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Pnnted in Great Britain 


Preface ...... 

PuBLiLius Syrus — Sententiae : Introduction 

" Elegiae in Maecenatem " : Introduction 

Grattius — Cynegetica : Introduction 

Text . ' 

Calpurnius Siculus — Bucolica : Introduction 

" IvAUS Pisonis " : Introduction 


EiNSiEDELN Eclogues : Introduction 


" Precatio Terrae " AND *' Precatio Omnium 
Herbarum " : Introduction 
Text . 

" Aetna " : Introduction 
Text . 

Florus : Introduction 
Text . 
















Hadriax : Introduction .... 439 

Text 444 

/ Nemesianus — Bucolica ami Cynegetica : 

Introduction . . . . .451 

Text 456 

Two Fragments ox Bird-Catching : 

Introduction . . . .512 

Text 512 

Reposianus, Modestinus, " CupiDO Amans," 

Pentadius : Introduction . . . 519 

Text 524 

Tiberianus : Introduction .... 555 

Text 558 

Servasius : Introduction .... 573 

Text 576 

" Dicta Catonis " : Introduction to Disticha . 585 

Text 592 

Introduction to Monosticha . . . 622 

Text 624 

Introduction to Lines from Columbanus . 628 

Text 630 

Introduction to Lines on the Muses . 634 

Text .634 

Introduction to Epitaph on Vitalis . 636 

Text 636 



" Phoenix " : Introduction . 
Text .... 

AviAXUS — Fabulae : Introduction 
Text .... 

RuTiLius Namatiaxus — De Reditu 
Text .... 

Index .... 











To select for inclusion in a single volume of the Loeb 
Library a series of works representing the minor poetry 
of Rome has been a task of much interest but of no 
little difficulty. The mere choice of poets and poems 
could hardly be thought easy by anyone acquainted 
"svith the massive volumes issued in turn by Burman 
senior and his nephew, the Poetae Latini Minores by 
the former (1731) and the Anthologia Latum by the 
latter (1759 — 1773). But a more serious difficulty 
confronted the editors ; for, in spite of the labours of 
scholars since the days of Scaliger and Pithou on the 
minor poems collected from various sources, the 
text of many of them continues to present trouble- 
some and sometimes irremediable critces. This is 
notably true of Aetna and of Grattius ; but even for 
the majority of the poems there cannot be said to be a 
textus receptus to be taken over for translation with- 
out more ado. Consequently the editors have had 
in most cases to decide upon their own text and to 
supply a fuller apparatus criticus than is needful for 
authors \\'ith a text better established. Certainly, 
the texts given by Baehrens in his Poetae Latini 
Minores could not be adopted wholesale ; for his 
scripsi is usually ominous of alterations so arbitrary 
as to amount to a rewriting of the Latin. 

At the same time, a great debt is due to Baehrens 
in his five volumes and to those who before him, 
like the Burmans and Wernsdorf. or after him, like 


\'ollmer, have devoted scholarly study to the poetae 
Latini minores. Two excellent- reminders of the 
labours of the past in this field can be found in 
Burman's own elaborate account of his predecessors 
in the Epistola Dedicatoria prefixed to his Anthologia, 
and in the businesslike sketch which Baehrens' 
Praefatio contains. The editors' main obligations 
in connection with many problems of authorship and 
date may be gauged from the bibliographies prefixed 
to the various authors. 

In making this selection it had to be borne in mind 
that considerable portions of Baehrens' work had 
been already included in earlier Loeb volumes — 
e.g. the Appendix Vergiliana (apart from Aetna) and 
the poems ascribed to Petronius. Also, the Consolatio 
ad Liviam and the Nux, both of which some scholars 
pronounce to be by Ovid, were translated in the 
Loeb volume containing The Art of Love. Other 
parts such as the Aratea of Germanicus were con- 
sidered but rejected, inasmuch as an English trans- 
lation of a Latin translation from the Greek would 
appear to be a scarcely suitable illustration of the 
genuine minor poetry of Rome. It was felt appro- 
priate, besides accepting a few short poems from 
Buecheler and Riese, to add one considerable author 
excluded by Baehrens as dramatic, the mime-writer 
Publilius Syrus. He is the earliest of those here 
represented, so that the range in time runs from the 
days of Caesar's dictatorship up to the early part of 
the fifth century a.d., when Rutilius had realised, 
and can still make readers realise, the destructive 
powers of the Goths as levelled against Italy and 
Rome in their invasions. This anthology, therefore, 
may be regarded as one of minor imperial poetry 


extending over four and a half centuries. The 
arrangement is broadly chronological, though some 
poems, like the Aetna, remain of unsettled date and 

While, then, the range in time is considerable, a 
correspondingly wide variety of theme lends interest 
to the poems. There is the didactic element — 
always typical of Roman genius — pervading not only 
the crisp moral saws of Publilius Syrus and the 
Dicta Catonis, but also the inquiry into volcanic action 
by the author of Aetna and the expositions of hunting- 
craft by Grattius and by Nemesianus ; there is pol- 
ished eulogy in the Laus Pisonis, and eulogy coupled 
with a plaintive note in the elegies on Maecenas ; 
there is a lyric ring in such shorter pieces as those on 
roses ascribed to Florus. A taste for the description 
of nature colours the Phoenix and some of the brief 
poems by Tiberianus, while a pleasant play of fancy 
animates the work of Reposianus, Modestinus and 
Pentadius and the vignette by an unknown writer 
on Cupid in Love. Religious paganism appears in 
two Precationes and in the fourth poem of Tiberianus. 
Pastoral poetry under Virgil's influence is represented 
by Calpurnius Siculus, by the Einsiedeln Eclogues 
and by Nemesianus, the fable by Avianus, and auto- 
biographic experiences on a coastal voyage by the 
elegiacs of Rutilius Namatianus. Although Rutilius 
is legitimately reckoned the last of the pagan classic 
poets and bears an obvious grudge against Judaism 
and Christianity alike, it should be noted, as sympto- 
matic of the fourth century, that already among his 
predecessors traces of Christian thought and feeling 
tinge the sayings of the so-called " Cato " and the 
allegorical teaching of the Phoenix on immortality. 


The English versions composed by the editors for 
this volume are mostly in prose ; but verse trans- 
lations have been wTitten for the poems of Florus 
and Hadrian, for two of Tiberianus and one of 
Pentadius. Cato's Disticha have been rendered into 
heroic couplets and the Monosticha into the English 
iambic pentameter, while continuous blank verse 
has been employed for the pieces on the actor 
Vitalis and the two on the nine Muses, as well as for 
the Cupid Asleep of Modestinus. A lyric measure has 
been used for the lines by Servasius on The Work 
of Time. Some of the poems have not, so far as the 
editors are aware, ever before been translated into 

The comparative unfamiliarity of certain of the 
contents in the miscellany ought to exercise the 
appeal of novelty. While Aetna fortunately engaged 
the interest of both H. A. J. Munro and Robinson 
Ellis, while the latter also did excellent service to the 
text of Avianus' Fables, and while there are com- 
petent editions in English of Publilius Syrus, Cal-^ 
purnius Siculus and Rutilius Namatianus, there are 
yet left openings for scholarly work on the minor 
poetry of Rome. It possesses at least the merit of 
being unhackneyed : and the hope may be expressed 
that the present collection will direct closer attention 
towards the interesting problems involved. 

Both editors are deeply grateful for the valuable 
help in copying and typing rendered by Mrs. Wight 

July, 1934. J. W. D. 

A. M. D. 






To the Caesarian age belonged two prominent 
writers of mimes with both of whom the great 
Juhus came into contact — Decimus Laberius (105- 
43 B.C.) and Pubhlius Syrus. PubHHus reached Rome, 
we are told by the elder Pliny ,^ in the same ship as 
Manilius, the astronomical poet, and Staberius 
Eros, the grammarian. As a dramatic performance 
the mime * had imported from the Greek cities of 
Southern Italy a tradition of ridiculing social life in 
tones of outspoken mockery ; it represented or 
travestied domestic scandals with ribald lan£Cuao;e 
and coarse gestures. At times it made excursions 
into mythological subjects: at times it threw out 
allusions which bore or seemed to bear audaciously 
on politics. Audiences who were tiring of more 
regular comedy found its free-and-easy licence vastly 
amusing, though Cicero's critical taste made it hard 
for him to sit through a performance of pieces by 
Laberius and Publilius.*^ 

" Plin. y.H. XXXV. 58 (199). The correct form of his name, 
instead of the erroneous " Publius," was established by 
Woelfflin. Phil. 22 (1865), 439. 

* See Hermann Reich, Der Mimus, ein litterarentwickelungs- 
geschichtlicher Versuch, Berlin, 1903. For brief account, J. 
Wight Duff, Lit. Hist, of Rome, 1909, pp. 222-23; Klotz, 
Gesch. der rdm. Lit., 1930, p. 77. 

' Ad Fam. XII. 18. 2. 


There came a day in 45 b.c. when Caesar forced 
the veteran knight Laberius — he was then sixty — to 
play in one of his own mimes as a competitor against 
the alien Publilius, who had thro^^^l do\\Ti a dramatic 
challenge to all comers. The dictator, while he 
awarded the prize to the foreigner, restored to the 
Roman, with ostentatious condescension, the ring 
which outwardly confirmed the equestrian rank 
sullied by his appearance on the stage. This eclipse 
of Laberius marked for Publilius an opportunity 
which he knew how to use. Some fresh invention, 
some originality in treatment capable of catching the 
popular favour, may be conjectured as the reason 
why the elder Pliny calls him " the founder of the 
mimic stage." Of Syrian origin, he had come to 
Rome as a slave, most likely from Antioch.*^ His 
wit secured his manumission, and the gift of under- 
standing Roman psychology was a factor in his 
dramatic success. And yet, in contrast ^\'ith forty- 
four known titles of plays by his vanquished rival 
Laberius, only two of Publilius' titles have come 
down to us in uncertain form — " The Pruners," 
Putatores (or, it has even been suggested, Potatores, 
" The Tipplers "), and one conjecturally amended to 
Murmidon} Perhaps his improvisations were too 
precariously entrusted to actors' copies to guarantee 
literary immortality ; and, in any case, though pieces 
of his were still staged under Nero, the mime 
gradually lost its vogue in favour of pantomime. 
The didactic element in him, however, was destined 
to survive. The elder Seneca praises him for 

" Plin. N.H. loc. cit. Publilium -flochium {Antiochium, 
0. Jahn, Phil. 26, 11) mimicae scenae conditorem. 

>> Nonius, 2, p. 133; Priscian, Gramm. Lat. (Keil), 2, 532, 25. 


putting some thoughts better than any dramatist, 
Greek or Roman ; Petronius gives a specimen of his 
style in a passage sixteen lines long, and in the 
second century Gellius recognises the neatness and 
quotability of his moral maxims, of which he cites 
fourteen examples, all but one to be found in our extant 
collections." Roman educators soon saw practical 
advantage in excerpting from his mimes, for use in 
school, -wise saws and modern instances, the inherited 
experience of human conduct brought up to date in 
pithy Latin. Similar anthologies had already been 
made from Menander in Greek and very possibly 
from Ennius in Latin. ** Such a text-book had been 
available for generations before Jerome '^ as a school- 
boy learned the line " aegre reprendas quod sinas 
consuescere." But if the earliest collection of the 
maxims in the first century a.d. was purely Publilian, 
it is now hard to decide how much proverbial phil- 
osophy has been foisted into later collections by free 
paraphrase of genuine verses and by insertion of 
thoughts from Seneca (or Pseudo-Seneca) and others. 
It is equally hard to decide how much has been 
spoiled or lost by such misreading and distortion of 
genuine verses (iambic senarii or trochaic septenarii) 
as led copyists to mistake them for prose. There is, 
however, good authority for the acceptance of over 
700 lines as genuine survivals of what was once a 
considerably larger selection. 

It will be appreciated thatPublilius' lines, originally 

• Sen. Control'. VII. 3. 8; Petron. Sat. 55; Gell. X.A. 
xvii. 14. 

* Phaedrus, III. Epil. 3.3-35. 

' Hieron. Epist. 107, 8 (I. 679, Vallarsi): cited again Epist. 
128, 4: see F. A. Wright, Select Letters of St. Jerome (Loeb 
CI. Lib.), pp. 356, 478. 



spoken by different dramatic characters, could not 
constitute a uniform ethical standard. In contrast, 
therefore, with generous sentiments we meet such 
self-regarding maxims as " It mayn't be right, but 
if it pays think it so " (quamyis non rectum quod 
iuyat rectum putes), or the pernicious morality of 
" The end justifies the means " (honesta turpitudo 
est pro causa bona). As in the proyerbs of all nations, 
there are contradictory ways of looking at the same 
thing: while "Deliberation teaches wisdom" (de- 
liberando discitur sapientia), it is also true that 
" Deliberation often loses a good chance " (deliber- 
ando saepe perit occasio) ; for the sagacity of the 
ages has always to reckon with both the impetuous 
and the oyer-cautious. 

Further, if not necessarily either moral or con- 
sistent, proyerbs are not necessarily profound. So 
if a few aphorisms dare to be paradoxical, some are 
the sheerest of platitudes. But, though shallow 
sayings take us nowhere, the reader meets with 
pleasure eyen familiar thoughts in Latin guise like 
" Honour among thieyes " (etiam in peccato recte 
praestatur fides); " Least said, soonest mended " or 
Qui s' excuse s' accuse (male factum interpretando facias 
acrius) ; " No man is a hero to his yalet " (inferior 
rescit quicquid peccat superior) ; and " Touch wood ! " 
(irritare est cafamitatem cum te felicem yoces). 

A few remarks on the manuscript collections are 
needed to indicate how the text is composed." To 

* Cf. Schanz-Hosius, Gesch. der rom. Lit. ed. 4, 1927, pp. 
261-62; W. Meyer, Die Sammlnngen der Spruchverse des 
Publilius Syrus, Leipzig, 1877, and the introd. to his edition 
of the Sententiae, Leipzig, 1880. Friedrich (ed. 1880) testifies 
to Woelfflin's full discussion of Publilian MSS. in the Prole- 
gomena to his edition of 1869, II. pp. 15-23. 



the so-called " Seneca Collection," of which the best 
manuscripts go back to the ninth or tenth century, 
and are classed under 2 in the Sigla, belong 265 verses 
arranged in sequence by their initials from A to N. 
Of these, 159 are preserved in that collection alone. 
By the ninth century the latter half of the verse- 
sayings from O to V had disappeared, and the col- 
lection was filled up with 149 prose sententiae from the 
so-called Senecan work De Morihus. The title then 
imposed on the collection was Senecae senteniiae or 
Senecae proverbia : and in some manuscripts these 
proverbs, wherein Publilius lay embedded but 
unnamed, were combined with works of Augustine. 
This is true of the codex Dunelmensis, brought early 
in the fourteenth century to Durham, which has been 
inspected during the preparation of the present 
volume, and is described in a subsequent note. In 
the tenth century the latter half of the verse-sayings 
had reappeared : and the IT collection, now repre- 
sented by lines A to I, in the Palatino-\'aticanus 
(formerly Heidelbergensis), supplied 325 additional 
verses. It was when 11 still contained the second half 
of the sayings that a scribe in the eleventh century 
combined the texts of a 11 and a 2 manuscript into 
^, inserting any new verses from 11 after the prose 
sentences under each alphabetical letter, so that his 
manuscript, F, the Frisingensis, is the most complete 
corpus of Publilian sententiae extant. To the 265 verse 
sententiae of 2 it added 384, making a total of 649. 
Gretser's Ingolstadt edition of 1600, four years before 
CJruter, made use of the Frisingensis. The Ziirich 
Collection, Z, contains 132 sayings, including 50 not 
found elsewhere : it is represented by Turicensis C. 
78 (tenth century), giving a set of sententiae C to V ; 


and Monacensis 6369 (eleventh century), giving a set 
of senteniiae A to D. The Verona excerpts, O (four- 
teenth century), entitled Flores moralium aidoritatum , 
give 60 verses (16 of them new), indicating their Pub- 
lilian origin under the incorrect names of " Publius," 
" Publius Syrus " or " Publius mimus." 


(A full list is given in Bickford-Smith's bibliography.) 

D. Erasmus. Disticha moralia titulo Cato?iis . . . 

Mimi Puhliani {cum scholiis Erasmi), . . . 

London. 1514. 
Jos. Scaliger. P. Syri Senieiit. et Dion. Catonis 

Disticha graece redd. Levden. 1598. 
J. Gretser. Ingolstadt. 1600. 
J. Gruter. Senecae et Syri Mimi for san etiam aliorum 

si?igulares Senteniiae centum aliquot versihus ex 

codd. Pall, et Frisi?ig. auctae (Ed. i. 1604). 

Leyden. 1708. [Contains 771 iambics and 

81 " trochaici quasi."] 
R. Bentley : at end of his edition of Terence and 

Phaedrus. Cambridge. 1726. [238 iambics 

and 27 trochaics.] 
J. Konrad Orelli. Publii Syri Mimi et aliorum Sen- 
teniiae . . . Leipzig. 1822. [791 iambics and 

83 trochaics, Mith Scaliger 's Greek verse 

Supplemenium editionis Lipsiensis . . . Leipzig. 

J. Kaspar Orelli (with Phaedri fahulae novae). 

Puhlii Syri Codd. Basil, et Turic. antiquissimi. 

Zurich. 1832. [216 verses from the Basiliensis, 

and others from the Turicensis.] 


O. Kibheck. P. PuhliUus Lockius (sic) Syrus in 
Comicorum Latinorum Reliquiae. Leipzig. 1855. 
[857 sententiae, includiiiij 269 " minus probatae " 
and 43 from the I'urice/isis.] 

E. Woelfflin. FuhUlii Syri Sententiae. Leipzig. 1869. 
[693 verses, including 40 from the Turicensis. 
Woelfflin rejected many spurious verses.] 

A. Spengel. Publilii Si/ri Sententiae. Berlin. 1874. 
[721, including 71 from Zurich and Munich 
MSS., some in prose.] 

W. Meyer. Publilii Syri Seiitentiae. Leipzig. 1880. 
[733 lines.] 

O. Friedrich. Publilii Syri Mimi Sententiae. Berlin. 
1880. [761 lines besides others under the head- 
ings of " Caecilii Balbi Sententiae," " Pseudo- 
Seneca," •* Proverbia " and 390 "Sententiae 
falso inter Publilianas receptae."] 

R. A. H. Bickford-Smith. Publilii Syri Sententiae. 
London. 1895. [722 lines.] 


O = Collectio Veronensis : codex Capituli Veron. 
168 (155) : a. 1329. 

2 = Collectio Senecae. 
P == pa et P^ 

P^' : Paris. 2676 : saec. x-xi. 
Pb : Paris. 7641 : saec. x. 
R = Rheinaugiensis 95 : saec. x. 
B = Basiliensis A.N. iv. 11 (K. III. 34): saec. x. 
A = Vindobonensis 969 : saec. x. 
F et V : cf. infra. 
C = Paris. 8049 : saec. xiv. 
S = Monac. 484 chart. : saec. xv. 


Z = Monac. 23474 : saec. xiv. 
Dun. =^ Dunelmensis B II. 20 : saec. xiv. 
Inc. = editiones ante editionem Erasmi (a. 1514) 

n = Collectio Palatina. 

H = Palatino-^^atic. 239 (olim Heidelbergensis) : 
saec. x-xi. (A-I). 

^ = Collectio Frisingensis. 

F = Monac. 6292 (olim Frisingensis) : saec. xi. 
V = Vindobon. 299 : saec. xii. (circ. cxx. versus). 
xj/ = Monac. 17210 : saec. xiii. 
Dresd. = Dresdensis J. 44 : saec. xiii (contulit M. 

Manitius, Hermes xli, 1906, pp. 294-99). 
Bart : = Giunta ad librum Bartholomaei da San 

Concordio " Ammaestramenti degli Antichi." 
TT = Vatic. Regin. 1896 : saec. xiii. 
a = Albertani Brixiensis libri. 
K = Monac. 7977 : saec. xiii. 
o- = Monac. 17210: saec. xiii. 
par. = Paris. 8027 : saec. xiv. 

Z = Collectio Turicensis. 

M = Monac. 6369 : saec. xi. (A-D). 

T = Turic. C. 78 : saec. x. {C-\^. 
O = Caecilii Balbi quae vocatur collectio maior : 
(f) minor. 

A Note on the Dunelmensis 

The Durham manuscript, examined in preparing 
the text of this work, may be briefly described as an 
example of the 2 group. This codex of the Se?i- 
ientiae forms, under the significant misnomer of 
" Proverbia Senec(a)e," part of a folio volume of 



212 double-columned vellum sheets, of which the 
main contents are tractates, genuine or doubtful, 
bearing the name of Augustine. Immediately pre- 
ceding the " Proverbia " there is a page given to 
" Sententiae quorumdam philosophorum " and over 
two pages to excerpts from Cicero's De Divinatione. 
In a note near the end of the volume it is described 
as " liber Sti. Cuthberti de Dunelm. ex procuratione 
ffis Robti. de Graystan." Robert de Graystan was 
" electus " as bishop of Durham in 1333, but was not 
admitted to the episcopate. The manuscript cannot 
be said to possess independent value with regard to 
Publilius. Though written in well-formed letters 
with decorated initials, it has not a few imperfections 
apart from unscannable lines and its mixture of prose 
and verse. Within the first 30 lines there occur 
blunders like the haplography of aut (6), a deo for 
deo (22), actus sn du for aetas cinaedum (24), and 
crinem for crimen (29). Of its total of over 450 
sententiae, the letters A to N have 313 sayings which 
are mainly verse (though of the 45 under N about 
four-fifths are prose). For the remainder, O to V, 
beginning " Omne peccatum actio est," material is 
drawn entirely in prose from a work of uncertain 
authorship, De Morihus. After the V sente?itiae there 
follows a moral poem of about 120 hexameters by a 
Christian poet, beginning 

Quisquis vult vere Domino per cuncta placere, 
Hunc fugiens mundum totum cor vertat ad ilium. 

The text of Publilius is in this volume largely based 
on Meyer's valuable edition of 1880: the main 
alterations are noted. Lines accepted by Meyer at 



the close of each letter-section under the formula 
" Publilii esse videtur " are given in brackets: also 
1. 145, which, though not in any manuscript of 
Publilius, is entitled to the same heading, because 
it is quoted by Gellius and Macrobius. 

For the significance of the Greek letters on the 
left of the Latin text, readers are referred to the 
table of Sigla and to the remarks on the manuscript 
collections earlier in the Introduction. Meyer's 
obelus (f) has been retained only where the text 
printed remains unsatisfactory in respect of metre 
or meaning. 



E Alienum est omne quicquid optando evenit. 

Ab alio exspectes alteri quod feceris. 

Animus vereri qui scit, scit tuto ingredi. 

Auxilia humilia firma consensus facit. 
6 Amor animi arbitrio sumitur, non ponitur. 

Aut amat aut odit mulier : nihil est tertium. 

Ad tristem partem strenua est suspicio. 

Ames parentem si aequus est : si aliter, feras. 

Adspicere oportet quicquid possis perdere. 
10 Amici vitia si feras, facias tua. 

Alienum aes homini ingenuo acerba est servitus. 
Absentem laedit cum ebrio qui litigat. 

Amans iratus multa mentitur sibi. 

3 tuto m 2 in B et P^ : tuta PRAFVS : tutus C Incun. 
1° sic M : si B 7n 1 in rasiira, C : nisi ceteri. facis plerique 
codd. : facias Kibbeck. 



^^'HAT comes by wishing is never truly ours." 

As you treat a neighbour, expect another to treat you. 

Courage that can fear can take the road with safety. 

United feeling makes strength out of humble aids. 

Love starts but is not dropped at will. 

Woman either loves or hates : there is no third thing. 

Suspicion is ever active on the gloomy side.'' 

Love your parent, if he is just : if not, bear with him. 

You ought to watch whatever you can lose. 

Tolerate a friend's faults, and you make them your 

For the freeborn, debt is bitter slavery. 

Wrangling with a drunk man is hurting one who is 
off the scene. 

The lover in anger tells himself many a lie. 

" Quoted by Seneca, Epist. viii. 9. 

* A long exegetical account is given in Gruter's notae 
poslumae (1708 ed.). There is no need to change with Fried- 
rich to attritam in partem. 



Avarus ipse miseriae causa est suae. 
15 Amans quid cupiat scit, quid sapiat non videt. 
Amans quod suspicatur vigilans somniat. 

Ad calamitatem quilibet rumor valet. 
Amor extorqueri non pote, elabi potest. 
Ab amante lacrimis redimas iracundiam. 
20 Aperte mala cum est mulier, tum demum est bona. 
Avarum facile capias ubi non sis item. 

Amare et sapere vix deo conceditur. 
Avarus nisi cum moritur nihil recte facit. 
Aetas cinaedum celat, aetas indicat. 
25 Avarus damno potius quam sapiens dolet. 
Avaro quid mali optes nisi: " vivat diu ! " 
Animo dolenti nihil oportet credere. 
Aliena nobis, nostra plus aliis placent. 
Amare iuveni fructus est, crimen seni. 

^^ sic Spengel, Meyer : potest . . . potest pier. codd. : pote 
. . . pote V. elabi HC : sed elabi PRAFVSZ : sed labi B. 

2^ item Bothe : idem codd. 

^^ deo H Erasmus : adeo ceteri. 

^* aetas Pilhoeus : aestate Pt- P* corr. BRA : aestatem P^: 
astute FVCS : astus Woelfflin cinae dum A : cinedum B : 
cenae dum P^ : crines dum FVCS : caelat P^A : actus sa du 


The miser is himself tlic cause of his misery. 

A lover knows his desire : his wisdom is out of sight. 

Even when awake, the lover has dreams of his 

To accredit disaster any tale has power. 

I.ove can't be wrested from one, but may slip away. 

Tears may buy off a lover's wrath. 

A woman is good at last, when she's openly bad. 

The miser may be your easy prey, when you're not a 
miser too. 

Wisdom with love is scarcely granted to a god. 

The one right thing a miser does is to die. 

Time conceals and time reveals the reprobate. 

It's the miser, not the wise man, M'hom a loss pains. 

What ill could you wish a miser save long life ? 

One must not trust at all a mind in pain. 

We fancy the lot of others ; others fancy ours more. 

Love is the young man's enjoyment, the old man's 

Dunelm. etas te celat, etas te iudicat Dresd. astute dum 
celatur aetas so indicat Erasmus : astu crimen celatur, 
aetas indicat Zivinger cit. apud Gruterum : astus cinaeduin 
celat, aestus indicat Friedrich. 
26 sic M H : nisi ut pier. codd. 


VOL. I. C 


30 Anus cum ludit morti delicias facit. 

Amoris vulnus idem sanat qui facit. 

Ad paenitendum properat, cito qui iudicat. 

Aleator quanto in arte est, tanto est nequior. 

Amor otiosae causa est soUicitudinis. 
n Avidum esse oportet neminem, minime senem. 
36 Animo virum pudicae, non oculo eligunt. 

Amantis ius iurandum poenam non habet. 

Amans ita ut fax agitando ardescit magis. 

Amor ut lacrima ab oculo oritur in pectus cadit. 

40 Animo imperabit sapiens, stultus serviet. 

Amicum an nomen habeas aperit calamitas. 

Amori finem tempus, non animus, facit. 

Z Audendo virtus crescit, tardando timor. 

Auxilium profligatis contumelia est. 

45 AfFatim aequa cui fortuna est interitura longe 

3* otioso C Inc. 

^^ oculis H Meyer : ab oculis FVaK : ab oculo Woelfflin : 
amoris lacrima ab oculis in p.c. Spengel : amor ut lacrima 
oboritur oculis, oculis in pectus cadit Friedrich. 



The old woman in skittish mood is Death's darhng toy. 

The one who causes also cures the wound of love. 

Hasty judgement means speedy repentance. 

The cleverer the gamester, the greater his knavery. 

Love causes worry in the leisure hour. 

None should be greedy, least of all the old. 

Modest women choose a man by mind, not eye. 

A lover's oath involves no penalty. 

A lover is like a torch — blazes the more he's moved. 

Love, like a tear, rises in the eye and falls on the 

The sage will rule his feelings, the fool will be their 

Misfortune reveals whether you have a friend or only 
one in name. 

'Tis time, not the mind, that puts an end to love. 

Courage grows by daring, fear by delay. 

Help wounds the pride of those whose cause is lost. 

The man whose luck is fair enough gives ruin a wide 


*^ sic Wight Duff : Affatim inqua fortuna longo non habet 
interitiun M : affatim si cui fortuna Christ : affatim si quoi 
fortunast Ribbeck : affatim aequa si fortuna Meyer. 



Avaro acerba poena natura est sua. 

Avaro non est vita sed mors longior. 

Alienam qui orat causam se culpat reum. 

Adsidua ei sunt tormenta qui se ipsum timet. 
60 Animo imperato ne tibi animus imperet. 

Animo ventrique imperare debet qui frugi esse 
O Aegre reprendas quod sinas consuescere. 

Amico firmo nihil emi melius potest. 

(j) (Amicis ita prodesto ne noceas tibi.) 
55 (Avarus animus nuUo satiatur lucre.) 

(Amici mores noveris non oderis.) 
S Bis fiet gratum quod opus est si ultro ofFeras. 

Bonarum rerum consuetudo pessima est. 

Beneficium dare qui nescit iniuste petit. 

60 Bonum est fugienda adspicere in alieno male. 

Beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere. 

*8 sic Meiser : Alienam qui suscipit causam semet criminat 
esse rerum M. 



For the miser his own nature is bitter punishment. 

The miser has no life save death delayed. 

The pleader of another's cause arraigns himself. 

He who dreads himself has torment without end. 

• Rule your feelings lest your feelings rule you. 

He who would be discreet must rule his mind and 

Reproof comes ill for a habit you countenance." 

There's nothing better in the market than a staunch 

Benefit friends without hurt to yourself. 

' No gain satisfies a greedy mind.'^ 

Study but do not hate a friend's character. 

Twice welcome the needed gift if offered unasked. 

Constant acquaintance with prosperity is a curse. 

He who can't do a good turn has no right to ask 

In another's misfortune it is good to observe what to 

To accept a benefit is to sell one's freedom. 

" St. Jerome records his reading this maxim when at 
school : Epist. 107, 8 {legi quondam in scholis puer : aegrc, 
etc.). He quotes it also in Epist. 128, 4 : see Introduction. 

* Quoted by Seneca, Epist. xciv. 43. 



Bona nemini hora est ut non alicui sit mala. 

Bis emori est alterius arbitrio mori. 
Beneficia plura recipit qui scit reddere. 

65 Bis peccas cum peccanti obsequium commodas. 
Bonus animus laesus gravius multo irascitur. 

Bona mors est homini vitae quae exstinguit mala. 
Beneficium dando accepit qui digno dedit. 
Blanditia non imperio fit dulcis venus. 
70 Bonus animus numquam erranti obsequium commodat. 

Beneficium qui dedisse se dicit petit. 
Benivoli coniunctio animi maxima est cognatio. 
Beneficium saepe dare docere est reddere. 
Bonitatis verba imitari maior malitia est. 

76 Bona opinio hominum tutior pecunia est. 




Nobody has a good time without its being bad for 

To die at another's bidding is to die a double death. 

He receives more benefits who knows how to return 

35 You sin doubly when you humour a sinner.^ 

When a good disposition is wounded, it is much more 
seriously incensed. 

Good for man is death when it ends life's miseries. 

The giver of a gift deserved gets benefit by giving. 

Coaxing, not ordering, makes love sweet. 

70 Good judgement never humours one who is going 

Claiming to have done a good turn is asking for one. 

The alliance of a well-wisher's mind is truest kinship. 

To confer repeated kindness is tuition in repayment. 

Aping the words of goodness is the greater wicked- 

75 There is more safety in men's good opinion than in 

" It is difficult to grasp the meaning of some of the 
sayings, as the original dramatic context is unknown. The 
double sin here maj* imply a sin twice as bad : cf. the 
expression his emori, 63, and the sentiment in 10. 


Bonuin quod est supprimitur, numquam exstinguitur. 

Bis vincit qui se vincit in victoria. 

Benignus etiam causam dandi cogitat. 
Bis interimitur qui suis armis perit. 
80 Bene dormit qui non sentit quam male dormiat. 
Bonorum crimen est officiosus miser. 

Bona quae veniunt nisi sustineantur opprimunt. 

Bona fama in tenebris proprium splendorem tenet. 
Bene cogitata si excidunt non occidunt. 
85 ^Bene perdit nummos iudici cum dat nocens. 

Bona imperante animo bono est pecunia. 

Bonum ad virum cito moritur iracundia. 
Brevissima esto memoria iracundiae. 

^2 sic Gruter : b.q. eminent nisi sustineantur obprimunt 
Buecheler: n. s. cadunt ut opprimant pier. codd. 

®^ sic Bickford- Smith : bona imperante animo est pecunia 
S : bono PRA : in parente anima nonnulli codd. : bona im- 
perante bono animo est pecunia Meyer in not. 



A good thing may be trampled on but never anni- 

Twice is he conqueror who in the hour of conquest 
conquers himself. 

Generosity seeks to invent even a cause for giving. 

Doubly destroyed is he who perishes by his own arms. 

He sleeps well who feels not how ill he sleeps. 

The dutiful man reduced to misery is a reproach to 
the good. 

Prosperity must be sensibly sustained or it crushes 

A good name keeps its own brightness in dark days. 
Good ideas may fail but are not lost. 

5 When the culprit bribes the judge, he loses coin to 
some purpose. 

When the mind issues good orders, money is a 

With the good man anger is quick to die. 

Let the harbouring of angry thoughts be of the 

^® sic Gritter in notis postumis {om. Dunelmensis) : breve 
mens BRP*'AP-» corr. : breviens P* : brevis mens S : breve 
amans FV. est ipsa FYS. 



Bona turpitude est quae periclum vindicat. 
90 Bona comparat praesidia misericordia. 
Beneficium dignis ubi des omnes obliges. 

n Brevis ipsa vita est sed malis fit longior. 
Beneficia donari aut mali aut stulti putant. 

Bene perdis gaudium ubi dolor pariter perit. 
95 Bene vixit is qui potuit cum voluit mori. 

■f Bene audire alterum patrimonium est. 

Boni est viri etiam in morte nullum fallere. 

Z Bona causa nullum iudicem verebitur. 

Bonus vir nemo est nisi qui bonus est omnibus., 
D Consueta vitia ferimus, nova reprendimus. 
101 Crudelis est in re adversa obiurgatio. 

Cavendi nulla est dimittenda occasio. 

Cui semper dederis ubi neges rapere imperes. 

*^ sic F VH : bene vulgo audire GriUer : bene e patre audire 

^°" nova Bentley, Meyer : inconsueta Z : non ceteri codd., 
Woelfflin, Spengel, Friedrich. 



l\nil is fair if it punishes the menace of a foe. 

90 Pity provides good defences. 

Whenever you benefit the deserving, you put the 
world in your debt. 

Life, short itself, grows longer for its ills. 

They are either rogues or fools who think benefits 
are merely gifts. 

You are content to miss joy when pain is also lost. 

95 Well has he lived who has been able to die Avhen he 

To have a good name is a second patrimony. 

It is the mark of a good man to disappoint no one 
even in his death." 

A good case will fear no judge. 

No one is a good man unless he is good to all. 

100 We tolerate the usual vices but blame new ones. 

Rebuke is cruel in adversity. 

No opportunity for caution should be let slip. 

By perpetual giving you would invite robbery when 
you say " no." 

" i.e. his manner of dying must equal the standard of his 



Crudelem medicum intemperans aeger facit. 
105 Cuius mortem amici exspectant vitam cives oderunt. 

Cum inimico nemo in gratiam tuto redit, 
Citius venit periclum cum contemnitur. 
Casta ad virum matrona parendo imperat. 

Cito ignominia fit superbi gloria. 
110 Consilio melius vincas quam iracundia. 
Cuivis dolori remedium est patientia. 
Cotidie damnatur qui semper timet. 
Cum vitia prosunt, peccat qui recte facit. 
Contumeliam nee fortis pote nee ingenuus pati. 

115 Conscientia animi nuUas invenit linguae preces. 
Comes facundus in via pro vehiculo est. 
Cito improborum laeta ad perniciem cadunt. 
Contemni (sapienti) gravius est quam stulto percuti. 

Cotidie est deterior posterior dies. 

11^ nullas PA : nuUus RB : nullius FVC : nimias Friedrich. 
^^® sapienti addidit Gruter in noiis : contemni est * gravius 
quam stultitiae percuti Meyer. 



The intemperate patient makes the doctor cruel. 

05 He for whose death his friends are waiting lives a 
life his fellows hate. 

No one is safe to be reconciled to a foe. 

Danger comes more quickly when under-estimated. 

The chaste matron of her husband's home rules 
through obedience. 

The boast of arrogance soon turns to shame. 

1 10 Policy is a better means of conquest than anger. 

Endurance is the cure for any pain. 

The man in constant fear is every day condemned 

When vices pay, the doer of the right is at fault. 

Insult is what neither bravery nor free birth can 

115 A good conscience invents no glib entreaties." 

A chatty road-mate is as good as a carriage. 

The joys of rascals soon collapse in ruin. 

Contempt hurts the wise man more than a scourge 
does the fool. 

Daily the following day is worse {i.e. for prompt 

" Friedrich takes conscientia as " a bad conscience " and 
reads nitnias. 



120 Crimen relinquit vitae qui mortem appetit. 
n Cogas amantem irasci aniare si velis. 

Contra imprudentem stulta est nimia ingenuitas. 

Crudelis est non fortis qui infantem necat. 
Consilium inveniunt multi sed docti explicant. 

125 Cave quicquam incipias quod paeniteat postea. 
Cui omnes bene dicunt possidet populi bona. 

Cui nolis saepe irasci irascaris semel. 

Crudelis lacrimis pascitur non frangitur. 
Caeci sunt oculi cum animus alias res agit. 

130 Caret periclo qui etiam cum est tutus, cavet. 

Cum ames non sapias aut cum sapias non ames. 

Cicatrix conscientiae pro vulnere est. 
Cunctis potest accidere quod cuivis potest. 

^22 imprudentem codd. : impudentem Gruter, Meyer. 

^24 consiliis iunionim multi se docti explicant FV : alii alia. 



) Eagerness for death bequeaths an indictment of life. 

Force a lover to anger if you wish him to love. 

To counter ignorance, too much breadth of mind is 

Barbarous, not brave, is he M'ho kills a child. 

Many can hit on a plan, but the experienced find 
the way out. 

) Beware of starting what you may later regret. 

The man of whom all speak M'ell earns the people's 

Lose your temper once for all with the man with 
whom you don't want to lose it often. 

Cruelty is fed, not broken, by tears. 

The eyes are blind when the mind is otherwise 

I He's free from danger who even in safety takes 

Love means you can't be wise : \\'isdom means you 
can't be in love. 

The scar of conscience is as bad as a wound. 

What can happen to any can happen to all. 

^^ Cunctis . . . cuivis FV : ciiivis . . . cuiquam cit. 
apud Senecam, de Tranq. xi. 8 : cf. Consol. ad Marciam ix. 5. 



Cave amicum credas nisi si quern probaveris. 

135 Contra felicem vix deus vires habet. 

Cum das avaro praemium ut noceat rogas. 
Z Cum se ipse \-incit sapiens minime vincitur. 

Contra hostem aut fortem oportet esse aut 

Cito culpam effugias si incurrisse paenitet. 
140 Cum periclo inferior quaerit quod superior occulit. 

Consilium in dubiis remedium prudentis est. 

I Cum . inimico ignoscis amicos gratis complures 

Contubernia sunt lacrimarum ubi misericors miserum 

Crebro ignoscendo faeies de stulto improbum. 

145 (Cui plus licet quam par est plus vult quam licet.) 

"9 sic Orelli : culpa effugiri T : potest MT : si T : cidpam 
penitet incurrisse MT : cito culpam effugere pote quern 
culpae paenitet Meyer. 

^*^ sic Meyer : in adversis medicinae remedium MT. 

^^2 alii alia. 



Mind y<ni think no man a friend save liini you have 

Against the lucky one scarcely a god has strength. 

In rewarding the avaricious you ask for harm. 

When the sage conquers himself, he is least con- 

Facing a foe, one must be either brave or suppliant. 

You could soon avoid a fault, if you repent having 
run into it. 

At his peril does an inferior search for what a 
superior hides. 

The prudent man's remedy at a crisis is counsel. 

When you forgive an enemy, you win several friends 
at no cost. 

When pity sees misery, there comes the comradeship 
of tears. 

Frequent pardons will turn a fool into a knave. 

He who is allowed more than is right wants more 
than is allowed." 

" This sentenlia {cf. " give an inch and he takes an ell ") 
is quoted by Gellius, X.A. xvii. 14, and Macrob. Saturn, ii. 7, 
but omitted by M88. of Publilius. 


VOL. I. D 


E Discipulus est prioris posterior dies. 

Daninare est obiui'gare cuni auxilio est opus. 

Dill apparandiim est bellum ut tineas celerius. 

Dixeris male dicta cuncta cum ingratum hominem 

150 De inimico non loquaris male sed cogites. 

Deliberare utilia mora tutissima est. 

Dolor decrescit ubi quo crescat non habet. 

Didicere flere feminae in mendacium. 

Discordia fit carior concordia. 
155 Deliberandum est saepe : statuendum est semel. 

Difficilem habere oportet aurem ad crimina. 

Dum est vita grata, mortis conditio optima est. 

Damnum appellandum est cum mala fama lucrum. 

Ducis in consilio posita est virtus militum. 
160 Dies quod donat timeas : cito raptum venit. 

^^^ quicquid PBRA : diu quicquid CSZ : saepe quicquid 
F : saepe Woelfjlin : diu del. st. est semel Bothe : del. est 
decies Friedrich, 



Next day is \)u\n] uf the day before. 

When there's need of help, reproach is to make 
things worse. 

War needs long preparation to make you win the 

Call a man ungrateful and you have no words of 
abuse left. 

) Devise evil against your enemy, but speak none of 

To think out useful plans is the safest delay. 

Pain lessens when it has no means of growth. 

Woman has learned the use of tears to deceive. 

Harmony is the sweeter for a quarrel. 
5 Think things out often : decide once. 

One should not lend a ready ear to accusations. 

When life is pleasant, the state of death is best." 

Ill-famed gain should be called loss. 

Soldiers' valour hangs on their general's strategy. 
) Fear what a day gives : soon it comes to rob. 

" The sententia means that the best time for death is 
while {dum temporal) life is pleasant : i.e. before sorrows 
come, one miglit die, in Tacitus' words, felix opportunitate 
mortis. Joseph Scaliger's translation of the line is evr}/j.(pov- 
aii' atpfcts QavcLTOu KaX-i]. 



Diniissum quod nescitur non amittitur. 
n Deliberando discitur sapientia. 

Deliberando saepe perit occasio. 

Duplex fit bonitas simul accessit celeritas. 
165 Damnati lingua vocem habet, vim non habet. 

Dolor animi <(niniio)> gra\4or est quam corporis. 
Dulce etiam fugias fieri quod amarum potest. 
Difficile est dolori convenire cum patientia. 
Deos ridere credo cum felix vovet. 

Z Durum est negare superior ciun supplicat. 
171 Dissolvitur lex cima fit iudex misericors. 

Dominari ex parte est cum superior supplicat. 

Decima hora amicos plures quam prima invenit. 
L Etiam innocentes cogit mentiri dolor. 
175 Etiam in peccato recte praestatur fides. 

166 nimio axld. Bathe : quam corporis dolor GriUer, Orelli. 
1*8 difficilius cum dolore convenit sapientiae Friedrich. 
16* fovot H : vocet F : infeUx vovet Meyer in notis : deo 
se credere credit cum felix vovet Friedrich. 



'i'hc loss that is not known is no loss. 

Delibcr<ation teaches wisdom. 

Deliberation often means a chance is lost. 

Bounty is doubled so soon as speed is added," 

)5 The condemned man's tongue has utterance, not 

Pain of mind is far more severe than bodily pain. 

Shun even a sweet that can grow bitter. 

'Tis hard for pain to agree with patience. 

I trow the gods smile when the lucky man makes his 

(0 Refusal is difficult when your better entreats.'^ 

Law is weakened when a judge yi^ds to compassion. 

One is half master when one's better entreats. 

Evening discovers more friends than the dawn does.*^ 

Pain forces even the innocent to lie. 
f5 Even in crime loyalty is rightly displayed. 

<• Cf. his dat qui cito dat and 1. 274. 

* If the reading is right, it implies that the gods rejoice in 
their prospect of gain : the lucky man's vow is a sure debt. 

" Cf. use of superior in 172, 

** It is a cynical thought that friends are more likely to 
gather round a man late in the day. They can then be social 
and convivial without any need to help him in his daily task. 
There might even be a hint that morning tempers are often 



Etiam celeritas in desiderio mora est. 

Ex vitio alterius sapiens emendat suum. 

Et deest et superest miseris cogitatio. 

Etiam oblivisci quid sis interdum expedit. 

180 Ex hominum questu facta Fortuna est dea. 

EfFugere cupiditatem regnum est vincere. 

Exsul ubi ei nusquam domus est sine sepulcro est 

Etiam qui faciunt oderunt iniuriam. 

Eripere telum non dare irato decet. 

185 Exsilium patitur patriae qui se denegat. 

Etiam capillus unus habet umbram suam. 

Eheu quam miserum est fieri metuendo senem ! 

Etiam hosti est aequus qui habet in consilio fidem. 

Excelsis multo facilius casus nocet. 
n Extrema semper de ante factis iudicant. 
191 Ex lite multa gratia fit formosior. 

Etiam bonis malum saepe est adsuescere. 



Desire finds even (jiiiekness slow. 

From ca neighbour's fault a, wise man eorreets his own. 

The MTctched have too little and too much of thought. 

Sometimes 'tis fitting even to forget what you are. 

The grumbling of men made Fortune a goddess. 

To shun desire is to conquer a kingdom. 

The exile with no home anywhere is a corpse without 
a grave. 

Even those who do an injustice hate it. 

Anger is rightly robbed of a weapon, not given one. 

55 He suffers exile who denies himself to his country. 

Even one hair has a shadow of its o\\'n. 

Alas, hoM' wretched to be aged by fear ! 

He who has confidence in his policy is fair even to an 

The exalted are much more readily hurt by mis- 

90 The end always passes judgement on what has 

After much strife reconciliation becomes more 

It is often bad to grow used even to good things. 



Z I Est utique profunda ignorantia nescire quod pecces. 

194 Etiam sine lege poena est conscientia. 

Errat datum qui sibi quod extortum est putat. 

S Fidem qui perdit quo rem servat relicuam ? 

Fortuna cum blanditur captatum venit. 
Fortunam citius reperias quam retineas. 
Formosa facies muta commendatio est. 
200 Frustra rogatur qui misereri non potest. 

Fortuna unde aliquid fregit cassumst <(reficere). 

Fraus est accipere quod non possis reddere. 
Fortuna nimium quem fovet stultum facit. 
Fatetur facinus is qui iudicium fugit. 
205 Felix improbitas optimorum est calamitas. 
Feras non culpes quod mutari non potest. 
Futura pugnant ne se superari sinant. 
Furor fit laesa saepius patientia. 
Fidem qui perdit nihil pote ultra perdere. 

1*^ sic Friedrich : se ser\ et FBml : se servat PBAC : 
reservat R. reliquum PBRA : relicuo Benthy, Meyer. 

201 sic Spengel : cassmn est F : quassum est PBRACS : 
cassum est non perit Ribbeck : quassat omnia Friedrich. 


It is surely the depth of ignorance not to know your 

Even without a law conscience works as punishment. 
5 It is a mistake to think one is given what has been 

With credit lost, what means are there of saving 
what remains ? 

When Fortune flatters, she comes to ensnare. 

It is easier to strike luck than to keep it. 

A handsome appearance is an unspoken testimonial. 
\'ain is the appeal to him who cannot pity. 

That from which Fortune breaks off something, 'tis 
vain to repair. 

It's cheating to take what you could not restore. 

Fortune turns her spoiled darling into a fool. 

A man o>mis guilt by avoiding trial. 
5 Successful >\dckedness means good folk's disaster. 

What can't be changed you should bear, not blame. 

The future struggles not to let itself be mastered. 

Patience too often wounded turns to frenzy. 

Lose credit and one can lose no more." 

Cf. l'J6. 



210 Facilitas animi ad partem stultitiae rapit. 

Fides in animum unde abiit <(^"ix) imiquam redit. 
Fidem nemo umquam perdit nisi qui non habet. 
Fortmia obesse nulli contenta est semel. 
Fulmen est ubi cum potestate habitat iracundia. 

215 Frustra, cum ad senectam ventum est, repetas 

Falsum maledictum malevolum mendacium est. 

Feminae naturam regere desperare est otium. 

Feras difficilia ut facilia perferas. 
i Fortuna vitrea est : tum cum splendet frangitur, 
220 Feras quod laedit ut quod prodest perferas. 

Facit gradum Fortuna quem nemo videt. 

Fortuna plus homini quam consilium valet. 
n Frugalitas miseria est rumoris boni. 

Z Famulatur dominus ubi timet quibus imperat. 

2^" animi codd. : nimia Woelfjiin : ad partem codd. : sapit 
PBRA : rapit FCS : f. nimia partem stultitiae sapit Spengel, 

211 sic Spengel. 

221 gratum codd. (gatum R) : gradum Nanck : Facit 
Fortuna quem non remoreris gradum Friedrich, cuius 
praefationem vide. 

222 homini P^RFCZ : in homine Spengel, Meyer. 



Complaisance is a rapid road in the direct ion of folly. 

Honour scarce ever revisits the mind it has quitted. 

None ever loses honour save him who has it not. 

Fortune is not content ^\^th hurting anyone once. 

'Tis thunder and lightning when anger dwells with 

5 It is no good asking for youth again when age is 

The ill-grounded curse is an ill-intentioned lie." 

To control woman's nature is to abandon the hope 
of a quiet life. 

Endure what's hard so as to stand the test of the easy. 

Luck is like glass — ^just when it glitters, it smashes. 

Bear what hurts so as to stand the test of success. 

Luck takes the step that no one sees. 

Luck avails a man more than policy. 

Frugality is wretchedness ^vith a good name. 

The master is valet when he fears those he orders. 

" " Frigida omnino sententia " is Orelli's criticism. " Sen- 
tentia nimiura quantum languet," Ribbeck. 



225 Facile invenies qui bene faciant cum qui fecerunt 

Frenos imponit linguae conscientia. 
Felicitatem in dubiis virtus impetrat. 

Falsum etiam est verum quod constituit superior. 
E Grave praeiudicium est quod iudicium non habet. 

230 Gravissima est probi hominis iracundia. 

Gravis animi poena est quern post facti paenitet. 

Gravis animus dubiam non habet sententiam. 
Gravius malum omne est quod sub adspectu latet. 
Gravius nocet quodcumque inexpertum accidit. 
235 Gravis est inimicus is qui latet in pectore. 

Gravissimum est imperium consuetudinis. 
Grave crimen, etiam leviter cum est dictum, nocet. 
Z Grave est quod laetus dederis tristem recipere. 

<h (Geminat peccatum quem delicti non pudet.) 

227 .sic Baehrens : facilitatem . . . imperat codd. 
238 sic Woelfflin in notis, p. 115 : quod fronte laeta des 
tristi accipi Meyer. 



You'll easily find folk to do kindnesses by cultivating 
those who have done them. 

Conscience sets a bridle on the tongue. 

V'alour secures success in hazards. 

Even false becomes true when a superior so decides. 

Where there is no judgement, there is grave pre- 

Most potent is the anger of an upright man. 

Heavy the penalty on the mind which afterwards 
regrets a deed. 

The steadfast mind admits no halting opinion. 

It is always a more serious evil that lurks out of sight. 

A novel disaster always works the graver mischief. 

The foe that lurks in the heart is one to be reckoned 

Most tyrannous is the sway of custom, 

A serious charge, even lightly made, does harm. 

'Tis hard getting back in sadness what you gave in 


He who is unashamed of his offence doubles his sin. 

" E.g. hanging without trial might be called the worst 



S Heu quam difficilis gloriae custodia est ! 

241 Homo extra corpus est suum cum irascitui*. 

Heu quam est timendus qui mori tutum putat! 

Homo qui in homine calamitoso est misericors 
meminit sui. 

Honesta turpitudo est pro causa bona. 

245 Habet in adversis auxilia qui in secundis commodat. 

Heu quam miserum est ab eo laedi de quo non possis 
queri ! 

Hominem experiri multa paupertas iubet. 

Heu dolor quam miser est qui in tormento vocem 
non habet! 

Heu quam multa paenitenda incurrunt vivendo diu ! 

250 Heu quam miserum est discere servire j" ubi sis 
doctus dominari ! 

Habet suum venenum blanda oratio. 

Homo totiens moritur quotiens amittit sues. 

Homo semper aliud, Fortuna aliud cogitat. 

Honestus rumor alterum est patrimonium. 

255 Homo ne sit sine dolore fortunam invenit. 



Alas, liow hartl tlic maintenance of fame ! 

A man when angry is outside himself. 

Ah, how formidable is he who thinks it safe to die ! 

Pity for a stricken fellow-man is to remember one's 
own lot. 

Foul is fair when the cause is good. 

Aid lent in weal brings aid in woe. 

Ah, how ghastly is a hurt from one of Avhom you 
daren't complain ! 

Poverty orders many an experiment. 

How pitiful the pain that has no voice amid 
torture ! 

Ah, how many regrets does length of life incur! 

Ah, how wretched to learn to be a servant when you 
have been trained to be master ! 

The wheedling speech contains its special poison. 

One dies as often as one loses loved ones. 

Man's plans and Fortune's are ever at variance. 

An honourable reputation is a second patrimony." 

' Man meets with fortune that pain may dog him still.* 

" C/. the sentiment in 96. 

* Nisard's rendering is " L'homme serait sans douleur 
s'il ne trouvait la fortune." 



Honeste servit qui succumbit tempori. 

Homo vitae commodatus non donatus est. 
Heredis fletus sub persona risus est. 
Heredem ferre utilius est quam quaerere. 

260 Habent locum maledicti crebrae nuptiae. 
n Honeste pareas improbo ut parcas probo. 

Humanitatis optima est certatio. 

Honos honestum decorat, inhonestum notat. 

Heu, conscientia animi gravis est servitus ! 
265 Hominem etiam frugi flectit saepe oceasio. 

Homini turn deest consilium cum multa invenit. 

Z Humilis nee alte cadere nee graviter potest. 
Honestum laedis cum pro indigno intervenis. 

S Inferior rescit quicquid peccat superior. 
270 Inimicum ulcisci vitam accipere est alteram. 

2^* haec (c in rasura) F : heu quam Gruter : heu Wodfflin, 

269 rescit PA : nestit R : orrescit B : horrescit FCSZ : 
reus est Ribbeck. 



To yield to the need of the time is honourable 

Man is only lent to life, not given. 

Beneath the mask an heir's weeping is a smile. 

It's of more use to tolerate an heir than seek one 

• Frequent re-marriage gives room for the evil tongue. 

To spare the good you may fairly spare the bad. 

The finest rivalry is in humanity. 

Honour adorns the honourable ; the dishonourable 
it brands. 

Ah, conscience doth make bondsmen of us all ! 

i Opportunity often sways even an honest man. 

When you discover many openings, you are gravelled 
for a plan. 

The humble can fall neither far nor heavily. 

You hurt the honourable by intervening for the 

Any fault in a superior is found out by his inferior.'' 

) Revenge on an enemy is to get a new lease of life. 

" The usual form is resciscere, but for the simple verb 
rescire see Gell. X. A. ii. 19. 2. « 


VOL. I. E 


Invitum cum retineas, exire incites. 

Ingenuitatem laedas cum indignum roges. 

In nullum avarus bonus est, in se pessimus. 
Inopi beneficium bis dat qui dat celeriter. 

275 Inopiae desunt multa, avaritiae omnia. 

Instructa inopia est in divitiis cupiditas. 

Invitat culpam qui peccatum praeterit. 

lucundum nihil est nisi quod reficit varietas. 

Ingenuitas non recipit contumeliam. 
280 Irritare est calamitatem cum te felicem voces. 

Impune pecces in eum qui peccat prior. 

Ingratus unus omnibus miseris nocet. 

In miseria vita etiam contumelia est. 

Ita amicum habeas, posse ut facile fieri hunc 
inimicum putes. 

285 Invidiam ferre aut fortis aut felix potest. 

In amore semper mendax iracundia est. 



Hold back a man against his will, and you might as 
well urge him to go. 

An appeal to the unworthy is an insult to the noble 

The miser treats none well — himself the worst. 

To do a kindness to the needy at once is to give 

) Beggary lacks much, but greed lacks everything. 

In riches greed is but poverty well furnished. 

He who passes over a sin invites WTong-doing. 

There's nothing pleasant save what variety freshens. 

The noble mind does not take an insult. 
) To call yourself •• happy " is to provoke disaster. 

You may safely offend against him who offends first. 

One ungrateful person does harm to all the unfor- 

In misery even life is an insult. 

Treat a friend ^^'ithout forgetting that he may easily 
become a foe. 

5 It's either the brave man or the lucky that can stand 

in love anger is always untruthful. 

E 2 


Invidia tacite sed inimice irascitur. 
Iratum breviter vites, inimicum diu. 

Iniuriarum remedium est oblmo. 
290 Iracundiam qui vincit hostem superat maximum, 
lactum tacendo crimen facias acrius. 

In malis sperare bene nisi innocens nemo solet. 
In iudicando criminosa est celeritas. 
Inimicum quamvis humilem docti est metuere. 
295 In calamitoso risus etiam iniuria est. 
ludex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. 
Ignoscere hominum est nisi pudet cui ignoscitur. 

In rebus dubiis plurimi est audacia. 
Illo nocens se damnat quo peccat die. 

300 Ita crede amico ne sit inimico locus. 
Iratus etiam facinus consilium putat. 

2*^ iactum in te tacendo acumen crimen facias acriu3 
(Irochairus) Friedrich. 

293 sic HBCF : vindicando PRAS. 
^*^ nisi codd. : ubi Incun., Meyer. 




Silent but unfriendly is the anger of envy. 

Avoid an angry man for a little, but an enemy for 

For \\Tongs the cure lies in forgetfulness." 

Who quells his \^Tath o'ercomes the mightiest foe. 

You aggravate a charge thrown at you, if you meet 
it with silence. 

None but the guiltless can nurse bright hopes in woe. 

In judgement rapidity is criminal. 

Experience dreads an enemy however humble. 

5 When a man is ruined, even a laugh is a wrong. 

Acquittal of the guilty damns the judge. '^ 

It is for men to pardon, unless the pardoned puts one 
to the blush. 

In a tight corner boldness counts for most. 

The culprit condemns himself on the day of his 

So trust a friend as to give no room for an enemy. 

The angry man takes (hostile) intention as an actual 

" Quoted by Seneca, Epist. xciv. 28. 

* This line, chosen as the motto for The Edinburgh Review, 
founded 1802, marked its tendency to severity in criticism. 



Invidia id loquitur quod videt non quod subest. 

n Iniuriam aures facilius quam oculi ferunt. 
lacet omnis virtus fama nisi late patet. 

305 Ignis calorem suum etiam in ferro tenet. 

In venere semper certat dolor et gaudium. 

In amore forma plus valet quam auctoritas. 

Ingrata sunt beneficia quibus comes est metus. 

Imprudens peccat quem peccati paenitet. 
310 Inertia indicatur cum fugitur labor. 

Iratus cum ad se rediit sibi turn irascitur. 

In amore saepe causa damni quaeritur. 

lucunda macula est ex inimici sanguine. 

In venere semper dulcis est dementia. 
315 In misero facile fit potens iniuria. 

Inter dum habet stultitiae partem facilitas. 

306 certant ifi Spengd. 



Envy speaks of wliat she sees, not of what is beneath 
the surface. 

The ear tolerates a wTong more readily than the eye. 

Every virtue is depressed unless it gains wide 

5 Eire keeps its own heat even in steel. 
In love, pain is ever at war with joy. 

In love, beauty counts for more than advice does. 

Unwelcome are the favours whose attendant is fear. 

He who regrets his offence offends without foresight. 

Work shunned is an index of laziness. 

It is on returning to his senses that the angry man is 
angry with himself. 

In love, an opportunity for suffering loss is often 

It's a pleasant stain that comes from an enemy's 

To lose your wits in love is always sweet. 

6 Over the wretched unfairness easily gets power. 
Compliance is sometimes half folly. 

" Possibly of a lover's lavish expenditure on a lady-love 
which may eventually be a serious loss to him ; but it prob- 
ably means that lovers are so foolish that they are continu- 
ally devising something which really does them harm. 



Inertia est laboris excusatio. 

Iniuriam facilius facias quam feras. 

Iratus nihil non criminis loquitur loco. 
320 Incertus animus dimidium est sapientiae. 

In turpi re peccare bis delinquere est. 

Ingenuus animus non fert vocis verbera. 

Iniuriam ipse facias ubi non vindices. 

Is minimum eget mortalis qui minimum cupit. 
325 Inimici ad animum nullae conveniunt preces. 

Inimico exstincto exitium lacrimae non habent. 

Ibi semper est victoria ubi concordia est. 

Iter est quacumque dat prior vestigium. 

Ibi pote valere populus ubi leges valent. 

Z Insanae vocis numquam libertas tacet. 

331 Improbe Neptunum accusat qui iterum naufragium 

2 Loco ignominiae est apud indignum dignitas. 

^2° remedium codd. : dimidium Bofhe : incertis animis 
r. e. sapientia Meyer in appar. crit. 

^24 minimo Seneca, Epist. cviii. 11. 

326 oxitum H : exitium {antiquo sensu nsurpaium) ceteri 

330 I invectibe T : insanae Friedrich : invectae Bickford- 



Excusing oneself from work is laziness. 

A %\Tong is easier done than stood. 

An angry man has nothing but accusations to utter. 
The hesitant mind is the half of wisdom.*^ 

An offence in base circumstances is a double fault. 

A noble mind brooks not the lashes of the tongue. 

You yourself do wTong when you do not punish. 

The man with least desires is least in want. 
5 No entreaties are fitted to reach an unfriendly mind. 

When an enemy is destroyed, tears have no outlet. 

A'ictory is ever there where union of hearts is.^ 

The road runs wheresoever a predecessor leaves his 

Where laws prevail, there can the people prevail. 

The outspokenness of wild invective is never hushed. 

It is an outrage in a man twice shipwTCcked to blame 
the God of Sea. 

To stand high ^^^th the unworthy is tantamount to 

" Cf. 162. 

* The saying means that victory in a conflict lies with the 
thoroughly united side. 



Laus nova nisi oritur, etiam vetus amittitur. 
Laeso doloris remedium inimici est dolor. 
335 Levis est Fortuna : cito reposcit quod dedit. 

Lex universa est quae iubet nasci et mori. 

Lucrum sine damno alterius fieri non potest. 

Lasci\ia et laus numquam habent concordiam. 

Legem nocens veretur, Fortunam innoeens. 
340 Libido, non indicium est, quod levitas sapit. 

Libido cunctos etiam sub vultu domat. 

n Longum est quodcumque flagita\-it cupiditas. 

T Lapsus ubi semel sis, sit tua culpa, si iterum 

Lex videt iratum, iratus legem non videt. 

345 Legem solet obli^iscier iracundia. 
Locis remotis qui latet lex est sibi. 
Late ignis lucere, ut nihil urat, non potest. 

3*^ cunctos codd. : cinctos (= strenuos) Salmasius. 
3*2 sic Friedrich : f longum est quod flagitat cup. FH, 
Meyer : longinquum est omne quod cup. fl. Gruter. 
^*^ oblivisci codd. : obIi\ascier Gruter. 
**' alii alia. 



Unless fresh praise is won, even the old is lost. 

The injured man's cure for pain is his enemy's pain. 

Fickle is Fortune : she soon demands back what she 

'Tis a universal law that ordains birth and death. 

Gain cannot be made without another's loss. 

Wantonness and honour are never in harmony. 

The guilty fear the law, the guiltless Fortune. 

I Flippancy's taste is caprice, not judgement. 

The wanton will subdues all under its very glance." 

Tedious the tale of greed's demands. 

When you've slipped once, be it your fault if you fall 

The law sees the angry man, the angry man doesn't 
see the law. 

> Anger usually forgets the law. 

He who lurks in remote places is a law unto himself. 

Fire cannot throw its light afar without burning 

" Gruter explains " earn esse vim libidinis ut homines 
sup<#et ipso aspectu " : according to his second exphmation 
sub vidtu implies " beneath their apparently grave coun- 



Licentiam des linguae cum verum petas. 

Z Lucrum est dolorem posse damno exstinguere. 
S Malignos fieri maxime ingrati docent. 

361 Multis minatur qui uni facit iniuriam. 

Mora omnis odio est sed facit sapientiam. 

Mala causa est quae requirit misericordiam. 

Mori est felicis antequam mortem invoces. 
355 Miserum est tacere cogi quod cupias loqui. 

Miserrima est fortuna quae inimico caret. 
Malus est vocandus qui sua est causa bonus. 

Malus bonum ubi se simulat tunc est pessimus. 

Metus cum venit, rarum habet somnus locum. 
360 Mori necesse est, sed non quotiens volueris. 

Male geritur quicquid geritur fortunae fide. 



You must p:ive licence to the tongue when you a-^k 
for the trutli. 

It is gain to be able to extinguish pain at the cost 
of a loss. 

It is especially the ungrateful who teach folk to 
become niggardly. 

A wrong done to one means a threat to many. 

All delay is hateful, but it makes wisdom. 

It's a poor case that seeks pity. 

Lucky to die before having to invoke death. 

It's ^^Tetched to be forced to conceal what you'd 
like to reveal. 

It's a very poor fortune that has no enemy. 

He must be called bad who is good only in his own 

When the villain pretends to be good, he is most 

When fear has come, sleep has scanty place. 

You needs must die, but not as often as you have 

The business that trusts to luck is a bad business. 

" Cf. "Cowards die many times before their death: The 
valiant never taste of death but once " {Jul, Caes. ii. 2). 



Mortuo qui mittit munus, nil dat illi, adimit sibi. 

Minus est quam servus dominus qui servos timet. 
Magis fidus heres nascitur quam scribitur. 

365 Malo in consilio feminae vincunt \iros. 
Mala est voluntas ad alienam adsuescere. 

Maximo periclo custoditur quod multis placet. 

Mala est medicina, ubi aliquid naturae perit. 

Malae naturae numquam doetore indigent. 
y Misereri scire sine periclo est vivere. 
371 Male vivunt qui se semper victuros putant. 

Male dictum interpretando facias acrius. 

Male secum agit aeger medicum qui heredem facit. 

Minus decipitur cui negatur celeriter. 
375 Mutat se bonitas irritata iniuria. 

Mulier cum sola cogitat male cogitat. 

Male facere qui vult numquam non causam invenit. 

366 ad alienum consuescere codd. : adsuescere Erasmtis 
alienam ads. Meyer {in apparatu). 

3^0 misereri R Dresd. : miseri PA : miseriam FS Inc. 



A gift sent to a dead man is nothing to him, but 
means less for oneself. 

A master who fears his slaves is lower than a slave. 

One can trust the heir by birth more than the heir 
by will.« 

In an ill design woman beats man. 

'Tis poor will-power to get used to another's beck 
and call. 

What many like is very perilous to guard. 

It's a bad cure when a bit of nature is lost. 

Bad natures never lack an instructor. 

To know how to pity is to live \\'ithout danger.^ 

Theirs is a bad life who think they are to live for ever. 

Explain an ill saying and you make it worse. 

The patient who makes an heir of his doctor treats 
himself badly. 

There is less mistake when one says " no " at once. 

Kindness alters when provoked by wrong. 

A woman when she thinks alone thinks ill. 

The intention to injure can always find a reason. . 

" Cj. 259. 

* The Dresdensis alono shares with R the likeliest reading. 



Malivolus semper sua natura vescitur. 

Multos timere debet quern multi timent. 
3S0 Male imperando summum imperiuni amittitur. 

Mulier quae multis nubit multis non placet. 
T Malivolus animus abditos dentes habet. 

Medicina calamitatis est aequanimitas. 

Muliebris laerima condimentum est malitiae. 
385 Metum respicere non solet quicquid iuvat. 

Malo etiam parcas, si una periturus bonus. 

Magnum secum affert crimen indignatio. 
Malus etsi obesse non potest tamen cogitat. 

Mage valet qui nescit quod calamitas valet. 

390 Mora cogitationis diligentia est. 

Multa ignoscendo fit potens potentior. 
Multis placere quae cupit culpam cupit. 
Minimum eripit Fortuna cum minimum dedit. 
Meretrix est instrumentum contumeliae. 

^^* I magis F, Meyer : mage Gruter, J. C. Orelli, Woel 
393 cum F : cui a, Bentley, Meyer. 



The spiteful man ever battens on his own nature. 

Many must he fear whom many fear." 

By bad ruling the most exalted rule is lost. 

The woman who marries many is disliked by many. 

The spiteful mind has hidden teeth. 

The medicine for disaster is equanimity. 

A woman's tear is the sauce of mischief. 

It's pleasure's way to take but small account of fear. 

You may spare even the bad, if the good is to perish 
along with him,^ 

Indignation brings with her some serious charge. 

A \illain, even though he cannot do a hurt, yet thinks 
of it. 

He has the more power who knows not the power of 

\ Slow deliberation is but carefulness. 

By forgiving much, power grows more powerful. 

She who would fain please many would fain be frail. 

Fortune robs least when she has given least. 

A harlot is an instrument of shame. 

" Cf. Laberius' Necesse ed muUos timeat quern mulli timent. 
For Laberius see Introduction. 
" Cf. 261. 

. 65 

■ VOL. I. F 


395 Malus bonum ad se numquani consilium refert. 

Manifesta causa secum habet sententiam. 

Multorum calamitate vir moritur bonus. 

Metus improbos compescit non dementia. 

Muneribus est, non lacrimis, meretrix misericors. 
400 Metuendum est semper, esse ciun tutus velis. 

Mors infanti felix, iuveni acerba, nimis sera est seni. 

Malam rem cum velis honestare improbes. 

Malum est consilium quod mutari non potest. 

Malitia unius cito fit male dictum omnium. 
405 Mortem ubi contemnas viceris omnes metus. 

Misera est voluptas ubi pericli memoria est. 

Male vincit <is) quern paenitet victoriae. 

Misericors civis patriae est consolatio. 

Malitia ut peior veniat se simulat bonam. 
410 Malus animus in secreto peius cogitat. 

Mutare quod non possis, ut natum est, feras. 

Multa ante temptes quam \1rum invenias bonum. 

*°2 honestatem F ip : honestare Meyer» 


) The villain never lays a good plan before his mind. 

A clear case brings the right verdict with it. 

The affliction of many is deatli for the good man. 

Fear, not clemency, restrains the wicked. 

Not tears but gifts can touch a courtesan. 

► You must always fear when you would be safe. 

Death is luck for childhood, bitter for youth, too late 
for age. 

In wishing to give fair colour to a bad case, you 
condemn it. 

It's an ill plan that can't be changed. 

The malice of one soon becomes the curse of all. 

Despise death and you've conquered every fear. 

It's but sorry pleasure when danger is remembered. 

He's a poor victor who regrets his victory. 

A merciful citizen is the solace of his country. 

To make her onset worse, malice pretends to be good. 

The evil mind thinks worse evil in secret. 

What you cannot change, you should bear as it comes. 

You may make many attempts before finding a good 





Miserrimum est arbitrio alterius vivere. 
Mansueta tutiora sunt sed serviimt. 

415 Mala mors necessitatis contunielia est. 
Minus saepe pecees si scias quid nescias. 

Malus quicumque in poena est praesidium est bonis. 

Z Mala est inopia ex copia quae nascitur. 

O Monere non punire stultitiam decet. 

420 Multo turpius daninatur cui in delicto ignoscitur. 

(j) (Malum ne alienum feceris tuum gaudium.) 
2 Nihil agere semper infelici est optimum. 

Nihil peccant oculi, si animus oculis imperat. 

Nihil proprium ducas quicquid mutari potest. 
425 Non cito ruina obteritur qui rimam timet. 

*^^ quod F : quid Gruter, Meyer. 

^2° sic 0, Meyer: cuius delictum {vel delicto) agnoscitur (f>: 
cui delictum ignoscitur Friedrich, Bickford-Smith. 

*'" perit ruina a Meyer : ruina perit CS : r. peritur P^ : r. 
perituir PaRAF : r. opteritur Woelfjlin : rimam P^ : ruinam 
TFCSZ Dunelm, 




The height of misery is life at another's will. 

The tame way is safer, but it's the way of 

5 A dishonourable death is fate's insolence. 

You'd go ^^Tong less often if you knew your ignor- 

Any evil-doer under punishment is a protection to 
the good. 

It's an ill want that springs from plenty. 

Advice, not punishment, is what fits folly. 

) He who is pardoned in his vvrong-doing is far more 
shamefully condemned.'^ 

Make not another's misfortune your joy. 

For the unlucky it's always best to do nothing. 

The eyes commit no v\Tong, if the mind controls the 

Think nothing your own that can change. 

5 It's long before the downfall overwhelms him who 
fears a crack. 

° i.e. a man who has such a bad character that no one 
pays attention to his misdeed is, in fact, wholly out of court. 
To treat his misdeed so lightly shows what is thought of the 




Nullus est tarn tutus quaestus quam quod habeas 

Nescias quid optes aut quid fugias : ita ludit dies. 

Numquam periclum sine periclo vincitur. 

Nulla tarn bona est fort una de qua nihil possis queri. 

430 Nusquam melius morimur homines quam ubi libenter 
Negandi causa avaro numquam deficit. 
T Naturam abscondit cum improbus recte facit. 

Non turpis est cicatrix quam virtus parit. 
Numquam ubi diu fuit ignis defecit vapor. 

435 Necesse est minima maximorum esse initia. 
Non corrigit, sed laedit, qui invitum regit. 

Nimia concedendo interdum fit stultitia <stultior>. 

Nihil magis amat cupiditas quam quod non licet. 

*26 tantus codd. : tarn tutus Woelfflin : parcere Ingolsl. : 
carcere R : arcere PFC Dunelm. : carere A Ijic. 
*'' stultior supplevit Meyer. 



There's no gain so safe as saving what you've got. 

You never can tell what to Mish for or what to avoid : 
such is the day's jest. 

A risk is never mastered save by risk. 

There's no luck so good but you could make some 
complaint about it. 

Nowhere do we men die better than where we have 
lived to our liking. 

The miser never lacks a reason for saying "no."" 

When a rascal does right, he is concealing his 

Never ugly is the scar which bravery begets. 

Where there has been fire for long, there's never a 
lack of smoke. 

5 Very big things must have very small beginnings. 

He who controls the unwilling hurts rather than 

By excessive yielding, folly sometimes grows more 
foolish still. 

Greed likes nothing better than what is not allowed. 

" This is the last of the verses in 2, the rest of whose 
sententiae are in prose. 



Nisi vindices delicta, improbitatem adiuves. 
440 Nulli facilius qiiam malo invenies parem. 
Nihil non acerbuni prius quam maturum fuit. 
Nocere posse et nolle laus amplissima est. 

Non \incitiirj sed \dncit, qui cedit suis. 

Necessitas dat legem, non ipsa accipit. 

445 Nescio quid agitat, cum bonum imitatur malus. 

Nulla hominum maior poena est quam infelicitas. 
Non no\dt virtus calamitati cedere. 
Necessitas ab homine quae vult impetrat. 
Necessitati quodlibet telum utile est. 
450 Nocere casus non solet constantiae. 

Non pote non sapere qui se stultum intellegit. 
Necessitas egentem mendacem facit. 
Non facile solus serves quod multis placet. 

Necessitas quod poscit nisi des eripit. 
455 Nocens precatur, innocens irascitur. 



If you didn't punish offences, you'd help roguery. 

) It's the bad man whose hke you'll find most easily. 

Everything ripe was once sour. 

Power to harm without the will is the most ample 

He who yields to his own people is conqueror, not 

Necessity prescribes law: she does not bow to it 

) When the rogue copies good folk, he has something 
in mind. 

Man meets no worse punishment than misfortune. 

Bravery knows no yielding to calamity. 

Necessity wins what she wants from man. 

Necessity finds any weapon ser\-iceable. 

) Misfortune seldom hurts steadfastness. 

He must have wit who understands he is a fool. 

Necessity makes beggars liars. 

Single-handed, you'd find it hard to keep what many 

Necessity snatches what she asks, unless you give it. 

5 Guilt entreats where innocence feels indignant. 



Nee vita nee fortuna hominibus perpes est. 
Non semper aurem facileni habet felicitas. 
Numquam non miser est qui quod timeat cogitat. 

Ni qui scit facere insidias nescit metuere. 

460 Negat sibi ipse qui quod difficile est petit. 

Nimium altercando Veritas amittitur. 
Nullo in loco male audit misericordia. 
Necessitas quod celat frustra quaeritur. 
Necessitas quam pertinax regnum tenet ! 
465 Nemo immature moritur qui moritur miser. 
Nocentem qui defendit sibi crimen parit. 

Nihil non aut lenit aut domat diuturnitas. 

Nihil turpe ducas pro salutis remedio. 
Noli contemnere ea quae summos sublevant. 
470 Nihil aliud scit necessitas quam vincere. 
Nemo timendo ad summum pervenit locum. 

*^^ sic Gruter : propria est hominibus Spengel, Meyer 
perpetua est F a. 



Neither life nor luck is Lasting " for num. 

Success has not always the ready car. 

Misery never quits him whose thoughts run on 
something to dread. 

Everyone fails to fear an ambush except him who 
can set one. 

) He who begs for what is difficult says " no " to 

In excessive wrangling truth gets lost. 

Pity gets a bad name nowhere. 

What necessity hides is sought for in vain. 

How firm the hold of Necessity upon her throne ! 

) None dies untimely who dies in misery. 

The champion of the guilty begets a charge against 

There's naught that time does not either soothe or 

To cure bad health, think nothing unclean. 

Do not despise the steps which raise to greatness. 

) Necessity knows naught else but \ictory. 

Fear never brought one to the top. 

" per pes is a Plautine as well as a late Latin word : 
perpetem pro perpetuo dizerunt poetae, Fest. 217, Miill. 



Nisi per te sapias, frustra sapientem audias. 

Necessitati sapiens nihil umquam negat. 
Non facile de innocente crimen fingitur. 
475 Nimium boni est in morte cum nihil est mali. 
Ni gradus servetur, nuUi tutus est summus locus. 

Nihil est miserius quam ubi pudet quod feceris. 

Nee mortem efFugere quisquam nee amorem potest. 
Necessitatem ferre non flere addecet. 
i80 Nusquam faciUus culpa quam in turba latet. 

Z Non leve beneficium praestat qui breviter negat. 

(Non est beatus esse se qui non putat.) 
T Omnis voluptas quemcumque arrisit nocet. 

Officium benivoli animi finem non habet. 
485 O vita misero longa, felici brevis ! 

Obiurgari in calamitate gravius est quam calamitas. 

^s** numquam F if/ : nusquam Woelfflin. 
''^^ sic F : qu(a)ecunque ijj. 
^^* officium F : obsequium a 0, Meyer. 
^^^ sic citat. apnd Senecam, Contr. vii. 18. 




Without mother-wit of your own, it's no good 
Hstening to the wise. 

A wise man never refuses anything to necessity. 

A charge is not easily framed against the guiltless. 

' Death is too much a boon when it has no bane. 

Unless one's step be guarded, the summit is safe for 

There's nothing more wTctched than being ashamed 
of what you've done. 

There's no one can escape either death or love. 

'Tis fitting to bear and not bemoan necessity. 

) Crime is nowhere more easily hidden than in a 

To say " no " at once is to confer no slight kindness. 

He's not happy who does not think himself so. ^ 

All pleasure harms whomso it charms. 

The services of a benevolent mind have no end. 

5 O life, long for woe but brief for joy ! 

To be scolded in misfortune is harder than mis- 
fortune's self. 

" i.e. a slip in the highest positions is ruin. 
* The Latin comes from Sen. J^p. ix. 21. 



O dulce tormentum ubi reprimitur gaudium ! 
Omnes aequo animo parent ubi digni imperant. 
Occidi est pulchrum, ignominiose ubi servias. 

490 O taciturn tormentum animi conscientia! 

Optime positum est beneficium <(bene) ubi meminit 
qui accipit. 

Obsequio nuptae cito fit odium paelicis. 

Occasio receptus difficiles habet. 

O pessimum periclum quod opertum latet ! 

495 Omnes cum occulte peccant, peccant ocius. 

Occasio aegre offertur, facile amittitur. 

Oculi <(occulte) amorem incipiunt, consuetude 

T Probus libertus sine natura est filius. 

Prodesse qui vult nee potest, aeque est miser. 

600 Pericla timidus etiam quae non sunt videt. 
Pudor doceri non potest, nasci potest. 

*^^ sic Spengel : ubi eius Gruter. 

495 giQ Woelfflin : o. c. peccant occulte pacantur citius F. 



'Tis sweet torture when joy is held in. 

W hen worth holds sway, all cheerfully obey. 

It is noble to be slain, when your servitude is 

O conscience, silent torture of the mind! 

A benefit is best bestowed when the recipient has a 
good memory. 

The bride's complaisance soon brings loathing for a 

The favourable moment is hard to recover. 

O worst of dangers that lurks unseen ! 

Sinners in secret are always quicker to sin. 

Opportunity is slow to offer, easy to miss. 

The eyes start love secretly : intimacy perfects it. 

An upright freedman is a son without the tie of 

The wish to help without the power means sharing 

Cravens see even dangers which do not exist. 

Modesty is born, not taught. 

" Meyer punctuates " nee potest aeque, est miser." 



Plus est quani poena sinere miserum vivere. 

Pudorem alienum qui eripit perdit suum. 
Patientia aninii occultas divitias habet. 
505 Peiora multo cogitat mutus dolor. 

Pecunia <una) regimen est rerum omnium. 
Pudor dimissus numquam redit in gratiam. 
Perdendi finem nemo nisi egestas facit. 
Poena ad malum serpens iam cum properat venit. 

610 Plus est quam poena iniuriae succumbere. 
Pro medicina est dolor dolorem qui necat. 
Patiens et fortis se ipsum felieem facit. 

Prospicere in pace oportet quod bellum iuvet. 
Parens iratus in se est crudelissimus. 
515 Perdit non donat qui dat nisi sit memoria. 

Probi delicta neglegens, leges teras. 

^"2 sine rem F : sinere Spengel : sine spe Woelfflin {in not.), 

5"= multa codd. : multo Tzschucke, Meyer. 

^"* serpentia F : serpendo Bothe : serpens, iam Bickford- 



It is more than punisliment to let one live in 

Who steals another's modesty loses his own. 

Patience of mind has secret wealth. 

Dumb grief thinks of much worse to come. 

Money alone is the ruling principle of the world. 

Modesty, once dismissed, never returns to favour. 

Only want sets a limit to waste. 

Punishment with creeping pace comes on the 
offender in the moment of his haste. 

'Tis more than punishment to yield to WTong. 

The pain that kills pain acts as medicine. 

The man who unites patience and courage secures 
his own happiness. 

In peace one must forecast the sinews of war. 

The parent enraged is most cruel to himself. 

A gift is lost, not presented, unless there be recol- 
lection of it. 

In overlooking even a good man's offences, you would 
impair the laws. 

^^® t probe delicta cum legas deteras codd., Meyer : probi 
Ingol. : cum tegas Spengel : cum neglegas ( ? neglegas), 
leges teras Woel/fiin. 





Pars benefici est quod petitur si belle neges. 
Properare in iudicando est crimen quaerere. 
Populi est mancipium quisquis patriae est utilis. 

520 Per quae sis tutus ilia semper cogites. 

Perfugere ad inferiorem se ipsum est tradere. 
Peccatum amici veluti tuum recte putes. 

Potens misericors publica est felicitas. 
Praesens est semper absens qui se ulciscitur. 

525 Perfacile quod vota imperant felix facit. 

Poenam moratur improbus, non praeterit. 

Perdidisse ad assem mallem quam accepisse turpiter. 

Paucorum est intellegere quid donet deus. 
Perenne coniugium animus, non corpus, facit. 
530 Pereundi scire tempus adsidue est mori. 

^2' ad assem add. Friedrich : honeste Woelfflin : om. codd. 
^28 -j- det F, Meyer : celet Rihheck : dicat Buecheler : donet 
dies Woelfflin : doceat dies Meiser. 



A nice refusal of a request-is half a kindness done. 

Haste in judgement is to look for guilt. 

Whoever is useful to his country is the nation's 

Always bethink yourself of means of safety. 

To take refuge \\ith an inferior is self-betrayal. 

You would do right to consider your friend's fault as 
if it were your ovm. 

Mercy in power is good fortune for a people. 

He who a\enfjes himself thouo-h absent is ever 

It's very easy fur the lucky man to do what his 
^\ishes command. 

The \-illain delays his punishment — he does not 
escape it. 

I'd rather lose to the last farthing than get dis- 

It is granted to few to comprehend what God gives. 

Mind, not body, makes lasting wedlock. 

To know the hour of doom is continual death. 

" K.g. a t3nrant through a system of espionage might be 
called ubiquitous: rf. the "eyes and ears" of the Persian 
king, Xen. Cyrop. viii. 2, 9-10 (rt? S' dAAo? iSwdaOr] ex^povg 
a-ne^ovras ttoWwv fir]vu)V oSovTi-ncopeladai coj Flepacuv fiaaiXevg ;) 

G 2 



Potenti irasci sibi periclum est quaerere. 

Peccare pauci nolunt, nuUi nesciunt. 
Paucorum improbitas est multorum calamitas. 
Pro dominis peccare etiam virtutis loco est. 
535 Patiendo multa venient quae nequeas pati. 
Paratae lacrimae insidias non fletum indicant. 
Peccatum extenuat qui celeriter corrigit. 
Pudorem habere servitus quodammodo est. 
Potest uti adversis numquam felicitas. 

540 Prudentis vultus etiam sermonis loco est. 
Probo beneficium qui dat ex parte accipit. 

Pudor si quern non flectit, non frangit timor. 
Poena allevatur ubi relaxatur dolor. 
Plures tegit Fortuna quam tutos facit. 
545 Post calamitatem memoria alia est calamitas. 

Probo bona fama maxima est hereditas. 

533 est multonim Buecheler : universis est F. 
539 sic Bickjord- Smith : potest ultus in F. 



To be angry with the powerful is seeking danger for 

Yqw are unwilling to sin — none but know the way. 

The wickedness of a few is widespread calamity. 

To do wTong for one's master even passes for merit. 

Sufferance will bring much you could not suffer. 

The ready tear means treachery, not grief. 

The quick corrector w^eakens sin. 

To feel qualms is in a measm-e slavery. 

The lucky man never knows how to deal with 

The wise man's looks are as good as a discourse. 

The giver of a benefit to the good is in part the 

If honour sways one not, fear cannot quell. 
The punishment is lightened when the pain slackens. 
Fortune shields more people than she makes safe. 
After misfortune, remembrance is misfortune re- 

For the upright a good name is the greatest inheri- 




Pericla qui audet ante vincit quam accipit. 

Perpetuo vincit qui utitur dementia. 
Z Plures amicos niensa quam mens concipit. 

O Prudentis est irascier sero et semel. 

551 Per quem sis clarus illi quod sis imputes. 

Poenae sat est qui laesit cum supplex venit. 

T Quamvis non rectum quod iuvat rectum putes. 
Quisquis nocere didicit meminit cum potest. 

555 Qui metuit calamitatem rarius accipit. 

Quam miserum est mortem cupere nee posse emori ! 
Qui pro innocente dicit satis est eloquens. 
Qui cum dolet blanditur post tempus sapit. 

Quod tinieas citius quam quod speres evenit. 

560 Quod vult cupiditas cogitat, non quod decet. 

^^" sic Friedrich : irasci et sero et semel : nee sero et 
semel Halm, Meyer. 



The bold detVat danger before meeting it. 

He is for ever victor who employs clemency. 

One's table receives more friends than one's heart 

I It is ^^•isdom to lose one's temper late and then once 
for all. 

To the man who made you famous give the credit of 
what you are. 

'Tis penalty enough when the offender comes on 
his knees. 

Think right what helps, though right it may not be. 

Power to harm once learned is remembered when the 
chance comes. 

5 He who dreads disaster rarely meets it. 

How '^^Tetched to long for death yet fail to die ! 

The pleader for innocence is eloquent enough. 

If a man takes to coaxing when he feels the smart, it 
is ■\\'isdom learned too late. 

The dreaded thing happens sooner than you might 
Greed contemplates what it wishes, not what befits. 

^2* quicquid Meyer. 

^^^ contumeliam raro Spengel, Meyer. 




Quicquid conaris, quo pervenias cogites. 
Qui bene dissimulat citius inimico nocet. 
Quod semper est paratum non semper iuvat. 
Quodcumque celes ipse tibi fias timor. 

565 Qui ius iurandum servat quovis pervenit. 
Quod aetas vitium posuit aetas auferet. 
Quemcumque quaerit calamitas facile invenit. 
Quod periit quaeri pote, reprendi non potest. 

Quam miserum officium est quod successum non 

570 Quam miser est cui est ingrata misericordia ! 

Quam miserum est cogi opprimere quem salvum velis ! 
Quem fama semel oppressit vix restituitur. 
Quod vix contingit ut voluptatem parit ! 

Quam miserum est id quod pauci habent amittere ! 

^" vix . . . vix Gruter : vi . . . vix Woelfflin : quid vis 

. . . ut {vdut sententia ex Epicureorum disciplina profecta) 


111 your every endeavour contemplate your goal. 

An apt dissembler sooner hurts his foe. 

What is always at hand does not always help. 

Your guarded secret means you grow a terror to 

He who observes his oath reaches any goal. 

The fault which time has set up time \\'ill take away. 

Disaster easily finds whomsoever it seeks. 

What is destroyed can be looked for but never 

How sorry the service that has no success ! 

How wretched he to whom pity is against the 
grain ! 

How wretched to be forced to crush him you fain 
would save ! 

It is hard restoring him whom ill report has once 

What pleasure is produced by what is won \vlth 
difficulty ! 

How pitiable it is to lose what few possess ! 



575 Qui in vero dubitat male agit cum deliberat. 

Qui timet amicum, amicus ut timeat, docet. 

Quicquid vindicandum est, {omnis) optima est 

Quam miserum auxilium est ubi nocet quod sustinet ! 

Qui pote consilium fugere sapere idem potest. 

580 Qui ulcisci dubitat improbos plures facit. 

Qui obesse cum potest non vult prodest <(tibi). 

Quicquid bono concedas, des partem tibi. 

Quod nescias cui serves stultum est parcere. 

Quae vult videri bella nimis, nulli negat. 

585 Qui debet limen creditoris non amat. 

Qui pote transferre amorem pote deponere. 
Qui culpae ignoscit uni suadet pluribus. 

^'' potest F: pote Gruter, capere Gruter {in not. post.), 
Spengel : rapere Woelfflin. 

581 tibi add. Halm. 

584 -j- nimium illi negat F, Meyer : nimis, nulU negat 
Gruter, Orelli : nimium litigat Spengel. 



5 He Avho hesitates in the case of truth acts ill when 
he deliberates." 

Who fears a friend teaches a friend to fear. 

When aught has to be punished, every opportunity 
is best. 

A sorry help when support hurts ! 

The man who can shun advice may yet be wise.* 

3 A hesitating avenger makes rascals increase. 

He who will not hurt when he may is your bene- 

Whatever you may grant to the good, you give 
partly to yourself. 

It's silly to be sparing, if you don't know for whom 
you're saving. 

She who is over fain to be thought pretty, refuses 

5 The debtor loves not his creditor's threshold. 

If one can transfer affection, one can put it aside. 

To pardon one offence is to prompt more offenders. 

" i.e. he who hesitates when facts are plain commits a 
crime by his very deliberation. 

* i.e. there is advice which it is wise not to take. This is 
pithier than the truism involved in the change to capcre. 



Quod improbis eripitur doiiatur probis. 
Qui sibi non vivit aliis merito est mortuus. 

590 Quicquid fit cum virtute fit cum gloria. 
Qui exspectat ut rogetur officium levat. 
Qui timet amicum vim non novit nominis. 

Qui <(non) potest celare vitium non facit. 

Qui omnes insidias timet in nullas incidit. 
595 Quam malus est culpam qui suam alterius facit ! 

Qui docte servit partem dominatus tenet. 
Qui se ipse laudat cito derisorem invenit. 

5^^ sibi non F : sibi minime T : sibimet Ribheck, Spengel : 
sibi modo Gruter {not. post.). Bathe. 

^^^ sic Meyer in not : qui potest zelare non facit vitium ip : 
qui pote celare vitium, vitium non facit Grvier (fugit Ribheck). 



What is snatched from the bad is a gift to the o;ood. 

He who does not live a busy Hfe of his own is as 
good as dead for others.*^ 

A deed of valour is a deed of fame. 

He who waits to be asked lessens his service. 

He who fears a friend doesn't know the meaning of 
the word. 

He who cannot conceal a vicious act does not commit 


He who fears everv ambush falls into none. 

What a rascal he is who throws his own guilt upon 
another ! 

The skilled servant holds part of his master's power. 

The self-praiser soon finds a mocker. 

" The man who cannot attend to his own afifairs with 
competence is no good to others. Sihi vivere is not here " to 
live only for oneself" : it does not, as OreUi takes it, imply 
a miser who spends neither on himself nor on others. 
Friedrich aptly ilhistrates the sense from Sen. Ep. Iv. 4—5, 
where the phrase is used of one who rises above slothful 
retirement or an animal-like existence of self-indulgence to a 
strenuous and full life in which through serving others he 
will serve his highest self (cf. ibid, non continuo sibi vivit, qui 

* *A criminal is usually inspired with the hope of eluding 
detection : so a character in a mime might be imagined 
to say, " He who can't get away with it, doesn't do it." The 
text is, however, uncertain (see appar. crit.). 

^ Cf. sentiment in 400. 



Quam miserum est bene quod feceris factum queri ! 

Quam est felix vita quae sine odiis transiit ! 
600 Quicquid futurum est summum ab imo nascitur. 
Quam miserum est ubi consilium casu vincitur! 
Quicquid fortuna exornat cito contemnitur. 
Quicquid plus quam necesse est possideas premit. 
Qui pote nocere timetur cum etiam non adest. 

605 Quem bono tenere non potueris, contineas malo. 

Quod senior loquitur omnes consilium putant. 
Quam miserum est, ubi te captant, qui defenderent ! 

Quod quisque amat laudando commendat sibi. 

Quem diligas etiam "f queri de ipso malum est. 

610 Qui venit ut noceat semper meditatus venit. 

Quis miserum sciret, verba nisi haberet dolor ? 
Quam miserum est cum se renovat consumptum 

malum ! 


A sorry thing to complain of a good deed you've 
done ! 

How happy the life which has passed without strife ! 

I Whatever is to be top springs from the bottom. 

A pity when chance beats design ! 

Whatever fortune bedizens is soon despised. 

Any possession beyond the needful overburdens you. 

He who can hurt is dreaded even when not upon the 

Him you have failed to control'by fair means, you 
must restrain by foul. 

What a senior says all take for advice. 

Pity it is when your supposed defenders take you 
prisoner ! 

Everyone commends his hobby to himself by 
praising it. 

It's ill complaining even about the very friend you 

Who comes to injure always comes with mind made 

Who would know the wTetched, if pain had no words ? 

What a pity when an outworn evil is renewed! 



Quanto serius peccatur tanto incipitur turpius. 

Quam miser est qui excusare sibi se non potest ! 

615 Quo caveas, cum animus aliud verba aliud petunt ? 

Qui invitus servit, fit miser, servit tamen. 

Quod est timendum decipit si neglegas. 
Quid tibi pecunia opus est, si uti non potes ? 
Quod fugere credas saepe solet occurrere. 

620 Quamvis acerbus qui monet nulli nocet. 

Z Qui numerosis studet amicis is etiam inimicos ferat. 

■f Qui semet accusat ab alio non potest criminari. 

Qui dormientem necat absentem ulciscitur. 

Quod est venturum sapiens ut praesens cavet. 

^^5 cavetis F : caveas Bothe, Woelfflin, Spengel, Meyer : 
cavet Ls Orelli. 

*2^ sic Haupt. : qui numerosis s. a. et inimicos necesse est 
ferat T : q. studet multis a. multos i. f. Mejjer. 

*22 qui se ipse accusat, accusari non potest Ribbeck : alii alia. 


The later the sin in coming, the more disgraceful its 

How wretched the man who cannot make his excuses 
to himself! 

How take precautions when heart seeks one thing 
and words another ? 

The un\\illing slave grows wretched, but is still a 

The object of your fear tricks you, if you overlook it. 

Why do you need money, if you can't use it ? 

What you suppose to be in flight is often wont to 
face you. 

The warning voice, however sharp, hurts none. 

He who is devoted to numerous friends should 
likewise put up with foes. 

He who accuses himself cannot be accused by 

The slayer of a sleeping man is taking vengeance on 
the absent. 

The wise man guards against what is to come, as if 
it were present. 

" criminari is deponent in classical Latin. 
VOL. I. 97 

O Quern diligas, ni recte moneas, oderis. 

626 (Quod vult habet qui velle quod satis est potest.) 
T Ratione non vi vineenda adulescentia est. 

Rei nulli prodest mora nisi iracundiae. 

Reus innocens fortunam non testem timet. 

630 Rarum esse oportet quod diu carum velis. 
Rapere est aceipere quod non possis reddere. 
Regnat non regitur qui nihil nisi quod vult facit. 

Rivalitatem non amat victoria. 
Ruborem amico excutere amicum est perdere. 
635 Rex esse nolim ut esse crudelis velim. 

Res quanto est maior tanto est insidiosior. 
Roganti melius quam imperanti pareas. 
Respicere nihil consuevit iracundia. 
Rapere est, non petere, quicquid invito auferas. 

640 Remedium frustra est contra fulmen quaerere. 


^*° remedium fraus F : remigium frustra Gruter in notu 
postumis. flumen F : fulmen Bentley. 


You will hate the man you love, unless you admonish 
him aright. 

He who can wish for m hat is enough has his wish.'' 

Youth must be mastered not by force but by reason. 

Anger is the one thing benefited by delay. 

The innocent man on trial fears fortune, but not a 

Rare must be that which you would long hold dear. 

It is robbery to take what you could never return. 

He is a king and no subject who does only what he 

Victory loves not rivalry. 

Wring a blush from a friend and you lose him. 

I'd fain have no kingly power with its promptings 
to cruelty. 

The bigger the affair, the greater the snare. 

A request is better to comply with than an order. 

Anger's way is to regard nothing. 

It's no request, it's robbery, to take from the 

It's no good to seek an antidote for a thunderbolt. 
" The Latin is from Sen. Ep. eviii. 11. 


H 2 


Rogare officium servitus quodanunodo est. 
Z Reddit non perdit cui quod alienum est perit. 

T f Semper iratus plus se posse putat quam possit. 
Spes est salutis ubi hominem obiurgat pudor. 

645 Suadere primum dein corrigere benivoli est. 
Sapiens contra omnes arma fert cum cogitat. 

Sanctissimum est meminisse cui te debeas. 

Stulti timent fortunam, sapientes ferunt. 
Sensus, non aetas, invenit sapientiam. 
650 Semper beatam se putat benignitas. 

Sapiens locum dat requiescendi iniuriae. 
Solet esse in dubiis pro consilio temeritas. 
Semper consilium tunc deest cum opus est maxime. 
Sapiens quod petitur, ubi tacet, breviter negat. 

655 Semper plus metuit animus ignotum malum. 

^*2 sic Haupt : qui quod alienum erat persolvit T. 

^" se posse plus iratus quam possit putat Pithoeus : fortasse 
trochaicus semper iratus plus sese posse quam possit putat 
A. M. Duff. 


To ask a favour is slavery of a sort. 

To lose what is not your own is not to lose but to 
give back. 

Anger always thinks it has power beyond its power. 

When shame rebukes a man, there's hope for his 
soul's health. 

It's the well-wisher's way to advise before he corrects. 

The sage bears arms against the world when he 

'Tis most just to remember to whom you owe your- 

Fools fear fortune, wise men bear it. 

Wisdom is found by sense, not years. 

Bounty holds herself ever rich. 

The wise man gives an injury room to settle down. 

In a hazard venturesomeness replaces deliberation. 

Counsel is ever lacking when most needed. 

It's a curt refusal when the wise man meets a request 
with silence. 

The mind always fears the unknown evil more. 

*5^ sic Spengel : f sapiens semper quiescendi dat locum 
iniuriae F, Meyer : saepe ignoscendo das iniuriae locum 
Gruter : semper quiescens des iniuriae locum Meyer iji not. 

®^* sic F : cum . . . si . . . graviter 0, Meyer. 



Secunda in paupertate fortuna est fides. 
Si nihil velis timere, metuas omnia. 
Siunmissum imperium non tenet vires suas. 
Secundus est a matre nutricis dolor. 
660 Sibi supplieium ipse dat quem admissi paenitet. 

Suum sequitur lumen semper innocentia. 
Stultum est ulcisci velle alium poena sua. 

Sibi primum auxilium eripere est leges tollere. 

Suis qui nescit parcere inimicis favet. 

665 Sine dolore est vulnus quod ferendum est cum vic- 

Semper metuendo sapiens evitat malum. 

Stultum est queri de adversis, ubi culpa est tua. 

Solet hora quod multi anni abstulerunt reddere. 

Spina etiam grata est ex qua spectatur rosa. 



In poverty faith is fortune renewed." 

If you want to fear nothing, you should dread all. 

Diminished power keeps not its strength. 

The nurse's pangs are second to the mother's. 

He who repents his deed inflicts punishment on 

Innocence ever follows her own light. 

It's folly to want vengeance on another by punishing 


To destroy the laws is to rob oneself of one's first 

He who cannot spare his own folk befriends liis 

It's a painless wound that the victor must bear. 

By constant fear the wise man escapes harm. 

Silly to grumble about misfortune when the fault's 
your own. 

An hour often restores w hat many years have taken 

Pleasant even the thorn which yields a rose to view. 

" i.e. if a man reduced to poverty retains a faith in better 
times to come, that is in some degree a restoration of 


670 Stultum est vicinum velle ulcisci incendio. 

Stultum facit Fortuna quern vult perdere. 
Spes inopem, res avarum, mors miserum levat. 

Se damnat iudex innocentem qui opprimit. 

Sibi ipsa improbitas cogit fieri iniuriam. 
675 Satis est beatus qui potest cum vult mori. 

Solet sequi laus, cum viam fecit labor. 

Socius fit culpae qui nocentem sublevat. 

Suspicio sibi ipsa rivales parit. 

Semper metuendum quicquid irasci potest. 
680 Seditio civium hostium est occasio. 

Salutis causa bene fit homini iniuria. 

Stultitia est insectari quem di diligunt. 

Sat magna usura est pro beneficio memoria. 

Sero in periclis est consilium quaerere. 
Z Sua servat qui salva esse vult communia. 

686 Satis est superare inimicum, nimium est perdere. 
Suspiciosus omnium damnat fidem. 



70 It's silly to want vengeance on a neighbour by firing 
the house. 

Fortune makes a fool of him whom she would ruin." 

Hope eases the beggar, wealth the miser, death the 

A judge who crushes the guiltless is self-condemned. 

Villainy compels injury to be done to itself. 
75 Happy enough he who can die when he wills ! 

Praise ever follows when toil has made the way. 

To help the guilty is to share his crime. 

Suspicion doth breed rivals for herself. 

What can show anger must ever be dreaded. 
80 Discord mid citizens is the foeman's chance. 

Injury may well be done a man for safety's sake. 

'Tis folly to upbraid the favourite of heaven. 

'Tis high enough interest for a benefit to remember it. 

'Tis too late in perils to search for advice. 

85 He who wishes safety for the common property is 
the guardian of his own. 

It i-^ enough to beat a foe, too much to ruin him. 

The suspicious man condemns the good faith of all. 

" A more familiar form of this idea is quern luppiter viill 
perdere dementat prius. 



Suspicio probatis tacita iniuria est. 

Superari a superiore pars est gloriae. 

690 Supplicem honiinem oppriniere virtus non est sed 

Sat est disertus e quo loquitur Veritas. 
4:^ Thesaurum in sepulcro ponit qui senem heredem 
Taciturnitas stulto homini pro sapientia est. 
Tarn deest avaro quod habet quam quod non habet. 

Z Tarde sed graviter sapiens (mens) irascitur. 
696 Tuti sunt omnes unus ubi defenditur. 
O Temptando cuncta caeci quoque tuto ambulant. 
Tarn de se iudex iudicat quam de reo. 

'F Ubi fata peccant, hominum consilia excidunt. 
700 Voluptas e difficili data dulcissima est. 

Ubi omnis vitae metus est, mors est optima. 

Unus deus poenam afFert, multi cogitant. 

^^^ de quo T : pro quo : e quo Casp. Orelli in not. 

^*5 alii alia : mens Bickford-Smith. 

'"2 u. deus poenam affert quam m. cogitant F : dies 
{delevit quam) Gruter : citant Buecheler : irrogant Meyer : 
coquunt Friedrich. 



Suspicion is an unspoken \NTong to tested worth. 
To be bested by a better means a share in the glory. 
'90 To crush the suppliant is not valour but barbarity. 

Eloquent enough is he who h<a.s the accent of truth. 

He stows treasure in the tomb who makes an old 
man his heir. 

For a fool it is wisdom to hold his tongue. 

The miser lacks what he has as much as what he 

95 A wise mind grows angry slowly but seriously.^ 

All are safe when one is defended. 

By testing everything even the blind walk safely. 

A judge passes judgement on himself as much as on 
the accused. 

When fate goes a\^Ty, human counsels fail. 

00 Out of difficulty comes the sweetest pleasure. 

When life is all one terror, death is best. 

God alone brings punishment, though many intend it. 

" One of the best known lines of Publilius : it is quoted 
by Seneca, Controv. vii. 3 (18) 8; Quintilian, viii. 5, and ix. 
3, 64; Hieronymus, Epist. liii, 10 sub Jin. Jeromes order is 
avaro tarn deest . . . 

>> Cf. 550. 



Ubi peccat aetas maior, male discit minor. 
Ubi nihil timetur, quod timeatm- nascitur. 
705 Ubi sis cum tuis et absis. patriam non desideres. 

Verum est quod pro salute fit mendacium. 

Ubicumque pudor est, semper ibi sancta est fides. 

Utilius ferrum est in sulco quam orichalcum est in 

Ubi innocens formidat damnat iudicem. 
710 Voluntas impudicum non corpus facit. 

Virtuti melius quam fortunae creditur. 

Verbum omne refert in quam partem intellegas. 

Virum bonum natura non ordo facit. 

Ubi coepit ditem pauper imitari, perit. 
715 Veterem ferendo iniuriam invites novam. 

Virtutis spolia cum videt, gaudet labor. 

Virtutis vultus partem habet victoriae. 

Mrtute quod non possis blanditia auferas. 

Utrumque casum adspicere debet qui imperat. 

''^^ absLS patria Meyer : patriam desideres F : non aid. 

'°8 om. Meyer : Utilius est vero in sulco quam gravis 
galea in proelio Par. 8027 servat solus : vera est Wodfjlin : 
fernim est alii : quam orichalcum Friedrich. 



When seniors blunder, juniors learn but ill. 

When nothing is feared, something arises to fear. 

0") When far away with your own folk, you would not 
miss your ftitherland. 

Falsehood for safety's sake is true. 

Where scruples are, there faith is ever revered. 

Steel in the furrow is more useful than yellow copper 
in battle. 

Innocence in terror condemns the judge. 
riO The will, not the body, makes impurity. 

It's better trusting to valour than to luck. 

For any word it matters how you understand it. 

Nature, not rank, makes the gentleman. 

When the poor man starts to ape the rich, he's lost. 
'15 Tolerate an old wrong and you may invite a new^ one. 

The sight of valour's spoil makes the delight of toil.'* 

Bravery's countenance has a share in the victory. 

Coaxing may win what the stout heart could not. 

A ruler should look at both the sides of chance. 

" Labor is personified: hard-wrought soldiers, after the 
fight, look with joy on the spoil which proves their victorious 



720 \'oluptas tacita metus est mage quam gaudium. 
Viri boni est nescire facere iniuriam. 
Vultu an natura sapiens sis, multum interest. 

Virtuti amorem nemo honeste denegat. 
Z Ubi libertas cecidit, audet libere nemo loqui. 
725 Vita otiosa regnum est et curae minus. 

Ubi omnes peccant, spes querelae tollitur. 

Ut plures corrigantur, f rite pauci eliduntur. 
Virtutis omnis impedimentum est timor. 
Ubi iudicat qui accusat, vis non lex valet. 
730 Ubi emas aliena, caveas ne vendas tua. 

O Ubi peccatum cito corrigitur, fama solet ignoscere. 

Ubi innocens damnatur, pars patriae exsulat. 

Vincere est honestum, opprimere acerbum, pulchrum 


^ (Velox consilium sequitur paenitentia.) 

'20 magis F, Spengel, Meyer : mage metus Gruter. 
''^ sic T : rite unus perit Casp. Orelli in not. : ut plures 
sanes recte paucos amputes Friedrich. 



20 Dumb pleiisure is rather fear than joy. 

Goodness means inabihty to do a wrong. 

It makes a wide difference whether you were born 
wise or only look it. 

From virtue no man honourably Avithholds his love. 

Where freedom has fallen, none dare freely speak. 

25 The life of ease is a kingdom without the worry. 

Where all go WTong, the hope of remonstrance is 

A few are justly destroyed that more may be reformed. 

All virtue finds an obstacle in fear. 

When the accuser is judge, force, not law, has power. 

50 In buying others' goods, see you don't have to sell 
your own. 

When an offence is soon corrected, scandal commonly 
overlooks it. 

When the innocent is found guilty, part of his native 
land is exiled. 

It is honourable to conquer, bitter to crush, hand- 
some to forgive. 

Repentance follows on a hasty plan. 

''° sic Meyer in apparatu : invenies necesse est tua T. 



VOL. I. 



These two elegies are transmitted as a single con- 
tinuous poem in manuscripts of the minor " Virgilian" 
works {Culex, Dirae, Copa, Moretum). The ascription 
to Virgil is chronologically impossible ; for Maecenas 
died in 8 b.c, eleven years after \'irgil. Scaliger 
first separated the longer poem from the thirty-four 
lines which give the " Dying Words of Maecenas," 
and he propounded the guess (once considered attrac- 
tive) that both elegies, as well as the Consolatio ad 
Liviam. might be the work of Albinovanus Pedo. 
To some extent modern opinion inclines to accept as 
genuine the claim of the author (Eleg. I. 1-2 '.cf. II. 
3-4) to have already written the consolatory lament 
addressed to Livia on the death of Drusus/' The 
repetition of the phrases Caesaris illiai opus and 
ilia rapit iuvenes ^ as well as the noteworthy parallelism 
between two other passages <^ strengthens the case, 
though it is conceded that the Elegiae are artistically 
inferior to the Consolatio. They have, however, a 
similar rhetorical ring ; and the metrical technique of 
the elegies, while it shows fewer elisions than dees 
the Consolatio, is in keeping with that of the Augustan 

" The Consolatio is translated in the Loeb Library : Ovid, 
Art of Love and other Poems, pp. 325 sqq, 
* C'on.s. 39, Eleg. II. 6; Cans. 372, Eleg. I. 7. 
' Cans. 47-48, Eleg. I. 15-10. 



period. Haupt's endeavour to regard the first 
elegy as a defence of Maecenas against a charge of 
timicae solutae in Seneca's 114th letter has been suc- 
cessfully rebutted by Skutsch : " Seneca's letter 
contains other censures which the poet could not 
have left unanswered, if he had ever seen them. In 
this elaborate letter on decadence, and in particular 
on speech as a mirror of morals, emphasis is laid upon 
Maecenas' undisciplined style as a parallel to the 
dishabille which he notoriously affected. There are 
no convincing allusions to prove that the poem 
followed the letter, and we should not expect a reply 
to it to ignore the instances adduced.^ 

The contents and tone of the poems give the 
impression that the author stood close to the facts 
introduced.^ This direct contact with reality, which 
appears to underlie the allusions to Maecenas' war- 
service, to his cur a urhis and intellectual interests, 

" P. W. Bealencydopddie, IV. 1901 : art. on ' Consolatio ad 

* Th. Birt, like Haupt, considers the Elegiae post-Senecan, 
and holds that the passage about the beryl (I. 19-20) refers to 
the wide difference between Maecenas' style and the common 
level of expression {Ad hist, hexam. latini symb., Bonn, 1876, 
p. 66). 

^ Prof. R. S. Radford in The Cuhx and Ovid, Philologus, 1930, 
86, 1, defends the 0\adian authorship of both Consolatio and 
the Elegiae. Dealing with The Order of Ovid's Works {Trans. 
Amer. Philol. Assoc, 1923) he assigns the former to 9 B.C., the 
latter to 8 B.C. In E. Wagner's De Martiale Poetarum Augus- 
teae aetatis imitatore, Regimonti (=Konigsberg), 1880, similar- 
ities of phraseology' between Elegy I and Martial were unduly 
stressed as suggestive of a difference in style between Elegy I 
and Elegy II. A few years earlier M. Hertz in Analecta ad 
carm. Horat. historiam, Breslau, 1876, had discovered echoes 
of Horace in I, but none in II. This sort of internal " evidence " 
amounts to very little. 




makes a pleasant contrast to the occasional declama 
tory or mythological passages. There is something 
agreeably personal in the tenderness of the farewell 
to Terentia (II. 7-10) and in the poet's confession 
that, though he had not himself belonged to Mae- 
cenas' intimate circle, Lollius had put him in a posi- 
tion to compose this memorial poem (I. 10). The 
Lollius here meant had been consul in 20 B.C., and 
died in 1 B.C. 


Th. Gorallus (Clericus). C Pedonis Albinovani 
Elegiac III. Amsterdam, 1703 (assigning both 
elegies and the Consolatio ad Liviam to Albino- 

P. Burman. Anthologia Veterum Latinonnn Epi- 
grammatum et Poematum (ascribing the Elegiae 
to an " incertus auctor "), I. pp. 251-287. 
Amsterdam, 1759. 

C. Wernsdorf. Poetae Latiyii Minor es, III. p. 155 
sqq. Altenburg, 1782. 

J. Plumtre. The Elegies of C. Pedo Albi)iovanvs ivith 
an English version (heroic couplets). Kidder- 
minster, 1807. 

J. H. F. Meineke. Drei dem C. Pedo Albinovaiius 
zugeschriehene Elegien . . . mit einer metrischen 
Uebersetzung. Quedlinburg, 1819. 

H. Meyer. Anthologia vet. Lat. epigram, et poematum 
(based on Burman), Nos. 109 and 110. Leipzig, 

O. Ribbeck. Appendix Fergiliana, pp. 193-204. 
Leipzig, 1868. 

E. Baehrens. Poetae Latini Minores, I. pp. 122-136. 
Leipzig, 1879. 



F. Biicheler, and A. Riese. Anthologia Latina, I. 2, 

ed. 2. Leipzig, 1906. 
R. Ellis. Appendix Vergiliajia. Oxford, 1907. 
J. Middendorf. Elegiae in Maecenatem (text and 

notes). Marburg, 1912. 
F. ^'ollmer. Poetae Latini Minores, I. pp. 143-155. 

Leipzig, 1927. 

Relevant Works 

E. Hubner. In Hermes. 13 (1878), p. 239. 

E. Wagner. De Martiale poetanim Augiisteae aetaiis 

imitatore (pp. 42-46 on points of style in Elegiae 
and Consolatio). 

F. Skutsch. P. W. Realencyclopddie, l\. col. 944 

sqq. 1901. 

F. Lillge. De Elegiis in Maecen. quaestiones, diss. 
Breslau, 1901. 

B. Axelson. In Eranos, xxviii. (1930), 1 sqq. (Con- 
tention that the Elegiae and the Consolatio ad 
Liviam belong to a date not earlier than that of 
Statius and Martial.) 

R. B. Steele. The Nux, Maecenas, and Consolatio ad 
Liviam. Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A., 1933. 
(One of the contentions here is that similarities 
of diction in the works of Seneca to the Consolatio 
and to the Maecenas poems fix their publication 
within or later than the reign of Nero.) 


O = archetype of all the codices. 

S = Scaliger's lost manuscript whose readings are 

preserved in his " Virgilii Appendix. ..." 

pp. 52&-541. Leyden, 1573. 


F z= codex Fit'chtianus, now Mellicensis, 11th cent. 

(contains lines 1-25). 
B = codex Bruxellensis 10676, 12th cent. 
P = codex Parisiniis hit. 16236, 10th cent, (contains 

lines 1-43). 
Z = a lost codex represented bv three 15th century 
MSS. : 
H = Helmstadiensis 332. 
A = Arundelianus, Brit. Miis. 133. 
R = Rehdigeranus, Breslau Public Library. 
M = Monacenses (manuscripts in Munich), including : 
m = Mon. lat. 305, llth-12th cent, 
n = Mon. lat. 18059, 11th cent. 
V = \'ossianus lat. oct. 81 (Ley den), 15th cent. 
g zrr any correction by Italian scholars in the later 
MSS. or early editions. 

Considerable departures have been made from 
Vollmer's text in readings and in punctuation. 




Defleram iuvenis tristi modo carmine fata, 

sunt etiam merito carmina danda seni. 
ut iuvenis deflendus enim tarn candidus et tarn 

longius annoso vivere dignus avo. 
irreligata ratis, numquam defessa carina, 

it, redit in vastos semper onusta lacus : 
ilia rapit iuvenes prima florente iuventa, 

non oblita tamen sed f repetitque senes. 
nee mihi, Maecenas, tecum fuit usus amici, 

Lollius hoc ergo conciliavit opus ; 
foedus erat vobis nam propter Caesaris arma 

Caesaris et similem propter in arma fidem. 
regis eras, Etrusce, genus ; tu Caesaris almi 

dextera, Romanae tu vigil urbis eras, 
omnia cum posses tanto tam carus amico, 

te sensit nemo posse nocere tamen. 

*» et n (= codd.), Vollmer : it ed. Ascens. 1507. 
11 fidus n : foedus Heinsius. 
13 almi n : alti Heinsius. 





My saddened muse of late had mourned a young 
man's " death : now to one ripe in years also let songs 
be duly offered. As youth is mourned, so must we 
mourn for one so white-souled, so worthy to live 
beyond the span of an age-laden grandsire. The 
barque that knows no fastening, the never-wearied 
keel, goes and returns for ever with its load across 
the vasty pools : it carries off the young in the first 
bloom of their youth, yet unforgetful claims the old 
as well. At one time, my Maecenas, I lacked 
converse with thee as a friend : my present task, then, 
'twas Lollius'' won for me. For between you two 
was a bond because of your war-service for Caesar 
and your equal loyalty to Caesar's service. Thou 
wert of royal race, O Tuscan-born, thou wert the 
right hand of bounteous Caesar, thou wert the 
guardian of the Roman city. All-pow^erful though 
thou wert in such favour with so exalted a friend, 
yet no man ever felt thou hadst the power to hurt. 

" i.e. Drusus, who died in 9 B.C., the year before Maecenas' 

* M. Lollius, consul 20 B.C., died 1 B.C. Gorallus and 
Meineke take opus of gaining Maecenas' friendship for the 
author. Opus, however, seems odd in this connexion, and 
here Wemsdorf 's view is followed that the opus is the present 



Pallade cum docta Phoebus donaverat artes : 

tu decus et laudes huius et huius eras, 
vincit vulgares veluti beryllus harenas, 

litore in extremo quas simul unda movet. 
quod discinctus eras, animo quoque, carpitur unum 

diluitur nimia simplicitate tua. 
sic illi vixere, quibus fuit aurea Virgo, 

quae bene praecinctos postmodo pulsa fugit. 
livide, quid tandem tunicae nocuere solutae 

aut tibi ventosi quid nocuere sinus ? 
num minus urbis erat custos et Caesaris opses ? 

num tibi non tutas fecit in urbe vias ? 
nocte sub obscura quis te spoliavit amantem, 

quis tetigit ferro, durior ipse, latus ? 
mains erat potuisse tamen nee velle triumphos, 

maior res magnis abstinuisse fuit. 

19 sic Birt : vincit vulgares vincit FBPHMV, Vollmer : vicit 
vulgares vicit AR : sicut volgares vincit Riese, Middendorf. 
beritus FBPH m ; berithus AR : peritus n V : berillus A Id. 
1517 : Berytus Ellis. 

22 diluvii hoc n (ac V) : diluis hoc Oudendorp, Baehrens, 
Vollmer : diluitur AM. 1517, Riese. 

" obses (op- B) n : hospes A^. 



Apollo with learned Minerva had conferred their 
art^ on thee : thou wert the ornament and glory 
of both — even as the beryl " surpasses the common 
sands which the wave tosses about along with it on the 
shore's edge. That thou wert luxurious in mind as in 
dress is the one slander urged against thee : it is dis- 
pelled by thine exceeding plainness of life. So did they 
live among whom dwelt the golden Maid '' who soon 
fled into exile from the bustle of mankind. Back- 
biter, say what harm his loosened tunic did you, or 
dress through which the air could play r Was he 
a whit less guardian of the citv. and less a hostage 
for our absent emperor ? Did he make the streets 
of Rome unsafe for you ? 'Neath the murk of night 
who could rob you in an amour, or who in excess of 
heartlessness drive steel into your side ? Greater it 
was to have had the power, yet not to wish for triumphs : 
a greater thing it was to refrain from mighty deeds. 

' With an allusion to Maecenas' fondness for jewels. Among 
terms applied to Maecenas in a jocular letter from Augustus 
were Cibriorum smaragde . . . berylle Pursennae (Macrob. 
Saturn. II. iv. 12). The beryl (p-qpvXXos) is a transparent gem, 
usually sea-green, and, though now found in many parts of the 
Old World and the New, was mainly known to the ancients as 
coming from India (Plin. X.H. XXXVII. 5, 20, India eos 
gignit raro alibi repertos, a passage which tempts one to take 
extreme in litore as " on a distant shore " : cf. extremos equos, 
56). Pliny rightly associates it with the emerald. Since one 
species was the aquamarine, some knowledge of this may have 
prompted the reference to the sea-shore in 20. It is difficult, 
however, to imagine that this product of granitic rocks can 
have been often washed up among the sands of the sea, though 
Gk>rallu.s quotes Greek hexameters from Dionysius Periegetes, 
of which one interpretation supports the view. 

* Astraea, or Justice, sojourned among men in the Golden 
Age, but wa^ driven from earth by the growth of depravity. 



maluit iimbrosam quercum lymphasque cadentes 

paucaque pomosi iugera certa soli ; 
Pieridas Phoebumque colens in moUibus hortis 

sederat argutas garrulus inter avis. 
marmorea Aonii vincent monumenta libelli : 

vivitur ingenio, cetera mortis erunt. 
quid faceret ? defunctus erat comes integer, idem 

miles et Augusti fortis et usque pius : 
ilium piscosi viderunt saxa Pelori 

ignibus hostilis reddere ligna ratis ; 
pulvere in Emathio fortem videre Philippi ; 

quam nunc ille tener, tarn gravis hostis erat. 
cum freta Niliacae texerunt lata carinae, 

fortis erat circa, fortis et ante ducem, 
militis Eoi fugientis terga secutus, 

territus ad Nili dum fugit ille caput, 
pax erat : haec illos laxarunt otia cultus : 

omnia victores Marte sedente decent. 
Actius ipse lyram plectro percussit eburno, 
postquam victrices conticuere tubae. 

^3 njTnphas n : lymphas Wernsdorf. cadentes BP : 
canentes ZMV. 

^' marmora m(a)eonii ARMV : marraora minei SPH : mar- 
morea Aonii I'el marmora Smyrnaei ScaUger. 

** tarn . . . tam B, Vollmer. 

*5 l(a)eta BZ, Vollmer : lata MV, Ellis. 



He chose rather the shady oak, the falhng waters, 
the few sure acres of fruit-bearing soil. Honouring 
the Muses and Apollo in luxurious gardens, he re- 
clined babbling verse among the tuneful birds. 
Aonian writings " will eclipse marble monuments : 
genius means life, all else will belong to death. 
What was he to do ? He had filled his part as blame- 
less comrade, yea, as Augustus' warrior, gallant and 
devoted throughout. The rocks of Pelorus abounding 
in fish saw him give the enemy's craft for fuel to the 
flames : ^ Philippi ^ saw his bravery amid Emathian 
dust : as tender of heart as he is to-day, so dread 
a foe was he then. When (Antony's) Egyptian 
ships covered the waters wide, Maecenas showed 
bravery around and bravery in front of his leader,^ 
following in the wake of the fugitive Oriental warrior, 
while he flees panic-stricken to the mouth of the 
Nile. Peace came : its leisure brought a slackening 
of those ways : when the W^ar-god sits idle, every- 
thing beseems the conquerors. 

The very god of Actium ^ smote the lyre with ivory 
quill after the bugles of victory were hushed. He 

" i.e. poetic : "Aonian " is an epithet of the Muses. 

* The reference is to the fighting against Sextus Pompeius 
in Sicilian waters, 38-35 B.C. 

* Philippi, on the borders of Thrace, is here called 
" Emathian " {i.e. Macedonian). The allusion is to the defeat 
of Brutus and Cassius b\' Octavian Caesar and Antony, 42 B.C. 

