450,675, 
against $10,248,474 and $5,245,674 in 1912. • 

ToBiN BRONZE Is a composltloH containing between 59 and 
63% copper, 0.5 and 1.5% tin, and a small percentage of 
zinc. It has a bright golden color, specific gravity of 8.4, 
melting point of 1600°F., weighs 0.303 lb. per cubic inch, 
and can be welded by electric or oxy-acetylene processes. 

DiAMOND-cuiriNG ig mostly done in Europe, at Amster- 
dam and Antwerp, 23,000 persons being engaged in the 
industrj', and the cost being about $24,000,000 per year. 
It is now proposed to do a lot of this work in South Africa, 
which, last year, exported uncut diamonds worth $57,600,000. 

Mining costs at the Calumet & Hecla properties during 
1912 were as follows, according to the Houghton Mining 
Gazette: Ahmeek, $1.39; AUouez, $1.61; Calumet & Hecla, 
$1.91; Centennial, $1.92; Isle Royale, $1.54; Osceola, $1.23; 
Superior, $2.33; and Tamarack, $2.23; an average of $1.77 
per ton. 

Treatment of mixed sand and slime, or slime alone, by 
upward displacement Is attracting some attention in the 
United States, and good results are said to have been se- 
cured. There are difficuUies in getting uniform results, 
and everything must be in extremely nice adjustment. Up- 
ward displacement was tried at the Westralia Mt. Morgan's 
mill, and a slime plant at Kalgoorlle for treating old 
dumps, several years ago, but results were hopeless. 

In agitating slime with barren solution, it is difficult in 
many cases to find an ore which will allow sufficient decan- 
tation to take place to furnish enough solution for agitation 
purposes. On clayey ores the upward current of the solu- 
tion through the decanting zone carries slime particles 
with it in every case, and under all conditions. 

Unconsumed gases in boiler flues are liable to cause ex- 
plosions. Recently, at a mine in Western Australia, a 
boiler fireman shut the damper down and stopped the fan 
to 'blow down' the boiler. After doing this, he opened the 
damper, and flames from the wood fuel exploded the ac- 
cumulated unconsumed gases, blowing out a quantity of 

The flame blow-in of a Case gasoline melting furnace 
is placed so that the flame enters the furnace on a tangent 
and does not hit the crucible until there is complete com- 
bustion. The hot gases circle around the crucible, thereby 
preventing the loss of crucibles by cracking, and saving 
their wear and tear to such an extent that their life is 
lengthened several melts. This furnace is made in three 
sections, or practically divides in the centre, so when the 
upper ring is lifted off it leaves the upper portion of the 
crucible so exposed that it can be removed with basket 

Railroad tunnels through the European Alps are the 
Mont Cenis, St. Gothard, Arlberg, Slmplon, and Lotschberg. 
The latter is about 9^ miles long, the St. Gothard 9% 
miles, and the Simplon 12 Vi miles. After nearly two years' 
work in the Loetschberg 'headings', an accident occurred. 
It was supposed by the engineers that the detritus form- 
ing the floor of the Gastern valley ended well above the 
line of the tunnel, which in consequence would be driven 
in solid rock. This supposition was wrong, as there was 
a rush of sand, gravel, and water, amounting to 250,000 
cu. ft, filling the heading for nearly a mile and killing 
25 Italian miners. Later on, a new heading was started, 
and work was completed on March 31, 1911. 

Clean-up barrels, as used at Kalgoorlle for treating the 
amalgam, rich concentrate, and chippings from grinding 
pans, oi- sundi-y material from the clean-up room, are sim- 
ply of cast iron, 2 in. thick, with a 3-in. shaft fitted through 
the centre and extending outside for bearings and driving 
gear. They are best driven by gearing at about 20 r.p.m. 
One side of the barrel has a heavy door about 10 by 18 
in., well fitted in a hole, and is clamped down The ma- 
chine is charged with the material to be ground, enough 
water added to make a thick pulp, and enough quicksilver 
to collect all gold and amalgam. Lime or soda is added 
to clean the mercury. About four rollers, say 4 by 12 in., 
are also added for grinding, which occupies about 12 hours. 
After this time, the barrel is opened, the pulp run into a 
box or vat, thinned with water, and then run over riffles. 
The residue is rich and is caught in a box, and returned 
to the pans. The barrel does good work and may be se- 
curely locked. 

Qt-'icksilvee occurs in nature principally as sulphide, 
namely, cinnabar. The deposits in the United States are 
found generally in simple fissure fillings, frequently irregu- 
lar and linking together larger fillings; in compound frac- 
ture zones; along bedding planes or other contacts; and 
disseminated in the adjoining rocks. The ore-shoots are 
often very irregular and sometimes lenticular. They are 
found in many kinds of igneous, sedimentary, and meta- 
morphic rocks of various ages, such as granitic, quartz por- 
phyritic, rhyolitic, andesitic, diabasic, and basaltic igneous 
rocks, limestones, sandstones, shales, serpentines, slates, 
and quartzites. Cinnabar, the principal ore, has a formula 
of HgS, and contains up to 86.2% mercury. It has a beau- 
tiful red color, and is found in crystalline incrustations, 
intergrowths, and Impregnations, also granular, massive, 
and earthy. Its hardness is 2 to 2%, and specific gravity 
8 to 8.2. When scratched, it gives a scarlet streak. The 
ordinary variety is crystallized, massive, and earthy, and 
bright red to reddish brown in color. 


High-Voltage Direct-Current Locomotives irthJItra^rslra^rZr^ 

the locomotive equipment, as well as the sub-station appa- 

The electrification of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific rail- ratus and overhead line material, was designed and built 

way is of exceptional interest because it represents one of by the General Electric Company. 

the largest installations of electrical equipment for steam The principal data and dimensions applying to the 

railroad service and is the first in this country where locomotives are the following: 

direct-current locomotives, operating on as high a poten- Length inside of knuckles 37 ft. 4 in. 

tlal as 2400 volts, will be employed. Construction work Length over cab 31 ft. 

necessary to effect the change from steam to electric equip- Height over cab 12 ft. 10 in. 

ment is now practically completed. Height with trolley down 15 ft. 6 in. 

The adoption of the 2400-volt, direct-current system for Width over all 10 ft. 

this railway was determined after a comprehensive study Total wheel base 26 ft. 

of local conditions and requirements. The traffic demands Rigid wheel base 8 ft. 8 In. 

are unusually severe, and consist principally of hauling Track gage 4 ft. gi^ in. 

long trains of copper ore over heavy mountain grades. Total weight 160,000 lb. 

In comparison with other existing systems, the 2400-volt, Weight per axle 40,000 lb. 

direct-current system was considered best suited for exact- Wheels, steel tired 46 in. 

Ing service of this character; for its adoption presented Journals 6 by 13 in. 


an opportunity to realize unusual economies, both in Ini- 
tial expenditure and the cost of operation. 

The part of the road that has been equipped lies be- 
tween Butte and Anaconda, Montana. It comprises 30 
miles of main line single track, numerous sidings, yards, 
and smelter tracks, aggregating a total of about 90 miles 
on a single track basis. The haulage of copper ore from 
the Butte mines to the smelters at Anaconda, together 
with all mine supplies, lumber, etc., moving in both direc- 
tions, amounts to practically 5,000,000 tons of freight per 
year. Complete freight trains weighing 3400 tons are 
made up of 50 loaded steel ore-cars and will be operated 
over a ruling grade of 0.3% by a locomotive consisting 
of two of the units illustrated. Single units will be used 
for making up trains in the yards and for spotting cars. 

The initial equipment consists of seventeen locomotive 
units, type 0440-EJ-160-4 GE 229A; fifteen for freight and 
two for passenger service. Each unit weighs approximately 
80 tons. The two units for forming the freight locomo- 
tives In each case will be coupled together and operated 
in multiple unit. The combination freight locomotives 
will haul the usual trains of 3400 tons at a maximum 
speed of 15 miles per hour against the ruling grade, and 
at 21 miles per hour on level tangent track. The passen- 
ger locomotives are the same design as the freight locomo- 
tives, except that they are geared for a maximum speed 
of 4.5 miles per hour on level tangent track. A schedulo 
of eight passenger trains per day, four each way. Is main- 

Gears, forged rims, freight locomotives 87 teeth 

Gears, forged rims, passenger locomotives.. 80 teeth 

Pinions, forged, freight locomotives 18 teeth 

Pinions, forged, passenger locomotives 25 teeth 

Tractive effort at 30% coefficient 48,000 lb. 

Tractive effort at one hour rating 30,000 lb. 

Tractive effort at continuous rating 25,000 lb. 

The locomotives are the articulated double-truck type, 
with all weight on the drivers. The cab, containing an 
engineer's compartment in each end, and a centra! com- 
partment for the control apparatus, is carried by the 
two truck frames on centre pins. The cab is box type, 
extending the entire length of the locomotive, and is 
provided with end and side doors. On each axle is mount- 
ed a motor of the twin-geared type. . The friction draft 
gear mounted on the outer end frame of each truck trans- 
mits the hauling and buffing stresses directly through the 
truck frame, diverting these strains from the centre pins 
and underframe. 

The trucks are built of heavy steel castings. The side 
frames are of a truss pattern with heavy top and bottom 
members and pedestal tie bars. They are connected by 
end frames and a cast steel centre transom. The entire 
weight is carried on semi-elliptic springs suitably equal- 
ized. The cab underframe consists of two 12-in. longitud- 
inal steel channels on either side of the centre and two 
6 by 6-in. steel angles along the outer edges. The central 
channels are enclosed and form a distributing air-duct 



July 12, 1913 

for forced ventilation. Air is conducted through the centre 
pins, which are hollow, into the truck transoms and thence 
to the motors. 

The engineer's compartment, at either end of the cab, 
contains the operator's seat, controller, air-brake valves, 
bell and whistle ropes, ammeter, air gauges, sanders, and 
other control apparatus that should be within immediate 
reach of the engineer. These compartments are comforta- 
bly heated by electric heaters. In the central section is 
grouped the control apparatus. The contactors, reverser, 
and rheostats are mounted in two banks running length- 
wise of the compartment, and are arranged with ample 
space between them to afford convenient access for clean- 
ing, inspection, and repair. All parts and circuits carrying 
2400 volts are thoroughly protected from accidental con- 
tact. A dynamotor is employed to furnish 600 volts for 
the operation of the contactors, lights, and air-compressor. 
The motors are the GE-229A commutating-pole type, 
wound for 1200 volts and Insulated for 2400 volts. A 
forged pinion is mounted on each end of the armature 
shaft and meshes into a corresponding gear mounted on 
the wheel hub. The gear reduction is 4.84 on the freight 
locomotives and 3.2 on the passenger locomotives. 

The GE-229A motor is designed especially for locomo- 
tive service, is enclosed, and is provided with forced venti- 
lation. Air is circulated over the armature and field coils, 
over and through the commutator, through longitudinal 
holes in the armature core, and thence exhausted through 
openings in the bearing head. This method of ventila- 
tion circulates effectively a large volume of cool air through- 
out the motor and keeps all parts at a uniform tempera- 
ture, eliminating the possibility of 'hot spots.' 

The continuous capacity of each motor is 190 amperes 
on 1200 volts under forced ventilation, and 225 amperes 
on 1200 volts for the one-hour rating. For the double unit 
160-ton locomotive, this is equivalent to a continuously 
sustained output of 2100 horse-power. 

The control equipment on the locomotive is the well 
known Sprague-General Electric, type M, multiple-unit con- 
trol, and is designed to operate the four motors in series 
and series-parallel. The pairs of motors with their respec- 
tive resistances are all connected in series on the first 
point of the controller. The resistance is varied through 
nine points on the controller and finally short-circuited on 
the tenth or running point. The pairs of motors are then 
operated similarly in series-parallel and all resistance is 
cut out on the nineteenth point, which is the full-speed 
running point. This provides a control with ten steps 
in series and nine steps in series-parallel. 

The transition between series and series-parallel is effect- 
ed without opening the motor circuit, and there is no ap- 
preciable reduction in tractive effort during the change. 
The smooth transition between control points peimits ac- 
celeration close to the slipping point of the wheels. A 
switch is provided having manually-operated handles for 
cutting out either part of motors, so that the locomotive 
can then be operated with one pair of motors in the usual 

The contactors are actuated by the 600-volt circuit ob- 
tained from the dynamotor and are of a design similar to 
that employed in the standard type M control. The prin- 
cipal variations are embodied in the method of insulating 
for the higher voltage. The arm between the operating 
armature magnet and the arc chute mechanism consists of 
a treated wood spacer Insulator; and the contacts and mag- 
netic blow-out, which make and break on the 2400-volt cir- 
cuit, are mounted on mica and porcelain insulators. 

The main switch is provided with a powerful blow-out, 
so that heavy currents can be opened. The three smaller 
switches, one for each of the two heaters and one for the 
dynamotor circuits, are designed specially for 2400 volts. 
The blade is controlled by a lever attached to the grounded 
part of the locomotive frame and insulated from the live 
parts of the switch by a rod of treated wood. 

There is one main fuse for the trolley circuit and two 
fuses for the motor circuits. They are all of the copper 
ribbon type and are fitted with hinged covers to facilitate 
fuse renewals. The boxes are placed as near as possible 

to the overhead trolley in order to protect the wiring cir- 
cuits near the source of supply. There is also an auxiliary 
circuit fuse for protecting locally the dynamotor and heater 
circuits. The main, motor, and auxiliary fuse boxes are 
provided with powerful magnetic blow-outs, energized by 
current passing through the fuse, to insure proper rupture 
of the arc. 

An ammeter is placed at each engineer's position and 
indicates the current in the circuit of one pair of motors. 
The aaimater and air-gauges are illuminated by a gauge 
light connected in the headlight circuit, so that the head- 
light switch turns on simultaneously the headlight and 
gauge light at the same end of the locomotive. 

The main motor rheostats are formed of cast-iron grids 
assembled in a frame and insulated by mica. Twenty re- 
sistance units are provided for each passenger locomotive, 
and twenty-six resistance units for each freight unit. The 
rheostat boxes are mounted in an enclosed compartment , 
above the banks of contactors. 

Current is collected by overhead trolleys of the panto- 
graph type. They are pneumatically operated and can be 
put into service from either engineer's compartment by a 
hand-operated valve. Each passenger locomotive is equipped 
with two collectors, and each freight unit with one col- 
lector. A 2400-volt insulated bus line, connected direct 
to the pantographs, is run along the centre on the root 
of the cab. The bus lines are connected by couplers be- 
tween the two units of the freight locomotives, so that 
current is obtained from both collectors or from a single 
collector. The collectors and bus lines are adequately 
guarded by railings. 

The locomotives are equipped with arc headlights. The 
interior illumination of the cab is provided by ten incan- 
descent lamps arranged in two circuits, one lamp being 
placed in each engineer's cab and the balance in the cen- 
tral compartment. In each lamp circuit is a portable lamp 
with an extension cord. One lamp switch is in each 
engineer's cab, so that one lamp circuit can be con- 
trolled from each end of the locomotive. A 600-volt bus 
line is provided on the passenger locomotives for lighting 
and a 2400-volt bus line for heating the passenger coaches. 

The air-brakes are the combined straight and automatic 
type. The air-compressor, of the CP-26 type, is two-stage, 
motor-driven, and has a piston displacement of 100 cu. ft. 
of air per minute when pumping against a tank pressure 
of 135 lb. per square inch. Air is taken from the interior 
of the central compartment through a screen, which pre- 
vents the entrance of particles of dust. The compressed air 
in passing from the low-pressure to the high-pressure cyl- 
inder is conducted through radiating pipes on the roof of 
the cab. This reduces the temperature of the air and al- 
lows condensation of moisture before entering the high- 
pressure cylinder. From the high-pressure cylinder it is 
delivered into four air-reservoirs, each 12 by 164 in. They 
are placed under the floor of the cab and connected in 
series, which affords a further opportunity for radiation 
and condensation. 

Pneumatic sanders are provided. The sander valves are 
placed within convenient reach of the engineer's seat, and 
valves and boxes are arranged for sanding the track in 
front of the leading wheels when rimning in either direc- 
tion. The couplers are M.C.B. standard. The bells are 
fitted with automatic bell ringers, and the whistles are air- 
operated. All wiring is drawn through conduits and care- 
fully protected from possible mechanical injury. 

Humphrey pumps, as described in this journal of June 
28, will lift water the same as an ordinary pump by suc- 
tion and deliver to heads up to 250 ft. They will operate 
on kerosene, distillate, gasoline, benzol, or any form of 
gas available. 

H. N. Lawbie has opened an ofilce in the Yeon building 
at Portland, Oregon, for microscopic study of ores and rocks 
and for general mining engineering work. 

Coke production of the United States averages about 
400,000 tons per week. 



' Science has no enemy save the ignorant." 

Whole No. 2765 "^^^AV 

San Francisco, July 19, 1913 

Single Copies, Ten Cents 




San Francisco 


EUGENE H. LESLIE 1 A„i.,„„f Ti--»if„r« 

M. W. von BERNEWITZ I " " " Assistant Editors 

New York 

THOMAS T. READ Associate Editor 

T. A. RICKARD - - - . Editorial Contributor 
EDWARD WALKER .... Correspondent 

A. W. Allen. Charles Janln. 

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Gela.slo Caetanl C. W. Purlngton. 

Courtenay De Kalb. C. F. Tolman, Jr. 

F. Lynwood Garrison. Horace V. WlnchelL 


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Other Countries In Postal Union 21 ShillinKS or |5 

L. A. GREENE ..... Bftisiness Manager 

Entered at San Franeitco Pottofflee aa Second-Clatt Matter. 




Notes 85 

Colloids and Tlieir Importance 87 


Underestimating the Cost of Milling plants — I 

A. Sydney Addlton 88 

The Symmes Agitator Whitman Symmes 92 

Diamonds and Other Gems Mined in the United States 94 

Geology of the Kalgoorlie GoidHeld — II 

Malcolm Maclaren and J. Allen Thomson 95 
Railroads and Transportation Problems in Bolivia.. 

G. W. Wepfer 100 
The Magnet Silver-Lead Mine, Tasmania.. P. G. Talt 102 

Tailing and Ore Treatment at Broken Hill 104 

Workmen's Compensation Problems. . .H. W. Gartrell 105 

Improvement of Miners' Surroundings 106 

Reopening the HiUabee Mine 107 

Rock-Drilling Contests 108 

Copper Statistics and the Copper Market 123 

Sulphuric Acid Production 123 

Petroleum Production In United States 124 

Gold Production of Western Australia 125 

Copper Leaching at the Nevada-Douglas Property. 127 

The Eureka T & T Hook 128 

The 'Neptune' Diving Apparatus 128 

Sears' Acme Mill 128 


Colloids in Ore Dressing A. W. Allen 109 

Winter Work in Alaska. A. E. Garvey; T. A. Rlckard 110 
The Microscope in Mining D P. Hynes 110 




Personal 120 

The Metal Markets 121 

The Stock Markets 122 

Decisions Relating to Mining 124 

Company Reports 125 

Concentrates 126 

Recent Publications 127 

Catalogues Received 127 

Commercial Paragraphs 127 


TTTATER and large corporations are frequently 
'^' associated in the mind of the public, but the 
conjunction is sometimes a profitable one. The Ni- 
agara Falls Power Company reports a net income 
of $928,000, or 16.1 per cent, last year as compared 
with 11.92 for the preceding year. 

/COALFIELDS in Routt county, Colorado, are to 
^^ be developed upon a large scale, if the Yampa 
Fuel & Iron Company is successful in placing a 
bond issue in Europe. Representatives of the 
French and Belgian interests who are negotiating 
for the sale of $28,000,000 worth of bonds have re- 
cently been studying the situation in Colorado, and 
if the outcome is successful, a railway will be built 
from Hayden, Colorado, to Casper, Wyoming, and 
the exploitation of the coal deposits undertaken. 

"C'XTRALATERAL rights are discussed in a clear 
and informing way by Mr. John B. Clayberg 
in the California Law Review for May. While many 
diflScult points are made clear, it is perhaps sig- 
nificant of the inevitable legal maze that results 
from granting any such right, that even so experi- 
enced a practitioner confesses to doubt as to how 
the courts would rule on numerous important points. 
Possibly by the time all existing extralateral rights 
are adjudicated, the public will be educated to the 
point of abolishing them for the future. 

DUMMY directors will have a hard time of it in 
the future, if the ruling made by the Supreme 
Court of New York State holds good. A share- 
holder in White, Van Glahn & Company sued Mr. 
H. K. White, alleging that Mr. White, though know- 
ing the company to be insolvent, became a director 
(thereby facilitating the sale of stock through his 
reputation for wealth and business success), but 
allowed the affairs of the Company to be managed 
by others, with the result that a few months later 
it became bankrupt. The opinion of the court, con- 
curred in by all the justices, was that Mr. White 
was liable' for the $50,000 lost by the shareholder 
who invested in the Company under the belief that 
it was being actively managed by Mr. White. This 
is a new ruling, but one that seems eminently sound. 
It is all too common that well known men allow 
their names to be used as bait to catch the unwary, 
and it is to be hoped that the establishing of legal 
responsibility for losses may act as an effective de- 
terrent. All too often, however, those who are so 
unwise have little beyond their reputations to lose 
in the ensuing maelstrom. 



July 19, 1913 

partments of the Mining and Scientific Press that 
is distinctive in tone. In the course of a year we 
print more than 300 letters written from various 
corners of the world. In part these are from regu- 
lar members of the staff, in part they are from res- 
ident engineers, and frequently they are the friendly 
comment of visitors. They all contain much tech- 
nical information, and they afford the reader an 
easy medium for keeping in touch. Mr. Edward 
Walker's letters from London have contained, 
among other things, the best chronicle of the de- 
velopment of flotation, as well as detailed news of 
British controlled properties throughout the min- 
ing world. In the current issue the expansion in 
operations which is being undertaken by the St. 
John del Rey company is recorded, and the prog- 
ress which is being made by the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy. The account of the Ton- 
opah-Continental controversy by an engineer on the 
ground is of particular interest, and furnishes a 
side-light on the situation by a disinterested party. 
In our correspondence with consulting engineers 
are presented the views and opinions of experienced 
operators on the districts visited. Such comment en- 
ables the people of the community to realize Burns' 
ambition "to see oursel's as ithers see us," at the 
same time that they give valuable information to 

'T'HE great mineral wealth of South America, 
■*- which has been known since the days of the 
Incas, has up to the present time been lagging in 
development, due to a combination of circumstances 
largely exterior to the country itself, coupled with 
obstacles which nature has placed in the path of 
the prospector and the difficulty of access for ma- 
terials and supplies. If the investing public awoke 
to the realization that there are large mineral tracts 
on the eastern slope of the Andes, and that a coun- 
try, rich in gold, silver, copper, zinc, mica, tin, and 
all kinds of mineral products, is only awaiting the 
advent of capital to develop this territory into div- 
idend-paying investments, the progress would be 
a great deal faster. To the average mining inves- 
tor. South America is an almost total void in the 
field of possible investment, and the country is 
looked upon as an unknown quantity outside of the 
large copper companies of Chile and Peru, the em- 
erald mines of Colombia, the diamonds of Brazil, 
and the tin deposits of Bolivia. In reality, the 
country presents an almost virgin field for future 
exploitation which is not surpassed anywhere. The 
principal difficulty, as in all new countries, has been 
the lack of transportation facilities and means of 
access into the distant parts in which the mines are 
to be found. While the actual existence and situ- 
ation of ground, which would be valuable under 
ordinary circumstances, is known, the fact remains 
that with the heavy transportation charges, they 
are impossible enterprises under present conditions. 
However, we are pleased to note that at the present 
time there is an awakening taking place as to the 
mineral possibilities of that continent, and an in- 
creased activity in railway construction is taking 

place in many quarters. The extension of railroad 
lines and the solution of Bolivia's transportation 
problems is discussed in the present issue by Mr. 
G. W. Wepfer. 

RAILWAY construction in Alaska by the federal 
government is provided for by the Jones- 
Chamberlain bill, which has been reported favorably 
to the Senate and is now being considered by the 
Committee on Territories of the House of Represen- 
tatives. The bill provides for the issuing of $40,- 
000,000 worth of 3 per cent government bonds, and 
authorizes the President to utilize these funds for 
the construction of railways in Alaska, using his 
discretion as to routes, and employing the Panama 
canal engineering force, army officers, or a railway 
commission to carry on construction work. Messrs. 
Falcon Joslin and M. D. Leehey have appeared be- 
fore the Committee as advocates of this bill, which 
seems an excellent one. It is interesting in this 
connection to note that the report of the committee 
which investigated the recent wreck on the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford railroad intimates 
that a closer supervision of railroads by federal 
authorities may soon prove necessary in the interests 
of public safety. Railway managers in some cases 
are apparently approaching a state of affairs where 
they may be glad to resign themselves into govern- 
mental hands, for in the face of constantly increas- 
ing operating costs resulting from demands for 
higher wages by operators, and of decreasing in- 
come through higher taxation and an inability to 
raise freight rates, the lot of a "railroad magnate" 
would not appear to be an entirely enviable one. 

INSPECTION is a recognized method of increasing 
efficiency arid safety, and many of the larger com- 
panies employ regular mine inspectors who have no 
other duties than those implied by their title. The 
Arizona Copper Company, Limited, has just organ- 
ized an inspection department and placed it in 
charge of Mr. Frank Parmer. Coal operators in 
some of the states have organized mutual insurance 
companies and found that the value of the inspection 
alone offsets the cost of the insurance. In mining, 
as in other industries where much work is done by 
relatively unskilled labor, a generous number of well 
trained and well paid inspectors, free from the bur- 
den of routine management, are profitable. This is 
especially important where men of different nation- 
alities work together and there is no common lan- 
guage. The danger from lack of a common tongue 
is so great that in many states efforts are being made 
to forbid employment of men underground who can- 
not speak and understand English. Such a rule, if 
general, would promote safety, but would also crip- 
ple industry. Dropping theories and facing condi- 
tions, employment of competent instructor-inspec- 
tors seems to best meet the existing situation. While 
a certain number of accidents and lives lost annually 
is unavoidable in the operation of mines, that this 
figure can be materially decreased by a concerted 
effort on the part of the operators is equally true. 
It is hoped that the example which is being set by 
some of the large operators will become more general. 

July 19, 1913 



Colloids and Their Importance 

Those ancient Greeks who spent their time chiefly 
in the inquiry for some new thing are usually re- 
garded as dilettantes, yet such a habit of mind 
has much to commend it. More especially is this 
true if eagerness to learn something new is coupled 
with a practical ability to turn it to service, for 
of such a fibre are the men chosen by nature to 
become leaders in industry and art. The engineer 
whose work causes him to move frequently from 
place to place, quickly comes to regard an abund- 
ance of material possessions as a doubtful advan- 
tage ; Morris chairs and grand pianos have their ad- 
vantages, but their drawbacks as well. Similarly, 
it may be said that too much knowledge has its dis- 
advantages. A few centuries ago, when nobody 
knew very much, it was comparatively easy for 
any intelligent man to keep in touch with all that 
happened in his little world. Nowadays the events 
of the universe are served to us with our breakfasts, 
and unless we are energetic enough to arise early 
for the purpose, most of us can scan them but hastily 
if we expect to punch the time-clock on schedule. 
Even the newspapers themselves feel the pressure, 
and the progress of any matter is abandoned as 
soon as it ceases to be exciting. Thus the cables 
tell of rioting Rand miners, but nothing of the re- 
sumption of work ; of the looting of a smelter in 
Mexico, but nothing of monthly output. But espe- 
cially in the world of scientific work is this difiiculty 
felt. Workers in every possible field of those sci- 
ences which arc based on physics and chemistry are 
daily discovering something new, or putting old 
relations in new lights, and the task of anyone so 
rash as to attempt to cover the whole field is clearly 
beyond human powers. The problem of the average 
man thus becomes the distinguishing of what is 
most important out of the mass of material which 
is readily available to him. It may be truthfully 
said that such a critical review of the world is the 
task of the editor, but he is but one man and can 
only present that which he conceives as most im- 
portant to the average man. The need of any given 
individual may vary markedly from the average, so 
that each must perforce either devote his own effort 
to the task, or else be satisfied with the outcome 
of fortune which may place in his way that which 
he needs, or lead him by other paths. 

Perhaps the best instance of our argument is 
the profound research work upon colloids which 
has been done, chiefly in the past two decades, in 
this country, but more especially in Germany. Those 
who were trained in the earlier concepts of phys- 
ics and chemistry were taught to recognize three 
states of matter, solid, liquid, and gaseous. Though 
it was recognized that some substances did not 
exactly fit in such a classification, little attenlion 
was paid them, because further work was needed 
to bring about the recognition of their importance. 
Chiefly as a result of the persistent labors of those 
botanists who were insistent upon learning how and 
j«rhy the sap can rise to the topmost twig of a tall 
tree, we have come to know that solids dissolved 
in liquids cease to exhibit many of the character- 

istics of solids and take on new and astonishing 
properties which serve to explain many puzzling 
problems. Also, we have learned that there are 
substances which seem to lie on the border line be- 
tween solids and liquids; these have been called 
colloids. A solid dissolved in a liquid can be made 
to pass through parchment; a colloid can not, 
though frequently indistinguishable to the eye from 
a true solution. Glue, gelatin, and gum arable are 
common examples of colloids. The importance of 
the colloid state depends, however, on the com- 
paratively recent discovery that by using proper 
methods almost every substance can be caused to 
assume the colloid state. Thus colloid solutions of 
gold, silver, and other metals can be prepared which 
exhibit properties markedly different from the solid 
and liquid forms of the true substance. Careful 
study with the ultra-microscope and in other ways 
has disclosed the fact that the particles composing 
colloid substances are smaller than the wave length 
of light, but larger than molecules, and exhibit 
peculior motions. 

Of the many interesting and peculiar properties 
of colloids, we cannot speak at length from con- 
siderations of space. A few instances of their prac- 
tical importance to mining men must suffice. Com- 
minution is one of the methods by which ordinary 
substances can be made to assume the colloidal state. 
Thus in grinding ore in the process of ore dressing, 
a certain amount of colloid may be formed, accord- 
ing to the method employed. The millman vaguely 
covers this in saying that grinding should be done 
so as to yield a granular product rather than a 
'slime.' 'Slime' is hard to treat because it con- 
sists, in part at least, of colloidal material, and 
the methods adapted to the treatment of solid par- 
ticles are but poorly fitted to deal with colloids. 
The valuable mineral may be reduced to the col- 
loid form, and so lost, or the discrete particles of 
mineral may be entangled in the colloid, like sand 
in glue, and so escape. In hydro-metallurgy the im- 
portance of colloids is even more marked. Cyanide 
metallurgists have devoted much study to this" prob- 
lem, and in this field the influence of colloids is 
better recognized. Here again the difficulty is two- 
fold: the colloid material mechanically interferes 
with the operation of filtering devices, and it also 
holds within itself some dissolved substance which 
no degree of washing will completely remove. This 
is because of a peculiar property of colloids, known 
as adsorption, which enables them to take dissolved 
substances out of solution and retain them with the 
greatest tenacity. Fortunately the colloids formed 
in grinding ordinary gold ores exhibit no marked 
selective tendency to adsorb the double cyanide of 
gold and potassium, so this influence, though per- 
ceptible, is not troublesome. It is not at all improb- 
abl'' *Iiat this property will be marked in the fine 
griading and leaching of copper ores, and we ven- 
ture to prophesy that investigators in the hydro- 
metallurgy of copper will find it necessary to care- 
fully consider this influence which colloids may have 
upon their work. Finally, it is not at all improb- 
able that colloids as well as the phenomena of sur- 
face tension are important in mineral flotation. 



July 19, 1913 

Underestimating the Cost of Milling Plants— I 

By A. Sydney Additon 

Among the remarks commonly heard when sev- 
eral persons are discussing some new milling plant 
are: "I guess it is a good plant, but it cost about 
twice what they expected it to cost," "Yes, the plant 
is finished, but they will have to spend a lot more 
money on it before it is efficient," "Plants always 
cost twice what they are estimated to cost." Or at 
a directors' meeting, when a contemplated structure 
is under discussion and an estimate has been sub- 
mitted, some one will say : "Add 75% to that amount 
and you will come close to the actual cost, is my 
experience. ' ' 

Causes of Underestimating 

Why is this and why are such ideas prevalent? 
Often, of course, persons making such remarks are 
speaking without knowledge, but too often the ob- 
servations are true. Why should it ever happen that 
a plant estimated to cost $100,000 should cost 
$150,000? Misrepresentation, bad management, in- 
competency, ignorance, lack of technical advice, 
crooked business, and graft, are given as the reasons, 
and some or all of these may be assumed to cover the 
case. What is meant by such reasons, and how each 
of them acts to the end, is not as a rule clearly under- 
stood, as they are given off-hand, with but seldom any 
inquiry beyond. They are general reasons and, as 
general reasons, are largely true. They would be 
reasons for failure in any business enterprise. Ex- 
actly what happens to cause the cost of a given 
structure to exceed original estimate is not com- 
monly clear. 

