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Full text of "Minorities and women in the arts, 1970 : a study"

Research Division Report #7 



Minorities and Women in e b £* ,b *~»«« 

the Arts: 1970 55** 



January 1978 



A Study by Data Use and Access Laboratories, October 1977 



Research Division Report #7 



Minorities and Women in IHriS ,tewm * 

the Arts: 1970 




January 1978 



A Study by Data Use and Access Laboratories. October 1977 



Minorities and Women in 
the Arts: 1970 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/minoritieswomeniOOdata 



PREFACE 

This report is the second in a series that analyzes in 
considerable detail the data from the last national census. 
Some of the data being used has not been published before, 
except in the form of computer data tapes known as the 
Public Use Sample. In this report the participation of 
women and minorities in artist occupations in 1970 is com- 
pared with their overall participation in the labor force. 
Likewise, their earnings in each artist occupation in 1969 
are compared with earnings for their counterparts in the 
same artist occupation. Also, patterns of residence and 
migration are discussed. 

Because the number of persons employed in artist occupations 
is small relative to total U.S. employment, only extremely 
large or specialized surveys can provide information on 
employed artists nationwide. The decennial census provides 
sufficiently accurate and detailed occupational information 
and has been used in this study. Furthermore, census data 
is part of an ongoing process so that valid statistical 
comparisons can be made of changes over time. The 1970 
Census information used in this study can be compared with 
data from the 1980 Census when they become available and 
will show changes that occur in this decade. 

The tabulation and analysis of the 1970 Census data for this 
study was performed for the Research Division by Data Use 
and Access Laboratories. This report was written by Diane 
Ellis under the general direction of Jack Beresford. Much 
of the data appearing in this publication was taken from 
three sets of tabular material prepared earlier by Data 
Use and Access Laboratories — "Rank of Artists in Specific 
Artistic Occupations," "Interstate and Interregional Migra- 
tion of Artists Based on the Printed Results of the 1970 
Census," and "Tabulations of Artists and Persons in Compara- 
tive Occupations in the United States: 1970." Copies of 
these materials can be examined at the Library of the Arts 
Endowment or borrowed through inter-library loan. To do 
so, contact Mrs. Chris Morrison, Librarian, National Endow- 
ment for the Arts, Washington, D.C. 20506; phone: (202) 
634-7640. 



Research Division 

National Endowment for the Arts 

November 1977 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION 1 

MINORITIES IN THE ARTS 3 

Population Size 3 

Earnings 8 

Residence and Migration 10 

WOMEN IN THE ARTS 12 

Population Size 12 

Earnings 13 

Residence and Migration 15 

APPENDIX 17 



11 



TABLES AND FIGURES 



Table 1. 
Table 2. 
Table 3. 

Table 4. 



Minority Composition of Artist 
Occupations, U.S., 1970 

Percentage Distribution of Minority 
Artists by Occupation, U.S., 1970 

Percentage Comparison of Earnings of 
Minority and Non-Minority Artists in 
Each Artist Occupation, U.S., 1969 

Percentage Comparison of Earnings of 
Established Men and Women Artists in 
Each Artist Occupation, U.S., 1969 



Page 
5 
6 



15 



Figure 1 

Figure 2 
Figure 3 



Proportions of Minorities in Artist 

Labor Force Compared with Proportions 

in Total Labor Force, U.S., 1970 4 

Median Incomes Among Established 

Artists by Race/Ethnicity , U.S., 1969 8 

Male - Female Composition of the 

Artist Occupations, U.S., 1970 12 



in 



APPENDIX TABLES 



Page 

Table A. Persons 16 Years Old and Over in Artist 
Labor Force and Labor Reserve, By Oc- 
cupation and Race/Ethnicity, U.S., 1970 18 

Table B. Median Incomes by Occupation and Race/Eth- 
nicity for Artists Age 30 and Over Who 
Worked 40 Weeks or More in 1969 and Were 
in the Same Occupation in 1965 and 1970, 
U.S., 1970 , 19 