•* i.e. at Actium in 31 B.C. Most authorities accept the 
testimony of Dio, li. 3. 5, that Maecenas was in Rome when 
Actium was fought. See E. Groag, art. "" Maecenas," P. W. 
Realend. XIV. i. col. 210, and Gardthausen, Augustus und 
seine Zeit, I. i. p. 365. This Elegia is the one ancient source 
which suggests the contrary view. 

' Apollo. In the games instituted at Actium by Augustus 
in honour of his victory, musical performances were included. 



hie modo miles erat, ne posset femina Romam 

dotalem stupri turpis habere sui ; 
hie tela in profugos — tantum eurvaverat areum — 

misit ad extremes exorientis equos : 
Baeche, coloratos postquam devieimus Indos, 

potasti galea dulee iuvante merum, 
et tibi seeuro tunieae fluxere solutae, 

te piito purpm-eas tunc habuisse duas. 
sum memor et eerte memini sie dueere thyrsos 

braechia purpurea candidiora nive, 
et tibi thyrsus erat gemmis ornatus et auro, 

serpentes hederae vix habuere loeum ; 
argentata tuos etiam sandalia talos 

vinxerunt eerte nee, puto, Bacehe negas. 
mollius es solito meeum turn multa loeutus 

et tibi eonsulto verba fuere nova, 
impiger Alcide, multo defunete labor e, 

sie memorant curas te posuisse tuas, 
sie te eum tenera laetum lusisse puella 

oblitum Nemeae, iamque, Erymanthe, tui. 

®^ thyrsos n : tigres Burman, Vollmer. 
^2 Bacchea RMV" : braechia Aid. 1517. purpurea H : hyper- 
borea Vollmer. 

^^ talaria n, Vollmer : sandalia V. 

'^ multum BHM, Vollmer : laetum Ascens. 1507. 



was of late a warrior to prevent a woman" from having 
Rome as a marriage-oift for her foul lewdness : he sped 
his arrows after the runaways — st) mighty the bow he 
had bent — far as the furthest steeds of the rising sun. 

O Bacchus,'' after we subdued the dark-skinned 
Orientals, thou didst drink sweet wine with thy 
helmet's aid, and in thy care-free hour loose flowed 
thy tunics — 'twas the time, I fancy, when thou didst 
wear two *■ of brilliant colour. My memory works, 
and certes I remember that thus arms whiter than 
the gleaming snow led the Bacchic wands, and thy 
wand was adorned with gems and gold — the trailing 
ivy scarce had room thereon ; silvern surely were the 
slippers which bound thy feet : this I trow, Bacchus, 
thou dost not deny. Softer e'en than thy wont was 
much that thou saidst then in converse with me : 'twas 
of set design that thy words were new to the ear. 

O Hercules unwearied, after mighty toil performed, 
'twas even so, they relate, thou didst lay aside thy cares, 
and even so didst hold joyous sport with tender damsel, 
forgetful of Nemea, forgetful now of Erymanthus.** 

" Apollo is fancied to have fought for Octavian against 
Cleopatra of Egypt and her lover Antony. 

' Vollmer takes 11. 57-68 as a " dithyramb " addressed 
by Apollo to Bacchus. Antony's historic posing as Bacchus 
gives point to the passage. 

' To wear two was a sign of luxury. 

^ Hercules' twelve labours included the slaying of the 
Xemean lion and of the Erymanthian boar. An oracle having 
ordered Hercules to undergo for penance a period of menial 
service, he placed himself under the charge of Omphale, 
princess of Lydia, and found favour with her by spinning and 
dressing like a woman, while she donned his lion's skin. The 
tale of the strong hero relaxing into effeminacy is adduced 
here as an apology for Maecenas' luxury after he had accom- 
plished great tasks. 



ultra numquid erat ? torsisti pollice fusos, 

lenisti morsu levia fila paruin. 
percussit crebros te propter Lydia nodos, 

te propter dura stamina rupta manu. 
Lydia te tunicas iussit lasciva fluentis 

inter lanificas ducere saepe suas. 
clava torosa tua pariter cum pelle iacebat, 

quam pede suspenso percutiebat Amor, 
quis fore credebat, premeret cum iam impiger infans 

hydros ingentes vix capiente manu, 
cumve renascentem meteret velociter Hydram, 

frangeret immanes vel Diomedis equos, 
vel tribus adversis communem fratribus alvom 

et sex adversas solus in arma manus ? 
fudit Aloidas postquam dominator Olympi, 

dicitur in nitidum percubuisse diem, 
atque aquilam misisse suam, quae quaereret, ecqui 

posset amaturo digna referre lovi, 
valle sub Idaea dum te, formose sacerdos, 

invenit et presso molliter ungue rapit. 
sic est : victor amet, victor potiatur in umbra, 

victor odorata dormiat inque rosa ; 
victus aret victusque metat ; metus imperet illi, 

membra nee in strata sternere discat humo. 
tempora dispensant usus et tempora cultus, 

haec homines, pecudes, haec moderantur avis, 
lux est ; taurus arat : nox est ; requiescit arator, 

liberat et merito fervida colla bovi. 

*^ terretH: tereret ^-i W. 1517 : meteret Struchtmeyer, Vollmer. 
8* ecquid BAR, Vollmer : et quid HM : et qui V : ecquis 
: ecqui Baehrens, Ellis, 

^" signa n : digna Heinsius : vina exld. var. 
*^ sacerdos H : iacentem Heinsius : fortasse satelles Ellis, 



Could au^ht exceed this ? — twirlin<T spindles with 
the thumb, and bitino; the rouoh threads smooth 
with the mouth ! Lvdian Omphale beat thee 
for leavino; too many knots or for breaking the 
tlu-eads with that hard hand. The sportive Lydian 
bade thee often wear loose-flowinff robes among; 
her spinning-maids. The knotty club was thrown 
down along with thy lion-skin, and on it the Love-god 
danced with light-poised toe. That this would come 
who was like to believe in the hour when the active 
babe strangled monstrous serpents which his hand 
could hardly grasp ? or when he nimbly lopped each 
Hydra-head as it grew again? or conquered the 
savage steeds of Diomede or the body common 
to three confronting brothers, and the six confronting 
hands," which he fought unaided r After the Ruler 
of Olympus routed the sons of Aloeus,* they say he 
lay asleep till the bright dawn, and sent his eagle 
in quest of one who could render fitting service to 
Jove bent on love, until in Ida's vale he found thee, fair 
priest,*" and carried thee off in talons softly closed. 

Such is the world's way : the \-ictor must love, the 
victor have the mastery in the shade, the victor 
must sleep on scented rose-leaves : the vanquished 
must plough, the vanquished must reap : fear must 
be his lord : never must he learn to rest his limbs 
on the cushioned ground. The seasons regulate 
different habits and ways in life : the seasons rule 
mankind and cattle and birds. 'Tis da\Mi — the 
bull ploughs : 'tis night — the ploughman rests ; 
he frees the steaming neck of the ox which has 

" i.e. of the three-headed monster Geryon. 
'' Giants who had warred against the Gods. 
<^ Ganvmede is thereafter to minister to Jove. 


VOL. I. 


conglaciantur aquae ; scopulis se condit hirundo : 

verberat egelidos garrula vere lacus. 
Caesar amicus erat : poterat vixisse solute, 

cum iam Caesar idem quod cupiebat erat. 
indulsit merito : non est temerarius ille : 

vicimus : Augusto iudice dignus erat. 
Argo saxa pavens postquam Scylleia legit 

Cyaneosque metus, iam religanda ratis, 
viscera dissecti mutaverat arietis agno 

Aeetis sucis omniperita suis : 
his te, Maecenas, iuvenescere posse decebat, 

haec utinam nobis Colchidos herba foret ! 
redditur arboribus florens revirentibus aetas : 

ergo non homini quod fuit ante redit ? 
vivacesque magis cervos decet esse paventis 

si quorum in torva cornua fronte rigent ? 
vivere cornices multos dicuntur in annos : 

cur nos angusta condicione sumus ? 
pascitur Aurorae Tithonus nectare coniunx 

atque ita iam tremulo nulla senecta nocet : 

1"' Scilleia BHA : Scylleia R. legit n : Seyllaea relegit Sal- 

109 disiecti BARV : direeti SH^ : dissecti Vat. 3269. agni 
n : agno Aid. 1517. 


done its work. The streams are frozen— then the 
swallow shelters 'mid the crags : in spring loud- 
twitterincT she skims the jrenial meres. 

The Emperor was Maecenas' friend: so he was 
free to live a life of ease when the Emperor was 
now all he longed to be. He granted indulgence 
to Maecenas' merits : nor is Maecenas reckless : we 
have won our victory'': 'twas the judgement of 
Augustus that counted him deserving.'' After the 
Argo had skirted in affright the reefs of Scylla *-' and 
the peril of the Clashing Rocks, when the barque had 
now to be moored, the daughter'^ of Aeetes, all-skilled 
in her magic juices, had changed into a lamb the 
body of the ram she had cut up. 'Twas right, 
Maecenas, that by such means thou shouldst have 
power to grow young again : would that we had the 
herb of the Colchian (sorceress) ! 

Trees reclothed in green have the bloom of their 
life restored : and to man then does not that which 
was his before come again ? Is it meet that the timid 
deer with stiff horns on their wild foreheads should 
have longer life ? Crows, 'tis said, live for many a 
year : why do we men exist on narrow terms ? 
Tithonus, as Aurora's consort, feeds on nectar, and 
so, though he be palsied now, no length of age can 
work him harm. That thy life, Maecenas, might 

■ As Anton}' has been overthrown, easy-going relaxation 
is no longer a danger. 

* i.e. to indulge in a more luxurious life after Antony's 

' Tfie Argo would not naturally pass by Scylla and 
Charybdis on the outward voj^age to Colchis. 

^ Medea, princess of Colchis, famous for her powers in 

K 2 


ut tibi vita foret semper medicamine sacro, 

te vellem Aurorae complaeuisse virum. 
illius aptus eras croceo recubare ciibili 

et, modo puniceum rore lavante torum, 
illius aptus eras rosea,s adiungere bigas, ] 

tu dare purpurea lora regenda manu, 
tu mulcere iubam, cum iam torsisset habenas 

procedente die, respicientis equi. 
quaesivere chori iuvenum sic Hesperon ilium, 

quem nexum medio solvit in igne Venus, 1 

quern nunc in fuscis placida sub nocte nitentem 

Luciferum contra currere cernis equis. 
hie tibi Corycium, casias hie donat olentis, 

hie et palmiferis balsama missa iugis. 
nunc pretium candoris habes, nunc redditus umbris : 

te sumus obliti decubuisse senem. 1 

ter Pylium flevere sui, ter Nestora canum, 

dicebantque tamen non satis esse senem : 

^2® chori SBHAM : thori V. iuvenem n : iuvenum Scaliger. 
^^^ infusci BM : infusi Z : in fluscis corr. in fuscis V : infusa 
Vollmer. placida H : placide Baehrens : placidus Volbner. 

" i.e. caused Hesperos to set; in myth, Hesperos was a fair 
youth elevated by Venus into the " Evening-star," which was 
by the ancients correctly identified with Phosphoros (Lucifer), 




last fi)r ever in virtue of a holy drug, I could wish 
thou hadst found favour with Aurora as husband. 
Worthy wert thou to recline on her saffron bed, and, 
as the morning-dew was just moistening the purple 
couch, worthy wert thou to yoke the two steeds to her 
rosy car, worthy to give the reins for guidance by the 
bright-hued hand, worthy to stroke the mane of the 
horse as it looked back (on its nightly course), now that 
Aurora had turned the reins at the advance of day. 

In such a way did the bands of his youthful 
comrades feel the loss of Hesperos, whom \^enus 
attached to herself and released in the midst of his 
fiery course : ^ thou canst see him now as Lucifer 
gleaming in the dark 'neath the stilly night and 
charioting his steeds on an opposite course.^ He 
it is that presents to thee the Corycian saffron-flower, 
he presents the aromatic cinnamon, he too the 
balsams sent from palm-growing hills. 

Now hast thou, Maecenas, the guerdon of sin- 
cerity, now that thou art given to the shades : 
we have forgotten that thou didst die an old man.'' 
His people mourned the King of Pylos, Nestor, 
hoary after three generations of life ; and yet they 
said he had not fully reached old age. Thou wouldst 

the " Morning-star." Actually it is the planet Venus. The 
allusion is to the fact that, after a cycle of brilliancy, the 
planet's apparent height above the horizon at sunset gradu- 
ally diminishes and it sinks into invisibility. 

* Lucifer, particularly associated with the East, appro- 
priately offers, in honour of Maecenas, fragrant Oriental plants, 
crocus from Corycus in Cilicia (Pli-n. X.H. XXI. G. 17), casia 
from Arabia Felix {ih. XII. IS, 41), and balsam from Judaea 
(Joseph. Ant. Jud. XIV. 4 (7)). 

' i.e. we do not realise that you were old when you died, 
because in life you ahvays seemed young, and in our thoughts 
you still retain the charm of perpetual youth. 



Nestoris annosi vicisses saecula, si me 
dispensata tibi stamina n-ente forent. 

nunc ego, quod possum : " Tellus, levis ossa teneto, 
pendula librato pondus et ipsa tuom. 

semper serta tibi dabimus, tibi semper odores, 
non umquami sitiens, florida semper eris." 


Sic est Maecenas fato veniente locutus, 

frigidus et iam iam cum moriturus erat : 
" mene," inquit, " iuvenis primaevi, luppiter, ante 

angustam Drusi non cecidisse diem I 
pectore maturo fuerat puer, integer aevo 

et magnum magni Caesaris illud opus, 
discidio vellemque prius " — non omnia dixit 

inciditque pudor quae prope dixit amor, 

1^° nempe H : nente AM. 1517. 

* augustam AR, Vollmer : angustam BHMV, Heinsius. bruti 
n : Drusi Franciiis et I.F. Gronovius. Mem Xi, Vollmer: diem 



have surjiasscd the generations of long-lived Nestor, 
if 1 had been spinner to assign thee the threads of 
destiny. But as things are, all that I can, I pray : 
" O Goddess Earth, light be thy touch on his bones ; 
o'erhanging keep thine own weight as in a balance 
suspended : so shall we ever give thee wreaths, 
and ever fragrances : never shalt thou feel thirst, 
but ever be decked with flowers." 


[Scaliger was the first to distinguish this as a 
separate poem : in the MSS. it runs on after Elegia I 
without break.] 

Thus spoke Maecenas at the coming of fate, 
chill on the very brink of death. " Why," said he, 
" did I not sink in death, O Jupiter, before young 
Drusus' narrow day of life ? He had shown himself 
a youth of ripe judgement, a stalwart for his years — 
the mighty achievement of mighty Caesar's training." 
Would that before our civil strife . . ."* The rest 
he never spoke : scruples cut short what affection 
nearly said — yet was he clearly understood : '^ dying, 

" Caesaris illud opus is used similarly, Consol. ad Liviam, 

* Maecenas recalls the hostilities between Octavian Caesar 
and Mark Antony. 

« ManiJestuJi erat moriens might be taken, with Scaliger, 
as a Graecism, 5f;Xos -fiv a-rrodi'TJaKwy, " it was clear he was 


sed manifestus erat : moriens quaerebat amatae 

coniugis ample xus oscula verba manus. 
" sed tamen hoc satis est : vixi te, Caesar, amico 

et morior " dixit, " dum moriorque, satis. 
mollibus ex oculis aliquis tibi procidet umor, 

cum dicar subita voce fuisse tibi. 
hoc mihi contingat : iaceam tellm*e sub aequa. 

nee tamen hoc ultra te doluisse velim. 
sed meminisse velim : vivam sermonibus illic ; 

semper ero, semper si meminisse voles, 
et decet et certe vivam tibi semper amore 

nee tibi qui moritur desinit esse tuus. 
ipse ego quicquid ero cineres interque fa villas, 

tunc quoque non potero non memor esse tui. 
exemplum vixi te propter moUe beati, 

unus Maecenas teque ego propter eram. 
arbiter ipse fui ; volui, quod contigit esse ; 

pectus eram vere pectoris ipse tui. 
vive diu, mi care senex, pete sidera sero : 

est opus hoc terris, te quoque velle decet. 
et tibi succrescant iuvenes bis Caesare digni 

et tradant porro Caesaris usque genus. 

^^ potuisse n, : doluisse Heinsius. 
-^ beate H : beati Sahnasius. 
2* unus n : unctus Maehly. 

^^ voluit, q.c. esse, pectus eram VoUmer: voluit fl : volui 
Aid. 1517. 



he sought for his beloved wife's enibraees, her kisses, 
words and hands : 

" Yet after all this is enouu:h," he said, " I have 
lived and I die in thy friendship, Caesar ; and, as I die, 
it is enouirh. From thy kindly eyes some drop will 
fall, when thou art told the sudden news that I am 
gone. This be my lot, to lie 'neath the impartial 
earth : nor yet would I have thee longer grieve for 
this. But I would wish for remembrance : there in 
thy talk would I live ; for I shall always exist, if 
thou wilt always remember me. 'Tis fitting so, 
and I shall surely live for thee in affection ever ; 
thy dying friend ceases not to be thine own. Myself, 
whatever I shall be among the ashes and the embers, 
e'en then I shall not be able to forget Caesar. 'Tis 
thanks to thee I have lived the luxurious pattern of 
bliss, thanks to thee that I was the one Maecenas of 
the day. I was my own controller : I willed to be 
what fell to my lot : ^ I was truly the heart of thine 
o\\Ti heart. 

Long mayest thou live, old friend I love so well; 
late mayest thou pass to heaven : the earth hath need 
of this : this should be thy will too. May the youths 
doubly worthy of Caesar ' grow up to thy support 
and thenceforward hand on to the future the house 

" A.s captain of his fate, Maecenas did not aim at rising 
above his equestrian rank. 

* Gains and Lucius, the sons of Agrippa by Julia, were 
adopted by Augustus in 17 B.C. as " Caesares." " Doubly " 
is variously explained : it may refer to their paternity by 
blood and by adoption ; or to their personal qualities 
added to adoption; or, as Gorallus thought, simply to the 
fact that they were two. Lucius died a.u. 2, and Gaius 

A.D. 4. 




sit secura tibi quam primuni Livia coniunx, 

explcat amissi munera rupta gener. 
cum deus intereris divis insigiiis avitis, 

te \^enus in patrio coUocet ipsa sinu." 

^^ sit secura tibi H : set tibi secure V : sed tibi sit curae 

3^ cum n : turn Wernsdorf : tu Baehrens. in terris CI : in- 
tersis Rihbeck : intereris Volhner : cur deus in terris ? Ellis. 

3* patrio n : proprio Ribbeck, Riese, Baehrens. ipsa BHM : 
alma AR. 



of Caesar. Right soon may thine Empress Livia 
be free from anxiety : let a son-in-hiw fulfil the 
broken duties of him who is lost.'' When thou 
hast taken thy place, a god distinguished among 
a line of deities, let Venus' own hand set thee in the 
paternal bosom." '' 

" Tiberius is the gre/ier : Agri-p^a,, the gener amissus. In 11 
B.C. Augustus had forced Tiberius to divorce Vipsania 
Agrippina and marry his daughter Julia, the widow of 
Agrippa. This marriage, it is hoped in the couplet 31-32, 
will both assure Livia of descendants through her own son 
Tiberius and, at the same time, strengthen dynastic prospects 
by adding to the number of Augustus' grandchildren, now 
that Agrippa is dead. 

* i.e. the bosom of Julius Caesar, Augustus' adoptive 
father. The reference to ^'enus is appropriate, as the Julian 
gens claimed descent from her (Suet. Jul. 6). 






The period of Grattius is fixed as Augustan by one 
of Ovid's pentameters, Ep. ex Ponio, IV. 16. 34, 
" aptaque venanti Grattius arma daret." This is a 
specific reference to Grattius' twenty-third line, 
whether the reading there be venanti or venandi, 
and it places him in a list of Ovid's contemporaries 
before a.d. 8. It is possible, though not certain, 
that his work was known to Manilius : otherwise, 
antiquity is silent about him. If it were as certain 
that he borrowed from the Aeneid as it is that he 
borrowed from the Georgics, then his work could be 
placed between the limits 19 b.c. and a.d. 8. His 
title to the epithet Faliscus, reported to have been in 
a manuscript now vanished, is not admitted by all. 
Nostris Faliscis of 1. 40 does not necessarily imply 
that he was a native of Falerii : " any Italian or even 
Sicilian might have used the phrase ; and indeed 
there is a possibility that he was connected with 
Sicily ; for he mentions (435-36) that he had fre- 
quently seen ailing dogs dipped in the bituminous 
pools of Sicily. Sihis nostris of 137, though taken 
by Curcio to mean " our Roman woods," may not 
imply more than " our western woods " in contrast 

" Among recent writers Volhuer and P. J. Enk are con- 
vinced that he was Faliscan. 



'v\ith the East which Grattius had jast mentioned. 
There is more of the Roman note in the allusion to the 
simple board of ancient heroes of Rome (321) ; but 
it must always be remembered how, from Ennius 
onwards, Latin authors born far from the capital 
itself tended to speak and \\Tite as Romans. If, 
then, we cannot add the descriptive FaUsciis to his 
name, it is left *' Grattius "" ^^^thout cognomen or 

If Grattius ever ^^Tote lyric poetry,'' it is long since 
lost. His sole surviving work is his Cynegetica, of 
which we have one book of about 540 hexameters 
mutilated towards its end. Here, like several other 
\^Titers of antiquity, he treats of the chase and especi- 
ally of the rearing and training of dogs for hunting 
purposes. The sources of his material are not easy 
to trace. ^ Some authorities affirm, while others 
deny, his debt to the Cynegeticus of Xenophon (or 
pseudo-Xenophon) and to Plutarch. It seems at 
least likely that some Greek author of the Alexan- 
drian period lay behind his list of dogs, in which the 
Asiatic breeds come before the European, with the 
" Celtae "'^ sandwiched between " Medi " and 
" Geloni " (155-57). The Latin influence which is 
most noticeable upon Grattius is that of Virgil, 
especially his Georgics. 

The debt of subsequent wTiters to Grattius 
was of the slightest ; largely for the reason that a 

° The spelling Gratius in Ovid is less correct. Buecheler 
Eh. Mus. 35 (1880), p. 407 : cf. C.I.L. vi. 19-117 sqq. 

* This hypothesis is bricfiy discussed by Enk, prohg. pp. 

" Enk, op. cit. pp. 31-32. 

^ Can his Greek original have meant " Galatian " instead 
of " Gaulish " ? Radermacher, Rh. Mus. 60 (1905), p. 249. 



didactic poem on so restricted a subject had little 
chance of a great vogue. Even upon Nemesianus, 
who handled the same theme in the third century, 
his influence has been doubted. But while Schanz, 
Curcio and others hold that Grattius was unknown to 
Nemesianus, Enk has made out a good case to support 
the belief that the earlier author was consulted bv 
the later." 

Grattius' method of treatment is, after his proem 
(1-23), to treat first (24-149) of the huntsman's 
equipment in the means of catching and killing 
game, and secondly (150-541) of his companions in 
the chase, dogs and horses, Avith a brief sub-section 
on the dress to be worn by hunters. The longest 
portion is that devoted to dogs (150-496) and it 
thus justifies the title of the poem; but, besides 
handling their breeds and breeding, their points and 
diseases, it is, on the whole fortunately, broken by 
episodes. These episodes, although in them rhet- 
oric contends with poetry, are enlivening additions 
or insertions. They are four, and concern a renowned 
hunter Hagnon (213-62) ; the miserable effects of 
luxury on human beings (310-25), somewhat quaintly 
appended to the prescription of plain fare for dogs ; 
a grotto in Sicily (430-66) ; and a sacrifice to Diana 
(480-96). The earlier part on nets, devices for 
frightening game, on snares, springes, spears and 
arrows, is also diversified with episodes, namely, a 
eulogy of the chase (61-74) and of the ingenious 
hunter Dercylus (95-110). Many readers will wel- 
come these digressions as pleasant side-paths ; for 
it is not everyone to whom the methods of the 
ancient hunter can make appeal. At the same time 

" Mnemos. 1917, pp. 53-GS. 


VOL. I. L 


the subject has decidedly antiquarian interest, 
and it is only fair to remember that great scholars 
of the past, including Julius Caesar, Scaliger and 
Nicolaus Heinsius, awarded high praise to Grattius' 

His well-turned hexameters show that he was an 
apt student of \ irgil ; and his alliteration may indi- 
cate admiration for still older poets of Rome. There 
is also an independent turn in him which shows itself 
in his employment of words in unusual senses, e.g. 
nodus, 32, of a mesh ; vellera, 77, of feathers ; verutus, 
110, of a weapon's teeth; caesaries, 273, of a dog's 
hau' ; populari, 376, of spoiling ; dulcedo, 408, of scratch- 
ing. There are several a-n-a^ dp-qixira in his poem : 
plagium, 24 ; cannabius, 47 ( ? cannahinus, ^^ollmer) ; 
praedexter, 68 ; apprensat, 239 ; perpensare, 299 ; 
delecta from delicio, 303 (if that be the reading and 
not dilecta or even de lade) ; nardifer, 314 ; offectus, 
406 ; termiteus, 447. 


G. Logus (de Logau) : Editio princeps (with Ovid's 
Halieutica, Nemesianus and Calpurnius). Venice, 

J. Ulitius (van Miet) : In Venatio Novantiqua. 
Leyden, 1645, 1655. 

Thos. Johnson : Gratii Falisci Cynegeticon (cum poe- 
matio Nemesiani). London, 1699. 

R. Bruce and S. Havercamp : In Poetae latini rei 
venaiicae scriptores et bncolici a?itiqui (cum notis 
Barthii, Ulitii, Johnsonii). [Elaborate com- 
mentary at end.] Leyden, 1728. 

P. Burman : In Poetae latini minores I. Leyden, 1731. 



C. A. Kuttner : Grat'u Cifnegeticon et Nemesiani 

Cyneg. (cum notis selectis Titii, Barthii, Ulitii, 

Johnsonii et Biirmanni integris). Mitaviae 

(= Mitau), 1775. 
J. C. Wernsdorf: In Poetae latiiii miiiores I. Alten- 

burg, 1780. 
R. Stern : Gratii et Nemesiani carmiiia veiiatica . . . 

Halle, 1832. 
M. Haupt : Ovidii Halieidica, Gratii et Nemesiani 

Cynegeiica. [Important as a critical edition.] 

Leipzig, 1838. 

E. Baehrens : In Poetae latini minores I. Leipzig, 

G. Curcio : In Poeti latini minori I. Acireale, 1902. 
J. P. Postgate : In Corpus poeianim latinorum II. 

London, 1905. 

F. VoUmer: In Poetae latini minores II. 1. Leipzig, 

P. J. Enk : Gratti Cynegeticon quae supersunt (cum 
proleg., not. crit., comm. exeget.). [A learned 
edition sho^v1ng genuine appreciation of 
Grattius.] Zutphen, 1918. 


Grati Falisci Cynegeticon, or a poem on hunting 
by Gratius the Faliscian, Englished and illus- 
trated by Chris. Wase, w. commendatory poem 
by Edmund Waller. London, 1654. 


Th. Birt : Ad historiam hexametri latini symhola, 
diss. Bonn, 1876. 



Fr. Buecheler : Coniectanea in Rhein. Mus. 35 (1880), 

p. 407 [defends spelling " Grattius "]. 
Robinson Ellis : Ad G?'attii Cyneg. in Philolog. 52 

H. Schenkl : Zur Kritik laid Ueherlief. des Grattius u. 

a?idere?i lateinischeii Dichter?i, Teubner [= Fleck. 

Jahrb. Suppl. xxiv. 1898 pp. 387-480). 
L. Radermacher : Interpretationes latinae in Rhein. 

Mus. 60 (1905), pp. 246-49. 
G. Pierleoni : Fu poeta Grattius? in Riv. Jil. 1906, 

pp. 580-97. [A depreciatory criticism on 

Grattius' style, answered by P. J. Enk in the 

Prolegomena to his edition.] 
F. \^ollmer : art. Grattius in Pauly-Wissowa, Real- 

J. Herter: Grattianum in Rhein. Mus. (N. F. 78), 

1929, pp. 361-70. 
A. J. Butler : Sport in Classic Times. London, 1930. 

[A fuller list is given in P. J. Enk's edn., 1918.] 


A = codex Vindobonensis lat. 277 : saec. ix. 

B = ex A descriptus : " Parisinus lat. 8071 : saec. ix. 

Sann.^ emendationes factae a Giacomo Sannazaro 

in apographis quae extant in codice Mndob. 

lat. 277 fol. 74-83 et in codice Vindob. lat. 

3261 fol. 43-72. 
Ald.^ editio princeps, anno 1534 a Georgio de 

Logau curata. 

" L. Traube, in Berlin, philol. Wochenschriff, 1896, p. 1050. 
As a copy of A, B does not give independent evidence. It 
contains lines 1-159. 





Dona cano divom, laetas venantibus artis, 
auspicio, Diana, tuo. prius omnis in armis 
spes fuit et nuda silvas virtute movebant 
inconsulti homines \dtaque erat error in omni. 
post alia propiore via meliusque profecti 
te sociam, Ratio, rebus sumpsere gerendis. 
hinc omne auxilium vitae rectusque reluxit 
ordo et contiguas didicere ex artibus artis 
proserere, hinc demens cecidit violentia retro, 
sed primum auspicium deus artibus altaque circa 
firmamenta dedit ; turn partis quisque secutus 
exegere suas tetigitque industria finem. 

2 inermis Barth {in not. " forte legend.") : in armis A. 



Under thine auspices, Diana, do I chant the drifts 
of the gods " — the skill that has made the huntersglad. 
Erstwhile their sole hope lay in their weapons : ^ men 
untrained stirred the woods with prowess unaided by 
skill : •" mistakes beset life everywhere. Afterwards, 
by another and a more fitting way,*^ with better 
schooling they took thee, Reason, to aid their enter- 
prises. From Reason came all their help in life : the 
true order of things shone forth : men learned out of 
arts to produce kindi'ed arts : from Reason came the 
undoing of mad violence. But 'twas a divinity who 
gave the first favouring impulse to the arts, putting 
around them their deep-set props : then did every 
man work out the portions of his choice, and industry 

" Like Xenophon or the pseudo-Xenophon, Cyn. ad init. 
10 fj.'kv frprifua deiy k T.A.. , Grattius claims a diviiie origin for 

* Good sense is got without taking armis from armi, 
" members," as Vollmer does with Barth, Burman and others. 
A. E. Housman, CI. Rev. U (1900), 465-66, and P. J. Enk, in 
his edn. 1918, take armis from arma. 

" Xuda virtute : rf. 153 nudo marte contrasted with ex 

^ i.e. by training they attained to a more convenient and 
suitable method (via) than the old haphazard hunting. For 
sense of propior cf. Cic. ad Alt. XIV. xix., }ios alium port tun 
propiorem huic aetati videbamus. 




tu trepidam bello vitam, Diana, ferino, 

qua primam quaerebat opem, dignata repertis 

protegere auxiliis orbemque hac solvere noxa. 

adscivere tuo coniites sub nomine divae 

centum : omnes nemiorum, umentes de fontibus 

Naides, et Latii (satyi'i) Faunus<que subibant) 
Maenaliusque puer domitrixque Idaea leonum 
mater et inculto Silvanus termite gaudens. 
his ego praesidibus nostram defendere sortem 
contra mille feras et non sine carmine iussus, 
carmine et arma dabo et venandi persequar artis. 

armorum casses plagiique exordia restes. 
prima iubent tenui nascentem iungere filo 
limbum et quadruplicis tormento adstringere limbos : 

1" gentem Badermacher, Schenkl, Vollmer: centem A: 
mentem Haupt : centum B ex. corr., Postgate, Enk. 

1* sic Enk : Faunusque subibat Vollmer in not. : iuvabant 
vel favebant Herter : Latii cult or qui Faunus amoeni Aid. 

^^ lusus A : nisus Ulitius : iussus Graevius. post v. 23 vid- 
ervtiir VoUmero restituendi vv. 61-74. 

23 et venandi A : venanti et Ulitius. cf. Ov. ex Pordo IV. 
xvi. 34 cum . . . aptaque venanti Grattius arma daret. 

^* plagii sic A {vocabidum a plaga formatum). exordia restes 
Vollmer : exordiar estis A : exordiar astus Aid. et vulgo. 



attained its fro:i\. Tlie life that was imperilled hy 
warfare against wild beasts, where most it needed 
help, thou, Diana, didst deign to shield with aids of 
thy discovery, and to free the world from harm so 
great. Under thy name the goddesses joined to 
them a hundred comrades : " all the nymphs of the 
groves, all the Naiads dripping from the springs, 
and Latium's satyrs and the Faun-god came in sup- 
port ; Pan, too, the youth of the Arcadian mount, 
and the Idaean Mother, Cybele, who tames the 
lions, and Silvanus rejoicing in the wilding bough. 
I by these guardians ordained — and not without 
song — to defend our human lot against a thousand 
beasts, with song too will furnish weapons and pursue 
the arts of the chase. 

The beginning of hunting equipment consists in 
nets and the ropes of the snare.'^ First of all, experts 
prescribe that the rope along the edge of the 
net be twined, at the start, of thin thread and then 
fourfold strands be drawn tight to form the twist ; '^ 

" Herter, Rhein. Mus., 78 (1929), p. 366, takes centum with 

* With lines 24-60, 75-94, on hunting-nets, cf. Xen. Cyn. ii. 
3-8 ; Arrian, Cyn. 1 ; Pollux, Onomast. V. 26-32; Oppian, Cyn. 
1. 150-51 ; Xemes. Cyn. 299 sqq. The Latin rete {d.KTuov) means 
net in general, or specifically a large "haj^"; plaga {^voZiov) 
means a net placed in the known run or track of the game ; 
cassis [iipKiis) means a funnel-shaped net resembling, accord- 
ing to Pollux, a KeKpvcpaXos {reikuluui) — Avhich may be applied 
either to a network cap for the hair or to the bag-shaped 
reticule, pouch or belly of a hunting-net. 

"^ Li tabus, the rope along the edge of the net, corresponds 
to the Tovo? in Xen. Cyn. x. 2, Pollux V. 27. Grattius uses 
limhi, the plural, for the fila linea out of which the litnhus is 
made {Limbns yrandis et capitalis linea ilia est cvi minores 
litnhi quadrangulo sinuamine circurnstringuntur, Barth). 



ilia operum patiens, ilia usus linea longi. 
tunc ipsum e medio cassem quo nascitur ore 
per senos circum usque sinus laqueabis, ut omni 
concipiat tergo, si quisquam est plurimus, hostem. 
at bis vicenos spatium praetendere passus 
rete velim plenisque decern consurgere nodis ; 
ingrati maiora sinus impendia sument. 

optima Cinyphiae, ne quid cunctere, paludes 
lina dabunt ; bonus Aeolia de valle Sibyllae 
fetus et aprico Tuscorum stuppea campo 
messis contiguum sorbens de flumine rorem, 
qua cultor Latii per opaca silentia Thybris 
labitur inque sinus magno venit ore marinos, 
at contra nostris imbellia lina Faliscis 
Hispanique alio spectantur Saetabes usu. 
vix operata suo sacra ad Bubastia lino 
velatur sonipes aestivi turba Canopi : 
ipse in materia damnosus candor inerti 
ostendit longe fraudem atque exterruit hostis. 
at pauper rigid custos Alabandius horti 
cannabi<(n)as nutrit silvas, quam commoda nostro 
armamenta operi. gravis {est)> tutela, sed illis 
tu licet Haemonios includas retibus ursos. 
tantum ne subeat vitiorum pessimus umor 

» Ingrati is predicative : " Thankless {i.e. profitless) wil 
be the nets that demand greater expense." 




that makes a length to stand its work; that will 
serve many a day. The snare itself, at the central 
mouth which it has when being made, you must 
entangle all round with six pouches so that in the 
whole cavity it may catch the savage quarry, how- 
ever big he is. But I should have the whole net 
extend forty paces in length and rise ten full meshes 
in height from the ground. Nets likely to cost more 
outlay are unremunerative." 

The Cinyphian marshes,^ doubt it not, \vi\\ yield 
excellent thread-material ; there is fine produce from 
the Aeolian valley ^ of the Sibyl, and there is the 
flax harvest on the sunny Tuscan meadow drinking 
in the neighbouring moisture from the river, where 
Tiber that fertilises Latium glides through the shady 
silences and meets with mighty mouth the gulfs 
of the sea. But on the other hand om- Falerians 
have flax-crops unfit for conflict, and (those of) 
the Spanish Saetabes are tested by a different 
use.*^ The dancing crowds of sultry Canopus ^ are 
scarcely veiled by their transparent native linen when 
sacrificing in the ritual at Bubastis : its very white- 
ness, ruinous in a material useless for nets, reveals 
the deceit afar off and frightens away the beasts. 
Yet the poor guardian of a well-watered estate at 
Alabanda/ can rear a growth of hemp, right fitting 
equipment for this task of ours. Burdensome is 
the care needed, but you may entrap within such 
toils the bears of Thessaly. Only, first take pains 
that no moisture, worst of plagues, steal thereon: 


* In North Africa between the two Syrtcs. 

*■ At Cumae on the Bay of Naples. 

** i.e. are unsuitable for nets. 

' In Egypt. In Caria, Asia Minor. 



ante cave : non est umentibus usus in armis, 
nulla fides, ergo seu pressa fluniina valle 
inter opus crassaeque malum fecere paludes 
sive improvisus caelo perfuderit imber, 
ilia vel ad flatus Helices oppande serenae 
vel caligineo laxanda reponite fumo. 
idcirco et primas linorum tangere messes 
ante vetant quam maturis accenderit annum 
ignibus et claro Plias se prompserit ortu. 
imbiberint : tanto respondet longior usus. 

magmmi opus et tangi, nisi cura vincitur, impar. 
nonne vides veterum quos prodit fabula rerum 
semideos — illi aggeribus temptare superbis 
caeli iter et matres ausi <(a)ttrectare deorum — 
quam magna mercede meo sine munere silvas 
impulerint ? flet adhuc et porro flebit Adonin 
victa Venus ceciditque suis Ancaeus in armis 
(et praedexter erat geminisque securibus ingens). 
ipse deus cultorque feri Tirynthius orbis, 

^^ clausaeque Barth : causaeque A : crassaeque SaJin.^, Aid. 

^^ prompserit Sann. : promiserit A. 

*" imbiberit A : -int Burman. 

^* Jr& fr&a {sic = iret freta contra metrum) A : ire freta 
et Ulitius, Johnson, Stern et alii: aethera turn Heinsius : 
aethera et ad Haupt : sidera et ad (ad cu77i treetare per tmesin) 
Vollmer : caeli iter et Enk. : ausi Heinsius : ausit A. treetare 
A : tractare Sann. : <a)>ttrectare Heinsius. 



in damp e(jiiipment there is no use, no dependence. 
Therefore, whether streams in a narrow valley and 
sluggish swamps have Avrought harm amid the 
hunter's task, or unforeseen rain from heaven shall 
have drenched the nets, either unfold them to face 
the northern breezes of serene Helice" or set them 
in murky smoke to slacken. For such reasons too 
it is forbidden to touch the first crops of flax before 
the Pleiad '' has kindled the year with ripening fires 
and appeared in its brilliant rising. If nets drink 
in breeze or smoke,'' their longer service answers 

The chase is a mighty task, unfit to be handled, 
save it is mastered by pains.'^ Do you not see 
the demigods whom old mythic lore records (they 
dared on proud-piled mountains to essay the way 
to heaven ^ and assault the mothers of the gods) 
— at what mighty cost they hunted the wood- 
lands without the boon of my teaching ? Venus, 
baffled, still weeps and long wiW weep Adonis : 
Ancaeus/ fell, arms in hand (yet was he right skilful 
and imposing with the double axe). The god him- 
self, he of Tiryns, who civilised a barbarous world, 

" Ursa Major. 

* Summer began with the rising of the constellation of the 
Seven Pleiades (Lat. Vergiliae), and winter with their setting. 

' i.e. si Una imbiberint flatus velfumum : cf. 55-56. 

'^ Lines 61-74 are by some editors transposed to follow 
either 23 or 24. 

' Unsatisfying attempts have been made to read irefreta and 
explain it as applicable either to the giants traversing the 
ocean of the sky in their attack on heaven or even to the 
Argonauts crossing the sea, which is Curcio's strange sugges- 

^ A son of Neptune and an Argonaut, who, like Adonis, 
was killed by a boar. 


quern mare, quern tellus, quern praeceps ianua Ditis 
omnia temptantem, qua laus erat obvia, passa est, 
hinc decus et famae primum impetravit honorem. 
exige, si qua meis respondet ab artibus, ergo, 
gratia quae vires fallat collata ferinas. 

sunt quibus immundo decerptae vulture plumae 
instrumentum operis fuit et non parva facultas. 
tantum inter nivei iungantur vellera cygni, 
et satis armorum est. haec clara luce coruscant 
terribiles species, at vulture dirus ab atro 
turbat odor silvas meliusque alterna valet res. 
sed quam clara tuis et pinguis pluma sub armis, 
tam mollis tactu et non sit creberrima nexu, 
ne reprensa suis properantem linea pennis 
implicet atque ipso mendosa coarguat usu. 
hie magis in cervos valuit metus ; ast ubi lentae 
interdum Libyco fucantur sandyce pennae 
linteaque expositis lucent anconibus arma, 
rarum si qua metus eludet belua falsos. 
nam fuit et laqueis aliquis curracibus usus : 

'1 ohvia Sann.: obula A. passiA, VoUmer: ipassa. est Haupf . 


to whom sea «ind earth and the sheer gateway of 
Phito yielded as he essayed all things where glory's 
path lay open, even he (Hercules) won from the chase 
the chiefest ornament and honour of his fame. 
Consider, then, what benefit, derived from the arts 
I treat, can trick the strong beasts when matched 
against them. 

Some hunters have found in plumes plucked from 
the filthy vulture a handy means of working and no 
slight help. Only, at intervals along the line there 
must be added the down of the snow-white swan, 
and that is implement enough : the white feathers 
glitter in clear sunlight, formidable appearances for 
game,^' whereas the dread stench from the black 
vulture disturbs the forest-creatures ; and the contrast 
of colour works the better effect. But, while the 
plumage hanging from your device has its bright 
gleam or heavy scent, let it be at the same time soft 
to handle and not very closely entwined, so that the 
cord when pulled in will not entangle you with its 
feathers in your hurry and by its faultiness convict 
you in the very using. This device of terror has more 
use against stags ; but when the pliant feathers are 
sometimes dyed with African vermilion and the 
flaxen cord gleams from its projecting forks,'' it is 
rare for any beast to escape the counterfeit terrors. 
Yes, and there is also some use in " running " 

" The linea pinnis distincta intended to drive game into 
snares was called a "formido" {of. metus, 85); Sen. Dial. iv. 
11.5; PA^erfm 46-48 ; Virg. 6'. III. 372; Lucan IV. 437-38. 

* The ancon {ayi<u)v) was a forked pole on which to spread 
nets. A pure Latin term for a similar trestle was the ames 
of Hor. Ejpod. ii. 33 : cf. varae, Lucan, Phars. IV. 439 ; and 
in Greek crTdkiKes, araKiSfs, or crxaXiSes; Xen. Cyn. ii. 7, 
Oppian, Cyn. I. 151. 




cervino iussere magis contexere nervo ; 
fraus teget insidias habitu mentita ferino. 
quid qui dentatas iligno robore clausit 
venator pedicas ? quam dissimulantibus armis 
saepe habet imprudens alieni lucra laboris ! 

o felix; tantis quern primum industria rebus 
prodidit auctorem I deus ille an proxima divos 
mens fuit, in caecas aciem quae magna tenebras 
egit et ignarum perfudit lumine vulgus ? 
die age Pierio, fas est, Diana, ministro. 
Arcadimii stat fama senem, quem Maenalus auctor 
et Lacedaemoniae primum vidistis Amyclae 
per non adsuetas metantem retia valles 
Dercylon. haut illo quisquam se iustior egit, 
haut fuit in terris divom observantior alter : 
ergo ilium primis nemorum dea finxit in arvis 
auctoremque operi digna{ta) inseribere magno 
iussit adire suas et pandere gentibus artes. 
ille etiam valido primus venabula dente 
induit et proni moderatus vulneris iram 
omne moris excepit onus ; tum stricta verutis 

^'^^ auctor A : altor Turnebus, Postgate. 
^"^ haud Sann. : aut A. 

^°* hau fuit Baekrens : au fuit A : aut (t dehta) fuit Paris. 

1 60 


nooses : " it is rcconiincndcd to compose these of 
deer's leather preferably : the deceit will cloak the 
snare through falsely suggesting a creature of the 
wild.'' What of the hunter who to his toothed 
springe adds an oaken stake ? How often, thanks to 
these tricksome devices, does one unexpectedly reap 
the fruit of another's toil ! '^ 

Fortunate the man whose industry made him first 
inventor of arts so great ! Was he a god or was that 
mind close kin to the gods which mightily sped its 
clear gaze into blind darkness and flooded the unin- 
structed crowd with light ? Come speak, Diana, 
for 'tis heaven's will, unto a servant of the Mases. 
The story stands secure that it was an old Arcadian 
whom you, Maenalus, his witness, and you, Lacedae- 
monian Amyclae, first saw laying out hunting-nets 
in unaccustomed vales — Dercylos his name. Never 
did man bear himself more justly than he : on earth 
there was no other more regardful of the gods. He 
then it was whom the goddess fashioned in primeval 
fields,'^ and deigning to inscribe him as author of a 
mighty work, she enjoined him to go and unfold her 
own arts to the nations. He was the first also to dress 
hunting-spears with a strong tooth, and, controlling 
the angry onslaught of a forward thrust, to receive 
all the (boar's) weight on projecting spear-guards.^ 

" Enk, pp. 36-38, has a full note on different interpretations 
of laquei curraces. 

* i.e. the cervinus iiermis wiU have the smell of the cervus. 

" An animal partly lamed or dragging with it the robur 
would be easily caught. 

^ Arcadia. 

' The term morae is applied to projecting metal alae or 
orfce.s- fixed behind the spear-head so as to hinder the spear 
from going too deeply into the beast. 


VOL. I. M 


dentibus et geniina subiere hastilia furca 

et quidam totis clauserunt ensibus <hastas), 

ne cessaret iners in vulnere massa ferino. 

blandinienta vagae fugies novitatis : ibidem 

exiguo nimiove nocent. sed lubricus errat 1 

mos et ab expertis festinant usibus omnes. 

quid, Macetum immensos libeat si dicere contos ? 

quani longa exigui spicant hastilia dentes ! 

aut contra ut tenero destrictas cortice virgas 

praegravat ingenti pernix Lucania cultro ! 1: 

omnia tela modi melius finxere salubres. 

quoeirca et iaculis habilem perpendimus usum, 

ne leve vulnus eat neu sit brevis impetus illi. 

ipsa arcu Lyeiaque suos Diana pharetra 

armavit comites : ne tela relinquite divae : 1: 

magnum opus et volueres quondam fecere sagittae. 

disce agedum et validis dilectum hastilibus omnem. 
plurima Threiciis nutritur vallibus Hebri 
cornus et umbrosae \ eneris per litora myrtus 
taxique pinusque Altinatesque genestae 1 

112 post ensibus nihil in A: orbes male add. Aid.: tortis 
. . . hastas //. Schenkl. 

11' dicere A : ducere Baekrens. 
12° praegravat Aid. : -av& A. 
123 neu leve A : ne leve Sann. 



Later, there succeeded to them ^veapons furnished 
with spit-Hke teeth and twofold fork, and some 
gave their spear-ends a rinc^ of sharp points to 
prevent the thick steel remaining inactive in the 
wounded quarry.'' You are to shun the allurements 
of fleeting novelty : in this same field of hunting they 
do harm by a small or excessive size of spear. But 
slippery fashion goes its wandering round, and all 
men are in liaste to discard usages which have been 
tried. What if I choose to speak of the enormous 
Macedonian pikes ? How long are the shafts and how 
small the teeth which furnish their spikes ! Or, on 
the other hand, how does nimble Lucania overload 
with a huge point thin rods stripped of their tender 
bark ! All weapons have been the better fashioned 
by healthy moderation. Wherefore for javelins 
too we weigh thoroughly their manageable handling, 
lest their wounding power speed lightly or the 
weapon's force fall short. '^ Diana herself armed her 
o\\-n comrades with bow and Lycian quiver : abandon 
ye not the weapons of the goddess : once on a day 
great work was WTOught by swift arrows. 

Now, moreover, learn the whole range of choice for 
strong spears. The cornel tree grows abundantly 
in the Thracian valleys of the Hebrus ; there are 
shady myrtles along the shores of Venus ; *^ there are 
yew trees and pines and the broom-plants of 
Altinum,'^ and the lopped bough more likely to help 

" The sharp points would make the wound worse. 

* Vulnus is used of the weapon which wounds in Virg. Aen. 
IX. 74.5, X. 140; Sil. Ital. I. 397; Val. Flacc. III. 197. llli 
sc, vulneri i.e. iacido. 

' i.e. in CVprus. 

"* On the Adriatic shore, not far from Vemce. 



et niagis incomptos opera iuturus agrestis 
termes. ab Eois descendit virga Sabaeis 
mater odorati multum pulcherrima turis : 
ilia suos usus intractatiimque deeorem 
(sic nenioruRi iussere deae) na.talibus hausit 
arbitriis ; at enim multo sunt ficta labore 
cetera quae silvis errant hastilia nostris : 
numquam sponte sua procerus ad aera termes 
exiit inque ipsa cm-vantur stirpe genestae. 
ergo age luxuriam primo fetusque nocentis 
detrahe : frondosas gravat indulgentia silvas. 
post ubi proceris generosa(m) stirpibus arbor 
se dederit teretisque ferent ad sidera \irgae, 
stringe notas circum et gemmantis exige versus. 
his, si quis \-itium nociturus sufficit umor, 
ulceribus fluet et venas durabit inertis. 
in quinos sublata pedes hastilia plena 
caede manu, dum pomiferis advertitur annus 
frondibus et tepidos autumnus continet imbres. 

sed cur exiguis tantos in partibus orbes J 

lustramus ? prima ilia canum, non ulla per artis 
cura prior, sive indomitos vehementior hostis 
nudo marte premas seu bellum ex arte ministres. 

^^^ in comptos A : in contos Johnson, opera A : superat 
Stern. lutores A : lotaster Johnson : iuturus Sudhaus. 
agstis (-st- ex -rt- corr.) A : agrestis Sann. 

^^^ avertitur Volbner : advertitur A. 



with its service the uncouth country-folk. From the 
Arabians in the East comes the branch that is far 
the fairest mother of fragrant frankincense : it draws 
from the hiws of its birth (so have the goddesses of 
the groves ordained) its own uses and its natural 
shapeHness ; but it is only with much toil that the other 
stems widely grown in our western woods are fashioned 
into spear-shafts. Never did bough of its own accord 
rise tall into the air ; and the broom curves even in 
its lower stem. Come, then, strip off at once the 
excessive growth and harmful branches : indulgence 
overloads trees with leaves. Later, when the tree 
proves its goodliness in its tall stems and the shapely 
branches tend starwards, cut round the places where 
suckers start and remove the rows of sprouting 
branches. If any sap of an injurious sort causes 
harm, it will flow out of these wounds and so harden 
the weak veins. When the shafts have risen to 
a height of five feet, cut them with full grasp, 
while the year approaches the season of fruit- 
laden leafage and autumn holds back the warm 

But why do we traverse these wide rounds amidst 
small details ? The foremost care is that of dogs ; " 
no other care comes before that throughout the whole 
system of hunting, whether you energetically 
pursue the untamed quarry with bare force or use 
skill to manage the conflict. Dogs belong to a 

" On dogs generally see Xen. Cyn. iii-iv, vii ; Aristotle, Hist. 
An. 574a 16 sqq. and passim; Arr. Cyn. 2 sqq.; Poll. Onom. 
V. .37 sqq.; Geoponica (lOth cent.) xix. 1 sqq.; Virg. G. III. 
404 sqq. ; Varro, Ji.R. II. 9 ; Piin. X.H. VIII. 142 sqq. ; Colum. 
B.R. VII. 12-13; Xernes. Cyn. 103 sqq.; Oppian, Cyn. I. 308- 
588; Claud. Stil. III. 298-301. 



mille canuni patriae ductique ab origine mores 
quoique sua. magna indocilis dat proelia Medus 
magnaqiie diversos extollit gloria Celt as. 
arma negant contra martemque odere Geloni, 
sed natura sagax : Perses in utroque paratus. 
sunt qui Seras alant, genus intractabilis irae ; 
at contra faciles magnique Lycaones armis. 
sed non Hyrcano satis est vehementia gentis 
tanta suae : petiere ultro fera semina siMs ; 
dat Venus accessus et blando foedere iungit. 
tunc et mansuetis tuto ferus errat adulter 
in stabulis ultroque gravem succedere tigrin 
ausa cards maiore tulit de sanguine fetum. 
sed praeceps \-irtus : ipsa venabitur aula 
ille tibi et pecudum multo cum sanguine crescet. 
pasce tamen : quaecumque domi sibi crimina fecit, 
excutiet silva magnus pugnator adepta. 
at fugit adversos idem quos repperit hostis 
Umber : quanta fides utinam et sollertia naris, 
tanta foret virtus et tantum vellet in armis ! 
quid, fret a si Morinum dubio refluentia pont<(o) 
veneris atque ipsos libeat penetrare Britanno^s) ? 

" i.e. the breeds are innumerable : cf. Oppian, Cy^. I. 400, 
TO Se jJLVpla (pv\a ireKovTai. 

* A Sarmatian tribe in the region of the modem Ukraine. 

'^ In pugnacity and sagacity. 

^ Or, possibly, Tibetan. 

" British dogs were, Strabo tells us, IV. v. 2 (C 199), ex- 
ported as eixpuels irphs ras Kvurjyeaias. Cf. Nemes. 225, divisa 



thousand hinds " and they each have characteristics 
derived from their origin. The Median dog, thouirh 
undiscipHned, is a great fighter, and great glory 
exalts the fiir-distant Celtic dogs. Those of the 
Geloni,^ on the other hand, shirk a combat and dis- 
like fighting, but they have wise instincts : the 
Persian is quick in both respects/ Some rear 
Chinese'^ dogs, a breed of unmanageable ferocity; 
but the Lycaonians, on the other hand, are easy- 
tempered and big in limb. The Hyrcanian dog, 
however, is not content with all the energy belonging 
to his stock : the females of their own M'ill seek unions 
with wild beasts in the woods : \'^enus grants them 
meetings and joins them in the alliance of love. 
Then the savage paramour wanders safely amid the 
pens of tame cattle, and the bitch, freely daring to 
approach the formidable tiger, produces offspring of 
nobler blood. The whelp, however, has headlong 
courage : you will find him a-hunting in the very yard 
and growing at the expense of much of the cattle's 
blood. Still you should rear him: whatever enorm- 
ities he has placed to his charge at home, he will 
obliterate them as a mighty combatant on gaining 
the forest. But that same Umbrian dog which has 
tracked wild beasts flees from facing them. Would 
that with his fidelity and shrewdness in scent he 
could have corresponding courage and corresponding 
will-power in the conflict ! What if you visit the 
straits of the Morini, tide-swept by a wayward sea, 
and choose to penetrate even among the Britons ? ^ 

Brilatmin mittit Veloces nostrique orbis venntibus aptos : Claud. 
Stil. III. 301, mngnaqiLe taurorum fracturae colla Britaiinac. 
The Morini were northern Gauls whose chief town Gesoriacum 
became Bononia (i3oulognc). 



o quanta est merces et quantum impendia supra ! 

si non ad speciem mentiturosque decores 

pronus es (haec una est catulis iactura Britannis), 

at magnum cum venit opus promendaque virtus 

et vocat extreme praeceps discrimine Mavors : 1^ 

non tunc egregios tantum admirere Mol<(os)s<os). 

comparat hxis versuta suas Athamania <(gentes)> 

Azorusque Pheraeque et clandestinus Acar<nan) : 

sicut Acarnanes subierunt proelia furto, 

sic canis ilia suos taciturna supervenit hostis. 15 

at clangore citat quos nondum conspicit apros 

Aetola quaecumque canis de stirpe : malignum 

officium, sive ilia metus con\dcia rupit 

seu frustra nimius properat favor, et tamen ill<(ud) 

ne vanum totas genus pcspernere per artis : 19 

mirum quam celeres et quantum nare merentur, 

turn non est victi quoi concessere labori. 

idcirco variis miscebo gentibus usum ; 

quondam inconsultis mater dabit Umbrica Gallis 

^■^8 pronis {ut sit principiian parenthesi) Vollmer : pronuis 
A, Postgate, ana^ iipvfj-^vov : pronus es H. SchenJcl : protinus 
Sann. et vulgo, extra jMrenthe^iyi. 

1^2 jinis versus periit in A : fraudes add. AM. : gentes 

^^^ Azorusque Wernsdorf : Acirusque A. 

^^^ furor A, Burm., Wernsdorf, Stern: favor Grojiov, John- 
son : cf. 230 favore, 240 faventem. 



O how great your reward, how great your gain 
beyond any outlays ! If you are not bent on looks 
and deceptive graces (this is the one defect of the 
British whelps), at any rate when serious Avork has 
come, when bravery must be shown, and the impetuous 
War-god calls in the utmost hazard, then you could 
not admire the renoA\Tied Molossians" so much. 
With these last * cunning Athamania compares her 
breeds ; as also do Azorus, Pherae and the furtive 
Acarnanian : just as the men of Acarnania steal 
secretly into battle, so does the bitch surprise her 
foes without a sound. But any bitch of Aetolian 
pedigree rouses ^vith her yelps the boars which she 
does not yet see — a mischievous service, whether 
it is that fear makes these savage sounds break out 
or excessive eagerness speeds on uselessly. And 
yet you must not despise that breed as useless in all 
the accomplishments of the chase : they are marvel- 
lously quick, marvellously efficient in scent ; besides, 
there is no toil to which they yield defeated. Con- 
sequently, I shall cross the advantages of different 
breeds : — one day an Umbrian mother will give to 
the unskilled Gallic pups '^ a smart disposition ; 

" Molossian dogs are frequently mentioned in ancient 
literature: e.g. An&to^h.. Thesm. 4:\Q', Poll. V. 37; 0pp. C'yn. 
I. 375; Plaut. Capt. 86; Luer. V. 1063; Virg. G. III. 405; 
Hor. Epod. vi. 5 ; Sat. II. vi. 114 : Luean IV. 440 ; Sen. Phaedra, 
33; Stat. Theh. III. 203, Silv. II. vi. 19; Ach. I. 747; Mart. 
XII. i. 1; Claud. Stil. II. 215, III. 293; Xem. Cyn. 107. 

* It seems appropriate to take his of Molossian dogs rather 
than of British, as the proper names refer to neighboui'ing 
districts of Epirus, Thessaly, Aetolia and Acarnania. Atha- 
mania is a district in Epirus near the Pindus range. 

•■ Cf. the qualities suggested in 171-73, and 156. " Galhc " 
in 194 may mean " Galatian" : see Introduction. 



sensum agilem, traxere animos de patre Gelonae 

Hyrcano et vanae tantum Calydonia linguae 

exibit vitium patre emendata Molosso. 

scilicet ex omiii florem virtute capessunt 

et sequitur natura favens. at te leve si qua 

ta<(n)>git opus pavidosque iuvat compellere dorcas 

aut versuta sequi leporis vestigia parvi, 

Petronios (haec fama) canes volucresque Sycambros 

et pictam macula Vertraham delige flava : 

ocior affectu mentis pennaque cucurrit, 

sed premit inventas, non inventura latentis 

ilia feras, quae Petroniis bene gloria constat. 

quod si maturo pressantes gaudia lusu 

dissimulare feras tacitique accedere possent, 

illis omne decus, quod nunc, metagontes, habetis, 

constaret : silva sed virtus irrita damno est. 

at vestrum non vile genus, non patria. vulgo 

1^^ tantum A : natum Stern. 

2^2 cani Ilaupt : cana A : Petroniost haec fama cani VoUmer. 
203 vertraham sic A : cf. Mart. XIV. cc. falsa A : flava 
vel fulva Johnson. 

21° ante silva primus distinxit Baehrens. 



})U})pics of a Gelonian mother have drawn spirit 
from a Hyrcanian sire ; " and Calydonia,'' good only 
at pointless barking, will lose the defect when im- 
proved by a sire from Molossis. In truth, the off- 
spring cull the best from all the excellence of the 
parents, and kindly nature attends them. But 
if in any wise a light sort of hunting captivates you, 
if your taste is to hunt the timid antelope or to follow 
the intricate tracks of the smaller hare, then you 
should choose Petronian <^ dogs (such is their reputa- 
tion) and swift Sycambrians ^ and the \'ertraha ^ 
coloured with yellow spots — swifter than thought or a 
winged bird it runs, pressing hard on the beasts it 
has found, though less likely to find them when they 
lie hidden ; this last is the well-assured glory of the 
Petronians. If only the latter could restrain their 
transports until the completion of their sport, if they 
could affect not to be aware of their prey and approach 
without barking, they would be assured all the honour 
which you dogs of the metagon f breed now hold : 
as it is, in the forest ineffectual spirit means loss. 
But you metagontes have no ignoble pedigree or home. 

" Cf. 157-58 and 101-63. 

* i.e. Aetolia : cf. 186-92. 

« Petroni : possibly dogs workable on stony ground (petra). 
^ Sycamhri, a tribe of VVestern Germany near the Rhine. 

* Perhaps Vertagra : cf. Italian veltro, a greyhound. 
MSS. of Martial, XIV. cc. 1 give the forms yer/mc^^s, vertdgu.s, 
vetrdgus. The word seems to be Celtic : Arrian, Cyneg. 3. 6, 
al Se irohwKiis Kvves at KeKriKal KaKovvrai jxkv oueprpayoi (pvvri 
TTj K6\Ta;f ... It has sometimes been explained as a 
"tumbler" dog that inveigled game by rolling himself into a 
heap to disguise his appearance. 

^ The fiirdycov is mentioned only by Grattius. Burman 
suggested the word implied the tracking of game : Ulitius 
and Curcio take it of the cross-breediiig of the dog. 



Sparta suos et Creta suos promittit alumnos : 

sed primum celsa lorum cervice ferentem, 

Glympice, te silvis egit Boeotius Hagnon, 

Hagnon Astylides, Hagnon. quern plurima semper 1 

gratia per nostros unum testabitur usus. 

hie trepidas artis et vix no\itate sedentes 

vidit qua propior peteret via nee sibi turbam 

contraxit comitem nee vasa tenentia longe : 

unus praesidium atque operi spes magna petito ' 

adsumptus metagon lustrat per nota ferarum 

pascua, per fontes, per quas trivere latebras. 

primae lucis opus : turn signa vapore ferino 

intemerata legens si qua est qua fallitur eius 

turba loci, maiore secat spatia extera gyro ; i 

atque hie egressu iam tum sine fraude reperto 

incubuit, spatiis qualis permissa Lechaeis 

Thessalium quadriga decus, quam gloria patrum 

excitat et primae spes ambitiosa coronae. 

sed ne qua ex nimio redeat iactura favore, S 

2^2 Sparta suos A : Sparte vos Baehrens : Sparte quos 
H. Schenkl. 

2^^ peteret viam A : patuit via Aid. : ferret via Baehrens. 



Sparta," by common report, and Crete'' alike claim 
you iis their own nurslino:s. But, Glympic '^ hound, 
you were the first to wear leash on high-poised neck 
and he that followed you in the forest was the Boeotian 
Hagnon, Hagnon son of Astylos, Hagnon, to whom our 
abundant gratitude shall bear witness as pre-eminent 
in our practice of the chase. He saw where the 
easier road lay to a calling as yet nervously timorous 
and owing to its newness scarce established : he 
brought together no band of followers or implements 
in long array : his single metagon was taken as his 
guard, as the high promise of the longed-for spoil ; 
it roams across the fields which are the haunts 
of beasts, over the wells and through the lurking- 
places frequented by them. 'Tis the work of early 
dawn : then, while the dog is picking out the trail 
as yet unspoiled by another animal's scent, if there 
is any confusion of tracks in that place whereby he 
is thrown off, he runs an outside course in a wider 
circle and, at last discovering beyond mistake the 
footprints coming out, pounces on the track like the 
fourfold team, the pride of Thessaly, which is launched 
forth on the Corinthianrace-com'se, stirred by ancestral 
glory and by hopes covetous of the first prize. But 
lest loss be the outcome of excessive zeal, the dog's 

" For Spartan or Lacedaemonian dogs cf. Soph. Aj. 8; 
Xen. Cyn. ui. 1; 0pp. Cyn. I. 372; Pollux, V. 37; Virg. G. 
III. 405; Hor. Ejiod. vi. 5; Ov. Met. III. 208, 223; Sen. 
Phaedra, 35; Luean, IV. 441 ; Claud. Stil. III. 300 {tenuesque 
Lacaenae) ; Xemes. Cyn. 107, etc. 

* For Cretan dogs cf. Xen. Cyn. x. 1; Poll. V. 37; 0pp. 
Cyn. I. 373; Ov. J/e/. III. 208, 223 ; Sen. Phaedra, Si; Claud. 
Stil. III. 300 {hirsutae Cressae), etc. 

' The reference is to a locality on the Ai'givc and Laconian 



lex dicta officiis : neu voce lacesseret hostem 

neve levem praedam aut propioris pignora lucri 

amplexus primos nequiquam efFunderet actus ; 

iam vero impensum melior fortuna laborem 

cum sequitur iuxtaque domus quaesita ferarum, 21 

et sciat occultos et sigiiis arguat hostes : 

aut eiFecta levi testatur gaudia cauda 

aut ipsa infodiens uncis vestigia plantis 

mandit humum celsisve apprensat naribus auras. 

et tamen, ut ne prima faventem pignora fallant, 24 

circum omnem aspretis medius qua clauditur orbits) 

ferre pedem accessusque abitusque notare ferarum 

admonet et, si forte loco spes prima fefellit, 

rusum opus incubuit spatiis ; at, prospera si res, 

intacto repetet prima ad vestigia gyro. 24 

ergo ubi plena suo rediit victoria fine, 

in partem praedae veniat comes et sua norit 

praemia : sic operi iuvet inservisse benigne. 

hoc ingens meritum, haec ultima palma tropae<(i)>, 
Hagnon magne, tibi divom concessa favore : 2a 

233 offenderet A, Vollmer : efEunderet Johnson, vulgo. 

236 & sciat A : ut sciat Sann. 

2*" faventem (= studiosum, cf. v. 230). 

2*1 orbis Sann. : orbi A : orbem Baehrens. 



(lilt it's are regulated", he must not asscail his foe with 
barking ; " he must not seize on some trivial prey or 
on signs of a nearer catch and so blindly lose the 
fruit of his first activities. When, however, better 
fi)rtunc already attends the outlay of toil, and the 
sought-for lair of the wild beasts is near, he must 
both know his enemies are hidden and prove this 
by signs : either he shows his new-won pleasure by 
lightly wagging the tail, or, digging in his own foot- 
prints with the nails of his paws, he gnaws the soil 
and sniffs the air with nostrils raised high. And 
yet to prevent the first signs from misleading the 
dog in his keenness, the hunter bids him run all 
about the inner space encircled by rough ground 
and nose the paths by which the beasts come and go ; 
then, if it happens that the first expectation has 
failed him in the place, ^ he turns again to his task in 
wide coursings ; but, if the scent was right, he will 
make for the first trail again as the quarry has not 
crossed the circle. Therefore, when full success has 
arrived with its proper issue, the dog must come as 
comrade to share the prey and must recognise his 
own reward : thus let it be a delight to have given 
ungrudging service to the work. 

Such was the mighty benefit, such the surpassing 
prize of triumph granted to thee, great Hagnon, by 
favour of the gods : so shalt thou live for ever, as long 

" Cf. Lucan, Phars. IV. 441, nee crediiur ulli Silva cani 
nisi qui presso vestigia rostro Colligit et praeda nescit latrare 
reperta, and Pliny's description of the silent tracking of game, 
y.H. \lll. 147, quam silens et occulta sed quani significans 
demonMratio est cauda primum deinde rostro. 

* i.e. if the animal has already escaped and is no longer 
lying hidden there. 


ergo semper eris, dum carniina dimique manebunt 
silvarum dotes atque arma Diania terris. 

hie et semiferam thoimi de sanguine prolem 
finxit. non alio maior sub pectore virtus, 
sive in lora voces seu nudi ad pignora martis. 2.' 

thoes commissos (clarissima fama) leones 
et subiere astu et parvis domuere lacertis ; 
nam genus exiguum et pudeat, quam informe. fateri ; 
vulpina species : tamen huic exacta voluntas, 
at non est alius quern tanta ad munia fetus 26 

exercere velis, aut te tua culpa refellet 
inter opus, quo sera cadit prudentia damno. 

iunge pares ergo et maiorum pignore signa 
feturam prodantque tibi metagonta parentes, 
qui genuere sua pecus hoc immane iuventa. 26 

et primum expertos animi, quae gratia prima est, 
in venerem iungam. tum sortis cura secunda, 
ne renuat species aut quern detractet honorem. 
sint celsi vultus, sint hirtae frontibus aures, 
OS magnum et patulis agitatos naribus ignes 27' 

Spirent, adstricti succingant ilia ventres, 
Cauda bre\-is longumque latus discretaque collo 

2=5 lora Ellis : ora A. 
2^2 quom Gronov : quo A. 
2^5 tenuere A : genuere Gesner. 

268 aut quern Baehrens : atque A : aut quae Aid. : aut 
qua Barth. 



as my soiifjs shall last, as long as the woods keep 
their treasures and Diana's weapons abide on earth. 

'Twas he too who developed a species with a wild 
strain from the blood of tlie t/ioes.^ Beneath no 
other breast is there hi(]^her couras^e, whether you 
call them to the leash or to the test of open conflict. 
The tkoes (their reputation is famous) can steal 
craftily on lions pitted against them '^ and overcome 
them with their short legs ; for it is a small-sized 
breed, and one may scruple to o\m"i how ugly : it 
has a fox-like look : still its resolution is perfect. 
But there is no other breed which you could wish to 
train for tasks so important ; or else your own mistake 
v,i\\ find you out in the hunt when loss of game 
makes late-learned wisdom vain. 

Now then couple well-matched mates '^ and mark 
the offspring with the pledge of their pedigree, 
letting the parents who produce this wonderful 
progeny in the vigour of their youth yield you a 
fine metag07i. First I shall mate dogs tried in courage, 
the foremost quality : the next care in the apportion- 
ment is that outv.ard appearance shall not belie 
descent or lower any of its merits. They should 
have the face high, they should have shaggy ears by 
their foreheads, the mouth big, and they should 
breathe fiery blasts from wide nostrils ; a neat belly 
should gird their flanks below; tail should be short 
and sides long, hair parted on the neck, and that 

" The eojis of Oppian, Cyneg. III. 336-38, are jackals 
sprung from a union of wolves with leopards. The du:s of 
Aristotle is perhaps rather a civet than a jackal. Pliny, 
X.H. Vm. 123, mentions ihoes as a kind of wolf. 

* e.g. in the public games at Rome. 

* For the mating of dogs, with 263 sqq. cf. Xcmesianus, 
Cy7i. 1U3 ^qq.; Oppian, Cyn. I. 376 sqq. 




caesaries neu pexa iiiniis neu frigoris ilia 
impatiens ; validis turn surga,t pectus ab armis, 
quod niagnos capiat motus magnisque supersit. 
efFuge qui lata pandit vestigia planta : 
mollis in officio, siccis ego dura lacertis 
crura velim et solidos haec in certamina calces. 

sed frustra longus properat labor, abdita si non 
altas in latebras unique inclusa marito <^est) 
femina : nee patres veneris sub tempore magnos 
ilia neque emeritae servat fastigia laudis. 
primi complexus, dulcissima prima voluptas : 
hunc veneri dedit impatiens natura furorem. 
si tenuit custos et mater adult era non est, 
da requiem gravidae solitosque remitte labores : 
vix oneri super ilia suo. tum deinde monebo, 
ne matrem indocilis natorum turba fatiget, 
percensere notis iamque inde excernere pravos. 
signa dabunt ipsi. teneris vix artubus haeret 
ille tuos olim non defecturus honores, 
iamque ilium impatiens aequae vehementia sortis 
extulit : afFectat materna regna sub alvo, 
ubera tota tenet, a tergo liber aperto. 

28" in latebras Sann. : illecebras A. est add. Lachmann. 

281 patres Sann. : patre A. 

285 custos A : castus Ellis : fastus Lachmann : renuit 
cunctos Pith., Burm. 

28^ pravos Burman : parvos A. 

2^^ tenet, a tergo s : ten& eatergo A : tenetque a tergo 


neitlier too shasrgy nor yet unable to stand cold; 
and then from strong limbs " must rise a breast 
capable of drawing deep breaths, and with strength 
left for more. Avoid the dog that spreads his steps 
with a broad foot : he is weak in hunting-duty. I 
should want hardy legs with firm muscles and I 
sliould want solid feet for such struggles. 

But zealous and prolonged trouble is all in vain unless 
the bitch is shut up in some deep retreat and secluded 
for a single male : otherwise she cannot at the time of 
coupling maintain unspoilt the pedigree of a fine 
sire or the pitch of past distinction won. The first 
unions, the first pleasure is sv.eetest : such frenzy 
has uncontrolled nature given to love. If the attend- 
ant has kept her shut up and the pregnant bitch has 
no unions with other dogs, ^ give her rest and remit 
her usual tasks : she is barely sufficient for her own 
burden. Then later I shall suggest, to prevent an 
unruly litter of whelps from wearing their mother 
out, that you examine them by their points and there- 
upon pick out the inferior ones. They will themselves 
give indications. The puppy that one day will not 
fail '^ your pride in him ^ is scarcely yet firm in his 
tender limbs, and already his vigour, impatient of 
equality with the rest, has raised him above them : 
he aims at sovereignty beneath his mother's belly, 
keeps her teats wholly to himself, his back unen- 

" The shoulder-blades should be broad, as in Oppian, Cyn. 
1.409, evpees ^fxovKa.Tai : cf. Xen. Cyn. iv, 1; Pollux, V. 58; 
Arr. Cyn. 5. 9; Colum. B.R. VII. xii. 4. 

* Vollmer's inclusion of the si tenuit clause in the preceding 
sentence, with hiuic . . . furorem as a parenthesis, is un- 

' Cf. note on illutn . . . mergeniem, 424—5. 

'' Or ■■ high tasks to which you may call him." 


dum tepida indulget terris dementia mundi ; 
verum ubi Caurino perstrinxit frigore vesper, 
ira iacet turbaque jDotens operitur inerti. 
illius et manibus vires sit cura futuras 
perpensare : leves deducet pondere fratres : 
nee me pignoribus, nee te mea carmina fallent. 

protinus et cultus alios et debita fetae 
blandimenta feres cm'aque sequere merentem : 
ilia perinde suos, ut erit f dilecta, minores 
ad longam praestabit opem. turn denique, fetu 
cum desunt, operis fregitque industria matres, 
transeat in catulos omnis tutela relictos. 
lacte novam pubem facilique tuebere maza, 
nee luxus alios avidaeque impendia vitae 
noscant : haec magno redit indulgentia damno. 
nee miruni : huma,nos non est magis altera sensus , 
tollit ni ratio et vitiis adeuntibus obstat. 
haec ilia est Pharios quae fregit noxia reges, 
dum servata cavis potant Mareotica gemmis 

2^' ire plac& A : ira iacet Ulitius : irreptat Badermacher. 

288 et Heinsius : e A. 

299 leuis A. 

2°2 de lacte Sann., Vollmer : delacta A : dilecta Stern : suo 
saturat de lacte Johnson 1699 eel. : delecta {particip. a delicere) 

30^-5 fetu A : fetus cum desunt operi Ellis, operis Ulitius : 
operi A. 

3^^ ni Graevius : se A. 



cumbered and impressed by the others so lon^if as 
the nrcnial warmth of the heavens is kind to earth ; " 
but when evening has shrivelled him with north- 
western chilliness, his bad temper flags and this 
strong pup lets himself be snugly covered by the 
sluggish crowd (of the rest). It must be your care 
thoroughly to weigh his promised strength in your 
hands : he will humble his light brothers with his 
weight.'^ In these signs my poems v.iW mislead 
neither myself nor you. 

As soon as she has produced young, you are to 
offer the mother different treatment and the com- 
forts due to her, and to attend her carefully as she 
deserves. Exactly as she is kindly treated, she 
will maintain her little ones until a long service 
of nurture has been rendered.^ Then finally, when 
the mothers fail their offspring and their assiduity 
in the task of suckling has shattered them, let 
all your concern pass over to the deserted whelps. 
You must sustain the young brood with milk and a 
simple pap : they must not know other luxuries and 
the outlays of a gluttonous life : such indulgence 
comes home at mighty cost. Nor is this surprising : 
no other life eats more into the senses of mankind, 
unless reason banishes it and bars the way against 
the approach of vices. Such was the fault that ruined 
Egyptian kings, as they drank old Mareotic wines 
in goblets of precious stone, reaping the perfimies 

" i.e. during the sunny day. 

* Cf. Livy IX. 34: ... ad scrvorum niinlsterium deduxisti 
(= brought down, degraded). The reference is not to exact 
weighing in a trutina or balance. 

"^ The text is uncertain ; but the sense required is that the 
greater the caro lavished on the mother, the longer she will 
be able to give milk to her pups. 



nardiferumque metunt Gangen vitiisque ministrant. 

sic et Achaemenio cecidisti, Lydia, Cyro : 31 

atqui dives eras <(ac) fluminis aurea venis. 

scilicet ad summam ne quid restaret habendi, 

tu quoque luxui'iae fictas duni colligis artes 

et sequeris demens alienam, Graecia, culpam, 

o quantum et quotiens decoris frustrata paterni ! 32 

at qualis nostris, quam simplex mensa Camdllis ! 

qui tibi cultus erat post tot, Serrane, triumphos ! 

ergo illi ex habitu virtutisque indole priscae 

imposuere orbi Romam caput, actaque ab illis 

ad caelum virtus summosque tetendit honores. 32 

scilicet exiguis magna sub imagine rebus 
prospicies, quae sit ratio, et quo fine regendae. 
idcirco imperium catulis unusque magister 
additur : ille dapes poenamque operamque <(mor- 

temperet, hunc spectet silvas domitura iuventus. 33 
nee vile arbitrium est : quoicumque haec regna di- 

ille tibi egregia iuvenis de pube legendus, 

2^^ in fine nullum lacunae signum in A : ministrans add. 
Aid. : peraeque Baehrens : moramque H. Schenkl. 



of nard-beariiio- Ganges and ministering to vice. 
By this sin fell you too, Lydia, beneath Persian 
Cyrus ; and yet you were rich and golden in the veins 
of your river." In good truth, so that nothing might 
be left to crown the possession of wealth, how much 
and how often, O Greece, did you too ftill short of 
ancestral honour by gathering together the arts 
which luxury fashioned and by madly following the 
faults of other nations ! But of what sort, how 
simple, was the table of our Camilli I ^ What was 
your dress, Serranus, after all yom- triumphs ! ^ 
These were the men who, in accord ^^ith the bear- 
ing and character of ancient virtue, set o'er the 
world Rome as its head ; and by them was virtue 
exalted to heaven, and so she reached highest 

In truth, taught by great precedent you will be 
able to provide for small details, finding the right 
system and the limits which should govern them. 
Therefore rule is imposed on the whelps in the shape 
of a single keeper : he must control their food and 
punishments, their service and rest : the young 
pack that is to master the woods must look to him. 
It is no trumpery charge : whosoever has such 
power dedicated to him should be a youth picked 
by you from young folk of merit, at once prudent 

" The river Pactolus was famous for its golden sands. 
Postgate's Padolique aurea venis suggests that fluminis was 
a gloss on the original reading. 

* The plural alludes rhetorically to M, Furius Camillus, the 
conqueror of Veil, who saved Rome after the Allian disaster : 
for his poverty cf. Hor. Od. I. xii. 42 sqq. 

« C. Atilius Regulus Serranus was consul in 257 and in 250 
B.C. He was summoned from farm-work to imdertake a 
military command, Val. Max. IV. iv. 5; Virg. Aen. VI. 845. 



utrimique et prudens et sumptis inipiger armis. 
quod nisi et accessus et agendi tempora belli 
noverit et socios tutabitur hoste minores, 33 

aut cedent aut ilia tamen \'ictoria damno est. 

ergo in opus vigila | factusque ades omnibus arixiis : 
arma acuere viam ; tegat imas fascia suras : 
<(sit pell)>is \dtulina, suis et tergore fulvo 
i<(re decet; niteant) canaque e maele galeri, 34 

ima Toletano praecingant ilia cultro 
terribilemque nianu \-ibrata falarica dextra 
det sonitum et curvae rumpant non pervia falces. 

haec tua militia est. quin et Mavortia bello 
vulnera et errantis per tot divertia morbos 34 

causasque affectusque canum. tua <(cura) tueri est. 
stat Fatum supra totumque avidissimus Orcus 
pascitur et nigris orbem circumsonat alis. 
scilicet ad magnum maior ducenda laborem 
cm'a, nee expertos fallet deus : huic quoque nostrae 3c 

337 vigil aSectusque Vollmer. 

^28 arma hacuere uita A : arma acuere viam (virum John- 
son) Aid. versuum 339 et 340 initia perierunt in A praeter 
primam v. 340 liiteram, quae tamen utriun j an p fiierit dubi- 
tandum (p hrjit Sa7in.). 

23^ ante inulina potest fuisse us vel is : inulina A : sit famulis 
vitulina tuis Ulitius, Burm., Wernsd. suis {genit., = suis) A. 

3^^ divertia A : divortia vulgo. 

^^" huic Baehrens : hiac A. 



and, when he grasps his weapon^, unflac^ii:in,<,^ But 
unless lie knows the right ways of approach and the 
right moments for attack and can protect his allies 
when unequal to their enemy, then either the dogs 
will run away or the victory so won is after all too dear. 

So then be wakeful for your work and attend 
equipped" with weapons fully. Weapons make the 
way of the chase more keen ^ : let bandaging protect 
the lower parts of the leg: the leather should be 
calf's leather, and tawny pig-skin is fit for the 
march : the caps should gleam with the grey of the 
badger:^ close under the hunter's flanks should be 
girt a knife of Toledo steel: a missile weapon 
brandished in the right hand should give a terrifying 
sound, while curved reaping-hooks must break 
through thickets which block the way. 

Such is your active service in the chase. But 
especially is it your concern to care for the martial 
wounds suffered in fight, the maladies which stray 
along so many different paths, their causes and the 
symptoms shown by your dogs. Above stands 
Fate : the insatiable Death-god devours everything 
and echoes round the world on sable wings. Clearly 
for a great task still greater care must be employed, 
nor will the deity ^^ play the experienced false : for 
this our care too there is another divinity ^ easy to 

" f actus, if sound, must have the force of instructus. 

* Via is the method of the hunt, cf. 5. Johnson's virutn 
is attractive, " make the hunter keen." 

' The nose, chin, lower sides of the cheeks and the mid 
forehead of the badger (inacles) are white : the ends of the 
hairs on the body are at bottom yellowish-white, in the 
middle black, and at the ends ash-coloured or grey : hence 
the proverb " as grey as a badger." The skin dressed without 
removing the hair can be used for caps or pouches. 

'^ Diana. " Paean. 



est aliud, quod praestet opus, placabile numen. 

nee longe auxilium, licet alti vulneris orae 

abstiterint atroque cadant cum sanguine fibrae : 

inde rape ex ipso qui vulnus fecerit hoste 

virosam eluviem lacerique per ulceris ora 3c 

sparge manu, venas dum sucus comprimat acer : 

mortis enim patuere viae, tum pm'a monebo 

circum labra sequi tenuique includere filo. 

at si pernicies angusto pascitur ore, 

contra pande viam fallentisque argue causas 3( 

morborum : in vitio facilis med<(icina recenti) ; 

sed tacta impositis mulcent p<ecuaria palmis) 

(id satis) aut nigrae circum picis unguine signant ; 

quodsi destricto levis est in vulnere noxa, 

ipse auxilium validae natale salivae. 3< 

ilia gravis labes et curis altior illis, 

cum \'itium causae totis egere latentes 

corporibiLS seraque aperitur noxia summa. 

inde emissa lues et per contagia mortes 

venere in vulgum iuxtaque exercitus ingens 3' 

aequali sub labe ruit, nee viribus ullis 

aut merito venia est aut spes exire precanti. 

quod sive a Stygia letum Proserpina nocte 

extulit et Fm'iis commissam ulciscitur iram, 

seu vitium ex alto spiratque vaporibus aether 3' 

2^2 orae Barth : ora A. 

253 atroque Sann. : utroque A. 

255 ulceris AM. : viceris A. 

25' pura monebo Sann. : purmo bebo A. 

260 pande Aid. : prande A. 

261 med<icina recenti) Aid. : med<icina reperto) BaehreJis. 

262 sed A : seu Heinmus. tacta A : tactu Sann. p<ecuaria 
palmis) Aid. 

269 morbi Sann., Vollmer : morbis A : mortes Stern. 
2'0 fusaque Vollmer : lusaque A : iuxtaque Sann. 



be entreated who can guarantee the work of healing. 
Nor is aid far distant, though the lips of a deep 
wound have parted and the fibres are dripping with 
dark blood: thereupon seize from the very enemy 
that has dealt the wound some of his fetid urine, 
sprinkling it with the hand over the mouth of the 
torn wound, till the acid juice compresses the veins : 
for the avenues of death lie open. Then my advice 
will be to go round the lips till they are clean and 
sew them fast Mith a slender thread. But if deadly 
danger battens in a narrow wound, contrariwise, 
widen the outlet and expose the treacheroas causes 
of corruption : the remedy is easy in a newly-found 
mischief; but the beasts which are infected they 
soothe ^\'ith strokes of the hands (that is enough), 
or seal the sore around with an ointment of black 
pitch : if, however, there is merely a trivial hurt in a 
slight wound, the dog has the natural remedy of 
efficacious saliva. ^^ It is a serious plague, too deep 
for the treatments mentioned, when hidden causes 
have sped the malady through all the bodies of the 
pack and the damage is only discovered in its final 
consummation. Then has pestilence been let loose, 
and by contagion deaths have come upon the pack 
at large, and the great host alike perishes beneath 
an infection that falls on all : neither is there indul- 
gence granted for any strength or service, nor is 
there hope of escape in answer to prayer. But 
whether it be that Proserpina has brought death 
forth from Stygian darkness, satisfying her wrath 
for some offence entrusted to the Furies to avenge, 
whether the infection is from on high and ether 
breathes with contagious vapours, or whether earth 

" i.e. he licks the wound. 



pestiferis, seu terra suos populatur honores, 
fontem averte mali. trans altas ducere calles 
admoneo latumque fuga superabitis amnem. 
hoc primum efFugium leti : tunc ficta valebant 
auxilia et nostra quidam redit usus ab arte, 
sed varii motus nee in omnibus una potestas : 
disce vices et quae tutela est proxima tempta. 
plurima per catulos rabies invictaque tardis 
praecipitat letale malum : sit tutius ergo 
antire auxiliis et prinaas vincere causas. 
namque subit, nodis qua lingua tenacibus haeret, 
(vermiculum dixere) mala atque incondita pestis. 
ille ubi salsa siti praecepit viscera longa, 
aestivos vibrans accensis febribus ignes, 
moliturque fugas et sedem spernit amaram. 
scilicet hoc motu stimulisque potentibus acti 
in fui'ias vertere canes, ergo insita ferro 
iam teneris elementa mali causasque recidunt. 
nee longa in facto medicina est ulcere : purum 
sparge salem et tenui permulce vulnus olivo : 
ante relata suas quam nox bene compleat umbras, 
ecce aderit factique oblitus vulneris ultro 
blanditur mensis cereremque efflagitat ore. 

3'^ seu terra suos Sayin. : si litaeras vos A. 
3^* praecipitat Pithou : precipiat A. sit tutius Sarin., qui 
et securius coniecit : sicutius A : sic tutius AM. 

2^8 longae A : longa Sann. : longe Volhner, Curcio. 
^*° amara A : amatam Ulitius. 



is devastating her own fair products," remove the 
source of the evil. I warn you to lead the dogs over 
the high mountain-paths : you are to cross the 
broad river in your flight. This is your first escape 
from destruction : thereafter the aids we have devised 
will avail and some service is secured from our lore. 
But varied are the onsets of disease, nor is there 
the same force in all of them : learn their phases 
and make trial of the medicine which is most available. 
Rabies, prevalent among young dogs and uncon- 
trollable for those who delay treatment, launches a 
deadly evil : it must be safer then to forestall it 
Nnth remedies and overcome its first causes. For 
the mischievous and barbarous plague — it has been 
described as a tiny worm — steals in where the tongue 
is rooted to its firm ligaments. When the worm 
has seized on the inwards briny with prolonged 
thirst, darting its sweltering fires with fevers 
aflame, it works its escape and spurns its bitter^ 
quarters. Impelled, it is plain, by its activity and 
potent goads, dogs turn frantic. So, when they 
are quite young, it is usual to cut out with the knife 
the deep-seated elements and causes of disease. 
Prolonged treatment is not needed for the wound so 
made : sprinkle clean salt and soothe the affected 
part with a little olive-oil : before returning night 
can well complete her shadows, look, the dog will 
be on the scene, and, forgetting the wound made, 
is actually fawning at table and pleading for bread '^ 
with his mouth. 

" i.e. with the result that they rot and cause disease. 

* With the meaning of ainaram compare salsa in 388. 

' The goddess' name is put by metonymy for bread : cf. 
Nemes. Cyn. 154, cererem cum lade ministra : so for com, 
Virg. G. I. 297; Cic. N.D. II. 23. GO ; Aetna, 10. 



quid, priscas artes inventaque simplicis aevi 
si referam ? non ilia metus solacia falsi, ^ 

tarn loiigam traxere fidera. collaribus ergo 
sunt qui lucifugae cristas inducere maelis 
iussere aut sacris conserta monilia conchis 
et vivum lapidem et circa Melite{n/sia nectunt 
curalia et magicis adiutas cantibus herbas. 4 

ac sic ofFectus oculique venena maligni 
vicit tutela pax impetrata deorum. 

at si deformi lacerum dulcedine corpus 
persequitur scabies, longi \-ia pessima leti : 
in primo accessu tristis niedicina, sed una •^ 

pernicies redimenda anima, quae prima sequaci 
sparsa malo est, ne dira trahant contagia vulgus. 
quodsi dat spatiurn clemens et promonet ortu 
morbus, disce vias et qua sinit artibus exi. 
tunc et odorato medicata bitumina vino 4 

^"^ deformis los. Wa^sius, Volhner : deformi A, Postgate. 

*i^ promonet A : praemonet Titius. 

*^^ vino Johnson : \dro A. cf. v. 476 et Veget. mulom. 2. 135. 5. 

" The omission of a punctuation mark after falsi would 
imply in Grattius an Epicurean disdain for primitive super- 
stition : "those consolations of a groundless fear did not 
continue to command such a lasting belief." According to 



What need to record primitive devices and the 
inventions of an unsophisticated a<xe ? Of no ground- 
less fear were those tlie consohitions : so lasting a 
confidence have they prolonged.' Thus there are some 
whose prescription has been to fasten cock's combs 
upon the dog-collars made from the light-shunning 
badger/' or they twine necklets around, strung of 
sacred shells,'' and the stone of living fire '^ and red 
coral from Malta and herbs aided by magic incan- 
tations. And so the peace of the gods won by the 
protective amulet is found to vanquish baleful 
influences and the venom of the evil eye. 

But if the mange pursues a body torn with the 
ugly itch for scratching, it is the cruellest road of 
slow death : at the first onset, the remedy is a 
melancholy one. but destruction must be bought 
otf by the one life (of the dog) which has first been 
contaminated with the infectious disease, to prevent 
the whole pack from contracting the dread contagion. 
If, however, the ailment is slight, giving time and 
fore warnings at the start, learn the methods of 
cure and by skilled devices escape wherever feasible. 
Then fire is found to blend and into one whole unite 

tlie text here accepted, Grattius seems to admit that super- 
stitious cures soothed reasonable fears, and remained long in 

* The badger burrov.-s underground, confining itself to its 
hok> during the day and feeding at night. 

*■ Among prophylactic amulets the conchae were sacred to 
Venus. Pliny, y.H. XXXII, 2-<), mentions the shell echeneis 
or remora, believed to have power to stop ships by adhering 
to the hull. The marvellous properties of such shells, he 
considers, became the more credible because they were 
preserved and consecrated in the temple of Venus at Cnidos. 

''Pyrites: rf. Pliny, X.H. XXXVl. 137, molarem quidam 
pyriten vacant : cf. Aetna, 454. 



Hippoiiiasque pices neclectaeque unguen amurcae 

miscuit et suinmam complectitur ignis in unam. 

inde lavant aegros : ast ira coercita morbi 

laxatusque rigor, quae te ne cura timentem 

difFerat, et pluvias et Cauri frigora vitent ; 4^ 

due magis, ut nudis incumbunt vallibus aestus, 

a vento clarique faces ad solis, ut omne 

exsudent vitium subeatque latentibus ultro 

quae facta est niedicina vadis. nee non tamen ilium 

spumosi catulos mergentem litoris aestu 4-2 

respicit et facilis Paean adiuvit in artes. 

o rerum prudens quantani Experientia vulgo 

materiem largita boni, si vincere curent 

desidiain et gratos agitando prendere finis ! 

est in Trinacria specus ingens rupe cavique 42 

introsum reditus, circum atrae moenia silvae 
alta premunt ruptique ambustis faucibus anines ; 

^^^ Hipponiasque primus agnovit Haupt : iponiasque A : 
impone atque pices, vel impositasque pices vel denique fraces 
Heinsius. neclectaeque Haupt : nee liceat qu§ A : immun- 
daeque Aid. 

^^^ ast A : est Aid. : atque Barth. 

^^^ ne cura timentem Sann. : nee urat in mentem A. 

*2^ duo H. Schenkl : sic A : stent Postgate. 

*2^ paean adiuvit Sann. : paeana divint A. 



doses of bitumen, mixed with fragrant wine, and 
portions of Briittian" pitch and ointment from the 
unregarded dregs of oHve-oil. Therewith tliey 
bathe the aihng dogs : then the anger of the malady 
is curbed and its severity relaxed. Let not this treat- 
ment, for all your anxiety, distract you (from further 
precautions) : the dogs must avoid both rains and the 
chills of the north-west wind : rather, when sultry heats 
hang over the bare valleys, take them (to heights) 
away from the wind to meet the rays of the bright 
sun, so that they may sweat out all the infection and 
moreover that the healing which has been effected 
may steal into their hidden veins.'^ Besides the 
Healing-God, kindly disposed to om- sldll, fails not 
to regard favourably and to aid him who dips^ 
his whelps in the tide of the foaming beach. 
O Experience, foreseeing in affairs, how much 
material benefit hast thou lavished on the mass 
of men, if they make it their care to overcome 
sloth and by vigorous action to get a grip of fair 
ideals I 

There is in Sicily a grotto enormous in its rocky 
mass — with hollow windings which return upon 
themselves ; high ramparts of black woodland enclose 
it around and streams bursting from volcanic jaws — 

» Iwrrun'iov is Vibo Valentla on the \ia. Popilia in the 
tenitory of the Bruttii. Curcio thmks that Hippo in Xumidia 
is meant. 

* Vadis is also explained as (1) pores (Enk), (2) intestines 
(Radermacher). Vollmer imagines a contrast between 
latent ibus vadis, meaning ex aquis recondUis, and the open sea 
of the next sentence. 

' The Latin of ilium mcrgentem in the sense of ilium qui 
mergit is questionable; but c/. ille . . . defecturus, 291. 
V^ollmer proposes tentatively illic or ullum. 

VOL. I. O 


Vulcano eondicta domus. quam supter eunti 

stagna sedent venis oleoque madentia vivo. 

hue defecta mala vidi pecuaria tabe 43 

saepe trahi victosque malo graviore magistros. 

'•' te primum, \^ulcane, loci, pacemque precamiir, 

incola sancte, tuam : da fessis ultima rebus 

auxilia et, meriti si nulla est noxia tanti, 

tot miserare animas liceatque attingere fontis, 44 

sancte, tuos " ter quisque vocant, ter pinguia libant 

tura foco, struitur ramis felicibus ara. 

hie (dictu mirum atque alias ignobile monstrum) 

adversis specibus ruptoque e peetore montis 

venit ovans Austris et multo flumine flammae 44 

emieat ipse : manu ramum pallente sacerdos 

termiteum quatiens " procul hine extorribus ire 

edico praesente deo, praesentibus aris, 

quis scelus aut manibus sumptum aut in peetore 

motum est " 
inelamat : ceeidere animi et trepidantia membra. 45 
o quisquis misero fas umquam in suppliee fregit, 
quis pretio fratrum meliorisque ausus amiei 
sollicitare caput patriosve lacessere divos, 
ilium agat infandae comes hue audacia culpae : 
diseet commissa quantum deus ultor in ira 45 

pone sequens valeat. sed eui bona peetore mens est 

*^^ supter Sarin. : super A. 

^^^ fessis Sann. : fissis A. 

*3^ meriti Sa7in. : mentis A. 

^^^ miserare A : -rere Aid. 

**^ vocant ter Sann. : vocanter A. 

" ira commissa (a curious condensation recalling commissa 
piaciila, Virg. Aen. VI. 509) is here taken v. ith Wernsdorf to 



\'iilcan's acknowledged haunt. As one passes 
beneatli, the pools lie motionless oozing in veins of 
natural bituminous oil. I have often seen dogs 
dragged hither fordone from mischievous wasting, 
and their custodians overcome by still heavier 
suffering. " Thee first, O Vulcan, and thy peace, 
holy dweller in this place, do we entreat : grant 
final aid to our wearied fortunes, and, if no guilt 
is here deserving penalty so great, pity these many 
lives and suffer them, holy one, to attain to thy 
fountains " — thrice does each one call, thrice they 
offer rich incense on the fire, and the altar is piled 
with fruitful branches. Hereat (wondrous to tell 
and a portent elsewhere unknown) from the con- 
fronting caves and the mountain's riven breast there 
has come, exultant in southern gales and darting 
forth 'mid a full flood of flame, the God himself: 
his priest, waving in pallid hand the olive branch, 
proclaims aloud: " In the presence of the God, in 
the presence of the altars, I ordain that all go out 
of the land far from here, who have put their hands 
to crime or contemplated it in their heart " : forth- 
with droop their spirits and their nervous limbs. 
Oh ! whoso has ever impaired heaven's law in the 
case of a wretched suppliant, whoso for a price has 
dared to aim at the life of brothers or of faithful 
friend or to outrage ancestral gods — if such a man 
be impelled hither by audacity, the comrade of 
unutterable sin, he will learn how mighty is the 
power of the God who followeth after as the avenger 
in >\Tath for crime committed." But he whose mind 

mean ira quae commissis scderibus provocata est. The sense 
is different in 374, Furiis commissam . . . iram, unless 455 
can imply " in wrath assigned to him to vent." 

o 2 


obsequitur<(que) deo, deus illam molliter aram 

1 ambit et ipse, suos ubi contigit ignis {hon)ores, 

defugit a sacris rursumque reconditur antro : 

huic fas auxilium et Vulcania tangere dona. 4( 

nee mora, si medias exedit noxia fibras, 

his lave praesidiis afFectaque corpora mulce : 

regnantem excuties morbum. deus auctor, et ipsa 

artem aluit natura suam. quae robore pestis 

acrior aut leto propior via ? sed tamen illi 4( 

hie venit auxilium valida vementius ira. 

quod primam si fallet opem dimissa facultas, 
at tu praecipitem qua spes est proxima labem 
aggredere : in subito subita et medicina tumultu. 
stringendae nares et <(bi)na ligamdna ferro 4' 

armorum, geminaque cruor ducendus ab aure : 
hinc vitium, hinc ilia est avidae vehementia pesti. 
ilicet auxiliis fessum solabere corpus 
subsiduasque fraces defusaque Massica prisco 
sparge cado : Liber tenuis e pectore curas 4' 

exigit, et morbo Liber medicina furenti. 

quid dicam tussis, quid inertis damna veterni 

^'^^ excuties Barth : -iens A. 
466 hie A : hinc Aid. 

*^8 at tu Sann. : ad tu A : actu Baehrens. 
*^" &na A : et bina Haujpt : scindenda Burin, et alii. 
*'' inertis Sann. : maestis A : moesti .4W. veterni -Sann. 
-nis A. 



is good at heart and is reverent to the God, has his 
altar-gift gently caressed by the Fire-god, who him- 
self, when the flame has reached the sacrifices offered 
in his honom-, retreats from the holy ritual and again 
conceals himself in his cave. For such a one 'tis 
right to attain relief and Vulcan's kindliness. Let 
there be no delay : if the malady has gnawed 
right into the fibres, bathe with the remedies 
specified " and soothe the suffering bodies : so will 
you expel the tyrannous disease. The God lends 
support, and natm-e herself nourishes her own 
skilful remedy.* What plague is sharper than 
** robur "'^ or what path nearer to death ? But still 
for it there comes here assistance more active than 
the powerful anger of the ailment. 

Yet if a lost opportunity baffles first aid., then you 
must attack the furious pestilence where prospects are 
likeliest : sudden disturbance calls for sudden relief. 
The nostrils must be cut slightly with the steel, as well 
as the two muscles of the shoulders, and blood is to be 
drawn off from both ears : from the blood comes the 
corruption, from the blood the violence of the insatiate 
plague. Forthwith you will comfort the wearied 
body with palliatives, and you must sprinkle on the 
wounds the sediment of oil-dregs and Massic wine 
outpoured from its ancient cask — Bacchus expels 
light cares from the heart : Bacchus also is healing 
for the fury of disease. 

Why mention coughs, why the afflictions of a 

" e.g. the oil from the bituminous lake of 4.34. 

'' lu the form of tire and bitumen. 

^ The disease has the symptoms of tetanus according to 
vetermarv writers: V'egetius, Mulomedicina 2, 88; Chiron, 
315; Pelagonius, ed. Ihm, 294. 



aut incurvatae si qua est tutela podagrae ? 
mille tenent pestes curaque potentia maior. 
mitte age (non opibus tanta est fiducia nostris), 4 

mitte, anime : ex alto ducendiun numen Olympo, 
supplicibus<(que) vocanda sacris tutela deorum. 
idcirco aeriis molimur compita lucis 
spicatasque faces sacrum ad nemorale Dianae 
sistimus et solito catuli velantur honor e, 4 

ipsaque per flores medio in discrimine luci 
stravere arma sacris et pace vacantia festa. 
tum cadus et viridi fumantia liba feretro 
praeveniunt teneraque extrudens cornua fronte 
haedus et ad ramos etiamnum haerentia poma, 4 

lustralis de more sacri, quo tota inventus 
Tustraturque deae proque anno reddit honorem. 
ergo impetrato respondet multa favore 
ad partis, qua poscis opem; seu vincere silvas 
sen tibi fatorum labes exire minasque 4 

cura prior, tua magna fides tutelaque Virgo, 
restat equos finire notis, quos arma Dianae 
admittant : non omne meas genus audet in artis. 

^'8 incurvatae ed. Gryph. 1537 : incuratae A. 
^^* nemorale Turnebus, Postgate : nemora alta A, Burm., 
Wernsd., Stern, Curcio, Enk. 

" 483-96, description of an Ambarval sacrifice to Diana, 
-R-ith allusion to her worship near Aricia. 

* Multa, nom. sing, fern., agreeing with deu understood : 
i.e. "in full force" (like noxhs pet in Greek). Enk thinks 
multa neut. plur. ; Vollmer takes it for mulcta in the sense of 
'■ mollified." 


slujig^ish lethartry or any prophylactic there is for 
gout that twists the Hmbs ? A thousand plagues 
hold their victims, and their power transcends our 
care. Come, dismiss such cares (our confidence is 
not so great in our own resources) — dismiss them, 
my mind: the deity must be summoned from high 
Olympus and the protection of the gods invoked 
by suppliant ritual. For that reason we construct 
cross-road shrines in groves of soaring trees " and 
set our sharp-pointed torches hard by the woodland 
precinct of Diana, and the whelps are decked with 
the wonted wreath, and at the centre of the cross- 
roads in the grove the hunters fling down among the 
flowers the very weapons which now keep holiday 
in the festal peace of the sacred rites. Then the 
wine-cask and cakes steaming on a green-wood tray 
lead the procession, with a young goat thrusting horns 
forth from tender brow, and fruit even now clino^inij 
to the branches, after the fashion of a lustral ritual 
at which all the youth both purify themselves in 
honom' of the Goddess and render sacrifice for the 
bounty of the year. Therefore, when her grace is 
won, the Goddess answers generously '' in those 
directions where you sue for help : whether yom* 
greater anxiety is to master the forest or to elude 
the plagues and threats of destiny, the Maiden 
is your mighty affiance and protection. 

It remains to define by their characteristics the 
horses which Diana's equipment can accept as useful.^ 
Not every breed has the courage needed for my 

' Dianae arnm = the chase. For horses in general see 
Xen. Cyn. 1 ; Pollux, Onom. I. 188 sqq.; Virg. C/. III. 72 sqq.; 
Varro R. R. II. 7; Columella, VI. 20-29; Plin. X.fl. VIII. 
154; Xemes. Cyn. 240 sqq.; Oppian, Cyn. I. 158-307. 



est vitium ex animo, sunt quos imbellia fallant 
corpora, praeveniens quondam est incommoda virtus, 
consule, Penei qualis perfunditur amne 5( 

Thessalus aut patriae quern conspexere Mycenae 
glaucum? nempe ingens, nempe ardua fundet in 

crura, quis Eleas potior lustravit harenas ? 
ne tamen hoc attingat opus : iactantior illi 5( 

virtus quam silvas durumque lacessere martem. 
nee saevos miratur equos terrena Syene 
scilicet, et Parthis inter sua niollia rura 
mansit honor ; veniat Caudini saxa Taburni 
Garganumve trucem aut Ligurinas desuper Alpes : 5 
ante opus excussis cadet unguibus. et tamen illi 
est animus fingetque meas se iussus in artes : 
sed iuxta vitium posuit deus. at tibi contra 
Callaecis lustratur (e)quis scruposa P}T{ene), 
non tamen Hispano martem temptare m^inistro) 5 
ausim : <(in^ muricibus \'ix ora tenacia ferr<(o^ 
concedunt. at tota levi Nasam<(onia virga) 
fingit equos : ipsis Numidae solver<(e capistris) 

5°^ syenae A : Sidene Bxirm. : Cyrene Wesseling, 

51^ m<inacem> Aid.: m<inistro> H. Sckerikl : m<aligno> 

^i« ferr<o> Scnin. 

^1' at Ulitius : aut A : ast //. Schenkl. virga UlitiuSy cf. 
Lucan IV. 683. 



profession. Some show deficiency on the store of 
spirit ; some have feeble bodies to play them ftilse ; 
at times excessive mettle is unsuitable. Bethink 
you — what sort of Thessalian horse bathes in Peneus' 
stream, or what is the grey sort on which its native 
Mycenae fixes its gaze ? Assuredly it is huge, 
assuredly it will throw its legs high in air. What 
better steed ever traversed the race-course in Elis ? ^' 
Yet let it not touch our hunting-work : its vigour is 
too impetuous for an attack on the hard fighting of the 
forests. Doubtless Syene'^ on the level plain ha^ horses 
to admire which are not Mild, and those of Parthia 
have kept their reputation in their own flat country : 
if such a horse comes to the crags of Taburnus near 
the Caudine Forks or to rugged Garganus *^ or over 
the Ligurian Alps, he will collapse before his task 
with hoofs battered.^ And yet he has spirit and 
will mould himself to my methods if ordered : but 
heaven alongside of merit imposes defects. On the 
other hand, you find the horses of the Callaeci ^ can 
traverse the jagged Pyrenees. I should not, however, 
venture to try the conflict with a Spanish steed to 
serve me : amid sharp stones they scarce yield their 
stubborn mouths to the steel; but all Nasamonia^ 
controls her horses with light switches. The bold 
and hard-toiling Numidian folk free theirs even 

" i.e. at the Olympic games. 

* Syene (Assouan) in Upper Egypt below the First 

*■ Taburnus was in Samnium : Garganus in Apulia. 

^ i.e. owing to the stony nature of the ground. 

' The Callaeci were a people of Hispania Tarraconensis. 

f The Nasamonian tribe dwelt in the eastern part of the 
Syrtis Major in N. Africa. 



audax et patiens operum g<(enus. ille vigebit) 

centum actus spatiis atque eluctabitur iram. ; 

nee magni cultus : sterilis quodcunique remisit 

terra sui tenuesque satis producere rivi. 

sic et Strymonio facilis tutela Bisaltae : 

possent Aetnaeas utinam se ferre per arces, 

qui ludus Siculis. quid turn, si turpia colla > 

aut tenuis dorso curvatur spina ? per illos 

cantatus Graiis Acragas victaeque fragosum 

Nebroden liquere ferae : o quantus in armis 

ille meis quoius dociles pecuaria fetus 

sufficient ! quis Chaonios contendere contra i 

ausit, vix merita quos signat Achaia palma? 

spadices vix Pellaei valuere Cerauni ; 

at tibi devotae magnum pecuaria Cyrrhae, 

Phoebe, decus meruere, levis seu iungere currus 

usus, seu nostras agere in sacraria tensas. i 

^1' g<enus. ille vigebit) Aid. 

^29 ilia . . . coetus Vollmer : ille . . . coetus A : foetus 

^'3 & A : at Vollmer. 

" In Thrace. Grattius proceeds to express a wish that these 
Thracian horses could have the chance of showing their powers 
on the mountains of Sicily. The Sicilian horses are mentioned 
for their swiftness, Oppian, Cyn. I. 272. Their victories in 
horse-racing and chariot -racing are the themes of many of 
Pindar's odes : e.g. Pyth. i. celebrates a victory won by Hieron 
of Aetna {cf. Gratt. 524). The qualities of speed and sure- 
footedness requisite in Sicilian sport {cf. qui ludus Siculis, 
525, And fragosum Nebroden, 527-528) explained to Grattius' 
mind how, though not of prepossessing appearance, these 



from halters : the horse will show his vigour careering 
in a hundred race-courses and will work off his 
temper in the contest. Nor does his keep cost 
much : whatsoever of its own the ban-en earth or 
the small rivulet doth yield, is enough to support 
him. So too maintenance is easy for horses of the 
Bisaltae " near the Strymon : oh, that they could 
career along the highlands of Aetna, the sport 
which Sicilians make their own ! What then, 
though their necks are ugly or though they have a 
thin spine cur\ing along their back? Thanks to 
such steeds Acragas was praised in song by the 
Greeks,'' thanks to such, the vanquished creatures 
of the ^^'ild quitted craggy Nebrodes.*^ Oh. how- 
stalwart ^^^ll he be in hunting whose herds shall 
yield colts that can be trained I Who could dare 
pit against them the horses of Epirus, which are 
distinguished by Greece with honour scarce deserved ? 
The chestnut-brown horses of Macedonian '' Ceraunus 
have scanty worth as hunters : but the herds of 
Cyrrha,' sacred to thee, O Apollo, have won high 
honour, whether the need be to yoke light vehicles 
or pull our (image-laden) cars in procession to 

horses could be trained to win glory in the games of Greece 
(cantatus Graiis Acragas, 527). 

* Pindar, Olymp. iii. 2, K\€iva.f 'AKpayavra (= Agrigentum 
in Sicily, now Girgenti). Olympian Odes ii. and iii. celebrate 
victories won by Theron of Acragas in chariot -racing ; Pyth. 
vi. and Lsthm. ii. similar victories by Xenocrates of Acragas, 

*■ A Sicilian mountain. Fragosum indicates the serviceabiUty 
of Sicilian horses as hunters on rocky ground. 

** The fact that Pella was in Macedonia and the Ceraunian 
range in Epirus does not justify the epithet Pellaci; but, as 
Enk says, " poeta parum curat geographiam." 

' Cyrrha or Cirrha, a seaport in Phocis, near Parnassus on 
which was the Delphic oracle of Apollo. 



venanti melius pugnat color : optima nigr<(a) 
<(cru)ra illi badiosque leg<(a)nt et . . . 
<(et quo)rum fessas imitantur terga favillas. 
<(o quan)tum Italiae (sic di voluere) parentes 
<(praestant) et terras omni praecepimus usu J 

<(nostraque quam pernix) collustrat prata {inventus) ! 

536 melius A : mellis Graevius : vineus Burman : maelis 
Birt : medius H. Schenkl. nigr . . . A : nigri Aid. : nigra Enk. 

53' <(cru>ra Ulitius : <(o>ra Birt : <(cu>ra Volbner. leg<u>nt 
Aid. : leg(a)nt VoIImer. & avedon videtur legi in A : in 
pectore crines edd. : glaucosque periti Birt. 

538 <et quo>rum Aid. terda A : terga Aid. 

533 <o quan>tum Ulitius. 

5*^ <praestant> et Ulitius. 

5*1 <nostraque quam pernix) Ulitius et post prata add. 



the shrines. For the hunter the horse's colour is a 
better ally (than its origin). His legs had best be 
black : let brown steeds be chosen . . . and those 
whose backs resemble spent embers. Oh, how much 
do the mares of Italy (such is heaven's will) excel 
in their foals ; how much have we outstripped the 
world in every practice of life ; and how active 
the young breed which brightens our meadows ! . . ." 

" A portion of the poem is lost — presumably of no great 
extent, as restat of 497 suggests that the author was drawing 
to a conclusion. 





The group of poems consisting of the pastorals by 
T. Calpurnius Siculus and by Nemesianus, the Laus 
Fisojiis and two short Einsiedehi eclogues " present 
a bundle of interconnected and, though baffling, 
still not uninteresting problems. Certain questions 
arise at once. On separating the eclogues of Cal- 
purnius from those of Nemesianus, to what dates 
should one assign their authors? Why did "Cal- 
purnius Siculus " bear these two names? Had he a 
relationship with C. Calpurnius Piso, the conspirator 
of A.D. 65, to whom, according to most authorities, 
the Laus Pisonis was addressed ? ^ If so, did 
Calpurnius Siculus WTite that panegyric in praise of 
Piso as his patron, and can " Meliboeus," the 
patron in two Calpurnian eclogues, have been the 
same Calpurnius Piso ? If he was not, was he 
Seneca, or someone else ? Again, can the Ein- 
siedeln eclogues have emanated from the same 
hand as the Calpurnian eclogues or the Laus Pisonis, 
or are they products of a school of Neronian poets 
influenced by a transient passion for pastoral themes, 

" For these other poems see pp. 289-315, pp. :i 19-335, and 
pp. 451-515 in this volume. 

* See Introduction to the Panegyric on Piso, p. 289. 

VOL. I. P 


to which school M. Hubaux -' has ascribed Cataleptoji 
IX bequeathed to us in the Appendix Jergiliana ? 

To most of these and to several related questions, 
the most contradictory ansvrers have been given, ^ 
which cannot here be more than lightly touched 
upon. Since Haupt in his classic essay of 1854, 
De carminihus hucoUcis Calpumii et Nemesiani, divided,^ 
on principles of style, the eleven eclogues which had 
often passed together under the name of Calpurnius 
Siculus into seven by him and the remaining four by 
Nemesianus, there has been no serious doubt about 
the gap in date between the two sets. Indeed, 
attention to certain suhscriptiones and headings in 
the manuscripts (including a tell-tale blunder in 
RiccarcUanus 363, Titi Calphurnii hucolictim carmen ad 
Nemesianum Karthaginiensem '^) ought to have led to 
an earlier separation of the poems by all editors. 
In any case, it is now generally agreed that Cal- 
purnius Siculus belongs to the Neronian age and the 

" In Les themes bucoliques dans la poesie latine, Brussels, 

^ For a resume of the different h^^otheses, see Groag, " C. 
Calpurnius Piso," P. W. Reahncyd.lll. (1899); Skutsch, " T. 
Calpurnius Siculus," ibid. ; Schanz, Gesch. der rom. Literatur, 
II. 2 ; Clementina Chiavola, Delia vita . . . di Tito Calpurnio 
Siculo, 1921. 

*■ Haupt -was the first to make clear the Xeronian date of 
Calpurnius' seven eclogues; but the Aldine edition of 1534 
prints the two sets separately — in fact Nemesiani Bucolica 
precede Calpumii Siculi Bucolica. 

^ This confusion, which quite impossibly makes Xeme- 
sianus contemporary with Calpurnius, may be due either to 
a misreading of a double manuscript title, giving the names 
of both poets at the beginning of the eclogues, or to a 
corruption of words separating the two collections finis 
bucolicorum Calphurnii Aurelii Nemesiani poetae Carthagi- 
niensis egloga prima. 


eclogues of Nemesianiis to the author of the Ci/ne- 
getica in the third century a.d. Features of style 
and of metre, like the preservation of length in final 
-0 and a paucity of elision, clearly distinguish the 
verse of Calpurnius from that of Nemesianus,'' 
imitator of Calpurnius Siculus though he was. Some 
of the decisive points in favour of the Neronian date 
for Calpurnius consist in such allusions as those to 
the comet of 54 a.d. (i. 77-83), to the wooden amphi- 
theatre of 57 A.D. (vii. 23-24) and to the young 
prince of golden promise, handsome, eloquent, 
divine.^ who can be identified with no one so aptly 
as with Nero at the outset of his reign. 

About the poet's name there is no means of deter- 
mining whether it argues a relationship with the 
C. Calpurnius Piso to whom it is usually thought that 
the Laus Pisonis was addressed. One hypothesis 
suggests that he might have been a son of one of 
Piso's freedmen. Certainty is equally unattainable 
as to the meaning of the epithet "Siculus": it 
may indicate Sicilian origin in the geographical sense, 
but it may just as well record the literary debt of 
the eclogues to Theocritus. " Meliboeus," the patron 
in Calpurnius Siculus' first and fourth eclogues, is 
drawn as an actual personage in a position enabling 
him to recommend the author's verses to the em- 
peror, and skilled in poetry and weather-lore. 
Sarpe's contention that this fits Seneca as the 
writer of tragedies and of the Naturales Quaestiones 
remains, on the whole, more plausible than the 
theory once maintained by Haupt and Schenkl, 
that the patron is the versatile Calpurnius Piso him- 

" Birt, Ad historiam hexametri lalini symbola, Bonn, 1877, 63. 
^ See i. 42-45, S4-88; iv. 84-87, 1.37; vii. 6, 83-84. 




self. On the foundation of this latter theory was 
built the guess that the Lmis Pisonis was the work 
of Calpurnius Siculus. But there is no consensus of 
opinion about the identification of " Meliboeus." 
While some have supposed him to represent Seneca 
or Calpurnius Piso, others have seen in him Colu- 
mella " or M. \'alerius Messala Corvinus,^ consul 
with Nero in 58 a.d. : others still have dismissed all 
such identifications as sheer caprice. There is no 
more certainty about the two Einsiedeln eclogues. 
As the conjecture that they were composed by Piso ^ 
is countered with equal readiness to believe that 
Calpurnius WTote them,^ discretion will acknowledge 
that there is not enough e\'idence to prove more 
than that they belong to the same literary environ- 
ment as the Calpurnian poems. 

The arrangement of the eclogues of Calpurnius 
does not follow the chronological order of composi- 
tion. The four more strictly rural poems preceded 
in time the three which may be called " courtly " in 
virtue of their praises of the emperor (i, iv, vii) : 
some, indeed, may have been written before Nero 
succeeded to the purple. There is much to be said 
for Haupt's suggested order of writing, namely, 
that the earliest and least finished is iii, the quarrel 
with Phyllis, which Scaliger considered an unamus- 
ing piece of clo^vTlishness ; next, vi, a singing-match 
broken off by the umpire owing to the competitors' 
loss of temper — a weakish imitation of Theocritus iv 
and V and of Virgil's third eclogue ; ii, somewhat 

" Chytil, Der Eklogendichter T. Calp. Siculus, Znaim, 1894. 

'' Hubaux, op. cit. 

" Groag, " Calp. Piso " in P. W. Rmhncycl. 

** Hubaux, op. cit. 


after the manner of \'irgirs seventh eeloffue, the 
anioebean praises of the pretty Crocale by two rivals, 
a herd and a gardener; and v, the aged Micon's 
expert advice to a young rustic on the management 
of flocks, based on Georgics III. 295-456. The 
three " courtly " poems, i, iv, vii, were \vi-itten after 
these four and placed at the beginning, middle and 
end of the collection. In eclogue i, roughly modelled 
on Virgil's " Messianic " eclogue, the tuneful shep- 
herds are imagined to discover a prophecy by Faunus 
heralding a renewal of the Golden Age under a new 
" Prince Charming," and they hope their poetry 
may reach the imperial ears through the good offices 
of their patron Meliboeus : in iv, the longest of the 
seven, hopes are expressed that the poetic eulogies 
on the emperor will be recommended to his majesty 
by Meliboeus, and it is indicated that some success 
had been already gained through his patronage ; 
finally, in vii Corydon, newly back to the country 
from Rome, relates to Lycotas his impressions of 
the amphitheatre and of the handsome emperor. 

Another feature of the arrangement may be noted. 
Eclogues ii, iv, vi are amoebean in form, and are 
sandwiched between eclogues which are not verse- 
dialogues in structure. In thought and manner, 
though there are, as we have seen, contemporary 
allusions, the pervasive influence is that of Virgil, 
and in a less degree that of Theocritus. The style 
also owes something to Ovid. Without being in the 
least deeply poetic, and in spite of the artificiality 
inherent in pastorals, the eclogues of Calpurnius 
breathe a rural atmosphere which makes them 
pleasant to read. Historically, they pass on the 
Virgilian tradition to Nemesianus. 




(The Eclogues of Calpurnius with those 
of Neniesianus.) 

C. Schweynheiiii and A. Pannartz : (with Sihus 
Itahcus) eleven Eclogae under name of C. 
Calpurnius. Rome, 1471. 

A. Ugoletus. Calpurnii Siculi et Nemesiani hucolica. 
Parma, circ. 1490. [For this edition Angelus 
Ugoletus used the codex of Thadeus Ugoletus : 
see infra under A in "Sigla."] 

G. Logus. In edn. containing Poetae ires egregii. 
Aldus, Venice, 1534. 

P. Burman. Poet. Lat. Minores I. Leyden, 1731. 

J. C. Wernsdorf in Poet. Lat. Mifiores, \^ol. II. Alten- 
burg, 1780. [Wernsdorf gives an introductory 
essay and account of earlier editions.] 

C. D. Beck. Recogn. annot. et gloss, instr. Leipzig, 

C. E. Glaeser. Calp. et Nemes. . . . recensuit. 
Gottingen, 1842. [Glaeser's edn. made an 
advance in preferring the Codex Neapolitanus 
to the MSS. of the second group.] 

E. Baehrens. In Poet. Lat. Mi?wres III. Leipzig, 

H. Schenkl. Calp. et Xemes. bucol. rec. Leipzig, 

. Re-edited in J. P. Postgate's Corp. Poet. Lat., 

Vol. II. London, 1905. 

C. H. Keene. The Eclogues of Calpurnius Siculus 
and M. Aur. Olyrup. Nemesianus (introd., com- 
ment.). London, 1887. 



C. Giarratano. Calpumii et Scnteaiani liucoUca. 

Naples, 1910. 
. Calpnrtiii et Xemesia/ii Bucolica. (Paraxia 

cd.) Turin, 1021. 


E. J. L. Scott. The Eclogues of Calpiirnius (the 
seven in octosyll. verse). London, 1890. 


G. Sarpe. Quaestiones philologicae. Rostock, 1819. 

[Argues that " Meliboeus " = Seneca.] 
M. Haupt. De Carminihus hiicoUcis Calpurnii et 

Xemesiani. Berlin, 1854. [Argues that " Meli- 
boeus " = Calpurnius Piso.] 
E. Chytil. Der Eklogefulickter T. Calpurnius Siculus 

inid seine Jorhilder. Znaini, 1894. [Identifies 

" Meliboeus " with Columella.] 
E. Skutsch. Art. Calpurnius Siculus. P. \V. Realen- 

cycL col. 1401 sqq. 1899. 
G. Ferrara. Calpuriiio Siculo e il Panegirico a Cal- 

purnio Pisone. Pavia, 1905. 
Clementina Chiavola. Delia vita e deW opera di Tito 

Calpurnio Siculo. Ragusa, 1921. 
J. Wight Duff. A Liter arij History of Rome in the 

Silver Age, pp. 330-338. London, 1927. 
J. Hubaux. Les themes bucoliques dans la poesie 

latine. Brussels, 1930. 
E. Cesareo. La poesia di Calpurnio Siculo. Palermo, 





Used by H. Schexkl ix Postgate's C. P. L. 

The Best Group of MSS. 

N = Neapolitanus 380. end of 14th cent, or beginning 
of I5th. 

G = Gaddianus 90, 12 in Laurentian Library, 
Florence : 15th cent. [Akin to N, but some- 
what inferior.] " 

A = Nicolaus Angelius' readings from the now lost 
MS. brought by Thadeus Ugoletus from Ger- 
many : they were entered in the year 1492 on 
the margin of codex Riccardianus 363 at 

H = Readings in codex Harleianus 2578, 16th cent., 
apparently from a manuscript of Boccaccio's 
or the manuscript of Ugoletus. 