For elucidating this point and supplying data 
which may aid engineers and managers to escape 
falling into the clutches of the underestimated cost 
bugaboo, I have studied the matter in considerable 
detail, and some of the results of this investigation 
follow. The discussion is confined wholly to mills 
and milling operations, and it is assumed that the 
mine work in each case is satisfactory and in no way 
affects the topic under discussion. At one property 
I visited, a new stamp-mill and cyanide plant had 
recently been constructed and were running smooth- 
ly and giving satisfactory results. The arrange- 
ment of certain parts of the equipment being pe- 
culiar and differing from the usual practice, led me 
to inquire the reason. This question brought out 
the history of the construction of this plant, which 
had cost 41% more than the original estimate sub- 
mitted to the directors of the company at the time 
they voted to build. This history, while by no means 
unusual, throws much light on our inquiry. 

History of One Undertaking 

To begin at the beginning, this property was 
owned by a group of clever, conservative, well-to-do 
business and professional men, all of whom believed 
in doing well and thoroughly everything they 
undertook to do. They all realized that it cost 
money to develop and equip a mine, and were ready 

to meet contingencies. They were the right sort; 
men for whom an engineer or other employee would 
do his best. They had purchased the property in 
an undeveloped state, and immediately started to 
find a competent reliable man to develop it for them 
either into a producing mine or to the point of aban- 
doning the venture. They took their time in making 
a selection of the engineer, realizing the importance 
of this first step, and finally succeeded in securing 
the services of just the man needed. This done, they 
supplied the funds and told him that it was up to 
him to make a mine or advise them to quit. He had 
their entire confidence and was given a free hand. 

Under these favorable conditions the development 
of the property was rapid, the vein was well opened 
and ore found to be of workable grade was blocked 
as fast as developed. The superintendent cautioned 
the company against thinking of a milling plant too 
soon. But after a couple of seasons of this well 
directed development, the time came when the super- 
intendent advised the construction of a plant, re- 
porting at the same time the exact condition of the 
mine and ore reserves. All of this was most pleasing 
to the directors, and much deserved praise was given 
the superintendent. They then instructed him to 
submit to them estimates of the cost of such a plant 
as he considered advisable. 

Machinery Houses 

The superintendent immediately took up the mat- 
ter with three well known machinery dealers, whose 
representatives visited the mine, and, in due course 
of time, each house submitted to him plans, specifica- 
tions, and estimates of cost of the plant that the 
representative decided was best suited to the re- 
quirements. These plans and estimates were gone 
over carefully by the superintendent and some 
of the officials of the company. After many consulta- 
tions and, needless to say, many visits from ma- 
chinery house representatives, lunches at the club, 
and so on, a selection was made, and contracts 
signed. The elation due to the knowledge that they 
had a good, proved mine, well developed, with 
quantities of ore, together with their confidence 
in the superintendent, and the clear understanding 
the 'representative' seemed to have of their needs, 
shut from the view of the officials of the company 
the vision of anything but a successful plant. The 
machinery house furnished working drawings and 
an estimate of the cost of construction. Everything 
was most satisfactory to all concerned. The super- 
intendent rushed the preliminary work, machinery 
was delivered, money paid, and construction soon 
under way. Exit joy, enter gloom. 

In carrying on the construction, according to 
plans, it was found that the labor costs at each 
stage of the work were considerably in excess of 
the estimate given by the machinery house, due to 
conditions, such as the kind of labor available, 
which were not important factors in making the 

July 19, 1913 



estimate. The amount of material that had to be 
purchased during the construction was also surpris- 
ing; not equipment, but all sorts of miscellaneous 
items, such as iron, lumber, nails, hose, wheelbar- 
rows, track, and tools, besides material and equip- 
ment for an incline with which to handle the ma- 
chinery to its proper site. All of these things made 
quite an additional amount of money necessary. 
As the plant neared completion, a metallurgist was 
employed to be its superintendent, and a crew was 
selected. All was ready and started, everything 
seemed to go smoothly, and all hands were jubilant. 
The added cost for labor and material during con- 
struction was forgotten. The next day the local 
newspaper announced that "The new up-to-date 
milling plant of the • • • Mining Company 
was put into commission yesterday, and its oper- 
ation was found to be perfect from the start. This 
plant has a capacity • • •," etc. I might here 
note that the metallurgist who had been employed 
as mill superintendent was not entirely satisfied 
with certain parts of the plant, but said nothing, 
as he needed the job and knew that it would work 
itself out. 

Ore-Bin Difficulties 

At the end of the second day the mine foreman 
reported that he could not put the amount of ore 
into the bin that he was instructed to deliver each 
day. The mill superintendent was questioned, and 
during the succeeding days he tried in every way 
possible to increase the capacity. Finally, at the 
end of two weeks, it was decided that the maximum 
had been reached, 30% less than what the plant 
was designed to do. The first blockade was at the 
regrinding mill, after the battery. The machinery 
house was appealed to and sent a man up to in- 
vestigate, one who was able to sell machinery. First 
an attempt was made to make a second classifica- 
tion below the battery, so as to send a portion of 
the oversize to the tube-mill direct, with the idea 
of relieving the regrinding machine. This meant 
telegraphing for another cone to be sent by express. 
(Yes, it happened that there was sufficient height 
to get this in.) 

Changes in the Mill 

After the necessary tearing out of frames, and 
making of launder and plumbing connections, the 
cone was tried, but proved of but little help, and 
the amount of water added to the pulp in trying 
to separate a product for the tube-mill from the 
flow that should have gone to the regrinder was 
not small. It was clearly 'up to' the regrinder, 
and the man was forced to admit, not that the 
machine was not doing work up to its rated capac- 
ity, but that a much larger amount of pulp was 
going to it than was expected when the plant was 
designed. The ore was harder than had been real- 
ized, and too small an amount was crushed fine in 
the battery. Nothing for it but another regrinder. 
"Too bad, but one cannot always tell how ore is 
going to crush." The regrinder was ordered at 
once by wire from the East. Meanwhile, the plant 
was to be operated at the limited capacity. The 
crew must necessarily remain the same, hence the 

cost of milling was increased 437o, amounting to 
$1827 per month, or $4575 for the 75 days before 
this new mill could be received and installed. 

Fortunately, the superintendent inquired about 
the power necessary for this new mill and found 
that the motor which was driving the present re- 
grinder, and some other equipment, was already 
fully loaded. Either a separate motor must be 
put in for the new mill, or the present one taken out 
and a larger one put in its place. The latter course 
was adopted, and by the time the new mill arrived, 
the new motor was installed on a new foundation 
with new transmission arrangements. The only 
place that this new regrinder could be placed was 
outside of the building, so it was necessary to re- 
move a portion of the wall, make an excavation, 
build a lean-to addition to the building, put in foun- 
dation, and increase and alter the water service. On 
account of the distance that this placed the mill 
from the discharge of cones, the launders had to 
be reconstructed and the second cone thrown out. 

Tajik Changes 

While running at the reduced capacity, waiting 
for the new regrinder, something went wrong with 
the vacuum pump, and it became necessary to stop 
the filter for a day to repair the pump. When the 
filter stopped, everything had to be shut down, all 
the way to the top of the mill, as no pulp-storage 
ttinks had been provided. To provide against such 
delays in the future, two pulp-storage tanks, fitted 
with agitation appliances, were ordered at once and 
installed. In placing these tanks after the agita- 
tors, there was, of course, insufficient head room 
between the discharge of the agitator and the top 
of the settlers, hence it was necessary to provide a 
centrifugal pump to lift the stored pulp to the 
required height. There being no room in the build- 
ing, or on the grades, for these large tanks, it was 
necessary to make a special excavation beside the 
building and build a retaining wall and founda- 
tion. This work was not foreseen at the time the 
material for the alterations to accommodate the 
new regrinder were ordered, consequently another 
less-than-carload order of cement and lumber was 
placed. A new motor for the agitators, altera- 
tions in plumbing, electric wiring for power and 
lighting, gangways, steps, and walks were all nec- 

Additional Equipment 

When the new regrinder was installed, the capac- 
ity was run up to that originally proposed without 
difficulty. The classifier was the next point of 
trouble. It had not been handling the product quite 
as satisfactorily as desired, but now that the added 
load was put upon it, it became literally buried. 
It was not suited to the work and had not suffi- 
cient capacity. The question of adding another or 
throwing it out and putting in one of different 
design was decided in favor of the latter. This 
was ordered and installed. Meantime the plant was 
again being operated at limited capacity. The new 
installation involved, of course, another lot of alter- 
ations to power, lighting, water, and launder serv- 
ice. At this time the metallurgist in charge of the 



July 19, 1913 

mill determined that a good extraction could not 
be maintained if the time of agitation were short- 
ened. With the capacity of the plant increased, 
this would be necessary, unless another agitator was 
added to those in use. (Note that the metallurgist 
had been employed at the time the plant was ready 
to run, but had been given no chance to determine 
such points in advance.) So in order to avoid fur- 
ther disappointment and delay, an additional agita- 
tor was wired for. This required an additional 
amount of air, which the compressor could not de- 
liver. A new compressor was therefore ordered, 
with a new motor to drive it. All of this called 
for a deep excavation for the new agitator, addi- 
tions to the building, a retaining wall and founda- 
tions for agitator, compressor, and motor, and also 
alterations in the air, water, and lighting service, 
and in gangways and walks. More less-than-carload^ 
freight shipments, and an additional 30 days' oper- 
ation of the mill at limited capacity were necessary. 

Precipitation Department 

The precipitation department was nearly efficient. 
Clarifying tanks had been installed to save the cost 
of a clarifying press, and the results secured were, 
however, more or less unsatisfactory. This led to 
the purchase and installation of a press for the 
purpose. I understand that the metallurgical com- 
pany that supplied this precipitating plant will not 
now guarantee satisfactory results unless a clarify- 
ing press is used. This is good, and will save added 
costs in this department. The amount of solution 
to be handled in the plant had been greatly under- 
estimated, if estimated at all, and when the plant 
was brought up to its capacity this was keenly felt. 
In fact, it so handicapped the cyanide department 
that four additional tanks were installed to give 
sufficient storage capacity. This also necessitated 
another pump and a pipe-line to storage tanks at 
top of plant, and called for additional alterations 
in the power service and circulating system. 

After all these alterations had been made, the 
increased tax upon the power service necessitated 
the purchase of a transformer. Other smaller items 
that had also to be supplied were : laboratory equip- 
ment, report and testing-room fittings and tools, 
and utensils and appliances for use of the crew. All 
of this was not done as easily and simply as it 
reads, as the reader will know from experience, but 
days were spent trying to make parts do their duty, 
scheming to overcome troubles, telegraphing for 
prices, and placing the stock. Also much loss of time, 
grief during the making of alterations, and losses 
of material which cannot be easily estimated. After 
four and a half months — which, by the way, was 
a short time, considering the various troubles, the 
plant was at last ready to handle its estimated ca- 
pacity in an efficient manner. The additional cost 
over and above the original estimate was $49,519. 
This total was made up of the following items : 

Additional labor for construction made as per plans. $6,732 

Additional cost of material as per plans 5,270 

Additional freight and hauling of this material 904 

Cost of supplies used during construction 2,240 

Equipment, material, and labor for necessary acces- 
sories 2,185 

Equipment, material, and labor for surface incline. . 1,373 

Purchase and installation of cone classifier, with its 
attendant costs, and subsequent tearing out of 
same 180 

Purchase and installation of new re-grinder, includ- 
ing excavations, building, foundations, and al- 
terations 3,690 

Purchase and installation of new motor, on account 
of additional power required for re-grinder, 
foundations, and alterations 620 

Purchase and installation of pulp-storage tanks, in- 
cluding pump, motor, pipe and fittings, excava- 
tions, building, foundations, and alterations 2,420 

Purchase and installation of new classifier. Includ- 
ing removal of old one, foundations, and al- 
terations 980 

Purchase and installation of new compressor and 
excavations, building, foundations, and altera- 
tions 1,010 

Purchase and installation of new compressor and 

motor, including foundations and alterations... 1,440 

Purchase and installation of clarifying press, includ- 
ing foundations and alterations 2,860 

Purchase and installation of additional solution 
tanks, pump, and pipe-line, including excava- 

Purchase and installation of new transformer 

Purchase and installation of laboratory equipment, 
tools, and appliances 

Freight and hauling on above new equipment and 

Added cost of operating expense for 414 months, 
due to limited capacity 




. 8,540 


The difference between this amount and the actual 
added cost, as noted above, or $3560, wa^ made up 
of miscellaneous items of which no detailed account 
was kept, such as: telegraphing, express charges, 
traveling expenses, added office expenses, and ex- 
perimenting. There should also be added the loss 
of the use of the money not produced, due to the 
30% curtailment of the output for the four months 
and a half. 

Total Cost 

The total cost, then, was about 41% greater than 
the original estimate. This does not necessarily 
mean that the plant cost 41% more than it should 
have cost, but 41% more than the amount of money 
the company was advised it would cost and had 
arranged to have on hand to pay. It is quite an- 
noying for a board of directors to be obliged to 
notify the stockholders every 30 days that more 
money is needed for construction work and at the 
end to realize that they have spent 41% more than 
they said they would. In this particular case there 
was no further embarrassment after the first call 
for additional money, as the profits from the oper- 
ations at limited capacity amply covered the added 
cost. This good fortune does not, however, alter 
the seriousness of the underestimate, as many times 
this would not be the case. It may be added that 
where the excess cost is paid out of profits made 
during the operation of the inefficient plant, less 
attention is paid to the fact that excess cost was 
incurred, thus helping to keep it from public notice. 
But at the same time it indicates the underlying 
reason for the remark of a director, given above: 
"Add 75% to that amount and you will come close 
to actual cost, is my experience." 

July 19, 1913 



Cause of the Trouble 

Having gone over the chief details of the history 
of this plant, the question at once presents itself, 
where did 'gloom' first enter? What was the cause 
of all this trouble? The answer is easy, and I only 
fear my inability to state it strongly enough to 
make the facts clearly understood and appreciated. 
The first error was made when the superintendent 
went to machinery dealers to buy a plant, instead 
of taking to them a complete set of specifications 
of what was wanted and asking them for bids. The 
point is this: When a buyer goes to a machinery 
house and tells them that he wants a first-class mill- 
ing plant, of a certain daily capacity, giving them 
all the details possible of treatment required, the 
machinery dealer will prepare a set of plans and 
specifications, including as little equipment as will 
assemble to the appearance of a plant of the capac- 
itj' desired. The buyer generally expects the dealer 
to put in every sort of thing possible in order to 
make the sale greater. As a matter of fact, they 
cut out everything they can possibly omit in order 
to quote as low a price as possible so as to get 
the order. You might buy the plant somewhere 
else, or not at all, if the price seems too high, but 
once you buy and install what they have specified, 
you will have to buy what the plant lacks later; 
their whole aim being to 'land' your order. They 
have no responsibilitj- in the matter beyond supply- 
ing first-class specified equipment. They are not sell- 
ing you a plant guaranteed to handle so many tons 
of your ore per day, making a certain percentage 
of recovery or profit, but they are simply selling a 
.specified list of equipment. All efficiency and ca- 
pacity statements are made by 'selling' engineers, 
or trade catalogues, and the firm's authorized sig- 
nature will not be found signed to anything in 
the way of a guarantee, except the contract to sell 
certain specified machinery (of first-class workman- 
ship and design) at a certain price and upon cer- 
tain terms. Their principal concern is to leave out 
enough items to enable them to make their price 
lower than the other bidders, and at the same time 
specify enough to make the proposal look like com- 
plete equipment to the purchaser. There is a happy 
medium here which must be struck, and the expert- 
ness with which a machine salesman can do this 
measures his worth to his firm. 

Position of Machinery Houses 

It might be thought that the machinery business 
would be injured by such methods, but they all do 
it, and, no matter how conscientious a firm desires 
to be, they know that other firms will proceed in 
this way, and therefore they must, or not expect 
to secure the business. In the second place, it is 
easy enough to slide out of any responsibility not 
really a.ssumed, cover their designs or intentions, 
and actually make the purchaser their friend by 
ready and willing assistance in securing the addi- 
tional equipment needed. Persons who buy plants 
in this way rarely buy more than one, in any case. 
In the case under consideration, when it Was found 
that the regrinding mill had not sufficient capacity, 
the claim that the ore did not crush as easily as 

expected seemed plausible as well as probable. 
Placing the Blame 

Was it the fault of the superintendent? No. not 
exactly. When this man was employed, he was 
secured as the best man obtainable to develop the 
mine. He was not supposed to be a metallurgical 
engineer, and his knowledge along this line was 
superficial. He had not spent his life in designing 
and constructing milling plants, but in finding and 
developing ore. When it came time to build the 
plant, everyone was jubilant over success ; this man 
had made good. The building of the mill did not 
appear to be anything to 'stump' him, especially 
when all the machinery houses were ready to help 
with advice and experience. The fault was with 
the directors of the company in not being as careful 
in beginning the milling business as they had been 
in starting the mining business. Had they had 
plans, specifications, and estimates carefully pre- 
pared by an experienced metallurgical engineer, no 
such annoyance would have occurred, no time would 
have been lost after installation, and the completed 
plant would have cost much less than the excess 
cost of the present one. 


Some of my readers will doubtless think I am 
trying to score the machinery dealers, but this is 
not the case. Machinery dealers are the friends 
of mining operators and especially of metallurgical 
engineers; from them the engineer secures quanti- 
ties of data and much assistance. Were they not 
friendly with each oth6r, and did they not work to- 
gether, supplying each other with information based 
on experience and practice, it would be indeed dif- 
ficult to prepare a correct estimate of a piece of 
work. I have merely given the history of this par- 
ticular mill as an example of one way in which 
excess cost occurs, and have stated the reasons given 
because they are true and, if personally understood, 
reflect in no way upon machinery dealers. I do not 
wish to be understood as blaming the machinery 
houses for methods they are plainly forced to adopt, 
but I certainly would be glad to see conditions 
changed so that such methods need not be pursued. 
Machinery houses much prefer to tender a bid on 
a full set of specifications rather than to deal with 
buyers as in the above case. When specifications 
are prepared, really competitive bids can be se- 
cured, the machinery houses are saved much un- 
necessary expense, and everybody is better pleased. 
A machinery dealer prefers to stick to his own busi- 
ness, that of manufacturing and selling machinery. 
Going to a machinery house to buy a milling plant, 
as in the case cited, is like going to a sawmill to 
buy a house. Submit specifications to the dealer 
and ask him his price in either case, thus doing 
away with the conditions which force him to do 
business in the manner described above. I suppose 
the time for this will never come, but if every ma- 
chinery house would refuse to bid on a milling plant 
without having the buyer's own specifications to 
go by, this cause for excess cost would be elimi- 



July 19. 1913 

The Symmes Agitator 

By Whitman Symmes 

In sequence of the article by Jay C. Carpenter in 
the Mining and Scientific Press of May 3, it may be 
of further interest to metallurgists to have a de- 
scription of my solution of the flat-bottom agitator 
problem. The results which Mr. Carpenter obtained 
are excellent, and quite remarkable. But in the 
operation of the Trent agitators at the West End 
mill, he was dealing with a much simpler ore than 
that being cyanided in the Mexican mill. This ore 
contains heavy lead, zinc, and iron sulphides, and 
treating without concentration, a much stronger 
agitation than that described by Mr. Carpenter is 
required, both for the solution of the silver and gold, 
and keeping the ore in suspension. For example, 
when Trent agitators were in the Mexican mill, it 
was impossible to start them, when they got stuck, 

treated. An arrangement of Pachuca agitators, 
transferring to the Dorr thickeners, and receiving 
pulp from them, would have been inconvenient, be- 
cause of the different elevations of the agitators 
and thickeners respectively. Therefore, it was de- 
sired to retain the flat-bottom vats, for metal- 
lurgical reasons as well as for economy in the 
alterations. At that time, the Dorr agitator was not 
upon the market. I knew of no agitator which 
v/ould meet our requirements; and so it became 
necessary to devise one. 

A Perfect Agitator 

A perfect agitator should be capable of giving as 
strong or as weak agitation and aeration as any 
pulp requires : it should have no wearing parts in 


by the simple expedient of forcibly reversing the 
arms, as described by Mr. Carpenter. Indeed, the 
ore packed so solidly in the bottom of the vat, 
that the arms could not be made to clear themselves, 
even when the vat was emptied to within a few 
feet of the bottom, and men took hold of the arms 
and attempted to move them. Collars were alwaj's 
fixed to prevent the arms from rising, and conse- 
quently there was no trouble from that source such 
as Mr. Carpenter describes. At first there were 
steam coils in the vats, but scales of baked clay, 
from the crust formed on the pipes, would choke 
the nozzles, and consequently live steam had to be 
substituted for heating. I do not think that anyone 
could have given the Trent agitators a fairer trial 
for continuous agitation of the Mexican ore, than 
they received under the supervision of the mill su- 
perintendent, Charles R. Morris. Mr. Carpenter 
does not refer to any device, or to any method which 
was not tried there. The time lost in the mill, due 
to the Trent agitators, was in hours as follows: 
March, 1912, 28.6 ; April, 57.5 ; and May, 46.8. 

In the Mexican mill it was necessary to change 
solution during the cyanide process, on account of 
the high tenor and baseness of the pulp being 

the pulp itself; it should not be subject to inter- 
ference or injury by settlement or packing of the 
pulp ; and all parts should be readily accessible from 
the outside of the vat. To meet these conditions 
for a flat-bottom vat, I devised a machine consisting 
of a number of air-lifts, flexibly suspended from a 
horizontal revolving arm. In the Mexican mill these 
are supported from an arm on a standard, fixed im- 
movably in the centre of the vat, and oi^ account of 
the space available beneath each vat. the driving 
gear was placed there. The revolving arm could 
just as easily be suspended and driven from above, 
if the vats had been resting on the ground, and de- 
signed for operating by that method, if required. 
The agitator can be easily understood from the 
illustrations. The only parts beneath the pulp 
that require any attention are the air nozzles. These 
are protected with rubber sleeves, as in a Pachuca. 
to prevent a flow of pulp into the air-pipe, when 
the air-supply is interrupted. The air-lift tubes hang 
from the revolving arm by means of chains, and are 
so balanced as to remain vertical when the arm re- 
volves, wfeich in the Mexican mill is at the rate of 
1.5 r.p.m. Air is supplied to each tube by a hose, 
connected with a pipe-union above the pulp. In the 

July 19, 1913 



event that the pulp becomes packed on the bottom 
of the vat, the air-lifts will drag, and cut their way 
down through it. A rod, rising from each tube, in- 
dicates whether the tube is in a vertical position, or 
is dragging. If power should be off for a long time, 
the air-lift tubes can be raised by means of the 
chains, and then, by being lowered a few links at a 
time, will cut their way down to their normal posi- 
tion near the bottom of the vat. For agitating a 
vat while it is being filled or discharged, when the 
air-lifts are unable to operate, a second air-pipe can 
be carried down alongside of each air-lift, and air 



may thus be blown into the partly filled vat, but in 
the Mexican mill the continuous system of agita- 
tion is in use, and these extra pipes are not needed. 
The amount of compressed air used by each air- 
lift is regulated by means of a needle-valve above 
the connection, and for this purpose the attendant 
can walk along the trussed beam while it is revolv- 
ing. The suspended air-lifts can be easily lifted out 
of the vat for inspection, by merely disconnecting 
the air at the union, and then lifting the chains 
off the hooks. There are no flange connections be- 
low the level of the pulp, to be cut by action of the 
moving pulp, and thus made to leak, as in the Trent 
and some other types of agitators. There are no 
valves necessary to hold the pulp in the vat, while 
making repairs to pumps or pipe-lines, and which 
valves, having been cut by the moving pulp, are 
generally found to leak badly. There are no pumps 
to pack and to repair. 

The Agitator at the Mexican Mill 

The first agitator of the above description started 
operation in the Mexican mill on August 30, and the 
second and third were started on November 20, 
1912. They are still in operation, and the crushing 
and grinding department of the mill has never lost 
any time on their account. They have never been 
shut down except when the power was off, or when 
the air-lifts have been lifted out to inspect th^ con- 
dition of the rubber sleeves, which is done about once 
a month. They have never required any repairs 
whatsoever, excepting new rubber sleeves. When 
the first agitator was substituted for the Trent, its 
superior agitating power was at once apparent. 
No. 1 Trent had been filled with pulp sampling about 

$12, and discharging it at $6 per ton. The new 
agitator took the pulp at $12, and discharged it at 
$4. The following figures show the improved ex- 
traction, other conditions being the same in both 



June 1912 

July 1912 2.01 

August 1912 1.64 

Stmmes Agitators 

March 1913. 
April 1913. 
May 1913. 

. $1.67 
. 1.01 
. 1.30 

Further extrac- 
tion possible 
by agitation. 

Further extrac- 
tion possible 
by agitation. 

The undissolved metal of value is practically all 

Details of the Agitator 

The agitator tanks are 24 ft. diam. by 14 ft. deep. 
The power consumed by each of the three Trent 
agitators, for the pumps alone, averaged 6.31 hp. 
The power consumed in turning the revolving arms 
of each of the new agitators is less than 0.5 hp., 
and the compressed air used is equivalent to about 
4.5 hp. at the motor which drives the compressor. 
The latter is a Sullivan, 18 in. diam. by 12-in. stroks, 
built without a water-jacket, and supplying air at 
12 lb. pressure. It is operated at a speed of 93 r.p.m., 
and supplies all the compressed air used in the mill, 
for operating three air-lifts, a 16-ft. Oliver filter, the 
three new agitators, and a No. 525 Steel-Harvey 
crucible furnace. The compressed air consumed by 
the agitators, measured by an Excelsior air meter, is 


as follows: pulp, 1 ore to 2 solution, with air 8, 12, 
and 15 lb. pressure, consumed 29, 80, and 94 cu. ft. 
respectively, while with 1 ore to 2V2 solution, with 
same air pres.sure, consumed 30, 74, and 89 cu. ft. 
respectively. The agitators are ordinarily working 
with air at 12 lb. pressure or less, and their average 
consumption is 60 to 70 cu. ft. of free air per minute. 
The amount of air required depends upon the vio- 
lence of the agitation which the pulp demands, in 
order to obtain a complete extraction, and does not 
depend upon the agitator itself. In one test the 



July 19, 1913 

pulp was thinned to 1 ore to Sy^ solution, and agi- 
tated with only 17 eu. ft. of free air per minute at 
8 lb. pressure, without there being any settlement 
of the pulp to the bottom of the vat. No difference 
was noticed in the operation of the agitator when 
the melting furnace was drawing upon the air sup- 
ply, and probably they could be operated with less 
air than at present. The agitators require less at- 
tention than any other machinery in the Mexican 
mill, and except for a slight alteration of the 
piping, which has since been devised, they appear to 
be as near perfect as it is worth while trying to get. 
The power has been off for 5 hr. 40 min., and they 
started without any trouble. It has never as yet been 
necessary to raise or lower the air-lifts in order to 
have them cut their way back to the bottom of the 
vat, and as the indicating rods have not been of 
any particular use, it is doubtful if they are really 
necessary. After stoppage, the air-lifts seem to start 
the agitation by dragging and by cutting their way 
by means of the induced flow. They appear to be 
better than the Dorr agitator, in that they have no 
rakes to be buried in the pulp. I infer this from 
the similarity of the Dorr agitator to the Dorr thick- 
ener, and know that, in the latter, the spider can 
be broken by settlement of the pulp, owing to lack 
of attention. Furthermore, our agitators make use 
of the full capacity of the vat. I believe that they 
are in every way as good as Pachucas, with the ad- 
ditional advantages of a less first cost, of an abso- 
lute freedom from interruptions of the agitation, and 
the possibility of a cheaper and more convenient 
arrangement in connection with the now almost uni- 
versally used Dorr thickeners. 

Section 10 of the Mines Act of 1907, of Victoria, 
Australia, provides that any water or sludge pro- 
duced from or consequent to any mining operations, 
and discharged into any watercourse, lake, or 
reservoir, shall be deemed to pollute or injure the 
same if such water or sludge, at the point where 
it leaves any claim or any land comprised in a 
lease, or any land used in connection with any such 
mining operations, by or in any respect under the 
control of the person carrying on the same — (a) con- 
tains any poisonous matter in the total proportion 
of more than 50 gr. to 1 gal., or any noxious mat- 
ter in such quantity as to be injurious or detrimen- 
tal to the public health ; or, (&) holds in suspension 
or solution any earth or mineral, or any earthy or 
mineral substance in the total proportion of more 
than 800 gr. to 1 gal. A watercourse includes river, 
stream, watercourse, waterway, creek, or gulch, and 
in each case whether water flows therein perennially 
or intermittently. 

The Buffalo Star dredge. Bright district, Victoria, 
Australia, handled 377,519 cu. yd. of gravel in 1912 
yielding about $42,000 in gold. This was from a 
depth of 331/) ft. The company has re-soiled about 
2330 sq. yd., about % acre of dredged ground, by 
carting soil from ahead of the dredge and spread- 
ing it from 15 to 18 in. deep on the tailing from 
the dredge. In December last the oat crop was 
4 ft. high, cutting equal to two tons of hay per 
acre, or 60 bushels if thrashed. 

Diamonds and Other Gems Mined in the 
United States 

Gems and precious stones were produced in the 
United States in 1912 to the value of $319,722, ac- 
cording to Douglas B. Sterrett, of the United States 
Geological Survey. The kinds of precious stones 
found in the United States are many, ranging from 
diamonds of fine quality to low-grade stones such 
as agates, but, as is seen from the total value of 
the output, there are no really large operations. 

The principal gem mineral mined in the United 
States during 1912 was Montana sapphire, of which 
there was a large output for use both as gems and 
in mechanical applications. The greater part of 
the gem sapphires came from the mines in Fergus 
county, where they occur in a rock matrix. The 
majority of these stones have the true sapphire-blue 
color. The bulk of the sapphire for mechanical use 
came from the placer deposits in Granite and Deer 
Lodge counties and consists of varicolored stones. 

The development of the opal deposits of Hum- 
boldt county, Nevada, was attended with much suc- 
cess, and a quantity of magnificent gem material 
was obtained. The opal is of an unusual type, con- 
sisting of dark translucent mineral with a variety 
of rich colors. The deposits promise to supply a 
gem equal if not superior in beauty to the opal 
from Australia. 

Prospecting and mining at the emerald mine in 
North Carolina were attended with only partial suc- 
cess. Two pockets or deposits of emerald were re- 
moved during the year; other developments con- 
sisted mainly of exploratory work, which has con- 
tinued into 1913. 

The tourmaline output of southern Cailfomia was 
small, but some magnificent specimen crystals were 
obtained. Especially fine gem crystals of kunzite 
were found and brought good prices. The produc- 
tion of turquoise was very small compared with 
some previous years. Beautiful amethyst was found 
in Warren county, North Carolina, and some fine 
gems have been cut from sample crystals. A few 
fine specimens of golden beryl were obtained from 
prospects in Alexander county, North Carolina. 
Beautiful gems were cut from some of these. The 
production of agate and associated varieties of chal- 
cedony was again large in several Western states. 

No great advances are reported in diamond min- 
ing in Arkansas during 1912. 

Several dozen diamonds were found and several 
diamond-washing plants were constructed for oper- 
ation in 1913. 

It has been practically impossible to determine 
the quantity and value of the diamonds found in 
the Arkansas field since the first discovery in Au- 
gust 1906. Most of the stones are still held by the 
mining companies and few have been sold. It is 
estimated from the figures furnished the Survey and 
from reports in the press and those furnished by 
private persons that about 1400 diamonds, weighing 
nearly 550 carats, have been found from August 
1906 through December 1912. The total estimated 
value placed on this oiitput in these reports amounts 
to $12,108. 


July 19, 1913 



Geology of the Kalgoorlie Goldfield— II 

By Malcolm Maclaren and J. Allen Thomson 

General Geology and Geological History 

The area here briefly described lies between the 
121st and 122nd meridians of east longitude, and 
between 30° 30' and 31° 05' 18" south latitude, be- 
ing approximately 40 by 59 miles and containing 
2375 square miles. A general grouping of the rocks 
and deposits of the region may be made, in order 
of increasing age, as follows: 

^ rVe Ciamlsruin 

• • Grantfe 
A Basaltic rocIcA 

nrm o -• CoroonitierouK 
w Crrtaceoua 


(a) R*cent and Pleistocene : 

Drift sand, salt and gypsum (kopai) beds, 
calcareous cements, laterite (ironstone), kao- 
lin clay ('pug'), magnesite deposits, alluvial 
'wash', and valley and lake deposits in gen- 

(b) Pre-Cambrian : 

1. Younger granite and quartz-porphyry. 

2. (a) Younger Greenstones: serpentine, talc- 

schist, gabbroid rocks, coarse am- 
phibolite, epidiorite, quartz-dolerite 
(b) Porphyrite and felspar-porphyry. 