Table C. State Residence of Employed Black Artists, 

U.S., 1970 20 

Table D. State Residence of Employed Spanish-American 

Artists, U.S., 1970 % 21 

Table E. Persons 16 Years Old and Over in Artist 

Force and Labor Reserve, by Occupation and 

Sex, U.S., 1970 22 

Table F. Median Incomes by Occupation and Sex for 

Artists Age 30 and Over Who Worked 40 Weeks 
or More in 1969 and Were in the Same Occupa- 
tion in 1965 and 1970, U.S., 1970 23 

Table G. State Residence of Employed Women Artists, 

U.S., 1970 24 



IV 



INTRODUCTION 



The 1970 U.S. Census provides data on artists who are 
women and artists who have minority racial or ethnic 
backgrounds. This data shows: there were lower propor- 
tions of minorities and women in artist occupations than 
in the total labor force in 1970; income levels for estab- 
lished minority artists were below the levels for estab- 
lished non-minority artists; and income for established 
women artists was less than half the income of established 
men artists. 

The following discussion of population size is based on 
artists who were 16 years of age and over in the experienced 
labor force or labor reserve in 1970. Thus, artists working 
in 1970, as well as those who last worked in an artist oc- 
cupation are included. However, in the discussion of the 
place of residence of artists only artists working in 1970 
make up the data base. The term "minority" in this report 
is used to describe persons from four major ethnic or racial 
groups: black, Spanish-American^, American Indian, and Asian* 
American. The race of all persons reported in the census is 
determined by self-identif ication. 

Data on population size and earnings are from the 1970 Census 
Public Use Sample. Tables for this analysis were prepared 
by DUALabs from extracts of these samples. Descriptions of 
sample sizes, weighting, and sampling error are found in 
the DUALabs report. ^ Data on residence are from printed 



* For description and use of this data file, see U.S. 
Bureau of the Census, Public Use Samples of the 1970 Census: 
Description and Technical Documentation (Washington, D.C.: 
GPO, 1972). 

Included in the category, Spanish-American, are persons 
with Spanish surnames, of Spanish countries of origin, and 
with Spanish mother tongues. 

3 Data Use and Access Laboratories, "Tabulations of Artists 
and Persons in Comparative Occupations in the United States: 
1970" (prepared for the National Endowment for the Arts, 
January 1977), Tables 1-12. 



_i_ 



results of the 1970 Census recompiled by DUALabs to 
provide breakdowns on the locations of minority artists 
in specific occupations. ^ Data on migration are also 
from printed results of the 1970 Census. 5 



4 See U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 
1970, Detailed Characteristics , Series PC(1)-D, Final Re- 
ports 1 through 52; and Data Use and Access Laboratories, 
"Rank of States and Standard Metropolitan Statistical 
Areas by Number of Artists in Specific Artistic Occupations" 
(prepared for the National Endowment for the Arts, January 
1977). 

5 

See U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 

1970, Detailed Characteristics , Final Report PC(1)-D1, 
U.S. Summary, Table 293, "Detailed Occupations of the 
Experienced Civilian Labor Force, by Sex, for Regions"; 
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 1970, 
Subject Reports , Final Report PC (2) -7A, Occupational 
Characteristics, Table 34, "Residence in 1965 for the 
Experienced Civilian Labor Force by Occupation, Race, 
Spanish Origin, and Sex, 1970" and Tables 35 to 37 
"Region of Residence in 1965 for Persons in the Experienced 
Civilian Labor Force, who moved between Regions, by Oc- 
cupation and Sex: 1970"; and Data Use and Access Labora- 
tories, "Interstate and Inter-regional Migration of Artists 
Based on the Printed Results of the 1970 Census" (prepared 
for the National Endowment for the Arts, August 1976). 



•2- 



MINORITIES IN THE ARTS 



POPULATION SIZE 

In 1970 there were about 68,000 persons of minority racial 
and ethnic backgrounds who had occupations as actors, archi- 
tects, authors, dancers, designers, musicians, composers, 
painters, sculptors, photographers, radio and television 
announcers, university teachers of art, music, or drama, 
and other types of artists and entertainers. Appendix 
Table A breaks this figure down by occupation and ethnic 
background. 

Minority artists made up about 9% of all artists in the 1970 
labor force. This figure is low when compared with the 
proportion of minorities in the total labor force, which was 
about 15% in 1970. It is similar to minority participation 
levels among all professional, technical, and kindred workers 
in the 1970 labor force. 