V = " vulgaris notae libri," of I5th or I6th cent, and 
interpolated. [Schenkl divides them into two 
classes : — 

V = the slightly better ; 
w = the worst. 

Giarratano dislikes Schenkl's subdivision into 

u and ic] 

" Baehrens, the first collator of G, inclined to overvalue it : 
Schenkl, on the other hand, perhaps ovo'valued N. Giarra- 
tano pleads for a fair estimate of the merits of G, even if N is 
on the whole the better manuscript. 



Ax Intervening Ciroup 

P = Parisinus 8049, 12th cent. ; only reaches Ed. 
IV. 12. 

Exc. Par. = Extracts from Calpurnius and Nemes- 
ianus in two Jiorilegia, liber Parisinus 
7647, 12th cent., and liber Parisinus 
17903, 13th cent. 

[The texts of H. Schenkl and of Giarratano 
have been taken into account in determining 
the readings adopted.] 



CoRYDOX : Orxytus 

C. Nondum solis equos declinis mitigat aestas, 
quamvis et madidis incumbant prela racemis 
et spument rauco ferventia musta susurro. 
cernis ut ecce pater quas tradidit, Ornyte, vaccae 
molle sub hirsuta latus explicuere genista ? 5 

nos quoque vicinis cur non succedimus umbris ? 
torrida cur solo defendimus ora galero ? 

O. hoc potius, frater Corydon, nemus, antra petamus 
ista patris Fauni. graciles ubi pinea denset 
silva comas rapidoque caput levat obvia soli, 10 

bullantes ubi fagus aquas radice sub ipsa 
protegit et ramis errantibus implicat umbras. 

C. quo me cumque vocas, sequor, Ornyte ; nam mea 
dum negat amplexus nocturnaque gaudia nobis, 
per\-ia cornigeri fecit sacraria Fauni. 15 

prome igitur calamos et si qua recondita servas. 
nee tibi defuerit mea fistula, quam mihi nuper 
matura docilis compegit harundine Ladon. 

^ declinis NA : declivis GV : declivus P. 



CoRYDON : Ornytus 

Not yet doth the waning summer tame the sun's 
horses, although the wine-presses are squeezing the 
juicy clusters and a hoarse whisper comes from the 
foaming must as it ferments. Look, Ornytus, do 
you see how comfortably the cattle our father trusted 
us to watch have lain do\Mi to rest in the shaggy 
broom ? Why do not we also make for the neigh- 
bouring shade r Why only a cap to protect our 
sunburnt faces r 

Rather let us seek this grove, brother Cory don, — 
the grottoes over there, the haunt of Father Faunus, 
where the pine forest thickly spreads its delicate 
foliage and rears its head to meet the sun's fierce 
rays, where the beech shields the waters that bubble 
'neath its very roots, and with its stravina; boua:hs 
casts a tangled shade. 

Whithersoever you call me, Ornytus, I follow. For 
by refusing my embraces and denying me nightly 
pleasures, my Leuce has left it lawful for me to 
enter the shrine of horned Faunus. Produce your 
reed-pipes then and any song you keep stored for 
use. My pipe, you will find, will not fail you — the 
pipe that Ladon's skill fashioned for me lately out 
of a ripely seasoned reed. 



O. et iani captatae pariter successinius umbrae, 
sed quaenam sacra descripta est pagina fago, 
quam modo nescio quis properanti falce notavit ? 
aspicis ut virides etiam nunc littera rimas 
servet et arenti nondum se laxet hiatu ? 

C. Ornyte, fer propius tua lumina : tu potes alto 
cortice descriptos citius percurrere versus ; 
nam tibi longa satis pater internodia largus 
procerumque dedit mater non invida corpus. 

O. non pastor, non haec trivial! more viator, 
sed deus ipse canit : nihil armentale resultat, 
nee montana sacros distinguunt iubila versus. 

C. mira refers ; sed rumpe moras oculoque sequaci 
quamprimum nobis divinum perlege carmen. 

O. " qui iuga, qui silvas tueor, satus aethere Faunus, 
haec populis ventura cano : iuvat arbore sacra 
laeta patefactis incidere carmina fatis. 
vos o praecipue nemorum gaudete coloni, 
vos populi gaudete mei : licet omne vagetur 
securo custode pecus nocturnaque pastor 
claudere fraxinea nolit praesepia crate : 
non tamen insidias praedator ovilibus ullas 
aiferet aut laxis abiget iumenta capistris. 
aurea secura cum pace renascitur aetas 
et redit ad terras tandem squalore situque 
alma Themis posito iuvenemque beata sequuntur 

25 codice GA. 

^^ fatis Ulitius : fagis codd. 

" Themis, the Greek goddess of justice, was driven from 
earth by man's deterioration after the fabled Golden Age. 
Poets also called her " Astraea." Squalore situque conveys 
an image of the Goddess in her broken-hearted banish- 
ment, squalore suggesting mourning (as in Cicero often) 


\. Now we have both come beneath the shade we 
sought. But what legend is this inscribed upon the 
hallowed beech, which someone of late has scored 
with hasty knife ? Do you notice how the letters 
still preserve the fresh greenness of their cutting 
and do not as yet gape with sapless slit ? 

. Ornytus, look closer. You can more quickly scan 
the lines inscribed on the bark high up. You have 
length enough of limb by the bounty of your father, 
and tall stature ungrudgingly transmitted by your 

». These be no verses in wayside style by shepherd or 
by traveller: 'tis a very god who sings. No ring 
here of cattle-stall ; nor do alpine yodellings make 
refrains for the sacred lay. 

. You tell of miracles ! Away with dallying ; and at 
once with eager eye read me through the inspired 

t. '' I, Faunus of celestial birth, guardian of hill and 
forest, foretell to the nations that these things shall 
come. Upon the sacred tree I please to carve the 
joyous lay in which destiny is revealed. Rejoice 
above all, ye denizens of the woods; rejoice, ye 

' peoples who are mine ! All the herd may stray and 
yet no care trouble its guardian : the shepherd may 
neglect to close the pens at night with wattles of 
ash-w^ood — yet no robber shall bring his crafty plot 
upon the fold, or loosing the halters drive the bullocks 
off. Amid untroubled peace, the Golden Age springs 
to a second birth ; at last kindly Themis," throwing 
off the gathered dust of her mourning, returns to the 
earth ; blissful ages attend the youthful prince who 

and situ the dust that has gathered round her in her motionless 
grief. Now the poet pictures her springing to life again. 



saecula, maternis causani qui vicit lulls. 45 

duni populos deus ipse reget, dabit impia \actas 
post tergum Bellona manus spoliataque telis 
in sua vesanos torquebit viscera morsus 
et, modo quae toto civilia distulit orbe, 
secum bella geret : nuUos iam Roma Philippos 50 
deflebit, nullos ducet captiva triumphos ; 
omnia Tartareo subigentur carcere bella 
immergentque caput tenebris lucemque timebunt. 
Candida pax aderit ; nee solum Candida vultu, 
qualis saepe fuit quae libera Marte professo, 55 

quae domito procul hoste tamen grassantibus 

publica difFudit tacito discordia ferro : 
omne procul vitium simulatae cedere pacis 
iussit et insanos dementia contudit enses. 
nulla catenati feralis pompa senatus GO 

carnificum lassabit opus, nee carcere pleno 
infelix raros numerabit Curia patres. 
plena quies aderit, quae stricti nescia ferri 
altera Saturni referet Latialia regna, 
altera regna Numae, qui primus ovantia caede 65 
agmina, Romuleis et adhuc ardentia castris 

45 vicit XP: vIcit G: lusit V. iiUis XGPV: in 
ulnLs A. 

^5 quae codd. : ceu Baehrens, 

5^ iubila Oodofr. Hermann : vulnera Leo : fulmina H. 
Schenkl in not. : publica codd. {quo servato confodit t. 
praecordia f. Maehly). 


pleaded a successful case for tlu- luli of the mother 
town (of Troy).'' Wliile he, a very Ciod, shall rule 
the nations, the unholy War-(ioddess shall yield and 
have her vanquished hands bound behind her back, 
and, stripped of weapons, turn her furious teeth into 
her own entrails ; upon herself shall she wage the 
civil wars which of late she spread o'er all the world : 
no battles like Philippi shall Rome lament hence- 
forth : no triumph o'er her captive self shall she 
celebrate. All wars shall be quelled in Tartarean 
durance : they shall plunge the head in darkness, 
and dread the light. Fair peace shall come, fair 
not in visage alone — such as she often was when, 
though free from open war, and with distant foe 
subdued, *• she yet 'mid the riot of arms spread 
national strife '' with secret steel. Clemency has 
commanded every vice that wears the disguise of 
peace to betake itself afar : she has broken every 
maddened sword-blade. Xo more sliall the funereal 
procession of a fettered senate weary the headsman 
at his task ; no more will crowded prison leave only 
a senator here and there for the unhappy Curia to 
count. '^ Peace in her fullness shall come ; knowing 
not the drawn sword, she shall renew once more the 
reign of Saturn in Latium, once more the reign of 
Numa who first taught the tasks of peace to armies 
that rejoiced in slaughter and still drew from 
Romulus' camp their fiery spirit — Numa who first 

'^ The reference is to an early oration by Xero on behalf of 
the inhabitants of Ilium (Suet. NerOy 7; Tac. Ann. xii. 58). 

^ This is best taken as a reference to the Roman invasion of 
Britain in Claudius' reign. 

•■ If publicn is right, discordia must be plural of discordiion, 
a rare neuter form. 

^ There were many arbitrary executions ordered by Claudius. 



pacis opus docuit iussitque silentibus armis 
inter sacra tubas, non inter bella, sonare. 
iam nee adumbrati faciem mercatus honoris 
nee vacuos tacitus fasces et inane tribunal 70 

accipiet consul ; sed legibus omne reductis 
ius aderit moremque fori vultumque priorem 
reddet, et afflictum melior deus auferet aevum. 
exultet quaecumque notum gens ima iacentem 
erectumve colit boream, quaecumque vel ortu 75 
vel patet occasu mediove sub aethere fervit. 
cernitis ut puro nox iam vicesima caelo 
fulgeat et placida radiantem luce cometem 
proferat ? ut liquidum niteat sine vulnere plenus ? 
numquid utrumque polum, sicut solet, igne 

cruento 80 

spargit et ardenti scintillat sanguine lampas ? 
at quondam non talis erat, cum Caesare rapto 
indixit miseris fatalia civibus arma. 
scilicet ipse deus Romanae pondera molis 
fortibus excipiet sic inconcussa lacertis, 85 

ut neque translati sonitu fragor intonet orbis 
nee prius ex meritis defunctos Roma penates 
censeat, occasus nisi cum respexerit ortus." 

'® tepet Postgate : patet codd. fervit GP : servit NV. 

'^ niteat Ulitius : mutat XG : mittat P : nutet V 
nonnulli: nictet Barth. 

^■^ prius a XG : pfios = patrios Diets apiid Levy, 
Gnomon^ 1928, pp. 594 sqq. 

" The comet of lines 77 sqq. is taken to be the comet of 
A.D. 54 which was believed to have heralded the death of 



luislied the clash of arms and bade the trumpet 
-^oimd 'mid lioly rites instead of war. No more 
-hall the consul purchase the form of a shadowy 
dignity or, silenced, receive worthless fasces and 
"'. aninsrless judgement-seat. Nay, laws shall be 
t ored ; right will come in fullest force ; a kinder 
iiud will renew the former tradition and look of the 
Forum and displace the age of oppression. Let all 
the peoples rejoice, whether they dwell furthest 
down in the low south or in the uplifted north, 
whether they face the east or west or burn beneath 
the central zone. Do ye mark how^ already for a 
twentieth time the night is agleam in an unclouded 
sky, displaying a comet radiant in tranquil light ? 
and how brightly, with no presage of bloodshed, 
twinkles its undiminished lustre ? Is it with any 
trace of blood-hued flame that, as is a comet's way, 
it besprinkles either pole ? does its torch flash with 
gory fire ? But aforetime it was not such, when, at 
Caesar's taking off, it pronounced upon luckless 
citizens the destined wars.** Assuredly a very god 
shall take in his strong arms the burden of the 
massive Roman state so unshaken, that the world 
will pass to a new ruler without the crash of rever- 
berating thunder, and tjiat Rome will not regard 
the dead as deified in accord with merit ere the 
dawn of one reign can look back on the setting of 
the last."^ 

Claudius, Suet. Claud. 4(3. Similarh',' Virgil, Georg. I. 487 sqq., 
described the celestial portents accompanying the assassina- 
tion of Julius Caesar. 

" The words seem obscurely to imply a succession to imperial 
power without disturbance or interregnum. By one of his 
early acts, Xero proclaimed divine honours for his pre- 
decessor, Claudius. 


VOL. I. O 


C. Ornyte, iam dudum velut ipso numine plenum 

me quatit et mixtus subit inter gaudia terror. 90 

sed bona facundi veneremur numina Fauni. 

O. carmina, quae nobis deus obtulit ipse canenda, 
dicamus teretique sonum modulemin* avena : 
forsitan augustas feret haec Meliboeus ad aures. 


Idas : Astacus : Thyrsis 

Intactam Crocalen puer Astacus et puer Idas, 
Idas lanigeri dominus gregis, Astacus horti, 
dilexere diu. formosus uterque nee impar 
voce sonans. hi cum terras gravis ureret aestas, 
ad gelidos fontes et easdem forte sub umbras 5 

conveniunt dulcique simul contendere cantu 
pignoribusque parant : placet, hie ne vellera 

ille sui \ictus ne messem vindicet horti ; 
et magnum certamen erat sub iudice Thyrsi, 
adfuit omne genus pecudum, genus omne ferarum 
et quodcumque vagis altum ferit aera pennis. 11 

convenit umbrosa quicumque sub ilice lentas 
pascit oves, Faunusque pater Satyrique bicornes ; 
adfuerunt sicco Dryades pede. Naides udo, 

®^ plenum XGP : plenus V. 
II. ^ Crotalem X. 
^ ulmos PV : umbras NG. 
' hie ne Baehrens : hie ut codd. 

^^ quaecumque codd. : quodcumque Ulitius. altum 
codd. : avium Barth. 



Ornytus, Umv^ has my very heinii;, full of the ijod's 
own spirit, been thrilled with awe : min<rlino- with 
my joy it steals upon mc. Come, let us praise the 
kindly divinity of eloquent Faunus. 
Let us rehearse the strains which the god himself 
has presented us to be sung; let us make music 
for it on our rounded reed-pipe. Haply these 
\ 1 rses will be borne by Meliboeus " to our prince's 


Idas : Astacus : Thyrsis 

The virgin Crocale for long was loved by young 
Astacus and young Idas — Idas who owned a wool- 
bearing flock and Astacus a garden. Comely were 
both ; and well-matched in tuneful song. These, 
upon a day when oppressive summer scorched the 
earth, met by a cooling spring — as it chanced, 
beneath the same shady tree ; and made ready to 
contend together in sweet singing and for a stake. 
It was agreed that Idas, if beaten, should forfeit 
seven fleeces and Astacus the produce of his garden 
for the year. Great was the contest to which 
Thyrsis listened as their judge. Cattle of every kind 
were there, wild beasts of every kind, and every 
creature whose roving wing smites the air aloft. 
There met ever)" shepherd who feeds his lazy flocks 
beneath the shady oak, and Father Faunus too and 
the twy-horned Satyrs. Dry-foot the wood-nymphs 
came ; with watery feet the river-nymphs ; and 

" Meliboeus represents the poet's patron, an unidentified 
courtier, or Seneca according to some, or Calpurnius Piso 
according to others : see Introduction. 




et tenuere suos properantia flumina cursus ; 15 

desistiint tremulis incurrere frondibus Euri 
altaque per totos fecere silentia montes : 
omnia cessabant, neglectaque pascua taiiri 
calcabant, illis etiam certantibus ausa est 
daedala nectareos apis intermittere flores. 20 

iamque sub annosa medius consederat umbra 
Thyrsis et " o pueri me iudice pignora " dixit 
" irrita sint moneo : satis hoc mercedis habeto, 
si laudem victor, si fert opprobria victus. 
et nunc alternos magis ut distinguere cantus 25 

possitis, ter quisque manus iactate micantes." 
nee mora : decernunt digitis, prior incipit Idas. 

I. me Silvanus amat, dociles mihi donat avenas 
et mea frondenti circumdat tempora taeda. 
ille etiam parvo dixit mihi non leve carmen : 30 

" iam levis obliqua crescit tibi fistula canna." 

A. at mihi Flora comas pallenti gramine pingit 
et matura mihi Pomona sub arbor e ludit. 
" accipe " dixerunt Nymphae " puer, accipe 

fontes : 
iam potes irriguos nutrire canalibus hortos." 35 

I. me docet ipsa Pales cultum gregis, ut niger albae 
terga maritus ovis nascenti mutet in agna, 

23 habete Kempfer, Baehrens. 

31 crescat NGP : crescit V, Keene : crescet Maehly. 

32 et APV : at NG. pallenti 7)e Rooy : parienti codd. 
pingit XGP : cingit Ha apt. 

33 matura mihi codd. et mihi matura Pomona sub arbore 
plaudit Haupt : alii alia. 



hastening torrents stayed their courses. East- 
winds ceased their rush upon the quivering leaves 
and so made deep silence over all the hills ; every- 
thing stood idle ; bulls trampled the pasture, Mhich 
they heeded not ; during that contest even the 
craftsman bee ventured to leave unvisited the 
nectar-yielding flowers. Now under the shade of an 
aged tree had Thyrsis taken his seat between them 
and said, " Lads, if I am to be judge, I urge that 
the stakes count for nothing. Let sufficient recom- 
pense be won herefrom, if the victor take the glory 
and the vanquished the reproach. Now, the better 
to mark off your alternate songs, raise in sudden 
movement each your hands three times." " They 
obey at once. The finger-trial decides, and Idas 
begins first. 

I am loved of Silvanus — he gives me reeds to obey 
my will — he wreathes my temples with leaves of 
pine. To me while yet a boy he uttered this 
prophecy of no slender import: " Already upon the 
sloping reed there grows a slender pipe for thee." 
But my locks doth Flora adorn Avith pale-green 
grasses, and for me Pomona in her ripeness sports 
beneath the tree. " Take, boy," said the nymphs, 
** take for yourself these fountains. Now with the 
channels you can feed your well-watered orchard." 
Pales herself teaches me the breeding of a flock, 
how a black ram mated with a white ewe produces 
a changed colour in the fleece of the lamb born to 

" In the Itahan game of mora, the two players raise 
simultaneously any number of fingers they like, each calling 
out a number, v»-hi(h •wins if it gives the correct sum of the 
fingers raised by both. Here the winner is the one who 
makes the best score out of three rounds. 



quae neque diversi speciem servare parentis 
possit et ambiguo testetur utrumque colore. 

A. non minus arte mea mutabilis induit arbos 40 

ignotas frondes et non gentilia poma : 
ars mea nunc malo pira temperat et modo cogit 
insita praecoquibus subrepere persica prunis. 

I. me teneras salices iuvat aut oleastra putare 

et gregibus portare novis, ut carpere frondes 45 

condiscant primoque recidere gramina morsu, 
ne depulsa vagas quaerat fetura parentes, 

A. at mihi cum fulvis radicibus arida tellus 
pangitur, irriguo perfunditur area fonte 
et satiatur aqua, sucos ne forte priores 50 

languida mutata quaerant plantaria terra. 

I. o si quis Crocalen deus afferat I hunc ego terris, 
hunc ego sideribus solum regnare fatebor ; 
secernamque nemus dicamque ; " sub arbore numen 
hac erit ; ite procul — sacer est locus — ite profani." 

A. urimur in Crocalen : si quis mea vota deorum 56 

audiat, huic soli, virides qua gemmeus undas 
fons agit et tremulo percurrit lilia rivo, 
inter pampineas ponetur faginus ulmos. 

I. ne contemne casas et pastoralia tecta : 60 

rusticus est, fateor, sed non et barbarus Idas, 
saepe vaporato mihi cespite palpitat agnus, 
saepe cadit festis devota Parilibus agna. 

^^ genitalia i-ulgo : gentilia iv. 

*" vagos codd. : vagas ScaUger. 

*8 at XG : et PV. fulvis codd. : vulsis {vel furvis) 
Burman. arida NGA : altera PV. 

" panditur V. 

5* decernamque XGPH : dicam naraqiie V : discer- 
namque Glaeser : secernamque Grunov. 

^^ hoc erit codd. : hac erit Ulitius : incolit Giarratano. 

" parilibus P : paliribus NG : palilibus V. 



it. insoinucli that tlio lamb cannot preserve the 
a])pearance of the sire so different from its dam, 
and yet testifies to both by varied colour. 

V. No less transformable by my cunning, the tree puts 
on a dress of alien leaves and fruits of a diverse 
■>pecies. My cunning now crosses pears with apples 
and anon constrains engrafted peaches to supplant 
the early plums. 

. It is my joy to lop branches from tender willow or 
wild olive and carry them to the young flocks, that 
they may learn to nibble the leaves and crop the 
herbage with early bite, lest the lambs though 
weaned may follow their straying dams. 

^. But I, when I plant tawny roots in the parched 
ground, drench the flower-bed with a welling flood 
and give it water in plenty lest haply the slips 
droop with the change of soil and feel the need of 
their former moisture. 

[. Oh, if some god bring me Crocale here, him will I 
acknowledge sole ruler of earth and stars. Unto 
him will I hallow a grove and say, " Beneath this 
tree a divinity shall dwell. Begone, ye uninitiated, 
begone ftir hence, 'tis holy ground." 

\. I burn with love for Crocal(*: if any of the gods 
hear my prayer, to him alone shall be dedicated a 
beechen bowl among the vine-clad elms, where the 
sparkling brook speeds its waters, where it flows 
among the lilies with its rippling stream. 

[. Scorn not the cottage and a shepherd's homestead. 
Idas is a rustic, I allow ; but he is not a savage too. 
Oft on the altar of smoking peat writhes the lamb 
offered by me, oft in death falls the ewe-lamb 
devoted at the festival of Pales. 



A. nos quoque pomiferi laribus consuevimus horti 

mittere primitias et fingere liba Priapo, 65 

rorantesque favos damus et liquentia mella ; 
nee fore grata minus, quam si caper imbuat aras. 

I. roille sub uberibus balantes pascimus agnas, 

totque Tarentinae praestant mihi vellera matres ; 
per totum niveus premitur mihi caseus annum : 70 
si venias, Crocale, totus tibi serviet hornus. 

A. qui numerare velit quam multa sub arbore nostra 
poma legam, tenues citius numerabit harenas. 
semper holus metimus, nee bruma nee impedit 

aestas : 
si venias, Crocale, totus tibi serviet hortus. 75 

I. quamvis siccus ager languentes excoquat herbas, 
sume tamen calathos nutanti lacte coactos : 
vellera tunc dabimus, cum primum tempus 

surget et a tepidis fiet tonsura Kalendis. 

A. at nos, quos etiam praetorrida munerat aestas, 80 

mille renidenti dabimus tibi cortice Chias, 

castaneasque nuces totidem, cum sole Decembri 

maturis nucibus virides rumpentur echinni. 

^5 figere NGPA : fundere V : fingere edd. ant. 

^' sunt NGP : fore vel fere V. 

'^ annus vulgo : hornus cod. Titii., edd. ant. 

« Flora, Pomona and Priapus are the " Lares " of the 


1 too have been wont to offer first-fruits to tlie i^ods ^ 
who protect my apple-orchard and to mould for 
Priapus cakes of sacrifice. Dripping combs of trick- 
ling honey I present — nor think they shall be less 
acceptable to heaven than a goat's blood staining 
the altar. 

A thousand lambs I feed which bleat beneath their 
•mother's teats ; as many Tarentine ewes yield me 
their fleeces.'' Throuiihout the year I press the 
snow-white cheese : if you come, Crocale, the whole 
produce of this year will be at your command. 
He mIio would count what multitude of apples I 
gather under my trees will sooner count fine sand. 
Ever am I plucking the green fruits of the earth — 
neither midwinter nor summer stays me. If you 
come, Crocale, the whole garden will be at your 

Although the parched field is withering the drooping 
grass, yet accept from me pails of quivering curdled 
milk. Fleeces will I give in the early days of 
spring sunshine so soon as sheep-shearing starts 
with the temperate kalends.- 

But I who receive gifts even from the scorching 
summer vdW give you a thousand Chian figs of 
glistening skin, and as many chestnuts, when the 
December sun ripens the nuts and their green husks 

'■ Sheep from the district of Tarentum in South Italy were 
famed for the good quality of their wool : Varro, R.R., II. 
ii. 18; Columella, R.B., VII, ii. .3; iv. 3: cf. Horace's refer- 
ence to the valuable fleeces of sheep pasturing near the 
neighbouring river, the Galaesus, Od. II. vi. 10. 

' The moderately warm weather in the months between 
the spring equinox and midsummer is recommended for 
shearing by Varro, R.R. II. xi. G. 


I. num, precor. inforaiis videor tibi: num gravis 
decipiorque miser, quotiens moUissima tango 85 

ora nianu primique sequor vestigia floris 
nescius et gracili digitos lanugine fallo ? 

A. fontibiis in liquidis quotiens me conspicor, ipse 
admiror totiens. etenim sic flore iuventae 
induimur vultus, ut in arbore saepe notavi 90 

cerea sub tenui lucere cydonia lana. 

I. carmina poscit amor, nee fistula cedit amori. 
sed fugit ecce dies revocatque crepuscula vesper, 
hinc tu, Daphni, greges, illinc agat Alphesiboeus. 

A. iam resonant frondes, iam cantibus obstrepit 
arbos : 
i procul, o Doryla, plenumque reclude canalem, 96 
et sine iam dudum sitientes irriget hortos. — 
vix ea finierant, senior cum talia Thyrsis : 
" este pares et ob hoc Concordes vivite ; nam vos 
et decor et cantus et amor sociavit et aetas." 100 


loLLAS : Lycidas 

Numquid in hac, Lycida, vidisti forte iuvencam 
valle meam ? solet ista tuis occurrere tauris, 
et iam paene duas, dum quaeritur, eximit horas ; 
nee tamen apparet. duris ego perdita ruscis 

^^ hie procul P. o GV : y N : et P : i Hmipl. pri- 
mumque codd. : plenumque Haupt, H. Schenkl : rivumque 
Bathrens : pronumque C. Schenkl. canalem PV : canale 
NG : canali Baehrens. 



. Tell mc, pray, you do not think nic imconicly, do 
vou ? not laden with years ? Is it my ill fortune to 
l)e deceived whenever my hand touches my tender 
cheeks and when unconsciously I trace the marks 
of my first bloom and beguile my fingers with the 
slender down ? 

v. Whenever I see my image in the clear stream I 
wonder at myself. For my visage clothes itself 
with the bloom of youth in like manner as I have 
oft remarked wax-like quinces glistening under the 
delicate down upon their tree. 

. Love calls for song : nor is the pipe unequal to the 
call of love ; but lo ! the day departs and evening 
brings the gloaming back. On this side, Daphnis, 
drive the flocks — on that let Alphesiboeus drive 
them home. 

v.. Now are the leaves a-rustling; now the forest 
drowns our song. Go yonder, Dorylas, go ; and 
open full the channel. Let it water the garden- 
plots which have thirsted so long. 

Scarce had they finished so, when Thyrsis full of 
years gave judgement thus: "Be equal: live 
therefore in amity ; for beauty and song, love and 
youth, have made you comrades both." 


loLLAS : Lycidas 

Have you chanced, Lycidas, to see a heifer of mine 
in this vale ? She is wont to go to meet your bulls. 
By now the search for her has wasted nearly two 
hours ; and in spite of all she is not to be seen. 
For long have my legs been hurt by the rough 



iam dudum nuUus dubitavi crura rubetis 5 

scindere, nee qiiiequam post tantiim sanguinis 

L. non satis attendi : nee enim vaeat. uror, lolla, 
uror, et immodice : Lveidan ingrata reliquit 
Phyllis amatque novum post tot mea munera 

I. mobilior ventis o feniina ! sic tua Phyllis : 10 

quae sibi, nam memini, si quando solus abesses, 
mella etiam sine te iurabat amara videri. 

L. altius ista querar, si forte vacabis, lolla. 

has pete nunc salices et laevas flecte sub ulmos. 
nam cum prata calent, illic requiescere noster 15 

taurus amat gelidaque iacet spatiosus in umbra 
et matutinas revocat palearibus herbas. 

I. non equidem, Lycida, quamvis contemptus, abibo. 
Tityre, quas dixit, salices pete solus et illinc, 
si tamen invenies, deprensam verbere multo 20 

hue age ; sed fractum referas hastile memento, 
nunc age die, Lycida : quae noxam magna tulere 
iurgia ? quis vestro deus intervenit amori ? 

L. Phyllide contentus sola (tu testis, lolla) 

Callirhoen sprevi, quamvis cum dote rogaret : 25 

en, sibi cum Mopso calamos intexere cera 
incipit et puero comitata sub ilice cantat. 

^ nullus Heinsius : nullis codd. 

^^ quavis NG : quamvis PV. contemptus P : contentus 
NGV nonnulli. 

"2 vos tarn PV : nos tam G : noxam Baehrens. 

° Palearia, strictly the dewlap or skin hanging from 
the neck of oxen, is loosely used here for mouth and 



l)n>om and yt*l 1 liavc nowise sin-unk from letting 
tlic bramble thickets scratch them: and after so 
nuich loss of blood I have effected nothing. 
I ])nid not enoii«]^h heed; for I have not the time. 
1 burn, I burn with love, lollas — beyond all measure. 
Phyllis has left her Lycidas ungratefully, and after 
all my presents has found a new lover in Mopsus. 
O woman more inconstant than the wind ! Is it 
thus with your Phyllis, who, I remember, when you 
alone were absent, would swear that without you 
honey itself seemed bitter ? 

These troubles I will tell more fully, when you 
chance to have leisure, lollas. Search now these 
willows, and turn beneath the elms on the left. 
For there, when 'tis hot in the meadows, my bull 
loves to rest, as he reclines his great bulk in the 
cool shade, and in his mouth chews the cud after 
his morning's grazing." 

No, Lycidas, I will not go away, though thus 
mocked by you. Tityrus,'' by yourself make for 
those willows he spoke of, and if indeed you find 
the heifer, catch her and drive her thence with 
many a blow here ; but remember to bring back 
your broken crook. Come now, Lycidas, tell me. 
What great quarrel has brought the mischief ? What 
god has come to sunder the love of you two ? 
Content with only Phyllis (you are my witness, 
lollas), I spurned Callirhoe although she asked my 
love with a dowry to offer. Then, lo ! Phyllis begins 
to take Mopsus' aid in joining reeds with wax and 
she sings beneath the oak attended by the youth. 

* lollas bids his attendant search for the missing heifer, 
while he stays behind to hear about Lycidas' quarrel -with his 
sweetheart. Similarly in Theocr. Idyll. Til. 1 sqq. it is Tityrus 
w lio has to work while his master indulges in love and song. 



haec ego cum vidi, fateor, sic intimus arsi, 

ut nihil ulterius tulerim. nam protinus ambas 

diduxi tmiicas et pectora nuda cecidi. 30 

Alcippen irata petit dixitque : " relicto, 

improbe, te, Lycida, Mopsum tua Phyllis amabit." 

nunc penes Alcippen manet ; ac ne forte negetur, 

a I vereor ; nee tam nobis ego Phyllida reddi 

exopto quam cum Mopso iurgetur anhelo. 35 

a te coeperunt tua iurgia ; tu prior illi 

victas tende manus : decet indulgere puellae, 

vel cum prima nocet. si quid mandare iuvabit, 

sedulus iratae contingam nuntius aures. 

iam dudum meditor, quo Phyllida carmine placem. 

forsitan audito poterit mitescere cantu ; 41 

et solet ilia meas ad sidera ferre Camenas. 

die age ; nam cerasi tua cortice verba notabo 

et decisa feram rutilanti carmina libro. 

" has tibi, Phylli, preces iam pallidus, hos tibi 

cantu s 
dat Lycidas, quos nocte miser modulatur acerba, 46 
dum flet et excluso disperdit lumina somno. 
non sic destricta marcescit turdus oliva, 
non lepus, extremas legulus cum sustulit uvas, 
ut Lycidas domina sine Phyllide tabidus erro. 50 

te sine, vae misero, mihi lilia nigra videntur 

30 deduxi V. 

33 negetur XGP : vagetur V. 
3^ cum G : quod XPHV. 

*' excluso NGP : excusso V. disperdit NGPH : dis- 
pergit V : distergit Scaliger. 



\\ lien I saw this, I own, such fh-e I felt within that 
I could endure no more : at once I tore open both 
her vests and beat her naked breast. In fury she 
went to Alcippe, saying as she went, " Spiteful 
Lycidas, your Phyllis will abandon you and give 
her love to Mopsus." And now in Alcippe 's house 
she stays : and oh, I fear that entry will be refused 
me. But more than I desire to have Phyllis restored 
to me, do I pant" to see her quarrel with Mopsus. 
It was with you that your quarrel began. You must 
be the first to stretch out to her your hands in 
surrender. It is fitting to show indulgence to a girl, 
even when she is the aggressor. If you please to 
send any word to her, I as your messenger will take 
care to win your angry mistress' ear. 
Long have I been pondering with what song I am 
to pacify Phyllis. Mayhap, when she hears my lay, 
she can be softened : and it is her way to laud my 
poetry to the stars. 

Come, speak — for I will carve your words upon the 
bark of the cherry-tree and then cut away the lines 
on the red rind and take them to her. 
" These prayers, Phyllis, your Lycidas, now wan with 
grief, despatches to you, this song which in misery 
he plays through the painful night, weeping the 
while and by banishment of sleep doing despite to 
his eyes. No thrush grows thin so much when the 
olive-tree is stripped, nor hare when the gleaner has 
gathered the last grapes, as I, Lycidas, have pined 
a-wandering without Phyllis for my queen. Without 
you (poor wretch that I am!), lilies seem black to 

" anhelo might be an adjective — " the wheezy Mopsus " : 
exopto would then govern first an infinitive {reddi) and 
secondly a subjunctive {iurgetur). 



nee sapiunt fontes et aeescunt vina bibenti. 

at si tu venias, et Candida lilia fient 

et sapient fontes et dulcia vina bibentur. 

ille ego sum Lycidas, quo te cantante solebas 55 

dicere felicem, cui dulcia saepe dedisti 

oscula nee medios dubitasti rumpere cantus 

atque inter calamos errantia labra petisti. 

a dolor ! et post haec placuit tibi torrida Mopsi 

vox et carmen iners et acerbae stridor avenae ? 60 

quern sequeris? quern, Phylli, fugis ? formosior 

dicor, et hoc ipsimi mihi tu iurare solebas. 
sum quoque divitior : certaverit ille tot haedos 
pascere quot nostri numerantur vespere tauri. 
quid tibi quae nosti referam ? scis, optima Phylli, 
quam numerosa meis siccetur bucula mulctris G6 
et quam multa suos suspendat ad ubera natos. 
sed mihi nee gracilis sine te fiscella salicto 
texitur et nullo tremuere coagula lacte. 
quod si dura times etiam nunc verbera, Phylli, 70 
tradimus ecce manus : licet illae vimine torto, 
si libet, et lenta post tergum vite domentur, 
ut mala nocturni religavit bracchia Mopsi 
Tityrus et furem medio suspendit ovili. 74 

accipe, ne dubites, meruit manus utraque poenas. 
his tamen, his isdem manibus tibi saepe palumbes, 
saepe etiam leporem decepta matre paventem 
misimus in gremium ; per me tibi lilia prima 
contigerunt primaeque rosae : vixdum bene 

"^ gracili edd. ant. 

"^ scilicet codd. : si libct Burman : sou licet //. Schenhl: 
sic licet Giarralano. 
'5 dubita PV. 



mc, fountains lose their taste and wine as I drink 
turns sour. But if you come, lilies will grow white 
again, fountains taste aright and wine be sweet to 
drink. I am that Lycidas at whose singing you 
used to declare your joy, to whom you gave many a 
tender kiss, whose strains half-sung you did not 
hesitate to interrupt by seeking my lips as they 
strayed o'er the reed-pipe. O sorrow! and, after 
that, have you been pleased by the harsh voice of 
Mopsus, his lifeless song and the shriek of his 
strident pipe ? Whom do you follow ? and whom, 
Phvllis, do vou avoid ? I am called more comely 
than he, and that is but what you were wont to say 
to me on oath. Besides, I am richer ; let him vie 
in pasturing as many kids as there are bulls of mine 
counted at even-tide. Why should I rehearse to 
you what you know? You are aware, darling 
Phyllis, how many heifers are milked over my 
pails, and how many have calves clinging to their 
teats. But when you are gone, I can weave no 
slender basket-work out of willow-withes : no milk 
quivers in its curdled form. But if even now, 
Phyllis, you are afraid of cruel blows, see, I sur- 
render my hands : let them, if you choose, be bound 
with twisted osier and the tough vine-twig behind 
my back, as Tityrus once bound the knavish arms 
of your night-prowler Mopsus, and strung the thief 
up inside his sheepfold. Take them, be not slow; 
both hands have earned their punishment. Yet 
with these, yes, these same hands, have I many a 
time put turtle-doves or a frightened hare into your 
lap, after snaring their mother ; through me it was 
your luck to get the earliest lilies and the earliest 
roses ; scarce had the bee well partaken of the 


VOL. I. R 


degustarat apis, tu cingebare coronis. 80 

aurea sed forsan mendax tibi munera iactat, 

qui metere occidua ferales nocte lupinos 

dicitur et cocto pensare legumine panem : 

qui sibi tunc felix. tunc fortunatus habetur, 

\'ilia cuni subigit manualibus hordea saxis. 85 

quod si turpis amor precibus, quod abominor, istis 

obstiterit. laqueum miseri nectemus ab ilia 

ilice, quae nostros primum violavit amores. 

hi tamen ante mala figentur in arbore versus : 

* credere, pastores, levibus nolite puellis ; 90 

Phyllida Mopsus habet, Lycidan habet ultima 

rerum.' " — 
nunc age, si quicquam miseris succurris, lolla, 
perfer et exora modulate Phyllida cantu. 
ipse procul stabo vel acuta carice tectus 
vel propius latitans vicina sepe sub horti. 95 

ibimus : et veniet, nisi me praesagia fallunt. 
nam bonus a ! dextrum fecit mihi Tityrus omen, 
qui redit inventa non irritus ecce iuvenca. 

^" degustabat codd. : degustarat Heinsius. 
®" a dextrum Baehrens : a dextro GPV plerique : a 
dextra HV nonnulli. 



flo^vor wlu-n you were crowned with cliaj)!!!^. Hut 
perhaps he may lyin<^ly boast to you of «^ol(len 
gifts— he. who, they say, "lathers the funeral Ui})ines « 
when ni<iht is far spent, and makes up for the lack 
of bread with a boilinfj; of greens, wlio deems him- 
self happy and blest by fate in the very hour when 
he grinds inferior barley with a mill his own hand 
works. But if (I pray, heaven forfend I) a base 
passion is an obstacle to these my pleadings, I \v\\\ 
in my misery twine a noose from yonder oak-tree 
which first did outrage to our affection.* Yet, ere 
all is o'er, these lines shall be affixed upon the 
accursed tree : ' Shepherds, put not your trust in 
fickle maids. Phyllis is loved by Mopsus ; the 
end of all claims Lycidas.' " — Come now, lollas, if 
you have any help for misery, take this missive to 
Phyllis and entreat her with harmonious song. My- 
self I will stand apart, perhaps concealed by prickly 
reed-grass or hiding nearer beneath the neighbouring 
garden hedge. 

I will go : and Phyllis y,vi\\ come, unless the portents 
cheat me. For the good Tityrus has brought me an 
omen — ah ! a favourable one I Look, he returns 
successful, my heifer found. 

° Lupines were served at feasts in honour of the dead, and 
were sometimes carried off by the poorer guests : cf. Tibull. I. 
V. 53-54. Their main use was to feed cattle. 

» See 26-27. 

R 2 


Meliboeus : Corydox : Amyntas 

M. Quid tacitus, Corydon, vultuque subinde minaci 
quidve sub hac platano, quam garrulus adstrepit 

insueta statione sedes ? iuvat algida forsan 
ripa levatque diem vicini spiritus aninis ? 

C. carmina iani dudum, non quae neniorale resultent, 5 
volvimus, o Meliboee ; sed haec, quibus aurea 

saecula cantari, quibus et deus ipse canatur, 
qui populos urbesque regit pacemque togatam. 

M. dulce quidem resonas. nee te diversus Apollo 

despicit, o iuvenis, sed magnae nuniina Romae 10 
non ita cantari debent, ut ovile Menalcae. 

C. quicquid id est, silvestre licet videatur acutis 
auribus et nostro tantum memorabile pago ; 
nunc mea rusticitas, si non valet arte polita 
carminis, at certe valeat pietate probari. 15 

rupe sub hac eadem. quam proxima pinus 

haec eadem nobis frater meditatur Amyntas, 
quem vicina meis natalibus admovet aetas. 

M. iam puerum calamos et odorae vincula cerae 

iungere non cohibes, levibus quem saepe cicutis 20 
ludere conantem vetuisti fronte paterna ? 
dicentem, Corydon, te non semel ista notavi : 

3 insueta XGH : inseta P : infesta cod. Vat. Urb. 353. 
huraida cod^. : algida Baehrens : herbida H. Schenkl. 

^ urbemque V. 

^2 in hoc versa desinit P. 

^* nunc XG, Exc. Par. : dum V : nam Baehrens : non 
C. Schenkl. 



' Meliboeus : Corydox : Amyntas 

vl. Corydon, why sit you silent with a visage that bodes 
something ever and anon? Why sit you in an 
unwonted place, beneath this plane-tree at whose 
roots brawl the prattling waters ? Maybe you like 
the watery bank, where the breeze from the neigh- 
bouring stream assuages the heat of day ? 

'. lor long, Meliboeus, have I been pondering verses, 
\ rrses of no woodland ring but fit to celebrate the 
uolden age, to praise even that very god who is 
sovereign over nations and cities and toga-clad peace. ^ 

rl. Sweet of sound are your lays and 'tis not with cold 
disdain that Apollo looks upon you, young Corydon : 
but the divinities of mighty Rome are not to be 
extolled in the same style as the sheepfold of 

'. Whate'er my song, though it seem boorish to a 
critic's ears and worthy of record only in my o\vti 
village, yet, as things are, my awkwardness, even if 
lacking in poetry's polish and skill, must surely win 
approval for its loyalty. Beneath this same rock 
shaded by the nearest pine-tree, kindred strains to 
mine are composed by my brother Amyntas, whose 
neighbouring years bring his time of birth near 
to mine. 

i. Ah! do you not now stop the lad from joining his 
reeds in bonds of fragrant wax, as with a father-like 

I frown you often checked him when he tried to play 
on slender hemlock-stems ? Not once alone, Cory- 
don, have I remarked you giving advice like this : 

" Cf. I. 42 sqq. 
I 245 


" frange, puer, calamos et inanes desere Musas ; 
i, potius glandes rubicundaque collige corna, 
due ad mulctra greges et lae venale per urbem 
non tacitus porta, quid enim tibi fistula reddet, 
quo tutere famem ? certe mea carmina nemo 
praeter ab his scopulis ventosa remurmurat echo." 
C. haec ego, confiteor, dixi, MeUboee, sed ohm : 
non eadem nobis sunt tempora, non deus idem, 
spes magis arridet : certe ne fraga rubosque 
colligerem viridique famem solar er hibisco, 
tu facis et tua nos alit indulgentia farre ; 
tu nostras miseratus opes docilemque iuventam 
hiberna prohibes ieiunia solvere fago. 
ecce nihil querulum per te, Meliboee, sonamus; 
per te secura saturi recubamus in umbra 
et fruimur silvis Amaryllidos, ultima nuper, 
litora terrarum. nisi tu, Meliboee, fuisses, 
ultima visuri trucibusque obnoxia Mauris 
pascua Geryonis, liquidis ubi cursibus ingens 
dicitur occiduas impellere Baetis harenas. 
scilicet extremo nunc vilis in orbe iacerem, 
a dolor I et pecudes inter conductus Iberas 
irrita septena modularer sibila canna ; 
nee quisquam nostras inter dumeta Camenas 
respiceret ; non ipse daret mihi forsitan aurem, 
ipse deus vacuam, longeque sonantia vota 

39-40 vocabula litora et ultima traiecit Havpt (opusc. I. 



Boy, break your })ipes, forsake tlie l)e^«rarly 
j Muses. Go, gather aeorns instead and red eornel- 
eherries ; lead lierds to the milking-pails ; loud in 
\()ur ery through the city carry your milk for sale. 
What will the pipe bring you to ward off famine ? 
Of a truth, no one repeats my lay save the wind- 
sped echo from yonder crags." 
I. This, I confess, I did say, Meliboeus ; but it was 
long ago ; our times are not the same now, our god 
is changed.** Hope wears a more radiant smile ; 
in sooth, it is your doing that I no more gather 
strawberries and brambles, or assuage hunger with 
green mallow. Your kindness feeds us with grain. 
You, in pity for our means and quick-taught youth, 
stop us from dispelling hunger-pangs with beech- 
nuts in winter. Lo I 'tis thanks to you, Meliboeus, 
that no complaint passes our lips : thanks to you 
we recline well-fed in care-free shade, and enjoy 
the woodland of Amaryllis.^ But for thee, Meliboeus, 
we should of late have looked upon the furthest, yea, 
the furthest shores of earth, Geryon's meadows 
exposed to the Moor's fury, where mighty Baetis,*^ 
they say, with flowing currents strikes upon the 
western sands. Doubtless should I now lie an out- 
cast at the world's end, oh. woe I and, but an hire- 
ling, among Iberian flocks should be playing on 
sevenfold pipe my unavailing scrannel tunes : no one 
would give a glance at my muses among the thorn- 
bushes : he himself, our divine sovereign himself, may- 
hap would never lend a leisured ear to me, nor hear, 

" i.e. an emperor has come to the throne, who favours 
poetry with his patronage. 

* The reference is to Virgil's formosam resonare doces 
Amaryllida .«ilvas. Eel. i. 5. 

<■ The Guadakiuivir in Spain. 



scilicet extremo non exaudiret in orbe. 
sed nisi forte tuas melior sonus advocat aures 
et nostris aliena magis tibi carmina rident, 
vis, hodierna tua subigatur pagina lima ? 
nam tibi non tantum venturos dicere nimbos 
agricolis qualemque ferat sol am'eus ortum 
attribuere dei, sed dulcia caraiina saepe 
concinis, et modo te Baccheis Musa corymbis 
munerat et lauro modo pulcher obumbrat Apollo, 
quod si tu faveas trepido mihi, forsitan illos 
experiar calamos, here q-os mihi doctus lollas 
donavit dixitque : " truces haec fistula tauros 
conciliat : nostroque sonat dulcissima Fauno. 
Tityrus hanc habuit, cecinit qui primus in istis 
montibus Hyblaea modulabile carmen avena." 
M. magna petis, Corydon, si Tityrus esse laboras. 
ille fuit vates sacer et qui posset avena 
praesonuisse chelyn, blandae cui saepe canenti 
allusere ferae, cui substitit advena quercus. 
quern modo cantantem rutilo spargebat acantho 
Xais et implicitos comebat pectine crines. 

^^ dicere ventos X : discere veiitos GH : dicere nimbos 
X^ : noscere nimbos V plerique. 

^^ modulabile carmen V : carmen mulamine (modu- 
labile 7n^) X : carmen modukA^it G : carmen modulatus 
//. Schenld. 

" For theories identifying Meliboeus see Introduction- 
It has been pointed out there that some take this passage 
as a reference to Seneca. 

^ The reference is to tragedy (the ivy being sacred to 
Bacchus) and to lyric poetry (the laurel being sacred to 



ill sooth, the distant sound of my prayers at earth's 
I furthest ends. But if perehance no sweeter melody 
attract your ear, if the songs of others fail to charm 
you more than mine, will you let the pa^e I compose 
to-day be corrected by your critical file r For not 
only have the gods given to you to tell husbandmen 
of coming rain-storms and of the kind of sunrise a 
i^olden sunset offers, but you are often the singer of 
sweet poetr}'," and now the Muse rewards you with 
Bacchic ivy-clusters, now fair Apollo shades your 
J brow with laurel.^ But if you would show fjivour 
to my nervous attempts, perhaps I might make trial 
of those reeds which skilful loUas ^ presented to me 
yesterday with the words, " This pipe wins over 
savage bulls, and makes sweetest melody to our own 
Faunus. It once was owned by Tityrus, who among 
these hills of yours was the first to sing his tuneful 
lay on the Hyblaean pipe." ^ 
I. You aim high, Corydon, if you strive to be Tityrus. 
He was a bard inspired, one who could on the reed- 
pipe outplay the lyre. Often, while he sang, beasts 
of the wild fawned in frolic near, and the oak came 
close and halted there : did he but sing, a Naiad 
would adorn him with red acanthus and dress with a 
comb his tangled locks. 

'■ lolla-s, according to Wernsdorf, stands for a scholar or poet 
who had prompted the writing of the Eclogues. Some have 
suggested one of Calpurnius' teachers, or even Theocritus — 
which conflicts with the idea that Tit^-rus is Virgil. Cesareo 
wisely refuses to identify lollas. La Poesia di Calp. Sic, p. 174. 

"^ Ancient authority regarded the Tityrus of Virgil's 
Eclogues as representing the poet himself. The allusion in 
Uyblaea is to the pastoral poetn,' of the Sicilian Theocritus, 
which Virgil imitated: Virg. Ed. X. 51, carmina pastoria 
Siculi moiiuldbor a vena. 



C. est — fateor, Meliboee, — deus : sed nee mihi 
forsitan abnuerit ; tu tantum eommodus audi : 
scimus enim, quam te non asperiietur Apollo. 

M. incipe, nam faveo ; sed prospice, ne tibi forte 
tinnula tani fragili respiret fistula buxo, 
quam resonare solet, si quando laudat Alexin, 
hos potius, magis hos calamos sectare : canales 
exprime qui dio;nas cecinerunt consule silvas. 
incipe, ne dubita. venit en et frater Amyntas : 
cantibus iste tuis alterno succinet ore. 
ducite, nee mora sit, vicibusque reducite carmen ; 
tuque prior, Corydon, tu proximus ibis, Amynta. 

C. ab love principium, si quis canit aethera, sumat, 
si quis Atlantiaci pondus molitur Olympi : 
at mihi, qui nostras praesenti numine terras 
perpetuamque regit iuvenili robore pacem, 
laetus et augusto felix arrideat ore. 

A. me quoque facundo comitatus Apolline Caesar 
respiciat, montes neu dedignetur adire, 
quos et Phoebus amat, quos luppiter ipse tuetur ; 
in quibus Augustos visuraque saepe triumphos 
laurus fructificat vicinaque nascitur arbos. 

'® hos potius V : hospicius NG. magnos calamos Leo : 
magis hos calamos NG : calamos magis hos V : magis 
hos calamo Baehren^s. 

'^ exprime Leo : et preme NG : prome vel pro me V: 
per me A, Wernsdorf: primi Bursian. 

®° dicite codd. {fortasse rede, cf. F. 81 audiat aut dicat) : 
ducite Barth. 

®- canit V : canat N {corr. m^) G. 

®" visuraque NG : visurus V : visurae Barth. 

" Virg. Ed. IV. 3, si canimtis silvas, silvae sint consule 
dignae. The contrast is between the amatory poetry of 
Virgil's second eclogue entitled "Alexis," and the loftier 
tone of the fourth entitled " Pollio " after the consul of 


•4 He is, I own, a poet divine, Meliboeus, but may- 
hap Phoebus will not say me nay either : do you 
but favourably hear me ; for we know how far 
Apollo is from sliiihtinir you. 

I. Beirin, my favour is with you; but take heed lest 
}u reliance your tinklingr pipe breathe from boxwood 
a> frail as is its usual sound whene'er the praise 
of Alexis is the theme. Rather these reeds, these 
far more you must pursue : press the pipes which 
sang of woods worthy a consul." Begin ; have no 
doubt. See, your brother x\myntas comes too. In 
alternate refrain his voice will answer your verses. 
Draw out your lay : dally not : in tunis resume the 
song. You first. Condon, and you will come next, 

. From Jove let every bard begin, ^ whoso sings of 
the sky, whoso essays to describe the Olympian 
burden which Atlas bears. For myself, may I 
win a glad propitious smile from the imperial lips 
of him whose incarnate godhead rules our lands 
and whose youthful prowess rules the eternal peace. 

.. On me too may Caesar, with eloquent Apollo 
for comrade, look with favour : nor let him disdain 
to approach my hills which even Phoebus loves, 
which Jove himself protects : where blooms the 
laurel, destined to see many an imperial triumph, 
where rises too the laurel's companion-tree.*^ 

40 B.C. and prophesying a golden age of peace. Here in 
Calpurnius the praises of Xero as " Caesar " correspond to 
the higher theme of the " PoUio." 

** A quotation from Virg. Eel. III. 60, which is in turn an 
echo of Theocr. XVII. 1. 

' The oak, sacred to Jupiter, especially at the oracle of 
Dodona. With the laurel of victory there may be associated 
in the poet's mind the oak garland given for saving a 
citizen's life in battle. 



C. ipse polos etiam qui temperat igne geluque, 
luppiter ipse parens, cui tu iam proximus ipse, 
Caesar, abes, posito paulisper fulmine saepe 
Cresia rura petit viridique reclinis in antro 
carniina Dictaeis audit Curetica silvis. 

A. adspicis, ut virides audito Caesare silvae 

conticeant ? memini, quanivis urgente procella 
sic nemus immotis subito requiescere ramis, 
et dixi : " deus hinc, certe deus expulit euros." 1 
nee mora ; Parrhasiae sonuerunt sibila cannae. 

C. adspicis, ut teneros subitus vigor excitet agnos ? 
utque superfuso magis ubera lacte graventur 
et nuper tonsis exundent vellera fetis ? 
hoc ego iam, memini, semel hac in valle notavi 
et venisse Palen pecoris dixisse magistros. 

A. scilicet omnis eum tellus, gens omnis adorat, 
diligiturque deis, quern sic taciturna verentur 
arbuta, cuius iners audito nomine tellus 
incaluit floremque dedit ; cui silva vocato 
densat odore comas, stupefacta regerminat arbos. 

C. illius ut primum senserunt numina terrae, 
coepit et uberior sulcis fallentibus olim 
luxuriare seges tandemque legumina plenis 
vix resonant siliquis : nee praefocata malignum ] 
messis habet lolium nee inertibus albet avenis. 

*^ ad finem versus ipse V : esse NG : ecce Leo. 

** habes NGV : abes H : ades Burman : aves IfOrville . 
ovas Baehrens. 

i"! Parrhasiae i/eiWtSiwtS : pharsalieN": farsalie G : phar- 
saliae AV plerique. sonuerunt AH : solverunt codd. 

" Baehrens' allotment of stanzas is followed here. 
Giarratano gives 92-96 to Corydon and thinks that 
Amyntas' corresponding stanza has dropped out here : he 
also postulates transpositions later in the poem. H. Schenkl 
gives 87-96 to Amyntas so that he inverts Baehrens' 


JEven he, controller of the licaNcns in heat aiul 
cold, our father .hqiiter himself, to whom you your- 
self, Caesar, now stand next, doth oft lay down his 
thunderbolt awhile to visit Cretan meads, and, in 
some verdant grot reclining, 'mid Dicte's forests 
listens to Curetic lays." 

Do you see how the green woods are hushed at 
the sound of Caesar's name ? I remember how, 
despite the swoop of a storm, the grove, even as 
now, sank sudden into peace with boughs at rest. 
And I said, " A god, surely a god has driven the 
east winds hence." Forthwith the Parrhasian '^ 
reeds let their notes go free. 

Do you see how a sudden vigour thrills the tender 
lambs, how the ewe's teats are more heavily laden 
with abundant milk, how, just after shearing, the 
fleeces of the dams grow in luxuriant waves ? This 
once ere now, I mind me, I noted in this valley, 
and how the shepherds said, " Pales has come." 
Yes, and him doth all the earth and every nation 
adore. He is beloved of the gods ; as you see, the 
arbutus-tree pays him silent homage ; at the sound 
of his name the sluggish earth has warmed to life 
and yielded flowers : invoke him, and in his honour 
the wood spreads thick its perfumed foliage, and the 
spellbound tree breaks into bud again. 
As soon as the earth felt his divine influence, crops 
began to come in richer abundance, where furrows 
erstwhile disappointed hope ; at length the beans 
scarce rattle in their well-filled pods : no harvest 
is choked with the spread of the barren tare, or 
whitens with unproductive oats. 

allotment of stanzas from 97 to 121 : he marks a missing 
stanza by Amyntas after verse 121. 

* Panhasia, in Arcadia, was one of Pan's haunts. 



A. iam neque damnatos metuit iactare ligones 
fossor et invento, si fors dedit. utitur auro ; 
nee timet, ut nuper, dum iugera versat arator, 
ne sonet ofFenso contraria vomere massa, 120 

iamque palam presso magis et magis instat 

C. ille dat. ut primas Cereri dare cultor aristas 
possit et intacto Bromiimi perfundere vino, 
ut nudus ruptas saliat calcator in uvas 
utque bono plaudat paganica turba magistro, 125 
qui facit egregios ad pervia compita ludos. 

A. ille meis pacem dat montibus : ecce per ilium, 
seu cantare iuvat seu ter pede lenta ferire 
gramina, nullus obest : licet et cantare choreis 
et cantus \1ridante licet mihi condere libro, 130 

turbida nee calamos iam surdant classica nostros. 

C. numine Caesareo securior ipse Lycaeus 

Pan recolit silvas et amoena Faunus in umbra 
securus recubat placidoque in fonte lavatur 
Nais et humanum non calcatura cruorem 135 

per iuga siccato velox pede currit Oreas. 

124 saliat A v : psal(l)at XGzr. 

129 gramina edd. antiq. : carmina codd. 

1^2 Lycaeas Heinsius. 

1^* placitoque Heinsius : placido quin Haupt. 

" Wernsdorf takes damnatos as "wretched," "miser- 
able," because involving toil ("pro infelicibus, laboriosis, 
ut invisam [sr. fo.ssori] terram, Hor. Od. III. xviii. 15-16 "). 
Cf. "hateful nights," damnalae nodes, Propert. V. xi. 15. 
But a more likely sense is "criminal," "condemned," as 
a transferred epithet: i.e. the spade is now innocent 
)>ecause, even if it unearths treasure, this no longer brings 
a prosecution on the digger. 



J No more does the ditj^er dread to ply the criininal 

' spade : " what treasure-trove of ^old chance offers 
him he puts to use. Nor, as of late, does the 
plouijhman, while turning up his acres, fear that 
an ingot may ring against the impact of his plough- 
share ; '' now openly he pushes on more and more 
with plough deep-driven. 

. By his favour <^ the cultivator can give to Ceres 
the first corn-ears and to Bromius pour libation of 
wine till now unbroached : thanks to him the light- 
clad vintager tramples the bursting clusters and the 
village throng applauds their Js^od mayor, who 
holds magnificent games at the meeting of the 

. He it is who bestows peace on my hills. See, 
it is through him that no one prevents me, if 'tis 
my pleasure to sing or to tread the sluggish grass 
in triple measure. In choral dance too may I sing, 
and I may preserve my songs on the green bark ; 
and no more do boisterous trumpets dro\\ii our 
reed-pipes' note. 

Emboldened by Caesar's divine protection, Lycean 
Pan himself revisits the groves and Faunus reclines 
untroubled in the lovely shade. The Naiad bathes 
in the unruffled stream and, free from the risk of 
treading on human gore, the Oread courses swiftly 
o'er mountain-ranges, her foot unstained. 

* Treasure-trove had sometimes led to dangerous ditKculties 
■with the imperial authorities : see Juv. IV. ,37 sqq. 

*■ i.e. under the emperor's auspices, agriculture is in a 
position to honour the gods aright. 

^ The Compitalia, celebrated at the shrines where cross- 
roads met, were held at a date between the Saturnalia 
(Dec. 17) and Jan. 5. See W. Warde Fowler, Roman 
Festivals, 1899, pp. 279-80. 



A. di. precor, hunc iuvenem, quern vos (neque fallor) 
ab ipso 
aethere misistis, post longa reducite vitae 
tempora vel potius mortale resolvite pensum 
et date perpetuo caelestia fila metallo : 140 

sit deus et nolit pensare palatia caelo ! 

C. tu quoque mutata seu luppiter ipse figura, 

Caesar, ades seu quis superum sub imagine falsa 
mortalique lates (es enim deus) : hunc, precor, 

hos, precor, aeternus populos rege ! sit tibi caeli 145 
vilis amor coeptamque, pater, ne desere pacem I 

M. rustica credebam nemorales carmina vobis 
concessisse deos et obesis auribus apta ; 
verum, quae paribus modo concinuistis avenis, 
tarn liquidum, tarn dulce cadunt, ut non ego 

quod Paeligna solent examina lambere nectar. 151 

C. o mihi quae tereti decurrunt carmina versu 
tunc, Meliboee, sonent si quando montibus istis 
dicar habere Larem, si quando nostra videre 
pascua contingat ! velHt nam saepius aurem 155 

invida paupertas et dicit : " oviha cura ! 
at tu, si qua tamen non aspernanda putabis, 
fer, Mehboee, deo mea carmina : nam tibi fas est 

^*- tu quoque mutata codd. : tu commutata Ilaupt : tu 
modo mutata Baehrens. 

^^* etenim NG : es enim Glaeser. 

^^^ canunt codd. : cadunt Burman. 

^^^ solent XGAH : sonant V : legunt edd. antiq. 

^^2 o mihi HV : olim NG. quae teriti G : quam tenero 
V : quae tereti Glaeser [post hunc versnm H. Schenkl 
lacunam statuil). 

^^^ contingat NG : contigerit V, Baehrens. 



O ye gods, I pray you, recall only after a long 
I span of life this youth, whom ye, I knt)w it well, 
have sent us from heaven itself: or rather untwine 
his allotted skein of mortality and grant him 
celestial threads of the metal of eternity. Let 
him be a god and yet loath to exchange his palace 
for the sky." 
, Thou too,^ Caesar, whether thou art Jupiter 
himself on earth in altered guise, or one other of the 
powers above concealed under an assumed mortal 
semblance (for thou art very God) — rule, I pray 
thee, this world, rule its peoples for ever I Let 
love of heaven count as nought with thee : abandon 
not, O Sire, the peace thou hast begun I 
.. I used to think they were but rustic lays which the 
sylvan deities bestowed on you — lays fit for cloddish 
ears ; but what you have even now sung on w'ell- 
matched pipes has so clear, so sweet a fall that I 
would not liefer sip the nectarous honey which 
Pelignian swarms are wont to sip.^ 
Oh ! the songs of mine which run in humble verse 
would then, my Meliboeus, resound, if ever on 
these hills I were called the owner of a homestead, 
if ever I had the fortune to see pastures of my own. 
Too often does malicious poverty pluck my ear and 
say, " The sheepfold is your task." But you, 
Meliboeus, if in spite of all you think that any of my 
poems are not to be disdained, then take them to 
the Emperor-God. For you have the right to visit 

" i.e. let him remain a divine emperor in his residence on 
the Palatine Hill. 

'' quoque is justified, as the last stanza is addressed to all 
the gods and this one to Caesar, i.e. Xero. 

'^ The allusion is to Ovid, who was born at Sulmo in the 
district of the Peligni. 

VOL. I. S 


sacra Palatini penetralia visere Phoebi. 
turn mihi talis eris, qualis qui dulce sonantem 160 
Tityron e sihis dominam deduxit in urbem 
ostenditque deos et " spreto " dixit " ovili, 
Tityre, rura prius, sed post cantabimus arma." 

A. respiciat nostros utinam fortuna labores 

pulchrior et meritae faveat deus ipse iuventae ! 165 
nos tamen interea tenerimi mactabimus haedum 
et pariter subitae peragemus fercula cenae. 

M. nunc ad flumen oves deducite : iam fremit aestas, 
iam sol contractas pedibus magis admovet umbras. 



Forte Micon senior Canthusque, Miconis alumnus, 
torrentem patula vitabant ilice solem, 
cum iuveni senior praecepta daturus alumno 
talia verba refert tremulis titubantia labris : 

" quas errare vides inter dumeta capellas 5 

canaque lascivo concidere gramina morsu, 
Canthe puer, quos ecce greges a monte remotos 

^^^ deos cald. : deis Heinsius. 

^^^ fremit NV : premit Heinsius : furit Maehly. acstus 

V. ^ canaque V : vanaque NG. gramina GV, C'iarra- 
tano : germina NH {corr. m^), Baehrens, II. ScJienkl. 



' the holy inner shrine of the Palatine Phoebus." 
Then you shall be to me such as he was who 
brought Tityrus ^ of tuneful song from the woods to 
the queen of cities, showed him the divine powers, 
and said, " We will scorn the sheepfold, Tityrus, 
and sing first the countryside but, later, the 
weapons of war." 

.. Oh, that a fairer fortune would look upon my 
labours and that the God in person would show 
favour to deserving youth ! Yet meanwhile we 
will slay a tender kid and prepare withal the courses 
of a hasty meal. 

I. Take forthwith the sheep to the river. Now 'tis 
the raging heat of summer: now the sun curtails 
the shadows and brings them closer to our feet.*' 



It fell out that the aged Micon and Canthus, 
Micon's foster-son, were seeking shelter from the 
blazing sun beneath a spreading holm-oak, when 
to give counsel to his fosterling the old man \vith 
shaky lips uttered these faltering w^ords : 

" The she-goats you see straying among the 
thickets and cropping with playful bite the dew- 
glistening grass, the flocks, Canthus, my boy, which 
lo ! you see have left the mountain-side and are 

[ " The emperor was already associated with Apollo in verse 
1 87. The palace was near the famous library of Apollo on the 

* Tityrus means Virgil : under the patronage of Maecenas 
I he turned from tlie Eclogues {e silvis, 101) to the (,'eorgics 
I {rura, 163) and, later, to the Aeneid (arma, 163). 
' ' I.e. it is the noontide of a summer day. 



ceriiis in aprico decerpere gramina campo, 
hos tibi do senior iuveni pater : ipse tuendos 
accipe. iam certe potes insudare labori, 10 

iani pro nie gnavam potes exercere iuventam. 

adspicis lit nobis aetas iam niille querellas 
afFerat et baculuin premat inclinata senectus ? 
sed qua lege regas et amantes lustra capellas 
et melius pratis errantes mollibus agnas, 15 


vere novo, cum iam tinnire volucres 
incipient nidosque reversa lutabit hirundo, 
protinus hiberno pecus omne movebis ovili, 
tunc etenim melior vernanti germine silva 
pullat et aestivas reparabilis incohat umbras, 20 

tunc florent saltus widisque renascitur annus, 
tunc Venus et calidi scintillat fervor amoris 
lascivumque pecus salientes accipit hircos. 
sed non ante greges in pascua mitte reclusos, 
quam fuerit placata Pales, tum cespite vivo 25 

pone focum geniumque loci Faunumque Laresque 
salso farre voca ; tepidos tunc hostia cultros 
imbuat : hac etiam, dum vivit, ovilia lustra, 
nee mora, tunc campos ovibus, dumeta capellis 
orto sole dabis. simul hunc transcendere montem 30 
coeperit ac primae spatium tepefecerit horae. 
at si forte vaces, dum matutina relaxat 

21 silvae codd. : tiliae Maehly : saltus Baehrens : segetes 
C. et H. Schenkl. 
32 relaxet G. 



browsing on the herbage in the sunny meadow, 
these I, your aged sire, make over to you, while 
you are yet young. Take them into your own 
cliarge : now truly can you sweat o'er the task, 
now in my stead you can ply your active youth. 

Do you see how the years now bring me a thousand 
plaints, and how the stoop of age leans on the staff? 
But learn the rules for your control over the she-goats 
which love the copses and over the lambs which 
stray to better purpose in the grassy meadows. 

In the fresh spring-time when birds will be 
already starting to twitter and the returned swallow 
daubing its nest with mud, you are forthwith to 
shift the whole flock from its winter fold. For 
richer then sprouts the wood with fresh-growing 
buds, and, as it revives, makes the beginning of 
summer shade. Then the glades are in blossom 
and the green year is born again. Then is \^enus' 
time, when sparkles the warm glow of love and the 
wanton herd welcomes the leaping he-goats. But 
do not turn loose the flocks and send them into the 
meadows till Pales has been propitiated. Then 
build an altar of fresh sods and with salted meal 
invoke the genius of the place and Faunus and the 
Lares. Then let a victim stain the knives warm 
with blood : with it too, while it yet lives, purify 
the sheepfold." Thereafter, you will, without delay, 
let the sheep roam the meadows and the goats 
the thickets, when the sun has risen, as soon as 
he has begun to surmount the hill here and has 
warmed the course of the matin hour. But if you 
chance to have leisure, while the sun melts the frosts 

" A lustration-ritual could be carried out by solemnly 
leading round the victim before it was sacrificed. 



frigora sol, timiidis spiuiiantia mulctra papillis 

implebit quod mane fluet ; rursusque premetur 

mane quod occiduae mulsura redegerit horae. 35 

parce tamen fetis : ne sint compendia tanti, 

destruat ut niveos venalis caseus agnos ; 

nam tibi praecipuo fetura coletur amore. 

te quoque non pudeat, cum serus ovilia vises, 

si qua iacebit o\-is partu resoluta recenti, 40 

banc umeris portare tuis natosque tepenti 

ferre sinu tremulos et nondum stare paratos. 

nee tu longinquas procul a praesepibus berbas 

nee nimis amotae sectabere pabula silvae, 

dum peragit vernum Io\'is inconstantia tempus. 45 

veris enim dubitanda fides : modo fronte serena 

blandius arrisit, modo cum caligine nimbos 

intulit et miseras torrentibus abstulit agnas. 

at cum longa dies sitientes afFeret aestus 
nee fuerit variante deo mutabile caelum, 50 

iam sih^s committe greges, iam longius herbas 
quaere ; sed ante diem pecus exeat : umida dulces 
efficit aura cibos, quotiens fugientibus euris 
frigida nocturno tanguntur pascua rore 
et matutinae lucent in gramine guttae. 55 

at simul argutae nemus increpuere cicadae, 

-2 spument tibi V plerique : spumantia Barfh. 

3^ implebis codd. : implebit Haupt : in tenebris Housmnn. 

^* coletur NG : colatur V, Baehrens. 

*^ patenti V plerique : parenti NG : tepenti 1B.W. 

*• sitientes GV nonnuUi : sitientibus V nonnulli. 



of (lawn, [\\v nioniing flow of milk will fill tiur pails 
a-frothiu'j^ from the swelling dugs ; and again the 
yield of milking at the evening hour will be pressed 
for cheese in the morning. Yet spare the young- 
lings : let not thrift be of such moment that cheese 
for the market ruins the snow-white lambs." For 
the young you will tend with supreme regard. 
And, when at night you visit the sheepfold, if any 
ewe lies enfeebled by recent lambing, be not ashamed 
to carry her on your own shoulders and to bear in 
your warm bosom the quivering lambs that cannot 
yet stand. You must not seek out grazing-ground 
far distant from your stalls, nor the food yielded 
by too remote a wood while the fickleness of the 
sky is carrying the spring season to its close. To be 
distrusted is the faith of spring : one hour she smiles 
coaxingly unclouded of brow ; the next she brings 
rain-clouds with fog and bears away the luckless 
lambs in raging streams. 

But when long days bring the thirsty summer 
heats, when the weather is no longer changeable 
under an inconstant sky, then trust your flocks to 
the woodland, then seek for pasture at a greater 
distance : yet see that the herd goes out ere 
daylight. The moist air sweetens their food, when- 
ever, as the east winds fall, the chill meadows are 
touched with night-dew and in the morning sparkling 
drops are on the grass. But as soon as the chirping 
tree-crickets shrill through the grove, drive your 

" i.e. your anxiety to sell must not divert to cheese-making 
the milk which the Iambs need. 

" tinguuntur V nonnulli. 



ad fontem compelle greges ; nee protiniis herbas 
et eampos permitte sequi. sed protegat illos 
interea veteres quae porrigit aeseulus umbras, 
verum ubi declini iam nona tepescere sole 60 

incipiet seraeque t videbitur hora merendae, 
rursus pasce greges et opacos desere lucos. 
nee prius aestivo pecus includatur ovili, 
quam le^ibus nidis somnos captare volueris 
cogitet et treniulo queribunda fritinniat ore. 65 

cum iam tempus erit maturas demere lanas, 
sucida iam tereti constringere vellera iunco, 
hircorumque iubas et olentes caedere barbas, 
ante tamen secerne pecus gregibusque notatis 
consimiles include comis, ne longa minutis, 70 

moUia ne duris coeant, ne Candida fuscis. 
sed tibi cum vacuas posito velamine costas 
denudavit ovis, circumspice, ne sit acuta 
foi-pice laesa cutis, tacitum ne pustula virus 
texerit occulto sub vulnere : quae nisi ferro 75 

rumpitur, a I miserum fragili rubigine corpus 
arrodet sanies et putria contrahet ossa. 
providus (hoc moneo) viventia sulphura tecum 
et scillae caput et virosa bitumina portes, 
vulneribus laturus opem ; nee Brutia desit 80 

pix tibi : tu liquido picis unguine terga memento, 

58 sed G : sine V. 

*° declivi V : declivis XG : declini Hcinsius. nona 
codd. : sera Baehrens : rura . . . incipient Maehly. 

^^ incipiet serique v.h. premendi NG : incipiet seraeque 
v.h. merendae V : incipit atque seri v.h. premendi Baehrens. 

^^ tremulo tremebundo fruniat ore XG : tinniat ore 
AH : tremulo queribunda {vel gemibunda) fritinniat ore 
G'laeser : tremuli tremel^unda coagula lactis X (cf. III. 69). 

*^ maturas NGA : maternas V. 

'^ forfice V. pusula X : pustula GV. 

8^ pix tibi : tu Baehrens : pia tibi NG : dura tibi X^V. 

CALPURNius sicrLrs 

Hocks to the waters, and do not allow them to ranfje 
over grass and open fields without a respite ; " but 
for an interval let them be protected by the oak 
i which spreads its ancient shade. When, however, 
'neath a westering sun, the ninth hour already 
begins to mark a cooling of heat, when it seems to 
be time for a late luncheon, set your flocks grazing 
again and quit the shady groves. Do not pen your 
herd in the summer sheepfold until the birds in 
their fragile ne^t^ think of wooing sleep and twitter 
their plaints with tremulous note. 

When the time is already come to shear the full- 
grown wool, the time to bind the greasy fleeces 
with swathes of rushes and cut the neck-tufts and 
rank beards of the he-goats, yet first separate the 
herd ; brand your flocks and pen together the sheep 
of similar wool, lest long go with short, smooth with 
rough, or white with dark. But when you find a 
sheep has bare sides after losing the covering fleece, 
take heed lest the skin has been hurt by the sharp 
shears and lest an inflamed sore has covered a 
secret poison beneath the unnoticed wound ; unless 
the sore is opened with the steel, alas I the corrupted 
blood will eat away the wretched bodv^ by reason 
of the tender ulcer and will shrivel the bones into a 
crumbling mass. Here is my counsel ; have the 
foresight to take with you native sulphur and the 
head of a sea-leek and strong-smelling bitumen, so 
that you may bring relief to such wounds. Be 
not without Bruttian pitch ; if the back is torn, 
forget not to smear it with the liquid ointment ; 

" protinus is here taken in a time sense, leading up to 
interea {cf. Juv. III. 140 protinus ad cen-sum, de moribus 
ultima fiet quaestio) : locally, it might mean "far and \ride." 



si sint rasa, Unas, vivi quoque pondera melle 
argenti coquito lentumque bitumen aheno, 
inipressurus ovi tua nomina ; nam tibi lites 
auferet ingentes lectus possessor in armo. 85 

nmic etiam, dum siccus ager, dum fervida tellus, 
dum rimosa palus et multo torrida limo 
aestuat et fragiles nimium sol pulverat herbas, 
lurida conveniet succendere galbana septis 
et tua cervino lustrare mapalia fumo. 90 

obfuit ille malis odor anguibus : ipse videbis 
serpentum cecidisse minas : non stringere dentes 
uUa potest uncos, sed inani debilis ore 
marcet et obtuso iacet exarmata veneno. 

nunc age vicinae circumspice tempora brumae 95 
qua ratione geras. aperit cum vinea sepes 
et portat lectas securus circitor uvas, 
incipe falce nemus vivasque recidere frondes. 
nunc opus est teneras summatim stringere virgas, 
nunc hiemi servare comas, dum permanet umor, 100 
dum viret et tremulas non excutit Africus umbras, 
has tibi conveniet tepidis fenilibus olim 
promere, cum pecudes extremus clauserit annus, 
hac tibi nitendum est, labor hie in tempore noster, 
gnavaque sedulitas redit et pastoria virtus. 105 

ne pigeat ramos siccis miscere recentes 

^2 rasa V : rara NG : scabra vel cruda H. Schenkl. 
durae NG : vivi (sc. argenti) V nonnulli : vini HV 
nonnulli. massae NG : melle vel moUe V : durae . . . 
malthae ardenti Giarratano. 

®^ argenti NGV plerique (ardenti G in marg.) : arrhenici 
//. Schenkl : chalcanthi Haupt, Bnehrens. 

*i obfuit codd. : obvius Burman : obficit Maehly. 

*' circitor NG : vinitor V. 

^°* hoc ... hie NG : hac . . . hinc Glaeser : hac . . . 
hie H. Schenkl : hue . . . hue Baehrens. 



strc}) too a heavy mass of quicksilver in hoiuy and 
>ti<,ky pitch in a caukh'on, when you mean to stamp 
y(nir name on your sheep, for the owner's name read 

I on the shoukler will save you from serious law-suits. 
Now also, while the field is parched and earth 

i burning hot, while the marsh is seamed with cracks, 
scorched and seething in its plenteous mud, and 
the sun too powerfully reduces the slender herbs 
to dust, then it will be suitable to set on fire pale 
yellow gum-resin in the folds and purify your huts 
with the fimies of burned hart's horn." Such an 
odour is enemy to noxious snakes ; with your own 
eyes you will see the serpents' threatening mien 
collapse ; not one can bare its crooked fangs, but, 
jaw powerless, each shrivels in weakness and, with 
its poison blunted, lies disaiTned. 

Now come, take heed how to manage the season 
of approaching winter. When the vineyard clears 

I its rows, and the watchman, care-free, carries home 
the gathered grapes, then begin to prune the wood 
and its un^^'ithered leaves. Now is there need to 
lop the tender twigs at the top of the tree, now to 
conserve leaves for the winter, while the sap remains, 
while the wood is green and the African wind does 
not yet dislodge the quivering shade. These leaves 
you will find it serviceable to bring out from your 
warm haylofts later, when the end of the year has 
confined your cattle to the fold. Thus must you 
strive amain ; such is our work in due season. 
Vigorous industry and the shepherd's manly task 
ever come round again. Be not slow to mingle 
fresh boughs with dry^ and to supply new sap, lest 

" In ancient times a chief source of ammonia. 



et sucos adhibere novos, ne torrida nimbis 
instet hiemps nimioque gelu nmbusque coactis 
incursare vetet nemus et constringere frondes ; 
tu tamen aut leves hederas aut molle salictum 110 
valle premes media, sitis est pensanda tuorum, 
Canthe, gregum widante cibo : nihil aridus illis, 
ingenti positus quamvis strue, prosit acervus, 
virgea si desint liquido turgentia suco 
et quibus est aliquid plenae vitale medullae. 115 

praecipue gelidum stipula cum fronde caduca 
Sterne solum, ne forte rigor penetrabile corpus 
urat et interno vastet pecuaria morbo. 

plura quidem meminisse velim, nam plura 
sed iam sera dies cadit et iam sole fugato 120 

frigidus aestivas impellit Noctifer horas." 


AsTYLUs : Lycidas : Mxasyllus 

A. Serus ades, Lycida : modo Nyctilus et puer 
certavere sub his alterno carmine ramis 
iudice me. sed non sine pignore. Nyctilus haedos 

^"^ ne torrida l^GVplerique : licet horrida Martellius : 
dum torr. Haupl : cum torr. Giarratano. 

^^^ incur vare velit NG : incursare vetet Haupt. 
^^- cante G : chante N. 




iting winter swoop u})on you with its rain-clouds 
.and by excessive frost and drifts of snow prevent you 
from raiding the forest and from making bundles 
of leaves ; ** but in the heart of the valley you will 
prune the smooth ivy or pliant willow-copse.^ 
With fresh green fodder, Canthus, you must allay 
the thirst of your flocks. No withered heap, stacked 
in however luige a pile, would avail them, if you 
lacked fodder of sprouts which are swollen with juicy 
sap and have some life-giving substance of fullest 
pith. Above all strew the chill ground with stubble 
as well as fallen leaves lest frost nip the sensitive 
body and waste the herds with deep-set disease. 

Fain would I recall more precepts ; for more 
remain. But now the late day fcills ; and, now that 
the sun is put to flight, the chill Night-Bringer <^ 
drives forth the summer hours." 


AsTYLus : Lycidas : Mnasyllus 

You are here too late, Lycidas. Just now 
Nyctilus and young Alcon have been contending in 
alternate song beneath these branches. I was 
umpire : each laid a stake. Nyctilus pledged his 

" The passage urges the need to get green stuff betimes 
for the flocks before winter makes it diflfieult to bring it in 
from the woods. 

* i.e. if prevented by frost and snow from cutting other 

*■ i.e. Hesperus, the evening star : cf. note on Eleg. in 
Maecen, I. 129-132. 



iuncta matre dedit ; catulum dedit ille leaenae 
iuravitque genus, sed sustulit omnia victor. 

L. Nyctilon ut cantu rudis exsuperaverit Alcon, 
Astyle, credibile est, si vincat acanthida cornix, 
vocalem superet si dirus aedona bubo. 

A. non potiar Petale, qua nunc ego maceror una, 
si magis aut docili calamorum Nyctilus arte 
aut cantu magis est quam vultu proximus illi. 

L. iam non decipior : te iudice pallidus alter 
venit et hirsuta spinosior hystrice barbam ; 
candidus alter erat levique decentior ovo 
et ridens oculis crinemque simillimus auro, 
qui posset dici, si non cantaret, Apollo. 

A. o Lycida, si quis tibi carminis usus inesset, 
tu quoque laudatum nosses Alcona probare. 

L. vis igitur, quoniam nee nobis, improbe, par es, 
ipse tuos iudex calamos committere nostris ? 
vis conferre manum ? veniat licet arbiter Alcon. 

A. vincere tu quemquam ? vel te certamine quis- 
dignetur, qui vix stillantes, aride, voces 
rumpis et expellis male singultantia verba ? 

L. fingas plura licet : nee enim potes, improbe, vera 

^ Laconem vel Lacaenae IJeinsius. 

* Petale editio Ascensiana et vulgo : Crocale GV. 
^^ posses codd. : nosses Ilaupt. 
22 vinces NG : vincere V : vincen Claeser, Baehrens. 



^oat-kids along with their mother; Aleon pledged 
a whelp from a lioness mother, atfirming its breed 
on oath." But he won and carried off all. 

. That untrained Alcon can have beaten Nyctilus 
in song is only believable, Astylus, if the crow can 
excel the goldfinch or the eerie owl surpass the 
tuneful nightingale. 

. May I never win Petale, for whom alone I pine, 
if Nyctilus can rank next him in trained skill upon 
the pipes or in song any more than in looks, 

. No longer am I deceived. When you were 
umpire, Nyctilus came pale, his beard pricklier 
than the bristly porcupine. But his rival was fair, 
sleeker than a smooth egg, with laughter in his 
eyes and the very gleam of gold in his hair, worthy 
the name " Apollo," if only he did not sing. 

. O Lycidas, if you'd any practice in song, you too 
would know how to applaud x\lcon and award him 
the palm. 

Well then, since you're not on a level even with 
me, you rascal, will you yourself, umpire though 
you've been, match your reed-pipes against mine ? 
Will you join strife ? Alcon, if you like, may come 
as arljiter. 

Can i/OM beat anyone ? or would anyone deign to 
compete with you ? — scarce can your dry throat 
jerk out its dribbling notes and squirt words forth 
in miserable gasps. 
More lies you may tell; and yet, you rascal, you 

" It was a cross similar to the semifera proles of Grattius 
Cyneg. 253. Pollux V. 38 mentions the Hyrcanian breed 
from dogs and lions (Ta? Se 'Tp/cava? eV kwcov koX Xeovrojv, 
Koi KXrjdrjvai AeoiTo/iiyeij). Alcon has offered a sort of sworn 
warranty of its pedigree. 




exprobrare mihi, sicut tibi multa Lycotas. 26 

sed quid opus vana consumere tempora lite ? 
ecce venit Mnasyllus : erit (nisi forte recusas) 
arbiter inflatis non credulus, improbe, verbis. 
A. malueram, fateor, vel praedamnatus abire 30 

quam tibi certanti partem committere vocis. 
ne tamen hoc impune feras : en adspicis ilium, 
Candida qui medius cubat inter lilia, cervum ? 
quamvis hunc Petale mea diligat, accipe victor, 
scit frenos et ferre iugum sequiturque vocantem 35 
credulus et mensae non improba porrigit ora. 
adspicis, ut fruticat late caput utque sub ipsis 
comibus et tereti pendent redimicula collo ? 
adspicis, ut niveo frons irretita capistro 
lucet et a dorso, quae totam circuit alvum, 40 

alternat vitreas lateralis cingula buUas ? 
cornua subtiles ramosaque tempora molles 
implicuere rosae rutiloque monilia torque 
extrema cervice natant, ubi pendulus apri 
dens sedet et nivea distinguit pectora luna. 45 

hunc, sicutque vides, pignus, Mnasylle, paciscor 
pendere, dum sciat hie se non sine pignore vinci. 
L. terreri, Mnasylle, suo me munere credit : 

adspice, quam timeam ! genus est, ut scitis, 

^° praedamnatus NA : predam nactus V. 
*- subtiles cwld. : summa vides F. Leo : sutilibus molles 
raraosa coroUis Heinsius. 

**■ natant NH : natent G : notant V : nitent Ulitius. 



can't bring true reproaches against me like all 
that Lycotas brings against you. But what need 
to waste our time in fruitless wrangling ? See, 
here comes Mnasyllus. He will be (unless mayhap 
you shirk the challenge) an umpire undeceived, 
you rascal, by boastful words. 

I own I had preferred to depart, even though 
condemned beforehand, rather than match a bit 
i»f my voice against your rivalry. Still, that you 
may not go unpunished for all this — look, do you 
-ce yonder stag that reclines in the heart of the 
white lilies ? Though my own Petale is fond of him, 
take him if you win. He is trained to bear reins 
and yoke and follows a call with trustfulness ; 'tis 
no glutton mouth he shoots out for his food. Do 
you see how his head branches wide with antlers, 
and how the necklet hangs beneath his very horns 
and shapely neck r Do you see how his forehead 
gleams, enmeshed with sno\\T frontlet, and how 
from his back the side girth, circling his whole belly, 
has amulets of glass on this side and on that ? Roses 
twine neatly round his horns and softly round his 
branching temples ; and a collaret with red-gold 
chain dangles from beneath the neck, where a boar's 
pendent tusk is set, showing up his breast with 
snow-white crescent. This stag, just as you see 
him, is the stake whose forfeiture I risk, Mnasyllus, 
to secure that this fellow may know he is not worsted 
in a stakeless conflict. 

He thinks, Mnasyllus, that his wager frightens 
me. Look how alarmed I am ! You know I have 

**^ sicumque vides G : sicutque Baehrens, Giarratano : 
hunc ego qualeracumque vides in valle V. 
*' perdere NH : prodere G : pendere N^V. 

VOL. I. T 


non vulgare mihi ; quarum de sanguine ponam 50 

velocem Petason, qui gramina matre relicta 

nunc primum teneris libavit dentibus : illi 

terga sedent, micat acre caput, sine pondere cervix, 

pes levis, adductum latus, excelsissima frons est, 

et tornata brevi substringitur ungula cornu, 55 

ungula, qua viridi sic exsultavit in arvo, 

tangeret ut fragiles, sed non curvaret, aristas : 

hunc dare, si vincar, silvestria numina iuro. 

M. et vacat et vestros cantus audire iuvabit. 

iudice me sane contendite, si libet : istic 60 

protinus ecce torum fecere sub ilice Musae. 

A. sed, ne vicini nobis sonus obstrepat anmis, 
gramina linquamus ripamque volubilis undae. 
namque sub exeso raucum mihi pumice lymphae 
respondent et obest arguti glarea rivi, 65 

L. si placet, antra magis vicinaque saxa petamus, 
saxa, quibus viridis stillanti vellere muscus 
dependet scopulisque cavum sinuantibus arcum 
imminet exesa veluti testudine concha. 

M. venimus et tacito sonitum mutavimus antro : 70 

seu residere libet, dabit ecce sedilia tophus, 
ponere seu cubitum, melior viret herba tapetis. 
nunc mihi seposita reddantur carmina lite ; 
nam vicibus teneros malim cantetis amores : 
Astyle, tu Petalen, Lycida, tu Phyllida lauda. 75 

5<* vulgare NGA : iugale V. Post 52 vel post 53 est 
vulgo insertus dubius versus 54 {pes levis etc.) : 53-57 exstant 
in Exc. Par., om. 54. 

"'^ me sane NV : mascillo G : Mnasyllo Baehrens. 

''^ mutavimus NG : mutabimus Burraan. 



some mares of no mean breed ; from their stoek 
swift-footed Petasos I will stake : now for the first 
time weaned from his mother, he has cropped the 
orass with tender teeth. His back is firmly set, 
head tossing keenly, neck free from over-weight, 
foot light, flank thin, forehead high-poised ; and 
below, in narrow sheath of horn, is bound his shapely 
hoof — the hoof which takes him prancing across the 
green cornland so lightly as to touch, but not bend, 
the slender blades. By the woodland deities I 
swear, him I will give, if I lose. 

M. I am at leisure and 'twill be a joy to hear your 
-ongs. Compete, of course, if you so wish and I 
will judge. Look, yonder, straight ahead, the 
Muses have made a couch under the ilex-tree. 

\. Nay, let us leave the meadow and the bank of 
the flowing stream, so that the sound of the neigh- 
bouring river may not drown our music. For under 
the worn porous rock the waters echo me hoarsely, 
and the gravel of the babbling brook spoils a 

L If you wish, let us seek the caves rather and the 

1 crags which neighbour them, those crags where 
clings green moss with dripping fleece, and a vaulted 

I roof, as it were of tortoise-shell scooped out, over- 

'< hangs the rocks which make a curving hollow arch. 

M. We have arrived; we have exchanged the noise 
for the silent cave. If you wish to sit down, look, 
the tufa will afford a seat ; if you wish to recline, 
the green grass is better than couch-coverlets. 
Now, away with your -wrangling and render me 
your songs ; I would rather that in turn you sang 
of tender love-affairs. Astylus, sing you the praises 
of Petale, and you, Lycidas, of Phyllis. 



L. tu modo nos illis (iam nunc, Mnasylle, precamur) 
auribus accipias, quibus hunc et Acanthida nuper 
diceris in silva iudex audisse Thalea. 

A. non equideni possum, cum provocet iste, tacere. 
rumpor enim, Mnasylle : nihil nisi iurgia quaerit. 80 
audiat aut dicat, quoniam cupit ; hoc mihi certe 
dulce satis fuerit, Lycidam spectare trementem, 
dum te teste palam sua crimina pallidus audit. 

L. me, puto, vicinus Stimicon, me proximus Aegon 
hos inter frutices tacite risere volentem 85 

oscula cum tenero simulare virilia Mopso. 

A. fortior o utinam nondum Mnasyllus adesset ! 
efficerem, ne te quisquam tibi turpior esset. 

M. quid furitis, quo vos insania tendere iussit? 

si vicibus certare placet — sed non ego vobis 90 

arbiter : hoc alius possit discernere iudex ! 
et venit ecce Micon, venit et vicinus lollas : 
litibus hi vestris poterunt imponere finem. 

*" ranasille X: raascille G: merito V, 
8=» te teste GH : te stante NV. 

^^ mutare Maehly : misccre Baehrens : sociare C. 

^" sed G : sum Baehrens : sic Barth. 

" Acanthis has been guessed to be either an ordinary 
shepherdess or a dangerous witch, like her namesake in 



L,. 1 pray you, Mnasyllus, do you l)ut hear us this 
VL-ry hour with that same ear witli which, 'tis said, 
you heard and judged Astylus and Acanthis of hite 
in the Thalean wood." 

A. I cannot keep quiet when that fellow provokes 
me. I am ready to burst, Mnasyllus ; he is only 
seeking a quarrel. Let him listen or recite, since 
^o he desires. 'Twill be joy enough for me to 
watch Lycidas quaking, when, blenched, he hears 
in your presence his evil deeds made public. 

L. It was at me, I suppose, friend Stimicon and at me 
neighbour Aegon had their secret laugh in the 
--hrubbery here for wanting to ape the kisses of a 
urown man with young Mopsus, 

A. Mnasyllus is stronger than I am. Oh, I wish he 
were still off the scene! then I'd take good care 
that you (Lycidas) never saw an uglier face than 
your own I 

M. Why do you storm at each other? To what 
bounds has your madness urged you to go ? If you 

want to compete in turn But no, I'll not be your 

umpire: someone else may be the judge to settle 
this ! Look, here come both Mycon and neighbour 
lollas : they will be able to put a close to your strife. 

Propertius, IV. v. 63. Thale{i)a may imply either " Sicilian " 
from association with the nymph of that name in Sicily 
mentioned by Macrobius, Sat. V. xix, or simply "bucolic," 
since Thalia was muse of pastoral poetry as well as of 
comedy (rf. Virg. Eel, VI. 1-2, where Servius gives Thaha 
as the proper Latin form). Some think it = Latin virens, 
connecting it with the root of ^aAAetv and daXXos, a young 
branch. Another view is to take Thalea as a nominative, 
i.e. *'a true bucolic muse when you acted as judge," "a 
Thalea come to judgement." Whatever the obscurity of 
allusion, however, it is certain that Astylus is annoyed, and 
would assault Lycidas but for the presence of Mnasyllus. 




L. Lentus ab urbe venis, Corj^don ; vicesima certe 
nox fuit, ut nostrae cupiunt te cernere silvae, 
ut tua maerentes exspectant iubila tauri. 

C. o piger, o duro non mollior axe, Lycota, 

qui veteres fagos nova quam spectacula mavis 5 

cernere, quae patula iuvenis deus edit harena. 

L. mirabar, quae tanta foret tibi causa morandi, 
cur tua cessaret taciturnis fistula silvis 
et solus Stimicon caneret pallente corynibo : 
quein sine te maesti tenero donavimus haedo. 10 

nam, dum lentus abes, lustravit ovilia Thyrsis, 
iussit et arguta iuvenes certare cicuta. 

G. sit licet invictus Stimicon et praemia dives 
auferat, accepto nee solum gaudeat haedo, 
verum tota ferat quae lustrat ovilia Thyrsis : 15 

non tamen aequabit mea gaudia ; nee mihi, si quis 
omnia Lucanae donet pecuaria silvae, 
grata magis fuerint quam quae spectavimus urbe. 

L. die age die, Corydon, nee nostras invidus aures 

despice : non aliter certe mihi dulce loquere 20 

quam cantare soles, quotiens ad sacra vocatur 
aut fecunda Pales aut pastoralis Apollo. 

2 fuit codd. : ruit Heinshis : subit Baehrens. 
1' scilicet codd. plerique : sit licet Vnonnulli. 
^^ spectavimus AH : spettamus in G : spectamus in NV. 
2" despice codd. : decipe Baehrens. 

" The emperor Xero. 

'' The Palilia {Parilia) or festival of Pales (cf. 22 infra, 
II. 63, V. 25) was celebrated by shepherds in April and was 
accompanied by musical competitions. 




Lycotas : Cory DON 

You are slow, Cory don, in coming ])ack from 
Rome. For twenty nights past, of a truth, have 
our woods longed to see you, and the saddened bulls 
waited for your yodellings. 

you slow-coach, no more unbending than a 
tough axle, Lycotas, you prefer to see old beech- 
trees rather than the new sights exhibited by our 
youthful god ® in the spacious arena. 

1 wondered what could be reason enough for 
your delay, why your pipe was idle in the silent 
woods, and why Stimicon, decked in pale ivy, sang 
alone : to him, for want of you, we have sadly 
awarded a tender kid. For while you tarried from 
home, Thyrsis purified the sheepfolds and bade 
the youths compete on shrill-toned reed.^ 

Let Stimicon be unconquered and win prizes 
to enrich him, — let him not only rejoice in the kid 
he has received, but let him carry off the whole 
of the folds which Thyrsis purifies, still he will not 
equal my joys, nor yet, if someone gave me all the 
herds of Lucanian forests, would they delight me 
more than what I have seen in Rome. 
Tell me, come, tell me, Corydon, Be not so 
grudging as to disdain my ears. Truly, I shall find 
your words as sweet as your songs are wont to be 
whenever men to sacred rites invoke Pales the fertile 
or Apollo of the herds. ^ 

'= The Apollo of Euripides' Alcestis had been compelled to 
tend the flocks of King Admetus in Thessaly. 



C. vidimus in caelum trabibus spectacula textis 
surgere, Tarpeium prope despectantia culmen ; 
emensique gradus et clivos lene iacentes 25 

venimus ad sedes, ubi pulla sordida veste 
inter femineas spectabat turba cathedras. 
nam quaecumque patent sub aperto libera caelo, 
aut eques aut nivei loca densavere tribuni. 
qualiter haec patulum concedit vallis in orbem 30 
et sinuata latus resupinis undique silvis 
inter continuos curvatur concava montes : 
sic ibi planitiem curvae sinus ambit harenae 
et geminis medium se molibus alligat ovum, 
quid tibi nunc referam, quae vix suffecimus ipsi 35 
per partes spectare suas ? sic undique fulgor 
percussit. stabam defixus et ore patenti 
cunctaque mirabar necdum bona singula noram, 
cum mihi iam senior, lateri qui forte sinistro 
iunctus erat, " quid te stupefactum, rustice," dixit 
" ad tantas miraris opes, qui nescius auri 41 

sordida tecta, casas et sola mapalia nosti ? 
en ego iam tremulus iam vertice canus et ista 
factus in urbe senex stupeo tamen omnia : certe 
vilia sunt nobis, quaecumque prioribus annis 45 

vidimus, et sordet quicquid spectavimus olim." 

25 immensosque codd. : emensique Schrader. 
« iam NG : tarn V. tremulus et NGV : tr. tam AH : 
tr. iam Friesemann. 

" This is best taken as describing the wooden amphi- 
theatre constructed by Nero in a.d. 57 (.Suet. Nero, 12 ; Tac. 
Ann. xiii. 31). 

^ For the allotment of seats at Roman spectacula see Suet. 
Aug. 44. Keene's edition of Calpurnius has an appendix on 
the amphitheatre in relation to this eclogue. 

'^ The first amphitheatre determined the oval shape, as it 



I aw a theatre that rose skyward on interwoven 
In nu'^ and almost looked doAvn on the summit of 
thr C'ajntoline." Passing up the steps and slopes 
ot uentle incline, we came to the seats, where in 
dingy garments the baser sort viewed the show close 
to the women's benches. For the uncovered parts, 
exposed beneath the open sky, were thronged by 
knights or white-robed tribunes.'' Just as the 
valley here expands into a wide circuit, and, winding 
at the side, with sloping forest background all 
around, stretches its concave curve amid the un- 
broken chain of hills, so there the sweep of. the 
amphitheatre encircles the level ground, and the 
oval in the middle is bound by twin piles of building,'' 
Why should I now relate to you things which I my- 
self could scarcely see in their several details ? So 
dazzling was the glitter everywhere. Rooted to the 
spot, I stood with mouth agape and marvelled at 
all, nor yet had I grasped every single attraction, 
when a mian advanced in years, next me as it chanced 
I'll my left, said to me: "Why wonder, country- 
( 'Mi^in, that you are spellbound in face of such 
111 lunificence ? you are a stranger to gold and 
• 1 ly know the cottages and huts which are your 
liiiinble homes. Look, even I, now palsied with 
;i-(', now hoary-headed, grown old in the city 
tin re, nevertheless am amazed at it all, Certes, 
we rate all cheap we saw in former years, and 
shabby every show we one day watched." 

was made by C. Scribonius Curio (Plin. X.H. xxxvi. 15 (24), 
117) of two wooden theatres revolving on pivots to face each 
other, and each greater than a semicircle. Pliny pictures the 
imperial Roman people whirled round by this invention 
through the air and cheering at the risk they ran (loc. cit. 



balteus en gemmis, en illita porticus auro 
certatim radiant ; nee non, ubi finis harenae 
proxinia marmoreo praebet spectacula muro, 
stemitur adiunctis ebur admirabile truncis 5C 

et coit in rotulum, tereti qui lubricus axe 
impositos subita vertigine falleret ungues 
excuteretque feras. auro quoque torta refulgent 
retia, quae totis in harenam dentibus exstant, 
dentibus aequatis ; et erat (mihi crede, Lycota, 55 
si qua fides) nostro dens longior omnis aratro. 
ordirio quid refer am ? vidi genus omne ferarum, 
hie niveos lepores et non sine cornibus apros, 
hie raram silvis etiam, quibus editur, alcen. 
vidimus et tauros, quibus aut cer\-ice levata 60 

deformis seapulis torus eminet aut quibus hirtae 
iactantur per colla iubae, quibus aspera mento 
barba iacet tremulisque rigent palearia setis. 
nee solum nobis silvestria cernere monstra 
contigit : aequoreos ego cum certantibus ursis 65 
spectavi vitulos et equorum nomine dictum, 
sed deforme pecus, quod in illo nascitur amne 
qui sata riparum vernantibus irrigat undis. 
a ! trepidi, quotiens sola discedentis harenae 

*^ vernantibus XGA : venientibus V. 

^^ sol discedentis N (nos supra sol m^) : sodiscendentis 
G : nos descendentis V : sola discedentis Haupt : se 
discindentis Baehrens : alii alia. 

<» i.e. the podium (ttoSiov), a projecting parapet or balcony 
just above the arena for the emperor or other distinguished 
spectators. The balteus was a praecinrtio, a wall running 
round the amphitheatre at intervals dividing the tiers of 
seats into stories. 



■ Look, the partition-belt begemmed and the gilded 
arcade vie in brilliancy; and withal just where the 
end of the arena presents the seats closest to the 
marble wall," wondrous ivory is inlaid on connected 
beams and unites into a cylinder which, gliding 
smoothly on well-shaped axle, could by a sudden 
turn balk any claws set upon it and shake off the 
beasts.^ Bright too is the gleam from the nets of 
gold wire which project into the arena hung on 
solid tusks, tusks of equal size; and (believe me, 
Lycotas, if you have any trust in me) every tusk 
was longer than our plough. Why narrate each 
sight in order ? Beasts of every kind I saw ; here 
I saw snow-white hares and horned boars, here I 
saw the elk, rare even in the forests which produce 
it. Bulls too I saw, either those of heightened nape, 
with an unsightly hump rising •from the shoulder- 
blades, or those with shaggy mane tossed across the 
neck, with rugged beard covering the ^h,'^^ "'^n^ 
quivering bristles upon their st^^ ^ ^^^^ ^* ^P^^^^ 
was it my lot only to se^ 

sea calves also I bfs for letting beasts rise from under- 
them and the na are well illustrated by the excavations 
of horses itneatrum Flavium (the "Colosseum"). 

i.i'.autv of an artificiallv contrived garden in the 
spring-ly^^g contrasts with the savage beasts; and the 
banks. ors are refreshed by jets of saffron water. 

b T.-nth explains demiltere as " inserere aut intro porrigere." 

., jaetaphor may be from planting. 




vidimus inverti, ruptaque voragine terrae 70 

emersisse feras ; et in isdem saepe cavernis 
aurea cum subito creverunt arbuta nimbo. 

L. o felix Corydon, quern non tremebunda senectus 
impedit I o felix, quod in haec tibi saecula primes 
indulgente deo demittere contigit annos ! 75 

nunc, tibi si propius venerandum cernere numen 
fors dedit et praesens vultumque habitumque 

die age die, Corydon, quae sit mihi foniia deorum. 

C. o utinam nobis non rustica vestis inesset : 

vidissem propius mea numina ! sed mihi sordes 80 

pullaque paupertas et adunco fibula morsu 

obfuerunt. utcumque tamen conspeximus ipsum 

longius ; ac, nisi me visus decepit, in uno 

nee soliitfi YJiltus et Apollinis esse putavi. 

contigit : aequoreos ^t> : tj 

spectavi vitulos et equorum noi.. fulvo Baehrens. 

sed deforme pecus, quod in illo nasci. 

, ., ... '^At Burman, 
qui sata riparum vernantibus irrigat unrfi 

a ! trepidi, quotiens sola discedentis harena*. 


^8 vernantibus NGA : venientibus V. ,o. 

^* sol discedentis N (nos supra sol m^) : sodiscenden^ 
G : nos descendentis V : sola discedentis Haupt : b 
discindentis Baehrens : alii alia. 

" i.e. the podium (ttoSiov), a projecting parapet or balcony- 
just above the arena for the emperor or other distinguished 
spectators. The balteus was a praecinclio, a wall running 
round the amphitheatre at intervals dividing the tiers of 
seats into stories. 



aitua part asunder and its soil upturned and beasts 
plunge out from the chasm cleft in the earth ; '^ yet 
often from those same rifts the golden arbutes 
sprang amid a sudden fountain spray (of saffron).^ 
O lucky Corydon, unhampered by palsied eld; 
lucky in that by the grace of heaven it was your lot 
to set ^ your early years in this age I Now if fortune 
has vouchsafed to you close sight of our worshipful 
Emperor-god, if there and then you marked his 
countenance and mien, tell me, come, tell me, 
Corydon, what I may deem to be the features of the 

O would that I had not been clad in peasant garb ! 
Else should I have gained a nearer sight of my deity : 
but humble dress and dingy poverty and brooch 
with but a crooked clasp prevented me ; still, in a 
way, I looked upon his very self some distance off, 
and, unless my sight played me a trick, I thought 
in that one face the looks of Mars and of Apollo 
were combined. 

" Such arrangements for letting beasts rise from imder- 
ground in the arena are well illustrated by the excavations 
at the Amphitheatrum Flavium (the "Colosseum"). 

* The beauty of an artificially contrived garden in the 
amphitheatre contrasts with the savage beasts; and the 
spectators are refreshed by jets of saffron water, 

"^ Barth explains demittere as " inserere aut intro porrigere." 
The metaphor may be from planting. 





The Paiiegyric on Piso, by a young poet who pleads 
poverty but covets literary fame in preference to 
wealth, is addressed to one Calpurnius Piso, who is 
eulogised as eloquent in the law-courts, in the senate 
and in private declamation ; as generous, musical, 
athletic, and an adept in the chess-like game of 
latrnncuU. Such qualities agree ^\^th the description 
in Tacitus {An7i. XV. 48) of that Gaius Calpurnius 
Piso who was the ill-fated figure-head of the abortive 
plot in A.D. 65 against Nero : they also agree with 
the scholiimi on Juvenal's Piso bonus (V. 109), which 
mentions this particular Piso's power of drawing 
crowds to see him play the Indus latrunculorum. The 
identification with the noble conspirator is plausible, 
though we can prove neither that Piso bonus was the 
conspirator nor that Piso the conspirator had been 
consul, as the person addressed in Laus Pisonis, 70, 
clearly had been. This latter point decided Hubaux 
{Les Themes Bucoliques, p. 185) to see in the person 
addressed Lucius Calpurnius Piso, consul with Nero 
in A.D. 57. 

The authorship is still more doubtful. In the now 
missing Lorsch manuscript the poem was erroneously 
assigned to Virgil. Certain similarities to Lucan's 
style indicate identity rather of period than of 
authorship, though the old ascription to Lucan has 


VOL. I. U 


found modern support (B. L, Ullman, C.P. XXIV, 
1929, 109 sqq.). The names of Ovid, Saleius Bassus 
and Statius have been advocated, of whom the first 
lived too early and the others too late to vrrite the 
Laiis Piso7iis. Resemblances in style and in careful 
metrical technique led Haupt (opusc. I. 391) to argue 
that the work was by the pastoral poet Calpurnius 
Siculus. Haupt himself lost confidence in his 
hypothesis ; and it has been opposed by G. Ferrara 
in Calpur?uo Siculo e il pa?iegirico a Calpurnio Pisone, 
Pa via, 1905. 


Editio Princeps in J. Sichard's edn. of Ovid. Vol. 

II. pp. 546-549. Basel, 1527. 
Hadrianus Junius. Lucani poema ad Calpuriiium 

Pisonem ex lihro Catalecton in Animadiersorum 

Libri Sex. Basel, 1556. 

[Junius used a Codex Atrebatensis of which 

we lack subsequent record, unless Ullman is 

right in identifying it with the Arras Flori- 

legium ; see i?ifra under Sigla " a."] 
Jos. Scaliger. Lucani ad Calpurn. Pisonem Pane- 

guricum in Virgilii Maronis Appejidix. Lyon, 


[Scaliger's text follows that of Junius, and 

agrees with the Paris MSS. more than with 

the editio princeps.^ 
J. C. Wernsdorf. Poet. Lat. Min. W . pp. 236-282. 

Saleii Bassi ad Calpurnium Pisonem poeniation, 

Lucano vulgo adscriptum. Altenburg, 1785. 
J. Held. Incerti Auctoris ad Calp. Pisonem carmen. 

Breslau, 1831. 



C. Beck. Statu ad Pisonem pocmation. Aiisbacli, 

C. F. \\'ebcr. Incerti auctoris carmen panegyricum in 

Calpurn. Pisonem (appar. crit. and prolegomena). 

Marburg, 1859. 
E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min. I. pp. 221-236, Incerti 

Laus Pisonis. Leipzig, 1879. 
Gladys Martin. Laus Pisonis (thesis), Cornell Univ. 

U.S.A., 1917. 

[Introduction, text, notes.] 

B. L. Ullman. The Text Tradition and Authorship 

of the Laus Pisonis in Class. Philol. XXI\\ 

((1929) pp. 109-132. 
[As the Florilegia are the only existing MSS. 
of the Laus, Ullman prints a restoration of 
their archetype.] 


K. Unger. P. Papinii Statii ad Calp. Pisonem Pocma- 
tion, Jahns Jahrb. 1836, p. 261. 

M. Haupt. De Carminihus Bucolicis Calpurnii et 
Xemesiani, Berlin, 1854, and Opusc. i. p. 391. 
Leipzig, 1875. 

E. W'celfflin. Zu dem carmen panegyricum in Calp. 

Pisonem, in Philologus XML (1861) pp. 340-344. 
J. Maehly. Zur Literatur des Pajiegyricus in 

Pisonem, Fleckeis. Jahrb. 1862, p. 286. 
G. Ferrara. Calpurjiio Siculo e il panegirico a Cal- 

purnio Pi son e. Pa via, 1905. 

F. Skutsch. T. Calpurnius Siculus, in P. W\ Heal- 

encycl. III. 1404. 

C. Chiavola. Delia vita e dell' opera di Tito Cal- 

purnio Siculo, pp. 24-36. Ragusa, 1921. 



J. Hubaux. Les Themes Bucoliques dans la poesie 
latine, esp. pp. 184-185. Bruxelles, 1930. 


S = readings in J. Sichard's edition of Ovid, Vol. II. 
pp. 546 sqq., Basel, 1527, representing a lost 
manuscript of the Laus Pisonis in the monastery 
at Lorsch {ex hihUotheca Laurissana^. 

Two MSS. of Florilegia containing, along with 
excerpts from other authors, excerpts amounting 
to almost 200 lines of the Laus (the gaps represent 
over 60 lines) : — 

p = Parisinus-Thuaneus 7647, 12th-13th century, 
n = Parisinus-Nostradamensis 17903, 13th century. 
P == Consensus of p and n. 

B. L. UUman, op. cit., adds evidence from three 
other kindred Florilegia : — 

a ^=^ one at Arras which he believes may be Junius' 

e ^= one in the Escorial, Q. I. 14. 
b = one in Berlin (Diez. B. 60 f. 29) containing a 

few lines and probably descended from e. 

[Ullman thinks the common ancestor-manuscript 
of e, p, a was " a sister or cousin of n : thus the 
testimony of n is worth as much as that of the 
other three manuscripts together."] 

The main variants from Baehrens' text are noted. 



UxDE prills coepti surgat mihi carminis ordo 
quosve canam titiilos, dubius feror. hinc tua, Piso, 
nobilitas veterisque citant sublimia Calpi 
nomina, Romanas inter fulgentia gentes ; 
hinc tua me virtus rapit et miranda per omnes 
vita modos : quae, si desset tibi forte creato 
nobilitas, eadem pro nobilitate fuisset. 
nam quid imaginibus, quid avitis fulta triumphis 
atria, quid pleni numeroso consule fasti 
profuerint, cui vita labat ? perit omnis in illo 
gentis honos, cuius laus est in origine sola, 
at tu, qui tantis animum natalibus aequas, 
et partem tituli, non summam, ponis in illis, 
ipse canendus eris : nam quid memorare necesse est, 
ut domus a Calpo nomen Calpurnia ducat 
claraque Pisonis tulerit cognomina prima, 
humida callosa cum " pinseret " hordea dextra? 
nee si cuncta velim breviter decurrere possim ; 
et prius aethereae moles circumvaga flammae 
annua bissenis revocabit mensibus astra, 

12 at tu S : felix P. 

1' furaida Scaliger : horrida MaeJdy. 



Uncertain are my feelings where first should start 
the order of the poem which I have undertaken, or 
what titles of honour I should chant. On the one 
hand, Piso, comes the summons of your noble rank 
with the exalted names of ancient Calpus,'' re- 
splendent among the clans of Rome : on the other, I 
am thrilled by your own merit, your life in every 
phase inspiring admiration — such a life as would 
have been equal to nobility, if nobility had perchance 
not been yours at birth. For what shall halls 
strengthened by images and triumphs ancestral.^ what 
shall archives filled \\ith many a consulate, profit the 
man of unstable life ? In him whose only merit is 
birth, the whole honour of a family is lost. But you, 
gifted with a mind to match your high descent in 
which you set a part but not the whole of your renown, 
you will yourself be a fit theme for song. \Miat need 
to record how the Calpurnian house derives its name 
from Calpus and won its first famous surname of Piso 
for pounding (pi{?i)seret) the moist barley with hard- 
skinned hand ? I could not, if I would, rehearse 
the whole in brief; the circling mass of heavenly 
flame '^ will in a twelvemonth recall its yearly con- 

" Through the Calpi the gens Calpurnia claimed descent 
from Xuma PompiHus. The Pisones of Hor. A. P. 292 are 
termed '" PompiUus sanguis." 

*> fuUa suggests the columns to which triumphal ornaments 
were attached. 

^ The sun. 


quam mihi priscorum titulos operosaque bella 
contigerit memorare. manus sed bellica patrum 
armorumque labor veteres decuere Quirites, 
atque illos cecinere sui per carmina vates. 

nos quoque pacata Pisonem laude nitentem 
exaequamus a\-is. nee enim, si bella quierunt, 
occidit et virtus : licet exercere togatae 
munia militiae, licet et sine sanguinis haustu 
mitia legitimo sub iudice bella movere. 
hinc quoque servati contingit gloria civis, 
altaque Wctrices intexunt limina palmae. 
quin age maiorum, iuvenis facunde, tuorum 
scande super titulos et avitae laudis honores, 
armorumque decus praecede forensibus actis. 
sic etiam magno iam tunc Cicerone vigente 
laurea facundis cesserunt arma togatis. 
sed quae Pisonum claros visura triumphos 
olim turba vias impleverat agmine denso, 
ardua nunc eadem stipat fora, cum tua maestos 
defensura reos vocem facundia mittit. 

22 sic S : memorare manus. sed bellica fama Baehrens. 

23 docuere 8 : decuere correxit vir doctus saec. X VI. 

2' occidit et S: non periit P: fortasse interiit in archetypo 
]Vight Duff. 

35 vigente Wernsdorf: iuventae S: iubente Weber, Baeh- 



stellations ere it could be mine to record the 
titles and toilsome wars of the men of olden days. 
But the warlike hand of their fathers and anned 
emprise well beseemed the citizens of yore, mIio 
were sung by bards of their o"\\ti times in their 

We too can praise as his grandsires' peer a Piso 
brilliant in the glories of peace. For, if wars have 
sunk to rest, courage is not dead also : there is 
freedom to fulfil the tasks of campaigning in the 
gown — freedom, ^\'ith no blood drawn, to conduct 
mild M'arfare before the judge ordained by law. 
Hence too comes the distinction of saving a fellow- 
citizen : and so victorious palms em\Teathe the lofty 
portals.^ Come now, eloquent youth, o'er-climb the 
titles of your forbears and the honours of ancestral 
fame ; outstep by forensic exploits the renoA\Ti of 
arms. So too in great Cicero's day of vigour the 
laurelled arms gave way to eloquence bego^Tied.^ 
The crowd which once in close array thronged the 
streets to see the illustrious triumphs of the Pisos 
now packs the laborious law-courts, when your 
oratory utters its accents to set unhappy defendants 

" This, it should be observed, indicates belief in the ex- 
istence of heroic lays in ancient Rome : c/. Cic. Tvsc. Disp. 
IV. ii. ; Brutus xix. 75; Varro apud Noniuin Marcellum, 76 ; 
Val. Maximiis, IT. i. 10. For Niebuhr's ballad-theory see 
J. Wight Duff, Lit. Hist, of Rome to Golden Age, pp. 72-73. 

^ i.e. the advocate can save a life in the law-court, as the 
soldier can on the battlefield. Successful pleadings were 
honoured by setting up palm-branches at the pleader's 
house-door: cf. Juv. VII. 118 .scnlarum gloria pal ma e ; Mart. 
VII. xxviii. 6 excolat et geminas plurima palma fores. 

'^ An intentional echo of Cicero's own alliterative line, 
cedant arma togae, concednt laurca Inudi, De Off. I. xxii. 77 : 
cf. Philipp. II. viii. 20. 



seu trepidos ad iura decern citat hasta virorum 

et firmare iubet centeno iudice causas, 

seu capitale nefas operosa diluis arte, 

laudibus ipsa tuis resonant fora. diini rapis una 

iudicis affectum possessaque pectora temptas, 

victus sponte sua sequitur quocumque vocasti : 

flet si flere iubes, gaudet gaudere coactus 

et te dante capit iudex, quam non habet, iram, 

sic auriga solet ferventia Thessalus ora 

mobilibus frenis in aperto flectere campo, 

qui modo non solum rapido permittit habenas 

quadrupedi, sed calce citat, modo succutit alte 

flexibiles rictus et nunc cervice rotata 

incipit effuses in gyrum carpere cursus. 

quis non attonitus iudex tua respicit ora ? 

quis regit ipse suam, nisi per tua pondera, 

mentem ? 
nam tu, sive libet pariter cum grandine nimbos 
densaque vibrata iaculari fulmina lingua, 
seu iuvat adstrictas in nodum cogere voces 
et dare subtili vivacia verba catenae, 
vim Laertiadae, brevitatem vincis Atridae : 
dulcia seu mavis liquidoque fluentia cursu 
verba nee incluso sed aperto pingere flore, 

** dura Piso : nam S : dum rapis una Baehren^. 

*^ tentas S: ducis P {fortasse ex versu 138 translalum) 
frenas Maehly. 

^^ rabido Baekrens : rapido PS. 

^2 succutit alte {sive acre) Baehrens : succutit arce P : om 
S : succedit a : subripit a^. 



tire. Whether the spear of the decemviri summons 
the panic-stricken to trial and ordains the estab- 
hshment of cases before the centumviri,** or whether 
with busy skill you refute a capital charge, the 
very courts resound with your praises. As you 
carry along with you a judge's feelings, assailing 
his captured heart, vanquished he follows of his 
ovm accord wherever you call — weeps if you say 
"weep," rejoices if so compelled; and you are the 
giver from whom a judge gets an anger not his 
own. So the Thessalian rider is wont on the open 
plain to guide his horse's steaming mouth with 
mobile bit. now spurring his rapid steed and not 
merely giving him rein, now jerking high the open 
jaws in his control, and now starting to wheel the 
horse's neck round and pull its wild rush into a circle. 
What judge fails to watch your lips in wonderment.^ 
\^ ho orders his own mind save by your weighty 
arguments? For whether it be rain along with 
hail and repeated thunder-bolts that you choose to 
hurl with whirling tongue, or whether you please 
to condense compact expressions in a period and 
lend enduring words to the graceful texture of your 
speech, you surpass Ulysses' force and Menelaus' 
brevity ; or whether with no concealed but with 
open flowers of speech you prefer to embellish sweet 
words as they floM' on their clear course, the famous 

" Decemviri and centumviri took cognisance of civil lawsuits. 
The spear, as a symbol of magisterial power, was set in the 
ground to mark the holding of a centumviral court : cf. 
Mart. VII. Ixiii. 7 centum gravis hasta virorum ; Stat. Silv. 
IV. iv. 43 cenieni moderatrix iudicis hasta. Suet. Aug. 3G 
shows that decemviri (stlitihus iudicandis) were required from 
Augustus' time to call together the " Court of One Hundred " 
{at centumviralem hnstam . . . decemviri cogerent). 



inclita Nestorei cedit tibi gratia mellis. 
nee te, Piso, tamen populo sub iudiee sola 
niirantur fora ; sed numerosa laude senatus 
exeipit et meritas reddit tibi euria voces. 
quis digne referat, qualis tibi luce sub ilia 
gloria contigerit, qua tu, reticente senatu, 
cum tua bissenos numeraret purpura fasces, 
Caesareum grato cecinisti pectore numen ? 

quodsi iam validae mihi robur mentis inesset 
et solidus primos impleret spiritus annos, 
auderem voces per carmina nostra referre, 
Piso, tuas : sed fessa labat mihi pondere cervix 
et tremefacta cadunt succiso poplite membra, 
sic nee olorinos audet Pandionis ales 
parva referre sonos nee, si velit improba, possit ; 
sic et aedonia superantur voce cicadae, 
stridula cum rapido faciunt convicia soli. 

quare age, Calliope, posita gravitate forensi, 
limina Pisonis mecum pete : plura supersunt 
quae laudare velis inventa penatibus ipsis. 
hue etiam tota concurrit ab urbe iuventus 
auditura virum, si quando iudiee fesso 
turbida prolatis tacuerunt iurgia rebus. 

^* retinente S : reticente vulgo : recinente Unger, Baehrens. 

" CJ. Hom. II. I. 249 rov /col a-Kh yXdoaaris /xeXiTos yXvKiwu 
^e€u avB-f). For the eloquence of Ulysses and Menelaus cf. II. 
III. 221-223 and 213-215. 

* The passage 68-83 {quis . . . ipsis) is omitted here by P 
i.e. p + n ; but 77-80 {sic nee . . . soli) are added at the 
close of the poem. 



charm of Nestor's honied eloquence " yields place to 
you. 'Tis not only courts before a citizen jury that 
admire you, Piso : the senate welcomes you with 
manifold praise, and its assembly renders you well- 
earned plaudits. Who ^ niay worthily recount the 
glory that befell you beneath the light of that day 
on which, when your purple counted its twelve 
fasces,^ before a hushed senate you sang from 
grateful heart the praise of the imperial divinity ? 

Yet, if the strength of powerful intellect were now 
within me, and my early years were filled with solid 
force, then should I dare to recount your eloquence, 
Piso, in lays of mine ; but my neck sways wearily 
beneath the load : hamstrung, my limbs drop palsied. 
Even so Pandion's little bird '' dares not record the 
swan's notes, nor, had it the wanton will, would it 
have the power; even so the nightingale's song 
excels the grasshoppers a-chirping their noisy abuse 
at the scorching sun. 

Wherefore come. Calliope,*^ passing over his forensic 
dignity, with me approach Piso's doors : there is still 
more abundance of what is found in his very home to 
tempt your praise. Hither also repair youths from 
all over Rome to listen to the man, whenever judges 
are weary, and in vacation/ confused wrangles are 

*■ When he entered on his consulate, Piso delivered a com- 
plimentary address to the emperor. Pliny's Panegyricus 
illustrates this kind of oration. 

^ Pandion's daughter, Philomela, was changed into a 
nightingale, or, in some accounts, a SAvalloAV, as here. 

' The Muse particularly of heroic narrative poetry. For a 
summary of the provinces of the nine Muses see the lines 
in this volume, pp. 434-^35 and pp. 034-635. 

f Cases are said to be prolatae when there is a iustitium 
or cessation of legal business, particularly at times of harvest 
and vintage. 



tunc etenim levibus veluti proludit in armis, 

compositisque suas exercet litibus artes. 

quin etiam facilis Romano profluit ore 

Graecia, Cecropiaeque sonat gravis aemulus urbi. 

testis, Acidalia quae condidit alite muros, 

Euboicani referens facunda Neapolis arteni. 

qualis, io superi, qualis nitor oris anioenis 

vocibus I hinc solido fulgore micantia verba 

implevere locos, hinc exornata figuris 

advolat excusso velox sententia torno. 

magna quidem virtus erat, et si sola fuisset, 

eloquio sanctum modo permulcere senatum, 

exonerare pios modo, nunc onerare nocentes ; 

sed super ista movet plenus gravitate serena ] 

vultus et insigni praestringit imagine visus. 

talis inest habitus, qualem nee dicere maestum 

nee fluidum, laeta sed tetricitate decorum 

possumus : ingenitae stat nobilitatis in illo 

pulcher honos et digna suis natalibus ora. ] 

additur hue et iusta fides et plena pudoris 

libertas animusque mala ferrugine purus, 

ipsaque possesso mens est opulentior auro. 

quis tua cultorum, iuvenis fiicunde, tuorum 
limina pauper adit, quern non animosa beatum ] 

excipit et subito iuvat indulgentia censu ? 
quodque magis dono fuerit pretiosius omni, 

*^ foecimda S : facunda Unger. arcem PS, Baehrens : artem 

° Especially the exercise of declamation. 