3. Sedimentary Beds : shale, chert, quartzite, 

and conglomerate. 

4. Older Greenstones: fine-grained amphibo- 

lite, calc-schists. 

5. Gneissic granite (not as yet known in the 

From the foregoing it will be apparent that there 
are essentially two rock groups: (a) a pre-Cambrian 
rock complex; (6) the denudation under desert con- 

ditions of that rock complex. The former is of 
chief concern. 

A small-scale map of Western Australia would 
show the rocks of the area in question as a com- 
paratively narrow band of greenstones, striking 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. in a wide area of granite. The band 
is widest from Coolgardie through Kalgoorlie to 
Kurnalpi, a distance of 75 miles; to the north and 
south there is an appreciable diminution in width, 
the greenstones indeed bifurcating northward (north 
of Broad Arrow) into two big narrow parallel belts. 
These changes are not, however, appreciable with- 
in the area here discussed, which indeed is almost 
entirely occupied by the greenstone complex, and 
shows only small areas of the enclosing granite near 
Coolgardie on the west, near Black Flag on the 
north, and at Juglah on the east. East and west 
of the area the granite outcrops for many miles. 

Dealing then with the greenstone complex, the 
known rocks may be separated into three main 
groups: Older Greenstones; Sedimentary Beds; and 
Younger Greenstones, with which are associated 
porphyrite and porphyry dikes. The internal re- 
lations of these are naturally exceedingly obscure 
on the amount of mapping done, and it is certain 
that more detailed work would effect considerable 
local modifications. 

Older Greenstones 

The Older Greenstones together with the ancient 
sedimentary beds occupy the major portion of the 
area. The former are mainly fine-grained amphib- 
olites, with allied or more probably derivative 
rocks generically termed calc-schists. Both names 
have only a general significance and give no clue 
to the original character of the rocks; an amphibo- 
lite is merely a hornblende-bearing rock and a calc- 
schist an indefinite rock characterized by abund- 
ance of secondary carbonates, as dolomite and sider- 
ite. They form in the field low, long, and broken 
ridges, which yield low swelling knolls, a physi- 
ographical form fairly characteristic of these rocks. 
Their weathering yields a talus of small rectangu- 
lar fragments, which break with an approach to 
conchoidal fracture. P\iture more detailed mapping 
should reduce the area allotted to the Older Green- 
stones, since they have been utilized to embrace all 
doubtful or insufficiently examined rocks; they will 
in their reduction yield nothing to the sedimentary 
beds, but a great deal to the Younger Greenstones. 
Little may be said concerning the original nature 
of the rocks grouped as Older Greenstones; they 
may have been tuffs and ashes, or they may have 
been lava flows. It seems reasonable to regard 
them as representing alternations of lavas and 
ashes, the former furnishing the fine-grained am- 
phibolitcs, the latter the calc-schists. The Older 
Greenstones are perhaps most typically developed 
in the great bands east of Kalgoorlie, for the l)road 
western band at Coolgardie has been so altered by 



July 19, 1913 

the intrusion of the younger granite that it has 
lost many of the characters of the original zoisite- 
amphibolite (a hornblende rock characterized by 
the presence of the mineral zoisite). 

Sedimentary Beds 

In the absence of direct evidence of the nature 
of the Older Greenstones it is impossible in a time 
classification to separate from them the ancient in- 
dubitably sedimentary rocks of the area. The lat- 
ter present a normal cycle of sedimentation rang- 
ing from coarse conglomerates to fine muds. They 
are best developed in the neighborhood of and to 
the south of Kurrawang; they will therefore hence- 
forth be collectively termed the Kurrawang series. 
Between Coolgardie and Kalgoorlie the sedimentary 
beds are eleven miles broad across their strike ; they 
run north-northwest across the low ground of the 
Kurrawang lakes, and pass some distance west of 
Black Flag. To the south they are lost in low lake 
country, and do not appear to pass beyond the great 
Mt. Monger thrust plane. 

The series is well exposed in a long line of so- 
called 'breakaways' that lie on the edge of the 
'lake' bed about two miles south of the main Kal- 
goorlie-Coolgardie road between Binduli and Kurra- 
wang. The sediments remain above the lowest sur- 
face levels only with difficulty and only when they 
have been strengthened by ribs of conglomerate or 
by dikes of intrusive acid rock; the finer-grained 
rocks are therefore rarely seen and are ordinarily 
covered by lake deposits and by wind-blown sand. 
The conglomerates or 'boulder beds'- — the latter is 
the better appellation — are only sporadically distrib- 
uted through the sediments, and their appearance 
is reminiscent of the scattered beds of conglomerate 
of a great river valley, as that of the Brahmaputra, 
the individual beds being thin and soon running out 
to a feather edge. Their greatest development is 
in the high ground immediately southeast of Kur- 
rawang, where they occupy the ridges and run as 
far south as Red lake. On the same strike they 
reappear to the north of the broad low Kurrawang 
valley in the ridges immediately west of the Black 
Flag lake. They are here and near Kurrawang com- 
posed chiefly of pebbles of quartz, quartzite(?), jas- 
peroid rocks (often banded), and albite-porphyry, 
all being sparsely distributed in a schistose fels- 
pathie matrix. The individual pebbles are often so 
sheared that they show a succession of minute step- 
faults: where the pressure has been less severe they 
are generally deformed. They thus conform to the 
general type of Archean conglomerates in their 
scanty distribution through a schisted felspathic 
and often chloritic matrix. They have, therefore, 
been claimed by glacialists as products of ice action ; 
but there is nothing in their distribution or in 
their internal characters that cannot be better ex- 
plained by invoking the assistance of large tropical 
rivers, such as the Irawadi and the Brahmaputra 
of the present day. 

Minor Areas 

The grits associated with the conglomerates are 
ordinarily felspathic and come therefore under the 
old definition of greywacke. Occasional flakes of 

biotite with derivative chlorite are also found. The 
general arrangement of the quartz and felspar is 
indicative of strong shearing. 

In addition to the broad Kurrawang area of sedi- 
ments, three others of minor importance and much 
more ill-defined are known. Their position may 
often be traced only by the valleys that result from 
the lack of resistance offered by these rocks to the 
agents of denudation. They are all east of Kalgoor- 
lie, the first lying in the long valley that runs down 
to Hannan's lake along the eastern slope of the Kal- 
goorlie ridge. This valley was largely used as a 
source of salt-water supply before fresh water was 
brought to the goldfield from the coast, and several 
water-shafts are scattered along its length. Their* 
dumps furnish no information, and the only good 
exposure is in the Phoenix quarry, north of 
Hannan's brewery. Even here the rocks have been 
so crushed and altered that a sedimentary origin 
cannot be postulated for them with certainty, and 
the valley has, as a matter of fact, been mapped 
as a sedimentary area largely by comparison of 
its weathering products with those of the undoubted 
sediments of the Kurrawang area. 

Much the same would have had to be said for 
the second band of sediments near Kurramia, were 
it not for the fortunate discovery of a small band 
of scattered boulders and pebbles in a cutting on 
the wood line tramway about one and a half miles 
east of Kurramia station. In this area also the 
width of the sediments, about three miles, is indi- 
cated by the width of the flat valley bottom. The 
eastern boundary is extremely indistinct since, and 
especially along the Kalgoorlie-Kanowna road, the 
sedimentary beds appear to join the Kanowna 
sheared-porphyry area, the surface of which also 
tends to sink to valley bottoms. 

Secondary Sediments 

The third area of sediments lies to the northeast. 
Its western boundary appears to lie near Penny's 
Find, about 17V2 miles from Kumalpi. Two miles 
farther east the road passes through a break in a 
low ridge, which, to the south of the road, shows 
beds of conglomerate rising to the top of the ridge. 
The pebbles of this conglomerate are chiefly basic 
amphibolite with banded jasperoid quartz, and are 
thus sharply differentiated from the conglomerate 
bands of the Kurrawang and Kurramia areas. The 
presence of basic amphibolite pebbles naturally 
raises the question of the age of the sedimentary 
beds, and since the amphibolite resembles the rock 
of the Older Greenstone rather than that of the 
Younger Greenstone, it is assumed that the sedi- 
ments are younger than the former, which is un- 
doubtedly the case. 

Younger Greenstones 

Under the general title of Younger Greenstones 
are included several rock species, which are, how- 
ever, regarded as representing successive segrega- 
tions from a single common magma. Their wide 
divergences as well as their close relationship is 
perhaps best indicated by the following table. For 
purposes of description, the intrusive dikes of por- 
phyrite and albite porphyry, though they do not 

July 19, 1913 



strictly come under the heading of 'greenstones,' Kurrawang vaUey to reappear much more clearly 
are included here: defined, both in position and in character, west of 

here : 

Probable original rocli. 
Ultra-basic A. Peridotite 
B. Pyroxenite 
Basic C. Hornblende-dolerite 

D. Gabbro or dolerite 
Sub-basic E. Quartz-gabbro or 



F. Porphyrite 

G. Albite-porphyry 

Now represented in the field by: ' ' ~ 

Serpentine, talc-schist, coarse carbonate rock. 
Coarse hornblende rock. 
Lustre-mottled amphibolite. 

1. Epidiorite with micropegmatite. 

2. Chloritic rock with micropegmatite (quartz-dolerite greenstone) 

3. Bleached and carbonated rock with micropegmatite ('granite'" of the 

miners at Kalgoorlie). 

The younger acid members are found intrusive 
into the intermediate and basic members of the com- 
plex. By far the most important member of the 
series, from an economic point of view, is the quartz- 
dolerite greenstone, so well developed in the Kal- 
goorlie mines, and, in its typically productive form, 
restricted, so far as examination has gone, to that 

Ultra^Basic Rocks 

The ultra-basic rocks have their greatest develop- 
ment in the neighborhood of Bulong. The serpen- 
tine arising from the alteration of the original rock, 
a peridotite, is often indicated, in the absence of 
rock exposures, by the magnesite boulders and frag- 
ments strewn over the surface of the soil. The 
long dike of ultra-basic rock running along the 
Boorara ridge and passing west of the Halfway 
hotel on the Kalgoorlie-Bulong road was thus first 
indicated. Nearer Kalgoorlie ultra-basic rocks oc- 
cur in the north end of the Kalgoorlie belt and also 
in some profusion east and northeast of Mt. Hunt 
(or Mt. Robinson, as it is locally termed) four miles 
south of Boulder. Another small area is found 
west of the true Mt. Robinson, which lies eight miles 
cast-northeast from Coolgardie. These areas were 
originally mainly peridotites, but with them occa- 
sional patches of pyroxenite appear to be associated. 

The next group of rocks in this series includes 
quartz gabbro and quartz dolerite (diabase) now 
represented in the field by amphibolitic, epidiorite, 
and quartz-dolerite greenstone, the minor variations 
in rock features represented by the three latter types 
arising from slight original differences (generally in 
basicity) set up by segregation within a magma and 
also from differences in degree of later alteration. 
These rocks eon.stitute, with the ultra-basic rocks, 
the great mass of the Younger Greenstones. Their 
greatest development is probably at Kalgoorlie, 
where the intrusive dike (the 'Kalgoorlie Dike') is 
l',/o miles wide. They occur normally as dikes in 
the Older Greenstones or in the sedimentary beds, 
and from this feature, which is best shown by the 
dike near Mungari and by its northward continu- 
ation in the Kurrawang valley, the relative ages 
of the two great series of greenstones is established. 

The obviously galjbro members of the Younger 
Greenstones show remarkable persistence in direc- 
tion. Two main bands have been made out, the first 
lying along the AI)attoir8 ridge, west of Kalgoorlie. 
and the second passing through Mt. Monger. The 
first pa.sses away to the south along the ridge south- 
west of J[t. Hunt: northward it dies a\v;iv in the 

the Lady Bountiful. Farther north and a little dis- 
tance southwest of the Slippery Gimlet mine, the 
band shows a much fresher rock. Here the pyrox- 
enes are quite unaltered, and the structure is that 
of a normal gabbro. The second gabbro band is 
shown by the dark green band passing through 
Duplex and Simplex hills to near Mt. Monger 
township and so to Badalbi hill. This belt may be 
traced on the surface by its peculiarly dense vege- 
tation, carrying a low branching shrub that reaches 
a height of three to four feet and is not so seen else- 

The original dolerites (diabases) are not so strong- 
ly marked in the field as the gabbros. They form 
strong ridges, which are, however, not persistent. 
They now occur as epidiorite, or, if very much al- 
tered, as amphibolite. It may well be that in this 
group rocks of two ages are included, for certain 
dikes; for example, one crossing the road near the 
39-mile peg on the Kalgoorlie-Bulong road, have a 
north-south strike, while the regular strike of the 
majority of the bands is north-northwest to north- 

Some of these do not differ greatly from the 
country of the Kalgoorlie lodes, and probably would 
have resembled that exactly had they been wider 
and had thus greater opportunities for a more com- 
plete segregation of acid and basic components dur- 
ing cooling. The variations from the normal type 
on consolidation and the later changes induced by 
pressure and the passage of underground solutions 
will be fully detailed in later pages. 


The next member of the segregation series to be 
considered is porphyrite. This rock shows consid- 
erable variation in appearance when collected over 
a large area, ranging from dark gray to bluish rocks 
like diorite to light porphyrite rocks distinguishable 
with difficulty from felspar porphyry. They are all, 
however, characterized by the presence of notably 
large well shaped crystals of felspar. The felspar 
porphyries also show these large crystals, but do 
not contain the hornblende or the biotite (black 
mica) that are found in the porphyrites. Some vari- 
eties of porphyrite show little groundmass and few 
large felspar crystals; these are diorite-porphyrites. 
Others .show a considerabe almount of groundmass 
with large crystals of felspar, hornblende, and bio- 
tite; these are homblende-porphyrites or mica-por- 
phyrites. as the hornblende show remarkable per- 
sistence as bands. The bands immediately west of 
Kalgoorlie may be traced southward by Feysville, 
and mav be correlated with an ob.seure highly 



July 19, 1913 

sheared rock lying on the plain east of Wollnba. 
This band reappears beyond the Kurrawang valley 
on the ridge east of Mt. Black Flag, and farllier 
north broadens considerably. At the Slippery Gim- 
let mine the rich lode now being worked lies in 
this rock, which is more easily recognized in the 
hand specimen as a porphyrite than under the micro- 
scope where the coarse structure is not apparent 
and the only name suggested for the rock is amphib- 
olite,a useful general term denoting merely a horn- 
blende rock and giving no clue to the nature of 
the original rock. 

Other porphyrite areas are the neighborhood of 
the Majestic leases on the Randalls road; the coun- 
try of the Queen Margaret lode at Kanowna ; the 
Halfway Hill on the Gindalbic road; and near the 
12-mile peg on the Coolgardie-Kunanalling road. 
The porphj^rites weather badly and their limits 
are generally difficult, and often impossible, to trace. 
They, moreover, weather as to the west of Mt. 
Hunt, to a product resembling a decomposed highly 
felspathic grit, and in this state may readily indeed 
be confounded with the true sediments of the Kur- 
rawang series. It is also suspected that sheared por- 
phyry areas furnish much the same weathered 
product and in these cases there is considerable- 
doubt as to the original character of the rxck, 
whether sheared porphyry, sheared porphyrite. or 
felspathic grit. 


Probably closely connected in origin with the 
porphyrites is the albite-porphyry (also termed 
soda-porphyry and felspar-porphyry), which occurs 
in narrow dikes, striking as a rule with the country 
in a general north-northwest direction. It is best 
known at Kalgoorlie and Kanowna, few exposures 
having been found outside those centres. Their gen- 
eral features will be described in detail when dealing 
with the Kalgoorlie field. In the vicinity of Ka- 
nowna albite-porphyry of two ages is known. A 
broad band of this rock has been crushed, brec- 
ciated, and occasionally mashed; its occasionally 
rounded fragments have been regarded by sev'eral 
observers as pebbles and boulders in a conglomerate, 
while the southwestern mashed portion (above men- 
tioned) has been claimed as a felspathic grit giv- 
ing confirmatory evidence of sedimentary origin. 
The fragments are cemented by quartz. Through- 
out the whole band, however, there are onJy two 
kinds of fragments, albite porphyry and a sheared 
rock found near the northern boundary of the area 
and representing the basic greenstone which is de- 
veloped on that side. Finally there are no quartz 
pebbles in the band. Considerable light is thrown 
on the origin of this crush-breccia by the Binduli 
quartz-porphyry dike, which on being followed 
southward into the lake country, passes graduall.y 
from solid quartz-porphyry into a breccia in every 
respect similar to that at Kanowna, all stages o^■ 
the passage being obtainable. The Kanowna crush- 
breeeia is penetrated by a broad albite porphyry 
dike, along the walls of which the main White 
Feather lodes have been developed. In this rock 
also the rich flat quartz-veins of the Red Hill at 
Kanowna have been formed. 

Granite and Quartz-Porphyry 

It has already been shown that the Kalgoorlie 
area as described abo^'e forms a portion of a band 
of greenstones enclosed within granite. The great- 
est area of granite within the area is found in the 
southwest near Coolgardie, where the normally 
even N.N.W.-S.S.E. boundary of the granite and 
greenstone is broken by long western tongues of 
greenstone brought into their present position by 
faulting along thrust planes. Tongues of granite 
are also intrusive into the mass from the south cross- 
ing the Red Hill road 10 and 15 miles southeast of 
Coolgardie. The granite is the normal biotite gran- 
ite. Its contact with the greenstone certainly does 
not dip flatly to the west, for a diamond-drill bore 
in the granite (in search of artesian water!), sunk 
from a point a little west of the boundary, reached 
a vertical depth of 2300 ft. without meeting green- 
stone. Near Black Flag there appears the south- 
ern termination of a tongue of granite that splits 
the greenstone band in two, the western portion of 
the greenstone running out to a point in the wide 
granite area near Davyhurst. A small granite area 
is present at Juglah. The granite rarely appears 
at the surface, but its presence may nearly always 
be assumed with certainty from the white sand 
that its disintegration affords. Where it does ap- 
pear above the surface it furnishes the 'gramma' 
holes of the natives; for regions that have not been 
visited in Western Australia the existence of large 
well defined gramma holes is assumed to be indica- 
tive of a granitic area. 

The quartz-porphyry dikes that occur within the 
greenstones are to be considered tongues or apo- 
physes from granite masses either now exposed to 
the east or west or concealed at great depths be- 
neath the greenstones. They are therefore most 
frequently found toward the margins of the green- 
stone bands; none are known in the immediate 
neighborhood of the Kalgoorlie mines. They are 
intrusive both through the Older Greenstones (at 
Coolgardie) and through the sedimentary beds (at 
Binduli). The largest area of quartz-porphyry 
known within the greenstones is perhaps that lying 
five miles northeast of Kanowna where the quartz- 
porphyry forms the bold hills overlooking the flats 
that were the scene of the 'Sacred Xugget' rush 
of bygone days. Another large area is in the neigh- 
borhood of Hunt's old dam at Wongi, in the south 
of the area. These dikes may often be traced, like 
the granites, by the clean white sand they yield at 
the surface. 

Geological History 

The clearest view of the internal relations of the 
goldfield rocks may perhaps be obtained by recapit- 
ulating the geological history of the region, and, 
with the foregoing facts at command, it becomes 
possible to outline at least its salient features. 
Since all the important events in that historj- took 
place at a time inconceivably distant — perhaps 15. 
perhaps 25 millions of years ago — and since it was 
a period of great stress, during which some of the 
components of the rock complex lost or masked their 
identity, the history may err somewhat in the se- 
quence of minor events: tliat it is possible to re- 

July 19, 1913 



construct any portion of its history is due to the 
fact that to its troubled youth there succeeded a 
long life of strongly contrasting quietude during 
which the region has gently oscillated- — moving 
perhaps an inch in a century — in faint response to 
world stressing forces that have beaten with little 
effect against the great rock buttress on which the 
goldfields of Western Australia lie. One other such 
region there is in the world, so similar in its rock 
composition and in its life history as to suggest 
that it forms the northern portion of a province, of 
which the middle portion has disappeared beneath 
the waters of the Indian Ocean, leaving the south- 
em Western Australian section still uncovered. If 
is the Deccan region of southern India, and its pre- 
vious examination has greatly assisted me toward 
the elucidation of the general problems afforded by 
the older rocks of Western Australia. 

There is, in the small area studied, no exposure 
of the ancient gneissic floor on which the oldest 
rocks were presumably deposited. These gneisses 
do occur far to the east of Kalgoorlie, and they are 
also, it is believed, brought up by block faulting 
in the neighborhood of Albany; they may there- 
fore be below the present surface, or, on the other 
hand, they may, and there is probability in the 
assumption, have been absorbed by later granitic 
magma as it 'stoped' its way toward the surface. 
That there were granitoid rocks is apparent from 
the pebbles in the conglomerate already described. 

Sub-Kalgoorlie Formation 

A broad granite area may therefore be imagined 
as the foundation on which the Kalgoorlie rock com- 
plex has been built up. Of its age, nothing can be 
said. It was before time, even as the word is under- 
stood in its geological sense, commenced to exist. 
It may indeed have been a portion of the funda- 
mental gneiss of the older geologists, conceived by 
them to be the original product of surface solidifica- 
tion on the cooling of the earth. Its origin is im- 
material, and further speculation concerning it is 
profitless. For long ages it lay bare in a world 
devoid of life, animal or vegetable, but at length 
there came an epoch that saw it shaken and riven 
by the forces of compression and tension that have 
molded the earth's surface; and up and through the 
fissures thus made, urged by the same lateral pres- 
sure or by the same release from overlying pressure 
that had induced the fissures, there welled a great 
lava magma that, emerging through volcani foci, 
covered the surface far and wide with lava flows, 
and, when much steam was present in the magma, 
with volcanic ashes. The first lavas were akin per- 
haps to andesite and basalt, and were succeeded in 
the natural order of the segregation of magmas, 
operating then, as now, by more acid lavas as tra- 
chyte and rhyolite. These rocks form the Older 
Greenstones. It is probable that the expiring effort 
of that cycle of igneous activity sent acid dikes 
(aplite, pegmatite, quartz, and felspar-porphyry) 
ramifying through the lavas and ashes; so much 
is indicated by the conglomerates of the sedimen- 
tary beds. The crushed and brecciatcd felspar- 
porphyry area of Kanowna may well belong to this 
period. After the solidification of these rocks earth- 

stresses engendered fault fissures and thrust planes, 
the filling of which with silica and iron oxides gave 
rise, but only near the surface, to bands of jasper- 
oid rocks that rose to form the ridges of the coun- 

Erosion Agencies 
On these rocks, then, the rains and winds and 
rivers of that far-off time acted as they would act 
today, decomposing and disintegrating the surface 
and transporting the resulting debris to lower lev- 
els. Only in rare cases were the lavas sutficiently 
resistant to form and t6 remain pebbles; ordinarily 
they were broken to sand and triturated to mud. 
The boulders of the coarser sediments therefore rep- 
resent merely the harder ribs of the land ; quartz- 
pebbles from quartz 'blows' and veins, banded jas- 
peroid pebbles from the jasper ridges, aplite, peg- 
matite, quartz-porphyry, and felspar-porphyry from 
the dikes that seamed the country, and finally a 
few granitic pebbles from the presumably more dis- 
tant granite mountains. These with much fine sand 
constituted the burden the great rivers carried 
toward the sea. The general facies of the sediments 
thus laid down indicates that the sea had not been 
reached within the Kalgoorlie area, but rather that 
the region lay in the track of a great river, as the 
Ganges or Brahmaputra, and that it was, like them, 
subject to periodic floods. The sporadic distribu- 
tion of the conglomerate beds, together with the 
comparatively wide separation of individual peb- 
bles, point to a river changing its channel from 
season to season and so moving laterally across its 
plain, and to a situation near the embouchure of 
that river from a high mountain range. 

This concluded what may conveniently be termed 
the first stage in the geological history of the re- 
gion; a great river plain had been formed, and 
from it there rose foothills of igneous rocks suc- 
ceeded by distant mountain ranges and peaks of 
granite, from the deep valleys of which a many- 
branched river ran to the allvvial plain. No aurif- 
erous lodes or veins had then been formed in the 
rocks, and -their debris therefore carries no ancient 
'leads' or 'gutters'; whatever gold these Older 
Greenstones and sedimentary beds may carry, and 
it is little, is due to impregnation during a long 
subsequent epoch. 

Effect of Compression 
The region was now subjected to intense horizon- 
tal compression acting from E.N.E. to W.S.W. The 
horizontally bedded sediments and the then little- 
altered volcanic rocks were involved in the com- 
pression and were buckled into long low waves 
which became narrower from crest to crest until 
at length they were crowded on each other in in- 
tensely sharp folds, carrying far below in the bot- 
tom of the folds, the rocks that had originally been 
on the surface. The rocks have been crowded to- 
gether so closely that it is now impossible to say 
whether the five bands of Older Greenstone— name- 
ly, at Coolgardie, Kalgoorlie, Boorara, Balagundi, 
and the Bullock Holes— are five separate beds of 
lavas and ashes, or are merely preserved portions 
of one and the same series; the same may be said 
with rc<:ard to the four bands of sedimentary beds. 



Jul}' 19, 1913 

Railroads and Transportation Problems in Bolivia 

By G. W. Wepfer 

This article is written primarily in the interest of 
mining engineers and prospective investors in Bo- 
livian mines, for the purpose of shedding some light 
on Bolivian conditions and the future possibilities 
of the mining industry in that country. Three suc- 
cessive presidents of Bolivia have been working for 
the settlement and peaceful development of the coun- 

Silver v. Tin 

The city of Potosi was founded in 1545 and by 
1595, before the settlement at Boston, it had a popu- 
lation of 160,000 inhabitants. The ore in this locality 
is as rich as when mined by the Spaniards in the 
colonial days, and there is more of it in place today 



bO 100 IbO 200 


Under Construction 




try. President Pando arranged the frontier dispute 
with Brazil, President Cornel Montes made peace 
with Chile, and President Villazon is at present 
following the same policy. Within the country 
there is a difference in elevation between the pampas 
of the east and the snow-covered peaks of the Cor- 
dilleras of more than 20,000 ft. The food products 
of the temperate and the tropical zones supply a 
great part of the population of the Andean plateau 
and the miners in the Cordilleras. Further railroad 
and river navigation facilities are required to carrv 
the products for export to the ports of Antofagasta. 
Arica, and Mollendo on the Pacific and to Para, 
Buenos Aires, and Montevideo on the Atlantic, and 
will undoubtedlv soon be furnished. 

than mined by the Spaniards. The silver ore is not 
mined as much as the tin ore, which the Spaniards 
had no use for, and had left in the mines. As tin 
at the present time pays better than silver, it is given 
the preference. In most parts of Bolivia the wages 
of the ordinary miner is 60c. per day, from which the 
miner buys his own food. In the ban-en parts of the 
country and where food has to be brought a long 
distance, as at Potosi, wages are much higher. The 
silver and tin concentrates from Potosi are carried 
by llamas to the Pacific coast in the same manner as 
they have been for the past 368 years. The llamas re- 
quire fifteen days to make the trip from Potosi lo 
Uyuni. The new railroad from Potosi to the station 
at Rio JIulatos on the Oruro-Antofagasta line, which 

July 19, 1913 


will be opened this year, will require not more than 
12 or V) hours for this trip. When this line is 
opened, pravisions can be delivered cheaply at 
Pntosi which will result in a reduction in the high 
wages and also the freight charges to the coast ports. 
Drilling is done entirely by hand at the present, 
and if air, electric, or oil drills were introduced a 
great saving in the cost of mining would be effected. 
Distillate and crude oil can be obtained from the 
Peruvian side of Lake Titieaca. These improve- 
ments will result in a more profitable working of 
ores for gold, silver, tin, copper, antimony, bismuth, 
tungsten, wolfram, and other minerals. The tax on 
mineral lands is only 60c. per pertenencia (2.47 
acres) each 6 months. The export tax on metals is 
Ic. per ounce of silver and 20c. per ounce of gold. 

Andean Plateau 
In sheltered parts of the Andean plateau are fer- 
tile valleys which abound in wheat, com, fruit 
orchards, and flowers. Cochabamba, a city of 25,000, 
and Lucre, with 20.000 inhabitants, have beautiful 
parks and pleasant surroundings. The families of 
many of the mining engineers reside here. Some 
live on the farms, as the natives are kindly disposed 
toward foreigners. The hot springs at Colcha are 
sought by many as a cure for rheumatism. Savage 
Indians are still in the country, but it is hoped that 
by their association with semi-civilized Indians they 
will be gradually raised to a state of usefulness. 

Bolivia has an area of 59,721 square miles and a 
population of 2,500.000, including 240,000 savage 
Indians. The greatest part of the population are 
living on the Andean plateau and the eastern Cor- 

The first railroad in Bolivia, which was built be- 
tween Antofagasta and Oruro by the Huanchaca 
Mining Co., was a 30-in. gage line and was splen- 
didly equipped. The continuation of this railroad 
with broad-gage track is called the Bolivia Railway 
Co., and runs from Orura. via Viacha, to La Paz. The 
trip from Antofagasta to La Paz is made in 48 hours. 
Pas.senger trains leave Antofagasta for the interior 
every Wednesday and Saturday at 6:40 p.m. The 
steamships, as a rule, arrive in the roadstead of Anto- 
fagasta in the forenoon of those days, which makes 
it possible for the passengers to leave by the evening 
trains for La Paz. La Paz lies in the deep caiion of 
the La Paz river, about 700 to 800 ft. below the edge 
of the plateau. At a point above the city is the La 
Paz Alto station, the terminal of the steam cars. The 
train is subdivided into sections at this station and 
taken down the mountain to the city station bv 
electric locomotives. Th(> trains departing from 
La Paz city station are taken to La Paz Alto in sec- 
tions, where they are united to form the trains for 
Viacha and other points. La Paz is a city of 80,000 
inhabitants, and has electric power, electric light, 
street cars, and as good hotels as are to be found 
anywhere in South America. 

Results of the Nitre War 

In consequence of the unfortunate nitre war with 
Chile in 1879, Bolivia lost the provinces on the Pa- 
cific coast. While Peru also lost some of the sea- 
board, and keeps her animosity toward Chile. Bo- 


livia has come to an amicable understanding with 
Chile and made an agreement whereby Chile is to 
build a railroad from the former Peruvian port of 
Arica to Viacha on the line to La Paz, and so -ive 
another outlet to the Pacific coast. Work trains 
were running over the whole of this road last year 
but the line has not yet been opened to general 
traffic. Trains will go from Arica to La Paz in 12 
hours. Passengers arriving at Arica during the day 
can leave the same evening and arrive at La Paz the 
following morning. The third connection of Bolivia 
with the Pacific coast is by rail from Viacha to 
Guaqui, a port on Lake Titieaca. Trains from La 
Paz leave early in the afternoon, arriving at the 
steamer pier in Guaqui at 6 p.m. Here the train is 
met by the fast twin screw steamer Inca, which 
crosses the lake and arrives at the Peruvian rail- 
road station Puno at 6 a.m. The journey is then 
contmued across the western Cordillera. At Cru- 
cero an altitude of 14,666 ft. is reached and the 
tram then speeds down to the port of Mollendo 
(Peru) making the trip from La Paz in about 30 
hours. The Peruvian Corporation, Ltd., of Lon- 
don and Lima, owns the railroad and steamer Inca, 
and has large locomotive and steamer repair shops 
at Arequipa. The Inca has good passenger accom- 
modations. This Company also has a concession 
from the Bolivian government to .improve the Rio 
Desaguadero by conducting the surplus waters of 
Lake Titieaca to Lake Poapo. The Company has 
steamers and barges along this river to collect tin 
concentrate, silver, and copper, and to carry them 
to Lake Titieaca and thence to Mollendo. There 
is also the port of Chilalaya on Lake Titieaca, 
toward which point can frequently be seen large 
convoys of llama.s, numbering from 100 to 1500,. 
wending their way laden with concentrates. Prom 
Chilalaya the concentrates are shipped to the coast 
by the Peruvian corporation. 