Of the four minority groups studied, black artists were the 
only minorities who were found in a considerably lower pro- 
portion than their proportion in the total labor force. 
Artists of Spanish heritage, as well as American Indian and 
Asian-American artists, were represented in nearly identical 
proportions as their proportions in the total labor force. 
These relationships are illustrated in Figure 1. 

In specific artist occupations, some fields had a sizeable 
proportion of minorities in 1970, while other fields had 
very few such persons. Dance had the highest participation 
levels — nearly 20% of the U.S. dancers in the labor force 
were minorities. The writing field had the lowest proportion 
of minorities. Only 4% of all authors in the labor force 
were minorities. (Examination of related writing occupations 
also showed low levels of minority participation: 5% for 
editors/reporters and 6% for public relations and publicity 
writers . ) The percentage of minorities in the labor force of 
each artist occupation is shown in Table 1. 



-3- 



Figure 1 

Proportions of Minorities in Artist Labor Force, 
Compared with Proportions in Total Labor Force, U.S., 
. 1970 



3.8% Spanish 

3.6% Black * T 
T 



1.8% Other* 



3.7% Spanish 



1.6% Other* 




ARTIST** 
LABOR FORCE 




TOTAL 
LABOR FORCE 



* Includes American Indians, Asian-Americans, Eskimos, 
Aleuts, and others identified as non-black, non-white, 
and non-Spanish. 

**Actors, architects, authors, dancers, designers, musicians, 
composers, painters, sculptors, photographers, radio and 
television announcers, and university teachers of art, music, 
or drama. 



-4- 



Table 1 
Minority Composition of Artist Occupations, U.S., 1970 



Occupation 

Dancers 

Actors 

Musicians/Composers 

Photographers 

Designers 

Architects 

Painters/Sculptors 

Radio/TV Announcers 

University Teachers of 

Art, Music, Drama 
Authors 

Other Artists/Entertainers 
(not elsewhere classified) 

All Artist Occupations 



All 




Spanish- 




Minorities 


Black 


American 


Other* 


19.5% 


7.8% 


6.8% 


4.9% 


12.2 


4.8 


5.4 


2.0 


11.7 


7.0 


3.7 


1.0 


8.8 


3.3^ 


3.7 


1.8 


8.5 


2.2 


4.1 


2.2 


8.1 


2.1 


3.0 


3.0 


7.5 


2.3-" 


3.3 


1.9 


6.5 


2.7 


3.0 


.8 


5.0 


2.9 


1.0 


1.1 


4.4 


2.1 


1.7 


.6 


13*5 


4.4 


6.1 


3.0 



9.2% 



3.6% 



3.8% 



1.8% 



♦Includes American Indians, Asian-Americans, Eskimos, Aleuts, and 
others identified as non-white, non-black, and non-Spanish. 

Dance had high levels of participation by all minority groups. 
The architect and author occupations had the lowest proportions 
of blacks, while the occupation of university teacher of art, 
music, or drama had the lowest proportion of Spanish-Americans. 
Census data shows no American Indians with occupations as 
university art, music, or drama teachers. 

Table 2 summarizes occupations of all minority artists in 1970. 
The largest single group of minority artists was that of black 
musicians and/or composers. Also, one-third of all black artists 
were in the musician occupation, while blacks were found with 
least frequency as authors and radio/TV announcers. In contrast, 
Spanish-American artists were most numerous in the designer 
occupation, which was the largest artist occupation in terms 
of the total number of minority artists. 



-5- 



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-6- 



Asian-American artists were most numerous in the designer, 
architect, and painter/sculptor occupations in 1970 and were 
least likely to be found as announcers for radio or television 
broadcasts. American Indians made up only two-tenths of a 
percent of all artists in the 1970 labor force. Their numbers 
were very small in all artist occupations, with less than one 
percent in each field. Painting and sculpture attracted 
more Indians than any other artistic field in 1970, but the 
total number in this occupation was less than 400 nationwide. 
It should be noted that U.S. Census data does not include the 
craft occupations as part of the professional occupational 
classification. Thus, this report does not include the number 
of native Americans (or other minority persons) who worked 
as craftsmen. 