*• Or, it may be, in settling the fictitious cases of the 
rhetorical conlroversiae. 

<^ The Acidalian fountain in Boeotia, where the Graces 
bathed, was sacred to Venus. Her bird [ales) was the dove. 
Euhoicam alludes to the connexion of Cumae, on the bay of 
Naples, with Chalcis in Euboea : c/. Viig. Aen. vi. 2. 


hushed. For then his sport seems to be with light 
-weapons," as he pHes his true accomphshments after 
lawsuits are settled.^ Moreover, Greek culture flows 
forth readily from Roman lips, and Athens meets a 
weighty rival in his accents. Witness, eloquent Naples 
that founded her walls under Acidalian auspices and 
repeats the skill of Euboea.^ What lustre, ye gods 
above, what lustre shines on the fair language of his 
lips ! Here words sparkling in compact splendour 
have filled out his choice passages ; here, decked 
out with tropes there flies to the hearer from the 
freed lathe a swift epigram. '^ Great merit truly 
it was, even if it had been the only one, now to 
delight the venerable senate with his style, now 
to clear the innocent, anon to lay the burden upon 
the guilty : yet more appealing still is a counten- 
ance full of serene dignity, while his look dazzles 
with the stamp of eminence. The mien he wears is 
such as we can call neither sad nor flippant, but 
seemly in a joyous seriousness. The fair honour of 
inborn nobility stands fast in him, and lineaments 
worthy of his birth. Thereto is joined true loyalty, 
frankness full of modesty, and a nature unstained by 
malicious envy — his mind itself is richer than the gold 
he owns. 

Which of your clients, eloquent youth, approaches 
your threshold in poverty who is not welcomed and 
enriched by a generous indulgence with the aid of 
an unexpected income ? And, what may well be 
more precious than any gift, you esteem him as 

** Cf. the sense of excusso (rudenti) in 229. The lathe, 
metaphorically, is made to turn out the epiiirani which flies 
to the audience; (rf. Kor. A. P. -iAl male tor natos . . .versus). 
The tomus is "shaken free" of its epigram, as the ship in 
V'irg. Aen. VI. 353 is excussa magisiro. 


diligis ex aequo, nee te fortuna colentum 

natalesve movent : probitas spectatur in illis. 

nulla superboruna patiuntur dicta iocorum, 1. 

nullius subitos afFert iniuria risus : 

unus amicitiae summos tenor ambit et imos. 

rara domus tenuem non aspernatur amiciun 

raraque non humilem calcat fastosa clientem ; 

illi casta licet mens et sine crimine constet 1' 

vita, tamen probitas cum paupertate iacebit ; 

et lateri nullus comitem circumdare quaerit, 

quern dat purus amor, sed quem tulit impia merces ; 

nee quisquam vero pretium largitur amico, 

quem regat ex aequo vicibusque regatur ab illo, 1; 

sed miserum parva stipe focilat, ut pudibundos 

exercere sales inter convi\da possit. 

ista procul labes, procul haec fortuna refugit, 

Piso, tuam, venerande, domum : tu mitis et acri 

asperitate carens positoque per omnia fastu 1^ 

inter ut aequales unus numeraris amicos, 

obsequiumque doces et amorem quaeris amando. 

cuncta domus varia cultorum persona t arte, 

cuncta movet studium ; nee enim tibi dura clientum 

turba rudisve placet, misero quae freta labore 1- 

nil nisi summoto novit praecedere vulgo ; 

120 illi n: ilia peab: illic S. licet et S contra metrinn: 
licet domus P {ez inter polatione) : licet, licet et Baehrens : illic 
casta licet mens p mgo. m. rec. {quod transiit in editt.). 

12® focilat S : om. in lacuna P : munerat aliquot edd. 

" focilat, " revives," " cherishes," the reading of S, does not 
agree in quantity with the usual /dct/a^ or foe illat. 


an equal : neither the fortune nor the pedigree of 
clients influence you : uprightness is the test in 
them. They do not wince under any witticisms of 
overbearing jests: no man's grievance furnishes 
material for sudden laughter. A uniform tenor of 
friendship encompasses highest and lowest. Rare 
the house that does not scorn a needy friend ; rare 
the house that does not trample contemptuously on 
a humble dependant. Though his mind be clean and 
his life unimpeachable, still his probity will rank as 
low as his poverty ; and no patron seeks to have at 
his side a retainer got by pure affection but one whom 
cursed gain has brought him : no one confers largess 
on a true friend in order to guide him on an equal 
footing and in turn be guided by him, but one hires ^ 
the wretched man for a trumpery wage to have the 
power of practising shameful witticisms at the festal 
board.* Far has such a disgrace, far has a plight of 
this sort fled, worshipful Piso, from your house. In 
your gentleness and freedom from sharp asperity, 
laying aside pride everywhere, you are reckoned 
as but one among your friendly peers : you teach 
obedience, as you court love by loving. The whole 
house rings with the varied accomplishments of its 
frequenters : zeal is the motive force everywhere ; 
for you find no satisfaction in a clumsy uneducated 
band of clients, whose forte lies in trivial services and 
whose one ability is to walk before a patron when the 
common herd are cleared away. No, it is a wide 

* Juvenal, writing at the beginning of the second century 
A.D., draws parallel pictures of the relations between patron 
and client: e.g. with 115-116 and 118-119 cf. Juv. III. 
152-153, nil habet infelix paupcrtas durius in se quam quod 
ridicules homines facit, and with 122-124 cf. X. 46 defossa in 
loculos quos sportula fecit arnicas. 

VOL. I. X 


sed virtus niimerosa iuvat. tu pronus in omne 

pectora ducis opus, seu te graviora vocarunt 

seu leviora iuvant. nee enim faeundia semper 

adducta cum fronte placet : nee semper in armis 

bellica turba manet, nee tota classicus horror 

nocte dieque gemit. nee semper Gnosius arcum 

destinat, exempto sed laxat comua nervo, 

et galea miles caput et latus ense resolvit. 

ipsa vices natura subit variataque cursus 

ordinat. inversis et frondibus explicat annum. 

non semper fluidis adopertus nubibus aether 

aurea terrificis obcaecat sidera nimbis : 

cessat hiemps, madidos et siccat vere capillos ; 

ver fugit aestates ; aestatum terga lacessit 

pomifer autumnus, nivibus cessurus et undis. 

ignea quin etiam supenmi pater amia recondit 

et Ganymedeae repetens convivia mensae 

pocula sumit ea, qua gessit fulmina, dextra. 

temporibus servire decet : qui tempora certis 

ponderibus pensavit, eum si bella vocabunt, 

miles erit ; si pax, positis toga vestiet armis. 

hunc fora pacatum, bellantem castra decebunt. 

felix ilia dies totumque canenda per aevum, 

quae tibi, vitales cum primum traderet auras, ] 

contulit innumeras intra tua pectora dotes. 

mira subest gravitas inter fora, mirus omissa 

pauli'-per gravitate lepos. si carmina forte 

^** frondibus S : front ibiis Beck, Baekrens. 
15^ nubibus S : nimbis P : nebulis Wernsdorf: nivihym Earth. 
15' vestiet p n^ : gestiet S n^ (secundum Ulbnanum vestiet 
n, non ex gestiet corr., ut Baehrens dicit). 



range " of good iiiialitic"^ that })leases you. Your 
OAvn keenness leads the mind to every sort of work, 
wliether the call has come from graver pursuits, or 
lighter pursuits are to your fancy ; for the eloquence 
of the serious brow does not charm at every season : 
not for ever does the warlike band remain under 
arms : nor does the trumpet's alarum blare all night 
and day : not for ever does the Cretan aim his bow, 
but, freeing its string, he relaxes its horns : and the 
soldier unbinds helmet from head and sword from 
flank. Nature herself undergoes alternations, in 
varied form ordering her courses, unfolding the year 
with the change of the leaf. Not for ever does 
ether, shrouded in streaming clouds, darken the 
golden stars with dreadful rains. Winter flags and 
in the springtime dries his dripping locks. Spring 
flees before the summer-heats : on summer's heels 
presses fruit-bearing autumn, destined to yield to 
snow and flood. Yea, the Sire of the Gods stores 
away his fiery weapons, and, seeking again the 
banquet at the table served by Ganymede, he grasps 
the goblet in the right hand wherewith he wielded 
the thunderbolt. 'Tis meet to obey the seasons : 
whoso has weighed the seasons * with sure weights, 
he, if war calls him, will be a soldier ; if peace, he 
will lay down his arms and his dress will be the gown. 
Him the law-court in peace, the camp in war will 
befit. Happy that day, for all time worthy of song, 
which, so soon as it gave you the breath of life, con- 
ferred on you countless gifts within your breast. 
A wondrous dignity upholds you in court ; a wondrous 
wit, when for the moment dignity is dropped. If 

" Cf. 66 numerosa laude. 

^ Here tempoia is used in the sense of " the fit times." 



nectere ludenti iuvit fluitantia versu, 
Aonium facilis deducit pagina carmen ; 
sive chelyn digitis et eburno verbere pulsas, 
dulcis Apollinea sequitur testudine cantus, 
et te credibile est Phoebo didicisse magistro. 
ne pudeat pepulisse lyram, cum pace serena 
publica securis exultent otia terris, 
ne pudeat : Phoebea chelys sic creditur illis 
pulsari manibus, quibus et contenditur arcus ; 
sic movisse fides saevus narratur Achilles, 
quamvis mille rates Priameius ureret heros 
et gravis obstreperet modulatis bucina nerv^is : 
illo dulce melos Nereius extudit heros" 
pollice, terribilis quo Pelias ibat in hostem. 

amia tuis etiam si forte rotare lacertis 
inque gradum clausis libuit consistere miembris 
et vitare simul, simul et captare petentem, 
mobilitate pedum celeres super orbibus orbes 
plectis et obliquis fugientem cursibus urges : 
et nunc vivaci scrutaris pectora dextra, 
nunc latus adversum necppino percutis ictu. 
nee tibi mobilitas minor est, si forte volantem 
aut geminare pilam iuvat aut revocare cadentem 
et non sperato fugientem reddere gestu. 
haeret in haec populus spectacula, totaque ludos 

I'l nee S : ne Baehrens. si S : sic Baehrens. 

1'' ibat in hostem P8 : iverat liasta Schrader, Baehrens. 



mayhap it is your pleasure to twine in sportive 
verse the unpremeditated hiy, then an easy page 
draws out the Aonian soncr-, or. if you smite the lyre 
with finirer and ivory quill, sweet comes the strain 
on a harp w(n-thy of Apollo : well may we believe you 
learned under Phoebus' tuition. Blush not to strike 
the lyre : mid peace serene let national tranquillity 
rejoice in a care-free world : blush not : so, 'tis 
believed, Apollo's strings are played by the hands 
which also stretch the bow. Even so fierce Achilles 
is related to have touched the lyre, albeit the hero 
son of Priam (Hector) burned a thousand ships, and 
the war-trumpet clashed harshly with the well- 
tuned strings. The hero sprung from Nereus ° beat 
out sweet melody with the thumb 'neath which the 
menacing spear from Pelion ^ sped against the foe. 

If moreover you have chosen mayhap to whirl 
weapons from the shoulder and take your stand, limbs 
taut in fixed position, and at the same moment both 
avoid and hit your adversary, then with nimbleness 
of foot you swiftly interlace circle upon circle ; with 
slant^\'ise rush you press on your retreating opponent ; 
now your vigorous right hand lunges at his breast, now 
your unexpected thrust strikes his exposed flank. 
No less is your nimbleness, if mayhap it is your 
pleasure to return the flying ball '^ or recover it Mhen 
falling to the ground, and by a surprising movement 
get it within bounds again in its flight. To watch 
such play the populace remains stockstill, and the 

" Achilles, son of Thetis, and grandson of Xereus. 

'' Pelias, sc. hasta : the spear of Achilles -was so called 
because its shaft came from Pelion. The phrase Pelias hasta 
occurs in Ovid, Her. iii. 126, and in Pentadius, De Fortuna, 

•^ Excursus X in Wemsdorf's Poet. Lat. Min., iv. pp. 398- 
404, deals with lusus pilae at Rome. 


turba repente siios iani sudabunda relinquit. 

te si forte iuvat stiidioruni pondere fessuni 

non languere tanien liisusque movere per artem, 

callidiore modo tabula variatur aperta 

calculus et vitreo peraguntur niilite bella, 

ut niveus nigros, nunc et niger alliget albos. 

sed tibi quis non terga dedit ? quis te duce cessit 

calculus ? aut quis non periturus perdidit hostem ? 

mille modis acies tua dimicat : ille petentem, 

dum fugit, ipse rapit : longo venit ille recessu, 

qui stetit in speculis : hie se committere rixae 

audet et in praedam venientem decipit hostem ; * 

ancipites subit ille moras similisque ligato 

obligat ipse duos ; hie ad maiora movetur, 

ut citus ecfracta prorumpat in agmina mandra 

clausaque deiecto populetur moenia vallo. 

interea sectis quamvis acerrima surgant 1 

proelia militibus, plena tamen ipse phalange 

aut etiam pauco spoliata milite vincis, 

et tibi captiva resonat manus utraque turba. 

sed prius emenso Titan versetur Olympo, 
quam mea tot laudes decurrere carmina possint. ' 

felix et longa iuvenis dignissime vita 

203 Q^ fracta S : effracta doclus quidam : ecfracta Bachrens. 

204 fortasse quassaque Maehly. 
^^' etiam S : tantum Baehrens. 

203 versetur PS : mersetur Wernsdorf : vergetur Baehrens. 

" Excursus XI, ibid., pp. 404^19, deals with the Indus 
latrunculorum, a game with a resemblance to chess or draughts. 

^ i.e. instead of advancing, this "soldier" lets himself be 
stopped and then, when he looks penned in, suddenly breaks 
out. Another explanation is that one counter " undergoes 
a double attack " {mora technically meaning " check "), t.e. 
is in danger from two opposing pieces, but by a further 
move endangers two enemies. 



whole crowd, sweatino; with exertion, suddenly 
abandons its own iianies. If mayha]) you please, 
when weary with the wei^^ht of studies, to he never- 
theless not inactiV'C but to play _i»-anies of skill, then 
on the open board " in more eunnins; fashion a piece i'; 
moved into different positions and the contest is waged 
to a finish with glass soldiers, so that white checks 
the black pieces, and black checks white. But what 
player has not retreated before you ? What piece is 
lost when you are its player ? Or what piece before 
capture has not reduced the enemy ? In a thousand 
ways your army fights : one piece, as it retreats, itself 
captures its pursuer : a reserve piece, standing on 
the alert, comes from its distant retreat — this one 
dares to join the fray and cheats the enemy coming 
for his spoil. Another piece submits to risky delays '' 
and, seemingly checked, itself checks two more : 
this one moves towards higher results, so that, quickly 
played and breaking the opponent's defensive line,'' 
it may burst out on his forces and, when the rampart 
is down, devastate the enclosed city.'^ Meanwhile, 
however fierce rises the conflict among the men in 
their divided ranks, still you win with your phalanx 
intact or deprived of only a few men, and both your 
hands rattle with the crowd of pieces you have 

But the Sun-God would complete his circuit after 
measuring the heavens, ere my lays could traverse 
so many merits. Fortunate youth, most worthy of 

' Mandra, a herd of cattle, was taken by Scaliger for the 
equites of the Indus lair luiculor urn. There is evidence that, 
as a piece, the latro had higher value than tlie mandra. In 
the sense of "enclosure," mandra may mean the line of less 
valuable pieces (like " panns "). 

** The ir6\is of a similar CTreek game. 



eximiumque tuae gentis decus, accipe nostri 

certus et hoc veri complectere pignus amoris. 

quod si digna tua minus est mea pagina laude, 

at voluisse sat est : animum, non carmina, iacto. 2] 

tu modo laetus ades : forsan meliora canemus 

et \-ires dabit ipse favor, dabit ipsa feracem 

spes aninium : dignare tuos aperire Penates, 

hoc solum petimus. nee enim me divitis auri 

imperiosa fames et habendi saeva libido 2f 

impulerunt, sed laudis amor, iuvat, optime, tecum 

degere cumque tuis virtutibus omne per aevum 

carminibus certare meis : sublimior ibo, 

si famae mihi pandis iter, si detrahis umbram. 

abdita quid prodest generosi vena metalli, 2i 

si cultore caret ? quid inerti condita portu, 

si ductoris eget, ratis efficit, omnia quamvis 

armamenta gerat teretique fluentia malo 

possit ab excusso dimittere vela rudenti ? 

ipse per Ausonias Aeneia carmina gentes 22 

qui sonat, ingenti qui nomine pulsat Olympum 
Maeoniumque senem Romano provocat ore, 
forsitan illius nemoris latuisset in imibra 
quod canit, et sterili tantum cantasset avena 
ignotus populis, si Maecenate careret. 23 

qui tamen haut uni patefecit limina vati 
nee sua \ ergilio permisit numina soli : 
Maecenas tragico quatientem pulpita gestu 

^^" numina S : nomina P : carmina Lachmann : somnia 

" Cf. Ennius' Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis Olym- 
pum : or the idea may be that Virgil's fame rises and 
" strikes " the heavens. 

* L. Varius Rufus, who with Plotius Tucca edited the 
A eneid, was an epic and elegiac as well as a tragic author : 


long life, distinguished ornament of your clan, 
assured of my loyalty, accept and welcome this 
pledge of true affection. Yet, if my page f;ills short 
of your renown, the intent is enough. I vaunt my 
aspiration, not my poetr\ . Do you but lend your 
joyful presence : perchance I shall sing better lays 
and your very favour will give strength, the very 
hope A\'ill give a fertile spirit : deign to throw open 
your home : this is my sole request. For it is no 
imperious hunger for rich gold, no savage lust of 
possession that has prompted me, but love of 
praise. I fain, noble sir, would dwell with you, and 
through all my life hold rivalry in my songs with 
your excellences : more lofty will be my way, if you 
are now opening for me the path of fame, if you 
are removing the shadow (of obscurity). What 
profits the hidden vein of precious metal, if it 
lack the miner? What can a vessel do, buried in 
some sluggish haven, if it lack captain, though it 
carry all its tackle, and could loosen its flapping 
sails on the shapen mast from the slackened rope ? 

The very bard who through Italian peoples makes 
his poem on Aeneas resound, the bard who in his 
mighty renown treads ^ Olympus and in Roman 
accents challenges the old man Maeonian, perchance 
his poem might have lurked obscure in the shadow 
of the grove, and he might have but sung on a 
fruitless reed unknown to the nations, if he had lacked 
a Maecenas. Yet it was not to one bard only that he 
opened his doors, nor did he entrust his (imperial) 
divinities to ^'irgil alone : Maecenas raised to fame 
Varius,* who shook the stage with tragic mien ; 

Hor. Od. I. vi. 1 and Porphyrion nd loc. ; Sat. I. x. 44; A. P. 
65; Quintilian X. i. 98; Mart. VIII. xviii. 7; Tac. Dial. xii. 6. 


erexit Varium. Maecenas alta tonantis 
emit et populis ostendit nomina Graiis. 
camiiiia Romanis etiam resonantia chordis, 
Ausoniamque chelyn gracilis patefecit Horati. 
o decus, in totum nierito venerabilis aevum, 
Pierii tutela chori, quo praeside tuti 
non umquam vates inopi timuere senectae. 

quod si quis nostris precibus locus, et mea vota 
si mentem subiere tuam, memorabilis olim 
tu mihi Maecenas tereti cantabere versu. 
possumus aeternae nomen committere famae, 
si tamen hoc ulli de se promittere fas est 
et deus ultor abest ; superest animosa voluntas 
ipsaque nescio quid mens excellentius audet. 
tu nanti protende manum : tu, Piso, latentem 
exsere. nos huniilis domus, at sincera, parentum 
et tenuis fortuna sua caligine celat. ; 

possumus impositis caput exonerare tenebris 
et lucem spectare novam, si quid modo laetus 
adnuis et nostris subscribis, candide, votis. 
est mihi, crede, meis animus constantior annis, 
quamvis nunc iuvenile decus mihi pingere malas '. 

coeperit et nondum vicesima venerit aestas. 

^*^ nomina Graiis S : Troica Macri Baehrens. 

" A divine power hostile to pride is suggested, but not 
named; cf. Sen. H.F. 385, sequitur superhos ultor a tergo 
deus; Ovid, Met. XIV. 750, quam iam deus ultor agebat. The 
idea resembles that of Nemesis, and it is noteworthy that 
Ovid, Met. XIV. 693-694 mentions the del ultores and, 
independently, the " mindful wrath" of Nemesis. 



Maecenas drew out tlie grand style of the tliunderintj 
poet and revealed famous names to the peoples of 
Greece. Likewise he made known to fame songs 
resonant on Roman strings and the Italian lyre of 
graceful Horace. Hail! ornament of the age, 
worshipful deservedly for all time, protection of the 
Pierian choir, beneath whose guardianship never did 
poet fear for an old age of beggary. 

But if there is any room for entreaties of mine, if 
my prayers have readied your heart, then you, Piso, 
shall one day be chanted in polished verse, to be 
enshrined in memory as my Maecenas. I can consign 
a name to everlasting renown, if after all 'tis rio-ht 
for any man to promise this of himself, and if the 
avenging god is absent :*' there is abundance of spirited 
will, and the mind itself ventures on something of 
surpassing quality. Do you stretch out your hand to 
a swimmer : ^ do you, Piso, bring to the light one who 
is obscure. The home of my sires, humble but true, 
along with its slender fortune hides me in its own 
darkness. I can clear my head of its enshrouding 
burden, I can behold fresh light, if you, my fair- 
souled friend, do but cheerfully approve and support 
my aspirations. I have, trust me, a spirit firmer than 
my years, though youth's comeliness has just begun 
to shade my cheeks and my twentieth simimer is not 
yet at hand. 

^ The appeal of this young poet contrasts with Johnson's 
famous sarcasm : " Is not a patron, my lord, one who looks 
with unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and, 
when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help ? " 





The Einsiedeln pastorals, so called after the tenth- 
century manuscript at Einsiedeln from Avhich H. 
Ilagen first published them in 1869, have already 
been touched upon in connexion with Calpurnius 
Siculus. These two incomplete poems date almost 
certainly from the early years of Nero's reign 
(a.d. 51-68). In the hrst, the emperor is an Apollo 
and a Jupiter and the inspired author of a poem on 
the taking of Troy. In the second, one of the 
shepherds is convinced that M'ith the emperor's 
accession the Golden Age has returned. This poem, 
the earlier and the more artistic of the two, in its 
opening ''quid tacitus, Mi/stes?" either echoes or 
is echoed by the opening of Calpurnius Siculus' 
fourth eclogue, " quid tacitus, Cory don '^ " On the 
ground of the laudata chelys of i. 17, it has been 
argued that the author's muse was already popular 
at court and that it might have been worth while 
for Calpurnius Siculus, a humbler person and a junior 
poet, to pay him the compliment of imitation.'^ The 
argument proceeds to identify the author of the Einsie- 
deln poems with the eminent Calpurnius Piso on the 
ground that, if Calpurnius Siculus 'patron" Meliboeus " 

" This is Groag's theory, P. W. Reakncyd. III. 1379 : it is 
contradicted by Skutsch, P. W. Realencycl. V. 2115. 



was really Piso," then it is appropriate that he, as 
the speaker at Eclogue iv. 1, should appear to quote 
" quid tac'dus? " from himself. Besides, in spite of 
Piso's later complicity in the conspiracy against Nero, 
he had been at one time on intimate terms with the 
emperor,^ and might well have indulged in pastoral 
panegyrics upon him. This implies that the Einsie- 
deln poems preceded the Calpurnian eclogues. But 
if the gaudete ruinae and laudaie rogos of Einsied. i. 
40-41 could be taken to indicate composition after 
the fire of Rome in a.d. 64, then it is hard to picture 
Piso so praising Nero on the verge of his plot against 
him. However this may be, the eulogies upon Nero 
are in the manner of court literature during the 
opening years of his reign, as is evident from the 
tone of Seneca's praises in his Apocolocyntosis and 
De Clemeritia. Much learned speculation has been 
spent on the pieces. It has generally been felt 
needless to assert (as Hagen, Buecheler and Birt 
have done) two separate authors for them ; and, 
while Lucan, as well as Piso, has been put forward 
as the -wTiter, the balance of opinion tends to agree 
that there is not enough evidence on which to dog- 
matise. Ferrara ^ thinks it possible that the two 
pieces are by Calpurnius Siculus. There are, it is 
true, resemblances between the Einsiedeln pair 
and his eclogues ; but the verj^ fact that the adulation 
of Nero in the first piece and the restoration of the 

<* It must be remembered that a case can be made out for 
regarding " Meliboeus " as Seneca. Some, on the other hand, 
consider all such identifications to be futile (see introd. to 
Calpurnius Siculus). 

^ Tacitus, Ann. XV. 52. 

" In Caljjurnio Siculo e il panegirico a Calpurnio, Pavia, 



Golden Age in the second are themes in common 
\vith the fom-th and first Calpurnian eclogues 
niihtates rather against than for identity of author- 
ship. At least, it is arguable that a writer with 
aspirations after originality would not go on harping 
on the same string. In one way, indeed, there is a 
departure from pastoral usage, which normally 
confines speakers to complete hexameters : the 
second poem has this amount of individuality in 
structure, that the interlocutors sometimes start 
speaking in the middle of a line (ii. 1 ; 4 ; 5 and 6). 


H. Hagen, in PhiM. 28 (1869), pp. 338 sqq. (the 

first publication of the text). 
A. Riese, in Anthol. Latina, Nos. 725 and 726. 

E. Baehrens, in P.L.M. Ill, 60-64. 

C. Giarratano, with Bucolica of Calpurnius and 
Nemesianus (Paravia ed.). Turin, 1924. 


R. Peiper. Praefationis in Senecae tragoedias suppkm. 
Breslau, 1870. (First established the Neronian 

F. Buecheler. Rh. Mus. 26 (1871), 235. 

O. Ribbeck. Kh. Mus. 26 (1871), 406, 491. 

Th. Birt. Ad historiam hexametri latini synihola, p. 64. 
[Argues, like Hagen and Buecheler, that the two 
poems are by different authors.] Bonn, 1876. 

E. Groag, in P. W. Realencyd. III. (1899) col. 1379. 
[Considers Calpurnius Piso the author.] 



F. Skutsch, in P. W. Realencycl V. (1905) col. 2115. 

[Considers Groag's conjecture unfounded.] 
A. Maciejczyk. De carminum Einsidlensium tempore 

et auctore. Diss. GreifsMald, 1907. 
S. Loesch, Die Einsiedler Gedichie : eine litterar- 

historische Untersiichimg (w. text and a facsimile). 

Diss. Tubingen, 1909. [These last two writers 

argue for Lucan's authorship.] 
J. Hubaux. Les themes bucoliques dans la poesie 

lat'me, Bruxelles, 1930, pp. 228 sqq. 

For a fuller list see Schanz, Gesch. d. rbm. Lit. 


E == Codex Einsiedlensis 266 : saec. x. 

Baehrens' transpositions of lines are not followed, 
nor all of his emendations. 


Y 2 


Thamvra : Ladas : Mida 

Th. Te, formose Mida, iam dudum nostra requirunt 
iurgia : da vacuam pueris certantibus aurem. 

Mi. haud moror ; et casti nemoris secreta voluptas 
invitat calamos : imponite lusibus artem. 

Th. praemia si cessant, artis fiducia muta est. 

La. sed nostram durare fidem duo pignora cogent : 
vel caper ille, nota frontem qui pingitur alba, 
vel levis haec et mobilibus circumdata bullis 
fistula, silvicolae munus memorabile Fauni. 

Th. sive caprum mavis vel Fauni ponere munus, 

elige utrum perdas ; sed erit, puto, certius omen 
fistula damnato iam nunc pro pignore dempta. 

Thamira E: Thamyra Hagen: cf. Thamyras, 21. 
^ et casti Baehrens {cf. Tac. Germ. 40 castum nemus) : et cusu 
E : et lusu Hagen : excusum Gundermann. 
^ nulla Hagen, Ribbeck. 

' nota . . . alba Hagen : notam . . . albam E. 
^ nobilibus E, corr. Hagen. 

* munus venerabile Baehrens : munus et memorabile E. 
^^ set Baehrens : et E. 
1^ dempta Baehrens : empta est E. 



[The personages are Thamyras and Ladas as 
contending shepherds, and Midas as umpire.] 

Th. Long have our contests called for you, my hand- 
some Midas ; lend a leisured ear to competing 

Mi. I am ready : the sequestered charm of the 
holy wood is an invitation to pipings : lay skill 
upon your minstrelsy. 

Th. If prizes are lacking, the confidence of skill is 

La. Xay, two stakes will make our confidence endure : 
either yonder he-goat, whose forehead is decked 
with the white mark, or this light pipe set 
round with moveable knobs,*^ the memorable 
gift of Faunus, denizen of the woods. 

Th. Whether you prefer to stake the he-goat or 
Faunus' gift, choose which of the two you are to 
lose ; but the surer omen, I fancy, will be the 
pipe which, instead of being a stake, is as good 
as taken away from the rejected competitor. 

° The bullae might control the musical notes by closing or 
opening the perforations ; but they might merely be decora- 
tive. Hubaux [Les thenifs bucoliques, p. 230) thinks of " una 
fliite ornee de verroteries." 


La. quid iuvat insanis lucem consumere verbis ? 
iudicis e gremio victoris gloria surgat. 

Th. praeda mea est, quia Caesareas me dicere laudes 
mens iubet : huie semper debetur palma labori. 

La. et mi sidereo cor movit Cynthius ore 

laudatamque chelyn iussit variare canendo. 

Mi. pergite, io pueri, promissum reddere carmen ; 
sic vos cantantes deus adiuvet ! incipe, Lada, 
tu prior ; altemus Thamyras imponet honorem. 

La. maxime divorum caelique aeterna potestas, 
seu tibi, Phoebe, placet temptare loquentia fila 
et citharae modulis primordia iungere mundi 
carmine uti virgo furit et canit ore coacto, 
fas mihi sit vidisse deos, fas prodere mundum : 
seu caeli mens ilia fuit seu solis imago, 
dignus utroque <deo) stetit ostro clarus et auro 

^' mi s, cor movit (commovit olim) Baehrens : me s. cor- 
rumpit E, Giarratano. 

2" cantantes E : certantes Baehrens. 

21 imponit E : imponet Baehrens : imponat Hagen. 

22 caelique JIagen : ceterique E. 

23 temptare Peiper : emitare E. 

2* versum qui est 24 in E post 31 traiecit Baehrens. 
25 carmine uti Baehrens : carminibus E. 
2'' mundo Hagen, Baehrens : mundum E. 
28 utraque Peiper. post stetit, dux addidit Baehrens : deus 
Peiper : ante stetit, deo addidit Krichenberg : Nero Buechehr. 

" i.e. to Nero's merits. 


La. What avails it to waste the (layli<rht in wild 
words? Let the winner's ftime rise from the 
umpire's bosom. 

Th. The spoil is mine, because my mind prompts me 
to recount a Caesar's praises : to such a task 
the prize is ever due. 

La. My heart too hath Apollo stirred ^Wth celestial 
lips and bade me sing changing strains to my 
lyre which has already won praise. 

3//. Proceed, my lads, to render the promised song : 
so may God aid you as ye sing ! Ladas, begin — 
you first : Thamvras in turn will bring his 

La. Greatest of gods, eternal ruler of the sky,* 
whether, Phoebus, it is thy pleasure to make 
trial of the eloquent strings and set to melodies 
on the lyre the first principles of the world, 
even as in song the maiden-priestess raves and 
chants with lips o'er-mastered, so may I be 
allowed to have looked on gods, allowed to 
reveal the story of the universe : *" whether that 
mind was the mind of the sky or likeness of 
the sun,^ worthy of both divine principles Apollo 
took his place, brilliant in purple and gold, and 

* Some have taken this as addressed to Jupiter ; but Ladas 
is concerned with Phoebus alone (17-18), while Thamyras is 
concerned with the emperor (15-16). This seems to preclude 
the idea supported by some scholars that the emperor (instead 
of Apollo) is the subject of stetit in 28. 

' Ladas prays for inspiration like that of the Pythian 
prophetess : c/. Lucan, V. 88-99, on Apollo as guardian of 
eternal fate at Delphi, a passage containing noticeable 
parallelisms of expression to the verses here given to Ladas. 

•* The reference is to Apollo as the omniscient god of 
divination (Lucan V. 88 caeli . . . deus omnia cursu-s aeterni 
secreta teneiis) and as the Sun-God. 


intonuitque manu. talis diWna potestas 
quae genuit mundum septemque intexuit oris 
artificis zonas et totas miscet amore. 
talis Phoebus erat, cum laetus caede draconis 
docta repercusso generav-it carmina plectro : 
caelestes ulli si sunt, hac voce loquuntur ! 
venerat ad modulos doctarum turba sororum. . . . 
Th. hue hue, Pierides, volucri concedite saltu : 
hie Heliconis opes florent, hie vester Apollo est ! 
tu quoque Troia sacros cineres ad sidera tolle 
atque Agamemnoniis opus hoc ostende Mycenis ! 
iam tanti cecidisse fuit ! gaudete, ruinae, 
et laudate rogos : vester vos tollit alumnus ! 

(^venerat en et Maeonides, cui} plurima barba 

2° orbis Hagen : oris E. 
3^ totas Baehrens : toto E : totum Fiese. 
^5 versum qui est 35 in E post 41 traiecit Baehrens. sororum 
Hagen : sonarum E. 

^^ hie versus totus et 43 ex maiore parte desunt in E. 
^^ explevit Baehrens ut supra. 

" Apollo's power, from a Stoic stand-point, was totiiis pars 
magna lovis (Lucan, V. 95). The artifez, or contriver of the 
mundus, is the STj/xiowpyJj of Platonic philosophy. According 
to Plutarch, Thales and Pythagoras divided the heavens 
into five zones, Pythagoras dividing the earth into five 
corresponding zones {De Placitis Philosophoriim, 2, 12 and 3, 
14). The 8toio Poseidonius gave Parmenides as originator 
of the division into five zones (Strabo, Geog. II. ii. 2). 
Poseidonius himself recognized seven zones (Strabo, II. ii. 3 
[C. 95]), and his influence acts directly or indirectly on this 



sped thunder with his liand. Such was the 
divine power which lias begotten the W(jrld 
and has inwoven with the seven borders the 
artificer's zones ° and blends them all with love.* 
Such was Phoebus, when, rejoicing in the 
slaughter of the dragon,*^ he produced learned 
minstrelsy to the beat of the plectrum : if 
there are any dwellers in heaven, they speak 
with voice like this. The band of the learned 
sisterhood had come to the sounds of the 
music. . . . 
Th. Hither, hither, ye Pierian Muses, approach in 
the fleet dance ! Here flourishes the wealth 
of Helicon ; here is your own Apollo ! You 
too, O Troy, raise your hallowed ashes to the 
stars,** and display this work to Agamemnon's 
Mycenae ! Now has it proved of such value to 
have fallen ! Rejoice, ye ruins ; praise your 
funeral pyres : 'tis your nurseling that raises 
you again ! . . . <(Lo ! Homer too had come, 

* The principle of attraction in the universe descended from 
the Theogony of Pherecydes to Stoic philosophy. This physical 
<pi\ia of the Greeks is echoed in Lucan, IV. 189-191, nunc 
ades aeterno complectens ormiia nexu, o rerum mixtique fialus, 
Concordia, mundi, ct sacer orhis amor. The difficulties of the 
passage 22 sqq. are discussed by Loeech, Die Einsiedler 
GedicJite (1909), pp. 34-42. 

'^ i.e. the serpent Python sent to torment Latona, cf. 
Lucan, V. 80. 

^ The reference might be, some have argued, to Nero's 
poem on Troy, from which according to common gossip he 
recited the episode of the fall of the city ("AAwfrjs 'wiov) on 
the occasion of the great fire at Rome, a.d. 64 : Tac. Ann. xv. 
39; Suet. Ner. 38; Dio, Ixii. 18. But it would not be a 
tactful allusion, and there arc difficulties in placing the poem 
so late. 


albaque caesaries pleno radiabat honore. 
ergo ut divinis implevit vocibus aures, 
Candida flaventi discinxit tempora vitta 
Caesareimique caput merito velavit amictu. 
baud procul Iliaco quondam non segnior ore 
stabat et ipsa suas delebat Mantua cartas. 


Glyceraxus : Mystes 

Gl. Quid tacitus, Mystes ? Mi/, curae mea gaudia 

turbant : 

cura dapes sequitur, magis inter pocula surgit, 

et gravis anxietas laetis incunibere gaudet. 

Gl. non satis accipio. Mi/, nee me iuvat omnia fari. 

GL forsitan imposuit pecori lupus ? Mi/, baud timet 


turba canum vigilans. Gl. vigiles quoque som- 

nus adumbrat. 

Ml/, altius est, Glycerane, aliquid, non quod patet: 


Gl. atquin turbari sine ventis non solet aequor. 

Ml/, quod minime reris, satias mea gaudia vexat. 

*^ implentur . . . aurae Baehrens : implevit aures E. 
*^' discinxit Hagen : distinxit E. 
*' velavit Peiper : celabit E. 
II. ' nou quod patet Baehrens : non non pat E. 


whose) full beard and white hair shone in 
undimmed honour. So when lie filled the 
poet's ears with accents divine, he undid the 
golden circlet from his fair brow and veiled the 
emperor's head with its deserved attire. Hard 
by stood Mantua,** erstwhile as forceful as the 
lips which sang of Ilion ; but now with her own 
hands she began to tear her writings to shreds. 

[The poem is incomplete. Probably Thamyras' 
verses are unfinished and certainly the judgement 
of Midas is lacking.] 


A Dialogue between Glyceranus and Mystes. 

Gl. Why silent, Mystes? My. Worries disturb 
my joys : worry pursues my meals : it rises 
even more amid my cups : a load of anxiety 
enjoys burdening my happy hours. 

Gl. I don't quite take you, Mt/. Well, I don't like 
to tell the whole. 

Gl. Mayhap a wolf has tricked your cattle ? Mi/. 
My watchful band of dogs fears not enemies. 
Gl. Sleep can o'ershadow even the watchful. 

Mtf. 'Tis something deeper, Glyceranus — no open 
trouble : you are wrong. 

Gl. Yet the sea is not usually disturbed without 

Ml/. You may not think it, but 'tis satiety that 
plagues my joys. 

* Virgil's birthplace, now eclipsed by Nero's ministrelsy ! 
This gross sycophancy contrasts with tlie reverential homage 
shown towards Virgil both in Calp. Sic. iv. 62-63 and in Lous 
Pisonis 230 sgg. It suggests different authorship. 


Gl. deliciae somnusque solent adamare querellas. 

My. ergo si causas curarum scire laboras — 

Gl. quae spargit ramos, tremula nos vestiet umbra 
ulmus, et en tenero corpus summittere prato 
lierba iubet : tu die, quae sit tibi causa tacendi. 

Ml/, cernis ut attrito difFusus cespite pagus 

annua vota ferat sollennesque inchoet aras ? 
spirant templa mero, resonant cava tympana 

Maenalides teneras ducunt per sacra choreas, 
tibia laeta canit, pendet sacer hircus ab ulmo 
et iani nudatis cervicibus exuit exta. 
ergo num dubio pugnant discrimine nati 
et negat huic aevo stolidum pecus aurea regna ? 
Saturni rediere dies Astraeaque virgo 
tutaque in antiquos redierunt saecula mores, 
condit secura totas spe messor aristas, 
languescit senio Bacchus, pecus errat in herba, 
nee gladio metimus nee clausis oppida muris 
bella tacenda parant ; nullo iam noxia partu 
femina quaecumque est hostem parit. arva 

^5 cespite pagus Baehrens : cortice fagus E. 
^^ inchoet Baehrens : imbuet E : imbuat Hagen : induat 

21 nunc Baehrens : num E. 

2* tutaque Baehrens : totaque E. 

" Maenalus in Arcadia was especially associated with Pan. 

^ i.e. the present generation has no handicap in the struggle 
of life : there is no conflict between man and nature, because 
the Golden Age has returned. 

' The very cattle must own that the blessings of the 
Golden Age belong to the present era. 


Pleasure and drowsihead are commonly in 

love with complaints. 

Well then, if vou are intent on knowing- the 

reasons for my pangs 

GL There is an elm-tree with outspread branches 
which will cover us with its quivering shade, 
and, look ! the green-sward bids us lie down 
on the soft meadow : i/oii must tell what is your 
reason for silence. 

3fy. Do you see how the villagers, outspread o'er 
the well-worn turf, offer their yearly vows and 
begin the regular altar-worship ? Temples 
reek of wine ; the hollow drums resound to the 
hands ; the Maenalids ^ lead the youthful 
ring-dances amid the holy rites ; joyful sounds 
the pipe ; from the elm hangs the he-goat 
doomed to sacrifice, and with neck already 
stripped lays his vitals bare. Surely then the 
offspring of to-day fight with no doubtful 
hazard .f* ^ Surely the blockish herd denies not 
to these times the realms of gold ? '^ The days 
of Saturn have returned with Justice the Maid : '^ 
the age has returned in safety to the olden ways. 
With hope unruffled does the harvester garner 
all his corn-ears ; the Wine-god betrays the 
languor of old age ; the herd wanders on the 
lea ; we reap with no sword, nor do towns in 
fast-closed walls prepare unutterable war : 
there is not any woman who, dangerous in her 
motherhood, gives birth to an enemy. ^ Unarmed 

'^ Line 23 imitates Virg. Ed. iv. G, iam red it et Virgo, 
redeunl Saturtiia regrui. 

' No foeman can be born, as war is at an end. 



nuda fodit tardoque piier domifactus aratro 
miratur patriis pendentem sedibus ensem. 
est procul a nobis infelix gloria SuUae 
trinaque tempestas, moriens cum Roma supre- 

desperavit <[opes) et Martia vendidit arma. 
nunc tellus inculta novos parit ubere fetus, 
nunc ratibus tutis fera non irascitur unda ; 
mordent frena tigres, subeunt iuga saeva leones 
casta fave Lucina : tuus iam regnat Apollo ! 

^2 est Baehrens : sed E. 
^* opes add. Peiper : ow. E. 
^' sueta Baehrens : seva E. 



our youth can dig the fields, and tlie boy, 
trained to the slow-moving plough, marvels at 
the sword hanging in the abode of his fathers. 
Ear from us is the luckless " glory of Sulla and 
the threefold crisis ^ when dying Rome despaired 
of her final resources and sold her martial arms. 
Now doth earth untilled yield fresh produce 
from the rich soil, now are the wild waves 
no longer angry with the unmenaced ship : 
tigers gnaw their curbs, lions endure the cruel 
yoke : be gracious, chaste Lucina : thine own 
Apollo now is King.'" 

[The poem thus relates the shepherd's gaudia 
but not the curae of verse 1.] 

" Sulla was traditionally regarded as felix. 

** The allusion seems to be to (1) the first capture of Rome 
by a Roman army when Sulla took the city in 88 B.C.; (2) 
Marius' reign of terror in 87 when slaves from the ergastula 
were armed {Mnrtia vendidit arma), and (3) the occupation 
of Rome by Sulla in 82. 

' This last line is taken from Virgil, Ed. iv. 10, Lucina, 
goddess of childbirth, is here not Juno, but Diana, who as 
the Moon-goddess is sister to the Sun-god Apollo. He is the 
deity of the tenth Sibylline era which Virgil in Eel. iv. 
identifies with the Golden Age. 





VOL. I. 



Both these prayers afford interesting glimpses into 
features of ancient religion much older than the 
poems themselves. It is characteristic of the worship 
of the Earth-Goddess that they should exhibit a 
recognition of her as the source of life and energy 
and nourishment, an anticipation of a final refuge in 
her at death," and a confidence in her power to give 
help and healing. The divinity of the Earth-Mother 
was believed to be communicated to the dead, who 
were by inhumation absorbed into her. The words 
of the first Precatio find a full parallel in the epitaph — 

mortua heic ego sum et sum cinis, is cinis terrast : 
sein est terra dea, ego sum dea, mortua non sum.^ 

The return of the body to Mother Earth was a natural 
notion for a primitive agricultural folk, since much of 
the religious ritual of such peoples must be con- 
nected with the land. Earth had to be propitiated 
that she might grant increase to crops and cattle ; 

* With 11. 12-14 of the first Precatio, cf. mater genuit 
materque recepit in Buecheler, Carmitia hit. epigrnphica. No. 
809 : cj. also the traditional sepulchral inscription ^it tibi 
terra levis, and the spirit of the prayer to Tellus which ends 
the ttrst elegy on Maecenas (141 sqq., p. 134 supra). 

" Buecheler, op. cit.. No. 1532 : cf. 974. 



and at funerals the pig was sacrificed to the Corn- 
Goddess to secure her favour in receiving the dead. 
It is, then, inteUigible that the Di Manes and Tellus 
Mater should sometimes be coupled ; e.g. Decius 
in his devoiio (Li\T VIII. ix. 8) named them together. 
So Romans came to look on the tomb as an eternal 
home " where the spirit of the dead should abide, still 
a member of the old clan, still in some kind of 
communion with the living through the offering of 
sacrifice and food. 

An excellent plastic illustration of the Precatio 
Terrae may be found in the allegorical relief of Tellus 
Mater, from the walls of the Ara Pacis Augustae 
decreed by the Senate to the emperor Augustus in 
13 B.C. It is symbolic of peace and plenty, and 
characteristically representative of the fusion of 
Eastern with Western elements in Graeco-Roman art. 
Baehrens, indeed, would ascribe both the Precationes to 
the same period as the Ara Pacis (Miscell. Crit., Gron- 
ingen, 1878, pp. 107-1 13). Under the name of Antonius 
Musa we have a treatise " de herba betonica " in a 
Leyden MS. (Leidensis), a Breslau MS. (Vrati- 
slaviensis), and two Florentine MSS. (Laurentiani). 
These four also contain the two Precationes in senarii. 
The Precatio Omnium Herharum is in one MS. (Laur. 
11th cent.) ascribed to Musa: on this ground Baeh- 
rens concludes that both poems are by him. If this 
were convincing, it would settle their date as 
Augustan ; but the argument is weak, and there are 
features in the poems suggestive of a later period. 
Maiestas tua, for instance, in lines 25 and 32 of the 

" Buecheler, op. cit., No. 69 suae gnatae, sibeique, uxori 
banc constituit domum aeternam ubei omnes pariter aevom 
degerent : cf. 1488. 


first piece, has a post-Au^ustaii ring ; and it is note- 
worthy that the word tnaiestas comes three times in the 
Precafio Omnium Ilerharum. 


(following Baehrens, P.L.M. I. pp. 137-138) 

A = codex Leidensis (M.L.V.Q. 9), saec. VI. 

B = codex Vratislaviensis (cod. bibl. univers. III. 

F. 19), saec. XI. 
C = codex Laurentianus (plut. Ixxiii. 41), saec. XI 

D = codex Laurentianus (plut. Ixxiii. 16), saec. XIII. 



Dea sancta Tellus, rerum naturae parens, 
quae cuncta generas et regeneras indidem, 
quod sola praestas gentibus vitalia, 
caeli ac maris diva arbitra rerumque omnium, 
per quam silet natura et somnos concipit, 
itemque lucem reparas et noctem fugas : 
tu Ditis umbras tegis et immensum chaos 
ventosque et imbres tempestatesque attines 
et, cum libet, dimittis et misces freta 
fugasque soles et procellas concitas, 
itemque, cum vis, hilarem promittis diem, 
tu alimenta vitae tribuis perpetua fide, 
et, cum recesserit anima, in tete refugimus : 
ita, quicquid tribuis, in te cuncta recidunt. 
merito vocaris Magna tu Mater deum, 
pietate quia \icisti divom numina ; 
tuque ilia vera es gentium et divom parens, 
sine qua nil maturatur nee nasci potest ; 
tu es Magna tuque divom regina es, dea. 
te, diva, adoro tuumque ego numen invoco, 
facilisque praestes hoc mihi quod te rogo ; 
referamque grates, diva, tibi merita fide, 
exaudi <(me), quaeso, et fave coeptis meis ; 

- sidus codd. : indidem Baehren-s : in dies Buechehr. 

^ tutela codd. : vitalia Baehren-s. 

^° solem codd. : soles Baehrens. 

^' ver et BC : vera A : veto D : vera es Baehrens. 




Goddess revered, O Earth, of all nature Mother, 
engendering all things and re-engendering them 
from the same womb, because thou only dost supply- 
each species with living force, thou divine controller 
of sky and sea and of all things, through thee is 
nature hushed and lays hold on sleep, and thou like- 
M-ise renewest the day and dost banish night. Thou 
coverest Pluto's shades and chaos immeasurable : 
winds, rains and tempests thou dost detain, and, at 
thy will, let loose, and so convulse the sea, banishing 
sunshine, stirring gales to fury, and likewise, when 
thou wilt, thou speedest forth the joyous day. Thou 
dost bestow life's nourishment with never-failing 
faithfulness, and, when our breath has gone, in thee 
we find our refuge : so, whatsoe'er thou bestowest, all 
falls back to thee. Deservedly art thou called 
Mighty Mother of Gods, since in duteous service 
thou hast surpassed the divinities of heaven, and thou 
art that true parent of living species and of gods, 
without which nothing is ripened or can be born. Thou 
art the Mighty Being and thou art queen of divinities, 

Goddess. Thee, divine one, I adore and thy 
godhead I invoke : graciously vouchsafe me this 
which I ask of thee : and with due fealty, Goddess, 

1 will repay thee thanks. Give ear to me, I pray, 
and favour my undertakings : this which I seek of 



hoc quod peto a te, diva, mihi praesta volens. 

herbas, quascumque general maiestas tua, 

salutis causa tribuis cunctis gentibus : 

hanc (nunc) mihi permittas medicinam tuam. 

veniat medicina cuni tuis \irtutibus : 

quidque ex his fecero, habeat eventum bonum, 

cuique easdem dedero quique easdem a me accepe- 

sanos eos praestes. denique nunc, diva, hoc mihi 
maiestas praestet <tua>, quod te supplex rogo. 


Nunc vos potentes omnes herbas deprecor. 

exoro maiestatem vestram, quas parens 

tellus generavit et cunctis dono dedit : 

medicinam sanitatis in vos contuHt 

maiestatemque, ut omni generi ^identidem) 

humano sitis auxihum utiHssimum. 

hoc supplex exposco <(et) precor : ve<locius) 

<(huc) hue adeste cum vestris virtutibus, 

quia, quae creavit, ipsa permisit mihi, 

ut coUigam vos ; favit hie etiam, cui 

medicina tradita est. quantumque vestra {nunc) 

virtus potest, praestate medicinam bonam 

causa salutis. gratiam, precor, mihi 

praestetis per virtutem vestram, ut omnibus 

in rebus, quicquid ex vobis (ego") fecero, 

28 veni ad me cum A : veniat me cum BCD : veniat 
medicina cum Baehrens : veni veni ad me Btiechehr. 
1" favente (-tem A) hoc codd. : favit hie Baehrens. 
*^ viribus ACD : virtutibus B : in rebus Baehrens. 



thee, (ioddess, vouchsafe to me \villingly. All herbs 
soever which thy majesty " engendereth, for health's 
sake thou bestowest upon every race : entrust to me 
now this healing virtue of thine : let healing come with 
thy powers: Mhate'er I do in consonance therewith, 
let it have favourable issue : to Avhomso I give those 
same powers or whoso shall receive the same from 
Die, all such do thou make whole. Finally now, O 
Goddess, let thy majesty vouchsafe to me what I 
ask of thee in prayer. 


With all you potent herbs do I now intercede ; 
and to your majesty make my appeal : ye were 
engendered by Mother Earth, and given for a gift 
to all. On you she has conferred the healing which 
makes whole, on you high excellence, so that to all 
mankind you may be time and again an aid most 
serviceable. This in suppliant wise I implore and 
entreat : hither, hither swiftly come with all your 
potency, forasmuch as the very one who gave you 
birth has granted me leave to gather you : he also 
to whom the healing art is entrusted has shown his 
favour.^ As far as your potency now extends, vouch- 
safe sound healing for health's sake. Bestow on me, 
I pray, favour by your potency, that in all things, 
whatsoever I do according to your will, or for what- 

" maiestas tua (in lines 25 and .32) sounds post-Augustan : 
maipstas had already become a title of respect for an emperor 
in Phaedrus II. 5. 23. Cf. in the following poem, maiestatPtn 
Vf.stram addressed to the herbae in line 2 : cf. lines 5 and 18 
and Juvenal's tcmplorum qnoque maiestas praesentior, XI. Ill, 
for a " mystic presence" in temples. 

** i.e. Paean, Apollo as deity of healing. 



cuive homini dedero, habeatis eventus bonos 
et efFectuni celerrmiimi. ut semper iiiihi 
liceat favente maiestate vestra vos 


ponamque vobis fruges et grates agam 
per nomen Matris, quae vos iussit nascier. 

-^ maiestatis codd. : Matris Baehrens. nasci codd. : nascier 



soever man 1 prescribe, ye may have favourable 
issues and most speedy result. That I may ever be 
allowed, with the favour of your majesty, to gather 
you . . . and I shall set forth the produce of the 
fields for you and return thanks through the name 
of the Mother who ordained your birth. 





The poem on Aetna has many claims on the 
attention of readers. It was placed among the 
minor works of Virgil by manuscript tradition, 
though this assignation, which came to be disputed 
by the time of Donatus, finds few scholars to support 
it now. But whatever its authorship and its date," 
Aet?ia was written by an author who must win respect 
by reason of his earnest enthusiasm for the study of 
nature. He is in quest of a vera causa to explain 
volcanic action, and in his concentration of purpose, 
coupled \v'ith his disdain for mythology, there rings, 
notwithstanding his errors, a note half-suggestive of 
scientific modernity. If he despises mythology as 
no true explanation (though, like Lucretius, accept- 
ing it as an ornament), the author also -despises sight- 
seers who gad about the world to the neglect of the 
wonders of nature near their homes. His is a call to 
observe: "study the colossal work of nature the 
artist " (artijicis naturae ingens opus adspice, 601). 
Basing his observations and theories upon Aetna 
specially — because Vesuvius was mistakenly con- 
sidered extinct (431-432) — he argues that the con- 
trolling motive force behind eruptions is air operating 
in the vacua with which the earth is honeycombed, 

* See J. Wight Duff, A Literary Hintory of Rome in the Silver 
Age , 1927, pp. 338-339. 



and that the volcanic fire gets a nutritive material in 
the lava-stone {lapis molaris). 

There are digressions from which the poem gains 
in attractiveness. One passage (224-273) utters a 
stirring proclamation of the majesty of physical 
research in contrast ^-ith mankind's ignoble cares. 
Again, towards the conclusion, the poet turns from 
theorising about physical phenomena to an episode 
(604-64:6) which centres in the human quality of 
heroic devotion sho^^^l by two brothers who rescue 
their parents from a sea of fire during an appalling 

The difficulty of the poem itself is partly textual, 
partly stylistic — the former becomes evident in the 
apparatus criticus; the latter, in great measure, 
arises from a striving after brevity, a tendency to 
overload words and phrases, a fondness for metaphor 
and for personification, and perhaps an occasional 
adoption of expressions from the sermo pleheius of 
Rome." These points resemble characteristics of 
the *' Silver " Latinity of the early empire. The 
terseness, too, in mythological references, where 
details are taken for granted as well known, suggests 
some degree of lateness in period,^ and is consistent 
with Buecheler's verdict that the poem must be later 
than Ovid and Manilius and with Munro's testimony 
regarding its versification. But it must have been 
composed before a.d. 63, as the terrible earthquake 
which devastated the towns close to Vesuvius in that 
year could not have been overlooked by a didactic 
poet who had the volcanic zone of Campania under 

" See J. M. Stowasser, Zur Latinitdl des Aetna in Zeitschrijt 
fur d. oesterr. Gymn., 51 (1900), p. 385. 
" E. Bickel, Rhein. Mus. Ixxix. 3 (1930). 



consideration and dismissed it as inaetive (431-432). 
Similarities to expressions in Seneca's Natnrales 
Quaestiones of a.d. 65 do not prove the contention that 
Aetna came after that work ; for both authors may 
well have used a common source. A summer visit 
to the volcano may have turned the poet to study 
Posidonian theories" : conirruity of subject must have 
directed him to read Lucretius and Manilius, while 
in the use of the hexameter he had before him as 
models both \ irgil and Ovid. 

There is no clear way of deciding the authorship. 
Seneca's letter to his friend Lucilius Junior {Epist. 
Ixxix. 4r-7), once widely accepted as proof that 
Lucilius composed the work, implies nothing beyond 
a prediction that Lucilius was to insert a passage 
about Aetna in a projected poem on Sicily. 


J. B. Ascensius. Firgilii Opera. Paris, 1507. 

Jos. Scaliger. In Firgilii Appendix. Leyden, 1573. 

J. Le Clerc (Gorallus). Aetna c. notis et interpret. 

Amsterdam, 1703, 1715. 
J. C. Wernsdorf. Lncilii Jiuiioris Aetna in Poetae 

Latini Minores. Altenburg, 1780-1799. 
F. Jacob. Lncilii Junioris Aetna (Latin notes ; trans- 
lation in German hexameters). Leipzig, 1826. 
" e.g. on rrvevfia (= .spiritus) as a volcanic agent : cf. Aetna, 
2l:i, 344. Poseidonius) r. 1.30-50 B.C.), born at Apamea in 
Syria, was a traveller of encyclopaedic knowledge, whose 
works are now lost. Apart from eminent services to eclectic 
Stoicism, he devoted much attention to physical science. A 
great authority on earthquakes and volcanoes, he is constantly 
quoted by Strabo (r. B.f. (53-25 a.d.) in his (Uography (see 
index to Loeb ed., vol. viii). Seneca in the Nut. Quaest. often 
cites him and his pupil Asclepiodotus. For a full account of 
his influence on Aetna see Sudhaus' ed. pp. 59-81. 


VOL. I. A A 


H. A. J. Munro. Aetna revised emended and 
explained. Cambridge, 1867. 

E. Baehrens. In Poetae Latini Mijiores, \o\. II. 

Leipzig, 1880. 
S. Sudhaus. Aetna erklart (German prose trans.). 

Leipzig, 1898. 
Robinson Ellis. Aetna with textual and exegetical 

commentary (English prose translation). Oxford, 

Aetna (" ineerti auctoris carmen") : in Postgate's 

Corpus Poetarum Latinorum, \^ol. II. London, 

J. Vessereau. Aetna avec traduction et commentaire. 

Paris, 1905. 
M. L. De Gubernatis. Aetna carmen VergiUo ad- 

scriptum (recens. et interpret.). Turin, 1911 : 

also an edition in Para via series. 

F. Vollmer. In Poetae Latini Minores, Vol. I, ed. 2. 

Leipzig, 1927. 

E. Schwartz. Berlin, 1933. (With a limited appara- 

tus, which claims for the editor some emendations 
made earlier by others : e.g. Ellis' varie, 184 ; 
Baehren's' moles, frustra, 489 ; Vessereau 's 
iunctas, 509.) 


A. De Rooy. Co?iiecturae in MartiaUs lihr. xiv. et 
Severi Aetnam. Utrecht, 17G4. 

F. C. Matthiae. In Neue Bibliothek der schbnen Wissen- 

schaften, 59 (collation of Gyraldinian variants). 
M. Haupt. In Opuscula. Leipzig, 1875-76. (His 
text oi Aetna at end of his edition of Virgil.) 



J. Maehly. Beitrage cur Kritik des Lehrgedichts 

Aetna. Basel, 1862. 
B. Kruczkiewicz. Poema de Aetna I'er^ilio esse 


trihuendum. Cracow, 1883. 
P. U. Wagler. De Aetna poeniate quaestiones 

Berlin, 1884. (With index verhorum.) 
R. Unger. Aetna (suggested readings). Journal of 

Philology, xvii. 34, pp. 152-154. Cambridge, 

L. Alzinger. Studia in AeUiam collata. Leipzig, 1896. 
J. Franke. Res meirica Aetnae car minis. Diss. 

Marburg, 1898. 
R. Hildebrandt. Beitrage zur Erkldrung des Gedichtes 

Aetna. Leipzig, 1900. 
S. Sudhaus. Zur Uehej'Ueferung des Gedichtes Aetna in 

/?A.iVL/5.1x. pp. 574-583. Frankfurt-a-M. 1905. 
E. Herr. De Aetnae carminis sermone et de tempore 

quo scriptum sit. Marburg, 1911. 
E. Bickel. Apollon und Dodona (ein Beitrag zur 

Datierung, etc.) in Rheinisches Museum, Ixxix. 3. 

Frankfurt-a-M. 1930. 


C = Cantabrigiensis : in Cambridge University 
Library, Kk. v. 34, 10th century (considered 
by Ellis the best codex). See note at end of 
this introduction. 

S = fragmentum Stabulense, now in Paris, 17177, 
10th or 11th century. (Besides about 260 
fairly complete lines, it has about 86 more in a 
truncated form.) 

Z =3 a lost archetype whose text is represented 
(see Vollmer's stemma codicum) by three 
related MSS. of the 15th century : viz. 


AA 2 


H = Helmstadiensis 332, 

A = Arundelianus 133, in British 

R = Rehdigeranus, 125 in the city 

Library, Breslau. 

V = Vatieanus 3272 (Unes 1-4:34: fee un dins aethnd)^ 
15th century. 
Exc. = florilegia of excerpts, 11th to 13th cent. 

(Two are in Paris. 7647 and 17903. and one in the 
Escorial, Q. 1. 14.) 

G = readings of a lost codex used by LiHus 
Gyraldus (Giglio Giraldi) in the 16th century 
and represented by N. Heinsius' collation for 
lines 138-287, and'by a copy of lines 272-287 
surviving in codex Laurentianus 33. 9. [The 
value of the recorded Gyraldinian readings 
for those 150 lines has been estimated dif- 
ferently by critics. Some are attractive, but 
it is difficult to see how others, though plaus- 
ible on the surface, could ever have been cor- 
rupted into what C gives. Schwartz " has 
recently suggested that alterations and errors 
in G may be due not to a late humanist, but 
to a Carolingian " corrector."] 
codd. = general consensus of MSS. 

A text of Aet?ia, in view of the unsatisfactory 
evidence of the manuscripts, must be eclectic. 
Some passages are frankly matter for despair, and 
are incurable by the licence of emendation, or rather 
rewriting, in which Baehrens allowed himself to 
indulge. But there are other passages where 

" ed. 1933, p. 8. 


Robinson Kllis' scholarshij), inucnuity, and palaco- 
graphical knowUdiio enabled him to make eon- 
jecturcs of a hiiih descree of pro))ability. Many of 
these are here adopted. 

The corrupt state of the tradition has necessitated 
Mhat may appear to be a considerable apparatus 
criticus, but it does not profess to be exhaustive. 

Note ox C 

The text in C is neatly, though often inaccurately, 
written on vellum as part of a miscellaneous volume 
which begins with a patristic comment on the story 
of the prodigal son and contains extracts from 
Ausonius among others, with the Cidex immediately 
preceding the " Aetkna " at the end. These poems 
are both ascribed to \"irgil in the manuscript. Be- 
sides the handwriting, several points suggest its 
insular or Saxon origin. It has many corruptions, 
such as unintelligent division of words (e.g. 66, iiifert 
edivis; 114 indusis oUdum), dittographies (e.g. 240 
cura aestatae peril, cur a aestas), haplographies (e.g. 
599 etiam ilia manus for et iam mille manus), and other 
blunders like 107 crehrer : 472 repit for recipit ; 566 
ignobilis for sic nohilis ; 595 camilli for capilli. But in 
spite of defects, its date and its preservation of many 
sound readings constitute it a most valuable con- 
tribution to the text. All the readings reported as 
from C in the apparatus criticus have been specially 
verified for the purpose of this edition. 



Aetna mihi ruptique cavis fornacibus ignes 
et quae tarn fortes volvant incendia causae, 
quid fremat imperium, quid raucos torqueat aestus, 
carmen erit. dexter venias mihi carminis auctor 
seu te Cynthos habet seu Delo est gratior Hyla 
seu tibi Dodone potior, tecumque faventes 
in nova Pierio properent a fonte sorores 
vota : per insolitum Phoebo duce tutius itur. 

aurea securi quis nescit saecula regis ? 
cum domitis nemo cererem iactaret in arvis 
venturisque malas prohiberet fructibus herbas, 
annua sed saturae complerent horrea messes, 
ipse suo flueret Bacchus pede mellaque lentis 
penderent foliis et pinguis Pallas olivae 
secretos amnes ageret : turn gratia ruris : 
non cessit cuiquam melius sua tempora nosse. 

5 ilia SAR om. H : ila C : Hyla Munro. 

* dodona CSH'A : do bona H^ : do dodona R : Dodone 
^W. 1517, Vollmer : Laidonis Munro, Ellis. 

1" Iactaret CS. 

^* pingui rodd. : pinguis H-. 

^^ cum V: turn celeri cfxld. : securos omnis aleret cum 
gratia ruris Baehrens : secretos amnis ageret cum gratia 
ruris Vollmer. 



Aetxa shall be my poetic theme and the fires that 
break from her hollow furnaces. My poem shall tell 
what those mighty causes are which roll conflagra 
tions on their way, what it is that chafes at govern- 
ance, or whirls the clamorous heat-currents. Come 
with favour to be my inspirer in song, whether 
Cynthos " be thy dwelling-place, or Hyla ^ please 
thee more than Delos, or Dodona^ be thy favourite : 
and with thee let the sister-Muses hasten from the 
Pierian spring to forward my new emprise. On an 
unwonted track 'tis safer going if Apollo guide. 

Who knows not of the Golden Age of the care-free 
King '^ ? when no man subdued fields to his will or 
sowed grain in them or fended harmful weeds from 
the crops which were to come ; when plenteous 
harvests filled the barns to last the year; when, 
with no tread but his own, Bacchus ran into wine ; 
when honies dripped from clinging leaves, and Pallas 
made flow her own especial streams of rich olive-oil : 
then had the country graciousness. To none was it 
e'er vouchsafed to know more joyously his own times. 

" Cynlhos, the rocky hill-shrine of Apollo on Delos. 

*" Hyla or Hyle, forest-land in Cypru.s, is rightly inferred 
from Lycophron's epithet for Apollo — ^TAcittjj. 

« E. B\Qke\, Rhein. Mm. Ixxix. 3 (1930), defends Apollo's 
association -with Dodona, traditionally the oracle of Zeus. 

■^ Saturn. 



ultima quis tacuit iiivenum certamina, Colchos? 
quis non Argolico deflevit Pergamon igni 
impositam et tristi natorum funere matrem 
aversumve diem sparsumve in semine dentem ? 
quis non periurae doluit mendacia puppis, 
desertam vacuo Minoida litore questus ? 
quicquid in antiquum iactata est fabula carmen. 

fortius ignotas molimur pectore curas, 
qui tanto motus operi, vis quanta perennis 
explicet in denso flammas et trudat ab imo 
ingenti sonitu moles et proxima quaeque 
ignibus irriguis urat — mens carminis haec est. 

principio ne quem capiat fallacia vatum, 
sedes esse dei tumidisque e faucibus ignem 
Vulcani ruere et clausis resonare cavernis 
festinantis opus, non est tam sordida divis 
cura, neque extremas ius est demittere in artes 
sidera : subducto regnant sublimia caelo 
ilia, neque artificum curant tractare laborem. 

^® matrem H^AR : mentem CSH^ : mensam Schwartz. 

2° semine cald. : semina Scaliger. 

2- qui tanto C8H^ : quis tantos H^AR. operi CS : operit 
H: reperit AR. vis quanta Ellis. qu(a)e CSH : quis A: 
quamvis R. tanta codd. : causa Aid. 1517. 



Who has not told '^ of the Colchians — melhiy of 
warriors on farthest soil ? Who but has uttered a 
diru:e for Pergamos set on her blazing Argive pyre 
and the mother mourning the poignant slaying of her 
sons, or the day that turned its course in horror, or 
the dragon's tooth sown mid the sprinkling of seed ? 
Who has not lamented the lying signal of the ship 
that kept not troth, or chanted the plaint of Minos' 
daughter forlorn on a deserted shore ? — yes, every 
form in which legend has been thrown into ancient 

More gallantly I set my spirit toiling on a task 
untried ; what are the forces for this mighty working, 
how great the energy which releases in dense array 
the eternal flames, thrusts masses of rock from the 
lowest depth with gigantic noise and burns every- 
thing near in rills of fire — this is the burden of my lay. 

First, let none be deceived by the fictions poets 
tell — that Aetna is the home of a god, that the fire 
gushing from her swollen jaws is Vulcan's fire, and 
that the echo in that cavernous prison comes from 
his restless work. No task so paltry have the gods. 
To meanest crafts one may not rightly lower the 
stars ; their sway is royal, aloft in a remote heaven ; 
they reck not to handle the toil of artisans. 

* The mythological topics here briefly dismissed as hack- 
neyed subjects of poetry are, in the order of mention, Jason's 
Argonautic expedition to Colchis ; the burning of Troy by the 
Greeks ; Hecuba's loss of her sons ; the retreat of the Sun-God 
from the " banquet of Thyestes " on human flesh ; the crop of 
warriors which sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by 
Cadmus ; the fatal failiu-e of Theseus to keep his compact yrith 
his father to hoist sails of good omen in the event of a successful 
return to Athens; and Theseus' desertion in Xaxos of King 
Minos' daughter, Ariadne, who had enabled him to thread the 
labyrinth in Crete. 


discrepat a prima facies haec altera vatum : 
illis Cyclopas memorant fornacibus usos, 
cum super incudem numerosa in verbera fortes 
horrendum magno quaterent sub pondere fulmen 
armarentque lovem : turpe est sine pignore carmen. 

proxima vivaces Aetnaei verticis ignes 
impia soUicitat Phlegraeis fabula castris. 
temptavere (nefas) olim detrudere mundo 
sidera captivique lovis transferre gigantes 
imperium et victo leges imponere caelo. 
his natura sua est alvo tenus, ima per orbes 
squameus intortos sinuat vestigia serpens, 
construitur magnis ad proelia montibus agger : 
Pelion Ossa gravat, summus premit Ossan Olympus : 
iam coacervatas nituntur scandere moles, 
impius et miles metuentia comminus astra 
provocat, infestus cunctos ad proelia divos 
provocat, admotis per inertia sidera signis. 
luppiter e caelo metuit dextramque coruscam 
armatus flamma removet caligine mundum. 
incursant vasto primum clamore Gigantes, 
his magno tonat ore Pater, geminantque faventes 
undique discordi sonitum simul agmine venti. 

39 flumen CSRi : fulmen H^AR. 

^^ creat codd. : ciet De Gubernalis {Paravia ed.) : gravat 
Jacob : onerat Baehrens : terit Aid. 1517. 

°2 infestus C8 : infensus AR : inde Iris . . . convocat 
Baehren~s (an illustration of his arbitrary changes). 

53 admotisque tertia C : admotis ad territa sidera signis 
Ilaujd : admotisque terit iam sidera signis Sudhaus : admotis 
per inertia Ellis. 

^* e caelo codd. : et caelo Bormans, Sudhaus, Vollmer. 

^^ discordes comitum codd. : discordi sonitum Jacob, Ellis. 



There is this second form of poetic error, diiferent 
from the first. Aetna's furnaces, it is declared, are 
those the Cyclopes used, when, employing their 
strength in rhythmic strokes upon the anvil, they 
forged the dread thunderbolt beneath their heavy 
hanuners and so gave Jupiter his panoply — a graceless 
tale with ne'er a pledge of truth. 

Next, there is a sacrilegious legend which molests 
with Phlegra's " warfare the ever-living fires of 
Aetna's summiit. In olden time the giants essayed 
impiously to thrust down the stars from the 
firmament, then capturing Jove to place his 
sovereignty elsewhere and impose their laws on 
vanquished heaven. These monsters have man's 
nature down to the belly ; below 'tis a scaly serpent 
that forms the tortuous windings of their steps. 
Great mountains are built into a pile for waging the 
battle. Ossa weighs down Pelion ; Olympus, top- 
most of the three, lies heavy on Ossa. Now they 
strive to climb the mountain-masses heaped in one ; 
the sacrilegious host challenges to close fight the 
alarmed stars — challenges in hostile array all the gods 
to battle : the standards advance through constella- 
tions paralysed. From heaven Jupiter shrinks in 
alarm ; weaponing his glittering right hand with 
flame, he withdraws the firmament in gloom. With 
mighty outcry the Giants begin their onset; hereat 
thunders the deep voice of the Sire, and therewithal 
from every quarter the supporting winds with their 
discordant host redouble the noise. Thick burst the 

" It was fabled that the Earth-born brood of the Giants, in 
tlieir rebellion against the gods, sought to scale heaven by 
piling Mount Ossa on Pelion and then Olympus on Ossa. They 
were discomfited by Jupiter's lightnings on the Phlegraean 
plain in Macedonia. 


densa per attonitas riimpuntur flumina nubes, 
atque in bellanduni quae cuique potentia divum 
in commune venit : iam patri dextera Pallas 
et Mars laevus erat : iam cetera turba deorum : 
stant utrimque decus. validos tum luppiter ignes 
increpat et iacto proturbat fulmine montes. 
illinc devictae verterunt terga ruinae 
infestae divis acies, atque impius hostis 
praeceps cum castris agitur Materque iacentis 
impellens \dctos. tum pax est reddita mundo, 
tum Liber cessata venit per sidera : caelum 
defensique decus mundi nunc redditur astris. 
gurgite Trinacrio morientem luppiter Aetna 
obruit Enceladon, vasto qui pondere mentis 
aestuat et petulans exspirat faucibus ignem. 
haec est mendosae vulgata licentia famae. 
vatibus ingenium est : hinc audit nobile cannen. 
plurima pars scaenae rerum est fallacia : vates 
sub terris nigros viderunt carmine manes 
atque inter cineres Ditis pallentia regna : 
mentiti vates Stygias undasque canesque. 
hi Tityon poena stravere in iugera foedum ; 
sollicitant illi te circum, Tantale, cena 
soUicitantque siti ; Minos, tuaque, Aeace, in umbris 

^^ flumina CS : fulmina Z, 3Iunro, Ellis. 

^2 s(a)evus CSHA : scaevus R : laevus Bormans. 

«3 stant CSHiA : stat H^R. utrimque CS : utrumque Z. 
deus CZ : de . . S : tuens Baehrens, Vessereau : verens Ellis : 
stant ut cuique decus Unger. 

^* victo CSH^ : vinctos H^ : victor AR : ia^to ed. Ascens. 

^^ infert(a)e S : infest(a)e Z : infert edivis (sic) C. 

^* tum liber codd. : tunc imber Vollm^r. cessat CS : 
c(a)essa H^A : cressa H^ : celsa R : tum nimbo cessante 
nitet Baehrens : Liber cessata Ellis, Vessereati : cessat : 
lenit per sidera caelum De Gubernatis (Paravia ed.). 



rrents throuiih the a>-t<»iiicd clouds : nil the warlike 
prowess of one and every irod joins the common 
cause. Already was Pallas at her father's right and 
Mars at his left : already the rest of the gods take 
their stand, a glory on either flank. Then Jupiter 
discharges the din of his puissant flres : he hurls 
his holt and lays the mountains low. From that 
scene the falling throng fled vanquished, the armies 
embattled against heaven : headlong the godless 
foe is driven, his camp with him, and Mother Earth 
urging her prostrate sons back to the fight they have 
lost. Then peace is restored to the firmament: 
then mid stars at rest comes Bacchus : the sky and 
the honour of a world preserved are now restored to 
the stars. As in the Sicilian sea Enceladus lies 
dying, Jupiter whelms him under Aetna. Beneath 
the mountain's mighty weight he tosses feverishly, 
and rebellious breathes fire from his throat. 

Such is the widespread licence of faulty rumour. 
Bards have genius : so their lay wins high renown. 
'Tis well-nigh all delusion that the stage gives us. 
Bards have beheld in poetry dark ghosts in the 
underworld and the pale realm of Dis amid the 
ashes of the dead. Bards have sung false lays of 
Stygian wave and Stygian hound. Some have 
stretched over many an acre Tityus ugly in his 
punishment : others torment you, Tantalus, with a 
banquet spread around — torment you too with thirst. 
They sing of your judgements, Minos, and yours, 

"^ petulans Z : petula in se CS : patulis edd. ant., Baehrens. 
"^ canentes codd. : canesque Scaliger. 
** p(o)ena CSAR : cena Baehrens, Ellis. 



iura canunt, idemque rotant Ixionis orbem — 
quicquid et interius ; falsi sibi conscia terra est. 
nee tu, terra, satis : speculantur numina divom 
nee metuunt oculos alieno adniittere caelo. 
norunt bella deiim, norunt abscondita nobis 
coniugia et falsa quotiens sub imagine peceet 
taurus in Europen, in Ledam candidus ales 
luppiter, ut Danaae pretiosus fluxerit imber : 
debita carminibus libertas ista ; sed omnis 
in vero mihi cura : canam quo fervida motu 
aestuet Aetna novosque rapax sibi congerat ignes. 

quacumque immensus se terrae porrigit orbis 
extremique maris curvis incingitur undis, 
non totum ex solido est : ducit namque omnis 

secta est omnis humus, penitusque cavata latebris 
exiles suspensa vias agit ; utque animanti 
per tota errantes percurrunt corpora venae 
ad vitam sanguis omnis qua commeat eidem, 
terra voraginibus conceptas digerit auras, 
scilicet aut olim diviso corpore mundi 
in maria ac terras et sidera, sors data caelo 
prima, secuta maris, deseditque infima tellus 
sed tortis rimosa cavis ; et qualis acervus 
exsilit imparibus iactis ex tempore saxis, 

^* quicquid interius codd. : in terris Baehrens. sibi 
conscia OS : consortia Z. terrent codd. : texent De Guber- 
natis (Paravia ed.) : terra est Aid. 1517: quidquid et in- 
fernist, falsi consortia adhaerent Ellis. 

*^ peccent codd. : peceet Schrader. 

*^ non totum et solido desiint namque omnis hiatu CS : 
solidum . . . hiatus R: non totum ex solido est, ducit namque 
omnis hiatum tJllis : non totum et solido densum est Vollmer : 
solidum et densum Cercke. 

^"° idem codd. : eidem Ellis. 



BVeacus, in the world of sliades : they also set Ixion's 
wheel revolving — and whatsoe'er is deeper hid; 
earth is conscious of the fiilsehood. Nor yet do you, 
O earth, suffice them : they spy on the divine powers : 
they are not afraid to let their eyes peer into a 
heaven where they have no portion. They know the 
wars of gods, their unions hidden from us, all the sins 
of Jove in deceitful guise, as a bull to trick Europa, a 
white swan for Leda, a streaming shower of precious 
ore for Danae. Such freedom must be accorded to 
poetry ; but with truth alone is my concern. I will 
sing the movement that makes fervent Aetna boil 
and greedily gather its own stores of fire renewed. 

Wherever the earth's vast sphere extends, girt 
with the curving waves of farthest ocean, it is not solid 
all in all. Everywhere the ground has its long line 
of fissure, everywhere is cleft and, hollowed deeply 
with secret holes, hangs above narrow passages 
which it makes. <* As in a living creature veins run 
through the whole body ^vith wandering course, 
along which passes every drop of blood to feed life 
for the selfsame organism, so the earth by its 
chasms draws in and distributes currents of air. 
Either, I mean, when of old the body of the 
universe was divided into sea, earth and stars, the 
first portion was given to the sky, then followed 
that of the sea, and earth sank down lowest of the 
three, albeit fissured by winding hollows ; and, 
even as a heap springs out of stones of uneven shape 

" suspensa : cf. pendent in sese, 108. 


lit crebro introrsus spatio vacuata f charybdis 

pendeat in sese, simili quoque terra figura 

in tenuis laxata vias, non omnis in artum 

nee stipata coit : sive illi causa vetusta est, 

nee nata est facies, sed liber spiritus intrat 

et fugiens niolitur iter, seu lynipha perenni 

edit humum limo furtimque obstantia mollit ; 

aut etiam inclusi solidum vicere vapores, 

atque igni quaesita via est ; sive omnia certis 

pugnavere locis ; non est hie causa dolendi 

dum stet opus causae, quis enim non credit inanes 

esse sinus penitus, tantos emergere fontes 

cum videt ac totiens imo se mergere hiatu ? 

non ille ex tenui quocumque agat : apta necesse est 

confluvia errantes arcessant undique venas 

et trahat ex pleno quod fortem contrahat amnem. 

flumina quin etiam latis currentia rivis 

occasus habuere suos : aut ilia vorago 

^"' vacat actaCS : vacuata Aid. 1517 : voiceiaeta Buecheler 
(cf. Lucret. vi. 1005, multusque vacefit). charibdis C : carinis 
corr. in charims S : carambos V. 

^'^^ simili codd. : similis Ellis. futur(a)e codd. : futura est 
Vollmer : figura Aid. 1517 : figurae Ellis. 

112 nvmpha CS : Ivmpha Z. perenni codd. : perennis 

11* videre codd. : exedere Aid. 1517 : vicere Sevin : rupere 
Jacob : fudere Munro : solvere Birt. 

11** dolendi codd. : docendi Aid. 1517 : docenda Chricus : 
docendi, dum stet opus, causas Munro. 

11' credit CS : credat Aid. 1517. (In 118-122 textual 
difficulties have possibly been increased by the loss of a line 
after 119 : Munro and Ellis mark a lacuna.) 

11* torrens Z : torres (n superscribed) C : totiens Haupt. 
uno codd. : imo V, Haupt. 

12" non Z : nam CS. vocemque codd. : vacuoque Scaliger : 
quocumque Sudhaus : nam mille ex tenui vocuoque (sic) 
agitata Munro : non ille ex tenui violens veget ; arta Ellis. 



thrown at random, so as to form a chary])dis " liollowcd 
witli frequent interstices within and hanging upon 
itself, even so in like configuration the earth, too, 
loosened into tiny channels, does not all unite com- 
pactly or into narrow compass. Or maybe the cause 
of it is indeed ancient, though the formation is not 
coeval with its origin, but some air enters unchecked 
and works a road as it escapes ; or water has eaten 
away the ground with the mud it perpetually makes 
and stealthily softens what blocks its course. Or 
again hot vapours cribbed and confined have over- 
come solidity and fire has sought a path for itself: 
or all these forces may have striven in their assigned 
places. No cause is here for mourning our ignorance, 
so long as the working of the true cause stands 
assured. Who does not believe that there are gulfs 
of emptiness in earth's recesses, when he sees springs 
so mighty emerge and so often plunge again in the 
depth of a chasm ? That chasm could not speed it 
from any slender source : fit confluents must needs 
summon from everywhere their wandering ducts and 
the chasm draw from a full source the making of a 
mighty river. Moreover, rivers running with broad 
currents have found their own places of sinking. 
Either an abyss has snatched them headlong down 

" No editor has found a satisfactory reading here. What is 
wanted is a feminine noun agreeing with vacuata and meaning 
a loosely compacted heap with hollows in it : charybdis, "' a 
whirlpool," does not express this. Clericus invented corymbis 
(fern.) for this passage from Kopvfx&os, " a peak " or " cluster," 
and Gronov suggested corymbas {Kopv/xffds, " a string running 
round a net "). 

"^ cum fluvio C : cum flu via S : confluit AR : confluvia 
H^ and modern editors. 

^22 et trahat C8H : extrahat AR : ut trahat Munro. 

VOL. I. B B 


derepta in praeceps fatali condidit ore, 
aut occulta fluunt, tectis adoperta cavernis, 
atque inopinatos referunt procul edita cursus. 
quod ni di versos eniittat terra canales, 
hospitiuni fluvio det seniita, nulla profecto 
fontibus et rivis constet via, pigraque tellus 
conferta in solidum segni sub pondere cesset. 
quod si praecipiti conduntur flumina terra, 
condita si redeunt, si quaedam incondita surgunt, 
baud miruni clausis etiani si libera ventis 
spiramenta latent, certis tibi pignora rebus 
atque oculis haesura tuis dabit ordine tellus. 
immensos plerunique sinus et iugera pessum 
intercepta licet densaeque abscondita nocti 
prospectare : procul chaos ac sine fine ruinae. 
cernis et in silvis spatiosa cubilia retro 
antraque demersas penitus fodisse latebras ? 
incomperta via est operum ; tantum effluit intra . . . 
argumenta dabunt ignoti vera profundi, 
tu modo subtiles animo duce percipe curas 
occultique fidem manifestis abstrahe rebus, 
nam quo liberior quoque est animosior ignis 

^28 si codd. : ni Jacob : nisi Volhner. 

^29 fluvium CS : fluminum Z : fiuviorum Aid. 1517 : 
fluviis Birt : fluvio Baehrens. aut CSHA : haud Chricus : 
et det Baehrens : det Ellis. 

^^1 conserta codd. : conferta Aid. 1517. 

^^^ si qua etiam CSR : si quae etiam V : et iam Scaliger : si 
quaedam Murtro. 

1^^ densaqne . . . nocte G. 

139 Vollmer punctuates after procul. 

1*" spatioque codd. : spatiosa Aid. 1517. 

^*^ demissa pedibus CZ : dimiss apedibus (^jc) S : demersas 
penitus G. 

"2 Munro and Ellis mark a lacima after this line, operum 
CSZ : aer Jacob, effluit intra CSZ : effugit ultra G. 


and buried them in its fateful jaws, or tliey flow 
unseen, o'er-arched by closed caverns, then, coming 
to light far away, renew their unexpected course. 
If earth did not let out channels in different places, 
if some path did not give welcome to a river, truly no 
road would be assured for springs and streams, and 
sluggish earth, packed in a dense mass, would be 
rendered idle by its unmoving weight. But if rivers 
are buried in a sheer abyss of earth, if some which 
are buried come back to light and others without 
such burial rise from earth, no wonder is it that con- 
fined winds have liberating vents which are con- 
cealed. Proofs of this through facts indisputable, 
proofs which hold the eye, the earth will give you in 
due order. Oftentimes you may look out on vast 
cavities and tracts of land cut off ruinously and 
plunged into thick darkness ; 'tis far-flung chaos 
and unending debris. Moreover, do you see how^ in 
forests there are lairs and caves of widely receding 
space which have dug far down their deep-sunk 
coverts ? Undiscovered is the route of such working : 
only within there is an outflow. . . ." These (caves) 
will furnish true proofs of a depth unknown to us. 
Let but your mind guide you to a grasp of cunning 
research: from things manifest gather faith in the 
unseen. For as fire is always more unfettered and 

" Some part of the argument about the hidden forces of air 
is lost. The reasoning seems to be that, though the process of 
working is unascertained, yet anyone entering such caverns 
will be conscious of the efflux of air. 

^** occultamque codd. : occultique Baehrens. 



semper in inclusis nee ventis segnior ira est, 

sub terra penitusque novent hoc plura necesse est, 

vincla magis solvant, magis hoc obstantia pellant. 

nee tanien in rigidos exit contenta canales 15 

vis animae flammaeve : ruit qua proxinia cedunt 

obliquumque secat qua visa tenerrima caula est. 

hinc terrae tremor, hinc motus, ubi densus hiantes 

spiritus exagitat venas cessantiaque urget. 

quod si spissa foret, solido si staret in omni, lo 

nulla daret miranda sui spectacula tellus, 

pigraque et in pondus conferta immobilis esset. 

sed sunmiis si forte putas concrescere causis 

tantum opus et sunimis alimentum viribus, ora 

qua patula in promptu cernis vastosque recessus, 16 

falleris et nondum tibi lumine certa liquet res. 

namque illuc quodcumque vacans hiat impetus omnis : 

at sese introitu solvunt adituque patenti 

conversae languent vires animosque remittunt. 

1*8 movent CSH : movet AR : novent Ellis. 

151 verrit CS : ruit G. 

152 causa est CSHi . causa {om. est) AR : massa est 
Munro : caula est C'krkus : crusta est Haupf : secant quae 
causa tenerrima caussa est G (faulty enough to justify Ellis' 
remark "the fondest admirer of Gyr. will not claim much 
for it here.") 

158 subitis G : summis CSZ : concrescere G : concredere 
CS : concedere Ellis. 

15^ et subitis G : et summis CSZ : adsumptis Ellis : ex 
subitis alimenti incursibus Unger. oris CSZ : ora ? G, Munro. 

160 qu(a)e CSZ : qua Ellis, patula G : valida CSZ. 
vastosque G : validosque CSAR : validosaque H. 

1^1 falleris et G : fallere sed CSZ. certo tibi lumine res 
est G : tibi lumine certaque retro CSZ : tibi lumine certa 
liquet res Ellis. 

1" illis G : illic H2 : illuc CSRi : illud AR. quaecumque 
G : quodcunque CSARH^ : quocumque Ri. vacant hiatibus 
G : vacat hiat impetus CS : vagantur hiatibus Baehrens : 
vacans hiat, impetus Ellis. 



inore furious in coiitined spaces, and as the rage of 
tlu> winds is no less vehement tliere, so to this extent, 
uiulerground and in earth's dej^tlis, must fn-e and wind 
cause greater changes, all the more loose their 
bonds, all the more drive off what blocks their course. 
Yet 'tis not into unyielding channels that the pent-up 
force of air or flame escapes. It hurtles on only 
where the nearest barriers give way, and cuts its 
course sideways just where the enclosure seems most 
frail. Hence comes the trembling, the quaking of 
earth, when compressed air stirs the pores till they 
gape and drives sluggish matter before it. But if 
earth had no openings, if its frame were entirely 
solid, it would give the eye no marvellous visions of 
its inner self; inert and packed into a weighty mass, 
it would remain immovable. But if perhaps you 
think that this mighty action is a growth from 
causes at the surface and its nourishment a growth 
from surface strength" at the point where you 
perceive before you outstretched clefts and vast 
chasms — if so, you are wi'ong : the case is not yet 
clear to you, established in its true light. For all 
the onslaught of the winds makes for any open 
vacuum, but at their entry their forces slacken ; 
altered by the spacious access to the chasm, they 
turn feeble and relax their spirit. For when the 

" Ellis' reading concedere means ''is a yiekling to forces at 
the surface." Conjecturing adsumptis in the next line, he 
takes alimentum as gen. plur. ; the meaning then would be : 
'* when a powerful addition of materials feeding the flame has 
been received." In either case, provided (tummi.s of 158 is 
right, the author is opposing the theory that eruptions can be 
caused by agencies near the surface. 

^^^ et CSZ : set Ellis : at Vessereau. 

^'^* conceptae G : conversae CSZ : conruptae Baehrens. 



quippe iibi quod teneat ventos acuatque morantes 
in vacuo desit cessant, tantumque profundi 
explicat errantes et in ipso limine tardant. 
angustis opus est turbare in faucibus illos. 
fervet opus densaque premit premiturque ruina 
nunc Euri Boreaeque Notus, nunc huius uterque. 
hinc venti rabies, hinc saevo quassat hiatu 
fundamenta soli : trepidant urbesque caducae 
inde, neque est aliud.. si fas est credere, mundo 
venturam antiqui faciem veracius omen. 

haec primo cum sit species naturaque terrae, 
introrsus cessante solo trahit undique venas 
Aetna : sui manifesta fides et proxima vero est. 
non illic duce me occultas scrutabere causas, 
occurrent oculis ipsae cogentque fateri. 
plurima namque patent illi miracula monti. 
hinc vasti tcrrent aditus merguntque profundo, 
corrigit hinc artus penitus quos exigit ultra, 
hinc spissae rupes obstant discordiaque ingens. 
inter opus nectunt varie mediumque coercent 
pars igni domitae, pars ignes ferre coactae, 

165 qui teneat G : contineat CZ : quod teneat Haupt. 
ventosa qua quaeque CS : ventos aquasque ( ? qua quasque) 
G : ventos acuatque Munro. 

166 defit G : desint CSHA : desinit R : desit Ellis. 

168 turbanti G : turbant in CSH : turbare R, Ellis, illos 
CSZ: illoG. 

I'l quassa meatu Wernsdorf, Maehhj : quassa boatu linger. 

i'5 immo G : primo CZ : imo Matthias. 

176-177 Punctuation varies according as stop is placed 
after venas, Aetna or sui. 

1^8 caulas Baehrens. i^" spiracula Baehrens. 

1^2 porrigit G : corrigit CZ. artus GCZ : artos Maehly. 
exacstuat G : quos exigit CS. 

1*^ spissae CZ : scissae G. 

1** aliae G : varies CH^ : varios H^AR : varie Ellis, 



vacuum contaitis nothinti; to stop the winds or spur 
them in their delay, they Hag; all the great abyss 
deploys them drifting to and fro, and on the very 
threshold they lose their speed. It must needs be 
in narrow gullies that the winds work their havoc. 
Hot glows the work : " now the South Wind presses 
or is pressed on by the thick swoop of the East Wind 
and the North : now, again, both these winds by a 
current from the South. Hence the wind's fury : 
hence it can shatter the foundations of the ground 
with cruel cleavage. For that reason do cities totter 
in panic, and, if such belief be not impious, there is 
no truer presage that the universe will return to its 
primeval appearance.^ 

As this from the beginning has been the character 
and nature of the earth, everywhere Aetna runs 
channels into its interior, while the surface-soil re- 
mains inert : Aetna is the plain and truest proof of 
its own nature. There, with my guidance, you will 
not have to search for hidden causes : they will of 
themselves leap into your vision and force acknow- 
ledgement ; for that mountain has countless marvels 
apparent to every eye. On this side are vast open- 
ings which terrify and plunge in an abyss, on another 
side the mountain rearranges its limbs projected 
too far. Elsewhere thick crags bar the path, and 
enormous is the confusion. They make a chequered 
weaving of their work and hem it round — some 
rocks quite subdued by fire, others compelled to 

" The phrase ferret opus occurs twice in Virgil : Georg. IV. 
169 ; Aen. I. 436. Cf. other Virgilian echoes such as manifesta 
fides. 111, Aen. II. 309: III. 375; volvuntnr ab imo, 200 and 
volvunlur in imo, Aen. VI. 5S1. 

" i.e. chaos: antiqui sc. mundi. 



[ut niaior species et ne succurrat inanis]. 
haec illi sedes tantarumque area rerum est, 
[haec operis visenda sacri faciesque domusque]. 

nunc opus artificem incendi causamque reposcit — 
non illam parvi aut tenuis discriniinis ; ignes 
niille sub exiguo ponent tibi tempore veram. 
res oculique decent ; res ipsae credere cogunt. 
quin etiani tactu nioneant, contingere tuto 
si liceat ; prohibent flammae, custodiaque ignis 
illi operum est arcens aditus. divinaque rerum 1( 

cura sine arbitrio, eadem procul omnia cernes. 
iiec tamen est dubium penitus quid torqueat 

aut quis mirandus tantae faber imperet arti. 
pellitur exustae glomeranter nimbus harenae, 
flagrantes properant moles, volvuntur ab imo 2( 

fundamenta, fragor tota nunc rumpitur Aetna, 
nunc fusca pallent incendia mixta ruina. 
ipse procul magnos miratur luppiter ignes, 
neve sepulta novi surgant in bella Gigantes, 
neu Ditem regni pudeat neu Tartara caelo 2( 

vertat, in occulto tacitus tremit ; omniaque extra 
congeries operit saxorum et putris harenae. 

^^^ aetne C : aethne S : ethnae R. The line is repeated 
after 195 in CSZ. 

187-188 This is the order in G : CSZ omit ISS. 

^'•^ -parxi aut tenuis discriminis ignes CSZ ( ingens Ellis) : 
parvo aut tenui discrimine signis G (signes Heinsius). 

^*^ ponent tibi Z : ibi S : ponentibus C. vera CSZ : 
veram Munro. exiguum venient tibi pignora tempus G. 

^^2 oculique docent CZ : oculos ducent G. cogunt CSAR : 
cogent GH^ 

^*^ moneant AV: moneatCS : moneam G (V), Mvnro, Ellis. 

^'^ operum C : operi G. 

^®' torqueat CSZ : torreat G. 


t luliire fires yet [to make its look more imposing 
and its mental picture no unreal one]. Such is 
.Vrtna's scat, the field of phenomena so miglity: 
[such the enticing form and home of its hallowed 

Now my task demands who is the maker and what 
the cause of the conflagration — no cause that of 
slight or trivial import. A thousand fires in a moment 
of time will set before you the true cause. Facts 
and your eyes instruct you : facts unaided compel 
belief. Nay, they would instruct you by touch, were 
it safe to touch. But flames forbid it; Aetna's 
activity has the protection of fire which prevents 
approach, and the divine control over all is without 
witness ; all such things you will descry from a 
distance. But there is no doubt what racks Aetna 
within or who is the marvellous artificer that directs 
handiwork so great. A cloud of burnt sand is driven 
in a whirl ; swiftly rush the flaming masses ; from the 
depth foundations are upheaved. Now bursts a 
crash from Aetna everywhere : now the flames show 
ghastly pale as they mingle with the dark downpour. 
Afar off even Jupiter marvels at the mighty fires and 
trembles speechless in his secret haunt, lest a fresh 
brood of Giants be rising to renew long-buried war or 
lest Pluto be growing ashamed of his kingdom and 
be changing hell for heaven ; while outside all is 
covered with heap on heap of rock and crumbling 

189 exutae CZ : exhaustae G : exustae ed. Ascens. 1507. 
glomeratur CHAV : glomerantur SR : glomeratim G : glome- 
ranter Ellis. 

20S tantum premit CSZ : tremit G : tacitus treinit 
Bachrens, Ellis. 



quae nee sponte sua veniunt nee corporis uUis 
sustentata cadunt robusti viribus : omnes 
exagitant venti turbas et vortice saevo 
in densuni collecta rotant volvuntque profundo. 
hac causa exspectata ruunt incendia montis. 
spiritus inflatis nomen, languentibus aer. 
nam prope nequicquam per se est violentia : semper 
ingenium velox igni motusque perennis, 
verum opus auxilium est ut pellat corpora : nullus 
impetus est ipsi ; qua spiritus imperat, audit ; 
hie princeps magnoque sub hoc duce mihtat ignis, 
nunc, quoniam in promptu est operis natura 
unde ipsi venti ? quae res incendia pascit ? 
cum subito cohibentur, inest quae causa silenti ? 
subsequar. immensus labor est, sed fertiHs idem, 
digna laborantis respondent praemia curis. 
non oculis solum pecudum miranda tueri 
more, nee effusos in humum grave pascere corpus, 
nosse fidem rerum dubiasque exquirere causas, 
ingenium sacrare caputque attollere caelo, 
scire quot et quae sint magno natalia mundo 
principia (occasus metuunt an saecula pergunt 

208 veniunt G : faciunt CSZ. 

211 collecta G : coniecia CSZ. 

212 expectata CSZ : expectanda G. ruunt CZ : terunt 
G. montis Z : mortis C (Ellis cites montis ifi error, Proleg. 

2^3 inflat iis Maehly. momen Scaliger. 

21* par est CZ : pars est G : per se est Wagler. 

217 audit CSHR2 : audis ARi : audet G. 

221 cum CSZ : cur G. cohibetur inest CSZ : cohibent iners 
G : cohibent vires Heinsius. silenti CSZ : silendi G. 

223 laborantis Exc, CSZ : laboratis G. 

22' sic G : sacra per ingentem capitique attollere caelum 



sand. They come not so of their own accord : un- 
supported by the strenj^th of any powerful body they 
fiill. It is the winds which arouse all these forces of 
havoc : the rocks which they have massed thickly 
together they whirl in eddying storm and roll from 
the abyss. For this reason the rush of fire from the 
mountain is no surprise. Winds when swollen are 
called " spirit," but " air " when sunk to rest." The 
violence of flame unaided is almost ineffectual ; true, 
fire has always a natural velocity and perpetual 
motion, but some ally is needed for the propulsion 
of bodies. In itself it has no motive energy : where 
spirit is commander, it obeys. Spirit is emperor : 
fire serves in the army of this great captain.^ 

Now, since the character of Aetna's activity and 
of the soil is manifest, whence come the winds them- 
selves ? What feeds the conflagration ? When they 
are suddenly arrested, what is the inherent cause of 
the hush? I shall follow up the inquiry. Infinite 
is the toil, yet fruitful too. Just rewards match the 
worker's task. Not cattle-like to gaze on the world's 
marvels merely with the eye, not to lie outstretched 
upon the ground feeding a weight of flesh, but to 
grasp the proof of things and search into doubtful 
causes, to hallow genius, to raise the head to the sky, 
to know the number and character of natal elements 
in the mighty universe (do they dread extinction or 

<* Ellis justifiably defended this Unc against attack, Jrnl. 
Philol. xvi. 301, citing the parallel doctrine of Seneca, Nat. 
Quaest. II. i. .3 {cum motus terrae fiat spiritu, spiritus autem sit 
aer agitaius . . .) : VI. xxi. and xxii, 

'' The imperial note in the Latin of 217-218 is unmistakable. 

228 natalia Exc, CS : fatalia G. 



et firma aeterno religata est machina vinclo ?) 
solis scire nioduni et quanto minor orbita lunae est 
(haec brevior cursu ut bis senos pervolet orbes, 
anniius ille meet) : quae certo sidera currant 
ordine quaeve suo derrent incondita gyro : 
scire vices etiam signorum et tradita iura 
[sex cum nocte rapi, totidem cum luce referri], 
nubila cur Phatne caelo denuntiet imbres, 
quo rubeat Phoebe, quo frater palleat igni, 
tempora cur varient anni (ver, prima iuventa, 
cur aestate perit ? cur aestas ipsa senescit 
autumnoque obrepit hiemps et in orbe recurrit ?) ; 
axem scire Helices et tristem nosse cometen, 
Lucifer unde micet quave Hesperus, unde Bootes, 
Saturni quae stella tenax, quae Martia pugnax, 
quo rapiant nautae, quo sidere lintea tendant ; 
scire vias maris et caeli praediscere cursus ; 
quo volet Orion, quo Sirius incubet index, 
et quaecumque iacent tanto miracula mundo 
non disiecta pati, nee acervo condita rerum, 
sed manifesta notis certa disponere sede 
singula, divina est animi ac iucunda voluptas. 

232 pervolet Exc, CSZ : pervolat G. Ellis inserts ut. 

233 movet GHR : monet CSA : meet Exc. 

23* suos servent G : suo errant CSZ : suo derrent Ellis. 
motus G : cura CSAR : gyris Haupt : gyro Schroder : guro 
( ? circo) Ellis. 

236 omitted in all MSS. except G. 

237 caelo terris Exc, CSZ : Panope caelo G : Phatne caelo 

245 tendant Exc, CSAR : pandant G. 
247 volet Exc, CSZ: vocet G. setius CS : secius H: 
serus AR : Sirius Aid. 1517, incubet Exc, CSAR : excubet G. 
2*^ digesta Exc, CSZ : disiecta Ellis : congesta G. 

« i.e. six zodiacal signs rise by day, six by night. 


:o on through tlie ages, and is the t'abrie fixed secure 
A ith everlasting chain ?). to know tlie Hmit of the 
sun's track and the measure by which the moon's 
orbit falls short thereof (so that in her shorter course 
she flies through twelve rounds while he has a yearly- 
path), to know what stars run in constant order and 
which stray irregularly from their true orbit, to know 
likewise the changes of the zodiac-signs and their 
immemorial laws [that six be sped during the night 
and as many return with the dawn]," to know why 
lowering Phatne ^ gives celestial warning of rain, 
what is the nature of the Moon-Goddess' red and her 
brother's pallid tire, why the year's seasons vary 
(why does spring, its youthful prime, die with the 
advent of summer ? why does summer itself turn old, 
why does winter creep upon autumn and return in 
the season's cycle ?), to know the axle of Helice,^ to 
discern the ill-omened comet, to see on what side 
gleams the Morning-Star, where the Evening-Star, 
and whence the Bear-Keeper, and which is Saturn's 
steadfast star and which the warlike star of Mars, 
under what constellation the sailor must furl or 
spread his sails, to know the paths of the sea and 
learn betimes the courses of the heavens, whither 
Orion is hastening, over what land broods Sirius with 
warning sign ; in fine, to refuse to let all the out- 
spread marvels of this mighty universe remain 
unordered or buried in a mass of things, but to arrange 
them each clearly marked in the appointed place — 
all this is the mind's divine and grateful pleasure. 

'' The Manger-constellation (^ctrvrj) which Aratus associates 
with storm. Panope, the reading in G, being a fine-weather 
divinitv, is unsuitable here. 

<■- The Great Bear. 


sed prior haec honiinis cura est cognoscere terram 
et quae tot miranda tiilit natura notare. 
haec nobis niagis affinis eaelestibus astris. 
nam quae mortali spes quaeve amentia maior 2 

in lovis errantem regno perquirere velle, 
tantum opus ante pedes transire et perdere segnem. 
torquemur miseri in parvis premimurque labore : 
scrutamur rimas et vertimus omne profundum. 
quaeritur argenti semen, nunc aurea vena. 2 

torquentur flamma terrae ferroque domantur, 
dum sese pretio redimant ; verumque professae 
turn demum vilesque tacent inopesque relictae. 
noctes atque dies festinant arva coloni ; 
Calient rure manus, glebarum expendimus usum. 2 
fertilis haec segetique feracior, altera viti. 
haec platanis humus, haec herbis dignissima tellus, 
haec dura et melior pecori silvisque fidelis. 
aridiora tenent oleae, sucosior ulmis 
grata : leves cruciant animos et corpora causae 2 

horrea uti saturent, tumeant et dolia musto. 

252 hominis Z (? S) : dominis C : omni G. 

253 et qu(a)e nunc C8H : et quae tot Pitho-v : quaeque in 

25* magna CSZ : magis G. 

255 mortalis spes est quaeve CSH: mortali cuiquam est G. 

256 velle CSZ : divos G. 

258 premimurque Exc, CSZ : terimurque G. 

263 viles taceant CSZ : tum demum humilesque iacent 
{unmetrical) G: vilesque iacent Maehly : vilesque tacent 
Wight Duff. 

2*5 expendimus usum G : expellimur usu Exc, CSZ : 
expendimur usu Schwartz. 

2«' platanis Exc, CSZ : plantis G. 



Yet this is man's more primary task — to know the 
artli and mark all the many wonders nature has 
yielded there. This is for us a task more akin than the 
stars of heaven. For what kind of hope is it for mortal 
man, what madness could be greater — that he should 
wish to wander and explore in Jove's domain and yet 
pass by the mighty fabric before his feet and lose it 
in his negligence ? We torture ourselves wretchedly 
over little things : we let toil weigh us down : we 
peer into crannies and upturn every depth. The 
quest is now for a germ of silver, now for a vein of 
gold. Parts of the earth are tortured with flame 
and tamed with iron till they ransom themselves 
at a price " ; and, when they have owned their 
secret, they are silenced '^ and abandoned to con- 
tempt and beggary. Day and night farmers hasten 
on the cultivation of their fields : hands grow hard 
with rural toil ; we ponder the use of different soils. 
One is fertile and is more fruitful for corn, another 
for the vine ; this is the soil for plane-trees, this the 
worthiest of grass crops ; this other is hard and better 
for grazing and trusty to a tree-plantation. The 
drier parts are held by the olive ; elms like a soil more 
moist. Trivial motives torture men's minds and 
bodies — to have their barns overflowing, their wine- 
casks swelling with must, and their haylofts rising 

* In man's quest for gold and silver, regions of earth are 
" put to the torture " by the processes of mining and smelting 
until they buy themselves off by the ore they have yielded 
{sese pretio redimant). 

* i.e. the rest is silence after the truth {i.e. where their 
hidden treasures lie) has been extorted from them : tacent 
gives a better contrast than iacetU. 

2" dura et Exc. : dure G : diviti CSZ. 



plenaqiie desecto surgant faenilia campo : 
sic avidi semper, qua visum est carius, itis. 

implendus sibi quisque bonis est artibus : illae 
sunt animi fruges, haec rerum maxima merces : 
scire quid occulto terrae natura coercet, 
nullum fallere opus, non mutum cernere sacros 
Aetnaei montis fremitus animosque furentes, 
non subito pallere sono, non credere subter 
caelestes migrasse minas aut Tartara rumpi, 
nosse quid impediat ventos, quid nutriat illos, 
unde repente quies et muto foedere pax sit ; 
cur crescant animi, penitus seu forte cavernae 
introitusque ipsi servent, seu terra minutis 
rara foraminibus tenues in se abstrahat auras 
(plenius hoc etiam rigido quia vertice surgens 
illinc infestis atque hinc obnoxia ventis, 
undique diversas admittere cogitur auras, 
et coniuratis addit concordia \ires) ; 
sive introrsus agunt nubes et nubilus Auster, 
seu fortes flexere caput tergoque feruntur, 
praecipiti deiecta sono premit unda fugatque 
torpentes auras pulsataque corpora denset. 

2"^ avidi GCS : avidis Matthiae. qua visum est CSZ : quovis 
est G. ipsis G : istis CSZ : itis Ellis : sic avidi semper 
quaestus : est carius istis Unger. 

"'' multos CS : multo Z : mutos Scaliger : multum G 
mutum Haupt : motum Postgate. 

"1 impediat CSZ : intendat G. illos C : ignes GH^ 
ignis AR. 

2^2 multo codd. : muto Oudin (who also suggested inulto) 
iuncto Mencken, Vollmer : nullo Unger, 

283 concrescant GCSZ : cur crescant Scaliger, Pithou. forte 
CSZ : porta G. 

28* servent GCZ : fervent S : sorbent Sudhaus. 

285 tenues G : neve CSZ : nivis in sese Ellis. 

28« surgens G : surgit CSZ. 



higher, charged with the full reapings of the field. 
So do ye tread the path of greed where sight reveals 
aught more precious. 

Everyone should imbue himself with noble accom- 
plishments. They are the mind's harvest, the 
greatest guerdon in the world — to know what 
nature encloses in earth's hidden depth, to give no 
false report of her work, not to gaze speechless on 
tlu' mystic growls and frenzied rages of the Aetnaean 
mount, not to blench at the sudden din. not to believe 
that the WTath of the gods has passed underground 
to a new home, or that hell is breaking its bounds; 
to learn what hinders winds, what nurtures them, 
whence their sudden calm and the silent covenant of 
their truce, why their furies increase, whether it 
chance that caverns deep down or the very inlets 
conserve them or that the earth, porous by reason 
of its minute openings, draws off into itself thin 
draughts of air (and this in fuller measure because 
Aetna, rising with its stiff peak, is exposed on this 
side and on that to hostile winds and of necessity 
admits gales all round from different quarters and 
their concert brings more strength to their league), 
or whether they are driven inwards by clouds and 
the cloud-laden South Wind, or M'hether they have 
gallantly encircled the summit and sweep on behind ; 
then the water from the clouds, streaming down with 
headlong noise, presses on the sluggish air-currents, 
drives them before it, and with its buffeting condenses 

^^^ forte co(kL : fortes Ellis. 

"^2 una CSZ : iraa Birt : unda Scaliger, Pithou. 

2*3 torrentes codd. : torpentes De Rooy, Munro, Ellis. 


VOL. I. C C 


nam veluti sonat ora diu Tritone canoro — 
pellit opus collectus aquae victusque nioveri 
spiritus et longas emugit bucina voces ; 
carmineque irriguo magnis cortina theatris 
imparibus numerosa modis canit arte regentis, 
quae tenuem impellens animani subremigat unda : 
baud aliter summota furens torrentibus aura 
pugnat in angusto et magnum commurmurat Aetna. 

credendum est etiam ventorum exsistere causas 
sub terra similis harum quas cernimus extra ; 
ut, cum densa premant inter se corpora, turbam 
elisa in vacuimi fugiant et proxima secum 
momine torta trahant tutaque in sede resistant. 

quod si forte mihi quaedam discordia tecum est, 

2^* ora diu H : ore diu AR : ora due C : hora duci Munro : 
hora deo Maehly : hora deis Ahinger : hora die Hanpt : 
sonituro horam Schwartz : uma ciens Tritona canorum ElHs. 
tritone CH : tritona AR : canoro Z : canoro C. 

^^* cremant CSZ : premunt Oronov : premant Baehrens. 

^"^ nomina CSZ : momine Gronov : agmina Sudhaus. tota 
CSZ : torta Jacob. 

" The two similes illustrate from mechanical examples the 
theory of the action of water and air in Aetna. In the first 
example, the readings suggested give a choice among a variety 
of contrivances. If ora is read, the Siren-like horn might be on 
the sea-shore, or on the Tiber-bank during one of Julius 
Caesar's naumachiae, or at Lake Fucinus when the emperor 
Claudius exliibited a naval spectacle in a.d. 53 (Suet. Claud. 
xxi). If duci were a certain correction and if it were then clear 
that only Claudius was meant, the passage would assist (as 
some have tried to make it assist) in dating the poem. The 
reading hjra implies a hydraulic time-machine for announcing 
the hour to gods or men {deo?, deis?, duci?). Ellis' uma is 
meant to denote a hydraulic vessel fitted to work the 
" Triton." The second comparison is concerned with a 



their element'^. For just as the shore echoes 
for long the tuneful Triton-liorn — the machinery'* 
is set in motion by a volume of water and the air 
which is perforce moved thereby, and then the 
trumpet bellows forth its prolonged blare; just as 
in some vast theatre a water-organ, whose musical 
modes harmonise through tlieir unequal pipes, 
sounds its water-worked nmsic thanks to the organ- 
ist's skill, which starts a small draught of air while 
causing a rowing movement in the water below ^ — 
even so the wind, dislodged by the rushing streams, 
raves and struggles in its narrow space and Aetna 
murmurs loudly with the blast. 

Besides, we must believe that beneath the earth 
there arise causes of winds like those we see above 
ground ; so that, whenever closely massed particles 
})i( ss against each other, they are forced out into a 
lite space and escape the crush, and by their motive 
( iirrgy whirl and drag what is nearest along in their 
cMurse, halting only when a safe position is reached. 

But perhaps you may be at variance with me in 

li\ >iraulic organ of a sort kno-rni in Rome from Cicero's time 
(f'i-<r. Disp. III. 18 (43), hydrauU hortabere lit audiat voces 
jr.'lufi quatn Platonis ? i.e. "will you advise him to listen 
to the notes of a water-organ rather than to the words of 
Plato ? "). The invention is ascribed to Ctesibius, a barber 
of Alexandria, circ. 200 B.C. Xero was almost madly interested 
in water-organs (Suet. Xero xli and liv). 

^ i.e. probably Anth a pedal. A mosaic foimd near Trier last 
century gives a representation of a water-organ (Wilmowsky, 
Rom. Villa zu Xennig, Bonn, lS(i4-(i5). There the position of 
the organ-player is consistent ^\-ith his using his hands to play 
and his feet on a pedal to set the water in motion. In May 
1931, a handsome hydraulic organ dating from a.d. 288 was 
discovered at Aquincum on the Danube, the capital of Lower 
Pannonia (now Alt-Ofen, part of Buda Pest). 


cc 2 


principiis aliis credas consurgere ventos : 

non dubium rupes aliquas penitusque cavernas 

proruere ingenti sonitu. casuqiie propinquas 3 

difFugere impellique animas : hinc crescere ventos : 

aut lunore etiam nebulas effundere largo, 

ut campis agrisque solent quos alluit amnis. 

vallibus exoriens caligat nubiliis aer : 

flumina parva ferunt auras, vis proxinia vento est : 3 

eminus adspirat fortes et verberat umor. 

atque haec in vacuo si tanta potentia rorum est, 

hoc plura efficiant infra clusique necesse est. 

his agitur causis extra penitusque : coactu 

exagitant ventos : pugnant in faucibus : arte 2 

pugnantis suffocat iter, velut unda profundo 

terque quaterque exhausta graves ubi perbibit Euros, 

ingeminant fluctus et primos ultimus urget : 

haud secus, adstrictus certamine, tangitur ictu 

spiritus involvensque suo sibi pondere vires c 

densa per ardentes exercet corpora venas, 

et, quacumque iter est, properat transitque morantem, 

donee confluvio veluti siponibus actus 

exsilit atque furens tota vomit igneus Aetna. 

^1° provehere CSH : proruere AM. 1517. 
312 effundere CSZ : se effundere Baehren-s. 
31*^ fortis CSZ : fontis V. ^^^ rerum CZ : rorum Jacob. 
21^ coactus C : coactu Ellis. 

32G ardentes CSZ : artantes Jacob, vires CZ : venas Aid. 
1517 : fauces Svdhaus : gyros f^llis. 

" 307-329. The reasoning takes the form of an answer to a 
possible objector who suggests that there may be causes for 
winds in Aetna other than those already set forth (283-306). 
The argument is that you must allow that rock-falls under- 
ground generate air-currents; and, just as river vapours in 
valley's emit air (more perceptiblj- in hot climates, Munro saj^s 
here ; c/. also Lucret. VL 476 sqq.), so the effect of moisture (c/. 



yitiir l)eliet' that winds rise from other causes.'' It is 
iiiuloubted (I claim) tliat there are rocks and caverns 
tar below which fall forward with enormous crash, 
and that their fall disperses and sets in motion air- 
currents hard by : hence the gathering of winds. 
Again, fogs with their ample vapour pour out air, 
as they commonly do in plains and fields watered by 
a river. Rising from valleys the air makes a sombre 
cloud: rivulets bring gusts whose force is like the 
force of winds. Moisture from a distance breathes 
on the air-currents and Avhips them into strength. 
And, if a free space lets moisture have such power, 
its effects must be greater in proportion when within 
confined limits underground. These are the causes 
above and below ground which are at work. By 
compression they rouse the winds ; they strive in 
narrow gorges ; in that close strife their channel 
strangles them. As when a wave, drawn up again 
and again from the deep, has drunk full of the East 
Wind's violence, the billows redouble their number 
and the first are pushed on by the last, in that same 
way the (volcanic) wind feels the impact of the 
struggle which compresses it, wraps its own strength 
within its heavy mass and impels its close-packed 
particles through fiery passages. Wherever a path 
is found, it speeds on, ignoring any wind that would 
stay its course, until, driven by the confluent air- 
stream, as by so many forcing-pumps,'' it leaps forth 
and all over Aetna discharges itself in blasts of 
angry fire. 

the clouds of 290-293) within confined caverns underground 
must be far more potent. Two analogies are cited — waves under 
strong gales and the siphon forcing water on burning houses. 

* Sipo {sipho, sifo — alcpuv) was the tube of a tire-engine 
used to pump up water. 


quod si forte putas isdem decurrere ventos I 

faucibus atque isdem piilsos remeare, notandas 
res oculis locus ipse dabit cogetque negare. 
quamvis caeruleo siccus love fulgeat aether, 
purpureoque rubens surgat iubar aureus ostro, 
illinc obscura semper caligine nubes ! 

pigraque defuso circum stupet umida vultu, 
prospectans sublimis opus vastosque receptus. 
non illam videt Aetna nee ullo intercipit aestu ; 
obsequitur quacumque iubet levis aura, reditque. 
placantes etiam caelestia numina ture I 

summo cerne iugo, vel qua liberrimius Aetnae 
introspectus hiat, tantarum semina reruni, 
si nihil irritet flammas stupeatque profundum. 
huicne igitur credis torrens ut spiritus ille 
qui rupes terram.que rotat, qui fulminat ignes, ; 

cum rexit vires et praeceps flexit habenas, 
praesertim ipsa suo declinia pondere, numquam 

3*^ (a)cthnae AR : aethna C : etna H (? ablative). 
^*2 inj^.rospectus CSZ : introspectus Schroder. 
3** huinc C : huicne Ellis : hinc Scaliger, Baehrens. 
^^^ notat CSZ : rotat Jacob. 

^" declivia CZ : declinia Ellis. All lines after 346 are 
missing in S. 

" 330-358. This passage aims at disprovmg the idea that 
the wind which in an eruption issues from the crater has been 
constantly entering the mountain by the same avenue. Two 
arguments refute the notion : (1) the cloud which hangs 
invariably over the summit would be displaced by any wind 


But if Haply you ima<;inc that the winds run down 
the same passage as that by which they are ex- 
pelled and return, Aetna's own region will give your 
eyes facts for their notice and so compel denial.'^ 
However brilliant the atmosphere, however rainless 
under the blue sky, though the dawn rise with golden 
beams and blush with crimson tint, yet in that 
quarter there is always a cloud of impenetrable 
gloom and of slow movement that hangs lumpishly 
around, moist in its showery countenance, looking 
forth from its height on the mountain's state '' and its 
vast recesses. Aetna ignores it and never dislodges 
it with any discharge of heat ; wherever the bidding 
of a light breeze sends it, the cloud obeys, but then 
comes back. Further, look for yourself at worship- 
pers who on the highest spur, just where there gapes 
open the freest view of the mountain's interior — 
source of such mighty upheavals — propitiate with 
incense the deities of heaven, provided nothing 
arouses the flames and the abyss remains in stupor. 
Do you then accept this as proving how that rushing 
volcanic " spirit," the whirler of crags and soil, the 
darter of fires, is, when once it has controlled its 
powers and put a sudden check on the reins, never 
known to pluck asunder bodies of matter or dislodge 
them from their strong arch, even though by their 

passing down the crater; (2) the custom of worshippers to 
assemble at the crater and there offer incense would be im- 
possible, if there were powerful winds blowing into the moun- 
tain. This, then, is ocular evidence of calm against any theory 
that winds from without cause volcanic explosions. 

^ opus here is not much more than '" condition." It 
implies the activity, actual or latent, of the mountain, its 
"working" : cf. 142, 188, 219, 277, 566. An alternative sense 
would be " fabric," " formation " as in 257. 



corpora diripiat, validoque absolverit arcu ? 
quod si fallor, adest species : tantusque ruinis 
impetus attentos oculoruni transfugit ictus, 3. 

nee levis adstantes igitur ferit aura movetque 
sparsa liquore manus sacros ubi ventilat ignes ; 
verberat ora tamen pulsataque corpora nostris 
incursant : adeo in tenui vini causa repellit. 
non cinerem stipulamve levem, non arida sorbet 3( 
gramina, non tenues placidissimus excit apludas : 
surgit odoratis sublimis fumus ab aris : 
tanta quies illi est et pax innoxia rapti. 

sive peregrinis igitur propriisve potentes 
coniurant aniniae causis, ille impetus ignes 36 

et montis partes atra subvectat harena, 
vastaque concursu trepidantia saxa fragores 
ardentesque simul flammas ac fulmina rumpunt. 

^*8 diripiant CHA : diripiat R : deripiat Ciericus. absolveret 
CZ : absolverit Scaliger. arcu CZ : aestu vel actu Wernsdorf. 

251 nee levitas tantos CZ^: nee levis astantes Ellis {in note). 

"^■* fJlIis marks a lacuna after this line. 

^'"^ humus excita praedas C : exit humus apredas H : 
exit humor f apndas AR : placidissimus excit apludas Ellis. 

35' adoratis CAR : odoratus H : odoratis Scaliger. 

" The passage is difficult. Taking nt with Birt and Sudhaus 
as " how," we may paraphrase it : " noting the calm on 
Aetna's summit, }"ou can miderstand how the spiritus, so 
powerful when roused, fails to displace any part of the crater 
(arcu) when quiescent." [Sudhaus renders " von dem Fels- 
rande des Kraters," but arcu, if the right reading, may mean 
an arched cavern and not the crater-curve.] Ellis propounds 
a different \Tlew, suggesting that huicne credis ut numquam 
diripiat may mean " Can 30U believe, on the showing of this, 
the impossibility of the spiritus, when in a milder form, tearing 
down masses of rock ? " 

* Cf. ventilat ignem, Juv, III. 263 : ventilel aurum 1. 28. 

" Cf. Virg. G. IV. 6, in tenui labor. The connexion of 



weight they have a natural tendency to fall r " 
Still, if I am wrong, appearance supports nie : and 
such a great downward coursing rush eludes the 
eager glance of the eye. And so neither are they 
who stand near the crater struck and moved by the 
light wind, when the purified hand of the priest 
brandishes the sacred torches ; ^ yet it strikes their 
faces, and bodies set in motion invade our bodies : 
in so slight an instance there is a cause which 
repels force.'' The air in its complete calm ^ draws 
up no cinder or light stubble, stirs no parched grass 
or thin bits of chaff. Straight on high rises the 
smoke from the incense-perfumed ^ altars : so pro- 
found is that sleep of the air, a peace guiltless of ravin. 
Whether then it is through extraneous or internal 
causes that the winds make their puissant alliance, 
that volcanic rush carries up amid black sand streams 
of tire and pieces of the mountain : huge rocks shiver 
as they clash and burst into explosions together with 
blazing flames and lightning flashes ; as when forests 

thought is not easy to follow. It has just been claimed that 
even powerful volcanic agencies may elude notice (349-350); 
and the parallel is cited of the air-current made by the priest in 
his lustration striking the worshippers' faces without their 
being aware of the impact. Corpora — " atoms " : nostris — 
" our human bodies," which suffer the impact of atoms of air 
imconsciously. The extremely condensed adeo in tenui vim 
causa repdlit is Uterall}- '• m so slight an instance a cause repels 
force," i.e. keeps it from being felt. The " slight instance " is 
the priestly sprinkling of water and his waving the lustral 
fire : " force " may be said to be " repelled," if it is not allowed 
free play, and the worshippers are apparently unconscious of 
its operation. Tiie proper explanation of causa is obscure, 
and Ellis may be right in suspecting a lacuna after repdlit. 