Eiver Navigation 

By the settlement of the frontier dispute between 
Bolivia and Brazil, Bolivia received £2,000,000, 
which sum was used to build a railroad around the 
rapids of the rivers Beni and Mamore on the Bra- 
zilian frontier. These two rivers unite at Villa 
Bella and form the Rio Madera (Madeira in Portu- 
guese). Near this junction there are 14 distinct 
rapids which prohibit navigation. These rapids 
have been navigated by rafts, and although the 
Indians have acquired much skill in handling them, 
the loss of life and merchandise is appalling, 
amounting to between 20 and 50% of the material 
transported. The tropical climate, together with 
every kind of fever and other disease, can only be 
compared with former conditions in Panama. In 
1870 a Philadelphia company obtained a concession 
to construct a railroad around these rapids, but 
failed. Below the rapids, the river is navigable for 
large steamers for more than 2000 miles to the city 
of Para at the mouth of the Amazon river. Above 
the rajiids, the river Bemi is navigable as far as 
Puerto Pando, the railroad terminus from La Paz, 
and also up the Rios Mamore and Chimore to the 
railroad terminus of the Oruro-Cochabamba-Chi- 



July 19. 1913 

more railroad. This railroad is now finished, and 
from Porto Velho to Guatara Merrim and Riberalta 
it is called the Madera-Mamore railroad, and is 
an American enterprise with headquarters in New 
York City. The greatest difficulty to contend with 
in the construction of this road was the climate. 
The Company has built at Porto Velho a model 
town and hospital. 

Present Railroad Situation 

The following table shows the railroad situation 
at the present time : 

RAn^BOADS IN Opebation in Bolivia 


Antofagasta to Oruro (within Bolivia) 574 

Ollague to Oruro 303 

Oruro to Viacha (standard gage) 126 

Uyuni to Huanchaca 26 

Arlca to La Paz (within Bolivia) 273 

Carana to Viacha 125 

Branch line to Corocoro 5 

Railroads in Couese of Consteuction 

Uyuni to Tuplza 120 

Rio Mulatos to Potosi 108 

Machamarca to Uncia 52 

Oruro to Cochabamba 119 

Railroads Projected 

Tuplza to La Quiacha 58 

La Quiacha to Trajai 131 

Potosi to Sucre . . •> 106 

Oruro to Carana 189 

Cochabamba to Chimore 124 

Cochabamba to Vinto 11 

Chimore to Puerto Valarde 77 

Cochabamba to Arani 45 

La Paz to Puerto Pando 158 

Puerto Acosta to Rurrenabaque 283 

Yacuiba to Santa Cruz 447 

Riberalta to Guajara Merrim 66 

Guajara Merrim to Velho 145 

Porto Velho to San Antonio 5 

The outlet from southern Bolivia to the east will 
be by way of Uyuni, Tupiza, La Quiacha, Jujuy, 
and Camposanto to Buenos Aires, and as soon as 
the line from Yacuiba to Embareacion is built, this 
road will also be the outlet for the eastern part 
of Bolivia. Last year the line from Buenos Aires 
to Santiago was interrupted by snow for three 
months; passengers and mail had to go from Val- 
paraiso around South America to Buenos Aires. 
The Argentine line could keep the trains running 
to the tunnel, but the Chilean line could not keep 
their end of the road open. The Rio Pilomayo and 
the Rio Paraguay are large rivers and require but 
little improvement. They unite at Asuncion and 
form a continuous water route to Buenos Aires 
and Montevideo. 

Future Outlook 

With the completion of the railways which are 
now in course of construction and the lines which 
are projected, together with the opening of tho 
waterways, access will be possible to parts of Bo 
livia which to date have been practically inacces- 
sible. With reduced transportation charges and 
an outlet to the markets of the world, the mining 
industry will undoubtedly make great progress and 
the mineral wealth of Bolivia will attract more at- 
tention in the future than it has in the past. 

The Magnet Silver-Lead Mine, 

By P. G. Tait 

*This mine is owned by the Magnet Silver Mining 
Co., and is situated on the slope of the Magnet range, 
some five miles from Waratah, on the old Corinna 
track, which crosses the Pieman 12 miles from the 
coast, and was the original outlet for the Zeehan 
field. In its early stages the Company trammed its 
products to the Corinna- Whyte river road, then 
carted it to the Emu Bay railway at Waratah for 
shipment to Burnie on the north of the island. To- 
day the mine is connected with the Emu Bay rail- 
way, near Waratah, by a substantial two-foot gage 
steel tramway, 10 miles in length. It is currently 
reported that this line, which cost $144,000, was 
built from the profits of a rich ore-pocket taken from 
No. 1 level. The scenery along this line is pictur- 
esque, and any visitors to Waratah would be amply 
repaid if they included this 10 miles in their tour. 
The railway cuts are studded with berries of vari- 
ous hues, and the fern gullies are really magnificent. 
The Company possesses two Koppel locomotives, and 
one by Krauss & Co., all of the ai-ticulated type, to 
negotiate the 99 curves on the route. 

The Mine 

The top workings of the mine consist of four 
adits, driven from the eastern slope of the range in 
a westerly direction, the lode being cut in 40 to 
350 ft. of driving. The lode traverses the eastern 
slope, bearing south 30° west, and consists of a gos- 
san formation from 1 to 30 ft. wide, rich in silver 
and lead, and carrying a little gold, with dolomite 
walls. The slate approaches close to the hanging 
wall on the north end, but is not seen on the south 
end of the worked portion of the lode. Near the 
surface the lode was worked by open-cut, and was 
rich in silver and lead. The Company made large 
profits out of this portion of the mine. The pres- 
ent workings of the mine are reached from No. 4 
level. An inclined shaft at an angle of 20° has 
been sunk to a depth of 480 ft. The hoisting station 
is 350 ft. from the mouth of the main adit, and is 
equipped with a hoist and two Cameron steam pumps. 
The cross-cuts, of which there are seven, are 65 ft. 
apart. No. 5, 6, 7, and S are depleted so far as the 
present ore-shoot is concerned, but there is no rea- 
son why payable shoots of ore would not be found 
if the levels were driven south beyond the break 
or fault which cuts off the ore. The gossan forma- 
tion, continued down to below No. 7 level in the 
central portion of the orebody, is being displaced 
on the north and south ends by dolomite. These 
levels were also rich in silver and lead, the gold eon- 
tents diminishing with depth. The greater part of 
the mine's output is being produced from No. 9 
level, which has an approximate ore reserve of 15.000 

The main shaft was sunk two levels, or 130 ft., 
below No. 9 level, and two stations cut, and the bot- 

*Abstract from Mining and Engineering Review. 

July 19, 1913 



torn level. No. 11, wa.s driven first, the foot-wall of 
the lode being cut at 234 ft. from the shaft, when 
splendid ore was opened. The cross-cut was then 
continued across the lode until the hanging wall was 
reached, the lode measuring 60 ft. across. On the 
hanging wall a fine body of ore was cut 2 ft. in 
width. Prospecting drifts north and south of the 
cross-cut are being driven with excellent results, and 
the manager considers the prospects at this level 
are promising, and estimates that there is from 
10,000 to 15,000 tons of ore in sight. At No. 10 
the cross-cut was in 196 ft., and had just reached 
the foot-wall of the lode. Sullivan machine and 
hammer. drills are used extensively. The air is sup- 
plied by a water-driven compressor. Since 1902, 
80.500 tons of ore has been exported. 

Concentrating Mill 

The ore is trammed from the mine and dumped 
onto a sorting-floor adjacent to a ehaking-screen, 
into which it is shoveled in order to give a more 
even distribution on the shaker. All pieces below 
1% in. go direct to the mill, the larger pieces being 
fed onto a picking belt. The first-class ore and clean 
gangue are here separated, the middling going to 
a bin, thence to a 9 by 16 Blake crusher, where it 
is crushed to 1% in. and trammed to No. 1 mill-bin. 
From this it goes by automatic feeder to No. 1 
shaker. This has a screen with 3-in. square holes 
to catch any large pieces, chips, etc. All the under- 
size is fed to No. 1 rolls set % in., thence by No. 
1 elevator to two lines of trommels screening to 
over % in., between % and i/q, V2 and %, % and 
3/16, 3/16 and 3/64, and under 3/64 in. The 
screened ore is delivered to 10 two-compartment 
Harz jigs, which only make two products. The tail- 
ing (and over % in.) join at a dewatering screen, 
% by 3/64-in. slots, delivering ore free from water 
to No. 2 elevator, and all the fine and water to a 
settling-box beneath. The fine is lifted by an 
ejector to a 3-in. slime pump, where it is joined 
by the undersize from the trommels. No. 2 elevator 
lifts the feed to a 100-ton bin, from there by roller 
feeder to No. 2 rolls set Ys in. Then it goes to 
No. 3 elevator, and to No. 4 shaker, giving over 
7/32 in., between 7/32 and 3/64, and under 3/64; 
over 7/32 in. going to No. 3 rolls, and thence back 
to No. 3 elevator; between 7/32 in. and 3/64 in. to 
four 5-ft. Bigelow grinding pans, thence to No. 5 
shaker. Under 3/64 in. goes to spitzkasten, where 
it joins the sand and slime brought up by a 3-in. 
pump, giving one spigot to No. 5 shaker and the 
overflow to five single spitzkasten. No. 5 shaker 
gives over 3/64 in. and under 3/64 in., the former 
going back to No. 3 elevator and the latter to one 
pair of 30-mesh Callow screens, giving oversize to 
two single-compartment May jigs, making heads and 
tailing. The undersize goes to one pair of 60-mesh 
Callow screens, giving oversize to two Card tables 
making heads, middling, and tailing; middling re- 
turned to No. 3 elevator; undersize of 60-mesh 
Callow screens to single spitzkasten, giving two 
spigots of two Card tables making heads, middling, 
and tailing; middling back to No. 3 elevator, 
overflow of spitzkasten to five single spitzkasten, 

giving one spigot each to five Luhrig vanners, mak- 
ing heads, middling, and tailing; middling returned 
to No. 1 elevator, and overflow to ll-compartmeat 
spitzkasten, giving 11 spigots, and overflow to waste ; 
11 spigots to one single spitzkasten, giving one spigot 
and overflow to waste; spigot to one Luhrig vau- 
ner giving heads, middling, and tailing ; middling to 
No. 1 elevator. Dressing water is circulated by a 
6-in. centrifugal pump, working at 1400 r.p.m. The 
ore is intimately associated with the gangue, making 
it undesirable to discard any tailing until it will 
pass 3, '64-in. mesh. 

Power Equipment 

The mill is driven by three Pelton wheels, work- 
ing under a 450-ft. head. No. 1 giving 67 hp. ; No. 2, 
86 hp.; and No. 3, 14 hp. It treats 50 tons per 
shift of eight hours. There is also a 10-drill Kelly 
& Lewis compressor, driven by a Pelton, and an- 
other for the lighting dynamo. All the Pelton wheels 
were supplied by local engineers and are giving 
very satisfactory service. An auxiliary steam plant 
in two units is available for use during the dry 

Accretion of gold in amalgamation, according to 
Allan J. Clark and W. J. Sharwood, consists in the 
building up of a crystalline layer of comparatively 
hard amalgam of appreciable thickness, which in 
extreme cases, as at the Drumlummon mill, may 
exceed Vs in. If the plate is strained by buckling, 
or by blows, the brittle sheet of amalgam can be de- 
tached in a more or less broken condition, leaving 
little but the film held by adhesion. Heating over 
a fire, or the application of steam or hot sand, softens 
the crystalline amalgam and facilitates its removal 
by a scraper. In the cold condition it is so hard 
that it is impossible to avoid gouging into the cop- 
per plate when removing it by a steel scraper. In- 
side plates show accretion to an extreme degree, the 
amalgam in some cases building up to a thickness 
of an inch or more. In the case of outside plates 
such a layer of crystalline amalgam forms an ex- 
ceedingly eflicient, but somewhat expensive, medium 
for retaining the quicksilver or soft amalgam which 
is requisite to catch the finer gold from passing pulp. 
One of the principal objects of electro-plating is to 
provide a cheaper medium; unburnished electro- 
deposited silver forms a porous coating easily 
penetrable by mercury, in which respect it differs 
from rolled copper. A coat of silver has a minimum 
thickness of about 0.001 in. for every troy ounce of 
silver deposited per square foot, but the rough coat 
cbtained in practice is considerably thicker. 

Production of raw iron in Germany during May 
1913 surpassed all previous records. The total out- 
put amounted to 1,641,600 metric tons, as compared 
with 1,587,300 in April 1913, and 1,492,157 in May 
1912. The various sorts produced during May were : 
foundry pig, 309,892 tons; bessemer, 29,406; 
thomas, 1,049,524; steel and spiegel, 207,227; and 
puddle, 45,551^ 

Coke output of Alabama in 1912 was 2,975,489 
short tons, valued at $8,098,412. 



July 19. 1913 

Tailing and Ore Treatment at Broken Hill 

•The Zinc Corporation, Ltd., operates a flotation 
plant for treating tailing acquired from mines in the 
district, and a concentrating plant for treating ore 
from the South Blocks mine. 

Zinc Concentrator 

During the year 345,425 tons of tailing was treat- 
ed, averaging 14.41% zinc, 6.94 oz. silver, and 5.5% 
lead, yielding 85,354 tons of zinc and 10,881 tons 
of lead concentrate. These products, at the aver- 
age prices of metals for the same period, were worth 


£449,047. A by-product, in the form of zinc slime, 
was also saved and stored for future treatment, 
which, if valued on the basis of a previous sale, 
would yield £14,989. It is hoped that results ob- 
tained from trials of the Horwood process, which 
indicate an increased revenue from this material, 
will be achieved on a working scale. 

The recovery of metals in the various products 
was as follows : 

Zinc, Silver, Lead, 
per cent, ounces, per cent. 

Contained In zinc concentrate 80.9 44.7 

Contained in lead concentrate 14.6 32.8 

Contained In zinc slime 4.8 6.3 4.6 

The recovery of lead In the zinc concentrate was 32.8%. 

The greatly improved metallurgical work now be- 
ing achieved is apparent when it is observed that 
the grade of zinc in the material drawn from the 
dumps has dropped from 19.1%, the average milled 
by a former process, to 14.41%, the average for the 
period under review. The grade of silver is now 
about 1 oz. per ton less than formerly, while the 
grade of lead remains the same. Although the ma- 
terial treated during the greater portion of the 
period has been refractory, owing to many of the 
dumps being highly oxidized, it is gratifying to 
record the fact that the grade of zinc and lead con- 
centrates has been improved beyond that for any 
previous period. The* zinc recovery has been main- 
tained, while the distribution of the lead recovery 
has been improved to the extent that, whereas by 
the former process the proportions were 40.6% in 
the zinc concentrate and 29.6% in the lead concen- 
trate, the proportions for the period under review 
are 32.8 and 32.8%, respectively, a desirable alter- 
ation when it is considered that practically no pay- 

♦Abstract from the annual report of the Zinc Corporation, 

ment is made for lead in the zinc concentrate. 

The year 's production of flotation concentrate 
before being re-treated by 'tabling' totaled 102,355 
tons, assaying 43.9% zinc, 13.1 oz. silver, 12.9% 
lead, equal to a sterling value, based on metals at 
the average prices for the year 1912, of 69s. 5.2d. 
per ton of flotation concentrate. 

Ke-treatment by tabling was responsible for sep- 
arating this product into: 

Zinc, Silver, Lead, 
per cent. oz. per cent. 
80,354 tons zinc concentrate, assaying. 47. 2 12.5 7.4 

10,881 tons lead concentrate, assaying. 14.8 32.2 57.9 

The sterling value of these products was 87s. 8.9d. 
per ton of flotation concentrate, the enhancement 
as the result of re-treatment being £93,685. As the 
cost of re-treatment amounted to £16,089, the profit 
was £77,596. In addition to the zinc and lead con- 
centrates, a by-product consisting of zinc slime Avas 
saved and stored for re-treatment (by the Horwood 
process) ; this by-product amounted to 5971 tons, 
assaying 38.7% zinc, 25.15 oz. silver, and 14.9% 
lead, and which, valued on the basis of previous 
sales, less cost of shipping, would realize a further 
£14,989. The re-treatment operations for the pe- 
riod (including the by-product zinc slime) thus show 
a total net profit of £92,585. The sulphuric acid 
plant worked steadily during the period, and pro- 
duced 4325 tons of acid. 

The working costs ranged from 8s. lid. to 10s. 3d. 
per ton, the average being 9s. 1.79d., a reduction 
as anticipated on the average for the previous pe- 
riod. The comparatively high cost of 10s. 3d. in- 
curred in December (the next highest figure being 
9s. 3d.) was due to the usual interruption to oper- 
ations caused by the Christmas holidays : advantage 
being taken at the same time to effect outstanding 

Plant Construction 

Two Babcock and Wilcox boilers, a Bellis Morcom 
steam-driven air-compressor for supplying com- 
pressed air to the mining department, and a British 
Thompson-Houston 500-kw. mixed-pressure turbo- 
generator, complete with an up-to-date condensing 
plant, are being added to the power-plant. 

It was found necessary to build extra vats, and 
so add to the storage capacity of sulphuric acid 
to hold the extra amounts produced during the win- 
ter months, and insure a supply for the mill in the 
event of a break-down of the acid plant. The total 
storage capacity is now 470 tons. In order to re- 
duce the distance of belt conveying the residue, and 
to take advantage of the natural fall of the ground 
between the zinc concentrator plant and the residue 
dump, a sluicing and dewatering scheme has been 
installed, which has effected a considerable saving 
in belting and power. 

In consequence of the favorable results obtained 
in the laboratory by using the Horwood process on 
zinc slime, and the results obtained from the 100- 
ton parcel of ore roasted in the Edwards furnace 
at Ballarat. Victoria, and afterward treated in the 

Jiily 19, 1913 



local experimental plant, it was decided to install 
a working unit of this process for the treatment of 
zinc slime. A plant for this purpose is now being 
erected, and good progress has been made with its 

Lead Concentrator 

The mill ran 269 days for the period, treating 
138,284 tons of ore, or an average of 514 tons per 
day. The ore averaged 15.3% lead, 2.57 oz. silver, 
and 9.16% zinc. This tonnage produced 25,227 tons 
of lead concentrate assaying 6.28% zinc, 9.05 oz. 
silver, and 67.34% lead, in addition to which 36,800 
tons of zinc middling was produced assaying 17.15% 
zinc, 1.8 oz. silver, and 5.22% lead. At the average 
price of metals for the year, the concentrate was 
worth £214,335, and the estimated two-thirds profit 
on 36,680 tons of zinc middling dealt with by the 
treatment department, and based on same metal 
prices, amounted to £19,820. The extractions ob- 
tained were as follows : 

Zinc, Silver, Lead, 
per cent, ounces, per cent. 

According to lead eoncentrate 64.34 80.0 

According to zinc middling 49.8 19.0 9.1 

The extraction of zinc in the lead concentrate 
was 12.5%, but being of no financial value, is omit- 
ted from the above statement. Milling operations 
have throughout the year given satisfactory results. 

The erection of additional tables, storage vats, 
and connection of the latter with the railway sys- 
tem, has been completed. This has given greater 
facilities for working, and has enabled the plant to 
make clean quartz tailing and simultaneously in- 
crease the production of zinc middling; the latter 
product being sent to the zinc plant for further 

Following a number of successful small labora- 
tory experiments with the Lyster selective process 
(the invention of the mill foreman, James Lyster), 
a small experimental unit was erected at the lead 
mill for the purpose of treating a quantity of slime 
on a working basis. The results obtained from this 
small unit gave such a profitable recovery of lead 
and silver that it has been kept in continuous oper- 
ation, treating the bulk of the current production 
of slime. A full working unit for the treatment of 
the current and accumulated slime has been de- 
signed, and its erection will be put in hand at an 
early date. 

The 75-stamp mill of the Lake View & Star mines, 
Kalgoorlie, worked 8028 hours in 1912, crushing 
212,606 tons of ore, the duty being 8.47 tons per 
stamp-day. Concentrate saved amounted to 19,074 
tons, yielding 32,715 fine ounces of gold and 757 oz. 
of silver, while the slime produced, 193,532 tons, 
yielded 26,396 fine ounces of gold and 5297 oz. of 

A hydro-electric power-station is now being 
equipped at Laufenburg, on the Rhine, which will, 
when completed in 1914, be the largest plant of its 
kind in Switzerland. The installation will com- 
prise 10 turbines, each coupled to a 5200-kw. 3- 
phase alternator, generating 6000 to 6600 volts, to 
be subsequently raised to 47,000. 

Workmen's Compensation 

By H. W. Gartrell 

There are two main divisions of mining law; the 
first is concerned with the acquirement and hold- 
ing of mineral lands, and the second with the con- 
trol of mining operations, dealing particularly with 
the safety of the workmen. A great deal has lately 
been heard about the first part of Australian mining 
laws, but the second part is also well worthy of 

A very interesting case recently occurred in South 
Australia. It appears that a man working in a 
quarry was seen to place a drill in a partly charged 
hole ; his partner struck the drill with a hammer, 
an explosion followed, and the men were killed. The 
explosive used was ' raek-a-rock, ' which was cut in 
pieces before being put in the hole. The depend- 
ents sued for compensation under the Workmen's- 
Compensation Act. 

Summary of the Law 

The law may be summarized as follows: (1) The 
part of the mining law in question applies to quar- 
ries on private or Crown lands. (2) An accident 
is regarded as prima facie evidence of the owner's 
negligence. (3) The general rules, which must be 
observed as far as reasonably practicable, include : 
"No iron or steel pricker shall be used" and "In 
no case shall an iron or steel drill be used for the 
purpose of drilling out a charge which has missed 
fire." (4) A mine manager, who contravenes or 
does not comply with the general rules, is liable to 
a penalty of $500, unless he proves that he has 
taken all reasonable precautions to prevent such 
contravention or non-compliance. Further, a print- 
ed copy of the general rules shall be posted in the 
office and in some conspicuous place in every mine. 
(5) The "Workmen's Compensation Act provides for 
compensation up to $1500, unless there has been seri- 
ous and wilful misconduct on the part of the work- 

It is interesting to note, though it has nothing 
to do with this case, that the contraction of lead, 
mercury, phosphorus, or arsenic poisoning, or of 
ankylostomiasis is regarded as an accident. 

Accepting the supposition that before the hole 
was completely charged a pebble became jammed 
in it above the explosive, and that the men were 
attempting to break this pebble, the discussion first 
centres on such a procedure. The witnesses dis- 
tinguished two cases: "When the pebble is less than 
two feet above the explosive, it was generally ad- 
mitted correct to continue charging and to expect 
to detonate the first portion of the charge. "When 
the pebble is more than two feet above, four meth- 
ods were then offered: (1) As above, but one may 
be permitted to doubt if detonation would often 
be obtained; (2) to break the pebble by means of 
half a stick of powder ; (3) to drill or jump out the 
pebble ; and (4) to drill a new hole alongside. 

The discussion on this interesting contingency 
.seems to have been generally avoided by legislators 



July 19, 1913 

and writers. Method (1) may be ruled out; method 
(3) was said to have been so frequently used by 
so many, and even when the sides of the hole were 
almost certainly smeared with explosive, that lay- 
men might reasonably think it fairly safe. Prob- 
ably most engineers would restrict themselves to 
the second and fourth methods. The second no 
doubt answers in many cases; it is quick and simple, 
but runs the risks of ruining the hole without ex- 
ploding the charge or of exploding the charge so 
feebly that little rock is displaced and the face 
is put in bad shape. The fourth method is safe and 
certain, but expensive, and probably is little used 
unless experience has shown that the rock in ques- 
tion is likely to give poor results with the second 
method. Since one individual's experience of such 
cases is usually limited, this is a matter on which the 
experience of others would be very acceptable. 

Workman's Position 

The next question is, what is the position of a 
workman who breaks the law? This question was 
not raised, but probably it may be assumed that 
a workman is not supposed to know the law unless 
it is formally brought before his notice, and that 
if it is so brought, disobedience would be regarded 
similarly to disobedience to his superiors. 

The words "serious and wilful misconduct" nat- 
urally offer a fruitful field for discussion. These 
words occur also in the English act, so naturally 
the English interpretation bears great weight. 
Briefly, it may be stated that the word "serious" 
applies to the misconduct and not to the conse- 
quences, and "wilful" is to be taken to mean de- 
liberate and not to apply to acts done on the spur 
of the moment. From this it follows that unless 
an act is notoriously dangerous, that is to say, 
would be regarded thus by most of his comrades 
in a position to judge, a workman committing it 
has not been guilty of serious misconduct, and that 
there is an important difference in seizing a handy 
tool and going deliberately to fetch a similar tool. 

In the ease in question, it appears that the mis- 
conduct was legally wilful but not legally serious, 
for the majority of the workmen witnesses said that 
the act was customary. 

Finally, although no appeal was made, it appears 
that in such a case the higher court would have 
decided not whether the judgment was correct, but 
whether the judge might reasonably have found as 
he did. 

The Court's Decision 

The judgment, which was wholly in favor of the 
workmens' dependents, contained several interest- 
ing points: "The burden of proving the miscon- 
duct, and that the injury was caused by it, is on 
the respondents, and they must prove it affirmative- 
ly and not by surmise. The evidence is conclusive 
that at the time of the accident the two men were 
engaged at their work, and it is sufficiently clear 
that the steel drill was used, but the proximate 
cause of the accident was not conclusively shown." 
The importance of this general statement is quite 
independent of the fact that many mining engi- 
neers would regard the proximate cause as conclu- 

sively shown. With regard to the fact that no defi- 
nite rules were laid down and that the method ad- 
vocated in court was not followed, "The quarrymen 
had a free hand to use their own judgment, based 
upon their own experience, and broke no rule," and 
"If employers require such methods to be followed, 
it entirely rests on them to make proper rules for 
enforcing them." 

Here then we have a remedial statute designed 
to help the workman without putting new obliga- 
tions upon him, and really doing so. 

Improvement of Miners' Surroundings 

The United States Bureau of Mines is about to 
investigate the conditions under which a miner 
works, believing that the unsanitary conditions 
which exist in some of the mines, as well as in some 
of the mining towns, are a factor in the death rate 
among the men. It is intimated that these condi- 
tions not only unnecessarily cause the death of min- 
ers through disease, but they are often responsible 
for accidents which might not have happened if the 
miners were in perfect health. 

The Bureau has organized what is known as the 
Mine Sanitation Section, in charge of J. H. White, 
engineer, and hopes to bring about progress by ap- 
pealing to the miner, the manager, and the owner, 
showing that all three can assist, and be benefited 
by good sanitary conditions. It will reach the miner 
by means of illustrated lectures, moving-picture ex- 
hibits, and pictorial circulars. These will show how 
sickness and suffering are spread by careless habits, 
and will drive home the importance of personal and 
household cleanliness. 

Conditions Peculiar to Mining Towns 

Mr. White, in talking about the conditions which 
exist in mining towns, said: "The mining town 
does not grow, but is built at a single stroke. The 
effect of this is that the valuable lessons learned 
by the 'try-out' method and the profit gained by 
previous mistakes do not exert their powerful in- 
fluence, so that the errors existing in one house 
exist in all; if one house is not properly lighted, 
none of the houses will be properly lighted; if a 
few houses are placed too closely together, all houses 
will be similarly spaced; if there is congestion in 
one section, there will be congestion throughout. 
Of course, one could have learned from the experi- 
ence of other mining towns already built, but this 
information was perhaps not readily available, and 
local conditions modify each case. 

' ' One of the first investigations which the Bureau 
intends to take up is the house problem, with a 
view to putting before the miners the best prac- 
tices and the ones which have stood the tests of 

"The company ownership is the most important 
factor entering into housing conditions. Every 
house reflects the standard which the operator 
wishes to maintain. It is difficult to stimulate a 
personal pride among the inhabitants, and friendly 
rivalry is absent. However, if improvements are 
introduced, thev are far reaching, and the tone cf 

July 19, 1913 



the entire town is raised, so that one house does 
not point the finger of scorn at its neighbor. The 
employer being also the landlord means, as a gen- 
eral rule, compulsory payment of rent, and the im- 
portance of an assured income should be given due 

"In discussing the water-supply situation, it must 
be kept in mind that the townsite is generally de- 
termined by the location of the mine shaft. 

"The necessity and importance of a satisfactory 
water-supply for the people was probably not given 
much consideration in the past; in studying condi- 
tions with a view to introducing a public water- 
supply into a town, the cost of improvements and 
the age of the town must be carefully balanced. 

"In a limestone region, pollution of the water may 
come from miles away, which makes the potential 
danirer of the well very great. This may involve 
the distribution of drinking water in bottles through-, 
out the town, the well water being used for cooking 
and washing purposes only. 

"The inconveniences due to the difficulty of get- 
ting water from the wells may be eliminated by 
establishing bath-houses at mine shafts, so that the 
men may wash upon coming out of the mine. These 
bath and are being widely introduced : 
in a few states they are required by law. A public 
laundry is a great convenience for the women, and 
bath-houses in or near the schools for the women 
and children are almost necessary accessories to the 
perfect well system. Wholesome and safe drinking 
water is essential to existence ; its supply is one of 
the gravest responsibilities accompanying company 

"There are a few mining towns with sanitary 
sewer s> stems. Such a system presupposes a public 
water-supply for flushing purposes. The approxi- 
mate location of a mining town is determined by the 
mine shaft, and the topography must be accepted as 
it is. This is generally rough and hilly, and a single 
gravity system of sewers is next to impossible, as 
the cost of leveling off the hills and grading the 
streets is prohibitive. ]\Ioreover, a suitable stream 
to take the discharge of the sewers might not be 
near at hand, and the necessity of installing a sew- 
age disposal plant looms up. 

"Mining towns possess many advantages, but the 
■ Irawbaek lies in the fact that the initiative in main- 
taining sanitary and clean conditions throughout the 
mining town rests entirely with the operator. Indif- 
ference on his part may give rise to deplorable un- 
sanitary conditions. The residents have no official 
voice in the government of the town, and unofficial 
iiggressiveness is seldom exerted because the total 
absence of property rights breeds irresponsibility 
and carelessness. Many of them are blissfully igno- 
rant of the dangers of unsanitary surroundings, and 
when they protest it is the inconveniences rather 
than ihc dangers that bestir them." 

West Virginia, next to Pennsylvania, contain.s a 
greater quantity of coking and high-grade coals than 
any other state. 

Several rivers in the Yentna district, Alaska, have sonrces in large glaciers. 

Reopening the Hillabee Mine 

Interesting work in reopening the old Hillabee 
gold mine, near Alexander City, Alabama, is being 
done by the Hog Mountain Gold Mining Co., under 
the direction of H. W. Pox and H. P. Lunt. This 
property has produced between $20,000 and $4:0,000 
per year, or nearly the whole production of Alabama, 
for the past decade. Hog mountain, on which the 
mine is situated, is an intrusion of granite in slates, 
cut by numerous veins of quartz carrying gold. 
This has been described by H. D. McCaskey in Bul- 
letin 340, United States Geological Survey, to which 
reference should be made for fuller description. 
Perhaps a dozen of the veins are of good size. The 
p]?evious owners worked the oxidized surface ore, 
treating it by simple leaching without trouble, but 
were never able successfully to handle the partly 
oxidized and primary ore with any degree of suc- 
cess. This seems to have been due to lack of metal- 
lurgical knowledge rather than to anything in the 
ore. Recent experiments go to show that by con- 
centrating before sending to the cyanide tanks a 
good recovery can be made. Inclines are being sunk 
on two of the veins to determine whether the ore 
persists in depth. These inclines are being run long- 
itudinally with the veins on a 35° slope, this being 
the presumable dip of the intrusion. Not enough 
work has been done definitely to prove the dip. No 
speed records are being made in this sinking, partly 
due to the fact that the plant is in poor condition, 
and partly to the tendency of the natives to live 
up to their state motto,, "Here We Rest." 

Before sinking one of these inclines it was neces- 
sary to get rid of four or five hundred tons of ore 
that had been left in a stope above the place where 
it was desired to begin sinking. This ore had de- 
composed so that it could not be cyanided, and the 
process of decomposition had so cemented the pieces 
together that it was necessary to blast in order to 
get it out. It was found that enough gold could 
be saved to pay for taking out the ore by the rough- 
est kind of blanket concentration and reconcentra- 
tion.* This method yielded concentrate containing 
about 100 oz. per ton. In experimenting with this 
concentrate, the interesting fact was disclosed that 
it contains an appreciable amount of bismuth, which 
is a rare associate of gold in this country. There 
was also found some coarse gold, an occasional par- 
ticle being as large as the head of a pin. This doubt- 
less accounts for some of the loss in cyaniding. Par- 
ticles of gold occur mechanically mixed with what 
is apparently the bismuth mineral, porbably bis- 
muth sulphide, just as sulphides of the base metals 
occur mixed in a hand specimen. This perhaps in- 
dicates why the previous owners claimed that it 
was necessary to- grind to 200 mesh or finer in order 
to get good extraction. Since the gold is more or 
less covered with another mineral, it naturally will 
not dissolve easily. These observations were made 
on pulp from the tube-mill under the microscope, 
and as yet the gold and bismuth(?) particles have 
not been separated in sufficient quantity for analy- 
sis, and the laboratory at the mine is inadequately 
equipped for even the simplest work. 