Although not the subject of this report, artists of other 
ethnic backgrounds also showed some interesting occupational 
tendencies in 1970. Most artists of European and Asian 
ethnicities were concentrated in the designer occupation. 
Artists of Italian birth or parentage made up 5% of all 
designers in the 1970 U.S. labor force; Russian artists were 
strong in both the writing and design fields, composing 4% 
of authors and 4% of designers; and artists of German ethni- 
city composed 3 1/2% of all architects in the labor force. 

Among artists whose families had been in the U.S. for at 
least two generations and who were not black or Spanish, 
there was a greater tendency to work as radio/TV announcers, 
editors and reporters, and university art, music, or drama 
teachers than in any other other artistic field. Designers 
had the least concentration of this group of white, older- 
generation Americans. About 40% of all designers in the U.S. 
labor force were either black, Spanish, foreign-born, or 
first-generation American. 



-7- 



EARNINGS 

Earnings from the year 1969 were examined for all "established" 
artists — those who were in the same artist occupation in 
both 1965 and 1970, who were at least 30 years of age, and 
who had worked 40 weeks or more during the year. These estab- 
lished artists made up 23% of all minority artists and 33% 
of all non-minority artists in the 1970 labor force. In 
other words, minority artists were less likely to be established 
in their occupations than were non-minority artists. 

For those minorities who did become established in the artist 
occupation, earnings were less than for established non- 
minority artists. In 1969, the median income for an estab- 
lished white artist in the the U.S. was about $11,000. For 
the established minority artist, median income reached $9,300 
or 84% of the earnings of established white artists. This 
percentage of earnings in the artist occupations is higher 
than the figure for the total labor force, where median incomes 
for minorities were about 74% of the earnings of non-minority 
workers in 1970. Among American Indian and black artists, 
wages were lower than for other minority groups in 1969, at 
about $8,000 and $8,200, respectively. Asian-Americans were 
the only minority artists to achieve median incomes nearly 
comparable to white artists. Figure 2 shows this comparison. 



Figure 2 

Median Incomes among Established Artists 
by Race/Ethnicity , U.S., 1969 



WX1X LC 


black 


Spanish 


Indian 


Asian 


$11,000 




$10,700 


$9,050 


$8,200 


$8,000 



-s- 



The earnings gap between established minority and non- 
minority artists did not exist in all artist occupations. 
Generally, in the occupations of radio/TV announcer, painter 
and sculptor, author, and musician and composer almost no 
income gap was apparent. But in other occupations large 
earnings gaps existed. The artist occupations are ranked 
in Table 3 according to the earnings of established minority 
artists compared to non-minority artists. Appendix Table B 
provides median incomes for each artist occupation by race 
of artist. 



Table 3 

Percentage Comparison of Earnings of Established Minority 
Artists in Fach Artist Occupation. U.S.. 1969 

Median Minority Earnings 
Occupation* as a Percent of 

Median Non-Minority Earnings 

Radio/TV Announcers 108% 

Painters/Sculptors 99 

Musicians/Composers 95 

Authors 94 

Designers 88 

Architects 83 

Photographers 78 

University Teachers of Art, Music, Drama 77 

Actors 76 

All Artist Occupations 84% 

*Dancers are excluded as a separate category here because 
too few established minority dancers existed to provide a 
meaningful comparison. They are included in percentage for 
"All Artist Occupations." 



-9- 



RESIDENCE AND MIGRATION 

Black artists who were employed in 1970 had residential 
patterns similar to the general population of employed 
artists. Half were concentrated in New York, California, 
Illinois, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia. 

Among Spanish-American employed artists, more than 40% 
resided in California in 1970. Another 30% lived in Texas, 
Florida, and New York. These residential patterns are 
similar to patterns for the general Spanish-American population 
Appendix Table C shows total numbers and percentages of 
employed black and Spanish- American artists in each state. 

These patterns of residence varied little by artist occupa- 
tion. The exceptions are actors and radio/TV announcers. 
Minority actors tended to be more highly concentrated in 
New York and California than other artists, and radio/TV 
announcers were more geographically dispersed into such 
states as Ohio, Michigan, and Texas. (A similar residence 
pattern exists for these occupations in the general artist 
population.) For most occupations, New York and California 
had the largest share of black artists. However, Washington, 
D.C., replaced California as the second most populous state 
for black architects. California was overwhelmingly home 
for Spanish- American artists. 