^ i.e. on Aetna's summit between eruptions. 

* adoratis, " venerated," the reading of C, makes quite good 



haud aliter quam cum prono iaciiere sub Austro 
aut Aquilone fremunt silvae, dant bracchia nodo I 
iniplicitae ac serpunt iunctis incendia ramis. 
nee te deeipiant stolidi mendaeia vulgi, 
exhaustos eessare sinus, dare tenipora rursus 
ut rapiant \-ires repetantque in proelia victi. 
pelle nefas animi mendacemque exue famam : 
non est divinis tarn sordida rebus egestas 
nee parvas mendieat opes nee eorrogat auras, 
praesto sunt operae. ventorum examina, semper: 
eausa latet quae rumpat iter cogatque morari. 
saepe premit fauces magnis exstructa minis ; 

congeries clauditque vias luctamine ab imo, 
et spisso veluti tecto sub pondere praestat 
haud similes, teneros cursu, cum frigida monti 
desidia est tutoque licet discedere, ventos. 
post, ubi conticuere, mora velocius urgent : 
pellunt oppositi moles ac vincula rumpunt. 
quicquid in obliquum est, frangunt iter : acrior ictu 
impetus exoritur ; magnis operata rapinis 
flamma micat, latosque ruens exundat in agros : 
sic cessata diu referunt spectacula venti. 

nunc superant quaecumque regant incendia silvae, 
quae flammas alimenta vocent, quid nutriat Aetnam. 
incendi poterunt illis vernacula causis 
materia appositumque igni genus utile terrae. 

3"" animi CZ : animo Aid. 1517. 

^"' et scisso C : et spisso Jacob. pr(a)estat CZ : i:)ressat 

3'^ hand similis teneros cursu CV : haud simili strepere 
hos cursu Munro : aut simili tenet occursu Ellis. 

^*" conticuere CAR : convaluere mora, velocius Morel. 

-^5 si CZ : sic Maehly. 

" Silvae, *' materials " = Greek vXr] in the sense of ** mass," 
" stufiF." The plural here is noticeable. 



have fallen beneath the swoop of the South wind or 
when they moan under a Northern £rale, they inter- 
twine their arms in a knot and with the union of the 
branches the fire creeps on. Do not let yourself 
be deceived by the blockish rabble's fiilsehood that 
the activity of the mountain recesses flags through 
loss of power, that mere time lets them capture their 
forces again and after subjection fetch them back 
into battle. Banish the disgraceful thought and 
spurn lying rumour. Such squalid poverty tits not 
things divine nor begs for mean supplies nor solicits 
doles of air. Ever at hand arc workers, the swarming 
band of the winds : there is an unseen cause enough 
to interrupt the free passage and compel a stoppage. 
Often a pile heaped up with huge fallen boulders 
chokes the gullies : it bars the ways against the 
struggle below, and beneath its weight, under a 
massive roof as it were, shows the winds unlike their 
former selves, gentle in their current, while the 
mountain is in cold inaction and the onlooker may 
still depart in safety. Later, after their silent spell, 
they press on the swifter for the delay : they dis- 
lodge the masses of rock which they face : they burst 
their bonds. Whatever slants across their path, 
they break a way through : their fury rises fiercer 
for each impact. Flame glitters with widespread 
havoc for its work, and in its rush wells far across the 
country-side : so after long quiescence the winds 
renew their brave displays. 

Now there remain to be discussed all the materials " 
which govern the conflagration, what fuels summon 
the flames, what is Aetna's food. There is native 
material capable of being kindled by these causes ; 
also a serviceable sort of earth which fire finds 



uritur adsidue calidus nunc sulphuris umor, i 

nunc spissus crebro praebetur alumine sucus. 

pingue bitumen adest et quicquid comminus acris 

irritat flammas : illius corporis Aetna est. 

atque banc materiam penitus discurrere, fontes 

infectae crispantur aquae radice sub ipsa. c 

pars oculis manifesta iacet, quae robore dura est 

ac lapis : in pingui fervent incendia suco. 

quin etiam varie quaedam sine nomine saxa 

toto monte liquent : illis custodia flammae 

vera tenaxque data est. sed maxima causa molaris 4 

illius incendi lapis est : is vindicat Aetnam. 

quern si forte manu teneas ac robore cernas, 

nee fervere putes, ignem nee spargere posse. 

sed, simul ac ferro quaeras. respondet et ictu 

scintillat dolor, hunc multis circum inice flammis 4 

et patere extorquere animos atque exue robur. 

fundetur ferro citius ; nam mobilis illi 

et metuens natura mali est, ubi cogitur igni. 

sed simul atque hausit flammas, non tutior hausti 

ulla domus, servans aciem duransque tenaci 4 

saepta fide : tanta est illi patientia victo ; 

^^^ eripiantur CH : eripiant AR : excipiantur Vollmer : 
crispantur Ellis : testantur Maehly : evincant tibi Morel in 
supphm. novae editionis. 

*"^ est si C : est sic R : est ; is Munro. 

^^^ coritur C : cogitur V, Munro, 

*^^ tutum CZ : tanta Scaliger : bruta Ellis. 

" The accus. and infin. construction materiam discurrere 
depends on a verb implied in crispantur. 

* Springs of water at the foot of Aetna with a sulphurous or 
bituminous taste testify to the presence of inflammable sub- 
stances in the mountain. The author proceeds (398-425) to 
argue that stones which liquefy, especially the lava-stone 
(lapis molaris) point to the same conclusion. Though a chief 


proper to its use. At one time the hot liquid of 
sulphur burns continuously ; at another a Huid 
presents itself thickened with copious alum ; oily 
bitumen is at hand and everything that by close 
encounter provokes flames to violence. Of such 
substance is Aetna composed. And to show '^ that this 
fuel is scattered deep Mithin the mountain, we find 
springs of tainted water rippling at its very base.'' 
Some of this fuel lies obvious to the sight ; in its 
solid part it is hard — a stone ; but it contains an oily 
juice in which burns fire. Moreover, in divers places 
all over the mountain there are rocks of no specific 
name which liquefy. To them has been given a true 
and steadfast guardianship of flame. But the para- 
mount source of that volcanic fire is the lava-stone. 
It above all claims Aetna for its own. If perchance 
you held it in your hand and tested it by its firmness, 
you would not think it could burn or discharge fire, 
but no sooner do you question it with iron than it 
replies, and sparks attest its pain beneath the blow. 
Throw it into the midst of a strong fire, and let it 
wrest away its proud temper : so strip it of its 
strength. It Avill fuse quicker than iron, for its 
nature is subject to change and afraid of hurt under 
pressure from fire. But once it has absorbed the 
flames, there is no safer home for what is absorbed ; 
preserving its edge, it hardens with steadfast fidelity 
what it confines. Such is its endurance after being 

cause of volcanic conflagration, the lava-stone externally does 
not look inflammable ; if struck, however, with an iron bar, it 
gives off sparks, and in a powerful furnace is more quickly 
fusible than iron. Its great characteristic is its stubborn 
retention of fire : this marks it off from other substances which, 
once burnt out, cannot be rekindled. 



vix umquani redit in vires atque evomit igneni. 
totus enini denso stipatus robore carbo 
per tenues adniissa vias incendia nutrit 
cunetanterque eadem et pigre concepta remittit. 
nee tamen hoc uno quod montis plurinia pars est, 
vincit et incendi causam tenet ille : profecto 
miranda est lapidis vivax animosaque virtus, 
cetera materies quaecumque est fertilis igni, 
ut semel accensa est, moritur nee restat in ilia 
quod repetas : tantuni cinis et sine seniine terra est. 
hie semel atque iterum patiens ac mille perhaustis 
ignibus instaurat vires, nee desinit ante 
quam levis excocto defecit robore pumex 
in cinerem putresque iacet dilapsus harenas. 

cerne locis etiam : similes adsiste cavernas. 
illic materiae nascentis copia maior. 
sed genus hoc lapidis (certissima signa coloris) 
quod nullas adiunxit opes, elanguit ignis. 
dicitur insidiis flagrasse Aenaria quondam 
nunc exstincta super, testisque Neapolin inter 
et Cumas locus ex multis iam frigidus annis, 
quamvis aeternum pingui scatet ubere sulphur. 

*^^ cardo C : tardans AR : tarde H : carbo Ellis. 

^^^ lapidum CZ : lapidis De JRooy. 

*-■' iacet Z : iacit C. delapsus CZ : dilapsus Scaliger. 

*2^ et languit CH : elanguit Jacob. 

*^^ pinguescat et CH : pingui scatet Ellis. 

" There is an apparent inconsistency between 1. 412 and the 
statements of 418 and 422 sqq. The partial burning of 
successive eruptions (422-42.3) is to be contrasted with a com- 
plete burning out of the lava-stone (411^12 and 424-425) ; or 



overpowered. Rarely does it ever c;o haek to its 
old streiiii'th and beleh out fire." 'riiroiiii'hout it is a 
carbonised bloek paeked with a density of strength ; 
narrow arc the channels through which it receives 
and feeds its fires ; slowly and unwillingly it releases 
them when collected. Yet not for this sole reason 
that lava forms the greatest part of the mountain 
does it remain triumphant and control the cause of 
volcanic fire. In truth the thing to marvel at is the 
vitality and pluck of the stone. Kvery other sub- 

"^ stance productive of fire dies after it has been 
lighted: nothing remains therein to be recovered — 
merely ashes and earth with not a seed of flame. 
Init this lava-stone, submissive time and again, after 
absorbing a thousand fires, renews its strength and 
fails not till its heart is burnt out, and, now a light 
})umice-stone, has collapsed into cinders scattering a 
crinnbling sand in its fall. 

.ludge likewise by special places ; take your stand 
l)v similar volcanic hollows. These have a larger 
store of natural fuel. But because this species of 
stone — colour attests this most surely — has nowhere 
contributed its resources, the fire has died away. 
Acnaria,^ we are told, once blazed out in sudden 
! 1 rachery, though to-day its summit is quenched. 
Another witness is the region^ between Neapolis 
and Cumae, now cooled for many a year, though 

i sulphur wells forth unceasingly in rich abundance. 

' it may be that 412 implies only an immediate return to former 

* Monte Epomco (Latin Epopeus), the chief mountain of 
Ischia (Latin Aenaria) has been noted for sudden outbreaks. 

" locus = Solfatara. Its character in antiquitv is described 
by Lucretius (vi. 747-8), Strabo 246 (== V. 4. 6^ ad fin.) and 
Petronius, Satyr. 120, line 67 sqq. 



in mercem legitur, tanto est fecundius Aetna. 

insula, cui nomen facies dedit ipsa rotunda, 4 

sulphure non solum nee obesa bitumine terra est : 

et lapis adiutat generandis ignibus aptus, 

sed raro fumat qui vix si accenditur ardet, 

in breve niortales flanimas quod copia nutrit. 

insula durat et a Vulcani nomine sacra, -1 

pars tamen incendi maior refrixit et alto 

iactatas recipit classes portuque tuetur. 

quae restat minor et dives satis ubere terra est, 

sed non Aetnaeo vires quae conferat illi. 

atque haec ipsa tamen iam quondam exstincta fuisset, 

ni furtim aggereret Siculi vicinia montis 4 

materiam silvamque suam, pressove canali 

hue illuc ageret ventos et pasceret ignes. 

sed melius res ipsa notis spectataque veris 
occurrit signis nee temptat fallere testem. 4 

nam circa latera atque imis radicibus Aetnae 
candentes efflant lapides disiectaque saxa 
intereunt venis, manifesto ut credere possis 
pabula et ardendi causam lapidem esse molarem, 
cuius defectus ieiunos coUigit ignes. 4 

ille ubi collegit flammas iacit et simul ictu 

4*" durata CZ : durat adhuc Scaliger : durat et a Vollmer. 
*** Aetnaei codd. : Aetnaeo Ellis, illi CZ : igni Haupt. 

<* Botunda is a translation of a-rpoyyvA-n, the Greek name 
represented by the modern Stromboli. 

* Trachytic lava, not the lapis molaris of Aetna. 

" In the Lipari islands Vulcano ('Upa 'Hcpaiamv) is the 
southernmost, as Stromboli is the northernmost. 

«* or " to act the counterfeit witness." 



It is gathered for merchandise, so much more plenti- 
ful is it here than on Aetna. The isle whose name 
comes from its own round shape " is land that waxes 
fat not merely in sulphur and bitumen ; a stone * is 
found besides, fitted to beget fire, which aids erup- 
tion. But it rarely gives out smoke ; if kindled, it 
burns with difficulty ; for the supply feeds but for a 
little the short-lived flames. There survives too the 
island sanctified by Vulcan's name.*' Most of its 
fire, however, has grown cold, and now the isle 
welcomes sea-tossed fleets and shelters them in its 
haven. What remains is the smaller portion — soil 
fairly rich in the abundance of its fuel, but not such 
as could match its power with that of Aetna's great 
supply. And yet this very island would long ago 
have been extinct had not its neighbour, the Sicilian 
mountain, always been secretly providing it with its 
own fuel and material, or through some sunken 
channel been driving the winds this way and that to 
feed the flames. 

But better than any signs and tested by real 
proofs, true fact encounters us : it seeks not to de- 
ceive the watcher, '^ Round the sides and at the 
lowest base of Aetna rocks fume with white heat 
and scattered boulders cool down in their pores, 
enabling you to believe the evidence that the lava- 
stone is food and cause of the burning : ^ its failure 
gathers only starveling fires. When it has gathered 
flames, it discharges them and in the moment of 

* CJ. Plin. X.H. xxxvi. 137, molarem quidam pyriten vacant : 
Grattius, Cyti. 404, vivum lapidem. The lapis molaris is 
appropriately called pyrites, " firestone " {irvpir-ns) or virus 
lapis, " the live stone," in virtue of its characteristic conserva- 
tion of fire : rf. note on 395. 

VOL. I. D D 


materiani accendit cogitque liquescere secuni. 
haud equideni niirum < in) facie quani cernimus extra ; 
si lenitur opus, res stat : niagis uritur illic 
sollicitatque magis vicina incendia saximi 4 

certaque venturae praemittit pignora flammae. 
nam siniul atque niovet vires turbamque minatur, 
diffugit extemploque solum trahit : f ictaque 

ramis t- • • • 
et grave sub terra murmur demonstrat et ignes. 
tum pavidum fugere et saeris concedere rebus 4 

par rere : e tuto speculaberis omnia collis. 
nam subito effervent onerosa incendia raptis, 
accensae subeunt moles truncaeque ruinae 
provolvunt atque atra rotant examina harenae. 
illinc incertae facies hominumque figurae : 4 

pars lapidum domita, stanti pars robora pugnae 
nee recipit flammas : hinc indefessus anhelat 
atque aperit se hostis, decrescit spiritus illinc — 
haud aliter quam cum laeto devicta tropaeo 
prona iacet campis acies et castra sub ipsa. 4 

tum si quis lapidum summo pertabuit igni, 
asperior sopito et quaedam sordida faex est, 
qualem purgato cernes desidere ferro : 
verum ubi paulatim exsiluit sublata caducis 

*^^ in Vollmer : om. CZ. facie que {sic) C : scats quod 
AR : scaterest Ellis. 

*^^ restat codd. -. res stat Wight Duff. 

*^- minatus C : minatur Ulitius. 

*^^ exemploque C : extemploque Z. ictaque ramis CZ 
actaque rima Clericus : undique rimans Vessereau. 

*^^ parere CHR : par rere A. e Scaliger : et CZ. collis CZ 
colli ed. Asrens. 1507. 

*^^ atque atra axld. : adque astra Ellis, sonant codd. 
rotant Wigfd Duff: volant De Rooy. 

*'^ stanti C : stantis Munro. 



impact kindles other fuel, foreiiiu- it to melt in a 
common blaze. No marvel is there in the appear- 
ance presented outside : if the action is abating, the 
upheaval is at a standstill. The more potent fire is 
in the crater : there the lava tempts more winningly 
all inflammable bodies within reach and sends sure 
forewarnings of the conflagration to come. For as 
soon as it stirs its forces, and threatens havoc, it 
flies in different directions, dragging at once the soil 
with it : smitten in its branches ..." while the 
eruption is announced by a deep rumbling under- 
ground accompanied with fire. Then shall you think 
fit to flee in panic and yield place to the divine event. 
From the safety of a hill you will be able to observe 
all. For on a sudden the conflagration blazes out, 
loaded with its spoils ; masses of burning matter 
advance ; mutilated lumps of falling rock roll forth 
and whirl dark shoals of sand. They present vague 
shapes in human likeness — some of the stones 
suggest the defeated warrior, some a gallant host 
armed for a standing fight, unassailed by the flames ; 
on one side pants the enemy unwearied and deploys 
his forces, on another the breath of fury Avanes, even 
as when an army, vanquished in the victor's joyous 
triumph, lies prostrate on the field right to the gates 
of the camp. Then any stone that a surface fire has 
liquefied becomes, when the fire is quenched, more 
rugged — a sort of dirty slag like what you will see 
drop from iron when smelted. But when a heap has 

"^ There may be a lacuna after minatur (462) as Muiiro 
thought, and there must be a lacuna after ictaque ramis (463), 
if that is the right reading. 

*'- hinc defensus C : hine indefessus Ellis. 

*" sopita es CH^: s. est H^AR : sopito Maehly. 

DD 2 


congeries saxis, angusto vertice surgunt; 4 

sic veluti in fornace lapis torretur et omnis 
exustus penitus venis subit altiiis umor : 
amissis opibus levis et sine pondere puinex 
excutitur : liquor ille magis fervere magisque 
fluminis in speciem mitis procedere tandem 4 

incipit et pronis demittit collibus undas. 
illae paulatim bis sena in milia pergunt. 
quippe nihil revocat, certis nihil ignibus obstat, 
nulla tenet (frustra) moles, simul omnia pugnant. 
nunc silvae rupesque natant, hie terra solumque. ^ 
ipse adiutat opes facilesque sibi induit amnis. 
quod si forte cavis cunctatus vallibus haesit, 
utpote inaequales volvens perpascitur agros ; 
ingeminat fluctus et stantibus increpat undis, 
sicut cum rapidum curvo mare f cernulat aestu, '. 

ac primum tenues f undas agit, ulteriores . . . 
progrediens late difFunditur et t succernens , . . 
flumina consistunt ripis ac frigore durant, 
paulatimque ignes coeunt ac flammea messis 
exuitur facies. tum prima ut quaeque rigescit i 

effumat moles atque ipso pondere tracta 
volvitur ingenti strepitu ; praecepsque sonanti 
cum solido inflixa est, pulsatos dissipat ignes, 

*86 primis Z : prunis C : pronis Munro. 

*88 Curtis CH : certis Wernsdorf. 

*8' frustra moles CHA : moles, frustras. obvia p. Baehrens. 

**" notant CAR : natant Baehrem. haec tela codd. : 
nunc terra Haupt : hie terra Elli^ : perhaps hinc . . . hinc. 

*^^ ipsa codd. : ipse Scaliger, Ellis. 

*^* ingeminant CZ : ingeminat ed. Ven. 1475. 

495 curvo CA : turbo Vollmer. cemulus codd. : cernimus 
Munro : cernulat Jacob, Ellis. 

**^ imas C : simas H : undas Baehrens : simans Ellis : 
rimas Morel : tenuis sinuans agit unda priores Jacob. 



gradually sprun|Li up raised from fallen rock^, tb.ey 
mount in a narrow-pointed pyramid: i/ust as a stone 
is ealcincd in a furnace and its moisture all burnt out 
in-^ide and through the pores it steams on high, so 
the lava-stone loses its substance and is turned out a 
light })umice of inconsiderable weight : the lava- 
liquid begins to boil hotter and at last to advance 
more in the fashion of a gentle stream, as it lets its 
waves course down the slopes of the hills. By stages 
the waves advance some twice six miles. Nay, 
nothing can recall them : nothing checks these 
determined fires : no mass can hold them — 'tis vain : 
all is war together. Now woodland and crag, here 
again earth and soil are in the flood. The lava-river 
itself aids their supplies and adjusts the compliant 
material to its own course. But if perhaps in some 
deep valley it lags and stops, its rolling volume 
browses leisurely over the fields uneven as they are. 
Then it redoubles its billows and chides the laggard 
waves ; as when a violent sea plunges headforemost 
with curving swell ; and first it urges on its feeble 
waves, others beyond . . . advancing, it spreads far 
and wide, and choosing (what to envelop). . . . The 
lava-streams come to a standstill inside their margins 
and harden as they cool ; slowly the fires shrink and 
the appearance of a weaving harvest of flame is lost. 
Each mass in turn, as it stiffens, emits fumes, and, 
dragged by its very weight, rolls on with enormous 
din ; whenever it has crashed pell-mell into some solid 
substance which resounds with the impact, it spreads 
abroad the fires of the concussion and shines with 

**^ succernens CZ : succrescunt Jncoh : sua certis Schwartz. 
^^^ inflexa CZ : inflixa Scaliger. 



et qua disclusa est candenti robore fulget. 
emicat exameii pUgis, 3rdentia saxa 
(scintillas procul ecce vides. procul ecc'e ruentes) 
incoliuiii fervore cadunt : verum impetus ignes 
Simaethi quondam ut ripas traiecerit amnis, 
vix iunctas quisquam fixo dimoverit illas. 
vicenos persaepe dies iacet obruta moles, 
sed frustra certis disponere singula causis 
temptamus, si firma manet tibi fabula mendax, 
materiam ut credas aliam fluere igne, favillae 
flumina proprietate simul concrescere, sive 
commixtum lento flagrare bitumtine sulphur, 
nam posse exusto cretam quoque robore fundi 
et figulos huic esse fidem, dein frigoris usu 
duritiem revocare suam et constringere venas. 
sed signum commune leve est atque irrita causa 
quae trepidat : certo verum tibi pignore constat, 
nam velut arguti natura est aeris, et igni 
cum domitum est constans eademque et robore salvo, 
utraque ut possis aeris cognoscere partem ; 
baud aliter lapis ille tenet seu forte madentes 
effluit in flammas sive est securus ab illis 

^"^ esse . . . esse CZ : ecce . . . ecce Scaliger. fides C : 
fide Z : vides Haupt : este pedes Ellis. 

507 verum CZ : fert Baehrens. ignes codd. : ingens Baehrens, 
Ellis : igni est Vessereau. 

^^^ iunctis codd. : uncis Ellis : iunctas Vessereau. 

^^® post . . . fundit CZ : posse . . . fundi Wernsdorf. 
exustam CHA : exusto Sudhaus. 

^2^ ignis CZ : igni Scaliger. 

^22 constat CZ : constans Haupt. 

^23 ultraqueCH : utramqueAR : utraque il/wnro. portam 
CZ : partem Cltricus. 



white-glowing core wherever it has been opened out. 
A host of sparks flash forth at every blow : the glow- 
ing rocks (look, you see the flashes in the distance — 
look, raining down in the distance !) fall with un- 
diminished heat. Yet, though the rush has been 
known to throw its fires across the banks of the river 
Simaethus, " hardly will anyone part those banks when 
once united by the hard-set lava. Very often for 
twenty days on end a mass of rock lies buried. But 
in vain I try to marshal each effect with its deter 
mined cause, if a lying fable remains unshaken in your 
mind, leading you to believe that it is a different sub- 
stance which liquefies in fire, that the lava-streams 
harden in virtue of their cindery property, or that 
what burns is a mixture of sulphur and glutinous 
bitumen. For clay also, they assert, can fuse when 
its inner material is burnt out, and potters are a 
testimony to this : then by the process of cooling it 
recovers its hardness and tightens its pores. But 
this analogous indication is unimportant — an in- 
effectual reason given on hasty grounds. An unfailing 
token makes the truth evident to you. For as the 
essence of gleaming copper, both when fused with 
fire and when its solidity is unimpaired, remains 
constant and ever the same, so that in either state you 
may distinguish the copper portion, in no other 
way the lava-stone, whether dissolved into liquid 
flames or kept safe from them, retains and preserves 

" The Simaethus or Symaethus in Eastern Sicily drains a 
considerable part of the island. The impetuosity of the lava- 
flood, carrying it over the bed of the river, is contrasted with 
the rigid immobility which marks it when solidified (507-olO)- 
The hard masses are describetl as lying immovable for twenty 
dajs together, blocking the river. D'Orville preferred to read 
pedes " buried twenty feet in the ground." 



conservatque notas nee vultum perdidit ignis. 

quin etiam externa t immotus color ipse refellit, 

non odor aut levitas : putris magis ille magisque, 

una operis facies eadem perque omnia terra est. 

nee tanien infitior lapides ardescere certos, 53(] 

interius furere accensos : haec propria virtus. 

quin ipsis quaedam Siculi cognomina saxis 

imposuere t rhytas et iam ipso nomine signant 

fusilis esse notae : numquam tamen ilia liquescunt, 

quamvis materies foveat sucosior intus, 535 

ni penitus venae fuerint commissa molari. 

quod si quis lapidis miratur fusile robur, 

cogitet obscuri verissima dicta libelli, 

Heraclite, tui : nihil insuperabile ab igni, 

omnia quo rerum natura semina iacta. 54( 

sed nimium hoc mirum ? densissima corpora saepe 

et solido vicina tamen compescimus igni. 

non animos aeris flammis succumbere cernis ? 

lentitiem plumbi non exuit ? ipsaque ferri 

materies praedura tamen subvertitur igni. 545 

spissaque suspensis fornacibus aurea saxa 

exsudant pretium : et quaedam fortasse profundo 

^2^ quin etiam co(/cZ. : quia s-peciem. Ellis, extemam niultis 
codd. : externa immotus A. M. Duff. 

^^^ propala CZ : propria ed. Ven. 1475. 

^^^ fridicas C : frichas AR : chytas or rhytas Scaliger : 
FpiiSas (= frydas) Ellis (in notes). 

539 gigni CZ : ab igni Scaliger. 

^^^ quae codd. : cui Jacob : quo Scaliger. 

^^^ lenitiem C : lentitiem A : lenticiem HR. 

" The editorial externa immotus meets the diflficulty of finding 
a noun to agree with extemam (either substituted in the text 
for etiam, or understood like materiam or naturam). Externa 
refellit = " refutes the idea of alien substances," though the 
object of refellere is usuall}^ a person or such a Avord as verbum 



its characteristics, and fire has not ruined its look. 
Moreover, the very constancy of its colour, not its 
smell or lightness, disproves any foreign elements." 
The stone crumbles more and more, but its mode of 
working has the same look and the earth therein is 
unchanged throughout. I do not, however, deny 
that specific stones take fire and when kindled burn 
fiercely within. It is a quality proper to them. 
The Sicilians have given those very stones a name, 
rhytae, and by the title itself record that they are of 
X fusible character.^ Yet although these stones have 
1 somewhat juicy substance to preserve heat within, 
they never liquefy unless they have been brought 
deeply into touch with the pores of the lava-stone. 
}jut if anyone wonders that the core of stone can be 
fused, let him ponder those truest of sayings in thy 
mysterious book, O Heraclitus,'^ " naught is uncon- 
querable by fire, in which all the seeds of the universe 
are sown." But is this too great a marvel ? Bodies 
of thickest grain and w^ell-nigh solid we nevertheless 
often subdue by fire. Do you not see how copper's 
sturdy spirit yields to flame ? Does not fire strip away 
the toughness of lead? Even iron's substance, hard 
though it be, is yet undone by fire. Massive nuggets 
of gold sw-eat out their rich ore in vaulted furnaces ; 
and mayhap there lie in the depths of earth undis- 

or metidacium. Immotus color leads up to utia operis fades 
eadem in 529; and the awkward multis disappears. For 
metrical parallel see 479. 

^ Scaliger based his suggestion of rhytas on (>vt6s (^e?v) 
" flowing," " fluid," hence applicable to fusible substances. 

^ Hcraclitus of Ephesus, one of the early Ionian philosophers, 
held that heat is the inherent principle of existence and that 
everything is in a perpetual flux. By the obscurity of his 
writings on physics he earned the name of " the dark " 




incomperta iacent similique obnoxia sorti. 
nee locus ingenio est : oculi te iudice vincent. 
nam lapis ille riget, praeclususque ignibus obstat, 
si parvis torrere velis caeloque patenti. 
candenti pressoque agedum fornace coerce ; 
nee sufFerre potest nee saevum durat in hostem. 
vineitur et solvit vires captusque liquescit. 
quae maiora putas artem tormenta movere 
posse manu ? quae tanta putas incendia nostris 
sustentare opibus quantis fornaeibus Aetna 
uritur, areano numquam non fertilis igni ? 
sed non qui nostro fervet nioderatior usu 
sed eaelo propior, vel quali luppiter ipse 
armatus flamma est. his \dribus additur ingens 
spiritus, adstrietis elisus faucibus : ut cum 
fabriles operae rudibus contendere massis 
festinant, ignes quatiunt follesque trementes 
exanimant, pressoque instigant agmine ventum. 
haec operis forma est, sic nobilis uritur Aetna : 
terra foraminibus vires trahit, urget in artum 
spiritus, incendi via fit per maxima saxa. 

magnifieas laudes operosaque visere templa 
divitiis hominum aut arces memorare vetustas 
traducti maria et taetris per proxima fatis 
currimus, atque avidi veteris mendacia famae 

5^^ ingenium CZ : ingenio ed. Ven. 1475. 

'"'^^ autem C : aiurem AR : artem Ellis. 

°^^ ac sacro C : a saero AR : areano Ellis. 

^^5 examinant CZ : exanimant H^. 

^^* fama codd. : forma Wolf. 

5G8 vivit codd. : via fit Baehrens. 

^'^ sacras C : areas Ellis : artes vel arces Vesseremi. 



covered minerals subject to similar ordinance. No 
place this for inuenuity : be you the judiie and your 
eyes will triuin])h. The lava-stone is rigid ; its surface 
barrier resists all hre, if you seek to burn it with small 
fires and in the open air. Well then, confine it in .a 
narrow white-hot furnace — it cannot endure or stand 
firm against that fierce foe. It is vanquished : it 
relaxes its strength ; in it*^ captor's grip it melts. 
Now, what greater engines^ think you, can skill apply 
with the hand, or M'hat fires can it support with our 
human resources to compare with the mighty fur- 
naces with which Aetna burns, ever the mother of 
secret fire } Yet her fire is not of the limited heat 
within our ow'n experience, but more akin to that of 
heaven or the kind of flame with which Jupiter him- 
self is armed. With these mighty forces is allied 
the gigantic volcanic spirit forced out of straitened 
jaws, as when mechanics hasten to pit their strength 
against masses of natural iron, they stir the fires and, 
expelling the wind from panting bellows, rouse the 
current in close array. Such is the manner of its 
working : so goes far-famed Aetna's bm-ning. The 
earth draws in forces through her perforations ; 
volcanic spirit compresses these into narrow space, 
and the path of conflagration lies through the 
mightiest rocks. 

Over the paths of the sea, through all that borders 
on ghastly ways of death, we hasten to visit the 
stately glories of man's achievement and temples 
elaborate with human wealth or to rehearse the story 
of antique citadels. Keenly we unearth the false- 

^"^ traducti CHA : tracti R. maria De Rooy : materia CZ. 
terris CZ : terras De Rooy : taetris Scaliger. 



eruimus cunctasque libet percurrere gentes. 
nunc iuvat Ogygiis circumdata moenia Thebis 
cernere : quae fratres, ille impiger, ille canorus. . 
condere, felicesque alieno intersumus aevo. 
invitata piis nunc carmine saxa lyraque, 
nunc geniina ex uno fumantia sacra vap'ore 
miramur septemque duces raptumque profundo. 
detmet Eurotas illic et Sparta Lycurgi 
et sacer in helium numer^s, sua turba, trecenti. 
nunc hie Cecropiae variis spectantur Athenae 
carminihus gaudentque soH victrice Minerva, 
excidit hie reduci quondam tibi, perfide Theseu, 
Candida soUicito praemittere vela parenti : 
tu quoque Athenarum carmen, iam nobile sidus, 
Erigone ; sedes vestra est : Philomela canoris 
evocat in silvis et tu, soror, hospita tectis 

^««_tam CZ : iam Aid. 1534. 

587-8 Erigone edens questus P. canorus en volat in sHvai 
^/a^ss:^ngonae es, dequesta senem : P. canoris plorat Itvr 
silvis Elhs. evocat CZ : eiulat Jacob : en vocat 3Iunro 

■ f mj-tho bgical allusions in lines 574-579 are to the 
miraculous buildmg of Thebes ^hen the stones obeyed the caU 
^nrlf" 1 I'Z' \ ^r*^f ^ Amphion and Zethus; the never- 
endmg hatred of Eteocles and Polynices, the sons of Oedipus 
shoMTi in the separation of even the flames on their altar: the 
seven champions who marched from Argos upon Thebes; the 
gulf in the earth which swaUowed Amphiaraus 

f..ff 'f 'rr^'^^^T^'t'^ ^^*^^' ^^^ caUed^^.i, not because thev 
fortified Thebes, but because they avenged on Dirce her mal- 
treatment of their mother Antiope. To furnish Thebes with 
waUs and towers Zethus brought up the stones with his strong 
arms, and Amphion fitted them together by the music of h§ 

law fver°*^' "" ^"^ ^^^ "''^'" ^^ ^^''''^^ ^""^ Lycurgus her legendary 



floods told by ancient legend ^ and we like to speed 
our course through every nation. Now 'tis our joy 
to see the walls which gird Ogygian Thebes, the 
walls reared by the brothers, the active one (Zethus) 
and the tuneful one (Amphion) . . . and so for a 
[lappy hour we live in a bygone age. We marvel 
now at the stones charmed into place by duteous 
5ons,^ with song and lyre, now at the sacrificial reek 
sundered as it rose from a single altar-steam, now at 
the seven chiefs and him whom the chasm snatched 
iway. There the Eurotas and the Sparta of Lycurgus '^ 
irrest us and the troop consecrated to war, the Three 
Hundred, the band true to themselves.'^ Here 
again in manifold poetry is Cecropian Athens shown 
to us and her joy that Slinerva won her soil.'' Here 
once upon a day, faithless Theseus, your promise 
escaped your mind, to hoist, as you were nearing 
home, the white sail for an advance signal to your 
anxious father./ You too, Erigone, were an Athenian 
lay, henceforth a star of renown ; Athens is the home 
of you and' Philomela's call fills the groves 
with song and you, her sister (Procne), find a guest's 

<* The three hundred Spartans who laid down their hves 
fighting against the Persians in the pass at Thermopylae, 
480 B.C. 

* Athens is called " Cecropian " after her legendary king 
Cecrops. Athene (identified with Minerva) by her gift of the 
! olive won the land belonging to Athens and so ousted Poseidon. 
The marble sculptures in the western pediment of the Parthe- 
non recorded this rivalry. 

f'f. 21-22 supra for another reference to Theseus' return 
fiuiu Crete. 

' Vestra ('' of you and yours ") alludes to her father Icar(i)u3 
and the faithful hound which became Sirius. Erigone hanged 
herself for grief at her father's death. The theme was treated 
in a once celebrated poem by Eratosthenes. 



acciperis, solis Tereus ferus exsulat agris. 
miramur Troiae cineres et flebile victis 
Pergamon exstinctosque suo Phrygas Hectore : 

conspicimus magni tumulum ducis : hie et Achilles 
impiger et vietus niagni iacet Hectoris ultor. 
quin etiam Graiae fixos tenuere tabellae 
signave ; nunc Paphiae rorantes arte capilli, , 

sub truce nunc parvi ludentes Colchide nati, 
nunc tristes circa subiectae altaria cervae 
velatusque pater, nunc gloria viva Myronis 
et iam niille nianus operum turbaeque morantur. 
haec visenda putas terrae dubiusque marisque : 
artificis naturae ingens opus aspice : nulla 
tu tanta humanae plebis spectacula cernes, 
praecipueque vigil fervens ubi Sirius ardet. 
Insequitur miranda tamen sua fabula montem 

^^^ paflaeCZ: Paphiae J W. 1517. parte CZ: a.Tte Scaliger : 
patre Haupt : matre Baehrens, Ellis. 

^8» turb(a)eque CHA : tabulaeque Ellis. 

*"2 cum CZ : tu Cltricus. humanis codd. : humanae 
Ellis. Ph(o)ebus CZ : rebus Aid. 1534 : plebis Ellis (" ez 
plebeis quod est in Rehd. GO "). 

" Procne, wife of the Thracian King Tereus, avenged his 
violation of her sister Philomela bj^ slaying their son Itys or 
Itylus and serving his flesh to Tereus as food. Legend changed 
Philomela into a nightingale, Procne into a swallow. 

* suo Hectore sc. exstincto. Either (1) instrumental ablat., 
" through their Hector," he being by his death the cause of 
their destruction or (2) ablat. absolute, " their Hector having 
been destroyed " : see Munro's note (which cites Cic. Pro Mil. 
47, iacent suis testibus, " they are prostrated by the evidence of 
their own witnesses,") and Th. Maguire's discussion. Journal of 
Philology, III. (1871), pp. 232 sqq. 

'^ The picture meant is the Venus Anadyomene by Apelles. 



rvelcome in the home, while eriiel Ttreus lives an 
^xile in the deserted fields." We wonder at Troy 
n allies and her eitadel bewept by the vanquished, 
he Phryirians' doom owing- to the fall of Hector.* 
>Ve behold the humble burial-mound of a mighty 
eader : and here lie vanquished alike untiring 
\chilles and (Paris) the avenger of heroic Hector. 
Vioreover, Greek paintings or sculptures have held 
•Mitranced. Now the Paphian's tresses dripping 
irt shows them),^ now the little boys playing at 
II feet of the pitiless Colchian,*^ a sad group with a 
jiilier veiled around the altar of the substituted 
jiiiid.' now the life-like glory of Myron's art/ yea a 
Mioiisand examples of handiwork and crowds of 
masterpieces make us pause. 

These attractions you think you must visit — waver- 
ng between land and sea. But look upon the colossal 
vork of the artist nature. You ^^^ll behold no sights 
o great belonging to the human rabble — (this you 
vill find) especially if you keep watch when the Dog- 
tar is blazing in his heat. Yet there is a w^onderful 
tory of its own which attends the mountain : it is 

[■he traditional treatment of the tresses survives to some 

xtent in Botticelli's " Xascita di \'enere." 
** The Medea of Timomachus (3rd cent. B.C.), a celebrated 

3icture in which the painter represented the mother dehberat- 

ng whether she should kill her children to revenge herself on 


j ^ The masterpiece of Timanthes (about 400 B.C.) in which he 
painted the sacrifice of Iphigenia, expressing woe on the faces 
pf the bystanders, but veiling the face of the grief-stricken 
father, Agamemnon. The cerva, according to one form of the 
legend, was at the last moment miraculously substituted for 
ihe victim. 
f The bronze cow bv Mvron, a greatly admired work (Cic. 

Verr. IV. Ix. 135). 


nee minus ille pio quam sonti est nobilis igni. 

nam quondam ruptis excanduit Aetna cavernis, 

et velut eversis penitus fornacibus ingens 

evecta in longum lapidis fervoribus unda, 

baud aUter quam cum saevo love fulgurat aether 

et nitidum obscura caelum caligine torquet. 

ardebant agris segetes et mollia cultu 

iugera cum dominis ; silvae collesque rubebant. 

vixdum castra putant hostem movisse, tremebant 

et iam finitimae portas evaserat urbis. 

tum vero, ut cuique est animus viresque rapinae, 

tutari conantur opes : gemit ille sub auro, 

coUigit ille arma et stulta cervice reponit, 

defectum raptis ilium sua carmina tardant, 

hie velox minimo properat sub pondere pauper, 

et quod cuique fuit cari fugit ipse sub illo. 

sed non incolumis dominum sua praeda secuta est : 

cunctantes vorat ignis et undique torret avaros, 

consequitur fugisse ratos et praemia captis 

concremat : ac nullis parsura incendia pascunt 

vel solis parsura piis. namque optima proles 

^"^ quamquam sors nobilis ignis CZ : quam quo sons, 
n. ignist Baehrens : quam sonti n. ignist Maehly. 

^^' ignes CZ : ingens Scaliger. 

«08 lapidis CH : rapidis AR. 

"" c(a)elum CZ : telum Postgate. 

^11 mil{l)ia CZ : mollia Scaliger : mitia Heinsius. 

^12 urebant C : virebant Z : ruebant Wagler : rubebant 
Munro, Ellis. 

®^^ nimio CZ : minimo Auratus, Pithou. 

623 ratis CZ : ratos Aid. 1517. 

62* concrepat CZ : concremat Auratus, Pithou. 

625 dees CH : piis Aid. 1517. 

" The eruption was historic. Aelian, quoted in Stobaeus' 
Florilegium, 79, 38, p. 456 (Gaisford), places it in Olympiad 



no less famous for a fire of goodness tlian for one of 
guilt. Once Aetna burst open its caverns and 
glowed white-hot" : as though its deep-pent furnaces 
were shattered, a vast wave of fire gushed forth afar 
upborne by the heat of the lava-stone, just as when 
the ether lightens under the fury of Jupiter and 
plagues the bright sky with murky gloom. Corn- 
crops in the fields and acres soft-waving under 
cultivation were ablaze \\ith their lords. Forests 
and hills gleamed red. Scarce yet can they believe 
the foe has struck camp ; yet they were quaking and 
he had already passed the gates of the neighbouring 
city. Then every man strives to save his goods with 
such courage and strength as avails him to snatch 
at them. One groans beneath a burden of gold ; 
another collects his arms and piles them again about 
his foolish neck; another, faint under what he has 
seized, has his flight hindered by his poems I ^ Here 
the poverty-stricken man hastens nimbly beneath 
the lightest of loads : everyone makes for safety with 
what he held dear upon his shoulders. But his spoil 
did not follow each owner safe to the end : fire 
devours them as they linger : it envelops the greedy 
ones in flame. They think they have escaped, but 
the fire catches them : it consumes its prisoners' 
booty : and the conflagration feeds itself, set on 
sparing none or only the dutiful. Two noble sons, 

81 (= 456-453 B.C.). He gives the names of the Catanaean 
youths who saved their parents from the flames as Philonomos 
and Kallias : cf. n. on 029 infra. 

* 616-618. The satire at the expense of those who try to 
save their goods at the risk of life culminates in the glance at a 
poet struggling under a load of his own works. There is also 
a satiric undertone in the picture of tourists (569-600), who are 
curious sightseers rather than students of nature. 

VOL. I. E E 


Amphinomus fraterque pari sub munere fortes 

cum iani vicinis streperent incendia tectis, 

adspiciunt pigrumque patrem matremque senecta 

eheu ! defessos posuisse in limine membra. 

parcite, avara manus, dulces attollere praedas : 

illis divitiae solae materque paterque : 

banc rapient praedam. mediumque exire per ignem 

ipso dante fidem properant. o maxima rerum 

et merito pietas homini tutissima virtus ! 

erubuere pios iuvenes attingere flammae 

et quacumque ferunt illi vestigia cedunt. 

felix ilia dies, ilia est innoxia terra. 

dextra saeva tenent laevaque incendia : fertur 

ille per obliquos ignes fraterque triumphans, 

tutus uterque pio sub pondere sufficit : ilia 

et circa geminos avidus sibi temperat ignis. 

incolumes abeunt tandem et sua numina secum 

salva ferunt, illos mirantur carmina vatum, 

illos seposuit claro sub nomine Ditis, 

nee sanctos iuvenes attingunt sordida fata : 

securae cessere domus et iura piorum. 

^2^ Amphion CH : Amphinomus AR. fontis CH : fortis 
(nom. plur.) A. 

^2^ senemque CZ : senecta Scaliger : sedentem Barth 
senentem Baehrejis : sequentem Ellis. 

^^" manduces corr. in manducens C : manus dites Aid. 1517 : 
manus dulces Ellis. 

^^2 rapies C : raperest 3Iunro : rapient Ellis. 

«38 dextera CZ. tenet CH : tenent AR. fervent HR ; 
ferunt corr. in fervent C : fertur Buecheler. 

^^® fratremque CZ : fraterque ed. Ascens. 1507. 

^*" sufficit codd. : substitit Baehrens. 

**'' sed curae C : securae Miinro, Ellis, Vessereau. 



Amphinomus and liis brother, gallantly facinfj an 
equal task, when tire now roared in homes hard by, 
saw how their lame father and their mother had sunk 
down (alas !) in the weariness of aije upon the thres- 
hold.** Forbear, ye avaricious throng, to lift the 
spoils ye love ! For ihem a mother and a father are 
the only wealth : this is the spoil they will snatch 
from the burning. They hasten to escape through 
the heart of the fire, which grants safe-conduct 
unasked. O sense of loving duty^ greatest of all 
goods, justly deemed the surest salvation for man 
among the virtues ! The flames held it shame to 
.touch those duteous youths and retired wherever they 
iturned their steps. Blessed is that day : guiltless 
lis that land. Cruel burnings reign to right and left, 
j Flames slant aside as Amphinomus rushes among 
jthem and \Wth him his brother in triumph : both 
Ihold out safely under the burden which affection laid 
:on them. There — round the couple — the greedy fire 
jrestrains itself. Unhurt they go free at last, taking 
Kvith them their gods in safety. To them the lays 

I of bards do homage : to them under an illustrious 
name has Ditis ^ allotted a place apart. No mean 
destiny touches the sacred youths : their lot is a 
dwelling free from care, and the rightful rewards of 
the faithful. 

" Claudian, Carmina Minora, XVII (L), has an elegiac 
poem on the statues of the two brothers, Amphinomus and 
Anapius at Catina now Catania. For allusions to their pietas 
cf. Strabo, vi. 2. 3 (C. 269), who calls the second brother 
Anapias: Sen. Benef. III. 37. 2; Martial, VII. 24. 5; Sil. 
Ital. XIV. 197. Hyginus, Fab. 254, gives them different 
names. Their heads appear on both Sicilian and Roman 
coins, p.g. Head, Hist. -\ um. 117; Brit. Mas. Cat. 

^ Ditis (more commonly Dis in the nominative) is Pluto, 
god of the under- world. 

EE 2 




There is considerable plausibility in the argu- 
ments which have been advanced in favour of 
regarding three aj^parently different Flori. namely 
the historian, the rhetor and the poet as one and 
the same person. The acceptance of these argu- 
ments commits us to taking the correct name to 
have been P. Annius I'lorus, as the rhetor was 
called, and to explaining as confusions the " Julius 
Florus " or " Annaeus Florus " found in the MSS. 
of the historian. ** We no longer possess the rhetor's 
dialogue discussing the problem whether Mrgil was 
more an orator than a poet {Fergilins orator an 
poeia), but from a Brussels manuscript containing 
an introduction to the lost theme important facts 
about the author's life are recoverable.^ He was 
born in Africa about 74 a.d. While at Rome in his 
younger days under Domitian he entered for the 
Capitoline competition in poetry, but owing to 
jealousy was denied the wreath of victory. This 
injustice so rankled in his heart that he left Rome 
for distant wanderings which ended with his settle- 
ment at Tarraco in Spain. One day in Trajan's 

■ One MS. has " L. Annei Flori." 

^ F. Ritschl, Bheiri. Mus. 1. 3U2: (). Jahn, Flori epitome, 
Leipzig, 1852, p. xli ; edn. by K. Halm, Leipzig, 1854, 
p. 106; cdn. by 0. Rossbach,' Leipzig, 1S96, p. 183. See 
J. Wight DufE, A Lit. Hist, of Home in Silver Age, p. 644. 



reign a friend twitted him \\dth his long absence 
from the capital, telling him that his poems had 
won appreciation there. By Hadrian's time he was 
once more in Rome, enjoying the Emperor's regard 
in virtue of his literary abilities and possibly because 
of some common links with Spain also. The intimacy 
was so close that it emboldened Florus to address 
Hadrian in a few extant trochaic lines of persiflage 
upon his craze for travel — Ego nolo Caesar esse — to 
which we have the imperial repartee Ego Jiolo Florus 
esse.^ Happily there is more poetry in his hexa- 
meters upon spring-roses and in some at least of his 
trochaic tetrameters. This is the quality which has 
lent support to the conjecture hazarded by certain 
scholars, that Florus was the author of one of the 
most romantic poems in Latin, the Pervigilium 
Veneris. Certainly that poem would have been 
signally appropriate during the principate of Hadrian, 
who resuscitated the cult of Venus on a scale of 
great magnificence.^ We cannot, however, be sure 
that the Pervigilium Veneris belongs to the second 
century : and a rival hypothesis claims it for the 
fourth century, laying stress upon its resemblance to 
the manner of Tiberianus.^ 

In the codex Salmasianus of the Latin Anthologia 
(Parisinus, 10318) twenty-six trochaic tetrameters 
appear under the superscription Flori de qualitate 
vitae. The codex Thuaneus (Parisinus 8071) has, 
instead of Flori, Floridi, a corruption due to a mis- 
take in the succeeding word. Five hexameters in 
the codex Salmasianus also bear the heading Flori. 

° Spartianus, Hadrian, xvi. 

^ See Introduction, p. ,344, to Loeb edition of Catullus, 
Tibullus and Pervigilium Veneris. 

'^ Sec Introduction to Tiberianus, infra. 



P. Burman. Anthol Lat. Lib. IL No. 97; IIL 
Nos. 288-29L Amsterdam, 1759. 

[Burman ascribes 97, Ego nolo . . ., to 
"Julius Florus " ; 288, quales . . ., 289, 
Aid hoc. risit . . ., and 290, Ilortus erat . . ., to 
an unknown author; and 291, J'enerunt ali- 
quaiido rosae . . ., to '* Florus." Baehrens and 
Buecheler follow these ascriptions.] 

J. C. Wernsdorf. Poetae Latini Mifwres. III. pp. 483- 

488. Altenburg, 1782. 
L. Mueller. RutiUus Xa)jmtia7i7is, etc., p. 26 sqq. 

Leipzig, 1870. 

E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min., IV. pp. 279, 346 sqq. 

Leipzig, 1882. 

F. Buecheler and A. Riese. Anthologia Latina, I. i. 

pp. 119-121, and pp. 200-202. Leipzig, 1894. 


O. Mueller. De P. Aimio Poeta et de Pervig. Ven. 
diss. Berlin, 1855. 

F. Eyssenhardt. Hadrian und Florus. Berlin, 1882. 

G. Costa. Floro e Adriano, Bollettino di Jilol. 13 

(1907), p. 252. 



Ego nolo Caesar esse, 
ambulare per Britannos 

Scythicas pati pruinas. 



Bacche, vitium repertor, plenus adsis vitibus, 
effluas dulcem liquorem, comparandum nectari, 
conditumque fac vetustum, ne malignis venulis 
asperum ducat saporem, versus usum in alterum. 


Mulier intra pectus omnis celat virus pcstilens ; 

dulce de labris loquuntur, corde vivunt noxio. 

II. De Qualitate Vitae codd. : Vitium L. Mueller. 
II. 1 vitium codd. : vini tu L. Mueller. 

" The numbering I-XIII follows L. Mueller's edition : 
No. XIV is taken from Baehrens. 

^ The Latin is given by Spartianus, Hadrian xvi : also 
Hadrian's retort (see p. 444). As the latter is in four lines, it 
may be assumed that Florus' third line is lost. 


I've no mind to be a Caesar, 
Strolling round amono; the Britons, 

Victim of the Scythian hoar-frosts.^ 

II-IX. The Quality of Life ^ 

Bacchus, of the vine revealer, let thy fullness aid 

the vine : 
Send the dulcet juice aflowing which no nectar can 

Grant it ever-mellowing storage lest in veins inimical 
It produce a smack of roughness turned to vinegar 



Every woman in her bosom hides a poisonous pesti- 
lence : 

Though the lips speak ne'er so sweetly, yet the heart 
contrives offence. 

*■ The MS. heading for the 26 verses in II-IX is so 
inappropriate that Luoian Mueller by emending vitae into 
vitium suggested that it meant "On the Nature of Vines" 
and -svas appUcable only to poem II. 




Sic Apollo, deinde Liber sic videtur ignifer : 
ambo sunt flammis creati prosatique ex ignibus ; 
ambo de donis calorem, vite et radio, conferunt ; 
noctis hie rumpit tenebras, hie tenebras pectoris. 

Quando ponebam novellas arbores mali et piri, 
cortici simunae notavi nomen ardoris mei. 
nulla fit exinde finis vel quies cupidinis : 
crescit arbor, gliscit ardor : animus implet litteras. 


Qui mali sunt non fuere matris ex alvo mali, 
sed malos faciunt malorum falsa contubernia. 


Sperne mores transmarinos, mille habent offucia. 
cive Romano per orbem nemo vivit rectius : 
quippe malim unum Catonem quam trecentos 


V. 3 fit codd. : fit iam L. Mueller : facta Baehrens. 

" Cf. Juvenal II. 83, nemo repentefuit turpissimus, " no one 
became an absolute villain in a moment," and St. Paul's 
quotation from Menander, I. Cor. xv. 33 (pdeipovaiu fjOr] xpv<^^' 
bjxiKiai KOKal, " evil commimications corrupt good manners." 



So Apollo and then Bacchus are firc-bring:crs, I 
opine : 

Both the gods are flame-created; in their ])irth the 
fires take part. 

Both confer their heat for guerdon, by the sunbeam 
or the vine ; 

One dispels the long night's darkness, one the dark- 
ness of the heart. 

When my young pear-trees I planted, when I planted 

On the bark the name I graved of the sweetheart 

who is mine. 
Never henceforth will my passion find an end or find 

its ease. 
As the tree grows, so my zeal glows : love-dreams 

through each letter shine. 


Rascals have not been so always — rascals from their 

mother's womb ; 
But false comradeship with rascals brings one to a 

rascal's doom." 


Shun the morals brought across seas; they've a 

thousand trickeries. 
None in all the world lives straighter than a citizen 

of Rome. 
Why, I prize one Cato more than fifteen score like 





Tarn malum est habere nummos, non habere quam 

malum est ; 
tain malum est audere semper quam malum est 

semper pudor ; 
tam malum est tacere multum quam malum est 

multum loqui ; 
tam malum est foris amica quam malum est uxor 

nemo non haec vera dicit, nemo non contra facit. 


Consules fmnt quotannis et novi proconsules ; 
solus aut rex aut poeta non quotannis nascitur. 


De Rosis 

Venerunt aliquando rosae. per veris amoeni 
ingenium una dies ostendit spicula florum, 
altera pyramidas nodo maiore tumentes, 
tertia iam calathos, totum lux quarta peregit 
floris opus, pereunt hodie nisi mane leguntur. 


De Rosis 

A, quales ego mane rosas procedere vidi ! 
nascebantur adhuc neque erat par omnibus aetas. 
prima papillatos ducebat tecta corymbos, 
altera puniceos apices umbone levabat, 
tertia iam totum calathi patefecerat orbem, 




Tis as bad possessing money as to live in penury ; 
Just as bad perpetual daring as perpetual modesty; 
Just as bad is too mueh silence as too much loquacity ; 
Just as bad the girl you visit as the wife at home 

can be. 
None can say that this is falsehood : none but does 
the contrary. 


Every year we get fresh consuls, every year pro- 
consuls too : 

Only patrons, only poets, are not born each year 

Roses ix SpRixcTniE 

Roses are here at last : thanks to the mood 

Of lovely Spring, one day shows barbs of bloom ; 

A second, pyramids more largely swoln ; 

A third reveals the cup : four days fulfil 

Their task of flowering. This day seals their doom 

Unless the mornino; brine's a gatherer. 



What roses have I seen come with the morn ! 

Scarce born they were, yet not alike in age : 

One showed the breast-like buds that hid the flower, 

One shot its purple crest from swelling heart, 

A third had ojn-ned full its rounded cup, 



quarta simul nituit niidati germine floris. 

dum levat una caput dumque explicat altera nodum, 

sic, dum virgineus pudor exsinuatur amictu, 

ne pereant lege mane rosas : cito virgo senescit. 


De Rosa 

Aut hoc risit Amor aut hoc de pectine traxit 
purpureis Aurora comis aut sentibus haesit 
Cypris et hie spinis insedit sanguis acutis. 


De Rosis 

Hortus erat Veneris, roseis circumdatus herbis, 
gratus ager dominae, quern qui vidisset amaret. 
dum puer hie passim properat decerpere flores 
et velare comas, spina libavit acuta 
marmoreos digitos : mox ut dolor attigit artus 
sanguineamque manum, tinxit sua lumina gutta. 
pervenit ad matrem frendens defertque querellas : 
" unde rosae, mater, coeperunt esse nocentes ? 
unde tui flores pugnare latentibus armis ? 
bella gerunt mecum. floris color et cruor unum 
est! " 



A fourth was bright witli well-grown naked bloom, 
Oiu' rears its head, while one untwines its eoil : 
Si>. while their maiden virtue's ehastely garbed, 
At dawn pull roses fresh : maids soon grow old. 


The Rose 

1 he rose was Cupid's smile, or from her comb 
Dawn drew it forth — Dawn of the lustrous hair, 
Or haply Venus was by briars caught 
And on the sharp thorns this her blood remained. 


Venus' Rose-Gardex 

\'(nus a garden had, rose-bushes round — 
It- lady's darling plot; once seen, beloved. 
Htr boy, in random haste to cull the blooms 
And crown his tresses, pricked with pointed thorn 
His marble fingers. Soon, as pain stabbed limbs 
And blood-stained hand, the tear-drop bathed his 

In rage he seeks his mother with his plaints : 
" Whence comes it, mother, that the roses hurt ? 
Whence fight thy flowers with hidden arms? They 

On me : the flower's hue is the same as blood ! " 


VOL. I. F F 



De Musis 

Clio saecla retro niemorat sermone soluto. 
Euterpae geminis loquitur cava tibia ventis. 
voce Thalia clueiis soccis dea comica gaudet. 
Melpomene reboans tragicis fervescit iambis. 
aurea Terpsichorae totam lyra personat aethram. 
fila premens digitis Erato modulamina fingit. 
flectitur in faciles variosque Polymnia motus. 
Uranie numeris scrutatur sidera mundi. 
Calliope doctis dat laurea serta poetis. 

" Ascribed to Floras, Baehrens, P.L.M. IV. p. 279. Cf. the 
verses which have come down under the name of Cato, P.L.M, 
III. p. 243. 

The Muses in Hesiod {Theog. 36-103, 915-918) are the nine 
daughters of Zeus and ^Mnemosyne, born in Pieria. Some- 
times represented as linked together in a dance, they formed 
an allegory of the connexion among the liberal arts. For 




The Nine Muses ° 

( lio records past ages in her prose. 
1 uterpe's hollow reed makes double sound. 
\ Oice-famed Thalia revcllin«i- loves the sock. 
Melpomene's notes in tragic iambs seethe. 
Terpsichore's golden lyre thrills all the sky. 
Strings touched by Erato sweet love-songs make. 
Pnlymnia's odes suit swift and varying moods.'' 
I rania scans the stars of heaven in verse. 
Calliope crowns epic bards with bays. 

if functions and varying symbols in literature and art see 

iusen" in Roscher's Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der gr. unci 

/. Mythologie and " Musai " in P. W. Realencyclopiidie. 

'' Mot us is here taken of the mind. But it is possible to 

take it of bodily movement (" P. sways her body in easy and 

in varied movements"); for a province assigned at a late 

period to Polymnia was that of pantomime. 


F F 2 




P. Aelius Hadriaxus, who was born in a.d. 76, 
reigned as Trajan's successor from 117 till his death 
in A.D. 138. His contradictory traits of character, 
summarised by Spartianus ^ in his Vita, indicated a 
restlessness of temperament which was reflected in 
the physical restlessness of the perpetually travelling 
Emperor. He took genuine interest in army organ- 
isation, in agricultural prospects, in building schemes, 
and (as sho\\Ti during his visit to Britain, where Po?is 
Aelii ^ commemorated his name) in the establish- 
ment of frontier-lines. Prose and verse attracted 
his dilettante tastes : in Latin he felt a preference 
for archaic writers — for Ennius rather than Virgil, 
for Cato rather than Cicero, and for Coelius Anti- 
pater rather than Sallust : towards Hellenic thought 
and literature he was so much drawn that his courtiers 
secretly nicknamed him " Graeculus." Inscriptions 
have preserved fragments of his military addi-esses, 
and at one time collections of his speeches were in 
existence. His autobiographic books, which whether 
from modesty or another motive he caused to be 
published under the names of his literary freedmen, 
became the direct or indirect ^ source of much in 

"^ Hadr. xiv. ^ at Xewcastle-upon-Tyne. 

« J, Durr, Die Reisen d. Kaisers Hadrian, 1881 ; and J. 
Plew, Quellenuntersuchungen zur Gesch. d. Kaisers H., 890. 



the life by Spartianus. A lost miscellany of his 
appeared under the forbidding title of Catachannae,^ 
and he dabbled in both Greek and Latin poetry: 
most things by starts and nothing long, he was an 
epitome of contemporaiy cultm'e. Possessed of an 
excellent memory, readiness in speech, and con- 
siderable humour, he loved to engage in discussions 
with the professors of the day. Sometimes he de- 
ferred to them, sometimes browbeat them ; yet 
though he was a tormenting catechiser, he conferred 
generous benefactions upon teachers. Moreover, 
he established a library at his spacious villa whose 
ruins still impress the tourist under the slopes of 
Tivoli : he had another library at Antium, and a 
third at his famous academy in Rome, the Athenaeum. 
The mediocrity of most of the surviving verse 
ascribed to him reconciles us to the rejection of the 
uncertain pieces. When the poet Florus took the 
risk of chaffing his imperial majesty on his mania 
for travelling {ego nolo Caesar esse ),^ he incurred 
nothing worse than the retort in the quatrain begin- 
ning Ego nolo Florus esse. Spartianus ^ is our 
authority for the simple lines of death-bed farewell 

* Spartianus, Hadrian xvi, mentions this lost work as being 
in the manner of Antimachus, Catac{h)annas (in different MSS. 
catacannos, catacrianos, catacaymos), libros ohscurissimos Anti- 
niachum imitando scripsit : perhaps Hadrian aped the learning 
of the Greek epic poet until he became obscure. Catachanna, 
in Fronto (ed. Xaber, p. 35 and p. 155) was applied to a fruit- 
tree inoculated with alien buds (resembling the extraordinarily- 
engrafted tree of Pliny N.H. XVII. 120) and to a style blended 
of elements from Gato and Seneca. Unger, Jahrb. Phil. 
119 (1879), p. 493, connectedit with KaraxTj/'r?, "derision", and 
it is therefore defined in Thesaurus Ling. Lat. Ill col. 586, as 
" res risu digna." 

* Spartianus, Hadr. xvi. '^ Ibid. xxv. 



to his soul, \vhere ijenuint' feeling, echoed in tender 
diminutives, has bequeatlied an immortal challenge 
to translators in many languages." The lines pur- 
porting to have been inscribed on the grave of the 
Emperor's favourite hunting-steed Borysthenes have 
been suspected. That an inscription was written is 
clear from Dio Cassius.'' It is true that he does not 
say whether it was in Latin or Greek ; but, on the 
whole, it seems fair to accept the testimony of 
Pithoeus that he found the Latin lines in an ancient 


P. Burman. A?ithologia Veterum Lat. Epigram, et 
Poem. Vol. I. Lib. II, Nos. 96, 98; Vol. II. 
Lib. IV, No. 399. Amsterdam, 1759-73. 

L. Mueller. In a section De Poetis Saeculi Urbis 
Conditae X which is appended to his edition of 
Namatianus. Leipzig, 1870. [L. Mueller ac- 
cepts as genuine only " ego nolo Florus esse 
. . .," " animula vagula ..." and the verse 
" lascivus versu, mente pudicus eras," ten lines 
in all.] 

E. Baehrens. P.L.M. Vol. IV. pp. Ill sqq. Leip- 

zig, 1882. [Baehrens prints five poems ascribed 
to Hadrian, of which only that on Borysthenes 
has been included in the present edition.] 

F. Buecheler and A. Riese. Anthologia Latina, I. i. 

pp. 306-7, Leipzig, 1894. I. ii. p. 132, Leipzig, 
1906. [The " Hadrianic " poems in the above 

Translations . . . oj Dying Hadrian^s Address to his Soul, 
collected by D. Johnston, Bath, 1876. 
" Ixix. 10. 



collection are identical with three in Baehrens : 
as their authenticity is questionable, they are 
not included in the present edition.] 


F. Gregorovius. Der Kaiser Hadrian, ed. 2. Stutt- 
gart, 1884 (Eng. tr., London, 1898). 

J. Diirr. Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrian. Vienna, 

S. Dehner. Hadriani Reliquiae, particula I. Diss. 
Bonn, 1883. (For adlocutiones to the army.) 

J. Plew. QuellenuntersiLchungen zur Geschichte des 
Kaisers Hadrian (pp. 11-53 on the Vita by 
Spartianus). Strassburg, 1890. 

W. Weber. Untersuchungen zur Gesch. d. K. Hadrian. 
Leipzig, 1907. 

B. Henderson. Lifo and Principate of Hadriani. 
London, 1923 (" Literary Activities," pp. 240 

J. Wight DufF. A Literary Hist, of Rome in the 
Silver Age. London, 1927. (Sketch of Litera- 
ture in the reign of Hadrian, pp. 628-649.) 




Ego nolo Florus esse, 
ambulare per tabernas, 
latitare per popinas, 
culices pati rotundos. 


Lascivus versu, mente pudicus eras. 


Animula vagula blandula, 

hospcs comesque corporis, 

quae nunc abibis in loca, 

pallidula, rigida, nudula, 

nee ut soles dabis iocos ? 

" Spartianus, Hadr. xvi : see Flonis' lines, p. 426, 



Retort to Florus ° 

I've no mind to be a Florus 
Strolling round among the drink-shops, 
Skulking round among the cook-shops, 
Victim of fat-gorged mosquitoes. 


Ox A Poet-friend 
Your lines were wanton but your heart was clean.^ 


Hadrian's Dying Farewell to his Soul 

Dear fleeting sweeting, little soul, 
My body's comrade and its guest, 
What region now must be thy goal. 
Poor little wan, numb, naked soul, 
Unable, as of old, to jest ? 

^ Apuleius, Apolog. xi, cites the Latin as from Hadrian's own 
pen to honour the torab of his friend Voconius. 




Borysthenes Alanus, 
Caesareus veredus, 
per aequor et paludes 
et tumulos Etruscos 
volare qui solebat, 
Pannonicos nee ullus 
apros eum insequentem 
dente aper albicanti 
ausus fuit nocere : 
sparsit ab ore caudam 
vel extimam saliva, 
ut solet evenire. 
sed integer iuventa 
inviolatus artus 
die sua peremptus 
hie situs est in agro. 

IV. ■* et ruscos Masdeus : et ocres Baehrens. 

^~ii Pannonicos in apros (nee ullus insequentem dente aper 
albicanti ausus fuit notare) sparsit ab ore caldam vel extimam 
salivam Baehrens : Pannonicos nee ullus f apros insequentem 
cod. : apros eum insequentem Scriverius. 

^"~ii caudam cod. : caldam Casaubon. extimam salivam 
cod. : extima saliva Scriverius. Hos versus transposuit Riese. 




On' his Favourite Huxtixg-horse 

Borysthenes the Alan " 
Was mighty Caesar's steed : 
O'er marshland and o'er level, 
O'er Tuscan hill'?, with speed 
He used to fly, and never 
Could any ru'^hing boar 
Amid Pannonian boar-hunt 
Make bold his flank to gore '' 
With sharp tusk whitely gleaming : 
The foam from off his lips, 
As oft may chance, would sprinkle 
His tail e'en to the tips. 
But he in youthful vigour, 
His limbs unsapped by toil, 
On his own day extinguished, 
Here lies beneath the soil. 

" Alanus, belonging to the 'AAavoi, warlike Scythians on 
the Tanais and Palus Maeotis. 

* twcere governing the accusative is one of the suspicious 
points in these lines. Baehrens emends to notare. 



VOL. I. G Q 



Towards the end of the third century a.d., M. 
AureHus Olympius Nemesianus wrote bucohc and 
didactic poetry. He has already been mentioned 
in the introductions to Calpurnius Siculus and Grat- 
tiii-. His four eclogues for long passed under 
C aljnirnius' name, and of his hexameter poem on 
in.' chase 325 verses have survived. He belonged 
to Carthage, as his designation Carthaginiensis in 
M>S. implies; and, when he says of the Spanish 
[)le gens ampla iacet trans ardua Calpes culmina 
/. 251-252), his attitude is that of an African 
■lor. It is recorded ° that he won fame in poetic 
Mitests and in several kinds of literature. A love 
for the open air fitted him to attempt pastoral 
pottry, and it is in keeping with this that at the 
outset of his didactic poem he should echo the 
all Host conventional renunciation of mythology to 
l)r found in Virgil, Martial and Juvenal, and should 
(li-dain it as something hackneyed, preferring to 
'■ ruam the glades, the green tracts and open 
])lains." ^ But he contemplates a more epic task 
when, in addressing Numerianus and Carinus, the 
liiother emperors who were the sons of Carus, he 
announces his intention ^ to compose a narrative of 
tlhir triumphant exploits. Of the two, Numerianus 

" Vopiscus, Carus, Numericnius et Carinus, xi. 
" Cyn. 48^9. « Cyn. 63-78. 


G G 2 



was at least a good speaker and had himself entered 
the field of poetry. The Cynegetica may be assigned 
to the period which elapsed between the death of 
Carus in 283 a.d. and that of Numerianus in 284 ; 
and, if we decide that in Cyyiegetica 58-62 Nemesianus 
is referring to his eclogues as lighter perforaiances 
than his ambitious literary voyage into didactic 
poetry, then we may date his pastorals as earlier. 

The four pastoral poems, traditionally coupled 
with the seven by Calpurnius, are now by general 
consent separated from them. In the first, Tityrus 
declines on the ground of age Timetas' invitation to 
show his poetic skill, but instead prevails on him to 
repeat a song inscribed by Timetas on the bark of 
a tree. This takes the form of a eulogy on the 
dead Meliboeus, who is introduced as a sort of 
analogue to the Meliboeus honoured by Calpurnius 
as his patron. But the real cue is taken from the 
praises of Daphnis in Virgil's fifth eclogue. Nemesi- 
anus' second eclogue, in which two shepherd lads 
complain that their sweetheart Donace is shut up 
at home by her parents, has drawn elements from 
Calpurnius' second and third poems. Nemesianus' 
third eclogue introduces Pan surprised by three 
rustics, who, after trying his pipe in vain, are enter- 
tained by Pan's own minstrelsy in praise of Bacchus. 
This eclogue is modelled on Virgil's sixth, where 
Silenus, caught asleep, had to pay the forfeit of a 
song. In the last eclogue, attractive for its glimpses 
of country scenes, Lycidas and Mopsus deplore the 
pains of unreturned affection. This is the one 
pastoral in which Nemesianus employs the prettily 
recurrent burden or refrain of the Theocritean 
tradition which Virgil followed in his Pharmaceutria 



<>! eighth eclogue. Here, then, the \ irgilian inHu- 
( lice acts directly on him ; for the refrain is not one 
of C'alpurnius' devices. 

In the incomplete Cynegetica of 325 hexameters 
tlu- tirst 102 lines are introductory: the remainder 
handles needful preliminaries to the chase rather 
than the chase itself — first hunting-dogs, their rear- 
ing, feeding, training, diseases and breeds ; then 
horses, their qualities, breeds and maintenance ; 
finally implements such as nets and snares. It will 
be noted that the order here is not the same as in 
Grattius.** Though Grattius was more expert in 
hunting than the Carthaginian poet was, it may be 
felt to be an advantage for Nemesianus that he 
enters less into details, and, if not so concentrated 
on imparting instruction as Grattius was, for this 
very reason has more chance of giving pleasure to a 

The diction and the metre of Nemesianus benefit 
undoubtedly in standard from the conscious imita- 
tion of Virgil as a model. Among the more notice- 
able metrical points, some of them due to his late 
period, are the shortened -o in devotio {Cyn. 83) 
and exerceto {Cyn. 187),^ the single occurrence of 
hiatus catuli hue {Cyn. 143) and the close of a hexa- 
meter in fervida zonae {Cyn. 147). Elision is not 
overdone : some 52 elisions (very many of them in 
-que or atqiie) occur in the 325 lines of the Cynegetica.'^ 

" It has been pointed out in the Introduction to Grattius 
that according to some he did, according to others he did not, 
influence Xeraesianus. 

" Cf. such shortenings in Nemesianus' eclogues as exspeclo 
(ii. 2(5), coniungo (iii. 14), mulrf-ndo (i. 53), hudaridd (ii. 80). 

<■ Keene counts 30 elisions in the four eclogues, i.e. in 319 
lines. Elision is much less frequent in Calpumius. 



There are in it a few rare words such as inoccidims 
(105) and cihatus (160) ; but in the main the diction 
is classical. And, in respect of both language and 
metre, broadly similar features characterise the 
pastoral and the didactic poetry of Nemesianus. 



For the chief editions and relative literature see 
the works given under Calpurnius Siculus, pp. 214:- 

E. Baehrens' text: P.L.M. III. pp. 176-190. 
H. Schenkl's text is given in Postgate's Corp. Poet. 
Lai., 1905, II. pp. 565-568. 


For editions, which usually combine Nemesianus 
wdth Grattius, see the list given under Grattius, 
pp. 146-147. 

E. Baehrens' text: P.L.M. III. pp. 190-202. 

J. P. Postgate's text is given in Corp. Poet. Led., II. 
1905, pp. 569-571. 

D. Martin. Cynegetica of Nemesianus (with com- 
ment.). Cornell Univ., U.S.A., 1917. 


M. Fiegl. Des Grattius Falishns Cynegetica : seine 
Vorgd?iger u. seine Nachfolger. [Holds that 
Nemesianus borrowed from Grattius: P. J. Enk 
in his ed. of Grattius and in Mnemos. 45 (1917) 



sii|)j)oils this: so docs V. Miillcr in Mncinos. 
1(3 (1918). G. Curcio in his cd. of Ciiattius 
opposes the view.] 
1*. Monceaux. Les Africnins : Etude sur la iiltcrulure 
lat'inc d'Afriquc. Paris, 1894. 


I'or the Eclogues see the Sigla for Cal})urnius 
>iculiis, pp. 216^217. 
For the Cynegetica : 

A - Parisinus 7561, saec. x. 
n = Parisinus 4839, saec. x.] 

This codex, disfigured by many worthless 
readings, was collated by Baehrens out of re- 
spect for its age : it is ignored by Postgate in 
C.P.L. and its readings are not recorded in this 

C (Baehrens) = a (Postgate) Vindobonensis 3261, 
saec. xvi. 

This codex contains Nemesianus after Ovid's 
Halieutica and before Grattius' Cynegeiica. a- 
denotes that it was written by Sannazarius, as 
shown by H. Schenkl, Supplement}) and der Jahr- 
biichcrfilr klass. Philol. xxiv, 1898, pp. 387-480. 





Tim. Dum fiscella tibi fluviali, Tityre, iunco 
texitur et raucis imniunia rura cicadis, 
incipe, si quod habes gracili sub harundine carmen 
compositum. nam te calamos inflare labello 
Pan docuit versuque bonus tibi favit Apollo, 
incipe, dum salices haedi, dum gramina vaccae 
detondent, viridique greges permittere campo 
dum ros et primi suadet dementia solis. 

Tit. hos annos canamque comam, vicine Timeta, 

tu iuvenis carusque deis in carmina cogis ? 1 

diximus et calamis versus cantavimus olim, 
dum secura hilares aetas ludebat amores. 
nunc album caput et veneres tepuere sub annis, 
iam mea ruricolae dependet fistula Fauno. 
te nunc rura sonant ; nuper nam carmine victor 1 
risisti calamos et dissona flamina Mopsi 

^^ et calamis versus V nonnulli : et calamis et versu NGA : | 
et calamis et versum aptavimus Baehrens. 

" The hybrid alternative title " Epiphunus " {iirl and 
funus) refers to the obituary lament on Meliboeus. 




While, Tityrus, you are weaving a basket with 
river rushes, and while the country-side is free 
from the harsh-toned grasshoppers,^ strike up, 
if you've got any song set to the slender 
reed-pipe. Pan has taught your lips to blow 
the reeds and a kind Apollo has given you the 
grace of verse. Strike up, while the kids crop 
the willoMs and the cows the grass, while the 
dew and the mildness of the morning sun urge 
you to let your flocks into the green meadow- 

Neighbour Timetas, do you constrain these years 
of mine and hoary hair to sing, you a young 
man beloved of the gods ? Time was when I 
found words ; time was when I sang verses to 
the reeds, so long as my care-free youth uttered 
the merry lays of love. Now my head is white 
and passion has cooled beneath the years. 
Already hangs my pipe devoted to the country- 
haunting Faunus. With your fame the country 
now resounds. Victor in song of late, when I 
was judge, you mocked the pipes of Mopsus 

'' It is morning and the cicalas are not yet noisy. 



iudice me. mecuin senior Meliboeus utrumque 
audierat laudesque tuas sublime ferebat ; 
quem nunc emeritae permensum tempora vitae 
secreti pars orbis habet mundusque piorum. 
quare age, si qua tibi Meliboei gratia vivit, 
dicat honoratos praedulcis tibia manes. 

Tim. et parere decet iussis et grata iubentur. 

namque fuit dignus senior, quem carmine Phoe- 
Pan calamis, fidibus Linus aut Oeagrius Orpheus 
concinerent totque acta \ix\ laudesque sonarent. 
sed quia tu nostrae laudem deposcis avenae, 
accipe quae super haec cerasus, quam cernis 

ad amnem, 
continet, inciso servans mea carmina libro. 

Tit. die age ; sed nobis ne vento garrula pinus I 

obstrepat, has ulmos potius fagosque petamus. 

Tim. hie cantare libet ; virides nam subicit herbas 
mollis ager lateque tacet nemus omne :' quieti 
adspice ut ecce procul decerpant gramina tauri. 

omniparens aether et rerum causa, liquores, i 
corporis et genetrix tellus, vitalis et aer, I 

accipite hos cantus atque haec nostro Meliboeo / 
mittite, si sentire datur post fata quietis. : 

nam si sublimes animae caelestia templa 
sidereasque colunt sedes mundoque fruuntur, 4 
tu nostros adverte modos, quos ipse benigno 

^' hos cantus N : hos calamos V, Baehrens. 


aiul his discordant blasts. With nic I lie ajL!;(d 
Mcliboeus had heard you both, and he extolled 
your merits on high. He has fulfilled the 
span of life's campaign, and dwells now in a 
part of that secluded sphere, the heaven of 
the blest. Wherefore, come, if you have a 
living gratitude to Meliboeus, let the dulcet 
strains of your flute tell of his glorified spirit. 

Tim. 'Tis right to obey your commands, and your 
commands are pleasing. The old man de- 
served that the poetry of Phoebus, the reeds 
of Pan, and the lyre of Linus or of Orpheus, 
son of Oeagrus. should join in his praises and 
should extol all the glorious deeds of the hero. 
But since you ask but the praise my pipe can 
give, hear now what the cherry-tree you see 
beside the river keeps upon this theme ; it 
preserves my lay in the carving on its bark. 

Tit. Come, speak : but lest the pine, made garrul- 
ous by the wind, trouble us with its noise, 
let us seek rather these elms and beeches. 

Tim. Here 'tis my pleasure to sing : for underneath 
us the soft fields spread their carpeting of 
green sward, and fi\r and wide all the grove is 
still. Look ! see in the distance how the bulls 
are (jpietly browsing in the grass. 

Ether, parent of all ; water, primal cause of 
things ; and earth, mother of body ; and life- 
giving air ! accept ye these strains ; waft these 
words to our loved Meliboeus, if those at rest 
are permitted to have feeling after death. 
For if souls sublime dwell in the celestial 
precincts and the starry abodes, if the heavens 
are their lot, do thou, Meliboeus, give ear to 



pectore fovisti, quos tu, Meliboee, probasti. 
longa tibi cunctisque diu spectata senectus 
felicesque anni nostrique noiissimus aevi 
circulus innocuae clauserunt tempora vitae. 
nee minus hine nobis gemitus lacrimaeque 

quam si florentes mors invida carperet annos ; 
nee tenuit tales communis causa querellas. 
" heu, Meliboee, iaces mortali frigore segnis 
lege hominum, caelo dignus canente senecta 
concilioque deum. plenum tibi ponderis aequi 
pectus erat. tu ruricolum discernere lites 
adsueras, varias patiens mulcendo querellas. 
sub te iuris amor, sub te reverentia iusti 
floruit, ambiguos signavit terminus agros. 
blanda tibi vultu gravitas et mite serena 
fronte supercilium, sed pectus mitius ore. 
tu calamos aptare labris et iungere cera 
hortatus duras docuisti fallere curas ; 
nee segnem passus nobis marcere iu^ntam 
saepe dabas meritae non vilia praemia Musae. 

^^ pelleret V : carperet NGA : velleret Glaeser : tolleret 
Ileinsius : perderet Burman. 

*^ mortali NG : letali V, Baehrens. 

^° canente codd. : callente Baehrens. 

53 patiens codd. : paeans Maehly, Baehrens, H. Schenkl, 
Giarra'ano : sapiens Burman. 

^* ruris N^GV : iuris N^, Martellius. iusti V, N {in mar- 
gine) : iuris G {corr. ex ruris), N {corr. ex viris). 



my lays, wliicli your own kind heart clu-rislied 
and your judgement approved. An advanced 
old age, long esteemed by all, and happy years 
and the final cycle in our human span closed 
the period of your life ^^hich injured none. 
Neither did this make our tears and lamenta- 
tions less sore than if churlish death had 
plucked the years of your prime : nor did 
the common cause " check dirges such as 
these: "Ah, Meliboeus, in that chill which 
awaits all men you lie strengthless, obeying 
the law of all flesh, worthy though you are of 
heaven in your hoary age and worthy of the 
council of the gods. Your heart was full of 
firmness fairly balanced. With patient ear 
and soothing word for diverse plaints, you 
were wont to judge the disputes of the peasants. 
Under your guidance flourished a love of law 
and a respect for justice ; disputed land was 
marked with a boundary line. You had a 
courteous dignity in your countenance and 
kindly brow with an unruffled forehead ; but 
still kindlier than your face was your heart. 
You urged me to adapt the reed-pipe to my 
lips and to fashion it with wax, and so taught 
me to beguile oppressive cares. You would 
not suffer my youth to languish in idleness ; 
guerdons of no mean price you often gave to 
my Muse if she quitted herself well. Often 
" i.e. that all men are mortal : cf. Hamlet I. ii : 

" Thou know'st 'tis common ; all that lives must die, 
Passing through nature to eternity "; 

Temiyson, hi Mernoriam, vi : 

" Loss is common to the race — 
And common is the commonplace." 



saepe etiam senior, ne nos cantare pigeret, 
laetus Phoebea dixisti carmen avena. 
felix o Meliboee, vale ! tibi frondis odorae 
munera dat lauros carpens ruralis Apollo ; ( 

dant Fauni, quod quisque valet, de vite racemos, 
de messi culmos omnique ex arbore fruges ; 
dat grandaeva Pales spumantia cymbia lacte. 
mella ferunt Nymphae, pictas dat Flora coronas : 
manibus hie supremus honos. dant carmina 

carmina dant Musae, nos et modulamur avena : 
silvestris te nunc platanus, Meliboee, susurrat, 
te pinus ; reboat te quicquid carminis Echo 
respondet silvae ; te nostra armenta loquuntur. 
namque prius siccis phocae pascentur in arvis 
hirsutusque freto vivet leo, dulcia mella 
sudabunt taxi, confusis legibus anni 
messem tristis hiemps, aestas tractabit olivam, 
ante dabit flores autumnus, ver dabit uvas, 
quam taceat, Meliboee, tuas mea fistula 

laudes." 8( 

Tit. perge, puer, coeptumque tibi ne desere 

nam sic dulce sonas, ut te placatus Apollo 
provehat et felix dominam perducat in urbem. 
iamque hie in silvis praesens tibi fama benignum 
stravit iter, rumpens livoris nubila pennis. 8| 

^^ messi Maehly : messe XGA : campo V : messo Burrtian. 

73-74 reboant , . . silvae {nam. pJur.) Baehrens. 

'* armenta codd. : arbusta Hawpt, Baehrens. 

'^ hirsutusque V wonnuZZi : vestitusque NG V^Zenywe : insue- 
tusque Heinsius : villosusque C. Schenkl. 

'^ tractabit GV : tractavit N : iactabit Burman : prae- 
stabit Havpt, Baehrens. 



too, lest singing might irk us, you sang joy- 
fully despite your years to a flute inspired by 
Phoebus. Farewell, blessed Meliboeus ; Apollo 
of the country-side plucks the laurel and offers 
you gifts of fragrant foliage. The Fauns offer, 
each according to his power, grape-clusters 
from the vine, harvest-stalks from the field, 
and fruits from every tree. Time-honoured 
Pales offers bowls foaming with milk ; the 
Nymphs bring honey ; Flora offers chaplets 
of varied hue. Such is the last tribute to the 
departed. Songs the Muses oiler : the Muses 
offer song : and we play your praises on the 
flute. Your name, Meliboeus, is in the whisper 
of the forest plane-tree and the pine : every 
tuneful answer that echo makes to the wood- 
land resounds your name. 'Tis you our herds 
have upon their lips. For first will seals browse 
in the dry meadow, the shaggy lion live in the 
sea, and yew-trees drip sweet honey ; first will 
the year confound its laws and winter's gloom 
control the harvest and summer the olive- 
crop ; autumn will yield blossoms, spring will 
yield grapes, ere your praises, Meliboeus, are 
liushed upon my flute." 

Forward, my boy, leave not off the music you 
have begun. Your melody is so sweet that a 
favourable Apollo bears you onward and is 
your auspicious guide into the queen of cities.'* 
For propitious fame has here in the woods 
made smooth a kindly path for you, her 
pinions piercing the clouds of malice. 

" i.e. the imperial capital, Rome : cf. II. 84. 



sed iam sol demittit equos de culmine mundi, 
fluniineos suadens gregibus praebere liquores. 


Idas : Alcon 

Formosam Donacen puer Idas et puer Alcon 
ardebant rudibusque annis incensus uterque 
in Donaces venereni furiosa niente ruebant. 
banc, cum vicini flores in vallibus horti 
carperet et molli gremium compleret acantho, 
invasere simul venerisque imbutus uterque 
turn primum dulci carpebant gaudia furto. 
hinc amor et pueris iam non puerilia vota : 
quis anni ter quinquef hiemes et cura iuventae. 
sed postquam Donacen duri clausere parentes, 
quod non tam tenui filo de voce sonaret 
soUicitumque foret pinguis sonus, improba cervix 
sufFususque rubor crebro venaeque tumentes, 
tum vero ardentes flammati pectoris aestus 
carminibus dulcique parant relevare querella ; 
ambo aevo cantuque pares nee dispare forma, 
ambo genas leves, intonsi crinibus ambo. 
atque haec sub platano maesti solatia casus 
alternant, Idas calamis et versibus Alcon. 

^ callibus G. Hermann. 

^ venerisque H V nonnulli : venerique V nonnulli : veneris 
NG. imbutus codd. : immitis ed. Aid. 1534. 

* anni codd. : actae Heinsius : aevi Ilartel. hiemes et cura 
iuventae codd. phrigue : hiemes et cruda iuventa Haupt : 
et mens et cura iuventae Summers : increscit cura iavencae 
Baehrens : alii alia. 

1® haec sub Glaeser : hie sub XG : hi sub AH, Baehrens : 
sub hac V : hinc sub H. Schenkl. 


But now tlie sun is driving his steeds down 
from the arch of heaven and prompting us to 
give our flocks the river waters. 


Idas : Alcox 

Young Idas and young Alcon had a burning pas- 
sion for the fjiir Donace : both, ablaze in their 
inexperienced years, rushed with frenzied spirit into 
their love for Donace. Her they assailed together, 
when she was gathering flowers in the neighbouring 
garden vales and filling her lap with soft acanthus. 
Then first initiated, they both snatched the joys of 
Venus by a sweet robbery. Hence came love,*^ and 
the boys felt longings beyond their boyish age. 
Their years were only fifteen winters, yet they had 
the pangs of early manhood. But after her stern 
parents had imprisoned Donace, because her voice 
had lost its fine music, and its thickened sound caused 
anxious thought, because her neck grew coarse, 
and spreading blushes came and went and her veins 
showed larger, ^ then truly the youths made ready 
to relieve the burning heat of a love-enflamed heart 
with the sweet plaint of their minstrelsy — both of 
them equal in age and song, of well-matched come- 
liness, both smooth in cheek, both of unshorn locks. 
And beneath a plane-tree — Idas on the flute followed 
by Alcon in his verse — they poured out this solace 
for their sad plight. 

" Cf. Grattius, Cyneget. 283-284. 

* The reasons given are traditional signs of lost maidenhood. 

VOL. I. H H 


7. " quae colitis silvas, Dryades, quaeque antra, 
et quae marmoreo pede, Naiades, uda secatis 
litora purpureosque alitis per gramina flores : 
dicite, quo Donacen prato, qua forte sub umbra 
inveniam, roseis stringentem lilia palmis? 
nam mihi iam trini perierunt ordine soles, 
ex quo consueto Donacen exspecto sub antro. 
interea, tamquam nostri solamen amoris 
hoc foret aut nostros posset medicare furores, 
nulla meae trinis tetigerunt gramina vaccae 
luciferis, nullo libarunt amne liquores ; 
siccaque fetarum lambentes ubera matrum 
stant vituli et teneris mugitibus aera complent. 
ipse ego nee iunco molli nee vimine lento 
perfeci calathos cogendi lactis in usus. 
quid tibi, quae nosti, referam ? scis mille iuvencas 
esse mihi, nosti numquam mea mulctra vacare. 
ille ego sum, Donace, cui dulcia saepe dedisti 
oscula nee medios dubitasti rumpere cantus 
atque inter calamos errantia labra petisti. 
heu, heu ! nulla meae tangit te cura salutis ? 
pallidior buxo violaeque simillimus erro. 
omnes ecce cibos et nostri pocula Bacchi 
horreo nee placido memini concedere somno. 
te sine, vae misero, mihi lilia fusca videntur 

^2 aera NH V jplerique : ethera G : aethera Ulitius, 

** fusca NGA : nigra V, Baehrens. 

" Line 35 closely follows Calpurnius, Ed. III. 65. 
* Lines 37-39 are copied from Calpurnius, Ed. III. 55 sqq^ 


Id (IS. " Ye Dryads who haunt the woodland, Napaean 
nymphs who haunt the caves, and Naiads 
whose marble-white feet cleave the watery 
strands, who nourish the gleaming flowers 
athwart the sward, say, in what meadow or 
haply 'neath what shade shall I find Donace 
pulling lilies with her rosy hands ? Three suc- 
ceeding days are now lost to me, while I have 
been awaiting Donace in the grotto that was 
our tryst. Meanwhile, as if this were con- 
solation for my love or could heal my passion, 
my cows for three morns have touched no 
grass, nor sipped the waters from any stream. 
Calves stand licking the dry udders of their 
new-delivered mothers and fill the air with 
their tender lowing. And for myself, neither 
of soft sedge nor of pliant osier have I made 
baskets for the purposes of curdling milk. Why 
should I relate to you what you know ? '^ You 
are aware I have a thousand heifers ; you 
know my milk-pails are never empty. I am 
he to whom, Donace, you gave many a tender 
kiss, whose strains half-sung you did not hesi- 
tate to interrupt by seeking my lips, as they 
strayed o'er the reed-pipe.'' xAlack, alack, are 
you touched by no thought for my health ? 
Paler than the box-tree and most like unto 
the (white) \iolet I stray. See, I shrink from 
all food and from the goblets of our loved 
Bacchus, nor do I mind me to yield myself 
to gentle sleep. Ah, without you,*^ to my 
unhappy sight lilies are grey and roses pale 

Cf. 44-4S witli the^e whifh it imitates, Calp. Erl. 
ni. 51-54. 

HH 2 


pallentesque rosae nee diilce rubens hyacinthus, 
nullos nee myrtus nee laurus spirat odores. 
at si tu venias, et Candida lilia fient 
purpureaeque rosae, et diilce rubens hyacinthus; 
tunc niihi cuin niyrto laurus spirabit odores. 
nam dum Pallas amat turgentes unguine bacas, 
dum Bacchus vites, Deo sata, poma Priapus, 
pascua laeta Pales, Idas te diligit unam." 

haec Idas calamis. tu, quae responderit Alcon 
versu, Phoebe, refer : sunt curae carmina Phoebo. 
A. " o montana Pales, o pastoralis Apollo, 

et nemorum Silvane potens, et nostra Dione, 
quae iuga celsa tenes Erycis, cui cura iugales 
concubitus hominum totis conectere saeclis : 
quid merui ? cur me Donace formosa reliquit ? 
munera namque dedi, noster quae non dedit Idas, 
vocalem longos quae ducit aedona cantus ; 
quae licet interdum, contexto vimine clausae 
cum parvae patuere fores, ceu libera ferri 
norit et agrestes inter volitare volucres, 
scit rursus remeare domum tectumque subire, 
viminis et caveam totis praeponere silvis. 
praeterea tenerum leporem geminasque palumbes 
nuper, quae potui, silvarmn praemia misi. 

*^ et dulce rubens V nonnulli : sed sine hiatu tunc dulce 
rubens V alii : dulce atque rubens Baehrens. 

^" unguine X^GA : sanguine X^V. 

^^ vites V : uvas XG. Deo Glaeser : deus codd. 

^* curae Haupt : aurea codd. 

®- clausae Haupt : clausa codd. : caveae Maehly. 

^* norit Wernsdorf : novit codd. 



and the hyacinth has no sweet bhish, nor do 
myrtle or hiurel breathe any fragrance ; but 
if you come, lilies will grow white once more, 
the roses be red, and the hyacinth regain its 
sweet blush ; then for me wiW laurel with 
myrtle breathe fragrance forth. For while 
Pallas loves the olive-berries that swell with 
fatness, while Bacchus loves the vines, Deo " 
her crops. Priapus his fruits and Pales the 
joyous pastures, Idas loves you alone," 

So Idas on the pipes. O Phoebus, recount what 
\lcon answered in verse. Over poetry Phoebus 

A. " O Pales, lady of the hills, Apollo of the pasture- 
land, Silvanus, lord of the groves, and my Dione * 
whose citadel is the lofty ridge of Eryx, whose 
province it is throughout the aeons to rivet 
the love-unions of mankind ; what fate have I 
merited ? Why has fair Donace deserted me ? 
I gave her gifts, such as our friend Idas never 
i^ave — a tuneful nightingale that trills its songs 
hour after hour : and, although sometimes, when 
the little cage-doors — barred with woven osier — 
are opened, it can fly forth as if free and wing 
its way among the birds of the field, yet it 
knows how to return home again and enter its 
abode and prefer the cage of osier to all the 
woods that are. Besides, of late I sent her what 
spoils of the forest I could, a young hare and a 

" Deo is Atjw, Demeter, the corn-goddess. 

* Dione, strictl}- mother of Venus, is here identified with 
Venus, whose temple on Mount Eryx in X.W. Sicily gave her 
the epithet of "' P.rycina." 



et post haec, Donace, nostros contemnis amores? 
forsitan indignmn duels, quod rusticus Alcon 
te peream, qui mane boves in pascua duco. 
di peeorum pavere greges, formosus Apollo, 
Pan doctus, Fauni vates et pulcher Adonis, 
quin etiam fontis speculo me mane notavi, 
nondum purpureos Phoebus cum tolleret ortus 
nee tremulum liquidis lumen splenderet in undis : 
quod vidi. nulla tegimur lanugine malas ; 
pascimus et crinem ; nostro formosior Ida 
dicor, et hoc ipsum mihi tu iurare solebas, | 

purpureas laudando genas et lactea coUa 
atque hilares oculos et formam puberis aevi. 
nee sumus indocti calamis : cantamus avena, 
qua divi cecinere prius, qua dulce locutus 
Tityrus e silvis dominam pervenit in urbem. 
nos quoque te propter, Donace, cantabimur 

si modo coniferas inter viburnacupressos 
atque inter pinus corylum frondescere fas est." 

sic pueri Donacen toto sub sole canebant, 
frigidus e sihds donee descendere suasit 
Hesperus et stabulis pastos inducere tauros. 

88 descendere N : discedere G : descendere vel discedere V : 
decedere Baehrens. 



])air of wood-pigeons. And after this, Donaee, 
(In you despise my passion? Perhaps you think 
it shame that the clownish Alcon should pine 
with love for you, I who lead oxen to their morn- 
ing pasturage. Gods have fed herds of cattle, 
beauteous Apollo, skilled Pan, prophetic Fauns, 
and fair Adonis. Nay, I have remarked myself 
in a fountain's mirror of a morning, before 
Phoebus raised aloft the splendour of his up- 
rising, and when no quivering light shone in the 
clear waters. As far as I saw, no down covers 
my cheeks ; I let my hair grow ; men call me 
more handsome than our Idas, and this indeed you 
were wont to say to me on oath,*^ while praising ^ 
the radiance of my cheeks, the milky whiteness of 
my neck, the laughter in my eyes and the come- 
liness of my manhood. Nor am I "without skill 
on the reed-pipe. I sing on a flute whereon 
gods have sung ere now, whereon Tityrus made 
sweet music and so advanced from the woodland 
to the imperial city.'' Me too on your account, 
Donaee, the city will celebrate, if only the 
cypress with its cones be allowed to burst into 
leaf amonsr the osiers or the hazel amono: the 

So the boys sang of Donaee throughout the day 
until chilly evening bade them come down from the 
woods and lead the full-fed bulls to their stalls. 

" Lino 79 is repeated from Calp. ITT. 62. 

** With laudando (80) cf. Xeraes, Ed. I. 53, mulcendo. 

<^ '■ Tityrus " means Virgil. Among frequent reminis- 
cences of the Eclogues one is appropriately near; line 86 is 
based on inter viburna cupressi of Virg. Ed. I. 25. 





Nyctilus atque Micon nee non et pulcher Amyntas 
torrentem patula vitabant ilice soleni, 
cum Pan venatu fessus recubare sub ulmo 
coeperat et somno laxatus sumere vires ; 
quern super ex tereti pendebat fistula ramo. 
banc pueri, tamquam praedem pro carmine possent 
sumere fasque esset calamos tractare deorum, 
invadunt furto ; sed nee resonare canorem 
fistula quem suerat nee vult contexere carmen, 
sed pro carminibus male dissona sibila reddit, 
cum Pan excussus sonitu stridentis avenae 
iamque videns " pueri, si carmina poscitis " inquit, 
" ipse canam : nulli fas est inflare cicutas, 
quas ego Maenaliis cera coniungo sub antris. 
iamque ortus, Lenaee, tuos et semina vitis 
ordine detexam : debemus carmina Baccho." 

haec fatus coepit calamis sic montivagus Pan : 
" te cano, qui gravidis hederata fronte corymbis 
vitea serta plicas quique udo palmite tigres 
ducis odoratis perfusus colla capillis, 
vera lovis proles : nam cum post sidera caeli 
sola lovem Semele vidit lovis ora professum, 
hunc pater omnipotens, venturi providus aevi, 

* laxatas G : lassatas N V plerique : lassatus V nonnulli : 
laxatus Hoeufft. 

® praedem Titius : praedam codd. 

^^ cum NG : turn V. 

21 iam tunc codd. : nam tunc Burman : nam cum Baehrens. 

" Bacchus is the subject of Pan's song : some editors prefer 
" Pan " as the title. 



Bacchus " 

Nvctilus and Mycon and likewise fair Amyntas 
were shunning the scorching heat of the sun beneath 
a spreading ilex, when Pan, fatigued in the chase, 
set himself to recline under an elm and gain strength 
by sleep's recreation. From a rounded bough above 
him hung his pipe. This the boys seized by stealth, 
as though they could take it to be a surety for a 
song, as though 'twere right to handle the reed- 
pipes of gods. But neither would the pipe sound 
its wonted music, nor would it weave its song, but 
instead of songs it rendered vilely discordant 
"^Creeches, till Pan was awakened by the din of the 
^trident pipe, and, now seeing them, said, "Boys, 
if songs ye call for, I myself will sing. No man 
may blow upon the hemlock stalks which I fashion 
with wax within Maenalian caves. ^ And now, O 
God of the winepress, I will unfold in order due the 
^tory of thy birth and the seeds of the vine. Song 
i- our debt to Bacchus." 

With these words, Pan the mountain-ranger began 
thus upon the reeds: "Thee I sing, who plaitest 
vine-wreaths with berried clusters hanging heavy 
on thine ivy-circled brow, who leadest tigers with 
juice-soaked vine-branch, thy perfumed hair flowing 
o'er thy neck, true offspring of Jove. For when 
Semele alone, save the stars of heaven, saw Jove 
wearing Jove's own countenance, this child did the 
Almighty Father, careful for future ages, carry till 

'' The Arcadian mountain-range of Maenalus was sacred to 



pertiilit ct iusto produxit tempore partus. 

hiinc Xymphae Faunique senes Satyrique procaces, 

nosque etiam Nysae Wridi nutrimus in antro. 

quin et Silenus parvum veteranus alumnum 

aut greniio fovet aut resupinis sustinet ulnis, 

evocat aut risum digito naotuve quietem 

allicit aut tremulis quassat crepitacula palmis. 

cui deus arridens horrentes pectore setas 

vellicat aut digitis aures adstringit acutas 

applauditve manu mutilum caput aut breve mentum 

et simas tenero collidit pollice nares. 

interea pueri florescit pube iuventus 

flavaque mature tumuerunt tempora cornu. 

turn primum laetas extendit pampinus uvas : 

mirantur Satyri frondes et poma Lyaei. 

tum deus ' o Satyri, matures carpite fetus ' 

dixit ' et ignotos primi calcate racemos.' 

vix haec ediderat, decerpunt vitibus uvas 
et portant calathis celerique elidere planta 
concava saxa super properant : vindemia fervet 
collibus in sum^mis, crebro pede rumpitur uva 
nudaque purpureo sparguntur pectora musto. 
tum Satyri, laseiva cohors, sibi pocula quisque 
obvia corripiunt : quae fors dedit, arripit usus. 
cantharon hie retinet, cornu bibit alter adunco, 

-" veteranus 0. Schubert : veneratus codd. 

3 7 extendit G : ostendit XVH. 

*° primi NG : pueri V : proni Baehrens. 

*^ rubraque NG : udaque V nonnvlli : nudaque V reliqui. 

*' arripit NG : hoc capit V : occupat Ulitius, Baehrens. 

■ ■ — \ 

" The story of Semele's perishing amid the lightnings of 
Jupiter's tremendous epiphany and of the preservation of her; 
child, Bacchus, in Jupiter's thigh till he reached the due hour 
of birth is alluded to in Nemes. Cyneg. 16 sqq. 



it< full time and bring forth at the due hour of 
birth.'* This child the Nymphs, the aged Fauns 
and wanton Satyrs, and I as well, did nurture in 
the green cave of Nysa.*' Nay, the veteran Silenus, 
too, fondles his little nursling in his bosom, or holds 
him in his cradling arms, or wakes a smile with his 
finger, or woos repose by rocking him, or shakes 
rattles in tremulous hands. Smiling on him, the 
ui'd plucks out the hairs which bristle on his breast, 
ir with the fingers pulls his peaked ears, or pats 
^\ith the hand his crop-horned"^ head or his short 
chin, and with tender thumb pinches his snub nose. 
Meanwhile the boy's youth blooms with the coming 
of manhood, and his yellow temples have swollen 
with full-grown horns. Then first the tendril out- 
sj^reads the gladsome grapes. Satyrs are amazed 
at the leaves and fruitage of Lyaeus. Then said 
the god, ' Pluck the ripe produce, ye Satyrs, be first 
to tread the bunches whose full power ye know not.' 
Scarce had he uttered these words, when they 
snatched the grapes from the vines, carried them in 
baskets and hastened to crush them on hollowed 
stones with nimble foot. On the hill-tops the vintage 
goes on apace, grapes are burst by frequent tread, 
and naked breasts are besprinkled with piu-ple must. 
Then the wanton troop of Satyrs snatched the gob- 
lets, each that which comes his way. What chance 
offers, their need seizes. One keeps hold of a 
tankard ; another drinks from a curved horn ; one 

* Xysa, the fabled birthplace of Bacchus, was by some 
afcounts placed in Arabia Felix, by others in India. 

*■ " crop-homed " (r/. '' crop-eared ") is meant to suggest the 
stumpy or cropped horns with wliich Silenus was represented. 
Wemsdorf, following Heinsius, took mutilum as " bald " : cj. 
turpepecus mutilum, Ovid, A.A. III. 249. 



concavat ille manus palmasque in pocula vertit, 
pronus at ille lacu bibit et crepitantibus haurit 
musta labris ; alius vocalia cymbala mergit 
atque alius latices pressis resupinus ab uvis 
excipit ; at potus (saliens liquor ore resultat) 
evomit, inque umeros et pectora defluit umor. 
omnia ludus habet cantusque chorique licentes ; 
et venerem iam vina movent : raptantur amantes 
concubitu Satyri fugientes iungere Nymphas 
iamiamque elapsas hie crine, hie veste retentat. 
turn primum roseo Silenus cymbia musto 
plena senex avide non aequis viribus hausit. 
ex illo venas inflatus nectare dulci 
hesternoque gravis semper ridetur laccho. 
quin etiam deus ille, deus love prosatus ipso, 
et plantis uvas premit et de vitibus hastas 
integit et lynci praebet cratera bibenti." 

haec Pan Maenalia pueros in valle docebat, 
sparsas donee oves campo conducere in unum 
nox iubet, uberibus suadens siccare fluorem 
lactis et in niveas adstrictum cogere glebas. 

^2 hunc versum post 53 collocant codices plerique. 

^3 at potus codd. pUrique : aes potum Baehrens : at polls 
ed. Aid. 1534. saliensque liquore G, Baehrens: rediens liquor 
ore Maehly. 

^* evomit NGH : spumeus V : ebibit Baehrens, qui hunc 
versum cum 52 coniungit. 

^3 prosatus ipso V multi : natus ab ipso V pauci, Baehrens. 

^5 integit NG : ingerit V. 



hollows his hands and makes a cup of his jjahns ; 
another, stooping forward, drinks of the wine-vat 
and with smacking lips drains the new wine ; another 
dips therein his sonorous cymbals, and yet another, 
lying on his back, catches the juice from the squeezed 
grapes, but when drunk (as the welling liquid leaps 
back from his mouth) he vomits it out, and the 
liquor flows over shoulders and breasts. Every- 
where sport reigns, and song and wanton dances. 
And now love is stirred by the wine ; amorous satyrs 
are seized with desire to unite in intercourse with 
the fleeing nymphs, whom, all but escaped, one 
captor holds back by the hair, another by the dress. 
Then first did old Silenus greedily quaff bowls full 
of rosy must, his strength not equal to the carousal. 
And ever since that time he rouses mirth, his veins 
-woUen with the sweet nectar and himself heavy 
with yesterday's lacchus." And indeed that god 
ri nowned, the god sprung from very Jove, presses 
the grape-clusters with his feet, enwreaths the spear- 
like thyrsi from the vine-wands, and proffers a mixing 
bowl to a lynx that drinks thereof." 

So Pan taught the boys in the Maenalian vale, 
until night bade them drive together the sheep 
scattered o'er the plain, urging them to drain the 
udders of their milk-flow and curdle and thicken it 
into snow-white clots of cheese. 

" i.e. his debauch on the gifts of the Wine-god. 




Lycidas : Mopsus 

Populea Lycidas nee non et Mopsus in umbra, 
pastores, calamis ae versu doctus uterque 
nee tri^iale sonans, proprios eantabat amores. 
nam Mopso Meroe, Lyeidae erinitus lollas 
ignis erat ; parilisque furor de dispare sexu 
eogebat trepidos totis diseurrere silvis. 
hos puer ae Meroe multum lusere furentes, 
dum modo eondictas vitant in vallibus ulmos, 
nunc fagos placitas fugiunt promissaque fallunt 
antra nee est animus solitos alludere fontes. 
cum tandem fessi, quos dirus adederat ignis, 
sic sua desertis nudarunt vulnera silvis 
inque \-icem dulces cantu luxere querellas. 

M. immitis Meroe rapidisque fugacior Euris, 
cur nostros calamos, cur pastoralia vitas 
carmina ? quemve fugis ? quae me tibi gloria 

victo ? 
quid vultu mentem premis ac spem fronte 

Serenas ? 
tandem, dura, nega : possum non velle negantem. 
cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 

^° ad ludere MaeJily, Baehrens. 

11 durus XGA : lusus vel luxus V : dims H. Schenki : 
torridus Baehrens. ederat XG V plerique, Baehrens : adederat 
V nonnulli. 

1^ dixere vulgo : duxere V plerique : luxere Glaeser : 
mulsere Maehly. 

1^ non codd. : iam Baehrens : nam C. Schenki. 

** An alternative title is " Eros." 

* From Virg. Aen. TV. 477, spent frnnte serenat. 




Lycidas : Mopsus ° 

The shepherds, Lycidas and Mopsus too, both of 
them skilled on the reed-pipes and in verse, were 
singing each of his own love in the poplar shade, 
littering no common strain. For Mopsus the flame 
was Meroe, for Lycidas 'twas lollas of the flowing 
locks ; and a like frenzy for a darling of different sex 
drove them wandering restlessly through all the 
groves. The youth and Meroe sorely mocked these 
shepherds in their desperate passion ; now they would 
shun the valley-elms which had been made a trysting- 
place ; anon they would avoid the beeches where they 
fixed to meet, fail to be at the promised cave, or 
liave no mind to sport by the wonted springs ; until 
at length in weariness, consumed by the dread fire 
of love, Mopsus and Lycidas thus laid bare their 
wounds to the solitary groves, and by turns wailed 
forth in song their sweet complaints. 

^[. Pitiless Meroe, more elusive than the rushing 
I'.ast wind, why do you avoid my pipes, why my 
shepherd songs ? Or whom do you shun r What 
glory does my conquest bring to you ? Why 
conceal your mind under your looks, why show 
fair hope on your brow? ^ At last, O heartless 
maid, refuse me ; I may cease to want her who 
refuses me. 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. "^ 

rhe device of a refrain follows the examples in Theocritus, 
Lli/IL I. and II. and Virgil, Eclog. VIII. It is effectively used 
in the trochaics of the Fervigiliinn Veneris: 'eras amet qui 
niunquatn amavit (jniquf (imdvil cra.^ amet.^ 



L. respice me tandem, puer o crudelis lolla. 

non hoc semper eris : perdunt et gramina flores, 
perdit spina rosas nee semper lilia candent 
nee longum tenet uva comas nee populus mnbras : 
donum forma breve est nee se quod commodet 
cantetj amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
M. cerva marem sequitur, taurum formosa iuvenca, 
et Venerem sensere lupae, sensere leaenae 
et genus aerimn volucres et squamea turba 
et montes silvaeque, suos habet arbor amores : 
tu tamen una fugis, miserum tu prodis amantem. 
cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
L. omnia tempus alit, tempus rapit : usus in arto est. 
ver erat, et vitulos vidi sub matribus istos, 
qui nunc pro nivea coiere in cornua vacca. 
et tibi iam tumidae nares et fortia colla, 
iam tibi bis denis numerantur messibus anni. 
cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
M. hue, Meroe formosa, veni : vocat aestus in 
iam pecudes subiere nemus, iam nulla canoro 
gutture cantat avis, torto non squamea tractu 
signat humum serpens : solus cano. me sonat 

silva, nee aestivis cantu concedo cicadis. 

^° prodis XG : perdis V. 



Turn your gaze on me at last, lollas, cruel boy. 
You will not be ever thus. Herbs lose their 
bloom, thorns lose their roses, nor are lilies 
always white ; the vine keeps not its leaf for 
long nor the poplar its shady foliage. Beauty is 
a short-lived gift nor one that lends itself to age. 
Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 

. The doe follows the buck, the comely heifer the 
bull, wolves have felt the stirring of love, lionesses 
have felt it, and the tribes of the air, the birds, 
and the throng of scaled creatures, and moun- 
tains and woods — and trees have their own 
loves. You alone flee from love ; you betray 
your hapless lover. 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 

Time nurtures all things, time snatches them 
away ; enjoyment lies within narrow bounds. 
'Twas spring, and I saw beneath their mothers 
yonder calves, w^hich now have met in horned 
battle for the snow-white cow. For you, already 
your nostrils swell, already your neck grows 
strong, already you count your years by twenty 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 

. Come hither, fair Meroe ; the heat calls us to 
the shade. Now the herds have found cover in 
the wood ; now there is no bird that sings from 
tuneful throat; the scaly serpent marks not 
the ground with its sinuous trail. Alone I sing, 
all the wood resounds with my strain, nor do I 
yield in song to the summer cicalas. 


VOL. I. I I 


cantetj amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
L. tu quoque, saeve puer, niveum ne perde colorem 
sole sub hoc ; solet hie lucentes urere malas. 
hie age pampinea mecum requlesce sub umbra ; 
hie tibi lene fluens fons murmurat, hie et ab ulmis 
purpureae fetis dependent vitibus uvae. 

cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
M. qui tulerit Meroes fastidia lenta superbae, 
Sithonias feret ille nives Libyaeque calorem, 
Nerinas potabit aquas taxique nocentis 
non metuet sucos, Sardoriun gramiina vincet 
et iuga Marmaricos coget sua ferre leones. 

cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
L. quisquis amat pueros, ferro praecordia duret, 
nil properet discatque diu patienter amare 
prudentesque animos teneris non spernat in annis, 
perferat et fastus. sic olim gaudia sumet, 
si modo sollicitos aliquis deus audit amantes. 
cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
M. quid prodest, quod me pagani mater Amyntae 

^•^ hie V plerique, Leo, Giarratano : hac G, Baehrens. 
*' virens NG, H. Schenkl : fluens V plerique. 

" Sithonias means "Thracian"; Sardoa gramina, bitter 
herbs from Sardinia; Marmaricos, belonging to the north of 
Africa between Egypt and the Syrtes. 


Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs, 
. You too, cruel youth, destroy not your snow- 
white colour under this sun ; it is wont to scorch 
fair cheeks. Come, rest here with me beneath 
the shadow of the vine. Here you have the 
murmur of a gently running spring, here too on 
the supporting elms hang purple clusters from 
the fruitful vines. 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 
M. The man who can endure proud Meroe's un- 
responsive disdain will endure Sithonian snows 
and Libyan heat, will drink sea-water, and be 
unafraid of the hurtful yew-tree's sap; he will 
defy Sardinian herbs and will constrain Marmaric 
lions to bear his yoke." 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 
L. Whoe'er loves boys, let him harden his heart 
with steel. Let him be in no haste, but learn 
for long to love with patience. Let him not 
scorn prudence in tender years. Let him even 
endure disdain. So one day he will find joy, if 
so be that some god hearkens to troubled lovers. 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 
M. What boots it ^ that the mother of Amyntas 

* Lines 62-72 draw upon the magical ideas in the Pharma- 
ceutriae of Theocritus, Idyll. II, and its adaptation by Virgil, 
Eel. VIII. 64-109. From Virgil come the odd numbers, fillets 
of wool, frankincense, burning of laurel, ashes thrown in a 
stream, the many-coloured threads, herbs of virtue, and 
charms to affect the moon or a snake or corn-crops. 



ter vittis, ter fronde sacra, ter ture vaporo, 
incendens vivo crepitantes sulphure lauros, ( 

lustravit cineresque aversa efFudit in amnem, ( 

cuni sic in Meroen totis miser ignibus urar ? 

cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 
haec eadem nobis quoque versicoloria fila 
et niille ignotas Mycale circumtulit herbas ; 
cantavit, quo luna tumet, quo rumpitur anguis, 
quo currunt scopuli, migrant sata, vellitur arbos. 
plus tamen ecce mens, plus est formosus loUas. 

cantet, amat quod quisque : levant et carmina 


Venandi cano mille vias ; hilaresque labores 
discursusque citos, securi proelia ruris, 
pandimus. Aonio iam nunc mihi pectus ab oestro 
aestuat : ingentes Helicon iubet ire per agros, 
Castaliusque mihi nova pocula fontis alumno 
ingerit et late campos metatus apertos 
imponitque iugum vati retinetque corymbis 
implicitum ducitque per avia, qua sola numquam 

^* versus qui sunt in codicibus 64 et 65 transposuit Hauptius. 
^* quoque XGA : quae V. 
Cyn. ^ alumnus Ulitius, Baehrens. 

" The notion, imitating Virgil. Eel. VIII. 82 (fragiles 
incende bitumine lauros), is that the laurels are kindled with 
divine fire, bitumen being reckoned a product of lightning. 



from our village j^iirificd mc thrice with chaplets, 
thrice with sacred leaves, thrice with reeking 
incense, while she burnt crackling laurel ^ with 
live sulphur, and, turning her face away, cast 
the ashes into the river? what boots it when 
my unhappy heart burns thus for Meroe in all 
the fires of love ? 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 
L. Round me also this self-same dame, Mycale, 
carried threads of varied colour and a thousand 
strange herbs. She uttered the spell which 
makes the moon grow large, the snake to burst, 
rocks to run, crops to change their field, and 
trees to be uprooted : yet more, lo ! still more 
beautiful is my lollas.'' 

Let each sing of what he loves : song too 
relieves love's pangs. 


The thousand phases of the chase I sing ; its merry 
tasks do we reveal, its quick dashes to and fro — the 
battles of the quiet country-side. Already my heart 
is tide-swept by the frenzy the Muses '^ send : Helicon 
bids me fare through widespread lands, and the 
God of Castaly presses on me, his foster-child, fresh 
draughts from the fount of inspiration : and, after 
far roaming in the open plains, sets his yoke upon 
the bard, holding him entangled with ivy-cluster, 
and guides him o'er wilds remote, where never 

* i.e. despite all incantations, Tollas retains a beauty wliich 
exerts an irresi.stible power over Lycidas. 

* Aonia = Bocotia, associated with the Muses through 
Mount Helicon. 



trita rotis. iuvat aurato procedere curru 
et parere deo : virides en ire per herbas 
iniperat : intacto premimus vestigia musco ; 
et, quamvis cursus ostendat tramite noto 
obvia Calliope faciles, insistere prato 
complacitum, rudibus qua luceat orbita sulcis. 

nam quis non Nioben numeroso funere maestam 
iam cecinit ? quis non Semelen ignemque iugalem 
letalemque simul novit de paelicis astu ? 
quis magno recreata tacet cunabula Baccho, 
ut pater omnipotens maternos reddere menses 
dignatus iusti complerit tempora partus ? 
sunt qui sacrilego rorantes sanguine thyrsos 
(nota nimis) dixisse velint, qui \dncula Dirces 
Pisaei<(que) tori legem Danaique omentum 
imperium sponsasque truces sub foedere prime 
dulcia funereis mutantes gaudia taedis. 
Biblidos indictum nulli scelus ; impia MjTrhae 

1^ facilest Pithoeus, Baehren-s. 

^* non placito Baehrens : complacito AC : complacitum H. 

^^ complerit vulgo : compellere AC. 

2^- sacrilegos orantes A : sacrilego rorantes C. 

° Lines 8-14 : for this almost conventional claim to be 
original, cf. Lucret. I. 926, avia Pieridum peragro loca nullius 
ante irita solo; Virg. G. III. 291-293; Hor. Od. III. i. 2^; 
Milton, P.L. I. 16. 

^ Juno (here strikingly called paelex, " concubine ") 
tempted Semele into the fatal request that Jupiter should 
appear to her in all his glory. 

<^ After Semele perished amidst the flames of her lover 
Jupiter's visitation, the god kept her unborn child, Bacchus, 
in his thigh imtil his birth was due : cf. Nem. Ed. III. 21-24. 




wheel marked ground." 'Tis joy to advance in 
gilded car and obey the God : lo, 'tis his behest to 
fare across the green sward : we print our steps on 
virgin moss ; and. though CalHope meet us pointing 
to easy runs along some well-known path, it is our 
dear resolve to set foot upon a mead where the track 
lies clear mid furrows hitherto untried. 

For ere now who has not sung of Niobe saddened 
by death upon death of her children ? Who does 
not knoM- of Semele and of the fire that was at once 
bridal and doom for her — as the outcome of her 
rival's ^ craft ? Who fails to record the cradling 
renewed for mighty Bacchus — how the Almighty 
Sire deigned to restore his mother's months and 
fulfilled the time of regular pregnancy.'" Poets 
there are whose taste is to tell the hackneyed tales 
of Bacchic wands dripping with unholy blood,'' or 
Dirce's bonds j*^ and the terms imposed for the wooing 
at Pisa,/ and Danaus' bloody behest, and the merci- 
less brides who, fresh from plighted troth, changed 
sweet joys to funeral torches.!' No poet fails to tell 
of Biblis' criminal passion ; ^' we know of M}Trha's 

^ i.e. of Pentheus, King of Thebes, torn to pieces by his 
mother and other Bacchanalian devotees. 

* Dirce was tied to a savage bull by Amphion and Zethns 
out of revenge for her part in the maltreatment of their mother, 
Antiope : cf. Aetna, bll. 

f To escape prophesied death at the hands of a son-in-law, 
Oenomaus, King of Elis and Pisa, proclaimed that he would 
give his daughter, Hippodamia, in marriage only to the suitor 
who should win a chariot-race against his supernatural 

» The fifty Danaides, with the exception of Hypermestra, 
carried out the command of their father, Danaus, to kill their 
bridegrooms on their marriage-night. 

* i.e. for her brother Caunus. 



conubia et saevo \-iolatum crimine patrem 
novimus, utque Arabum fugiens cum carperet arva 
ivit in arboreas frondes animamque virentem. 
sunt qui squamosi referant fera sibila Cadmi 
stellatumque oculis custodem virginis lus 
Herculeosque velint semper numerare labores 
miratumque rudes se toUere Terea pinnas 
post epulas, Philomela, tuas ; sunt ardua mundi 
qui male temptantem curru Phaethonta loquantur 
exstinctasque canant emisso fulmine flammas 
fumantemque Padum, Cycnum plumamque senilem 
et flentes semper germani funere silvas. 
Tantalidum casus et sparsas sanguine mensas 
condentemque caput visis Titana Mycenis 
horrendasque vices generis dixere priores. 
Colchidos iratae sacris imbuta venenis 
munera non canimus pulchraeque incendia Glauces, 
non crinem Nisi, non saevae pocula Circes, 

2' foedo vel scaevo Ulitius. 
^° quis qua osi A. 
^2 fort, memorare Postgate. 

^^ se tollere ad aera {sive aethera) Baehrens : s&oller&acerea 
A: sustoUere Burman: rudi s. t. T. pinna Heinsius. 
*^ incendia Pithoeus : ingentia AC. 

" Myrrha (or Zmyrna), daughter of King Cinyras, was 
metamorphosed into a fragrant tree. 

* Juno, jealous of Jupiter's love for lo, consigned her to the 
guardianship of Argus of the hundred eyes, afterwards trans- 
formed into a peacock. 

' Procne and Philomela punished Tereus for his luifaithful- 
ness b}^ serving to him as food Itys, his son by Procne. When 
Procne was changed into a swallow and Philomela into a 
nightingale, Tereus became a hoopoe to pursue them : cf. 
Aetna, 589. 

•^ The fiery ruin which overtook Phaethon in the Sun-God's 
chariot was lamented by Cycnus, who was changed into a 



impious amour, of her father defiled with eruel 
crime, and how, traversinc^ in her fiii^ht tlie fields 
of Araby, she passed into the greenwood life of the 
leafy trees." There are some who relate the fierce 
hissinc: of Cadmus turned to a scaly serpent, and 
Maiden Id's gaoler starred with eyes,^ or who are 
fain for ever to recount the labours of Hercules, or 
Tereus' wonderment that after your banquet, Philo- 
mela,^ he could raise wings as yet untried ; there are 
others whose theme is Phaethon's ill-starred attempt 
upon the heights of the universe in the Sun's chariot, 
and whose song is of flames quenched in the thunder- 
bolt launched forth, and of the river Padus reeking, 
of -Cycnus and the plumage of his old age, of the 
(poplar-)trees for ever weeping by reason of a 
brother's death. *^ Bards ere now have told of the 
misfortunes of the Tantalids, the blood-besprinkled 
tables, the Titan Sun hiding his face at the sight of 
Mycenae and the dread vicissitudes of a race.*^ We 
do not sing of gifts imbued with the accursed poison 
of the angry Colchian dame / and of the burning of 
fair Glauce ; not of Nisus' lock ; 'J not of cruel Circe's 

swan, and by his sisters, the Heliades, who were changed into 

* Blood-guilt was transmitted through Pelops, son of 
Tantalus, and through his sons Atreus and Thyestes to 
Agamemnon and his son Orestes. Atreus, King of Mycenae, 
avenged himself for the seduction of his wife on his brother by 
slaying his two sons and setting their flesh before their 
father. From this " banquet of Thyestes " the Sun hid his 
face in horror : cf. Aetna, 20. 

f The sorceress Medea from Colchis, infuriated by Jason's 
desertion of her for Glauce, sent to her bridal gifts which 
consumed her with fire. 