July 19. 1913 

One feature of this work seems tq offer great pos- 
sibilities, namely, the microscopic study of mill prod- 
ucts. In fine-grinding practice it is practically im- 
possible to tell by the eye in what condition the 
gold or other valuable mineral is, after it has been 
through a tube-mill. Several interesting facts re- 
garding its products at this mine have been learned 
by the use of a microscope equipped to magnify 
about 80 diameters. By letting the light shine on 
the slide from above and cutting off the reflector 
below the stage, a view of the. pulp can be obtained 
that gives as good an idea of how it looks as could 
be obtained from looking at material from a coarse 
•jig with the naked eye. This was how the mixture 
of gold and bismuth ( ?) above referred to was found. 

If the bismuth proves not to contain harmfal 
quantities of arsenic and a market for it can be 
obtained, it is quite possible that a salable product 
can be made on a "Wilfley table. Most of the bis- 
muth now produced comes from Bolivia, at Huayna, 
in Potosi, in La Paz, and at Chorolque, in Potosi. The 
principal region is Tazna, and the smelter is at Cho- 
rolque. The price of the metal is controlled by a 
syndicate and has remained at $1.60 per pound for 
many years. Bismuth is also produced in Queens- 
land and New South Wales. Bismuth ores occur in 
the United States in Colorado and Utah, but there 
is no present production. 

Rock-Drilling Contests 

Every Fourth of July these exhibitions of skill 
take place at the principal mining centres of the 
.Western states, and from the results of the recent 
contests we have compiled the following record. 

At Bisbee, Arizona, the first contest was between 
three-men teams. They were allowed 15 minutes 
each, no time being taken out for changing drills or 
other work outside of actual drilling. The winning 
team was the Jaeobson brothers and Fred Carlson, 
who drilled a hole 51.9 in. deep in 15 min., winning 
the prize of $300. A close second was the team com- 
posed of Lawrence Ligon, Joe Hockway, and H^rry 
Lyons. Their score was 50.9, which took second 
money, $150. The boys' team contest was a good 
one, and great skill was shown by Hooks and Shelp, 
who drilled 17 in., while Matigan and Densmore 
drilled 15.9 in. The class of rock used is not stated. 

At Cripple Creek, Colorado, excellent work was 
done in the allotted 15 minutes. Using a 16-V 
Waugh stoping machine, P. M. Smith, of the Elkton 
mine, drilled 20 ft. 6.7 inches in hard rock, followed 
by E. A. Belle, at the Burns mine, with 16 ft. 7 in. ; 
Sid Walhorton, with 15 ft. 11.9 in. ; Lee Empey, of 
the C. K. & N. mine, with 15 ft. 8 in.; John Hein 
with 15 ft. 7.5 in. ; and E. Creek and Tom Rogers, 
practically at tie, with 14 ft. 2.4 in. All machines 
used i/2-in. air connections, at the end of a 50-ft. 
%-in. hose, while 1-in. cruciform steel was employed. 
The contest was witnessed by superintendents, fore- 
men, and blacksmiths. 

At Globe, Arizona, the contest was one of the best 
ever held, and about 3000 admirers of the teams 
gathered around the block. This was rather a poor 

granite, which somewhat spoiled the results. There 
were two close contestants for the first prize of $250, 
Zapp and Adams of Globe and Haight and Mclver 
of Miami, closing with only 0.07 in. difference. Zapp 
and Adams, after losing the first trial by encounter- 
ing an old hole, captured first prize by drilling 33.16 
inches in 15 min. Lundgren and Mills took third 
prize with 31.62 inches. 

At Goldfield, Nevada, the following records were 
made. Double hand : Rice and Henderson, 52.2 in. ; 
Wickstrom and Jimpola, 50.5 in.; Sikstrom and 
Schram, 48.9 in.; Trainor and Bannister, 48 in.; 
Guest and Buchanan, 43.5 in. ; Peterson and Adam- 
son, 42.5 in. ; and Jonak and Pace, 41 in. Hill and 
Gist drilled into another hole and were disqualified 
under the rules. Single hand: Al Billett, 31.9 in.; 
J. Saxberg, 31.25 in.; Paul Malli, 29.5 in.: Joe 
_Marque, 25 in. ; and John Stablum, 19.5 inches. 

At Virginia City, Nevada, results were as follows : 
First prize was won by Harper, who drilled 24.9 in. ; 
second, Grivic, 21.25 in.; and third, Berry, 20.25 
in. Time was 15 minutes. 

At Tonopah,. Nevada, the following results were 
obtained: A double-handed drilling contest was 
held, a mass of Rocklin, California, granite being 
used for the purpose, the following being the result : 
Page and Johnson, 40.7 in.; Jaleck and Burns, 40.6 
in. ; and'Dahlen and Lindquist, 40.45 in. Last year's 
drilling records in the same block of granite were: 
Page and Pickens, 45.45 in.; and Dahlen and Lind- 
quist, 41.45 in. Time was 15 minutes. 

The sports at Wallace and Wardner, Idaho, drew 
large crowds. Nine teams were entered in the drill- 
ing contest at the former place, which makes a new 
record for the number of teams. Perola and Hill 
of Butte were the winners with 37.5 in. in the 15- 
min. contest, when their drill stuck and they did 
not use their last minute of time. Leaf and Mor- 
rison were second, with 35.9 in. The other entrants 
in the contest, with the inches drilled, are as fol- 
lows: Patterson and Nygren, drilled eight minutes 
and broke a steel and did not finish ; Roseman and 
Sherwood, 32.5; Spridell and Wurz, 33.3: Fridina 
and Mara, 32.4; Stokes brothers, 33.9; Siligo and 
St. Germain, 33.8 ; and Brady and Haff, 35.2. 

The rock-drilling contest was the chief feature of 
the day at Wardner, and the $250 cash prize for the 
first place was won by Siligo and St. Germain, the 
Stewart mine team. They drilled 46.8 inches in 15 
min. This is almost a record in this vicinity, but 
the rock is reported to have been softer than usual. 
Two of the teams split the rock while at work, and 
thereby lost a chance for the money. Sherwood 
and Roseman took second prize, drilling 42.75 in. 

Five teams competed at Baker, Oregon, in drilling 
15 minutes in granite. Two teams, George Baker 
and Albert Dodson, of the Bonanza mine, Whitney ; 
and Andregs and Dago Joe, from the Buckeye mine. 
Siimpter, tied for first money, each team drilling a 
hole 30.7 in. deep. Goodrich an'd Leroe, from the 
Columbia mine, Sumpter, drilled 28.5 in.; E. God- 
dard and A. Porter, of the Ben Harrison, drilled 
27.06 in., but had trouble with poor steel ; and Johns 
and Scott, of Sumpter, drilled 26.25 inches. 

July 19, 1913 




Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to 
use this department for the discussion of technical and other 
matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor 
welcomes the expression of views contrary to his own, be- 
lieving that careful criticism Is more valuable than casual 
compliment. Insertion of any contribution is determined by 
Us probable Interest to the readers of this journal. 

Colloids in Ore Dressing 
The Editor: 

Sir— Mr. Caetani's most interesting monograph 
on sand, slime, and colloids, in the March 22 issue, 
is a. welcome addition to the literature on the sub- 
ject ; and the remarks he makes as to the importance 
of the question of pulp viscosity are well worthy 
of attention. 

In an article published in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press last, year on tonnage estimation, I ignored 
the possible presence of colloids in the system of 
ore density estimation described, being at a loss to 
suggest a method of making satisfactory allowance 
for the alteration of composition due to chemical 
combination during treatment ; or for the difference 
of density before and after drying. In the same 
issue there appeared a letter from T. B. Greenfield, 
giving his experience of the difficulty of obtaining 
a satisfactory density result in an ore containing 
a quantity of clay. In replying to this, I pointed 
out that in most eases tonnage has no significance 
apart from assay value; and emphasized the neces- 
sity for drying the sample for density determina- 
tion at the same temperature as the corresponding 
sample for assay. If this precaution is observed 
there would be no noticeable difference in the theo- 
retical yield as a result of an error, however small, 
in the density estimation. 

Some time later, and in another country, I re- 
ceived my current copy of the Mining and Scientific 
Press, which contained a courteous criticism and a 
gentle rebuke from T. T. Read on my original article. 
In this he pointed out that, in the presence of col- 
loids, the method of density determination outlined 
would give the percentage of ore but not solid in 
the slime. The loss of water of hydration would 
account for the difference. On the other hand, I 
should consider that the action of the electrolyte 
used would affect the result in the reverse manner. 
The percentage of solid would be obtained but not 
the percentage of slime. 

Had I the opportunity of seeing Mr. Read's crit- 
icism first. I should have amplified my remarks in 
this direction and would have pointed out that the 
assay of an ore similarly treated to that of a sample 
for density determination would also be correspond- 
ingly in error. As all exact determinations of ton- 
nage are calculated so as to be used in conjunction 
with assay results, it is obvious that uniformity 
of treatment before weighing must be observed in 
each ease. On the other hand, if it were possible 
to make correction in the density estimation to 
oomiteract the slight error due to colloidal interfer- 
ence, then a corresponding correction would have 
to be applied to the assay results. 

1 would like to take this opportunity of comment- 
ing on Mr. Caetani's observations, and to add m.v 
atrrecment to his remarks as to the importance of 

de-sliming previous to classification. The ill effects 
of colloidal matter in interference with the settle- 
ment of sand is particularly noticeable in connec- 
tion with the working of cone dewaterers, which 
are in some cases used to reduce the moisture of the 
pulp forming the tube-mill feed, and incidentally to 
act as classifiers. With a coarse feed, such as when 
the tubes are merely acting as re-grinders and not 
as slimers, the cone works fairly well. When all- 
sliming is practised, and the cone has to handle a 
fine return in addition to the constant feed, the 
action is indifferent and uncertain ; and any appre- 
ciable proportion of colloidal matter becomes en- 
tangled with the fine sand, forming a deposit on 
the sides of the cone which leads to 'piping' through 
the centre. The result is that the cone works satis- 
factorily neither as a classifier nor as a dewaterer. 
No arrangement of vertical or horizontal baffles 
(whether termed 'diaphragms' or not) will coun- 
teract the ill effects of the viscosity of the pulp 
caused by the inclusion of the finer portions of the 
ground ore in the feed to the cone. 

For a satisfactory method of working such cones, 
J would draw attention to Homestake practice, 
where fine screening (900 to 1200 holes per square 
inch) is used in the batteries, and where the pulp 
is given two preliminary cone classifications before 
reaching the dewatering cone, with the result that 
"the cone remains clear of any accumulation of 
sand, a rod introduced at the top meeting with no 
resistance imtil it reaches the bottom of the cone 
immediately above the bushing. ' '* 

The efficiency of cone feed for tube-mills was 
made the special subject for remark in the discus- 
sion following the publication of a paper on tube- 
milling, published in the most recent volume of 
the Transaction of the Institution of Mining & Met- 
allurgy.! The attention of members was drawn to 
the evenness of the cone discharge; and the author's 
success in working the cone was commented upon. 
The results were taken as proof that watching and 
adjustment were both unnecessary; and the impres- 
sion was created that mechanical separation and de- 
watering offered no advantage over the method un- 
der review. 

In the author's reply to discussion and in answer 
to a request for further information, we find the 
remark that "the sand issued from the cone in a dry 
state." The italics are mine, but serve to indicate 
that the condition of the feed to the tube can be 
made no subject for comparison or compliment, the 
cone being used neither as a classifier nor a de- 
waterer, nor in a manner which could be duplicated 
in ordinary practice. 

The question of internal friction in mill pulp has 
been ably dealt with by Mr. Caetani in his article. 
The alternative definition of viscosity is 'sticki- 
ness', and it is this characteristic of moist clay 
which has an important bearing on the working of 
all apparatus with sloping sides and designed to 
thicken or classify a colloidal pulp. It is to the 
'stickiness' of the clay that the ever-present dan- 

*Clark & Sharwood, 'The Metallurgy of Homestake Or<?,' 
\\ 26. Bull. Inst. Min & Met., London. 

tBall, H. S., 'The Economics of Tube Milling.' Trans. I. 
M. M , Vol. 21. 



July 19, 1913 

ger of accretion, and eventual chokage of the outlet, 
is due. As a result, vertical-sided classifiers and 
thickeners, arranged for the mechanical displace- 
ment of settled solids, are becoming more and more 
popular: and their introduction has marked a de- 
cided advance in the progress of the handling and 
treatment of colloidal ores, insuring a continuity of 
operation and freedom from attention which was 
unknown before their adoption. 

A. W. Allen. 
Rhodesia, May 11. 

The Microscope in Mining 
The Editor: 

Sir — In an editorial in your issue of June 7, en- 
titled 'The Microscope in Mining,' you do not give 
definite reference to an article referring to "a 
scheme for utilizing the polarizing microscope in 
the detei-mination of minerals of non-metallic 
lustre," by A. J. Moses. "Will you be good enough 
to tell me in what publication the article appeared? 

D. P. Htnes. 
Chicago, June 21. 

[We have received so many inquiries regarding 
the use of the microscope as an aid to mining work 
that a public reply to this inquiry may prove of as- 
sistance to other operators. The paper in question 
was published in the July number of the School of 
Mines Quarterly, single copies of which can be secured 
from the publication oflce, Columbia University, 
New York City, at 50c. each. Binocular microscopes 
are much more convenient than the ordinary type 
for the study of crushed mineral fragments, and hand 
specimens. The necessary attachment for taking 
photo-micrographs can be obtained at no great cost, 
or any ordinary good camera can be used for this 
purpose with the aid of a little ingenuity. A recent 
new development is the making of colored photo- 
graphs, using Lumiere plates. In this way the min- 
erals are shown in their natural colors, which is a 
great aid to recognition. The colored photograph 
can be studied at leisure and preserved for reference 
in case later work brings out points which may 
have been overlooked at first. A little later we hope 
to publish a detailed description of this work by an 
investigator who has taken a prominent part in its 
development. — Editoh.] 

Winter Work in Alaska 

The Editor : 

Sir — I have read with interest the article in your 
issue of May 17 last from the pen of W. M. 
Brewer, on 'Winter Work on the Kanai Peninsula.' 
There is perhaps no one better qualified to write on 
this subject than Mr. Brewer, owing to his years of 
practical experience both in Alaska and the 
Yukon. In view of that fact it seems almost 
incredible that you should allow to pass unques- 
tioned the statement made by T. A. Riekard in 
his otherwise very, interesting article in your issue 
of May 24 on ' The Valuation of Mines. ' On page 767 
he states: "In some parts of the world, as in Alaska 
and Yukon, the active season only lasts four or five 

months; the period of idleness covering nearly two- 
thirds of the year," etc. If Mr. Riekard 's state- 
ment of facts pertaining to other parts of the world 
are as far astray as those quoted above he will lose 
any influence he has attained as a writer of credence. 

You no doubt have the information at hand with- 
out my entering into detail as to the number of days 
the gold dredges in and around Dawson operated 
during the year 1912; it is a matter of record. In- 
stead of those dredges operating only four or five 
months, I think you will find they operated nearly 
two-thirds of the year. This for placer mining. , 

In quartz mining there is absolutely nothing to 
hinder operations the year round in the Yukon, 
which as a matter of fact is being done right along. 
If you will look up the records pertaining to the 
White Horse copper properties you wilj observe that 
operations were carried on during the winter of 
1912, which, by the way, was the coldest on record 
in the territory. The Granville Power Co., which 
obtains its power from the North Fork of the Klon- 
dike river, operated during the entire winter of 
1912 without the slightest difficulty from anchor ice 
in the ditch. So far as the company which I repre- 
sent is concerned, we have not experienced any 
difficulty in operating and we are at an elevation of 
4250 ft. The weather conditions are not one whit 
worse in the Yukon than they are in certain parts 
of Colorado, Montana, and Kootenay. 

My only reason in calling your attention to this 
misstatement of facts as they are found in actual 
practice, is that it has a very bad effect on intending 
capital for investment in that region. The Yukon 
will be heard from in the course of a much shorter 
time than I care to predict. The quartz is- there in 
place in large quantities and undoubtedly rich in 
free gold. 

A: E. Garvet. 

Vancouver, B. C, May 29. 

The Editor: 

Sir — In reply to Mr. Garvey's protest, I beg to 
say that the usual season for productive work in the 
Yukon and in northwestern Alaska is about four 
months. Last year the Yukon Gold enjoyed an 
operating season of 172 days (or nearly 6 months') 
and the dredges worked for 86% of the time, or 5 
months. The Granville company worked a part of 
its plant from April to October, or 7 months. But 
these two companies are operating on a scale far 
above the ordinary, and under conditions more 
favorable than the average. The usual productive 
period among alluvial mines in that part of the 
world is, as I stated, about one-third of the year. 
As to quartz mining, the chief hindrance to continu- 
ous operations is the scarcity of gold-bearing quartz 
veins in the Yukon territory. I am aware of all the 
facts mentioned by Mr. Garvey, and some others. I 
see no reason to apologize for making the statement 
to which he takes vigorous exception. The emphasis 
was placed on the fact that productive operations in 
that part of the world are usually discontinuous. 


London. Julv 2. 

July 19. 1913 



Special Correspondence 


Resilts at the Bradex Mine. — Bbttish Columbia Copper 
Co. — Ixtebxatioxal Smelting HALF-rEAB. — Yukon Gold 
Output. — Affairs of Tuolumne. 

Braden made a better showing In June than in any pre- 
ceding month, 1,808,000 lb. of copper being produced, or 
at the rate of 22,000,000 lb. per year. In the two mills 
61,127 tons of ore was treated, with a recovery of 68.2%. 
Development work in the Fortuna No. 2 adit advanced 
39 metres in 2.97% ore; in the No. 2%, 19 metres in 2.15% 
ore; and the Teniente No. 1 advanced 12 metres in 2.19% 
ore. Following the recent announcement of an increase 
in the ore reserves, this constitutes an excellent 'bull' re- 

Sc«le 'f Miies 


port. A special meeting of the Braden stockholders has 
been called for .July 21 to authorize the action of the 
directors in extending the date of maturity of the con- 
vertible 3-year 7% gold bonds from July 1, 1914, to July 1, 
1916. There is $1,000,000 of these bonds outstanding. 
The mill capacity is being increased to 3000 tons per day, 
and the need for funds for further development makes 
this a poor time to redeem bonds. The output of copper 
of the Braden for the half-year was 8,618,000 pounds. 

New financing for the British Columbia Copper Co. will 
soon be undertaken, according to a statement attributed 
to Newman Erb. The Company has had a number of Brit- 
ish Columbia properties under option, and Mr. Erb states 
that 1,500,000 tons of ore. up to 3'v copper in grade, has 
so far been developed. If double this amount can be de- 
veloped, new financing to take these properties over will 

be undertaken. The British Columbia Copper Co. now has 
an issued capital of $2,958,545. Net earnings last year 
were $425,985, and $177,512 was paid in dividends. The 
Company is well managed, but its ore reserves are low 
grade, and it has had a good deal of hard luck in one 
way or another, and dividends have been few and far be- 
tween. The Shannon is another hard-luck company. The 
output for the quarter ended June 30 was only 3,242,000 lb.; 
the record by months being 1,238,000 lb. in April, 1,080,000 
in May, and 924,000 lb. in June. It is announced that 
work will be confined to the better grades of ore as long 
as the copper market remains low, but even on a 15c. 
copper market. Shannon cannot earn dividends, as its oper- 
ating costs are over 13c. per pound. Llk^ nearly every 
other company nowadays, the Shannon is attempting to 
develop a leaching process for the treatment of its low- 
grade ores. Progress of experiments is necessarily slow, 
and the outcome is uncertain. 

The International Smelting & Refining Co. has had a 
profitable half-year, earnings, exclusive of depreciation, 
being at the rate of 15% on its $10,000,000 capital, and is 
expected to do even better during the second half-year, 
as the earnings from new plants should continue to im- 
prove. Since its organization, the Company has spent 
$4,000,000 on new plants, without issuing new capital, but 
it is reported that the new smelter which will be built 
at Burch, in the Globe district, to handle the concentrate 
of the Inspiration, Miami, Keystone, and other companies, 
win necessitate the Issuing of new securities. The details 
regarding this new plant seem not to be settled as yet, and 
there is indeed no hurry, as the Inspiration has not started 
to build the final mill which is to furnish the smel- 
ter with concentrate. In connection with this new con- 
struction. Stone- Webster & Co. will undertake the construc- 
tion of an interurban electric line between Miami and 
Globe. , 

The Yukon Gold Co.'s production at Dawson, for the sea- 
son to June 30, was $1,015,700, according to a recent re- 
port, and for the Iditarod district $125,400, making a total 
of $1,141,100, as against $1,132,800 last year. The yardage 
excavated by the Dawson dredges was practically the same 
as last year, but the value per yard was 70c., as against 
76c. for the same period last season, and 66c. for the entire 
1912 season. The reconstructed Pacific No. 1 dredge, to be 
operated on the new properties acquired on the American 
river, in California, should be ready for operation about 
the first of November, and this smaller property should, 
therefore, begin to produce at about the time the Dawson 
and Iditarod dredges close down for the winter. 

At a recent meeting of the Consolidated Coppermines 
Co. It was voted to Issue $2,500,000 in 15-year 7% bonds, 
convertible at par, and redeemable at 110, with accrued in- 
terest, on ally interest day. A considerable amount of 
these bonds have already been subscribed by the principal 
shareholders. More than enough of the shareholders in 
the subsidiary companies have accepted the terms of the 
merger to give the Consolidated company the necessary 
physical control, as provided under the laws of Delaware. 
Another merger, this time at Butte, is to be voted on 
August 18, when at a special meeting the proposal to in- 
crease the capital of the Tuolumne from 860,000 to 1,500,000 
shares will be voted upon. The purpose of the increase 
is to take over the property of the Butte Main Range Min- 
ing Co., and efforts are being made to bring the Pilot Butte 
inside as well. It Is reported that the Colusa Leonard 
Extension may be taken in also. Early in the week it was 
reported that the La Rose and Nipissing companies had 
made a joint agreement to take an option in the Plenaurum, 
at Porcupine. This evoked a vigorous denial from E. P. 
Earle, who ought to speak with authority. At the meet- 
ing of the Chambers-Ferland Mining Co., George Richard- 
son, R. T. Shilllngton, and Arthur Ferland were elected 
directors. The basis of exchange between Chambers-Fer- 
land and the Aladdin Cobalt Co., Ltd., shares was not set- 
tled, but it Is reported that it will be on the basis of one 
share of Aladdin for 20 shares of Ferland. The output of 
the Rand mines during June amounted to 747,000 ounces. 



July 19, 1913 


Organization of the Montana Mining & Development Co. 
— Ohio Copper Co.'s Affairs. — Copper Production of 
Calumet & Hecla. — Nevada-Douglas Affairs. — Expan- 
sion OF THE Wolverine Company. 

Freeman I. Davison Is again at Butte, completing the 
details of incorporation of the llpntana Mining & Devel- 
opment Co., a $15,000,000 corporation being formed under 
the laws of Montana. Its object is to develop 140 claims, 
including the French Gulf mine, in Beaverhead county, 
and extend a railroad for approximately 50 miles from 
Divide, Montana, to these new properties. It is understood 
in Boston that Mr. Davison has associated with him in 
this enterprise Mr. Allen, the former lieutenant-governor 
of Montana, Sir Frederick W. Borden, of Ottawa, Canada, 
and a number of large Canadian, New England, and West- 
ern capitalists. The proposed railroad will open an ex- 
tensive ranching district in the Big Hole Basin country. 
The general impression here is that Butte Central in- 
terests have been largely transferred into the new Com- 
pany the past few weeks, and it is believed that eventually 
these transfers will result in the new Company absorbing 
Butte Central. 

Practically the same process is being gone through in 
exorcising F. A. Heinze from control of the Ohio Copper 
Co. as was the case in the Davis-Daly company, and not 
until the purging is completed will Ohio be reinstated in 
market favor on the Curb here. Recently the annual meet- 
ing of the Company was held at Portland, after four post- 
ponements in which somebody was apparently jockeying 
for control, and then no financial statement of the Com- 
pany was made. This has disgusted Boston people, who 
see in it some peculiar tactics. Less than a year ago, Ohio 
stockholders paid an assessment of $1 per share, and now 
tha stock is selling at not much more than half of that 
figure, while they are kept in the dark as to the result 
of operations and the control and management. There is 
great dissatisfaction expressed at the continued activity 
of the Heinze methods, and Ohio will be left alone until 
there is a change for the better. The Mascot tunnel con- 
tract has also a retarding effect on the Ohio. 

The outputs of the Lake Superior copper mines have been 
the leading features of interest locally during the past 
week. The trend of copper prices to a level under the 15c. 
basis naturally directs attention to the output end of the 
copper business, and when it was noted that the Calumet 
& Hecla and its subsidiaries were recording a lower refined 
copper production than for many months the local coterie 
was pleased. Calumet & Hecla with its subsidiaries pro- 
duced approximately 60,000,000 lb. of copper in the first 
six months of this year, this being a decided reduction 
from the production of the same six months of 1912, and 
the lowest record in over four years. 

While the sum total of the Calumet properties recorded 
a loss, the Allouez and Centennial companies were the high- 
est for June in several years. Ahmeek continues to hold 
well, the largest decrease in production coming from the 
Calumet & Hecla mine itself. 

It was announced here recently that the stockholders of 
the Nevada-Douglas Copper Co. were to be given the priv- 
ilege of exchanging 10 shares of Nevada-Douglas for 1 
share of Nevada Copper Belt Railroad Co. stock. But first 
they must be the owners of 188 shares each of Nevada- 
Douglas to be eligible for the exchange ratio. This works 
out a value of $17.50 per share for Nevada Copper Belt 
Railroad stock, taking the current market quotations of 
Nevada-Douglas as a basis, and, figured in 'rights' on 188 
shares, is equal to nil. This works out as follows: Ne- 
vada Copper Belt stock was given as a bonus to the pur- 
chasers of the Company's bonds. There is no market for 
the stock now; that is, public market. Nevada-Douglas 
has a market value of $1.75 per share. Holders are asked 
to exchange 10 shares of stock valued at $17.50 in the mar- 
ket today for a share of stock of the Nevada Copper Belt 
which has no market value so far as known. 

Much interest was aroused by the statement issued by 

S. L. Smith, a director of the Wolverine Mining Co., who 
wants a further expansion of the Wolverine company. This 
is the- first official who has to date committed himself on 
the subject. The absorption of the Old Colony and May- 
flower companies is what Boston expects. At present mar- 
ket prices, Mayflower is selling for a total value of $600,000 
and Old Colony Copper for $325,000. 


Quarterly Statement of Metal Production. — Developing 
THE Jupiter through the Pearl Lake. — McKinley- 
Darragh and Silver Cliff Mines. 

Returns made to the Ontario Bureau of Mines of the 
mineral output of the first three months of the year show 
an increase of $2,000,000 in value over the corresponding 
period of 1912. The total production was valued at $9,469,- 
938. As the stamp-mills at Porcupine were not in full 
operation during the first quarter of 1912, no comparison 
can be made. The principal producers of gold were the 
HoUinger and Dome. The quantity of ore milled was, in 
all, 69,905 tons, the average yield being a little over $15 
per toa. The production of silver was 174,485 oz. less, as 
compared with the first quarter of 1912. Nearly all the 
output came from the Cobalt mines. South Lorrain furnish- 
ing only 198,381 oz., and Gowganda 54,350 oz. Shipments 
amounted to 7053 tons of ore, 2130 tons of concentrate, 
and 1,926,150 oz. of bullion. There was recovered by silver 
refineries in Ontario 2,754,292 oz. The Sudbury mines 
yielded 1589 tons more of nickel and 538 tons more of 
copper than during the same period last year. The pres- 
ent producing companies are the Canadian Copper Co. and 
the Mond Nickel Co., but a new concern which has acquired 
the holdings of the Dominion Nickel Copper Co. is making 
active preparations for production. The output of pig iron 
showed an increase of 64,218 tons in quantity and $647,901 
in value. 

The annual meeting of the Jupiter was held on June 26 
when it was announced that an arrangement had been 
effected with the Pearl Lake, whose property lies imme- 
diately adjoining, for the exploration of the Jupiter west- 
ern areas through the Pearl Lake shaft, by drifts on the 
400 and 600-ft. levels. The deep underground workings of 
the Pearl Lake are close to the Jupiter western boundary, 
so that mutual economies can be effected from this cooper- 
ation in development. Plans for a mill with a crushing 
capacity of from 80 to 100 tons per day are in perparatiou, 
and an electrically-driven compressor has been ordered. 
The mine has an ore-shoot on the 300-ft. level, 290 ft. in 
length, averaging $20 per ton. The Mines Leasing Co. 
is operating the Rea on a royalty basis and is treating 
about IS tons per day with a small stamp-mill. There is 
1000 tons of good ore on the surface, and 10,000 tons 
blocked out underground. At the Hughes-Porcupine, a 10- 
ft. vein has been cut at the 200-ft. level, and if it opens 
well at depth a larger plant will replace the 2-stamp mill 
now working. At the Porcupine Reserve, several good 
veins have been cut by diamond-drilling. 

The May production of the McKinley-Darragh mine, at 
Cobalt, showed a heavy incerase. The output for the month 
was 206,781 oz., of which 42,662 oz. came from the Savage 
property. The aerial tramway connecting the latter with 
the mill is in operation, and the large amount of lov.^- 
grade ore in the Savage dumps is being reduced by 75 
tons per day. The capacity of the mill has been increased, 
and 50 stamps and 3 tube-mills are in operation, treating 
250 tons per day. The Silver Cliff property, now owned 
by a Toronto syndicate, is opening well, but owing to the 
poor recovery made, a new mill and six slime tables will 
be installed. On the Keeley, at South Lorrain, now in 
the hands of Ehrllch & Hamilton, an English firm, a 3-in. 
vein of high-grade ore has been opened for some distance. 
A cross-cut is being driven at the 150-ft. level. The Right 
of Way Mines, Ltd., capitalized at $2,000,000, has surren- 
dered its charter and will be dissolved. During June the 
high and low-grade mills at the Nipissing treated 147 and 
6291 tons, respectively, yielding bullion worth $388,883, hav- 
ing a net value of $215,418. 

July 19, 1913 




Ibo>" Oee Deposits ix Brazil being Developed bv the St. 
John del Rey Mixing Co. — Institution of Mining and 
Metallubgy Secures a Permanent Home. — Office 
Buildings in London. 

On several previous occasions I have made reference in 
this column to that celebrated gold mine in Brazil, the 
Morro Velho, belonging to the St. John del Rey Mining Co. 
For over eighty years it has been continuously worked by 
the same organization, and It is now 4900 ft. deep vertically, 
below the adit. The announcement is now made that 
the Company is preparing to embark on an iron-ore indus- 


try on a large scale. Nothing was said by the directors in 
their annual report, or at the meeting of shareholders 
held last month, but hidden away at the end of George 
Chalmers" (the manager) voluminous report is found a 
paragraph that appears to be of prime Importance. It 
is well known that the state of Minas Geraes, in which 
the mine is situated, contains enormous deposits of iron 
ore, of preCambrian age, and that both English and Amer- 
ican iron masters are giving close attention to them. The 
gold-bearing lodes worked by the St. John del Rey and 
Ouro Preto companies are found in these iron formations. 
The iron ore occurs in various forms and grades. On the 
surface they are mostly fragmental, and of medium and 
low grade, while below, the ore is laminated or massive 
hematite of the highest quality. The St. John del Rey 
company has for the past few years been quietly buying 
land adjoining the gold mine, and it now owns an un- 
broken estate of 140 square miles. Development was com- 
menced on one deposit In January 1912, and already Mr. 
Chalmers is able to estimate the proved ore at 160,000,000 
tons, averaging as high as 67.3% iron, with only 0.053% 
phosphorus. This is covered by fragmental surface ore, 
of a quality not quite so good. The hematite is soft 
enough to make mining easy, and at the same time suffi- 
ciently hard to make timbering unnecessary in the un- 
derground workings. The cost of mining will be low, 
and the chief item of cost will be that of transport by 
rail and sea. The Company has no Intention of working 
the deposits In the immediate future, but intends to wait 
until the exhaustion of the high-grade ores of Spain and 
the United States creates an active demand for supplies 
from more remote parts of the world. In any case, it 
would be impossible to exploit them at present, owing to 
the scarcity of labor, which even prevents their systematic 
development. The gold mine is suffering for the same 
reason, and negotiations are in hand for the importation 
of laborers from Japan. Railway facilities will also have 
to be greatly improved. At present they are both insuf- 
ficient and inefficient. Probably ten years will elapse be- 
fore progress can be made. In the meantime, the chances 
are that the gold mine will continue to provide dividends, 
as the ore reserves contain a four years' supply, and the 
lode Is remarkably persistent. 