Between 1965 and 1970, about 2,300 black artists in the labor 
force moved from one region of the country to another. These 
interregional migrants represented about 9% of all black 
artists, a proportion similar to interregional migrants 
among white artists. The patterns of movement were different 
from whites, however. More black artists moved out of the 
South than in, giving the South the largest net loss of black 
artists of any region. Interestingly, black female artists 
followed a reverse trend, and like white artists, moved into 
the South in greater numbers than they moved out. The West 
gained the most black artists. Net interregional migration 
during the five-year period did not have a great impact on 
the total size of the black artist population in the West, 
however, accounting for less than 1% of black artists in the 
West by 1970. Movement of black artists from one state to 
another between 1965 and 1970 affected 12 1/2% of those in 
the labor force compared with 15% of the general artist labor 
force. 

Among Spanish- American artists in the labor force, about 
7% moved from one region of the country to another between 
1965 and 1970, only slightly less than the proportion of 
interregional migrants in the entire artist labor force. 



-10- 



The direction of interregional migration was similar to 
artists overall, with the western and southern regions show- 
ing net gains as Spanish-American artists moved to (or 
returned to) regions with general concentrations of Spanish- 
Americans. The Northeast region had the largest net loss. By 
1970, net interregional migration from the five-year period 
accounted for about 2% of all Spanish-American artists in 
the South. The effect in other regions was negligible. Move- 
ments from one state to another between 1965 and 1970 were made 
by 11% of Spanish- American artists. 



-11- 



WOMEN IN THE ARTS 



POPULATION SIZE 

In 1970 there were about 236,000 women in the labor force as 
actors, architects, authors, dancers, musicians, painters, 
sculptors, photographers, radio and television announcers, 
and university teachers of art, music, or drama. Appendix 
Table E gives the breakdown by occupation. 

There were more than twice as many men as women in artist 
occupations in 1970, and the proportion of women in the 
arts was lower than in the total labor force. Women made up 
32% of artists in the occupations listed above compared with 
40% women in the professional labor force and 37% in the 
total labor force. 

Participation levels of women varied greatly among the 
different artist occupations. Dance was the only field in 
which women clearly outnumbered men; the ratio was more than 
six to one. Among actors, women were represented in a pro- 
portion nearly identical to their proportion in the total 
population — 52%. But among architects and radio/television 
announcers, there were few women in 1970. Figure 3 illus- 
trates the level of female participation in each artist 
occupation. 



Figure 3 
Male - Female Composition of the Artist Occupations, U.S., 1970 



FEMALE 



Dancers 

Actors 

Painters/Sculptors 



87% 



| 52% 



44% 



University Teachers of Art,Music,Drama 

Musicians/Composers 

Authors 

Designers 

Photographers 

Radio/TV Announcers 

Architects 



40% 



39% 



36% 



| 30% 



1 19% 



|9% 



MALE 



13% 



48% 



56% 



60%| 



61% 



64% 



70% 



81% 



% 




-12- 



EARNINGS 

In 1970, women who were established artists - that is, who 
were 30 years old, who had worked in the same artist occupa- 
tion in both 1965 and 1970, and who had worked at least 40 
weeks during the previous year - earned less than half the 
income of men who were established artists:/ median annual 
incomes were at about $12,000 for such men and $5,500 for 
such women. These established artists included 19% of all 
women artists in the labor force and 38% of all men artists 
in the labor force. Thus, half the proportion of women be- 
came established artists as did men. Earnings among women 
artists were considerably below the earnings of black and 
minority artists, as described in Section II. More than 
30% of all established women artists had annual incomes of 
less than $3,000 per year, compared with only 5% for establish- 
ed male artists. At the other extreme, 9% of established men 
in the arts had incomes over $25,000 per year, while only 
1 1/2 % of women artists attained this level of earnings. 
Also, the National Endowment for the Arts has previously re- 
ported that unemployment in eight artist occupations in 1970 
was higher for women than for men — at about 7% for women 
compared with 4.2% for men.* 

In every artist occupation large gaps existed between male 
and female incomes in 1970. Architecture and design provided 
higher earnings for women than any other artist field. They 
also provided higher earnings for women, in relationship to 
male earnings, than any other artist field. But even for fe- 
male architects and designers, median incomes were 30% lower 
than the earnings of men in those fields. The musician oc- 
cupation gave women the lowest earnings of any artist field. 
With median incomes less than $2,000 per year, established 
women musicians earned about one-fifth the incomes of men who 
were established in the field. The radio/TV announcer occupa- 
tion also provided median earnings for women that were less 
than half the earnings of men. Table 4 ranks the artist 
occupations according to the comparative earnings of men and 
women artists. Appendix Table G provides median annual in- 
comes for men and women artists in each occupation. 