' On the purple lock of Nisus, King of Megara, the safety of 
his kingdom depended. His betrayal by his daughter is told 
in Ciris {Appendix Vergiliana). 



nee nocturna pie curantem busta sororem : 
haec iam magnorum praecepit copia vatiim, 
onmis et antiqui vulgata est fabula saecli. 

nos saltiis viridesque plagas eamposque patentes 
serutamur totisque citi discurrimus arvis 
et varias cupimus facili cane sumere praedas ; 
nos timidos lepores, imbelles figere dammas 
audacesque lupos, vulpem captare dolosam 
gaudemus ; nos flumineas errare per umbras 
malumus et placidis ichneiimona quaerere ripis 
inter harundineas segetes faelemque minacem 
arboris in trunco longis praefigere telis 
implicitumqiie sinu spinosi corporis erem 
ferre domum ; talique placet dare lintea curae, 
durn non magna ratis, vicinis sueta moveri 
litoribus tutosque sinus percurrere remis, 
nunc primum dat vela notis portusque fideles 
linquit et Adriacas audet temptare procellas. 

mox vestros meliore lyra memorare triumphos 
accingar, divi fortissima pignora Cari, 
atque canam nostrum geminis sub finibus orbis 
litus et edomitas fraterno numine gentes, 
quae Rhenum Tigrimque bibunt Ararisque remotima 

^^ cursu (= cursui) Baehrens : curae AC : cymbae 

^^ gemini Heinsius. 

" Circe's potions and spells transformed men into beasts. 

* Antigone buried her brother PoljTiices in defiance of the 
edict of Creon. 

c eres {— ericius, ericinus or erinaceus) corresponds to the 
Greek exivos. 

^ This passage dates the Cynegetica. For the Emperor 
Cams and his sons, Carinus and Numerianus, see Gibbon, 



cups ; '^ nor yet of the sister ^ whose conscience con- 
trived a (brother's) burial by night : in all this ere 
now a band of mighty bards has forestalled us, and 
all the fabling of an ancient age is commonplace. 

We search the glades, the green tracts, the open 
plains, s^\'iftly coursing here and there o'er all the 
fields, eager to catch varied quarries with docile 
hound. We enjoy transfixing the nervous hare, the 
unresisting doe, the daring wolf or capturing the 
crafty fox ; our heart's desire is to rove along the 
river-side shades, hunting the ichneumon on the quiet 
banks among the crops of bulrushes, with the long 
weapon to pierce in front the threatening polecat on 
a tree-trunk and bring home the hedgehog '^ en- 
twined in the convolution of its prickly body : for 
such a task it is our resolve to set sail, while our 
little barque, wont to coast by the neighbouring 
shore and run across safe bays with the oar, now first 
spreads its canvas to southern Minds, and, leaving 
the trusty havens, dares to try the Adriatic storms. 

Hereafter I will gird myself with fitter lyre to 
record your triumphs, you gallant sons of deified 
Carus,*^ and will sing of our sea-board beneath the 
twin boundaries of our world,^ and of the subjuga- 
tion, by the brothers' divine power, of nations that 
drink from Rhine or Tigris or from the distant 
source of the Arar or look upon the wells of 

Decline and Fall, ch. xii. They succeeded their father on his 
death in a.d. 283. In 284 Carinus celebrated elaborate games 
at Rome in the name of himself and Xumerian; but the 
brothers never saw each other after their father died. Xume- 
rian's death in 284 during his return journey with his army from 
Persia prevented him from enjoying the triumph decreed to 
the young emj)erors at Rome. 

* Fines are the limits set by Ocean on East and West. 



principium Nilique vident in origine fontem ; 
nee taceam, primum quae nuper bella sub Arcto 
felici, Carine, manu confeceris, ipso 
paene prior genitore deo, utque intima frater 
Persidos et veteres Babylonos ceperit arces, 
ultus Romulei violata cacumina regni ; 
inibellemque fugam referam clausasque pharetras 
Parthoruni laxosque arcus et spicula nulla. 

haec vobis nostrae libabunt carmina Musae, 
cum primum vultus sacros, bona numina terrae, 
contigerit vidisse mihi : iam gaudia vota 
temporis impatiens sensus spretorque morarum 
praesumit videorque mihi iam cernere fratrum 
augustos habitus, Romam clarumque senatum 
et fidos ad bella duces et milite multo 
agmina, quis fortes animat devotio mentes : 
aurea purpureo longe radiantia velo 
signa micant sinuatque truces levis aura dracones. 

tu modo, quae saltus placidos silvasque pererras, 
Latonae, Phoebe, magnum decus, heia age suetos 
sume habitus arcumque manu pictamque pharetram 
suspende ex umeris ; sint aurea tela, sagittae ; 
Candida puniceis aptentur crura cothurnis ; 

^^ vident Johnson : bibunt AC. 
^^ primum AC : prima Baehrens. 

<* The war maintained against the Sarmatians by Cams after 
Probus' death was left to Carinus to finish, when Carus had to 
face the Persian menace in the East. In his Gallic campaign 
also, Carinus showed some degree of soldierly ability. 

* Numerian is here flatteringly associated with the exploits 
of Carus, who after subduing Mesopotamia carried his vic- 



the Nile at their birth ; nor let me fail to tell what 
campaigns you first ended, Carinas, beneath the 
Northern Bear ** with victorious hand, well-nigh out- 
stripping even your divine father, and how your 
brother '' seized on Persia's very heart and the 
time-honoured citadels of Babylon, in vengeance 
for outrages done to the high dignity of the realms 
of Romulus' race/ I shall record also the Parthians' 
feeble flight, their unopened quivers, unbent bows 
and unavailing arrows. 

Such strains shall my Muses consecrate to you 
both, as soon as it is my fortune to see your blest 
faces, kindly divinities of this earth. Already my 
feelings, intolerant of slow time and disdainful of 
delay, anticipate the joys of my aspiration, and I 
fancy I already discern the majestic mien of the 
brothers, and therewith Rome, the illustrious senate, 
the generals trusted for warfare, and the marching 
lines of many soldiers, their brave souls stirred with 
devotion. The golden standards gleam radiant afar 
with their purple drapery, and a light breeze waves 
the folds of the ferocious dragons.^ 

Only do thou, Diana, Latona's great glory, w'ho 
dost roam the peaceful glade and woodland, come 
quickly, assume thy wonted guise, bow in hand, and 
hang the coloured quiver from thy shoulder ; golden 
be the weapons, thine arrows ; and let thy gleaming 
feet be fitted with purple buskins ; let thy cloak 

torious arms to Ctesiphon. Numcrian's subsequent retreat 
surprised the Persians. 

'^ The reference is to violations of the Eastern frontiers of the 
Empire. Cacumina regni is taken, with ^^'e^nsdorf, to mean 
Jastigium et maitstatem imperii Romani. 

'' They were military emblems from Trajan's time. 



sit chlamys aurato multum subtegmine lusa 
corrugesque sinus gemmatis balteus artet 
nexibus ; implicitos cohibe diademate crines. 
tecum Naiades faciles viridique iuventa 
pubentes Dryades Nymphaeque, unde amnibus umor, 
adsint, et docilis decantet Oreadas Echo, 
due age, diva, tuum frondosa per avia vatem : 
te sequimur, tu pande domos et lustra ferarum. 
hue igitur mecum, quisquis percussus amore 
venandi damnas htes pavidosque tumultus 
civilesque fugis strepitus belUque fragores 
nee praedas avido seetaris gurgite ponti. 

principio tibi cur a canuna non segnis ab anno 
incipiat primo, cum lanus, temporis auctor, 
pandit inocciduum bis senis mensibus aevum. 
ehge tunc cursu facilem facilemque recursu, 
seu Lacedaemonio natam seu rure Molosso, 
non humili de gente canem. sit cruribus altis, 
sit rigidis, multamque trahat sub pectore lato 
costarum sub fine decenter prona carinam, ] 

quae sensim rursus sicca se colhgat alvo, 
renibus ampla satis vaUdis diductaque coxas, 
cuique nimis molles fluitent in cursibus aures. 
huic parilem submitte marem, sic omnia magnum, 
dum superant vires, dum laeto flore iuventas 1 

^^ decantet Oreadas vulgo : d leant oreades A : decantet 
oreades C. 

*^ domos C : dolos A. 

^^ hue Ulitius : hinc AC. 

^"° avidos AC : pavidos vel rabidos Ulitius : rabidos 
Baehretis : rapidos Postgate. 

" Lines 91-93 are discussed in a special excursus by Wems- 
dorf. With lusa rf. Virg. G. II. 464, illusasque auro vestes, 
"garments fancifully embroidered with gold." 



be richly tricked with golden thread,'^ and a belt 
with jewelled fastenings tighten the wrinkled tunic- 
folds : restrain thine entwined tresses with a band. 
In thy train let genial Naiads come and Dryads 
ripening in fresh youth and Nymphs who give the 
streams their water, and let the apt pupil Echo 
repeat the accents of thine Oreads.^ Goddess, arise, 
lead thy poet through the untrodden boscage : thee 
we follow ; do thou disclose the wild beasts' homes 
and lairs. Come hither then with me, whosoever, 
smitten with the love of the chase, dost condemn 
lawsuits and panic-stricken turmoil, or dost shun the 
din in cities and the clash of war, or pursuest no spoils 
on the greedy surge of the deep. 

At the outset your diligent care of your dogs " 
must start from the beginning of the year, when 
Janus, author of the march of time, opens for each 
twelve months the never-ceasing round. At that 
season you must choose a bitch obedient to speed 
forward, obedient to come to heel, native to either 
the Spartan or the Molossian '^ country-side, and of 
good pedigree.^ She must stand high on straight 
legs ; with a comely slope let her carry, under a 
broad breast, where the ribs end, a width of keel 
that gradually again contracts in a lean belly : she 
must be big enough with strong loins, spread at the 
hips, and with the silkiest of ears floating in air as 
she runs. Give her a male to match, everywhere 
similarly well-sized, while strength holds sway, while 

^ i.e. the surroundings should reverberate to the voices of 
the attendant mountain-nymphs. 

'^ On dogs generally see note on Grattius, Cyneg. lol. 

" Cf. Grattius, Cyneg. 181, 197, 211-212. 

' On the matmg of dogs cj. Grattius, Cyneg., esp. 2G3-284. 



corporis et venis primaevis sanguis abundat. 

namque graves morbi subeunt segnisque senectus, 

invalidamque dabunt non firaio robore prolem. 

sed di versa magis feturae convenit aetas : 

tu bis vicenis plenum iam mensibus acrem 

in venereni permitte marem ; sit femina, binos 

quae tulerit soles, haec optima cura iugandis. 

mox cum se bina formarit lampade Phoebe 

ex quo passa marem genitalia viscera turgent, 

fecundos aperit partus matura gravedo, 1 

continuo largaque vides strepere omnia prole. 

sed, quamvis avidus, primos contemnere partus 

malueris ; mox non omnes nutrire minores. 

nam tibi si placitum populosos pascere fetus, 

iam macie tenues sucique videbis inanes 1 

pugnantesque diu, quisnam prior ubera lambat, 

distrahere invalidam lassato viscere matrem. 

sin vero haec cura est, melior ne forte necetur 

abdaturve domo, catulosque probare voluntas, 

quis nondum gressus stabiles neque lumina passa 1 

luciferum videre iubar, quae prodidit usus 

percipe et intrepidus spectatis annue dictis. 

pondere nam catuli poteris perpendere vires 

corporibus<(que) leves gravibus praenoscere cursu. 

quin et flammato ducatur linea longe 1 

^22 hie in codicibus sequuntur 224—230, quos traiecit Hauptius, 
Schradero viani praemonstrante. 

" Sohs stands here for annos, i.e. annual revolutions of the 
sun according to the ancient cosmology. 

'> Wernsdorf, following Barth, explains passa as meaning 
aperta (from pandere, not from pati). 



bodily youth is in its joyous flower and blood 
abounds in the veins of early life. For burden- 
some diseases creep on and sluggish age, and they 
will produce unhealthy offspring without steadfast 
strength. But for breeding a difference of age in 
the parents is more suitable : you should release 
the male, keen for mating, when he has already 
completed forty months : and let the female be 
two full years old." Such is the best arrangement 
in their coupling. Presently when Phoebe has 
completed the round of two full moons since the 
birth-giving womb fertilised by the male began to 
swell, the pregnancy in its due time reveals the 
fruitful offspring, and straightway you see all round 
an abundant noisy litter. Yet, however desirous of 
dogs, you must make up your mind to put no value 
on the first set born ; and of the next set you must 
not rear all the young ones. For if you decide to 
feed a crowd of whelps, you will find them thin with 
leanness and beggared of strength, and, by their 
long tussle to be first to suck, harassing a mother 
weakened with teat outworn. But if this is your 
anxiety, to keep the better sort from being killed 
or thrown out of the house, if it is your intention to 
test the puppies before even their steps are steady 
or their eyes have felt '' and seen the light-bearing 
sunbeam, then grasp what experience has handed 
on, and assent fearlessly to well-tried words. You 
will be able to examine the strength of a puppy by 
its weight and by the heaviness of each body know 
in advance which will be light in running.*^ Further- 
more, you should get a series of flames made in a 

' 138-139: the parallel in Grattius, Cijn. 298-299, is one of 
the points suggesting that Nemesianus had read Grattius. 



circuitu signet^que) habilem vapor igneus orbem, 
impune ut medio possis consistere circo : 
hue omnes eatuli, hue indiscreta feratur 
turba : dabit mater partus examen, honestos 
iudieio natos servans trepidoque perielo. 1 

nam postquam eonelusa videt sua germiina flammis, 
continuo saltu transeendens fervida zonae 
vincla, rapit rictu primum portatque cubih, 
mox ahum, mox deinde aUum. sic conseia mater , 
segregat egregiam subolem virtutis amore. :.;l| 

hos igitur genetrice simul iam vere sereno 
molU pasce sero (passim nam lactis abundans 
tempus adest, albent plenis et oviUa mulctris), 
interdumque eibo cererem cum lacte ministra, 
fortibus ut sucis teneras complere medullas .1 

possint et vahdas iam tunc promittere vires. ;•- 

sed postquam Phoebus candentem fervidus axem. < 
contigerit tardasque -vias Cancrique morantis 
sidus init, tunc consuetam minuisse saginam 
profuerit tenuesque magis retinere cibatus, II 

ne gravis articulos depravet pondere moles, 
nam turn membrorum nexus nodosque relaxant 
infirmosque pedes et crura natantia ponunt, 
tunc etiam niveis armantur dentibus ora. 

^*2 ut Johnson : in AC. 
^** examen AC : examine vulgo. 

^*^ exitio Scaliger. trepidosque Baehrens : fort, trepi- 
dansque Postgate. 

" Cf. Grattius, Cyn. 307, lacte novam pubem facilique tuebere 
rnaza. For the use of the goddess' name by metonymy for 
bread cf. Gratt. Cyn. 398 : also Aetna, 10. 

^ In the long days of midsummer the sun might be fancied 
to cross the sky more slowly. Morantis refers to the almost 



wide circuit with the smoke of the fire to mark a con- 
venient round space, so that you may stand unharmed 
in the middle of the circle : to this all the puppies, 
to this the whole crowd as yet unseparated must be 
brought : the mother will provide the test of her 
progeny, saving the valuable young ones by her 
selection and from their alarming peril. For when 
she sees her offspring shut in by flames, at once with 
a leap she clears the blazing boundaries of the fire- 
zone, snatches the first in her jaws and carries it to 
the kennel ; next another, next another in turn : 
so does the intelligent mother distinguish her nobler 
progeny by her love of merit. These then along 
with their mother, now^ that it is clear spring, you 
are to feed on soft whey (for everywhere the season 
that abounds in milk has come, and sheepfolds are 
white with brimming milk-pails) : at times, too, add 
to their food bread with milk," so that they may be 
able to fill their young marrows with powerful juices 
and even at that time give promise of vigorous 

But after the burning Sun-God has reached the 
glowing height of heaven, entering on his slow paths 
and on the sign of the lingering Crab,^ then it will 
be useful to lessen their regular fattening food and 
retain the more delicate nourishment ,'' so that the 
weight of heavy bulk may not overstrain their limbs ; 
for that is when they have the connecting joints of 
the body slack, and plant on the ground unstable 
feet and swimming legs : then too their mouths are 
furnished with snowy teeth. But you should not 

imperceptible lengthening and shortening of the days before 
and after the solstice. 

"^ i.e. the molle serum of 1. 152. 

KK 2 


sed neque conclusos teneas neque vincula coUo 
impatiens circunidederis noceasque futuris 
cursibus imprudens. catulis nam saepe remotis 
aut vexare trabes, laceras aut mandere valvas 
mens erit, et teneros torquent conatibus artus 
obtunduntve novos arroso robore dentes 
aut teneros duris impingunt postibus ungues ; 
mox cum iam validis insistere cruribus aetas 
passa, quater binos volvens ab origine menses, 
illaesis catulos spectaverit undique membris, 
tunc rursus miscere sero Cerealia dona 
conveniet fortemque dari de frugibus escam. 
libera tunc primum consuescant colla ligari 
Concordes et ferre gradus clausique teneri. 
iam cum bis denos Phoebe reparaverit ortus, 
incipe non longo catulos producere cursu, 
sed parvae vallis spatio septove novali. 
his leporem praemitte manu, non viribus acquis 
nee cursus virtute parem, sed tarda trahentem 
membra, queant iam nunc faciles ut sumere praedas. 
nee semel indulge catulis moderamina cursus, 
sed donee validos etiam praevertere suescant 
exerceto diu venandi munere, cogens 
discere et emeritae laudem virtutis amare. 
nee non consuetae norint hortamina vocis, 
seu cursus revocent, iubeant seu tendere cursus. 
quin etiam docti victam contingere praedam 
exanimare velint tantum, non carpere sumptam. 
sic tibi veloces catulos reparare memento 

1^8 mandere Heinsius : pandere AC. 
^^' munera Ulitius : munere AC. sic inierpunxit Postgate. 


keep them shut up. nor impatiently put chains on 
their neck, and from want of foresight hurt their 
future running powers. For often young dogs, 
when kept separate, will take to worrying the 
tiinber-fittings, or to gnawing the doors till they are 
torn, and in the attemjit they twist their tender 
limbs or blunt their young teeth by chewing at the 
wood or drive their tender nails into the tough door- 
posts. Later, when time, revolving eight months 
from their birth, now lets them stand on steady legs 
and sees the whelps everywhere with limbs un- 
harmed, then it will be suitable again to mix the 
gifts of Ceres with their whey and have them given 
strengthening food from the produce of the fields. 
Only then must they be trained to have their free 
necks in leash, to run in harmony or be kept on 
chain. When Phoebe has now renewed twenty 
monthly risings, start to bring out the young dogs 
on a course not over-long but within the space of 
a small valley or enclosed fallow. Out of your hand 
let slip for them a hare, not of equal strength nor 
their match in speed of running, but slow in moving 
its limbs, so that they may at once capture an easy 
prey. Not once only must you grant the whelps 
these limited runs, but until they are trained to out- 
strip strong hare^, exercise them long in the task of 
the chase, forcing them to learn and love the praise 
due to deserving merit. Likewise they must recog- 
nise the urgent words of a well-known voice, whether 
calling them in or telling them to run full-speed. 
Besides, when they have been taught to seize the 
vanquished prey, they must be content to kill, not 
mangle, what they have caught. By such methods 
see that you recruit your swift dogs every season, 



semper et in parvos iterum protendere curas. 
nam tristes morbi, scabies et sordida venis 
saepe venit multamque canes discrimine nullo 
dant stragem : tii sollicitos impende labores 
et sortire gregem sufFecta prole quotannis. 
quin acidos Bacchi latices Tritonide oliva 
admiscere decet catulosque canesque maritas 
unguere profuerit tepidoque ostendere soli, 
auribus et tineas candenti pellere cultro. 

est etiam canibus rabies, letale periclum. 
quod sen caelesti corrupto sidere manat, 
cum segnes radios tristi iaculatur ab aethra 
Phoebus et attonito pallens caput exserit orbe ; 
seu magis, ignicomi candentia terga Leonis 
cum quatit, hoc canibus blandis inviscerat aestus, 
exhalat seu terra sinu, seu noxius aer 
causa mali, seu cum gelidus non sufficit umor 
torrida per venas concrescunt semina flammae : 
quicquid id est, imas agitat sub corde medullas 
inque feros rictus nigro spumante veneno 
prosilit, insanos cogens infigere morsus. 
disce igitur potus medicos curamque salubrem. 
tunc virosa tibi sumes multumque domabis 
castorea, attritu silicis lentescere cogens ; 
ex ebore hue trito puh^s sectove feratur, 
admiscensque diu facies concrescere utrumque : 
mox lactis liquidos sensim superadde fluores, 

199 olivo AC : oliva vulgo. Tritonide . . . Postgate qui cum. 
Housmano olivo ut interpretamentum eiecit. :, 

2°' sed Baehrejis : seu AC. 

** The reference is to the heat of the sun on entering the sign 
of Leo. 




and again direct your anxious thoughts towards the 
young ones. For they liavc melanclioly ailments, 
and the filthy mange often comes on their veins, 
and the dogs cause widespread mortality without 
distinction : you must yourself expend anxious 
efforts on them and every year fill up your pack by 
supplying progeny. Besides, the right thing is to 
blend tart draughts of wine with Minerva's olive- 
fruit, and it will do good to anoint the whelps and 
the mother dogs, expose them to the warm sun, and 
expel worms from their ears with the glittering 

Dogs also get rabies, a deadly peril. Whether it 
emanates from taint in a heavenly body when the 
Sun-God shoots but languid rays from a saddened 
sky, raising a pallid face in a world dismayed ; or 
whether, rather, in striking the glowing back of the 
fire-tressed Lion," he drives deep into our friendly 
dogs his feverish heats, whether earth breathes forth 
contagion from its bosom, or harmful air is the cause 
of the evil, or whether, when cool water runs short, 
the torrid germs of fire grow strong throughout the 
veins — whatever it is, it stirs the inmost marrow 
beneath the heart, and with black venomous foam 
darts forth into ferocious snarls, compelling the dog 
to imprint its bites in madness. Learn, therefore, 
the curative potions and the treatment that brings 
health. In such cases you will take the fetid drug 
got from the beaver and work it well, forcing it to 
grow viscous %\'ith the friction of a flint : to this 
should be added powder from pounded or chopped 
ivory, and by a long process of blending you will get 
both to harden together : next put in gradually the 
liquid flow of milk besides, to enable you to pour 



lit non cunctantes haustus infundere cornu 

inserto possis Furiasque repellere tristes 

atque iterum blandas canibus componere mentes. 

sed non Spartanos tantum tantumve Molossos 
pascendum catulos : divisa Britannia mittit 2 

veloces nostrique orbis venatibus aptos. 
nee tibi Pannonicae stirpis temnatur origo, 
nee quorum proles de sanguine manat Hibero. 
quin etiam siccae Libyes in finibus acres 
gignuntur catuli, quorum non spreveris usum. 2 

quin et Tuscorum non est externa voluptas 
saepe canum. sit forma illis licet obsita \-illo 
dissimilesque habeant catulis velocibus artus, 
baud tamen iniucunda dabunt tibi munera praedae, 
namque et odorato noscunt vestigia prato 2' 

atque etiam leporum secreta cubilia monstrant. 
horum animos moresque simul naresque sagaces 
mox referam ; nunc omnis adhuc narranda supellex 
venandi cultusque mihi dicendus equorum. 

cornipedes igitur lectos det Graecia nobis 2 

Cappadocumque notas referat generosa propago 
y armata et palmas superet grex omnis avorum. 

224-230 pQgi ]^22 in codicibus. 

231 extrema AC : externa ^Yight Duff. 

2*2 armata et palmas nuper grex AC : fortasse superet i 
Postgate: "locus vexatissimus totius poematii" Wernsdorf, j 
qui proponit harmataque ( = ap/xara) et palmas numeret : j 
armenti et palmas numeret Gronov : Martius et palmas 
superans Bur man. 

" For British dogs see Grattius, 174 sqq. and note there: 
divisa Britannia is an allusion to Virg. Ed. I. 66, penitus toto 
divisos orbe Britannos. 


in throu,i]:h an inserted horn doses %vhieh do not stick 
in the throat, and so banish the mehincholy I'uries, 
and settle the dogs' minds once more to friendHness. 

But it is not only Spartan whelps or only Molos- 
sian which you must rear : sundered Britain sends 
us a swift sort, adapted to hunting-tasks in our 
world.^ You should not disdain the pedigree of 
the Pannonian breed, nor those \^hose progeny 
springs from Spanish blood. Moreover, keen whelps 
are produced within the confines of dry Libya, and 
their service you must not despise. Besides, Tuscan 
dogs often give a satisfaction not foreign to us.** 
Even allowing that their shape is covered with 
shaggy hair and that they have limbs unlike quick- 
footed whelps, still they will give you an agreeable 
return in game : for they recognise the tracks on 
the meadow, though full of scents, and actually 
point to where a hare lies hid. Their mettle and 
their habits as well, and their discerning sense of 
smell I shall record presently ; '^ for the moment the 
whole equipment of the chase ^ has to be explained, 
and I must deal with the attention due to horses. 

So then let Greece send us choice horny-hoofed 
coursers, and let a high-mettled breed recall the 
traits of the Cappadocians, and let the whole stud 
be soundly equipped and surpass the victorious 
racing-palms of their ancestors. Theirs is surface 

* Burman gives the choice between summa and minima as 
equivalents to extrema. Xon . . . externa seems to fit better 
the only Italian dogs in the passage. 

' This shoAvs the incomplete state in which Xemesianus has 
been transmitted; for these subjects are not treated in his 
extant work. 

•* The supellex venandi corresponds to Grattius' arma, i.e. 
nets, traps, hunting-spears, caps and so forth. 



illis ampla satis levi sunt aequora dorso 
imniodicumque latus parvaeque ingentibus alvi, 
ardua frons auresque agiles capitisque decori 
altus honos oculique vago splendore micantes ; 
plurima se validos cervix resupinat in armos ; 
funiant imientes calida de nare vapores, 
nee pes officium standi tenet, ungula terram 
crebra ferit vi^ftusque artus animosa fatigat. 
quin etiam gens ampla iacet trans ardua Calpes 
culmina, cornipedum late fecunda proborum. 
namque valent longos pratis intendere cursus, 
nee minor est illis Graio quam in corpore forma ; 
nee non terribiles spirabile flumen anheli 
provolvunt flatus et lumina vivida torquent 
hinnitusque cient tremuli frenisque repugnant, 
nee segnes mulcent aures, nee crure quiescunt. 
sit tibi praeterea sonipes, Maurusia tellus 
quem mittit (modo sit gentili sanguine firmus) 
quemque coloratus Mazax deserta per arva 
pavit et adsiduos docuit tolerare labores. 
nee pigeat, quod turpe caput, deformis et alvus 
est ollis quodque infrenes, quod liber uterque, 
quodque iubis pronos cervix deverberet armos. 
nam flecti facilis lascivaque colla secutus 
paret in obsequium lentae moderamine virgae ; 
verbera sunt praecepta fugae, sunt verbera freni. 

2*5 decori Baehrens : decoris A : capitique decoro C. 

" One of the fabled Pillars of Hercules, in Hispania Baetica, 
now the Rock of Gibraltar. Nemesianus, wTiting from the 
standpoint of an African, thinks of all Spain {gens ampla) as 
beyond Calpe. 



wide enough on their smooth back, an enormous 
extent of side, and neat belly for their huge size, a 
forehead uplifted, quick ears, high pride of comely 
head, and eyes sparkling with restless gleam ; an 
ample neck falls back on powerful shoulders ; moist 
breath steams from hot nostrils, and, while the foot 
does not maintain its duty to stand still, the hoof 
repeatedly strikes the earth and the horse's spirited 
mettle tires its limbs. Moreover, beyond the soaring 
peaks of Calpe " lies a vast country, productive far 
and \\'ide of fine coursers. For they have the 
strength to make long runs across the prairies,^ and 
their beauty is no less than that in a Grecian body ; 
panting they roll forth terrifying snorts, a flood of 
breath ; they shoot out spirited glances ; all a-quiver 
they raise whinnyings and fight against the bridle, 
never giving their ears smooth rest nor their legs 
repose. Besides, you may select the courser sent 
by Mauretania (if he be a stout descendant of good 
stock), or the horse which the dusky Mazax tribes- 
man ^ has reared in desert fields and taught to under- 
go ceaseless toil. No need to repine at their ugly 
head and ill-shapen bellv, or at their lack of bridles, 
or because both breeds have the temper of freedom, 
or because the neck lashes the sloping shoulders 
with its mane. For he is an easy horse to guide, 
and, following the turn of an unconfined neck, com- 
plies obediently under the control of a limber switch : 
its strokes are the orders for speed, its strokes are 

^ The commendation of Spanish horses is supported by 
Martial I. xlix. 21-25 : cf. XIV. excix. But, according to 
Oppian, Cytieg. I. 284—286, the Iberian horses, although fleet 
{dooi), were found wanting in staying power {5p6fMov iv Travpoiaiv 
iKcyXO/J-ivoi (TrabioKTU'). 

" Belonging to the Numidian tribe of Mazaees in Africa. 


quill et promissi spatiosa per aequora campi 
cursibiis acquirunt commoto sanguine vires 
paulatimque avidos comites post terga relinquunt. 
haud secus, efFusis Nerei per caerula ventis, 
cum se Threicius Boreas superextulit antro 
stridentique sono vastas exterruit undas, 
omnia turbato cesserunt flamina ponto : 
ipse super fluctus spumanti murmure fervens 
conspicuum pelago caput eminet : omnis euntem 
Nereidimi mirata suo stupet aequore turba. 

horum tarda venit longi fiducia cursus, 
his etiam emerito vigor est iuvenalis in aevo. 
nam quaecumque suis virtus bene floruit annis, 
non prius est animo quam corpore passa ruinam. 
pasce igitur sub vere novo farragine molli 
cornipedes venamque feri veteresque labores 
effluere adspecta nigri cmn labe cruoris. 
mox laetae redeunt in pectora fortia vires 
et nitidos artus distento robore formant ; 
mox sanguis venis melior calet, ire viarum 
longa volunt latumque fuga consumere campum. 
inde ubi pubentes calamos duraverit aestas 
lactentesque urens herbas siccaverit omnem 
messibus umorem culmisque aptarit aristas, 
hordea tum paleasque leves praebere memento : 
pulvere quin etiam puras secernere fruges 

2®^ permissi Keinsius. 

2'^ pater fluctus {id est Neptunus) Baehrens : super fluctus 
AC. marmore Heinsius. 

2*- passa vulgo : posse AC. 

"^2 culmisque armarit Burman : culmusque Baehrens, Post- 
gate : aptarit Wight Duff. 



as bridles too. Nay, once launched across the 
spacious levels of the plain, with blood stirred, the 
steeds win fresh strength in the race, leaving by 
degrees their eager comrades behind. Even so, 
on the outburst of the winds across the blue waters 
of Nereus, when Thracian Boreas has uprisen o'er 
his cavern and with shrill howling dismayed the 
dreary waves, all the blasts on the troubled deep 
give way to him : himself" aglow mid foaming 
din. above the billows he o'ertops them in mastery 
manifest upon the sea : the whole band of the 
Nereids is mazed in wonderment as he passes over 
their watery domain. 

These horses are slow to attain confidence in 
prolonged running; also, theirs is youthful vigour 
even in age that has served its time. For no quality 
which has bloomed full at its due period suffers 
collapse in spirit ere physical powers fail. In the 
fresh spring-time, then, feed the coursers on soft 
mash, and, lancing a vein, watch old-standing ail- 
ments flow out with the ooze of the tainted blood. 
Soon strength returns joyously to their gallant 
hearts, moulding the sleek limbs with strength 
diffused : soon a better blood runs warm in their 
veins, and they wish for long stretches of road, and 
to make the broad plain vanish in their career. 
Next, when summer has hardened the ripening 
stalks and, scorching the juicy blades, has dried 
all the moisture for harvest and joined corn-ears 
to stems, then be sure to furnish barley and light 
chaff: moreover, there must be care to winnow 
the produce free from dust, and to run the hands 

" Boreas. 


cura sit atque toros manibus percurrere equorimij 
gaudeat ut plausu sonipes laetumque relaxet 
corpus et altores rapiat per viscera sucos. 
id curent famuli comitumque animosa iuventus. 

nee non et casses idem venatibus aptos 
atque plagas longoque meantia retia tractu 
addiscant raris semper contexere nodis 
et servare modum maculis linoque tenaci. 
linea quin etiam, magnos circumdare saltus 
quae possit volucresque metu concludere praedas, 
digerat innexas non una ex alite pinnas. 
namque ursos magnosque sues cervosque fugaces 
et vulpes acresque lupos ceu fulgura caeli 
terrificant linique vetant transcendere septum, 
has igitur vario semper fucare veneno 
curabis niveisque alios miscere colores 
alternosque metus subtegmine tendere longo. 
dat tibi pinnarum terrentia milia vultur, 
dat Libye, magnarum avium fecunda creatrix, 
dantque grues cycnique senes et candidus anser, 
dant quae fluminibus crassisque paludibus errant 
pellitosque pedes stagnanti gurgite tingunt. 
hinc mage puniceas native munere sumes : 
namque illic sine fine greges florentibus alis 
invenies avium suavique rubescere luto 
et sparsos passim tergo vernare colores. 
his ita dispositis hiemis sub tempus aquosae 
incipe veloces catulos immittere pratis, 
incipe cornipedes latos agitare per agros. 

" Of. Grattius, Cynegeficon, 75-88 (the "formido"). 

* e.g. the ostrich. 

* i.e. aquatic fowl. 



over the horses' muscles, so that the courser may 
enjoy being patted and relax his body in pleasure 
and quickly pass the nourishing juices throughout 
his frame. This must be the task of the servants 
and brave young attendants. 

Besides they too must learn always to weave with 
knots far enough apart the hollow nets fit for the 
chase, and the toils set on tracks, and the nets 
which run in a long stretch ; they must learn to 
preserve the right size for the openings between 
the knots and for the binding cord. Moreover, the 
line which can enclose great glades and by reason 
of terror shut in winged game as prey must carry 
here and there, ent^^'ined on it, feathers of different 
birds. ^ For the colours, like lightning-flashes, 
frighten bears, big boars, timid stags, foxes and 
fierce wolves, and bar them from surmounting the 
boundary of the cord. These then you will always 
be careful to diversify with various hues, mixing other 
colours with the whites, and thus stretching all 
along the line one terror after another. In feathers 
you draw a thousand means of fright from the 
vulture, from Africa, fertile mother of great-sized 
birds,'' from cranes and aged swans and the white 
goose, from fowl that haunt rivers and thick marshes 
and dip webbed feet in standing pools. Of these ^ 
you will rather take birds \\ith red plumage by 
nature's gift; for among the former you will find 
endless flocks of birds with bright-hued wings, their 
colours reddening ^^^th pleasant orange tint and 
gleaming everywhere in flecks upon the back. With 
such arrangements made towards the season of rainy 
^vinter, begin to send your swift dogs across the 
meadows ; begin to urge your horses over the broad 



venemur dum mane novum, dimi mollia prata 
nocturnis calcata feris vestigia servant. 



Gybertus Longolius (de Longueil, 1507-1543), in 
a Dialogus de avibus printed at Cologne in 1544, is 
the authority for ascribing the two following frag- 
ments to Nemesianus. He records that they were 
surreptitiously copied by a young friend of his, 
Hieronymus Boragineus of Liibeck, from a poem 
De Aucupio by Nemesianus " in bibliotheca porcorum 
{sic) Salvatoris Bononiensis." This account is not 


. . . et tetracem, Romae quem nunc vocitare taracen 
coeperunt. avium est multo stultissima ; namque 
cum pedicas necti sibi contemplaverit adstans, 
immemor ipse sui tamen in dispendia currit. 
tu vero adductos laquei cum senseris orbes 
appropera et praedam pennis crepitantibus aufer. 
nam celer oppressi fallacia vincula colli 
excutit et rauca subsannat voce magistri 

" a black grouse. The bird is identified with the urogallus 
by LongoHus. Pliny's form is tetras. 


fields. Let us go hunting: while the morning is 
young, while the soft meads retain the tracks im- 
printed by the wild beasts of the night. 

free from suspicion, any more than certain points in 
the Latinity and prosody of the lines. Contemplaverit 
in 1. 3 may be an archaistic return to the active form 
of the verb as used in early Latin ; but the metrical 
quantity of notae which Longolius read in 1. 13 and 
of gulae in the last line of all is unclassical, and the 
frequent elision of a long vowel (11. 5, 6, 14 and 
27) i*^ noticeable. Teuffel considers the lines a late 
production, though they are usually printed along 
with the Cynegetica. 

E. Baehrens' text, P.LM. III. pp. 203-204. 
J. P. Postgate's text, C.P.L. II. p. 572. 



. . . and the tetrax,^ which they have now begun 
to call tarax at Rome. It is far the silliest of birds ; 
for although it has perched and has watched the 
snare laid for it, yet reckless of self it darts upon its 
own hurt. You, however, on finding the circles of 
the noose drawn tight, must hasten up and carry 
off your prey with its whirring wings. For it is 
quick to shake off the treacherous bonds of the neck 
when caught, deriding '' with hoarse cry the hunter's 

* Suhsannarc, a late Latin verb, used by Tertullian, and in 
the Vulgate. 



consilium et laeta fruitur iam pace solutus. 
hie prope | Peltinum <ad> radices Apennini 
nidificat. patulis qua se sol obicit agris, 
persimilis cineri collum, maculosaque terga 
inficiunt pullae cacabantis imagine guttae. 
Tarpeiae est custos arcis non corpore maior 
nee qui te volucres docuit, Palamede, figuras. 
saepe ego nutantem sub iniquo pondere \adi 
mazonomi puerum, portat cum prandia, circo 
quae consul praetorve novus construxit ovanti. 


cum nemus omne suo viridi spoliatur honore, 
fultus equi niveis silvas pete protinus altas 
exuviis : praeda est facilis et amoena scolopax. 
corpore non Paphiis avibus maiore videbis. 
ilia sub aggeribus primis, qua proluit umor, 
pascitur, exiguos sectans obsonia vermes, 
at non ilia oculis, quibus est obtusior, etsi 
sint nimium grandes, sed acutis narlbus instat: 
impresso in terram rostri mucrone sequaces 
vermiculos trahit et \dli dat praemia gulae. 

1° Pelt(u)inum Buecheler : Pentinum Longolius : Pontinum 
Ulitius. in radicibus Burman : et radices Haupt : ad radices 

12 dorsum Longolius : collum Gesner. 

13 notae Longolius : guttae Ulitius. 

1' mazonomi Gesner : mazonoim Longolius. circo Bur- 
man : cirro Longolius. 

21 facilis praeda est et amoena Riese. 
28 atque gulae d. pr. vili Wernsdorf. 

" The geese of the Capitol saved it from surprise by the 
Gauls, in 390 B.C., Livy, V. xlvii. 


design and now in freedom delighting in the joy of 
peace. Near Peltinum by the foot of the Apennine 
range it builds its nest where the sun presents him- 
self to the outspread lands : at the neck it is very 
like ashes in colour, and its spotted back is marked 
with dark flecks in the fashion of a partridge. The 
guardian of the Tarpeian citadel " is no larger in 
size, nor the bird that taught you, Palamedes, wing- 
like letters.* Often have I seen a slave swaying 
beneath the unfair weight of a huge dish of such 
dainties,^ as he carries the collation which a consul 
or a new praetor has furnished for the circus at a 


When the woodland everywhere is despoiled of 
its green honours, make straight for the deep forest, 
mounted on the snow-white housing of your steed. 
The snipe is an easy and an agreeable prey. You 
will find it no larger in body than ^'enus' doves. It 
feeds close to the edge of embankments, by the 
wash of the water, hunting tiny worms, its favourite 
fare. But its pursuit thereof is rather with keen- 
scented nose than with the eyes, in which its sense 
is rather dull, too big for the body though they be. 
With the point of the beak driven into the ground it 
drags out the little worms which needs must follow, 
therewith rewarding an appetite cheap to satisfy.*^ 

** Palamedes was said to have invented some of the Greek 
letters (T, 0, H, *, X) by observing the flight of cranes : cf. 
Martial, IX. xiii. 7, XIII. Ixxv. ; Ausonius, Idyll, xii. (Techno- 
paegnion de Uteris mfnuisyllabis) 25; Pliny N.H. VII. 192. 

<^ For the mazonotnus (/j.a(oy6/j.os) see Hor. Sat. II. viii. 86. 

"* For the unclassical lengthening of gula, Wernsdorf cites as 
a parallel from Xemesianus' fellow-African Luxorius, quid 
festinus abis gula impelkrUe, sacerdos .^ 






The codex Salmasianus ° — a title which records 
the previous ownership of Claude de Saumaise — is 
the chief authority for the surviving poems by three 
authors of the third century here selected from it 
— Reposianus, Modestinus and Pentadius, with the 
additional piece Cupido Amans by an unknown hand. 
The codex represents, though imperfectly, the 
extensive and varied Anthologia Latina compiled from 
poets of different periods, originally in twenty-four 
books, at Carthage in the time of the Vandal kings 
about A.D. 532. Owing to the disappearance of the 
first eleven quaternions, half-a-dozen books at the 
beginning are lost except in so far as the missing 
contents are represented by codex Leid. Voss. 
Q. 86 [" V "], by codex Paris. 8071 (or Thuaneus, 
" T "), both of the ninth century, and by other 
MSS.^ The 182 hexameters by Reposianus on the 
liaison between Mars and Venus depend solely on 
the codex Salmasianus ; for Modestinus we have 
the additional authority of T ; and for Pentadius 
we have V as well as S and T. 

Reposianus' theme is the discovery of the intrigue 

•^ It is also the manuscript for Florus' pooms, see p. 424. 
" See Baehrens' prolegomena P.L.M. IV. pp. 3-54 ; Bueche- 
ler and Riese, Anth. Lat. I. i, praefatio, pp. xii. sqq. 


between the Goddess of Love and the God of War 
by the injured husband, as first related in European 
Hterature by Homer. Odyssey \TII. 266-366. The 
Roman poet exhibits a turn for description, especially 
in depicting the flowery grove where the lovers meet ; 
but there is in him a certain poverty of style — a 
certain want of variety in language, in thought and 
in structure. Manifestly he overdoes the use of 
forie {e.g. 68, 83, 87, 95, 114, 121, 126, 156, 166). 
The archaism mage of line 9 is an artificiality which 
he shares with Nemesianus {Cyneg. 317), with Sul- 
picius Lupercus Servasius and other late poets. The 
most noticeable metrical points are his use of iuo 
(93) as a monosyllable and gratiosa (126) as a tri- 
syllable. A few turns of phrase suggest the Lucre- 
tian picture of Mars in ^^enus' lap (Lucret. I. 31-40) ; 
but Reposianus shows signs of independence in 
treating his sensuous theme. Thus, he alters the 
scene of the amour from the traditional house of the 
Fire-God, Vulcan, to a forest, which gives the cue for 
his introduction of some beauties in external nature 
(33-50). Further, the chains fastened upon the 
offending lovers are not, according to earlier forms 
of the fable, prepared as a trap in anticipation of 
their continued guilt, but fashioned at Vulcan's 
forge after Phoebus has informed him of Venus' 

The three longer pieces by Pentadius, On Forhme, 
0?i the Coming of Spring and On Xarcissns, have 
" echoic " lines : the rest are short epigrams. 
Among these the quatrain 0?i Woman s Love, begin- 
ning Crede ratem veniis, may be a tetrastichon com- 
bining a pair of independent elegiac distichs. It has 
been ascribed to a variety of authors besides Pen- 



tadius — to Marcus Cicero, to his brother, to Petronius, 
to Aiisonius, and to Porphyrius, the panegyrist of 
Constantine. The epigram has been claimed for 
Qiiintus Cicero " as a vigorous expression of a thought 
which might have been in his mind after his divorce 
{Ad Att. XIV. 13. 3). But it cannot be argued that 
either the situation or the reflection was by any 
means peculiar to him. 


Bcposiaiuis : P. Burman. Anthol. Lot. Lib. I. No. 72 
Amsterdam, 1759. 
J. C. Wernsdorf. Pod. Lat. Min. IV. pp. 319 sqq 
Altenburg, 1785. 

E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min. IV. pp. 348 sqq 
Leipzig, 1882. 

F. Buecheler and A. Riese. A?iik. Lat. I. i 
No. 253. Leipzig, 1894. 

Modesi'uius : P. Burman. Anthol. Lat. Lib. I. No. 31 

E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min. IV. p. 360. 

F. Buecheler and A. Riese. Aiith. Lat. I. i 
No. 273, p. 217. 

Pejiiadius : P. Burman. Anthol. Lat. Lib. I. Nos. 
139, 141, 165; III. No. 105; V. No. 69. 
J. C. Wernsdorf. Poet. Lat. Min. III. pp. 262- 
80, pp. 405-407. 

E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min. l\ . pp. 343-5, 

F. Buecheler and A. Riese. Anth. Lat. I. i. 
Nos. 234-5, 265-8. 

" Jas. Stinchcorab, " The Literary Interests of a Roman 
Magnate," Class. Weekly, Oct. 3, 1932. 



S = codex Salmasianus sive Parisinus 10318 : saec. 

T = codex Thuaneus sive Parisinus 8071 : saec. ix. 

V = codex Vossianus L.Q. 86 : medio saec. ix. 



De Concubitu Martis et \'exeris 

DisciTE secures non umquam credere amores. 
ipsa Venus, cui flanima potens, cui niilitat ardor, 
quae tuto posset custode Cupidine aniare, 
quae docet et fraudes et amorurn furta tuetur, 
nee sibi securas valuit praebere latebras. 
improbe dure puer, crudelis crimine matris, 
pompam ducis, Amor, nullo satiate triumpho ! 
quid conversa lovis laetaris fulmina semper ? 
ut mage flammantes possis laudare sagittas, 
iunge, puer, teretes Veneris Martisque catenas : 
gestet amans Mavors titulos et vincula portet 
captivus, quem bella timent I utque ipse veharis, 
iam roseis fera colla iugis submittit amator : 
post vulnus, post bella potens Gradivus anhelat 
in castris modo tiro tuis, semperque timendus 
te timet et sequitur qua ducunt vincla marita. 
ite, precor, Musae : dum Mars, dum blanda Cythere 
imis ducta trahunt suspiria crebra medullis 

" conversa, either throv\'n back by the power of love or 
exchanged for the disguises which Jove used in his amours. 

* mage, an artificial archaism, as in Sulpicius Lupercus 
Servasius, II. {De Cupiditate) 16, and in the Dicta Catonis, 
Praef. II. 2, Distich. II. 6; IV. 42. 

'^ An ancient form of Mars : his surname Gradivus (14) marks 
him as god of the march (gradus). 

'^ Cythere {cf. 172), a late Latin collateral form of Cytherea 
(153), refers to the birth of Venus from the sea at the island 



The Intrigue of Mars with Venus 

Learn ye the creed that amours are never free 
from care. \'enus herself of the potent flame, \^enus 
of the blazmg campaign, who might indulge love 
with Cupid as her safe warden, instructress in deceits, 
protectress of the stealth of love, did not avail to 
furnish herself with a secure lurking-place. Harsh 
tyrant Boy, cruel in a mother's fault, O Love, you 
lead your victorious procession, never sated with any 
triumph ! Why do you always rejoice that Jove's 
thunderbolts have been reversed ? " That you may 
the better ^ praise your flaming arrows, draw tight, 
Boy, the well-woven chains of \ enus and of Mars : 
let NLavors ^ in love wear the label of a slave, let him 
whom wars do dread be a prisoner bearing bonds ! 
To let you ride triumphant, the lover yields his savage 
neck to a rosy yoke. After wounds dealt and battles 
fought, powerful Gradivus pants as a new-enlisted 
recruit in your camp ; he that should ever be feared 
fears you, following where wedlock's bonds do lead. 
Pray, come, ye Muses: while Mars, while alluring 
Cythere ^ draw fast-following sighs from the depth 

of Cythera. Cypris (35, 79, 141, 14G) recalls her cult in Cyprus, 
and Faphie, Reposianus' favourite epithet for Venus (23, 50, 
61, 64, 80, 105, 109, 13(3, 139, 178), alludes to her temple at 
Paphos in Cyprus. Reposianus shares the epithets Cythere, 
Cypris and Paphie with Ausonius (4th cent, a.d.), though 
Paphie is used by Martial. 


dumque intermixti captatur spiritus oris, 
carmine doctiloquo ^ ulcani vincla parate, 
quae Martem nectant Veneris nee bracchia laedant 
inter delicias roseo prope livida serto. 

namque ferunt Paphien, Vulcani et Martis amorem, 
inter adulterium nee iusti iura mariti 
indice sub Phoebo captam gessisse catenas, 
ilia manu duros nexus tulit, ilia mariti 
ferrea vincla sui. quae vis fuit ista doloris ? 
an fortem faciebat amor ? quid, saeve, laboras ? 
cur nodos Veneri Cyclopia flamma paravit ? 
de roseis conecte manus, Vulcane, catenis ! 
nee tu deinde liges, sed blandus vincla Cupido, 
ne palmas duro nodus cum vulnere laedat. 

lucus erat Marti gratus, post vulnera Adonis 
pictus amore deae ; si Phoebi lumina desint, 
tutus adulterio, dignus quem Cypris amaret, 
quem Byblos coleret, dignus quem Gratia servet. 

22 divitias S : delicias Burman. prope S : modo Baehrens. 
2^ manus S : manu Schrader : Venus Baehrens. 
^2 comodus S : nodus cum Baehrens, alii alia. 
^* pictus S : dictus vel lectus vel dignus Wernsdorf : huius 
Baehrens : laetus Biese {in not.). 

« i.e. arms so delicate that rose-leaves might almost make 
them black and blue. 

* Addressed to Vulcan as the injured husband of Venus. 

* i.e. to fashion iron chains. 

^ After the death of her beloved Adonis from a wound 
inflicted by a boar in the forest, Venus might be imagined to 
dislike all woods. The passage implies that she made an 
exception in the case of the grove where she met her lover Mars, 
and so it is "decorated," " lit up " by the beautiful presence 
of the enamoured goddess, pictus may be right, though 
amore is less directly instrumental than the concrete ablatives 
in Lucr. V. 1395-1396, anni tempora pingehant viridantes 
floribus herbas; Sen. 3Ied, 310, stellisque quibus pingitur 



of their bciiifr, and while they woo the breath of 
intermingled kisses, do ye with dulcet strain make 
ready Vulcan's bonds to twine round Mars and yet 
do no hurt to \'enus' arms that mid their dalliance 
are half-discoloured with the pressure of even a 
garland of roses. ^ 

The tale is told that the Paphian goddess, darling 
of \'ulcan and of Mars, amid her adulterous inter- 
course and rights usurped by one not her lawful 
husband, was 'neath the revealing Sun-god caught, 
and wore the chains. She bore on her hand the 
cruel coils, she bore the iron bonds of her own hus- 
band. What was that violence in your resentment ? * 
Did love make strength r ^ Why toil, O ruthless one ? 
Why did the flame of the Giants' forge prepare 
entanglements for \'enus ? Rather, Vulcan, make 
the linking for the hands from chains of roses ! 
And then you must not tie the bonds, but coaxing 
Cupid must, lest the knotting hurt the palms and 
inflict harsh pain. 

There was a grove dear to Mars, adorned ^ by the 
goddess' love after Adonis' death-wound; if only 
sunlight were lacking, safe for unlawful passion, meet 
for the Cyprian's affection, meet for worship from 
Byblos,^ meet for the regard of one of the Graces./ 

aether; Pentadius, De Adventu Veris, line 11, florihu-f innu- 
meris pingit sola flatus Eoi : cf. Lucr. II. 374-5, conchanim 
genus . . . videmus pingere telluris gremium. The meta- 
phorical use seems a not unnatural extension from the idea 
of pingunt in 38, or in sir mea. flavfntem pingnnt vineta 
(inrumnam (of vineyards throwing their green reflection on 
the yellow Garonne), Auson. Mosella 160, or in quis te naturae 
pinzit color? ib. 110. 

' This Phoenician coast-to^\Ti was the chief seat of the wor- 
ship of Adonis : cf. 66 and Bybliadc'^, 90. 

f Cf. line 51. The singular is used in Ovid. Met. VI. 429. 


vilia non illo surgebant gramina luco : 
pingunt purpureos candentia lilia flores : 
ornat terra nemus : nunc lotos niitis inumbrat, 
nunc laurus, nunc myrtus. habent sua munera 

rami ; 
namque hie per frondes redolentia mala relucent. 
hie rosa cum violis, hie omnis gratia odorum, 
hie inter violas coma mollis laeta hyaeinthi : 
dignus amore locus, cui tot sint munera rerum. 
non tamen in lueis aurum, non purpura fulget : 
flos leetus, flos vincla tori, substramina flores ; 
deliciis Veneris dives Natura laborat. 
texerat hie liquidos fontes non vilis harundo, 
sed qua saeva puer componat tela Cupido. 
hunc solum Paphie puto lucum fecit amori : 
hie Martem exspectare solet. quid Gratia cessat, 
quid Charites ? cur, saeve puer, non lilia nectis ? 
tu lectum consterne rosis, tu serta parato 
et roseis crinem nodis subnecte decenter. 
haec modo purpureum decerpens pollice florem, 
cum delibato suspiria ducat odore. 
ast tibi blanda manus (flores) sub pectore condat ! 
tunc ne purpurei laedat te spina roseti, 
destrictis teneras foliis constringe papillas ! 
sic decet in \ eneris luco gaudere puellas : 
ut tamen illaesos Paphiae servetis amores, 

^^ locos vitis S : lotos mitis Burinan. 
*" rami Baehrens, Riese : lauri vulgo. 
^^ lilia pendent S : mala relucent Baehrens. 
^- licia vulgo. 

^^ diligatum . . . odorem S : delibat eum . . . odorem 
Baehrens : delibato . . . odore Klappius. 

** There are no purple coverlets. 


No common herha<ic ^rcw ^^itl^in that grove: white 
lilies set off its bright-hued floAvers. The earth gives 
adornment to the woodland : now the mild lotus 
casts its shade, now the laurel, now the myrtle. 
The boughs have their own gifts ; for here mid 
leafage fragrant apples shine out. Here the rose is 
neighbour to violets, here is every charm of scent, 
here among the violets are the joyous bells of the 
delicate hyacinth. Meet for love is a place which 
hath such wealth of boons. Still, gold there is none 
in all the grove, no gleam of purple " : flowers are 
the bed, flowers the frame of the couch, flowers 
the support beneath. Rich Nature toils for Venus' 
luxury. Here had no common reeds shaded the 
crystal wells, but such as those whence young Cupid 
fashions his cruel weapons. I trow our Lady of 
Paphos made this grove for naught but love. Here 
'tis her way to wait for Mars. Why be the Graces 
slow to come — the sisterhood of the Charites ? * 
Why, cruel Boy, do you not twine lilies ? Nay, you 
must strew the couch with roses, you must make 
garlands ready and with rosy knots bind up \ enus' 
hair in seemly wise.*^ Even as her finger culls the 
bright-hued bloom, let her draw long si^hs as she 
drinks in its fragrance. But for thyself let a caress- 
ing hand store the flowers beneath thy bosom ! 
Then, lest a thorn of the bright-hued rose-bush 
hurt thee, strip off the leaves ere thou bind together 
the tender buds ! '^ Even thus 'tis seemly that 
maids rejoice within the grove of \'enus : yet that 
ye may preserve amours uninjured for the Paphian, 

* The Greek Xapms corresponded to the Latin Gratiae. 
<^ Wernsdorf thinks tu is addressed to one of the Graces. 
^ For papillae as rosebuds cf. Pervig. Ven. 14 and 21. 



vincula sic mixtis caute constringite ramis, 
ne diffusa ferat per frondes liimina Titan, 
his igitur lucis Paphie, dum proelia Mavors 
horrida, dum populos diro terrore fatigat, 
ludebat teneris Bybli permixta puellis. 
nunc varies cantu divom referebat amores 
inque modum vocis nunc motus forte decentes 
corpore laeta dabat, nunc miscens | denique plantas, 
nunc alterna movens suspense pollice crura, 
molliter inflexo subnitens poplite sidit. 
saepe comam pulchro collectam flore ligabat 
ornans ambrosios divino pectine crines. 

dum ludos sic blanda Venus, dum gaudia miscet 
et dum flet, quod sera venit sibi grata voluptas, 
et dum suspense solatia quaerit amori : 
ecce furens post bella deus, post proelia victor 
victus amore venit. cur gestas ferrea tela ? 
ne metuat Cypris, comptum decet ire rosetis. 
a, quotiens Paphie vultum mentita furentis 
lumine converse serum incusavit amantem ! 
verbera saepe dolens minitata est dulcia serto 
aut, ut forte magis succenso Marte placeret, 
amovit teneris suspendens oscula labris 
nee totum effundens medio blanditur amore. 

decidit aut posita est devictis lancea palmis 
et, dum forte cadit, myrto retinente pependit. 
ensem toUe, puer, galeam tu, Gratia, solve ; 

^2 mentita S : minitata Higtius. 

^* atmovet S : admovit wlgo : amovit Wakkerus. 

°- An imitation of Virg. Georg. IV. 347. 


carefully knit together bonds of branches inter- 
twined to keep the Sun-crod from shedding a flood 
of light through the foliage. In these woodlands, 
then, the Paphian used to sport amid a bevy of 
tender damsels from Byblos, while Mavors plied 
savage warfare, while he wearied the nations with 
dread alarm. Now she would rehearse in song the 
chequered amours of the gods " and to the vocal 
measure now joyously, as it befell, made seemly 
movements with her body ; now in turn plying 
intricate steps, now on light fantastic toe moving 
alternate feet, she sinks down resting upon grace- 
fully bended haunch. Oft she would bind her hair 
close-drawn with pretty blooms, ordering ambrosial 
tresses with comb divine. 

While thus sweet ^'enus engages in various sports 
and joys, and turns to tears for that her darling 
pleasure cometh late, and seeks some solace for her 
love deferred, behold in frenzy after warfare comes 
the god, after his battles the vanquisher vanquished 
by love. Why dost thou wear weapons of steel? 
I^est Cypris feel alarm, 'tis seemly to come with 
roses garlanded. Ah, how often did the Paphian's 
look feign anger as her averted eye reproached her 
lover's tardiness ! Oft, piqued, did she threaten 
sweet lashes from festoons of flowers, or, mayhap 
the more to please when Mars was afire with 
passion, withheld those kisses which she poised on 
tender lips, alluring in the midst of love by checking 
love's full flood. 

Down fell his lance or with love-vamjuished hands 
was laid aside, and, as it happened to fall, hung 
on a myrtle-bough which caught it. Take, Boy, his 
sword : let one of the Graces unlace his helmet : ye 

U M 2 


solvite, Bybliades, praeduri pectora Martis : 

haec laxet nodos, haec ferrea vincula temptet 

loricaeque moras, vos scuta et tela tenete. 

nunc violas tractare decet. laetare, Cupido, 

terribilem divum tuo solo numine victum : 

pro talis flores, pro scuto myrtea serta, 

et rosa forte loco est gladii, quern iure tremescunt ! 

iverat ad lectum Mavors et pondere duro 
floribus incumbens totum turbarat honoreni. 
ibat pulchra Venus vix presso pollice cauta, 
florea ne teneras violarent spicula plantas, 
et nunc innectens, ne rumpant oscula, crinem, 1 

nunc vestes fluitare sinens, vix lassa retentat, 
cum nee tota latet nee totum nudat* amorem. 
ille inter flores furtivo lumine tectus 
spectat hians Venerem totoque ardore tremescit. 
incubuit lectis Paphie. proh sancte Cupido, 1 

quam blandas voces, quae tunc ibi murmura fundunt ! 
oscula permixtis quae tunc fixere labellis ! 
quam bene consertis haeserunt artubus artus ! 
stringebat Paphiae Mavors tunc pectore dextram 
et collo innexam ne laedant pondera laevam, 1 

lilia cum roseis supponit Candida sertis. 
saepe levi cruris tactu commovit amantem 
in flammas, quas diva fovet. iam languida fessos 
forte quies Martis tandem compresserat artus ; 
non tamen omnis amor, non omnis pectore cessit ] 
flamma dei : trahit in medio suspiria somno 

^* iura S : iure Riese : bella Baehrens. 

^°^ sinu S : sinens Oudendorp. laxa S : lassa Baehrens. 

^"^ tectus S : tectam Baehren-s. 

^"* motoque Baehrens. 

° Cf. Lucret. I, 36, of Mars in Venus' lap, pascit amore avidos 
inhians in te, dea, vistt^. 


damsels of Byblos, unlace the breast of stalwart 
Mars^ — let one slacken the knots, one try the iron 
bands which i>iiard his breastplate, you others keep 
the shield and weapons. 'Tis the fitting moment to 
handle violets. Rejoice, O Cupid, that the awe- 
inspiring god is conquered by your divinity alone : 
instead of weapons there be flowers, instead of shield 
the myrtle wreaths ; the rose, it so befalls, takes the 
place of the sword at which men have cause to 
tremble ! 

Mavors had come to the couch and resting his hard 
weight upon the flowers disordered all their graceful- 
ness. Fair Venus came scarce leaving footprint in 
her caution lest the prickly flowers should mar her 
tender feet, and, now entwining her tresses lest kisses 
might ruflle them, now letting her robes flow loose, 
can scarce confine them in her languor : she is not 
wholly hid nor wholly bares her charms. He in his 
covering of flowers with stealthy eye gazes agape at 
\"enus, quivering in the full flame of passion.'* The 
Paphian goddess sank upon the couch. Ah ! Cupid 
the august, how coaxing the words, what the mur- 
murs they then did utter there ! What kisses did 
they then imprint upon commingled lips ! How well 
did limb clasp limb in close embrace ! Then Mavors 
drew his right hand from the Paphian 's breast and 
lest his weight should hurt the left arm twined around 
her neck, sets white lilies and rose-wreaths under- 
neath. Oft the leg's light touch stirred the lover 
into flames by the goddess fanned. At last, it 
befell, the languor of repose had mastered the 
weary limbs of Mars ; yet did not all love's rapture, 
yet did not all the flame, quit the god's breast : 
amidst his slumber he heaves sighs and from the 



et venerem totis pulmonibus ardor anhelat. 
ipsa Venus tunc tunc calidis succensa venenis 
uritur ardescens, nee somnia parta quieta. 
o species quam blanda ! o quam bene presserat art us 1 
nudos forte sopor ! niveis sufFulta lacertis 
colla nitent : pectus gemino quasi sidere fulget. 
non omnis resupina iacet, sed corpore flexo 
molliter et laterum qua se confinia iungunt. 
Martem respiciens deponit lumina somno, 1 

sed gratiosa, decens. pro lucis forte Cupido 
Martis tela gerit : quae postquam singula <(lustrat), 
loricam clipeum gladium galeaeque minacis 
cristas, flore ligat ; tunc hastae pondera temptat 
niiraturque suis tantum licuisse sagittis. 1 

lam medium Phoebus radiis possederat orbem, 
iam tumidis calidus spatiis libraverat horas : 
flammantes retinebat equos. proh conscia facti 
invida lux I ^>neris qui nunc produntur amores 
lumine, Phoebe, tuo ! stant capti iudice tanto 
Mars Amor et Paphie, ramisque inserta tremescunt 
lumina, nee crimen possunt te teste negare. 
viderat effusis Gradivum Phoebus habenis 
in gremio Paphiae spirantem incendia amoris. 
o rerum male tuta fides ! o gaudia et ipsis 
vix secura deis I quis non, cum Cypris amaret, 

120 sic Baehrens : o quam blanda quies S, Riese. 

122 turget S : fulget Baehrens. 

1-* quo . . . iungant Baehrens. 

1-' regens S: gerit Riese. tela; rigens Baehrens. lustrat 
Bur man, Baehrens-, om.S: vidit vulgo: sumpsit i?/ 

1^2 sic Bur man : iam mediis Maehly : dimidiis Riese. 
calidum spatium . . . horis Baehrens, Riese. 

13^ ramis cum Baehrens. 

" The manuscript reading 5»am blanda quies seems an over- 
bold contradiction of the preceding line. 



depths of his Uinfi!:s hot passion still pants love. 
Venus herself then, even then, enkindled with 
glowing poison, is afire and burns : she wins no 
restful dreams. How winning the sight ! ^ How 
fit the slumber that has o'ercome the naked limbs ! 
A fair neck rests on snowy arms : the breast seems 
lit up by a pair of stars. Not wholly on her back 
is she reclined, but with a gentle bend of the body 
where side meets side. Looking at Mars, she drops 
her eyes in sleep, charming as ever, comely.^ In 
front of the grove meanwhile Cupid is handling 
Mars' weapons : and after scanning them one by one, 
breastplate, shield, sword, plumes of the threatening 
helmet, he binds them each with flowers ; then tests 
the spear's weight, marvelling that his own arrows 
have been allowed such power. 

Already had Phoebus taken possession of the mid- 
world with his rays, already in the heat of his proud 
course had he balanced the hours of day and was 
restraining his flaming steeds. Ah ! envious day- 
light privy to the deed ! What love-intrigues of 
Venus are now betrayed, O Phoebus, by thy sun- 
shine ! With a judge so mighty there stand as 
prisoners Mars and Love and Paphos' queen; shed 
through the branches, sunbeams quiver ; they cannot 
disown their guilt confronted by thy testimony. 
From his chariot in full career Phoebus had espied 
Gradivus breathing love's fires in the Paphian god- 
dess' lap. O ill-placed confidence ! O joys even 
for the very gods scarce free from care ! Who but 
would hope, when Cypris was in love, that loving 

* Baehrens marks a lacuna here because of the abrupt 



praeside sub tanto tutum speraret amare ? 
criminis exempluni si iam de nuniine habemus, 
quid speret niortalis amor r quae vota ferenda ? 
quod numen poscat, quo sit securus, adulter ? 
Cypris amat, nee tuta tamen ! compressit habenas 
Phoebus et ad lucos tantummodo lumina vertit 
et sic pauca refert : " nunc spargis tela, Cupido ; 
nunc nunc, diva \ enus, nati devicta sagittis 
das mihi solanien ; sub te securus amavi : 
fabula, non crimen, nostri dicentur amores." 

haec ait et dictis N'^ulcanum instigat amaris : 
" die ubi sit Cytherea decens, secure marite ! 
te exspectat lacrimans, tibi castum servat amorem ? 
vel si forte tuae ^ eneris fera crimina nescis, 
quaere simul Martem, cui tu modo tela parasti." 
dixit et infuso radiabat lumine lucum 
inque fidem sceleris totos demiserat ignes. 
haeserat Ignipotens stupefactus crimine tanto. 
iam quasi torpescens (vix sufficit ira dolori) 
ore fremit maestoque modo gemit ultima pulsans 
ilia et indignans suspiria pressa fatigat. 
antra furens Aetnaea petit, vix iusserat, omnes 
incubuere manus, multum dolor addidit arti. 
quam cito cuncta gerunt ars numen flamma maritus 
ira dolor ! nam vix causam tunc forte iubendo 

^*2 amorem vulgo. 

^*^ sparge tela 8 : spargis Hiese : sparge o Baehrens. 

^^^ da S : das Oitdendorp. securus S : si lusus Baehrens. 

" Apollo mischievously argues that Venus' example has 
show^l him that conscience need not trouble a lover : so his own 
amours will be handed down as entertaining stories, not moral 



should be safe 'neath overseer so mighty ? If now 
we take our pattern of wrongdoing from deity, what 
may a mortal's love expect ? What prayers must be 
oftered ? What deity should a paramour entreat for 
an easy mind? Cypris is in love, yet not in safety. 
Phoebus held tight his reins and towards the grove 
turned but his eyes, uttering these brief words : 
" Now dost thou shower thy darts. O Cupid; now, 
now, divine \ enus, quite vanquished by thy son's 
arrows, thou givest me solace ; 'neath thy power I 
have learned to love care-free. My amours will be 
recounted for a fable, not a crime." '^ 

So speaking he stirs up Vulcan with bitter words : 
" Say, heedless husband, where is the comely Lady 
of Cvthera ! Does she await thee in tears, preserving 
lier chaste love for thee ? Or, if mayhap thou 
knowest not the wild offences of thy ^ enus, search 
at the same time for Mars, whom of late thou didst 
provide with weapons." As he spoke, he lit up the 
grove with a flood of light, sending straightway his 
full fires down in proof of guilt. The Lord of Fire 
was at a loss, stunned by so great a crime : now half- 
benumbed (anger scarce meets his pain) he growls 
aloud, and groaning in melancholy wise convulses 
his sides to their very depth and wrathfully heaves 
sigh on sigh unceasing.* In his frenzy he makes for 
the cavern-forge of Aetna. Scarce were his orders 
given, when all hands fell to work — much did resent- 
ment add to skill. How quickly is all accomplished 
by skill, deity, flame, husband, anger, pain ! Scarce 
in the moment of his ordering had he explained the 

* Cf. phrases like Virg. Aen. IX. 415, longis singidtibus ilia 
pulsat; \lll. 94, noctemqite diemque fatigant ; Sil. Ital. XII. 
496, curasque ita corde fatigat. 



dixerat, et vindex coniunx iani vincla ferebat. 
pervenit ad lucos, non ipsi visus Amori, 
non Chariti : totas arti mandaverat iras. 
vincula tunc manibus suspense molliter ictu ] 

illigat et teneris conectit bracchia palmis. 
excutitur somno Mavors et pulchra Cy there, 
posset Gradivus validos disrunipere nexus, 
sed retinebat amor, Veneris ne bracchia laedat. 
tunc tu sub galea, tunc inter tela latebas, ] 

saeve Cupido, timens. stat Mavors lumine torvo 
atque indignatur, quod sit deprensus adulter. 
at Paphie conversa dolet non crimina facti ; 
sed quae sit vindicta sibi tiun singula volvens 
cogitat et poenam sentit, si Phoebus amaret. ] 

iamque dolos properans decorabat cornua tauri, 
Passiphaae crimen mixtique cupidinis iram. 


Forte iacebat Amor victus puer alite somno 
myrti inter frutices pallentis roris in herba. 

1'^ stans S : stat Burman : flat Baehrens. 

^^° sancit Baehrens. ^^^ reparans Baehrens. 

182 PasBif^ S. 

" i.e. for the full satisfaction of his anger he depended on the 
skill at the forge with which the avenging chains were made. 

* Reposianus departs from the traditional story according to 
which the lovers were entrapped in a snare previously contrived 
by the Fire-god: see Odyss. viii. 276 sqq.-, Ovid. Met. IV. 
llQsqq.: Ars. Am. 11. 511 sqq.; Statius, 6'i7y. I. ii. 59-60. He 
also substitutes a grove for the Fire-god's house as the scene 
of the amour. 



reason before the avenging husband was already 
bringing the chains. He reaches the grove, unseen 
by Love himself, unseen by any Grace : to his art 
he had entrusted all his rage.'^ Then with light 
soft touch he bound the chains upon the sleepers' 
hands, linking their arms with gentle movement.'' 
Mars shakes himself free of sleep : so too the fair 
Cytherean. Gradivus well might burst asunder the 
strong bonds, but love restrained him lest he hurt 
\ enus' arms. Then did you lurk hidden 'neath 
Mars' helmet, then did you lurk among his weapons, 
cruel Cupid, in cowardice. Mavors stands sullen 
of look, chafmg because he is an adulterer caught. 
But the Paphian feels no grief that her guilty deed 
has turned awry : instead, she thinks of what re- 
venge is hers, revolving point by point, and feels it 
were fit penalty if Phoebus fell in love : and now, 
hastening forward her guile, she set to ornament 
the horns of the bull which would mean Pasiphae's 
guilt and the wrath involved in blended lust.*^ 


Cupid Asleep 

YouxG Love lay once with winged sleep o'ercome 
Mid myrtle shrubs where pale dew soaked the grass. 

* The fable ran that Venus took revenge on Phoebus through 
his offspring. Pasiphae, daughter of the Sun-god, and wife of 
Minos, king of Crete, was the victim of Venus, who caused her 
to become enamoured of the bull : cf. Virg. Aen. VI. 25, 
PasipJuie mixtumque genus prolesque biformis (in reference to 
the Minotaur). 

Here, as occasionally elsewhere, cupido (= "desire") is 
masculine: there is no need to personify it as "Cupid," nor 
to adopt the suggestion in Burman of mixtaeque libidinis. 



Imnc procul emissae tenebrosa Ditis ab aula 
circueunt animae, saeva face quas cruciarat. 
" ecce meus venator ! " ait " hunc " Phaedra 

" ligemus ! " 
crudelis " crinem " elamabat Scylla " metanius ! " 
Colchis et orba Procne " numerosa caede necemus ! " 
Didon et Canace " saevo gladio perimanius ! 
Myrrha " meis ramis," Euhadneque " igne creme- 

mus! " 
" hunc " Arethusa inquit Byblisque " in fonte 

necemus ! " 
ast Amor evigilans dixit " mea pinna, vol emus." 


CupiDO Amaxs 

Quis me fervor agit ? nova sunt suspiria menti. 
anne aliquis deus est nostro vehementior arcu ? 
quern mihi germanum fato fraudante creavit 
diva parens ? satis an mea spicula fusa per orbern 
vexavere polum laesusque in tempore mundus 
invenit poenam ? sed si mea vulnera novi, 

Cupido Amans : ^ fato S : furto Wakkerns : partu Baehrens. 

° The ten victims of unhappy love are represented as making 
allusions to their OAvn misfortunes. Thus Phaedra seems to 
see a second Hippolytus, eager for the chase ; Scylla remembers 
the lock she treacherously clipped from her father's head; 
Dido and Canace recall their death by a sword; Myrrha her 
transformation into a tree; Euhadne or Evadne her suicide 
on a blazing i^yve ; Byblis and Arethusa their metamorphosis 
into a fountain. 



Kound him came ghosts, from Pluto's gloomy hall 
Set free, ghosts whom his cruel brand had scorched, ° 
"Look! 'tis my hunter!" Phaedra said: "bring 

bonds I " 
But ruthless Scylla cried " Let's shear his hair! " 
The Colchian dame ^ and Procne sore-bereaved 
Said " We must make him die full many a death ! 
Dido and Canace urged death by steel : 
Nay. by my branches I " Myrrha claimed. " Let's 

Him in the fire! " Euhadne thought his due. 
Byblis and Arethusa Mished him dro-'.vned. 
But Love awoke and said " My wings, let's fly! 


Cupid ix Love *-" 

What is the glow of passion that impels me ? 
Sighs be new for me to think of. Can it be that 
some god has mightier force than Cupid's bow ? To 
whom by some trick of fate has my goddess mother 
given birth to be a brother for me ? Have my 
darts, shot through the globe, harassed the heavens 
enough, and an injured world at the fit moment dis- 
covered a penalty ? Nay, if I know wounds of my 

'' Medea. 

*■ This poem by an unknown author was first printed by 
Burman, Anth. Lot. I. Lib. I, No. 30 immediately before 
Modestinus' poem (. . . " ex Divionensi codice prinii 
producimus et Salmasianis schedis "). It is here included as a 
companion picture to " Cupid Asleep." See Buecheler-Riese, 
Anth. Lat. I. i. No. 240, p. 107; Baehrens, P.L.M. IV. 
pp. 345-346. 

• 541 


hie mens est ignis : meus est, qui parcere nescit. 
in furias ignesque trahor ! licet orbe superno, 
luppiter, et salsis undis, Neptune, tegaris, 
abdita poenarum te cingant Tartara, Pluton, 
impositum rumpemus onus ! volitabo per axem 
mundigerum caelique plagas pontique procellas 
umbriferumque Chaos ; pateant adamantina regna, 
torva venenatis cedat Bellona flagelHs I 
poenam mundus amet : stupeat vis maior ! anhelat 
in se saevus Amor fraudemque in vuhiere quaerit I 


De Fortuna 

Res eadeni adsidue niomento volvitur uno 

atque redit dispar res eadem adsidue. 
vindice facta manu Progne pia dicta sorori, 

impia sed nato vindice facta manu. 
carmine visa suo Colchis fuit ulta maritum, 

sed scelerata fuit carmine visa suo. 
coniugis Eurydice precibus remeabat ad auras, 

rursus abit vitio coniugis Eurydice. 

^ ex altis S : et salsis Wakkenis : exiiltes JRiese. 

1° poenarum vulgo : terrarum Maehly : Taenarium Baeh- 
rens. te cingant Oudendorp : est ingum {sic) S. 

^^ vix S: vis schedae: mox Baehrens : stupeat, vincatur, 
anhelet JRiese. 

^® vulnera Baehrens. 

Pentadius : ^' * functa L. Muelhr, Baehrens : facta codd. 

^' * visa codd. : fisa Baehrens : nisa Biese. 


dealing, this is my own fire — that fire of mine which 
knows not how to spare. Into a frenzy of fires am I 
dragged ! Although thou. () Jupiter, be concealed 
in the sphere above, and thou. O Neptune, in the 
salt-sea waves, although the hidden Hell of punish- 
ment encircle thee, Pluto, we will burst the burden 
laid on us ! I will fly across the axis that supports the 
world, through fhn tracts of the sky and the tempests 
of ocean, and through shadowy Chaos : let adaman- 
tine realms ope wide, let the War-Goddess, sullen 
mid her envenomed whips, retreat! Let the world 
love its punishment ! Let mightier force stand 
mazed I — So pants fell Cupid inly and, though him- 
self wounded," aims at guile. 


On Changing Fortune 

The same thing constantly rolls on with uniform 
movement, and unlike its old self returns the same 
thing constantly. By her avenging hand,'' legend 
says, Progne proved loyal to her sister but proved 
disloyal to her son by her avenging hand. Through 
her incantation the Colchian (Medea) was seen tc 
have revenged herself on her husband, but she was 
seen to be guilt-stained through her incantation. 
Her consort's entreaties all but won Eury dice's return 
to upper air : again is Eurydice lost through the fault 

" Cupid forgets his own wound in his desire to do mischief. 

* Progne or Procne : cf. Xemes. Cyneg. 3.3. She avenged on 
her husband King Tereus his outrage on her sister Philomela by- 
slaying Itys her own son by Tereus : cf. Nem. Cyn. 33-34. 



sanguine poma rubent Thisbae nece tincta repente : 

Candida quae fuerant. sanguine poma rubent. 
Daedalus arte sua fugit Minoia regna, 

aniisit natuni Daedalus arte sua. 
niunere Palladio laeti qua nocte fuere, 

hac periere Phryges munere Palladio. 
nate quod alter ades caelo, sunt gaudia Ledae ; 

sed maeret mater, nate quod alter abes. 
hostia et ipse fuit diri Busiridis hospes 

Busirisque aris hostia et ipse fuit. 
Theseus Hippolyto vitam per vota rogavit, 

optavit mortem Theseus Hippolyto. 
stipite fatifero iuste quae fratribus usa est, 

mater saeva fuit stipite fatifero. 
sola relicta toris flevisti in litore. Gnosis ; 

laetaris caelo sola relicta toris. 
aurea lana fuit, Phrixum quae per mare vexit ; 

Helle qua lapsa est, aurea lana fuit. 

^ tristi nece codd. : Tliysbaeo tincta Heinsius : Thisbae 
nece L. MuelUr. 

1'. ^^ saepe codd. : et ipse Heinsius : sacra Baehrens. 

23 litore codd. : in litore vulgo : litora {coniungendum cum 
sola) Baehrens. 

" Heinsius saw that the reference was to the tr3^sting-place 
of Pyramus and Thisbe, and altered the tristi of the manu- 
scripts. L. Mueller's Thisbae saves nece. 

^ Castor and Pollux, Leda's twins, were granted an alternate 
immortality ; when changed into the constellation Gemini, one 
had to be above the horizon, the other below. This is the one 
instance among these Latin " echoic " verses in which the 
opening of a couplet is not exactly repeated at the close. Here 
there is the slight change of ades to abes. 

^ The Egyptian king who sacrificed strangers was in turn 
immolated by Hercules. 



of her consort. Red with blood is the fruit suddenly- 
stained by Thisbe's death : ^ the fruit which once was 
white is red with bltmd. By his skill (in flying) 
Daedalus escaped from the realms of Crete : his son 
(Icarus) was lost to Daedalus by his skill. Minerva's 
gift ruined the Trojans oji that same night in which 
they were gladdened by Minerva's gift (of the 
wooden horse). O son, because thou, the one twin, 
art present in the sky, Leda feels joy ; but her 
maternal heart is sore, O son, because thou, the 
other twin, art not present.^ A victim of dread 
Busiris ^ was the stranger his very self, and Busiris 
at the altar his very self was a victim. For Hippo- 
lytus Theseus sought long life in his prayers ; yet 
Theseus' (final) prayer was death for Hippolytus.** 
A fatal brand Althaea used justly for avenging her 
brothers, and a cruel mother she proved herself with 
that same fatal brand. ^ Left alone on thy couch, O 
Cretan lady, thou didst weep upon the strand ; thou 
now rejoicest in the sky because thou wast left alone 
on thy couch./ The Golden Fleece it was which bore 
Phrixus o'er the sea : that from which (his sister) 
Ilelle fell was the Golden Fleece.i^ The Tantalid 

'^ i.e. after the false charge brought against Hippolytus by 

' Althaea avenged her brothers, whom her son Meleager had 
slain, by burning the brand on which his life depended {im- 
pieiate pia e.<<t, Ovid, Mel. VIII. 477) : cf. Rutilius, 11, il.S, 

f Ariadne, deserted by Theseus, was consoled by Bacchus 
and eventually made a constellation. 

" Phrixus, in danger of death by sacrifice through the 
malignity of his stepmother Ino, escaped overseas with his 
sister Helle on the ram of the Golden Fleece provided by Zeus, 
Helle was drowned by falling from the ram into the strait which 
was called the Hellespont after her; but her brother reached 
Colchis in safety, 


N N 


Tantalis est numero natorum facta superba, 

natoriim afflicta | Tantalis est numero. 
Pelias hasta fuit, vulnus grave quae dedit hosti ; 

hoc quae sanavit, Pelias hasta fuit. 
per mare iacta ratis pleno subit ostia velo, 

in portu mersa est per mare iacta ratis. 
lux cito summa datur natusque exstinguitur infans 

atque animae eximiae lux cito summa datur. 
sunt mala laetitiae diversa lege creata, 

iuncta autem adsidue sunt mala laetitiae. 


De Advextu Veris 

Sentio, fugit hiemps ; Zephyrisque animantibus orbem 

iam tepet Eurus aquis : sentio, fugit hiemps. 
parturit omnis ager, persentit terra calores, 

germinibusque novis parturit omnis ager. 
laeta virecta tument, folio sese induit arbor : 

vallibus apricis laeta virecta tument. 
iam Philomela gemit modulis, Ityn impia mater 

oblatum mensis iam Philomela gemit. 
monte tumultus aquae properat per levia saxa, 

et late resonat monte tumultus aquae, 
floribus innumeris pingit sola flatus Eoi, 

27-28 afflicta codd. {contra metrum) : fortasse infelix Wight 
Duff. Metri causa coniecit Oudendorp T. e numero , . . afflicta 
est T. e numero. 

^2 versa codd. : mersa Heinsius. 

^^ prima codd. (corruptum) : primae Oudendorp : pretium 
Heinsius: fortasse eximiae A. M. Duff. 

^^ e lege creandi Baehrens. 

^^ autem Riese : etiam Baehrens. 


(Niobe) grew proud over the number of her children : 
m the number of her children grief crushed the 
Tantalid. Achilles' spear" it was which dealt the 
enemy a heavy blow : what also cured the wound was 
Achilles' spear. The sea-tost barque enters the 
river-mouth under full sail : but in harbour sinks the 
sea-tost barque. Soon is the final day assigned and 
the new-born child cut olF: likewise to illustrious 
life soon is the final day assigned. Evils and joy 
are made on a different pattern : yet are they 
constantly linked — evils and joy. 


On the Arrival of Sprixg 

Winter, I feel, has fled ; and while Zephyrs quicken 
the world, Eurus is already genial on the waters : 
winter, I feel, has fled. Every field is in travail: 
earth feels thrills of warmth throughout : with the 
new buds every field is in travail. Green copses swell 
joyously : the tree robes herself with leaves : in 
sunlit dales green copses swell joyously. Now doth 
Philomel lament in tuneful notes ; now, for that 
Itys was served at the board,'' doth the impious 
mother Philomel lament. From the hill the tumul- 
tuous stream speeds among the smooth-worn stones : 
far and wide resounds from the hill the tumultuous 
stream. With flowers beyond all count the breath 
of the Orient wind decks the ground ; and vales like 

" See note on Laus Pisonis, 177. 

^ i.e. as food to Tereus. Philomela here takes the place of 
Procne : cf. De Fort una, 3-4. 


N N 2 


Tempeaque exhalant floribus innumeris. 
per cava saxa sonat pecudum mugitibus Echo, 

voxque repulsa iugis per cava saxa sonat. 
vitea miista tunient vicinas iuiicta per ulmos ; 

fronde maritata vitea musta tument. 
nota tigilla Unit iani garrula iuce chelidon ; 

dum recolit nidos, nota tigilla Unit, 
sub platano viridi iucundat sonmus in umbra, 

sertaque texuntur sub platano viridi. 
tunc quoque dulce mori, tunc fila recurrite fusis 

inter et amplexus tunc quoque dulce mori. 


Cui pater amnis erat, fontes puer ille colebat, 

laudabatque undas, cui pater amnis erat. 
se puer ipse videt, patrem dum quaerit in amne, 

perspicuoque lacu se puer ipse videt. 
quod Dryas igne calet, puer hunc irridet amorem ; 

nee putat esse decus, quod Dryas igne calet. 
stat stupet haeret amat rogat innuit adspicit ardet 

blanditur queritur stat stupet haeret amat. 
quodque amat, ipse facit vultu prece lumine fletu ; 

oscula dat fonti, quodque amat ipse facit. 

1* visque T : usque V : bisque S : voxque corr. Salmasius, 

^^ iucunda codd. : iucundat Meyer. 

" musta, usually of new wine, here by metonymy means the 
clusters containing the promise of wine. 

* i.e. in the spring season restore the by-gone days of youth. 

•= The River-god Cephisus was the father of Narcissus, who 
fell in love with his own reflection in water. The story is 
beautifully told bv Ovid, Mel. III. 346-510. 


Tempe are fragrant with flowers beyond all count. 
Mid hollow rocks resounds Echo to the lowing herd ; 
the note reverberated by the heights mid hollow 
rocks resounds. Wine-filled clusters <* swell, linked 
amonff their neiij:hbour elms : mid married leafaire 
wine-filled clusters swell. The familiar roof-timber 
already at daybreak is being smeared with mud by 
the twittering swallow ; as she repairs her nest, she 
smears the familiar roof-timber. Under the green 
plane-tree sleep takes pleasure in the shade : and 
garlands are a-twining under the green plane-tree. 
Then too 'twere sweet to die : then run, ye threads 
of destiny, back on the spindles : ^ amid embraces 
then too 'twere sweet to die. 



The youth who had a river for sire ^ was ever fond 
of fountains : the waters won praise from him who 
had a river for sire. The youth beholds himself as 
he seeks his sire in the river ; in the translucent pool 
the youth beholds himself. When a Dryad is fired 
with passion, the youth flouts such love : he deems 
it ne'er an honour that a Dryad is fired with passion. 
He stands astonished ; halts and falls in love, ques- 
tions, nods, gazes all aflame ; now coaxing, now 
reproaching, he stands astonished ; halts and falls 
in love. And what he loves, himself he makes ** in 
look, entreaty, eye and tears ; prints kisses on the 
fountain, and what he loves, himself he makes. 

'^ i.e. he makes his own reflection, with which he is in love. 





Hie est ille. suis nimium qui credidit undis, 
Narcissus vero dignus amore puer. 

cernis ab irriguo repetentem gramine ripas, 
ut per quas periit cernere possit aquas. 



Chrysocome gladium fugiens stringente marito 
texit adulterium iudice casta reo. 

De Femixa 

Crede ratem ventis, animum ne crede puellis ; 

namque est feminea tutior unda fide, 
femina nulla bona est, vel, si bona contigit una, 

nescio quo fato est res mala facta bona. 

IV. ^ undis codd. : umbris Baehrens. 

* crescere codd. : cemere Baehrens {in not.). 

° The Anthologia Latina contains also two elegiac couplets 
on Narcissus (Baehrens, F.L.M. IV. p. 305 and p. 340); but 
their authorship is uncertain. The Tumulus Ilectoris given 
to Pentadius in Cabaret-Dupaty's Poetae Minores is by 
Baehrens assigned to Pompilianus {P.L.M. IV. p. 149), while 
the Tumulus Acidis is of uncertain authorship {P.L.M. \. 
p. 404). 



Narcissus " 

This is he who trusted overmuch in the pools 
which were his kin — the youth Narcissus, worthy 
of no counterfeit love. You behold him making 
again from the moist meadow for the river-banks in 
hope of beholding the waters which wrought his 



Chrysocome escaping from the sword as her 
husband drew it (to punish her) veiled her adultery 
by being found innocent when the culprit acted as 
judge. '^ 


Ox Woman's Love** 

Trust to the winds thy barque, but to a girl 
Never thy heart's affections ; for the swirl 
Of ocean wave is less to be eschewed 
Than woman's faith. No woman can be good, 
Or if a good one comes, then freakish fate 
Good out of ill has managed to create. 

^ crescere would imply his perennial growtii as a flower after 

'^ Convinced of her infidelity, her husband had been within 
an ace of killing her; but in court the judge pronounced her 
not guilty — he had been her partner in the offence ! 

^ Variouslj' ascribed to the Ciceros, to Ausonius and other 
poets besides Pentadius. See Introduction. 




From Jerome's Chronicle (ad aim. 2352) we learn 
that Tiberianus, " vir disertus," was a governor in 
Gaul as " praefectus praetorio " in a.d, 335. Possibly 
he is the same as the Tiberianus Mhom we find holding 
official positions in Africa and Spain slightly earlier 
in the fourth century. His poetry is represented by a 
few surviving poems and quotations. The feeling for 
the beauty of nature pervading the twenty trochaic 
tetrameters * in his Amnis ihat gives some counten- 
ance to Baehrens' suggestion that he composed the 
metrically similar Pervigilium J^eiieris ; ^ and the 
almost entire avoidance of quadrisyllabic endings in 
that poem bears, it has been argued, a resemblance 
to the manner of Tiberianus.*^ His authorship of the 
twenty-eight hexameters on the pernicious influence 
of gold is attested by Servius' citation of its third 
line on Aeneid VL 136. The twelve hendecasyllabics 

" Tiberianus apparently uses greater metrical licence than 
is found in the Fervigiliutn Veneris. He allows an anapaest 
in the fifth foot, if either Baehrens' violnrum sub spiritu or 
Garrod's violarum suspiritu is accepted in line 7, and a spondee 
in the fifth foot, if the MS. readings are correct in lines 6 
and 14. 

* See Introduction to Florus for the contention that the 
Pervigilium is much earlier: cf. also Introduction to the poem 
in Loeb ed. of Catullus, TibuUus and Perrig. Ven. 

'^ See Appendix to J. A. Fort's ed. of Pervig. Ven., Oxford, 



on a bird may be somewhat less confidently ascribed 
to him. Based on different manuscript authority is 
the poem purporting to be translated from Greek 
into Latin " a quodam Tiberiano," and in its invo- 
cation of the Supreme Being blending Orphic, 
Pythagorean and Platonic elements. There are, 
besides, a few fragments referred explicitly to 
Tiberianus by Servius and Fulgentius.^ 


M. Haupt. Ovidii Halieutica, etc. Leipzig, 1838. 
[Haupt first printed poem No. iv " Omnipo- 
tens . . . "] ^ 

E. Baehrens. Unedirte lateinische Gedichte, p. 27 sqq. 

Leipzig, 1877. 

Poet. Lat. Minor es, III. pp. 263-269. Leipzig, 


F. Buecheler and A. Paese. Anthologia Latina, I. ii. 

Nos. 490, 7196, 809-810. 

The text here given is in the main that of Baehrens, 
with the chief departures indicated. 

SIGLUM for Poems I-III. 

H = codex Harleianus 3685 : saec. xv. (Containing 
also various medieval verses.) 

" These scraps are given by Baehrens, P.L.M. III. 269, and 
are included in this edition. 

* See also L. Quicherat, Bihlioth. de Vecole des chartes, IV. 
p. 267 sq. 



SIGLA for Poem IV. 

R — Regincnsis 215 : sacc. ix. (Collated by Baeh- 

P = Parisinus 2772 : saec. x-xi. (Collated by 

Quicherat and by Riese.) 
S = Parisinus 17160: saec. xii. (Collated by Baeli- 

V = ^'i^doboncnsis 143 : saec. xiii. (Used by Haiipt.) 



Amnis ibat inter arva valle fusus frigida, 
luce ridens calculorum, flore pictus herbido. 
caerulas superne laurus et virecta myrtea 
leniter motabat aura blandiente sibilo. 
subter autem molle gramen flore adulto creverat : 
et croco solum rubebat et lucebat liliis, 
et nemus fragrabat omne violarum <(sub> spiritu. 
inter ista dona veris genimeasque gratias 
omnium regina odorum vel colorum Lucifer 
auriflora praeminebat, flamma Diones, rosa. 
roscidum nemus rigebat inter uda gramina : 
fonte crebro murmurabant hinc et inde rivuli, 
antra muscus et virentes intus <(hederae)> vinxerant, 
qua fluenta labibunda guttis ibant lucidis. 

® turn croco Baehrens : et croco H. 

' violarum spiritu H {contra metrum) : sub addidit Baehrens : 
spiritu violarii Fort. 

^^ sic Garrod {Oxford Book of Latin Verse) : auro flore 
praeminebat forma dionis H : aureo flore emiiiebat cura 
Cypridis Baehrens. 

^^ hederae addidit Mackail : myrtus Baehrens : om. H. 

1* qua Ziehen : quae H, Baehrens, qui hunc versum ante 13 
transposuit. guttis ibant lucidis H : gurgite i. lucido Fort. 



Through the fields; there went a river ; down the 

airy glen it wound, 
Smiling mid its radiant pebbles, decked with flowery 

plants around. 
Dark-hued laurels waved above it close by myrtle 

Gently swaying to the whispers and caresses of the 

Underneath grew" velvet greensward with a wealth 

of bloom for dower, 
And the ground, agleam with lilies, coloured 'neath 

the saffron-flower. 
While the grove was full of fragrance and of breath 

from violets. 
Mid such guerdons of the spring-time, mid its 

jewelled coronets. 
Shone the queen of all the perfumes, Star that love- 
liest colours shows. 
Golden flame of fair Dione, passing every flower — the 

Dewsprent trees rose firmlv upright with the lush 

grass at their feet : 
Here, as yonder, streamlets murmured tumbling from 

each well-spring fleet. 
Grottoes had an inner binding made of moss and 

ivy green, 
WTiere soft-flowing runlets glided with their drops of 

crystal sheen. 



has per umbras omnis ales plus canora quam putes 
cantibus vernis strepebat et susurris dulcibus ; 
hie loquentis murmur amnis concinebat frondibuS; 
quis melos vocalis aurae musa Zephyri moverat. 
sic euntem per vireeta pulchra odora et musica 
ales amnis aura lucus flos et umbra iuverat. 


Aurum, quod nigri manes, quod turbida versant 

flumina, quod duris extorsit poena metallis ! 

aurum, quo pretio reserantur limina Ditis, 

quo Stygii regina poli Proserpina gaudet ! 

aurum, quod penetrat thalamos rumpitque pudorem, 

qua ductus saepe illecebra micat impius ensis I 

in crremium Danaes non auro fluxit adulter 

mentitus pretio faciem fulvoque veneno ? 

non Polydorum hospes saevo necat incitus auro ? 

altrix infelix, sub quo custode pericli 

commendas natum ? cui regia pignora credis ? 

fit tutor pueri, fit custos sanguinis aurum ! 

immitis nidos coluber custodiet ante 

et catulos fetae poterunt servare leaenae. 

sic etiam ut Troiam popularet Dorica pubes, 

aurum causa fuit 

pretium dignissima merces : 

infami probro palmam convendit adulter. 

" Jupiter : cj. Sulpicius Lupercus Servasius, II. 7-8 {De 

^ Polydorus, son of Priam, was murdered by Polymnestor, 
King of Thrace, for the gold which Priam had sent with 
Polydorus : cf. Virgil, Aeneid III. 41-57, esp. auri sacra fames. 

'^ Paris gave his j udgement in favour of Venus for the promise 
of Helen's love, and his award of the golden apple to her thus 
led to the Trojan war. 



Throuc:h those shades eacli bird, more tuneful than 

belief could entertain, 
Warbled loud her chant of spring-tide, warbled low 

her sweet refrain. 
Here the prattling river's murmur to the leaves made 

As the Ze})hyr's airy music stirred them into melody. 
To a wanderer through the coppice, fair and filled 

with song and scent, 
Bird and river, breeze and woodland, flower and shade 

brought ravishment. 


O Gold, whirled onward by dark hell and muddy 
rivers, wrested by the convict from cruel mines : 
gold, the bribe unbarring Pluto's doors, and the 
delight of Proserpine, queen of the Stygian world! 
gold which invades the marriage-bower and shatters, 
chastity, and at whose enticement the unholy sword 
often flashes from scabbard drawn ! Was it not in 
golden stream that to Danae's lap there came the 
adulterer" who masked his appearance in his bribe 
of yellow poison? Was not barbarous gold the 
motive when Polydorus ^ was slain by his host ? 
Unhappy nurse, under what guardian against danger 
dost thou entrust a son ? To whom dost thou com- 
mit children of royal line ? Gold becomes protector 
of the boy, gold the guardian of the blood ! Sooner 
will ruthless serpent guard nestlings, and lionesses 
be ready to save the whelps of a newly delivered 
dam. So too for Troy's destruction by the young 
manhood of Greece the reason lay in gold ... a 
bribe the worthiest recompense. At the price of 
infamous scandal the paramour sold his award. ^ 


o o 


denique cernamus, quos auruni servit in usus. 
auro emitur facinus, pudor almus venditur auro, 
turn patria atque parens, leges pietasque fidesque 
omne nefas auro tegitur, fas proditur auro. 
porro hoc Pactolus, porro fluat et niger Hernius ? 
aurunij res gladii, furor aniens, ardor avarus, 
te celent semper vada turbida, te luta nigra, 
te tellus mersum premat infera, te sibi nasci 
Tartareus cupiat Phlegethon Stygiaeque paludes ! 
inter liventes pereat tibi fulvor harenas, 
neo post ad superos redeat faex aurea puros ! 


Ales, dum madida gravata nube 
udos tardius explicat volatus, 
decepta in medio repente nisu 
capta est pondere depremente plumae : 
cassato solito vigore pennae, 
quae vitam dederant, dedere letum ; 
sic, quis ardua nunc tenebat alis, 
isdem protinus incidit ruinae. 
quid sublimia circuisse prodest ? 
qui celsi steterant, iacent sub imis ! 
exemplum capiant, nimis petendo 
qui ventis tumidi volant secundis. 

III. 1 madida g. pennis H : madidis g. p. Garrod : madida g. 
nube Baehrens. 
' ac Baehrens. 

^ sublima circuisse H : sublima requisiisse Baehrens. 
^^ sub ictu Baehrens. 
^- variis t. tonant H : ventis t. volant RoMe. 



Let us then see for what uses gold doth serve. It 
is the buying-priee of erime, it is the sale-jirice of 
kind modesty, uf fatherland and parent, of laws and 
pietv and faith : all guilt is hidden by gold, by gold 
all righteousness betrayed. With it must Pactolus 
still flow on. and likewise the dark Hermus-stream ?" 
O gold, thou murderous thing, thou frenzied madness 
and passionate greed, let muddy shallows and a 
stream's dark silt conceal thee evermore : let earth 
below whelm and bury thee, let Tartarean Phlegethon 
and the Stygian pools covet thy birth for themselves ! 
Perish thy yellow gleam among the sombre sands ! 
Never hereafter let the o-olden dreg's return to elean- 
handed men of the world above ! 


A bird with drenching rain o'erweighted. 
Hindered by wet, her flight abated. 
And sudden, mid her efforts foiled. 
Was caught as 'neath her load she toiled. 
When her old strength of wing grew nought, 
What once brouoht life now ruin brought : 
So pinions used for soaring high 
Straight dashed her on the ground to die. 
What boots it round the heavens to fly ? 
Who stood exalted, lowest lie ! 
Learn this, who aim beyond the scale 
And haughtily ride the favouring gale. 

" The golden sands of the Lydian river Hermus and its 
tributarj', the Pactolus, were renowned in antiquity. 




Omnipotens, amiosa poll quern siispicit aetas, 
queni sub niillenis semper virtutibus unum 
nee numero quisquam poterit pensare nee aevo, 
nunc esto affatus, si quo te nomine dignum est, 
quo sacer ignoto gaudes, quom maxima tellus 
intremit et sistunt rapidos vaga sidera cursus. 
tu solus, tu multus item, tu primus et idem 
postremus mediusque simul mundique superstes. 
nam sine fine tui labentia tempora finis, 
altus ab aeterno spectas fera turbine certo 
rerum fata rapi vitasque involvier aevo 
atque iterum reduces supera in convexa referri, 
scilicet ut mundo redeat quod partubus haustus 
perdiderit refluumque iterum per tempora fiat, 
tu (siquidem fas est in temet tendere sensum 
et speciem temptare sacram, qua sidera cingis 
immensus longamque simul complecteris aethram) 
fulmineis forsan rapida sub imagine membris 
flammifluum quoddam iubar es, quo cuncta coruscans 
ipse vides nostrumque premis solemque diemque. 
tu genus omne deum, tu rerum causa vigorque, 
tu natura omnis, deus innumerabilis unus, 
tu sexu plenus toto, tibi nascitur olim 

* mundique superstes RS : mundoque superstans 

^" altus et Baehrens. spectans codd., Baehrens : spectas 

^^ austrum R : abstrum P : abstui S : astra V : haustum 
Quicherat : haustus Baehrens. 

1^ fulgentis . . . Phoebi Baehrens. 

^^ choruscas S : coruscant R : coruscas P, Baehrens : 
coruscans Riese. 

2" ipse vides codd. : ipseque das Baehrens. 




Almighty Beins:. to wliom heaven's aije, ancient 
of years, showeth reverence, whom for ever One 
amid a thousand attributes, no man shall e'er have 
power to apprai«;e in number or in time, now be 
thou addressed if under any name it is fittinfj to 
address thee ; yet even in name unknown thou 
hast thy hallowed joy, when mia:htiest earth shud- 
dereth and wandering constellations stay their 
rapid courses. Thou art alone, yet in thyself many, 
thou art first and likewise last, and midway in 
time A\'ithal, outliving the world. For without end 
for thyself, thou bringest the gliding seasons to an 
end. On high from everlasting thou beholdest the 
cruel destinies of the world awhirl in their pre- 
destined cycle, living souls in the coils of time, and 
again on their return restored to the vault above, ^ 
doubtless so that there may come back to the world 
what it has lost, exhausted by birth-^, and that this 
may again flow through the seasons of time. Thou (if 
indeed it is allowed towards thee to direct the senses 
and essav to grasp the hallowed beauty wherewith in 
thine immeasurable power thou dost invest the stars 
and dost embrace withal the far-stretched upper air) 
in some quick guise mayhap with lightning limbs art 
like a flame-flo\\-ing radiance wherewith thou dost 
cause to flash all the world beneath thine own eyes 
and speedest onward the sunlight of our day. Thou 
art the whole kindred of the gods, thou art the cause 
and energy of things, thou art all nature, one god 
beyond reckoning, thou art full of the whole of sex, 
for thee cometh to birth upon a day here a god, here 

" CJ. Virg. Aen. VI. 2-41, supcra ad conveza fcrebai. 



hie deus hie mundus, domus haec hominumque 

lucens, augusto stellatus flore iuventae. 
quern (precor, adspires), qua sit ratione creatus, 
quo genitus factusve modo, da nosse volenti : 
da, Pater, augustas ut possim noseere causas, 
mundanas olim moles quo foedere rerum 
sustuleris animamque levi quo maximus olim 
texueris numero, quo congrege dissimilique, 
quidque id sit vegetum, quod per cita corpora vivit. 


1. Servius ad Verg. Aen. VI. 532: 

Tiberianus etiam inducit epistolam vento 
allatam ab antipodibus, quae habet : " super i 
inferis salutem." 

2. Fulgentius, Mythologiarum I. 26 : 

. . . unde Tiberianus : " Pegasus hinniens 
transvolat aethram." 

3. Fulgentius, yiythologiarum III. 7 : 

nam et Tiberianus in Prometheo ait, decs 
singula sua homini tribuisse. 

4. Fulgentius, VergiUana Continentia, p. 154 : 

. . . memores Platonis sententiae, cuius here- 
ditatem Diogenes Cynicus invadens nihil ibi plus 
aurea lingua invenit, ut Tiberianus in libro de 
Socrate memorat. 

2* hie deus hie mundus codd. : hie cunctus m. Baehrens. 
domus hie codd. : d. haee Riese : d. una Baehr&ns, 



a world — this home of men and gods — hicent, starred 
with the majestic bloom of youth. Touching this 
world (vouchsafe thy ftivour, I pray), grant to a 
willing mind the knowledge of the principles on which 
it was created, the manner of its origin and making. 
Grant, O Sire, that I may have power to learn causes 
majestic, by what alliance of things '^ thou didst of 
old upraise the world's masses of matter, and of what 
light texture, intimate yet dissimilar, thou didst of 
old in thy might weave the soul, and what that 
vigorous element is which in quick-moving bodies 
constitutes life. 


1. Tiberianus also introduces a letter brought by 
the wind from the antipodes, with the words " Those 
above greet those beneath." 

2. Hence Tiberianus says : " Pegasus neighing 
flies across the upper air." 

3. For Tiberianus too says in the Prometheus that 
the gods have assigned to a man his individual traits. 

4. (We used " golden " of brilliant eloquence), 
recalling the utterance of Plato on whose inheritance 
Diogenes the Cynic encroached and found there 
nothing more than a golden tongue, as Tiberianus 
records in his book on Socrates. 

" Or " law of nature." 



5. Fulgentius, Expositio sermonum aniiquorum, p. 183: 

sudum dicitur sereniim. Tiberianus : " Aureos 
subducit ignes sudus ora Lucifer." 

[6. Servius ad Verg. Aen. VIII. 96 : 

ostendit adeo perspicuam fiiisse naturam 
fluminis ut in eo apparerent imagines nemorum, 
quas Troianae naves secabant. Tiberianus : 

" natura sic est fluminis, 
ut obvias imagines 
receptet in lucem suam."] 

6^ Tiberianus Baehrens : Terentianus vidgo. 



5. The word suduin means serene : e.g. Tiberianus : 
Lucifer, serene to look on. draws away liis golden 

[6. He shows that so transparent was the nature 
of the river that in it appeared clear reflections of 
the woods across which the Trojan vessels cut their 
way. as Tiberianus says : 

" Such is the nature of the stream 
That images which meet it seem 
Clear-mirrored in its own bright gleam."] '^ 

" The ascription of this to Tiberianus depends on Baelirens' 
suggestion that Terentianus in Servius' text is a blunder for 






The codex Leidensis Vossianus of Ausonius contains 
two poems ascribed to Siilpicius I>upercus Serbastus 
Junior. Schryver (Scriverius) altered " Serbastus " 
to " Sebastus," which Baehrens retains; Wernsdorf 
printed " Servastus," and Riese proposed " Ser- 
vasius." From this schoohnan author, whose very 
name is imperfectly known, there are thus preserved 
three Sapphic stanzas on the transitoriness of every- 
thing in nature and a longer elegiac complaint on the 
ruinous result which the prevalence of money- 
getting produces upon rhetorical studies. The 
archaisms ma^e and fiuicUer (II. 16 and 18), artificially 
introduced into these laboured verses of the fourth 
century, contribute to the effect of unreality. 


P. Barman. Anthol. Lat. Lib. III. No. 97 {De J^etus- 

tate). Amsterdam, 1759. 
J. C. Wernsdorf. Poet. Lat. Mhi. III. p. 235 and 

p. 408. Altenburg, 1782. 

E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min. IV. Nos. 118-119 

(pp. 107-109). Leipzig, 1882. 

F. Buecheler and A. Riese. Anthol. Latina I. ii. Nos. 

648-649. Leipzig, 1906. 

(The main departures from Baeln-ens' text are 




E (Baehrens' siglum) = codex nobilissimus Ausonii, 
Leidensis Vossianus 111 : saec. viii-ix. 

(In West-Gothic writing it contains, after its text 
of Ausonius, other poems including the two ascribed 
to Sulpicius Lupercus " Serbastus.") 



De \'etustate 

Omxe quod Natiira parens creavit, 
quanilibet firnium videas, labascit : 
tempore ac longo fragile et caducum 
solvitur usu. 

amnis insueta solet ire valle, 
mutat et rectos via certa cursus, 
rupta cum cedit male pertinaci 
ripa fluento. 

decidens scabrum cavat unda tofum, 
ferreus vomis tenuatur agris, 
splendet attrito digitos honorans 
anulus auro. 

De Cupiditate 

Heu misera in nimios hominum petulantia census 
caecus inutilium quo ruit ardor opum, 

auri dira fames et non expleta libido 
feral i pretio vendat ut omne nefas ! 




The Work of Time 

All that Nature ever bore, 
Firm to look at, time makes hoar. 
Frail and fleeting more and more, 
Its strength in service losing. 

Streams fresh valley-routes pursue. 
Ancient courses change to new, 
When their banks are broken through 
By floods' persistent oozing. 

Cascades make rough tufa yield ; 
Ploughs wear thinner in the field ; 
Rings that jewelled fingers wield 
Show gold rubbed bright by using. 



Alas for the wretched craving after excessive in- 
comes ! What is the end on which the blind passion 
for useless wealth rushes, so that the cursed hunger 
for gold and greed unsatisfied may barter any 
enormity for a recompense fraught with destruction ? 

p p 


sic latebras Eriphyla viri patefecit, ubi aurum 

accepit, turpis materiam sceleris ; 
sic quondam Acrisiae in gremium per claustra puellae 

corruptore auro fluxit adulterium. 
o quam mendose votum insaturabile habendi 

imbuit infami pectora nostra malo ! 
quamlibet immenso dives vigil incubet auro, 

aestuat augendae dira cupido rei. 
heu mala paupertas numquam locupletis avari ! 

dum struere immodice quod tenet optat, eget. 
quis metus hie legum quaeve est reverentia veri, 

crescenti nummo si mage cura subest ? 
cognatorum animas promptum est patrumque cruorem 

fundier : afFectus vincit avara fames, 
divitis est, semper fragiles male quaerere gazas : 

nulla huic in lucro cura pudoris erit. 
istud templorum damno excidioque requirit ; 

hoc caelo iubeas ut petat : inde petet. 

mirum ni pulchras artes Romana iuventus 

discat et egregio sudet in eloquio, 
ut post iurisonae famosa stipendia linguae 

barbaricae ingeniis anteferantur opes, 
at qui sunt, quos propter honestum rumpere foedus 

audeat illicite pallida avaritia r 

^® crescenti nummo vulgo : crescentis nummi Baehrens. 

^^ fratrumque cod., Baehrens : patrumque vulgo. 

21 exitioque vulgo. 

25 iurgisonae clamosa impendia Heinsius. 

2' atqui vulgo. 

° Amphiaraus, for whom it meant death to take part in the 
Theban War, was betrayed by his wife for a golden necklace : 
c/. Hor. Od. III. xvi. 11-13 : Statins, Theb. VI. 187-213. 


Tims it was that iM-iphyla betrayed her Imshand's <* 
liidinic-phiee wlien she received the fjold that was 
the cause of her foul crime : thus it was that lon^^ 
ago through prison-bars there rained in corrujiting 
gold an adulterous stream on the lap of Acrisius' 
daughter.'' How culpably the unquenchable longing 
for possession stains our hearts with scandalous 
wickedness ! However boundless the gold o'er which 
Dives broods wakefully, within there seethes the 
accursed lust for adding to his wealth. Alas for the 
baleful poverty of the miser who is never rich ! His 
desire for a limitless heap of what he holds makes 
him a beggar. What fear is here of laws, what 
respect for what is ftiir, if 'neath his growing bullion- 
heap there lurk still more the pains of greed ? Taking 
the lives of kinsmen, shedding a father's blood comes 
readily to his mind : miserly hunger masters feeling. 
An evil quest after frail treasures is ever the rich 
man's way: in the matter of gain h^e will have no 
qualms of shame. Such gain it is he pursues, though 
it mean loss or destruction to temples : '^ bid him 
seek this in heaven and from heaven he will fetch it.'^ 
It is not unlikely that the young men of Rome learn 
fine accomplishments and sweat at distinguished 
rhetoric only in order that, after the glorious cam- 
paigns ^ of an eloquent lawyer's tongue, they may 
prize barbaric wealth above talent. Yet who are 
those (glib pleaders) thanks to whom pale avarice 
ventures on the forbidden crime of breaking an 

* Danae : cf . Hor. Od. III. xvi. 1-8 ; and Tiberianus' poem 
on gold, II. 7-8. 

•■ i.e. he sacrilegiously robs or fires them. 

^ An echo of Juvenal III. 78, in caelum iusseris, ibit. 

* Heinsius' emendation (meaning literally " the bawling out- 
lay of a loud litigious tongue ") gets rid of d before .stipejidia. 

pp 2 


Romani sermonis egent, ridendaque verba 

frangit ad horrificos turbida lingua sonos. 
sed tamen ex cultu appetitur spes grata nepotum ? 

saltern istud nostri forsan honoris habent ? 
ambusti torris species, exesaque saeclo 

amblant ut priscis corpora de tumulis ! 
perplexi crines, frons improba, tempora pressa, 

exstantes malae deficiente gena, 
simataeque iacent pando sinuamine nares, 

territat os nudum caesaque labra tument. 
defossum in ventrem propulso pondere tergum 

frangitur et vacuo crure tument genua, 
decolor in malis species, hoc turpius illud, 

quod cutis obscure pallet in invidiam. 

-^ egens vulgo. 

2^ ultu cod. : vultu Scaliger : cultu Oudendorp. 

^* amblant nt Baehrens : abtantur cod.: a,hduntnT vulgo: 
aptantur Vinetus. 

^^ caesaque cod. : scissaque vel fissaque Heinsms : crassaque 

^^ discolor cod. : corr. Heinsius. in manibus cod. : in 
mails Baehrens. 



honourable compact ? They are befjo:ared of Latin 
style, and their confused jargon minces ridiculous 
words to an accompaniment of shocking sounds. Yet 
does their dress prompt the younger generation to 
indulge pleasing hopes (of legacies) ? " Have they 
mavhap such a share at least of our Roman dignity ? 
No, theirs is the appearance of a burnt-out fire- 
brand : they walk like skeletons gnawed by time 
from ancient graves ! Their hair is tangled, fore- 
head impudent, temples thin, jaws protruding while 
their cheeks are sunken, and their flattened nostrils 
rest on a tip-tilted curve : the toothless mouth is a 
terror and the chapped lips are swollen. Forced down 
by the impetus of weight, back sinks to belly ; and 
the knees swell on a shrunken leg. Sallow is the 
look of their jaws, and it is an uglier feature that the 
skin wears a mysterious pallor suggestive of envy. 

" i.e. Can it be said for the misers that they dress well and 
in accordance with their wealth ? 





In the educational training: of the Middle Ages, 
when Donatus supplied the rudiments, an early and 
safe reading-book ^vas the compendium of practical 
ethics which passed under the name of " Cato." 
Here was a work with much of the unimpeachable 
but hackneyed morality of the copy-book headline, 
and a useful repertory of material for adorning the 
letters of a young student desirous of creating a 
good impression when he ^\Tote home. It is signifi- 
cant that Chaucer accounts for the foolish marriage 
of the carpenter in the Miller s Tale by remarking 
that " he knew not Catoun, for his wit was rude." 
This vade ineaun of proverbial wisdom has. however, 
bequeathed an extraordinary number of enigmas : 
its title and the meaning of the title, the date of 
different strata in our collections, the proportion 
borne by what we now possess to the larger corpus 
of Dicta Catonis once in existence, the relation of the 
single lines to the couplets, the disentanglement of 
pagan elements from Christian additions or altera- 
tions, and the textual criticism of what has been 
handed down to us, all constitute problems of 
considerable difficulty. 

Inscriptional evidence proves that about the end 
of the second century a.d. some of the proverbs 



were well enough known to be quoted." It is likely 
that an unknown author gave to his collection of 
wise saws the title of Cato, as an echo of the moral 
instruction addressed generations earlier by Cato 
the Censor to his son. The name " Dionysius," 
sometimes added, rests upon a doubtful testimony 
by Scaliger to the effect that it existed in a manu- 
script belonging to Bosius. If " Dionysius " has to 
be considered at all, it may be explained, on Haupt's 
theory,^ as due to a contamination of Cato's name 
with that of Dionysius, whose Periegesis, translated 
by Priscian, might have immediately preceded Cato 
in Bosius' manuscript. 

By the fourth century we have evidence that the 
Disticha enjoyed an extensive vogue, and the Irish 
monk Columbanus at the turn of the sixth century 
had access to a large body of moral verses whence 
to draw part of the collection of separate hexameters 
to which he added many lines from Christian sources. 
But wide use did not guarantee the preservation of 
the text. Some disticha became less popular for 
school-work than others ; extracts, excisions and 
transpositions were made ; and couplets were, by 
intention or chance, reduced to single lines {inono- 
sticha) amidst the confusion into which the collec- 
tion had fallen by the eighth century. It is, then, 
not an unreasonable supposition that a re-editing of 
the Catonian corpus took place in the Carolingian 
era ; and it is possible that the brief verses prefixed 
to Books II, III and IV of the Disticha date from 
that period. Our present collection opens with a 

« Distich. II. 3 is used in C.LL. VI. 11252. 
* M. Haupt, Opusc. I. 376. Cf. Boas, Phil. Woch. 1930, 
649 sqq. 



prose preface ostensibly directing? its precepts to a 
son {fli karissime) in what we might call a Cato-like 
manner, and between this preface and the Disticha 
are 57 brief prose senientiae, some only two words 
long. About these opinion is sharply divided. It 
has been, on the one hand, argued that some of 
them may be the oldest part of the sayings, that 
some may even go back to Cato the Censor himself, 
and that some at least were expanded later into 
disticha ; on the other hand, it has been argued that 
these breves sentetitioe may have constituted a sum- 
mary introduction based, as excerpts, upon a once 
much fuller collection of verse sayings. ° 

Despite the excisions and alterations to which 
Christian re-editing subjected the inferior ethics of 
the original collection, there have survived evident 
traces not merely of antiquity {e.g. in the prose 
sentences foro par(c)e or ad praetorium siato), but of 
pagan principles in the religious thought or the 
practical ad\ice. Thus, in the Disticha the polythe- 
istic an di sint of II. 2 must be the original text, and 
is combined with monotheism (ruitte arcana dei) in 
one manuscript only : II. 12, on divination, and 
IV, 38, on sacrifice, may be called pre-Christian, 
while IV. 14, on cleansing by a victim's blood, may 
possibly be directed against the doctrine of the 
atonement. Occasionally the ring is that of worldly 
cunning, I, 26, or selfishness in I, 11 and in the 
second line of III. 12. A wife's tears. III. 20, 
or her comiplaints about her husband's favourite 
slave, I, 8, must not, readers are enjoined, be too 

« Skutsch, in P.W. Rmlencyd. V., on "Dicta Catonis," 
maintains the priority of the prose sentences in opposition to 



much regarded. But, taken all in all, it is a sound 
if homely morality that is preached — respect for 
the lessons of books and of life, diligence in work, 
loyalty to friends, avoidance of quarrels, bravery in 
misfortune, temperance in prosperity, and — as 
Stoicism had taught — consideration for slaves. 

In the maxims can be discerned the human experi- 
ence of many generations, some of it going back to 
Greek originals and some of it touched with a 
literary reminiscence of Horace or Ovid. On the 
whole, the language is simple and clear, as befits 
proverbial wisdom, so that an archaism like mage 
{Praef. II. 2 ; Distich. II. 6 ; IV. 42) or a compound 
like officiperdi (IV. 42) stands out as something 
unusual. The closing distich emphasises the brevity 
aimed at in the couplets. Yet the very condensa- 
tion led to a monotony of clause-structure and of 
expression ; and this monotony is not redeemed by 
any great metrical variety in the hexameters. The 
prevailing merit, however, remains of a neat in- 
telligibility which suited both teacher and taught ; 
and this ensured for the collection its long career as 
an educational manual. " Catho " was one of the 
books printed during the early years of Caxton's 
work at Westminster. The distichs were para- 
phrased by Caxton's contemporary, Benedict Burgh, 
who expanded each couplet into the Chaucerian 
seven-lined stanza or rhyme-royal. Both text and 
paraphrase are extant in many fifteenth-century 
MSS., e.g. the Harleian 4733, and the volume, hand- 
somely illustrated with coloured miniatures, w^hich is 
now Peniarth MS. 481 in the National Library of 
Wales, Aberystwyth. The educational vogue of 
these disticha moralia is exemplified by their use 


durintj the eiiT^htecnth century in Scotland as an 
adjunct to Uuddinian's Rudiments of the Latin 
Tongue : they were, for example, included among 
the Prima Morum et Pietatis Praecepta, printed as a 
schoolbook at Kdinburtjh in 1784. 


D. Erasmus. Disticka moralia titulo Catonis . . . 
mimi Publiani . . . cum scholiis Erasmi. (?) Lon- 
don, 1514. 

M. Corderius. Catonis Disiicha Lat. et Gall, interpret. 
Oliva, 1561. 

P. Pithou. Catonis Disiicha. Paris, 1577. 

M. Corderius. Disticha moralia 7wmine Catonis 
inscripta c. Gall, interpretatione . . . et Graeca 
Planudae interpretatioiie. Paris. 1585. 

Jos. Scaliger. P. Syri sentent. et Dion. Catonis disticha 
graece redd. Leyden, 1598. 

P. Scriverius. Dionysii Catonis Disticha. Amster- 
dam, 1G35 and 1636. 

M. Z. Boxhorn. Catonis Disticha. Amsterdam, 1646. 

O. Arntzen. Utrecht 1735; Amst. 1754 (with the 
dissertations of Boxhorn, Cannegieter, and 

F. Hauthal. Berlin, 1869. 

E. Baehrens. Poet. Lat. Min. III. pp. 205-246. 

Leipzig, 1881. 

G. Nemethy. Ed. 2. Budapest, 1895. 


F. Zarncke. Der Deutsche Cato. Leipzig, 1852. 

H. J. Mueller. Symbolae ad emendandos scriptores 
Latinos. II. Quaestiones Cato?iianae. Berlin, 1876. 



J. Nehabs. Der altengUsche Cato. Berlin, 1879. 
M. O. Goldberg. Die Catonischen Distichen wdhrend 

des Mittelalters in eriglischen und franzosischen 

Literatur. Leipzig, 1883. 

E. Bischoff. Proleg. zu Dionysius Cato. Diss. Erlan- 

gen, 1890. 

F. Skutsch. Pauly-Wissowa, Realencycl. V. (1905) 

s.v. " Dicta Catonis." 
E. Steehert. De Catonis quae dicuntur disiichis. 

Greifswald, 1912. 
M. Boas. Der Codex Bosii der Dicta Catonis in 

Ehein. Mus. 67 (1912), pp. 67-93. 

For a list of translations into other languages see 
M. Schanz, Gesch. der rom. Lit., ed. 3, 1922, pp. 38- 
39 : to which may be added The Distichs of Cato 
translated into couplets, -vvith introductory sketch 
by Wayland J. Chase, Madison, U.S.A., 1922. 

(As in Baehrens, P.L.M. III. 206-211.) 

A = codex biblioth. capit. Veronensis 163 : saec. 

ix. (Imperfect and in confused order, though 

preserving many good readings. °) 
B = codex Matritensis 14, 22 : saec. ix. (Contains 

disticha up to I. 27, 1.) 
C = codex Turicensis 78 : saec. ix. 
D = codex scholae medicinalis Montepessulanae 306 : 
saec. ix. 

•* On this, the oldest codex, see K. Schenkl, Zeitschr. fur 
osterr. Gymn. 24 (1873), p. 485; C. Cipolla, Biv. di filol. 8 


K = codex \'ossianus L.(^. SC) : saec. ix.'* 

V = codex Ambrosianus C 74 : saec. x. [The last 

four are from a common original, CD and KF 

showing close agreement.] 
f = codiees inferiores, including Reginenses and 


[The codex Matritensis is regarded by M. Boas, 
along with Paris. 8093 saec. ix and A^aticanus Reg. 
2078 saec. x, as representing a Spanish-Gallic 
tradition of the vulgate collection, in contrast to a 
" Xeben-vulgata " and " Vor-vulgata " represented 
by Paris. 9347, Monacensis 19413 saec. xi, Vaticanus 
Barber. 8, 41 saec. xiii-xiv. See references at close 
of the Sigla given for the Monosiicha.'] 

The main departures from Baehrens' text are 
indicated in the apparatus criticus. 

" See H. J. Mueller, op. cit., pp. 17 sqq. 