The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy continues to 
make gratifying progress. A few months ago I recorded 
that negotiations were in hand for a royal charter of In- 

corporation, the effect of which will give it a legally rec- 
ognized existence. A further step, of no less importance, 
has now been taken by the acquirement of a home of 
its own. Until the present time, the society has had to 
be content with quarters in one or other office building, 
first Broad Street House, and lately Salisbury House, 
The new home is a freehold building on the other side 
of Finsbury Circus to Salisbury House. This has been 
purchased outright, ground and all, and a better invest- 
ment could not be found for the funds of the institution. 
The building has five floors. The general offices will be 
on the entrance floor, and the secretary's room and coun- 
cil room on the floor above. The top floors will be occu- 
pied by the library and reading-rooms. It is opportune 
to remind American engineers that nine-tenths of the 
offices of English mining engineers and mining companies 
are to be found within a quarter of a mile of Salisbury 
House. With the development of the London Wall estate, 
commencing fifteen years ago, the mining fraternity gradu- 
ally drifted in that direction, from districts round and to 
the south of the Bank of England. Few of our friends are 
found nowadays in Cannon and Queen Victoria streets. 
The last to be left in that quarter is the firm of John 
Taylor & Sons, who still retain the offices in Queen Street 
Place close to Southwark bridge. The two handsomest 
office buildings in the City are London Wall Buildings 
and Salisbury House. The south sides of these are on 
London Wall, and their crescent-shaped northern sides 
on' Finsbury Circus. All American visitors should stroll 
through the gardens in the centre of Finsbury Circus and 
admire the view across the lawn and flower-garden with 
the trees on each side and the towers of the two buildings 
rising above them. We do not boast of sky-scrapers here. 
For one thing, the light is not sufficiently strong to pene- 
trate into the canons formed thereby. For another, the 
ground is not sufficiently dependable, as is evidenced by 
the anxiety in connection with the stability of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. We are saved from many heart troubles caused 
by express elevators. We take things easier, but we get 
there Just the same. The funds for building the two 
houses I have mentioned came from the diamonds and 


gold of South Africa. Wernher, Beit & Co. built London 
Wall Buildings, and S. Neumann & Co., Salisbury House. 
The accommodation at the latter consists of 700 rooms 
distributed over 9 floors. The offices are numbered up to 
850, but owing to many numbers being skipped so as to 
make the century numbers coincide with the floors, the 
actual afcommodatlon is about 700. Considerable care is 
taken in accepting tenants, as the reputation of the house 
Is jealously guarded. The Transvaal Chamber of Mines 
has its London office here. The agent-general for British 
Columbia is a tenant, though he is shortly to follow the 
lead of the Institution and flnd a house of his own. Con- 
sulting firms, such W. R. Feldtmann & Co., and Baln- 
brldge, Seymour & Co., are among the tenants, as are also 



July 19. 1913 

milling companies such as the Golden Horse-Shoe and 
Ivanhoe, and the machinery houses identified with the 
names of Allis-Chalmers, Wilfley, Hardinge, Deister, and 
Crompton. I need not add that The Mining Magazine is 
reckoned one of the most respectable of all the tenants. 


The Recent Strike, Attitude of Labob, and Changes of 
Management. — Main Reef West and Consolidated 
Main Reef Deveix)pment. 

A miners' strike on the Rand is rather a unique occur- 
rence, for during the whole history of these fields there 
has been only one strike of any importance, and the men 
lost so decisively in that instance that it was generally 
thought a similar struggle would have been undertaken 
only after every other resource had failed. However, at 
the New Kleinfontein mine, owing largely to a want of 
tact in making a change in the hours of the machine fit- 
ters, and a prevailing suspicion on the part of the men 
against any change in the working hours owing to a 
recent change in the management, the whole of the white 
men came out on strike, and at one time threats were 
made to attempt to involve the whole of the Rand. How- 
ever, the New Kleinfontein company- has, after due con- 
sideration, agreed to revert to the original hours, and all 
danger of the strike spreading has been thereby averted, 
' but as the strike committee is principally composed of 
professional agitators and socialists, they have been able 
so far to prevent the men resuming work, on the grounds 
that the management has repudiated them in arranging 
the settlement. Hitherto on the Rand, the mine admin- 
istrations have always refused to recognize the trade union 
oflicials in any way, and so far have been able to main- 
tain that attitude, and in this Instance, although that 
attitude has caused a prolongation of the strike, there 
are not wanting signs that the strike will not extend 
much longer than a month. This means, however, a 
loss in profits alone of at least $96,000 to the Company, 
in addition to the huge unproductive expenditure a strike 
usually involves. When the Company gave way, the strike 
committee attempted to impose new and more onerous 
conditions in the shape of an eight-hour day from bank 
to bank, instead of from face to face, as legalized in the 
Transvaal. Such an innovation would have imposed a 
heavy burden on the mines, with their constantly growing 
depths and areas of operation, and it is fbrtunate that 
the New Kleinfontein miners have not responded to the 
innovation. The lesson taught by this strike is the grow- 
ing need of tact in attempting to make changes in work- 
ing hours, and generally to recognize that, on the Rand, 
there is a strong feeling against the numerous and often 
unnecessary changes made in the management. Up to 
the present these changes often have involved a complete 
change of staff, with new ideas and a tendency to attempt 
to lower the working costs, before the new administra- 
tion has obtained a proper Insight into the actual con- 
ditions prevailing in the mine. 

Among the mines on the Rand, there are few that have 
given so much cause for anxiety owing to the large pro- 
portion of unpayable ore developed, as the Main Reef 
West. At one time this mine was regarded as one of 
the most promising mines on the Western Rand, and 
shares were bought in usually well informed quarters 
at high prices. Since then the shares have fallen to the 
extent of one-eighth their former value, and the develop- 
ment record of this mine for the last quarter is indeed 
a most unsatisfactory one. Out of 3434 ft. of develop- 
ment, 2386 ft. was on the 'reef,' but. of this, only 931 ft., 
or 39% of the whole footage, was found to be profitable. 
No less than 2386 ft. was found unprofitable, only showing 
an assay value of $3.30 per ton. The property, however, 
is an extensive one, and there is every probability of an- 
other profitable area being soon discovered, while the mine 
is far from being In difficulties, as the present developed 
profitable ore reserves already amounted to 633,610 tons. 
While the Main Reef West property has deteriorated to this 
extent, its neighbor, the Consolidated Main Reef, has im- 

proved, so that sooner or later there is every reason to 
look for an early change for the better in the Main Reef 
West also. 


The Dbumlummon Mine. — Anaconda Company'.s Belmont 
Shaft to be Main Obe Outlet. — Tuolumne Copper 
Co.'s and Butte Main Range Pbopebty. 

Now that the protracted and bitter litigation between 
the St. Louis and the Drumlummon interests has been 
brought to a final close, the St. Louis Mining Co. is be- 
ginning to look about for some use to make of its hard- 
earned possessions. A new cyanide plant has been built, 
and prospecting is under way at both properties, so as 
to keep them running. The best ore has been mined, but 
shoots containing a good tonnage of cyanidihg ore un- 
doubtedly await development. In the meantime, the pio- 
neer owner of the Drumlummon is successfully operating 
nearby properties, and proving to those interested in the 
district that his successes are not altogether due to luck. 

Butte, like most mining districts, is all the time strug- 
gling with a few 'lame ducks' which were born in good 
faith and with high promise, but whose injuries come 
about from inability to find ore in sufiicient quantities. 
Among such at present are the Raven Copper Co. and 
the Davis-Daly Copper Co. In both of these pr6i)erties, 
conscientious and intelligent efforts have been made to 
develop paying mines, but the orebodies seem to be want- 
ing. The only complaint to be made is that the true 
speculative features of such conditions are frequently con- 
cealed by promoters, and many Eastern people invest 
under a wrong impression as to the chances involved. 
Raven copper, for instance, seems to have done nearly 
enough work to prove that it is not a mine, and the 
discouragement of the stockholders is being reflected in 
the sagging of the stock. 

Many of the shafts of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. 
are situated high on Anaconda hill, several hundred feet 
above the level of Silverbow creek. Ore through these 
shafts is hoisted to the top of the hill and taken down 
again by way of the surface trains. This wasted energy 
is appreciated by the Company, and it is planned to 
obviate it to some extent by making the Belmont, at 
the foot of the hill, the chief ore-producing shaft in the 
future. Electric trains on the different mine levels will 
deliver the ore to large skip pockets at the Belmont shaft. 
Of course, no one shaft can handle the ore and supplies 
for all of the mines, but it is, nevertheless, expected 
that ore-handling at the Belmont will effect a large saving. 

The Tuolumne Copper Co. is considering the acquiring 
of the burdens of the new Butte Main Range Mining Co. 
An attempt was made recently to finance Butte Main Range 
independently, but, it would seem, with indifferent suc- 
cess. It is now proposed to increase the capital stock 
of the Tuolumne company from 800,000 to l,500,0u0 shares, 
with a view to raising money to develop Butte Main 
Range. It appears that the Tuolumne will have its hands 
full with its own and the proposed business. Butte Main 
Range may prove to be a big mine, but it seems too 
bad for a good little mine like the Tuolumne to run the 
risk of adding to its burdens the prospecting of a new 
property in an admittedly unproved part of the district. 


Dlspute between the Tonopah and Continental Mining 
Companies over Title to the Buffalo Bot Mine. 

The trouble between the Tonopah Mining Co. and the 
Continental Mining Co. is rather strange, and it is 
hard to get much data on the subject. The facts, as nearly 
as can be gathered, are as follows: Last fall, D. M. 
Haines came into the San Juan and began taking options 
on properties along the so-called Eastern gold belt lying 
to the south of the Animas river, its best known mines 
being the Highland Morn, Shenandoah, Dives, Old Abe. Buf- 
falo Boy, Intersection, Esmeralda, Trilby, Kittniac. and 
others of less importance. Mr. Prosser. during his services 

July 19, 1913 



as secretary of the Silverton Commercial Club, had spent 
much time in a study of this region, and* was selected 
by Mr. Haines as his assistant, and still serves in that 
capacity". Most of the options, it is understood, are in 
Mr. Prosser's name. The Continental company owned the 
Buffalo Boy, and had spent about $30,000 on development, 
and claimed to have opened ore, averaging $19 per ton, 
over a distance of 1200 ft. in the main adit. The prop- 
erty was examined about a year ago for the Mines Com- 
pany of America, but for some reason the deal fell through, 
although it is rumored on fairly reliable authority that 
this Company estimated the value of the property to be 
$600,000. This Is, of course, doubtful, but the value of 
the ore is nearly correct. Mr. Haines bought the Old Abe, 
or at least a controlling interest. This property adjoins 
the Buffalo Boy. Mr. Haines then attempted to buy the 
stock of the Continental Mining Co. at 38c. per share, the 
controlling owners, Martin Heller and Joe Bordelean, hold- 
ing out for 52c. per share, which Mr. Haines refused. Mr. 
Haines then bought the stock of A. A. Brown at a rumored 
price of $30,000, this stock consisting of a one-sixth in- 
terest in the Company. 

In January, while the Continental company was actively 
at work on underground development, Mr. Prosser re- 
located all the Buffalo Boy ground in the name of Mr. Bel- 
ford, and served notice on the mine superintendent, Ed. 
Haas, that he was a trespasser, and to vacate the premises 
at once. Mr. Haas, of course, refused to do so, and is 
still in possession. The exact grounds for the re-location 
are not known, some claiming that the original locator 
was not a citizen, others that the Buffalo Boy locations 
are qn other claims and are invalid. The strange part of 
it is that Heller and Bordelean should ,hold such a 
valuable property without a patent for six years. It was, 
however, surveyed last summer, and an application for 
patent is now before the Surveyor General. Local feeling 
is divided, the majority favoring the Continental com- 
pany. It seems as though Haines and Prosser hope to 
force this Company to settle on their terms, but at the 
same time the title Is bad. Mr. Haines has a right to 
protect the Tonopah people, as it is rumored that their 
total investment in the Buffalo Boy and vicinity amounts 
to $110,000. The Continental people were the makers of 
this mine and have held it in good faith for six years. 
However, their way of doing business seems to be a poor 
one; and if they lose the property through a faulty title. 
they have only themselves to blame. 


mimno on the nobthebn coast. — history of the hidden 
Creek Properties Development. — Porti.and Canal 
Tunnels, Ltd. 

The purchase in 1910 by the Granby Consolidated Mining, 
Smelting & Power Co., Ltd., of the mineral claims on 
Observatory Inlet, Portland canal, assured for that portion 
of the province operations of such magnitude as would 
place it in a prominent position. The history of this Hid- 
den Creek property is quite interesting, because of the fact 
that it just escaped being numbered among the abandoned 
prospects that are to be found in every mining camp on 
this continent. In 1900, M. K. Rodgers bonded this group 
of claims from the original owners, Flewin and Rudge, of 
Port Simpson. Mr. Rodgers at that time was acting for 
the late Marcus Daly, and after Mr. Daly's death the 
executors had examinations made of all his mining proper- 
ties, including those taken up for him by Mr. Rodgers. 
Chief among these were the Nickel Plate mine at Hedley, 
and this Hidden Creek copper property on Goose bay, now 
known as Granby bay. Observatory inlet. The result of 
this examination was that, although about $15,000 had been 
expended on the property, it was ordered abandoned, and 
reverted to the original owners. Later, about 1906. the 
group of claims was bonded by a Vancouver syndicate on 
the same terms, namely, $40,000 purchase price, as had 
been given to Mr. Rodgers. This syndicate exiiended alto- 
gether about $20,000. and in February 190S the property 
was again purchased by Mr. Rodgers for himself and 

Thomas Hudgins of Butte for $135,000. These gentlemen 
continued development on the mining claims, constructed 
a tramway, wharf, camp buildings, developed water-power, 
and erected a power-house. They also located some ad- 
joining ground, expending thereon quite a large sum of 
money, and developed such extensive copper ore reserves 
as to be able to sell the property in 1910 to the Granby 
company for about $500,000. 

At the end of June there were 1125 men on the Company's 
payroll at Granby bay, most of them being engaged in 
general construction work. The smelter and converter 
plant will be completed and in operation about the first 
of next year and will have a treatment capacity of 2000 
tons per day. The mine is now sufficiently developed to 
ship that quantity of ore daily, it being estimated that 
there is over 8,000,000 tons of ore in sight. The difference 
in the elevation between the upper exposures of ore on the 
mountain, and the lowest of a series of adits is 865 ft., and 

situation of hidden creek copper mines. 

between the upper exposures and the deepest diamond-drill 
holes sunk to a point 300 ft. below sea-level, there inter- 
venes a vertical depth of approximately 1500 ft. This will 
serve to convey some idea of the area of ground that has 
been proved to be ore-bearing. The last cores of mineral 
taken from the lowest diamond-drill holes gave assays of 
6 and 11% copper. 

Stewart has experienced quite a slump, and at present, 
except for the work being done by the Portland Canal Tun- 
nels, Ltd., of which W. J. Elmendorf is manager, there is 
little activity, as the Investing public is waiting for the re- 
sults from the adit being driven by that Company. The 
proposed length of this adit is about 2300 ft., and from the 
direction in which it is being driven it will cross-cut the 
ground owned by the Glacier Creek Mining Co., the Stew- 
art Mining & Development Co., and the Portland Canal 
Mining Co. In the last named pro|)erty this adit will cut 
through at a depth of about 2000 ft,, below the present 
workings on the Portland Canal mine. The present face 
of the adit is about 1800 ft. from the portal, and it is ex- 
pected that it will be completed about November. The 
future of the 'camp' to a great extent hangs on the com- 
pletion of this work, and if the orebodies are found at this 
level, the success of the district is assured. 



July 19, 1913 

General Mining News 


The unexplored islands of the Aleutian group will be 
examined for mineral deposits by George A. Parks, who is 
employed by the United States Land Office. Of the terri- 
tory to be explored, Akun is on the western shore of 
Unimak pass, in the Krenitzin group of the Aleutians. 
Akutan is the largest island in the same group, and is 
situated northeast of tJnalaska. 

A good deal of drilling is being done on Ester creek, but 
results so far have not been published. On June 11 the 
Chatham property changed hands. Work is proceeding 
steadily and the 4-stamp Hendy mill is running. Quite 
a number of miners are sluicing on Deadwood creek, in 
the Circle district. According to reliable reports, the Red 
Mountain district of the Koyukuk should produce $50,000 
in gold this season, or about twice as much as in 1912. In 
the Ruby district, the Ferry Bros, are the only ones who 
have done extra well. At the spring clean-up they recov- 
ered $18,000 from their dump. On Long and Poorman 
creeks a good deal of prospecting is being done. 


(Special Correspondence.)— The Sheep Creek adit of the 
Alaska Gastineau Mining Co. was advanced 570 ft. during 
June, and for 10 days a speed of one foot per hour was 
maintained in good ground. The adit is 8 by 10 ft. Three 
shifts are working. P. O'Neil is foreman and B. L. Thom 
superintendent. A new dam will be built at the Nugget 
creek power-site of the Alaska Treadwell company. A sam- 
ple of one ton of ore from the Kensington mine has been 
shipped by B. B. Neiding, the superintendent, to the Mer- 
rill Metallurgical Co., San Francisco, for testing purposes. 

Juneau, July 3. 


Cochise County 
The Gus Baron group of zinc claims in Montezuma canon, 
in the Huachuca mountains, have been bonded to a group 
of Tennessee capitalists. The first payment has been made 
and development of the property will begin shortly. This 
property was at one time leased to the Mitchell Develop- 
ment Co. The new mill of the Commonwealth Mining & 
Milling Co., at Pearce, will be ready to operate by August 
1, according to H. J. Rahllly, who has been supervising 
Its construction. The mill has 30 stamps, three Hardinge 
mills, and three tube-mills, Pachuca tanks for agitation, 
and four Dorr tanks for settling. The pulp is then run 
through four Oliver continuous filters. The mill will treat 
about 350 tons of ore per day. 

Gila County 

At the Miami mine, good progress is being made In re- 
opening the caved ground. During June, development 
totaled 7285 ft. A good deal of work is being done at the 
Captain shaft. Underground work at the Inspiration has 
slackened of late, and in June this covered 2600 ft. It was 
necessary to cement the drill-hole at the Southwestern 
Miami in order to recover a string of tools. A 40-ft. head- 
frame and 25-hp. gasoline hoist has been erected at the 
Inspiration Extended. 

Mohave County 

On July 11, four bars of bullion, valued at $99,500, were 
shipped from the Tom Reed mine to Pasadena, California. 
This gold output was the clean-up for June from the 30- 
stamp mill.' The Gold Road shipped gold worth $20,000 
on July 10, this being a clean-up for the first week in July. 

George W. Heintz, general manager for the United States 
Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., recently inspected the 
Gold Road mine. An average of about 50 tons of ore per 
day is being treated. If mine conditions warrant it, the 
Company proposes to raise the mill capacity to at least 
500 tons per day. Mining operations are being carried on 
much the same as they have been since the property was 

acquired. The ore sent to the mill is coming from the 
upper levels and a goodly portion of it from the 500-ft. 
level. The drift from the lowest workings has cut the ore 
in stringers and bunches, and a raise is now being driven 
toward the shoots higher up. 

Pinal County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The old Mammoth-Collins 
mines, at Schultz, which for many years were the chief 
factor in the prosperity of so many people in that part 
of the county, have changed ownership, and hereafter will 
be operated by the Young Bros, of the Great Western Cop- 
per Co., of Courtland. They will put the mine workings 
in a good state of repair at once, then proceed with de- 
velopment on the 800 and 900-ft. levels. Later on, the 
mines will be equipped with more modern machinery, in- 
cluding a new reduction plant. The property has produced 
several millions in gold, and the new owners believe that 
they can be made to duplicate the past record many times 
over. Below the 800-ft. level the vein on the Mammoth 
ground Is about 30 ft. wide, and averages about $9 gold 
per ton and from 4 to 6% copper. 

Schultz, July 10. 

Yavapai County 

Operations have Ijeen resumed at the old Waddell group 
on Copper creek, in the Hassayampa district. About 50 
ft. has been driven in the old adit, in a continuous shoot 
of copper ore. Attention is again being attracted to the 
placer mines of Sam Norlan at the Three Mile house, on 
the wagon-road to Walker. According to reliable reports, 
the ground Is reputed to be rich. In work performed re- 
cently it is believed the original channel has been opened. 


EldoraiJo County 

The Channel Bend mine, on the Forest Hill divide, In 
former days called the Eagle Bar, and at one time very 
rich, is to be reopened and tested by local people, among 
whom is N. L. Kohn, who for several years has been en- 
deavoring to bond the property and has only recently been 
able to secure an option on it. Last week the first load 
of supplies and prospectors left for the 'North Side,' among 
them Fred Hoskins, and Irving and Lee Cohn, who will 
start development work. 

Glenn County 

L. N. Comstock and B. L. Dyer, of Fresno, and H. Hor- 
dorn, of Willows, have been leasing oil land for some time 
and have obtained options on upward of 10,000 acres. At 
the same time J. T. Leland, who is declared to be a rep- 
resentative of the Standard Oil Co., arrived on the scene 
and took a number of options. All the land leased is in 
the vicinity of the Butte ranch, west of Germantown. The 
Butte ranch Is owned by Frank Freeman and associates. 
It is said that Comstock and his partners got the ranch 
option. Some months ago oil was found in a deep well 
on the ranch, and promising sands were found. A test well 
Is to be sunk in a few weeks. 

Kebn County 

(Special Correspondence.) — A carload of copper ore has 
just been shipped by Joseph Weringer from his Greenback 
mine to the Selby smelter. He has only recently reopened 
the property. 

Woody, July 10. 

Nevada County 

Suspension of work at the Gaston mine, in the northern 
part of the county, was only temporary. The 10-stamp 
mill is being moved to a position on Porman's creek below 
the lower adit, which Is In 4000 ft. At the Erie, near 
GranitevUle, 35 men are employed, and the stamp-mill is 
in full operation. At the Ancho, BIrchville, and Republic 
the mills are also crushing good ore. 

Placer County 

Three carloads of machinery have been received for the 

Guggenheim mines at Mammoth Bar. recently purchased 

by these interests. Buildings are being erected and work 

has been commenced on the dredge. Representatives of 

July 19, 1913 



the Guggenheims are investigating various bars along the 
American river, and it is likely that Poverty bar, near 
Butcher ranch, will be purchased by them in the near 
future. A full force of men is working in the Bullion 
and Gri-ass Ravine mines at Ophlr. A drift is being run 
on the 400-ft. level of the Bellevue into the Bullion ground, 
and is now about 30 ft. below the old workings. An- 
other drift from the same level is being run into the old 
California ground. Machine drills are being used in both 
drifts. The 80 tons of ore from the Bellevue which were 
run through the mill of the Big Busar company gave good 
returns, and another lot of 50 tons from the Grass Ravine 
mine was crushed last week. The mill at the Crandall 
has been repaired and is again crushing ore from the 
mine. About 25 men are working at the Black Canyon 
mine around the sawmill and in road-making and getting 
the mine in shape to commence development. The people 
who are working the black sand at the Mayflower, near 
Forest Hill, have installed a new gas-engine. It is much 
larger and more powerful than the first one, and it Is 
hoped that the Company will be soon grinding the sand. 
Shasta uounty 

The Hayfork Mining & Milling Co., composed of people 
of this county and Oregon, has leased its property at Har- 
rison Gulch to C. A. Mueller, of Redding. He is driving 
a long cross-cut to intersect the extension of the Midas vein 
system. A rock-crusher will be installed at the mill. At 
the Murphy-Ivayman mine, in this district, a 4-stamp mill 
Is crushing good ore. 

SiEBKA County 

The Telegraph gravel mine is temporarily closed un- 
til arrangements are made for regular operation. At 
the Sierra del Oro (Ironsides) the men are opening an 
old adit and will extend it to the ore-shoot. The old adit 
is already in about 200 ft., and by driving 300 ft. more 
they can develop the rich shoot 100 ft. deeper than has 
been done heretofore. H. B. McCormick is manager. The 
shoot opened in the Uncle Sam or North Fork, at Forest, 
is said to be showing free gold and arsenical pyrite, and 
prospects are good. 

It is stated that the old Ruby gravel property, near 
Forest City, is to be reopened. Oakland peopI& have an 
option on It, and if on examination is satisfactory, will 
probably buy it. The Ruby has a large acreage of lava- 
capped ground and was worked extensively in the early 
days through a long tunnel tapping the channel at 2200 ft. 
in from Rock creek near the northern boundary line of the 
Bald mountain. It was mined the full length of the claim 
and then abandoned. Since then It has passed through 
several hands^ until the present people took an option. 

TuoLUMKE County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Atlas mine, at Tuttle- 
town, has been purchased from Fred Sutton by J. L. Wit- 
ney, representing the company that has extensively de- 
veloped the property during the past year or more. The 
mine was previously deeded to Mr. Sutton by Robert R. 
Morrison, of San Francisco. Mr. Witney has also secured 
an option on 40 acres of mining land adjoining the Atlas 
from Ferguson McArdle. The renewal of activities at the 
Atlas is expected soon. 

The Wagner Mining Co. has acquired the Paymaster 
group of three claims, situated south of Tuolumne, and 
is vigorously carrying on development work. The Pay- 
master vein, which was opened by adits, aggregating sev- 
eral hundred feet in length, by the original owner, Andy 
Omodt, ranges In width from 3 to 12 ft., and assays In- 
dicate that the ore will give mill returns averaging at 
least $10 per ton. 

Sonora, July 12. 

The old Dutch mine, at Quartz, is having considerable 
equipment installed, while in about two months it ought 
to be free of water. John Segale and associates are prepar- 
ing to construct a large dam and excavate a ditch above 
the Clio mine to turn the river from Its natural course. 
and the work will be rushed to completion before the 
heavy fall rains set in. It is expected that a good deal 
of gold will be recovered by working the old river bed. 


Eagle County 

(Special Correspondence.)— The Lady Belle mine has 
shipped its nineteenth car of ore, averaging over 100 oz. 
silver per ton. The mine is opening well. There are sev- 
eral prospecting parties in the district. 

Eagle, July 14. 

The Eagle Valley Enterprise states that an interesting 
mining project, adjacent to Eagle, is the draining of the 
lake at the headwaters of Lake creek. The object in view 
is placer mining the 80 ft. of deposit of wash in the bottom 
of the lake. Samples of the wash run as high as $13 to 
$20 per cubic yard. In order to drain to the bottom of 
the deposit, It will be necessary to drive a 900-ft. tunnel 


from below. Work Is being done at present on this project. 
Edward J. O'Flaherty has charge of the operations for 
the Electra Gold Mining Company of Denver. 
Gunnison County 
The Tin Cup Gold Dredging Co., a newly organized 
Denver concern, is erecting a dredge at Taylor Park, 
which should be ready in about 60 days. The Company 
owns 1900 acres, and will build two more dredges if re- 
sults are satisfactory. The new machine is 45 ft. wide 
and 85 ft. long, and will weigh 150 tons. The ground has 
been properly tested by drilling, which proved bedrock 
to be 35. ft. deep. W. B. McDonald is in charge of the 
dredging work. 

Lake County (Leadville) 

The Western Mining Co. is practically the only property 
shipping carbonate of zinc ores at present, and only large 
operators can afford to produce it, according to S. D. 
Nicholson, manager for the Company. The drainage of 
Fryer and Carbonate hills is being arranged, although 
botu will be separate propositions. Work in the lower adit 
of the Mt. Champion Is opening a good deal of ore, and 
the mill is working regularly. Gold and copper ore has 
been opened in the Eureka in a raise above the adit. The 
Bertonell lease at the Little Jonny shaft No. 4 continues 
to produce rich ore. A recent sampling of the shoot re- 
turned 484 oz. silver, 11 oz. gold, and 5% copper. 

Birdseye, Alicante, Big and Little English gulches, and 
French gulch lately have witnessed an influx of prospec- 
tors, or owners of small claims, who have started to do 
the annual work for the year on the different claims. Some 
prospectors are working toward the head of the different 
gnlches looking for diineral alongside of the big porphyry 
dike that trends through that part of the country, and 
the same that comes from the famous Little Jonny, Breece 
hill. Interest in Lackawanna and Half Moon gulches be- 
comes more apparent each week, as reports from these dis- 
tricts state that prospectors can now be found scattered 
over the different hills and gulches. They have all found 



Julv 19. 1913 

float which yields from a few dollars up to 3 and 5 oz. 
gold per ton, and a search is being made to find the vein 
from which the float came. 

Tne Pyrenees Consolidated Mines Co. is increasing its 
capital . from $100,000 to $250,000. The old mill of the 
Leadville public sampling works is being overhauled and 
repaired, to make a test run on zinc ore from La Plata 
and other shafts in the neighborhood. 
OuBAY County 

No. 7 level is now being driven from t.h^ Camp Bird 
shaft, which is down 800 ft., and will probably cut the 
vein in about 150 ft. Three shifts are extending No. 5 
level of the Humboldt north toward the mountain top. 
A contract is to be let for sinking a further 125 feet. 
San Miguel County 

The Junta Consolidated Gold Mining Co. owns 20 claims 
on Ballard mountain and La Junta basin, south of Tellu- 
ride. At the former section, an adit has been driven 1450 
ft. on a vein, averaging $12 per ton over 7 ft. In the 
Junta group several adits have been driven. About 300,000 
tons of ore is said to be opened, and a 300-ton mill is 
being erected. A 3000-ft. tramway has been constructed 
to the mill. "P. E. Thomas, of Telluride, is in charge. 
Teller County (Cripple Creek) 

During May, Stratton's Independence mine produced 4624 
tons of ore on company and lessees' account, while the 
mill treated 11,800 tons of dump ore, resulting in a total 
profit of $10,325. 

Fergus County 

During May the Barnes-King Development Co. mined and 
milled 3895 tons of ore from its North Moccasin property 
at Kendall. Mining and milling costs were $3.50 per ton, 
a total of $13,632, leaving a balance of $19,002, of which 
$14,252 was paid on the North Moccasin property and $4750 
retained by the Barnes-King company. From December 14, 
1912, to May 31, 1913, the Company mined and milled 18,897 
tons of ore, averaging $8.70 per ton and having a gross 
value of $164,418. 

Lewis and Clark County 

The East Helena smelter has a large district to draw 
upon for ore, and its supplies are likely to be increased 
by opening old mines. The Dobler property, 15 miles east 
of Helena, is to be reopened. The shaft is in swampy 
ground, and is flooded, but the vein opened was profitable, 
so pumps are to be installed. The Eureka, 12 miles from 
Helena, is also to have a new pumping plant. It is under 
bond to the Anaconda company, and it will be developed 
to 500 or 600 ft. The Fisher claim is opening well. The 
Montana copper-silver mines are opening in a promising 

Lincoln County 

(special Correspondence.) — The Vermillion Silver & 
Lead Mining Co. is developing its claims in the souiheru 
part of the county, and it is intended to begin shipping 
ore soon. The main adit being driven on the vein is now 
In a distance of 500 ft. The ore contains gold, silver, and 
lead. The Mountain View Mining Co. is installing a 6-drill 
air-compressor on its property, 40 miles south of Libby. 
The main adit is in 1400 ft. and will be continued until 
it cuts the four veins in the claims. The ore is said to 
be rich in gold. The Company owns twelve claims. 
S. F. Ralston came in recently from the Kalispell-Lincoln 
Gold Mining Co.'s property, bringing with him $1000 in 
gold that had been cleaned up after a short run with the 
small 5-stamp mill. Most of the machinery for a con- 
centrator and an additional five stamps has arrived at Libby 
and will be taken to the mine and erected. Latest re- 
ports from the Shaughnessy Hill mine, which is being de- 
veloped by the Hazel T. Mining Co., are to the effect that 
the drift is in an orebody 15 ft. wide, containing mostly 
silver and lead. The Company proposes erecting a con- 

Libby, July 12. 

Silvebbow County 
(Special Correspondence.) — Development is still being 

done on the 1900-ft. level of the Raven mine, and while 
some ore is between 3 and 4% copper, there is not suffi- 
cient yet to pay the operating expenses. However, the 
management still belie\es that a large body of good ship- 
ping ore will be opened, and with that object in view the 
work is being done. 