These large differences in earnings between men and women 
are not unique to the art field. Data on other selected oc- 
cupations show a similar difference. For example, women who 
had been lawyers for at least five years and who worked full- 
time in 1969 had median incomes that were only 57% the median 



National Endowment for the Arts, Employment and Unemployment 
of Artists: 1970-1975 (Research Division Report #1 (April, 
1976), p. 15. 



-13- 



incomes of established male lawyers — $22,100 per year 
for men compared with $12 , 700 for women. Among the total 
labor force of wage and salary workers, women's median 
earnings were about 62% the earnings of men in 1970. This 
earnings disparity has not lessened at all in recent years. 
By 1975, median incomes for women in the total labor force 
remained at 62% of the earnings of men.^ 



" U.S. Department of Labor, "Trends in Weekly and Hourly Earn- 
ings for Major Labor Force Groups," Press Release No. 77-955, 
November 2, 1977, Table 1, p. 4. 



-14- 



Table 4 



Percentage Comparison 


of Earnings 


of 


Established Men and 


Women 


Artists in Each 


Artist Occupation, U.S., 


1969 










Median 


Earnings of Women 


Occupation 






as 


a Percent 


of 








Median Earnings 


of Men 


Architects 








68% 




Designers 








67 




Actors 








63 




Authors 








62 




Dancers 








61 




University Teachers of Art, Music, 


, Drama 


59 




Photographers 








51 




Painters/Sculptors 








51 




Radio/TV Announcers 








32 




Musicians/Composers 








21 





All Artist Occupations v 46% 

RESIDENCE AND MIGRATION 

Residence patterns of employed women artists were nearly 
identical to those of employed men artists in 1970. Thirty 
percent of employed women artists lived in New York or 
California, with the woman artist favoring New York slightly 
more than the man artist. Another 20% of women artists 
lived in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Ohio. Appendix 
Table G shows the total number of women artists in each 
state and their distribution among the states. 

Women artists were largely urban-based in 1970. Like men 
artists, only 12% lived in rural areas (communities of less 
than 2,500 people). Among major metropolitan areas, New 
York City was the most frequent choice of residence, with 
14% of women artists residing there in 1970. Other cities 
with large women artist populations were Los Angeles, Chicago, 
Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and Philadelphia (each city 
had more than 2% of all women artists) . 

Women artists were just as likely to move long distances as 
were men artists between 1965 and 1970, but their patterns 
of movement were slightly different. About 8% of all women 
in the artist labor force moved from one region of the 
country to another during this period. A greater proportion 
of women artists than men artists moved out of the North 
Central region and into the Northeast (meaning primarily New 
York City) did not have as great a net loss among women 
artists as it had among men artists. 



-15- 



Interregional migration gave the West and the South the 
largest numbers of women artists. The West had the largest 
net gain due to a higher proportion of women artists moving 
in from the North Central region. By 1970, interregional 
migration from the preceding five years accounted for 3.3% 
of all women artists in the West and 2.3% of women artists 
in the South. Movement from one state to another from 1965 
to 1970 affected 14% of women artists, nearly identical to 
the figure for men artists. 