Cum animadverterem quam plurimos graviter 
in via morum errare, succurrendum opinioni eorum 
et consulendum famae existimavi, maxime ut 
gloriose viverent et honorem contingerent. nunc 
te, fili karissime, docebo quo pacto morem animi 
tui componas. igitur praecepta mea ita legito, 
ut intellegas. legere enim et non intellegere 
neglegere est. 

Deo supplica. 

Parentes ama. 

Cognatos cole. 

Datum serva. 

Foro parce. 

Cum bonis ambula. 

Antequam voceris, ne accesseris. 

Mundus esto. 

Saluta libenter. 

Maiori concede. 

Incp dicta marci catonis ad filium suum A : Marci Catonis 
ad filium salutem litt. mai. rubr. B : Incipiunt libri Catonis 
philosophi litt. mai. D : tit. om. C : totum prologum om. EF. 

Prologus : ^ graviter in via morum BC s omnes : gravitate 
murum A. 

Sententiolae : ^ parce A : pare B ? nonnulli : para 
CD r nonnulli. 




As I noticed the very great number of those who 
go seriously astray in the path of conduct, I decided 
that I should come to the aid of their belief and 
take thought for their reputation, so that they might 
live with the utmost glory and attain honour. Now 
I will teach you, dearest son, how to fashion a 
system for your mind. Therefore, so read my pre- 
cepts as to understand; for to read and not to 
understand is to give them the go-by .° 

Pray to God. 

Love your parents. 

Respect your kindred. 

Guard what is given you. 

Avoid the market-place.^ 

Walk in good company. 

Don't approach, until you're invited. 

Be tidy. 

Salute willingly. 

Yield to your senior. 

° On the manuscript authority for the order of these 
sententiolae see Baehrens, P.L.M. III. pp. 206 and 214-215. 

* This seems to anticipate Bacon's warning against idola 
fori, misconceptions due to the careless notions of the Crowd. 



Magistratum metue. 

Verecundiam serva. 

Rem tuam custodi. 

Diligentiani adhibe. 

Familiam cura. 

Mutuum da. 

Cui des videto. 

Convivare raro. 

Quod satis est dormi. 

Coniugem ama. 

lusiurandum serva. 

Vino tempera. 

Pugna pro patria. 

Nihil temere credideris. 

Meretrieem fuge. 

Libros lege. 

Quae legeris memento. 

Liberos erudi. 

Blandus esto. 

Irascere ob rem {gravem). 

Neminem riseris. 

In iudicio adesto. 

Ad praetorium stato. 

Consultus esto. 

Virtute utere. 

Trocho lude. 

Aleam fuge. 

Litteras disce. 

22 te tempera r pauci. 



Honour a magistrate. 

Preserve your modesty. 

(iuard your own proj^erty. 

Practise diligenee. 

Take trouble for your household. 

Be willing to lend. 

Consider to whom you should give. 

Let your banquets be few. 

Sleep as much as suffices. 

Love your wife. 

Keep an oath. 

Be moderate with wine. 

Fight for your country. 

Believe nothing rashly. 

Shun a harlot. 

Read books. 

Remember what you read. 

Instruct your children. 

Be kind. 

Be angry for a serious cause. 

Mock no one. 

Support a friend in the law-court. 

Maintain your standing at the praetor's residence." 

Be conversant with the law. 

Practise virtue. 

Play with the hoop. 

Eschew dice. 

Study literature. 

" The praetor ium may be the official residence of a provincial 
governor, or the headquarters in a camp, or sometimes a 
great private mansion {e.g., Juvenal I. 75). The advice hero 
apparently is " keep in with the powers that be" or *' keep 
in with your patron." Erasmus took praetorium of a law- 
court, explaining " multa enim discuntur in agendis causis." 



Bono benefacito. 

Tute consule. 
Maledicus ne esto. 
Existimationem retine. 
Aequum iudica. 
Nihil mentire. 
Iracundiam rege. 
Parentem patientia vince. 
Minorem ne contempseris. 
Nihil arbitrio virium feceris. 
Patere legem quam ipse tuleris. 
Benefici accepti esto memor. 
Pauca in convivio loquere. 
Miserum noli irridere. 
Minime iudica. 
Alienum noli concupiseere. 
Illud aggredere quod iustum est. 
Libenter amorem ferto. 
Liberalibus stude. 



1. Si deus est animus, nobis ut carmina dicunt, 
hie tibi praecipue sit pura mente colendus. 

2. Plus vigila semper neu somno deditus esto ; 
nam diuturna quies vitiis alimenta ministrat. 

3. Virtutem primam esse puto, compescere linguam 
proximus ille deo est qui scit ratione tacere. 

4. Sperne repugnando tibi tu contrarius esse : 
conveniet nulli qui secum dissidet ipse. 

*° tute corruptum videtur : fortasse tuta consule A. M. Dujf. 
2. 1 neu A : nee BCDEF : ne r. 



Do good to a good man. 

Give safe adviee. 

Do not be abusive. 

Hold fast to your reputation. 

Judge fairly. 

Tell no lie. 

Control your anger. 

Overcome your parent with patience. 

Do not despise a younger man. 

Do nothing with the caprice of might. 

Accept the law which you yourself made. 

Bear in mind a benefit received. 

Say little at a banquet. 

Do not deride the wretched. 

Judge not at all. 

Do not covet what is another's. 

Undertake what is fair. 

Show affection gladly. 

Put zeal into noble pursuits. 


1. If God be spirit, as bards represent, 

He must be worshipped with a clean intent. 

2. Watch always more : sleep must not thee entice : 
Prolonged inaction serves up food for vice. 

3. To rule the tongue I reckon virtue's height : 
He's nearest God who can be dumb aright. 

4. Avoid the clash of inconsistency : 

Who fights with self, with no one will agree. 



5. Si vitam inspicias hominum, si denique mores, 
cum culpant alios : nemo sine crimine vivit. 

6. Quae nocitura tenes, quamvis sint cara, relin- 

que : 
utilitas opibus praeponi tempore debet. 

7. Clemens et constans, ut res expostulat, esto : 
temporibus mores sapiens sine crimine mutat. 

8. Nil temere uxori de servis crede querenti : 
semper enim mulier quem coniunx diligit odit. 

9. Cum moneas aliquem nee se velit ille moneri, 
si tibi sit carus, noli desistere coeptis. 

10. Contra verbosos noli contendere verbis : 
sermo datur cunctis, animi sapientia paucis. 

11. Dilige sic alios, ut sis tibi carus amicus ; 

sic bonus esto bonis, ne te mala damna sequan- 

12. Rumores fuge neu studeas novus auctor haberi; 
nam nuUi tacuisse nocet, nocet esse locutum. 

13. Spem tibi poUiciti certam promittere noli : 
rara fides ideo est, quia multi multa loquuntur. 

14. Cum te aliquis laudat, index tuus esse memento ; 
plus aliis de te quam tu tibi credere noli. 

15. Officium alterius multis narrare memento ; 
at quaecumque aliis benefeceris ipse, sileto. 

16. Multorum cum facta senex et dicta reprendis, 
fac tibi succurrant iuvenis quae feccris ipse. 

17. Ne cures, si quis tacito sermone loquatur : 
conscius ipse sibi de se putat omnia dici. 

18. Cum fueris felix, quae sunt adversa caveto : 
non eodem cursu respondent ultima primis. 

^2 1 neu studeas Baehrens : ne studeas A : ne (nee D) 
incipias ceteri omnes. 

13. 1 polliciti A : promissi BCDE : promissam F {et sic 
CE m. 2 corr.). 


5. Test but the life aiul ways of tlK-m who l)hinie 
Their fellows; all, you'll fnid, have faults the 


6. Gear that may harm forgo, however dear: 
Wealth yields to usefulness in time of fear. 

7. Be mild or firm as eircumstanees claim : 

A sage may change his outlook free from blame. 

8. A wife's complaints about the slaves mistrust : 
Her husband's favourite wakens her disgust. 

9. In warninjj one who fain would not attend, 
Drop not the endeavour, should he be your 


10. To fight the wordy you must words eschew : 
Speech is bestowed on all, sound sense on few. 

1 1 . Love other men ; yet be your own true friend : 
Do good to good men so no loss attend. 

12. Shun tattling, and the newest thing to say 
Seek not : closed lips hurt no one — speaking 


13. Think not hopes built on promises are sure : 
Much said by many seldom proves secure. 

14. When someone praises you, be judge alone : 
Trust not men's judgement of you, but your 


15. Let others' kindness frankly be revealed; 
Your own good turns to others keep concealed. 

16. When you, grown old, blame what folk do or 

Think what you did in your own youthful day. 

17. Reck not of what the whispering lip lets 

fall : 
Self-conscious men think they're the talk of all. 

18. In happy hours beware the hapless lot: 
What the start promises, the end is not. 



19. Cum dubia et fragilis nobis sit vita tributa, 
in morte alterius spem tu tibi ponere noli. 

20. Exiguum niunus cum dat tibi pauper amicus, 
accipito laetus, plane et laudare memento. 

21. Infantem nudum cum te natura crearit, 
paupertatis onus patienter ferre memento. 

22. Ne timeas illam quae vitae est ultima finis : 

qui mortem metuit, quod vivit, perdit id ipsum. 

23. Si tibi pro meritis nemo succurrit amicus, 
incusare deos noli, sed te ipse coerce. 

24. Ne tibi quid desit, quod quaesisti, utere parce ; 
utque, quod est, serves, semper tibi desse 


25. Quod dare non possis, verbis promittere noli, 
ne sis ventosus, dum vir bonus esse videris. 

26. Qui simulat verbis nee corde est fidus amicus, 
tu quoque fac simules : sic ars deluditur arte. 

27. Noli homines blando nimium sermone probare : 
fistula dulce canit, volucrem dum decipit auceps. 

28. Cum tibi sint nati nee opes, tunc artibus illos 
instrue, quo possint inopem defendere vitam. 

29. Quod vile est, carum, quod carum, vile putato : 
sic tu nee cupidus nee avarus nosceris uUi. 

30. Quae culpare soles ea tu ne feceris ipse : 
turpe est doctori, cum culpa redarguat ipsum. 

31. Quod iustum est petito vel quod videatur hones- 

tum ; 
nam stultum petere est quod possit iure negari. 

32. Ignotum tibi tu noli praeponere notis : 
coo;nita iudicio constant, incognita casu. 

^*' ^ quod quaesisti Baehrens : quod quaeris A. 
25, 1 verbis promittere noli Baehrens : nee bis {ex vis corr. 
m. 2) promittere noli A : noli promittere verbis Columb. 
'"• ^ redarguat Baehrens : arguat A : redarguit ceieri codd. 



Our life is but a frail uncertain breath : 
Rest not thy hopes, then, on another's death. 
When your poor friend ^ives of his poverty, 
Accept well pleased and thank him hand^^omely. 
A naked babe since nature fashioned thee, 
With patience bear the load of poverty. 
Fear not lest life's concluding]: l«'ip be niirh : 
He makes his life no life who dreads to die. 
If no friend helps you as your deeds demand. 
Tax not the gods but hold yourself in hand. 
Save up your gains lest you go short some day : 
To keep possessions, fancy they're away. 
Utter no promise that you cant redeem. 
Lest you inconstant prove, while kind you seem. 
The glib dissembler, faithless friend at heart, 
See that you copy : so art baffles art. 
Approve not men who wheedling nothings say : 
Fowlers pipe sweetly to delude their prey. 
Since sons you have — not wealth — such training 

Their minds that they, though poor, unharmed 

may live. 
Hold dear the cheap, and cheaply hold the 

dear : 
So none can say you hunt or hoard your gear. 
Do not yourself what you are wont to blame : 
When sin convicts the preacher's self, 'tis shame. 
Ask what is right or fair to human eye : 
Fools ask what others rightly may deny. 
Do not the unknown o'er the known advance : 
Known things on judgement hang, unknown on 


^2'^ notis noli praeponere amicis Baehrens. 



33. Cum dubia in certis versetur vita periclis, 
pro lucro tibi pone diem quicumque sequetur. 

34. Vincere cum possis, interdum cede sodali, 
obsequio quoniam dulces retinentur amici. 

35. Ne dubita, cum magna petes, impendere parva : 
his etenim presses contingit gloria raro. 

36. Litem inferre cave, cum quo tibi gratia iuncta 

ira odium generat, concordia nutrit amorem. 

37. Servorum culpa cum te dolor urguet in iram, 
ipse tibi moderare, tuis ut parcere possis. 

38. Quern superare potes interdum vince ferendo ; 
maxima enim est hominum semper patientia 


39. Conserva potius, quae sunt iam parta, labore : 
cum labor in damno est, crescit mortalis egestas. 

40. Dapsilis interdum notis et largus amicis 
cum fueris, dando semper tibi proximus esto. 


Telluris si forte velis cognoscere cultus, 
V^ergilium legito ; quodsi mage nosse laboras 
herbarum vires, Macer haec tibi carmina dicit ; 

^^•^ presses contingit gloria raro Baehrens : rebus coniungit 
gratia caros codd. omnes, sine sensu. 

*"• ^ largus edd. vett. : carus codd. ^ cum s" nonnulli : dum 
CDEF s- nonnuUi. dando Par. 2112 m. 1, Begin. 2078 in 
ras. : felix codd. ceteri, quod ortum videtur ex I. 18, I. 



33. Since our frail life through dangers sure must 

Count every day that comes as something won. 

34. Yield to your mate some points you well might 

score : 
Compliance keeps your friends attached the 

35. In mighty aims small cost you must not spare ; 
For those whom triHes cramp high fame is rare. 

36. Beware of strife with one close linked to thee : 
Anger breeds hate, love feeds on harmonv. 

37. If, stung by slaves' misdeeds, you've angry grown, 
Control yourself and so hurt not your own. 

38. Sometimes put up with him you might beat 

down ; 
Of human virtues patience is the crown. 

39. What you have won conserve at cost of pains : 
Want must increase, when labour brings no 


40. Though sometimes on your friends you lavish 

In giving always to yourself keep near." 


If perchance you fain would acquaint yourself 
with farming, read Virgil ; but if your struggle 
rather is to know the virtue of herbs, this is the 
poetry that Macer ^ offers you ; if you long to know 

" The self-regarding morality of this distich advises the 
generous man never to depart too far from his own interest. 

* The didactic poet Aemilius Macer of Verona (d. 16 b.c.) 
wrote a work De Ilerbis (Ovid, Trisl. lY. x. 43-44). 



si Romana cupis et Punica noscere bella, 
Lucanum quaeres, qui Martis proelia dixit; 
si quid amare libet vel discere amare legendo, 
Nasonem petito ; sin autem cura tibi haec est, 
ut sapiens vivas, audi quae discere possis, 
per quae semotum vitiis deducitur aevum : 
ergo ades et quae sit sapientia disce legendo. 

1. Si potes, ignotis etiam prodesse memento: 
utilius regno est meritis acquirere amicos. 

2. An di sint caelumque regant, ne quaere doceri : 
cum sis mortalis, quae sunt mortalia cura. 

3. Linque metum leti ; nam stultum est tempore 

in omni, 
dum mortem metuas, amittere gaudia vitae. 

4. Iratus de re incerta contendere noli : 
impedit ira animum, ne possis cernere verum. 

5. Fac sumptum propere, cum res desiderat ipsa; 
dandum etenim est aliquid, dum tempus postu- 

lat aut res. 

6. Quod nimium est fugito, parvo gaudere memento : 
tuta mage est puppis modico quae flumine 


7. Quod pudeat, socios prudens celare memento, 
ne plures culpent id quod tibi displicet uni. 

* romam veils et p. cognuscere {sic) A : civica pro punica 

2, 1 codd. omnes habent : mitte arc(h)ana dei caelumque 
inquirere quid sit, nisi quod C unus ante versum 2 inserit : 
an dii sint caelum qui (i ex corr.) regant nequ^re {sic) 
doceri ; ho,ec altera versus forma genuina iudicanda est, cum 
prior ilia colorem christianum prae seferat. 



of Roman and Punic" warfare, you \\\\\ svvk Lucan, 
who has recounted the combats of Mars; if your 
fiincy is to have a love-affair or by reading learn how 
to love, make for Ovid. But if your serious aim is a 
life of wisdom, hear what you may learn of things 
that ensure a course of life divorced from vice. Come 
then and, as you read, learn what wisdom is. 

1. To help even strangers, if you can, take pains : 
A crown counts less than friends whom kindness 


2. Ask not if Gods exist or are Heaven's kings : 
As thou art mortal, think of mortal things. 

3. Cease fearing death : 'tis folly day by day, 
For fear of death, to cast life's joys away. 

4. Temper in fighting rival claims eschew : 
Temper bars minds from seeing what is true. 

5. Make haste to spend when so the case desires ; 
For something must be given, as need requires. 

6. Pleased with small store, take care to avoid the 

extreme : 
Safer the craft that sails a moderate stream. 

7. What makes you blush 'fore friends decline to 

Lest many blame what you dislike alone.'' 

" If Punica be the right reading, did an erroneous super- 
scription on a manuscript of Lucan mislead the author of these 
lines? {Cf. H. Blass, Rhein. Mus. xxxi. p, 134.) Or has a 
verse referring to a poet other than Lucan, e.g. SiUus ItaUcus, 
dropped out of the text ? Lucan's Pfuirsalia narrated the 
civil war between Caesar and Pompey; Sihus' Punica the 
struggle of Rome against Hannibal. 

" One of the many prudential maxims : to confess openly a 
secret fault may invite ill-natured comment about what is 
really your own concern. 



8. Nolo putes pravos homines peccata lucrari : 
temporibus peccata latent, et tempore parent. 

9. Corporis exigui vires contemnere noli : 
consilio pollet cui vim natura negavit. 

10. Cui scieris non esse parem, pro tempore cede : 
victorem a victo superari saepe videmus. 

1 1 . Adversum notum noli contendere verbis : 
lis verbis minimis interdum maxima crescit. 

12. Quid deus intendat, noli perquirere sorte : 
quid statuat de te, sine te deliberat ille. 

13. Invidiam nimio cultu vitare memento : 

quae si non laedit, tamen hanc sufTerre moles- 
tum est. 

14. Esto animo forti, cum sis damnatus inique : 
nemo diu gaudet qui iudice vincit iniquo. 

15. Litis praeteritae noli maledicta referre : 
post inimicitias iram meminisse malorum est. 

16. Nee te coUaudes nee te culpaveris ipse ; 
hoc faciunt stulti, quos gloria vexat inanis. 

17. Utere quaesitis modice : cum sumptus abundat, 
labitur exiguo quod partum est tempore longo. 

18. Insipiens esto, cum tempus postulat aut res : 
stultitiam simulare loco, prudentia summa est. 

19. Luxuriam fugito, simul et vitare memento 
crimen avaritiae ; nam sunt contraria famae. 

20. Nolito quaedam referenti credere saepe : 
exigua est tribuenda fides, qui multa loquuntur. 

^' 2 tempore si Baehrens : temporibus codd. omnes, 

^*. ^ ferto Baehrens : esto codd. 

^^' ^ ipsum A, Baehrens : aut res ceteri codd. ^ ioco Baeh- 
rens : loco codd. cum tempore laus est A : prudentia summa 
est ceteri codd. 


8. Think not that wicked men fmd wronodoinjr 

gain : 
At times the wrung lies hid — in time 'tis plain. 

9. Strength housed in little frame do not disdain : 
In counsel men of slight physique may reign. 

10. When you're outmatched, to meet the case, 

retreat : ° 
Oft-times the vanquished will the victor beat. 

11. In wordy war do not engage thy friend; 
For trivial words in mighty strife may end. 

12. What God intendeth seek not to divine : 
His plans for thee require no aid of thine. 

13. Proud pomp will rouse men's jealousy, be 

sure : 
Though it mayn't hurt, it's irksome to endure. 

14. When judged unfairly, your own courage trust : 
None long has joy who wins through judge 


15. The quarrel past, its bitter words ignore : 
'Tis ill to think of wrath, when strife is o'er. 

16. Praise not yourself, nor to yourself take blame : 
Fools do so, plagued by love of empty fame.^ 

17. Make temperate use of gains : when all is cost, 
What took long time to get is quickly lost. 

18. Play the fool's part, if time or need advise : 
To act the fool at times is truly wise. 

19. Flee luxury, avoiding all the same 

The charge of avarice : both blot a name. 

20. Trust not those who for ever news relate : 
Slight faith is due to tongues that glibly prate. 

" Cf. the French reculer pour ynieiix sauter. 

* The second line refers more obviously to the first part of 
the preceding line, but insincere self-depreciation may be the 
form of vanity known as " fishing for compliments." 



21. Quae potus peccas ignoscere tu tibi noli ; 
nam crimen vini nullum est, sed culpa bibentis. 

22. Consilium arcanum tacito committe sodali, 
corporis auxilium medico committe fideli. 

23. Successu indignos noli tu ferre moleste : 
indulget Fortuna malis, ut vincere possit. 

24. Prospice qui veniant casus hos esse ferendos : 
nam levius laedit, quicquid praevidimus ante. 

25. Rebus in adversis animum submittere noli : 
spem retine ; spes una hominem nee morte 


26. Rem tibi quam nosces aptam dimittere noli : 
fronte capillata, post est Occasio calva. 

27. Quod sequitur specta quodque imminet ante 

videto : 
ilium imitare deum, partem qui spectat utram- 

28. Fortius ut valeas, interdum parcior esto : 
pauca voluptati debentur, plura saluti. 

29. Judicium populi numquam contempseris unus : 
ne nulli placeas, dum vis contemnere multos. 

30. Sit tibi praecipue, quod primum est, cura salutis ; 
tempora nee culpes, cum sis tibi causa doloris. 

31. Somnia ne cures; nam mens humana quod 

dum vigilans sperat, per somnum cernit id 

23. 1 successus nolito indigni {vel indignos) ferre Bmhrens. 
2 vincere A : laedere ceteri codd. 

26. 1 noris Baehrens : noscis CDEF r plerique : nosces s" 
pauci : scieris A. 

^"' 2 sit codd. : sis s" pauci. 

31, 2 vigilat codd. omties : vigilans edd. vet. verum Baehrens : 
sperat codd. ornnes. 



21. Your faults in drink should not your ])ardon 

\\'in : 
The wine is guiltless : 'tis the drinker's sin. 

22. Trust secret plans to friend who guards his 

And bodily treatment to a faithful leech. 

23. Chafe not against men's undeserved success : 
To bring it low Luck smiles on wickedness. 

24. Ills, as they come, prepare to undergo : 
What we've foreseen deals us a lighter blow. 

25. Let not your courage droop in darkest hours : 
Hope on ; for hope alone at death is ours.*^ 

26. Do not let slip the thing that suits your mind : 
Chance wears a forelock, but is bald behind. 

27. Observe the past and what impends foresee, 
Like Janus, facing both ways equally. 

28. For growth in strength, at times eat food in 

measure ; 
You owe more to your health than to your 

29. Ne'er stand alone to flout the general view : 
If you flout many, none may care for you. 

30. Your health, the chief thing, guard with might 

and main : 
Don't blame the season for your self-caused 

31. Reck not of dreams; in things which men 

Sleep sees the hopes of waking hours come 

° This is probably an instance where Christian thought has 
coloured the Disticha : " hope alone does not desert man — not 
even in death." 




Hoc quicumque volet carmen cognoscere lector, 
cuin praecepta ferat quae sunt gratissima vitae, 
commoda multa feret ; sin autem spreverit illud, 
non me scriptorem, sed se fastidiet ipse. 

1. Instrue praeceptis animum, ne discere cessa ; 
nam sine doctrina vita est quasi mortis imago. 

2. Cum recte vivas, ne cures verba malorum : 
arbitrii non est nostri quid quisque loquatur. 

3. Productus testis, salvo tamen ante pudore, 
quantumcumque potes, celato crimen amici. 

4. Sermones blandos blaesosque cavere memento : 
simplicitas veri forma est, laus ficta loquentis. 

5. Segnitiem fugito, quae vitae ignavia fertur ; 
nam cum animus languet, consumit inertia 


6. Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curls, 

ut possis animo quemvis sufFen-e laborem. 

7. Alterius dictum aut factum ne carpseris umquam, 
exemplo simili ne te derideat alter. 

8. Quod tibi sors dederit tabulis suprema notato, 
augendo serva, ne sis quem fama loquatm*. 

9. Ciuii tibi divitiae superant in fine senectae, 
munificus facito vivas, non parous, amicis. 

10. Utile consilium dominus ne despice servi : 

si prodest, sensum nuUius tempseris umquam. 

11. Rebus et in censu si non est quod fuit ante, 
fac vivas contentus eo quod tempora praebent. 

Ill prologum ita habet A : ceteri codices interponunt 
distichon primum inter versum 2 et versum 3 prologi. 

*. ' forma Barth : fama codd. omnes : norma Scriverius. 
laus f . loquentis A : fraus f. loquendi CDEF s'. 




Any reader who decides to study this poem will 
reap many advantages, as it offers maxims most 
acceptable for life ; but if he spurn it, he will show 
disdain not for me, its author, but for himself. 

1. Fail not to learn : equip your mind with rules ; 
Count as but death the life that never schools. 

2. Mind not ill tongues, if you live straight of soul : 
A neighbour's words are not in our control. 

3. If called to witness, hide as best you can 
A friend's misdeeds, but be an honest man. 

4. Beware of softly whispered flatteries : 
Frankness is mark of truth, flattery of lies. 

5. Shun slackness, which means idling all your 

days : 
With lazy minds sloth on the body preys. 

6. Sandwich occasional joys amidst your care 
That you with spirit any task may bear. 

7. Another's word or act ne'er criticise, 
Lest others mock at you in selfsame wise. 

8. A heritage bequeathed to you by will 

Keep and increase : so save your good name 

9. If you've abundant wealth, as old age ends. 

Be generous, not close-fisted, with your friends. 

10. Sound counsel from your slave do not despise : 
Spurn no man's view at all, if it is wise. 

11. If goods and income are not what they were. 
Live satisfied with what the times confer. 

®. 2 auge servando vel augendo cura iie segnem Withof. 


RR 2 


12. Uxorem fuge ne ducas sub nomine dotis, 
nee retinere velis, si coeperit esse molesta. 

13. Multorum disce exemplo, quae facta sequaris, 
quae fugias : vita est nobis aliena magistra. 

14. Quod potes id temptato, operis ne pondere 

succumbat labor et frustra temptata relinquas. 

15. Quod factum scis non recte, nolito silere, 
ne videare malos imitari velle tacendo. 

16. ludicis auxilium sub iniqua lite rogato : 
ipsae etiam leges cupiunt ut iure regantur. 

17. Quod merito pateris patienter ferre memento, 
cumque reus tibi sis, ipsum te iudice damna. 

18. Multa legas facito, perlectis neglege multa ; 
nam miranda canunt, sed non credenda poetae. 

19. Inter convivas fac sis sermone modestus, 
ne dicare loquax, cum vis urbanus haberi. 

20. Coniugis iratae noli tu verba timere ; 

nam lacrimis struit insidias, cum femina plorat. 

21. Utere quaesitis, sed ne videaris abuti: 

qui sua consumunt, cum dest, aliena sequuntur. 

22. Fac tibi proponas mortem non esse timendam : 
quae bona si non est, finis tamen ilia malorum 


23. Uxoris linguam, si frugi est, ferre memento ; 
namque malum est non velle pati nee posse 


24. Aequa diligito caros pietate parentes, 

nee matrem ofFendas, dum vis bonus esse parenti. 

^*. 2 inceptata Baehrens : temptata s nonnulli. 

15, 2 velle tnritare Baehrens. 

^^' 2 rogentur (i.e. adeantur) Baehrens : regantur E w.l. 

^8' ^ facito turn lectis Baehrens : factorum lectis CD. 

23. 2 tacere codd. : carere Withof. 



Do not for dowry's sake espouse a wife, 
Nor wish to keep her. if she causes strife. 
From men's behaviour learn what to pursue 
Or shun. The life of others gives the cue. 
Try what you can, lest by hard task foredone 
You fail and drop what you've in vain begun. 
Do not conceal ill deeds within your ken, 
Lest silence look like aping wicked men. 
If sued unfairly, ask the judge for aid : 
The very laws would fain be justly swayed. 
What you deserve to bear, with patience bear : 
And, when you're judge of self, you must not 

Read much, but, having read, with much dis- 
pense ; 
Bards' themes are wonders, but revolt the sense. 
Upon your talk, at dinners, set a bit, 
Lest you're dubbed " rattle," when you'd fain 

be " wit." 
Fear not the words your angry wife may say : 
A weeping woman plots but to waylay. 
Use your estate, yet shun extravagance : 
Want follows waste and begs for maintenance. 
Be this thy motto — " I do not dread death " : 
Death, if no boon, our troubles finisheth. 
A thrifty wife may talk and talk : endure : 
Lost patience and loud brawling are no cure. 
Love both your parents, one as much as other : 
To please your father never wound your mother. 




Semotam a curis si vis producere vitam 
nee vitiis haerere animi, quae moribus obsunt, 
haec praecepta tibi saepe esse legenda memento : 
invenies, quo te possis mutare, magistrum. 

1. Despice divitias, si vis animo esse beatus ; 
quas qui suspiciunt, mendicant semper avari. 

2. Commoda Naturae nullo tibi tempore derunt, 
si contentus eo fueris quod postulat usus. 

3. Cum sis incautus nee rem ratione gubernes, 
noli Fortunam, quae non est, dicere caecam. 

4. Dilige f te ornari, sed parce dilige formam, 
quam nemo sanctus nee honestus captat habere. 

5. Cum fueris locuples, corpus curare memento : 
aeger dives habet nummos, se non habet ipsum. 

6. Verbera cum tuleris discens aliquando magistri, 
fer patris imperium, cum verbis exit in iram. 

7. Res age quae prosunt ; rursus vitare memento, 
in quis error inest nee spes est certa laboris. 

8. Quod donare potes gratis concede roganti ; 
nam recte fecisse bonis in parte lucrorum est. 

9. Quod tibi suspectum est confestim discute quid 

namque solent, primo quae sunt neglecta, 
10. Cum te detineat veneris damnosa libido, 
indulgere gulae noli, quae ventris amica est. 

*> ^ olens nardum Baehrens : denarium codd. : te ornari 
Cannegieter. defuge odorem Baehrens : dilige formam codd. 
2 quem codd. (quod non congruit cum formam): quam vulgo. 
habere codd. : ab aere Scaliger. 




If you would lead a long life divorced from anxieties, 
and not cling to faults in the mind which harm 
character, then remember that you must often read 
these rules. You will find a teacher through whom 
you will be able to transform yourself. 

1. Scorn wealth, if you would have a mind care- 

freed : 
Its votaries are but beggars in their greed. 

2. Ne'er will you lack supplies from Nature's hands, 
If you're content with that which need demands. 

3. Reckless, haphazard steersman of your lot, 
Do not call Fortune blind : blind she is not. 

4. Love neatness : sho^^^ness love not amain, 
Which good and honest folk seek not to gain. 

5. Yourself, when you grow rich, treat well ; for 

The invalid o^^'ns, but does not own himself. 

6. At school you sometimes bear the teacher's cane : 
So 'gainst a father's angry words don't strain." 

7. Do what is helpful ; but from things recoil 
Where hazard leaves dim hope to honest toil. 

8. Give gratis what you can upon request : 
Befriending friends may be as gain assessed. 

9. Test quickly what it is that you suspect : 
Men end by suffering from what they neglect. 

10. When on some ruinous amour forced to spend. 
Indulge not gluttony, the belly's friend.^ 

" verbera and verbis make an excellent contrast in the 

* i.e. love in itself is ruinous enough ; but expensive feasts 
given in honour of a sweetheart may prove ruinous to health 
and purse. 



11. Cum tibi praeponas animalia bruta timore, 
unum hominem scito tibi praecipiie esse timen- 


12. Cum tibi praevalidae fuerint in corpore vires, 
fac sapias : sic tu poteris vir fortis haberi. 

13. Auxilium a notis petito, si forte labores ; 

nee quisquam melior medicus quam fidus amicus. 

14. Cum sis ipse nocens, moritur cur victima pro te ? 
stultitia est morte alterius sperare salutem. 

15. Cum tibi vel socium vel fidum quaeris amicum, 
non tibi fortuna est hominis sed vita petenda. 

16. Utere quaesitis opibus, fuge nomen avari: 
quid tibi divitiae, si semper pauper abundes ? 

17. Si famam servare cupis, dum vivis, honestam, 
fac fugias animo quae sunt mala gaudia vitae. 

18. Cum sapias animo, noli ridere senectam; 
nam quoicumque seni puerilis sensus inhaeret. 

19. Disce aliquid; nam cum subito Fortuna recessit, 
ars remanet vitamque hominis non deserit 


20. Prospicito tecum tacitus quid quisque loquatur : 
sermo hominum mores et celat et indicat idem. 

21. Exerce studio quam vis perceperis artem : 

ut cura ingenium, sic et manus adiuvat usum. 

22. Multum venturi ne cures tempora fati : 

non metuit mortem qui scit contemnere vitam. 

23. Disce sed a doctis, indoctos ipse doceto : 
propaganda etenim est rerum doctrina bonarum. 

II' ^ bruta Arntzen : cuncta codd. timore D : timere ceteri 

16, 2 divitias DF, Baehrens : divitiae C. 

18. 2 cuicumque seni edd. vet. : quocumque sene codd. : qui- 
cumque senet Scaliger. pueri bis Withof. inhaeret Baehrens : 
in illo est codd. 



1 ] . When fear of brute beasts harasses y<nir mind, 
Know what you most should dread is human 

12. If you have bodily strength in high degree, 
Add wisdom : so win fame for bravery. 

13. In straits ask those you know their aid to lend ; 
Xo doctor can surpass a trusty friend. 

1-i. Why dies a victim for you in your sin ? 

Grace through another's blood fools hope to win. 

15. Seeking a mate or friend who will be true, 
A man's life, not his fortune, you must view. 

16. Employ your gains : earn not a niggard's name : 
What boots your wealth, if you're in want the 

same ? 

17. If throughout life you'd keep an honoured name, 
Shun in your thought the joys which end in 


18. Don't mock old age, though you've a gifted 

brain : 
Old age must ever show a childish vein. 

19. Learn something; for when Luck is sudden 

Art stays nor ever leaves man's life alone. 

20. Look quietly out on what the city says : 
Men's talk at once reveals and hides their 


21. Practise with zeal an art once learned: as pains 
Help talent, so the hand, used deftly, trains. 

22. For fated hours to come show small concern : 
He fears not death who knows how life to spurn. 

23. Learn from the learned, but the unlettered 

teach : 
Far should the spread of wholesome knowledge 



24. Hoc bibe quo possis si tu vis vivere sanus : 
moibi causa mali minima est quaecumque 


25. Laudaris quodcumque palam, quodcumque pro- 

hoc vide ne rursus levitatis crimine damnes. 

26. Tranquillis rebus semper diversa timeto, 
rursus in adversis melius sperare memento. 

27. Discere ne cessa : cura sapientia crescit, 
rara datur longo prudentia temporis usu. 

28. Parce laudato ; nam quem tu saepe probaris, 
una dies, qualis fuerit, ostendit, amicus. 

29. Non pudeat, quae nescieris, te velle doceri : 
scire aliquid laus est, culpa est nil discere velle. 

30. Cum venere et baccho lis est et iuncta voluptas : 
quod lautum est animo complectere, sed fuge 


31. Demissos animo et tacitos vitare memento: 
quod flumen placidum est, forsan latet altius unda. 

32. Dum fortuna tibi est rerum discrimine prava, 
alterius specta cui sit discrimine peior. 

33. Quod potes id tempta ; nam litus carpere remis 
utilius multo est quam velum tendere in altum. 

34. Contra hominem iustum prave contendere noli ; 
semper enim deus iniustas ulciscitur iras. 

35. Ereptis opibus noli maerere dolendo, 
sed gaude potius, tibi si contingat habere. 

36. Est iactura gravis quaesitum amittere damno ; 
sed tibi cum valeat corpus, superesse putato. 

2^. 1 hoc adhibe vitae quo possis v. s. Baehrens. ^ mali est 
nimia est Baehrens. 

22, 1 tibist rerum Baehrens : rerum tibi sit A : tua rerum tibi 
ceteri codd. discrimine prava Baehrens : discrimine peior A : 
displicet ipsi ceteri codd. 



If you'd live healthy, drink in temperate 

measure : 
Oft ill diseases spring from trivial pleasure. 
What you've approved and lauded openly, 
Shun the reproach of damning flightily. 
When all is calm, dread ever fortune's change : 
Then, in bad times, your hope towards good must 

Fail not to learn ; for wisdom grows by pains : 
Mere long-drawn waiting rarely prudence gains. 
Praise sparingly ; for him you oft commend — 
One day reveals how far he has been friend. 
Blush not to wish, where ignorant, to be taught : 
Knowledge wins praise : drones wish to study 

With love and wine are strife and pleasure knit : 
Take to your heart the joy : the strife omit. 
Gloomy and silent men take care to shun ; 
Still waters haply all too deep may run. 
When fortune at a crisis serves thee ill. 
Look at that other who is served worse still. 
Try only what you can : 'tis wiser far 
To row inshore than sail beyond the bar. 
Strive not unfairly 'gainst an upright man : 
On wrath unjustified God sets a ban. 
When robbed of wealth, in anguish sorrow not : 
Rather rejoice in what falls to thy lot. 
To part with what toil won the loss is sore : 
Yet think, if health be thine, thou hast full 


33. 2 utiliu3 multo est A : tutius est multo s. 
3*^. 1 quaesitum a. damno A : quae sunt a. dam(p)ni3 ceteri 



37. Tempora longa tibi noli promittere vitae : 
quocumque incedis, sequitur Mors corporis 


38. Ture deum placa, vitulum sine crescat aratro : 
ne credas gaudere deum, cum caede litatur. 

39. Cede locum laesus Fortunae. cede potenti : 
laedere qui <(potuit> poterit prodesse aliquando. 

40. Cum quid peccaris, castiga te ipse subinde : 
vulnera dum sanas, dolor est medicina doloris. 

41. Damnaris numquam post longum tempus ami- 

mutavit mores, sed pignora prima memento. 

42. Gratior officiis, quo sis mage carior, esto, 
ne nomen subeas quod dicunt officiperdi. 

43. Suspectus cave sis, ne sis miser omnibus horis ; 
nam timidis et suspectis aptissima mors est. 

44. Cum servos fueris proprios mercatus in usus 

et famulos dicas, homines tamen esse memento. 

45. Quam primum rapienda tibi est occasio prona, 
ne rursus quaeras iam quae neglexeris ante. 

46. Morte repentina noli gaudere malorum : 
felices obeunt quorum sine crimine vita est. 

47. Cum coniunx tibi sit, ne res et fama laboret, 
vitandum ducas inimicum nomen amici. 

48. Cum tibi contigerit studio cognoscere multa, 
fac discas multa a vita te scire doceri. 

49. Miraris versus nudis me scribere verbis ? 
hoc brevitas fecit, sensu uno iungere binos. 

*^- ^ prona Baehrens : prima codd. ^ iam quae Baehrens : 
quae iam codd. 

*^. 2 multa a vita Baehrens : multa vita codd. te scire 
Baehrens : nescire codd. doceri EF : docere C. 

■*'. 2 sensu uno iungere Baehrens : sensu (-sum m. 2 corr.) 
coniungere A : sensus coniungere ceteri codd. 



37. Thyself to promise years of life forbear ; 
Death, like thy shadow, dogs thee everywhere. 

38. Spare calves to plough : heaven's grace ^^^th 

incense gain : 
Think not God loves the blood of victims slain. 

39. When stricken, yield to Fortune, yield to power: 
Who once could hurt may help in happier hour. 

40. For faults committed, oft yourself arraign : 
In treating wounds, the cure for pain is pain. 

•il. Never condemn your friend of many a year : 

If changed his ways, think how he once was dear. 

42. Show gratitude to bind affection's tie : 
Lest " ingrate " be the name you justify. 

43. Earn not suspicion lest you live in grief: 
Suspected cravens find in death relief. 

44. When you've bought slaves to serve your own 

sweet will. 
Though servants called, they're men, remember, 

45. The lucky chance you must secure with speed. 
Lest you go seeking what you failed to heed. 

46. Joy not when knaves come by a sudden end : 
Their death is blest whose life you can commend. 

47. Having a w-ife, wouldst save thy gear and fame ? 
Beware the friend who is but friend in name. 

48. Great knowledge you have gained from books, 

you own : 
Yet note that life has lessons to be known. 

49. You wonder that I write in these bare lines ? 
Terseness the couplet in one thought combines.* 

" An apology for the unadorned language of the distichs : 
the aim at brevity has prevented expansion, the object being 
to clinch one general thought in a couplet (or, if sensus 
coniungere hinos be read, "to combine two allied thoughts"). 




1. Laetandum est vita, nullius morte dolendum; 
cur etenim doleas a quo dolor ipse recessit. 

2. Quod scieris opus esse tibi, dimittere noli ; 
oblatum auxilium stultum est dimittere cui- 


3. Perde semel, socium ingratum quom noveris 

saepe dato, quom te scieris bene ponere dona. 

4. Dissimula laesus, si non datur ultio praesens : 
qui celare potest odium pote laedere quern vult. 

5. Qui prodesse potest non est fugiendus amicus, 
si laesit verbo : bonitas sine crimine nil est. 

6. Contra hominem astutum noli versutus haberi : 
non captare malos stultum est, sed velle cluere. 

7. Dat legem Natura tibi, non accipit ipsa. 

8. Quod tacitum esse velis verbosis dicere noli. 

9. Fortunae donis parvum tribuisse memento : 
non opibus bona fama datur, sed moribus ipsis. 

^. 2 nihil est A : an nulla est ? Baehrens in not. 

^. 2 velle cluere Baehrens : velle nocere A sine sensu. 

(As used by Baehrens in constituting his text.) 

[For the contribution of single lines from each 
manuscript, see P.L.M. III. pp. 212-213.] 

A = Vaticano-Palatinus 239 : saec. x. 
B = Vaticano-Reginensis 711 : saec. xi. 
C = Vaticano-Reginensis 300: saec. xi. 



1. Find joy in life ; grieve for the death of none. 
Why grieve for him from whom all grief has 


2. Never let slip the thing you know you need : 
They're fools who fail the proffered aid to heed. 

3. Your friend, ungrateful proved, dismiss ^^-ith 

haste : 
Give often, when you know your gifts well 

4. Conceal your wrong, if vengeance must be slow : 
Who hides his hate can injure any foe. 

5. Your useful friend, though by his words annoyed. 
Drop not ; there is no goodness unalloyed. 

6. To outwit craft, court not for guile a name : 
Trap rogues you may, but not therefrom seek 


7. On you falls Nature's law, not on herself. 

8. Don't tell a chatterbox what you'd keep quiet. 

9. As slight in worth the gifts of Fortune view : 
To character, not wealth, renown is due. 

D = Parisinus 8069 : saec. xi. 
E = Voravensis 111 : saec. xii. 
F = Marbodi codex S. Gatian. Turonensis 161. 

[For the Cambridge MS. in Gonville and Caius 
College, saec. ix, see H. Schenkl, Wien. Sitzungsher. 
143 (1901). For further views on the MSS. see 
M. Boas, Mnemos. 43 (1915), 44 (1916); Philol 74 
N.F. 28 (1917); Rhein. Mus. T2 (1917).] 




Utilibus monitis prudens accommodet aurem. 
Non laeta extollant animum, non tristia frangant. 
Dispar vivendi ratio est, mors omnibus una. 
Grande aliquid caveas timido committere cordi. 
Numquam sanantur deformis vulnera famae. 
Naufragium rerum est mulier male fida marito. 
Tu si animo regeris, rex es ; si corpore, servus. 
Proximus esto bonis, si non potes optimus esse. 
Nullus tarn parous, quin prodigus ex alieno. 
Audit quod non vult, qui pergit dicere quod vult. 
Non placet ille mihi, quisquis placuit sibi multum. 
Nulli servitium si defers, liber haberis. 
Vel bona contemni docet usus vel mala ferri. 
Ex igne ut fumus, sic fama ex crimine surgit. 
Paulisper laxatus amor decedere coepit. 
Splendor opum sordes vitae non abluit umquam. 
Improbus officium scit poscere, reddere nescit. 
Irridens miserum dubium sciat omne futurum. 
Mortis imago iuvat somnus, mors ipsa timetur. 
Quanto maior eris, tanto moderatior esto. 
Alta cadunt odiis, parva extoUuntur amore. 
Criminis indultu secura audacia crescit. 
Quemlibet ignavum facit indignatio fortem. 
Divitiae trepidant, paupertas libera res est. 
Haut homo culpandus, quando est in crimine casus. 
Fac quod te par sit, non alter quod mereatur. 
Dissimilis cunctis vox vultus vita voluntas. 
Ipsum se cruciat, te vindicat invidus in se. 
Semper pauperies quaestum praedivitis auget. 
Magno perficitur discrimine res memoranda. 
Terra omnis patria est, qua nascimur et tumulamur. 

" i.e. the very fact of envying a man is in itself {in se) i 
testimony to his merit. 



Let prudence to sound warnings lend an ear. 
Gladness must not transport, nor sorrow break. 
Life's way will vary : death is one for all. 
Trust not a faint heart with some high emprise. 
The wounds of base repute are never cured. o 

The wife who tricks her husband wrecks the home. 
King art thou, ruled by mind ; by body, slave. 
If short of best, then emulate the good. 
No thrift but will be free with others' gear. 
Say all you like ; you'll hear what you mislike. 10 

Who much hath pleased himself doth not please mc. 
To none subservient, you are reckoned free. 
Life's rule is — spurn your goods and face your ills. 
As fire gives smoke, a charge gives rise to talk. 
Love gradually relaxed begins to go. 15 

Wealth's glitter never washed a foul life clean. 
Rascals can ask a service, but not give. 
Mockers at woe should know the future's hid. 
Death's copy, sleep, delights : death's self affrights. 
The greater you are, be all the more restrained. 20 

Hate ruins high things, love exalts the small. 
Give rein to guilt, and daring grows secure. 
Wrath forces any coward to be brave. 
Where wealth brings panic, poverty is free. 
Man's not to blame when fortune is arraigned. 25 

Act as befits you, not as men deserve. 
In voice, look, life and will all are unlike. 
Self-racking Envy clears you in herself." 
The rich man's gain aye grows by poverty. 
Great crises foster deeds enshrined in thought. 30 

All the Earth's our home ; there we are born and 

s s 


Aspera perpessu fiunt iucunda relatu. 

Acrius appetimus nova quam iam parta tenemus. 

Labitur ex animo benefactum, iniuria durat. 

Tolle mali testes : levius mala nostra feremus. : 

Saepe labor siccat lacrimas et gaudia fundit. 

Tristibus afficiar gravius, si laeta recorder. 

Quid cautus caveas aliena exempla docebunt. 

Condit fercla fames, plenis insuavia cuncta. 

Doctrina est fructus dulcis radicis amarae. 

Cimi accusas alium, propriam priiis inspice vitam. 

Qui vinci sese patitur pro tempore, ^-incit. 

Dum speras, servis, cum sint data praemia sensis. 

Nemo ita despectus, quin possit laedere laesus. 

lUe nocet gravius quem non contemnere possis. 

Quod metuis cumulas, si velas crimine crimen. 

Consilii regimen virtuti corporis adde. 

Cum vitia alterius satis acri lumine cernas 

nee tua prospicias, fis verso crimine caecus. 

SufFragium laudis quod fert malus, hoc bonus edit. 

Si piget admissi, committere parce pigenda. 

Quod nocet interdum, si prodest, ferre memento : 

dulcis enim labor est, cum fructu ferre laborem. 

[Laetandum est vita, nuUius morte dolendum : 

cur etenim doleas, a quo dolor ipse recessit ?] 

Spes facit illecebras visuque libido movetur. 

Non facit ipse aeger quod sanus suaserit aegro. 

Ipsos absentes inimicos laedere noli. 

Ulcus proserpit quod stulta silentia celant. 

" solus habet A. cum data sint A. sensis Baehrens : 
saevis A : servis Mai. 

" Cf. Tennyson's " For a sorrow's crown of sorrow is 
remembering happier things " and Dante's " nessun maggior 
dolore che ricordarsi del tempo felice nella miseria." 

^ i.e. you are a slave if you cherish extravagant hopes, 
because your thoughts have no freedom from the imaginary 


Things hard to bear grow pleasant to relate. 

Keener our zest for the new than our grasp on the old. 

A good turn slips the mind, a wrong endures. 

No witness near — we'll easier bear our ills. 35 

Work often dries the tear and spreads delight. 

Memory of joys will aggravate my woes.* 

Caution and care you'll learn from others' case. 

Hunger is sauce : no dishes please the gorged. 

'Learning is pleasant fruit from bitter root. 40 

Ere you accuse, your own life first inspect. 

Who at fit moment yields is conqueror. 

Your hopes enslave you ; for your thoughts are bribed.^ 

None so despised as cannot hurt when hurt.*^ 

The man you could not slight can harm you more.^ 45 

Cloak crime with crime and you increase your fear. 

To bodily courage add the sway of thought. 

When ^^•ith sharp eye another's faults you mind, 

Not seeing yours, you're blamed in turn as blind. 

Praise voted to the bad disgusts the good. 50 

If irked by what you've done, don't do what irks. 

Harm sometimes must be borne, if found to suit ; 

For sweet the toil of bearing toil \\'ith fruit. 

[Find joy in life ; grieve for the death of none. 

Why grieve for him from whom all grief has gone ?] ^ 55 

Hope makes allurements : lust is stirred by sight. 

What you prescribe when well, you drop when sick. 

Don't hurt e'en enemies behind their backs. 

Sores spread in stealth by foolish silence hid. 

advantages you are counting on and allotting to yourself 
as if already won. 

'^ i.e. the veriest craven will retaliate : " even a worm will 

•* The thought is not very deep : the man with no chinks 
in his armour is one to be reckoned with. 

« In D : also in Appendix from Zurich and Verona MSS. 

ss 2 


Nemo reum laciet qui vult dici sibi verum. 
Vincere velle tuos satis est victoria turpis. 
Nonnumquam vultu tegitur mens taetra sereno. 
Quisque miser casu alterius solatia sumit. 
Vera libens dicas, quamquam sint aspera dictu. 
^'ir constans quicquid coepit complere laborat. 
Iniustus, qui sola putat proba quae facit ipse. 
Omne manu factum consumit longa vetustas. 
Haut multum tempus mentis simulata manebunt. 
Quicquid inoptatum cadit, hoc homo corrigat arte. 
Durum etiam facilem facit adsuetudo laborem. 
Robur confirmat labor, at longa otia solvunt. 
Ut niteat virtus, absit rubigo quietis. 
Sat dulcis labor est, cum fructu ferre laborem. 
Magni magna parant, modici breviora laborant. 
Ne crede amissum, quicquid reparare licebit. 
Non pecces tunc cum peccare impune licebit. 
Tristis adest messis, si cessat laeta voluptas. 
Absentum causas contra maledicta tuere. 

^^ haut multum E : haud ullum CF. mentis E : vanitas 
CF : bonitas Riese : gra vitas vel virtus Buecheler. 


Which may be regarded as Catonian 

Under the name of the Irish monk Columbanus 
(a.d. 543-615) there has come down a carmen mono- 
stichon in 207 verses constituting a set of rules for 
life (praecepta vivendi). While many are of Chris- 
tian origin, Baehrens selects about a quarter of 
these as being Catonian in source ; and Manitius 
thinks considerably more might be claimed under 
this head." Baehrens bases his text on Canisius in 



None hini arraigns who wants truth said to him. 6() 

'Tis a poor win to seek to beat your own. 
Cahn looks do sometimes cloak a loathsome mind. 
Another's woe consoles all wretched folk. 
Speak the truth freely, though the truth be hard. 
The steadfast strive to end a task begun. 65 

Unfair the man who approves his own acts only. 
Long lapse of time consumes all handiwork. 
'The mind's pretences will not long endure. 
Let man by skill make good unwelcome chance. 
Hard work grows easy to the practised hand. 70 

I^ong leisure saps the strength which work upbuilds. 
That worth may shine, let rest be free from rust. 
Sweet task it is to face a task and win." 
The great aim high ; plain folk ply humbler tasks. 
Whate'er may be recovered think not lost. 75 

Sin not in the hour when you may safely sin. 
Sad reaping comes, if joyful pleasure wanes. 
Champion the absent 'gainst backbiting tongues. 

" CJ. line 53 supra. 

his Thesaurus (Amsterdam, 1725),^ who used a codex 
Frisingensis. It gives the ascription to Columbanus 
— incipit Uhelliis cuiusdam sapientis et ut fertur heati 
Columba?ii. In the word sapientis may be detected 
an echo of " Cato the Philosopher." '^ Other manu- 
scripts are the codices Sa?igallefises, Lugdioiensis 190, 
and Parisifius 8092. 

« Gesch. der latein. Lit. des Mittelalters, I. (1911), pp. 181 
sqq. : cf. E. Diimmler, Poet. lot. aevi Karolini, I. 275-281. 

* First ed. Ingolstad, 1601. 

' The Disticha are entitled in the Parisinus 2659, saee. ix. 
liber (quartus) Catonis pkilosophi. The Montepessulanus has 
libri Catonis philosophi. 




Corporis exsuperat vires prudentia mentis. 
Ne tua paeniteat caveas victoria temet. 
Vir bonus esse nequit nisi qui siet omnibus aequus. 
Non tu quaeso iocis laedas nee carmine quemquam. ^ 
Sit servus mentis venter, sit serva libido. £ 

Eripe, si valeas, non suggere tela furenti. 1 

Saepe nocet puero miratio blanda magistri. 
Cum sapiente loquens perpaucis utere verbis. 
Egregios faciet mentis constantia mores. 
Felix, qui causam loquitur prudentis in aurem. 
Tantum verba valent, quantum mens sentiat ilia. 
Non erit antiquo novus anteferendus amicus. 
Moribus egregiis facias tibi nomen honestum. 
Cui prodest socius qui non prodesse probatur ? 
Res se vera quidem semper declarat honeste. 
Actibus aut verbis noli tu adsuescere pravis. 
Praemeditata animo levius sufferre valebis. 
Quae subito adveniunt multo graviora videntur. 
Felix, alterius cui sunt documenta flagella. 
Praemia non capiet, ingrato qui bona praestat. 
Omnis paulatim leto nos applicat hora. 
Ante diem mortis nullus laudabilis exstat. 
Doctor erit magnus, factis qui quod docet implet. 
Quod tibi vis fieri, hoc alii praestare memento. 
Quod tibi non optes, alii ne feceris ulli. 
Corripe prudentem : reddetur gratia verbis. 
Plus tua quam alterius damnabis crimina iudex. 

« CJ. Publilius Syrus, line 2. 



Presumably of Catoxian origin 

Foresight of mind surpasses bodily strength. 

Take care your victory bring you no regrets. 

He can't be good who is not fair to all. 

Wound no one, pray, with either jest or verse. 

'Let appetite and lust be slaves of mind. 5 

Seize, if you can, a madman's arms : lend none. 

A teacher's flattering wonder harms a boy. 

Talking wath sages, use but scanty words. 

Firmness of mind will make fine character. 

Blest he who states his case to wisdom's ear, 10 

As the heart feels, so much the worth of words. 

New friends must not be set before the old. 

By noble traits make yours an honoured name. 

Who gains by friend who stands no test of use ? 

Truth ever honourably declares herself. 15 

Do not grow used to evil acts or words. 

You'll bear more lightly what the mind fore-knew. 

Far heavier seem the strokes which sudden fall. 

Blest he who from another's scourging learns. 

Goods given to ingrates will bring no reward. 20 

Each hour slow moving steers us nearer death. 

Praiseworthy none stands out till day of death. 

Great teacher he who as he teaches acts. 

As you'd be treated, see you treat another.'* 

What you'd not like yourself, don't do to any. 25 

Reprove the wise : your words will bring you 

Thy faults, when judge, condemn more than 




Sis bonus idque bonis, laesus nee laede noeentera. 
Vir prudens animo est melior quam fort is in armis. 
Di\itias animo iniustas attendere noli. 
Semper avarus amat mendacia furta rapinas. 
Invidiae maculat famam mala pestis honestam. 
Nil sine consilio facias : sic facta probantur. 
Instanter facias, sors quae tibi tradat agenda. 
Improperes numquam, dederis munuscula si qua. 
Omnia pertractet primum mens verba loquelae. 
Sic novus atque novum vinum veterascat amicus. 
Alma dies noctem sequitur somnosque labores. 
Tempora dum variant, animus sit semper honestus. 
Corripe peccantem, noli at dimittere, amicum. 
Observat sapiens sibi tempus in ore loquendi ; 
insipiens loquitur spretum sine tempore verbum. 
lam magnum reddis modico tu munus amico, 
si ipsum ut amicus amas : amor est pretiosior auro. 
Dives erit semper, dure qui operatur in agro. 
Otia qui sequitur, veniet huic semper egestas. 
Omnibus est opibus melior vir mente fidelis. 
Qui bona sectatur prima bene surgit in hora. 
Multorum profert sapientis lingua salutem. 
Hostili in bello dominatur dextera fortis. 
Lingua ligata tibi multos acquirit amicos. 
Diligit hie natum, virga qui corripit ilium. 

*^ forte Baehrens : in ore cod. Fris. 

^^ hostili Baehrens : hostibus cod. Fris. 

^1 ligata tibi Baehrens : placata sibi cod. Fris. 



Treat well the good : though harmed, harm not the 

Men sage in mind excel the brave in arms. 
To unfair money-getting give no heed. 30 

Greed ever loves lies, theft and robbery. 
Fair fame is soiled by envy's cursed plague. 
Do naught uncounselled : so are deeds approved. 
What chance hands you to do, do earnestly. 
Never upbraid for any gifts you give. 35 

Thought, words and language first must handle all." 
Let time mature new friends just like new wine 
Kind day comes after night, toil after sleep. 
Times change : let honour always rule the mind. 
Reprove, but don't let go. your erring friend. 40 

Wise men respect the hour for utterance ; 
Fools out of season utter worthless trash. 
To a humble friend you give a handsome gift 
In friendly love : love counts for more than gold. 
Rich he'll be ever who toils hard afield. 45 

The quest of ease will in its trail bring want. 
The man of trusty mind excels all wealth. 
Who aims at gear is smart to rise at dawn. 
The sage's tongue reveals the health of many.'' 
In fighting foes, the strong right hand is lord. 50 

A tongue fast bound procures you many a friend/ 
He loves his son who chides him with the rod.*^ 

** i.e. reflection and discussion should precede action. 

* i.e. gives advice which, if acted on, will secure the general 

' i.e. silence may be golden in avoiding oflFence to others. 

^ This may be influenced by the Scriptures : e.g. Prov. xiii. 
24 "He that spareth his rod hateth his son; but he that 
loveth him chasteneth him betimes." 




The lines on the Muses were well kno^m in the 
Middle Ages, and, according to Baehrens, may well 
be the work of the composer of the Disticha. They 
are found in the follo^ving, among other, MSS. : — 

A = Turicensis 78 : saec. ix. 

B = Caroliruhensis 36 f. : saec. ix-x. 


Clio gesta canens transactis tempora reddit. 
dulciloquis calamos Euterpe flatibus urguet. 
comica lascivo gaudet sermone Thalia. 
Melpomene tragico proclamat maesta boatu. 
Terpsichore affectus citharis movet impetrat auget. 
plectra gerens Erato saltat pede carmine vultu. j: 
signat cuncta manu loquiturque Polymnia gestu. 
Urania <(arce) poll motus scrutatur et astra. 
carmina Calliope libris heroica mandat. 
mentis Apollineae vis has movet undique Musas, 
in medioque sedens complectitur omnia Phoebus. 

^ comicolas civo A : lascivio E. 

^ impetrat Baehrens : imperat codd. omnes. 

'"^ ita ponunt DE : 8, 9, 7 collomnt ABC et ceteri omnes. 

^ Urania arce poli Baehrens : Urania poli codd. omnes 
(poliq. B) : Uranie caeli vulgo. 

1^ medioque sedens Baehrens : medio residens codd. omnes 
{aut 10 aut 11 spurium putat Riese). 

" Cf. p. 434, supra, lines De Musis ascribed to Florus. Thei 
ascription of the above verses to " Cato " is doubtful. Burman, 
Anthol. Lat., Lib. I. No. 74, gives the heading " Musarum 



C = \'ossianus L.Q. 33 : saec. x. 

D = Cantabrigiensis, CoUegii S. Trinit. O. 4. 11: 

saec. x-xi. 
E = Parisinus 7930 : saec. xi. 

The title in A is simply Xomina Musarum ; but 
two MSS. ascribe the lines to Cato, viz. B Versus 
Catonis de Duisis vel jiominihus philorum (sic) and 
C hicipiunt versus Catonis philosophi de novem musis. 


To recreate the past is Clio's theme : 
Euterpe plies the pipes ^^^th tuneful breath : 
Thalia's joy is playful comedy : 
Melpomene utters woe with tragic cry : 
Tei-psichore's lute moves, wins and swells the heart: 
Lyric the song, dance, smile of Erato : 
Polymnia's hand marks all — she speaks in act: ^ 
Urania scans the sky and moving stars : 
Calliope records heroic lays. 
Apollo's varied thought each Muse inspires :° 
So Phoebus, mid them throned, combines their 

Inventa " and cites the parallel lines from the Anthologia 

" Polymnia or Polyhymnia was traditionally the Muse 
of sacred song, but varied provinces were at different periods 
assigned to her — rhetoric and even agriculture and geometry. 
A wall-painting from Herculaneum associated her with /jlvBovs 
(fabulas). It was a late development to assign pantomimus 
to her patronage, and the line refers to the expression of 
everything by gesture. 

'^ Apollo, as their patron, was known as Musagetes. 




This poem is subjoined to the Disiicka Catonis in 
the following manuscripts : 
A = Turicensis 78 : saec. ix. 
B = Reginensis 2078 : saec. ix-x. 
C = Parisinus 2772 : saec. x-xi. 
D = Reginensis 1414 : saec. xi. 
E = Parisinus 8319 : saec. xi. 

A gives no title : D gives Epitaphiujn Vitalis Mimi 
Filii Catonis, which Baehrens accepts : BC give 


Quid tibi, Mors, faciam, quae nulli parcere nosti ? 

nescis laetitiam, nescis amare iocos. 
his ego praevalui toto notissimus orbi, 

hinc mihi larga domus, hinc mihi census erat. 
gaudebam semper, quid enim, si gaudia desint, 

hie vagus ac fallax utile mundus habet ? 
me viso rabidi subito cecidere furores ; 

ridebat summus me veniente dolor, 
non licuit quemquam curis mordacibus uri 

nee rerum incerta mobilitate trahi. 
vincebat cunctos praesentia nostra timores 

et mecum felix quaelibet hora fuit. 
motibus ac dictis, tragica quoque veste placebam 

exhilarans variis tristia corda modis. 
fingebam vultus, habitus ac verba loquentum, 

ut plures uno crederes ore loqui. 

^ amara coni. Burman. 

• curis mordacibus uri Baehrens : mordacibus urere curis 
codd. (ordac. B. curris B, C m. 1). 


Epitajium Jilii Cat{h)onis ; and E EpitaphiU Vitalis 
mimi. Burman, Aiith. Lat., Lib. IV. No. 20, and 
Meyer, Atith. vet. Lat., 1173, have the poem under 
the heading J'italis mimi. Its late period is shown 
in the shortening of the final syllable in jiescis \. 2 
and crederes 1. 16. The German monk Ermenrich 
of the ninth century, writing to Grimald, cites 
nescis as a trochee " in epitaphio Catonis Censorini 
dicentis " (where dice?itis, it may be guessed, is 
an attempt to include the lines as among Dicta 


How shall I treat thee, Death, who sparest none? 

Thou knowst not mirth, knowst not the love of fun : 

Yet all the world in these my merit knew — 

Hence came my mansion, hence my revenue. 

I always wore a smile : if smiles be lost. 

What boots a world in wayward trickery tossed ? 

At sight of me wild frenzy met relief: 

My entrance changed to laughter poignant grief. 

None felt the canker of anxiety 

Nor worried mid this world's uncertainty. 

O'er every fear my presence won success : 

An hour with me was ever happiness. 

In tragic role my word and act could please. 

Cheering in myriad ways hearts ill at ease : 

Through change in look, mien, voice I so could run 

That many seemed to use the lips of one. 

" veste Buecheler : verba codd. : voce PitJioeus. 

^' angebam CD. loquentu E corr. : loquentur codd. 

^® crederis codd., nisi quod in A e supra i m. 1 est positum. 


ipse etiam, quern nostra oculis geminabat imago, 

horruit in vultus se magis isse meos. 
o quotiens imitata meos per femina gestus 

vidit et erubuit totaque muta fuit ! 
ergo quot in nostro vivebant corpore formae, 

tot mecum raptas abstulit atra dies, 
quo vos iam tristi turbatus deprecor ore, 

qui titulum legitis cum pietate meum : 
" o quam laetus eras, Vitalis " dicite maesti, 

" sint tibi di tali, sint tibi fata modo ! " 

^' meos per femina Baehrens : meo = se = femine A : meos 
es semina BCD : meo se femina E. gestus Baehrens : gestu codd. 

2" muta Baehrens : mata CD : mota E : nata B : compta 
A interpolate. 

^^ vivebant Goetz : videbantur codd. (videantur E) : ride- 
bant Hauthal. 



The man whose double on the stage I seemed 

Shrank, as my looks his very own he deemed. 

How oft a woman whom my gestures played 

Saw herself, blushed, and held her peace dismayed ! 

So parts which I made live by mimicry 

Dark death hath hurried to the grave with me.*^ 

To you who with compassion read this stone 

I utter my request in saddened tone : 

Say sadly : " Glad, Vitalis, did you live : 

Such gladness may the Gods and fates thee give ! " 

" abstulit aim dies (22) is from Virg. Aeri. VI. 429. 

^^ raptas Pithoeiis : raptor codd. (rapitor E). 
^* titulum Burman, Schroder : tumulum codd. 
** di tali Baehrens : vitalis codd., nisi qvod vitalis m. 1 in 
dii tales corr. A. fata Heinsius : laeta codd. e glossa. 





It is not surprising that poets and historians, 
Latin as well as Greek, should have felt the magnet- 
ism of legends concerning the phoenix, a strange 
Eastern bird of brilliantly varied plumage, reappear- 
ing in loneliness at long cyclic intervals after an 
aromatic and musical death, which was at once a 
mysterious loss and a mysterious renewal of life. 
Even in its pagan forms — for it varied considerably 
in detail — the story had undeniable attraction.^ 
The earliest reference traceable is one in Hesiod ^ 
to the bird's longevity. Herodotus' contact with 
Egypt impelled him to mention the story of its re- 
emergence at Heliopolis every 500 years — a cyclic 
period doubled and even further increased by other 

" See W. H. Roscher Ausjuhrliclies Lexicon der griech. u. 
rom. Mythologie, 1902-1909, III. 2. col. 3450-3472 for an 
account of the Phoenix {^o7viO in literature and in both pagan 
and Christian art, e.g. on coins as a symbol of eternity and 
rejuvenation. Here it must suffice to select some representa- 
tive references : Herod. II. 73; Ovid.-lw. II. vi. 54, Met. XV. 
392-407 ; Stat. Silv. II. iv. 36 ; Sen. Epist. xlii. 1 ; Plinv, S.H. 
X. 3-5; Tac. Ann. VI. 28; Aur. Vict. De Caesaribus 4; 
Claudian, De Cons. Stil. II. 414-420, Carm. min. xxvii (xliv). 

* Fragm. 163 (222), 3-4, ed. GoettUng, 1878 = Loeb ed. 
of Hesiod, etc., p. 74, aurap 6 <f>olvi.$ ivv^a fiev KopaKas sc. 
YT]pdaK€Tai, " the phoenix Uves nine times longer than the 
raven." The idea is echoed in the " reparabilis ales" of 
Ausonius, Bk. VII. Edog. v. 5-6 (Loeb ed.). 

TT 2 


authorities. Ovid fitted the description of the nest 
into the last book of his Metamorphoses', and at a 
subsequent date Statius conceived the fancy of a 
still happier phoenix untouched by the lethargy of 
age. The rarity of the fabulous bird struck Seneca 
as a good analogy to the infrequent occurrence of a 
perfect Stoic sage. Pliny in his Natural History 
touches with considerable minuteness upon the 
bird's nest of spices, its habits, and the groA\i;h of 
its offspring ; while the news that it had been seen 
in Egypt in the year a.d. 34 draws from Tacitus an 
account of its periodic death and the transport of 
the father's body by the new phoenix to the altar 
of the Sun. Towards the end of the classical period 
we note the continued attraction of the theme for 
Claudian, not only in an elaborate simile of half a 
dozen lines in his De Consulatu Stilichonis, but also 
in the 110 hexameters which he almost certainly 
modelled upon our extant elegiac Phoenix. This is 
most commonly ascribed to Lactantius, the pupil of 
Arnobius in oratory, who was professor of rhetoric 
at Nicomedia early in the fourth century and who 
later in the West became the instructor of Prince 
Crispus by the invitation of Constantine. As his 
conversion from paganism did not divorce him from 
ancient culture, Lactantius attained distinction 
among early Christian authors for the beauty and 
eloquence of his Latin style. 

But no more surprising than the semi-romantic 
pagan appeal of the phoenix fable is the fact that 
Christian writers should have found an added 
symbolic fascination in such features as its Oriental 
paradise and its resurrection to life through death. 
Prima facie, then, there seems little to startle one 



in the ascription to Lactantius ; but, in fact, the 
authorship of the Phoenix has Ion": been under dis- 
cussion. It is easy to discover in the poem both 
pagan and Christian constituents. Baehrens indeed 
argues tliat the pagan element is enough to invah- 
date the traditional ascription (supported by certain 
MSS.<* of the poem) to so unquestionably Christian 
an author. To meet this objection Brandt has 
argued that the Phoenix was composed by Lactantius 
before his conversion; and Pichon, who minimises 
the Christian colour, is so sure that the pagan 
touches would have been unacceptable to a Christian, 
that he holds the only possible alternatives to be 
the composition of the poem either by Lactantius 
at a pre-Christian stage or by a different author who 
was pagan. Yet such " contamination " of con- 
flicting strains does not seem to be an insuperable 
barrier to the prevailing belief: indeed it is rather 
to be expected in the age and circumstances of 
Lactantius. Baehrens, who, like Ribbeck, rejects 
the Lactantian authorship, is not convinced by 
Dechent's study of similarities in phraseology be- 
tween our poem and the unquestioned works of 
Lactantius. As regards the testimony by Gregory 
of Tours ^ in the sixth century to a poem on the 
phoenix which he summarises and ascribes to Lac- 
tantius, Baehrens eventually concluded^ that Gregory 

« See the Sigla. 

' De cursu stellarum 12, p, 861. Our poem is quoted eight 
times under the name of Lactantius in a short anonymous 
treatise de dubiis nominibus (between Isidore of Seville and the 
ninth century) ; and it is significant that Alcuin cites Lactantius 
as a Christian poet in his list of books in the library at York 
(F. Diimmler, Poet. lat. aev. Carol. I. p. 204). 

' P.L.M. III. pp. 250-252. 



had not before him the same poem as we have, but 
a lost one by Lactantius. On Jerome's authority 
we know that Lactantius wrote a ohoLnopiKov from 
Africa to Nicomedia, presumably when he went on 
Diocletian's invitation to teach rhetoric in that 
city; and it is Baehrens' suggestion that into this 
narrative of his own journey eastwards he might 
have appropriately worked an account of the fabled 
Oriental bird, using our extant poem (according to 
Baehrens, by a pagan) but adding Christian colour. 
The hypothesis next assumes that after the sup- 
posed disappearance of Lactantius' poem monkish 
copyists made an incorrect ascription of the surviving 
poem to the " Christian Cicero," being misled by 
the outward resemblances in it to Christian ideas and 
by the knowledge that a Phoenix had actually been 
composed by Lactantius. It will be noted that the 
monks, if this guess be true, did not find the pagan- 
ism of the poem so much of a stumbling-block as 
Baehrens and Pichon have done. But the majority 
of critics, including Ebert, Manitius, Riese, Birt and 
Dechent, have been satisfied with a less elaborate 
theory and have accepted our poem as Lactantius' 
authentic work. 

For English readers the Phoenix possesses special 
historical and literary interest as the basis of 
an early Anglo-Saxon Phoenix in alliterative ac- 
centual verse. Its author, whether the North- 
umbrian Cynewulf or not — for here too there is a 
dispute — undoubtedly modelled the earlier portion 
of his poem upon the extant Latin poem. Here 
again, as in the original, we meet the earthly para- 
dise, partly a plain, partly " a fair forest where 
fruits fall not " (wuduholt wijnlic,waestmas ne dreosa'b). 



Here too, familiar as in the ancient source, are the 
bird's unrivalled notes of song, its flight to the 
Syrian palm-tree in the fullness of a thousand years, 
the building of its nest, its own admirable beauty, 
its strange death and birth to fresh life. But the 
adaptation is free. The English borrower omits 
as he wishes. Phaethon and Deucalion vanish. 
Phoebus' car becomes " God's candle." Even the 
texture of the Anglo-Saxon proem on the far Eastern 
land where the marvellous bird dwells is interwoven 
with Biblical thought. Such expansion is still more 
noticeable in the later part, where a transition is 
made from the mystery of the phoenix's sex and 
birth to analogies with the life of the elect; and, 
when the ways of the phoenix are treated as symbolic 
of the Christian life, the English poem departs 
entirely from the Latin original. 


Apart from editions of Lactantius (e.g. ed. prijiceps, 
Rome, 1468; M. Thomasius, Antwerp, 1570; 
Gallaeus, Leyden, 1660): 

Gryphiander. Jena, 1618. 

Burman. In his Claudimi. Amsterdam, 1760. 

Wernsdorf. In P.L.M. III. Altenburg, 1782. 

A. Martini. Liineburg, 1825. 

H. Leyser. Quedlinburg, 1839. 

A. Riese. In AnthoL Lot. 1863; ed. 2. Leipzig, 

L. Jeep. In his Claudian, vol. ii. Leipzig, 

E. Baehrens. In P.L.M. III. Leipzig, 1881. 




A. Ebert. In Allgeme'nie Gesckickie der Lit. des 

Mittelalters im Ahendlande. Leipzig, 1874, ed. 2, 

G. Goetz. In Acta Societ. philol. Lips. V. p. 319 sqq. 
H. Klapp. In Progr. gymn. Wandsbeckiani. 1875. 
A. Riese. Ueber den Phoenix des Lactaniius, Rk. 

Mus. xxxi. 1876. 
H. Dechent. Ueber die Echtkeit des Phoenix von 

Lactaniius, Rh. Mus. xxxv. 1880, pp. 39-55. 
M. Manitius. In Geschichte der christl.-latein. Poesie. 

Stuttgart, 1891. 
O. Ribbeck. In Geschichte der r'om. Dichtu7ig, III. 

p. 364. Stuttgart, 1892. 
S. Brandt. Zum Phoenix des Lactaniius, Rh. Mus, 

xlvii. 1892. 
A. Knappitsch. De Lactaniii Ave Phoenice. Graz, 

R. Pichon. Lactance : J^tude sur le mouvement philo- 

sophique et religieux sous le regne de Constaniin. 

Paris, 1901. 
C. Pascal. Sul carme de ave Phoenice. Naples, 1904. 
. / carmi De Phoenice in Leiteraiura latina 

medievale : Nuovi Saggi. Catania, 1909. 
C. Landi. De Ave Phoenice : il carme e il suo autore 

in Aiti e memorie di Padova, 31, 1914-1915. 

(As in Baehrens' P.L.M. III. pp. 247-249.) 

A = Parisinus 13048 : saec. viii, scriptura lango- 
bardica exaratus inter Venantii Fortunati 
poemata, fol. 47^-48^ versus 1-110, sine titulo 



B = codex bibliothecae capitularis \''eronensis 163: 
saec. ix, continens Claudianiim maxime cuius 
post " Phoenicem " legitur nostrum carmen, 
fol. 14'*-19^, cum hac inscriptione iiefn Lacta(n)tii 
de eadem ave. 

C = Vossianus L.Q. 33 : saec. x : fol. 73^-75^, 
versus Lactantii de ave Pkoenice habet. 

O = consensus codicum melioris notae vel communis 


D = codex Cantabrigiensis [Bibl. Univers. Gg. 5.35] : 
saec. xi, qui inter multa poemata Christiana 
fol. 168=^-170^, habet " Phoenicem " praemisso 
titulo : Incipit libellus de fenice, paradisi ut 
feriiir hahitatrice. Quidam ferunt Lactantium 
hunc scripsisse lihellum. 

E = Bodleianus F. 2. U: saec. xii, fol. 126M28b, 
sine inscriptione libellum continens. 

9 = pauca quae correctiora leguntur in codicibus 
saeculo xiv maximeque xv scriptis. 

[For the large number of late and inferior manu- 
scripts see A. Martini's edition, 1825.] 




Est locus in primo felix oriente remotus, 

qua patet aeterni maxima porta poli, 
nee tamen aestivos hiemisve propinquus ad ortus, 

sed qua Sol verno fundit ab axe diem, 
illic planities tractus diflfundit apertos, 

nee tumulus crescit nee cava vallis hiat, 
sed nostros montes, quorum iuga celsa putantur, 

per bis sex ulnas imminet ille locus. 
hie Solis nemus est et consitus arbore multa 

lucus perpetuae frondis honore virens. 
cum Phaethonteis flagrasset ab ignibus axis, 

ille locus flammis inviolatus erat ; 
et cum diluvium mersisset fluctibus orbem 

Deucalioneas exsuperavit aquas, 
non hue exsangues Morbi, non aegra Senectus 

nee Mors crudelis nee Metus asper adest 
nee Scelus infandum nee opum vesana Cupido 

aut Ira aut ardens caedis amore Furor ; 
Luctus acerbus abest et Egestas obsita pannis 

et Curae insomnes et violenta Fames, 
non ibi tempestas nee vis furit horrida venti 

nee gelido terram rore pruina tegit ; 

16 adest AB : adit CDE. 

1^ aut metus (c/. v. 16) : aut Mars edd. vet. : Venus Ouden- 
dorp : Pavor Goetz : Letum Biese : hue meat Birt : aut Ira 


There is a fiir-off land, blest amid the first streaks 
of dawn, where standeth open tlie mightiest portal 
of the everlasting sky, yet not beside the risings of 
the summer or the winter Sun, but where he sheds 
daylight from the heavens in spring. There a plain 
spreads out its open levels; no knoll swells there, 
no hollow valley gapes, yet that region o'ertops 
by twice six ells our mountains whose ridges are 
reckoned high. Here is the grove of the Sun, a 
woodland planted with many a tree and green with 
the honours of eternal foliage. When the sky went 
ablaze from the fires of Phaethon's car, that region 
was inviolate from the flames ; " it rose above the 
waters on which Deucalion sailed, when the flood had 
whelmed the world in its waves. ^ Hither no bloodless 
Diseases come, no sickly Eld, nor cruel Death nor 
desperate Fear nor nameless Crime nor maddened 
Lust for wealth or Wrath or Frenzy afire with the love 
of murder ; bitter Grief is absent and Beggary beset 
with rags and sleepless Cares and violent Hunger. '^ 
No tempest raveth there nor savage force of wind : 
nor does the hoar-frost shroud the ground in chilly 

" For Phaethon's disastrous driving of the car of his father 
Apollo see Ovid, Met. II. 1-332. 

* Deucalion's ark saved him and Pyrrha during the primeval 

' The personifications are largely based on Virg. Aen. VI. 
274 .sy?. 



nulla super campos tendit sua vellera nubes 

nee cadit ex alto turbidus umor aquae, 
sed fons in medio, quern vivum nomine dicunt, 

perspicuus, lenis, dulcibus uber aquis ; 
qui semel erumpens per singula tempora mensum 

duodeciens undis irrigat omne nemus. 
hie genus arboreum procero stipite surgens 

non lapsura solo mitia poma gerit. 

hoc nemus, hos lucos avis incolit unica Phoenix, 

unica, si vivit morte refecta sua. 
paret et obsequitur Phoebo memoranda satelles : 

hoc Natura parens munus habere dedit. 
lutea cum primum surgens Aurora rubescit, 

cum primum rosea sidera luce fugat, 
ter quater ilia pias immergit corpus in undas, 

ter quater e vivo gurgite libat aquam. 
tollitur ac summo considit in arboris altae 

vertice, quae totum despicit una nemus, 
et conversa novos Phoebi nascentis ad ortus 

exspectat radios et iubar exoriens. 
atque ubi Sol pepulit fulgentis limina portae 

et primi emicuit luminis aura levis, 
incipit ilia sacri modulamina fundere cantus 

et mira lucem voce ciere novam, 
quam nee aedoniae voces nee tibia possit 

musica Cirrheis adsimulare modis ; 

25 sed O : est Baehrens. 

32 sed : si (= siquidem) Baehrens. 

33 memoranda : veneranda Baehrens. 
*' voces : fauces Baehrens. 



damp. Above the plains no cloud stretches its 
fleece, nor falleth from on high the stormy moisture 
of rain. But there is a well in the midst, the well 
of life they call it, crystal-clear, gently-flo^\'ing, rich 
in its sweet waters : bursting forth once for each 
several month in its season, it drenches all the grove 
twelve times with its flood. Here is a kind of tree 
that rising with stately stem bears mellow fruits 
which will not fall to the ground. 

In this grove, in these woods, dwells the peerless 
bird," the Phoenix, peerless, since she lives renewed 
by her own death. An acolyte worthy of record,* 
she yields obedience and homage to Phoebus : such 
the duty that parent Nature assigned to her for observ- 
ance. Soon as saffron Aurora reddens at her rising, 
soon as she routs the stars with rosy light, thrice 
and again that bird plunges her body into the kindly 
waves, thrice and again sips water from the living 
flood. Soaring she settles on the topmost height of 
a lofty tree which alone commands the whole of the 
grove, and, turning towards the fresh rising of 
Phoebus at his birth, awaits the emergence of his 
radiant beam. And when the Sun has struck the 
threshold of the gleaming portal and the light shaft 
of his first radiance has flashed out, she begins to 
pour forth notes of hallowed minstrelsy and to sum- 
mon the new day in a marvellous key which neither 
tune of nightingale nor musical pipe could rival in / 

" " alone of its kind," " unparalleled " : cf. Ovid Am. II. 
vi. 54, et vivax phoeniz, tmica semper avis. 

^ In most accounts the phoenix appears as a male bird 
{pater, etc.). Contrast, however, Ovid's unica avis {I.e.) 
with Claudian's Titanius ales {Carm. Min. xxvii.7) and his 
idem (masc.) in De Cons. Stil. II. 415. AureUus Victor, De 
Caesaribus 4, has quam volucrem in reference to the phoenix. 



sed neque olor moriens imitari posse putetur 
nee Cylleneae fila canora lyrae. 

postquam Phoebus equos in aperta effudit Olympij.^ 

atque orbem totum protulit usque means, 
ilia ter alarum repetito verbere plaudit 

igniferumque caput ter venerata silet. 
atque eadem celeres etiam discriminat horas 

innarrabilibus nocte dieque sonis, 
antistes luci nemorumque verenda sacerdos 

et sola arcanis conscia, Phoebe, tuis. 
quae postquam vitae iam mille peregerit annos 

ac sibi reddiderint tempora longa gravem, 
ut reparet lapsum spatiis vergentibus aevum, 

adsuetum nemoris dulce cubile fugit ; 
cumque renascendi studio loca sancta reliquit, 

tunc petit h unc orb em, Mors ubi regna tenet, 
derigit in Syriam celeres longaeva volatus, 

Phoenicen nomen cui dedit ipsa vetus, 
securosque petit deserta per avia lucos, 

hie ubi per saltus silva remota latet. 
tum legit aerio sublimem vertice palmam, 

quae Graium Phoenix ex ave nomen habet, 
in quam nulla nocens animans prorepere possit, 

lubricus aut serpens aut avis ulla rapax. 

*' sed : et Baehrens. 

*" ac si A : ac se BCDE : et sic Barth : ac sibi Hoevfft. 

®^ dirigit : derigit Baehrens. 

^® vetus DE : vaetus A : vetustas BC : Venus Heinsius, 

** sic ubi post DE : hie ubi per edd. vet. 

'° Graium A : gratum ceferi. 

^^ prorepere A : proripere B : prorumpere ceteri. 

"^ From Cirrha near Parnassus. 
^ An allusion to Mercury's early association with Mount 
CyUene in Arcadia. 



Cirrhean " modes ; nay, let not the dying swan be / 
thought capable of imitating it, nor yet the tuneful 
strings of Cyllcnean ^ lyre. 

After Phoebus has given his steeds the rein into 
the open heavens and in ever onward course brought 
forth his full round orb,^ then that bird with thrice 
repeated beat of the wing yields her applause, and 
after three obeisances to the fire-bearing prince 
holds her peace. She it is also who marks oif the 
swift hours by day and night in sounds which may 
not be described, priestess of the grove and awe- 
inspiring ministrant of the woods, the only confidant 
of thy mysteries, Phoebus. When she has already 
fulfilled a thousand years of life ^ and long lapse of 
time has made it burdensome to her, she flees from 
her sweet and wonted nest in the grove, so that in 
the closing span she may restore her bygone exist- 
ence, and when in passion for re-birth she has left 
her sacred haunts, then she seeks thisjvyoi'ld where 
Death holds sovereignty. Despite her length of 
years she directs her swift flight into Syria, to which 
she herself of old gave the name of" Phoenice," and 
seeks through desert wilds the care-free groves, here 
where the sequestered woodland lurks among the 
glades. Then she chooses a palm-tree towering with 
airy crest which bears its Greek name " Phoenix " 
from the bird : against it no hurtful living creature 
could steal forth, or slippery serpent, or any bird of 

' Possibly " revealed the whole wide world " (c/. Virg. Aen. 
IV. 118). 

■* Tac. Ann. VI. 28 gives 500 years as the usually accepted 
length of the Phoenix-cycle, but he mentions also 1461 years 
{i.e. the " magnus annus " = 365 j x 4). Martial V. vii. 2 gives 
decern snecula, and Pliny 1000 years, a round figure adopted by 
Claudian and Ausonius. 



turn ventos claudit pendentibus Aeolus antris, 

ne violent flabris aera purpureum, 
neu concreta Noto nubes per inania caeli 

submoveat radios solis et obsit avi. 
construit inde sibi seu nidum sive sepulcrum : 

nam perit ut vivat, se tamen ipsa creat. 
colligit huic sucos et odores divite silva, 

quos legit Assyrius, quos opulentus Arabs, 
quos aut Pygmeae gentes aut India carpit 

aut moUi generat terra Sabaea sinu. 
cinnamon hie am*amque procul spirantis amomi 

congerit et mixto balsama cum folio, 
non casiae mitis nee olentis vimen acanthi 

nee turis lacrimae guttaque pinguis abest. 
his addit teneras nardi pubentis aristas 

et sociat murrae vim, Panachaea, tuae. 
protinus instructo corpus mutabile nido 

vitalique toro membra vieta locat. 
ore dehinc sucos membris circumque supraque 

inicit exsequiis immoritura suis. 
tunc inter varios animam commendat odores, 

depositi tanti nee timet ilia fidem. 

'^ hinc : hue Riese : hviic Baehrens. 

®* panacea r Wernsdorf. 

^° quieta CDE : quiete AB : vieta Heinsius. 

°- Cf. Claudian, Carm. Min. xxvii. 44, bustumque sibi 
partumque futurum. 

^ The Pygmies were considered legendary dwarfs of Egypt or 
Ethiopia : the allusions are to both African and Asiatic spices. 

" terra Sabaea ~ Arabia Felix, whose chief town Saba was 
famed for its myrrh and frankincense. 

** Cf. Ovid, Met, XV. 398, Tuirdi lenis aristas. 



prey. Then Aeolus imprisons the winds in over- 
arching grottoes, lest their blasts harass the bright- 
gleaming air, or the cloud-wrack from the South 
banish the sunrays throughout the empty tracts of 
heaven and do harm to the bird. Thereafter she 
builds herself a cradle or sepulchre " — which you 
will — for she dies to live and yet begets herself. 
She gathers for it from the rich forest juicy scented 
herbs such as the Assyrian gathers or the wealthy 
Arabian, such as either the Pygmaean races or 
India ^ culls or the Sabaean '^ land produces in its 
soft bosom. Here she heaps together cinnamon and 
effluence of the aromatic shrub that sends its breath 
afar and balsam with its blended leaf. Nor is there 
lacking a slip of mild casia or fragrant acanthus or 
the rich dropping tears of frankincense. Thereto 
she adds the tender ears ^ of downy spikenard, 
joining as its ally the potency of thy myrrh, Pana- 
chaea.^ Forthwith in the nest she has furnished 
she sets her body that awaits its change — ^^^thered 
limbs on a life-gi\-ing couch : thereafter with her 
beak she casts the scents on her limbs, around them 
and above, being appointed to die in her own funeral./ 
Then she commends her soul ^ amid the varied 
fragrances without a fear for the trustworthiness of 

* The usual form is Panchaia, a fabled island east of Arabia, 
famous for precious stones and myrrh. Cf. Virg. Georg. II. 
139 : Plin. X.H. X. 4. 

f This paradoxical idea is introduced by the preceding lines 
which picture the bird as laying out her own body, and, by 
throwing perfumes on herself, performing a ritual usually 
assigned to mourners : immoritura is echoed in 95, corpus 
genitali morte peremptum. 

9 One of the Christian notes in the poem : cf. 64, hunc 
orbem mors uhi regna tenet. With 94 cf. 2 Timothy I. 12, 


u u 


interea corpus genitali morte peremptura 

aestuat et flammam parturit ipse calor, 
aetherioque procul de lumine concipit ignem : 

flagrat et ambustum solvitur in cineres. 
quos velut in massam cineres umore coactos 

conflat ; et efFectum seminis instar habet. 
hinc animal primum sine membris fertur oriri, 

sed fertur vermi lacteus esse color : 
creverit immensum subito cum tempore certo 

seque ovi teretis colligit in speciem, 
inde reformatur quali fuit ante figura 

et Phoenix ruptis puUulat exuviis : 
ac velut agrestes, cum filo ad saxa tenentur, 

mutari tineae papilione solent. 
non illi cibus est nostro consuetus in orbe 

nee cuiquam implumem pascere cura subest ; 
ambrosios libat caelesti nectare rores, 

stellifero tenues qui cecidere polo, 
hos legit, his alitur mediis in odoribus ales, 

donee maturam proferat effigiem. 
ast ubi primaeva coepit florere iuventa, 

evolat ad patrias iam reditura domus. 
ante tamen, proprio quicquid de corpore restat, 

ossaque vel cineres exuviasque suas, 

^^ in more ABC : in morte D, Wernsdorf : in monte E : 
umore Ritschl, Baehrens : alii alia. 

^"3 it tener in densum duratus Baehrens : alii alia. 

107-108 pQ^i iQ2 ponit Baehrens. 

^°8 pinnae AB : pennae ceteri : tineae Didacus Cotiar- 
ruvias episcopus Segobiensis, teste Thomasio : cf. Ovid, Met. 
XV. 372-4. 

1"^ concessus : consuetus Baehrens. 

^^° in verbis cura subest desinit codex A. 


a deposit so great. Meanwhile her body, by birth- 
giving death destroyed, is aglow, the very heat pro- 
ducing flame and catching fire from the ethereal 
light afar : it blazes and when burned dissolves into 
ashes. These ashes she welds together, as if they 
were concentrated by moisture in a mass, possessing 
in the result what takes the place of seed." There- 
from, 'tis said, rises a living creature first of all 
^^^thout limbs, but this Morm is said to have a 
milky colour : when suddenly at the appointed hour 
it has grown enormously, gathering into what looks 
like a rounded egg, from it she is remoulded in 
such shape as she had before, bursting her shell and 
springing to life a Phoenix ; 'tis even so that larvae 
in the country fastened by their threads ^ to stones 
are wont to change into a butterfly. Hers is no 
food familiar in this world of ours : 'tis no one's 
charge to feed the bird as yet unfledged : she sips 
ambrosial dews of heavenly nectar fallen in a fine 
shower from the star-bearing sky. Such is her 
culling, such her sustenance, encompassed by fragrant 
spices until she bring her appearance to maturity. 
But when she begins to bloom in the spring-time of 
her youth, she flits forth already bent on a return 
to her ancestral abodes. Yet ere she goes, she takes 
all that remains of what was her own body — bones 
or ashes and the shell that was hers — and stores it 

' The simile from metallurgy seems violent as applied to a 
substance endowed with the seeds of life. With umore coactos 
cf. Virg. G. IV. 172-173 ■■^tridentia tingv.nt aera lacu, of dipping 
metal in the blacksmith's watertank. 

* The passage, like Ovid, Met. XV. 372^, has silkworms in 
view. Thomasius thought mxa should be taxa, presumably 
in the sense of yew branches, an invention of which Wernsdorf 
does not approve. 

uu 2 


unguine balsameo murraque et ture soluto 

condit et in formam conglobat ore pio. ] 

quam pedibus gestans contendit Solis ad urbem 

inque ara residens ponit in aede sacra, 
mirandam sese praestat praebetque videnti : 

tantus avi decor est, tantus abundat honor, 
principio color est qualis sub sidere caeli 

mitia quern corio punica grana tegunt ; 
qualis inest foliis, quae fert agreste papaver, 

cum pandit vestes Flora rubente polo, 
hoc mneri pectusque decens velamine fulget, 

hoc caput, hoc cervix summaque terga nitent ; 
caudaque porrigitur fulvo distincta metallo, 

in cuius maculis purpura mixta rubet ; 
alarum pennas lux pingit discolor. Iris 

pingere ceu nubes desuper acta solet ; 
albicat insignis mixto viridante smaragdo 

et puro cornu gemmea cuspis hiat ; 

^^^ ortus (e versu 41) : urbem ed. Gryphiandri 1618. 

123 vehentes B : vehentis E : videnti vulgo : verendam 

124 ubi B : ibi CDE : avi Heinsius. 

125-6 principio : puniceus Heinsius : purpureus Burman ■: 
praecipuus Baehrens : qualis sub sidere caeli : qualis sub 
cortiee laevi Heinsius. qu(a)e croceo BE : qui croceo CD : 
quern croceum Heinsiits : quae corio Goetz. legunt : tegunt 
Heinsius : quali sunt, sidere Cancri mitia quae corio, Punica, 
grana tegunt Baehrens. 

128 flore : Flora vulgo. caelo BC : polo B m. 2 : flore 
rubente novo Baehrens. 

"1 fulvo BC : flavo DE. distenta BC : distincta DE : cf. 
vers. 141. 



in balsam oil, myrrh, and frankincense set free,** 
rounding it into ball-shape with loving beak. Bear- 
ing this in her talons she speeds to the City of the 
Sun,^ and perching on the altar sets it in the hallowed 
temple. Marvellous is her appearance and the show 
she makes to the onlooker : such comeliness has the 
bird, so ample a glory. To begin with, her colour 
is like the colour which beneath the sunshine of the 
sky ripe pomegranates cover under their rind "^ ; 
like the colour in the petals of the wild poppy when 
Flora displays her garb at the blush of dawn. In 
such a dress gleam her shoulders and comely breast : 
even so glitter head and neck and surface of the 
back, while the tail spreads out variegated with a 
metallic yellow, amid whose spots reddens a purple 
blend. The wing-feathers are picked out by a con- 
trasted sheen, as 'tis the heaven-sent rainbow's way 
to illuminate the clouds. The beak is of a fine 
white with a dash of emerald green, glittering jewel- 
like in its clear horn as it opens. You would take 

" i.e. dissolved from the form of roundish tears of gum resin. 

* The usual form of the legend, as in Ovid, Mela and Tacitus, 
gives Heliopolis as the destination, i.e. a westward instead of 
the eastward flight suggested by solis ad ortus of the MSS. 
Pliny, S.H. X. 4, has in Solis urhem. 

' Thetext of 125-126 is difficult. Wernsdorf reads j>rn?cipjo 
cdor est, qualis sub cortice laevi (= levi), mitia quern croceum 
punica grana legunt. Baehrens' text is given in the apparatus 
criticus. The editors do not consider either reading satisfact- 
ory. For qualis followed by the relative cf. Liv. VIII. 39, 
acies qualis quae esse in^tructissima potest : Calp. Sic. iv. 160, 
talis erit qualis qui . . . 

^22 harum inter pennas insigneque desuper iris DE : 
clanim Wernsdorf: alarum Bitschl. lux pingit discolor, Iris 

1'* aura : alta s : acta Heinaius, Baehrens. 




ingentes oculos credas geminos hyacinthos, 

quorum de medio lucida flanmia micat ; 
aptata est toto capiti radiata corona 

Phoebei referens verticis alta decus ; 
crura tegunt squamae fulvo distincta metallo, 

ast ungues roseo tingit honore color, 
effigies inter pavonis mixta figuram 

cernitur et pictam Phasidis inter avem. 
magnitiem terris Arabum quae gignitur ales 

vix aequare potest, seu fera seu sit avis, 
non tamen est tarda, ut volucres quae corpore 

incessus pigros per grave pondus habent, 
sed levis ac velox, regali plena decore : 

talis in adspectu se tenet usque hominum. 
hue venit Aegyptus tanti ad miracula visus 

et raram volucrem turba salutat ovans. 
protinus exsculpunt sacrato in marmore formam 

et titulo signant remque diemque novo, 
contrahit in coetum sese genus omne volantum, 

nee praedae memor est ulla nee ulla metus. 
alituum stipata choro volat ilia per altum 

turbaque prosequitur munere laeta pio. 
sed postquam puri pervenit ad aetheris auras, 

mox redit ; ilia suis conditur inde locis. 
a fortunatae sortis finisque volucrem, 

cui de se nasci praestitit ipse deus ! 

^*' aequataq ; : aptatur Oudendorp : aptata est Ritschl 
arquata est Baehrens. noto BD : notho C : nota E 
toto Wernsdorf : croceo Klapp : summo vel nitido Ritschl 
rutilo Baehrens. 

^*^ ad B : at C : a, Is. Vossius : sat Baehrens. filisque 
volucTum BC : fatique volucrem edd. vet. : finisque volu- 
crem 75. Vossius. 



for twin sapphires those great eyes from between 
whicli shoots a bright flame. All over the head is 
fitted a crown of rays, in lofty likeness to the glory 
of the Sun-god's head. Scales cover the legs, which 
are variegated with a metallic yellow, but the tint 
which colours the claws is a wonderful rose. To 
the eye it has a blended semblance between the 
peacock's appearance and the rich-hued bird from 
Phasis." Its size ^ the winged thing that springs 
from the Arabs' lands is scarce able to match, 
whether wild animal it be or bird.^ Yet 'tis not 
slow like large-sized birds which are of sluggish 
movement by reason of their heavy weight, but 'tis 
light and swift, filled with a royal grace : such is its 
bearing ever to the eyes of men. Egypt draws 
nigh to greet the marvel of so great a sight and the 
crowd joyfully hails the peerless bird. Straightway 
they grave its form on hallowed marble and with a 
fresh title mark both the event and the day.'^ Everyi 
breed of fowl unites in the assemblage : no bird 
has thoughts of prey nor yet of fear. Attended by 
a chorus of winged creatures, she flits through the 
high air, and the band escorts her, gladdened by 
their pious task. But when the company has reached 
the breezes of ether unalloyed, it presently returns : 
she then ensconces herself in her true haunts. Ah, 
bird of happy lot and happy end to whom God's 
own vn\\ has granted birth from herself I Female or 

" The pheasant. 

* niagnitiem is unparalleled. 

' cUes is a reference to the ostrich or strouthiocamdos, 
which was so called from its camel-like neck, and which might 
be considered either land animal or bird. 

•^ i.e. in their joy over the periodic return of the Phoenix. 



femina vel mas haec, seu neutrum, seu sit utrumque, 

felix quae veneris foedera nulla colit : 
mors illi venus est, sola est in morte voluptas : 1< 

ut possit nasci, appetit ante mori. 
ipsa sibi proles, suus est pater et suus heres, 

nutrix ipsa sui, semper alumna sibi — 
ipsa quidem, sed non eadem quia et ipsa nee ipsa est, 

aeternam vitam mortis adepta bono. 1' 

^*^ sic Heinsius et Wernsdorf : discrepant codices : femina 
seu mas est seu neutrum : belua feUx Baehrens. 

1** colit : coit Baehrens. 

1^' sic i ei Wernsdorf: omiserunt et CD : non <eadem est> 
eademque nee ipsa est Baehrens. 



male she is, which you will — whether neither or / 
both, a happy bird, she regards not any unions of 
love : to her, death is love ; and her sole pleasure 
lies in death : to win her birth, it is her appetite 
first to die. Herself she is her own offspring, her 
o^\^l sire and her own heir, herself her own nurse, 
her own nurseling evermore — herself indeed, yet 
not the same ; because she is both herself and not * 
herself, gaining eternal life by the boon of death. 





In most of the extant MSS. the name of the author 
of these forty-two fables is given (in the genitive) 
Aviani. Two of our principal MSS. (A and RarvL), 
however, have Avieni. If one may judge from 
inscriptions, Avianius was a commoner name than 
Avianus. Between Avienus and Avienius there is 
not enough material on which to form a judge- 
ment. Since, however, there is no trace of the 
ending ~ii in any of our MSS., we may venture to 
limit ourselves to the question of Avianus as against 

The suggestion has been made that the writer of 
the fables was identical with Rufius Festus Avienus, 
author of w^orks entitled Aratea and Descripiio Orbis 
Terrae. Chronology agrees, it is true ; but there are 
two grave objections: the fables and the Aratea are 
poles asunder in style ; and the author of the Aratea 
is designated in full in the MSS. Ruji Festl Avieni, 
while the prevailing description of the fabulist is 
simply Aviani. A more possible suggestion is that 
our fabulist was the Avienus who took part in the 
symposium described in the Saturnalia which was 
A\Titten early in the fifth century by Macrobius 
Theodosius. The theory appears more likely, if we 
agree that ad Theodosium in the title of the dedi- 



catory letter means Macrobius Theodosius ^ and 
neither of the emperors named Theodosius, although 
two MSS. {Rawl. and Reg.) have imperatorem in 
apposition to Theodosium. Other arguments are 
given by Ellis (Proleg. p. xiv) in favour of this 
particular Avienus ; but nothing in the way of proof 
is forthcoming, and the prevalence of " Aviani " 
in the MSS. militates against it. It seems, then, 
best to conclude that the fables are the work of an 
unknown Avianus, who wrote about a.d. 400 in the 
lifetime of Macrobius and dedicated his work to him. 
Cannegieter and Lachmann, denying that the 
Theodosius of the preface was either of the emperors 
or Macrobius, argued that Avianus lived in the 
middle of the second century a.d. Cannegieter 
based his theory partly on the fact that the preface 
omits Julius Titianus (a fabulist of about a.d. 200 
mentioned by Ausonius) from the list of Avianus' 
predecessors. Therefore, he held, Avianus must 
have preceded Titianus. This argument from silence 
is demolished by Wernsdorf 's reply that Avianus' list 
of fabulists does not profess to be exhaustive. But 
Cannegieter (like Lachmann in the following century) 
argued from Avianus' style also. The first impres- 
sion is that of general metrical correctness marred by 
some glaring licences and of a Latinity, partly 
Augustan, partly Silver, combined with a number of 
violent departures from classical usage. Therefore, 
according to Cannegieter and Lachmann, the original 

<* This hypothesis, originally propounded by Pithou, 
Poemat. Vet. p. 474, has been accepted by many scholars, 
including Voss, De Histor. Latinis ii. 9; Wernsdorf, P.L.M. 
V. 669; L. Miiller, De Phaedri et Av. Lihellis, 32; Baehrens, 
P.L.M. V. 31 ; Unrein, De Aviani Aetate, 60. 



Avianus lived in the second century and wrote in 
classical Latin and in correct metre, while school- 
masters, rhetoricians, interpolators and copyists are 
responsible for the depravations. 

Since Lachmann's day, however, the date of 
Babrius" the fabulist, whom Avianus mentions and 
upon whom (as we shall see) he models a great part 
of his work, has been established by Otto Crusius.* 
Babrius, we now know, wrote under Severus Alex- 
ander (222-235 A.D.) ; and so Avianus must belong 
to a subsequent age. Moreover, arguments from 
style really support the view that Avianus flourished 
about 400 A.D. Many couplets, it may be conceded, 
particularly in the '* promythia " and '■ epimythia," 
employed to introduce or conclude some fables, as 
we now have them, are quite late additions ; others 
can be plausibly emended into classical Latin. 
Still, there remain some violations of prosody,^ both 
defying emendation and occurring in couplets 
which cannot be dismissed as interpolations without 
destroying the sense of the fable ; while much of the 
late Latin (see Ellis, Proleg. xxx sqq.) is embedded in 
the core of a fable, and must therefore come from the 
original Avianus. These violations of prosody and 
this late Latin prevent us from putting the period of 
Avianus earlier than the later part of the fourth 

" Valerius Babrius composed two books of fables in Greek 
scazons. The dedication of one of his books is to the son of 
Severus Alexander. We have in all 137 fables along with 
fragments. There is in the Bodleian a Greek prose paraphrase 
of many of his fables, including some no longer extant in 
Babrius : see W. G. Rutherford, Babrius, London 1883. 

* De Babrii Aetate, Leipz. Stud. 11. 238. 

'^ Cf. remarks on metre later in Introduction. 



Avianus in his preface or dedicatory letter makes 
no claim to be original. He claims that he has 
put into elegiac verse 42 fables from the Aesopic 
collection — a collection from Avhich Socrates and 
Horace °- had draAvn to illustrate moral maxims and 
which Phaedrus ^ and Babrius had abridged in their 
Latin and Greek iambics respectively. It is strange 
that Avianus should mention Phaedrus and Babrius 
together in such a way as to suggest he was no more 
indebted to one than to the other. The truth is that 
he owes practically nothing to Phaedrus and nearly 
everj^thing to Babrius. Avianus 2, 5, 9, 34, 37 are 
respectively more or less similar in subject-matter 
to Phaedrus II. vi, I. xi, V. ii, IV. xxiv, III. vii. In 
fable 37 Avianus is as near to Phaedrus as he is to 
Babrius and (though a lion has taken the place of a 
wolf) Phaedrian influence may be admitted; the 
other four Avianus could have composed -without 
reading Phaedrus. Fables 2, 9, 34 are much closer 
to Babrius than to Phaedrus, and 5, which is not in 
our Babrius, is closer to the Aesopic prose version. 
As for single lines, apart from Av. xi. 10 and xxxi. 12 
(which perhaps are echoes of Phaedrus I. v. 1 and 
IV. vi. 13) there is scarcely a trace of indebtedness 
to the first-century fabulist. The case is very 
different in regard to Babrius.*^ With a few excep- 
tions the 42 fables can be traced to a Babrian source- 
either to the scazons of Babrius or to the Greek prose 

" Cf. notes on the dedicatory letter. 

* Phaedrus, of Thracian origin, composed his five books in 
Latin iambic senarii. His first two books were written under 
Tiberius (14-37 a.d.) ; see J. Wight Duff, Lit. Hist, of Rome in 
Silver Age, ^^. 133-154. 

' The Greek text of the extant Babrian versions is given 
in Ellis' commentary. 



paraphrase now in the Bodleian. Probably, if our 
Babrius were conriplete, we should be able to account 
for all Avianus' fabidae. In most cases Avianus' 
version is longer than that of Babrius. Avianus 
expands his Babrian material, sometimes to make an 
alteration in the story (e.g. 32, 35, 36), but more often 
to elaborate the descriptive element with poetical 
diction which contains frequent echoes of Virgil or 
Ovid. Thus a strained, even grotesque, artificiality 
displaces the simple directness of Babrius. For a 
forcible instance, one may examine fable 7, which is 
based on Babrius lO-i. Here Avianus takes four lines 
(3-6) to paraphrase XdOprj klW eSaKve, virtually 
repeats in lines 9 and 10 the preceding couplet, and 
introduces the Virgilian crepitantia aera, perhaps as a 
tardy recognition of ^a\K(.v(Ta<i in Babrius' opening 
line. Then the couplet 15-16 

" Infelix, quae tanta rapit dementia sensum, 
munera pro meritis si cupis ista dari ? " 

represents aj TaA.av, rt a-efxvvvri ; and combines a 
mock-heroic imitation of Virgil with a colloquial 
post-classical use of si cupis for " if you want to make 
out that ..." Other expansions, largely descrip- 
tive, are observable in most fables where the Babrian 
original has survived (e.g. in 14, 18, 34). To such 
expansions throughout the fables a very noticeable 
contribution is made by Avianus' habit of drawing 
poetical phrases freely from Virgil and, to a less 
extent, from Ovid. They may be pleasantly pictur- 
esque reminiscences like glaucas salices (xxvi. 6) and 
querulo ruperat arva sono of the grasshopper (xxxiv. 
12) ; " or they may lend a quaint epic turn to the story 

« CJ. Virg. Georg. IV. 182; III. 328. 



as in pependit onus (ix. 8), rumpere vocem (xiv. 11, 
XXV. 13), surgeiites demoror austros (xvi. 15), generis 
fiducia vestri (xxiv. 11);'^ or they may be still more 
positively mock-heroic as in circumstetit horror of the 
ass in the lion's skin (v. 9) and lacrimis obortis of a 
weeping fish (xx. 5).^ 

Mingled v/ith this poetical language of a pre- 
Avianian age we have frequent instances of a 
degenerate Latin. These have been collected and 
tabulated by Ellis {Proleg. xxxvi sqq.). The use of 
niinius for magnus, of tanti for tot, and of datur for 
dicitur, are among the most noticeable as far as single 
words are concerned. Indirect statement is some- 
times introduced by quod or expressed by the sub- 
junctive without a conjunction. Que and atque 
according to the manuscripts (though emendation 
is generally possible) may be used illogically to 
connect participles w^ith finite verbs ; and the 
gerundive once or twice does the work of a future 
participle passive. 

To the prosody of Avianus a reference has already 
been made. In general, he gives us correct Ovidian 
elegiacs. Occasionally, according to the traditional 
text, at the end of the first half of a pentameter, 
hiatus is admitted or a short syllable takes the place 
of a long one (Ellis xxiv-xxv). In most of these 
cases the text can be easily emended and Avianus 
himself absolved from a metrical fault. Some other 
violations of classical prosody (veils iii. 6 ; nolam vii. 8 ; 
dispdr xi. 5 ; heres xxxv. 14) cannot be explained 
away ; they come from Avianus' own hand and attest 

« Cf. Ovid, Her. ix. 98, Rem. Am. 18, Fasti II. 760; Virg. 
Aen. II. 129, etc. ; III. 481 ; I. 132. 
* Cf. Virg. Aen. II. 559; XI. 41. 



the decline of metrical strictness at the end of the 
fourth century. 

There is no trace of Christian influence in the Fables. 
Pagan gods and sacrifices are introduced after a pre- 
Christian fashion in 4, 8, 14, 22, 23, 32, 36 and 42. 

The popularity of Avianus in the schools of the 
Middle Ages is attested by accretions, paraphrases, 
scholia and quotations. As rhetorical exercises, 
promythia or epimythia were composed at the 
beginning or end of many fables to point the moral. 
A few of these came to be included in the text. 
Some epimythia (those contained in the earliest 
MSS.), it is likely, come from Avianus himself; 
but the four promythia (to fables 5, 7, 8, 34) are 
probably the work of a rhetorician, although, being 
contained in the tenth century MSS., they are of 
an early date. A number of undoubtedly spurious 
epimythia (found only in later MSS.) are omitted 
in most editions. Froehner prints them separately 
in his edition of 1862. Paraphrases were often 
made of Avianus. One collection entitled Apologi 
Aviani^ is attached to two of the later Paris MSS. 
Here the paraphrast usually turns the first half or 
more of each fable into prose and ends by copying 
the last few lines of Avianus' own version, so that 
occasionally his Mork is useful for determining the 
text. Alexander Neckam (1157-1217) composed 
verse paraphrases, perhaps of the whole of Avianus, 
entitling his work Novus Avianus. His versions of 
the first six fables are contained in a St. Germain 
MS. of the thirteenth century. ** Scholia of varying 

* Published by Froehner in his ed. of Avianus 1862. 
^ Published by Edclestand du Meril {Poesies Inediles, 260- 
267) and afterwards by Froehner, op. cit. 


X X 2 


extent and value are included in nearly all MSS. of 
Avianus, indicating the assiduity wdth which he was 
studied. He is extensively quoted or alluded to by 
medieval grammarians and anthologists j*^ and the 
fables were to be found in many libraries of the 
Middle Ages.^ 


H. Cannegieter. Amsterdam, 1731. 

J. A. Nodell. Amsterdam, 1787. 

K. Lachmann. Berlin, 1845. 

W. Froehner. Leipzig, 1862. 

E. Baehrens. In Poetae Latijii Minores, Vol. V. 

Leipzig. 1883. 
R. Ellis. Oxford, 1887. 
L. Hervieux. In Fabulistes latins^ iii. Paris, 1894. 


T. Wopkens. Observationes Criticae. Amsterdam, 

1736, VII. ii, pp. 197-253. 
J. H. Withof. Encae?iia Critica. 1741. 
J. C. Wernsdorf. In P. L. M., V. 2, pp. 663 sqq. 
K. Lachmann. De aetate Fl. Aviani. Berlin, 1845 = 

Kl. Schriften, II. 51. 
E. Baehrens, Miscell. Critica. Groningen, 1878. 
K. Schenkl. Ztsckr.f. bsterr. Gymn. xvi. 397. 
O. Unrein. De Aviani aetate. Jena, 1885. 
Draheim. De Aviani elegis, J.f. Philologie, cxliii. 509. 
J. E. B. Mayor. Class. Rev. I. (1887), 188 sqq. 

" Manitius, Gesch. der lat. Lit. des Mittelalters, Index, s.v, 
Avianus; Philologus LI (1892), 533 sqq. 

* G. Becker, Catalogi Bibliothecarum Antiqui, 306. 



F. Heidenhain. Zu de?i Apologi Aviarii. Progr. 

Strassbiir^, 1894. 
Jenkinson. Fables of Avianus, The xicademy, XLV. 

(1894), 129. 
O. Crusius. De Bahri'i Aeiate, Leipz. Stud., II. 238. 
Avian und die sogenannten Apologi Avia7ii, 

Philologns LIV. (1895), 474-488. 
s.v. Avianus in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclop. 


(following Ellis in the main) 

A = Paris. 8093 : saec. ix. 

P = Paris. 13206 : saec. ix. 

C = Paris. 5570: saec. ix (Froehner), x (Ellis), 

xi (Baehr.). 
O = Oxon. Auct. F. 2. 14 : saec. xi. 
Rawl. = Oxon. B. N. Rawl. Ill : saec. xi-xii. 
X = Oxon. Auct. F. 5. 6 : circ. 1300. 
G = Cantab. Trinity, Gale 0. 3. 5 : saec. xii. 
Pet^. = Cantab. Peterhouse, 4 (fabulis i-xxii derep- 

tis) : saec. xiii-xiv. 
Pei^. = Cantab. Peterhouse, 25 (continens Avianum 

et Maximianum) : saec. xiii-xiv. 
B = Londin. Brit. Mus. Harl. 4967 : saec. xiii. 
b = Londin. Brit. Mus. 21, 213 (saepe inter- 

polatus) : saec. xiii. 
b 2 = Londin. Brit. Mus. A. xxxi (xvii-xxi omissis) : 

circ. 1300. 
b 3 = Londin. Brit. Mus. 10090 (interpolatus). 
T = Trevirensis. 1464 (continens Avianum et 

Prudentium) : saec. x. 
V = Lugdun. Batav. Vossianus L.Q. 86 : saec. ix. 



W = Lugdun. Batav. Vossianus L.O. 15 : saec. xi. 
Ashh. \j= B in Baehrens' ed.] = Ashburnhamensis 

(Libri 1813) : saec. xi-xii. 
Reg. = Reginensis. 1424 : saec. xi. 
L = Laurentianus, Ixviii 24 : saec. xi. 
S = Fragmentum Sangallense. 1396 : saec. xi. 
K = Fragmentum Karoliruhense (ab Froehnero 

adhibitum) : saec. ix. 
Cab. = readings reported by Cabeljau from a 

" codex vetustissimus " and reprinted by Canne- 

gieter in D'Orville's Miscellanea Nova, 1734. 
Paraphr. = readings of the paraphrast, author of 

the apologi Aviani. 

Of the MSS. Baehrens collated the Leyden manu- 
scripts V and W, the Treves one, T, the Florence one, 
L, and the Ashburnhamensis (his B). G was collated 
for Baehrens by H. A. J. Munro. Baehrens cites 
the readings of the Paris MSS. P, A, C and of the 
Carlsruhe fragment, K, from Froehner's edition. 
Ellis based his text largely on a personal examination 
of the three Paris codices, those at Oxford, and those 
in the British Museum, besides T and S. The most 
important MSS. are C, Rawl.. G. B (in Ellis' sigla, 
i.e. Harl. 4967), T and ^^ 




Dubitanti mihi, Theodosi optime, quoinam litte- 
rarum titmlo nostri nominis memoriam mandaremus, 
fabularum textus occurrit, quod in his urbane con- 
cepta falsitas deceat et non incumbat necessitas ve- 
ritatis. nam quis tecum de oratione, quis de poemate 
loqueretur, cum in utroque litterarum genere et 
Atticos Graeca eruditione superes et Latinitate 
Romanes ? huius ergo materiae ducem nobis Aesopum 
noveris, qui response Delphici Apollinis monitus 
ridicula orsus est, ut legenda fii*maret. verum has pro 1 
exemplo fabulas et Socrates divinis operibus indidit 
et poemati suo Flaccus aptavit, quod in se sub iocorum 
communium specie vitae argumenta contineant. 

Titulus : Incipiunt fabulae Aviani poetae : epistola 
eiusdem ad Theodosium C : ad imperatorem Theodosium 
Reg. : ad Teodosium imperatorem Bawl. 

* falsitas codd. : salsitas Baehrens. veritatis codd. : 
severitatis Lachmann. 

^° legenda codd. : sequenda Lachmann. 

" i.e. probably Macrobius Theodosius, author of the 
Saturnalia : see Introduction. The tone of the dedication 
suits a literary addressee. 

* The historical " Aisopos " was a slave in Samos, 6th cent. 
B.C., who used beast-stories to convey moral lessons. Later 
generations freely ascribed to him a mass of fables, and the 
supposed Aesopic fables were collected about 300 B.C. by 




I WAS in doubt, most excellent Theodosius, to 
what class of literature I should entrust the memory 
of my name, when the narration of fables occurred to 
my mind; because in these, fiction, if gracefully 
conceived, is not out of place, and one is not 
oppressed by the necessity of adhering to the truth. 
Who could speak in your company on oratory or 
on poetry ? In both these divisions of literature 
you outstrip the Athenians in Greek learning as 
well as the Romans in mastery of Latin. My 
pioneer in this subject, you must know, is Aesop,* 
who on the advice of the Delphic Apollo started 
droll stories in order to establish moral maxims. 
Such fables by way of example have been intro- 
duced by Socrates ^ into his inspired works and fitted 
by Horace ^ into his poetry, because under the guise 
of j ests of general application they contain illustrations 

Demetrius of Phaleron. The authority for Avianus' statement 
that Aesop was advised by the Delphic oracle is unknown. 

' The reference is to Plato's dialogues {Socraticis sermanibus, 
Hor. Od. III. xxi. 9-10) which represent much of Socrates' 
teaching. In Plato's Phaedo, 60-61, Socrates says a dream 
led him to turn Aesopic fables into verse. Avianus here 
refers to apologues in fable style : e.g. of Grasshoppers, 
Phaedr. 259; of Plenty and Poverty, Symp. 203; of Prome- 
theus and Epimetheus, Protng. 320-321. 

^ e.g. the Town Mouse and the Country ^Mouse in Sat. II. vi. 

68 1 


quas Graecis iambis Babrius repetens in duo volumina 
coartavit. Phaedrus etiam partem aliquam quinque 
in libellos resolvit. de his ego ad quadraginta et duas 
in unum redactas fabulas dedi, quas rudi Latinitate 
compositas elegis sum explicare conatus. habes ergo 
opus J quo animum oblectes, ingenium exerceas, 
sollicitudinem leves totumque vivendi ordinem cautus 
agnoscas. loqui vero arbores, feras cum hominibus 
gemere, verbis certare volucres, animalia ridere 
fecimus, ut pro singulorum necessitatibus vel ab 
ipsis <(in)>ammis sententia proferatur. <(vale.)' 


De Nutrice et Ixfaxte 

Rustica deflentem parvum iuraverat olim, 
ni taceat, rabido quod foret esca lupo. 

credulus banc vocem lupus audiit et manet ipsas 
per vigil ante fores, irrita vota gerens. 

nam lassata puer nimiae dat membra quieti ; 
spem quoque raptoris sustulit inde fami. 

^^ ergo plerique : ego OP. 

I. ^ iuvaverat Pet.^ : iuraverat cett. codd. : iurgaverat 
Froehner secutus Cabellavium. 

^ sic Wopkejis: fami {ex -mes corr.) T: famis PVw^W : 
fames Vw ^ cum cett. 

*• See Introduction and note. 
* Ibid. 

' Cf. Phaedrus, I. prol. 6-7 guod arbores loquantur non 
tantiim ferae, ficlis iocari nos meminerit fabidis, and Babrius, 



of life. They were taken up by Babrius" in Greek 
cholianibies and abridged into two volumes. A 
considerable portion also was expanded by Phaedrus '' 
to a length of five books. I have compressed forty- 
two of these into one book for publication — writing 
in unembellished Latin and attempting to set them 
forth in elegiacs. You have, therefore, a work to 
delight the mind, to exercise the brain, to relieve 
anxiety — one that will give you a wary knowledge 
of the whole course of life. I have made trees talk,*^ 
beasts growl in conversation ^\ith men, birds engage 
in wordy disputes, and animals laugh, so that to meet 
the needs of each individual a maxim may be proffered 
even by inanimate things. Farewell. 

The Nurse and her Child 

Once upon a time when her little boy was crying, a 
peasant-woman had sworn that if he were not quiet 
he would be given as a tit-bit '^ for a ravenous wolf. 
A credulous wolf overheard these words and waited 
on guard close in front of the cottage doors, cherishing 
hopes in vain. For the child let a deep sleep come 
over his weary limbs, and besides deprived the 
hungry robber thereby of his expectation. The wolf 

praef. 9 i\d\€i Se ttctptj /col to <f>v\\a ttjs irevKris. In Avianus, 
pine and bramble argue xLx, and a reed speaks xvi. His 
other remarks in this sentence are illustrated by the follow- 
ing : tigress challenges hunter xvii ; lion and hunter dispute 
xxiv; crane and peacock quarrel xv; fox laughs vi; ant 
laughs xxxiv; and among '" inanimate things" a jar speaks 
xi ; a statue xxiii and a trumpet xxxix. 

"^ quod foret esca replaces the classical accus. and infin. 
CJ. XXV. 16. 



hunc ubi silvarum repetentem lustra suarum 

ieiunum coniunx sensit adesse lupa, 
" cur " inquit " nullam referens de more rapinam 

languida consumptis sic trahis ora genis? " 
" ne mireris " ait " deceptum fraude maligna 

vix miserum vacua delituisse fuga : 
nam quae praeda, rogas, quae spes contingere posset, 

iurgia nutricis cum mihi verba darent ? " 

haec sibi dicta putet seque hac sciat arte notari, 
femineam quisquis credidit esse fidem. 


De Testudine et Aquila 

Pennatis avibus quondam testudo locuta est, 

si quis earn volucrum constituisset humi, 
protinus e Rubris conchas proferret harenis, 

quis pretium nitido cortice baca daret : 
indignum, sibimet tardo quod sedula gressu 

nil ageret toto proficeretque die. 
ast ubi promissis aquilam fallacibus implet, 

experta est similem perfida lingua fidem ; 
et male mercatis dum quaerit sidera pennis, 

occidit infelix alitis ungue fero. 

II, 2 voluerem VKm^ : volucrum Am^ cum ceteris codd. 
« perficeretque ACOTW Ash. : proficeretque Pet.- G Bawl. 
B b b2 Cab. 

^° occidit plerique codd. : excidit Baehrens. 

« verba darent in the classical sense of tricking. Contrast 
ix. 20; xxiv. 10; xxxvii, 2; xxxviii. 6, where the sense is 
simply that of speaking. 



repaired to the lair in his native woods, and his mate, 
seeing him arrive famished, said, " Why don't you 
bring back the usual prey ? Why are your cheeks 
wasted and your jaws so drawn and emaciated? " 
"A mean trick took me in," he said; "so don't 
be surprised that I have been hard put to it to 
skulk pitifully away — with no spoil. WTiat kill, do 
you ask, could come my May ? what prospect could 
there be, when a scolding nurse befooled me ? " ** 

Let anyone who believes in a woman's sincerity 
reflect that to him these words are spoken and that 
it is he whom this lesson censures. 


The Tortoise and the Eagle 

Once a tortoise said to the feathered birds that if 
one of the swift fliers could carry her away and set 
her safe on the ground ^ she would at once from the 
sands of the Erythraean Sea produce shells '^ on 
which their bright-crusted pearl conferred a value. 
She felt it an outrage that, despite her diligence, her 
slow pace prevented her doing anything or making 
any progress the whole day. She loaded an eagle 
with false promises, but her untruthful tongue found 
a broken troth to match her own. While soaring 
aloft on the wings whose aid she had bought so ill, 
the MTretched tortoise met her death by the bird's 

* Line 2 presents difficulties. It has earn for se ; quis 
implying the rare masc. gender for volucrum ; and constituisset 
involving a latent idea. The alternative volucrem means that 
the tortoise asked to be made a bird : this is accepted by 
Baehrens, who reads ibi for humi. 