The Butte & London property, which has been idle for 
the past six years, will be reworked in about 60 days. 
The electric equipment has been ordered, and it should 
be delivered about the middle of August. The power has 
been arranged for and as little delay as possible will 
occur after the machinery arrives. The mine is to be 
operated by the Rainbow Development Co. under an agree- 
ment that the shaft will be carried from its present depth 
of 1100 ft. to 1660 ft. When the property was closed 
during the panic of 1907 there was every evidence that 
some good ore was about to be opened, but conditions were 
such that it was deemed advisable to quit work, and later 
the directors sold the machinery. The Rainbow Develop- 
ment Co., which is controlled by Duluth capitalists, has a 
shaft down to a depth of 680 ft. It is operated by elec- 
tricity. E. C. Congdon is president of the Company, and 
Thomas F. Cole Is a member of the board of directors. 
According to reports, the Colorado mine produced 7250 tons 
of ore, during the past month, averaging SA'/c copper and 
6% oz. silver per ton. The force of men has been in- 
creased, and development is being done on the 1700 and 
1900-ft. levels. 

Butte, July 13. 

The new surface plant on the Gambrinus claim has 
been completed and active development work by the Corbin 
Copper Co. on its group of claims adjoining the Gagnon 
mine is now well under way. The plant has capacity for 
sinking to a depth of 1500 ft. Compressed air Is used 
instead of steam for motive power, and is generated by 
an electrically operated compressor. The Gambrinus shaft 
is now down to a depth of about 50 ft., and is of three 
compartments. The future appears to be exceptionally 


Clark County 

(Special Correspondence.) — seven feet of ore carrying 
10% copper and $18 per ton in gold has been opened at the 
Duplex, on the 700-ft. level, 225 ft. from the portal. This 
ore was not expected, as the drift was driven to cut the 
New Year's Gift vein. At the Quartette, the 1100-ft. level, 
west of the main shaft, opened free-milling ore with a little 
copper. Ore shipments continue from the Southern Nevada. 
Fourth of July, Chief of the Hills. Bamberger-Wheatley, 
Blossom, Duplex, Good Hope, and Quartette leases to the 
mills, and in some cases show an increase of tonnage. The 
June production of the district was valued at about $61,400. 

Searchlight, July 12. 

Elko County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The drift, at a depth of 53 
ft., in the winze of the Flaxie mine, has opened another 
rich shoot showing gold. Work is to be started at the 
Alpha in cutting a station and installing a noist at the 
junction of the adit and shaft, at a depth of 250 ft. At 
the Success, the cross-cut is in 100 ft. in hard rhyolite. 
The upper adit of the Jarbidge-Altitudes is in 30 ft., show- 
ing 30 in. of rich ore, while the lower adit is in 330 ft., 
but has not yet cut any ore. > 

Jarbidge, July 7. 

Esmeralda County 

Preliminary estimates of the Goldfield Consolidated com- 
pany's June output show the treatment of 30.30S tons of 
ore yielding $361,000. The 1750-ft. station in the Merger 
is finished, and cross-cutting is under way to the Atlanta. 
The Vernal is shipping ore varying from $42 to $55 per 

Lyon County 

The Adams gypsum mine and plant at ilound House is 
working three shifts, as the Pacific Portland Cement Co. 
has a contract with the San Francisco fair authorities for 
3000 tons of refined product. 

July 19, 1913 



Nye County 

In our issue of last week the production of Tonopah for 
the first half of the current year was given as $1,210,889. 
This should be $6,210,889, as Is apparent to those who are 
interested in this great camp. 

There are 30 men employed at the Nevada Cinnabar 
Co.'s property at lone'. Material for the furnace and build- 
ings is arriving at Austin by train, and is then carried 
up Reese river on a 5-ton Pierce-Arrow auto-truck. About 
100,000 bricks have been made, while 400,000 are neces- 
sary. There is enough ore opened to keep the 50-ton fur- 
nace busy for about a year. 

During the week ended July 12, the mines at Tonopah 
produced 9681 tons of ore worth $224,375. The decrease 
was due to the holidays. In June, the Belmont mill pro- 
duced 397.504 oz. of bullion from 15,214 tons, with a profit 
of $182,971. The Halifax made its first shipment of 50 tons 
of ore to the West End mill for a bulk test. The mine 
is opening satisfactorily. On the 600-ft. level of the West 
End, rich sulphide ore was opened last week. 

Stobey County 
The monthly expenses of the United Comstock Pumping 
Association since December 1, 1912, have been as follows: 
$19,719, $20,393, $18,058, $16,233, $15,278, and $15,656. These 
include all salaries and wages, supplies, power, hoisting, 
air, and pump repairs. The rearrangement of pumps was 
an important job,, and has been proved to be beneficial. 


Eddy County 

Arrangements for drilling in the Carlsbad field are 
about completed. About 12 years ago some prospecting 
for oil was done here, and oil men now think the district 
worth further trial. At Artesia, the Dayton Petroleum 
Co. has reached the second oil-sand at 1800 ft., showing 
oil and gas. 

Tho Dayton Petroleum Co., after encountering consider- 
able resistance from a hard formation, has its test well 
down about 950 ft. and ha.? set its 10-ln. casing with a dry 
hole. The 12-in. casing was set at 700 ft. This is the .first 
test v.ell drilled in the valley, and is controlled by E. L. 
Doheny, of Los Angeles. 

The Pecos Valley Gas & Oil Co. is down 750 ft. on the 
Martin well and has set its 10-in. casing at 600 ft. It has 
closed a contract with L. W. Feemster for drilling a well 
on the Terry lease, which is southwest of the Brown well. 
The derrick and machinery are in place and work will bo 
commenced at once. The Company continues operating the 
Brown well that is producing about 50 bbl. of oil per day. 
Drilling continues by the company on the Fowler lease. 

Grant County 

A large quantity of water has been encountered on the 400- 
ft. level of the Emma copper mine at Flerro, and has risen 
to the 200-ft. level. Larger pumps are being installed. The 
Colorado F^iel & Iron Co. continues to ship a big tonnage of 
iron ore to its plant at Pueblo, Colorado. The assessed 
vahie of the Flerro property has been set at $53,591 by the 
countv commissioners, and this value has been accepted. 
The assessed value of the Chlno Copper Co.'s property is 
$3,093.92 r., and net product at $1,000,000. The Company 
accepts the former value, but will contest the latter. 

SocoRBO County 

This county produced gold valued at $525,629, and 1,126.- 
429 fine ounces of silver, being 67 and 73% of the total state 
yield, respectively, in 1912. according to the I'nited States 
Geological Surt'py. 



(Special Correspondence.) — The Sumpter dreuge is work- 
ing three shifts of 8 hours each, the only time lost I)eing 
about once a week when the clean-up is made. The value 
of the nugget found recently at Susanvllle, Grant county, 
was $1408.75. The district is fairly active in that this 
year the mines within 60 miles of Baker will produce a|)- 
proximately $2,400, OOH in gold, as compared with about 

$750,000 for the entire state of Oregon in 1912. Eastern 
Oregon, with the introduction of electric power and dredges, 
is 'moving.' 

Sumpter, July 13. 

Beaveb County 

The adit at the Montreal group will be extended under 
the ore deposits that have been exposed near the surface. 
A big exhaust fan will be installed and rails laid. When 
this work is completed, machine drills will be placed at 
the face of the tunnel and development work pushed. The 
owners believe that they have a good mining proposition 
in the southern part of the state and purpose to carry on 
development work extensively. 

On July 8 the offices and warehouse of the Horn Silver 
Mining Co. were destroyed by fire. It is alleged that the 
damage was purposely done by unknown persons. This 
is .a well known and profitable company. 
Juab County 

The Chief Consolidated M. Co. has declared a dividend 
of 10c. per share, amounting to $87,640. Ore is being pro- 
duced at a rate of 60,000 tons per year, and the mine is 
the second largest producer at Tintic. The main shaft 
causes some delay, as it is too small down to the 1200-ft. 
level. The Mammoth Mining Co. paid a dividend of 15c. 
per share on July 19, amounting to $20,000, the total to 
date being $2,300,000. 

Summit CotraiY 

During June, Park City mines shipped 6819 tons of ore, 
as follows: Sliver King Coalition, 3126 tons; Daly West, 
1395; Daly-Judge, 1643; Silver King Consolidated, 218; les- 
sees, 191; Mines Operating Co., 64; American Flag com- 
pany, 42; Ontario-Johnson lease, 32; and Grasselli Chem- 
ical Co., 76 tons. 

Tooele County 

Four reverberatory lead furnaces are working at the 
International plant, and a fifth will be ready in about a 
month. The lead slag plant, recovering a further per- 
centage of metals, is giving good results. 
Utah County 

The Iron Blossom company at Provo has declared a 
dividend of 10c. per share, amounting to $100,p00, making 
a total of $1,670,000. The 300-ft. level of the Colorado 
mine is opening a fair tonnage of ore. 


Stevens County 

The vein in the Hecla mine, Chewelah, has a width of 
about 8 ft. in the face of the drift, carrying copper and 
silver ore assaying from $23 to $93 per ton. About 70 
tons of high-grade ore has been extracted and piled on 
the dump ready for shipment as soon as the wagon-road, 
about IVj miles in length, is completed and other prelimi- 
naries finished. 

Joseph T. Pardee, of the U. S. Geological Survey, is com- 
pleting his inspection of the Colville reservation. Work 
in 1912 showed that part of the area east of Nespelem, 
which contains most of the mineral deposits, has been 
classified. Although some of the lands classified as mineral 
have been proved by underground work to contain valuable 
orebodles, most of the lands have not been developed, and 
their mineral classification is based upon evidence offered 
by the surface and by the geology of the region in general. 


Ui.nta Cou.nty 
Within about two months, the United States Phosphate 
Co., a Salt Lake organization, will have in operation its 
grinding plant at Border, the first company to install equip- 
ment within the phosphate deposits of Wyoming, Utah, and 
Idaho. This Company for over a year has been making 
regular shipments of the crude rock to the various markets 
around Salt Lake City, but the plant now being erected will 
grind 95% of the rock to 100 mesh, thereby bringing it into 
immediate shape for use as a fertilizer. The plant will 
have a capacity of 100 tons per day. 



July 19. 1913 



Bullion shipmeuts from Cobalt during the week ended 
June 28 were 186,832 oz., valued at $108,204. La Rose 
sent to the Deloro plant at Marmora 54 tons of ore con- 
taining 151,658 oz. silver. According to the Bureau of 
Mines of Ontario, the first quarter of the current year 
resulted in the following production: 

Product. Quantity. Value. 

Gold, ounces 50,637 $1,030,920 

Silver, ounces 7,264,559 4,040,450 

Copper, tons 3,075 436,328 

Nickel, tons 6,311 1,309,870 

Iron ore, tons 15,389 25,695 

Pig iron, tons 181,042 2,506,175 

Cobalt and nickel oxides, pounds.. 280,096 120,500 

The Mayo district Is showing considerable activity. On 
Highet and Dublin creeks, 28 men are working. The roads 
are rough and ought to be improved to help the district. 


A corps of engineers of the Breitung Mines Corpora- 
tion arrived in Barranquilla in April last for the purpose 
of exploring mines in the republic. The party has mining 
tools and instruments, gasoline motor-boats, and other 
supplies, and is said to be the best equipped mining expe- 
dition that has ever come into the country with the object 
of making explorations on a large scale. 


On April 11, 1913, the Government published a list of 
100 mines declared void since October 24, 1912, according 
to the law of June 6, 1892. Similar lists have appeared 
earlier. These mines had been located, 24 in the state of 
Tamaulipas and 76 in the state of Zacatecas. Most of them 
were for both gold and silver, but many had been de- 
nounced as containing silver and lead, a few with cop- 
per, and several of either gold or silver alone. The largest 
was for a copper mine in Zacatecas of 50 hectares (123% 
acres), the smallest for a mine of silver and gold in Zaca- 
tecas of only 0.37 hectare. 


Gold has been discovered on the banks of the Marlquina 
river within 15 miles of Manila. The Malaguit Dredging 
Co. has been Incorporated at P1,000,000 to take over from 
A. J. MacDonald 480 acres of placer claims on the Malaguit 
river. It is reported that the dredge now on the ground 
saves 200 oz. of gold per month from the placer workings. 
The Incorporation of this company means that more 
dredges will be Installed in the Camarines to work the 
claims, and good results are expected in the near future. 

According to press reports, the Guamos Placer Co. has 
liquidated Its debt of -^^38,000 since last November, and 
up to April 3 had paid ?175,000 in dividends. The cap- 
ital of the company is 1*500,000. It is figured that 10%, 
or ¥=50,000, will be paid monthly. The Philippine Ex- 
ploration Co. holds 55% of the Guamos stock. The past 
six months' output from the dredge was P$328,00O, which 
gives an idea of dredging possibilities on the Paracale 
river. Other dredges operating are those of the Maxlmelo 
Gold Dredging Co. and the Paracale Bucket Dredging 
Proprietary, Ltd. The latter is a Melbourne, Australia, 
concern. Its new 7-ft., close-connected dredge is nearly 
complete. Another Australian company, the Philippines 
Dredging Proprietary, Ltd., is building a dredge nearby. 
On the Malaguit river, a Risdon dredge, under J. A. Bruce, 
has been producing about 250 oz. of gold per month for 
some time. There is said to be 3000 acres of gold-hearing 
ground on this river, of which 1000 acres are suitable for 
dredging. A dredge with a steel hull is to be installed 
on the Umlvai river, which flows into Dingaban bay, on 
the east coast of Luzon. Sydney, New South Wales, people 
are providing the money. The Luzon Gold Co. has ac- 
quired ground in the upper reaches of the river. The 

quartz properties in the Paracale district are attracting 
attention. The Surigao Gold Mining Co., at Surigao, will 
build a hydraulic plant of 100,000 cu. yd. monthly capacity 
during the next eight months. About 1000 acres of gravel 
are available, and it should average 29 centavos per cubic 
yard. Those chiefly interested in the company are D. M. 
Carman, E. O. Parker, George C. Sellner, Ralph McCuUoctt, 
and C. A. Briggs. Mr. Carman was in Manila recently. 


Professional men are Invited to send news of their engage- 
ments and travels. Such news Is interesting to friends. 

H. S. CoE is leaving for Nicaragua. 

J. Pabke Channing has been at Butte. 

Lionel E. Hill has returned to Rossland, B. C, from 

E. P. Jennings has returned from a professional visit to 
Tintic, Utah. 

Paul R. Fanning, metallurgist for the Division of Mines, 
at Manila, is at Grass Valley. 

P. G. Beckett, general manager for the Old Dominion 
Copper M. & S. Co. is on the Coast. 

Frank H. Pbobebt is in the East, and is not expected to 
return to Los Angeles for six weeks. 

Robert H. Chapman will be for several months with the 
Geological Survey, Yerington, Nevada. 

Algernon Del Mae has resigned from the superintend- 
ency of the Bishop Creek Milling Company. 

William Maloney, of Nome, has been appointed terri- 
torial mine inspector, with headquarters at Nome. 

Victor C. Alderson was seriously injured recently in ari 
accident near the drainage tunnel at Cripple Creek. 

Francis P. Beat has visited Broken Hill Proprietary 
works at Port Pirie and Iron Mountain, South Australia. 

Fayette A. Jones, of Albuquerque, was, on July 15, 
elected president of the New Mexico State School of Mines. 

J. B. Tybhell is making a short visit to the Hurricanaw 
district in northern Quebec to investigate some recent gold 

D. C. Jackling, Frank Jannet, W. 0. Bradley, and Harry 
E. TooKEB are at Juneau, visiting the property of the Alaska 
Gold Mines. 

Jack E. Shaw, rscently assistant superintendent of the 
Gaston Gold Mining Co., is now superintendent of the Birch- 
ville Mining Co., at Graniteville, California. 

JosEPHUs Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, will be the 
guest of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce at a ban- 
quet to be held on July 25, at the St. Francis hotel. 

Walter J. Radford has accepted the position of engineer 
for the company operating the Lady Belle Lease at Eagle, 
Colorado, and will have his headquarters at Denver. 

J. H. Batcheller has resigned his position as metal- 
lurgist for the Tomboy Gold Mines Co., Ltd., of Telluride, 
Colorado, and is temporarily on professional business at 

George J. Young, head of the Mackay School of Mines of 
the University of Nevada, has resigned to accept a position 
as professor of mining and metallurgy In the University of 

B. a. Bosqui will leave San Francisco shortly to take 
charge of the new mill of the Commonwealth Mining Co., 
at Pearce, Arizona. The plant will probably be ready for 
operation during August. 

H. C. WiLMOT has resigned as superintendent of the Colo- 
rado Mining Co., Aroroy, Masbate, Philippines. After hav- 
ing examined the property and designed the mill for the 
Syndicate Mining Co., he has accepted the managership. 

The engagement is announced of Miss Elizabeth McNear, 
of Oakland, California, to John Power Hutchins, of St. 
Petersburg, Russia. The wedding will take place in October 
at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Rickard in Ixindon. 

July 19, 1913 



The Metal Markets 


San Francisco, July 17 

Antimony 12— 12jc 

Electrolytic Copper 1ft— lejc 

Pig Lead ,, 4.60— 6.55c 

Quicksilver (flask) $41 

Tin 50— 51JC 

Spelter. 7— TJc 

Zinc dust, 1400 lb. casks, per 100 lb., small lots $9.50—9.75; large ?7 .50— 8.50 


(By wire from New York.) 
XEW YORK, July 17. — Copper has shown a slight change 
(or the better, and the market is firmer. No large sales 
are reported. The visible supply afloat, on July 15, In Eng- 
land and France Is stated to be 29,358 tons, which is a 
slight Increase (or the past two weeks. Rotterdam, Ham- 
burg, and Bremen stocks show a decrease of 2109 tons. 
The lead market is quiet, and spelter remains dull with but 
little trading reported. The London market closed on July 
16 with copper spot at £63 and futures £63 5s. Lead £20, 
and spelter £20 10s. Tin is quoted at £181 15s. and futures 
at £182 5s. 


Below are given the average New York quotations, in 
cents per ounce, of flne silver. 


July 10 58.25 

11 58.37 

12 58.75 

" 13 Sunday 

14 58.37 

15 58.37 

16 58.50 

Average week endlngr 

June 4 59.99 

11 59.75 

18 59.08 

25 58.12 

July 2 58.20 

9 58.29 

16 58.43 

Monthly averages. 


Jan 56.25 

Feb 59.06 

Mch 58.37 

Apr 69.20 

May 60.88 

June 61.29 

1913. ! 1912. 

63.01 July 60.67 

61.25 j Aug 61.32 

57.87 I Sept 62.95 

59.26 I Oct 63.16 

60.21 ; Nov 63.73 

59.03 ] Dec 63.38 


Lead Is quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds. New York delivery. 



... .4 33 


4 .33 


... .4 33 

13 Sunday 

1 33 


t 33 



Average week ending 









Jan 4.43 

Feb 4.03 

Mch 4.07 

Apr 4.20 

May 4.20 

June 4.40 

Monthly averages. 






Nov 4.91 

Dec 4.20 




Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, St 
Louis delivery. In cents per pound. 

Date. Average week ending 

July 10 5.08 June 4 

11 5.08 " 11 

" 12 5.08 '• 18 

13 Sunday " 25 

14 5.08 July 2 

" 15 5.08 " 9 

18 5.08 " 16 







June 6.88 

. (.42 
. 6.50 
. 6.67 
. (.63 
. (.68 

Monthly averages. 


July , 


Sept. . 



Dec 7 09 

. 7.12 
. 6.96 
. 7.45 
. 7.36 
. 7.23 



The primary market (or quicksilver is San Francisco, Call- 
(ornla. being the largest producer. The price Is fixed in the 
open market, and. as quoted weekly in this column. Is 
at which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the car- 
load can usually obtain a slight reduction, and those want- 
ing but a flask or two must expect to pay a slightly higher 
price. Average weekly and monthly quotations. In dollars 
per flask o( 75 lb., are given below: 

Week ending 

June 19 41 

26 41 






Monthly averages. 


Jan 43.75 

Feb 46.00 

Mch 4 6.00 

Apr 42.25 

May 41.75 

June 41.30 



July 43.00 

Aug 42.50 

Sept 42.12 

Oct 41.50 

Nov 41.50 

Dec 39.75 



Quotations on copper as published in this column rep- 
resent average wholesale transactions on the New York 
market and refer to electrolytic copper. Lake copper com- 
mands normally from 1-5 to l-4o. per lb. more. Prices are 
in cents per pound. 


10 13.95 

11 13.80 

12 13.80 

13 Sunday 

14 13.78 

15 13.78 

16 13.78 

Average week ending 

June 4 15.18 

11 14.79 

18 14.70 

25 14.47 

July 2 14.43 

9 14.26 

16 13.81 

Monthly averages. 

1912. 1913. 

Jan 14.09 16.54 

Feb 14.08 14.93 

Mch 14.68 14.72 

Apr 15.74 15.22 

May 16.03 15.42 

June 17.23 14.71 


July 17.19 

Aug 17.49 

Sept 17.56 

Oct 17.32 

Nov 17.31 

Dec 17.37 


CoppEB Surplus 

Figures showing the visible supply of copper at the be- 
ginning o( each month are now widely available. Below 
are given the amounts. In pounds, known to be available at 
the first o( each of certain months. The flgures are those 
of the Copper Producers' Association supplemented by Mer- 
lon's flgures of foreign surplus. 






" " 76,744,967 

•• 86,164,059 

1913 105,311,360 

" 123,198,362 










March " 122,302,198 

April " 104,269,270 

May " 75,649,108 

June " 67.474,226 

July " 52.904,606 

United States Pboddction and Consumption 
















May 1912 126,737,836 

June " 122,315.240 

July " 137,161,920 

August " 146,628,621 

September" 140,089,819 

October " 145,405,453 

November" 134,695,440 

December" 143,353,280 

January 1913 143,479,625 



February " 130,948,881 

March " 136,251,849 

April " 135,333,402 

May " 141,319,416 

June " 121,860,853 

The fortnightly statistics of copper show that the Euro- 
pean stocks. Including Hamburg and Rotterdam, on June 
SO decreased 1727 tons, while copper supplies afloat de- 
crea."ied 60 tons, making a total decrease in the visible sup- 
ply of 1777 tons to 38,199 tons, as compared with 39,976 tons 
on June 14 last. 


New York prices control In the American market for tin, 
since the metal is almost entirely Imported. San Francisco 
quotations average about 5c. per lb. higher. Below are given 
average monthly New York quotations, In cents per pound: 
Monthly averages. 


Jan 42.53 

Feb 42.9( 

Mch 42.58 

Apr 43.92 

May 46.05 

June 45.76 



July 44.25 

Aug 45.80 

Sept 48.64 

Oct 50.01 

Nov 49.92 


45.10 Dec 49.80 



July 19. 1913 

The Stock Markets 


(San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange.) 

July 17 


July 16. 


July Ifi. 





Associated Oil 5s 

8 97 


Natomas Dev. 6s 



E. I. duPont 4}s 



Pac. Port. Cement 6s.. 


NatomasCon. 6s 



Riverside Cement 68... 




.Standard Cement 8s... 


Ass. Oil 1st ref. . 



Santa Cruz Cement 6s 
So. Cal. Cement 




General Petroleum 6s 





July 16. 


July 16 





Associated Oil 



Mascot Copper 

Noble Electric Steel... 



Amalgamated Oil 


B. I. du Pont com 



Natomas Consol 



Pac. Coast Borax, pfd 

Padflc Port. Cement.. 

do com 



Klverslde Cement 

Standard Cement 


Pacific Crude Oil 


Sterling O. & D 



.Santa Cruz Cement ... 




(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 
San Francisco, July 17. 

Atlanta t .15 

Belmont _ 6.10 

Big Foiur .42 

Buckhorn — 

Con. Virginia 14 

Florence 30 

QoldfleldCou 1.67 

(Joldfleld Oro .11 

Halifax 1.30 

Jim Butler 74 

Jumbo Extension 12 

MacNamara 16 

Mexican 1.10 

Midway .48 

MIzpah Extension $ .52 

Montana-Tonopah 1.15 

Nevada Hills .92 

North Star 1.02 

Ophlr 19 

Pittsburg Silver Peak 48 

Round Mountain .58 

Sierra Nevada 12 

Tonopah Extension 2.42 

Tonopah Merger 80 

Tonopah of Nevada 8.00 

Union '. 14 

West End 1.30 

Yellow Jacket 19 


(By courtesy of J. C. Wilson, Mills Building.) 
July 17. 


Adventure It 1} 

Allouez 323 

Calumet & Arizona... 60* 

Calumet <& Hecla 415 

Centennial UJ 

Copper Range 38J 

East Butte lOJ 

Franklin ,...'. 6 

Granby 55J 

Greene Cananea 6i 

Hancock 16} 

Isle-Royale 19J 

Mass Copper 2J 


(By courtesy of B. 

July 17. 
Bid Ask 

Alaska Mexican. 
Alaska Tread. . . 
Alaska United.. 
Alaska G. M. . . . 
Braden Copper.. 

B. C. Copper 

Davis-Daly . . . . 


El Rayo 

Ely Con 

First Nat 


Green Can 

Hoi linger 

Kerr Lake 

La Rose 


18 Vs 













IJ Mohawk 8 44 45 

33 North Butte 25J 26i 

60J Old Dominion 44* 45 

420 Osceola 75 76i 

13 Quincy 57i 58J 

39i Shannon 7} 7* 

lOj Superior & Boston 2* 2J 

5} Tamarack 29 29J 

56 U. S. Smelting 36 B8J 

6} Utah Con '. 8i 9 

17 Victoria 97c 1.00 

19} Winona 1} 1} 

3 Wolverine 44* 45 


F. Hutton & Co., Kohl Building. 
July 10. 


Mason Valley... 5% 
McKlnley-Dar. . 1% 

Miami 6s 168 

Mines Co. Am.. 2% 
Niplssing 8% 





IS 1/2 

6 78 












Ohio Copper. ... % 

San Toy 20 

Sioux Con. . . , . . 2 

S. W. Miami 6 

So. Utah Vi 

S. O. Calif 169 

Tri Bullion % 

Tuolumne 1 

United Copper.. .. 

Wettlaufer 12 

Yukon Gold 2% 






(By cable, through the courtesy of Catlin & Powell Co., 
New York.) 
July 17. I 

Alaska Mexican 1 16 9 

Alaska Treadwell 7 n 6 

Alaska United S IB U 

Arizona 1 17 6 

California .\malg 2 6 

California Oilflelds 4 

Camp Bird 15 

El Oro 15 

Esperanza 113 

Granville 10 

July 17. 

£ s. d. 

Kern River Oilfields 6 3 

Mexico Ml.ies 5 7 6 

Messina 1 10 

Orovllle 5 

Pacific Oilfields t 2 6 

RioTlnto 71 17 6 

.Santa Gertrudls 17 6 

Stratton's 2 6 

Tanganyika 1 17 6 

Tomboy 15 

, » 

£ s. d. 

British Broken Hill 1 17 6 

Broken Hill Props 1 13 9 

Golden Horse-Shoe 2 8 9 

Great Boulder Props 12 6 

Ivanhoe 2 16 9 

Kalgurii 2 

Mount Boppy 

Mount Elliott 4 

Mount Lyell 1 

Mount Morgan 3 

Walhl 2 

Walhl Grand Juncj 

July 17. 

£ 8. d. 
12 6 



Calumet & Hecla 4,809,797 

Centennial . . .■ 193,295 

Osceola 1,424,640 

Ahmeek 1,281,960 

Tamarack 598,770 

Isle Royale 496,134 

Allouez 556,675 

Superior 382,080 

Old Dominion 2,511,000 


It is difficult to comment upon the New York copper- 
metal market, except as an example of how long it is 
possible for consumers to stay out of the market. For 
over a month there has been no extensive buying of cop- 
per, and the average metal prices quoted in this and other 
journals have been more or less in the nature of approxi- 
mations, for there has been little or no buying at the 
prices named by the large agencies, while the amounts 
which have changed hands at prices "below the market" 
are not commonly important enough to establish quota- 
tions. It was expected that if the Copper Producers' Asso- 
ciation figures on July 9 showed a decrease in the stocks, 
buying would be resumed. The figures were favorable, 
showing a decrease of nearly 15,000,000 lb. in the metal 
on hand at the end of June, as compared with the begin- 
ning of the month. The foreign stocks also showed a 
decrease of 5,000,000 lb., so that the world's visible supply 
on July 1 was 20,000,000 lb. less than on June 1, and 
nearly 10,000,000 lb. below the previous minimum record. 
Figures for the half-year in the United States are now 
available, showing that th^ output of the refineries was 
809,194,006 lb., and total deliveries of 861,692,002 lb. The 
decrease in refinery output in June was largely due to 
the shut-down of the Nichols refinery, at Laurel Hill, 
though mine production (during April, It should be re- 
membered) also shows a slackening. Cananea and Miami 
have been in difficulties about that time. Work at Laurel 
Hill has been resumed, but output will not reach normal 
at 'the plant for some time, as it requires some time to 
get a large refinery into its stride. All this has left con- 
sumers utterly unmoved, and the agencies then dropped 
their quotations %c. per pound. This was also without 
any result, and on July 11 there were no sales of any 
importance recorded, though plenty of copper was avail- 
able at 14%c., delivered 30 days. Exports for the first 
ten days of July were 7985 tons, as compared with 11,945 
tons for the same period last year. Cables from London 
state that the Amalgamated agency had reduced the price 
of electrolytic to £67, the equivalent of 14iAc., while the 
A. S. & R. is offering at £66 Is. and dealers are selling 
September copper at £66, corresponding to 14%c., and 
even at these prices the demand was poor. As a contrast 
to the dull state of the copper sellers is the booming busi- 
ness of the American Brass Co., one of the large consum- 
ers, which is said to be receiving orders faster than they 
can be attended to, and to be planning extensive addi- 
tions to its plant. It is only a question of time, of course, 
until consumers will have reduced their stocks to the 
point where it will be necessary to come back to replen- 
ish them; meanwhile they are giving an interesting ex- 
hibition of the importance of the so-called invisible stocks 
of copper. 

Movement of copper in Germany from January to May, 
1913, were as follows: Imports, 94,920 tons; exports, 4353 
tons; consumption, 90,567 tons: compared with 80,347 tons 
during the same period of 1912. 

July 19, 1913 



Copper Statistics and the Copper Market 

•During 1912 the world's production of copper was 1,008,- 

290 long tons, against 869,370 tons in 1911, as shown in 
the following table; 

countries. 1904. 1908. 1911. 1912. 

United States 362,700 420,790 487,300 557,590 

Mexico 51,000 38,200 54,050 71,980 

Japan 31,600 40,000 55,000 65,000 

Spain and Portugal.. 48,000 52,000 55,000 58,000 

Australia 34,000 43,000 44.600 45,500 

Chile 31,000 36,580 29,600 37,000 

Canada 20,000 23,900 24,000 33,500 

Russia 10,700 16,800 25,500 33,000 

Germany 24,500 23,300 30,500 30,510 

Peru 6,800 17,000 26,000 27,400 

Sweden and Norway.. 5,900 12,015 9,500 10,000 

Cape Colony 7,500 7,000 7,000 7,000 

tServia 6,000 

tGerman S.W. Africa 6,000 

tAustria-Hungary .... 1,500 1,350 2,520 3,960 

Italy 3,300 3,150 3,000 2,350 

Bolivia 2,000 2,500 2,500 2,000 

Newfoundland 2,300 2,000 2,100 1,000 

Turkey 1,000 2,000 700 500 

Miscellaneous 1,300 5,00a 10,500 10,000 

Totals 044,800 746,585 869,370 1,008,290 

tmtherto included in miscellaneous. 

The United States production, including foreign material 
smelted or refined there, was 715,147 tons, equal to 71% 
of the total. This country had an increased domestic pro- 
duction of 70,290 tons. 

The world's consumption of copper for the correspond- 
ing years Is as follows, in long tons: 

1904. 1908. 1911. 1912. 