-16- 



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-19- 





Table C 




State Residence of 


Employed Black 


Artists, U.S., 1970 


State 


Number 


Percent 


New York 


3 r 909 


21.0 


California 


2,417 


13.0 


Illinois 


1,358 


7.3 


District of Columbia 


968 


5.2 


Pennsylvania 


951 


5.1 


Texas 


895 


4.8 


Michigan 


830 


4.5 


Ohio 


690 


3.7 


Maryland 


678 


3.6 


New Jersey 


663 


3.6 


Louisiana 


552 


3.0 


Florida 


473 


2.5 


Virginia 


427 


2.3 


Georgia 


427 


2.3 


Massachusetts 


354 


1.9 


Missouri 


335 


1.8 


Alabama 


324 


1.7 


North Carolina 


315 


1.7 


Tennessee 


298 


1.6 


Indiana 


208 


1.1 


South Carolina 


203 


1.1 


Connecticut 


162 


.9 


Washington 


136 


.7 


Mississippi 


125 


.7 


Colorado 


113 


.6 


Oklahoma 


109 


.6 


Kentucky 


103 


.6 


Minnesota 


72 


.4 


Kansas 


64 


.3 


Wisconsin 


61 


.3 


Oregon 


58 


.3 


Delaware 


45 


.2 


Arkansas 


40 


.2 


Arizona 


34 


.2 


Nebraska 


29 


.2 


Iowa 


28 


.2 


New Mexico 


28 


.2 


Vermont 


22 


.1 


Nevada 


22 


.1 


West Virginia 


22 


.1 


Hawaii 


22 


.1 


Rhode Island 


14 


.1 


Alaska 


6 


.03 


South Dakota 


5 


.03 


Wyoming 


5 


.03 


Utah 


5 


.03 


New Hampshire 


4 


.02 


Maine 





.00 


Idaho 





.00 


Montana 





.00 


North Dakota 





.00 



Source: Data Use and Access Laboratories, "Rank of States and 
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas by Number of Artists in 
Specific Artistic Occupations," Table la (prepared for the National 
Endowment for the Arts, 1977). 



-20- 





Table D 






State Residence of 


Employed Spanish- 


•American Artists, U.! 


3., 1970 


State 


Number 


Percent 




California 


7,419 


40.1 




Texas 


2,617 


14.1 




Florida 


1,611 


8.7 




New York 


1,412 


7.6 




Illinois 


535 


2.9 




New Mexico 


523 


2.8 




Arizona 


406 


2.2 




Colorado 


406 


2.2 




Virginia 


299 


1.6 




Michigan 


295 


1.6 




Maryland 


293 


1.6 




Louisiana 


215 


1.2 




Ohio 


204 


1.1 




Nevada 


184 


1.0 




Massachusetts 


183 


1.0 




Missouri 


177 


1.0 




New Jersey 


173 


.9 




Connecticut 


172 


.9 




District of Columbi 


a 159 


.9 




Georgia 


148 


.8 




Washington 


129 


.7 




Oklahoma 


100 


.5 




Kansas 


97 


.5 




Minnesota 


72 


.4 




Tennessee 


72 


.4 




Hawaii 


61 


.3 




Indiana 


56 


.3 




Wisconsin 


56 


.3 




Oregon 


51 


.3 




Pennsylvania 


50 


.3 




Utah 


48 


.3 




Alabama 


47 


.3 




Nebraska 


47 


.3 




North Carolina 


46 


.2 




Rhode Island 


32 


.2 




Kentucky 


26 


.1 




Maine 


23 


.1 




South Carolina 


18 


.1 




Mississippi 


11 


.1 




Alaska 


10 


.1 




Montana 


9 


.05 




Arkansas 


7 


.04 




Idaho 


7 


.04 




South Dakota 


6 


.03 




Delaware 


5 


.03 




Iowa 





.00 




New Hampshire 





.00 




North Dakota 





.00 




Vermont 





.00 




West Virginia 





.00 




Wyoming 





.00 





Source: Data Use and Access Laboratories, "Rank of States and 
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas by Number of Artists in 
Specific Artistic Occupations," Table la (prepared for the National 
Endowment for the Arts, 1977). 



Table E 

Persons 16 Years Old and Over in Artist Labor Force and 
Labor Reserve, by Occupation and Sex, U.S., 1970 

Occupation Male Female Total 

Actors 

Architects 

Authors 

Dancers 

Designers 

Musicians/Composers 

Painters/Sculptors 

Photographers 

Radio/TV Announcers 

University Teachers of 
Art, Music, or Drama 20,800 13,620 34,420 

Other Artists & Entertainers 
(not elsewhere classified) 54,160 26,073 80,233 

TOTAL 493,976 236,228 730,204 

Source: Data Use and Access Laboratories, "Tabulations of 
Artists and Persons in Comparative Occupations in the United 
States: 1970," Table 1 (prepared for the National Endowment 
for the Arts, January, 1977). 