* Late Latin for se prolaturam esse conchas. 



turn quoque sublimis, cum iam moreretur, in auras 

ingemuit votis haec licuisse suis ; 
nam dedit exosae post haec documenta quieti 

non sine supremo magna labore peti. 

sic quicumque nova sublatus laude tumescit, 
dat merito poenas, dum meliora cupit. 


De Cancro et Matre Eius 

Curva retro cedens dum fert vestigia cancer, 

hispida saxosis terga relisit aquis. 
hunc genetrix facili cupiens procedere gressu 

talibus alloquiis emonuisse datur : 
** ne tibi transverso placeant haec devia, nate, 

rursus in obliquos neu velis ire pedes, 
sed nisu contenta ferens vestigia recto 

innocuos proso tramite siste gradus." 
cui natus " faciam, si me praecesseris " inquit, 

'• rectaque monstrantem certior ipse sequar. 
nam stultum nimis est, cum tu pravissima temptes, 

alterius censor si vitiosa notes." 

^2 licuisse plerique codd. : libuisse Cannegieter. 
III. ^ procedere CT : praecedere plerique codd. 
* praemonuLsse codd. : emonuisse Ellis. 
^2 ut codd. : si Ellis {servans metrum). 



cruel talons. Then it was that, raised on high,'^ in 
the hour of death, she filled the breezes with her 
moaning plaint that such had been the answer to 
her prayers. For she gave surly sloth a warning for 
the future that great achievement is only reached by 
the utmost toil. 

So anyone elated and puffed up with new-found 
glory pays a just penalty in hankering after what is 
too high for him. 


The Crab and its Mother 

While a crab was walking backwards and tracing 
its crooked way, it banged its scaly back in the rocky 
pools. Its mother, eager to go forward with step 
unhindered, is said to have delivered a warning to 
it in such words as these: " Don't go zigzag and 
choose these crooked ways, my child, and don't seek 
to move backwards and slantwise on your feet. 
Step out vigorously with straightforward effort and 
plant your footsteps safely in the onward path." 
" I will do so," the young crab replied, " if you go 
ahead of me ; and, if you show me the correct road, 
I will follow the more surely. For it is exceedingly 
foolish of you, when you are attempting the most 
crooked of courses yourself, to set up as censor and 
criticise the faults of another." 

" suUimis is emphatic : cf. the appHcation iii 15-16. 
sublimes, the variant in several MSiS., goes with auras, 
" breezes of heaven." 



De Vento et Sole 

Immitis Boreas placidusque ad sidera Phoebus 

iurgia cum magno conseruere love, 
quis prior inceptum peragat : mediumque per aequor 

carpebat solitum forte viator iter, 
convenit banc potius Uti praefigere causam, 

pallia nudato decutienda viro. 
protinus impulsus ventis circum tonat aether 

et gelidus nimias depluit imber aquas : 
ille magis lateri duplicem circumdat amictum, 

turbida submotos quod trahit aura sinus. 
sed tenues radios paulatim increscere Phoebus 

iusserat, ut nimio surgeret igne iubar, 
donee lassa volens requiescere membra viator 

deposita fessus veste sederet humi. 
tunc victor docuit praesentia numina Titan, 

nullum praemissis vincere posse minis. 

De Asino Pelle Leonis Ixduto 

[Metiri se quemque decet propriisque iuvari 
laudibus, alterius nee bona ferre sibi, 

ne detracta gravem faciant miracula risum, 
coeperit in solitis cum remanere malis.] 

IV. ^ sidera codd. : cetera Lachmann : ludiera Baehrens. 
^ aequor C/n^ : orbem cett. codd. 

V. * solitis Pet.^ b : solis plerique codd, 



The Wind and the Sux 

Savage Boreas and gentle Phoebus joined strife 
in the presence of the stars with great Jupiter, to 
decide which should first achieve his task ; and over 
the midst of the plain it happened a traveller was 
plying his wonted way. They agree to preface 
their dispute with this case for trial — to get the 
man stripped by tearing off his cloak." Straight- 
way with the onset of the wind the sky thunders 
around, and the chill rain-storm pours down torrents 
of water. The traveller folds his cloak double and 
draws it round his sides all the more, because the 
tempestuous blast pushes the folds aside and tugs at 
them. But Phoebus had bidden his penetrating rays 
grow stronger little by little, so that his splendour 
might emerge in excessive heat, — until the traveller, 
anxious to rest his weary limbs, threw down his 
cloak and sat on the ground exhausted. Then in his 
triumph the Titan taught the assembled gods ^ 
that no one can win victory by an advance guard of 


The Donkey in the Lion's Skin 

[Everyone should take his true measure and be 
content with his own merits, and not claim for himself 
his neighbour's goods, lest the stripping of the finery 
lead to painful ridicule as soon as he is left in posses- 
sion of his usual defects.] 

" nudato is proleptic. * i.e. the stars and Jupiter. 

Y Y 


Exuvias asinus Gaetuli forte leonis 

repperit et spoliis induit ora novis. 
aptavitque suis incongrua tegmina membris 

et miserum tanto pressit honore caput, 
ast ubi terribilis mimo circumstetit horror 

pigraque praesumptus venit in ossa vigor, 
mitibus ille feris communia pabula calcans 

turbabat pavidas per sua rura boves. 
rusticus hunc magna postquam deprendit ab aure, 

correptum vinclis verberibusque domat ; 
et simul abstracto denudans corpora tergo 

increpat his miseriun vocibus ille pecus : 
** forsitan ignotos imitato murmure fallas ; 

at mihi, qui quondam, semper asellus eris." 


De Raxa et Vulpe 

Edita gurgitibus limoque immersa profundo 

et luteis tantum semper arnica vadis, 
ad superos coUes herbosaque prata recurrens 

mulcebat miseras turgida rana feras, 
callida quod posset gravibus succurrere morbis 

et vitam ingenio continuare suo ; 
nee se Paeonio iactat cessisse magistro, 

quamvis perpetuos curet in orbe deos. 

5 getuli phrique codd. : defimcti PV, 

" mimo Cannegieter : animo phrique codd. : animu Ashb. 

VI. ^ limoque W Xevelet : olimque cett. codd. 

' P(a)eonio phrique codd. : Paeoni Lachmann. 



It happened that a donkey discovered a Gaetuhan 
lion's skin and clothed his face with the new-found 
spoil. To his own limbs he fitted the ill-assorted 
covering and burdened his wretched head with trap- 
pings so majestic. But when the grim appearance, 
awe-inspiring in its mimicry," enveloped him, and 
the courage he had assumed in advance entered his 
sluggish bones, then, trampling the pasture which 
he shared with the tame animals, he drove the scared 
cattle in confusion over their fields. The farmer, 
after catching him by his long ear, hustled him off and 
subdued him by tying him up and thrashing him ; 
and as he stripped the stolen skin off his body he 
scolded the poor beast ^^-ith these words : " Perhaps 
your mimic roar may cheat strangers. To me you 
will always be a donkey as before." 


The Frog and the Fox 

Sprung from pools, immersed in depths of mud, the 
constant friend of naught but miry shallows, a dis- 
tended frog, revisiting the hills above and the grassy 
meadows, sought to comfort the afflicted beasts with 
the assurance that her leech-craft could relieve their 
sore diseases and her genius could prolong their lives. 
Her boast was that she had never been surpassed by 
the Paeonian master,^ though he attended the ever- 

" ynimo goes with terribilis as an ablative. The reading 
animu tempts one to suggest mimum : " when the awful 
appearance enveloped this farcical actor" {i.e. the ass). For 
the diction cf. Virg. Aen. II. 559, mn . . . circmnstetit horror. 
* Paeon was the Master Healer : cf. Rut. Namat. I. 75 
Paeoniam art em. 

YY 2 


tunc vulpes pecudum ridens astuta quietem, 
verborum vacuam prodidit esse fidem : 

" haec dabit aegrotis "inquit" medicamina membris, 
pallida caeruleus cui notat ora color? " 


De Caxe qui noluit Latrare 

[Haud facile est pravis innatiun mentibus ut se 
verberibus dignas suppliciove putent.] 

Forte canis quondam nullis latratibus horrens 

nee patulis primum rictibus ora trahens, 
mollia sed pavidae submittens verbera caudae, 

concitus audaci vulnera dente dabat. 
hunc dominus, ne quern probitas simulata lateret, 

iusserat in rabido gutture ferre nolam. 
faucibus innexis crepitantia subligat aera, 

quae facili motu signa cavenda darent. 
haec tamen ille sibi credebat praemia ferri, 

et similem turbam despiciebat ovans. 
tunc insultantem senior de plebe superbum 

aggreditur tali singula voce monens : 
" infelix, quae tanta rapit dementia sensum, 

munera pro meritis si cupis ista dari ? 

^° vacuam codd. : vanam Cannegieter. 

VII. 2 muneribus codd. : verberibus Withof : vulneribus 
Froehner in not. 

^ nolam plerique codd. : molam Vm^W : notam Cab. 

^* singula voce codd. : monens plerique codd. : sibila voce 
movens Lachmann : voce severa monens Baehrens : cingula 
voce moves ? Ellis. 



lasting gods in turn. Then a cunning vixen, laughing 
at the acquiescence of the cattle, disclosed the 
futility of giving credence to words : " Is physic," 
she asked, " going to be prescribed for diseased limbs 
by this frog, whose pale face is sicklied o'er with a 
livid hue? " 


The Dog that would not Bark 

[Not readily is it the nature of evil dispositions 
to believe themselves deserving of stripes and 

It happened once there was a dog with no gruff 
bark, that did not open its mouth in a wide gape as a 
first sign of mischief, but put its soft-wagging tail 
in fear beneath it, and then would fly into a fury and 
snap recklessly with its teeth. To prevent anyone 
being taken unawares by its pretended good character, 
its master had made it wear a bell " round its savage 
throat. He fastened its neck and tied the tinkling 
brass underneath to give signals of warning by its 
ready motion. The dog, however, believed this was 
worn by it as a reward, and triumphantly began to look 
down on the crowd of dogs like itself. Then an older 
dog of humble rank accosted the swaggerer in its 
exaltation, giving each word of advice ^ after the 
following strain: " Wretch, Avhat is this monstrous 
madness that steals away your senses, if indeed you 
will have it that those rewards are given you for your 

" jwlam elsewhere has a long o. 

' Ellis' reading is attractive, '" tali cingula voce moves? " 
" what, so loud in shaking your collar? " 



non hoc virtutis decus ostentatur in aere, 
nequitiae testem sed geris hide sonum.' 

De Camelo et Iove 

[Contentum proprhs sapientem vivere rebus 
nee cupere aiterius fabula nostra monet, 

indignata cito ne stet Fortuna recursu 

atque eadem minuat quae dedit ante rota.] 

Corporis immensi fertur pecus isse per auras 

et magnum precibus solhcitasse lovem : 
turpe nimis cunctis irridendumque videri, 

insignes geminis cornibus ire boves, 
et solum nulla munitum parte camelum 

obieetum cunctis expositumque feris. 
luppiter irridens postquam sperata negavit, 

insuper et magnae sustulit auris onus. 
" vive minor merito, cui sors non sufficit " inquit, 

" et tua perpetuum, livide, damna geme." 


De Duobus Sociis et Ursa 

Montibus ignotis curvisque in vallibus artum 
cum socio quidam suscipiebat iter, 

VIII. ^ det . . . recursum Baehrens {ex recursu in W). 
^ auras plerique codd. : aras b : arva Pet.^ : Afros Withof, 



deserts ? This is not an ornament of merit displayed 
in a brass setting : no, by wearing it you carry a 
sound as witness of your bad character." 


Jupiter and the Camel 

[Our fable counsels a man if he be wise to live 
contented with his own property and not to covet 
what belongs to another, lest Fortune be angry and 
run quickly back to a standstill, and the same wheel 
that once bestowed favours end in lessening them.] 

The story goes that an animal of vast bulk went 
through the air and besought high Jove with 
entreaties, saying that everyone thought it a mon- 
strous scandal and theme for ridicule that oxen 
should strut about in the glory of a pair of horns, 
while the camel alone should be undefended in every 
quarter, at the mercy of all the animal world and open 
to their attacks. Jupiter, mocking the camel, after 
refusing the expected boon, went further and relieved 
it of the weight of its large ears, saying, " Live 
beneath your deserts, as you are not satisfied with 
your lot; bewail your loss for ever, you jealous 


The two Companions and the Bear 

A man was once journeying along a narrow road 
with a companion among unknown hills and in 

'^ adridens vel arridens plerique codd. : irridens B Rawl. 
Pet.^ : at ridens Cannegieter. 



securus, cum quodque malum Fortuna tulisset, 

robore collato posset uterque pati. 
dumque per inceptum vario sermone feruntur, 

in mediam praeceps convenit ursa viam. 
horum alter facili comprendens robora cursu 

in viridi trepidum fronde pependit onus ; 
ille trahens nullo iacuit vestigia gressu, 

exaniniem fingens, sponte relisus humi. 
continue praedam cupiens fera saeva cucurrit 

et miserum curvis unguibus ante levat ; 
verum ubi concreto riguerunt membra timore 

(nam solitus mentis liquerat ossa calor), 
tunc olidum credens, quamvis ieiuna, cadaver 

deserit et lustris conditur ursa suis. 
sed cum securi paulatim in verba redissent, 

liberior iusto, qui fuit ante fugax : 
" die, sodes, quidnam trepido tibi rettulit ursa ? 

nam secreta diu multaque verba dedit." 
" magna quidem monuit, tamen haec quoque maxima 

quae misero semper sunt facienda mihi : 
'ne facile alterius repetas consortia,' dixit, 

' rursus ab insana ne capiare fera.' " 


. De Calvo Equite 

Calvus eques capiti solitus religasse capillos 
atque alias nudo vertice ferre comas, 

IX. ^ quodcumque plerique codd. : cum quodque Baehrens. 
^ inceptum plerique codd. : incertum T : inseptum Ellis. 

^ convenit codd. : en venit Canneg. : convolat Baehrens. 

X. ^ religasse PVW Ashb. Bawl. : religare plerique codd. 


uiiuliiiii; valleys. lie felt safe because, whatever 
adversity Fortune might bring, both would be able 
to unite their strength and face it. While with 
varied conversation they were pursuing the journey 
they had started, a she-bear came headlong to 
meet them in the middle of the way. One of the 
travellers with an easy run grasped an oak branch 
and suspended his panic-stricken weight among 
the green foliage. The other, without advancing 
his course a single step, feigned death, and lay 
do^\Tl, throwing himself intentionally on the ground. 
At once, eager for the spoil, the savage beast 
ran up and, to start with, lifted the poor man in 
her crooked claws. But when icy fear stiffened his 
limbs (for the usual vital warmth had left his bones), 
then the bear, thinking him a rank corpse, abandoned 
him in spite of her hunger and vanished into her own 
haunts. But after they recovered their nerve and 
gradually resumed their talk, the man who before 
had run away grew now over-merry and said, " Tell 
me, please, what was it the bear told you when you 
were trembling there ? She spoke much with you 
in a long private talk." " Yes, she gave me important 
advice, but laid also this command especially on me, 
and I. poor wretch, must always carry it out. ' Be 
chary of returning to partnership with another,' 
she said, ' lest a rabid beast get hold of you a second 
time.' " 


The Bald Horseman 

A bald horseman, accustomed to fasten hair to 
his head and wear strange locks on his bare crown, 



ad Campum nitidis venit conspectus in armis 

et facilem frenis flectere coepit equum. 
huius ab adverse Boreae spiramina praeflant 

ridiculum populo conspiciente caput ; 
nam mox deiecto nituit frons nuda galero, 

discolor apposita quae fuit ante coma, 
ille sagax, tantis quod risus milibus esset, 

distulit admota calliditate iocum, 
" quid mirum " referens " positos fugisse capillos, 

quern prius aequaevae deseruere comae ? " 

De Duabus Ollis 

Eripiens geminas ripis cedentibus ollas 

insanis pariter flumen agebat aquis. 
sed diversa duas ars et natura creavit : 

aere prior fusa est, altera ficta luto. 
dispar erat fragili et solidae concordia motus, 

incertumque vagus amnis habebat iter, 
ne tamen allisam confringeret, aerea testa 

iurabat solidam longius ire viam. 

° praeflant Ellis : perfl == ant Ashb. : praestant cett. codd. 

^ apposita codd. : ab posita Baehrens. 

XI. * facta CX b^ Pet.^ Beg. : ficta pkrique codd. 

* vagans B, Ellis : vagus cett. codd. 

' elisam codd. : allisam Barth, Baehrens : illisam Schenkl. 

* solitam codd. : solidam Ellis : sociam Xerelet. longius 
codd. : comminus Canyieg. : urgebat coctam, comminus 



came to the Campus " conspicuous in shining armour 
and began mana'uvrinc; his nimble horse with the 
bridle. The blasts of the North wind driving against 
him blew upon the front of his head and made it a 
figure of fun in the sight of the people. For soon his 
wig flew ofl' and his uncovered forehead shone 
brightly, which just before had another hue while 
the false hair was fixed on. As the horseman 
saw that he was the laughing-stock of so many 
thousands, he shrewdly brought cunning to his aid 
and turned away the jest from himself. " Why be 
surprised," he remarked, " that my assumed locks 
have gone, when my natural hair deserted me first ? " 


The two Jars 

Two jars were once swept away by a river owing to 
a collapse of its banks and were being carried down 
together in the wild current. Different craftsmanship 
and material had created the two ; the first was of 
fused bronze, the other of moulded clay. The 
brittle and the solid jar kept up an uneven harmony 
of progress,^ while the meandering river took its way- 
ward course. The bronze jar, however, swore to pursue 
its metallic route at a distance from the other lest it 
should strike against it and smash it to pieces. The 

" i.e. the Campus Martins, the ancient open exercise- 
ground of Rome : cf. Hor. Sat. I. vi. 126 fugio Campion 
Insumque trigonem. 

* dispdr: cf. xxiii. 8, and impdr, xviii. 10. The oxymoron 
dispar concordia means that in general the pots kept together, 
but irregularly so. Each in turn might drop behind and 
afterwards catch up. 



ilia timens ne quid levibus graviora nocerent, 
et quia nulla brevi est cum meliore fides, 

" quamvis securam verbis me feceris " inquit, 
" non timor ex animo decutiendus erit ; 

nam me sive tibi seu te mihi conferat unda, 
semper ero ambobus subdita sola malis." 


De Rustico et Thesauro 

Rustieus impresso molitus vomere terram 

thesaurum sulcis prosiluisse videt. 
mox indigna animo properante reliquit aratra, 

gramina compellens ad meliora boves. 
continuo supplex Telluri construit aras, 

quae sibi depositas sponte dedisset opes, 
hunc Fortuna novis gaudentem provida rebus 

admonet, indignam se quoque ture dolens : 
" nunc inventa meis non prodis munera templis 

atque alios mavis participare decs ; 
sed cum surrepto fueris tristissimus auro, 

me primam lacrimis sollicitabis inops." 


De Hirco et Tauro 

Immensum taurus fugeret cum forte leonem 
tutaque desertis quaereret antra viis, 

^* subruta sola modis Lachmann. 

XII. * semina plerique codd. : gramina Canneg. : fortasse 
vimina vel stramina Ellis. 



clay jar, through fear tliat it might be an instance of 
the hght damaged by the heavy, and because weak- 
ness has no confidence in deaUngs with the stronger, 
said, " Though you reHeve me of anxiety as far as 
your promises go, still I cannot shake my mind clear 
of fear. For whether the water brings me up against 
you or you against me, I shall always be the sole 
victim of either disaster." 

The Peasant and the Treasure 

On breaking up the earth by the impact of his 
plough a peasant noticed a treasure-hoard leap into 
view from the furrows. Presently with quickened 
heart he abandoned the plough, now disesteemed, 
and drove his oxen to better pastures. At once with 
vows he raised altars in honour of Earth, since she 
unasked had given him the wealth entrusted to her. 
As he rejoiced in his new estate, Fortune with an eye 
to the future gave him a warning ; for she was piqued 
that he did not think her also deserving of incense. 
" For the moment you neglect to hand over your 
treasure-trove to any temple of mine, and prefer to 
share it with other gods ; but when the gold is stolen 
and you are in the depths of grief, I shall be the first 
whom you will tearfully entreat in your beggary." 


The Goat and the Bull 

It happened once that a bull was running away 
from a mighty lion, seeking by lonely paths for some 



speluncam reperit, quam tunc hirsutus habebat 

Cinyphii ductor qui gregis esse solet. 
ast ubi submissa meditantem irrurapere fronte 

obvius obliquo terruit ore caper, 
tristis abit longaque fugax de valle locutus 

(nam timor expulsum iurgia ferre vetat) : 
" non te demissis saetosum, putide, barbis, 

ilium, qui super est consequiturque, tremo ; 
nam si discedat, nosces, stultissime, quantum 

discrepet a tauri viribus hircus olens." 


De Simia 

luppiter in toto quondam quaesiverat orbe, 

munera natorum quis meliora daret. 
certatim ad regem currit genus omne ferarum, 

permixtumque homini cogitur ire pecus ; 
sed nee squamigeri desunt ad iurgia pisces 

vel quicquid volucrum purior aura vehit. 
inter quos trepidae ducebant pignora matres, 

iudicio tanti discutienda dei. 
tunc brevis inform em traheret cum simia natum, 

ipsum etiam in risum compulit ire lovem. 

XIII. 3 repetit C Rawl.m}. 

^ post plerique codd. : ast BX Pet.^ b^. 
^ longaque plerique codd. : longeque Canneg. : longumque 
Ellis. vaUe (vale P) codd. : calle Lachmann. 

XIV. * homini codd. : cicur Baehrens. 
' inter quos codd. : in tergo Baehrens. 



safe cavern, when he discovered a cave which was 
then occupied by a shaggy goat accustomed to lead 
the Cinyphian herd." Thereu})on, when the goat 
met him and with sidelong look frightened him out 
of his intention to lower his head and burst in, he 
went off mournfully and in his flight sent a reply 
from the far reaches of the valley (fear forbade him 
to quarrel over his rebuff). " It's not you I tremble 
at, you stinking creature, with your bristly hair and 
trailing beard ; it's that lion — which is still to come 
and which follows in my track. If he abandons the 
chase, you'll learn, you arrant fool, the difference 
between a bull in his strength and a smelly goat," 


The Monkey 

Jupiter had once inquired through the whole 
world which animal it was that could present the gift 
of the finest offspring. In eager rivalry there 
hastened to the king every sort of creature of the 
wild, and every beast that has dealings with man was 
constrained to come. Nor did the scale-covered fish 
fail to contest their claim, or any bird borne on the 
clearer air. Among this gathering nervous mothers 
led up their progeny to be inspected at the judge- 
ment-seat of the powerful god. Just then, as a 
dwarfish monkey pulled forward her ugly offspring, 
she forced even Jove himself to laugh. But for all her 

" The epithet refers to the lonj^-haired goats bred in the 
Mauritanian territory washed by the Cinyps. 


hanc tamen ante alios rupit turpissima vocem, 
dum generis crimen sic abolere cupit : 

" luppiter hoc norit, maneat victoria si quern ; 
iudicio superest omnibus iste meo." 


De Grue et Pavone 

Threiciam volucrem fertur lunonius ales 

communi sociam conteruisse cibo — 
namque inter varias fuerat discordia formas, 

magnaque de facili iurgia lite trahunt — 
quod sibi multimodo fulgerent membra decore, 

caeruleam facerent livida terga gruem ; 
et simul erectae circumdans tegmina caudae 

sparserat arcatum sursus in astra iubar. 
ilia licet nullo pennarum certet honore, 

his tamen insultans vocibus usa datur : 
" quamvis innumerus plumas variaverit ordo, 

mersus humi semper florida terga geris : 
ast ego deformi sublimis in aera penna 

proxima sideribus numinibusque feror." 

^^ haec BX Bawl. : hec A-shb. : hanc cett. codd. 

XV. 2 contenuisse P : continuisse vel continuasse cett. codd. : 
conripuisse Froehner : commonuisse vel detinuisse vel con- 
teruisse Ellis. 

' agmina Ellis. 

® arcanum codd. : arcatum Barth. rursus codd. : sursus 



ugliness the monkey flung out these words before 
others could speak, anxious by so doing to remove the 
reproach upon her race: " Let Jupiter determine 
whether victory is in store for anyone ; to mj> mind 
the little monkey before you beats the lot." 


The Crane and the Peacock 

The story goes that Juno's bird disparaged the 
Thracian fowl,^ when she shared their joint feeding- 
ground. For a quarrel had arisen involving their 
different kinds of beauty and they were protracting 
a long argument on a case easy to settle. The pea- 
cock contended that the parts of his body gleamed in 
manifold loveliness, but that a dingy back gave the 
crane a dun colour, and at the word he arrayed about 
him the canopy of his uplifted tail and shot an arc of 
light upwards to the sky. The crane, though unable 
to rival the other in any glory of plumage, is never- 
theless said to have used these words in mockery : 
" Countless may be the array of colours variegating 
your plumage, yet you, the wearer of that gaudy 
tail, are for ever kept close to earth. But I soar 
aloft into the air on my wing for all its ugliness, 
and am wafted nigh to the stars and heavenly 

* i.e. the crane : cf. Ovid, A. A. iii. 182, Thrticiamve gruevi ; 
Virg. Aen. X. 265, Strymoniae grues. 




De Quercu et Haruxdine 

Montibus e summis radicitus eruta quercus 

decidit insani turbine victa Noti, 
quam tumidis subter decurrens alveus undis 

suscipit et fluvio praecipitante rapit. 
verum ubi diversis impellitur ardua ripis, 

in fragiles calamos grande residit onus, 
tunc sic exiguo conectens caespite ramos 

nairatur liquidis quod stet harundo vadis : 
se quoque tarn vasto necdum consistere trunco, 

ast illam tenui cortice ferre minas. 
stridula mox blando respondens canna susurro 

seque magis tutam debilitate docet. 
" tu rabidos " inquit " ventos saevasque procellas 

despicis et totis viribus acta ruis. 
ast ego surgentes paulatim demoror Austros 

et quamvis levibus provida cedo Notis ; 
in tua praeruptus se effundit robora nimbus, 

motibus aura meis ludificata perit." 

haec nos dicta monent magnis obsistere frustra, 
paulatimque truces exsuperare minas. 

XVI. ^ necdum phrique codd. : rectum C Beg. : rectam 
Ellis, consistere plerique codd. : non sistere Ellis. j 

1^ offendit codd. praeter X : se effundit Lachnann. 

1" frusta b : lustra B : rebus b^ : frustra celt. codd. : fluxa 




The Oak and the Reed 

An oak was torn up by its roots, a victim of the mad 
South Wind's whirhng force, and fell down from the 
mountain heiirhts. A river-channel, flowing below 
in high spate, took it and bore it off in the headlong 
current. But after the tall trunk had been thrust 
from bank to bank, its mighty bulk came to rest 
among slender reeds. Then it marvelled that a reed, 
fastening its stalks in but a tiny tuft, should stand 
firm in the flo^ving water; it marvelled that, for all 
its massive trunk, even it could not yet" stand 
unmoved, while the reed with its slender rind endured 
the menaces of nature.^ Presently the creaking 
reed, answering with meek whisper, declared that 
its weakness increased its safety. "You," it said, 
" scorn the ravening winds and cruel tempests, and 
fall beneath the onset of their full strength. I keep 
in dalliance the gradually rising Auster and, with 
an eye to the future, let myself be swayed by Notus, 
however light his breath. Against your sti'ength the 
rain-storm hurls itself sheer; but, baffled by my 
motion, the breeze sinks into nothing." 

This teaches us that it is in vain we resist the 
mighty and that it is by slow degrees that we 
surmount the fury of their menaces. 

" necdum. The years in which the truncus had grown tarn 
vastus had not vet made it strons enough to resist the storm. 
Cf. J. E. B. MaVor, C. R. I. (1887) p. 191. 

'' miratur (8) is first followed by quod stel to express indirect 
statement, then by two accus. and iufin. clauses (9-10). 


zz 2 




Venator iaculis haud irrita vulnera torquens 

turbabat trepidas per sua lustra feras. 
turn pavidis audax cupiens succurrere tigris 

verbere conunoto iussit adesse minax. 
ille tamen solito contorquens tela lacerto 

" nunc tibi, qualis earn, nuntius iste refert." 
et simul emissum transegit vulnere ferrum, 

praestrinxitque citos hasta cruenta pedes. 
moUiter at fixum traheret cum saucia telum, 

a trepida fertur vulpe retenta diu, 
nempe quis ille foret, qui talia vulnera ferret, 

aut ubinam iaculum delituisset agens. 
ilia gemens fractoque loqui vix murmure coepit 

(nam solitas voces ira dolorque rapit) : 
" nulla quidem medio convenit in aggere forma 

quaeque oculis olim sit repetenda meis, 
sed cruor et validis in nos directa lacertis 

ostendunt aliquem tela fuisse virum." 


De Quattuor Iuvencis ET Leone 

Quattuor immensis quondam per prata iuvencis 
fertur amicitiae tanta fuisse fides, 

XVII. 2 pavidas BGOX Raul. Ashb. Pet.^ : rapidas L: 
rabidas cett. codd. : trepidas Lachmann. 

* commoto : commotas plerique codd. minas codd. : 
minax Froehner. 

* eram plerique codd. : earn Tfn^, Froehner. 

^^ dum quis plerioite codd. : quis deus Baehrens : nempe 
quis Ellis. 




The Hunter and the Tigress 

A huntsman who dealt effective wounds with the 
javelins he discharged used to drive the wild animals 
in terrified confusion through their coverts. Then 
a bold tigress, eager to succour the panic-stricken 
beasts, lashing with her tail in threatening wise, 
bade him come up against her. But he hurled as 
usual his missile from his shoulder, saying, " That is 
the messenger which in this hour tells you my 
prowess as 1 go my way " ; and at that moment the 
weapon which he discharged pierced and wounded 
her, and the blood-stained shaft grazed her swift feet. 
When the wounded tigress was gently drawing forth 
the tight-fixed weapon, she is said to have been kept 
in converse a long time by a fox asking in dismay, 
who was the man that could deal such wounds or 
where had he hid himself to shoot his javelin. The 
tigress with moans and broken growls found speech 
with difficulty ; for rage and pain robbed her of her 
usual utterance; " No shape that my sight could 
afterwards recall confronted me in the middle of the 
road,'' but the blood and the weapon aimed at me by a 
powerful arm show that it was some man of might." 


The Four Oxen and the Lion 

Once among four huge oxen in the meadows there 
existed, as the story goes, so trusty a bond of affection, 

" .Servius on Virg. Aen. V. 273, viae deprensits in aggere, 
explains agger est media viae eminentia coaggeratis lapidibus 
strata : cf. Rut. Namat. I. 39 Aurelius agger = Via Aurelia. 



ut simul emissos nullus divelleret error, 

rursus et e pastu turba rediret amans. 
hos quoque collatis inter se cornibus ingens 

dicitur in silvis pertimuisse leo, 
dum metus oblatam prohibet temptare rapinam 

et coniuratos horret adire boves ; 
et quamvis audax factisque immanior esset, 

tantoriun solus viribus impar erat. 
protinus aggreditur pravis insistere verbis, 

collisum. cupiens dissociare pecus. 
sic postquam dictis animos disiunxit acerbis, 

invasit miserum diripuitque gregem. 
tunc quidam ex illis " vitam servare quietam 

qui cupit, e nostra discere morte potest ; 
neve cito admotas verbis fallacibus aures 

impleat aut veterem deserat ante fidem." 



Horrentes dumos abies pulcherrima risit, 

cum facerent formae iurgia magna suae, 
indignum referens cum istis certamen haberi, 

quos meritis nullus consociaret honor : 
" nam mihi deductum surgens in nubila corpus 

verticis erectas tollit in astra comas, 
puppibus et patulis media cum sede locamur, 

in me suspensos explicat aura sinus ; 
at tibi deformem quod dant spineta figuram, 

despectum cuncti praeteriere viri." 

XVIII. * ovans WBX b Pet.^ : amans cett. codd. 
^ sed codd. : et vulgo, 

^* invasit BX Pet.^ : invadit cett. codd. 

XIX. 3 cunctis codd. : cum istis Baehrens : dumis Ellis. 
* quos GTOX Beg. Bawl. : quod cett. codd. 



that on beincr sent from their stalls together no 
straying would sunder them, and then again the group 
would return from pasture still friends. Now, before 
these oxen, with their horns united in line, a mighty- 
lion in the forest is said to have quailed, so long as 
fear forbade him to make trial of the quarry facing 
him, and he shrank from approaching the allied 
cattle ; and, though courageous and more savage 
in his deeds, he was no match by himself for the 
strength of such powerful beasts. Thereupon he 
began to urge evil counsels, anxious to divide the 
herd by making them quarrel. So after he had sown 
disunion AA-ith embittering words, he rushed upon the 
poor herd and tore them limb from limb. Then one 
of them said, " Anyone who wants to preserve an 
untroubled life may learn from our death. Let him 
not be in a hurry to suffer a ready ear to be filled with 
guile, or to desert over soon an ancient loyalty." 


The Pine and the Bramble Bush 

A very lovely pine made mockery of a prickly 
bramble bush in a serious dispute touching their 
claims to beauty. The pine said it was unfair it 
should have to contend with such as no title brought 
by merit into its own class. " For my tapering trunk 
rises towards the clouds, and rears stanvard the lofty 
foliage of my tree-top ; and when I am placed on the 
ship's open deck in the centre, the sails unfurled by 
the ^^'ind hang upon me. But you — everyone passes 
you by with scorn, because your growth of thorns 
gives you an ugly appearance." The bramble 



ille refert : " nunc laeta quidem bona sola fateris 

et nostris frueris imperiosa malis ; 
sed cum pulchra minax succidet membra securis, 

quam velles spinas tunc habuisse meas I " 


De Piscatore et Pisce 

Piscator solitus praedam suspendere saeta 

exigui piscis vile trahebat onus. 
sed postquam superas captum perduxit ad auras 

atque a\ido fixum vulnus ab ore tulit, 
" parce, precor " supplex lacrimis ita dixit obortis ; 

" nam quanta ex nostro corpore dona feres ? 
nunc me saxosis genetrix fecunda sub antris 

fudit et in propriis ludere iussit aquis. 
tolle minas, tenerumque tuis sine crescere mensis : 

haec tibi me rursum litoris ora dabit : 
protinus immensi depastus caerula ponti 

pinguior ad calamum sponte recurro tuum." 
ille nefas captum referens absolvere piscem, 

difficiles queritur casibus esse vices : 
" nam miserum est " inquit " praesentem amittere 

stultius et rursum vota futura sequi." 

XX. ^ damna codd. : dona Lachmann. 

^* casibus codd. : cassibus Froehner, Baehrens, Ellis. 



rejoins : " True, now you rejoice and all you profess 
is fair, and in your domineering way you take pleasure 
in my defects. But in that day when the threatening 
axe shall hew your fine limbs, how you would then 
wish that you had possessed my thorns! " 


The Angler and the Fish 

A fisherman who used to catch his prey hanging 
on a horsehair line was drawing in a tiny fish of 
trumpery weight. But after he had brought his 
catch up into the air and the fish had been pierced 
with a wound ^ through its hungry mouth, in entreaty 
amid starting tears it said, " Have mercy, I pray you ; 
for how much gain will you derive from my flesh ? 
Just now has a fertile mother spawned me 'neath the 
rocky caves, and bidden me disport myself in our 
own waters. Banish your fell designs ; I am young ; 
let me grow up for your table. This bank of the shore 
will give me to you again. In a little time, when I 
have fed on the blue waters of the boundless deep, 
I shall willingly return the fatter to your rod." The 
fisherman, declaring it a crime to let go a fish once 
caught, complained that hazards are beset with turns 
incalculable: " It is a pity," he said, " to lose the 
spoil in hand, and a worse folly to start afresh in 
pursuit of future hopes." 

« vulnus ferre here means to endure a wound : contrast 
XVII. 11, where it means to deal a wound. 



De Alite et Messione 

Parvula progeniem terrae mandaverat ales, 

qua stabat viridi caespite flava seges. 
rusticus banc fragili cupiens decerpere cubno 

vicinam supplex forte petebat opem. 
sed vox implumes turbavit credita nidos, 

suasit et e laribus continuare fugam. 
cautior hos remeans prohibet discedere mater : 

" nam quid ab externis proficietur? " ait. 
ille iterum caris operam mandavit amicis ; 

at genetrix rursum tutior inde manet. 
sed postquam curvas dominum comprendere falces, 

frugibus et veram sensit adesse manum, 
" nunc " ait, " o miseri, dilecta relinquite rura, 

cum spem de propriis viribus ille petit." 


De Cupido et Invido 

luppiter ambiguas hominum praediscere mentes 

ad terras Phoebum misit ab arce poli. 
tunc duo diversis poscebant numina votis ; 

namque alter cupidus, invidus alter erat. 

XXI. ^ credula plerique codd. : sedula b : credita Withof : 
acredula {in casu vocativo) Ellis. 

^ suaserat e X : suaserat et cett. codd. : suasit et e Ellis. 

XXII. * invidus codd. {contra metrum) : lividus WitTiof. 

" Babrius makes the bird a lark. Gellius, N. A. ii. 29, 
who paraphrases the fable from Ennius' trochaic septenarii, 



The Bird and the Reaping of the Corn 

A tiny little bird '^ had entrusted her young to the 
ground where with its root-stem green stood the 
yellow corn-crop. It so happened that a farmer 
wanting to cut the corn from its fragile stalk begged 
and prayed for a neighbour's help. Now these words, 
which the unfledged nestlings believed, struck panic 
into them and counselled instant flight from their 
home. Their mother was more wary ; on her return 
she told them not to go away, saying, " What good will 
come from outsiders? " The farmer once more en- 
trusted the task to his dear friends ; but the mother 
again stayed where she was, all the safer for that 
reason. But when she perceived that the owner was 
gripping the curved sickle and that his true hand was 
near the crops, she said, " Now% my poor dears, 
abandon the fields you love so well, now that he seeks 
the fulfilment of his hopes from his own powers." 

The Greedy Man and the Jealous Man 

Jupiter sent Phoebus to the earth from the citadel 
of the sky to discover in advance the doubtful hearts 
of mankind. Just then two men were beseeching 
the gods to satisfy different desires, for one had a 
covetous and the other a jealous nature. The Sun- 
describes it as cassita, " helmeted " or " crested." Ellis' 
acredula strictl}^ means a nightingale. While the Ennian 
moral is explicitly " Do not expect friends to do what you 
can do yourself," it is noticeable that Avianus gives no 


his sese medium Titan scrutatus utrumque 

obtulit et precibus cum peteretur, ait : 
" praestant di facilis ; quae namque rogaverit unus, 

protinus haec alter congeminata feret." 
sed cui longa iecur nequeat satiare cupido, 

distulit admotas in nova damna preces, 
spem sibi confidens alieno crescere voto 

seque ratus solum munera ferre duo. 
ille ubi captantem socium sua praemia vidit, 

supplicium proprii corporis optat ovans ; 
nam petit exstinctus sic lumine degeret uno, 

alter ut hoc duplicans vivat utroque carens. 
turn sortem sapiens humanam risit Apollo, 

invidiaeque malum rettulit ipse lovi, 
quae, dum proventis aliorum gaudet iniquis, 

laetior infelix et sua damna cupit. 

De Venditore et Baccho 

\^enditor insignem referens de marmore Bacchum 

expositum pretio fecerat esse deum. 
nobilis hunc quidam funesta in sede sepulcri 

mercari cupiens compositurus erat ; 

^ confiteretur X : vst peteretur cett. : cum peteretur Ellis : 
luppiter aecus Lachmann. 

' praestabit C Reg. : praestandi cett. codd. : praestandist 
Baehrens : praestant di Ellis, facilis codd. nam quae spera- 
verit VW : nam quaeque rogaverit plerique codd. : quae 
namque rogaverit Ellis. 

^^ ut plerique codd. : sic Ellis. 

° Ellis' conjecture and interpretation have been followed, 
though facilis is a rare form for the nom. plur. (See Neue, 
Formenlehre d. lat. Sprache, II. 1875, pp. 34 sqq.) 


God, scrutinising both, presented himself as a 
mediator between them, and when entreated with 
prayers said, " The gods being kind grant fulfilment ; ° 
for what one of you asks, that shall the other forth- 
with receive, doubled. " But the one, whose far- 
reaching desires could not satisfy his heart, put off 
addressing his prayer — with a surprising loss as the 
sequel.^ He was sure the desires of the other would 
increase his own prospects, calculating that in his 
single person he was thus winning two boons. The 
other, when he saw his companion grasping at his 
own prizes, gleefully prayed for a punishment to be 
inflicted on his own body. For he asked that he 
might lose one eye for the rest of his life in order that 
the other, doubling this misfortune, might live de- 
prived of both. Then Apollo, learning the truth, 
smiled at human lot, and v.ith his own lips reported to 
Jupiter the curse of jealousy, which, as it rejoices in 
other people's untoward fortunes, is unlucky enough 
the more gladly to desire its own harm also. 


The Salesman and his Statue of Bacchus '^ 

A trading craftsman who had fashioned a fine 
Bacchus in marble had put up the god for sale. A 
nobleman who wanted to buy it intended to place it 
in the funereal resting-place containing his tomb. 

* i.e. the loss of both his eyes, described later. 

'^ The fable is so full of difficulties that Ellis questions its 
authenticity. The use of the participles in lines 1 and 4 
marks the deterioration of syntax; expositum fecerat esse 
cannot be called good Latin; and the obscurity of lines 7-9 
led Baehrens to rewrite them with more than usual infelicity. 



alter adoratis ut ferret numina templis, 

redderet et sacro debita vota loco. 
" nunc " ait *' ambiguum facies de mercibus omen, 

cum spes in pretium munera dispar agit, 
et me defunctis seu malis tradere divis, 

sive decus busti seu velis esse deum ; 
subdita namque tibi est magni reverentia sacri 

atque eadem retines funera nostra manu." 

convenit hoc illis, quibus est peniiissa potestas, 
an prodesse magis seu nocuisse velint. 


De Venatore et Leone 

Certamen longa protractum lite gerebant 

venator quondam nobilis atque leo. 
hi cum perpetuum cuperent in iurgia finem, 

edita continue forte sepulcra vident. 
illic docta manus flectentem colla leonem 

fecerat in gremio procubuisse viri. 
" scilicet affirmas pictura teste superbum 

te fieri? exstinctam nam docet esse feram." 
ille graves oculos ad inania signa retorquens 

infremit et rabido pectore verba dedit : 

XXIII. 8 et me licet addere vivis Baehrens. 

^^ faLtipleriquecodd. : facti AGO b Pet.^: sati P: sacri 
Ellis : fani Baehrens. 

^* prodesse X : praestare plerique codd. 

XXIV. * contigue Baehrens {in not.) : continue codd. 
fronte Ellis : forte codd. 

' affirmans plerique codd. : affirmas Ellis. 
* se codd. : te Ellis. 



Another wished to present " the god in the temple 
where he worshipped and in the hallowed precincts 
to fulfil a vow that was owing. " Now," said the 
statue, " you will make a puzzling forecast about 
your wares, when two far different prospects set a 
price upon your work,^ and you will be in doubt 
whether you prefer to consign me to the dead or to 
the gods, whether you wish me to adorn a tomb or 
to be a deity. To your arbitrament is submitted the 
reverence of a great religious act ; in your hand also 
you hold my death-Marrant." ^ 

This is applicable to those who have it in their 
power to do a good or a bad turn according as they 


The Hunter and the Lion 

A huntsman of renown and a lion were once 
engaged in a contest protracted by long dispute. 
As they desired to put an end once for all to their 
quarrel, they saw on the instant, it so happened, a 
lofty tombstone. Thereon a cunning hand had 
represented a lion bowing its neck in submission and 
prostrate in a man's embrace. " Can you really 
assert that the evidence of that work of art makes 
you proud? Why, it shows the death of the beast." 
The lion, turning downcast eyes to the unreal figures, 
growled and in fierceness of heart broke into speech : 

" ut ferret depends on mercari ciipiit supplied from mercari 

* viunera seems more suitably translated as " result of your 
employment " than as " gift." 

•= i.e. to make of me a sepulchral ornament. 

•* I.e. the salesman had the option of benefiting or injuring 
the statue. 



" irrita te generis subiit fiducia vestri, 

artificis testem si cupis esse manum. 
quod si nostra novum caperet sollertia sensum, 

sculperet ut docili pollice saxa leo, 
tunc hominem adspiceres oppressum murmure 

conderet ut rabidis ultima fata genis." 


De Puero et Fure 

Flens puer extremam putei consedit ad undam, 

vana supervacuis rictibus ora trahens. 
callidus hunc laerimis postquam fur vidit obortis, 

quaenam tristitiae sit modo causa rogat. 
ille sibi abrupti fingens discrimina funis 

hac auri queritur desiluisse cadum. 
nee mora, sollicitam traxit manus improba vestem : 

exutus putei protinus ima petit, 
parvulus exiguo circumdans pallia collo 

sentibus immersus delituisse datur. 
sed post fallaci suscepta pericula voto 

tristis ut amissa veste resedit humi, 
dicitur his sollers vocem rupisse querellis 

et gemitu summos sollicitasse deos : 
" perdita, quisquis erit, post haec bene pallia credat, 

qui putat in liquidis quod latet urna vadis." 

^^ expressum marmore Lachmann. 

XXV. * atque plerique codd. : ac C Beg. : hac Froehner. 

^® natat vd natet codd. : latet Wight Duff. 

** latet implies that the thief ought not to have been fool 
enough to be cheated by the boy's story about letting a golden 
pitcher drop into the well : he had not paused (wee mora, 7) 



" \'ain is the confidence in your human birth that 
has entered into you, if you desire to have for a wit- 
ness an artist's hand. If oio' ingenuity admitted of 
an extra sense, allowing a lion to engrave stones with 
skilful touch, then you would behold how the man, 
overwhelmed by a loud roar, closed his final destiny 
in ravening jaws." 


The Boy and the Thief 

A boy sat down in tears at the edge of the water 
of a well, deceitfully opening wide his mouth in 
groundless blubbering. A smart thief, on seeing him 
Avith tears starting from his eyes, asked what was the 
cause of his distress now. The boy pretended his 
rope had parted in two ; thereby, he sobbed, his 
golden pitcher had fallen down the well. At once 
the rascal's hand dragged off his hampering garment, 
and, when stripped, he made straight for the bottom 
of the well. The youngster, so the story has it, put 
the cloak round his own little neck, plunged into the 
brambles and was lost to sight. But when, after 
encountering danger on a deceptive hope, he had 
seated himself again on the ground, miserable over 
the loss of his cloak, the shrewd knave (so the story 
goes) gave utterance to these laments and made 
moaning supplication to the high gods: "Hence- 
forth let anyone, whoever he be, who thinks a jar 
lies hid in clear water," reckon that he has richly 
deserved to lose his cloak." 

to see if the gold was visible in the water, Natet or natat 
implies that anyone who expected a jar to be floating at the 
bottom of a well would be served right by losing his cloak. 

3 A 



De Capella et Leone 

Viderat excelsa pascentem rujDe capellam, 

comminus esuriens cum leo ferret iter, 
et prior " heus " inquit " praeruptis ardua saxis 

linque nee hirsutis pascua quaere iugis ; 
sed C}i:isi croceum per prata virentia floreni 

et glaucas salices et tliyma grata pete." 
ilia gemens " desiste, precor, fallaciter " inquit 

" securam placidis instimulare dolis. 
vera licet moneas, maiora pericula toUas, 

tu tamen his dictis non facis esse fidem : 
nam quamvis rectis constet sententia verbis, 

suspectam banc rabidus consiliator habet." 


De Cornice et Urna 

Ingentem sitiens cornix adspexerat urnam, 

quae minimam fundo continuisset aquam. 
banc enisa diu planis efFundere campis, 

scilicet ut nimiam pelleret inde sitim, 
postquam nulla viam virtus dedit, admovet omnes 

indignata nova calliditate dolos ; 
nam brevis immersis accrescens sponte lapillis 

potandi facilem praebuit unda viam. 

XXVI. 8 instimulare h^ et paraphr. : insimulare plerique 
codd. : insLauare Cab. 

^2 rabidus Ashb. : gravidus cetl. codd. : pravus Baehrens. 
habes b^, Lachmann, Ellis : habet cett. codd. 




The Lion and the Goat 

A hungry lion while passing near by had spied a she- 
goat grazing on a rocky height. He opened conversa- 
tion with " Ho, there ! leave these steeps with their 
precipitous crags and don't look for pasture on 
prickly ridges. No, you should go through the green 
meadows in quest of the yellow lucerne-flower and 
pale green willow and sweet thyme." *' Please 
stop," said the goat with a groan, " your lying- 
attempts to rouse me from my security with your 
gentle wiles. Though your advice has truth in it, 
though you suppress the greater dangers, yet you do 
not make me trust what you say. For however correct 
your words be and however sound their meaning, 
yet a famished counsellor has his meaning under 


The Crow and the Jar 

A thirsty crow had spied a huge jar containing a 
very little water at the bottom. Long did the crow 
strive to spill this water on the level plain, to banish, 
of course, thereby her excessive thirst; but, when 
no valiant effort could provide a way, she lost her 
temper and M-ith fresh cunning applied all her 
crafty devices. She threw pebbles in, and the low 
level of water rose naturally and so supplied an 
easy way of drinking. 




viribus haec docuit quam sit prudentia maior, 
qua coeptum cornix explicuisset opus. 


De Rustico et Iuvenco 

Vincla recusanti dedignantique iuvenco 

aspera mordaci subdere colla iugo 
rusticus obliqua succidens cornua falce 

credidit insanum defremuisse pecus, 
cautus et immenso cervicem innectit aratro 

(namque erat hie cornu promptior atque pede), 
scilicet ut longus prohiberet verbera temo 

neve ictus faciles ungula saeva daret. 
sed postquam irato detractans vincula collo 

inuneritam vacua calce fatigat humum, 
continuo eversam pedibus dispergit harenam, 

quam j in domini Boreas ora sequentis agat. 
tunc hie informi squalentes pulvere crines 

discutiens imo pectore victus ait : 
" nimirum exemplum naturae derat iniquae, 

qua fieri posset quis ratione nocens." 

XXVII. ^'^ volucris phrique codd. : comix Ellis {servans 

XXVIII. ^ bos quom Baehrens : postquam codd. 
^" vacuo (masc.) nonnidli codd., Ellis. 

^2 quam ferus in domini ora phrique codd. : q. in d. aura 
ferens ora Lachmann : q. feriens Boreas ora Withof : q. in d. 
Boreas ora Baehrens in not. agat ACPT b : agit celt. codd. 

^^ sic codd. : hie Lachmann. 

^* cum codd. : quis Baehrens. 



This fable has proved the superiority of foresight 
over stout efforts, as by it the crow accompHshed 
the task she had undertaken. 


The Farmer and his Ox 

There once was an ox that chafed at ropes and 
shirked submitting its rebelUous neck to the grip of 
the yoke. The farmer cut its horns with a knife 
used slantwise and thought the frenzied animal had 
abated its rage. Carefully he fastened its neck to 
the weighty plough (for it was over-ready with horn 
and hoof), doubtless so that the long pole might 
obstruct any butting and that its cruel hoof might find 
it difficult to kick. But when the animal, its neck 
angrily struggling against the straps, worried the 
inoffensive earth with impotent hoof, its feet at once 
churned up the sand broadcast for the North wind 
to blow into its master's face as he followed. Then 
the farmer, while he shook his locks begrimed 
viith unsightly dust, said, in deep discomfiture of 
heart, " Truly, I needed an instance of a vicious 
temper to show how anyone could contrive to do 
mischief." " 

" This new instance proved how a low nature, in spite of 
all precautions, could work harm. 




De Viatore et Satyro 

Horrida congestis cum staret bruma pruinis 

cunctaque durato stringeret arva gelu, 
haesit in adversa nimborum mole viator ; 

perdita nam prohibet semita ferre gradum. 
hunc nemorum custos fertur miseratus in antro 

exceptum Satyrus continuisse suo. 
quern simul adspiciens ruris miratur alumnus 

^'imque homini tantam protinus esse pavet ; 
nam gelidos artus vitae ut revocaret in usum, 

afflatas calido solverat ore manus. 
sed cum depulso coepisset frigore laetus 

hospitis eximia sedulitate frui, 
namque illi agrestem cupiens ostendere vitam 

silvarum referens optima quaeque dabat, 
obtulit et calido plemrni cratera Lyaeo, 

laxet ut infusus frigida membra tepor. 
ille ubi ferventem labris contingere testam 

horruit, algenti rursus ab ore reflat. 
obstipuit duplici monstro perterritus hospes 

et pulsum silvis longius ire iubet : 
** nolo " ait " ut nostris umquam successerit antris, 

tarn diversa duo qui simul ora ferat." 

XXIX. 8 protinus codd. : pectoris Lachmann : providus 

^° foverat Lachmann : solverat plerique codd. 

^^ sed cum codd. : donee Baehrens. 

^^ sufflat vel suflat codd. : reflat Schenkl. 




The Traveller and the Satyr 

\Mien mid-winter stood bristling with thick frost 
and bound every field in hardened ice, a traveller 
came to a halt in a heavy barrier of mist ; for the 
losing of his path prevented his advance. They say 
one of the guardians of the woodland, a Satyr, felt 
pity and gave him welcome and shelter in his cave. 
This nurseling of the country" looked upon him 
wondering the while, and straightway was afearedto 
see a mortal possess power so great. For, to bring 
back his chilled limbs to the tasks of life, the traveller 
had blo^vn into his hands and thawed them with his 
warm breath. But it was different when he had 
banished the cold and had delightedly begun to enjoy 
his host's generous attentions ; since, anxious to show 
him how they lived in the country, the Satyr kept 
bringing out and serving all the best that the wood- 
land yielded; he set before him also a bowl full of 
warm wine so that its pervasive heat might loosen 
the chilliness of his limbs. The traveller, fearing to 
touch the glowing cup ^vith his lips, blew this time 
with a cooling breath. His host was alarmed and 
astounded at the double miracle, and driving him 
from the woods bade him begone still further off. 
" I desire no one," he said, " ever to approach my 
cave who owns at the same moment two such different 
sorts of mouth." 

" The Satyr is called ruris alumnus as one of the ape-like 
and goat-footed demigods of the forest : c/. Ovid Met. I. 
192-3 sunt mihi semidei, sunt rustica numina Xyttiphae, 
Faunique Satyrique et monticolae Silvani; ib. VI. 392-3 
ruricdae, silvarum numina, Fauni et Satyr i fratres. 




De Sue et Illius Domixo 

Vastantem segetes et pinguia culta ruentem 

liquerat abscisa rusticus aure suem, 
ut memor accept! referens monumenta doloris 

ulterius teneris parceret ille satis, 
rursus in exsculpti deprensus crimine campi 

perdidit indultae perfidus auris onus, 
nee mora, praedictae segeti caput intulit horrens ; 

poena sed insignem congeminata facit. 
tunc domini captum mensis dedit ille superbis, 

in varias epulas plurima frusta secans. 
sed cum consumpti dominus cor quaereret apri, 

impatiens fertur quod rapuisse cocus, 
rusticus hoc iustam verbo compescuit iram, 

affirmans stultum non habuisse suem — 
nam cur membrorum demens in damna redisset, 

atque uno totiens posset ab hoste capi ? 

haec illos descripta monent, qui saepius ausi 
numquam peccatis abstinuere manus. 

XXX. ° exculpti G : except! cett. codd. : exeerpti Guiet. 

' praedictae phrique codd. : praedator Lachmann : praeve- 
titae Baehrens. 

^ quod Bawl., Pet.^ : sed cett. codd. indignum codd.: 
indictum Cab. : insigrnem Lachmann. 




The Pig and its Owner 

A pig was ruining a farmer's corn and trampling 
his fertile fields ; so he cut its ear off and let it go, 
hoping that, carrying home a reminder of the pain 
suffered, it would remember in future and keep off 
the tender crops. It was caught again in the crime of 
grubbing up the soil, and for its thieving lost the ear 
it had — the one previously spared. Immediately 
afterwards it thrust its mutilated ° head into the 
aforementioned corn ; but the twice-repeated punish- 
ment made it a marked trespasser.^ This time the 
farmer, having captured it, gave it for its owner's 
sumptuous banquet, cutting a great number of slices 
for the various dishes. But when they had been 
eating the boar and the owner asked for its heart, 
which the ravenous cook is said to have purloined, 
then the farmer soothed his reasonable anger with 
these words, remarking that the pig was stupid and 
never had a heart "^ — for why had it been mad enough 
to return j ust to lose parts of its body ? why let itself 
be caught so many times by the same enemy ? 

This sketch is a warning to those who have ven- 
tured too often and never kept their hands off 

" Horrens is glossed in the Treves MS. as truncatum. 

* If indignum of the MSS. is kept, the sense is tliat the two 
previous punishments made this new trespass bj- the pig an 
outrage. Nothing, therefore, but death could meet the case. 

' The cor was considered the seat of understanding. 




De Mure et Bove 

Ingentem fertur mus quondam parvus oberrans 

ausus ab exiguo laedere dente bovem. 
verum ubi mordaci confecit vulnera rostro, 

tutus in anfractus conditur inde suos. 
ille licet vasta torvum cervice minetur, 

non tamen iratus quern petat esse videt. 
tunc indignantem mus hoc sermone fatigans 

distulit hostiles calliditate minas : 
" non quia magna tibi tribuerunt membra parentes, 

viribus elFectum constituere tuis. 
disce tamen bre\dbus quae sit fiducia rostris, 

ut faciat quicquid parvula turba cupit." 


De Aratore et Bobus 

Haerentem luteo sub gurgite rusticus axem 
liquerat et nexos ad iuga tarda boves, 

frustra depositis confidens numina votis 
ferre suis rebus, cum resideret, opem. 

cui rector summis Tirynthius infit ab astris 
(nam vocat hunc supplex in sua vota deum) : 

XXXI. ' iusto codd. : mus hoc Withof: lusor Ellis. 

^^ monstris plerique codd. : membris B : rostris Froehner. 
^2 ut W Beg., Pet.^ : et plerique codd. faciat plerique codd. : 
facias Pet.^, B m. sec, paraphr. 

XXXII. 2 depositLS plerique codd. : dispositis PX Rawl. b^. 

" For ab cf. Ovid. 2Iet. viii. 513, invitis correptus ab ignibus 




The Mouse and the Ox 

They tell how once upon a time a little mouse 
on its wanderings ventured with ^ its tiny teeth 
to attack a mighty ox. When its nibbling mouth 
finished biting, it thereupon hid safely in its wind- 
ing hole. Though the ox made sullen threats with 
his Imge neck, yet for all his anger he could not 
see that there lived an enemy for him to attack. 
Then the mouse dispersed ^ the foe's threats with its 
cleverness, bantering the enraged ox with these 
words: "Because your parents transmitted strong 
limbs to you, it does not follow that they added 
efficiency to your strength. Learn, however, the 
self-reliance that our tiny mouths possess, and learn 
how our pigmy band does whatever it wants." 


The Ploughman and his Oxen *^ 

A peasant had left his cart sticking in a muddy pool 
and his oxen fastened to a yoke that would not move. 
He trusted in vain that thanks to the vows he lodged 
the gods would assist his fortunes though he sat idle 
himself. From the starry heights he was addressed 
by the Lord of Tiryns ^ (for he was one of the gods 
whom his entreaties invoked to further his prayers). 

' Cf. X. 10. 

' This represents De aratore et bobus, Emvl. Other titles 
are De rustico et axe, 0, and De pigro Tyrint{h)ium fnistra 
orante, C. 

** Hercules. 


" perge laborantes stimulis agitare iuvencos, 
et manibus pigras disce iuvare rotas. 

tunc quoque congressum maioraque viribus ausum 
fas superos animis conciliare tuis. 

disce tamen pigris non flecti numina votis 
praesentesque adhibe, cum facis ipse, deos." 


De Ansere Ova Aurea Pariexte 

Anser erat cuidam pretioso germine feta, 

ovaque quae nidis aurea saepe daret. 
fixerat banc volucri legem Natura superbae, 

ne liceat pariter munera ferre duo. 
sed dominus, cupidum sperans vanescere votum, 

non tulit exosas in sua lucra moras, 
grande ratus pretium volucris de morte referre, 

quae tam continue munere dives erat. 
postquam nuda minax egit per viscera ferrum 

et vacuam solitis fetibus esse videt, 
ingemuit tantae deceptus crimine fraudis ; 

nam poenam meritis rettulit inde suis. 

sic qui cuncta deos uno male tempore poscunt, 
iustius his etiam vota diurna negant. 

1" animis codd. : athlis Baehrens. 

XXXIII. ^ cupidus , . . augescere Wopkens. 



" Go on and drive your bullocks with the goad 
through their difficulties, and learn to aid with your 
hands the sluggish wheels. After you have come to 
grips and used your strength for greater efforts, then 
it is allowable also to win the gods over to your 
wishes. Learn, however, that the deities are not 
swayed by indolent vows : bring the gods to your help 
by acting yourself." 

The Goose that laid the Golden Eggs 

A man owned a goose teeming with precious off- 
spring, one that often laid golden eggs in its nest. 
Nature had ordained this rule for the noble bird, that 
it should not lay more than one egg at the same 
time. But the owner, anticipating the disappearance 
of his greedy expectations," could not brook delays, 
hateful M'hen his profits were considered ; ^ he thought 
to win a handsome prize by killing the bird, rich as it 
was in such unfailing bounty. When he plunged his 
dread knife into its open ^ breast, and found the bird 
empty of the usual eggs, he groaned aloud, tricked 
by the iniquity of so gross a fraud ; for thereupon he 
ascribed the punishment to his own deserts. 

So to those wicked enough to ask the gods for 
everything at once, they refuse the more justly even 
the prayers of a single day. 

" The golden harvest, he feared, was too good to last. 
^ He wished more than one golden egg at a time. 
"^ nuda = nudata. Ellis explains as " stript of feathers " 
to make the opening with more dexterity. 




De Formica et Cicada 

[Quisquis torpentem passus transisse iuventam 

nee timuit \dtae providus ante mala, 
confectus senio, postquam gravis adfuit aetas, 

heu frustra alterius saepe rogabit opem.] 

Solibus ereptos hiemi formica labores 

distulit et bre\'ibus condidit ante cavis. 
verum ubi candentes suscepit terra pruinas 

arvaque sub rigido delituere gelu, 
pigra nimis tantos non aequans corpore nimbos 

in laribus propriis umida grana legit, 
discolor banc precibus supplex alimenta rogabat, 

quae quondam querulo ruperat arva sono : 
se quoque, maturas cum tunderet area messes, 
'^-eantibus aestivos explicuisse dies, 
parvula tunc ridens sic est affata cicadam 

(nam vitam pariter continuare solent) : 
" mi quoniam summo substantia parta labore est, 

frigoribus mediis otia longa traho ; 
at tibi saltandi nunc ultima tempora restant, 

cantibus est quoniam vita peracta prior." 

XXXIV. ^ pigranimis KTV : pigra nimis phrique codd. 
tanto (= tarn parvo) T JRawL, Pet.^ : tantos GCw^. 
^^ decolor At/i^KPT : discolor A?^^ Ashb. 




The Ant and the Grasshopper 

[The man that has allowed his youth to go by in 
idleness and has not taken anxious precautions 
against the ills of life — that man, foredone with years, 
will in the presence of burdensome old age often ask 
in vain, alas, for a neighbour's help.] 

An ant reserved for the ^^•inter the fruits of toil 
snatched during sunny hours and stored them 
betimes in her tiny hole. But when earth assumed 
its white robe of hoar frost and fields lay hid beneath 
unyielding ice, then, quite idle and unfit bodily to face 
the rain-storms, she picked out the moistened grain 
in her own abode. A grasshopper in her varied hues, 
who before had cleft the fields with plaintive note, 
amid prayers and supplications begged the ant for 
food. For her part, she said, when the threshing- 
floor was bruising the ripened harvest, she had 
worked out the summer days in song. Then ^vith a 
laugh the tiny ant thus addressed the grasshopper 
(for their wont is to prolong their life equally) " : 
" Since my subsistence has been secured by dint of 
hardest toil, I draw out long days of ease in the 
midst of the frost. But you now have your last days 
left for dancing, since your past life was spent in 
song." ^ 

" i.e. continue their life from year to year, as neither dies 
in the -winter. 

* The ant's ironic gibe is that, as the grasshopper has been 
an inveterate singer, she can conclude her days in dancing 
with her song as an accompaniment. 




De Simiae Gemellis 

Fama est quod geminum profundens simia partum 

dividat in varias pignora nata vices ; 
namque unum caro genetrix educit amore, 

alteriusque odiis exsaturata tumet. 
coeperit ut fetam gravior terrere tumultus, 

dissimili natos condicione rapit : 
dilectum manibus vel pectore gestat amico, 

contemptum dorso suscipiente levat. 
sed cum lassatis nequeat consistere plantis, 

oppositum fugiens sponte remittit onus, 
alter at hirsuto circumdans bracchia collo 

haeret et invita cum genetrice fugit. 
mox quoque dilecti succedit in oscula fratris, 

servatus vetulis unicus heres avis. 

sic multos neglecta iuvant, atque ordine verso 
spes humiles rursus in meliora refert. 


De \^itulo et Bove 

Pulcher et intacta vitulus cervice resultans 
scindentem adsidue viderat arva bovem. 

" non pudet heus " inquit " longaevo vincula collo 
ferre nee haec positis otia nosse iugis ? 

cum mihi subiectas pateat discursus in herbas 
et nemorum liceat rursus opaca sequi." 

XXXV. 11 ad P : et Pet.^ : ab celt. codd. : at vulgo. 
1® fortasse rursus spes humiles Ellis. 

XXXVI. * haec positis Ellis : expositis codd. 




The Monkey's Twins 

The story goes that a monkey gave birth to twin 
offspring and assigned her children each to a different 
destiny. One the mother reared in fond affection, 
and she rankled with superabundant hatred for the 
other. When a perilous attack began to alarm the 
mother she hurried her young apes off, meting out 
unequal treatment. The favourite she carried in her 
paws or her tender bosom ; the despised one she lifted 
up and carried on her back. But when she could not 
stand upright on her wearied feet, in mid-flight she 
gladly let go the one that burdened her in front. 
But the other, throwing his arms round his mother's 
hairy neck, clung to her and shared her escape 
against her will. Besides, he soon succeeded to the 
caresses his favoured brother had enjoyed, and 
survived to be sole heir to his ancient lineage. 

Thus do many come to like what once they slighted ; 
and hope, changing the order of things, carries the 
lowly back into happier fortune. 


The Calf and the Ox 

A fine calf, skipping to and fro and never yoked as 
yet, had seen an ox busily ploughing the fields. 
" You there," he said, " are you not ashamed to 
have your aged neck fastened, unable to throw off 
the yoke and know the leisure that is mine ? For I 
am free to range at will over the low-lying pasture, 
and then again I can make for the shade of the 



at senior, nuUam verbis compulsus in iram, 

vertebat solitam vomere fessus humum, 
donee deposit© per prata liceret aratro 

molliter herboso procubuisse toro. 
mox vitulum sacris innexum respicit aris 

adniotum cultro comminus ire popae. 
" banc tibi " testis ait " dedit indulgentia mortem, 

expertem nostri quae facit esse iugi. 
proderit ergo graves quamvis perferre labores, 

otia quam tenerum mox peritura pati." 

est hominum sors ista, magis felicibus ut mors 
sit cita, cum miseris vita diurna negat. 


De Cane et Leone 

Pinguior exhausto canis occurrisse leoni 

fertur et insertis verba dedisse iocis. 
" nonne vides duplici tendantur ut ilia tergo 

luxurietque toris nobile pectus? " ait. 
" proximus humanis ducor post otia mensis, 

communem capiens largius ore cibum." 

^^ sertis Cannegieter. 
^3 testis CK Beg. : tristis cett. codd. 
^* miseris B m. pr. : miseros cett. codd. negat B b^ m. sec: 
regat cett. codd. : necat Ellis. 

* The epimythion 17-18 is perhaps spurious, as it partly 
contradicts lines 15-16, which may be taken to point the moral 
and which advocate endurance. 

* verba dare has not necessarily in late Latin the classical 
sense of gulling : cf. ix. 20, xxxviii. 6 : contrast i. 14. 



grove." But the old ox, not at all an^jered by the 
words, went on wearily turning the soil as usual with 
the share, till he was allowed to drop the plough and 
to lie at his ease on a grassy bed in the meadows. 
Soon afterwards he saw the calf brought by a leading- 
string to the sacrificial altar and coming close to the 
knife of the priest's attendant. As he witnessed 
this he said, " Such is the death given you by the 
forbearance that leaves you free from my yoke. So 
then it will be better to endure toil however burden- 
some than to experience when young an ease that is 
soon to be lost." 

This is the lot of mortals ; death comes swift to 
the happier ones, while the daily life of the unfortunate 
refuses them death. ° 


The Dog and the Lion 

A well-fed dog is said to have met an exhausted 
lion and to have addressed ^ him with taunts in his 
words: "Don't you see," he said, "how my flanks 
dilate under my back's double ridge ^ and my fine 
breast has handsome muscles ? When resting-time 
has come, I am brought close up to the tables where 
men eat, my mouth getting in ample measure the 
fare my master shares with me." " But what is that 

*■ Heinsius explained duplici tergo as lato tergo, like Virgil's 
duplex agitiir per lumhos spina, G. III. 87 (of a horse), where 
Servius interprets " aut revera duplex aut lata." The 
depression along the back of a horse in good condition gives 
the appearance of a double spine. Ellis suggests that tergo 
is used of the ridge or projecting surface of the skin covering 
the dog's flanks, which is called " double " from inequalities 
produced by outstanding muscle or fat. 



" sed quod crassa malum circumdat guttura ferrum ? 

" ne custodita fas sit abire domo. 
at tu magna diu moribundus lustra pererras, 

donee se silvis obvia praeda ferat, 
perge igitur nostris tua subdere colla catenis, 

dum liceat faciles promeruisse dapes." 
protinus ille gravem gemuit collectus in iram 

atque ferox animi nobile murmur agit. 
" vade " ait " et meritis nodum cervicibus infer, 

compensentque tuam vincula dura famem ; 
at mea cum vacuis libertas redditur antris, 

quamvis ieiunus quae libet arva peto. 
has illis epulas potius laudare memento, 

qui libertatem postposuere gulae." 


De Pisce et Phycide 

Dulcibus e stagnis fluvio torrente coactus 

aequoreas praeceps piscis obibat aquas, 
illic squamigerum despectans improbus agmen 

eximium sese nobilitate refert. 
non tulit expulsum patrio sub gurgite phycis 

verbaque cum salibus asperiora dedit : 
" vana laboratis aufer mendacia dictis, 

quaeque refutari te quoque teste queant. 

XXX\TI. '"^ hos versus post 10 coUocavit Cannegieter, post 
12 Schenkl et Baehreyis, post 14 Barth. 

' quo Cannegieter : quod codd. 

^3 gemitu codd. : gemuit Baehrens. 

" coinpescant BX Pet. K Pet. ^ 

XXXVIII. ^ phycis Cannegieter : phoecis CK : phocas 
GLOT Bau-l. Pet.^ 



villainous bit of iron round your brawny throat? " 
" That's to prevent my leaving the house I have been 
guardinjj. But you for a long time wander through 
the wilds dying of hunger, until your victim meets 
you in the jungle. Proceed, therefore, to bow your 
neck to the chains I wear, till you can earn an easy- 
won feast." At once the lion with a growl worked 
himself into a violent rage and in haughty spirit 
uttered a lordly roar. " Begone," he said, " set 
bonds on your neck as it deserves, and may the 
galling chains take the place of hunger in your case ; 
but when I am restored still free to my solitary den, 
famished though I be, I make for any field I please. 
Mind you commend such junketing more especially 
to those who have sacrificed independence for 


The Fish axd the Lamprey 

Driven by the rush of a river out of its fresh pools, 
a fish darted headlong to the waters of the sea. 
There it arrogantly looked down on the ranks of 
scaly fish and averred that its high birth gave it 
distinction. A lamprey in its ancestral depths could 
not endure the emigre, and spoke "■ to it sharply in 
satiric vein. " Away with empty falsehoods from 
your affected language ! away with what can be 
disproved even on your own evidence ! For I will 

" CJ. note on verba dedisse, xxxvii. 2. 

* salibua codd. fere omnes contra metrum : sociis G : salsis 
Lachmann: ? sannis £'//is : probrisasperiorareZsalibusliberiora 



nam quis eat potior populo spectante probabo, 
si pariter captos umida lina trahant. 

tunc me nobilior magno mercabitm- emptor, 
te simul aere brevi debile vulgus emet." 


De Milite Arma C rem ante 

Voverat attritus quondam per proelia miles 

omnia suppositis ignibus arma dare, 
vel quae victori moriens sibi turba dedisset 

vel quicquid profugo posset ab hoste capi. 
interea votis fors adfuit, et memor arma 

coeperat accenso singula ferre rogo. 
tunc lituus rauco deflectens murmure culpam 

immeritum flammis se docet isse pyrae. 
" nulla tuos " inquit " petierunt tela lacertos, 

viribus affirmes quae tamen acta meis ; 
sed tantum ventis et cantibus arma coegi, 

hoc quoque submisso (testor et astra) sono." 
ille resultantem flammis crepitantibus addens 

" nunc te maior " ait " poena dolorque rapit ; 

* erit codd. : eat Baehrens. 

XXXIX. ^ esse prius codd. : piis Canneg. : cibum Withof: 
in flammis se d. esse pyrae Froehner : isse pyrae Ellis. 
^2 resultantem cod.d. : reluctantem ed. vetus. 
1* dolorque plerique codd. : eolorque B : calorque Ellis. 




prove to you who passes for better in the eyes of the 
people, should a drippins; net catch and land us both 
at the same time. In that case a purchaser of high 
rank will pay a lot for me, while the feeble rabble will 
give but a brass farthing for you." 


The Soldier who Burned the Weapons 

Once upon a time a soldier worn out in the wars 
had vowed to light a fire and devote to it all his arms, 
both those yielded to him in his hour of victory by 
numbers of dying combatants and aught that could 
be taken from the foe in flight. Time passed and 
chance favoured his hopes ; so, mindful of his vow, 
he kindled a pyre and began bringing his weapons 
to it one by one. At that moment a trumpet with a 
harsh blare, deprecating all guilt, declared that it went 
innocent to the flaming pyre. " Never," it said, •' were 
your brawny arms struck by missiles M'hich you could, 
by way of plea, assert were hurled by strength of 
mine. No, I only mustered the weapons of war with 
wind and note, and that only (the stars be my wit- 
ness) in a sound subdued." The soldier added the 
trumpet to the crackling flames and made it bounce, 
saying, ' ' Now a severer punishment " and pain hurries 

" " A severer punishment " (Ellis saj^s " an extra severity 
of punishment ' ' ) befalls the trumpet ; for, whereas the 
weapons only suffer the burning, it suffers first the violence 
of being thrown against the weapons and is then destroyed 
by fire. This supports resultantem rather than relactaniem, 
which otherwise is a good suggestion. 



nam licet ipse nihil possis temptare nee ausis, 
saevior hoc, alios quod facis esse malos." 


De Pardo et Vulpe 

Distinctus maculis et pulchro pectore pardus 

inter consimiles ibat in ora feras ; 
sed quia nulla graves variarent terga leones, 

protinus his miserum credidit esse genus, 
cetera sordenti damnans animalia vultu 

solus in exemplum nobilitatis erat. 
hunc arguta novo gaudentem vulpis amictu 

corripit et vanas approbat esse notas : 
** vade " ait " et pictae nimium confide iuventae, 

dum mihi consilium pulchrius esse queat, 
miremurque magis quos munera mentis adornant, 

quam qui corporeis enituere bonis." 

De Imbre et Testa 

Impulsus ventis et pressa nube coactus 
ruperat hibernis se gravis imber aquis ; 

cumque per effusas stagnaret turbine terras, 
expositum campis fictile pressit opus : 

mobile namque lutum tepidus prius instruit aer, 
discat ut admoto rectius igne coqui. 

XL. 2 inira CK : in ira A m. pr. : mira P : iiiire GLT 
Rawl., Reg. : in arva A m. sec. V m. sec. BX Petrenses : in ora 
Ellis : abnuit ire Lachmann. 



you off. For, thougli you cannot yourself attack at 
all or venture on anythinir, you are a more cruel foe 
in that you make others dangerous." 


The Leopard axd the Fox 

A fine-breasted leopard in his dappled glory went 
to parade himself among the beasts which were his 
compeers. But because the surly lions had no varied 
hues upon their back, he straightway formed the 
belief that theirs was a sorry tribe. Condemning all 
the other animals as mean-looking, he took himself 
for the one pattern of noble breed. As he was 
rejoicing in the garb of youth, a wily vixen chid him 
and showed the uselessness of his markings. " Go," 
said she, "keep your excessive confidence in your 
gorgeous youthfulness, so long as I can surpass you in 
fine counsel, and so long as we can admire those 
adorned by gifts of intellect more than those who 
shine in bodily charms." 


The Shower axd the Jar 

Impelled by the winds, a heavy rain-storm had 
gathered with the pressure of cloud upon cloud and 
burst in wintry torrents. And as its whirling deluge 
made a lake over the widespread lands, it struck some 
potter's work set outside in the fields ; for warm air 
shapes the plastic clay beforehand, to train it for 
being baked more perfectly when fire is applied. 



tunc nimbus fragilis perquirit nomina testae. 

immemor ilia sui " Amphora dicor " ait ; 
" nunc me docta manus rapiente volumina gyro 

molliter obliquum iussit habere latus." 
" hactenus hac " inquit " liceat constare figura : 

nam te subiectam diluet imber aquis." 
et simul accepto violentius amne fatiscens 

pronior in tenues victa cucurrit aquas, 
infelix, quae magna sibi cognomina sumens 

ausa pharetratis nubibus ista loqui ! 

haec poterunt miseros posthac exempla monere, 
subdita nobilibus ne sua fata gemant. 

De Lupo et Haedo 

Forte lupum melior cursu deluserat haedus, 

proxima vicinis dum petit arva casis ; 
inde fugam recto tendens in moenia cursu 

inter lanigeros adstitit ille greges. 
impiger hunc raptor mediamque secutus in urbem 

temptat compositis sollicitare dolis : 
" nonne vides " inquit, " cunctis ut victima templis 

immitem regemens morte cruentet humum ? 
quod nisi securo valeas te reddere campo, 

ei mihi, vlttata tu quoque fronte cades." 

XLI. * nunc codd. : nam edd. 

^^ pharetratis codd. : foret tantis Cab., Baehrens : foret 
atris Wopkens : fortasse erat iratis Ellis. 
^^ ne B : ut cett. codd. 

" i.e. conceitedly elated by its beauty as described in 9-10, 
it forgets what a frail thing it is. 



Then the rain-cloud asked the name of the brittle 
jar, which, forgetting itself," said, " My name is 
Amphora. As you see me now, a craftsman's hand, 
by means of the wheel's swift revolutions, has 
ordained the gentle slope of my side." " Till now, 
but no more," said the other, " think yourself per- 
mitted to bear this shape, for rain is about to whelm 
you in its waters and wash you away." And there- 
upon, taking in the wild rush of the flood, and crack- 
ing open, the jar yielded and dashed headlong into 
the flowing waters. Ill-fated one, to take a proud 
name to itself and venture to speak thus to clouds 
which have their quivers in readiness ! 

This example will serve in future to warn the 
wretched not to lament their destiny when it is under 
the control of the great. 


The Wolf and the Kid 

It happened that a kid, while making for the fields 
which lay nearest to some neighbouring huts, had 
baflfled a wolf by faster running. Then, directing 
his flight straight for the city walls, he came to a halt 
among flocks of wool-clad sheep. The beast of prey 
was unwearied and, pursuing the kid into the heart 
of the town, tried to lure him with studied wiles. 
" Do you not see," he said, " how in all the temples 
a victim amid repeated groans stains the pitiless 
ground with its life-blood r ^ But if you are not able 
to return to the safety of the meadow, ah me, you 
too will die with the sacrificial fillet round your brow." 

* The fable, Ellis points out, belongs to a time when 
sacrifices in heathen temples might still take place : cf. the 
pagan atmosphere of XXIII and XXXV^I (see also Introd.). 



ille refert : " modo quam metuis, precor, exue curani 

et tecum viles, improbe, tolle minas ; 
nam sat erit sacrum divis fudisse cruorem 

quam rabido fauces exsaturare lupo." 

sic quotiens duplici subeuntur tristia casu, 
expedit insignem promeruisse necem. 

XLII. ^^ sat erit plerique codd. : satius Withof. 



The kid replied, " Just drop, I pray you, the anxiety 
which is your dread, and take yourself off and your 
trumpery threats too, you rogue. I shall be content 
to pour out my blood in a sacrifice to the gods rather 
than gorge the throat of a ravenous wolf." 

So every time we face disaster of twofold hazard, 
it is the noble death which it is expedient to achieve. 





The last of the classical Latin poets, Claudius 
Rutilius Namatianus, or (as is quite possibly the 
correct order for his name) Rutilius Claudius Nama- 
tianus, belonged to a Gallo-Roman family ^ and was 
bom late in the fourth century, most likely at 
Toulouse. His father, almost certainly the Lachanius 
of his poem, and more or less plausibly identified 
with different official Claudii of the period, passed 
through a distinguished public career and had been 
honoured with a statue at Pisa, a visit to which is 
described with filial pride. ^ Rutilius held high 
appointments under the emperor Honorius, who 
reigned a.d. 395-423. We must, however, beware 
of being misled by distinctions spuriously thrust 
upon him in the title of the Bologna edition ; he 
was not a vir coiisularis , though he was a vir claris- 
simus ; he had been neither a trihiinus militum nor a 
praefectus praetorii, but he had attained to the 
influential positions of magisier officiorum ^ and 
praefectus urbisJ^ It can be shown that he held the 
former office in a.d. 412 and that he immediately 

T. 20 " T. 575-596. <= I. 563. 

<* I. 157-lCO and 427. 



preceded his friend Albinus ° as prefect of the city 
for part of the year a.d. 414. 

Educated on the lines of the ancient learning, 
Rutilius, as his poem indicates, was a man of literary- 
knowledge and taste, an adherent of paganism, and 
influenced by Stoic philosophy. The times in 
which he lived had brought devastation again and 
again into Italy at the hands of northern barbarians. 
In A.D. 410, six years before he undertook the journey 
back to his native Gaul which makes the subject of 
his poem De Reditu Suo,^ Rome had witnessed in a 
three days' sack the culmination of the third siege 
of the city by Alaric, King of the Visigoths. 

That same year men had seen the burial of the 
Gothic chief under the diverted waters of the Busento ; 
and in 412 Ataulf, the successor of Alaric, had 
withdrawn his Goths from Italy into Gaul, whence 
he had been forced across the Pyrenees into Spain 
to meet his death by assassination in 415. Soon 
afterwards, under their King Walia, the Visigoths 
concluded peace with Rome ; but years of merciless 
ravage had left in Italy and Gaul scenes of depressing 
desolation which are reflected in our author's realistic 
allusions. '^ The misery of it all touched him closely 
as he was planning his route in 416 from the one 
devastated country to the other, and so he decided 
to coast northwards from the mouth of the Tiber 
rather than face the dangerous roads and broken 
bridges of Italy. The motive for his journey has 
been questioned : it is at least more likely that he 

« I. 466-474. 

* A slightly more satisfactory title than the alternative 

• I. 21, 39^2. 



may have wished to inspect some property of his own 
in Gaul than that his paganism had somehow lost 
him favour in Rome." 

It was autumn when he started from the city, and 
in the extant portion of the poem we can read an 
entertaining elegiac journal for two months from 
September 22nd to November 21st, a.d. 416/^ when 
his second book breaks off at the 68th line after the 
arrival at Luna. This was something more elaborate 
as a travel-poem than Horace's journey to Brundu- 
sium or Ovid's sketch of his voyage in the Tristia 
or Statius' send-off to his patron bound for Egypt. "^ 
We may guess that the composition of the poem 
followed not long after the time of the journey ; 
but our knowledge of the author and of his fortunes 
stops short with the interruption of his work. Only 
half-a-dozen lines before the end, as we now have it, 
the author had contemplated the continuance of his 
narrative. Is the conclusion lost or was it never 
written ? 

A brief summary will enable us to follow him on 
his voyage so far as his poetic record runs. A long 
exordium (1-164) is largely a rhetorical eulogy on 

" H. Schenkl, Rh. Mus. 66 (1911), pp. 393 sqq., argues that 
Rutilius' attacks on Christian monks do not prove his pagan 
creed, and it is true that some Christians have censured 
monasticism severely. But this is not the whole case. 
Rutilius' tone elsewhere seems inconsistent with Christian 
belief. Labriolle quite reasonably distinguishes it from that 
of a professing Christian like Ausonius, Rev. des etudes latines, 
6 (1928), pp. 'SO sqq. 

* Carcopino, Rev. des etudes lat., 6, 180 sqq., 1928, argues 
for 16th Oct. 417 as the date of the departure from Rome. 
Both Helm and Prechac agree in their editions. 

"■ Hor. Sal. I. v (partlv suggested by Lucilius' Iter Siculum); 
Ovid, Trist. I. x; Stsit.'Sih. III. ii. 



the majestic greatness of Rome and her gift of 
unifying nations. After the start from the city 
(165) Rutihus was weather-bound for fifteen days 
at Ostia in the harbour of Claudius and Trajan. 
When his sailors had once found a fair \vind, the 
coasting and mainly daylight voyage began, and, 
as related in Book I, lasted six days (or, according 
to Vessereau, seven). The first day (217-276) 
brings them to Centumcellae, where they spend 
the night. On the second day (277-312) they sail 
at dawn, pass off the mouth of the Munio and the 
pinewoods of Graviscae, sighting Cosa before putting 
into Portus Herculis at nightfall. On the thu-d day 
(313-348), sailing still earlier, before sunrise, they 
coast along Monte Argentario, pass the island of 
Igilium (recently a refuge for fugitives from the 
Goths), touch, without staying, at the Umbro mouth, 
and are forced, when overtaken by night, to bivouac 
ashore. The fourth day (349-428) finds them 
compelled to take to oars in the morning : and after 
sighting Ilva (Elba), whose mines suggest to the 
poet the praises of iron, they land in a state of 
fatigue before midday at Faleria, where they chance 
upon an Osiris fete in progress. Their most un- 
pleasant experiences with an extortionate landlord, 
a Jew, lead to an outburst against Judaism. Sub- 
sequent rowing brings them to Populonia, where they 
are rejoiced to get news from Rome. With the 
fifth day (429-510) we have the distant view of 
Corsica chronicled, and when Capraria rises in sight, 
the opportunity is seized for an onslaught on the 
monasticism of its inhabitants. The travellers 
later reach Volaterrana Vada. A visit is paid to 
the villa of a good friend, Albinus, and the processes 



of the neighbouring salt-pans are described. The 
welcome meeting with Victoriniis, a friend from 
Toulouse, compensates for the delay caused by a 
gale. During the early part of the sixth day " 
(511-540) they find themselves off the dangerous 
rocks of Gorgon island, the home of a hermit whom 
Rutilius regards as one of a group of misguided 
fanatics, more bewitched, he thinks, than the 
victims of Circe's enchantments. They next arrive 
at the villa Triturrita, built on an artificial causeway 
near a harbour protected by a curious barrier of 
seaM'eed. Here, in spite of the inducement to 
proceed with the voyage in fair weather, an interrup- 
tion is made, as Rutilius cannot resist the temptation 
to visit his friend Protadius in the neighbouring 
town : so Protadius' merits, Pisa itself and the statue 
erected there to his own father are in turn touched 
upon. This voluntary delay (541-614) is followed 
by a compulsory one (615-644) ; for on coming back 
to Triturrita, the travellers being storm-stayed have 
to occupy their time in a boar-hunt : and for the 
moment horn and song appear to be echoed in one 
of Rutilius' couplets.^ A long stay is made in this 
district. Book I ending in a description of violent 
and continued storm. 

Book II in its 68 lines narrates only the voyage 
from Portus Pisanus to Luna, but it also contains a 
description of Italy, a furious invective against the 
dead general Stilicho, and an account of the marble 
quarries in the Luna district. 

" Vessereau makes this the seventh day, as he estimates 
that the distance from Popu Ionia to Vada and the visit to 
Albinus would need more than a single day. The sixth 
day may therefore have been spent at the villa ; bnt the poem 
does not clearly indicate this. * 629-630. 



His poem, in some ways the better for those 
digressions which make it more than a journal of 
travel, exhibits Rutilius as a man with an eye for the 
scenery of the Italian coast, interested in the affairs 
of the places touched at during his voyage north- 
wards, and stirred by warm affection for friends" no 
less than by frankly expressed dislike for Jews, Chris- 
tian monks and Stilicho. It is pleasant to note his joy 
at meeting friends and his regret at parting : it is 
an equally human trait that he is a good hater. 
His tender Stoic melancholy, coloured rather than 
seared by the memory of Rome's recent capture 
by the Goths, does not prevent him from cherishing 
an optimistic confidence in her recovery, even as in 
long-past history she had recovered after the Allia 
and Cannae. And so in his encomium upon the 
imperial city, sincere enough in feeling and yet in 
phrasing more rhetorical than poetic, Rutilius has 
uttered the swan-song of Rome. 

Nor is it a song unworthy of the classical tradition. 
His Latin has a prevailing lucidity which befits his 
theme ; and, despite the influence of Virgil and 
Ovid, his work, thanks to concentration upon his 
own experiences, which are narrated in a vivid and 
realistic style, bears a definitely individual mark. 
But it is rare for this individual note of his to show 
itself in mere linguistic usage such as decessis (if 
that be the true reading at I. 313) or the archaistic 
propudiosa (I. 388). As to metre, it is true that 
amphitheatrum is not a Virgilian ending for a hexa- 
meter, nor sollicitudinibus an Ovidian ending for a 
pentameter.^ It is true also that Rutilius is too free 

" See notes on the translation. 

* There are some sixteen exceptions in Rutilius to the 
dissyllabic close of a pentameter. 



in his employment of spondees. There is, further, 
little enjamhement between hexameter and penta- 
meter, so that his lines tend to be monotonously 
self-contained.** Yet, on the whole his versification 
must be called graceful,'' and at times his elegiac 
couplets gain greatly in strength by a kind of Pro- 
pertian force which Rutilius succeeds in conferring 
upon the pentameter, 


J. B. Pius. Editio princeps. Bologna, 1520. 
Onuphrius Panvinius. In his Reipiihlicae Romafiae 

Commentarii. Venice, 1558. 
J. Castalio. Rome, 1582. 
C. Barth. Frankfort, 1623. 
Th. J. Almeloveen (c. not. variorum). Amsterdam, 

P. Burman. P. L. M. II. pp. 1-184. Leyden, 

C. T. Damm. Brandenburg, 1760. 
J. C. Wernsdorf. P. L. M. V. i. pp. 1-202. Alten- 

burg, 1788. 
A. W. Zumpt. Berlin, 1840. 
L. Mueller. Leipzig, 1870. 

Itasius Lemniacus (A. v. Reumont). Berlin, 1872. 
E. Baehrens. P. L. M. V. pp. 3-30. Leipzig, 


" Usually hexameter and pentameter constitute a unity, 
as in I. 65-66, or the second line takes up and completes the 
first, as in 1. 91-92, 331-332. Only occasionally does a 
sentence run into more than one distich, as in I. 403-408, 

* The elisions are 61 in 712 lines. There are no elisions 
of a long vowel before a short, nor of a monosyllable, nor at 
the caesura, nor in the second half of a pentameter. 



J. Vessereau (text, French prose transln. and essays). 
Paris, 1904. 

C. H. Keene (Eng. verse transln. by G. F. Savage- 
Armstrong). London, 1907. 

G. Heidrich (introd. and crit. appar.). Vienna, 

V. Ussani. Florence. 1921. 

R. Helm. Heidelberg, 1933. 

J. Vessereau and F. Prechac (texte etabli et traduit). 
Paris, 1933. 


E. Gibbon. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 

(esp. chaps. xx\dii-xxxi for historical back- 
T. Hodgkin. Italy and her Invaders, Vol. I. Oxford, 

Fr. Mueller. De Rutilio Namatiano stoico, progr. 

Soltquellae (= Saltwedel), 1882. 
H. Schiller. Geschichte der rom. Kaizerzeit, II. 

Gotha, 1887. 
P. Monceaux. Les Africains : etude sur la litter. 

latine d'Afrique. Paris, 1894. 
C. Hosius. Die Textgeschichte des Rutilius, Rh. Mus. 

51 (1896), pp. 197-210. 
P. Rasi. In CI. Rut. Namatiani lihros adnotationes 

metricae. Turin, 1897. 
S. Dill. Roman Society in the last Century of the Wn. 

Empire. London, 1905. 
R. Pichon. Les derniers ecrivains profanes (ch. v, 

" un grand fonctionnaire gallo-romain : le poete 

Rut. Nam."). Paris, 1906. 
H. Schenkl. Ein spdtrbmischer Dichter u. sein Claw 

henshekenntnis, Rh. Mus. 66 (1911), pp. 393-416. 


P. de Labriolle. Rid. Nam. et les moines in Rev. des 
etudes latines.W. pp. 30-41. Paris, 1928. 

J. Carcopino. A propos du pohue de Rut. Nam. in 
Rev. des etudes latines, VI. pp. 180-200. Paris, 

M. L. W. Laistner. Thought and Letters in JVn. 
Europe, a.d. 500-900 (opening chapter on 
" Empire and its Invaders "). London, 1931. 

E. S. Duckett. Latin Writers of the Fifth Century. 
New York, 1931. 


V = Codex Vindobonensis 277 (olim 387), qui, post 
membranas vetustas Ovidii Halleutica et Grattii 
Cynegetica continentes, foliis 84^-93^ saeculi xvi 
nostrum carmen habet, 

[•f. = the symbol accompanying some of the marginal 
corrections in the Vienna MS. : it has been 
variously interpreted as fortasse (L. Mueller, 
Baehrens),^/ia^ (Hosius), or fuit (Purser).] 

B = editio princeps, Bononiae anno 1520 emissa. 

R = Codex Romanus : saec. xvi, Romae anno 1891 

On these three sources of the text, two MSS. 
and the editio princeps, a few notes are desirable. 
Baehrens in his edition of 1883 based his text upon 
the Vienna manuscript (now denoted by V, the colla- 
tion of which by Huemer was called c by Baehrens) 
and upon Mau's collation of the editio princeps 
published by Battista Pio at Bologna in 1520 (here 
denoted by B but in Baehrens by b). Since 
Baehrens' time a second manuscript, denoted by R, 
has become available : it was discovered in the library 



of the Duke of Sermoneta at Rome in 1891. V and 
R, both written in the sixteenth century, are in- 
directly and independently derived from an arche- 
type found at Bobbio in 1494 or 1493. This arche- 
type may be conjectured to have been written in 
Lombardic characters in the eighth or ninth century ; 
but it has been lost since its removal from Bobbio 
in 1706. In 1495 Inghiramius, surnamed Phaedrus 
of Volaterra, afterwards librarian at the Vatican, 
made a copy of it at Bobbio and took it to Rome before 
1506. About that time the poet Sannazaro had 
brought with him from France to Italy the newly- 
discovered Halieutica of Ovid and Cynegetica of 
Grattius and of Nemesianus ; and in his enthusiasm 
for new works he either acquired or transcribed 
Phaedrus' copy of the manuscript. According to 
Baehrens and to Vessereau, V is Sannazaro's copy, 
though, according to Hosius, the descent of V is 
traceable back through Sannazaro and then through 
Phaedrus to the codex Bobiensis. The Vienna 
MS. is on paper, of the sixteenth century, bound up 
at the end of a volume immediately after Ovid's 
Halieutica, also on paper and preceded by seven 
older manuscripts on vellum of smaller dimensions 
than the paper MSS. Among these vellum MSS. 
certain lines of Eucheria and another copy of the 
Halieutica, -svith Sidonius Apollinaris and Grattius, 
have been identified with the actual poems which 
Sannazaro brought from France. 

The editio princeps published by Battista Pio 
at Bologna in 1520 has a value for determining the 
text, as it represents Phaedrus' copy according to 
Hosius, and thus offers a testimony earlier than 
Sannazaro's copy and its derivative V. 



R is dated by ^'essereau a quarter of a century 
after V, i.e. in 1530, as he holds \^ to be Sannazaro's 
copy. Hosius, who collated R in R/i. Mus. (1896), 
vol. li, inferred that it was written within 30 or 40 
years of the discovery of Rutilius' poem in 1493.° 
The corruptions shared by V and R prove their 
common descent, but R cannot have come from 
Phaedrus' copy (represented in the editio princeps 
B), because R sometimes preserves the true reading 
in contrast with V and B. On the other hand, a 
consensus of V and R virtually establishes a reading 
in the lost codex Bobiensis of the eighth century. 

" The comparative value of V and R is hard to estimate. 
Keene points out that while R has the advantage in I. 178 
tenet, 211 curae, 235 largo, 265 lymphas, 461 algam, 552 
utranique, V has the superiority in I. 22 viiseranda, 232 Inui, 
317 ternis, 573 Elide, II. 62 propositum. R certainly has serious 
disfigurements due to one or other of its three hands. 
Recently L. Bartoli (Athenaeum ix. 3, 1931), writing on the two 
codices, has awarded the palm to the Vienna manuscript. 




Velocem potius reditum mirabere, lector, 

tarn cito Romuleis posse carere bonis, 
quid longum toto Romam venerantibus aevo ? 

nil umquam longum est quod sine fine placet, 
o quantum et quotiens possum numerare beatos 

nasci felici qui meruere solo ! 
qui Romanorum procerum generosa propago 

ingenitum cumulant urbis honore decus ! 
semina virtutum demissa et tradita caelo 

non potuere aliis dignius esse locis. 
feiices etiam qui proxima munera primis 

sortiti Latias obtinuere domos ! 
religiosa patet peregrinae Curia laudi, 

nee putat externos quos decet esse suos ; 
ordinis imperio collegarumque fruuntur 

et partem Genii quern venerantur habent : 

^ quater Heinsius, Mueller j Baehrens. 

" Potius supports the view that the opening of the poem 
is lost. 

* The poet is to praise Rome at length (3-164). He claims 
that nothing .can be tedious in the eulogy of a city which 
every age has held in honour — the urbs aeterna calls for 
eternal veneration. 





Rather ° Mill you marvel, reader, that my quick 
return journey (to Gaul) can so soon renounce the 
blessings of the city of Romulus. \Yhat is too long 
for men who spend all time in venerating Rome ? ^ 
Nothing is ever too long that never fails to 
please. How greatly and how often can I count 
those blest who have deserved birth in that happy 
soil! Those highborn scions of Roman nobility 
crown their honourable birth M'ith the lustre of the 
Capital ! On no other land could the seeds of \drtues 
have been more worthily let fall by heaven's assign- 
ment. Happy they too who, \vinning meeds next 
to the first, have enjoyed Latin homes ! " The 
Senate-house, though fenced with awe, yet stands 
open to foreign merit, nor deems those strangers 
who are fittingly its own. They share the power 
of their colleagues in the senatorial order, and possess 
part of the sacred Genius ^ which they revere, even 

' i.e. though not born in Rome, like those in 5-6. 

^ The Genius is the indwelling spirit of the Roman People, 
shared by such provincials as were admitted into the senate. 
Their union is compared with the heavenly council under 
the presidency of the supreme god (Jupiter is not named). 


quale per aetherios mundani verticis axes 
concilium summi credimus esse dei. 

at mea dilectis fortuna revellitur oris, 

indigenamque suum Gallica rura vocant. 
ilia quidem longis nimium deformia bellis, 

sed quam grata minus, tam miseranda magis. 
securos levius crimen contemnere cives : 

privatam repetunt publica damna fidem. 
praesentes lacrimas tectis debemus avitis : 

prodest admonitus saepe dolore labor. >-avor- 
nec fas ulterius longas nescire ruinas 

quas mora suspensae multiplicavit opis ; 
iam tempus laceris post saeva incendia fundis 

vel pastorales aedificare casas. 
ipsi quin etiam fontes si mittere vocem 

ipsaque si possent arbuta nostra loqui, 
cessantem iustis poterant urgere querelis 

et desideriis addere vela meis. 
iam iam laxatis carae complexibus urbis 

vincimur et serum vix toleramus iter. 

electum pelagus, quoniam terrena viarum 
plana madent fluviis, cautibus alta rigent. 

postquam Tuscus ager postquamque Aurelius agger, 
perpessus Geticas ense vel igne manus, 

non silvas domibus, non flumina ponte coercet, 
incerto satius credere vela mari. 

1' aetherias . . . arces Baehrens. 

22 veneranda R : miseranda VB. 

3* verba vir doctus apud Wernsdorf : accepit Baehrens. 

^' vetabant Baehrens. 



as from ethereal pole to pole of the celestial vault 
we believe there abideth the council of the Deity 

But 'tis my fortune that is plucked back from the 
well-loved land ; the fields of Gaul summon home 
their native." Disfigured they are by wars im- 
measurably long, yet the less their charm, the more 
they earn pity. 'Tis a lighter crime to neglect our 
countrymen when at their ease : our common 
losses call for each man's loyalty. Our presence 
and our tears are what we owe to the ancestral 
home ; service which grief has prompted ofttimes 
helps. 'Tis sin further to overlook the tedious tale 
of disasters which the delay of halting aid has multi- 
plied : now is the time after cruel fires on ravaged 
farms to rebuild, if it be but shepherds' huts. Nay, 
if only the very springs could utter words, if only our 
very trees ^ could speak, they well might spur my 
laggard pace with just complaints and give sails to my 
yearning wishes. Now that the dear city slackens 
her embrace, my homeland wins, and I can scarce 
feel patient with a journey deferred so late. 

I have chosen the sea, since roads by land, if on 
the level, are flooded by rivers ; if on higher ground, 
are beset with rocks. Since Tuscany and since the 
Aurelian highway,^ after suffering the outrages of 
Goths with fire or sword, can no longer control 
forest with homestead or river with bridge, it is 
better to entrust my sails to the wayward sea. 

" Rutilius feels the call of his ravaged estates in Gaul : see 

* nrbuta is not used here in the restricted sense of arbutus. 

"^ The Via Aurelia was the road by the coast of Etruria to 
the Italian Riviera, Cf. sense of agger in medio in aggere, 
Avianus, xvii. 15. 



crebra relinquendis infigimus oscula portis : 

inviti superant limina sacra pedes, 
oramus veniam lacrimis et laude litamus, 

in quantum fletus currere verba sinit : 

" exaudi, regina tui pulcherrima mundi, 

inter sidereos Roma recepta polos, 
exaudi, genetrix liominum genetrixque deorum, 

non procul a caelo per tua templa sumus : 
te canimus semperque, sinent dum fata, canemus : 

sospes nemo potest immemor esse tui. 
obruerint citius scelerata oblivia solem, 

quam tuus ex nostro corde recedat honos. 
nam solis radiis aequalia munera tendis, 

qua circumfusus fluctuat Oceanus. 
volvitur ipse tibi, qui continet omnia, Phoebus 

eque tuis ortps in tua condit equos. 
te non flammigeris Libye tarda vit harenis, 

non armata suo reppulit Ursa gelu : 
quantum vitalis natura tetendit in axes, 

tantum virtuti pervia terra tuae. 
fecisti patriam diversis gentibus unam : 

profuit iniustis te dominante capi. 
dumque offers victis proprii consortia iuris, 

urbem fecisti quod prius orbis erat. 

" auctores generis Venerem Martemque fatemur, 
Aeneadum matrem Romulidumque patrem : 

^2 sospes VRB : hospes Cuperus, Baehrens. 
^^ ortus VB : ortas R : ortos Castalio. 
^^ iniustis VB : inustis R : invitis Juretus, Damm, Mueller, 
Baehrens : in victis Castalio : infest is Schroder. 

" Baehrens' alteration to nutrix is purely arbitrary, even 
in the light of altricem in 146. 



Repeated kisses I imprint on the gates I have to 
leave : un>\'illingly my feet cross the honoured thres- 
hold. In tears I beseech pardon (for my departure) 
and offer a sacrifice of praise, so far as weeping allows 
the words to run : 

** Listen, O fairest queen of thy world, Rome, 
welcomed amid the starry skies, listen, thou mother " 
of men and mother of gods, thanks to thy temples 
we are not far from heaven : thee do we chant, and 
shall, while destiny allows, for ever chant. None 
can be safe if forgetful of thee. Sooner shall guilty 
oblivion whelm the sun than the honour due to thee 
quit my heart; for thy benefits extend as far as the 
sun's rays, where the circling Ocean-flood bounds 
the world. For thee the very Sun-God who holdeth 
all together ^ doth revolve : his steeds that rise in 
thy domains he puts in thy domains to rest. Thee 
Africa hath not stayed with scorching sands, nor 
hath the Bear, armed with its native cold, repulsed 
thee. As far as living nature hath stretched towards 
the poles, so far hath earth opened a path for thy 
valour. For nations far apart thou hast made a 
single fatherland ; under thy dominion captivity hath 
meant profit even for those who knew not justice : ^ 
and by offering to the vanquished a share in thine 
own justice, thou hast made a city of what was 
erstwhile a world. 

" As authors of our race we acknowledge Venus 
and Mars — mother of the sons of Aeneas, father of 

* Cf. EinsieA. Ed. I. 29-31 and note 6, p. 329 supra. 

* iniustis has its point in relation to iuris, 1. 65. 



mitigat armatas victrix dementia vires, 

convenit in mores nomen utrumque tuos : 
hinc tibi certandi bona parcendique voluptas : 

quos timuit superat, quos superavit amat. 
inventrix oleae colitur vinique repertor 

et qui primus humo pressit aratra puer ; 
aras Paeoniam meruit medicina per artem, 

factus et Alcides nobilitate deus : 
tu quoque, legiferis mundum complexa triumphis, 

foedere communi vivere cuncta facis. 
te, dea, te celebrat Romanus ubique recessus 

pacificoque gerit libera colla iugo. 
omnia perpetuo quae servant sidera motu, 

nullum viderunt pulchrius imperium. 
quid simile Assyriis conectere contigit armis ? 

Medi finitimos condomuere suos ; 
magni Parthorum reges Macetumque tyranni 

mutua per varias iura dedere vices, 
nee tibi nascenti plures animaeque manusque, 

sed plus consilii iudiciique fuit. 
iustis bellorum causis nee pace superba 

nobilis ad summas gloria venit opes, 
quod regnas minus est quam quod regnare mereris : 

excedis factis grandia fata tuis. 

~^ numen Barth, Baehrens. 

'* fretus VRB (m marg. factus • f • V) : factus multi editores 
cretus Canneg. : fertur Baehrens : fretus it Barth. 
*^ perpetuos . . . motus VRB : corr. Baehrens. 
^* condomuere Mueller : cum domuere VRB. 

" i.e. of the two divinities Venus and Mars. 
* The three alluded to are Athene (Minerva), Bacchus, and 



the scions of Romulus : clemency in victory tempers 
armed strength : both names " befit thy character : 
hence thy noble pleasure in war and in mercy : 
it vanquishes the dreaded foe and cherishes the 
vanquished. The goddess who found the olive- 
tree is worshipped, the deity too who discovered 
wine, and the youth who first drove the ploughshare 
in the soil : ^ the healing art through the skill of 
the god Paeon ^ won altars : Hercules by his re- 
nown was made divine : thou, too, who hast em- 
braced the world in triumphs fraught with law, 
dost make all things live under a common covenant. 
Thee, O goddess, thee every nook of the Roman 
dominion celebrates, beneath a peaceful yoke hold- 
ing necks unenslaved. The stars, which watch all 
things in their unceasing motion, never looked on a 
fairer empire. What like unto thy power did it 
fall to Assyrian arms to link in one r The Persians 
only subdued neighbours of their own. The mighty 
Parthian kings and Macedonian monarchs ^ im- 
posed laws on each other through varying changes. 
It was not that at thy birth thou hadst more souls 
and hands : but more prudence and more judgement 
were thine. By wars for justifiable cause and by 
peace imposed without arrogance thy renowned 
glory reached highest wealth. That thou reignest 
is less than that thou deservest to reign : thy deeds 
surpass thine exalted destiny. To review thy high 

' Paeoniam : the Greek adjective is iraiwvios. Rutilius 
is not, however, unclassical here; for Ingram {Hermathena 
ix. 407) illustrates the use of Paeonius in Virgil, Ovid, and 
other poets : cf. Avianus vi. 7, Paeonio magistro. 

^ The Seleucid kings of Syria, who succeeded to part of the 
empire won by Alexander of Macedon, and whose wars with 
Parthia brought sometimes victory, sometimes defeat. 

3d 2 


percensere labor densis decora alta tropaeis , 

ut si quis stellas pernumerare velit ; 
confunduntque vagos delubra micantia visus : 

ipsos crediderim sic habitare deos. 
quid loquar aerio pendentes fornice rivos, 

qua vix imbriferas tolleret Iris aquas ? 
hos potius dicas crevisse in sidera raontes ; 

tale giganteum Graecia laudet opus. ] 

intercepta tuis conduntur flumina muris ; 

consumunt totos celsa lavacra lacus. 
nee minus et propriis celebrantur roscida venis 

totaque nativo moenia fonte sonant, 
frigidus aestivas hinc temperat halitus auras, ] 

innocuamque levat purior unda sitim. 
nempe tibi subitus calidarum gurges aquarum 

rupit Tarpeias hoste premente vias. 
si foret aeternus, casum fortasse putarem : 

auxilio fluxit, qui rediturus erat. ] 

quid loquar inclusas inter laquearia silvas, 

vernula qua vario carmine ludit avis ? 
vere tuo numquam mulceri desinit annus ; 

deliciasque tuas victa tuetur hiemps. 

^® credideris hie Burman. ^"^ externus R. 

1^^ inter VRB : subter Baehrens. 

^^2 quae VR : qua Ca-stalio. ludat VRB : ludit Panv. : 
laudat Baehrens. 

" The aqueducts of Rome, massive enough to be called 
"Cyclopean" {giganteum opus, 100), like the masonry at 
Tiryns or of the Lion Gateway at Mycenae. In the time of 
Frontinus, who was curator aquarum a.d. 97-106, there were 
nine aqueducts; later, this number was increased. 

* The hyperbole means that hardly any rainbow in the sky 
could reach the same height as the span of the arches of the 
aqueducts. Burman suggested that quo might be clearer 
than qua. 



honours amid crowded trophies were a task like 
endeavouring to reckon up the stars. The gUtterin^ 
temples dazzle the wandering eyes : I could well 
believe such are the dwelling-places of the very gods. 
What shall I say of streams suspended on airy 
arches," where scarce the Rainbow-Goddess could 
raise her showery waters ? ^ You might rather call 
them mountains grown up to the sky : such a 
structure Greece would praise, as giant-wrought. 
Rivers *" diverted are lost sight of within thy walls : 
the lofty baths consume whole lakes.'^ No less are 
thy dewy meads filled also with their own rivulets, 
and all thy walls are a-babble with springs from the 
soil. Hence a breath of coolness tempers the summer 
air, and the crystal well relieves a harmless thirst. 
Nay, once a sudden torrent of waters seething hot 
broke forth, when thine enemy ^ trod the roads by 
the Capitol : had it lasted for ever, mayhap I had 
deemed this mere chance ; but it was to save thee 
that it flowed ; for it came only to vanish. Why 
speak of woods enclosed amid thy panelled palaces,^ 
where native birds sport with varied song ? In the 
spring that is thine never does the year fail in its 
mildness : baffled winter respects thy charms. 

<■ e.g. water from the Anio supplied the aqueducts called 
Anio Veins and Anio Xovus. 

^ celsa refers to the imposing loftiness of the public baths; 
locus to such lakes as Alsietinus, Sabatinus (Lago di Bracciano) 
and Sublacensis (near Subiaco), from which water was brought 
into Rome by aqueducts and stored in large cisterns. 

' Legend had it that when Titus Tatius and his Sabines 
reached the gate of Janus under the Capitol, the god sent out 
boiling water from the earth and discomfited the enemy. 

f The reference is to gardens enclosed within colonnades 
which had panelled ceilings. 



" erige crinales lauros.seniuraque sacrati ] 

verticis in virides, Roma, refinge comas, 
aurea turrigero radient diademata cono, 

perpetuosque ignes aureus umbo vomat ! 
abscondat tristem deleta iniuria casum : 

contemptus solidet vulnera clausa dolor. 1 

adversis soUenne tuis sperare secunda : 

exemplo caeli ditia damna subis. 
astrorum flammae renovant occasibus ortus ; 

lunam fmiri cernis, ut incipiat. 
victoris Brenni non distulit Allia poenam ; 1 

Samnis servitio foedera saeva luit ; 
post multas Pyrrhum clades superata fugasti ; 

flevit successus Hannibal ipse suos : 
quae mergi nequeunt nisu maiore resurgunt 

exsiliuntque imis altius acta vadis ; 1 

utque novas vires fax inclinata resumit. 

clarior ex humili sorte superna petis. 
porrige victuras Romana in saecula leges, 

solaque fatales non vereare colos, 
quamvis sedecies denis et mille peractis 1 

annus praeterea iam tibi nonus eat. 
quae restant nullis obnoxia tempora metis, 

dum stabunt terrae, dum polus astra feret ! 
illud te reparat quod cetera regna resolvit : 

ordo renascendi est crescere posse malis. 1 

^^^ recinge VRB, Vessereau : refinge Heinsius etfere omnes. 
13^ maestis Baehrens. 

" Cf. Lucan I. 185-190, where Roma, wearing a mural 
crown, appears to Caesar at the Rubicon, turrigero canos 
effundens vertice crines. 

* Four examples of recovery are cited : (1) the defeat of 
Rome at the Allia in 390 B.C. was soon avenged by the death 
of Brennus, the Gallic leader; (2) the subjection of the 
Samnites compensated for the severe terms imposed by them 



" Raise, O Rome, the triumphal laurels which 
wreathe thy locks, and refashion the hoary eld of thy 
hallowed head to tresses fresh and fair, (iolden let 
the diadem flash on thy tower-crowned helmet" ; let 
the golden buckler belch forth perpetual hres ! Let 
forgetfulness of thy wrongs bury the sadness of mis- 
fortune ; let pain disregarded close and heal thy 
wounds. Amidst failure it is thy way to hope for 
prosperity : after the pattern of the heavens losses 
undergone enrich thee. For flaming stars set only 
to renew their rising ; thou seest the moon wane to 
wax afresh. The Allia did not hinder Brennus' 
penalty ; the Samnite paid for a cruel treaty by 
slavery ; after many disasters, though defeated, 
thou didst put Pyrrhus to flight ; Hannibal himself 
was the mourner of his own successes.'^ Things 
which cannot be sunk rise again with greater energy, 
sped higher in their rebound from lowest depths ; 
and, as the torch held downward regains fresh 
strength, so from lowly fortune thou dost soar more 
radiant aloft. Spread forth the laws that are to last 
throughout the ages of Rome : alone thou needst 
not dread the distaffs of the Fates, though with a 
thousand years and sixteen decades o'erpast, thou 
hast besides a ninth year in its course.*^ The span^j-. KUJl, 
which doth remain is subject to no bounds, so long ' 
as earth shall stand firm and heaven uphold the 
stars ! That same thing builds thee up which wrecks 
all other realms : the law of thy new birth is the 
power to thrive upon thine ills. 

on the Romans at the Caudine Forks, 321 B.C.; (3) King 
Pyrrhus' successes in his invasion changed to disaster at 
Beneventum, 275 B.C. ; (4) Hannibal's victories in the Second 
Punic War ended in defeat. 

<■ The year 1169 of Rome gives the date a.d. 416. 



" ergo age, sacrilegae tandem cadat hostia gentis : 

submittant trepidi perfida colla Getae. 
ditia pacatae dent vectigalia terrae : 

impleat augustos barbara praeda sinus, 
aeternum tibi Rhenus aret, tibi Nilus inundet, 14i 

altricemque suani fertilis orbis alat. 
quin et fecundas tibi conferat Africa messes, 

sole suo dives, sed magis imbre tuo. 
interea et Latiis consurgant horrea sulcis, 

pinguiaque Hesperio nectare prela fluant. 15( 

ipse triumphali redimitus harundine Thybris 

Romuleis famulas usibus aptet aquas ; 
atque opulenta tibi placidis commercia ripis 

devehat hinc ruris, subvehat inde maris. 

" pande, precor, gemino placatum Castore pontum; 15i 

temperet aequoream dux Cytherea viam, 
si non displicui, regerem cum iura Quirini, 

si colui sanctos consuluique patres ; 
nam quod nulla meum strinxerunt crimina ferrum, 

non sit praefecti gloria, sed populi. 16< 

sive datur patriis vitam componere terris, 

sive oculis umquam restituere meis, 
fortunatus agam votoque beatior omni, 

semper digneris si meminisse mei." 

" For the ancient idea that the north wind brought to 
Africa rain-clouds gathered in Italy cf. Stat. Theh. VIII. 411 ; 
Lucan, III. 68-70; IX. 420-423. ' 

' The praj-er is that traffic and trade may revive, now that 
Alaric has withdrawn. 

'^ The name of either of the twin Dioscuri may do duty for 
the other: cf. Hor. Od. III. xxix. 64, geminusque Pollux; in 
Catull. iv. 27 both are invoked, but only one named, gernelle 


" Come, then, let an impious raec fall in sacrifice 
at last: let the Goths in panic abase their for- 
sworn necks. Let lands reduced to peace pay rich 
tribute and barbarian booty fill thy majestic lap. 
Evermore let the Rhineland plough for thee, for 
thee the Nile o'erflow ; and let a teeming world give 
nurture to its nurse. Yea, let Africa proffer to thee 
her fertile harvests, rich in her own sun, but richer 
for thy showers. ° Meanwhile may granaries too 
arise to house the furrow-crops of Latium, and with 
the nectar of the West may sleek wine-presses flow. 
Let Tiber's self, garlanded with triumphal reed, 
apply his waters to serve the needs of Romulus' 
race, and 'twixt his peaceful banks bear for thee 
down-stream the wealthy cargoes of the fields 
and up-stream those of the sea.^ 

" Outstretch, I pray, the level main lulled to rest 
'neath Castor and his twin brother ; ^ be our Lady 
of Cythera the guide to smooth jay watery path, 
if I found favour when I administered Quirinus' laws,^ 
if to the venerable senators I showed respect and 
from them asked advice; for that ne'er a crime 
unsheathed my magisterial sword must be the 
people's, not the prefect's, boast. '^ Whether 'tis 
granted to lay my life to rest in ancestral soil or 
whether thou shalt one day be restored to my eyes, 
blest shall my life be, lucky beyond all aspiration, 
if thou deign always to remember me." 

Castor et gemelle Castoris. There was a temple of Castor and 
Pollux at Ostia, and one of Venus on the island at the Tiber- 
mouth; hence the allusion to Cytherea. 

'' Rutilius had been praefeclus urbis in a.d. 414; cf. I. 423- 
428; 467-468. 

' The absence of capital punishment during Rutilius' 
prefecture was a credit to the Roman people. 



his dictis iter arripimus : comitantur amici : L 

dicere non possunt lumina sicca '• vale." 
iamque aliis Romani redeuntibus haeret eunti 

Rufius, Albini gloria viva patris ; 
qui \"olusi antique derivat stemmate nomen 

et reges Rutulos teste Marone refert. 1 

huius facundae conimissa palatia linguae : 

primaevus meruit principis ore loqui. 
rexerat ante puer populos pro consule Poenos ; 

aequalis Tyriis terror amorque fuit. 
sedula promisit summos instantia fasces : 1 

si fas est meritis fidere, consul erit. 
invitum tristis tandem remeare coegi : 

corpore divisos mens tamen una tenet. 

tum demum ad naves gradior, qua fronte bicorni 
dividuus Tiberis dexteriora secat. 1 

laevus inaccessis nuvius vitatur harenis ; 
hospitis Aeneae gloria sola manet. 

^^^ non possum sicca dicere luce vale nonnulU editores. 
^^^ imitantia V : imitatio RB {sic etiam in marg. V, sed 
expunctum) : instantia Mueller. 

^'* ter et {in marg. tenet • f •) V : tenet R. 
18" secat V : petit R. 

° Ceionius Rufius Volusianus belonged to an official family 
of ancient pedigree. He had been proconsul of Africa with 
his headquarters at Carthage (I. 173), and as a youthful 
imperial quaestor had performed the duty of reading before the 
senate communications from the Emperor (I. 171). Rutilius 
expresses his delight over the news of his friend's appointment 
to the city prefecture (I. 415-428). 

* Rufius Albinus, prefect of the city in a.d. 390, should be 
distinguished from the Albinus of I. 466. 


With these words we take the road: our friends 
attend. Eyes cannot tearless say " good-bye." 
And now while others wend their way back to Rome, 
Rufius," the living glory of his fjither Albinus,^ 
clings close to me on my way. He draws his name 
from the ancient pedigree of \'olusus, citing Rutihan 
princes on the witness of \'irgil.'^ To his power of 
eloquence was entrusted the imperial palace : in 
youth he was the fitting spokesman of the emperor. 
Still earlier, a mere stripling, he had governed as 
pro-consul the Carthaginian peoples and among the 
Tyrian folk inspired dread and love alike. His 
zealous energy gave promise of highest office : if it 
is permitted to trust desert, a consul he will be. In 
the end I sadly forced him to go back reluctant : yet, 
though in body severed, one mind keeps us linked. 

Then at length I proceed to the ships,'^ where with 
twy-horned brow the branching Tiber cleaves his 
way to the right.'' The channel onjthe left is avoided 
for its unapproachable sands : its one remaining 
boast is to have welcomed Aeneas.-^ And now the 

' The family claimed descent from the Volusus addressed 
bj' Turnus, prince of the Rutuli, in Aeneid XI. 463. 

^ There ^vere several boats {cymbae I. 219) used by Rutilius' 
company on their coasting voyage northwards : cf. I. 559, 
puppibus ergo ytieis. 

' About eighteen miles from Rome and some miles from 
the sea the Tiber branches so as to form the Isola Sacra (c/. 
Aeneid VIII. 727, Bhenusgue bicornis, referring to the two 
mouths of the Rhine : the " horn " idea is associated with the 
bull-like force of rivers in flood). At the mouth of the left 
branch was Ostia, the ancient port of Rome, which in time 
became blocked up with silt and sand. On the right branch 
harbour-works were undertaken bj' the Emperor Claudius 
and improved by Trajan. 

^ For Aeneas' landing see Aeneid VII. 29 sqq. 



et iam nocturnis spatium laxaverat horis 

Phoebus Chelariim pallidiore polo, 
cunctamiir temptare salum portuque sedemus, 1 

nee piget oppositis otia ferre moris, 
occidua infido dum saevit gurgite Plias 

dumque procellosi temporis ira calet. 
respectare iuvat vicinam saepius urbem 

et montes visu deficiente sequi, 1 

quaque duces oculi grata regione fruuntur, 

dum se, quod cupiunt, cernere posse putant. 
nee locus ille mihi cognoscitur indice fumo, 

qui dominas arces et caput orbis habet 
(quamquam signa levis fumi commendat Homerus, 1 

dilecto quotiens surgit in astra solo) ; 
sed caeli plaga candidior tractusque serenus 

signat septenis <:ulmina clara iugis. 
illic perpetui soles atque ipse videtur 

quern sibi Roma facit purior esse dies. 2< 

saepius attonitae resonant Circensibus aures ; 

nuntiat accensus plena theatra favor : 
pulsato notae redduntur ab aethere voces, 

vel quia perveniunt vel quia fingit amor. 

188 cadit VRB : calet Mueller : cadet Ussani. 
I'l feruntur Baehrens, 

° The Scorpion is next to Libra among the signs of the 
Zodiac : the sun enters Libra at the autumnal Equinox. 
Poets use either Chelae (claws) or Libra (balance) in reference 
to this season. 



vSun in the paler sky of the Seorpion's Claws had 
lengthened the space of the night-watches.'' We 
hesitate to make trial of the sea ; we tarry in the haven, 
unreluctant to endure idleness amid the delays which 
bar our voyage, so long as the setting Pleiad storms 
upon the treacherous main, and the anger of the 
squally season is hot.* It is a joy to look back many 
a time at the city still near, and with scarce availing 
sight to trace its hills, and look where the guiding 
eyes ^ feast on that dear scene, fancying they can see 
what they desire to see. Nor is yonder place, which 
holds the imperial citadels and the Morld's capital, 
recognised by me in virtue of the smoke which marks 
it out (and yet 'tis the signs of light smoke which 
Homer '^ praises whensoever it rises starward from 
a well-loved land) ; nay rather a fairer tract of sky 
and a serene expanse marks the clear summits of 
the Seven Hills. There 'tis lasting sunshine : the 
very daylight which Rome makes for herself seems 
purer than all else. Time and again our spell- 
bound ears ring with the noise of the Circus games ; ^ 
a blaze of cheers proclaims the crowded theatre : 
familiar shouts are sent back by the echoing air, 
whether it is that they really