Germany 140,006 187,127 234,229 253,429 

France 64,235 80,509 106,997 106,753 

England 135,327 134,492 159,736 148,877 

Austria-Hungary 26,366 36,972 40,000 51,574 

Russia 31,370 21,450 31,845 38,818 

Italy 18,162 29,496 30,437 34,378 

Belgium and Holland. 10,590 9,500 13,000 13,000 

Scandinavia 3,500 9,700 t7,500 t7,500 

Rest of Europe 1,800 2,500 t2,500 t2,500 

Europe 431,356 

North America 214,285 

Rest of America 1,900 

Europe and America. .647,541 

China 15,386 

Japan and rest of Asia 9,500 
Africa and Australia. . 2,000 























67,442 748,480 973,535 1,057.751 

An absolute comparison between the figures of produc- 
tion and consumption is impossible, as the latter Include 
the Imports of manufactures of some countries, although 
these also appear in the consumption totals of the country 
of origin. The quantities of old metal, which are not 
shown statistically, also render an exact comparison impos- 

The outlook was rather obscured at the beginning of 
the present year. The war cloud In the Balkans had not 
lifted, and there was not that improvement in the strained 
economic situation which could ease the financial burden 
of European countries. There were also signs of a relapse 
in the United States, which first became apparent early in 
December, and were more marked as the time for the new 
President to take office approached, and uneasiness at the 

•From 'Statistical Compilations About Copper,' issued by 
L. Vogelsteln & Co., New York, representing Aron Hlrsch & 
Sohn, Halberstadt, Germany. 

certainty of tariff revision was increased by the uncertainty 
as to when these changes would come Into effect. More- 
over, the attitude of the new democratic President toward 
capital and trusts was viewed with trepidation. At th^j 
time of publication, in March, the international pendu- 
lum is swinging toward better conditions. The monetary 
stringency in Europe has become less keen, and peace in 
the Balkans Is at hand. In the copper-consuming indus- 
tries fresh activity is promised, not alone by reason of 
increase in armaments, but also by works of peace, as 
the development of the territories acquired by the Balkan 
states, the building of power-stations, etc. Recent Increases 
of capital of the German electrical companies foreshadow 
further extension. In America, generally, the internal situ- 
ation is still regarded as excellent. Business here has 
not slackened, and after making due allowance for domestic 
political unrest, it must be admitted that the business situ- 
ation in the United States since 1905 and 1906 has never 
been so healthy as at present. The view is now gaining 
ground that the tariff changes will not be of a very rad- 
ical nature. Provided the harvest is at least up to the 
average, and the international money market not unduly 
burdened, the hope may reasonably be expressed that trade 
conditions in the United States In the second half of 1913 
will be as good as, if not better than, at any time In 1912. 

Even though producers will have to reckon with a lower 
price level than obtained In the last months of 1912, exag- 
gerated foars of a decline in price are to be deprecated. 
The outlook for consumption pr6mises well, and the cop- 
per-consuming industries may look ahead with confidence. 

Stocks on hand at the end of the last four years is esti- 
mated as follows, in long tons: 


United States 63.289 

England 95,673 

France 6,299 

Rotterdam and Ham- 
burg 2,200 
















Totals 167,^61 143,777 100,695 82,057 

The average price of electrolytic and lake copper in 
New York since 1903 is as follows, in cents per pound: 

Electrolytic. Lake. 

1903 13.63 13.45 

1904 13.09 13.12 

1905 15.82 15.89 

1906 19.39 19.66 

1907 20.10 20.65 

Electrolytic. Lake. 

1908 13.22 13.38 

1909 13.02 13.35 

1910 12.80 13.02 

1911 12.47 12.64 

1912 16.43 16.56 

Sulphuric Acid Production 

The sulphuric acid production of the United States in 
1912 was as follows. In short tons: 50''B., 1,047,483, valued 
at $5,378,411; 60°B., 451,172, valued at $2,727,764; 66°B., 
774,772, valued at $9,360,630; and other grades, 66,166, 
valued at $871,214, according to the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. 

Sulphuric acid is produced in several grades: (1) 50°B. 
acid, also known as chamber acid, containing an average 
of 50.76% SO,, or 62.18% H^SOi; (2) 60°B. acid, containing 
an average of 63.41 SO., or 77.67% H^SO,; (3) 66°B. acid, 
known as oil of vitriol, containing approximately 76% 
SO,, or approximately 93.19% H,SO.. Higher strengths of 
acid usually contain SO, dissolved in sulphuric acid, for 
example, pyrosulphuric acid and fuming or Nordhausen 
acid. Oleum is a grade which contains 30% of free SO,, or 
a total of 87.14% of free and combined SO,. 

The production from copper and zinc smelters was as 
follows, reduced to 60°B. acid: 

Tons. Value. 

Copper smelters 321,156 $1,985,704 

Zinc smelters 295,917 2,255,237 

Total 614,073 $4,240,941 

This is 27% of the United States production, and an 
Increase og 175,773 tons compared with 1911. 



July 19, 1913 

Decisions Relating to Mining 

Specially reported for the Mining and Scientific Press. 

Oil Placers in Louisiana 
A locator on placer ground belonging to the United States, 
surveyed or unsurveyed, is the equitable owner of the min- 
ing ground, and the government holds the premises in 
trust for him to be delivered upon the payment specified; 
and he has sufficient interest to maintain a defense to an 
action of ejectment. 

Producers' Oil Co. v. Hanzen (Louisiana) 61 Southern, 
754. March 31, 1913. 

Annual Labor — Forfeiture for Non-Performance Denied 
Where a stockholder in a mining company had been em- 
ployed to look after and superintend mining properties of 
the company, and the company failed to perform annual 
labor on its claims, the said stockholder, occupying a 
fiduciary relation to the company, will not be allowed to re- 
locate the claims in his own name and divest the company 
of title thereto, but such re-location will be held as insuring 
to the benefit of the company. 

Co-operative Copper & Gold Mining Co. v. Law (Oregon) 
132 Pacific, 521. May 27, 1913. 

Constructive Pos.session of Minerals 
In 1874 the owner of a certain tract conveyed the surface 
rights therein reserving the minerals. The grantee went 
into possession of the surface, and he and his grantees, 
including complainant, remained in possession ever since: 
no one having any separate actual possession of the min- 
erals. Held, that the possession of the minerals accom- 
panied the possession of the surface, and the complainant 
having acquired title to the minerals by adverse possession, 
was in the constructive possession thereof, so as to entitle 
him to sue to quiet title to the mineral rights. 

Moore v. Empire Land Co. (Alabama) 61 Southern 940. 
April 23, 1913. 

Coal Lease — Royaity Clause Construed 
A coal lease provided that a minimum royalty should be 
paid each year, that if insufficient coal were mined during 
a given year to enable this minimum royalty to be paid 
from the proceeds, that the balance should be paid in cash, 
but might be credited on the royalty of a succeeding year 
when the coal mined should be more than sufficient to 
make the payments. Held, that the lease did not con- 
template that royalties in excess of the minimum, derived 
from the mining operations of a given year, could be 
credited on payment of the minimum royalty of a succeed- 
ing year. 

Vandalia Coal Co. v. Underwood (Indiana) 101 North- 
eastern 1047. May 28, 1913. 

Fi.xtures on Mining Claims 
What constitutes and what does not constitute a fixture 
upon a mining claim is a question which usually has to be 
passed upon anew every time a case comes up, owing to 
the difficulty of formulating general rules to govern each 
specific instance. For example, an engine and pump bolted 
and spiked to a wooden frame bedded in the ground suffi- 
ciently to make it level, has been held to be a fixturei; an 
electric hoist, bolted to a substructure of timber and cement 
together with the head-frame and engine house surround- 
ing it, were considered fixtures^; electric motors bolted to 
a concrete foundation, a transformer affixed to a pole, and 
an electric pump used in unwatering a mine were treated 
as fixtures. 3 The intent with which the articles in ques- 
tion were placed on the claim has much to do with it, but 
this intent will be inferred form the character of the ar- 
ticles, use for which they were intended, and manner in 
which they are placed upon the soil. Ore extracted from a 
shaft and stock piled on adjoining land for future treat- 
ment, Is personal property of the lessee and not a fixture.'' 
It is common practice for the lessee to stipulate in a mining 
lease for the removal of machinery and buildings, placed or 
to be placed by him upon the claim, in the event of the sub- 
sequent forfeiture, abandonment, or termination of the 

lease, and in such event he has a clear right to remove them. 
It would seem chat a shaft-house and head-frame might be 
removed under such a cla.use if it could be done without 
permanent injury to the mine. 

iMerritt v. Tudd, 14 California, 59. 

sArnold v. Goldfield, etc., Mining Co., 109 Pacific, 718. 

3Conde v. Sweeney, 116 Pacific, 319. 

•iRitter v. Lynch, 123 Federal, 930. 

Petroleum Production in United States 

The great production of petroleum in 1911, which was 
220,449,391 bbl., was equaled and passed in 1912, when 
tjie total reached 222,538,604 bbl. Higher prices were the 
rule in 1912 except in California, and even in that state 
there was no material decline. The total value, therefore, 
increased markedly, reaching $164,087,342, or 22.41% above 
the value for 1911, according to the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey. The greatest increase in quantity was in 
California, where the total advanced from 81,134,391 to 
86,450,767 bbl., a gain of 5,316,376 bbl., or 6.55%. Wyoming 
showed the remarkable gain of 742%, from 186,695 bbl. 
to 1,572,306 bbl., owing to the increased activity of the 
Mid-West Oil Co. and the Wyoming Oil Fields Co. Oper- 
ations in northern Texas also more than offset the usual 
decline in the Gulf region and resulted in a significant 
gain for the state. 

The volume of crude oil and of all the usual products 
exported from the United States increased, owing to the 
fact that foreign conditions were much more favorable to 
American exporters. Meanwhile the importation of gaso- 
line from the East Indies was a favorable element in re- 
lieving the growing demand for this product on the Pa- 
cific coast. The improved conditions in the export trade 
and the increased capacity of the refiners to take care of 
the great yield of crude oil resulted in a marked decline 
in stocks in all fields except California, and even there 
the storage of petroleum was checked by an increase in 

The total stocks of all crude oils at the beginning of 
1912 aggregated 138,000,000 bbl. By the close of the year 
they had declined to 125,000,000 bbl., a decrease of about 
10%. The decline was greatest in the fields east of the 
Rocky Mountains, where on January 1, 1912, the stocks 
aggregated 94,000,000 bbl.; they were reduced during the 
year to 79,000,000 bbl., a decrease of about 16 per cent. 

This decline at once brought out a marked stimulation 
of prices all over the East, with a view to increasing the 
activity of drilling. Its effect was so marked that the 
natural decline of the older fields was checked. Even Ohio 
showed a slight increase in production in 1912 for the 
first time in 12 years. 

The total production by states is given below: 

Production (barrels). 

State. 1911. 1912. 

California 81,134,391 86,450.767 

Colorado 226,926 206,052 

Illinois 31,317,038 28,601.30S 

Indiana 1,695.289 970,009 

Kansas 1,278,819 1,592,796 

Kentucky 472,458 484,36S 

Louisiana 10,720,420 9,263,439 

Michigan ) 

,,. . ! 7,995 • 

Missouri I ' 

New York 952,515 874,128 

Ohio 8,817,112 8,969,007 

Oklahoma 56,069,637 51,852,457 

Pennsylvania 8,248,158 7,837,948 

Texas 9,526,474 11,735,057 

Utah ) 

Wyoming { ^^^-^^^ l-"2-30« 

West Virginia 9,795,464 12,128,962 

Totals 220,449,391 222,538,604 

*Included in Ohio. 
Prices ranged form 50.7c. per barrel in Wyoming to $1,644 
in Pennsylvania, while the average for all states was 73.7c., 
against 60.8c. per barrel in 1911. 

July 19, 1913 



Company Reports 


This Company was formed in 1904 to acquire the Yus- 
ptnssky copper mine, the Spassky smelting works, and the 
Karagandy coal mine. In the Akmolinsk district of Siberia. 
In 1911 a controlling interest in the Atbasar company, 
owning another copper property to the southwest, was pur- 
chased. Last month the whole of the Atbasar proijerty 
was absorbed by the Spassky company. The report of the 
Spassky for the year ended September 30 shows that 28,315 
tons of ore was raised, averaging 20% copper. The smel- 
ter treated 23,759 tons, averaging IS.5% copper, yielding 
3998 tons of metal. As regards development, the Annensky 

f^A/n^fAys BouNDAities. 


shaft has been sunk to 560 ft., and a level opened at that 
point with encouraging results. Further sinking is in 
progress. At the coal mine, 64,757 tons was raised, chiefly 
for use at the smelter. The income from the sale of copper 
was $1,756,000, the average price being $4368 per ton. The 
net profit was $782,000, out of which $719,000 has been paid 
a.s dividend, being at the rate of 25 per cent. 


This Company belongs to the Consolidated Gold Fields 
group, and was formed in 1896 to acquire property on the 
dip of what is now in the Geldenhuis Deep. As is 
known in mining circles, the Company owns a mill con- 
jointly with the Simmer Deep, and the normal proportion 
of stamps Is 120. Milling commenced In 1908, and the div- 
idends so far paid have been 5% for 1909, and 5% for 1912. 
The capital is $4,865,000. The report for 1912 shows that 
492,789 tons of ore was mined, and, together with 21,391 
tons from the dumps, sent to the sorting station, where 
7.2,5% was removed as waste. The average number of 
stamps working was 100, and 6.3 tube-mills. The gold 
yield was worth $2,.'?42,000. Working costs were $2,068,000. 
After sundry items of Inoome and expenditure were in- 
cluded, the working profit was $307,000. Out of this, $245,000 
was distributed as dividend, being at the rate of 5%. The 
working cost per ton was 75c. less than In 1911, and the 
yield per ton was 56c. less. The amount of ore treated was 
161,800 tons greater, so the increased profit per ton and 
the Increased tonnage contributed to an Increased jiroflt 
for the year of $144,000. The scarcity of native labor has 

led to more machine-drills being used, and during 1912 the 
proportion of ore broken by machines was 92%. The ore 
reserve on December 31 was estimated at 1,270,000 tons, 
averaging $4.40 per ton, as compared with 1,232,511 tons! 
averaging $5.10 the year before. The ore developed dur- 
ing the year was of poorer quality than the average, and the 
greater proportion of machine-drilling involving wider 
slopes accounts partly for the fall in average content of 
the reserve. It should be noted that the Jupiter and Sim- 
mer Deep companies now return their reserves in tons of 
ore in the mine, and not In milling tons allowing for the 
rejection of 10% waste. This alteration is due to the fact 
that the low grade of the ore makes it impossible to reject 
so large a proportion. The report refers to a proposed 
increase in the capacity of the mill from 45,000 to 60,000 
tons per month, made possible by the recent improvement 
in the labor supply. The number of stamps will not be 
increased, but coarser crushing will be adopted, with extra 


This Company belongs to the Wickett group, with head- 
quarters in Redruth, Cornwall, England, and was formed 
In 1907 to acquire a property in the Kinta district of 
Perak, Federated Malay States, on the other side of the 
Kinta valley to the Tronoh and Lahat. In 1910 an addi- 
tional property was purchased, in the Taiping district, north 
of Kinta. Dividends were first paid in 1909, and the profits 
have steadily grown. The Tekka ground is hydraulicked, 
and a suction-pump dredge is used at present at Taiping 
property. The report for the year ended January 31 last 
shows that at Tekka 593,493 cu. yd. was treated for a yield 
of 435 tons. The recovery was 1.64 lb. black tin per cubic 
.vard. At Taiping, 296,350 cu. yd. was treated, yielding 127 
tons, or 0.93 lb. per cubic yard. Development points to 
bucket-dredging as being the best method of working the 
deposit, and an alteration Is contemplated. The total profit 
for the year was $172,000, out of which $144,000 has been 
distributed as dividend, being at the rate of 37.5%. Osborne 
& Chappel are the raanagets. 

Gold Production of Western Australia 

The gold production of Western Australia In April was 

$2,195,300, the principal producers being as follows: 

Name. Tonnage. Value. Profit. Dividend. 

Great Boulder 18.212 $240,000 $127,800 

I vanhoe 19,715 188,400 70,000 $275,000 

Kalgurll 10,620 107,000 46,200 120,000 

Bullfinch 4,343 66,100 44,100 

Fenian 2,750 53,900 33,400 

Yuanml 10,400 89,400 32,800 

Golden Horse-Shoe 25,460 184,800 24,900 

Victorious S.-ISO 56,800 20,000 

Lake View & Star 18,226 105,500 18,600 50,000 

Sons of Gwalla 13,400 105,400 14,500 

Queen of the Hills . . . 3,254 28,600 10,900 

Sand Queen 1,230 23,700 10,000 7,500 

Mararoa 2,630 24,100 9,100 

Oroya Links 11,350 60,000 7,900 

Mountain Queen 3,302 24,600 6,500 

Perseverance 20,622 116,700 6,500 174,930 

South Kalgurll 9,694 55,000 6,500 

Associated Northern... 1,940 30,000 7,00C 87,500 

Golden Ridge 2,894 22,300 5,000 

Associated 10,435 56,400 4,200 

Kyarra 895 14,000 3,800 

Ingliston Consols 2,120 15,800 2,700 

I^ake View Consols 8,675 8,100 2,400 

Menzics Consols 1,904 16,500 1,200 

Burbanks Main Lode .. 2,052 22,500 100 


Great Fingall 5.896 55,000 830 

Commodore 1,100 4,200 300 

The production In general has shown a slight decline for 
the past year, but with the new producers which are being 
developed, the future outlook is bright. 



July 19, 1913 


Most of these are In reply to questions received by mail. 
Our readers are invited to ask questions and give Informa- 
tion dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

The fobest abea of Canada covers about 800,000,000 acres. 

Copper production of the world In 1800 was 10,000 tons, 
while In 1912 It was 1,008,290. 

Productive oil and gas wells In the United States In 1912 
were 12,512 and 1811, respectively. 

Power consumption of a 16 by 22-ft. Trent agitator at 
the Ohpir mill, Virginia City, Nevada, averages iVz horse- 

'Rook' stamped by the mills of the Lake Superior copper 
region amounted to 11,411,941 tons In 1912. Of this, 81.2% 
was amygdaloid, and 18.8% conglomerate 'rock.' 

Duty on Impure sodium and potassium cyanide imported 
into Bolivia is $1,412 per 100 lb. In addition to the regu- 
lar customs duties, there is a surtax of 15% of the duties. 

The slime and sand from the concentrator at Anaconda 
is being made into tile and bricks at the Washoe brick 
plant. The product is experimental so far, but gives prom- 
ise of success. 

Silver production of Michigan copper mines in 1912 was 
worth $324,999. This is from the Keweenaw district, 
where both metals occur native in lodes remarkable for 
their extent and uniformity. 

Gold stealing on the Rand and the disposal of the same 
in England has, it is reported, taken on a new form, In 
that the gold is exported in the form of process blocks. 
These look much like heavy 'electros.' 

Mining claims granted in Peru during the fortnight 
ended June 1 were as follows: silver, 2; silver and copper, 
12; coal, 3; and lead and silver, 1. These were situated 
in 13 different provinces, and were granted to 12 petition- 

Analyses of pybrhotite show the following composition: 
from Sudbury, Canada, iron 56.39%, sulphur 38.91%, and 
nickel 4.66%; from Lancaster Gap, Pennsylvania, iron 
55.82%, sulphur 38.59%, and nickel 5.99%; and from Moun- 
tain, Wisconsin, iron 56.154%, sulphur, 43.846%, and no 

Electric power in Madrid, Spain, was recently reduced 
from 18 to 3c. per kilowatt-hour as the result of a rate 
war, but an agreement is being arranged to charge 7c. per 
kilowatt-hour. The Compafiia Cooperativa Electrica Ma- 
drid derives its power from a hydro-electric plant 150 miles 
from Madrid. 

Sulphur i>rodiiction in the United States in 1912 was 
303,472 long tons, valued at $5,256,422, compared with 265,- 
664 long tons, valued at $4,787,049, in 1911, according to 
the United States Geological Survey. The sulphur came 
from Louisiana, Nevada, and Wyoming, the production of 
Louisiana being the dominant factor in the domestic sul- 
phur Industry. 

Extensions of the Mt Morgan, Queensland, ore deposits 
have never been found beyond the boundary of the hold- 
ings of the Mt. Morgan company. The Extension company 
has sunk a shaft 1992 ft., and a drill-hole was driven 3068 
ft., besides other drilling and driving. Only traces of gold 
and copper were found. The company intends to persevere. 
Mt. Morgan has produced gold and copper worth $86,000,000. 

Analysis of mine operations in the Transvaal during 
April, according to the Chamber of Mines, shows the fol- 
lowing: Ore hoisted, 2,627,989 tons; percentage of waste 

sorted, 11.78; ore milled, 2,356,204 tons; stamps working, 
10,046; tube-mills working, 285; plants in operation 27.19 
days of 24 hours each; stamp-duty, 8.85 tons per day; gold 
production, $16,010,000, of which $1,070,000 was from amal- 
gamation and $5,840,000 from cyanidation; and working 
costs of 60 companies averaged $4.32 per ton. 

Aneroid barombteb readings should always be made 
while the instrument lies flat. A good instrument is now 
made for mining purposes, so graduated that observations 
below sea-level may be taken. It has its entire circle grad- 
uated to represent 6 In. of the mercurial column between 
27 and 33. The range of altitude extends between 2000 ft. 
below and 4000 ft. above sea-level. The altitude scale is 
divided into 10-ft. spaces, and may be read by verniers to 
single feet. The reading lens rotates about the circumfer- 
ence to facilitate such observation. 

Electric traction will be used on the new route from 
Splez by way of the Loetschberg tunnel to Domodossila, 
Italy, the electric locomotives being constructed by the Oer- 
likon Machine Works, near Zurich, Switzerland. The 
weight of the locomotives is 112 tons, and they are fitted 
with two motors of 3000 hp., weighing 27 tons each. The 
cost of construction is about $40,500, or twice that of an 
ordinary steam-engine. The overhead or trolley system is 
employed, a current of 15,000 volts being carried. The 
locomotives are capable of pulling a train weighing 310 
tons up the maximum grades of 27 per 1000 at the rate 
of 31 miles per hour. » 

Bauxite Is the principal ore of aluminum and is mined 
largely in Arkansas. It is a result of weathering of crys- 
talline rocks. In part it has been redeposited in Creta- 
ceous clays. It probably occurs at a number of places 
where it has been overlooked, as it may easily be con- 
fused with low-grade iron ore, or even iron-stained clay. 
It is really a hydroxlte of alumina and contains 34 to 45% 
aluminum when pure. It is whitish, yellowish, or brownish 
in color; dull and earthy as to lustre; has no crystal 
form and no cleavage; breaks with a smooth to uneven 
fracture; has a white to pale yellowish streak; is 1 to 3 in 
hardness; and has a specific gravity of 2.5. It is most fre- 
quently oolitic or pisolitic in form, and that is the most 
ready means of recognizing it in the field. However, it 
also occurs in granular earthy form which is deceiving. 
It yields water at high temperatures in a closed tube, is 
difficult to dissolve in hydrochloric acid, and is infusible, 
but gives a deep blue test with cobalt nitrate. The United 
States production in recent years has been about 150,000 
tons per year, and the average price at the mine about 
$5 per long ton. Being a surface material, it Is usually 
cheaply mined. 

Ore deposits of the Joplin district, Missouri, vary in 
character with the depth of mining. The shallower ores 
beginning at the surface are universally pockety and are 
found in residual clays or in 'runs' in the basal breccias 
of the region. The breccias and the forms of the 'runs' 
are largely, if not altogether, due to solution of the lime- 
stone strata. One form of run, according to B. S. Butler 
and J. P. Dunlop, of the United States Geological Survey, 
which is fairly numerous, is the 'circle' deposit, which, in 
the popular view, has come to be nearly synonymous with 
rich deposits. Small veins, vertical sheets, and thin crevice 
deposits are often found in prospecting, but unless they 
develop into stringers leading into paying orebodies, are 
forgotten in the multitude of rich pockety deposits which 
the district has yielded. The blanket deposits or 'sheet 
ground' are found In the Grand Falls chert member of 
the Boone limestone, at depths varying from 125 to 275 ft., 
depending on the topography and the geologic structure. 
Below this horizon there are, in the rocks of Klnderhook 
age, deposits of disseminated ore. They have been found 
in prospect shafts or drill-holes near Springfield, Aurora, 
Granby, Carterville, Joplin, Hornet, and Cave Springs, In 
Missouri; at Galena, In Kansas; and at Quapaw, in Okla- 

July 19, 1913 



Recent Publications 

Reinfobced Conceete Wall Footings and Column Fooi^ 
i.NGS. By Arthur N. Talbot. Bulletin 67. P. 114. 111. Uni- 
versity of Illinois. Urbana, 1913. 

The Coastai. Plain of Noeth Cakolina. By W. Bullock 
Clark, Benjamin L. Miller, L. W. Stephenson, B. L. John- 
son, and Horatio N. Parker. North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey, in conjunction with the United States 
Geological Survey. P. 552. III., maps, plans, charts, index. 
Raleigh, North Carolina, 1912. 

United States Geological Survey publications, Washing- 
ton, 1913: 

The Yentna District, Alaska. By Stephen R. Capps. 
Bulletin 534. P. 75. 111., maps, index. 

Slt^hub Deposits in Park County, Wyoming. By D. F. 
Hewett. Advance chapter from Bulletin 540, "Contribu- 
tions to Economic Geology, 1912.' P. 6. 

Bureau of Mines publications, Washington, July 1913: 

Safety Electric Switches fob Mines. By H. H. Clark. 
Technical Paper 44. P. 8. 

Use of Heavy Oils i.n I.nternal-Combustion Engines. By 
I. C. Allen. Technical Paper 37. P. 36. 

The Analysis of Black Powpeb and Dynamite. By W. 
O. Snelling and C. G. Storm. Bulletin 51. P. 80. 111. 

The Fi.ash Point of Oils, Methods and Apparatus fob 
Its Determixation. By I. C. Allen and A. S. Crossfleld. 
Technical Paper 49. P. 15. 111. 

First Sebies of CoaitDust E.vpi.osion Tests at the Ex- 
perimental Mine. By G. S. Rice, L. M. Jones, J. K. Cle- 
ment, and W. L. Egy. Bulletin 56. 

Advance chapters from 'Mineral Resources of the United 
States, 1912.': 

Production of Ciiromic Iron Ore. By J. S. Diller. P. 10. 

Gems and Precious Stones. By Douglas B. Sterrett. P. 

Production of Anthracite. By Edward W. Parker. P. 

Potash Salts. Summary for 1912. Compiled by W. C. 
Phalen. P. 36. 

Precious and Semi-Pbeciou.s Metals in the Central 
States. Mine production. By B. S. Butler and J. P. Dun- 
lop. P. 87. 

Geology and Ore Dbtosits of the Philipsbubo Quad- 
rangle, Montana. By William Harvey Emmons and Frank 
Cathcart Calkins. Professional Paper 78. P. 271. 111., maps, 
plans, index. 

Copper Leaching at the Nevada-Douglas 

Leaching processes are having their Inning in the cop- 
per world at present. In addition to those recently re- 
ported, the Nevada-Douglas Copper Co.'s principals claim 
to have been successful in conducting experiments for some 
months under the supervision of W. L. Austin, bringing 
the process to a point where It can be operated commer- 
cially to produce copper at a cost of 7 to 10c. per pound. 
Laboratory results show costs at Butte with a similar 
process to be .oc. per pound. The Nevada-Douglas manage- 
ment Is Jubilant over the success of these experiments on 
both the high and low-grade ores of the mines. The ore 
is pulverized and leached with 10% sulphuric acid, and 
it is claimed tests have shown that agitation for two houre 
will give an extraction of 85%. After the copper is dis- 
solved it Is precipitated from the solution by an electro- 
lytic process, the same as that employed in the Atlantic 
coast refineries. That there Is a good future for the leach- 
ing process as applied to copper ores seems evident, and 
the mining public will await with Interest the results when 
tried on a working scale. J. Parke Channing is of the 
opinion that leaching methods will prove most effective in 
saving the copper now lost in treating the ores of Miami. 

Catalogues Received 

Keystone Placer Drill Co., Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania 
•The Keystone Drill Magazine' for July. 16 pages Illus- 
trated. 5 by 7 inches. 

Henry R. Wohthington, 115 Broadway, New York Cata- 
logue No. W-202, 'Volute Centrifugal Pumps.' 64 pages 
Illustrated. 6 by 9 inches. 

Smooth-On Manufacturing Co., Jersey City, New Jer- 
sey. 'Extracts from Instruction Book No. 12.'' 16 pages. 
Illustrated. 3% by 6 Inches. 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works, 11 Broadway, New 
York. Bulletin No. 150, 'Cameron Centrifugal Pumps.' 16 
pages. Illustrated. 6 by 9 Inches. 

Lidgebwood Manufacturing Co., 96 Liberty St., New 
York. Bulletin No. 12, 'Lidgerwood Electric Hoist's.' 20 
pages. Illustrated. 9 by 12 inches. 

Cyanide Plant Supply Co., Ltd., 1, Broad Street Place, 
London, E. C, England. Supplement No. 23, 'Brown Agi- 
tator or Pachuca Tank.' 28 pages. Illustrated. 8 by 51/2 

Chic.vgo Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago. Bulletin No. 127. 
'Pneumatic Drills, Reamers, Wood Borers, Flue Rolling and 
Tapping Machines and Grinders.' 40 pages. Illustrated. 
6 by 9 inches. 

SL^J.IVAN Machinery Co., Chicago. Bulletin 58-M. 'Sul- 
livan Cross Compound Power-Driven Air Compressors.' 20 
pages. Illustrated. 6 by 9 inches. Also booklet No. 112 
on Sullivan Air Compressors, and Bulletin No. 66M, 'Ham- 
mer Drills for Quarry Purposes; and Stone-Dressing Tools.' 
20 pages. Illustrated. 6 by 9 inches. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

The Habdinge Conical Mill Co., believing that it will 
be conferring a benefit upon the users of cylindrical tube- 
mills without material injury to its own interests, begs to 
inform such users of cylindrical tube-mills that it will 
grant a limited number of privileges for converting 
cylindrical tube-mills into Hardinge mills upon the fol- 
lowing conditions: 1st. That the owner or user of a tube- 
mill will furnish the Hardinge Conical Mill Co. with di- 
mensions of the unconverted tube-mill, also information 
relative to the work now being done and which will be 
required of the mill after conversion, but the privilege 
shall only apply to tube-mills Installed previous to Janu- 
ary 1, 1913. 2nd. That the converted tube-mill shall 
bear a license plate which will be furnished by the 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 3rd. The consideration for 
the privilege shall be $1 upon the furnishing of the license 
plate, and the further consideration of information rela- 
tive to the comparative merits of the mill before and after 
conversion, as soon as such information is available. 4th. 
The granting of such privilege shall be entirely at the dis- 
cretion of the Hardinge Conical Mill Co. and is at present 
intended only for applications received during the re- 
mainder of the year 1913. 5th. The unlicensed use of any 
such converted tube-mill, without the written authority 
of the Hardinge Conical Mill Co., will be construed and 
prosecuted as an infringement of its patents, which have 
already been adjudicated in favor of the Hardinge Conical 
Mill Co. In the United States Circuit Court and the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals. 

The Goldfields Water Scheme, which supplies the East- 
em Goldfields and many farming districts in Western Aus- 
tralia, showed a consumption of 1,134,800,000 gal. during 
the year that ended on June 30, 1912. Of this, the mines 
used 449,400,000, and mining towns 307,500,000 gal., a total 
of 756,900,000 gal. The revenue from all sources was 
$1,100,000, operating expenses, including pumping, main- 
tenance, management, etc., $375,000, interest $499,000, and 
sinking fund $455,000, leaving a deficit of $129,000. Pipes 
cover a length of 1016 miles. 



July 19, 1913 

The Eureka T & T Hook 

This contrivance was invented for use in the tie pre- 
serving plants of Montana, The special features of the 
hooli consist of the two points on the hooli and two op- 
posing spurs on the toe ring, giving a non-swiveling grip 
on the timber, box, or barrel to which it is fastened. With 
this hook a corner hold from right or left and an end- 
lifting hold for carrying and piling can be had, using two 
opposite hooks. It can also be used as a lug-hook for pole 
work. It will be found of especial value in handling short 

The apparatus is manufactured by Siebe, Gorman & Co., 
Ltd., London, S.E. The American representative is H. N. 
Elmer, 1140 i^Ionadnock block, Chicago, Illinois. 

Sears' Acme Mill 


timber about the framing shed, in the preserving plant, at 
the shaft or slope, and on the underground stations. It 
can be used to advantage in handling boxes of castings, 
hardware, etc., and in all kinds of railroad work. The 
verdict of the tie and lumber men and the miners of this 
state is expressed in the question repeatedly asked when 
shown the tool, "It is so simple, why has someone not 
thought of it before?" The hook has been well received by 
the miners as well as the lumbermen. The tool shown in 
the illustration is 18 in. long and adapted to standard ties. 
Two larger sizes are contemplated for mine timber and use 
on carriages in the sawmills where such a hook is required. 
The hook was patented on June 24, 1913, and is manu- 
factured by the Eureka Tie & Timber Hook Co., of Helena, 
Montana. The hook is a valuable asset in mining and 
railway construction work. 

The 'Neptune' Diving Apparatus 

This apparatus is designed particularly for work in 
flooded mines and other