11,316 


12,114 


23,430 


59,420 


2,797 


62,217 


20,003 


11,447 


31,450 


1,577 


10,112 


11,689 


91,583 


39,056 


130,639 


76,364 


48,087 


124,451 


72,623 


56,392 


129,015 


63,634 


14,452 


78,086 


22,496 


2,078 


24,574 



-22- 



Table F 

Median Incomes by Occupation and Sex for Artists Age 30 
and Over Who Worked 40 Weeks or More in 1969 and Were 
in the Same Occupation in 1965 and 1970, U.S., 1970 

Occupation Male Female 

Actors $12,780 $8,000 

Architects 15,140 10,250 

Authors 11,870 7,410 

Dancers 

Designers 

Musicians/Composers 

Painters/Sculptors 

Photographers 

Radio/TV Announcers 

University Teachers of 
Art, Music, or Drama 

All Artist Occupations 



Source: Data Use and Access Laboratories, "Tabulations of 
Artists and Persons in Comparative Occupations in the United 
States: 1970," Supplemental Tables T001-T004 (prepared for 
the National Endowment for the Arts, January 1977, 
revised November 1977) . 



11,500 


7,000 


12,480 


8,420 


9,110 


1,960 


11,130 


5,670 


10,180 


5,150 


10,990 


3,510 


13,420 


7,900 


$11,980 


$5,510 



-?3- 



Table G 
State Residence of Employed Women Artists, U.S., 1970 



State 


Number 


Percent 


New York 


23,205 


16.9% 


California 


19,467 


14.2 


Illinois 


7,180 


5.2 


Pennsylvania 


6,657 


4.9 


Texas 


6,526 


4.8 


Ohio 


6,123 


4.5 


New Jersey 


4,831 


3.5 


Michigan 


4,631 


3.4 


Florida 


4,330 


3.2 


Massachusetts 


4,061 


3.0 


Maryland 


3,018 


2.2 


Virginia 


2,753 


2.0 


Missouri 


2,705 


2.0 


Connecticut 


2,622 


1.9 


Wisconsin 


2,592 


1.9 


Washington 


2,578 


1.9 


Minnesota 


2,484 


1.8 


North Carolina 


2,343 


1.7 


Georgia 


2,206 


1.6 


Indiana 


2,199 


1.6 


Colorado 


1,746 


1.3 


Tennessee 


1,619 


1.2 


Kansas 


1,488 


1.1 


Alabama 


1,377 


1.0 


Oklahoma 


1,352 


1.0 


Oregon 


1,342 


1.0 


District of Columbia 


1,302 


1.0 


Louisiana 


1,289 


.9 


Arizona 


1,230 


.9 


Kentucky 


1,211 


.9 


Iowa 


1,199 


.9 


South Carolina 


1,046 


.8 


Hawaii 


1,004 


.7 


Nebraska 


837 


.6 


Nevada 


648 


.5 


Utah 


609 


• ^ 


Arkansas 


557 


• " 


Rhode Island 


554 


• " 


West Virginia 


543 


• " 


Mississippi 


500 


• " 


New Mexico 


493 


• " 


Maine 


444 


.3 


New Hampshire 


321 


.2 


Montana 


321 


.2 


Idaho 


288 


.2 


Delaware 


278 


.2 


South Dakota 


248 


.2 


Vermont 


207 


.2 


Alaska 


155 


.1 


North Dakota 


139 


.1 


Wyoming 


104 


.1 


TOTAL 


136,962 


100.0% 



Source: Data Use and Access Laboratories, "Rank of States and 
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas by Number of Artists 
in Specific Artistic Occupations," Table la (prepared for the 
National Endowment for the Arts, January 1977). 



N 




Product and distributed by Publishing Center for Cultural Resources. 152 



^ . ._ _. Second printing. August 1979 

West 42 Street. New York City 10036. Price (incl. postage): $2.50 




Second printing. August 1979 
Produced and distributed by Publishing Center for Cultural Resources. 152 West 42 Street. New York City 10036. Price (incl. postage): $2.50